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To be returned 

as oa W55 

17 NOV 1959 ' 
il-NOV i»w. 


Let this Book, Intituled, The Hi- 
ftory of theROYALSOCh 
EiY of London, fortheim- 
proving of Natural Knowledge, 


William Morrice. 





O F T H E 


O F 


For the Improving of 


By THO. SPRAT, D. D. late Lord 

Bifhop o( Roc HESTER. 
The Third Edition Corredcd. 


Printed for J. Knapton, J. Walthoe, 
B. and S.Took e, D. Midwinter, B^ 
CowsE, J.ToNSON, R. Robinson^ 
J. WiLFORD, and S, Chap man, 1722. 

( T 


K I N G 


Fall the Kings 0/ Eu- 
rope, Tour Majefiy was 
the firfi, "who cowfirnid 
this noble Dejign ofKx- 
periments, by Tour own Example, 
and hy a puhlick Efiahlijhment. An 


The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

Enterprife equtd to the mojl renown' d 
Heltons of the hefi Princes. For, 
tfuucreafi the Towers (f dl Mm- 
kiudi, and to free them front the Bon- 

to fvt 


PPljat Reverence all Antiquity 
had for the Atithors of natural Dit 
coveries, is evident hy the divinet 
Sort ^ Hmomr they cotfer'd t« 
thtm.. Their Founders of phijofo' 
phical Opinions were only admir'd 
by their own Se<5l:s : Their vajiant 
M,cn and Generals .did feldont rife 
higher than to Dcmy-Gods ondYie- 
rpes : Bnt the Gods they worjhip- 
*(^ w/V/j Temples <»»^- Altars, were 
thofe who inflru^ed the fForld to 
plow, to fQW> to plant, to fpin, to 
build Houfes, and to find out new 
Countries. This Zeal indeed, by 


The Epittie Dedkatory. 

ivhich they exprefi*d their Gratitude 
to fuchBenefaSorSy degenerated into 
' SnperjHiion ^ yet has it fati^ht uSy 
that a higher Dep'ee of Reputation 
is due to Difcoverers, than to the 
Teachers of fpeculative Dcxftrines, 
nay even to Gcfnquerors themfehes. 
Nor has the true God him/elf 
omitted to Jhew his' lvalue of vulgar 

Arts.. )k the whale 'IffiSkoxY of the 
firfi Monarchs of the ff^orldy from 
Adam to Ncahy there is no mention 
of their, W^rs^ or their Viilories : 

jiU that' is recorded is this, they 
liv'dfo many Tears, and taught their 
Pofterity to keep Sheep, to till the 
Ground , to plant Vineyards , to 
dwell in Tctrts, to huild Cities, to 
play on the Harp and Organs, and 
to work in Brafs and Iron. And if 
they deferv*d a facred Remem- 
brance, for one natural or mechani- 


The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

cd Invention, Tour Majefty w/7/ 
certainly obtain immortal Fame, /or 
having efiahlijh'd a perpetual Succef- 

5 » 

I am, 

• * ■ 

May it pleafe Your Majefty, 

• » • 

Your Majefty '^moft humble, 
and moft obedient 

c • 

Su bjeil and Servant, 

• ^ 

Tho Sprat. 

* \-' 

T O T H E 



HlhO^HT.thegreat and mlj Heir 
Of all that human Rntrwle^e which has bin 
UnfarMted by Maris rebellious Sin, 

Though full of Tears He do appear^ 
(Thilofophy^ Ifay^ and call ity HjSy 
For whatfo^er the Taintefs Fmcy M ' 
' It amale VirtMCeemrto me) 
Hasflilt been kept tn Non-age till of latCy 
Nor mana^d or enjofd his vafi Eft ate : 
Three or four thoufand Tears one would have thought y 
To Rhenefs and Terfeition might have fought 

A ocience foweUiredandnurpy • 
And offkch hopefulTarts too at the firfl. 
Buty oh ! the Guardians and the Tutors theny 
( Some negligent y andfome ambitious Men ) 

Would ne*er confent; io fet him frecy 
Or his own natural lowers to let himfeC:, 
Left that fhouldput dn end to their Author ft i'e. 

That his i>wn Bujtnefs he Vfigbt quite forget y 
They amus^dhbA with the Sports of wavton Wit^ 
With the'Deferts of "Poetrj they fed him, / ' 
Inftead of foRd Meats fencreafe his Force ^j 
Jnfiead of vigorous ExercifCy they led him • ^ 
Into the ple^ant Labyrinths of ever frefh T>ifcourfe : 

Inftead of carrying him to fee 
The Riches which do hoarded for him lye 

B In 

In Nature'! mdlefs Treafurr, 

net chofe his Eye to entertain 

I. Hi! curious, Imt mt covetous ^P) . 

mth painted Scents, ondTageantsoftheBfatn. 
sZl few exaUed Spirits this latter Age has flown. 
That laiour-d to afert the Liierty 
(fIoL Guard.ans%ho. »"' "f^.^l"^"*" 
OfthisoldU\«otlHU, capM'PM,fiphy> . 
■ Buft^-as Reiellion caltd tofght 

For ««*'■ 

IV Bacon; w{W/ ' > 

Whi atureceoje , , , . 

r „ their Laws, 

Andb WdTufilsCaufe. 


LiJ'fov.t oU Giant s nme gtgmic Ghofi, 

To terrify the learned Rout 
mththe plain Magic oftrueReafonS Light, 

He chaifd cut of OUT Sight, 
M^ ruffefd li-vine Men to be mftd 
%^£7vJnsLowsofthe'Dead: (fomefid-, 

HeZokJlhat mmftrous God 'mhich food 
Mdjtol th- Orchard, '"^'*'-'f °J:f/ ''^""• 
mich^ith aufekfs Scythe of Wood^ 
Andfomething elfe •»' ^">\lf^;^\ 
( Both vaft f^ Shew, yet neither ft 
Or to defend, or to beget ; , 

Ridicudus and fffekfs Terror!^ <"^ ■ ■ 
Children and futerfiitmsMenJratd. 

The Orchards open now, and free , «c.. 
(I Ba«* has brok tOt Scare-crow 'Deity > ^^^^ 

Comtt enter^ oH thai vbiU^ .• " ' 

Behold the ripened Frmtt conu. gather now your FiU» 

let ftillt methmks, we fain would he 

Catchitig at the forbidden Tree^ . . . 

fVe would be like the "Deity y 
When Truth and Faljhood, Good and Evii, we 
Without the Senfes Aid within ourfelves ixmUdfee j 

For Uis God only who can find 

AU Nature in his Mind. 

IV. . 

From Wordsy which arebttt "PiShretof the Thoi^hti 
{Though we our Thot^bts from them perver^ drew ) 
To Things, the Minds right QbjeBy he it brought : 
Likefoolijh Birds to panned Grapes we flew % 
He fought and gather' d for our UJ} the true j 
And when on Heaps the ehefen Bunches laft 
\ He prefs'd them wifely the mfcbamic Way, . « 
' Till all their jfuice did in one Veffel join. 
Ferment into a Nourijbment "Divine, 

The thirfly Saul's refreflting. Wme, 
Who to the Idfe an eteoB. "Piece w'uU. mAke, . 
M^ not from. Hhers Work a C^y take 3 

Much lefs content himfetfto make it like 
L Th' Ideas and the. Imager 'micbjye 

' In his ofwn Fancy, or his Mtmory, 

No, he b^ore hi* S^ht. n«tfi pUtc^ , n . \ 


The real Objeff. muft command, . . ; * 

Back Judgment of bis Eye, and Motion of his Hand. 

From thefe and aUtnig Errors :cf the. W^i 

In which out. wdndrhig!Brjide^^i^smp^ .. . . 
And liketh' old 'Hebrews mimy Tears did Jray^ 

B * In 


In 'Defarts but offniaU: Extent y . . 
Bacon^ itks Mofcs, hdasfofth at JsjK 

The barren Wtldanefs ht fafi^ 

l^id on the -ver^ B^urtkr Jiand ~ . ■ 

Of the blefi promi^ Lmd, . 
Anifro» the M»vaitairis Tvp of Jns txaked. Wit, 
. ^tfW it himM, Mid fiew'd us U, 
But Life did nevtr to vne Man all&w 
Time to dif cover Words,, and conqmr tn\ . 
Nor canfojhort a Line fii§cient be 
To fathom the -w^ 'DeptJu «/ Afirfw/J Sea : 

The Wdfk he did weotight f admire^ 
And -were unjujt if we fioald more re^uare 
From his few Te^rs, divided twixt tb' Excefs 
Of low Affli&iimy. Jmd high H'ff^fiL, 
For who on Things remote em fix 1^ *gw. 
That's <dwaytif^ a Ttitmh 9r a Fight ? 

V !• ' 

From you, great Cbamfimsy we expeB to get 

Thefe fbacious Cmmtries ht diftovtfd yet v 

Comi^t whmyet inpadef Nature, wt 

Her Images 4Cnd Idols ^ioorfi^d J^r 

Thefe large and weatthy Regnm to feiMue^ < 

Though Learning has whole Armies at Commma, 

§uartefd about in every Land, 
A better Troop fit VU'er together drew. 

Methinks, Uh GidwmV l^h Bmd, 

God with 'Defimhas fickt out yauy 
When the whoU Hoft be fgwy they are {fatd he ) 

Too many to o'ercomefor me j 

And now he ehuf^ out his Meny 

Much in the way that he did then : 

Not thofe many whom he found 

Idfy extended on the Grnmd, ^ * 


To drmk with tbeh dejeited Hetd 
The Stream Jujifo as hy their Mouths it fed: 

Noy but thofe few who took the Waters u^ 
And made of their laborious Hands the Cup. 


Thus youprefua^df and in the glorious Fight 

Tlieit wondrous Tattem too you take : 
Their old and empty Titchersjirfi they brakes 
And with their Uandf then lifted up the^ L^ht. 

Id ! Sound too the Trunks here ! 
Already your victorious Lights appear j 
New ijcenes of Heaven alrtadj^ we/ejhyy 

And Crowds of golden Worlds on %igh i 
Which from the ffmms "Plains ^EarthandSea, 

Could never yet difrover'4 he 
By Sailors or CbaldsBans watchful Eye. 
Natures great Works no l^iftance canotfcxre^ 
No Smalnefs her near OhjeUs tan fecure. 

Toiive taught the curious Sigha to prefs 

Into theprivatefi Recefs 
Of her imperceptMe Uttlenefs. 
She with muchJlrangeT Art thtn Ins who put 

All th Iliads in a Nut, 
The numerous Work of Lafe does into Atoms Jbut. 

Toiive learrid to read her fmalkft Hand, 
And well begun her deepefi Senfe to unierfiand^ 

Mifchief and true ^iflwnof^ fall on thofe 
Who would to Lott^hter or to Scorn expofe 
So virtnons and fo nohle a ^Defign^ 
So human for its UJe, for Knowle4ge fo divine. . 
TheThingsw^ch tbefi proud Men dejpije^ andcall 
Impertinent^ and vain, and fmall, 


Thofe fmalleji Things of Nature let m Iww, 
Rather than all their greateft Anions do. 
Whoever would depofed Truth advance 

Into the Throne ufurp'dfrom ity 
Muftfeel at fir ft the Blows oflgnorance^ 

And thefiarp Joints of envious Wit. 
So when by various Turns of the celeftial^ance. 

In many thoufand Tears 

A Star, fo lor^ unknownt appears., 
Though Heaven itfelfmore beauteous by itgrowt 
It troubles and alarms the World belowt 
'Does to the Wife a Star^ to Fools a Meteor Jbow, 

With Courage and Succefs you the bold Work begin $ 

Tour Cradle has not idle been: 
None e'er but Hercules and you could be 
At five Tears Age worthy a Hiftory. 

And n^er did Fortune better yet 

Th' Hiftofian to the Story fit : ■ 

As you from all old Errors free ' ■ 
And purge the Body ofPhilofofhy i 

So from all modern Follies He 
Has vindicated Eloquence and Wtt. 
His candid Stile like a clean Stream doesfUde^ 

And his bright Fancy all the way 

It does like Thames, thebefi of River Sy glide. 
Where the God does not rudely overturn. 

But gently pour the cryftal Urn, 
Andwithjudicious Hand does the whole Current guide. 
Has all the Beauties Nature can impart. 
And all the cmefy 'Drefs without the 'Paint of Art. 



A N 




HE Reader is entreated to take No^ 
tice, that much of this Difcourfe 
was written and printed above 
two Tears before the refi : For this 
Caufe, in thejirft andfecond Books, he may 
chance to findfome ExpreJJions, that by reafon 
of the difference of Time maryjeemnot well to 
agree with the lafi: Buf thofe having paf^d 
the Prefsfo long ago, were out of my Power 
of changing them ; and therefore I will refer 
it to his Kmdnefs to do it for me. 

I mufi alfo acquaint him, that intheTitle 
of my Book I have taken a Liberty, which 
may be liable to Exception : I have call'd it a 
Hiftory of the Royal Society ,• whereas the 
Jirfi Part wholly treats of the State of the. 



Aftcient Philofophy ; ami the third chiefiy 
contams a Defence and Recommendation of 
experimental Knowledge in general : Sa 
that it is only the fecond Book that peculiar- 
ly defcribes their Undertaking. But for my 
Excufe I may alledge the Example of 
many of the Ancients y who have often from 
the principal Part of their fVorks gwenTitle 
to all the refir: Itt their imitationy though 
thii^BoQk dies treat of mauy^^Su^jj^stbatare 
not Hiftoricaly yet I have prefum^d to name 
the whole a Hiftory, becaufe that was the 
main End of my Dejign. 

TTie Style perhaps tn which it is written ^ 
is larger ana more contentious than becomes 
that Purity and Shortnefs which are the chiej 
Beauties of hiftorical Writings : But the 
JBlame of this ought ndtfo much to be laidup^ 
on mey as upon the DetraBors of fo noble an 
Inftitution : For their Obje&idns and Cavils 
againfl /?, did make it tieceffaVy for me to 
write ofity not altogether in the way of a 
plain Hiftory, but fometimes of an Apo- 







JL>;A- Jl. iJ.\>jL-'- 




* t 

€fk% and 

!/•»♦, ^ , 

' f 1 



' ; j . * 

O F 




^i— c 


ft » f N I _ • ■ 

, . . . » 

^ha^ heije prefect ito the World, an Sed. I. 

fflyCjCpU^jC of tEkC /r/? Inftitittim 'Qf The Prrfaety 

ulu/ iii'l Am W»?We ,^» will «irf»cr thi^k thdr 
>f*eav9ur|5 .wonby ^£ its 4^^o or dfc will 

t^rpti^- (di^ day fuch^quabi^ found out) for the 

* " .'A " . ' ' •' Bene- 

The HI'SrORTof 

Benefit of human Life> by the Advancement of 
Real Knowk^e. 

Perhaps this Task^ which I have progps'd to my 
felf^ will incur the Genfure of many judicious Men, 
who may think iiKaii oveclufty, and pitfumptubus 
Attempt; and may objedtame, that the Hifitny 
of an AiTembly which begins with to great Expec- 
tationsy ought not to have been imade pubiick 
fo foon J till we could have produced very many 
confiderable ExpermmtSy which they had try'd, 
and fo have given undeniable Vrocfs of the U(e- 
fulnefs of their Undertaking* 

In anfwer to this, I can plead for my felf> diat 
what I am heim^ fay, will be far from preventing 
the Labours orothers in adorning fo wonhy a Sub- 
jed; and xspt^m^ npon no ^tt account, than 
as the nobleff Buildings arc tirft^ wdnc to be reprc- 
fentcd in a few Shadows^ or fmall Models % whi^h 
are not intended to be equal to the chief Stra- 
fturc. iiLik]f,..buL.coEiJy. .tP.Jhe^^ .iSL ...Uttle^i. bl^ w^ 
Materials^ with what Chargey and by how tnany 
Handsy that is* afteiVard^ to be rais'd. Although, 
therefore, ixonrc rcrrhc Performance of this WeA, 
with much XcCs^eliheratiany.zwA, Ability J than the 

[ fVeightmefi. 6( it requires | yet, I truft, that the 
Greatnefs oitYtc^efign it fdf, onwhich I am to fpeak, 
and the Zeal ^YadciX have for the Honour of our 
N^tion^ which have been the chief Reafohs that 
havcmov'd me to this Confidence of Writing, will 

' ferve to make fomcthihg for my Excufe. For what 
greater matter can any Man d^fire^ about which to 
employ hb Thoughts, than the Beginnings of an /A 

' hftjriou^ Company^ whith'has ilready laid fuch ex- 
cellent Foundations of fo much Good to Mankind? 


the .Roy a l So c i et y. 3 

O^ what icau be more diclightful ioTzaEnglifb Man 
tp conitdcr) th^n chat notwithfianding^li the late 
.MiCerief^pf his C^ountry, it has bccaaQe in a! (hort well P'tiecovef it fclf, as not only to at- 
tain to the Pcrfcdion of its former Civility , and 
Learning, but alfo to fet on foot a new Way of 
Improvement of Arts, zs great znd z& beneficial (to 
fay no more) as s^iy the wittieft or. the happieft 
Age has ever invented \ 

\ But beildes this, I can alfo add,- in my Defence^ 
that though the Society^ of which I am to write, is 
not yet four Years old , and has been of ncceuity 
, hitherto chiefly taken up, zboat preparatory A fairs ; 
- yet , even in this Time, they have not wholly nc- 
: glebed their principal End^ but have had Succefs, thjc Trial. of many remaricable Things; of which 
I doubt not, but I (hall be able, as I pats along, to 
give InOan^es enough to fatisfy the CurioHty of all 
fober^ Inquirers intQ Truth. And in (hprt, if for no 
other: £n(|,i yet .certainly for this, a Relation of 
. their firft Original ;ought to be expos'd to the View 
of Men ; That by laying down, oh what courfe of 
Difcovery they intend to proceed, the Gentlemen 
ef the Society may be more folemnly engag'd, to 
ypr<oJicute the .fame. Fpr now they will not be able, 
I handibmely to draw back, and^to. forfake ' fuch ho- 
nourable Intentions ; when the World (hall have 
taken notice, that fo many pmdent Men have gone 
,io far, in a Bufinefs of this univerfal Importance, 
.and have . given fuch undoubted Pledges of mzi^y 
admitalple* Inventions to follow. 

» I (h^il therefore divide my Difcoutie into thele ^^«5'. 'I* 
: three general ricads. ■ ~ ' ' '^ rf%fr&r- 

A a Tht(0Mrfe. 

ne HI'S TORY of 

Thtfr/l ffiai givie a Ihbrt View of At AucUnI 
and Modern Fhilorophy ; arid 6f the ifloA fafnoui 
Attenlfts, that have beto made f<br Its ^Aiuann- 
meht: That by obfetvlng ^Hettih Athcts 'Ha«c ex- 
'cettd, and Wherein they hive been thbdght «> JC*/, 
we may the 'better flicw, '\^Hat 'is to 'be ^xjii^tcH 
'itbth thefc new XTndcitilters s aha what movti 
'them, tt> 'ent^r -npbn'aWay 6f%iquity, dUFeredt 
firotq that, on which the former h^^ {^r6ceed«d. 
. The yJnWfllall cbtiRft of the iiirtative it felf : 
'And out of theit 'Regi^ers, and -youHils, Whtch'I 
have been petlrtilted to perare,'lhall relate 'the firtl 
Oc<;3fipns of theit Meetings, the 'Incottt&gemcnt, 
and'Patrbri^ffe, which they have receVd i''-Ati^*F/t- 
'iiilt, 'their Sltitum, tfie whblc^Ordcr'arid SiHiijle 
•Of their 'Dij^, and the Mimut 'Af their'Pirfe- 
ceedings. ' ■ 

The iBitdWl try, i)o 'affett the' JtJtiimfigf^ad 

'it 'is 


1« I 

imagine, that thofe R.eaCom <Sn"1iiAre'Shy''g«at''if- 

• ' fca 

//&^ R o 1 A L S ox: I E T Y. y 

•feOt inmy wiokHimdSf whidi were jiot able fiilly to 
ipcevail, when they were inforc'd by the Eloquence 
of thofe excellent Mfn, who have gone before mc 
4a^ifrrA4^inent: But I rather truft to ,the inclina- 
tion -of the j^* it ilclJf, wherein rl write j which (if 
il-miftakeoot) is fiu:more,prepat'd to be .perCuaded 
«o iptomotc/ruch Studies, than atiy other .Time that 
^WfiP'WJh^^AiSi . ., .. 

i .Andrfirft, krvUs^pbfcrvc/thcrPrafltice of the beft. Sea. III. 
W^thc-ciTilcft Natiow^ /anao4^the j^Jents.iiOidl^' ^^'H^ 
.a little tracojout the ICourfc which they foUow'd, toft^/^ ' 
«iti€h : their 'Countries, by the introducing .of For- 
^y)g»?';Atts, ot!af^Bchmg,.jnto jy^ 

♦It ^sh^YM?**'^?. -^"^ ihc ^untyMral .Tsftimony ,of 
rHifiotJl^y -cl^ai '# t.cammi|g;.^ ii^ivility, wore^deriv^ 
fd^Wn-to-JW'^io* .thc.£i^/'r»: Parts of. the World. 
: There it was, that ■ Mankind .aioTe : . And there, ihey 

•d«ft .diftw<;s'4 -.^ f^^y 9f Living, with .Safety, 
. €eavepifq^(^.a«ncLpclj^t. ttM ■ but -^uft, that j«c 
-^G^ePfimfiff ^ahdim^vy'SiBrtsoJri Manufai^uresF which 
-wc now- «^jpy,-ta?^e;.y^ri<»u, ^e^CpaldeanSfMd 
Egyptians. And as to them we owe the Invetftiofki 
Co from them proceeded the firft Com^tionoC Knbw- 

^^•-.-fmi^S^m^^^^^Wmth^ If^Js .wav;? ffjjf:c^,tif4f»fe4ve^^ i&xibm ^<hW^^<^f^}^^m^ ^^■ 
•>%)fo9h$^<9f^4^2^^^. : rThjit;4aaas.potjQ'ii|C^ of -filch 

'rAil!ie«eA:|osvghpld;ys «<uikxteisthe^moftJikely 

6 The HI STORY of 

to thrive, when the Minds, and Labours of Men of 
ail Conditions, are join'd to promote it, and when 
it becomes the Care of united Nations. 

Into the ^dft^ th^ firft inquifttive Men amongft 
the Grecians travelled : By what they obferved there, 
they ripened their own imperfed Conceptions, and 
fo returned to teach them at Home. And that they 
might the better inftnuate their Opinions into their 
Hearers Minds, they fet them off with the Mixture 
of tables and the Ornaments of Fancy. Hence it 
came to pafs, that the firft Matters of Knowledge 
amongft them, were as well ^oetSy as Vhitofephers 5 
for Orpheus^ Linus^ MufauSy and Homer ^ firft foft- 
ned Men's nattiral Rudenfefs^ and by the Charms of 
their Numbers, alh;r'4 them to be inftruAed by the 
feverer Doftrines *oF Sohuy Thales^ zxidiTythagaras. 
' This was a Courfe, that was ufefiil at firft, when Men 
were to be delightfully deceiv'd to their own Good : 
But perhaps it left fome ill Influence on the whole 
Philofophy of their Succeflbrs 5 and gave the Greci- 
ans occafion ever after of exerciitng their Wit, and 
their Imagination, about the Works of Nature, more 
than was conitftent with a ftncere Inquiry into 

* r • 

^ * . t « . 

Sea. IV . Whenthc fabulous Age was paft, Thilofiphy took 
^*^ j^'^^V^-a little more Courage; and ventured more to rely 
f yof '•^^^'?- yp^jj j|j5 own Strength, without the Afliftance of 

Poetry. Now they began to gather inro AITemblies, 
and to increafe their Inteteft : And according to 
the different Tehiper of the Grecians j from the Ea/i- 
em Nktiohsi fo were their Arts prbpagated in a 
different Way from theirs. The Greeks j' being of a 
vigorous, and adivc Humour, eftablifh'd^ their Philo- 

* fophy 

the R oy^'l ^ o^PX.E 1 1. 

Iqriiy in the PF^^^ and Torches^ x^kdCardMr^ and 
iiich poblick places about their Cities ; whereas the 
gravec and more referv'd ^^gjptums^ had confined 
it to their TViiii)^, 

; In Greece^ the ipoft considerable (and indeed 
alffloft the onljr faccefsful) Tryals, tiiat were made 
in this way 9 were at Athens i the Wit of whofe Inha- 
bitants, was, 'tis true, admirably fit for the redu- 
cing of Philofopby. into- jl/itfiW> and for the ac^om* 
ing of it with the nobleft Words, when once it had 
been before completed in its Subftaacc : But yet 
their Genius was not fo well made, for the under- 
going of the firft T^ndgery and Bwden oSObfervatim 
which js necdjiil for the B^itmirig of fo difficult a 
Wiofk. .This will appear, if we.remeoiJber, tM they 
wece the Ma^ecsof the Arts pf Spgaltif^^ to all their 
.Nieighboiirss aiod (o might .well be indip'd^ rather 
to c^iooTc fuch Opinions of Nature, which they might 
mofl; el^ntly t^xprefs,, than fuch, which were more 
urc^l)ibat:could:iy>t fg well be illoftcatj^^ hy jlie 
Ocn|ineiMS:.of Specich. . Bc(i4?s this, thqr,Ci;jK w;as 
the geftj^l .^^^d!^^2and;,Se#t.of J^duc^hn^ anjl 
theteiore tho Epicames of Knowledge beft . ferycd 
.their turn,/ to ipalce their Scholars, in a ihort time, 
finish tbe courfe of tbeir^ Studies, and go home fa- 
tis^d :^\i\i a Belief, of their own Proficience, and 
t^ir rTcajcbcFX W^f^Qnu Th^y were alio common- 
^y: (9$ r^oft V i^^ o^er Grectans)lA€Xi of hot, ear- 
Beft, and hafty. Minds i and fo lov'd rather to make 
fudden Conclufions, and to convince their Hearers 
by Aq^ument^ than to delay long, before they fut 
their Judgments; or to attend with fufficient Pati- 
ence the Labour of Experiments. . But to fay no more, 
they had but a narrow Territory ^ and the conditi- 


m of th«ife iimci, wtMld Mf atio^ a; ueof {iige 
Comtticrtt wiifb fopcign NMions : chef were ixniob 
extfrcis'd ift the civil' AflTairi of their Goumiy : thoF 
had almoft a perpetual War at- Komc,^ or abroad i 
^hi^b^Klfld^ of tofic dHA a^ive^ Lifd hsMd moa up 
indeed for grek fitnploymems: bui^notibiwetlfor 
the dilfgenf, ptivate, and fevere Examindon of 
thoft ikik and dlmdft infimte Corioliiias, oa^hich 
th^ t«a6^ Phik>r6p(iy < muft be ^founded. 

Sea. V. Iii^^at Ci^tlicrefefe, the KfV^ledge of Nmmi 

The Or/;?/Whad its OfigfftaK bcfbrc either that of l^ifcmtrfiy or 

irll^^'^ tiihumm Aefimsi bat it was quickly fofC4 t© 

•Sri/. give way to them both : For it vras not yet <jo«nc 

i6 » (hificitM: Rtpetlds, In the timcof 'S$€rate$ | w(l 

he^ ^y the' Authority of his admirlfbte-Wi/r 'tnjid«. atl 

^atts^of PhilofopHy to be taken off ftom a Condid- 

'oh of eMzreafing much farther, thM they m%ht be 

itM«tediately ferviceabk to the Affairs oft^tn/^mH 

ihfe ttlts tX' Life. He was o»c of' the fipft^Men, «that 

•began* tb ' drafw inro feme Or^f, the^6Hfor4 and 

^b^cure imaginatiohs of^thofe th^ went'bieforc him' : 

^d to^ta^afct way for Ae eotnpofihg* of Arts,' odt ctf 

theft: Tlf atileitd Obfervations. -AU thcfe* various Sub- 

ita*, the Viftnefs of his Stetfl cOinprehfendcd in his 

tafudl "^iJ^AtidHr: bat after his Death they^ ^epe 

dinded ambngft his -l^ollo^efs, according^ b 'their 

feVerifl lildRnatiotts. ^Fbam -him 'ttidft iof fttic ftc- 

cccding *$y^x dtfcended: and though ivcry one 

df them trad its different Principles and^enckz- 

Toufes5 yet they all laid daim^to 'this one conMnon 

Thle of ' being his '^fciples: By this • Weans, thttte 

"was almoft '^ccious Appearance of the'Increafe Of 

ILrcarning : all pJaccs were fiU'd -with Fhfiofopbkal 



the R o Y A L S a c i e t y. 9 

Difputes: Controverfies were tais'd : Fadions were 
made : Man^ Sabtilitks of oohfiidng^ and defending,: 
were invented: Bur fbunftcad oi joining all thd€> 
Strength to overcome the Seaeis of . Nature ( alL 
which would have been little enough^ though ever 
fo wifely managed) they only did that, which has 
undone many fiich great Attempts $ before they had 
yet fully conquered her, they^ fell into an opien Dif- 
fenflon, to which of them her Spoils, did belong. 

'Tis trae, at the fame time, fome few Men did con- 
tinue an eameft, and laborious Purfuit, after natural 
CaufeSj and Effe£is ; and took that Courfc, which> 
if it had met wich as much Encouragement, as the 
others had, would wkhout qucftion have produced, 
extraordinary Things. . But thefe Philofbphers, dig- 
ging deep, out : of the fight of Men i and ftudying 
more, how to conceive Things aright, than how to 
fet aff'j and perfuade their Conceptions, to others ; 
were quickly abnoft quite overwJoclm'd, by the. more 
plaufible and datlkative Se&& 

This w^ the fuccefs of that .£uiious Age of the Sea. VI. 
Grecian Learning, in refped of namral Knowledge. The PhHofi^ 
They ftay*d not for an Information fufficient forfuch/^*^' J?^*ff 
a noble Enterprize : They would not fiifier their Pc^ ^^ 
erity, to have any Share wilh them,: in the Honour, 
of performing it : But too fuddenly, for ^refent Ufe» 
they dap'd up an entire Building of Sciences : > And 
therefore it is not to be wondered, if the ha/iy Fa^ 
kricky which they rais^d^ did not conftft of the beft 

But at laft with their Empire, theu: Arts alfo were 
tranfported to Rome: The great Spirit of their Law- 

B givers^ 

10 the HISrORY^f 

givers, and Philofc^hcrs, in Courfc of Time, dcgt« 
aerating into RJiietoricianSy and wandring Teachers 
of the Opinions of their priTatc' SeAs. .Amongft 
the Romans J the ftndies of Nature met with Utde, 
or no Entertainment They icacce ever dream'dof 
any other Way of Philofophy^ than only juft redu- 
cing into new Method, and eloc|nentiy trandattng 
into their own Language, the i>o£lirincsi» which tiiey 
had recdv'd from the Greeks. And it was Ji long 
t\tRC too, befove even that ocndd obtain aoy Counte- 
nance amongfl: thenu For, in the firft warlike and 
bufie Ages of that State, they only ^ply^ tliem-^ 
felves to a Severity of moral Virtue \ indeav<!ittr'd aft-. 
tor jiio other ShiU, thjaa thac of the CuQlcaxis, and: 
Laws ef tl^eir CoiiniiTi, theCereoiohles eif thde fije- 
iigion, and thet Arts of GoviirnmeiM: Eftqeofuhg e- 
very Thing that came out of Gteece^ as<anoiu«^laAdifh 
Fafliibn, which wquki corrupt the! Manqets of their 
Ycsurh'^ and ^Uurdaheixi,. ironkchbt Sfllndneikof DiCr 
' cipline, and Integrity of Lifoy hy/whiahdiey 
larg'd the Bounds of their Common- wealth : Till 
at length their PxDwer being increased; arid then* Bdinds 
a lititLe ibftncd biy the :Gnoatno& of their Commafids^ 
aiy having tafltcdiiof the (Fieadufis of the £^01; thuy 
wecC'ComiontODO, Mdenecet, !t6 admit thoiis Phcio-. 
fophy. : And jt%, alb tho lUfe; that they iMde^of .\t 2tt 
1^, was on^y^ reithei^Uiat'tbey might- thereby n»^ke 
thfiifi Speech more plentiful 5 oreUs, that when 
t4&ey were at/kifare/fsont oi^ Ai&irs, they imght 
hav(l that as)a CSompoiiioii, an4^ Con^rt €£ diei^Re-. 

Se6l. VII. • . • • ; 

The Philofo' This w-as the Cijodition of" Philofophyi when the 
^plimthJ"' Chrifljan Religion came iujo the World. That main- 

Church. Min'd 

tbe^o\ i i S 6 C iir y. it 

MiAdcs, ^d Strifcf irigsirf ks Founder; add his Apa- 
ftlti.- But after tfe'cit Dt^rhs, when Chriftiafiity be- 
gan to 'i^ttati into the fatthcft ^Tarions , -aftd when 
the Px>wer of Wfefrklmo; Wcnders'hadcrt^'d t It ^as 
thoqsht hcccflai*y ^fer its lAcre^le,- that hi Pirbfeffors 
fltotiM 'be ablt to'dcfend ft,' tgainft the Sabtilicics of 
the Heathens 5 by thofc fame ways of Argtiing, which 
w<rc then in uie^ anit)ng the Hcithcii Pkilofophers. 
ft was therefotc*o«i- this 'Atkk)unti'tli4it the Fathers, 
•and chief DbftoK- of 6u^'Chufc>\'^app!y<! them- 
'ftlvesto theT^ripattticW,- and PhtonifckSedss btit 
chiefly to the Platphitk: BeCJidfc rim fceitfd tb 
fpeak plainer about the Divine Nature ; and • alfo, 
bccanfe Ac Swcetnefs^ and ' 'Powetfiiteefe of ^/A/^'s 
WTitte^,\dtd 'ijfch* -isr wefi tdmak^'the^ popular 
'^^ieakert, as DifputetSi 'Having thu^ 'provided fbcm- 
fdves agaiiift their Adverfeiijesjj ' they c^iftiy 'got Ac 
Viftory over theraf : And though the idolatrou^^ Gen- 
tries had kept the Inftruments of difputing, in their 
own Hand^, fo tnany^iuiadred Yeaifsj^yet they foon 
conviticed them, of thfc Ridlculdiirnefe of thek Wot- 
?hip, and , the 'Purity V and <trie Reafonablencfs of oilrs. 
Bat tiow the Chrlftiahs havihg had fo good Suc- 
ceft, againft the RdPlgions of the Heathens, by their 
own Weapons 5 infte4d;0f laying them down when 
they had flbh^r iinforblteitiily fell ^!6' maria^ them 
one againft ahbther. ' .Sditiany fdbtile feraihs havihg 
been ftt loh ^rk,' arid 'warm'd^'^aiflft 'i 'l<*orcign 
Enemy- When- that- was'oVer,' arfd they had nothing 
clfc to do (like an Army tKat returns ^iaoriotiS) ^fid 
is not prefenfly disbanded) fhet ^cgafni to fjHJil,^ and 
tprrel anibr^ themfcl^^^ HfciHx that ?leil^*6ft, 
which at^rft' aj[»pe^d fo* inwHieht, and' -peaceable, 

B 2 and 

1% ,rhe,HjsroRr-4, 

«nd fitted fior the bcntfit of human Sodetjr i which 
confiftcdin the plain, and dired^ Rules, of good Life, 
and Charity, and the Belief in a Redemption by one 
Savior, was miferably divided into a thoufand intri- 
cate Qaeftions, which neither advance true Piety, nor 
good Manners* Hence arofe all the Herefies of thofe 
times. Againft thefe, befides the force of Disputa- 
tion, the Church obtained the Arm of the Civil Magl- 
ftratc : and fo at laft by the help of many General 
Councils, got them extinguifh'd > if I may fay they 
were cxtinguilh'dy feeing in this Age wherein we live, 
we have fcen mofi: ofthenv unhappily revived. But 
ftill by thfe means, there was no Knowledge iaRequeft, 
but the Difputative Philofbphy. For whilp things were 
in this pofture, and ib many great Wits ingag'd in the 
heats of Cpi|troverne ; ^ was. not to be expe&ed, that 
^ey fhould look put for farther afliftance, than the 
Arts, which wercalready prepared ^or that they fliould 
make any coaftdesablc Indeavours, about new Invea- 
tions> and the tedious.Tryal of Experiments^ Nor can 
we much blamethem for it : feeing in a time of War, 
every j^^an wili.ratl^r.faatch up that Armpr which he 
Qnds ready made, than day till Men go to the Mine, 
and digg out new Ore, and refine,, and harden it a 
better way^ in hope to have his Weapons of a 
ftrong^r, : apd nobk;r Nlcfis^ :;ajt laft. ... 

. Nor ^as .thajt Age4i^focruchan£nlterprife,oo- 

- ly on xh% Accpunti of thefe : Waiis pf the Tonjgue : 

; But^l^ l^y ][<,ealionpf the^mife^^ Difteippcrs of the 

civil A|fair^(^'tshe Worlds about: that time: which 

were chiefly ip^cafipiiU by the Raman ^ Army'sufur- 

pipgith? Bjight gf ^J^pftng Epiperors, and by the 

invaftpns of 3arbarops Nations, which overwhelmed 

. the gr^ateft Part oiEif^^^ Amidft thefe Diftradions, 


the R O ¥ A L S O C IE T Y. IX 

it was impoflihle for any thing of this Nature to have 
pro(per'd : And in fo vaft an Inuftdation of Igno- 
rance, which carry'd away with it the very grown 
and aged Trees themfclves ( thofc Parts of Learning 
which had taken Root, fo many Generations pad) it 
would have been in vain » to have committed any 
new Plants to the Ground. Such Studies as thefe, as 
they muft receive Encouragement from the Sover- 
eign Authority, fo they muft come up in a peacefUr 
Time, when Men's Minds are at Eafc, and their Ima- 
ginations not . difturb'd, with the Cares of prefer- 
ving their Lives, and Fortunes^. 

To go on therefore with the Matter of Fad : Ha- Sefi. Vlir. 
ving left that difmai bloody Age, we come into z"^^^ Piiiofi- 
Courfeof Time, which was indeed for quieter :gj;^;f^^^^ 
But it was like the Quiet of the Night, which is darkRome. 
withah The Bifhops of Rome taking the Opporta- 
nity of the Decay of the Roman Empire, had wreft- 
cft from it fo many Privileges, as did at laft wholly 
dcftroy it: And while it was gafping for Life, forcU 
it to make what Will and Teftament they plcas'd. 
Being thus cftablifli'd, and making Rome^ whofe Name 
was ftrll venerable,, the Scat of their Dominion, 
they foon obtam'd a Supremacy over the Weftern 
World. Under them for a long Space together Men 
lay in a profound Sleep. Of the univerfal Igno- 
rance of thofeTimes^ let it fuffice to take the Tefti- 
mony of fViUiamoi MahnsbuTy^ one of our ancient 
En^ijh Hiftorians, who fays, that even amongft the 
Priefts themfclves, he was a Miracle that could un- 
derftand Latin. Thus they continued 5 till at laft, 
that Church adopted, and cherifli'd, fome of the Pe- 
ripatetic Opinions, which the moft ingenious of thcL. 


14 TheHlSrORTof 

Monks, in their Toiitaty and idle Courfc of Life, 
had lighted upon. This Scft was excellently veil 
made foe theirTurn. For by hovering (b much^ in 
general Terms, and Notions, it amus'd Men's Minds, 
in Thi Ags that had not much Difficulty : And To the 
Laity being kept blind, were forcM in all Things to 
depend on the Lips of the Roman Clergy. From that 
time even down to the Reformatimj the Gentlemen 
of all thiefe Countries, imploying thcmfelvcs, chiefly 
in Arms, and Adventures abroad : And the Books of 
the Ancients, being cither dcftroy'd by the Goths^ 
and Vandals ; or thofc which efcap'd their Fury, ly- 
ing covcr'd with Duft in the Libraries of Monafte- 
r/esi few or none regarded any of the Arts of Wit, 
and Reafon, befides xht Churchmen. 

This, I will take the Boldncfs to fayi, rnuft needs 
be very injurious to the Imcvc^c of general Lear nit^. 
For though I {hall juftly affirm to the Honour of 
that f acred Trofejjimj that all Knowledge has been 
nK>re fearch'd into, and promoted by them, than by 
any other Order of Men, even from the E\gjptians 
Times, ( whofe Triejlsin good part invented, or at 
leaft preferv'd, the Learning of the E/^ ) down to our 
prefent Age : Yet I muft alfo add, that whenever all 
the ftudious Spirits of a Nation, have been reduc'd 
within the Ten^ple's Walls, that Time is naturally li- 
able to this Danger, of having its Genius more in- 
tent, on the different Opinions in Religion, and the 
Rites of Worfliip, than on the Inaeafe of any other 
Science. Of this I fliall give two Inftanccs : one, 
from the Ancients, the other^ from aurjehes*^^ 

It is manifeft, that amongft the Jews, all the Men 
of Letters ftill apply'd thcmfelves to the undcr- 
ftandingof thcxiLaw: That being the pifblick Wiy 

^ of 

//^^RoyalSociety. ly 

of Preferment , to the higheft Places of Judicature 
zoA Authority in the State. For that many Fraterni- 
ties vmt tKStedy and (as I may call them ) Ju^cal 
Mmafiefies conftitated. Hence came all the Inter* 
ptetations on the Writings of their ^m/ Lausgiver: 
Which at laft^grew (b numerous^ and v^tf ious amongft 
themfelves, that Chrijfj when he came, cottld hard- 
ly find any thing of Mcfis his M^\ in all they had 
writ : But performed ivore tumfclf towards the Ex- 
planation of the L^te;, in tw0 ChapterSy than they 
had done in all their infinite Volumes. But while 
they were fo exceffively bufie, about fuch Sorts of Con- 
templations^ the other Parrs erf Learning were ne- 
gle^^ed : Little or noFootfteps of Phitofophy rcm^in- 
ing antoi^ them> except only riie Memory of that 
Hijiary of ^kmtSy wludi was not written: by any of 
Aaron's Family, but by their wifejl King. 

But ni'y othar I'nfiance comes nearer boi¥Kr; and ftr ^^^ ]x. 
iscrftJip Sehoolmen. WhoTc Works when I confider, The Pbiiofo- 
it puts into my Thoughts, how for more irapor-/^*^^/'^^ 
tantly a good Method of Thinking, and a right^"^'"'''^'''- 
Gourfe of apptiehending Things, does contribute to- 
wards the sttQinidng of Fer&^ion in tnie Knowledge, 
thoa tliQ flttongcfli, and moft vigorous Wit in the 
WorJd^ can <J^ without them^ k cannot without 
j^iuftic^ be deny'd, that they w-o^e Men of e)&traordi- 
nory Strci^h of Mind : They had a great Quick- 
nefs of Imagination , and Subrility of diftinguiihing : 
They very welt undcrftood the Conftquence^ Propo- 
rtions: Their- natural Endowfkients were exHT^lenr: 
Their Indnftsy commendable : But they lighted on> a 
WK>ng Path at firft, and wanted Matter to contrive : 
iUid ioy like the Indians^ only expref^'d a wonderful 


^6 TheHISrORTof 

Artifice, in the ordering of the fame Feathers into a 
thouiand Varieties <^ Figures. I will not infift \oq% 
on the Barbaroufnefs of their Stile ; though that too 
muft juftly be cenfur'd : For all the ancient Thilo- 
fophersj though they laboured not to be full and a- 
dorn'd in their Speech, yet they always drove to be 
eaiie, natural, and unafTed^d. Tlato wasallow'd 
by all to be the chief Mafter of Speakings as well 
as of Thinking. And even Ariftotk himfelf, whom 
alone thefe Men ador'd, however he has been fince 
us'd by his Commentates , was fo careful about his 
Words, that he was efteem'd one of the pureft , and 
nioft polite Writers of his Time. But the want of 
good Language, not being the ScheoUmeri^ worft 
defeat, I fliall pafs it over, and rather flop a little, 
to examine the Matter it felf, and Order in which 
they proceeded. 

The SubjeBs about which they were moft con- 
verfant, were either fome of thofe Arts^ which Arifto- 
tie had drawn into Method, or the more fpecula- 
tive Farts of our divinity. Thefe they commonly 
handled after this Fafhion. They began with fome 
general Definitions of the Things themfelves, ac- 
cording to their univerfal Natures, then divided 
them into their Parts, and drew them out into feve- 
ral Propofitions, which they laid down as Problems : 
Thefe they controverted on both fides; and by many 
Nicities of Arguments, and Citations of Authori- 
ties, confuted their Adverfaries, and ftrengthned their 
own Dilates. But though this notional War had 
been carry'd on with far more Care, and Calmnefs 
aniongft them, than it was : Yet it was never able 
to do any great Good towards the Enlargement of 
Knowledge 5 becaufc it rely'd on general TermSy 
^ which 


.^ch had not mudi Fixmdation in Natwre^ and al(b 
4E)ec&afc they took no ot4icr Courfe^ but that of ^if 

^. : Thatthis infifting ajtogtther on cftabti(h*d.y^>f/e?9ir, 
i8:n6rdi€ ihoft ufe^ Way, lanotonly cleat in fuch 
airy Conceptions^ which they manag'd $ but alfo in 
Yh^eThingSf which lye before every Man's obfcrva- 
tion» which belong tO: the Life and Paflionsi and 
Manners of: Men 5 which, one would thinks might b^ 
ibonerceduc'd imoifianding Rules. As for example $ 
to make aj^udent Man in. the Affairs of State, it is 
not enoiigh» to be well versed in all the Concluitons^ 
which all the ToUtkians in the World have devis'd. 
or to be expert in the Natnre of GovernuKnt and 
lAvr%\ 'Ob^ience ,and Reb(llipQ> Pca$;e and War.: 
Nayrjrathitr a M)an that relyes altogether on fuch nniver- 
fal Precepts^ is almoft certain to mifcatry. But there 
moft be a Sagacity of Judgment in particular Things $ 
a Desftcrity in dUcermng the : Advantages of Occafi^ 
(ta9}, a Study of the Hm;nQur> 9nd;Jnt?ir<Apf theP^Qr 
pie hc^ is togcfvcrn :' jThc f»wc is^o be fe^isirp T^iif(ft 
fipfyyii^^s^ a^d ]^ab;^>(;ks 

in the Mind, odHcemii&g the^ Nature of Body, §iuath 
tit J J ili^r/mi,. ind the like, if they only hover aloof, 
iuid are. not iquar'd to particular Matters, they .jnay 
glvean<^ty Satififadion. but npbendit,. and xa* 
Ihcr ferve to^w^/il ti^n j^lhc 5oul., 
• But befides this, the very ^ay of T^ijputing itfelf, 
and inferring one Thing from another alone, is not at 
jtli proper i<xL the fpreading of Knowledge. It fcrvcs 
admirably well indeed, in thofe. Arts, ; where the.Conr 
nfedton between the Propofitions is ncccflary, as iq 
the Muthematicks^ in which a long Trgin of ^eimn-, 
ftratidnsj may be truly collided, from thc<crtainty of 
. ;. ) C the 

the Arft FooActatidii t Btic in things of piobabilirjr'oaif, 
it felddnfi ot fi«ver happens, that afteofbme little Ft»- 
gre(s, the main Subjed is not left, and the Contend* 
ers fait not Intb othet Matter^ that are jaioching to 
theParpofci Fofifbarbne Link in chfc whoie Chiuii 
be loore> they vtndec i^ a\/ay, and feldoni, tx nevd: 
recover their firft Ground i^ain. In farid^ IJifpntn^ 
is a very good Infttument, to flurpen Men's Wits» 
and tt> make them vetfiitile, and waty ' Defenders of 
the Prineipies, which they tdready know : hot k can 
neVer much augment the JbUd StAfi-met of Satmt 
itTelf '. And methinks compar'd to Exftnmtmtmgy 
it is like Eotrrtifi to the Body in CoMnpoiiiiba of 
Mtat t For Rmming, Walkings WtdUiDg, Shooo. 
ing, and other Tnch «^ve S^p^mt, will keep Men. in 
Healthj ^tid Breath, and « vigorous T^mpert t«K ^ 
niu^ be a fupply ifftiew ¥\90d that muftmakeifteiii 
grow \ fo i^ is in this Cafe $ much Contention, and 
Strife of Argwttent, will (erve "^reU t6 exphdh obibtue 
things, 'anddreng^hen A*6 weak; and gUeagood^ 
Ibeinci; '^hMlbntine, Cblour^ >to> the'wbqlel^f3ift taf 
KhbvH^djgi:': But it muftrbe ^Jcornihikd^ttMittoiiofOh- 
feivations, whkh muft noutUin and inateie and give 
new Blood, and Flefli, to the ^irx thefloftiwies. 

But this has been' <on]y htiherco^ken,. ag^nft 
the Mithod Of the Svhoolmn in general^ on ivp^ 
pofition, that they tckik the'beft C^tfc, due couikt 
be in that Kind. I (hall now: come «> weigh that 
too. For it may eafily be proved, that thoie very 
Theories, on which they built all their fnibtiie Web^ 
were not at ail collc€bed, by « ihlficient Inftkmatioa 
from the things themfelves ; which if it can be made 
oat, I hope, it will be granted, th«t the F<Mxe and 
Vigour of their Wit dkl ttiot« hart, than good : and 


the R O Y A L S O'C lET Yr I^ 

only fervid to cany them the h&tt out of the right 
Way^ vhen they were once going. The Teripate^ 
ticks them&hrcs do all gnutt^ that the SxSl Rife of 
Knowlcc^ maft be ftotn the Sififis^ and from an In^ 
dufliDn* dS their Reports:- Well then$ how could 
the Schoolmen be pix>per for inch a Bofinefi, who 
were ty'd by their Gloyfiral Life to fuch a Strifb- 
nefs of Hours, and had fcldom any larger Pro(ped$ 
of ifatkre^ than the iy^dens cS. thefb Monaft cries > 
It 15 ailoinnnnrObfen^atiDn^ .tharMidi;s Studies are 
various acciording to the dtflEccent Courfes of Life» 
«o which Jthcy apply tfaemTeUrias ; or the Tempiers of 
the Ptaces^. wherciiv .they iivc. llicy who are^ bred 
up ia CxMfi/mmaxmlt^Si ^ wherejflci gceatdl Af&un arc 
mattagfdiby' Me: Violence dfipopuian Aflemtriies, aiad 

4ho(e govan^dribyjcUe .indl t^^^ 1''^- 

iie thcmfdves chiefly about J^^ijsiMKVr they who 

fidlow a Coossti t etpcda|ly intend the Ornament of 

Language, and. Vociiy^ .and inch more delicate Arts, 

iidpctr :aiiediiaiAiy th^ i*. liioft ; Reqaoft t .^ey . wiip 

•foitt f otDin 1 biodan things^ land fluit . €kcmfi:ives up 

tn d naciow'Cdniipais^keepitngCQmpaily with^a very 

^ew, and tiut too in a foled» .way, addid thcm- 

feli^s, '|br.thie mo& jiart;. to .fbmc nivdancholy Con- 

MnopladoBSy 'ot to iS^rart^, and Jthe Thoughts of 

anodw]^ Wofdd. : ' Thar iherefdre which '^sb fitteft fiv 

i;he SvbooUm^iS'. way 6f Itfcr we will aUosr Hiem k 

But whatibrry Kinds o^Ehilofi^y mud. they needs 

|»rodcK^ wiien it was a t>ast 6f 'their Reii^mi to 

^cpimtCcthemfdvAs^ ^s:macfar asithcyfcduid^ fnim\die 

^oilvei^e ^.Mani^d>> when /iliey<xi)i£re? for f^ froth 

lictfjg/abte to dificDVer thd Seaetsr ofi N^Aurcy tiauxt 

-cbQ^ iiad 'KJoaree) Opportuiiiejr,'' tcifl>ohdld : enough of 

ixi oomoun Wc^s. Ifuoy ,fhalf he'ihdiniMcio fi)l- 

i G 2 . low 

to :rhe HISTORTof 

low the Diredions of fuch Men in nataiSal Thin^^ 
rather than of tho(e> who make it their Employ- 
ment ;> I (hall believe, they wUl be irrationai enough; 
to think, ithat a Man' may dcaV dn exadkr' Defcripr 
tionof jE^^/im^ who.has never been here, than the 
moft induftrioiB Mr. Cambdenj who had traveled 
over every Part of this Countty, for that very Pur* 

Whoever fiiall fobetly pn^fefi; to be wiiUng to 
put their ShbtilHtrsr. under: the Burthen of (o great 
an Enierprize, astoceprefent to Mankind the whole 
Fabricky the Parts, tlie Caufes, the EfTeds of Nar 
cure i ought to have . their Eijres in all Parts, and to 
xeceivelnfdrmatipnfram dvcryQaarterof the Earth* i 
they ought tb^have a conftantruiiijreiral Intilli^cei 
all Difcoverieslhbbld foe brought to them ;:. the Tcca^ 
iiiries of all former Times fliouldbe^ laid-open before 
them i the Ailiftanceof the picdcht (hooldbe allow'd 
them : So far ate the naixow Con'ceptionsDf a few 
private Writers, in a dark. Age,; fcom. being equai 
to fo vaft a Defign. There are indeed fomeOperar 
tions of the Mind> whidi mhy be beft performed by 
the ftmple Strength of Men's own particolar Thoughts^ 
fuch are Invention, and Judgment, and Difpofition i 
Forihthem aSeduiityfrom Noife; loaves <^the Soul 
at more Libeny^ to bring forth . Order, aUdfa(hipti 
the Heap of Matter, which, had beeri before fupjdy'd 
to its Ufe. But tifaiere are other Works alfo, which 
require as much Aid, and as many Hands> as can be 
found: And fucb is . this of Obfervation s which 
is the great. Foundation of' Kno.^Iedge ; fome 
muft gather, fome muft bring, &mt fepai^ate, ibme 
examine;) and to Ufe a funiiitude> (which the pre^ 
fent Time of the Year, and the tipe Fieklsy that lye 


/i&tf Rot A- L S ot: lET T. ti 


before my Eyes^ fug^cft to me ) it is in Thihfophy^ as 
in Husbandry 5 wherein we fee, that a few Han4;s 
will ferve to meafure out, and fill into S^cks, that 
C^orn,. which requii'es veryr (nany more Labourers^ to 
fow> and reap, and bind, and bring it into the Barn. 
But now it is time forme to difmifsthis fubtle Ge- 
neration of Writers i whom I would not have pro- 
fecuted fo far, but that they are dill efteem'd by fomc 
Men,, the only Matters of Reafon. If] they would 
be content with any thing iefs xhah an Empire in 
Learning, we would grant them very much. Wc 
would permit them to be great and profound Wits, 
as Angelical^ and Serafhicalj as they pleas'd $ wc 
would commend them, as we are wont to do Chau- 
cer y we would confeis, that they are admirable in 
Comparifon of the Ignorance of their own Age: Ahdj^' 
as Sir Philip Sidney faid of him, we would fay of them i 
that it is to be wonder'd, how they could fee fo clear- 
ly then, aivi wc. c>n fee no dearer now : But, that 
dicy ffioiifd.ftiU be' /ct . bjcforcrus,. ^, the, great Ora- 
cles of all. Wit,, wc can never allow. Siippofc, thjt 
I fhould grant, that they are mod ufeful m the Coti- 
troverlies of our Church j to defend us againft the He- 
reftes, and Schifmsof ourTimes; what will thence 
follow^ but that they ought to be confined within 
thdr own Bounds, and not be ruffcr'd to hinder the 
Enlargement of the Territorieis of other Sciences T Let 
them ftill prevail in the Schools^ and let them govern 
in DifputatioQs : But let them not overiprcad all 
Sorts of Knowledge. That would be as ridiculous, 
as if, hecaufe we (ec, that Thorns, and Briers^ by 
Rcafibn of their Sharpnefs, are fit ta ftop a Gaji, and 
keep out wild Beafts ;' we fliould therefore think, 
they defecv'd to be planted all over every Field*. 

- ' And' 

it The HI STORY of 

And yet I (hould ribt doubt. Of it were net fomc- 
Wiiat improper to the prefent Difcourfc) to prove, 
that even in divinity it fclf,' they arc npt (p neceffaf 
fjr, as they are reputed to be : atid ritat all, or moff 
Of our Religious Controverfics, may be as well deci- 
ded, by plain Reafon, and by Confiderations, wiiicti 
may be fctch'd from the Religion of Mankind^ the 
Nature of Gavernmenty and human Society i and 
Scripture it felf, as by the Multitudes of Authorities, 
and Subtleties of Dilputes, which have been hereto- 
fore in XJfc. 

Sea. X. And now I am come to the Time witliin our View, 
S y*"''"''^ ^^4 to *c third great Age oithtfourijbing of Learn- 
Learning. ^^* Whether this Recovery of Knowledge did hap-^ 
pen by the benefit of Trintingy invented about that 
Time, which Ihcw'd a very eaHc Way of communidai- 
ting Mcn*s Thoughts one to another ; or whether it 
came from the Hatred, wl>Ich/*ras then genitally 
conceived againft the Blindfiefs, and Stupidity, of die 
Roman Fryats 5 " or from the Refarfkationy ^hidt 
piit Men upon a ftriftcr Inquiry into thi: Truth oi^ 
things ; whatever the Cas^e was, I will not take much 
Pains to determine: But I will rather obferve, what 
Kinds o^ Knowledge have moft flourifli'd upon it. If 
we compare this Age of Learnings with the two fir ^ 
mers we fhall find, that this docs far exceed both 
the other in its Extent: there being a much larger 
J^at of Ground, fown with Arts and Civility at this 
time, than either when the Grecian or Raman Em- 
pires prevaird. For then (cfpccially urioer the ; jR*- 
mans) fo many Nations being united UndcVnoti^fZV 
fHinioHy and rcduc'd into the Form of ^fovifkes : 
that Knowledge which they had was chiefly confined 

I to 

to the WoUs of the Imferld Cities themiclyei. But 
fiow (not to infift oa the Learning of far remote 
Countriei^ of which wc h^iK only impcrfed &ela«^ 
tknuj but fo conoaft our Obfenration to Chrifiem- 
Ikm akme) tUese being Qq mioy di&ocsit Statts^ atid 
Gimernmii^s in Ew^pe^ every Country fets up ^io- 
ielf : almoft in every place, the liberal Arts (as they 
aie caird) aie cherifhVi, and piifalick Ailovance is 
made fiirtlieir Suppoic And in diii 0»aipa&> the in*- 
finite NoDobcn of Whs> wfaidi hanre appeared <b thtc^ 
(for thcfe many Yean> hare been chi^y taken op a* 
boot fdme of thefe three Studies ; either the iVntirngs 
oi^cAmiimts^ otQmtmafii$t£Rd^Mf mAf* 
fairs (^ State. 

\ '"' 


The Firft thing that was nndertaken, was 10 tt* SeS. XL 
fcue the etiilleot Works of former Writers from Ob- ^*' ^^^J^^ 
fcority. To the better performing oftkis» tawdf^^tUnts. 
things oootribotod' afaoutthat time. A mmig^l which, 
asxxiis in EngUmi, Tmay reckon (and tlut tpo» it, nor tlieleaft, whatcmr the Adkn wasim i& 
Mi,) the DUTolution of Abhfes-. wheieby their Li« 
bvaiies eame forth into the Light, and fell into indo* 
flf ious Men's Hands, who andeiflood how to make 
more U& tiH them, than their flothfid Pofleflbis had 
done. So that now the Gr^ and iiiirrM . Toogjoes 
began to be in Rcqocft^ and all die ancient Aulihois, 
the HeatbtnVbikfifhers, MathematidoMSi OraeerSj 
m/hriansj Vaets, the var ions Copies, and Tcanflati* 
onsofthe BiUe^ and the Primitive Fathers ^^^tm 
produced. All thefe, by the feveial Tranfcilpciona, 
and the^noranee of the Tcahlcribcrs, h^ very oaany 
different Readings, and many Parts wholly loift ; and 
bf the Dillance of Times, and Change of Cuftoms, 


M The H^I STORY of 

were grown obfcure. Aboot the iaterpredng, ex-, 
plaining, fupplying, commenting on tbefe , almoCk 
all thefirft Wits were employed. A Work of great 
Ufe, and for which we ought to cflieem xidr felves 
knuch beholden to diem. For indeed, if they had 
not completed that Bufinefs , to our Hands, we of 
this Age, had not been fb much at Leifure, as now I 
hope we are, to profecute new Inventions. If they 
had not dope it> we (honld \ of which w« ought not 
to doubt, feeing we behold, that even how,' when 
die Soil of Criticiim is almoft quite barren, and hard- 
ly another Crop will come, yet many learned Men 
cannot forbear fpending their whole Labour in toyl? 
ing about it ; what then fliould we have don^ if all 
thofe Books iiad come down untouched to our 
Hands J • i ■ . • 

. We cannot then,:with any Sobriety, decraft fcoiA 
. the Cri/iTib, and ?i&/^ilf^^J, whole Labours we co^ 
)oy. Bur we ought rather to give them diis Tefti^ 
mony, that they were Men of admirable DiUgence:: 
and that? the CoUedions, which they have made, out 
of the Monuments of the Aneimts^ will 'be wonder* 
folly advantageous to us, if the ri^t Ufe be made of 
them ; if they be not fet before us,' only that we may 
ipend our whole Lives in their Confideradon, 
and to make the Courfe of L&avning more difficult : 
But if they be imploy'd, to dlred us in the Ways 
that we ought to proceed in Knowledge for the Ai^ 
ture i if by {hewing us what has been already finifli'd^ 
they point out to us^ the moft probable Means, to 
accomplifh what is behind. For methinks, that Wif^ 
dom» which they fetch'd from the A0icsof the Dead» 
is fbmething of the fame Nature with Aihes them* 
ielves i whichi if they are kept up in Heaps together^ 

I will 

the R b Y A t So c j e t y. ^ j 

will be uCeld^t But if they;ace (cktte^rtdopoh living 
Ground, they will make it more fertile, in the brings* 
ing forth of various Sorts of Fruits. To thefe Men 
then we are beholden, that we have a fairer Fro- 
fpeA about us : to thetn. we owe, that we are not ig^ 
norantcff^the Times* that are g6ne bcford usi which 
to be, is {(isfrulfy Ciy^to beahoay^.ChiUrenJ AUthis^ 
and much more, is to be admowledg'd : But then we 
fhall alfo deitre of them,= diat they would content 
themrdves.>with xi^hac iis their Piurithat. by what 
chey Ittve diJcovcifd, ramon^thciiRubblfh of the 
j>4ntients;^ they would !not :donteoin ithc'^ Trcafurcs, 
either lately foiund out, or :ftili unknown; and that 
they would not prefer the/GWi/ of 0/^/r, of which 
now there c is no mention but in Books, before the 
ptefenrMountainsof thei^^ifoi^/'f.v/* :. i 

1 '•■ I ' ' ' I * ' r 1 •% • • 

* i »' -. »1- . . I. I t 1 ./ t ' m . .1. 4 t4 ^. 

__ _ ^ i 

: Thus I pafsoverthisSoit of r^t^V^ZiMfiim^. And Sea. XII. 
now there comes into our. View anothci? remarkable ^^^^'^^ 

Occafion of the Hindrance of the Growth of ^at/^- f^J^r^'' 
rifoentalThilafafhyy witfaia the Coinpals of this bright^ 
Age; and that is the ^^teat* a doi. which iias. .been 
made, in raiiinj^ and' donfirmitigi and refuting fo 
many different Scds, ahd Opinions of the Chrtftiab 
Faith. For whatever other Hurt or Good comes by 
(uch iidly Ipeculatlve Wars (of \diich whether the 
Benefit 4ca: Mifcbicf otvet^iart^s, I,:sisilli jndt Jidw cxa< 
mine) yet ccnidnl^ try this, xhean^ ^thc. Knowledge 
of Nature has been very nmch retitrded: And (to 
ufe that Metaidior, which an excellent ^^et of out 
Nation mrns to another, purpofc) that Shdwer has 
done very muciv Injury. :by > falling . on. the Sea> for. 
which the £lhc^herd "and.thc PbOgh^man call'd iui 
vain \ The: Wit of Men has bccn^prpfufcly pour'd out\ 

D. on 

i6 naJHSrORTJtf \ 

oa A^i^^>. which/ necdeil'iittk^'hel^, Ja4 xthiib 
was only thercbf made ino(c'tcm|KftiiQU&; t^rhilcit 
might hkrt been mote fruitfully fpeitt» on Some Pans 
of PhiIoro()hy, wtiidi have been httheaabareco, and 
might fbon haye been ^made fertile^ 

But befides tiii^ there have been alfbr^fererii o* 
ther Thfej^mSy which have drawn away the Indina? 
tions of Men; fiam piofecuting the naked and uoin* 
teieflfcd Troth. And of tbefe I ihall ehiefty name 
the AjfiunrofSta^ the Adiminiftratioa of civil Goi 
vemment, afatf tbcjEteoatian of Laws. .Tfaercb^ 
their £iirDoiwry*Q6Gain and Honour^ haveaiw«ya 
allur'd tiic gitoceftPart Of the Men of Art, and Rcib 
foo, toaddift themfelves to them : while thcSeateh 
intofevererKnowledgchas been loolu'doD^aaaStudy 
outofthe Way^ ikti^fii^anieiancboIyrHuinbiift^. Of 
a retired weak Spirit, than to make Men equal to Bu* 
fine(s, or feryiceahle to thdc Country. Aind m t&is, 
methinks, the Mp^imenid ^hilafbphyYkZtvsxst wtth 
very hardUfage : For it has commonly, in Men'^ Cen* 
fores, uadei^on^ the Imputatiba of chofe. very Faulrs> 
which it endeavoQcs • to coBceft In the "Visr^ii/. . HChA 
indeed may be juitiy condeniyoi'd for fiUing Men's 
Thoughts with imaginary I<leas of Conceptions, that 
are no way aniweraUe to the practical Ends of Life : 
But this, ofi the jQther fide,. (asl fliall £bottly miake our) 
is. tile foeeft Giiide,* agatnft fiKh iiotiattal Wandrings i 
opens our Eyeito perceive alt tht Realities of Tilings ; 
and clears the Brainy not only from Darkness, buc 
felfe or u£elc& LigliL This is certainly £o in the 
Thing it felf : But the gfreateft Fact of Men have 
ftill apprehended the contrary. If they cao hd»g 
fuch Inquirers under the fcoroful Titles of ^hitofah 
phiTs^ or Sch(flars^ qr ykttiofiy it i& eaoi^ : Thef pccf 

•J. fcntly 

theKoi At SoCttTY. 47 

ftnlfy conclude them to be Men of another World, 
lKil)r fit Cott^Miatis f6T tbc Shadowy and chdi: cnm 
mdAAeholy Whimlies : lookitig enithefe^who dig in 
the Mine of Nature, to be in as bad t Condition, as 
the KHig Of ^Min*i Slaves in 7«nii, condcriin'd for 
ever to that Drodgerf, and never to be redcem'd to 
any other Itnploymem. ^nd is not this 4 vtry ^coie- 
qaal Proceeding) While k>tnt b^nttcklxna&fZkvMes 
do reprobate natural FhUofophy as a eafnal Knov^ 
ledge, and a too mack minding ivoridiy Things 1 the 
Men of the World, and Bufbiefs, on the other iide, 
eftcem it merely as an idle Matter of Fancy, and as 
rhW which difaUes us from taking right Mcafiires 
inhuman Affairs. Thw» by the ctie Puiy> itisrcen- 
i^d fot (locking too iow) by the other,' fb^ Soar- 
ing too high: fothat, mcthinks, it isagoodGibond 
to conclude, that it is guilty of neither of thefe 
Faults, feeing it is alike condcmri'd by both the Ex- 
tremes. But I (hall have a fitter Occafion to examine 
this hereaftttt*. However 4t be, ^ i9 not w be won- 
der'd, if licA h^rt nbt^been Vtety ideiloiiB iabobt 
thofe Studies^ which have beea' fo for m^iovM 
from prefcm Benefit, and from the ApplauiebfMeii. 
For whtt (hould incite them to beffow their Tinie, 
afid Atty in re veaKtig 'no Mankind 'thofe M^erick, 
for whlch/if may be, they u^outd tii only dc^iififi 
at laft^ How few muft there needa be, who will (k 
willing to be inyporeriih'd for the common Good i 
while they fii&U fee all ^ Rewaids, wiUdi ^might 
g^ye Life to their Indtfftry, paCfit^ by them, and b^- 
ftow'd on the Defetts of eaiter Sttidies?' atid wit&lc 
ihcy, for all their P^ins, and pnbUdc Spirit, i&attcxi- 
ly porhaps be fetved, as the poor Man was in the Fakk ; 
who, while he went down into the Well, in AiOSiraiice, 

D. 2 that 

, • \ 1 , 

i8 The HI STORY of ^ 

that he ihould find a mighty Treafiire tbin^e, wii in 
the mean Thne robb'd by his .Compamons, th0t 
ftay'd aix>ve» of hi$ Cloiik> and all the Booty (bat he 
had before gotten ^ . ? 
TbePhilofr- And yet, notwithftanding all thefe unfommaf^ 
Th^^^* Hindrances, there have been many commendable At- 
' tempts in this Way, in the Compafs of our Memor 
ries, and tht Age before us. And though they have 
been for' the mod part carry *d on, by the private Di- 
ligence of . fome few Men, in the midft of a thou- 
fand Difficulties, yet it will not be unprofitable to 
recount (bme of them ; if it were only to give si fair 
Ground of Hope, how much Progrels may be n^ade 
by. a fdrtn'd and it^zt AJfemhfyy feeing ibmc fin- 
gle Hands, ^ith fo . fmall Enicouragcment, could di£^ 
patch fo much of the Work* 

ThiG^czxt^stnew IVajs oUThilofophyy that come 
into my Obfervation. 

• • ^ • • • ' . • • ' .^. ••/ 

Sea. XIII. The fiiftisj. of <[hofe, who, out of a irtft. Difdain, 

Modem , that the* Jintients ihould ftil 1 poftcfe %i Tyranny over 

DoffuMtiJls. ,^Qj Judgments, began firft to put oflf the Reverence 

.that Men had born to their Me^nories^ and handling 

,thcro more familiarly, mtide an ewft Surycy of tbcir 

Impcrfedions: Butidien, having rej/s^ed- thAgi, they 

ipurliic their Sdcceiis ..too far, 9nd (trait fcU. to form 

and impofe new Theories on Men s Reafon, with an 

' Ufurpation as great as that of the others : An Adi- 

on, which we that.Uve in this Age, may refembie to 

tottic Things that we have feen aded on the Stage of 

the World : For we aifo have beheld the Pretenders 

to pi^li^k Liberty, turn the greateft Tjrants them- 

felves. The firft part of the^ Men's Performance 

is very much to be prais'd : They have made the 

4. Ground 

the R o Y A L S o c IE T Y. 19 

Ground open and dear for us s they have remov'd 
the Rubbiih ; which, when one great Fabrick is to 
be puird down^ and another to be ereded in its 
fteady is always efteem'd well nigh half the whole 
Work : Their Adventure was bold, and hazardous : 
They touch'd Men's Minds in their tendered Part, 
when they ftrovc to pluck off thofe Opinions, 
whicl^ had, by long Cuftom, been fo clofely twin'd 
about them : They freed our Underftandings from 
the Charms of vain Apparitions, and a Slavery to 
dead Men's Names. And we may well gue(s, that the 
abfolute Perfcftion of the true Vhilofophy is not now 
far . off, feeing this firft great and ncceflary Prepara- 
tion for its coming, is already taken off our Hands* 
For mcthinks there is an Agreement, between the 
Growth of Learnings and of Civil Government. Tlic 
Method of the Rife and Increafe of that, was this : 
At firft in every Country there prevailed nothing 
but Barbarifm and Rudenefs : All Places were ter- 
rible with Giants^ and Enchantments^ ,and infolcnt 
Ufurpers : , Agairift thefe there firft arofc feme mighty 
HeroeSy2s HerculesXhefeuSy^nA Jafon : Thefe fcowr'd 
the World, rcdrefs'd Injuries, dcftroy'd Monfters 5 
and for this they were made ^emi-gods. But then 
they gave over, . and it was Jcft to the great Mcn> 
who fuccceded them, as Soloth^ and Ljcurgus^ toac 
complifti the Work, to found Common wealths, to 
give Laws, to put Juftice in its Courfc : And why 
may I not nowprelume, (as many others have done, 
before me ) to reduce thefe Stories to a philofophi- 
cal Scnfe ? Firft then, the Phantafms, and Fairies, and 
venerable. Images of Antiquity, did long haunt the 
World ; againft thefe we have had our Champions ; 
and without all queftion, they had the better of the 


30 TheHISrORTvf 

Caufc J and now we have good Ground to eraft, that 
thefe lUulions being well over, ihe laft ^niflihig of 
this great Work is nigh at Hand, and is referv'd 
for this Undertaking, 

So then^ thus far they did wel!. Bat in the fe- 
cond Part of their Entcrprizc, they themfclves fecm 
to me to have run into the fame Miftake , for which 
wc chiefly complained againft thofc Ancients^ whofe 
Authority they dcftroy'd. The greateft occafion of 
our diflcnting from the Greek Thilofophers^ and espe- 
cially from Arifiotle^ was, that they made too much 
Haftc to fcizc on the Prize, before they were at the 
End of the Race ; that they fix'd and determin'd 
their Judgments, on general ConduHons too foon. 
and fb could not afterwards alter them, by anf new. 
Appearances, which might reprefent themfclves. And 
may wc not fuppofe , that roftcrity will have the 
fame Quarrel at thefe Men's Labours > We do not fell 
foul upon Antiquity, out of any Singularity of Opi- 
nion, or a prefumptuous Confidence of the Strength 
of our Wits above theirs 5 we admire the Men, but 
only diflike the Method of their Proceedings. And 
can we forbear murmuring, if we fee our Cotempo* 
raries difdain them, and yet imitate their Failings > 
If we muft conftitute a Sovereignty over oiir Reafons y 
I know not why we fhould not allow this Dominion 
to the Ancients^ rather than to Any one of the Mo- 
derns. They are all dead long ftnce i and though 
we (hould be over-reach*d by thcmin fomefcw Falfe- 
hoods, yet there is no Danger, left they (hould In- 
creafe them upon us ; whereas, if we once hang on 
the Lips of the wifeft Men now living ; wc are ftill 
in their Power, and under their Difcipline, and fub- 
jed to be led by all their Diftates for the foture. It 


t&eK OY AL '5 O C I E T ¥• 3 I 

it true rndeed, a dlBgtnt Inquirer of thitCc Timet 
mty gather as much Experience, and in probability, 
conclude as r^tly, as a whole Acddimy^ or Se6t of 
daeirs could $ yet I ihall ftill deny, that diiy one Man, 
though he has the oimbleft, and mo(V univerfal Ob- 
fcnration, can ever, in the Compafs of his Life, laf 
14) enot^h Knowledge, to fuffice all that ihall come 
after him to reft upon, without the Help of any new 

And if we fuppofe the beft, that fixne one Man, 
by wonderful Sagacity, or extraordinary Chance, 
fliall ligtit upon the trae Principles of natural Philo- 
sophy i yet what will be the Pro(k of fuch uni* 
voJal Demooftrations, if they are only fitted for 
Talk, asid the folving of Appearances? Will there 
he any great Matter, whether they are certain^ or 
dtmbtfiil y old, or new ; if they muft be only bocm- 
ded to a Syftem, and confined to Difcourfc \ The 
true Philofbphy muft be firft of all begun, on a 
israpulouf, and feyere Examination of Particulars i 
from them there may be Ibnfte general Rules with 
great Caution drawnrt But it muft iMt reft there, not? 
is that the mbdr difiicuk Pan of its Courfe. It muft ad- 
vance tho& Principles, to the finding out of new 
Efieds, tfaffOi^h all the Varieties of Matter s ^d fo 
both the Coovfes muft proceed orderly together \ 
ftom experimenting to dcmotiftrating, and fi^ii de* 
monftrating to experimenting again: I hope 1 (ball 
content my Reader, if I only give one Inftance iti 
dus Cafe. It is probable, that he wha firft difoe^ 
yer^d, that all Things were ordered in Nature bf Mo- 
tion ;. went upon a belter Ground, t?han any before 
him. But now if he wilt only manage this, by 
iticely difputing about the Nature, and Caufes of 


31 .ne HISTORTof 

Mothn ia general, and not ptofecute it through all 
particular Bodies ; to what will he at laft arrive y but 
only to a better Sort of Metaphyficks ? And It majr 
be, his Follovyers, fonic Ages hence, /will dmde his 
Dot^rine ipto as many Diftin£lions>. as the Scboa/mm 
did that of Matter and Formi and fo the. whole 
Life of It will alfo vanifh away into Aic and 
Words, as that of theirs has already done. 

Sea XIV. ^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ P^^ ^^' ^^^ Argument ; 
Tke]lleffe3sm which, I fear, that what I have already faid, will 

o/^pj^w.«//W alarm fome excellent Men, whofe Abilities I admire ^ 
Phthfopby. ^^^ j^^y perhaps fufpeft, that it has been with a parti- 
cular Refledion. I might fay for my felf, that firft they 
muft pafs Sentence on themfelves, bejfore they can 
think fo, feeing I have nam'd no MaiL But I will ra^ 
ther iincerely profefs, that I had no fatyrical Senfe» 
but only declar'd againft T>(^matifts in general. And 
I caiuiot repent my having done it, while I perceive 
there are .two very dangerous Mifchiefs, which arc 
caus'd by that way of Philofophy. The one is, that 
it makes Men give over, and believe that they are 
fatisfy'd, too foon* This is of very ill Coofequence ^' 
for Uieteby Men's Indufiry will be flackned, and all 
the Motives to any farther Purfuit taken away. And 
i indeed this is %x\ Error, .which is very natural to Men*si 
Minds $ they love not a long and a tedious Doubts 
ing, though it brings them at laft ro a real Certainty ; 
but they choofe rather to conclude prefently, than 
to be long in Sufpence, though to better purpofe. And 
it is with moft Men's Uqderftandings, as with their 
Eyes 5 to. which thofe fcem mpre idclightfol ProCr 
pe£ts, where Varieties of Hills and Woods do fooa 
bound their Wandrings, .than where there, is one 


large (inooth Champagn^ over which they may fee 
mach farther, but where there is nothing to.delay, 
and ftop» and divert the Sight. 

But the oth^r iU^EffoO; of. which J fhali take no- 
tice, is, thac it commonly inclines fuch Men, who 
think themfelves already refolv'd, and: immoveable 
in their Opinions, to be more imperious, and im- 
patient of : Contradi£tion,;than becomes the Calmnefs^ 
and uni^aHionateEvenneft.of ihe- true philofo^ical 
Spirit, It makes them |ftone/t© .undervalue , other 
Men's Labours, and to neglid the^ rcjal Advanc^e, 
that may be. gotten by their Affiftancei left they 
fhould feem to darken their own Glory* This is a 
Temper of Mind, of all others the mc^ pemicioQs } 
to which I may chiefly stftribute (he Slowness of the 
Inae^fe of Knowledge amongft Men. For what 
great Things can beexpeded, if Men's Underftandings 
fhall be as it were always in the warlike State of 
Nature, (me againft another > If every one be jea- 
lous of another's Inventions, and (till ready to put 
a Stop to his Conquefts \ Will ithere not be the fame 
wild Condition in Learning, which had been amongft 
Men, if they had always been difpers'd, ftill preying 
upon and fpoiUog their Neighbours ? If that had ftill 
continued, no Cicieshad been built, no Trades found 
out, no Civility taught : For all thefe noble Produc- 
tions Came from Men's joining in Compads, and en- 
rring into Society. It is an ufual faying, thzx^wbere the 
natural Thilofopher endsy the Vhjfician muft begin : 
And I will alio add, that the natural Thihfipher is 
t^b^in, where the moral ends. It is requiiite, that 
be who goes about fuch an Undertaking, fliould firft 
know himfelf, ftiould be weU pradisTd in all the mo- 
deft, humble, friendly Virtues j ftiould be willing 

E to 

34 The HI STORY of 

to be taught, and to ^ve way to the Jodgmcnt o^ 
others. And I dare boldly Utf^ thac a plaki iiklti^ 
ftrious Man, ifo prcpar'dr is ftiorelikcfy to'makc a 
good PhUoibphtr, f faftiir aUr^fit high, eorncft^ ki(ul- 
Cfns Wits,who can bear neither Partnetfhip/ nor Op» 
pomton. The Chftrnfts lay it down, as a neceflary 
QoalfficatioA of thck happy Man, to whom God 
will jnevcal theit ador'd Elixir y that he muft be rather 
innocent, afid virtciotts, than knowing.- And if I 
urereto form the Chat9£^r of a true Phkofopher, 
I would be fuce to m^ethae the Foundation : Not 
that I believe, God will beftow any eictraordinary 
Light in Nature, on (bch Men more than others ^ 
but upon ft bat« ^tationa) Account : For certftinly, 
fiidi Men, whofe Minds' are fo &>&, to yielding^ fo 
complying, (b large, are in a £ir better Way, than 
the bold and haughty Aflerters 9 they will pafs by 
nothing, by which they may kams they will be al- 
ways ready to receive, and communicate^Obferva-^ 
tkmsj they t^ill nor contemn the Fruits of others 
Diligeticc^ - they will rejoice to fee Mankiind bene-* 
fitcd, whether it be by thefnfelves or otheis. 

s a XV ^^ fecond Endeavours }X:asft been of thofe, 'who 

The Revivers ^^^^>^^'^ ihc Auth<^ity Of --jf^^^fiSf i 1>Ut th^ 

of the And* flor*d foine ont ot Other of the Anafnt Seifs^in his 
e»i SeBs. j^^j|j. j£ fuch Meh's Intentions were onlyr that wc 
might have before us the Conceptions of feveral 
Men of different Agcs^ upon the Works of Nsture, 
with^mt obhging us to an implicit Confentto all that 
they affirm J then their Labours ought to be receivVt 
wit^ gresftf Acknowledgements : For fuch % general 
Profpeft will very much inlargc, and guide our In* 
quiry ; atul perhaps alfo will help to hinder the Age 


the K o T A > S o c I Ej y. 31 

from cv<r faUiiu; back »»Ui \m> a $u})ipi^iQA^ to qd^^ 
ufurping Philofcpbg:, But if thsir Purpofip vas, w? 
«ire£t thpfc School* which they reyiy'd, ityiQ ^ ^hfp- 
lutca Powft, ?5tbc ?'«'/><a;A?^/f^H3Ld))jfjrcfpfq«;} j|" 

they ftrivc tp nwbc a Compi;wion h«tw?cp Ar-ifii^U 
An4 JBpicuruSf or ^ememtus, or TJ^iUMuf ; they 
<lo not coatriburu v«ry wjjch, <ow»rjls tli^ paaip Pg- 
~ ;o : For towards that, it i^ pp( ^^Q^, that thp 

fyraiff, be f^mz'i » but th* Tyritmy it felf fpuft b/^ 

wholly taken away. 

The third Soxt oi newTbilofoph/fs h^vcbwnsea. XVI 
thofc, who h»y.c not onjy difjigrec^ fcom the ^if- AToirr* £x 
^ienfiy but have alfo pcopp*'4 «? thefnftlvps tl^^: ;ci$ht f^rimenters. 
Court pf^ow ^^i{^ffi J^9Cperf^fn(i^'y 9W^ )^iz 
proicjfiited if g9 fv, as phe Shortoff^ pf their ov/^ 
Xwiea^ 01 pl>p Mwltiplkify of tfieiF pthicr^ AflS^V;*, Qc 
the Nftrrpwnefspf jthcjx Fortunes^ hav.e given fchcffi 
Icavi:* Sach *s thefc wc aw tpf mpa to bjf but few $ 
for cbeyoju^ ^iyfft ;hwii^ye?pt 9JLafty yj^iipi,Q9^- 

'whkb §p jil^ Monftcrs in their \4^^y, befprp'tli^y 
can get as far as t^i$^ AndrPf chei^, Iflliajtlpnlyp^cfi- 
iioji ^pf g''^^ M^Pj «^hft ^^^ ^bf ^'-"^ ^"^^s^'nafiffn t^ 

the whole Extent pf this J£nterprifc as it is no,w fet 
on fpot 3 and, thai.: W .the Xord B^ffmi iff - wjipfe 
JBopks thete VP i^vcry whpie (e^tt)cre4 Ae.bcft >irgvi- 
jiii^lits, th9t cwb^.p«)4uc;d fpr djp JDifepfic oif xj^c- 
pcximental Philofoptiyy ^d the oeft Pii:iQ£tijC>ns>.th^t 
ace needfiil tp promote it : .All W;h^ he has already 
^rn'd with ,fp jniijch Ajct^ j:h»t if piy plefircp cpdjl 
have prcyaird w4?b fomc .excellent Friends ^f minjt, 
who engaged me to this Work, there fiiould bay^ 
been no other Preface to the Hijiary of the Royal So^ 

E z ciety. 

^6 The HIS^TORYif 

cietyy but fomc of his Writings, But ihcthinks, in 
this one Man, I do at once find enough Occcafion, to 
admire the Strength of human Wit, and to bewail 
the Weaknefs of a mortal Condition. For is it not 
wonderful, that he, who had riin through all the De- 
grees of thztTrofeffiMy which ufually takes up Men*s 
whole Time; who had ftudied, and pradis'd, and 
govern'd the common Lawi who had always liv'd in 
the Crowd, and born the greateft Burden of civil 
fiuflnefs ; ihould yet find Leifurc enough for thefe re- 
tired Studies, to excel all thofe Men, who fcparate 
themfclvcs for this very purpofe ? He was a Man of 
firong, clear, and powerful Imaginations ; his Geni- 
us was fearching and inimitable ; and of this I need 
give no other Proof, than his Style it felf ; which as, 
for the moft part, it dcfcribes Men's Minds, as well as 
Pictures do their Bodies, fo it did his above all Men 
living. The Courfe of it vigorous, and majeftical ; 
the Wit bold, and familiar ; the Comparifons fetched 
out of the Way, and yet the more eafie : In all cx- 
prcffing a: Soul, equally skill'd in Men, and Nature. 
All thii and much more is tme of him y but yet his 
I'-Vhilofophical fVarks Ao fhcw, that a finale and'bufic 
Hand can never grafp all this whole Defign, of which 
we treat. His Rules were admirable ; yet his Hifto- 
ry not fo faithftjl, ds might have been wilh'd, in many 
Places s he feems tath^r %o take all that comes, than 
to chobfe, and'to heaff, rather than to regiften 
But I hope this Accufation of mine can be no great 
Injury to his Memory $ feeing, at the fame time, 
'that I fay he had not the Strength of a thoufand 
'Men, I do alfo allow him to have had as much as 



/i&^ R O Y A X S O C I E T Y. 37 

The next Philofophcrs, whom I (hall touch upon,S«a. XV If. 
arc the Chjmijis^ who have been more numerous, in -^^^ ^^' 
this latter Age, than ever before. And without que- ^' 
(lion^ they have lighted upon the right Inftrument of 
great Productions and Alterations j which mud for 
the moft part be perform'd by Fire. They may be 
divided into three Ranks: Such, as look after the 
Knowledge of Nature in general s fuch, as feek out, 
and prepare Medicines \ and fuch, as fearch after Ri- 
ches, by Trafmutations, and the great Elixir. The 
two firft have been very fucccfsful, in fcparating,. 
compounding, and changing the Parts of Things s and 
in ibewing the admirable Powers of Nature, in the 
railing of new Confiftencics, Figures, Colours, and 
Virtues of Bodies : And from their Labours, the true 
^hilofopkj is like to receive the nobleft Improve* 
ments. But the Pretenlions of the third Kind are, 
not only to indow us wuh all the Benefits of this 
Life, but with Immortality it felf : And their Sue* 
ccfs has been as fmall, as their Defign was extrava- 
gant. Their Writers involve them in fuch Darknefs j 
that I fcarce know, which was the grcatcft Task, to 
undcrftand their Meaning, or to eflfed it. And in the 
Chafe of the Thibfof hit's St oney they arc foearneft, 
that they are fcarce capable of any other Thoughts ; 
fo that if an Experiment lye ever fo little out of 
their Road} It is free from their Difcovery $ as I have 
heard of fome Creatures in Africk^ which dill going 
a violent Face ftrait on, and not being able to 
turn thcmfelvcs, can never get any Prey, but what 
they meet >uft in their Way* This Secret they pro- 
fccute fo impetuoufly, that they believe they fee fome 
Footfteps of it, in every Line of MofeXf'Solonum^ or 
VirgiL The Truth is, they arc downright Enthujiajis 



3g The HI STORY of 

about it. And feeing wc caft Entkujiafm out of ©/- 
vinitj it fcif, \vc (hall hardly fore be perfuadcd, to 
admit it into Phiiofophy. It were perhaps a vain At- 
tempt, to try to cure fuch Men of their groundicfi 
Hopes. It may be they are happier now, as they 
arc : And they would only cry out with the Man 
in Horace^ that their Friends, who had reftor'd them 
to a pcrfc6t Senfe, had murdered them. But cer- 
tainly, if they could be brought to content thcm- 
felvcs with moderate Tilings, to grow rich by De- 
grees, and not to imagine, they (hall gain the Indies 
out of every Crucible i there might be wondcrfal 
Things cxpefted from them. And of this we have 
good AflTurance, by what is come abroad from di- 
vetfe eminent Perfons ; amongft whom Ibmeare Mem- 
bers of the Royal Society. And, if it were not al- 
ready excellently perform'd by others, I might here 
fpeak largely, of the Advantages that accrue to Phy- 
fick, by the induftrious Labours of fuch Chymifis^ as 
have only the difcreet, and Ibbcr Flame, and not the 
wild Lightning of the others Brains. 

Sea XVliI ^^^ ^^ ^^* Kind, that I (hall name, has been of 
Thofe that thofc, who confcious of humau Frailty, and of the 
have handled Vaftncfs of the Dciign of an univerfalThilofophjy have 
^Suyla^ ^^'^^cd, and chofcn out for themfelves, fomc par- 
^^^ ^' ticulkr Subjcfts, about which to be(tow their Dili- 
gence. In thefe, there was lefs Hazard of Failing j 
rhtfe by one Man's Induftry, and conftant Indeavours, 
might probably at laft be overcome: And indeed 
they have generally reap'd the Fmits of their Mo- 
defty. I have but one Thing to except againft fomc 
few of them 5 that fliey have been fometimcs a little 
too forward to condude upon Axioms^ from what 


h f 

/^f R O Y A L S O C I E T Y. 3^ 

they have found out, in fome particular Body. But 
that is a <Fault> which ought to be overwhelmed by 
their other Praifes: And I (hall boldly affirm, that if 
all other Philo(bphical Matters had been as well and 
as throughly iifted, as fome admirable Men of this 
Age have managed fome parts of AftrMomy, Geome- 
try y Anatomy y &c. there would fcarce any Burden 
have remained on the Shoulders of our Pofterityj 
but they might have fat quietly down, and injoy'd 
the Pleafure of the true Speculative Philofophy, and 
the Profit of the Vradtiad. 

To all thefe Proceedings, that I have mehtion'd> 
there is as much Honor to be paid, as can be due to 
any one jing.le human Wit : But they muft pardon us>. 
if wc flfill prefer the joint Force of many Men. 

And now it is much tobe wondrcd, that there was Sca. XIX. 
never yet fitch 2Xi AJfembly trt(ktdj which might pro* iWo^/^rii A- 
cecd ort fome ftanding Conftitutions of Experiment- ^''^^'^''^-^^^ 
iiig. There have, 'tis frae> of late, in many Parts of ^^^^^^^' 
Eurepe, fome Gentlemen met together, fiibmitted 
to Common Laws, and form'd themfelves into Aca- 
demies : But it has been, for the moft part, to a far 
different Purpofe 5 and moft of them only aim'd at 
the fmoothing of their Stile, and the Language of 
their 'Country. Of thefe, the firft arofe in Italy: 
where they have fince fo much abounded, that there 
was fcarce any one great City without one of thefe 
Combinations. But that, which excel'd all the other, 
and kept it fclf longer untainted from the Corrupti- 
ons of Speech, was the French Academy ^t Taris. This 
was composed of the nobleft Authors of that Nation ; 
and had for its Founder^ the Great Cardinal de Riche- 
lieu : who, anrongft all his Cares, whereby he efta- 

' * biiaa;. 

40 The HISTORY of 

blifli'd and cnlarg'd that Mmsrcby To much^ did of- 
ten refrefh himfelf by dircdiing, and taking an Ac- 
cotint of their. Progrefs. And indeed in his own Life 
he found fo great Succefs of this Inftitution, that he 
faw the French T&ngue abundantly purified, and be- 
ginning to take place in the Weftern World, almoft 
as much as the Greek did of old> when it was the 
Language of Merchants, Soldiers, Courtiers, and 
Travellers. But I (hall fay no more of this Academy^ 
that I may not deprive my Reader of the Delight of 
pcrufing their own Hijiory^ written by Mmfieur de 
^eliffom which . is fo mafculinely, fochaftly, andfo 
unaffededly done, that I can hardly forbear envy- 
ing the French Nation this Honour $ that while the 
EngUJb Royal Society has fo much out-gone their Illu- 
ftrious Academy, in the Greatnefs of its Undertaking, 
it (hould be fo far (hort of them in the Abilities of its 
Hiftorian. I have only this to allege in my Excufe \ 
that as they undertook the Advancement of the £le* 
gance of Speech, fo it became their Hiftory to have 
fome Refemblancc to their Enterprize : Whereas the 
Intention of ours being not the Artifice of Words, 
but a bare Knowledge erf Things; my Fault may be 
. cfteem'd the lels, that I have written of Phikfophers 
without any Ornament of Ehqnence. 

an Engl'tjl ^ » /, 

Academy. I know indeed, that the Englijh Genius is not fo airy 
and difcurfive, as that of fomq of our Neighbors, 
but that we generally love to have Reafon fet out in 
plain undeceiving Exprefllons \ as much as they to 
have it deliver'd with Colour and Beauty. And be- 

^ fides 

the R o.Y h\'% o'ci€ T Y. 41 

fides thU, I undcrftand well enough^ that they have 
one great Aififtancc to the Growth of Oratory, 
which to us is wanting % that is^ that tlicir Nobility 
Uvc commonly clofe together in their Cities> and 
onis for the moft part feathered in their Country 
HbuTes. For the fame reafon> why our Streets arc 
not (b well built as theirs, will hold alfo, for their 
exceeding us in the Arts of Speech : They prefer the 
Pfcafbres of the Town, we thofi^ of the Field 5 
wiiereas it is from the frequent Converfatiom in Q-s 
ties, chat the Hnnaour, «Qd Wi^. ?nd Variety^ an4 
£k^ance of Language, are chiefly to be fetch'd. 
But yet, notwith^tiding thefe t)U€ouragement$, I 
/hall not flick to %, that fuch a Proje^ is now fearoor 
Abie to be fet on foob and may inaKe (^. great Kdot- 
inatiofli in the tii^nmr of our Speaking and Writing* 
Firft, the Thing ii: felf is 00 way coacemptible : For 
the Purity of Speech, and Greatncfs of Empire havq, 
in all Countries, lliLl mqt together. The Qre/sks 
/i>ake beft> when they, were jn fheir Glory of Coa- 
queft. The /?Mv#ff^ .mude. thoTe Times, the Stan- 
dard iof disk "Witr wheil t^hey fubdutcd^ and .gavf 
Laws to the World: And from thence^ hy de- 
grees, they dcdin'd to Corruption, as their Valour^ 
ehdr Phideocc, and the. Honor of rheir Arms did de- 
cay 5 ahd at laft, did even meet ihc Northern Natimf 
Jialf way in BMrkarifm^ ■ a little before thf y wae. over- 
run by their -^rwr^". . ; : ^ 
But bcfidcs, if we obfervc well the Enghjb Lan- 
guage ^ wc (hall find, that it feems at this time, more 
than others, to require fome fuch Aid, to bring it to 
its iaftPerfcflion. The Truth is, it has been hither- 
to a little too carcieiny handled 5 and» I think, has 
had Icfs Labour fpem about its poUfliing tlian it dc- 

F fcrves. 


4^ The HISTORTaf 

fcrvcs. Till the time oiKing Henry the E^htb^ thdre 
was fcarce any Man regarded it, but Chaucer j and 
nothing was written in it, which one would be wit 
ling to read twice, but fome of his Toetry. But then 
it began to raife itfelf a little, and to found tolera* 
bly well. From that Age, down to the beginning 
of our late Civil JVars^ it was Hill fafliioning, and 
beautifying it felf. In the Wars themfelves, which 
is a time wherein all Languages ufe, if ever, to in* 
creafe by extraordinary degrees ^ (for in fuch bufte 
and adive times, there arife more new Thoughts of 
Men, which muft be fignified, and varied by new 
Expreilions) then, I fay, it received many fantaftical 
Terms, which were introduced by our Reiigiaus Se£fs j 
and many outlandifb Phrafes, which feveral Writers^ 
^sidTranJlators^ in that great Hurry, brought in, and 
made free as they pleas'd, and withal it was inlarg'd 
by many found and neceflary Forms and Idioms 
which it before wanted. And now, when Men's 
Minds are fomewhat fettled, their Faffions allay'd^ 
and the Peace of our Country gives us the Opportuni- 
ty of fuch Diverftons j if fome iober and judicious 
Men would take the whole Mafs of our Language 
into their Hands, as they find it, and would fet a 
"Mark on the ill Words, correft thofe which are to 
be retained, admit and eftabli(h the good, and 
make fomc.Emendations in the Accent and Gram^ 
mar ; I dare pronouce, that our Speech would quick- 
ly arrive at as much Plenty, as it is capable to re- 
ceive 5 and at thegrcateft Smoothncfs, which its Dc- 
rivation from the rough German will allow it. 

Nor would I have this new Englifi Academy con- 

fin'd only to the \^eighing Words and Letters 5 but 

there may be alfo greater Works found out for it. By 

z many 

A&^ R o y A L Society. 43 

inany Signs we may gacCs, that the Wits of out Na- 
tion are not inferior to any other i and that they 
have an excellent Mixture of the Spirit of the French 
and the Spaniard \ and I am confident, that we only 
want a ^w more ftanding Examples, and a little 
*more Familiarity with the Anticnts, to excel all the 
Moderns. Now the bcft Means that can be dcvis'd 
to bring that about> is to fettle a fixt and impartial 
'Caurtoi Eloquence \ according to whofe Cenfure, all 
'fictokSp or Authors, (hould either (land or fall And • 
fabove All, there might be recommended to them one 
principal Work, in which we are yet dcfedive j and 
that is, the compiling of a Hiftory of our late Civil 
Wars. Of all the Labbrs of MetfsWir and Indnftry , 
^I fcarice Mdw an^ diat' caii bjt more iifcfui to thfc 
World thaij Civil Hifiarj} if it were written, wit& 
that Sincerity and Majefty, , as' it ought to be, as a 
faithful Idea of human Aaions. And It is obferva- 
ble, that almoft in all civilis'd Couqtrics, it has been 
the laft thing, that has come to Perfeftioh. . I may 
how fay, that the'^»^///i&.cati already (hew many in- 
duftrious and worthy ricccs m this kind : But yet, 
*I have fonie prophetical Imagination lift my'Thoughts, 
that there is.Aill. behind fomething greater than 
any we hayejret fecn, ! reftrv'd for the Glory of this 
Age,. One Reaibn of this ftiy 'ftrong rerfuafion fe 
a Comparifon, that I toake, between the Condition of 
our State^ znd that of the Romans. iThey at firft 
wrote, in this way i not much better than our Monks: 
only regiftring, in an undigcfted manner, fome few 
naked Breviaries of their Wars, and Leagues, and 
Afts of their City Magiftrates. 'And. indeed they 
advanc'd forward by very flpw Degrees : For. I re- 
member, that Tulfy fomewhere complains, in thefe 

F 2 - . ' Words: 

Words : Uifima nondum Latims Liter is ittujlrata^ 
But it was in the pcaccftil Reign of -^«^i^/^x,' after the 
Condufion of their lonjg Civil. Wars, that moft of 
their pcrfe£fc Hifiorims appear^, And it fcems to 
me^ that vc may expe£t the ume Frogrefs aiiiongft us. 
There lye now ready in Bank the moft memorable 
' Anions of twpnty Years ; a Subject of as great Dig- 
nity and Variety, ,^ cver^ pals'd under a^njy Man j^ 
Hands J the Pe^ice which we TEtMPyt ^vcs Leifiiflc 
and Encoutagomeiit. enou^ghj the £'ffe£Js of fuch ji 
Work would be wonderfuJly.advaiitagicous to the 
Saifety bfourCpuntry/ iandto His Mdjefiy\\ti\^xcdi,^ 
iat there can be no bottefM^^s to prefe(¥|e his Subl- 
' jefts in Obedience ibrit^ ftitur!^*, .;j&p..ta^^^d^ theqii 
a full Vi^w ^f tjicMifptics^^ 
There arPjOn^y therefore wanting, for.^tte finiiliirffe 
of £o brave an X/ndertaklng, the united Endeavors of 
£omc publick Miod6, - who are converfaot both in 
Letters and. Bufiqe(s: and if it w,crcj appoipted to be 
ihe. Labor .ofiDOie or twb.Nfcn tacompoie it, and of 
iiich an J[(fe$nily^to revile and eoirrefl; it^ 'it might 
cettainly challenge all the' Writings of paft or prc- 
fent Times. ' : , 

' But, 1 Cc^y I have aUeadjf. trahlf reis'd.:, for I J^now 
it will be ^Q^ght un^yl^dly done, yl)jl|?'|' was.iii- 
£3rdng a^ x^'ehhtiet Pifign, to. ftarr^. and . to . follow 
aoothei; oifieis Moment, ' I fliall therefore Itt it pais 
as an e^ttray^gaiot Conc^t : only I fhall affirm^ that the 
Royal Society is fo far fi:om being like to put a Stop to 
filch a Buifineifi,. ^'^^'^,,^' know many of its Members, 
who are as able ^ 'a(iy others^ to aiUft m the bring- 
ing it into Pradicc. - 

Thus I have difpatch'd my fit ft general Head 5 in 
which^ it may be, it was not needful to have ftaid fo 


the R: d^Y- A X S o c I rx y. 4; 

toag $ feeing^ I am confident, I have faid nothings 
but what wa» before yery well known, and what 
paflfes about in common Dircourfe^ 

' I did (HI purppfc omit ^zU^rmdAge of the Ara- g^a. XXI. 
blms^ in its proper Place; becaufe 1 was refolv'd, T'^i? Philofi- 
as I came down, to keep ray felf as near as I could, Ph^f ^^^ ^' 
within the Boittids,of ChrifiendovL .. But I fliall now ''''^'^*'' 
add» .concernii^, them, that theit Studies alio were 
pcincipalty bent^ Hpoa cxpoundiPgi Arifidtky and 
the Gnek TlyficUns. They were, without Queflion, 
Men of a deep andfubtile Wit; which is a Charac- 
ter, that (it may be) in all Ages has belonged more 
iuftiy to the Temper^ qf the Squtb^rn , than of the 
Norchern Countries* Of th^ they have left many no- 
kAt Teftimonies behind them ; . ib many, that ( if wf 
believe feme w<Mthy and induftrious Men of our own 
Natioi^ who have fearch'd into their Monuments ) 
they might even almoft be cpfppar'd to Rqme aiid 
APkms th^mifelvcs. $uc ti;if y. injoy 'd not the Xighjt 
Img enough ; It brake forth :upon the Point of 
their grcateft Conquefts $ it mainly conflfted, Jn un- 
^rftkadingthe Ancients; and what they would have 
4one, when they had been weary of them wq c^n* 
not tell ; Fpf tUat Work was not fully over, b^ifor^ 
4:hey were darkened by that, which made even Greece 
\t felf barbarous^ the Turkijb Monarchy^ However, 
JChat Knowledge, which they had, is tlie more re- 
markable, becaufe it fprang up, in that Part of the 
.WoFid> . whi^h has been almoft always perverfly «n- 
karned. Formethinks^ that foiall Spot, of civil Art^ 
.compared to their long Courfe of Ignorance, before 
and after, bears fome Re£emblance with that Country 
it &lf ; where there ar^ fome few little Vallies, aq4 

4- w«ik. 

