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Full text of "History of Reno County, Kansas: Its People, Industries and Institutions"

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HISTORY 

OF 

RENO COUNTY 

KANSAS 

ITS PEOPLE, INDUSTRIES AND INSTITUTIONS 

B, 
SHERIDAN PLOUGHE 



With Biographical Sketches of Representative Citizens and 
Genealogical Records of Many of the Old Families 



VOLUME I 



ILLUSTRATED 



1917 
B. F. BOWEN & COMPANY. Inc. 

, Indianapolis, Indiana. 



PM-iiSoogle 



THE NEW Y"T"< 

5G277 3 A 



Copyright, 1917, 

by 
B. F. Bowen & Co. 



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PUBLISHERS' PREFACE 



All life and achievement is evolution; present wisdom comes from past 
experience, and present commercial prosperity has come only from past exer- 
tion and sacrifice. The deeds and motives of the men who have gone before 
have been instrumental in shaping the destinies of later communities and 
states. The development of a new country was at once a task and a privi- 
lege. It required great courage, sacrifice and privation. Compare the pres- 
ent conditions of the people of Reno county, Kansas, with what they were 
fifty years ago. From a trackless area of virgin land, the county 
has come to be a center of prosperity and civilization, with millions of wealth, 
system of railways, educational and religious institutions, varied industries 
and immense agricultural and dairy interests. Can any thinking person be 
insensible to the fascination of the study which discloses the aspirations and 
efforts of the early pioneers who so strongly laid the foundation upon which 
has been reared the magnificent prosperity of later days? To perpetuate the 
story of these people and to trace and record the social, religious, educational, 
political and industrial progress of the community from its first inception, is 
the function of the local historian. A sincere purpose to preserve facts and 

t personal memoirs that are deserving of perpetuation, and which unite the 
present to the past, is the motive for the present publication. The publishers 
^desire to extend their thanks to those who have so faithfully labored to this 
end. Thanks are also due to the citizens of Reno county for the uniform 
^kindness with which they have regarded this undertaking, and for their many 
•^services rendered in the gaming of necessary information. 
-K In placing the "History of Reno County, Kansas," before the citizens, 

©the publishers can conscientiously claim that they have carried out the plan 
-as outlined in the prospectus. Every biographical sketch in the work has 
--fbeen submitted to the party interested, for correction, and therefore any 
• terror of fact, if there be any, is solely due to the person for whom the sketch 
5 was prepared. Confident that our effort to please will fully meet the appro- 
^* bation of the public, we are, 

Respectfully, 

THE PUBLISHERS. 



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CONTENTS 

/ 



CHAPTER 1— EARLY EXPLORATIONS OF THE WEST 33 

Opposition to Louisiana Purchase — Lewis-Clark Expedition — Major Long's 
Expedition and Noteworthy Incidents Connected with it — OtherExplorers— 
Jacob Fowler's Explorations and His "Journal of Travels" — Lieutenant Wil- 
kinson. 

CHAPTER II— PHYSICAL APPEARANCE AND EARLY CONDITIONS 42 

Conditions in Reno County Similar to Those in Other States — Characteristics 
of the Early Settlers— Lack of Transportation Facilities— Wild Geese— Wild 
Game — Buffalo Grass, a Wonderful Forage — Monotony of the Scene in Early 
Days — A Wonderful Transformation. 

CHAPTER III— THE ARKANSAS RIVER AND OTHER STREAMS. 45 

Coronado, the First Explorer of the West — Naming the Arkansas River — 
Description of the River — Explorations of Zebulon Pike — Jacob Fowler's 
Journeyings — Cow Creek and Some Queries Concerning It — Disastrous 
Floods— Flood Prevention Work— Straightening of the Channel— The Drain- 
age Canal — The Ninnescah and Salt Creek. 

CHAPTER IV— THE OSAGE INDIANS — - 54 

Few Indians in Kansas After the Advent of the White Man — Osage Indians, 
Original Owners of Reno County Territory — Original Indian Claims to the 
Land— The Osage Treaties— The Osage Trust Lands— Indian Habits and 
Customs. 

CHAPTER V— THE BUFFALO ,60 

Physical Pecularities of the American Buffalo, or Bison— The Buffalo Range 
— Probable Age of the Species — Immense Size of Herds — The Buffalo Grass 
—Condition of the Soil After the Herds Had Passed and Its Effect on 
Drainage — Habits of the Buffalo—Buffalo as Food — Disappearance of the 
Buffalo a Chief Cause of the Breaking Up of the Tribal Relations of the 
Indians— Extermination of the Buffalo in the Interest of Peace — Buffalo 
Bones— Hide Hunters— Buffalo Wallows. 

CHAPTER VI— EARLY TRAILS ACROSS THE COUNTRY 67 

The Tide of Emigration Westward After the Civil War— The Cattle Busi- 
ness—Immense Herds of Texas Cattle Driven North— Some of the Early 
Cattle Men— The Cattle Trails— The Romance of the "Trail" and the 

"Round-up." 



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CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VII— BOUNDARY LINES . - 71 

Legislative Acts of 1855, Creating Counties— Only Meager Descriptions Pos- 
sible — Descriptions Simplified by Survey of 1857 — Numerous Changes in 
County Boundaries — Creation of Reno County — C. C. Hutchinson and His 
Influence on Early Development of the Country — His Choice of a Townsite 
— Reno Given Its Present Form — Attempts to Divide the County. 

CHAPTER VIII— THE EARLY SETTLERS 76 

First Settler in Reno County— Other Earliest Settlements and Those Who 
Immediately Followed — First Settlements Along Water Courses — Early 
Game — An Indian Scare — Early Land Surveys — Many Inaccuracies — Official 
Record of the Complete Survey of Reno County. 

CHAPTER IX— SOME FIRST THINGS 82 

First Marriage— First Birth— First Threshing Machine— First Political Con- 
vention — First Death— First Cemetery— First "Joint" Raid— First Alfalfa- 
Building of the First Silo — The Last Buffalo — Building of the Rock Island 
Railroad— A Big Powder Explosion— The Water and Light Plant in Sherman 
Street, West. 

CHAPTER X— A YEAR OF DISASTER 94 

The Year 1874, a Dismal One for the Pioneers of Reno County— A Hot 
Year and Extended Drought— The Locust Scourge— The Kansas Relief 
Fund — Pioneers Refuse to Be Discouraged, and Their Ultimate Triumph. 

CHAPTER XI— ORGANIZING THE COUNTY 98 

Petition for Creation of Reno County, Its Approval By the Governor, and 
His Order for the Organization of the County — The First Election — C. C. 
Hutchinson the First Representative in the Legislature — First Election for 
County Officers — Some of These Officers — Hutchinson to be a Temperance 
Town — The Herd Law and Its Importance to the Early Settlers — Census 
Roll of Reno County, January 18, 1872. 

CHAPTER XII— TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATIONS - 110 

Reno, the First Township— Creation, First Officers and Other Items of In- 
terest Concerning the Townships of Valley, Little River, Haven, Clay, 
Castleton, Center, Lincoln, Nickerson (Grant), Salt Creek, Troy, Languon. 
Medford, Miami. Grove. North Hayes, Yoder, Grove, Loda, Hayes, Belt, 
Albion, Roscoe, Enterprise, Plevna, Huntsville, Walnut, Sylvia, Medora, Ar- 
lington and Ninnescah. 

CHAPTER XIII— POLITICAL PARTIES 124 

Reno County Settled Largely by Old Soldiers — Republican Party Dominant 
Throughout the History of the County— Relative Party Strength— The Pro- 
hibition Question— Notable Political Contest— The Largest Political Meet- 
ing Ever Held in the County — Management of Political Parties — Protest 
Against the Convention System. Resulting in the Primary Law— Present 
Political Independence of the Voters. 



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CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XIV— THE COUNTY COMMISSIONERS - - 12* 

Management of the County's Finances— The First Board of Commissioners- 
Commissioner Districts — Notable Political Row of 1873 — Personnel of the 
Board During -the Eighties — Change in the Election Laws — Pioneer Officials 
Lacked "Vision." 

CHAPTER XV— PROBATE JUDGES OF RENO COUNTY 135 

An Important Office— Statistics Showing the Growth of the Office— Foreign 
Wills and Guardianships — Appointment of Administrators — Department of 
Domestic Wills — Adoption Cases and Juvenile Court Work — Marriage Li- 
censes — List of Probate Judges. 

CHAPTER XVI— CLERKS OF THE DISTRICT COURT 142 

Office Noted for Long Tenure of Officials— Women Elected to Office— First 
Case in District Court — Separation of the Criminal and Civil Cases. 

CHAPTER XVII— COUNTY CLERKS - 146 

The First County Clerk and His Successors— Growth of Office in Importance 
— Duties of the Clerk — Conviction for Embezzlement — Present Records Com- 
plete and Accurate. 

CHAPTER XVIII— COUNTY ATTORNEYS '— IS] 

One of the Most Important Offices in the County — Incumbents of the Office 
Since Creation of Same — Influence of the Populists — Vote Indicates Growth 
of County. 

CHAPTER XIX— REGISTER OF DEEDS 156 

The First Register of Deeds and Those Who Have Followed Him — Impor- 
tant Functions of the Office— Statistics for 1916. 

CHAPTER XX— SURVEYORS AND CORONERS 160 

Strange Grouping of These Two Offices — Fir$t Surveyors of the County 
—The County Coroner and His Duties and Status— Those Who Have Held 
the Office. 

CHAPTER XXI— REPRESENTATIVES AND STATE SENATORS 165 

C. C. Hutchinson, Reno's First Representative in the Lower House— Re- 
sume of the Ensuing Elections — Rivalry Between Country and Town — State 
Senators. 

CHAPTER XXII— SOME EARLY BOND ELECTIONS „ 172 

Absence of Money in Early Days an Embarrassment — Small List of Personal 
Property Taxpayers — Unequality of the Burden — Bonds Necessary — First 
Bond Election— The Building of Bridges and of a Court House— Road- 
making, An Important Question— C. C. Hutchinson's Vision of Future Reno 

County. 

CHAPTER XXIII— BONDS OF THE COUNTY AND ITS SUBDIVISIONS.. 177 
Early Necessity for Public Improvements — County Compelled to Borrow 
Money and Issue Bonds — Bonded Indebtedness, 1916 — Bonded Indebtedness 
of the Townships. 



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CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXIV— RENO COUNTY'S FINANCIAL MATTERS 181 

Trouble in Providing 1 for the Early Expenses of the County — Necessity for 
Bond Issue— Little Market Demand for the Bonds — The Tax Rolls in 1872 
— Railroad Injunction Suit Against the County Against Levying Taxes — 
Compromise With the Railroad — Statistics Concerning the Increase in the 
Value of Taxable Property — County's Bonded Indebtedness — Office of 
County Assessor — The County's Progress. 

CHAPTER XXV— BUILDING THE MISSOURI PACIFIC - 188 

Early Rivalry Between Towns for Railroads— The Wtchita-Hutchinson Con- 
ten tion — Fi rial Triumph of the Hutchinson Crowd in Their Efforts to Bring 
the Missouri Pacific Here. 

CHAPTER XXVI— THE HUTCHINSON & SOUTHERN RAILROAD 193 

Originally a Union Pacific Project — Controversy Among the Projectors of 
the Road as to its Route— Its Eventual Building to Reno County— A Profit- 
able Transaction for the Promoters. 

CHAPTER XXVII— EARLY FARMING - - - 199 

Crude Methods of the Pioneer Farmer — Importance of the Early Hay and 
Corn Market — Favorable Effect of the Herd Law — First Grist-mills — Prairie 
Fires and Their Effect on Timber Growth— Diversity in Farming— Pioneer 
Orchards — Milk and Eggs. 

CHAPTER XXVIII— RENO COUNTY FAIRS 206 

The First Reno County Fair — Splendid Growth of Later Fairs — Beginning 
of the Present State Fair as an Institution — Its Phenomenal Success and 
Present Status. 

CHAPTER XXIX— THE GRAIN BUSINESS 211 

First Grain Buyers of Reno County — Board of Trade — Present Vast Propor- 
tions of the Traffic— Flouring Mills. 

CHAPTER XXX— POSTOFFICES AND MAIL ROUTES 214 

First Overland Mail — Hutchinson a Mail Distributing Point — Star Routes — 
Postmasters in Reno County — Free Delivery in Hutchinson — Postal Receipts 
—Rural Free Delivery. 

CHAPTER XXXI— SCHOOLS. RENO COUNTY 225 

Incomplete Records of the Early Schools — Unpractical Method of Forming 
First School Districts— First District Organized in 1872— Later Ones— Bond- 
ed Indebtedness of School Districts — Later Bond Issues — Consolidated Rural 
Schools— Rural High Schools— The Standardized School— School Statistics 
— County Superintendents — Reno County High School. 

CHAPTER XXXII— NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY.. 237 

Reno County Fortunate in an Abiindant Supply of Newspapers — Zeno Tharp, 
Optimist — First Newspaper in the County — A "Boomer" on the Job — Later 
Newspaper Developments — Some Short-lived Papers — Other Papers — News- 
papers as an Asset to the Community. 



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CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXXIII— FIRST CHURCHES fN THE COUNTY 243 

First Public Religious Service in the County—Early Baptist and Methodist 
Societies — Congregationalist Church— The Preshyterian Church — Christian 
Church— Catholic Church— The Universalist Society— Church Growth Keep- 
ing Pace With the Growth of the County. 

CHAPTER XXXIV— EARLY DOCTORS OF RENO COUNTY 247 

Strenuous Lives of the Early Doctors — First Doctor in Hutchinson — Other 
Physicians Who Looked After the Health of the Pioneers — County Medical 
Society — Hospitals — The Red Cross Society. 

CHAPTER XXXV— BANKS OF RENO COUNTY 250 

The First Bank and Other Early Financial Institutions— Other Banks Which 
Have Been Started in the County — Financial Standing of the Banks. 

CHAPTER XXXVI— THE RENO COUNTY BAR — - 254 

Lawyers of Reno County Men of Ability and High Character — Nature of 
Early Legal Business — Early Lawyers of Reno County — Bachelors Argue 
for Woman Suffrage — Some Present Members of the Bar — Younger Members 
of the Bar — Convicted Lawyer Disbarred. 

CHAPTER XXXVII— THE NINTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT ._ 263 

Creation of the Ninth Judicial District — Counties in the Original District 
and Changes in the District Boundaries — Judges of the District Court. 

CHAPTER XXXVIII— CIVIL WAR SOLDIERS IN RENO COUNTY 269 

Complete List of Union Soldiers Living in Reno County in 1890, with the 
Number From Each State. 

CHAPTER XXXIX— STATE MILITIA— COMPANY E— 299 

First Military Company in Reno County — Indian Scare — Home Guard Com- 
pany — Organization of Company E — Roster of the Company During the 
Spanish-American War and at the Time of its Second Call to Service, in 
1916 — Machine Gun Company. 

CHAPTER XL— COMMUNITY MUSIC 306 

Social Gatherings Among the Pioneers — Music One of the Features of All 
Public Occasions — Some Pioneer Singers — An Early Music Teacher — First 
Public Concert — State Music Teachers' Association — The Musical Jubilee— 
The Municipal Band. 

CHAPTER XLI— SMALLER TOWNS IN RENO COUNTY 310 

Brief Description of Nickerson, Arlington, Castleton, Haven, Partridge, Abby- 
ville, Plevna, Langdon, Medora, Buhler, Elmer, Turon. 

CHAPTER XLII— FORTY-FIVE YEARS IN RENO 316 

Phenomenal Progress of the County Since Its Organization — Comparative 
Statistics — A Brief Contrast of Conditions — Growth of the City and Villages 
—Public Utilities. 



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CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XLIII— THE BEGINNING OF HUTCHINSON 319 

C. C. Hutchinson's Contract With the Railroad to Build a Town— Obstacles — 
Hutchinson's Preseverance and Untiring Zeal — Beginning of the Town — 
First Buildings and Business Concerns. 

CHAPTER X LI V— HUTCHINSON, A CITY OF THE THIRD CLASS 324 

Incorporated as a City — First City Election — First City Ordinance — First 
Boundaries — Protection From Prairie Fires — Early City Ordinances — Hitch- 
ing-post Questions — By Way of Contrast — Various City Elections — The Sa- 
loon Question — Promotion of Public Improvements — Census Taken — De- 
velopment of Public Utilities — Fire Protection — City Finances — Permanent 
Improvements. 

CHAPTER XLV— HUTCHINSON, A CITY OF THE SECOND CLASS - 336 

Governor Marin Proclaims Hutchinson a City of the Second Class in 1886 — 
City Divided Into Wards — Street Car Line Franchise — Aid to Railroads — City 
Elections — City Boundary Line Extended — A City Boom — Construction of a 
Sewer System — An Enterprising Editor — Council and Mayor at Outs — City 
Warrants Discounted — More Aid Granted Railroads — City Building Pur- 
chased — The Coming of Natural Gas — City Finances — Carnegie Library 
Offer Accepted — Interesting Financial Expedient! — Street Paving— Drainage 
Ditch — Street Car Line Franchise— Commission Form of Government. 



CHAPTER XLV I— HUTCHINSON AS A CITY OF THE FIRST CLASS.... 350 
New Form of City Government — First Meeting of the Commissioners— 
Early Acts of the Board—Internal Improvement Bonds Ordered by Popular 
Election — Street Improvements — Move to Make Hutchinson a City of the 
First Class— The Convention Hall— Public Band Concerts— Recent City 
Elections — Automobile Parking — Sunday Closing — Further Improvements 
Ordered. 

CHAPTER XLVII— THE SALT INDUSTRY - 356 

The Rock Salt Deposit in Reno County— First Knowledge and Use of Native 
Salt— Later Discovery of the Rock Salt and Quick Development of Its 
Production— The First Salt Plants— Expansion of the Salt Market— Yearly 
Output of the Field — Consolidation of the Industry — Log of the Drill — 
Analysis of the Brine. 

CHAPTER XLVIII— BUILDING UP THE SALT INDUSTRY 366 

Rebates on Freight Shipments — Investigation by Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission — Judgment of the Commission— Healthy Growth of the Salt Busi- 
ness, which is now an Important Factor in the Business Life of the City. 

CHAPTER XLIX— LOCATING THE PACKING HOUSE 372 

Subsistence of the Boom Left Hutchinson in a Bad Way— R. M. Easley 
Makes "Ten-strike" in Contracting with Packing House to Come to Hutchin- 
son — Overcoming Many Obstacles — Tremendous Efforts of Local Commit- 
tee Finally Rewarded with Success. 



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CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER L— SODA-ASH PLANT AND STRAWBOARD WORKS 377 

First Soda-Ash Plant and Its Subsequent Development — The Strawboard 
Works— Other Industries. 

CHAPTER LX— THE SCHOOLS OF HUTCHINSON - „._._.. 381 

First School in Reno County and the First Teachers — School District No. 1 
Organized— Issue of Bonds for School Purposes — Gradual Growth of the 
Schools — Buildings — Complete System of Records — The Alumni Associa- 
tion — Superintendents of City Schools — Notable Record of Teaching Service. 

CHAETER LII— THE Y. M. C. A. AND Y. W. C. A 486 

First Young Men's Christian Association in 1876 — Another Attempt in 1885 — 
Organization of the Present Association in 1909— Splendid Work of the 
Organization and Its Present Healthy Condition— The Young Women's 
Christian Association. 

CHAPTER LIII— THE WEATHER- - 390 

Complete Weather Records of Reno County from January. 1874. 



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HISTORICAL INDEX 



Abbyville — 

Bank .252. 2S3 

Location 313 

Mail Service - _. 224 

Name 313 

Newspaper 241 

Postmasters — 218 

Schools - 230 

Railroad 313 

Albion Township 120 

Alfalfa, First 86 

Arkansas River 45 

Bank 251, 253 

Beginning of 311 

Mail Service 224 

Name ._„ 311 

Newspaper 240 

Postmasters 220, 312 

Schools _ 229, 312 

Townsite 311 

Arlington Township 123 

Assessor, County 186 

Assessor's Valuations 181, 184 

B 

Bank Statistics 253 

Banks 250 

Baptist Church -243, 245 

Bar, The 254 

Bench and Bar - _ 254 

Birth, First 82 

Bond Elections, Early __ 172 

Bonds of School Districts 226 

Bonds of the County — 172, 184 

Bones. Buffalo 65 

Booth 221 

Boundary Lines 71 

Buffalo ._ 60 



Buffalo Bones 65 

Buffalo Grass 43, 60 

Buffalo, The Last - 88 

" Buhler— 

Bank 252, 253 

Location 314 

Mail Service 224 



Mill . 213 

Newspaper . 241 

Postmasters Z19 

Townsite .. 314 



Castleton 221, 224, 252, 312 

Castleton Township 111, 113, 245 

Catholic Church 245 

Cattle Industry ._ 67 

Cattle Men 67 

Cemetery, First - 82 

Census Roll, 1872 — 104 

Center Township Ill, 113, 179, 244 

Chisholm Trail 68 

Christian Church 245 

Churches, First 243 

Civil War Soldiers 269 

Clay Township 113, 180 

Clerks Of County 9, 146 

Clerks of District Court 99, 142 

Climatology — 390 

Commissioner Districts 129 

Commissioners, County 98, 100, 129 

Community Music 306 

Company E, State Militia - 299 

Congregational Church 244, 245 

Consolidated Rural Schools 228 

Coronado 45 

Coroners 99, 162 

County Assessor „ 186 

County Attorneys 99, 151 

County Clerks 99, 146 



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HISTORICAL INDEX. 



County Commissioners 98. 100,129 

County Expenditures 184 

County Fairs 206 

County Finances 181 

County Medical Society 249 

County Officers, First — V9 

County Organized 98 

County Superintendents 100, 235 

County Surveyor 99 

Court House 174 

Cow Creek 49. 201, 327, 329 

D 

Darlow — __221, 224, 

Death, First - 82 

Disaster, Year of 94 

District Court *:o3 

District Court, Clerks of 99, 142 

District Court, First Case in 144 

District Court, Judges of 259, 264 

Doctors, Early 247 

Drainage Canal 52 

E 

Early Bond Elections 172 

Early Conditions of County 42 

Early Explorations 33 

Early Farming 199 

Early Land Surveys 79 

Early Lawyers of Reno County 255 

Early Music 306 

Early Settlers 76 

Early Trails 67 

Easley, Ralph M 189, 238. 339, 372 

Education 225 

Elections . 124 

Elmer 314 

Enterprise Township 121 

Explorations of the West 53 

F 

Fairs _ 206 

Farming. Early 199 

Farm Statistics, Early 316 

Finances of County .._ 181 

First Churches 243 

First Things 82 

Forty-five Years in Reno 316 



Fowler, Jacob 39, 47 

Frosts 397 

Fruit Growing 204 

G 

Game, Wild 43 

Geese, Wild 42 

Grain Business 211 

Grant Township.. .110, 114, 179, 202. 245 

Grasshopper Plague 68, 94 

Grove Township 117, 119 

H 
Hamburg 21> 

Bank — 251 

Beginning of 312 

Incorporation . 313 

Mail Service 224, 312 

Mill 213 

Name 312 

Newspapers —240, 241 

Postmasters 219 

Railroads — 312 

Haven Township 111. 112 

Hayes Township 120, 180 

Herd Law ....102, 200 

Hide Hunters — 65 

High Schools. Rural - 229 

Home Guards 300 

Hospitals 249 

Huntsville Township 121 

Hutchinson— 

A City of the Frst Class 350 

A City of the Second Class 336 

A City of the Third Class 324 

Banks -250, 253 

Beginning of 319 

Boom Days 338 

Bonds 179 

Boundary Lines 337 

Board of Trade 312 

Carnegie Library 346 

Census of 1880 331 

Churches, Early 243 

City Building 343 

Commission Government 349, 351 

Convention Hall — 352 

Doctors, Early 247 



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HISTORICAL INDEX. 



Hutchinson— 

Drainage Canal 52 

Early Conditions .. 327 

Early Events .. 319 

Elections 324, 353 

Finances 3i3, 334 

Fire Protection 332, 334 

Floods 51 

Free City Delivery 222 

Gas Franchise . 334 

Grain Business 312 

Hitching Post Question __ 326 

Hospitals 249 

Incorporation as City 324 

Industries 339, 356, 366, 377, 379 

Improvements 329 

Lawyers 25S 

Library Started J44 

License Problem 328. 331 

Mail Service 214, 224 

Mills 212 

Municipal Bonds 309, 353 



Mm 



. 306 



Natural Gas 343 

Newspapers 238, 242 

Ordinances, First 324 

Packing House 339, 372 

Postal Receipts — 223 

Postmasters 217 

Public Utilities 331 

Public Improvements 329 

Railroad Aid 342 

Salt Industry 356, 366 

School Bonds 381 

Schools .. 381 

Sewer Construction 346 

Sidewalks Constructed 377 

Strawboard Works — i79 

Superintendents of Schools 384 

Temperance Town 102 

Townsite 320 

Tree Planting 330 

Water Plant, Early 92 

Waterworks 334 

Weather 390 

Y. M. C. A. 386 

Y. W. C. A. 388 

Hutchinson & Arkansas River R. R. 367 
Hutchinson & Southern Railroad—. 193 
Hutchinson, C. C, 72, 74, 75, 77, 98 
102, 105, 165, 171, 176, 247, 250, 
319, 321. 



I 

Indebtedness, Bonded, of County 178, 184 

Indebtedness of School Districts 226 

Indian Customs 58 

Indians 54 

Indian Scares 78, 299 



Judges of Probate Court —99, 135, 260 
Juvenile Court Work 138 



Kansas State Fair Association . 



Land Surveys, Early 79 

Bank 251, 253 

Incorporation 314 

Location 1. 314 

Mail Service — - 224 

Newspaper 240 

Postmasters 220 

Schools 230 

Langdon Township 115 

Lawsuit, First 110 

Legal Profession 254 

Lerado 222, 241 

Leslie 221 

Lewis-Clark Expedition 34 

Lincoln Township 114 

Little River Township 111, 112, 179, 180 

Loda Township 119, 120 

Long Expedition 34 

Louisiana Purchase .- 34 

M 

Machine-gun Company 303 

Mail Routes 214 

Marriage, First — -I 82 

Marriage Licenses 139 

Medford Township 116 

Medical Profession 247 

Medical Society 249 

Medora 221, 314 

Methodist Church -243, 245 

Miami Township 117 

Military Record 269, 299 



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HISTORICAL INDEX. 



Mills, 200, 212 

Missouri Pacific Railroad 188 

Music 306 

Musical Jubilee 307 

N 
Nclherland 222 

Newspapers 237 

. Nickerson — 

Bank 252 

Beginning of 310 

Bonds 179, 180 

Churches, Early 245 

Incorporation 311 

Mail Service 224, 311 

Newspapers 240, 311 

Postmasters 217 

Railroad Interests 183 

Schools 311 

Townsite 310 

Nickerson College 235 

Nickerson Township, See Grant 
Township. 

Ninnescah Creek 53 

Ninnescah Township 123 

Ninth Judicial District 263 

North Hayes Township 117 

O 

Oteott _. 241 

Orchards 204 

Organization of Townships 110 

Organizing the County 98 

Osage Indians 54 

Osage Trust Lands _-_ 57 

P 
Partridge — 

Location 313 

Mail Service 224 

Name 313 

Newspaper 241 

Postmasters 218 

Railroads jl3 

Schools 230 

Physical Appearance of County 42 

Physicians, Early 247 

Pike, Zebulon 46 

Political Parties 



Press, the 



. 327 



Pretty Prairie 221, 224. 241, 251, 253 

Plevna- 
Bank ..252, 253 

Location 314 

Mail Service 224 

Newspaper 241 

Postmasters 218 

Schools - 230 

Plevna Township 121 

Postmasters „ 216 

Postoffices _ 214 

Powder Explosion 89 

Prairie Dogs 43 

Prairie Fires 202 

Precipitation 397 

Presbyterian Church 244 

Primary Law 127 

Probate Judges 99, 135, 260 

Prohibition Question 125 

R 

Railroads ..73, 88, 176, 182, 188, 193, 367 

Rainfall - 397 

Rebate Hearings _ 367 

Red Cross Society . 249 

Register of Deeds _ 99, 156 

Reno Center 218 

Reno County High School 235 

Reno County Medical Society 249 

Reno Township —110. 181 

Representatives 165 

Roads 174 

Rock Island Railroad 88 

Roscoe Township 121 

Rural Free Delivery 223 

Rural High Schools 229 

Rural Schools 228 

S 

Salt Creek _ 53 

Salt Creek Township .115, 116 

Salt Creek Village 218 

Salt Industry 356, 366 

School Districts 225 

School Statistics 231 

Schools 225 

Senators, State __ 170 

Settlement of the County 76 



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HISTORICAL INDEX. 



Sheriff 99 

Silo, First 87 

Spanish- American War 301 

Standardized Schools 230 

Star Mail Routes , 214 

State Fair 207 

State Militia 299 

State Senators _.. 170 

State Tax 184 

Streams 45 

Sumner Township 119 

Superintendents of County Schools 

— 110, 235 

Surveys, Early 79 

Sylvia City- 
Bank 251, 252, 253 

Bonds 180 

Mail Service -S. 224 

Mill 213 

Newspapers 240, 241 

Postmasters 217 

Sylvia Township 122 

T 

Temperature - 390 

Tharp, Zeno US, 116, 237 

Threshing 1 Machine, First 82 

Township Organizations 110 

Towns of Reno County 310 

Trails, Early 67 

Treasurer y9 

Treaties with Indians 55 

Troy Township 115, 116 



Turon— 

Bank 251 

Location 314 

Mail Service 224 

Mill 213 

Name - 315 

Postmasters --, 220 

Townsite 315 

U 
Universal at Church 246 

V 

Valley Township 111, 202 

Valuations . _181, 184 

Veterans of Civil War in Reno 209 

W 

Walnut Township ,_ 122 

Water and Light Plant, Early 92 

Weather Records 390 

Wild Game .... 43 

Wild Geese — 42 

Wilkinson, Lieutenant 41 

World War 303 

Y 
Yoder 219 

Yoder Township 117 

Z 
Zenith 217 



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BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX 



Abel, Josiah W . 274 

Aelmore, Martin A 491 

Akin, Rev. Dudley D., D.D... 322 

Allmon, Elbert O 382 

Anderson, Joel M 208 

Armour, Thomas G - 101 

Ash, Fred W... 461 

Asher, Arthur E 62 

Astle, George 252 



Bailey. J. N 775 

Bailey, Joe F 457 

Bain, Millard F 661 

Ballard, Benjamin F .. 511 

Bangs, Merwin B 243 

Barr, Walter G 757 

Barrett, George 232 

Barrett, M. L 623 

Barrett, Nelson T 183 

Barton, Edward E 760 

Bay, C M ._ 528 

Bay, Clyde 740 

Bay, Dclmar E J. „ 507 

Bear, Arthur M ___' 439 

Beck, Konrad C._ 517 

Bennett. Capt. William R.__ 296 

Bigger, Leander A. : 714 

Bixler, Thurman J 282 

Bloom, Charles 144 

Boehm, John J 263 

Bonnet, Lee 527 

Bowman, EH 196 

Bowser, George R 160 

Bowser, Lemon : 162 

Brainard, Capt. Jesse. „ 192 

Branch, Charles M 55 

Branine, Judge Charles E 36 

Brewer, Elmer L 271 



Brown, Harlow B 764 

Brown, Morrison H 291 

Brown, William A 303 

Buettner, J. H 550 

Burgess, William H 387 

Burris, Martin 256 

Buser, Atlee M. 626 

Bush, Charles H 405 

Bush, James M 659 

Buskirk, James E 639 

Bussinger, Martin C.l 72 

Byers, O. P. 697 

C 

Cain, Morris R _. 614 

Catbert, Robert E. L 747 

Campbell, John H 283 

Campbell, John W 378 

Cantwelt, George W 674 

Carey, Hon. Emerson 33 

Carpenter, Fred H 275 

Carr, William E 217 

Carson, William F 121 

Catte, Joseph 371 

Chamberlain, Grant 486 

Chapin, Cornelius O 368 

Chubbuck, Willis J 530 

Citizens Bank of Hutchinson, The. 54 

Claybaugh, C. W 327 

Clothier, J. B. 568 

Coffman, Capt. George T 560 

Coleman, Lewis W. 429 

Coleman, Monroe 389 

Collingwood, J. M 768 

Collingwood, John A 681 

Collingwood, Mrs. Mary 748 

Comes, John W 384 

Cone, William R., D.D.S 203 

Conkling, Charles A ._ 707 

Connelly, William M. 470 



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BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Cook, Fred W., D.V.S i 52 

Cook, J. W 776 

Cooper, S. Leslie '. 774 

Cooler, Fred W 117 

Cooler, George W 264 

Copeland, Cornelius B 418 

Cost, Frank H.- 684 

Crabbs, Abraham B 366 

Crawley, William P ... 720 

Crotts, Samuel M. _._ 588 

Crow, Edward G. — 719 

Crow, George L ..... 277 

Crow, William R. 320 

Curnutt, Henry G. 151 



Dade, Arthur 

Dade, Ernest 

Dade, Richard G... 

Danford, E. F 

Danford, Isaiah 

Danford, Louis P.. 

Davies, John M 

Dean, Albert A 

Deau. A. J... 



703 

— 586 

Deck. Peter 373 

Decker, Thomas J 670 

Dick, James L. 478 

Dillon, Franklin E _. 267 

Dixon, Albert P. 215 

Dunn, George W 493 

Dunn, F. M 489 

Dunsworth, Buckner W — 383 

Duvall, Hunter J., M.D 562 



Eastman, Byron A 723 

Eastman, Wilbur B 570 

Elliott, Alpheus E 272 

Ellis, Peres __ 424 

Erker, George A. 730 

Eskelson, Swan 155 

Everett, Elmer 536 

F 

Fairchild, William G „ 85 

Fall. George T 624 

Farley, Joseph P. 218 



Farrell, Rev. William M ._ 286 

Farthing, Peter R 520 

Farthing, Sylvester 261 

Fearl, Frank E 672 

Ferguson, James E 295 

Fernie, George K 45(1 

Field, Hon. F. C 312 

Firebaugh, Frank F 495 

Fontron Family, The 134 

Forsha, Fred A 738 

Fountain, Albert S., M.D 552 

Fraser, Thomas J 494 

G 

Gantz. George R _. 622 

Gaston, Samuel D 1 12 

Gibson, Charles __ _. 370 

Giles, Benjamin E 138 

Glass, John W._ 107 

Graham, Robert J 146 

Gray, George T 363 

Graybill, Samuel S... 288 

Grayson, John W 512 

Green, James 496 

Giiymon, Edward T 64 

H 

Hadley, Levi P 104 

Hall. Justus O 437 

Hall, Ross E _ 299 

Hamilton, Frank D. 226 

Handy, Edward S 185 

Harden, Albert E 178 

Hardy, Noah 541 

Harms, Henry W 612 

Harris. Walter B.. 133 

Harsha, John P _ 82 

Hartford, Col. Henry 200 

Hartmann, Henry P 509 

Harvey, Royal M 655 

Haston. James 780 

Haston, Samuel 412 

Hedrick, Capl. John M . 77 

Herr, J. Nevon 57 

Herren, Isaac W 756 

Hershberger, Randall P 195 

Hiatt. Charles E 779 

Hickey, John 650 

Hickman, Overton 572 



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BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Hickman. William H. H._ 631 

Hill, Harrison A 410 

Hinds, David H 667 

Hinman, Milton E 709 

Htnshaw, William H _ 584 

Hirst. Frederick _. 119 

Hirst, George 80 

Hirst, William 96 

Hitchcock, Charles O 361 

Hoagland, Ben S 573 

Hoagland. Lieut. Martin 396 

Hodge. L. D 503 

Hodgson, Herbert C 314 

Hodgson, William 336 

Hodgson, William L. - 519 

Holaday, Harry E., D.V.S 734 

Holdeman, A. R 783 

Hornbaker, Finley D 504 

Hoskinson, George W._ 348 ■ 

Housinger. Nicholas 743 

Howell, Ed. G. — 409 

Huckleberry. Andrew J., Jr. 157 

Hudson. William L _ 380 

Hurd. E. R - 630 

Hutton, Emmett 259 

Hutton & Oswald ___ 258 

Hutton, Samuel F. 606 

J 
mings. Thomas 583 

essup, Barclay I 319 

11, Warren D. 593 

ohnson, Arthur W 428 

ion, Jesse W 675 

ohnson. William H— - 451 

;, Peter C 182 

i, Robert S 596 

., Walter F 543 

:e, Richard 581 

s, J. F 771 



Kautzer, John D. ; 342 

Kcllams, James C 431 

Kelling, Henry 415 

Kennedy, Thomas K 498 

King. David H 616 

King, Joseph W 646 

Klein, Frank F. — 712 



Koontz, George M 364 

Kroeker, George T 464 

L 

Lambert. 'Charles A 315 

Larabee, Frederick D 602 

Layman, Roscoe C. 308 

Leatherman, William A _.. 508 

Lee, George W 416 

Leighty, Stephen S 176 

Leon rod, George von, M.D __ 640 

Leslie, John F 628 

Loc, William A. 472 

Long, William E 269 

Lovelace, James R 300 

Mc 

McCandless, Archibald W 598 

McCowan, Samuel 350 

McDermed, Frank M .213 

McDermed, Robert F 566 

Mcllrath, James H._ 688 

McKeown, B. _ .__. 677 

McKinstry, James 553 

McLaughlin, T. R 280 

McLeod, Hector K 110 

McMurry, James F 136 

M 

Mackay, James B. - 54 

Magwire, Frank 240 

Markham, John J 434 

Marshall, Elmer E 657 

Martin, Edward T - 351 

Martin, Frank A 402 

Martin, Hon. Frank L. 331 

Mastellar, D. H 607 

Meyer, Dietrich 488 

Meyer, Eugene I 39 

Miller. Clark C 732 

Miller, Eugene T. 732 

Miller, William H. 249 

Mills, James 317 

Mitchell. Hon. William H... 48 

Moore, David A... 579 

Moore, Rev. Daniel M., D.D 67 

Moore, Marcellus ._ 236 

Morgag, Hon. William Y... 440 



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BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Mourn, George W 165 

Mueller, William. Jr.., 325 

Myers, Dr. James.. — 188 

Myers, John A 224 

N 

Nafzinger, John 532 

Nation, Pet — 76 

Neeley, Hon. George A 44 

Nelson, James 432 

Nelson, John W 604 

Nelson, Peter A.. — 211 

Nettleton, Adetbert M. 229 

Neuenschwander, Henry 154 

Nicholson, George 426 

O 

Obee, Louis H - 548 

Olmstead, Oscar W 1 175 

Oswald, Charley W. 258 

P 

Parish, James W 375 

Payne, Walter W j 699 

Pearson, William „ 148 

Pcckham, Charles W - 352 

Peirce, Walter C 344 

Penney, James L 131 

Pennington, William R 544 

Peterson, Arthur F 339 

Peterson, Charles 340 

Ploughe, Sheridan 752 

Potter, James C- 617 

Potter, John W 678 

Potter, Martin H 635 

Poulton, lrvin W . 448 

Presby, Wilbur F.„_ 634 

Price, Rhys R 762 

Priddle, Vincent 171 

Prigg. Hon. Frank F 557 

Puterhaugh, Samuel G 70 

R 

Rabe, Henry ■- 620 

Ramsey, Herbert E 223 

Rayl, Levi 482 

Ream, William B 413 

Reed, John A .... 92 



Reichenberger, Nicholas 745 

Reynolds, Melvin J 140 

Rexroad, William W.- l. 310 

Rice, Thomas J 376 

Richhart, David E 115 

Rickenbrode, Harvey J 460 

Roberts, Pierce C._ 126 

Rowland. John 683 

Rowland, Prof. Stewart P 86 

Rutherford, Gordon S... 642 

Ryker, Charles A 60 

S 

Sallee, Garrett 167 

Sanders, John R. _ 407 

Scales, Herbert L., M.D 5S9 

Schardein, Fred 199 

' Schardein, John 181 

Scheble, Alfred R._„ _. ._ 515 

Schlaudt, Arthur H . 447 

Schmitl, E. B 294 

Schoonover, John U 608 

Seedle, Charles 172 

Shafer, Omaha T 653 

Shea, Patrick 456 

Shircliff, Edward E. 592 

Shive, Eads E 741 

Short, George B. 164 

Shuler, William D 99 

Shuyler, John S 578 

Sidlinger, Samuel H., M.D... 41 

Siegrist, Arthur L ,__ 231 

Siegrist, George W 524 

Siegrist, Jacob L 328 

Simmons, John S : • 98 

Skeen, Mrs. Elizabeth _ 400 

Slavens, Oscar R. 1 576 

Smith, Charles H 686 

Smith, E. B., A.M.— 706 

Smith, Fay „ 467 

Smith, Isaac .„ 254 

Smith, James W 228 

Smith, John F.-_, 522 

Smith, Parke 292 

Smith, Wilson 142 

Snyder, Charles M _ 539 

Specht, Robert T., Jr 443 

Spencer. Orlando _ 770 

Spencer, Ornaldo 770 



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BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



Sponsler. Alfred L 304 

Sponsler, William J 564 

Spront, John 772 

Sprout, James H 459 

Stecher, Christian ._ 480 

Stevens, Nelson P 701 

Stevens. Rev. William B„__ 454 

Stewart, Richard A., M.D.... _ 767 

Streeter, Ray G. 534 

Soter, Arthur H. 123 

Swarens. Albert L 168 

Swiucr, Alexander M. _■ 392 

T 

Taylor, Carr W.„ 444 

Taylor, Harry H 124 

Teed. Edson I~ 465 

Thacher, Mowry S., M.D.. 679 

Thompson, Henry S 669 

Thompson, Will S.._ 479 

Thorp, Fred W._ 220 

Thurman, J. S... _ 247 

Turbush, George 159 

U 

Updegrove, Jacob B 347 

V 

Van Eman, William J 234 

Vincent, Hon. Frank 500 



W 

Waddles, Howard _. 753 

Wagoner, Charles E. 128 

Wall, David L 690 

Wall, Mrs. Henrietta Briggs 692 

Watson, Lawson 663 

Weesner, Fred 1 391 

Wells, Charles A 755 

Wespe, Oscar S. 600 

Wheeler, J. O _ 143 

Whinery, Lorenzo V 648 

Whiteside, Houston 205 

Wiley, Francis M 665 

Wiley, Vernon M __ 475 

Williams, Judge Charles M 190 

Williams, Walter F. 758 

Winchester, Charles S 513 

Winsor, George R 453 

Withroder, John 638 

Wittorff, John 643 

Wolcott, 'Frank D._ __ 704 

Wooddell, Charles N. 652 

Woods, Mrs. Mary M. (Lippitt) 736 

y 

Yaggy, Edward E — - 88 

Young. Jacob A 118 

Yust. George H 420 

Z 

Zimmerman, George 238 

Zimmerman, John S 474 



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HISTORICAL 

CHAPTER I. 

Early Explorations of the West. 

The obtaining from France of the land known as the Louisiana Pur- 
chase, in 1803, met with the most violent opposition in the New England 
states. Even the Revolutionary War had failed to teach those who lived 
along the Atlantic coast the value of a wider national policy than that which 
they had been following. These segregated colonies had found that a closer 
union added greatly to their advantage — in fact, had been their salvation in 
their early struggle with England. They had found it impossible to main- 
tain themselves without the compact under which they obtained their inde- 
pendence. But when the war was over, the advantages of uniting to build a 
greater nation seemed to have no place in their minds. They wanted no 
larger union. They wanted no more states, unless it be by division of -the 
thirteen original states. From the people of New England, particularly, 
came opposition to Jefferson and his expansion policy. They had no vision 
of empire such as had inspired France when she explored the territory of the 
West; when her missionaries were among the Indians with the Cross; when 
her frontiersmen were naming the streams and her hunters were becoming 
opulent in their fur and peltry trade. With singular shortsightedness, the 
Americans at that period hugged to their breasts their early jjatrimony. They 
had no desire for the possession of any land west of the Mississippi river. 
To the French their giving up of their dream of an empire on the American 
continent, that had inspired their statesmen, was one that only the exigencies 
could end. The condition of affairs in France made the sale of Louisiana a 
war necessity, not only for the money it brought to their treasury, but to 
keep the land from falling into the hands of their enemies as a prize of war. 
(3"> 



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34 KENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

To the people of New England, the purchase of Louisiana seemed a use- 
less squandering of money. "The sale of a wilderness has not usually com- 
manded so high a price," said one anti-Jefferson Federalist of that time. 
Another recalled that Ferdinando Gorges received but twelve hundred and 
fifty pounds for the province of Maine, and that William Penn gave but 
sixteen thousand pounds for the tract that bears his name. "Weigh it," 
adds still another, "and there will be four hundred and thirty-three tons of 
silver. Load it into wagons and there will be eight hundred and sixty-six 
of them. Place these wagons in line, giving to each two rods, and they will 
cover a distance of five and one-third miles." 

While the purchase of Louisiana met with this violent opposition, yet 
this was but a small matter compared to the feeling that was stirred up 
when it was proposed to admit to the Union a state from territory outside 
of the territory of the thirteen original states. One of the distinguished 
representatives from Massachusetts. Josiah Quincy, declared that if Louis- 
iana was admitted to the Union of states, that "the bonds of the Union 
were, virtually, dissolved; that the states that compose it are free from 
moral obligations, and that as it will be the right of ail, it will be the duty 
of some, to prepare, definitely, for a separation, amicably, if they can, vio- 
lently if they must." 

With such a sentiment against the West, it was somewhat remarkable 
that Congress could be induced to vote any money for any expedition that 
had for its purpose the development of the West. Only outside dangers 
could have induced the narrow-minded New Englander to give up his pre- 
judice and join with others in authorizing an expedition such as was pro- 
posed to send into the West. 

Among the things that led to this new policy was the disastrous failure 
of the Missouri Fur Company, and the similar failure of the Astor project 
along the Columbia river. These two things, and the activity of the British 
among the Indians in the north, combined to make the proposed expedition 
suddenly a very popular one. But to overcome the criticism against further 
western development, President Monroe and John C. Calhoun, secretary of 
state, favored a strong military expedition to the Northwest. Some of the 
more liberal men of Congress grew enthusiastic in this enterprise and wanted 
to go farther and make a formidable showing of national authority along 
the upper sources of the Missouri river, and to restore the rights the United 
States had obtained under the Treaty of Ghent along the Columbia river. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 35 

To carry out these plans, Major Stephen H. Long was selected to head the 
expedition. 

Major Long was to be accompanied by a corp of assistants chosen both 
from civil and military life. A very pretentious force was to be put into 
the held. Major Biddle was selected to keep the journal of the expedition. 
There was also added to the party Doctor Baldwin, botanist, Doctor Say, 
zoologist; Doctor Jessup, geologist; Mr. Peale, assistant naturalist; Mr. 
Seymour, sketcher and painter, also Lieutenant Graham and Cadet Swift, 
topographical assistants. The party, including soldiers, numbered between 
six hundred and seven hundred people. It was called the Yellowstone ex- 
pedition. 

But the expedition never accomplished any of the purposes for which 
it was organized. In fact, the whole enterprise did a great deal more damage 
than it ever did good. It demoralized the whole matter of western explora- 
tion and development. It was the intention of the promoters of the Yellow- 
stone expedition to proceed up the Missouri river in vessels from St. Louis. 
The ship-building proposition fell into the hands of an unscrupulous charac- 
ter, named Johnson, who was to build and equip the vessel needed to make 
the trip. Johnson failed to keep his contract and a large percentage' of the 
money appropriated for the purpose was squandered. The matter was later 
investigated by Congress and the report, which was against Johnson, recom- 
mended legal proceeding to recover the money he had wrongfully obtained. 

This gave a bad name to the whole matter of opening up the West and 
Northwest. The absurd extravagance that characterized the whole matter 
disgusted Congress. It was shown that Long could have kept the entire 
command in the field for five years and explored the whole territory west 
of the Mississippi and east of the Rocky mountains on the money that had 
been wasted. So the Yellowstone expedition was abandoned and another 
one planned, that was only a small part of the original project. 

According to the new plan, the "Western Engineer," the vessel that 
caused the scandal, started from St. Louis on June 9, i8wj. The boat was 
seventy-five feet long, with a thirteen-foot beam, drawing nineteen inches 
of water. The vessel carried three small brass cannon. They reached 
Ft. Osage on July 19, 1819, and on August i reached Isle de Vache, near 
where Leavenworth is now. The party stayed there until August 25. From 
that point they divided into smaller parties, each making short exploration 
trips through the country, near the Missouri river. They resumed their 
trip on August 25 and reached Ft. Lisa, where they went into winter quar- 



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36 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

ters. Major Long remained with the expedition about two weeks, 
when he went back to Washington to spend the winter. He was severely 
criticized for his inactivity and for going into winter quarters in Septem- 
ber, in a latitude that made this the most enjoyable time of the year to pursue 
his plans. During the time his party were to remain in winter quarters, they 
were to make short excursions, gathering all the information obtainable 
about the country and making as many friends with the Indians as pos- 
sible. 

While Major Long was in Washington, the shorter trip of exploration 
was arranged. Long returned to his company at Ft. Lisa in the spring, and 
on June 6, 1820, the entire party left their winter quarters. They reached 
the Pawnee village on the Loup fork of the Platte river on June 11, 1820. 
When they reached the village of the Grand Pawnee, they found the Indians 
too busy hunting to see them. Very little was accomplished with this tribe 
of Indians, but an attempt was made to introduce vaccination among the 
Indians. Smallpox had broken out among this, as well as many other 
Indian tribes, and had greatly reduced their numbers. On June 13, 1820, 
the expedition camped on the Platte river about where Grand Island is now. 
Continuing their march westward, they saw the Rocky mountains on June 
30. On July 5 they camped about where Denver now stands. After resting 
for four days, the party resumed its march and, on July 12, camped about 
twenty-five miles from Pike's Peak. They measured its altitude and Doctor 
James, with two men, made the ascent of the peak, the first white man to 
do this arriving at the top at 2 p. m„ July 14, 1820. They calculated its 
height at about eight thousand five hundred and seven feet above the plains, 
which was probably five thousand seven hundred above the sea level. They 
also discovered another peak, which they named after the head of the expe- 
dition, "Long's Peak." 

The party continued its march southward and reached the Arkansas 
river, about where Lajunta is now, on July 21. Here they divided the expe- 
dition. Captain ^Bell. Lieutenant Swift, three Frenchmen and five soldiers 
were sent down the Arkansas river, while the balance of the party continued 
their march southward, proceeding to the source of the Red river, intend- 
ing to follow it till it flowed into the Arkansas at Ft. Smith. Both parties 
started on their trips, July 24, 1820. Captain Bell and his party reached the 
Great Bend in the river on August 9. 

As they advanced, they kept about a mile from the stream on the north 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 37 

side of the river, in order to avoid the sand drift along the river banks, that 
made traveling difficult. Each night they would camp on the river in order 
to have water and also because they were thus able to find driftwood which 
they could use for firewood for cooking their meat. They lived off the 
land as far as possible and found plenty of elk, deer, buffalo and other wild 
game. Their description' of the country at that time is interesting. The 
weather was hot. They experienced a severe storm early in August, a 
typical northwest rain, with which the early settlers of this country were so 
familiar. It was an exceedingly hot day. Late in the afternoon a heavy 
cloud from this northwest came up and the rain fell in torrents. The light- 
ning was terrible and the wind blew down their tents. Their horses wandered 
off with the storm, and they had no means of lighting a fire that night, all the 
wood being soaked 

Captain Bell's description of the country at that time is exceedingly 
interesting, especially in view of the report made by Major Long as to the 
quality of the land he traversed. The grass was described as luxuriant; 
along the river the sunflowers were abundant and very long. This would 
seem to show that the claim of the Mormons that they carried the sunflower 
seed with them when they went to Utah is unfounded, as Long's trip ante- 
dated the Mormon expeditions west more than a score of years. They 
reached Cow creek about sundown on August 12, 1820. Whether the 
point where they crossed Cow creek was where Hutchinson now stands, or 
near the mouth of the stream, is not disclosed in the description of these 
trips. As will be referred to later, it is probable at that time Cow creek 
did not run in the same channel it now runs in, but followed the low ground 
at the foot of the Sand hills, flowing through what used to be Brandy lake 
and then on south to the river. 

Long's men continued down the river and later in the fall they were 
joined at Ft. Smith by the part of the expedition that branched off at Lajimta 
and followed the Red river. The Arkansas party reached Ft. Smith much 
ahead of the others, and remained there awaiting the arrival of Long. 
Together, the party continued down the Arkansas to St. Louis, and from 
there made their way back to Washington, where Major Long made his 
report to the President and the secretary of state. 

Long's expedition was a great disappointment to the President and to 
Congress. It was eagerly seized 011 by all those opposed to the expansion 
of territorial lines. Outside of the money that was squandered on the enter- 



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3» RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

prise, the report of Long was such that, instead of promoting the develop- 
ment of the territory covered in the purchase from France, it really retarded 
the settlement of the country. In his report, Long fairly stated the condi- 
tions as he saw things. He spoke of the vastness of the plains, of the great 
multitude of buffalo, of the abundance of all kinds of game, and of the fact 
that the entire country was well watered and well drained. He reported 
very little about the Indians, as he saw but few of them. Long had the 
idea that so generally prevailed of the West. The people of that time saw 
no necessity for more territory. Their vision was bounded by their own 
small interests. The vastness of the West, with their method of transpor- 
tation, blinded them to the possible development of their new territory. The 
nation that was to grow up and settle this country was to be the work of 
a generation ahead of them. It was in great contrast with the view the French 
held regarding the same territory. To them it contained a new France. 
Visions of an empire were in the brains of her chancellors. They saw 
beyond the Mississippi a territory, vast and fertile, free from the jealousies 
of European nations. They saw the vineyards of France reproduced in 
the low lands of the Missouri and the rCaw and the Platte. They saw a 
great empire arise. But their vision faded when Napoleon, under the 
stress of war, sold the empire of their dreams, lest it should fall as a prize 
of war into the hands of the enemy. 

But Long saw nothing of this. To him it was a territory valuable as 
a protection against any nation attacking the United States on the west. 
He could see nothing of the states to be created out of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase. He could see the Indian tribes and the buffalo as the constant occu- 
pants of the land. To him it had nothing of promise, nothing of added 
resource to the handful of states along the Atlantic ocean. To him it had 
no mines to add to the wealth of the land ; no land to be subdued ; no cities 
to be built But one thing alone he saw — and that, the negative side of the 
whole matter ; he saw the vast areas as barriers against a foreign foe. It 
was a matter of regret to the President and the people who supported the 
policy of Jefferson in the purchase of Louisiana, that such an unsatisfac- 
tory report was brought back. The spies sent out to view the land, as did 
those of Moses of ancient story, returned ladened with the riches of the 
land, but repeated again, as of old, the stories of the giants that lived in the 
land. 

There were other explorers in the valley. One of the most interesting 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 39 

of them was Jacob Fowler. His biographer has published his records, just 
as they were written. His spelling is not just as we would spell the words 
today — in fact, he did not always follow his own style, but varied it as he 
desired. It is interesting on this account, in addition to the fact of the close 
observation that Fowler made and the accuracy of his statement. 

Fowler was the first American to make the continuous trip from Ft. 
Smith to the present site of Pueblo. He measured the whole course of the 
Arkansas river between two places named. Lewis Dawson, one of his men, 
was probably the first white man buried in Colorado. Dawson was killed 
by a grizzly bear, near the mouth of the Purgatory river.- Fowler's was 
doubtless the first white man's house built in Colorado, it being erected on 
the ground where Pueblo now stands. 

Fowler's biographer adopted the unique idea of preserving the author's 
oddities and eccentricities. He describes his manuscript as being almost 
undecipherable until he found out the peculiarities of the author's handwrit- 
ing. In publishing his "Journal of Travels," the author's spelling, punctua- 
tion and capitalization are reproduced. The abbreviations are just as Fowler 
put them down. The part of his journal that related to his trip through 
Reno county is here reproduced. The principal part of his records cover the 
land lying in the eastern part of the county. "The bold stream of water," 
he speaks of that he found on "15th October 1821," was Cow creek. Evi- 
dently it followed a different course than it now follows. The Indians say 
that it originally flowed at the foot of the Sand hills, through Brandy lake, 
thence south to the river. Fowler's journal is exceedingly interesting and is 
as follows: 

12 October 1821. Cloudy and Rains a little We set out Early North 
60. West fifteen miles over a Rich low Ridge there is Scarcely a tree or a 
Stone to be Seen and Hole land Covered with tall grass there is all allong 
Whight River and on this Ridge is much sign of Buffelow but the Indeans 
have drove them off. We camped on a small Branch near the Arkensas 
River." This description is of the country near Mulvane. 

The next day — "13 Octover 1821" — they reached the Little river where 
Wichita is now located. On "14th Oct. 1821," he says, "we Set out Early 
Crossing the little Arkansaw and steering West at 12 miles Came to the 
Banks of the Arkansaw there up the River north 70 west We camped on 
the Bank Without trees" — this was about on the line between Sedgwick 
and Reno counties. "The Cuntry Continu fine the land level and Rich 



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40 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

the timber is plenty on the little Arkansaw, and some for a few miles tip 
the main River but Heare there is no Timber or Willows on the River. 
Buffalo Bulls still appeer But no Cows and we are now satisfied of the Cans 
of the Hunters not killing any of that Speces. No Sign of deer tho we 
seen some turkeys last evening." The next day the party was in Reno 
county, and the journal continues: 

"15th October 1821 We set out at our ushal time up the River No. 
8 West and stoped at the mouth of a bold stream of Watter, came from 
the north, about 70 feet Wide but we Ware Soon alarmed by the Hunters 
coming and Haveing some Indians on Hors Back and sopossed to be in 
pursuit of them — we gradually move up the River Crossing the Crick to some 
Sand Knobs on the River bank about 400 yds. above the mouth of the 
crick — there being no timber We made a breast works of our Baggage and 
Remained the balance of the day Waiting the arival of the Indians — but 
none appeared — some Buffelow Bulls were killed today. We kept the horses 
tyed up all night — yesterday the Sand Knobs appeer at about ten mile 
distance on our Right Hand and Perellel With the River. Some Scatering 
trees appear on the Knobs." 

The next day he reached about where the city of Hutchinson now 
stands. His journal reads: 

"16th Octolwr 1821. We set out Early and maid ten miles up the 
River the Sand Knobs still on the Right We sent out Some Hunters to 
kill a Cow but they Remained out all night. We Ware much alarmed for 
their safety no meet for Supper or Breckfast — our corse No. 70 west and 
Camped on the River." The next day the party continued up the river. 
His journal reads: 

"r7th Octr 1821 We continued up the River North 65 west 15 miles 
and camped on the Bank. Scarcely a tree to be seen We this day passed 
the Head Spring of the Creek at the mouth of Which we camped on the 
15th. This is a large butiful spring about three miles from the River on 
the north side and is a leavel Rich Piranie. the Sand Hills all along on the 
South Side and near the crick thay are not more than 60 or 70 feet High 
and the Country leavel beyond them to a great distance those on the north 
about the Same Hight and Several miles from the River." Fowler did not 
pass the spring that is the "head spring" of Cow creek, but the spring that 
forms Bull creek, which empties into Cow creek, as the springs from which 
Cow creek are formed are up farther north in Russell county. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 41 

Another explorer, the earliest, was Lieutenant Wilkinson, who left 
Pike's at Great Bend, where they reached the river in their overland trip 
of exploration in 1806. Wilkinson was sick and, making a boat out of 
cottonwood logs, made his way down the river. With him, however, it was 
simply an attempt to get back to St. Louis and very little of value is recorded 
of his trip down the river. These three parties are the earliest visits of 
Americans on the soil of what now constitutes Reno county. 



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CHAPTER II. 
Physical Appearance and Early Conditions. 

The pioneers of Reno county found conditions very similar to what other 
pioneers had met in other states. The early settlers of Reno cdunty were 
hardy, industrious people. There were many Union soldiers among them, 
young men then who had returned from the army and were ready for any new 
adventure. The West was opening; up, and with cheap lands held out as an 
inducement, they came west to make their fortunes. They were mostly from 
states of a similar latitude. 

There were but few trees in sight to greet the pioneer. The prairie was 
an unbroken sod of buffalo green. There were some trees in the sand hills and 
big cottonwoods in the bend of Cow creek, on the land afterwards owned by 
Peter Shafer, in Grant township, and one big cottonwood on Cow creek on 
Main street. 

There were no roads and no bridges. From north to south across this 
county were the trail marks of the thousands of cattle that had been driven 
across the country to Abilene to be shipped east. These tracks bent in and out 
as the cattle would sway toward each other in their drive; would separate a 
few inches, jolt another beast on the other side, forming tracks that countless 
thousands of other cattle followed. They broke the sod; this loosened ground 
was blown out by the wind and the "trail" was established. Especially marked 
were there trails where streams were reached. There cattle would crowd 
together and the trails became deeper and more marked than in the open 
prairie. 

The country was overrun with wild geese. Today they are rarely seen, 
except on some pond of water. Then they were a real pest and the pioneers 
had occasion to put up "scarecrows" to frighten off the geese. Soon they 
grew accustomed to these and other means had to be used to frighten away 
the geese, for a flock of these strong-beaked birds would soon ruin a whole 
wheat field, pulling the wheat up by the roots and devouring seed and blade 
alike. Many a farm boy has spent dreary days, in the fall and spring, chasing 
the wild geese off of a wheat field, only to se# them circle around a while and 
settle again on some other part of the same field. Killing wild'geese was not 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 43 

only a sport, but an occupation. Many and many a load of wild geese were 
hauled to Hutchinson to be shipped East, partly for the flesh, but mostly for 
their feathers. Down in Lincoln township was one noted hunter, J. Q. Rob- 
inson. He killed the geese systematically. He had hiding places over the 
field. From these he would shoot, often till the flock was almost wiped out. 
These he would haul to Hutchinson by the wagon-load. 

There was an abundance of smaller game in the county. After the buf- 
falo disappeared hunting was limited to ducks, geese, rabbits, quail, and prairie 
chickens. There were a few antelopes hid away in the hills, but they soon 
were driven out. Coyote hunts were frequent, and afforded sport for a large 
number of hunters with their dogs, as no one dog had much of a show with a 
coyote. The prairie dog was a pest that spoiled considerable land. Near the 
Yaggy plantation was a "dog town" of nearly a hundred acres. These little 
creatures lived in their burrows. The body of a prairie dog was about the size 
of a mink ; eyes and head rather large, resembling that of a rabbit ; body the 
size of a small dog, hair short, shining and smooth. They lived in immense 
numbers on the prairies in dry locations, but not far from water. Their holes 
were deep and not in regular order. 

BUFFALO GRASS, WONDERFUL FORAGE FEED. 

The buffalo grass that covered all the land from the limestone hills of 
the central part of the state to the western border, was the most wonderful 
forage feed, except alfalfa, that has ever been found. The immense herds 
of buffalo that lived off of it, fattened on it, multiplied on it, was evidence of 
its nutritious quality. In the summer time the soft curling grass was dotted 
with flowers, the more conspicuous because of the sombre background of grass. 
Tliere were a few varieties of flowers that were exceedingly common. Among 
these was the "sensitive" rose. While it was called a rose, it did not belong to 
the nose family, but to the briar family. It had narrow, very fine leaves on a 
vine that was covered with small, sharp thorns. The leaves were sensitive, 
whence the plant derived its name, and would immediately close up when 
touched. The blossom was a beautiful one, oval-shaped and bright red in 
color, and the stamens visible, otherwise bare on the top a yellow stigma. It 
was a very fragrant flower, and its odor permeated the air. The "false 
mallow" grew also on a long vine. Some of them would cover a yard-square 
space and have hundreds of bright red blossoms. The plant grew from a root 
that resembled the carrot in shape and size. This plant added a brilliance to 
the brownish-green buffalo grass that was very striking. The tall "spider 



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44 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

wort," with a sky-blue blossom, was common. It bloomed in June, when most 
of the flowers of the prairie were most abundant. 

Outside of the wild grass there were in the early days an abundance of 
other kinds of game. Deer and elk were in abundance. Feeding on the buffalo 
grass, they would seek protection in the scraggy cottonwood trees that grew 
in the sand hills. There was also an abundance of prairie chickens, and these 
latter were not wholly driven out by the settlers for many years. All old 
settlers recall the early morning "booming" of these chickens, also their even- 
ing call to each other. They were a hard bird to shoot because they flew so 
fast and were exceedingly wild. Quail were plentiful and a few antelope hid 
themselves in the hills. The buffalo, of course, were the chief game, but they 
disappeared with the elk, the antelope and the deer. 

. Another animal found in abundance on the prairie was the coyote. These 
were the skulking scavangers of the plains; cowardly and cunning, they hung 
around a wounded buffalo or deer, waiting for a chance to get a meal. Their 
howl was one of the most distressing noises of the prairies. 

While there were some things pleasant about the prairies in the days 
before the settlers came, yet there were things that overshadowed all else. The 
thing that made the prairies so lonesome that it was almost terrifying, was 
the monotony of the scene. Day after day the hunter passed across new land, 
but the same at morning, noon and at night. The same, day after day and 
week after week, — one seemingly unending stretch of buffalo grass; one eter- 
nally blue sky above — nothing the hunter could see that would look like a 
place of comfort: no boundary, no end to it. It took more than courage to 
conquer the prairies; courage alone would not have accomplished the won- 
drous change of a half a century. It took Faith, that saw the orchards grow up 
and set a boundary in the sod and furnished a resting place for the eyes. It 
took Faith to see the sod yield up the varied grains of today. It took Faith 
to see the buffalo grass supplanted by the alfalfa, and it took Faith and Cour- 
age to sustain the pioneer in the lonesomeness of early day life in Reno county ; 
and that Faith and Courage have seen their reward, and the land of the buffalo 
has yielded its richness to the pioneer and his sons and his son's sons. The old 
settler never will forget the appearance of the land in the early seventies, and 
to rejoice at the change in the appearance of Reno county in less than a half 
centurv of time. 



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CHAPTER III. 
The Arkansas River and Other Streams. 

The first white man, so far as any record shows, to see the Arkansas 
river was Coronado. He was the first explorer of the West. His journeys 
are among the most remarkable recorded in the annals of American history. 
Seventy-four years before the English made their settlement on the Atlantic 
coast, an army of Spaniards started four prosperous colonies in Mexico 
and explored a region as extensive as the eastern coast line of the United 
States from Maine to Florida. Their journey from Mexico was fraught 
with dangers and difficulties, which they only mention, apparently hoping 
to be remembered by the things they accomplished. 

They started on their expedition on February 23. 1540. They sought 
the "Seven Cities of Cibola." of which they had heard from a Franciscan 
friar, Marcos of Nice, who accompanied the party as a guide and chaplain. 
Coronado marched for more than two years before he reached the Arkansas 
river. He crossed this stream near where Dodge City is located, on June 
28, 1542. He called the river St. Peter and St. Paul. This day is St. 
Peter and St. Paul's day of the Catholic church and Coronado named the 
stream for the day he reached it. There have been several Reasons assigned 
for the name of the stream; one was that he crossed the river where Wichita 
is located and that he gave to the Big Arkansas river the name of St. Peter 
and that of the Little Arkansas river the name of St. Paul. This is entirely 
fanciful. Coronado's description of the country through which he passed 
shows that he went northward after he crossed the Arkansas, until he reached 
almost the northern boundary of Kansas, when he turned back toward 
Mexico. 

So the fiijst name the river bore was given it by the Spanish. The 
name by which it is now known was given it by the French. They named 
it from a tribe of Indians, the "Akansa", they found near the mouth of the 
stream when they first reached the river. Through many changes in spell- 
ing, largely as a matter of pronunciation, the spelling has been changed to 
its present form. 

The river rises in the mountains of central Colorado, near Leadville, 



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46 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

and empties into the Mississippi river at Napoleon, Arkansas. It is more 
than two thousand miles long and drains a basin of one hundred and eighty- 
five thousand square miles. It is the greatest western affluent of the Missis- 
sippi river. It starts in a pocket of lofty mountain peaks at an altitude of 
over ten thousand feet. It drops four thousand six hundred and twenty- 
five feet in the first one hundred and twenty miles of its course, over one 
hundred and twenty feet to the mile. . At Canyon City it passes out of the 
Rocky mountains through the Grand canyon of the Arkansas. It soon is 
transformed into a turbid, shallow stream, depositing its mountain debris in 
the valley. It meanders across eastern Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma and 
Arkansas. At Dodge City it shifts its direction to the northeast and at 
Great Bend it turns its course toward the southeast. It has a fall of seven 
and five-tenths feet per mile from Canyon City to Wichita, a distance of 
five hundred and one miles, and one and five-tenths feet per mile from 
Wichita to Little Rock, this being reduced to sixty-five hundredths of a foot 
per mile from Little Rock to its mouth. It is constantly changing its bed, 
due to heavy rainfall and the melting snows of the mountains, as well as 
to the character of the soil through which it flows. Its water is lowest in 
the channel from August to December. The depth of the water varies 
from twenty-seven feet to one foot. 

The Indians called the Arkansas the "Ne Shuta", meaning "Red Water". 
Why it was given this name is not known. They likewise called the Little 
Arkansas, "Ne Shma Shinka", meaning "The Young or the Little Red 
Water". This river was a highway of commerce for the French, as they 
made their way to the mountains in search of hides and furs. Their expe- 
ditions usually followed /the river, generally on the north side, keeping a 
half mile or more from the river in order to avoid the sand along" the banks, 
but keeping close enough to reach it for camping purposes, where there was 
water and driftwood. They generally could get enough driftwood for 
their campfires. The exploration of the Arkansas by the Americans in the 
early days was largely for the purpose of ascertaining the nature of the 
country and to find the number and character of the Indians that were to 
he found in this country. 

Among these explorers was Zebulon Pike. In July, 1806, Pike left 
St. Louis 011 his second expedition. He ascended the Missouri to the Osage, 
and the latter to the villages of the Indians of that name. Thence he con- 
tinued westward overland, entered Kansas, and proceeded to the Pawnee 
village on the Republican river near the present Kansas-Nebraska line. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 47 

Turning southward, he reached the Arkansas river at the present site of 
Great Bend. There he dispatched his junior officer, Lieutenant Wilkinson, 
with a few men, to descend the Arkansas, while with the rest of his com- 
pany he ascended the i same -river into Colorado, as far as Pueblo. From 
this point he made an unsuccessful side-trip which had for its object the 
ascent of the since famous peak which bears his name, and returned to his 
camp at Pueblo. 

Another early explorer was Jacob Fowler. Contrasting the work of 
the early explorers, the biographer of Fowler, says : 

"There are no records of where others went or what they did. Ezekiel 
Williams, James Workman, Samuel Spencer, sole and shadowy survivors 
of Coyner's 'Lost Trappers," are only uneasy spirits, Hitting from the 
Missouri to Mexico and California in an apocryphal book, never materializing 
out of fable-land into historical environment. Wherever other American 
trappers or traders may have gone on the Arkansas or even the Rio Grande 
in those days, and whatever they may have done, Fowler was first to forge 
another sound link in the chain which already reached from Pike to Long. 
The latter's justly celebrated expedition came down the Arkansas and the 
Canadian in 1820. Pike ascended the main river from its great bend to its 
source in 1806, the same year that his lieutenant, Wilkinson, descended this 
stream from the point where he parted from his captain. For the lower 
reaches of the river we have Thomas Nuttall's 'Journal of Travels into the 
Arkansas Territory,' during the year 1819, and various other accounts. 
But I know of no record earlier in date than Fowler's of continuous ascent 
of the river from Ft. Smith to the present position of Pueblo in Colorado. 
He meandered the whole course of the Arkansas between the points named, 
except his cut-off of a small portion of the Verdigris trail. One of his 
men, Lewis Dawson, who was kilted by a grizzly bear at the mouth of the 
Purgatory — and who, let us hope, left that place for happier hunting-grounds 
— may not have been the first white American buried in Colorado soil, but 
the record of a prior funeral would be far to seek. Whose was the first habit- 
able and inhabited house on the spot where Pueblo now stands? Fowler's, 
probably; for Pike's stockade was hardly a house, and Jim Beckwourth came 
twenty years after Fowler. The Taos trail from Santa Fe through the Sangre 
de Cristo pass to the Arkansas at Pueblo was well known to the Spaniards 
when Fowler's party traversed it in the opposite direction ; but 'we have no 
American itinerary of that passage at an earlier date than his. When Fowler 
ascended the Rio Grande to Hot Spring creek in the San Juan range, he 
followed a Spanish road; but never before had an American expedition 



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48 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

been so near the source of that great river Del Norte, and not till many 
years afterward did any such prolong Fowler's traces upward. The greater 
part of Fowler's homeward journey from Taos to Ft. Osage will doubtless 
prove as novel to his readers as it was unexpected by his editor. South of 
the Arkansas, his trail was neither by the way he had gone before, nor by 
either of those roads which were soon to Ijc established and become well 
known, for he came neither by the Cimarron nor the Raton route, but took 
a straighter course than either, between the two, over Chico Rico Mesa 
and thence along Two Butte creek to the Arkansas on the Kansas-Colorado 
border. Again, when Fowler left the Arkansas to strike across Kansas, he 
did not take up the direct route which caravans were about to blaze as 
the Santa Fe trail from Missouri through Council Grove to Great Bend, 
but went a roundabout way, looping far south to heads of the Whitewater 
and Verdigris' rivers before he crossed the Neosho to make for the Missouri 
below the mouth of the Kansas." 

A reproduction of Fowler's journey, as far as it refers to this county, 
is given in chapter III. 

Being the first white man to describe the earliest days of Reno county, 
the first to describe the streams and soil, something more of Fowler will 
be of interest, something of his life as told by his biographer. The follow- 
ing is from the introduction of "The Journal of Jacob Fowler" : 

"Major Fowler was born in New York, in 1765, and came to Kentucky 
in early life, a fine specimen of physical manhood; fully equipped for the 
office and duties of a surveyor. His surveying instruments were the best 
of their day, and elicited no little envy from those who used the common 
Jacobs staff and compass and chain of the times. He had the reputation of 
being an accomplished surveyor, and did much in this line for the United 
States government. His surveying extended to the great plains and moun- 
tains of the far West, before civilization had reached these distant wilds. 
He was there when wild animals and wilder savages were the only tenants 
of the wilderness. 

"Major Fowler married the widow Fsther Sanders, ncc de Vie, of New- 
port, Kentucky. She was of French descent and a lady of great beauty 
and accomplishments. She made his home one of happiness and hospitality. 
She sometimes accompanied him on his surveying expeditions and bore 
domestic charms to the tent in which they lived, as she did to the palatial man- 
sion at home. She was a woman of line business capacity, who, when her 
husband was not at home, attended to his affairs .and especially to his farm 
jn the suburbs of Covington. Here fine stock and abundant crops owed 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 49 

much to her constant care and supervision. The grapes that grew on the 
place were made into wine and the apples into cider, in accordance with the 
knowledge she had inherited from her French ancestors. Her great-grand- 
children of today tell of the life of the camp, when she was with her hus- 
band in his surveying expeditions. The tent floor was nicely carpeted; a 
comfortable bed invited repose after the toil of the day; dainty china, bright 
cut glass, and shining silverware, handsome enough to be preserved as family 
heirlooms by their descendants, were used on the camp table. It was some- 
thing of Parisian life in the dreary wilderness. 

"Major Fowler died in Covington in the year 1850. His life as a 
surveyor and explorer in the West subjected him to many hardships, but 
a constitution naturally vigorous was preserved with care until he reached 
his eighty-sixth year. He has numerous descendants in Kentucky, Ohio 
and other states, some of whom occupy high social positions." 

Speaking of his life, his biographer says of him: "If we turn from 
the substance of Fowler's journal and ask to see the bill of lading, curious 
to know what useful or valuable information is contained in so singular a 
conveyance, it may be composedly said that this "Prairie Schooner" is 
well foresighted for a "Voige" on the highway of Americana; for the 
cargo is a novel and a notable contribution to our knowledge of early com- 
mercial and pioneer adventure in the Great West. It is simple, the story of 
the trader and trapper, unsupported by the soldier, unimpeded by the priest 
and in no danger of the politician. The scene is set in the wilderness; the 
time is when the pack animals were driven across the stage, before the fast 
wheels rolled over the plains from the states to Santa Fe, and the actors 
have real parts to perform." 

With his interesting story, is a glimpse of what the country was in 
1821. 

The Arkansas river has decreased in width very much since the first 
settlers came to Reno county. An explanation of this narrowing of the 
river bed is given in another chapter. While not the stream of former 
years, yet it at times becomes a turbulent one and carries a large volume 
of water. It has nothing of the importance it had in early years, as changed 
methods of transportation have decreased its value. 

The Little Arkansas cuts off a part of the county in the northeast corner. 
While an interesting stream, it only touches the county in such a way that 
it becomes a stream of minor importance in a history of the county. 

One of the most beautiful streams anywhere to be found is Cow creek, 
which in early days was a marvel to all who saw it. It heads up in the 

(4) 



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50 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

hard land of Rice and Russell counties and threads its way through the bot- 
tom lands — two miles of creek to one as the crow flies. It appears on 
Sibley's map made in 1824 as "Cold Water" or "Cow Creek" — the latter 
name has clung to the stream. 

Who named Cow creek ? What a name for such a stream. The water 
as clear as crystal. The stones in the bed of the stream as plainly visible 
as if no water ran over them. Imagine how the first white man felt as 
he saw that stream. Riding over the hot, short buffalo grass of the prairie, 
his horse plunged into the tall blue stem that grew in the low bottom land 
that bordered the bank of the stream. He saw no water until within ten feet 
of the bank of the creek. A little way ahead, it emerged from the tall grass 
as it came around a bend, and a little way below it disappeared out of sight 
in the same way. It was an original discovery to every stranger who crossed 
it. Standing fifty feet from its banks in the rank growth of blue stem, there 
was nothing to indicate the existence of such a stream. It seemed super- 
natural. It came from the Unknown and went on to the Unknown. The 
traveler hesitated to turn away. He wanted to taste of the stream. He 
wanted to touch his hands in its cooling waters and let his feet rest on its 
shining sand and its glistening pebbles. When was this marvelous creation 
planned ? How long has it been moving its way to the sea — along the 
unknown and silent pathway? What eons has it carried away the volcanic 
salts and alkalis that the changing seasons have leached from the soil to pre- 
pare the land for the tillage of the coming man? How many billion tons 
of granite, quartz, limestone and prophyry have the summer torrents of the 
Arkansas brought from the mountains and unloaded along its route till its 
water channel was seventeen feet above the waters of the creek, four miles 
above the townsite? How long since this beautiful stream began its mean- 
dering over the surface of the canyon filled with sand and water which we 
call the Arkansas valley? Who named Cow creek? If it were possible 
to see into the future, would there be an exercise of the police power of 
the city to prevent the contamination of the stream from its source to its 
mouth that there might be for all time a stream of water that for purity, 
for the health of the city, has no equal. Who named Cow creek? 

Cow creek has had three disastrous floods. In normal times it does 
not look like a stream that would do much damage, by overflowing its 
banks. It has its source in the hard lands of Rice and Ellsworth counties 
and when the heavy rains fall in that territory the channel is unable to carry 
away the excess waters. When the Santa Fe railroad was built through 
this county their engineers knew but little of the country. The underlying 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 51 

stratum of sand and water makes deep channels impossible. To the first 
railroad engineer there was no warning of any danger from overflow. 
There was no driftwood because of the entire absence of timber along the 
stream and even the little wash of grass and weeds were gone, burned by 
the annual prairie fire that swept the country. So when the Santa Fe engi-' 
neers built their bridge across Cow creek, west of town, they put in a beam 
bridge, with abutments built of stone and a bridge only forty feet long. 
The railroad was about a foot above the level of the ground, just as little 
as they could get along with. When the first flood that occurred after the 
settlers came into the county, on May 7, 1877, the water soon piled up around 
the bridge and in a short time the flood had undermined the stone masonry 
abutment and the east abutment rolled over into the water. The sand had 
washed from under the stone abutment and the bridge was gone. But the 
volume of water could not find an adequate outlet in the creek channel and 
it spread over the railroad tracks. It followed the track to Main street, 
ran across Main street to First avenue, filling all the low places and finally 
made its way back to the channel of the creek. There was about two feet 
of water over the town, the deepest place being on Main street and First 
avenue east. The water stayed on the street and over the town for about 
two weeks. 

In an effort to avoid any further floods the city at once began to raise 
the grade of Main street. This was done by hauling dirt and other material 
and piling it in the street. The intention was to raise the grade of the street 
for two feet. To do this required that all houses be raised two feet. There 
were no brick buildings then, only frame structures, and after considerable 
time all of the buildings were stuck up on stilts. The sidewalks were also 
put up and the city had its first damage suit as the result of these elevated 
walks. Taylor Flick, a resident of Kinsley, walked off of one of these stilted 
sidewalks one night and was injured. He sued the city for five thousand 
dollars damages. The jury gave him two hundred and fifty dollars. 

The railroad likewise had to raise its grade to make sure that future 
floods would not wash out its tracks. They extended the bridge, making 
it more than double the length of the first one and, instead of using masonry 
abutments, they drove down piling and built the bridge on them. The piling 
went far enough into the ground that no trouble was ever experienced after 
that with washed-out bridges in Cow creek. 

In addition to raising the grade of Main street, the city did another 
thing that greatly helped it, not only in later floods, but in times when there 
was more than the normal amount of water to be carried down the chan- 



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52 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

nel of the stream. That was the straightening of Cow creek through the 
town. The many bends in the creek greatly retarded the flow of water. W. 
E. Hutchinson made a proposition to the city, which was accepted. He 
agreed to straighten Cow creek through the city, making a channel that was 
just half the length of the bed of Cow creek through the city. The city paid 
ten thousand dollars for this work and in the subsequent periods of high 
water demonstrated its value. It not only cut the distance the water had to 
travel, but it increased the velocity of the water so that the creek's carrying 
capacity was increased four-fold. There have been several occasions when 
the low lands above town were covered with water and yet the creek was 
able to carry the water through town and not tax the channel to its capacity 
to carry the extra volume of water away. 

The second flood of Cow creek was in June, 1886. The water was 
not as high as it was in 1877, but it was harder to get off of the town, 
because Main street, having been raised, held back the water and, while the 
west part of town suffered more than it did at the first flood, the eastern part 
of the city did not experience nearly the loss that it did in the first high 
water. 

The principal damage in all of the floods has been to grass and lawns. 
No property loss of any great amount has ever been occasioned. The flood 
of 1903 did perhaps more actual damage than either of the others, as it 
came up very unexpectedly and merchants were not able to get their slock 
of goods off the floors. This last flood occurred on May 30, 1903. Heavy 
rains in Rice and Ellsworth counties for over a week had poured a volume 
of water into Cow creek that was more than it could carry. The water 
stood about two feet deep over Main street and covered perhaps two-thirds 
of the town site. There was considerable damage done by this flood. 
Merchants lost goods that they were unable to get off the floors before the 
water reached them. Some foundations of buildings were undermined and 
some buildings that were made of soft brick were damaged by the water. 
Gardens and lawns were covered with a coating of mud where the water 
stood, but no great loss occurred from the flood. 

The city, shortly after the flood, dug a drainage canal from Cow creek 
to the river, west of town. This cost over thirty thousand dollars and into 
it a greater portion of Cow creek water is diverted. Whether it will pre- 
vent the floods from getting over the city when the water becomes as high 
as it was in 1903 is a matter of conjecture. It doubtless will keep off a 
great amount, but the test of its capacity is yet to be made. While the loss 
to the city by reason of the high water in Cow creek has been considerable, 



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HENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 53 

the loss to the farmers above town and likewise those below town has been 
greater than the loss in the city. Both of the last two floods have occurred 
in the growing months of the year. Crops were spoiled and in some places 
the soil was washed by the high water. These losses, however, are such 
as come to the low lands, the best land being of course in the bottoms. But 
while the loss of crops is an item of considerable moment to those affected, 
yet it is not always a complete loss, as the deposit of soil left on the lands 
is worth considerable in added strength to the soil. 

The north fork of the Ninnescah waters the western and southern part 
of the county. It heads in the eastern part of Stafford county, but has its 
principal feeders from the western and northwestern part of Reno county. 
Its name means "sweet water." On the early maps it was uniformly spelled 
"Nenescah," but the later spelling changes the "e" to "i". It has low banks, 
seldom ever runs dry and is a great stream for watering stock. There is 
fine bottom land on both sides of the stream and in the early days of cattle 
driving the Ninnescah afforded a splendid place to water and feed the cattle. 
There were several camping grounds for stock on the stream and it was 
a source of great pleasure for the tired and thirsty cattle owners to reach 
this rich bottom land with their stock in the long drives from Texas north- 
ward. The Ninnescah empties into the Arkansas river at Oxford in Sumner 
county. 

Salt creek heads in the northwest corner of Kiowa county. Its old 
name was "Turkey Creek." It probably derives its present name from the 
salty, brackish taste of the water. It empties into the Arkansas river six 
miles west of Hutchinson. It was, like the Ninnescah, a watering point 
for Texas stock, the country round it affording good pasturage for the cattle. 

Looking at it from the standpoint of its value to the stock men, it is 
not strange now that they fought so vigorously the attempt to shut the cattle 
business out of the county, and it is not strange the cattle men resisted so 
strenuously the effort to drive them farther west, as the natural conditions 
favored equally the raising of stock or the growing of grain. The abundance 
of water made it an especially valuable field for stock raising. 



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CHAPTER IV. 
The Osage Indians. 

The early settlers of Reno county never had any experience with the 
Indians of any consequence outside of a raid on some cattle in an early day 
and an occasional begging band of Osages that drifted into the country; 
with these exceptions, the settlers of this county never saw the Indian. Like 
the buffalo, he had passed on westward. His depredations were centered 
on wagon trains along the Santa Fe trail and his vengeance was taken on 
hunters who, as the Indian thought, were forcing him off the ground he 
and his forefathers had held for centuries, and they were also killing off the 
buffalo and depriving him of his means of support. There were a couple 
of Indian "scares," almost entirely without foundation, after the settlers 
came to Reno county, and which amounted to almost a frenzy the last time 
in 1878. But the Indian never was a source of annoyance to the early 
settlers in this county. 

The territory of which Reno county is a part belonged originally to the 
Osage Indians. Just how they happened to possess this valley and this part 
of the country perhaps cannot be known. When the white man came to 
this country he found various tribes of Indians scattered over the land — 
whether they settled their boundary lines by force or by argument cannot 
be known, but they lived in fairly well defined areas. According to School- 
craft, the Osages, in an early day lived east of the Mississippi river. Meet- 
ing severe opposition from the stronger Eastern and Northern tribes, they 
came west, crossing the Mississippi at the mouth of the Missouri. Here 
they divided into two bands, the Quawpaws and the Ugmahaws. The Quaw- 
paws, or the older of the Indians, liked the softer climate of that region and 
stayed at the mouth of the Missouri. The Ugmahaws, or the younger or 
more vigorous of the tribe, pushed up northward along the Missouri river 
as far as Omaha, which was named for this band of Osages, their name 
signifying the "Up Stream" Indian. 

The Osages laid claim to all the country north of the Arkansas river 
to the Meramac river in Missouri and westward to an indefinite line, that 
included nearly the entire state of Kansas. West of the Osages, the Arapa- 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 55 

hoes and Cheyennes claimed the land. Reno county was in the territory 
covered by the treaties of the Osages with the United States government, but 
lack of knowledge of the country caused an error in the treaty, by which the 
Osages received pay for some land claimed by the Arapahoes and Cheyennes 
and the territory immediately in the vicinity of this county was part of the 
doubtful territory and was a sort of neutral ground between the Osages and 
Arapahoes and Cheyennes. However, as the treaties for this territory were 
made with the Osages, they must be considered as the original holders of 
the soil. 

THE OSAGE TREATIES. 

The first treaty with the Osages by the United States was made on 
June 2, 1825, at St. Louis. This treaty was the result of the report by Major 
Stephen A. Long, who made a trip through the territory in 1821-1822, which 
will be referred to in a subsequent chapter. Major Long's report covered 
the questions for which the trip was organized, namely, to ascertain the tribe 
of Indians that held possession of the land and other items that would enable 
the government to deal intelligently with the inhabitants of the territory 
acquired from France in the Louisiana Purchase.- At this time the govern- 
ment's policy was to meet the chiefs and sab-chiefs of each tribe and enter 
into a "treaty" or agreement with them for the acquisition of their land. 
While the government had bought it once from the French, yet a certain 
possessory right of the Indian was also recognized. The "treaty" that was 
made with the Indian tribes was largely in the nature of a barter and trade 
rather than the formal method that is used in the dealings of one sovereign 
nation with another. These treaties were effective between the United States 
and the Indian tribes only after they had been approved by the Senate of the 
United States. 

There were present at the forming of this treaty with the Osages all 
the chiefs of the Great and Little Osage tribes. The government recognized 
the two divisions of this tribe that they had themselves created. By the 
terms of this treaty, these two divisions of the Osages ceded to the United 
States "all the land west of the state of Missouri and the territory of Arkan- 
sas, and west of the Red river, south of the Kansas river and west to a line 
to be drawn from the headwaters of the Kansas river southwest to the Rock 
Saline." According to the map and survey of J. C. McCoy, the "Rock 
Saline*" was on the headwaters of Salt creek and is now township 18 north, 
range 12 west, near the north fork of the Canadian river. Owing to the fact 
that at the time the treaty was made the "headwaters of the Kansas river" 



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56 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

were not accurately known, but the men who made this treaty supposed these 
"headwaters" to be much farther east than what the later surveys showed 
to be correct, owing to the misapprehension of the western boundary of the 
Osage nation, this treaty included land lying in the western part of the terri- 
tory thought to be conveyed to the United States that was claimed also by 
the Arapahoes and Cheyennes and this is the explanation of the "neutral 
strip" referred to in early part of ,this chapter. 

In consideration, the United States agreed to pay the Osages the sum 
of seven thousand dollars a year for twenty years, payment to be made at 
"the village of St. Louis." In addition to this annual payment, the United 
States was to give to the Osages six hundred head of cattle, six hundred 
hogs, one thousand domestic fowls, ten yoke of oxen, six carts and such 
farming implements as the agent of the government thought was necessary; 
also a blacksmith shop to repair farm implements and tools. Likewise the 
United States was to pay the Delaware Indians one thousand dollars, which 
the Osages owed them, and one thousand dollars each to Pierre Choteau, 
Paul Balio and William S. Williams, the three latter being Indian agents with 
whom the Indians had been doing business and who had helped the govern- 
ment to negotiate this treaty. 

From the character of the consideration for the land, the purpose of 
the government was evident, namely, to get the Indians to settle down to 
farming and quit their nomadic life. The gift of oxen and plows was for 
the purpose of seeing if the Indian could not be made self-supporting and 
induced to quit the chase as his only method of making a living. The fact 
that more than sixty years elapsed before the Indian gave up his early 
habits, took his land in severalty and began to farm, is evidence of the deep- 
seated love the Indian had for his old habits. While it is doubtful if the 
six hundred hogs and the thousand chickens, the ten yoke of oxen and the 
blacksmith shop had much effect on the men of the Osage tribe of that day, 
yet it was the beginning of the end of Indian occupancy of this sort, and 
marked the beginning of homesteads and the "school sections,'' the timber 
claim, the pre-emption, also the beginning of the land grant to railroads and 
the general dispossession of these lands by the government. 

The second treaty with the Osages was made on August 10, 1825. This 
treaty was also an outgrowth of Long's expedition and in furtherance of the 
policy of Congress to promote direct commercial relations with Mexico. As 
a part of this policy, Congress authorized the President to cause a road to 
be marked out from the western frontier of Missouri to Mew Mexico. This 
second treaty was niade at Council Grove, on the Neosho river. The name 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 57 

of the place was derived from the fact that the meeting place was held in a 
well-known grove and the word "Council" --as added to the "Grove" to 
mark the place where the treaty was made. It is the name of the present 
county seat of Morris county and was a stopping place for travelers who 
later went over the trail that was afterwards established across the state and 
on out to Santa Fe, New Mexico. By this treaty the Osages agreed to allow 
the United States to mark out the contemplated road and they further agreed 
to be friendly with all who traveled over that road. After the route was 
established and travel started, how well the Indians kept their faith with 
the government is shown by the fact that it became necessary to establish 
two forts along the line, one at Ft. Zarah and one at Ft. Dodge, to protect 
the travelers over the route. Even with these troops, the wagon trains were 
often raided and robbed and the teamsters killed. The government paid the 
Osages five hundred dollars as a consideration of their friendliness. The 
result of the treaty was the establishment of the Santa Fe trail. This was a 
great highway of travel for forty years, Its purpose was purely commer- 
cial. It was so important that it can only be referred to here, leaving it for 
a subsequent chapter. It was the first, and perhaps the most important, out- 
come of this second treaty made with the Osages. 

The third treaty with the Osage Indians included some land that is a 
part of Reno county. It covered the territory known as the "Osage trust 
lands." It was a strip of land two hundred and fifty miles long from west 
to east and twenty miles wide from north to south. It was located directly 
south of the land obtained in the first treaty with the Indians. Its western 
boundary extended about five miles west of Dodge City and its eastern 
boundary was about fifteen miles east of Fredonia. It covered about three 
and a half million acres of land. One row of sections is in Reno county, 
extending the full width of the county on the south border. This treatv 
was made on September 29, 1865. General Miles, General Sheridan and 
others represented the United States and the chiefs and sub-chiefs of the 
Osages were present. As payment for' this land, the United States agreed 
to pay the Osages three hundred thousand dollars. The government was to 
sell the land at one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre and after the pur- 
chase price had been paid by the sale of the land, with five per cent, interest, 
the balance of the fund was to lie placed in a fund tn be called "The Civili- 
zation Fund." This treaty had a clause in it that looked like a joker when 
the treaty was made, but which subsequently had a far-reaching effect on the 
history and development, not only of Reno county, but of the entire South- 



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50 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

west. This matter will be spoken of later, as it affected the building of the 
Santa Fe railroad and the locating of the city of Hutchinson. 

INDIAN HABITS AND CUSTOMS. 

In appearance, the Osages were mainly good looking, stout of limb, and 
erratic in their mode of life, living part of the year in fixed villages and 
roving with their families in search of game the remainder of the time. The 
squaws cultivated the soil in a small way and perhaps it was to meet the 
demands of the squaws that the provision for the hogs and chickens and 
farm implements was inserted in the first treaty they made with the govern- 
ment. Major Hudson found at the mouth of the Little river, when he 
reached that place in his trip down the Arkansas river in 1821, a deserted 
Indian camp. It was the middle of August and all of the Indians were out 
on the hunt preparing their winter's meat. At the camp was a small field 
of corn, poorly tended, weedy and neglected, also some watermelons 
"although the melons were not ripe." Said the Major in his description of 
this place, "We ate them nevertheless and the green corn was greatly appre- 
ciated by the party, which had lived principally on meat for months." The 
Osages showed much skill in their negotiations with the United States agents, 
not only in the making of their treaties, hut in their subsequent dealings 
with the Indian agents. They had a bold, direct manner and used large 
phrases and forms of thought, apparently for the purpose of impressing 
their opponents with their mental ability. Their lodges were arranged in 
a symmetrical manner. Their wigwams were built in a circle, one line within 
another, with the chief's tent conspicuously located at the head of each 
encampment. In the center of their camp they erected their scaffolds for 
drying their meat. Schoolcraft says that their name is of French origin, a 
corruption of "Ossingiguis," or "Bone Indian." They called themselves 
"Wabeshaus." They had the reputation with the other Indian tribes of being 
thieves and plunderers. Perhaps, realizing their reputation, they proceeded 
to realize on it. When they agreed to be friendly with the white man, it 
was for the consideration that was always a part of the contract. 



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The Buffalo. 

The buffalo, or bison, differs somewhat from the animal that bears that 
name found in other countries. He has one pair of ribs more than the 
buffalo of other countries and two pairs of ribs more than the domestic ox. 
The first description of the American buffalo is to be found in the records 
of the early Spanish explorers, who saw the buffalo first in the southwestern 
part of the United States, as the expedition of Coronado was marching north- 
ward in search of the "Seven Cities of Gold." The Spanish knew not what 
name to give to the big shaggy animals that crossed the plains and, for want 
of a better name, they called them "the crooked backed oxen." 

The buffalo range was a very extensive one before he was disturbed by 
the white man. He was found all the way from the Columbia river to the 
Rio Grande, from Saskatchewan to Ottawa in the northern ranges. He Was 
also an inhabitant of the regions about the Great Lakes. He was found in 
Alabama and down on the Brazos. He was as familiar a sight on the Atlan- 
tic as he was on the Pacific seaboard. Catesby, the early historian of South 
Carolina, says that in 1712 the buffalo were abundant within thirty miles of 
Charleston, South Carolina. However, the principal range of the buffalo, 
the ground on which he finally made his last stand, his last fight for his 
existence, was in Kansas, between the Arkansas and the Republican rivers. 

It is, of course, impossible to tell how long the buffalo occupied the land 
of the great Southwest. He was driven west of the Mississippi after the 
white man landed on the eastern shores of the United States. His existence 
east of the Mississippi doubtless extended over a long period of time. The 
vastness of the numbers that were found even a half century ago, after he 
had been reduced to a range less than one-tenth of what he once grazed on, 
would indicate that for centuries he had thrived. Various estimates have 
been made of the number of buffalo that occupied the range. They were 
only estimates, and the wide variance in the figures indicate this more than 
anything else. R. M. Wright, an old settler and hunter, author of "Dodge 
City in Cowboy Days," quotes a conversation between General Sheridan and 
Major Ionian. Both of them had traveled through the buffalo country many 



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60 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

times and both were close observers and men of good judgment. The two 
had made the trip from Ft. Supply to Ft. Dodge during the days following 
the Civil War. Inman placed the number of buffalo in the country through 
which they had passed at ten billion and General Sheridan objected to this 
as too high an estimate. After outlining how he arrived at that number, 
namely, by so many buffalo to the acre, stretched out over the long distance 
they had traveled, Inman reduced his estimate to one billion. General Sheri- 
dan objected again as too large an estimate and, after various methods of 
estimation were considered, they both agreed that there were at least one 
hundred million buffalo on the range at that time, in a radius of one hun- 
dred miles from Dodge City. At a later date, Horace Greeley made the 
trip overland in a stage coach, through the buffalo range, and placed the 
number of buffalo he had seen along the line through which the stagecoach 
traveled, at four million buffalo. Mr. Wright quotes Brick Pond, an old 
experienced hunter, a man of good judgment and thoroughly reliable, as 
placing the number of buffalo on the range within a hundred miles of Dodge 
City at twelve million. Mr. Wright's own figures, made at a later date, when 
the vividness of this sight had somewhat faded from his memory, was 
twenty-four million. He adds, "However, I think Pond was more nearly 
correct in his estimate than I was in mine, when it is remembered that the 
buffalo lived from twenty-five to forty years, that he was a powerful animal 
and capable of self-defense against all his natural enemies." The immensity 
of these figures make the estimates of these men more credible. All 
of the estimates of the vastness of these herds, indicates at once the fertility 
of a soil that would support so many animals, whose sole subsistence was the 
grass that grew on the prairies, and of the abundance of streams that would 
water so many animals. These considerations are heightened when it is 
remembered that the buffalo lived through the rigors of winter on the plains 
with no shelter except the ravines and small canyons that marked the course 
of some of the streams. Into this range have come in later days the cowmen 
with their herds, and they, in turn, have given way to the settlers who have 
broken up the range and cultivated the soil. Out of the immensity of the 
herds of buffalo and of the untold centuries these animals lived in this land,* 
grew a condition of soil that made possible a peculiar grass that was named 
for the animal, which lived and thrived on it. How closely associated is 
this fact; how the grass and the buffalo grew together pnd disappeared 
together ; how the habits of the one produced a condition of soil that made 
possible the grass; how it was that the vast areas of country that the buffalo 
browsed over, grew this humble grass, which was followed, on the disappear- 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 6l 

ance of the buffalo, by the innumerable varieties of other grasses ; how nature 
adapted the product of the soil to the necessity of the animal, are perhaps 
some of the most interesting facts in natural history. This grass is so 
nutritious that on it alone the buffalo grew and fattened. This grass was 
green in the spring, like other grasses. It never grew more than six or 
seven inches long and hung so close to the ground that it was impossible to 
cut it with a mowing machine. In the summer and fall it would turn brown, 
but if the outside layer of the grass was peeled off, it would still be found 
green and fresh on the inside. This condition existed even in the late fall 
and winter. It "cured" itself, even while growing. It needed not the mower 
and rake of the farmer to save it for the winter. All the nutrition the heat 
of summer stored in its silky form was wrapped under the brown covering. 
It was prepared for winter feed in nature's "silo." All the buffalo had to 
do to get as good feed in winter as in summer, was to push aside the snow 
and there was his food, as nutritious, as juicy, as palatable as when he ate 
it in the spring or fattened on it in the fall — the most wonderful grass 
that ever grew. 

This grass grew only in hard land and was the only kind of grass found 
on the plains in the early clays. The ground had been pounded for thousands 
of years by the hoofs of the innumerable herds that lived in this range and 
was as hard as the traveled road. The roots of this grass were very fine, 
and when the ground was broken up and the air allowed to get to the roots, 
the buffalo grass disappeared and in its place grew, the first year, the tall 
blue stem, that grew as high as a horse's tack, and this was followed by a 
large number of other varieties of grasses. 

The buffalo grass and the hardened soil afford, perhaps, the best idea 
of the extent and time the buffalo lived on the range, that it is possible now 
to form, not as counted by thousands, or tens of thousands, but in a manner 
that shows vividly the extent of the herds. 

The vast numbers given of the size of the herds, are meaningless. The 
soil condition indicates more clearly to us the numbers and extent of time 
the buffalo lived here on the prairies than the statement of those numbers in 
concrete figures. How long the buffalo lived here and fed on these plains, 
how long a period must have passed to- make possible the hardened soil and 
how much longer still must have been the time it would take to develop a 
grass so peculiarly adapted to the needs and conditions of the life that it 
sustained — the grass and the soil tell more vividly than figures of the life 
of this, the earliest inhabitant of the great Southwest. 

The hardened soil produced a condition in all the streams that drain the 



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62 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

plains. In order to carry off the water of the streams in flood times, that 
would run off the ground as it would off a roof, it was necessary for the 
streams to have much wider channels than was required in later days, after 
the settlers had broken up the soil, which allowed the rains to seep into the 
soil, instead of rushing off in torrents to the streams. Consequently, as soon 
as the land was broken, the Arkansas river, the ultimate drainage canal of 
this territory, began to decrease in width. Islands began to form in what 
formerly was the channel. The necessity for a wide channel had disappeared. 
In 1874, when the first bridge was built over the Arkansas river at Hutchin- 
son, it was sixteen hundred and twenty-five feet long. The bridge that now 
spans the river at the same point is but five hundred and forty feet long. 

The buffalo varied in height from four to five and a half feet and 
differed from the domestic ox in being longer-legged and shorter-bodied and 
in having a large hump on its back, a long mane and much longer hair on its 
back and shoulders. Its greatest girth was just back of the forelegs, from 
which its body gradually tapered and also diminished in height. Its head 
and eyes were small. Its whole structure was calculated for speed and its 
general aspect was fierce and terrible, although it was not so unless it was 
closely pressed. Under ordinary circumstances, it was harmless and timid. 
Its sense of smell was exceedingly acute and it depended largely on this 
faculty for its safety. It was a migratory animal, although a few buffalo 
could be found in the northern climates at all seasons of the year. 

When the buffalo moved, it was in immense herds, but the larger herds 
would break up into smaller bands of a few thousand each. The buffalo 
never was alone except by accident. The males and females herded sepa- 
rately, except in the breeding season, which was in June and July. This was 
the time when the bulls contended for mastery. Old hunters tell of seeing 
hundreds of these animals fighting at the same time. When one of the old 
bulls was defeated by one of the younger and stronger ones, the defeated 
bull never again got in with the successful ones. He was out and he stayed 
out. The result was that the older and defeated bulls kept to themselves. 
The cows brought forth their young in March and April. They were notable 
for their attention to their young. At night the cows would form a circle, 
with the calves in the center. The cows would lie down, with their heads 
outward, forming a barricade against the wolves and coyotes that infested 
the plains and that hung around every sick or wounded animal, ready to 
fall on and devour it. The helpless calves were eagerly sought by the hungry 
wolves and the care and attention the cows gave their young, until they were 
able to care for themselves, was one of the characteristics of the buffalo. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 63 

The calves were of a very light color, but they would turn a rich brown color 
by winter. The young buffalo's hair would shed from its flank and sides 
the second summer and in the fall of its second year its hair would grow 
darker and thicker than it was the first year. After a buffalo had passed the 
prime of life the hair became a rusty-brown color. The buffalo would always 
face a storm instead of turning from it, as a domestic animal does. It was 
more thinly clad behind than in front and could best protect itself by facing 
the storm. 

The buffalo was the chief source of the living of the Indian, affording 
him the principal part of his food. The Indians did very little in the way 
of cultivating the soil, in raising grain or vegetables. Occasionally the 
squaws had small patches of com, a few watermelons and pumpkins. They 
also gathered some of the wild grapes and plums when they found them 
along the streams, but beyond this they ate few vegetables. The bucks were 
too lazy and indolent to work and all that was raised was done by the 
squaws. They had only the rudest sort of farm implements with which to 
tend their crops. So the buffalo was their chief reliance for food. While 
they had other kinds of meat occasionally, deer, antelope, wild geese and 
wild turkey, yet they relied mainly on the buffalo for the greatest part of 
their living. 

The hides of the buffalo furnished the Indian with their clothing, their 
saddles and their tents. The sinews of the buffalo were used for bowstrings. 
There was not any part of the carcass that did not find some use. Without 
the buffalo, the savage could not have lived. The squaws would dry strips 
of buffalo meat by hanging them up in the sun. They would then grind 
this dried meat up, mix it with choke berry, add to it some of the fat of the 
buffalo they had fried out of his hump, put the mixture in a leather bag and 
it became the food of the trilw when they were on the march or when they 
were where they could not get fresh meat. This was exceedingly nutritious 
and enabled the Indians to carry their sustenance in a very condensed form. 

The disappearance of the buffalo was the cause of the breaking up of 
the tribal relations of the Indians, the first step that was necessary to pre- 
pare this land of the buffalo range for settlement. While the mere slaughter 
of the buffalo for its hide and meat cannot be looked upon with any great 
degree of approval, there is another side to the controversy that must not be 
overlooked. If the vast territory the buffalo ranged over was to be left for 
a range, if the interests of the settler were to be subordinated to that of the 
Indian, then there was no justification in the slaughter of the buffalo. If, on 
the other hand, the demands of civilization, the pushing onward of the 



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64 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

pioneer, were to be considered, then the view as expressed by General Sheri- 
dan was the proper one. The only thing that led to the settling of the Indian 
on his allotment was the fact that he could no longer live by the chase. The 
Indian resented the encroachments of the white man and made raids into 
his camps; along the traveled routes, in companies or alone, the Indian 
murdered the pioneer. There was no such thing as settlement until the 
Indian raids were things of the past. Their depredations must be stopped. 
A bill was introduced in the Texas Legislature, shortly after the Civil War, 
that was intended to protect the buffalo from the hunters. Against this bill 
General Sheridan made a vigorous protest. The General knew the Indians, 
perhaps better than any other of the regular army officers of those times. 
He knew also of the futility of trying to defend the whole frontier of the 
nation against the attacks of the savages and, referring to the proposed Texas 
law, he said: "Instead of stopping the hunters, you ought to encourage 
them by a unanimous vote of thanks, and add a medal of bronze, with a 
dead buffalo on one side and a discouraged Indian on the other. Those men 
have done more to settle the vexed 'Indian question' than the entire regular 
army has done in the last thirty years. They are destroying the Indian's 
commissary, and it is a well-known fact in military tactics that an army cut 
off from its base of supplies is in a precarious condition. Send the hunters 
powder and lead, if you will, and for the sake of peace let them kill, skin 
and sell until the buffalo are exterminated. Then your prairies can be 
covered with cattle and cowboys, who will follow the hunter as the fore- 
runners of*civilization." 

What General Sheridan predicted has come true. After the buffalo and 
the Indian disappeared, after the hunters were gone, the pioneers came and 
with thein came the long-horned cattle. The latter have likewise passed on 
and in Reno county, particularly, the longhorn was replaced by the shorthorn. 
The buffalo grass has been turned under and has rotted, and the alfalfa, the 
greatest forage food ever known, has taken the place of the humble buffalo 
grass. One acre now renders more service than a quarter section did under 
the old "cow" system, and more than a whole township did when the buffalo 
roamed over it. It is but a half century from bison to shorthorn, from the 
untamed herds on the plains to the silos of modem farming. But back of it 
all was the displacing of the tenants of the soil of a thousand years, to make 
place for those of today. While the process of making the change seemed 
harsh, the justification comes in rendering the earth more productive, paving 
the way for the growth of a country of contented and prosperous people. 



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FRST WHITE MAN'S DWELLING IN RENO COUNTT. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 65 

In the early days of the pioneers, buffalo bone hauling was the chief 
occupation and the principal source of revenue. Indeed, it was about the 
only thing the early settlers could do, to make money. At that time there was 
but little work to do in the country, little or no building being done, no fac- 
tories or shops to furnish work. The farmer did all of his own work in 
the field, and had plenty of time on his hands, and his greatest occupation 
was that of hauling buffalo bones to town. There was but little money in 
the country. By gathering up these bones, that lay strewn for hundreds of 
wiles, the early settlers were not only able to make a living, but lay aside a 
little for later use. "Buffalo bones" were legal tender in those days. These 
liones were hauled to the railroad, to be shipped from this part of the buffalo 
range. Carloads of bones were shipped East to be transformed into fer- 
tilizer. In this city the "bone yard" was in the exact spot where the Bisonte 
hotel now stands. It would have been impossible to have chosen a more 
appropriate name for this hotel, as the word "bisonte" is the Spanish for 
"bull buffalo." But no more striking is the change that has transformed a 
bone yard into a magnificent hotel, than that which has occurred in other 
lines of industry in Reno county. 

The hide hunters were also numerous, though they did not do much in 
Reno county, for the buffalo had moved farther West before the early set- 
tler came to this county. There was a trail that ran across the southern part 
of the country called the "Northup Trail," that was used by hunters going 
farther west to secure not only the hides, but the buffalo meat. This meat 
was hauled to the nearest railroad station and shipped east, where it was 
considered a great delicacy. In the winter, they hauled the raw meat, frozen 
by exposure, to the cars. In the summer the meat was dried. Part of the 
business of the Northup trail was hauling buffalo hides from the hunting 
ground. These hides were dried and baled and their skins were sold to two 
firms, Charles Bales, of St. Louis, and a man by the name of Durfree, of 
Leavenworth. Buffalo robes were sold in St. Louis from sixteen dollars a 
piece for the big, fine, full-haired bull buffalo, to eight dollars and fifty cents 
for the smaller skins, of older animals that did not have so much hair on 
them. It is estimated by a writer of that time that Bales did at least a half 
million dollars worth of business annually for several years, while Durfree 
did half that much in the sale of hides at Leavenworth. 

The early settler found some peculiar markings on the creek banks and 
some peculiar round depressions in the ground. The marks on the creek 
banks were V shaped and were cuts in the higher banks o.f the stream. These 
C5) 



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66 KENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

were made by the buffalo going down to the stream for water. They did 
not hunt the low lands, but clambered out over the higher banks, urged on 
by the buffalo behind, and this caused the peculiar V shapes in the banks. 
The round depressions were "wallows," made by buffalo pawing up the 
ground for the salt in the alkali soil, and also for the buffalo to "wallow" 
in, to loosen up the old hair. But the erosion of streams has washed out all 
the V shaped cuts in the creek banks and the rains have filled up the wallows 
with the washings of the soil, so that nothing now remains of grass or bone 
or depression to show that ihe buffalo ever lived in this country. 



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CHAPTER VI. 
Eahlv Trails Across the Country. 

Tlie Texas cattle business was not a profitable one to those engaged 
in it before the Civil War. But after that struggle ended, the tide of emi- 
gration started westward and as one of the results of that shifting of the 
population of the country the cattle industry was greatly stimulated. The 
cattle men of the country explained this increased activity by saying that 
before the war their industry was a business, after the war it became a 
craze. The settlement of the Northern and Central states called for more 
cattle. To supply the demand, numerous herds of the Texas range stock 
were driven northward every year. In the early days before the wagon train 
of the "Forty-niner," before the laying out of the Santa Fe trail, there were 
millions of buffalo on the range from Texas northward. Literally, these 
millions of "crooked backed oxen" were supplanted by the Texas long-horn 
range cattle, and millions of them were driven north to market. 

The driving might more properly be called "drifting." The cattle were 
not forced along except to reach a watering place and were allowed to graze. 
The cattle men started them northward in Texas early in April and as the 
grass grew long enough in the north to sustain the stock they crowded the 
cattle. 

The earliest of these cattle men were the Bent Brothers. They built 
a trading post in eastern Colorado in 1829 and there they had a strong cor- 
ral to hold the stock, also a store. The price of cattle in that time was 
very low. One sale is spoken of as a sample of prices made in 1866. Out 
of a herd of thirty-five thousand head, the purchaser was allowed to take 
his choice. For the first six hundred head he paid six dollars per head, for 
the next six hundred head he paid three dollars a head. This bunch of 
twelve hundred head of cattle cost him on an average of four dollars and 
fifty cents a head, or about forty cents a hundred pounds gross weight. 

In 1868 there were seventy-five thousand head of cattle marketed in 
Abilene. This supply was cleaned up so rapidly that the next year two 
hundred thousand head were sold on this same market. At the beginning 
there was great aversion to the Texas cattle because of the Texas fever, but 



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68 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

this gradually was overcome and the shipping of Texas cattle northward 
was for many years a great industry. 

In 1871 there were six hundred thousand head of cattle driven north- 
ward. As a result of this great increase in the supply, prices shrunk greatly 
and this was one of the bad years for the cattle drivers. A very large 
per cent, nearly half of the drive of this year, remained unsold and were 
driven to points in eastern Kansas and fed through the following fall and 
winter. They were largely yearling steers, thin cows and long, lanky steers 
that were fattened up in the corn 6elds of eastern Kansas. It was a mutually 
profitable business for both the owners of the stock and for the farmers. 
The latter found a ready market for his corn stalks and his hay, articles that 
before this year had produced but little revenue, and he also sold his grass 
in a home market to a fine advantage. The cattle men also profited, as 
their long, lanky steers fattened upon northern corn and hay, and his yearlings 
and "thin" cows showed big gains and were ready for the market long 
before the range cattle got onto the market. 

The year 1874 was a year of disaster for stock men as well as everyone 
else. It was the grasshopper year. The "drive" that year was four hundred 
thousand head. They not only met the competition of the cattle left over 
the year before and which had been greatly improved by wintering in the 
eastern part of the state, but the shortage of feed because of the grass- 
hopper plague made the sale of cattle almost impossible. As a result of 
these conditions, over one hundred and fifty thousand head of stock sold 
for two dollars per head. 

Among the most famous of the Texas cattle men was John Chisholm. 
He began the raising of cattle in 1854. Shortly after the war he laid out 
the long cattle trail from Texas to the North. That trail crossed Reno 
county and had various paths through the county. In the early days, before 
there were any settlers to bother, he drove across the eastern part of the 
countv. Later, his cattle trail entered the county in the southeastern part. 
He would follow the Ninnescah river up till he reached a point about where 
Sylvia is now, then drive directly north. The plan of these cattle men was 
to reach a stream of water every day. After leaving the Ninnescah the 
drive was north to Cow creek, reaching it close to where Lyons is now. 
Sylvia was a camping spot. There was plenty of good grass and water and 
the stock were herded there over night and the drive the next day put them 
on Cow creek, where there was an abundance of water. It is said the cattle 
men gave this name to the stream because they never knew a time when 
there wasn't plenty of water for the cows. Some of the streams would go 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 69 

dry in the exceedingly long drouthy periods, but Cow creek always had 
plenty of water for the largest herds. 

Another trail crossed the southern part of the county. It was called 
the Goodnight trail. Goodnight was a cattleman of Texas. He followed 
the Chisholm trail part of the way, but was one of the later stock men 
to drive cattle north. When the Legislature of Kansas fixed the line over 
which cattle might be driven through the state, and that line was the western 
boundary of Reno county, this stopped the driving to Abilene and stock was 
shipped from Ellinwood when the Santa Fe reached that point. To reach 
this shipping point, Goodnight established a new trail that was along the 
southern border of Reno county, and thence in a northwesterly direction to 
Ellinwood. 

There was another trail, called the "Northup" trail, along the northern 
border of the county. However, this was not a cattle trail, but a road 
established by a trader by the name of Northup. He had a government 
contract for buffalo meat, and also did a big business in buffalo hides. He 
had several camps along the line from Emporia, Northup's headquarters, 
to the buffalo range. Xorthup did a big business and had many teams haul- 
ing meat and hides. His teams made a good beaten track and it was so 
direct that it took the name of the "Northup trail." Very little is known of 
Xorthup. The old settlers remember his sleek, well-fed mules, his strong 
wagons, his big loads of hides and meat that he hauled, but of Northup him- 
self they know but little. 

Around the cattle business as it was conducted in the days before rail- 
roads broke up this method of reaching the market — around the "old" cat- 
tle business clings the romance of the "trail," the "round-up," and of the 
features of a business that has passed away ami can never exist again. All 
of the hardships and roughness is forgotten. It had no competition in any 
occupation. It stood out alone. Its reproduction is attempted in circus and 
"wild west" shows, but the original cannot be reproduced in the limited 
area now afforded for exhibition purposes. Its operations covered half a 
continent. Its season of work embraced all times of the year. It required 
a combination of military and commercial qualities to develop the trail 
and the cattle business. The herd on the trail had to be handled much as 
an army. It had its time of danger, in the early years, from Indian attacks. 
Water and pasturage had to be looked for as carefully as any army looks 
after its supply trains. It had its ambulance attachment. The young calves 
and the weaker cows had to have especial care, 

Upon the Western cattle business now has settled the haze of Indian 



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JO RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

summer. It is impossible now to estimate properly its dangers and hard- 
ships. It is impossible now to properly understand the sagacity and knowl- 
edge, of the early cattle man — the kind not learned in books or from others, 
but a knowledge gained only from the "round-up" and "trail." Like all 
pioneers, he is entitled to have all his virtues recorded and all his faults 
softened for the sake of what he accomplished, for his development of the 
cattle industry. The cattle man's life was a hard life, unromantically labo- 
riously and wearisome. Death lurked in every canyon, in every stampede, 
in every "round-up." There was one feature that was always dread by the 
cowboy, namely, the intense heat developed in a stampede. Heat 
would blister the side of the face and hands of the cowboy who happened 
to be on the windward side of the moving herd. The herds were generally 
driven in bunches of from three thousand to five thousand. In 1872 Chisholm 
broke the record by driving six thousand head in one herd over the trail 
he laid out from the Red river to Kansas. The track or the trail would be 
a half mile wide and as close together as the animals could walk. The 
tracks were parallel to each other, bending in and out as the cattle swayed 
from one side to the other. The outfit required to handle a herd of three 
thousand cattle would be a cook, a "horse wrangler," who looked after the 
herd of horses that were driven along to afford changes of mounts for the 
cowboys, and one cowboy to every one hundred and seventy-five head of 
stock. The herds were difficult to start for the first day. The cattle did 
not want to leave their native ground and it was always a hard matter to 
get them to take to the trail. After a few days, leaders would be developed 
who would go ahead and the balance of the herd would drop in after them. 
These leaders would hold their places until footsore or some weakness would 
develop, when they would drop back and other cattle would take the lead. 

The Chisholm trail has disappeared. The steam tractor or the riding 
plow has cut its worn tracks and its identity has passed away. The header 
reaps where the cowboy once rode to urge his herd. The cowboy days exist 
in romance and are reproduced in puny form in the circus of the "101 Ranch" 
shows. But they did their work well. They pioneered the way. They 
were the connecting link between the buffalo and the shorthorn. Their 
glory is gone, but the good the "cow system" developed is with us yet. 



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CHAPTER VII. 
Boundary Lines. 

The Legislature of Kansas that met in 1855 passed three acts estab- 
lishing counties in the territory of Kansas. The first of these fixed the 
boundary lines of thirty-three counties in the eastern part of the state. The 
government survey at that time had not progressed sufficiently to describe 
these counties by metes and bounds, so the only description given in that act 
was one of distances. The starting point was the middle of the channel 
of the Kaw river where it crossed the Missouri state line. 

The second act of this Legislature created two new counties. The 
first, Marion, was cut out of a tract of land one hundred miles long and 
eighteen miles wide, west of what is now Morris, Chase and Butler counties 
and also the territory that is now called Marion. The second county created 
by this act was called Washington county and included all that part of the 
territory west of what was Marion county in 1855 and east of a line drawn 
north from the northeast corner of New Mexico, virtually what is now the 
southwest third of Kansas. 

The third act of the Legislature created Arapahoe county out of all 
that territory west of the line running north from the northeast corner of 
New Mexico. Commissioners were appointed for this county, but the organi- 
zation of the county was not completed, for the Legislature at the same ses- 
sion provided for an annual election of delegates to the Territorial Assembly 
and attached all of the newly created counties to Marshall county. This act 
further provided that all of the territory west of Marshall county and east 
of Arapahoe county should be attached to Marshall county for judicial 
purposes and all of the territory west of Riley and east of Arapahoe county 
should be attached for all civil purposes to Riley county. 

By 1857 the survey of the eastern counties of the territory had proceeded 
so that it was possible to definitely bound the eastern counties of the terri- 
tory by township and section lines. An act was passed by the territorial 
Legislature on February 20, 1857, correcting the boundary lines of all of 
the counties, except Marion, Washington and Arapahoe counties. Wash- 
ington county was also created with the boundary lines it has now and as a 



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J2 KENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

matter of necessity the territory formerly called "Washington" county, the 
southwest third of the state, was left without a name. The Legislature 
either did not think the land to which they had formerly given the name of 
Washington, worth a name or forgot they had taken this name from that 
portion of the territory and given it to another county. So that the land 
that now embraces the seventh and eighth congressional district was nameless 
for five years. When the Legislature of i860 met, the slight that had been 
given the Great Southwest was corrected and the land that once bore the 
name of the Father of his Country was given the name of "Peketon." 
Whether this name was intended as a salve for the omission of nameless- 
ness by the former Legislature or as an irritant because it seemed necessary 
to give this territory some name, is not disclosed in the records. But "Peke- 
ton" it was and "Peketon" it remained until another Legislature met. The 
name was of Indian origin; what it meant, what its significance was, is 
not known. There are but few documents left from "Peketon county," 
only one being in the state historical collection. It is a letter to a Kansas 
man, notorious in southwestern Kansas in later years, Brigadier-General 
Samuel N. Wood. It was dated "Kiowa, Peketon county, May 10th, 1864," 
and was signed by John F. Dodds. 

In 1865 another change was made by the map makers of Kansas. By 
an act of the Legislature of that year Marion county was enlarged to 
include all of the territory embraced in Peketon county and two years later 
the last general step toward putting Reno county on the map was made. 
Out of Marion county were made thirty-four counties that now compose 
the seventh and eighth congressional districts, with the exception of Mont- 
gomery and Howard counties, which were once also a part of Peketon 
county, but are not in either of the two congressional districts named. 

But the Ixmndary changes of Reno county were not yet completed. By 
this act of the Legislature in 1868, Butler, Sedgwick and Reno counties were 
all the same size, forty-eight miles long from north to south and forty-two 
miles wide from east to west. The changes that were afterward made were 
due to the location of the city of Hutchinson and showed the foresight of 
the founder of that city, C. C. Hutchinson. To appreciate the reasons for 
the changes that were afterwards made in the county lines, it will be neces- 
sary to relate some of the things that led to the selection of the present site 
as the county seat of Reno county. 

C. C. Hutchinson founded the town of Ottawa, Kansas. By profes- 
sion he was a preacher, belonging to the Baptist church. He was well 
known to the builders of the Santa Fe railroad as a man of integrity and 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 73 

foresight. Hutchinson made a contract with the head of the land department 
of that road to locate a town on their road somewhere west of Newton. 
Hutchinson held to the idea that a town should be built on a watercourse, 
partially because of the <frainage and also because the easy way of get- 
ting water now known was not known to the pioneer. Hutchinson drove 
along the line on which it was proposed to build the railroad. He crossed 
the Little Arkansas river where Halstead now stands. This place was 
offered as a location for the new town. For some reason it did not appeal 
to him, although today it has one of the finest natural parks in central 
Kansas. The Santa Fe road at that time was surveyed to the Arkansas 
river south from Halstead. It was the intention of the railroad officials 
to extend this line to San Antonio. Texas. Hutchinson, selected a section of 
land on the Little Arkansas river where Sedgwick now stands as a place 
to build his town. 

However, the contract was never carried out by either party. A dis- 
covery was made by the railroad officials that completely changed their plans. 
When it is remembered that the original builders of the Santa Fe railroad 
were Boston men. who built the road solely out of the sale of the land given 
them by the government, the importance of this discovery will be realized 
and the reason they changed their plans of building their road south to 
San Antonio, Texas, to the place it was afterwards built, westward, along 
the Arkansas river into Colorado, and later to the Pacific coast, will be 
made plain. That discovery was made by Mr. Hutchinson. From the 
l>eginning be had urged the railroad officials to build westward along the 
river. He told them that in his judgment, it would be a generation before 
the uplands would be settled : that the settlers would locate in the river bot- 
toms and that they could not sell the uplands and that their source of reve- 
nue would l)e cut off, but that they could sell the river bottom lands. These 
arguments did not convince the railroad men. They were determined to 
build on south from Halstead into Texas. Hutchinson accidentally obtained 
a copy of the treaty made with the Osage Indians in 1865. This treaty 
had not l>een acted on by the United States Senate until 1867. Even then 
it was not published, but Hutchinson obtained a copy of the treaty made 
with the Osage Indians and found it imijossible for the railroad to get every 
other section for a distance of five miles on each side of the road, and not 
only this, but by the terms of the treaty they would have to pay for their 
right of way at the rate of a dollar and twenty-five cents an acre. This pro- 
vision regarding the building of railroads across the land purchased from 
the Indians in the treaty of 1865 was suggested by a St. Louis newspaper 



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74 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

man, who was with the party representing the government. This man was 
Henry M. Stanley, afterward known to the world as the great African 
explorer. It is said that Stanley, in a mockingly serious manner, when the 
commissioners had about concluded the work of making the treaty, sug- 
gested to them that they made a serious omission in the treaty, that they 
had made no provisions for building railroads across the land! It was 
regarded as a joke and the provision inserted that not only would bar Con- 
gress from making the usual land grant to railroads, but would require 
the railroads even to pay for their right of way. 

When the Santa Fe officials had this pointed out to them, they con- 
cluded to act on Hutchinson's suggestion and follow the Arkansas river 
westward. Suppose, however, this joker had not been in the treaty, what 
would have been the results? Hutchinson would l>e located where Sedgwick 
now is. Dodge City would be without a railroad, perhaps be simply "Ft. 
Dodge." Garden City and Kinsley and Syracuse would be waiting yet 
for a railroad — in fact, the whole of southwestern Kansas history would 
have been changed, all due to a joker in an Indian treaty in 1865. 

Following his idea of town building, Hutchinson came on west, after 
it was decided to build the main line of the road westward, and picked the 
section on which the city was to be built. However, there were some things 
which disturbed Hutchinson in his selection of a townsite and made him 
realize he had chosen an _ undesirable location for his town. Hutchinson 
thought he could remedy part of these things by action of the Legislature. 
Reno county at that time was unorganized. It required six hundred inhabit- 
ants at that time to organize a county. So a petition was prepared and 
the necessary six hundred names attached. The petition was presented to 
the governor, who appointed temporary count)- commissioners. Hutchin- 
son explained his anxiety regarding the location of the county seat to the 
people here then and it was thought that the Legislature would help remedy 
' matters. An election was called and Hutchinson was unanimously elected 
representative. This election was held on January 6, 1872. The regular 
election for members of the Legislature was held in the fall, but, recognizing ' 
the emergency, the Legislature seated Hutchinson. He began at once to pro- 
tect the city he had located from a possible county-seat contest. As was stated, 
Butler. Sedgwick and Reno counties were all the same size, made so by 
action of the Legislature in 1867. A bill was introduced creating Kingman 
county. The northern end of Harper county was cut off and a row of town- 
ships taken from the southern part of Reno county and the new territory 
called Kingman county. In the same way Harvey county was put on the 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 75 

map. The northern end of Sedgwick county was taken and the new county 
called Harvey. Also a row of townships was taken from Sedgwick county, 
as it was laid out in 1867, and added to Reno county. But these changes 
did not take away all the chances for a county-seat contest. It was only 
two miles from Hutchinson to the north line of the county and the Legis- 
lature very accommodatingly cut a row of townships from Rice and McPher- 
son counties and added them to Reno county. This made Hutchinson more 
nearly the geographical center of the county and Hutchinson was relieved 
from his fear of a rival for county seat. In these changes Hutchinson had 
the help of the representatives of Sedgwick and McPherson counties. Hut- 
chinson had some personal friends in the Legislature, men whom he helped 
in some of the enterprises in which they were interested. Notably among 
them was "Oklahoma Payne," the man who kept up the agitation for the 
opening of the Cherokee Indian lands and who was among the pioneers 
of Oklahoma when Congress finally opened the land for settlement. 

So, after years of planning and scheming, Reno county got its present 
form. What we are now familiar with as the county lines, will doubtless 
remain. An attempt was made to divide the county in 1887. The pro- 
posed dividing line was to be run north and south, with the line of Salt 
Creek township, the eastern boundary line of the new county, jogging east 
to include Troy and Center in the new county. The enterprise had consid- 
erable strength, partially due to the claim among those politically interested 
that Hutchinson had all the best of the county offices and left the country with 
small representation in the court house. At that time there were a number 
of western counties that were being divided and those interested in that enter- 
prise had to make their alliance in the Legislature with the representatives 
of the eastern counties, especially in the state Senate, where the eastern part 
of the state was much stronger than the western portion. So but little 
headway was made by the advocates of making two counties out of Reno. 

However, had this agitation started in 1875 or even a few years later, 
it would have gained much more headway. It was the one great thing that 
C. C. Hutchinson feared, and one he did more to guard against than any- 
thing else. But the city had gained much and many of the early reasons 
for division had been removed, among them the lack of roads and the 
absence of bridges over the Arkansas river. This was not a formidable 
proposition in 1887, hut would have been a serious matter to Hutchinson 
and to Reno county had the agitation l>een begun ten or twelve years earlier. 



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CHAPTER VIII. 
The Early Settlers. 

The first man to settle in what is now Reno county was Lewis M. 
Thomas, of Iowa. Early in January, J870, he left Iowa and drove his cov- 
ered wagon southward, crossing the Solomon and Smoky Hill rivers, intend- 
ing to strike the Santa Fe trail, then the only traveled road to the west, 
through Kansas, lie started for California, hut when he reached the rich 
valley of Cow creek he was so fascinated with it that he abandoned his 
California trip. He camped at the Stone Corral, which was one of the 
stopping places on the trail. This corral was located in Rice county, close 
to the northern boundary of Reno county. Mr. Thomas first 
visited a small settlement called Atlanta. He started down Cow creek 
in a southeasterly direction, looking for a suitable location. He picked out 
a part of section 8, township 22, range 5, and filed on this claim in Novem- 
ber, 1870. Shortly after filing on this land Thomas drove t-i Lawrence, 
Kansas, purchased some stock and .some provisions, and returned to his 
claim in Deceml>er. On his return from Lawrence, he was accompanied by 
an Englishman named Hunt, who unfortunately filed on an odd-numbered 
>ection that had previously been granted to the Santa Fe Railroad Company 
by Congress. Hunt was disappointed in his failure to get government land 
and did not remain there long. He never tried to get another piece of land 
and disappeared from the country. 

T11 January, 1871, there were two different settlements made in Reno 
county, one day by J. H. D. Rozan in the northwestern part of the county 
and 011c by Luther Dodge and others in the southeastern part of the countv. 
just below the mouth of Cow creek. Neither of these settlements were then 
in Reno county. Rozan's claim was then in Rice county and Dodge and his 
party were in Sedgwick county, but the boundary lines of Reno county were 
changed by the Legislature that met in January, 1872, and both of these 
settlements are within the present Ixuindary lines of this county. 

Rozan's settlement preceded Dodge's. It was some time be- 
fore either knew of the other's settlement. Hunt's claim was also 
in Rice county, which soon became a part of Reno county. They are 



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KliNU COL'XTY, KANSAS. "J-J 

entitled to tlie distinction of being "the first settlers of Reno county." On 
February 9, 1871, A. S. Dimmock filed on a quarter of land that was like- 
wise then in Rice county. The first riling in what was then Reno county 
was made by Luther Dodge, on February 19, 1871. John Shahan followed 
closely after Dodge, filing on his land on March 20, 1871. Later in the 
year YV. II. Cadwell settled on some land southeast of Hutchinson. Later 
in the year Charles Collins took his claim north of town. Shortly after 
Collins filed on his claim, D. B. Miller, with his father-in-law and brother- ■ 
in-law, also Amasa Smith, with his two sons, filed claims. On August 8, 
1871, L. S. Shields with his two sons, Samuel and George, reached Reno 
county. A few days later. Peter Shafer came to the county and filed on a 
claim northwest of town in what is now Grant township. A few days after 
Shafer filed on his land, I-ewis Swarens filed on a claim that lies directly 
northwest of town on Cow creek. Here, within a hundred yards of the 
spot on which he camped the first night he reached Reno county, Mr. 
Swarens built his home. There he lived a long and useful life. In March, 
1903, he passed away. At the time of his death he was the only man in 
Reno county who had lived continuously on the land on which he camped 
the first night he was in the county. Later in the month of August, 1871, 
B. F. F.varts and George Laferty came to the county. Miller and his sons 
filed on land that is now a part of Hutchinson, being platted as Miller & 
Smith's addition. This land was subjected later to much litigation. It is 
now covered by houses and one of the recent school buildings, the North 
Side building, is located on this land. In the latter part of the year A. K. 
Hurrel, T. J. Decker, a Mr. Parker, Mrs. Mead and her sons, filed on land 
northwest of town in the Cow creek bottoms. 

There was another settlement made about the same time at the mouth 
of Cow creek, some of the claims being below the mouth of the stream. 
These settlers thought they were getting their land close to the railroad. As 
is mentioned in another chapter, it was understood then that the Santa Fe 
road would be built south from Halstead to San Antonio, Texas, but the 
discovery of the fact that no land could he obtained as a bonus and the rail- 
roads would even have to pay for their right of way, induced the builders 
of that road to change their route and build up the Arkansas river. Conse- 
quently, the settlers who had filed on land southeast of where Hutchinson 
was finally located were greatly disappointed, as it left them several miles 
farther from the railroad than they expected to be. Some of the early set- 
tlers always blamed C. C. Hutchinson for making the change, when, in fact. 



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7§ RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

it was an Indian treaty made years before that was the cause of the change 
in the route of the road. Among those who thought they were locating 
near the railroad were, J. U. Shalian, William Bell, Robert Bell, W. H. Cad- 
well, a Mr. Havelin, John llutclier, P. Welch, William Lacy, a Mr. Folly, 
Isaac Ijams and wife, William Shoat ami wife, James Freese, Hanna and 
Mary Freese and James Scaw. 

These two settlements, the one below Hutchinson, the other above the 
city, all on Cow creek, shows how closely the early settlers clung to the 
water courses. At that time they knew but little of the underflow, but 
found the good rich soil of this bottom land and sought here to make their 
homes. 

On the claim below town, W. H. Cadwell built a sod house. He was 
more nearly the center of the settlement than any of the others, so he was 
appointed postmaster. Perhaps this is the only postoffice ever located with 
a due regard for the wishes of the patrons, and it is doubtful if congres- 
sional patronage was necessary to secure his appointment as postmaster. The 
postoffice, the first in the county, was called "Queen Valley." The settlers 
agreed to haul the mail without cost to the government, in consideration of 
its establishment. In addition to his duties as postmaster, Cadwell ran a 
hotel and on the side of his dug-out he had a big canvas on which be had 
scrawled in big, awkward letters the inscription "Pro Bono Publico," 

These early settlers found an abundance of game. In the sand hills 
there were elk, deer and antelope and an occasional buffalo. There was 
considerable timber, cottopwood and box elder in the hills. An abundance 
of sand hill plums, most delicious fruit, equalling anything the horticul- 
turist of today can produce, provided the jellies and butter. So the early 
settler was not without the things that were necessities then, but would be 
the rarest luxuries how. They lived well as long as these things lasted. They 
bad to haul their flour and corn meal some distance, but their meat was in 
abundance. 

Tn March, 1871. J. H. D. Rozan and his brother, Charles Rozan, drove 
the first herd of Texas cattle into Reno county. The pasturage of the buffalo 
grass was fine and the creek bottom in the northern part of Reno and the 
southern part of Rice counties afforded exceptionally good grazing. In April, 
1871, a bunch of Kaw Indians camped on the north side of the Arkansas 
river and a similar band of Sac and Fox Indians camped on the south side 
of the river. A careful watch was kept on both of these Indian bands, 
although apparently there was no danger from either of the tribes. In July 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 79 

a report came in from the West that a war party of the Cheyennes was 
headed eastward to make war on both of these tribes. The Cheyennes 
claimed the land as their own, as their territory lay to the west of the Osages 
and they were dissatisfied with the treaty the government had made that 
dispossessed them of this land and gave the proceeds of the sale to their 
ancient enemies. Some of the settlers left their claims and went to Sedg- 
wick City. Most of the settlers, however, remained on their claims. The 
Cheyennes came, as was expected, but did but little damage. However, they 
drove off a goodly portion of Rozan's stock. The settlers would not stand 
for this They organized into a little band, armed themselves and pursued 
the Indians. They caught them off their guard, scattered the band and 
recovered most of the cattle. There were about fifty herders and frontiers- 
men in the party. No lives were lost in the little skirmish that occurred 
when the settlers reached the herds. The Indians vanished and never again 
visited Reno county in a hostile manner. There were rumors at later times 
of Indian raids, and there was a company of militia organized in Langdon 
township at a later date to light the Indians in southern Kansas. 

EARLY LAND SURVEYS. 

During this early period considerable trouble and dissatisfaction arose 
over the land survey. The government ran part of the township lines in 
i860, but the section lines were run at a later date. Townships 22, 23, 24 
and .25, range 4, were run in 1S60, as were also the same numbered town- 
ships in ranges 5, 6, 7 and 8. But in the north part of township 26 in 
range 4, the township lines were not run until 1867, while in the southern 
part of this township the survey was not made until 1871, At the same 
time, township 5, range 5, was surveyed, as was also township 26, ranges 
6, 7, 8 and o. While townships 22, 23, 24 and 25, range 9, were run in 
1870 and townships 22, 23, 24 and 25 and the northern part of 26, in range 
10, were run in 1871, the southern part of township 26, range 10, .was run 
in 1867. " 

Not only were the section lines not run, but the township lines were 
so inaccurate • that much trouble was experienced in locating lands, due to 
the careless way in which the surveys were made. Judge M. P. Simpson, 
presiding over the trial of a case in the district court in later years, which 
involved an early survey, commented on the way these surveys were made. 
Judge Simpson was in his early manhood a government surveyor and made 



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BO RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

surveys in various parts of the country — none, however, in Reno county. 
He remarked that at the time the lirst township tines were run, it was 
thought a great joke to survey these lands, as they would probably never be 
settled. The surveyors would tie a rag to the stake of a wagon wheel, 
drive as nearly straight as they could, count the number of revolutions of 
the wheel, and when a sufficient number of revolutions had been made, a 
stone was pitched overboard and that became the marker for the township 
or range corner. It was the knowledge oi such careless work that led 
J. H. D. Rozan to drive to Salina to get a surveyor who came to Reno 
county to help the settlers locate their land. When C. C. Hutchinson wanted 
to locate Main street of this city, be concluded not to rely on the govern- 
ment field notes, but obtained the variation of the magnetic needle and then 
the surveyor's transit was set up and Main street located by the observation 
of the North star. 

As a complete record of the surveys of Reno county will be a matter of 
interest, there is added to this chapter a record of the official survey of Reno 
county, by whom and when surveyed and approved. This was furnished 
bv the interior department of the government. There is also added a dia- 
gram showing the time of the running of the section lines, with the names 
of the men who did the work. This was also furnished by the same depart- 
ment. 



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CHAPTER IX. 
Some "First Things." 

The first marriage performed in Reno count;' was celebrated on Septem- 
ber 3, 1872, by Rev. Frances S. McCabe. The groom was John P. Watson, 
of Shawnee county, and the bride was Miss Henrietta Thompson, of Reno 
county. The groom was thirty years old and the bride twenty-five years of 
age. W. W. Updegraff was the probate judge and granted the license — Xo. 
I — on September 2, 1872. 

The first birth was that of a son born to Mr. and Mrs. Johnson. That 
boy is now a member of the police force at Omaha, Nebraska. 

The first threshing machine was brought to Reno county by J. N. Shahan. 
It was such an event that even the weight of the machine was recorded — 6,585 
pounds. During the fall of 1873, John Shahan and William Bell did the 
threshing for the community. The spring wheat yielded from ten to eighteen 
bushels per acre. The oats yielded from seventeen to forty bushels per acre. 

The first political convention was held on February I, 1872, to nominate 
candidates for county offices. It was perhaps more in the nature of the old- 
fashioned "caucus," as there were no contests either in the "convention" or at 
the election that was held a few days later. 

The "first" of everything in the county is of interest. J. \V. Kanaga 
brought the first "dropper" to Reno county. W. J. Van Sickle claims that he 
brought the first mowing-machine. There is considerable controversy over 
who brought the first buggy to the county. In all lines the pioneer is proud 
of his deeds, he is anxious to be numbered as the "first" to do certain things 
or to have brought the first of a certain article of usefulness to the county. 

THE FIRST CEMETERY. 

The first death in Reno county was accidental and with this came the 
establishment of the first cemetery. There is an old joke, started in California 
and used in every new community eastward to the Mississippi river, that the 
climate was so healthful that it was necessary for some one to die a violent 
death to start a graveyard. While no such "motive" as that animated the 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 83 

early settlers of Reno county, it is a fact that the first graveyard was started 
by the burial of a man accidentally killed. The man's name cannot be remem- 
bered by any who live now. Derrick Updegraff — the father-in-law of Charles 
Collins, Reno county's first sheriff, had the contract of grading railroads in 
Reno county. They had their camp on the banks of Cow creek, near where 
Main street now crosses this stream. In the latter part of December, 1871, 
and January, 1872, the ground was frozen so hard that the grading work 
could not be carried on. Updegraff had a small board building put up on the 
southeast corner of Main and Sherman streets, where he kept his harness, 
shovels and other equipment in one part of the building and in another he had 
a stove and table where the men cooked and ate their meals. The floor of 
part of this room was covered with hay, and on this were laid the blankets 
and buffalo robes that constituted the beds of the workmen. 

Updegraff, himself an interesting character, had in his employ a bunch 
of men who were the real pioneers of the times, men that the present genera- 
tion cannot appreciate. It was such men as these that showed to the less hardy 
what the county would produce. It was this class of men who demonstrated 
to the hidebound Easterner that this land west of the Mississippi river was 
worth more than simply to provide a barrier to keep off a foreign foe from the 
West, that would render their settlements on the Atlantic coast free from 
attack. It was such men as Updegraff had that put at naught the prejudice 
of those who would limit the boundary of the United States to original thir- 
teen states or states to be cut out of that territory. 

There also lived in the sand hills another man called "Dutch Pete." He 
made his living by hunting. He talked very broken English and was a woolly, 
sandy-haired, black-eyed old buffalo hunter. "Dutch Pete" drove his wagon 
and a team of small mules to Updegraff's camp and wanted some of the men 
to go hunting with him. There was an abundance of deer in the hills. Some 
of the men agreed to go with "Dutch Pete." Some supplies were being put 
into the wagon, some hay, horse feed, blankets, some food and an outfit with 
which to do some cooking. These articles had been put in the wagon, when 
"Dutch Pete" started to put a shotgun, muzzle foremost, heavily loaded with 
buckshot, into the wagon. One of Updegraff's men was standing at the end 
of the wagon as "Dutch Pete" raised the gun over the side of the wagon, the 
hammer caught and the full load of buckshot struck the breast of the man at 
the end of the wagon. He did not fall, but walked inlo the building, laid down 
on a blanket and in a few minutes was dead. 

That afternoon a box of rough boards was made by Updegraff's men and 



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84 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

without any burial ceremony the body was put into a grave on a little sandy 
knoll in the block at the corner of Avenue B and Adams street. A few wild 
plum bushes surrounded the grave. It was dug deeper than usual, because of 
the fear that the coyotes might uncover the corpse. This was the first death; 
this was the first burial; here was the first graveyard of Reno county. The 
name of the dead cannot be recalled now. Later two other graves were dug 
out on that lonesome spot. A little fence, painted white, for a while sur- 
rounded it, but the prairie fires charred it and it soon fell away. Many years 
afterward a grader was being pulled along Adams street and the bodies were 
uncovered. They were all taken up, placed in new coffins and buried in the 
Eastside cemetery. Their names are all unknown. They were the sole occu- 
pants of the first graveyard of Reno county. 

The second graveyard in this county was laid out in 1873 at the north- 
east corner of what is now Monroe and Seventeenth streets. It was then so 
far out that it was considered a sufficient distance from town. This was 
abandoned in 1881, and many of the bodies removed to the Eastside cemetery 
when it was located. There are many bodies still entombed in that old grave- 
yard. Many persons are buried there. There is no record now that would 
identify them. This graveyard contained several graves of persons who died 
here while looking for a cure for their consumption. This location was bad 
from a sanitary standpoint, being above the city. The Eastside cemetery was 
laid out by W. E. Kellogg in 1881. The first tract of ground purchased was 
fifteen acres. It contained fourteen hundred and fifty-six lots and each lot 
was large enough for twelve graves. W. R. Brown was the first president 
of the company that had charge of this cemetery. E. L. Meyer was secretary 
and treasurer, and L. A. Bigger and W. E. Kellogg were directors. Later 
fifteen acres more of ground was purchased and added to the cemetery. It is 
probable that there are from twelve to fifteen thousand persons buried in this 
cemetery, and while nearly all of the lots are sold, yet there remain a great 
many parts of lots still unfilled. On June 9, 1914, the cemetery was taken over 
by the lotowners and John H. Campbell was elected president of the associa- 
tion; A. M. Jewell, vice-president, and D. A. Moore, secretary and treasurer. 

There have been many other cemeteries established in Reno count)-, but 
lack of compulsory registration until recent years, has rendered a complete 
record of them impossible. Many of the graveyards are now abandoned ; some 
have a few graves in them, while many of them are carefully kept and tended. 



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EEN0 COUNTY, KANSAS. 



THE FIRST JOINT RAID. 



The first "joint" raid was made before there were courts and before this 
county was organized. It was made by a man who afterwards became the first 
sheriff of Reno county — Charles Collins. 

Collins was never known as a temperance sympathizer, but on the con- 
trary, when the prohibitory law first went into force and the dealers in the for- 
bidden liquor were arrested and required to put up a bond for their appear- 
ance in court, Charles Collins was the man who generally went on the bond for 
their appearances. Collins did this so generally that Judge Houk grew uneasy 
over Collins's liability, and one day summoned him into court and showed him 
the extent of his suretyship. At that time Collins was liable for $175,000. 
Judge Houk questioned him closely as to his financial responsibility. Collins 
showed his resources, thousands of head of cattle; and while he did not state 
it on the stand, he practically told Judge Houk that he was indemnified by the 
brewers' organization, which was not only behind him on the financial part of 
the obligation, but was paying him liberally to go on the bonds of the men 
who were being tried, the brewers hoping to break the prosecution of the pro- 
hibitory law by this means. Judge Houk warned Collins to be careful and 
suggested that inasmuch as he, Collins, carried a deputy United States mar- 
shal's commission, that it was hardly the proper thing for him to be on the 
bond of the men who had been arrested for law violation. Collins soon ceased 
to go on the bond of the men arrested and they had to look elsewhere for help 
to keep them out of jail until they could have their trial. 

But Collins made the first raid on a joint ever made in this county. 

An enterprising citizen of Newton had driven over from his town. He 
had two barrels of whisky, two frowzy-headed women and a tent and his 
wagon. He camped on Cow creek and without anyone's consent began selling 
his whisky. C. C. Hutchinson was very much disturbed by this, as he was a 
prohibitionist and wanted to cut whisky out of his town entirely. There 
were no county or township officers to appeal to, as the county had not yet 
been organized. He thought of Charles Collins, who had a homestead four 
miles north of town. Collins was a son-in-law of Derrick Updegraff. a rail- 
road contractor, who had the contract of grading the Santa Fe railroad 
across Reno county. 

Collins, in his younger days, was a striking looking man: tall, straight as 
an arrow, with long, wavy black hair and an eye as black as his hair and a 
commanding manner that he never lost even in his old age. Hutchinson 



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86 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

appealed to Collins for help to get rid of the man with the two barrels of 
whisky and two frowzy-headed women. "I'll take care of them," was all he 
said to Hutchinson. Early the next morning, Collins drove up to the tent 
where the man had located his joint and without getting out of his wagon, 
called to him. The man stuck his head out of his tent and Collins showed 
him his United States marshal's star and ordered him to get dressed, he and 
his women, that they were all under arrest for selling whisky in an unorgan- 
ized county. The old man and his women were frightened into obedience. 
Collins helped them load their whisky and tent and other belongings into the 
wagon, and drove them to Newton and unloaded them and told them to stay 
out of Reno county and to tell all their friends that the next booze seller who 
struck that county out west would be tried for the offense. So the first whisky 
raid ever made in Reno county was made by Charles Collins, without deputies 
or assistance, and the confiscated outfit was hauled by a mule team thirty-five 
miles to jail. 

THE FIRST ALFALFA. 

With alfalfa so abundant, the people of Reno county seldom inquire bow 
long it has been grown in the county. They assume that it was a grass found 
here, but that is not the case. Strangely in contrast with the humble buffalo 
grass that covered everything when the first settler came to Reno county, was 
the alfalfa that soon began to be raised. The alfalfa is tall and dark green; 
the buffalo grass a light green in the early spring and summer and turning 
brown in the fall and winter. The one so short that it could not be cut with a 
mowing machine, the other yielding four and five crops a year with stalks up 
to the sides of the horses; the one natural, arising out of the condition of the 
soil, the other growing only when the soil has been broken and loosened up 
by tilling. The buffalo grass, the most wonderful natural grass ever known ; 
the other the most prolific and valuable forage crop ever sown. The two are 
opposites in all respects, yet they grew alike in the soil of Reno county, when 
the conditions of their growth were met. 

The first alfalfa was raised by G. B. Chapin, in Valley township. From 
the small start made by Mr. Chapin has come the 20,266 acres of alfalfa in 
Reno county. It is a forage plant that will fatten hogs almost as well as 
corn, when they are allowed to run on it. When cut and fed to cattle it will 
add fat almost as fast as corn. Horses will work hard and thrive on nothing 
but alfalfa. Fed to cows, it makes the best feed obtainable for milk and butter 
fat. Even the chickens like the leaves that may have shattered off in making 
haw It has a bloom that is a delicate blue and a fragrance to that bloom that 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 87 

mocks the art of any chemist to prepare a perfume that equals the fragrance 
of an alfalfa field in bloom. Some day some one will invent a method of 
extracting the perfume from the bloom and he will have an article of com- 
merce that will richly reward his labors. 

The seed of this wonderful plant is not lost, for the fastest of dyes are 
made from the little yellowish-brown, oblong seed of the alfalfa. Generally 
the second crop of alfalfa is allowed to go to seed, as this is usually the driest 
time of the summer, when the seed pods form the best. 

Not only is it a feed that all the beasts of the field eat with avidity, but 
alfalfa meal, made by grinding the cured alfalfa hay, makes a bread that is 
sweet and nourishing. So when Mr. Chapin sowed the first small field of 
alfalfa, down in Valley township, he little dreamed that he was pioneering the 
most valuable forage crop ever riased in any county. Not only does it pro- 
duce heavily, but it also enriches the soil in which it grows. ' Its roots sink 
down deep into the soil. From the air the alfalfa plant takes the nitrogen and 
stores it into rings around the roots of the plant and this stored fertilizer, the 
best nature affords, builds up the soil, while the plant does its service for man 
in its growth. The biggest wheat yield ever recorded in Reno county, sixty- 
seven bushels to the acre, was raised in an old alfalfa field that was plowed up 
in the summer of 1916 and produced the biggest yield in 1917. 

THE BUILDING OF THE FIRST SILO. 

The storing of feed for the winter months was not much considered in 
the early days. It was not necessary as long as the buffalo grass lasted, as 
this was as good a feed in January as it was in June. This grass cured itself 
in the fall and cattle would push the snow from this grass in January and eat 
it as readily as they did on the ranges in June. It was cured naturally and was 
a great natural feed. After the disappearance of the buffalo came the consid- 
eration of feed preparation for the winter. The building of silos was the 
method of "canning" the cattle feed. Perhaps the first silo in Kansas was 
built at the Agricultural College at Manhattan. Shortly after this one was 
constructed one was erected in Douglas county, and a couple of silos in Leav- 
enworth county. The first one in Reno county was erected by W. E. Hutch- 
inson, in the spring of 1882. This silo was a square one, sixteen by twenty- 
four feet, and twenty-four feet high. It was filled with Kaffir corn and cane. 
Mr. Hutchinson fattened a big bunch of steers in the fall and winter of 1872, 
and sold them to Frank Wolcott and W. E. Burns. They were without doubt 
the first fat steers fed on ensilage to go to the markets in Reno county. 



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REND COUNTY, KANSAS. 



THE LAST BUFFALO. 



Like the first, the last is always the most noticed. 

There have been many persons who have claimed to have killed buffalo on 
the Hutchinson townsite. A. F. Horner, who built the first house in Hutch- 
inson, says he never saw a buffalo on the townsite. He says that he and two 
companions, on their way/ to Hutchinson early in January, 1872, ran across a 
buffalo as they came to the place where the town was afterwards located ; that 
they were down on the Arkansas river below the town, probably south of the 
reformatory, when a buffalo ran out onto the sandbed of the river. All three 
of the men in the party shot at him. They never knew which one actually 
killed him ; but that he, Horner, never saw a buffalo near the town after that 
one. Other old settlers claim to have killed a buffalo, generally near some 
prominent place in town, one near where the postoffice now stands, one where 
the waterworks plant is located and another where Convention Hall now 
stands, but it is probable that the memory of Horner and others is correct 
that the buffalo had moved westward before the town was located : and that 
if any buffalo were left it would be some old beaten bull that had been horned 
out of the herd and had concealed himself in the hills. There is a record that 
one such decrepit bull was killed on July 6, 1874, on the farm of E. S. Webster, 
south of town, but that he was so poor and old as to have been of no value. 
The buffalo had moved westward before the settlers crime here, and few 
of them ever saw a buffalo in this part of the country. 

THE BUILDING OF THE ROCK ISLAND RAILROAD. 

One of the first things the Rock Island Railroad Company did was to 
run a survey through the country north of Hutchinson, crossing the Santa 
Fe at Sterling, and the people of Sterling thought they were going to get the 
road. M. A. Low, an attorney from some town in Missouri, did the negotia- 
ting for the railroad company. It is practically certain that they had no 
thought of going by way of Sterling, but they wanted to skin the county of 
Reno for the biggest sum possible, in the shape of a subsidy. At that time 
there was a law in Kansas allowing counties and other municipalities to sub- 
scribe stock in a railroad company, and pay for the same by issuing its bonds, 
and they could go as high as $4,000 a mile. The road wanted a class of bonds 
that would sell for the most money and count)- bonds were much the best at 
that time, whereas township bonds were not so much sought. The railroad 
company had to get its line southwest, and if the road had crossed at Sterling 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 89 

they would have had a long run through the western part of Reno county, and 
of course could have got nothing hut township bonds, missing Hutchinson 
and the heaviest settlement. The matter of carrying county bonds was can- 
vassed and it was decided to offer the company $4,000 a mile clear across the 
county in a diagonal course, which meant about $170,000. A strong argu- 
ment was made that we were getting stock, and that if the road was worth 
anything for the company it would be a good investment for the county to 
take the $170,000 of stock. Every detail had been perfected by the railroad 
company to steal the $170,000 and they did so very easily. The proposition 
to build this road was not made by the Rock Island Road at all. The bonds 
were not voted to take stock in the Rock Island Road, and the county never 
got any stock in that road. The first move that the Rock Island made when 
they decided to build west of the Missouri river was to form a new company 
called the Chicago, Kansas and Nebraska railroad, all Rock Island interests. 
The bonds were voted to this new company, and the road was built, and the 
stock in the new company was issued to the county of Reno. One of the early 
things that the Rock Island attended to was to place a first mortgage on the 
Chicago, Kansas & Nebraska Road and sell these first mortgage bonds. Six 
months after the issue of these bonds an installment of interest fell due, and 
was not paid. A foreclosure suit was commenced at once, and the Chicago, 
Kansas & Nebraska railroad was sold under the foreclosure, and all the assets 
were bought in by the Rock Island Railroad Company, and there was not a 
thing left in the shape of property for the stockholders of the Chicago, Kan- 
sas & Nebraska railroad, one of which was the county of Reno. There was 
never a cleaner steal perpetrated in the state, but it was all done within the 
law. 

THE POWDER EXPLOSION. 

The first live, successful, broad-guaged business firm that did business 
in Hutchinson, was the firm of Allison, Devier & Blackburn. The individual 
names of the partners were M. E. Allison, W. C. Devier and John Blackburn. 
Allison and Blackburn were both professional druggists before uniting in this 
firm. Devier was known as "Billy" Devier, a greater distance from the town 
than any other man living here at the time. Allison looked after the business 
methods and system of the concern: Devier was the "business getter", and 
Blackburn gave his time to the attention of customers, and was a much-liked 
man. The business started in a store eighty feet deep and soon filled a room 
one hundred and fifty feet deep. Allison was the man who saw the oppor- 
tunities to enlarge. He conceived the plan of buying his goods cheaper by 



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gO RENO COUNTY, KANSAS, 

establishing a wholesale grocery store, and getting the benefit of the prices 
lo wholesale dealers. West & Bloom, brothers-in-law, had a small livery 
stable on the corner of Second avenue and Main street, where the Whiteside 
building now stands. W. E. Hutchinson, two years before, had formed a com- 
pany to pay off the debts of the water-mill built by C. C. Hutchinson & Co. 
It only required about' twelve thousand dollars to make the deal. West & 
Bloom had a little money, Allison & Devier had some money, and H. White- 
side also had a balance in the bank. West & Bloom were given an interest 
in the mill as were Allison & Devier and Whiteside. Hutchinson reserved 
an interest for himself. There were four interests. The name taken for the 
mill company was West, Allison & Co. West and Hutchinson operated the 
mill. Bloom remained in the stable and Allison & Devier continued to confine 
themselves to the store. On account of this association, Allison proposed to 
Bloom to let them use his name as the proprietor of a wholesale grocery store 
and a room for a store room was obtained and a sign put "C. Bloom" on the 
outside of the building. Bloom did not have a dollar in the business : did not 
have a thing to do with the business, and never had any connection with a 
business of that sort. The scheme planned by Allison worked all right, how- 
ever. At this stage of their business a powder company proposed to make the 
grocery firm their agents for the sale of powder. There were hundreds of 
hunters in the country and the consumption of powder was no small item. 
There were no waterworks in the town at that time. Cow creek crossed 
Sherman street where the water and light plant now stands, but a little north 
it swung into and across Adams street and cut the edge of First avenue half 
way between Washington and Adams streets. The back end of the lot lying 
along Adams street, on the west side, and fronting on Sherman street, was 
some little distance west of Cow creek and was considered a safe distance 
from the business part of the town. Here the powder company purchased a 
small tract of ground, about twenty-five feet square, and on this spot erected 
a stone and cement building, probably ten feet square, with thick walls and 
with an iron roof and an iron door. Swung from one end was a heavy iron 
bar. three inches wide, a half-inch thick and about three feet long. The other 
end fitted over a staple, and was fastened with the strongest padlock made. 
Few people ever wandered so far in this direction from the business portion 
of the town. There was no way to get there except to cross the creek over 
the bridge on Main street, and then follow up the west side of the creek to the 
powder house. The building was so far away that probably not a dozen people 
in the town knew of its existence. There was nothing on the building lo 
indicate what was in it or what it was for. A considerable excavation was 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. gi 

made in the ground, and most of the contents were stored below the surface 
of the ground. It was built to hold a carload of powder, but at the time we 
are referring to there was not a half car in storage. The building did not 
stand over ten feet high above the surface of the ground. Less than a year 
after the powder was stored in this place, and during a thunder storm in the 
night, a bolt of lightning struck the powder house and exploded the powder. 
There probably never was a more astonished lot of people than the residents 
of Hutchinson. The nearest business house to the powder house was about 
eight hundred feet, and the farthest was perhaps twelve hundred feet. The 
buildings were the "square front'' type of wooden stores, with as large window 
glass as could be put in. There were no watchmen or police, and no one 
knew what was the matter till morning came, except Allison and Devier. 
When business men went to their business in the morning they found their 
front window glass lying on the sidewalk in front in bits of pieces, hardly a 
piece being left in the sash where it belonged. Every store was wide open 
of course, and in some of them the rain bad done some damage, but not much. 
It was such a sight as is seldom seen in a lifetime. There was not a claim 
that the powder house had been built too near the town, and that the grocery 
men were at fault. It is likely that if the creek had not been between the 
town and the store house it would not have seemed so far away; would have 
been known about by people more generally, and that the public would have 
taken an entirely different view of the accident. No person was hurt, but 
there was one remarkable escape. 

Mrs. J. C. Beem at that time lived in a small wooden house on First 
avenue' and on the north side of the street, and also directly north of the 
powder house. The construction of the house was simply weather-boarding 
on the outside of studding, and lathing and plastering on the inside of the 
studding. In Mrs. Beem's sleeping room her bed set with the head to the 
west and the foot to the east, making the side of the bed face toward the 
direction of the powder house. The house was about five hundred feet from 
the powder building. A rock as large as a man's head went through this house, 
going in on the south side and out on the north, and was lying a few rods 
north of the house in the morning. The rock passed direct lv over Mrs. 
Beem's bed, where she was sleeping, and barely high enough to avoid bit- 
ting her as it passed over. Xo one was hurt in the house. There was hardly 
a thing to show that there had ever been a building on the spot where the 
powder house slood, in fact, it would not have hardly been suspected by a 
stranger that a building had 1>een there. The large iron bar referred to, which 



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92 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

held the door closed, was afterward found on the farm of Judge Houk about 
a half mile away. There was never another powder storehouse built on 
the townsite. 

THE WATER AND LIGHT PLANT IN SHERMAN STREET, WES.T. 

Unquestionably many things pass into history as mysterious, and for- 
ever remain so; when, if at the right time, the right source had been appealed 
to, the mystery would dissolve into the most commonplace matter. Hun- 
dreds of people have asked why was Sherman street obstructed by the build- 
ing of the water plant where it is, and the people on the west end of the 
street will always suffer a depreciation of their property by the fact that 
the access to it is permanently wrecked. Legally and morally these people 
are estopped from making complaint, for the reason that they acquired their 
property with a full knowledge of the conditions; but such circumstances do 
not always have the effect to hush the lamentations of the helpless, nor sup- 
press the questions of the querulous. Others, wondering will go about their 
daily work, comforted with the conceit, that if they had been the original 
promoters of this utility, they would have located it on the spur track of 
one of the railroads, where the coal for fuel could have been shoveled from 
the car into the bin at the boiler house, instead of being shoveled into a 
wagon, and hauled a half a mile, and then all shoveled again. The answer 
for the city, and the answer for the promoters are two words which seem 
to sound louder and sound oftener in the anxious public ear as the years go 
round — "personal privilege." West and northwest of the present .site of 
the plant was once the storage reservoir or pond of the Water Power Com- 
pany and the dam and waste gates which impounded the waters were situated 
at a point on the creek which was the intersection of Sherman street. These 
gates were unsightly large wooden affairs which were an eyesore to every 
passer on Main street. The pond should never have been put there and the 
gates should have been in another place, if they were to exist at all. The 
town was making complaint occasionally, and it was evident that there would 
l>e trouble in time. Drake and Orton, from Chicago, came into town 
unannounced one day and introduced themselves to the city authorities and 
proposed to ask for a franchise for waterworks. S. W. Campbell was mayor 
and W. E. Hutchinson was city attorney. The people were Battered with 
the thought of getting a good service plant of this nature without a donation 
and the request of the applicants was readily granted. The interest of Drake 
and Orton was not to build and operate a plant, but to sell the bonds which 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 93 

they would put on the property. They did not care to retain the ownership of 
the property, and they insisted that citizens of the town should take a major- 
ity of the stock as a gift. Stock was offered to Campbell, Hutchinson and 
L. A. Bigger, but none of them took any of it. Then the city made the stipu- 
lation that the plant should be located where it now is, but at that time it 
was the center of the creek channel and a difficult and expensive place on 
which to locate a building. The purpose of the requirement on the part of 
the city was to have the building hide the unsightly structure of the Water 
Power Company so it could not be seen from Main street. Drake and Orton 
hurried the building of the plant, and .quickly sold $450,000 of first -mortgage 
bonds and got their money, and undoubtedly they made such profits that 
the matter of whether the plant was located in the middle of Cow creek or 
at a desirable place on the railroad was altogether a minor item. In a few 
years the purchasers of the bonds found that they had made a very bad invest- 
ment, and one-half of the bonds were cancelled, thus netting a loss to them 
of $225,000. Drake and Orton were in the city but a few times after the con- 
struction of the plant. The water power proved of little value, and the growth 
of the town made the area valuable, and the dam and the gates were cleared 
away and the ground sold off according to the original plat, but the water 
works plant could not be moved, and it still stands at a location unfortunate 
to all concerned. 



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CHAPTER X. 
A Year of Disaster. 

The year 1874 was a dismal one for the pioneers of Reno county. The 
author of this history has had many suggestions made to him to omit any 
reference to this ye;ir, urging that only the brighter and the more attractive 
things should be recorded, and that a period of such disaster as that year 
presented should be passed over with but little reference to it. But, his- 
torically, 1874 was one of the marked years of Reno county's history. It 
was not one of prosperity, but it was a year unlike other years in the atten- 
tion that it brought to the county, and illustrates one of the strange char- 
acteristics of human nature in a most striking way. It shows how things 
that happened may produce results in ways that cannot be seen at the time 
and which only the years that have passed away reveal. So it would be 
unfair to omit the hardships of pioneer life, that those who live now in 
comfort and contentment may realize as best they can from the description 
the old settlers leave, of what trials and privations their comforts cost, that 
they may more thoroughly appreciate the heritage of the present. 

The summer of 1874 was dry and hot. There is no detailed weather 
record of temperature or rainfall, but the old settlers speak of the intensity 
of the heat and the length of the drought. Ned Webster's monthly records, 
as shown in another chapter, makes this the hottest year of his observations. 
There was approximately four thousand acres of corn in cultivation that 
year. Some of it was sod corn, but there was considerable ground, over 
three thousand acres, that had been broken in 1872, and in the sandy region, 
a part of which had been broken up in 1873, was ground that could be culti- 
vated. Of course there was no cultivation for the sod corn, no chance to 
stir the ground and in this way minimize the injury of the dry weather. A 
year like this would be particularly hard on sod corn. The heat of July 
doomed the corn. It withered up and would not have made good food if 
it had l>een left. But a short time after the 28th of July there was not even 
a semblance of the corn stalks left, for it was in these days the first grass- 
hoppers appeared in the sky. One of the old settlers of that day found a 
description that he said exactly described this visitation of the winged 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 95 

plague: "For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land 
was darkened ; ;ind they did eat every herb of the land, and all the fruit of 
the trees which the hail had left; and there remained not any green thing 
in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, throughout all the land of Egypt." 
Exodus 10:15. They came in one continual stream, that was hours in pass- 
ing, flying high in the air, obscuring the sun and having the appearance of 
a heavy snow. The locusts were of a dark brown hue, but in flying they 
show the underside of their body, which is white and gave their flight the 
appearance of a snow storm. lieneath this mighty stream was another one, 
which was continually detaching itself from the main body, coming to the 
ground. They kept this up for seven days. This flight swept through the 
state from west to east. Jt almost produced a panic. Those that stopped 
were but a small part of the vast number that filled the air. Where they 
came from or where they went, no one knows. What conditions brought 
them forth never has been ascertained, but the destruction they wrought 
was complete. They came again in 1876 — but not in any such numbers as 
in 1874. Even in 1876, late in September, they ate all the leaves from the 
trees. Some were sowing wheat when they came, but the "hoppers" ate 
the hard grains as fast as the sower would put them on the ground. 
Chickens fled from them as from a hawk. The "crunch" of the insects as 
a person walked on the ground was a sensation not soon forgotten. 

The destruction of 1874 was complete. There was absolutely nothing 
left, no feed for horses or cattle, no wheat nor com. The early settlers 
could not go through the winter without help, so, early in the fall, a meet- 
ing was called in the court house to provide some means for the relief that 
was necessary. A "central committee" was appointed to have charge of 
the matter for Reno county. This committee was William Ingham, T. F. 
I.eidigh and L. Houk. They immediately appointed sub-committees for 
each of the townships into which the county was then divided. 

The grasshopper plague was not confined to Reno county, the whole 
state having been visited. No one was exempt, so a similar organization 
existed in all of the settled counties of Kansas and a central body, located at 
Topeka. to handle the matter in a general way. Agents were sent to Eastern 
cities to solicit aid. The railroads of the county "deadheaded" all of the 
things that were shipped to the state. Reno county had an agent and his 
assistants in New York City. All the donations boxed and shipped to Kan- 
sas were designated for the "Kansas Relief Fund." Considerable money 
was donated. It was estimated early in the winter that there were one 



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QO RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

thousand persons in Reno county who were dependent on outside help to get 
through the winter. The entire population of this county that year was six 
thousand four hundred and seventy-six. 

There were a few who left the county, but nearly all of the people 
stayed through tha winter. They knew that in all Kansas such a catastrophe 
could not occur often. They had seen the prosperity of 1873 and had seen 
the soil' yield bountifully, even after only two years of cultivation, so they 
concluded to remain in the county and fight it out. 

It is impossible to tell how many thousand dollars' worth of goods and 
money were sent into Kansas. The records that were turned over to the 
State Historical Society show that Reno county received considerable aid. 
One such receipt aside from individual instances of aid, shows that twenty- . 
four carloads of grain and feed and flour were received by Reno county. 
There are numerous personal receipts on file there for boxes and barrels of 
goods shipped to individuals and which were not handled by the committee. 
At a distance of more than forty years, some things are plainly apparent in 
this relief work. One of the most noticeable of them is the greed dis- 
played by some of the people who were recipients of that aid. Some of 
them receipted for enough goods to keep their family and feed their stock 
for more than a year. Perhaps it would be impossible to have handled the 
matter °o that the charge of graft would not have been sustained. But the 
greed displayed by some was plainly evident. The Eastern part of the 
United States was interested in helping the. "starving people out in Kansas." 
Their generosity was not stinted. Some of the agents sent out by the vari- 
ous counties took advantage of the desire of the East to see that the dis- 
tress was removed and exaggerated that distress, sometimes to their own 
gain. So that the "grasshopper relief" extended far beyond the necessity 
of the times. 

So, in the sense of having comfort added that could not have been 
enjoyed without the relief work, Reno county and, in fact, the whole of 
Kansas, did not suffer in the least from the grasshoppers. In fact, it was 
a great blessing to the county. The hot winds and the dry weather had 
ruined the crops. Had not the "hoppers" visited the country there would 
have been almost as much distress as there was after they had stripped the 
land of all that they could eat. But when the destitution was referred to. 
when the- "hand of Providence," as one of the agents reverently referred to 
the grasshopper plague whenever he spoke of conditions in the state, was 
hard on the land, it called forth the unstinted aid that nothing else would 



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MAJOR-GEN. JESSE LEE RENO 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 97 

have done. The grasshoppers, instead of being a curse, were a blessing to 
Reno county. 

There was another feature to this disaster that is really one of the 
difficult things to understand. There is on file in the State Historical 
Society a list of donors of the "Howard County, Indiana, Reno County, 
Kansas, Relief Fund." On this list is the name of the father of the editor 
of this history. The following year this father came to Reno county and 
bought land in the very county which the year before he had helped in its 
distress. What was the attraction that drew to Reno county the men who 
had, a year before, helped to support those that the plague had vexed? 

L. A. Bigger was in the land business in Hutchinson for many years. 
He has told of many similar experiences. He said that in October, 1874, 
there came to his office many persons attracted by the crowd that had 
congregated around it, supposing them to be land seekers, only to find that 
they were farmers of Reno county getting wheat that had been donated to 
this county for seed. Mr. Bigger always secured the names of his visitors, 
to send them advertising matter, and he remarked that he was astonished 
to learn how many of those men came to Reno county in the years of 1875 
to 1878, who had seen the county in her distress, when seed for the next 
crop was largely donated. This to him, was one of the most remarkable 
things in all his experience. Who can understand that trait of human nature? 
Who is able to tell why they came to Kansas to make their homes in 1875 
and 1876 when "Droughty Kansas" was a by-word the land over, because 
of the distressing days of the year 1874. 

The people of Reno county were not discouraged by the grasshopper 
visitation. More sod was broken out and all of the sod ground that had 
been corn in the summer was plowed under and sowed to wheat. The 
drought was broken early in the fall, the rain fell in abundance, the ground 
was in fine shape and when the seed arrived the sowing was done. A very 
large percentage of the ground that had been broken was sowed to wheat, 
which got a good start and furnished pasturage in the winter and early 
spring. The evidences of the drought and the grasshoppers soon vanished. 
The courage of the pioneer was tried and was found sufficient and, while 
the winter of 1874 was not an enjoyable one, it was not as bleak as it 
appeared on the July morning after the grasshoppers had darkened the sun 
of the previous day. 

(7) 



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CHAPTER XI. 
Organizing the County. 

At the time Reno county was organized, the statutes required six hun- 
dred inhabitants as a necessary number to entitle a county to obtain self- 
government. Counties having a less number of inhabitants were attached to 
other counties for municipal and judicial purposes. Late in December, 1871, 
a petition was circulated in Reno county and the requisite number of signers 
was obtained. It is evident from looking at the list now, that some signa- 1 
tures were placed on the roll by proxy, for some of the inhabitants, still 
residents of Reno county, were entirely too small at that time to take any 
interest in any of the affairs of state. As soon as the petition was completed 
it was taken to Topeka by C. C. Hutchinson and was approved by Governor 
Harvey. He then issued an order for the organization of the county. He 
likewise appointed a special board of county commissioners, consisting of 
C. O. Bemis, William H. Bell and Thomas Allen, to have charge of the busi- 
ness of the new county until an election could be held. This board held its 
first meeting on January 4, 1872. Bemis was not present at this meeting, 
but the other two members met and elected Bemis chairman of the board. 
Who presided at this meeting is not disclosed by the record. The entire 
county was placed in one township, which was given the name of "Reno." 
From this one township all of the other townships have been taken and the 
territory now called Reno township is what remains after the organization 
of the other thirty-one subdivisions of the county. An election was called 
to select a county seat and notices were posted in "three most conspicuous 
places," notifying the voters of the election. The date was fixed for Satur- 
day, February 3, 1872. 

At the same meeting of the board of commissioners, "a special election" 
was called for January 6, 1872, ten days only to elapse before the election 
after the calling of the election. The reason for this haste was the anxiety 
of the promoters of the new county, and more particularly the owners of 
the townsite of Hutchinson, to get a representative in the Legislature who 
could make some changes in the boundary lines of the county that would 
lessen the dangers of another town being established nearer the center of the 
county that would contest with Hutchinson for the county seat. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 99 

So this hurried election was held on Saturday, January 6, 1872. There 
was but one candidate, C. C. Hutchinson, who received all the votes that were 
cast. The board of county commissioners did not delay long to cSnvass the 
vote, for as soon as the polls were closed and the votes counted, the board 
immediately began to canvass the votes and issued to Mr. Hutchinson his 
certificate of election within a half hour after the polls were closed. He left 
that night for Newton in a wagon, traveling overland, and there took the 
train the next morning for Topeka. On Monday morning, following his 
election on Saturday, Mr. Hutchinson presented his certificate of election and 
was sworn in as a member of the Legislature. It is doubtful if such a cer- 
tificate, secured in such a manner, was ever presented to a legislative body 
before. Certainly it would attract attention now, for this "special board of 
commissioners" that had been appointed by Governor Harvey had not form- 
ally organized when the election of representative was held. In fact, only 
two members of that board had acted, for the commissioners' records declare 
that the "special board" did not formally organize until February 10, 1872, 
when the "minutes of the last meeting" were read and approved and then 
the "board" proceeded to "organize." Just what was the condition of the 
board when they called this "special election" for representative, and then 
canvassed the vote and issued the certificate of election to Hutchinson as 
representative, cannot be determined from the records they have left of their 
acts. But the records show affirmatively that the "minutes of the previous 
meeting" were read and approved and that the "board then proceeded to 
organize." Prior to this meeting just referred to, the board also met and 
canvassed the votes of the election called to select the county seat. All of the 
votes cast were for the "City of Hutchinson." So, on February 3, 1872, 
Hutchinson became the county seat of the county of Reno. 

The board of commissioners waited four days before it met again, and 
it is recorded that, "pursuant to law," they ordered an election to be held in 
Hutchinson to "elect officers for the county of Reno." Thev specified the 
following offices to be filled: Three county commissioners, county treas- 
urer, county clerk, sheriff, county surveyor, register of. deeds, county attor- 
ney, coroner, probate judge, clerk of the district court and superintendent 
of public instruction. This election was held on March 12, 1872, and the 
following were unanimously selected for the various offices, there being only 
one candidate for each office: Sheriff. Charles Collins; treasurer, Edward 
Wilcox; county clerk, A. C. Kies; county attorney, I-ysander Houk; reg- 
ister of deeds, S. H. Hammond; clerk of district court, Harry Hodson; 
probate judge, W. W. Updegraff; county surveyor, Luther Dodge; coroner, 



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IOO RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

C. S. Martin ; superintendent of public instruction, W. E. Hutchinson ; county 
commissioners, C. C. Bemis, W. H. Bell and W. J. VanSickle. 

Most of the men chosen at the first election were representative men. 
Seven of them remained in the county and helped develop it. These men 
were, Charles Collins, Edward Wilcox, L. Houk, Harry Hodson, W. S. Van- 
Sickle, W. E. Hutchinson and W. W. Updegraff. Of this number, only one, 
W. E. Hutchinson, is living at the time of the writing of this history. Some 
of the others who filled these offices were adventurers, without an abiding 
faith in the community. Of those who remained, probably Judge Houk 
and W. E. Hutchinson had the most prominent part in shaping the affairs 
of the county, and if any one man were singled out above the others as having 
had the most to do with the shaping and developing of the earlier affairs of 
the county and, later, in promoting the enterprises that helped the growth 
of town and county, that one would be W. E. Hutchinson. C. C. Hutchin- 
son did a great work in arranging the boundary lines of the county and in 
fixing the character of the town by his activities while in the state Legisla- 
ture, but he did not remain long in the county. His cousin, W. E. Hutchin- 
son, remained through all of the early years, when even an existence was a 
struggle, through the boom days that followed the trying pioneer times and 
through the dismal days that followed the collapse of the boom, when prop- 
erty values shrunk to almost no value at all. Through it all. prosperity and 
adversity, he was a most active man. As will be seen later in the develop- 
ment of the county, he was "the man behind the gun" in so many enter- 
prises that he was unquestionably the most constant factor in the early growth 
and development of Hutchinson and Reno county. 

Judge Houk was not only the leader of the Reno county bar, but one 
of the great lawyers of the state. He was a man of wide learning and was 
constantly in demand for public addresses on all lines of work. He was 
greatly interested in horticulture, and was a life member of the State Horti- 
cultural Society. Some of the older members of the Reno County Bar 
Association have said that the early lawyers "went to school" to Judge Houk 
— such was their high regard for his ability as a lawyer and judge. 

Harry Hodson remained in Reno county for many years and was a 
successful farmer and business man. He remained in the county about 
twenty-five years and led an active business life. 

E. Wilcox also was actively engaged in the hardware business, erecting 
a brick building on South Main street. He remained in the county for many 
years and helped develop its resources. 

Charles Collins was likewise a well-known and active figure in develop- 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. IOI 

ing the county. Of Mr. Collins' early life, but little is known. There was 
a wall of secretiveness about him that no one ever broke down. He was 
physically a fine specimen of the Western frontiersman and in his early life 
he wore his hair long. He carried nearly all his life a United States deputy 
marshal's commission. He was greatly interested in the cattle business and, 
although it was not generally known, was a representative of Senator Plumb 
in his dealings with the cattle men of the Southwest. He lived nearly all his 
life in this county. At one time he was a wealthy man, but in his later life, 
through the shrinkage in cattle values, he was not in such comfortable cir- 
cumstances. 

Meanwhile, C. C. Hutchinson was active in the Legislature in carrying 
out his ideas of a town that he could advertise as a "home town," free from 
the "wild west" influences that were so conspicuous in other towns. He saw 
the class of people who were attracted by the cattle traders. He saw other 
towns bidding for this business. He saw the shamelessness, the debauchery, 
that characterized the cowboy of that day. All sorts of criminals made up 
the larger portion of the crowd. He saw how they had changed the peace- 
able community of Abilene into a hotbed of disorder, gambling, liquor 
drinking, prostitution and every other vice that was ever invented to take 
money out of one man's pocket and put it into another without consideration. 
When the Santa Fe reached Newton, Hutchinson saw that the scenes of 
Abilene would be re-enacted in this place, as the building of the Santa Fe 
westward would cut off a seventy-five mile drive for the cattlemen. There 
was scarcely a redeeming feature to the cattle business, so Hutchinson deter- 
mined to have none of that element in the town he had laid out and which 
bore his name. 

"What is to be the next cattle town?" was the query. Naturally they 
expected it would be Hutchinson. It was nearer the range and farther from 
the farmer, with his small tract of cultivated land, that interfered with the 
great herds that were driven north from Texas. It was closer to the Ninne- 
scah, Cow creek, the Little river, the Arkansas and the Chicaskia, a territory 
of a million acres of the best grass land, watered with streams that never 
dried up. The new railroad bent off to the northward from Hutchinson, as 
if to leave the rich pasture to the cattlemen, undisturbed and unbroken. Here 
the cattle could be driven farther west, so that they would not run into the 
farms that were being settled in Sumner and Cowley counties. To the south- 
ward were the hills of the Medicine Lodge country, where cattle would drift 
for protection whenever a "norther" swooped down on them. Hutchinson 
was to be the next "cow town." The restaurant man with his meager equip- 



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102 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

ment, his material for his shanty, with his trailers, the saloon keeper and 
lewd woman; the gambler with his faro and poker, his ready six-shooter 
strapped to his side, the aristocrat of this bunch of outlaws who lived off the 
cowboys — all were getting- ready to come to Hutchinson. They all stopped. 
The startling news reached them that Hutchinson was to be a "temperance 
town." In every deed of conveyance of real estate in the new town there 
was a provision that the sale of liquor on that lot within three years from 
the date of sale would forfeit the lot. To the bunch of outlaws that infor- 
mation was a great joke. Perhaps they would have been able to make a 
joke out of it and all the plans for making Hutchinson a home town would 
have failed, had it been necessary to have had a direct fight with this class 
of outlaws. But they soon found out how it was to be accomplished. They 
wouldn't be allowed to drive their herds through Reno county! 

As soon as C. C. Hutchinson was sworn in as a member of the Legis- 
lature he liegan actively to get some laws on the statute books. He had the 
help of his associates . in adjoining counties in getting the boundary lines 
changed as referred to in another chapter. He likewise had the help of the 
same men in the passage of the "herd law," that was intended to protect 
the fanner's crop from stock that was allowed to run loose. But so far 
as making Hutchinson a temperance town, this bit of legislation that was 
slipped through the Legislature, with but little notice and less noise, was the 
one that allowed Texas cattle to be driven northward through the state from 
Texas, but fixed the eastern limit of the boundary through which they could 
be driven on a line that is the western boundary of Reno county. So the 
restaurant man, the saloon-keeper, the gambler and the rest of the crowd 
moved, but they never stopped at Hutchinson. Their business was not here, 
and would not be here. They went on westward, for without the cattle 
business they would l>e out of a job. They drifted farther west, at Ellin- 
wood for a while, but later the} - made Dodge City their headquarters. This 
was their last stand. This was the cowboy's outpost. This was their last 
capital. The story of Dodge City has been told over and over again. "Dodge 
City, the Cowboys' Capital," has been glorified and dignified in a most in- 
teresting volume, written by W. M. Wright, of Dodge City. Thus Hutch- 
inson escaped the fame that went to Dodge City. 

The passage of the "herd law" by the Legislature was bitterly fought 
by the cattle men. Hutchinson took the position in the Legislature that the 
driving out of the buffalo, so that the big herds of cattle could graze on this 
land was only a step in the development of that land. He insisted that the 
substituting of the long horned Texas steers for the "crooked back oxen," 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. IO3 

us the Spanish called the buffalo when they first saw them, was limiting the 
development of the county. That the big herds, taking whole townships for 
their support, were no more the ultimate use to which the land should be 
put, than to allow the buffalo to roam undisturbed in the rich green lands; 
but that real development of this valley, that which the Legislature should 
foster, lay in the breaking up of the sod and in the cutting up of the range 
into small farms. 

This idea of the use of the soil was bitterly contested by the cattle men. 
The land, according to their view, was only intended for range purposes; 
that if anyone wanted to use it for other purposes they could do so, but the 
primary purpose of the Legislature should be to protect the cattle industry 
and let the land be used for grazing purposes. The "herd bill" was passed 
by a small majority, but modified so that it would have to be ratified by the 
voters of each county l>efore it would be effective. This law provided that 
stock should be kept up by the owner or if any stock broke loose and did 
any damage the owner was liable for such damage. 

The passing of the law allowing Texas cattle to be driven north through 
the state, but fixing the eastern boundary line along which they could be 
driven was a most important thing in the settling up of the county. Prior 
to the passage of this law, great herds of cattle were driven over Reno county, 
over the Chisholm trail. They were first driven to Abilene, to be shipped 
eastward over the Kansas Pacific; later were driven to Newton, and later 
still to Ellinwood. The law was not rigidly enforced for a couple of years, 
until the settlers began to take the land for farming purposes, and until 
1874 great herds were driven in through southern Kansas, crossed the south- 
ern part of the county, reached the Ninnescah river, followed it up on the 
south side until they got to where Smoot's creek flowed into the Ninnescah, 
then drove northward east of Arlington to the north fork of the Ninnescah 
to alxnit where Sylvia now stands, thence directly north across the sand hills 
and on to Ellinwood. Early in 1875 they were compelled to drive directly 
west along the Northup trail, which was on the southern border of the county, 
their destination being Dodge City. 

To finish the work of making Reno county a safe place for farmers, a 
petition was filed on February 29, J872, asking for an election to vote on 
the "herd law." This election was held on March 26, 1872. The notices 
posted set out the proposed law: "No person owning, using or in anyway 
controlling any horse, mule, ass, cattle, sheep, swine or goat within the 
bounds of Reno county, shall at any time permit such animal to go at large 
within said county." Also providing a penalty for the violating of said law. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



The election resulted in almost a unanimous vote in favor of the law and 
became effective on May 4, 1872. As a result of the passage of this law 
there was much increased acreage of corn planted that year. Sod was 
broken after the Legislature passed the law and corn planted. The early 
settlers saw their crop would be protected and greatly increased the amount 
of ground planted to corn. 

Keeping in view the purpose that suggested the writing of this history 
of Reno county, to record the deeds of the men and women who pioneered 
the way and made possible the abundant prosperity of the people who now 
live within the borders of the county, at the end of this preliminary view of 
the organization of the county, is recorded the names of the men and women 
who signed the petition asking for the organization of the county. Many 
of their children and children's children are living in this county. But few 
of the signers are still alive. Some of the names, perhaps, are not correct, 
for the hands that signed them were" unused to the pen. The ink is faded 
and the paper upon which that petition was written is yellow, making identi- 
fication in some cases impossible. It is an honor roll, worthy to be written 
on any monument and, in the absence of any other record, their names are 
here recorded : 



CENSUS ROLL OF RENO COUNTY, KANSAS, JANUARY l8, lS"/2. 



D. B. Miller 
Louise Miller 
Sidney D. Miller 
Henry Miller 
Amasa J. Smith 
Elisabeth Smith 
Olive Miller 
Cora Smith 
Jeremiah Rhoades 
Annie Rhoades 
William E. Rhoades 
Frank P. Rhoades 
James B. Rhoades 
Olive M. Rhoades 
Alice A. Rhoades 
Lillie D. Rhoades 
Nellie J. Rhoades 
T. W. I jams 



Isaac Ijams 
B. V. Ijams 
Sallie Ijams 
John W. Ijams 
William Ijams 
William Casey 
Bridget Casey 
George Casey 
Willie Casey 
Harrie Casey 
Susan Casey 
Frederick Walker 
John Anderson 
John P. Talbert 
N. J. Patrick 
James Patrick 
Sarah Patrick 
Newton Parker 



M. J. Parker 
Frank Parker 
Harry Parker 
Edward Parker 
Charles Parker 
Robert Bell 
Lucy Bell 
William Bell 
E/L. Bell 
Carrie Bell 
Joseph Bell 
Jacob Eisenberg 
Julia Eisenberg 
Catharine Eisenberg 
John Eisenberg 
Christine Eisenberg 
James Frees 
Mary Frees 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Hannah Frees 
Benjamin W. Goodhue 
Louisa Goodhue 
Gilbert H. Goodhue 
Charlotte Goodhue 

B. W. Goodhue, Jr. 
Artemas Goodhue 
Amy Smith 

Julia Smith 
James Sellenz 
Louise G. Sellenz 
James L. Sellens 
Edna L. Sellens 
Talmadge W. Colburn 
Eva L. Colburn 
H. D. Colburn 
Ezra V". Brown 
Dora I. Brown 

Bell 

C. C. Hutchinson 
Arthur H. Hutchinson 
Carrie M. Hutchinson 
John A. Clapp 
George R. Tucker 
Mathew Dopp 

Dopp 

Thomas Foley 
Thomas B. Campbell 
M. C. Campbell 

H. H. Campbell 
Emily Campbell 
Elisabeth Campbell 
Ulysses Campbell 
William J. Easter 
Wm. E. Hutchinson 
Albert H. Hutchinson 
James Mulligin 
H. MiHigin 
James McPhilbiny 



James Preston 
John Dorson 
J. Dorson 
T. Dorson 
James Nolan 
Luther Dodge 
Ann Dodge 
Mary Dodge 
William Dodge 
Martha Dodge 
Hariet Dodge 
Kitty Dodge 
Luther Dodge 
B. Hess 
Carrie Shields 
Daniel Shields 
Green Shields 
Minnie Shields 
Magg Shields 
Sarah Shields 
Oscar Sturgies 
Harriet Sturgies 
Hariet E. Sturgies 
Charles Sturgies 
Jennie Williams 
Albert Cravens 
Sarah Cravens 
William Hull 
M. Hull 
Oliver Wall 
N. Wall 
Peter Drinnigan 
John Odonnell 
Jesse Brainard 
B. Woodley 
J. M. Fife 
John Craddock 
B. W. Parr 
Peter Laffertv 



James Oconor 
Lewis Holsey 
H. McCarty 
W. S. Pierce 
C. McCorwine 
Davis Gorgan 
Phebe Gorgan 

C. H. Gorgan 
O. Gorgan 

D. Gorgan 

■■ Gorgan 

Gorgan 

Gorgan 

B. J. Miller 
M. Sholtz 
J. G. Rolf 
Mastin Spich 

B. F. Miller 
\V. Chestnut 
R. H. Ryan 
Andrew Palmer 
G. Anderson 

J. C. Talbot 
W. Wiling 
L. G. Patrick 
P. Nerlinger 
S. Liffering 
John Swan son 
P. Swanson 
John Laer 
James Huntsinger 

C. Lass 

S. Esklison 
M. Esklison 
C. Esklison 
Robert Clark 
M. Shehan 
G. McCoy 
T. Croly 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



S. Croly 


W. G. Shields 


Thomas Faley 


P. Croly 


Alice Shields 


Faley 


Patric Croly 


Daniel Shields 


Faley 


G. Canady 


Florence Shields 


M. Thomas 


M. Canady 


Alice Shields 


H. Michael 


H. Canady 


Simon Shields 


John Chatthan 


James Canady 


Malon Taylor 


M. Mehan 


Patric Canady 


Fanny Taylor 


C. Cathamer 


M. McMahon 


E. Taylor 


S. Cathamer 


Peter Brady 


W. H. Holcanst 


J. Cathamer 


A. Jones 


Jennie Holcanst 


Thomas Delany 


P. Carroll 


Mollie Holcanst 


John Morris 


James Milligan 


Hattie Holcanst 


James Colony 


John Richileau 


S. Shields ' 


Alex. Beam 


William Smith 


T. E. Henly 


Andrew Johnson 


William R. Smith 


H. Ersklim 


Thomas Watt 


Thomas Smith 


L. Ersklim 


J. C. Adams 


Daniel Shean 


John Piercesons 


E. C. Whipple 


Daniel Shean, Jr. 


W. Shoaf 


Michael Dolin 


James Shean 


Shoaf 


John Mehan 


Mary Shean 


Shoaf 


Martin Gregory 


Sarah Shean 


J. Parker 


Thomas Slater 


Thomas Brown 


W. Casey 


John Thomas 


John Jones 


B. Casey 


James Persall 


Allen 


G. Casey 


Whieman Rogers 


Michael Sullivan 


W. Casey 


Thomas White 


Patrick Madden 


V. Casey 


John Gaffany 


Lewis S war ens 


U. Casey 


Patrick Doyl 


Sylvia Swarens 


P. Brady 


Olj' Davidson 


A. L. Swarens 


P. Tully 


William Kelley 


Lean tier Swarens 


P. McMahon 


John Carroll 


\V. Ix>vel 


W. Doyl 


T. F. Byren 


Charles Boyles 


E. Butcher 


Thomas Ravi 


Benjamin Carson 


T. Butcher 


Albert Tobin 


I-:. Shaffer 


J. Green 


John Sullivan 


G. Hamil 


Green 


James Williamsoi 


G. Shields 


Green 


Thomas Carroll 


Leander Shields 


— Green 


James Sweeny 


May Shields 


Green 


William Falley 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



A. C. Jeff 


J. Williams 


J. W. Bagley 


W. E. Jeff 


William Williams 


Andrew Olson 


H. A. Jeff 


Williams 


William Messenhelter 


G. A. Jeff 


William Walters 


George Swinehart 


E. N. Jeff 


James Parker ■ 


Alfred Hubbard 


B. J. Jeff 


May Parker 


Henry Kenzart 


Lewis Jeff 


Charles Parker 


Henry Wessen 


Justin Jeff 


James Parker 


H. C. Prentice 


Erastus Pierce 


Lizzie Parker 


W. R. Prentice 


Minus Pierce 


Johny Parker 


Asa Spencer 


Marz. J. Pierce 


May Parker 


Robt. Murphy 


J. W. Upperman 


Moses Parker 


Charles Crosby 


Frank Foster 


Sarah Parker 


George Crosby 


F. U. Smith 


Susie Parker 


Ellen Crosby 


John S. Malsbury 


Katie Parker 


Freeman Crosby 


Sanford Malsbury 


Thomas Hodgson 


Emmet Crosby 


Alice Malsbury 


Hetherington Hodgson 


Lorenzo Crosby 


Lucy Malsbury 


Jennie Hodgson 


Hiram Colgrove 


Sena Malsbury 


May Hodgson 


Edwin Colgrove 


Leigh Malsbury 


E. Uleson 


William Colgrove 


Anisae Kies 


John West 


Samuel Dennis 


Bond 


Henry Brown 


S. F. Dennis 


A. C. Kies 


Henry Hilton 


Mary Dennis 


Kies 


J. Fletcher 


Sarah Dennis 


Reed 


M. Hitchcock 


Jonathan Schenck 


George Boyd 


H. Burns 


Sophia Schenck 


Martin Updegraff 


Charles Ostracon 


Albert Schenck 


Manin Fletcher 


Emnia Ostracon 


Burton Schenck 




F.liza Ostracon 


Farle Stone 






Joan Ostracon 


Emily Stone 






Katie Ostracon 


Prentice Stone 




G. S. Miles 


James Hallowell 


Martha Stone 


M. Sanders 


James Johnson 


Luther Ordwav 


Levica Miles 


S. Williamson 


Sarah Ordway 


J. D. Reid 


F. Smithson 


Smith Ordwav 


S. A. Reid 


William Smith 


Klvira Ordwav 


Charles Reid 


Andrew Henson 


Jane Ordwav 


Katie Reid 


F. P. Hubbard 


Oliver Whiting 


M. Fay 


Charles Burke 


Jonathan Whiting 



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io8 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Sarah Whiting 
Cynthya Whiting 
Edwin Whiting 

Davis 

Hastings 

Putnam 

S. Fairchild 
Edward Fairchild 
]■". Chase 

Maria Chase 
.Matilda Chase , 

George Douglass 
William Douglass 
P. M. Wyatt 
R. S. Wyatt 
Thomas Ellis 
lames Ellis 
Cathrine Walters 
William Walters 
Hubert Rose 
Lewis Rose 
Amanda Rose 
Eliza Rose 
George Nichols 
Sarah Nichols 
Oliver Van Orman 
Elizabeth Van Orman 
Isaac Van Orman 
Harvv Van Orman 
Demaris Van Orman 
Wallace Hadley 
Adelaide Hadley 
Charles Hadley 
C. W. Oxelcon 
Martha Oxelcon 
Nally Oxelcon 
P. Hultkvans 
I. Sadevstion 
M. Oapoul 



B. Janson 

C. Olson 
P. Poison 
J. -Anderson 
Everett 

Broadhead 

John Rowley 
Nancy Rowley 
James Rowley 
George Rowley 
Martin Rowley 
Emetine Rowley 
James Stuyvessant 
Mary Stuyvessant 
Sylvester Lawson 
Calvin Lawson 
Arthur Lawson 
John Talbot 
Martha Talbot 
Delphene Talbot 
Willard Talbot 
William Clark 
Sarah Clark 
Julia Clark 
Alex Moore 
Metikla Moore 
James Moore 
John Sharpe 
Wesley Sharpe 
William Purdy 
Jane Purdy 
Andrew Purdy 
Mary A. Ptirdy 
Eliza Purdy 
William Purdy, Jr. 
John Case 
Mary Case 
James Belmont 
Clarence Belmont 



Peter Wilson 
James Wilson 
Charles Wilson 
Sarah Wilson 
John Hubbard 
James Hubbard 
Sarah Hubbard 
Mary Hubbard 
Kattie Hubbard 
Harly Wendell 
Abbie Wendell 
Moses Winsor 
Charles Winsor 
Carrie Winsor 
Martha (Wiseman) 
James York 
Sarah York 
Elias York 
Betsy York 
James dimming 
Sarah Gumming 
Charles Cumming 
Alfred Cumming 
Edward Marsh 
James Marsh 
Eber Hatch 
Phoebe Hatch 
Sarah Hatch 
Edgar Rawson 
Hubbard Rawson 
Martha Rawson 
Hiram J. Colgrove 
Susan Colgrove 
Elias June 
Moses M. June 
Mira June 
Elizabeth June 
Charles Hardy 
Simon Hardv 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Moses A. Hardy 
Kattie Hardy 
Betsy Hardy 
John Segar 
Kathrine Segar 
Hen rick Zimmerman 
Bunghart Zimmerman 
Gertrude Zimmerman 
David Zimmerman 
Carolinda Zimmerman 
Martha Zimmerman 
Charles Zimmerman 
L. D. Hastings 
J. M. Crane 
James Larson 
Joseph Larson 
James Wheeler 
Grattan Wheeler 
O. H. Seymour 
Edwin Seymour 
Eliza Seymour 
Augusta Seymour 
Allen Drake 
Ayres Drake 
Moses Whitemore 
Samuel Whitemore 
Marshall Whitemore 
Betsy Whitemore 
Joseph Marsh 
Edward Marsh 
James Marsh 
S. P. Marsh 



Abraham Van Scovier 
David Van Scovier 
Jonathan Van Scovier 
W. C. Caldwell 
M. A. Caldwell 
A. B. Caldwell 
Tila Caldwell 
C. A. Haislane 
Marian Haislane 
J. A. Green 
Elizabeth Green 
Charles Green 
Caroline Green 
Fitz Winslow 
Martha Winslow 
Resa Winslow 
Thomas Butcher 
Edriah Butcher 
William Gaston 
Mary Gaston 
Charles Gaston 
A. E. Gaston 
Cab Cork 
Mary Cook 
Henry Cook 
William Cook 
S. C. Huddle 
John Haffrin 
John Walker 
John Robinson 
James Paster 



Charles Foster 
C. W. Metcatf 
James Van Orsdale 
Charles Van Orsdale 
Henry Van Orsdale 
C. W. Johnson 
Ransom Johnson 
Martha Johnson 
Thomas Sheffield 
Sarah Sheffield 
James Sheffield 
Richard Sheffield 
E. D. Baker 
James Butler 
Sarah Butler 
Clark Butler 
Erastus Kent 
Martha Kent 
Rhoderick Kent 
Elizabeth Kent 
William Kent 
Sarah Kent 
Eliza Kent 
Judson Prentice 
Martha Prentice 
Sarah Prentice. 
Willia Prentice 
Jacob Woodward 
Martha Woodward 
Sarah Woodward 
C. C. Hutchinson 



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CHAPTER XII. 
Township Organizations. 

reno township. 