46 rheHlSrORYof 

Wells, andplcafant Shades of P^Axr-Tr^j') butthofe 
lying in the midft of Dcfens, and unpaflable Trafts 
of Sands. ; 

Soa.XXIL ®^^ ^^w it being a fit Time to ftop, and breath a 
A Defence o/whilc, and takc a Review of the Ground, that wc 
the Royal So^ have pafi'd. It would be here needful for me, to 
peS'orti^^^^^^^^ Apology for my fclf, in a Matter, which, if 
^ciepits. it be not before-hand remov'd, may chance to be very 
prejudicial to Men's good Oj)inion of the Royal Soci- 
ety it felf, as well as of its Hijlorian. I fear, that this 
Ajfemblj will receive Difadvantage enough, from my 
weak Management of their Cau(c, in many other 
Particulars \ fo that I muft not leave them, and my felf 
unjuftified, in this, wherein we have fo much Right 
on our Sides. I doubt not then, but it will come into 
the Thoughts of many Criticks (of whom the World 
is now full ) to urge againft us, that I have fpoken a 
little too fparingly of the Merits of former Ages j and 
that this Deiign feemsto be promoted, with amali* 
cious Intention of difgracing the Merits of the An- 

But firft, I (hall befcech them, calmly to confider ; 
whether they themfelvcs do not more injure thofc 
great Men, whom they would make the Mafters of 
our Judgments, by attributing all Things to them fo 
abfolutcly ; than wc, who do them all the Jufticc we 
can, without adoring them \ It is always efteem*d 
the greateft Mifchicf a Man can do thofe whom he 
lores, to raifc Men's Expeftations of them too high, 
by undue and impertinent Commendations. For 
thereby not only their Enemies, but indifferent Men, 
will be fecretly inclined to be more watchful over 
their Failings, and to confpite in beating down their 


/;&tf R O Y A L S O C I E T Y. 47 

Fame. What then can be more dangerous to the 
Honour of Antiquity ; than to fet its Value at fuch 
a Rate, and to extol it |b extravagantly^ that it can 
never be ab}e to bear the Trial, not only of envi- 
ous, but even of impartial Judges i It is natural to 
Men's Minds, when they perceive others to arrogate 
more to themfelves, than is their Share $ to deny 
them even that, which elfe they would confefs to be 
their Right. And of the Trath of this, we have an 
Inftanceof far greater Concern ment> than that which 
is before us : And that is, in Retigian it felf. For 
while the Bijhops of Rome did aflfume an Infallibilir 
ty» and a (bvereign Dominion over our Faith i the re- 
formed Churches did not only juftly rc^e to grant 
them that, but fome of them thoi^ht themfelves ob* 
ligfd to forbear all Communion with them, and would 
not give them that Refped, which poifibly might be- 
long to fo ancient and fo famous a Church $ and 
which might ftill have been allowed it^ without any 
.Danger of Superftition. 

, But to carry this Difpute a little farther ; what is 
this, of which they accufe us ) They charge us with 
Immodefty in ncgle£Ung the Guidance of wifer. and 
more difcerning Men, than our felvcs. But is not this 
rather the greatcft Sign of Modefty, to confefs, that 
.we our felves may err ^ and all Mankind beftdesi To 
acknowledge the Difficulties of Science $ and to fubi- 
mit our Minds, to all the leall Works of Nature > 
What Kind of Behavior do they exad from us in this 
Cafe > That we ihould reverence the Footfteps of 
Antiquity ? We do it moft unanimoufly. That wje 
fliould fubfcribe to their Scnfe, before our own ? We 
are willing, in Probabilities i but we cannot, in Mat- 
ters of Faft ; for in them we foUpw the moft ancient 


48 ne HISTORY 9f 

Author of all others , even Nature it fclf. Would 
they have us mak€ our Eyes behold Things, at no 
farther Dtftancc, than they faw ? That is impoilible 9 
feeing we have the Advantage of (landing upon their 
Shoulders. They fay, it is Iniblence, to prefer out 
own Inventions before thofe of our Anceficrs. But 
do not even they tiie very fame Thing themfelves, in 
all the pretty Matters of Life \ In the Arts of War, 
. ^nd Government ; in the making, and aboliihing of 
Laws i nay even in the Faftionof their Cloaths, thejr 
differ from them, as their Humour ot Fancy leads 
them. We approach the Ancients, as we behold their 
Tombs with Veneration j but we would not there- 
fore be confin'd to live in them altogether; noi: 
would ( T believe ) any of thofc, w1k> profcfi to be 
more addiited to tlicir Memories. They tell us, that 
in this Corruption of Manners, and Stoth of Men^s 
Minds, we cannot go beyond thofe, who feacch'd 
fo diligently, and concluded fo warily before us. But 
in this they arc confuted by ^very Day's Experience. 
They objcftto us Traditt&ny and the Confent<rf all 
'Ages. But do we not yet know the Deceitfulifiefs of 
fuch Words ? Is any Man, that is acquainted with the 
Craftof founding iSV^j, or of managing Votes in po* 
pular AJfembRes, ignorant, how cafie it is to carry 
jThtngsin a violent Stteam ? Andwhenan Opinionlids 
once mafter'd its firft Oppofers, and fettled it felf in 
Men's Paflions or Interefts ; how few there be, that 
coldly conlider, what they admit for a long Time af- 
ter > So that when they fay, that alf Antiquity is a- 
gainft us j 'tis true, in Shew, they objeft to us the 
'Wiidomof many Ages; but in Reality, they only 
confront us, wirfi the Authority of a few leading 
Men. Nay, w hat if I fhould fay, that this Honour for 


the R o Y A I Society. 

the dead, which fuch Men pretend to, is xather a 
worfhiping of themfelves, than of the Antients ? 
It may be well prov'd, that they are more in Love 
with dieir own CommentamSy than with the Texts of 
thoTe, whom they fcem to make their Oracles ^ and 
that they chiefly doat on thofe Theories, which they 
chemfclves have drawn from them s which, it islike- 
jiy, are almoft as far diftant from the original Meaning 
of their Anthers^ as the PoHtions of tiie new Thi- 
UJb£hers thcmCdvts. 

But to conclude this Argument ( for I am weary of 
walking in a Road ib trodden ) I think I am able to 
confute fuch Men by the Pradlice of thoie vcfy Antu 
€nts, to whom they fioop ib low. Did not they truiO: 
4lienifelvts, amd their own Reafops^ Did not they 
bufie themfelves in Inquiry, make new Arts, eftabiiin 
new Tenehts, overthrow the old, and order all 
Things as they pleas'd, without any fecvile Regard 
to their Fredeceflbrs } The Grecians all, pr the^ear 
teft Part of them, . fctch'd their Lining fixHn Egj^t\i 
and did. they hlindly aflenfto all tJ^at ^as t^\j!^ 
theiQ by ^ Triefis of ^ mAOftris ? If £0 $ then 
why did they not, together with their Artsi receive 
all the infinite Idolatries, which their Mafters em- 
braced ? Seeing it is not to be quediQn'd, but ttic 
Egyptians deliver'd the Rites of their Religion to 
Strangers , with as much Solemnity at leaft, as they 
4id the Myfleries of their Hkreglyphicks^ or Thikfo^ 
phy. Now then, let Pythagoras ^ Tlato^ and Arifiotky 
and the reft of their wife Men, be our Examples, and 
we arefafe. When they travell'd into theiS^, they 
coUeded what was fit for their Purpofe, and faitabke 
to the Genius of their Country, and left the Su« 
perAuicies behind them : They brought home ibmc 

G of 


jxy the HlSrORYof 

of thctr ufeful Secrets ; bat ftill counted their woi<- 
fhiping a Dog> or an Onion, a Cat, or a CrocodUc, 
ridiculous. And why (hall not we be allow'd the 
fame Liberty, to diftinguifh, and choofe what we 
will follow ? Efpecially, feeing in this, they had a 
more certain Way of being inftruded by their Tea- 
chers, than we have by them : They were prefcnt on 
the Place : They learn'd from the Men themfelves^ 
by word of Mouth, and (awcrein a likely Courfe 
to apprehend all their Precepts arijght; whereas wc 
are to take their Dodrines, fo many hundred Years 
after their Death, from their Books only, where they 
are for the moft part fo obfcurely exprefs*d, that thef 
are fcarce fufficiently underftood by the Grammarians^ 
and Lmguifts themfelves, much lefs by the Thil^ 

In few Words therefore, let fuch Men believe, 
that we have no Thought of detradingfrom what was 
good in former Times : But, on the contrary, wc have 
a mind to beftow on them a folid Fraife , inftead of a 
great, and an empty. While wc are railing new Ob- 
fervations upon Nature, we mean not to abolifh the 
old, which were well and judtcioufly cftabliih'd by 
them : No more, than a King^ when he makes a new 
Coin of his own, docs prcfcmly call in that, which 
bears the Image of his Father j he only intends there- 
by to increafe the current Money of his Kingdom, 
and ftill permits the one to pafs, as well as the other. 
It is probable enough, that upon a frc(h Survey, wc 
may find many Things true, which they have before 
affcrted 5 and then will not they receive a greater 
Confirmation, from this our new and feverc Appro- 
bation, than from thofe Men, who reftgn up their Opi- 
nions to their Words only ? It is the beft Way of ho- 


f^^RoTALSoClETT. 51 

nouring them, to fcparate the cejtain Things in them, 
from the doubtful : r or that fhews, we are not fo 
much carried towards them, by ra(h Aflfefbion, as by 
an unbyafs'd Judgment. If we would do them the 
moft Right, it is not neceflary we (hould be petftdly 
like them in all Thingsi There are two principal 
Ways of preferving the Names of thofe that arc 
paft \ the one, by TiEtures $ the other, by Chil- 
dren : The ^iStures may be fo made, that they may 
far nearer refemble the Original, than Children do 
their Parents $ and yet all Mankind choofe rather to 
keep themfelves alive by Children, than by the o- 
ther. It Is beft for the Thlhfathers of this Age to 
imitate the Antients as their Children \ to have their 
Blood deriv'd down to them ; but to add a new Com- 
plexion, and Life of their own: While thofe, that 
indeavour to come near them in every Line, and Fea- 
ture, may rather be caird their dead Tidlures or Sta- 
tues^ than their genuine Off-ffring. 

7%e End oftheViK^T Part* 

G 2 THE 

Sedion I. 
7'iie Divijim 
tftbe NaTra- 

■sr Tte HlSTORr cf 




TbA Sscoif D Part. 

^HiwI 403, at length, arov'd at the r& 
CQaiPatt of my Method, thq Nar- 
ratba it.£e^f. ThU I d>aIU divide in* 
to three Periods of Time accor* 
ifig to the Ifivccal Degrees of the 
^reparaiumi Growth , and csmplete- 
Conftitutim of the Royal Society. 

The firft fliall confift of the firft Occafims of this- 
Model, and the Men, who firft devis'd to put it in 
Execution j and fliall end where they began to make 
it a form'd and regular AJfembly. 

The fecond fhall trace out their firjl Attempts, till 
they rccciv'd thepublic Affiftancc of Royal Authority^ 
The third fliall deliver what they ha^e d&ne fince 
they were made a Royal Corporathn. 

It may feem perhaps, that in pafllng through the 
firft of thefe, I go too far back, and treat of Things, 
chat may appear to be of too private and domc- 
ftick Concernmenr, to be fpoken in this publick. 
Way^ But if this Enterprisze, which is now fo well 
eftablifli'd, fliall be hereafter advantageous to Man- 
kind ( as I make no fcruplc to foretcl that it will )■ 

/^if R Y A L S (J C I E T Y. J J 

it is but '}u&, that focafc Times fiMMld hcd( the Names 
of its fitft Tf^moftfs : Tbac tfaey oiay be able to teai€t 
parfikuiar ThainKl^ u> th^ai, who 6rft conceiv'd it ii^ 
their Minds, and pia^is'd fomc Utf k Draught of ii 
lon^agssx Aod befi<kSj I Mver yet £iw an HUIoriaa 
tliat was dear from all Afie^ioas $r that, ic may ba^ 
w^ere not fo mucb to be caU'd Integrity ^ as a ftoical 
Infen^lity : Nor can I> more than odiers^ redft my 
Incixoations^ wiuch ftrdngty force me to mentioa 
that, which will be for the Hoiya)ur of t-hat Flace> 
where I received a gceat Pare of my Edueat-ion. Ic 
was tbecefore feme Spa€e after the End of the Civil 
Wars at Oxfard^ in Dodor M^ihins his Lodgings, in 
Wiulkam C§lkge^ whkh wastheathe Place of Re* 
fort fbc Ttrtnous aitd learned Men, that the firft Meet- 
ing&werc made^ which laid the FoundatioA of all thi^ 
that fbllow'd. The Unrverfity had at that time many 
Members of its own, who had begmn a free wof of 
Reafoning ; and was alio fre<^emcd by fome Gentle^ 
mm of Philosophical Minds, whom the Miisformnes 
of the Ecingdom, and the Security and £afe of a 
Retirement amongft Gown-men, had drawn thither^ 

Their firft Purpofe was no more rfian only the g^^ .^ 
Satisfaftion of breathing a freer Aif, and of convcFfr The Meet- 
rngin Quiet one with another, without being ingag'd'^,fj ^t Ox- 
in the Paffions and Madncfs of that difmal Age: Anad ^*^^^' 
from tlie Inftitution of that Affembly^ it had bceii» 
enough if no other Advantage had come but this :. 
That by this means there was a Race of young Mca 
provided againftthe next Age, Nyjhofe Minds receiving, 
from them their firft ImpreflTions oi fober ^adgiene- 
rotts Kltawlet^e^ were invincibly arm'd againft all the 
luchantments q& Enthujiafm. But what is more, I may 

2. venture: 

j4 rhe HI STORY of 

Tcntute to amrin, that it was in good Mcafure by the 
Inflaence which thefe Gentlemen had over the reft^ 
that the Univerfitj it relf> or at leaft> any Part of its 
Difcipline and Order, was fav'd firom Ruin. And 
from hence we may conclude, that the fame Men have 
now no Intention of fweeping away all the Honour 
of Antiquity in thb their new Defign $ feeing they 
imploy'd fo much of their Labour and Pmdence in 
pteferving that moft venerable Seat of ancient Learn- 
ing, when their (hrinking from its Defence would 
have been the fpeedieft Way to have deftroy'd it. 
For the Truth of this, I dare appeal to all unintcref- 
ted Men, who knew the Temper of that Place ; and 
efpecially to thofe who were my own Cotempora- 
ries there s of whom I can name very many, whom the 
happy Reftoration of the Kingdom's Peace found as 
well inclin'd to ferve their Trince and the Churchy 
as if they had been bred up in the moft profperous 
Condition of their Country. This was undoubted- 
ly fo : Nor indeed could it be otherwifc ; for fuch 
jpiritual FrenJteSj which did then bear Rule, can ne- 
ver ftand long, before a clear and a deep Skill in 
Nature. It is almoft impo/Hble, that they, who con- 
verfe much with the Subtilty of Things j fhould be 
deluded by fuch thick deceits. There is but one bet- 
ter Charm in the World, than real Vhilofophy^ to 
allay the Impulfes of thcfalfe Sfirit-, and that is, 
the blefled Prefence and Affiftance of the^ri^^. 
■ Nor were the good EfFcds of this Convcrfation 
only confined to 0;)c/^r^: But they have made thcm- 
iclves known in their printed Works, both in our 
own, and in the learned Language ; which have much 
conduced to the Fame of our Nation abroady and to 
ttiP Spreading of profitable Light at home. This, I 
^ trull. 

fruft, wUl be aniverfally acknowledged, when I (halt have 
nam'd the Men. The principal and moft conftant of 
them were Dodor Seth Wordy then Lord Bifhop 
of Exetety Mr. Bayle^ Dr. Wilkins^ Sir fVilliam 
"Petti, Mr. Matthew fVren, Dr. Wallis, Dr. God- 
dard. Dr. fTtllis, Dr. Bathurjt, Dr. Chrifiopher Wren^ 
Mr. i?Mi&9 beftdes feveral others, who join'd them- 
felves to them, upon OccafkMis. Now! have produced 
their Names I am a little at a ftand how to deal with 
them. For, if I fiiould fay what they deferve ; I fear 
it would be interpreted Flattery, inftead of Jufticc: 
And yet I have now lying in my Sight, the Example 
of an Elegant Booky which I have profeis'd to admire, 
whofe Author fticks not to make large Panegy ricks 
on the Members of that Ajfembljy whofe Relation he 
writes. But this Precedent is not to be followed by 
a young MaUj who ought to be more jealous of pub- 
lick Cenfure, and is not enough confirmed in the good 
Liking of the World, to think, that he has fuch a 
weighty and difficult Work, as the niaking of Cha^ 
raders, committed to him. I will therefore pafs by 
their Praifes in Silence i though I believe, that what I 
might fay of them, would be generally confefs'd ; 
and that if any ingenuous Man, who knows them, or 
.their Writings, (hould contradid me, he would alfo 
go near to gainfay himfelf, and to retrad the Ap- 
plaufes, which he had fbme Time or other beftow'd 
upon them. 

For fuch a candid and unpaflionate Company, as 
that was, and for fuch a gloomy Seafon, what could 
have been a fitter Subjed to pitch upon than Natu- 
ral Thilofiphy ? To have been always tofling about 
fome Theological §iuefti(my would have been, to have 
made that their private Diverfion^ the Excefs of 


^6 The HISTORY of 

which they themfelves diflik'cl ia the publick : To 
have been eternally mufing on Civil Bujmefiy and the 
Diftrcfles of their Country, was too melancholy a 
Reflesuon : It was Nature alone, which couki plea* 
fantly entertain them in that Eftate. The Contem- 
plation of that, draws our Minds oflF from paft, or 
prefent Misfortunes, and makes them Conquerors 
over ThingSi in the greateft publick Unhappinefs : 
while the Confideration of ik£r», zn^ human Affair Sp 
may affed us with a thoufand various Diiiquiets.; that 
never feparites us into moral Fa^ions { that gives uk 
room to differ, without Animofity ; and permits us 
to raife contrary Imaginations upon k, without any 
Danger of a Civil War. 

Their Mettmgs were as frequent, as their Affairs 
. permitted : thek Proccedii^ rather by A£tion» than 
Difcourfe ; chiefly attending fome particular Trials, 
in Chjmiftrj or Mechmkks : they bad no Rules nor 
Method fix'd : their Intentk>n was more to commu- 
tttcatc to each other their Didcovcries, which they 
could make veL ib narrow a Cocnpafs, thao an uni- 
ted, conlbnt, or regular Incfuiittioo. Andmethinka, 
thek Conftituetion dHd bear fome RefemUance to the 
Academy lately begun at ^aris : where they have at 
laft mrn'd their Thoughis from PTorJs to eirpcri- 
mental ^^hilrfopt^y aoid perhaps in Imitation of the 
Mpjai Societf. Their Mmner likewife, is to aflemble 
in a private Houfe, toreafon freely upon the Works 
t>f Nature; to pa& Coiqeftures, and prc^ofe Pro- 
t>lems» on any Mathematical^ or Philofophical Mat* 
ter^ which comes in their Way. And this is an Omen, 
^n whidi I will build feme Hope, that as they agree 
with us in what was done at Oxford, fo they will go 
<>n farther, and cbme^ by tj^e fame Degrees, to ercd 


/^tf R O Y A L S O C I E T Y. f7 

another Royal Society in France. I promifc for thcfc 
Gcatiemen here (fo well I krww the Gcncrofity of 
their: Defigii) they will be moft ready to accept 
their Afliftiincc To them, and to all the Learned 
World beftdesi, they call for Aid. No difference of 
Country^ Interejiy or Profe0ion of Religion^ will 
make them backward from taking or affording 
Help in this Enterptize. And indeed all EuropCy at 
this time, have twp general Wars, which they ought 
in Honour to make i the one a holj^ the other a phiU- 
fophical: The one agajinft the cotnmon Enemy of 
Chriftendam^ the other alfo againft powerful and 
barbarous Foes^ that have, not been fully fubdued al« 
Qioftthcfe fix thoiifand Ytars^ JffW4nce^ ^nAfalfe 
Opinious^, Again^ tjiefc, >ijt becomes us, to go fort;h 
in one common Expcditiop : All civil Nations joyn- 
ing their Armies againft the one, and their Reafin a- 
gainft the other; without any petty Contentions a* 
bout PrivUegeSr or Pxude|ice. 

4 1 .1 . t 

;. Thus they Cflntin»cd wi^hpw any great Intermif- scfi. til. 
fions, till about the Year 1 63 1 . But then being caird Their firft 
away to fcveral Parts of the Nation, and the great- ^^T^' ^ 
eft Number of them coming to Lmdofh they ufual* 
iy met at Gr^T^w College^ ^^tth/^Wednefdays^ aud 
Tkurjii^sl^o^ fFreMj and Mr. Rook i wher^ 

there join'd with them feveral eminent Pcribns of theic 
common Acquaintance : The Lord yifcount Brwmc- 
ier^ the now Lord Breretm^ Sir T^ud rleU^ Mr. JoAn 
Bv^fyn^ Mx,,Hef^aw^ Mr. Slingsbjf Dr. Tiffuthj 
Clarke, Dr. ^nt, Mt.Bafl, Mt. Hif/i Dr. Crom^ aqd 
diveife other Gentlemen^, whpfc In^lip^ticms lay the 
fame ^iray. .This Cuftpm was ob&iiv'd onoc^ if hoc 
twice a w«d^ in Tenu-cifiic, ail thcr wck Icat- 


cj TheHlSrORYof 

rer*d by the miferable Diftraftions of that fatal Year ^ 
till the Continuance of their Meetings there might 
have made them run the Hazard of the Fite oli Archie 
medes: For then the place of their Meeting was 
made a garter for Soldiers. 3ut, to make hafte 
through thofe dreadful Revolutions, which cannot be 
beheld upon Paper without Horror, unlefs we re* 
member, that they had this one happy EfFed, to o- 
pen Men's Eyes to look out for tte true Remedy ; up- 
on this foUow'd the Kings's Return $ and that wrought 
by fuch an admirable Chain (^Evems, that if we ei- 
ther regard the EaJmefSy or ^eedy or bkffed Iffue of the 
Work^ it feemsofitfclf to contain Variety and Plea- 
Aire enough, to make Recompence for the whole 
twenty Years MelanclK>}y that had gone before. 
I'his I leave to another kind of Hiftory to be <le- 
fcrib'd. It fliall fuffice my purpofe, that PhiloTophy 
had its Share in the Benefits of that glorious Adion : 
For the Royal Society had its beginning in the won* 
derful pacifick Year, 1660. SothatifanyConjedures 
of good Fortune, from extraordinaty i^^tffmlr/^x, hold 
true, we may pref^e all Happinefs to this Underta- 
king. And I fhall here join my (blemn Wiflies, that 
as it began in that Time, when our Country was 
freed from Confofion and Slavery $ To it may, in its 
Progrels, redeem the Minds of Men- icom Ot^Ufity, 
Uncertainty, and Borniage^ 

« ■ 

Sea. IV. Thcfc Gentkmcn therefore finding the'HMitsof 
the Begin- their Ceuhtrymen inkrgct by their ]foy9, and fitted 
^R^afsoci- ^ ^^"^ noble Ptopoftionj and meetihg with the 
ya oa Concur rence 6P iriany Worthy Men, whi^ to their im- 
mortal Honor, h^foltow'dthe King in his Banifll* 
mxit^yk. Btsl^i Six Robert Moray, SkGHhrPTal^ 


theKox ^h So CI e t y* ^^ 

hty &c. began now to vacant (bme greater Things 
and to bring out experimental Knowledge from tbb 
i2^/4Af> in which it had long hid klbl^ to t^eits 
t'art in the Trhw^bs of that uoiverfal tubileei And 
indeed Philofwhy did very well deierve that Re- 
ward, having been always Lwal in the worft of 
Times : For though the King's Enemies had gain'd all 
other Advantages; though they had ail the Garri- 
Xons» and Fleets^ and Ammynitions^ and Treafures, 
and Amiies on their ifide i yet thev could never^ by 
all their Vi£borics^ bri^g over the Keafon of Men to 
their Party. 

While they were thus ordering their Platform, 
there came forth aTrearife, which very much ha(len'd 
its Contrivance : and that was a Propofal by Mafter 
Cowley of ercfting.a Philofophical College. The 
Intent of it wa$> that in fome placed near London^ there 
ihould liberal Salaries be beftow'd on a competent 
Number of Leapied Men, to whom fliould be com- 
mitted the Operations of Natural Experiments. This 
Model wa^^ev^y way pradicable r unle& perhaps, j«i 
two .Things, lu; didjnore cpnfukthe Generosity of 
his own Mind, than of ottier Men s : the one was 
the Largenefs of the B^venuef with which he would 
have his College at firCt indow'd ; the other, that he 
imposed on his Operators a fecond Task of grq^t 
Pains, the Education of Touth. 

The laft of thefe is indeed a matter of great 
Weight ; the Reformation of which ought to be fe- 
rioufly examined by pradent Men. For it is an ua» 
deniable Troth, which is commonly (aid, that there 
would be Need of fewer Laws, and leis Fprce/to go- 
vern Men, if their Minds were rightly inform'd^ anfl 
fet (bait, while they wae youngs and pliable. But 

H 2 perhaps 

6o • nrHISTORTvf ' 

. • •* • . . , ^ 

perhaps this Labor is act To proper for Experbnen- 
tcts'jo undergo; for it woula not oply devour too 
•jniich'of dlcir Timcy but it ^oui& go: |icar tcr.raai;^ 
them a' little more magifidriaiin PhilblbpBy^ than be- 
came them s by being long ajccuftbm'cl to comqiand 
theOpinionS) anddire^ the Manners/of their Scho- 
lars. And as^to the other Panicular, the large E- 
ftate which he required to the Maintenance of his 
College } it is evident, that it is fo difficult a Thing ta 
dtaw Men in to be willing to divert an antient Reve- 
nue, which has long run in another Stream, or to 
contribute out of their own Purfes, to the fupport- 
ingi:)f any new Defign, while it (hews nothing but 
Promifes, and Hopes ; that, in fuch cafes, it were {k 
may be)'ttiptc acjvifeable to* begin upon a fmall Stoc^, 
and (b to tifc bydtgrecs, thantoprpfefs'gifearTfaih| 
it firft, ahd to exaft too mqdi Benevblcntc. all 
dncLufnp together. However, it was not the exc 
knt Author's Fault, that hi thought better of i 

■^ . , ^. ^ IS 

now puttmg m Praftice. ,, 

•* 'Icome now to the fecond Period of my Narrati- 

^on-; whcrcial promrs'.d' to giVc an 'Account pf what 

^thcy did, till thty were ptiBHcklyWnll, inirourag*d^ 

• and cpnfirm'd by Royal Favor. And I truft, tMl 

•fiiall here produce many Things, which will ptove 

their Attempts to be worthy of all Men's Incouragc- 

mcBt: thougji what was perform'd in this Interval 

' may be rather fty I'd the Temporary Staffold about rfie 

Building, rfian the Frame itjetf. But in my Entrance 

tipoa this Part, being come to the Top of the Hill, I 

i^eginto tremble, and to apprehend the Greatness of 


the Royal S o c i e t y* 6\ 

my Sab)eft. For I perceive, that I have led my Rea- 
ders Minds on, by fo long and fo confident a Speech^ 
to expeft fome wonderral Model, which frnll far 
exceed ail the former, that I have acknowledged to 
have been imperfefb Now, though this were really 
Ip^ as I believe it is $ yet I queftion, how it will look> 
^er it has been disfigured by my unskilful Hands* 
But the Danger of this ought to have deter'd mc ia 
the Beginning : It is now too late to look back ; 
and I can only apply my felf to that^W Nature^ 
which a grep Man has obferv^d to be fo peculiar ta 
outNati&fty that ther? is fcarce an Expreflion to %-. 
nify it, in any 0|;hcr Language. To this I muft fly 
for Succour, ai>d * mdflf affeftionately intreat my/ 
Country-men, that they would interpret my Failings, 
to be only Eqrors of Obedience to fome, whofe Com* 
niands, or;Pe(ir^Si J could, hot rcfift; and that they, 
would take the Mcafurcjof the.iZ^/i/J(;r/^^, notfo > 
^uchfrom my lame Defcription of it, as from the. 
Honour and Reputation of many of thofcMen, cf^ is compqs'd, 

I will here, in the firft plice, contra^ into few, Se^ V^' 
Words, the whole J'i^^i of their ^^/«//(W/i which^TTwi^jf 
I ihall often have occaHon to touch upon in ^ar-Defigm, 
eels. Their Purpof e is, ia fliort> to make faithful Re-. 
eordsi of all the VI oi)>i Naturty or jiriy which can 
Gomc within their Reach ; that (o the prefeht Age, and. 
Poftcrity, niay be able to put a Mark, on the £rrors> 
which have been ftrengthned by long Prefcription^ to 
reftore the Truths, that have lain ncgleded 5 to pufh^: 
on thofe, which are already known, to more vari- 
ous Ufes } and to make the ^ay more paflable, to what . 
remains unreveal'd. This is the Compais of thcit ^ 

6x The HISrORTof 

Deftgii. And to accomplifli this, they have endea- 
Tour'd, to fcparatethc Knowledge of Nature ^itov^ 
the Colours of Rhetmckj the Devices ofFamyy or the 
delightful Deceit of Fables. They have labor'd to in* 
large it^ from being confin'd to the Cufiody of a 
few, or from Servitude to private Intcrefts. They 
have ftriven tp prcfcrve it from being ovcr-prcfs'd by 
a confiis'd Heap of vain and lifclcfs Particulars 5 or 
from being (Ireitghned and bound too much up by 
;encral Doftrincs, They have tried to put it into a 
Condition of perpetual Incrcafing ; by fettling an in- 
violable Correfpondcncc between the Hand md the 
Brain. They have ftudied> to make k not only an 
Enterprife of one Seafon, or of fome lucky Oppor- 
tunity i but a BuHnefs of Time \ a fteady^ a lafting, 
a popular, an uninterrupted Work. They have at- 
tempted) to free it from the Artifice, and Humors, 
and Paillons of Sedsi to render it an Inftmment, 
whereby Mankind may obtain a Dominion over 
Things^ and not only over one another*s yudgments : 
And iaftly, they have begun to eftablim thefe Re- 
formations in Philofophy, not fo much, by any (blem- 
nity of Laws, or Oftentation of Ceremonies, as by 
folid Pradice and Examples; not by a glorious 
Pomp of Words 5 but by the filent, effettual, andun- 
anfwcratble Arguments of real Produffcions. 

This will more fiilly appear, by what I am to fay 

on thefe four Particulars, which fliall make up this 

Part of my Relation, the ^Qualifications of their jM5?w- 

6ers ; the Manner of their Inquiry ; their Weekly Af 

Sea. VI. fenAUes 5 and their Way of Regtfiring. 

^Membm'^of ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ belongs to the Members themfelves 
tbe^oyai So-^^^^ ^^^ to conftimtc the Society: It is robe noted, 

ciety. * that 

/^tf R O Y A L S O C I ET Y. 6l 

that they have freely admitted Men of different Re- 
ligions, Countries, andProfeflionsofLife. This they 
were oblig'd to do^ or eUe they would come far fhort 
of the Largenefs of their own Declarations. For 
they openly profefs, not to lay the Foundation of an 
Eng/fJIl^, Scotch, hifiy T^ijh, or Troteftant Philofo- 
phy ; but a Philofophy of Mankind. 

That the Church rf Englofu/ ou^ht not to be ^pre- 3^ ^j^^-^ 
henftve of thb free Converfe of various Judgments, ^^w (^/ ^/z 
I (hall afterwards manifefl at large. For the prefent, ^^%w>»/. 
I (hall frankly aflfert, that our ^oBrtne, and ^ifci* 
fline, will be fo far from receiving Damage by it j 
that it were the hcA Way to make them univerfally 
embraced, if they were ofrner brought to be canyals'd 
amidft all Sorts of Diflenters. It is difhonorable, to 
pafs a hard Cenfure on the Religions of all other 
Countries : It concerns them, to look to the Rea- 
fonablenefs of their Faith ; and it is fufficient for us, 
to be eftabliih'd in the Truth of our own. But yet 
this Comparifbn I may modefily make ^ that there is 
no one Profeflion, amidft the Several Denominations 
of Chriftians, that can be expos'd to the Search and 
Scrutiny of its Adver(aries> with (a much fafery as ours. 
So equal it is, aibove all others, to the general Reafon 
of Mankind ; fuch honorable Security it provides, 
fcoiii fbc the Liberty of Men's Minds, and for the Peace 
6f Government ^ that if fbme Men's Conceptions wene 
put in Pra£lice, that alt wife Men fliould have two 
Religions $ ihc one, a puMkky for their Conformity 
Vhith the Pcoj^e, th^ other, a frwatiy to be kept to 
thehr own Breads \ I am confident, that moft conit^ 
dering Men, whatever their firft wcte, would mfrke 
ours their fecond, if they were well acquainted, 
with it. Seeing therefore our Church would, be in 


64 ne HISrORTof 

fo fair a Probability of gaining vcfy much, by a fre- 
quent Contention and Encounter with other Scds ; 
It cannot be. tndanger'd by this Aflonbly ; which 
proceeds no farthet, than to an upprejudic'd Mix- 
ture with them. 
* Of fill CotiM' By their naturalisiing Men of all Countries, they 
tries. have laid the Beginnings of many great Advantages 

far theiilturc. For by this Means, they will be able, 
' to fettle a conflant Intelligence^ throughout all civil 
Nations, and make tlic Royal Society the general 
Bank and Free-port of the World : A Policy, 
which whether it would hold gpod in. the Trade oi 
England^ I know not 5 • but fure it will in the P/rf- 
lofophj. We arc to overcome the Myfteries of all 
the Works t>f Nature $ and not only to profecute fuch 
as are confined to one Kingdom, or beat upon one 
Shore : We fliould not then refufetolift all the Aids, 
^ that will come in, how » remote foever. If I could 
fetch my Materials whence I pleas'd, to fafliion the 
Idea of a perfeft Philofopher; he fhould not be all 
ef one Clime^ but have the diflferent Excellencies (^ 
: feveral Conntries. Firft, he fliould have the Induftry^ 
A^ivity^2xA inquifitive Humor of the T)utchy French^ 
. Scotchy and EngUfiy in laying the ground Work, the 
H<ap of Experiments : And then he (hould have ad- 
ded the cold, and circumJ^eBy and wary Difpoiitioa 
of the Italians and Spaniards^ in meditating upon 
them, before he fiilly brings them into Speculation. All 
this is fcarce ever to be found in one Angle Man ; feU 
dom in the fame Country-men : It muft then be fup* 
plied, as well as it may, by ^pidflick CcmcUy where^ 
in the various Difpoittions of all thefe Nations may 
be blended tt^ether. To this purpofe, the Royal So- 
ciety has oiade no Scrapie to receive all inquiiitive 

* Soangecs 

the R Q Y Kv S.o If I ^\T Y. rjj 

Scrangenof alL Couatrics into its Number. And 
this they have conftantly done, with fuch peculiar Re- 
fyc&j that they have not obliged, them to the Charge 
of Contributions } ttity have always taken Care, that 
fome of their Members fliould aifift them in inter* 
preting all that pafs'd, in their publick Aflembiies $ 
and they have freely open'd their Regifters to them $ 
thereby inviting them to coiqayunicate foreign Ra- 
rities, by imparting theif own Difooveries. lliish|s 
been often acknowledged by many learned Men> 
who have traveled hither $ whb have been imro- 
duc'd to their Meetings, and have admir'd the De- 
cency, the Gravity, the Plainnefsy and the Calmne(s 
of their Debates. , This they have pubiifli'd to the 
World $ ami this has rous'd all our Nc^hbours to fix 
their. Eyes upon England. From hence they exped 
the great Improvements of Knowkdgc wiU flow 5 and 
though, perhaps, they fend jrheir Touth into other Parts 
to learn Fajbhn^ and Breedipg ; yet their Men come 
hither for nobler Ends,- to bcinftrufted in rkicMaf- 
culmey and the folid Arts of Life i which is a Mat- 
ter of as much gpreater Reputation^ as i» is mozs hor 
nourable to teach Philofo^ers, than Children. 

By their Admiflion of Men of all Trcfejfwns^ thcfc Of all Pro- 
two Benefits arife : The me^ that every ^r/, and cvc^fiJpoMs. 
ry Way of Life already eftabtifh'd, may be fecure of 
recervlng no Dams^e by their Counfels. A Thing 
which all new Inventions ought carefiiUy to confult. 
It is in vain to declare againft the Profit of the moft, 
in any Change that we would make. We muft not 
always deal with the violent Current of popular Paf- 
fions, as they do with the furious Eager in the Se- 
vern ; where the fafcft Way i^ to fct the Head of 
^he ]k>at diredly againft irs.Fo»i. But here Men muft 

I follow 

66 The HISTORTcf 

follow the Shore ; wind aboat leiKmbiy ; and inttiia- 
ace their ofeful Alterations by fojft and unperceivable 
Degrees. From the Negleft of this Prudence, we 
often fee Men of great Wit, to have been overborn 
by the Multitude of their Ojppofers i and to havtf 
found all their fubtile Projedb too weak for Cuflom 
and Intercft : While being a little too much heated 
with a Love of their own Fancies, they have rais'd to 
thcmfelves nfiore Enemies than they needed to have 
done, by defying at once too many Things in Ufe. 
But here this Danger is very well prevented. For 
what Sufpicion can ^ivinit/y Lawy or ^hyjicky or 
any other Courfe of Life have, that they (hall be im- 
paired by thcfe Men's Labors 5 when they themfelves 
are as capable of HttiAg amongft them as any others \ 
Have they not the fame Security that the whole Na* 
tion has for its Lives and Fortunes ? Gf which this is 
efteem'd the Eftabii(hment, that Men of all Sorts 
and Qualities, give their Voice in every Law that is 
made- in Parliament. But the other Benefit is, that 
by this equal Balafice of ail Profeilions, there wiR no 
One Patticular of tllem overweigh the other, or make 
the Oracle only fpcak their prwate Scnfc ; which 
clfe it were impoffible to avoid. It is namral to 
all Ranks of Men, to have fomc one Darling, up- 
on which their Care is chiefly fix'd. If Mechanicks 
alone were to make a Philofophy, they would bring 
it all into their Shops, and force it wholly to conftft 
of Springs, and Wheels, and Weights 5 li^hjficiansy 
they would not depart far from their Art ; fcarce any 
Thing would be confider'd, beHdes the Body of MaUy 
the CaufeSy SignSy and Cures of Difeafes. So much 
is to be found in Men of all Conditions, of that 
which is caird Pedantry in Scholars j which is no- 

the Roy A t So c iet y. 67 

tjbing elfe bat an obftinate Addition to the Forms 
of fome private Life, and not regarding general Tilings 
enough* Tlus Freedom therefore, which they ufe» 
in embracing all Afliftance, is moft advantageous to 
them $ which is the more remarkable, in that they 
diligently fearch out^ and join to them, all extraor- 
dinary Men, though but of ordinary Trades. And 
that they are likely to continue this comprehenHve 
Temper hereafter, I willfliew br one Inftance $ and 
it is the Recpmmcndation which the King himfelf 
was plealed to make, of the judicious Author of the 
Obfervations pu the Bills of Mortality : In whofe 
Eledion, it was fo far from being a Prejudice, that 
he was a Shc^kecper of Lfindpn^ that bis Majefty . 
this pArticuiar CHargc to his oociety, that if they 
id any more Tuch Trad ei0v»» they ihould be iure 
to admit them all, without ^ny more ado. From 
hence it may be concluded, what is their Inclina- 
tion towards the manual Arts ; by the careful R^ard 
which their Fam^, aad ^oSrm^^ has er^gag'd them 
to have for all Sorts of mechanick Artifis. . 

But, though the Socifty entertains very many Men ^^q^ y^i 
di f articular ^tofeffionSy yet the far greater Num-// confifts 
ber are Gentlemen^ ftec and uncpnfin'd. By the Help ^^^^fiy ef . 
of thb there . was hopefiil Pro vifion juaiicagjainft two '^'*^'''"'*- 
Corruptions qi Learning, which havx (been l6ng,com- 
plain'do^ but never remofd : yh,tone^<\\di Knowledge 
dill degener^sto conTult^r^/^ "I^qfit tooibon 5 the 
at her ^ that Thikfophers havcbccn»^wiiys Mapers and. 
Scholar i \ fome i^oflng, sindaU the other fi^btuicting \ 
andiu^tflsequkCA^if^ireb,^^ ; « 

Thcficiiof,thefei»ayi)ec^ Advan- 

toofoony and puuing. tncm'tp Geoeracicai h^tcf^g^s of thts. 
they gome to be of Age ; and has been the Caute of 

1 z ' much 

6i^ The HISTORY of 

much Inconvenience. It weakens their Strength 5 it 
makes an unhappy Difproportion in their Increafe 5 
while not the beji^ but the moft gainful of them flou- 
rifli : But above all, it diminifhes that very Profit for 
which Men ftrive. It bufies them about pofiefling fome 
petty Prize j while Nature it fclf, with all its mighty 
Trcafures, flips from them 5 and fo they are ferv'd 
like fome foolifli Guards ; who, while they were ear- 
ned in picking up fome (mall Money, that the Pri- 
foncr drop'd out of his Pocket, let the Prifoner him- 
felf efcape, from whom they might have got a great 
Ranfom. This is eafily dedaim'd againft, but moft 
difficult to be hindred. If any Cauticm will fcrve, ic 
muft be this 5 to commit the Work to the Care of 
fuch Men, who, by the Freedom of their Education, 
the Plenty of their Eftates, and the ufual Generofity 
of noble Blood, may be well fuppos'd to be moft a- 
verfe from fuch fordid Confiderations. 

The fecond Error, which is hereby endeavoured to 
be remedied, is, that the Seats of Knowledge have 
been for the moft part heretofore, not Laboratories, 
as they ought to be 5 but only Schools^ where fome 
have taught, and all the reft fubfcrib"d. The Confe- 
qucnces of this are very mifchievous. For firft, as 
many Learners 2& there are, fo many Hands and 
Brains may ftill be reckon'd upon as ufelefs. It being 
only the idaftef% part to examine, and obferve ; and 
the Diftriples, to fubmit with Silence to what they 
conclude. But befides this, the very Inequality of the 
Titles of Teachers and Scholars ^ does very much fup- 
preis and tame Men's Spirits i wluch though it fhould 
be prqperfor Difcipline and Educations yet is by no 
means confiftent with a free philofophical Confulta- 
tion. It is undoubtedly tmc } that fcarcc any Man's 



the R O Y A L S O C I E T Y. 6^ 

Mind is fb capable oi thinkhigjir^lyy in the Prefence 
of one whom he fears and reverences^ as he is when 
that Reftraint is taken off. And this is to be founds 
not only in thefc weightier Matters s but alfo to give 
a lighter inflance in the Arts oiT)ifcourfe and Raillery 
themfelves. For we have often feen Men of bold 
Tempers, that have over-aw'd and govern'd the Wit 
of mod Companies i to have been diAurb'd, and dumb, 
and bafhful as Children, when (bme other Man has 
been near, who us'd to out talk them. Such a kind of 
natural Sovereignty there is in (bme Men's Minds over 
others; which muft needs be far greater, when it is ad* 
vanc'd by long Ufe, and the venerable Name of a Ma- 
fter. I fliall only mention one Prejudice more, and 
that is this 5 that from this only Teaching, and Learn-r 
ing, there does not only follow a Continuance, but an 
Increafe of the Yoak upon our Reafons : For thofc 
who take their Opinions from others Rules, are com^ 
monly ftrider Impofers upon their Scholars, than their 
own Authors were on them, or than the fi^ Inventors 
of Things themfelves are upon others. Whatever 
the Caufe of this be $ whether the firft Men are made 
meek and gentle by their long Search, and by better 
underftanding all the Difficulties of Knowledge \ while 
thofe that learn afterwards, only haftily catching 
Things in fmall Syftems^ are foon fatisfy'd, before they 
have broken their Pride, and fo become more impe- 
rious ^ or whether it arifes from hence, that the fame 
Meannefs of SouU which made them bound their 
"[Thoughts by other Precepts, makes them alfo infolent 
CO their Inferiors s as we always find Cowards the 
vcio^cruel\ or whatever other Caufe may be alledg'd, 
the Obfervation is certain, that the Succejfors are ufu- 
ally more pofitive and tyrannical, than the Begin^ 
ners of SciXs. If 

70 The HISTORT of 

If then there can be any Cure devb'dfbr this, it 
muft be no other than to form an AJfembly at one 
Time, whofc Privileges (hall be the fame 5 whofe Gain 
(hall be in common; whofc Members were not brought 
up at the Feet of each other. But after all, even this 
cannot be free from Prevarication in all future Ages. 
So apt are fome to diftruf^, and others to confide too 
much in themfelvcs ; fo much Sweemefs there is, in 
leading Parties ; fo much Pride in following aFadi- 
on; fuch various Artifices there are to enfnare Men's 
^ajjimsy and foon after their Underftandings. All 
thefe Hazards, and many more, are to be fuppos'd i 
which it is impofHble for mortal Wit wholly to fore- 
fee, much lefs to avoid. But yet we have Icfs Ground 
of Jealoufie from this tnftitution than any other, not 
only becaufe they only deal in Matters oiFadf^ which 
are not fo eaftly perverted j but alfo upon Security of 
the Inclinations of the greatcft Part of the Members 
of the Spciety it felf. This, I hope, moft Men will 
acknowledge ; and I will take the Permiflion to fay 
in general of them, that in zWpaft and prifint Times, 
I am confident there can never be fhewn fo great a 
Number of Cotemporaries in fo narrow a Space of 
the World, that lov'd Truth fo^ealoufly fought itfo 
conftantly ; and upon whofe Labors Mankind niight 
fo freely rely. This I fjpeak, not out of Bravery t6 
Torekners ( before whofe Eyes, I believe, this negli- 
gent Difcourfe will never appear ) but to the learned 
Men 6f this Natimj who are better Judges of what I 
fay. And this too, I dare affirm, in an Agey^hcxciti 
I ocpeft to be condetnn'd of Falfliood or Partiality ftii 
this Charadler, whidii have given. For fo it happens, 
that we arc now arriv'd at that -cxceffi vc ccnftcrmg 
Humor, that he who takes upon him to command any 

I thing, 

/)&^ R O T A L S O C I E T Y* 71 

things though ever Co worthy^ will raife to himfeif 
far more Eoemies than Friends. And indeed this 
Sawrnefs of Ctitici/m% which now bears down all 
before it, )b very injurious to the Honor of our Coun- 
try. For by defpifing Men for not being abfolutely 
excellent, we keep them from being fo 5 while Ad- 
momtims join'd with Traifesy and Reprwfs with 
^$re£ii&nSf would quickly bring all Thitigs to a high- 
er Pctfcftioo. But the Rudcncfs of fuch Criticks I 
do not fo much regard, as the Obje^ions of foberei; 
Men, who have a real good Will to the Promotion of 
this Deiign, and yet may be a little diflatisfied in this 
Place. For here efpecially they may doubt of two 
Things i the firft, whether the Royd Society being fo 
numerous as it is, will not in fhort Time be diverted 
from its primitive Purpofc \ (eeing there will be fcarce 
enough Men of philofophical Temper always found to 
fill it up \ and then others will crowd in, who have not 
the fame Bent of Mind $ and fo the whole Bufinefs will 
infeniibly be made rather a Matter of Noife and Pomp, 
than of real Benefit ! The fecond. Whether their Num- 
bcr being fo large, will not affright private Men from 
imparting many profitable Secrets to them ; left they 
fhould thereby become common, and fo they be de- 
prived of the Gain, which elfe they might be furc of, 
if they kept them to thcmfdves. 

To the firft I fliall reply, That this Scruple is of nog^c^ yju 
Force, in Refped): oithe Age wherein we live. For A Defence cf 
now the Genius oi Experimenting is fo much difpers'd,'*^ ^^T" 
that even in this Nation^ if there were one or two^^^{^/'^ 
more fuch Ajfemblies fettled, there could not be want- 
ing able Men enough to carry them on. All Places and 
Corners are now bufie and warm about this Work ; 


72 ne HISTORY of 

and we find many noble Rarities to be every Day 
given in not only by the Hands of learned and pro- 
(efs'd Philofophers ; but from the Shops of Mecha- 
nicks $ from the Voyages of Merchohts $ from the 
Vloaghs of Hushandmen i from the Sports> theFifh- 
ponds, the Parks, the Gardens oiGifalemeni the 
Doubt therefore will only touch future Ages, And 
even for them too, wemayfecurelypromife, that they 
will not, for a long Time, be barren of a Race of in- 
quifitive Minds, when the Way is now fo plainly trac'd 
out before them ; when they ihould have tafted of thefe 
firft Fruits, and have been excited by this Example. 
There was fcarce ever yet, any the meaneft SeA, or 
the mod contemptible Opinion, that was utterly ex- 
tinguifti'd in its Cradle. Whether they defervM to live, 
or not, they all had their Courfc ; fomc longer, Ibme 
ihorter ; according as they could combine with the 
Interefts or Affcdions of the Countries where they 
began. What Reafon then have we to bode ill alone 
to this Inftitutioriy which is now fo earneftly em- 
braced ; and which, the older it grows, cannot but 
ftill appear more inoffenfive? If we only required 
perfeSt Philofophers^ to manage this Employment, it 
were another Cafe. For then I grant it were impro- 
bable, that thrcefcore, or an hundred fuch ihould 
meet in one Time. But here it is far other wife : If we 
cannot have a fufficient Choice of thofe that are skill'd 
in all divine and Humam Things (whicli was the an- 
cient Definition of a Philofopher) it fuffices, if many 
of them be plain, diligent, and laborious Obfervers t 
fuch, who though they bring not much Knowledge, 
yet bring their Hand, and their Eyes upcorrupted : fuch 
as have not their Brains infefted by falfe Images, and 
'can honcftly affift in the examining and regifiring 

I what 

/i&^ R O T i^ L S O C I E T T. 73 

what the others reprefent to their View. It Teems 
ftrange to me, that Men ihould confpire to believe 
all things more perplex'd^ and difficult, than indeed 
they are. This may be fhewn in moft other Matters i 
but in this particular in hand, it is mod evident*. Men 
did generally think, that no Man was fit to meddle in 
Matters of this Confequence, but he that had bred him- 
felf up in a long Courfe of Difcipline for that Purpofe ; 
that had the Habit, the Gefture, the Look of a Philofo- 
pher : Whereas Experience, on the contrary, tells us, 
that greater Things are produc'd by the free way,than 
the formal. This Miftake may well be compar'dto the 
Conceit we had of Soldiers, in the beginning of the 
civil Wars. None was thought worthy of that Name, 
but he that could (hew his Wounds, and talk aloud of 
his Exploits in the Low Countries : Whereas the 
whole Bufincfs of fighting, was afterwards chiefly per- 
form*d by untravel'd Gentlemeriy raw Citizens, and 
Generals that had fcarce ever before feen a Battle. But 
to fay no more, it is fo far from being a Blemifh, that 
it is rather the Excellency of this Inftitution, that Men 
oj various Studies are introduc'd. . For fo there will 
be always many fincere Witnefles ftandipg by, whoni 
Self love will not perfuade to report falfly, nor Heat 
of Invention carry to fwallow a Deceit too foon 5 as 
having themfclvcs no Hand in the making of the Ex- 
periixicnt^ but only in the Injpe^ion. So cautious 
ought Men to be, in pronouncing even upon Matters 
of Fad. The whole Care is not to be trufted to Jingle 
Men 5 not to a Company all of one Mind-, not to Thi- 
lofophers s not to devout and religious Men alone : By 
all thefe we have been already deluded 5 even by thole' 
whom 1 laft nam'd, who ought moft of all to ab- 
hor Falfliood 5 of whom yet many have mul- 

K tiplied 

74 rheElSrORTvf 

• ■ » • • 

tipUcd upon ti^ infinite Stories «rid falfc Miracles, 
without any regard to Confcicncc or Truth. 
' Tothcfecond'GbjcftionlffiaUbricflyanfwcrjthat 
tf isU the Authbts, or PolTdTors of extraordinary In- 
ventions, fliould confpire to conceal ail that was in 
their Fower from them ; yet the Method which they 
take wiHtjaidklymakcabondant Reparation for that 
Dcfeft. tfthcy cannot come at Nature in its particular 
Streams y they wlH have it in the Fountain. If they 
tould be Ifeut out from the Clofetsof ^ AyyJr/^»j, or the 
Work-houfes of Mechanicks 5 yet with the fame, or 
With bcftet Sorts df Inftrumcnts, on more Materials, 
by more Hands, with a more rational Light, they would 
hot only reftorc again the old Arts, but find out 
perhaps many more of far greater Importance. But 
I need not lay much Strefs upon that Hope 5 when 
there is no'Queftion at all, but all, or the greateft part 
of fuch domeftick Rereipts and Curiofities, will foon 
flow itito thSspMck Tredjurie. How few Secrets have 
. there t)een, though everfo gainful, that have been 
long conceal'd from the whole World by their Au- 
fhors? Were not all the leaft Arts of Life at firft pri- 
vate? Were not WatcheSy or Locks ^ or ^unsy or 
^rirftingy or lately the Bowdyey dcvis'd by particular 
fUmy biit foon made common ? If neither ChancCy not 
Friendjhipy nor Treachery of Servants, have brought 
fuch Things oUt ; yet we fee Oftentation ^ont to be 
every Day powerful enough to do it. This Defire of 
Glory, and to be counted Author Sy prevails on all, 
even on many of the dark and referv'd Chymijls them- 
felvesi who arc ever printing their greateft Myfte- 
ries, though indeed they feem to do it with fo much 
Reluftancy, and with a Willingnefs to hide ftill 5 which 
makes their Style to referable the Smoke ^ in which they 


/i&tf R O Y A L S O C I E T T. 7y 

deal. Welltbcn^ if this Difpoficion be fo miverfal, 
why (hoald we think) that the Inventors will be only 
tender and backward to the Royal Smety i from which 
they will npt only reap the mo&folid Himor^ but will 
alTo receive the ftrongeft A0Urances of fikill retaining 
t\it gnateft part of the "Profit ? But if all this fbould 
failj there ftill remains a Refiige, which will put this 
whole Matter out of Difpute ; and that is» that the 
J^ojal Sociity will be able by Degrees to purchafe 
fuch extraordinary Inventions, which are now dofc 
lock'd up in Calnnets 5 and then to bring them into 
one common Stock, which ihall be upon all Occafions 
exposed to all Men's Ufe. This is a mod keroick Inters 
tion: For by fijch Copocatoents, there may come very 
jnuch Hurt to Mankind* Jf any cTcrtain Remedy 
Should be found outagainft an\£^//^^/V4/Difi:are ; if it 
were fuiTer'd to be ingrofs'd by one Man, there would 
be great Swarms fwept away» which otherwife might 
be eafily fav'd. I (hall inft^nce.ii^ thtSweati^g^Sii^k- 
iiefs. Th^ Medicine iqt it ^zs almoft in&Uible': Bu£, 
bpfoce that coUd be generj^Uy pOWifeld,. it iwd. almtift 
difpeopled whole Towns; : If the fimeDifeafefhoutd 
. have rcturn'd) it ipight have bein again as deflrudlive, 
htad not the; Lprd BaiM taken Gate, toTet down 
fhe partioilar Coiurfectf y^j!/ifl^ foniW Jri his^Hiftoify 
of Her^ry thefifuentK and fo put it beyond the Poffi- 
bUky cf any private Man's invadiiBg it, ; This oughr 
to be imitated in all other y^wr^/^^,C«r^i' of the like 
Nature, taavoid fuch d r?adful Cafttaltics. TUe-^r^i- 
ficers fliould reap the ?an:imQn Crc^ ofiheit Arts : but 
the TuMick Ihoiiid. ftill h?vc Tit/e to the niiraculous , . 
ProduAions. It (hould be fo appointed^ as it is in the 
Profits of Men's Lands 5 w^re the Corp, ami Gfafs> 
and Timber, and fome coarfer Metals belong to the 

K 2 Owner: 

7<J The HISTORY of 

Owner : But the Royal Mines, in whofc Ground 
focver they are difcover'd, arc no Man's Propriety^ 
but ft ill fall to the Crown. 

Thcfe therefore arc the ^alities which they have 
principally requir'd in thofc whom they admitted ; 
ftill refcrving to thcmfelvcs a Power of increafingy 
or keeping to their Number, as they faw Occafton. 
By this Means, they have given Affiirance of an eter- 
nal Quietn^fs and Moderatibni- in their experimental 
Progrefs 5 bccaufc they allow thcmfelvcs to differ in 
the weighticft Matter, even in the Way of Salvation 
it fclf. By this they have taken Care, that nothing 
ihali be fo remote as to cfcape their Reach % bccaufc 
fomc of their Members are ftill fcattettd abroad, in 
moft of the habitable Part^ of the Earth. By this 
they have provided, that no profitable Thing fhall 
feem too mean for their ConHderation, feeing they 
have fomc amongft them, whofc Life is employed 
about little Things, as well as great. By this they 
have broken down the Partition wall, and made a 
fair Entrance^ for all Conations of Men to engage in 
thefc Studies ; which were heretofore affrighted from 
them, by a groundlefs Apprehenfton of their Charge- 
ablencfs and Difficulty. Thus they have form'd that 
Society, which intends a ^hilofophy, for the Ufc of 
Cities y and not for the Retirements of Schools y to rc- 
femble the Ci^/V^ thcmfelvcs 5 which arc compound- 
ed of all Sorts of Men, of the Gowny oi the Sword, 
of the Shop, of the Field, oi the Court, of the Sea $ 
all mutually affifting each other. 

ScSt IX ^^^ ^^ ^^^ conwder what Courfe of Inquiry they 
ThetrCoMrfet^^^j to makc all thcit Labours unitc for the Service 
of Inquiry, of Mankind : And here I fliall infift on their Exfience, 
their Infiruments, their Matter, and their Method. 


/^ff R O Y A L S O C I E T Y. ' 7T 

Of the Stock, upon which their Expence has beeiir^^;^ ^^ 
hitherto dc&ay'd, I can fay nothing that is very magni- fence, 
ficent \ feeing they have relied upon no more than 
fome fmall Admiffim-money y and weekly Cmtribu^ 
tions amongfl: themfelves. Such a Revenue as this 
can make no great Sound, nor amount to any vafi 
Sum. But yet I fhali fay this for it, that it was the 
only way which could have been begun, with a Secu- 
rity of Succeft, in that Condition of Things. The 
publick Faith of experimental Thilofophyy was not 
then ftrong enough, to move Men and Women of 
all Conditions, to bring in their Bracelets and Jewels, 
towards the carrying of it on. Such AfFeftions as thofa 
may be rais'd by a mif guided Zeal; butj&ldom, or 
never, by calm and unpaflionate Reafon*. It was 
therefore well ordain'd> that the firft Benevolence 
fliould come from the Experimenters themfelves. If 
they had fpeedily at firft call'd for mighty Treafures 5 
and faid aloud, that their Enterprize rcquir'd the Ex- 
chequer of a Kingdom ; they would only have been 
contemned as vain ^roje£tors* So ready is Man- 
kind to fufped all new Undertakings to be Cheats^ 
and Chimaras'j cfpecially, when they feem charge^ 
able 5 that it may be, many excellent Things have becnt 
loft by that Jcaloufie. Of this we have a fatal Inftance 
amongft our felvcs. For it was this fear of being cir- 
cumvented, that made one of our wifeft Kings de- 
lay Columbus too long, when he came with the Pro- 
mife of a new Worlds whereas a little oiorc Confi- 
dence in his Artj zvidi a fmall Charge in furnifhing 
out fome. few Ships, would have yearly brought all 
the Silver of the fVeJi* Indies tp London j which now 
arrives at Sevil. 

This Sufpicion, which is fo natural to^Mcn's Breafts, 


7t The fflSrORTiff 

• » . , . . ' 

could hot any way harm the ^/aiSarretfs^SAzbMfhr 
ment ; fedhg Its'firft Claiths, and Pirtenfions were fo 
modeft. And yet I fliall prcfiime tcafliifc rirc World i^ 
that what they fhalltaife on thefe mean Focmdations^ 
will be more anfwcrable to the LarFene/s of their In- 
tentions, than to the iViirr^ze^T^m their Beginnings. 
This irpcak fo Wdly, not only becaufe it is almoft 
generally found true y that thofe Things, which have 
been fmall at firft, have oftner grown greater^ than 
thofe which have begun upon a wider Bottom, which 
have commotily Jiooa at a Stay : But alfo in Refpeft 
of the prefent prevailing Genius of the Englijb Na- 
tion. It is moft ufually found, that every Peopip has 
fbmc one Study dr other in their View, about which 
their Minds are moft intent, and their Purfes readier 
to open. This is fometimes a Profiifion in Habit and 
^iet ; fometimes religious BuiUrngs ; and focnetimes 
the civil Ornaments of their Cities and Counffy. 
The firft of thefe will Aorriy vaitifh fromamongft 
ns, by thcirrefiftible Correction of the King's own Ex- 
ample 5 the next is of late Years very fenfibly abated : 
and it is the Idft of the three towards which Men's 
De/ires are moft propenfe. To evidoice this ; I think 
it may be calculated, that fincethe Kin^s Rctqrn,thcrc 
have been more Adis of Parliament ^ for the clearing 
and beautifying of Streets, for the repairing of High- 
w^s^ for the cuttifig of Rivers^ for the Increafe of 
ManufaSlureSy for the fetting on foot the Trade of 
Fiftiing, and many other fuch publick Work^, toadorji 
the State, than in diverfe Ages before. This gene- 
ral Temper being well weighed ; it cannot be ima- 
gin'd,that the Nation will withdraw its Afliftance from 
the Royal Society alone j which does not intend to 
ftop at tome particular Benefit^ but goes to the Root 

4- of 

/)&^ R o T A L S o c I ET y. 75^ 

of 4tt aobk J^VMtmSf vki propofc; an infallible 
Courfe to make Efigland the Glory of the Weftcrn 

This my Love and my Hope; prompt nie to fay. 
But befides this, there is one Thing more, that per- 
faadcs me;, t^at fh« RByal Si^iety will be irmmrtd^ 
and that % that if their Stock iSioukt ftiU Qontinue 
narrow, y^t even iipon that> they will b( 9ble co fcc» 
themfelvcs from aU PUfiw)ti(^, and to make a copt- 
ftanc Inereafe of it, by their managing. There is 
fcaK:e any Thing has more hipdred the trueTbilofQphyi 
than a vain Opinion, that Men have taken vp, that No- 
thing could be done in it, to any purpofe, but upon a 
njoft Ch^rgfy iind by a m^Jfty Revenue. Men com- 
monly think, that the Tityvn which (aogording to ^e- 
miKrit$is) Truth Jy^s hid, \& bottornleiss and tl^tit will 
devoqr, whatever is dbifon^n into it, without being the 
fuller. This falfe Conception had got fomuoh Ground^ 
that a0bon a$ a Man b^gan to put his Hands to Expe- 
ritnentSj he was prefcntly given over, as impovcrifli'd 
and undone. Aqd indeed ^cEnemies of real Know- 
ledge, had fpme Appearance .of Reaiibn to conclude 
this heretofore \ becaufe they had ieen the great £- 
ftates of fome Chjmfis melted away, witfhout any 
Thing left behind, to make Rccompence. But this 
Imagination can now np longer prevail : Men now 
underhand, that Philofophy needs not fo great a Pro- 
digality to maintain it 5 that the moft profitable Trials 
arc not always the moft coftly i that the beft Inventions 
have not been found out by the richefty but by the 
moft prudent and induftrious Oblervers \ that the 
right Art of Experiment ing^ when it is once fet for- 
ward, will go near tofuftain it f^lf. This I fpeak, not 
to ftop Men's fixture Bounty^ by a philofophical Boaft, 


8o T%e HISTORY of 

that the R&yal Society has enough already : But rather 
to encourage them to caft in more Help i by (hew- 
ing them, what Return may be made from alittle,by a 
wife Adminiftration. 

Sea. X. ^ ^^^ Variety and Excellence of the Inftruments^ 

Their injiru- which it lycs in their Power to ufc, I will give no o- 

ments. ther Proof, than the wonderful Perfedion to which 

all manual Arts have of late Years arriv'd. Men now 

' generally underftand, to employ thofe very Tools 

which the Antients lent us, to infinite more Works 

than formerly 5 they have 2X(ooflate devis'd a great 

Multitude of all Sorts, which were before unknown ; 

and befidcs we may very well exped, that Time will 

every Day bring forth more. For according as the 

Matter to work upon does abound, the greater Plenty 

of Inftruments muft by Confequence follow ; fiich a 

Connexion there is betwecn/^'j/wf/^/jand the Means 

of inventing, that they mutually increafe each other. 

I might be as large, as I pleafed, in this Particular ; 
in running through fome Part of all the innumerable 
Arts of the wefiern Worlds and it were not difficult 
to (hew, that the ordinary Shops of Mechanicks arc 
now as full of Rarities^ as the Cabinets of the former 
nobleft Mathematicians. But I will leave that Subjed, 
which is fo familiar to all i and choofc rather, to fetch 
a Confirmation of this, even from thofe Countries, 
which (after the Manner of the Antients^ we call 
barbarous. And in going thither for an Example, I 
have a farther End. In my foregoing . Difcourfe, I 
tried to make out the Advantages of the modernT\vcit% 
above the ant lent 5 by following the Progrefs of 
Learning, down through their Trafts, to which Scho- 

2 lars 

r^^RoYAtSoClETY, 81 

Urs ufually confine it i I will now alfo ftrengthen 
that Argument, by briefly comparing the Skilit and 
the Works ofthe MK^iif72r4^ Parts of the ^r^^f World 
with thofe that zxtpaft. The antient Barbarians then, 
thofe Nations I mean, who lay without the Circle of 
thofe Arts which wc admire i the Gauls ^ the Bri- 
tainSf the Germans, the Scythians, have fcarce left 
any Footfteps behind them, to fhew that they were 
rational Men. . Moft of them were favage in their 
¥ra£iices -, grofs in their Contrivances $ ignorant of 
all, that might make Life either fafe, or pleafant. 
Thus it was with them, and this all Hiftory fpeaks with 
xmc Voice $ whereas the Barbarians of our Times ( if 
J may take the Liberty ftill to ufe that Word, which 
the Pride of Greece iirft brought into Fafhion ) the 
Turksy the Moors, the Eaft-Indians, and even the 
^Americans, though they too are utterly unacquainted 
with all our Sciences 5 yet by the Help of znuniverr 
fal Light, winch feems to pver-fpread this-^^, are 
in feveral Handicrafts mo&vczdy , and dextrous; in- 
fomuch that in fome, they can fcarce be imitated by 
the Europeans themfelvcs. I ihall leave it to any 
Man to conjedure from hence, which of thefe two 
Times^ has the prerogative ; and how much better 
Helps arc Probably to be found at this Day, in the 
moft civil Countries 5 when we now find fo much Ar- 
tifice, amongft thofe our Coiemporaries, who only 
follow rude^ and untaught Nature. 

Oi Ait Extent of the Matter, about which they StQ,. XL 
)iave ,bccn already convcrfant, and intend to be here- '^^^^^ ^^^' 
after j there can be 90 bettet Mcafure taken, than by ^^^' 
giving z general TroJpe£i of all the Objects of Men's 
-Thoughts 5 which ?an be nothing elfc, but either God, 
Ot Meny]6t 'Nature. . ' 

• L As 

8i rheHISrORTef 

As for the firft, they meddle no ether wife with 
^itfine Things^ than only »s the ^Jinuery and Jfipitrnt^ 
^nd Goodnejsxi^ the Creator is difplay'd in the admi- 
jraHc Order and Workmanfliip of the Creatures, ft 
cannot hedcny'd, but it Hes in ^t natural Vhthfih 
pher's Hands, beft to advance th« Part of ^ivinitj % 
'which, though it fills not the Mind with ftch ttfh 
der zvA powerful Contemplatitms^ as that which ihews 
us Man's Redemption by a Mediator ^ yet it is by no 
means to be pafs'd by unregarded, bat is an exceUent 
Ground to cftabJifli the other. This is a Religion, 
\;^h1di is coftfirm'd by the tmanimous Agreement of 
alt Sorts t>f Wbrfliips, and may fcryc in tcfeeft to 
Chrijlianity^ as Solomon\9ot6cLto theT(m^if; into 
the one the Heathens themfehrcs did alfo etiter, bet 
Into the other, only God's peculiar People. 

In Men, may be coniidei^d the Faculties and Ope- 
rations of their Souls f the Con/ittution of their Bodies^ 
and the fForh of their Hands. Of thefe, the ftrfi they 
omit 5 both becaufcthe Knowledge and Dircdion ttf 
thcta have been before undertaken, by fome ArtSj on 
which thfy have no mind tointrench, asthe Totiticis, 
Mordlity^ ^nd Oratory i and alfo becaufc the Rtdfbn, 
the Underflanding, tatTetnperSy the Wtil, ^t^ajfions 
of Men, are fo hard to be reduced to any certain Ob- 
fervation of the Senfes^ and aKbrd fo much Room to 
thd Ohfervtrsto falfify or countcrftitj thatif focH 
Difcourfcs (hould be once entertained, they would 
be in Da Ager of falling into talkingy inftcad of work- 
ingy which f hey careftdly avoid. 5uch-Sub|eftstherc- 
forcas thefe they have hitherto Iceptout. But yet, 
when they fhall have made moreProgrds in -materid 
Things, they will be in a Condhionof pronoimchig 
more boldly on them too. For though ManViSmiT 


/^^ R O T A L S O C 1 Er T Y. 83; 

and Body are not only one natural Engme (as fome 
have choujgbc) of whofe Motions of all Som^ th^re 
may beas ccctain aa Account givea, as of thofe of a 
Watch or Qodk \ yet by loi^ fiudyiiig of the Spirits^ 
ef the Biood^ of the Nmrifimmtr of the Pacts^ of 
the ^ifhaffs^ of the AdMOttagis^ of the Accidcnis 
which bekMig to bumm Bc€lies ( all which will come 
within their Province) diere mayy withoot Qiieftioo» 
be very near Guefles made, even at the moite exalted 
ta^immediaieAAiomoSthcSMli and ^tvoo^ with** . 
WA defttoy ing ixsiJjnritiudmA, immartal Being. 

Thcfe two Sab^eds^ G$d^ and the Smd^ bdng only 
foiboGB^ in all the idGb they wander aK their Plear 
ibre : In the Frame of Meffs BikOes^ tht Ways for 
ftrong, heathfuly and long Life ;. in the Arts 0/ Meffs 
HandSj thofe diat ekhtr Necejffity^ Qmvenience^ or 
^e^t have ptoduc'd i in the Wcrks of Nature ^ 
their Helps^their Varktiei^ RfdHnriancies>attd Defe^ 
and in bringing aU theft to the 6^^ oihrnkm Society. 

htthtkMetkodof mpurhagf I wiUobfervc how sc&. Xli. 
they have behav'd tliemftLves in Tbif^ that might 7%eir Me- 
be brought within thear invn Teucbmd Sight $ and^^'^'' "^ '''' 
how in tbofe> which are to ffcmote^ and haid to be ^'^'^' 
come by> that about them they were ibrc'dL to truft 
the Reports ff others. 

In the firft Kindt I fiudl lay it down as their fiuh 
dam^Tttal Law^ that whenever they conld pofTtb^ 
get to hmdk the Sabjeft, the Experiment was ftilL pel- 
form'd by fome of the MenAers thetnTdrcs. The 
want of t\mExaSlnefs has very mncti dimiMifh'd the 
Credit of former Katuraliftsy it might elfe hiye fcdm'd 
iteinge, that fo many Men of Wit, fcttii^ fo man^^ 
Hands 00 woric^ bdi^fowatchfixlfiocdtchupallRe- 

L a lacions, 

84 the HISTORY of 

Utions, from Woods, Fields, Mountains, Rivers, 
Seas, and Lands i and fcattering their PetiHonfi fo U* 
berally j ihould yet be able to collisft ib few Obferva- 
tions, tliat have been judicious or ufefiiU But the 
Reafon is plain \ for while they thought it enough, to 
be only Rectiversoi others Intelligence; they have 
either employed igmrant Searchers,' who knew nor 
how to digeft or diftinguifii what they found $ or fri- 
voiauSy who always lov'd to'come home laden, ihoogh 
it were but with Trifles i or ( which is worft of all ) 
crafty y who having perceiv'd the Humors of thofe that 
paid them fi> well, would always take care to bring in 
fuch Colleftions as might feem to agree with the C)pi< 
nionsand Principles of their MnflrerSy however they 
did with Nature it felf. 

This Inconvenience the Ri^al Society hasefcap'd, 
by making the whole Pmcefs pafs under its own Eye^. 
And the Task was divided amongil them, by one of 
thefe two Ways. Firft, it was (bmetimes^ refer'd to 
fome particular Men^ to make Choice of what Sub- 
jeSt they pleafed, and to follow their own Humor in 
the Trial i ^ Expence being ftill altoiw'd from the 
genoral Stock. By which Liberty, that rhey afforded, 
they had a very ncceflary Regard to the Power of ^tfr- 
tlcular Inclinations ; which in all Sorts of Knowlee^e 
is fo ftrong i that there may be numberlefs Inftances 
given of Men, who in Tomci Things have been alto- 
togtxYitt ufelifSy and yet in others have had fuch a vi- 
gorous and Jkccefsfut Faculty , as if they had been 
born and form'd for them alone. 

Or elfe fecondfy, the Society it felf made the Di- 
ftribution, and deputed whom it thought fit for the 
Profecution of fuch or fuch Experiments. And this 
they did, either by allotting the fame Work xofeveral 


/^f R O Y A L S O C I E T Y. & j 

Men, feparatcd one from another; or clfe hj joining 
them mto Committees^ (if we may ofe that Word in a 
philolbphical Senfe, and fo in (bme Meafure purge ifc 
from the ill Sound which it formerly had.). By this 
Union of Eyes and Hands there do thefe Advanta- 
ges arife. Thereby there will be a foil Comprehend 
Jion of the Ob;ed in all its Appearances; and fo there 
^illbea mutual Communication /of the Light of one 
Science xo another \ \f\\txz^JmgU Labors i^ be but as' 
a Profpcdi taken upon one (ide. And alfo by this fixing ' 
of feveral Men's Thoughts upon one Thing, there will 
be an excellent Cuircfor that ^efeSf^ which is almofl: 
unavoidable in great Inventors. It is the Cuftom oif 
inch earnef|: and ppwerfol Minds, to do wojide^, 
T\xva^'miht Beginnings bur (hortly after, to be over- 
born by the Multitude and Weight of their own 
Thoughts; then to yield, and cool by little and little y 
and at liaft grow weary;; land 6v!cn to loath thfit; updn! 
which they were at firft th^ moft eager* Thisisthe won- 
ted C?onftitution oi great Wits i fuch tender Things 
are thofe exalted Adions of the Mind ; and fo hard it 
is,for thpfe Imaginations^that can run fylft and ^.^^^y. 
Races, to be able to ttavel a long and Wconftanf loiir-* 
ncy, . The Eflfeas of this Infirmity hayc Seen lo re-* 
markable, that we have certainly loft very many ]pt^ 
ventionSy after they have been ii|i part ftfliion'd,, by 
the mecr languifiing and negligence of their Authors^ 
For this, the bcft PrOvififon muft be; to join ma^y Merit* 
together 5 for it'c^nnot be irpagin'ti, thatthey ffiould bc^ 
all fo violent and fiery; and fo by thi? mingling Jof 
Tempers, the impetuous Men not havjng the whblc 
Punhcn on thcra, may have Leifurc for Intervals to re- 
cruit their firft Heat 5 and the 'morcjud/^^u^y who artf 
r^Qt Tq fopii pdacts^d ^ iih ftich^ Raptures, ';nay <m 



8<r 7%effrSf6kYdf 

oftthaotkers (Irong Conceptions, by fobdrcrDegtees, 
CO a full Accompliintnent. 


Sea. XIII. This they have pradlVd in iuch Tkittgt whcfffcttf 
'Their way tf/^hc Matter k common, and wherein they ifiay repeat 
r*emouMat^ their Labours as they pleafc. But in foreign and tetnote 
tcrs. Affairs, t\\tM Intensions and their Advantagei do far 

exceed all others. For thefc: they have begun tOf 
fettle a Corre^ondence through all Countries ; and 
have taken Aicn Order, that in (hort Time there will 
fcarce a Ship come up the Thame Sy that does not make 
Ibmc return <A Experiment SyZ% ^tlXzsoi Merchafidize: 
This their Carp of an univerfal IntelligeMe is be- 
friended by Nature it fel^, in the situation oiEn^taHdi 
For» lying fb as it dees, in the Paflage between the 
northern Parts of the World and the Southern \ its 
^orts bci^ open to a(I Coafl^, and its Ships (preadlrig 
theit Sails Ilk aU Seas\ it is thereby wcejfarth made, 
not only Mifirefs dT the Ocean^ but tlic mou: proper 
Seat for the Advancement of Kwmledge. From the 
^options of Countries arilie not only their feVetal 
Shapes^ Manners, Cuftomsj, Colours, but aTfo theiiT 
different Arts and Studies. The Inland and CtMti- 
nent we fee do giiVe Laws to Diicourfe, to Habits, 
to Behaviour i but thofe that border upon the SeaSy are 
mod: properly feated to bring home Matter for new 
ScifnceSy and to make the fame Proportion of Difco* 
verles above others in the intellectual. Globe, as they 
have done in the Material 

Upon this Advantage of our Ifland, there is fo much 
Strefs to be laid towards the Profperity of this Def^tf, 
that if we fhould fearch through all the World for 
a perpetual Habitation^ wherein the univerfal Philo- 
i[bphy might fettle it felf, there caii none be found, 

I which 

/i&^ R OY A t S o ciET-y. $7, 

whif^b lU ooixipM:9l3ik. to X'lmdm, of i^U the ^iner> pt 
pcc(«oc Sq»ivpf foipire. Baij/^, ch;)twa^t))^<r<^A 

was tb^r^forcft caovgh m> pcoaaQteon^ pact ^)^at¥^ 
w<U Kumiukf^e, tiicQbferv4Uffins()ithcIfeavtns:^^ 
k IW4S a Mifi^Und Xqwa* .«i4 ^Tf^ed i^t ^ ^^ 
fick of Forqgq«(s, abgModuig ji^^b Its pw^iLfwwy 
aod Sjqh««. Mmphif was ivpspipiei:^ .tqpoo -tlv: /iwM 

9*Jfnt/* adn)i«wg $trai|sers,. faf h?r to w&pf/^ t^Q^p 
tbaa-toj^am^riy tA^ivfiKi9i (hem, • Onit^^ftoq4,^Rt 

9JUhc 4lf^,t(^jShAGe K409tJWi«s9t t^ Paf. ^sfipf 
jSamv, ksFomioe W9S<read by Virgil i when.h^j^d* 

fWtf, jvtis JtQo piwclj ftiutflp ibyjthp Straws •^;^^^ 

jgouAK^on wuhthc Ocean, >m by^i ^png Q^jp^is ^, 
tiout; 4mfter<tam\& afUceof Tmc^C) wi^9iv riiJe^liX' 
tuire pf M^ pf fw^r TM»ghts. An4» ;<v?n :?fVv><ic 
if lf»«dKH)gl» tf is &r DO bep^iT'fi^e^? Ml ^,9t^« 

}eft K^ipable, Jar the (awe R^aAws ^91: which ^imt 
was, by hcUig/hc ^x<^G4VAittry,^t4rtA^.Ss^^ 
voAMdMc^im, ^ut k is Lan4m alpqcyth^-^H)y,s.^^ 
pf th(c other's ^dv:an£ag(swkh<o^^ i^U Jvcq^v^^ l>r 
««$. Jt is the Head of a vfigkPy .Em^r^y fl^w^^^f^ 

that <V€r «9nwMiMied the Qfffiw: J[t: i« ^Rmpp^d <jQf 
Gentlemen^ as wcU a? Tr«4«Tf .' lit has a A^e It)ta- 
{K^ucfi^ with aU'thp^^rf^ ;,ia3 the l^^/i^ir dfifcribe 

iSMMU<mfe^^E$m»i ftCky, «^>6f^^l«h?N«ii?fs.aH4 


88 neHISrORTof 

Hortour is joftly due to it, to be the cmftmt place of 
Rtfidfneefot that Knowledgeyy^Kich is t6 be made up 
of the&epbirts andlntcllrgcncc of all Countries. ' ^ 
' ' To. this I will add r Hclpitt 

our Hands, which almoft forces this Crown on the 
Hea4 of the Englijh Nation : and that is, the ndbk and 
mqiHfiH^e'Gehiusoft^xt Merchants. This cannot be 
bcttet ' (hcwh, than by comparing them with'thiife 
of that one CounttT*, which only ftands in Compe^ 
tition with us for Trade, The Merchants oi England 
live honourably in foreign Parts ; thofe of H^ttand 
meanly,; minding * th^ir Gain * Mohe i biits cdflVerfd 
freely, and learn from all i having in their Bchavteiir 
very much tif the G^////// of the Families, from 
which fomany of them are defcchded : The others 
when they are abroad, (hew, that they are only a 
Race rf plain Citizens^ keeping themfelvcs moft with- 
in their own Cells, -and 'Ware-hbufts 5 fcatce -regard- 
ing the Acquaintance of any, but thofe with whom 
they traffick. This Ldrgenefs of oiirs, and Narrow- 
nefs of their living, docs, no doubt, conduce very much 
to enrich them; and is, perhaps, oneofthcReafons 
that they can fo cafily under-fell us : But withal it 
makes ours the moft capable ^ as theirs unfits to promote 
fuch an Enterprifej as this of which I am now fpeaking. 
For indeed, the EfFefts of their fcveral Ways of Life 
are as different : Of the Hollander Sy I need fay tib more, 
but of the Englijh Merchants I will aflkm, that in all 
forts ofFolitene(s, and Skill in the ^r^ and ^i^^KT^iv 
Affair Sy they do not only excell them, bat are equal 
to any other fort of Men amongft us^ 

This I have fpoken, not to IcflTen thcReputation of 
that induftrims People: But, that I might (if it Were 
poilible) inflame their Minds to an Eihulation of this 

4* Dcfign : 

the K o Y >M' i ^ c i i T y. 8p 

Defign. They have iAl things' imaginable to ftifthcmr 
up J they have the Examples of the greatcft Wits of 
otlier Countties^ 'who have left their own Hothes, t(i 
tfetire^thither^foi' the Freedom ofthdr ^ilofophUdai' 
Studi^Y THey4iave one Place (I metti ^ Hd^) 
-wfeth' iriiy ijefbdh made the vetji''06^of a''^bwh 
in ihtNew }ithmtis ; which f6r its Plealintnefi, and 
fc^'the Concburfe orMendfali- Conditions to it,- may 
be coUtit6d,< above tA %>th«:r^, (icxcept <Z.M<sIU») : thc^ 
raoft aavantjrgtcwflyreatedlbk''thfa' Service.- /f ; 
Thefe have been the Privileges and Pradicesof ^<^ 
Royal Soeietf, ih Thtn^ ft^eigti aAd i^^t\ It would 
now be neediels-tp fet do\irh^the®ftj>s lof their Fro- 
grcfi about thciii j liow t:h*y dbft^'d ali-thc Varicties'df 
Generdtipni md (>r«)^>;-^ati<^til' inm^^zU all 
tfiedncreafiftgs and LeflbJfikgV A|reei^ehte 'land^ Op- 
pofitidfis of Things } ho\t> bavUig-foilrtd'odta Cdujb, 
they have Applied it to ^ttti^ Ocber ^feS^ii iM&it 
Bffi€fsw i»SacoiX:au0iifibm^cy ard iHHAtto thangd 

Ihe Ihffi^mients, andPliic^'diid'^dRi^ias'df l^atten 
accdfdilig taOocdidns f At3 in th<!^ o^cft^^ubttltie^ 
ahdi tl^indings of TriaU.^di ttre alm^ infinite td 
exprefe; ilhall only, in pafflng/tobdh in'thtefetwo' 
Things/ which they have mod carefully confulteH. - 
- 'The oncfisj iiotto pi-efcribe to thcmfelvcs any cer- 
tain Aft o4Exfi^imehti/tg, '\iv%t<in ^gv^ich- td drdbn^- 
fiftib^'-iheit Thouf^tsls'bikrathieE^o k«ep themielves 
ftt^i ihd chiA^e t<bdir Cbti^^, ■ lac£ording to the d'tf- 
fiirent Cir<Atihftances thatoetidr to them in their Ope- 
rations, and theievtrall Alterbtions of the Bodies on 
^ti^khe^ work: The tnie ^ExfiermMttng has thi^ 
«fii t)llk%ill(epanible!frotn^ic^ kev^ to^foe aj^i/ai^- 
fitth^AYfi imd ne^rWbe^Mf/^i/by conftant'Ruies; 
^]^Mif, "perhaps, nu^y>belih0wi$t<)O'in ^iAistAt>it > as in - 
^'^J M that 

, %\i4i q^m Qm \mMfPn tp pegiu^4 rt>s ^/^. aii4 

H0mm ^i.'P-imi 4ff0i9tii^3i Spimsy <L/^^mK»t 

bp««4»qg'»»PS«.w«hpf«njr X»lqs^ awl fi|»q PWUftflW 

this.Q))}rC<pisf^t)i$ft-to.nJ»c^J^QoK^Btw^^.i ftjfi^wt 
t^. tra^ foljojwing, of Nmrfi k>f tlja^, ftill gpfis^ on 
in. a ft^ajiy R^piKUPr H ft fo,cxtt»yjjg3tti^ty.aiMi^#<»fis^ 

fiom. ami Igiu»ajic€iL nwkfi* it. I^ip %U(% s| jWw t^* 
of aH fltl|icr$>, is moft iiii*igft to b«. <fec€W'4i» fe^-.iti 
"»^ill i93l;c M«n incUwfete to bwit^fi.TftiKh flw^ 
4lWPy» ep tai^. a (pe<;iQ«s,QWltv/|tlon gpft^f if.; . ' hlStm 

1' by 


the k o V A i "S o c f =E 'r r. y r 

taftdel((^ A§^y t<y faf Mr rii(M^, llM! ti$iy t>el]gfit wRkU ' 

6tPm:yy iUffb^ liiKtnfttM 'in.riiiiBlEgiMiih^ but 
Ibbn ^eatieif^allff PanXm-. wh»di^ a> fcft /i^/ oF 
^4Mpv, like the' ftdifitfe df J?i?2i^ #di)i<f not bfe; 
^iet^ps> fiy ^uidc siad-Vk>{^htr bat of fatlodgaf Cbfi' 
dftuittcc itt^ ift-CSdrtKdttiettif; ' ' - - ' ' ^ 

ThcHi ifif//lfr Mifi^ thM 631fealed/ h^ be^dSea. XI V. 
ftWnght before tiftir w&ehfy ^efh^/y tb oftdcirgo af*?^ »'f* 

deiVoonpHaVe' bdeH» ihatf ttley' fAl^ ahSy ^d' Be^ 

^'MnH^, l<4itdi att Latg(»icl^df0b^ 
I,' aiid' IK^dftt^ ofJudgttiJmt^r'v^itHbvit tht! 
M!rehiei5thitHiflianjr«U>d6m^anyii'j fitcK ai Gonfiifti 
oi^i UnOeaaiiie&yatda thelicclc AfliiH6fitie» ofdividcfd 
I^ardci; l%tt dilejr! hate avdidt^ thbfe ■ Dirigt^ fB)^ 
the tiirte'DlR.^ tfaei« can b<i ddtK^tta^Pitoidf ' tIM> ^h^ 

oonAimt Prattioei \^erein- 

p^eftity^' a> fihgui^^ ^^cmmif 


hare'the^ be£ ofnfy ftee'fraUf F<ii9{i»i^'^ btit*- fidtri thi^ 
ttrf'Ci»/is atid-JS^MM^i' ot^itf.' R^Wii^ ih •ii\iti m 
Hxy Mai¥ anibiigft thti ftii^ffir^SlSi'i^Vifi^ fflWefT b^ 
tttt atid^^^ or ttH^r'ftfr dif gfeWtelb^'-ffM 
Hiie Subt»ty< of hs Wit '; 4eiiing it^tft^ ^artifidaf 

ah^CoAittitht^ ttp&h'it, ^idi'tHby hi^ baditf Ve^ 
neration. There was no Room left, for any to ottetMt 
to Iwrafc ■ tbtir own, 6r othcf ^ Mirtls', Seyoiid i| -due • ;' 
Tetapet'i tk^ire they wfcre nor allow'tf to eJtpsrfiati^,' .. ' 
or attiplihej o^' conned i^cious^^ il/rgtioknts together; 

M 2 They 

They could ikx be much ex9%eratcd one ^^^liiift ano* 
thcr ia th^ir Di%i:^cintnt^ , 4;>$iCgafe , they ac]f;n9w- 
ledge, tjiat chc^e. piaj J^cXtit^^ Mcc1iq(|( of ,Na-. 
ture, in ptoduping t}M fiimp JAinfc and aH ?qttftMyi 
gof>d5 whcrean |hcy thac coiHc;adTor Truth by ,19^1^*^ 
log, dp cominoniy fupppfctb^^ there i^ but one Way 
o£find|pg it ovit. Thf: Di$cr€;acf;s,which (hoqld chance 
tOi h^ppcpr :might :f9pn- be. cpqnpps'd 9 b^oaufe chpy. 
could not be grounded onrlyfatficrci of: SpeqUatiouj or 
Opinion, but only of Senfc 5 which are never wont 
to adnun^er fp. povf erful ] Qcic;4k>ns. of ^ Difturbance 
and Contention, as the pther. In brief, they have 
cfcap'd the P^eju^ices that ui^.to.arife f^oQi. Authpri- 
r^, frpm loj^q^aiiiy of ]^er^i}5,ffoa)^In/tq^atioi;is,(rpm, 
fciendfhip&i buf :tibayc s4}, they , We gjfiurdcd them- 
(clyes agaioft themrelvcs, left :thp, Stpreog^h of their 
own Thppghts (hould.leadthen^ ^nto Error ; left their 
good Fortune ill pfie PirQ3very ^uld prefcntly cqn-y 
fipe >thcin only tjc^. qnc ji^ay gf.Tfri^l^^ l<q^jtheirjfa^^[ 

logs J^9^M^^^^ $Hf ceC^ . ?b«» thfiir^Qin 

Ugence. ..^n^t^i^e ;^^f^^f,/^/^y^^ . 

they^ve by Ippg^-^^qi^iRadetp bcqipipc t^pfi(??q 

l^a; pc Ai^:9f ^|ys ^S^i^S yv^^ d^ccnd dowft to^ 
their Su^ceflprSi ,not ' only, as cirqifm/Ui^fflf li^W^x 
wbiclvniftjf ]t>^,;ifgie^dnQ£:4^^ 

rciiwi^pn.AekMiijffe aij^hj j^4W^ of iSZiffWf: do iq 
the^caits of Meni; ;whic^ ai;e foqear tp us^v that ^q 
can hardly 4i%]guiih,' whet^r tkey weretaught u$by 
Dcgi;ef $;Qf rcpff 4 iatb^,ycry I?oi>nd^tion of our, Baling. 

Sea. XV. ^ ;It will Aotbc hrre (eafonable, to ipea^ nl^db of 
'ius^ftbcTr^^^^ which they, have hithqrtpobfcrv'd in 

Mifthli. ^*^ thefe Meetifigs^ s beuufe they ate alino(| the fame, 

I . which 


the R O Y A t $ C 1 1 T Tt p3 

which have, been fince cftablUb'd by their Qnmcilf 
vtiich we ihall have a more proper Occafion to pro- 
duce hereafter. Let this only be laid ia brief, to fa- 
tisfy ^e curious, • 

The T lace where they hitherto aflembled, isGr^* 
fiam^College\ where> by the Munificence of a Citi- 
zen, there . have been Ledures for fcveral Arts in- 
dow'd fo Jibcraily,^ that if it were beyond Sea, it 
might well (pafs for an Umverjitj. And indeed, by a 
rare Happinel^ in the Conftitution (of which I know 
not where to find the like Example) the Profefibrs 
have been from the Beginning, and chiefly of late 
Years, of the moft learned Men of the Nation; though 
the Choice has been wholly in the Difjpofal of Citizens. 
Here the Royal Society has one publick Room to meet 
in, another for a Repofitory to iceep their Inliruments, 
Books, Rarities, Papers, and whatever elfe belongs to . 
them i making ufe befides^ by Permiflion, of feve- ^ 
ral of the other Lodgings, as their Occasions do re- 
quire. And, wheii I confider the Place it felfi methinks 
it; bears ibtpeLikenefs to their De%n. It is now zCoU 
le^ei &ut .was once the Mannon-houTe of one of the 
greateji, Merchants that ever was in England: And » 
fuch a 7hilofoPhy they would build ; which fliould firil 
whoUy . conlift of Action and Jnteltijgencef before it . 
be hrovight into "teaching and Ctmfemlation. \\ 

Their Tilft>e is every Wednesday ^ after the Lcdurc 
of the AJlronomy Profcflbrj perhaps, in Memory of. 
the fir({ Occafions of their Rendezvoufes. ' 

Their EleSHans^ performed by. Balloting y cwcty', 

^^cmber havi;ig a Vote $ the Candidates being nam'd ^ 

at bne.Meejtingj and puttothc45<rr«//»;',atapother, , 

yXhQli chief officer is the Trejtdent ^ to whom- it » 

belongs to call, and difiblvc their Meetings i to propofe 


^4 n^ fff^TORTaf 

. ' r ... 

the 9iib^fti to testate the Proceeding; i^ to chme 
the Inquiry from, one thing; to another ; taadh^mc 
Membc« who arc dcftccL 

Bciidcs him, they had. ^t; iufl; a Renfhr^ Vfao was 
to take J^otcs of all that oafiilf which were after-, 
wards to be reduced into their Jmrtrali and Itegifier 
Bopks. This Task was ^perfrrnfd by Dt. Croane. 
But they itnqe thought it moce neceflary^ to appoint 
two Secretaries, who arc to reply to all Addrcflcs 
from Abroad^ and at Homcj. and to. publifii what- 
ever fliall be agreed upon b^. the Society. Theft arc at 
prcfent, Dr. ^^i^j, and Mr. OkUnburghj from whom 
I liarc not ufurp'd this ftrfl: Ili^ploy ment of that Kind ;. 
for it is only my Hand that goes, the Subftance and 
Direftion came ftom one of them. 

This is all that I have to fay concerning their cere- 
mmial^art. In moft other Things, they bounded 
themf^lves to noftanding Orders, there bcihgnothing 
more intended in fnch Circumfiances, than Conveni- 
ence and Order. If any ihall imagine, they have 
not limited themfelves to Forms enough, to keep up 
the Gravity, and Solemnity of fuch an Enterprize^ 
they are to confider, that To much Exadoefs and Cu- - 
riofity of Obfervapces, does not fo well ,befit Inqui- 
rer s^ as SeSfs of Philofbphy, or Places appointed ibr 
Education, or thofe who fubmit themftlves to theSe- 
verity of fome religious Order. The Work which 
the Society propofes to it felf, being not fb fine, and ' 
eafie, as that of Teaching is ; but rather apainfiil dig- 
^g, and tolling Ja Nature ; it would be a great In- , 
cnmbrance to th^m, to be ftreigbtned to maiiy (itift 
VftnihSosi as much as it would be to zn.jlrtificer^ 
. to be loaded with many Qbaths,. while he is labour- 
iiig in his Shop^ 


the KoY At SociETf. ^f 

But haying made fo much Hafte through tbi firmdt 
Tsrt ofthefethehrMeetingi^ I (hall not (b (boa dif- 
patch ttefuBfianSiali which confifts in dire^m^u^'^ 

Towardsthc 6x&. of thcle £nds» h has been thdrs^g, xvi. 
uTuaL Cknu:fc> when they themfelvcs^ a]^f)okited thcTbeir direa]- 
Trials to ptogofc one Week fome particutaf Expe^^^S £*?W- 
rimmttt to be prosecuted the nexr \ and to debau! be-^^^^^* 
fpre Hand, concealing all Things that might conducd 
to. the better carrying them on^ la this prebmhkuy^ 
CaUe£fi(m^ it has been the Cuftom, foranyr <^ tbr ^S^- 
cieiji to urge what came into theirXhou^ts^^ or Me* 
mories concerning them ; either from the ObferVati6u 
of others^ or from S^ohs, or from thehrown £^99^ 
riencei orevea fron^ common Fiimf it felf« And in 
performing this, they did nocexercifc any great Ri« 
ggur of choofing and diitiagujtffaing betwten Truihr 
and Faljhoads\ but amals altogether as they came) 
the, certain Works, the Opink)ns, the Guefles; the In:^ 
rentions^ with their different D^tees and Aocideto, 
the Probabihtiesr the Problems^ the general Coh^ 
ceptk)ns, the miraculous Stories, the ordidaity Pro* 
dubious, the ChangjSJ incident to thrfamc M^tttit in 
feverali Places, the Hindrances, the' Benefits, oiAirSy 
cfi..Se^fims^ ot hfiruments % and whatcv'^r they found' 
CO have been, begun, to have fail'd^ to hswe fuoccedf-' 
c4r in^ the Matter which was then under thdt Di&* 

^ This;ir a moft neccffary Preparation^ to any that no 
fplye^toma)|& a fieifed &0a(ch« Fot they canitot bue 
^ blindly^ an4iiaiinoliy^ and coniiiiiedly abotit thcr Bdlv* 
neTs^: tt^ios^ thos^avf fixSt^ }ai^; befdt^ tlicin> a:fiii:l:*^r- 

i Cartes 

^^ The HIS TORY of ' 

Cartes recommends to us another Way in his philofi^, 
phkal Methods where *hc gives this Relation of his 
own Progrefs ; that after he had run through the aiiial 
Studies of Youth, and fpent his firft Years in an adive' 
Life; when he retir'd to fearch into Truths he at once* 
rejefted all the Impteffims^ which he had before re- 
ceiT'd> from what he had heard and read, and wholly' 
gave himfelf over to a Refledion on the naked Ideas^ 
of his own Mind. This he profefs'd to do, that he mi^ht' 
lay afide ^1 his olilmaginattms^ and begin anew to 
write on a white acid unblottcd' Soul. This, perhaps; 
is more allowable in Matters of Cmtemplatitmy and in 
a Gentleman^ whofe chief Aim was his own Deligh^^ 
and fo it was iti his own Choice, whether of ho he^ 
would go farther to fcek it, than his own Miiid'f Biit* 
it can by no means (land with a pradical and^imivef fal 
Inquiry. It is impoflible, but they, who willbtily 
tranfaibe their own Thoughts, and difdain. to nica*- 
fiire or ftrengthen them by the Affiftahce of others, 
ihould be in moft of their Apprehenfions too narrow,' 
and obfcure ; by fetting down I'hings foi general,' 
which are only peculiar to themfelves. - it cannot be 
avoided, but they will commit many grofs Miftakes s^ 
and beftow much ufelefs Pains by making themfelves 
wilfully ignorant of what is already known, and what 
conceal'd. It was tried among the AntidntSy to -find' 
out the pure and primitive Language of the World,'* 
by breeding up a Child fo, that he might htrs^erheat^ 
any Man fpeak. But what was the Event of that' 
Trial? Infteadof obtaining that End, the Child' wa$ 
made abfolutely dumb thereby. And the like SuccHs' 
will that Vbihfother find, who (hall cxpeft, that, J)y ' 
the keeping his Mind free from thcT^wfifer^of'iatf 6-' 
thers OftnionSy it will ^ivc him the btiginal ahdl tin-' 


*^f R T A L S O C I E T T. 97 

infefted Tnaks of Things. All KwtwU^e is to bjQ 
f)Ot the fame way that a Lang^iagc is, by Induftry^ 
Ufif aad ObfervMtum. It muft be £eceiv'd> before ic - 
can be drawn forth. Tis tru^ the Mind ^ Man is a 
Glafsy which is able to reprefent to it feif^all the Works 
ctf Nature : But it can only fhew thofe Figures^which 
have been biCNO^^ before it : It is viofiUfgicalGlafs^ 
like that with which ]/iJlrobgers^vSc to deceive the 
ignorant} by making, thepi believe^ that therein, they 
may behold the Image of any Vtace^ or Terjfan in 
the World, though ever fo far rempv'd from it. I 
know it may be here fuggefted $ that they, who buiie 
themfelvesQiuch abroad about learning the Judgments 
of others, cannot be uopre^dic'd in what they think.^ 
But it is not the kmnmg^ but the peremptory Addic-^ 
turn to others. TWif/^Tf that Towers and perverts the 
Und&ftmulmg. Nay, to go farther j that Man, who 
is throughly acquainted with all 3orts of Opinfons^ is 
very much morc.|iniik^iy> to sKlher? obftinately to any 
one particular^ thafi he whofe Head is only fiUU 
with Thoughts, that are all of one Colour. 

It being now fo requiftte, to premife, this general 
Colledion, it cQuld not be better made, than by the 
joint Labours of .the whole Society. It were an intor 
Jerable Burthen, if it were wholly caft on the Epcpefi^ 
ntenters themfelves. For, it is snot only true, that 
thofe who have the beft Faculty of exf^erimeptingy arc 
commonly moft averfe from reading Books ;. dnd 
fo it is fit, that this l^efeit fliould be fMpplied by 
others Pains: But alfo it would too much tire, and 
wafte or at lea(t divert their Spirits, before they came; 
to the main Work : Whereas the Jask being fhar'd 
amongfl: fo great a Number, will become not much 
more than a BuTmeis of T)eiight. Well then, by 

N this 

98 TheHISrORT^^ 

f his firft Comment and ^ifi^mrfe apdii the Expemuni^ 
he that is to try^ it^ being prefeAt^ and'liatin^ fo'gdoft 
an Opportunity, of coniparing fo many otter Mtn"^ 
Conceptions with hi^ own, abd '^\\kt\it Thing k 
felf, muft needs have his Tfafoi^hts more enlarged, hii 
Judgment confirmed, his£ye$ open'd to difcern, what 
moft compendious Helps may b6 ptoyided j what 
part of it is moife or le(s ufeful, and Opon V/h^t Adeic 
may be beft attenipted :-TheTrw/i>ji which he Icarm 
this way, will be his Pattern 5 the J^rr^^x will bc.his 
Sea-marks, to teach to a?oid tiie fame Dangers ^ th^ 
very Falihoods themfeh'es will ferve to enlarge, though 
they do not inform his Underjt^mding. And; indeed^ 
a thoufand more Advantages tv'rit' hereby <x3me inttf 
the Minds of the moftfagadous and aoate J^^itlr^rA 
which they would never have compafs'd,' if they had 
been only left to themfeives. - 1 remember my Lord 
Bacm (bmewhcte fayis 5 Tfodtitiscneofthe gf4Mep 
SecrHsof^tMeWs^JlhHs afe mrii, 
ble rf being rais*d to higket IJ^gfleeUnCompdnyl tk 
in Solitude) and that we fo&ner ^i&ve^ feat^ tepiie^ 
hve^ admire y when we behold many others fo mov*d^ 
than whenwe are alone. This is imt$ and the fame 
may be as wdl affirm"d of liioftothe* Aftions of the 
Mindi III Affemklies, the Whs of ttioft Men ate 
Jharpety their Apprehetijians readier y theit Thoughts 
fuller yXhMi in their Clofets. Of this there is an undoubt* 
ed Proof in the Art of faking. For, let the wit- 
tieft and moft eloquent Men think as largely as 
they can,^ on any Subjeft in private 5 yet; wheiv ihtf 
come into the publick , and elpccially, when theyJiaive 
heard others fpeak before them, their ' Argument ap* 
pears quite another thing to them $ theit formiejf £x- 
preilions feem too flat and cold for their prefent 

I Thoughts 5 

the R O Y A L S O C X B t Y. pj) 

Thoc^tsj their Minds fweU» and are caUghmcd^ 
as if at that time they were poflefs'd with the Sauls of 
the whole Multitude, before whom they ftand. 

Thofe, CO whom the Conduft of the £^Ar/^/i«ra^ g^^ yjj 
is committed, being difmifs'd with thefi; Ad vantages, ri&Wr judr- 
do, as it werp, cany the Eyes; and the Imaginati*'jj^ ;ef ^|' 
ons of the whole Company into the Lobar atary with p^^ ^^ 
them. And after they have performed the Trials they 
bring all the ii/i^orjr of its Pr^r.^ back again to the 
Tefi. Then comes in thefecond great Work of the 
Affembh \ which is to/ mlg^ and refalve upon the Mat* 
ter of FaSJr. In this rart oS their Imployment, they 
Qs'd to take an exad View of the Repetition of the 
whole Courfe of the i£^^/w^9!tfs l^ere they obierv'd 
all the Chimcis, and the JRegulfrit^fs of the Pro- 
ceding j. what. Nature does wiUingly, what con-. 
(Irain'd i what ^with its own Power, what by the Suc- 
cours of Arti what in a conftant Road, and what 
withfome kind of Sport and Extravagance s induftri- 
oufly , marking aQ (be various Shapes into which it 
turns it. f elf, when k^. per fued^ nnd by how many fe-* 
cret Paflage^k at laft obtains its End } never giving it 
over till the who^e Company has been fujly fatisfied of 
the Certainty and Conftancyi or, on the other fide, 
of the abfolute Impoflibility of the EfFcd, This cri- 
tical and reiterated Scrutiny of thofe Things, which 
arethepl^n Qb)eds of their Eyes,, muft needs put 
outfQf ^U ^eafpnabie; Difpui^ the. ReaUty of thofe 
Operations; which thip S(fciety (hall positively deter^* 
mine to have fucceeded. If any ihall ftiil think it a. 
|uft pbilafaphical Liberty^ to be jealous of rcfiing on 
their Credit, they are in the right j and their Diffent^ 
f)B|^j will be nioft thankfiiUy received, if they beefta-. 
blifh'd on iblid Works, and not only 0Ti\Pre}u4ices yOi 

N 2 . Sujpicians. 

loo the HISTORY of 

Sufpicums. To the Rtyal Society it will be at any time 
almoft as acceptable, to be confuted^ as to difcaver ; 
feeing, by this means, they will accomplifli their 
main T>efign : others will be inflam'd $ many more 
will labour $ and fo the Truth will be obtain'd be-^ 
tween them } which may be as much promoted by 
the Contentions of Hands, and Eyes i as it is com- 
monly injttt'd by thofe of Tongues. However, that 
Men may noth^nce undervalue their Ai^harity^ be- 
caufe they themfelves are not willing to impofe, and 
to ufarp a dominion over dieir Reafan \ I will tell 
them, that there is not any oneThing, whidi is now ap- 
prov'd and pradis'd in the World, that is confirmed 
by ftronger Evidence, than this which the Society 
requires 3 except only the Holy Myfteries of our 
Religion. In almoft all other Matters of Belief of 
Opinion^ or Of Science § the Affivance, wheteby Men! 
are guided, is nothing near fo firm, as this. And i 
dare appeal to all /b^er Men i whether, feeing in all 
Countries, that are governed by Laws, they expeft 
no more, than the Confent of two or three Wit- 
neflcs in Matters of Life and Eftate $ they will not 
think, they are fairly dealt withal in what con(ferns 
their Knowledge, if they have the concurring Tefti- 
monies of Three/core or an Hundred. 

Sea.xvill. The Hijlory of the 7r/^/perfi>rm'd being thus fe- 
Theirconjec' ^yj'j^ J ^i\\ next declare, what Room they allowed for 

Caxjes!"^ '^ corijefturing Upon thtCau/es^ about which they alio 
took fome Pains, though in a far different Way from 
the antient Vhilofophers $ amongft whom, fcarce any 
thing elfe was regarded, but fuch general Contempla- 
tions. This indeed is thtfatalToint, aboiit which {o 
many of the greateft ^ts of all Ages have mifcar- 

1 rieds 

the K o YvA t S c i« T Y. 101 

tied s and oommonty^ the grei»ter the Wit^ the mote 
has been the Danger : So many wary Steps ought to 
be troden in this uncertain Path i fuch a Multitude of 
pleafing ErrwrSy falfe Light f^ .di%uired LiVx, dqceus 
fill Fancies vox& be efcap'd i ta much Care muft be 
taken to get into the right Way at firft s fo much^ to 
continue in it s and at 1^, the greateft Caution ftill 
remaining to be us'd ; left when the Treafure is in our 
Vie\^> ve undo alt, by catching at it too fooai with 
txx> greedy and rafli a Hand. Thefc and m^ny more 
are the Difficulties to be pals'd ) which I have here 
with leis Apprehcnfion reckonVl up^beoiufe the Reme* 
dy is fo nigh. To this fF&rk therefore the Society ap- 
proaches, with as much Clrciimfp^dion and Mode** 
ftyv as human Connfel^ are capable of : They have 
been cautious, to fliun the overweening Dogmatusiifig 
on Caufes on the one Hand % and npt to fall into a; 
Jpeadative Scepticijm on the other ; and whatever Cai^ 
fcs they have with juft Deliberation found to hdd good 
they ftill make them increafetheic Pef)c(k5/:tyy far*; 
ther experimcntmg upon themi and. will noc pernut 
tliem to ruft or cotrupt, ff>r waot of yife^ Jf a%c all: 
this, tfaeyihalL not feem wholly to have remov'd the 
Mif chief Sy that attend this hazardous Matt^r,yxhcy, 
ought rather to be judg'd,: by what they have donC:'tfH 
wards it above others^ jthan by what they hav^ not ^pr^-s 
vided againft ; feeidg the Thing it felf is of th^t; Na- 
mcc, that it is impoifible topUcecfae ^iinds oif Men 
beyond all Condition lof erring about it. 

The firft T^dnger that I (hall obferye in this kind, i$ 
an over^haftf^ ui^ precipitant concluding opon;tt^ 
^^es before the £jfecJs have beeojcnoi]^ fcacchU 
into; aiiniiluttg the, /{^before the Poundatian haf 
been well laid« For this, I fhali firft allege this Cure ; 



thM tfuMlgh ^ the Skfef^m \ras bw thtt^ pitate Tasks 
of oncortwcH orfentefuchrmallNiimbcrf yttthd 
et^hitntmgj an<t debating on itfr X£io$tfkquenceSy wasi 
(HU tiie Imploymem of 'fheirfult iind ciblemn utfem^j 
Mei^. I have ali^dy, it|k>H feveral Occafions, prdfet'd 
C&mpattits bctottJtftgU Bnikavours in phUafophic^. 
Matters s and yet I am not afliam'd here to repeat it 
ilgain ) tfpecially, feeing in this place it is moft ap* 
paretiti to which of them thd Pretio^tive of Fffccdam, 
and Clearner^ of Judging belongs. < To thts Parpofe 
I ihall affirm, that there cM lievcir be found, iri the- 
Breaft of any particular Thihfopher^ as much Wari* 
nefs, and Coldnefs of Thinking, snd rigorous Exa« 
mination, as is needfiil, to a (olid Ajfentj and to a 
lafting Cmr/i^^,On the whote Frame oSNatweXiQf^ 
can it be imagin'd, that aiiy lingle Mind can compfc*. 
hcnd and fuftain long enough the Weight of io oiatty 
different Opinimsy and infinite Obfervatians j when 
. even the beft Mathematicians ape foon tir*d with a 
long Train of the ihoft delightilil ^r^^iff^x, which 
\ir re before made to theit Hands ) Or> ^4!hcro could 
bea Man of that Vaftnefs of iSWWvytt, how canwc be 
affur'djthat he would hol<*the'5V'^/^cV«ll ?' Where have 
we ever had an Example of fo much Stteighme(s and 
Itnpanialky 6f Judgment, to perfuade us, chat the 
catmeJlThildfapher wiH not be iirfenfiblf indhiiVi to 
prefer Yivso^tiT>eifriHeSy bcforethdfeof a Scranjgei;? 
We fee all the Wotld flatter th^mfeives in their 
Strength^ Beauty y nay, even (as fonie have noted) ia 
t^eir very Statures 5 the loweft Men fcarce believing, 
but that they are tail enough, ^.^y ^^^^ fltioulddicy be 
fingly trufttd in their Votes about their'tfwn ThoughesV 
Where the Comparifon of Wit mak^s rhem cborc ea*^ 
gerty concertfd ? If we fbllow tllfi ^hik^fhfikir home: 


A&^ Rot A t Soc i;lTT. 103 

into his Sm4y* we ifaall qjokUy dmsoTcr, by hov 
a^myplaufikit ^jegrftSt. the w^ Il^pn ^ apt to dfC* 
ceive thcmfeWcs inco^ fitdJ^ Coi^fidiiffitoi the Qet'> 
raintycKf th«ti; KtKH9(^k 4ge. . iWe wiU ii4>pQ&.hiQi to 
begta 1ms li^uirf with all the SiQceiity . ImagliMdDlc : 
refolviog to pa& by no fmall Miftake, and to lorgive 
CO himfclf no flight Enor ^ 0ie jic€«mti ivithrtheCb 
fa» ^urpofiSy he pkchcS op istw^pgrfi^nl^, SubjeH $ . 
this, he -t^riitf «(n4. wrth^ci' levety. 9ray«j tUU aftccDrach 
I^bpuc* he caA 0>jtlRc i«iiK Gocflc9i.9t i(s Cmtfia : u^. 
oa this his IfWloftry ^ncceaib^ he applies the lame Mat-, 
tcr to Teveral.othcc Qpeiations. i:hfriUU §n4s the £f cAs 
^fvu his .Expc^ations:. NiOl/.hc begins; to mowld: 
fiftmc gjtnf^d, tPw5f»ig(i5fiP(WiPpoft M^^ i?ish» 

i»o^snd»9reP:i^)Q^j^jcoiifiti»i90^;)'#^^^^ thu& 

he gr<y«^> t^ littk asiii U^Utv wai^ec in his Inu f ^t rnti'. 
cm \ the Delight ofhia Soo^fsCweUs lum i he ttiumpjas 
atxdi apfdamcis himself .foif having:. fbtiod out . fonte m" 
por.tanfX^tt^i''- BtttJiowhisTryai begins to flacken), 
i|0Wi Jfi^atimce, and >4SV'i«rr{f, ci^ep ij^n'iiim ; now- 
hec^i^jf .^4nRits:Who(e Crowds of Teftimoiwe$, that 
ieem any- uMay to confirps that OphhHj which he had 
befoic eftabli0i'd } no^ he jlops his Suniey, which 
oo^t to have) gone forward to. many mofe *Particih 
k^ih .awt fo at JiAift thi$j^««*. tW$ immff^Obffr-, 
v^itontpf Wearintersji .or Jtreftw^iop^ be«iiine9 thet 

mol]tiiegligenriatheiatterpaot«fihi$WorJi; io which 
keot^t to have been the Knoft, exad. . S.uch is the<tni- 
verfal Inclipatioaiof Mankind, to be mtfled by thent- 
fejyjes J whiicijihave memlpi^'d, beat down the 
Credit of 3ny..|Swrtig>lar:i^iW^i|^^lj,.'*fhofe ^upm 
firu^ure^ faave^ n^t.been answerable to thfrSerength 0f 
%\^\xfaSii4fffrtiMSt butlhlvconlycof9i^«n'ddfil;ik& 

geofital, asweufetoicto ofMan'i Moitalityi apdb<s 


104 The HISTORY of 

ing fabjeft to difcafts ; the aggravating of Vhidi coin- 
men Infirmities can never be efteem'd by any private 
Man^ as an efieft of Mdiceox ill Nature. 

But now^ on the other fide, this ^mskfulnefs of 
Thoughts, this Fk^uation, this Si^ivnefscfcondjadr 
ing, whichisfo'Ufefiilin rhis Cafe, is fo natural to a 
MuttitttdeofCounfeUors^ that it is frequently uig'd a- 
gainfttheiA, $sthtitinf^fahle Imper^ffiM. Every 
Man has this Argument in^his Moudi, wherewith to 
condemn a great and mixt Number of AdvUers ; that 
their ^elibiratums arefo tedious, that commonly the 
Seafins ofAifum are iofi, before they can come to any 
Refills ' Tis true, this Unweildinels, and want of Dif* 
paedi,'ismoft deftmAiveinitf^f/^r^^/^iS^iriif^ and Go^ 
*V€frtfnent^ as Ctirifteiidom lately felt i But it has a 
quite contrary influence on Thilojiphy. It is not here 
the moft fpeedy, or the fwifteft Determination of 
Thoughts, that will do the Bufinefs: here many De- 
lays arc rcquir'd : here he that can make zfiUd Ob- 
jeBimy or ask zfeafimable ^ueftian^ will do more 
Good, thart he 'who Ibldl boldly fix on a hundred ill- 
grounded Refolutitms. Every ' Rub ii here to be 
fmooth'd % every Scruple tobe plan*d $ every thing to be 
fbrefeen i the Satisfadion of the Reafon of all paft, pre- 
fentj and fiiture Times to « be delign'd : £o thiit here^ 
that which isfo much cried dowa in T^flitfj a living 
ftill to do better, can never be too much regarded. 

Nor is the S^r/^f;' <mly fore*arm'd againft this great 
Incanveniencey this Rafimefs of fettling upon Cau- 
fes, by the Multitude of Judges that ate to be fetisfied $ 
but aUb by their indifferent hitanngof all CoHjeStures^ 
that may te made from the 'Tenets cS any Se& ef 
T^hihfopfyi iand by touching every Efcd that comes 
before them> upon all the Varieties §f Opinums^ 


the Royal Society. loy 

that have been either of late found out, or reviv'd. 
By this Equality of Refped to all Parties, it has al- 
lowed a fufficient Time to ripen whatever it debated : 
By this too it has made it felf the common Cherijh- 
etj and Un^ire of them all ; and has taken the right 
Way of finding out, what is good in any one of them. 
A Courfe, which if the Antients had more foUow'd, 
their Sed^s would not fo foon have dcftroy'd each o- 
ther. It was a moft perverfe Cuftom amongft their 
Difciples, not to make zrxyftridt Choice^ to leave fomc, 
and embrace others of their Mafters Doctrines, but 
to fwallow all at once. He that became a Stoicky an 
Epicurean^ zTeripateticky in Logickf ot Moral T hi- 
lofophjy or Thyficksy never ftuck prcfently to aflcnt 
to whatever his Founder had faid in all the other 
Sciences i though there was no Kind of Connexion be- 
tween his Doflrincs in the one, and the other. 
Thus was the whole Image of ^hilofophy form'din 
their Minds all together : and what they received (b 
carelefly, they defended the fame way \ not in Par- 
cels, butin Grofs. Of this the Errors are apparent 5 
for by fo partially believing all forts of Tenets, they 
had ho Time to be fiiUy convinced % and fo became ra- 
"^tz formal A (Terters of them, x\A^ti judicious. And by 
thus adhering to ail, without making any Diftindion 
between the Truths and Falfhoods, WeaknefTes and 
Strengths of their Seits 5 they denied to themfelves a 
fer more calm zwdfafe Knowledge \ which might have 
bceii compounded out of them all, by fetching fome- 
thing from one, and fomething from another. 

This the Royal Society did well forefee 5 and there- , 
fore did not rejgard the Credit oiNameSy but Things .\ 
rejeding or approving nothing, becaufe of the Title' 
which it bears j prefcrving to it felf the Liberty of rc- 

O fufing 

io6 the tJlSroRTof 

fufihg 6r nking, as it found 5 ^uid to. advaritih^ ifs 

ricfe and tjchcrdftt^, wkfcH ccrtaihly is' ah cxccllchf 
omen Of Iti Eftabllfttiiehti fe ^his/ mctKihks, i^ cxcdis 
a't^y dthet Se^ j ii i\i6 ItoinM Cohimoirweatih did thai 
df Venice. The latter began upon a fmall Stock, and has 
been careful to prefcrvc ii felf iinmirigled, bcftdwing 
the Freedom of its City very fplaringly : And we fcc> 
it lias been (^ill on the defeniive,. making lio gteat t^ro- 
grefs iri the World i whereas the Romms^ by a far 
mort frank and honourable Counfel, admitted ally 
that deftr'd to be their Confederates; gave the lAbox- 
ty oi Roman Citizens to whole Towns and /Coun- 
tries ; excluded none, biit thofe that would objtihatetj 
fiaiid diit $ and To delervedly 'extended their Empire^ 
as far as the Bounds df the civil World did rcachJ 

The fecond MifchielP in thiis great matter of Oiifes 
is m eternal InJlaBility ind Aver/tm frdmaffignrngolT 
any. This arifcs from, a violent and impriideht Haftc 
to avoid the firft. So eafy is tne PaUage Ifrpm one 
ExtrcnVc to another 5 arid lo hard it is to ft6p in Wat 
little Point, wheireln the Right does coniiftl Ifnc 
Truth is, they are both almoft equally pei'hicibus; 
nothing foundls to be cxpeded frdm thofe, wtio wiil 
fix blindly on whatever they can lay hold oh 5 and rid- 
ik)\r\^ffreat frorii thehi, who will always wander 5 wlip 
will riever leave disputing, whether they dream /or 
wake, whether there is any Motion, whether tlicy 
have any Being, or rib 3 the one czn produce nothing 
but i^^w^^^w^* and rbr/«* Fruits 5 and the other^ for 
Fear of that, w'ill eridcavbur to have no Harveji^ nor 
Autumn at all. 

To this Fiixlt of Sceptical ^oubting^ tlie Royal So- 

^^Am Wl W5 «ot a fi^cipnt /Stprc for fucji 

>&/ Sffafl^ifat ^fj4dL .cyw P,ay .i?c n»orc Jwd tpor^ 
pexfiic4 } vu^ch is t9 Jbe doi^jc tty a Iqog forbearing 
oi^^fciUa^f^at fjx&t till .;he ^fiatters be ripe for it » 
^{*n9'*^!P?% ff^Pg^pon M -in ?!»? ycfy begin. 

f^F^'F ^ %g* .IwbfflQC thjc ptH?t? >afo will i^ 
tWC;l»c :d?4ucy. J^icy ,?rc,thi? fjir frgm 

fe?!f» ^f^*f¥*> ^ ti»c ,gi;cawA Vyffn^ifif th^nir 

v<ichoujc;i)fi;^ci^^crpe^jCO i^^y^^ : and this AQem* 
^y, ',thoqgh.;«(c (Jjoiijidgraot, , tb^^^QT have wholly p. 
mitted 'DoOrms^g.^ they ha^c been very poittive and 
affimwtijKc ji thcjr ,^/*x. ^%. n?orc . thj»n tlws, \% 
flriufta^foi^ie .tjopfcAVI, ,*!« fijiBitiu^a . aftpr ,a.§iM In. 
fpo^ipiV^ihex l»\5C jVJPW^d tp give, the A^yfmm pf 
tobabil^grjH* i PJIc- , Qp^i^iiqn,. pr , Canfc, abov<s ^np- 
X : Nqt hayc they run. any Winner of H?W>rd by 
t^usxf^pcfeig, F|9r,fiift, itjs.likfly, they 4id.hU 

^•''#^'IJ?ft?f/Pi'9Rg../PPVnftfta!»' a/vilffo gf4d«5»l 
aajgjK^ipjnji^,: 9rifwcli*pposfcdww0f^,.«hat|h?jr 
f^\<i,Siptf^aihff(S^^e.(Pifffs (as yc cjwnpt b»t allp.v 
«!^9yFR?y» .^<*Wg Kw,Ul nptfecjflft to^b^ftov Infalli- 
bjjiQf on,^fiin,a^, Ji\?fekiilc:,wrc4finy,i<;p.>ll Qthw) 

O 2 yet 

io8 rhe HISrORTbf 

yet they have taken Care^that their weiker RedfarA$gsi 
^d even tXitit Error Sy cannot be tety prejudicial to 
Pofterity; The Gaufts, upon whith they hive agreed, 
they did not prefefttly atend biyond their doe Strength 
to all other Things^ that fecm to bear fome Refem- 
blance to what they tried. Whatever they have re- 
folv'd upon, they have not reported, as unalterable fDe* 
ntonjf rations, biut as prefent Afpearancet \ delivering 
down to future Ages, with the good Soccefs of the 
Experiment, the J^ii»»«'of their Progrefs, t\xtlnj{ru- 
mentSy and the ftvcral Diffeilenccs of the Afoffrr, 
which they have applied : fo thati' with their Mfftakc, 
they give theni alfo the Means of finding it oat. * To 
this I (hall add, that they have never aflittn'd'any 
thing concerning the Gaufe> till the Trial was paft i 
whereas, to do it beforcj is a moft venomous thing Itt 
the maWng of iSr/Vur^Ji for wlioevdrhas fix*donhis 
Crif/? before he has experimented, can hardly avoid 
fitting his Exp&ilnent, and his Obferva^orns, to hi5 
own Cdufej v^hich he had before imagin'((; rather than 
the Gaufe tb the Truth oFdic Experhn^xt feff. But,' 
in a word, they have hitherto made littleother Benefit 
of the CaufeSyto which they have corifcnted, than that 
thereby they might have a firm footing, thereon new 
Operations m^yiprocQtd. AfldfofthisWofki I mean 
a Continuation and Variation of the jfe^ir/r)',tTie trac- 
ing oi^falfe Caufe doth very often fo m'uch conduce*, 
that, in the Progrefs,thc right has been difcoyer'd by it. 
It is not to be qucftfonid ^ but many Invehtibns of gfrat* 
Moment have btcfn brought fbrth By Authors,; who 
began Upon Suppofitions, ' which ■aftcrWatds' they 
found to be untrue. And it frequehtly happens to 
Thihfophersy as it^id to CdlutHbusi Whofirft belieV'd* 
the Cloudsy that hovered about the Continent, to be 
: the 

the'K o t'.A'L S 6 c I et y. to^ 

khefirm Land: BiirtUs Miftake was^fUppyVior, bf 
failing towards tbem, he was led to what he fought j 
fo> by pooiecudng^bf mjiakm Coftfii^ ^ith a Ridibh^ 
tioQ of nqcgil^itigDver the Periiiity ocbey ^have been 
gaidedt9tfabDi7wri& it.felf./. \ f/i. .: v.;!.(' 

llie laft Defed is the rendring of Caufcs barren^i 
that when thcf < have been ! fdiind ^ our^ they hdve been 
fuflpcfdtoiye'idle;! and Ixavo teeii onty/ds'd^ J 
icntifieiThb^hts, and riot \\r^rk9;:^Tha(iJN^^« 
x)i all others thev mofti dangeote^ itis z^Sh^wnuk^ to 
the end of the Veys^e^^ arid theatie tlie moretxy b0 \^U 
cd : It is a Corruption; that both hinders. Aiddi(ion>$i 
aod eats oat the Knowledge thi^thasibeed already ob^ 
aaioUii It istfae Faithr)o^2^^6i^ meet 

Jn^p$o^sii^ of thoie tiaMhiw^iiiii^^f^^ ^ not 
nf the Ui^drtuha$eki theit Siiar^^ adiktithcrdbKe) ie it 
.as the Mifcarriagesof thole,. tiiatarepcofjiMerousin hu: 
nlan yAjflioiis ;' which ate always io^^Eoi'd to^becmore 
•dedrhft^vc^Dand kaoder^to^Jb^cnrli, tfoaortfacFaili^^ 
DftthciaffliflocI; oirr tfaofetfaat aw&fll iit Pdttfuiri .u inu 

<vcntioii^>'.bothwby\ ihike out 'nth; Their way 9f 
jhts^^ls they: go^alocig^; and >al(o^ b;^ ftiU ioiprovrn^ Improving. 
411 tolwW£MteHMlWA^J)^i^' T .'> f : r: . j :.- .•; r- , d 
< . r Qf therPoinUiiiryiQiHdbeir peifeiiKnii^rthefirftir'-aad 
the Mertibd/^mrhich :isi to[ be takien -abottt Jnrj rLfliaU 
Jibdrtly fpeaic in anotheif Piacie : It isehoughiiepc/^ 
r^y ;' that by thi^ they have cakenCacc, tofatisfy the 
Jiopis oi'xYKfnefmtTlmis fWhiibMeller might joiliy 
Jkmguifb^dgi30wxbld£abouc/^hit:Eatef^&^^ it they 
once :faw> that nothing, would booripqin theirs i>by^i 
bat that) all was to conie up beft^e$^ for - the i A dvaiP 
tage of fhofe that arc yd linborn* r uTh^ cQnfult;64. 


the other for the Profit,, ilatid Qm^OttdkC cfi. iftei^ 

.Nor^ia^y^ itfaq^ (uffetid thcicOiiigtnfsc Ida iki /CwA- 
ifl^<Au(t»'aby{tbo Btoi6ioss£aiid£njfq{menjB oip)nefmt 
Pi^TeoY^ti^i Ihni: Ihavii - (ftiU fuhtbitt^d >|jaci£ T noUcft 
bkv^efttions, tor. i»!i|»dfidMitaQ)fiiits: dnd:Miaii5. for 
thr^fwtiing. i«it mfi fitheri: iThi? perftavnly.ii tbcmoft 
pfiimittilitormfiaiid: ooe^ Method.^ at once :t9 
lOdk^'t^eof .diiit Aififtat^^ p^ and lo foice 

lh$m toibet £Mtt\ci: ^Qlf^to gcaaor lEodsi . IThtceift 
iUCllMig ^^ j:he\WiGH^aiC7f. r NiSMmt^ib inoonitdooa^c* 
iorrottOte^ior.jGai. $dlt}r>';kdQwns b^t, .bjr-^kig jikadc 
tA .rcrAcft tm orifier 35hibgs,! de . wHl Jtt . once ^lil^ibrea 
them> and flieuriilnrelf the tdcarer. S|ieh is theiDo- 
f>fiQdenccaiiuiQgft,aIl the£>f«kisiQf iCi^^ 
animate^ itbc ficnfitivAf^ thii]riid)aial>> f;|be ^nacural^.thc 
artificial ; that the Apprehenfion of one of them is 
4LgD<Kl Sltep to^^cds'tbe underGbfidU^.ofitheireft: 
s!^^ this is the higheft Btdb c£ huim^ He^fiou^ to 
Collow aUili6LinJcsQf!jthis,^baln,ctiliv^ 
crcts are open to our Minds>/. tod.dtcU Worlw id- 
fea0C'di orJtaitotadilQr'j^nir.Uaoc^ iThis/^ to 

bommaod iJ>e World; t6mikaViii[ttVfimtiesi\^ 
S)e^ief of Things, ifo ordcrif.cmciujpon.aiibcberY 
tiaat ftaodii^ on the Tbp f)£. i hem, ,we j niiy: peif cdly 
beholdi^ll thisitardia«low^ <aad mak^fhfiiiiaU 'fcnrice- 
^lo to thA^^ttftMandrPeace, and Pi6at]fr3p£iM^ 
Vyidvto*:this mappuBcisi^ itheie qaniibe nochtag elfe^^ 
dod; iiutthatiwe^ma^c a/coimd: Advantage bf thi&^i^ 
fiagJSroufH^y ^ thereby^toiloofc the nearer iaio Heaun : 

4* ^^ 

r •• rf 

At Ambitidh, irhidi thcntoh it Wits pvitiWd iti the 
ihl W^H b/ ah vm^fiaCofiaft^y ^hen h; Was 
ihahabfd Vkli/fetetf^ind In^km^i yet, \^h€tt it « 

tktHcS ttribMat:>fte5tf>M MfdMi^^, mth m 

dcfigti'd, hb'ttd JJfii;/ thd Gtefatbfr'df illttiittgs, but 
to adikkt biia thfc taoit i it maft ntbiii be thie utmdd 
Pcfftdibh of ImHiaff ^AfUrt. • 

< ■ 

» .' . • ' 

arid ithprbVcd Eiiph:imknfs\ . Bttti liflH^, in tliefd, and rA«> >»«»- / ^ 
all otticr BaflncflBs, thai iiW^ doiint lindet th^ir Care j *"" / ^'^- 

there is One Aing trtoW, ibbiittirhtch the..S«?^/i'i^ has"*"''^'* 
keri ihdt fdl'rcitoiis ^ and that \i, tht MaHn^r t>rthelF 
*Diyt'o0'fii 'Hich, urlleiithe^ Had t^eert ycl:y Watch- 
fai td >:dft)in drfe Temfjer, the Vhoie Spirit ^hd Vi- 
gsnkif <tf dicllf ^^ Had fefeeh tdbii tittn cwt, bjr f he 
LuxUiy ind RedUndincife bf .$)!>?^f*. The ill Etesof 
HiisSai^<6rflaity of Talkbg, haVe alfcady ovctWhelrti'd 

c^ihiA.'CMaptioity t cah h^tdiyJ^rbcat'-tetitiAg 
What 1 faM'.Btffbre; ^d dottduding, thdt M^««;f^ 
ba|hi.t6 jjc .))ahtfli*d odt dif at cJvil Societies, as a 
thihgfiitit'.to Fade and gofod Manners. To this Opi- 
ttifcH ftettid\t'hdUy iircUftfi, . if I did not find, that it 
ki Weajpdh, Artiichimjly be as edliiy brocuir'd by ia^ 
Mett,* .^o^a^^ arid that, if thi^fe flioulii' only dift it .a- 
way, ^nd thofe retain it j tht'iiaked Immtrice of Vir- 
f he would be, upon aH 'Odcafions, escpos'd to the dr- 
hied Malice 6i the Wicked. ^ This h 'the chief Rca^' 
fon, that fllould now keef Op the Ornariientsof Speak- 
ftig ih 'ahy ReqUeft, fipce th<fy arcTo much degenerat- 
ed from ihch: o'rigirial Ufefulnefs. They Were at firft. 



wiff ,M^ y , .^hfen thcj were oHly cmploy'fl tp ddTcribc 

« * 

mdr^mpvinj^Im^ 9^^*^ witlj 

feodici^ifl^ Ipf jpjgKw^ iaiK tli ow ycrj{ 

Scnfcs^frow'whcpcpif waw firft dcrurd to, biir tlnieE- 
^andings. , Biit how they ace genci:aU7changfd to worfq 
Ufcsj they make the F41119' dtjfguft the bcft Things, if 
they come found and unadofn'ci $ they are iii open De- 
fiance 5^uift Reafm % profeifing; not to h9l4 n^ach 
poite4|<^oc|cil(;ciwith th^^^^ .but with its' Slaves, the 
^djjwns i incy give the Mind a Motion too changcr 
able and bewitching, to confift with tight TraSiice^ 
Who can ^ehold^ without^ Indication, bow.manjr 
Miftsand t/ncertaiiitie^, thefe {pccious Tropes and Pi*^ 
^res have; bfou^ht on our TLxiOKf\c^g€ J. Ho]w piitny 
Rewards, which arc, due to moreprohtfdsif: land^ di&T 
cult L^rfx, have 6een ftill &arc(i*d away bythc.calTc 
Vanity oi fine Speaking ! F^or now I,am warm'i^ with 
this juft Anger, 1 cannot withold my ft^^ 
ingthe $haIlowne{s of ailtheie Xeef^iog^^^ikrle^ 
upon wh[cb, wc Writer :{j an^ speaker s^ ipd^ ^ big^ 
And in few Words, tdj(rcfay, that ofailthp^ Stu- 
dies of Men, nothir^ m^y be footer bbtaip'd,. than 
this vicipu^ Abundance of ^hr^CjihSs Trick of j^^fc 
/>^(7rj<^ this Volubility of Tongue^ which mak;esjqgi;eat 
9 Npifc in the World, But 1 ipentd Words in V)iin jf 
for the Evilly now To inveterate, that it is hard to kpow 
v^hoixi to blame ^ or where to begin to reform. We 
all valup one another fo much, upon this beautiful De-, 
cciti and labour fp long after it, in the Years of 
our Education ; that we cannot but ever after think 
kinder of it, th^n it dcferves. And indeed, in moft: 
other Parts of Learning, I look on it to be a Thing al- 

* moft 

the R O Y A L S O .C I ET T. Ill 

moft utterly defperate in its Cure $ and I think it 
may be plac'd amongft tho£c general Mifchiefs ; fuch 
as the Tiiffentim of Chriftian Princes, the Want of 
^r office in Religion, and the like i which have been 
ip long fpoken agaihft, that Men are become infcnfible 
about ttieoii every one (hifting otTthe Fault from 
himfelf to others ; and fo they are only made bare 
Common Places of Complaint. It will fuffice my 
prefent Purpofc, tp point out, what has been done 
by the Royal Society^ towards the corrcding pf its 
flxccflfcs in natural 'Thilofophy 5 to which it is, of 
all others, a moft profcft Enemy, 

They have therefore been more rigorous in put- ' 
ting in Execution the only Remedy, that can be found 
for this Extravagance % and that has been a conftant 
Refolution, to rcjcft ail the Amplifications, Digrelli- 
ons, and Swellings pf Style; to return bdck to the 
primitive Purity and Shortnefs, when Men delivered 
fo many ThingSy almoft in an equal Number of 
Winds. They have exafted from all their Members, 
a clofe, lukcd, natural way of Speaking \ pofltive Ex- 
preilions, clear Senfes s a native Eafincfs ; bringing all 
Things as near the mathematical Plainnefs as they can; 
and preferring the Language of Artizans, Country- 
men, and Merchants,before that of Wits,or Scholars. " 

And here, there is one Thing not to be pafs'd by $ 
which will render this eftablifli'd Cuftom of the 4$"^- 
ciety well nigh everlafting ; and that is the general 
Conftitution of the Minds of the Englifh. I have al- 
ready often infifted on fome of the Prerogatives of 
England \ whereby it may juftly lay Claim, to be the 
Head oi ^hilofophical Leaguey above all other Coun- 
tries in Europe : I have urg d its Situation, its prcfent 
Genius, and the Difpofltion of its Merchants i and 

P many * 

it4 neHlSri>RTof 

• » I • • • 

ipany more (\X(Ai Argument i tp encourage ns, ftillrc^ 
Jipain to be us'd : Bot of ^i others, this which I 
am nowalleg?0^, is of the moft "weighty andirppof- 
fW Cpnfideratlon. If there Can be a trqe Charac- 
ter given pf the mi*vetjal iTemper of any Nation 
under Heaven j then certaialy this muft be afcrib'dt 
to our Country-men j that they ^lavc cppimonly ail 
una^efted Sincerity 5 that they love to deUver their 
Min^s with a found Simplicity ; that they have riie 
middle C^aiities, between thq referv'd fabtik Souttt- 
crn, and the rough unhewn Northern Peoptej^that 
they arc not extremely prone to fpeak 5 that they arc 
]([norecopcern*d wh^t others wit! think of the Strengtb> 
thaij^ of the Finenefs of what they fay ; an4 thar aa 
uuiyerfal Modefty poflcffes. them. Thefe Qualicics 
arc fo confoicuous; ajnd proper tp our So;!; that we 
pften hear tbcm obj[e^ed to us^ by fome of pur Neigh- 
bour Satyjifts, in more difgracefiil Expreflions. For 
they are wont to revile the EngUp^ with a want of 
Familiarity 5 with a melancholy Uumpiflinefs; with 
Slownefs, Silence, and with the unreffn'd Sutteancfs 
of their Behaviour, But thefc are only the Repro* 
chcs pf partiality,, or Ignorance 5 for they ought ra- 
ther tp be comnjcndcd for an honorable Integrity 1 
for a Ncgleft pf Circumftances and Flourifhps; for 
]f cgardipg^Things of greater Moment, mprcthan tejs ^ 
for a Scorn to deceive as well as to be deceived ; which 
. arc all the beft Indowmcnrs, that can enter into 
a phtlofophical Mind. Sp that evca the Pofitipn of 
pur Climate,tbc Air,thc Inftuehceof the Heaven, the 
Compofiiion of the Englijh Bloody as well ^sthe Em- 
braces of the Ocean, fecm tp join with the Labours of 
the Rojal Societj^io rcnjder our Country a Land'of ^a;- 
^er intent al Knowledge. And it is a good Sign, that 

2 Nature 

the' R d Y A L S b'd i£ t y. iij 

NatQKWill repeal more of its Secrets to x^ktEvgUfiy 
than t6 others ; becaafe it has alre^y fbrnifh'd them 
iii^kh a Genius fo well propontpn'd> for lihc receir^ 
hig and retaining its Myfteries. 

And now, to come to a Clofe of the fcctond Part of scd. li- 
the Narratitm : The Society has redud'd its principal Their iVay 
Obfervatiotts, into ori« common St0ck ^ and laid then* ^^^S'fi^'^S' 
up in publick RepfterSy to be nakedly tranfinitced to . 
the next Generation of Men i and fi> froM then), to 
their Succeflbrs. And as their Parpofe was, to heap, 
up a nMxr Mafs of EpcMrimeneSy without dig^fting 
them itif o any per£eft Model ^r ib to this End, they 
confki'd thcmfehres to- no order of $ab>eds^ and 
whatever they have recorded, thef have<ione It, not; 
as complete Schemes of Opinions, but as bare unft- 
nifli'd Hiftofies. 

In the Order of their InquiJtthnSj they have been 
fo free ; that they have romerimes committed them- 
fdves to be guided, according to the Sea(bn^ of the 
Yeat I fometimes, according to what atiy Foreigner 
or Englijh Artificer, being prefenr, has fuggdicd i 
fomctimes, according to any extraordinary Accident 
in the Nation, or any other Cafualty, which has hap- 
ncd in their Way. By which roving Md unfettled 
Cotirfe^ tfherc being feldbm' any Reftrence of one 
Matter to the next 5 they have prevented others, nay 
even their own Hands, from corrupting or contract- 
ing the Work 5 they have made theraifing of Rules 
and TfOpo^twnSy to be a far more difficult Titi*^, than 
it Would have been, if theit Reglftdfs hiad befcrt more 
Methodical. Nbrought'tliisNeglcftof Cdnfcqaettce' 
and Order, to be only t-hought to proceed from their 
Caretefsftefs 'y but fttwfta mature and well groundlcd 

P 2 Treme- 

jt6 The HISTORrof^ 

Tremeditatim. For it is ccrtaia, that a too fuddcn 
Striving to reduce the Sciences^ in their Beginnings,in- 
to Method, and Sb4pe> and Beatiry, has v(ry n^ach 
retarded their Increafei. And it happens to the Inven- 
tion of Arts, as to Children in their younger Years; 
in whofe Bodies, the {zxm Applicatimst tliat ferve 
to make them ftrait, (lender, and comely, are often 
found very mifchievous, to their Eafe> their Strength, 
and their Growth. 

By their fair, and equal, and fubmifllve way oiRe- 
gtjhing\\o\}m\% but Hiftmes^ zndi Rdations s they 
have left Room for others,that (hall fuccecd,to change^ 
to. aMgnunt^ xoappravey xo€ontradi£f them at their 
Difcretion. By this, they have given ^^fivtityz far^ 
greater Power of judging them, than ever they took 
over thofethat went before them. By this, they have 
made a firm Cmfedetacy^ between their own prefent 
Labours^ and the Induftry oi future y^ges $ which 
how befteficial it will prove hereafter, t^e cj^not bet- 
ter guefs, than by recollecting, ,what Wonders it 
would in all Likelihood have produc'd e'er this, if it 
had been begun in the Times of the Greeks^ or Ro- 
mansy or Sckaelmen s nay even in the laft Refurrcc- 
tion of Learning. What Depth of Nature could by . 
this Time have been hid from our View ? • What Fa- 
culty of the Soul would have beett • in the dark ? 
What Part of human Infirmities not provided ngainft i 
If our Predcceflbrs, a thoufand, nay even a hundred 
Years ago, had begun to add by little and little to 
the Store, if they would have endcavour'd to be Be- 
nefacJarSf and not Tyrants ovtr cut Kc^ioins-y if they 
would have communicated to us, more of their 
Worksy and Icfs of their fFit. 

This Complaint, which I here take up> will appear 


the R 6 t JC L S , 6 C 1 E t Y. 117 

the >uftcr, if we coniidct, that the firft learned Times 
of the Aruients, and all thofc, tih^t followed after tl^em, 
downtp tl^is Day, would have receiv'd no Prejudice 
at all \ if tbeic Thihfophers ha4 chiefly bcftow'd their 
Fains, in making Htftories of Nature^ and not inform- 
ing of Sciences. Perhaps indeed the Names of fbmic 
particular Men, who had the Lucie: to compile thofe 
Syftems and EpiUnuis which they gave us, would 
have been leis glorious than they are : Though that 
too may be doubted j and, (if we may conclude any 
Thing furely^ upon a Matter fo changeable as Fame \^\ 
we have reafon enough to believe, thatthefe latter 
Ages would have honourd ^lato^ Ariflotky Zena^ 
a;^d Epicurus fi& much,if not n)Qre, ^bajcinow they do 5 
if thcv had only fet Th/ngs in a w)ay of propagating 
Experiences xlown to us, and npt impos'd their Itna- 
gmations onais, as the oply Truths. This may be 
well enough fuppos'd, feeling it is commpn to all Man* 
kind, ftill to efteenii dearer > the Memories of their 
Friends y than of thoff: ^that pretend to be their 

. But this Matter of Reputation-^ was only the private 
Concernment of five, or fix. As for the Intcreft of 
thofe Times in gpncral, J[;willyentU(^cto makegpod, 
tibiae in all Eflfcifls oUrutKnr^Udge^ they might havQ 
b?jcn as happy, without-thofc^^/^jof-^rfj, as they 
^erc with them ; Logick^ zndihc Mathematicks on- 
Jy excepted. To iiiftance in their Vhyficks ^ they were 
utterly ufclcfs,in refpcdof thegood of Mank^ind 5 thcj; 
themfclvcsdid aln>oi[lconfcij^;K> mucli, by relcrving 
\\\z\tnatural^hilofopLyy ioi the Retirements of thci^ 
wlfcMcn. What Help did it ever bring to the Vulgar \ 
What vifiblc Benefit to any City or Country in the 
World > Their Mechanicks^ and Artificers (for whom 
\ ,:/ ' ' • * '* * 2 ' ' ' ' the 

ii8 rhi BisraRT Bf 

lihe fcrac mauratThiUfiphy fihoakt be prlndf^alljr m- 
tended^ were (b far 'from being afttfted by thofe abf 
trufi fD&£f fines ^ that periiaps fc»cc iii/orie 
Profeflicms, and Tridte, has well undcrfldcd Arifit/-^ 
tk's Vrinci^s af Bodies ^ from his own Time down 
to ours. Henee then we miy conclude, that thofe 
firftTimeSy whercitt thefc-/frf/ were made, hadbccn 
fiotfaing dartragVl r if> infttad bf raHlng fo many fj^- 
euhtiveOpinionSy they had otrfy minded thclaying of 
a foRd Groundwork^ for a vaft Pite of ExperimeMSy 
ta be continually augmenting^ through all Ages. 

And P will alfo add 5 that, if fuch a Courfe had betn 
dt firft fet on Foor^ ^hUofopby^tyGSA, by' thk ntcans 
tavc been Rept^ c\(^ttio mater jal Things i andib/ in 
Probabilrty,\rould hot have undergone la rtariy'J5rd!Sf^- 
fisy as it has done ever fihcc. If we reckon frowi its firft 
fetting forth in the £^s w^ (hall find, that info long 
2 Traft of Time, theSre have not been above foat or 
fivd hundred Years, '^t ftvcr^ fiitervafls, whtrcin it 
has Ijecn W any Requeff in the World. And if we 
look back on all the Alterations and Sut^verfions of 
StateSy that havehapned in civil Nations, thefe three 
thoufand Years j we may ft ill bdiold, that the JWot- 
'^rof^^fm'^BfiiinSyhsi'^c been alwajf^ fu^jcCt to be 
jfet more injarM by fuch Viciffitndes, than tht'yfrts 
dfiheir Hands. What Caufe^cah Be afflgn'd for this * 
Why was Leamingthe firft Thing, that was confta^tly 
fwcpt away, in all Dcftruiaions' of Em J)in^, and fori 
cigrtIliundati0ns^ WlVy'tbtild not that have weathtt^d 
etxt the Storm, ^ as \V^1I^ hioft Sorttpi? M^nhfaftutes 5 
whichxthough'thcybegari ai fpon; prbcfprc thet^fher, 
yet they have remain xl/riifcitigh all fiicfr Changes,' cin- 
altcr*d; except for the better >' The Rcafon of this 
is evident. "It is, bccau:fc^ Thihfcph/ had been fpun 


the .R \6\ A t ^A c i^ t y. w^ 

out to fo fine a Thread, that it could be known but 
calf to rhofc>oidio iv^uld cfarow awa^r all their whole 
Livcsuponic It wspmiMk tdofiibtile for thcrmr- 
jim0 and^fi/rConcxq^ik^ It had 

Ibofof e iA'a ftlctifiirc tcm ti^lftU by the £faiio(Qpiuii5^ 
thdnifdrc^/^oiit of the World/ and. fime up ia tfae 
Shades of their Willdt And by this nrcans, it was^ft 
look'd upDA a& taoStuftkfSy add ib fit fooneft to be 
mgleStid. > Whc«asri£ at ficft^ k had been mfadc to 
convcrfc mortfwidrdic&A&s, .and tqaffift £iik2iliar)y 
'ill att OccaAoft^ dthmmi^Li^:^ it iarolild>. no doubt, 
have been thought needful to be pttferv'd,. in ihc 
fiiof^ oHhe ^ioA fffmmt Time« It would have e- 
feap^d the Fuiy of the barimron Peof^e, as weU as 
^% Km^TiMghmgr Qmitmiigi. Cwkay^ Makhg 
If in and SVi^f, 'F^tiKgy SaiAtgi'^Md tijjany. moxc 
fiKib ncicSkff l^rUlicdatt hatuii dcMe/ . 

A^ kis t*M late to lamant ttda Errbr of the Aiki- 
ems, feeing it 15 tiof novr to be repaired. Itbenoagh, 
that we gather from Isence^ dMt fay btmgtn^9hi/^ 
phy dwm a^lnto Mdn^Sighr dnd' Ptafibic^^ from 
wh^nci^ ft was ilown'awaf fodiagh;;the/i&^ifi Sfciety 
has put k imo a* Coli4Dliosrt>fi landing diit' ^^ain^b the 
InvafioHsof 7/M¥, €>tcnSr^Barbarifmh Gdii that by 
eftabliftrng it oti a fiirmet Foundadcin tham the shy 
^Notions of Men alonevupon iAtYKM^ks^nf Nature $ 
by tufldng if into oiM'^fiitt i^r off Lifs^ of uvhich 
I^l6n may fee there is daity 'xftfed j f hey baTd prorvided^ 
that i« camnet hereafiier be extinguiflif<4 at die Lo£i of 
a Library, at the Oterthto^ng of a Language, or at 
the Death of fbmc few VhiiJofophers ^ but that Men 
nMifi lofcthei«£';«'i' and HdMs^ and mud: kavr odT 
d^ftfing to make their Liv&s toftvenient or pleafitiit^ 
before they can be willing to dejiroj it. . » 


I to rhrHTSTOR Tof . 

♦ • . , . t , , 

Sea. XXI. Thus far I was opmc in my intended Work^ when 

lf\he'&^l ^^^ ^^ ^^P'^^ and my Mind difturby from 

^dran!e (ifthe"^^^^Z7 ^J ^^ ^^ grcatdb Dilaftcrs that ever hefel 

fnbVtfring our Natiany the fatal hfifHon^ which ovcrfproad 

this WorythcCiiyofLMdaniti faty fivio, zndihc;i6readfu/j!r' 

ing of the City it fclf iti the Year infuiAg. Tbefe two 

Calamities may welt be fufficientto excufe the ^c/a^ 

of publifhing this Baok^ whm tbc t)tift of them de- 

^-our'd as many Men^ and jdxe oribiv as many. Books, 

, as the cruclieft Incucfion oCthe Goths and Fandds 

'had ever done. ' y : ' 

The blague was indbed an irreparable Damagie to 
the whole Kingdom; but that which chiefly added 
to the Mifery, was xhtTime wherein ithappenU For 
what could be a more deplorable Accident^ than that 
fo many inrave:Mm fliould he cut oiF by the Arrovif 
that fliis in the darky ^\itxi out Country wasingag'd 
in a foreign Waty and when their Lives might have 
been honourably yentui'd on a glorious Theatre in 
its Defence? i And wb had fcarce recovered x\x\sftrfi 
Misfortune, wheci we xoceiv.'d i a fecond and a.deeper 
Wound i which cannot be ^qtal'd in all Hiftoryy if 
either wc confider the Obfcurity of its Begirmingy the 
irrefiftible Violence of its Progrcfs, the Horror of its 
Appearar^ey or the Wideoef^ of the Ruin it made> 
in one of the moft renowned Cities of th? Worid. 

Yet when,' on the one fide, ; I rcmanbcr what 2)^ 
folation tbcfe ScoUrges of Mankind have left behind 
them ; and on the other, when I refled oti the Mag- 
nanimity wherewith the Englifh Nation did Tup* 
port the Mifchiefsrl find, that I have not more 
Reafon to bewail the one, than to ^imr^ the 


the R 0,Y<A t. S p C7 E TX III 

upon our Return after the abating of the T/ague^y 
what elfe coulti we exped, but to (ec the Streets un- 
frequented, the ^River fmtik^p the t^i^i^s defbraVd , 
withthe(jnn;^/Df^i^4^ andth9 7rrr^xpf^V^i&. 
fiill ^bidi^g on the F9ces/<^t|ie liVmg> Butinflead 
of fuch difmal Sights/ there^^peat'd almoft the fame 
Throngs ia all p^blick Place?, the fame Noife of ^i^- 
jff/s^ th? ianie Freedom of Conycrf^^ and, 'with thc^ 
Return of the ijr«^,pthc!^famfc G|iewfufocfs retufOr: 
ifkgon the Mind^<^,i(ie y^f^/Ifaj before. • 

Mor was their Cwri^^kfs* in fiiflaining the /^r^z;^/ 
Calamitj^j which dcftroy'd m^t Hiufes2LXidE^ 
This the greateft Lofqrs indur'd withjfudi uncuuntcd 
lj^irp3j|i(efspf Mind/thatthei^^ incline us to 

t^elieyA thatrntonlythebeftji^fi^ri^/, butthebcft ;w- '* 
^ Philosophy top, may be kam'd from the Shops of 
Mechantch. It was indeed an admirable Thing to be- 
hold, with what C^i^iwry the meaheft Artificers faw 
all the Zr^s^Mvrj of their ///V^i*^ and the «SV^^rf of their < ,^ 
F^ww&Vx, devoured in in ipftant. Thq A.ffli(9fcipn, 'ti^i 
trae, was widely fpread over the whole Nation i every 
Place was fiU'd with Signs oiTitjidSiA Cammifiratian ; 
but thofe who had fuffer'd moft, feem'd the leaft af- 
fedcd with the Lofs : No unmarUy ^BewailtTigs were 
heard in the. few Streets that were prefctv'd s they 
beheld the Afhes of their HaufeSj and GdteSy and 7m- 
pleSy without the leaftExpreflion of Pulillanimity. If 
^hilo fibers had done this, it had well become theiji; 
Profeiuon of Wifdom ; \i Gentlemen^ theNoblenefs 
of their Breeding and Blood ,^QsiW have required it : 
ISut that fuch Greamefs of Heart flioiild be ipund a«^ 
mongft the poor ArtizmSy and the obfcure Multitude^ 
is no doubt one of the moft hdhourable Events that 
ever happenU Yet dill there is one Circumjiance be- 

Q hind. 

Ill, The HISTORY of 

hind, which miy raifc bafr Wonder hi^er ; and that 
is^ that amidft fuch horrible Ruins^ theyftill profecu* 
ted the !^r whh the fame V^t(ur and Ctnirage^ agiaidl* 
three of the mbft powerful States of all Europt. What' 
Records' of Ti mei br'MrtrfiOrjr of paffi A^s, can Acw 
us a greater Teftimony of an bvindble and hcroick; 
Genius thap this, of whi^ I Aoxht ipeak ) that the 
Sound of the Heralds proclaiming nei)»r 'Wars ' fhould* 
be pleafant to the People, whcjnthefad Voice of the 
Bell man was fcarce yet gon^odt of their Eats' > Tliat 
the Increafe of their Adverfaries ConfeJerateSy and of 
their own CalamitieSy fhould be (b far ftoni affrighting' 
them i that they rather fcem'd to re(;eive from thence 
i new yigour and RefhlutmiMid'^^t they fhould 
ftill be eager upoh VUiories and TriurHphsy 'when 
they were thou^t almoff quite exi^auftcd, by fo* 
great DcftrudUons ? 

Sea. XXII. From this Obfervati&n my Mind begins to take 
Vlri^oftbe Comfort, and to i)r.cfagc, thifa!rthi$ r^r^/^ ©j/^^y? 
Narra/ioft! and Conflagration^ were not abf c^tadarken the Honour' 
of our Tr trice's Arms\ to they will not hinder the 
many noble ArtSy which the Englijh have begun un- 
der his Reigny on tlie Strength of thefe Hopes and In- 
couraKtiKints. 1 1 wiH now return tp^ my former 
t^ougnts, and tQ me flniftiing of my interrupted ©^^. 
Ancfl come With ftiC litprt Earncftriefs to perfcft it,'v 
bccaufe it feems to 'me, that from the fad Effcfts of 
thcfe Difafters, there may a new and a powerful Ar- 
jtument be raif d, to move us to double our Labours 

" A «i^Cityis to be built,"on the moft advaiitagcous 
6^at of '»\\' £ur(ij>f fStTiiaii't anci Command. This 
dieiefore is ttiie nCtcft Sdafon for Men to apply their 

^^ Thoughts 

the ,Ri. 0\it:K%!^'O.c lA T Y. 1 15 

Tbo^glitsio the Improyiog Qf.chc MMteri4s ci Pfvld- 
ing, a»^ fothe iovcittiog of better ilii^A for Houfes^ 
^fi^Cbtmrns^ Ovn^mffs .Wlmfsj, ;md Strfetf: 
ali which: hiKCibem 4lJ(e%4yiW(^ J^ftcpwiM^a^tpa 

filch a^ iad: Occafioo of. bdqguig ^$ir Oh/irvations in. 
tdPfadice.. .TbeMoftaUtjrofthis?^/i^<e:FCccdr 
«d aii QCiicn (of later Agc9}: biv nhe Rcmcmbraacc 
of it fliould rather enliven than damp oAc Indfifiry, 
Whqr MadJi^d. 'i^ Qxrbri^ .«ith fucb horrible. Uva- 
ilons t>i 'Diofh, : tlKjr (boMld /from diencc biC oiiiypjp- 
fally alorm'd, to nfe niorct Dil%ence 4b0ut prevca^ 
log them jfor the future. 

. It is ttue^duc toxible EvHhn hithertoi in jail Cowv 
ttle$» beta ginicn^}rt<'ciftoajii^^ tilt foKiiKt Retno- 
dics o£ j^rr^ Bttt why. ibould we thinlC) that it ytiii 
cotuinuefb for ever } Why may we not i»elicve, that 
in all the vaft' Compafs <^ natural. Virtues of Things 
yet conceaJL'd, there is ftill referv'd an Antidatfy that 
ihall be Aqualto tMMfoyjm ? If in iiich Cafes we only 
accnie the AngetM^ravideiKfi <«,^tQn^yQiN4- 
tuv, we lay the Blame wtiere it iiaot jvftly to be laid. 
It ought rather to be attributed to the Negligence of 
Men themfclves, that fuch difficult Cures are with- 
out the Bounds of theit Reafm's T«^er, 

If all :Mcn bad de^nded at firft, aiKt .fiink tinder 
the Burden of their oxim . JhfirMitietSt almoflLerify lit- ' 
tie Wound, orPaino^tbeleafti)/«Wtfr>-hadheen 4$ '. , . 
deadly, as die ?i^^ at this time. It was by much In- 
<)niry» and UCct thatmoft of the mildeft Difeafes be- 
came curable. And every fitft Succefs of diis kind» 
(honld always ftrengtbcn our Affiiranoa of farther 
Cpnqacfisy even over this greatcft Tfrror ofMankin^* 
Diftrui^, ttid Dcfpair of our own Endcavomis, is as 

Q. 2 great 

jt4 the mSTORrof 

greaca Hindnmfiein thcPipgreisof the t^ TbHo/a^ 
phfj as it is wont to be in dbc Rifcof Men's private 
Foimnes. Whoever aims not tSLtSiytgreatefi Thii^ 
will feldom ploceed nludi fafther than the k^^ 
Whoever will make a tight and a fortunate Courts 
ihip to Naturey he caimot enterprife or attempt too 
mach : for She (as it is faid of other Mfireffes) is 
alfo a Morels, that fooneft yields to ^fmaiard 
and thtbotd. i.i . . 

I have hitherto deferib'd (he &ft EkmefOSj on 
which the Royal Society ix^it^ ind fupported its Be* 
^nings: I have trac'd its Progrefi fiom the firll 
private Indeavours of fpme of its Meffibers^ till it be- 
i^ame united into a regular Conftitutian^ and from 
thence I have related their firft Concifftims^tiA TrsHu 
ceSj towards the Settling of^ an dniverfal , conftant, and 
impartial Survey of the whq)fc Cr^Mtion. There now 
remains to be added in this third Part of my Nana* 
tion^ an Accountbf the Incoun^effientsWiVf have re*, 
ceiv'd from abroadi* and at homC'V^and a particular 
Enumeration of the principal SubjeBsj about which 
they ' have b^en employed, itnce they obtain'd the 
Royal Confif motion: 

t ^ 

Se<a.XXiiL ^ "^^^ ^* begin with the EJfeemivMc^i all the cU 
The RtPuta-vW Wotld abroad has conceived of ihelr Etitetfrife : 
TrtUde^^^' And I mention this with the moreWillingnefs, becaufe 
^•ftbe R^/sA hdieve that our Nation oaghR juftly to be reprov'd^ 
dtitoaj. for their Excefs of nararal Bafifulne/fy and for their 
Want of Care, to have their moft excellent Things re* 
{MTfented to Strangers wkh the beft Advantage. This 
iilcnt and re&rv'd Humour has no doubt been veiy 
prejudicial to us^ in tiie Judgmcm that our Neigh- 
bours have often made^ not only concerning the Coo- 

* dition 


theKoi AL S O C I E TY. I If 

dkion of our L$earfm^y but alfo of our political Af^ 

fairs. I will therefore trcfpafs a little on this^//^^; 

fitian of iny Onmtfymnh and affirm, that T&ihcEtig- 

fijb f^ame 4oes manifcftly get Ground, by the Bravery 

. of their Arms^ the Glory of their Naval Strength^ 

and tke Spreading of their Catmnerce j fb there has ^en 

a remarkable Addition to its Renown, by the Suc- 

cefs, which all our Neighbours exped from this Af- 


. It is evident, that t\i]s fearching Spirit^ and this Af- 
/edion to fenjible KnowleJgij does prevail in moft 
Countries round about us. Tis true, the Convenien- 
ces for fuch Labours are not equal in all Places* Some 
want the Afliftance of others Hands i Tome the Con- 
tribution of others Turfes s ibme the Benefit of ex* 
cellent Inftruments^ fome the Tatronage of the 
Civil Magijirates : But yet according to their feve- 
ral YowerSy they are every where intent on fuch 
practical Studies. And the moft ccnHderable Effeds 
of fuch Attempts throughout Europe have been ftilL 
recommended to this Society^ by their Authors^ to be 
examined, approv'd, or correded. 

The Country, that lycs next to Englandmits Si- //^France, 
taation is France ; and that is aire the neareft to it, in 
its 21eal for the Promotion of Experiments.. In that 
Kingdom, the Royal Society has maintained a perpe- 
tual Intcrcourfc, with the moft eminent Men of Art 
of all Conditions ; and has obtain'd from thcth, all 
the Help which might juftly be hop'd for,from the Vi- 
gour y, and Activity, and Readinefs of Mind, which is 
natural to that People. From their ThyficianSy Chirur- 
geonsyznd Anatomifisyit has recciv'd many faitlifiil Re- 
lations of extraordinary Ciiress from their moft judicious 
. Travellers the Fruits of their Voyages j from their moft 


itkJ The HI STORY of 

famous MathematicianSy diverTcT'r^^^i; which have 
been fcflv'd many different Ways 5 frtfm their C67- 
mijis fhe eflfed^ of their Fires; and from others, of 
their beft Obferversi many Rarities; and- Difbxiriei 
of their Fruits^ Silky Wine^ Breid;TlantSy Sak\ and 
fuch natural Produdions of their Soil. And" to in- 
ftance once for all, it hasbeeii affedionately invited 
to a mutual Correfpondence by the French Acadetf^ 
of Varis : In which Invitation, there is one Exprd^ 
iiori, that bnght not to be pais*d over in Silence; that 
they acknowledge the Englijb Natim^ to have many 
Advantages for the propagating of real^hilofophjy 
^hich are wanting to all others. This Confcffion is 
trae : Yet thefc Advantages, unlels they had been im- 
ptov*d by this InfUtutichty had been only as thofe, 
that we have for Fifliing, Objeftions and Arguments 
of our Sloth. 
/* luly. ^^ '/if^y the Royat Society has an excellent Privi- 
lege of receiving and imparting Experiment Sy by 
the Help of one of their own FellowSy who has the 
Opportunity of being i?^^(fwr there for them, as well 
as for the King. From thence they have been earneflf- 
* ly invited to a mutual Intelligence, by many of their 
moft noble WitSy but chiefly by the Prince LeopoUoy 
Brother to the great Duke of Tufcany i who is the 
Patron of all the inqui/ttiveThilo/ophers of Florence ; 
from whom there is coming oat under his Name an 
Account of their Proceedings call'd ^ucal Experi-- 
ments. This Application to the Rojal Society I have 
mentioned, becaufe it comes from that Country, which 
isXbldom wOnt to have any great Regard t^ the Arts of 
thcfc NationSy that lye ori this fide of their Moiintainsw 

/^Germany. In Germany y and its neighbo uring Kingdoms, the 

3tc Royal 

the Rota l Society. 1 17 

Royal Society has met with great Veneration f as ap- 
pears by feverai Teftiownies in their late printed 
Books, Which have been fabmitted to its CenTure 3 
by many Curiofitiesoi Iifythanfck hifirumentSj that 
have been tranCmitted to it 5 and by the Addreffes 
which have been fent from their Tbikf^phical Ith 
quirers. For which Kinds of Enterprizes the Tern* 
per of the German Nation is admirably fit, both in 
refpcd of their peculiar Dexterity in all Sorts of ma^ 
nual jirtSy and alfb in Regard of the plain and on- 
aflPeded Sincerity Of their Mourners $ wherein they £0 
much rercmbIethe£^^///&, thatwcfeem tohavcde* 
riv^d from them the Compofition of our Minds y as 
well ^ to have defcended from their Race. 


In the £*^te^Q?««fwx, their Intereft, andRcpatati^ 
on has been eftablifh'd, by the Fricndffiip of fome ^CoJnric^ 
their chief learned Men, and principally of Hugeruus^ 
I'his Gentleman has bcftow'd his Pains, on many Parts 
of the Speculdtivey zaA praificdl Math^/jotifkSj with 
wonderful Succe(Ies. And particularly his applying the 
Motion of Pendulums to Clocks, and Watches, ^ wasi 
an excellent Invention. For thereby there may be a 
Means found out of bringing the MeaJwes'^oiTimey 
to anexad -Regulation ^. of which the Benefits arc ia-^ 
finite. In the Profecutidn of futh T>iJco've^iesM has 
often required the Aid of this Society i he b^ received 
the Light of their Trialij and a Confirmation of his 
own, andhasfreciy admitted their Altel^atiotisoiji^ 
tnendments. And this learned Corrcfpondcncc witlt 
him, and many others, is ftffl continued, even ai? thii 
prcfent Time, in the Breach bttwcen our Countries ': 
Their great Founder, and ' Patron ftill pcrmittihg 
them to maintain thcTraflkk of Sciences y whtn all 

otlier . 

ii8 . The HI STORY of 

Other Commerce, is imtrc^^cecL Whence we miy 
gaeis, what imy be expe&cd from the peaceful Part 
of our Kings Rtign, wheat hi/s yj? ry ' WjU3 are inaiiag'4 
without Injury to tht Art s^Qvil Knewie^e. 


Viftts of For- ^^^ ^'^ ^^ wander any farther in Tartici$lars^ it 
r/^wr/. may perhaps in^rarr^/beiltfely computed, that there 
has.beeti as iaige a CDmrnimicationof Foreign ^r//» 
and Inventions to the Reyai Society y within this fmall 
Gcntipar$t>f Ijimc^ as eirer before did pais over the Etig-: 
/r/& Chanel, fiocc the very firft Tranfportation of Arts 
into our Ifland. And that this Benefit will ftili increafe 
by the Lengith of Time is indubitabie,from the Recep- 
tioriy which has been given to the Scholars^ Nobility^ 
EmbaffadorSy and Foreign TrinceSy who of late 
Years have traveird hither, to behold a Counfryi which 
had Jxen the Stage of fo famous a War, and fo mira- 
culous a Peace. All thefe have ftill viilted the Royal 
Society y as one of the firft and nobieft Fruits of our 
Reftoration. From hence they have returned Home, 
with a free Engagement of their Afliftance ; the Men 
of Learning aflUring it of a Contribution of their Z^ 
hurSy and the Statefmen and Trinces of their Autho- 
rity ztiAhkiLcnoxxtSy in ratisfyingall^£/i^;^i&/r^^^- 
nV(r,.with which they have been plentifully fumifh'd. , 
It would be a ufelefs Pomp to reckon up a CataUgue 
of their Names $ efpecially leeing they are already re- 
corded with Gratitude, in a more lafting Monumenty 
the Reg^er of the Society. Only it will not, I 
think, beamifs, if I mention the Viflt of one ?r/;!;r^, 
becaufe it may afford us a profitable Obfcrvation* 
When the Duke of Brunfwick and Lunenburgh was 
inrroduc'd into their weekly AJfembljy and had fub- 
fcrib'd his Name to their Statutes ^ there was accor? 


the R 6 V A L S 6 ci e.x'v. i^^ 

^ii^totheCiiiknb^oneQfchcjF^fiS^^ to 

iDterpnet to him, what Experiments were piroduc'd, 
and examfai'd at that Mectilig. But fais Higknefs told 
them, that it was not ncccflfarjr 'they ibonld put them- 
ttlvts to that Trouble } for he well underfiood our 
Language, having been dcawn to the Study of it, out 
of a Deiire of reading our Tbilofiphical Books. 
From whence there may this Condufton be made, 
that if ever out Nstivs Tongue fhall get any Ground ^ 
in Bicr^/f, it muft be by augmenting mexperimmtal 
Treafmrt. Nor is it impofiibie, but as the Feminine 
Arts of Tteofufe miiCa&mtrj luvefpread forae of 
our neighbouring Lai^ages^ tofuch a vaft Extent^ (b 
the E^ifo T&npse may alfi> in time be more cniarg'd» 
b7l)eing the fnftrument of coDveying to tlie Wodd^ 
the M^^ine Attsof Kf/owta^e. V 

• " •« 

I now come to relate, wfaat Incoan^emevts thti Sea.XXI V. 
Deiign has received at home in its native Soil. And 1^*^ Incour^ 
Will aflbtcmy Reader, thatlic Oiigwi^oC the BofolfJ^l % 
Society \xtf& ioQxA a geiietai ^^/riiAffiix^ oiiri^^/vV «^ • 

iclves, and that the mbft pnident Men of all Ptoicf-^^^^- 
iions and Inters, have fliewn by their Re^yeds to 
thdfe hopefol Beginnings, that ifoeoe is a Reverence 
due to the fkft Tiiak and Imendons, as weU asco the 
InA AccompKftmmi of - geaerow Attempts; . t . 

Of oilr chief and mbflr 'vnokfay MerchantSimiiCinFromoyrCi- 
ti^ssenSj very many hate affiAcd^t withthieir J^&iigc ; ^^z^ffs. 
and thereby have added the indofirtous, pundual,4ad 
aftive Genius of Men of ^Trajlcky to the Cfxkt^ 
fcdtmary, «nd Kfetv'i Temper ofMcn of Learning:' 
They have conrributed theit X^^^ri^v ^«fhcy»havc 
htlp'd their Corref^m^ce^ they iiaye entploy'd 

R their 

ijo The HISTORY of 

their FaBors AtMoad to anfwer thdc Jhfturim thqr 
have laid out in all Gxintrics for Oi/hrvMtims i tbq^ 
have beftox/d many confiderable Gifts on their Trf4h 
fury and Repoittory. And chiefly there is one Bfnmfjf 
to be here infeited, which for the fingular Benefit thiut 
may be expefted from it, deferves the Afpkmfe and 
Imtatim of this and fiinire Times. It is tlie Efiablifi- 
ment made by Sir^o^ Cutler^ for the reading on Me- 
chmiicksy in the Place where t he Royal. SocUfj\ihsXi 
meet. This is the iirft LeBure that has bee^ founded 
of this Kind, amidft all the vaft Mkmfirence of fo txA^ 
trf Benrfd£larsto Leantmgmt\i\&h!att h^ And yet 
this was tlie moft neceflary of all odicrs. For this has 
chiefly caus'd the (low Progrcis of KMiitf^^r/j; tliat 
thcTrdi^themfdves have never Cerv'd Apprentijbifs^ 
as well as the Trade/men ; dut they h^ve never had 
any Mafiets fct over them, to dircft and guide their 
Workfl^ or to vary and cnlarge«thcir Operations* 


tk^m mw OS oon VbyJ&iaos^ many of the mofl judicious 
Pbyfifimu. have contributed their Tut/es/heix Hmutsjdxot Judg- 
ments^ their JVritmgs^ Thb they have done,, though^^ 
they have alfain LmUlon a Orilege peculiar ta their 
^Tofeffims whichever flncc its firft Foundation, for 
^ file Space of a hundred and fifty Years, has given the 
World a Snoceffion of the moft eminent Thjificians- 
t& Europe. In tha they confine themfelves to the Ad- 
v^ttmcatoiThyfick : But in tbiSy thtf liave aUb with 
great Zeal and Amlity promoted this umverfal Inn^cr 
timh into all natural Kncnvk^e. For without Daur 
^oi Flattery y\ will declare of the Englp/b Thjficiansit 
that no Part of the World exceeds t hem,not only in the 
SkiUof their ownyfr/, but Ingeneral Leamifig y and 
of*wry many of that Profcifion I will affirm^, that all 


the R OT A L So CIET V. t^t 

AfoUo is their awny as it was (ai^ by the beft ^oet of 
tlm AgCy of oac of the moft excellent of their Number^ 

Of our NoHlitfMA Gentry ^ the iftoft noble and illu-Ff'o^^ our 
ftrums have condefcended to labour here with their ^^'''^> 
Hands J to impart their ^ifcoveries^ to propofe their 
lyoubts^ to affift and defray the Charge of their Trials. 
And this they KaYe done with fuch a univerfal Agree- 
meat, tharitis almoft the only thing, wherein the No-^ 
Aflfir/ip of ait the three Kingdoms zxtimited. In their 
Ajfemblies for making Laws they arc feparated $ in 
their Cuftoms and Manners of Life they differ; and 
in their HamoorstoOi they are' thot^ght not much of 
Icia to each odier. But in the Rojd Society the Scotch i 
thclrifif the Ef^Ufi Gentry 'do meet, and communis' 
care, without anyOiiHndion of Cm;ii'r/^j' or AfFeftions. 
From heiice no doubt very much po/iticaly as well as 
fbikfophical Benefit will arife. By this means, there is 
a good Foundation laid for tt\e removing of that Avei^ 
fion, which the Englifi2xe fometimes obferv'd toex-i 
prcfsto the Natives of thofc Kingdoms f which though 
perhaps it arifes from the Knowledge of their own 
Advantages above the other, yet it is a great Hindrance 
to the Growth of the J5r/f/)j& y<we;^r.' For as a King- 
dom divided ^ainft it felf, cannot ftahd j fo three 
Kingdoms divided from each other, in Temper Sj 
Studies^ and Inc/indtionSj can never be great, upon 
one common Intercft. 


. : OfomJIi&^Jiers of State athomtyZad oiir Enibdffa^ prom 
dors abroad^ \ there have bein ray few employed, who Statefmcu. 
ate not FeUows of the 'Rejal Society ; and efpecially 
thefe latter have befiow'd their Pains in foreign Courts^ 
to ccHeGt delations and Secrets of Nature,^ as well as 

R X of 

tit TTte^HlrSTORYjif 

of Sfottft Fen- yhich Stfevketbdr Wayof Lifevmdft 
conycniptiv bgrthc.Gctt^alfeyrofihaBC^ the 

Privileges and Freedom of their ^ifpatches^ arid the 
uCUal Refon 0f tfac.lrpoft* tui<>wtng iMidlivyiittli^e 
Men td thcirCcMnpany. * 

From our . OuT gtcateft Coptoini and. Commandtrs , hame i 
Soldiers, ^^j. J jj^gjj Mikmsm thiB Numbci:, ftiid. ha«: vegadckd 
thtfe Studies :■■ \ihkii arc tKrt, . » Ctfhcr Faitis nSLfimn- 
i^gt ftp be (iali^d the Studies 0ft bit Gmtm t §ot fcfae^ do as^ 
well become the Profeflion of a SiUier^ or any othec 
Way of Life. Not havcouc moft rcnown'd Generals 
liegle^ed the Opportsinides (X phihfifhical. Inqniries^ 
even iA ^he.midft.oS their grcatdl E^ttntHfesy ^ oa 
v^hichthe Fateof ;^m^i/(R^»5^hasd^ndcd;. Thicjiiavc 
been furni(b\i wkfa biftratnents acid Diieftiods by the 
Ray 4I Shifty ^^ juid dmklA the Tumtilt of iBF^5'9 anS 
Govttnmeta* t>f Fleas^. jtikcy have found Leifure to 
m^ foitieJmi&tif f^^niwMrJrr 
much excdi that of ^^iUimmg^, ^idi fihne of thd 
Roman Generals u&'d in tlieir Camps, as k is better to 
ib, than to talk weU. 

From our OfourC£xrrv^Mfxrihegreateftahdthe mo&Reve* 
Cburchmtn. ^^^^ by their Care and Paflion^ iand Endeavours ia ad- 
vancing this/j!^'^itf/p<hayctaicdn loiFthe unjuft Scan* 
dal from ^^Avr^/ Knoigirltdge, that it is ah Eaomy to 
divinity. iBy the perpetual Tatrmage and Aff^anu 
they have afforded the Rojal Society y they have con- 
futed the falfe Opimon&qf tkoTe MeD> ^irho hdievethat 
Vhihfophets muA:. nerds ht' trreRgiims: : liiey. hav^> 
fhe wn> that in our VeveraticH ofGo^s aim^Jbity Tmtwr, 
we ought to imkatc the manner of ^oor Rc^ei^ to 
earthy Kings, i For as the grtatertfaeir ^mmian is, 

I .'> the 

the Royal S o c i e t t. J33 

the tnore Oblervance is wont to be ^vcfi to lhcl|: 
ncarcft Servants and Officers ; fo the Greatnefs of cbt 
"divine Majeftj is bcft to be worfliip'd, by the due 
honouring and obferving of iST^fur^y whith is his im- 
mediate Servant^ and the univerfai Minifier of his 

* r 

- But I make hafte to that, which ought tobc cftcem'd Sea. XXV. 
the vtiy Life.zvid Soul of this ^/w^fr/^ib';^, the Pro- J^"^ 
tej^km and Favbut of the King and the RrfalFamilf. ly^ ^'^ 
When the Society firft addrcfs'd themfclves to hSsMa- 
jeffyy he was pleased to express much SatisfaAion> that 
this Enterprife was begun in his Reign : lie then xt^ 
ptcferited to them the Gravity and Difficulty of thidr 
Work, and aflfur'd them of all the kind Influence of Ms 
y^ttw^and ^reregative. Since that he has frequently 
committed many Tilings to their Search : he has re- 
fei'd many foreign Rarities to their In/peStion : he has 
recommended many domeftick Improvements totheir 
Care : he has demanded the Rcfult of their Trials^ in 
many Appearances of Nature ; he has been prefent, 
and affiffed with his own Hands, at the performing of 
many of their Experiment s^ in h\sGardenSy his Tarksy 
and on the River. And bcfidcs I will not conceal, thar 
he has fometimes reprov'd them for the Shwnefs of 
their Proceedings : at which Reproofs they have not 
fo much Caufc to be afflifted, that they arc the Reprc- 
hcnfions of a J^T/w^, asto be comforted, that they arc 
the Reprehcnfions of his Love, and Affe6fion tb their 
Progrcfe. For a Teftimony of which Rojat Benignity^ 
i»d to free them from all Hin4rances and Occajmst^ 
^etafy he has gfytn^ them the EftabUflimcnl pf his . 
Letters Tattnts, of w^ifch I will here prbdtJbc ttti* 
Epitome. ' • .\ ^ 


134 rheHlSrORYof 

C Harks tbeSevmi^by the Grace of G€d/^f%JO^^!^A^ 
Scotland, France, and Ireland Ki^t ^rfender 
efthe Faiths &c. To all unto wffom thefe TrefetUsJiidl 
come^ Greeting. Having lorig refolvu within Ofir felf 
to promote the JVelfare of Arts an4 Sciences^ as well 
as that of our Territories and dominions ^ out of our 
princely AffeBion to all kind of Learnings and more 
particular Favour to philofophical Studies : Efpeci- 
ally thofe which indeavourby fblid ExperimentSf ei- 
ther to reform or if9^ove Thihfophy. To the iutent 
therefore that thefe Kinds of Study ^which are no where 
yet fufficiently cultivated^ mayflourifhinourl^omim- 
ens \ and that the learned World may acknowledge us 
to bCy not only the defender of the Faiths ht the To- 
iron and Encourager of all Sorts of ufeful Knowle^e, 
KnowyOf that we out of our fecial Grace^ertain 
Knowledge^and meer Motion^ have given and granted,, 
and do fy thefe Trefents give and grant for us^ our 
Heirs, andSucceffors^hat there Jh2l be for ever a So- 
cietyyon^Jling of a Trefdent, Council, and Fellows, 
which fhall be called by the name of the TrefdentjCoun- 
^ ^ ^ ^ ' ' ' ^- ,, cil,and Fellows oft he Royal Society ofLondoa,forand 

improviftg of natural Knowledge, of which Society we 
do by thefe Trefentsdeclareourfdf to be Founder and 
Matron. And we do her eby make and conflitute thefaid 
Society by the Name^ &c. to be a Body corporate^ to be 
continued under the fame Name in a perpetual Succef 
Jwni and that they and their Succejfors^ {whofe Studies 
are to beinspUyedfor the promoting of the Knowledge 
of natural Things, and ufeful Arts by Experiments. 
To the Glory of God, and the good of Mankind,) 
fhall by the aforefaid Name of Trefident, Council, 
ice. be inabled and made arable in Law, to levy, 
hold, pojfefs, and injoy. Lands, Tenements, &c. 

I Liber- 

fJbeKoY AL Society. 13 j 

0r Terms ofLives^artearSf or any other Wky vas ^0 
Goods^Cbattilsj mdM other Thkigs of what Kature 
orKindfoever. Andaljb by the NMne m»refaidtogiver 
grants demife^or ajfypi the faid Lands jGoods^Uz. mdto 
do allThings necejjary thereabout. AndthefaidTer- 
fins by the Name aforefaidare inabled to implead^ ber 
impleaded^ ffUj deferul^ &c in any Courts^ and be fori 
^7 J^i^^f Officer Sy &c. whatfoever of the Kmgf his 
Heirsy and SuccefforSy in aUandfingtuar Anions real, 
andperfanal: TleasyCaufisfiua. of what kindfoever^ as^ 
any of his Suljf£is within his Kingdom i^England> or 
Corporations^ are bf Law a^Mble and inabled to do. 

And the fUdTrefidenty Council^ and Fellows are 
impowefdto have a Common Seal for their Ufe in their 
Affairs i and from time to time to^ breaky change^ and 
make anew the fame^sfiall feem expedient unto them^ 

And his M^eftyy in Tejiimony of his R^al Eavour 
towards thefaiaTreJidenty OnmcilyOnd Fellows y and 
of his efpecial Efteem ofthem^ doth grant a Coat of 
Arms to them and their SuccefforSyyvi. On a Field Ar- 
gent a Canton of the three Lyons of England : For a 
Crefty an Eagle proper on a T^ucal Coronet fupparting 
a Shield charged with the Lyons aforefatd^ and for 
Supporter Sy two Talbots with Coronets on their Necks. 
The faid Arms to be bom^ &c by the faid Society, 
upon all Occafions. 

And that his Majeftfs Royal Intentionmat take, 
the better Effeiffor the good Government of the faid 
Society from time to time ^ It is eflabUfh% that the 
Council aforefaid frail confji of 2 1 . Terfons j {whereof 
the Trefidentfor the time being always to be one.) And 
that . all Ter/onSf which withm two Months next en^ 
iuhig the lyateefthefaidCharterJhMbechofenby tha 


i3<J TheHISrORTof 

faUTrefident midCoimcil\ md in all times i^er the 
pud two MtmthSy by the Trejidenty Comcil^ mhd 
Fellows imdnotedina Repfter to ie heptf^r thatfw^ 
pcft^ /ball he Felhws ef the faid Society ^ 4mdfo Mcmmt- 
edy smdcsU'dAfring Life^ excett by the Statutes of the 
[aid Society to be tfuuky any ofthemjhali happen to be 
amoved. And by haw much awy Vet fans are mare ex- 
celling in all kinds vf Learnings by how much the mare 
ardently they defire to framate the Honour J Bujmffst 
and Emohmeftt of the faid Society^ by how much the 
more eminent they are far integrity^ Honefty^ Tiety^ 
Loyalty y and Goad AffeBian toward his Majefty^ ins 
Crownand^ignity^hy fanmchthemoreft andwar- 
thyjkch ^erfons are to be judged^ for Reception into 
the Society. 

And far the better Execution oihis Royal Grants 
his Maj^y hath nominated J tac. his trufiyand well- 
beloved William^ Vifcaunt Brounckcr^ Chancellor to 
Ms dtarefi Canfart ^i^etn<Z^^imz^ to bethefirjland 
nwdem^refident to continue in the faid Office from the 
"Date if the latent to the Feaft of St. Andrew next 
enfuingy and until another^erjan ofthe faid Council be 
duly chofen into the faidOf^e. The /aid Lord BtouhQ' 
kcr being fworn in all things belonging thereto weU 
and faithfully to execute thefaidOffice^ before his right 
wellbelaved and ri^t trufiy Coufin and CaunfeUar^ 
Edward, Earl of Clarendon^ Lord High Chancellor 
of England, in the Wards following. 

IWiUiamy Vifconnt Br&uncker^ <lo promifc to deal 
fairhfiiUy and honcftly in ail things belonging to 
that Truft committed to me, as Prefident of the Roy- 
al Society oi London^ for improvuig Naturd Knc^^ 
ledge. So help me God. And 

the Royal So c i et y. 13 

'. And his Majefty hath nominated^ &c. theTerfons 
following^ His truflj and well-beloved Sir Robert Mo- 
ray Kmght^ . me of his Trivy Council in his Kingdom 
^ SGOtland>Robcrt Boyle Efquirey William Brcrcton 
Efquire^ eldeJlSonto the. Lord BtcrctotXy Sir Kcnclrac 
Digby Knight y ChanceUor to his dear eft Mother ^een 
Mary, Sir Gilbert Talbot Knight ^Mafter of his Jewel- 
koufey Sir Paul Ncilc Knight ^ one of the UJbers of 
his Trivy Chamber^ Henry Slingsby Efquire, one of 
ahe Gentlethen ^ His faid Trivy Chamber^ Sir 
Willianj Petty Knight, Timothy Clark Tto^for of 
Vhjjickj and one of his Thyjkians^ John Wilkins 
^oetor ofPivinitjy Geprge Em T>oaar ofThyficky 
William Erskyne Efquire, one of his Cupbearers^ 
Jonathan Goddard©^^i?r^/P/&^)fc, m^ 
Efqutre^ Matthew Wren Efauire, John Evelyn Efq. 
TTiomas Henfliaw -E/^i^/r^, Dudley Palmer^ Grays 
Inn Efquire, Abraham Hill ^London Efquire, and 
Henry Oldenburg Efquire^ together with the Trefident 
aforejaidy to be the fir ji and Modem 21 • of the Council 
andPellowsofthe Royal Society aforefaidy to be con- 
tinued in the Offices of the Council afore faid^ from the 
^ateofthe Tatent to theFeaft of St. Andrew next 
foUowingy and from thence till other fit Terfons be 
chofen into the faid Offices. The faidTerfons to be 
fwom before the Trefident of the Society y for the time 
beifig^ well and truly to execute the faidOfficeSy ac- 
coring to the Form and EffeSt of the afore faid Oath 
to be adminiftredto the Trefident by the LordChan- 
cellar as afore faid. For the adminiftring which Oath 
to thefaia TerfonSy and all others hereafter from time 
to time tobe chofen into t he faidCouncilyfulPPower and 
Authority is granted to the Treftdent for the time be- 
ing : And the faidTerfons duly fwom^ and all other 
♦ S from 

138 ne HISTORY oS 

Jrwi time to time duly cbefen inta the faid Council 
andjhmm^ tore t§ aid, advife smdaffiftin MAffms^ 
Bujmeffes, and Things concerning the better Regular 
fioHy Government J mid ^ireiHom of the Rajfol Socio* 
ty 3 and every Member thereof. 

Furthermore^ Liberty isgrmtedtothefmdSociay^ 
lawfully to wake and hold AUetings e^tbomjetvesyfor 
the fearching out and^ifcovety of natural Things^ 
and Tranfadion ef other Bufineffes relating to the 
faid Society y whin and as often as fhaU be requijite^ 
in any College, Hall, or other convenient Tiace in 
London^ or within \o Miles thereof. 

And Tower is granted to the fatd Society, jirom 
time to time to nominate and choofe yearly, on Si. And- 
drcw's ^Day, one of thk Council aforefaid, for the time 
being, to he Trident of the Society, until St. An- 
drew'/ ^ay next en/kin^ ( ifbefluUlfo long tivcy or 
not be removed fir fonte jufl andreaftmabieCmfe) amd 
from thence until another be chofen and feet into the 
faid Office, the faid Trefidentfo ele^ed, before Admif 
Jion to that Office, to be fwom before the Council, at- 
cording to the Form before expreffed, who are im- 
fowefdto adnmUJier the find Oath from time to time, 
as often as there pall be Caufe to chufe a Trefident. 

And in Caft that the f^ Trefident, during his 
Office ^ fh aU dk, recede, or be removed ^ theny and fi^ 
often, it psaU be lawful for the Council of the Royal 
society, to meet together to chufe one of their Nmmber 
for Vrefidhatf the faid Society, and the "Perfmfb 
chofen and duly fwom, fialt have and exerc^ the Of- 
fee of^Frefdentfor the remainder' rf the Tear, and un- 
til another be duly chofen into the faid Office. 

Andin Cafe that any one or more oft he Council ^^brt- 
faid fiall die, recede^ or be removed \ which T^erfms or 


the K o Y A I S o c 1 % t Y. 

my of tbemt fn AUfikmisnoHt, &r rther nafimihk 
tbi reft aft be Cmicii) thm mulfamm UjMlhe Uu^ 
fuifoT the Tr^dmhCatmeilf €ti4telk^t, tQ ebufi «kt 
mt m^treeftheFeUowi efthe R/f^alStfiety m the R$om 
cfhim artbemfp decet^gp recedmg^r rentev% ta ccfi^ 
fkst the 40rrf4id Rumber ef %\ ef the Coimeiit 
wbkh Terjpn §r TerfimfacMfen^ aretoeaminmm 
OffiututiiSt. hsxixt^i "Da^tbennext ertjuhigj Mu[ 
fmtH others bs dufy ehrfen the fmd Terfms bekig 
/wernfiutbfnUy.tQ execute their Offices^ actardk^ te 
tbe.fme hitentmn of the.Tatent. 

Amd his M^efij doth wiU0ldg^aii$tmt0 the fmd 
Trefido^y Councii^and Feiiows, fuU Tower mdAu^ 
tbmitfy OH St. Andrev'/ T^syyeostly^o eleSt^ rmnmatiy 
amdchmgei voqftbeFelbnMofthe RojdSocietjy to 
JuPfrly the T laces sndOffiees of ten rf the afore foid 
Nnmb$r ofxi. oft he CouncilfdecUrmg it to be bis Roy - 
at WillandTleafwrey tha$ ten and no nwe of the 
Coaneiloforefiudbe ammaUj changed and retmved by 
the Trefidenty Comtcil and Fellows i^orefaid. 

And it is granted on the behalfof the fold Society ^ 
that if it jhallhappeny that the Trejident be Jick^ in- 
firmy detaorid in his Majefty's Service j or otherwife 
occupied, fo ashe amnot attend the neceffary Affairs 
of the Society^ then and fo often it Jhall be lawful fer 
him to appoint one of the Cowncilfor his ^epnty^ who 
Jballfnpply ins place: from time to time ^ as often as he 
fball hd^pen to be abfent^ during the whole time of the 
faid'Preftdent^sContimanee iso his Of^e, mkfs he 
ftndlaothofnean tnnocon/iitnte feme ^her ofth^oun^ 
cilfor his ^Deputy : And tho Deputy fo conft tinted i$ 
impm^erd to do dlandfiogidar Things which beiong 
tatheOfieeofthe Trefdent ^the Kayai Society j:a»d 
in as amok Manner and Form as the faid Trefident 

S 2 may 


140 rhe HI STORY of 

may do by virtue of his Majejifs Letters Tatents^ he 
the faid deputy beitig duty Jwtnrn before t he Jl^ncil in 
Form before Jpecifiedy who are impowefd to adtnmfier 
the Oath as often as the Cafe fiudl require. 

It is farther granted to the Society ^ to have one Treor 

furery two Secret arieSj two or more Curators of Exte^ 

rimentSy one or more Clerk or Clerks y andalfo two Mr- 

jeants at Macey who may from time to time attend on 

the Trejident s allthefaia Officers to be chofin by the 

Trefidenty Council and Fellows^ and to be Jwom in 

Form and EffeU before jpecifiedy well and faithfully to 

execute their Officesy which Oath the Council are 

impowefd to adminifter : And his Majefy nominates 

andappomts his well beloved SubjeSiSy the i^efaid 

William Bali EfquirCy to be the fir ft and modern Treor 

Jurer ; and the aforefaid ]ohn WilkmsandHcxity Ol- 

denburgh, to be thefirft and modem Secretaries of the 

Royal Society i to be continued in the [aid Offices to the 

Feaftof St. findxcw next following the ^ate of the. 

latent. Andthatfrom time to time and ever hereafter y 

on thefaid Feaft of St. Andrew ( if it be not Lor ^s 

Day, and if it be Lords T^ajy on the next T>ay after) 

the Trefidevt, Councily and Fellows aforefaidy are im- 

powered to nominate and chufe hone ft and difcreet Men 

forTreafurer and Secretaries y which are to be of the 

Number of the Council of the Royal Society y which 

TerfonseteStedandfwomy in Form before fpecifiedy 

are to exercife and enjoy the faid Offices until the 

Feaft of St. Andrew next then following. 

^na if it ftf all happen, that the afore faid Election of 

the TreJidentfiouncilyTreafureryOnd Secret arieSyOr any 

ofthemy cannot be made or perfeHed on the Feaft of St. 

A ndrew aforefaidy it is granted to the aforefaidTre- 

ftdenty Councily ondFelhwSy that they may lawfully 


mmifkUe andaffign another Day^ as nearta tkfifaid, 
Feaji of St. Andrew as convenient fy may bey for making, 
6T ferfeStingtbe faid EU&ionSy andfo from Day to. 
Day tUltkefaid EkSiions he perfe^ed. 

AndmCafe that any of the a^^efaidOfficeftofjhe. 
RoyalSocietyJhalldie^reeedeior bertmon/djrom their ^ 
refpeiiive Officfs^ then andfo often it fhall be law- 
ful for thefaid Trejtdent^ CouncUy and Felhws^ to 
chiqefe oife, or morei^o the Office or Offiget vacaitt,. to, 
hold'tbe fmo ditri$^ the^efiineofthat Teatt a^wh. 
til others be duly chofen andjworn in their Places. 
, Moreover y on the behalf of the Society ^ it is grant- 
ed uti^O the Trefident and, Councily that theymaj of 
feffikle and meet tegfthfr mahy_ ColUgeyMaffy or other 
nnwnient, place in Lofi$ioo> pt mthin tm Miles.tkftiz 
of ( due^ afkl (aw f til Summons of 4^1 the Memkeri of the 
Council to enftraordiniiry Aieeiings ^beiji^ always pre- 
mifed) and that they being fojmf together y havefuH 
^ower and Authority from time to timCy) fomake^ 
coej^itutey and ejl^blifii fuch La^Sj^ Statutes^ Or^ 
derSi andConJiitutionSy which jhall appear to them to^ 
}^e goody ufefuly hoftfft^ and neceffaryy according to 
their Judgments and T)ifcretionSy for the Govern- 
ment^ Regulation and^ireSlion of the Royal Socie-^ 
tyy and every Member thereof: And, to do all Things, 
concerning the Gwernmeitt^Eftatey Goods y Lands ^ jHe-, 
venues jOS alfo the Bujinejfes and Affairs of thefaid So^ 
ciety : All which LawSyStatuteSyOrderSy Sacfo madcy 
His Majefiy wills and commands^ that they be from 
time to time inviolably obferved^ according to (^e 7V\ 
ifor andEffe0 of them : Tyovidedth»t they bereajm^ 
ablcy and not repugnant or contrary tojhe Laws, Cu-^ 
JfomSyjScc. of Im Kingdom of Enghnd^^^ 
\And'fiirthermoreyf^To7t;er ondAt^hfirity is given, 


141 the HISTQRT of 

rnidgrmtidimtP rhefaidSmny^ fr<m timeU time tt 
cbwfi Me mr mere Trmfers and Gre/vere^ endbjf wrk* 
nig fidled with the €apm$on Seal of.the Seckty^ and 
jizned by the Trefident for the time Heiffg^U grant 
them T^ewer teftmtjkch Thinge^ MdttmandBuJu 
neffes eeneeMingthefaidSeeiety^ asJhaUbec^mmiited 
te them by the Ctmncil from time te time: Thefaid 
Trierters and Oraoers^ being Jwem befe^re the ^^ 
deni andCeuneitinFoem before fpe€^d,^$ch ^rep 
dentandOMeneilariimpeweredt&gbve thefUdpmthi 

Andpt the greater Advaneage andSuee&fiefthe 
Seei^ in their "^Fhilofofhieal^ Studies and IndeavewrSy 
fidl¥ower and Aiithorifyisgranteduiet^ te rt^ 

quirey take^ andteeeivey fiwntimetetimey d^dBt^ 
dht of ^er fern executed^ « and f he faw^to anafamifej 
te aOIntents^ and^infofes^ and in as mnfde Marmef 
andFermosthe Coikge of ThyjicianSy mdCen^anf 
ef Chirurgeons ofhoi^^toa {by what Names foever the 
faid two Coeporations are or may be called} have had 
and made ufe of^or may haw ami ufe thefaid Bodies: 

And for the Improvement of fmh Experiments y 
ArtSy andSeienees^ as the Society may be mtlefd />, 
full ^ower and Authority is granted mite tfjem from 
time to timekr Letters under the Hand of the Tref- 
dentyin the Treftnceofthe Couneily toheldCorre^on- 
dence and Intelligence with any Str anger Sy whethef 
private ^erfbnsy or CoUe^ate SoeierieSyOe Corpora- 
tionsy without any Interruption or Moteftationwhat- 
foever :^ovided that this Indu^tenceor GroTft be ex- 
tended to na farther Ufe thar^ the partieular Benefit 
andhOerefi of the Society y in Matters Thilofophicat^ 
Mathematicdy and Meehanituh 

Full Tower and AutherHj is dfa granted on the 
behalf rfthe Society totheCouncil; to ereff and build 
one or more Colleges within London, or ten Miles 


the RotAL Society. 143 

tberetfy pfvfhgt Form «r SiuoHtyJoeoirJhr Htl^Ult^ 
Ptt, Memkih^, or Mtatngof tht 'PrHmm, Council 
<«m/ PeUams^ tbout my Afrits anU Oujmiffrs of thi 

And if my jiimfes^f^ifirenetsfialtevir btredf^ 
ur mft oMd h4pfm okMt the Gwemmi^ 
^the Societyy whunutheCeHftitutim^ ^ragreftjdnd 
Aftffsvimint^ Biifintffei tber^ffnajfi^et er bt hin- 
d^d: Infiuh C^fis kis Majifty a/f^ MdnMhotP- 
fes his rights tfufly Md fight witl hiU^vtd Cmtfin 
andOnrnfellar^ £4 ward E^rhfC\^ttt\doti Lord high 
ChancHUf 9f England, hj hmfelf during his Life^ 
and afUr his^Decesfe the I^d Jrch4iJhap§fCMiXtt^ 
bfuryt the LordChMfe^^w L9rd Keeper of thegrMt 
&tf/#/^£mland) the I^d h^hTfeafuferof^ti^X^t^^ 
the Lerd Reefer eft he ^rii^y Sedl^the Lwd Bijh&p ^f 
London, and the two print iped Secret mes ef Statefer 
the Ttneeheingj or anyfeur or more of them^ to eompofh 
dmd redrefs aptffkeh "iJijfirenees 4r Ahufts. 

Andlajtty, His Mafefiy ftf Of fy charges and eom^ 
mands all Jufiices^ Mayors^ Aldermen^ Sheriffs^ Bai- 
liffs y Conftables^ and alt other Officers ^ MinlfietSy and 
Subjeiis whatfoevery from time to time to be aiding 
and aj/lfting unto the f aid Trejtdenty Ctmncil, andFel- 
fywsofthe Royal Society y 'in and about all Thiitgiy 
^according to the true Intention of his L&ttefs Patents. 

This is^thc Legal Ratification t^hich tthc Rojat 
Society has received. And in this place I am to render 
their publick Thanks to the right honout ablf- Hk 
Earl of Clarendon Lord Chancellor of Exjgland^ ta 
Sir Jeffery Tatnfer Attorney General, and to Sir lie- 
neage Finch Sbllicitor General ; who by tlieir chacrfiil 
Concurrence, and free Fromotioo of this Con£rnia- 
tion, have wip'd away the Afperiion, that has been 

I fcan- 

,^4 .neHISrORTaf 

jCc^n^aloufly cail.on the^r^/^iw of ihc Law^ that it 
Is an Enemy to Lfarning^vidx}\tciviljirts. Tofl^cv 
che Falihood of tliis Rf^p^oacjiJ aiigluinftance tp many 
Judges and Caunfellors of all Ages, who have been th^ 
Ornaments of fhe Scienc^Sy a9\weli as of the Bar^ and 
Courts of Jufticf, Bat it is eilough to declare, that 
'my Lord B^am was a Lawyer ^ and that thefc eminent 
Officers of the Lawy have complied ti^U Foundation 
Qiit)Lic Royal Society s^ which, was a Work well Jbc- 
<omiiig the Largenefs of his Wit to devife, and the 
Greatnefs of their Ptadencc to cftabliih* 
Scfl.XXlv. According to the Intention of thefe Letters Tor 
Their Conn- tfnts^ thclt CouncU has cvcr flnce been annually rc- 
cils and Std'^^y^*^^ ^z^s^^refidenty their 7r^^r/r, their J>frd- 
^aries choTen : The .chief Employments of the Coufir 
cil have been to manage tlxtitpoliticai Affairs^ to re- 
gulate Diforders, to make Addretfes, and Applications 
in their Behalf; to regard their Privileges ^ to dif- 
perfe Correjjnmdents^ but principally to form the Body 
of their Statutes^ which I will here infert. 