When Reno county was first organized it was put into one township, 
and caller] "Reno Township.'' When other townships were founded they 
were taken from Reno township and that part of the sub-division now bear- 
ing that name is what is left of this organization. Little by little this terri- 
tory has been sliced off and in later years, for different causes — in one case 
convenience for election purposes, — the chunks taken from the once big 
township leaves now only a whittling. So sliced and whittled has Reno 
township been that it lies now partly on the north side of the Arkansas river, 
partly on the south side and is very irregular in its outlines. 

The first township election in Reno township was held shortly after the 
first county election. I'eter Shafer was the first trustee elected. Mr. Shafer 
lived up on Cow creek, in what is now Grant township. D. B. Miller was 
the first township treasurer. He lived then north of town, but his addition 
to Hutchinson, under the name of Miller & Smith's, is now covered with 
houses and the city limits extend a mile north of Miller's old place. S. N. 
Parker was the first township clerk. J.- Rhoades and D. D. Olmstead were 
the first justices of the peace, in both township and county, and John 
McMurry and J. Brown were the first constables. The date of their elec- 
tion was April 16, 1872. The first lawsuit in the county was held before 
"Squire" Olmstead, as he was called. It was filed 011 the 23rd day of April, 
1872. The case was an action in replevin to recover the possession of a 
gray pony of the value of thirty-five dollars. Lewis Josephine was the 
plaintiff against Jacob Eisenbarger. The result of the suit is not recorded. 
Lisenbarger has the further distinction of starting the first graveyard in 
the county. He accidentally killed a man called "Mountain Jack," as spoken 
of in another chapter. 

• Among these first township officers, S. N. Parker and Peter Shafer 
were the ones that became the best known in later years. Mr. Parker lived 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. Ill 

in town and was highly regarded. I'eter Shafer was a whole-souled, com- 
panionable man. He made his home in Grant township through all his life. 
There were three very large Cottonwood trees on his place, the first trees the 
old settlers remember in the valley. His sons and one daughter still live in 
Reno county. While the land he settled on has passed into other hands, it is 
generally known as "the Pete Shafer place." 

Olmstead lived in the county for many years. He was a farmer and 
was generally elected justice of the peace for his township. He was a man 
of good judgment and a good many cases were tried before him in the town- 
ship court. 

VALLEY TOWNSHIP. 

The first township to I>e cut off of Reno was Valley township. Martin 
Hoagland "and 56 others" presented a petition to the county commissioners. 
The election was to have been held on December 7, 1872, hut the county com- 
missioners" record has an entry "because of a disastrous prairie fire in the 
county, the election was not held on the date set, but will be held on January 
8, 1873." The first township officers selected were: Trustee, Martin Hoag- 
land; township clerk, H. Lyman; justice of the peace, J. H. Lawson. and 
constables, William Ballinger and J. A. Reid. Of these officers, Martin Hoag- 
land and his wife are both still living in Hutchinson. They reared a large fam- 
ily of boys and girls. Two of the boys, Arthur and Walter, are in the clothing 
business in Hutchinson. Mr. Hoagland has been a very active man in Hutch- 
inson and Reno county. He is one of the few of the original members of the 
local post of the Grand Army of the Republic left, and has perhaps helped in 
iimes of distress in more homes than any other of the old settlers in this county. 
J. H. Lawson died several years ago. He was interested in politics and was a 
member of the Legislature from the eastern district one term. William Bal- 
linger was a stalwart character, who lived in Valley township many years 
and later moved to Hutchinson and engaged in the machinery business. He 
died out on the Pacific coast, where he lived the latter days of his life. 

OTHRR TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATIONS. 

There were four other townships organized shortly after Valley town- 
ship was cut off of the original territory. These were: Little River, Haven, 
Castleton and Center townships. Petitions for the organization of these town- 
ships were all presented to the board of county commissioners on the same 
day. May 14, 1872. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



t TOWNSHIP. 



The petition for the laying out of Little River township was presented 
by S. N. Riggs "and sixty others." The township got its name from the 
stream that runs through it — the Little Arkansas. The election resulted in the 
selection of the first officers as follows : Trustee, H. P. Thomas ; clerk, H. \Y. 
McKinney; treasurer, J. P. Cassiday; Henry Hartford and J. F. Black, con- 
stables. Of these, two afterwards were elected to county offices. J. P. Cassi- 
day was county superintendent in 1875 and 1876. He left Reno county 
years ago. Henry Hartford is still living in Hutchinson, having retired 
from farming. Mr. Hartford was sheriff of Reno county from 1872 to 1877. 
He is an old soldier and an active member of Joe Hooker Post, Grand Army 
of the Republic, at Hutchinson. Mr. Hartford through all of his years has 
been an exceedingly active man. He was generally a delegate for his town- 
ship, Medora, when the old political system of conventions was in vogue. He 
has been one of the staunchest men in the development of the county. He kept 
in touch with the progressive men of the county and is one of the "boomers" 
worthy of the highest praise, a man who believed in the county and followed his 
beliefs with his actions. 

HAVEN TOWNSHIP. 

Haven township was organized on a petition presented by "J. U. Schoon- 
over and 57 others." The first election in that township resulted as follows: 
Trustee, C. W. Peckham; clerk, David Hess; treasurer, D, McArthur; jus- 
tice of the peace, Richard Astle. I. N. Gray and Henry Chalcomb were chos- 
en constables. Mr. Schoonover, Mr. Peckham, Mr. Astle and Mr. Gray 
were among the most conspicuous of the early figures in township and in 
county affairs. Mr. Schoonover was one of the fanners of Haven town- 
ship and spent his last days in that township. He was a public-spirited man 
and took an active interest in all public matters. C. W. Peckham, the first 
township trustee, has been identified with the business and political inter- 
ests of the county from the time of his settlement in Reno county until the 
present time. He was a leader among the fanners in the Grange move- 
ment. He is still actively engaged and enjoys a competence of worldly 
goods as well as the highest regard of neighl)ors and friends. Mr. Astle 
was a successful farmer and spent his last days in Haven townhsip. He was 
identified with the schools of his city — Haven— and took a wide interest all 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



his life in public matters. I. X. Gray was elected representative in the Leg- 
islature and was a man who had the highest interest and enjoyed the con- 
fidence of his neighbors. 

CLAY TOWNSHIP. 

The petition for cutting the territory of Clay township from the orig- 
inal Reno township was presented by "J. R. Lindsey and 55 others," as the 
records of the county commissioners show. The township's first election 
resulted in the selection of S. N. Praker as trustee; Thomas Butcher, clerk; 
Frank Maguire, treasurer, and J. P. Lindsey as justice of the peace, with 
M. O. Sullivan and John Talbott as constables. Of these men only two are 
now living, Frank Maguire and Mr. O'SuIlivan. Both remained on their 
farms until the infirmities of age required that they cease their activities. 
Mr. Maguire was a man of keen intellect, possessed of one of the best mem- 
ories of any man in the county, one on which he relied for correct restate- 
ment of facts years after their happening. Mr. O' Sullivan's home is still 
in Reno county, but he spends the greater part of his time with his son, who 
is a Catholic priest in another county. John Lindsey moved to Hutchinson 
and was engaged in the real estate business for many years, dying years 
ago. 

CASTLETON TOWNSHIP. 

Castleton township was another of the townships whose petitions were 
presented to the commissioners on May 14, 1872, "A. B. Smith and 62 
others" signing it. The township was named in honor of the 
home of the lady whom C. C. Hutchinson expected to wed, he being a wid- 
ower at the time he came to Reno county. That place was Castleton, Ver- 
mont. Both the township and the town were named for that place. The 
first officers of this township were: Trustee, John H. Medbury; clerk, 
T. A. Fuller ; treasurer, John Walker ; justice of the peace, A. B. Smith, 
with John P. Walker and John H. Shore as constables. None of these men 
ever became prominent in Reno county. 

CENTER TOWNSHIP. 

Center township was organized on October 2, 1873, "W. L. Teeter 
and 52 others" signing the petition. The first officers chosen were: Trus- 
tee, William Teeter ; clerk, W. H. Faris ; treasurer, R. S. King. William 



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114 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Cecil was elected justice of the peace ami H. H. Cramptun, constable. This 
name was chosen because the township is in the geographical center of the 
county. 

NAMED IN PRESIDENT LINCOLN'S HONOR. 

Lincoln township was named after President Lincoln. The date of its 
first election was fixed for October 2, 1873, but the failure to receive the 
election ballots caused the election to be held on November II, 1873. The 
petition for its organization was presented by "M. L. Reading ami fifty 
others." The first officers elected were: Trustee, \V. R. Marshall; clerk, 
J. L. Smith; treasurer, A. D. Deffenbaugh ; justices of the peace, C. C. 
Chapin and E. G. Handey; constables, J. A. Grayson and.E. H. Cooper. 
This list of names included the names of three men who afterward became 
county officers and two of the men on this township board are still living 
in Hutchinson, J. L. Smith and C. C. Chapin. The trustee, W. R. Mar- 
shall, was county clerk of Reno county from 1883 to 1887. J. L. Smith, 
or as he is generally known, "Fay" Smith, has held more offices in Reno 
county than any other man in the county. He has been county commis- 
sioner, sheriff, register of deeds and clerk of the district court and has the 
reputation of being the best "vote getter" that ever lived in Reno county. 
He is a genial man, is well acquainted and moves along the line of the least 
resistance. E. S. Handy was clerk of the district court for three terms. He 
moved to Hutchinson from Lincoln township after his election and lived 
in that city until the time of his death. He was a successful business man 
and was highly regarded by people who knew him. J. A. Grayson, the first 
constable, soon moved to Hutchinson and engaged in the coal business. He 
was interested in western Kansas land and was one of the men who founded 
Hartland, in Kearney county. C. C. Chapin still lives in Hutchinson and 
is a stout and vigorous man. 

NICKERSON (GRANT) TOWNSHIP. 

"Nickerson" township was cut off from Reno township on April 28, 
1872. It was named for H. R. Nickerson, superintendent of the Santa Fe 
railroad at that time, but its name was changed to Grant township by a 
petition on May 20, 1873. Its offices were at that time officers of Reno 
township except R. L. Foster and have been referred to under the organi- 
zation of Reno township. It was necessary, because the officers chosen in 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. IIS 

the organization of Nickerson township were not residents of Reno town- 
ship, to elect other officers for Reno township. S. D. Hunt was appointed 
to serve as trustee for the township until the general election in Novem- 
ber, 1873. 

SALT CREEK TOWNSHIP. 

In the early part of 1874, the balance of the county was districted off 
into townships, and the petition for the organization of Langdon, Medford, 
Salt Creek and Troy townships were presented at one time — March 24, 
1874. Salt Creek's petition was headed by F. W. Calais and had fifty other 
signers. The first officers elected for that township were: Trustee, J. J. 
Carey; clerk, C. H. Phillips; treasurer, J. F. Nelson; justice of the peace, 
T. B. Hand, and D. H. Holliday, constable. None of these men ever held 
any county office. D. H. Holliday lived in Hutchinson the latter days of 
his life, running a grocery store on South Main street. 

TROY TOWNSHIP. 

Troy township's petition bore Zeno Tharp's name as the first one to 
ask for a new township. Mr. Tharp was the. leader in his township in his 
day, a man shrewd and energetic. In the election of the township's first 
officers, M. J. Trembly was chosen for trustee; Israel Slack, clerk; James 
Shanley, treasurer; Sam Slack and Zeno Tharp, justices of the peace; 
James Ray, constable. Of these, Tharp was the best known. Both Israel 
and Safn Slack were also men of high character and important factors in 
their township history. 

LANGDON TOWNSHIP. 

Langdon was the last of the four townships to be cut out of the orig- 
inal territory of Reno township. Its first officers were: Trustee, J. S. 
Ulmer; clerk, G. W. Brown: treasurer, J. Flliott; justice of the peace, W. 
H. Collins; constable, Isaac Jordan. 

These twelve townships cut from the original township of Reno made 
the thirteen townships that first constituted the sub-division of Reno county. 
All of the present townships of the county, other than these thirteen original 
townships, into which all of the land of Reno county was originally cut, 
have been taken from the territory of those thirteen original townships. 
From time to time, for the convenience of the citizens, other townships 



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Il6 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

have been created by the dividing up of these original townships. The 
principal reason for organizing other townships has l>een to have a more 
convenient place for voting, a place closer than would be possible with the 
larger township; second, the task of working the roads could not be handled 
as satisfactorily as in a smaller and more compact body, and third, at assess- 
ing time, it became impossible for one man to cover the large territory as 
it became more thickly settled. These reasons were the ones urged when 
peitlons were presented for decreasing the size of the townships of the 
early day. 

The origin of all of the names of these original townships can not now 
be determined. Some of them have already been given. Troy township 
was named by Zeno Tharp and in all of his writings to the newspapers of 
that day, he constantly referred to "Beautiful Troy." It was named by Mr. 
Tharp after ancient Troy, in Troas, the scene of Homer's "Iliad." 

Salt Creek township got its name from a stream that runs through the 
territory of the township and the stream's name originated from the brack- 
ish, salty taste of the water. On some of the earlier maps its name was put 
down as "Clear creek," but on all recent maps it has had the name of Salt 
creek. Neither the origin of the names of Langdon or Medford townships 
can now be ascertained. The other townships of the county — nineteen in 
number — will be treated of in a subsequent chapter. 

MEDFORD TOWNSHIP. 

The petition for the organization of Medford township was presented to 
the board of county commissioners on March 24, 1874. It was signed by X. 
Dixon and fifty-four others. The new township as described on the petition 
states that its boundary lines should be as follows: "Beginning at the south- 
east corner of township 23, range 8 west, running west to the west boundary 
line of Reno county, thence north to the northwest corner of Reno county, 
thence east to the southern banks of the Arkansas river, following the river 
in a southeasterly direction till it should strike the east line of range 8, thence 
south to the place of beginning. The first officers chosen at the election held 
on April 12, 1874, were: Trustee, C. Littlefield; treasurer, U. S. Helm; 
clerk, W. J. Eliot. The origin of the name Medford is not known, nor why 
this township was given this name. Other early officers of Medford township 
were: Trustee, W. R. Hoffman: clerk, F. S. McDennet; treasurer, C. B. 
Brooks: justice of the peace, J. O. Wheeler: constable, John A. Given. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. II7 

MIAMI TOWNSHIP. 

Of the organization of Miami township nothing is to be found in the 
county records except the date of the election of the first officers. The peti- 
tion for its organization was filed on April 4, 1875. The first officers elected 
were: Trustee, Noah Ballew; clerk, H. Geezling; treasurer, J. A. Campton; 
justice of the peace, J. F. Graham; constable, G. J. Lamont. 

GROVE TOWNSHIP. 

Grove township was the next to be organized. It was cut out of Lang- 
don township. It consists of township 25, range 10, and township 26, ranges 
9 and 10. The petition for the organization of this township was filed on 
October 3, 1876. The first election in the township resulted in the election of 
W. J. Van Eman, trustee; A. H. Myers, clerk; F. H. Hickman, treasurer; 
R. O. Van Eman and O. L. Ely, constables, and Noah Ballew, justice of the 
peace. 

NORTH HAYES TOWNSHIP. 

North Hayes township was made by cutting Hayes township in two and 
the northern part of the township given the name 'of North Hayes. The 
petition for its organization was filed by "T. V. Starr and fifty others." It 
consists of sections 1 and 36 in township 22, range 10. The first election was 
held on April 7, 1874, and resulted in the selection of W. R. Hoffman, trus- 
tee; S. W. McDermed, clerk; C. B. Brooks, treasurer, J. O. Wheeler, justice 
of the peace, and H. Dixon, constable. 

YODER TOWNSHIP. 

Yoder township was the last township organized. It was cut out of 
Lincoln township. The agitation for the organization of this new township 
was kept up for many years. One board of county commissioners refused 
to create the new township, but A. M. Switzer and others kept up the agita- 
tion until it was finally granted by the county commissioners. Its description 
is as follows: Commencing at the southwest corner of section 31, township 
24, range 5 west, thence north to a point where the Arkansas river cuts the 
west line of section 30, township 23, range 5 west, said part being the most 
northern part of Lincoln township, thence in a southeasterly direction along 



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Il8 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

the south bank of the Arkansas river to a place where said river touches the 
east line of Haven township, thence south to place of beginning. The petition 
asking for the creation of. this township was filed on June 9, 1911, and was 
finally granted on March 4, 1915. 

The Reno county commissioners organized townships outside of Reno 
county by virtue of a law passed in 1873, Dv which unorganized counties were 
attached to organized counties, with a further provision that the townships 
of the unorganized counties might petition the county commissioners of 
organized counties to organize their township. Under this law Harper town- 
ship, which at that time consisted of all of what is now Harper county, was 
organized. This petition was signed by C. W. Johns "and fifty others." It 
is probable that but a very small part of these petitioners ever were in Harper 
county, but that Harper county was organized by Reno county men; for a 
close scrutiny of the names of these petitioners shows that most of them were 
carpenters and others working on the iron bridge that was being built across 
the Arkansas river, as shown by receipts on file with the clerk of Reno county. 
The date of this petition for the organization of Harper township was Sep- 
tember 1, 1873. 

In like manner Kingman township, Kingman county, was organized by 
the county commissioners. A petition was presented to the county commis- 
sioners of Reno county on May 24, 1873, signed by J. K. Fical "and thirty- 
five others." It was named "Kingman township" and embraced the entire 
county of Kingman. The election was held on the 1st day of June, 1873. 
The vote was canvassed by the Reno county commissioners on June 15, 1873, 
and the result of the election was published. 

LATHR ORGANIZED TOWNSHIPS. 

In a former chapter relating to the organization of the original town- 
ships, the ones that were first created out of the one township into which 
Reno county was placed, at the organization of the county, something has 
been said (where known) of the origin of the names of these townships, and 
the names of the first officers of those townships were given. Since that time 
there have been nineteen other townships created by the taking of territory 
from the older townships. These subdivisions were made largely as a matter 
of convenience for the people. In the beginning the commissioners laid down 
a rule governing of the making of new townships. That rule was that no 
township should be created with less than thirty square miles of territory. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. Iig 

They considered this size as a minimum, as it would be possible to locate the 
voting precincts so that it would not be far for any voter in the township to 
go for election purposes, and for the further reason that such a sized town- 
ship would be all that could be conveniently and expeditiously assessed by one 
man, within the time prescribed by the statutes. They adopted another rule, 
that the township should have at least fifty electors, and, using as a basis five 
persons to a family, they insisted that the proposed township should have at 
least three hundred and fifty bona fide residents before the petition for a sep- 
aration from other organized townships would be considered ; when petitions 
for such organizations should thereafter be made, the petitioners should 
show affirmatively that the three conditions laid down had been met. 

GROVE TOWNSHIP. 

The first township to be formed under this rule was Grove township. It 
was taken from the territory formerly in Langdon township. The petition 
was presented to the county commissioners on October 3, 1876. The terri- 
tory to be cut off from Langdon was township 25, range 10 west, and town- 
ship 26, ranges 9 and 10 west. ■ The first election was held at the regular 
election time, November 7, 1876. The next townships to be organized were 
Sumner and Loda. The petitions for the creation of these two townships 
were presented on the same day, July 3, 1877. Sumner township was named 
for Charles Sumner. The territory of the new township was located in the 
extreme southeastern corner of the county. It was described in the petition 
as follows : "Beginning at the northeast corner of section 36, town 25, range 
4; thence running west nine miles to the northwest corner of section 34, town 

25, range 5; thence scdHh on the section line to the south line of the county; 
thence east to the southeast corner of said county of Reno to the place of 
beginning." The first election resulted in the selection of the following offi- 
cers: Trustee, J. N. Phillips; clerk, S. Morris; treasurer, N. E. Vandeman ; 
justices of the peace, R. Alexander and J. Adams; constable, F. Nichols and 
George Brown. 

LODA TOWNSHIP. 

Loda was the township organized at the same time Sumner township 
was created. It was taken from Langdon township by cutting off township 

26, range 8, from Langdon. The first election was held at the time of the 
general election and resulted in the selection of the following officers: Trus- 



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120 REIiO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

tee, W. H. Warner; clerk, J. C. Layman; treasurer, \V. A. Watkins; justice 
of the peace, William Potter; constable, J. M. Jones. 

HAYES TOWNSHIP. 

Hayes township was the next one created. It was cut off from what was 
originally Medford township. The date of the petition for the creation of 
this new township was October 6, 1877. The boundary lines set out in the 
petition describes the territory of the new township to be, "All that part of 
Medford township lying west of a line running from the northeast corner of 
section 3, township 22, range 9, west to the southeast comer of section 34, 
township 23, range 9, to be set off and called Hayes township." The election 
for the first officers of the new township was held at the residence of Harry 
Hill, Mr. Hill having been named trustee of the township until the election 
was held. This election resulted as follows: Trustee, S. R. Boyd; clerk, \V. 
W. Osborn; treasurer, H. A. Hill; justices of the peace, Jonathan Duer and 
S. J. Caldwell ; constables, Mitchell Hunt and John Pool. 

BELL TOWNSHIP. 

Bell township was the next one cut off from the original thirteen town- 
ships into which Reno county was first organized. This township was named 
for Mrs. Bell Van Emmon, one of the pioneer women of that township. The 
petition for its organization was presented to the county commissioners on 
October 7, 1878. The territory for the new township was taken from Grove 
township by cutting off all of township 26, range 9. The election for officers 
was held at the time of the regular election and resulted in the selection of 
the following as officers of the township for the first year: Trustee, B. 
Deweese; clerk. J. R. Brown; treasurer, J. Barnett; justice of the peace. VV. 
Heaton ; constable, C. E. Doty. 

ALBION TOWNSHIP. 

The petition for the creation of Albion township was presented to the 
commissioners, the day after the Bell township petition was granted. October 
8, 1878. This township was formed by cutting off the south half of Castle- 
ton township. The election for the first township officers was held at the time 
of the regular annual election. The first officers chosen for the new town- 
ship were: Trustee, W. H. Marks; clerk, G. W. Frank; treasurer, Janies 
Fay; justice of the peace, V. O. Burns; constable, J. H. Shore. 



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KENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



NAMED FOR ROSCOE CONKUNG. 



Roscoe township was the next to be created. The petition for the crea- 
tion of the same was presented to the county commissioners on August 23, 
1879. The township was named for Roscoe Conkling, then .a United States 
Senator from New York and one of the leading Republicans of the country. 
The territory for this new township was taken from Troy township, town- 
ship 26, range 4 west. The election of the first township officers was held 
on August 23, 1879, but there is no record of the officers chosen at this 
election. 

ENTERPRISE TOWNSHIP. 

Enterprise township was organized by the presentation of a petition on 
April 9, 1879, to the county commissioners. The territory for the new town- 
ship was formerly Medford township. To make the new township, all of 
township 23, range 8, and two miles off of the west side of township 23, range 
9, were set off and given the name of Enterprise township. The first election 
was held on May 27, 1879. ■ No record is available of the result of this elec- 
tion, as the county clerk of the period found it a great deal easier to "file" 
the report of the election in some pigeon-hole rather than take the trouble to 
put it in permanent form in the records of the county commissioners, where 
such records should be kept. 

PLEVNA TOWNSHIP. 

Plevna township was created on August 2. 1879, by a petition to the 
board of commissioners. This new township was taken from Westminster, 
township 24, ranges 9 and 10, being sliced off of Westminster to make the 
land of the new township. The first election resulted in choosing the follow- 
ing for township officers: Trustee, J. B. Russell; clerk, J. W. Campbell; 
treasurer, Richard Kinnaman ; justice of the peace. X. P. Gregg: constable, 
John Berry. 

IIUNTSVII.LE TOWNSHIP. 

Huntsville township's petition was signed by "T. B. Totten and fifty- 
two others," asking for the creation of a new township, and was filed with 
the county commissioners on May 19, 1885. It was found to conform to all 
the things required to form a new township and its creation was authorized 
and the first election held. This township was taken from both Hayes and 



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122 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Enterprise townships, and consists of all of township 23, range 9 west. The 
election resulted as follows: Trustee, George McKeoun; clerk, A. L. Minter, 
Si\, treasurer, William Holmes: justice of the peace, S. B. Rogers; con- 
stable, H. H. Van Liber. 

WALNUT TOWNSHIP. 

Walnut township was also created by the lx>ard of commissioners at 
the same time the petition was presented for the creation of Huntsvitle town- 
ship. This township was taken from a part of Hayes and a part of Medford 
townships. The first election was held on May 28, 1885, and resulted in the 
selection of the township officers who should hold until the election in the 
fall. But no record is to be found of these first officers, the same no doubt 
having been duly "filed" instead of being recorded. 

SYLVIA TOWNSHIP. 

The petition for the creation of Sylvia township was presented to the 
board of commissioners on October 7, 1886. It was signed by B. B. Wilson 
"and fifty-two others." It was taken from the municipal township of Plevna, 
the west half, consisting of township 24, range 10 west. The first election 
took place on November 2, 1886, and resulted in the selection of B. B. Wil- 
son for trustee ; Charles A. Payton for clerk ; T. J. Hanley for treasurer ; J. S. 
Curra and J. M. Talbbtt, justices of the peace, and W. H. S. Benedict and 
Cicero Williamson, constables. 

MEDORA TOWNSHIP. 

On December 3, 1888, Henry Hartford headed a petition and eighty- 
eight others likewise signed it, asking for the creation of Medora township. 
It was to be taken from Little River and a part of Clay townships. It was 
irregular in its form and the description of the township was as follows: 
"Commencing at the northeast corner of section 6, township 22, range 4, 
west: thence running east to the southeast corner of section 31, township 22. 
range 4 west; thence west to the southwest comer of section 36, township 
22, range 5 west; thence north to the northwest coiner of section 25, town- 
ship 22, range 5 ; thence west to the southwest comer of section 19, township 
22, range 5 west: thence north to the northwest corner of section 6. town- 
ship 22, range 5. west; thence east to the place of Iwginning." 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



ARLINGTON TOWNSHIP. 



On January 4, 1881, Robert Burling and "fifty-six others" presented a 
petition for the creation of a new municipal township, which they wanted 
named Arlington, after the famous "Arlington Heights." The territory was 
to be obtained by taking the east half of what was then Langdon township. 
The geographical description of the new township was as follows: Town- 
ship 25. range 8 west. The election of the first officers of the new township 
was fixed for February 5, 1881. The commissioners granted the petition for 
the new township and the election was held on the date fixed, but here again 
it evidently was found easier by the clerk of that day to file the results of 
the election in some pigeon-hole rather than to record it, so no names are 
available for the first officers of Arlington township. 

NINNESCAH TOWNSHIP. 

Ninnescah township was organized on July 1, 1889. Samuel Adanison 
headed a petition of the residents of what is now Ninnescah township to cut 
off part of Albion and Sumner townships and make the new township that 
was to be named after the stream that flowed through that part of Reno 
county. The new township was to be composed of all of township 26, south 
of range 5, west of the sixth principal meridian and section 34, 35 and 36 in 
township 25, south of range 6. The board of county commissioners granted 
the petition and fixed the date of the first election for August 5, 1887. 



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CHAPTER XIII. 
Political Parties. 

Reno county was settled in the earliest days largely by old soldiers. 
They had returned from the war and found conditions in their former 
homes unsatisfactory. With many of them the spirit of independence and 
adventure had been stimulated by the war. The free homestead lands in 
the west were an attraction to them. As a natural result of this, the Repub- 
lican party Iwcame the dominant one here and has remained such through 
at! the years since the organization of the county. 

There was another thing which tended to strengthen this party. The 
county was settled by people from Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, states of a 
similar climate, which were Republican, and the early settler brought his 
l>olitics with him when he came west. There were few people from the 
Southern states, but they were equally as strong in their belief in Demo- 
cratic principles as the Northern emigrant was in the Republican faith. 

RELATIVE PARTY STRENGTH. 

The first election in Reno county where national political lines were 
drawn and which would give an indication of how the two political parties 
stood, was in 187.1. That year, T. J. Ryan, candidate for Congress on the 
Republican ticket, received 1,105 v °tes and S. J. Crawford, Democrat, 
received 356 votes. In local matters, the personality of the candidate often 
was a factor and cannot lie used to indicate the party preferences of the 
voters. In the general election of 1876, George T. Anthony, Republican 
candidate for governor 'of Kansas, received 1,072 votes and John Martin, 
the Democratic nominee, received 390 votes. The presidential electors of 
the two parties varied but little from the votes cast for each political party 
for their candidate for governor and at this time it would indicate that 
Reno county was Republican in a general way, by a ratio of three to one. 

In 1877 the average strength of each of the parties was found in the 
vote for county clerk. That year. W. H. Beaty received 1,082 votes and 
George D. Barclay. 209 votes. However, this was an "off" year, a year 



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IENO COUNTY, KANSAS. I25 

in which only local matters were issues and the minority party in those 
years seldom cast its proportionate part of the vote. In 1878 the vote on 
governor showed a new element in the party. John P. St. John was the 
Republican candidate for governor, J. R. Goodin, the Democratic candi- 
date, and for the first time the Greenback party had a candidate. D. P. 
Mitchell was his name. St. John received 1,477 votes, Goodin, 462, and 
Mitchell, 149. This vote was the first indication of what has been one of 
the marked characteristics of the county—a tendency toward independent 
voting, that some years is intensified and has resulted in reducing the 
Republican majority and in some instances resulting in making this dominant 
party temporarily a minority party. This independence in voting in 1878 
resulted in giving J. T. Cox, then a resident of Hutchinson, Democratic 
candidate for attorney-general, 904 votes, while his Republican opponent 
received 1,168 votes. In this case Cox's vote was more than one-third 
above his party vote. In this election, Thomas Ryan, Republican candidate 
for Congress from the third congressional district, of which Reno county 
was then a part, received 1 ,404 votes ; Frank Doster, Greenback candidate, 
received 403 votes and J. B. Fugate, Democratic candidate, received 166 
votes. J. R. Hallowed, candidate for congressman-at-large on the Repub- 
lican ticket, received 1,367 votes and S. J. Crawford, Democratic candi- 
date received 683 votes. 

THE PROHIBITION QUESTION. 

At this election the prohibitory amendment to the state Constitution 
was voted on. A vigorous campaign was made in behalf of prohibition 
and a bitter fight made on it. In a general way the Republicans voted for 
it and the Democrats opposed it. This was due largely to the fact that the 
Republican platform declared for prohibition. The result in the county 
over this question was that the prohibitory amendment received 1,006 votes 
and there were 932 votes against the amendment. This vote indicates that 
about 300 Republicans must have voted against the prohibitory amendment 
The facts, as now recalled by those who participated in that election, were 
that probably 450 Republicans, or about one-third of the party, voted against 
the prohibitory amendment, while probably one-fifth of the Democrats voted 
for the amendment. The sentiment of the county was for the prohibition 
of the liquor traffic. 

Reno county has ever since that vote been a staunch supporter of prohi- 
bition. There have been, times, many of them, when saloons were run in 



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126 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Hutchinson and in some of the other towns of the county. This has been 
due to two factors — one, that a large percentage of the people were opposed to 
the law originally, which h;is had its effect on the political parties in mak- 
ing their nominations for the executive officers of the county, they looking 
for candidates who would not show too severe an opposition to the saloon 
business. Another factor, and perhaps the one that had the most to do 
with the violation of the law, was the substitution of a fine system under 
some of the city administrations, which practically meant high license instead 
of prohibition. This condition existed under several of the city adminis- 
trations and was only ended by the passage of a law that put city and 
county officers in danger of impeachment and ouster from their office by 
the attorney-general of the state for a failure to enforce the prohibitory 
law. The argument used by the city officials was that whiskey would be 
sold anyhow and the city should derive some revenue from its sale. This 
argument was dispelled as soon as the ouster law became effective and 
showed the weakness of the statement which had been an excuse for failure 
to enforce the law. This law has likewise been misused to boom some 
weak candidates for office, men who could not appeal to the people on their 
qualifications, but used it as a slogan to obtain votes. But in a general way, 
the prohibitory law has been enforced about as well as any other criminal 
statute. 

One of the most notable political contests in Reno county was that 
between Chester I. Long and Jerry Simpson for congressman. Reno county 
was the largest county in the district anil l>ecame the center of the contest 
in each of four |>oiitical campaigns in which these two men were candidates. 
Perhaps the greatest local meeting ever held in Reno county, one in which 
partisanship was at its height, was at the joint debate held in the old audi- 
torium at Riverside park. Party feeling was bitter. The debate was 
largely over the monetary question, whether it was better for the countrv to 
have the gold standard or the "double standard," the latter being contended 
for by Simpson. 

The largest political meeting and, for that matter, the largest crowd ever 
assembled in Hutchinson was on October 3, 1894, when William McKin- 
ley, then chairman of the ways and means committee of the house of repre- 
sentatives, spoke in "this city. The railroads granted a one-cent-a-mile rate 
from all points within three hundred miles of Hutchinson. Even- avail- 
able bit of equipment was used by the railroads, some of them being forced 
to use freight cars to accommodate the people desiring to come to Hutchm- 



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KENO COUNTY, KANSAS. I 2J 

son. It was estimated that there were over one hundred thousand people 
in Hutchinson, only a small portion of these people being able to hear 
McKinley speak. All of the chairs were taken out of the building and 
everybody stood up. Xot only was the floor packed to suffocation, but the 
rafters of the unfinished auditorium became perches for men who wanted 
to hear the man who then was making a campaign for nomination for Presi- 
dent of the United States. 

Another great gathering of a political nature was in 1912, when Will- 
iam H. Taft, then President of the United States, visited Hutchinson, lay- 
ing the corner stone of the convention hall in Hutchinson and addressing 
the crowd at the state fair grounds. Tt was an immense crowd, but strangely 
different from the McKinley meeting, which was marked by the highest 
enthusiasm, while the Taft meeting was very noticeable for the absence of 
any demonstrations of favor toward the speaker. 

Prior to the establishment of the state primary system, all of the political 
parties made nominations by delegate conventions. The foundation of this 
, system rested with the party caucus, at which time delegates were selected 
to the county convention, where county candidates were selected. In state 
matters, this county convention selected delegates to the state convention, 
which nominated the party candidates for state offices. When delegates to 
the national convention were to be selected, the state convention selected 
the men to represent the state. Frequently those delegates were instructed 
how they were to vote in the convention to which they had been sent. This 
system developed what were called "Itosses", party leaders who selected the 
delegates and candidates and then sought to get the delegates to ratify their 
choice. In many ways this system was very satisfactory, but its abuses 
were in the spirit of the leaders, who grew arrogant in the power they 
wielded in practically having the control of the offices. Their choice was 
generally wise, and competent men. were put in office, but it frequently hap- 
pened that the party "bosses" thwarted the choice of the people and named 
subservient candidates who would devote the political energies of their 
officers to the continuing of the "machine", as the organization was generally 
called. All political parties were managed in the same way and it was the 
abuse of the power of naming the candidates that led to the changing of 
the system. 

The protest against the convention system became so vigorous that the 
Legislature -passed the "primary" law, which is in force at the present'trme; 
It reallv amounts to two elections The state controls every feature of the 



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128 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

matter. It prescribes the method by which persons may become candidates, 
furnishes all the ballots, controls the election boards and pays all the expenses 
of selecting the candidates of all parties for all offices. It limits the amount 
of money a candidate can spend to secure either the nomination or the elec- 
tion. In a general way, the primary law has given satisfaction, but the 
abuses which can arise under it are becoming more apparent each year and 
it is becoming more evident that some additional features must be added 
to the law or it will become as distasteful as the old convention system. 
In a general way, the question of publicity is !>ecoming a serious one. The 
best known man necessarily wins and the unknown candidate receives but 
small consideration. Newspaper advertising in a state-wide campaign is 
necessary and in some manner this must l>e obtained; therefore there is a 
great deal of truth in the statement frequently made that running for a 
state or national office is a rich man's game. Perhaps this feature is the 
most objectionable one. Another feature is that incompetent persons are 
sometimes named for office. While some conspicuous instances of this have 
occurred in Reno county, perhaps there have been no more than there were 
under the convention system. 

In a general way, Reno county has been Republican in politics. The 
first breaking from the rule was in 1890, when the Populist party was organ- 
ized. At that time nearly all of the county outside of Hutchinson went 
against the Republicans and the town majority was greatly reduced. The 
county offices were all filled with Populists. Gradually this party has dis- 
appeared, many of its members returning to the Republican party. How- 
ever, there was a large percentage who, while nominally Republican, took 
almost any occasion to break away from the party. This was noticeable in 
1912, when the "Bull Moose" party arose in protest against the methods of 
the Republicans in the national convention that nominated Taft for the 
Presidency. This was a revolt equal in extent to the one in this state that 
created the Populist party, which was over the financial, question. 

As a result of all these political moves, there has grown up in Kansas— 
and this applies to Reno county as well — a political independence that will 
'not tolerate abuse of power by any party. It is the best possible guarantee 
of the better element of society controlling in political matters. With this 
independence, no party rules by reason of its former work. It must meet 
the demands of the day or the people will go to the other political party or, 
if need l>e. create a new one. With this sentiment, popular rule is assured, 
the highest integrity obtained in public officials and the best possible service 
from the servants of the people — the ones who hold the offices. 



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CHAITER XIV. 
The County Commissioners. 

Reno county, under the statutes of Kansas, leaves her financial matters 
in the hands of three commissioners, who are chosen from three separate 
districts of the county. The boundary lines of these districts have been 
changed at various times, the general purpose being to get the population 
of the county divided up into as nearly equal parts as possible. Several 
changes have been made in years past for political purposes — a township 
or ward of a town shifted from one district to another because of its vote, 
but in general the idea of dividing the county as equally as possible accord- 
ing to population has controlled the county commissioners, who make and 
change the boundary lines of the districts. 

The members of the first board of commissioners, appointed by the 
governor of Kansas, were C. C. Bemis, W. J. Van Sickle and W. H. Bell, 
and they were to have charge of county matters until an election could be 
held. They called an election for county officers for Saturday, February 3. 
1872. At this election these three men were chosen for commissioners, to 
serve until the regular election in the fall of 1872, when they were all 
re-elected. 

On August 13, 1874, the county was first divided into commissioner 
districts. The first district consisted of the townships of Clay, Grant, Little 
River, Valley and Reno. At that time Hutchinson was a part of Reno 
township. The second district consisted of the townships of Castleton, 
Lincoln and Haven, and the third district, the balance of the county. 

These township lines have been changed in many ways since 1874, but 
cover about the same territory that is now comprised in the townships that 
compose the three commissioner districts. In 1916 these districts stood as 
follows: First district, the city of Hutchinson; second district, the town- 
ships of Albion, Castleton, Center. Ninnescah, Reno, Roscoe, Lincoln, Little 
River. Medora, Salt Creek, Sumner, Troy, Valley, Yoder and Haven; third 
district, the balance of the countv, seventeen townships in number. 

• (9) 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS 



NOTABLE POLITICAL ROW OF 1873. 



The election of 1873 started in a row and ended in a law suit. The 
contest was nominally the country against the town, but in reality, it was the 
"outs" against the "ins." The result of the election went to the district 
court and on to the supreme court. The result was not announced until 
February 5, 1875. The contest was on county surveyor and the three 
county commissioners. Henry Hartford was continued as sheriff of the 
county; George W. Hardy, county treasurer; R. A. Soper, surveyor, with 
M. A. Sayles, J. S. Houser and William Astle as county commissioners. 
In their contest and anxiety to get their offices they lost the records of their 
opponents, of the men who won, and the vote is also missing. 

In 1874 there were no county commissioners elected, the old ones hold- 
ing over until the contest of 1873 was settled. In 1875 the entire board of 
commissioners were voted on. In the first district, J. M. Beam received 
303 votes and E. J. Russell 122 votes. In the second district, J. W. Cook 
polled ri6 votes, William Astle no, and George Bishop 26 votes. Astle 
waited a year and went into the board the following year after the supreme 
court's decision. P. C. Branch won in the third district, receiving 147 votes, 
J. Elliott 112 votes, and T. J. Anderson 62 votes. There was no election 
in 1876. In 1877 all three commissioner districts held elections. In the 
first district J. B. Potter got 409 votes and G. M. Zinn 117 votes. In the 
second district J. A. Moore received 207 and M. Sharp 63 votes. In the 
third district Elmer Everett polled 281 votes and his opponent, T. J. Ander- 
son, 102 votes. The only man of this board re-elected was Elmer Everett. 
Both Moore and Sharp dropped out of sight politically. Mr. Anderson, 
being a Democrat, was on the minority side. He was a candidate for other 
offices later, but was not successful in politics. However, he was a success 
in business, being later one of the most substantial cattle men of the early 
days. He "lived a long and useful life in Hutchinson, honored and respected 
by all. Mr. Everett still lives in Center township. He has been one of 
the strong men in the county, a man of good, clear judgment, his word as 
good as a bond, successful in business, a good clean man, a pioneer of the 
highest order and a man whom his neighbors trust and honor. 

In 1878 John Gilleland ran for commissioner from the first district, 
receiving 403 votes and D. D. Olmstead 305 votes. This was a race 
between two excellent men. Olmstead was a pioneer of Grant township, a 
justice of the peace and a worthy citizen. Gilleland lived in Valley town- 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



•3i 



ship, and was equally as highly regarded. Gilleland served on the board for 
three years. 

In 1879 A. M. Switzer was a tandidate in the second district against 
S. Smith. He received 329 votes to Smith's 54 votes. Mr. Switzer at that 
time lived in Lincoln township, being one of the earliest settlers in that 
part of the county. He is still vigorous and healthy, living now in the last 
township organized, Yoder township, whose organization was due to Mr. 
Switzer 's persistence and good standing in the county. 

In 1880. Mr. Everett was chosen for a second term from the third dis- 
trict. His opponent was O. S. Jenks, of Turon. The vote stood— Everett, 
856; Jenks, 682. There was no election in 1881. 

PERSONNEL OF THE BOARD DURING THE EIGHTIES. 

In 1882, in the second district, there were three candidates for tlie 
office, A. M. Switzer receiving 223 votes, R. Laughlin, 138 votes and W. 
H. "Northcutt, 146 votes. Mr. Switzer served one term. In 1883, in the 
third district, W. A. Watkins and R. T. Cassidy were the candidates. Mr. 
Watkins polled 488 votes and Mr. Cassidy, 200 votes. Mr. Watkins served 
one term of three years, In 1884 the first district elected commissioners. 
\V. P. D. Fleming was elected over F. M, Wiley, he receiving 937 votes 
and Mr. Wiley, 576 votes. Mr. Fleming was re-elected in 1887, polling 
1,046 votes. In this second race he had two competitors, G. W. Hardy, 
who received 202 votes, and J. P. Theabold, who received 22 votes. In 
1885 there were elections in both the second and third districts. In the sec- 
ond district Frank Maguire beat George H. Benson, he receiving 426 and 
his competitor 297 votes. In the third district J. M. Anderson was elected 
by a vote of 573 to R. T. Cassidy's 301 votes. Mr. Anderson was re-elected 
in 1886, L. M. Hall, running against him, getting 488 votes, and C. M. 
Gray getting 84 votes, while Anderson received 666 votes. Mr. Maguire 
failed to secure a second term, due to a divided vote. He received 788 
votes, while G. M. Zimmerman received 949 votes. W. F. Carson was also 
a candidate in this race, receiving 59 votes, and Minor Crippen received 
169 votes. By reason of the four candidates, elected on local issues, the 
votes that were received by the two lowest candidates were taken largely 
from Maguire. In 1890 W. P. D. Fleming was elected from the first dis- 
trict for the third time. He received 641 votes and W. B. Holmes, his 
competitor, got 356. 

In 1891 J. H. Fountain received 742 votes from the second district for 



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132 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

commissioner, G. M. Zimmerman, 606 and John Parker, 304 votes. Mr. 
Fountain served one term. In 1892 the race was a very close one between 
W. K. Noland and William Patten. Noland received 1,150 votes and 
Patten 1,135 votes. Noland served but one term. He was elected as a 
Populist, but turned Republican "while on the board. At that time the 
county printing was a prize much sought for. The Populist paper had the 
patronage for the first year of Noland's incumbency. But the Republican 
paper induced Noland to change and vote for them. Noland likewise, dur- 
ing his official term, changed his vote on the Haven Angling road case. At 
the first presentation of the case, Noland held the balance of power on the 
board of commissioners and voted then to keep the Angling road open. 
Later when the road case came up again, Noland voted to close the road. 
Noland did not ask for re-election, but shortly after his term of office 
expired he left the county. 

In 1893 W. P. D. Fleming was elected for the fourth term as commis- 
sioner from the first district. He received 817 votes and his competitor, 
C. M. Mulkey, 556 votes. In 1894 D. M. McElwain was elected from the 
second district, receiving 1,008 votes, as against 963 votes for W. D. Ken- 
nedy. In 1895 I. Rutledge, of Arlington, was chosen commissioner from 
the third district. He received 904 votes, M. G. Hackler 748 votes, and 
E. S. Ping, 61 votes. Rutledge was re-elected in 1898 by the small majority 
of 3 votes, Rutledge got' 892 votes and his Democratic competitor, Leeds, 889 
votes. In 1896 H. Miskimen was elected over J. M. Brehm, the former 
receiving 1,100, the latter 760 votes. In 1897, in the second district, J. F, 
McMurray got 753 votes and John Myers, 919 votes. Mr. Myers was re- 
elected in 1900, receiving 1,180 votes to 1,089 Inat his competitor, A. J. 
Tyler, of Haven, received. In 1899 T. F. Leidigh was chosen commis- 
sioner from the first district. In 1901 M. F. Bain received 899 votes in 
the third, or "west" district, to 660 cast for Henry Thompson. Mr. Bain 
was re-elected in 1904. In 1902 there were four candidates for commis- 
sioner in Hutchinson, H. C. Barrett getting 1,115 votes; J. E. Fowler 487 
votes, S. N. Parker 37 votes and A. S. Lech, 89 votes. Mr. Barrett was 
a candidate again in 1906, but he was beaten by Fay Smith, the vote stand- 
ing, Smith, 1,014; Barrett, 989. 

CHANGE IN THE ELECTION LAWS. 

About that time the election laws were changed by the Legislature, 
and by reason of this change the election of part cf the county officers took 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. I33 

place each year, so that the elections would be held every two years. This 
makes two county commissioners' election in one year, instead of one being 
elected each year. As a result, in 1908, there were commissioners to elect 
in the second and third districts. In the second district the two candidates 
were J. M. Bush and J. F. McMurray, the former receiving 1,312 votes 
and the latter, 1,019 votes. In the third district M. F. Bain received 1,195 
votes as against L. G. Bradshaw's 1,100 votes. In 1910 the city district 
No. 1, had a close race between J. Q. Patten and Fay Smith, the latter 
being elected, receiving 1,335 votes to Patten's 1,246 votes. J. M. Dush 
and A. J. Hill were candidates from the second district. J. M. Bush was 
continued in office, getting 1,182 votes and Hill 1,051 votes. In the west 
district Peter Deck received 1,086 votes and J. F. Justice, 1,050 votes. 
Deck was re-elected in 1916, receiving 1,720 votes to 1,694 votes for C. I-. 
Dodd. At the last election for county commissioners in Hutchinson in 
1914 there were three candidates. J. L. Ball received 2,398 votes; Fay 
Smith, 1,967, and H. M. Payne, 925. In 1916 the election in the second 
district was an interesting race, there being an "independent" candidate — 
Rodney Elward. The successful candidate was H. J. Astle, of Haven, who 
received 1,383 votes. Elward received 1,189 votes and T. C. Potter, 1,007; 
so the board of county commissioners at the present time stand : J. I.. 
Ball, first district; H. J. Astle, second district, and Peter Deck, third dis- 
trict. 

PIONEER OFFICIALS LACKED "VISION." 

In a general way the county commissioners, as the financial agents of Reno 
county, have exercised average business judgment in the conduct of the affairs 
of the county. In the early days it was a question of getting the money 
with which to do the business of the county, but the men who transacted 
the business of the county should not be judged by the standard of today. 
by the development of the present time. They were doing the county's 
business for the average man. who less, perhaps than the commissioner of 
his day. saw in the future the great development of the county's resources; 
men who never dreamed that farm values would double time and time 
again ; who thought that the villages of that day would never be more than 
villages, and who thought that cities would never take the place of those 
county villages. With no dream of the future, they planned accordingly. 
They built as the average man would have built. For instance, when the 
present court house was built, it was thought that it would meet the demands 
of the county for generations. Less than twenty years have come and 



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134 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

gone; some of the men holding offices of the county at that time are still 
running for office, and the court house is even now far below the require- 
ments of the time. They considered then that the county superintendent 
of public instruction needed but one small room for an office. They never 
thought in their life time that a larger one would ever be needed. Now, 
when anything more than an average day brings people to that office on 
school business, they must stand around in the corridors of the building and 
await their turn. One small office then was considered all that would be 
needed for generations to come. The county clerk's vault room is filled and 
books of record of the greatest value must be put down in the basement 
for lack of vault room. All over the court house, the inadequateness of 
the building, for even the present, testifies to the smallness of the vision of 
the men who voted the taxes for the building. 

In bridge building, temporary structures were considered ample. 
Wooden culverts were put in, to rot and l>e replaced a half dozen times: 
wooden bridges built, to be torn down and cement structures erected in 
their place, the kind that should have been constructed in the beginning. 
Temporary work done on roads, ample for that day, but absolutely inade- 
quate for the tonnage of today, when the demand for better highways is 
incessant. No man of commanding force opposed them to show the peo- 
ple that a corporation like Reno county, one that would last for hundreds 
of years, one that in fact lias a perpetual existence, should not build as 
individuals build, should not put up temporary structures, but should build 
with a view of the demands of the future. They need not have paid for 
their improvements — they should have extended that indebtedness over long 
years of time — that those of the future might help pay for the development 
of the county. 

Instead of that the temporary means were adopted, and Reno county 
will soon be compelled to rebuild her court house, some of her bridges and 
her roads and ihe man who will arise and show the taxpayer the wisdom 
of the greater view, the economy of permanent improvements, will be the 
man the future taxpayer of Reno county will want to do honor to. 

The selection of H. J. Astle, of Haven township, is one of two instances 
of the son succeeding to the work of his father. In 1873 William Astle, 
the father of H. J. Astle, was chosen county commissioner of Reno county. 
He resided in Haven township and from this township forty-two years 
later came his son as county commissioner. The only other similar instance 
in Reno county history is the election of Harry Ragland to the office of 
register of deeds, which office had been held by his father. 



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CHAPTER XV. 
Probate Judges of Reno County. 

In many respects the office of probate judge is the most important office 
in the county. So far as the title to real estate is concerned alone, it is a 
most important office; for, sooner or later, the title to every piece of real 
estate will have to go through the probate court. In addition, the care of 
estates of minors requires this office to be held in the highest regard, that 
the rights of these minors, who are unable to protect themselves, may receive 
the greatest degree of care from this court. 

In recent years aii added burden has been placed on this court, the care 
of the delinquents and juveniles who have no proper care at their homes. 
This calls for a degree of patience and insight into the ways of these weaker 
members of society that requires the highest intelligence and discernment. 

In order to show the growth of this office and to indicate its import- 
ance, a comparison will be made of the eight principal activities of the pro- 
bate judge's office, namely: Insane cases, foreign wills, domestic wills, 
adoption proceedings, administrator appointments, juvenile cases, marriage 
licenses and foreign and resident guardians appointments. 

There have been two hundred and seventy-two insane cases tried in 
the probate court since the establishment of the court. For convenience, the 
comparisons will be made in ten-year periods, which gives four periods, 
with the balance of the four years which covers the time of the present 
probate judge, Charles S. Fulton. These ten-year periods show the extent 
of the working of the office and the growth that has taken place in the last 
four years. 

For the period of 1872 to 1882, there were thirty-one cases of insanity 
hearings recorded in the probate judge's office. The files are incomplete 
for tlie last eight years, and no files are found in the records of any nature 
for the first two years of the office, consequently for the first two years no 
estimate can be made of the insane cases tried in this county, if there were 
any. For the period of ten years from 1883 to 1892, inclusive, there were 
fifty-five insane hearings in the probate court. In the period from 1892 to 
1902, inclusive, there were forty such cases tried in this court. From 1903 



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I36 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

to 1912, inclusive, the number of such cases tried numbered eighty-seven. 
For the last four years, from 1912 to 1916, fifty-nine cases of insanity have 
been heard and disposed of by this court. In the ten-year period prior to 
the last four-year period, the average has been a little less than six cases 
of insanity a year for the court's consideration, while during the past four 
years the average has been almost twenty cases per year. 

FOREIGN WILLS AND GUARDIANSHIPS. 

During the county's existence there have been filed with the probate 
court two hundred and fifty-eight foreign wills. There has not teen much 
of a variance from one period of ten years with another similar period. The 
foreign wills filed have averaged slightly over six wills of this kind a year. 
In the period from 1893 to 1902, inclusive, a somewhat larger number of 
foreign wills were probated in Reno county. The record of this class of 
business is as follows : 

From 1874 to 1880, no foreign will files found in the court records: 
from 1880 to 1882, inclusive, eleven foreign wills filed: from 1883 to 1893, 
inclusive, sixty-two foreign wills filed; from 1893 to 1902, inclusive, eighty- 
one foreign wills filed; from 1903 to 1912, inclusive, seventy-four foreign 
wills filed; from 1913 to 1916, inclusive, twenty-nine foreign wills filed. 

It is impossible to give the amount of property involved in these cases. 
because the probate court of this county had but little knowledge of the 
estates involved, the instruments being filed in this county because of the 
existence of some property in this county that was covered by the wills 
filed. In many cases the probate court has no means of knowing what the 
value of the property is, as no inventory is filed with the will. Whether 
there were any foreign wills filed in this county from 1874 to 1880 can not 
now be determined, as there is no record of any such wills, if any were filed. 

During the history of this county there have been one thousand and 
sixty-four foreign and resident guardians appointed by the probate court. 
In this, as well as other departments of this office, the early records are 
very deficient. The case files are so deficient that about all that can now 
be ascertained is the number of guardians appointed. The records that 
now exist show that there were ninety-one guardians appointed from 1874 
to 1882. 

From 1883 to 1892, inclusive, there were two hundred and twenty- 
seven appointments of guardians made. From 1893 to 1902, inclusive, 
there were two hundred and seventy-four guardians appointed. From 1903 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. I37 

to 1912, inclusive, there were three hundred and twenty such appointments 
made. In this latter period there were a few more than thirty-five appoint- 
ments, on an average, made per year. In the last four years, from 1913 to 
1916, there were one hundred and forty-two guardians appointed, increas- 
ing the average to about thirty-seven appointments a year. 

APPOINTMENT OF ADMINISTRATORS. 

During the forty-four years of Reno county's organization there have 
been nine hundred and twenty-six administrators appointed by the probate 
court. ■ The early records disclose sixty-eight appointments, with very 
deficient files from 1874 to 1882. From 1883 to 1892, inclusive there were one 
hundred and ninety-nine appointments made. From 1893 to 1902 the court 
appointed two hundred and twenty-five administrators. From 1903 to 1912, 
inclusive, there were three hundred and five appointments made. From 
1913 to 1916, inclusive, there were one hundred and twenty-nine adminis- 
trators appointed. The increase has been, in the last four years, about three 
more administrators of estates by this court per year than in the ten-year 
period previous. 

DEPARTMENT OK DOMESTIC WILLS. 

The probate court of this county has acted on four hundred and thirty- 
three domestic wills during the existence of the court. The records prior 
to 1884 are found to be in such a shape, so indefinite and incomplete as to 
the number of wills probated, scattering and without dates as to filing, so 
that it is impossible to give the number of wills filed in this court during 
that period. 

From 1884 to 1892, inclusive, a period of nine years, fifty-six wills 
were filed for probation. From 1893 t0 '9° 2 > inclusive, there were seventy- 
wills probated. From 1903 to 1912, inclusive, there were one hundred and 
ninety-two wills probated. From 1913 to igrfi, inclusive, one hundred and 
fifteen wills were probated. The number of wills filed in the last four years 
averages twenty-nine wills a year. For the ten-year period previous the 
number averaged nineteen. For the ten years from 1893 to 1902 the aver- 
age number of wills filed each year was seven, and for the nine-year period 
of which the records are obtainable there were six wills filed annually. The 
number of wills filed has gradually increased as property values have 
increased, and there will be a gradual increase as the county develops ami 



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13° KENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

larger estates are to be distributed. The value of the property that passes 
under the care of this court has been estimated by the officers of the court 
for the last four years. If has been computed that at least one million dol- 
lars of value in real estate a year for the last four years is covered by the 
wills filed for probate. The valuation will increase year by year, as the prop- 
erty value of the county increases. Not only the property covered by the 
new wills filed will increase in value, but wills filed in former years that have 
not been closed up, show great increase of property values. 

There is in this court one case of a guardianship that covered a period 
of seventeen years. The property left to the minor heirs was of compara- 
tively small value when the guardian was appointed, but by constant care 
the estate left to the heir at the end of the seventeen years of guardianship, 
was a very valuable one. ' 

ADOPTION CASES AND JUVENILE COURT WORK. 

There have been a total of one hundred and sixty-two adoption pro- 
ceedings filed in the probate court of Reno county. Prior to 1887 no regu- 
lar records were kept of the juvenile cases tried before this court. In some 
of the cases there is no record other than the name, so no accurate record 
prior to 1887 can be given. 

From 1887 to 1893, inclusive, a period of seven years, there were 
thirty-four adoption cases handled by this court. From 1893 to 1902, a 
period of ten years, there were thirty-six adoption cases. From 1903 to 
1913, there were fifty-one such cases, and from 1913 to 1916 there were 
forty-one adoptions. It will be seen that the adoptions at the present time 
maintain an average of ten a year; for the previous ten years, five adoptions 
a year, and a similar proportion in the years preceding, since the records of 
this part of the probate court's work has been kept. 

One of the most exacting duties, one that calls for patience, judgment, 
sympathy and kindness, is dealing with the juvenile court work. This work 
is the care of the boys and girls who for various causes have been consid- 
ered incorrigible by the schools, or boys and girls whom their parents are 
unable' to control, the latter thus appealing to the probate court for assist- 
ance. It embraces likewise the attention of the youthful criminals, and the 
record of cases filed indicates only a small per cent, of this work that the 
court has to do. Hundreds of cases are handled by the probation officer, 
under the direction of the court, and settled satisfactorily out of court with- 
out expense to the county for court costs or witness fees. Fully ninety per 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 1 39 

cent, of the juvenile cases are not recorded. This court kept no regular 
docket for juvenile cases prior to 1904. From 1904 to 1912, inclusive, a 
period of nine years, one hundred and fifty-five juvenile cases were consid- 
ered by the probate court of Reno county, while one hundred and forty-two 
cases have been handled in the last four years, making a total of two huu- ■ 
dred and ninety-seven cases of tins kind on the records of the probate court. 

COMPLETE RECORD OK MARRIAGE LICENSES. 

There is one record of the probate court that is complete through all 
of the terms of the various probate judges. This is the record of marriage 
licenses issued. From 1872 to 1882 there were eight hundred and eighty- 
nine licenses issued; from 1883 to 1892, 2,318 licenses were issued; from 
1893 to 1902, 2,660 licenses were issued: from 1903 to 1912, 3,910 licenses 
were issued, and from 1913 to 1916, 1,853 licenses were issued, or a total 
since the organization of the county of 1 1 ,630 licenses. 

LIST OF PROBATE JUDGES. 

There have been ten different men elected as probate judge of Reno 
county. One of them served one term, another only a part of a term, two of 
them served two terms each, three of them served three terms each, one of 
the latter serving one additional term at a later priod. One of them, Har- 
vey Eisminger, "served only a part of the term for which he was elected. 
resigning his office before he had served a year. \V. \V. Updegraff was the 
first probate judge of the county. He was elected without opposition. He 
was not a candidate for re-election. In 1874 G. V. Ricksecker was a can- 
didate, and likewise L. S. Shields. Ricksecker received 374 votes and 
Shields 304 votes. Ricksecker was a candidate again in 1876. His oppon- 
ent was W. B. Brown. Ricksecker received 235 votes and Brown 119 votes 
Ricksecker was a candidate for a third term, receiving 1.245 votes, and C. 
W. Peckham, his opponent, received 430 votes. In 1880 S. B. Zimmerman 
was the Republican candidate and W. L. Rose his opponent. In 1882 Zim- 
merman was again a candidate. He had two opponents, I. X. Phillips and 
L. S. Shields. In the contest Zimmerman polled 1,262 votes. Phillips 818 
votes and Shields 132 votes. In 1884 Zimmerman was a candidate again. 
George Barclay was a candidate on die Democratic ticket. Zimmerman 
received 1,937 votes 'and Barclay 1.493 votes. In 1886 S. A. Atwood was 
the successful candidate. He polled 1,899 votes, George Barclay 1,114 



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140 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

votes and F. R. Chrisinan 338 votes. Atwood was elected again for the 
term beginning in 1888, lie receiving 3,562 votes, Thomas Smith polling 
705 votes and S. B. Presby 221 votes. In 1890 a revolution in politics put 
the Republican party out of power. R. A. Campbell, the Republican candi- 
■ date for probate judge, was beaten by Harvey Eisminger. Campbell 
received 2,41 1 votes and Eisminger 2.975. Eisminger served but a short 
time, resigning. J. A. Fontron was appointed to fill the unexpired term. 
In 1892 there were four candidates, J. A. Fontron, T. J. Bowser, YV, M. 
Ingham and G. V. Ricksecker. J. A. Fontron was elected, receiving 2,281 
votes, Bowser 2,066 votes, Ingham 425 votes and Ricksecker 231 votes. 

In 1894 Fontron was re-elected. His Democratic opponent was R. J. 
Cannell. Fontron polled 3,266 votes and Cannell 2,440 votes. In 1896 
James M. Stewart was the Republican nominee and C. YV. Oswald the Dem- 
ocratic candidate. Stewart received 3.252 votes and Oswald 3.085 votes. 
Stewart was re-elected in 1898. His opponent that year was Fred Thorp, 
of Haven. Stewart polled 2,976 votes and Thorp 2,450 votes. In 1900 
R. A. Campbell was the Republican nominee and R. E. Kaufman the Demo- 
cratic nominee. Campbell was elected, receiving 3,738 votes and Kaufman 
2,827 votes. Campbell was re-elected in 1902. He had three opponents, 
YV. J. Olmstead, Henry Wilson and T. J. Anderson. Campbell received 
3,291 votes, Olmstead 1,840 votes. YY'ilson 68 votes and Anderson 130 votes. 
In 1906 G. Y ; . Ricksecker received 3.318 votes and J. H. Gresham 2,326 
votes. In 1908 R. A. Campbell, a Republican, was defeated by J. M. Jor- 
dan, a Democrat. Campbell polled 3,404 votes and Jordan 4,210 votes. 
Jordan was re-elected in 1910. His Republican opponent was Ed. L. Teed. 
Jordan received 3,846 votes and Teed 2,858 votes. In 1912 Charles S. 
Fulton was the Republican candidate and J. R. Beeching the Democratic 
nominee. Fulton received 4,208 votes and Beeching 3,027 votes. Mr. Ful- 
ton was re-elected in 1914 without opposition, receiving 9,271 votes. He 
was a candidate again in 1916. He had two opponents, YV. C. Hutchinson 
and O. B. Burkett. Fulton received 8,905 votes, Hutchinson 4,745 votes 
and Burkett 570 votes. 

COt'HT PROPERLY COMPLIMENTED. 

During the administration of Judge Fulton, the office of probate judge 
has been brought up to the highest degree of accuracy and completeness. 
Lawyers from other states practicing in the court comment on the orderly 
vendition in which they find all of the records and on the pleasure they find 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. I4I 

in practicing in this court. Judge Fulton has an able assistant in A. L. 
Lander, who has charge of the juvenile work, and the painstaking care with 
which Judge Fulton and Mr. Lander handle this office is shown in the order- 
ly condition of all the records of that office. Judge Fulton is recognized as 
one of the ablest probate judges in the state and real estate titles that have 
passed through his office receive no criticism from attorneys who pass on 
such titles for loan companies. 



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CHAPTER XVI. 

Clerks of the District C<u:rt. 

Reno county has had eleven different clerks of the district court. For 
some reason that cannot now be ascertained, the tenure of service of this 
office lias been longer than in other offices. Some of the county offices are 
limited by statute to two terms. No such limitation is imposed by law on 
this office, and it has escaped the popular limit of time set for one man to 
hold the office to two terms, ['"our years has been the accustomed limit of 
the holding of a county office, but the office of clerk of the court lias bad 
two exceptions. The first was Edward S. Handy, who was first elected in 
1876 to this office. He served six years. He was not a candidate for the 
fourth term. His successor was John B. Vincent, who was elected for three 
successive terms; but he took his pitcher to the well once too often and the 
fourth time he was a candidate he was l>eaten and that, too, by a compara- 
tively unknown man, and by a majority half as large as he was accustomed 
to receive in his campaigns. 

RECEIVED ALL VOTES CAST. 

The first clerk of the district court was Harry Hodson. He, with the 
other candidates, received all the votes cast, as there was but one ticket in 
the field at this election. In 1876 E. S. Handy was the Republican candi- 
date for this office. F. R. Chrisman was the Democratic candidate. Handy 
received 238 votes and Chrisman 117. In 1878 Mr. Handy was the Repub- 
lican candidate again, receiving 1,242 votes and J. F. Dunkin, the Demo- 
cratic nominee, got 431 votes. This vote indicates a large increase in Re- 
publican votes. There were a great many Union soldiers settled in Reno 
county from 1874 to 1880. They were generally Republicans in politics. 
While the Democratic party increased its vole, the increase was not as rapid 
as the Republican vote. Another matter that helped increase Mr. Handy's 
vote was his personal popularity. He was a very pleasant man to deal with 
and persons dealing with his office, although of opposite political faith, were 
constrained to vote for Mr. Handv. While the "two-term" idea had started 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 143 

with the idea of limiting; the length of service, yet Mr. Handy's personal 
popularity gave him a third term over his opponent, W. D. Woodson, a 
Democrat, by a vote of 1,444 for Handy to 588 votes for Woodson, and 
Handy was the Republican candidate again in 18S2, receiving 1,361 votes. 
Allen Shafer 785 votes and C. Bishop 88 votes. 

In 1884 the Republican candidate for clerk of the court was John B. 
Vincent. He received 2,040 votes. J. T. Burtch, his Democratic oppo- 
nent, received 1,363 votes. For the second term in 1886, Mr. Vincent had 
two opponents, J. H. Kinkaid, who received 1,274 votes, and W. E. Fosuot, 
who polled 164 votes. The Republican candidate polled 1,973 votes. 

In the race for the third term of clerk of the court. Mr. Vincent had 
two opponents again. He received 3,369 votes, Jesse Reynolds got [,812 
votes and H. B. McMuIlen 151 votes. 

In 1890 Mr. Vincent made the race for clerk of the district court for 
the fourth time. His opponent was F. P. Adams, a comparatively unknown 
man in politics, and one who made but one race for office and then left the 
county. Mr. Vincent polled 2.321 votes and Adams's vote was 3,047. 

In 1892 the Republican candidate for clerk of the court was 'A. W. 
Whinnery. He had two opponents, John H. Kinkaid and Richard McDaid, 
This race was a close one. Whinnery got 3,126 votes, Kinkaid 3.063 votes 
and McDaid 88 votes. In the campaign for re-election in 1894 Mr. Whin- 
nery had A. R. Dodge for an opponent. This time he had a few less than 
a thousand majority, he receiving 3,356 votes and Dodge 2.364 votes. 



GOOD "VOTE GETTER TURNS TABLES. 

In 1896 the Republican candidate was defeated. This was due par- 
tially to the ill feeling developed in the Republican convention of that year, 
and partially to the candidate opposing Walter Payne — Fay Smith, who 
perhaps is the best "vote getter" that ever ran for office in Reno county. 
The vote this year stood: Payne, 3,082 votes: Smith. 3,322. 

In 1898 the Republicans nominated E. Edwards and the Democrats 
renominated Smith. Edwards polled 2.650 votes and Smith 2.836 votes. 
Smith ran again in 1900 against John M. Wyman. The prejudice against 
a "third term" was revived and used in the campaign and Smith's "vote- 
getting" qualities were unable to pull him through. Wyman got 3.422 votes 
and Smith, 3.189 votes. 

In 1902, Wyman was the Republican candidate for re-election. He had 
as opponents George Sain, of Xickerson, Democrat, who polled 1.938. 



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144 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

votes; C. D. Wood, Prohibitionist, 67 votes, and George Bishop, Socialist, 
124 votes. Wyman had a good clear majority over all, his vote being 3.231. 

In 1904 there were three candidates for clerk of the court — R. H. 
Flynn, O. S. Coffin and G. S. Bishop. Flynn received 3.692 votes, Coffin 
1,944 votes and Bishop 2,060 votes. 

In 1906 the Republicans re-nominated R. H. Flynn for a second term. 
He had J. P. Hendrixson as an apponeiit. Flynn's vote was 3,395 and 
Hendrixson got 2,242 votes. 

WOMEN ELECTED TO OFFICE. 

In 1908 Miss Amy Alexander was nominated for clerk of the court. 
Her father was one of the pioneers of Hutchinson. Miss Alexander had 
the enthusiastic support of a large number of the old friends of her father 
and polled 4,314 votes. Her opponent, W. L. Stroup, received 3,295 votes. 
In 1910 Miss Alexander was renominated and re-elected, receiving 3.878 
votes. Her opponent. A, J. Coleman, received 2,797 votes. 

In 1912 the Republican candidate was Carl Richardson and the Demo- 
cratic candidate was Mrs. Florence Hutchinson. Mr. Richardson polled 
2,944 votes and Mrs. Hutchinson 4,611 votes. 

In 1914 Mrs. Hutchinson was renominated for clerk of the court and 
the Republicans made no nominations against her. The result was that 
Mrs. Hutchinson polled 9,248 votes. 

In 1916 there .were three candidates. Carl Richardson, the Republican 
nominee: Miss Margaret Kessler, the Democratic candidate, and C. F.. 
Anderson, Socialist. Richardson won, getting 7,361 votes: Miss Kessler, 
5,589, and Anderson. 753. 

FIRST CASE IN DISTRICT COURT. 

The first session of district court for Reno county was held in August, 
1872. Judge W. R. Brown opened court, with Lysander Honk as county 
attorney; Harry Hodson, as clerk of the court; Charles Collins, sheriff, and 
John McMurray, under-sheriff. The first case called for trial was that of 
Robert-Ross against Pat Riley. The action was for the replevin of a horse 
and wagon. Riley was an Irishman, who had a little shack out west of 
town, just across Cow creek. A careful search of the records, among all 
of the files that are left of that case, together with the journal entries, which 
were kept on paper at that time, until the Ixxiks of the clerk's office could 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 145 

be procured, fail to disclose how the case was decided. But it was "No. i" 
and regardless of its importance or its decision, it is a case of the first import- 
ance. The first criminal case was that of the state against John Callahan. 
It, too, has lost all importance except that it was the first criminal case filed 
in Reno county. The civil and criminal cases were docketed together until 
November 25, 1901, when the criminal docket was separated from the civil 
docket. At the present time the criminal docket is disposed of before the 
civil docket is commenced. Since the establishment of the separate dock- 
ets, until the beginning of the December term of the court in 1916, there 
had been 1,159 criminal cases entered on the docket. The total number of 
cases filed up to this same date was 12,504. 

While no effort has ever been made to separate the cases — the crim- 
inal from the civil docket, while they were kept together — it is estimated 
that about sixty per cent, of the criminal cases have been cases arising out 
of the violation of the prohibitory law. 



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CHAPTER XVII. 
The County Clerks. 

Reno county has had twelve different clerks. Seven of them served 
two terms, or four years; four of them served one term 1 of two years each 
and one, W. R. Marshall, broke not only the record of the county clerk's 
office, but all other records of continuous office holding of the same office 
in Reno county. He served four terms of two years each. 

The first county clerk, A. C. Kies, was elected on March 15. 1872. 
when the first county election was held. He had no opposition. He was 
not a candidate for a second term. Some irregularities were found in the 
court house. The books of the county clerk and the county treasurer did 
not agree. There were charges of wrong doing by friends of both of the 
county officials and Kies was not a candidate for re-election after lie had 
served his first term. 

In 1874 the second election was held. Harry Hodson was the suc- 
cessful candidate. His opponent was H. W. Beatty. Hodson received 479 
votes and Beatty, 264 votes. Hodson was not a candidate for re-election. 
He doubtless could have had a second term, for he was a popular clerk, a 
man of good ability. He left Reno county shortly after his term of office 
expired. 

In 1876 the election for county clerk called out three candidates, H. 
W. Beatty, who was a candidate against Hodson in 1874; S. B. Zimmerman, 
who had taught in the public schools for one year, and E. J. Russell. Beatty 
polled 531 votes; Zimmerman, 421 votes and Russell, 122 votes. Beatty 
was re-elected in the fall of 1877. His opponent was a Democrat. George 
Barclay, who served as justice of the peace for several terms later. Bar- 
clay was a stanch Democrat. He received 211 votes, while Beatty got 1.052 
votes. Beatty was a candidate for a third term in 1879 for the term liegin- 
ning in January, 1880. He was opposed on the third-term platform by \V. 
R. Marshall and W. D. Woodson. Both Beatty and Marshall were Repub- 
licans, but the "anti-third-term" talk won for Marshall, who received 1.006 
votes, Beatty polling 871 votes and Woodson, 140 votes. Marshall ran 
again in 1882. He was re-elected and despite his anti-third-term talk when 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 147 

he was a candidate the first time, he was a candidate for a third term in 
1885. He was opposed by Martin O'Sullivan, of Clay township. Mar- 
shall polled 1,716 votes and O'Sullivan, 654 votes. In 1887 Marshall was 
a candidate for the fourth term and he won it over C. W. Peckham, but 
by a much decreased majority. He received 1,716 votes and Peckham, 916 
votes. 

NEWSPAPER MAN ENTERS THE LIST. 

In 1888 S. J. Morris was a candidate for the office on the Repub- 
lican ticket for the term beginning in 1889. His Democratic opponent was ' 
Sims Ely, a Democratic newspaper man, who years afterward moved to 
Phoenix, Arizona, where he ' became prominent in Democratic political 
circles. Morris received 2,136 votes; Ely, 1,750 votes and E. Eaton, run- 
ning on an independent ticket, 59 votes. Morris was re-elected in 1889 and 
served out his second term. 

In the election of 1892 J. E. Eaton, of Arlington, was the Republican 
candidate. W. F. Williams, of Nickerson, was his Democratic opponent 
and Jackson Fryar the candidate on the Greenback ticket. Eaton polled 
2,458 votes, Williams received 2,152 votes and Fryar, 406 votes. Eaton 
was re-elected in 1894. His opponent that year was F. D. Hornhaker. Eaton 
received 2,699 votes and Hornbaker, 2,006 votes. 

In 1896 W. S. Yeager was elected county clerk. He had two opponents, 
J. W. Turkle and J. J. Campbell. "Yeager received 2,825 votes; Turkle, 
1,827 votes and J. J. Campbell, 211 votes. Yeager was re-elected in 1898 
for the term of two years, beginning in 1899. P. L. Campbell was 
his opponent. Yeager received 2,825 votes and Campbell, 2,220 votes. 

In the election held in 1900 there were four candidates for county 
clerk, William Newlin, Mack Ross, O. C. Borger and J. Leuty. Newlin 
was elected, receiving 3.553 votes. Ross got 1,784 votes, Borger, 68 votes, 
and Leuty, 127 votes. Newlin was a candidate for re-election in 1902. He 
received 3,474 votes and his opponent, J. W. Likens, 2,170 votes. 

In I904 F. S. Lang was the successful candidate. He received 3,644 
votes. B. McKeown, one of his opponents, polled 2,141 votes, and Lem 
Bowser, a third candidate, received 197 votes. I-ang was a candidate for 
a second term. J. D. Likens was his opponent. Lang polled 3,474 votes 
and Likens, 2,170 votes. Lang, sought a third term, but was defeated by 
A. R. Hamma. who secured 3.928 votes, while Lang polled 3,699 votes. 
Hamma was not a candidate for re-election. He was the representative of 



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140 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

the minority party and knew that he would not have a third-term candi- 
date to run against, and that he would probably be defeated. 

There were three candidates at the election of 1910, H. M. Payne, 
Walter Brown and John Collins. Payne polled 3,807 votes; Brown, 2,912 
votes, and Collins, 285 votes. Payne was re-elected in 1912. His opponent 
was J. E. Burgess, of Clay township. Payne received 4,046 votes and 
Burgess, 3,398 votes. 

In 1914 there were three candidates, A. E. Noonan, C. Brice Nash and 
George W. Lee. Lee was elected, receiving 4,338 votes ; Noonan, 3,367 
and Nash, 3,926. Lee had been county assessor for two terms prior to 
his election. He was re-elected in 1916. He had two opponents, Edward 
A. King and C. E. Anderson. Lee polled more votes than both of his 
competitors, he receiving 7,848 votes; King, 5,146 votes, and Anderson, 
852 votes. 

OFFICE GROWING IN IMPORTANCE. 

The office of county clerk has grown in importance greatly since the 
early days of the county. Today its records are of the highest importance, 
as it is the office of original records. It deals- with the questions of taxa- 
tion more largely than any of the other offices of the county. The office 
of county assessor was once an independent office, but the Legislature com- 
bined the duties of the county assessor and the county clerk. So now the 
clerk has all of the various phases of taxation to deal with as a part of 
the duties of his office. All of the assessment rolls are prepared in this 
office of all the property, personal and real, and also all public utilities. The 
work of getting the assessment rolls for each piece of property in Reno 
county has grown to be an immense job. After the assessors are through 
with their work, the office is required to make an abstract of each township 
so that the board of equalization that was created to adjust any irregulari- 
ties in the work of the various county assessors may proceed intelligently. 
After the board of equalization is through with its work another abstract 
is made of the various assessors' reports and sent to the state tax com- 
missioners in order that they may compare this county's assessments with other 
county assessments, in the same manner that the county board of equaliza- 
tion compares township and individual assessments. 

The clerk also -makes all school levies. The school directors indicate in 
their annual report just how much money they will need to meet their wants 
for the following year. The county clerk prepares the levy and reports 
to the county commissioners, who order the levy made. This is an immense 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 149 

task, when it is known that there are six state and county levies, seventeen 
general levies and twenty special levies for Hutchinson ; about half as many 
special levies for South Hutchinson, and, at the present time, two hundred 
and sixteen different levies for the various school districts of the county. 

OTHER DUTIES INCUMBENT ON THIS OFFICE. 

The county clerk's office records the transfer of all deeds that are filed 
with the register of deeds and all land contracts. In addition to these mat- 
ters and other matters arising out of the same, the county clerk keeps a daily 
balance of accounts with the county treasurer. He records, also, every 
warrant filed with the county commissioners and has a duplicate of every 
check for the payment of money. He keeps a record of all the changes in 
the roads of the county. He keeps a record of all physicians and nurses 
and of all dentists, likewise a record of all undertakers of the county. He 
keeps a record of all marks and brands of cattle and a record of all names 
given to farms. He issues all hunting licenses and all venders' licenses. 
He keeps a complete record of all townsite vacations and of additions to the 
cities. 

Likewise the county clerk has full charge of all election matters, both 
primary and general. He prepares and has printed the ballots. He keeps 
a record of all the results of elections of all kinds and issues to the suc- 
cessful candidate a certificate of nomination and also a certificate of election 
after the election is held. He issues all election notices and approves the 
bonds of successful candidates. The county clerk also attends all of the 
meetings of the county commissioners and keeps a complete record of all 
of their acts. This one record is the only one consecutive and complete 
record in Reno county. It affords the only means of supplementing the 
incomplete records of other offices of Reno county. The clerk prepares 
a final statement that is intended for the use of the governor of the state 
and of the Legislature, upon which much of the action in local legislative 
matters is based; including a large variety of matters, among them the 
total valuation of all property in the county, the amount paid the state 
directly, the amount -collected for the general and all the special funds, 
including the road fund, both county and township; the amount on hand in 
the sinking fund with which to pay the bonds of the county when they 
become due: the amount of money paid out for interest; the amount spent 
to support the poor of the county: the amount for each school district and 
the average rate of taxation for each dollar of valuation. There is a vast 



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I50 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

amount of work for this office. This work is close and technical in char- 
acter and must be correct and it therefore has required a peculiar ability to 
handle the affairs of this office. 

CLERK CONVICTED OF EMBEZZLEMENT. 

Of the twelve men who have held this office, two of them have had 
suspicion cast on their integrity. One of these was A. C. Kies, the first 
county clerk. There was a shortage in the finances of the county. The 
poor system of bookkeeping of that time makes it impossible now to locate 
the blame. E. Wilcox was the treasurer of the county at the time Kies 
was county clerk. Wilcox was charged with shortage in county funds. 
After months of discussion, with a board of county commissioners that 
were unfriendly to Wilcox he was able to clear up all the matters charged 
against him and the account with him settled. Kies was accused of irregu- 
larities in office, but no suit was ever filed against him. Whether the com- 
missioners of that day were more unfriendly to Wilcox than to Kies can not 
now be determined, but no criminal suits were ever filed against either Wil- 
cox or Kies. However, one county clerk was checked up short. Howard 
M. Payne was found guilty of embezzlement and sentenced to the peni- 
tentiary for an indeterminate sentence. The total amount of his shortage 
amounted to $5,540.18, of which $3,609.82 was paid by his bondsmen, leav- 
ing a loss to Reno county of $1,930.35. 

The result of Payne's shortage led to a checking up of all of the offices 
of the county and the installing nf some checking systems that would make 
detection of irregularities easier. This is the only defalcation ever found 
against any officer in Reno county. 

PRESENT RECORDS COMPLETE AND ACCURATE. 

The records of the county clerk's office at the present time are com- 
plete and information is easily obtained. In the early days, either through 
lack of requirement of the law or lack of disposition on the part of the 
clerks, the records were carelessly kept and in many instances were placed 
in a filing case instead of being recorded in a permanent form. There ih 
a lack of vault room for the records of the county clerks, and many of the 
old records are stored in the basement of the court house for lack of room 
in the vault, but the records that are being made at the present time are com- 
plete and accurate. 



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CHAPTER XVIII. 
The County Attorneys. 

This office has come to be regarded as one of the most important in the 
county. Not only has the occupant of the office been obliged to represent 
the state in all criminal proceedings, but the civil business of the county 
has become so important that the taxpayer is disposed to look carefully to 
the qualifications of the candidate. 

Reno county is practically a one-hundred-million-dollar corporation. Its 
business interests have grown to such proportions as to require the 
best advice obtainable. Likewise the wide range of subjects that must be 
handled also requires the greatest care and diligence of the county attorney. 
All of the contracts made by the county commissioners on behalf of the 
county must be drawn by the county attorney. Reno county in the year 
1916 let bridge contracts for over one hundred thousand .dollars. These 
contracts must be prepared by the county attorney and he must meet the 
competition of the best legal minds the bridge contractors can command, 
that the county's rights may be protected and the contractors' obligations 
kept within the terms of the agreement with the county commissioners. 

The county attorney must likewise advise with the commissioners on 
all tax levies — their extent, when they can be levied and their limitations. 
He must advise them against illegal levies, that no injunction suits be brought 
against the collection of these taxes by some taxpayer.. In this he competes 
likewise with the tax commissioners of the various railroad companies, who 
are constantly on the watch for levies that are not authorized by the statutes. 
Likewise the county attorney must be the legal adviser of all township offi- 
cers. In taxation matters there are continually arising questions as to the 
construction of statutes, which the county attorney must decide for the town- 
ship commissioners. He also is the legal advisor of the various county 
officers as to matters arising out of their offices. 

AN OFFICE OF MUCH IMPORTANCE. 

The county attorney also becomes the legal adviser of the various 
justices of the peace, especially in criminal cases. There are many cases, 



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152 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

perhaps five hundred a year, that might be brought, that are trivial, neighlwr- 
hood disputes that some would perhaps like to get into the courts, that the 
county attorney directly dismisses, advising against bringing; then settles 
them when he can, out of court, and uses his discretion in other cases to 
the end that trivial matters may not burden the courts. So the county 
attorney's office has grown to be an office of great importance. 

In the early days the office was not so seriously regarded. The county 
attorney's office was regarded then as a place for the prosecution of 
criminals, the civil side of the office not being much regarded. So much so was 
this the case that the principal qualification of a candidate was his announced 
desire to prosecute violators of the prohibitory law. In many Reno county 
elections this has been the issue in the election of both county attorney and 
sheriff. But the growth of public sentiment against the liquor business, 
whether it be sold by a "joint" or a "boot-legger" or a saloon, together with 
the throwing down of nearly all the limitations of the criminal law in liquor 
cases, has rendered this clamor at election time for the enforcement of the 
prohibitory law a minor quantity. The community insists on the enforce- 
ment of the liquor law, just as it demands the enforcement of any other 
criminal statute. It, however, has a just regard for the civil side of the 
county attorney's business and, as this business increases, the importance of 
the county attorney's office is more highly regarded. 

INCUMBENTS IN OFFICE SINCE CREATION OF SAME. 

There have been fourteen different county attorneys elected in Reno 
county. The first attorney was Lysander Houk. He was elected at the 
first election held on March 12, 1872. There was only one ticket nomi- 
nated and Judge Houk was unanimously elected. He served as count}' 
attorney until 1874. In this third election, November 6, 1874, there were 
two candidates for the office of county attorney, H. Whiteside receiving 
454 votes and J. H. Stevenson, 276 votes. Mr. Whiteside is still a resident 
of Hutchinson, but there is no further record of Stevenson in the court affairs. 
If he remained in Reno county long he never attained any prominence in 
county affairs. Whiteside served as county attorney for two years. 

The third attorney for the county was W. H. Lewis. In the race for 
county attorney in 1876 Mr. Lewis received 1,059 votes. In 1878 the 
contest for this office was between Mr. Lewis, who was running for a 
second term, and W. M. Whitelaw. Mr. Lewis polled 1,050 votes and Mr. 
Whitelaw, 657 votes. In 1880 L. Houk was the Republican candidate, receiv- 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 153 

ing 2,090 votes. In 1882 Judge Houk was a candidate for re-election. He 
received at this time 1,177 votes, while his opponent, W. H. Lewis, received 
995 votes. Judge Houk resigned the county attorneyship on being elected 
judge of the ninth judicial district. and in the election in 1883 for the balance 
of the term there were two candidates. The contest was an exceedingly 
interesting one and resulted in the election of R. A. Campbell, who received 
1.203 votes to 1,173 received by his opponent, G. A. Vandeveer. Mr. Vande- 
veer was a Democrat, a fine lawyer and a popular man, and be cut the Repub- 
lican majority to a close margin in the election. In 1884 Mr. Campbell was 
re-elected without opposition, receiving 2,224 votes. 

In 1886 there were three candidates. The Republican candidate was 
Douglas Kirkling. He received 1,842 votes. F. P. Hettinger, the Demo- 
cratic candidate, received 1,3(10 votes and an independent candidate. E. L. 
Jewell, polled 160 votes. Mr. Kirkling was an indifferent lawyer. He served 
but one term. He was very deliberate in his manner in the trial of a case, 
and the old settlers recall how Judge Houk. in a criminal case would take 
the preliminary examination of the jurors out of Ihe bands of the county 
attorney because of his slow manner and examine them himself. The court 
would loose his patience with Kirkling's manner and would act as county 
attorney as well as judge to expedite business. 

INFLUENCE OF THE POPULISTS. 

In 1888 W. H. Lewis was the Republican candidate and D. \Y. Kent 
was the Democratic candidate. Lewis received 3,369 votes and Kent, 2,382 
votes. Mr. Lewis served two years. In 1890 the Republican party became 
a minority party in both county and state. In this election Mr. Lewis received 
2,263 votes and C. M. Williams, 3, no votes. Mr. Williams resigned after 
serving about a year. In 1891 there were three candidates, 7.. L. Wise, 
Republican, receiving 2,269 votes; J. W. Quick, Populist. 2,093 votes and 
W. M. Whitelaw, Democrat, 650 votes. Here still the Republican party was 
in the minority, but the three party candidates divided the votes so that Mr. 
Wise was elected. The election this year was to fill the balance of the term 
for which Mr. Williams was originally elected, and this made an election in 
1892 necessary. There were three candidates this year, also, but the Repub- 
lican candidate was J. W. Jones. He was a good lawyer, but not popular. 
His opponents were James McKinstry, an old-time Democrat, who, how- 
ever, had associated with the Populists in their "fusion" with the Demo- 
crats in their joint effort to beat the Republicans. James Hettinger was 



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1.54 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

the regular Democratic candidate. At this time the Democrats saw that 
the Populist party was not long-lived and there arose an element that wanted 
to keep up the party organization, knowing that in the break-up of politics, 
the majority of the Populist party would return to the Democratic party 
rather than go into the Republican party. In this election McKinstry's per- 
sonal popularity with the Democrats got him enough votes in addition to the 
Populist votes to elect him. He received 3.037 votes. J. W. Jones, the 
Republican candidate, got 3,031 and James Hettinger, the Democratic nomi- 
nee, got 204 votes. 

In 1894 there were two candidates. L. M. Fall, the Republican candi- 
date, got 3,063 votes and Williams, 2,075 votes. In this election Mr. Williams 
ran more than 700 votes ahead of his ticket. Party lines were settling down 
and under ordinary circumstances Fall should have received a thousand 
majority over his opponent, but Mr. Williams was regarded as a far supe- 
rior lawyer to his opponent and cut his majority very much. 

In 1896 Fall had another close race with H. Fierce, he receiving 3,213 
votes and Fierce, 3,137 votes. Shortly after his term of office expired Fall 
moved to California. 

In 1898 the contest for this office was between Carr YV. Taylor and 
Willis E. Vincent. Taylor received 3,008 votes and Vincent 2,450 votes. 
Taylor was re-elected in 1900. W. M. Whitelaw was his Democratic oppo- 
nent, receiving 2,877 votes while Taylor's vote was 3,655. 

In 1902 there were four candidates for county attorney, J. U. Brown, 
Republican, polling 3,325 votes; James McKinstry, 1,800 votes; G. W. Mor- 
gan. Prohibitionist, 73 votes, and Frank Hogan, Socialist. 129 votes. In 
1904 Mr. Brown was re-elected, receiving 3,342 votes against 2,473 ^ or -^- 
W. Tyler, and for A, C. Humphries. 192 votes. 

In 1906 W. H. Lewis was the Republican candidate and Willis E. 
Vincent, the Democratic nominee. Lewis receiving 3,027 votes and Vin- 
cent 2,677 votes. In 1908 Mr. Lewis was a candidate again, but was 
defeated by James Hettinger, who received 4,210 votes, while Lewis polled 
3.430 votes. 

In the election in 1910 Walter F. Jones was the Republican candidate. 
The Democratic candidate was Ed T. Foote. Jones received 3,370 votes 
and the successful candidate got 3,410 votes. Mr. Foote was re-elected in 
1912. His Republican opponent was R. IS. P. Wilson, Foote polled 4,518 
votes and Wilson 2.885 votes. The election of 1914 for county attorney 
was another three-cornered fight. Warren H. White was the "Bull Moose" 
candidate; Herbert Ramsey, the Democratic representative and Eustace Smith, 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. I55 

the Republican nominee. Ramsey won, receiving 5,059 votes. Smith was 
second, with 4,160 votes, and White received 2.526 votes. This was an 
exceedingly interesting race. It indicates the comparative strength of the 
political parties of that year. The candidates were all young men, clean 
and capable, and each pulled the full strength of his organisation. In i<ji6 
Mr. Ramsey was re-elected, receiving 7,326 votes and his Republican oppo- 
nent, C. G. Deming. polled 6,003 votes. 

VOTE INDICATES GROWTH OK COUNTY. 

Of the fourteen men who have represented Reno county in legal matters, 
eight of them are still living in this city at the time of the writing of this 
history in 1916. They are H. Whiteside, W. H. Lewis, R. A. Campbell, 
C. W. Williams, C. W Taylor, James Hettinger, E. T. Foote, and Herbert 
Ramsey. Four are dead, L. Houk, Z. L. Wise, James McKinstry and J. U. 
Brown. D. Kirkling left this county shortly after his term of office expired 
and L. M. Fall lives in California. The average length of service of these 
men has been three years and three months. W. H. Lewis has served 
the county the longest time — ten years, and C. M. Williams the shortest 
time, serving but one year of the term for which he was elected, and resign- 
ing at the end of one year. The number of votes cast in the various years 
accurately indicates the growth of the county- In 1874 there were 643 
votes cast, and every effort was made in the early days to get out as large a 
vote as possible. Party lines were more strictly drawn than they are now 
and an additional effort was made to get out all of the votes possible in 
order to make as big a showing as possible. At some of the early elections 
it is recorded that the judges and clerks left the polls in order to go out 
in the town and townships to get the voters to get out and vote. 

In 1884 the number of votes had increased the 2,224 votes in the county. 
During the later years a Presidential year brought out a larger vote than 
the "off" years. In 1804 the vote had more than doubled — increasing to 
5.768. Ten years later, in 1904, that being a year when only local matters 
were up for consideration, there was only a slightly larger vote than 
in the ten-years-previous year, which was a year when Presidential candi- 
dates were voted on. In 1914 the vote cast amounted to 11,745. The 
women voting added to the vote very largely, as they cast almost as large 
a vote, proportionately, as the men. The vote in 1916 totaled 14.018 on county 
attorney. It was the largest vote ever cast in the county, a Presidential 
election calling out a large per cent, of the voting population of (be county. 



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CHAPTER XIX. 
The Register of Deeds. 

Reno county lias had twelve different men in charge of the office of regis- 
ter of deeds of the county in the forty-five years of its existence. Nine of 
these have held the office for two consecutive terms. One had it two terms 
but another held for two years intervening between the first and second terms. 
One held it for three years, and one for one term of two years. 

The first register of deeds of Reno county was S. H. Hammond, who 
was appointed to the office by Governor Harvey when the county was organ- 
ized in T872. He was a candidate in 1873, but his election was contested, and 
Hammond held the office during the time the election was in the courts, the 
decision on the election being announced on February 5, 1875. In the election 
of 1875 Hammond was a candidate. S. A. Atwood was also a candidate, as 
was I. A. Ijams. In this election the contest was a bitter one. The court 
proceedings had intensified the feeling against Hammond, who insisted on 
holding on to the office until a final decision in the Supreme Court was rend- 
ered. In the election of 1875 Atwood polled 706 votes for register of deeds; 
Hammond only got 197, and Ijams, 160. Atwood was a candidate for re-elec- 
tion in 1877. His Democratic opponent was J. M. Beam. Atwood received 
1,012 votes and Beam 322 votes. 

In 1879 John Paine was the leading candidate. He had two opponents, 
Pat Holland and W. H. Jordan. No record of the vote any of the candidates 
received can l)e found. And the only record showing that Paine was the 
successful candidate is that his name is signed to the records of the register of 
deeds during the term for which he was a candidate. Paine received the nom- 
ination and election in 1881. The records show that he received 1,243 votes: 
T. J. McMurray. 440 votes, and- Simeon Cooper, another competitor, no. 

In 1883. J. S. May was the Republican nominee for this office. E. Blan- 
pied was his Democratic opponent in this race, and he was also Mr. May's 
competitor in the race for the second term. In the first race, May polled 1,391 
votes, and Blanpied. 973. In 1885 in the election May increased his vote to 
1,733 votes, while Blanpied's votes fell off to 962.. 

In 1887. I. N. Woodell was the Republican nominee for register of deeds. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. I57 

He received 1,979 votes, while his Democratic competitor, J. L. Keger, polled 
1,815. Woodell was renominated and was re-elected in 1889, but there is 110 
record of who was his competitor, nor of the number of votes either candi- 
date received. 

Woodell was succeeded in this office in 1896 by H. C. Barrett, who polled 
2,469 votes, while his Democratic opponent, L. D. Pollock, received 2,083 
votes, and D. W. Sttill, a third candidate, polled 443 votes. The Republican 
candidate that year failed to poll a majority of all the votes cast, partly because 
of Barrett's lack of popularity, and partly because his Democratic opponent. 
Pollock, was a very popular man, and good vote-getter. In his second race 
Barrett did better than he did in the first race, receiving a majority of 489 
votes over Hugh N. Johnson, his Democratic competitor, Barrett receiving 
2,589 votes, and Johnson, 2,100. 