\Si AhjlraB of the Statutes^ of the Royal 


''Hat ever Statute Jball be madey or repeat d^ thf 
making or repealing of it Jhall be voted twice^ 
and at two feveral Meetitigs of the Council. 

This Obtigatumfbdlbefubfcriydbj every Fellow 5 
Mr his EleHion Jhall be void. 

WE who have hereto fubfaib'd, do promife 
each for himfelf, that we will endeavour to 
promote the good of the Royal Society of London^ 
for the Improvement of naturalKn6wledge,and to pur- 
' fuc the Ends, for which the fame was founded j that we 



the Royal Society. 14^ 

will be prefcnt at the Meetings of the Society, as of- 
ten as conveniently we can j efpccially at the annivcr- 
fary Eledions, and upon extraordinary Occafions ; 
and that we will obferve the Statutes and Orders of 
the faid Society : Provided, that whenever any of us 
(hall fignify to the Prefident under his Hand, that he 
defires to withdraw from the Society, he (hatl be free 
from this Obligation for the future* 

Every Fellow Jhall fay his Admiffim-Mmey^ and 
afterwards Contribution towards the. defraying of the 
Charges of Obfervatims and Experiments^ &c. 

The ordinary Meetings of the Royal Society Jhall 
be held once a fFeek^ where nme Jhall be prefent^ be^ 
Jides the Fellows^ without the leave of the Society^ 
under the degree of a Baron in one of his Majejl/s 
three Kingdoms J orofhisMajeJlfs Trivy Councils 
or unlefs he be an eminent Foreigner ^ and thefe mly 
without the leave of the Trejident. 

The Bvjinefs of their weekly Meetings Jhall be^ To 
order ^ take account y conjider^ and difcourje ofphilo- 
fophical Experiments andObfervatitms ; to reaa^ hear^ 
and difcourje upan^ LetterSyReports^ and other Tapers^ 
containing philofophical Matter si as alfo to view^ and 
difcourfe upon the Vrodu£iions and Rarities of Na^ 
turcyand Art i and to confiderwhat to reduce from 
themj^r how they may be improved for Ufe or^ifcovery. 

The Eocperiments that be made at the rCharge^ of 
the Society i two Curators at leajl Jhall be appointed 
for the InfpeSiion of thofe which cannot be per for nid 
before the Society \ by them the bare Report ^of Mat- 
ter oj Fait Jhall be fiated and returrid. J 

The Election of Fellows Jhall be made by way of Bal- 
let i and their Admijfum by a folemn ^^claration 
made by the Trejident of their Ele£iion. 

T The 


14^ neHISrORTof 

The Eie&um ^ the Cnncil and Oncers fiaUbe 
made mce a Tear: Eleven^ the prefintCotmciiJbaU 
he cmtinued by Loty far the next Tear^ and ten new 
ones chufen in ld(/e Manner. Out of this new 
Council fiall be elected a ^rejidenty Treafurery andtwe 
Secretaries in the fame Way. 

The Vrejident fhallprejuk in all Meetir^Sy regulate 
allT^ebatesoj the Society 4md Council^ StatCy andjut 
^ueJHms'y call for Reports and Accounts framCjom- 
mitteeSyCuratorSy and others^ fummon ^dl extraordi- 
nary Meetings upon urgent OccaJionSy and fee to the 
Executionof the Statutes. The Vtce^^refident Joall 
have the fame Vower in the Ab fence of the ^refident. 

TheTreafureTy or his^eputyyfhallreceiveandheep 
Accounts (fall Money due to the Society y and disbnrfi 
all Money paynUe hy the Society. Hefiaiipayfinait 
Sums by Oraerofthe ^refident under his Handy imt 
thofe that exceed five bounds by Order of the ConnciL 
All BiUs of Charges for Experiments fiaUfafi be 
figridby the Curators. The Accounts of theTreafurer 
fhall be audited fonr Times a Tearybya Committee of the 
Council^ and once a Tear by a Committee of the Society * 

The Secretaries art to take Notes oft he Orders y and 
material^ affages of the Meetings 5 to takeCareofthe 
Booksy Papers y ana ff^ritingsofthe Society 5 to order y 
anddiredi the Clerks in making Entries of all Matters 
intheRegifier and Journal^ Books of the Society or 
Council i to draw up fuch Letters as fhall be written 
in their NamCy which fhall be approved at one of their 
Meetings 5 to give notice of the CamHdates propound- 
ed in order to Eleifton. 

The Curators by Office Jhall have afufficient Allow- 
ance for their Encouragement y which fhall increafe 
proportionablywith the Revenue of the Society y pro- 

/^tf R O Y A L S O C I E T Y. 147 

vided that it exceed not two hundred Pounds a Year. 
They Jh all be wdUkilled m philofophicd and mathe- 
matical Learnings wellvers*dm Obfervations^ Inmi- 
riesj and Experiments of Nature and Art. They Jhall 
take Care of the managing of all Experiments andOb- 
fervations appointed by the Society or Council^ and re- 
port thefamCy and perform fuch other Tasks ^ as the 
Society or ComtcilJbaU s^point s fuch as the examin- 
ing ofScienceSy Arts, ana Inventions now in ufe, and 
the bringing in Hiftories of natural and artificial 
Things y &c. They fhall be Propounded at leaft a Month 
before they are chofen. They Jhall beexamirid by the 
Ccuncil before the EleBion : To their Elelfion every 
Member of the Society Jhall be fwnrnorid: Th^fiaH 
atfirjlbi only eleHedfor a Tear ef T robot ion^ except 
they be of known Merits f At the end of the Tear, they. 
fbaH be either elected for Terpetuity, or for a longer 
Time of Probation, or wholly rejeited. The Caufes 
of eje Sting a Curator Jhall be the fame with eJeSfing 'a 
FeUow, orforjraudulent dealing and NegHgence in 
the Affairs of the Society j provided that hefiallfkji 
receive three reJpeSfive Admonitions. If any Curstor 
Jhall be difabledby AgCy Infirmity ^ or any Cajualtyy in 
the Service of the Society^ feme Trovifio9^ Jhall b& 
made for him duriv^ Lifcj if his Condition re fukes^ 
according as the Cowneit fhall think fit. 

The Clerk Jhall conftantly attend at all Meetings ; he 
Jhall folkw the "DireBions of the Secretaries^ in regi^ 
firing and entring all Matters that Jhall be appointed 'i 
he Jhall not communicate any thing contain a in their 
Booksy to any that is not a Fellofi}. ' He fhall have a 
certain Rate for what he copies, and i yearly Stipend* 
for his Attendance. 

The Trinter Jhall take Care for the printing of fuch 
. T 2 

.■A I 

148 noe HISrORT of 

Books, as Jhall be committed to him by Ord& of the 
Society, or Come ih^ and therein he Jhall obferve their 
T^iredlions^as to the Corre£f ion pf the- Edition^ the 
Number of (Copies ^ the Form^ or Volume^ &c. . 

The Operators of the Society ^ when they have any 
of their Work under their Hands y jhall not undertake 
the Work of any other Terfo7iSy ^izioich may hinder the 
Bujinefs of the Society. They (hall have Salaries for 
their Attendance. 

The common Seal of the Society, Jhall be kept in a 
Chejl with three Locks, and three different KeySy by 
the ^rejidenty Treafurer, and one of the Secretaries. 
The T>eeds of the Society Jhall be pa fs din Council, 
ondJeaNby them and the TreJident. 

The Books that concern the Aff^airs ef the Society, 

Jhall be the Charter Book, Statute Book, Journal 

Books, Letter Books, andRegiJler Books, for the en- 

tringofphilofophicdObfervatims, Hijiories, Tyifcour- 

fes. Experiments, Inventions. 

The Karnes oJBenefa£tors Jhall be honmrflbly men- 
tiorid in a Book provided for that Turpofe. 

IncaJeofT^eath, or Kecefs of any Fellow, the Se- 
cretaries are to note it in the Margent of the Regijler, 
in^er againjl their Names. 

dienceto the Statutes arid Orders of the Society ; de- 
faming or malicious damnifying the fame. This Jhall 
be declafd by the Trejident at one of the Meetit^s j 
and the Ejection recorded. 

.. When thcfe Statutes were prefcnted to his Majejly, 

he was pleas'd to fuperfcribe himfplf their Founder 

and Matron j his Royal Highnefs, and his Highnefs 

Prince Rupert y at the fame time, declaring themfelvcs 

Fellows. 4. Nor 

//&^ R o V A L S c IE T y. 1491 

. Nor has the King only incourag'd them, by Kind-;;5e<a. xxvir. 
ncfs and /TWj, and by A^soiSme^ but lie has alio g'^^^^^^ 
provok'd them to unwearied A^ivity in ihcir Expe-proZtting. ^^ 
riments^ by the moft cffedual Mein^ of his Royal Ex-. ^^peri^ 
ample. There is fcarceany one Sort of /iT^ri&^whofe Ad- ^^^ff- 
vancement they regard 5 but from his Majeji/s own 
Labours they have received a Tattern for their Indea- 
vours about it. They deitgn the multiplying and 
beautifying of A&^^4(w/V)fe Arts: And the Noife of 
Mechanick Injlruments is heard in JVhitehall it fclf. 
They intend the Perfcflion of Gravingj Statuary y. 
Limning^CoiningyZwii all the Works of Smiths, in Iron, 
or Steel, or Silver: And the moft excellent ^r/(/?j of 
thcfc kinds "have Erovifioi> it)*lcr..for ihcic Fra^fce, . : 
even in the ChambPTS ai^ Galleriej.of his CeurP./ 
They piirpofc the Trial of gU manner of Operations by . '^' 

Fire : And the King has under his ow n Roof found 
pi ace for CbymicalOperstors. They refol ve to rcftore, 
to enlarge, to cx^ine Thyfick > and the Kn^ has in-, 
dow'd the CoUcgc, of Lfmdon, with new Privilege^ 
and has planted a PhyHck Garden under his own Eye. 
They have beftow'd rnxxsia Confideration on the pro-, 
pagating of Fruits andTrees : And the King has made 
Tlantations enough^.cfgn jlraoft to ncpairthe Ruins 
of a Civil War. They have begun an exaft. Surveys 
of the iHedvisns^ ^^rx^^t^^ry^me^s^Tark pay witncfs, 
^2X Ttolan^ and ^Ipmifo w^r? , not the pnly^/^-, 
narchsj whoiobferv'd the Motions and Appearances of 
the Stars. They, have ftudicd the promoting of Ar^ 
chiteBmem our;Ifl4nd>5 and fhq beauty of,pur jate 
BuildingSyi^nd theRefprniatiionof hispwaHoufcs, do 
fufficicntljr martifeft his SKilL an4 Indinatipn to than 
Art: of which MagniSgence^ we Ua4 Icdiniore Ef^ 



ija ne HisroRrsf 

feds e'er this, if they had not been call'd ofF by this 
War,from Houfcs ofCmvenrencey to thofc oS Strength. 
They have principally confaked the Advancement of 
Navigatim \ and the King has been moft* teddy to 
reward thofe, that (ball difcoverthc Mmdian. They 
have employed much Time in examining the Fahick 
af Ships J the Forms of their v$W//r, the Shapes of their 
Keels y the Sorts of Timber, the planting of Fir> the 
bettering of pitch, and Tar, and Tackling* And in 
all maritime Affairs of this Nature, his Mi^efty is ac- 
knowledged to be the beft Judge amongft Seatnca 
and Shipwrights, as well as the moft powerfol amongft 

sc^- XX VIII. By thcfe and many other Inftanccs - it appeats^ tbat 

fJ!lf ciTms^^^ ir/»^has not only given Succour to the RofolSe- 

cf our Na- ciety^ in the profecudon of their Lahoms 5 bat has aifo 

tion. led them on their JVajy and traced out to them the 

Paths, in which they ought totread. And with this 

propitious Inclination of his Mnjefify v^and the higbeA: 

degrees of Men> the Gemvi of the J^?4Cim2tiblf irrefi^ 

fiibly confpires. If we refled on all the paft Times 

of Learning in oat IJIand 'y we may ftill obfervc feme 

remarkable AccidentSy that retarded thefc StuJieSy 

which wcreftill rtady to br6ak fcvchy in^ fpight of all 


Till the Union of the two Koufes of 22rr/^ and Lan* 
caftery, the whole Force of our Country wasingag'd in 
Etemcftick Wars, between the Af/^and the N^itityy 
or in the furious Contentions between the divided 
Families: unlefs fometimes ibme magoanimoui 
Prince was able to turn their Strength to fbreign 
Conquefts. In Kin^Henrj^ the Seventh tht two Rafes 

were joyn'd : His Government was like his own. 



/^^RotalSociity. iji 

Temper, viofe, fiver^y jealwSj avsrkioHs, and withal 
"vifftrriousy ^x\Af>r$uknt : but how unpreparVl his Time 
vns for ncvr Difcovcrics, is evident ty the flender Ac- 
count that he made of the Propofirion of Ctdumtus. 
The Reign of King Henry the Eighth was vigorous^ 
haughty J magnificent ^ expenfi'vey learned: But then 
the Alteration of Religion began, and that alone was 
then fafficicntto poOTcS the Minds of Men. 

The Government of Kin^ Edward the Sixth was 
contentious, by reafon of the Faftions of thofc who 
manag'd his Childhood ; and the Shottnefs of his Life 
depriv'd Hs of the Fruits, that might have been expefted 
from the prodigious Beginnings of the King him- 
fclf. That of ^neen Mary was weaky meUmchofy, 
Hioady agamft the Ftoteftants, obfcui'd by a foreign 
Marriage, and unfortunate by the Lofs of Giifa//, That 
of ^een Elizabeth was tongy trinmphantypeaceaUe^. 
fconnc, and glorious abroad. Tisen it wa* flicwft, to- 
what height the J5^;:g]&}i& may fifei when they lire coiri- 
ttiandedby iTrkeey wholchbwslidW togOMmtb^u: 
Hearts as wcH as Hands. Hi lifer Days*h6 Mej^rmdtM^ 
was fettled, Cbmrnctcewaseftablifli^djlartd Mtoigatim 
advanc'd. But though Knowledge began abundattf- 
Iv to fpring forth, yet it was riot then fetffonable fcr 
^Experiments to receive ^puMicklnconragement : while 
the Writings of Antiquity, and the Controvc^fies be^ 
fwecn us and the Church of Romfy^^tvc not fuBy 
ftudied and difpatch'd. 

The Reign of King James was happy in all the Be- 
nefits of^eacey and plenrtfuHy furniffi'd with Men of 
profound Learning :^xxt in Imitatioft of the Kmg^. 
they chiefly regarded the Mattcps of Religim and 
^ imputation 5 («that even my Lord BacoUy with all his 
Authority in the State, could never raife any College 


iji neHISrORT'df 

4^fSalotnony but in a Romance. That of King Charles 
the Firfi began indeed to be ripe for fuch undertak- 
ings, by reafon of the Plenty and Felicity of the firft 
Years of his Government^ and the Abilities of the King 
himfelf i who was not only an inimitable Majter^ in 
Reajon and Eloquence ^hwx. excell'din very many pradi* 
cal j^rts^ beyond the ufual Cuftom oi Kings y nay even 
beyond the Skill of the bed Artifis themfelves. But 
he, alas ! was caU'd away from the Studies of ^^uiet and 
^eaceyto a mpre dangerous and a more honourable Re- 
putation, The chief Triumphs that Heaven referv'd 
for him,jwerc to be gather <l from hxsfuffering Virtues : 
In them he was only exceeded by the Divine. Exam- 
ple of our Saviours in Imitation of whiple Paflioi^ 
tho/c A^dipns, and thofe Thorns which the^rud^ 
Soldiers defign'd for his ^ij^race and Torment, be* 
<ame his G^r^ and his Crown. 

The late Times of Cw/Z/i^and Cw^iw,to make 
Recompenfefor their infinite Calamities, . brought this 
lAdyancage with thcn^i:th3[t (hey ftir!d up Men's Minds 
itt)mJ<n^ Eaje;^u[iii a la/ayj^eJl^^Jidj^idc thie^n oMive^ 
indufifioHS and inqUifitive : it being the ufual Benefit 
that follows upon TempefisznA Thunders in the State^ 
as well as in the Sky, that they purifie and clear the 
'jiir, which they difturb. But now fincc the King's Re- 
tut'n>thcblindnefsof the former^«, and the Mifcties 
tA this laft^ are vaniih'd away : now Men are general? 
ly weary of the Relicks of Antiquity^ and fatiatcd 
with Religious H^iJjnUes: now not only the jEy« of 
Men, but their ^i^M^r are open andprepar'd to labour;. 
Now there is an univerfal ^ejire and Appetite after 
Knowledge, after the peaceable,' the fruitful, the nou- 
ri/hing Knowledge j and not after that of antient Seds, 
which only yielded hard indigeftible Arguments, 


the ^K 6 T A L^S O C I ET Y. I J3 

or (harp Contentions inftead of Food*^ which when 
the Minds of Men requited Bread, gave them only 
a Stone, and for Fijk a Serpent. 

Whatever they have hitherto attempted, on ^^^^^c Scfi XXIX 
Principles and Incouragements, it has been carry'd on The SubjeOs 
with a vigorous Spirit, and wonderful good Fortune, ^^^^^ wUcb 
from their firft Conftitution down to this Day. Yet J*^^;? v 
I overhear the Whifpers add Doubts of many, who '^*'**^ ^ 
demand, what they have done all this while ? And 
what they have produced, that is anfwerable to thefc 
mighty Hopes, which we indeavour to make the 
World conceive of their Undertaking i 

If thofe who require this Account, have themfel ves 
performed any worthy Things, in this Space of Time ; 
it is fit, that we (hould give them Satisfadion. But they 
who have done nothing at all, have no reafon to up<» 
braid the Roj^al Society ^ for not having done as much 
as they fancy it might. To thofc therefore who ex- 
cite; it to work by their Example^ as wtil as Words 
and Reproofs, mcthinkf it were a fofficfcnt Anfwec, 
if I (hould only repeat the Particulars I have already 
mentioned, wherein the King has fet on foot a Re/or- 
tnationj in the Ornaments, and Advantages of our 
Country. For though the original Praife of all this 
is to be afcrib'd to the Gcniusftrf the Kim l^imfcif^. 
yet it ii but juft, that fome Honour (hould dicncc dc(- 
cend to this AflTembly, whofePurpofcs are conform- 
able to his Majclty's Performance of that Nature r 
Seeing all the little Scandals, that captious Humours 
have taken againfl: the Royal Society^ have not rifcn • 
from their general Proceedings, • but from a few 
pretended Offences of fome of their private Mem- : 
bcrs ; it is but reafon, that we (hould alledge in- their 

U com- 

,,4 TkeHISrORrrf 

GoAin(9ui«tio|ii ^t the cx€cU<nt DdtgM^ vhicb aca 
Ijcgon by the Kil^^ ^q has Qpt; poly ftU'd htin(ci£ 
their Founder^ but 9£^^d «« « It^qittfu: ^fftfier pi^ 
their Company. 

To this! will aUb ^^ chot wtbisTunc^^fjrlitve 
ya^M through the fiift Difficulii^s of their Ch»U9 
aAdl4o4cL I and have oTercpoie «U QpfiQfKion^ 
vh2ch arc ^tm 19 itti^e^, Ag4inift the BqgiQniqgs o£ 
gi:<at Things. ThW^«ftlii)l)^«L99e verc cnf^ughtofrea 
tfacm from. aU Imf>^i;ati0A pf I<tie9efi^ ^t they ha^q 
frftm'd fiidai an AiScn^ly in fo Ytan» i^hich was no^ 
vet yet brought ftbotK ia(uf thouiaiid; BeJUes^tiw 
World is to conifid^r, that if aay ihaU thinliitbc whole 
Gotupa(s i^f their Work ftiigihtt have c<MMe to a (ti4dea 
Jfliiei; t^y fcem Iteichpr fo undei^and the In^<nti^ 
OQS of 6\c Royal SHfiefi^y nor the Extent of their Task;^ 
It was ocvtr tbeif Alm^ to nuke a violent Dilj^acdiu 
They knQWvthatFrccipttAQcy in fuch Matters wa^ the 
Fauk 6f the Antktits : AM ttiey liaVA n0 l^ij tp iaii 
lAto the iame Ecr qr>^ which they iftde^vNi^gf uyxspcr^Q:^ 
They \^m H-BsR on fo lat g^ & Bottom^ that h ^ icn* 
poflUile>, the wholt Fsame ibould be fuddenly 'coin^ 
pleated. Tis true^ they that have notbing eilfe to 4o> 
but t6 expre&> aAd adorn Cooclultons of Knowledge 
alrfaadyinade, maly bring tbeirArtsti^ 9n Endi asioQt^ 
aS' they iplleaft i Biitrthey Who follow the dow and 
intticatcMcthod^fNaear^, cannot haiye the Seafons 
of their Ptodadions, fo much in their own Pow^. 
If we would always exaft from them daily or weeki- 
ly Harveftsi we fl)ould wholly eut off the Occcdtons 
of very many^. geceUedt InVtntiOnSj whoie Sujbkda 
are remote, and come bttt ieMom under their Ccmi: 
. fidierition. If we would require thefHi ittimodiarely 
to reduceali dkck Laboufs^ tP pubUck immI confpicu- 


^Vki by tfab dingttOos SmuI, Wf AohU 40|i«r 
tbem off Aoai numf ctf die boft Fpondtti » n»ofKnoy- 
ledge. Maaf of their oobkft Oifooyctkci mi fudi 
lai will htrcafiicr psolie aioft fcoiceftbll^i xtmaat it^ 
ftmtljf . be naie tonnm to Pfofic ^4«ft)r of thenr 
wdgnddft »d moft fu6dmOlferu$fitM, Use oflt 
idwtjn&tobeeBpoirdcoolpctiVieir: For it itvitk 
irke jgreaeeft Fliiiofofiicn» as with tfaf ikhfft M«Cr 
ihitMs, wfadeWKis of ^rfotdft Bull: Md Fricf, jigrc 
oommonly out of Sight, in their Warehoufcv mad 
not iA ibdr'Sbops. ... 
' This being fvcdofs'd, I wilUtowerer T«iiOue t»Uf 
tfown a teief Pougixof thdr moA tcmiEkable Fmvn^ 
litsr v4kkk ntay lK;todac'd tt> theCe -foHowing 
fleft(te :. mie^^'eiicy. and IHnAiQiKuidwy hAvegivw 
•atHoadi <lhe Ptopo^ ahd HaeonimeQdBtioQa^ they 
fiave Made J the fijdatioos diey :haneceoeiT^d« «he 
^peritnencs they kavt tried } the Obferyajtions tb^ 
liavetakeft; the Infirumeitts they have inyjoMcedj tl^ 
Theories that have been propofedi the Dif- 
•couefeb ihey hai« ivtrioa^ bt'puhBAied« Irbe Rcpo- 
-ficoiy ttid i-ibcacy ; and (the .iHiflotks: of. cNjuw^ 
and An$» and Woidcs they haue (OoUoftcd. 

'Manner of gakhoting,! and dilpedng ^w^ 
fifif. Is thlk- Fiift, they Jicqutirc ^ixneof chekpartt- 
'<;dlar 1?'4no\yiSj to inandne all Tueaii&s-ai^.Derorip- 
Ttbni of fixe 'NotoraL amd ^Aftifidal JPjrodti^iAns <«tf 
ihiore Coufitties, fci whkh.they inform'd. 
At -the famcTinnAe, -j^ employ fothecs to difeoprfe 
\^ith the Seamen, Travellers, Tcadaftntti^.aod iAcx- 
tihahfii, '\Nio aceiUkkly^oo glKrc'thiBai* the beft l%ht. 
Ode 4!tf thtsimitedIacdUMcnce^m-M4naod Bboki, 
*dyey compofeii ^Body of.Qiacfiinis; ^UDeccDMig all 
• • > U a the 

ijtf the HlSrORTof 

the obferva^le Things of thofe Places. Theft Pa- 
pers being prodac'd in their weekly AiTemblieSy 
are augmented, or <x>ntradedy . as .they., fte Occafi- 
on. And then, the Fellows :.tiieiii£elycs arie wont 
tb undertake their Diflribntiaa' into all Qoarten;, 
ac<k)tdtng as they have the Couvemenoe of Conef^ 
pondence : Of this Kind I will here reckon up fomc 
of the principal, whofe . particular Heads are free to 
all, that fhall defire Copies of them for their Direo- 
tion» • 

They have composed Queries, and Direftions, 
what Things are needful to be bbferv'd, in order to 
the making of a nararal Hiftory in general ; what 
are to be taken Noticieof towards a perfe& HiAory 
of the Air, and Atmofphere, and Weather s what ^ 
is to be obferv'd in the Produ^ton, Growth, Advanc- 
ing or Transforming of Vegetables \ what Particulars 
are requifite, for colle^ing a compleat Hiftory of the 
Agriculture^ which is us'd in feveral Parts of this 
Nation. . i 

They have prefcrib'd exad Inquiries^ and given 
pundual Advice for the Trial of Experiments of Ra- 
refadion,Refradion,and Condenfation $ conncerning 
the Caufe and Manner of the Petrifadlion of Wood ; 
of the Loadftone $ of the Parts of Anatomy, that 
are yet imperfeft i of Injedions into the Blood of 
Animal^; and transfultng the Blood of one Animal 
into another; of Currents ; of the ebbing, and flow- 
ing of the Sea ; of the Kinds, and Manner of the feed- 
ing of Oyfters ; of the Wonders, and Curiofitiesob- 
fervable in deep Mines. 

They have colIeAed, and fent abroad Inquiries 
for the Eaft Indies Sot China, for St . Hekna^ for Ten/- 
fiffi or any high Mountain^for Guinea^iot Barbaryj and 



the K O Y A L S O CI t T Y, I J7 

Morocco^ for Spain^ and Tartugal^ for 7«ri(f , ibr 
France^ for /A/^^ for Gerwumf^ for Hmgary^ for- 
TranfilvamOj ^t Toland^ zxiA Sweden, for Iceland^ 
arid Greentanai they have given Direftions for Seaiflen 
in general, and for obferving the Edipfes of the Moon; 
for obferving the Eclipfes of the Sun by Mercury jxn fe- 
veral Parts of the World, and for obferving the Satel- 
Utes of Jupiter. 

Of this their Way of Inquiry, and giving Rules 
for Direftion, I will here produce a few Inftances.; 
from whofe Exadnefi it piay be gueis'd, how all the 
reft are performed. 

. >^ 


J58 7ht HISTORY if 



To certaia tiniuiies ^etlt tbitlicr . by -t^der of the 
Jkoyd Society, and recommended by. 


Q^ X . lITHether diamonds and other precious Stones 
s^ gr^w againy after three or four Tears^ in the 
fame T laces where they have been digged out ? 

A. Never, or at leaf): as the Memory of Man can 
attain to. 

Q.2. Whether the Sluarries of Sttme $n\xx6xzjnear 

^cxvpocZytiot far from Agra, may be cleft like Logs^emd 

fawn like blanks y to ceiTChanwers^ and cover Houps, 

A. What they are about the Place mentioned, I 
have not as yet been well informed ; but in Verjta not 
far from Cyrus where the beft Wine groweth, there is 
a fort of hard Stone which may be deft like Fir- 
wood, as if it had a Grain in it j the fame is at the 
Coaft Cormandel about Sadrafpatuam $ where they 
make but a Mark in the Stone, fet a Wedge upon it, 
with a wooden Hammer, as thick and thin as they 
pleafe $ it is ufcd commonly for Pavement in Houfes, 
one Foot fquare, and fo cheap, that fuch a Stone fine- 
ly polifh'd cofts not above fix Pence. 

the Roy A t Society. i^f 

<^ |. fnether then Ar n HUIin SooMtra wkicb 
ImmetJb cantinualfyy and a Fountain which runmtk 


A. There is a Hill that ixitactfa ia Smmttra ocas 
BndraftMT -y hot I cannot hear of my fuch Fooataki ^ 
and I believe that the like HiU is upon Java Maj» 
Qt)pofke to ^^K^'UA^ 1 foe in a dear Morningor £¥en- 
it^9 Aom the Road a Man may peifc£bly perceive a 
(SMitiaiuai ^Smoke rife from die top, and vaniih bjr lit^ 
tie and little. I hare often ieit £arthquafces herc^ 
but they do notcontinue Hong. In the Year i ^5<> or 
Sfft (I do not remember well the Tioae) Batmjim 
wa$ tXM^d in one Afternoon, about two of ithc 
Clock, wkh a black Daft, which being gathered* to- 
gether, ^k^as fo fonderotts, that it exceeded the Wdghit 
in Gold. J, at that time, being very ill, did not 
take much Notice of it, but fome hare gathered ir, 
and if I light upon it, I ihali fend you fbme. It is hcoc 
thought, it came out of tihe Hill : I .never heard of 
^y that had been upon this Hill's top. Endfiaptor m 
Qommed a mighty unwholtfonM Place, as lifcewire 
sAothurs whore Bcpper grows; as Jamfyy BanJoTy 
Bidingioany ^c. though fome impute it to the iiifi^ 
bumidg. . 

As for the Fountain, it is unknown to us , exwpc 
Okum Terra vs meant by it, which is to be iiad in 
Swtnair^y but the beft comes &om Tiegu. 

-Q; 9t^ff%at Rweristh^m IzxzMzjox: thafitumr 
W&§d into Stone ? 

A^ There i&none fiich to our Knowledge; jret I 
^vefeen aFiece of Wood wkh a Stone atihe £nd^ 
of it I which was told me, that was mmedinto Stone 
fay aNRivxr ydl^mu \ but I tootk it but for a Foppery % 
for 4ive£fe Arbufta^oow iaRx>€ks, whichibeii^ appro^ 

ii priated. 

t6^ rhtHlSrORT^^f 

ptiated curioufly, may cafily deceive a too hafty Be- 

Q. 5 • Whether It be true^ that upon the C^ ef^ 
Achin in Sumatra, the Sea^ though itieca/m^ gtow- 
eth very high when no Rain falls j but is^ finooth in 
Rainy though it blows hard ? 

A. Sometimes , but not always ; the Rcafon is 
this, that Achin lyeih at the very End and Corner of 
Sumatra^ as may be feen by the Map, open in the 
main Ocean, fo that the Sea comes rowling from the 
Cabo de bona EJperanzafixA all that way unto it, and it 
is natural to the Sea to have a continual Motion, let it 
be never fo calm i which Motion cannot be called a 
Wave, neither have I any Englijb for it at prefent, 
but in T)utch we call it, ^eyninge van T^ee Zee^ and 
the calmer it is, the higher \ the natural Motion of the 
Sea elevates very flowly the Water ; fo that I have feen 
Ships and Junks tofled by thefe ^^jr»/>:^j in a calm, 
( when there is fcarce Wind enough to drive a Bubble) 
that a Man can fcarce ftand in them i fome lay this 
Motion proceeds from boifterous Winds at Sea far 
diftant. That Rain beats down the fwelling of thcfe 
^eynings ( efpecially if it be vehement ) proceeds 
naturally from its Weight and Impctuofity. And it 
is.obferved, that about Achin the Mountainsare high 
and deep, from whofc Tops boifterous Winds, called 
Travant^ comefuddcniy (like a Granado-caft) falling 
into the Sea, are accompanied commonly with a great 
Shower of Rain, and laft not above a Quarter, or at 
the mod, half an Hour, which is too (hort a Time to 
difturb the Sea, or to caufc a contrary Motion in it, 
being (helter'd by thcfe Mountains. 
: Q.6. Whether in the IJland of SdiixibcttOy which 
fyeth Northwards (T/^Sumatra, about eight degrees 

I Northern 

^i&^RoTAL Society. i6i 

them LMthfukf tlmi kifotmdfitdb m V^nUbk m 
Mr. James Lancafter mstes u bane fem^ wUcb 
grows up to a Tree^ fir inks ifotttn^ wbon me ejfors t§ 
fhick it up^nto the GroundiOnd would tmitefirink^ un- 
kfs held very hard? Andwheth^ the fame Joeing fotci'^ 
bfyfluckdup^ hath a Worm for its Root ^ diminifiing 
more and more^ according as the Tree groweth in 
Greatnefs$ and as foon as the Warm is wholly turned 
into the Tree^ rootinginthe Ground, and fo growif^ 
great ? And whether the fame plucked up young turns ^ 
by that time it is dry^ into a hard Stone^ much like to 
white Corral? 

A* I cannot meet with any that ever have heard of 
fuch a Vegetable. 

Q. 7. Whether thofe Creatures that are in thefe 
Varts flumps and in Seafon at the full Moon^ are 
lean and out of Seafonatthe new^ and the contrary ^ 
4f ?i&^ Eaft-Indies ? 

A. I find it fo here^ by Experience at Bataviaj in 
Oyfters and Crabs. 

Q^ 8. What ground there may be for that Relationj 
concerning Horns takingRootyOndgrowing about Goa > 

A. Inquiring about this, a Friend iaught^ and told 
me it was a Jeer put upon the Tortuguefcy becaufc 
the Women of Goa are counted much given to Le* 

Q. 9. Whether the Indians can fo prepare that Jiu^ 
pifying HerbDztuv^hat they make it lye fever dT^aySy 
Months y TearSy according as they wiUhaveityina 
Man's Bod/y without doing him any hurty and at the 
end kill himy without mijjlng half an Horn's time ? 

A. The China Men in this Place have formerly |k 
fed datura as aFermentation^to a Sort of Drink mdch 
beloved by the Soldiers and Mariners, called Suyker- 

X biery 

t6x TheHISrORrof 

bier^ which makes them raging mad» fo that it is for: 
bidden ftridly under the Penalty of a great Pan to 
make ufe of the lame. 

Q. lo. ffhetber thofe that hifiupijiedlrf the Juke 
of this Herb Datura, are recovered by moiftnitig the 
Soles of their Feet m fair Water ? 

A. No. For I have feen diverfe Soldiers and Ma- 
riners fall into the Rivers and Ditches, being ftupified 
by their Drink aforefaid, who were rather worfe after 
they were taken out, than better. 

Q. 1 1 . Whether a Betel hath fuch Contrariety td 
the Durion, that a few Leaves thereof put to a whole 
Shcfifuloft3hxnonsy will make them all rot fuddenly ? 
Ana whether thofe who have furfeited on Durions, 
and thereby overheated themfelvesy do by laying one 
Leaf of ^ttc\ cold upon the Hearty immediately cure 
the Inflammations and recover the Stomach ? This 
Betel being thought to preferve thofe Indians frenn 
Tooth-ach^ loofe GumSy and Scurvy^ and from ftinking 
Breath \ fome of it is defiredto be fent over with the 
Fruit Arnica, and the other Ingredient s^ and Manner 
ojpreparif^ it. 

A. I have feen that Betel Leaves in a (hort time 
will (poll a ^urionj take away its Nature, and turn 
a fat creamy Silbftance into Water. Commonly 
thofe that eat great Quantities of Durions, eat a Betel 
afterwards as a Corre£torium $ but of laying a Leaf 
upon the Heart, I have never heard. As for the 
other Qualities of the Betely I believe they are good, 
if not abufcd i as moft of the Indians do, who ne- 
ver are without it in their Mouths, no not deeping, 
which corrodes their Teeth, and makes thenv as black 
as Jet : It draws from the Head the phegmatick Hu- 
mours, which are voided by fpitting $ (o we ufe it ; 

^ but 

tJbeKoY Ah Society. xS^ 

bat the Indians fwailow down their Spittle^ together 
with the Juice of the Betels and die Areica. The 
Manner of preparing it is ea(te> being nothing but tlie 
Nut Z>^and Calxviva^ of which laft each one adds 
as much as picafeth his Palate. There is a Sort of 
of Fruit called Sivgbooy which is ufcd with the Arei: 
coj inftead of Betels and can be dried and tranfported 
as well as the Areica^ and hath the fame Force, but a 
great deal more pleafant to the Palate. 

Q.I2. Whether /i&^ Papayas, that beareth Fruit 
like a MelMy do not grawy much lefs bear Fruity unlefs 
Male and Female be together ? 

A. They grow, as I have (een two in the Englijh 
Hovdc zt Bantam^ and bear little Fruit, which never 
comes to Perfedion i but if the Male and Female be 
together, the one bears great Fruit, the other nothing 
but Flowers. 

Q. 13. fFhetherthe ArhovTnCtcJheds its Flowers 
at the rijiftg eft he Sun^andfioots them again at the Jet- 
ting of the Sun ? And whether the diftiltd Water 
thereof {called Aqua di Mogli bj the Portugals) may 
not be tranfported to England ? And whether at the 
rijing of the Sun the Leaves of the Arbor Trifte drop 
off as well as the Flowers ? 

A. There are two Sorts of the Arbor Trifte 5 one is 
called by the Portugals Trifte de^ie, the other Trifte 
de NoEle ; the one (beds its Flowers at the rifing, the 
other at the fetting of the Sun \ but neither of them 
filed their Leaves, There is no Body here that under- 
ftands the diftilling of Waters ; fome fay this Aqua 
di Mogli is to be had at Malaca^ for which I have 
^rir, and (hall fend it if procurable. 

(^ 14. Whether the Arbor de Rays,^7r^^ of Root ^ 
propagate it felf in a whole Foreft^ byfiooting up and 

X 2 tettifjjg 

1^4 The HISTORY 0} 

kttmg faU Roots fim ksBrmchts mt§ the Gnm^ 
tbgtfpringup ^asn, Mmi/o &n? 

A. This is true. And we have diverfc Trees about 
Batavia^ and the like adjacent Iflands^ above fifty 
Foot in the Diameter. 

Q. 1 5. What kifki of Fruit isthdt mjuccnywhicb 
grows immediately out of the Treifs Body $ andisjkid 
to breed the Plague if eaten immoderately 7 

A. It is a Fruit much like to DurioUf which grow- 
cth in the fame Manner i hath a faint Smell, and fwcet 
waterifli Tafte s for my part I do not affed them : The 
blague is a Difeafc unknown amongft the Indians $ 
but tills Fruit, as moft others do, unmodcratcly eat- 
en, caulcs a ^irthea^ which eaftly degenerates to a 
Tenefmus^ by us called Tetrjkgj a dangerous Sick- 
nefs, and worfe than the Tlague. 

Q. 16. U'^hat Toifanisit the KingofMdcz£[^tJn 
Cokbecs is fa/d to have particular to btrnfelf which 
ViOt only kills a Man immediately ^ that hath received 
the flight eft fVmmd i^y a ^art dipt therein^ but alfo 
within half an Hour's timcy makes the Flejb^ touched 
with it^fo rotteny that it will fall Uke Snivel from the 
Bonesy and whofe foyfonous Steam wiUfoonfly up to a 
Wound made with an unpoifoned l^arty if the Blcad 
be only in the ft^hteft Manner touched with a T>art in- 
feffed with the Toifbn? What certainty there is of 
this Relation ? 

A. That there is fuch a Poifoo in this King'k Pof^ 
fciiion is moft certain ; but what it is, no CJarifiisn 
hitherto ever knew right. By tbe Government of 
Arnold de F/amrninge Van Qutfbem divtrfc have been 
tortured; yea, killed. 

Some fay it is the Gall of a venomous Fillip others 
iay it is a Tree which is ib venomous, that thole who 

♦ arc 

tkf^K o X A7L7S O C I « T Y. i4j 

^^ ^Olidpmaeil to die^ fjrt(±L;th|& Poiioo, btit not ooc 
of an Hundred fcapes Death ;; the Roots of this Tree 
arc held an Antidote againft the Poifbn ^ but our 
People, when we had War with Mac^^arjawid no 
Antidote like to their own or other's Ezaemehts s as 
foon as they felt themfelves wounded^ they inftantly 
took a Dofe of this fame, which prefently provoked to 
vomityand fo, by Repulfton, (as I perceive) and Sweat, 
freed the noble Parts firom farther Infe^ion. That 
a Wound (hould be infe^ed by this Poi(bn,though not 
ii^ided by an impoifoned Weapon, is not (Irange to 
thofe who ftudy Sympathy ; and fet Belief in that 
much renowned fympathctical Powder of Sir A>- 
pelm ^igby. Xet fuch Eflfc(2;sof the Macaffars Arts 
are unknown to us. 

Q. X7. JFbefk^mV^gxxand other places in the 
Eaft Indies, theyufe a Toifon that kills by (mellingj 
and yet the ^oif^thSmell is hardly perceived 7 

To this noAafwcr wasreturn'd* , 

' ■ ' ...» ^ 

. ,Q. 1 8 . Whether Camphirc camesfrom Tr^es ? What 
kind of Trees they are in BomcOj that are /aid to yield 
fuch escelkrkt Camphirc, as that one T.ound thereof 
isfaid to be 'worth an Hundred of that of China and 
other Places? 

A* Cansfdiir,^ jomes fron» Trees of;ajx cxccfllve. 
Bulk, as. yo9 may ice by the Chcfts: which come 
from Japan into Europe y made of the fame Wood of . 
B^Mrneo 5 it comes likewifc from Trees, which are faid r 
to fiand in Tandy Ground, and drop like a Gum. 

But of late an Experiment is found in Ceyipny^ that 
thfc Root of a Cinamon Tree yields a$ good Ccm- 
pbire^ as either Japan^^ • ot China, of which I flball fend 
jrou a Pattern, being now to be had at prefenc here ; ; 
as alfo an Oil extraded from the iam« Roots, which 


i66 The HIS TORT of 

referves fomcthing of the Cinamon-fmell t but that 
may be the Fault of the Diftiller. 

Q; 1 9. Whether fame of that rare Whoi^ cdUedYAo 
d' Axijmla^;^ Calamba, cfan extracrdindry Valuey 
even in the Country where itgrowethj as4n Siam ahout 
San.^/^^Patan, and in Cochinchina, m^ netbebraygkt 
.over ; as alfofome of thofe ftrange Nefts of Cochin- 
china, made by Birds upon Rocks^ of a certain vifcous 
Froth of the Sea^ which Nefts grown dry and hardy 
are faidto become tranjparenti and when dijfolvedin 
' Watery ferve excellently to feafon all their Meats ? 

A. If the Qucftion be made, whether thcfc Things 
may be brought over by Pcrmiffion of the Company \ 
I anfwcr ; as fit ft, that their Laws forbid the Tranf- 
portation of all whatfoever, whether neceflary to the 
Confcrvation of Health, or Acquifition of Wealth, 
or Rarities, &c. but if the §luery be concerning the 
Nature and Subftanceofthe Vl^ood andNefts; they 
are tranfportable, and can fubftft without decaying 
many Years. Lignum Aquila is far inferiour to Ca^ 
Inmbay though not eafte to be difcerned. A Pound 
of Calamba is worth in Japan thirty, and fometimes 
forty Pounds Sterling ; the beft comes from Cambodia^ 
and feems to be the Pith of the Tree Aquila in Ja- 
pani it is ufed aslncenfe to perfume Cloaths,andCham- 
bcrs. It is held for a great Cordial, and commonly 
ufed by that Nation, as alfo the Chinefe^ in ®/- 
feBione fpirituum vitalium^ as in ^aralyfi& Ner- 
vorum laxatione & impotentia : They rub it with 
Aqua Cynamomi upon a Stone, till the Subftance of 
the Wood is mixt,Jicut pulpa^ with the Water, and fo 
drink it with Wine, or what they pleafe. The Bird's 
nefts are a great Reftorative to Nature, and much u- 
fcd by the lecherous C/&A^. 

Q. 20 

the !<. o Y A L S o c X Et T. 167 

Q. 20. Whether the Animal caltd Abados;^ Rhi- 
nocetosy bath Teethy Claws ^ Flejbj Bloody andSkm^ 
yea his very ^urig md Water ^ as well as his HamSy 
antidotal? And whether the Hams ofthofe Beafts 
be better or werfe^ according to the Food they live upon. 

A. Their Horns, Teeth, Claws> and Blood are 
efteemed Antidotes, and have the fame Ufe in the In- 
dian^harmacopeia as the Theriaca hath in ours y the 
Fle(h I have eaten is very fweer and fbort. Some 
Days before the Receipt of your Letter, I had a young 
one no bigger than a Spaniel Dog, which followed me 
wherccverl went, drinking nothing but Buffalo Milk, 
lived about three Weeks, then his Teeth began to 
grow, and he got a Loofenefs and died. Tis obfcrvcd, 
that Children ( efpccially of j European Parents ) at 
the breaking out of their Teeth arc dangeroufly fick, 
and commonly dieof thefcouringin thcfe Parts. His 
Skin I have caufed to be dried, and fb prefent it unto 
you, fince Fate permits not to fend him you living ; 
fuch a young one was never ifcen before. The Food 
I believe is all one to this Animal being that they 
are feldom fcen but aonOngft withered Branchcf, 
Thiftles and Thorns 5 fo that the Horn is of equal 

Q, 2 1. Whether thefalfifpng of the China Musk 
is not rather done by mixing Oxen and Cow*s Livers 
dried and pulverifed with fotf^e of the tutrified and 
concrete Flefh and Blood of theChxnz Musk-cat ^ than 
by beating together the bare Fie fb and Blood of this 
Animaly &c. 

Not anfwered. 
Q^ 2 2. Whether there be two Sorts of Gumlac, 
one produced from a certain winged Ant, the other 
the Exudation of a Tree j thefirfi had in the Jflands 


,(58 the HISTORY »f 

of Suachan, 'the U^ m fie Kh^dm ^ Marta- 

ban ) 

J. We kflow of nooetxit Tadi as drdp from Trees, 

and come ftom dlvctfc Place* iixSiam, CamiedM, 

' Q^ii.'lfthebefi Ambergfcaic he found in the 
IJlands Socotora mid Aniana, near Java? To endea- 
vour the getting of more certain Knowkdge, what it 
is } beir^ reported tok bred in the Bottom of the Sea 
tike to a thick Mud ? 

■ Ji. The bcft that is in the World comes from riie 
IGand Mauritius i and is commonly found after a 
Storm. The Hogs can fmell it at a great Diftance; 
-who run like mad to it, and devour it commonly be- 
fore the People come to it. It is held to be a Zeequal 
Vifcofity, "which being dried by the Sun, turns to foch 
a Confiftence as is daily fecn. Father Myavines Ifaac 
Vigny a French Man in Oleron^ hath been a great 
Traveller in his Time j and he told me, he failed once 
in his Youth-through fo many of ihcfe Zeequalen^ as 
would have leaden tetithoufand Ships; the like hav- 
ing been never feett : His Curiofity did drive him to 
take up fomc of thole, which being dried m the Sun, 
were perceived to be the bcft Ambergreafe in the 
World 5 I have feen one piece which he kept for a 
Memento y and another piece he fold for i joo^r^. ftetL 
This being difcovercd, they fct fail to the fame Place 
where thefc Zeequalen appeared, and auifcd there, to 
and fro, for the fpacc of fix Weeks, but could not 
perceive any more. Where this Place is fituated, I 
do not know i but Monficur GentiUoty a French Cap- 
tain in HoUand, can tell you. 

Q. J 4. To enquire of the 'Divers for 'Pearls fiaying 
long under Waters whether they do it by the Affifl once of 


the Roy a l*^ $ o c i * t t. i6cf 

any thing they carry with them^ or h' bngand often 
Ufe get aTHcikofk^liUng their Breath folongy at the 
j^47^Bahaffen ffiMT Ormus > 

ji. VJhsx th^y ^oztBaharenU unknown to mc, ^ 
but fimie:' we have had l^ute Cor em in Ceylofiy where 
very good Pearls grow, I hear the ^iverfs Ufe no 
Arnfice. The manner isthus; at a fet time of the Year 
Merchants come fibm all Parts, as likewife T^iverfs 
with their Boats $ each Boat hath a certain Quantity ^ 
of fquare Stones, tipoh:whijchStoiies'the.^Z>rWr> go 
down, • ahd:give a Token to their Conipanions, when ' 
thqr think it time to behal'dup; each Stone pays 
Tribute to the Company. :.The Oiftcr or Shell- Fifli 
ishot immediately open'd, but laid .on Heaps, or in* 
Holes at the Sea-fide. When the diviiog Time is endu- 
ed, the Merchants come and bay thcfe Heaps, accord- 
ing as they can agree, not knowing whether they ihall 
get any thing or no. So that this is a meer Lottery. 
This Peari-fiiliing is daigerods^being thc^iverjs com- 
monly make their WiiU and take Leave (^ their 
Friends, before they tread the Stone to go down. 

"Q. 25. ffilbeiBer Cimuumm when firfi gathered 
hathno Tafteat MLJbat aequirts its Tafteana^trengtb 
^fifteen ^aytfunmmg f Andvjhither the Bark be 
gathered everjf two Teats in the IJIe of Ceylon i 

A., The Cinnamon Tree as it groweth is ib fra- 
grant, that it may be fmelta great Way off before it 
be feen. And hath.even then, a moft excellent Tafte % 
fo that by Sunning it iofeth rather than acquires any 
Tafte or Force $ the Tree being^pill'd is cut down to 
the Roots but the young: Sprjgs after ia Year or two* 
give the beft and fineft Cinnamon^ 

Q. 215. TV leaniy if it may be j what. Art the Majter- 
workmen of Pegu have to add to the Colour of their. 
Rubies ? Y A. Not 

of the Bmes of the Fijh c£MCaia^/ifad^ 
powerful mftoppk^ Bhod. 
. A. 'Tis doue^ and tbttjr fiiail. ftdiiow vath Ae 

Q; 2.8* ffhethm at Hesmka, a Tawfkin RthkppHi 
there are "Eartdfes^ ^. bagr that: Memmt^ mk i^fam 
them?. . i ' ; • ••'':. 

^ kis repotted^ diab tiittc;brauMffdinai7^(eib 
oncstlietei I hare' &ch Jbmc Scar Tortoi&s hcoe^ 
of fouc Foot braadj ia oviai fwisr^ vctj how legkC 
bnt: of that Strength, that a Mmr may. fiandr on onet 
The maoacD of catdiingithein^ ma turn: them; with; 
aForkupoathcirvBacks^ . : 

Qi. zv^ Jf^theg there ht^'Tftet inn Mexico,, tha;^. 
yields Watesr^U^iney Vini^f^OiiyMiUt^Mtmef^ Wax^ 

A\ The Gokasrtztss^ yields- alii thisrand more:^. the 
Nut^. xtthiioiDis green^. hathi vecy gqod Water inat.; 
the ElQwcd3ciaguit> doqpsx>iit} g^t (^lantityrof Li)* 
quor, oallcd S$irf^ or ^^^^fwash^ which draok fir ofli, 
hath the Force, and almoft theHaftcof Wine^ grown 
fowr^ isiverjA good Vihegu: ; aiid^difiiliod,\mak€S vtry^ 
good Bcandy, oc Aiech: The Nuc^gtated^ andtnlng^ 
lcdiwiih> Water, taftothsliioe Milk. ; . prel&d} yields 
V0ry>good Ori: Bees^fwanit in thefe/TiteB, as. well; 
as in others^: Thread andiNoedlosr are naade.of. the 
I\ea^C3 iand. tcagh Twsgsi . Nay^ to \ add^ fottiethi ng 
ta this J])efcripti6a 4 . mldmboyna:^^^', make firead^of 
tba* Body: of the:^rDreeiv the. Leavm fertc; to thatdi 
Houfes, and likewiALSails:&u:/theii:;B0ats'i 

Q. 30; Whetb^about^]9f^ tber^dfeOyfiefs^fjthat 
n^afi^ BignefSj as it ^ei^ three hundred We^ht ^ 

the R 6 ^^§^i^ ^^. ift Adi ^ Bighefi, thef FHIlMfis fdv^, «xtd k«^ 
in fkkkf «fifertmd8 b6Sdi/ tttft^h Uk6 BttWn hi 

GMof eeftiun Swifit, a Sttfne tfit^med ihcMifiraify 
iAove Bezoar! 

A. In that Country, but very feldom^ there grows 
af Stone kt the St<nnach<jf i5^ltM|^^ ollcid ^ddro 
3Vrtr(^? oF whpTc ViiWithctfeatt iJtr^ Drfctlptibm \ 
aiidtffc^fie>^tf«</^i&r^ Ihatttfwft 

400 Dottate <rf f giycft f6r oM* no Wggcif than 4 Fi- 
gctm's Egg. There is Scphifticatioft as well in that tt 
BezdOTy Muskj &c. and every Day new Falflxooc!^ 
fo that I cannot well fetdown here any Rules, but 
muft be judged by Experience. A faife One I fend 
you, which doth imitate very near in Virtue the true 
one, but is a great deal bigger, and of another Colour. 

As for the Obfervations deftred of the Iflands St. 
Helena^ and Afcenjum^ they may be better made by 
the Englifh £^-/»^/^ Men, wiio commonly touch 
at both Places y but the Hollander never, or very 

' Q* yz". fVbtth^ it wr frhiteT nt thtEdft-fidtofthe 
Mount mn G^es, which come from the North to Cape 
Comoryn, whi^ it is Summer on the Wefi-fide ? and 
Vice verfa. 

A. Not only there, but likewife on the Ifland of 

Q. 1%. InwhatCofmtry\A%wmi Aloes is founds 
whether it be the Wood of a Tree ? or the Root of a 
Tree? How to know the beft of the Kind? 

A. Lignum Aloes ^ Lignum Varadijij Calamba^ are 
SynonymajXh^ fame : And the fame Wood comes moft 

Y 2 from 

17 » 


from Cambodia^ ^s^Simns butthey fay it is fatODght 
by the Vco^lcoi Lawlmt a Country about Cmbo-^ 
dia^ whence ilkfoxi^ ^asi^ Benzoin^ and nioft^rMM- 
ta come j it is eafdy diftinguiihed from other Wood 
by its firong Scent and Ridels of Balm in it, which 
appears in its Blacknc^ } it is of great Value, and 
hard to be gotten here. 

The reft of the Queries are not aniwered, bccaufe. 
the Time is ihort fince I received them, and eQ)edaUy, 
becaufe I cannot meet^witii any one th^ can fatisfy 
me, and being ^atis%^ my i^^ IcannpfinorwiU 
obtrude any Thing u{K>n you^ )¥hu^ i^a^ hereafter 
prove fabulous^, but (hall ftiU ferye yjDu witK Truth4 

' r • 

• ■ • • 

i : 

' 3 l:: : 


t t 'NT. , f 


< I 

t , . 



the K^y A\ Society. 173 


A « » 

■)\ i. '» 



« t ... « i « ^ 

■*'' .•' 

For making a Hiuory of the W.k a t h e r. ' 

By Mx. HOOK. 

^^ XT^Or the better making a Hiftory of the Wcar^ 
** JL* ther, I conceive it reqniitte to bbfcrvc, 
^ ** I . The Strength and Quarter of the Winds, and> 
^< to regiffer the Changes as often as they happen ^ 
*• both which may be very conveniently (hewn, by 
^/ a fmall Addition to an ordinary Weather-dock. 

" 2. The Degrees of Heat and Cold in the Air y 
** which will be beft obfetvcd by a fealed Thermo- 
*' meter y graduated according to the Degrees of JSat- 
" panfimi which bear a known Proportion to the 
** whole Bulk of Liquor, the Beginning of which 
** Gradation, fflould be that Dimcnfion which the Li- 
" quor hath, when cncompaflcd with Water, juft. 
" beginning to freeze, and the Degrees of Expanfimr 
*' cither greater or Icfs, fhould be fct or marked a- , 

•* bovc it, or below h, 

" 3 . The Degrees of Dryncfi and Moiffure in the. 
** Air ; which may be moft conveniently obfcrvcd by 
" a Hygrofcape^ made with the fihgle Beard of a wild* 
" Oat perfedly ripe, fet upright and headed with an . 
•* Index yTStzt^f^ z^ ^tizi^lQtd,^^ 
" the Converfions and Degrees of which may be mea- 
" furedby Divifions made on the rim of a Circle, in 

" the 



174 ^^ MIS TORY $f 

" the Center of which, the Index is turned round : 
^' The Beginning or Standard of which Degree of 
'^ Rotation, (hould be that, to ^hifh th( Jbl^ex points, 
'^ w^n tt)f B^rd, fefijlg throiighly wft,' or corcr«i 
^' viiKb WM£iS is 4uitt unwi^thed/JiBd beQMMe& 
^' ftrait. But becaufe of the Smainefs of this Part 
of the Oat, the C!ad of ^ wild Vetch may bt ttied 
inftead of it, which will be a much larger Index ^ and 
'' will be altd^^th^B a| fchj^^le pfcliip Q)t|nges of the 
" Air. 

f. ThiePcg;:ccsofPrcfiUre«i,tl*cAirf *ll»cH 

may be ff Y?>^?1 W?J? pt>r?n^?4| t>OI Wt Of all witH 

an |nft^\imefit with Qjucjcfilvcr, amtrivfd fo, as 

either bv in^ns of Water, Qf ^3Ek,Iff^x% U; Oiay ftP-* 

•< frbly ex^ibifc the minutt;Vari^tiOJ15 Pf ^ 

5. T^e Conftitution and paijc Qf ^Ijj? 5^;y pi H?^. 

Y?ns : an4 ?hisL is bcft doqe by th? Ey« iljefe fhould 

** be ojbijbrvcd, whctljicr the §t:y be dgaf Qi; cloudfi^ i 

4nd if clouded, after wha,t Msoqer i whether with 

liigh Exhahtipp^ or ^eajt wjiiw Ofifihs,^ cw 4vk 

thick pncs. Whether thofq Clpud? afford Fp^.ot 

" Miftsj or Skct, or R;^p^ or Snpw,. &c^ Whot^cr, 

" the under fide of thofe Clouds be fla^ or waved aud, 

*' irregular, as I have often feea before Thunder, 

" Wfhich way they drive? whether aH one Way,, ox, 

fomc one way, fome another^ apid wl^cfher aijy of 

t;hcfe be i;hc fame with the Wind that Wqws.below ; 

the Colour and Face of the SKy at thc: rifing apd 

" fetting of the Sun and Moop.$. what Haloes oc 

"' Rings niay happen tp cneoTOj^s tlwfc Lapjinw 

" their ^igneft, Form, and Number* 

' 6. What Eflfcdlis are pro^duc'd upon other Bo^ 

dies.: As what Aches, and Diftea)pcrs i|i: thiJ Bodies 

" of Men 5 what Difeafes are moft rife, as Colds, Fe- 








" vors. 

the R o Y A L Society. ty^ 

* ^ct^ Agues, &c. What Putrdfaaions or orficr 
^^ Changes are produc'd in other Bodies s as the fweat- 
" ing of Marble, the burning blue of a Candle, tht 
^ blading ot Trees and Cord ; the ubufual Sprouting, 
^'^ GiWt«h> df Decay erf any Plaita or Vegetables 5 the 
'^ Puct!e6dion ctf Bodies not ufual $ the Plenty or 
'^ Scarcity of Itircjas^s of fcvctal Fruits, Gi^ains, Flow- 
^^ eiris;,R:oots,Cattel>Fi(hes^ Birds, any thing notable of . 
^' that Kihd; What Convenience or fiiconvenienc^s 
<^ may haj^pett in the Year, in any kiikd, as b;^ Floods, / 
" Dtoughts^ violent Showers, &c. What Nights pro- 
« duc^ Dews and Hoar-Frofts, and what not ? 

'' 7 . What Thunders and Lightnings happen, and 
" what Effiedk they produce 5 as fouring Beer or Ale,. 
** tUrtiing MilkV killing Silt worms, &c ? 

^ Any thing cf^ftracrdinary in the Tides 5 as dotible 
** Tides*, l^br 01? earlier, greater or lefs Tides than 
** ondittwy, rifihg or drying of Springs 5 Comets or 
" unufual Apparitions, new Stars, Ignesfatui or 
•'* fhfning Eirtlalatlons, or the- like, 
r ''•• Thtfe flidtiidall or moft of theni bediligcntly 
** obftrved addTcgifttrd by fdmc one, that is always 
*^ converfaht iri oirnearthe fame Place* 

"' Now that theft, andibmeothets, hereafter to bt 
** mentiOhtd, iftay be.'rcgiftred* fo as to be moft don- 
*^ vehieiit for th« rtaking'x)f Gomparifons, rcquifirc : 
** for the raifing Aidoms^ whereby tHcCaufc drLaws ^ 
^ of Weather may bcfotind out ; it will be dtfirb- 
^* able to order ihtifl fo, that the Scheme of a whote 
'^ Month may atoneViewbeprcfcntcdtothc Eye-: 
*' And this may cOnVenledflybc done on the Pagds of 
*' a Book in F<7/;W^llowing fifteen Days for one fide, , 
^* arid fifteen for the other. Let each of thofc Pages 
^' be divided into Nine Colutnns^and diftinguifbed by . 

». • ■ 

J76 :^n(^>HPsroRrof . 

" perpendicularXincs 5 Icr each, of the firft iix Co- 
'^ lumns be half an Inch wide, and the three laft equal- 
** 'ly.fliarfe the 'remaining of thfcSidq. ., 

** Let each Column have the Tide of what it is to 
" contain, in^ the firft at leaft, writteaatthc Topof it : 
** As, let the firft Coiume towards the left hand, con^ 
^' tain the Days of the Month, or Place of the Sun> 
^' and the remarkable Hours of each Day. The fecond, 
^^ the Place, Latitude, Diftance, Ages and Faces of 
<* the Moon. The third, the Quarters afid Strength of 
*' Winds, The fourth, the Heat and Cold of the Sea- 
" fon. The fifth, the Drynefs and Moifture of it. The 
" fixth, the Degrees of Prcffure. The feventh, the 
" Faccsand Appearances of the Sky. The eighth,thc 
" EfFefts of the Weather upon other Bodies, Thun- 
" ders, Lightnings, or any thing extraordinary. The 
^ ninths general Dedudions, Corollaries or Syilo- 
^' gifms, arifing from the comparing the feveral ^^^- 
^^ natnina together. 

** That the Columns may be large enough to con- 
^' tain what they are defigned for, it will be neceflary, 
^^ that the Particulars be exprefled with fomeCha- 
^ raders, as brief and compendious as is poffiblcl 
^* The two firft by the Figures and Charaders of the 
^ Signs commonly us'd in Almanacks. The Winds 
" may be expreft by the Letters, by which they are ex- 
^* preft in fmali Sea-Cards s and the Degrees of 
^^ Strength by i, 2, 3j 4> &c. according as they arc 
*^ marked in the Contrivance in the Weather-cock. 
** The Degrees of Heat and Cold may be expreft by 
*** the Numbers appropriate to the Divifions of the 
** Thermometer. The Dryne(s and Moifture, by the 
*^ Divifions in the Rim of the //r^^r^A^;^^, The Prct 
^* fiire by Figures, denoting the Height of the Mercu- 

A rial 

the R p T A L Society. 177 

^^ rifilCylinder. Bi)tfiK th^ Faces of the Sky, they 
/^ are io m^y^ th^t maqy pC^hem want piroper N^mesj 
^^V and tbccefor/c it wUl^b^^c^tn^c^ient to a^ec upNOfi 
.<^ fome deterroiaacc one^ . by vhkh the inoft: ufoal 
" may be iq brief expreft. . A$ let Ckar fignify a very 
<^ ckar Sky without any Cipifds or . Exhalations : 
;" Qh^ccjuefd a Qlcar Sky,with inai;iy grc^t whitp roiHid 
« Cloudsi fuch ^ ai;e v^ry ufuaUn Summer. Has^y^ 
" a Sky that looks whitifli, by Reafon of the Thick- 
5^ nefs of the higher Parts of the Air, by fome Exhala- 
" tion pot formed into Clouds. Thicks a Sky more 
«« whitened by a greate?.Confl|>any of Vapours ; thcfe do 
<^ ufually mak^ the Luminaries look bearded or hairy, 
V and are oftehtim^s the Caufeoftbc Appearance' c^ 
<< Rings and Haloes about the Sun as well as the Moon. 
« Qvefcaftx when the Vapours fo whiten and thicken 
f* the Air, that the 4$W» cannot break through 5 and, of 
<« this there axe very many Degrees, which njay be ex- 
5* prcft by a little^ muchy more^Vfrj mkclf overcafiySiCQ^ 
«* Let Hairy fignify a Sky that hath many froall, thin, 
*« and high exhalations, which rcfemble Lpcks of Hairi 
" or Flakes of Henip op Flax : , whofc yarictics may 
** be exprcft byy?rdi/; orr^W, c^r. according; to the 
« Refemblance they bear. Let /i^r^rV fignify a Sky 
^< that has many high thin and fmall Clouds, looking 
" almoft like water'd Tabby, called in fome places a 
" Mackeril Sky. Let a Sky be called JVdv*dy when 
" thofe Clouds appear much bigger and lower, but 
" much after the fame manner. ^^«^, when the Sky 
« has many thick dark Clouds. Lowringj when the 
" Sky is not very much overcafi, but hath alfo under- 
" neath many thick dark Clouds which threaten 
" Rain. The fignification oi gloomy ^ foggy ^ mijiy^jleet- 
^' ingy drivingy rainy y fnowyy Reaches or Racks va- 

Z « riabhy 



<• (ht SItf ddnA^dUhct«ii xjf two Or tUdtt Of dkfe, 

*< the Paftkul^s df the eigtfth «ftd ttinfh Cot&mi^ 
^ Aiay be ehered iii is Tittle RbOrft dnd dd fe^ Wotdi 
"f d» ^re fttffid^At to %nrfy ^titXH SbttJlUgibly and 

« It v?ei'€ tdfee n/^MlStt thatVhete wete diVelrfeSn ft. 
(* ntiX Vaits of the W^tki, biA; e^ixtly iA diAftitt 
«< ^4Ks of (hft Kiti^ibft)^ thtt ^oldd tfhdetf (kite fhis^ 
■f Wblft, &hd tHait i&th ^oUtd bgrdt iq[>6(i i (bm^tk 

^ Way (bm^hstt i§t6t tKis Mififief^ rh^ as desit i&^ 
<* cdold H tke fikftte Method '^hid Wotd>i ttiigiat be 
<» ftiddttJfcdf ThcB€Hefk&f\^icliWaYi$caffly 

<* Enough ^KMciiViibrt^ 

^* A^mtHte M^lhbdoff uttEi^stld'digeftiRg thb(b 
« A>ciblteaed Obfthrattdi:)${ Thdt-«(rtll betttdtt dd- 

H vantiigeditfly oohfMefed whelithe Supeiiex &'prd^ 
^ vided i A WotktAtti t5eiflg t^fi beft able tb fit 
« Md i*€6ttrc his T<)dli for liis Work, vhtn htf (as^ 
*" Wtiat Mat£d&l»hehas'tovol<kd|>o& 

•-'"■»rr»% r-'>r« 

^«t«ll«k * 

• ■ * t < . t t 


S C H E M E, 


Vi«w repieftntiiig to the Eye the Obfervations of 
d^eWff^J Hi R ,^ » ^onth. 

which it bc< 
tgan to ra[- 
cend, &c. 


i-^o . The H^^rORT'of' 


F O R TH E ' ■ 

Obfervations of the Eclipfes of the Moon. 

By Mr. ROOKE. 

EClipfcs of the Moon arc obfcrvcd for two prin- 
cipal Ends 5 oncAJironotnicaly that by com- 
" paring Obfcrvatibns with Calculations, the Theory 
** of the Moarfs Motion may be perfeded, and the Ta- 
*' bles thereof reformed : The other Geographicd^ 
'^ that by comparing among t hem feives Obfervations 
« of the fame Eclipticd Thafes^ made in divcrfe 
« Places^ the X)iffcrcncc of MeriJ/oHs J or Longitudes 
** of thofe Places, may be difcovered. 

"The Knowledge of the Eclipfe*% Quantity and 
*^ Duration, the Shadow's, Curvity and Inclination, 
" &c. conduce only to the former of thefc Ends : 
*' Theexad Time of the Beginning, Middlp, and 
^ End of the Eclipfes^ as alfo in total ones, the Bc- 
" ginning and End of total Darknefs, is ufeful for both 
" ofthem. 

" But becaufe thefe Times confiderably differ in 
" Obfervations made by the bare Eye,frpm thcrfc with 
« zTelefcope, and becaufe the Beginning of J^rZ/^j 
" and the End of total Darknefs arc fcarce to bri ob- 
" ferved exaftly, even with Glaffesj one not being a- 
" ble clearly to diftinguifh between the true Shadow 
" and Tenumbra, unlefs one have feen,for fome Time 
" before, the Line, feparating them, pafs along upon 

" the 

the Royal S o c i e t y. i g i 

'* the Surface of the Moan : And laftly, bccaufe in 
'^ fmall partialjEr/z^^y^j, thc'BeginningandEnd (and 
" in total ones of fliort Continuance in the Shadow, 
" the-Beginning and End of total Darknefs) arc un- 
'^ fit for nice Obfervations, by Reafon of the flow 
<* Change of Appearances,which the oblique Motion 
*' ofthe Shadow then caufeth: For thcfe Reafons I 
« fliall propound a Method particularly defigned for 
" the Accomplifliment of the gedgraphical End in 
** pbfcrving Lunar EcUpfe^s^ free (as far as is poflibte) 
« from all the mentioned Inconveniences. For, 

« Firft, It (hall not be prafticable without a Tele-^ 
^^ fcope. 

** Secondly, TheObfeiVer fliall always have Op- 
*^ portunity, before his. principal Obiervation, tb'notc 
" the Diftinftion between the true Shadow and T^m- 
" umbra. 

" Thirdly, It fliall be applicable to thofc Seafpns 
*' of the Eclipfej when there is the fuddeneft Altera- 
" tion in the Appearances. To fatisfy all which In- 
" tents i 

" Let there be ofthe eminenteft Spots, difperfed^ 
" over all Quarters of the Moori% Surface, a fclcd 
" Number generally agreed on, to be conftantly made 
** ufe of to this Purpofe, in all Parts of the World : 
" As for Example, thofc which Hevelius callcth 

jjf \/£tna cBefaicus cMaoti 

^^^yTorphjrites Infula^Creta "Palus^M^ra^ 

^Serrorum C Cofis. 


Locus Niger Major. 



'< I«t in cock BtHtfi (lUK.aU, biic fof^filhtmy 
** throe <tf«hcic SfMi»> ii4)ichs4ieiil]ReACWwfttp^ 
" Ef^tic, ife^xiSdy etokcftii «|hca ^bcy ac«^ 
*' couched 1^ the tnuc Shadoiir, 9n4 ^ahi when they 
'' ace jaft Goaapkcdy <ntEQ4 .MMo AC $ 4q4 (if yea 
'* picflfi;) alfoiathe>E)eae»feo£tfawJ5<'%^,wl>CA4h^ 
" vcSA^ydcukon^.WidShidf^w,: Forcbe 
*' accuote DctcrmiBflooQ of iwhich M<KQcai» pf 
** Ttoie (dkatiieiagki {hisfiufintfiif^ iniMo In^ 
'* tincc) kt- there be jatEca jSkittuks of scovu^aJTle 
*' fixed :Staf^ on tUs iide the JUoCt of foch as Ifc 
f< betw«ca dK ci£fM^ aod Z^iilAi^ 
'* beyond the Line, of fuch as are fituated tow<j^)(ls 
" ihcofebcr ^<^^3 iP<i » tU ^FbtccS) .of iUch, 

^^r^^^^'^^'^r^mmmm^mmmmmm^mmmJiummmmtmm'^^^^mtmw^^'W!^^^*^* ■<» . * ^^w^^— ^■■— 


/i&^ R O T A I> S O C I ET Y. iSi 



Concerning tlie Ofeiervations of the Eglip- 
fes of^tbe Satdlitgt of J<uprter. 

^ntis eft vil Naufka^^vel Qeogr4i$kk4. 
liUNavis aqu£4nmamtis i ^ac Unkmh bi^^ 

tkM fttum wviftigft. 

4iie9aalem€ftri^et^nJa$ iaUciterwHyfiKomp^^ 
Jedem obtiwntis^ pqfitkmmfmUdiUrmn^jf^^ 

MgriOj ikHilmsja ^imum 4(git0t4^ fiUftiktn In- 
ftrumentarimy fr£fertm Tekf€^iiJ(^mis tr004fti- 
mem mmme fermttunt. 

LQ^l^udim$j€iM$M.N4UtUi^vhcu^q^^ Qeif 
€xpe^4mdd I GHigT4ifJHM wro.itb Eftil0HS\C*^«h 
fum ^kfihtm fr£cipu£ petmda. 


(Mijfam fecitmisCL Httgii^ Ijimdam S4»um^, 

Itiarum permuita ret^; ptsuU QbfervAkmis ; m^ 

dm^^mdemhcafiumtum Meridimcmnitft^xa^di^^ 

%abeanty Jatu^nSi deJ^Hsium e/fe ^xf^rimwr :..bayum 

Vfiwyer pauculos annas adhibenda diligent i animad- 

7. verjume% 

i84 The HISTORrof 

n)erjt(me 5 pracipum totius terrarum Orbis partes, quo- 
modo ad fe invicem fita fin$^ accuratiui determina- 
turn iri non dejpf ramus. . . , 

Caufa^ ob quas minus in hoc negotio prajiitere E- 
clipfes Luniiruiriunj. 

I . Communis utrifque, ipfarum Raritas 
Sunt \ cn^.^^iA^' Solaris ^arallaxis Luna. 

Lunarij Penumbra Terra. 


His ergo praferimus Sat ellitumj0vialiumDefe6ius 

frequent^mos^ fine ulla Tarallaxiy in quibus etiam 

Penumbra Javisfrodejfe magis^ quam officere videtur. 

Methodus LongitudiniSy ex Eclipfibus vel aliis 
Thanomenis caleftibus^ indaganda auplex eft : Una^ 
cumTempore ad Meridianum Tabuiarum proprium fup- 
putatOy Tenons alibi obfervatums Altera^Tempora 
vat lis in locis obfervata^ inter fe camparat. 

Cum Arti nautica prior ilia unice ifUerferuiaty qua 
Matus caleftes accuratius multOyquam nobis /per andum 
videtur^ cognitosfupponit 5 obAftrmomia ImperfeBio- 
nem^ & Objervatianum marinarum HaUucinatianem 
perpetuofere neceffariam:JfiprapronunciavimusL&n- 
gitudinis Scientiam nauticam vix unquam de Ccelo 

Methodus altera^ Geographia perficienda idonea^ 
cum non aliam ab cauf am pr avium Calculum adhibeat^ 
nifi ut eomoniti pluresy eidemThanomeno^ in diffitis 
locis y obfervando fimul invigiUnt *y ^eriodorum atque 
Epocharum axpi'lS&iap minime defiderat. 

Satellites Jovts numerofunt quatuor, varia apud 
Author es Nomina fartiti 5 nos ex diverfisy qua a Jove 
obtinent IntervalliSy i. Intimum, 7. ^enintimumi 
3. Tenextimum^ 4. Extimum appellabimus. 

. Horum 

Horum non mfi umujmodi 9eu»6f/9fi(» obfervandum 
pr&fonimus j Immerjumem nen^e in Umbram Jovis 
five ipfum Eclffffiax; initium. 

Solam ham ^dawfeligimus, utpote inindivijibilifere 

cmftitutam : Licet emmLMminisLai^uor atqueT>mi- 

niaio Moram aliquantulam traberep^t, omnimoda ta- 

men ExtinStio & Evanefcentia {ae qua unice foUciti 

fumus) Moment quafi contmgere deprebendetwr. 

Ante 9 <&% Satellites ad Occidentemy'DifciJovM- 
UsReJpe£tUt in 'Deliquia incidunt i pofi AcronychiUy 
ad Orientem. 

Intim & (jufi forte rariffime) penintimi EcUp- 
fiagf tattum OccidentaUum Initia nobis apparerepof- 
fiint : dmrum autem remotimrum mult a etiam Orien- 
folium Exordia conjpicere ^cet. 

"Defe^tusMedicdorumObfervatufaciliores reddant. 
I. Major TlanetarumClaritas. a. Motus ^ forum 
tardior. 3. 'Pemmbrajovis crafjior, 4. Longiusa 
JovialfDifcoItttervallum : adObferuationum oxez/Sei- 
eaconducit. i. Motus SateUitumvehcior. 2. 'Penum- 
bra Jovis 4mgujlior. 

Hac omnia nobifcum meditatiy fubduEia benefmgu- 
lorumRationet Satellitumintimum&penextimumad 
Remnojlram pra cateris accomodatos\ at que adeo^cum 
fatisfret^uentesfmt ipforum Eclipfes, fobs adhibendos 
ejfe Judicamus. 

Extimum ommm negligimust utpote minimum om- 
nium & obfcurij/imum 5 prafertim verb quod tanta 
noimunquam ft Latitudine praditus^ ut Umbra Jo- 
vis ipfum Aphelium neutiquam attif^at. 

Penintimus autem nulla gaudet exfupra recenftis 
^r^ogativoy qu£ alterutri faltem eorum^ quosjam 
pratuUmuSf potiori Jure non debeatur. 

MaximaSatellitum in Umbra incident turn a Limbo 

i A a "Difci 

iZ6 7%e HlSrORTof 

l>ifii JoviiUs "DifioHtia, mU am alter 4, fHfft prkrm 
Solis & Jwk ^airatwam^ Hebd$madk ^trntingit. 

Eft que eapenextimi Sejauubametro Jwu fere 4- 
(fMlis ; Inttm verb SemidiametrQ ejufdem nm muUb 
dA. TeHextmusUmkamipgrediens2)iametny0vis 
A^if€9 ahiftiAi^enda mdk ufqw admaximmfO^mh 
tiay Incremmtowmunififrmu fed CMfime dtcre/cente. 
Hinc Ufdem recipr^e paftHms i^ecretntnto fc. fpfi- 
fin infrefcente) dfmhmtur ifliufmdi Intetvalimth ad 
bimeftre ufque Tempus a diffd §luadratwra elc^um^ 
quMdo iterum ^iametro yavudi atquatUTp 

Toftea ant em ufque adipfa Acfmychia^j^emxtimus 
Umbramffdnturusy aquabitifereGraduCja^ibs nefB- 
pe Hebdomadis^adrant/Diametri)prMMuSyadLim- 
bum yavis acceMt. Intimiy pra diver fo J avis ad So- 
km SitUy^ifiautia eadean plane rafiaue variatur : eju4 
enimy quam ubique obttnety penextvmsy Tfientifffte 
perpetuo eft aqualis. 

Menfe circiterpeft Javem SoU oppofitumypemxtkkui 
{Intimipoft 8 Q> Uy Imrnerfimes obfervari wn petjfe 
fupra hmuimus)fimulac Corporis JovialisLimhum ori- 
entalem tranfierity occidentakm Umbr^ comimia inr 

Inde augetur pasdatim penextimi evanejia^is 2>i* 
ft ant say donee una out altera ante pofteriortm Quadra- 
turam Hebdomadoy maxima evtadat i quamk aT>ifci 
Jovia&s Margine Semidiametro ejufdem removetur. 

Toft quam autem bucufque dimiMitAfex^ VeUci* 
tatey Umbra Jovis ab ipftus Difcoreteffk : hinKy Motu 
continue accekratOy aaeundem redit. 

Ter bimeftre ante &poft Jovis cumSok Coufuf90io- 
nem Spatiumy in Locis Longitudintnmkum diffcrerk^ 
tibusy eadem Eclipfis apparere mquit: adtaque tunc 

I Temporis 

//&tf R.OYA L Society. i8;r 

Ten^oris Obferoatmes mftHuere non eft Operd Tre- 


§iua cum hafintt Tempus quadrimeftre^ a Sextili 
priori ufque adipfafere Acr onychia numermdum^ utri- 
que SateUiti eeferuando erit unice opporfunum : Te- 
nextimi autemfoliy infuper trimeftrey ab altero poft 
Oppofitionem menfe ad Sextilempofteriorem. 
Mtra tmpora jam definitat oaoginta circiter utriu/^ 
queJimulSatellitisJient Eclipfes % penextimi fc. fere 
trigintay intim autem quinquaginta. 

Has cum non ubivis terrantmy fed alia aim in 
hcisjmt conjpicienda^fex Clajfes digeremus, 

1. In Europe & AfricL -i 

2 . In AftL \ Eclipfes oh- 

3. In America. Xfervandas 

4. In^Eurcpa Africa & Afia. Xcompre- 

5 . In Europa Africa & America. I heridet. 

6. In Afia Orient & America Occident.].. 

Non opus eft forte ut moneamts in Infulis 

r ^_/Ethiopici-y C+'". 

Oceani < Atlantici >obfervandameffe claffm< s*". 

(fPacifici j C<J". 

Cakultu Eclipftum a nobis exkibendusin ipfofbrtaf- 
fe Loco ad quern inftituituryplus Horiittfegra nonmrn- 
quam a vero obfervabity ob variam fc. in Satei&tum 
motu <twA*«A]«», ab Excenttkitate ( ut verifimHe eft > 
^ propriamm ipfis Orbitarum ad Jovis Or bit am In- 

clrnatione oriwndam. 

■ Alibi autemTerramm multo rmmsCdUuhfidtndum, 
propter ineeHam infuper inplerifepte Locis Meridiano- 

■ A a a - f^^ 

i88 The HISTORY oj 

rum different iam j qu£ tamen utfiat^ ReduEiio Tem- 
per is aliqua utcunque adhibmda eft. 

Langam itaque futuramfepiufcule EcUpftum harum 
ExpeHatianem pranumefmis^Jpduamque interim At- 
tentionemy nee [pbwA^vadmQdum'(^v\imquamfere 
interrupt amy ejfe cmtinuandam : primum enim, quum 
Vifu affequi poffitmus LumimsDiminutianemJbrevifti- 
ma {prafertim in intimo) interpofita Morula^ mox in- 
fequitur perfecia ejus Ext initio. 

Moleftum autem in obfervandoT^diumy furnma 
Tnp^oiMv abcj^fi^ abunde compenfabity idemque pluri- 
mum minuit, Sociorum mutuas operas tradentium^ ubi 
fuppetity Trdfentia. 

Ad Moment aTemporis occur atiffime notanda {quod 
in hujufmodi Obfervationibus eft Palmar ium ) peru- 
tile erit Horohgium OfriUatoriumy ab ivgenioftjpmo 
& candidijjimo Hugeniof elicit er excogitatum, 


LOngitudinis Scientiam Nauticam vixunquam de 
Cxlo expeBandamyfupra ajferuimus 5 Jiqua ta- 
men ejufrnodi aliquando jutura efty non aliud Funda- 
ment umy quam Lunarium Motuum pracijam Cogni- 
tionemy habitura videtur. Horum autem Reftitutio- 
nem a Tarallaxi inchoandamyfolertiffime monuit Ke- 
flerus. Taraliaxeoeq vera indagarulay ^ a Lu- 
n£ latitudine ( cut femper fere complicatur ) . diftin-^ 
guendosy optima {ft nonfola) Methodus efty qu£y in 
Regionibus longe diftitis &Jub eodem Meridiano pojt* 
tiSyAltitudinum Lun£ meridianarumy per Jmgulas Or- 
bit £ Partes fimul obfervatarum Serie innititur : inde 
enimy Tolorum Elevationefolum pracognita^ certijft- 
ma innotefcit Globi Lunarisa Terreftri ^iftantia. 

I Tro^ 

the Royal Society. i8p 

Tr^fmmus itaque ms Africa Trammtarium C$p. 
BmaSpeu "vel m OceamAtlmtict^SanSiaHelenalnju- 
lanhcum Locis in Eurapa iis reJpondentibus^Satellitum 
OfeyUtdocuimuSy determrnandis^ in quibus ifiiufmodi 
Obfervationes commodiffitne infiituantur^ 

Upon the reading of thefe laft ^ireiiionsy Mn 
Rook the Anchor of them being dead, I cannot for- 
bear faying fomething of that excellent Man, which 
his incomparable Modefty would not have permit- 
ted me to writer if he had been living. He was in- 
deed a Man of a profound Judgment ^ a wz&Comtrehen^ 
fiony prodigious iWiw^rj, folid jEa'^^/^^^^. Hisii^/7/ 
in the Mathematicks was reverenc d, by all the Lovers 
of thofe Studies ; and his TerfeSiion in many other 
Sorts of Learning deferves no lefs Admiration. But 
above all, his Knowledge had a right Influence on the 
Temper of his Mind, which had all the Humility, 
Goodnefs, Calmnefs, Strength, and Sincerity of a 
found and unafFeded Thilofopher. This is Ipoken, not • 
of one who liv'd long ago, in praifing of whom it were 
eafie to feign and toexceed the Truthy where no Man's 
Memory could confute me : but of one who is lately^ 
dead, who has many of his Acquaintance flill living, 
that are able to confirm this Teftimonyy and to join 
with me, in delivering down his Name to Pofterity, 
with this juft Charader of his Virtues. He died in the 
year fixty two, fliortly after the Eftablifhment of the 
Royal Society y whofe Injfitution he had zealoufly pro- 
moted. And it was a deplorable Accident in his 
Death, that he deceas d the very Night which he had 
for fome Years cxpeded, wherein to finilh his accu- 
rate Obfervations on the Satellites of Jupiter : how- 
ever this Treafute will not be loft, for the Society has 


ipo ^ 7hfHISrORY0f 

rcfct'd it to fame of the h^ AJtrmmiiers of Eunpe^ 
to bring hw Beginnings to Conelufioft. 

rtir iS'' ^^ "^*"^y ^^ '^^^^ ^tteries they have already re- 

/(t/^/I and cciv'd good RetumSy and Satr^aSiim 5 an<f more fiich 

Recommtn- AccQunts zit daily expedcd from all Coafts. Befides 

Wj/Zc/y/. thcfc, there have been: fcveral great and prc^able 

Attempt Sy relating to the Good of Mankind, or the 

Englijh Nat'wny propounded to them by maay publick 

Bodies, and private Perfons; which they have again 

recommended, to be examrtfrf apart by divcrfcof their 

Own Number^ and by other Men tAAbittfy and hae- 

grit J y who have accepted of their Reeommmdafkms of 

this Kind : The principal that I fkid/ecorded in their 

RegtfierSy are thefe. 

They have propounded the compofing a Catakgue 
of all Trades^ Works j zTt&MafmfaSfures, wherein Men 
are employ 'd 5 in order to thccoUcfting each of their 
Hiftories, by taking notice oi all the phyiical Re- 
ceipts or Secrets, the Inftramcnts, Tools, and Engines, 
the manual Operarions or Slights, the Cheats and ill 
PraSices, the Goodncft, Bafenefs, atui different Value 
of Materials, and whatever elfe belongs to the Ope- 
rations of all Trades. 

They have recommended the making a daalcgtn 
of all the Kinds of naturalThings to be found in Et^- 
land. This is already in a very good Forwardnefe : 
And for its better complcring, va^xtj Expedients iot 
the preferving, drying, and embalming of all living 
Creatures have been profecuted. 

They have fuggeftcd the making a perfeft Survefy 
Map, and Tables^ of all thefix'd Stars within the Zo- 
diac^ both vifible to the naked Eye, and difcoverabte 
by a fix-foot Telefcope, with a large Apertture 5 toward 


theKo^ AU S o c 1 1 T Y. tpi 

^e obferving the appAretu Places of the Plaoett, 

with a Telefcopeyhoxk by Sea and Land. This has been 
approv'dt and begiul» fevecal of the FeUnkvs having 
tiicir Portions of the Heaarans allotted toi tfaem. . > 

They have recommended the advatictng of the 
M09mfa6ture of Tapeftry : the impfoviag of iSiA^nw- 
ki^g : the propagating of Si^cn : the mclcing of 
LeaJ-Oar with Pit-cGoir* the making loamm^irb tSta- 
coal : the.ufing of the Duft of Mack LeadiSnftesKi of 
Oil in Clocks: the ndakingiTftft^^otriEx^ifi^Eaa^ 
to £ee if they will not yield fo fine ai Sobftance atr Gbi- 
noy for the perfe£ting of the Potter'k Act; 
, They hzvt propounded, zn&umkrtakm ^tfaie Compa- 
ring of feveral Soils and Clays, for the.bettet moking 
of Bricks and Tiles: the Way ofturning^^^^^r into 
Earth ; the obferving of the Growth of Pebbles in 
Waters : the making exa£t Experiments in the large 
Florentine Loadftone : the Confideration of the Bo- 
nonian Stone : the examining of the Nature of petri- 
fying Springs : the'ufing an Umbrella Anchor y to ftay 
a Ship in a Storm : • the Way of finding the Longitude 
©^Places by the Moon : the Obfervation of the Tides 
about Lundyj the Southweft of Jrelandj the Bermu- 
das, and diverf£ parts of Scotland : and in other Seas 
and Rivers^ where the ebbing and flowing is found to 
be irregular. 

They have ftarted, and begun to pradifc, the Pro- 
pagation of Potatoes ; the planting of Verjuyce Grapes 
in England^ the chymical Examination of French 
and Englijb Wines 5 the gradual Obfervation of the 
Growth of y^»^^, from the firft Spot of Life 5 the in- 
crcafing of 7V«i^^, and the planting ofFruit-Trces; 
which they have done by fpreading the Plants into 
many Parts of the Nation^ and by publifhing a 


ipi the HISTORTof 

large Account of the beft Ways of their Cultlva* 

They have propounded, and attempted with great 
EfFcfty the making Experiments with Tokacco Oil\ 
the anatoiniitng of all amphibious Creatures, and 
examining their Lungs i the obferving the Manner 
of the Circulafim of the Blood in Fiflies j the Ways 
of tranfporting Filh from one Place to another for 
Breed $ the colledtifigObfervathns on the blague i 
the examining of all the feveral Ways to breed Bees j 
the altering the Tafte of the Flefh of Animals ^ by al- 
tering their Food ; the Probability of making ff^ 
out of SugssrXlanes : Wiiich laft I will fet down as 
one Example. 

the Royal S o c i b icy. jp^ 


For making WINE. 


17* is Recommended to the Care of fame shilfkl Plan- 
ters in Barbadoc$, to fry whet her good Wine may 
not be made out of the Juice of Sugar-canes. That 
which may induce them to believe this Work to be fofji- 
ble^ is this Obferva$ion^ that the Juice ofWtne^ when 
O is driedy does always granulate into Sugar y as appears 
m RaifmSy or dried Grapes : and alio that in thofeveffels 
wherein a cut CjOr unfermented frineis put^theSides are 
is^ont to be cover' d over with a Cruft of Sugar. Hence 
it may be gathefdy that thtre is Co great a Likenefe of 
thoEiauorofthe Cane, to that oftheFinej that it may 
priB/baMj be brought to fervefor the fame Ufes. If this 
Attembt jhallfucceedy the Advanti^es o fit will be ve- 
ry confiderahle. For the Englijb being the chief Mafters 
oft he Si^ar Trade y and that falling very much in its 
^rice of late TearSy while aU other outlandiJhTroduBi- 
Ms are rtfen in their Value 5 it would be a great Benefit 
to this Kingdomy as well as to our Weflern Tlantati- 
onSy ^'^art of our Sugar y which is now in a manner a 
meer ^rugy might be turn*d into WinCy which is a 
fofeign Commoditjy and grows everyday dearer ; efpe- 
tia^ feeing this might be doney byontjbruifing andpref 
fing the Canes y which would be afar lefs Labour and 
Charge y than the Way bj which Sugar is now made. 

B b Thcfc 

Thcfe arc fbmc of thcmoft advantageous Vropofals 
they have fcatter'd and Encouraged in all Places, 
whtre thqk Int;ief<ft pKiuiiis^'-Iir th^^ the^^iiave^iw 
commenle^ to * many cBftih^ aiid ftparaib' 7r!b#, 
thofti Dcfigns, virhrch fbrftc private Mctf hadi>e^n, btft 
could noQ ac|pdmpli(b^ by tt^Sv^ kA '^\i\Cj;uiirge \ or 
thofe which they themfelvi^ have devis'd, and con- 
ceived capable of i^ucocfii At cVeij.tfioiir. of which 
Men have hitherto feeni*d to defpair. Of thefe, fome 
arc already brought to a hopc&il Ifl^e \ fof^c ^t^ i«t 
in tjfcs ind thnvc by the Pradige of the poUkk i acid 
tom^ are diicovec'd ro be fea(ibk> which were only, 
before thought iniaguuiy, and fan^ftical. This is 
one of the g^teft ^mja^rs of the true dcvd uawe4ri€4 
$xpirww:iUr^ that he o^eD.cef<;uc$: Things f^omthft 
j[aws. of thofq dreadfoL Mpnftcc^^^ /i^^if^ititji^ an4 
bttpoffibil^ Thefc indeed are two* fretful. WcHtds 
to weaker Minds^ hut by diligent and vfUipMc^H t^j 
ve generally fpiind to^be oi>)y the. Es^cuias MM^ 
wfs and J^ranfi, Foe tbc moft p^rtj t^y^lic^^notjift 
theXbingsthemfelvev but in^^en's faUe Qpi^^ <i&sh 
cerning thes? f they are r^*d by Ofmians^ bat are Cooq' 
aboHfli'd by (Fi/rks. Many Things^ iha^ were at firft 
ioiprobabte tQ the Minds of N^kn^ are npt &> to the\c 
Eyx^; many that ii^enVd impradicable ,\q ti^ir 
TtmigktSy requite other wife to (heir i^4M^.; ^2^ 
. that are too diffio^t ibr their nake4 Hand% \i>ay b^ 
foon pcrJForm'd by tbc (amc Hands^ if tbey oh: 
ftrengrhcn'd by Infiruments^ and guided by Metlndt 
many that arc unmanageable by a few ^ai^Kt^n^^ ^ 
few Inftrumcnts, are €a(i^ to tjiie joint ^Fwct of^ 
Multitude: many that fail in one «4:^^^a^y' iiicceed 
by therenew'dEodcavx>ursoftf9(i^)^. It js rioc therev 
fore the Conceit or Fancy of Men alone, that is offuffi- 


the Royal S o c i et y. i^y 

cient Autiioritjr to condemti the moft ualikd^ Things 
for impoffiUf 5 unlcfi they have been ofteh attttnpted 
iA vain, by ^rnany Ey^s^ many Hundiy many InfltH- 
mentsy and m'any ^get. • 

This is the Affifimc^ AtA /»/?rrj»ir^ they have ^^^ 
given to others to provoke them co enquiw, and ^<^omofrSngs 
order and regulate their Inquifitiims . To thefc I willt?/ Nature 
add the Refatims of tht Emrfts of Mature and -r*rf,«»^ /'^^^ 
which have been communicated to them. Thefe arc^S^;''''''" 
infinite in nuhiber : And though many of them have 
not a fufikient Confirmation toraifeTI&Mrif j,or H^d^ 
ties on their InfalibilUty 5 y^t they bring with them 
a good Afliirancc of Likelihood, by the Integrity of 
t\\t Ri'ktws ^ iiXid withal they liirnifli a judicious 
i?-^^^r«v^thadmirable- Hints to dired his Obferva* 
tions. For I will once more affirm, that as the Minds 
of Men do often miftake FdlfiMds for Truths j though 
they arc ' ever fo cifCBml^fl 5 fo they are often 
dta\irn by unceftain, aiKi ibmctirhes ertoneous j^^^' 
^», wfltatlible ott TruShs and RealHiei. Of this vaft 
Ba^potRtldtims, which is every Where (fcatte^d in 
their Entry B^ks, 1 will only take notice of thefe oc- 
csrflonal Ji^cBtmts. ' 

^'^I^ktimscft'9/ontwKitidsofStars^ obfcrv'd m 
the Ifear fixty fixi the one ih Anelromedisi^ the other ift 
C^i»*j^, in the famfePlaiie where they appeafr'd fiitry 
Years fittce, and have ever fince diftppcar'd $ of feveral 
Obfcrvations ofC^/(5/?/W5^^/>jmadein Spain -^ ofOb-- 
fervatiohs of fcyeral of the Tknfts made at Rdme^ and 
ifl other Parrs,- by extraordinary Gtaffes 5 of the compa- 
rative <3oodnefi of Glaffes ns'd in other Countries 5 o^ 
feveral Ectipfei Obferv'd in diverfe Parts Of the Worl^. 

Relations oi^athelii^ atid other fuch Appearance^ 

B b 2 fccn 

1^6 The HnrORTof 

feen in France y of the EfFeds of Thunder and Lights 
ning^ of Hurricanes, znd Spouts; of the Bigne(s» Fi- 
gure, and Effects of Hailftanes $ oiFijh^ and Frogs laid 
to be rain'd ; of the raining of Duft out of the Aivy 
and of the Diftance it has been carried by great Fires 
and Earthquakes ; of Changes of Weather, and a Way 
of prediding them h of the Vermination of the Air % ci 
the fuppos'd raining of ffT^eat in Glocefierjkire^ which 
being fown was found to be nothing but Ivj^ Berries. 

Relations of a Spring in Lancajhire^ that will pre-* 
£i;ntly catch Fire on the Approach of a Flame $ of 
Burningglajfes performing extraordinary EfFeds \ of 
Bumingglajfes made with Ice ; oi Fire-balls for Fuel ^ 
of a more convenient Way of vS\t\%fyax*CamUes ^ of 
the kindling of certain Stones, by their being mgi- 
ften'd with Water i of ufmg ordin^ry-Fuel to.tbe beft 

Relations of the Times of the riiing and difappear- 
ing oi Springs \ of Artificial Springs \ of the Natures 
of fcveral of our Englijb Springs y and of other ^^\ 
ffnous and bituminous Springs : of the Fitvic6 and 
Unfitnefs of fome Waters for the making of Beer of 
Ale \ of brewing JSecr with Ginger inftcad of Hops f 
of Titles and Currents 5 oi petrify if^ Springs 5 of the 
Watcr-blafts of Tivoly\ pi float if^g Iflands of Icei 
of the (biai|ig of T)eiu in a Common- oiLanfi^irf^- 
and cir<;where -y of divers, and TUving^ th^ir Habir^^ 
their Ipng holding their Breath, and of other notable 
Things obfcrv'd by them. 

Relations of the V^iidiX^oi Earthquakes^ aod the 
moving and {inking of Earths ; oid^Q^MifieSy and deep 
Wells h of the Tcveral Lay^>^St of Earth in ^ Well at 
Amfierdam ; of the fhining Cliffs in Scotland % of the 
Layers of Earth obfcrv'd in divcrfe Criffis 5 of Screw- 


the R 6 i K.tZ S be ri t t. ip^ 

vcr^ Tf ecs|^Hind:aacicr Groiutd 10 Chefoire^ Lincdn- 
Jhire^ and dfewhcre ; of a Coal-Mioe.wroijg;bt:half a 
Mile from the Sfaoar, aadfifithcScas of the fatal £f* 
fedsof l^^amfsooiMners^ and the Ways of recover- 
ing them, 

Rekaims of the extraocdinary Stcength of fome 
fmali Loa^aneSj taking up above 1 50 Times their 
own Wd^ ; of feveral Eaigbfi L9ad^hm^\. of the 
Variation of the L^adfUm obfixv^d in tip Eafi-India 
Voyages, and other Places ; of the grOvhig of ?^A-. 
hies indos'd in a Glafsof Water ; of feveral excellent 
EngUjh Clays $ of Gold fouod in little JLumps in a 
Mine in Esfiglands% of the moving Sands xn.Norf^lk. 

Relations about refining ImuI^ and T/ii-O^r f of 
{iacdning StM. fo ds to but Porphyry with it^ and foft- 
ning it fo tnuch,as to make it eafie to be wrought on ^ 
of icnpregnating Lead Oar with Mktal^ after it has 
been dncc ftecd ^i of petriffd Teeth and. a petrify.^ 
hmazn Fistui j pf feveral Ways of fplirtiog .Roekj^jj 
of lmi^Mofcl»'£wndin dKinidftof lio^ksat .Le-!, 
ghom I of the Way X^.VMim%Sjmkr^^ ^of Thing^j 
QbTervable at tha Bottom of the Sea j of a foft Metal») 
which hardens after it lias taken off the Impr^ffion» 
aiidihkWay^of reducing ruthllopreflions imoa$ fu^ail 
a Piopdrtion: as-feVlefit'd/ ;. • : , 

Relations zhcfisxiJgrktiltwe,i of ordering o^Vlms^i 
of the fetting and planting of Trees feveral Wajs./. 
of Elms growing from Chips, of new Trees fprang; 
ftom rotten Roots; of feveral Kiiuis of Trewk 
growing one out of another > and in. the Place^of^ 
others i of .the bcft Ways of Pruning; of^melkiflf 
a Kind of Silk with Virginia Grafs ; of a Kind of 
Grais making ftronger Ropes than the common 
Hemp i of a new Way of ordering Mulberry. 