In 1895 B. J. Ragland was the Republican nominee and the successful 
candidate at the election. He was opposed by Fay Smith and J. E. Wood. 
Ragland received 2,484 votes; Smith, 2,231, and Wood, 179. Ragland was 
renominated and was re-elected in 1897. The Democratic nominee against 
him in this race was Sam S. Graybill. Ragland received 2,645 votes in this 
election, and Graybill, 2,430. 

In 1899 Fred S. Scoresby was the Republican candidate for register of 
deeds. He had three opponents, Joseph Hawes, T. B. Lehman and O. C. 
Miner. Scoresby polled 3,227 votes: Hawes, 1,516; Lehman, 67, and Miner, 
135. Scoresby was re-elected in 1902, but no record of the vote of this elec- 
tion is on file. In 1904 J. G. Lamont was the successful candidate on the 
Republican ticket. He was elected, but the records fail to show who his 
opponent was, or the vote cast for either of them. 

In 1906 Lamont was renominated by the Republican party and was 
re-elected, receiving 3,110 votes, while his Democratic opponent, Sam Gallup, 
polled 2,602 votes. In 1908, Charles W. Ragland was elected register of deeds 
over W. L. Stroup, he receiving 4.422 votes, and Stroup, 3,295 votes. Rag- 
land's case was one of the two cases in Reno county of the son succeeding to 
the office his father had held. The other instance was in the office of county 
commissioner, where William Astle, the father, held the office of county com- 
missioner in the early clays of the county, and forty years later his son, Harry 
Astle, was chosen for the same office. Charles Ragland was given a second 
term in 191 o. 

In 1912 there were two candidates, Mary B. Parks and J. A. Schardein. 
Miss Parks received 3.242 votes, and her opponent polled 4.050 votes. In 



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158 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

1914, Schardein was renominated, but was defeated by E. M. Garman, who 
polled 5,772 votes, while Schardein received 5.507 votes. Schardein was 
renominated in 1916, as was also Garman. In this latter race, Schardein was 
successful, polling 6,578 votes, while Garman received 6,455, anf l F- O- Swan- 
son, 704. 

IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OF THE OFFICE. 

The work of the register of deeds has grown from a few instruments 
filed in the course of a day to many hundred instruments of various nature. In 
the early days of the county the register of deeds had but little business to 
transact, as there was not much property being sold. As the county developed, 
subdivisions of land were made, and the business greatly increased, especially 
during the boom period of Hutchinson's growth, as there were many new addi- 
tions to the city platted and the lots sold. Likewise in the days of "hard times" 
there were a great many chattel mortgages filed. But at the present time the 
number of releases, both of chattel and real-estate mortgages, average about 
the same. Some seasons of the year there will be more mortgages recorded 
than released, but when the crops have been harvested and marketed, the 
release will greatly exceed the new instruments filed; but throughout the year, 
the average will be about the same for new mortgages filed and old mortgages 
released, they having been paid off. 

This office is an important one, as the title to every piece of property has 
to be recorded here. The men who have held the office have been careful in 
the discharge of their duties, and no instance has ever come to light where the 
negligence of any register of deeds has caused a loss to any patron of the 
office of the twelve men who have held this office. Half of them are living 
and half of them are dead, Hammond, Atwood, Paine, May, Woodell and 
Barrett being dead, while B. J. Ragland, Scoresby, Lamont, Charles W. Rag- 
land, Schardein and Garman are living. It is unusual for such a large per cent, 
of the men who have held this office, running back almost half a century, to 
be still living. All but one of those living are residents of Reno county — that 
one is Fred S. Scoresby, who lives in Rice county, Kansas. 

In the early days of the county there were more instruments filed than 
there were releases. This was especially true of mortgages, on real estate, as 
well as chattels. The times of the year of the filing of the largest number of 
mortgages vary — in the spring there are more chattel mortgages, and in the 
fall and winter, more real-estate mortgages. The reason for this difference 
is that in the spring and summer money is borrowed on chattels to conduct 
the business of the year — among farmers to get the immediate money to carry 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. I 59 

on the farming until they can sell some of their crops, — but the largest loans 
are the ones made in the handling of real estate, and a large per cent, of real- 
estate mortgages are made in the fall and winter. 

The deed records will run about two volumes a year, or about thirteen 
hundred deeds filed annually. 

As a sample of the amount of business done in this office, which is a 
record of the activities of this line in the county: In 1916 there were filed 
on an average one hundred and twenty deeds a month ; one hundred mortgages 
a month; one hundred and fifty chattel mortgages a month, and one hundred 
and fifty releases a month, there being but little variation in the number of 
mortgages and releases, both running about the same number, also about 
eighteen assignments a month. There are likewise about one-third more 
mortgages filed during the year than there are deeds filed. 



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CHAPTER XX. 
Surveyors and Coroners. 

There can l>e no reason given for grouping two county offices such 
as surveyors and coroners in one chapter in a history of the county, except 
that one of the offices lias not been of enough importance to make a chapter 
of itself and there never was much reason for the existence of the other 
office. The surveyor's office was always one of the last offices to be filled 
by a nominating convention, when that system was in use for placing men 
as candidates for office. There never were more than two or three men 
in the county that were qualified to fill the office, men who had the techni- 
cal knowledge required. This, however, was not always recognized by the 
convention that made up the party ticket. There was one convention in 
the latter days of the convention system of nomination that was stampeded. 
The convention had hung on all afternoon; bitter contests arose over each 
office, and when the office of county surveyor was reached half the delegates 
had gone home. Fred Carpenter had been the county surveyor for years. 
He was a man of experience and ability and made, a very competent county 
surveyor, but he had been surveyor for several terms and some young men 
from one of the wards of Hutchinson concluded to make a change in that 
office. As soon as Mr. Carpenter had been nominated the name of another 
was sprung in the convention by a group of band boys of Hutchinson. The 
man they wanted could toot a horn and had made a living by running a news- 
paper in a small town in the southwestern part of the county, but the few- 
ness of the delegates and the anti- fourth-term sentiment resulted in the nomi- 
nation of T. G. F.lbury. Being on the Republican ticket he was elected, and 
Reno county and Hutchinson today have the "errors of Elbury" to contend 
with in his surveys. 

There was no surveyor elected at the organization of the county. A 
surveyor by the name. of D. M. Lewis was appointed by the board of com- 
missioners to do some of the early surveying. The first election for sur- 
veyor was in the fall of 1873. There were two candidates, K. A. Smith and 
Sam Slack. In the election Smith received .23H votes and Slack, 102 votes. 
The same men were candidates two years later. At this time Smith's vote 
increased to 538 and Slack's vote increased in proportion, he receiving 402 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. l6l 

votes. In 1879 J- M - Harsha, Sam Slack and E. Pratt were candidates for 
sheriff. Harsha was elected, receiving 127 votes, Slack polling 439 and 
Pratt, 223 votes. In 1881 there was bat one candidate, J. M. Harsha, who 
received 1,025 votes. 

In 1883 a change was made in county surveyors. W. H. Dunkin became 
a candidate against Harsha, who had held the office for three consecutive 
terms. As a result of the election Dunkin polled 1,215 v0 *« s a n <* Harsha, 
1,161 votes. In 1885 Fred Carpenter became county surveyor. He had grad- 
uated from the State University, was a thoroughly competent man and 
gave the county fine service. His opponent in 1885 was the man who held 
the office at that time, W. H. Dunkin. Carpenter polled 1,648 votes and 
Dunkin, 1,040 votes. In 1887 Carpenter was again a candidate. J. M. Talbott 
was his opponent. Carpenter received 2,376 votes and Talbott, 1,512 votes. 
There is no record of the election of 1889, the minutes of the county com- 
missioners for that year merely showing the list of the successful candi- 
dates. It was the custom of all the preceding county clerks to record the 
votes for each candidate as well as those county clerks who succeeded. S. J. 
Morris, the county clerk of that time, and to place in the book in which the 
commissioners' proceedings are recorded the list of the votes by townships 
for each candidate. The record for this year simply records the success- 
ful candidates, among shown was Fred Carpenter, who was elected sur- 
veyor, and refers to the abstract of this election on file for "further informa- 
tion", and the county commissioners solemnly certify, and have it recorded 
in their journal, that "they have canvassed the vote and found the result 
recorded herewith to be correct". Whatever became of the abstract, if it 
were ever prepared, can not now be known. A search in the court house, 
in office filing-cases, in the vault where records are kept and even in the 
basement, where valuable records are "dumped" because of lack of place 
for them in the vault, fails to show any trace of this abstract. 

In 1891 there were three candidates for county surveyor, Fred Car- 
penter. W. H. Dunkin and T. H. Robbins. 'Carpenter received 2,390 votes: 
Dnnkin, 2,176 votes and Robbins, 447 votes. In 1893 there were two candi 
dates for surveyor, Fred Carpenter and E. M. Garrett. Carpenter received 
2,661 votes and Garrett 994 votes. 

STAMPEDED THE CONVENTION. 

It was the convention of 1894 that was referred to in the early part 
of this chapter, when the convention was stampeded for T. G. Elbury against 

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l62 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Fred Carpenter. In the Republican convention that nominated Elbury no 
one knew him, but he received the nomination over Fred Carpenter. In the 
election Elbury received 2,588 votes and Carpenter, 2,220 votes. Elbury 
was nominated again in 1897 by the Republicans. The democrats nomi- 
nated E. L. Allen. Elbury polled 2,690 votes and Allen 2,311 votes. In 
1899 Elbury ran again. His opponent was Alva O'Hara. Elbury polled 
3,011 votes and O'Hara 2,752. Elbury was chosen for the fourth term 
in 1 901, He had two opponents, Alva O'Hara and Frank Lang. Elbury 
received 3,278 votes in the election, O'Hara 1,868 votes and Lang 131 votes. 

In 1903 there was a complete change in candidates for this office. G. 
L. McLane and C. P. Rathburn were the candidates. McLane is a high- 
grade civil' engineer and his work has been eminently satisfactory. In this 
election he received 4,070 votes and Rathburn 272 votes. In 1906 McLane 
was renominated and was elected without opposition, receiving 3,586 votes 
at this election. In 1908 McLane was a candidate again and the opponent 
was W. H. Dunkin. McLane 'polled 4,178 votes and Dunkin, 3,395 votes. 
In 1910 the same candidates were before the people. McLane received 
in this election 3,600 votes and Dunkin, 2,985 votes. In 1912 McLane 
had no opposition, polling 3,836 votes, and by successive re-elections is 
still serving as county surveyor. 

In this forty-five years of the organization of Reno county there have 
been but six men who have held the office of county surveyor. G. L. 
McLane has held the office for seven terms, or fourteen years ; T. G. Elbury, 
four terms, or eight years ; Fred Carpenter, five terms, or ten years ; J. M. 
Harsha, three terms, or six years; E. A. Smith, two terms, or four years, 
and W. H. Dunkin, one term, or two years. Of these, W. H. Dunkin, 
Fred Carpenter and G. L. Mcl^ane still live in Reno county. Mr. Carpenter 
is roadmaster on the Santa Fe railroad; Mr. McLane is a member of 
Company G of the National Guard, in the service of the country, and YY*. 
H. Dunkin has retired from active business because of bis age. 

CORONERS OF RENO COUNTY. 

If one were looking for an anatomical analysis of the county offices, if 
he were seeking to locate in the "body politic" the various offices of the 
county, he would have no trouble in properly placing the office of coroner. 
It is the vermiform appendix of the political body. It has but little use. 
In cases of persons found dead the coroner "sits" on the corpse to ascer- 
tain whether the deceased came to his death from natural causes or whether 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. - 163 

his death was caused by the act of some other person and, if so, who the 
person was, if there is any evidence to disclose the identity of such a person, 
or whether the death was accidental or not. He has but little authority and 
the courts act entirely independently of the findings of a coroner's jury. 
The coroner's office has one dignity attached to it: That official becomes 
sheriff of the county where there shall be no sheriff in the county or where 
the sheriff for any cause shall be committed to the jail of the county of 
which he is sheriff. This dignity has never yet come to any coroner of 
Reno county. However, Reno county has always elected a coroner, and a 
history of this county would be incomplete if it did not mention this consti- 
tutional office. 

The first coroner was elected in 1873. A. Diffenbaugh and A. R. 
Blodgett were the candidates. Diffenbaugh polled 311 votes and Blodgett, 
246 votes. In 1875 there was but one candidate. Dr. A. W. McKinney, 
who received 865 votes. In 1877 there were two candidates, C. L. Eggert 
and Dr. N. T. P. Robertson. Eggert polled 1,044 votes and Robertson, 
279 votes. Doctor Robertson was one of the best known of the early 
doctors, tall, thin and awkward. He was always smooth shaven, even in 
those days when beards were popular. Doctor Robertson never was able 
to poll many votes for coroner. He was a candidate, perhaps against his 
will; his name put on to fill up the ticket, but he never was able to com- 
mand many votes. This, coupled with the fact that he was a Democrat, 
the kind of a Democrat that always asserted his Democracy, perhaps accounted 
for his light vote. 

In 1879 A. H. Moffat, W. L. Ross and L. Diffenbaugh were, candi- 
dates for coroner. Moffat was at that time agent for the Santa Fe railroad 
in Hutchinson. He afterwards became one of the road's general passenger 
agents. In this election he polled 1,272 votes. Rose received 439 voles 
and Diffenbaugh, 223 votes. It is said that this election for the office of 
coroner was very much like the contest sometimes conducted to find out 
who is the most popular lady in the city. Moffat's friends got him on the 
ticket as a joke, but he did not want any candidate on his ticket to get 
more votes in the election, so he stirred up his friends to see if he could 
not "lead" the ticket and he did it. But, having received the prize. Moffat 
declined this honor, never qualified and Reno county was without a coroner 
for one year. In 1880 there were two candidates to fill the vacancy of 
one year, Dr. A. W. McKinney and D. D. Olmstead. McKinney got 
353 votes and Olmstead 222. In 1881 there were three candidates for coroner, 
O. S. Jenks, Dr. N. P. T. Robertson and John Payne. Payne won, receiv- 



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164 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

ing 878 votes; Robertson ran second, polling 690 votes, while Jenks polled 
138 votes., In 1883 S. H. Parks and Dr. A. W. McKinney were candidates 
for this office. Parks polled 1,305 votes and McKinney 1,266 votes. In 
1885 the contest was between two doctors, Dr. A. W. McKinney and Dr. 
N. T. P, Robertson. McKinney won, polling 1,752 votes, and Robertson, 
938 votes. The same candidate, with J. Hanan, made the race in 1887. 
McKinney polled 2,333 votes; Robertson, 1,425 votes and Hanan, 187 votes. 

Because of the failure of S. J. Morris, county clerk, to keep the result 
of the vote, there is no record of the election of 1889, except that "A. W. 
McKinney was elected coroner". In 1891 A. W. McKinney, R. B. Wil- 
son and John Parke were candidates for this office. McKinney polled 2,409 
votes, Wilson, 2,183 votes and Parke, 428 votes. In 1893 there were two 
candidates. Dr. S. M. Coliaday and J. C. Stratton. Colladay polled 2,555 
votes and Stratton, 960 votes. 

In 1895 Dr. E. A, Taylor, J. W. Hutton and J. F. Ives were the nomi- 
nees for coroner. Taylor polled 2,801 votes in the election; Hutton, 1,802 
votes and Ives, 214 votes. In 1897 Taylor and Ives were candidates again. 
This time Taylor received 2,789 votes and Ives 2,223 votes. In 1899 Taylor 
was again a candidate. His opponent was J. B. Julian. Taylor's vote in 
this election was 3,154 and Julian's, 2,126. In 1901 Doctor Taylor was 
again a candidate. He had three competitors, J. F. Ives, of 1895 and 1897, 
also A. L. Hoilowell and Bartholomew Carrington. Taylor received 3,223 
votes, Ives, 1,823; Hoilowell, 75, and Carrington, 125. In 1903 Dr. H. 
M. Stewart was a candidate with E. A. Richardson and W. S. Richardson 
as his opponent. Stewart polled 3,903 votes; E. A. Richardson, 1,702 
and W. S. Richardson, 217. In 1905 Dr. W. F. Schoor and Dr. F. D. 
Forney were candidates. Schoor polled 3,336 votes and Forney 2,266 
votes. In 1907 Schoor was a candidate again, with Warren H. Miner as 
his opponent. Schoor polled 4,209 votes and Miner 3,356 votes. In 1909 
there was but one candidate, Dr. W. H. Williamson, who polled 3,776 votes. 
In 191 1 Williamson was a candidate again, polling 3,725 votes to 3,269 for 
his opponent. C. F. McNair. 



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C. C. HUTCHINSON 



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CHAPTER XXI. 
Representatives and State Senators. 

Reno county's first representative in the lower house of the Legisla- 
ture was C. C. Hutchinson. His election was very irregular, and it is very 
doubtful if he would be admitted to any present-day Legislature with cre- 
dentials such as he had; for the county had not been organized when he was 
elected, a temporary board of county commissioners having been appointed 
by the governor to hold the first election. The commissioners of Reno coun- 
ty had not made an organization when two of them called the election for 
representatives one day, held the election the next day, canvassed the vote 
and issued the certificate of election before sundown of election day, and 
within a half hour after the certificate of election was finished Hutchinson 
was on his way overland in a covered wagon to Newton, then the western 
terminus of the Santa Fe railroad, which he "took" to Topeka early the next 
morning, and on the following morning presented his certificate of election 
to tiie House of Representatives then in session, was admitted as a member 
and began his work as such at once. This was called the ninety-fourth dis- 
trict at that time. In the election held in 1873. for the legislative session that 
was held in 1874, there were two candidates, C. C. Hutchinson and J. W. 
Kanaga. Hutchinson received 341 votes and Kanaga, 221. Hutchinson 
served as a member of the House for the session held in 1874. 

The third election for representative brought out three candidates: T. 
T. Taylor, W. J. Ross and Fletcher Meredith. Both Taylor and Meredith 
were Republicans, and Ross was a Democrat. The two candidates of the 
Republican party divided the vote, Taylor receiving 447 votes; Ross, 278, 
and Meredith, 248. In the election held in November, 1874, Taylor had no 
opposition for re-election and received 742 votes as representative from the 
ninety- fourth district. 

In 1876 there were two candidates for representative, J. V. Clymer, 
a Republican, and W. J. Ross was candidate against Clymer. The latter 
received 589 votes, and Ross, 412. Considering that Reno county was so 
strongly Republican, the vote Ross received was a high compliment to him. 
Ordinarily the Democrats, at that time, received but a small per cent of the 



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l66 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

votes, the county l>eing settled largely by Union soldiers, who were nearly 
all Republicans. During the session of the Legislature the district which 
was composed of Reno county had its number changed from ninety-fourth 
to one hundred and fifteenth. The settling up of the western part of the 
state led to the organization of new counties and the new number of one hun- 
dred and fifteen was given to Reno county. 

RIVALRY BETWEEN COUNTRY AND TOWN. 

In 1878 the election brought out four candidates. W. R. Brown, a law- 
yer of Hutchinson, and a Republican; W. J- Ross,, a Democrat; A. J. Cole, 
a Greenbacker, and J. H. Lawson, a Republican. In that election politics 
played only a small part. There had grown up in Reno county a fight of the 
country against the town. The contest started over who should bold the 
oriices. the country claiming that the town monopolized the county and leg- 
islative offices. There was but little virtue to the claim, but it was made by 
some men in the county in order to get votes, by appealing to the prejudices 
of the farmer. In this election Brown polled 479 votes; Ross, 507: Cole, 
103. and Lawson, 630. Lawson won on his "country against the town" cam- 
paign. Ross received a great many Republican votes, and while Cole's vote. 
added to those Ross received, would not have been enough to have elected 
him: had not Cole been a candidate, Ross would undoubtedly have been 
elected, for there were many men in Hutchinson who voted for Brown who 
would have voted for Ross, had they not thought that Cole woidd take 
enough votes from Ross to insure his defeat. Had the vote been between 
Ross and Lawson, Ross would have been elected by a large majority. 

In 1880 Lawson was re-elected. His opponents then were William 
H. Ingham and Henry Hegwer. Lawson received 1,017 votes: Ingham, 826. 
and Hegwer, 204. This Legislature divided Reno county into two legis- 
lative districts. The eastern part of the county, including Hutchinson, was 
called the ninety-seventh district, and the western and southern part of 
the county was put into another district and numbered the ninety-eighth 
district. In the election held on November ro, 1882, in the ninety-seventh 
district there were three candidates, T. T. Taylor, A. R. Scheble and H. 
S. Freeman, Taylor lived in Little River township at that time, where he 
was homesteading a quarter section of land. He was also practicing law in 
Hutchinson. Scheble was a lawyer living in Hutchinson, and Freeman lived 
in Lincoln township. As a result of this election, Taylor received 482 votes; 
Scheble, 560. and Freeman, 236. In the west district, there were two can- 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 167 

dictates, J. W. Claypool and T. B. Hand. Claypool was elected, receiving 
515 votes, and Hand, 439. 

In 1884, in the ninety-seventh district, there were three candidates, 
W. H. Northcutt, Sanders Cochran and I. N. Gray. The election resulted 
in Gray's election, he receiving 1,067 votes; Northcutt, 685, and Cochran, 
. 640. In the ninety-eighth district there were two candidates, A. B. Cald- 
well and O. S. Jenks. Caldwell received 899 votes and Jenks, 637, 

Another change in the numbers' of the district was made by the Legis- 
lature. The territory remained the same in each district, but the numbers 
•.vere changed to ninety-two and ninety-three. The ninety-second district 
was the eastern, or "town" district, as it was called. 

MADE IT PRACTICALLY UNANIMOUS. 

In the election of 1886, T. T. Taylor had but little opposition in the 
election. His opponent was C. Bishir. Bishir was a peculiar man, honest, 
but very narrow and very selfish. He was a Greenbacker and opposed bonds 
of any and all kinds, opposing the issuing of bonds for any purpose. In 
this election, Taylor made no campaign and the universal dislike of Bishir 
made it evident that the latter would receive but few votes. The result of 
this election justified the lack of effort on Taylor's part, as he received 1,009 
votes and Bishir, 84. 

In the west district there were three candidates, W. A. Watkins, K. J. 
Arnold and W. J. Presby. Watkins received 778 votes; Arnold, 827, and 
Presby, 107. Arnold served one term in the Legislature and was never a 
candidate again and soon moved from the county. 

In 1888 H. M. Whistler, F. P. Hettinger, C. W. Peckham and Charles 
Purtly were candidates in the ninety-second district. Whistler was elected, 
receiving twelve hundred and sixty votes. Hettinger polled 1,197 votes; 
Peckham, 78, and Purdy, 107. In the ninety-third district there were four 
candidates for the office in 1888, J. N. High, A. S. Kent, J. H. Fry and D. 
Tanner. High was elected, receiving 1,385 votes; Kent, 819; Fry, 81, and 
Tanner, 162. 

Iri 1890 there were two candidates in eacli district. In the east district 
J. A. Meyers and H. S. Freeman contested for the office. Freeman was 
elected, receiving 1,570 votes to 1,413 for Meyers. In the west district, 
Enos Dutton, the Republican candidate, was beaten by W. H. Mitchell, a 
Populist, Dqtton receiving 9,740 votes and Mitchell, 1,440. This Legis- 
lature again changed the numbers of the two Reno county districts, num- 



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l68 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

bering them seventy-six and seventy -seven. In the election of 1892, in the 
seventy-sixth district, J. F. Greenlee was the Republican candidate and 
received 1,715 votes. In the west district there were three candidates, J. 
W. Dix, W. H. Mitchell and W. E. Roach. Dix received 1,535 v °tes: 
Mitchell, 1,511, and Roach, 16. In 1894 Dix was again a candidate from 
this district and beat his opponent, George Thompson, Dix receiving 1,508 
votes and Thompson, 1,245. I" this election in the east district, Fletcher 
Meredith beat Frank Bowser, Meredith polling 1,729 votes and Bowser, 
1,230. Meredith was a newspaper man, a fighter and an uncompromising 
protectionist. He was not a good candidate, as he never left a matter like 
getting votes interfere with what he had to say in his newspaper. He was 
a candidate before the convention several times for different offices, but was 
seldom successful. In this race he had the better of Bowser, who was a 
farmer in Lincoln township and very little known at that time. 

OVERCOME VIGOROUS OPPOSITION'. 

In 1896 Theo. Botkin was the Republican nominee from the seventy- 
sixth district and M. Watson the Democratic candidate. Botkin came to 
Hutchinson from southwestern Kansas, where he was judge of the district 
court. He had a stormy time as judge, and was impeached by the state 
Senate. Botkin was a man of great force of character and a good speaker, 
but a man who had an unusually active group of enemies. The fight was 
continued on him here in this race, but he won, receiving 1,703 votes to 
Watson's 1,673. Botkin was a good representative, but moved away from 
Hutchinson shortly after he had finished his term of service in the Legis- 
lature. 

In the west district, Thomas Keddie was the Republican candidate, and 
J. A. DeBard, the Democratic nominee. Keddie beat DeBard ninety -nine 
votes, he receiving 1,543 votes to DeBard's 1,444. In 1898 DeBard was 
a candidate in this district again, being elected over E. R. Watkins. by a 
vote of 1,383 to 1,357. This district number was changed by the Legis- 
lature of 1896 to the seventy-ninth district, and the east district was num- 
bered eighty. In the election of 1898, in the eightieth district, Z. L. Wise, 
of Hutchinson, beat M. Watson, Wise receiving 1,605 votes and Watson, 
1.084. In 1 9°° Wise was again a candidate and was re-elected. He had 
as an opponent C. Bishir, who had made the race against T. T. Taylor in 
1886, and whom Taylor beat so badly. Bishir had grown more popular than 
he was in the early days, talked less against "bonds", and made a very 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 169 

respectable, showing, /Wise receiving 2,132 votes to Bishir's 1,138, In 
the seventy-ninth district, E. R. Watkins made a second campaign for rep- 
resentative, beating his opponent, J. A. DeBard, by twenty-one votes, he 
receiving 1,642 votes to DeBard's 1,621. 

In 1902 in the Hutchinson, or east district, there were four candidates, 
John M. Kinkel, C. W. Oswald, T. D. Talmadge and J. P. Stratton. Kinkel 
was the Republican nominee, and received 1,653 votes; Oswald, the Demo- 
cratic candidate, polling 1,215 votes; Talmadge, the Prohibition candidate, 
65 votes, and Stratton, the Socialist candidate. III. In the west district, 

E. R. Watkins was re-elected over Joseph Sherrow and J. \V. Brown, 
Watkins receiving 1,424 votes; Sherrow, 854, and Brown, 24. In 1904 
in the eightieth district, W. V. Morgan was elected, receiving 1,850 votes. 
A. P. Johnson, his Democratic opponent, got 1,443 votes, and J. W. Strat- 
ton. the Socialist candidate, polled 143 votes. In the eighty-first district, 
J. W. Jones was the Republican candidate. He had Ijeen sheriff of Reno 
county for four years. He was beaten by Henry S. Thompson, Jones 
receiving 1,214 votes and Thompson, 1,230. In 1906. in the east district. 
Morgan was re-elected over John A. Myers, receiving 1,663 v °tes to Myers' 
1,566. In the eighty-first district the same candidates were chosen by each 
party. Thompson winning over his opponent by a vote of 1,351 to 1,165, 

In 1008 Morgan was a candidate for the third time in the east district, 
and \Y. E. Vincent was his opponent. Morgan polled. 2.524 votes, and 
Vincent. 2.008 votes. In the west district C. Fred Fehr received 1,567 
votes to 1. 419 received l>y his Democratic opponent. W. A. Austin, of 
Sylvia. In 1910 YV. Y. Morgan was the Republican candidate again and 
Frank Fields, of Pretty Prairie, was the Democratic nominee, and was elected. 
Morgan received 1,820 votes, and Fields 2,218. In the west district, Fehr 
and Thompson were candidates, Thompson winning by a vote of 1.295 *° 
Fcbr's 1,273. I" '9 12 J- S. Simmons was the Republican nominee for rep- 
resentative for the seventy-fifth district, and J. P. O. Graber his Demo- 
cratic opponent. Simmons received 2.099 votes and Graber, 2,410. In the 
west district E. K. Blaisdell heat Henry Thompson by a vote of 1,414 to 

1.32/- 

In 1914 there were three candidates in the east district for representative, 

F. L. Martin. R. C. Layman and C. H. Bacon. Martin was the Republican 
candidate. Layman the Democratic nominee, and Bacon ran on the "Bull 
Moose" Republican ticket. Martin received 3,387 votes; Layman, 2,769 votes. 
and Bacon, 1,351. In the west district Jake Edwards, the Republican nomi- 
nee, defeated Henry S. Thompson by a vote of 2,163 to '.748. 



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I70 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

In 1916 F. L. Martin was re-elected representative from the east dis- 
trict over Eugene Hippie, Martin polling 4.483 votes and Hippie, 3.960. In 
the west district, Edwards was elected for a second term, receiving 2,369 
votes to 1,960 votes cast for J. A. Lyons. 

There have been thirty-one different men elected to the office of rep- 
resentative from Reno county, four of them representing the entire county 
in the early days when Reno county constituted one representative district, 
and thirteen different men have been elected from each of the two districts 
after the county was divided. There have been seven men who held the 
office two terms, C. C. Hutchinson, John Lawson and T. T. Taylor (although 
one of the latter's terms was filled after the county was divided, when there 
was one district in the county), Wise and Martin, in the east district, and 
Watkins and Edwards in the west district. There have been two men, one 
in each district, who have held the office three terms, W. Y. Morgan, in the 
east district, and Henry S. Thompson, in the west district. 

Of these representatives, none is living who represented the entire 
county. Of those who represented the east district, five are still living, and 
all of them are still residents of Reno county. In the west district, seven 
are still living and are likewise still residents of the county. One of them. 
YV. Y. Morgan, was afterwards elected lieutenant-governor, and another, T. 
T. Taylor, was counted out by a corrupt group of politicians in the con- 
vention, he having had a majority of the votes for lieutenant-governor, but by 
juggling the ballots in the box his opponent was nominated and elected. A 
third, John M. Kinkel, is at the time of writing this history a member of the 
board of public utilities of Kansas. Another, H. S. Thompson, one of the 
former representatives of Reno county, is president of the State Fair Asso- 
ciation, which position he lias held for many years. They have all been 
representative men and have served their county and their districts in a capa- 
ble manner. 

STATE SENATORS. 

There have been twelve elections for state senators since Reno county 
was organized. The district has undergone many changes. In the early 
days it embraced many counties. Reno county has been a controlling factor 
in the district in recent years. The district is now composed of Reno, King- 
man and Pratt counties. It is a compact district, with similar interests and 
the senators from this district have but few conflicting interests to serve. 

In 1872 Reno county's vote stood on the two candidates for state sena- 
tor — M. M. Murdock, 258 votes; D. S. Payne, 92 votes. At that time 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 171 

Sedgwick county was the most populous county in the district, and the sena- 
tor elected was then a resident of that county and editor and owner of the 
Wichita Eagle. In 1876 Reno's vote stood, on state senator, T. T. Taylor, 
593, and C. C. Hutchinson, 480. In 1880 George W. Nimmocks, of Great 
Bend, received the largest vote of Reno, he polling 560 votes to 722 for 
his competitor, Ira D. Busick. In 1884 the vote of this county was divided 
between two Reno county men, A. M. Switzer receiving 838 votes, and A. 
R. Scheble, 1,358. A third candidate from another county, \V. M. Condan, 
received 1,223 votes. 

In 1888 Reno's vote on state senator was cast as follows: F. E. Gil- 
lett, of Kingman county, 3,321 votes; R. S. Cates, of Barton county, 1,912. 
Reno's vote was largely the one that decided the contest in favor of Gillett, 
who was the successful candidate in the district. In 1892 Reno county had 
a candidate for state senator, J. M. Leeds, of Turon, who was elected. 
James Kelley, of Pratt county, was his opponent, Reno's votes stood, Leeds, 
3,019; Kelley. 3,215. In 1896 A. M. Switzer and Frank Fields, both from 
Reno county, received the nomination from their, party. Switzer polled 
3,336 votes and Fields, 3,029. Fields received a majority of the votes in 
the other counties and was elected. 

In 1900 Frank Vincent, of Reno county, and T). B. Crawford, of Pratt 
county, were the candidates. In Reno county Vincent polled 3.643 votes, and 
Crawford, 2,865. Vincent was elected. The other two counties then com- 
posing the district, Kingman and Pratt, about "broke even" with the candi- 
dates, and Reno's majority for Vincent was enough to elect him. In 1904. 
F. C. Carver, of Pratt county, was elected state senator. In Reno county 
he polled 3,562 votes, while C. W. Peckham, of Haven, the Democratic can- 
didate, received 1,975 votes and J. F. Westfield, of Kingman county, received 
105 votes. 

In 1908 Emerson Carey, of Hutchinson, was elected senator. Henry 
S. Thompson, of Sylvia, and J. A. Carlisle also being candidates. In Reno 
county. Carey received 3,926; Thompson, 3.528, and Carlisle. 136. In 1912 
Carey was re-elected state senator, receiving 3,744 votes in this county to 
3,501 for his opponent, Frank Fields. 

In 1916 Will S. Thompson, of Reno county, was elected senator. His 
opponent was Frank C. Fields, also of Reno county. In this county 
Thompson received 7,510 votes and Fields, 5,222. Thompson's term of office 
expires in 1920. 



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CHAPTER XXII. 
Some Early Bond Elections. 

The organization of the county and the election of its officers were but 
the beginning of activity both in the town and county. There were no roads 
laid out. There were some trails over the county, being the routes traveled 
by the early settlers. There were no bridges and the freshets made travel 
very difficult, in some cases stopping communication entirely. The Arkansas 
river was a barrier that would divide the county' unless bridges were built, 
not only owing to the amount of water in the channel, but also the treacher- 
ous nature of the sand. 

The county was likewise without any place in which to transact its 
business. All of the early elections took place at "The office of C. C. Hutch- 
inson."' It was necessary to build a court house as well as to build bridges 
and establish roads, so the office of the county commissioners was the center 
uf the county's activity during the years 1872 and 1873. 

Another matter that was equally as serious as the absence of roads, 
bridges and buildings, was the absence of money to pay for these necessary 
things. Equally serious was the absence of any great amount of prop- 
erty. All of the homestead land yielded no taxes and was not taxed until 
proved upon. The fact that it was exempt from taxes until the title passed 
from the government to the individual was an inducement to the early set- 
tler to put off "proving up" on his claim as long as possible. There was 
very little personal property and very few persons besides the merchants 
had personal properly above what would be covered by the two-hundred- 
dnllar exemption for the head of each family. Especially was this true 
when property was valued at from one-fourth to one-sixth of its real value 
for taxation purposes. Consequently the list of personal property taxpay- 
ers was noticeably small in the early years of the county's history. 

So the burden of the taxes fell on the settlers who had bought railroad 
land anil upon the railroad, after it was built into the county. These two 
classes furnished what money went into the county treasury. As an indi- 
cation of how largely these two classes had to pay in the way of taxation. 
it may be added that in 1872 there were fourteen personal taxpayers on 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 173 

the rolls of Reno county, and the total amount they paid in taxation 
amounted to one hundred forty-one dollars and twenty-five cents. 

The only method of providing for the necessities of the county was 
the issuing of bonds. Not only was it necessary to issue the bonds to pro- 
vide for the carrying on of the internal improvements needed, but it was 
equally necessary to provide for the first year's interest on those bonds. So 
when- the first issue of bonds was voted, another series of Itonds was voted 
to pay the interest on the first issue. 

The first election t<x»k place on April 25, 1872. The petition asking the 
commissioners to call the election was signed by C. C. Hutchinson, E. Wil- 
cox and sixty-five others. The matters covered in their petition to be sub- 
mitted to the voters of the county were: First, shall the county issue thirty- 
five thousand dollars of lxmds to build bridges across the Arkansas river, 
across Cow creek, on Main street in Hutchinson, also a bridge across Cow 
creek in township 22, range 6 west, also a bridge across the Little Arkansas 
river, northwest of Hutchinson. The second proposition which the petition- 
ers desired to have submitted to the voters was the issuance of bonds for 
fifteen thousand dollars to build a brick building on lots 55 and 57 South 
Main street for a court house and jail for the county. The third matter 
on which a vote was asked was the one referred to, namely, the voting of 
ten thousand dollars in bonds to pay the interest for the first year on the 
bonds voted. The result of this election was as follows: 

Bridge bonds For, 

County building For, 

County loan For 

An old settler who was present at the election and voted, made the 
remark, that it was possible to see the proportion of voters who had obtained 
government land as opposed to those who had bought railroad land; thus, 
while it is possible that there were other considerations that influenced the 
individual voter, yet. in this election as well as other bond elections that 
have lieen held since, it is not always the man who pays the taxes who votes 
for a liond proposition. But those bonds carried and the next matter that 
concerned the county officials was the selling of their bonds. 

After the voting of these bonds, bids were called for the building of 
the bridges. There was not much competition, first, because there were but 
few bridge-building concerns in the slate and, second, it was known that 
the concern that obtained the contract would have to take their pay in county 



53 


Against, 


64 


■55 


Against, 


(10 


5' 


Against, 


64 



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174 RENO COINTY, KANSAS. 

bonds and dispose of them as best they could. The firm that secured the 
contract was the King Wrought Iron Bridge Company. They evidently 
looked at the amount of money the county had set apart for the building of 
these bridges, for their bid was thirty-three thousand seven hundred and 
thirty-two dollars. This contract was let on June 7, 1872. The bridge was 
eighteen hundred and sixty-two feet long. 

The county commissioners had also advertised for bids for building the 
court bouse. The contract was awarded to W. E. Hutchinson for eighteen 
thousand dollars. The specifications were changed several times, additions 
made, and, later, a jail was added in the basement of the court house. It 
was. found that there had not been enough money voted to put up such a 
building as was contracted for. The lowest bid, outside the jail and changes 
that were made before the contract was let, was three thousand dollars in 
excess of the amount of bonds voted, even if the bonds could be sold at 
par. It was agreed that the work should be pushed as far as possible. Let 
the question of finding the money with which to finish the building be pro- 
vided later. There was no building suitable for the county officers nor for 
their records, and the commissioners were exceedingly anxious to get their 
building completed as fast as possible. 

Everything possible was done to crowd the building of the bridges, 
especially the river bridges across the Arkansas. The founders oi the town 
saw that even with the changes in the boundaries, by which a row of town- 
ships was added on the north and east sides of the county and a part of the 
southern end of Reno cut off and Kingman county created by the Legis- 
lature of 1872 — that even with these changes, that put Hutchinson nearer 
the center of the county, there was growing in the county a disposition to 
contest Hutchinson's claim for a county seat at a later date. So they were 
anxious to have the river bridge completed as soon as possible, so as to offer 
an opportunity for the people living on the south side of the river to get to 
Hutchinson. With the completion of the railroad to Hutchinson in July, 
1872, a profitable business grew up in the hauling of the buffalo bones to 
Hutchinson to be shipped east. For these reasons nothing was allowed to 
interfere with the building of the "big bridge," as it was called. 

Another matter that received the attention of the county commission- 
ers at this time was the question of roads. Prior to this time there were 
no regularly laid-out public roads. There were no fences and but few farms 
and the traveler was guided by the axiom that the shortest distance between 
two points would Ix 1 a straight line; there was but little to stop anyone from 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 175 

going the shortest route. But as farms began to be settled, it became neces- 
sary to have regularly laid-out paths of travel. There were some roads 
that had been used until they became fairly good to follow, especially over 
the star routes, but they were so few that they would not answer generally 
for roads. On July 6. 1S72, Judge L. Houk and nineteen others presented 
a petition to the county commissioners to declare all section lines public 
roads, except the lines of section 13, township 23, range 6, where Hutchin- 
son was located and which would provide itself with streets. The Legis- 
lature of 1872 passed a law making all section lines public roads, but it was 
necessary under the act to have a petition presented to the county commis- 
sioners and have them declare the establishment of the roads. This, in a 
general way, was the beginning of the public roads of the county. But it 
did not meet the immediate needs of the people of that time. There were a 
good many roads that did not follow section lines. Among the more notable 
of these roads was one that in later years caused a great deal of discussion 
and litigation. It was called the "Haven angling road."" The people liv- 
ing southeast of Hutchinson did not want to follow the square-cornered 
road system, but preferred to "cut across lot," on their way to town. At 
that time there was but little objection to such a road. Travelers were 
scarce and people were more sociable than they were in later years. The 
land was net so valuable and but little inconvenience. was experienced bv the 
owners of the land in having a road run diagonally through their land. 
So, at the meeting of the board of county commissioners in January, 1873, 
the "Haven angling road" was authorized. There was no "viewing" of 
the road, no damages awarded and no benefit assessed by the commission- 
ers in taking this action : but it met no opposition, for the people to the south- 
east of Hutchinson wanted it and the owners through whose land the road 
passed made no objection, so the road was established. 

Twenty years passed. The "Angling road" was a highway of com- 
merce and a big change had been made in the farms lying between Haven 
and Hutchinson. Many of these were fenced, all of the land farmed and 
the owners of the land there wanted the road changd to the section lines. 
The contention lasted four years. Attorneys were retained by both those 
who wanted the road ept open and by the landowners who wanted the 
road closed. Two different boards of county commissioners heard the case. 
The first one refused to close the road. The vote stood two to one to keep 
the road open. Another petition was filed, another hearing held and the 
controversy was one that divided, the neighborhood along the road. To end 



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I76 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

it all, another vote was taken and W. K. Noland, one of the commissioners, 
changed his position in the matter and the "Haven angling road" was a 
thing of the past. The policy of closing the "angling roads" was adopted 
and, as but few of the "short cuts" of the old settler remained, the so-called 
section line roads serve the people for their highways. 

Early in 1873 C. C. Hutchinson issued a circular that contained a 
great deal of descriptive matter of Reno county, also a map. But it was 
more than a map. Jt was his vision of the Reno county in the years to 
come. At that time there was but one railroad in the county, the Santa 
Fe, and there were no other railroads looking towards Hutchinson. There 
was scant business for that one — -there was little, jn fact, to haul out of the 
county except buffalo bones and nothing to haul in except the settlers' goods 
and cattle. But in this dream — and C. C. Hutchinson was a dreamer, and 
one whose dream this time came true — he saw other railroads built into this 
valley. How well he dreamed, how his dream came true, can be seen by 
looking at this map. Put it down beside a map of Reno countv of todav 
and one would have to look closely to see wherein the railroad he dreamed 
of did not appear in the map of today. The "Hutchinson & Nettleton 
railroad" is but a short distance out of the line of the present Kinsley branch 
of the Santa Fe. The "Hutchinson & Memphis" could hardly be distin- 
guished in its route from the Missouri Pacific that was built many years 
after the map was made. The "Southwestern railroad" of 1873 follows 
almost exactly the line the Rock Island built into Hutchinson years latei 
and the "E. L. L. & Southwestern" leaves Reno county on almost the same 
ground that the Missouri Pacific takes as it bends toward the main line of 
lhat road that runs into Colorado. This map is published to show the con- 
ceptions the founder of this city had of its future and his idea of the way 
railroads would be built into this territory. 



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CHAPTER XXIII. 
Bonds of the County and its Subdivisions. 

As soon as Reno county was organized in January, 1872, one thing 
was very apparent to the men who were managing the county's affairs, and 
that was that improvements of various kinds would be necessary. A court 
house had to be built, bridges had to be built, and the running expenses of 
the county had to be met. Another thing was apparent, and that was that 
the county would have to borrow money to make these improvements. So 
the early bond issues were voted. Ever since that time Reno county has 
had a bonded indebtedness. 

Another feature of these bonds was that they were refunded, most of 
them, before they were due. The early bond issues generally bore seven 
per cent. When the county's credit was strengthend and bonds could be sold 
at a low rate, these bonds were called in and paid off and in their place 
other bonds were issued at a lower rate of interest. To pay the commis- 
sions for making the change in these bonds, the money in the sinking fund, 
that was for the payment of those bonds when they became due was used to 
pay these commissions. Considerable criticism of the county commissioners 
was made at the time, but they justified their action by saying that the 
interest on the bonds was as much a part of the debt as the principal, and 
that a reduction in the rate of interest of the bonds was such a reduction 
of the indebtedness as would justify them in using the sinking fund under 
the limitation of the statute that required that the sinking fund could be 
used for no purpose other than the payment of the bonds. They further 
insisted that it was only the part of wisdom to extend the time of the pay- 
ment of the bonds, beyond that contemplated at the time of the issuance of 
the bonds so that the burden of the internal improvements of the county 
should be distributed, and that the generations of the future that would use 
these improvements should help pay for them, and the county at that period 
of its development should not undertake to pay more than the interest, and 
that they were wisely acting in the best interests of the people of that day 
when they were reducing the interest rates on their bonded indebtedness, and 
likewise decreasing their taxes. 

(12) 



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I78 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

While considerable money was paid in commissions for the refunding 
of these bonds, from the standpoint of the present, the objections to extend- 
ing the time of payment of the bonds of the county seem to be of little force. 
Considering the comfort and benefit the present generation has inherited in 
the way of municipal improvements, 110 criticism of any great force can 
be urged against the action of the county commissioners of that day ; and 
while Reno county would be out of debt now if that policy had not been 
adopted, yet the burden left to the present generation is so small compared 
to the changed conditions and improved conditions of the present over that 
of twenty-five years ago, that no legitimate criticism can be now urged 
against the policy they adopted. Reno county has always been prompt in 
the payment of all her obligations. There never has been a default on inter- 
est payments. Bonds were promptly re-issued when due, and the credit of 
the county has always been carefully guarded. 

TOTAL BONDF.D INDEBTEDNESS. 

On January 1, 1916, Reno county had a total bonded indebtedness of 
$209,000 that was outstanding and not due. The county treasurer had 
$18,640 on hands to apply on these bonds at the date of their maturity, as 
the bonds of the county are investments which the holders do not desire 
to have paid until maturity. These bonds, together with the date of issue, 
purpose of issuance of the bonds, the date of the bonds, the date of their 
maturity, and the interest the bonds bear : 

Amount, $40,000; date of issue, February 1, 1898; purpose, refunding; 
due February 1, 1918; interest rate, ±Yi%. 

Amount, $15,000; date of issue, January 1, 189K; purpose, C. K. & N.; 
due "February 1, 1919; interest rate, 4^2%. 

Amount. $44,000; date of issue, January 1, 1889; purpose, C. K. & X.; 
due January 1, 1919; interest rate, 5#%. 

Amount, $6,000; date of issue, January 1, 1899; puqjose, C. K. & X.; 
due January 1, 1919; interest rate, 5^%. 

Amount, $39,000; date of issue, December 1, 1898; purpose, refunding 
county bonds: due January 1, 1929; interest rate, 4%. 

Amount. $24,000; date of issue, June I, 1899; purpose, refunding 
county bonds; due June 1, 1929; interest rate, 4%. 

Amount, $32,000; date of issue, June 1, 1899; purpose, refunding county 
bopds; due June I, 1929; interest rate, 47c 



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KENO COUNTY, KANSAS. I79 

Amount, $9,000; date of issue, June i, 1900; purpose, refunding county 
bonds; due June 1, 1930; interest rate, 5%. 

Nickerson has $3,900 of sewer bonds. Hutchinson had on January 
1, 1916, $243,220 of bonded indebtedness, all for internal improvements- 
pavements, sewers, parks, etc. Grant township had outstanding bonds to 
the amount of $7,000, and had $9,000 on hands with which to pay the bonds. 
No explanation is available as to why the bonds are unpaid or why there 
should have been levies made and money collected in excess of that amount 
of their indebtedness. Little River township had $8,700 of outstanding 
bonds and $2,000 in the treasury to their credit to pay on their bonds. Cen- 
ter township had $1,000 of outstanding bonds on January 1, 1916. 

The total school district bonds on the date given was $84,900, these 
l)onds being issued for the erection of new school buildings and grounds 
and other improvements since January 1, 1916. Eight districts have voted 
bonds for new school buildings. 

The bonded indebtedness of the county has been decreased since 1892, 
when the county had $412,000 of this kind of debts. The $60,000 of bonds 
voted in 1872 for a proportion to the taxable property in the county of that 
time, is far beyond the rate of the bonded indebtedness of 1916. The 
amount of bonds of the county in 1916, is almost negligible. Of the $210,000 
bonds, as shown by the table in this chapter, $50,000 will be due on Janu- 
ary 1, 1919; $15,000 will be due ten years later, and the balance, $9,000, due 
on January 1, 1930. The bonds of the county in 1873 covered fourteen 
per cent, of the assessed valuation of the county, while the bonded indebted- 
ness of 1916 is less than one-fourth of one per cent, of the assessed valua- 
tion of the county. In other words, from a bond standpoint alone, the county's 
financial responsibility is more than sixty-five times as great as it was in 1872. 
In fact, this is a small measure of the difference. Then, the county was 
an experiment; now, a realization; then, a few settlers with no financial 
resources; now, a population close to fifty thousand, and a wealth of diversi- 
fied industries and a county development that the most ardent financier among 
the pioneers never dreamed of. Then a land of buffalo and Indians and 
buffalo grass; now, the homes of contented and industrious people, and with 
alfalfa fields that produce as much wealth to an acre as the early-day grass 
did to a section. 

This bond matter is of small importance to the county, hut it affords a 
method of ascertaining the progress of less than a half century, which 
enables us, in commercial terms, to measure the advance of the countv in 
the lifetime of the earliest settler. 



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l80 RENO COUNTY, KANSA*S. 

In addition to the bonds of the county, a few townships and cities still 
have a small bonded indebtedness. Sylvia City has $6,000, due January f, 
1921. The proceeds of the sale of these bonds were used by the city for 
the.erection of an electric-light plant. Turon also put in a municipal elec- 
tric-light plant at a cost of $10,000, for which they issued bonds. They 
have $3,500 on hand in their sinking fund to retire these bonds when due. 
Nickerson issued $5,000 in city bonds, the proceeds of which they put in 
a complete sewer system. South Hutchinson has still outstanding $2,800 
of bonded indebtedness. This issue of bonds was used to refund an old 
bonded indebtedness. 

There are some townships that have voted bonds for road improve- 
ments. Clay township has an issue of $1,500 used 011 the roads in the 
northern part of the township, which is an extension of the pavement put 
down on Fourth avenue, east, Hutchinson. Little River township voted 
$2,000 with which to build the "Buhler" road. Hayes township was the 
last of the townships to vote bonds for road improvements, their issue 
being for $1,000 that was used on some of the "sand hill" roads of that 
township. 



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CHAPTER XXIV. 
Reno County's Financial Matters. 

In 1872, when Reno county was organized, the question of raising 
money with which to run the county was one that puzzled the early settlers. 
The county had to have a building in which to transact its business, to house 
its records and to hold its courts. It had'to provide for the expense of main- 
taining order. It had to build bridges across the Arkansas river, Little river 
and Cow creek. It had no taxable property 'and no machinery for collecting 
taxes. So, among the first activities of the county commissioners was to 
call an election to vote bonds with which to obtain the necessary finances. 
Xor was it as easy then as now to sell bonds. There was no such market 
as there exists now for the sale of county or municipal bonds. Capital 
was afraid to invest in the uncertainty of a county as far west as Reno. 
When it is recalled that there were no railroads in the county, and that even 
the railroad builders, supposedly composed of men of ability and men who 
had confidence in the land into which they were building, openly declared 
they never expected to sell any land west of Great Bend, and that, in their 
opinion, it would be fifty years before any land in Reno county outside of 
the bottom, would be settled; it is not strange that there was no demand 
for bonds of such a community, so the first financial action taken in Reno 
county was the voting of bonds to build a court house, then an additional 
series of bonds to pay the first year's interest on those bonds, and also for 
the maintenance of the county. 

In 1872 the assessor reported five hundred and sixty-eight dollars in 
valuation in personal property in Reno township, the only township then 
organized. There was no railroad property assessed that year, for the Santa 
Fe did not have any of its road in Reno county at the tax assessment time. 
So the only property that was on the tax rolls in 1872 was the meager 
belongings of the early settlers. There was no land available for taxing 
purposes, for no one had title to his land, it either being homesteaded or 
pre-empted, so the property valuation of Reno county in 1872 was very 
small. 

Among the early financial troubles of Reno county was an injunction 



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l82 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

suit, filed by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Company against 
the board of county commissioners and also against the treasurer of the 
county, enjoining the board of county commissioners from levying any taxes 
for that year, and also enjoining the county treasurer from receiving any 
money from any taxes for the year. This suit was filed on March 25, 
1874, C. G. Foster and Joseph Waters representing the railroad. The case 
was brought in the name of Joseph Nickerson, then president of the Santa 
Fe railroad. This injunction suit paralyzed the activities of the county. The 
railroad was the heaviest taxpayer in the county, and if the county was not 
allowed to levy any taxes, financial ruin faced* the county. The purpose of 
the road was to discourage all internal improvement. They said the county 
didn't need any improvement. They were particularly adverse to building 
any school houses. District No. 2, in Grant township, wanted a school 
house. The railroad officials said they didn't need one. They likewise 
refused to pay any interest on the bonds voted the previous year by dis- 
trict No. 19. Likewise they refused to pay any interest on the school bonds 
voted in districts 27, 28 and 30. They especially objected to paying any 
interest on the school bonds of district No. 30 because these bonds were 
voted one day too late, according to a strict interpretation of the law, to be 
taxed in 1874. So the company found an especial objection to district 30's 
bonds. In the other districts they gave as the reason that the district didn't 
need school houses. These districts had no school houses of any kind, and 
it was simply the attempt of the road to keep the taxes down as low as 
possible. 

COMPROMISES MADE WITH RAILROAD. 

Considering that Congress had given the road every other section of 
land in the county for a distance of five miles wide on each side of the track, 
as a bonus to build the road, and considering the fact that the men who 
built the road originally, a bunch of young men from Boston who put up no 
money to help build the road, for a very apparent reason — they had no 
money to put into the enterprise — and considering that they mortgaged the 
land for money with which to build and equip the road, the consideration 
of these facts was the occasion of deep resentment on the part of the early 
settlers. The road did not continue this policy very long, as the resentment 
led to a practical boycott of land agents of the Santa Fe. The settlers would 
not buy the Santa Fe land. As soon as the effect of the company's small 
policy began to develop, and the railroad officials realized the effect it was 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 183 

having on immigrants, they dismissed the suit, but not until the county com- 
missioners had compromised with the road on many levies of taxes. 

The commissioners were severely criticized for compromising with the 
railroad, but a condition faced 'them that they dared not allow. There was 
very little money in the county. The county had no credit. It found the 
sale of its bonds a difficult matter and the commissioners of the county were 
forced to provide for the running of the county and to raise money to meet 
the interest on the bonded indebtedness of the county. So they compro- 
mised with the railroad and some of the school districts suffered heavily by 
the refusal of the company to allow the improvements to be made. At 
another time, in later years, the Santa Fe showed its disposition to dictate 
to the settlers, when it moved its shops from Nickerson to Newton. This 
action was largely because of the effect of an election held in Nickerson, 
when the company's small local official resented the action of the voters 
of Nickerson, and the company declared they would make the grass grow 
on the streets of Nickerson. They never succeeded in their attempt. They 
spent a good sized sum of money in moving their shops, hoping to carry 
out their threat. At a later period, one of the smaller division officials made 
a threat of what the road would do to Hutchinson, if the city of Hutchinson 
enforced some of the ordinances that affected the railroad, but the higher 
officials of the road soon sought to assure the city officials that the threat 
was not that of anyone who could make it good, and assured the city com- 
missioners they would seek to obey all ordinances governing the city. The 
time has passed now when any railroad can hold up Reno county's progress. 
They are all too dependent on the county for an immense revenue, and if 
any one of them would undertake to "double-cross" either the city or the 
county, the other roads would become the beneficiaries, and only the road 
doing the "double-crossing" would suffer. 

,. SOME INTERESTING STATISTICS. 

The following table shows the constant increase in the valuation of tax- 
able property in the county. It shows also the entire indebtedness for each 
of the years since the county, was organized, the total expenditures for all 
purposes and the rate of taxation for each year since the county was organ- 
ized in 1872, and closing with the financial condition of the county at the 
end of 1916: 



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I8 4 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 







Ami 




County 


State 








County 


State 


County Ex- 


Levy 


Tax 


Total 


Amount 


Year 


Valuation 


Tax 


penditures 


In Mills 


lu Mills 


lu Mills 


Bonds 


1872 






14,625 


32 


8.5 


40.5 


, 60,000 


1873 


596,820 


5,410 


22,100 


36 


6 


42 


SftOOO 


1874 


602,125 


6,000 


24,000 


36 





30 


91,500 


1875 


005,000 


6,100 


25,000 


27 


6 


33 


01,500 


1876 


926,000 


7,250 


23,150 


25.5 


5.5 


31 


105,000 


1877 


1,642,094 


9,031 


41,873 


27 


5.5 


32.5 


110,000 


1878 


1,522,413 


8,383 


41,105 


24.5 


5.5 


30 ' 


130.000 


1879 


1,618,283 


8,904 


39,672 


18.5 


5.5 


24 


130,000 


1880 


1,843,850 


10,141 


37,111 


17 


.1.5 


22.5 


144,682 


1881 


1,920,091 


10,560 


32,641 


16.5 


5 


21.5 


.144.000 


1882 


2,124,915 


10,644 


35,051 


15 


4.5 


19.5 


144,000 


1883 


3,911,159 


17,600 


58,667 


14.5 


4.3 


18.8 


141.500 


1884 


3,098,376 


13,288 


44,810 


13.5 


4.5 


IS 


144,000 


1886 


3,777,289 


14,027 


44,543 


14 


4.0 


18.6 


143.5011 


1886 


3,911,159 


17,991 


B2s800 


13.5 


4.1 


17.6 


141.500 


1887 


5,399,041 


22,136 


80,985 


15 


4.1 


19.1 


141,500 


1888 


6,089,733 


24,727 


77.349 


12.7 


4.1 


16.S 


141.500 


1889 


6,431,526 


26,374 


135,062 


21.1 


4.2 


25.3 


309.500 


1890 


6,149,269 


26,580 


86.080 


14 


4.25 


18,25 


401.500 


1891 


5,962,230 


24,130 


81,265 


13.6 


3,95 


17.55 


412,0011 


1892 


5,816353 


26,992 


83,173 


14.3 


3.0 


18.2 


412,009 


1893 


6,148,092 


27,097 


81,769 


13.3 


3.8 


17.1 


412,000 


1894 


5,795,142 


24,079 


70,580 


15.0 


3.9 


19.5 


411.000 


1895 


5,780,537 


30,441 


83,817 


14.5 


4.25 


18.3 


411.000 


1896 


5,952,583 


2S.272 


83,336 


14 


4.24 


18.25 


383,00(1 


1897 


6,133,480 


27,600 


67,468 


11 


4.1 


15.1 


382.000 


1898 


6,009,873 


21,034 


84,138 


14 


8.5 


22.5 


362.000 


1899 


6340,490 


£3,445 


88346 


14 


5,5 


19.5 


300.00(1 


1900 


6,754,987 


30,774 


81.059 


12 


5.5 


1 7.5 


aaojdon 


1901 


6,667,971 


36,073 


06,079 


10 


5.5 


15.5 


360,000 


L902 


7,456,205 


32,028 


74,502 


10 


5.5 


15.5 


:I43.000 


1003 


7,605,465 


53,238 


69.970 


9.2 


0.4 


15,(1 


:t33.(KHl 


1904 


7,631,433 


41,072 


80,130 


10.5 


5.1 


15.7 


:«3.((00 


1905 


7,883,560 


43.359 


82,777 


mr. 


5.7 


10.2 


333.0(10 


1900 


8,937,504 


41,996 


132,934 


.1445 


.47 


.019 


300.000 


1907 


9,366,468 


BBjm 


162,673 


.163 


J12 


.783 


292,000 


1008 


61,544,407 


55309 


152.629 


,248 


.9 


1.40 


2SS,IXM> 


1906 


64,469,817 


80,587 


210.562 


.325 


.125 


,45 


292,000 


1910 


82,674,054 


88JS07 


246,757 


.29 


.135 


.395 


259.000 


1911 


77,800,000 


83,360 


247,960 


.32 


.12 


.44 


270,000 


1912 


77,588,800 


93.100 


176,026 


.227 


.12 


.340 


207,900 


1913 


78,849,635 


94,619 


177,987 


.268 


.12 


.iWS 


209.000 


1914 


76.750,505 


! 12. nm 


204.274 


-•7" 


.12 


.39 


252.000 


1915 


79,769503 


99,712 


299,108 


.375 


.125 


.5 


233.570 


1916 


79.769.903 


103,700 


215,376 


.21 


.13 


.4 


21 7.020 



The above table shows some interesting points regarding Reno county's 
finances. The property valuations given prior to 1908 are supposed to be 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 185 

on a basis of one-third the actual value of the property. How far from that 
standard, was shown when the first effort was made, under a law passed in 
1907 requiring all property to be listed at its' full value, when the valuation 
ofithe cortnty 'increased from nine million to sixty-one million 1 dollars, nearly 
seven times what it was under the old system of valuation, instead of three 
times the real value, as was supi>osed to be the basis of assessment. But even 
in 1908 the value was not within ten million dollars of what the property 
assessed was really worth. There was a determined effort on the part of 
some of the assessors to keep the valuation in their respective townships 
or his wards down, so that his unit of assessment would not have to pay 
more than its proportion of the expense of the county. In the townships, 
the assessor chosen was generally the township trustee. This is an elective 
office and each assessor was anxious to retain the good will of his neighbors, 
and the valuation he put on property, both real and personal, was as low as 
he could put it and be able to have his work approved by the county com- 
missioners, who are the equalization lx>ard tinder the law for the county. And 
rhey, the county commissioners, were in the same position with respect to 
the state equalization board as the individual assessor was with respect to 
them, as each county was trying to keep its valuation as low as possible, 
so that the county should not have to pay more than its proportion of the 
taxes to support the state government. So it is very probable that the valua- 
tion fixed on property under the old system was nearer a tenth of its real 
valuation than a third, the basis on which it was supposed to be assessed. 
Then the head of each household was allowed an exemption of two hundred 
dollars on personal property. The result was a further decrease of the 
assessed valuation of the county. 

When the law requiring all property to be assessed at its full value went 
into effect, it was supposed that the full valuation would be fixed on property, 
but it didn't have that effect. Nor has the change in the law, requiring 
assessments to be made on basis of full valuation. l>een much more suc- 
cessful in getting all the property on the tax rolls of the county. There are 
so many discrepancies in values fixed by the assessor as compared to what 
the property sold for that it is probable that, if any actual cash valuation 
could be obtained, at the end of 1916 the real value of the taxable property 
of Reno county really was one hundred and fifty million dollars, rather than 
the approximately eighty million dollars fixed by the assessors. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



COUNTY S BONDED INDEBTEDNESS. 



A large per cent, of the Ixmds which have been voted by the county 
have been donated to railroads. It will l>e but a few years until these bonds 
will be paid off. It is very probable that before many years the bonded indebt- 
edness of the county will be increased. The old bonds were for transporta- 
tion purposes, and the new bonds that will be issued will be for transpor- 
tation purposes also; not, however, for the use of the railroad, but for the 
use of the people. It is very probable that the paving of county roads will 
soon be adopted, as the almost universal use of the automobile requires bet- 
ter roads than the old dirt roads of the present time. It is very likely also 
that Reno county will within a few years build a new court house, as the 
old one is wholly inadequate to the needs of the county and its vault is over- 
crowded, necessitating the storing of valuable records in the basement of 
the court house. The present court house is not a fire-proof building, and 
Reno county risks its records of immense value in a building that no cor- 
poration of one-tenth the capital of the property of Reno county would risk 
over night. The probate court records, involving the record of estates, the 
register of deeds' records, involving the title to every piece of property in 
Reno county are so inadequately protected in the old building that common 
prudence alone will require a fire-proof structure for the housing of these 
records. 

So it is probable that it will be many years before the bonded indebted- 
ness of the county will be much lower than it is at the present time. Values 
will increase, farm values particularly will grow, and internal improvements 
be carried on on an extensive scale. 

OFFICE OF COUNTY ASSESSOR. 

Reno county has had three county tax assessors. Then the law was 
changed and the duties of the assessor were added to those of the county 
clerk. This change was made in the interests of economy, but it is very 
doubtful if the change has been a wise one. Three men have held the 
office of county assessor, J. E. Conklin, John A. Myers and George Lee. 
ft is very probable that far more property was added to the tax rolls by the 
activities of these men, on which the taxes would more than pay all the 
extra expenditures caused by the continuing of the office of county assessor. 
The first one of these assessors, J. E. Conklin, found enough canned goods 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 187 

stored in Hutchinson, that had never been listed before for taxation, to more 
than pay the entire expense of his office, the assessor's salary, and all the 
clerical help required in that office. These goods were owned by firms in 
other cities stored in Hutchinson for shipment, subject to taxation in Reno 
county. They were not listed at the place of business of the firms, storing 
them here for reshipment to their customers. But a wave of economy swept 
over the Legislature and it discontinued the office of county assessor, and 
added the work to the already heavily burdened office of the county clerk, 
who cannot devote his time to hunting up property missed by the assessor. 

SOMETHING REGARDING COUNTY'S PROGRESS. 

The annual expenditures of the county for county purposes have grad- 
ually increased from $14,625 in 1872 to $215,376 in 1916. But these expenses 
have not increased, either in proportion to the increase in the population of 
the county, or in proportion to the increase in the assessed valuation of the 
county. They will increase as the years go by. The big increase in the- busi- 
ness of the county will make the expenditures for county purposes heavier 
year by year. The increased road expenditures caused by the demand for 
better highways to accommodate the greater amount of travel will be greater 
each year. It will cost more to maintain the poor for the assurance of old 
that they will abide with us always, cannot fail of fulfillment, even in a 
county as prosperous as Reno. 

The progress of the county of less than a half century is marvelous. It 
has surpassed the dreams of the early settler. He, more than those who 
have become residents of the county in more recent years, is astonished at the 
great development of the county's resources. He realizes also lietter than 
the newcomer, that this development has scarcely begun. The resources 
of the county have hardly been touched. Crops more productive by many 
fold than those the old settler planted are grown, and ground neglected has 
been brought into cultivation, and better fanning has doubled the products 
of the soil. Hutchinson has developed into a commercial center in a way 
that has greatly added to land values, and the richness of Reno is but begun 
to be developed. 



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CHAPTER XXV. 
Building the Missouri Pacific. 

In the days before railroads were generally built, when transportation 
matters were in their formative period, there was great rivalry between towns 
for railroads. The laws were exceedingly generous as to the amount of 
Financial aid to railroads that was allowed to be voted by a community. 
Both county and township bonds were permitted to the extent of four thou- 
sand dollars per mile, which was given for "stock subscription", the town- 
ship or count)' taking so much stock and the railroads getting the bonds of 
the county or township and converting them into cash, with which they built 
the road. As soon as the road was completed, the property was sold to the 
real owners of the road, the bonds and other donations having been made to 
a "construction company". This was a method of getting rid of the muni- 
cipal stockholders used by some roads. 

The Missouri Pacific road through Reno county was built under the 
name of The Wichita & Colorado railroad. It was first agitated by some 
Wichita people. Their plan was to build in a northwesterly direction until 
they struck the southern boundary of Reno county. They proposed then to 
run west, along the southern line of the county and then go to Kinsley. 
They obtained their charter on July 27, 1885. The main purpose of this 
road was probably to help Wichita and. in the second place, to kill Hutchin- 
son. They thought they would run through the southern part of the county, 
establish towns along the road, build the road to the center of the county, 
then called Reno Center (now Partridge), and make a fight for that town as 
the county seat. The Santa Fe railroad was largely interested in the suc- 
cess of Wichita, as at that time it was one of their principal stopping points 
in the state. The Hutchinson people did not oppose the Santa Fe crowd 
directly. The plan they adopted was to heat the Wichita people at their 
own game and not let them know what they were doing. L. A. Bigger 
visited the general offices of the Santa Fe and urged them to build a line 
from Hutchinson to Kinsley. The Wichita project was not being pushed 
very rapidly. So, on August 4, 1885, a charter was obtained for the 
Arkansas River & Western road, now known as the "Kinsley cut-off" of 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 189 

the Santa Fe. The construction of this road was pushed as fast as possible 
over the identical route from "Reno Center to Kinsley" that the Wichita 
people intended to build their line, and was well under way when the Wichita 
people, whose road was being financed by Jay Gould, reached the eastern 
border of Reno county. 

At this point another turn was made in affairs. Mr. Bigger, W. F. 
Mulkey, Hiram Raff and S. W. Campbell were sent to New York to see 
Gould and see if the Wichita road could not be brought to Hutchinson. 
They met Gould and he informed them that there would be no more rail- 
road building into Hutchinson or any place else in Kansas unless the railroad 
could have its property protected from strikers. At that time there was a 
big strike on the Missouri Pacific and its railroad property had been burned 
at Atchison and Parsons. Gould had appealed to the county authorities to 
protect his property, but the politicians in the local offices were more afraid 
of losing some votes at the election if they used force in stopping the strike 
than they were anxious to protect the property of a corporation that had no 
votes. Mr. Bigger, for the Hutchinson committee, suggested to Gould that 
perhaps they could help him. "You are the men I want," replied Gould. 
"You get my property protected from the strikers and you can have what- 
ever you want from me." 

Raff, who was the politician of that committee, suggested a plan. They 
would wire R. M. Rasley, then editor of the Hutchinson News, to go to 
Topeka and await word from New York. Before he left Hutchinson, how- 
ever, he was to wire alt of the politicians of western Kansas who had any 
influence with the governor to meet him in Topeka at once as matters of 
highest importance to them were at stake. They hurried to Topeka. Easley 
was adroit and able to handle the Topeka end of the proposition. Mean- 
while, the Western Union wire had been turned over to the committee in 
New York for their use to any extent desired, without charge. The New 
York committee wired Fasleyin Topeka freely about the things that it 
would take to get the road built to Hutchinson. The real purpose of all this 
was not divulged by Fasley to the men whom he had wired to meet him in 
Topeka. hut the threat of Gould to stop all railroad building in Kansas 
unless the strike was stopped was told them. Gould also added that no road 
would build into a state where strikers were allowed to bum and pillage 
property without any attempt on the part of the authorities to stop them. 

All of the men Easley had wired were friends of Governor Martin. 
Thev likewise had contracts for townsites with various railroads and the 



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I90 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

prospects of the stopping of railroad building in Kansas was an appalling 
one to them. When Easley had them all worked up to the right point where 
they would ask how they could help, Easley would tell them that there was 
only one way and that was to get Governor Martin thoroughly aroused by 
their own anxiety over prospective losses; that they could overcome his 
opposition to the calling out of the militia, if necessary, to stop the riots. 
Martin was very anxious to avoid anything of this sort. He wanted as 
little of this as possible in his administration, but all day, one at a time, 
these political friends called on him, properly coached by Easley, and talked 
to the governor, each on a different phase of the subject. There was one 
thing that influenced him most. They made it very plain to the governor 
that future relations between them would depend on the governor helping 
them to save the fortunes they had invested in the prospective townsites 
that were threatened. All day long, they drilled up to the governor's office 
at the state house. At supper time he was still undecided and still besieged. 
New arguments were constantly being brought up to force the governor to 
action. I«ite at night he surrendered. He told his besiegers that he would 
issue the proclamation they wanted. Easley soon appeared at the state house, 
accidentally of course, dropped in on the private secretary of the governor 
and began talking about the necessity of prompt action. The private secre- 
tary asked Easley if he would write the proclamation, as that was something 
new for him to get up. Easley agreed to this, retired to an adjoining room 
and; after a proper length of time, produced a proclamation that had been 
wired him from Xew York. When the method of handling the strike had 
leeii agreed on, Gould called in his attorney, Judge Dillon, and had him pre- 
pare the proclamation that was desired. In this proclamation the governor 
called on the strikers to desist from alt violence and he threatened to send 
the militia tn the various points in the state unless order was immediately 
restored. It called on all sheriffs to enforce order and to co-operate with 
the militia in case it was necessary to have them to suppress lawlessness. 
This proclamation was wired to Easley and it was this copy which Easley 
handed to the Governor's private secretary. The Governor signed the proc- 
lamation. It was sent out to the various sheriffs in the counties where the 
strikers were creating trouble and published the next morning in the Topcka 
Commaimcalth, then the official paper of the state. 

The news of Easley's success was wired to the Hutchinson committee 
in New York, who immediately went to Gould's residence and told him of 
their success. Gould was greatly pleased with the work of the Hutchinson 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. igi 

men and told them 10 come to his office next morning and he would carry 
out his part of the agreement. 

In the meantime the Hutchinson committee in New York had had a 
big map made of the Missouri Pacific as it was then constructed. After 
leaving West Wichita, the road was built in an almost northwesterly course 
to the point where the town of Maize is now located. It continued to where 
Colwich is now located and then, instead of continuing in that course, it 
bent southward and ran almost due west to where Andale is now located. 
Here the course was changed again and the road ran almost due north to 
where Mt. Hope is located. There was no reason why the road could not 
have been built directly northwest, as it was started from Wichita. With 
this enlarged map, the big crooks showed up very plainly. At this interview 
the fact that the Santa Fe had occupied the territory from Reno Center 
west and had beaten the Wichita people to that territory was first made 
known to Gould. He had been financing the proposition, supposing that 
(here was no road contemplated in that territory, and was very angry that 
he had been imposed on by the Wichita promoters. He was in a proper 
mood to give the Hutchinson committee what they wanted. 

A big map of Kansas was consulted. It showed the Missouri Pacific 
main line was then completed to a point northwest of Hutchinson. Gould 
then drew a line from where the road being built by the Wichita promoters 
reached Reno county. He traced the road to Hutchinson and to have an 
outlet he continued his drawing of the road as it should be built, northwest 
from Hutchinson, up through Xickerson to Sterling, north to Lyons and on 
northwest to a point where it would join the main line of the Missouri 
Pacific, now where Hoisington is situated. 

As soon as the Wichita promoters found that the finances had been 
withdrawn, they hurried to New York to see Gould. But he had made his 
promises to the Hutchinson committee and told them they would have to 
stand. However, when the road reached the Arkansas river, Gould tried to 
keep from building into Hutchinson, in order to appease the Wichita pro- 
moters. He notified the Hutchinson committee that they could not cross 
the river, as there was no bottom to the sand and that it would cost too 
much to cross the river. The Hutchinson committee told him that was only 
a bluff: that the Santa Fe had built a bridge across it a couple of miles 
higher up and that Reno county's bridge, less than a mile above where be 
proposed to cross the river, was not an expensive one. and insisted that he 
keep his contract and build into Hutchinson as he had agreed to. As soon 



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192 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

as he saw the determination of the Hutchinson committee, he ordered the 
road built as was originally agreed on. Thus another road was built into the 
city. 

The present size of Hutchinson would never have been attained, its 
trade would have been diverted to Wichita and a number of small towns 
would have been built along the southern border of Reno county had it not 
been for the incessant activity of the men who lived in this city then, who 
were always alert for opportunities of helping the growth of the city. These 
"old-timers" were constantly on the outlook for the things that would help 
build up this community. 



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CHAPTER XXVI. 
The Hutchinson & Southern Railroad. 

As it was originally planned, the Hutchinson & Southern railroad was 
a Union Pacific project. The Santa Fe was then extending its track south- 
ward; the Rock Island was also arranging to build a line to the southern 
coast of the United States and the Union Pacific wanted to be on equal 
terms with its competitors and get through the rich lands of southern Kan- 
sas and into the land then called the Indian Territory and on to Texas and 
the .southern markets. The originator of the plan to build what is now the 
Hutchinson & Southern railroad was John P. Usher, of Lawrence, Kansas. 
He was at one time general attorney for the Union Pacific railroad. Mr. 
Usher was a man of broad vision and saw the advantage that would accrue 
to the Union Pacific in having such a southern feeder to its east and west 
main line. Usher had a prominent place in the political world. He had 
been secretary of the interior in President Lincoln's cabinet, which position 
he left after the assassination of Lincoln and became general attorney of 
the Kansas Pacific railroad. Later he became general attorney for the 
Union Pacific railroad. His plan was to extend the Union Pacific branch. 
then built from Salina to Mcl'herson, southward through Hutchinson, con- 
tinuing through Kingman and Harper counties and on to the Gulf. . The 
general plan for the building of this road was outlined, but, before it could 
be carried into effect. Mr. Usher died. A preliminary survey was made in 
1885 and a charter for the road obtained the next year. 

The road was organized under the name of the McPherson, Texas & 
Gulf railroad. The original incorporators were A. L. Williams, H. P. 
Dillon, Charles Monroe, N. H. Loomis, of Topeka; G. A. A. Deane, of 
Lincoln. Kansas; W. H. Clark and George D. Thompson, of Harper, Kan- 
sas: W. P. Olmstead and J. B. Forbes, of Anthony, Kansas. The first 
hoard nf directors consisted of A. L. Williams, H. P. Dillon, Charles Mon- 
roe, X. H. Loomis and G. A. A. Deane. A. L. Williams was the first presi- 
dent of the new road and the entire project was conducted in the interests 
of the Union Pacific railroad. 

(■3) 



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194 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Prior to this survey, there was a great controversy in the board of 
directors of the Union Pacific railroad. The 'New York side of the 
directors was represented by Sidney Dillon and the Boston interests of the 
road were represented by Charles Francis Adams. Dillon was an advocate 
of continuing the westward line and Adams wanted to build to the Gulf. 
Whenever the Dillon interests controlled, the westward plans were pushed, 
but, when the Adams side of the controversy controlled the stock in the 
Union Pacific road the southern extension advanced. The Dillon conting- 
ent made a contract with the Rock Island for a joint use of the bridge 
over the Missouri river at Omaha. This contract included a joint use of 
the track of the Rock Island from Kansas City to Topeka, from McPherson 
to Hutchinson and from Limon to Denver. The Adams interests were 
opposed to the contract, they urging separate tracks and a separate bridge 
over the Missouri river. When the Adams interests got control of the 
directorate of the Union Pacific they tried to repudiate the contract with 
the Rock Island. The case was tried through all of the courts and resulted 
in the upholding of the contract. 

The making of this contract rendered necessary the building of a road 
from McPherson to Hutchinson, as a part of the plan of the incorporators 
of the McPherson, Texas & Gulf railroad. The Rpck Island was consider- 
ing building to El Paso and the Union Pacific began to move trains from 
McPherson to Hutchinson in May, 1890, over the Rock Island tracks from 
McPherson, which continued for several months. When the Dillon interests 
gained control of the Union Pacific, the train service between these two 
points ceased. But the time for the building of the road southward from 
Hutchinson, in order to get the bonds voted by Hutchinson, South Hutchin- 
son and Kingman for "terminal facilities", likewise the bonds voted by the 
various townships through which the road was lo run, were expiring by 
limitation, when G. A. Walkup. a real estate man of Hutchinson, undertook 
to build the road as was contemplated and get the bonds voted by these 
municipalities. He interested two other Hutchinson men, Charles Collins 
and A. T. Lusk. Collins was an old-timer in Hutchinson, the first sheriff of 
Reno county, and Lusk was president of a l>ank that went to pieces during 
the hard times of a few years later. Walkup, Collins and Lusk went to 
Chicago and induced three Chicago men to join with them in the enterprise 
of building the road. These men were Everitte St. John, then general man- 
ager of the Rock Island, E. E. Wise, who was a hrother-in-law of Major- 
Gen. John M. Schofield. of the United States army, and H. A. Christy. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. IO,5 

The Dillon management of the Union Pacific, then in control of this 
road, were glad of an opportunity to stop the Adams management that they 
had just succeeded in putting out of control of the Union Pacific, and gave 
the franchise of the McPherson, Texas & Gulf to the new company, with 
the stipulation that it was to be constructed under another name. Accord- 
ing to this agreement, the- road's name was changed to the Hutchinson, 
Oklahoma & Gulf railroad. The board of directors chosen then were H. A. 
Christy, E. K Wise and E. St. John, of Chicago, and Charles Collins and 
G. A. Walkup, of Hutchinson. Christy was elected president of the new 
road. Wise, general superintendent, and O. P. Byers, superintendent of con- 
struction. The articles of incorporation of the road were filed with the 
secretary of state of Kansas on October 7, 1889. 

The territory over which it was planned to build this road had no rail- 
road facilities. The people were anxious to have the road built. Bonds 
were voted and right-of-way given freely. When the company found a 
man who would not give the right of way, they would seek to get him by 
the promise of a life pass on the road; if this did not succeed in getting the 
right of way, they would build around his place. It made little difference 
to these men about the curvature in the road. They were building it to sell 
and their bonds were voted on a mileage basis. No money was ever paid 
out, for the promoter had none with which to pay. Neither did they have 
any money with which to build the road. All grading was paid out of the 
subsidies voted the road. The rails were purchased on time from the Illi- 
nois Steel Company through the influence of St. John. The ties were like- 
wise purchased on time. Engines and cars for construction purposes were 
loaned; the freight on material was to be paid out of the proceeds of the 
bonds, after they were earned. The road was built without a dollar of 
money being put up by the men building it. It was built on the credit of 
the towns and townships through which it was constructed. 

The new company found they had but sixty days to build the twenty- 
three miles of road to the southern boundary of Reno county. All the 
material had to be hauled hundreds of miles. Weather conditions became 
very bad, for it rained continually. One fortunate feature for the company, 
however, was that the rain feil during the night, the days being nice and 
bright, and no work was stopped because of the weather. The track was 
laid on the road at the rate of a mile a day. It was completed to within a 
mile of the county line and only one day remained of the time to earn the 
bonds. Then it was discovered that there was no more material on hands 



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196 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

to finish to the Kingman line. So the only thing left to do was to tear up all 
of the sidings and put them down as part of the main line. This was done 
and the county commissioners of Reno county accepted the road and ordered 
the bonds paid. 

The road was built on to Kingman. There was plenty of time, how- 
ever, to reach that city, as the time limit did not expire as soon as it did in 
Reno county, and the company proceeded in a more leisurely way to build 
that portion of the road. 

When it came to selling the bonds of the road and paying for the 
material, some difficulty was found in disposing of the bonds. There had 
been a series of short crops in Kansas. Political agitations, arising out of 
the inflation of values and the over-mortgaging of the lands, had sent the 
credit of the West down and it was found difficult to market the bonds. 
They were finally sold to the state school fund at a discount. 

A difficulty arose over the division of the proceeds of these bonds. 
Wise and Christy undertook to squeeze out Lusk and Collins. They had 
eliminated St. John at an earlier period and thought they could in a similar 
manner get Lusk and Collins out of the deal and have the entire proceeds 
for themselves. Lusk met Christy and Wise in a bank in Hutchinson to 
talk over the matter. It became apparent that the Chicago men were 
anxious to get all of die bonds for their own use. Lusk knocked Christy 
down, then had both Christy and Wise arrested, and they would have spent 
the night in jail had not a Hutchinson citizen gone on their bonds. That 
night Collins went to the hotel where Wise and Christy were stopping and, 
after getting into their room, he locked the door and put the key in his 
pocket. He told them in very forcible language that they could not freeze 
him out in the manner they proposed and that he was there to get what was 
coming to him. They both knew Collins and knew he would make good 
his threat. Collins left the room satisfied. Just what they paid him, how 
they settled with him, neither they nor Collins would say. All that Collins 
ever said about it was that he got what he went after. Later, a suit was 
brought over the issuance of the bonds Hutchinson had voted. While the 
"terminal facilities" promised were never built, the city council thought 
that, even though the Ixjnds were never earned, yet it enabled the road to 
l>e built and Hutchinson to have the trade it brought to the city. Wise and 
Christy had, after completing the road to Kingman, a railroad thirty-two 
miles long, built out of the subsidies, with no bonded indebtedness. 

While this road was being built, another change took place in the man- 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 197 

ageinenl of the Union Pacific. The old idea of building to the Gulf again 
animated the officers and a new company was organized, called the Omaha, 
Hutchinson & Gulf railroad. A survey was made from the city of King- 
man to the south line of the state. Elections were held and bonds voted. 
The subsidies allowed by law had been reduced from four thousand dollars 
to two thousand dollars a mile and the "terminal facility" bonds from King- 
man, Harper and Anthony were also voted. The proposition to continue 
the building of the road was presented to the new management of the Union 
Pacific, with the provision that when the fifty additional miles that would 
lie necessary to reach the state line were built, that all the subsidies should 
l>e the property of the promoters and the entire eighty-two miles of road 
should lie bonded for twelve thousand five hundred dollars a mile, the Union 
Pacific to advance seventy-five per cent of this value of the bonds when the 
road was built-and in operation from Hutchinson to the Indian Territory 
line. The Union Pacific was to have the privilege of taking over the road 
upon the payment of the other twenty-five per cent of the bonds. This 
proposition was accepted and the road completed to the state line on June 
2, 1890. The road was then reincorporated and was known as the Hutchin- 
son & Southern railroad. The entire amount of the bonds issued was seven 
hundred sixty-eight thousand five hundred dollars. The stock was put up 
with the bonds and the control of the road passed to the bondholders. The 
net profits to the builders of this eighty-two miles of railroad was over a 
quarter of a million dollars. It was the intention to continue the building 
of the road to Denison, Texas. Oklahoma had been opened for settlement. 
Townsites were available and bonds were as easily secured as in the early 
days of Kansas. Indian contracts of great value could be secured and the 
prospects for the .road for building farther south were bright. An applica- 
tion had been made to Congress for a right-of-way across this territory, 
when another convulsion took place in the management of the Union Pacific. 
The Dillon interests had again crowded out the Adams interests. They 
were antagonistic to the entire southern proposition and promptly repudiated 
the contract that had been made for building the road southward. They 
refused, further, to take possession of the newly-built railroad and left it. in 
the hands of the builders. These builders sought money elsewhere, when 
it became apparent that no further aid could be expected from the Union 
Pacific. But it was hard work at that time to get any money for railroad 
construction. Nearly all of the western roads were in the hands of receivers 
and a receiver was appointed for the Hutchinson & Southern. The man 



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I98 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

sent to Hutchinson to have charge of the road was L. E. Walker. His 
appointment was the payment of a political debt of Senator Thurston, who 
was then attorney for the Union Pacific. Walker came to Hutchinson and 
took charge of the road. Soon afterward he selected W. A. Bradford, a 
Boston man, as general manager of the road. The idea of extending the 
road appealed to them and they undertook to duplicate the job of build- 
ing the road from Hutchinson to Kingman, from the terminus then at 
Cameron, on the state line, to Blackwelt, Oklahoma. They got bonds 
wherever possible. They took the receipts of the road and used them. 
They had receiver's certificates issued by the United States court to pay 
taxes and other expenses and they left the taxes unpaid, using the money 
to continue the building of the road. They succeeded in getting to Black- 
well and the road was becoming an exceedingly valuable one. They started 
to build a depot in Hutchinson, now the Missouri Pacific passenger depot. 
They built a bridge across the Arkansas river, so they would not have to 
use the tracks of the Rock Island road. They were getting along nicely. 
They had an offer of a million dollars for the road from the Choctaw rail- 
road, which was anxious to get a line northward. Their success turned 
their heads. Instead of accepting the Choctaw proposition, that would have 
made them a big profit, they held on to their road, expecting to make a 
great system out of it. However, the Santa Fe looked at the road with 
longing eyes and bought the bonds of the Company. The stock was up as 
additional security, which stock carried with it the control of the road, and 
on December 20, 1889, the Hutchinson & Southern became the property of 
the Santa Fe. Bradford and Walker made but little out of the sale. They 
had put nothing in. They sold the depot to the Missouri Pacific for ten 
thousand dollars and the track from the river to the depot and the bridge 
across the Arkansas river, that were not covered by the bonds of the road. 
This was all they had when the Santa Fe took control of the road. 

So the Hutchinson & Southern was built. The early promoters made 
a fortune out of it. but none of them made much of their profits. They 
all died poor. None of the early builders are living. Some of the men 
who helped build the road are still in Hutchinson. Among them, O. .P. 
Bvcrs. who was superintendent of the road until it was built to Kingman. 
He now is president of the Anthony & Northern railroad. Fred Carpenter, 
of Hutchinson, was road master for many years and is stilt road master of 
this road. It is a great feeder for the Santa Fe. It runs through a rich 
territorv and is a great help in the development of the Great Southwest. 



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CHAPTER XXVII. 
Early Farming. 

Perhaps those who live in Reno county fifty years hence will look upon 
fanning as it is done today with the same view that the farmers of today 
look at the methods of the pioneers of Reno county, the men who broke the 
sod and drove the wildness out of the soil. From the standpoint of farm- 
ing as it is done today, the pioneer was exceedingly crude in his methods 
and small in his attainments. Perhaps the reason for the smallness of the 
acreage was the lack of a market, although in 1878 and for a few years 
thereafter there was a hay and corn market in Reno county that was very 
heavy. The volume of the hay business exceeded that of the present day. 
It was in the mining days of Colorado, that created such an immense hay 
business. C. B. Myton was the manager of the company that shipped much 
hay from Hutchinson. It was prairie hay and the general price paid was 
three dollars a ton. Myton baled the hay and shipped it to Colorado min- 
ing towns. His hay stacks were built on Second avenue west, about where 
the gas plant is now located. Much of the grass that was hauled to market 
was blue stem from the bottoms and a fuzzy topped grass that grew in the 
uplands. As was shown in another chapter, as soon as the buffalo quit graz- 
ing on the grass, the buffalo grass disappeared and the tall -blue stem and 
other varieties of grass followed it. 

The farmer of today wonders at the wastefulness of getting a ton of 
grass to the acre, when his alfalfa fields now yield him four to five cuttings 
that will average more for each cutting than he got for his entire hay crop 
for a season. The price of the alfalfa is three to four times as much as he 
received for his prairie hay when Myton was shipping it west. 

The year 1872 developed twenty-four farmers in Reno county who put 
out corn, the total number of acres planted that year being two hundred 
fifty and one-half. The Ijams family were the big corn raisers that year, 
the family altogether having in fifty-five acres of corn. The family are 
still among the enterprising farmers of Reno county and still raise corn'. 
That crop the entire family put out in 1872 would hardly be a start now 
for some of the younger members of the family. Isaac Tjams was easily 



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200 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. ( 

the king of corn raisers in 1872, for lie alone had thirty-five acres of corn in 
cultivation. The crop that year averaged from twelve to fifteen bushels 
per acre. This, of course, was all sod corn and had no cultivation. About 
all that was done to raise the crop was the plowing of the ground and the 
planting by hand of the corn, and then, in the fall, the harvesting. Corn 
sold in the fall of 1872 and spring of 1873 from a dollar to a dollar and a 
quarter a bushel, the latter price being generally paid for seed corn. 

One of the chief encouragements to farming was the passage of the 
Herd law. Prior to the enactment of this statute there was no protection 
from stock and none of the farmers had money enough to fence their land. 
But farming developed rapidly as soon as the law became effective. There 
was also one other thing that hindered the development of farming, except 
close to Hutchinson, and that was the driving of immense herds of Texas 
cattle northward to Abilene and, later, to Ellinwood. Until the passage of 
the law governing the driving of herds, which allowed Texas cattle to be 
driven across the state, but fixed as the eastern boundary a line that was the 
western boundary line of Reno county, no one risked planting much in their 
fields. Some gardens were planted and some families that lived in the 
Ninnescah bottoms, near where Arlington now stands, did a thriving busi- 
ness in selling green vegetables. Lettuce, onions and everything they could 
grow were readily sold to the cattle men who were driving their herds north- 
ward. Anything in the fresh vegetable line found a ready sale with the 
cattlemen. While the law fixing the boundary line for driving cattle north 
was passed in 1872, it was not rigidly enforced, as there were but few 
settlers outside the bottom lands. Realizing the fact that while the statutes 
prohibited the driving of cattle across Reno county, on their way from the 
Texas ranges to shipping points on the Santa Fe, the county commissioners 
modified the order to a certain extent in allowing cattle men to make a 
short cut across the southwest portion of the county, as there were but 
few farmers in that section of the county. So they authorized a route to 
be laid out along which cattle could be driven. This, however, was not used 
long. As soon as the Santa Fe railroad was built to Dodge City, another 
and more southwesterly route was used by the cattlemen and the driving of 
Texas cattle through Reno county ceased entirely. 

The growing of wheat in 1873 started the agitation for a grist-mill 
from water power obtained from Cow creek. Obtaining flour was a hard 
task then. The nearest grist-mill in 1872 was operated by a man by the 
name of Dick, at Cedar Point, on the Cottonwood river, nearly a hundred 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 201 

miles east of Hutchinson. It took a week to make the trip with a load of 
wheat, returning with a load of flour. The first wheat in Reno county was 
raised by J. W. Kanaga on his farm southeast of town. Charles Phillips 
took the first load of wheat from Reno county to the mill at Cedar Point. 
A short time later a steam mill was started at Conesburg, now Peabody, and 
this materially shortened the distance to mill. The Kanagas had an old 
fashioned "dropper", which they had brought with them to Reno county. 
In the summer Kanaga sold ice and he took his pay for cutting his neighbors' 
wheat in the labor of those neighlwrs in putting up ice in the winter. It is 
recorded that the ice of the winter of 1873-1874 was "very good", as good 
perhaps as the wheat crop harvested the summer before. 

The long distance to mill was a great incentive to the establishment 
of a mill in Hutchinson. In the summer of 1874 C. B. Myton built a grist- 
mill alongside the Santa Fe tracks about where the passenger depot now 
stands. He ground wheat and com, but the flour was of an inferior quality. 
At this time the nearest mill to Hutchinson was at Wichita. Myton had all 
of the trade of the territory adjoining Hutchinson. His charges were 
excessive. At that time wheat was very low in price and it was very much 
to the advantage of the farmer to exchange part of his wheat rather than 
sell the wheat and buy flour. Myton's charges were fixed on the basis of 
"all the traffic would stand." Farmers complained of the excessive tolls 
taken by him for grinding. Some of the men took their wheat to Wichita 
rather than pay the excessive tolls Myton exacted. So strong was the pro- 
test against these high charges, that in 1875 a mill was projected, to be run 
with water power. A mill that would be of any capacity worth considering 
would require one hundred horse-power to operate. To obtain this power 
it was found necessary to have more water than Cow creek naturally fur- 
nished and it was found necessary to raise the water eight feet al>ove the 
surface of the ground at Avenue C and Main street, where the mill was to 
be located. It was further found necessary to get as much water from the 
Arkansas river as Cow creek afforded. Tt was found after the mill was con- 
structed that whenever the river failed to supply this extra amount of water, 
it was necessary to shut down the mill. To get this extra water a ditch was 
dug from the river to Cow creek four miles northwest of town. It was 
found that the water in the river was seventeen feet higher at a point 
directly west of Cow creek than the water in the creek. By bringing the 
water from the river to the creek, enough power was obtained to run the 
mill. The two years following the completion of the mill were wet ones 



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202 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

and it was found then that had the hanks of the head race been raised another 
foot, there would have been enough water in the creek to run the mill. It 
was found in the winter time, when the water was most needed to supple- 
ment that of Cow creek, that the water would be low, the river sometimes 
going almost dry. It was found also that in the winter ice would form on 
the river much sooner than on Cow creek: that Cow creek, being fed by 
springs, never ceased flowing until zero weather was reached, and then the 
ice would soon disappear after a few warm days. This mill was started in 
the fall of 1876 and for a few months did a very successful, business, grind- 
ing grists for farmers who had driven long distances to get a chance to 
exchange their wheat for flour. It was no uncommon thing for the mill to 
receive as much as one thousand bushels of wheat a day to grind. 

The milt greatly helped the merchant. It brought men to town for 
flour who became customers of the stores of the city, and when the water 
failure, a few years afterward, caused the mill to shut down it was a hard 
blow to the merchants, who had profited greatly by this new business. It 
was likewise a hard blow for the farmers, who had had fair treatment from 
the mill company. 

Another thing which made farming uncertain in the early days was the 
frequent prairie fires. There was little plowed ground, most of the country 
remaining grass land, and a fire, fanned by a high wind, was something to 
be greatly dreaded. One of these swept over the state in the fall of 1872. 
It started in northern Kansas and was not stopped even by the rivers, as the 
high wind carried burning tumble weeds over the water and started fires on 
the opposite bank of the stream. These great tires were of yearlv occurrence. 
They were not all as extensive as the one referred to, but they would often 
sweep over a space as large as a county before a changed wind, a rain or 
some natural obstacle like a stream would intervene. One of these big fires 
is spoken of in the county records. An election was called in Valley town- 
ship for November 12, 1872, but the election was not held, for a memor- 
andum on the commissioners' records states that, "owing to a very destruc- 
tive prairie fire sweeping over Valley township, no election was held." 

Another such fire occurred in Grant township in the fall of 1876. A 
funeral procession had started to the cemetery then located at the corner of 
Seventeenth and Monroe street, when a man in one of the wagons of the. 
procession dropped a lighted match in the grass. In a moment the prairie 
was burning. Difficulty was experienced in getting the procession out of 
danger of fire. Teams were hurried tip, a place of safety from the fire was 



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KENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 203 

reached, then the women in the party held the teams, while all of the men 
helped to put out the tire. After fighting the flames till almost sunset, the 
men, almost exhausted, resumed their places in the wagons and the procession 
moved on to the cemetery, where the burial was performed after dark. 

No one who has seen a prairie fire at night will ever forget the sight 
nor the impression it made on him, especially if he has seen the fire in the 
sand hills, when the wind had died down and in the darkness of the even- 
ing, the flames would hover over the hills in long lines of bright creeping 
fire. Fires that were ten to fifteen miles long were no uncommon sight. 
There would be no smoke visible in these night fires.; only the creeping 
flames could be seen. Up one side the light could be seen, then down the 
side of another hill, half hidden, would appear a glow on the otherwise 
invisible smoke, flaring up as the flames reached some high blue stem in 
some low bottom spot between the hitls ; .then creeping, creeping along, an 
endless array of light, dying, but to brighten again; fading, but 'to be reflected 
on some dark, hidden veil of smoke. It was a fascinating sight. All night 
this slow fire would gnaw its way over the hills. On the following day only 
the smoke could be seen. On a still day in the short grass it would burn, 
appearing again on the second night, perhaps dimmer because its flames had 
devoured all the grass between — burning until some stream was reached, or 
till the hills hid the light of the slow burning fire beyond. 

The plains are devoid of timber because of these prairie fires. When 
the settlers reached Reno county there was some timber on the higher knolls 
of the hills, trees that had gotten a start where the wind whipped the sand 
around until the grass was covered. Getting a start in these places, the trees 
soon grew until the fires could not burn the bark, as the ground would be 
shaded and no grass would grow, to add to the fuel of the flames. In addi- 
tion to these scrubby trees, there were three trees on Cow creek in Grant 
township, on what was known then as the Peter Shafer place, but in the 
valley there were no trees, because of the prairie fires. 