2 Virginia^ 

1^8 .Y rhe^HiSTiOR TSf 

Firginidi of a L^n^-Ttik S^witmiiai; bent fix 
Months without l&Hxig taSMhtg^ cf^a^Wafof im- 
proving ttic f\^tmtiQdS<S^mccv.i . - ^: v/ 

RiiaiimsoftlKfUAfdi^ dungoi^ Sod jotar^' 
Ifi of thcftcepiflg^ khiiftg^ fowlngric ftfttM Ways 4' 
of freeing it from Worms; prcfcrving it long {uea^htf. 
Tears) of ftteingit ftasa Smm $ of the Cauica and 
fitft Sigaaof Smm ^ «f the Jf^rwrnnt^ and Way of 
ch6t)t4tig* Sitia\r, for i3idfeedi% i^ifhrjks ; of Pints* 
growing «d imtr WMoffof othcf^growitigiiiiMrvr 
yltTj of fcvieral /7fi^» Woods ; of the growing of 
the divided Parts of BeanSf of the growing of 
chop'd Stalks of T0t4t0is^ of orderii^ ^la»s^ of 
keeping their Seed, and producing extraordiiiafy gooii 
, oHes^wkhout 7rd»j^Am^^. / 

i^-e'illif^aWir^of theGiowthyBreediftg/Fe^i^ tad 
Ordering cfOiJfers $ of a St9ifge&n kept alive in Saint' 
yamefSf^^Mrk% of the moveable Teeth of yiA^i of. 
youhg fi/^'cur alive oat^f tht; old ones BsUy i\x£ 
tht ti^ftrpofting Fiih fp^wn, ttiACaij^ atrreiicbm one* 
Pla«et4>^aM>iher)* ofth^ AraffgeliKteafeiof t^ij^ fo^ 

tcaH(borted ,' of ^SwA^fAfircwIf laiid wl^^ 

of Jmfgi, Frog^/ptOWH^Toadfy Mt^PiV^^erTi&udMy 

- RetMtims <)f CoKf^V^Y^tkA&^:^Fm(iniy» diat of. 
Maccaffary and Florence ^ oiOrmj>ififies^'dtxhQGc-, 
n^ra^on^, Growthy Lifc/^tid Tfanfofmation.of Jhds. i 
oi'Chiefe WeriHs]fCa^nt, V±t Fleas \ of ihring Wcntis 
fbund in the Enrrails of Ftfies ^ of Infe£ts foimd in the 
fliearhing of Ships ; of the • Generation of InJiBs 
c^t^^tzA Cdnthmdes $ of InfeSis brtd in Men's. 
Teefh>tG(|ms, Ftefl), Skin $ of ^reat i^uantittes of . 
Fhes living in Winter, though frozen^ of die iWays 
of ordering Silk-ff^ermein France^ Italy^ VrrgmiA \ 
and of their not being hurt in Plrginiaby Thondcr. 

- Rela- 

thiKl6\ At S o^c.i'KnT y. cit^ 

Relations of Swallows living after they had been 
frozen under Water 5 of Barnacles and Solan Geefe^ 
of a new Way^of hatching y/^^wi^j ,of tllf Way. of 
hatchin|t7^i^ in ^grpt f^of Eggs pnofing* frilit- 
fiit, aftoulRy Jkbd bcAD froftco^ 4£iscovc£iDga'<l:V 
Horfe with 4$!6^^/s Blwd. . . 

Kelatians of feveral Morifters with their Anato- 
mie5y of AcnMCTfiiit crf*^ (^ai^ChW f^\ Scenes 
foumf irf fcVefal ?ah^ of ^hc^Bddy jHr^i tmirfual 
Way of cutting the ,St9n^ o^f ^;^be Bladder j of a . 
Woman's voiding the Bones 6t^ Child out of her 

of geafting Tf cth» and mailing the T«Pf h of one Man 
grow ni the Mouth of another. 

Relations of feveral Chirurgical Operations 5 9f re- 
newing, the beating of. the Hprf, by blowipgjntathc 
Rkepti^mt^'Chyti''y oi\WArt of ptfrfeaif ^fljin^ 
Nicires tranfVerfly cor, priftis'd \Tr France V ^ a 

?^m-.. _ , ... ,., ,^_ _ _ . ._ 
ro'^^^fapbfm^^^ of BE^ci^ 5 t)f cuftinga 5/if. 
ttrrfia qbibf i W6miirt Bfeaft 5 bf majrtngthc Blood 
. florid ^\iti ydhttk^ ijAd coaguhirb^ with ^r/i/- Salts.' 
• ^ Pelahdns'pf fyfnpathcttcif Cures and Trials; of 
^Ke fiifBc&s'of Tsf^accopilfqt cafting iuto Convulfion 
"t^tsV. of W^(^r^rmn^therf^^ by ripldih^ their 
'Breaths rof 'WsilUtng oh the Watcr;by i?hcHe!p bf a 
'Gij:dlcitnc,d with Wrncl'j ;of Vendulm<l\tyeg.s^ of 
fcvcrid rare Guns; and lExpcrirpchts with them j of 
ircw §^adrantr '2Xiii AJhrqjfomlcat Inftnimcnts^; of 
'Exptrimtrrts of Refr/ktiofi tnade by the Pireitch Jicd- 
' det^ti of a Way tp tnakcf gfc of JEggs in Pairttihgi in- 
'^VeadofO?! i 6( the IRmdHirta hi Scotiaif^^, t)f the 
whifhering Tlace at Glocefter j of the ^ikt ti^Tkna- 

200 l%e HISTORY Of 

• .* • ' ? 





•RfefcfilV^D FROM - ^ 

' 1 I i • ) , . '. • I . I 

Some confiderabie Merchants and Med 
worthy of Credit, who went to the Top 

.• ,pf it. 

V 1 

" y T Aving f urniflicd our fd vcs with' a Guide, Scr- 
^ I J[ vants, and Horfcs to carry our Wine and 
^* rrovifions, we fct out from Orataydp a Port Towu 
** in the Ifland of Tetter ife, fituatcd on the North oj^ 
*' it, two Miles diftant from the main Sea« We tra- 
" veiled ftom twelve at Night till eight in the ^lorq- 
** ing, by which Time we got to the Top of the firft 
*' Mountain towards the Tico de Tefraira s here, uiv 
" der a very great and confpicuoMS^ P/ijc-Tre<i .,wc 
*^ brake our Faft, dined and tcftcli^d put fcWa ti)l 
*' two in the Afternoons then we proceeded througji 
*^ much fandy Way, over many louy Mountains, bu^ 
'^ naked and bare, and not cover'd with any Pine 
" Trees, as our firft Night's Paffage was. This expore4 
•* us to exceflive Heat, till we arrived at the Foot pf 
'' the Tico ; where we found , many huge StQ^e$, 
<^ which feem'd to havt been fallen downm^i^ Tome 
** upper Part. 

" About 


the Royal Society. 201 

<^ About fix a Clock this Evening, wc began to af* 
'< cendup the Tic^^ but being now a Mile advanced^ 
^< and the Way no more paflable for our Horfcs, we 
<' quitted and left them with our Secvants: In this 
<* Mile's Afcent fome of ourCompany grew very faint 
<< and ficMiforder'd by Fluxes, Vomitings, and aguifli 
<< Diftempers, our Horfes Hair .ftanding upright like 
<< Briftles $ but calling for fome of our Wine, which 
cc was carried in fmall Barrels on a Horfe, we found 
^' it fo wonderfully cold, that we could not drink it 
^ till we had kindled a Fire to warm it, although yet 
^' the Temper of the Air was very calm and mode- 
*^ rate. But when the Sun was fet, it began to blow 
<< with that Violence, and grew lb cold, that taking- 
^' up our Lodging under certain great Stones in the 
^' Rocks, we were conftrained to keep great Fires be-> 
*^ fore the Mouths of them all Night. 

^< About four in the Morning we began to mount 
^* again, and being come about a Mile up, one of the 
<' Company fail'd, and was able to proceed no far-* 
** thcr. Here began ihe black Rocks. The reft, of 
^^ us purfued our Journey till we came to the Sugars 
loaf^ where we began to travel agaia in a white 
Sand, being fore- (hod with Shoes whofe fingle Soles 
arc made a Finger broader than the upper Leather, 
<* to encounter this difficult and unftable Paftage 1 
^' being afcendcd as far as the black Rocks, which 
^^ are all flat, and lie liice a Pavement, we climbed 
«' within a Mile of the Top of the TicOy and at 
*< laft wc gained the J'/M^m/V, where we found no fuch 
<< Smoak as appeared a little below, but a continual 
^< breathing of a hot and fulphurous Vapour, which 
" made our Faces extremely fore. 

" In this FaiTagc wc foundiio confidcrable Altera- 

' C c " tiott 



t6i Thi HisroRrof 

<<< tioiutf Alr« ttul vttjr tittle WiOjd i boc bttaigatUe 
^ lopv' li «is fo iin^«tttdus» that wc kad itiqdi ado t6 
<t. ftaAd tigalnft k, wtytft w« dr«nkthc Kkig's Hedib, 
t« andGitd eedtofw a Piece. Hcte we alio btake 
" :F«ft». botfiMttd our Sdottg- water had quite loft its 
'* FoccC) and was become almoR inHpid, whitft our 
<!' Wine WIB tl^iet oKKt fpicituoui and brisk tbaa 
^-itwas before. ' 

^ The Top on which we ftood, being not above k 
^ Yaid btm<H fethe Brink of a Pit called the<r«A^tf, 
<f - whidi wc.)iadged to be about a Mttskec-ihot over, 
^ ' afid4yearsfbuffcor(i Yards deep> in Shape like a C$ttey 
« with&i h^Uow Uk<e a Kettle or Couldloo, and all 
? over totec^d with fiAaU loofe Stones nttxt with 
** Sulphur and Sand, ^itom amongft which KTue ditntib 
*< Spiracles (^Smoak and Heat, whenfiitred with any 
**i .thing puffs and makes &;Aofrc, 4Rd lb of]^five,that 
f iw« Kvtete almoft ftifled with the l«dden Emanation 
«')of. Vapours upon tlie xethoviog of one -of- -theft 
** Stoae^ Whidi are ib hot asdiey ore nc^eafily to be 
<* 'handled. We defended not above feur or five 
** '■■ YoixtB JAto iS^cCoMtrMi in regard (X'tts (lidisg from 
«* our Feet and die Difficulty. But fome have ad> 
^ ventttted to the Bottom . Other obftwabk Mate* 
^< riate we direover'd aone> bel«ks a dear fytic€$id- 
** fbur-y which looks likcSak upon the Stones. 

** From this famous?/^, we could ken die CTirwwf 
** CarutrtAy fouirteen Leagues diftant, ^ahu, e^g^ivecn, 
** and Gmtera leven Leagues, whidi Interval ofSea 
** 'feiem'd to us not *nuoh Itiger Aan the -iRiivtt of 
** T'lMM^^i^about Landm : We difcemekiatfo the Her- 
^ MV» beitig diftam above twenty League^ and fo to the 
^ uctnoft Limits of the Sea i^iidi fittther, « 
v^ So ^a'tethc Sua ai^)caKd> thc^Slwiow of the 

/^tf R o y A L So c I.ET ¥• 203 

^^ fVr« feeoMd * to cover, not oiriythe wholelfland, 
^ Md the Gf ami Ca9Uiiwf^ bcittheSe4.ia the verf 
*^ HmzMj wfecre the Top of the Sugar-hafcn ^ko 
*^ viilbly appeared to torn up md caft its Shade into 
^^ the Air it felf, at which we were miKh furprized v 
'^ But the Sun was not far afcended, when the Clouds 
^* began to rife fo faft, as intercepted our Profpeft ' 
'^ both of the Sea> and the whole Ifland, cicqptifig 
^^ only the Tops c^ the fabf aecnt Mountains, which 
*^ feem^d to pierce thetti through : Whether thefe 
Qouds do ever furmount the fVr^ wc cannot (af , 
but «o fuch as are far beneath,; ttiey fometifDcs feem 
'' to hang abcfre it, or rather wrap tfaemfetves about' 
*' it, aft cOflfttnftly whto^he Nohh«wcft Wind blows 1 
^^ this they ciiU* the Cufpey and is a certain Prdgno- 
^' ftick of enfolng Storms. 

• ** OneOl' obr Gomptny, who made thiai Jonmef 
^( again two Ye«safterv! trtii^ing m the Top of the 
^^ TiM bcfore^Dayy ttiA creeping under a geeatSioae 
"^ to flico^dhlmfelf from the cold Ahf (after a little 
^' 'Spaice ) found himfelf alt wet, and percdved it to 
*^ come from a perpetual trickling of Water from the 
'' Rocks above him. Many excetleot and ycr5r 
^4 ^uberaot Sj^rings we fbcmdf ISking fronfi the Toftt 
^. of moH of rtie other Mountains, gnOifng out in 
^^ great Spouts, almoft as far as the huge Pine-TKe 
*^ which we menckm'd. ' 

• *' -Having ftay*d fbmctime upon the Tiy, we all 
"^'defcended by the fandy Way till wc came to the 
^ F06t of the SugMT^iMfy which being flew, even 
^ tte almo(t * Perpendicular, we fixm paflcd. Andherc 
* 1w met a Owe of about ten Yards deep, and fifteen ' 
^ broad,bctngih'SlidpclikeanOvetV0rCfi^ 
"^ a {lol«M thi Top ^whfch \b nearbf^ Yiirdsov^ ; * 
. ii : ^ C c a "by 

204 rhtHISTORTof 

" by this wc dcfccndcd by a Rope, whidi Our Scr- 
<^ vanrs held at the Top, whilft the other end being 
'\ faftned about our Middles, we fwiog our felves, 
"^'^ till being over a Bank of Snow, we Aide down and 
'« light upon it. We were forced to fwing thus in 
<' theDefcent^ becaufe in the middle of the Bottom 
^^ of this Cave, oppofitc to the Overture at the Top, is 
*k t round Pit of Water, refembiing a Well, the 8ur- 
^^ face whereof is about a Yard lower than the Snow, 
^^ but as wide as the Mouth at Top, and is about fix 
^\ Fathom deep. We fiippofe this Water not a Spring, 
^i but diiTolv'd Snow blown in» or Water trickling 
^< through the Rocks. 

<< About the Sides of the Grot, for fomc height, 
^ there is Ice and Icicles hanging down to the Snow* 
*^ But being quickly weary of this exceflive cold 
^[ Fl^ce^ and drawn up again, we continued our De* 
^ (cent from the Mountains by the fame Paflages we 
^ went dp the Day before, and fo about five in the 
*^ Evening arrived at Ordt^va^ from whence we (et 
^^' forth, our Faces fo red and fore, that to cool them, 
'^ We were forced to wafli and bath them in Whites 
^< of Eggj, ^c. 

- *' The whole Height cX the Tico in perpendicular 
^^' is vulgarly cfteem'd to be two Miles and a half. No' 
^ Trees, Herbs, or Shrabs in all the Paflage but Fines, 
^^- and amongft the whiter Sands a kind of Broom, 
^* being a buihy Plants and at the fide where we lay 
^^ all Night, a kind of Cordony which hath Stems of 
eight root high, the Trunk near half a Foot thick^' 
every Stem growing in four Squares, and emerging 
from the Ground jike TufFets of Ruflies ; upon the 
Edges of thefe Stems grow very fmall red Buttons 
or Berries, which being fqueezed produced a poy- 

4* ** fonoufi 




/A^ R 6 t A t S tf I g T T, aoj 

^' fonottsMilki wWch Mghtioguppti^nyvP^i!^^ ^^ 

^,< Hoxki or other Bcaftj fetches off tt^c^H^c^i^ 
the Sli^in immediately ; pif theii^ Part<>CtHi$'«ro 
made. our Fireball Night*, Thi^ Pia^tisalfqiif)!- 
'^ verfdlly fpread over the Iflwd, and ifi.ftcrh^ a 
YiMuXqS Euj^horhium. • • ., ■ .k:: - . -h 
*< Of the Ifland TeMH0 it felf,fih*«,A^^jNjRtT>ia»^ 
giveqi by a judicious and inquifoiye M^tb/'wholiyU' 
twenty Years in it as a PhyHpaa ^ JVfirrehapti^ 
HisOpiaion is^that the whole \ii2^i^^\fk^^tp\kXii^ 
piightily in»pregnated with QcjtnftqBe«^^>dA4.^1)p 
mer Times take Fire, and blow;iip.a\t€nr)i>fS^i:^ppa» 
all at the fame Timej, and tha( mt^iy ^d9U^t#1aspf> 
huge Stones ciilcin'd and bQmt> yACx^ly af^poar f V9ry> 
'/ where :4bcmt the in«d>.iefp)eH(;id%{ iadK; Souths 
'f weft Parts of: It, ^ere;ra»'/jl iWil:)b<?av*dj,(*pjcwt o^^ 
f' the Boweto.of^|«he Eanhj^-Ww-Tipic^that ge-^ 
^4 neral ConAi^inaiion i aiul that, the gr?atcfr.QjytC)ti^ 
^f ty Qf this. Satphu)r Ij^i^giibouc the; Cepter of .^o^ 
^^ ' lilandi^ iraifexl up chc ?/m tp that Height 4p iwMch;' 
^ itisoowreen. AndhefaySiChataiiyoneupoatho^ 
*\ Place that (hall carefully note the Situ^ion • and 
** Manner of thcfc calcin'd Rocks how they lye, ^ill 
^^ eadiy be of that Miitd.: F-or he (ays, that th^y lya 
H for three or four Miles almoft round the Bottom; of 
^^ the Tico^ and in fuch Order one above the other, aU> 
*f moft.tq the very Sugar IsMf (as 'tis called) as if*^ 
^\ the whqlc Ground fwelling, and rifing' op together 
*<,.by the Afcenfion of the Brinil^one, the Torrcnte 
^^ '^nd Rivecs of it did with a fudden Eruption- rowl 
^ and tumble them down from the reft of the Rockv 
^^ efpeciaUy (as was (aid before ) to tl^ ^outh-wcfl: :- 
^ For oa thaf: fide, fionj the very tpp of the Vic^ al^- 

; t>xA 

xo6 neHisraRrnf- 

'r Rocks, ovtt ixndtr Mother; And ttaereBeufitki td 
« this tiriie the vcfy Trads of the Rivcf s. of Brim-^ 
^ lloiici te they ran over all this Qliartcf of the Ifiand , 
^ Stahich faath fo wafted tbcGiDiind bcyoikl EUo^^ety, 
^^tthajt nothing can be made' to grow thcte hut: 
*J 'Broi&ni^ Bat on the North fide cif thc^lito^ fir^ or 
'^ none of thcfe Stones appear. And * he conduded 
^^ hence; that the Vblcamo difcharg'd tb fdf chiefly to 
^^ihc'Sdu^weft. He adds farther, that Muies.of 
^ ricptrkf Metals wa?c broken and blown np at Ac' 
<'-Tahie iimd. T&efe calcin!d RockrrdembliaLg Ibme 
«' oftheWlroh^Oferj (bmeSUv^r, and others Oopfcr; 
'l^Pitftictttoly at a certain Place in ttlefe Sonth-^eft' 
•f. Parts caflcd the Assuleios^ beings very high Moon- 
^\ tain V ^Gfre never any Englifih Man bnc himfelf 
^\{ disk ev^r he hcattd df ) i was« Hick arc vaft Quan- 
^itarierof i loofeWewillrEiarth intermixt with blue 
^Scones, which have on lhe«i yellow R«ft as that 
"^ of Coppdr and Vitriol : And Ukewife ttiaky Utcle 
^ ■ Springs of vitridlatc Waters, where he fuppofes was 
^ a Copper Mine. And he wis told by a Bell-fofin- 
^ der of Oratava, that out of two Hotfe Loads' of 
^ rrhts Earth, tie got as much Gold as maddtW large 
^ Rihgs. And a "^^erttfgftexse told him, whohad beetf 
* in tte fTeJf ItuSes^ tteit his Opinion was, there wcrcf 
^ as good Mines of Gold and Silver there as the lieft 
'4 in the Indies. There are Kkcwifc hercabow ni- 
^ trous Waters and Stones coveted in^ilh. a^dM{K^af- 
^' ^n-coiour'd Ruft, aiKi rafting of. Iron:: ' A nd far- 
^ tiici: he mention^a Friend of his, \i4io out of twd 
^^ Lumps of Earth or Oar, brought ftom the top; of 
^ this fidetbe Mountain,mad« t w&Si]vc^ipoon5. AH 
■ this 



theKoi A V So C 1 « T Y. to;r 

^^ diU he confirms from tlic late Inflbance o£the Talme 
*^ Iflaad eighteen Leagues from Tenariffuy where a 
** Vdlcmio was fired about twelve Years. fincc* the 
^^ Violence whereof made an Earthquake in this Ifland 
^ fo great, that he and others ran out of their Hoii£e$, 
<< fearing they would have fallen upon thcosiHead^ 
*< They heard the Noife of the Torrents of. flandng' 
^' Brimftone like Thunder^ and faw the Fire as plsdtt' 
*' by Night, for about iix Weeks together, a$ a CandU' 

intht Room x Ani So much of the Sand and A(he$; 

brought from thence by the Wind with Cloiids;' 
^f fell on his Hat> as fill'd a Sand Box for his Ink-- 
** born. 

'' In fome Part of this Ifland there grows a crooked 
^' Shrub which they call Legnany which they bring 
" Sot Ef^laTuias a fwcct Wood: There arcUkcwifc 
<' Abricots, Peaches, &c. in. Standard, iwhichbe^c^ 
" twice a Year, Pcar-Trees alio which are as pp^ant t^ 
*' A Unonds of a tender Shell % Palms, Plant^ifi^^ Qran^ 
<' gesandLemmons, efpectiaiUytheTr^^i^^ 
.<' have fmall ones in their Bellies, .from whence fbcy 
** are fo denominated* Alfo they have Sogar-Cane^ 

and a littlp Cotton, CpIleqmntu^y,e^c,rTh^KQf^ 

\Awf ViCkriftfmis, There arcgpodCarinatiQns, and 
<^ .very large 5 tut Tulips ^ill iiot^pw or thrive tli«r? r 
^ Sampler cloaths the Rocks 4n Abundance, and 
*/.a kindef Clover the Ground. Anp^er Grafe 
" growing near the Se;^ which is of a broadgr Leafj 
^ fo lufcions.ahd rank, as i^twill kill a Hprft ^hat caj^ 
l^ of 4t« ' hut jmbther Pattlo^ , ^^^ ^^ ^^ Wjjieat 
^ have been found to fpring from 6m Rooti ^ but '^ 
" gcow5 not very bijh. The Com of tliis i? tranfpa- 
<' tentandbr^Iike.tpthejfuxe^ycUi9wAmh^^^ 
\ ./ ' ' \ ... ci>p 

•* • ■ • • • I . . J 4 




108 The HISTORT 6f 

<' one Bu(hel hath produc'd one hundred and thirtf 
•« in a fcafonablc Year. 

^* The Canary Birds (which they bring to ns in 
" England) breed in the Barancos or GiuSj which 
" the Water hath fretted away in the Mountains, bc- 
** ing Places very cold. There arc alfo Quails, Par- 
^ tridges, larger than ours and exceeding beautiful, 
" great Wood pigeons, Turtles at Spring, Crows, 
** ' and fometimes from the Coaft of Barbary appears 
** the Falcon. Bees are carried into the Mountains, 
•* where they pro(pcr exceedingly. 

" They have wild Goats on the Mountains,which 
" climb to the very top of the Vico fometimes : Alfo 
Hogs and Mukitudes of Conies. 

Of Fifli they have the Cherna^ a very large and 
** excellent Fifli, better tafted than any we have in 
*' EngUmdi the Mero, Dolphin, Shark, Lobfters 
*' without the great Claws, Mufdes, Periwinkles, 
" and the Clacas, which, is abfolutcly the very beft 
" Shell-Fifli in the World 5 they grow in the Rocks 
" five or fix under one great Shell, through the top 
" Holes whereof they peep out with their Nebs, 
•* from whence (the Shellsbcing broken a little more 
^* open with a Stone ) they draw them forth. There 
*• is likewife another Fifli like an Eel, which hath 
" fix or fevcn Tails of a Span in Length united to 
*^ one Head and Body, which is alfo asfliort. Be- 
" fides thefe, they have Turtles and Cabridos which 
** arc better than our Trouts. 

" The IQand is full of Springs of pure Water taft- 
« ing like Milk. And in Lalaguna (where the Wa- 
ter is not altogether fo limpid and clear) they per- 
colate it through a kind of fpungy Stone cut in 
*^ Form of a Bafon. *< The 

$beK o T AX S p ct ET T. ipp 

^/grdw all ab^t the idand within a Mile of th^i>^ ^ 
^^ iudti^iaK^fkam iiQthitig.€Aceixi'd> 

V ndtbec villthejrthiwc in any of jthe qthct IQandSi 

V ^ For-the <?iiiitfiri&i^x dr antknt. Iiihabitants be 
^^ giv^s^thia fiiU. Aoioiint 

^* Septemhrdf^^dy about twelve Years iince^he 
\^i took bisjcmaiey: ftora. Gnimati ^ Towa iobabkod 
^^ f&t dib hioft fuchi asl derive themfclvesfcoin 
^. tbet>ld Gu4iieb$^sy\ti tbeCoit)t>3n}r of fomeofthem^ 
^ to view thtir Caves and the. Bodies buried in them^ 
/TfaisrwaSia'<FJnraur: the^.feLdom. o; ne^'9r percait to 
aayr.QiaivMgfin grc^t Veneration the Bodies of their 
1^ AoiceflDts^ and likewi& being moft extremely a* 
^f gainft ariy Mokftatian pf the £)ead) bpt he had 
^^ done feveral ekemofynary Cures amongll thefu (foe 
^ they are generally very poor>yetthe pporeft thinks 
*^ himfelf too good to marry with the bed Spaniard) 
*^ which indeared him to them eicceedingly j other- 
^^ wife it is Death for any Stranger to yiftt thefe 
" Caves or Bodies. . . 

'< Thefe Bodies are fowed .up in Goat-skins with- 
^^ Thongs of the fame» with very great Curioiity, par- 
ticularly in the incomparable £xa^e(s.and Even- 
ncfs.of the Seanis» and.^e Skins are made very loofc 
^ and'fiMOiihe ficKly. lAcSt of thefe Bodies are in« 
^ tire, the £yes clofod. Hair on the Head, Ears^ Nofe^ 
^ Teeth, Lipsy Beard, all perfeQ^ only difcoloured and 
'' a Uttle (hrivel'd, likewUethe Tudmda of i^ Sexes % 
^ He iaw nbout three or four, handred in fevc^ 
^ Caves, fomeof themace flanding, ptherslieon Bois 
^' <>f Wood, fohardned by an Art they had (which the 
^^ Spaniards call Curar^ to cucea piece of Wood) as 

D d « ao 


m t 


* • 


** itotrottcati pierce or hintlt. He fay^ that oike Day 
** being hunting a Fence (which is mtudi in nfetbere> 
<' havifkgaBellabauibisNecky liui after a Coney in- 
** I4>a HoiCi ^Ancn they lofr thft Sodndof the :Bell g 
'' the Owner being oftaiik he ihodd l6fe his Ferret, 
** fceking about the Rock and Shrubs* ftnnd the 
** Mouth <tf a Cave, aiul emsing hi, was foaffirighted, 

that he cried out. It was at the Sight of one of 

thefe Bodies, very tali and laige, tying widi liis Head 
<* diia great Stouc, his Feet fupported with a little 
«' Wall of Stone, thcBodyreftingonabedoCWood 
** (as before was mention'd. ) The Fellow heiiu^ now a 
" little out of 1m8 Fright cntred it, and cutoff a gaeat 
'* Fieceof the Skin that tiy On ttofc Breaft of this Body; 
** whkh, the Do^or &y«, w«s more flexible tnd pit- 
" am than ever he Mt any Kids-leather Glove, and 
** yet to fit from being rotten, that the Man nfed it 
<* for his FlaU tnany Yeats after. 

** Thefe Bodies^aft very light, as if made up of 
** Straw, and iik fOttue broken Limbc^h^ oblerv'd the 
** Nerves and Tendons, and alfo IxMt Strings of the 
" Vettisand Aftetidi V6:y difUnaiy. 

« His giN^at Care W«!$ t6 enquire of thefe People 
** what %hey had aMoAgft them^ of Tradition 4ion- 
" c^nit^ the £)AI>att^g i;ind Pr«f<tv«ftioii «f dRft 
** Bddies: fi^orti^tofc of ilhe 6l<fieftof them Cabove 
^ a hundred an^ ti(h Ytats of Age) he received i«hh 

^ Accdutais th^ <thef had of otd owe pntidilar 
*" Tribit'tdfMeft that had this Alt anioiDgftthetnfthres 
^ 'dnify kM k^ptiisA % 4ul%t3ii(Md> ood not tO be 
* ebmmerhiSited t&lhe'V^gcir : Thefe mixt not with 
A ^ reft of ^ Inhabit^afUs, 'iftx iffartied OM of their 
*• oWii lVibe,'^iad\v(e«e 'air6lhelrFtk9as«Bd.Miti«lers 
^' "of 

the K%>^ AX % ^^i%rr. ^tf 

^ mimdfAefWiumaR (Of ilKm ifeftwQrld, tad the 
<« >AsiaiiWKhitei»i oaly the^ li^ i«Bc TradttioiH^ 
<^ iret of-t Av bignediMMSy iluc w^crc mtdc «»& ef 
f mthis&ifiac6. Thcr to^k Barter of Goats Mi>k 
^ <fomciiaidHogsGDufeHraso^^ wiifajit) which 
^' iiiKjricq^iaiiMrSUgasfixii^ in ihischcy 

<' boiled icettain Hciis ; dSift a fvt of wild LaYcn- 
'^ der, which grows there in great jQuaiittties on .the 
'^ fiijcxfcs: SlcMiidtyv 'AA.Hesb aiUed Lara> of a very 
^* ^gttcnmjr and '^atinous Ooniiftence, which now 
^< grows these andcni^ Tops 0f tine Mountaips only : 
^ TUfidiy^aland^flGgi^dtBiea or Sow-broad : Fourth- 
f^ Jy» wild Sage, ^Niwmg f^lcotiftdJy in $lm Hklnd : 
<« Tliefir with odiets bwiikdandiioikd in the Butter, 
«< jrendcr'd.ita pccfcdk BaUam. ' IThis prefUMcd» tfaey 
« tSoA oofaowtikd the Coq|»s (and in ithcpoocer fort, 
^ to lare Chaises, tfaey tiMk out /die JStr^ behind, 
<' and tfadc |ioor weoe rifo iew'd up in Skins with 
^^ the Hair on, whcneasthe ddier Tott were, as was 
^ ifiiid befiire» tputupin Skins, ib finely and exaftly 
<^ drefibd, a8)th€yrrenMdn mdl/jre^ly pliant and gen- 
^^ deco this Day.) After fiiis Body was thus order- 
'^ ed, ithey had m Visadindsk lAcciumm noade^of the 
^ Bsak dTPiae^rees, with whidi they waflit the Bo- 
^ . dy, drytngit in/thc Sqn in 6annner, and in Stoves 
<< in Winter, this repeating .yccy often. Afteoward 
^ cbqr 'began their 'Unftkai with the fialfam, both 
^ widioutind within, df yii^ it again as before. This 
^ (thqr . continncd till the Bal(am had penetrated in- 
^< to die whole Habit, and the Mufdesin all pptts ap- 
^ peated through the contradediSikm, and the Body 
^ (fatc«nc .exoejcding light: Tlien.they ifew'd them 

D d 2 "up 

^12 rheums to RTof 

^ up in the Goat'Skins/ as was mcntioii'd already. He 
** was told by thefe antient People, that they have 
^ above twenty Caves of their Kii^ andgteat Per- 
<^ fons,wif h their whole Families, yet in^own to any 
<< but themfdves, and which they will ntftel: dilcover. 
^< Laftly, he fays, that Bodies are found in the Caves 
'^ of the Grand Canariain Saicks, and quite confumed, 
^* not as thefe in Teneriffk. Thus far of the Bodies 

^ and embalming. 
^ Antiently^hentheyhadnoKnowledgeoflron, 

^ they made their Lances of Wood haidned as be- 
<' fore, fome of which the Do6h)r hadi feen. He hath 
^' alfofeen Earthen-pots ib hard, that they cannot be 
: ^ broken ; of thefe fome are found in the Caves and 
*^ old BavmireSj and u(cd by the poorer People that 
f ^ find them, to boil Meat in. Likewife they had Cu^ 
/^ r^r Stone it felf, that is to fay, a Kind of Slate called 
** tio^Tabmaj which theyfirft formed toan Edge or 
^^ Point as they had Occa(ton to ufe it, either as Knives 
" or Lancers, to let Blood withal. . 

'' Their Food is Barley roafied, and then ground 
^^ with little Mills, which they made of Stione, and 
*' mixt with Milk and Honey : This they ftiU feed 
^' on, and carry it on their. Backs m Goat-skins. 

'^ To this Day they drink no Wine, nor care for 

" Flcfli. They arc generally vciy lean, tall, active 

** and foil ofCiOUTage. ': : . « r 7 r i - 

^^ He hittifelf hath feea them'leap firomr Rode to 

^^ Rock, from a very prodigious Hdght,. tUlthey 

came to the Bottom, fometimes making ran Fathom 

deep at one leap. - - :: 

" The manner i4 thus : . • - 

[\ Flrd they teritdte their Lance (which is about 

:. > " the 


the R ojTyA % $ b CM E :T y. 2 13 

<^ tlie Blgpefi of a half Pike) that is, they poife it 
^ iQ their Hand, then they aim the Po^it of it at any 
^ Piece^of a Rock, upon which they intend to light 
^< (ibmetioiesnot half a Fpot bioad.) At their going 
^^ 0fF they qlap their Feet dofe to the Lance, and fo 
^< carry their Bodies in the Air. The Point of the 
^' Lance firft conies to the Place, which breaks the 
** Force of thpr Fallj then they Aide gently down 
^Vhy the Staff, . and pitch with their Feet upon the 
<^ very Place they firft defigned, and from Rock to 
^^ Rock till they come xo the Bottom. Their 
^^ Novices ibmefimes break their Necks in learn-^ 
*' ing. 

^' He added , feveral Stories to this Effed of their 
^^ great Adivity in. leaping down Rocks andClifl^.. 
'^ And how twenty eight of them; made an Efcapc 
'^ from the Battlements of an extraordinary high Ca* 
'^ ftle.inthe Ifland, when the Governor thought he. 
^ had made fure of them. 

lie told alfo (and the fame was feciouQy con^ 
firm'd by ^a Spaniard^ and another Canary Mer^ 
chavt thf n in the Company) That they whi^le fo 
^^ loiidas to be heard five Miles off: And that to be 
^' in the fame Room, with them when^they whiftle, 
*\ wefe encft^gh to indanger, breakifig t^!f)/R» 
'^ of the Ear, amt^added y that be .(being iaCompa^. 
f/, ay of one that whiiiled,^i^ lQude^),i(fOuld not hear 
*' perfedly for. ififtceiji' Days afeer,; the- l^oifa was. fa 

\. ** He aflirmsallb. That they throw: Stt>nc« with a 
" Force, almoft asgreat- as that of a. Bullet,, and qow 
^ \ife Stones in all their Fights ^.theydid ^tiendy^ 


i a^ 

' Whcii 


ai4 the Hi^ TORY (f 

Whett my Rm^ ^xi&WctM fhis hH|jfe Koafbet 
el Refa^ims iftt\sieifs hcwHl'i^iMk,' ihu too nrnxf 
of thctli -ft^m: to-^fe^'^hbedlbife- Sto^ and illiii' if 

into 'that Mift«ke, of ^hiidi I hare alreiady accos'd 
fome <tf the :^tients, of framlif^ RomMcesy iiAeadof 
fdld Hifitfries of'Nattrtrc; - BiltheiCi thonghl fliall 
fkftconfinn what I faid before^ ^aftit is^^ttlpi^fii 
t&blc,>ttd tn^found W^y ai KaturvlVkU^^y'tB^' 
gard nothing clife, but die ^prodiguxB' and extrae^di- 
taay^aufes M»d Effedh % yet I^H dfo tdd^-ihat k is 
not an unfit Employment foe themoft judicious £:^- 
timent^t to ecamt/te «id 'Accord the -nwift 'uiiuiual 
and niGta!h:cKxr1^desj tmd.Motiofe ^SMttfet. It is 
ceftdn^tliat maiiy Mxipy'^^A^^ow'fexm-riiiranthusl 
wodia -not "be 'fo, ff once we come to be 'feStj ac- 
quainted -with ^^xxCon^oJitimf and Oper kt i ms . And 
it is aifo as tnie, that there are many Studies j and 
F^iires, and lowers of things,that bteak the oomnion 
La^ and tranfgrefs the ftanding Rules of Hficftor. It 
i^ ^not therefore an Sxtravs^^ce/to-bbfehrefiKSi ^o- 
duflitfns, as are indeed adnurable tti themrehrcs. If at 
the fame time yrt do not -ftrive to make thdfcappeac 
VCi\>t adftunAky ditt^egtoondldsandialfe. In this 
chore isi neacReftnnrblance between Katuralzad Ciwl 
Bjftoty. • fnthc Cii^, fliat way df Hmtmee is to be 
exploded, which hei^tens all the Chara6bers uid 
A^ns of Men^beyond allShadow of VrobabiHtj^ j yet 
this docs not hinder, but the great and ciminent Vir- 
ttus of extraordinary Men of all Agci, may be rela- 
ted ^d proposed to otu: Example. • llie fime isttybc 
affirm 'd of Natural Hiftory. To make tliat only to 
conftft of flrange, and delightful Talcs, is to render it 



the R*a V AT % <o^C 1 1 t y. %i^ 

;^<sbae«MMiul ridicubms Kni^U-Errmtry. 
Yet wcatty avoid that Extreme, aadft^ leave room 
t« cpuficter die ^olot and. inegiilar Effe^u and to 
VKiitMtlicaMif0£M&ii4in«fiftrom£jr<'^ vihich^ 
iWitf nrfdaos fimetiines piaaUeio her Wms* The firft 
may beooijr ooiopat'd to thA FaUea (tf AmtuUs^ aod 
the «$>vm Cbmi^imu % the other to the real Hiftmes 
c&Ahxtmderi aamiiM, Scipio, or Ceptr: in which 
though many of their AAioos may at firft farpnAi 
usi yet there is nothing that exceeds the Tmtb of 
U^ft and that may not icrvc for our L^huSmy or 

, If this Way of gcneial fccdviiig aacrcdjiDte Ac-^^S^ 
QOontSQliNatwral^KAArtifichdS^r^ they 

cqposU 10 metmiich Hascttd and UnocRamty : that f*^'^'^ ^^y*^- 
DaQgcc .is csmov'd by the \ R&yal Socktfs rcdiiciflg 
fiich Matters ofHcaf-fayanxl InformaticM^ mto tcH 
aad linpaitiaL7VM[r, petfben'd by their mmHaads : 
OfthfcExaiftneis; Variadon, bddaooiratc Repcdtioa 
ofthck £4^i^»dNU; Ih^T^ Iivill 

Dcygir gp on to ia^r UiorKrn la^itComp^^ thcrfc Patts 
of the vifible Worid» dxNit whicbr ihcy faaiFC chkfly 

t. » ' 

The iiiftiund Hktti I fliaU mention, is= of Exferi^Of ^''• 
mmts aboflk iSr^ asid JFiam^ of thcie tiiany vcse. 
nmdc in ondcfftb dbe fixaknination of a ?%»)7 pio- 
poandcdML tb0m> that tfaoc is no fiich dung, as aa 
elementary Fire of dae> YerJ/Metits $ notjSny Atoms 
of thc'.^V»m«9Br z'bUt d^ 
DifiUiltioaof.liditoft^ki^^^^ bytht^o* 

as aililbgf&aHm^Vnm^ 
J^rj^ar^ M^thcciiBTp ^^fnl^kumi4K^ vodc«n ditflo- 

t A » 

I6b\€ Bodies; ^ ir&th tiih Ctpfin jUhtf^ IXkk tM 
Ltdit are t«K>mi<pflr461eE{Gia»ofthfeDiiIbIUli««S^^ 
Heat Aod Ehullitldik •ore^ dSoft S^luciUte-bf 2«», 

« Pan of (b« '^<//nofr <|4ir<>U«ble bf the ;i^m v 
; Of this^Sbcf, «h«y haye made Exptrimamx*^ fin4 
^e iaftin^ <»f -liKi- bwnii^. of i Catull^t I'ainBi> or 
Goai^^' in ♦cttbifi'Foflt of opW«»dn>' r«wfied» andr «»i 
■ftitfW.i^;i.t»a(hibii:^io%l^«fi Extindipa of C^n* 
dlef , LatnfHi 444 Ijghticfl Coal«> , whp» they are put in-. 
to fatiated Air : to flicw the fpeedy Extindion of 
,|jndWJCbACcbd%%4>k>wCn]S^)04lkm>9^i(li ^fl^ws, 
that Air rg/ltich hid b«lai». ^.f^tcd. v/tth| bora- 
ing: to ihev4httthoigiMC6ftand-«K)C^ lofting Heat, 
trachoilCul^S«ppiy j6£fiielh.i/jlir,.i$ unable to ^um 
Wood» Sulphur; a«d moft otturcoi^buftibie Maitqs : 
CO 'ted the /oompacativfr Heat qf. aU> Kinds o( Firefy 
ahd ^i^x of &Nf«ial ManeruOs, ^ of Sul{diar, Cam-^ 
phiflc. Spick of Wine, Of\, Wood, CcmI, Seacoal, 
Iton: DO fini^iwhiar D^isc of Heat,. Lead, Tin, 
^Vcr, Brafi, Copper, Gold will melt. 

ExpirinuHfs of tkc Tran(pacenqr, andRefraded- 
nefi of Flams: of difceming the Strength of feveral 
Kinds of Gunpowder, ¥ulvis Fubmums, Avnm Ful- 
mums : of Gunpowder in the exhaufting Engine : of 
bending Springs by the Help u>f Gunpowdier : of 
melting. Copper immediatdy, by the Help of a Flux- 
powder : of the recoyllng Of Guns. 

£jc/KyvMi9irxofCandlesiand Coats, cxtiogui(h'd by 
the Damps of a deep Well : of die burning of Latnps 
under Water :. of burning Spirtt.of Wine and Cam>. 
fhtretogetber, and the Divofity ofchcii; Flames i of 


1. ». 


the Ko ^ ji h %6 c 1 IT Y. 117 

rcdactng Copper to a very combufltblt Subftance : of 
heating the ^ir, by blowing it through 9' re«^hait 
earthen Tipe» . fd as ta burn Wood ; of the Bkightnels 
of the F/ame of Niter and Sulphur : of the buoiif^ 
ind Aiming oifTm; Filings by dfo Help oiNiUr: of 
kindling Bodies, inconunoa ratified andoondcm'tl 
jlirtbf thtHcl^ of zBumiiig-gUt/i: of the compatt- 
tive Heat caft by a Burmug-j^ft, in the Mornihg^and 
at Noon : of burning vtth a i>»r made of Ice : of cal- 
cining AutmiHj to the 81m v^ith Lo&: tofiod whcttia 
jiurum Fubmnam or TutrisF ulmnms do Aame upon 
Exphjm : of hatdung ^^s with a Lamp Futoace. 


Their fecond Sort cf Expetimtnts is of thofc th|t ^f '*'^- 
have been made ia ordtf to find ouc the Nature^ Prq • 
percies, and Ufesof ^/r : Such a$ thefe. 

Experimmts for determimng the Height of chc 
Atmffherey for finding the Preflure of the At- 
fnojpwre : on the Tops of Mountains, on the Surface 
of the Earthy and at the Bottoms of ver^ deep Pics 
andiMines^by the Help oi ^ickrjiher^zsxd other Con- 
trivances : for finding the PreflTure of the Atimfpherey 
both in the fame Place^ and Places yery far rcmoV'd* 

Experiments to determine the poflible Bounds of 
Expanfion and Condenfation of the Air^ by Heat and 
Cold, by exhaufting and comprefling : to detertnio^ 
the Stteii^h cAAir under the feveral Degrees of i?^ 
refaSlitm and Condenfation : of the Force of condensed 
Air in Wind-Guns , to ftatethe comparative Gravity 
of the ^ir to other fluid and folid Bodies : to difcor 
ver the rcfraftivc Power of the Air, undc«he feveral 
Degrees of Rarefaition and Condenfation : to manifeft 
the inflc£tive Veins of the Air: to produce a Kind of 
Opacity of the Air: of the falling of Smp^k in rcrj- 

£ e fied 



Vf much cotideni'd: of €li^s4atti t\£m% in a hs^iff. 
i»-cAuiicDiM\Aif'i awtftlin^ ■ Kghncraod mwe ra- 

gjttiit^orJdcMgntiofiaf j4i^ dadJti9Cd|pacii]^tbj|M^ 
tiitie Jbme Sodic^ atttkoot-'Otbeis : of'gcnttaeitig j^flir 

fod t>f JtsrsrixS cfa(S indnAbilbg>'kid'^>iJK:t«(iniis a 

;<tf/f fitelU^tidfi :' of ^ht'Uieel'^^ib^bleafhkig. 

llve>'^'t$l0Wiifg'riMd)tl}e^£fM^j>i#itk<i^^ ^er 

dot aft»ay,at)& 6>f iheEittMUs^t^ tktMitdm and j&in^i, 
femo«'4: of reviviiAg C^ktm, ak^ih&fhte^^ btcti 
-ft^a»gkA,' byskfktwing ineorticir Lums: «d ny-how 
<I(Aig a :Mm (3Mi!li9e> tl^ e](%miig acuf iat^iciog agtilii' 
the fittve >j^fr tdtry whether the vfi^ fia terpiH<?r 
fiirght not byie^reva) Itdeans be pucified c« feiie^^?^ 
<o pfove that ifr4s YKM the McAc> nor the .Cokl<of p(^' 
•te|pir€d ^y^/T) thfitchoaks. - , .: *. 

Exptrimnt-S'Cithii tei^nQ, C)i ^nimafs >in Air 
>mbch raHfiid, otid the £ital -EfTeas : of the lot^'Cdni- 
tihuancedf feverdit Al^mMs very wiAt in :>#«ras miii^<^ 
tSondetii'di^ as it will be under Water, acfwofaoiDdred 
^athoDAS deepythac is about eighr Times : of the Quan- 
tity 6f frefli Air reqtttfite fbrthc Life of a refpiring 
Ammdly fdtf a'Ceitain Space^f Time : of making Air 
unfit: forRtJpiia^ioii, lay ^ciating it/byiU^riQg Qan- 
•^' ' • • dies, 

being aWe-f9-<noV4t*ftt<:aM^ii$iMl ii#(7^tltt\ I&4- 

9f PlaBts kulig>K«.isMi'>.ilir^!(»ii '^.'fhe Decrcftft^ 
diy^- Weight: -^^ Iwihg^Of « Caaid<k!my Stiokics; 
> and i)V(icfit lBiea$)in i'ft«e ^rjlffv^widleut FiMklt 
coiivc^f^ ^ naA» Water to>;^a^ C^iith : of 
conplejaiuttt ./4b bjr A^^Cm»I^ -Md tiy . «he Expadibn of 
ftqczing /SPiri?^ ; of Ih4 ft^eUllil; <tf ii<w^* in the ta- 
ngling Engage : of the Velocity and Stitngth offeree 
•ral ^imts, 

ThetMfd KMi, arethofc "vbkithairthtseiitmdcoffFater. 
ahcf^t (he SHbOaif e and Fiopetties df /i^^v Sueh 

Mx»ffi^tei»f abdttt^e complratH'e Cf «nt^ ' ^ 
ySi/ir ITiy^ MiSfrtpy and of feVeral Medimal Sfrki^ 
found itttt)d»Nati€tn: of the-cHIFceent We^t of^Hthe 
Sethtxtatw't^ iA rey«talCliiiaiaii%and ttfe««ral^6ealbte: 

E c I of 


'^2o thi HI S TOnrbf V 

jdf^ the Weight otfD^fiillidwjaw 

deWy Rain-fVutery Sftnig-tvaUf : of ai^incntkig i||c 
WdghtrOf i/ifo^ri by dS^^ ^ofthc^atcr 

Thkknefsof wdi WtaerA Bonomthofi.^ tfaeTcf : 
.4>f v^eighlng afceikling ^od defMp^^ 

' binder Ic^'Satfucc. ..... 

; ^ Expirim^nfs of the Htitwd ColdotthcffaitenpM 

" ftvcral Depths of ^he Sm ; of propagatiag Sonitfls 

-through thc'^f^c of founding the Depth of the 
Sea without «^ Lkie^ of fetching up WBt€t:^fKim the 
64»tt<Mii0ftht'&a: of fetching op Eaxxh^iSaodt Piaitts, 
firom^ the 'Bottom of the Sea. • v.. » m, v ox 

Experiments of the Rcfiftance of PTater tf^'sBodjcs 
movd on its Surface, of fevcral Figurcssi and/by feveral 
Degrees of Force : of the Refiftanc? oiff^atet |o,Bo^ic? 

<«aov'dv^liroagt^iiS'^bflaj)Qe^ afocndiiigaod ti^end^ 

m%\^ df the fixpanfion and CondenGstioQ of /^^-^y 

^Hitat^ and Cold ; of the Condenfati««i.o^^^4?^ .£er 

vcfal Ways of Preflure: of cooyerting fVfljer wto 

:a vapcrQds jdity lafting foq^etinnei;! thatFosn^^* (^^ 
'T^rriceihim Experiment tried iwith fVater ma G^s- 
Gane thirty* fix and forty Foot high, in a kadenTV^ 
alfp with aGlafs at the Top ; tins fame tried with Oyl, 
and other Liquors. • . . (. 

Experiments of the rifing offVater in fmaJl ThIh(S% 
and many others about its Congruity: of Filtration, 
or of the rifing oiWat^rto^ great Height in San^e^r. 
of tlic fwimiping of Fiflics: of /^if^r'sbeing^afelftto 
penetrate through thofe Pores, where y//> will not : of 

opening Bi:llow$;.at.a/pepth djUdet/^/^r^^dbl^w 
Alp Bladders, to find the PwflTure of.tlie^^;^^^; of 
^^if^r not fuhfidingii> a highGJa/s-Cane upoi\ remov- 
ing the amdjicnt Preflure, after it had bcci> well ex- 

. ^ . hauftcd 


-^iFatisf dim: of a Vdfclby icsown Vapora^ . . 

< £i9MrMiM^4€f ihft;d^ and J^^i^- 

tioa dP variiii^^fr and cold & of tJic^pafliog oifVittn 
thi«ighithc(DQacsoCaJ4aivYSto^ oftt^C/liviivg 
of FiflLin^^^il^ilbcui^ )MW^Mhll)l]byll^iqf^(;l^^^ 
up a Fiih in a Glafi of ^/^ $ of tl)pslyiQSg<9^ iviAyps 
in J^F^^^^upoo ta) i^ Px<^.«.tQf . th^Q ^>, in 

^ tbc Badfyi^ Engine s of Nj^drn^^ckti^ffx^ m^yig a 
Body iink J^jt {tourifig more J^4HrMili!on>lbs pf .C9lfi9g 

of /r4tf0rda(du'Stpm^ iipon.|UittiQg>tbfifi^ 

to. ti^arm Water \ of jfih^ ibriR)!^iii>€if,d^frf,i^n 

cootingi •A \ .- r--i.^»"r ; •j.T'l,. ici i.»j '\\y^\i,^^ 

: Etcpe^nmnti^ tA^ioj^td&i^xffsAt^ ^b the .Tow«&f pf 
dKTolving xxkzfff > Salts ^ioi doft X'iqiteex oiC. ithft^ Qf^s 
M^mdi s <ii'BMfimy\ iOfiho/Tenactty of roxcraJiiAir^- 
Ai/^- 'cxaroinU by Wjcight^j uOf the 'Rarcfafti(m:^n4 
Ck>ncten£atio«of GJafsricf'ffecsvtetifo^ Salt.of T^r^ 
tOF^ wkti burnlt - AlQtp» ^ >^«l^ YiocgaF \awl 3p*f it. of 
Wihe^ oh theZ?^wi»a^iJyai0^$on:2!^tfmra^ 
fblnihg by rubbing loa Ctj^pr-jQw: ;/of ths £>iftiU£ffipnf 
of Coal '^ of refining fcvcial Kinds of .Lead- Oar ^ of 
cxtra^iftg^r much ^PWt«OQiJ*Wty' of '^V'jWr;. oftti of 
thif Q«:> than ig^commo^Uy c^oa?5 of ibvcr^i Wfly^s pf 
reducing i>i?/^^^*ifi to X^iii/i: of V changing Gp/dx 
into Silver. . : "' ^' • j : 

. E^petmenfs M^gnefieaf, of the baft Form of «p-. 
ping LiHi4flimf\ o€ th^ jbK^ Fq?ij?^s 9f Mfe4l^f pf r fc-i 
Vcral Lengths apd* Uignpflcs;;; of ;;Varioi^ Ways- ^ft 
Xixaii^2^,Ne9dlef'. on the /i^4^(W^i ^of -^piaHing. thjc. 


tliedonnd &n4«M« iluMAi^,< itrMlOut ¥^^ 

Ited^ jnd^SMiidjtMQsti^«fr'cltt.4fti(iiai^Af Bowiet; b^ ' 

the Lines of the dkeaive Virtue of ^he-^b^^^fAMf-tbr' 

T'i^^fnr'tnakes ttuin^^d'Miuiifieft'^liiiiQsIjkididf Bfi. ' 
f efiiaa Hfi;^ fi{i(|f^^^4}if' 'Mff^k^f to'«Hfibiref tbofe ; 
Liocsvofv DiMdiiSlH,' wllliM^'tfie'^iiflctcttbe &C vcuAf '' 
Ltadfioms is)«ciai|W(ind«l I 'tt»' ^tt whit vhofe Lidcs " 
are iitooinpaffing ai SfisMeriad'Ldadfi^gni, tKifaat abottc '' 
a' Square; ^4 Dt^hat-dbcMt s-ttgoliie' Pigiue} tierbcH^ ' 
iifooagii the Axis 6f a Lfittt/^Mfy- and fttl ic op wi^ ^ 
^Cflmdmai'S^e^s Et^friMeiat on "LoUdfionet^w- 
itigniaRy Fole«, and yet ilie j^rfff^x filming trtfifodftii-''' 

^'"- (bveral Kinds of Water; a& Rivmi»4fm RiMW^- 

Ur% 'Difmd WMefy Mtiy *I>iv9% of litndrinff lii^ 
Groewth of Seed Corn in the Earth, bf tsxit9&a£%<4lii 
AiCj and fettiiering their Growth, by ^khnictii^it'^ bf 
fieepitigf Seedsof ftfveM Kiiid^ j «f Invvrttog the^EMt-; 
tidm of /?««/; aMd^/iMf/ ftt in rfitt Ofoafld,to ftBd* 
whethercftiM isct y«dy«9^iii fhe Fo(«»^>tke.W«od; 
^ that only open oneWayj ofihcDcCfcafc^ftbt Weight 


I < 


tim, ^ f ¥>«'f'?.^<»'<! r» T Y. X9-S 

of. TlaKf^ 8mr»gf^ Air.r ^ £4giMtm \Ft0^ j : of 
iof Wiopd bc9ugttt. fj^m (h^ Qmnus ;. o£.a flaking 

as of otttii;* out ^ SfAot^ota -Dpg*- of ,«hcf ^**'•'"'- 
£&^ , 9f Vip^s biting D<^$.jo£ a deqir^UH^ jukI t" ' 
|cs.DiiQi:(iiqi^ji 9f gviccviQg Amm^\x\ ^^xitfaSWxaeii 
Oa of TuipcQtioc, aA4 piihcc JUqMOirsi ,«»f . ^^kI6^A 
V4i:||0^ ;]yi(Ei9i^, ^ iK^ Si|^aapc«..iqto>t;he -V^ 
of ^weKai Creatures. 
Expcr\mffits of 4d^ii]g4^^4rf jb!ip:6:ni(CcaAFMam 

.Sa^4 .of^il^ng.Wa«r^«wts>7l>4^^^MI«l^Q«9an?-3 
witii i€^I4$;^;|^^ of Jl^liing. f JXig^ *^}rrtQl^ni^^tJl^:^ 

not being mchahtcdfay.^pirf;lc of, ^.Swwpy!^^ - 
Irijh Eartht laid round about it. 

Expmmvts with |i.pciiW9P'd/w55«ifi»©^ggp^ r 

ver^l Animals i .wijtti tin^ .^<«^«;r^f , P^i^ v ii(Ki^ 

waliii^g ,F!i?fl? grow p^,j fftcr ir ha/s Jt>.sfiR Ojivc ci?t off.j 
pf^f. grafting. ajt$^ op the H^4 <?>f ajCfJ^^i ^d ita 
gcq^iogj of the U^iftg of .Ctc^vrcB. by it^irkta* »• 
Aic.i.<?f the f^vJviiig of Animus ^r^cd, by 
bloiil^uig ^to their Lungs $ of Fk^ not- breeding 
Wotms^when fecur'd ftom Flj-blowing \^ S(|fib< . 
cat^ oiAm$»fils_ Hppn pier(;ing the Thorax \ of hatch- 
ing Silk<Woifin'« Eggs .in , ratified Air j^^- of .tnMUfiiflng . 
the jPilc^ of op? 4«f«i^/ into another.. . 

* The.. 

124 nkfflSTORtf"'^ 

» •■ • 

or /• m '^*^^ .^<ivcnth Sort arc about thofc * vhich arc call'^ 
Qui]ities! f^J^^ ^alififs ; as of Freezing ; of Gold, and Hcac^ 
of ff Ctting Water fr^cd from Ait 5 of the 'tinic an4 
Manner of ^ the Gontc^^Uon. in frctzmg luke-w^rm 
Water ; of the Temperature of fevcral ipLices^ by 
feal'd Thermometers 5 as of fevcral Count:rie$i . cJf 
the Bottoms of deep Mines, Weils, Vaults, on the 
, T^s of Hills, at the Bottom of the Sea, 
, ^ , V- ' : E^trmenPs 6i^^ QontnQAoryoiO'A o( Vitriol ^ 
and divtrfcotiier Qits by freexj?^ j pi fiees^ing bit- 
ter Tinduress of/r^^-»/i^ fcveral tii^'d Liquors, and 
driving aU the Tmdure inward co the Center ; of 
(hewing Ice to be capable of various EXcgreesof Cold , 
geteterthanis requifite M keep it Ice; of producing 
Gold by the Difli^utton of feveral Salts? of freezing 
Water without Bleks $ of a membranous Subftance 
(eparable from the Blood by frtezing 5 of a Thermo- 
meter in rarified and condensed Air 5 ctf very tz^xtfreez- 
ing of Gil of Anifeeds^ of making a Standard of 
Gotd by freezing diffiHy Water- - 

M- t, 

Of other The eighth are of Raritfy T^enjity^ Gravity y Tref- 

Qualhics. Jure J Levity y Fluidity^ Firmnefsy Congruity^ &c. as of 
theNararcof Gravity ^^ of the Cohasfion of two flat 
Marbles j ^ compreffing the Air with Mercury to 
find its Spring 5 of the Weights of Bodies, folid and 
fluid ; of Rarcfadion and Condenfation by the Help 
of Mercury ^ of the Tenacity of feveral Bodies ; cjf 
the turning of two very fl6id Liquors into one (olid 
Mafs, by mingling them together. 

Experiments fqr examining, whether the Gravity 
of Bodies alter, according as they arc carried a good 
Way above or below the Surface of the Earth ; of the 


Il&f Hdf At -Soc IIT Y. »iy 

(landing of MeremjirtM exhaofted, many Inches, 
nay many Feet, above ks ufu&l ftandtng ; of a Wheel- 
Barometefy of the Expanfion, and Contra&idn of 
Glafi and Metals by Heat and Cold $ of SfMt of 
Wine/ and fetretai iing'd Liqiion> by -the Help of a 
Clafs "tube ; i3ie ExaminiitiM df M0i9$>i»r5P^i^^ 
Expenhicnt by many othcis. < ^ •.. .^\ : j» 

• # 

The ninth arc Experiments oiLigitt^ SiuMd, Cd-'of Light 
hufSyTafitx SmeUi as of two tran()>atenr.*Llq<k>]:s.s^wM(»eg>^. 
proddelng qn t^ad^ one: of Echoes and VDOftdlcd^ 

Sounds i -dfM^ltdd ' SMnMi Md Hamming of Cb^ 
tdursVof ihe'^6atar'Re(radion o^ W«er tbanoE 
Ice \ of Refraaion in a ncfur Engine ) of tii« K<sSa»^ 
cioh of GlaOfs of VaMousSha^«s under WaMfv of <te*: 
ilitoyingthd (hihtng Of Fi0i by OB of ^mis ofian^ 
king a great Light by 1rtiM>if^t1»b Cttt9Aals4iaAiiBntf 
tigaihft (he others of malcirig a i&af 4xiA riOTH^Mqnt 
itofpcak. ■ ' ' • ■••■•-■■- ""^^^ 

^ .' V 

The tenth are Experimeias oi Motion : as of Gials Of Motitm. 
I>rops -feveral Ways ordered and broken $ of the Ve- 
locity of the Defcent of fcvecsd Bodies of dinetfe Fa- 
ftions through ftveral Liquors > o^ detemiiiiiog tiM 
Velocity of Bodies fiUUngthrou^ the Ah-, tried byv 
n^anyWaysj Of the/f0ir/^ ATaT/m of Sopadsj of.^ 
htegoiar'Afi^/M of the Oil of Turpentine oh,%uiti 
of Wine $ of >the Strength of Ming Bodies, accotd^ 
ing to thefcvetal Heights, fittm uphich they M i of 
proportionii^ theShsqpes dFBodie6,fo as to nudcc chcotk 
faU together in the £une Time ttiroughdiffctip^Mir-* 

Experiments of theSwiftnefs of a Bullet (hot witb ex.*. 
ttaordiAaiy I^>\v^rVof t^e beft FigOKOf the Weight 

m F f of 

xiij ne HlSTORTvf 

^fM^ |ipdi(»;<^>iiriious Figures i to ckrMmiiic W 
jUn^ oit ^tmW*iinst to fiod the Vdockjr cc the 
,¥itp<p$i^cf, » ^liii^ Suing i ix>£ad th^ VdfCNd- 

tiprvH^fi?;?* qFCular* 4>y,« filpcW(tii«|g Atttpai^£ Poinr^ 
i^vai;^ iche Center > in ocdcr to die explaining of 
4HcJ\^*f«f.<qf Jh? Planets,, . 

f wn of Ten^mhSy c6 eaqptaio ;^ JUj/prnt^ O^ibe 
JS4$»B»,i;i^^iy^t ,lfc^ l&a|:tl> 5 .of .(COinparii^'iiflB 

q£ . a >ftrjtit toners of <he.Pcafiagadioo of Mrt^o^Svxa 
one Body eoasochcf;} of tiK ^efledion;Df Mftiw^ i 

/P/ifffM. ]ti»itadng>c&e MttmM^ Tmkf¥mj ^oficom- 
..<i|Dnicafeiag.aifthe Strengckiof PoKr^eril^ |be jko4' 

ing of Springs; and thereby for making m'frr*?? 

Mufcles, to command what Strength we dcfite.. 

MdMfcba- ^/^ Oftical; as oi^dscifigtiKFJe^of iAiB«9^s<#' 
""^^ ' to a Liquor iKkc Btood* bir.i)lQ9lvi^g 4t in a icaCMO 
Ahti^rmim i Aof .dgpeat ^K^ty of Viulbg Weco: fl» 
Bipes<f>£a;Jaigc^Bcirc^j vif bfiwring'iBficr.wuiKjBiWMl 
Battf^> rOati, W4MMt>^vJchotitmditM^j-0f.;pf^ 
ci|au3Bg^«0«r iwt! «f il#^ Ji]ri0v«mli&cp<4)QPits « 
df>ft fliywian*/ fJntmaiM^ef ;a .wtatUc^i^, mEl&4c 
'£ping0« eif tx umnng Amwj ^mj i imi ifm 

and of a chtyftallifing it again oat of it, by Ey^iKiCh 


f _/^ 

the, R © y a^^u r$ A % l^r t. % i;x 


large aa Apeitnte as is ddif'd. 

Of this their Way of Experimcndng I will here 
. produce thefc Examples. 



m8 ne HisroRTif ^ 


Of the Weight of Bodies increafed 

in the FIRE: 

Made Of the Tower, and the Account brought: 
\ in by mj Lord Brouncker, 

I Copper and Lead7 

d. gr. 
'J^e Copef weighed --''^'-^^ 10 $ fr 

Ihto the Fire all three — — i+ 2 j -rr 

Out of the Fire 15 + tt 

Gained-"-^ o 5 

o t 

Bejides what the Copelhfi in fVeigbt^ 
Jkppofedtobe about three Grains. . 

2 Copper and 

d. gr. 

Cepel'-'^ -— ■ 10 z 

Lea d 4 9.^ 

IntotheFireaU three '-"-'^'^^-^Xd^ 17 ^ 

Out of the Fire ^-"^^^ — iS i 


' — 

4&e% <k r^A* t \ S-: o»c i- e t ^r. 1 15I 

, ' - „.- ^ , ..^- .-. .,y ,..^ 




^ » *:, 

Lead *— ' 1 - <4. ji 



hat the Fire bdth 14 12 -K 
Q«tf efjtuFire'^^ 14. f ■??; 


£ead ■ ■■ 4- j^* 

n ■ « 


iff/p the Fire beth 14^. jr 9 {• 
Qutraf the Fire — J- i 5 i •V 

5 O/^/ tf/(W^^ 

1/. gr. 

Into the Fire^^ « ■■■■ jo .. 5 , 

Out if the Fire T^^'^'^ 10 i4 

m % « •* 

<^t of the Fire — - 1 a t&Mjfqf^' pr . 

11 a 

Lofi'^o ■ I ^ 



^ wr#^.» -P--^ • V/ .*w^^,^- ^ ^j 

o\lVJ.'v*V-^-'^'- *"• • ^i 

N ' • • . . ' 

^M^e J'y.Dr; G g » d a r d. 

^>^' SnudlStmeoJtheJLmLcaSedkjfomjiiftfmt 
f\ Oculus Miindi, '6ehig ^y and c/aiufyt magittd 

. '"^ :,;. ;.'. -. ... V . ' :i " 5 gr.^^- 

TTx fme beim pdmirM^er^J^ a Night ^ 

pmewlMtt mart, htrame tfM^armtt and the Si^^ 

ftckib^ kifif^M dr}i ^H^^^S U ' ^' » ■ - ' ; ■ - x^y. fr» 

The JameSmeTept put ^. fVater one 'Day and be. 
coming' cloudy againt weired — -.— — 5. 444 

^hich was mere than thefirfi Weight — — — o. 
The fame being kept dry vi»^I^ longer t we^hed 

which ithu left cthmt^ jkft ' • ' ^ *' — o. 

Being put m derH^aterfk u N^ md becomtng 
egam'frmff^'ent .and wiped dry jthe weight was 6. tt« 
thefamewitb'the]irfi;^terputtingin Phtter^flnd more 

than the laft Weight ^fter keeping of it dry o. ffr 

- Sih^ kept dry fomelatgtkt M^mmt gyow fen/ibfy 


Ahothfrdto»eofthe^imK^ind;boii)ig variegated 

with millefi\yaohitet,> mtdgr^ lihefime Sdrt of Jgates^ 

while iti^irndfr Water,fWas always invironedwitb 

little iuSbleSy fHich ais i^ear in Water before beyling^ 

WMtthe Sides of the Veffel. 

« There 

the 1^ ^P y.iv Ht\f ,0 f ^ f ft Y. :^,^i^ 

There were alfofme of the like BuMles on the Sur- 
fiffi ^ 1^ ^fVater juifuer hi ar.ifeither^JtfifrEsS': 
bidattons came out ofH^ or that tf 'dU etseite^nhe 
Fermentation in the Tarts of the Water contiguous to 

it. :> . • • ' ^ 


Theresas little feitfible 'I>^e^ence^f3rmj>^ency 

imbif iffmf, inffire the fvttJn^ vmr Wimr,'^ W 
^er : Tfiffm "the mlk) tfthite Tartt Cf/^hmfd <w 
i^, ht'nme ^ferem in Wt^gbt, tkmin the for- 
mer. For whereas, before thf putting into t^e Water > 
tbe^we^bt ''tifilft.'!f^^fr!<FT^ %% ir/' ' 

4Uyfi. fhe^^erenee itfot , . , — i ^. 4^ 

boty m4fo\emtmfd for # vMe^ttrit ,W40' ^m 
huti^im mofo m^, tkmjjm PiA/^ jm ^; 

"* - . . ^ .* •; ,- * < • • )> 

V - -. . ^ ^ . . „ • ' , - .> 


I > 

I t 

r • • . , . o 



13* rheHISrORYof 

An Account of a Dog ^difleded, 

By Mr. HOOK. 

INVrofecUtiimoffinnelnqMrUsintotl^Natu^ rf 
-^Rejpiration in fever al Animals s 4fDog was diffeSted^ 
and by pieans of a Tair df Bellows, and a certain Vipe 
thtiift into the Wind-pife of the Creature^ the Heart 
continued beating for a very long while ufttr all the 
Thordx and BeUy had been opertdy nay "(^er the Dia- 
phragm had been InTreai^art cut awaf, and the 
Pcricatdiurti renwifdfrom the Heart. Arid iromfe- 
^erdTrialsmade^ it feentdvery probable^ that this 
Moti&n might have been continued, as long abnofi as 
there wJmy Biood left within the V^els if the' 
7)og ; for the Motion of the Heart feekidverj little 
€han^dy after above an Houfs time from the frft 
difplajing the Thorax % though we founds that upon 
removing the Bellows^ the Lungs would freymt- 
I J grow flaccid^ and the Heart begin to have 
convulfive Motions 5 but upon removing the Motion 
of the BelhwSy the Heart recovefd its former Mo- 
tion^ and the Convuljions ceafed. Though I made € 
lAgztmcupon all the great Vtjfels that went into the 
lower Tarts of its Bodjy I could not find any Altera- 
tioninthe Tidfevf the\Heart ^ the Circulation, it 
feemsy being perfomidfome other Way. I cou^dnot 
perceive any thing diftrndtly, whether the Air did «- 
nite and mix with the Bloody nor did in the leaft per- 
ceive the Heart to fwellupon the Extenfion of the 
JjungSi nor did the Lungs feem to Jwell upon the 
-Qmtr/^ion of the Heart* 



ROTA L S C I ETT. 153 


of the Elccoiling icf 


By tht Lord BROUNCKE ft. 

WHm twos comffidfukdfy this Society, to fmd^ fig^ ti 
fime Experiments of the Recoiling of Guns : 
In order to the dsfcoverv of the caufe thereof I caufed 
this Engine that lies here before you to be prepared, 
and with it ^ajjifled bj fome of the mo ft eminent of 
this Society) / had divers fhots made m the Court of 
this(2olledge, near the length thereof from the mark^ 
with a fuu charge (about a fourpenny weight) of 
Vowder % But without any other fuccefsy then that 
there was nothing Regular in that way^ which was 
by laying it i^on a heavy Table, unto which it was 
fometimesfaflned with Screws at all the four places 
R, L> V^l&y fimetimes only atKorL, haruing wheels 
affixed at L and V or K, andU, that it might the 
more eafily recoik 

This uncertainty I did then cancerve might arife 
from^ one or more^ ofthefe three caufes, viz. 

I . The violent tremblis^ mationofthe Gun, whence 
the Bidkt'fm^t cafuaUy receive fome literdiu^fi 
from the nofe of the peece at the parting from it 4 

^* The yieUin£ of the Table which was fenfible. 

%. The difficutty of aiunng well by the Sight and 
Button Jif far fromthe Markk 

^ G g Therefore 

234 The H I ST R Y of the 

Therefore to avoid all thefe^ the Experiments I 
caused to be made before you in the GaUerj ff this 
CoUedgey you may be pleafed to remember wer£ fer^ 
formedy firjlj taking only eight grains of fowder for 
the charge. Secondly y laying the Engine upon the 
floor y an4 thirdly y aiming by a thread at My a mark 
about an Inch and \ from the mouth of, the Gun (the 
edge of a knife being put for the mark the better to 
difcern the line that was fhot in} and they thus j^- 

When the peece wasfajlned to the floor both at B. 
and L the BuUet then didfo fully hii^ the marky that 
it was divided by it into two parts ^ whofe difference 
in weight was lefs than ten grains (about the thirty 
third part of the whole Bullet) although the lejfer 
part was a little hollow y and that from which the 
neck of head was a little too clofe pared off: But 
when kindred from Recoiling only at R, the Bullet 
miji the mark towards L or A, for the whole BuUety 
lefs than two grains exceptedy went on that fide : 
And in like manner when hindred from Recoilifig at 
L, the Bullet mift the mark towards R or ^ythembole 
Bullet y kfs than two grains exceptedy pafflng the 
knife on that fide there^. 

I had the honour to make other Experiments with 
the fame EnginCy lately at White-Hall befare hir 
Majejfy and his Highnefs Royal within the Tilt-yard 
Gallery y where there is the hearth of a chimny raifed 
a little above the floor y. about the dtftance of thirteen 
feet from the oppoftte wally againft which t caufid a 
plank to be placed, and the Engine to be laid frfi 
againft the middle of the Hearthy that it might net 
recoil at ally and that part of the board to be marked 
againfl which 'twas levelled^ known by a lineftretch- 






W from the Breech of the Teece unto the Boardy di- - 
reEilj over the fight and button^ /ind the fire being 
^iven (the charge being but eight grains of Towder 
as before) the Bullet did fully hit the mark. Secondly^ 
the Teece (charged and levelled in the fame manner^ 
. was laid at the end of the Hearth next the Tark^ fo 
that very little of the corner ^refled againfl it^ and 
then the Bullet nnjyd the mark about an inch and a 
quarter towards the Tark or A. The Itke being done 
at the other end of the H earthy the Bullet then 
• mifs^d the mark as much the other way 5 and after- 
wards with double that charge fomething more^ as 
before I had found it lefs with a fmaller charge. 

Since this {atfirfi defigning only to experiment the 
fever al difiances that the Bullet is carried wide of 
the mark with different charges of Towder) I made 
thefe Experiments following. 

In the firfi Colume whereof you have the corner 
ft opt from recoiling. 

In the fecond the grains of Towder with which 
the Teece was charged. 

In the third the diftance the Bullet was fhot wide 
from the mark in inches ^ tenths y and parts of tenths. 

In the fourth the fide on which the Bullet was 

In the kft the diflance of the mark from the muz- 
^kof the Guniii feet. 

G g 2 B 


.The H I S TO RT of the 

then nrnj^ the Axis of that^ Cylntder pt which fhe 
Hullet moves crofs the Axis of the marky beyond 
which interjection the mark being placed^ the BuUet 
muji be carried nectar ily wide of the mark m the 
contrary ftde to the recoil of the^eece^ 

Fig. a- £f^ad=a. - 

and therefore a b=r-*- 

* Therefore a b; ad*::' r— , 
^ :x^*a :^ j# x (x 

Awij^ My given quan- 
fVberef&re a«x r-'x ^ : 



f ck*:=:f Ip^phm 
?? the Angle of Recml 
p h tithe Angle ^Reflexi- 
on made at the furting of 
the, Bullet from thefeect. 
ff^^n^hn >phm(inh 
being always tarallel to 
f g) then mu/th n enter^ 
fell f g if continued. 

1 « 

and X V ; x»a' :— x r 

Therefore x' r* x* a* x r*... 


therefore 2 x r a — x' | ! 
a' 4 a\ c 
. therefore !I! ;= a 

X* + I 

^uod&c. V 

» ■ 

• 4$(«i«i? ^r^^r Experiments IJjave atfo viade with 
mother Teece {about the fame, length, but of abort 
fUeer tisJo tent hi df an inch left) and ordered in the 
fame manner y and do find, that with a fnbU thdrge 
the bullet is fiot if hence tbo) wide' of the mark on 
the fame'fide on which the Recoil is ma^e, li^witi 
d fidl char^ w^ the contrary fide. ' ' 


ROYAL SO c rk tr. 

• / cmpd hefuies twotiftol battels of dbout five 
inches fang tb be placed upon Cattiages with four 
WhetlSy and loaded with teadj that thfy might not 
overturn when difchatgedy and both ofemal weighty^ 
and an Iton Cyiitidct ofthelength of both theit botes; 
arid (^ the fame diameter with a piece of Lead of 
weight equal to it. So that the piece of Lead affixed 
to either of thefi Guns {which of them I jhouM pleafe 
to charge) might equally foife the other with the 
Iron Cylinder. And thus indifferently charging ei- » 
therwith eight grams mote or lefs of Powder ^ and • 
putting theLfon Cylinder home into bothy the piece 
of Lead beir^ affixed to that^which^ldthe.Tow- 
dcTy and then both fi Jet upon the foot and the P 
der firedyJ could mt therebjt. difiover, that theo 
chargedVeecey at the other y est her of tbewy did cer-^ 
toMy recoil more or left than the other, tkiy rather 
feemed ^ to be equal. 

Theje few Experiments I have made ^^Oy the 
Barrel being firft cut at the muzzle y parallel to. a 
vertical pm paffhig the line CD. I . . 


Fig. 3. 





b. 8 
O. 9 
O. I 
O. 2 

o. 6 




48 1 1. 2|t 

48 jo. ilL 
481 0-3 L 

• \ 

■ ■ ■ m ' 


;. -I . 

• r *. 


140 rheHJSTORTofthe 

Befides thcfc, dierc id another that I (hall mentioji^' 
aad that is the Experiment it felf, or the Double- 
Bottom'd Ship, invented by Sir WiUiam ?ettj : of 
thisi will venture to add a few Words, and I think I 
n^ay do it, without tranfgrcifing that Rule 1 had fix'd 
to n:iy felf, of not enlarging on the praife of particu* 
lar Names> or Deitgns. For fince the Experiment it 
felf is 1<^, I hope I may (ecurely ipcak of its advan^^ 
tage3 : feeing Men are wont out of coQunon huniani- allow tbe commendations of dead Men, I truft I 
may commend i-wreck^ Sh^y without any fear of 
the^etrvy that may thence ari& to the JMhor. In brief 
therefore I will fay this of it, that it was the moft con« 
ftderaUe Expetimenty.^^ has been made in this Age 
oi^Experimeffis : \f ^cither we regard the great cha^ 
\ of the Work,, orthc wonderful change it ,wa& liteiy to 

m$kc.mJ^Lw^gatwry 'or die grdit fucce&,.to which 
this firft Attef9^t was arriv'd. Tho' it was at firft con- 
ifionted with the doubts^ andObjedions of moft Sea- 
men.of.ooi Nafioni yet it (ban confuted them hf 
Experience. It appitarCd very riiuch to excel all.otho: 
forms of SbipSy in fay ling, in carriage, in fecurity and 
many other fuch b^oefiisl Its firil Voyage it performed 
with admirable fwiftnefs. And tho' it mifoarricd af« 
tcr its return, yet it was dtfflroycd by a common fate, 
and by fuch a dreadful tempefiy as overwhelmed a great 
Fleet the fame Night : fo tha^ithc Antient Fabricks 
of Ships have no reafon to triumph over that newA/^« 
dely when of thrccfcore and ten Sail that were in the 
fame Storm^ there was not one efcap'd to bring the 


In a word, though this Invention (iicceeded not, 
while it was only fupportcd by private Purfes 5 it will 
undoubtedly produce great efFeds, if ever it (hall 


nX)YAL S C I E TT. 141 

be rctxicv'cl upon thcjfVsMick Stock of a Nation : which 
will be aUe to.fuftain die fitft hazards, and lofles that 
muft be aliow'd to happen in the b^innings of all ex- 
traordinary Trials. 

Tothdr Experitnents I will fubjoin their Obferva- §, XXXIV. 
timsy which differ but in name from the other, the Their CHffer- 
fame fidelity and truth, being regarded in colleding vatims. 
them both. 

Qbfervations oithcfio^d Stars for the pcrfeding of 
Aftrmomyy by the help oiTelefcopes : of the Comets 
in 1 66 5 ,and 1 666. which were made both in London^ 
and elfewhere $ and particularly of the firft Cornet^ for 
above a month after, it difappear'd to the naked eye, 
and became Stationary, and Retrograde. 

Obfirvations about Saturn^ of the proportion, and 
pofttion of its Rivgy of the motion and Orbit of its 
Lunale^ of the fliadow of the Ring on the Body^ and 
of the Body on the Ring 5 and of its Vhafes^ &c. of 
Jupiter s mltSy and of its fpots, and vcrticity about 
its Axis^ of its eclipfing its Satellites y and being eclips'd 
by them i of the Oibsj Inclinations, Motions, c^r. 
o{x!tic Satellites y together with Zil^^'J', zsxiXEpheme^ 
rides of their motions. 

Qbfervations of the Spots, about the Body of MarSy 
and of its whirling motion about its Center : of fe- 
v^ral Eclipfesof the SuUy and Moon^ and fome of them 
as were not taken notice of, by AJironomers^y or Ta • 
bles conunonly us'd : of the Spots in the Moony and 
of the fevcral appearances in the Phafcs of it : of the 
Motm at the fame time, by Correfpondents in fcveral 
parts of the World, towards the finding her Parallax, 
and difiance. 

Qbfervations of the Eliptical and waved Figures 

H h of 


14^ 7ht t^ r^rO R Tof the 

of the TtmettiryyB$4kSf near the Hmizm from the 
afm&ion of the Hemfphere : of the effeds of Light- 
ning : of the various {^iffiiire of the jitfMjpberey by a 
Wheel'barometer for fevcral, years, and of its ufeful* 
ncG for prcdidting the changes of Weather. 

Obfervations on frozen Beer : on the Pigoces of. 
Smw^ frotcn Water ^ Urine congeal'd : on the fu(pen- 
fk>n of Mercury at a great height : on Mriies and M- 
nerals : on the Concretions of PTood, TIantSy Shells y.^ 
and fevcral Animals Subftances : on the effeds of. 
Earthquakes, Fiery Eruptions, and Inundations : oft. 
Lakes, Mountains, Damps, fubterraneous Fires : on. 
Tides, Currents, and the Depth of the Sea. 

Objervations of the liming oi Ground y for improve- 
ment of the Bodies of Sheepy but fpoiling their Wool : 
of fevcral ways for preventing fmutty C^rw : of the 
importance of changing SeedCarn: rfthealtciaticm 
of the Horns of Sheep y ?nd XAhctCattely by the change 
of Pafture : of the Pores and Valves in Wood : the 
Anatomy of Trees : of the fenfitive, and humbic 

Obfervations on tht BUls of Mortality : cm the 
leaves of Sage : oh fmall living FUes in the Powder of 
Cmtharides: of Infeds bred in ^ew: of Firgmian 
Silk-Bottoms: of the Parts, and Anatomy of F//&f^ : 
of the Teeth of Lupus Marinus, that they are the fame 
thing with the Toadftones fct in tUngs : of the Rc- 
ipiration of Fijhes : of Bemacles : of the calcin'd 
Powder of Toads : of an OutlaiKiifli ^eer-J^tWy and 
Hair : of the Parts of Vipers : of Stones t^cn out of 
the Heart of a Man : of young Pipers : that they do 
not cat holes through their old ones Bellies, as is com- 
monly affirm'd. 

Iptj Examples of .this Head, I will only refer my 


R OTAl. S C I E rr. t43 

Reader to thofe which Mr. Qraunt has publifli'd on 
thcBills ofMmtality \ wherein the Author has fhewn> 
that the meaneft and mod: trivial Matters may be fb 
cultivated, as to bear excellent Fruity when they come 
under the Managment of an accurate, and prudent 
Ohferver : For, from thofc VaperSy which went a- 
boutfo many years, through every Tradefinans hands, 
without any manner of Profit, except only to the 
Clerks that collected them, he has deduc'd many 
true ConcluJtons, concerning the graveft, and moft 
weighty Parts otCivii GovemmtTttj and humane No- 

As I am now parting away ftcxathtix Experiments^ $. XXXV. 
and ObfervatimSy which have been their proper, imd AnObjeBkn 
principal work : there comes before me an Objeiiiony ^^/^'^'^^ 
which is the more to be regarded, becaufo it is raised J^^^'"^^^^^ 
by the Experiments tliemfelves. For it is their com- taintTofEy:- 
mon complaint, that there is a great nicety y and con- periments. 
tingencyy in the making of maiiy Experiments : that 
their fucceis is very often Variidus, and inconfiant, 
not only in the bands -of diferenty bat even o£ the 
fame Triers. From hence they fuggeft their fcar^, 
that tliis continuance of Experimenters y of which we 
talk fojnuch, will not prove fo advantageous, though 
they fliall be all equally cautious in obfirving^ and 
faithful in recording their ^ifiofveries : becaufc it is 
probable, that the Trials of Future Ages will not a- 
gree with thofc of the prcfent, but frequently thwart, 
and contradift them. 

The Ob/eifion is ftrong, and material : and I am fo 
far from climinifliing the weight of it, that I am ra- * 
ther willing to add more to it. I confefe many Expe^ 
rimfnts are obnoxious to failing ^ cither by rcalbn of 

H h 2 feme 

1,44 The H I ST RT of the 

temt circumfianceSy which are fcarce difccrnablc, 'till 
the work be over : or from the divcrfity of Materia 
alsy whereof fome may be genuine^ fome fophijiicatedy 
iomcjimpiey fome mi»fdy fome jrejh^ fome may have 
loft their virtue. And this is chiefly remarkable, in 
Chymcal Operations ^ wherein if the diflolvents be iil« 
prepared, if the Spirits be too much, or too little puri- 
fy 'd, if there be the leaft alteration, in the degrees of 
hire J the quantity of il/^r^^T, or by the negligence of 
thofe that attend it, die whole courie will be over- 
tlirown, or changed from its firfr purpofe. 

But what is now to be concluded from hence >: 
Ihall this inft ability y and Cajualty of Experiments ^ de- 
ter us from labouring in them at all > or fhould it not 
rather excite us to be more curious and watchful in; 
their procefs ? It is to be allow Vi that fuch underta- 
kings are wonderfully hazardous and difficult ; why 
clfe does the Royal Society indeavour to preferve them 
from degenerating, by fo many fegrewarningSj and 
Rules y and a Method fofeverc> It is granted^ that\ 
their ^t;^fff is.ofteQ uncert^uiQj and not anfwerable to- 
our expedations. But that only ought to admonUh 
q3> of the indtfpenfiblc neceflity of a jealous, and 
exad Inquiry^ If the uncertainty proceeded from a 
conAant irregul^ity of Nature y we had reafon then to 
defpair : but feeing it for the moft p^ arifes only 
from fome defcA or change in our progreis, wc fhould. 
thence, learn^ firft to corrcd our own miifcaniages, 
bpfore we ceafe to hope for the fuccejs. 

Let then the Experiment be often renewU If the, 
fame kinds and proportions of JiK^^r^'^/fitfx be us'd, and 
the fame circumftances be pundually obfervM, the 
effelf without all queftion will be the fame. If fome 
little. varwtion of any of thefe, has made any altera-. 


ROTA L S C I k T T. 24; 

rion, a judicious, and well praftis'd Trier will foon be 
able to difcern the r^/^ of it ; and to reftific it, up- 
on the next repetition. If the diiFerencc of time^ or 
placey or mattery ozInftrumentSy will notfufFer the 
product to be juft the fame in all points: yet (ome- 
thing elfe will refult, that may prove perhaps as be- 
neficial. If we cannot always arrive at the main 
end of our LabaurSy fome lefs unfbught Curiojities 
will arife. If we cannot obtain that which fhall be 
ufefiil for prafticc, there may fomething appear that 
may ihflrud. 

It is ftranger that we are not able to inculcate into fl i a. i l Q p 
the minds of many men, the ncceffity of that diftin" 
£lion of my Lord Bacon% that there ought to be Ex- 
pertinents of Light y as well as of Fruit. It is their ufu- 
al word. What falid goodwill come from thence ? They 
are indeed to be commended for being fo fevere Ex- 
aStors of goodt^fs. And it were to be wifh'd, that 
they would hot only exercife this v igour, about Ex^ r ; Q r v / 
perimentSy but on their own lives y^ zndaiHons : that 
they would ftill queflion with th^mfelves, in all that 
theydoi whaty&//^^^^</wiUcomcfrom thence? But 
they are to laiow> that in fo large, and fo various an 
jirt as this of Eftf^&iments^ there are many degrees of 
ufefulnefs : fbme may ferve for real, and plain bene- 
jity without much delight : fbme for teaching without 
z^zxcx\t profit : fome for light now, and for i^ here- 
after; lbn>e only for ^i^^^^vf 9 and^cmiofity. If they 
will perfift in contemning all ExperimentSy oxcept 
thofe which bring with them imnriediate gaiuy and a 
i^cknt harvejl : they may as well cavil at the Provi- 
dence of God, that he has not made all thefeafbns 
of the year, to be times oi mowingy reapingy and 

1^6 7^ ff J S Tp RT of the 

§. XXXVI* Of the variety, and excellence of the tnfiruments^ 
*the /#■«- with which this Age abounds, for their help in y^i/i?- 
ments they ji,jff;fi^al matters, 1 have aheady difcourfed in the for- 
have tnven- ^^j, p^^^^ j ^^ ^^^ ^^ on to mention thofe new 

ones, which they thcmfelvcs, or fome of their Mem- 
bers, have either /9i<(;^ff^^^, qiaJvancd^ fortheeaie, 
ftrcngth, and diredion of their iSV^/^j, in the lAotioiis 
of Mature J and Art : of this kind are thefe that fol- 

An Injlrument for finding a fecond of Time by 
the Sun : another foe findii^ the Celeftial ELe&afiti- 

Three fcveral Quadrants made after three new 
contrivances, which thoi^h they are not above c|gh* 
teen. Indies in Diameter, and to are manageable in 
any Window, or Turcet^ arc yet farnKKe exa^, than 
the bcft, that bwe been hitherto us'd, for AfironB^ 
mical Oifervathnsy or taking Angles at Land. 

A new Inftrument for taking Angles by refledionj 
by which means the Eye, at the fame tune fees the two 
Objeds, both as touching in the faxnie ppint, (hough 
diftant almoft to^.a , Sc0p(icir<flp ; wh^ch. i^,p^ g5?»t ufe 
for makihgcxaa:<?^j(2ri4f/WW at Sea, ' 

A n»evr kind of Back^ajfix^i takit^cbe Sun's Alti- 
tiftde by the Shadowy and Horizon ; which i/» fi> eon- 
trjtv'd, thatthoiigh the .Shado>^:.bc at .thr^^e fpQt di- 
ibii^e^ or ,at much mow as is ddufd^ y^t th^jc fhaU 
Bot:bc thplcaft y^ifitert&w; dnd the Shadoxr m^ybe 
eafiiy diftingmlh'dtothc.fontthpartof a minute. 

A H^ofi of all the fiar'dStars in the ZedtM^ for the 
fpeedy finding the Pofirion of the Ecljptky and for . 
k^ifl>wing the Emot of the CwfifMms.: 

A Copernican Sfherey reprefenting the whktif^ 


ROYAL S C I E TV. 247 

Motion of the Sun> and the Motion of the ftvcral 

A ^rcat many new ways of making Inflruments^ 
for keeping time very exa^ly, both with Ten^kmSy 
and without them 5 whereby the intervals of time 
may be meafur*d both on the Land^ and Sea. . 

A univcrfal Standard^ or meafure of MagnitudeSy 
by the help of a Pendulum, never before attempt- 

A new kind Of ^eridulum Clocky wherein the Ven- 
dulum moves circularly, going with the ftioftfimple, 
and natural motion, moving very equally, and ma- 
king no kind of noife. 

A Pendulum Clock (hewing the aquation of Time, 
Three new ways of Pendulums for Clocks, and fc- 
vcral ways of applying the motion of the Watch- 
work to them. 

• Several new kinds of Pendulum Watches for the 
Pocket, wherein the motion is regulated, by Springs, 
or Weights, or Loadflones, or Flies moving very 
cxaftly regular. 

Several forts of Injlruments for cpmprefling, and 
rarefying the Air : A IVheeUBarometery and other 
Injlruments for finding the prcfTure of the Air, and 
fervingto prediil the changes of the Weather. 

A new kind ot Scales, for examining the gravity of 
Bodies in all places : to fee whether the attra£fion of 
the Earth, be not greater in fome parts of the Earthy 
than in others, and whether it do not decrcafe, at 
ferther diftances firom the furface of the Earthy either 
i»ward3 into the Air, or downwards under the 

A very exad pair of Scales, for trying a great num- 
ha.ofMagnetkal Experiments. 


148 rhe HISTORY of the 

Several very accurate Beams y for trying many StA- 
ttcal Experiment Sy and for finding the moft cxad 
gravity of feveral kinds of Bodies. 

A great number of Magneticallnftruments^ for ma- 
king Experiments about Loadjiones. 

Several new kinds of Levels for finding the tme 
Horizon, where, by one of not above a foot length, 
the Horizontal line may be found, without the error 
of many fcconds. 

A new kind of Augar for boring the ground, and 
fetching, up whatever it meets with in the right or- 

A new Injtrument for fetching up any Subftancc 
from the bottom of the Sea, whether Sand, Shells, 
Clay, Stones, Minerals, Metals. 

A new EuciftSox eicamining and fetching up what- 
ever Water is to be found at the bottom of the Sea, 
or at any depth, and for bringing it up without 
mixing with the other Water of the Sea^ through 
which it paflcs. 

Two new ways of founding the depth of the Sea 
without a Line, for examining the greatcft depth of 
the Oceanj in thofe parts of it, that are moft remote 
from the Land. 

Several Inftruments for finding the velocity of 
fwimming Bodies of feveral Figures, and mov'd with 
divers ftrengths, and for trying what Figures are'lcaft 
apt to be overturn'd, in order to the making a true 
Theory y of the Forms of Bhips^ and Boats for all • 

An Inftrument of great height, with Glaft windows 
on the fides, to be fiU'd with Water, for examining the 
velocity of Bodies of feveral Subftances, Figures and 
Magnitudes, by their defcent. 



An Injtrwnent for meafuring, and dividing the time 
of their Dcicent, to the acciiratcnefs of two, or three 
thirds of time, ferving alfo for examining the fwift- 
nefe of Bodies defccnding through the Air, and of 
Bodies fhot by a Gun, or B<>w. 

A Bell for diving under water to a great depth, 
wherein a man has continued at a confiderabie depth 
under water, for half an hour, witiiout the leaft in- 

AnothttlnJlrummtfoTZ^yery wherein he -may 
continue long under water, and may wilk to and fro, 
and make ufe of his ftrength and limbs, almoft as 
freely as in the Air. 

A new fort of SpeBacleSy whereby a ^iver may 
fee any thing diftinftly under Water. 

A new way of conveighing the Air under Wa- 
ter, to any Depth, for the ufe of Trivets. 

An Inftrument for meafuring the fwiftneft, ^nd 
ftrength of the Wind. 

An Inftrument for railing a continual Aream of 
Pf^ater, by turning round a moveable valve, within 
the hollow of a dofe Cj^limlrical Bond. 

Several kinds of Thermometers for difcovering the 
heat, and cold of the Air ^ or any other Liquors: a 
Thermometer for examining all the degrees of heat in 
Flames, and Fires, made of feveralSubftancesj as al- 
fo the degrees of heat requifite to melt Soder, Lead, 
Tin, Silver, Brafs, Ir6n, Copper, Gold. 
A Standard for Cold feveral ways. 
An Inftrument for planting of Corn, 
Four feveral forts oi Hjgrofcopes made with feveral 
Subftances, for difcovering the drowth, and moifture 
of the Air. 

Several kinds of ways to examine the goodnefs, and 
badncfs of Waters. I i Sc- 


ijo ne HISTORYofthe 

ScvctH Efi^ines for finding, and determining^ the 
force of Gun-fowdefy by Weights^ Springs, Slid- 
ing, &c.. 

An Inftru$nent for receiving, and prefcrving the 
force of Gun-powder^ fo as tx) make it applicable, for 
the performing of any motion defir'd. 

Several Injiruments for examining the recoiling, 
true carriage, and divers other proporties of 

Several; kinds of Otoamfticons ^ or Injiruments to 
improve the fenfe of hearing. 

Several Models c^ Chariots^ and otlier Injiruments^ 
for Progrcflivc Motion. 

A Chariot-way 'Wifery meafuring exadly the length 
of the way of the Chariot y or Coach to which it is 

An Injlrument for making Screws with great di- 

A way of prcferving the moft exaft impreifion of 
zSealy Meddy Sculpture \ and that ki a Metal harder 
than Silver. 

An Inftrumnt for grinding Optick-glaffes : a dou-^ 
ble Tele f cope : (evcral excellent Tele f copes ef. divers 
lengths of fix, twelve, twenty eight, thirty fix, fixty 
foot long, with a convenient -^^i?r/a;^itf for the man- 
aging of them : and fevcral contrivances in them for 
ijieal'iiring the Diameters, and parts of the Vianet Sy 
and for finding the true pofition, and diftance of the 
finall fix'd StarSy and Satellites. 

Towards the exa£tne(s of ail manner of thefe Of- 
tickrghffesy the BngUfii have got a great advantage of 
lite years, \!f the Art q^ qiaking Giafsy fiper, and more 
ferviceable iotMicrofcopeSy and TelefcopeSy than that of 

Wtnice^ Xhit Invention was. brought into our Conn- 

try, and pradis'd here, by the care, and expeiidc of th"c 
Duke of Buckingham 5 whom the Author of. thcit 
Papers ought to mention with all honour 5 both for 
his Skill and Zeal in advaridng ^xm^ Experimental 
Studies of which I am writing : and alfo becaufe It 
has been by the favour of fo great a fatrony that I 
have injoy'd the leifiurc^ and convenience of com- 
pofing this Hijiory. 

As fbon as they were reduc d into a Fix*d AJJemblj^ %. XXXVII- 
one of the Principal Intentions they proposed to ac- T'heir Repo- 
complifli, was aGeneral Colleftion of all the EfFeds/^^r)' '^«^ 
of ^r/J,and the Common,orMonftrous fTorks of NiU ^^^^U' 
ture. This tliey at firft began by the cafual frefentSy 
which either Str anger Sy or any of their own Members 
bpftow'd upon them. And in fhort time it has in- 
creased (b faft, by a contribution from all Parts, and 
chiefly by the bounty of Mr. Colwaly that they have 
already drawn together into one Room, thegreateft 
part of all the fevcral kinds of things, that are fcat- 
ter'd throughout the Univerfe. The Keeping, 
and Ranging of thefe into order, is committed to 
Mr. Hook, who had alfo the honour of being made 
the firft Curator of the Royat Society by cledion. 
This Repojitory he has begun to reduce under its fe- 
veral heads, according to the exad Method of the 
Ranks of all the Species of Naturey which has beeft 
composed by Dr. WilkinSy and will fhortly be pub- 
lifh'd in his Univerfal Language : A Work wherein 
this excellent Man has undertaken a Defign, that 
very well fits the temper of his own Mind j for it 
well became him to teach a Communion of Speech a- 
mongft all Vhilofophers j whofc chief ftudy it has al- 
ways been^ to promote a general agreement, and 

I i 2 cor* 

Ml the H LS TO (LT pfthe 

.corcefpondcncc 9mong(l all virtuous and wHe 

This Book had fooncr fccn the light, if part of it 
had not pcti(h*d in the Fire. Of its ufc and accurate 
compofition there is no man can doubt, that has e\'cr 
heard the name of the Author : of whom, if I had not 
at firft reftrain'd my felffrom particular commendati- 
ons, I might have faid very much in his prailc, which 
defervcs to be known to ail the World, and to be the 
firft Experiment of his own Univerfal Language. 

ThirLitra^ Having well facceeded in this their purpofe of co/- 
r;. /effing divers patterns of all Natural, and Artijicial 

things : they have alfo (amongft others) appointed 
a Committee, whofe chief employment ftlsil be to read 
over whatever Books have been written on fuch fiibr 
;e£ts« By this means they hope (peedily to obferve, 
and digefl into Manuscript volumes, all that has been 
hitherto try'd, or propounded in fuch ftudics. This is 
the only help that an Experimenter can receive from 
Books : which he may ftill u(e, as his Quisles, though 
not as his Mafters. For this end they have begun a 
Library coufifting only of fuch Authors, as may be 
ferviceable to x!isx.t\iT^eJign. To this there has been late- 
ly made a great Addition, by the Munificent Gift of 
Mr. Henry Howard oi Norfolk, who has bcftow'd on 
the Society the whole Arundelian Library, containing 
fcveral hundreds of choice Manufcripts, bcfidcsfomc 
thoufands of other Books of all kinds. And bccaufc 
niany of them belong'd to other Trofsffions, this No- 
ble Benefactor has given them with a f ree pcrmiffion 
of changing them for others, that flialtbe more pro- 
per for their IVork: Whereby they wiH: fhortly be 
able to (hew a Qom^lcztCclleffion of all that has been 


ROYAL S C I E TT. 253 

publiftiM in the Ancient, or Modern Tongues^ which 
cither regards the produdions of Nature ^ or the ef- 
fects of all Matmal Arts. 

Nor is this the only bounty which this lUuftrious 
Verfon has conferr'd on the Royal Society j fince by 
the firing of London^ the firft place of their meeting 
has been refiored to its original ufe, and made an Ex- 
change ^ he has afforded them a retreat in his own 
houfe, where they aflcmble at this prefent : By which 
favour he has added a new honour to the antient No- 
bility of his Race : one of his Anceftors had before 
adorn'd that place with many of the beft Monu- 
ments of Antiquity : and now by entertaining thefe 
new difcoveries under his Roof, his Family deferves 
the double Praifc of having cherilh'd both the old, , 
and new Learning ; (b that now methinks in Arundel 
houfe, there is a perfed reprefcntation, what the real 
V'htlojophy ouglit to be : As there wc behold new In- 
ventions to flourifh amongft the Marbles y and Images ■ 
of the ^ead : fo tlie prefent ^rtSy that arc now ri- 
iing, Ihould not aim at the deftrudion of thofe that,: 
ajce paft, but be content to tlirive in their company. 

It will not I hope be expeded, that I fhould prefent Sed: 
my Reader an Index of oil the feveral IVritingSy which XXXVIII. 
have at sny time been publifti'd by the Members of the ^^ -^ 
Riyal Society. I fliail omit thofe,. which cither were fT^f /^ 
printed before the beginning of this Inftitution^^ot 
which treat of matters, that have no relation ta their 
^ejtgn. . Only I will fay in general, that there is fcarcc 
any Arty ot Argument y which has ever been the fub- 
j cd of humane fflty of which I might not produce In-, 
fiances, that fome Fellows of this Society have given 
good proofs of their, labours in it ; of thofe .©//^wr- 

1^4 TheHISrORYof the 

fesy which have been fmcc composed by fomc of their 
Bodyy or read before their weekly AffemblieSy and di- 
redly concern the advancement of their Worky thefe 
are the principal. 

Several Hypothefes explaining the divers Chafes 
and Motions y and other Thanomena of the Comets. 

Several Hypothefes of SaturUy and its Satellites. 

An Hypothefis of the caufc of the Rugofitj of the 
Moons furfacc. 

An /^/^/^^:r of the motion of the Moon, and of 
the Sea depending upon it. 

An Hypothefis of the motion of the Vianet s^ and 
of Circular Motion in general. 

Several Hypothefes for the c^quation of Time. 

A T>ifcourJe about the poffibility of the Retardati- 
on of Cdeleftial Motions^ and of their going flower, 
and flower, the longer they laft. 

A T)ifcourfe of making the fcvcral Vibrations of a 
Vendtdum £qualy by making the weight of it move in 
a Cycloid inftead of a Circle. 

Several T)ifcourfes ^znA Hypothefes about the length 
of a Pendulum^ for moving once in a fccond of Time, 

A Difcourfe of the moft convenient length of a ten^ 
dulumy for making a Standard for a univerfal Meafure. 

Several Aftronomical ^ifcourfes of Mr, Hortex 
rctriv*d, and digcfted for the Prcfs. 

Uteg Beg tranflated, about the places of the fix'd 
Stars, and Icveral other Aftronomic^ Obfervations. 

A "Difcourfe about Jthte poflibilify of the change of 
the attractive power of the Earthy and confequently 
of the variation of the vibrative motion of Pendu- 

A T)ifcourre about fliort inclining fendukmSy and 
of other Pendulums counterpoised above the Center of 



M^tiony and of others lying Horizontal m the manner 
of a Beam. 

An Hjpothefis ^Sxmt Firey ^^d Flame. 

An ajpothefisy and difcourfc of the gravity, pref- 
fiire, and fpring of the Air. 

A ^ifcaurfe of an Air Regifler. 

Several T^ifcourfes Mathematical, and Philofbphi* 
cal, upon the Experiment of raifing great weights 
by the Breath. 

A ^ifcaurfe and Demonftration againft a proposed. 
Method of doubling the Cubey and of finding two 
mean Proportionals. 

Several ^ifcourfes about ThermometerSy Hygro- 
fcopesy BarofcopeSy and other Weather-wifers. 

An Hypothejis and T)ifcourfe of the InfleSfion and 
inflcftive veins of the Airy and of the fitnefi, and un- 
fitnefs of the Air ft» Cakftial Obfervations. 

An Hypothejis of the Form, and Spring of the Air. 

A T)ijcourfe of the different parts of the fame War 
ter, and of the diflFerence of Waters. 

A ^ifcourfe and Hypothecs of Filtration, and of 
the Congruity, and Incongraity of Bodies. 

A ^tfcourfe of the poflible height of the Airy and: 
of its proportionable rarcfadion upwards. 

An Hypothetical ^ifcourfe about the fu(pcnfior\ ' 
of the Clouds, and their prelTure. 

An HypothefiSy and T^ifcourfe of Earthquakes. 

A ^ijcourfe of Petrifadiions, and an Hypothejis 
for explaining the fcvcral varieties of fuch Bodies. 

Several T^ifcourfes about the Loadjione^ and an Hy- 
fothejis for falving its appearances. 

A Difcourfe about the Pores of Stones. 

A T)ifcourJe about Eggs. 

hSDifcourfe concerning the Glafi^ drops. . 

ijt$ The H I STO RY of the 

A Difc&urfe and Hy/>ofheJts of znnci\m%^ and tcni- 
pcring Steel. 

^ifcourfes about Cyder, and Coffee. 

A ^ifcaurfe of the original of Fornns. 

An Hypothejis of Light, 

hDifcourfe and Hypothecs of the Nature and Pro- 
prieties of Colours. 

A T^ifcourfe about improving Wood for Dying, 
and for fixing Colours. 

A T^ifcourfe about the improvement of Mufick. 

A ^ifcQurfe of the differing Heat of Summer, 
arid Winter. 

A IDifcourfe^ and Hypothejis about Fluidity. 

T>ifcourfes upon feveral Mercurial Experiments. 

Difcourfes of Hydrojiaticks. 

Dtfcourfes about the force of falling Bodies. 

'A Treatife of -diemotion of the Mufcles. 

A Bifcourfe of the Ufefiilnefs of Experimental 

A Treattfe of the vanity of Dogmatizing. 

The Sceptical Chymift. 

EflTays about Salt-peter. 

The TaraUel of the Ancient, and Modern Archi- 

Micro fcopical Obfervations. 

Micrographiay or a ^ifcourfe of things difcover'd 
by a Micro/cope. 

Three Books of Fevers^ of the Brain, and of the 
Scurvy, which I will alledge as the great Inftances of 
this head : Wherein the £imous Author has with ac- 
curate Diligence made prodigious improvements in 
all the parts of Phyfick, and fliewn that the largenels 
of his Knowledge in it, is equal to the happy fuccefs 
* of his pra£jlice. 

R TAL SO C I E TV. ijr 

la this CoUeftim of tfacii2>/y2«^ 
my Reader beholding to many to pals under the 
name of Hypothefes^ may perhaps imagine that this 
coniifts not fo well with their Method, and with the 
main purpofe of (heir Studies^ which I have often re- 
peated to be chiefly bent upon the Operative^ rather 
flian ^cTheoreticalThilofophj. But I liope he will be 
fatisfied, if he fhall remember, that I have already re- 
mov'd this doubt, by affirming that whatever Prin- 
ciples^ and Speculations they now raife from things, 
they do not rely upon them as the abfblute end, but 
only ufe them as a means of farther Knowledge. This 
way the moft (peculativc Not ions y and Theorems that 
can be drawn from matter, may conduce to much 
profit. The light oi Science y and T>d^rines of caufes, 
may fcrve exceeding well to promote our Expert- 
menting 5 but they would rather obfcurc, than illu- 
minate the mind, if we ftiould only make them the 
perpetual Objeflks of our Contemplation : as we fee 
the light of the Sun, is moft beneficial to direft our 
footfteps in. walking, and our hands in working, 
wliich would certainly make us blind, if wc fhould 
only continue fix'd, ar^d gazing on its Beams. 

The Hijlories they have gathered, are either of Na- 5. XXXIX. 
turCy ArtSy or Works. Thefc they have begun to col- the Hijio- 
led by the plaineft Method, and from the plaineftin- ries they 
formation. They have fctch'd their Intelligence from ^^^'^^ colleEl- 
the conftant and unerring u£c of experienced Men of ' 
the moft unafFedcd, and moft unartificial kinds of life. 
They have already performed much in this way, and 
more they can promife the world to accbmplifh in a 
very fhort fpace of time. 

There are already brought in to them tlxe Hijlory 

K k • - ot 

/jg*^ 'The BlSrO BT cfthe 

The la&oty of Em^JB Mines, and Oars : And par- 
ticularly two fcvcral Hifimes of Tinneriis and Tin^ 

working. ■ , t • or 

The Hipries of Irm-mahng : of Lf^num »6f- 
ftler. oi Saffron: 6iJlkermes: 6^ Verd^eace : oi 
whiting JfTax : dCcld : oi Coioars : of FUtidtt/,: 

and firmnefs. ^ ,. ^ 

The Hifiories of Refining : of making Copperas r 
of making Allum : of Slak-pcter : of making Latten r 
of Lead : of making Salt out of Sea-water : of re- 
fining Gold : of making P6t-afties : of making Ce- 
rufe : of making Brafs : of Painting, and Limning : 
of Calcography : of Enamelling: of Varnifhing : of 


The Hijlories of making Cloath : of Worftcd- 

Combers : of "Fullers : of Tanners, and Leather-ma- 
king : ot Glovers, and Leathef-dteffing : of Parch- 
ment, and VcUum-makmg, and the way of makmg. 
tranfparent Parchment : of Paper-making : of Hat- 
ters : of making Marbk Paper : of tlie Rbwling- 
Prefs. ...... . 

The Hiftories of making Bread : of Malt :oP*rcw^ 
ing Beer and Ale in feveral places : ofWhale-fifliing: 
of the Weather for feveral years : Winri-mUls,. 
and other Mills in Hottand: ofMafonry: of Pitch; 
and Tar : of Maiz : of Vintnccs : of Shbt : ' of ma-^ 
king Gun-powder : and of hiaking fomc, that is 
twenty times as ftrong as the common Fiftol-pow- 


The two laft of thefe were communicated to the 

Royal Society by the favour of yr/w^ Rupert 5 whom 
I take the boldncfs to mention here, for liis excellent 
Knowledge, and dfc in all manner of Mechanical 


ROTAL S c I Err. 

operations. But his name will be lecotdcd in aU 
the Hifior'tes of this time, for greater works, for 
many glorious Emergrifes by Sea and Land> and for 
the Immorttl Ben(4ts wfacrct^^ he has oblig'd die 
EngUjh ]!iauon. 

The Inftanccs that I ftull give of this their maimer 
of coUcfting HiftorieSy {hall be, of fVorkSy that of 
Saltpetre •, of>^r/j,that of ^yhtg } of Nature, that 
^^Oyfttts: which laft may perhaps fcon a fub)c£t too 
mean to be particularly alledg'd : but to me it appears 
worthy .to be prodgc'd. lor tho' the Britijh Oyflers 
have been famous in the World, ever Tincc this Ifland 
was difcover'd, yet the skill how to order them.a- 
right, has been fo little confidcr'd amongft out fclves, 
that we lee ;tt tliis day, it is . Confin'd to foifte. few 
:,ilan0y Crif^J of OIK. ftagfe CouQtyw ,. , , i > 

Kk2 THE 


i6o The H J STQ R T ef the 



Of the Making of 



By %jMr* H en s h a w. 

^ \X 7^^*^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ Anticnts be of the 
yy " fame (pccrcs with the Salt which 18 com.- 
' ^ moiily known by the name oiSalt-feUr, is variouf- 
*^ ly dilputcd by ^wy learned Authors amongft rhc 
^ modern Pyfitians : on the negative fide arc Ma- 
^ thiolus and BeUonius \ the latter of which had &c 
^ advantage^ by the opportunity of his travels in £^- 
^ SyP^y ^^ ^^^ often feen and h^uudled them both^ and 
is (b pofttive as to pronounce^ that in all Chriften- 
dom there is not one grain of Nitre to be founds un- 
• lefs it be brought from other parts^ although at the 
" time of his being in Gra»/C^ir^ (which was about 
" the year 1550.) it was fo common there (as he 
** fays) that ten pounds of it would not coft a 
** Moidin. Among thofe that hold the affirmative^. 
'' the moft eminent are Cardan and Longius \ and it 
«* fhould feem the general vote of learned Men hatb 
^ been mofl favourable to that Opinion, by reafon 
** that in all Latine Relations and Prefcriptions, the 
** word Nitrwn or Haltnitrum is moft commonly ul* 
^^ ed for Satt -peter ^ 


R0T4L S C I E TV. t6 

^ I havb often enquired, amongft our London 

«^ Drugflnsy for i^^ri^i^ iS^//r^, and if I had been fo 
*^ fortunate as to have found any, I doubt not but I 
^^ ihouldhave been able to have put an end to that 
^^ Queftion by a Demonftration ; that is, by turning 
<* the greateft part of it into Salt-peter. However, 
<^ the Obfervations I have made in my own private 
<^ Experiments, and in the pradice of ^i/z-^^'/^r-iswi^ 
*' and Refiners of Salt -peter y fccm to give me fuifici- 
^^ cnt ground to fuiped, that the confidence of thofc,. 
^^ who hold them to be feveral Salts, proceedetfa 
^ chiefly from their being unacquainted with the 
^' various ^tttvo^iMva of Salt-peter in the marking and 
'^ refining of it: and alfb their comparing double re- 
'' fined Salt-peter (of which Gunpowder is made) 
with that defcription of Nitrum and Aphronitrum 
in the tenth chapter of the one and thirtieth Book . 
oiFlinies Natural Hijiory (the only tolerable ac- 
compt of that Salt that hath been handed to us . 
" from Antiquity) where he tells us. That Aphroni- 
^* trwnw'^Colorepene purpurea find E^ptian Nitre 
^^ Fufium & Laptdofumy adding afterward^ Sunt ibi 
" Nitrarke in quilms rufUm exit a colore /^rr^f, which ; 
" is fufficicnt to have hinted to any one but mode- 
" rately verfcd in the modern way of ordering Salt- 
" peter ytYiTt the Anticnts were not at all skilled in re- 
^ fining their Nitre from the Earth and common Salt 
" that is ufiially mingled with it, nor from that foul 
." yellow Oyl, which, it fcems, did accompany their 
" Nitre, as well as it doth our Salt-peter^ in great 
" abundance 5 for Tliny takes notice of it, when he 
*^ mentions the removing the Nitre (after it is grain- 
^* ed)out of the Nitraria, faying, Hie quoque natut4^ 
^ iklei intervenit, adfcabiem animalium utilis : And 

' " indcci.i 







t$i The III STO Rr$f the 

*< indeed this grcafy Oyf (Which the Wctkiricncall 
Mather of Salt-peter ^ and perhaps is but utie etude 
and miripc part of it) doth by nature fo wonder- 
fully adhere to every part clfe of the ^eter (it 
may be ordained for the nutriment and ac^menta- 

*' tion of it) that the reparation of it, is the folt caufc 
of the great charge and labour that is required to 
the refining QiTeter\ otherwifc the T^ter will be 
yellow, or brown, or fome other dark colour. And 
Scaliger in his 1 04. Exercit. fe€i. 1 5 . faith, Sublu- 
Jhis purpura quaji Jhlendor quidem in faks-petra 

** t err is jApenumero eji a nobis obfervatus 5 and he 

^ that fliall boil a Lixivium paft through a Salt-peter- 
earth, up to a confiftencc, without filtring it 
through afhes, or giving the Salt leave to Chry- 

" ftallizc, may perhaps find fomething not unlike 

'* the Nitre of the Antients. 
** To make this doubt yet clearer, it will require 
your patience to obferve a few fhort remains out of 
the fame THnyy concerning the produftion oi Ni- 
tre i faith he, Exiguum Nitrijit apudMedoSyCan- 

*^ defcentibus Jiccitate convallibus quod voeant Hal- 

'' mirhaga : minus etiam in Thraciajuxta ^hUippos 
fordism Terra quod appellant Jgrium. 

This agrees very exaftly with what I have been 
imformed by a Refiner of Salt-peter^ that near 
Sophia^ Santa-CruZyZndi^ty^^ other places in^B^r- 
bary^z hath iztxaSalt -peter flioot out of the ground 
(as thick and white as a hoar firoft) on many barren 

" and dcfart Lands 5 only he adds, that this hap- 
pens not till the begining of the rains of -^iig«/?. Or 
September 5 and that it is the falling of the frcrtl- 
water that caufes the Salt -peter to fhoot out into 

'" little Chryftals i and that the people of the Coutt- 

" try 






ROTAL S C J E TT. i6i 

^ tty daric nic*c bu6 fake k ofl^ the grotmd as clean 
as they can^ and fell it to Merchant-ftrangeis. This 
ky fays he, the Batbmy Tetety which the Refiners 
buy commonly at twenty fliiUings per Cent. 

Much after the fame manner ("by die relation of 
on India Merchant) is that great quantity of Fe- 
ter produced, which of late years hath been 
brought into Et^landy and other parts oiChriften- 
danty from about Fegu in Ea/i-IndiayCaLving that the 
*' Natives do refine it once, before they fell it to the 
Merchants : But being not Co skilfiil^ to difcharge 
it from the common Salt, which attends ^eteryOut 
** Workmen do refine it again, before it be fit for 

The next remarque out of Tiinyy is, ^qua vera 
Nitrofepluribus in locis repermnturyfedfine viribur 
^enfandi (he means the heat of the Sun in thofe 
** places) Optimum Copiofumque in Cljtis Macedonia 
<^ quod vocant Chalajtricumcandidumpurumque pro- 
«• ximumfaH. Locus eft NitrvfMyexiliente e media 
^ dulci forfticukiy ibi Jit Nitrum circa CarU^ ortumy 
«' novems diebuf^totidemque ce^afy&rurfusinnatat 
<* & deinde ceffaty its autem diekts quibus gigmtur 
^ fi f^Te imbres falfius Nitrum faciunty Aquilonet 
deterius quia Falidins commavent limum^ In E- 
gypto autem conficitur multo abundantiiis fed dete- 
*^ riusy nam fufcum lapidofnmque efty jitpene eodem 
^ modo quo Sal : nifi quod SaUnis mare infundunty 
« Nilum autem Nitrariis. 

^ How fuch great plenty oi Nitre fhould be found 
** in the Waters above mentioned will be no difficulty 
** to conjefhire, if we confider that Lakes are the re- 
** ceptacles of Land floods, and that great Rains may 
^ eafily bring it to the Lake in Macedonia^ fsxxxx the 

^ higher 




i6^ ne H I STO RTof tbe 

*^ higher parts in the Country about it- Andfortfae 
^' River Nihy there muft needs be lels fcruplc con- 
" cerning it, if we call to mind that once in a year, it 
" fwceps with an impetuous overflow the burnt and 
" barren Defarts of Africa xmAtt the Torrid Zone \ 
" where by the relation of Travellers, thofe Sands 
" are vifibly ftOl oi Nitre ^ and thofe few Springs and 
« Wells that are to be found there, are by that rea- 
*' fon fo bitter, that the Mores and their Camels are 
" forced to make a hard fluft with them in their long 

" journeys. 

" But when he comes to defcribc the Afhronitrumy 
" he comes more home, both to the name and nature 
" of our Salt-peter ^w thefe ^oiAsyTroxima atas Me- 
'' dicorum tradidit, Aphronitrum in AJia Colligi in 
" fpeluncis & molibus difiillanSy deinfolejiccant. And 
Scaliger {peeking of Sa/t'petery {ays, Eftqu^dam 
Nitri fpecies inharens RupibuSy in quikus infolatury 
" ac propter eaSalpetradicitur. And, I my felf, for my 
*^ own fatisfaftion in the point, have drawn very 
good Rock-peter out of thofe Stiri^y which are 
ufually found hanging like Icycles in Arched-cel- 
lars and Vaults 5 and have been told, that a Phy- 
" fitian in Shropjhire did perform great Cures by ver- 
" tue of Sal'pruneUdy which he made only of Flower 
" of Brimftone and thofe Stiridi. 

*^ But to fteer more diredly upon our immediate 
fubjed Salt-peter 5 tho' it be likely, that the Air 
is every where full of a volatile kind of NitrCy 
which is frequently to be feen coagulated into fine 
" white Salt, like Flower of Wheat (but by the ve- 
ry taftc may be eafily known to be Peter^ flicking 
to the fides of Plaftred- walls, and in Brick-walls 
** to the Mortar between the Bricks, (in dry wea- 

" thcr, 




R TAL S C I ETT. i6j 

^ thcr, or where the wall is defended from the rain) 
** for Lime doth ftrongly attraft it 5 though Dew and 
5' Rain do conveigh much of it to the Earth, and the 
** Clouds fecm to be fpread out before the face of the 
*^ Sun either to imbibe (bmepart of his influence, or 
to have a Salt genetatcd in them, for to advance tlie 
fertility of the Eartli, and certainly they return not 
" without a bleflingi for I have more than once cx- 
" traded Salt-peter out of Rain and Dew, but from 
.*^the latter more plentifully, and yet even there, is 
^^ Salt-peter accompanied with a greazy purple Oyl, 
<^ in great plenty : Though (as I have fpund upon 
^^tryal) that moft (landing waters, and even deep 
*^ Wells have fome fmall quantity of Salt-peter in 
'^ them 5 though the face of the Earth, if it were not 
*' impregnated- widi this Salf, could not produce Ve- 
<< gctables 5 for Salt (as ih? Lord Bacoth lays) is the 
^^ firft Rudiment of Life ; and Ritre is as it were the 
^^ Life of Vegetables : Yet to be more fure of it, I 
<* made Experiment likewife there too, and found 
'^ fome little of it in fallows, and the Earth which 
** Moles cafl: up in the Spring : Though I fay the Air 
^' and Water want it not, yet it is not 'there to be had 
•' in any proportion, anfwerable to the charge in get- 
*' ting it : And though the Earth muft neccflarily have 
5' great quantities thereof, generated or infuled into 
it-; yet in thefc temperate Countreys of Europe ^ 
it is no foonec dilated by Rain-water, or the JVloi- 
*' fture of the Earth, but it is immediately applyed 
" to the produftion or nutriment of fome Plant, In- 
?*fea. Stone, or Mineral 5 to that the Artift will find 
^' as little of it here to Jferyc his turn, as in the other 
f^twoJEkments. ; 

" The only place therefore, where Salf^pj^ter is to 

LI" <^be 



%66 TheMISrORY of the 

^' be found in thcfe Northern Countries, is in Stables, 
*' Pigcon-houfes, Cellars, Barns, Ware-houfcs, or in- 
^ deed any place, which is covered ftom the Rain, 
** which would diflblve it, and (as 1 have faid) make 
" it vegetate 5 'as alfo from the Sun, which doth rarify 
*' it, and caufed it to be exhaled into the Air 5 (For 
'^ the fame reafbn Husbandmen alfb might make dou- 
*' ble or treble the profit they ufually do of their 
^ Muck, if they will lay it up under a Hovd, or 
^ fome covered place^ until they carry it out upon 
^ their Land.) And I have been told by an experi- 
^ enced Workman, that no Man yields ^Her to plcn- 
^ tifuUy, as the Earth in Churches, were it not an 
*' impiety to difturb the Aftics of our Anccftours, in 
*^ that (acred Depofkory. 

"Provided always, that the Earth be of good 
^^ mould, and the better the mould is, the more Pif- 
^^Ur is producd, for in Clay or landy Earth, little 
*^ or none is to be found : Tiic freer ingrefi the Ait 
^' hath into a place, is fliil of more advantage^ to that 
^ the Sun be excluded 5 And let the Earth be never to 
"good, if it be laid on a brick or boarded floor, it 
*' will not be to rich in VeteVy as if it have free com- 
^ munication with the Exhalations of the lower guts 
*^ of the Earth, 

** In any place thus qualified, you cannot mifi of 
" good quantities of Vetery if it have not been drawn 
" out in fome Years before 5 which a Workman will 
•* quickly find, after he hath digged thcfirftipadefiil 
" of Earth, by laying a little of it on the end of his 
^ tongue, and if it taft bitter, he is furc of good flore 
^of mineral, (asdiey love to call it) that is, Sdu 
^^ peter j if the Ground be good, it continues rich, to. 
^^ fix or ei^t foot. deep> ^id fomoimes;^ but not often,. 
« t<) tqn,^ « Ait«r 



, "^^ A^et ^ S^^petet a extradcd, if tiie Earth l>e 
^ kid wet in the itme place again> k will be twenty 
^ Yeats e'le any cooAderablc quantity grow there of 
^^ its but if dote Earth be well diyed, it will come in 
*^ twehrc or fourteen : and if they mingle^ with tlic 
'Mryed Earth fiore of Pigeon^dung^ and mellow 
^^ Horfe-dung^ &nd then temper it with Urine (as 
<« was ufual before wc were fupplyed with Teter from 
*^ India) it will be fit to dig again in five or fix Years* 
^* He that Ihall caft Water upon a Ground fit to dig 
*' for Teter^ will only fink the Mineral deeper into 
^^ the Earth ; but he that throws Soap-fuds on it, will 
quite deftrqy the Peter ^ (as the Workmen have a 
Tradition) and it very well deferves a fiirther En^ 
That Salt -peter ^ and the way of drawing it out 
^^ of the Earth, now in u(e, was a modem Invention^ 
^' is generally concluded by all Authors \ but whether 
^' we owe it to chance, or the f^acity of fome great 
^^ Wit, is as unknown, as the time when it was firft 
** difcovered. 

" It ieems to have many Years preceeded the Inven- 
^ tion of Gun-powdcr> which by the Germans is afcri* 
♦* bed to CmftantineAutUtzery or Bert hold SchwertH 
^ a Monk x^iFriburgh^ and was, in all probability, not 
^ long difcovercd, when the Inventor i^olydore Fir-- 
gU tells us) taugjht the ufe of Guns, to the Ver^eti^ 
ansy at the Battel of Foffa Claudia^ when they ob^ 
tain'd that notable Viftory over the Genauefes^ An^ 
^^ m X 3 8o. For there is mention made, both of Salt^ 
^^ peter and Aqua-fertis^ in the Writings of Geber^ a ^ 
^ Spanifif Mare^ and an Alchymift s but at what time 
^' he lived is unknown, though it be certain, Ibmc 
^'hundreds of Years \>^otc Rainmnd LuUj i ^ho ar 

L 1 2 *^bout 



2(J8 The H I STO R Y of the 

*^ about the Year 1333, publifticd fonie of his Books^ 
<^ wherein he treats of Salupeter and Aqua-fortis. 
« It is no ill conjcfturc of MaieruSj that the forefaid 
^' Monk, being a skilful Alchymift, had a deiign to 
** draw a higher Spirit from Veter^ than the common 
^* Aqua-fortiSy and that he might bettet open the Bo- 
" d^ of "TeteTy he ground it with Sulphur and Char- 
" coal, by which Compqfure he foon became the In- 
^ venter of Gun-powder. 

The manner of making. 


"TTN the firft place you muft he provided of eight 
J^ *' or ten Tubs, fo large, that they may be able to 
^ contain about ten Barrows full of Earth, each of 
*^ them. Thefe Tubs muft be all open at the top 5 
" but in the bottom of every one of them, you muft 
^ make a hole near to that fide yoii intend to place 
outermoft, which hole you muft lit very well with 
a Tap and Spigot on the outfide downward. On 
*^ the infide of the Tub, near the tap-hole, you muft 
carefully place a large wad of ftraw, and upon that 
a Ihort piece of board, which is all to keep the earth 
from flopping up the tap- hole. When you have 
placed your Tubs on their ftands, at fuch a diftancc 
one from the other, that you may come with eafc 
^* between them, then fill them up with fuch Peter- 
^' earth as you have chofen for your work, leaving 
<' only void about-a fpans breadth between the Earth 
^^and the edge of the Tubs then lay on the tcsf of 

^ ^' the 


R TALSO C I E TV, 2^9 

^^ the Earth in tach Tub, asr itear ^ you can to the 
" middle, a ruhdlc of Wicker, like the bottom of a 
^^ Basket, and about a foot in diameter, and by it ftick 
*' into the Earth a good ftrong Cudgel, wliich muft 
^^ be thruft pretty near the bottom 5 the Wicker is to 
•* keep the Water/when it is poured on, fropi hoUow- 
^' in^ and difordering the Earth, and the Cac^el is to 
*^ be ftirred about, to give the Water ingrefs to the 
^^ Earth upon occafion : Then pour on your Earth 
^ common cold Water, till it ftand a hands breadth 
** over the Earth : When it hath flood eight or ten 
^* hours looTen the Spigots, and let the Water rather 
^' dribble, than run into half Tubs, which muft be fct 
" under the taps : This Lixivium the Workmen caH 
*' their Raw-liquor 5 and note that if it come not 
'^ dear at the firft drawing, you muft pour it on again, 
'' and after ibme little tinie draw it off, till it come 
*' clear, and of the colour of Urine. 

*Mf you are curious to know how rich yotr Li- 
quor is before boyling, you may take a Glafi-vial; 
^* contiaining a quart, fill it with the common Water 
you ufe, then weigh k exaiftly ^ next £11 the fame 
^^ Glais with your Liquor, and find the.ddHerencc of 
weight, which coMpaped witb.thc quatmty of all 
your Liquors, will give you a very ncac guels,. hbw 
much Saltpeter you are like to make by that boyl- 
Then pour on again, on the fame Eacth> more 
<' conimon Water^ that it may bring, aiaray what is 
^' remaining in the Earth of tlie former Liquor;. : This 
*^ fecond LiquM is of no other ufe, but to be poured 
<* on new Earth, inftead of common Water^ be- 
^' cauie it contains fome quantity of Salt-peter in 
^ . ^^Whfirt. 




17© .TbeHISTORToftbe 

* '^ When, this is doac^ txdxx oitt the uCekis in%id 

.^' Earth oat of thcTufas> which you muft fill with 

<< acw Earth, and cotitinuc this Opcrsttion^ till you 

^< have in the iamc manner lixiviated all the Eardi ; 
Then fill yoac Coppee with your Liquor> which 
Copper, ior one o£ the Profeiliofi, nuift be about 
two hundred we^t, and fet ftrongly in a Furnace 
of brick- wojck ; befides, on one fide of your Fur- 
nace you are to place a Tub full of your Liquor> 

^' whidi at a tap below may dribble as £aft into the 
Copper, as the force of the Fire doth waft youc 
Liquoiv which Invention is only to f^ve charges in 

^ Fe wcL When you have boy led it up to that height^ 
that a little of it, flirted off the finger on a live 
Charcoal, will flafh like Gun-powder (which for 

^^ the moft part falls out to be about two Days and a 
Nights boylii^) at what time, upon tryal, a hun- 
dred weight c£ the Liquor coMains about five 
and thirty pound weight of Feter. But the Work- 
men feldom make ufe of any further indication^ 
than by finding the Liquor hang like oyl on the 

^^ fides of the Brafen icuouner, when 'tis dipped into 
^^ it, which is a flgn it is fit to be paflbd through the 
Afhes, which is done in this manner. 

You muft prepare two Tubs fitted after the man- 
ner of the firfty where you put your Earth, faving 

^* that at the bottom of thefe Tubs, you muft lay 
Reeds or Straw a foot high $ over them place loofe 
boatds, pretty near one another, over them, a little 
more Straw (which is to keep the Afhes from the 
top> and to give the Liquor room to drein die 

" better from them:) Then fill up your Tubs wirii 
any fort of Wood-afhes to half a foot of the top; 

{ Then pour on the forefaid Liquor, as it comes fcal- 
♦ * ^ding 










** (fing hot ont of the Copper, wi ilie Aihes oontain- 
'' ed in the firft Tub ; then after a while ckaw it off 
^ at the top : and fo contimie putting on and draw- 
^ ing off, firft at one Tub of Afhes> then at the other,. 
^^ till your Liquor grow de^, and lofe the duck tur«* 
^* bid colour it had when it wenton* 

^' When all the Liquor hath in this manner paft 
^ through the Afliesof both Tubs, that by this means- 
*' all its greafic oyl is left behind in tiie Afhes, you 
** muft keep it for the fecond boyling ki a Veflel by it 
^ felf : in the mean time pour upon your Aflies a fuffi- 
*' cicnr quantity of common Water very hot, once, 
*^ or twice, to bring away what is remaining cf the 
** Liquor in the Afhes* 

** When you begin the (econd boyling, put firft 
^ into the Copper the Wiater that went laft throu^ 
^ your Afhcsy and as that wafteth, lot yeur flrong Li-^ 
^' quor drop into the Gopper, out of the Tub above 
*Mefcribed, ftanding on the fide of the Furnace, till 
*^the Liquor in the Copper be read)^ to fhoot or 

" Note^ That toward the. end of your boyling, there 
•* will arifc great ftore of Scum and Froth, which 
** muft be carefully taken off with a great brafs Scum- 
*^ mer, made like a Ladle, fiill of little holes, and ufu- 
^ ally about that time it lets fall fbme common Salt 
'^ to the bottom^ which you muft take up with the . 
*^ faid Scummer, and lay it afide for another ufe. 

" To know when the Liquor is ready to fhoot into » 
*^ PeteTy you need but drop a little of it on a knife, or 
** any other cold thing that hath a fmooth fuperfi- 
** cics, and if it coagulate, like a drop of tallow, and .. 
**do not fall off the knife when it is turned down- ^ 
^ ward, which.alfo may be. fudged by k&haaging like 


a 71 ::ne N7 S T R T [of: the, 

• ^'oyl totHc fide* of the Scommcr. When the Li- 
" qiior « brcAight to this pafs, every hundred weight 
*^ of it containcth about threefcore and ten pound 
.'^t weight of ieter. . . . _ 

J. j". When you find ^y wr yquor thus ready to (hoor, 
*' you muft with great Uop Ladks lade it out of tlic 
^^ Copper into a high narrow Tub for that purpofc, 
*' wliich the Workmen call their fettling Tub; and 
" wlicn the Liquor i$ gro^n fo cold, that you can en- 
•:*^ dure your finger in it, you fhall find the^common or 
'^ cubick Sdit begin to gravulate and ftick ^ to the iides 
*' of the Tub, then at. the tap,, placed about half a 
foot from the bottom, draw off your Liquor into 
deep wooden Trays, or Brals-pans, and the cooler 
*^ the glace is where you let them iland to (hoot in, 
r^'the.bettet and mpre plentifully will the Salt^petefy 
.*' be produc'd 5 but*t will be of no good colour till 
*^ it be refined, but will be part whiter part yellow, 
" and fome part of it blackifh. 

^' The Salt which fticketh to the fides and bottom 
of the fctling Tub is (as I have faid) of the na- 
ture of cojCnmon Salt 5 and there is fcarce any Fe- 
*' ter to be found but is accompanied with it, though 
'^ no doubt fonie of this is drawn out of the Aflics 
*' by the fecond Liquors : If it be foul they refine it 
" by it felf, and zboixt, London fell it at good rates to 
"thofe that fait Neat Tongues, Bacon, and Coliar- 
*' Beefs for befides a favory tafte, it gives a plcafing red 
^* colour to moft Flefh that is faked with it. Pliny 
"fays, Nitrum obfonia alba & deteriora reddit Olera 
" viridiora^ whether Salt -peter doth fo, I Jiave not 
" yet tryed. 

" When the Liquor hath flood two Days and tu'o 
*' Nights in the Pans, that paft of the Liquor which is 




'^ not coagulated but fwims upon tiic Feter^ muft be 
^^ carefully poured off^ and being mingled with new 
^^ Liquors muft again pa(s the Alhes before it be bolL- 

ed, dfe it will grow fo greafy it will never generate 

any Salt. 

To RefiM 


" A ^^^^ y^^ ^^^^ made your Copper very clean, 
£^ " put in as much Water as you think will dif^ 
" folve that quantity of Peter you purpofe to Refine, 
" when the Water is very hot caft in the Teter by lit- 
" tk and little, ftirring it about with a Ladle, that it 
may the fooncr diflblve, then incteafe the Fire till 
your Liquor begin to boile : In the mean time feel 
'* with the Scummer, whether there be at the bottom 
*^ any Salt undiflblv'd and take it ouf, for it is Com- 
** mon-SaIt,and doth not fo foOn diflblve as the Feter ; 
" then as the water boils fcim off the Froth that fwims 
" at the top ot it as faft as it rifcth 5 when it hath 
^^ boiled to the height that a drop of it will coagu- 
late on a Plate, (as hath been faid above in the ma- 
king of Salt-peter^ then caft in by degrees either 
a Pint of the ftrongcft Wine- vinegar, or elfc four 
*' Ounces of AUom beaten to powder (fome choofe 
^' burnt AUom,) and you ftiall obferve a black Scum 
" to rife on the top of the Liquor, which when you 
" have allowed fome time to thicken, you may eafily 
" take off with the Scummer 5 repeat this fo often till 
" no more Scum arifes. Some do ufe to throw in a 
*• Shovel full of qiuck-Lime, and fay it makes feter 

Mm " the 



274 ne HI S'TO Rr of the: 

^ ddc vA^att, «ad Rockt&e betier;^ yenmft take 
^ ^rcat case aJl this idbik the. lacbc jvtioaftoQngv 
^ ftc ^^Bviule tkus is. deinfl^ dbc liqnoi viU. beaptta 
^ boilioveiir and wiU laoot cafiljr Ik appcaftd wij^ 
^^ your great lofs. 

" When tliis is done, lade out the Liquor into a 
*< fetling Tubji and cover: k over with a Cloth, that it 
^ cool not too fix)n, and within an hour or, two, a 
*^ thick yellow Faeces will falL to the bottom of the 
^ Tub, then quicklf Ax2rn off the Liqpor while Jt is 
*' hot, into the {hooting Trays or Pan?, and do as yoii 
** did in making Tetetj. feving^ that you mwft cover the 
•^ Trays with a Clah» fotthiax the Eiqjaor will begin. 
*^ to (hoot at die bottom, wliiidi will make ^a^etef^ 
*^ Rock into much iaircr Chryftals„ than othcrwife it 
^ would : When no more Teter will flhoot (which it 
^ cqmmooljf after. twO' days,) pour off die Liquoe 
^ that fwinois at the to^ and put the Teter into ^ 
^^ Tub with. a. hole at the bottom, for ta dcain, and 
*^ wkeait is dry,, it j^ fit for uft* 

" The Figure of the Chtyftals is Sexati^lar,, and. 
'^ if it hathi tiglitl}! fhot» is fiikl«)U3 and hjoUowUk^ 
^^ a. Pipe 

Before I ftrocced to tdl you». haw thi6 darling 

of Nature (the vei y Ba(t$ and Generation of Na-^ 

trimcntj is com^ectcd into Gun-powder (the moft 

^ £aital InQmment of Death that evet Mankind. wa& 

truftcd withal J I will aave leave to acquaint youb 

with, a few SgccubtionsLhave of this.Sak,. whichi 

if LcouLi dearly ixuheou^ would lead ufi into 

the knowledge of many noble Secrets in Nature ^ 

^ as. alio to a g^eat impfovemem in tlie A& oi ma? 

^ \n% Salt-peter^ 

^ fififtrtiiw j«yLao:tOrOb&»;e,tlisttthou$Ii.y#<^t 



« CO. 


in ^CrociMe^ ond bom off ihe Toladk ftit ii^it!l 



<^ Powckr of Coal, Briu^bone, Ammonf or Meal, 
tlietc wiil TCinAui u Salt, and yet fo fixtd (vtry 
unlike Coifimdn-Sait) tktt itNc^l cxuhare the force 
of afanofi the Arongeft fire ipoucssi giccit $ vtiidi 
being dillblvtd imo Water md SfiOt odNitrt dxt>p- 
pcdimo k, till k give overhiffiag (witidiisthe 
iame vhh the volatile Pact that iras icparated 
"^^ ftom k in the fi^lmination) it viU be again reduced 
to Chryftats oUPeUr^ as k tr^as^ ficft> whkli noble 
Eicfcriment the World hath altoxly been uught 
by an honourable Member of this Society \ wkh H 
train of fuch important Obfervations, as never be- 
fore were raifed from one Experiment. 
** That which I aim at then is, that if the Spirit of 
** the volatile Salt of Soot, or of the Urine, Bloody 
^^ Horns, Hoofs, Hair> ExCtefflents^ or indeed any part 
"^ of Animals, (for all abound with fuch a volatile 
^' Salt fixed, and Oyl as Tetir doth) Could by the 
<' fame way or any Hke k, be redact to ?i^r or 
^< ifbme Nitres Salt not much difllcring fh>m it : It 
<« would excellently make out a Theory that I am 
^^ much deiiglited with, till I ata convinced in it $ 
*<< which is, that the Salt which is fbitad in Vegetables 
^ and Animals, is bnt the Nitrt which is fo univer- 
^ Tally difFufed through aU the Elements, (and muft 
** therefore make a chief Ingredient in their Nutri- 
ment, and by confequencc of their Generation) 
a little altered from its firft Complexion : And that 
^* the rcafon why Animals that feed on Vegetables 
^* are obliged by Nature, to longer meals than thofc 
'^ that feed on other Animals $ is, becaufe Animals 
" are fuller of that Salt than Vegetables ; And in- 

Mm 2 *^ deed 


i7« The H I STO RT of the 

" deed fuch Animals arc but Caterers of it for Man s 
*' and others whom Natures, bounty gratifies with a 
" more lufty and delicious Diet. 

** I confeis I have been the more confirmed in this 
" fency, iincc I have often fccn a Friend of mine, 
** with a Natural and Facile 'E^«£/<x convert the 
" greater part of 'Petery into a Salt fo like the Vola- 
. " tile Salt of Urine, that they arc fcarcc to be diftin- 
*' guifhcd by fmcll or taft, and yet he adds nothing 
" to it tliat can poffibly be fulped:ed to participate ^ 
" that Nature : But indeed all Volatile Salts are fo 
** alike, that it is not ea(y to difiinguifl) themin any 





Of Making 

G U N-P O WD E R. 

^ ^ I ^H E materials of Gun-powder ^z Salt -peter ^ 
\ " Brimftoney and Cod 5 the Veter and jBrtm- 
ftone muft be both refined if you mean to make 
good Fowder^ and the Coal muft be fVithy and Al- 
der equal parts ; for ff^thy alone is counted too 

^^ fbft^ and fome do commend Hazle alone to be as 
good as the other two. 

The whole Secret of the Art conftfts in the pro-^ 
portion of the Materials, the exad mixture of them^ 
that in every the leaft part oiVowder may be found 
all the Materials in their )uff proportion ; then the 
Corning or making of it into Grains $ and MJy the 
Diying and Dufting of it. 




^ The proportion is very differently fet down by 
^' Several Authors $ Baptifta Vorta tells us the ordina- 


ry Powder is made of four Parts of Feter^ one of 
Sulphury and one of Withy Coal : But the beft Pow^ 
der of6y or 8 . of Peter^ and one apiece of the other; 
which agrees pretty well with Bonfadim a late Ita^ 
" liaff Writer,in his Book of theArt c/E^otir^flyingy 
whereto make the beft Gun-powder he prefcribe^ 
fcven Parts oi Peter y one oiBrimftoney and oSHa-- 
siel Coal an ounce le& in every pound :. Cardan 
&ys } Confiat ex tribus HalimtrLpartihusy duabtts^ 

^ SalignL 


»7i ne HI STD R T of the 

<^ Saligni Car bonis atquetma Sulfhuris^ ConveniPqu& 
Mec/icc\ ihui « magnis Machinis 5 Se d Medwerilms H alinitri par- 

*' Us decent^ Saligni carbajits tres^uhhuris duas^pap- 

. Jl^ ^^ visveroHalimtrifartesdecem^CkrbomsligmnM' 

Aije liana ;^ w AyeU$n£ (m e nodis^ tmt^Sulphum partem mmm 

" Jingularem : Langius appoints three xATeter^ two 
« o( ff^ithj^ Co^y znd OIK o( Brim/lone : l^hcEng- 
^' ///& Author of Fko- works fays^ that the proportions 
'' in England to make good, indiffercat, and ordinary 
*' Powder is 5 . +. and 3 . parts of Peter^ to two of 
V Co^iy undone Bri$n^Me. Om EngliJbWxytkmcm 
■*< arc gcncraUy fa curious of their feaet, that I could 
^^ not obtain die proportion of dKm without a pro- 
^^ niife of Secrecy : fiut when all js done cheir&cret 
^ is noc ib nuich dbc way to make the beft Powdery 
^^ as the beft way to gdt naoO: mony by it: ; by fubfibrad^ 
" ing from the Peter y and m^ing up we^jbt with 
^ the Coal ; when indeed there is i^ great a Latitude^ 
^* that Provided the Materials be perfe^y mixt^ you 
'*< make good Powder with any of the proportions 
•* above memion'd 5 but the more Peter you allow 
*^ it, it will ftillbc the better, till you come to obfervc 
'" eight Parts. 

" The next thing after the proportion, is the nrlx- 
*^^ ture, about which moft of the workmens time and 

pains is beftowed : For firft in a Horlfc-mill with 

two ftones (like that with which they grtod their 

Materials at the Glapf4mfe^ moving upon a Mar- 
^^ hie 4>ottom, . which ired^ with boaixis liet floap- 

Ing, ^that what (Ups from under the ftones may fiidc 

back again. 

'^ They grind the Br imfione and Coal each of them 
^ aj^rt by themfebcs as jSne as poiltbiy they can 3 
^ then they fift cadh of them apart by thcmkeivcs : 





ThcBrimflocre ft flfeii therow TilTaiiy in a Bbff- 
^ ing-mtlf , ibch as iht. Bakers ufe Ibr wheat flower : 
*^ the Coal is' ftftcd thorow Lockram^ ma bag made 
^^ like a fhaft flccve 5 for the coiiTeniencc of the 
^ Work-man k is dofic i«i a cfc>ft Bifi, tirkh only two 
^ holes for him to put his arms mi, and fhakc the bag 
^ about. Whatfocvcf of cacb material is not finall 
^ enough teftftthorow, is brought agaia to the Mill 
^ to be new ground. 

^^ A^fei the F^/yr,thatmuftinthe Copper be cteflbl- 
^ vcijin as much water aar will jufl take k up, and then . 
^ the water muft bcboikd! away till the f^//r comes 
^ to the tfatcfciie& of hafty-pudding. The realbn of 

* this operation is becaufe when the ^etef isthusfoft^.. 
^ the othei: materials will the eafilier incorporate 
^^1 witfV it, and in the next pfcicc\it viU flot wear the 
*^' wooden pcftfcs fo mfcrch wlrerr k ccmes^to tlic Miff, . 
^ aj whrcnit is hard and dty. 

" When the Material arc in this reatfiinefe, riiejr* 
^ arc weighed (only the ^et^ it weighed befcMre it is . 
^ ^ttt todiflblVe ki the Cfepper) an* by pnoportiott . 

* arc carried to the minting T^!OugIl> wbkrh 16 iwade 
•^ of boards, like a great ChcS witheut :^ cover, being 
*• about eight foot long, four t»:oad, amdt three foot 
^ high. The Coaiis krid kifltft, the Brinailone next,, 
^ and riicPfftr attop^of all ; Then two men with 
^ AfQvds ftir ajid mingfc Aenv tog«h« for* aahpur, „ 
*** ^<jP then 'tis ready for the MIIF. 

^ iThe Pbwdtr-miUs are ftldom inadc t^i^ move ; 
^ with any rfiing- but water r The great watev-whpeel.: 
** is made like that of an ordinary waici-whed, cf- 
^ thcr Ofver-flrot or'undcr'fhot, ^c^ording 10 the 
^ qua^Ttity of Warci^thcy hate V to th<0 ^i* of this^. 
^ whccH a'tttdc way wi«Mi tbe MM-il^ Mettid a^^^^ 

^ ^^ IcflCI; 


.28o The H I STO Rr of the ^ 

'< Id&r wheel called the Spar-wheel^ witii flxong 
*^ Cogs, which in their motion round take hold of 
'^ the round (laves of another wheel of about the 
'' fame diameter, fet a little way above it, and £iftned 
^^ to the end of a beam of 15 or iti foot long, laid 
^^ parallel to tlae Horizon, with an^ iron gudgeon at 
^^ the other end of it, to facilitate its motion round : 
^' This beam is called the round beam $ out of it 
*^ come a certain number of arms of about nine inch- 
'< eslong, and three inches broad, which in their go- 
^' ing round meet with other lefTer arms (called 
*^ TapesJ coming out of the Peftlcs (for fo they call 
** certain fmall quarters of Timber placed perpendi- 
'^ cular to the Horizon, about nine foot long and four 
^^ inches broad $ they are fet in a flight keep 
^^ them fteady) \ by thefe fmall arms the Peftles are 
^ lifted up about two foot and a half, and then lee 
fall into a ftrong wooden Troi^ fet under then^ 
wherein the Powder is put to be pounded. 

Every Mill hath two Troughs, and about ftxteen 
PefUes : every Peflle hath faftned to the lower end 
of it a round piece oi Lignum Vit£y .of about five 
inches long and three and a half diameter ; and in* 
to the bottom of the Trough juft where die Peftlc 
is to faU, is let in another piece of Lignum Vit£y of 
the fafl^on and bignefs of an ordinary Bowl, 
iplit accordifig to its longeft diameter : The Pefiies 
are not lifted up all together, but alternatively, to 
make the Powder turn the better in the working i 
and for the fame reafbn round Troughs are counted 
better than fquare. 

" To make excellent Powder it ought to be 

wrought thus thuty hours ^ but of late they will 

^^ AOt afford it above e^iteen or twenty hours : once 







"^^ in eight hours they ufe to moiften' riic Powder with 
^ a little fair Water ; others who are more curious 
put Water fomething thickned withquick-linie> o- 
thers ufe White- wine Vinegar, others Aqua vit£ : 
^ But if it be not moiftned with fomething once in 
^* dgjit hours, the Powder will grow dry, and in half 
^^ an hour after it will take fire. As foon as the Pow- 
^ der grows dry, you may find it, though at a di- 
** (lance, by the Noife of the Mill 5 for then the Pcftles 
^ will rebound from the bottom of the Trough and ^ 

make a double ftroak. The only danger to the 
Mill is not from the Trough $ for many times the 
iron Gudgeons grow hot for want of greafing and 
^' then the Duft that flies about will be apt to fire, and 
fo the Mill blows up. 

From the Mill the Powder is brought to the 
Corniog-houfe, of a middle temper between moift 
arid dry. The way of corning it is with two hair 
Sieves join'd together, the upper Sieve inclofing 
ibme pait of the Hoop of the lower Sieve : The 
upper Sieve hath holes of the fize you wiU have 
the Powder grained at 5 the holes of the lower 
Sieve are much kflcr : The upper Sieve they call 
their corning Sieve, the lower their wet Duftcr ; 
They lay the Powder upon the upper Sieve fomc 
*' two inches thick 5 upon that a Peice of heavy 
wood made like a Trencher, of about eight inches 
diameter and two and a half in thicknefs, called a 
Runner, which when the Sieve is moved, by its 
weight and motion, forces the Powder thorowthc 
** upper Sieve, and that corns it. Then the lower 
Sieve receives the Powder, and lets the duft go 
^' thorow the Bin, over wliich the Sieve is fliakcn 
^' called the Dufting-Bin, 

N n " When 





xU: The BIST KT of ihe 

" When the Powrffe is thus eoftiecl, i( is Joid about 
** an inch and half thick oa (he ckyitig Sieves which- 
^' are made of coarfe Canva& faftned to flight 
frames of Deal about an Ell long, and fowie twenty 
" inches broad *i and thus it? is eaFricdiftHQ Stoves to. 

" The Stove is commonly a little Room about 
eighteen or twenty foot iquare, with ranges <r imalt 
Firr poles about two foot one above another^ tp lay 
the drying Sieves upon, but only on fhat itde the 
fire, is made. Befides a gla(s window. to give iight,^ 
there muft be a^fmall Iqver hole at the top of thc: 
Room, ta let out the fteam, clfc the Powder will; 
not only be the longer a drying, but often by thc re- 
turn of the fteam on the Sieves, the top of the Pow- 
^' der will be fo crafted that the lower part will not dry. 
The Room is heated by an Iron about a yard high 
^ and half a yard broad, caft in the form of aa Aiehy . 
^^ equal to a (emi-quadrant, and placed in the back . 
^ of a Chimney, the fore paij whereof is like a Fur- 
" nace 5 and to avoid danger, opens into aoothex 
" littleRoomapart called the Stoke-hole, . • 
" The Powder is brought into the Stove before it 
be heated> and is not taken out again till the Stove < 
be cold ; and about eight hours is required to the 
" dr}'ing of it. In hot Countries the Sun is the bcft 
Stove^ . and a ^eat deal of danger ^nd chaiges that 
way avoided. 

*' After the Powder is dried, it is brought ^ain to > 
'^ the. Corning-houfe, where it is again (ifted over 
^- the dufting Bin in other double Sieves, biK wkhout 
^^- any Runners, Thcfc Sieves have bolii of them , 
"• foiaUcR holes than thsfonnerz^TiiGi^pcr Sieve is 
^^ qtUed thc.Scparster^, and ferves tO'4ivide thc great 









' corns from the lefler ; die great corns arc put b^ 

* themfclvcs, and ferve for Cannon Powder. The 
; low;cr Sieve is called the dry Duller, and, retains 
V the firiiall cans (which fcrTc for Mufcjact and Piftol) 
' and lets fatl'thcduft into tht bhi, wfaidristo be 
' mingled with frcfh Materials, and again wrought 

* over in the Mill-. - - 

" So that good Powder differs firom bad (bcfiHes 
' the well Workirig and mingling of the Materials) 
' in having more 'Beter. and leis Coal j and laftly, in 

* the well (iufting of it. 

" The laft Work is to put the ^6^6h into Barrels } 
' jcrery Barrel-is te contain-five Icore weight of g»w- 
' der, and then 'tis ready foe fale. 

Nn2 AN 

aS4 The HI ST Rr of the 

A N 




Of the Common Ftadices of 

D Y I N G' 


,** T" T were not incongraous to begin the Hiftory 
JL '^ with a Retrofpeft into the very nature of 
^ Light it fclf (as to inquire whether the fame be a 
** Motionor elfr a Body 5) nor to premife fbme The* 
^ orems about the Sun, Flame, Glow-worms, the 
^ Eyes of fomc Animals, fliining Woods,. Scales 
^ of fome Fifhes, the dalhing of the Sea, ftroaks. 
^ upon the Eyes, the Bolaman Slate (called by (bme 
^ the Magnet of Light) and of other l%ht and lucid 
^' Bodies. 

" It were alfo not improper to confkler the very 
^^ efientials of Colour and Tranfparencies (as that the 
'^ mo(^ tranfparent Bodies^ if fhaped kilo many an- 
** 8^cs, preient the eye with very many colours;). 
That bodies having but one fingle fuperficies, have 
none at all, but are fufcipient of every colour laid; 
^ « bcfotc 








" before them*; That great dept^ of Air make a 

*' Blew, and great Depths of Water a Greenifli co- 

^* lour ; That great Depths or thickneffes of colour- 
ed Liquors do all look Blackifli (red Wine in a 
large conical Glais being of all reddiih colours 

" between black at the top and white at the Bot- 

** torn. 

That moft Vegetables^ at one time or other, are 
greenifli $ and that as many things pafling the Sun 
are blackned, fb many others much whitened by 

^^ the iame : Other things are whitened by acid 

^ Fumes, as red Roies and raw Silks by the (moak 

*^ of Brimftone. 

Many Mettals, as Steel and Silver, become of 
various colours and Tarnifli by the Air, and by fe- 
veral Degrees of heat. 
" We might confidcr the wonderful variety of co- 

*' lours appearing in Flowers, Feathers 5 and drawn 
from Mettals, their Calces and Vitrifications 5 and. 

'^ of the Colours riltng out of tranfparent Liquors, 
artificially mixed. 

But thefe things, relating to the abflraded nature 
of Colours, being too hard for me, I wholly de- 
cline 5 rather pafling to name, (and but to name) 

" fome of the icvcral Sorts of Colorations now com- 

^^ monly ufed in Htunane affaics, and as vulgar Trades 

^^ in thefe Nations ; which are thefe : vi:s;. 

1 . " There is a whitening of Wax^ and feveral 
" fort of Linnen and Cotton Cloaths,. by the Sun> 
" Air, and by reciprocal efFufidns of Water. . 

2. " Colouring of Wood and Leather by Lime,. 
^ Salt, and Liquors, as in Staves, Canesy and Marble 
^ Leathers. 

3^ Colourmg of Pager, viz. Marbled Paper, by 

** difiem^ec- 







lU . 77je H I S TO R T of the 

<' dldompering the colours with Oxrgall^ and apply- 
'^ iiigthem upon a iliflF gammed Liquoi. 

4. " Colouring, or rather difcolouring the toloua 
" of Silks, Tiffanies, &c. byBrimftone. 

5. " Colouring of fcvcral Iron and Copper work, 
*' intoBlac^, tv^thOyl. 

6. " Colouring of Leather into Gold-colour,. or* 
^ rather Silver kavcs into Gold by yarnifhes, and in 

other cafes by Urine and Sulphur 

7. " Dying of Marble and Alftbafter with , heat 
and tolourcd Oyls^ 
8." Colouring -&lver' into Brafe widi Brimftonc 

" or Urine. 

. 9. " Colcwring the Barrels and Locks of Guns in- 
** to Blew 4ad Purple wifh the temper of Small-ooai 
*' heat. .... 

I o. ^^ Colduiing of Glafe (made of Saads, Flints, 
"^ &c.) as alfo of Chryftal^andEanihcn Ware, with 
" the rufts and f<dations of Metals, 

II." The colouring of live Hair, as dn Boland, 
" Horfe and Man s Hair 5 as alfo the colouring of 
" FurrJ. J 

I2, " Eniameling and Availing. . , 
I j; ^\ AjJplyii^- Golp^.a^, hi the Printii^ of 
^^ BooJi^ and PiiShftes, aod asdn making of playing 
" Cafdsj being' each of theffi pcrfc^iped in a fevcral 
^' way. - V -' 

- 14*^ " GqiiiOnganci'TinoiiJg-.wHh^/vwry, fi/»fi6- 

15* *'■ CoiaUtiag Mi9t'^s,' as Coppe^ with Cakr^ 

« ihtbBi-afs, zoi&^jAiZink^t Spelter isao Gold, o»^ 

" miedSiiytx-^v't&iArfiniek: And pf Iron intpCop- 

' ^tt ^iih Hungarian Vitriol. ' . . ,- 

.' 1.6: « Aiakii^ Painters G^^oqre bYrftcpmng oE 

« Earth, 




RO TA t SO ciE ^r. i%7 

'^ Eiartii, Chalk, ^nd Slates^ is in C/Swfer, Okity Cut- 
^^' ten earthy &c. as alfo out of Calces of Lead; as 
** Cerufe and Minium 5 by Sublimates of Mercury and 
." Brimftone, a? in Fermi Aon -, by tinging of white 
** Earths varioufly, as in^ ^ri^^^r ^ andfomcofthc 
^*' Lakes 5 by concrete Juy CCS or FacUi£y as in Gam- 
^ brugiumy IndicOy Finks y Sap-greeny and Lakes: 
As alfo by Rufts, ^ in Ferd^reafey &e. 

17. " The applying of thefe colours bytheadhcr 
fion of dx-gall, as in the Marble Paper aferefaid 5 
or by Oum-water, as in Limning ; cm: by clammy 
drying Oyls, (fuch as are the Oyls of Linfeed, 
Nuts, Spike, Turpentine, &c.y 

18. " Watering of Zla^^/^j. 

' 19. " The laft 1 fliall i)ame is the colouring of 
^ W6ql, Linnen, Cottbri, Silk, Hair^ Feathers, H6rn, 
'^ LcatHcf, and thc^hreads and Webbs of them witii 
*^ Woods, Roots, Herbs, Seeds, Leaves, Salts, Limes,. 
*< Lixiviums, Waters, Heats, Fermentations, Macera- 
tions, a^id other great variety of Handling : An ac- 
count of all which is that'Hiftory of Dying we in-. 
** tend. AH that we hayc hitherto faid being but a 
" kind of remote and fcarce pertinent Introduftion . 
*^ thereunto. 

" I begin this Hiftory by enumerating alt the feve- 
** ral Materials and Ingredients which I undcrftand 
*^ . to be or to have been ufed in any of the laft afore- 
*' mentioned Colorations, which I fhall reprefent in. 
^* various Methods, ,w;5. out;of the.ilf/w^r^/Family. , 
" They ufe Iron and Steel, or what is made or conies 
■" from them, in all true Blacks (called Spanijh Blacks) 
^^ ^hougli not in Flanders Slacks ; viz. they ufe Cop- 
^*'pctas,. Stecl-rfilings>. and Slipper which is. the ftufF 
;j<^ found in theTrqughs of/Grind-ftoncs, . whareon; 

' - - ^ Edge- 

in The H I STO RY of the 

** E4gc-tools have been ground. They alfo ufe Pcw- 
" tcr for Bow-cfye> Scarlet, vi«. they diffolve Bars of 
*' Pewter in the -^^^iw/^r/ii' they ufe J and make alfo 
their Dying-kettles or Furnace of this Mettal. 

Litharge is ufed by fomc, though acknowledged 

by few, for what neceflaiy reafon I cannot learn, o- 

** ther than to add weight unto Dyed Silk 5 Litharge 

" being a calx of Lead, one of the hcavieft and moft 

^' colouring Mettals, , 

I apprehend Antimony much ufed to the fame 
purpofe, though we know there be a very tingcnt 
Sulphur in their Mineral, wiiich affordcth variety of 
Colour by the precipitations and other operations 



" upon it. 
" Arfemck is ufed in Crimfbn upon pretence of 



giving Lnfbe, although thofe who pretend not to 
be wanting in giving Luffare to their Silks, do utter- 
ly difown the ufe of Arfenick. 
" Verdegreafe is ufed by Linncn Dyers in tficir 
Yellow and Greenifh Colours, although of it felf 
it flrike not deeper colour than of pale Straws. 
Of Mineral Salts ufed in ^yiw 5 the chief Is 
*^ AUum 5 the very true ufe thereof leems to me ob- 
*' fcure enough, notwithflanding all the Narrations 
^^ I could get from Dyers about it : For I doubt, 

" I . Whether it be ufed to make Common water 
*' a fit Menftriiuniy wherewith to extrad the Tingent 
particles of feveral hard Materials 5 for I find Al- 
lum to be ufed with fuch Materials as fpend eafy 
enough, as Brafdl, Logwood, &c. And withal, 
*^ that the Stuffs to be dyed are firft boylcd in AUum- 
Liquors, and the Allum afterwards (as they fay) 
cleared from the faid Stuff again, before any Co- 
lour at all be apply'd. 
2. Whether it be ufed to fcour the Sordes^ which 

" may 




ROTAL S C I E TV. 48^ 

^' may interpole between the Color anda^ and the D^- 

^^ ing Stuffs and (6 binder the due adhefton of the 

^' one unto the other: The boyling of (everal things 

^ firft in Allum feeming to tend this way; But I find 

this work to be done in Cloth, and Kugs, by a 

due fcouring of the fame in the Fulling mills with 

Eanh, and in Silk with Soaps, by which they bo^ 

out :the Gums and other Sordes^ hindring or vitia- 

^ ting the intended Colours. 

" J. Whether Allum doth intenerate the Hairs of 
^'Wool, and Hair-ftufF, as Grograins, e^r. Whereby 
** they may the better, receive and imbibe their Co- 
^ lours \ Unto which opinion I was led by the Dy- 
*' ers 5 faying, that after their Stuffs were well boylcd 
^ in Allum, that thqr then cleared them of the Al- 
^' luqa again : But we find'the moft open Bodied Cot* 
tons and Silks, to have Allum ufed upon them $ as 
well as the harder Hairs. Npr is Allum ufed in 
many Colours, viz. In no Woad or Indico Blcws ; 
and yet the Stufft Dyed Blew, are without any 
previous inteneration quickly tinged; and that 
'' with a flight and fhort immerfion thereof into the 
*' Blew fat. 

'* 4. Whether it contribute to the Colour it fclf, 
'^ as Copperas doth to Galls, in order to make a black s 
^^ or as Juice of Lemmons doth to Cochenecl in the 
^< Incamadives j or as Aqua-Fortis impregnated with 
"Pewter, doth in the Bow-Scarlet, changing it from ' 
" a red R.ofe-Crimfon to flame Colour, This ufe is 
" certainly not to be denycd to Allum in fome cafes 5 
" but we fee in other cafes, that the fame Colours may 
" be Dyed without Allum, as well as with it, though 
neither fo bright and lively, nor fb lafling. 

5. Wherefore Fifthly, I conclude (as the mofV 

O o "probable 





jtpo The H I STO RT of the 

^^ probable opinion) tliac the uTc of AUum ifi to be a. 
<' f^mcuium bctw^n the Cloth and the Colour,, as 
^' clammy-Oyls and Giun- waters are in Painting and 
<^ Limming $ AUum being fnch a thing, whoft parti- 
^^ cles and ^cuki diflblved with hot Liqpocs will Qkk 
<^ to the Stuffs, and pitch themielyes incd their Pores; 
'^ and fuch alfo, as on which the particles of the Dy- 
^' ing Drugs will alfo catch hold, as we fee the paiti- 
<^ cles of Copperas and other Cryftalliziog materials,. 
<^ do of Boughs and Twigs in the Veflel, where fhch. 
^ Cryftallization is made. A fccond u(c I imagine 
'' of AUum in Dying, to be the cxtiading or. drying, 
^< up of ibme fuch particles, as could not confift with. 
^^ the Colour to be fuperinduced> for we fee AUum 
'^ is ufed in the dreiUng of Mutas or white Leather, 
'^ the which it dryeth, as the Salt of Hen-duf% dotb 
<^ in Ox-hides^ and as common Salt doth in prderva- 
** tion of Flcfli-mcats 5 for we know, a Sheep skin. 
'^ newly flayed could not be Coloured as Braftls are^ 
^' unlefs it were firft dreflcd into Leather with AUum, 
re. which is the Colour, evenalthougk 
le AUum be, as it is, cleared' out of the Leather 
gain, before the faid Colouration, with Bran>, 
'^ yelks of Eggs, d^r. Wherefore as AUum^ as it 
'^ were by accident, makes a wet raw skin to take. a. 
'^ bright Cok>ur b^ extrading fbme impedimcotal 
« particles out of it i fa doth it alfo out of other ma- 
'( tetials, though perhaps lefs difcernably. 

" Another ufe I fuppofe of AUum, which is tt>. 
'^ brighten a Colour : For as we fee the fineft and 
^^ moft GlafCe materials to make the mofl orient 
" Colours, as Feathers, Flowers, e^r. So certainly 
" if by boyUng Cloth in AUum, it become incruihi- 
"-ted with particles, as it were of Glais, the tinging 







of tlicm yields more hrightneft, than the tinging of 
a Scabrous matter^ (fuch as unallumcd Cloth is) can 
do. jinaiogaus hereunto I take theufe of Bran> and 
Bran-liquors in Dying to be 5 for Bran yielding a 
moft fine flower (as we fee in the making of white 
Starch 5) I conceive that this flower entring into 
the pores of the Stuff, levigates their Superficies y and 
<* io makes the Colour laid on it, the more beautiful, 
** juft as we fee, that all woods, which are to be guild- 
^* cd are firft fmoothned over with white Colours, 
*^ before the Gold be laid on. 

^^ And indeed all other Woods are filled, not only 
** as to their greater holes and Afperities, with ?utty j 
^' but alfo their fmaller Scabritics are cured by pri- 
^^rning Colours, before the Ultimate Colour intcnd- 
*^ cd be laid thereon. 

The next Mineral Salt is SaluVetety not ufed by 
ancient Dyers, and but by few of the modern. 
And that not till the wondetful ufe of Aqua-fortis 
^ (whereof Salt-Teter is an ingredient) wa^ obfcrv- 
" ed in the Bow-fcarlct : Nor is it ufed now, but to 
brighten Colours by back-boyling them 5 for which 
tlfc Argoi is more commonly ufed. Lime is much 
ufed in the working of blew-fats, being of Limc- 
"flonc caldned and called Calke^ of which more 
" hereafter. 

" Of the Amrnd family arc ufed about Dying, 
"Oothiriecl (if the fame be any part of znAnitnal) 
^'^ Urine of labouring Men, kept tfll it be fhlc and 
ttinkingj Honey, Yelks of Eggs, and Ox-gall. The 
three latter fo rarely ; and as the conceits 6f par- 
ticular Work-men, and for Collateral ufes (as to 
^'incrcafe weirfit, promote fcrmehtation,. and to 
" fcoiir, ^c.) That 1 fliall fay Very litltle niorfrbf thcni' 

O o 2 'Mn 



t9» The H I S T R T of tbe^ 

^ ki thisplacc^ only faying of Urine that Itisufcd to 
'^fcour^ and help the ^rmcnting and heating of 
^ Woad i it. is ufed alfo in the blew-fats inftead of 
*' Lime : It difchargcth the yellow (of which and 
^ blewx moft Greens are compounded^ and tiiere^ 
'^ fore is always ufed to fpencf ff^eld wklial. LafUy, 
'^ thcftale Urine, or old raudd of pifling places, will 
^^ colour a well fcoured fmall piece of Silver, into a 
'' Golden colour, and it is with this (and not at all 
'^ with the Bath- water) wherewith the Boys at Batb 
^ colour ftngle pence $ although the generali^r bo* 
lieve otherwife. Laftly it feems to me, that Urine 
agreeth. much in its Nature with Tartarous Lixi^ 
via 5; not only becaufe Urine is a Lye made of Yc- 
^^getables in the body oi Animals y nor becaufe iii 
*^ the Receptacles of Urine, Tartaraus fiones ate bred 
'* like as in Yeflcls of Wine 5 nor, becaufe Urine dif- 
charges and abrades Colours as the Lixivia of Tar^ 
fafy or the deliquated Salts of Tartar do:^ but be^ 
'^ caufe Tartar and Sulphur-Lixivia do colour the 
*' fuperficies^of Silver, as we affirmed of Urine ;• and 
'^ the difference I make between Urine and Tarta^ 
*' rouS'Lixivia is only this, that though the Salts of 
" both of them feem by their effeds in I>ying, in a 
'^ manner the fame ; . yet that Urine is ;made and con^ 
" fifts of Salt and Sulphur both. 

Before we enter upon the Vegetable materials for 
Dying, we may intetpofe this Advertifement, That 
*< there are two forts of Water ufed by Dyers, viz. 
'^ River- water, and Well-water : By the latter 1 mean 
'^ in this place the Pump- water in great Cities and 
*< Towns, which is a harfh Water wherewith one can 
'* (carcc wafli ones hands, much leis fcour them dean ; . 
^ Qor^WiU Soap diflblve in it^ but remains in rolls and* 











^* lamps: moreover the Flefii boy led ia !it becomes 

hard and rcddi(h. The Springs hiing out of large 

covered fpaces (fuch as are great Cities) yield this 

Water, as having been percolated thorow more 

ground than other Water, and conftquently. been 

divefted of its fatty earthy particles, and more im- 

^^pregnated with ialine fubftances ia ail the way it 

hath paired. The Dyers ufe this Water in Reds, 

and in other colours wanting reftringency, and in 

the Dying of Materials of the (lacker Contextures, 

as in CaUico, Fufiian, and the feyeral fpecies of Cot- 

^ ton- works. This Water is nai^t for Blews, and 

^ makes Yellows and Greens look rufty« 

" River- water is 6r more fat and oylie^ fweeter^ 
^ bears Soap ; that is, Soap diflblves more eafily in it, 
^ riitng iAt0 fiiodi and bubbles, fb as the Water thick- 
" ens bf it. Thk Water is ufcd in moft cafes by Dy- 
^ er^ and muftbe had in great quantities for waihing 
^ and riiuRng thek Gloaths after Dying. 

Water is^ called by Dyers White Liquor 5 but 
thcK is another fort of Liquor called Liquor ab(b- 
Itttelyj. and that is their . Bran-liquor, which is one 
part of Bran, and five of River- water, boyled . toge- 
^^theran hptur, and put intx> leaden Cifleros to-fettle. 
" This Liquor when it turns (bur is not good 5 wliich 
**(burne(s will be within three or four Days in the 
'^ Summer-time. Befides the ufes afore,- named of 
this Liquor, I conceive it contributds fomething to 
the holding of the Colour.^ for wd know Starch, 
^^ which is nothing but the flowet of Bran, will make* 
^^ a clinging Pafte, the Which will conglutinate fome- 
** things, tho* not every thing 5 viz. . Paper, tho! nci- 
^ ther Wood nor Metals. Now Bran-liquors arc 
^ n(cd to mealy dying Stuffs, fuckasJkil^/^^r is^ being 











J94 . The K IS TORT 'of the, 

5' idie.Bdwdec oi* fecfda. of & Root ^ So as the flower 
^< of the Bran bong \syji\sA with the Mather^ and 
<^ made clammy and gltrtinous by boyling, I doabt 
not but botli. fticking upon the liiUi of the $iufF 
Dyed, the Mather fiicks the better by reafon of (he 
fiarchy paftinefs of the Braa^flovet ;<^ne4 W)$b it. - 
Gums have been ofed by Dyers about Silk, njiz. 
Gum Arabkk, Gum ^raganty Maftick^ and Sath 
guis ^racmis. Thefe Gums tend little to the 
'^ tin£hare of the fald Silk, no more than Gum <loth 
in ordinary writing Ink, which only gives it a con- 
^' ftftence to ftay )q^ where the Pen delivers it, with- 
out running abroad uncertainly : So Oum may 
^ve the Silk a glaflmefi, that is, may make it 
'* item finer, as alfo ftiffer j £b as to make one believe 
^' the laid ftiffntis proceeded, bom the quamtity of 
'^ Silk clofe woven: Add Jaflly to increafc we^ht ; 
^ for if an ounce of Gam, worth a penyi Can be in- 
'^ corporated into a pound of Silk, the fatd penny in 
'^ Gum produceth three Shillings^ the price of an 
^' ounce of Silk. Wherefore we fhall. Gfc^ of the 
^ afe of each of the faid fourrGunifl,t tether wliert 
^ ttedt of Siiing and Stiffening, ^in now, in z Dif* 
coiitft of Dyiilg, where alfowc may fpdak of Ho- 
ney and Molsriles. 

*^ We refer alfb the Defcriptions of Fullcts^^arth, 
Soaps, Linfeed-oyl, and Oxi-galls, unco the head of 
^Scouring, tatfaev than to this of Dyilig. 

^ Winds aiid Aquk vifje liaVcbeeili^u^ by fome 
'^ particular Artifis ^ but the ufe 'df thfdm beiiig nei- 
'' rhcr conftant nor certain, I omit further mention 
'' of rhenu The like I fay of Wheatcn-dower and 
" Lc,')\'cn, 

'' C/i Ommm^dyFit^'eek-feed, Anm^^ ^AiA- 



R r A L S C I E TT. 

^^garkky i have as yet no (atisfaftorjr accompt. 
" Having /pokcn thns far of fomc of the Dying 
"fluffs, before I engage upon riic main, and fpeak 
" more fully of thofe which have been but flightly 
" touched upon already^ I fhall more Synoptically 
*'herein(crt a* Catalogue of all Dying Materials, as 
*' well ftidi as I have already treated upon, as fuch as 
" I intend hereafter to defcribe. 

*^ The three peculiar Ingredients for Black are Cop- 
^'peras, filings of Steel, and Slippe. ' 

*^The Reftringent binding Mittriak are Alder 
" Bark, Pomegranet Pills, Wallnut rinds and roots, 
" Oaken Sapling Bark, and Saw-di^ of the fame 5 
" Crab-tree Bark, Galls, and Sumach. 

^ The Salts are Allum, Argol, Salt-peter; Sal Ar- 
^ momdcky Pot-aftics, and Stone-Lime^ unto which 
^ Urine may be enumerated as a liqiild SalH 

" The Liquors arc Well-water, Rlver^ water. Wine, 
Aqua-vitay Vinegar, juyce of Lcmnion, aiid Aqua- 
fortis : There is Honey* ufed, and Molaflcs. 

Ii^rcdients 6f another Clajps arc Bran, Wheat- 
en-flower, Yelks of Eggs, Leaven, ' Cummin-fccd^ 
Fenugreek-feed; Agarick, and Scnhal * 

Gums zrc Qwfr Arahkky ^rqgantyMkftivky and 
Sanguis T^racmis. 
"The Srfiefticks or Abft'^rfives . are FuUcrs-earth, 
'* Soap, Linfted-oyl, and Ox-gall. 

^ The other Metals and*Minerals are Pewter, Ver- 
^ degreafe. Antimony, Litharge, and Arfenick. 

" But the Color antta colorata arc of three forts, viz.. 
*'Blew,,Ydlow, and Red; of which- Logwood, old 
Fuftick, andM:athcr, are the Pe^Z/f^jr^/^ in the pre- 
fent and common practices; bemg 6nc ef each (bit. 
ThcBlcws are Woad,Uidico,and togip^ood : The Ycl- 

^^ lows.. 






1^6 The H I S TO RT of the 

^' lows^rc Wcld^ Wood-wax, and old Fuftick, asal£i 
" Turmcrick now feldom ufcd : The Reds aw Rcd- 
^' wood, Brazel, Mather, Cochineel, Safflowis, Ker- 
^^ mes-berries, and Sanders i the l^er of which is 
^^ feldom ufed^and the Kerraes not often. Unto thefe 
^^ Arnotto and yoiMig Fuftick making Orange-coloius, 
^^ may be added, as often ufed in thefe times. 

" In Cloth Dying wood-foot is of good ufc. 

^^ Having prefented this Catalogue, I come now to 
^^ give or enlarge the Defcription and Application of 
^^ fome of the chief of them, beginning with Cop- 




withal, and it is the fait of tl>c Tj^rites AonCy where- 
with old Iron, (having been diilblved in it) is incor- 
porated.. Xlie filings of Steel, and fuch Anall pac- 
" tides of Edge-tools as are worn away upon the 
" Grindilone, commonly called Slipp, is ufed to the 
fame purpofe in dying of Silks (as was faid before) 
which I conceive to be rather to increaie the weight 
" than for any other neceffity ; the particles of Cop- 
peras being not fo heavy and crafs as thefe are : for 
elfe why fliould not thefe later-named Materials be 
as well ufed about Cloth, and other cheaper Stuffs i 
" We obferve. That green Oaken-boards by afFri- 
'^ dion of a Saw become black s and that a green four 
Apple, cut with a knife, becomes likewife black $ 
and that the white greafe whereWi^ Coach-wheels 
are anointed becomes likewife black, by reafon of 
" the Iron boxes wherewith the Nave is lined, bcildes 
" the uftulation or affridion between the Nave and 
".the Axel-tree. . AJorcovef w;e obferve. That an 
" Oaken- ftick,.. by z, violent afFri^ion upon other 
" wood: in a Turniig.^iji> makfes.the^^^^ black. 



RO TA L S C I ETT. i^r 

" From 4II which wc may obfcrve, Thftt the whole 
^' builneis of Blacking lies in the Iron, as if the fait of 
** the Tyrites-Qonc in Copperas ferved only to ex- 
'^ trad the fame ; and withal it feems to lie in a kind 
'^ of ftndging and uftulation, fuch as rapid affridions 
'< do caufe : For AUtun feems to be of the fame na- 
^' tore with Vitriol \ apd yet in no cafe that I know 
^^ of, is ufed for black colours : And in the black co- 
lour upon earthen Ware is made with Icalings of 
IroQ vitrified; Note, That whcre-ever Copperas is 
^^ uied, eithef Galls, Sumach, Oak Sapling- barks, 
" Aider-barky Wallnut-rinds, Crabtrce-bark, or green 
^^ Oak faw:duft, muft be ufed with it ; All which 
things PHyRcians call Auftere and Stiptick. 

B;ed- wood muft be chopt into (inall pieces, then 
ground jparMU^ between two heavy ftones, aseorn 
is. I( is i^ alfo in Dying of Clpthand R:ugis, 
and thpfe of thp .Courfcr fort : The colour is ex- 
traded with much and long boyling, and that with 
'^ Galls. The colour it makes is a kind of Brick-co* 
^' lour Red \ it holdeth much better than BrafiL The 
Cloth it dyeth is to be boy led with it : Wherefore 
only fuch matters as are not prejudiced by much 
bpyling s^re dyed herewith. 
Braill is chopt and ground like as the Red- wood : 
'^ It dyeth a Pink-colour or Carnation, imitating the 
<< colour of Cochineii the neareft : It is uied with 
^^.AUum for the ordinary colour it dyeth-^ and with 
addition of Pot-aQies, when it is ufed for Purples. ' 
BtafU fteept in Water giveth it the colour of Clar- 
ret-wiae, into which a drop or two of juyce of 
Lemmons or Vinegar being put, turneth it into the 
^^ioqlpur of Canaiy-Sack s : m which part^ular it ai- * 

greeth with Oochineil, ^ This cc^our iboji: ft^^if^^^ " 

P p "as 






iplJ Th$ H I S r RY of the 

^^ as may appear by the eaiW change whkh A> imall a 
^^ quantity of acid liquor makes lipon it/ A drop of 
^^ Spirit of Vieriol turneth the infuHon of Brafil into a 
^f purplifh violet-colour, even although it hath been 
*^ made yellow before, by the addition of Juycc of 
" Lemmons or Vinegar 5 and is the fame eiFeft which 
*^ Pot-affics alfo produce, as we ftid before. 

*^ Mather is a Root cultivated much in Fkmdtt^. 
•^ There be of it two forts 5 Bipe-MaPhety which is 
*< the coarftft 5 and Bak-MatheTy otherwife called 
•^ Crap' Mat her : This Mf^^^ufedto the beft advan- 
*'tage, dyeth on Cloth a colour the fae«c(t to our 
*^Bow dye, or the new Scarlet; the like whereof 
** Safflowr doth in Silk, infomuch as th6 cotours cal- 
^' led Baftard-Scarlets are dyed wiAiit. Thisc^our 
indiires nmeh hoyling, andis u(ed bt>i1i with Alhim 
*'- and Argol : it holdeth well. The* brigfeteft colours 
dyed with this material are made 1^ ovcr-dj^ing the 
" fame, and then by difcharging part of it 1^ back- 
boyling it in Algol. 

^^ Mather is ufcd with Bran-Kq«OF, inftead of 
White-liqucMT or ordinary Wiater. 
^ Cochkiett is of feverat forts, w^. Sihefter and 
Mejiequa : This alfo is ufed* with Bran4iquorin Pew- 
ter-Furnaces, 2ndtw'^h A^HOrj^rfi^y in order to- the 
Scartct-dy«. It is the colour whereof the like quar^- 
^'tity cflFedketh moft in Dying j ^md-Colottrs dyed 
"with itj arcfiid-tc^be dyed in ©rain. ^Ragst^ed 
in the dregs of this colour is caHcd^?fer7^i?^, an(^*tis 
ttfed- to colour Wines 5 O^hineel being couiited fo 
^' fer from, anunwholefome thing, that k-is cfleemcda 
"Cordtah Any acid Liquor takes off the intend 
^ Rediiefe of this colour^ turning it towards ^O^ ' 
^^jpange, FWmt, or Scaflef colour r With- this fceleitf 







aUb the Spanijb Leather and Flocks arc dyod whieh 
^< Ladies ufe; The extradt to ficuta hereof makes the 

.'^ Atnotto dyeth of it felf an Orange-colouri is 
" ufcd with Pot-afhcs upon Silk, Linncn, and. Cot- 
^'^ tons, but not upon Cloth, as being not apt to pene^ 
^* tcate into a thick fubftance. 

^^ W^ildf caUtd lis Latin Luteda ; when 'tis ripe 
^' (that is to fay, in th^ flower) it dyah (with the 
^hdp of l^ot-^liies) a deep LcmmOd cotoui, like urt- 
^' CO R/mmculUiy or Bioont flower i and either by 
^ the fmaUfieft of proporfion put into the Liquor^ or 
''dfe by the flighter tinAure, it dycth all Colouft 
'' between White and the Yellow afojtcfaid, 

'< In the uft of this mate rial> Dyers ufe a crof^, 
^ driven dONi^n into their furnace whh a fcrew to 
keep iedown^ fo as^tbe Cloth may hare liberty in 
the fiiperHQtanf Liquor^ to be turned upon die 
" Winch and kept out With th<^ ftaves j Thisf wec^d is 
'^ much culdvatdl in K^nty for thtf isfe of the Lon- 
^^ dgn l>yttSf it holdctb filfiiciendjr well biit againft 
*^Uiiflci and TartarOM Liquors. ^Jdnter^ finke is 
**ft»adcOf it. 

" H^0<i^wa^y<^Gr»iftaTm6f^ii0 (commonly cal- 
" led Grafirtg- weed by f h« Dy<n5^ produces the faiiic 
^^k(k tiitti iMe^la^ being? itfed in greater quanti- 
*^ties •. It fe fefctona madeufe Of as M Silk, LinneiiV 
^ or? C3o«tons, ba omly as ifo coarfe^Glckhs^ : It is 
^' alfo fet with Pot-aflics or Urine, eattedby rile E)y- 
^ tts Sigge fiifikk'y of itthertbe two forti, ^t young 
^ and thef 0^. F^^k '% ^hc^ afnd grOand> d^ the 
^othct Wbodis sbove^rtieftfiofttfd ^t. 
^ '""ThQ/omi^ Fiifiiek t>ytt\i a kind Off Ked^rfh^* 
" Orange-colour 5' ifftW^-rtW, 2tiUit doloitr vTith feVei^at 

P p 2 " degrees 


300 The H I ST OR Y of the 

" degrees of ycllownefs bctwcch : It is ufcd with 
" flacked Lime. The colours Dyed with old Fufiick 
" hold cxtreamly 5 and are not to be diicharged, will 
'^ fpend with Salts or without ^ and will work hot 
"or cold. . 

" Soot of Wood. Soot containeth ia i^fclf , both a 
" Colour and Salt ; wherefore there is nothing added 
^ to it to extrad its Colour, nor to make it flrike up- 
on the StuflF to be Dyed 5 the natural Colour which 
it Dyeth of it fclf, is the Colour of Honey 5 but 
is the foundation of many other Colours upon 
" Wool and Cloth 5 for to other things 'tis not ufcd. 
^' IVoad is made of a Weed, fown upon ftrong ncw- 
'^ broken Land, perfedly cleered from all flones 
*^^aad weeds, cut feveral. time? by the top leaves, 
" then ground, or rather chopt with a peculiar Mill 
" for that purpofe i which being done feveral times, 
it is made up in Balls and dryed in the Sun 5 the 
dryer the year is, the better the Woad, 
^' When it is made up in Balls, it is broken again 
'^ and laid in heaps, where if it heat too faft, it \& 
fprinkled with ordinary water : but if it heat too 
flowly, then they throw on it a quantity of Lime^ 
'^ or Urine. But of the perfed cultivating and cu- 
'^ ring of Woad, we ftiall fpeak elfe- where. 

Englijh Woad is counted the ftrongeil, it is com- 
monly tryed by ftaining qi white Paper with it, 01? 
a white Limed wall, and if the Colour be a French- 
green it is good. 

" Woad in, ufe is ufed with Pot-aflies commonly 

^' called Ware, which if it be double refiix'd, is called 

bard Ware (which is much the fame with Kelp) or 

Sea- weeds, calcin'd and burnt into the hardnefs of 

^'aftone, by reiterated Calcinations. 



-» r* 





ROY A L' S C t E TT. 30c 

" hime or Calke which is ftrong Lime, \s ufcd to 
•' accelerate the fermentation of the Woad, which 
" by the help of the fame Pot-aflies and warm liquors 
" kept always fb, in three or four Days will come 
"^"to Work like aKiveo££ecr, and .will have a blew 
" or rather grcenifh froth or flowty upon it, anlwcr- 
ing to the Ycft of the Kive. Now the over quan- 
tity of Ware, fretting too much upon the Woad, is 
obtunded or dulled by throwing in Bran fometimes 
^ looic, ibmefimes in Bags. 

The making and ufing Woad, is one of the moft 
myftcrious> nice, and hazardous operations in Dy- 
ing : It is one of the moft lafting Colours that is 
Dyed : An intenfe Woad-Colour is almoft black, 
^ that is to fay, of a Damfon colour 5 this Colour is 
"the foundation of fo many others in its degree, that 
** the Dyers have a certain Scale, or number of Stalls, 
" whereby to compute the lightnefs and deepnefi 
" of this Colour. 
/* Indico is made of a Weed of the fame Nature 
with Woad, but more ftrong 5 and whereas Woad 
" is the whole fubftance of the Herb, Indico is only 
^' a mealy concrete juice oif^cuta drycd in the Sun, 
" fometimes made up in flat Cakes, fometimes into 
^^ round-balls, there be (cvcral forts of Indico. 

*^ Logwood is chopt and ground like other of the 
** Woods above-mentioned, it maketh a purplifh- 
'^ blew 5 may be ufed without Allum : It hath been 
<^ efteemed a moft falfe and fading Colour ; but 
^ now being ufed with Galls, is far lefs complainr 
•^ ed of. 



joi the HI ST R Tof. the 

General Obfervations upon 


Irft, that all the materials (wliich of thcmfclvcs 

" do give Colour) arc cither Red, Yellow, pr 

*' Blew, fo that out; of thcni> and the prp-utivc fui>- 

"dumental Colour, whiter ^ that ^cat variety 

^* which we fee in Dyed Stuffs doth arillc. 

'' z. That few oi the Colouring materials (as 
Cochineel, Soot, Wood wax, Woad,) are in their 
outward and fiifl: appoaraivcc of the ^me Colour, 
which by die (leightcflt difiempers and foIutioDs in 
the wcakcft Mer^rua^ the Dye upon Cloth, Silk, 
''&c. . ' . 

3 . That nfvany of the Colouring matcrraTs will 
not yield their Colours without rauch grinding, 
ftceping, baylin^ fcrnjcating,, oj; corroliba by pow- 
erful Mcr^rm 5 as R.ed-wQod, Wel4 Wbad, Ar- 
^. That many of the ^iaid Colouring, ihateriaiis 
^* will of themfelves give no Colouring, at all, as 
'^ Copperas, qr Galls, or with jtnudi dUadvantagc» 
" Uftlefs the Clpth or pthct StuJf to be Dyed, be as 
"it werc„ ficft cavei;ed pr incruilatcd. with ibmc 
other naatter„ though Cplourrkis,. aforeliand,. as 
Mather, Weld, Brafil with AUum.. 

5- That ibrac of nhc.favd. Coloming materials 
" by the help of other Colour-lefs Ingredients* do 
"ftrike different Colours from what they would 
^' alone, and of themfelvcs; as Cochineel, Brafil, 

" 6. That 








• » I 





ROY A L SO CI E TY. ,©* 

,<J.That fomc Coloursi^ra^ Mather, |ndicp, jind 
^' Woad^ hy reiterated' tinfturesj will ^t M become 

" 7. That although Grceii be the moft frccjucnt aiui 

'^common of natural Colours, yet there is no Crapk 

" in^edicntii ^hkh isfiQW, ufed alone* to dye Giecn 

with upon any Material 5. Sap green (being the con- 

^^dcnfated juyce of the Rhamnom Berrj) being the 

fteareft ; tlie which is ufed by Countty People. 

" i,: There is no black thiofe in ufc which dyes 

'^ black 5 tho' both the Coal and aoot of moft things 

iHirm OTr-fcoichcd he. of ..that colour 5 and the 

blacker^ by how much the matter before it was 

burnt was whiter, as in the famous instance o£ 

;;/: i?v r5^ tinfturc of. fbpie, l^yijug' Stuffs will fade 
'^cvch with Tying, or with' the Air, of wilPffain cvea 
" with Water 3^ but very much with Wihe^r Viiurgar, 

^' I ql Some of the Dyers Materials are uicd to bind 
and flrengthen a Colour^ feme tp heighten it, jfomc 
tOfiiy^e JMirp to the fluff, foiip to dirchargeand take 
oflTthccQloui ei^cxin.whoTe,or in part^ ^atf fome 
out. of fcaiid, W roa^e.the. Material Dyed (if coftly) 
to be heavyer. 

,/' LU That fQpieDying.Ingredicn|:s.Qr. Drug§,.by 

'^JtJiJf, ^aiipnofs . pC their. ,B6die5,/,hiake 'the thf cad^ ^i 

'": ti^e. dyed" SituC fecni <:Qarfcr 5 ahd j(p^^ by/iV^--' 

'' i% theni, fouUer,. andrfonic by Icvigntiug.their.A-' 

j^eritics,. finer,. 

'^ 1.2. . Many of the fame c.olour,s. arc dyeiu]gon fc-. 
veral Swflfe \vc[tlit ffiycj:^ Mat^rj^lj^j; ^Rf4wofidis, 

ij/Qd;iji Clpd&k,VhQt >n .Silks y/fr^tfom\ Si'lks-^jupt 
*^iil^.Cibtfi 5 and may be dyed at fever ai prizes. "^ 

"1 3. That 



304 . 7j}e H I ST.O ft r. of ih$ 

, "13., That Scowling an4 W^ihin^of Sjtufft to be 
"dyed, IS to be done Wirfi fpeciai Materials, 5 aS ibme- 

times with Ox-galls, foriietimcs with Fullers earth, 

fometimes with Soap ; This latter being pernicious 
" in fome cafes, where Pot-afties will ftain or alter the 
"colour: ; V' , \ / 

14; Where great quantities of Stuffs arc to be 

dyed together, or where' they arc to ht done with 
** great fpced, and where the pieces are very long, 

broad, thick, or otherwife, they are to be diffe- 

" remly hahdled, both lA rclpea to tljij Vefl^s and 

"Ingredients. : " ' \ . \": T. .! 

1 5 . In fbme Colours and Stuffe the Tlngcnt Li. 

quor muft be boy ling 5 in other cafes Wood- warm ; 

in fome it may be cold. 

" 1 6. Some Tingent Liquors arc fitted for ufe by 

long keeping 5 anciihfbme the vertue v^irs* away 

bythcfame, . ' . . ' '. ^^ ' 

17.' Some Colours or Stuffs aire bcft cfy^d by re- 
iterated Dippings . ever into the fame Liquor at fc- 
^Weral diflances of time; and fome by continuing 
longer, and others lefler whiles thereinV . " 
" 18. In fome cafes the mattet of thi VeAclwherc- 
in the Liquors are heited,and theTift£tures prepared, 
" muft be regarded 5 is the Kettles muft be Pewter for 
'* Bow-dye. 

"19. There is little reckoning mad6 hoW n\uch 
'^Liquor is ufed in proportion to tlic dying Drugs^ 5 
" the Liquor being rather adjuftccl to the bulk of the , 
'^ Stuff, as the VeflTels^c to the breadth of the fame : ' 
" The quantity of dying Drugs being proportioned 
" to the colour higher or Iqwer, and to die. Stuffs 
"both I as likcxs^ife the Salts a're'td dying Drugs. ; 
^ ^'Concdniri^ thd WeLghtr which Colours '^i^e to ^^ 

- it 





ROTA L S C I EtY. ^of 

^ Silk (for in them^tis ixi6fl taken liotice b^ as being 
^ ibid by weight, and being a Commodity of ^reat 
** price :) It is obfcrvcd. That one pound of raw Silk 
^ lofeth four ounces by waflung out the Gums and 
** natural Sordes. 

" That rile fame fcowrcd Silk may be raifed to 
above thirty ounces from the remaining twelve, if 
it be dyed black with fbme Materials. 

The rcafon why Black colour may be moft heavy 
dyed, beihg becaule all gravitating Drugs may be 
dyed black, being all of colours lighter than it : 
** whereas perhaps there are few or no Materials 
^ wherewith to increafe the weight of Silk, which' 
^' will confift with fairlig^t colours ^ inch as will, ha« 
<^ ving been ufed, as white Arfenick to Incamadives. 
** Of a thing truly ufefiil inDying,e(pecially of Blacks, 
nothing increafes weight to much as Galls, by realbn 
whereof Black Silks are reftored to as much weight 
as they loft t>y waftiing out their Gum : Nor is it 
counted extraordinary, that Blacks (hould gain a- 
bout four or fix ounces in tlK Dying upon each 
-pound. - 

Next to Galls old Fuftick increafes the weight 
« about I; in 12. 

^' Mather about one ounce. 
" Weld half an ounce. 

"<' The Blew-fat, in deep ^lews of the fi^ Aall, 
^^ gives no confiderahk we^t. 

'^ Neither doth Logwood, Coduned, nOr Arnotto : 

^^ Nor doth Copperas it feif, where Galls are not. 

^< I conceive much light would be given to the 

Philofophy of Dying, by carefiil Experiments of 

the weight added by each Drug or Salt in Dying of 

" every colour. 







Tha H I STO RT of tke 

^ $1^ 2A4stim^ to the veiglttv and jgivcth » 
<' deeper Black than Qopperoi itfelf $. which « a good 
*^ cxcufe. ft?r the Dyeri^ that ufc «• 

^^ I have hitherto but nxuitiqned the fevcral Colo* 
^^ rations ufcd in Humane Affaiis, enumerated th^ 
^^ feveral Material^ ufed in one of them> namely^ Dy- 
'^ ing ; and imperfedly deCcribed the feveral ufes and 
^^ applications of them in Dyings I have al&> &t 
down fome general Obfecvations relating to that 
whole Trade. It remains now that we delcribe 
<<* the feveral Veffels, ToolSj, aad Uteadls ufed in the 
^^ fame. And particularly to ^tyf how aoy Colour 
^^ ailign^d may be, fiiperinduced upon any kind of Ma- 
^^ terial, asWool9.Linnen> Half , Feathers^ Cotton o^ 
Silk : And with what Advantages or Diiadvantages 
of L9fting>,Brighttiefs, Cheapnefs> and Variety, crc. 
each may be performed^ But thi$ being infinite, 
and alinoijt u^tiqaohable by word^^ as b^eing incom- 
paf^M^ly. vpQi^ di|Gcult> than how to imitate and 
compofe any Colour affignedj out of the few, ufu-. 
^j furnifhing a Paioters palat:^. \ Ijcaye the whole 
to the furcheC: cpnildcration o^ this Leairqcd ^ 













'i jj I . ' .ji i.j M i im I II- ■■■ M. 


ROTAL SOCI^rr. yir 

■ • 



Of the Gciia:atiqa Kad Ordcrix^ of 


Commohfy called 


^^ YN tlic Month 6fM^ the t)//?ifT:rcaftthdrS^^^ 

'* (whkh the T>rcdg(!rs crfl thdr^at 5) it is 
"<^ iiEci to a cJroip d£ Candle> and iboiit the Wgncfs 6€ 
** an half-penny* 

'^ iThe Spat ckavcs to Stones^ old Oyftcr-fhcUsv' 
*^ pieces of Wood, and fiich like things, at th e bot* h a i ^ //^ 
*^ of the Sea, which they c«li Cultch. 

^ 'Tis probably cbnjeaurcd, that the Spit intwcn- 
*^ ty Jour hours begins to have a^hell. 

^* Iti the Month Of Afejr, the Dredgers (l^ the Law 
*' of the Admiralty Court) havt liberty to catch all 
^* ihannerof 'OjfterSy of what ifize ibever. 
^ ^* When th^y have taken them, with a knife they 
« gently railc the TmaU brood from thejOmchi. and 
" then they throw tik Cuhdi in again, to prefervc 
^^ the ground for ihe -ftmite, tmlcft they be fo newly 
^^ Spat that they cannot l>e fafcly fevered from the 
^' Cultch, in that cafe they arc permitted to take tlie 
^ ftonc or fliell, &c. that the Spat isnpojft, one Shell 
^ haying marty times 20 Spats. ^ - ' ^ . 

ja» The H I STO R Tof thO' 

" After the Month of May it is Felony to cariy ^ 
*^ way the Cultch^ aud punifliable to take any other 
" OyfterSy uolefs it be thofc of fizjt (that is to lay) a- 
^' bout the bignefi of an half Crown piece^ or \diien 
^^ the two (hells being fhut^ a fait^ ihUliAg will ratde 
" between them, 

" The places where thefe Oyfiers are chiefly catcht, 
^ are called the T^nt-Burnbathy Maldetty and C^/nf- 
'^ Waters J the latter taking its name ftom the River 
^ of Colney which paflcth bjr Colne'Cbeftery gives the 
** name to that Town, and runs into a Creek of the 
<^ Sea at a- place f;alled th^Hythe^ being the Suburbs 
*^ of the Town. ^ 

"This Brood and other Oyfiers they carry to 
*^ Creeks, of rfie Se» ^Brickel-Sea^ Merfejy Langytd^ 
*' Frinffe^^yirppenhOyTok^k^ Salt-coafey and 

^^ there throw them into the Channel, which they 
^^ call their Beds or Layers, where they grow and &t* 
^^^ ten, and, uiitwo^Qt three years the (malleft Brood 
/' will be Oyfiers oi the fizcs aforefaid. 

"Thofe Oyfiers ^f^hich they ^ould haye. greenv 
^^they pijit into PitS: about three ^ foot deep, inthc 
** Salt-Marfbes, wJiidi axe overflowed only at Spring* 
*^ tides, tftwhich they haye Sluices, and let out the 
^< Salt watef until it is about a foot and half deep. 

^ Thefe Pii^ from fame quality in the Soil co-opc- 
fS rating with.the.heat of the Sun, will become^een, 
and communicate their colour to the Oyfiers that 
are putintq them in four or five days, though they 
comiponly let.them continue there fix Weeks, 0£ 
t wo^QQths,^ ia which time they will be of a dark 

To prove tjiat the Sun operates in the greenings 
<^TaIesmry Pits will gteen oiilyin Summer j but that 

' * «th%--. 







^ the Earth hath the greater power. Brickie fea Pits, 
green both Winter and Summer : and for a further 
proof, a Pit within a foot of a greening Pit will not 
green i and thofe that did green sti^ well, wiU in 
time lofe their quality* 

The Ojfiers when Ae Tide comes- in, lie with 
" their hollow fliell downwards, and when it goes 
out they turn on the other fide 5 they remove not 
** from their place unlefs in coM weather, to cover 
*' themfelvcs in the Oufe. 

^* Thercafon of the fcarcity of OyfterSy and confe- 
^^quently of thcfi: dearnefr, is, bccauife they are of 
^ late years bought up by the T)uti:h. 

*^ There arc great penalties- by the Admiralty- 
^ Court, laid upon thofe tharfi(h<)Ut of thofe grounds 
*<^ which the Court appoints^ or that-^ deftroy the 
*'Cultch, or that take -any Ojfiers tliat are not of 
^ iize, or that do not tread under their feetv ot throw 
" upon the (hore, a Fifh whith they call a Five finger y 
^^ refembling a Spur-rowel, becau& that fifli^cts into 
^ the Ojfiers when they gape, and fucks^them out. 
The reiafon why fuch a penalty v^ fct upon any 
that fhall deftroy the Gultch, is^ becaufc they find 
that if that be taken away the Oufe wiU increafe, 
and then Mufcles ^nd Cockles will breed there, and 
'^deftroy ^c Ojfiers, they having not whereon to 
ftick their Spat. 