The diversity in farming was not one of the virtues of the pioneer 
farmer. Garden vegetables were very little cultivated, as it was thought 
impossible to raise much but corn and wheat. The Santa Fe railroad put 
out a large variety of trees in an early day, on a tract of ground west of 
Cow creek, doing so in order to convince the early settlers that trees would 
grow on the prairies. Many varieties of trees were started and the success 
of the enterprise encouraged the growth of other timber. Especially was the 
planting of Cottonwood and mulberry hedges general. There were but few, 



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204 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

however, who put out orcliards. In the Arkansas valley there were some 
farmers who believed that fruit would grow in the valley. Among the 
most enterprising of those who had faith in the soil and planted out apple 
and other kinds of fruit trees was W. R. Pennington, in North Reno town- 
ship in the Cow creek bottoms. He was one of the pioneers in planting 
apples and his rich harvest has brought the reward for his work. 

None but a pioneer can appreciate eating of the "first fruit" of an 
orchard. "The planting of the apple tree" means something to them that 
their children cannot appreciate. The years of waiting and watching, in 
years of drought, the watering, the pleasure at seeing the bloom come on the 
tree in the spring, the watching of the apple as it grows till the ripened fruit 
is gathered. The editor of this history remembers well, although many 
years have passed since it happened, the first apple of the orchard planted 
and watered and watched. His father bought the "first fruit" and it was 
cut into five pieces, one for each member of the family. Since then, many 
crops of luscious fruit have l>een gathered from that orchard, but no apple 
gathered since has had the flavor of that first apple that was gathered from 
that orchard. It was an experience that comes only to the pioneer, an 
experience that made a deeper impression on the mind than anything like it 
in later days. 

Another who made a success in horticultural lines was George Cole. 
He was an Englishman and his place, while he lived on it and cared for it, 
was one of the show places of the county. Evergreens were planted in 
abundance and his lawn was one of the beautiful places of the county. Mr. 
Cole was among the earliest to grow grapes. His vineyard .yielded liberally 
and he had the market to himself for several years, laying the foundation 
of a competence that he enjoyed in his later life. 

Among the things most neglected by the earliest pioneers was one that 
it would seem were the easiest to obtain, and that was butter and milk. One 
of the earliest of the pioneers of the county remarked that there was but 
one milk cow in Hutchinson when her father reached Hutchinson. This 
cow furnished the milk for the town. She was an aristocrat among the 
thousands of cattle on the plains, but even she failed to maintain her station, 
as she was "dry" six months in the year. 

( ows, however, later came to be common. The "town herd" became 
an institution. For a dollar a month, the proprietor of the "town herd" 
would come and get the cow, drive her to pasture and return her at night. 
This gave employment to one man and to several of hjs boys. The pasture 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 205 

was generally rented for a small sum and for the summer and fall months 
for seventy-five to one hundred and fifty cows were herded together and 
returned to their owners at night. This system was kept up for many years, 
until the ground close enough for a range was plowed up, when the "town 
herd" disappeared and the milk wagon started on its rounds. It was soon 
found more economical to huy the milk than to keep a cow the year around 
and the growing city abolished the keeping of cows in town, as impractical. 

This same pioneer, who spoke of the owner of a cow as the "aristocrat 
of their street," also refers to the luxury of hen eggs. She remarked that 
eggs were so scarce that good cakes were impossible and soft-boiled eggs 
were a luxury reserved for the sick. She added that she had been tempted 
very often in her girlhood to play sick that she might enjoy the luxury of 
an egg for breakfast. 

This absence of milk, butter and eggs is all the more remarkable in view 
of the extent to which these industries have been developed in recent times. 
But the pioneers here, as in so many other things, realized but little of the 
productiveness of the soil and of the development along lines considered 
impossible then. Perhaps those who live here fifty years hence will wonder 
at the short-sightedness of those of today, who pride themselves on such a 
wide development of the resources of the county. 



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CHAPTER XXVIII. 
Reno County Fairs, 

The first Reno county fair was held on September 28, 29 and 30, 1875, 
three years after the county was organized. The early timers knew the 
value of such tiling's, both as a means of affording a place for comparison 
of products and as an advertisement for the county and its resources. The 
same spirit that acted as a stimulant toward having a county fair actuated 
the old settlers in organizing an old settlers' association. The first organ- 
ization of the old settlers, however, was made when the oldest of the old 
settlers had been in the county but a little more than two years. 

The first county fair was held the year after the grasshopper raid. 
The crops that year were abundant and immigration into this part of the 
state had begun to be an item to be considered. Every effort possible was 
made to attract settlers. The land agent was, of course, the principal agency 
in inducing settlers to visit Reno county. The Santa Fe railroad had its 
land and immigration department, that was pushing the sale of land along 
the railroad. When they first built their road over Reno county, they pub- 
licly declared they never expected to sell any land beyond Great Bend, and 
they thought it would be a half century before the lands outside of the bot- 
tom lands would be settled. But the settlers crowded into the county and 
the railroad men's faith grew in the upland, so that they pushed the sale 
of lands out of the valley with the same confidence and the same guarantee 
to the land buyer that the land was rich and would yield abundantly. They 
sold land rapidly, on long time anil at a low rate of interest and the land 
department of the Santa Fe always acted fairly and liberally with the land 
buyer. 

The first county fair was but little more than a reunion. There is no 
record "of any cash prizes nr of any charges. But the next year the fair 
assumed larger proportions. T,. J. Templin was elected as secretary and 
general manager. Mr. Templin was a Methodist preacher and had moved 
to Reno county from Kokonio, Indiana, with his family in 1875. He was 
a stalwart man in appearance: a genial, whole-souled man, equally qualified 
to preach the Gospel or handle a horse race. In either position his sturdy 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. - 207 

manhood was evident. There was no gambling at the fair. Mr. Templin 
lived in the county for many years and reared a large family, the best known 
of them being Prof. Olin Templin, dean of the faculty of the State University. 
Professor Templin was only a boy when his father moved to Reno county 
and he afterward became a successful teacher. When he first came to Reno 
county, Olin was considered too smalt to load the old-fashioned muzzle- 
loading shotguns, but not too small to go out and kill geese that were so 
abundant. So the young man would have his father load his shotgun and 
he would do the shooting, coming back generally with a big goose, to have 
his gun loaded again. 

The managers of the second fair charged an admission fee. The total 
receipts of this fair, which was held on October 17, 18 and 19, 1876, were 
three hundred thirty-four dollars and fifty-one cents. It is not stated in the 
accounting whether the total included the two hundred dollars given by the 
state to stimulate county fair or not, but the probabilities are that the two 
hundred dollars was in the item of receipts. There was a "small balance" 
left, according to the report : at least there were no unpaid bills and per- 
haps but little money in the treasury of the fair association. But the asso- 
ciation did not have 'its meeting every year. The burden of taking care 
of all such organizations falls on the same persons year after year. It 
becomes irksome, especially when there is no compensation. So the Reno 
County Pair Association lived some years and in other years languished. 
Occasionally a raring meeting would be held. Such a meeting as this was 
held over on a track east of town and at this particular meeting two noted 
horses raced. "Ashland Wilkes" and "Joe Young." This race drew an 
immense crowd, more than the fair association could accommodate in the 
small grandstand. 

The present state fair had its beginning on February 7, 1901. A few- 
men met at the Commercial Club rooms to talk over the advisability of organ- 
izing a fair association. A canvass was made shortly after this meeting, 
wherein it was agreed to raise money to start a fair. Frank Fearl carried 
the subscription paper.- The first signature secured was that of Matthew- 
Smith and Mr. Fearl signed for the second one. The total number of names 
secured was fifty-two. When the list was completed a second meeting was 
held on the date mentioned and the subscribers organized by selecting F. E. 
Fearl as president and J. P. Sponsler as secretary. The first directors 
chosen were as follow: R. H. Holton. J. Q. Patten, Thomas H. Foley, C. 
W. Peckham, FJ. S. Thompson, John R. Price, W. H. Johnson, E. Ravi, 



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208 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

W. H. S. Benedict, J. U. Brown, Henry Hartford, Matthew Smith, John 
M. Kinkel and J. B. Talbot. This board of directors met on April 24, 1901, 
and elected the following officers: President, A. L. Sponsler; vice-presi- 
dent, D. J. Fair: treasurer, W. H. Eagan; secretary, Ed M. Moore; assistant 
secretary, John L. Sponsler. The prizes for the fair were fixed at two 
thousand five hundred dollars. 

The fair association had no grounds on which to hold this fair. They 
made a contract with the Park association, which had a tract of about fifty 
acres north of town, to give the park association ten per cent, of the gate 
receipts and one-half of the money taken in from the sale of privileges. 
The Park Association was to erect all the necessary horse and cattle barns, 
build a race track and put up a grand stand. The total receipts of this first 
fair of the Central Kansas Fair Association, as the association called itself, 
were $6,049.47. The total expenditures for this year, including the percent- 
age due the Park Association, was $5,293.84, leaving a balance of $755.47. 

Encouraged by the success of this first fair, the association greatly 
enlarged the scope of the fair of 1902, by adding many departments not 
represented in 1901. More money was added to the speed ring, more and 
larger prizes for hogs, cattle, sheep and poultry were offered. The fair grew 
constantly in size and interest. Larger crowds attended. Premiums were 
always paid and exhibitors were satisfied and came year after year. In 
1905 the total receipts were more than four times what they were in 1902. 

On March 12. 1907, the capital stock of the fair was increased to fifty 
thousand dollars and a contract made for the purchase of grounds and build- 
ings of the park association. The boys' and girls' corn contest was added 
as a feature of the fair, the purpose being to arouse a deeper interest in 
corn growing and to make this feature of the fair an educational one. 

Ity 1908, the fair had increased so that the total receipts were $40,285.71, 
and netted the association $8,534.51. The two following years were equally 
prosperous and in 1910 a meeting to organize a movement for the celebra- 
tion of the semi-centennial of the admission of Kansas to the Union. The 
result was that the fair for 191 1 was the largest ever held in the state. The 
time was extended to two weeks, the semi-centennial part of the celebration 
following the regular fair. The total receipts for this fair were $65,520.34, 
the net receipts being $11,681(49. There were a total of one hundred and 
eighty -three thousand admissions during the time of the celebration. 

Two years later the state of Kansas, through the state agricultural board, 
took charge of the fair and the name was changed from the Central Kansas 



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W. E. HUTCHINSON 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 209 

Fair Association to the Kansas State Fair Association. As a part of the 
consideration of making it a state fair, Reno county was to turn over the 
grounds and equipment free to the state. Prior to this time the fair associa- 
tion, having outgrown the grounds on which it first started, bought one hun- 
dred and twelve acres of land immediately north of the old grounds. In 
order to pay for these grounds, the question of buying the fair grounds of 
the fair association was submitted to a vote of the people of Reno county. 
The election was held on April 22, 1913, and resulted in Reno county voting 
fifty thousand dollars, in bonds to purchase the fair grounds. The vote 
on this stood six thousand four hundred and forty-nine votes for the bonds 
and one thousand five hundred and fifty-five votes against the bonds. 

Having turned the equipment over to the state, after the Legislature 
had designated the Hutchinson fair as the state fair, it was supposed that 
the Legislature would appropriate money with which to run the fair. But 
they failed to make any appropriation in 1913. In 191 5, after the fair had 
been handled by the state agricultural board, an appropriation for more 
permanent buildings was made by the Legislature. Likewise an appropria- 
tion was made for a "revolving fund" to take care of the expenses of the 
fair up to the time of the fair meeting. But the governor vetoed the appro- 
priation for permanent buildings and allowed only the "revolving fund" to 
remain. 

The state fair is thus an outgrowth of the efforts of the few men who 
met and organized the Central Kansas Fair Association. The growth of 
the fair has been phenomenal. Its success is due to many things. The 
location is right for a great annual gathering. It is the visiting place of 
central and southwestern Kansas. Men and women from various points in 
the southwest meet here, having come for years and enjoy the associations 
the fair affords. It has become a common meeting ground for friends and 
acquaintances. The exhibits furnish the best in live stock that is to be 
found. Agricultural exhibits form a large part of the attraction for visitors. 
And the exhibition, in more recent years, of farm machinery by the various 
manufacturers adds to the value of the fair. 

Another element that has been a constant factor in the growth of the 
fair has been the character of the men who have managed it. The directors 
are now practically the same men who started with the fair in 1901. Five 
of them have dropped by the wayside, John R. Price, D. J. Fair, J. U. 
Brown. Matthew Smith and James Haston. The other directors are the 

(T-0 



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2IO RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

ones who started with the fair in its beginning and were active in its sup- 
port all the years of its growth. They have worked with but little com- 
pensation and they have achieved a success that is worthy of their efforts. 
Recognizing the fact that much of the success of the fair was due to the 
personal efforts of the officers and directors, when the fair was turned over 
to the state board of agriculture they made no changes in the directorate and 
continued the officers for the state fair who had built up the Central Kansas 
Fair. 

The future of the fair is with the Legislature of Kansas. By the terms 
of the donation, whenever the state ceases to maintain a fair the land, now 
worth over a hundred thousand dollars, reverts to Reno county. Its loca- 
tion is such that it will increase constantly in value. The fair is a great 
element in the development of the resources of the state. 



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CHAPTER XXIX. 
The Grain Business. 

The grain business of Reno county today is of such vast proportions it 
is hard to realize that it has been only a few years since there was no wheat 
or corn sold in Reno county. The earliest buyer of farm produce was C. B. 
Myton, who purchased all the hay he could obtain and shipped it to Colorado; 
also bought some corn, but very little of that. The first person who really 
made a business of buying grain was Chas. D. Christopher, who began buying 
corn in 1875, which he shipped to Colorado where it was used in the mining 
camps. The volume of business done by Mr. Christopher was not very large 
compared with what it is now, but it was of great importance to the early 
settlers, to whom the business meant a money income from their small crops. 
In the early days there was very little ready money in the community, and 
the chief source of it from 1872 to 1875 was f rom the sa ' e °f buffalo bones 
in town. Mr. Christopher purchased nearly fifty cars of grain in 1875, when 
corn was selling from thirty to forty cents a bushel. 

Shortly after Mr. Christopher began buying grain, J. B. Potter came 
to Hutchinson, built a little elevator close to where the Rock Mill Elevator 
now stands and began buying wheat. Empey and Burrel were in the gro- 
cery business then and did a little grain business, but their dealings were 
more like barter than sale, since they would trade groceries to the farmers 
for their grain. In 1880 J. M. and W. F. Mulkey moved to Hutchinson 
from Illinois and began buying and selling grain. They remained in this 
business for seven or eight years, after which they went into the salt busi- 
ness, which they later sold when they moved to Detroit, Michigan. 

There were several other grain buyers in the city from 1880 to 1890; 
among them Ken Ringle, George Woodard, A. S. Vance and A. N. Bontz. 
In 1880 T. J. Templar came to Hutchinson, bought the little elevator built 
by C. B. Myton and added to it until it grew to the proportions of the 
present Kansas Grain Company's plant. In addition to buying grain in 
Hutchinson, the Kansas Grain Company, which was soon enlarged by L. B. 
Young joining the enterprise and becoming its secretary, began erecting ele- 
vators at other points in Kansas, until they were doing business at fifty differ- 



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212 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

ent stations in this state, this being the largest and most extensive grain 
firm that ever did business in Hutchinson. Mr. Templar and Mr. Young 
continued with this company until 1917, when they sold their interests to J. 
B. Hupp, T. L. Hoffman and T. J. Holdridge, who now are the proprietors 
of the business. Mr. Templar, the biggest single factor in the grain business, 
sold his interests only a few months before his death, which occurred on 
August 6, 1917. Mr. Young, who was associated with Mr. Templar until 
the business was sold out, is still a resident of Hutchinson. 

There are many grain buyers in Hutchinson now. The Board of Trade 
was organized in May, 1910, with a membership of fifty, T. J. Templar 
being the first president and H. M. Talcott the first secretary. There are 
fifty firms buying grain in Hutchinson at the present time, and the growth 
of the enterprise is a fine index of the growth of grain farming in Reno 
county and of the southwestern part of the state. In 1875 probably fifty 
cars of grain were bought and sold in Hutchinson, but the business increased 
as the farms were developed until in 1880 when there were about one million 
bushels of grain of all kinds handled in Hutchinson. In 1890 the business 
had increased until there was about ten million bushels of grain sold through the 
various elevators and mills of the county. In 1900 this had increased 
to 15,000,000 bushels, in 1910, 25,000,000, and in 1917, 50,000,000 bushels. 
These figures represent the growth of the grain production of Reno county. 
It is not long in point of time from 1875 to 1917, but in the amount of grain 
grown the increase has been very large. From the 25,000 bushels marketed 
in 1875 to the 50,000,000 handled in 1917 is the measure of the increased pro- 
duction and development of Reno county. The price of grain has varied 
much. Corn which has been sold as low as fifteen cents a bushel in 1891 
and 1892 reached its higfiest price in 1917, when under the stimulus of the 
war and a short crop it reached two dollars and thirty-five cents a bushel. 
Wheat has sold as low as forty-five cents a bushel, but in 1917 it reached its 
highest point of three dollars and twenty-five cents a bushel. Rye and oats 
have kept along with wheat and corn, varying in price with the principal 
grains. 

As an auxiliary of the grain business, the Hour mills, have played a 
conspicuous part. At the present time there are eight big flouring mills in 
Reno county, four in Hutchinson, and four in other parts of the county 

The Hutchinson Flour Mill, which was built by W. E. McKinney, is 
now owned bv L. B. Young, J". \V. Burns, R. L. Burns and Fred Burns. It 
has a capacity of two hundred barrets of flour a day and a storage capacity 
of one hundred and fifty thousand bushel's of wheat. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS, 213 

The Monarch Milts were built by W. E. Carr and William Kelly, and 
now have a six- hundred-barrel daily capacity and storage for one hundred 
thousand bushels of wheat. 

The William Kelly Milling Company, built and largely owned by William 
Kelly, who was formerly one of the owners of the Monarch Mills, has a daily 
producing capacity of nine hundred barrels of flour and a storage capacity 
for two hundred and fifty thousand bushels of wheat. 

The Larabee Flour Mills Company, owned by the Larabee Brothers, has 
a daily capacity of two thousand barrels of flour, and a storage capacity for 
five thousand bushels of grain. 

The Turon Mill Company, located at Turon, was built by John R. Price. 
It has a capacity of producing one hundred and fifty barrels of flour daily, 
with a storage capacity for one hundred and fifty thousand bushels of wheat. 

The Haven Milling Company, with mills located at Haven, has a daily 
flour producing capacity of two hundred barrels and a wheat storage capacity 
of fifty thousand bushels. 

The Buhler Milling Company, with their mill located at Buhler, has a 
capacity for producing five hundred barrels of flour a day and a wheat stor- 
ing capacity of one hundred thousand bushels. 

The Sylvia Milling Company, located at Sylvia, has a capacity to make 
two hundred barrels of flour daily, and has a grain storage capacity for seven- 
ty-five thousand bushels. 

George Herr's mill, located in South Hutchinson, has a capacity of one 
hundred and fifty barrels daily and a storage capacity of twenty-five hundred 
bushels of grain. 

In addition to these mills there are located in Hutchinson four large ele- 
vators capable of storing five hundred and seventy -five thousand bushels of 
grain, distributed as follows: 

Kansas Grain Elevator, two hundred thousand bushels. 

Rock Mill & Elevator Company, two hundred thousand bushels. 

Hutchinson Terminal Elevator Company, one hundred and twenty-five 
thousand bushels. 

Pettitt Grain Company, fifty thousand bushels. 

.These mills and elevators receive grain from all over the southwest, and 
the flour from the Reno county mills sells all over the country. Besides these 
big storage elevators there are many smaller elevators which have facilities for 
handling the grain from the wagon to the car. Reno county has sufficient ele- 
vator and mill capacity to handle the big wheat crop, not only of this county, 
but for southwest Kansas. 



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CHAPTER XXX. 

POSTOFFICES AND MAIL ROUTES. 

The first mail came overland from Newton to Hutchinson, as described 
in another chapter. As soon as the Santa Fe railroad was completed to this 
city, these mail routes were discontinued. But there was a great demand 
for mail to outlying points. Hutchinson began to be the distributing point 
for a big territory south and north. The mail was hauled in cumbersome 
stage coadies. Six "star routes" were formed within two years after the 
Hutchinson postoffice was established. Six more were established in 1878, 
another six in 1882, and the last ones, five in number, were established in 
1886. 

Some of the points to which mail was hauled cannot now be identified 
and the postoffice department at Washington cannot locate them. Many, 
perhaps, were just private homes for the distribution of mail and some 
member of the household designated as postmaster. The following are the 
various star routes with the distances and the name of the contractors : 

Hutchinson was supplied by service from Newton, thirty-two miles, by 
James A. Hawkes, Circleville, Ohio, without pay, from December 25, 1871, 
to April 22, 1872, when star route No. 14233 was established between those 
otfices and a contract awarded to Mr. Hawkes at the rate of $790 per annum, 
the route being discontinued July 15, 1872. Special service was also 
employed between these points at eight hundred dollars per annum from 
January r to June 30, 1872. Special service was performed between Farland 
and Hutchinson, thirteen miles, from October r, 1872, to June 30, 1873, at 
the rate of eight hundred dollars per annum. 

A contract for service on star route No. 14300, New Gottland to 
Hutchinson, seventy-five miles, three times a week, was awarded April 9, 
1873, to Eric Korsse, Falun, Kansas, at the rate of $700 per annum for the 
remainder of the contract term expiring June 30, 1874. 

Service was authorized on star route No. 14293, Hutchinson to Camp 
Supply, one hundred and sixty miles, once a week, and a contract awarded 
March 20, 1873, to D. T. Parker, of Parker, Kansas, at the rate of $4,975 
for the remainder of the contract term. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 215 

Star route No. 14299, Lindsborg to Hutchinson, 54J4 miles, once-a- 
week service, was established, and a contract awarded March 20, 1873, to 
Samuel D. Bradley, of Salina, Kansas, at the rate of $970 per annum, 

Contracts were awarded for service on star routes during the four-year 
term beginning July I, 1874, as follows: 

Route No. 331 17, Salina to Hutchinson, via Marquette, 70 miles, once 
a week, $750 per annum, Eric Forsse, Falun, Kansas, contractor. 

Route No. 33118. Salina to Hutchinson, via Oasis (located in Salina 
county), and Farland in McPherson county, 70 miles, three times a week, 
Henry E. McKee, Washington, D. ("., contractor. 

Route No. 33126, Hutchinson to Camp Supply, 180 miles, once a week, 
$2,440 per annum, James Call, Sun City, Kansas, contractor. 

Route No. 33237, Wichita to Hutchinson, 55 miles, twice a week, $750 
per annum, Charles H. Miller, Eldridge, Kansas, contractor. 

Route No. 33247, Hutchinson to Leanville (located six miles west of 
where Partridge is now), 18 miles, once a week. $177 per annum, A. H. 
Scott, Concordia, Kansas, contractor. 

Route No. 33313, Hutchinson to Zenith, 41 miles, once a week, $286 
per annum, John C. Beem, Hutchinson, Kansas, contractor. 

The following contracts were entered into for the four-year term com- 
mencing July r, 1878: 

Route No. 33145, Salina to Hutchinson, via Salensburgh and Leslie 
(now Medora), 76 miles, three times a week, $750 per annum, James Lehr- 
ing and R. E. Fletcher, Hutchinson, Kansas, contractors. 

Route No. 33146, Falun to Hutchinson, 62 miles, twice a week, $773 
per annum, Beriat Wagoffin, Sedalia, Missouri, contractor. 

Route No. 33266, Wichita to Hutchinson, via Ferris (a farm house in 
Sedgwick county), 55J/i miles, twice a week, $498 per annum, Rolando L. 
Bell, Eldridge, Kansas, contractor. 

Route No. 33272, Hutchinson to Medicine Lodge, 90 miles, three times 
a week. $947 per annum, W. W. Warren, Albany, Wisconsin, contractor. 

Route No. 33273, Hutchinson to Haynesville (located near where Pratt 
is now), 68 miles, twice a week, $775 per annum, John C. Beem, Hutchin- 
son, Kansas, contractor. 

Route No. 33334. Iuka to Hutchinson, 63 miles, three times a week, 
$830 per annum, U. W. Parker, Atchison, Kansas, contractor. 

Contracts were awarded for the term from July 1, 1882, to June 30, 
1886, as follows: 



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2l6 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Route No. 33381, McPherson tc* Hutchinson, 34 miles, three times a 
week, $490 per annum, M. A. Thompson, Sedalia, Missouri, contractor. 

Route No. 33382, McPherson to Hutchinson, via Westfield (a. farm 
house in McPherson county), and Little Valley (another farm house in 
McPherson county from which mail was distributed), 37 miles, three times 
a week, $535 per annum, M. A. Thompson, Sedalia, Missouri, contractor. 

Route No. 33390, Wichita to Hutchinson, 52 miles, three times a week, 
$694 per annum, John R. Tuffer, Graysville, Vermont, contractor. 

Route No. 33409, Hutchinson to Medicine Lodge, 84 miles, three times 
a week, $1,790 per annum, John R. Misser, Independence, Missouri, con- 
tractor. 

Route No. 33410, Hutchinson to Prattsburgh, 80 miles, three times a 
week, $1,270 per annum, Newell C. Keyes, Windsor, Missouri, contractor. 

Route No. 3341 1, Hutchinson to luka, 70 miles, three times a week, 
$1,010 per annum, W. A. Stoddard, Camden, New York, contractor. 

Contracts were entered into for the four-year term beginning July 1, 
1886, as follows: 

Route No. 33436, McPherson to Hutchinson, 40 miles, three times a 
week, $618 per annum, Vincent Boring, London, Kentucky, contractor; 
service discontinued October 15, 1887. 

Route No. 33444, Wichita to Hutchinson, 56 miles, three times a week, 
$727 per annum, Edgar H. Gaither, Harrodsburgh, Kentucky, contractor; 
service discontinued November 4, 1886. 

Route No. 33486, Stafford to Hutchinson, 47 miles, three times a week, 
$690 per annum, Vincent Boring, London, Kentucky, contractor: service 
discontinued August 10. 1886. 

Route No. 33471. Hutchinson to Kingman, 35'/ miles, three times a 
week, $493 per annum, H. W. Winslow, Fairmount, Indiana, contractor; 
service discontinued February 22, 1890. 

Route No." 33472, Hutchinson to Turon, 46 miles, three times a week, 
$049 per annum, A. M. Moore, Red Creek, New York, contractor; service 
discontinued October 26, 1887. 

POSTMASTERS. 
The following is the record of appointments of postmasters of the 
postoffices in Reno county, since their establishment to their discontinuance 
or to the present time : 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 2\J 

Hutchinson (present salary, $3,300.) 

Date of Appointment. 

John A. Clapp (established) December 6, 1871 

Edward Wilcox June 4, 1872 

N. C. Boles February 27, 1877 

Hiram Raff November 12, 1878 

R. M. Easley January 2, 1883 

I. F. Blackburn January 19, 1887 

Wilson McOandless May 14, 1890 

Eli Mead August 10, 1894 

John B. Vincent : July 1, 1897 

Henry M. Stewart January 24, 1906 

Samuel S. Graybill September 25, 1914 ' 

Nickerson (present salary, $1,500.) 

Amanda J. Sears (established) January 21, 1873 

Lizzie Boggs April 8, 1875 

Lizzie M. Butlri April 29, 1875 

L. A. Reeves January 14, 1876 

E. W. Elliott February 23, 1883 

George W. Sain July 20, 1885 

John W. Claypool January 30, 1890 

Sarah M. Arnold February 27, 1894 

Joseph E. Humphrey January 10, 1898 

George W. Sain. Jr. February 4, 1914 

Zenith (present salary Sylvia, $1,500.) 

Thomas J. Anderson (established) , May 12, 1876 

J. B. Wright October I, 1884 

Thomas J. Talbntt December 21, 1885 

Sylvia (name changed) \pril 23, 1887 

H. S. Austin April 23, 1887 

Thomas Litchfield July 20, 1889 

H. S. Austin December 18, 1893 

J. A. Whitehurst August 23, 1895 

C. W. Tipton June 26, 1897 



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I RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Date of Appointment. 

E. H. Smith _ ..March n, 1899 

Amanda M. Baird April 2, 1901 

Frank Forney August 22, 1902 

Joseph E. Aldrich January 21, 1907 

L. G. Waggoner May 1, 1913 

Plevna. 

Frankie Hazen (established) October 25, 1877 

H. S. Austin March n, 1884 

John W. Campbell August 4, 1886 

E. M. Blachly June 27, 1888 

William O. Severance January 29, 1890 

Mary E. Wilson September 29, 1894 

Levi W. Blaisdell August 3, 1897 

Louis M. Ipson May 7, 1008 

J. D. Likens 

Salt Creek. 

Nathaniel Dixon (established) December 8, 1873 

VV. W. Farrand January 19, 1876 

Elias Palmatier May 15, 1877 

Abbyville (name changed) June I, 1866 

James McLean June I, 1866 

Jennette Wyer June it, 1889 

James McLean August 11, 1893 

Flora Oliverson August 2, 1897 

Kate Robertson 

Reno Center. 

Thomas Harris (established) ' December 12, 1873 

Samuel Dilley April 30, 1875 

Henry C. O'Hara June 12, 1882 

Partridge (name changed) May 24, 1886 

M. L. Jordan — -May 24, 1886 

P. D. Shoemaker January 5, 1887 

William Pilcher May 17, 1889 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 2IQ. 

Date of Appointment. 

Henry C. O'Hara September ly, 1894 

William Pilcher December 1, 1897 

Henry C. Lusk April 15, 1901 

Robenia E. Davis June 3, 1912 

Hamburg. 

Edwin R. Rogers (established) -January 30, .1888 

Dietrich Enns August 17. 1888 

Buhlcr {name changed) October 20, 1888 

Dietrich Enns October 20, 1888 

Frank F. Tows December 20, 1889 

Jacob M. Pletscher August 4, 1890 

John J. Dick March 14, 1894 

John M. Enns April 15, 1897 

Theodore Krehbiel May 8, 1902 

James F. McMullen August 7, 1902 

Cornelius P. Froese December u, 1902 

Peter H. Adrian March 4, 1911 

Haven (present salary $i',ioo.) 

Caleb Cupps (established) April 10, 1873 

F. W. Thorp May 3, 1886 

Charles W. Astle April 19, 1889 

George W. May September 19, 1893 

John R. Payne August 5, 1897 

Charles W. Astle August 26, 1901 

Elmer G. Erwin February 19, 1903 

William J. Waterbury October 24, 1907 

M. E. Henderson June 17, 1913 

Yodcr. 

Eli M. Yodsr November 25, 1889 

Samuel C. Gaston January 17. 1902 

M. E. Hostetler F'ebruarv 18. 1903 

Annie B. McDermed December 15. 1903 

Ben Boxt November 26. 1904 

Annie Switzer March 15, 1906 



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O RENO COUNTV, KANSAS. 

Cotton Grove (established.) 

Date of Appointment. 

John H. Thatcher September 19, 1877 

John S. Hates ...December 28, 1880 

Turoii (name changed. Present salary, $i,300)__January 13, 1882 

M. H. Potter January 13, 1882 

John Hinds July 20, 1891 

Calvin L. Ely November 25, 1893 

George 11. ] 'otter June 10, 1897 

O. S. Jenks January 10, 1902 

Florence Lowe August 3, 1905 

Mrs. John Catte 

Arlington. 

TI. H. Purely (established) February 7, 1878 

John J. Gaines April 15, 1879 

William A. Knorr '. December 21, 1880 

S. I. Bunch December 28, 1885 

J. D. Scott July 17, 1886 

John F. Lowe August 2, 1886 

J. C. Lowe December 8, 1887 

Isaac S. Trembley March 3, 1891 

Anthony Roctzel — March 1, 1895 

Isaac S. Trembley : November 23, 1897 

John Berry 

Langdon. 

John E. Ulmer (established) December 16, 1873 

H. E. Evarts October 4, 1880 

Asa J. Judy November 2, 1887 

William I. Holland April 6, 1889 

Charles A. Miller December 10, 1890 

William I. Holland May 31, 1893 

Albert W. Collings February 20, 1895 

Lucy J. Jones June 19, 1897 

Chester W. Wyatt June 8, 1911 

Austin B. Smith December 6, 1872 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 221 

Castleton. 

Date of. Appointment. 

William Wallace December 27, 1872 

Eliza Wallace August 25, 1884 

Thomas Fall January 28, 1890 

George T. Fall February 12, 1890 

Horace N. Holcomb June 14, 1895 

Ralph B. O. Leary March 25, 1908 

Newell E. Fountain January 30, 191 1 

Maude E. Givens . May 9, 1916 

Pretty Prairie. 

Mary Collingwood (established) January 26, 1873 

William G. Graham . July n, 1878 

Thomas H. Smith July 29, 1879 

Stephen P. Sanders January 17, 1884 

H. C. Gault December 18, 1893 

Samuel G. Demoret _* November 24, 1897 

Samuel E. Young January 9, 1905 

George D. Smith January 25, 1907 

John F. Smith 

Booth. 

George W. Keedy March 29, 1890 

Ottilia Umstot April 10, 1899 

Darlmv (name changed) October 2. 1900 

Ottilia Umstot October 2, 1900 

Floyd H. Moore February 5, 1914 

Leslie. 

George W. Cooter March 16, 1874 

Jefferson Huston January 31, 1876 

Abraham Klopfenstein May n, j88o 

Samuel S. Smith November 17, 1882 

Medora (name changed) August 16, 1887 

John J. Dick August 16. 1887 



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222 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Date of Appointment. 

■H. (". Bear January 25, 1888 

William Poulton February 12, 1890 

Patrick W. Furlong March 6, 1894 

Mary Richards July 27, 1896 

Jesse D. Weaver December 23, 1898 

Lovisa A. Harrison February 23, 1900 

Harvey J. Rickenbrode October 24, 1901 

Nethcriand. 

J. F. Alartin' (established) " August 12, 1874 

A. M. Webb __ .April 3, 1876 

Wvlie Etrown April 29, 1878 

C I.. Fly —. - July 24, 1879 

Orlo S. Jenks _ August 8, 1881 

Lerado (name changed) May 2, 1884 

Orlo S. Jenks May 2, 1884 

J. J. Jones .* April 19, 1887 . 

William P. Jones April 6, 1889 

William H. Cheatuin February 4, 1891 

Matthew S. Ely November 21, 1894 

Abigail Frazier March 12, 1895 

Rice N. ("heatum July 10, 1897 

John F. ("heatum May 20, 1898 

Charles W. Dutton September 26, 1900 

David J. Davis March 28, 1901 

J. Wesley Barr March 29, 1902 

Discontinued February 13, 1904 

FREE CITY DELIVERY. 

The city delivery system was established at Hutchinson on October 1. 
1887. The carriers then appointed were Othello C. Furman, Charles W. 
Oswald and Grant \V\ l'rather. 

The records of the bureau of postoftice service of the postoffice depart- 
ment show that additional carriers were appointed on the following dates: 
One, September 10, 1889; one, January 1, 1004; two, October 1, 1906; two, 
Mav I, [909: two, June 1 and T5, 1910: one, November 24, 1913. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 223 

As the records at the present time show that fourteen carriers are 
employed, additional carriers were appointed, probably on a date between 
the establishment of the service and September lo, 1889. The only record 
prior to that date is a card record in the first assistant postmaster-general's 
office which fails to show whether the new carriers were appointed to fill 
vacancies or to additional places. 

POSTAL RECEIPTS. 

The records either of the postoffice in Hutchinson or of the depart- 
ment in Washington fail to show the receipts of the Hutchinson postoffice 
prior to 1884. The following table shows the postal receipts of the post- 
office- at Hutchinson for the fiscal year ended June 30, r884, to the fiscal 
year ended June 30. 1914. 

1884 $6,410.68 1901 $24,014.20 

1885 6,884.74 1002 25,939.15 

1886 8.085.14 1903 28,165.22 

1887 __ 1 1.539-33 l( >°4 31.235.04 

r888 I3.954.20 '°o5 34,696.99 

1889 16,141.70 1906 40,907.88 

1890 _ 17,745.69 1907 48,150.66 

1891 — 16,407.32 1908 52.47/66 

[892 17.357-69 lf KX» 62,208.31 " 

1893 19.615.38 I9IO 71,977.21 

1894 1 7437-39 ,t ' 11 75.225.62 

1895 I7-33SM5 '9 r2 76,824.41 

1896 17,467.36 1913 . 79,680.10 

1897 17.338.25 "9'4 79,163.60 

1898 18.256.37 1915 89,048.04 

1899 20.613.14 1916 105.377.44 

1900 2T.8o_',98 

RURAL FREE DELIVERY. 

Rural routes, outside of Hutchison, were established first in 1902. 
There are thirty-three routes in the county at the present time, covering 
practically the entire county. The first rural route in the county was es- 



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224 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

tablished out of Hutchison on September 15, 1900. Below is a table of 
the dates of the establishment of all o ftlie routes in the county made on 
those routes: 

Abbeyville, Xo. 1, December 1, 1902. 

Abbeyville, No. 2, November 15, 1,904. 

Arlington, No. 1, December 1, 1902. 

Arlington, No. 2, January 2, 1905. 

Buhler, No. 1, October 1, 1903. 

Buhler. No. 2, August 1, 1905. 

Castleton, No. l, April I, 1907. 

Darlow, No. 1, November 15, 1904. 

Haven, No. 1, October 1, 1903. 

Haven, No. 2, October 1, 1903. 

Haven, No. 3, August 15, 1904. 

Hutchinson, No. 1, September 15, 1900. 

Hutcbinsnn, No. 2, December 1. 1902. 

Hutchinson, No. 3, December 1, 1902. 

Hutchinson, No. 4, November 15, 1904. 

Hutchinson, No. 5, November 15. 1904. 

Hutchinson, Xo. 6, August I, 1905. 

Langdon, No. I, November 2, 1903. 

Langdon, Xo. 2, August 1, 1905. 

Nickerson, Xo. 1, November 16, 1903. ' 

Nickerson, No. 2, August 1, 1905. 

Partridge, No. 1, October 1, 1901. 

Partridge No. 2. August 1, 1905. 

Plevna. No. 1, October 1. 1900. 

Plevna, No. 2, November 16, 1903. 

Pretty Prairie. No. 1, July r, 1904. 

Pretty Prairie. No. 2, July 1, 1904. 

Pretty Prairie. No. 3, August I. 1905. 

Sylvia, No. 1, October 15, 1903. 

Sylvia, No. 2, August 1, 1905. 

Sylvia, No. 3. August 1, 1005. 

Turon, No. 1. November 2. 1903. ^ 

Turon. No. 2, November 1, 1904. 



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&Ma«j6. 4l~Z« 



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CHAPTER XXXI. 

Schools of Reno County. 

It is impossible to write a complete and accurate history of the schools 
of Reno county. The records are in such a condition that the information 
necessary cannot now be obtained, nor has the state superintendent of public 
instruction any adequate records of the schools of this county. Until recently, 
when the information was supplied from other records, the county superin- 
tendent's office had no records of the first three county superintendents of 
this county ; the records of that office being corrected from the journals of 
the county commissioners. It is recalled by some of the old settlers that so 
little consideration was given this office that ten years after the organization 
of the county the county superintendent of that day kept all his school records 
in a gunny-sack, and pitched that sack in a corner of a coal and hide office, 
where it was the custom of the superintendent of that time to spend his leisure 
time playing chess ; and when school matters were to be considered, the per- 
son desiring to deal with the county superintendent hunted up the hide 
house for the superintendent and his gunny-sack. There are -no records 
of the organization of a single school district in the county. From appear- 
ance, those who had charge of the county's educational affairs divided part of 
the county up into spaces that would afterwards be settled up and school 
districts were informally organized; instead of organizing them as the stat- 
ute provides, by a petition from the patrons of the proposed school district 
to the county superintendent, who would, on hearing their statements, lay 
out and organize the district. So the present district boundaries have been 
whittled and cut to meet the demands of the patrons, but the dates of the 
cutting and whittling are gone. The nearest approach to that date is the 
date of the first issue of bonds. It is very likely that this date is not far 
from the date of organization, as it was necessary in all of the districts to 
vote bonds to build the school house. 

FIRST SCHOOL DISTRICT ORGANIZED IN 1872. 

According to this method of fixing the dates of organization of the 
various districts, there was one district organized in 1872; in 1873 there 

(15) 



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226 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



were twenty-eight districts organized; in 1874 there were twenty organiza- 
tions' made. It was a notable fact that all but four of the districts organized 
in this latter year were in the earlier part of the year, ten in August and 
two later in the year. The grasshoppers had discouraged many persons 
from all thoughts of permanent improvement. However, new faith came 
with the spring of 1875, for ten new districts were organized that year. Xine 
were made in 1876, seven in each of the years 1877, 1878 and 1879. In 
1880 only one district was formed; two in 1881 ; five in 1882; three in 
1883; seven in 1884, while 1885 shows a marked increase in educational 
matters, eleven districts having been organized in that year. In 1886 seven 
new buildings were erected, eleven in 1887, three in 1888, two in 
1889, one in 1890, four in 1891, three in 1892. The years 1893 and 1894 
distinguished themselves as being the only years in the county's history when 
no new school houses were built until the county was completely organized. 
In the year 1895, 1896 and 1897 one district was organized in each year. 
The last year named closed the organization of new school districts. The 
following table shows the numberof the districts and date and the amount of 
their first bond issues, together with a supplemental table showing the bonded 
indebtedness of the district at the close of the year 1916: 

BONDED INDEBTEDNESS OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS. 



Sale of First Bond Amount of 

Issue. . First Bonds. 

June 10, 1873 (15,000 

March 13, 1873 1,000 

June 10, 1873 500 

April 24, 1873 BOO 

March 11, 1874 700 

March 1, 1873 1.200 

February 27. 1873 1.000 

September 8, 1876 1,200 

December 15. 1872 . 1.000 

June 1, 1873 1.500 

March 17, 1873... — 600 

July 26. 1873 1.500 

March 1, 1873 800 

June 23. 1873 1.000 

October 24. 1874 500 

April 26. 1873 600 

May 17. 1873 — 500 

May 20, 1873.. 1.250 

May 17. 1873 1,000 

July 17. 1873 1.000 



Sale of First Bond Amount ot 

Issue. First Bonds. 

Auguat 1, 1873 400 

August 9, 1873 500 

June 19. 1873 1,260 

December 10. 1873 1500 

September 25. 1873 1,000 

December 1. 1873 1,000 

September 9, 1873 1,000 

June 1, 1877 1,300 

March 21, 1874 600 

September 10. 1873 1.000 

June 16, 1877 1,300 

September 26, 1874 _ 400 

November 10. 1873 800 

February 11, 1874. „ 700" 

November 6. 1873 1.000 

October 16, 1873 _ 1.200 

March 7, 1874 '. 800 

March 17. 1874 800 

November 10, 1873 1,000 

Xovember 1. 1876 600 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



227 



Sate of First Bond Amount of 

IsBue. First Bonds. 

November IT, 18731 1,250 

February 18, 1874 250 

January 1, 1874 1,000 

November 17, 1874 1,000 

January 16, 1875 900 

July 15, 1875 663 

December 15, 1876 137 - 

January 16, 1874 200 

January 8, 1874 800 

November 16, 1875 600 

October 1, 1875. 800 

November 10, 1874 600 

October 1, 1875 iOO 

June 2, 1874 1,000 

February 1, 1876 290 

June 1, 1874 550 

October 1, 1875 380 

March 19, 1874 400 

March 2, 1882 400 

June 1, 1876 399 

November 26, 1884 600 

August 1, 1874 1,500 

August 1, 1874 550 

October 22, 1883 500 

March 3, 1875 _. 362 

January 3, 1876 270 

May 17, 1876 800 

August 10, 1882 550 

November 30, 1875 425 

October 24. 1877 300 

une 6, 1877 300 

April 1, 1875 150 

February 1. 1876 555 

November 15, 1875 600 

November 27. 1879 100 

March 3. 1879 125 

September 30, 1876 455 

April 16, 1877 700 

December 11, 1877 450 

September 13, 1878 475 

August 1, 1885 800 

August 1, 1877 300 

March 7, 1879 73 

February 6, 1878___ 236 

July 18. 1882 350 

September 1, 1885 200 

November 9. 1880 200 

September 27. 1882 400 



Sale of First Bond Amount of 

Issue. First Bonds. 

February 7, 1879 162 

February 18, 1878 260 

December 16, 1879 200 

April 20, 1878 203 

May 1, 1878 385 

August 17, 1878 295 

July 1, 1879 226 

November 2, 1878 600 

March 10, 1874 100 

August 4, 1882 

September 13, 1879 575 

August 1, 1881— 475 

August 8, 1881 475 

September 22, 1886 700 

March 16. 1883 

March 1, 1884 345 

November 1, 1883 830 

January 5, 1884 200 

July 5, 1884 200 

August 25. 1884. _. 700 

February 1, 1886 187 

March 2, 1885 700 

December 27, 1884 400 

December 22, 1884 1,000 

December 9, 1885 300 

February 18. 1885 __ 300 

August 2. 1886 260 

August 21, 1886.. _ 400 

March 15. 1887 600 

August 1, 1885 600 

October 31, 1885 350 

September 12, 1885 500 

October 20. 1885 900 

December 10, 1885 1,000 

September 26, 1885 

December 10, 1885 400 

May 5, 1886 450 

March 14, 187 300 

November 13, 1886 464 

January 13. 1887 420 

September 20, 1888 310 

November 16. 1886 400 

November 20, 1886 400 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Sale of First Bond Amount of 

Issue. First Bonds. 

February 16, 1887 600 

October 1, 1887 _*_ 1.980 

August 1, 1887 1,000 

August 3, 1889 1,960 

September 1, 1887 1,960 

January 20, 1887 300 

January 2, 1888 660 

November 30, 1887 600 

December 2, 1887 600 

July 25, 1888 500 

July 13, 1889 400 

September 1, 1890 600 



Siile of First Boud Amount <>t 
Issue. First Bonds 

May 6, 1891 400 

January 1, 1891 __ 900 

September 12, 1891 900 

November 24, 1891 600 

August 8, 1892 600 

September lo, 1892 800 

September 15, 1892 400 

November 22, 1895 600 

December 1, 1896 200 

January 10, 1897... 200 



LATER BOND ISSUES. 



Present Bonded Purpose of 

District. Indebtedness Indebtedness. 

i $246,500 New buildings and grounds. 

10 1,700 New building. 

12 6,000 New building. 

13 3,000 New building. 

24 5,000 Experimental land. 



3<i 

45 
57 
62 
73 
74 
90 

T02 
117 
136 

'39 
149 
157 



300. 
4,500. 

600. 
5-SOO. 
6,200. 

500. 
9.275- 
2,200. 
1,300. 
15,000. 
3,000. 
8.000. 
1.500. . 



. Improvements. 
. New building. 
. New building. 
.New building. 
.New building. 
. Improvements. 
.New building. 
.New building. 
.New building. 
.New building. 
.New building. 
.New building. 
.New building. 



CO NSOLI DATED ] 



The creation of school districts ended with district 160. A short time 
after the idea of the school system changed and instead of more districts it 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 22g 

was urged that better school teachers and better schools could be obtained by 
combining school districts. The county superintendent that was most insist- 
ent on this new feature of school district formation was I. L. Dayhoff. He 
wanted to carry out his idea, but was afraid to leave it to the districts that 
were affected. To gain his point he induced the members of the Legislature 
from Reno county to get a bill through the Legislature combining districts num- 
ber 4, 35, 108 and 139. They were merged by this act into one district, and the 
new district called "Union District No. 139." At the same time, and by the 
same act, districts 9, 25 and 150 were merged into one district and renamed 
"Union District No. 150." Considerable trouble was experienced by this act, 
but it soon became apparent that the new move was a good one, even though 
the method employed in obtaining it was questionable. The same Legislature 
passed a general law allowing school districts to combine, and on August 12, 
1912, after a considerable time of discussion, districts 78 and 85 united under 
the name of "Union District No. 78." Likewise on June 6, 1913, district 70 
was combined with district 73 at Turon, under the name of "The Turon 
Union School." 

In 1909 districts number 123, 125, 124 and 60, all in Medford township, 
united under the name of "Union District No. 5." 

RURAL HIGH SCHOOLS. 

The last step in the development of the schools of the county and one of 
the most far-reaching that has ever been taken, was the passage of the law 
allowing rural high schools to lie formed in order that the children of the rural 
schools might be given substantially the same educational facilities as are 
enjoyed by the children in the city schools. This law did not originate with 
the school teachers of the state, but with the Grange, an organization composed 
entirely of farmers. The authors of the law insisted that the most economi- 
cal way to educate the boys and girls of the farm was to bring the school to 
the student, rather than send the student away from home to the school. 
They knew that the age at which boys and girls entered the high school 
was the most impressionable one of their lives and an age when the parents' 
influence should be most strongly exerted, and that to maintain this influ- 
ence it was necessary to have the schools close to their homes. So they sug- 
gested to the Legislature the advisability of passing a law that would allow 
the patrons to create such a district. 

The first place in the county to organize under this law was Arlington. 
The Arlington rural high school was organized on June 22, 1915. It has a 



v Google 



23O RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

full high school course and in the school year of 191C it had thirty-four stu- 
dents. 

The second rural high school to be organized was located at Partridge and 
was organized on the same date as the new school at Arlington, as was also the 
school at Plevna, which is styled "rural high school No. 3" but which, in fact, 
shares equally the honor of being the first with Arlington and Partridge. 
Abbyville, also, was organized on this date, but was given No. 4. These four 
districts were organized at the earliest moment after the law was passed and 
shows how well the authors of the law gauged public sentiment as to the 
needs of educating the children at home as far as possible. Langdon was 
the fifth to organize, June 29, 1915. The sixth school to organize under 
the law was Pretty Prairie, which district voted for a rural high school on 
April 4, 1916. 

THE STANDARDIZED SCHOOL. 

One of the advanced steps in education was the adoption ot what is called 
"The Standard School." The state superintendent's office has had added to 
its force two rural school inspectors, whose work is to visit the various dis- 
tricts and work in connection with the county superintendents to bring about a 
higher standard for the schools ; bringing about a closer co-operation of par- 
ents and schools, and in a general way raising the grade of the schools of 
the state. They have adopted certain definite-requirements for the district 
before it can become a "standard" school. There must be at least an acre 
of school ground, which must be kept in good condition. There must be 
such trees and shrubs as the soil will grow. The outhouses and coal houses 
must be kept in good repair. The school house must be kept in good repair, 
papered and painted. It must be well lighted, have adjustable shades, suit- 
able cloak rooms, good slate blackboards and be heated by a room ventilator 
or a furnace. The desks for the students must be suitable for their ages. 
The school must be supplied with books for the library such as are needed for 
the grades of students attending. There must be a good set of maps, a globe 
and a dictionary, and the water supply shall be sanitary. The rooms must 
contain a thermometer and be equipped with a sand table for the little children. 
The teacher must hold a state certificate or a first grade county certificate, or a 
Normal Training School certificate. The teacher must rank as a superior 
teacher and the salary paid must be not less than seventy dollars a month. 

With this as a standard, there are in 1916 thirty-five standard schools in 
Reno county. This is one-third of the entire number of such schools in the 
state of Kansas. The standard is a high one and there are a good many more 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 23I 

schools in the county ready to be standardized as soon as the state inspector can 
reach the county and inspect them. 

This "standardization" is a means by which the schools are measured. 
It does not mean that there will be no better schools, but it means that definite 
improvement is being made in the work of getting a higher grade of work 
done each year in the country schools. 

SOME DEFINITE SCHOOL STATISTICS. 



The following table shows the valuation of the property in each school 
district in the county, the levy for 1916 on each one hundred dollars of valu- 
ation and the enrollment and average attendance of each school district in 
the county : 



Number Valuation 

1 $21,380,090 

2 . . 464,686 

3 678,417 

5, 1, 196,017 

6'. 390,571 

7 489.783 

8 255,I9 2 

10 255,054 

■I 313.474 

12 571,068 

13 388,287 

14 592.729 

■5 ■ 403.93'"' 

16 325.937 

17 458,115 

18 473-902 

19 379.535 

20.. ' 457> fi 2i 

21 457.346 

22 735-814 

23 825,187 

24 1,726,195 

26 397.328 











Average 


Levy 




Enroll- 


Attend- 


er$ioo 


Census 


ment. 


ance 


$ .60 


3.013 


3.780 


2,994 




20 


43 


36 


28 




25 


58 


35 


35 




30 


■34 


100 


92 




21 


36 


25 


20 




12 


37 


31 


21 




20 


33 


22 


16 




22 


30 


21 


■9 




24 


41 


32 


25 




42 


94 


82 


61 




1.1 


49 


27 


23 




12 


28 


■ 4 


13 




10 


28 


'5 


14 




19 


45 


32 


"J 




12 


46 


3" 


22 




12 


36 


22 


18 




17 


29 


27 


16 




09 


64 


42 


29 




II 


20 


17 


10 




10 


39 


28 


21 




08 


53 


24 


15 




3° 


386 


234 


192 




15 


40 


27 


20 



, y Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Number 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

3 2 

33 

34 

36 

37 

38..... 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

48 

49 

5° 

51 

52 

53 

55 

56 

57 

58 

59 

61 

62 

63 

64 

65 

66 



Levy 




Enroll- 


Attend- 


Valuation Per ! 


100 


Census 


ment. 


ance. 


317.258' 


18 


28 


22 


19 


564.652 


13 


40 


33 ' 


31 


232,811 


27 


3' 


18 


14 


474.958 


20 


35 


37 


21 


407.463 


17 


27 


20 


■9 


413.993 


12 


30 


14 


12 


476.233 


■5 


45 


36 


28 


354.940 


20 


H 


14 


10 


400,120 


17 


21 


17 


■5 


390.953 


16 


V 


27 


20 


411,210 


■5 


'9 


16 


■3 


259.423 


21 


72 


46 


2 5 


254.043 


24 


37 


21 


19 


' 484,758 


10 


39 


33 


21 


947,282 


16 


ill 


103 


66 


361,551 


14 


26 


26 


16 


378.144 


19 


22 


21 


10 


591,000 


43 


72 


54 


45 


316,378 


16 


3° 


14 


6 


492,91 1 


20 


51 


46 


35 


462,568 


12 


5« 


34 


-'9 


426,522 


11 


49 


35 


20 


367,879 


18 


43 


35 


26 


532,071 


08 


35 


26 


23 


268,925 


19 


27 


17 


14 


463."97 


>3 


52 


34 


2'- 


217,521 


■9 


12 


6 


5 


447.682 


lb 


29 


22 


16 


264,104 


23 


34 


24 


22 


301,104 


17 


22 


15 


12 


254,715 


20 


20 


■4 


13 


505,548 


35 


90 


75 


56 


344,305 


17 


28 


H 


10 


363,652 


■4 


48 


32 


27 


526,391 


10 


3" 


18 


■3 


246,202 


24 


35 


20 


17 



, y Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Number 

67 

68 

69 

72 

73 

74 

75 

77 

78 

79 

80 

81 

82 

84 

83 

86 

87 

88 

89 

90 

91 

93 

94 

92 

95 

96 

97 

9« 

99 

100 

roi 

102 

■03 

■04 

105 











\verage 


Levy 




Enroll- 


Attend- 


Valuation Per $100 


Census 


ment. 


ance 


299-552 


22 


32 


21 


18 


219,566 


27 


25 


23 


'9 


340,206 


! 5 


39 


28 


■2 5 


284.457 


IS 


21 


■3 


9 


354.470 


13 


33 


25 


23 


l.'9-'-763 


55 


220 


208 


176 


210.544 


39 


26 


29 


20 


214.646 


26 


20 


16 


1 1 


232.294 


20 


■5 


10 


7 


355.180 


14 


88 


59 


26 


348.105 


20 


4 1 


44 


31 


389.243 


1.3 


29 


27 


'3 


166,833 


36 


24 


16 


12 


282.606 


14 


34 


21 


>5 


7 2 5.409 


-'7 


90 


97 


72 


2 75.79 r 


22 


28 


21 


18 


283.788 


18 


37 


24 


22 


239.635 


17 


26 


15 


8 


373. f '72 


08 


37 


24 


19 


166,472 


24 


25 


14 


1 1 


246.336 


20 


ri 


9 


8 


295.236 


24 


38 


21 


17 


262,586 . 


25 


22 


18 


23 


413423 


IS 


64 


57 


39 


309,560 


26 


21 


13 


8 


298.404 


16 


25 


11 


10 


314.6/6 


19 


23 


17 


12 


400,212 


08 


31 


16 


II 


215.479 


20 


31 


16 


12 


922.541 


43 


140 


■50 


IO9 


236,564 


21 


28 


20 


16 


286,448 


14 


28 


15 


12 


1,077,320 


5" 


229 


193 


187 


459,3' 1 


15 


42 


29 


24 


263.955 


31 


20 


20 


■4 


292,796 


20 


20 


16 


>4 



, y Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Number 

106 

■07 

log 

no 

Ill 

112 

»3 

■14 

"5 

116 

"7 

118 

"9 

120 

121 

122 

1 26 

■27 

128 

129 

1.19 

1.V 

132 

'33 

134 

135 

13C 

137 

138 

139 

140 

■41 

142 

'43 

144 











Average 




Lew 




Enroll- 


Attend- 


Valuation - 


Per $ too 


Census 


ment. 


ance. 


309.717 


.16 


33 


23 


18 


180,895 


.28 


24 


12 


n 


467,690 


.09 


50 


36 


■4 


198,719 


■30 


34 


29 


25 


436,281 


■31 


28 


22 


16 


322,832 


■9 


35 


27 


20 


415,439 


■27 


73 


39 


32 


205,687 


.20 


57 


46 


30 


291,529 


.16 


27 


22 


18 


401,381 


.20 


29 


20 


19 


207,918 


■36 


28 


24 


22 


227,762 


■27 


34 


23 


16 


196.358 


■ 2 5 


22 


16 


12 


353. I 22 


■24 


45 


38 


34 


252,241 


24 


54 


43 


39 


224,036 


.29 


16 


14 


12 


440,452 


•34 


50 


34 


26 


286,216 


.21 


18 


13 


12 


237.77-* 


•30 


40 


32 


25 


178,168 


' - 2 3 


26 


21 


12 


279,070 


■ 2 5 


47 


3- 


32 


345.191 


■23 


29 


19 


17 


233.626 


.26 


40 


28 


24 


223,281 


■3 2 


17 


is 


10 


195,660 


.20 


20 


14 


II 


2 33.385 


•34 


37 


26 


20 


1,040,207 


34 


165 


n6 


89 


586.72 r 


■31 


80 


59 


50 


399.528 


■'5 


28 


3 1 


23 


1,886.542 


.40 


246 


191 


150 


175.548 


■23 


jo 


21 


14 


248.832 


■,V 


32 


20 


23 


230,498 


.20 


20 






275,085 


.29 


27 


'■-? 


19 


490.743 


.12 


69 


52 


32 


316.677 


.19 


38 


21 


19 



, y Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Number Valuation 

14-6 ■ 163,750 

2 47 221,483 

»48 381,564 

'49 1,159.044 

I 50 980,180 

*5I 256,038 

1 52 307,964 

1 S3 220,304 

1 54 230,403 

* 55 174,047 

"*■ 56 193.642 

157 226,209 

158 223,001 

159 177,067 

160 325,084 









Average 


Lew 




Enroll- 


Attend- 


Per $100 


Census 


ment. 


ance. 


■33 


36 


■9 


16 


■33 


24 


23 


'7 


.20 


24 


31 


21 


.40 


I.SO 


143 


106 


■ -41 


204 


142 


■30 


■24 


35 


23 


22 


■'5 


27 
9 


20 


■4 


.26 


28 


14 


13 


.20 


20 






■30 


12 


'3 


II 


■27 


31 


26 


20 


.18 


6 


12 


II 


.28 


39 


24 


29 


■25 


59 


3° 


28 



COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS. 

The Reno county schools have had fifteen different superintendents. \Y. 
E. Hutchinson was elected superintendent at the first county election on 
March 12, 1872. He served until July 6, 1872, when A. M. Hunt was appoint- 
ed. The latter declined to serve, however, and shortly afterwards left the 
county. Alexander Lynch was then appointed and served until 1873. The 
following have held the office since that time for the period indicated : Tay- 
lor Flick, 1873; Lysander Houk. 1874; J. I*. Cassaday, 1875-76; J. W. Kan- 
aga, 1877-1881; E. L. Jewell. 1881-84; Eli Payne, 1884-88; C. P. White, 
1888-1890; Sam YV. Hill, 1890-92; Charles I\ Dawson, 1892-96: I. L. Day- 
hoff, 1896-1902; J. H. Jackson, 1902-05; A. \V. Hamilton, 1005-08; Stewart 
P. Rowland, 1908-1918. 

Mr. Jackson died while in office. Of all these superintendents only two 
now live in Reno county, the present incumbent and Eli Payne. Mr. Row- 
land was re-elected on November 7, 1916. He has served eight years and 
will have served ten years at the expiration of his present term. 



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27,6 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

THE RENO COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL. 

The charter for the "Nickerson College" was issued on June 30, 1898. 
The South side school building in Nickerson was fitted up for the new school, 
and the "Nickerson College" and the Nickerson high school were merged. 
The first trustees of the college were: W. E. Detter, George Turbush, J. H. 
Jackson, W. F. Hendry, L. C. Brown. The school opened on August 30, 
1898. with an enrollment of seventy-eight students. 

On April 16, 1903, the county commissioners, on petition, established 
the county high school. The question as to the establishment of the school 
had been submitted to the voters of the county at the election in the fall of 
1902. Failing to get a majority vote on the proposition, a special act was 
passed by the Legislature, allowing the county commissioners to establish the 
school on a petition of. the voters of the county. The first board of trustees 
for the county high school were appointed by the commissioners as follow: 
J. H. Jackson, County Superintendent F. W. Cook and Frank Vincent, of 
Hutchinson; Elmer Everett, of Partridge; C. B. Copeland, of Haven, C. U. 
Woodell and W. F. Hendry, of Nickerson. 

The combined "Nickerson College" and Reno county high school have 
been maintained by taxation on the entire county since the establishment 
of the school. The total amout raised by taxation to support this school 
in 1916 was $35,020. Since the establishment of the various village high 
schools, the necessity of a county high school has been challenged by the 
districts maintaining high schools of their own, they objecting to the double 
taxation required of them — the support of their own high school as well 
as to pay their proportion for the support of the county high school, and 
it is likely that some modification of the county high school law will be 
brought about by the portions of the county that are subject to the double 
taxation to support both their own high school and also the county high 
school. 



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CHAPTER XXXII. 

Newspapers of the County. 

Reno county has always had an abundant supply of newspapers. Before 
the county was six months old a newspaper man was on the townsite with a 
small amount of type, an old press and a desire to serve the community, 
and in return make a living out of the service rendered. In a new com- 
munity there are always a bunch of men who are "boomers" by nature and 
they instinctively turn to the newspapers for the necessary advertising. In 
this respect the average newspaper of Reno county has been no exception 
to that rule that the newspapers give away more genuine advertising space 
than they collect a revenue from. In the early days of the county, the 
biggest boomer for the community was the newspaper. It was the inspira- 
tion to many a man in the early days, when crops were poor and money 
scarce, to hold on; always insisting that the !>etter days were just ahead, 
prophesying a big crop with every little shower and pointing out that a 
town would make everybody rich was just as certain as death or taxes. 
If it were possible now to ascertain the number of old settlers of Reno 
county who have had their faith in Reno county held up through the pioneer 
days by the newspapers, whose influence kept these old settlers on their 
land: if it were possible to ascertain the number of such, it would be found 
that the newspapers formed the one most potent factor in developing Reno 
countv of all the agencies that contributed to the present development and 
prosperity of this county. 

LIVED .TO SEE HIS DREAMS REALIZED. 

There was one man, full of vigor and faith in Reno county in the early 
days, who was a fair sample of this faith and who was a more or less regu- 
lar contributor to the newspapers of his time. He was not an educated 
man, but he was one who thought clearly and expressed himself tersely. 
This was Zeno Tharp, of Troy township. Letter after letter was published 
in the newspapers of that day that were full of faith in the county and of 
what a man of little means but an abundance of energy could accomplish. 
"Uncle Zeno" wrote of his own work, his "little boys" and of "Beautiful 



v Google 



238 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Troy." He lived to see all his dreams more than realized, his sons pros- 
perous and himself a living rebuke to the old adage, "a prophet is not without 
honor, save in his own country." For the county he wrote about honored 
him, not with gifts of office nor places of power, but as a prophet should be 
honored, a remembrance of his help to others when they needed that help, and 
the realization of his own prophecies. 

FIRST NEWSPAPER IN RENO GOL'NTY. 

The first newspaper in Reno count) - was founded by Perry Brothers. 
Their first issue was printed on July 15, 1S72. It was called The Nczvs. The 
paper has retained that name through all the years of this county's history. It 
has had many editors, it has had its vicissitudes, its tips and downs; was once 
in the hands of a receiver for two years, hut has been the "constant factor" in 
the newspaper field. Perry Brothers ran tteis paper for several months, then it 
passed into the hands of Houston Whiteside, who was a lawyer, but with plenty 
of time in those days to carry on both his law practice and run a weekly 
newspaper. Whiteside was succeeded in the ownership of this paper by 
Fletcher Meredith, who was a thorough newspaper man. He was of the 
fighting kind of newspaper men. a strong prohibitionist, a Republican and a 
" partisan. He was a vigorous writer and as a result 'accumulated a good sup- 
ply of enemies. He compromised with no one and his columns even today, 
when the condition of the county, its politics, its grafters, its builders and its 
l>enefactors have completely changed, are still intensely interesting, affording 
for the history writer a view of conditions not otherwise obtainable; for it is 
not always possible, from the mere narration of events, such as most news- 
papers content themselves with, to get a proper and accurate view of the forces 
that are building and unbuilding the county. 

A "nOOMER" ON THE JOB. 

Meredith was succeeded by Ralph M. Easley, perhaps the most 
resourceful man of Hutchinson of that day. He was a "boomer," and the 
development of Hutchinson and of Reno county was the one thing the Ncn-s 
of that day did. When corn was selling for fifteen cents a bushel, Easley 
originated the idea of getting "an emergency rate" on corn from the rail- 
roads. He pounded away at this idea, got others interested and the rail- 
roads put in a very low rate on farm products to the markets. It benefited 
the farmers for a while, much as the rcl>ate system benefited the early sliip- 



v Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 239 

pers when rebating was a practice common among shippers and railroads. 
But prices soon adjusted themselves and the "emergency rate" was repealed. 
Easley was a politician and was one of the main factors in securing the 
building of the Missouri Pacific railroad into this city, as mentioned in 
another chapter. The discovery of salt was another thing that Easley 
boomed to the fullest extent, also the packing-house building. The reaction 
from the boom affected the newspaper business as seriously as it did other lines 
of trade and the Netes went into the hands of a receiver, J. B. Vincent being 
appointed to run the paper. It had various editors for a short time, but was 
shortly afterward purchased by its present owner, YV. Y. Morgan. The 
Weekly News was founded on July 15th, 1872, and the Daily News, August 
17, 1886. 

FURTHER NEWSPAPER DEVELOPMENTS. 

The Interior was the second newspaper started in Hutchinson. Fletcher 
Meredith was one of its first editors, leaving the News to become owner and 
publisher of the Herald. Later it was consolidated with the Herald under 
the name of the Interior-Herald. Henry Inman was one of the earliest edi- 
tors of this paper. Another man, a brilliant writer, a hard fighter and politi- 
cally opposed to the policies of the other papers of Hutchinson, was Jap 
Turpin. The rivalry of the newspapers of that day was far sharper than it 
is today and the editorial columns of the papers were often full of the sharp- 
est personalities ; but never were there any platitudes, which are the product 
of politically-edited papers that oppose no one lest it loses some votes for its 
editor, coupled with indifferent political writers. The combination of the 
Interior and the Herald under the editorship of Fletcher Meredith lasted 
until 1903. 

The third paper that was established was called the Clipper. It was 
founded by W. A. Loe in 1889. In 1902 the paper was sold to Sheridan 
Ploughc and its name changed to the Independent. In 1908 the Independent 
was purchased by the Gazette, by Harry A. Lill. The Gazette was started 
in 1890 by Warren Foster, who ran it until 1895. Roster was a vigorous 
writer. His paper gained a wide circulation through the rise of the Popu- 
list party. It was their organ and when that party began to lose its prestige. 
the Gazette suffered. In 1902 R. G. Nettleton and his brother, A. \1. 
N'ettleton, purchased the Gazette and put it on a broader basis. Both of the 
Nettletons were good newspaper men and made the Gazette a vigorous paper. 
In 1895 Harry Scott founded the Bee. He ran it for several years and was 
succeeded in its ownership by Frank Lawson. In 1902 the Lawson Printing 



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240 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Company started the Daily Bee, which was edited hy them in addition to the 
Weekly Bee. In 1902 the Independent Company purchased the Daily Bcc 
and the Weekly Bcc and consolidated them with the Independent until June 
1, 1908, when the Independent was sold to Harry A. Lil!, the owner of the 
Gazette, who issued the combined publications under the name of the Gazette. 
That paper continues as the morning daily of Hutchinson. Lill ran the paper 
for four years, at the end of which time he sold it to a stock company. Since 
that time it has had several editors, some of them speculators, some of them 
newspaper men, and is now owned by Emerson Carey and Elijah Rayle and 
is independent in politics, supporting generally, however, the Democratic can- 
didates. 

SOME SHORT-LIVED PAPERS. 

There have been other newspapers in Hutchinson that have been short- 
lived. In 1893 Kelly & Palmer started a daily called the Patriot. It was 
issued from July 10 to September 19, 1893, when it was discontinued and 
moved to Oklahoma. The Times was published from December 6, 1889, to 
1905. There have also been some trade papers published, among them the 
Tradesman that was issued from November 22, 1902, to June, 1907. It was 
published first by The Bee Company and when that paper was sold to the 
Independent, it was continued by them until that paper was succeeded by the 
Gazette. The Wholesaler was started in 1908 by A. L. Sponsler and T. G. 
Armour. It covers the trade territory of Hutchinson and is of special bene- 
fit to the wholesale trade of Hutchinson. 

An educational paper was founded by 1**. J. Altswager in 1894 and for 
some time was issued monthly. Another educational magazine was published 
by Richard Price called the School Visitor and was issued for two. years— 
1893 and 1894. 

OTHER PAPERS IN THE COUNTY. 

At Arlington there is one paper, the Enterprise. It was founded by J. E. 
Eaton and H. C Warner in 1885. It is issued weekly. Its present owner is 
M. L. Barrett. 

The Journal, at Haven, now owned and edited by R. G. Hemenway, 
was founded on August 8, 1896, by George W. Way. It is independent in 
politics. 

The Leader, issued at Langdon, was founded on November 23, 191 1, by 
H. B. Albertson. It is now owned and published by B. B. Miller. 

The Argosy is published at Nickerson by Henry A. Lyon. This paper 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 24I 

was founded by J. W. Sargent on December 7, 1878. In 1886 he became the 
editor and publisher. In 1891 the Argosy purchased another paper published 
in Nickerson, called the Register. This paper was founded in 1884 by C. N. 
and H. E. Whitaker. In 1889 the name was changed to the Nickerson 
Industry, with Claypool & Raisner as editors and publishers. In the same 
year Harry H. Brightman became the editor and owner of the paper and 
changed the name to the Nickerson Argosy. In 1891 it was consolidated 
with the Nickerson Argosy, with W. F. Hendry and J. E. Humphrey as 
editors and publishers. Hendry was a capable newspaper man, very positive 
in his views, and while he was editor the Argosy was an interesting paper. 

The Titnes, at Pretty Prairie, was founded by Percy Torrey in 1910. 
Its present editor and owner is C. W. Claybaugh. It is like most of the 
papers published in the smaller towns, independent in politics. 

The Sylvia Sim was founded in 1900 by C. S. Eckert. It was discon- 
tinued on September 13, 1901, but was re-established on January 1, 1902, by 
George Walker. Its present editor and owner is George H. Yust. It is 
issued weekly, an all-home-print paper and is independent in politics. 

The Turon Press was founded by T. G. Elbury in 1894 at Pretty Prairie 
and moved to Turon in 1895, with Elbury continuing as editor. Its present 
editor and owner is B. S. Edwards, and it is Republican in politics. There 
have been a number of papers issued in the county in the past that have been 
discontinued. The following list, furnished by the press bureau of the State 
Historical Society, which has a complete file of all of the papers ever pub- 
lished in the state, covers all of these publications: 

At Abbeyville: The Chronicle, June 4 to October 9, 1897; tne Tribune, 
August 26, i88'6, to 1887. 

Buhler: The Herald, October 23, 1913. to 1914. 

Haven: The Dispatch, July 28, 1888-1889: the Independent, June 10, 
1886, to June, 1888: January to March, 1889: December, 1889- 1893; the 
Item, March 23, 1894-1895. 

Lerado: The Ledger. November 4, 1886-1888. 

Olcott: The Press, January 11, 1889, to November 1, 1889. 

Partridge: The Cricket-Press, November 4, 1886-1887; the Republi- 
can, March 6, 1896, to 1897. 

Plevna: The Torchlight, June 14. 1888-1889. 

Pretty Prairie: Press, February 7, 1889, to 1894: the Record. Febru- 
ary 23, 1906, to 1907. 

Sylvia: The Banner, December 6, 1889, to 1895; the Chronicle, July 
'(16) 



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2'4 2 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

IO, 1896, to December 4, 1896; the Herald, April 4, 1889, to August 29, 
1889; the Telephone, May 25, 1886, to 1889. 

The last paper started in Reno county is the Observer. It is published 
by the Observer Company and is edited by Sheridan Ploughe, editor and 
as publisher and owner. The paper is issued monthly. It contains 
no advertising, but depends on its subscription list for support. It is inde- 
pendent in politics and discusses in an editorial way public questions. Its 
circulation is not at all local, as it has more readers outside of Reno county 
than in the county. 

The newspapers of Reno county are one of its chief assets; not in the 
taxable value of their property, but because of the stimulus to business and 
the constant advertising the county has received from the news[>apers. The 
tendency of recent years has been to reduce the number of papers in the 
county and this has had a, tendency to strengthen the papers that remain in 
the field; to increase their circulation and consequently their value to the 
advertisers, and the demand of those advertisers today are for papers with 
wider circulation, that their goods may he known, not only in the county hut 
in the country southwest of this city, in other counties. This demand of the 
big advertisers is a guarantee of the future of the daily papers published in 
Hutchinson, that they will increase in their usefulness as the county develops. 



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CHAPTER XXXIII. 

The First Churches in the County. 

The first public religious service in Reno county was held on the second 
Sunday in March, 1872. The preacher was Rev. J. S. Saxby of the Baptist 
church. There were no church buildings and the services were held in a 
meat shop. The tables and meat blocks were pushed back, an improvised 
pulpit made from a shoe box some early settler had had in his wagon when 
he came to this town. The meat of that time was all wild meat — buffalo, 
elk, deer, antelope and prairie chicken — meat that was so common then, but 
which couldn't be obtained today. The meat shop was the largest building 
and a few chairs were taken to the room and the services held. There was 
no musical instrument so the preacher, to use the expression of that time, 
had to "pitch and tote the tune". There was only an occasional song book, 
but the songs were those that have stirred men and women for years and 
which lingered in the memory of the early settlers long after they had left 
their early home "back East". The preacher of that occasion did not 
remain long in the county. The prospects were too poor. He could see 
nothing in the future. He couldn't adapt himself to his surroundings; so, 
being discouraged, he remained only a few months and went back East. 
Another preacher was sent to this city, Rev. M. J. Morse, in his place. 
Before leaving lie organized the first Methodist church in Reno county. This 
was done on July ri, 1872, and was composed of the following persons: T. 
S. Scoresby and wife, S. N. Parker and wife, H. Chadeyene and wife, Fred 
Ames and wife, Roxanna Stout and Elva Stout, twelve in all. Their first 
"quarterly meeting" was held on November 9, 1872. Reverend Morse 
preached for this church until the following spring, when Hutchinson was 
organized as a separate charge by the Methodist conference, .then in session 
at Ottawa, in April, 1873. Rev. S. B. Presby was sent to Hutchinson by 
the Ottawa conference. Reverend Presby was an active industrious man, 
well liked by the people of that day. He secured lots and began building a 
parsonage, and as soon as the court house was completed so that it could 
lie used, the services were held in that building. In the following March, 
1873, Rev. J. W. Fox was sent to Hutchinson by the conference. He l>egan 



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244 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

the work of putting up a church building. Lots were secured, on the ground 
now occupied by the First Methodist church, on the corner of Walnut and 
First avenue, and a building that cost $5,200 was erected and was dedi- 
cated on April 12, 1874, by Rev. H. Buck. 

The next church organized in Reno county was of the Congregational 
denomination. This organization was not made in Hutchinson, but in Center 
township. On September 15, 1873, Rev. Samuel Dilly, his wife, his son 
and his son-in-law and the latter's wife, reached Center township, where they 
expected to take claims and make their homes. They traveled overland by 
wagon and on reaching Center township built a temporary board shanty on 
the northeast quarter of section 28, township 24, range 7 west. In this 
temporary building Reverend Dilly organized a Sunday school and held the 
first service of his church on December 6, 1872, with the following member- 
ship: Samuel Dilley, Belinda Dilley, Clancy E. Chapman, Lucy Chapman, 
Hugh Ghormley, Martha J. Ghormley, Henry C. O'Hara, Darella O'Hara, 
Zema A. Dilley, Henrietta E. Dilley, Elbert A. Dilley, Alta L. Chapman, 
Flora E. Ghormley, Caroline O. Daniels, Sarah Hawkins and Julia J. Tav- 
ener. 

The third church organized in Hutchinson was the Presbyterian church. 
Early in 1872, realizing the need of the community, C. C. Hutchinson offered 
one hundred dollars and three lots to any denomination that would build a 
church. The subscription was first started as a union of all churches, but 
this movement did not succeed. Mr. Hutchinson's donation had been added 
to until it amounted to fifteen hundred dollars. After the failure of the 
union plan, the Presbyterian church undertook to build, taking the three 
lots and the fifteen hundred dollars, but it was too much for them and after 
a thorough canvass, they gave it up. Then the Methodists tried to build, 
using the three lots and the fifteen hundred dollars that had been raised. 
They failed likewise. The Presbyterians took another turn at the matter 
after the Methodists had failed and this time they succeeded in getting the 
necessary amount of money to complete the building, and on the fourth Sun- 
day in June, 1873, their church, costing three thousand dollars, was dedi- 
cated free from debt. It was the first and only church building in the county 
for nearly two years. At a meeting on October 28, 1872, Rev. J. T. Pot- 
ter was hired and came to Hutchinson to preach. He came to the call from 
the Ohio presbytery, he having been located then at Cincinnati. This church 
was incorporated on January 9, 1873. From July 15, 1873, to January 1, 
1874. the church was without a regular pastor. "At a called meeting of the 



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PKKSBYTKltlAN CHURCH, HUTCHINSON 



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RKV. J. T. l'OTTKH, FIKST I'ltKSHYTKHIAN I'ltKAOHKIt AT HUTCHINSON 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 245 

church On the First Wednesday evening, December, 1873," so reads their 
record, "Rev. D. M. Moore of Lawrence was called to the pastorate of this 
church." He came to Hutchinson the first Sunday in January, 1874. The 
church at that time had twenty-seven members. 

In December, 1872, Reverend Saxby, who preached the first sermon 
ever preached in this city, returned to Hutchinson and organized the Bap- 
tist church. He had seven members in this first organization. Reverend 
Saxby stayed with this church for two years as the pastor. 

The Christian church was organized in Hutchinson in July, 1876. The 
organization had no building and met in the court house for some time. 
The first pastor of this church was Alexander Eliot, who then lived near 
Burrton. The first official board consisted of A. H. Ploughe, M. Saunders, 
Henry Music, T. J. Anderson and H. Eisminger. This organization used 
a rented hall for its services for several years. In 1882 the congregation 
began the erection of a building on North Main street, which cost ten thou- 
sand dollars. This building was later sold and moved to Fifth avenue, east, 
in 1911, and another building erected on this original site that cost over 
forty thousand dollars. This church had two of the most notable revivals 
ever held in this city. They were conducted by Rev. J. V. Updike and one 
was held in 1885 and the other in 1889. The result of these meetings was a 
membership of over one thousand at the close of the second revival. 

Among the earliest church organizations outside of Hutchinson was the 
one founded in Castleton township and was called the Harmony Baptist 
church. It was organized on November 3. 1875, with ten members. The 
first officers were H. D. Freeman, H. Bramwell, G. R. Bowser and B. F. 
Tucker. The church building was begun in July, 1882, and was completed in 
April, 1883, at a cost of one thousand dollars. It was dedicated on Mav 20, 

1883. 

The first church organization effected in "old" Nickerson was made by 
Rev. J. W. Fox, the presiding elder of the Methodist church, and the services 
were held in the school house on the old townsite until a building could be 
erected, which was in the fall of 1875, when a brick structure was erected 
costing four thousand five hundred dollars. 

In December, 1878, Rev. R. J. Schlichter organized the Congregational 
church in Nickerson with nine members. 

The first Catholic church in the county was organized in Nickerson by 
Rev. F. P. Sweenberg. The early meetings were held at the homes of the 
membership for a number of years. Reverend Sweenberg also organized the 



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246 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

church in Hutchinson, he having about fifty families in his charge at Hutch- 
inson and Nickerson. Their first building was completed in Hutchinson in 

i8 79 . 

The first Universalist church in Reno county was organized in Decem- 
ber, 1881, with forty members by Rev. T. W. Woodrow. Their first meet- 
ings were held in the Baptist church until they could erect their first build- 
ing on Plum street. 

The church growth of Reno county- has kept pace with the material 
growth of the county. Almost every neighborhood has a church. Nearly 
every organization has its own building. A few meetings are held in school 
buildings. Sunday schools are maintained in all places where there are 
church organizations, and in several communities Sunday schools are kept 
up, with only an occasional church service. 



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CHAPTER XXXIV 
Early Doctors of Reno County. 

The first doctor of any county spends a particularly strenuous life, and 
the first doctors of Reno county were no exceptions. They had all of the 
usual hardships of their calling, and to these were added the long drives neces- 
sitated by the sparsely settled communities they served. Many of the modern 
doctors do not go out of the city at all, and when they leave their offices to 
call on patients they have an automobile to hurry them to their patients and 
back to the office. Others do' not leave their finely-fitted rooms, with every 
modern convenience. But the pioneer doctors made their long drives, often 
by night, generally with a team of mustang ponies, the kind that would strike 
up a swift trot and maintain that gait without either whip or spur. These 
doctors would drive over roads for miles and never see a sight of any human 
habitation. Their trips often carried them one hundred miles southwest, 
over into Barber county. They would necessarily be gone several days. 
They were more like the pioneer preacher in their visits than they were today 
when professional rules have set the boundary lines for their calHng. They 
would go into a community and if any were sick they would minister to 
them, leaving them such medicine as they had with them, and advising them 
as to the care of their case. 

The first doctor in Hutchinson was Doctor DeWitt, who came to this 
community from California. Very little is now known of him, not even his 
initials being remembered. He had a further distinction of being the first 
Sunday school superintendent in Hutchinson. He had been in the village 
but a short time when he began talking of the organization of a Sunday 
school. There wasn't much sentiment among the pioneers of that day for 
such an organization, but DeWitt persuaded ten or twelve of the early set- 
tlers to gather together and organize a Sunday school. It did not continue 
verv long, as the men of that day were more interested in the material devel- 
opment of the county than they were in the upbuilding of spiritual things. 
Although C. C. Hutchinson was an ordained Baptist preacher, his experience 
among the pioneers showed him that the church life of a community was a 
matter that followed later in the development of a community. Doctor 



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248 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

DeWitt is described by those now living who knew him, as being a highly 
cultured man, not used to the pioneer ways, but readily adapting himself 
to his surroundings. 

Doctor Easley was the second doctor to reach Hutchinson. The third 
in the order of arrival in Reno county was Dr. A. W. McKinney. He lived 
for years in Hutchinson and had a large practice, dying there many years 
ago. Doctor McKinney was a public-spirited man, taking a leading part 
in the early affairs of Reno county. He was a prominent lodge man, and 
was coroner of the county for many years. 

Dr. D. B. McKee was the next doctor to come to Hutchinson and was 
one of the men accustomed to make the long drives in the country. He was 
small of stature, genial in his nature, kindly and sympathetic; did much 
work among the poor for which he never collected any fee, and never expected 
to when he went to call on his patient, but his services were given as cher- 
fully, and his care and attention of them were just the same as he gave his 
best-paying patients. Doctor McKee practiced many years and died in 
Hutchinson of hardening of the arteries. 

Perhaps the best known of the early doctors, the one 'who was the 
largest factor in the medical development of Reno county, was Dr. H. S. 
Sidlinger. He came to Hutchinson in 1874 and still lives in this city, 
having retired from the practice several years ago. He is the only one of 
the early doctors living. Doctor Sidlinger had an enviable record as a 
physician. During his practice he attended two thousand three hundred 
and fifty-seven confinement cases, and in all the years he never lost a patient 
in all those cases. There are hundreds of young men and women in Hutch- 
inson and Reno county, whom he attended at their birth, that he calls'by 
name. Doctor Sidlinger made many trips in the early days to the south- 
west, Sun City, in Barber county; Lamed, Iuka, in Pratt county, and other 
points equally distant. He is still living, enjoying a competence, driving his 
high-power automobile as carefully and at not much greater speed than he 
drove his mustang ponies in the early days over the prairies. 

Dr. N. T. P. Robertson was another of the old-time doctors. He was 
the physician spoken of in the chapter on "Surveyors and Coroners" as the 
aggressive Democrat who was generally put on his party ticket as a candi- 
date for coroner, but who never hesitated to impress his Democracy on all 
occasions, and for that reason never was able to be elected to any office. 
Doctor Robertson was a tall, spare man, active even in his advanced age. 
He had a large practice among the old settlers even in his later years, and 
he responded to calls as long as his health permitted. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 249 

Dr. G. W, Maguire was another of the old-time doctors. He quit the 
active practice years ago because of his health and moved to West Virginia. 

There are a number of physicians who have been practicing many years 
in this county outside of Hutchinson. Among the most active and promi- 
nent is Dr. C. H. Bacon, living in Valley township. He has been in Reno 
county many years, and limits his practice to the country surrounding his 
home. In addition to the doctors named there are about fifty doctors prac- 
ticing in Reno county at the present time, most of them in Hutchinson. 

The Reno County Medical Society was organized on October 12, 1904. 
Dr. H. J. Duval was the first president of the organization. It meets once 
a month in Hutchinson. The president at the present time is Dr. W. F. 
Schoor. 

Reno county has never had any epidemics of any sort. The rules laid 
down by the board of health are generally observed. Hutchinson has always 
maintained a complete sewer system, and other preventative measures are 
enforced. 

The first hospital was established in the county by Dr. J. E. Stewart 
and Dr. R. E. Stewart, who built a hospital on North Main street, called the 
Stewart Hospital and maintained a high-grade institute for many years. 
The hospital was sold in September, 1915, to the Methodist church, which 
organization has continued its operation. 

In July, 1917, another hospital movement was started. The Catholic 
church started a campaign to raise one hundred thousand dollars for a hos- 
pital. This campaign lasted a week and was only partially successful, about 
thirty-eight thousand dollars having then been subscribed to the fund. They 
insist that the work will soon begin on the hospital building, and will he 
continued until their original plan for a four-hundred-bed hospital is accom- 
plished. 

While hardly a subject matter for a chapter on doctors in a county 
history, vet a matter closely allied to the work of a physician was accom- 
plished in 1917. It was the raising by popular subscription of fifty thou- 
sand dollars for the Red Cross of America, as a part of the war plans of 
the country. This amount was assigned to Reno county as her part of the 
work of helping care for the soldiers of the country. The county subscribed 
$68,500, or $18,500 more than was asked for. There never has been as 
willing a subscription made in Reno county as was this one. The balance 
above the amount asked for will be held in the treasury of the local organi- 
zation in anticipation of other calls of a similar nature before the war closes. 



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CHAPTER XXXV. 
The Banks of Reno County. 

The first bank. in Reno county, which was organized on October 12, 
1872, was started by C. C. Hutchinson, the founder of the town, and contin- 
ued in business until 1876. Others had stock in the bank but it was a private 
institution. There is no record of the capita] stock, its deposits, its loans or 
any other features of its activities. Its successor was the Reno County Stale 
Bank which continued in business until 1884. 

In [877 James Redhead started a bank, also a private institution, which 
was owned by the founder and his father. The bank continued in business 
until 1888 when it was sold to James St. John and A. VV. McCandless, who 
ran the bank until its consolidation with the Valley State Bank. 

The First National Bank was organized in 1884, succeeding to the busi- 
ness of the Reno County State Bank. The directors of the Reno County 
State Bank at the time it became the First National Bank were: S. W. 
Campbell, L. A. Bigger, John Brown, E. L. Meyer. H. Whiteside, E. S. Handy 
and E. Wilcox. The First National succeeded on July 1. 1S84, and contin- 
ued the directors of the Reno State Bank. This bank has continued under 
the same management for forty years, E. L. Meyers being its president. 

The Citizens Bank was a private bank when it was established on August 
1, 1892, by the owner, J. B. Mackay. It had a small capital but grew rapidly 
and continuously. J. B. Mackay was president of it from the beginning until 
1916. when C. M. Branch became president. 

There were two banks organized in an early day that met with reverses; 
one was the Hutchinson National and the other, the Valley State. The shrink- 
age of values during the relapse from the boom was the cause of their 
suspension. The latter was reorganized and reopened under the name of 
the Hutchinson National, but the reorganized bank did not prosper and closed 
its doors after a few months. 

The State Exchange Bank was organized in 1891 by Willis N. Baker, 
the owner of a bank at Pretty Prairie, which he sold and started the bank, 
in Hutchinson. Mr. Baker sold this bank also and moved to Iowa. The 
present officers of the bank are: F. W. Cooter, president, and B. E. Mitch- 
ener, cashier. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 25 I 

The Commercial National Bank was organized on November 26, 1906. 
It has the same officers now that it had when organized : A. E. Astier, 
president; and R. H. Suter, cashier. 

The Farmers National Bank, the last bank organized in Hutchinson, 
resulted from the consolidation of the Reno State Bank, and another bank, 
the Farmers National, occupying the same room and in reality, the same 
bank as the present Farmers National, except as to ownership. H. K. McLeod 
was president of the Reno State Bank at the time of its consolidation with 
the Farmers National, and the combined institutions, which were merged, 
June 23, 1917, took the name of the Farmers National. H. l\. McLeod i:4 
president; E. P. Bradley, cashier, and Grant Chamberlain, assistant cashier. 
The Reno State, which became a part of the Farmers National, was organ- 
ized in 1909 by S. G. Puterbaiigh. 

The first president of the Central State Bank was V. J. Altswager. At 
the present time J. C. Hopper is president and George T. McCandless, 
cashier. 

The State Bank of Haven was organized in August, 1886, and re-organ- 
ized in September, 1891, the original capital stock being $50,000. Its first 
president was T. R. Hazard, and L. O. Smith, cashier. 

The Citizens Bank of Arlington was established in 1887, with the capi- 
tal stock of $12,500. H. C. Warner was its first president and F. B. Babbit 
its first cashier. 

The State Bank of Turon, a private institution, was organized in 1887 
with an original capital stock of $4,000. J. B. Potter was its first president 
and M. H. Potter, its first cashier. 

The State Bank of Pretty Prairie was organized by Willis N. Maker, who 
sold this bank when he started the State Exchange Bank in Hutchinson. J. 
A. Collingwood was the first president and Mrs. Ella Dcmorest was the first 
cashier. The original capital of this bank was $5,000. This bank has been 
one of the most prosperous in the county, having paid over one hundred 
thousand dollars in dividends to the stockholders in the thirty years of its 
existence on the original investment of $5,000. 

The State Bank of Sylvia was established in 1898 with the capital stock 
of $5,000. W. H. Hinshaw was the first president and O. G. Hinshaw the 
first cashier. 

The State Bank of Langdou was organized on July 7, 1902. J. E. Eaton 
was the first president and O. J. Windiare its first cashier. The original capi- 
capital was $5,000. ( 



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252 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

The Buhler State Bank started in business in 1912. J. J. Wall was its 
first president and A. B. Buhler, cashier. Its original capital was $5,000. 

The Farmers State Bank of Turon was established in 1904. J. T. Wal- 
lace was the first president and E. E. Shears its first cashier. Its capital 
stock at its organization was $10,000. 

The Partridge State Bank was organized in 1904. A. B. Burke was 
its first president and German French, Jr., its first cashier. Its original capi- 
tal was $10,000. 

The State Bank of Castleton was organized in 1906. Charles D. Evans 
was its first president and J. A. Lewis, its first cashier. Its original capital 
was $10,000. 

The Nickerson State Bank was established in 1907. F. R. Newton 
was the first president and O. J. Windiate its first cashier. The original capi- 
tal was $:5,ooo. 

The Citizens State Bank of Sylvia was organized ou February 5, 1909. 
O. C. Lang was its first president and-F. E. Lang, its first cashier. It started 
with a capital of $10,000. 

The Farmers State Bank of Arlington was established in 1910. C. F. 
Fehr was its first president and R. M. Taylor its first cashier. Its original 
capital was $12,500. 

The State Bank of Abbyville was organized on May 13, 1901. J. H. 
McSherry was the first president, John MclCeown, the first vice-president, 
and F. S. Hinman, the first cashier. 

The State Bank of Plevna was established in 1900. Its original capi- 
tal stock was $5,000. J. N. Hinshaw was the first president; George 
McKeown, the first vice-president, and W. E. Roach, the first cashier. 

The State Bank of Nickerson was established in 1881 by W. R. Mar- 
shall. It was then called The Exchange Bank 'of Nickerson. It was first 
established to issue exchange and was not intended as a bank of deposit. 
There was no other bank in Nickerson and it was soon changed and became 
a bank of deposit. The name was also changed to the State Bank of Nick- 
erson. This bank had no stated capital at the time of its organization. In 
1888 A. D. Butts and L. C. Brown bought the bank from Mr. Marshall. 
Mr. Butts was the president and Mr. Brown, the cashier. They capitalized 
it for $25,000. In a short time Mr. Butts sold his interest in the bank to 
Mr. Brown, who ran it as a private bank until 1898. In August, 1898, the 
bank was incorporated with $15,000 capital. A. M. Brown was the first 
president, D. E. Richart the first vice-president, L. C. Brown the first cashier, 
and H. E. Fleming, the assistant cashier. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS, 



253 



The Citizens State Bank of Haven was organized with a capital of 
$10,000. Its present capital and surplus is $22,000 Its deposits at the pres- 
ent time amount to $50,000. C. R. Astle is the present cashier. 

These banks have all prospered, as will be shown by reference to thf 
table which shows their original capital, the present capital and their deposits 
at the present time. These banks are a fair measure of the prosperity of 
their communities. 

The total capital stock of the banks of Reno county at the present time 
well show their soundness as financial institutions. The deposits at the time 
of their last statements to the Bank Commissioner show the total to be 
$9,020,217. 



Name Location. 

First National Bank .... Hutchinson 
Central State Bank . . . Hutchinson 

Citizens Bank Hutchinson 

Commercial National . . . Hutchinson 
Farmers National Bank. .Hutchinson 

State Exchange Hutchinson 

State Bank Turon 

Farmers State Bank Turon 

Citizens State Bank Sylvia 

State Bank of Sylvia Sylvia 

State Bank of Haven Haven 

Citizens State Bank Haven 

Farmers State Bank \rlingtou 

Citizens State Bank Arlington 

Partridge State Bank .... Partridge 
State Bank of Castleton. . Castleton 
Nickerson State Bank. . . . Nickerson 
State Bank of Nickerson. .Nickerson 

Abby ville State Bank Abbyville 

State Bank of Castleton . . . Castleton 

State Bank of Plevna Plevna 

State Bank of Pretty 

Prairie -. . Pretty Prairie 

State Bank of Langdon . . . Langdon 
Buhler State Bank Buhler 

•No stated capital. 



Original 


Present Cap. 


Present 


Capital. 


and Surplus. 


Deposits. 


$5,000 


$339,000 


$2,025,906 


100,000 


106,220 


33 2 .iio 


5,000 


353.163 


t. 5 19.304 


100,000 


186,552 


925,286 


150,000 


165,000 


669,304 


10,000 


150,000 


1,500,000 


10,000 


18,500 


206,000 


10,000 


24,000 


175,000 


10,000 


22,000 


120,000 


5,000 


25.000 


156.434 


50.000 


34-50O 


227,000 


10,000 


22,000 


1 20, no 


12.500 


15.000 


72,000 


.12,500 


50,000 


125,000 


10.000 


27.000 


114.000 


10,000 


20.000 


50.000 


15,000 


38,000 


175,000 


* 


45,000 


109.814 


5.000 


19.000 


' ' f-534 


10,000 


20.000 


50,000 


5,000 


26.500 


96,000 


5.000 


25,000 


250,000 


5,000 


20.000 


150.763 


5.000 


22,600 


142.000 



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CHAPTER XXXVI. 
The Reno County Bar. 

The lawyers of Reno county have, with few exceptions, been men of 
high character and ability. The county and city has never had much great 
litigation, although there have been several cases that have ended in the 
supreme court of the United States. It has been a general practice that 
the lawyers have enjoyed. A good per cent, of their business has never 
shown on the docket of the district court, as it has been conducted entirely 
in the office of the attorneys. There has never been a case wherein it was 
charged that the attorney betrayed the interest of his client. 

Of course, the largest per cent, of the litigation of the county has 
been civil business. While there has been a criminal docket in every term 
of court it always has been an unimportant part of the court's work. The 
largest per cent of the criminal practice has been for violation of the prohi- 
bition law. When the prohibition law was first framed, a number 
of men undertook to sell liquor in defiance of law. They stayed 
in the business for a while and apparently succeeded, but public 
sentiment grew to favor the law and the jointist voluntarily quit or was 
put out of business by the expense of the litigation, even if he escaped with 
serving a term in the county jail. Under some county attorneys a large 
number of injunctions were placed on buildings. One of these was a hotel. 
An injunction would be run on one room of that hotel. The "joint" would 
be moved to another room. Another injunction was run, and another move 
f'.r the joint. This kept up until there were more than a score of injunc- 
tions filed on the one building. The purpose of this was a nominal enforce- 
ment of the law. It resulted profitably to the county attorney of that day, 
as each injunction produced a fee as a part of the judgment. This was 
continued until the threat of ouster brought the means of an apparent enforce- 
ment of the law to an end and secured a more complete enforcement of the 
prohibitory law. 

Occasionally a more drastic method was used. A search would 1>e 
made of the place and all of the joint fixtures and intoxicating liquor would 
be confiscated. Hut the liquor business, today is perhaps as nearly prohibited 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 255 

as is possible. So many aids to the enforcement of the law have been added 
to the original law that the booze seller has found that it costs too much 
to keep up the contest. There is liquor sold in Reno county, but this law- 
is as well enforced as any other criminal statute. There has been, of course, 
criminal practice other than whisky prosecution. There have been several 
murder cases. There have been many burglary cases. But with the dis- 
appearance of whisky the criminal practice dwindled to the minimum and 
the attorneys have paid but little attention to the criminal practice, making 
their chief business the settlement of civil disputes. 

EARLY LAWYERS OF RENO COUNTY. 