The Ojfiers are fick after they have Spat 5 but iri 
^ y^^ ^^^ J^y they begin to mend, and in Augufi 
« they are perfe<aiy well : The Male-Oyfier is black- 
^ Ack, having a black Subftance in the Fin \ the Female 
*^ whitc-ikk (as they term it) having a milky Sub-^ 
**ftancc in the Fin. They are fait in the Pits, falter , 
^ in the Layers, but faltcft atSca* 
" -:"" ^ . la:; 

3 op 



jio The H I S TO R Tofihtt^ 

In Ccm^ipojltng H{/?^i^x after thi^intimcc^thcgr tt- 

folve to proceed^ 4iU they have not only obtained an 

Account oi2\ixi^<jxe9X^^xkimQ^ Trades \ 

but alfo pif all the ici^Wofks^ and Pm^cTr^duiiians^ 

which are confined to fome particular 4$!0;^x> or C^r- 

poratianSy or Families. As this Stock fhall incicaic^ 

they purpose 'to makie'it of <jcperal ufe^ cither by 

^cominuing Trintifig thcmo& rcmarkaibil^t)f them^or 

by freely ^igpoAfigthem to the view of :q^j^ that dc- 

fire fuch Ifrformations'i providtdy ^at air the fune 

time they recave . fofne^ ^ey will alio Comnxmicate 

others : And 4ihgr have affiired grounds ^f cox^^ 

denccy that when this atteiiQ>t (hall be con^pleatod^ 

;k will be found to brmg innumerable benc^ to all 

. praftical Arts : When ^thc; iecrets oi Manufa&wr^t 

ihall ^ diroover'49 tY^^ Material ^c£q^^^^ their 

Inftruments %ttr'd^ thdr fr^duSs reprefeotcd : It 

will ibon be 4eeermin'd, how fiu: they themielv^ 

''may be promoted, and what new conibquaices m:^ 

thence be dedoc'd. Hereby we iluU fee whoiKr ail 

the parts of the mofl obvions Crafts have bem 

brought to perfeflion} and whether tiKy may not 

alHft eadi other, mor<: than has been liichcrto endea^ 

vourVl : Hereby we fhall difcem the compafs, the 

powa> the changes, the degrees, the ^^esof them 

iall $ apd ipeedily underfbn4 , whe(h)pr diek cfFeds 

have been large enough, and the ways "Of producing 

thenrfiiffici^ntly too^endious. In ihort, by this help 

the ^oA Artificers will be well inftruacd, by a)R- 

iidcringriieAfrM^^yandrw/jofthebcft: And the 

^eatcft Inventors will be excee4ingly inlighten'd^ 

^Kcaufe thcjy .wUl Jj^avc in their yi^w tli€ labours of 

many men, many places, and many times, where^ 

v-withto compare their own, Tli»5« the fiircft, and 


RO TAh SO &T E TV. ^n 

moftcfffciftorf means, tbi^^ ^ofc jl k w /'^» ^ 

Nature is fiich, that it is apt'tt) inCTwIcTnot ohly by 
mens beholding iA\zWorks of greater, bur of equal, 
nay of kft Wits than thcmfclves; 

InthewhoIcprogrcfsofthisA^^r/T^/^ilhavebecn Scft. XL. 
cautious to forbear commending the labours of any The Conciur- • 
^nsTXz Fellows of i^z Soviet j. For this, T need not fion of this 
make tsxj Apology to them; feeing^ it would have. -P^''^^ 
been an iticoniidcrable Honour, to be prais'd by fo 
mcan^ a Writer : But now I muft break this LaWy.^ 
in the particular calf- of Dr. ChtifiopbeT fVten : For 
doing fOy I will not alledge the cxcufet>f ray Friend- 
Jhip to him \ though that perhaps were fuflicicnt ; . 
and it might well be allowed me totaketiiisx>ccaflon 
of PuSliftiing it : But I only do it on the meet con/i- 
deration of Jufticc : For in turning over the Regifiers: 
of the Society y I perceived that many excellent thing?, , 
whofe firft Invention ought to be afdjb'd to him, werc^ 
cafiially omitted : This moves mc to do him right 
by himfclt.and to give this feparatc: Account of his . 
indcavours,. m promoting the Dcflgn of the Royal 
Societyy in the finall timcwhereiri he has hadltha': 
opportunity of attending it. ' ' . ' ' . ' M 
. The firft iiiftancc I ihail 'mention, to whichhc may^^ 
lay peculiar claim,, is the l^oSttineof^ Mbtiony which^ 
is the moft confidferable of alt others, ft>t^ dhblifh- 
ing the firft ^/in^iples of FhiUjophyi hj' Geometrical) 
"Demonfirations, Yhfs®i?j Gaff /*r Had bcf8jt:bcgd^ 
having taken up fomcExj^rimi^s^pf^ thisidml upon ' 
Cdnjt^urc,. and made .them' thcfiirft Foundation ofl, 
his whole iSJK/f^w' of Nirturer^tiomt of. his Con- _ 
clnfiopis Iteming very qucftioniable, becaufc they ; 
WQCft only* dEriVd ftpnr the groft Trials of Balls \ 


jiz the H I STO RT of the 

meetif g one another- at Temii^ and Billiards : Dr. 
JfFren produced before the Society^ aa Infirument to 
rcprifent tixe^effeds of all forts of Im/mijes, made be- 
tween two hard globous Bodies^ either of equals or 
of different bignefs, and fwiftnefs> foUowii^ or meet- 
ing each other^ or the one moving, the other at reft. 
From thefe varieties arofe many unesfpedcd effodsf 
of ail which he denoonftrated the true Theories, after 

* they had been confirmed by maiiy hundreds of Ex- 
periments in that Jnftrument. Thefe he^propos'd as 

. the Principles of all ^etnanflrMians in Nstunal "Phi- 
lofofhy : Nor can it feem ftrange^at theic Elements 
fhould be of fuch Univerial ufe $ if we confider tliat 
Generati(my Corrupt ioUy Alteration^ and all the Vicif- 
ittudes of Nature, are nothing elTe but the effeds 
ariftng bom the meeting of little Bodies^ of differing 
Figures, Magnitudes, and Velocities. 

The Second IForJc which he has advanc d, is the 
Hiftary of Seafons : whicli will be of admirable be- 
ndSt to Mankind, if it (hall be conftantly ^purfued, 
^d deriv'd down to Poflerity. His propoial therefore 
was, to comprehend a ^iarj^ of Wind> Weather^ 
and otlier conditions of the jdir, as to Heat, Cold, 
and Weight i and alio a General Ulefcriftion of the 
Year, whether contagious or healthfiU to Men or 
Bcaftss-with aa Account of EpdemicalDifeafes, of 
Blafts, Mill-dews, and .other accidents,, belonging 
to Gi;^,^ Cattle, Fifh, Fowl« and Infeds. And 
becauie thc^ diificulty . of ^a conAant Obfervation of 
th^jOir, by Kig^xt and Day, iccm'd invincible, he 
therefore devisil a Clock to be annex'd to a Wcather- 
Cock, which mbvfd a rundle, cover'd with Paper, 
upon which the Clock mov'd a black lead-Pcnfil; 

ofo that the Obferver by the Traces of the Pencil on 


ROYAL S C I E TV. 513 

the Paper, might certainly conclude, what Winds 
had blown in his abfcnce, for twelve hours Ipacc : 
After a like manner he contriv'd a Thermometer to be 
its own Regtjler: And becaufe the ufual Thermomt ters 
were not found to give a true meafure of the cxtcn- 
fion of the Air, by reafon that the accidental gravi- 
ty of the liquor, as it lay higher or lower in the Giafs, 
weigh unequally on the yf/r, and gave it a farther 
contradion or extenfion, over and above that which 
was produced by heat and cold 5 therefore he inven- 
ted a Circular Thermometer ^ in which the liquor occa- 
fions no fallacy, but remains always in one height 
moving the whole Injirumenty like a Wheel on its 

He has contriv'd an Injlrument to meafure the 
quantities of Rain that fa^ : This as foon as it is 
fiiU, will pour out it felf, and at the years end djf- 
cover how much Rain has fallen on fuch a fpace of 
Land, or other hard fuperficies, in order to the The^ 
or J of Vapours y Rivers j SeaSy &c. 

He has devis'd many fubtil ways for the eafier 
finding the gravity of tho.AtmoJpherey the degrees of 
drought and moifhirc, and many of its other, acci- 
dents. Amoingfl: rhefc Injiruments there are Balances 
which are ufcful to other purpofes, that flicw the 
weight of the Air by their Ipontaneous inclination, 
Amongft the new Difcoveries of the Tendulumy 
thef e are to be attributed to him, that the Vendulum 
in its motion frorh ircft to reft 5 that is, in one dcfceno 
and afccnt, moves unequally in equal times, accor-; 
ding to a line of fines : That it would continue to 
move either in Circular y or Eltptical Motions ; and 
fuch Vibrations would have the fame Periods with 
thofe that are reciprocal ; <aidthat by ia complication 

Rr of 

314 n^ H IS ro R X. pf fkfS\ 

of fqvcrai Tendidufns depending, one upoq, anpdiei^ 
there might be rcpreieated.niotion^ U^e th,e> plWti^ 
ry Helical M&$iwfy or oiiore intricate : APfl. ]f ft ^tb^ 
thefe Tendulums would difcovcr without confufion 
(as the Tlanets do) three or four fcveral M^tufns^ASt- 
ing upon one Body with differing Periods > a^ xhf(L 
there may be pioduc'd a Natural ^andard foe Hq)^ 
fure-from the 'Pendulum fot^.v^Igg* ufq, ^ /,,//,: jr;i^H 

He has invented many ways to make Aftrimohtcdt 
OhfervAtioBs more acurate and eafy ^ He l^ fitted 
and hong ^adra^ftSy Sextant Sy and Hadiry more ooufcij 
modiouAy than focmei;ly :. He has m,adctvic6 Tele^ 
fcofifSy to open with a )oynt like a Sccbor^ by wnjx;^ 
Obiervers. may infallibly take a diftance to IialB mi« 
nutes, and AikI no difference in the f^me Obiervati- 
onrettcratt^ fcvcra\ times j nor can any wajfping or 
luxation of thei^ft^pEK^t, hinder thctcitth <3£ iu 
- ifl<ft^ha»,-ad!^d' 'Riai^ :%^re|f Retp^ Screws^ ,iixA 
othcS: dcvifc§ .tQ^ TeUfcfpfis^ for takifig imalji diftjin^^cf 
and apparent Diameters to Seconds. He has made 
apertures to take in more or lefs light, as the Ot^crrer 
pieafes^ by opening and. /hutp()g like the Pup^ of dhc 
£ye>; the bettet to ^ Ciafio! to Ctepuffuline Oif^jfiMt^ 
ons. c He hfl9 added much to tlie Theory of SDi^^^^c^^^ 
much to the Manufkdure it felf of grindiing SP9^ 
Gla0es. He has attempted, and not without iucceiS^ 
the making of Gla0es of odicr forms, than SpKericaL : 
He has exa^y meafur'd and delineated the Sphcrei 
of the Humours in the Ejfe, whofc propprticvas one to 
another were only gbe&'d at before. This acouate 
difcuflicm produced the Reafon, why we iee things 
ereded> and that RefleStion conduces as much to ^^ 
m as Refra^im. 

Hedifcours'd to them a Natural and eafy Theory of 


rotaE svv r e rr. 3if 

^aSKoni xMiich etHS&f a^TwcrM evcrjr Bxp€¥iment. 

ftflly dcmonftratttl aff ©Aj^/r^w in a few Piopofi^ 
tkms,' flicwing nd< only (ds ia Kfpkrs ^hptrics) the 
ckjfnrtion properties of Giaflfes^ but iHt PtopcutiOiis * 
by v/hldi the indiridtial BLayes cut the Axis^- land 
cidi other ' j upon «rhich the Charges (as they arc 
a&aliy cilted) <sST&tef:apeSy or the Proportion 6f the 
Eye-glaflcs and Apertures arc demonftrably diico- 


Ht has made conftant Obfervations on Saturn ; and 
a Theory or that Planet, truly anfwcring HlOiferva- 
tionSy before the printed Difcourfe of Hugonius on 
that Subjed appear'd. 

He has eflayM to make a trac Selenograpy by mea- 
ftire 5 the World having nothing yet but Pifturcs, ra- 
ther than Surveighs or Maps of the Moan. He has 
ftated the Theory of the Moon's Libration, as far as his 
Ohfervatians could carry him^ He has compos'd a 
Lunar Globe ^ reprefenting not only the Spots, and va« 
rious degrees of whitenels upon the Surface, but the 
Hills, Eminencies,and Cavities moulded in foiid Work. 
The Globe thus fafhioned into a true Model of the 
Moon, as you turn it to the Light, reprefents all the 
Menfirual phaies, irith the variety of Appearances 
that happen from the Shadows of the Mountains and 
Valleys. He has made Maps of the TleiadeSj and 
other Telefcopical Stars 5 and proposed Methods to de- 
termine the great doubt of the Earth's motion or reft, 
by the fmall Stars about the Pole to be fcen in large 

In order to Navigation he has carefully purfu'd ma- . 
ny Magnetical Experimints 5 of which this is one of 
the noMeft and moft imxtSxilSpeculation. A large7>Fv//^ 
is plac'd iq tl\e midft of a Plane Boards with a hole in- 

R r 2 to 

?,6 ^lie HI STdi R\nj>}{ifl^b\ 

GiobtMt^ tYit'Fdh^ in thcHmzorti 1*cati54ihc Piautt 
dtiftcd ovtl- with fteel-fiKiigs equally ftom*«'6iBv^c:. 
The Duft by the Magnetical \itt\}c)s ioimiBciiariy fin. 
gur'd into "Furrows that bend like a fort erf /faSw*, fro*: 
cecding as it were out of one TaUy and rctuf ning intci 
the other : And the whole Plane is thus figur'4 like 
the Circles of a Tlanifphere. 

It being a Queftion amongft the Problems of Na- 
wgationy very well worth rdfolvihgvto what Mecha- 
nical powers the Sailing (againft the. wind cfpccially) 
was reducible 5 he fhcw'd it to be a Wedge : And hci 
dcmonftrated how a tranfient Force upon an oblique 
Plane, would caufe the motion of the Plane agahift 
thc'firft Mover. And he made an In/htiment, cfaat 
Mechanically produc'd the fame cfFcft, and fbew'd- 
the reafon of Sailing to all Winds- > • 

The QeometTkalMechantcj^cARowifigy hefhew'd 
to be a VeSiis on a moving or cedent Fulcrum. Few: 
this end he made InJirumentSy to find what the expan- 
ilon of Body was towards the hindrance of Motion in 
a Liquid Medium ; and what degree of impediment 
was produc'd, by what degree of cxpanfion : With 
other things that are the nfeccflary Elements for lay- 
ing down t\\t Geometry oi Sailings jSwimmingy Row- 
ingy Flyings and the Fabricks of Shijps. 

He has invented a very curious and exceeding fpec- 
dy way of Etching. He has flatted feveral things to- 
wards the emendation of ^^?^r-w<>ri6j. file has made 
Infiruments o( ReJpirationyZnd. for draining the breath 
from fuliginous vapours, to try whether the fame 
breath fo purify'd will fcrvc again. 

He was die firft Inventor of clrawing Pictures by 
Microfcopical Glaffes. He has found out perpetual, at 


R r A h\ S C I ETT, 317. 

leaft long liv'd Lamps, amd Regiftcrs of ]Fiirnace$> 
and the like, for keeping a perpetual temper, in or^ 
der to A^arious ufes ; as hatching of Eggs, Infeds, pre* 
duftion of Plants^ Chymical Preparations, unita- 
ting^iNatote in producing Fofliis and Minerals, keep- 
ing the motion of Watches equal, in order to Loj^i- 
tudes ^sAAfirtmamicalufes^ and infinito other ad van* 

-^He was the firft. Author of the Noble Andtomical 
Rxpermtnt of InjeBing Liquors into the Veins of. 
Animals. An Experiment now vulgarly knowp $ but 
long.fince exhibited to the Meetings at Ox for 4% and 
tiierute carried by fome Germanj;^ and publilli'd 
abroad. -By this Openation divers Creatures wer^. 
immediatly purg'd, vomited, , intoxicate4, kiird,. 
or rcviv'd, according- to the quality of the Liquor 
injcdcd : Hence arofe many new ExpetimeptSp and 
chiefly that of Tfimsfufing Blw4y which the Sociftj 
has.profecuted in fuQdry Inftances, tliat will, proba- 
bly end in cactraordinary 5uccefs»t 

Thlsds a fliort account of the principal, ^ifco^eries 
which Dr. fFren has prclentcd or fuggefted to this 
Affemblj. 1 know very well, that fome of them he 
did. only ftart and defign 5 and that they have been 
fincc carry 'd on to perfedion, by the Induflxy of o- 
ther hands, I purpofe not to rob them of ;heir fliarc 
in the honour : Yet it is reafonable, that the origi-. 
nal Invention fhould be afcrib'd to the true Author y 
rather than the Finijhers. Nor do I fear that this will 
be thought too much, which I have faid concerning 
him : For there is a peculiar reverence due to fo much, 
excellence, covert with fo much modefty. And it is 
not Flattery but h<)nefty, to give him his >uft praiie 5 
who is fo far from ufurpiiig the faCne oi other men, 


31 8 The H ISrh ^ f 0/ he'' 

that he indcavour* with ajl c^rc to; cohc(e4^fci*J 

I have now performed my Trofmfe] and oraw^ biit 
of the Papers of the 4$<?r/^/r> ml Epitome crfthiCrClucf 
ff^orks they have conceiv'd in dieir minds^ pr reduced 
hito Pradice. If any fhall yet think they haye not 
iifcfully employed their time, I (hall be apt to fttfpcd, 
that they undcrftand not what is meant by a ^//4f^;^ 
and profitable labouring about Nature. There are 
indeed fome men who will ftiil condemn them for 
being idle 5 unlefs they immediately profe(s to have 
found out the Squaring the Circle, or the Thihfi- 
phers St one y or fome otlier fuch mighty Nothings. But 
if thefe are not fatisfied with what the Society has 
done, tlKy arc only to blame the extravagance of 
their own Expedations. I confefs I cannot boafl of 
fuch pompous T^ifcoveries : They promife no Won- 
ders, nor endeavour after them : Their Progrds has 
been equal, and fimi, by Natural d^rees, and tho- 
row fmall things, as well as great : They go leifii* 
rably on ; but their flownefs is not caus'd by their 
idlcnefs, but care. They have contrived in their 
thoughts, and couragioufly begun an Attempt y which 
all Jges had dcfpair'd of. It is therefore fit that 
they alone, and not others, who refufe to partake of 
their burden, ihould be Judges by what ^eps, and 
what pace, they ought to proceed. 

Such men are then to be iritreated not to interrupt 
^t\t Labours with impertinent rebukes $ they are to 
remember, that the SubjeSi of their Studies is as laige 
as the Unpverfi : and that in (b vaft an Enterprifey 
many intervals and difappointments muft be recon'd 
upon. Though they do not behold that the Society 
lias already fill'd the world with petfeh Sciences ; 


Tct they aie to be injfoim'd,. that the nature of their 
Work requir'd that they fliouid firft begin with imme- 
thgdical (^oUeSfi^s and indigefied Experiment Sy be- 
fore they go on to finilh and compofetncm int6 Arts. 
In 'which Method they may well be juftified, fee- 
ing tliey have the Almighty Crf <a/w.himfclf for an 
Exaf^le : For he at firft produc d a confus'd and 
fcaftcf'd tight i and rcferv'd it to be the work of 
anoriicr day, to gather and fathjon it into beautiful 

The End of she Second Part, 






The Third Part, 

jough'it be certain^ that the promoting of Sea. I. 
Experiments according to this Idea^ can- 7%^ Subject 
not injure the Virtue, or Wifdom of men's ^«^f^'#« 
minds, or their fornKr ArtSy and mecha- y 
fiical Pcadices 5 or their cftablilh'd ways ^ * 
'o{ life : Yet the perfed innocence of this defign, has 
not been able to free it from the Cavil of the IdUy 
and the Malicious ; nor from the jealoufies of private 
Interefis. Thefe groundlefs prejudices of the parti- 
cular "PrrfeffionSy and Ranks oi Men, I am now in 
the laft Place to remove i and to fhew that there is 
no Foundation for them : To fuiped the Change^ 
which can be made by this Inftitutim j or the new 
things it is likely to produce. 

That it will probably be the Original of many 
ne'w things y I am ^ far from denying, that 1 chear- 
fully acknowledge it. Nor am I frighted at that, 
which is wont to be objcded in this Cafe, the hazard 
oi alter at iWy and Novelty. For if all things that arc 

S f new 

3ii The H I S T RT of the 

new be deJlruBivey all the fcveral means, and de- 
grees, by which Mankind 'has.xifen to this perfedion 
of Artl, were to be condemned. If to be the Au^ 
thor of nem t kings ^ ^ a crime / how >vill l^ic Jfrft 
Civilizcrs of i\/l?;^7^tu* makers, of Laws , and Foun- 
ders of Governments efcape ? Whatever now de- 
lights us in the Works of Nature^ that excells the 
rudcnefs of the fkft Creation, is Rew. Whatever 
we fee in Cities, or Houfes, above the firfk wildaefi; 
of Fields, and meancfs of Cottages, and nakcdnels 
of Men, had its time, when this imputation of No* 
veltyy might 4$ well have bin lafd to its charge. It 
is not therefore an offence, to profefs the introduc- 
tion of New things y unlcfs that which is introduced 
prove pernicious in it felf 5 or cannot be brought iii, 
without the extirpation of others, that are better. 

And the Experimental Know ledge y will not cxpofe 
us to thcfe dangers, I am next to dcdare, in a Uni- 
verfal Apolo^ for its intentions, and cflfeds. This 
was the Third Portion, which I at firft teferv'd, for 
the Conclufion of my Difcourfe* . Y<:t cafliag mp 
eyes back, Tfincf, thatl havdakeadj^ <^' feveraQ oci 
cafions prevented my felf 5 and faid-many tilings as 
I came along, which would have bin miore prefer 
for this place. But I delire that my Reader would 
iiitxrpret this to have proceeded fronv the Nature 
of my Subjed, of which it is hard to Write a plain 
Hijloryy without fallmgfomctimcs unbares into its 
''Fraife. And now I will proceed to a foller, and more 
folemn T>efence : In which, I will try to prove, that 
the incrcafc of Experiments will be fo far from hurt- 
ing, that it will be many ways advantageous, above 
other Studies y to the wonted Courfes of Education % 
to the Principles, and inftruftion of the minds ot 

if^ Men 


Men in general 5 to the Ghriftian ReUgiany to the 
Church of England 5 to all Mahiial Trades ; to Thy- 
Jic 5 to the Nobility y and Gentry 5 and the Univcrlal 
Intereft of the whole Kingdom. 

In all which TarticularSy I hope I fhall rcprefcnt 
this Model^ to be inofFenfive to ail the various ways 
of Living, already in ufe : And thereby I fhali fecurc 
all the Ancient Proprietors in their Rights : A wotk 
as neceflary to be done, in raifing a new Vhilojbphyj 
as we fee it is in building a ne^w London. 

TheFirft prcjiidice I am to wipe away, concerns Seft. IL 
thfc ufaal ways of Education. For it is an obvious Experimem 
doubt 5 whether fo great a change in Works y and w/7/ mt in- 
Opinions y may not have fome fatal confequence, on P^^e Educa- 
all the former Methods of Teachings which have bin ''^''• 
long fettled, and approved by mach Cuftom. And 
here- many Good Men of fcvcrc, and ancieilt man- 
ners, may fcem to have rcafon, when they urge a- 
gainft us ; that the Courfcs of Training up of Youth, 
OHght tobcftill the fame 5 that if they be fiibvertcd, 
• or mtihiply'd, much confiliion will follow ; and that 
this our Uninjerfd Inquiry into things hitherto un- 
queftion*d, can never be made, without difturbing 
liich eftablifh'd Rules of "Difdpliney and InJlruSiion. 

For a General Anfwer to this, it might fufficd to 
declare, th&t in this Inftitutiany Men are not ingag'd 
in thtrfc Studies y till the ComCzoi Education be fully 
'GdWlplcatcd : That the Artoi Experiment Sy \% not 
thnift into the hands of Boys, or fet up to be per- 
Ibrm'd by Beginners in the School i but in an Af- 
fcmbly of Men of Ripe years : Who while they be* 
gin a new Method of Knowledge, which fliall con- 
fift of WorkSy and is therefore moft proper for Men : 

S f z Thqr 

314 The H I STO R Y of the 

they (till leave to Learners, and Children, the old 
talkative Arts which beft fk the younger Age. 
From hence it muft follow, that all the various man- 
ners of Education^ will remain undifturb'd ; becaulc 
the pradifes of them^ and the labours of this, are not 
appointed to meet in the fame Age^ or Vetfims. But 
if this will not fatisfy our Adverfaries^ let us proceed 
to conftdcr the different Parts of Education: and 
then we (hall be able to make the furer ConjeAures, 
what manner of Influence, new Experiments will 
have upon it. 

Education coniifts in divers Rules, and Pradifes, 
whereby men are furnifti'd for all the feveral Courfcs 
of Life, to which they may apply themfelves. Of 
thefe preparatory ArtSy fome concern tlie Bodyy fome 
the Mind. Thofe of the Body have no relation to 
my prefent Argument : Of thofe of the Mind, fome 
intend the Purity and Ornament of Speech : Some 
the Knowledge of the A&ions of former, and. pre- 
fent Times: Some the Government, and Virtue of 
our Lives : Some the Method Qi reafoning : Some the 
skill in the motions and meafures of the Heavens ^ and 
the Earthy and all this great Frame of Vtfible thii^. 

Grammar- Firft then I will make no fcruple to acquit Esf- 
and Rhe- perimentolThtlofophy^ from having any ill effcas, on 

the ufual ArtSy whereby wc are taught the Purity, 
and Finance of Languages. Whatever difcoverics 
fhall appear to us afrelTi, out of the hidden things of 
NaturCy the fame words, and the ianie waics of £x- 
preffion will remain. Or if perhaps by this means^ 
any change (hall be made herein J it can be only for 
the better $ by fuppiying mens Tongues, with very 
many new things y to be namTd^ and adom^d^ and 
defgrib'd in their difcourfe. Nor 


ROT A L S CJ E TT. ^j.^ 

Nor can there be any more JeakMify Qonccxning Moral Phi- 
the Morale and Toiitical Rules of ordering mens lives, lofofhy. 
But they mayfUli have the fame influence^ and au« 
thority, and may. be proposed to our imitation, by 
the fame precepts, and arguments, of perfuafion. 

It is alfo as manifcft, that the Art of teaching the Hiflcrj. 
Actions of former Ages 5 can from hence receive no 
dammage, or alteration. This cannot be otherwife; 
feeing rtie Subjefts of Naturaly and Civil Hiftory do 
not crofs each other 5 nor does the New ^hilofaphj of 
Nature, more interfere with the Hiftories oiMetiy and 
Government y than the Old^ of which this doubt was 
never rais'd. 

Thus far then we are fecure. Thefe great, and 
fundamental Parts of Education^ the Infimments of 
mens Exprefling, and Ruling their own. minds, and 
fearching into the Adions of others, will be unaltcr'd, 
whatever new changes of Opinions may arife about 
NaturdThings. Let us next go on to confidcr.the 
Arts oiDenumJirationy and Argumentationy in which 
confifts one of the moft weighty Parts of youthfiil ; 

Firft for all the Mathematical ScienceSy they will 716^ Mathe^ 
ftili remain the fame, and ftill continue to be learn'd, ^^^i^^* 
and taught, in the fame SyftemeSy and Methods as be- 
fore. Nbthir^ that can now be difcovcr'd will fub- 
verti but- rather Confirm what is already well built 
on thofc immoveable principles. As they came down 
to us without detriment, through all the corrapt 
Times oi Learning 5 fo they will certainly now cond- 
nuc mi€orrupt ^zi this prcfcnt,whcn Learning is reftorU 


lii . rhe H\ISrO R r6f:the 

Seeing they could not be dcftro/d in the Ignorant 
] ^ges^^ thcjD wiUr JS*e. in nofcof jjat this time, by this /»- 
fiittitiony which 'defigns not only \o inlaige them, but 
to pfcomotc thc.latnc rigid, w^ Cpnclufion, in all 
other NatwidL thills i whic^ oisly the Mathematics 
have hitherto ttiaiataift'd. . ; t-, . 

Metaphjjtcf Now then, this wholf cdptrpvcrfy is reduc'd to the 
and Logic, alteration, which- the Lqgfc^ and Thyfics of the Anci- 
ents, may receive by this change. ^ As for their Me- 
/ij//7jjyifx,.they idarcc.dcferVcjo have a place allowed 
them in this coniidcr^tion. . . 

Nor docs that prevail with mc, which the Lovers 
of that Clcmdy Knowledge are wont to boaft, that it 
is an excellent inftrument to refine, and make fubtii 
the minds of mtn.. , For the<:e may be a greater Ex- 
cels in the fubtilty of mens wits, than in their thick- 
ncfs : Ais we (eethoTe threads, which are of too fine 
a (pinning, are found to be more ufeleis, than thoie 
which arc homc-fpun, and grofs. 

Logic is thcjirt oiConceivifigyArguingjZndMethod. 
And notwithftanding all the progrefs which may hap* 
pen in Natural KnowledgCy all the fqveral parts of 
Reas'ning, which it teaches in all manner of bufincfe, 
will continue the fame. The operations, and powers 
of the mind will ftill be the fame : They will ftill be 
fubjcd to the fame errors : They will ftill ufc the lame 
degrees of Arguing from particular things, topnc^ojt- 
tionSy and cowlufions 5 and therefore diey will ftillic- 
quirc the fame means,and cxercifes for direction. It is 
not the complaint of the promoters of ExperimentSy 
that men have been wanting to tliemfclves, in regula- 
ting, diipofing, or judging of their own thoughts. 
.Kay they rather condemn them, for being whofly 



ROT AL S O'C I ETT. 3x7 

implo/d about the produ6tions of their own minds y 
and negleding all the works of Nature y that are with - 
out them. It cannot therefore be fufpcfted that thefe 
Inquifitiye Metiy fhoul4 bufy thcmfebcs, about al- 
tering the Art of . DifcourSy whcirein they judge that 
mankind has. bin. already rather too curious^ than 

. The lafl: Part that I fhall mention, of the Learning j^amal 
that is tajLight, is the Syfteme of Natural Thilofopby. phHofo^hy^ 
And it is in this alone, that J can allow, there will 
be any alteration made, by this reformation of Know- 
ledge. But yet the change will be £o iadvantageous, 
that 1 have no reafbn to diflcmble it. I grant indeed 
that the grcatcft part of the forhier Body of ihyficsy 
may iicreby chance to fiiU to the ground. But to 
what film will /the damage amount ? What can wc 
lofe, but only fbme few dejinitians and idle queJiionSy 
and- empty dij^utations ? Of which 1 may fay, as one 
did of MetaphbrSy Voterimus viverejine illis. Per- 
haps there will be no more ufc c£ Twenty,. or Thirty 
obfcure Terms, fnch as Mattery and Form , Privation^ 
Entelii:hidy and the like. But to.fiipply their want> 
an infinit variety of InventionSy MotionSy and Ope- 
rations y will fucceed in the place of words* The 
Beautiful Bofom of Nature will be cxpoj&'d to our 
view : We Jh^U emer into its Gardeny. and taft of it* 
Fruits^ andiatisfy outfelvesfWithks//if»(y .••■Inftciid 
of Idle talking, and 'wajidring under its fruitlcfe 
fliadows ; as i^cVeripatetics did in their firf): inftitu- 
tion, and their Succeilbrs haye done ever itnce^. 

:j j 


3i8 The iri STO RT of the 

StGt. IIL Thus far I have briefly cxamin'd the influence of 
Expert- ^"^ Experiments^ or all the chief Parts of Education. 
ments net And after all the Innavationy of which they can be 
dangerous fufpcded, we find nothing will be indanger'd, but 
to the Uni- only the ^hjfics of Antiquity : wherein we alio be- 
verjities. ho\iiy that many tilings of greater concernment, will 

arifc, to iupply the place of what (hall be cut away. 
By this difcours, I hope, I have faid enough, to 
manifeft the innocence of this T^efign in rcfpcft of all 
the prefent Schools of Leatnit^ ; and efpecially our 
own Umverfities. And it was but juft, that wc (hould 
have this tendernefsy for the Intereft of thofe magni* 
ficent Seats of humane Knowledge ^ and divine % to 
which the NaturalThilofophy of our N^ttion, cannot 
be injurious without homblc ingratitudti feeing in 
them it has been principally cheri(h'd, and revived. 
From hence the greateft part of our Modem. Inven^ 
tions hzvc deduced ihtix Original. It is trac iiich 
Experimental Studies are largely dilpcrs'd at this 
time : But they firfl: came forth thence, as the Cola^ 
nies of old did from Rome : and therefore as thofe 
oid, they fliould rather intend the flrength, than the 
dcftmaion of their Mother Cities. 

Iconfefs there have not been wanting fome for- 
ward Affertors of new Thylofaphyy^ho have not us'd 
any kind of Moderation towards them: But have 
prefently concluded, that nothing can be well-done 
in f^ew iDifcoverieSj unlefs all the Ancient Arts be firft 
rejcded , and their Nurfcries abolifh'd. But the 
raihneis . of thefe mens proceedings, has ratlier pre- 
jtidic'd, than advanced, what they make m fhcw 
promote. They have come as fiirioufly to the purg- 
ing of Thilofophy^ as our Modern Zealots did to the 


l^OTAL SOC lETI. ^329 

refbrmatian of Religion. And the one Party is as 
juiUy to be condenin'd, as the other. Nothing will 
iuifice either of theip, but an utter DeftruSfioHj Root 
and Branchy of .whatever has the face of Antiquity. 
But as the ^niverfities have withftood the fierccnefs 
of the one's Zeal without Knowledge ; £q there is no 
doubt, but they will alio prevail againfl the Violence 
of the other's pretences to Knowledge without Pru- 

» - » . 

But now after I have ihewn that all the received Scft. IV. 
Forms of Education will belafe, I fhall make no Scruple TheAdvan- 
to add my Con/effure^ that it could be no hindrance to ^f!^' ^. ^^ 
the mindf of Men, if bcfidcs thofc courfes of Studies ^^S?!^ 
which are how followed, there were alfb trial made j,-^^. 
of fome other more pra<^cal Ways^ to prepare their 
Minds for the World, and' the BuHnelfies of human 
Life. It IS not enoi^h to urge againft this, that the 
multiplicity of Methods would hinder and confound 
the Spirits of youneMoi; for it is apparent that no- 
thing more fupprefles the Genius of Learner s^ than 
the Formality^ and the Confinement of the Preca>ts, 
by which they are inftraded. To this purpofc I 
will venture to prdpoie to xht Confideration of wife 
Men, whether tbis way of Teaching by T'rdSUce dnd 
Exfef^imentSy would not at leafl be as beneficial, as 
the other by Dniverjal Rules ; Whether it were not 
as profitable to apply ' the Eyes, and the Hands of 
Chiidreo, toie^ and to touch atlthe feveral kinds of 
fenjihle ThiwSj as to oblige themtbleaiii, andremein- 
ber the dimciut ^offrines of gieneral Arts? In a 
Word, Whedier a Mechanical Eaucdtion would not 
the Metbodickh 

Tlus certainly is no taw Device : For it was diat 

T t which 

530. The fflS^TORT^ the 

which Tldto intended, when he injoin'd his Scholars 
to btein with tjeometry ; whereby, without queftion^ 
he dcW4 that his "Vtfciftes ftodd fiift handle Mor^ 
terial Things^ and grow ^miliar to vifible Objed?, 
before they entered on tlie rctir'd Sjpecutations of other 
more ablbraded Sciences. 

According to this Counfet of the Father of Thikh^ 
fisher Sy it would not be annis, if before you^ Scho- 
lars be far ingag'd in the beaten Tracks o^ the Sdiools^ 
the Myftcries of Manual Arts^ the Names of their 
InjlrumentSy the Secrets of their Q^er^^i^«j, the Effafts 
of Natural Cades, the leveral kinds of Beajlsy of 
Birdsy of Fijhesy ofTPlantSy of St(mes^ of Minerals^, 
of Earthsy of Waters^ and all their common Virtues 
and Qualities, were propoled to be the Subje^^s of 
their firft Thoughts and Obfervations. It may be here 
lu^efted. That the vaft Number of (uch Particulars 
wulfbon overwhelm their tender Minds, before they 
are wefl eftablilh^d by Time, and Ufe. But on the 
contrary it is evident,, that tbe Memories ofToutb are 
fitter to retain fuch ienfible Images, than thole of a 
luller Age. It is Memory that nas moft Tigoor ink 
Children, and Judgment in Men : Wlitch if ligjitly 
confidef^d, will confirm what 1 laid, that perhaps wc 
take a pr^ofterous Courle in Kdncatiqn^^ teaching 
General Kuks^, before Particular Things : And that 
tlierein we have n<^ a luflicient Regard to the di^^ 
rent Advantages of Ihuth and Manhood. We load' 
Uie Minds of ChildrefiL with Pot^rines, andPrasc^t^ 
to apprehend which tbey are inoft imfk, by t^oa of 
the weakndfs of their tJndei^andix;£s ; wnereas they 
naijght with more Piofitbe exercised in the Coofidera-- 
tion ot viable TxiAfenJible Things ; of whole ImpreC- 
£oi»$tbe;^ af 9 Aoft capable, b^c^ o^ the $trengtli 



of tbeir Memoriesy and the Pcxfedioa of their Sen- 

T HE firft Years of Men being thus freed from any Sea. V. 
Appreheniions of MUchicf by new Experiments : 17%euje of 
will now proceed more boldly to bring them in amidft Expert- 
the Throngs, and Crowds of human Bufmefs ; and to ^"^.^/^ 
declare to all Profefliohs, and pradlical Lives, that they ^[^ 
can receive no ill Imprellfions from them, but that they 
will be the mod beneficial and proper Studies^ £ot 
their Preparation and Dire(ltion. And to this Purpofe^ 
I will treat of their uiefrilnefs, both in refpedl ofMea& 
public Praftice, and the private Government of their 

As to the firfl^ it has been an old Complaibt, that Exptrr- 
bas been longmanagM by Men of Bufinefs^ againfl: many ^^»'/ fret 
ibrts of Knowledge^ that our Thoughts arc thereby in- ^^''^ *** 
fbCted with fiich Conceptions as make them more unfit ^^^i- ^ \ 
for Adion, than ^cy would have been, if they were j^^fSS 
whofly left to the force of their own Nature. The 
common Accu&tibns agsunft Learning are fuch as 
thefe; That it mclines Men to be uniettled, and con^ 
tensions ; That it takes up more of their time, than 
Men of Bufmefs ought to befiow ; That it makes them 
Romanticy and lubjedl to frame more per&(ft Images \ 
of Things^than the Things themfelves will bear ; That 
it renders them overweenic^ unchangeable, an/d ob<- 
(Hnate ; That thereby Men become averie from, a 
pra<9:ical Courle, and unable to bear theDiHicuIties of 
Ad^ion ; That it employs them about Things, which . ^ 

axe no where in ufe in the World ;. and, that it draws 
them to negled: andcontenm their ownpreieat Time^ 
by cfotingoathe poft. But now I will maintain^ that 
in every one of tncfe Dangers Experimental Know- 

T I X ledge 


332 The HlSTORT^^tbe 

ledgje is lefs to b« ini^teded than any other ; That in 
moft of them (if not all) it is abfolutdy innocent ; 
nay. That it contains the bcft Remedies fas the Di- 
Itempers, whidi. fbme other ibrts of La ming are 
thought to bring with them. 

Scdt VI. The firft Objection againft Kfuywledge^ of which I 
7he firji fliall take notice in the a<aive part of Life is this. That 
ObjeBion it makes Men too plentiful in their Thoughts ; too in- 
againft ventivc, and cavilling in their Arguments ; and fo ra- 
Uarmngy ^^itr teaches them to be witty in ObjeSlingy than rca- 
^!2i?Mm ^y ^^ Rejblvingy and diligent in Terforming. I confefc 
w Diffu- ^"C Ancient Thilq/dphy will hardly be able to yindi- 
tfltive. cate it felf from this Charge: For its chief Purpofc is 

to enlarge the Fancy, and to fill the .Head with the 
Matter and Artifice of Difcourfe. But this cannot any. 
way touch the Art of Experiments : That confifbnot 
in Topicis of Reasoning, but of Working : That indeed 
is full of doubting and inquiry, and will fcarce be 
brought to fettle its Aflent ; but it is fiich a doubting^ 
as proceeds on Trialsy and not on Argumefits : That 
dbes neither prac^ife nor cherifh this humour oi Hi^^ 
iputin^ which breaks the force of Thii^s by the 
fubtilty of Words ; as Seneca yf^ faid to db by his. 
Style : It weakens Mens Arms, and flackens all the Si- 
news of Adion 2 For fo it commonly happens, that 
fiich^nefl Difputers evaporate all the itrength of' 
their Minds in arguing, queflioning, and debating ; 
and tire diemfelv^ out before they come to. the T ra- 
ff ice, 

'^fmnd^ The next Accufiition is. That lb many intricate 
Tiatii takes p^^hs, and fpacious Windings of j^f^^rrritr^, will require 
upm mucfi ^^^^ jj^^ jjj^ ^^ ^ nj^i^ j^ j^^^ ^ acSaye and 


. I ■■ ■ 

hofy Uves. Tbe Belief, of this 'has always jnade 41 
wide divorce between Men of Knowledge and Action ; 
while both have Thought^ that they mud either be 
wholly 4$*r^^Air/9 Of whmly Men of J?i;(/£y^ ; and that 
an Excellehce in both thefe Courfes can nevec be ob^r 
tain'd by human Wit. 'Tis true indeed, there is no 
Knowledge or Science that can be acquitted from be« 
ing too large, if their Trofejfors have not the Difcre- 
tion to know how &r to proceed,, and what lyiodera- 
tion is to be u&'d in every Stud)/. There is in the 
leaft y&f enoi^ Matter^ about which if Men ihall re- 
folve to trouble their Brains all their Lives, one She- 
Jlion and ^ij^iculty will perpetually beget . anouier> 
and lb (as one pf the jintients lays)^ Ipfy praifatioy ^ 
qudftio quotsdil ex fe pgnet aliquidy quod cum defi- 
diosd deleitatione vefttges. 

To this Danger perhaps Experiments may feem 
moft exposed, by reafbn . of the infinite miltitude of 
Partidofars, and' innumerable^ variations of Inquiries^ 
tliat may be maide. . But the Royal Society has prevent- 
ed this Mifchie^bytheNumber and Succeffion of thoie 
that ihall undertake the/STbri. They require not the 
whole time of any of their Members^ except onjy of 
dieir Curators :. From the reft tKey exped ap more 
but what their Bufinefs^ nay even their very Recreafuins , 
can ipare. It is the Continuance lana Perpetuity of 
liich ^hilojbfhical Labours^ to which they principally 
truft; which will both allow a Juf^ciept ReJ^xa^ion; 
to. a|l the particular LabourerSy2XiA,yi\\[ alto give gpod 
aflurancc of the happy Iflue of their^i?r)fc at the kft : 
For though that be true, which the Great Phy fician la- 
ments. That Art is longj and Life is Jhort : yet ma-? 
ny Lives of ftudious and induf^ipus Men in one Age^ 
ukd the Succeflion o£ maoy Lives of &ch M^Q^ ux ;all, 


JJ4 ThemstORTtfty 

9axmtJtgetj tHUundoubtedly prove a$ long «S Jt* 

Sca.VIIL Trtijv farther obJcA agaxnft Learning That ic 
The third makes onr Minds too Lafiy and RomafrtiCj and iuclines 
OljeSHon, them to form more perfed: Tmaginafions of the Mat- 
^^ ^^ ters wc arc to pradife, rfian die Matters themfefves 

ySSi ^ ^^^ *^^"- ^ ^^^^ ^^°yi *^* ^ °^^^ comtempliattTc 
mamic. ^^ ^5- bbnoxious^ to* this iSnor : He converts chiefly 

in his Ctofet, with the Heads and >fotjons of Thia«, 
and fo difeems not their Bottoms near and diftindSy 
eno^h : And thence he is fhbjedl to overlbbk the lit- 
tle CircumfbuceSy on Awbidi all htuxum Anions de- 
pend. He is ftilf reducing all Things ta ftahdiftg ^o- 
ifrines ; and therefore mm): needs be liable to negled 
the Opportunities, to iet upon Bufinef^ too iboh,^ or too 
fette ; to put thofe Thing? togedier in bis Minc^ which 
have no am 'ec mcn t in nature. But this above all is 
his greateupanger^^tb^ thinking it ftill: becomes him to 
, go out of the ordinary fVay^ and to refine ^uut heigh- 
ten the Conceptions of the Wilgar, he will be leadj 
to difdiun aU nie naturai and eaj^ ways of 7^ra^ice% 
a:nd to beheve that nothing ought ta Se donCi thougjk 
never fBrcoinmon, but by fomc device of -^r^ and 
trick of unufiml Wifdom. 

From thcfe Inconveniences the Experimenter \s (e- 
cure : He invents not what he does, out of himlelT;, 
hut gathcrsrit from die Footfteps and Progrds of JVSr- 
tiire.,> He looks on every Thing ftanding e<jual to k, 
and* not. as^ from a higher Ground : He labours about 
the plain and undigelted Objects of his Senfe^ without 
conndering them as t]xey are joya'd into common 
JNotianr. He has an Opportunity of undedObmdi]^ 
the lijofi: natural W^ays by which all Things are pro-* 

' duc'd. 

docU . He ciearly^ beholds all ^hc fecrec Accidents 
andTiuiiiiig$» AavaatagisafldFaitingSof J^^iT^^^ He 
66de^v0urs raiiher to know, iliantoadmke; imd looks 
upon Admiration^ nbc as the End, but the Imperfedi- 
on of our Knowledge. 

The next hindrance of ABion^ is ^n bbjfinacy of Scft. IX. 
Refdlutionj and a want of7)exterity to change our ap- The fourth 

f>rehenfions of Things accotding to Occadons. This ObjeRion, 
S the more deftrudiv^becade it tarries with it th? ^*f '!L 
moft folemn appearance of mfdom. There is fcarce "^.tj^^, 
any thing that readers a Man lb ulclels as a perverfe ^^ aiS^ob^ 
(licking to the iame things in all times j becaufe be h^sfiinate. 
ibmetimes found them to have been in Sed(bn. But 
now in this, diere is IcarCe any Cpmparijon to be made, 
between him who is only a thtnking.JMa»^ and a Man jof 
Rxj^erienct. The firlt does conmioiJy dlablift his 
conftant Rules, by which he will be guided : The la- 
ter makes none of his Opinions irrevocable. The one 
tf he toiftakes, receives hi* Errors firomhis ^nderjland- 
ing i the other only £:om his Senjh; and lb he may 
coned, and alter tnern with more eale. The one fixes 
his Opinion as Ibon ; the other doubts as long as he 
can. The one diielly ftrives to be unmovabk in his 
Mind ; the pther to. enlarge, and amend hifi Know- 
ledge : And from hence the one is inclinM to ht^tii- 
fumftuous^ the other modeft in hk judgment. 

The next Px^ence, on. whicti Maa of jLear^^^ Me Seft. X. 
Wont .to be vflifiec^ is, that they trie' to te to »ii<iti. thtj^thob- 
affeaed with the pkaTaiit Mufiags x>t tlidr- bwn i*^'""* '*^* 
Thoughtfi, as to abhor the Rooghnef^, and tovl bt '" ''^ff 
Bufnefi. This Acculation, ^;<»»fers, isnotaWe^^^^ 

i . • 

33((J TbeHlSTQ^Tof the 

culative Men are o^ all other the moft elfy : There a 
Man meets with little ftobbomhels ofMatter : He may 
choofe hisSubje<fi where he likes ; he may fidhion and 
tura it as he pleales : Whereas when he comes abroad 
into the World, he muft endure more ConfradiBion : 
More difficulties are to be overcome ; and he .cannot 
always follow his own Genius : So that it is not to be 
wondered, that ib many great Wits have defpis'd the 
labour of a pra<ftical Courfc ; and have rather chofen 
to fliut themfelves up frbih the Notfe and Preferments 
of the Worlds to conyerfc in the Shadow with the 
pleafant TroduStunis of their own Fancies. 

Arid this perhaps is the reafbn why the moft extra- 
ordinary Men of Arts in all Ages, . are generally ob- 
fery *d to be the giceatcfl: fJumonJls : They" are to full 
of the fwcctncls of their own Conceptidnsy that they 
beconie M orofe, when they are drawn from tberiti, they 
cannot eafily make their minds dud^il and pliable to 
others Tenioers,' and fb they appear untradbabl^ and 
unskilful in Converfation. 

From this I fliiU alio free the Experimental Tbrlo- 
Jbpher. The Satis&dion that he finds, is not imagina^ 
ry, hxxtreal: It is drawn from Things that are not out 
bf the World, but in it : It does not carry him farther 
b!^ but brings him liearcr to ' TV^/V^. TTis tru^ 
that Knowledge which is only founded on Thoughts 
and Words, has feldom any other end, but the breed- 
ing and increajm^ of more ThoiK;hts and Words : But 
tl^rwhich Is buik on il5Pbrix (as his Will be) willna- 
turally d^fire to difcover, to augftietit, to apply, ^ 
communicate it fclf by toore Warks. 

Nor can it be though^ that his Mind will be made 
to languifh by this pl^kfitre of Obfervatiattj and to 
have any Avenioii frcttn die difficulty and tedioofiiels 



of haman Aflairs ; ieeing his way olObfirvaPhn it felf 
is {o laborious. It isagoodPreoepty^hichis wont to 
l)e given in rcUpcAofm forts of Ex&rci^Sj thatthqy 
fliould be ^t leaft as hard and toilibme^ as that jirt 
which we ftrive to gain by them. And by this Rule 
Experiments ate an excellent preparation towards any 
habit or faculty of Life whatloever. For what Thing, 
which-can be effeAed 4>y mortal Induftryy can feenrim- 
poflible to him who has been ingag'd in theie Studies^ 
which requnre loch an inde&tigable Watchfiilneis ? 
What can overcome his Diligence, who has 1)een able 
to iuftain with Patience the Efiafesy the ^elaysy the 
Labyrinths of Nature \ whom -the Repetition of fo 
many Labours^ ib tnany Failings^ with which he meets, 
and ib long attendance could not tire } 

Another principal Mifchief to be avoided, is the Seft. X!» 
Conformity of our AStions to Times pail, and not the Th fixth 
prefent. This Extravagance is generally imputed ti^OHeHicu, 
fiudicus Men ; and they cannot be wholly acquitted "^f* '^ 
from it. For while they continue heaping up in their '^ ^ j ^* 
Memories the Cuftoms of paft Agesy tney fall infenfi- 5^^^^ p^n 
bly to imitate them, without any manner of Care how and mgkH 
iiiitable they are to Times ocsA Things. The Grounds of the frefenu 
this Miftake will be worth our difcovering, becaufe 
in Mens Opinions it does fb much Prejudice to the 
Leained part of xb& World. In the aacient. Authors 
which thpy turn over, they find Defi:Hptioas of Ver- 
mies more perfedl than indeed they were : The Ga^ 
vemments are rqMrefented better, and the Ways of 
Life pleafanter than they dcfcrv'd.. Upon this, thefe 
iBookiJb wile Men flrait compare what they read with 
what they fee : And here beholding nothing fb heroi* 
caUy tramcendcnt, becaufe they are able to mark al} 

U u the 


ib tMttH) iktk Slgbc» <Ai6f vrefeticly bogia tb di^ 
their <i\^Q TVlMfJv to ««alt chefMil, t6 onicaiiiii die 
yirfUesi smd ra^^vafe^tbt ^m^ t€ tlie» Gmmiry ; aidt 
endeavbiirldg '(o ^unakMifeffi, tnit by^fiioii'fhaui^Usias 
lire ti^ tmpi^tcik/kf, 'b^WitRuiHsf the iftkondolL'oC 

They^iV'etts & ^ft^ $^t ^if'trhsitrislbifiiie il$i. 
they tkfitigtts'hotft^'to^eto'favfli.; rtiiey unripe t us >Uivie 
fb '£lil|^fctoi/, •alldlfot'^t^&^jlr/br i^pM^a^vt'tbiSffiro- 
theyip^ns^tiis tb ill(libA«n'WbatiMs<l$ee»ddoeitij^ 
ifi^ StgH \ yet (Iviy'HidQe'Os thii^ Co iiqpwynad^Goar 
template the Thil^ elftic ttre ib wir Fmif« : IHiJiB Mr- 
tainly is comformable to the 1)efigH of Nature itfdf '^ 
Wbich-^ho«^h It his 'lifUhU dor Bodies induK lAan- 
IMr>'tbat; li*f>e lhsiyNM% «|)«n ooeafibQ torn a 
«9ok'^h{ttti tts : yl^t it ha$>plBic'd'tfae Eyet, 'the cbicf 
•Ifijf^vmnt^^ \smbftr^fmy not i»iMr:i^«dil^ into fti 

Std. Xli. TliE l^Fd^ikig'whicfa istfkmt to iw inqsiitcd to 
T^fin/enth LeM'H^ i^»,is wantor^^^«idfeaTo€?^n«fifNV,^uid 
Objetiiony a {?6ti?^r(!ng^wUh Thtfigs &i< dieir SfiiSiies, .'itMch: diey 
That it bin- faicQ^ wiA ft© T«rl4ei«e «fie. ' It>«a^ ^now <fl»rfaBps te 

W-e&ntfftSy as iiis tharbnly coQoaonpkDes ^beodUb 
they bbdi ke<»> ^ttc <(^f tbe^y, to. ^ftfaadow!; clie 
oifu; !;» his L^^Mfy, mpiiAgjvifjt&i^^defmdittg^^meiit^ 
^^witHhiH^elf; thecdieHnlHS/;^%n6^y£^)«rith&di 
Tbolsiind Mated^Sj^t^faereof oiiihy: |)i6ikm6 '^ire not 
fAiblitkly in iKe. Let u» Uien ooi^fidfer tt^iodi of itoa 
is moft to bi&4»iain*d ^ cOftva^og undfa Maxtets ua> 


|t qiQnoc t])e 4)a^e(|, ^ the Men of Reading^ do 

^J^ 99ff^ iktj^ t^lmo^y^. 4w«?fttch Oncmioiu, 
yt)t^«P^ idP wIk^c rof^ ^iiqd o\it of their own 
OiiQt»cfi$» 7he .$'tf«/^, |he Qtfimy the TraUkce^ the 
y^itffimf-f^ lh« Wo^, is qiute a tii^Terfiat Th^ 
ton) whfK ^ey WiflgW? Jit |o be in priVace. And 
fh6K0it9i« tit 16 no. w«a»d^> if i^h^ tbey come ahto^ 
i||t«^6lirtt»& ttop^t<»f Mfip, fl*P Xwauft su^4 Noiif 
llf.Citi^ aild ri» . very tyigMfis &f ^ iF ffitf afr 
ir^tchem: Lil^ Aat .i^As?/<r-f«<fft wboijawiqgi>€in 
ii^ to tdlPcUiin isk 4^ihj)4e of f jff^^ ^en he caml 

lip nlpid a one Ouife In ptiii ppeg ^ir, fkfii:'^ % 
JvMs W retoDVit tlWM'^flH: BWler f<^iH(e ]E^p^4 k^&^ 

QiiC iipw 09 the Hpber f^ the ^({en of ^(?r^ ai)/^ 

tee iS^i«ri^<h0t4M^'«M A^th^^i^of t^^/r^^^ 

yet they «it fiiph « fe«ye»:V|w^fp4F flafejaij)!^!^ |?p 
<hem. Ui$Af4ftitt%siM9m4l^fi>^fi ^tfV^wiac\i 

IgriWGnirfBf t'"*^'''^ tUl^fS. . .Xhis |Jii^ne4 pf thefr //jy- 
floymenis will loon make thex^i^^c^ |i} t^e other. . 
Cor Mix^ tje4j(ierii>r:lw* itf^ )^ >^S(3i^ ^(^ixei^t 
is ^mittd ¥f^t » uppJy tolSeil <q/my #djer 4 
dian^ hist whA.bis osiy jJbp^tghF (miii^ ,^0 Turn $1 
JMan ioif S^iMAiff .' As Ut j(^-.aM|;ui^^he :fa£e qf a 

^iaa ot« Lia^ viH miiS^<f<MP9'Qiwa^ t^ 4i^y^ juo^ 
«adifit>Gicaiuf!e, iham he m^o .^ «^ <hi^ ^fts p( 

i Amiaii^iditii^atmsMd ili^lifgrfibfiiSlim ^hi<^ 

U a X com' 

340 The HIST ORTti th 

commonly confound weaker IVCnds, and make Mens 
Hearts to fail and bo^lc at Trifles ; there is lb little 
hope of having them removed by SpecuUtkn alone^ 
that it is evident they were firfl produced by the moft 
contemjfdative Men amongft the Ant tents ; and diiefly 
prevaird of late Years, when that way'df Learning 
- flourifhU The y^^rbeganofold'toiinpofe the De- 
ceit. They to make all Things look more venerable 
than they were, devis'd a thoaf^'falfe Ghim^ras i on 
every Fieldi River ^ Grove^ and Ciw, they beftow'd a 
i^i»/^yfe of rheir own making: Withthefe they a* 
maz'd the World; thefe thejr cloath*d with what 
Shapes they pleas'd ; by thete they pretended, that 
all Wars, and €ounfels, and A<flions of Men were 
adminiftred* And in* the modern Ages thek Fsnfa^ 
ftical Forms were revived and poflefs'c Chnft^ndomjin 
the very hc^t of the Scboolntens tirat : An infinite 
Number of Fairies haunted every Hot^ ; all Churches 
were fill'd with ApParititms ; Men began to be frighti 
ed from their Cradles^ which Fright continued to tbeir 
Graves^ and their Names alio wdre made the Caufes o€ 
fearing others. All which Abuies If thoit acute Tbi-- 
lojbfhers did not promote^ yet they were never aUe- 
to overcome ; nay, even not i:^ much as Kii^ Qierom 
and his invifible J^my. 

Butfiromthetimein which the r^ir/^/ii»^^ has 
appear'd, there is fcarce any wh^er remaining of' 
fuch Horrors .- EVery Man is udhaken at thofe Tales 
, at which his Anceftors trembled : The courfe o^Ysa^ 
goes quietly along in its own true Channel of Natn- 
ral Caufes and Effe0s. For this we are beholden to 
Experiments ; which though they have not jer com- 
pleated thcDifcovery 9f the true Worlds yet they have 
akeady vanquiih'd tnoie Wild Inhabitants of cbe&lfe 


HarAL :SXLCLET T. 541 

Worldi^thatut'dtoaftiwiifliitbC)MIi^ A 

Blefflng for which we ought ft> bb diankfhlr if we re- 
jnember, that it is one of the greatefl: Cur&s that 
God proiKHiDces on the Wicked j that thty Jhall fear 
vJiefemo fear is^ 

' From what I have laid may be gathered. That jBjb- 
fer mental ^hihfofhy will prevent Mens ipcnding the 
ftrengtfr of rfieir Tbaughts about 7}i/putesi by turning 
«hemto/i^(0rib.* That it may well be attended by die 
limited Lakaurs of many, without whoUy devourii^ 
th^ tiiiie of thofe that mbMr: That it will cure o&r 
Minds of romantic SwelUn^^ by fhewing all Things &- 
mikarly to them, juft as large as they are : That it 
will -free themrfirom Terverjdy^ by not permitting 
them to be. too peremptory in their Conclufims : That 
jt accuflioms our Hands to Things which have a near 
reie'mhlance to the buitneis of Life ; and, that it 
^aws away the Shadows which either inlarge or dar^ 
hsn human Affairs . And indeed of the uiiial Tides 
by which Men of BoTmeis aitt wont to be diftinr 
guiih'd, xhsiiCraftyy. the iT^fm^; and the 1 Trudent-, 
the Crafty may aSofwer to the Emfyrio in fPbihfifby ; 
tbatis, he isiuch a one who has a gicat CoUedioil of 
particular £;«;|^mi^iir^x>butknow$tidt how touie them 
but to bale aiKl low Ends. The FarmalMsiSi may be 
compar'dtQ themeer Sfeeulative ^hilofofher :• For he 
vmnly reduces every Thing. tb gcifeiaml folemn gene- 
-f al jR«/f>r, . withoqt Dilcfietiao, . or matnri Dieliberation. 
And laftly, the TrudentMm is lite> him tvho . pro- 
ceeds on a confbnt and iblid cpurfe of Experiments. 
The one in Civil Life neither wholly rejeds the Wif- 
doin oi Ancient or Modemxixson^ : The other in Thi- 
lofajpby has the fame reverence fbr^i^^fr Agesi and re- 
jf^d for the frefint. The one does not r^ upon 


142 The NlSSJORT^^lk 

does die lame widiMs D ifiwmfcB : ^U^poaa jofi^ Ib- 
vere,attddeliber»te EnuninatiiM of Dhittgji, ^cpvf b«& 

lie idle, but ufe them to dired the AiHmk^ mk iitf- 

I 4 ' \ ^ .. .> « . • ^ * • , . 

Seft. xm. Bbs loas wfoatl kaiT«£tfdQfdie help iidncii £i^^ 

Exferi' fimmts w'lW bnogto «)i|r pabtk' !D«o«i^aiMl ci-ril 

mentsuff jt&kms^ T rJinininl m \i\k\ niiniilihi^ iimViiiiiitiifl liw 

fuljw the j^fhnce VBOuc they iuviEble to |piae »ni«tds the Mbf- 

£»re o/Mnw jiisinmedt of the privatd ^l^idtiieMrj aad< fl^Msr «f tbdr 

^^^^' Mm^ ; Of this I tieeii;% ibe lefs* teunift <kac is 

amoagft the ^hiUt/ifk^ ^aparticidtt Scknce a^sfMitft- 

4od £)r thisCpiBdrpoIbr :t)0 iptefi^vdve &«ic^ ftorcaimlog our 

s^e€t^mss lima copiqaeifog >ottr fTlrcr. ifowianr, \ 

-Witt ikot.ttdsoll^ tials it o^ in/Silence t ' btt I sn^iil tary 

4n:few Wtsiids to Wkb «ppeui< duttbe rtud^l^kp- 

fbf will A^ly ^ur iWidns with cKteltefft MtA- 

-emei-. againft thoir own ^EsittfMvtaoKeies, mH wiU 

-ftrvfe in ibnief<M% iStk die fiuaeieii^ whii^ tJK Mh 

If w^ UulH ^Cdi^. an '%ejdA' di tbei . timf$lb,^fiMdk 
arife within /ow:fireift^ Add i>(mikitr 3^:^^ dn(i 
Remedies ofdldie Vitddnt tDi;/^iv ibUieiotii Sitoiet, 

dM i^iVes ^ tncift^tfsA iKVOihifc nifenMCt «ar j^ffi^ ; 
we ifailliidd^ icitttttifeycMcdiikifly pMidiMfdiby fiUr- 

Wbieevvr ^/^Aall^ abfe«o My the AfiMr of hfoa, 
with -a (SMdlant cdHtfe vS'imnemtU^OKksit m to fill 
tiiecn with CKS tigcarMM «LHd fka£Ht iHMtftt) u liMte 
iTn^prv;!^^ ^t^^ .whidi tliey a»e«ltitoi64« it wfU 
rtaiiify iHve a 'fiirtr «il& ia liu! iolqKifiiig i^ 


c<!pB af 4>e S«wal, or ibt-eBtxjt JSiftinftwflS of ih? 

Now then it is requii'd in thai J««i&'. wHth Wl 

atKBWt, tfcpBlweto-t*^ *"'♦* of.N^tirf, ;p;«»re."ea£sof;ht>5iiKUJ»t v.Jf^qP '«^fi^f4l>!>lffi> 

l^y&ll »»lea)»6ftiEa!?(fey«^jtJk anS w»f "JpofTcfc 

it wi^ innoteWi, woohv Wtiflgv aPd asw 4e(iUBle 

ilttights. . . . ■ . ; . _ . . 

■Hw a«^*^ >dJnaufWoi»the^nf,Q££jf/fr»(»f»»f 

ought to, be^.WiB'4>=w>*Ww ftwn we wtitde t?- 
^ efjf^pjfcovufci wherein I l»ve,,9ft«pj»Bvd, 
that,ii»vB(e^K^JK6wft^'d W «he,peij>en»l.Z«i*»«w 
of any <mc MiU), m»F feife, W »l)«*i:«mv« fpi« of 

ThM theiirf«f«pfei(ig x^:^M'^4' •''»' if W'}' 


Labours will «>ii»tn.thp-nipll#W"tS. (wid ttw mott 
iiwr^iiig ^Df^ti ;. .-^ thiit ,;I) we r ' 

snoighxto,* wJlfi"W%<<t 9? W*iFW i ' 

^;iatfmpeBW%: %:t)Hf XWtffifXy' 
6ft. j5s/Vi>« hw w.rcaJflOhfP \i!im> ■ - .... ..i 

EleafureiMiiBft-Elea&re. ,. , -, , , , v, 
, ,Arfd,I dMS ;.d»ll««geHilf;tl«.*orrHpi^ri^,of ,o«r 
Jieyy?/, :<ir, tJ>^..'»WM.,f| vqlffltfliyfip W>ts, to . pro- 

ti4e^^cr,;,^fc jc)wgS?%l.WT W«' 'P?J^«''iS^ 
the Contentment of Mens Minis. It were mde^djti?, 
be )i(i(tv'4>4lw'««re'^ .m^^i Pnjy ■•'y 
itsqwn <i»«i(iri«,,w^e^verfiil enough^ sflibliw 
itsDomiBiftn.- &if!ijc<3flpot;hcJC>, TteCwnwtwM, 
mi4.}n§5«iios>of.i!^i5ix)< i%««rf,ft^od,ip,md,9f #1 

,)»«( Mannf«. , ;? .*«ill dKjefcwprqEofe, fpi tlus 

E»<i;this.Coarfe*f'5''«'^. wWch Wlfloi aftngtit w. 

■ ■ ■ • ' with 

544 ne HlSTO^Tof th 

with Tigid Pr«ceptSs or four iMOokSi or peey Uh Cotsw 
mands, but conlifts of fcnfiblc Tlenfurey and befides 
will be. mod: lafting in its Satisiadion, and innocent its 
Remembrance. , ^ * 

What Raptures cixithc mofkvdlupiuous Men fiuicy, 
to which thefe are tiot equal? Can thcyrdilh no- 
thing but the T/eaJures of their Seft/is f They may 
here enjoy them without Guilt or Remorfe. Arc they 
affrighted at the Difl^culties. qf E^nowled^e ? Here 
they may meet with 4 ' Study^ that ' iis w(m fits the 
mofti!r^^//j^»^Mi4ds, asth^mbft indujfrions. This 
confifts of fo many fP^orksj ^d&oic fo obriouSy and 
facil, that the moft laborious will never find Cai^ to 
be idle, and the moft idle may ftiU have (bmething 
to do with the greateft Eafc. In this they jieed nor 
weary themfehres Wfearchincfor Matter : whatever 
diey feel, or fee, \*rill afford niem Obfirvatums. In 
this there is no tedious Preparation requiPd to fit 
them fox fiich Endci^vour^ : as fopa as they have the 
ufe of their Hands^ and Eyes^ afid cfimimoti Senfe^ they 
are lufficiently iurnifii'd to undertake them. Though 
we cannot compreheiid the Arts of Men without 
many previous Studies^ yet iuch is the Indulgence 
of Nature^ that it has from the Beginning, out of 
its own Store, iiifficiently provided every Man with 
all Things, that are nbed^ for the Underfbnding of 

Thus neither t)cit Jenjkal Mifid, has any occafioh m 
contemn Experiments as unplcafant, nor the idle as 
burdenibme, or intolerable, nor the virtuous asun*- 
Worthy oi)^{s Labours. And the iame Influence they 
may have oii all bther mortal ImperfedHo&s of ^Mmah 
Nature. What room can there be for low and little 
Things in xMifidfb ufcfiiUy and luccefsfullyemployM ? 


Whit ofk^itionsjDi/^kts cantonweflt that Man, Wh6 
has fo much Glory before him, for which f here ^ 
only required the ddigbtftd Works oF his Hands? 
What dark or melancholy Paffions can ovcrfhadow 
hiis Hearty M4iofe Senfes are always fiflii of fo many 
^ranoxiS Troduifions^ of which the leaft Ptogrcfs, tmd 
Succefs, will zffeA him with an innocent Joy ? What 
Anger^ Envy, Hatred, or Revenge, can long torment 
feis Bteafl; \«^hom not only the greatefli and n6bl6jl 
Obje<9s, ^ but every Sand, every Pible, every Grafs, 
tvery Barthj every Fly can divert ? To whoiaai the 
iretum of every Sedbn, eveiy Mohdi, every Day, do 
fo^sA a Circle of moft pleaiant Oj^erathns ? If the 
Jmtients^ prU&inb'd rt as a fiifficient Remedy ^infl 
Ibth wdleM Ttif^hiSy-dj^^ i?o it^at the AIj*ibet 
<)ver ;' Vvlicrd)y there was Xeffibcf g^^^ totTre Miftd^ 
to jecoyer itielf from any fiidden Fury : Then how 
Aucbmore ^f^Gtudl Medicines^ ^aiim the famfc ®/- 
fiemfersy may be ietchM from the Whole Alphabet of 
Mature^ which re^refehti id^ t(y^'€(mflderation^ 
to fe many inifinke ^(;/»«rf / / * ' 


*-l'WiB now •proceed to the. wq^ieft, and moftScft-XlV. 
(bleflm -Pkit of my v^tAt' ^Undertaking ; to make a Experi^ 
Dfefence'<yf the Rdyal 'Society, Vnd this new Exj^eri- ^"^^ ^ 
mwtkmeariiing^ in^iifpt^of rfie CMjfi^ 'SferS^ 

^ not 'ighoranr,; in what a flippery Pl^ce I not^ Rglimn. 
1l;aad ; arid what a tender Matter I am enrerM upon. 
I know that it is almoft impofliblc without Offence, 
to fi>eak' of things of this Natnrej in which ail Afan- 
J&W, ^ch Country J and -^rtow almoft every Pamily^ 
do fi> widely dilWree among t^qmfelve^. . I cannot 
^xpe^ that'wfiat ffliall fay will efcape Mifintcrpre- 
tation, rhoi^h it be Ipoken with the greateft Srmpli- 

* X X city, 

54^ ^U tils 7 OR Tof the 

plicity^ and fubmiflion, while I behold that mo^ 
Men do rather value themfelves, and others^ on the 
little Differences of Religiofh than the main Si^ftatice 
itfelf ; and while the Will ^ of God' is fo vari<>ijflry di^ 
ftradted, that what appe^s to be ^iety tq fome Chri^ 
Jiians^ is abhorr'd as the greateft Superltitioa and 
Herefy by others. 

However to fmooth my Way as much as I can, and 
to prepariEi all our feveral S/ir^'fffol Infweji^i tp read 
this Part with fome tolerabl e -A&^r^^i^;^^ ; I do^faerQ 
in the begim^ng, moil, fmcerely declajre, ; that if this 
Pefign ihould in the leafl diminim the Reverence^ thas 
is due to the ^oStrine ofjejus Qbrift^ it wereib fer 
firoqx dcferving ^rafe0ifin^^ that it Dugl)t to bfi abr 
boxxMby all the y^i^V^f aa4)^^^9 ^\rellas_ly^ 
the devQM j?^t of Cl^riftoidom.. And Ais, I pro^^ 
I think they were bound to do,, not only from a jull 
Dread of the Bein^y. the Worjhify the Omnifotencei 
the JLove of Goal all which are to be held in the 
higheft Veneration,, but alio out of a Regard to theV 
Peace and Proiperity of M^ ' |n ]!^atterstnar con- 
cern our Opinions of another Worlds theleail Altera- 
tions are of wonderful Hazard :' how miichievous then 
would that Entemrize be,^ whole Ei^ds would aboliih 
the Command of Gonfiiencey the Belief : of ^/litfivrtf 
Life ; or any oJf thoic; Heavenly T>p6trines^ by.whicfi 
not (Wily the Eternal Condition^ of Men is fepur'd, , 
but their Natural Keafon^ and their Temporal Safety 
advanced > Whoever ihall impiouily attempt tp fiibvert 
the Authority of the ©iwW Tower ^ on iklle Preten* 
CCS to better Knowledgfi^ht will unietde the flrongeft 
Foundations of our Hopes : he will make ? a terrible 
Confurion[inaUthe.Oifices and^Opinions of Men: he 
wiUdeiboy the moil prevailing >Argsme» Firtue^jt 



he will remove all Human A^kns^ from their firmest 
Center : he, will even <fepriva hatfelf^of the-* Prefo. / 
gative ofhis Immortal Sou/ ; and will have the (ame 
Succefs^ tfatft the Aucimt FaUes make thofe to have 
had, wiu) concended with their (^^Mf, of whom they 
rqport^ diat stany were imidddi^cly tum'd iifto 
Beafis\ ^.l :'i. : . . ' • * * ^ ' . . 

With tlKifc ApprehenHons I come to examine tb6 
Otfreitionsj which I am now to fatisfy : and having 
calmly compar'd the Attgrnuints of ibme devout Men 
^gaioft KnowledgfSj and chiefly that of Exferimenrs^ 
I . mull pronomice tbera both^ to be altogether inof- 
£m(ive. I did before affirm, that the Royal Society 
isabmidantly cautious, not to intermeddle in Spiritual 
ThiuTs : But that being only a general Plea, and th* 
Qocuioii not lying fo miich on what -they do at pre- 
ient, as upon the probable Efieds of tiioir Emerpcize %- 
I will bring it to the Teft through the chief Parts of 
X-ihriftlanity \ and ihew that it will be found a$ much 
avede ir<mi Atbeijm^ in its Iflue ^md Coniequences, as 
it was ill it? original Purpofe - , /. i .- ^ 

^ The piiblick' Declaration^ of the CbriJUML) Metifkmp 
IS to' propose, to ManJkiitti on infUlible \l^y/^XJ*£fe^^^^ 
tronr Towards -the Performance of diitt happyi Endi 
befides the Trtnciples oi Natural Religion:^ which con^ '^ 
fi&im, the > Acknowlecl^;m|ent^aiid Worfliip of a 2>if»^' 
itffaaiSiC'O^r^ tis "^bie^Ments tS ^ ^^ons^S^iour^ii^ 
By 1 hiiTV jsa^idhU^j^f^ givehias ^Gd^' 

ficidnt Eximpleij' md ^^oBHueti^j^ accjpiaiEit^iis WitHi 
^viue Thiugs^ andcarry us to Heaven. ' In ev^ry one! 
of thefe, p^tne Experiments of J^iOiuralfThin^s^ do* 
nather darken our £yc8,: nor. deceive: our Mioaiviiof i 
diepravt oturHearts.--' •. ; '* \ -;•'.....!:.■.:•/.•' ,\i.' 

348 Tfe }/f l^TO R T rf'tlfc 

• • » _ i 

Sea. XV. ¥ i%s^ thttee^b^no jisAK«96m.A{&^^^ 
Expert- Experimenter fheuld be prone txx deny the E^CsaxXf 
nums will j^ad Properties of Godj the univerfel SoYereimty of 
^hln& ^^^ Tfaminm^ and bis Trovident^ ovtv the {^aoaui 
theDottrtne ^ j^ before him the very feme Areumfiab to com 
j^^^^ nrm his Judgment m all theie ; with which he hnwea 

is wont to be abmidarftly latisfy^d^ . when he meets 
with it in any of his ThikfifhwAkl^qui^ies:;. I& eretv 
thing that hetries^. be boUeyeSf ; chat this is^;eniaiigb 
for him to reft on> if he findSf ^litt . notonly his owBf 
but the univerfalOhfervstims^tsS Men of aU Times 
and Places^ without »y. mutual Conipisacy^'havc con* 
Icnred in the fame Goncksfiot^. How can he then re* 
fraia from embracing this comoKm Tmthy which is 
witqeis'd by the ttnanimous Approbation of ail Guor* 
triesy the Agreeimmt ofi^Ttf^ymx^v and cheibcrec A& 
knowledgment of every^ Man^s Breaft > . 

^Tiis true bis. Employment is about material Things. 
But this is fo i^.from drawing him to oppoie invi*^ 
iible BeingSy that it rather puts hts Thoughts into aa 
excellent ^K>d Capacity toi belsc\^ them; In every 
ff^iff\k bfi^ature that be handks, he Knows that there 
i$ xii>t:osdy^ a gro& Sdaftancei which' picfirnts irifelE 
to dU Mens^ Eyes ; but an infinite fiibttky of IPartsi. 
wfatck coiM not intd dw ihaipcft -Sence. So that.irhar' 
tbei Sttiptum- rolates: tS tbe. Pbctty <of G^^i^^ of i:fae> 
S^pmhty Qf-bis) MfOf^ afid\tbat .ai,Jbiigelry and' 
tUtiShMisjo£idm^ .catmoribatLinBindibte^tDfa^ 
hfrt p?oceuresi the nambode& Particks that mo^e ia 
mbry MMCSuJStkdd^ iand^ the prodigtoiis Scieatns 
thainQdUiiQiIally- ^ Arnjoifaat fzan tymy \Ba^ Ha- 
ving found that his own Sen/es Have.fami . ib far a& 
fiAed . by the Injirumentscol Jlrt^ he may iboner ad* 



nis^rhat bis Mind ougltf to be rais-d higher, by a 
heaveoly LighCy. m tboie tbings wherein his Senfes 
do faU fhoft. If (as^ the Apofile £kys) the inviftble things 
of God ace m^fdfasd by tfao viribl& ; then how laud^^ 
(hronger Argniiients has be for h^s Beheld in the^/^r- 
nal TawcTy and Godheadf from the vaft Number 
of Creatures^ thai are invifiblie to others, butare exposed 
to his View \Sy the help of his Experiments ? 

T H u s^ he isprepar'd to admit a ^ityy and to em- Se6t XVI* 
brace the Confequpnces of that Concedioa. H€ i»Exferi- 
aUb from bis Exferiffteti^i as wdyi &rnifb'd ;\iHtb .^- ^/'^^/uv^ 
guments to adese it : He has always before his Eyes'^'^^^^^ '• 
the Beauty^ Contrivancey ^xiA Order oiGod's Works .-5^^** 
From hence, he will karn to Ibrve him with all R«ve-> ^ ' 
rence^ who in all thaE he has made, coniblted Q^na^ 
ment^ a» weU'as'lS/?^ 

From hotic6 he will beft tmdefftand^the if^ite Dl- 
ftance het9fS9n . kifnfilf and ImCreafor^ when he 
iinds'tbat ail thiogs were prodAc'dby him : Whereas 
heby a}lrhJ6 Studyv cetn fcarcelmitatje the lead: E^^QsSj 
norhaflefl^ or retard the common Courfe of Nature. 
This wiU teach him to w^r^j^ that ^/ySfo^ by which 
all things are fe eafily fuflain'd, when he has loek'd 
moie ^milcarly into them, and beheld the Chances 
and Alto^iionS), towhich they are expbfed. Hence > 
he will be led to admire the Wonderful Contrivance . 
of the Creation^ ; and lb to apply, and dired his 
Ptaiiesr ar ^bir : which no doi^r, M^hen they are of* . 
fer'd w to Heaven^ from the Mouch of one, who has 
well itudied what he commend^ will be more iuita- 
H^totht^Ttivine N^iture^ than theiblind Applauies of 
the Ignmanc This was the firft Service that Adam 
perform^to his Creatary when he dbey'd him innm- 


9SD yfhe Hi^rORr-of the 

ftriog, iand naming, and looking into the Nature of aH 
the Creatures. This had been the only Religion if 
Men had continued innocent in Taradife^ and had not 
wanted a Redemftitm. Of this the Scripture itfclf 
makes (b much Ufe, that if any devout Man ihall re- 
]t6t all Natural Thilofifhfy^ he may blot Genejls^ and 
yob^ .and the Tfalms^ and fome other Books out 6fthe 
Cantm of the Bible. God never yet left himielf with- 
- J3Ut Witncfs in the World : And it is obfervable, that 
lV .* - " he fta^iromtoohly cholen the dark and ignorant Ages^ 
• V • wl*rein to work Miracles ; but feldom or never the 
' • Times ^htti- Natural Knowledge prevailed? For he 
knew there was fiOtfomuch need to make ufe of ex- 
traordinary Signs, when Men were diligent in the 
Works of his Hands, and attentive on the .Impreflions 
of his Foot-fteps in his Cr€tf?i^r#j^. ^ - 

It is almoft a/r^v^r^i^/ Speech, that Phem>fi Ijofxrn- 
ed Ages areftill the mdfi Atheifticai, M^ the Ignorant 
il^ofi Devout. Whoever devised this ' DiftinCTion at 
, firft, the trfte ^/fi^y 4S little beholden to him for it; 
for inttead of obeying the- Jewijh La^^ which for-- 
bids usi:o offer lip to G^^ a- Sacrifice thftt Jbb a Ble- 
lAiih; 'he his beltow'd the nioft excellent of all the 
Race of Men on the Devil ; and has only affign'd to 
Religion thofe Men and thole Times^ which have the 
greateft Blemiih of Human Nature^ even a Defecit in 
their Knowledge andUnderJlanding. . . •. . 

If there can be found any Colour for ^isi)yerva- 
tionj that the Light of Reajon (hould produce a J)P/r/- 
tkal^Darkne/s ; it can only then hold good, when the 
Knowledge of Men, and not that of Nature abounds. 
Whether the firft be tme, or no, let the 3^4fliticians 
confider: But of the fecon^ this is a lufficient Con- 
vt^ion, th^in noft Countries God has been wor- 
\ ■ fhipp'd 

RVTAL saciEir. 3$i 

i&pp'din a Form propDrdonabletO'tiiat kind of Natn- 
ralThih/bfhy in which they excelled In Terfia^ where 
the Skill of the Heavenly Motions firfl began, they had 
i^eir Temples on the- Tops of HiUs^ an4 open to the 
Afc. In Adgyft they had the beft Opportunities of fia- 
dying the Nature of living Creatmres \ byreafbnof 
that variety which their River and their Land pro- 
duced. And tiieir Religious Myfieries were contained ' 
in Hieroglffflmks. wbicn were moft of them borrowed - 
from Besots. And why ihould Natural Thilofophy be 
iK)w coiidemn'd tot cooitempt of all ^ifuinity, when ^ 
ofold it did rather incline them to iSVy/^r^/^i^^, which - 
is the other extreme? It is true indeed, by thzt Know^ 
leJgev^hich they- had of many Creatures, they were 
fkawH; U> adore them ; but that: was' only becanfe 
it; wa& imperfed t If they had underftobd them 
throughly, tibey had never <ione it r So true is that Say* 
inc of my Losrd BocoHj That by a little Knowledge of 
i^ture Men^becotne Atbeifis \ but a great deal returns 
tkem back •' a^if^ tA a finmd and rmgtous Mind. la 
|>ri^^ if vvn rightly )am|rdiehd !the Matter, it will bfe * 
fixomd th^.it MS' not'only; Sottiihn^, • hxi Pirophaneisi 
for Men to cry out a^iinft the underftanding of Nih^ 
ture i for that^ being nothing elfe but thfe Inftra- 
menjc of Gi^d^ « wherry he gives Being and A<3:i6n 
to Things : the Knowledge of it deferves ib little to be 
efteem'd impious, that it ought rather ta^ be reckoned 
^ divine. 


. But the chief Part of our ^ Religion^ on which thd Se^.X VII. 
Certainty of all the reft depends, is the Evangelical Experimenn 
^oifrine of Salvation by* je/us Chrfji.: In this: thero »^^^*'9«^'- 
is nothing frdm which he that conver&s inuch with iSS^-'"^'^^/*^ 
ture^ can be thought to be more averfe thin others ^^Igr^f 

nay, "^^ ' 

^52 ' rbe\HlSrO%Tif the 

rMf9 to which hc-inay :iioti»eondadefltO'beiii6r^ 
inclioabki oa this rery Accobnc ; rfccmg it lias all 
been proved to him his own Way. Had not the ^pcar- 
ance of.Cir^i>eenibeigthen'd by nndenifalUe Signs of 
jUmi^y Tower ^ Sio ilgenorBiacft had bceaobkg^d to 
i>eHeve his Meflage« And theie MiracUfvnth which 
he aflerted the Truths that be tanght (if I might be 
:aliow'd this Boldneis in a Matter {6 bcred) I would 
leyen veatmre toxall ^hmte Exfirimemts of his Gad- 

What then can diere be in aU^is ^^Sfriney at 
which a real and impartial Inquirer into natural 
TU»gSj' ibould be offended > Does he demand a 
Teftimony from//Arz;» ? He hag it: He reads Efieds 
produc'd, that did exceed all mortal'Skiil and Force : 
And of this he faimiielf is a betoer Judge than dthers : 
For to underftand iirig|e what is SafaruaUfrsly it is a 
good Stqp firft xo .ikucti^ what is accordi^ to Nature. 

Does he roqpire^that thisAoahi be teftiiied, not 
by Mm£i£<J^t^r.SfefuJaeiiiu $ bw^FM^rby^ Menc^ 
Motiefiy^Tradts^ ^ndhBufigeff ^ Tl^^^^ 
ibdi. Wall he noL <)onfent to ^t^MMSi^s'OfmimJj m- 
icis he ftes the Oferaihms of his Hands agree with 
them ? Chriji hon&lf lequioes no more of any bf his 
FoUowers : far he xso^manded his ^Difiij^les m^ to 
beliESve him, baDthe Works due he did. Does he dn'nfc 
that it \% the moftbonoiiabie Labour cto ftqdy theBe- 
nefit of Mankind? to help their Infirmities? to (upply 
their Wants ? to cafe their Burdens ? He here may be- 
hold the whcJc ^Do£iriue of Future Hap ftnefs^ intro- 
. ducUby die &me Means; by feeding tihe Hungry, by 
curing the Lamcv and by opening tbe Eyes of the 
Blind : All wsbichmay be call'd Thiiofo^kat Worksi 
perfiorm'd by ah ,/ttMra^i&/y isi^^. 

' What 

nOT4l SOCIETt jrt 

What then can binder him from iovjbg and admi- 
ring this SavioHTf whofe Dejlign is (b conifoitablc to 
his own* but Idsjttilitj fo much greater } What Jea* 
loofy can he have of an Impoflure in this Meffim ? 
Who though. his ^a&rine was i^ pure and venerable, 
thoi^ his Life was lb blamelefs, though be bad the 
Power oiUeavtn ^^nd Earth in bis Hands, thoi^h he 
knew the Thoc^ts of Men and might h&ve toudiM 
and nu)v'd them as he pleas'd ; did yet not rely on his 
^Qffrine^ on his Life^ on the irrelHlible AfTiKonce of 
Angels^ or on his own TUvinity alone ; but (loop'd 
to convince Men by their Senfes^ and by the very 
!lame Coode by which they receive all their Natwdt 

The lafl: 7)offrinal Part of our Rethkn^ I Aall j^ XVIIL 
mention, confifts of thofe ^!Do£irines which have been 

loiig fmce deduced by Coniequences from the Serif- mems 
turej and arenowfetded in the Body oi thsxT)ivinityy »^ w*r- 
which was delivered down to us by the Primitive ^^j^^ ^ 
Chureh^ and which the generality of Chriftendom em- ^^S,? 
braces. It may here be luggefted, that the fenfible ^^ chncb: 
Knowledge of Things may in time abolifh moft of 
thefe, by infmuating into Men's Minds that they can- 
not (land before the Impartiality oiThilofifhicdlln-^ 
quifititms. But this Surmiie has no manner of Founda- 
tion, Tbefe Superftru^hures are of two Sorts : Either 
thofe of which a Man may have a clear Apprehenfion 
in his Thoughts, t^n a rational Account, and which 
are intelligible to any ordinary Reader ; or elfe fbch 
as exce^ the common Meaiures of our Reafon and 
Senfes. There will be no Fear that an Experimenter 
ihouid rejed: the firft, feeing they may be conceived 
by the meaaeft Capacity, and have that Stamp upon 

Y y them. 

354 The NlSTORTof the 

them, which be for the moft part eftiems the Chora^ 
Acr of Trutjhy. that they are vulgar. Bdt now to- 
wards the coBie&ting to the laft,. there is nothing bet- 
tea: than to believe them in grofe ; and for this be is 
as well, prepared as any other Vhikjbfhir. . If we iiip- 
pofc him liiflGicicntly convinced of the \Atu:hotity of 
the Deliverer,. ( as I haveak'eady ihewn Be may be) 
he cannot be fufped:ed £>r diiavowing his Word , 
though never fb myflical,. or for refilling the Voice 
of him whofe^ Arm he hasfound to be Omnipotent. 
This Suhnuflion of bis Ju^ment he may make^ not- 
withftandirig the Severity of his Inquiries \ and the 
moil iiibtil fpeculative. Man in the World can do no 
more. After all his acute Argutngs in ^ivinky^ he 
can never render any one Point, which is the. proper 
Obje<fl-of jptfi;/^, to be plain, and equal, and exprefli- 
h\^too\xxJRedjQn. Whatgoodcanhe thendo? feeing 
he is' not able to make it any way fitter for om Faitb, 
by all his Tranfcendental Notions^ than it was before 
on the bjire. Account, of the wMdrms PForks oixht^^ 

This is the Place in which the Teriprntetic^tla^ 
J9fhyfh2$ long triumpb'd ; but I cannot imagine on 
what Right. The Ipiritual and fopematuralPart of Chri- 
ftianityjxo yA/A/«/^^ can reach ; and in the plain things 
there is no need of any j at all ; Qy that it is excluded 
on both Accounts. In ipme "iXoBrints it is ulelefs,. by 
re^npf their Soblimity ; in others, .becaule oEtheir 
. Commonn^fs. How fmall Affiftance it brings, jnay be 
feen in thole very Points in which its Empire leems 
moft to be placed, in God's ^Decrees^ his Immateriality^ 
his Eternity^ and the holy Mvftery of the Trinity : 
in all which we ate only brought into; a more leam- 
jed Darknefs by, it; and ia which uo&tfaomable 



Dq>ths a t>la}fi Believing is at laft acknowledge by 
all to be our only Refine. The Truth iSy notwith- 
ftanding the great Stir they have made about Religi- 
(m% if we had only foUow-d their Light, we had uiU 
worihipp'tl the Creator and Redeemer of the fVorld^ 
under the fim6 Title by which their Predeceflbrs did 
formerly at Athens^ as ^^unkmywn Gad. 

This I have uig'd fb bsy becaufe I am conHdent that 
the. reducif^ ot^hrijiiamty to one particular Sed: of 
Thilofifhy^ aodcon^plng it to that, i^ one of the moft 
ddtnu^ive Ei^ines.that ever was managed againft it. 
Of this die Church oiRomey for her Share, has already 
ibund the ili B&i^s : And the Danger is apparent : For 
by this uMansthprBenefit oi Religion will become very , 

narrd^^ ffeciflg wi^^^ /8^^^^ it will only , 

copyin^e th^ who are of*thc«iame Opinions 'mThilo- 
yj)/Ajrwith thofe that convert them : And alio, (that 
which is worfe) if ever by any Fate of Timesy or Change 
of Governments^ or Succemon of new Arfs^ that SeiSt 
Ihallchance to be quite broken, the ^O0rine of Chriji, 
relying upon it, were inevitably rain'd, unleis G^^ 
were plcas^ to lupport it a iiipematural Way, or. to , 
reftore it again by new Miracles. Rel^ion ought not 
to be theSubjcdl of Di/put at ions: It ffiould not ftand 
in need of any Devices of Reajbn: It Ihould in this be 
lijke the temporal Laws 'of ail Countries, towards the 
obeying of 'which there is no; need of Sjllogi/ms or , 
^iJiin£tions ; nothing elfe is neceilary but a bare Pro* 
mulgation, a common Apprehennon, and Senfe 
enough to underftand the Grammatical Meaning of 
ordinary Words. Nor ought "^hikjbphers xo regret 
this Divorce, i. feeiiig they have ajmoA deftroy-d 
themlelves by keeping Chrijlianity ib long under 
their Guard j by fetchii^ Religion out of the ^Church , 

V.y i and 

3)6 mNiiT^srcfiU 

and carWing it Caotiteihto the ScBoobi tbey fiave 
made it iufl^ Banimmt nt from its proper Place : And' 
they have withal thereby very mucn comipctd the 
Subftance of their own Kfivt6kig& : They have doae- 
as the ^hiliftmes by ieizing. on th« Ark ;. wha by the 
lameAcaion deprived the People Of Gp^ of their ^/^ 
gWHy and alio broi^ht a Plague amongft diemlelves. 

Sea XIX ^^^^ ^ ^ *^™^ *^ w^ ^ confels'd> that Exferi- 
Expiri- ^^^^ ^^ unblameable. But yet there is much more 
mms wlU behind, of which many pious Men are wobt to exprefi 
nothindir their Jealoui}^. For thoti^ th^ ikall Be brought 
the PraSice to allow, that all thefe ^aifrin^y which I have 
rfSilipon. nam'd^ may feem to remain lafe amidft the Studies 

of Natura f Things : Yet they flill whifper,^ that they 
may chance by d^ees, to make the Sincerin^ of De- 
votion appear ridiculous, and to bring the Stridhds' 
of holy Life out of Fafliioa : And that fo they will 
filently, and by Peice-meds, demolifh Religion which^ 
they d^e not openly encounter. I wilf therefore 
next endeavour the Removal of thefe Scruples, though. 
I fufficiently undeilbsmd^ that it is a very difficult 
Worky to confute iuch popular and' plauftble £rrors>. 
which have the Pretence of the Caufe of God to con* 
^rm them. 

The chief Subftance of real and ibber Tietyy is 
contain'd in the deVout Obfervation of all thote Ways 
whereby G^/has been pleas'd to mahiieft^ his If^ill \ 
and in a right Separation of our Minds from the Lufts 
andDefires of the World. The moft remarkabfeMeaiis^ 
whereby he has made kitoWn his Pleaiure^ are thofe 
which have been fix'd and revealed in his Word\ or 
elfethe extraordinary Signs of his Authority,, and 


noTAL s^ocrsrr. ^^ 

Will in the Scrifttrci I kare alreadf* fpoiea. Aatf 
eur Obedienco to the latter^ cohfifts chie% of* twv 
Kinds : an humble SubdiiffioA to 2>ivM« ^rtfbitifyf^ 
and a carefolObiemtice 6f all rtfi^rkubU Vro^Jen- 
€es. In bodi whick Edcf^rmental ^hikfiphy mxf 
well be juftify'd. It may perhaps cattcQt feme Excefles: 
which are inctdeiit so them : But it declares no Enmity 
agaitift the dlings theoifelTes 

The Sum of all the whole Do&rm9 t^'PtdfheCHF 
is this, thatt^e ^r^4f Cr^^f^r of the World has the' 
PrerogatiTe of fbreleeing^ app<Mnti^ and predid):- 
ing afl future Events : Thar he has often, ifi former 
Agesy made x£t vJ[ this Power, by the Vitions and-. 
Rapiiaresofkoly Men in^pir'd from above ; that his 
mfiHil>€ ^i/a/!N» hasftill'the like Abilky to^do the fame $. 
tliat whenever fuch Prcdi^ons are accompanied,: 
With undeniable Tcftimonies of their b<skig &nt from 
Mueven^ diey ei^t to be pre&nf'd before all bimum 

The true Foundation of di^'meTftdigiesr is mucb 
of the £une Nature widi the dther. It reUes dii thefe 
Suppofifions, that all the Creatures are fribjed to G$d*s- 
Wffrd, by which they were i^ude ; that he can alter 
their Courjes, exalt or dcftroy,> their Natures, and 
move them to di^r^t Ends ^kmh tfaek own, accor- ' 
ding to his Pieafei« ; that diiS he has tiS&aa done 
heretofore ; that itill his Arm is nor weaku'd^ nor 
die lame Onm$f6tence diminilh'd ; that (till he ma; 
change the wonted' Law of theCr^tffiMr, and di 
of the Beings and MotUns of all Things wid 
codKcoui ; and ttii^ wb^ t^s iS done ir is with a' pe- 
cuhar Defign of punilhiii^ or liewafdlng, or forewar- 
ning Ms^luiid. 


^o the Bdief and AiTcrtioa of <befc 7)oBrfneSj vcne 
arc obUg'd by the veiy end -of Reiigian ideif. But 
yet their counterfeit Colours have feduc'd many vir- 
tuous Minds into nlanifo^ Mtfidiiefs.' 

Tbev Mift^es about fPrt^ecies may' ariie either 
from our abuTtng "M the old, or a vain fettihg up . of 
new. We err in the firft, when .we tranflate the an- 
cient Prophecies from thole Times and Countries, 
which they did properly regard, to others, which 
they^ do not concern. >And we Qflfeild in the 'lecond, 
>yhen we admit. of new ^rf^fhethal j]^ri/tx,inthis 
Age, without the uncontroulable Tokens of ^if^it^fisr/y 

We are guilty of fklfe Interpretations of provi- 
dences and fVtmdersy M^hen we either mkko thole to 
be Mirackfth^ are none, or when we.pfit afaUe. 
Senie on ttiofe ithat aue rc$l ; when we make^ general 
Events to have a private Aiped:, or paiticiilar Accidents 
to have iome univerial Signification. Though both 
thefe may feem at firfl to have the Ilrid^eft K^i^ca^^ 
^ncQ of Rejiigi0fj yet they are the greateft Ulurpa- 
tions on. the Secret^ of the jilmigbty^ and unpardon- 
able Preiumptions on his high Trerogatives of Tu- 
nijhment and Reward. 

Sea. XX. - AND.noWiifa moderating o£ thefe Extravagancies 
Exferi- muft. be efteem'd Prppfataeoe^ I profels, Icsfnnotab* 
rnms will foiye the Experimental Thilojbpher. It muftbegrant- 
n^^^M ^4 that he. will be very fcmpulous, in beliiviqgall 
fProphe- °^^*^ pf:CQmlijent^ies on Trcfbetfcal FsfiMSj ux 
ciesland &Yi»g L^bercy to new T.ic^diffionsy ; and in aflkning 
Prodigies, the C^^e^, ond B»rKiBg,o« jhe V^%€^^Qod'i Judg- 
ments ^irnon^ his Creafutres. • > .: 

He cannot iuddenly conclude all extraordinary 



Events to be the ioimediate Finger of God^ btcaufe 
fie familiarly beholds the inward Workings of Things ; . 
and thence perceives that many Ef7ed:s, which ufe 
to affright tne Ignorant^ are brought forth by the 
Qommon Injirutnents of Nature. Hp cannot be fud- 
dcnly inclin'd to pals Cenluffe on Mens eternal Con-:' 
dition, from any Temporal Judgments that may 
befal them ; beouife his long Converfe with all Mat- - 
ters>. Times, and Places,. has taught him the Truth of 
V\^hat i[ht Serif ture ^ys^ that ^L things, haffen alike^ 
to dlL , He cannot blindly r confent to all Imaginations v 
of devout Men, about, future Contingencies \ feeing 
he is ib rigid in examining all particular Matters of 
TzSti he. cannot be forward tq aflent to Sfirituai 
Raptures and Revelations ; , becaufe be is truly • ac- 
quainted with the Tempers of Mens Bodies, the Com* 
pofition of thdr ^Blooa^ ancij the Power of Fancy ; 
and' {o^ better undqrllands the, Difference between^ 
^ifeafis and JnJ^iratians. . 

Butifi all this, he commits.nothlngthat is itreli-^ 
giousj *Tis true, |;o;d^ny t]bat, ^^/^: has.. heretofore 
warn*d the World of wliat w^ to Come^ is to. contra-, 
did the very, Godhead^itfelf j bur to rejed the Senf^j 
wKch-any private Man fliallfaftqn to ii^ is not to dil^ 
dain the\^^rdof i(f(7^ bur the Opinions of Men like 
ourfelves. To jdecla^ce ag^oft; tj?e ; Ppffibility, \ tliai; 
new Troj^bets ft^y, )^o\tnx,^<^i^ iflfiftuai^e. 

that th'c.iame iJOTjiite \t^il3ofl:i, which once ijiew'i 
itielf that' tVay, is now at an end.' But to ilight all 
Pretenders that come without the help of ^/r^^/fx, 
is not a Contenppt of the Sp^rit^ but a juft Circiunipc- 
dion, xhat tlie.if^^« of, men be not over-reach'A- 
To d^hy that G<jd dircfts the ,Cour(e of hunpan ThLpgSi, 
ii Stupidity ; ^t to hearken to every iPro^^^^ that 

3^» The fflSTVnrofthe 

Men frame againft their Enemies, or for thcmfelves^ 
is not to reverence the Tower of Godj but to make 
that ferve the PafHons, and IntereftSi andReyenges 
of Men. 

It is a dangerous Miftafce, mto which many good 
Mcft fail ; that we neglcA the dominion of Godover 
the JVorldj if we do not difcover, in every Tem of 
human Actions, many fupematural Providences and 
miraculous Events. Wnereas it is enoogb for the 
Honour of his Government^ diat he guides the whole 
Creation, irji its wonted Courfc of Cmifes and EfFe^s : 
JS& it makes as much for the Reputation of a Prince's 
Wildom, that he can rule his Suojeds peaceAly, by 
3iis known and (banding Law^ as that lie is often 
foi-c'd to make ijSt of extraordinary Juftice to puniifa, 
^rtewjtrd. ' 

' Let us then imagine our Tlytlqfofher^ to have all 
flowneft of Belief^ and rigour of Trial, which by 
ibme is mifoali'd a blindneis of Mind,* and hardnefs of 
Heart. Let us foppoie that he is mod unwilling to 
igrant that any thing exceeds the Force oi Nature^ but 
where a full Evidence convinces him. Let it be al- 
lowed, that he is always alarmM, and ready on his 
<3uard, at the Noifc of any miracuious Event ; left 
liis Juc^ent fhould be forpriz'd by the Di&ii^ of 
Faith, But docs he by this diminifh the j&tbority 
of ancient Miracles ? Gr docs he not rather confirm 
them thcmore^ by confining their Number, and taking 
care that every Falfhood fhould not mingle with 
them? Can he by this undermine Chriftianity^ which 
does not now ftand in need of iudi extraordinary 
Teftimonies from Hean)en ? or do not they rather in- 
^aneer it^ who fhil venture all its Tmths on fo ha- 
zardous a Chance > Who require a Continuance of 


apd hi5| Af^kf ^^>hot bcci^fiiflickint .: w^q ought to 
be efteem'd the qioft earhaUy mmded } Tb^ Enthujl^ 
afl^ that pollutes Yds Religion^ witl^^his Qwa Paflipns ;» 
or the £x/^erimeffter, that wilj notu^ it to flatter and 
^bey bis owo Pefires, but tp fobductbe^^ who i^ to 
be thought the greatefl Enemy of the Crofj>el!i He 
that loads Mens Faiths^ by fo many improbable Things, 
as will go near to make the Reality itielf fufpe(3;ea ; 
or he that t)nly adptiits a few jirguments^ to confirm 
the Evangelic^l'DoBrines^ but then cbufes thoie that 
are unquyiioHoble 'i It cannot b^ an ungodly purpoie 
tp ftrive to aboliih all Ho^ Cheats^ which are of fa- 
tal Confequence, both to the Deceivers and thofe 
that . are deceived : To the Deceivers, becaule they 
ipuft, oeeds be Hypocrites^ having the Artifice jn their; 
Heeping.: To the deceived, becai^ if their Eyes ihall 
Ijeeyer open'd, and they chance to find, that they • 
hav? been deluded in any one Thing, they will be apt , 
not only to reje<%.that, but even to de(pife the very 
Trufhs, theDQ&lve$, wiiich they had before been taught 
by thofe JDeluders, /> 

, It were ind^d to be cojifipfsVl* that this Severity ^f : 
Cenjure on Religious Things ^ were to be condemn'd, 
in Experimenters^ if while they deny any Wonders, 
that are vilely attributed to the True Godj they fhquld > 
appipVe thofeiof Idols or felfe T>eitieSr Bqt that i% 
ijot obje^d againfl them. T^ey ipaaike no^Compa- • 
rifbn betw.cen his Power, and the Works of any .pr/ 
thers, but only between the feveral ways of his . own, 
manifefting himfelf Thus if .they IpfJen oi^e . jieap^i 
yet they ftill increafe the otber. :. la the main xbeyj 
dinjimfh nothing of his Right. , tf jthey take^frQii:) die 
"Prodigies, tbey add to the .prdipajy /5r<^fy^irofiJ|j^ 

' * Z z ^ fame 

^ tfi9 mST^RTdf the 

they do almoft ra^ to the height o{JV$ndersj by the 
exai^ DifcoTery, which tbey make of their Exceil^. 
cies : While the Enthufiafts goes near to bring 
down the Price of the true, and f>rimitive Mirscksy 
by fiich a vaft, and inch a n^ligent ai^fnenting of 
their Number. 