Among the early lawyers, perhaps the most conspicuous was Lysander 
Houk. He was a highly educated man, and had taught in a southern col- 
lege before the Civil War. He was a fine jurist and later made one of the 
best judges the district court ever had. His brother-in-law, William M. 
Whitelaw, was also a fine attorney. While it was operated as an independent 
road, he was general attorney for the Hutchinson & Southern railroad and 
in all its litigation, through its receivership and its reorganization, Mr. 
Whitelaw represented the road. He was a man of fine ability; not a fluent 
speaker, but a good lawyer. His brother, Frank S. Whitelaw, was an 
accomplished speaker. After leaving Hutchinson he practiced in St. Louis 
and was the trial attorney for one of the largest law firms in that city, until 
the time of his death. Among the early lawyers, one of the ablest as a trial 
lawyer was A. R. Scheble. He defended William Moore, who killed his 
neighbor, a man by the name of Cox, near Arlington. The trouble arose 
over some grazing land. After killing Cox, Moore came to Hutchinson to 
secure the coffin for his victim. He was soon suspected and the feeling 
against him was intense. Scheble went to Arlington to attend the prelimi- 
nary hearing. The feeling was as intense against Scheble as it was against 
Moore. The justice of the peace before whom the preliminary was being held 
asked Scheble if he wanted a guard while he was attending the trial. Scheble 
pulled two Colt revolvers out of his hip pockets, laid them on the table 
before him and told the justice that he could protect himself. He made 
a hard fight for Moore, but the circumstances were sufficient to convict 
him. There was only one eye-witness to the killing — a daughter of Moore. 

Another of the old-time lawyers was James McKinstry, He was one 
of the most prominent Democrats of the state, and succeeded in l>eing elected 
county attorney one term in this county when the nominal majority against 



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Z$6 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

him was nearly a thousand. He ran against J. W. Jones in 1892 and beat 
him by four votes. Mr. McKinstry was very popular with his fellow law- 
yers and was a great friend of the younger members of the bar. 

George A. Vandeveer was another of the early lawyers of Reno county. 
He practiced his profession here for a number of years with A. R. Scheble. 
He moved to New York and was prominent in bis profession there. He 
returned to Hutchinson and was senior member of the firtn of Vandeveer 8: 
Martin. He was a candidate for judge of the district court and would have 
without doubt, been nominated, but he was killed in an automobile accident 
at a railroad crossing the night l>efore the primary. Had be lived be would, 
without doubt, have been elected judge of the district court. 

S. B. Zimmerman was an early settler in Reno county. He was made 
principal of the city schools of Hutchinson in 1874 and continued as prin- 
cipal for three years. He began the practice of law in that city in 1877. In 
1880 be was elected probate judge and served six years. He practiced 
his profession in Hutchinson until his death. Mr. Zimmerman was an 
amiable man. of no exceedingly great ability, but a square, honest man and 
well respected. 

BACHELORS ARGUE FOR WOMAN SUFFRAGE. 

Theodore A. Decker was the bachelor member of the bar. An inci- 
dent of the early day was a public debate on "woman suffrage," at a time 
when the subject was a new one. The attorneys furnished the argument. 
The meeting was held in the old opera house, the proceeds to go to some 
public purpose. Both of the lawyers who argued in favor of the rights 
of women to vote were bachelors. One of them was T. A. Decker, the 
other was J. V. Clymer. Mr. Decker never reached a very prominent 
place at the bar. He was modest and bad only ordinary ability. He also 
edited The Democrat for a while. 

J. V. Clymer was another of the early lawyers. Like Decker he was 
a good man, but with no energy, and although he had ability, he hadn't 
the energy to develop that ability. He generally could be found in his office 
on the first floor of a small building on South Main street with his feet 
on his desk, listening to the talk of those who dropped in. Clymer was a 
good listener, and he had plenty of callers to entertain him. He had some 
property in Hutchinson and lived comfortably, dying about twenty years 
ago. 

Z. L. Wise was another of the earlv lawyers of this county. He was 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 257 

county attorney for two years. He was a great friend of a United States 
judge, Williams, and when there was a receiver to be appointed, Wise was 
generally appointed. He was a member of the Legislature from Reno county 
for two terms and was in Topeka attending the sessions of that body when 
lie was taken suddenly ill and died. Mr. Wise was a very popular man 
with the members of the bar. 

D. W. Dunnett did not have a general practice, but represented some 
business firms as their attorney. He seldom appeared in court. He was, 
however, arguing a case in the supreme court of this state when he was 
stricken with heart trouble and died in the court room. He was a member 
of the Reno county bar for about ten years. 

The above covers the members of the bar who have done their work. 
It would be impossible to speak of the present members of the bar as of 
those who are dead. There are now forty-six members of the Reno county 
bar. Among its members are some of the oldest members and some of the 
youngest. The oldest member of the bar, from point of service is H. White- 
side. He was county attorney of this county in an early day. For many 
years he has been president of the Bar Association. Mr. Whiteside has been 
an attorney in much of the biggest litigation in the courts of Reno county 
and in the state supreme court. He has retired from the practice, but in 
deference to his long years of practice he is still retained as president of 
the bar association. 

Another member of the bar of years of practice is W. H. Lewis. He 
was county attorney for five terms, or ten years; the longest period in point 
of service of any member of the bar, and he is still actively engaged in the 
practice of law in this city. 

SOME PRESENT MEMBERS OF THE BAR. 

F. L. Martin is a member of the bar of long standing. He was judge 
of the district court for four years. Mr. Martin has held other offices. For 
,two terms he was a member of the state Legislature and was one of the 
leaders of that body. He has been mayor of Hutchinson for several terms 
and he is actively engaged in the practice of law at this time. 

R. A. Campbell is likewise another of the old lawyers. He has been 
county attorney and prolate judge of this county and he is one of the oldest 
members of the bar of this county. 

W. G. Fairchilds lias been a member of the Reno county bar for nearlv 
(17) 



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258 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

thirty years. Perhaps no lawyer in Reno county is more constantly at tlic 
practice than Mr. Fairchilds. He never has taken an active interest 111 
politics; never has been a candidate for any office, but has devoted his time 
exclusively to his business. He is at the prime of life and enjoys a fine 
general practice. 

J. S. Simmons came to Hutchinson from Lane county. He began his 
practice in this county as a member of the firm of Whiteside & Simmons. 
When Mr. Whiteside quit the practice, Mr. Simmons became the head of 
this firm. He has been a member of the Legislature of Kansas and was 
chosen speaker of the House of Representatives. He was a candidate for 
Congress from the seventh district in 1914 and again in 1916, but was 
defeated both times by the present Congressman, Touett Shouse. Mr. Sim- 
mons is actively engaged in the practice of law in Hutchinson at the pres- 
ent time. 

Another attorney who has moved to Hutchinson is Fred Dumont Smith. 
He was state senator for a number of terms, moving to Hutchinson from 
Kinsley. He has a large practice in the courts of this state. 

Charles E. Branine also is a member of the bar. He moved to Hutchin- 
son from Newton after his term of service as judge of the ninth judicial 
district was over. 

Carr W. Taylor is a Reno county man and began his practice in Hutch- 
inson. His father was one of the pioneers of Reno county and practiced 
law in Hutchinson for a number of years, moving South from here and 
dying there several years ago. Carr W. Taylor is actively engaged in the 
law business in Hutchinson. He was attorney for the state railroad board 
for several years, also for four years county attorney of Reno county. 

Howard S. Lewis was graduated from the high school at Hutchinson 
and attended the law school at Washington, D. C. After he was graduated 
from that school he returned to Hutchinson and began his work as a lawyer. 
He is at present judge pro tern of the district court. 

Charles M. Wiljiams began the law practice in Hutchinson with B. O. 
Davidson. Later he was associated with F. F. Prigg. When the latter 
was elected judge of the ninth judicial district the firm of Prigg & Williams 
was dissolved and Mr. Williams continued the business. Mr. Williams was 
appointed judge of the district court, but soon resigned because of the political 
conditions that made it impossible for him to continue in that office, as is 
spoken of in the chapter on "The Judiciary." He has a good practice and 
it would be a difficult matter to get him to consider any political proposition. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 259 

Frank P. Hettinger and James Hettinger have long been associated in 
the law business. James Hettinger was county attorney for one term and 
F. P. Hettinger was a candidate on the- Democratic ticket for judge of the 
ninth judicial district, but was beaten. 

J. P. Francis lives at Nickerson. While a member of the bar he has 
practiced but little in the district court, but does a great deal of the legal 
work of Nickerson in consultations. 

PRESENT JUDGE OF DISTRICT COURT. 

Judge F. F. Prigg came to Hutchinson in 1883. He was superintendent 
of the city schools for two years and then began to practice law. He was 
city attorney for years; was elected judge of the district court in 1912 and 
was re-elected without opposition in 1916. His term of office ends in 1920 

A. C. Malloy began his law practice in Hutchinson. He is a graduate 
of the Michigan University Law School. For a number of years he was 
attorney for the city of Hutchinson and at the present time, in addition 
to a general practice, he is general attorney of the Anthony & Northern 
railroad. 

Ray H. Tinder is a graduate of the State University Law School and 
began his practice in Hutchinson. He was a member of the firm of Sim- 
mons & Tinder for a number of years, but at the present time is practicing 
alone. He is active in Republican politics and was a candidate for county 
attorney, but was defeated in the primaries by Eustace Smith. 

George A. Neeley was graduated from the State University Law School. 
He was a candidate for Congress at the election to fill the vacancy caused 
by the death of E. H. Madison. He was elected at that time and re-elected 
for the second term. He was a candidate for United States senator, receiv- 
ing the Democratic nomination, but was beaten at the election. He is a 
member of the firm of Neeley & Malloy and they both have a good general 
practice. 

E. T. Foote, who was elected county attorney for two terms, is one of the 
younger members of the bar. He left the county attorney's office with a good 
court practice. 

H. E. Ramsey is the present county attorney. He was elected in Novem- 
ber, 1916, for the second term, with an increased majority over his vote of 
two years previous. 

J. R. Beeching is another of the younger members of the bar. He was 



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200 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

a candidate for probate judge in 1914, but was defeated by Charles S. 
Fulton. Mr. Beecliing is a Democrat and is in much demand as a cam- 
paign speaker. 

GOOD WORK OF PROBATE JUDGE. 

Another member of the bar that is not practicing law, but has made a great 
success in a special line is Charles S. Fulton. For ten years he has been 
actively engaged in probate work, four years as an assistant of J. W. Jordan 
and six years as probate judge of Reno county. His office is regarded as 
one of the best systematized and perhaps the best probate judge's office in 
Kansas. In addition to the probate court work, the law imposes upon this 
court the care of the juveniles of the county which requires a great deal 
of kindness and skill in handling these younger members of society. Mr. 
Fulton's majority at the election of 1916, regardless of his long service, was 
nearly 6,000. 

R. B. P. Wilson has practiced law in Reno county for a number of 
years, coming to Reno county from Western Kansas and is, at the present 
time, police judge of Hutchinson. 

Walter F. Jones was raised in Hutchinson and was graduated from the 
public schools of this city. He later was graduated from the State Uni- 
versity Law School and began his practice in Hutchinson. He has been 
city attorney of Hutchinson for six years. He was a candidate for county 
attorney in 1910, but was beaten by a few votes. Mr. Jones is prominent 
in Republican politics, taking' an active interest in the campaigns of that 
party. 

Warren White received his law education in the Indiana State Univer- 
sity. He moved to Hutchinson in 1908 and began the practice of law. He 
was a candidate for county attorney on the "Bull Moose" ticket in 1914. 
but the divided Republican party vote resulted in the election of Herbert 
Ramsey, the Democratic candidate. 

Eustace Smith was graduated from the Law School of the Kansas 
State University. He returned to Hutchinson and began the practice of law 
with his father, F. Dumont Smith. He was a candidate for county attorney 
in 1914 on the Republican ticket. With three candidates for this office, two 
of them, practically Republicans, Mr. Smith being the Republican candi- 
date, he was beaten by the present incumbent, Herbert Ramsey. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



YOUNGER MEMBERS OF THE BAR. 



This short sketch of the older members of the bar leaves nineteen 
other members, who have either recently begun the practice of law or are 
working in the law offices of older lawyers. The special mention covers 
all who have ever been candidates for office and also the older and better- 
acquainted and longer-established members of the profession. Of the nine-' 
teen members, Van M. Martin and John Martin are members of the firm 
of Martin & Sons — they practicing with their father, F. L. Martin. Of 
these two young men, Van Martin is the elder and has made an excellent 
showing for the length of time he has been a member of the bar. John, the 
youngest member of the firm, is a graduate of the State University Law 
School and has recently begun the practice of law with his father and brother. 
H. R. Branine is also a graduate of the Kansas University Law School and 
is practicing with his father, C. E. Branine. D. C. Martindell is at present 
an assistant of C. W. Williams in the law work. This same thing is true 
of K. K. Simmons, practicing with his uncje, John S. Simmons. 

Martin Alemore is practicing and is one of the younger members of 
the bar that is practicing independently of an older attorney. His law 
education was obtained in the law office of W. G. Fairchild at Hutchinson. 
W. A. Huxman is assistant in the office of the county attorney, H. E. Ram- 
sey. Arthur L. Maltby is a graduate of the law school in Washington, 
D. C. He began his practice in that city. When he returned to Hutchinson 
he became a member of the Machine Gun Corps of Company E, of the Second 
Regiment, Kansas National Guard, and spent seven months on the Southern 
Ixtrder with the United States troops under General Funston. When the 
company returned home Mr. Maltby resumed his law practice. B. A. Ear- 
hart is attorney for a collecting agency in Hutchinson; however, he has a 
general practice, as well as attending to the collection business. C. E. 
Deming is a graduate of the Kansas University Law School. He was ap- 
pointed judge of the city court, an office created by the Legislature of 1914. 
The supreme court held the law unconstitutional and the court was discon- 
tinued. In 1916 Mr. Deming was the Republican candidate for county 
attorney, but was beaten by Herbert S. Ramsey. A. Coleman, also a 
graduate of the Kansas Law School, began his practice in Hutchinson. Mr. 
D. Asher has held the office of justice of the peace in Hutchinson for sev- 
eral years and was re-elected in 1916. William H. Burnett is an assistant in 
the office of Carr W. Taylor. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



CONVICTED LAWYER DISBARRED. 



There has been but one disbarment proceeding in the history of the 
Reno county bar. E. C. Clark was convicted as an accessory before the 
fact of a brutal murder committed in a joint in Hutchinson and was sentenced 
to the state penitentiary. Immediately disbarment proceedings were com- 
menced against him. The Reno County Bar Association is composed of 
men of high character and ability and compares with any bar association in 
the state. 



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CHAPTER XXXVII. 
The Ninth Judicial District. 

The Ninth Judicial District was created by the state Legislature in 1867. 
The bill creating the district was approved by the governor February 26, 
1867, but it did not become effective until after its publication, March 4, 1867. 

When this bill was passed, the counties of Chase, Marion, Butler, How- 
ard, McPherson, Sedgwick, Sumner, Rice, Reno, Harper, Stafford, Pratt and 
Barbour were embraced in the district, the boundary lines not being the same 
for the counties then as they are now. The district included all territory south 
of Chase county to the state line, all west of Chase, including what is now 
Barton county, and all south from Barton county to the state line, including 
what is Stafford, Pratt and Barbour counties; obviously, not many of these 
counties were organized at that time. The Legislature would add a county 
that was unorganized to the nearest organized county in the district, but 
as soon as the counties had enough population to organize a local govern- 
ment, they would establish their own courts whose sessions were transferred 
gradually to each of the unorganized counties. It was such a big territory 
to cover that court only lasted a week or so in each county. 

Reno county by an act of the Legislature of 1867, was attached to 
Marion county for judicial purposes, there being but few people in the former 
at that time, chiefly hunters and cattlemen, for whom some form of govern- 
ment was necessary. There is. however, no record of any case being tried 
in Marion county for Reno county. By an act of that Legislature of 1870 
Reno county was detached from Marion county and attached to Sedgwick 
county, which had just been organized, hence Reno county's judicial mat- 
ters were transferred to Sedgwick county. Ip 1872, after Reno county was 
organized, the judicial affairs were brought from Sedgwick county to Hutchin- 
son, and at the same time Kingman county being yet unorganized, was 
attached to this county for judicial purposes. These two changes, transferring 
the judicial matters of Reno county from Wichita to Hutchinson, and attach- 
ing Kingman county to this county, became effective March 1, 1872. So 
Reno county has had three seats of justice — Marion, Wichita and Hutchin- 
son. In 1873, because of their having no county organization Pratt. Bar- 



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264 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

bour, Kiowa and Comanche counties were attached to Reno county (or judi- 
cial purposes. 

The district continued of the organized size until 1881, when other 
judicial districts were formed and the Ninth district was reduced to Reno, 
Harvey, Kingman, Marion, Chase, Rice and Harper counties, and in 1883 
the district was again reduced until it contained only Reno, Rice and Chase 
counties. In 1885, Rice county was cut out of the district, and in 1903 a 
further reduction was made when the extent of Reno, McPherson and Harvey 
counties determined the territory of the ninth judicial district. 

The first judge of the district was W. R. Brown, a native of Xew York, 
born July 16, 1840, who was educated in Union Academy in Schenectady, 
New York. After his graduation lie came west, settled in Lawrence, Kansas, 
and began the study of law in the office of Ex-Governor William Shannon, 
and in 1863 went to Topeka, where he received the appointment of deputy 
clerk of the supreme court. Three years later he moved westward again, 
locating at Emporia, where he became associated with Judge R, M. Ruggles. 
He removed the next year to Cottonwood Falls, and while there was elected 
the first judge of the ninth judicial district, took his seat on January 13, 
1867, and continued to preside over the district court until March 1, 1875. 
In the fall of 1874 he moved to Hutchinson, having been elected as a mem- 
ber of Congress for the third district in the election of 1874. 

When Judge Brown resigned to take his seat in the Federal Congress, 
Judge S. R. Peters was appointed to fill the vacancy until the next election. 
He was a candidate the following fall and was duly elected for four years. 
and in 1878 was re-elected for another term. In the fall of 1882 Judge Pet- 
ers, like his predecessor, was elected congressman from the Seventh District, 
and resigned his place on the bench December 13, 1882, Judge Peters was 
a native of Ohio, born in Pickaway county, August 16, 1842. Attending 
the Ohio Wesleyan College when the Civil War started, where he had reached 
the sophomore year, he enlisted in the Seventy-third Regiment, Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantry, as a private. During service he received various promotions 
until he reached the rank of captain. At the close of the war Judge Peters 
resumed his education in the University of Michigan, graduating from the 
law department in 1867, and began the practice of law in Memphis, Missouri. 
He moved to Kansas in 1873, locating at Marion, where lie continued to 
practice his profession, was appointed judge of the ninth judicial district 
and began his work on the bench, March 8, 1875. He was elected judge 
in the following November, and was re-elected in 1879. He moved to New- 
ton in September, 1876, to be nearer the center of his district. In June, 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 265 

1878. lie was nominated for congressman-at-Iarge, and was elected in the 
fall, but when the reapportionment of the state into congressional districts 
was made, Judge Peters was assigned the Seventh Congressional District. 

The third judge of the ninth judicial district was Lysnnder Houk, who 
was born near Knoxville, Tennessee, February 22, 1834, but when about a 
year old, his parents moved to Morgan county. Alabama. Later he took a 
four-year course in Union University at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, and then 
entered the law school of Cumberland University at Lebanon, same state. On 
finishing his legal training he began the practice of law in Brownville, Ten- 
nessee, in 1857, and in the same year he began teaching in the law school. 
When the Civil War broke out he was drafted into the Confederate army, 
but he was released from service and moved to St. Louis, where he remained 
until 1865. He came to Hutchinson in January, 1872, where he was elected 
county attorney of Reno county in April, 1872, and served until January r, 
1873. He was elected judge of the ninth judicial district in the fall of 
1882, took his seat on the bench on January 1, 1883, and served until Janu- 
ary I, 1892. 

The fourth judge of the ninth district court, F. L. Martin, now living 
in Hutchinson, was a native of Illinois. He spent his early life in Hancock 
county, that state, where lie received his early education in the public schools. 
Becoming imbued with the ambition to become a lawyer, he entered the law 
school at Carthage, Illinois, and after he graduated, came to Hutchinson, 
Kansas, there beginning the practice of his profession in the law firm of 
Scheble & Vandeveer. Later he became permanently associated with these 
lawyers, and the firm name became Scheble. Vandeveer & Martin. His 
practice was so successful and his personal integrity was so un impeachable 
that he was elected judge of the ninth judicial district to succeed Judge Houk, 
his predecessor, 011 January 1 1, 1892, and served out his term. At the expira- 
tion of his term on the bench, he was re-elected and served one year when 
he resigned to resume his practice in Hutchinson, where he is now actively 
engaged therein with his two sons, "Van and John Martin. 

Matthew R. Simpson, the fifth judge of the district court, was a native 
of Harrison county, Ohio, born in 1857. He remained in the neighborhood 
of his old home, there attending the public schools, until the outbreak of the 
Civil War when he enlisted in the Union army, in October, 1861. He was 
a member of Company I, Fortieth Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, with 
which he served throughout the war, participating in all the engagements 
in which his company and regiment took part. After he was mustered out 
of the service in November, 1864, he moved to Clinton county, Illinois, and 



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266 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

fanned until September, 1865, when he entered the law school of Ann Arbor, 
Michigan, graduating from the institution in the spring of 1867. In 1869, 
he began the practice of law at Taylorville, Illinois, where he was engaged 
a part of the time as a government surveyor. He moved to McPherson county, 
Kansas, in July, 1873, where he was later elected county attorney and served 
three years. In the early years of his residence there lie-did much surveying, 
for lie stated from the bench in a case pending before him in this county, that 
he was a member of a party that surveyed the larger portion of this part of 
Kansas. He was elected judge of the ninth judicial district, taking his seat, 
January I, 1900, and served until he was accidentally killed in an automobile 
accident on May 10, 1904. 

Charles M. Williams, the sixth judge of the district court, was educated 
in the common schools of Lexington, Kentucky, and later graduated from the 
State University of Kentucky, after which he began the practice of law in 
the office of Terrel & Mathe in Harrisonville, Missouri. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1875, moved to Hutchinson, Kansas, in 1886, and began the prac-' 
tice of law with McKinstry and Whitelaw; later, however, he formed a part- 
nership with B. O. Davidson. When the latter moved from the city in 189C, 
he formed a partnership with F. F. Prigg. under the firm name of Prigg & 
Williams. After the accidental death of Judge Simpson. Mr. Williams was 
appointed judge of the district court by Governor Bailey, to fill the vacancy 
until the election in the fall. A political condition arose which would preclude 
any Reno county man from receiving the nomination, arising from the fact 
that each county in the district, Harvey, Reno and McPherson, had fifteen 
votes each in the nominating convention. Since McPherson and Harvey 
counties were in the same state senatorial district, the politicians agreed that 
Harvey county should have the state senator, and McPherson should have 
the judgeship. Knowing this condition to exist, and that he would serve 
only until the January following, Mr. Williams resigned in September, 1903. 
The fact that his firm was largley interested in the cases to be tried and he 
would be disqualified to try them as judge, was an additional reason for his 
resignation. 

W. H. Lewis, who was appointed to fill the vacancy caused by the resig- 
nation of Judge C. M. Williams, was Irani in West Bedford, Coshocton county, 
Ohio, and moved to Hutchinson in July, 1874. He formed a partnership 
with J. O. Ellis under the firm name of Ellis & Lewis but later Mr. Ellis 
moved away from Hutchinson and the former entered into partnership with 
J. T. Cox, which continued until the latter moved to Indiana. Judge Lewis 



v Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 26/ 

was elected county attorney of Reno county in 1880, and served four terms 
as such officer, having had the rare distinction of receiving in one of his 
candidacies for county attorney, fourteen hundred and twenty-four votes out 
of the fourteen hundred and sixty-one votes cast. There was no candidate 
opposing him, but this large a proportion of the entire vote where there is 
only one candidate is exceeded by only one other candidate in the history' 
of Reno county. In 1878, when S. R. Peters was the unopposed candidate 
for judge of the district court he received nineteen hundred and seventy votes 
out of the nineteen hundred and seventy-four votes cast. Judge Lewis was 
appointed judge of the district court on September I, 1904, and served until 
January 9, 1905, when he resumed his practice in Hutchinson, where he is 
still actively engaged. 

The contest for district judge in the fall of 1904 resulted in the election 
of P. J. Galle, of McPherson, who was born in Franklin, Lee county, Iowa, 
on January ifi, i860, attended the public schools of that state and Denmark 
Academy, located in McPherson county, Kansas, in 1876, where he has since 
made his home. He graduated from the State Normal School at Emporia 
in 1883, and from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor in 1888, and,' 
in the same year began the practice of law at McPherson, Kansas. He was 
elected county attorney of McPherson county in the fall of 1888, and held that 
office for one term but was defeated in the Populistic success of 1892. He was 
again elected county attorney and held the office from January, 1895, to 
January. 1899. He was a member of the Legislature of Kansas of 1903 from 
McPherson county and after the expiration of Ins term was elected judge of 
the ninth judicial district of Kansas and held: the office from January, 1905, 
until January, 1909. Since his retirement from the bench he has been engaged 
in the practice of law at McPherson, Kansas. 

The successor of P. J. Galle as judge of the ninth judicial district was 
Charles E. Branine, who was born in Fayette county, Illinois, March 7, 1864. 
He came to Kansas when he was ten years of age, attended the public schools 
of Newton, and later entered Baker University. He studied law in the office 
of J. W. Ady and was admitted to the bar in November. 1899. In November. 
1908, he was elected judge of the ninth judicial district and served two terms, 
after which he moved to Hutchinson and resumed his practice of law. 

The present judge of the ninth district is I 7 . E. Prigg. who was a native 
of Madison county, Indiana, horn on June 5. 1853. He was a student of 
the normal school at Valparaiso, Indiana, and later took the scientific course 
at Danville, Indiana. After the completion of his education he studied law 
at Middletown, Indiana, and was admitted to the bar at Danville. In 1883 



v Google 



268 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

he came to Hutchinson, having been elected superintendent of the city schools, 
and served two years in that capacity. In 1885 he began practicing law in 
Hutchinson and later in 1896 he formed a partnership with C. M. Williams. 
Judge Prigg was city attorney for seven years. In November, 1912, Judge 
Prigg was elected judge of the ninth judicial district, served four years and 
was re-elected without opposition either in the primary or the election in 1916. 
His term of office expires January 15, 1921. 

Of the ten men who have served on the bench of the ninth district court, 
four are dead, namely: Judges Brown, Peters. Hunt and Simpson; and six are 
living: Judges Martin, Williams. Lewis, Galle, Branhie and Prigg. All of 
the latter, except Judge Prigg, are actively engaged in the practice of law; 
one, Galle, in McPherson, the other four in Hutchinson. 



v Google 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 



The Civil War Soldiers in Reno County. 



In this chapter will be found a complete list of Union soldiers living in 
Reno county in 1890, when the census was taken, which includes the name of 
the soldier, his rank, his company and regiment and, with a few exceptions, 
the state from which he enlisted. This list is remarkable, as it shows the cos- 
mopolitan character of the early settlers of Reno county. Nearly every state 
in the Union is represented. The Southern states have representatives from 
nearly every state in the Confederacy, and with few exceptions those from the 
seceded states were mostly colored soldiers, there being a total of sixteen col- 
ored regiments enrolled as troops of the United States during the Civil 
War. 

There is perhaps no other complete list in Reno county of the soldiers of 
the North. They were among the most active of the old settlers of the county, 
it being named for a soldier, Major Jesse Lee Reno, who lost his life in the 
battle of South Mountain. In a former chapter, in order to preserve them, 
there are six hundred and fifty-nine names of the men and women who signed 
the petition for organizing the county in 1873, likewise here is recorded the 
list of the old soldiers who were living in the county in 1890. This list has been 
taken from the records of the war department at Washington and checked 
with a similar list on file in the office of the secretary of state of Kansas. It 
contains ten hundred and thirty-rive names, and the number from each state 
is set down opposite the r 



Illinois . . . 
Indiana . . . 

Ohio 

Iowa 

New York. 



■235 
.177 
■143 

■ 93 

■ 7* 



Missouri 65 

Pennsylvania ... 53 

Michigan 30 

Kansas 28 

Kentucky 26 

Wisconsin 17 



ime of the state, as follows 

Connecticut .... II 

Tennessee 12 

Mississippi 4 

U. S. Navy 14 

West Virginia.. 15 

New Jersey 7 

Virginia o 

Massachusetts . . 6 

California 3 

Maryland 4 

Vermont 4 



Colorado 2 

North Carolina. . 1 

Rhode Island ... 1 

Arkansas 1 

Minnesota 1 

Alabama 1 

Texas 3 

-Nevada 1 

Nebraska 1 

Arkansas r 



v Google 



27° RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Names Rank Company 

Alexander, 1). S Private B 

Avery, B. G Private B 

Atwootl, S. A Private I 

Asher, Alvin B Private A 

Asher, C. B Private F 

Anderson, A. P Private I) 

Albertson, John Private A 

Anderson, J. M 2nd Corporal C 

Ansley, Joseph Private C 

Ashton, Daniel Private A 

Apple. Herman Private I) 

Arkebeaner. Hiram Private L 

Astle, VVm Private I 

Atwootl. M. V Private D 

Altenread, Levi Private C 

Annadowtt, Wm. H Private H 

Andrews, J. M Private F 

Alexander, Robert Private G 

Atherton, J. R Private H 

Andre. Geo. VV Private A 

Ames, Orpheus Corporal K 

Adams, J Private K 

Alexander, Win Private C 

Albright, John Private R 

Akin. Dudley D Sergeant A 

Adams, G Private D 

llrinnegar, J. H Private H 

Bramwdl, H. S Private C 

Burns, V. O Private K 

Bennett. J. S Private A 

Bomgardner, Michael Private Cogwell's 

Banks, Rivers Private G 

Brown. Thompson Private K 

Burns, Milton Corporal M 

Black, Clinton Private D 

Blodgett. L. \V Private F 

Bussinger, M. C Private K 



Reg. 


State 


24 


Michigan 


21 


W isconsin 


47 


Illinois 


So 


Illinois 


30 


Indiana 


22 


Pennsylvania 


'9 


Michigan 


9 


Iowa 


2 5 


Indiana 


39 


Illinois 




Missouri 


3 


Illinois 


97 


Illinois 


108 


Illinois 


7 


Missouri 


197 


Pennsylvania 


88 


Ohio 


6 


Iowa 


78 


Illinois 


38 


Ohio 


85 


Illinois 


130 


Indiana 


52 


Kentucky 


70 


Indiana 


n 


Kentucky 


51 


Illinois 


28 


Kentucky 


5 


Indiana 


9 


Indiana 


T 5- 


Ohio 


lattery 


Illinois 


8 


Kentucky 


38 


Ohio 


13 


Missouri 


8; 


Illinois 


94 


New York 


85 


Indiana 



, y Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Names Rank Company 

Bell, W. H. Sergeant H 

Brady, T Private I 

Burkett, Peter S Private B 

Baughman, Joseph Private 

Brown, Thomas \V Private F 

Bridgeman, J. C Corporal I 

Baker, Sylvester Private H 

Brownfield, H. B Private H 

Byers, I. J Coqwral B 

Rrightman, S. B. ..Lieutenant-Colonel 

Booth, C. M Sergeant A 

Barnett, H. C Private C 

Brown. William Private A 

Briggs, Robert First Lieutenant B 

Banett, John A Private K 

Ballew, Noah . Private F, 

Baynum, J. W I 'rivate L 

Bullis, John R Private H 

Bartholomew, Charles Private E 

Beegle, Adam H Private E 

Boner, Joseph Private B 

Birch, G. H F'irst Lieutenant H 

Brewer, A.J Private D 

Batty. P. T Private C 

Barngrover, E 

Brown, James Captain B 

Banks, James Sergeant , R 

Belt, A. G Private 

Bnrchell, H. E Private E 

Barber, Nathaniel Private C 

Bennett. S Private B 

Bouser, Thomas Private H 

Branch, P. C Private G 

Bresler, Nathan Private G 

Brooks. G. B Private I 

Battey, Manhall Captain A 

Bringle. Jacob I Private C 



Reg. 


State 


15 


Kansas 


1 


Ohio 


79 


Pennsylvania 


K>5 


Pennsylvania 


149 


Indiana 


128 


Indiana 


'05 


Ohio 


; 


Illinois Cavalrv 


7> 


Ohio 


43 


Wisconsin 


8 


New York 


26 


Indiana 


4 


Pennsylvania 


(>5 


Illinois 


7,1 


Illinois 


1 4 S 


Ohio 


4 


Illinois 


21 


Ohio 


99 


Indiana 


147 


Illinois 


16 


Pennsylvania 


20 


Indiana 


77 


Illinois 


40 


Indiana 


So 


Ohio 


f>o 


New York 


1 


Kentnckv 


'3 


Indiana 


1:; 


Indiana 


21 


Michigan 




Ohio 


55 


Illinois 


M 


Iowa 


57 


Indiana 


94 


New York- 


1 1 1 


Illinois 


7° 


I n< liana 



, y Google 



Zy2 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Names Rank Company Reg. State 

Bramwell, Joseph Private H 125 Indiana 

Bingham, S. L. J Private I" 8 Michigan 

Baughman, H. C Captain F 59 Illinois 

Burch, L. N Private D 87 Indiana 

Burdo, R. D Private K 25 Ohio 

Baker, F. W Captain I jo Tennessee 

Boody, S. B , . . Private C 115 Ohio 

Bolton, Augustus Private C 19 Connecticut 

Brown, F. E Private H 35 Mississippi 

Baughman, H Drummer E 1 22 Ohio 

Bryant, Wm Private F 1 Michigan 

Blanpied, Elisha Private E 42 Kentucky- 
Baxter, J. S Private D 1 18 Illinois 

Ballinger, J. L Private H 13 United States 

Baylan, John Private A 13 Missouri 

Bosley, Henry , Private H 104 Illinois 

Brainard, Jess Captain B 4 Illinois 

Baker, R. W Yeeman New York 

Bradbnni, James Private C 54 Indiana 

Brooks, G. B Private I 94 New York 

Ballard, V. B Private F 64 Ohio 

Banthaner, J Private A 21 Missouri 

Bartlett, William Private F 64 Ohio 

Briggs. Robert Private E 104 Ohio 

Blake, Madison Private C 6 Indiana 

Benson, O. F Sergeant G M H Missouri 

Barghman, Joseph Private A 105 Pennsylvania 

Brink, Stephen Captain D 124 Illinois 

Berry, C S B 118 Illinois 

Brown, Wiley Private Discharge Lost Ohio 

Barnes. J. S Major 91 Illinois 

Beall, George Private B 154 Ohio 

Bradwell, Silas Private E 26 Illinois 

Batty. Marshall Private H 1 29 Illinois 

Bardett. James Private E 7 Indiana 

Boggs. Wm Private 10 Missouri 

Beam, J. M Private (' 76 Ohio 

Brown. J. B Sergeant 1 1 14 Ohio 



v Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Names Rank Company 

Bigger, L. A First Lieutenant F 

Bane, Ephrani Corporal C 

Barclay, George D 

Ballinger, John W Private M 

Baker, B Private E 

Berwick, W Sergeant G 

Burns, \V. E Private A 

Basher, Z. S Private E 

Brown, F Private 

Blackburn, J. F Lieutenant K 

Briiner, Philip H Private F 

Boyd, Benjamin Private G 

Bringle. Jacob Private C 

Burdick, E. C Private D 

Barker, W. H Private B 

Baker, H Private M 

Baker, William Private G 

Boglan, J Private A 

Carey, John Private C 

Campbell, S Sergeant C 

Colee. C. C Private C 

Cathcart, Samuel B Private F 

Center, William H Corporal F 

Colee, Theodore F. 

Chambers, Charles C Sergeant K 

Campbell, John Private A 

Colville, Benjamin A Corporal C 

Craig. Henry H Private G 

Campbell, Robert A Private K 

Carew, Harvey H Private B 

Clymer, John V Captain B 

Constant, Constant M Private H 

Collins, Charles ' Private A 

Chase, Frank M Private C 

Cox, Solomon Private C 

Crippen. W Private 

Cranclall, C Private C 

fi8) 



Reg. 


State 


i 


North Carolina 


47 


Illinois 


4 


United States 


7 


Indiana 


RR 


Missouri 


7 


Missouri 


123 


Indiana 


II 


Indiana 


129 


Illinois 


2 


California 


1 


New York 


70 


Indiana 


38 


Ohio 


4 


Ohio 


9 


Indiana 


3° 


Indiana 


■3 


Missouri 


118 


Indiana 


50 


Iowa 


2.2 


Pennsylvania 


16 


Iowa 


1 


Illinois 




Pennsylvania 


64 


Ohio 


53 


Illinois 


117 


Illinois 


114 


Illinois 


24 


Ohio 


15 


New Jersey 


156 


Indiana 


30 


Illinois 


2 


Kansas 


92 


Illinois 


55 


Kentucky 




New York 


81 


Indiana 



, y Google 



2"74 KENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Names Rank Company 

Clink, William Private I 

Crow, Martin Private D 

Cecil, Thomas Private D 

Cecil, William Private D 

Cecil, Wilford Private F 

Calverly, Richard Private 

Crampton, H. H Private E 

Crampton, James H Sergeant E 

Cassidy, R. T Lieutenant B 

Care, J. R Private J ' 

Cochran, Private L 

Curnittt, H. G Private I 

Cochran, N.J Private B 

Coles, J. W Private K 

Clark, Ashbury Corporal E 

Cunningham, H. C 

Consoe, L Sergeant E 

Compton, David Private K 

Connett,.J, T Corporal H 

Cupps, Cabel Private E 

Chaffin, G. B 2nd Lieutenant H 

Cowen, John Private B 

Clothier, J. B Private G 

Clothier, Newton Private G 

Criswell, William Private G 

Collings, Isaac Private G 

Crippen, Miner Private ' C 

Carpenter, O. S Corporal D 

Clingan, G. A Private C 

Cooten, G. W Private C 

Caldwell, John G Private A 

Caldwell, A. B. . .Brevt. 1st Lieutenant A 

Chamberlain, W Private A 

Clearwater, Rubin Sergeant A 

Charles, Levi B Private L 

Carver, John Private A 

Croome, John W Private C 

Cummings, Walter C Private O 



Reg. 


State 


41 


Illinois 


90 


Illinois 


78 


Illinois 


78 


Illinois 


155 


Illinois 




Missouri 


8 


Ohio 


no 


Ohio 


■6.1 


West Virginia 


3" 


Iowa 


16 


Illinois 


72 


Indiana 


84 


Indiana 


46 


Iowa 


8q 


Illinois 




Ohio 


41 


New York 


67 


Indiana 


3D 


New Jersey 


I.* 


Indiana 


'5 


Ohio 


26 


Illinois 


8 


Iowa 


7 


Iowa 


86 


Illinois 


i45 


Indiana 


"3 


Ohio 


142 


New York 


7 


Iowa 


1 


Missouri 


75 


New York 


2 


Mississippi 


148 


Indiana 


6 


Indiana 


1 


Colorado 


30 


Maine 


5 


Kentucky 


5i . 


Massachusetts 



, y Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



275 



Names Rank Company 

Coleman, George A Private I 

Crommett, Robert T. . . 2nd Lieutenant F 

Crow, Martin Private K 

Curliss, Harklis Private K 

Caldwell, S. J Private 

Cheeseman, John Private I 

Chattle, Wm. H Private A 

Cowan, Samuel Private E 

Clark, W. H Private E 

Claypool, J. VV Sergeant K 

Chase, Wright Private F 

Crabb, J. E Sergeant B 

Copeland, M. H Sergeant A 

Carey, Peter Lieutenant K 

Chapin, CO 

Carson, William F Private C 

Caster, Joseph Private I 

Case, Oscar Private H 

Cubbtson, Joseph 2nd Lieutenant C 

Counterman, E 2nd Lieutenant I 

Carr. H. H Private B 

Compton, D Private N 

Cory, N. B Private 

Cox, J. L Private E 

Cade, George C Private G 

Cooper, W. C Sergeant B 

Coldntlt, S. J Sergeant E 

Cox, Rebecca J Widow 

Cochrane, Sanders Private G 

Cole. Harry Private F 

Connett, William Private 

Conroe, Israel Private E 

Carpenter, Qrson S Corporal S 

Crabhs, J Major 

Dice, H. W Private C 

Dewitt, J. F Private F 

Decker, F. J Lieutenant C 

Decker, C. V 1st Lieutenant D 



Reg. 
70 
1 
92 
118 
37 
11S 
89 



70 
66 
34 
107 



34 

16 



132 
14 



State 
Indiana 
Maine Vet. Vol. 

Ohio 
Illinois 
Illinois 
New York 
Illinois 
Illinois 
New York 
Indiana 
Illinois 

Ohio 
Illinois 
Indiana 



77 


Illinois 


2 


Ohio 


:2i 


Ohio 


tor 


Pennsylvania 


11 


Michigan 


15 


New jersey 


67 


Indiana 




Indiana 


1 


Missouri 


2 


Illinois 


6 


Missouri 


72 


Indiana 


16 





Indiana 

Indiana 

New York 

New York 

Indiana 

Illinois 

New Jersey 

Wisconsin 

Illinois 



v Google 



Z)?6 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Names Rank Company 

Delano, Richard F 2nd Lieutenant B 

Decker, T. A 2nd Lieutenant B 

Downs, John Corporal K 

Dinsmore, Charles Private E 

Davis, Ulysses Private C 

Dodge, A. R Private B 

Dutton, Enos Private B 

Davis, A. O Private K 

Dull, S. A Private G 

Dunsworth, Private D 

Dalton, ■ Private A 

Dilly, S. A Private F 

Davis. L Corporal H 

Davis, Samuel Private G 

Dunn, John P Private C 

Doolittle, L. F Private 

Davis, John J : . . . Private G 

Davis, C Corporal B 

Duval, Francis Ord. Sergeant D 

Dickhut, C. W Private H 

Doles, J. A Private G 

Day, Robert Private G 

Dunsworth, A. J Private F 

Dillingham, W. H Corporal H 

Doron, E Private I 

Dean, J. 1 Private F 

Denison, G. A Private I 

Deering, C. T 

Duckworth, J. L Private F 

Deane, Martin ' Chaplain 

Dearlove, W. B Private 

Duke, Edward Private B 

Delono, W. H Private 

Dugan, Ferdinand Private 

Davis. Robert 1st Lieutenant A 

1 )ornian, Samuel N Private C 

Evans. M. M Captain Q 

Elliott. William H Corporal G 



Reg. 


State 


49 


Indiana 


1 Cav. 


Ohio 


180 


Ohio 


6 


New Jersey 


3 


West Virginia 




Illinois 


19 


Iowa 


108 


Illinois 


51 


Ohio 


.V 


Illinois 


29 


Missouri 


8.1 


Pennsylvania 


14 


Rhode Island 


14 


Ohio Infantry 


9 


Iowa Cavalry 




Kansas 


6 


Virginia 


2 


Maine 


83 


United States 


118 


Illinois 


2:> 


Ohio 


.SO 


Indiana 


5t> 


Illinois 


20 


Kansas 


I 


Ohio 


4O 


Iowa 


6l 


Iowa 


3<> 


Iowa 


45 


New York 


H 


Ohio 


10 


West Virginia 


144 


Indiana 




U. S. X. 


15 


New York 


2lj 


Illinois 


'56 


Illinois 


I 


Missouri 



, y Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Names Rank 

Ely, David H Private 

Elliott, David H Corporal 

Ewing, R. M Corporal 

Elliott, George B Corporal 

Everett, Elmer Corporal 

Elliott, E. W Corporal 

Ewing, J. K Corporal 

Eddie, John Private 

Eddy, George Corporal 

Evarts, H. E Private 

Ellis, Perse Private 

Ernst, A ist Lieutenant 

Eusminger, W. P Private 

Erion, Philip Private 

Ellsworth, Allen ist Lieutenant 

Ep|>erson, John H Private 

Eisminger, Harvey Private 

Dix, Jonathan W Private 

Duffy, Edward Drummer 

Davis, William B Private 

Dorman, S. M Private 

Dunn, Thomas Private 

Dunn, William Private 

Dodds, Ira R Private 

Durkell, Jr., D Private 

Dimock, A. S Private 

Demort, Samuel Private 

Deck, Isaac Private 

Detter, G. W Private 

Duer, Jonathan Private 

Dixon, T. B Private 

Dittman, Nicholas Private 

Dodge, John Private 

Dennis, Edward Private 

Darr, Andrew J. Private 

Dinsmore, Charles Private 

Davis, H. A Private 

Deane, Albert Private 



Company 


Reg. 


Siate 


H 


22 


Iowa 


G 


■5 


Iowa 


B 


50 


Illinois 


G 


16 


New York 


R 


83 


Illinois 


D 


89 


Ohio 


G 


4 




L 


1 


United States 


I 


8 


Vermont 


F 


16 


Ohio 


C 


4 


Wisconsin 


G ' 


7 


California 


D 


6 


Indiana 


B 


3 


Illinois 


I 


118 


Illinois 


D 


83 


Illinois 


F 


73 


Illinois 


O 


10 


Kansas 


D 


33 


Indiana 


H 


5 


Pennsylvania 


C 


29 


Illinois 


D 


16 


Iowa 


H 


39 


Iowa 


F 


28 


Illinois 


E 


45 


Missouri 
Massachusetts 


C 




Indiana 


K 


7 


Missouri 


D 


78 


Pennsylvania 


H 


2 


Iowa 


D 


18 


Iowa 


D 


2 


Michigan 


C 


44 


Indiana 


G 


100 


Illinois 


H 


104 


Ohio 


E 


6 


New York 


E 


88 


Pennsylvania 


E 


XX 


New York 



, y Google 



1<7& RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Names Rank Company 

Driver, Private A 

Day, D. P Corporal F 

Devoe, B. R Private H 

Davis, J. W. Private B 

Davis, R. A. Private F 

Davis, W. M Private B 

Drake, Michael Private A 

Dodge, Riley Private B 

Dawson, R. A . . . H. Steward 

Eabling, John F Sergeant E 

Edson, Lucius C Private G 

Ellis, William ; . Private C 

Everett, E. J Sergeant K 

Ellis, James K Private D 

Elder, George Private A 

Eareant, J. J Private H 

Elswik, Thomas Private L 

England, John Corporal A 

Evers, Elias Private I 

Epperson, W. N Corporal A 

Eltston, J. W Private 

Fisher, David Private G 

Fish, George W Private A 

Filley, Worthington Private B 

Fluck, Casper Private " E 

Farnsworth, Lamar Private K 

Fastrow, Herman Private E 

Flohr, C. P Private A 

Fowler, T. J Private I 

Freemyer, David Private B 

France. E Sergeant H 

Fenimore, J. C Private C 

Fenimore, E. R Private E 

Fisher. Alfred Private E 

Frysear, A. B Sergeant 

Ferguson, Thomas Sergeant I 

Fowler, T. G. Private. B 

Foggle, E. M Private G 



Rig. 


State 


142 


Indiana 


107 


Illinois 


1 i.l 


Indiana 


47 


Illinois 


11 


Illinois 


21 


Ohio 


■35 


Pennsylvania 


1^2 


Illinois 




Missouri Regular 





Illinois 


II 


Vermont 


53 


Kentucky 


8.1 


Illinois 


39 


Indiana 


46 


Pennsylvania 


2 


Tennessee 


7 


Missouri 


8 


Missouri 


34 


Indiana 


16 


Kansas 


46 


Indiana 


S3 


Indiana 


16 


Illinois 


101 


Illinois 


195 


Pennsylvania 


16 


Illinois 


6 


Ohio 


1 


Iowa 


3 


Pennsylvania 


9 


Missouri 


21 


Illinois 


3&Q 


Kansas 


149 


Ohio 


17 


Iowa 


4 


Arkansas 


122 


Illinois 


47 


Illinois 


18 


Iowa 



, y Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Names Rank 

Franklin, J. R Captain 

Filson, John Private 

French, H. N Private 

Freeman, \yill H Private 

Frease, Cyrus Captain 

Frense, W. W .Private 

Fosnot, W. E Private 

Fisher, B. S Private 

Frost, J Private 

Froyne, R. I Lieutenant 

Frisby, O Private 

Glanville, F. M Private 

Gorden, Henry Private 

Gray, William C Private 

Grady, Henry Private 

Gregg, John Private 

George, John B Com. Sergeant 

Grayson, Joseph A Private 

Gnyer, John Private 

Gehm, Peter Private 

Green, Francis Private 

Glick, S. A Private 

Getter, H. K Private 

Galer, J. B Private 

Gleichman, George Private 

Gransen, M Private 

Gallup, Ed Private 

Green, D. B Private 

Gray, Morris J Private 

Grudel, J. H Private 

CJozder, Marcus Private 

Gransbiiry, John W Private 

Gray, C. W ; Sergeant 

Gaston, S. D Private 

Graves, Benona Private 

Gould, William Private 

Grist, William Private 

Gallop, H. C Corporal 



Company 


Reg. 


Stale 


A 


17 


Iowa 


K 


IOI 


Illinois 


C 


24 


Missouri 




15 


Indiana Battalion 


G 


19 


Ohio 




184 


Ohio 


G 


147 


Pennsylvania 


B 


47 


Iowa 


A 


126 


New York 


F 


22 


Kentuckv 


G 


7 


Illinois 


C 


65 


New York 


B 


16 


Indiana 


C 


1 


Wisconsin 


I 


7 


Illinois 


F 


5 
1 


New York 
Michigan 


D 


6 


West Virginia 


K 


■34 


Pennsylvania 


J 


■4 


Illinois 


F 


10 


Minnesota 


C 


45 


Pennsylvania 


F 


20 


Pennsylvania 


K 


18 


Iowa 


A 


42 


Indiana 


H 


116 


Ohio 


C 


21 


Wisconsin 


H 


94 


Illinois 


E 


52 


Ohio 


I 


20 


Indiana 


H 


no 


Alabama 


A 


95 


New York 


H 


69 


Missouri 


I 


62 


Missouri 


C 


II 


Iowa 


c 


6 


Iowa 


B 


82 


Pennsylvania 


A 


88 


Illinois 



, y Google 



2CO RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Names Rank Company 

Gillock, Thomas C Sergeant 

Grant, John 

Gillespie, Patrick! Private D 

Godfrey, J. H Private E 

Gibson, Harrison Private G 

Ginn, Joseph Private I 

Gibbs, William E Private C 

Gillett, John Private C 

Gibson, David Private E 

■Guller, John Private I 

Gillett, John W. H. P Private C 

Goodwin, Jacob Private G 

George, J. W Corporal F 

Griffin, J. D Corporal A 

Gill, John H Private H 

Grover, Charles B Private B 

Greenamyer, J. R Private A 

Go'rdon, H Private B 

Greenlee, J. F Sergeant G 

Grover, Freeman Private H 

Grant, G. E Private 

Handy, Edward S Private F 

Hamlin, M Private A 

Hill, E. M Colonel ist 

Holliday, D. H Private F 

Hayden, G. F Captain F 

Herdick, J. M Captain Q 

Hawkins, Frank J Private K 

Hartshorn, Jacob C Private D 

Hasty, William W Private L 

Hegwer, Henry Private B 

Holmes, William B Private I 

Hill, Josephus Private F 

Hodson, Z. T D 

Hiller, Nathan Corporal A 

Harris, William E Sergeant E 

Hawkins, I. H Private F 

Hinman, L. M Third Corporal E 



Reg. 


State 


11 


Indiana 


>3 


Kansas 


i 


Texas 


85 


Ohio 


21 


Missouri 


8 


New York 




Indiana 


27 


Kentucky 


81 


Illinois 


19 


Indiana 


57 


Indiana 


15 


West Virginia 


8 


Michigan 


46 


Indiana 


124 


Illinois 


129 


Indiana 


16 


Indiana 


142 


Ohio 


16 


Wisconsin 


25 


Wisconsin 


79 


Illinois 


IS 


Connecticut 




' Missouri 


88 


Ohi.> 


17 


Indiana 


4 


Ohio 


1 


Michigan 


138 


Illinois 


7 


Illinois 


9 


Kansas 


5 


Cali torn 1 a 


73 


Illinois 


28 


Iowa 


172 


Ohio 


1 


Connecticut 


42 


Ohio 


134 


Indiana 



, y Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Xames Rank C 

Hayes, P. H Private 

Hoffman, A Private 

Hall, S. W Private 

Hill, H. A Sergeant 

Hanan, B. D Hospital Steward 

Hathaway, Samuel Corporal 

Hegwer, Augustus Private 

Holland, William T Private 

Highbarger, E Private 

Hoover, Michiel Private 

Hotclikis, O. L Private 

Houser, J. S Private 

Huston, Jeff Private 

Hartford, William. . . . First Lieutenant 
Hartford, Henry . . Lieuteimnt-Colouel 

Hehin, Janies Private 

Harper, Thos. V Sergeant 

Hodge, L. D Private 

Hadley, Levi P Private 

Hodgson, William Private 

Hemphill, John A Private 

Hand, Thompson Private 

Holin, Lewis Private 

Hindrey, W. F Private 

Hoskinson, Geo. W Private 

Haines, Clayton Private 

Hoaglan, Martin Sergeant 

Hopping, Thomas Private 

Harsyman, J. S Private 

Hornbaker, F. D Private 

Holmes, John E Private 

Homes, William H Private 

Hardin, W. M Private 

Hunt, Willis Private 

Hinds. John Private 

Harbison, G. W Private 

Hardy, W. G. Sergeant 

, Tim Private 



npatty 


Keg. 


Slate 


A 

H 


44 
I 


Missouri 
Ohio 

Iowa 


M 

H 


14 
1 


New York 
Missouri 


G 


3 


Iowa 


B 


9 


Kentucky 


A 


152 


Illinois 


F 


63 


Pennsylvania 


B 


7 


Missouri 


K 


22 


Iowa 
Illinois 


B 


2 


Illinois 


A 


S 


New Jersey 




8 


New Jersey 


G 


»3 


Illinois 


E 


1 


Ohio 


B 


1 1 


Indiana 


E 


26 


Indiana 


E 


4 


Minnesota 


A 


.183 


Ohio 


G 


/8 


Illinois 


E 


4 


Pennsylvania 


H 
h 


36 


Ohio 

Iowa 


I 


33 


Iowa 


I 


57 


Illinois 


I 


20 


Illinois 


A 


6 


Missouri 


I 


■45 


Indiana 


B 


154 


Illinois 


C 


■44 


Illinois 


K 


35 


Kentucky 


H 


1 


West Virginia 


C 


77 


Ohio 


A 


71 


Indiana 


G 


4 


Iowa 


B 


8 


New York 



, y Google 



282 



SENG COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Names Rank Company 

Hall, L. M Private A 

Hadley, S. I Private K 

Hadley, D. W Captain K 

Hutchinson, J. S Private C 

Hallinger, J. \V Private D 

Harmony, Will . Private B 

Hammond, John Private C 

Hall, Samuel 'W. " . Private 

Hall, James E .Private I 

Hendry, E. M Private I 

Hostetter, Amos Private C 

Holland, J. Private 

Harison, J. S Private B 

Hodges, G. W Private F 

Hutchinson, W. E Private H 

Hollowed, L Private 

Holcomb, H Sergeant K 

Hawley, S. K Private C 

Hostdtt^r, A Private 

Higgiiis, A. P Private H 

Honk, L. Sergeant B 

Herlocner, J. M Private E 

Herdick, J. E Lieutenant D 

Irwin, A Corporal A 

Iganes. I Private E 

I iini.in, Thomas Corporal H 

Johnson, Isaac Private H 

Ivy, J. W Private K 

Ireton, William Private H 

Johnson, John Private F 

Jones, Greenberry R Lieutenant H 

Johnson, Samuel G Sergeant 

Jewell, R Private K 

Joltes. Abner H Corporal D 

Julian, Stephen L Private I, 

Jenks, S. O Sergeant B 

Johnson, Hugh N Corporal C 

Jones. Hobert Private I 



teg. 


State 




Maryland 


7 


Iowa 


79 


Indiana 


7i 


Illinois 


5 


Ohic 


6 


Missouri 


8 


Illinois 


I 


Iowa 


88 


Illinois 


M 


Illinois 


6 


West Virginia 




U. S. N. 


13 


Ohio 


40 




02 


New York 




Ohio 


104 


Illinois 


6,1 


Ohio 




West Virginia 


20 


Indiana 


1 


Maryland 


49 


Pennsylvania 


11 


Illinois 


*7 


Indiana 


3 


Missouri 


54 


Illinois 


11 


Illinois 


47 


Wisconsin 


11 


Michigan 


2 


Missouri 


21 


Missouri 




Kansas 


57 


Indiana 


(5 


West Virginia 


8 


Missouri 


97 


New York 


18 


Kansas 


2 


Illinois 



.Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



283 



Names Rank < 

Jarboe, Daniel 

Jones, Seth Private 

Jones, Joseph H Private 

Jones, William 

Jones, William J Musician 

Jeffs, William E Sergeant 

James, N. J Corporal 

Johnston, George A Private 

Jones, Lewis Private 

Jewell, W. D Corporal 

Johnson, W. G Private 

Jenkins, A Private 

Johnston, B. D Private 

Jeffers, A Private 

Johnson, W. W Private 

Johnson. W. F Private 

Jones, T Private 

Knight, Seth Private 

King, William Private 

Krnch, F. W Private 

King, R. S Private 

Kanaga, J. W Private 

Kirby, Boston Private 

Kennedy, David Private 

Kyes, E. J Private 

Kennedy, William D Sergeant 

Kitchen, W. H Private 

Kelly, Andrew J Corporal 

Kmgkade, J. H Private 

Kenoyer, E Private 

Kinder, J. W Private 

Kinder, Thomas Private 

Keller, G. W Private 

Kirkpatrick, R. B Private 

Kirkpatrick, \V. H Private 

Knight, X. D Private 

Kohnle, John Private 

Kelsev, R. D Private 



tipuny 


Reg. 


State 
Maryland 


I'- 


40 


Iowa 


ll 


■•44 


Indiana 


G 


2 


Kansas 


K 


3 


Missouri 


G 


90 


Illinois 


F 


101 


Illinois 


c 


■38 


Illinois 


B 


40 


Iowa 


1 


84 


Indiana 


C 


70 


Ohio 


1 


2 


1 ennessee 


K 


7° 


Ohio 


F 


15 


Michigan 


H 


34 


Illinois 
Wisconsin 


D 


I 


Iowa 


E 


22 


Wisconsin 


E 


"4 


H&oois 


K 


5 


Missouri 


D 


it 


Illinois 


A 


'34 


Ohio 


K 


25 


Michigan 


L 


3 


Michigan 


B 


16 


Illinois 


G 


2 3 


Missouri 


E 


54 


New York 


G 


49 


Indiana 


C 


89 


New York 


H 


■5' 


Indiana 


]) 


IS 


Missouri 


F 


12 


Missouri 


H 


21 


Missouri 


E 


8y 


Ohio 


M 


5 


Ohio 


15 


4 


West Virginia 


H 


2 


Illinois 


F 


73 


Illinois 



, y Google 



284 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Names Rank Company Reg. Slate 

Karns, M Private B 6 Iowa 

Kingkade, David Private E 7 Missouri 

Kinney, Harlow Private B r Iowa , 

Kibby, J. F Private B 46 Ohio 

Kirkham, D Private K 6 Indiana 

Lawsott, J. H Corporal D 16 Illinois 

Lindsey. John R Com. Sergeant H 1 Ohio 

Longstreetle, Charles H Private F 6 Pennsylvania 

Lindsey, John C Private D 39 Indiana 

Lacy, Robert Major . . 79 Illinois 

Laynion, Preston Private E 2 Tennessee 

I-angdon, S. M Private . . ... 

Uutz, G. W Private H 28 Iowa 

Leeroan, J. H. Captain C 6 Ohio 

Laughlin, Robert . . . .' Private D 120 Indiana 

I.ashbaugh, W. H Sergeant B 9 Michigan 

Leslie, Alexander Teamster . . I Missouri 

Litchfield, John Sergeant D 64 Illinois 

Lyons, William Corporal E 5 Michigan 

Lamb, George W Private . . t88 Ohio 

Lowry, Robert Private L 41 Ohio 

Litchfield, Thomas .. Orderly Sergeant I 14 Ohio 

Litchfield, James Private C 3 Ohio 

LaDuke. Mitchell Private H 16 New York 

Lawrence, William Lieutenant D I Missouri 

Libbey, C. E Private H 1 1 Illinois 

Lible, Martin Private C 7 Kansas 

Lyman, Hamilton Captain L 5 New York 

Lance, A. J Private H 28 Iowa 

Lindsley, W. D Private F Post Command Kansas 

Littsell, W. W Corporal A 32 Illinois 

Lloyd, M. E Lieutenant Colonel . . "9 New York 

Lyman, L Corporal L 5 New York 

I^aughton, Charles Private M 126 Indiana 

I-aucks, Charles Private B 144 Illinois 

Lain, H. S Private B 29 Indiana 

Lefy, D. D Private I tor Pennsylvania 

Lentz, G. W Private H 28 Iowa 



v Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 285 

Names Rank Company Reg. State 

I^owe, I. A Private A 3 Iowa 

Luckey, J. R Private C 14 Iowa 

Lake, J. W Private E 50 Illinois 

Marshall, W. R Private H 15 Ohio 

Moulder, F. C Corporal H 118 Indiana 

Myers, John A Sergeant B 51 Ohio 

Myers, Abraham A Private B 51 Indiana 

Mooney, R. M Private E 37 New York 

Milan, J. S Private A 59 Indiana 

Melrose, Henry Private C 1 Virginia 

Monroe, James Private A 55 Illinois 

Martin, A. D Private D 95 Ohio 

Maylow, Joseph Private A 10 Kansas 

Miller, Alexander Private A ... Illinois 

Marteney, Stalnaker Private D ... West Virginia 

Max, John Private Cogwells Bat, Light Art. Illinois 

Markham, J. J First Lieutenant ■ E 56 Ohio 

Magwire, F , Private G 3 Michigan 

Miskimen, H Captain G 47 Ohio 

Middleton, W. R Corporal H 21 Ohio 

Moulton, S. D Private L 8 Illinois 

Mahnsan, J. W .Corporal G 59 Indiana 

Mallory, J. W Sergeant Quarter- Master Department 

Moorman, W. H Private B 34 Iowa 

May, R. R Private D 81 Indiana 

Moorhead, Albert Private C 35 Missouri 

Marshall, John H Sergeant B 1st Bat. Nevada 

Mitchell, R Private H 38 Iowa 

Muck, Anthony Captain I 44 Missouri 

Munger, H. H Sergeant C 1 1 Michigan 

Mount, Cyrus Private C 4 Iowa 

Miller, C. P Corporal D 11 Missouri 

Manhall, W. H Private H 2 Kansas 

Mahoney, Clemard Private E 84 Indiana 

Magee, Benjamin Private ... New York 

Miller, Robert C Private C 81 Indiana 

Mayers, J. V Private I 2 Ohio 

Murry, C. H Private H 77 New York 



v Google 



286 



RENO COUNTY, KA 



Xamcs Rank C 

Mousy, J. X Private 

McMullen, H. B. Private 

Marshall, I. V Private 

Merles, John Private 

Mudge, James F Landsman 

Masies, Joseph Private 

Murphy. J- C Second Lieutenant 

Malick, A.J Sergeant 

Mills, T. E Private 

Miller, S. R Private 

.Mathews, A. L Private 

Morris, S. J Private 

Mercer, C E Private 

Marsh, David Private 

Myers, John C Private 

Moore, W. T Private- 

Martin, John Private 

McMurry, T. J Private 

McNew, J. H Private 

Merrill, — Major 

Miller, Peter Private 

Miller, G. R Private 

Morrow, Mattie Private 

Myers, S. D Private 

Maphet, John Private 

Martin. Hugh Private 

Martin, J. E Private 

Mitchell, \V. H Private 

Mauck, E. H Private 

Marshall, Conrad Private 

May, Michael Private 

Miller, J. K Private 

Myres, A. K Private 

Matick, A.J Sergeant 

Mize, J. H Sergeant 

Meredith, F Private 

Morehead, A. J Private 

More, ■ Private 



ompaity 


Reg. 


State 


H 


ii 


Ohio 


K 


26 


Indiana 


F 


69 


Indiana 




23 


Illinois 




[2 


Michigan 




9 


New York 




36 


Illinois 


C 


IOO 


Indiana 


E 


14 


New York 


C 


9 


Indiana 


D 


17 


Illinois 


H 


104 


Ohio 


D 


47 


Pennsylvania 


C 


1 


Missouri 


K 


39 


Illinois 


E 


■ 6 


Tennessee 


E 


8 


Indiana 




141 


New York 


C 


82 


Ohio 


D 


7 


Pennsylvania 




82 


Pennsylvania 


Navv 




New York 


D 


9 


Kentucky 


C 


49 


Indiana 


R 


24 


Indiana 


G 


112 


Illinois 


C 


9 


Indiana 


E 


3i 


Indiana 
Illinois 


H 


89 


Illinois 


I 
I 


9 
1 


New York 
Illinois 


K 


7 


Indiana 



, y Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Names Rank Company 

Miller, G. E Private . B 

More, B. H , . Private G 

Matherly, W. I Private E 

McCandless, Private Q 

McKinney, A. YV Surgeon 

McKinstry, J Private I 

McClurg, Joseph H Farrier A 

McFariand, -L. S Private D 

McCracken, J. W Hosp. Steward 

McCanine, \V. H. . . Second Lieutenant D 

McAlister, R 

McCormick, M. ■ Private G 

McSherry, Thomas Sergeant K 

McGowan, Alex Musician 

McGregor, J. R Sergeant Q 

McConnick, W. H Corporal B 

McMurphy, Private A 

D 

McCaslin, John Private H 

McCurdy, J. P Private K 

McColin, Alexander Corporal K 

McClellan, Robert Private B 

McKay, Frank Corporal H 

McMurry, George Private G 

Mclver, Isaac Private K 

McKewgie. Musician A 

McDonald, E Private B 

McGregor, E. T Private F 

McCollum, John Private I 

McGibbony, Levi C Private 

Mc Arthur, Duncan Private A 

McAngthy. N Private D 

McGinley. John Private I 

McAtee, George Private H 

McGregor, William Lieutenant B 

McCorthe. L. A Corporal F 

Mclnterff, A Sergeant C 

Mcintosh, \V Private A 



Reg. 



2 y 


Indiana 


XI, 


Indiana 


78 


Illinois 


3" 


Indiana 


■35 


Illinois 


14 


Ohio 


5 


Iowa 


99 


Iowa 


■3 


New Hampshire 




Virginia 


174 


Ohio 


1 1 i 


Illinois 


io 


Illinois 


4 


Illinois 


2 


Ohio 


7 


Indiana 


1 


Illinois 


6 


Pennsylvania 


II 


Pennsylvania 


36 


Ohio 


83 


Illinois 


3 


Iowa 


46 


Illinois 


4i) 


Illinois 


Jo 


New York 


45 


Iowa 


-'3 


New York 


85 


New York 


22 


Illinois 




Kansas 


■35 


Illinois 


21 


Missouri 


7 


Ohio 


6 


U. S. V. 


3 


New Hampshire 


7 


Kansas 


■43 


Ohio 



, y Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Names Rank 

McRee, D. B Private 

McFarland, D. T Private 

McFadden, J. A Private 

McClery, J. H Private 

Northcutt, H Private 

Xeuman, G. VV Private 

Neeley, Thomas H ,. . .Corporal 

Nail, W. H. Private 

Nishols, E. F Private 

Nichols. F. M Private 

Noise, O. S Private 

Newton, S. E Private 

Noyes. C. J Private 

Odell, G. W Qr.-M. Sergeant 

O'Hara, H. C Corporal 

Osier, Jackson Private 

Obee, Henry First Lieutenant 

Oxenseider, Henry Private 

Olmstead, W. J Private 

Osljorne, R. A Private 

Ost. William Private 

Parker. D. H Private 

Pierce, William W Corporal 

Pricer, David Private 

Patten, L. L Private 

Philips. Nelson Private 

Pietttfer, Joseph Private 

Pistole, Joseph Private 

Perkins, John Private 

Potter, J. B Private 

Peterman. Samuel Private 

Pugle, Thomas J Private 

Priest. W. J Private 

Palmer, George F. Private 

Pinnell, G. L Private 

Parker. James H Private 

Pry, John H Sergeant 

Phillips, C. W Private 



Company 


Reg. 


State 


G 


4 




F 


6 


Iowa 


H 


14 


Ohio 


A 


14 


Illinois 


H 


1 


Missouri 


G 


59 


Indiana 


M 


12 


Illinois 


C 


4 


Kentucky 


II 


128 


Indiana 


G 


6 


Iowa 


F 


47 


Illinois 


C 


64 


Illinois 


A 


II 


Maine 


F. 


5th Cavl. 


Illinois 


E 


7 


Missouri 


F 


II 


Indiana 


G 


100 


Ohio 


G 


10 


Iowa 


A 


5 


Michigan 
Kansas 


E 


1 


Illinois 


G 


79 


Ohio 


G 


3 


Iowa 


H 


so 


Ohio 


D 


IO 


Illinois 


A 


16 


Iowa 


D 


35 


Ohio 


D 


120 


Illinois 


F 


186 


New York 


G 


147 


Kansas 


I 


7 


Indiana 


K 


129 


Illinois 


E 


12 


Kansas 


K 


6 


Illinois 


G 


8h 


Illinois 
Iowa 


L 


6 


Michigan 



, y Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



289 



Names Rank I 

Parker, John First Sergeant 

Poulton, William Private 

Potter, William .... First Lieutenant 

Pearson, William Corporal 

Penington, W. R Private 

Petterson, Alowgo Private 

Powers, John Private 

Pallett, James E Private 

Peed, Josephus Private 

Petre, John Private 

Proctor, John Private 

Putnam, U. F Private 

Parker, Payton N Private 

Paul, W. L. R Private 

Pinkston, Samuel Sergeant 

Pyles, Joseph Teamster 

Pilcher, William Private 

Piatt, L. H Private 

Powers, R Private 

Purdy, E. T Private 

Pieper, C. H Private 

Parker, CD Sergeant Major 

Payne, Milo Private 

Puterbough, J Sergeant 

Plank, A Private 

Prently, J. W Private 

Pinnelt, G. L Private 

Pumphrey, A Private 

<Juinn, C. E Private 

Rea, J. A Sergeant 

Renehard, S Private 

Rhodes, O. W ! Private 

Rogers, George Bugler 

Rogers, James Private 

Rusher, Robert A Sergeant 

Richter, Elias Private 

Reynolds, James Private 

(19) 



npanx 


Reg. 


State 


A 


2 


New York 


K 


1 


United States 


K 


51 


Ohio 


F 


79 


New York 


G 


156 


Illinois 


F 


57 


Illinois 


E 


5« 


New York 


G 


6 


Missouri 


F 


15 


Indiana 


E 


23 


Pennsylvania 


C 


52 


Indiana 


K 


6 


Michigan 


F 


1 


Nebraska 


G 


7 


Kansas 


E 


19 


Kentucky 


H 


78 


Illinois 


A 


■37 


Illinois 


I) 


II 


Michigan 


G 


83 


Pennsylvania 


C 


80 


Indiana 




48 


Ohio 


E 


IO 


Indiana 


E 


47 


Illinois 


B 


45 


Iowa 


B 


3 


Kentucky 


K 


C 


Illinois 




124 


Indiana 


A 


3 1 


Massachusetts 


C 


106 


Indiana 


E 


14 


Illinois 


K 


'53 


Ohio 


C 


10 


Illinois 


D 


7 


Iowa 


C 


22 


Illinois 


K 


' 75 


Indiana 


C 


S 


Minnesota 



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29O RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Names Rank Company 

Reynolds, Charles Private F 

Reid, Nathan Private A 

Ramsey, William A Private H 

Richards, N Captain H 

Rogers, James Bugler C 

Riddell, A. J Private C 

Reed, ]. D Private D 

Russell, Matthew Private B 

Richart, Henry Private E 

Rogers, George F Private H 

Roberts, John Sergeant A 

Risley, John Private D 

Reynolds, Jesse Sergeant D 

Rodrick, J. P Private E 

Reville, T. P Private C 

Rogers, John Private F 

Ross, J. M. C Sergeant C 

Rose, W. A Sergeant C 

Robinson, J. W Private 

Radliff, William Sergeant 

Renfro, A. G. . . . '. Sergeant K 

Rallins, Isaac H 

Rowland, Perry Private B 

Reese, James M Private H 

Rehin, Hugo Sergeant K 

Rose, W. L Chaplain 

Reed, William N Private 

Ran, Jacob Sergeant M 

Ricks, A. T Private E 

Reed, S. M Private I 

Reed, John A Private A 

Rowland, R. H Musician F 

Royer, J. D Private G 

Ross, W. D. Private D 

Roland, Jacob Private 

Ruddick, John Private L 

Rohlman, Spencer Private D 

Reed, J. M Private L 



Reg. 


State 


122 


Illinois 


35 


Kentucky 


22 


Pennsylvania 


40 


Iowa 


10 


Illinois 


5 


New York 


7 


Illinois 


29 


Massachusetts 


21 


Missouri 


'5 


Illinois 


28 


United States 


67 


Illinois 


53 


Illinois 


1 


Ohio 




New York 


U3 


Illinois 




Missouri 


'3 


Iowa 


7 


Indiana 


1 


Wisconsin 


5 


Kentuckv 


10 


West Virginia 


9 


Ohio 


23 


Indiaua 


81 


Ohio 


16 


Illinois 


3 


Michigan 


1 


West Virginia 


17 


Ohio 


■5 


Iowa 


35 


Illinois 


92 


Ohio 


62 


Illinois 


08 


Pennsylvania 




Ohio 


1 


Ohio 


j 20 


Illinois 


7 


Indiana 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Names Rank 

Rogers, H Private 

Rice, A Private 

Rudy, J. S Private 

Rising, J. B Corporal 

Robinson, A. J Private 

Ritchie, W. H Private 

Richards, Henry Private 

Romig, P Sergeant 

Rise, G. H Sergeant 

Rich, W-. R Private 

Rugg, E. M. Private 

StaJey, J. A Corporal 

Sharp, M. L Private 

Shahan, J. N Private 

Sanders, G Private 

Shafer, A Private 

Sidlinger, S. H. ... Sergeant-Adjutant 

Sanders, M Private 

Shields, G. T Private 

Shields, G. T Private 

Smith, S. C Private 

St. John, John F Private 

Shottenkirk, C. F Corporal 

Shore, J. H Corporal 

Stambaugh, Jacob S Corporal 

Stinnett, Henry Private 

Sizelove, Joseph Musician 

Shrader, Casper Private 

Smith, H. W Private 

Smith, F. M Private 

Sprout, G. A Private 

Strong, T. V Sergeant 

Stephenson, Private 

Shuyler, John S Private 

Shuyler, Joseph A Private 

Saxton, G. W Fourth Corporal 

Shuyler, D. M First Lieutenant 

Secoy.'J. B. . . .Sergeant, First Major 



Company 


Re£. 


State 


D 


7 


Iowa 


C 


11 


Indiana 


F 


168 


Pennsylvania 


I 


6o 


New Yoik 


D 


'55 


Indiana 


E 


21 


Missouri 


6 


40 


Pennsylvania 


H 


14 


Ohio 


B 


82 


Indiana 


D 


168 


Ohio 


E 


IO 


Virginia 


A 
L 


10 
II 


Missouri 
Missouri 


F 


4> 


Tennessee 


E 


32 


Ohio 


Slaff 


125 


Ohio 


K 


125 


Ohio 


F 


10 


Iowa 


A 


I 


Illinois 


H 


14 


New Hampshire 


K 


15 


Iowa 


I 


21 


Illinois 


c 


6 


Kansas 


B 


84 


Illinois 


E 


29 


Indiana 


K 


"5 


Illinois 


D 


25 


Iowa 


A 


33 


Illinois 


H 


■35 


Indiana 


C 


2 


Indiana 


C 


1 


Missouri 


H 


4 


Indiana 


c, 


53 


Indiana 


c 


42 


Indiana 


B 


i°5 


Pennsylvania 


F. 


4 
51 


Indiana 
Wisconsin 



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£92 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Names Rank Company 

Shaf er, Peter Private F 

Smith, J. N Corpora! B 

Sears, William Private C 

Sewerd, A. G Corporal B 

Smith, R. P First Lieutenant QM. B 

Shurburn, J; R 

Stetler, B. M First Lieutenant A 

Sumner, Levi First Sergeant B 

Schamp, B. F Private F 

Sharer, Joe Sergeant E 

Schamp, A. V Private 

Sprowl, Simon Private A 

Sclioonover, John U Private E 

Stoalabarger, Reuben Private C 

Salmon, Isaiah K Private K 

Shumway, Edwin Corporal A 

Stiggins, T. J Private D 

Stuart, E. D A 

Swibyer, A. M Private D 

Shulty, John Private I 

Seward, J. R Private F 

Seeley, E Corporal D 

Show, D Private H 

Spencer, M. M Private E 

Sample, J. M Private 

Sharp, Job Private H 

Schneeberger, D Private G 

Sallee, John Corporal A 

Simons, Andrew .... Second Sergeant 1 

Sly, James Private C 

Spangler. F. M Private H 

Seward. Jesse E First Sergeant L 

Stevens, James A Corporal K 

Stallman. F. H ; Private C 

Shaddock, Robert B Private I 

Schardine, John Private C 

Strohl. A.J Private F 

Swope. George J Private E 





Illinois 


16 


Illinois 


9 


Iowa 


24 


Indiana 


SO 


Wisconsin 




Missouri 


143 


Pennsylvania 


7 


Iowa 


47 


Missouri 


99 


■ Indiana 




Pennsylvania 


8 


Indiana 


3 


Iowa 


40 


Iowa 


3 


Michigan 


32 


Illinois 


160 


New York- 


161 


Pennsylvania 


■65 


Ohio 


3 


Indiana 


9 


Kentucky 


iS 


New York- 


2 


Ohio 


20 


Iowa 


14 


Michigan 


2 


Iowa 


I 


California 


76 


Illinois 


18 


Kentucky 


22 


Michigan 


IO7 


Illinois 


1 1 


Kentucky 


I I 


Indiana 


77 


Pennsylvania 


9 


New York 


ii 


Indiana 


44 


Indiana 


76 


Illinois 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



293 



Names Rank Company Reg. State 

Spann, Harry C Private B 14 Michigan 

Ship, Preston Private G 133 Indiana 

Smith, Ichabod First Sergeant C 89 Indiana 

Schamp, R. G Private F 44 Indiana 

Smith, Sylva Private F 112 New York 

Shulto, Marion Private C 124 Ohio 

Skinner, J. \V Private G 4 Illinois 

Saunders, J. M Private C 10 Missouri 

Stone, J. S Musician F 40 Iowa 

Sigerson, William . .Hospital Steward 6 months during war with Mexico 

Sigerson, William Sergeant E 1 Arkansas 

Seward, G. A Private B 52 Kentucky 

Shepard, J. L Private B 58 Indiana 

Stocking, H Private G 107 New York 

Smith, E. W Private C 68 Indiana 

Smedley, Richard Private G 23 Ohio 

Seltzer, D Private K 64 Ohio 

Smith, M. C Private K 10 Michigan 

Smiley, Robert Private B 4 Pennsylvania 

Smith, J. T Private E 67 Indiana 

Shapley, W. H Private A 6 Maryland 

Stark. F. E Private I 4 Ohio 

Sinclair, Jesse Chief Gunner A 3 Ohio 

Seagraves, W. I Private G 57 Indiana 

Smith. W. F Private K 89 Ohio 

Sizelove, -William Private M 2 Illinois 

Sumner, O. L Private B 2 Illinois 

Shrenk, John Private I 9 Ohio 

Seams, W. G Private B 47 Kentucky 

Smith, John R Private B 130 New York 

Seihert, J. F Assistant Engineer - - ... Missouri 

Stephens, W. H Private H 22 Michigan 

Sain, George \Y Private D 17 Illinois 

Smith, J. N Corporal B 16 Illinois 

Scurlock, Allen ... 

Stewart, James Sergeant D 13 Pennsylvania 

Stephenson, J. A Corporal K 11 Indiana 

Surey, William Private I 123 Ohio 



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194 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Names Rank Company 

Slavyenhof, E. M Private G 

Stokes, C. S Sergeant F 

Sampson, Samuel Sergeant 

Stotts, E Private K 

St. John, I. P Sergeant K 

Smith, I. L Private K 

Smith, J. H Private 

Stephenson, W. S Private H 

Shafer, 

Scott, I Captain H 

Stewart, J. N Private G 

Tunnell, L. B Private F 

Taylor, M. W 2nd Sergeant F 

Taylor, Calvin Major 

Theobald, Joseph Private E 

Tibbitts, William Private H 

Tucker, George B Sergeant I 

Tapp, James B Private K 

Tishue, William R Private H 

Terrell, Edmond Corporal G 

Tedrick, M. Corporal D 

Teeter, W. L Private J 

Trimble, J. M Private G 

Thomas, Martin 2nd Corporal G 

Tester, Joseph Private G 

Thomas, W. A Private D 

Thomas, W. A Private D 

Taylor, David Sergeant C 

Totten, Trustimqu B Corporal F 

Turbush. George Private K 

Tollman, D Private E 

Taylor, T. T Brevt. Brig. General 

Thomas. W. H Private H 

Thomas, G. W Private D 

Terry, Joel F Private F 

Turner, Dennis Private H 

Teter, Jonathan Private F 

Taft, S. F Private K 



Reg. 


State 


155 


Pennsylvania 


3 


Wisconsin 


5 


Massachusetts 


I 


Ohio 


'5 


Iowa 


*33 


Ohio 




Pennsylvania 


4 


Indiana 


SO 


Indiana 


94 


Illinois 


122 


Illinois 


10 


Iowa 


25 


Iowa 


i 


Illinois 


13 


Illinois 


3 


Massachusetts 


83 


Illinois 


6 


West Virginia 


3 


Illinois 


92 


Ohio 


28 . 


Iowa 


103 


Pennsylvania 


57 


Indiana 


■ 8 


Kentucky 


•3 


United States 


8 


United States 


22 


United States 


44 


Indiana 


8 


Vermont 


20 


Iowa 


47 


Ohio 


100 


Illinois 


5' 


Pennsylvania 


8^ 


Illinois 


133 


Illinois 


94 


Illinois 


3 


Missouri 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Names Hank 

Terry, George F Private 

Tharp, Zeno 5th Corporal 

Tryon, Ephraim Private 

Tippetts, John M Surgeon 

Thompson, W. H Private 

Trace, James Private 

Taft, Charles Private 

Thomas, Stephen Private 

. Themas, F Corporal 

Tuttle, James Private 

Tuttle, Jiidson Private 

Turtle, A. C Private 

Thotnal, H. A Corporal 

Cngles, Robert B Private 

L'nderwood, Win. R Private 

Underwood, Theo. W Private 

Ungles, M. J Private 

Vessels, Elijah Private 

Vatighan, \Y. B Private 

Van Emmon, \V. J Private 

Van Natlian, Nelson Private 

Van Xatlian, T Private 

Vincent, J. B Private 

Vest. John Private 

Vandolah, John S Private 

Vanhorn, David Private 

Van Campen, N. F Private 

Vincent, \V. G Sergeant 

Vessels, Thomas Private 

Vick, L. A Private 

Vanviker, M. D Private 

Vanbibber. M. H 2nd Corporal 

Vance. Samuel Private 

Wenstow, H Private 

Woddell, r. N Corporal 

Wright, D. M Private 

Weaver, Henry W Private 

Wisdom, A. S Private 



Company 


Keg. 


State 


K 


131 


Indiana 


A 


34 


Iowa 


K 


161 


Ohio 




>3 


Pennsylvania 


K 


78 


Illinois 


D 


169 


Ohio 


A 


11 


Missouri 


K 


189 


Ohio 


K 


91 


Illinois 


C 


64 


New York 


C 


1 


Wisconsin 


C 


18 


Indiana 


E 


9 


Tennessee 


I 


■7 


Illinois 


F 


75 


Indiana 


B 


■38 


Indiana 


C 


I02 


Illinois 


E 


6 


Indiana 


L 


*3 


Iowa 


F . 


'5 


Illinois 


F 


39 


Missouri 


C 


50 


Missouri 


H 


5i 


Indiana 


K 


139 


Ohio 


I 


33 


Iowa 
Ohio 


B 


I 


New York 


H 


14 


Illinois 


I 


148 


Indiana 


K 


10 


Illinois 


A 


72 


Indiana 
West Virginia 


E 


16 


Illinois 


G 


19 


Illinois 


E 


12 


Ohio 


C 


"5 


Illinois 


I 


28 


Iowa 


A 


50 


Wisconsin 



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^96 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Names Rank Company 

Wentz, Lewis H Private K 

Wolf, Roman Private C 

Worthington, Joseph Private D 

Wilson, M. W Private G 

Wallace, William Private 

Willard, C. N Private A 

Wright, Jonathan Private G 

Wray, C. H Corporal . B 

Wall, W Private E 

Wright, J. W Private B 

Wright, G. W Corporal C 

White, H. S Private A 

Wiley, G. G -. Private C 

Wirt, S. M Lieutenant Colonel 

Wagner, A Private B 

Wiley, F. M Corporal G 

Woods, G. D Private 

Wheeler. J. W Private F 

Wilkinson, C. C *. Sergeant C 

Winsor, David ......... ., . Corporal B 

Winsor, G. R. ' Sergeant B 

Winsor, James Private B 

Wolf, W Private I 

Wright, B. F Private K 

Walker, J. P Private C 

Wheeler, William S Private H 

Willis, Joseph Private H 

Whitinger, Jacob Private E 

Williams, James S Sergeant F 

Worthington, Joseph Private K 

Williams, U. G Private H 

Wilson, M Private C 

Wyman, Silas D Wagon Master C 

Witherow, Q. A Corporal I 

Whitney, Barney Private F 

Wakins, William A Captain K 

White, Levi First Lieutenant I 



Reg. 


State 


3 


Virginia 


193 


Ohio 


32 


Illinois 


2 


Iowa 


6 


Iowa 


1 


Illinois 


■S.1 


Ohio 


120 


Indiana 


8 


Indiana 


152 


Illinois 


94 


Illinois 


■5 


Kansas 


76 


Ohio 


39 


Missouri 




Iowa 


■23 


Illinois 




Pennsylvania 


105 


Illinois 


1 


Indiana 


97 


New York 


97 


New York 


97 


New York 


94 


Ohio 


43 


Illinois 


i<fi 


Indiana 


10 


West Virginia 


■7 


Iowa 


45 


Iowa 


9 


Kentucky 


8.1 


Illinois 


28 


Illinois 


36 


Iowa 


"7 


Indiana 


94 


Illinois 


79 


Pennsylvania 


76 


Illinois 


III 


New York 



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KENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Names Rank < 

White, Levi M Private 

White, John A Private 

Wheeler, John O First Lieutenant 

Weigel, Jacob Private 

Wright, William T Private 

Walters, Christo A 

Willis, L. Mortimer Private 

Wilson, Smith ist Sergeant 

White, Charles Musician 

Wolganiate, Jacob Private 

Wisert, J. C Private 

Wells, William M Corporal 

Wolfersberger, Isaac Private 

Weigle, Lewis Private 

Wasnock, Simeon Private 

Wallace, William H ' . . Private 

Willard, Samuel Private 

White, Joseph Private 

Wilcox, J. K Corporal 

White, John E Private 

Wright, B. F Private 

Waggoner, J. H Private 

Withroder, A. M Private 

Walker, J. W Private 

Wyman, David Private 

Worthington, E Private 

Warne, W Private 

Warren, E. E Private 

Wagner, Gustave Private 

Williamson, L. N Private 

Wilson, Garretson Private 

Waller, W Corporal 

Waterberger, S -. . Private 

Waynian, J. M Sergeant 

Warren, G. W Private 

Wright, D. M Private 

Young, J. H Private 



■npany 


Reg. 


State 


E 


"5 


Illinois 


E 


IO 


Illinois 


I 


98 


Illinois 


I 


76 


Pennsylvania 


K 


8 


Iowa 
Pennsylvania 


B 


27 


Connecticut 


G 


11 


, Pennsylvania 


I 


11 


New York 


I 


86 


Illinois 


A 


192 


Ohio 


F 


5 


Pennsylvania 


A 


10 


Pennsylvania 


W 


[ 5 


Pennsylvania 


A 


48 


Iowa 


H 


2 


Tennessee 


A 


■34 


Illinois 


A 


55 


Illinois 


D 


118 


Illinois 


F 


165 


Pennsylvania 


H 


2 9 


Indiana 


I 


1 


United States 


I 


81 


Illinois 


E 




Indiana 


K 


2 3 


Indiana 


G 


155 


Illinois 


H 


151 


Indiana 


E 


8 


Ohio 


B 




Iowa 


K 


3.1 


Missouri 


C 


36 


Iowa 


H 


IO 


West Virginia 


G 


183 


Ohio 


H 


I3O 


Indiana 


B 


20 


Indiana 


C 


115 


Illinois 


K 


13' 


Illinois 



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i9§ ■ RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Names Rank Company 

Yoakum, M. C. : Private H 

Yiist, F. S Private A 

Yust, Frederick J Corporal A 

Yeager, W. J Sergeant D 

Yoush, Jacob Private B 

Yearout, J. J Private M 

Zimmerman, S. B Lieut. Artillery H 



Reg. 


State 


45 


Ohio 


21 


Missouri 


21 


Missouri 


36 


Ohio 


28 


Illinois 


2 


Tennessee 



8th U. S. Army. 



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CHAPTER XXXIX. 
State Militia — Company E. 

The first military company of Reno county was organized on August 
12, 1873. The occasion, of its organization was a reported raid of Indians 
and the killing of some hunters near Medicine Lodge. The company was 
organized very hurriedly. Charles Collins was sheriff of Reno county at the 
time and was placed in command of the company. The state hurried guns 
and ammunition to Hutchinson as soon as the reported raid was made known 
to the adjutant general. William Astle was elected first lieutenant and A. 
M. Switzer, second lieutenant. All were old soldiers, then in the prime of 
life. Great difficulty was had in getting enough horses to equip the com- 
pany. There is no record of the number of men that went out to Medicine 
Lodge. The company, as soon as it was organized and equipped, left for the 
Indian country. They were gone three weeks, but saw no Indians, but found 
the bodies of James Crippen and his father, William Crippen ; a man by the 
name of Kimes, another one. Will Boles, and a surveyor from Lawrence, who 
was a member of the hunting party, whose name can not now be ascertained. 
They buried the bodies close to where they were found, and brought back to 
Hutchinson some of the load of buffalo hides the party had obtained and 
loaded. 

This was the only time a military company ever saw any service in the 
early days. The company disbanded as soon as the danger from Indians 
was supposed to be over and the following spring the guns and other equip- 
ment sent to Hutchinson from Topeka, were returned to the adjutant general 
of the state. This company never had a name and perhaps there is no record 
in the military history of the state of this expedition, except that of the 
loss of some guns and some rounds of ammunition that they have charged up 
to "Captain Collins." It is very probable that the members of the company ■ 
thought that the guns and ammunition would be of more service in Reno 
county, shooting game than they would be in Shawnee county, and the only 
record there is to offset this "shortage" is, "guns lost, ammunition used." 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



HOME GUARD COMPANY ORGANIZED. 



■ In 1878 a military company was organized at Langdon. It was more of 
a "Home Guard" organization than a military company. No record remains 
of the officers of this company. The occasion was a reported "Indian raid." 
which started in some wild stories of settlers toward the southwest. It 
resulted in a panic of the farmers to get to some place of protection. Fami- 
lies were loaded into wagons, women left their bread in the ovens, men left 
their horses in the barns, except the ones they drove, while everybody was 
chasing to refuge. There never was any cause for this scare, as there were no 
Indians within a hundrd miles of Langdon. The excitement soon died down 
and the "Military Company of Langdon" exists only as a story that is told. 



ORGANIZATION OF COMPANY E. 



In May, 1890, Company E of the Second Regiment, Kansas National 
Guard, as it now exists, was organized in Hutchinson. It was mustered into 
the service of the state on August 25, 1890. R. A, Campbell was captain; 
F. L. Martin, first lieutenant and Frank 1). Roberts, second lieutenant. The 
company was armed with the old Springfield rifles, which were soon replaced 
with Krag-Jorgenson rifles, and these in time replaced by the present Spring- 
field rifle. The company was sent to Seward county on January 5. 1892, to 
help preserve |>eace in a county-seat "war" that had resulted from a county- 
seal contest. They were out eleven days. Martin and Roberts resigned and 
Carr W. Taylor was made first lieutenant and Frank W. Beam, second lieu- 
tenant. Taylor soon resigned and Beam was made first lieutenant and A. VV. 
Hagan, second lieutenant. The latter soon resigned. T. R. Campbell was 
promoted to I'^ageu's place and in 1895 was elected captain of the company, 
on the promotion of R. A. Camplwll, his father, to be lieutenant-colonel of 
the regiment. T. R. Beebe was made second lieutenant in 1895. He soon 
resigned and Edward A. Campbell, another son of R. A. Campbell, who went 
to the Philippines in 1898, was appointed first lieutenant. C. L. Hawley was 
elected second lieutenant in 1896. serving a short time, when he was succeeded 
by Dorr Thompson, who resigned and was elected captain of the company in 
1898. This company had a second call when they were sent to Greensburg. 
Kansas, to protect from mob violence a man charged with murder. There 
was hut little reason for the call, for the militia and the company returned 
to Hutchinson on the evening of the day they reached Greensburg. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 3OI 

MUSTERED INTO UNITED STATES SERVICE. 

Company E did not go into service in a body, but was mustered out in 
December, 1898, being reorganized in May, 1899, with T. R. Campbell, cap- 
tain; Matthew Smith, first lieutenant; Chester Roberts, second lieutenant. 
Campbell was promoted to major in 1901. He was succeeded by J. T. Law- 
son. During this time Alfred H. I'oe. Charles S. -Meece. David Baxter and 
Howard Sheeley were lieutenants in the company. J. C. Newman succeeded 
Lawson as captain and Rodney J. Kessler was made first lieutenant. Kessler 
resigned and Fred L. Lemmon became captain of the company on September 
2i, 1908, and has been captain of the company since his selection. 

Company E was mustered into the United States service on May 12, 
1898, as a part of the Twenty-first Regiment, Kansas Volunteer Infantry. 
On May 17, 1898, the regiment left Topeka for Fort Lysle, Georgia, where it 
went into camp and remained there until August 25. 1898. There was much 
sickness in this camp and twenty deaths from typhoid fever resulted. On 
August 25 the regiment was sent to Camp Hamilton, Kentucky. The regi- 
ment remained there until September 25, 1898, when it was ordered to Ft. 
Leavenworth. Kansas, where it was furloughed and finally mustered out on 
December 10, 1898. Below is the roster of the company at the time of its 
service during the Spanish-American War: 

Company E. 

Captain, Dorr Thompson. 

First Lieutenant, James V. Brown. 

Second Lieutenant, Charles S. Gibbens. 

First Sergeant, James F. Lawson. 

Quarter Master Sergeant. Edward A. Heffner, Frank L. Huxtable. 

Sergeants, Edward Swift, Clyde J. Botkin, Frank Nicholson. Elmer 
Kenoyer. 

Corporals, Roy C. Whitney. Lawrence Meece. William H. Heffner. 
Harry Squire, Charles H. Shaw, Percy F. Godley, William H. Elder, Jaines 
K. Moon, William H. Erwin. John M. Garrison. Hiram M. Dolby. William 
H. Ashley, Frank H. VlcKee, Benjamin A. Fleming. 

Musicians, Marion A. Kelley. Teddie W. White, Charles C. Hoag. Earl 
R. Benson. 

Artificers, John G. Willard, Edward S. Patton. 

Wagoner. Jaines O. Messinger. 

Cook, Joseph R. Marr. 



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302 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Privates, Albert R. Atkinson (died in division hospital, September ti, 
1890, of typhoid fever), William H. Ashley, Frank J. Baker, Walter 
Baker, William A. Barnes, Harry Barton, Samuel Bedford, Owen Bick- 
ford, Ethan E. Bringle, Frank C. Brown. Albert A. Buck, Charles W. Brown, 
Earl R. Benson, Gilbert L. Callard. Robert A. Campbell, Dexter Chambers, 
Richard J. Coleman, Andrew Crichton, William Campbell, Herbert Davis, 
Ernest W. Day, Richard Devine, John A. H. Devitt, Ernest DeWalt, William 
E. Duke, Hiram M. Dolby, Riifus Edwards, Frank J. Ekey, Judd L. Elliott. 
Albert B. Eales (died in division hospital, Aug. 17, 1898, of typhoid fever), 
William H. Eider, William H. Erwin, Henry Fey, Robert P. Frost, Benjamin 
A. Fleming, William G. Gordinier, Bruce F. Grimm, Herbert M. 
Grubbs, John M. Garrison, Edward A. Heffner, Charles W. Holsapple, 
James Hamilton. Leonard C. Harry. Charles C. Hoag, Frank L. 
Huxtable, Irwin M. Ivey, Marion A. Kelley, William T. Kincade. 
Thomas Kirk, George D. Koon, -Thomas H. Kesner, deserted August 20. 
1898; Dwight T. Lawson, Samuel E. Lowe, Charles E. McCormtck, Horace 
Matherly, Lawrence Meece, William E. Munson, Algernon R. Murphy, Rob- 
ert C. Myers, James K. Moon, Frank H. McKce, Joseph R. Marr, Ray- 
mond Nally, Levi A. O'Hara. William E. Pinnell. Edward S. Patton, Albert 
M. Rardin. William F. Redman, Carl D. Rice, John W. Roberts, William G. 
Robertson. Arthur C. Rogers. Joseph Rogers, Frank M. Raner, George 
Schlegel, Chris W. Scbrader, John H. Schrant, Charles H. Shaw. Hiram 
S. Shaw, Eads E. Shive. Burtie E. Shultz, Walter S. Simms, Matthew Smith, 
Ross L. Snyder, Charles Sommers, Charles A. Starr, Clarence Taylor, Cyrus 
C. Taylor. Morgan M. Tolle. Levi H. Tuttle, Joseph H. Van Dorsten. Clar- 
ence E. Warren, Teddie W. White, John G. Willard, Charles M. Wilson. 
Frank Wilson, Alfred Yaughgar. 

SECOND CALL TO SERVICE. 

Company E received its second call to service on June 19, 1916. It 
was sent to Ft. Riley on June 23, 1916. and was mustered into the service 
of the L'nited States on June 26, 1916. The regiment left Ft. Riley for 
Eagle Pass, Texas, on July T. 1916, arriving there on July 3. The regi- 
ment was assigned to the Twelfth Army Division and was ordered to join 
that division at San Antonio, Texas, making the trip in motor trucks; leav- 
ing Eagle Pass on Septeml>er 6, 1916, and making the one hundred and 
eight v miles in two days' time. The division was sent overland from San An- 
antonio to Austin, Texas, making the distance in fourteen days. It consisted of 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 303 

fourteen thousand men and six thousand horses. The regiment was ordered 
North on October 24, 1916, and was mustered out of the service on Novem- 
ber 12, 1916, at Ft. Riley, Kansas. Company E automatically reverted to 
its former state as Company E, Second Regiment, Kansas National Guard. 
The following is a roster of Company E as it stood at the time of its second 
call to service, on June 19. 1916: 

Captain, Fred L. Lemon. 

First Lieutenant, Durward J. Wilson. 

Second Lieutenant, Walter W. Brown. 

First Sergeant, Harvey R. Rankin. 

Mess Sergeant, Rex C. Houston. 

Supply Sergeant, Lee R. McMullen. 

Sergeants, Clarence T. Mather, Donald P. Stewart, Dalbert W. Mitchell, 
Charles O. Souder, Thomas D. Horr, Louis D. White. 

Corporals, Earl K. Risley, Albert Wickendoll, Fred A. Hadel, Roy H. 
Newton, Bert V. DaVolt. Claude M. Hall. Donald C. Potter, Elton E. Giles, 
Morris J. Tucker. 

Mechanic, Leonard A. Gibbs. 

Cooks, Wither R. Lee, Lloyd B. Cox. 

Buglers, Paul L. Black, Robert L. Shields. 

Privates, First Class. Seth J. Abbott, Harry G. Buettner, Charles G. 
Diehl, Leon L. Foster, Lester O. Foster, George E. Hobby, Fred W. King, 
Ernest W. Parmley, Edward \V, Payne. Ralph F. Peck. Ivan G. Ramsey, 
William F. Smither, Howard E. Strobe!. Joseph L. Ulmer, Frank A. 
Vaughan, John Vogt, Leo Ward. William S. Weir, Charles E. Williams, 

Privates, Paul L. Barstow, John A. Black, Clayton W. Brace, Charles 
R. Brundige. George H. Burdick, James W. Campbell, Clarence C. Chapin, 
Dale L. Crippen, John F,. Davidson. Holiart Edwards, William F. Gabbert, 
Frederick E. Goodrich, George W. Goodrich, Philip W. Hairier, Ralph R. 
Hart, Roscoe O. Hawkins, Joseph F. Harrington, Bert L. Hicks. Floyd H. 
Hobson, Edgar E. Howe, Roy A. Howe, John R. Jewell, Earl H. King, 
■ Archie D. McCollum. Norman W. Miller, Davis E. Parsons. Verner B, 
Porter, Charlie L. Seaman, Harry H. Stephens. Grant Stewart, Albert N. 
Stockton, Harvey *W. Ulmer, Hubert L. Waggerman, James H. Weaver, 
William J. Whitehead. James H. Woods. Charles L. Zumalt. 

MACHINE-GUN COMPANY. SKCONFJ INt-'ANTRY, KANSAS NATIONAL GUARD. 

The Machine-Gun Company was located at Hutchinson through the 
influence of Guy C. Rexroad, at the beginning of the year 1916. The first 



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304 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

drill was held on January 17, 1916. Lieutenant Rexroad received his com- 
mission as second lieutenant on March 6, 1916. At that time the Machine- 
Gun Company was composed of members detailed from other organizations 
and the regiment commissary captain was ex-officio captain of the Machine- 
Gun Company. Capt. C. S. Gibbons, of Nickerson. was regiment commander 
and therefore captain of the Machine-Gun Company. Under the direction 
of these two officers the company was brought up to a high state of effi- 
ciency when the call for border service came on June 19. 1916. 

The company left Hutchinson for Ft. Riley on June 2$, 1916, with 
its full strength of fifty-three men. Captain Gibl>ons failing to pass the 
physical examination, was succeeded as captain by Jerry C. Springstead, of 
Topeka, then ranking as colonel in the guard in the paymaster's depart- 
ment. Meanwhile the law making the Machine Gun Company a separate 
and independent unit of the regiment was passed and the complement of the 
company placed at fifty-three enlisted men and four officers, a captain, first 
lieutenant and two second lieutenants. 

The company was mustered into the service of the United States at Ft. 
Riley and left for the border at Eagle Pass with the regiment on July 1, 
1916. Soon after reaching Eagle Pass, Second Lieut. Frank J. Benscoter, 
of Hutchinson, and Second Lieut. William H. Burgener, of Newton, both 
of the supply company of the Second Regiment were transferred to the 
Machine-Gull Company, Lieutenant Rexroad having been promoted to first 
lieutenant on July 1. 

The company made the trip from Eagle Pass to San Antonio by motor 
truck and took part in the march from San Antonio to Austin and return. 
came North with the regiment and was mustered out at Ft. Riley on Novem- 
ber 12, 1916, and returned to Hutchinson on November 14, 1916. 

As the Machine-Gun Company is now constituted the men are armed 
with automatic pistols in addition to the machine-guns. The company con- 
sists of two platoons and each platoon is armed with two machine-guns. 
Each of these guns is capable of firing six hundred shots per minute ami 
is estimated to equal fifty rifles. The guns and equipment were carried 
on pack mules and the Hutchinson company became very efficient in packing 
and caring for its equipment. 

Captain Springstead has been transferred to another department, leav- 
ing the company under the command of Lieutenant Rexroad. who was in 
actual command nearly all the time on the border. Captain Springstead 
being occupied much of the time with other duties. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 305 

ROSTER OF THE MACHINE-GUN COMPANY. 

The following is a complete roster of the Machine-Gun Company at 
the time it was mustered out of service on November 12, 1916: 

First lieutenant, Guy C. Rexroad, commanding company ; second lieu- 
tenant, Frank J. Benscoter ; second lieutenant. Carl B. Schmidt ; first ser- 
geant, Robert A. Campbell ; mess sergeant, Edward C. Clickner ; supply ser- 
geant, Bertram J. Ayres ; stable sergeant, Lester W. Huston ; sergeants, 
Ezra J. Wilson, John J. Barthold, James H. Holdeman, Ray W. Brown, 
Roy F. Parsons; corporals, Arthur L. Maltby, Hal. H. Crocheron, James 
B. Lynas, Edward W. McKee, Walter D. Hyatt, Howard J. Bates ; horse- 
shoer, George S. Middlehurst; mechanic, Earl C. Warnock; buglers, Karl F. 
Schonholz, Frank E. Woodmanse ; cooks, Harry B. Reynolds, Bert C. Butcser : 
privates, first class, Roy M. Crow, Marcus G. Keedy, Alfred A. Massoni, 
Arba F. Richards, Leslie L. Shawhan, Ray F. Brown, Darrell P. Hagaman, 
John H. Ferguson; privates, Ray W. Arnold, Chester I. Bates, Vern O. 
Bobey, Harry Elmes, Martin E. Everett, Paul F. Fick, Karl M. Harmon, 
Floyd M. Jackson, Roy V. Johnson, Harland D. Kimzey, Frank L. Lloyd, 
Verl J. McKenzie, William S. Nelson, Gerald Rexroad, Ned M. Rider, Ray 
E. Sniffer, Lee Slate. George W. Winters. 



(20) 



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CHAPTER XL. 
Community Music. 

The early settlers were not without their pleasures. They had more 
leisure than their successors, for business matters were not so pressing and 
social matters received more attention than they do now. Formality was 
less observed than now and everyone in the county knew his neighbor. It 
was pioneer days and they enjoyed pioneer ways. 

Social gatherings were common. In the early days religious gatherings 
were largely attended. Music was one of the features of church work. 
The musician was in constant demand for church services, for funerals and 
for entertainments of all kinds. There were a few persons who could always 
be relied upon to help out in the service, of whatever nature it might be. It 
would be a difficult matter to place a value on the services of a singer who 
was always ready and willing to help with the voice. The uplifting influence 
of one good singer in a county— the refining influence that comes from such 
a person— has more to do with the character of the county than has ever 
been told. 

In the early days of Reno county there were a number of persons who 
had good voices and who were always ready to help along. Among them 
were Nettie Burrell, now Mrs. Joe Talbott ; Mrs. A. W. Innes, now of 
Waukegan, Illinois ; Mrs. Dr. Lucas ; Mr. Wall and B. S. Hoagland. Per- 
haps a quartette of these singers has sung for more public entertainments, 
church services and funerals than any other quartette that ever was organ- 
ized in the county. For twelve years they sang regularly in one of the 
churches. It mattered not what denomination wanted their help in any 
special music and it mattered not what services they had rendered that day, 
they were always ready and willing. They have a record of two church 
services, one special Sunday school service and three funerals in one day. 
Without a charge of any kind, they did their work for the good of the com- 
munity. 

One of the earliest music teachers in the county was Prof. W. F. Oakes. 
He was a fine pianist and also a splendid violinist. He stayed in Hutchin- 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 307 

son for many years and his services both as a teacher and entertainer were 
in constant demand. 

The first public concert was given in 1875 in the Presbyterian church. 
Among the soloists were T. F. Leidigh, G. V. Ricksecker and B. S. Hoag- 
land. A year or so later the cantata, "Queen Esther/' was given by Hutchin- 
son musicians. Among those who participated in this musical entertainment 
were Mrs. C. A, Robb, Dr. A. W. McCandless, L. T. Woodrow, Mrs. Lyda 
Rogers and Mrs. H. Whiteside. These were some of the occasions in which 
the community interests were considered. They were the beginnings of gen- 
eral interest of the entire public in musical matters. Of course there were 
numerous other musical events, but these were the most pretentious. 

On Thanksgiving day, 1892, a big concert was arranged at the audi- 
torium, then located at Riverside park. The principal feature of this con- 
cert was a children's chorus of one thousand two hundred and ninety-seven 
voices. Patriotic songs and school and religious songs were on the pro- 
gram. The purpose of this concert was to raise money with which to pay 
the local expenses of the State Christian Endeavor Union that was to be 
held in Hutchinson the following summer. There was one soloist that day, 
who afterwards became mayor of the city and is now at the head of a trust 
company, T.ouis E. Fontron, then but a young man. He sang the solo part 
of "Throw Out the Life Line," the chorus and audience all joining in the 
chorus. It was an inspiring sight and public interest in this class of public 
entertainments was aroused and was responsible for the largest musical event 
that Kansas has ever known, "The Musical Jubilee." 

L. A. Rigger, then owner of the street car line (only a horse-car line at 
that time) and who saw how greatly it would benefit the city and help him 
keep the car line in operation which was barely making operating expenses, 
proposed to finance the preliminary organization that it would take to estab- 
lish the jubilee as a state-wide musical event. B. S. Hoagland was selected 
as secretary of the jubilee committee and general field agent and manager 
of the matter. It was arranged through Theodore Thomas, director of the 
World's Fair music, to appoint a committee of ladies to have charge of 
the first jubilee. Back of the World's Fair proposition was the Hutchin- 
son Jubilee, providing the place and prizes for the contests. All the rail- 
roads of the state joined in a low rate and Hutchinson became the musical 
center of Kansas. The committee who had charge of the jubilee were Mrs. 
Gaston Boyd, of Newton; Mrs. A. M. Dunlap, of Lawrence; Mrs. G. H. 
Parkhttrst, of Topeka; Mrs. H. W. Hodges, of Abilene; Mrs. S. W. Jones 



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308 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

and Mrs. Kate Blunt, of Leavenworth; Mrs. Garst, of Wichita, and Mrs. 
S. C. Cross, of Emporia. The State Music Teachers' Association met that 
year at Lawrence and they also joined in the enterprise. 

The prizes were for ladies' choruses, male choruses and for solos, duets 
and quartettes. Instrumental contests were also provided for the piano, 
violin, pipe organ and other instruments. 

The street car company guaranteed two thousand dollars for the 
expense of the meeting. The Commercial Club also joined in the guarantee 
and raised the necessary guaranty to push the matter to the end. 

The result was that the greatest anticipations of the most enthusiastic 
were more than realized. There were mixed choruses of over a hundred 
from Emporia, Newton, Topeka, Leavenworth, Hutchinson, Anthony, 
Abilene and Salina. There were also ladies' choruses present from Wichita 
and Newton. There were dozens of entries in all of the other contests and 
it I>ecame necessary to continue the contests into the night to get through 
with all of the contestants. In this contest, W. L. Tomlins, of Chicago, 
was the adjudicator of the choruses; Carl Busch, of Kansas City, was the 
vocal adjudicator, and H. C. Schultze, also of Kansas City, instrumental 
adjudicator. 

The jubilee ran eleven years. Ten of these years its was under the 
direction of B. S. Hoagland. He traveled over the state, keeping in touch 
with the musicians. He had a job for which he was eminently fitted and 
for which he had no competition. He had the ability to keep the notoriously 
hard bunch of high-grade musicians in working order. He kept down fac- 
tional jealousies. He anticipated the opposition of other towns which would 
like to have had the jubilees located in their city and for ten years he was 
the principal factor in the continuance of the big musical event. The 
eleventh year was one of disaster. H. E. Malloy was directing it after Mr. 
Hoagland declined to carry the load further, but, with no fault on the part 
of anyone, the jubilee was a failure. The big floods in eastern Kansas made 
railway travel impossible. Hutchinson was experiencing one of the three 
occasions of a flood in Cow creek and it was a physical impossibility to carrv 
the jubilee through. 

So there were ten years of musical jubilees. During these ten years 
there were but two years when the jubilee did not pay all expenses and then 
it was but a few dollars shortage. There never was a time when all prizes 
in contests were not paid the last night of the jubilee. All of the judges' 
salaries were paid. There never was a time when there was the slightest 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 309 

question about everyone getting their money. Prizes were often paid when 
the strict construction of the rales of the contest did not require such pay- 
ment, but no technicality ever was allowed to prevail. Perhaps it was this 
feature as much as any, that held the support of those who lived outside 
of the city and who would perhaps have really favored some other place 
for the contest; the fact that Hutchinson business men guaranteed every- 
thing and made good that guaranty, kept other towns from organizing in 
competition. 

It is difficult now to comprehend the real value of those ten years of 
jubilees to Hutchinson and to Reno county. Outside of the increased inter- 
est in musical matters and the developing of the musical talent of the city 
and community, it had a financial value that was very great. In the ten 
years thousands of people came to attend the jubilees from points outside 
Hutchinson and Reno county. Special trains were provided every year to 
accommodate those who attended. The money they left in the city was 
no small item in those days, when crops were not so bountiful and when 
prosperity was not so general as it was at a later date. It kept alive one 
institution alone that could not possibly have survived the "hard times," 
and that was the street car' line. Without the added business of the jubilees, 
it could not have continued to operate. The present electric system is an 
outgrowth of the old car line, and it would not have been established. 

The interest in musical matters developed by the jubilees led to the 
present condition of "community music" and the voting of a small tax to 
support a "municipal band," which is one of the interesting features of 
Hutchinson life. This band gives a concert during the fall, winter and 
spring months in Convention hall every Sunday afternoon. The capacity 
of the building, four thousand five hundred, is nearly always used in these 
concerts, the average attendance being over four thousand weekly. There 
is no charge whatever for these concerts. The highest and the lowest, the 
wealthy and the poor, have equal access to it. It is an exceedingly popular 
institution and has a large part in the community life. During the summer 
months, when it would he uncomfortable in a building, this band plays one 
concert during each week, at some one of the various school yards of the 
city, enabling the people of each part of the city, without any expense and 
with little effort, to hear the music. It is without doubt a great help in 
adding to the common enjoyment. 



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CHAPTER XLI. 

Smaller Towns in Reno County. 

Hutchinson, of course, is the largest city in Reno county. Being the 
county .seat it has always had the. advantage and its location also has helped 
keep it growing. It has the outlet of railroads centering here and has enjoyed 
a steady growth ever since it was organized. Reno county has a number 
of smaller towns that have had a steady growth ever since they were laid 
out. The largest of these towns is Nickerson. It got its name from Thomas 
Nickerson, who was president of the Santa Fe Railroad Company at the 
time the town company was organized. It is ten miles northwest of Hutch- 
inson on the Santa Fe railroad and also on a branch of the Missouri Pacific 
that runs to Hoisington, where this branch line connects with the main line, 
east and west. 

NICKERSON. 

The original townsite of Nickerson was laid put one mile east of its 
present location in 1875. A depot was built on the old townsite in 1872 and 
the name of Nickerson was given to it. In the fall of 1872 the railroad 
company erected a house for the use of their section foreman. In the 
fall of 1874 a school house was built to accomodate the children of the 
settlers who had taken land close to Nickerson and in August, 1875, A. 
L. Reeves built a two-story building and opened up a stock of general 
merchandise in the store. In 1876 he sold his store and building to A. 
Seivert. This was the extent of the growth of "old" Nickerson. In 1878 
the present town of Nickerson was laid out on ground that was then in 
corn. A few days after the survey of the townsite James DeWitt began 
the foundation of a hotel which he called the Old Dominion House. Soon 
afterward A. L. Harlow began the building of a house for a hotel, which 
he called the Harlow House. Before either of these buildings were com- 
pleted, Reeves moved his old building from old Nickerson to the new town- 
site; hence, outside of a small building occupied by John Sears as a resi- 
dence, the building of Reeves was the first one on the present townsite of 
Nickerson. By March, 1879, Mr. Reeves had a number of buildings erected. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 31 1 

In October, 1878, M. McCormick erected a small building and used it 
for a drug store. Soon after Seivert & Smith had a general store in opera- 
tion. In a short time Nickerson had two hotels, a dozen stores of various 
kinds, two livery stables, two lumber yards, and a printing office. 

The postoffice of Nickerson was established in January, 1873. Amanda 
J. Sears was the first postmistress. The office was first opened up in a 
sod house in the southeast corner of the present townsite. The money- 
order system of the postoffice was -established in 1880. 

The first school in Nickerson was established in 1874 and the first term 
of the school was taught by Mary Kinney. In 1879 tne building was moved 
to the new townsite and was occupied until 1882, when the present two- 
story building was erected. 

The first newspaper issued in Nickerson was the Nickerson Argosy, 
the first copy of which was printed on December II, 1878. Sargent & Bow- 
man were the publishers. On February 12, 1879, Sargent purchased Bow- 
man's interest in the paper and ran the paper until September 10, of the same 
year, when he sold it to I. M. Bundy. 

Nickerson was incorporated as a city of the third class on June 7, 1879, 
and the following were the first officers under that organization: Mayor, 
L. A. Reeves; councilmen, M. McCormick, C. S. Brown, J. A. Moore, J. 
O. Smith and H. I. Nickerson. The first police judge of the city was D. 
D. Olmstead. 

Nickerson has had a slow growth since that time. It is now the seat 
of a county high school and has a number of prosperous stores in operation. 
Its population has increased, and it is a center of a good agricultural country. 

ARLINGTON. 

Arlington, named after the famous Heights of Arlington, is located 
eighteen miles southwest of Hutchinson on the Rock Island railroad. It 
was on the route of the "Sun City Trail" of early days and was a stopping 
place for haulers because of the abundance of the water and grass. Later 
it was close to the trail over which cattle were driven from Texas to Abi- 
lene. The townsite was laid off in August, 1877, by A. K. Barrel and 
G. T. Empey. The first building in the town was a three-story frame mill, 
which was operated by water from the Ninnescah. This building was thirty 
by forty feet. It had four buhrs and had a daily capacity of fifty barrels. 
It was operated for a number of years and was a great convenience to people 
living southwest of Hutchinson, offering the nearest flour supply they had. 



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312 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

The next building was a hotel known as the Arlington House, erected by 
P. Howell. The first postoffice was established on February 7, 1878, when 
H. H. Purdy was appointed the first postmaster. The first store estab- 
lished in this town was that of M. C. Rogers. The first school in Arling- 
ton was established in 1878. It was taught by Miss Juliet Courtright in a 
small building, privately owned. In the fall of 1879 a frame building was 
erected for school purposes and later on a brick building was erected. 

CASTLETON. 

Castleton is located twelve miles south of Hutchinson. It was laid out 
in 1872 by W. E. and C. C. Hutchinson. When it was first started Castle- 
ton was the first stop out on the Hutchinson, Kingman & Medicine Ijxlge 
state route. Today it is an important stopping point on the Hutchinson 
& Southern Railroad. The first building in the town, erected by William 
Wallace, was begun in July, 1872. It was used by William Wallace for 
years as a general store and residence. It received its name from Castleton, 
Vermont, where C. C. Hutchinson's wife was born. Today it is a j>oint 
for the shipment of grain and cattle. It has good country around it, but 
being so close to Hutchinson, its growth is necessarily limited to local 
demands. 

HAVEN. 

The town of Haven was laid out early in the year 1886. F. W. Ash, 
C. W. Peckham, Levi Charles and William Astle made an agreement with 
the Eagle Townsite Company, of Wichita, whereby two hundred acres of 
land was purchased dn which to build the town by the resident member 
of this town company. Part of the contract was that the Wichita rail- 
road, now the Missouri Pacific railroad, should be built to Haven, and in 
consideration of this the Eagle Town Company received fifty-one per cent, 
of the land purchased for the town. The town was named Haven after 
a postoffice located two miles east of the present town of that name. As 
soon as the new town was started the postoffice was moved to the present 
town of Haven. The old postoffice called Haven was one of the oldest 
in the county. 

The first lots in Haven were sold on April 12, 1886, and within sixty 
days Haven had sixty residences under construction and a bank organized. 
A creamery and lumber yard soon were added to the activities of the town. 

The first railroad train ran into Haven on July 4, 1886. The build- 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 3I 3 

ing of this road was a great convenience to the farmers, whose nearest 
market for their grain was Hutchinson, many of them having to haul their 
grain fifteen to twenty-five miles. Haven voted bonds to the amount of 
$25,000 to the railroad and took stock to an equal amount of the bonds. 
This road took up this stock on a reorganization plan and paid Haven 
township sixty per cent, of the face of the stock of $15,000, under an 
arrangement similar to the one spoken of in the chapter on Hutchinson, a 
city of the second class. 

Haven was incorporated in 1891 and C. W. Astle was its first mayor. 
Haven is surrounded by some of the best land to be found anywhere in the 
West. It is a great wheat-producing territory and a grain market has grown 
up in that country that handles nearly a half million bushels of wheat a 
year and half that amount of corn. In addition to the grain market, Haven 
has a fine live-stock market. Haven is a clean home town, prosperous and 
healthy. It has a fine system of schools, which the citizens foster and sup- 
port with a good deal of care. It has a good live newspaper and is one of 
the most prosperous towns in Reno county. 



Partridge is located close to the geographical center of the county. It 
was called, in the early days. Reno Center. There was a stage route through 
Reno Center in 1873. following the old trail to Medicine Lodge, one of 
the oldest trails in Reno county. Partridge now has both the Kinsley branch 
of the Santa Fe. and the Rock Island railroad. These roads from Hutch- 
inson diverge at Partridge, the Santa Fe joining the main line of that road 
at Kinsley and the Rock Island going on southwest to the Pacific coast. 

The name of the town was changed from Reno Center to Partridge in 
March. 1886, when the latter town was incorporated. Partridge has. a good 
country surrounding it. has elevators and facilities for handling grain and 
live stock and is one of the liest of the smaller towns in Reno county. 

ABBYVILLE. 

Abbyville is located on the Kinsley branch of the Santa Fe, west of 
Partridge. It was incorporated as a city of the third class on April 6, 1888. 
Like Partridge, it has a good country surrounding it and is the center of a 
prosperous community. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Directly west of Abbyville, on the Kinsley branch of the Santa Fe, is 
Plevna. It was established as a city of the third class on November 28, 1891. 
It has the usual facilities of a small town — a good school, churches, a bank, 
an elevator and an enterprising people. 



Langdon was incorporated on April 20, 1887. It is located west of 
Arlington on the Rock Island and has a bank, churches, schools, and a lum- 
ber yard and meets the needs of the surrounding country. 



Medora's townsite plat was filed for record witli the register of deeds 
Dn April 20, 1887. The town is located at the crossing of the Rock Island 
and 'Frisco railroads eight miles northeast of Hutchinson. It is a shipping 
point for grain and live stock. 



Buhler is located in the northeastern part of the county in the German 
settlement. The plat of the townsite was filed in May, 1914. The town is 
the center of the activities of the German population of the northeastern 
part of the county. It has a fine mill, good schools and churches and a very 
prosperous bank. 



Elmer is the first station out of Hutchinson on the Hutchinson & South- 
ern branch of the Santa Fe railroad. It was established when the Hutchin- 
son & Southern railroad was built south from Hutchinson. The plat of 
the town was filed for registry on September 25. 1886. The town is a 
shipping point for cattle and grain and serves a goixl agricultural country. 



Turon is the last town in the county, southwest of Hutchinson, on the 
Rock Island railroad. It was intended to name the town after a city in 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 315 

Italy, "Turin", but the postoffice department objected to that name as there 
was another place named "Turin", so they suggested the change in the 
name to its present form — Turon. The town was established in 1886. Its 
plat was filed for registry on August 11 of that year. It is a prosperous 
village, has a system of waterworks and electric lights, two banks, a big 
mill and a grain elevator. The town also has a branch line of the Santa 
Fe, from Wichita. It is the center of a wealthy country and the town reflects 
the prosperity of the surrounding country. 



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CHAPTER XLII, 
Forty-five Years in Rbno. 

Reno county is forty-five years old. The progress of the county in that 
time outruns the wildest dream of her early settlers. They had no such 
idea of the development of the county. Lands they thought would not he 
settled for generations have yielded their crops to their children and to their 
children's children. In 1872 there was a total of 512 acres of corn in Reno 
county. It was all "sod corn,'" and no wheat was sown until the fall oi 
1873. In 1917 there were 149,721 acres of corn planted in Reno county. 
The wheat acreage of 1917 was 255*626 acres, against none in 1872. The 
other crops of which there were none grown in the first year of the county's 
existence were: Oats, 2,694 acres; rye, 8,041 acres: barley, 613 acres. There 
was raised in 1917, 6,774 acres of sorgum, most of it for feed for stock. In 
addition to these there was 703 acres of millet raised in this year of Reno's 
existence. In addition to these there was planted 13,204 acres of Kaffir corn, 
for seed and for feed, in 1917 : also 1,020 acres of inifo; 452 acres of fetereta 
and 880 acres of Soudan grass. In 1917 Reno county had 391 silos, "feed 
canneries," where the corn and fetereta and sorghum are cut up and "canned" 
for winter feed for stock. The county had likewise 139 "tractors," with 
which to plow the ground, contrasting remarkably with the method of 1872, 
when a large per cent, of the sod of Reno county was broken by oxen. 

In the early days, regardless of the thousands of cattle driven through 
Reno county every year, milk cows were scarce. One cow was all that a 
dozen families in Hutchinson had. In 1917, there was made and sold in Reno 
county 3,911,160 pounds of butter. This in addition to the immense amount 
of butter consumed 011 the farm. There was $236,997 worth of milk sold 
in addition to the butter made and the inilk used by farmers. 

One. of Hutchinson's most prominent ladies tells, in 1917, of the scarcity 
of eggs in the early days. They were reserved for the sick, and this lady 
says in her childhood she was often tempted "to be sick," so as. to have the 
luxury of an egg for breakfast. In 1917 the poultry and eggs sold by the 
farmers and others amounted to $247,170, and the value of animals slaugh- 
tered by the farmers of Reno county amount of $951,483. Despite the 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 317 

heavy sales of horses for war purposes made in 1915 and 1916, there were 
17,517 horses in Reno county on March 1, 1917. Reno comity farmers 
have sold off a large number of lighter horses, keeping the draft horses for 
farm work. The almost universal use of automobiles by farmers has enabled 
the farmer to run his farm with less horse flesh. In addition there were 6,080 
mules in the county, despite the fact that hundreds of mules likewise have 
been sold for war purposes during the past few years. 

There were 11,402 milk cows in the county during this year and 37,522 
other kinds of cattle in the county. There were 25,179 hogs in Reno county 
in 1917, although the corn crop of the preceding year was light. From the 
small patch of ground sown by W. G. Chapin in 1875 in alfalfa there has 
been sown and is now growing 20,266 acres of this most prolific forage 
plant ever grown. 

In 1872 there were fewer than 1,000 acres of land plowed in Reno 
county. Forty-five years later there were 490,566 acres under cultivation 
and a total of 513,696 acres in farms in the county. 

This brief contrast of the conditions of this county in the forty-five 
years of its existence is only a small indication of the progress that has 
been made in the last forty-five years. It gives a partial idea of the changes 
of the time.- In appearance the county has undergone a wider change than 
these figures would indicate, for along with the cultivated fields and the 
increased live stock have come fine barns and comfortable homes. The 
Reno county farmer takes a great pride in his material progress, but that 
takes a subordinate place to the comforts and conveniences of his home. 
While he has been cultivating his fields he has not neglected to provide 
schools for his children as the statistics on Reno county schools show. He 
has built the best school houses and equipped them with the very best liooks, 
charts and other school-room appurtenances that he could buy. 

Nor has the Reno county farmer disregarded his religious life. Churches 
are to be found in every community. Sunday schools are maintained and 
Sunday is not given over to frivolity, but to the more serious affairs of 
his life. 

The growth of the village into cities has been as remarkable as the 
development of this country. Hutchinson, from a few straggling one-story 
houses in 1872, has grown to a city of over twenty-five thousand population 
and the other villages of this county have grown to cities of the third and 
second classes. The industries that do business in Hutchinson are an example 
of the growth of this interest in the county. The salt plants have developed 
to an industry doing business in dozens of states. The soda-ash plant ships 



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3l8 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

its products all over the United States. The strawboard works have cus- 
tomers in Eastern as well as Western states. Flour made in Hutchinson 
is sold in states bordering on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and thousands 
of barrels of the product have found their way to foreign countries. The 
big elevators and flour-mills testify to the market opened up in Hutchinson 
for wheat and other farm products, not only of Reno county, but of adjoin- 
ing wheat-growing counties. The produce houses speak of the markets 
opened up for Reno county produce. The modern school building reminds 
the people that the welfare of the boys and girls is not neglected. The 
great church buildings in Hutchinson, the Y. W. C. A. building and the Y. 
M. C. A. building tell of the efforts made to improve the conditions of the 
people. 

It is less than fifty years from ox-team to automobile, from forded 
stream to concrete bridges. Less than fifty years from buffalo grass to 
alfalfa; from unplowed fields that had been pounded by hoofs for a thou- 
sand years, to the mellowed soil of varied crops. Less than fifty years from 
Bison to Shorthorn, from the wandering tribes to the contented families. 
The plodding pace of "Buck and Berry" and the gliding 1917. model affords 
no greater contrast than that which obtains in all lines in Reno county. 

It is less than fifty years from inebriety to sobriety, from Kansas drtuik 
to Kansas sober. It is less than fifty years from the wagon trail to the 
iron rail. So unpromising was Reno county less than fifty years ago that 
the federal government surveyors ran only the township lines. But with 
sedulous care the county surveyors now record the exact location of every 
corner and every variation. Less than fifty years in Reno county from 
"buffalo chips" to natural gas. 

Reno county is only forty-five years old, yet she has more money on 
deposit in her banks per capita than many an older county of a century's 
growth. Forty-five years ago, only the occasional letter; today the rural 
carrier visits every farmhouse in the county. The isolation of the farm 
has been remedied, the telephone, the rural carrier, the automobile, and the 
improved roads have made neighbors of people living miles apart, closer 
than the}' formerly were when a block away. 

Reno county, the commonwealth, has had her infancy and manhood in 
less than the life time of a generation. "Better five and forty years of Reno 
than a cycle of Cathay." 



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CHAPTER XLI1I. 
The Beginning of Hutchinson. 

In June, 1872, C. C. Hutchinson, the founder of the city of Hutchin- 
son, made a contract with the directors of the Santa Fe railroad, at their 
annual meeting in Topeka, to build a town at a point where the railroad 
would cross the Little Arkansas river. The company was to share equally 
in the proceeds of the sale of lots on the townsite. At that time it was 
supposed that the proposed town would be located near where Sedgwick 
City is now situated. It had been the intention of the directors of the road 
to build south, with an ultimate terminus of San Antonio, Texas. 

It was soon determined, however, not to build southward, but to follow 
up the Arkansas river and build into Colorado. The reason for this change 
of plans was the discovery by the directors of the railroad of a clause in 
an Indian treaty made in 1865, but which was not acted on by the United 
States Senate until 1867, so as to make it effective — that the road not only 
would not be able to secure a land grant through the Osage trust lands, as this 
strip of territory was called, which was covered by the treaty, but that they 
would have to buy their right of way at the price at which it was to be 
sold to the public, one dollar and twenty-five cents an acre. 

The Santa Fe directors were astonished when they found this clause. 
They had no money. They were building and equipping the road by mort- 
gaging the land. So this provision, put into this treaty as a joker — it being 
suggested after the treaty was practically made — which provided that rail- 
roads might be built through the Osage trust lands, but that the railroads 
should pay for the right of way at the price fixed for the settlers— this joker 
has probably had more effect than any other joker put in a public document, 
for it changed the building of a great road, which, had it not been built then, 
would have left southwest Kansas without a railroad for many years. It 
caused the settlers to file on lands in western Kansas instead of going down 
into southern Kansas and Oklahoma for their farms. It changed the loca- 
tion of Hutchinson, which would have been established at the point where 
Sedgwick now stands. Had this provision not been added to the treaty, there 
never would have been a Great Bend nor a Dodge City. It would have stop- 
ped the organization of the Comanche pool, the greatest cattle combination 



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$iX> RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

ever made, as it would have rushed the settlers along the newly built railroad 
into Oklahoma and made the big cattle pool an impossibility in that section. 
Perhaps it might have transferred its activities to western Kansas alone, 
but the pool had its base of operation in the "Cherokee Strip," which the 
cattle men were able to keep from settlement for years, in order to have 
the range for their stock, unmolested by the farmer. Instead of the whole 
of southwest Kansas being tributary to Hutchinson, the city that Hutchin- 
son would have founded would doubtless be as it is now, a small village of 
no great importance commercially. 

As soon as it was determined to build westward instead of toward the 
South, Hutchinson came on west to find a location for his town. He had 
determined that his town should be built on a water course for the purpose 
of drainage. He drove overland with S. T. Kelsey and A. F. Horner, now 
living in Topeka. They camped the first night on the northwest corner of 
section 19, directly southwest of where the town was afterwards located. 
In the morning the party drove over to the point where the railroad would 
cross Cow creek and finally selected section 13, the present site, for the loca- 
tion of the town. He changed his agreement with the Santa Fe officials, 
paying them fifteen dollars an acre for the section, in lieu of the equal divi- 
sion of the sale of the town lots. However, it was with many misgivings 
that section 13 was selected for the townsite, for, considered from many 
standpoints, the location was undesirable. The town was located too close to 
the edge of the county, only six miles to the east line and two miles from 
the Rice county line. As is referred to in another chapter, the matter of 
location was helped later by changing the boundary lines. Another thing 
that was causing some uneasiness, was that the railroad ran very near the 
north line of the section and a greater part of the townsite lay on the 
south side of Cow creek, while on the north of section 13, D. B. Miller, 
his son-in-law, one of his sons and his father-in-law. Amasa Smith, all three, 
had located on section 12, which was directly north of the proposed town- 
site and it was possible for them to obtain title to their government land 
in a short time, lay out their land in town lots and greatly interfere with 
the sale of Hutchinson's town lots as well as his plans for building up a 
town. Hutchinson made an effort at the start to have the Santa Fe railroad 
officials make the city a division point and he made a proposition to give 
the railroad company a one-twelfth interest, in addition to paying the com- 
panv the fifteen dollars an acre for the laud, if they would make Hutchin- 
son the division point. 

In this first trip. Hutchinson endeavored to interest Mr. Horner in the 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 32I 

proposed town. He was then one of the largest merchants in Newton, had 
opened up some stone quarries at Florence and was a business man of great 
ability. Horner had a peculiar reputation as a town builder. When Brook- 
ville was established on the Kansas Pacific, that town offered a town lot to 
the man who would erect the first building. Horner built a building there 
and got a town lot. The building was of black walnut lumber, about twenty 
feet wide, ten feet high and sixty feet long. It was of a fine quality of wal- 
nut and would be worth today many times what a building cost then. When 
the Santa Fe road was built west from Emporia and reached Florence, the 
same offer of a town lot to the man who would erect the first building was 
made. Horner was on hands with his black walnut house and secured the 
town lot in Florence. When the road reached Newton and a lot was offered 
there for the first house, Horner's black walnut house again won the prize. 
On the way over from Newton it was settled again that the black walnut 
house should make one more pilgrimage and obtain a town lot for its owner, 
and the little black walnut house was moved to Hutchinson and located on 
what the surveyor afterwards showed was lot 7, north Main street. 

Following the putting together of Horner's town-lot-getter came other 
stores, the material for which was hauled from Newton, then the terminus 
of the railroad, and later from Halstead, when the road was built westward 
to that place. On November 15. 1871. Mr. Lehman, of Newton, then a part- 
ner of E. Wilcox, who lived in Topeka, came to Hutchinson and bought lots 
1 and 3, south Main street, paying one hundred and fifty dollars for the 
corner lot and one hundred dollars for the adjoining one. Just what put 
that value into the lots cannot be known. C. C. Hutchinson, speaking of 
this first sale of town lots, said that "it took quite an effort to make him 
see those values in the lots," especially when Hutchinson had bought the 
entire quarter section for fifteen dollars an acre. On November 17, 1871, 
J. M. Jordan and C. C. Bemis came to Hutchinson and bought lot 13, 
north Main street, and later put up a building for their dry goods and 
grocery store. At that time Hutchinson's land office was not equipped with 
tables or writing desks and in making the contract for the sale to Bemis & 
Jordan, Hutchinson got down on the floor of his office, which was only 
partially laid, and wrote the contract on the finished part of the floor. On 
November 25, 1871, Jacob Rupert, of Newton, bought lot n, north Main 
street and the consideration for this lot was that Rupert should put up a 
building and Hutchinson should have it for an office for a term of years. 
Later, in this building Hutchinson established the first bank in Reno county. 
C21) 



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3^2 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

It was located on lot I, north Main street. That humble building gave but 
little promise of the handsome six-story building that now occupies this 
lot, the building of the First National Bank. I.ater, this building was moved 
across the street, then was moved once more to another location and was 
rented by Dickey Brothers for a drug store. On December 7, 1871, lot 15, 
north Main street, was sold to Fred Ryde and he immediately put up a build- 
ing and occupied it. 

When the "lot-getting" black walnut box home was put up, it had the 
office of C. C. Hutchinson in the northwest corner. The southeastern corner 
of the same building was the postoflfice, and a shoe box brought over from 
Newton was partitioned off and that constituted the fixtures of Hutchinson's 
first postoffice. A wagon canvas was hung across the middle of the room 
and the west end of the room became the first hotel established in that city. 
It had four boarders, C. C. Hutchinson, W. E. Hutchinson, John A. Clapp 
and George Tucker. The latter two were called the "Boston Boys," after 
the place of their birth. Clapp was made the first postmaster and Tucker 
obtained another position of equal importance in the new city — he was 
the cook in the first hotel in Hutchinson, and after Tucker cooked the meal, 
washed the dishes and did other duties as general manager of the hotel, he 
became assistant postmaster. Clapp's commission as postmaster was dated 
December 6, 1871. The mail was brought by stage from Newton twice a 
week, except at times when it was impossible to ford Little river, and then 
it was delayed until a crossing could be effected. At first the hauling of 
the mail was done by the people of Hutchinson, but on December 27, 1871, 
the first government stage, hauling the mail, reached Hutchinson. It con- 
tinued hauling passengers and mail for two months, until the stage com- 
pany refused to haul it any longer without a bonus. In order to keep this 
line of communication open, C. C. Hutchinson offered the stage company 
a Main street lot and some residence lots, if they would continue to run the 
stage until the railroad could be built to the city. They accepted, and the 
stage with the mail continued to reach Hutchinson every other day, except 
at such times as it was found impossible to ford Little river. The first 
exclusive hotel was a frame building put up by Charles Collins on the corner 
of first avenue and Main street. The hotel was run by Gus Williams and 
wife, Mrs. Williams being the first woman to live in Hutchinson. They 
soon were well patronized and C. C. Hutchinson took down his wagon 
cover, discontinued the rear end attachment to his real estate office and the 
postoffice and all of the boarders moved over to the new hotel and became 
regular customers. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 323 

There were a number of additions to the business part of 'the town as 
soon as the new hotel was finished. Jordan & Bemis started a dry goods 
store; E. Wilcox started a hardware store; J. C. McClurg, who had settled 
in Sedgwick county, moved his livery and feed stable there; T. F. Leidigh 
opened a grocery store and a Mr. Bailey, of Emporia, opened up a general 
merchandise store. The winter of 1871-1872 was a very severe one. The 
principal loser by reason of the severe weather was J. H. D.. Rozan. He 
had no feed except buffalo grass and no shelter for his stock, and his loss 
was heavy. In the spring the streams were all high and greatly delayed 
the hauling of lumber from Newton. To remedy this, a raft was made, 
on which stuff was loaded, and it was then pulled over the stream by teams 
with ropes attached to the raft. 

There were no stones in the county for corner markers, so buffalo 
bones were substituted to mark the boundaries. Main street was to be 
the principal street. Another street was surveyed so as to be the business 
street. The lots on both Main and Sherman streets were made twenty-five 
feet wide, while residence lots were laid out thirty-three feet wide. Sher- 
man street was named after Miss Gertrude Sherman, of Castleton, Vermont, 
a lady whom C. C. Hutchinson expected to marry soon, he being a widower 
at the time he started Hutchinson. Miss Sherman was a daughter of Carlos 
S. Sherman, a marble quarry owner at Castleton. Later, Mr. Hutchinson 
remembered the place of his prospective wife's residence when that name 
was given to a township and a town in the southern part of the county. 



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CHAPTER XLIV. 

HUTCHINSON, A CITY OF THE THIRD CLASS. 

Hutchinson was incorporated as a city of the third class on August 
15, 1872. The petition for the organization of the city was presented to 
W. R. Brown, judge of the district court. The petition contained the names 
of a majority of the legal voters of the city to be organized and declared 
that there were more than two hundred and fifty people within the boundary 
lines of the proposed city and less than one thousand inhabitants. The 
district court granted the petition and fixed the time of the first election to 
be held for August 26, 1872. William Ingham, E. Wilcox and Josiah S. 
Fay were appointed by the court as judges of the election. 

At the first city election Taylor Flick received 71 votes for mayor and 
C. S. Martin received 17. For police judge J. B. Brown received 67 votes 
and W. P. Brown, 27. There were eleven candidates for councilmen. The 
result of this first election for council resulted in the following vote: John 
McMurray, 59; G. A. Brazee, 56; E. Wilcox, 66; R. C. Bailey, 66; Gus 
Williams, 24; G. Mills, 1 ; S. S. Williams, 32; W. W. Hastie, 30; William 
Mills, 19; M. Sanders, 29; D. M. Lewis, 61. Of this number the following 
were declared elected: E. Wilcox, D. M. Lewis, R. P. Bailey, G. A. Brazee 
and John McMurray. H. W. Beaty was appointed city clerk and city 
treasurer. 

The first ordinance passed was one to "provide means of getting the 
smoke out of the buildings." It provided that stove pipes might be run up 
through the roofs of buildings, but specified that a double tin safety device 
should be inserted in the roof through which the pipe should run. There 
were nothing but frame houses in Hutchinson at that time, and the first ordi- 
nance was a fire-protection guarantee. The second ordinance regulated the 
running of stock within the city limits, and the third ordinance was one 
prohibiting the discharge of firearms in the city limits. 

The petition for the organization set out the boundaries of the city. 
Prior to this time there had been no organization, all of the county being 
then in Reno township, and all of the business of the county was transacted 
by Reno township. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



EARLY CITY ORDINANCES. 



Among the first measures introduced in the city council was one author- 
izing the mayor to take the necessary steps to protect the city from prairie 
fires. The buffalo grass that surrounded the town was burning up in the 
August heat and it was thought necessary to have a sufficient number of 
fire guards placed to protect the new city. So the first fire-fighting appar- 
atus ever used in Hutchinson was a sod plow and a yoke of oxen. The 
corner "stones" used to mark out the street crossings were buffalo bones. 
The streets were covered with buffalo grass, and there were no bridges then 
completed, Cow creek being forded where the Main street bridge now 
stands. The track that led down into the water did not cross it squarely, as 
the banks were three or four feet high, and it was necessary to angle down 
to the water so as to have an easier grade out. The first city marshal for 
Hutchinson was J. R. Lindsay, who was also principal of the city schools 
for the first term. The records do not disclose who was on duty in the 
school house when Lindsay was discharging his duties as city marshal, nor 
who was protecting the public from disorder and riot while this dual official 
was discharging his obligation as a school teacher. It was probable, how- 
ever, with this combination, that it was not thought necessary to add the 
modern school official of "truant officer." 

The second election, which was held on April 7, 1873, resulted in the 
selection of C. L. Kendall for mayor. J. B. Brown was the candidate against 
Kendall, receiving one vote less than the latter. G. W. Hardy, S. M. Bell, 
R. C. Brazee, T. W. Cochrane and C. Chambers were candidates for mem- 
bers of the council. Hardy, Bell and Cochrane were elected, there being a 
difference of only one vote between the losing and the winning candidates 
for the council. H. W. Beatty was appointed city clerk and city treasurer, 
and George Shields was appointed city marshal. This administration was 
the first one to start public improvement. The building of sidewalks was 
agitated. The first walk put down was on the west side of Main street, 
from Cow creek to the Santa Fe railroad. Later some of the citizens living 
farther north, Dr. N. T. P. Robertson, W. R. Marshall and others, asked 
for sidewalks along their property — on property now between Fourth and 
Sixth streets, 011 the west side of the street. The council also appropriated 
"five hundred dollars to grade Main street and put in street crossings." 
This council also had trouble getting a city marshal to stay on the job. 
XI. Hale was chosen marshal, but he declined to accept the office. Then the 



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3^6 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

council selected George S. Shields for city marshal, but he was not satis- 
factory. In just what way his services did not suit the council is not stated. 
They removed Shields and put Robert Chism in as city marshal. He lasted 
just a month. The city clerk, W. R. Brown, also resigned. H. A. Jeffs was 
selected marshal in Chism's place, and C. P. Bailey was put in Brown's va- 
cated place. During this year an ordinance was passed that indicated that a 
better class of houses were being erected. Up to this time one-story wooden 
buildings, generally "sided up and down," unplastered and unpainted, were 
about all the town afforded. But an improvement era had started and more 
substantial buildings were being erected: so the council repealed its first ordi- 
nance that provided that stove pipe might be used as flues, if it had a shield 
around it to keep the pipe away from the wood of the roof. The principal 
fuel of that day was "cow chips,'' which make a quick, hot fire, and the pipe 
would get about as hot a« the stove. The council, early in the year 1873, 
ordered that thereafter no flue should be built that was not made of stone or 
brick, and it was specified also how much above the roof the chimney should 
extended. Hutchinson was improving and, in anticipation of better buildings, 
this ordinance was passed. 

1 1 ITCHING- POST QUESTION AN AGITATING ONE. 

The third city election was a real campaign. There were twenty-four 
candidates for councilmen. Four men wanted to lw mayor, and there were 
four candidates for police judge. The election resulted in the selection of 
the following: Mayor, J. B. Brown; police judge, R. A. Soper; councilmen, 
W. M. Ingham, G. W. Hardy, C. B. Wmslow. S. M. Bell and James Crow. 
When the new council met it chose H. W. Beatty for city clerk and city 
treasurer. They made no appointment for city marshal, but R. M. Cheney 
was allowed pay as city marshal by the council until May, when George B. 
Alford was chosen as city marshal. This administration began to wrestle 
with a proposition that not only worried it, but all succeeding councils, and 
which the progress of the times and the almost universal use of the auto- 
mobile has eliminated from the worries of the city council of today. It was 
the question of h itching-posts on Main street. This was one of the questions 
that all administrations from the first until hitching-posts were not needed 
found to be the subject of endless debate, both in the city council and the 
Commercial Club rooms, and among idle men in front as well as men behind 
the counters. It was a real question in those days — one that the present gen- 
eration cannot appreciate. The country people, the farmers, wanted places 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 327 

at which to hitch their teams when they came to town. They likewise wanted 
the teams hitched in a convenient place, generally in front of the store where 
they did most of their trading. The merchant did not want to object, as he 
was afraid of offending his best customers, the farmers. The merchant had 
to put up with the odor arising from uncleaned streets and, in the summer, 
with the pest of flies that the teams attracted. But he complained not. It 
was the town people who complained. Many a lady has had a dress ruined 
by some big-footed horse splashing mud on her while she walked along the 
street. The council of 1874 was petitioned to "do away with the hitching- 
post nuisance." But the members generally "ducked" the question. They 
didn't want to offend the farmer, for the town could not live without the 
trade of the farmer. The merchants were interviewed. They didn't want 
to have anything to do with it. They would lose if they got caught express- 
ing their opinion. They would lose the farmer trade one way and the city 
trade the other way. A merchant is the last man to take hold of any propo- 
sition that involves the good will of his customers. It was true in Hutchin- 
son in 1874 when the "hitch ing-post nuisance" was up for consideration, and 
it is true today when any proposition is presented that might lose the mer- 
chant trade. This controversy would be unsettled today in Hutchinson, had 
not the automobile put the horse out of business. The solution was dodged 
by the council of 1874 and by all succeeding councils. The council of 1874 
started the "ducking." 

BY WAY OF CONTRAST. 

A review of an ordinance passed in 1874 reveals the difference in the 
Hutchinson of 1874 and the Hutchinson that the present generation knows. 
And it is set down here that the present generation may have an idea of the 
changes they can only know of as others tell of them. Hutchinson was sub- 
ject to overflow from Cow creek. In 1874, as a result of the first of these 
high waters in Cow creek, pools of water stood over the town. There was 
a good-steed "fishing pond" on West First avenue, close to Main street. The 
council wanted to drain it, so they cut a ditch across Main street and ran 
the water down past the Methodist church and on south to Cow creek. With 
a sewer system now that provides for the drainage,, of surface water the 
people of Hutchinson today can look back and see what conditions were in 
the earlv days, and see what the early settler had to contend with and how 
well he has done the work of making the city a beautiful, healthful place in 
which to live. 



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3*6 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

In the election for 1875, there were only ten candidates for city council- 
men. The race was a very close one. The highest vote cast for any candi- 
date was seventy-nine, and the lowest candidate received seventy-four votes. 
E. Wilcox was elected mayor, he receiving 78 votes, while J. B. Brown re- 
ceived 74 votes. The councilmen chosen were: E. A. Smith, George W. 
Hardy, John Paine and R. E. Conn. J. F. Dunkin and James Crow received 
the same number of votes and the election judges "flipped dollars" to see 
which one of the two should have the office. Crow got "heads" and was 
added to the names of the councilmen for that year. 

ANOTHER OLD POINT OF CONTROVERSY. 

Another matter came up during this administration for the first time 
in the history of Hutchinson, which, like the hitching-post matter, was one 
long-drawn-out controversy, and also, like its companion in agitation, 
was one that was settled by events in which the council and people of Hutch- 
inson had only a small part in settling. This was the question of having 
saloons. For the first time since the town was organized a petition was 
presented to the council asking that license be issued for the sale of intoxi- 
cating liquors. A remonstrance was also filed and the mayor appointed a 
committee composed of C. B. Winslow and G. W. Hardy to examine both 
petition and remonstrance, to "examine and compare" the two documents 
and report to the next meeting of the council. The committee reported 
against the saloon. What their "examination" consisted of, how they "com- 
pared" the two, is not related; whether there were more names on the re- 
monstrance, or whether it was simply a means to side-step the whole con- 
troversy, is not disclosed in the record. Later, in 1879, on June 19, the first 
saloon license was granted. Later in that year two more licenses were 
issued by the city. The license fee was fixed at five hundred dollars a year, 
payable quarterly in advance. 

In the granting of these licenses, the council went squarely against the 
wish of the founder of the city, C. C. Hutchinson. So anxious was he that 
no saloon ever be allowed in the town that he put a clause in every deed to 
every piece of real estate, which stated that "in case intoxicating liquor 
should be sold on that lot the title should revert to the grantor." But the 
supreme court overruled this clause, as being "against public policy," and 
Hutchinson had her saloons. But the controversy in the city, that was the 
issue in every political campaign, was ended by the passage of the prohi- 
bition law. Even then it was not entirely ended, but the controversy changed 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 329 

to a contest to enforce the laws. But through the various enactments of the 
Legislature that have made the conviction of the one who sells liquor an 
easier matter, and through the development of a more acute sentiment against 
liquor among the citizens, which has quickened the activity of the officers 
having this in charge — the enforcement of the law — the prohibitory law is 
now as well enforced as any other criminal statute of the state. 

PROMOTION OF PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS. 

The election of 1876 brought out two candidates for each office except 
that of police judge, George W. Hardy and F. R. Ghrisman were candi- 
dates for mayor. Hardy was elected, receiving 99 votes to 95 for Chrisman. 
John Jones, John McCollough, S. C. Smith and R. E. Conn each received 
enough votes to get a certificate of election to the council, but William Ing- 
ham and J. B. Brown each received the same number of votes, and in the 
drawing Ingham was the successful candidate and was made a member of 
the council for the year 1876. J. C. Linsday was chosen police judge, he 
being the only candidate. He received iqi votes. H. S. Fitch was chosen 
city clerk bv the council. He served until December 20, when he resigned 
and Lewis Mills was chosen as his successor. J. H. Leenian was chosen for 
city marshal. 

This year was one in which considerable improvement was made in the 
city. The Water Power Company began to dig a mill race to direct the water 
from Cow creek to the mill site; a couple of new bridges were built, one over 
Cow creek on Main street, and one over the mill race, which ran on what 
is now Avenue B, and emptied into Cow creek on the east side of town. A 
great many sidewalks were put down and Main street was filled from dirt 
from the mill race, so as to raise it above the water in times when Cow creek 
was more than bank full. 

In the election of 1877, E. Wilcox and John McCollough were candi- 
dates for mayor. Wilcox received 166 votes and McCollough 78 votes. J. 
M. Jordan. Vernon Roe, L. A. Bigger, William Ingham and D. B. McKee 
were chosen for councilmen. There were three candidates for police judge. 
John McMurray received 147 votes: J. C. Linsday, 89 votes, and Lon Mead, 
one vote. C. B. Window was appointed city clerk; J. T. Norman was 
elected city marshal. 

During June of this year Cow creek overflowed its banks and covered 
most of the town. In August the city voted bonds to straighten out the 
creek, cut out the windings of the stream, build levees on the banks, and by 



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330 RENO COL'NTY, KANSAS. 

this means protect the city from further overflow. The water in the creek 
this year was the highest known since the county was settled, and the work 
clone was of great value in later years when the stream got out of its banks. 
In 1878 the annual election brought out two candidates for each elective 
office. E, Wilcox and L. A. Bigger were candidates for mayor. Bigger 
polled 132 votes ami Wilcox, 126. John McCollough, H. S. Sidlinger, M. J. 
Ruddy. I. M. Carter and H. Raff were elected councilmen and John McMur- 
ray was elected police judge. When the new council met the mayor appointed 
Gus Mead as city clerk and Pat Holland for street commissioner. The city 
council's work for this year was largely confined to the completion of the 
work on the mill race, the straightening of Cow creek, and the building of 
bridges. A large number of sidewalks were put in and the general improve- 
ment of the town continued. Several ponds in the city, places washed out 
by the flood of the previous year, were filled up. During this administration 
for the first time the sprinkling of Main street was begun. During this year 
the city also took an active part in locating the East Side cemetery, moving 
the burial ground from its old locality northwest of the city to the present 
site. A part of this cemeten was allotted to the public, in consideration of 
the financial aid given by the city for the purchase of the twenty acres of 
ground originally bought for burial purposes. 

SHADE TREES MAKE THEIR APPEARANCE. 

The election of 1870 resulted in the usual number of candidates, and a 
largely increased vote disclosed evidence of the growth of the city. A. K. 
Burrell and C. L. Pennington were candidates for mayor. Burrell polled 
ic>6 votes and Pennington, 140. J. T. Lane led in the fight for councilmen, 
polling 339 votes, while Ruddy received 197; Carter, 189: Sidlinger, 180, 
and C. V. Decker, 211. D. W. Stimmel received 203 votes for city marshal 
as against John McMurray's 141 votes. Gus P. Mead was continued as city 
clerk, as was Pat Holland for city marshal. The financial statement of the 
city treasurer, made at the first meeting of the city council, showed the entire 
receipts for the previous year as $2,786.03. The expenditures for the year 
were $2,726.03, leaving a balance of $60 on hand. 

A feature of the activity of this council was the planting of trees. The 
city purchased a thousand cottonwood trees and planted them along the "mill 
race." Five thousand willows were planted along Cow creek. The idea was 
that the tree roots would be a help in keeping the banks of these waters from 
washing in flood time. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 33 1 

As referred to in another part of this chapter, this council distinguished 
itself in being the first to grant licenses to sell liquor in Hutchinson. These 
continued but a short time and were a constant source of controversy while 
they were running. The passage of the prohibition amendment to the con- 
stitution took away the right of city councils to pass such ordinances. One 
thing is noticeable, however, in the proceedings of this council. It became 
necessary during this administration to have a night police force, arising out 
of the disorders caused by liquor sales. This was the first time the city felt 
it necessary to have night policemen, and is sufficient comment on what the 
presence of liquor for sale in a city does for the orderliness of the city. 

On March 3, 1880, a census was taken of the city for the purpose of 
changing the corporation from a city of the third class to one of the second 
class. The census showed there were 2,006 residents of Hutchinson at that 
time. But the resolution to change the form of the city government was 
beaten in the council. Lane, Carter and Ruddy voted "No," so the matter 
was dropped temporarily, but became an issue in the spring election in later 
years. 

DEVELOPMENT OF "PUBLIC UTILITIES." 

The election in April 5, 1880, brought forth the usual number of can- 
didates. John McCollough was elected mayor, receiving 212 votes, and A. K. 
Burrell. 168 votes. E. Wilcox, G. W. Hardy, A. E. Taylor, O. P. Mayer and 
John Brehm were chosen councilnien. George Barclay was elected police 
judge, he being the only candidate, receiving 381 votes. C. H. Longstreth 
was elected city marshal after several ballots. Ted F. Halverson was elected 
city clerk. George Hern was elected night watch "during good behavior." 
Just what was meant in that qualifying term of the period of his employ- 
ment is not declared by the records. The report of the council proceedings 
showed that four saloons were running in Hutchinson at that time. The 
election of i88r had the usual number of candidates: S. H. Sidlinger re- 
ceived 212 votes for mayor, and Leo H. Albright, 63- votes. G. T. 
Empev, J. B. Brown. M. J. Ruddy. W. R. Marshall and A. W. West were 
elected members of the city council. George Barclay and A. J. Higley were 
candidates for police judge. Barclay received 96 votes and Higley, 54 votes. 

When the new council met D. S. Alexander was elected city clerk, A. R. 
Scheble was chosen city attorney and C. B. Winslow was nominated by the 
mayor for city treasurer. The first vote on the confirmation of this nomi- 
nation resulted in a tie — two for, and two against. A second vote was taken, 
and the result was a rejection of the nomination, three against and two for. 



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33 2 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

At a later meeting, Winslow was again nominated for city treasurer by the 
mayor, and was confirmed, only three votes being cast — two for confirma- 
tion and one against. Allen Shafer was chosen city marshal by acclamation. 

In order to show further how public improvements grew, how public 
utilities developed, the council of 1881 erected a wind-mill and tank for 
fire protection of the city. This was considered sufficient in that day. It 
offered a contrast for those of today who are accustomed to the highest 
degree of efficiency from the very best forms of fire-fighting apparatus, in 
connection with an elaborate waterworks system. The people of today can 
hardly think of the method of travel of the early days of the county — the 
ox-team, or the horse and wagon, and roads that never received the slightest 
attention, in many cases on "angling" roads on the prairie across what are 
now cultivated fields. This in contrast with the automobile and the graded 
road ; the concrete bridges, where once were simply fords in the stream. In 
a like manner they can hardly realize, unless they have lived through the 
changes, the difference in municipal matters now and what the city was 
thirty-five years ago, and the action of the council of 1881 in putting up a 
wind-mill and a tank for fire protection shows the great progress of Hutch- 
inson in a little more than a third of a century. 

The election of 1882 resulted in the usual number of candidates. S. H. 
Sidlinger and E. A. Smith were candidates for mayor, the former receiving 
194 votes and the latter 163 votes. G. T. Empey, L. A. Bigger, W. R. 
Marshall, M. J. Ruddy and J. T. Lane were elected councitmen. George D. 
Barclay was continued as police judge; D. S. Alexander was appointed as 
city clerk and C. B. Winslow was continued as city treasurer, as was Allen 
Shafer as city marshal. Very little of general interest appears in the min- 
utes of the city council. The usual sidewalks were ordered in, and the usual 
occurrences were provided for, but nothing of interest above other years 
appeared during 1882. 

BETTER FIRF. PROTECTION DEMANDED. 

The election of 1883 resulted in the selection of J. T. Lane as mayor. 
He received 199 votes, and G. T. Empey, 176 votes. J. B. Brown, S. A. 
Atwood, J. F. Blackburn, H. Dice and A. K. Burrell were elected council- 
men. George Barclay and A. J. Higley were both candidates for police 
judge. Barclay beat Higley, as he did the year previous. W. H. Lewis was 
appointed city attorney. J. I'. Dillon was elected city clerk; S. H. Craig 
was elected city marshal, and J. H. Young was elected city treasurer. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 333 

About the only thing this council did that was out of the ordinary was 
the establishment of a city scales. The agitation had been running through 
several years and the council of July 23, 1883, ordered such scales, and fixed 
the salary of the city weigh-master and the prices to be charged for the use 
of these scales. 

The city council realized the importance of better fire protection, and 
realized further that the wind-milt and tank that the city relied on was 
inadequate, and ordered one fire engine, hose and other equipment for fire 
protection. The water was obtained by sinking well points along Main 
street, and connecting them with one pipe from which the water was obtained. 
A volunteer fire department was organized. 

The city council at a meeting held on July 21, 1884, passed an ordinance 
to include land not in the original city plat as part of the city. This was the 
first addition ever made to the original townsite as it was laid out by C. C. 
Hutchinson in 1872. 

The treasurer's report showed that the expenditures of the city for the 
previous year were $7,790.42; the total disbursements, $7,091, leaving a 
balance of $699.42 on hands. The items of receipts showed that the sum 
of $4,430.18 was received from the county treasurer as direct taxes; that 
$29 came from fines in the police court; $625.11 from licenses; $594-55 
from the sale of city script: $776.30 from occupation tax; $208.30 from the 
city scales, and $5 from dog tax. The expenditures were divided as fol- 
lows: General fund, $4,208.18; street fund, $1,514.67; interest fund, 
$1,299.04: improvement fund. $69.11. The report also showed that during 
the year, $1,301.73 of script was issued in the street fund and $3,781.88 in 
the general fund; or, in a general way, the city expended $4,384,19 more 
than it collected. This necessarily resulted, later, in the issuing of bonds to 
take up the city script, some of which are still unpaid. The- treasurer's report 
also showed the bonded indebtedness of the city to be $10,200, divided up 
into improvement bonds of $5,000: funding bonds, $4,000, and bridge bonds, 
$1,200. 

PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS GOT UNDER WAY. 

The election of 1884 was a peaceful one. There was only one candi- 
date for mayor, S. W. Campbell, who polled 365 votes. The members of 
the council chosen were L. A. Bigger, L. B. Young, J. M. Mulkey, Wilson 
McCandless and E. Wilcox. George Barclay and L. S. Shields were candi- 
dates for police judge. Shields received 228 votes and Barclay, 238. H. 
Whiteside was elected city attorney, J. P. Dillon was continued as city clerk, 



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334 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. , 

Joe Christ was chosen as city marshal and Tom Jarvis as street commis- 
sioner. 

This year marked the beginning of many of the permanent improve- 
ments of the present time. Early in the life of this council the agitation for 
a waterworks system was started. A committee was appointed to visit other 
cities and look at their water plants. At a later meeting an ordinance was 
passed requiring either stone or concrete pavements of the present width 
(fourteen feet) on all Main street property between certain streets. All 
of the principal streets were brought to grade and guttering was ordered. 
Street sprinkling was started in a systematic manner. While there had been 
some sprinkling done before, it was done in a very inadequate manner. The 
council also, at the meeting on April i, 1885, took the necessary steps toward 
getting the state reformatory located in this city, one of the things done in 
this connection being the appointment of a special committee, composed of 
T. T. Taylor, G. C. Miller and L. A. Bigger, to handle the city's interests in 
the matter of the proposed location of the reformatory. 

The election held on April 8. 1885, resulted in the re-election of S. VV. 
Campbell as mayor, over Dr. N. T. R. Robertson, Campbell receiving 394 
votes and Robertson, 240. E, Wilcox, L. A. Bigger. J. M. Mulkey. D. Mc- 
Kee and Robert I.acy were chosen councilmen. George D. Barclay was 
elected police judge against L. S. Shields. J. P. Dillon was re-elected city 
clerk and George Hern, city marshal. 

On September 15, 1885, the council granted a franchise to the Inter- 
state Gas Company — a franchise granting that company the right, for twenty- 
one years, to use the streets and alleys for the purpose of furnishing gas for 
heating and lighting purposes. 

On October 5, 1885, the council passed ordinance No. 199, providing 
for a system of waterworks. This was the last step taken by the city for 
effective fire protection. It will be remembered that the first fire protection 
provided for the city was some furrows plowed around the townsite to pro- 
tect the city from prairie fires. The second step was the erection of a wind- 
mill and tank. The third step was a hand-pump with well points driven at 
various places on Main street, from which water was to be pumped, and 
then, this last ordinance, that provided for a waterworks system that is so 
constructed that it has met the demands of the city as it has grown from a 
village to a city, and is capable of expansion to any extent necessary. 

So Hutchinson grew from a few scattered houses on the prairie to a 
city of the third class. It has made much progress toward its present con- 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 335 

ditions. It has established the streets, guttered them, and put permanent 
pavements in front of them. It has established adequate fire protection for 
its property. It has straightened Cow creek through the city, and formed a 
more permanent outlet for flood waters. It has established a street-lighting 
system. Its population has grown to 2,300. The city considered at times 
that it would be made a city of the second class, in order that it might have 
increased authority over its local matters to provide for the increased popu- 
lation. It was made a city of the second class on March 25, 1886, and as 
such city of the second class it will be considered in a following chapter. 



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CHAPTER XLV. 
Hutchinson, a City of the Second Class. 

After the requirements of the statutes had been met, a proclamation 
signed by Governor John A. Martin, declaring Hutchinson a city of the 
second class, was received by the city council and was ordered recorded with 
the register of deeds of Reno county. This was done on March 26, 1886, 
and Hutchinson became a city of the second class. 

The first thing necessary for the council to do was to divide the city 
into four wards. At the same time it was ordered that all houses be num- 
bered. This latter was also preparatory toward the establishment of the free 
delivery mail system. The first election as a city of the second class resulted 
as follows: For mayor, L. A. Bigger; police judge,. T. A. Decker; city 
treasurer, W. T. Atkinson; treasurer of the board of education, E. A. Smith; 
councilmen, first ward, O. Wolcott and D. B. McKee; second ward, R. A. 
Campbell and S. W. Campbell ; third ward, Herman Beers and John B. 
Brown; fourth ward, A. J. Fisk and Frank Vincent. Charles E. Hall was 
appointed city clerk and James McKinstry, city attorney. 

Two important matters were up for consideration during this adminis- 
tration — one was the granting of a franchise to John Severance for a street 
car line, the other was the voting of bonds for aid in the construction of the 
Wichita & Western railroad, or what is now the Missouri Pacific railroad. 
Severance was granted the charter for a street car line on June 5, 1886, and 
the election for the voting of bonds for the Missouri Pacific was held on June 
30, 1886, by which the city subscribed for fifty-one thousand five hundred 
dollars worth of stock in the Wichita & Colorado railroad, which was paid 
to the railroad company on November 23, 1886, when the road was com- 
pleted into Hutchinson. This included likewise the western extension of this 
road, which was constructed under the name of the Salina & El Paso rail- 
road. This council also submitted to the people the question of voting bonds 
for the Chicago, Kansas & Nebraska railroad, now the Rock Island, for 
twenty-five thousand dollars. This bond vote was of the same nature as that 
in behalf of the Missouri Pacific railroad, an issue of the city's bonds in 
exchange for the company's capital stock of equal amount. The council met 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 337 

on July 21, 1886, and called an election for August 31, 1886. This election 
had the unique distinction of having had but one vote cast in the negative. 
The proposition received ten hundred and thirty-two votes favoring it, and 
only one against it. 

The election held on August 8, 1887, the second under the city's charter 
as a city of the second class, resulted as follows : Mayor, L. A. Bigger ; 
police judge, J. S. Houser; city treasurer, W. T. Atkinson; treasurer of the 
school board, E. A. Smith; councilmen, first ward, Hiram Constant; second 
ward, O. Wolcott, long term; D. McKee, short term; third ward, J. B. 
Brown; fourth ward, Frank Vincent. Charles S. Hall was continued as city 
clerk, and George Hern as city marshal. The first matter of importance this 
council considered was the establishment of a sanitary sewer. It was esti- 
mated that the proposed sewer would cost forty thousand dollars, and it was 
to be constructed in such a manner that it could be added to as the city grew. 

This council did what no other council has ever done. It paid the 
expenses of a committee of Hutchinson men who were in Chicago trying to 
secure the location of a packing-house in this city. No one ever questioned 
the right of the council to so appropriate money to obtain sufficient money 
and property to offer a bonus, and it was regarded as necessary to have this 
financial help from the city. 

city's boundary line extended. 

During this year the boundary lines of the city were very largely 
extended, petitions for fifteen additions to the city being granted at one meet- 
ing in February, 1888. It was the beginning of the "boom," when town lots 
were laid out in every direction. Many of these additions were vacated after 
the boom in real estate collapsed. Some of them went back to farm land. In 
some the streets and alleys were vacated. The original corporate limits of 
the city were sufficient for a city of twenty times the size of Hutchinson; but 
of the additions to the city limits, there was no end in the early days of 1888, 
when there were more real estate men in Hutchinson than those engaged in 
any other occupation. The town was boomed by everybody. Values were 
inflated in such a manner that there could be no hope that those values would 
remain. But the council admitted every applicant for a place within the cor- 
porate limits of the city, on the theory that the newcomers would have to help 
support the city in taxes and the council of 1887 and 1888 denied none who 
knocked, but published the ordinances admitting them as fast as they were 
requested. 
(22) 



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338 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

The council of this period came more nearly being one of "continuous 
session" than any the city has ever had. Besides the regular monthly meet- 
ings, special meetings were held almost every week, and on some weeks, two. 
and even three times a week were they called together. The boom was on 
and when some real estate man wanted to plat an addition to the town, he 
induced three of the members of the council to call a special meeting. Per- 
haps no council in the city's history ever had as strenuous a time as the one 
of this period. Perhaps no other council acted on as many matters as did 
this council. 

The election held on April 6, 1888, elected only the councilmen and 
members of the city school board. The mayor held his office for two years. 
The result of this election was as follows: Councilmen, first ward. A. M. 
West; second ward, G. W. Hardy; third ward, J. V. Clymer; fourth ward, 
VV. E. Hutchinson. The members of the school board chosen at this election 
were: First ward, J. B. Allen: second ward, L. W. Zinn; third ward, F. R. 
Chrisman; fourth ward, B. S. Hoagland. The mayor appointed the city offi- 
cers as follows : Marshal, George Hern ; assistant marshal, Eugene M. 
Rugg; city clerk, Charles E. Hall, and R. A. Campbell, city attorney. 

The most important matter this council considered was the construction 
of a sewer system for Hutchinson. On November 26, the council passed an 
ordinance defining the sewer district. On January 22, 1889, the contract for 
the sewer was let and construction was soon begun. 

ELECTION WARMLY CONTESTED. 

The election held on April 5, 1889, was one of the most warmly con- 
tested ones in the history of Hutchinson. There were two candidates for 
mayor — Hiram Constant and J. F. Greenlee. Constant greatly outdistanced 
Greenlee, although it was confidently expected that Greenlee would be elected. 
Constant polled 1,361 votes and Greenlee received 933 votes. J. P. McCurdy, 
D. B. McKee, D. W. Holaday and J. F. Gardner were elected councilmen. 
D. W. Stimmel was elected police judge over four competitors. Mrs. Sadie 
Lewis was elected city treasurer. A. W. Robbins was chosen by the mayor 
for city marshal and A. A. Meredith for city clerk. 

The council of this year had but little of importance beyond routine mat- 
ters. One of the most important was the voting of twenty thousand dollars 
worth of bonds to aid in extending the terminal facilities of the Hutchinson, 
Oklahoma & Gulf railroad, now the Hutchinson & Southern railroad. This 
bond issue was carried by a vote of 784 to 420. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 339 

On August 28, 1889, a franchise was granted to R. R. Price to manu- 
facture and supply gas to the citizens of Hutchinson for heating and illum- 
inating. 

This year saw the beginning of the decline in values from the "boom" 
when prices for real estate were pushed up to a level for which there was no 
warrant. One of the factors that carried the inflation so far was the ease 
with which money could be borrowed. There were loan agents in abundance, 
handling Eastern money that then was so plentiful. There was not enough 
business in the county to justify the building that was carried on and as a 
consequence, as soon as the interest became due, it was realized that there 
were more houses, both for business and residence, than the town needed. 

Out of the reaction there came two men who were never bothered by 
the terrors of a business collapse. One was Ben Blanchard. The paralysis 
of the boom in South Hutchinson, which Blanchard had largely built, impelled 
him to bore for oil. In his efforts to get oil he struck salt, and this was the 
beginning of the' salt industry that is. spoken of elsewhere. 

AN ENTERPRISING EDITOR. 

The other man whose ardor was not dampened by the decline in real 
estate was Ralph M. Easley. The collapse of the boom had annihilated the 
prospective resources of the Hutchinson Daily News, of which he was the 
owner and editor, and Easley, like Blanchard, hunting around for some way 
out, of his own volition and without consulting any other citizen of Hutchin- 
son, telegraphed Dold & Company, of Kansas City, a cash offer of one hun- 
dred thousand dollars to build a packing house in Hutchinson. Dold answered 
Easley's telegram, and Easley, L. A. Bigger and Sam Campbell were appointed 
a committee to go to Kansas City and see Dold, and out of this struggling 
venture to hold on, finally came the packing-house, the lard refinery and the 
stock yards, also spoken of in another chapter of this history. 

During that period, for the first and only time in the history of Hutch- 
inson, the mayor died while holding office. Mayor Constant died on January 
19, 1890, and appropriate action was taken by an extra session of the city 
council. Mr. Constant, as noted in the resolutions passed by the council, was 
regarded as one of the benefactors of the city, and his care and consideration 
of the poor and unfortunate were especially dwelt upon. He was also com- 
mended for his unselfishness and devotion to the public, as well as to his 
private duties. J. V. Clymer, being president of the council, assumed the 



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340 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

duties of mayor until the regular annual election, when a mayor would be 
elected to fill out the unexpired term of Mr. Constant. 

The election held on April 4, 1890, resulted in the election of John Sev- 
erance as mayor. He was the only candidate and received all but two of the 
votes cast. Frank Colladay was elected member of the council from the first 
ward: J. T. Norman, from the second ward; F. McCollom, from the third 
ward, and Samuel Matthews, from the fourth ward. Jerry Ballinger was 
appointed city marshal ; William Ingham was chosen as city clerk ; Z. L. Wise 
was appointed city attorney and Fred Carpenter, city engineer. 

There was little of public interest during this administration. The city 
ordinances were revised and the council spent the greater part of its existence 
trying some policemen for misconduct. They took the time of several meet- 
ings listening to the testimony in the case, when they might have suspended 
him in a few moments; but it was the demand of the chief of police, who, 
from the testimony introduced before the council, was more intent on getting 
evidence of misconduct on the part of some policemen than he was in looking 
after the vindication of the law. But the administration closed without 
"getting" any of the offending policemen. 

COUNCIL AND MAYOR AT OUTS. 

In the election of April 7, 1891, the following were chosen for city offi- 
cers : Mayor, R. A. Campbell ; police judge, D. S. Gibbs ; city treasurer, E. A. 
Smith ; councilmen, first ward, D. E. Reid ; second ward, D. B. McKee ; third 
ward, S. J. Sipes; fourth ward, H. Miskiman. The mayor and council got 
into a wrangle at the first meeting. The council refused to confirm the mayor's 
appointments. After several meetings the officers of the city were appointed 
one at a time. A. R. Little was chosen city clerk. Jerry Ballinger declined 
the office of city marshal by reason of the council's refusal to confirm the 
mayor's appointment. At a meeting held on October 31, 1890, Mayor Camp- 
bell resigned and W. L. Winslow was elected to fill his place. This arrange- 
ment met with the approval of the council, for all members voted to accept 
the nomination. Though the record doesn't disclose the deal, it is recalled 
that as soon as Mr. Campbell's successor was elected he appointed the former 
mayor as city attorney, and by this means ended the row between the mayor 
and the council. Jerry Ballinger was succeeded by George E. Miller as city 
marshal. Resignations being a part of the activities of this council, D. E. 
Reid felt called upon to resign for some failure of the council to act as he 
desired on matters he suggested. His resignation was unanimously accepted. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 34I 

The election of 1892 resulted in the selection of Frank Vincent as mayor, 
and councilmen as follows: First ward, long term, Charles E. Brown; short 
term, J. B. McCurdy; second ward, W. L. Winslow; third ward, long term, 
J..T. Norman, short term, David Holliday; fourth ward, James Myers. The 
following appointments were made by Mayor Vincent : City attorney, F. F. 
Prigg; city marshal, George E. Miller; city clerk, George D. Barclay. This 
council was a peaceable one; no friction developed and there was only one 
resignation, that of the city clerk, George D. Barclay, who resigned on 
December 20. W. R. Underwood was appointed as his successor. During 
this administration the number of the wards was increased to six. The con- 
demnation of some old board sidewalks, as a result of several accidents and 
resultant damage suits, was one of the principal acts of the council, and for 
the first time the city began to require permanent sidewalks of stone or brick. 
The drainage damage suits against the city also received the attention of the 
council, many of the people living below the city on Cow creek, into which all 
the sewage of the city was emptied, having brought suit against the city 
for damages and for a permanent injunction against the city so disposing of 
the sewage. 

CITY WARRANTS HEAVILY DISCOUNTED. 

The city treasurer's report for 1892 showed the total receipts of the city 
for the year to be $11,463.48, and the total expenditures, $10,338.86, leaving 
a balance of $1,124.62 on hands. There was no detailed report of either 
receipts or expenditures, nor was there any showing of the bonded or floating 
indebtedness of the city. 

The election on April 6, 1893, resulted in the election of Frank Vincent 
as mayor ; councilmen, first ward, W. F. Wass ; second ward, Marion Watson ; 
third ward, D. H. Holliday; fourth ward, F. P. Hettinger; fifth ward, long 
term, C. A. Ryker; short term, H. Miskinnen; sixth ward, long term, J. M. 
Mulkey; short term, E. Edwards. The mayor appointed the following: City 
attorney, F. F. Prigg; city clerk, W. R. Underwood; city marshal, George E. 
Miller. 

The records fail to disclose anything but routine matters during the 
existence of this council. The election of April 4, 1894, resulted in the elec- 
tion of .the following councilmen : First ward, M. Hoagland ; second ward, 
O. E. Comstock; third ward, W. R. Bennett; fourth ward, J. M. Harsha; 
fifth ward, H. Miskimen; sixth ward, E. Edwards. The appointments of 
the mayor for the other officers of the city were the same as that of the 



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342 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

previous year. The city's finances were in such a shape that city script was 
at such a discount that it became necessary to vote nine thousand dollars in 
bonds to take up the script then outstanding. Beyond the election and the 
mayor's veto of guttering ordinances, because of the bad financial condition 
of the city, this council did nothing of importance. 

The election held on April i, 1895, resulted as follows: Mayor, Frank 
Vincent; councilmen, first ward, G. W. Wright; second ward, M. Watson; . 
third ward, S. H. Holliday; fourth ward, A. L. Forsha; fifth ward, C. A. 
Ryker; sixth ward, H. W. Willett. John Anderson was elected police judge; 
the city clerk and city attorney of the previous administration were reap- 
pointed, and S. V. Davis was appointed city marshal. Among the things this 
council did was to issue eighteen thousand dollars in city warrants to take up 
the city script that was being so greatly discounted. These warrants bore 
interest at the rate of six per cent, until paid by the city. The entire trouble 
with the city's finances was the loss of taxes caused by the shrinkage in values 
of property after the boom had collapsed. The city was constantly running 
behind in its financial matters. 

Little interest was taken in the election of April 7, 1896, a very light 
vote being cast and only one ticket having been nominated. William Pells was 
elected councilman for the first ward; J. R. Campbell for the second ward; 
A. H. Foeltzer, third ward ; J. P. Harsha, fourth ward ; Walter Kile, fifth 
ward, and J. S. George, sixth ward. The appointive officers remained the 
same as during the previous administration. The financial matters of the 
city were finally adjusted by the city voting bonds for fifty-five thousand dol- 
lars' to take up outstanding warrants and script. 

The election held on April 4, 1897, resulted in the election of J. P. 
Harsha, as mayor, F. P. Hettinger being his opponent. The councilmen 
chosen were: First ward, J. W. Roberts: second ward, W. S. Randle; third 
ward, J. B. Baxter; fourth ward, N. L. Hollowell; fifth ward, Jacob Schoen- 
feld; sixth ward, W. H. S. Benedict. W. R. Underwood was elected city 
clerk. Charles J. Noyes, police judge, and D. E. Benedict, city marshal. 

MORE AID GRANTED RAILROAD. 

During this administration the city voted twenty-five thousand dollars in 
bonds to the Hutchinson & Southwestern Improvement Company. These 
bonds were for the building of the depot for the Hutchinson & Southern 
railroad. This road had been using tfie Rock Island depot for its station. The 
depot was built by the Hutchinson & Southern railroad and for a couple of 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 343 

years was so used by that road, but when the road was sold to the Santa Fe, 
the depot was discontinued and the Hutchinson & Southern, then a branch oi 
the Santa Fe, used the depot of the latter road. Later this depot was sold to 
the Missouri Pacific, which formerly had its depot on Avenue D, and the 
Santa Fe discontinued the use of that depot and the Missouri Pacific began 
the use of the old Hutchinson & Southern depot. 

The election held on April 8, 1898, resulted in the election of Jonathan 
Teter as councilman from the first ward ; E. S. Handy, second ward ; A. H. 
Foeltzer, third ward ; W. H. Kinney, fourth ward ; M. V. Whetzel, fifth ward, 
and J. P. Shunk, sixth ward. D. E. Benedict was elected city marshal, and 
\V. R. Marshall, city clerk. F. F. Prigg was continued as city attorney. 

The city council, on February 20, 1898, bought a building on Sherman 
street, west, lots 29 and 31, for city purposes, including council rooms, city 
jail, city clerk's office, police judge's office and fire department headquarters. 
The city paid thirteen hundred dollars for the two lots and the two-story 
brick building located on the lots. It also undertook to give Prospect Park 
to the Hutchinson & Southern railroad for roundhouse, shops, etc., but later 
it was discovered that the park could not legally be used for any purpose 
other than that for which it was given to the city, namely, for a park, hence 
the inability of the council to carry out the liberal offer it had made to the 
Hutchinson & Southern railroad. Otherwise there was not much of general 
interest developed in Hutchinson in 1898. 

THE COMING OF NATURAL GAS. 

The election of 1899 was not one of any great interest. The mayoralty 
contest was between Frank Vincent and B. W. Ladd. Vincent beat Ladd by 
more than a three-to-one vote, he receiving 1,31* votes, and Ladd 388. For 
councilmen. William Pells was unanimously elected in the first ward. In 
the second ward Charles N. Payne won over J. R. Campbell; in the third 
ward J. B. Baxter had no opposition; in the fourth ward Henry \V. Wilson 
had no opposition; in the fifth ward Charles Crawford won over J. W. 
Schoenifield ; in , the sixth ward Charles Brown and Harless Rayle were the 
candidates, and Brown was elected. Harry E. Holaday was elected city 
clerk. Charles J. Noyes was elected police judge, and E. Hedden won over 
D. E. Benedict for city marshal. J. V. Clymer was unanimously chosen city 
attorney. 

One of the first things done by this council was. the granting of a fran- 
chise to E. H. Hoag to use the streets and alleys of the city to pipe natural 



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344 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

gas into this city from the gas fields of southeastern Kansas. During this 
year the start toward a city library was made, the council granting the use 
of rooms in the city building for a library and reading rooms. There were 
a limited number of volumes of books, mostly donated, at the be- 
ginning of the library; but it was a start from which grew the present city 
library, with an ample building on North Main street and a levy annually to 
buy new books and to maintain the library. It was the beginning of one of 
the most helpful enterprises of the kind ever started in Hutchinson. This 
small start created sufficient interest in a public library to secure the passage 
of a resolution submitting the question of voting a half-mill tax to support 
the library at the next city election. 

In the election of 1900, "Kirkpatrick" and "Davis" were candidates for 
mayor. The city clerk evidently was so busy that he did not put down 
either candidate's initials, and nowhere in the records do the initials of the 
successful candidate, Mr. Kirkpatrick, appear. In the second ward, H. 
Schlaudt was elected councilman; in the third ward, W. H. Wilson was the 
successful candidate; in the fourth ward. Samuel Carey was elected; in the 
fifth ward, VV. N. Baker was elected, in the fifth ward, C. L. Vaughn was 
the successful candidate, and J. P. Shunk was chosen to represent the sixth 
ward. Harry Holaday was elected city clerk; E. Hedden, city marshal, 
and W. H. Lewis, city attorney. The proposition to vote a tax of one mill 
to support a free city library was defeated by a small majority, but its sup- 
porters went to work more enthusiastically to create sentiment for another 
submission of the vote and the council fixed May 12, 1900, as the date of a 
special election. At this special election the proposition carried" by 277 
majority. 

city's finances in a bad way. 

In the latter part of the year 1900 the city entered into a contract with 
L. A. Bigger to refund the bonded indebtedness of the city, then amounting 
to one hundred and eighty-four thousand dollars, and reduce the interest on 
the bonds from six ner cent, to five per cent. It was some time before the 
contract was carried out. The city's finances were in a bad way, the city 
paying out annually more than it was receiving in taxes. It was running 
behind so badly that during this year the council met with the Commercial 
Club of the city to find some way of keeping the city's credit good, keep the 
city script from selling below par and to generally improve the financial con- 
dition of the city treasury. The refunding plan proposed by Mr. Bigger 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 345 

was a step toward getting the city on a basis where it could pay its operating 
expenses without issuing script. 

The city's financial condition became an issue in the city election. It 
was asserted that the city administration showed its inability to handle the 
city's finances, and that some others should be put into the office to put the 
city on a proper basis. So, on this issue, began a series of political cam- 
paigns that lasted for years, between J. P. Harsha, the mayor at the time, 
and F. L. Martin. The contest ran over several years, until the returning of 
letter times financially, when higher values for real estate and the resultant 
receipt of more money in taxes settled the controversy, and the contest be- 
tween the two factions represented by these two men was settled by events 
outside the control of either faction or either of the men involved. The 
final arrangements for this refunding plan proposed by Mr. Bigger were 
closed up on March 30, 1901, the council agreeing to pay Mr. Bigger $7,843 
for his services in securing the reduction of the interest on the outstanding 
bonds of sixty-two thousand dollars. 

The election of April 5, 1901, resulted in the election of Frank L. Mar- 
tin. His opponent was Willis N. Baker, who became the first of the candi- 
dates who alternated with Martin in the mayoralty of Hutchinson for a few 
years. William Pells was elected councilman for the first ward; B. W. Ladd 
was chosen from the second ward ; L. D. Pollock received a majority of the 
votes in the third ward; A, E. Asher, receiving six more votes than his oppo- 
nent, A. N. Bountz, was chosen in the fourth ward; Charles Crawford re- 
ceived a majority of the vottfs for the short term in the fifth ward, and 
Walter Kile for the long term ; O. Suttle was unanimously elected council- 
man from the sixth ward, and E. I. Parks was chosen to represent the sixth 
ward in the city administration. C. J. Noyes was elected police judge. The 
council confirmed the following appointments of the mayor: City clerk, 
George S. Bourne: city attorney, H. S. Lewis; city marshal, Frank Nicholson. 

MUNICIPALIZATION PROJECT FAILED. 

Among the first things done by this council was the granting of a fran- 
chise to J. S. Bellamy and W. E. Burns for the erection and maintenance of 
a telephone system in the city. 

This council began negotiations with the Water, Light and-Power Com- 
pany for the purchase of the plant by the city. A resolution to that effect 
was passed on October 4, 1901, setting forth the conditions upon which the 
city would enter negotiations for the purchase of the plant, among which 



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34*> RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

was one setting out that the city should not be required to pay cash, but 
should be allowed to pay for the plant by an issue of bonds not to bear more 
than four per cent, interest: the city also to have the right to employ an 
expert to place a valuation on the plant. The city further specified that the 
price paid must be such that the assured income of the plant would pay for 
the interest on the purchase price, and that the bond issue should gradually 
s-ipplant all hydrant rentals. In furtherance of this plan the city employed 
C. H. Evans, a Chicago engineer, to place a value on the waterworks plant. 
Evans made his report to the council on January 4, 1902, in which he placed 
the total value of the plant at $267,160.71, this exclusive of the real-estate 
value, and of the value of the franchise, or business, which he placed at 
$100,000 additional. His report favored the purchase of the plant, he 
claiming that the net profits to the city would be $14,700 a year, to which, 
he claimed, should be added the saving of foreign administration, and that 
the saving of state and county taxes would increase the net earnings to 
$18,724.03. But nothing ever came of this effort to purchase the water plant 
and operate it as a municipal plant. The agitation was kept up for a while, 
hut it soon died down. 

The election held on April 4. 1902, resulted in the selection of the fol- 
lowing for councilmen : First ward, A. E. Asher; second ward, John Sev- 
erance; third ward, W. H. VVislon, long term, and C. S. Woods, short term; 
fourth ward, F. G. Delano, for the long term, and A. W. Eaga'n, for the 
unexpired term: fifth ward. C. L. Vaughn; sixth ward, Chester O'Neal. 

CARNEGIE LIBRARY OFFER ACCEPTED. 

On June 2, 190.2, the city received an offer from Andrew Carnegie to 
erect a fifteen -thou sand -dollar buildirig for A public library, on condition that 
the city provide fifteen hundred dollars a year for the support of the library. 
The council promptly accepted Mr. Carnegie's offer, and the public library 
was soon an established institution in Hutchinson. 

Considerable extension of the sewers of the city was made during this 
year, although a policy of retrenchment was the one that governed the coun- 
cil, the aim being to try and get the city on a cash basis. As was leferred 
to in an earlier part of this chapter, the contest over mayor was begun and 
was continued in the election held on April 7, 1903. The vote on mayor at 
this election showed a majority of 329, Martin receiving 1,638 votes, and 
Harsha. 2,055. The councilmen elected were: First ward, C. VV. Oswald; 
second ward, J. R. Campbell; third ward, John Blair; fourth ward, Henry 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 347 

Hartman; fifth ward, Samuel Hirst; sixth ward, James Hettinger. W. R. 
Underwood was elected police judge. S. F. Johnson was chosen city clerk ; 
A. C. Malloy, city attorney, and James Coleman, city marshal. 

In the election held on April 8, 1904, the following were elected council- 
men: First ward, M. I. Hulls; second ward, L. A. Beebe; third ward, L. F. 
Morris; fourth ward, F. G. Delano; fifth ward, Frank McDermed: sixth 
ward, Chester O'Neal. There were no changes made in the appointive offi- 
ces of the city. 

SOME INTERESTING FINANCIAL EXPEDIENTS. 

The police judge's report for this year, as for other years during the 
time the "joint licensing" policy was adopted by the council, showed monthly 
fines running from seven hundred to one thousand dollars. But despite re- 
ceipts added to the taxable income of the city, the council proceedings are 
full of plans of that body to raise more money. Expedients of all sorts were 
resorted to. Levies were made for purposes for which no money was spent, 
and then the money received by taxation for those purposes was transferred 
from those several funds to the general fund. The judgment fund and the 
sinking fund were the most prolific sources of increased revenue. Instead 
of applying on the bonds as they matured the money that was derived from 
levies to pay off bonds, the councils of these years of licensing of joints, by 
resolution, would transfer the money so raised to the general fund and keep 
it to pay the expenses of the city. The bill for extra police caused by reason 
of the joints that were allowed to run, more than absorbed the revenue from 
the joints: in addition, these councils were extravagant in the extreme in 
their expenditures and the city finances were in a poor shape. 

The election held on April 4, 1905, was a warmly contested one. There 
were three candidates: J. P. Harsha, A. W. McCandlcss and J. C. Shatton. 
The first two were running on independent tickets, the latter being the 
Socialist candidate Harsha was elected. In the first ward C. VV. Oswald 
was elected member of the council ; J. E. Hostettler, in the second ward ; John 
Blair, third; W. S. Thompson, fourth; C. Howard, fifth, and E. I. Parks, 
sixth. W. R. Underwood was elected' city clerk; Joe Riggs was appointed 
city marshal; S. F. Johnson, city clerk, and A. C. Malloy, city attorney. 

The ordinance calling for the paving of Main street was passed by 
the council of the preceding year, but the contract for the paving was mti.de 
by the council of 1905. During this year the street was paved from Avenue 
D to Fifth avenue, with bitulitic. This was the first pavement put down in 



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348 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Hutchinson. Sherman street, west, was the next pavement to be put down, 
then Sherman street, east. Avenue A was also paved soon after the pave- 
ments of the other streets named had been put down. 

CONSTRUCTION OF DRAINACE DITCir. 

During this year the city dug a big drainage ditch from Cow creek to 
the river. It cost the city over thirty thousand dollars. It was the purpose 
of this ditch to take the water from Cow creek, above the town, with the 
view to preventing flood waters from coming through the business part of 
the town. This canal has helped carry water off in ordinarily "high-water" 
periods. But there have been no such floods as swept over the city in 1877 
or in 1903 since it was dug. At the present time the ditch has grown up in 
weeds and willows and filled up with sand blowing into it and washing into 
it with every rain, so that at the present time it would be of very little value 
to the city in flood time, such as covered Hutchinson in either of the two big 
floods that have come down Cow creek. 

This council also brought on a controversy with the Water, Light and 
Power Company that was very unfortunate. It is probable. looking at the 
controversy years afterward, that there was a great deal of personal animos- 
ity governing some of the council members in their dealing with the water- 
works company, that contentious members of the council allowed their per- 
sonal feelings to bias their judgment of the rights of both the water company 
and the city; as a result, the water company cut off the electric street lights. 
This forced the council to "back up" from some of their positions and offer 
to deal with the waterworks company. The whole controversy was un- 
called for, but was settled later when the water company changed hands and 
a new council was elected that had no personal animosities to vent. 

FRANCHISE GRANTED ELECTRIC STREET-CAR LINE. 

On December 15, 1905, the council granted a franchise for an electric 
street-car line in Hutchinson. The franchise was given to Hutchinson men, 
and these men later bought the old street-car line. The men to whom the 
franchise was given were Emerson Carey, K. E. Sentney. C. W. Williams, 
C. H. McBurney, A. W. Smith, and J. S. George, the first three named being 
those upon whom the burden of building the line would fall. The line today 
is owned by Emerson Carey, all die other members having retired from the 
company. Its lines have been extended as the city has grown, and has be- 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 349 

come a valuable factor in the city's ability to meet the demands of the people. 
Extensions are made as fast as traffic grows, and an adequate service is ren- 
dered the people of the city. 

The election held on April 6, 1906, resulted as follows: Councilmen, 
first ward, J. H. Buettner; second ward, George T. Hern; third ward, W. E. 
Long; fourth ward. Pet N'ation; fifth ward, Frank McDermed; sixth ward, 
Chester O'Neal. The council retained all of the former employees. Very 
little of general interest was accomplished during this year. Routine mat- 
ters occupied the time of the council. The city gradually increased in size. 
Financially its affairs were not bettered to any great extent ; while the income 
from taxation was greatly increased, yet the expenditures of the city grew 
equally as fast as the income of the city. 

In the election held April 5, 1907. J. P. Harsha was elected mayor over 
C. W. Oswald. A. C. Hoagland was chosen member of the council from 
the first ward: A. L. Barnes, from the second ward; John Blair, from the 
third: W. S. Thompson, from the fourth; John Craig, from the fifth, and 
F. I, Parks, from the sixth ward. W. R. Underwood was elected police 
judge, and Ed Metz was appointed city clerk. 

On April 8, 1908, the city elected the following members of the council: 
First ward, J. H. Buettner; second ward, George Hern; third ward, J. M. 
McVay: fourth ward. Samuel Hirst: fifth ward, Frank McDermed; sixth 
ward. F. J. Canatsey. 

COMMISSION FORM OF GOVERNMENT. 

During this administration the city council passed an ordinance calling 
for a change in the form of the city government from that of mayor and 
council to that of a commission. This ordinance was unanimously passed 
on January 25. 1909, and the change was made on a petition to the council. 
The election was held on March 2, 1909, when the change was voted for, 
there being 970 votes cast for the proposition and 619 against the change. 



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CHAPTER XLVI. 
Hutchinson as a City ok the First Class. 

Hutchinson changed the form of her city government on April 10, 1905, 
when the first city commissioners met. There had been many influences 
at work to bring about the change from council to commission. One of the 
most practical of these influences was the persistent policy of the council 
to "wink" at the violation of the prohibitory law. It was difficult to defeat 
the councilmen who saw the law-breaking and welcomed the revenue the 
monthly fines turned into the city treasury. While it would be difficult to 
determine, yet it is quite probable that the fines received into the city treas- 
ury never by far paid the increased cost of maintaining the peace of the city 
or paid for the expense of caring for those whom the open joint deprived 
of the earnings of those who patronized those joints. So an ouster pro- 
ceeding was brought against the last mayor under the council system. The 
case was heard in the supreme court, but the decision was delayed until 
the term of the mayor expired and in a technical sense he was not ousted 
for he was not in the office at the time the judgment of ouster was rendered 
by the supreme court of Kansas. The disclosure of that suit was the deciding 
element for the change in the form of city government. It also was a 
warning for mayors not only of Hutchinson, hut of the entire state, that 
the persistent and continuous taking of fines from offenders without the 
jail sentence being also attached would be a matter that would subject the 
offender to a judgment of ouster for his office. The sentiment arising out 
of the continuous breach of the prohibitory law under the guise of license 
was also the cause of the passage of a law by the Legislature making the third 
conviction of the law a penitentiary offence. 

So the new commission went into office. It had a plainly marked line 
to follow. It not only could not raise money from this source but it was 
prohibited from spending more money than it had on hands, derived by 
taxes. It cut down the extravagance of cities. They could not go in debt, 
as the councils of the past did; issue warrants until those warrants would 
not be accepted for service or merchandise, then vote bonds to take up those 
warrants and continue their old way of spending more than they had on 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 351 

hand. Economies were forced on the new commission that have been exceed- 
ingly wholesome, for in the "joint days" the extravagance of the council 
was increased when the police judge turned in his monthly report to the 
meeting of the council, the report of the big sums of money being turned 
over to the city treasury from funds collected during the month. 

The first commission consisted of three men, the mayor and two mem- 
bers. F. L. Martin was the first mayor and George W. Winans and C. W. 
Oswald the members. In the early part of their term they met every day. 
They were paid for their services, the mayor receiving seven hundred dollars 
a year; the members, each five hundred dollars. Their first act was the 
election of George Hern as city marshal and A. VV. Tyler as city attorney; 
S. A. Poe, city clerk and R. A. Campbell, police judge. In the early part 
of their administration they ordered many miles of permanent sidewalks. 
The commissioners on June 14, 1909, ordered an election to vote on the 
question of issuing internal improvement bonds, the money to be spent in 
building a bridge at the corner of Avenue A and Main street. This elec- 
tion was held on June 29, 1909, and resulted in the bonds receiving eight 
hundred and forty-nine majority. 

In July the commissioners undertook to get some return for the stock 
in the Missouri Pacific railroad that had been voted for the building of 
the road into the city. As a result of this action of the commissioners the 
railroad company paid twenty-nine thousand four hundred dollars for the 
stock issued by the city when the forty-nine-thousand-dollar bond issue was 
made to the road. This was the first time in the history of the county 
when any of the municipalities ever realized anything on the sale of the 
stock of a railroad corporation. This is all the more noticeable when the 
action of the Rock Island railroad is recalled. The Chicago, Kansas & 
Western railroad, the name under which the Rock Island was built across 
the county, issued one hundred and seventy thousand dollars worth of stock 
to Reno county for the bonds of the county for a like amount. As soon as 
the road was constructed the first payment of interest on the bonds of 
the company was defaulted and the Rock Island Company, which was in 
reality identical with the Chicago, Kansas and Western railroad, foreclosed 
on its bonds, made Reno county a party to the suit and wiped out the county's 
stock. 

During this year Adam street from Avenue A to the Santa Fe Rail- 
road tracks was paved. 

In the second election under the commission form of government. F. 
L. Martin and L. A. Bebee were candidates for mayor. Martin was elected 



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35 2 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

by a majority of one hundred and sixty-seven votes. The city appointees 
remained the same as under the former administration. 

On December 2, 1910, the board of commissioners passed a resolution, 
upon a request of a mass meeting of citizens of Hutchinson, to make this 
city a city of the first class, but they also declared that there was a doubt 
as to whether the city, if it should pass to a city of the first class, should 
continue under the commission form of government or revert to the council 
system, and that any action on the matter should he deferred until the 
Legislature met and had an opportunity to enact such laws as would be 
necessary to meet the exact situation of Hutchinson; s\> the matter of chang- 
ing to a city of the first class was deferred until the regular spring election. 
But on February 21, 1911, the city became a city of the first class by virtue of 
having a population of more than fifteen thousand people. In this election, 
held on April 4- 191 r . there were two candidates for mayor, Frank Vin- 
cent and F. P. Hettinger. Vincent received 2,277 votes and Hettinger 
1,928 votes; for the office of commissioner for two years, Frank McDermed 
and George W. Winan were candidates; for commissioner for one year, 
Sam S. Graybill and L. D. Pollock also ran. Being a city of the first 
class, the number of commissioners was increased from three to five. The 
city having voted bonds for a new city building that was to have also a 
public auditorium, the matter of location was taken up by the city com- 
missioners and the site located on Avenue A. over Cow creek and fronting 
Walnut street. The city building was officially named "Convention Hall". 
It has a seating capacity of four thousand two hundred and contains also 
all of the city offices. The corner stone was laid by William H. Taft, then 
President of the United States, on September 26, 191 1. The building was 
erected at a cost of one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars and has 
been in great demand when large audience room is needed. It is one of 
the chief assets of the city in offering a large auditorium for state conven- 
tions. It also is valuable in bringing a larger number of people together 
frequently and promoting a better feeling among all classes. Every Sunday 
afternoon the city's band gives a concert, without any charges and concerts 
of a high standard are rendered. People of all grades of life attend these 
concerts, the rich, the poor, white and black. Perhaps nothing has ever 
done as much to promote a kindlier feeling in the city, nothing has broken 
up the class feeling, nothing has promoted the general regard one for 
another, in the community as has this gathering that is supported by the 
city by taxation, in a building ample and free to all, without discrimination, 
without distinction. The Sunday afternoon concerts given by the munici- 



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CONVENTION' HAI.I., HI'T('IHXSO> 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 353 

pal band also taxes the capacity of the building and its existence would be 
justified for these meetings alone, if the big auditorium was put to no other 
use. 

The election of April 2, 1912, resulted in the election of Frank Vincent 
for mayor by a vote of 2,113 to tnat °f 1 -57 I f° r C. D. Forby and 36 for 
VV. \V. Tamplin. R. H. Flynn and John F. Smith were elected commission- 
ers. J. Q. Patten was elected city marshal; Edward Metz continued as 
city clerk; Walter Jones, city attorney, and M. Hoagland, probate judge. 
The first session of the city commissioners in the new hall was held on 
May 3, 1912. 

The primary election of 1913 was a hotly contested one. There were 
three candidates for mayor in the spring election and of these Lincoln S. 
Davis and L. S. Fontron were the two highest and became, by virtue of 
this fact, the candidates 011 the election. In this election Davis received 
2,273 votes to Fontron's 2,781 votes. For finance commissioner, George W. 
Winans received 2,672 votes and Harry Ragland, 1,972 votes. For street 
commissioner J. B. Baird polled 2,133 votes and J. E. Buskirk, 2,701 votes. 

Mayor Fontron was one of the youngest men ever elected to this office, 
perhaps the youngest. He was raised in Reno county and received his 
early education in the county schools, later graduating from the city high 
school. He was a successful business man and was popular in the election 
and made the city a very fine mayor. The following offices were appointed 
by the mayor and confirmed by the council to act for the ensuing year: 
City attorney, W. F. Jones; police judge, J. M. Jordan; city clerk, Edward 
Metz; chief of police, E. M, Davis. This council, like its predecessor, was 
largely engaged in internal improvements in all parts of the city not before 
improved; rebuilding some of the smaller bridges of the city and in the 
general routine of commission work, such as admitting new additions to 
the city, letting sprinkling contracts, etc. This commission also established 
the "White Way" on Main street, a system of a cluster of lights on stand- 
ards, one cluster in each block on each side of the street in place of the old 
swinging arc lights in the center of the street. This added greatly to the 
appearance of Main street at night. It may be said that Hutchinson was 
among the first cities of the state to put in these kind of street lights. 

This commission passed the first ordinance for the parking of automo- 
biles on Main street. It will be recalled that one of the things the early 
councils had to contend with, was the hitching of teams on Main street. 
However, the commission that handled the automobile parking matter did 

(23) 



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354 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

not have as serious a time as its predecessor did in dealing with the hitch- 
ing-post question. But the question was one that recurred so often that 
the plan of parking now in use was devised by this commission and it 
also passed speed regulation ordinances, which, however, are not quite as 
much honored in the breach as in the observance of the ordinance by the 
automobiles, yet a sufficiently large number of violations are found every 
day and automobile accidents are so common, because of the great number 
of machines, that it perhaps would be about as well for the commission to 
raise the limit of speed and save having so many violations of its ordi- 
nances, as there are but few instances when automobiles are driven on the 
streets strictly in accordance with the ordinance governing the s|>eed of 
machines on the streets of the city. This commission also adopted the policy 
of its predecessors and continued the improvement . of the city, putting a 
sidewalk and curbing where desired by property owners and where it would 
add to the improvement of the city. 

The election of April 7, 1914, was not as warmly contested as the 
previous elections. F. \V, Cook and L. S. Davis were the candidates for 
mayor. Cook received 3.102 votes and Davis 2.855 votes. R. H. Flinn 
was elected commissioner of parks and John 1*. Smith, commissioner of 
public utilities, George Hern was appointed city marshal and Edward Metis 
continued as city clerk. 

In the election held on April 12. 1915. there were two candidates for 
mayor, F. VV. Cook and J. P. Harsha. Cook received 2,977 votes in the 
election and Harsha, 2,946 votes. G. \V. Winans was continued as com- 
missioner of finance and J. E. Buskirk, street commissioner. In the ap- 
pointive offices, Walter Jones was continued as city attorney; George \V. 
Hern as city marshal. This council had the question of "Sunday closing" 
to contend with. Some wanted all show places closed on Sunday. The 
show people resented being singled out and began a campaign to close all 
business houses. In the movement many of the business firms joined, as 
most of them wanted to close and they desired an ordinance that would force 
their competitors who did not want to close, to, conform to the rule. The 
result of the controversy was a "referendum" vote. The Sunday-closing 
ordinance in the "referendum" vote lost, by a vote of 2,920 against the 
ordinance to 2,430 for the ordinance. 

In the election of 1916, Doctor Cook was opposed by A. C. Gleadall. 
The latter won, receiving 2,854 votes to Cook's 2.2^2. For commissioner 
of parks R. H. Flynn received 2,434 votes and his competitor, H. N. John- 
son, 2,384 votes. For commissioner of utilities, W. A. Knorr received 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 355 

2.902 votes and J. F. Smith 1,865 votes. Walter Jones was continued as 
city attorney: Ed. Metz, as city clerk and W. F. Cody, city marshal. 

In the election in 1917, F. W. Cook was a candidate again. His opponent 
was Frank vincent. Cook polled 2,383 votes and Frank Vincent received 
2,124 votes. Foj finance commissioner, George W. Winans was continued, 
he receiving 3,365 votes and E. E. Wilson, 953. For commissioner of streets 
Will H. Shears defeated J. E. Buskirk, he polling 2,337 votes and Shears, 
2,132 votes. The appointive offices of the former administration were con- 
tinued except that of city marshal. The commission, acting on petition, 
ordered Adams street paved and ordered a large number of sidewalks and 
gutters, and likewise approved the drainage plans proposed by the pro- 
prietors of the soda-ash plant, the strawboard factory and the packing house, 
substituting a closed sewer for the open ditch formerly used. 



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CHAPTER XLVII. 
The Salt Industry. 

The salt vein in Kansas is fairly well defined. It is a rock salt deposit 
and is found in the counties of Rice, Ellsworth, Kingman, Harper, some in 
Meade county and in Reno county. While there are salt manufacturers at 
other places than in Reno county, yet a very large percentage of the salt busi- 
ness in Kansas is centered at Hutchinson. 

Salt was known to exist at an early day in Reno county and in Rice 
county. It was found on top of the ground in 1875 by some cowboys 
camping ten miles south of Raymond, in Rice county. This discovery was 
reported in Hutchinson and a salt company was organized to make salt. 
F. E. Gillett was elected president; E. Wilcox, treasurer; Hiram Raff, secre- 
tary; E. A. Smith, engineer, and C. C. Bemis, superintendent. They pro- 
posed to pump the brine from the salt marsh to Raymond, on the Santa 
Fe railroad, ten miles distant. It was soon discovered that the brine was 
not strong enough to make it profitable to evaporate it. Very little money 
had been paid into the project when it was found unprofitable. Salt was 
made in small quantities at Solomon, Kansas, by the solar process, but no 
great amount was ever made. 

Ben Blanchard first discovered the rock salt in this county. He was 
drilling for gas in South Hutchinson when his drill struck salt. This was 
on September 27, 1887. Salt at that time was selling on the market in 
Hutchinson from three to three dollars and a half a barrel. It was all 
brought here from Michigan. Within a year after the discovery of salt by 
Ben Blanchard there were ten salt plants in operation in Hutchinson. 

In June, 1888, representatives of the Michigan Salt Association visited 
Hutchinson. The party consisted of W. R. Burt, president, Edwin Wheeler, 
W. J. Barstow, Thomas Cranage. D. G. Holland, Joy Morton and J. F. 
Ewing. They expected to start the erection of a plant, but they found so 
many plants in operation that they considered it a bad time to invest. Later, 
Morton bought many of the plants that had failed to make money in the 
manufacture of salt and today the Morton interests are largely in the lead 
in the manufacture of salt. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 357 

The first salt plant that was built in Hutchinson was erected by Doctor 
Gouinloch, an experienced salt manufacturer of Warsaw, New York. He 
began the construction of his plant in October, 1887, and his first well was 
completed on December 16, 1887, after he had bored through three hundred 
feet of rock salt. On March 24, 1888, the first salt was produced. 

The "opening day" for the salt industry in Reno county was on Sun- 
day. A large percentage of the people living in Hutchinson and a great many 
from over the county visited the plant on this day. The crowd that attended 
this first day's manufacture of salt was estimated to be over five thousand. 
Dr. Gouinlock associated with him C. H. Humphries, who was superin- 
tendent of the plant. The company soon put down another well. This 
plant at the start had a capacity of five hundred barrels a day. Five years 
later it was enlarged and the capacity increased to one thousand barrels a 
day, consisting then of nine open steel pans from which the brine was 
evaporated. 

The second plant started was called the "Vincent plant." The com- 
pany organized consisted of' Thomas Kurtz, president; George L. Gould, 
vice-president; John I*'. Vincent, secretary and treasurer, and Frank Vin- 
cent, general manager. In addition to these, Calvin I. Hood, C. A. Leighton 
and Preston B. Plumb, then United States senator from Kansas, were inter- 
ested in the plant. But the three men from Emporia sold their interest to 
Kurtz before the plant began operations. This company was called the 
Hutchinson Salt and Manufacturing Company and was organized in March, 
1888. Their plant, which was completed in July, 1888, was located on 
Avenue C east and Lorraine street. Its capacity was three hundred barrels 
a day. The following year they built the first dairy mill for the manufac- 
ture of dairy and table salt. 

The Diamond Salt Company built the third salt plant. G. W. Hardy 
was president and Sims Ely, secretary. In addition to these two men, J. S. 
May, W. E. Burns and Grant Easley formed the company. Their plant 
was located in Blanchard's first addition and consisted of two open pans. 
It began the manufacture of salt in December, 1888, with a capacity of two 
hundred barrels a day. On April 25, 1892, it was sold at sheriffs sale 
to Charles E. Phelps, mortgagee, who, in turn, sold it in June, 1893, to 
Joy Morton, who operated it until the fall of 1897. 

Late in the fall of 1888, G. H. Bartlett, of Providence, Rhode Island, 
built a small plant of one pan, located over in the northeastern part of the 
city. It was not an economical plant to operate and for a short time was 



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35& RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

idle. It was then purchased by Samuel Matthews and Charles Collins. 
Shortly afterwards Mr. Matthews purchased Collins's interest and operated 
the plant, enlarging it from an eighty-barrel capacity to three hundred barrel 
daily capacity. Mr. Matthews had had considerable experience in the manu- 
facture of salt in England and successfully operated the plant for many 
years. This was the fourth plant to he started. 

Henry Hegwer built the fifth plant, in the northeastern part of town. 
He began the construction of his plant early tn the summer of 1888 and had 
it in operation in the fall of the same year. It was a four-pan plant. Early 
in 1889, R. R. Price and W. L. Moore leased the plant of Mr. Hegwer and 
operated it under the name of the Western Salt Company. This lease passed 
to the Kansas Salt Company when it was organized and was operated by 
them until 1897. The Kansas Salt Company and the Hutchinson Salt Com- 
pany consolidated in 1899 an( l finally became the property of the Morton 
Salt Company. 

The Riverside Salt Plant was the seventh to be built. It was erected 
in South Hutchinson and was an open-pan plant, with a capacity of five 
hundred barrels a day. It also had a dairy mill in connection, with a 
capacity of one hundred barrels a day. The company was organized in 
June. 1888, by T. M. Mulkey, W. F. Mulkey, N. White, J. F. DeBras, A. M. 
West, W. E. Hutchinson and H. Whiteside, J. M. Mulkey being president 
of the company. In August, 1890, the ownership of this plant passed to the 
Kansas Salt Company. In May, 1899, ,l became the property of the Hutch- 
inson-Kansas Salt Company and is now a part of the Morton property. 

The eighth plant to be erected met financial troubles early in its exist- 
ence. It was called the New York plant. Anthony Oswald was president 
of the company and J. M. Zinn, secretary. Early in 1889 it met with 
financial reverses and was not completed until early in 1891, when it was 
purchased by the Standard Salt Company. It was later sold to the Hutch- 
inson Salt Company, finally becoming the property of the Morton Company. 

The ninth plant was built by Indiana men. The company consisted of 
John H. Briggs. Andrew Grimes, J. N. Phillips, J. Q. Button and Frank 
Brittleband, all of Terre Haute, Indiana. They erected their plant in 
Blanchard's first addition to South Hutchinson. Beginning early in June to 
construct a plant, they called it the Crystal Salt Plant. It had two open 
steel pans and could produce three hundred barrels a day. It began opera- 
tions in the fall of 1888 and in March, 1891. it was sold to the Hutchinson 
Salt Company and is now the property of the Mortons. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 359 

The tenth plant to l)e put up was erected by an organization called the 
Pennsylvania Salt Company. In the latter part of 1888, W. R. Bennett, 
T. J. Decker and C. R. Thoburn organized the company. The plant was 
erected in South Hutchinson and had a daily capacity of three hundred bar- 
rels. In 1890 it was sold to Jay Gould, who soon sold it to the Hutchinson 
Salt Company. This company operated the plant until May, 1899, when 
it passed to the Hutchinson Salt Company and finally to the Morton Com- 
pany. 

In the latter part of 1888. the Great Western Salt Company was organ- 
ized by D. T. McFarland. Z. L. McFarland, J. O. Grimes, all of Hutchin- 
son, J. H. Crabbs, of Dodge City, and M. Brandome. of Wichita. The 
company completed a small plant on South Monroe street, in this city, with 
a capacity of two hundred barrels a day. It was a poorly constructed plant 
and was never operated successfully. It passed to the Gould interests in 
November, 1890. who sold it to the Hutchinson Salt Company in 1891. 
It is now one of the Morton properties. This was the eleventh plant erected 
in less than a year after the discovery of salt. 

In February, 1888, some men from Warsaw, New York, organized the 
Wyoming Salt Company. Tt was composed of H. H. Bucklin, J. B. Crossett, 
M. E. Coffin and W. W. Hanley. The building of the plant was handled 
by Mr. Hanley and the company commenced to make salt in August, 1888. 
The management and the business was not profitable. The plant was sold 
to an organization called the Queen City Salt & Mining Company, com- 
posed of J. R. Van Zandt, J. N. Sweet and A. F. Smith, all of Hutchinson. 
This plant was operated until Novem1>er 1, r8g2, when it was sold at sheriff's 
sale to B. F. Blaker, of Mound City, Kansas, Mr. Blaker operated the plant 
at times until 1895. The plant was then leased to G. C. Easley and Samuel 
Matthews, who operated it for a short time. The Kansas Salt Company 
and the Hutchinson Salt Company operated the plant jointly until January, 
1900, when it passed to the ownership of the Hutchinson-Kansas Salt Com- 
pany. It was an open-pan plant, with a daily capacity of two hundred bar- 
rels. It is now the property of the Morton Salt Company. This was the 
twelfth salt plant built in Hutchinson. 

The thirteenth salt plant bore the "hoodoo" that is associated with that 
number. E. H. Holbrook. of Port Huron, Michigan, started the plant in 
South Hutchinson in 1901. After building four cement graner pans and 
drilling three brine wells, and after receiving several carloads of lumber 
with which to construct the plant, Mr. Holbrook disappeared from Hutchin- 



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36O RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

son. It was generally supposed that he was unable to finance the enterprise 
and dropped it in that manner. The property was foreclosed in 1903 and 
was purchased by the Hutchinson Salt Company in March, 1908. The plant 
never was completed and in the consolidation of salt plants became the prop- 
erty of the Morton Company. 

The fourteenth plant to be built was that of the Hutchinson Packing 
Company, owned by the Omaha Packing Company, of Chicago, Illinois. 
Its officers were James Viles, Jr., president; E. F. Robbins, vice-president; 
Sidney Underwood, secretary; Walter Underwood, general manager. It 
began the making of salt as a side line of the packing plant, the brine being 
evaporated with the used steam of the packing house. It began operations 
with two pans and in 1895 increased its capacity by adding two more pans. 
The output was then three hundred barrels a day. In 1895 the company 
put in the Craney Direct Heat Vacuum Pans, with a capacity of fourteen 
hundred barrels a day. The investment in this plant was about one hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars, with a storage capacity of eighty thousand 
barrels of salt. It also had a complete dairy mill. Financially it was not 
a success and closed down in 1900. 

One of the successful salt manufacturers was Emerson Carey, who 
organized a company on April 25, 1901. Emerson Carey was president; 
C. VV. Southward, vice-president; Edith Carey, secretary, and W. D. Puter- 
baugh, treasurer. This plant was located on South Main street and the 
steam to evaporate the brine was supplied from the ice plant. The first car 
of salt was shipped from the plant in July, 1901, to J. B. Baden, of Win- 
field, Kansas. This plant has continually grown until it now has a large 
daily capacity. In 1905 this company installed a small steam vacuum pan, 
but it was not successful and was later dismantled, and in 1907 the com- 
pany put in the Lillie quadruple vacuum pans. 

The second plant of this company was erected east of town, just out- 
side the city limits. It was equipped with the Lillie quadruple vacuum pans 
and has a capacity of one thousand barrels a day, besides a dairy mill of 
two-hundred-barrel capacity, making a total capacity for the two plants of 
fifteen hundred barrels a day. 

In the fall of 1892. E. E. Barton, Frank Rarton and William Banta 
organized the Barton Salt Company, leased the packing house built by the 
Toby & Booth Packing House Company and installed a three-pan salt plant. 
with a capacity of three hundred barrels a day. In August, 1903. this plant was 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 361 

destroyed by fire and on the old site, in the fall, they erected a new building 
and installed a five steel graner salt plant. They incorporated their com- 
pany on July I, 1905, with E. E. Barton, president; E. M. Barton, secretary 
and treasurer, and H. M. Barton, F. L. Martin and G. A. Vandeveer as 
other directors. This plant was operated by E. E. Barton until his death, 
on February 26, 1912, when the plant went into the hands of C. H. Humph- 
reys. The company now operating it is officered by C. H. Humphreys, 
president; E. M. Barton, vice-president G. A. Samuelson, secretary, and 
George M. Bonnell, sales manager. In June, 1913, the company put in a 
vacuum evaporating plant and has made salt under this process since its 
completion, the latter part of 1913. It also has a dairy or refining plant in 
operation. 

The Union Ice and Salt Company was organized in 1892. It was 
located on Avenue D east. It began operations in 1892 and has a capacity 
of two hundred and fifty barrels daily. - J. F. Redhead was president of 
this company until July 1, 1900, when the plant was sold to Ed. Gardner. 
It has an ice plant in connection with the salt plant and perhaps is more of 
an ice plant than a salt plant. 

The Star Salt Company was organized in 1889.. R. E. Conn was 
president; Will Randle, secretary, and John Welsh, treasurer. Their plant 
was located west of town on the Santa Fe railroad. It had a dairy mill, 
with a fifty-barrel-a-day capacity. This company operated the plant until 
1894, when it was sold to the Kansas Salt Company. " 

Such was the way in which the salt business in Reno county was started. 
As might have been anticipated, it soon became a matter of elimination. 
There were all classes of men engaged in the business. Some of them had 
had experience in the manufacture of salt, many of them had not. Some 
had the capacity to make salt at a reasonable cost, hut they found that mak- 
ing the salt was only a part of the business. They found that the selling 
of the salt was equally important with the cheapness of manufacturing it. 
The result was that as soon as the market was filled and there was no demand 
for salt, the price fell to a point where the plants were operated at a loss. 
The salt makers stood this loss for a while, then undertook to remedy it. 
They held a meeting, at which the condition of the salt business was dis- 
cussed and they found out that with a restricted territory they would have 
to curtail the output. Each man thought the others should cut down his 
output. Agreements were made, with no serious intention on the part of 



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3&2 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

any making them to keep the agreement. These meetings disclosed some 
interesting facts about the salt business of the Hutchinson territory. The 
amount invested in these plants was over six hundred thousand dollars. 
There were twenty-nine open steel pans and four steam graner pans, with 
an annual capacity of production of nine hundred thousand barrels. Owing 
to the competition of the first three years eight different plants were either 
sold or leased to stronger companies. Those that were sold brought less 
than half the cost of construction. Later, nearly all of these plants were 
dismantled, as it was found that they were too expensive to operate and that 
they could not compete with the larger and more compact plants. Especially 
was this true when the vacuum pans were put into operation, which reduced 
the cost of production so greatly. 

The railroad greatly appreciated the value of the salt business, which 
consisted not only of the freight on salt shipped out, but on the coal and 
barrel stuff shipped in, after the plants were constructed, and there was an 
immense tonnage represented in the plants themselves. 

The first expansion of the salt market came when the Goulds became 
interested in the salt business. The result was the changing of freight 
rates that enlarged the field for Hutchinson salt. The larger companies 
also had rebates on freight and other advantages that enabled them to keep 
their plants running, much to the disadvantage of the smaller proprietors, 
who either did not know how to get rebates from the railroads, or did try 
and found that some other manufacturer had the attention of the railroad 
official to an extent that excluded them from sharing in the rebates. 

The first plants were all open steel pans, with heat applied directly to 
the pans. The salt was raked out of the boiling brine and left on the edge 
of the pan to drain, after which it was hauled in carts to the storage room. 
In 1895 a steam graner was installed, steam being conveyed through pipes 
in the pans. In 1896 direct heat vacuum pans were installed, but were not 
a success. Later steam vacuum pans were tried and the success of this 
method of making salt revolutionized the business, by reducing the amount 
of heat required to precipitate the salt. 

Michigan was early the greatest competitor of the Kansas salt manu- 
facturers. The Wolverine producers had been long in the business. They 
occupied the entire territory and the Kansas manufacturers had to contest 
every inch of ground with the Michigan competitors. They had favorable 
freight rates and. for the first ten years, restricted the territory of the Kan- 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 363 

sas manufacturers, who made more salt than their territory consumed. The 
following is an estimate made by Frank Vincent, one of the oldest manu- 
facturers of salt in this field, as to the annual output of salt in the Kansas 
field. This estimate embraces more than the output of the Hutchinson 
plant, as it includes some plants operated outside of Hutchinson, but in gen- 
eral it gives the volume of business of the salt industry since it began in 
1888: 

1888 — 190.000 barrels. 1903 — 915,000 barrels. 

r889 — 380,000 barrels. 1904 — 1,079,000 barrels. 

1890 — 600,000 barrels. 1005 — 958,000 barrels. 

1891—800,000 barrels. 1906 — 930,000 barrels. 

1892 — 850,000 barrels. 1907 — 997,000 barrels. 

1893- — kjoo.ooo barrels. 1908 — 1,132,000 barrels. 

1894 — 875,000 barrels. 1009 — 1,215,000 barrels. 

1805 — -839,000 barrels. 1910 — 1,206,000 barrels. 

[896— 850,000 barrels. 191 1 — 1,198,000 barrels. 

1897— 812,000 barrels. 1912 — 1,137,000 barrels. 

[898 — 952,000 barrels. 1913 — 946,000 barrels. 

1899 — 1,197,000 barrels. 1914 — 1,110,000 barrels. 

1900 — 1,344,000 barrels. 1915 — 1,250,000 barrels. 

1061 — 1,014,000 barrels. ior6 — 1,400,000 barrels (partly esti- 

1902 — 928,000 barrels. mated.") 

The consolidation of the salt industry began in March, 1891, when 
Jay Gould agreed to the consolidation of all the Gould plants with those of 
the Hutchinson Salt Company. This organizing of interests dates from 
April 22, i8qi, when an amended charter of the Hutchinson Salt and Manu- 
facturing Company was granted to the Hutchinson Salt Company and the 
capital of the company was increased to two hundred thousand dollars, one- 
half of which was paid up. 

The Hutchinson Salt Company continued to operate its plants until 
May 16, 1899, at which time this company and the Kansas Salt Company 
consolidated and the name was changed to the Hutchinson-Kansas Salt Com- 
pany. On January 1. 1900, all of the stock and plants of the Hutchinson- 
Kansas Salt Company was purchased by a company, of which Joy Morton. 
of Chicago, became president. An office was maintained in this city, with 
Frank Vincent as general manager. This company, by virtue of the con- 



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364 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

solidation of the smaller plants and the building of a new plant, has an 
annual capacity of one million barrels and a storage capacity of one-quarter 
million barrels. 

In January, 1910, the Morton Salt Company, of Chicago, Illinois, was 
organized with Joy Morton, president ; Mark Morton, vice-president ; Sterl- 
ing Morton, secretary, and Daniel Peterkin, treasurer. The general offices 
were in Chicago. The Hutchinson office was continued until November, 
1914, when the Hutchinson sales office was moved to Kansas City, Mis- 
souri, with Sterling Morton in charge of the sales department. 

On September 21, 1906, Joy Morton, president of the Morton Salt 
Company, began the erection of the largest salt plant in the west. The 
plant was almost completed when it was completely destroyed by fire on 
March 25, 1907. The debris was cleaned away and a new plant was 
immediately begun. The boiler room and salt warehouse were made fire- 
proof. On September 10. 1907, the new plant was completed and began 
making salt on the 14th of September, 1907. This plant has a capacity of 
thirty-three hundred barrels of salt per day. This is by far the largest 
salt plant in the west and perhaps the largest plant in the United States. 
L. D. Libbey was superintendent of the plant until October, 1908, when 
W. E. Kissick was made superintendent, which position he held until Novem- 
ber 1, 1914, when Wirt Morton was made superintendent and continues to 
hold the position at the time of the writing of this history. 

There have been one hundred and fifty salt wells drilled in the salt 
fields around Hutchb*son. The water is pumped down the outside pipe and 
is forced up the inside pipe, saturated with salt. These drill holes show 
but very little variation after passing through the first one hundred feet. 
The drill extends down sixty feet before striking shale. The log on well 
7, drilled at Riverside salt plant in January, 1897, shows the following: 
99 feet of clear sand, 68 feet of red shale or soft stone, 313 feet of white 
lime shale, soft stone, and 330 feet rock salt strata. The salt strata shows 
the following: 35 feet of salt and shale, 20 feet of salt, 15 feet of salt 
and shale, 10 feet of salt, 10 feet of salt and shale, 15 feet of salt, 5 feet 
of salt and shale, 20 feet of salt, 5 feet of salt and shale, 5 feet of salt, 5 
feet of salt and shale, 15 feet of salt, 10 feet of salt and shale, 30 feet of 
salt. 15 feet of salt and shale, 15 feet of salt, 20 feet of salt and shale, 50 
feet of salt, 15 feet of salt and shale, 15 feet of salt. 

The total of 330 feet shows 190 feet of clear salt and 140 feet of salt 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 365 

mixed with shale. In putting down the well there was used 99 feet of 
eight-inch pipe, 168 feet of six-inch pipe and 775 feet of three-inch tubing. 
An analysis of the brine from twelve different wells made in 1906 shows the 
following analysis : 

Specific gravity at 75 degrees Fahr. 1. 19980 

Sulphate of lime -391.19 

Chloride of calcium .20757 

Chloride of magnesium 13625 

Chloride of sodium, pure salt. 25.49380 

Water 72.67119 



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CHAPTER XLVIII. 
Building Up the Salt Industry. 

In the preceding chapter the work of constructing the various salt plants 
has been recorded, as well as the expansion of the number of plants, the 
failure of some to succeed and the dismantling of the older ones. It took 
large sums of money to erect these plants. But few of the promoters of 
the salt business in the beginning had had any experience in that line. When 
the limited market of that time was supplied, the cutting of prices on salt 
was begun. It then was simply a process of elimination, the survival of 
the most experienced and the driving out of the business of the smaller of 
the salt men and the passing of their plants to others. 

In the beginning of the manufacture of salt there were no freight rates 
that would allow any great expansion of the industry. The building up 
of railroad tariffs that would enable the manufacturer of salt in Hutchinson 
to get to a larger market was the problem. It was thought necessary by 
some of the plants to get a railroad interested in the business in order to 
help out the marketing of the salt. This led to the payment of rebates on 
freight shipments of salt that helped some of the plants. The final outcome 
of this rebate system was an investigation by the interstate commerce com- 
mission into the entire question of salt rates. This hearing was held in 
Hutchinson. It drew the presence of more traffic officials of the railroads, 
not only in Kansas but in other states that had joined with the Kansas rail- 
roads in joint tariffs on salt, than ever congregated in Kansas before. The 
private cars of the officials of these roads were sidetracked in the Hutchin- 
son yards, while the traffic men attended the hearing on the rebate matter. 

Judge Charles A. Prouty, a member of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, presided at the hearing. He was a shrewd, keen lawyer and knew 
the various methods used to evade the interstate commerce law. John T. 
Marchand was the attorney of the interstate commerce commission and con- 
ducted the examination. 

Commenting on this case in the report the commission made, judge 
Prouty says, "The exigencies some of the shippers felt necessary to use to 
evade the law developed a crop of expediencies for the benefiting of par- 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 367 

ticular shippers." "Hutchinson", continues the report, "is the center of the 
salt industry of Kansas, although factories are operated at several other 
points in that vicinity, the salt beds being of extensive area. The Kansas 
salt works at the present time are known as the 'trust' and the 'independents'. 
It appeared that all of the 'trust' mills, nine in number, were located in 
Hutchinson and had a capacity of three thousand five hundred barrels a 
day, all owned and operated by the Hutchinson- Kansas Salt Company, while 
the 'independent' companies, seven in number, with a daily capacity of two 
thousand live hundred barrels, were owned by individuals." "It was shown 
further," says the report, "that the salt rates from Hutchinson to the Mis- 
souri river were not generally maintained previous to the spring of igo2. 
The rate to Kansas City and corresponding Missouri river points was ten 
cents per hundred pounds on bulk salt and twelve cents per hundred pounds 
on barrel salt. Bulk salt was shipped loose in cars, with no barrels or pack- 
ages, and was generally used by the packing houses, saving the expense to 
the packers of barrels and also the expense of barreling it." 

In July, 190;, a railroad corporation was organized under the laws of 
Kansas, known as the Hutchinson & Arkansas River Railroad Company. The 
purpose set out in the charter of the company was to construct a railroad 
from Kechi, a small town on the St. Louis & San Francisco railroad, to 
Hutchinson. A survey of this road was effected and estimates made of 
the amount of grading required, but nothing was ever done toward the 
building of the road. In addition to this a further purpose was to construct, 
combine and connect all of the plants owned by the Hutchinson-Kansas 
Salt Company in such a way that the cars could be conveniently handled in 
and out to the various plants of the company. 

The largest plant of the Hutchinson-Kansas company is the Morton 
plant, south of the Arkansas river. It has a capacity of eleven hundred 
barrels of salt a day. The tracks of the Kinsley branch of the Santa Fe 
run on one side of the plant and the Rock Island on the other side, and 
there are two switches connecting both sides of the mill with these railroads, 
the entire length of these switches l>eing about four thousand feet. These 
tracks were built hy the Morton Salt Company for the purpose of furnish- 
ing a means of reaching the two railroads mentioned and had been con- 
structed for several years before the Hutchinson & Arkansas River charter was 
obtained. As soon as this charter was obtained, these switch tracks were 
sold to the Hutchinson & Arkansas River Railway for a consideration of 
seven thousand dollars. These were the only tracks owned by the Hutchinson 
& Arkansas River railroad, which had no cars or engines. 



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368 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

The capital stock of the Hutchinson & Arkansas River railroad con- 
sisted of eight hundred shares, with a par value of one hundred dollars each. 
Of these eight hundred shares, seven hundred and ninety-four were issued 
to Joseph I'. Tracy, the other six shares being issued, one each to the 
directors of the company. These directors were Joseph P. Tracy, D. Peter- 
kin, Mark Morton, Joy Morton, J. C. Baddeley, Frank Vincent and G. 
Phillips. The officers of this "railroad company" were President Joy Mor- 
ton, Vice-president Frank Vincent, Treasurer Mark Morton. General Man- 
ager Joseph P. Tracy and Assistant General Manager Frank Vincent. Joy 
Morton was at that time president and Mark Morton, treasurer, of the 
Hutchinson-Kansas Salt Company and Frank Vincent was manager of the 
salt company. All the officers of the Hutchinson & Arkansas River Railroad 
Company were officers of the Hutchinson-Kansas Salt Company, except Mr. 
Tracy. Peterkin was the private secretary of Joy Morton. In the hearing 
that was held, Joy Morton testified that he and those whom he represented 
owned the entire capital stock of the Hutchinson-Kansas Salt Company. 
The testimony at the hearing disclosed the fact that all three of the railroads 
running into Hutchinson, the Santa Fe, the Rock Island and the Missouri 
Pacific, were approached by Mr. Tracy, all in the same manner and making 
the same statement to all of them, namely, that competitive conditions existed 
on the Missouri river, Ixrth foreign and domestic salt being sold there in 
large quantities, and if bulk salt were to be moved to Missouri river points 
that some inducement would have to be held out to the salt companies by 
the railroads. He stated that he had organized a railroad, the Hutchinson 
& Arkansas River railroad, and asked the various railroads to make a divi- 
sion of freight rates from Hutchinson to Missouri river points, so that a 
price could be named to the packing houses on the Missouri river that would 
enable them to compete with the foreign companies. 

The hearing disclosed further that the rate of ten cents a hundred 
on bulk salt to Kansas City and twelve cents to Omaha was then in force 
and that upon this rate the railroads would grant to the Hutchinson & 
Arkansas River railroad, a division of twenty-five per cent of the amount 
paid in freight, but that in no event was the amount paid to the "railroad" 
to exceed fifty cents a ton of the salt shipped. Accordingly, the Santa Fe, 
the Rock Island and Missouri Pacific railroads all issued tariffs allowing 
this division of rates to the Hutchinson & Arkansas River railroad. 

Everybody entered a general denial at the hearing. The railroads 
claimed they had granted the Hutchinson & Arkansas River railroad the 



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KENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 369 

division and that they had violated no law in so doing. That they had a 
right to make division of tariffs to other roads. The Hutchinson -Kansas 
Salt Company denied that it had received any money paid under this new 
tariff with the Hutchinson & Arkansas River railroad. The traffic officials 
of all roads who were present were urged to state how the paying 
of this sum of money to the Hutchinson & Arkansas River railroad could 
in any way help the Hutchin son-Kansas Salt Company to compete with 
foreign salt at Missouri river points, unless the Hutchinson-Kansas Salt 
Company received the amount ihey had paid in rebates. The Hutchinson 
& Arkansas River railroad were confronted with this question, so that all 
of the various traffic officials admitted that the alleged purpose of the tariff, 
namely, to help the Hutchinson salt field to compete with foreign fields, 
could not have lieen accomplished unless the salt company received the 
rebate. They said further that had they considered the subject in this light, 
they probably would not have made the division of the rate they did make. 
Then Joy Morton testified. He said that he was president of both the salt 
company and of the "paper" railroad company. He said that neither he 
nor the salt company had received any of the receipts for the division of 
freight rates. When pressed, he admitted that Mr. Tracy had purchased 
the stock in the Hutchinson & Arkansas River railroad at his suggestion 
and that while Mr. Tracy did not hold this stock as his (Morton's) trustee, 
he would probably dispose of the stock in the railroad company and vote its 
shares as be suggested. That being the case, the proceeds accruing to the 
paper railroad could at any time be diverted either to Mr. Morton or to the 
salt company of which he was president. 

One of the keenest- wilted cross-examinations ever heard in Reno county, 
conducted by Mr. Prouty, followed the statement Morton made in the wit- 
ness stand. The shrewd Yankee judge was matched against the equally 
shrewd, keen-minded head of the salt company, also the bead of the "paper" 
railroad. Judge Prouty begged Morton to tell him bow any good could 
come to the Hutchinson-Kansas Salt Company, of which he was president, 
unless the proceeds obtained by the railroad were diverted and passed into 
the treasury of the salt company. Morton answered, with a smile, "Well, 
Judge. I suppose the proceeds of the salt company went into my right hand 
pocket and the money earned by the division of freight rates Went into my 
left hand pocket." With a smile equally as pleasant, the Yankee judge 
responded, "Then, Mr. Morton, 1 suppose vou follow the scriptural injunc- 

(24) 



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37° RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

tion of not allowing your right hand to know what your left hand is doing." 
The admission of Morton settled the case. The Hutchinson-Kansas Salt 
Company would receive the proceeds of the division of the freight given the 
"paper'.' railroad at same time. The order of the interstate commerce com- 
mission was the abolishing of the "paper" railroad and the cancellation of 
all of the tariffs that had been issued by reason of this road's alleged exist- 
ence. The effect of this rebate while it was in operation was exceedingly 
unpleasant for the small companies selling salt in Hutchinson. It gave the 
Hutchinson-Kansas Salt Company such an advantage that they could have 
sold salt at cost and made their profits out of the rebates. One of the man- 
agers of one of the salt companies expressed this conclusion, when he said 
that if it had not been for the rates granted on freight by the railroad com- 
panies it would not have been possible to have operated the salt plants in this 
city. 

This statement could not be entirely true. There were salt manufac- 
turers who stayed in the salt business and are in it yet, who never received 
any rebates on salt shipment. Among these is Emerson Carey. While a 
competitor of the Hutchinson-Kansas Company, he made salt and made a 
profit on his salt. He has constantly been urging before the state railroad 
commission and before the interstate commerce commission, the lowering of 
freight rates to an equitable basis with other salt fields. He kept consist- 
ently and constantly working on this line so that this salt field could be 
extended and the Kansas field have an equal show in the hauling of salt 
and in the freight on coal and barrel stuff required. His plan of selling 
was to deal with the jobbers, shipping in car lots on contract. He kept at 
it until the trade territory of Hutchinson has been enlarged until Hutchinson 
salt is sold in the following territory: Kansas, Arkansas, Missouri, 
Nebraska, Iowa, Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota. Idaho, Colorado, New 
Mexico. Arizona, Texas, Oklahoma and some territory in Tennessee, Ala- 
bama, California. Washington and Oregon. 

The companies doing business in Hutchinson other than those interested 
in the early rebating also aided in securing a wider market for Hutchinson 
salt. Among those was the Barton Salt Company. Ed Barton was ener- 
getic all the time, pressing the salt products to the best of his ability. Since 
the rebating' system has ceased, all of the companies have sought by all 
legitimate means to keep the plants in this city in operation. They have 
met the competition of other fields. They have sought better and more 
equitable freight rates in competition with other fields. They have kept 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 371 

their plants up to the highest efficiency, using the most modern machinery. 
They have sought to increase their trade, not at the expense of another, 
perhaps weaker, as was the manner during the railroad rebate system. The 
sales department of the Morton plant has been removed to Kansas City, 
Missouri. The other companies retain their sales offices in Hutchinson, 
increasing their trade as the country develops and as the change of freight 
rates will permit. The output is slowly gaining in volume and is becoming 
more and more each year a factor in Hutchinson commercial life. 



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CHAPTER XLIX. 
Locating the Packing House. 

The boom days had left Hutchinson in a sad way financially. People 
had all their money invested in town lots at exorbitant prices. There was 
considerable Eastern money invested in Hutchinson during the boom days, 
but much of that was put into houses, which were not a ready asset, as 
there were too many houses for the number of people. Crop failures and 
low prices had reduced the resources of the country to an alarming extent. 
The banks had but little money on hands, no account, according to one of 
the leading bankers of that day, amounting to over ten thousand dollars, and 
but few were over one thousand dollars. There were accounts, many of 
them, overdrawn, secured by collateral of real estate, which, after the mort- 
gage was paid on the collateral, was worth but little more than the over- 
draft itself. This same banker said the black figures on the ledger fell over 
like ten-pins when the boom collapsed and in their place the sickening entries 
in red figures, expressed in two, three, and even five and six figures, appeared 
in another column in the same ledger. 

It was at this critical time that R. M. Easley, then editor of the Daily 
News, without counselling anyone and without letting anyone know of what 
he had done, telegraphed Dold & Son. of Kansas City, a cash bonus of 
one hundred thousand dollars to build a packing house in Hutchinson. To 
Easley 's surprise, Dold answered his telegram in a hopeful letter. Easley 
then told some of the leading business men what he had done, and also had 
a double-column flash-head article the next morning in the News, assuring 
the people that the packing house was a certainty. In response to Dold's 
letter. R. M. Easley, L. A. Bigger and S. W. Campbell went to Kansas 
City to see Dold. They found he was one of the sons of Jacob Dold, the 
founder, a generation before, of a packing house in Buffalo, New York. 
They were politely received by Dold and one of the committee says that the 
suggestion to this Dold of building a packing bouse was too much of a shock 
to his cumbersome system to allow him to make an expression of his ideas 
that contained any meaning whatever. At the same time the committee 
called on Armour & Company and were met by K. B. Armour, a young man 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 3/3 

of about thirty years, who was then in charge of the Kansas City plant. He 
displayed a great interest in the enterprise and the committee began to 
worry a little on the question of how they were going to get the money in 
case any packer should conclude to build a plant here. The story of Hutch- 
inson's effort to get a packing house and the bait that was being put up for 
it soon reached Chicago and a short time afterward Nelson Morris, the 
founder of the Morris packing house, came to Hutchinson and met with the 
business men of the city. 

Matters soon, took form. A meeting for organization was held and the 
plan to secure a packing plant, or rather, to secure the money for a packing 
plant, was outlined by L. A. Bigger and \V. E. Hutchinson. The amount 
they proposed to raise was one hundred thousand dollars, Hutchinson sug- 
gested that the amount be fixed at two hundred thousand dollars, and that 
real estate be put into the subscription, and when this was sold the one hun- 
dred thousand dollars could be realized. With this proposition, a committee 
was sent to Chicago, consisting of W. E. Hutchinson, L. A. Bigger, J. M. 
Mulkey and Charles Collins. It was thought that by having a real estate 
subscription, part of it could be sold to the packers themselves. This is 
just what happened and greatly helped the enterprise, as it is doubtful if 
one hundred thousand dollars in cash could have been realized ; but, with 
real estate, it was possible to secure donations because the owners realized 
that it was not a great asset on the market. 

One of the men who greatly helped the Hutchinson committee in Chi- 
cago was G. A. Walkup. He was not a resident of Kansas and had no 
property here to increase in value, and no consideration was offered him to 
help in the enterprise. He never intimated that he wanted any of the profit 
of the enterprise, but he was one of the main helpers of the committee in 
Chicago. Through him the committee met Mr. Lord, the senior member 
of the firm of Lord & Thomas. Lord suggested that the bonus be raised 
to four hundred thousand dollars in real estate and organize a company with 
a capital of two hundred thousand dollars, to whom this property should be 
deeded. This would leave two dollars of property out of which it was 
figured one dollar of value could be realized. Lord took an active interest 
in the organization matters. He was related through his wife to a Mr. 
Favorite, who was the right hand man of P. D. Armour. In order to have 
this avenue to Armour kept open, Walkup bent all of his energies and used 
all of his tact and judgment. Lord also interested J. P. Odell. president 
of the Union National Eank of Chicago. Through these sources, E. L. 



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374 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

Lobdell, who was in the business of selling securities, was interested, in 
order that some means of disposing of this real estate might be provided. 
Lobdell had a good standing and was a relative of G. B. Shaw, president of 
another one of Chicago's banks. Walkup kept "this Hutchinson committee 
on the go, meeting men of financial resources and arranging all of the details 
of all of the numerous meetings of the committee with the various financial 
leaders of the city. Walkup arranged meetings with G. B. Swift, the 
founder of the Swift Packing Company, also with Libby, McNeill & Libby, 
Mike Cuddahy, of the packing company which bears his name. Anderson 
Fowler and P. L. Underwood were all likewise interviewed. Later, the 
idea of a lard refinery was added to that of a packing plant and N. K.- Fair- 
banks & Company were visited with an idea of interesting that firm. 

For several weeks this work was kept up in Chicago. Lord was inter- 
esting many in the real estate end of the proposition and the bonus question, 
that was such a big stumbling block to the Hutchinson people, was largely 
taken care of outside of the city. Among those who were helpful in the 
real estate proposition was E. S. Dreyer, president of a German bank of 
Chicago. He had a fine standing in Chicago and did more, perhaps, in 
helping finance the proposition, using his own money, than any other one 
man the Hutchinson - committee met. 

The next step was to bring the interested parties to Hutchinson, to look 
over the investments. There was one matter, however, that the committee 
in Chicago had to look after when they reached this city, namely, the mat- 
ter of raising four hundred thousand dollars in real estate instead of two hun- 
dred thousand dollars as was understood when they left this city. The town 
had subscribed all of the amount originally agreed on, and it required con- 
siderable diplomacy to get the citizens of Hutchinson to take up the burden 
again and do a double amount of subscribing of real estate. A public meet- 
ing was called at the old opera house. Even here a systematic plan was car- 
ried out. The speakers were told just how long each was to talk, just what 
they were to say and at the proper time. This was done for two nights. 
The second night the doors of the opera house were shut and locked, sub- 
scriptions were taken, but not enough was raised to close up the balance of 
the two hundred thousand dollars to be added to the original subscription. 
In fact, clearing up the entire matter took from the middle of May, when 
the public meetings were held until October. There was much to do in the 
way of examining titles and settling the details of a matter that covered so 
many tracts of land. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 375 

During this time the subscriptions were being arranged. The Chicago 
capitalists were brought to Hutchinson and they were entertained in the 
homes of the citizens of the city. E. R. Dreyer was among this number. 
Before he left Hutchinson he subscribed twenty-five thousand dollars worth 
of town lots, which was a great boost to the weary canvassers for real estate 
subscriptions. After the total amount had been subscribed, the committee 
was sent to Chicago to complete the work of getting the packing house. 
Prior to that time the committee had paid their own expenses, but the city 
council met and agreed to pay future expenses. There was no warrant for 
such expenditure, but no one questioned it and it went through unchallenged. 

The committee that was sent to Chicago consisted of W. E. Hutchin- 
son, J. M. Mulkey and Charles Collins. They had settled one matter among 
themselves, and that was that the Fairbanks lard refinery and the Under- 
wood Packing Company were the ones with which they could deal. When 
the Hutchinson men reached Chicago they found Lord had not been able to 
do much in the way of selling the stock of their real estate company that 
had been organized and they had the additional burden of selling most of 
the stock as well as interesting the packing companies. At this point, 
Wichita got interested in getting the packing house away from Hutchinson. 
They sent fifteen of their leading men to Chicago to head off Hutchinson 
and to land the business for themselves. The Wichita committee went 
directly to P. L. Underwood, but they soon ruined any chances they had 
with Mr. Underwood. Their methods did not appeal to him. He was a 
man of the highest integrity and he told the Hutchinson committee that he 
would not go to Wichita with his plant. 

Tn the meantime, the Hutchinson committee got suspicious of Lord. 
They, through Walkup, soon ascertained that Ixtrd had agreed to help the 
Wichita committee and leave the Hutchinson committee to work out its own 
salvation. The Hutchinson people concluded not to let Lord know that they 
knew of his dealings with the Wichita committee, but rather to lead him to 
think that the Hutchinson committee were depending entirely on him. The 
plan worked all right. Lord thought he was winning and the Wichita com- 
mittee, instead of getting out on their own account, depended entirely on 
Lord, until the. Hutchinson committee got what they wanted and had every- 
thing closed up beyond a chance of failure. Lord failed to accomplish any- 
thing for Wichita and sometime afterward sued Wichita for sixteen thou- 
sand dollars, which they had agreed to pay him, but which he never was able 
to collect. 



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376 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

When the final stage was reached, the contracts were ready to sign. 
They were written by W. E. Hutchinson and submitted to the represen- 
tatives of the Fairbanks Lard Refining Company and the Underwood Packing 
Company. Very little change was made in the contracts. This contract 
provided for the creation of the Chicago Investment Company, the capital 
of which was stated and the corporation to be organized under the laws of 
Kansas, livery feature of the business was completed, the last of the sub- 
scriptions needed to take up the real estate side of the matter being sub- 
scribed by P. L. Underwood. At the same time, a deal was closed with 
another firm to build a stock yards in connection with the packing house. 
Mr. W'alkup did most of the work in getting this done. 

This was the work of a town of five thousand people raising four hun- 
dred thousand dollars for a stock yards, lard refinery and packing plant. 
Very much of the credit should be given to W. E. Hutchinson for his per- 
sistence, his sagacity and his energy. L. A. Bigger also is entitled to a great 
share of credit for his work. Charles Collins was almost indispensable as 
an outside helper. The great friend that this city had in carrying forward 
this enterprise was G. A. Walkup, evidenced by his intense interest in help- 
ing Hutchinson land this business and his faithfulness to his trust. E. R. 
Dreyer also was of great help, financially and personally. The Hutchinson 
business men who helped are numerous, but it is the intention here to speak 
of those who had the active management of the work of getting the money 
and afterwards getting the industries mentioned. 



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CHAPTER L. 
The Soda-ash Plant and the Straw board Works. 

The first person in Hutchinson to talk "soda ash" was Dr. S. H. Colla- 
day. He was interested in it and continued to talk of its manufacture in the 
early years until a meeting was held and a company organization effected. 
S. H. Colladay was the first president. The name given the company was the 
Hutchinson Chemical and Alkali Company. 

John Faulkner was the soda-ash expert that was employed by the com- 
pany. Faulkner was not a competent man ; he could make soda ash, but not 
at a profit. John R. Watson was the construction engineer of the plant. When 
the company found that they could not make soda ash profitably, they called 
on Faulkner for an explanation. He blamed it onto Watson, declaring the 
latter had not properly constructed the plant. That Watson had not properly 
constructed the plant was shown by the reconstruction and practical rebuild- 
ing of the manufacturing part of the plant when an experienced and com- 
petent construction engineer, C. H. Humphries, was employed by the com- 
pany. ■ ■ 

The plant was constructed to produce one hundred and twenty tons of 
soda ash daily, but it never produced that amount under Faulkner's and Wat- 
son's direction. So the old company threw up the job ami a new organiza- 
tion was effected, with the following directors: C. M. Williams, L. A. 
Bunker, W Meisenheimer, Walter Underwood, Frank McDermed, A. C. 
Hoagland, C. N. Sentney, William Peet, of Kansas City, Ed Hornbrook, of 
Kansas City; J. H. McNair, of Halstead; Joseph Sears, of Chicago, and 
Emerson Carey. 

Mr. Carey was elected president and this new company began a com- 
p'ete reconstruction of the whole soda-ash plant. Mr. Carey undertook to 
find out what the trouble with the plant was and when he located that trouble, 
the company let out Watson and Faulkner and employed C. H. Humphries 
to rebuild the plant and put it in operation. He did this so completely that it 
was soon making soda ash at a profit. 

The original investment in the soda-ash plant was $607,250, of which 
$347,250 was in stock and $250,000 in bonds. The stock subscription was at 



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378 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

par, but the. bonds sold for eighty cents on the dollar. In the reorganization, 
a new block of stock for $167,000 was issued and sold to rehabilitate and 
operate the plant. 

In 1910, Mr! Carey sold the entire plant to the Solvay Company, of 
New York. But few of the stockholders knew anything of the sale, although 
they all desired a sale of the plant, until they received an offer of sale for 
their stock at par. They would have taken a much smaller amount, but in the 
sale one of the conditions made by Mr. Carey was that the stockholders should 
have par for their holdings. These stockholders, however, did not get back 
all they had invested in the plant, as they had scaled down their original sub- 
scription of $250,000 fifty per cent., but it represented far more than what 
they had hopes of getting. The incompetency of the men who were supposed 
to be experts and who had been employed by the company to erect and oper- 
ate the plant cost them one-half of their original investment. So all of the 
stockholders received their money and all the bondholders received for their 
bonds eighty per cent, of their face value. 

The sale of this plant to the Solvay corporation, of New York, was with- 
out doubt, the biggest business transaction ever made in Hutchinson, nearly 
six hundred thousand dollars having been involved. The sale was made with- 
out commission or charges of any kind. Mr. Carey had personally endorsed 
nearly seventy-five thousand dollars of the notes of the corporation with his 
individual endorsement, as well as his signature as president of the company, 
and he was anxious not only to get free from this liability as endorser, but 
was more anxious that the stockholders get their money out of the business, 
as it had been a long, hard pull for many of them, and the bringing of this 
amount of money at that time relieved a hard strain in many places in 
Hutchinson. The soda-ash plant has turned out to be a great business insti- 
tution for Hutchinson. It is a monument to the men who invested their 
money, and who had to deal with incompetent experts who cost them thou- 
sands of dollars because of their incompetency, and they were indeed glad to 
get a fair proportion of their investment back, but were more pleased to know 
that they had helped build up one of the biggest industrial concerns in the 
West. Since the Solvay Company purchased the plant, they have more than 
doubled its capacity. 

The rebuilding or remodeling of the soda-ash plant by the Solvay Com- 
pany, likewise the increased capacity of the plant, has made it one of the big- 
gest institutions in Hutchinson. It is now running full capacity, twenty-four 
hours a day with three shifts of hands. They now have over five hundred 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 379 

hands employed and are manufacturing over fifty tons of soda ash daily. The 
war greatly increased the demand for this product and at a greatly increased 
price and at the present time it is one of the best paying investments in the 
county. G. T. Lee succeeded R. B. Rutherford, who was transferred to Can- 
ada by the Solvay Company to construct another plant for the company. 

THE STRAWBOARD WORKS. 

One of the manufacturing institutions that finds most of its raw material 
in the county, and utilizes products that before it was built were largely 
wasted, is the strawboard plant. It was organized with a capital stock of 
one hundred thousand dollars, and the first directors of the plant were Will- 
iam E. Corp, A. E. Asher, B. E. Giles, W. D. Eastman and C. H. Farley. 
The plant had its trials and tribulations. It did not succeed very well. While 
it made- strawboard ; like the soda-ash plant it did not make a profit out of 
the business. 

In 1915 the company was reorganized. Its present capital is three hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars. At the reorganization, Emerson Carey was 
made president and general manager. The market for this product was 
greatly increased. Strawboard from the Hutchinson plant is shipped to Chi- 
cago, St. Louis, Denver and many western and northern places where there 
is a demand for the product. 

The raw material used is straw, obtained from the wheat fields of Reno 
county and adjoining counties. From this product is made cardboard, backs 
for tablets, egg-filler cases and boards used by laundries for shirts and all 
other places where strawboard products are used. Another product of this 
plant is chipboard. Waste paper is used in the manufacture of this grade of 
goods. This paper is gathered from all parts of the state, tons of it and baled 
in cities and shipped to this factory here. It affords a market for waste 
papers, heretofore burned up, but which the demands of the economy of 
resources of the country have induced this saving of papers heretofore wasted. 
The plant at the present time employs about two hundred hands in addition 
to the men who haul straw to the plant and to the hands who gather and ship 
the baled paper to the institution. 

Another industry that has been developed as a result of the building of 
the strawboard plant is the Hutchinson Egg-Case Filler Company. The offi- 
cers of this company are Emerson Carey, president; Howard Carey, vice- 
president ; secretary, Charles Carey, and treasurer and manager, Fred Kaths. 
This company has a capital of thirty-five thousand dollars. It manufactures 



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380 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

egg-case fillers out of the product of the strawboard plant. The product of 
this company is shipped all over the country where there are eggs to ship. 
It is an exceedingly profitable business and one that is constantly growing. 
The soda-ash plant and the strawboard plant, together with the egg-case filler 
plant are largely the product of the ability of Emerson Carey. He put both 
plants on a paying basis. In the soda-ash plant he was instrumental in reor- 
ganizing and selling it to a company that knew the business. The straw- 
board plant was not a paying institution when Mr. Carey took hold of it, but 
it has recently become a very profitable plant. General conditions, higher 
prices and the restricted competition caused by the war has been a big element 
in the success of both companies, but the plants had been put in a position to 
produce the products economically and in sufficient amount to make them 
profitable by Mr. Carey. They are manufacturing industries that are great 
places for the employment of labor and add greatly to the resources of the 
county. 



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JENNIE HODGSON, THE FIRST SCHOOL TKACHEIl IN HUTCHINSON, 



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CHAPTER LI. 

The Schools of Hutchinson. 

The first school in Reno county was a private school. When the first 
settlers reached Reno county they brought their religion with them, for they 
soon started a church. They likewise realized that no community could thrive 
without schools. At that time there were no facilities for schools. There was 
no property to levy taxes on and it would require nearly a year to levy and 
collect these taxes, so a "select school," as it was called, was started. It more 
properly could have been called a subscription school, because all of the chil- 
dren of the community were urged to attend the school, although the parents 
of some did not contribute toward the support of the school. 

Miss Jennie Hodson was the first teacher. Rooms were used wherever 
they could be secured, locations being shifted as buildings thus occupied might 
be needed for some other purpose. Thus from place to place, wherever rooms 
were available, the school was held. 

The second teacher to have charge of the schools was Mrs. Sanford 
Maulsbury. Mrs. Maulsbury was one of the women who signed the peti- 
tion to organize the county. She and her husband had a claim west of 
town, then a mile and a half distant. Now it is part of the city, known 
as "The Cloverdale Addition." There are no records of attendance at 
these schools. 

Tn 1872 school district No. 1 was organized. At that time it em- 
braced the townsite of Hutchinson, which was but little more than the 
"site" of the town then, and the territory adjacent. No strict boundary 
bnes were drawn. It was just district 1, and included everything in the 
county at that time. At the present time district 1 includes just the city of 
Hutchinson. There is no date set down for the organization of this dis- 
trict. It was "earlv in 1872" — is all that can be told now Iwcause of the 
lack of records, as mentioned elsewhere. 

FIRST ISSUE OK BONDS FOR SCHOOL PURPOSES. 

On June 10, 1873, bonds to the amount of fifteen thousand dollars 
were voted for a school building in Hutchinson. Judge L. Houk was 



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382 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

chosen to supervise the erection of the building, which was erected on 
Sherman street, east, where the new junior high school building was erected 
a year ago. During the first year only two rooms downstairs were com- 
pleted. It is suspected that not only were the bonds used to erect the 
building, but that enough funds were kept out of that first bond issue to 
run the school, as the taxes that were levied were less than half paid 
during the first two or three years of the county's existence, and without 
any record being made of it the board evidently "saved" some of the pro- 
ceeds of the sale of the bonds for purposes other than the erection of the 
building. 

The first teacher employed in this building was J. T. Lane, who lived 
in Hutchinson for years. He was a money loaner for several years and 
later moved to St. Louis. Mr. Lane taught in the school for one term. 
The total enrollment was seventy pupils. The second term of school, about 
six months for a term, was taught by J. R. Lindsey, who afterward was a 
real-estate agent, connected with the firm of Brown & Bigger. During 
that term there were eighty students in school. Lindsey taught three suc- 
cessive terms in the school. During his second and third terms he had two 
assistants, Miss Hattie Smith and Miss Jennie Miller, the enrollment 
increasing during the third term to one hundred and twenty-five students. 

GRADUAL GROWTH OF THE SCHOOLS. 

On April 14, 1874, Mr. DeBurn was elected principal of the school and 
Miss Fannie Frescoln, assistant. Only two rooms of the new building were 
then in use. In September, 1874, S. B. Zimmerman was chosen principal. 
Zimmerman afterward became a prominent lawyer in Hutchinson, and was 
probate judge of Reno county for two years. He remained in the school one 
year. He bad two assistants, Miss Jennie McKinstry and Miss Maud Zim- 
merman. The two rooms that were finished were not sufficient to accommo- 
date the students, so the hall was furnished with seats and used until early in 
1875, when the two upstairs rooms were completed and ready for use. The 
schools of Hutchinson were generally in advance of the place to house them. 
It has been, and is yet, an exceedingly difficult matter for the school board of 
the district, in its building operations, to keep ahead of the growth of the school 
population. Soon after the Sherman street building was completed it was 
necessary to rent a building down town to accommodate the students. In 
1880 two frame buildings were erected, one in the southwest corner and one 
in the southeast comer of the old Sherman street school grounds. The growth 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 383 

of the district has been constant and continuous, and with the city growing 
rapidly it will tax the resources of the members of the board to keep in advance 
of the increasing school population of Hutchinson. There are nine buildings 
now in use. There are one hundred and nine different class rooms; two study 
halls, seating two hundred and sixty; one auditorium, seating seven hundred, 
and two gymnasiums. There are now one hundred and sixteen teachers em- 
ployed, ninety in the grades and twenty-six in the high schools. The school 
grounds are equipped with play apparatus under the direction of a corp of 
paid directors. The district also owns its own athletic fields, at the corner of 
Fifteenth and Monroe streets. 

The school district buildings are now valued at $397,500. The grounds 
have an additional value of $124,000, while the furniture and equipment has 
a value of $31,000, making a total physical valuation of the school district 
property of district No. 1, in 1916, of $552,500, while the assessed valuation 
of the district upon which a tax levy is made to support these schools is 
$22,681,000. 

COMPLETE SYSTEM OF RECORDS. 

At the present time the school board has a very elaborate and com- 
plete system of records that makes it an easy matter for it to compare 
the cost of operating the schools one year with another. At the present 
time they show the cost of operating the schools for the district to be 
$115,292.86. They further divide up the expense so that they show the 
cost of the grade schools to be $83,248.02 for the year, or $462.48 per 
day, while the high school cost $32,049.84 for the year, or $178.04 per 
day, a total cost per school day of $640.52. They show the cost per pupil 
to be thirty-six cents a day for the high school and seventeen cents a day 
for the grade, or an average cost per student, per day of twenty cents. 

The school board has kept up the high grade of the teaching force at 
all times. The high school teachers' average pay is one hundred and six 
dollars per month. The grade principal receives on an average of one hun- 
dred dollars per month. The principal of the high school receives nine- 
teen hundred dollars a year. The schools teach all the regular academic 
subjects, including German and French. Industrial courses are also taught, 
domestic science and the art and manual training extending down to the 
seventh grade. The high school course also includes a manual-training 
course and likewise a complete course in business and stenography. 



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384 KENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. 

There have been eight hundred and thirty-six graduates for the high 
schools of Hutchinson since the first class completed the course in 1882. 
With the exception of one year, when the course was changed from a 
three-year to a four-year high school course, there has been a graduating 
class. These graduates are scattered all over the world. With the excep- 
tion of three or four, the graduates are all living, a remarkable fact con- 
sidering the diversity of occupations and the variety of climates into which 
these graduates have gone. The Alumni Association holds its annual 
meetings, and its membership is a constant encouragement to the boys and 
girls in the school to complete their high school' course. As an incident of 
unusual occurrence : The president of the Alumni Association for the year 
1917 was C. W. Oswald, a graduate of the high school in 1885. His son, 
Lewis Oswald, who was graduated with the class of 1917, was chosen to 
respond to the address of welcome given by the president of the class, a 
"father and son" incident seldom witnessed in schools; the father continu- 
ing his interest in school matters, an active member of the Alumni Asso- 
ciation, until his son also becomes an alumnus. 

SUPERINTENDENTS OF CITY SCHOOLS. 

The present superintendent of the schools is Prof. J. O. Hatl. The 
following is a list of the men who have held the position of superintendent 
of the city schools, with the dates of their terms of office: J. F. Lane, 
1872; J. R. Linsday, 1873: Percy DeBurn, 1874; S. B. Zimmerman, 1875: 
J. R. Campbell. 1876; H. Lewis, 1877: J. R. Leslie. 1878-79; J. J. McBride, 
1880 to January 1. 1882; G. W. Winans, January, 1882, to December, 
1883; J. R. Silver. December, 1883, and two months of 1884; F. F. Prigg, 
November. 1884. and 1885: John Schurr; A. P. Helm; C. H. Minch: H. S. 
Rogers, acting superintendent: Z. Winans, 1894 to 1902: Richard Price. 
1903 to 1907: J. O. Hall. 1907 to present time. 

NOTABLE RECORD OF TEACHING SERVICE. 

The "constant factor" in the educational work of the schools of Hut- 
chinson has been Mrs. E. H. Richardson, who began teaching in the city 
schools in 1879. With the exception of but a few short periods she has 
been in the schools ever since that date. She has perhaps more boys and 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 385 

girls in Hutchinson, more men and women scattered over the country, who 
honor her than any other teacher tltat ever taught school in Kansas. Indeed 
hers is a record that would be hard to beat any place in the country. Mrs. 
Richardson is just as vigorous in mind and body, just as alert in her school 
work as she was years ago. Her influence with the boys and girls of the 
high school is unbounded. While she is strict and exacting in her work, 
tolerating no slack work, yet that strictness is accompanied by a kindness 
and a personal interest in each student in her classes that commands the 
highest regard for their teacher. 



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CHAPTER LII. 
The Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. 

The first Young Men's Christian Association was organized on August 
4, 1876, with the following officers Rev. T. J. Templin, president; Rev. 
D. M. Moore, vice-president; R. M. Easley, recording secretary; F. R. Chris- 
man, corresponding secretary, and H. W. Beatty, treasurer. The president 
of the Y. M. C. A. was a Methodist minister, a tall angular man, full of 
energy, who commanded the highest respect of all. He had the further 
distinction of being, at the same time, the first president of the Reno County 
Fair Association, which consisted largely at that time of a small agricultural 
display and an afternoon of horseracing. But whether judging a horse 
race or superintending a Y. M. C. A. meeting. Rev. Templin was equally 
at home, a pioneer that could adapt himself to the surroundings and retain 
the respect and confidence of all in whatever position he occupied. The 
vice-president of the Y. M. C. A. was the second resident pastor of the Presby- 
terian church here; and the recording secretary, then a young man, ener- 
getic and industrious, afterwards became postmaster of Hutchinson, and 
editor and manager of the News. At the time he bought the paper, it was 
a weekly but shortly after he purchased it, he made it a daily. F. R. Chris- 
man, the corresponding secretary, who spent his life in Hutchinson, where 
he was identified closely with the religious activity of the day, was for 
ten years superintendent of the Methodist Sunday school. The treasurer 
remained in this county but a short time. 

Little record is left of this organization. Its meetings were always held 
in one of the churches and it made comparatively but little impression on the 
community. As long as Rev. Templin lived in Hutchinson the enthusiasm 
of the organization was buoyed up, but after his removal, interest l>egan to 
lag and the organization was maintained but little over a year. 

In 1885, another attempt to maintain a Y. M. C. A. was made which was 
more successful than its predecessor. W. L. Upshaw was the president of 
the organization and Ed. Lehman, secretary. The Association occupied rooms 
in the second story of the building that formerly stood on the corner of Main 
street and First avenue, where the Farmers' National bank is now located. 



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ITALIC LIBHARY, HUTCHINSON 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 38/ 

They had an assembly room, and a reading room. This organiaztion was 
maintained nearly two years, but when Mr. Upshaw left town and Secre- 
tary Lehman obtained a position on the road selling groceries, the interest in 
the organization lagged and gradually died out. Soon it was discontinued. 

There was no further attempt at organization until 1909 when an agita- 
tion for a Y. M. C. A. building was begun, accordingly a provisional commit- 
tee met, December 9, 1909, in the Commercial Club rooms to consider the 
question of beginning a campaign for that purpose. This committee consisted 
of W. Y. Morgan, J. U. Brown, J. W. Burns, S. W. Livengood, D. A. Moore, 
Ed Sweet, Frank Colladay, Will S. Thompson, V. M. Wiley, L. A. Bigger. 
Ralph Glascock, C. N. Sentney, A. H. Schlaudt. J. X. Bailey, A. K. Asher 
and A. W. McCandless. 

The committee considered the conditions were such in the town that such 
a building was needed for young men, and they started to raise the money 
for a building. After a campaign for one week they raised $76,801.21, but 
since they intended at first to raise $75,000.00, they did better than they 
planned. A charter was applied for and the following officers were elected 
for the first year: President. W. Y. Morgan: first vice-president, L. A. Big- 
ger; second vice-president, A. E. Asher; treasurer, J. W. Burns; secretary, 
L. V. Starkey. 

Mr. Starkey l>egan his work as secretary early in 1910 and served the 
association until April 15, 191 2. when he was succeeded by Garland Craig, 
who began his work in June, 1912, and continues in that capacity up to the 
present time. 

As the lots for the Y. M. C. A. building on the corner of Walnut and 
First avenue were purchased for ten thousand dollars: the building cost 
$58,260, and the equipment an additional $28,547, the total cost of the com- 
pleted building was $86,807. 

The Y. M. C. A. was built at a time when Hutchinson was sorely in the 
need of a central, non-sectarian, undenominational organization that could 
become the leader in work that no one denomination or organization could 
alone do, but which needed the united work of all the forces in the city to 
carry it forward. 

Among these movements that have been greatly helped by the Y. M. C. 
A., the workers it has developed and the resources put behind the movement 
was first the building of the Salvation Army barrack. Eater came the Red 
Cross movement, when Reno county raised twenty-five per cent, more money 
than was asked as its share of the hundred million dollars, raised at the begin- 



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388 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS, 

ning of tlie war for the help of the soldiers. Then came the Y. \V. C. A., 
which was greatly helped by the organized workers of the Y. M. C. A. The 
surgical dressing organization, that made bandages for the wounded soldiers, 
found a great helper in this organization. 

In addition to their wider advantages, the Y. M. C. A. during the year 
1917 maintained two large reading rooms which over seventy-three thousand 
men and boys patronized. It had four hundred eighty gymnasium classes 
annually, conducted over eleven thousand games of bowling, and had over 
forty-five thousand people make use of the physical education section of the 
organization. It took a great interest in the Sunday school base ball league, 
which afforded clean sport for thousands of people. It co-operates with the 
city schools in all phases of boys work. It provides membership privileges 
for young men and boys situated so they cannot pay the usual fee, and has 
an annual attendance in the building of over one hundred and seventy-five 
thousand persons. 

In addition to these activities, the Y. M. C. A. has been diligent in all 
moral and uplifting movements. 

They co-operate with all of the churches in the county, supplying them 
with speakers, help them with their boys' organizations, help get "gospel 
teams" for fields of work, help locate young men coming to this city and get 
them interested in their church work and do alt that an organization of this 
kind, non-sectarian and non-denominational can do. It has been a great 
uplifting force in Hutchinson and has demonstrated its worth on many- 
occasions. 

THE YOl.'NG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 

In the spring of .1917 an agitation for an institution for women and 
girls, similar to that which had been erected for the men and boys of the 
county, was started and a week's campaign for funds resulted in the subscrip- 
tion of over thirteen thousand five hundred dollars for a Young Women's 
Christian Association. After the money had been subscribed the officers for 
the first year were chosen as follow: President, Mrs. R. E. Steale; vice- 
president, Mrs. L. E. Fontron; corresponding secretary, Mrs. M. E. Hin- 
man: recording secretary, Mrs. Val Adams; treasurer, Mrs. William Kelly, 

The association leased a building on Sherman street, west, for two years 
and on October 1, 1917, opened up their rooms for the use of the women of 
Hutchinson and adjoining country. The association started out with a mem- 
bership of seven hundred. They maintain a paid secretary and furnish read- 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 389 

ing rooms, rest rooms, a gymnasium and rooms where the young women of 
the county can rest. There are now working in Hutchinson over four hun- 
dred young women who are away from home, and it is expected that the 
continuance of the war will bring others to this city to hold positions, and for 
these 'the Young Women's Christian Association is a haven. 

The association affords a place where working women and girls can eat 
their lunch. They will not serve meals or lunches as does the Young Men's 
Christian Association, but will serve hot drinks and furnish a quiet place for 
women and girls to eat their lunch. Their work, like that of the Young 
Men's Christian Association, is non-sectarian, and will grow in importance 
year by year. 



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CHAPTER LIII. 
The Weather. 



COMPLETE METEORALOGICAL RECORDS OF RENO COUNTY. 

There is no more common topic of conversation than the weather. It 
interests all; it, affects all. The weather records of Reno county are among 
the most complete of any county in the state. They began two years after 
the county was organized and have been kept daily from January, 1S74, to 
the present date, September, 1916. The first person to record the tempera- 
•ture and rainfall was C. S. Webster. He was not provided with govern- 
ment instruments until 1893, when the government established the station 
in Reno county. Mr. Webster kept these records until September, 1909, 
when he moved to California and the records and instruments were turned 
over to Sheridan Ploughe, who has kept them since that time. In this 
history, Mr. Webster's daily records are not given from 1874 to 1893, but 
the daily records from 1893 to the present time are a part of Table I, which 
is added to this chapter, because of its length, and the better displaying of 
the records. The tables that are added to this chapter include the following : 

Table I, monthly temperatures, 1874 to 1892, inclusive. 

Table II, daily temperature, 1893 to 1916, inclusive. 

Table III, monthly temperature, 1874 to 1916, inclusive. 

Table IV, record of days thermometer registered below zero. 

Table V» record of days thermometer registered above ioo°. 

Table VI, unusually cold months. 

Table VII, dates of last killing frost in spring and first killing frost in 



fall. 



Table VIII, monthly precipitation, 1889 to 1916, inclusive. 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



GOVERNMENT RECORDS. 



These weather tables are of great value. The;' are taken without any 
qualification in all the courts of the land. They require no verification, no 
proof of their authenticity. The statement that they are the records of the 
government, taken under the direction of the weather bureau of the govern- 
ment, is sufficient proof of their accuracy. They are constantly consulted 
by shippers and by railroads, when claims for damages from freezing are 
made. They are consulted by persons wishing to buy land, especially as 
to the variation of temperature from winter to summer, and from summer 
to winter. They are used in damage cases in court to prove the condition 
of the weather at a given time, the direction of the wind, the presence or 
absence of snow and, because of their general interest, some of the things 
indicated by the records will be pointed out. 

EXTREMES OF TEMPERATURE. 

These records show that there is but little variation in the temperature 
from one year to another. A recapitulation of the forty-three years the 
records have been kept shows that the average temperature for Reno county 
for the forty-three years has been 53.9 degrees. January is the coldest 
month and the average of the temperature for that month is 29.2 degrees. 
The hottest month of the year is July, with an average temperature of 74.9 
degrees. April and October resemble each other very closely, so far as 
temperature is concerned, the temperature of April averaging 55.2 degrees, 
while that of October is 55.8 degrees. August and September are also 
very much alike in temperature, varying only .6 of a degree. March and 
November are almost identical in their temperature, there being only one- 
tenth of a degree difference between them. There ts a variance of 45.7 
degrees between January and July, this being the average yearly range of 
temperature. The coldest day on record was February 13, 1905, when a 
blizzard swept over Kansas from the northwest, and carried the mercury to 
twenty-seven degrees below zero. This storm started on February it, with 
a cold wave from the northwest. The thermometer dropped from twenty- 
seven to two degrees below zero on the night of February 11. The storm 
increased in intensity, with a high wind, during the 12th and 13th. It 
blew the snow, which resembled sleet more than snow, and it was impossible 



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392 RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

for any one to face the storm. However, but little damage was done to 
stock and the morning of February 14 opened up bright and clear. The 
temperature soon rose and the maximum thermometer for • February 14 was 
33, a rise during the day of 57 degrees. 

"THE HOT SUNDAY." 

The hottest day on record was June 25, 191 1, which is remembered as 
"The Hot Sunday." The temperature for several days before this date 
had been above 100 degrees. There was no wind and the thermometer 
reached 112 degrees in the "shelter house" provided for the thermometer. 
Like the blizzard, this extremely high temperature did not last long. The 
next day the thermometer registered 92 degrees. The extremes of both 
heat and cold passed away in less than twenty-four hours. 

There have been 251 times, as shown by the records, when the ther- 
mometer passed the 100 degree mark. Of these. May had 4; June, 24; 
July, 92; August, no, and September, 21. May 3, 1913, was the earliest 
time during the forty-three years the thermometer reached 100 degrees and 
Septemlwr 17th the latest to reach this mark. 

The latest date for killing frost was May 15, 1907, and the earliest 
frost in the fall was September 11, 1894. 

The average precipitation, which includes rain and snow, is 29.22 inches. 
There have been but three months in the forty-three years of these records 
when there was no rainfall. These months were Deceml>er, 1889, Novem- 
ber, 1914, and July, 1916. Four other months have had but a "trace" of 
rain, March, 1910, April, 1914, November, 1912. and December, 1908. The 
wettest year, as shown by the records, was 1898, when the precipitation 
amounted to 37.10 inches, and the driest year was 1914, when but 15.71 
inches of rain fell. July has. on an average, the greatest amount of rain- 
fall, averaging 4.76 inches, white January has but .78 inches on record. 
The heaviest rainfall for one month was July, 1904, when 9.37 inches of 
rain fell, May, 1902, being second with a rainfall of 8.98 incites. 

The prevailing direction of the wind is southwest. Next to this direc- 
tion, the southeast is the direction of the wind. The northeast is generally 
the direction of the wind in the spring and fall, during a rainy season. The 
wind is seldom ever from the west, the cold waves coming from the north- 
west. Seventy-seven per cent, of the days are placed on the record as "clear 



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RENO COUNTY. KANSAS. 393 

days", fourteen per cent, are "partially cloudy" and nine per cent, are 
"cloudy". 

The distribution of the rainfall is most beneficial for the growing crops. 
Seventy-eight per cent, of the annual precipitations fall in the six growing 
months from April to September, the fall and winter months of October to 
March being dry, with an occasional snow, but which seldom becomes heavy 
enough to interfere wjth outdoor work. 

The following tables furnish a complete review of the temperature 
and rainfall for almost the entire time that Reno county has been organized : 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



Monthly" Temperature Reno County, 1874 to 1 
(Expressed in Degrees.) 

— J>uuiry— — tammtj— — Slurb— _ A pHl— 



1877 17.7 11.1 



28.T 13. 27, 



88.5 40.8 62.4 
SO. 13.1 64. 



ix\ 


n.e 


88.5 


72 






80.3 


67 


113.3 
















ill 


™.Z 


80.2 


74 
75 












112! 7 


88. 










-2 


ia. 




■S3.ll 


■:■> 


01. B 






78 


71. 




ai"3 


72 


sal 


01.0 


86.1 


7S 


«n 


ok. a 




TO 




(S2.T 


«42 


7] 


K.8 






84 


85.2 


(tt.'i 


Slid 


72 


00.1 


Ul.B 


88.1 





Daily Temperature Reno County, 1893 to 1916, Inclusive. 
(Expressed in Degrees.) 

JANUARY. 



I. U H. L. II. L. II I. 



2 21 SB 24 
in 40 32 

s-m 52 so 



1WM 83 20 : 



41 36 47 24 83 23 37 2.1 SO B : 
38- * 30 IB 40 IS BO 20 OK 22 . 
58 21 48 20 41 12 37 11 30 10 : 



6 -2 -5-10 16-24 : 



i860 52 2n . 



13-5 34 2 42 1 



08 TS I 

78 !0 : 



20 34 17 58 I- 



B28 50 37 64 48 8646 6081 0384 



; 30 80 48 28 3828 



no 88 <•-■ 47 81 38 I 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



395 



ly Temperature Reno County, 1893 to 1916, Inclusive. 
(Expressed in Degrees.) 






H.2 t2.8 44. T 60.2 «T. 



80.3 02.2 4fl. 



48.8 45. 8.0] 



' Temperature Reno County, 1893 To 1916, Inclusive. 
(Expressed in Degrees.) 



I 30 30 MS 
I 38 21 30 r 













































54 32 


80 81 IS 11 18 IT 


20 



. SB 23 43 1 
1 80 IT fll 2 



i-i is : 
40 3.1 : 

1-2 1.11 ' 





























































































































































































































-11 :■<> 


41 


90 


i,u 


M 


id 21 


U 34 


« 


M 


21 IT 


30 IT 














FEBRUARY 






m "li 




;' 




1 


80 27 


H 13 


<ii 


n 


»«= 


























ns 32 


« 


*j 


.,« 


ia 


U 87 


;■:, n 


'■' 


si 


i,. 35 


M 37 






n 


-Jl 


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396 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 









MARCH. 




H L 


H. I.. 


H. I.. 


H. L. H?i„ 


H. 


42 7 


53 20 


SB SI 


M 8,1 59 32 






.14 37 










:.?. 5.3 


.'.0 1H 


00 2.1 50 81 


in 


so 3S 




48 13 




Tl 




.17 2H 


n :« 


84 81 77 38 






HO 34 


04 37 






4S 24 


;so it 










IS 20 


;m ao 






j:i r« 


:a i- 









A to 85 87 08 44 ( 



■ 8.1 21 :(7 21 



i 47 2 82 20 : 



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» 80 88 87 50 84 


43 .18 


06 3.1 75 88 71 41 


«4 47 71 50 58 83 


7« :u 


83 00 40 42 83 S 


82 30 82 40 85 00 





02 




»<■ II 






TO -11 










70 M 






48 




71 83 


SO 13 










70 51 




SI « 


58 


42 


53 a 


08 40 


TO On 
08 43 










SO SB 


.12 40 


88 51 




4K 


IV 37 


04 81 


81 27 


74 44 


IU 




77 M 








6.1 


8" 


as s» 


01 »■ 


5.1 s> 




71 






«i 37, 


07 88 








12 21 J 


.IT 37 


72 ::■ 








75 48 




74 47 


77 51 


72 




72 23 


«. 






78 




78 5S 


71 ™ 


50 44 








72 37 


58 88 










72 48 


70 44 








at* 


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74 84 








23 


07 81 


77 » 





1807 72 42 : 























87 87 


(w x: -.-, -ir, 












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71 BS 


71 44 






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71 47 


71 38 72 47 












08 50 


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73 y< 




ra sa 


M 411 n- 47 




77 4 1 






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70 3B 






87 44 




77 55 




01 4i! 


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60 4107 41 


7.1 4" 


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71 SO 


H/l .58 






no si 


87 48 


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.1.1 no 




5,-j I.". t:i 37 




i« 00 


42 


M 41 




OB 46 




Bl 00 





82 61 70 M 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 
MARCH. 







11. I.. 


H. L. 










H. 1..F1. I„ 














11. 1- 








sa'ses 


11 LB 




IIS 21 


72 






80 SB 
















(12 '20 








W Si 


82 i(V 




36 41 




47. 






















7,1 


IS 


17 28 07 




in 2:1 


114 87. 


45 4S 


■"■a 
















30 




42 




B4 










..2 27 


30 21 




24 


78 2? 




:i7. 114 mi V4 




17 










79 40 










.12 42. 










R8 Mil 












S7 


7(1 47, 


AS 










f* ill! 


117 811 


71 








(1 14 111 '.'J. 




sm 






82 






47 




47. 29 30 


-,2 x.-. 






n:; 21 




2B 


7-.li 27 


43 2S 
















7.2 r. 


.is 80 


.712 27 40 


n is 


HI ID 












(14 14 


7,0 47. 114 4(1 






















7:i 2.1 


M2 ::o 




ra so 


12 






74 S.I 






21 








211 






7.2 




17 22 


38 1 


R1 19 




-.2 




M in 


41 SB 


7,2 4d (17 4". 








a; 






Ki S4 


4R 2S 


7,1 37 117 


72 4.1 










211 


ill 21 


»1 SI 


:» 21 7.7 17. 




37i 










111 2-2 


on 


27 














8.1 




(P.. 111! 


(17 :« 711 74 














110 27 


71 




71 44 74 








r--i hi 
























'■ '. 












tn 21 


























47. 114 








IS 11 




74 43 












bo .in m 4* 














80 7-1 




.18 


(18 2.1 717 












20 


117 8.1 










7S 








(ill 27 




27 














r« 


lis :i7 




77. 44 .11 B4 
















Ki si 








IIS 11 








17 42 




87 49 84 411 






















II] X.". 








12 


























Hi- 


88 41 b: 




M 37! 










82 I-'. 


'Ill 211 


111 21! 87, 22 
















82 11 






m SI 




iix :e 






S3 H 






8fl 












110 211 


04 


ll* 






nr ■!" 




so in 






SI IB 




62 2(1 77 211 


78 




















41 23 


41 2:i 


a is 


:i7. 2,-j 


:«t 


IB 


M M 


I". 2(1 


.".* 30 »■ 710 


'111 81 


34 


M 


v - 


27, 


74 21 


11s 


14 


ST 2T 4.1 


















APRIL. 






















77 :n 


-:i 40 


-■1 .12 


7-3 42 


si 


Ml 


02 :ui 


IIS Kl 


00 34 on 42 


ST. 


7.8 


m 


ILK 


71 


.'CI 


81 Sil 


411 


:ui 


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71 .1.-. 


77. Sfl 




























74 ;i7 




S7 




71-. 411 




84 83 71 41 








17 
























Ml 44 




Hil 7,11 S" 7,1 














71 071 






82 17 


I J U 


vii rm 


tm 4H 




7(1 42 


"4 7,7 


•44 48 


82 00 77 .17 
















08 


















7 3 SO 


70 M 


711 17 VI, 111 








Sil 




17, 










vi in 










42 




7.4 47, 


im 17 7". 42 










K2 BB 


- . 


71 






4S* 


r,2 4;, 

.",2 jf. 


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ir.l 21; 


™ & 


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7n 


47. 


vi™! 


V'i 12 


US 12 17. -1(1 












112 








84 7.0 


02 S3 




82 ■;:■, 








M 112 




0.1 Ki H.I 47, 










71 


■>■/. 












7J to 






Vll 




V4 S3 




SO 41 74 47 




Si 




SI 


08 










.12 27-! 






78 14 


'.IV in; 






IE 30 




7(1 .77, 77, 7,4 












22 












)f 311 






7 ft 




US 31 


m w 










4:1 




47 






















Kl 48 


7B 4B 


HI 7,1 H3 7.7 












-78 




















a- 


tm at; 




77 111 11 4S 








211 


81 




V7I in. 












Vli .'.] 




74 




VI 7,11 




7(1 "7 7 ! :;a 




11 




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S4 










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411 87 


47 




111 41 














48 




















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m in 




Ki If. 7.1: :r. 


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Til 
















v^ XI 






7- 87 






7S 40 


:i 1 


114 Jlill-I 11 




41 




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71 


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111 41 


(1(1 114 


08 10 7". 84 






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87 17! 






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H> .'14 


















n m 






































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3.1 










77 (V 




4S 


It - 




MAY. 














80 7,2 


Vll 


. 


.. 


■0 4! 


Ki 47, 


M 40 


at so 


IS 


tx 


(11 44 


111 7,7 


74 so s.i 74 


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71 :u: 


77 


88 


























80 .13 71 


V2 4'l 




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i72 1:1 Ti> 72 














M hi 


v.- 








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fill 


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7 7^ HI 311 80 K 



72 744 07 7,7 80 SO 70 7iO«4 .Vi 71 .14 0(1 411 71 741 77, flu 70 m 71 47 77 111 

8S 7J1 .82 7,7 SO (12 70 7.8 711 111 SO .HI 00 7,3 117 44 IIS 4.1 112 7.4 St 72 (11 7,(1 

SO 44 SS IW S3 88 88 83 7S ill 82 48 07 47 07 28 Mi 41 SO 411 7,7 .12 80 .11 

112 71 S2 40 74 44 08 7* "it ill 81 7.11 Sil .10 S7 09 83 Oft 78 fll 87 40 70 KB 

T2 7.7 7t .HI TT 30 00 .14 (IN 7,7 00 .12 TO 4.1 TS 45 80 37 88 38 78 .13 SO 41 

S7 7,0 7.1 .10 .18 49 73 4.177 47 77 .14 74 7* (SI 7* 82 30 HO 82 01 (II 7.0 7,:l 

T2 3,1 .W 44 08 44 80 44 04 fll 04 01 02 08 8.1 81 08 80 S3 57 IT 04 SB 02 

■ SO 03 86 30 93 BO 00 63 00 (II SI .17 (1,1 (17 01 70 SI 02 82 .11 12 112 17, 82 

i 80 44 73 32 7S 42 TO 43 Sil SO 01 00 80 01 90 30 97j 03 108 00 Iftl 83 LOS B1 



v Google 



398 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



; 85 58 78 51 83 52 1 
ft) 00 MIW 83 81 I 



I 9867 00 82 8802 0388 83 87 

I 8488 8584 8584 8884 8383 

. 81 58 85 81 0384 8385 8358 

' 8885 8585 8884 8888 8387 



18 82 84 88 88 ft 



8 57 03 83 03 88 



88 58 77 80 



* 87 87 71 05 70 






or OTiim o« 

78 07 58 48 
SB 72 81 74 
71 47 70 4tl 


13 


JULY. 




07 71 84 71 
71 73 83 30 
88 88 7S 58 


M 



87 58 OS 64 



75 101 6S 86 87 



"1 70 101 63 104 58104 8 



_8 67 88 71 80 71 
I 06 68 88 60 OS 7( 



1013 88 08 08 67 01 73 101 78 
1015 80 59 73 57 73 53 78 58 



I S8 08 00 00 





00 08 


80 84 00 on 




78 57 


X, Nt 




08 68 03 00 




118 73 
















R4 R2 77 '11 


11 51 


























82 01 


66 BO 84 55 


00 S3 


02 70 








!>1 73 










92 05 


m so 






08 88 07 72 


01 VI 


08 BS 








101 74 


01! «fl 


04 12 102 73 


108 75 u* 72 






03 67 


89 10 


88 60 SO BO 


•iO mi 


05 .IS 


80 M 


88 81 


MHWU 
AUGUST. 


** lil 


02 78 


W> 02 


87 08 


M S3 88 87 


08 «4 


81 88 



103 60 105 60 II 



84 40 80 57 02 70 05 Ji 
8304 8387 87 61 838; 
K7 63 fW 5B 886* 870! 



1 101 73 73 08 



1.107 103 74 08 07 
1808 



• 71 98 74 08 71 



> S3 83 87 03 80 0: 



02 83 06 73 00 78100 71 103 (I- 



87 OS 87 03 I 

01 03 93 07 I 

■5 71 HI 64 83 58 1 



S3 60 SO 65 78 01 fa .18 88 58 : 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



54 «!S8 78 ft 



i] 00 Bl 80 8* 6» r 






7 83 88 83 87 88 82 07 . 
69 OS 70 84 70 80 88 I 
<1 Bl 88 65 87 8.11 3 70 1 



'1 70 BB 70 97 7i 



71 87 74 118 7- 



W 82 Bll no nil 05 IIP 05 88 


93 70 00 05 


H 70 






00 71 


011 (58 


51 80 BO 08 80103 80 ion 04 


100 B7 07 07 


!>.". TO 




ISH 


si it; 




85 87 68 84 82 S3 82 87 58 


OS 81 OS 88 


04 70 






S6 88 






03 70 03 72 


08 88 








00 72 


04 88 60 101 73100 73 80 70 


88 65 87 08 


08 85 


80 


70 


10U 72 


101 71 


AH BO 70 90 OS S3 78 02 05 


04 83 02 At 


85 71 


77 


88 


78 50 


04 08 


56 0858 8J 72 84 IB 8380 














70 103 08 108 07103 85 103 80 


80 80 100 70 




n ii 




110 117 








3 110 103 OS 08 04 85 08 i 



.1 l!7 114 711 08 ft 





ua ti 


mi 7i](>3 






80 72 80 


82 


78 IB 


81 00 00 


BB 




■ii :.f si 


:■<• 




09 00 05 


88 


100 60 


ll-itt 711113 




n n 


711 IH 77 



85 N8 n« 84 112 : 



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RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

SEPTEMBER. 
3 T 8 » 10 

1. L. H. L. n. L.H. I.. II. L. H.I 



4 59 1(0 (14 I CIO SO 90C 

sh n 93 to eo ss « 

urn wis m *» w t; 

KM WI62 WOT Bl ft' 

,i in m no t: w f» « 

(7 M M SI 87 Sfl so « 

or* wt ta Bfl as 84 s.' 

'4 4H IT .1.1 98 «fl 18 4: 



M nil 90 6T 08 ftJ 98 TO 99 1.1 miff IS 92 ' 
104 Tl 91 T4 00 09 T8 «8 TO AS 72 111 Tl Ml ' 
99 Tl 199 T4111 71 09 TO 9S 14 80 «7 88 97 : 



OCTOBER. 



9 191 TO 10.1 7 



1 3.1 TO 80 8.1 .18 IIS 4i 






NOVEMBER. 







48 211 




74 211 


*8 28 


72 


:18 




42 Tfl 4.1 






















(VI SB 






111 M 


71 




T8 


.'!.", on na 




42 JS 
















(W SI 






78 -'' 


Vi> r:i 








3.148 88 


:,;: 27 




(is :t> 








32 




IHI'7 


74 42 


71 41 


so ii 


SO 3.1 


04 32 


-,: 


■3 


4( 


24 48 IK 


172 87 


*• s 7 


40 L'8 


OS 27 


m -to 


TS 


Til 


T.l -IB 


(11 TO 


•72 «1 


7(1 Ut 


SB SI 


in 4« 


01 


39 


7S 


:t4 n rci 


44 28 


.Ml IS 


in 24 


1.1 33 


S7 18 


SO 


24 


SO 2S 


i.srei 




sa 2/, 




■ :■> 2" 


>•:.'. 21i 


(IB 






.WIN) 48 














5." 






87 31 


Tl 3D 


VI 4:> 


in 3c 


08 49 


Oh 






Mi 4- 1!H 


.-.i n 


.-j) :■.'.: 




















SI zx 


Ml ST 


02 a; 




10 


















58 








-a 12 






.12 S4 










71 .77, 


ns us 


7.7 M 


























20 




-!" m M 




















71 SI 


71 M 


k: hi; 


88 88 










TS 7(1 2* 


so rsa 


m a- 


ill El 






•• 












liS 211 














SI S7 


Sl 21 




18 88 


7:1 :si 










',ii :;ip 


-.4 3S 














41 Ti ;rs 




ob ;v. 


so :i2 


IS 2.1 


44 a 




























0.1 si 


-,- si 


SB is 


an 22 




























R7: v-i res 


18 37 




Ml 2S 


::i: IV 


SI 1 _ 7 










Tl 44 






M 11 
















00 14 














01 HS 
















svrii ri2 










on s'l 










M 2fl 
















89 HI 83 










11 211 




12 


70 80 
























70 3* 






or 92 




as 


711 11 




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M 37 






417 8-- 
































so « 


■m 111 




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. 03 no i)> <io u~i iff so .Mi «S .'« 63 12 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



SEPTEMBER. 

22 23 24 IS 20 27 



W .13 M 58 M IH M Ki (IT 111 02 'I 
S3 S2 .VI K3 81 7,1 38 73 J 
58 SO 01 7B 0* T4 48 S3 < 



S 55 N 58 91 38 ' 
OCTOBER. 



il 3B 37 411 HI ,18 72 41 
.3 S3 37 .'HI 71 34 7S 3J 



NOVEMBER. 



a 21 « a 45 14 . 

7 13 43 15 04 20 I 

» 27 50 14 <>n 25 ' 

1 30 03 81 AH 40 < 

4 OS 30 32 4B 2S - 



420 4024 5424 50 28 0021 

6 30 6050 56 47 0040 KM: 

.7 41 60 S3 52 IB 52 32 5.1 * 

IB 50 38 48 2S 43 17 52 2.' 



v Google 



RENO COUNTY, K.\ 



DECEMBER. 



5 20 BO 40 80 Si 



30 2S 1H1» M 26 4H 21 



.12 20 I 

84 S ; 



16 10 10-0 10-4 



30 27 W 21 SI * 



.11 n <im i 

38 11 48 13 ! 

so ao oo 2r. : 



a 28 80 23 39 ' 



.1 33 SO 37 47 30 



: 4H 13 
■ 54 38 
44 30 
» !l- I 
24 10 . 
41 32 • 
BO 28 I 



24 13 : 
44 24 I 
08 40 . 



COLD FEBRUARYS. 





31.1 n 

31.1(1 

:t2.ffi 

30.90 

2&45 

18. 

•M.'M 
JWi.HY 
2N.!m 
20.32 
20. T4 
27.. Ti 




















OOLD DBOBMBI 
























■■■II' JAM Alt 
























18.18 





82.82 33.70 

30.03 20.21 

88. 3S 27.81 

33.10 31.82 

28.28 21.78 



.00 8.B7 2.32 



v Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 

DECEMBER. 

■i\ 22 £3 21 3.1 M 

II. r.. H. L. H. L.H. L 



3 X 50 25 60 26 WW I 

II 4 It-3 31-14 38 « ! 

2 IS 50 20 ST 23 5T 20 4 

a a w 34 site inn i 



« IS ST IS 44 31 ■ 

•3 22 St 83 41 2U • 

«2s 53 so so 30 ■ 

■Z 2G 6S 23 62 28 i 



























28 44 20 


211 2-1 


S3 14 32 22 



» —20 - 

10 — 2 

IS —15 • 



v Google 



RENO COUNTY, KANSAS. 



January 2 — 1 



■ nii»r» 12 — 1 



■mber 28— — 2 



13 — W 



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