Seft.XXI. By this I hq>e it appears, that this inquiring^ thi!s 

On this ac- fcrupulous, this incrediHous Temper, is not the ti)£- 

count Expe- grace, but the Honour of Experiments. And there- 

rf iif^iff J jir# fy^ J ^iu declare them to be the moft fcafonable 

rrlfimTem- Study, for the prefent Tem^ of our KatUn. This 

per of our ^^^^ amufing Mens Minds, with ^rodigies^ and Gon- 

Nation. ctits of Trtn/idenceSj has been one of themc^ con- 

frderable Caufes of thofe Spiritual Diftradions, of 

which our Country has long oeen^ the Theatre. This 

is a Vanity to which the Englijh feem to hove beett 

always mbjedl above others. There is^ fence any 

M&aem Hlfiorian^ that relates our Fopeign Wars, but 

he bas-Bhis Ohjedtion ^inft the ^i/pojkiin of our 

Countrymen, that they usM to ordo* thcip Afiairs^ of 

th^ greateil InipfHtance, according tcvibme oblcure 

Omens^ or VraSBions^ that paisM about amongft 

t)iem, oi( little or no Foundations^ And at this time, 

eifpecfally this laft Ye«, this gloomy, and ill-bocfing 

humour has pr^f^D^d. So thae it \^ now the fitteft Sea- 

fonfbr Experiments to^ariikj toteich us a^WiickiB) 

which iprinffl- from the depths of ir«^wy^^^, to fliake 

off the Shadows, and to featter the Mifts, which fill 

Ae MindS-of Men with a vain Confternation. This 

n a fTdrk' well4)ecoming the moft Chrijiian Trofiffiem. 

For the moft apparent ElSed, which attended the 

Paffion Q^Qyrifty was the putting of an eternal filence 



pa «tl the fiilfe Ocades, aod di/Iembled lofpiryti^jBis of 
mcient Times. 

There hafve been, 'tis true, fame peculuur Occafioas 
wherein God was pleas'd to convince the World from 
Ikaven in a ^vifible inanner. But if we canfider the 
jlrguments xbax us'd tp uiove him to it^ we may con* 
dude tjiat fuch wonderful Signs ai;e ^ot often now to 
be expedied. 

He has either done it, in Times of grois Ignorance, 
or in the b^;mning of a new way of Religumj or for 
die peculiar Punuhm^ pf ibme prevailing Wicked- 
neis : Upon the account pf the t>vo iirft, we have no 
reafbntoexpedl WonderSin4^>l£^e: Bccaufe all ibrts 
joi KnawleJ^e do fo much abound ; and becaufe we 
^?e a Rekgitm akewiy ^oAablifii'd, . ag^iiifi: wl^ich the 
Gates of Jt^eli ftatt never jHTievatl. ^ 

The ihkA time has been, ."wliea Gad has taJken to 
himfel^ jthe Exen^Ury Tmn^hmeut of ibme heinous 
Sin. From this indeed our ^^ is no more exempted, 
than it is free from thoie Vi^res, that are wont to pro- 
voke the ^ivinf Vengeance. This then we confefs, 
that even at this prdlent God nsiay ^edare himielf 
againft the Iniquities of Men, by djtefupernatural To- 
kens of his PUpkafure. fiut yet the Interpretation of 
iiich Puniflunents ought tp be handled with the great- 
, eft tendemefe. ^ Eor as it is iaid of the 1^ and gene- 
ral Ju<^|se&i^ ^^ no Man knim^ the iw^e when it 
Jhall h^^n'\ jk we Qiay aUp a^m of thefe particu- 
^ Judgments i That there is no Man whounder- 
' ftands the Circun^lance$,or Qccafions of their Infli(9i-> 
. on, but they are one of the deepeft parts of God's un- . 
iearchdble Councils. 

Whenever therefore a heavy pal Amity fylls from 
Heaven aaomligtion^ mi^iv^r/iiJiej^fntmce is re- 

Z z X "quir'd; 

3<J4 The BIST out of t^ 

quir*id; but all particular Apfftications of private Meiij; 
except to their own Hearts, is to be forfcorn* Every 
Man muft bewail his ov^nTranJ^reJions^ which have 
increased xht Tuhlick Mifery: But be m^bot bi^ 
too fiafty in afligningthe Caufes of^lagu»s<f6t Firej\. 
or Inimaations^j to the Sins of other Men. ;^ Whoever 
thinks that way to repent^ by condemning the Milcar^ 
riages of thofe Parties, that (differ from his own, and 
by reproving tbeirr, as the-^«*A^r^ of iuch Mifcbiefs^ 
he \s grofsly miftakeh : For tfi* is not to repent, brit 
to makd a Satire : That is- n6ti» Ad: of Hiimtication,; 
but the greateft Sftriiual Tride: ^' : ! 

^ It is indeed a Difgrace to the Reafbn and Honour df 
Mankind, that every fyxiii&ical Humor ifi fhould pre*- 
fome to interpret alFthey&rr^ Oi^dinancesx^f H$afOen^^ 
and to exp9qn4.the Tiini^S, and Seaibns, and Fatsls 
hi Empires, though he be never fb ighovant ^'f-'thc 
very common Works of Nature^ that lyc under his 
Feet. There can b^ JEiothing more injurious th^ 
this, to Mens- publick or private Peace. This with- 
draws pur ObecfienC^ from* the tra'e Image of <?^il^. 
the rightful - 5bviereigrt, dnd makes' \xS depend on thfe 
Va&i Ims^es of bis Pow'r, which ai^e framed by oar 
own Imaginations. This weakens the Conftancy of 
liuman Actions . This affecfts Men with Fears, Doubts. 
Irrefolutibns, and Terrors, ft \s< ufiftUy ohferv'd, 
that {vx\i1^€faging^ in^Trofbetic^iTimes^ do com- 
monly i fore^iJtf greab i>eJiriiitioHs ixiidi^olutums 
of human Aflfairs. • And that it'flioiild be, fo is na- 
"tural enough, • though the • ^Pre/ages and Prodigies 
thenrfehfes did figftifie n6 fiicb Events;; \For this<>9Uf- 
lancholy^ this frightful^ this ^/?r^/^^i^ bdmoiir 
'atnis McnsXHearts^^ it breaks' their CoaragQ it i con- 
founds their ;Geundls> it iittkfis them Jielp to bring 

Ri) TAL see IE TrL y6s 

Sxch Calamities on themfelves : Firft, they fancy that 
|uch ill Accidents mull come to pals ; and Co they 
lender themfelves fit Subje<3:s to be wrought upon ; 
and very often become the InJirumvntSj to luring thofe 
EffeiUs about, which they fondly imagined were ine^ 
yitably threatened them itovcL Heaven. 


The hSiAccufation concerns that which is neceHar §. XXIP. 

to zholy Life^ thQ mortifying of our Earthly De- Experi- 
^ r^j'. And here the Men of a retired and levcre Devo- ments nor 
tion are the loudell : For they tell us, that we cannot ?^y''^'"^'- 
conquer and defpife the IForld while we ftudy it ^'^^^^^^ 
io much ; that we cannot have lufficient leilure to 
reflecft on another Life^ while we. are fo taken up a- 
bout the Curiofities of this ; that we cannot be ftriifl 
jcnough in corredling the Irregularities of our own 
'Thoughts^ while we give them Q^ much liberty to 
jWander, .and la pleaiant a Road wherein to travel; 
^and that it is in vain to flrive after the Purity and 
'Molinefs of our Minds, while we lulfer them to Ipend 
ib mijch Time^ on the Labours of oiir Sen/es. This 0^- 
jc£ttou appears at firft fight Ibmewhat terrible ; Butl 
come the more boldly to it, becaufe there 
are involved in the lame Indictment, all the mdft 
innocent Arts^ and civil Adtions of Men^ which 
muft either ftand, or fidi with Experiments^ in. this 

Firft then! will alledge, thut if this fort of Stuify^ 
fliould be acknowledged not to be proper, for the 
. promoting of the feverer Offices of Chrijiianitjy yet 
it would iufficiently recompence for that, by the AjP- 
. fiftance it may jbiing to Ibrae other kijpids of Chriftum^ 
Virtues : If it Ihallnot fill our Minds with'' the molft 
mortifying Images,, which may rife from the Terrors 

\66 The BISTORT of the 

of God's Jufticey yet it will makjC amends -for that, hj 
inclining us to adore his Goodnep. If it fits us not ib 
well for the Secrecy of a Clofet\ it makes us fervice- 
able to the World. If it Ihall not feem to contribntc 
towards Godly Sorrow^ or Contrition \ it will give us 
more Opportunities of Charity^ Affability^ Friend- 
Jhif^ and Generofity^ which are all of them divine 
Gracesy as well as Faithj and Repentance. 

It is a great Error to think that Religion does only 
confift in one fort oi duties. It is as various as the 
Dilpofttions, the Qualities, the Conditions of Men : 
With fome, thefevere, the ftriA, the retired are bcft : 
with others, the bountiful, the affable, the checr- 
fiil, the friendly : Of both which kinds I will not 
lay whether is to be preferred : But this is true, that 
while the ftfft are chiefly limited to the regulating 
of our own Hearts^ the influence of the iaft extends 
much farther ; to Ipread the Fame of the Go/pel in 
the World ; to make it appear lovely in the Eyes of 
all Beholders ; ^nd to allure them to lubmit to the 
honourablenels, the gentlenefs, the cafinels of its 
Yoke. And this methinks is evident in our Saviour's 
.Life : For whenever be intended to convert any to 
hi^lFaithy hedid it by fome vifible^^^^ Warky in the 
fight of the Multitude. But he jnever gain'd any 
^ifcifle by the Conflidts, which he was pleased to 
undo'go in. his -own Mind; for he performed his 
Fajiy and his Agony alone, in the Wildemefs^ and the 

In the next place I will affirm. That it is improba- 
ble that even the hardeft and moft rigorous parts of 
Mortification itlclf (houid be injured by th^^ Studies 
more than others; feeing many Duties of which it is 
. compost, do bearlbme relemhlance to the .Qualifi- 



catioBCdiat are requifitein Exferimental^hilojbfbers. 
The fpixituzlR4fftentaHce is a carefhl furvey of our for- 
fioer Errors^ and a Reiblution of amendment. The 
ipiricuai Humility is an Obfervation of our Defeds, 
and a lowly Senie of our own Weaknefs. And the 
Experimenter for his part muft have ibme Qualities 
that anfwer to theie : He mufl judge aright of him* 
ielf ; he mufl mifcloubt the bed of his own Thoughts ; 
he mufl be fenfible of his own Ignorance, if ever he 
will attempt to purge and renew his Reafbn : So that 
if that be true, which is commonly obferv'd, that Men 
are wont to prove fiich kinds of Chrijtians as they 
were Men before ; and that Converflon does not de- 
llroy, but only exalt our Temfers\ it may well be 
concluded, that the doubtful, the icmpulous, the deli- 
gent Ob fewer of Naturey is nearer to make a modeft, 
a fcvere, a meek, an humble Chrtfiiany than the Man 
of Speculative Science^ who has better thoughts of 
hicpielf and his own Knowledge. 
. But I need not ta£ke fb great a Compafs in this Vin« 
dication, when it may be £iirly maintain'd, that the 
tTue and unfei^'d Mortification is not at all inconfiT 
ileot with M^us conddtiog of their Happinefs in this 
World, or being employ'dabout earthly Af&irsw The 
hojcisfl.puriuit of the Conveniencies, Decencies, and Ou 
naments of a mortal Condition, by jjufl and regular 
w^ys, is by no m^ans contradidlory to the moil real 
and if vere Ehities of a Chrifiian^ It is trae indeed, 
the irjpi^ar Profecujtioa of fuch Thii^s is an offence 
to Religion : butib it is alio to right Keafin^ and Na^ 
ture ii;fel£ 

It js a wrong Conception of the State of Graccy if 
Men believe^ that when they enter upon it, they 
aiuflprefently caft away all the Thoughts aodt^eikes 

- of 

i^rs yh m std ny of thi 

offfumanity: If this wcrcfb, to ftmSific om N^ 
wcfp riot to renew, but to deftroy them. When wc 
are coimnanded to /«/ off the old' Mdn^ we arc ntrf 
enJQin*4 to renounce our Faculties of Reajon. When 
we are bidden nottv think our 'own Thoughts^ it is not 
intended that v^t Ihould forbear all Natural ABions 
and Incitnations , Such Serif tures as thefe are to be 
nnderftood in a moderate Senfe : By luch Expreflions 
the Irregularity of the £-«/?, and liotthe Naturalise- 
fire is condemned : The Tiety and Innocence of oiif 
. 'Livesy and not the utter Change of our Eftatty is re- 
commended. Seeing the Law of Reafin Intends the 
Happinels and Security t)f Mankind in this Life ; tui4 
the Chrijiian Reftgion purfiies the lame Ends, both hi 
this and a foture Life ; they are fo far from being op 
pofite one to another, that Religion may properly hi 
Jlyrd the beft and the nobleft Part, the Peife<3ion and 
the Crown of the Law of Nature. ^ 

I will therefore firft demand, whether it be not 
kwftd for the ftricfleft Chrijlian to provide for the 
Keceflities of this Life > IThis Requeft is modeft e^ 
hough : For if they deny it, they will reduce Mani 
kind into aCondition which is literally worfe than that 
of the Beads that perilh ; feeing to them it is natdral 
X to feek out for all the ways of their own Prefervationr 

X will go on to ask them, whether it be a Breach of 
the La'-J^ of Chyijiianityy to labbur for the Advantage* 
of Living, which are cnjoy'd by others ? If this be re- 
fUs'd mei wic fhall not deprive it of that Honour wbifcli 
iio\v yc^j belongs to it, that there is little Civility at 
prefent amongft Mea without the Pale of the ChriffiAfi 
Church. - . ^ . ..... 

- Buti^infew Words, let them tell me, whether it Ire 
iildr^ccifiibly^neceflkry for us to be dways thinking 
' of 

t>f beftrpnly Thicigs } If (o, Jtow ftr flioit weit the re* 
ry ^//p/ of this CiMimder of Sttfiefffji, which thdc 
Moi . 5!Qoi)id,iMri|i^rpi«.m > Wh«t XrtitfidK» wtiac Com- 

Gotild , t>9 oUow'di , Wheie ihouMl lyc at kft nttkie aa 
ea4 of nMMg ^ What V^rald b€09i»e of all the Men 
of Trade themfelye^ of whom tfats^id^e Jms ibevm £» 

• Let i^ody<^<ler»p^' granted chat. we aoeJtflrar, 
atid not Jf$^k • iM. it 1^ CQB&ft'd, ' due iheoc tmjr 
bc an Excejs, as well as 2)<?^^, in Men's Opinion^ of 
Holioe& : iM)4 tiien I iFitt.inake oi» &nible to {ay* diat 
th/^^bfhfifher 4<fil(^.00ltJii^ Mind vroco te labosirs 
in rf>e^?:^:0f i/V»f/wy;tl ^safcjtbcTO^-etfiftariiey ^vse 
Hmt wU OM T^ifih : tW.g«t^U4i(t .Qooflaacy^ and kfae 
Pd^t-.Qf flojdl^ jibcMD, Wii^ the W^htmd Rea^f 
of Hfl/ffpn. 'B^ to &7 119 mM^ Hour bah it he ima*' 
gin'4 €0 i>e a fuKfol and «an«Ui Tirfi)g« to coDfider die 
Qbje^of owfu^^^y^ft wbcaL<rM tiut.mio& /^irittuU 
Be»ig,;^i m/tk^ t;h^<all "h SHotc l^ey Asfk wen £on- 
<<eivUiQ Hsrvt^ttsd M«(4 'i|(J^>na^- dusy hoc inr 
9<i)^e9tJ^;q|ty$r.t<i}i0i9«K}^ iFottfiha-e he any PoUuxi- 
on w^niic^.necei^ly £o(\^s froni ctfinking .cftfatib, ic 
m^hf a$: jWaU be cotichidttltD Aick: on the j^^^, as 
Qfi {h«t£t^^ «f4M>b that; osly .^liienre them. 

-y i 

.-A>f'P MWJ^i^gio^<kl:foioig^mtbe Parts :of the $. XXIII. 
Chrifiuu^ HeUgim iti Getieisal, ic will be kfi needfcd Expert- 
that I ihould be large in vindicatit]|; -this ^f&n from ^ttitts fot 
the Ippatatikni of teing pr^odicial to the 0&mv& <;/'*«««'•«''• 
£mA«!I(^0 foe. this has die foneiniieieft with that,*5?p^X. 
W, 4i^.>to fiotbifag&Qm to |«ihkifc fttttcnl, but ^ *^6>ana. 
Q^ljr ia t^ i«$Mition of ibtaBe. CioboinflaaoeS) >whicb 
make it fie ibr this jfge tad this Piitce : Aad dierefore 

A a a they. 

' J . Urn. 

5>o The MS Tort of thu 

thcv will both be ftrci^thcn'd by the lame Benefits, 
and weakened by the fame Mifchiefs. 

What I have then to add concerning our Churchy 
fliall be comprized in thtffe Particulars : That it can 
never be prejudiced by the Ligh/ of i?^^^/^, hor by 
the Improvements of kmwleJge^ nor by the Advance* 
ment of the JVarh of Mens Hands. • 

For the proof of the Firft, it will be (ufficient ta 
confiderits Irue^y^fynyVfhzX. Ofinims it principally 
encour«£fS} and by ^h^jirgthnents it ought to defend 
itlelf:".- ' ' '\ ' ' /*• V * "^ -^ ■ ■' 

The true and certain Intereft of' our Church is to de- 
rive its 2>^^ri»!r^ from the plain and unqueftion'd parts 
of thcWordofGsd, and to keep itftlf in a due Sub- 
miflion tOrtfae GvU Ma^Jfrauf^Tht Extremb Which 
it oppc^es^ore hnfJicit Faith^ tfnd Enthufiafin ; And it 
is a great Miftake^ if Men think it cahnot be main- 
tain'd ag^unft theie, but by tbe^ mutual j^rguments - oi 
its Enemies ; that* it cannot witMlapd the oefaratijfsj 
but by the AuAority of the Churchaf Rmfe ; nor dif^ 
fait from the Church 4^ Rmmiy fc«it • on the Teniehts of 
the SeparatiftJ^ The Qrouitdsc»;\\^hich^it proceeds 
arcdi^ent from bdtfa:; ^d they are no other but 
the Rights of the Civil Tawer^ the Iniitation of the 
firft uncorrupt C^rrA^/,. and the Serif ture expound^ 
ed by Reafon : From whence may be concludedi that 
we cannot msif War ajgain^ Ttcajfm^ Without under- 
liiining- our own' Strength, feeingit is the conftant Wea- 
pon we ought to employ. 

From this I will farther prge, That iht Church of 
England \f\il not only be (afe amidft the C^nfequen- 
ces Qf a RMtsondl jtige^ but amidft all the bn{>tove^ 
nlehts of KnawledgSy aiMi the Subverfion o^ 6\A Op- 
atons about Nature^ and Introdu(llion of new ways 



of re^icM^ix]^ diereon.^ This ^ill be evidcntv when 
we bdbpld utt Agrepmcttt that is between the pre- 
fent ^efign of dhe Riy^l Society ^^di that of our Church 
in its B^^inniog. They, bodi may lay equal claim to, 
the word Refprmatio^\ the one having oomp^fs'd ; i^ 
in RetigioHy^t other purponng it in Tht^ft^hy.X^yi, 
both hay^ takep ; ^ like cowrie ^9 f^u^gtbis about ; ^ch^ 
of them pai&ng by tl^ corrupt CapJes^ and referring 
themfelves to the perfeii Originals for their Inftru<3:i- 
on; die one to die Scripturcj the other to the large 
Volume oi^ the Creapur^^, , They i^e.both mijuftty 
accused by tl^^ EnenuQ$.|pf the.{an^ Grilles, Ojf havi 
in^ for&ken xhtjincieffti Tradition,Si andventur'd on 
IZ(yvelties. They both; fiippoie alike, that their ^/rr^- 
Jiars might err:? and^ vet regain a. ^iflicient Reverence 
for them. ,; Ti^fy both; J^M^ Pjecj^pt. of 

xi^^^ofife^j^i trying Sjii, J3j:He j^ 

between:thcir^i!r/^^r^4 and Z^w^^r/./ Jt cajapot there- 
fore t)e iuipeded^ thatth^ C^ii^r/i of.J^nglandj that 
arbie on; the fame Mtthod^t^^yi^ il^ dif|[erefit Works ; 
that heroically pa^'d phiqugb the j^ 
tth^treli^?^ ;tl^e lan^q Sitvfr^igni^y^uthoiy^ 
look with jealpus Ey espn this A^t£intft ; which .makes 
noch^ge in the Principles of Mens.Conici.ences^ but 
chieily aims at the Incrqde of Imienticms about the 
Works of their Hands. 

! '!^his was the la|l BattiqiUr ^ this , Su^)e<St wj|^)^h I 
undertook to make igood^ Tfaaf^our Church can never 
bc.ipipa;ir'dby the Grpw^hof the.ure&l JrU^ oi^La^. 
But now I come nearer to it, \ find that I may iafdy 
omit it : For the thing itfelf is £q manifefl;^ that t|ifxe . 
can l^e no «ound of jraifing a Queftion ^i^ |t; .« If 
qxiiC^ur^ fliould be an Enony .taC^pmrni^rc^ 
ligence, Diicpyegrj NayigajCipni . xxr any fort of Jl^^i^^V! 

A a a X ' * mc's\ 

1^2, The ^nrp i^r-4 m~ 

nks % how - totiia k be fit'finr the {tfefenr G^ht of thf* 
Natioff? What j^«ater'Advailitage could ks'Atfreiii- 
lies have agattiff k > How ihould we be iMe to recon- 
cile thefe two Titles which fo joHly- beloi^ to oar 
Kif^ of IDefinekr of thf Ftutky and *Pd$rmipfBx- 

■ Bnt in this t am not Only cincoiit^'d to prointf^ that 
oar O^ifrrA^' will be out of aD Dan^ j bat to recom- 
mend this Enterfrize to it, as that which will boxmie 
its other Exc^Unciesy and is nwflr worthy of tts ?rpfr- 
Ifim. And f Ihafi moft 'humbly reprclait td its Con- 
fidlcr^tion, that' this is. not -Only an bohottrabie^^r/f^ 
bat even a neddj&ry ©atfy, to ^vhich it "is obfiig'^ by 
Naturat Afftdvm, The ptcfent mqittrHngTem^er of 
this jfge was at^fitft prbducM by. the Liberty of Ja^~ 
hig, liXiA S^chii^'^d Rdi(bning', which w^ QS%t in 
the firft HiffMitM. ^'hoiieh I cannot tarty the Tn- 
mtatibti of the Ri^i SoekPf- mm y&d$ Uc%, yet 
the Seeds of it w^c ibwn lif KSpg Edward the Sixth'i 
and Queen j5//;??<t*pf/§fi5;Biii^ : And ever fticethat 
time Exfp^imen^aP Leiimif^ has f^retatn*d lome vi- 
tsf Heki; -^ugji it '\«aited the Otipprtiinltifci of ripen- 
fhglt'-fttf, which now it -enjoyJ?: -; .fhH CB^k if En~ 
riSwa^thcrifoit ihay i^ftly be QyM thtM^BierGfthis 
tort of KMwhige ; arid ^o the Care of its NMnifir- 
went and 'ProJ^erity peculiarly Ires npon' ir. 

A^ifldecd ^liis isf an 'Honour ' whiich feems refetvU 
% itf alft'Ae, ' Tirf all tHe'feverirf ^ of Bfthu^ffs^ \ 
ft)ir>th^re annibtrniiiclth^^ b<^'dmd9^ fcctt 

/^<?r^j-i. till they Ihall have left oft to al^dr them un- 
der the Title of tw> yi&//<?/g^/&jj. 

. Ttie/?^;9mh/C1l«rf^^>^f other Goonti^c^thoirf^ 
theyhavc^vtii'tfsf many Nten, who Barfe'.litefen emi- 
nent in this wayj^ yet artf ri6t in a CdiKliti'cm to pro- 



motekby tbenfetvcs: For eit&er they hove nor the 
fiQcoura^eftieiit tiif the Magi/Irate ; of tfaoie that hav^ 
are cut ib ihort in their Reveoue^ that lAkcy have 
icarce enoi^ to jRippoxtthe Decence of their own Pub^ 
lick Worfliip. 

The G&iir^ir #/i?iM^ has indeed of late lo^ 
fiifvourably npofi it. They will now condemti no Man 
for alierdng the Amtifodes t The Seretity with which 
they handled GaUleOj (eems now very moch abated t 
They now permit their Jefklts to teftow feme La- 
fcburs about .j^4f/«r4/ Obfh^v^akm^' ioz whicb they 
have great Advants^s' by their Travels ; and their 
Chergy may juftl^ cbim iome fhare in this Honour^ 
as long as the immortal Names of Merfinnns and 

- Bctt(lil)itis^aq[ae(iion» whether that Church dot& 
Ihot ]raeKer to^hh^t^y'tlibfi really intend iti? P^re^. 
alley haye indeed leiz'd on lbme]pdrw of Ne^Vhrk^ 
'^hy\ bat perh^9 id is only with the fame- Policy 
that we oiben iee great Monacih^r&y m retaining ibiAe 
ont-Profince of their Emfire ; whQ» thoi^ they 
find that the Benefit does not cou&tervitd-tlie Charge 
of the keeping it, yet will not wholly quit their Frittt- 
feft ifi it, left their Ne^ll^otfrrfhoviiA^t Po^flion,. 
and fortify k a^iA tbefii. Th«i^ it f$ likely they b«rc 
cberiA^d tome E:^erimeMtSi, oot 6tx of Ze-il to chc 
contkitiaaQe ef ftch ^Am^js bat that the ^hrdfi^anfr 
ioUi^ nW t«*y 4V(^ay all' dijlel Gtovy, ^* thence with- 
al get dew- Stfcsstfh •ti>^pfk)fe' them.. 

Thi^ UiidMtakit^ thefc^ie iS Whofiy aft eh. the 
C&iwri $f BngUmJy which can have no Je^doo^e of 
ii8 ISlMks, to wbk^ JgmrMte>' is aot -a Stippptt, btit 
anEnemy ; which aims aoc at- the Oipc^i'irp',^ b6t the 

Ftec^m ef Mens Mmd»; Whi^fhi is kcd^ kcirrii'a to 

?74 ne HIS TORT 4 the 

a ptofyetoviS Condition, and havii^ &Skt'd 'with the 
Crowftin itsMisforC(mes9doe& now{Mjtakc of the hap- 
py fruits of its Rejiaration. 

Nor. will Experimental Thilofifhy be anthankful 
for the Afliftance it fhall receive : For it will enable us 
to provide before h^d, agaiiiA any Alterations in Reli- 
gious Affairs^ which this -<^tf may produce. If we 
compare the Changes to which Religion has been al- 
ways liibjedl:, with the prefent face of Things, we may 
iafely conclude^ That whatever Viciffitude ifaall hap- 
pen ^bout it in our time, it will probably neither be 
to thfe Advantage of imf licit Faithy nor of Entbu- 
Jiajmy but oiReafin. The Fierceneis ^i violent Inffi- 
rations is in good meafiire departed i The llemains of 
it will be foon chas'd out of the Worlds by the re- 
fiieQ^;rance>of the terrible Foptfteps it has every where 
left behind it; And thoi;^h i\iiz (^hmrch i^Rfimet ftill 
.preiervesits Ponofs yrt the real, Aatliflrity of that 
top is appaready decaying. It firfl: got by d^rees 
iato Temforal^ower^ by the means of its ofiritual; 
but now it only upholds (ome Shadow of the Spiri- 
tualyhy the Strei^th of the Ten^oralTtominionitJaas 

This is the prelent State oi Chrijlendm. Jfe is now 
impoflible to ipread the faqie Clouds oyer the World 
^a^in : The univerial Diipofition of this Ag^ is bent 
jipon z rational Rel^ghn : And therefore I. renew my 
attedionate Requc(ly<(h9t ihtChurchpfEngJla^d^oy^ 
provide to have the chief ihai^e in its fijft Adventure ; 
that it would perfiil^ as it has begun,, to iilcouragei?;^- 
ferimentSjyfMic^ will be to our Churchy ^theffritijh 
Oak is to oar Entire j an Qrnam$i9t» and Defence to 
the Soil wherein it 4s planted. , : 

Thus I have inifh'd what I intended, ^onciming 

Religion ; 


jReiigioHi wherein I defire it might not be rhoi^ht 
that I have defended every particular Searcher into 
Nature. , Th^ could not be julUy expe(3:ed from me ^ 
for there is no Man that makes an Afology for any ge- 
neral wayv who will take upon him to make goodaU 
the A<3ionsof all private Men who profefs it. , Jt i% 
enoi^h for my Purpofe, if it fhall be granted, that? 
however fbme Experimenters may be inclinable to Ir- 
religion ; yet this rather proceeds from their own Ge- 
niusy than from any Corruption that could be contra^- 
ed from thefe Studies ; and that if the fame Men had 
profefs'd Thyjicy or Lawy ot even divinity itfclf^ 
they would have been in like manner difafiedled to*- 
wards heavenly Thing$. 

I cannot deny» but that fbme Thikfij^bers^ by their 
Cajrelefsnefs of a future Eflate^have brought a Difbredir 
on Knowledge itfelf : But what Condition of Men is 
free from fuch Accufations? Or why mufl: we fbait be^ 
lieve that their Impiety proceeds from their Thilojb- 
fhy ? It is eafy for Men to £l11 into grofs Errors, and 
to miitake the wrong Caufes for .the true, in the Judge^ 
ment which they make of others. Opinions and Incli- 
nations : When they behold them addidled to fuch or 
fuch Vices, and to have withal fbme good QuaUties, in 
which they themielves do not excel,, thjcy prefently 
are apt to imag^e the bad to arife from, the ^^^</,. and 
fb condenm both together ; whereas perhaps it fprung. 
from fbme other hidden Caufe,. of which tney tookno* 

But let it be a true ObfervatlWy That many Moder^n 
Naturalfjfshxyc been negligent mtbe.frorJhtf of God i 
yet perhaps they have been oriven on this Prophanenefk 
by the Ljtte extravagant ExcefTes of Enthujiafin. The 
infinite Pretences to InJpiration^(iL immediateQommu- 


37^ The fflSrORTofthe 

ni9H with ^ody that liave abcnrnded in dris ^f, iiove 
carry'd fcveral Men of Wit lb 6t, as to tcjeGt the 
whole Matter ; wha would not h^e' been ip cxoibi- 
rant, if the odiers had kept \nrirfjiii' tnorc moderate 
Botmds. This {$ natnral eftoiigh <p be ft^os'd ; 
for fo it has commonly happened,' that the greareft 
Degrees of tJl cMtrary Ofintms hare mtt hi roe fiunc 
-^f, and hare ftiU heighthen'd. aod increased each 

From hence it may be ratbcr^d, That Ae way to re* 
duce a real 2ffAJbher Senlc of Religianj is not by indea- 
vonring tocaft a Veil of Darknefe again over the Minds 
of Men ; bat chiefly by allaying tne Violence of j(^i- 
ritual Madnefs : and that the one Extreme will de- 
creafc proportionably to the lels'ning of the other. 

It ts apparent to all, That the Influence which 
Chrijiianrty once ofctain'd on Mens Minds, is prodi^- 
otifly decayed. The Generality of Chriftendom is now 
well-nigh arrived at that fatal Condition, which did 
immediately precede the Deftrndion of rfic Worfliips 
of the ancient World ; when the Face of Religion m 
thdr pubKc .^iZ^^^^^-^j was q^nite different from that 
Apprehcnfion which Men had concerning it In private : 
In poHic tbcy ohferv*d its Rules with much Solemni- 
ty, btrt in prirate regarded it not at all. It is difficuk 
to declare by what Means and Degrees we are come 
to this dangerous Point : ftiit this is certain, that the 
Sfirituttlvices of this Age have wdl-nidi contributed 
as much towards ii; as the Carnal : And for thefe, the 
moft efficacious i?«*rti^ that Man of himjfelf can ufe, 
is not fo jnuch the ftAliiflc part of divinity as its 
intelligible,, and natural, arid practicable IDbffrines. 
The^ Medicines fot Religious ^ijtempers muft be 
changeable according to the ^ifeajes : And in riiis 



we may imicate Cbrift hinietf in his Method of heal- 
ing Mens Boc(ies : Some Cores he perfoun'd by his 
Voices Prayer, but fome by the touch of bis 
Hand^ .^d even by his Spittle mingled with Earth. 
In ^gjTofs^dienfi^Ll^r, the deepell Mylleries of oiir 
Religion ntsiy be proper to purify tne Stupidity of Mens 
Spirits ; but there mull; be an AppHcation of quire dif- 
ferent and more ienfible Prefcriptions, in a fubtile, re- 
fin'd, and enthufiaflical Time. 

Such is the present Humour of the fTorU; and fuch 
muft be the Courie of its Cure. Men muft now be told, 
that as Religion is a heavenly Things fo it is not utterly 
averfe from making ufe of the Rules of Human Tru- 
dence : They muft be informed, that the true Holinefe 
is a Severity over ourfelves, and not others : They 
muft be infmK^ed, that it is not the beft Service that 
can be done to Chrijiianityy to place its chief Pre- 
cepts {o much out of the way, as to make them unfit 
for Men of Bufinefs. They muft remember, that the' 
chief of the Afofiles became all Things to allMenythdt 
he might gain fome. But above aH, there muft be 
caution given, that Men do not ftrive to make them- 
lelves and their own Opinions ador'd, while they on- 
ly feem zealous for the Honour of God. This is a Fault 
which \% very incident to Men of Devotion ; for when 
thty^ have once form'd in themfclves z^erfelt Model 
of the JVill of Xiody and have long confirmed their 
Minds by continual thinking upon it, they are apt to 
contemn all others that agree not with them in fome 
Particulars. Upon this, thevhaveftraight the reproach- 
§il Term of Atheifs to caft upon them ; which though 
it be a Title that ought only to be employed againll 
the bold and inf blent Defiers of Heaven in riieir Words 
and Anions^ yet it is too frequently us*d to exprefe 

B b b the 

378 TbefflStORTofth 

the Malice of any c^er and cenfbrioas SpiriCi that 
has the Confidence to objedt it. 

This, and all other the like Trinci^lex ofVnchari- 
tablenefs^ are to be oppos^J by aflerting the Dudes of 
the Liinu of Mature^ by the ale of rat and prefent 
Times^ hy the Analogy of homan Tnii^s, by Mcrai 
Virtue, by the Offices of Societjy by the Comtem- 
plation of God^s ^vipble fForks^ and rach cafy and ra- 
tional Arguments. Next to the Succour of 2>ivine 
Towevy this is the moft probable way to prcfcrvc the 
Cbrifiian Faith amongfl us ; if Gaa has not in his 
Wrath reiply'd to tnniplant it into fbme other quar- 
ter of the Earthy which has not {o much n^Ieded 
his Goodneis. This indeed were a ReToiutton, 
which cannot be thought on widbout Horrour. The 
Subverfion of all Europe would attend it. The Depar- 
ture of the Chrtftian Trofejpon would be accompani- 
ed with as fijghtful Ef!eds, as thtife which ftillow'd 
on the Death of its Founder i when the Heavens 
were darkened, the Temj^le fhook, the Vail was rent, 
the Earth trembled, and the Tbilojofher bad reafen 
to cry out. That either Nature was aijfblvingy or the 
God of Nature djing. 

$. XXIV. I will now enter on the next Member of my 2>wi. 
Exferi- Jiouyto confider the Purpole of the Royal Societyy and 
mmts Air the probable EffeAs oi: ExferimentSy in rei|>ed of att 
va9uagۤu$ the Manual Tradesy which have been heretofore fbfund 
|^«» J out and adorned. And I will difpatch this Argmnent 
in the Reiblution of thefe four Queftions. 

Whether the Mechanic Arts arc fhU improTeabic 
by human Indufiry ? 

Whether it be likely, that they may be adranc'd bj 
any others, befides the Mechanic Artifis themfelves ? 

« Whc- 

rlmevts^ cowtrds this . w erk > : 

And whether if fijch ^rt^ ihall hereb v happen ta 
multiply, chey will not ruinc thoic Trades that are al- 
ready ietcled? . 

/ If in theie Particulars I ihall aaTwer my Readers 
t>otibt$, I tryd; it will he granted dk, chat it is not a 
vain or impoiT^le Defign, to indeavour ,the increale 
of Mechanic Cpntrivances ; that the Enterprize is 
proper for a mixt ^jfembJy ; that the CcAirfe which 
they ohlerve towards it will he e&dnal ; and that 
the incrcaft of fiich Operations ;will be inofienfire to 
others of the fame kind, that have been formerly 

Before I examine tfaeie ieveral Heads apart, perhaps 
it will not be an impertinent Labour^ to take one gene- 
ral Surrey of the principal Degrees and Occaiions, by 
which the fererat Manu^a&nres have riien, which 
beauti^ the face of the Earthy and have brought forth 
fo much Pleasure and Plenty among^ Men. 

The iuil of all human Race, when they were 
difpers'd into levcral Lands, were at firfl fuftain'd by 
the Fruits of the Earthy which fell to their Share. 
Thefe at firll they cherifh'd, and us'd, not by any Rules 
of jirt^ but by that Natural Sagacity^ which teaches 
aUMen to endeavour their own Prdfervation. For 
the peaceable &]^oyment of thde, they combined in- 
to Families, and little Leagues, which were the Begin- 
nings of Civil Government. But finding that all 
Places did not bring forth all Things for Cloatbingi 
Food, and Defence $ they either vio^ntly feiz'd on 
what thqr Neighbours poHeis'dy or eUe they fairly a- 
greed onfi nf^aual, Exchange of the Prpckidions of 
their S^ils. This Tmifick was at iiift made in Kind ; 

B b b X and 

2«o. The ff tiro kr of the 

and the Fruits thM wctfe thus hixtet^df were either 
fpenty or planted in other Gronnds. By this means 
Mankind was maintained; and fcycrd J^arfhs were, 
fiirnilh^d by Labour y with what Ndture beftow^d not 
upon them. For thi^s ComtHUtation of theif Fruits^ 
and of the rudfe Effedh of th^x firft' Jftduftry, thej^ 
began to devife - th.e Gonveniencjes. of Carriage by 
Land and' Water ; and to make it ftill eafih*^ and lar- 
ger, they agreed on fbme conimon Things, to be the 
univerfal Standard of Vdluemd^rite:-^ whence aroft. 
the ufe of Money, 

This was the firfV Origin^ of Trade^ which ffom z^ 
narrow Commerce between the Hills, the Vallies, the 
Woods, the Plains and the Rivers that bordered one 
upon another, is fmce extended * to the whole Com- 
pals of the Earth, For in courfe of Tim^ the fiuafl 
Clans, and* natural Comioonw:ealths, Were devoured 
by the. Strength of the. greater ; or eflc Ibme of the 
wifer Men feduc'd the rude Multitude into one Place, 
and perlwaded them to live quietly undet the Liaws. 
From thence Mankind began to have the fkce.of Civh 
/ify, which arbfe atfirflr, by that which is thebeftMeaijs 
of preferving it now, by the greatnept and eniar^er 
ment of ^ominim. 

The firflr; all the Diffeences of Li'ViH^j and thfe 
Advantages of Strength and Emfire did mew tfaeijr- 
felves. Thenfqmc took on them to RuleiifxsL^; to 
Affift, or Council thofe that- RuPd, and' ibme were 
forced to be ful^eca to their Power. Thus the Riches 
and dominion that were at fixfl in common, were 
unequally divided" : The Great, the Wi^ . or the 
Strong, dbtain'd a principal Share.; and 'either perfua- 
ded, or codlmn'd sdl^ the reff t» leiye thfem with 
their Bote. Theacc (Jjrang dl ^ Arts ofCanveni- 



mce and TksJIire^ while the one pare of Men would: 
not be content to live, according to the firft Plainnefs 
of Nature : And. the other were con^ell'd to work 
with thqr Hands,^fbr the. Eaie andPieaiure of their 
Mafters Lives^ and the Support of thdr own. From 
thefefi^;innings the Inventions of P^^r^^ and War^ the 
Delights of Citits and Talacesy the Delicacies of Food^ . 
the Curiofkies of Cloatbingy the Varieties of Recrea^ 
tions, took their Rife. And theie have (till continued 
to increaie, either by fbme cafual Diicoveries^ or hy 
Luxury, or elfe as Men havebfen driven by Ibme new 
Ne(femties9 to pals on jfarther to attempt new ways of 
ipaicdEaining. thenifelves. 

This is themofl;. natural Met fjod of the Foundation $. XXV; 
and Progreis of Manual Arts. And they may ftiU be T^ Mcum- 
advanced to a higher Pcrfedipn, than they have yet ^}.f^^^ ^^ 
obtained, either by the Difcovery of new Afji^^^r, to^ '^^ 
imploy Mens Hands, or by a new Tranjplantation of ^'^^^^ 
the iame Matter^ , or by handling the old Subjedls of 
Manufaciuresi^ct a new way^ in the lame Places. 

And firft^..we have reafon toexpedt, that there may 
ftill arife new Matter, to be managed by Human Art 
and l^iligence^ and that from, the parts of the Earth 
that are yet unknown .; or from the new dilcover'd 
America ; on from .our own Seas and Land, that have 
been loxig fearch'd into, and inhabited.^. 

If ever anv more Countries^ which are now hidden Firft by nem 
from jis, Ibafl he reveal'd, it is not to be queftion'd, Maner 
but there will be alfo opened to onxObfervation^ y^fyfromnev} 
many kinds of living Creatures fif Minerals^ ofVlants^ Lands. 
Dzyy of HandicrajtSy with which we have been hi- 
therto . unacquainted. This may well be expeiftcd 


3»i The Hisrokr^tu 

if we remember, that there was n«ter yet any Lmi 
difcover'd, which has not given us divers new foits of 
Animals J and Fruits of different Features and Shapes, 
and Virmes from our own^ or has not fvep^^A us widi 
fome new artificial Engine^ and Ctrntrrumce. 

And that our ^ifcoveries may ftill be inlarg^d to 
farther Countries j it is a good Kroofi ^hat fo many 
Ipacious Shores and Mountains, and Promontories, ap- 
pear to our Southern and Northern Sailors ; of which 
we have yet no Account, but only fiich as could be ta- 
ken by a remote Profoed ar Sea. From whence, and 
from the Figure of the Earthy it may be concluded, 
that almoft as much fpace of Ground remains fttll in 
the T)arky as was fully known in the times of the Ap- 
J^rian or Terjian Monarchy. So that withonf aflu- 
ming the vain prophetic Spirit, which I lately con- 
demned, we may fbretel, that the 7)iJcovery of ano- 
ther new JVorid is ftill behind. 

To accomplifh this, there is only wanting the In- 
vention of Longitude^ which cannot now be far of^ 
feeing it is generally allow'd to be ffcallible, lecic^ fb 
many Rewards ate ready to be heap'd on the Inven- 
tors ; and (I will alio add) feeing the Royal Society 
has taken it into its peculiar care. This, if it fhali 
be once accomplifh'd, will make well-nigh as much 
alteration in the World, as the Invention of the Nee^ 
die did before : And then our Tofterity may outgo us, 
as much as we can travel ferther than the Antients ; 
whole T^emy Gods and Heroes did efteem it one of 
their chief Exploits, to make a Journey as fiu- as the 
Tillars of Hercules. Whoever fliall think this to be 
a delperate BuTmefs, they 9an only ule the fame Arpi- 
mentSy wherewith Columbus was at firtt made ridicu- 
lous, if he had been difcourag'd by the Raillery of 



hift Adver&iiesbjr the Judgmcsit of moIR Jfinn^mers 
of his maty and even t>y the Intreaties of bis own 
C(m^0nms\ but three Day s before hehada%htof 
Landf we had kft the Knowledge of half xhcWorU 
at once. 

And as finr the new difcwet'djfmericd ; 'tis tru^ $. XXVI. 
that has not been altogether ufeieis to the Mechanu MechoMus 
Arts : But ftill we may guei^ that mnch more of its iffr^maUe 
Bounty is to come, if we cooiidcr, that it has not j^hnewMat- 
beenmewn ^oyttw^hMndred Tears ; which is fcarcc JT ^^^ 
enough time to travel it over, delcribe^ and mea- °^^"^^* 
five ir, mnch left to pierce into allits Secrets. Befides 
thiSy agood part of this Space was fpent in the Con- 
sfuejt mifittkng the Spanifio Gwemmentj which is a 
Seaibnimproper §m Tlnhfifhisdl^ijceveries. To this 
jBsay be added, that the chief Defigia of the Spaniards 
tfaimer, hasbcnttheTranfportation oi Bullion ; which 
being fb profitable, they may well be thought to have 
oveiteen many other of its liativeRubes. But above 
ali^let nsrelleift on theTenqper of the Spamsrds them- 
ielves. They fii£^ no Strangers to arrive there : they 
permit not dk Natives to know more than becomes 
their Slaves. And how nnfit the Sfanijh humour is 
to improve MamtfaSlwresy in a Country {o diftant as 
the Wefi-Indiesy we may kam by their Praftice in 
SfiUB \sMif where they commonly diidain to exer- 
ciie any MoMumtCraftSy and permit the Profit of them 
to be carry'd away by Strangers. 

From aU tbis^ we may make this GwrA^^^That [£ 
ever that vaft Trad: of GreuBd fiiall come to be 
more familiar to Europey either by xfree Tradiy or by 
QmfMfiy or by any other Revehiion in its Civil Af* 
fiurs, America will appear quite a new Thii^ to us ; 


584 The UlSTORToJ ihi 

. ./ and mon^ iurnifh us with an abundance of Rdrities^ 
both Natural and Artificial ; of which we have been 
aknoft as much deprived by its prefait Mi^ers^^^ if 
it haditiilremain'd z^^ut of the uMkHmm ff^^U. 


;k XXVII. ^® ^ '^ Laftly to come nearerTiome,we have no ground 
Sy iwttf toidelpair, but veiy 'much more Mattery which has 
Af/i^fr/rom been yet unhandied, may dill be bmught to Light, 
f AeTf'orW/ even in the moft civil And moft peopled Countries; 
whofe Lands have1>een throughly meaiiir'd by the 
^ands of the moft vxaCt Surveyors ; whole under- 
ground Riches have been accurately pry*d into ; whofe 
Cities, Iflands, Rivers, and Provinces, have been de- 
■fcrib'd by the L2boms6€<jeograJ>hers. It is not to be 
<]oubted, but ftitl there may be 4m infinite JMumber of 
Creatures (SVCT our ^eads, round dx)ut us, and under 
our Feet, in the large'Space of the jiiry in the Caverns 
of the Earthy in the Bowels of Mountains^ in the 
Bottom of Seasy and in the Shades ofForefts : which 
liave hitherto efi^p'd all mortal Senfes. In this the 
JMicrofiofe alone is enough to filence all Oppofcrs. 
Before that was invented, the chief help that was given 
to the Eyes^ by GUffesy was only to ftrengdien the 
•dim Sight of old Age ; but now by the means of that 
excellent Inftrumenty we have a £ir greater Number of 
^different kinds of Things revealed to us, than wcne 
contained in the vifible Univerfc before ; and even this 
is not yet brought to y^T^^/w : The chief Labours 
that are publifh'd in this way, have been the Objerva- 
tions of fome Feilows of the Royal Society^ nor have 
>they as yet apply 'd it toall Subjeds, nor tried it in all 
Materials and Figures of Glafi. 

To the Eyes therefore there may ftiH be given a 
'i^oft addition of O^/^^i*: And proportionably to all 


ROTAL SOClETr. 585. 

all the other Seoies. This Mr. l^ok has undertaken to 
make out, that TaftingjToucbingj Smelting^ zndHear- 
ing^ are as improve^le as the Sight ; and from his 
excellent Performances in the one, we may well rely 
on his Tromfe in all the red. 


The next Incr^afe of Manual ArU which is pro- s- xxviii. 
l>ablc to fiicceed, may happen by the farther Tranf- Mechanics 
pUnting and Cammunicatmg of the feveral K^tural'^^^T^ 
Commodities of ail Nations^ to other ^irj, and ^^^^ piamations. 
Soilsy and other ways oi Cultivation. That this is not 
yet £niih'd is evident, in that there is no Land io well 
fumifli'd as to produce all the various Ibrts of Things, 
which its Ground and Temperature is enable to re- 
ceive ; and alfb becaufe many of the mod fertile Coun- 
tries contain large Spaces that are utterly barren. 

This fFork then may be farther advanced, by three 
kixids of Endeavours. 

The firfl by Tran/planting out of one Land into 
another, of the fame Scituation in refpedt of the Hea- 
vesu. This may be try'd by conveying the Eaftern 
Sficssy and other ufeful Vegetables^ into our Weftern 
Plantations^ Nor can ic be imagined, why they ihould 
thrive in one Indies^ and not in the other ; why the 
Soil ihould not be as good where the Sun Sets^ as 
where it i?(^-f- Seeix^ there are parts of both, which 
lie under the fame Influence of that, and the other Ce- 
lejiial Bodies^ to whofe kindly Heat and Neighbour- 
hood, the Oriental Nations arc iuppos'd to owe their 
Advantages. This alfb may be attempted in our 
Northern Climates : As for Inftance, the Flaxj of w hich 
we fland £0 much in need, may profper in Ireland^ m 
many vaft Tradls of Ground, now only polTefled by 
mldBeaJls^ or Tories almoflas wildi 

Ccc : The 

38^ Tie HlSTOnr sf tht 

The fccond Advancemefft of tliis ^^ may be at- 
compiifli'd by carrying and tran%fainnng ^iv'mg Crea- 
tures and Vegetubks from one Ctenate to anodier. This 
will be Tcry benefidaJ^ Aou^ it -wtH be pcrfiwnfd 
with a various Succefs. Sometimes Ac ^f *afid the 
jlir being chang'd> will gye a new Force to the new 
Guefts ; as the Arabian norjt^ by nringlmg with our 
Breeds produces a more ferviceawe Race than i?ither 
of them fmgle. And fometimes the Aher ation wifl be 
for the wcde ; as the Vine of France brotght into 
Englandy and the Horfis and ^f>gs of Engmmi inta 
France ; both which are found to degenerate exceed- 
ingfy : Their Sml and their Sun^ it leems, being fit- 
ter to produce Things of iP led/are '^asd delight ; ^aatA 
our vf/r and our Eartb being more proper to beget 
Valour and Str-ength. 

The third way of CtrntmnnicMton to be tryM, is by 
removing the T^lants and the Produdions of the 
lame Country from one port of it into airotber ; and 
by prafShfing every where all the forts of Has^andry^ 
which arc us'd in tome Places with Suoccfe. That this 
is not enough perfedied even in Englandy is manifeitto 
every one rihat beholds the iTf»fjr^ Orchards, aad the 
HerefordJhire)Acd!^i which fecm to upbraid the 
lazinefs of other Countries, wbofe High«^ways are 
only fenced with Thorns and Briars, or atthcbefhwith? 
Hazel; while theirs are beantify'd wkb Apples, Pears,, 
and Cherries. 

Now then, in every one of thtfe Tr^jflantationff^ 
the chief Progrefs that has hitherto been made, has been 
rather for the CoHei^iim of Curiofitt^T to adorn Cahh 
nets and Gardens^ than for the ScihSty of ^hiiofifhi- 
cat ^Difccveriec : Yet there may be a prodigious Ad- 
vaACage made in iliem aD» both for tbe one end and 
V the 

RQTAL SO CI EX r, j?^ 

Thin^ that if Mca only tatciKl ft Uttl? C»ri^y md 
IDelig^, they will t^p oocaMich moret>y (hipirP^uas ? 
But if ?hey tt^ivtd real Vkx n©? Oely tkw fff^/f-f > ^W 
« gseavsr 2k^ift will atfb Mqw thintoo. 

And-is^r our E^c^mrtigtmtnt^ whatever A(ceii)pt$ gf 
thi$Naiiv«^ hate fiicc«eQcd> th^ybave redQi»id«4 t9 
^l^eiKAdvaxit^edf chel^4<irir#4iifrj>. T^O^ngi 
t>f Q>ma being of bm bxtn^ iiito 'Pdvtt^t, m» 
drawn a grtat Revenue every Year firom l/ondm alone. 
The Vioe of the ^^Vur taking Root in the C#«4- 
riAT, 1ms procbtc'd a £ir more delicion^ Jm(e» and has 
made, the Rocks iod «ihe Snn-bwmt. A(be$ of chofe 
lilttlMct ene^ of the xkheft Spots of Qrctood in ehe 
WjfrU, And I 'kAX alfe inftance in chat which ii now 
in a good Forwardnefi : Virginia has already giYCo 
Si4k fbr the Cloatbing of our King ;. and -it o»y haipi- 
pen hereafter togive Cioaths to a grett pact of £«* 
if^fy and a. vait Treafhre to our ATiitt^j-:; if, the Silkr 
w^mf flnil thrive there (of whidi there leans to be , 
no xiotibt) the Profit wiU he iiiexpreflible; . We ipay 
gne^ at it; by cooitdering what Numbers of ConnMM^ 
and bow many great Cit^ \ in.^.er/ui are mahitaia'd 
by that ^4i«^^r^ alone, and what nrigbty Cuft<Mns 
it.y^ady brings into the Sopbi's Revenue. 

. • • ' . - -.1 

I cB)UTif bcthth^ieHe^&ihouldr ohaoice tohil; if $. XXIX. 
tMiimg:jiew iUould ever comciinto our Hoods ; md if Mechanics 
there could be no farther Alteration made by Tra^^ ifnproveabU 
jf^lanting ; yet we may ftill take Comfort, and rely ^^^IJ^^^^f 
^cUJM^tter itfd^ oa which all our prufcitt ^^s^^l^^J ^^ 
hav« bocQ devdtt'd. This antatnly will take away all ^ ' 
diftnift in tfaiQlpufiddTst Fiuritmay beob&ry'd, idiat . '\ 
thegrea2eft{iaft^of;iQijotir .New Inveuti(ms have iiDt 

C c c 2 been 

385 The BISTORT of the 

httn raised from Subjeifts before trntoucfa'd (thougb 
they alio have given us very many) but from the 
moft ftudied and moft familiar Things, that have been 
always in Mens Hands and EyiJS. For this lihall only 
inftance in Trinting^ in the Circulation of the BJood^m 
Mr. Boyle's Engine for the fuckir^ out of ^r, in the 
making of Guns^ in the Microjcoficsl Glaffesj and in 
the Tendulum Clocks of Hugenius^ What might we 
have believ'd to be perfed, if not the Art of Mens 
Communicating their Thoughts one to another? What 
was nearer to them than then: Bhod^ by which their 
Life iiibfifts? And what more ready to be found out 
than its Motion ? In what Subje^ had the Wit of Ar-^ 
tificers been more Ihewn, than in^ the variety €^ Clocks 
^Lnd fTatches? What Thing was mow in Men&View 
than Gla/srthroMigh which^ in thefe Countries, the very 
Light itfelf is admitted, whereby we dilcern all Things 
ei^> What more natural to us than die .^«r w^ 
breath > With which we form every word to exprds 
other Things? What was moreftudied than the -/firf of 
Fighting ? What little Strat^on^ or Fortification^ ot 
IVeafon^ could one have thought to have been con<^ 
ceal'd from the Greeks and Ronuns^who were fb curi«* 
ousiii the ^ifcip line oi fTarl, And yet in all thefe 
the mod: obvious Things, the^reatefl Changes have 
been made by late ^ifcovertes ; which cannot bur 
convince us, that many more are ftilt * tv come fiom 
Things that are as common, if we Ifaall not be want^ 
ing to our fclves. 
§» XXX. . 

Mechanics And this we have good'reafon to trufl will be effeft- 
^^j^T^^u ^ *^ ^^^ Mechanic Genius, which now. prevails* in 
treainzof^^^^ Parts of Chriftendom, fhall Tiippcn to ^read 
Civili^^ ^ wider amongft our ielves, and othei Civil Nations: \ 

wt if by fbme good Fate it' ihali pais farther on to o- 
thcr Countries that were yet never fully civiliz'd. Wc 
now behold much of the Northern Coafts oi Europe and 
AJm^ andalmoft aU^^^^r^to continue in the^rude State 
of Nature : I wiih I had not an Inftance nearer Home,i 
and that I did not find fbme parts of our own Monar^ 
chy in as bad a Condition. But why may we not iup- 
pofe^ that all theie inay in courfe of Time be;, brovw;nt 
to lay afide the untam'dWildAefs 0|f tbeir prefoat Man- 
ners ? Why fhould we ufe them fe cruelly as to believe^ 
that the Goodnefs of their Creator has not alio appoint- 
ed them their Sealbn of polite and happy Life>. as well ,. 
as us? Is this. more unlikely to happen,^ that^the ^ 
Change that has been made in the ^VA^ tneielaft • fe< 
venteen hundred Years? This has been fb remarka* 
ble, that if ^riftotle and TlatOy and T)efMfihenes^ 
ihould now ariie in Gweece a^n, they would (lanci a- 
maz'd at the horrible Devauation of tbat which was 
the Mother of jiirts\ And iiGajar apd Tacitus Ihould 
return ifol^ife, they would icarce befieye this Britain^ 
and Gauly and Germany^ the iame 'which they 
defcrib'd : They would now behold them covered ovear 
with Ci^/Vj and ^alacesy which \^ere. thenx ovjb;-run 
Withi^^^xainud2i^/Viffjf .;« dChcy^w^}^^^ 
of Arts theife Cpunttijes^ where the chieJE 
Art that was piadds'd m their^ time,, was that barba-i 
sous, one of fainting their Bodies^ to majke them look 
more terrible in. Btf^jf^i. . , i 

This then beings im^in'cl,. thfU: there tpzy fortkc: 
lucky Tide of Civility flow kito thofc Landsp^ wKicH 
are yet £iV2^e, there will a double rmproVement - 
thence arife, .both iareipe(9:of ourfelyes andthe^i: 
For evea the preient/i/i^/ Parts c^M will' be: 

thereby made more skilful i and tjbif; other will not . 

only . 

» f 

ody inarcafc thole Artr'vyhich we fliall beftow upon 
them, but will aHb venture on new' Searches them- 

felves. ' ' ''''■". "i ^' 

If my fhall tfttobt bf the;f^^ 

gesj let them Cotrfider that tire (preadmg of Knei;^' 
ledge wider, does Beget a higher iHM ^ clearer Genint 
in th6fe riiat enjoy'd ir before. * 

fiu£th<;thfefBeflefTt v^^nW^mtL^p NewCm- 
^etk^^^ "jfbr^^Y wiH not oftly rfecenre'frbra us oiit O/rf 
Arp^ Ibtfcfa tnefr'iM^ VT^rwiir|)rt<!eed itynewenes^ 
that Were not thought ^oiP i)eifore. Thi^ is reafonable 
enough to begriated: l;or feetag they, come freflf 
and uii^eaf {&!, and ^ie th6iehts of ^eh being moll 
vlileht irrt^^ .Fi*fffi^ it isyto^ 

b'ibie.iJreySt|ll;f3on p Difficulties about 

tvhich thefe People that have been long Civile are af- 
ready tirU To this' Ptjrpofe I might give as many 

have prdv'd ^<riftt^, arid/ nA)^ than thci* 

i'i^achlrs. "TYitiSreeks tdok tbtn- firfl hints from the 
Jb^) biit out-did them in Mufic^ in Statuary^ in Gfr^ 

m the Romans ; but fufrikfs^tfefem'tri ittofVof 
'^xi Mi '^ftl. W «iugH\^ kricfent 

K XXXI. W'o^^^^^^^^ '^^ 

Mechanics - r- ' - . .. . - , ,_. 

areimprove- " a,6 theri;. tM whoie^r/js? K ttotyet'tdiett' out of 
<A«rx Mides ^^orn Wiv ^; ' nbf Will ^fe, ^ ds' loWg aS'nrK^ SttWcds may 

7radejmen. {•'--' l- 

/, • 

be dilcDvered, js bug as our old Matedab may be 
alter'd or improY'd^ ami as long as there Tonatfts aey 
corner of tire iFVA/ wkhoat Chfiiky. Let m next 
cbferve^ wlidlwr JVftca/of dstfiereoi: ^ays of Li& art 
fapable c£ perfacmiog any [Tjnng towarcbif^ .bcAdes 
the Artijkers tfaemfelvcs. TistS will (yutckly appeAr 
oDtdemabte^ if 'Ve will be CdnvtticVl by Itt^nces ; 
for it is cvkieiic^ kfaat .ditets &r£s of Manmfit£inrfr 
lave betsig^ven usbyjMeti ti^4) inreieoobt Ived lib in 
Tradts-i^tM reftmbted tbdfe (w^bfobi fchey diicoverU, .1 
ihafl mention Three ^ that ofL^rM^a^^ TuN^dtn and 
the Bow^^e. The udmir^hie Art Si<jomfoJiM Ltt- 
itrs^ was lb far frombciDg ftarted inr a Idan of jLeark- 
f^y that it was tfaeBcrice of .a SsHkt*: lAikd ^Pvw^ 
^im^nak^^Sitcn^^ Mm Ay 

"wkcA comiicof Lift was indft a^nof feifexniiaiidlnig <hr 
Materiuls of i^^r. T3ie aDdeoc Syrian ¥Mrpie was 
brought to light fay zJFi/ber ;. afeid if ever it ibali be 
jficover'dy itis iikelytobe^chmeby feohc iach'Acdi- 
iient. The ScarAtaf the M$demr\ is a very bcantj^ 
iid Colour; and^ it was the PioduOkm of a Chymifi^ 
and not of a 2>)rr. 

And inddcd the I^ffiamcBSJoS^lS^s ikisd ^a^.io nume*- 
toos^ that I aflade in "^ebei^ afiiimi. Tlniat thoiev. Men 
wfaoareixyt|«cKliaiiyc<m\m£yritaboiic anff idne lioTt 
ji^j^ may oftexk Aid our dieir Rariiii)^ and CkirM^r 
tiet iboner, thoai tboie who hxnt their Miodslcon^'^ 
wlioMy so thcQL U we weigi& die Bmufins ndfiy rins lis 
^dbmle^ itwittinc be fond Ibmacbia JParsftlbav o^ 
IsiCThaps it leemac itUe 6M Reodifig. : 11^ 3^4gu^ 
«»f«^ them&lvH3s>lia^g'hadti)eir Hatkls dixcdodfi-oin 
their Youthrin the lame Mitktds efM^orMti^^ cannot 
when th^y piedfib ib^edifiy aifiet: tbcie OAotSyi and txaa^ 
thcmiehes^HU nowkiMKiiBO^ . /BBfiddslilfais,. 


sda The HIS'TORT of the 

thty chiefly kbouf for prcfent LiTdihood, andxhcfre- 
fbre cannot defer their ExfeBations io long, as is 
commonly requisite for the ripening of any new C<m* 
trivance. But efpecially haying long faajodl^ theit 
inftruments in the lamb Faihion> and r^fankd their 
Materials with the lame Thoughts, they are not apt 
to be (urpriz'd much with them, nor to have any ex* 
traordinary Fancies^ or Raftures about then. 

Thefe aie the ufiial \}tS^% of ^^ Artificers thein- 
felves : Whereas the Men of freer Liv^s, have all the 
contrary Advantages. They do not approach thoie 
Trudes^ as their dull aiKi unavoidable, and perpem- 
al Etnflcymt^tSy but as their ^iverfians. They come 
-to try xhokOferations^ in whith they are not very 
tcxadt, and ib will be more frequently iiib^eA to com- 
mit Errors ihtfaek Proceeding : Which very faults and 
Wandrings, will often guide uicm into new Lights and 
new ConceftiMs. And lalUy, there is alfo fome Prixi- 
4cfle to be allowed to the Generofity of their Sfipts^ 
which have not been lubdu'd, anddogg'd by any* con- 
ftant Toil as the others. Invention is an Heroic Thing, 
and plac'd above the reach of a low and vulgar Gent- 
us. it requires an adive, a botd^ a jDiimble, a xeftle^ 
Mind: A thoufand DiMculdes jthuft ^be Qonteptt'd, 
with^hich a mean Heart would be b^olcen ; manjr 
Attempts muil be riiade to no Piirpofe { much Trea^ 
fire tossSi Ibmetimes be fcatterM without'any Return i 
much Violence and Vmour of Thoughts muft attend iL: 
£>me Irr^ctlarities and Excefles jsoqSL be granted i^ 
that woiud hardly be pafdon-d by the feverc Rules 
of Trndence. All which may perfuade us, ' that a laige 
and an unbounded Mind is likely to be the' Author of 
^reatier ^roduSiionsy than the caJm, abi^re^ and fet^ 
xt^dJSxSisaiyo And 

\ : that 


that as in tbe Generation ef Children^ thofc are ufuallj 
<)bierv'd tobcmoftiprighdy, that are the ftolen Fruits 
of an unlawful Bed ; ib in the Generations of the Brains^ 
thofe are often the moft vigorous and witty, which 
Men beget on other Arts^ and not on their' own. 

This came fcajR)nably in, to flop the andeferv'd $.XXXII. 
Clamours, which perhaps in this humorous Age^ fbme Mechanics 
Trade finen may raife againfl the Rf^al Society ^ for en- ^Al^f^^ 
tring within the compais of their Territories, Where- % ^ / 
•fore I proceed to my third T^articular^ which I have J^^^ 
aim'd at in the two former, that the Jkreft Increafe 
remaining to be made in Manual Arts^ is to be per- 
formed ty the conduct of Experimental Thilofofhy. 
This will appear undeniable when we ihall have found, 
that all other Caufes of fuch Inventions are defeitive ; 
and that for this very Reafbn, becaufe the Trials of 
Art J have been fo little united with the plain Labours 
of Mens Hands. 

I have already given this Account of the former 
Arts that we ule, that the greateft Part of them has 
been produced, either by Luxury^ or Chance^ or Necef 
Jity ; all which muft be confeis'd to be mean and ig- 
noble Caufes of the Rational Mechanics. 

The firflofthefe has been, that Vanity and Intem- 
perance of Life, which the delights of Teace^ and 
Sreatnefs of Empr-e have always introduced. This 
as been the Original of very many extravagant Inven^ 
tions of ^leajitre ; to whole Tromotion^ it is nor re- 
sulfite that we fliouid give any help, feeing they are* 
already too excefltve. And indeed, if we confider 
the vaft Number of the Arts oi Luxury^ compared to 
the found, and the fubflantial ones of ufe ; we fhail 
&id that the Wit of Men has been as much defe(!iive in 

Ddd the 



«B'4te.^iS mhMmi»imm-'*tth^^ib«^ «& 

-101, A 

Jitt^k^titaiaiu, mtioailoSmf -midet A^taibifclbut 

- hGw^ ibi the Seat of an Imperial City^ befoxc^ JriM£^ 
jSiiAji'WaiuicltbaaylitlfaL inhabitaiusjrjelt^ £Qmpidi'<] 


3 j>^ Thefilifb fPi^ }l>e\ 

or advancing all the reft of'tht CSriwtttdes?' Thts is{ 
th6 *Dominion which CoJhas etVcn q? hvtr theWortf^ 
of bis Hands. And if we will cithct ^arfwer the «-ExA 
pcdatibns of Heaven^ or defervc fo high an Hdnoaf^,^ 
wc ought rather to manage this dominion hjfDiH- 
gence and Connfety than by Chance j or Lmuvy^ or 
Com^u^oH. '' :'c* 

It is impofliblc for us to adminiftcr ' tB& ^OTK*ra- 
right, Tinlels we prefcrthc Light of Men oi ibiowledn'j 
to be' a conftant Overfeer and Dire<Jtor of the' Inau* 
JiryasiA fVerksofthoikxh^ labout. The Benefits are 
v^, that will appear upon this CottjundioiJ. By this 
means the Inventiops of Chance wiU be Ipriad into all 
their various Ufes, and multiply*d into many ne^ Ad- 
vantages; By t^\st\itTroauffwni' oi'NeCtJ^y^^^^ 
be ampHfy'd aiid compleated : By this thpfe of Lu- 
xurj 2b6, fFantmnefs may be-rediic'dtofeme Iblid 
Ends : By this may be rtrfs'd^almoft as certain a Me* 
thod to invent new }4echantcs/^ now any parHeutar 
Mechanics can |fra<ilife, to produce tfieir ^ywn Of^tai- 
MS ; by this the weak Minds oi^^AHifts thcmfetves 
will be ftrengthen^d, their low ConceptiotK ddrancM* 
and the Obfcurity of thdr^hqp^*nligliiteny r • ByciMw 
their Thoughts will be direAeidtO' lieftter If^itniM 
and Materials:, by this tht\rTaverty^^'ht"j0J^^e^ 
and they will be enabled to attempt in&e cdRXJf -ZV^- 
als ; by this that will be amended, which has* bd^'Hi^ 
therto the Misfortune of iiich Invent i&nsi'tfiM' tb^ 
have commonly fallen into Mens Hands, ^i:^ v^SAer^ 
ftand not their Itatures^Jes or ImprwenHt^f^ y J^ tlili 
the Conceptions of Men of iTir^^yb^^/ Wlli^ 'af^ 
wont to foar too high, will be made to dtj^^d^^'iita 
the material World ; and the fl^;matick Imaginations 
of Men of Trade^ which uieto grovel too much on the 
Ground^ will be exalted It 

. Ii^>H** ^ii^ftf iS^^ G<mmntent jby TlatQ, that then 

tbc-.cWDEWi J¥iU r^Q W nil.'tt.^vhea either ThiUjOr 

T T "■ T '\ r*, o \ t Y r\ a 

:S. xxxm. 
The Javtn- 
!tion of new 
ymt die old 

ana aecreaie. ' .^ ■; ^t^t"- -^ 

„,J^nce it appears, that one part ^f'Exferments, 
and that a very confiderablc part, is free from their 


sj^^t^-'i sEM#«i»rKm4 ^^ie#^i«j»l^ir«A- 

gajilj moil jvii it .r;^) ^ici. i-0'"i/^"',' - -.-i . iridei 


400 The HIST9RT (f tlve 

Trades themfeitcs. That Covntiy is ftill the 
and raoft powcrftil, which entertains moft Mannfa^ 
iiures. The Hands of Men employed are trae Rkhis\ 
the faving of tboie Hands by Inventions oi Art^ and 
I applying them to other fVorks^ will increafe thole 

Riches, Where this is done, there will never a (iif. 
iicient Matter for Profit be wanting ; for if there be 
not vent for their Produiiiions at Home, we ihall have 
it Abroad ; but where the Ways of Life are few, the 
Fountains of Profit will be poflelsM by few ; and {o 
all the reft muft live in Idlenefs^ on which inevitably 
enfues Beggety ; whence it is manifeft, that Taverty 
is caus'd by thfe few^e^ of Trades^ and not by the 

Nor is it enough to overthrow this, to tell as, that 
by this addition of Labourers all Things will became 
dearer, becaufe more muft be maintain'd : For the 
high rate of Things is an Argument of the Flouriftu^ 
and the cheapneis of the Scarcity of Money, and m 
peopling of all Countries. The firft is a fign of ma* 
ny Inh^itants, which are trae Greatnefi : The fecond 
• is only a fit Subje<ft for Toets to defcribe^ and to com- 
pare to liieix Golden Age \ for where all Things arc 
without Vrice or Value^ they will be without Arts^ 
-or Empire^ or Strength. 

I will explain all this by a familiar and domdkic 
Inftance. It is probable that there are in England a 
hundred times more - Trades than xhe Saxons or the 
'^anes found here in their Invafions ; and withal the 
particular Traders live now more plentifiilly, and the 
"whole Nation is wonderfolly ftronger than before. 
This aUb may be feen in every particular City : The 
^eater it is, the more. kind$ of Artificers it contains ; 
-iwbofe Neighbourhood and Number is ib &r &om be- 


nor At so C IE ft 4^1 

Ingao hUidnioceto cadi others Gilii, ^«t ftUItlM 
Traiejmtn of moft papuioas Towns «e wealthier than 
dioie wtKx proic& tahe £u»c Crafts in conticry "Mer*- 

«ts. ' '. . ' - ..-^ ' - ;- .: 

in Englimd'xt has of late been a untveHal Murmnf^^ 
that 7r4i^ decays ; but the coocrary is evidenc, from 
the pcupaaal Advaoccment of the Cuftmn. Whence 
iheir ari&$ the Complaint > From hence^ that Trades 
fa>v« multipticd above the propoitionabte Increaie of 
Triukr: By this Means alt the oid Ways of Gain are 
oirer-ftockM, which would fi)on be prevented by a 
cotiftant Addition of If ^te^. 

The want of a right 9pp<^rt|ending this^ has atwaiys 
made the Emgti^^vcrik p^tm admitting of new Invent 
timsj «nd4Mnrter Ways of Labour, and from natural^ 
'hum new I'eople : both which ^u^the fittal Miftakes 
that nave made the Hollanders exceed us in Riehef and 
Traffic: they receive alt "^n^jeCts and all Ve$flej and 
Aave'few ornoy»^^/ We have kept them out and 
lilpprcftVi them, feir the Sake of the "Pcor^ whom we 
tberaiy iftii' certainly make the {^ 

Aixifaerethereisfi^eAedcome a juft OccaHon of 
lamenting the ill Trtatmeitt which hasbeen m<^ com^ 
moniy mren to Invtuion^ nOt only here in England, 
burin afi y^#/wd Colmtries. Nor do eh^ey only meet 
witlll<0agli U(age ih»a thc^that envy their Honour; 
hot evett from tSpyt Arttfiters themfelves, fbr whofe 
Sakes t^iey labovir : while thofe that add fome imaB 
Matteips «o things begttH, are iduatty enriched thereby ; 
the 7>ifi9V0riri themfelves have fetdom fi>und any 
oeker ^tertainment than Cdntempt and ImpovertflN 
mopft. 1*he E#eAs of tbd* ^iiir^ are wont to 
be dccryVl wbilc riiey live: the Fruits of their iVii- 
di4i are fre^ipiently atjeaatcd fiom iSieir Chtidren . 
^ E e e the 

402 The HISTORT (f th^ 

the litde Tradejtnen conipire agatnft them, and iny 
deavour to flop the Springs itom wheace they them- 
leiyes rpceive Nourifhment : The comiDcm Titles with 
which they are wont to be defiun'd, are thofeof 
Cheats and Trdjefters. I cannot deny but many liich 
do often mingle themfelves in the tioble Throng d great 
Inquirers : as of old there were iom^ that imitated 
^iilof&fhers only in Beard and.Aufterity : So I. giant 
at this time there may faUc E^^rimenfefs ^d Inven- 
tors arife, who Will ftrive to. make rhemielves .admir'd 
by the loud talking of Mathematical Engines^ and 
(jiaffes^ and Tools ; and by founding in every Place 
fuchfioodly Words as Q)«w/ry, zsiAjigrkulture:, and 
Mecpanics. But thot^h che FoUy of iosh ^Pretenders 
Caniiot be avoided^ wenxi^ not tberefoxe'reie^the 
ibber and the judicious Ohfervers^ It is better iooie* 
times to indure VanitieSy than out of x6o much Nice- 
neis to lofe any real Invention. We ought to do with 
ThihfPfhiiiAlWorks^ z&Miniftersoi&tat^vnthJntet^ 
Uj^ce^ It is the wUHl Courte to ^ve iacouragement 
to all, lead by fliewii]^ ourielFes too firrapulous of 
being Unpos'd on by Fa^oods^ we chance to bedeprlvVl 
of the Knowledge of ibme important Truths. 

The next T articular which I relblv'd to handle^ is 
the Advantiige of Experiments in reiped of Tbffic^ 
On this I intraded to dilate in many Words^ both be- 
cauie of the ^reat weight of the ouhjeB^ which con* 
cems the very Welfare and Health of our lives, and 
alfb becaufe it would afford me abundant matter for 
Difcourfe ; for cotainly it were c^ to prove that 
there may ftiUav^ ProErefsbe made in the true 
,Art of Medumcj if eiwer we con/^der the in^>cr- 
fedion of the Method of the ancient Vhyjlcutsu ; orif 
we obferve the Nature of Difiajes^ which altcar and 




tnulriply upon us every -^^ ; or if we rcfleA on the 
Cures thcmfelVcs, «uid how little the - Invention o€ 
new ones has hitherto been regarded. 

But las I was cntring on this Subjedt^ I perceiv'd 
that I mieht fafely omit it, jfeeing it is already better 
performed by jMc. Bcyle^ in his Book of the ^y^^Ar^yJ 
of Exferiinekfal ^hilojbphy. I will therefore with- 
draw my Peri from this matter, which this noble 
Gentleman has man^'d in the beft and mod power- 
ful Way, by ufingnot only the Force ofReaJbn^ but 
the Convic^on of particular Inftmces. 

A N D now with fo good an Omen as this Gentlmati's §.XXXI V 
Exam^le^ who has not diiHain'd to adorn the Hoibour Experi- 
of his Family with the Studies of Nature ; I will go ^^^ ^ pr^ 
on to recommend them to the Gentry and NobtUty of t*^**^ 
our Nation. And I am the more ericouiragVi tortiaktf-^^^^^^ 
this Addrefs, becauie I behold that what I would adviie i^ationi 
is already in good mealure accompliih'd ; (6 that I 
fhall not only have an Occafton to exhort them to pro- 
ceed, but to commend them alio, for their preient 
Zeal towards theft Endeavours. 

In this indeed I have much reafbn to applaud the 
generous Breeding which has been given to the Exfe* 
ritHental Knowledge of this jige and Country^ Above 
the bale and cdritemptible Education of the Opinions 
of all former SeBs : for how Thi/ojofhy bemg ad- 
mitted into our Exchange^ oor Churchy oxxx^alaces^ 
and'our Courts has begun to keep the beft Con^any, 
to refine its Falhion and Appearance, and to become 
the Employment of the Rteh^ and the Great j inftead 
of being the Subjecft of their i^r^r/i ; Whereas it was 
of pld for the tnoft part only the Study of the Sultm 
and the y^r, who* ^hoi^ht it the graveft Part of 
* ^ E e e X Sciencei 

4*4 ThHISTOR^Toftbe 

Sfhncfr to coateflw dK ufe o£Maakiiiid» andt^ dt&r 
it) Hs^t And Mmna^ from all othcrs» whom they 
flighted as Madmen and FooU. Ewm this anogfmt 
Sordidoc& of ibcb Trmafkst there coi^d not he ex- 
peded any M^mifieetit H^arksi but only iU-natur'd 
4nd contentkms IhUrUmr. Whatever the ^o«U % 
of the Afor4^ ff^ifdmy that it thriTcahca U?«w-/f; 
ki$ certain the i!^«^«r«^ cannot: £»: in inch ntean and 

narrow Conditions,: Men pcifcip* way 1«»W ^ ^Jf^^' 
the Wodd, but never to Mmw it. 

Now then, I wiU proceed not fo unjch to exhort^, 
as to confirm the Gentlemen of our Nation, in ther 
moletivtiQii of d>ts •^'ri- to whwh their T$tHis^zaA 
x\m iimerimf L0k9un Hii v^ wfxi^vf. Andior 
^efi- inoonrageweot in tfei* way, I vriU biicfly Uy •>«- 
^le liiem the Piwilq;e« they have $wi inch i«^- 
> ' pitis^ aboTe 9]U 4ie C^4«^ of oar Ne^bow i^i^Ktsx,, 
wd iibow*il ^. J^flfi^ of ft«ncr. 4j^ ui dw 

Kmdm , . ^ , 

Om ffittcipal H«*p *af *cy «au«3^ ^ w w«- 

MM»g Qf ^^ Smuf of Peaciv i« v^^ pcelent Qw'» 

ftitSSm of the /»/w4{/? of «k Gav^rtment. The 

aeir]>t)a» ^^J^tiWKt E¥§Jifi> was th^ qior- -' 

inta^^ir Vi^^iifs ^w^ the Continent : but 

w«i » iM9»aA%9oa3 MiiUtfcn i for by their very w««- 

MT/if, if cbey hadmaintain'd tlwmr thius .(^M^had been 

jwn'4, and twd <wJy become a Tr^vmt to ajreat«r 

Et^^. *itt nowit «$ r^tly vnde)cftpo4 wt «i«^ 

^/^ Cf«s«nf)6 wiUn^er be Tt^^K^rtod ariofToaled 

is ^s&Jlie by a»y ocber Wans but dnoie m <S><^.- and 

jior i^ieie ii» lS«rvic» ^of tbs M»ltim<Je4»^(t«r idxan of 

GeQtk»«n- Tbis we have beheld ma^i^'d i;h«i^ 

Ml cswmty Y^wffe wberciin ow iSkw/ jS^^t^b has 

y)oi»cIm» (lebkfdit^: lor though fow^ ^w ^<f- 


(: jca tb^ <acpu> of oar ii7rffr.r hanrt «oo£led o£ 
Jdtm^ and wi M4vimrs wh^^ «« bcedsp in. 
die ntds Teak of ftdi » l.i6. 

As tliuOi^/SerTA^AW mstj i«ie i|$ tq^ die greater a4- 
lajtartton o£d>dr ViibHi\ ^mtf, (nc^K 49(^<MMM>w^^<nikl^- 
Iw finmd amoiift the nMNMft ^tfae PiwoliB ; ib \t 
ibonld alio ^ggcA t» Wfc (S^rtkfiffiM, w£^ Uj tbi»: 
means are at litertjrAott fte IMIc^ymflit^ of gretir- 
«ft IXu^er,. due mcj otigjlir m wciefCftKie thefc^ wbiqii 
«iU give dken as grtai» ch0i)g^^4«i»r(r ffmffr, . Nqr 
viU it fae a. Di^ikor «> t^im ilm |i)^ %I}C9ft % 
dieir GsifMir^is joft An Mioof Jl9W«r H«qH% if tn die 
mem tiine tkty Ml flxiftt M «iiHg^n a<t4 a^of^v 
while die ithar itknd it t i9f itm ^nm is oritk^'d 

iojm Li^ and ^ cleriih dl« W«il4 Witjb «i g^ptte 

9aSoafio ; while dk« i ^n m emj t Pi Wnf" miQiinte 
aye takpa ovrof tfat Boweht^dH^ JSfrtlt* 

fior the liDpiDveaieDt 4if dififi)^^ ^^fTI^' of p<!m^^e 
i^Mv^, die]fhaTe iodead«nchcit]Rrf¥iJlfi»^ w^if:6 OAQ 
fcafde he- eqnallTd hgr aoty^lUpgitomtQ «^i»# ; aod 
that is the CoavOiffMB tot B^Mit of IvMcg ^avEtBF'4 
in die CSMMMf^'- ^^ ** *^^ tbf «M C0«i:^4)f Life 

of Che Eh^ &imtMmtm((i veU ptep'4 b«;w«r4i t^e 

ttoubU&aio Noift> of poiBOiws Mtflii fif f OftCfe . a94 die 
Sa^«B^ of aTanciaos SonSdDtfii i ^i9K ihft tme H4#- 
plneft of ifviag aoeoidiDg tfr dM Bnlfl aod Pk«%<s : 
of uncomipt Nature, is more in their pow^ th^' 
tfkj oriieis; To them» in dnft W«]^ eflM, vh^p can 
fio(hiDg o&r kSstf which siagr «oi be twi^'dco 4 ?i&i- 
hj^hkat'*l>^. Their qawrltoiy Jef#^ bmjfep^d' ' 
from the Tvmulti of iCrjStM^ gnc tbMI ihff M C^p'Pi'- 

' tonity. 

4o6 The H /^T » R T of the 

portdoity, isAYtttiorAxii Ohfirvmi^ . Their ^^ 
fitality^ and familiar Way of cohvcffing^ wich.their 
Neighbourhood will always fupply them with inteU 
ligence. The Leiiure which their Retirements afford 
them, is ib great, that either they muft ^end their 
' Thoughts about iuch AttenvpcSrOr in more chargeable 
'and lei(sinnocent®i«^^r^i/?^««^! -If they wiUconfider 
the Heaven's and the Motions of the Stars^ they have 
there a iivdcter Hemi/pherei and a clearer >^ for diat 
Purpoie. If they will obf^rVe the Generation^ fireed- 
ings, ^ DifcafeS, and Cuy^S' of living Creafurexi: then: 
Stabks, their Stalls, their^ K^uiels, tiieir.Patks, then: 
Ponds, will giVe thfe^ eternal Mimier of Inquify. If 
they would fatisfy their Minds With the advancing of 
Fruits^ the beautifying, the ripening, the bettering 
cfVIdnts*, their Paftctres,! their Orchards, thdi Groves, 
thdt'Garden);, thdt Noderies, will fiirntih them widi 
perpetual ConteniflatioH^: ' They inaey not only make 
their BufiHefs^ but thdr very Sptnrts molt ierviceable Co 
Experimental Knowledge. For that if it be rightly 
educated, 'will ibmd ih need of fiich Recreations as 
much as the (rentlemeh theaasfelves, from their hunt- 
ing, hawking, ^Itfiiing, and ^wling, that is able to re- 
ceive as much (olid Profit as tfa<y Delighc. 

On both thefe Accounts tht EngliJhGentty has the 
Adyant^e of thofe of France^' SPain^ Italy^ or Ger- 
many ; wha are generdly either fnut upin Ti^xri, and 
dteam awiy th^tr QLivis m the Dfmfions of Cities ^ or 
e\k are fengig'd tb fdllow their JPrinf^x Wills to fore^ 
Wars. • 

Nor do they only excell other Nations in fiich Op- 
portunities, but our own iS^^iir/y. of all former Times. 
Fiift^ they are^oW fi»: vffiore ' nuineroii6,> aAd fb mote 
oiay be^ fparVl fionl ^ civil Bufmds of their Goun- 

ROT At -'l^pi C I ? r 7; ^ 407 

try, Befides thi$^ they ate now. bred up aad. live in a 

?uite different Fafliioi^. The Courle of their Anchors 
jives w^ grave and reierv'd ; they conversed, with 
few, but, their pwn .SprvaQts^^ ^ s^d feldonj. trayeil'd^ 
farther than their ,own lands ; XHisi way fcrv'd well " 
epou2h to keep up xbcit State apd their ^ort • but ncrt 
to help their Underflandi^s. For the Formalities of 
Life do often counterfeit Wifdom^ but never beget it. 
Whereas now they are en^g'd; in, freer Koads bi Edu- 
cation ; now the vaftDiifbwce between them an4 other, 
Ordersof Menis:np more oblervM; npw their Ci«-; 
verjation is large and general ; now the World is 
become more active And indtfftrious j^ now more of 
thetp ;h^ve feen the Ufe and. Manners of Men, and, 
joaore; apply , t^enrfelyes to Trd^ imA Bufinels than. 

.This Aiteratibn has been caus'3 in our Memory,, 
either by ip many Families being advanced to the 
h^heft pegree;5 p^ J^obility for their* excelling in the 
Jh-ts of xSt Gowmi or by i|iqir frequent IntemuMri- 
^ei with Citizens ; or by thcTraVers or the King^ and 
me R(^alPamifyi or elfeby the pvil War, iffelf, 
which is always wont to be the craelleft'7yr^»i^' or 
the beft Reformer ; either utterly to lay waft, or to 
civilize, and bci^^ntiiy,.^ and ripen the Arts of all Coun-r 
tries. . And . ftill We have reafbii to expecSt, that thi$ 
Chance will proceed farther for the better, if our 
Gentlemen ilull more condefcend to engage in Com* 
merce, and to reg^d the ^hilojbfhy of Nature. 

The firft of thefe fince the King^s return, has beeii 
carry 'd on. .with great Vigour by the Foundation of 
^he Royal Cmj^anyi to which as to the T^in-Siller of 
the i?^/ Society^ weliave realon as we go along to 
wij(h m Tro^&ity. la bodi thefe Infiitutums b^n 

: t ■ . •:.';"*.:. : together. 

4«rt the NiiPOitT^ ih: 

ti^etiier^ cnr Sjm lias imitiuced the two moft &moa a 
Works of the witeft of ancient Kings ; who at tlw 
fame time fent to Qfhir for ^p/t/,' an4 cpnopos^d a 
Maturxd Hiftoty from the Cecjar to the Shrab, 

Nor cttigTjt our ^evtry to be avcrft from tfte promo- 
I ^tmg of ^adcj^ out of any little jfeaIonf)r, that there- 

iby they fiiall debale them&hre$, and corrupt their 
iBlood : :Foi: they ai^e to know, diat Trajic and Com- 
merse have eiven Mankind a h^^r Degree than any 
Tiil^ofl^htify^ even that of Cn/ility ancj JinmoHity 
^itfcl£ Jlnd at this time eft^ecially ^ove all others, 
they have ho reafbn to ilelpile Trade as below them, 
when it has f6 great au infludhce on the very Govern- 
ment of the "World. Tn ^rmer Ages indeed, thii "was 
not lb remarkable. Tflhd Seats oilSmfire and Trade 
were feldpm or nev^ the fame, 7^^^9 mA^^don^ and 
C«^x, and Matjfeitlesh^dmorcJrdf^Cy bnt'leis Com- 
mand than Kome^ xmtthens^ or ^farta^ 6t Macethn. 
!But now it is quite otherwile. It is now moft certain 
that in tl^ofe C^ajfts, whItM the i;reateft ^r«i£^ ^ 
opnaaiitly ^w, the; gre^tett Rithei, and iPpwer will 
be ^abliflj^A The Cade of this Difference bctweoot 
the ancient Time$ and out own, is hard to be diico- 
vef'd: perhaps it is this, that fonnerly. die ereateft' 
Part of tibe fTorld liv*d flidely, ojti thetr own Satnraf 
/ TroduBions : but now fo many Nations !>efng rf rf • 

liz'd, and living Iplehdidly, there i$ a. fiir g c ea tei 
Confimiption ^^AJitrp^n Commodities \ ana fb the 
Gain of Trade is beeaaae ereat enongh to ovier-bidancc 
4Sl othet Strength •. Whcthei this be the Reafbn ptnoj 
It matters hot ( but "^tOt^rvatiom h ttviff. ; Atid^n? 
^ . we lee is lufficiently Imo wn to ill ote N6i^(bpii% who 
'^ are ^arneflly bcnl: 15)011 iSbe ^vjncif^ di^onanftce^ as 
thebeft Means iiot'onfy to enrft£ parifcirlar Mer- 
chants, but to enlarge the jEmfire. The 


The next Thina to be recommended to tbe GtHtte^ 
fftm of England has a hear Kmdred with tbc : Qtfaer r 

want of fiich an ealy conrie Of Stndiesp" {o masy of 
them have mifcarried in their firft Years, and have e-^ 
vcr after abhorred all manner oS fiber Works.. What 
elie do fignify the univeriai Complaints of thofe who 
diredl the Eaucationof great Men's Children d, Why 
do they find them Sy hiard to be fix'd to any manner 
of Knowledge ? Their Teachers indeed are wont to 
impute it to the delicacy of their Breeding, and to 
their Mothers fondnefi. But the chief Came of the 
Mifchief lies de»er. They fill their Head? with di^ 
'ficult and unintelligible Notions^ which neither aflbi^d 
them Pleafufe in Learning, nor Profit in remembrini 
them ; they chiefly inftrad: them in fiich Arts^ whicJ 
ar^ made for the beaten Tracks of Profeffions^ and Qot 
for Gentlemen. .Whereas their Minds ihould be 
charm'd by the allnrements of y?£;^if^ and mare/Ai^« 
Jibk Studies \ and for this purppfe Exj^eriments arc 
thefitteft. Then: Ob;e£fs they may feel and behold, 
their Vrodugfions are moft popular i |;heir Method is 
intelligible, and equal to their Capacities ; fi> that in 
them they may (bon bedbmc their own- Testcherr, 

Nor are they to contemn them for their T^lainmjsj 
\4nd the homely il^^^rx about which they are oft^n 
employ 'dl^ Ir they Ihall think fconi to foul thcjr Fittr 
gers about them oa this Account, let r them caft tjheir 
Eyes back on the Orginal Nobility oif all Coi^ries. 
And if that be true, that every Thing is prefervid 
and rcftory by the fame Means whi^h did bi^^t it. at 
.firft u Theyxmaythen bfetai^htj that their preiept Z&i- 
nour canaiotlbe maineainU- by intemperate Tiea/f^es^ 
or thC' gawdy Shews of Pomp, but by true Labours 

F f f and 

a&A iniuimiMs Vbffuerlxt tibem refltfS npm tbofe 
gfett M» tvl» *riha&Bfe<tfc(oN«Hc bf , HMUity tewP 

of Fi^oNi^y ^Mtte of them dffdtib'd nbtito i9«H^ ^A 
%«rta/4o. -tvri ^i<» fhe £^0^ and tb ccddnrdcb ipieh Bi^ 

offlehfti JlfiidB «he ^%^ ahd the OiSw; Tlnifein. 
deed Wtft% tittib^, "of \ik;ifiich:ic wfereweUif \teiiaiaiOM 
f oo^pSfc Aifl ki ohdfihc 4/4bftto«n /Hidnithe Jjtfmfe 
df M^ v^r6 it^&dcaie kud ilion^ atad li^tmci^ as 
the iSrfrftj'ift Which ii*y Ijtoour'd. Th«n the Vl«fe 
«f bianah kam-^ wtre *ot thdr l^ride> but dieit 
iStfWh. lflWAl^'i^i<fe:v<w;4tiaifnaS!bttadiikeim 
kht felfe WdI* bf <J^(»«i»/54 'W» poff'd 1]^ ty the 
^mbty F<>^^Ba6 dfCreitmefi: As £nce klmbeeii iii 

•^m'lmim^f Mtmi^i, thatperhsfisiikiiK'lev^^^sfi^ 
t^//^ will diifik k hidrbeai4i»te/needifel ifor >Ac to 
f^^^difervbe^Ml^i df^i^ Agoco cdntidae lAec^"dffl& 

fMf^^'^hidk wei?t Adc^trfjle to the.^lwttKrtu; of 

whichthfey we 'ftttcwffiftyi I djieiefote aetufaiflo tfadk 
•wW<?h t ^dfert<S6lt, t& the agreeabteiafe of ThtB de- 


t^tPtis\- -lliejrffiiveheMftbtifet?] 
a Whd&6e >^^ ^Uie^r choaflivds :fec^ 
i^thek GmtUity. The Mitsei^ the 
i^ the^lkdjctsy the /AiiiJaaflit^M^y 
Wif^ a^ ^tTdtkf IftflrmmmtifCof "m- 

Md it fs ^ihftfie Ji>i^tHim lohoaSt 


nor At st}CiEt'i[.] ^vt 

ftsod If cboy fidu« cIm Amtiquifif of Fimulies, tiA 
loagBAee o^^eSfffeast Wliait cm ba mere wofchy 
theic Cbi^idccaddn, than -itt tfae 4i¥ei)S Lineages «f 

IfteDt liKui «iiiy -of dicn ■ taA AoHr. . • ^ t^ -ka/kk- dM 
candiiuiMl <d6wti to ^i^teht Lia^, ifirMnCiw^ W ' J^S^y 
irom^Of^iAM!(i^tOrCni»Day. If-tlie;^ IhaHooa^Be 
thc]i^<l?«8 to the QNMM)^/tb^ liTa^ iftto'for'^eii; 
4hfaeap Oi^^Q. 'ir4;lke3P<'i'«4wn t6 die ^S'lf^)^ tfeid' «4]| 

5^<!^iMKtfUvaAd jioc ti6 i^b'ixourthek Mfiatesl -if cl^jg^ 
Ibsch to /^ilM! Ser^i^ t^ fbeka^g ^Jtnn/ys -ot 
Navies, t^y- ^ire tliis .^ theb t^c»pettaii4!roaii>fei* 
loi^ and very ^eik > iltf thdi? Pr4i(ei<viMP'^Ti»ei#i^^ 
Iq sMity >mtm^ ^dftiicJ^Ofiiiifl' f^npf^ to l^^^dt^ 

<raiitag^ -of ■imtK&n Ahd» «Rd 'AfiomttueioHS^ -clie 

Sum :at« VTiti^^d <«f)6 ililte^,'4»f^ fliot%frT(^l'>tocft 

««n(u»e Jto^affiniB) t^itt k w^ -often -f^i^ve-W ^^fkic^fM 

ibe riuria«8. '-* • ■■' '^ " • ■ • • '■ '.'-'. ' '■• ••'■' ^'.-/ * - •■ - ' '^- ■ " ' ' -"^ 
AU#^iUi4W we 'ftlfil>f l^s^fpte^k i£e gi'^at'lLc^ 
cideats wliich llave h^pen'k tj^ the ^ftaajjci "<?f 

^«//«A:^Mii'e«hm'hiiT.e -read (of;' yik %^a*J Kf:e tq 
have put a-Peried^ ^ lui.^^%?o>^y'i »b^ fe Wait!'t» 

F f f 2 ' an 

4ia The HlSTORTof the 

m exaft Skill in one of che commondt fT^ks 9f No* 
ture. This he himielf relates in his iecond Paili^e . 
into Britain ; when his Army was io diiinay'd at £e 
ebbing of the Sea from their Fleets believing it to be 
ii Stratagem of their Enemies^ that fcarce the. Courage 
and C(^du<£l of Qafar^ could hinder them firom being 
terrify'd to their own Overthrow, which had been a 
£ital Misfortune to the Britains^ as well as R&mans ; 
becauie from his viAorious Arms, we firft received the 
dawn of Civil Arts. The next Inftance of this kind» 
iS the Mifchance which befel the Cbrifiian Arn^ in 
Egyft^xxi the time of the Hofy Ws^s, Their Strength 
was great and iireiiftible, if they had only un&r- 
flood, that which every Egyptian could have taught 
th^i%' t^cCpurfi^.apd the time of the overflowing of 
xbe Af>7^. Fot the want of chat (lender Knowle^ 
thebraveftMenof aU CAri^^^^^.were led up to 
the Neck in the River, and were forc'd to yield to 
tbeijr Enemies Conditions without (bikino; a Stroke. 
Xhi^ was opcafion'd by the. Stupiditv.of the CarMnat^ 
who commanded them ; if he had been lei$ skilfiil in 
the Schoolmen^ and more in Nature^ that dreadful Di- 
Mer had never happened. My third Example of this 
Mnd is to be ibuodin the Raman Hiftwy : The Roman 
Army was juft ready to join Battel, with one of their 
Enemies ; the Sign was siven for their Onfec ; their 
Force was equal ; a terrible Combat had like to have 
enfu'd ; whoi on a iiidden the Sun was Ectip/d ; of 
tl)i3 the Romans were >vam'd the Day before. Bu^ 
this iiuiiriz'd the other, with fo gneat AfHight, that 
they were immediately vanauijh'a. So that not the 
hxzvca Men^ nor the p^axmArm% nor the beft Pro- 
vifions of fTar got the ViSfoty ; but that Party which 
had the beft natural Thilofojiher on its fide. 

" ■' ' ^ ^ : To 


To this Addrels which I have made to our NobiUty $.XXX V. 
and Gentry J I will add as an Appendix another Bene- Exjm- 
fit of ExferimentSj which perhaps it will fcarce be- f^^^ ^'(' 
come me to name amidft fo many Matters of ereater ** /]^^x$ 
Weight ; and that is, that their Difcoveries willbe ve- ^d^ri- 
ry fcrviceable to the fTits and fTr iters of this, and ars. 
all future Jies. But this I am provok'd to mention 
by the Connderation of the preient Genius of the En- 
glijh Nation ; wherein the Study of ff^ity and Humour 
of Writing prevails lb much, that there are very few 
Conditions, or Degrees, or Ages of Men who are free 
from its Infe^on. I will therefore declare to all thofe 
whom this Spirit has pofTefs'd, that there is in the 
Works of Nature an inexhauflible Treafure of Fancy 
and Invention^ which will be reveal'd proportionably 
to the Increafe of their Knowledge. 

To this purpofe I muft premife, that it is required in 
the bed, and moft delightful ii^/> ; that it be founded 
on fuch Images which are generally known, and are 
able to bring a ftrong and a 1 enfible Impreflion on the 
Mind. The feveral Subjeds from which it has been 
rais'd in all times, are the Fables and Religions of the 
AntientSy the civil Hifiories of all Countries^ the 
Cuftoms of Nations^ the Bible^ the Sciences and Man- 
ners of MeUj the feveral Arts of their Hands, and 
the Works of Nature. In all thefe^ where there may 
be areiemblance of one thing to another, as there may 
be in all, there is a fiifficient Foundation for IFit, This 
in all its kinds has its Increafes, Heights, and Decays, 
a% well as all other human Things : Let us then exa-* 
mine what Parts of it are ahready exhaufted, and what 
remain new and untouched, and are flill likely to be 
£uther advanced. 



4S4 The HIST nr nf tie 

The IVit t>f the Fables and Religions of the AHcient 
tVerU 4s wefl-iugk cocrfiim'^; tfcef luive aire^jy 
fenr'd thelPM/5' k>Bg esoogh, and k is now lixgh time 
to iSlmife the», eQ)Cciftlly feemg they hare rois pecu- 
liar ImferfeBhn^ that -Aey wereoriy FtSfims at fitft : 
WhcFcas 7r»fl& is nicrcr fe irdSi exprefiTd or amf^l^VI, 
JAB by tliofc Ornaments whidi arc true and f-f j/ ia 

The if^it viffrich is raisM from Ctvrl fR/lerteSytxtA the 
Oiftoms of Cetrntrksj is folid and lafting-. The Simi- 
liftudes. k aUbrds are fiibftantial, and eqiaai to the 
IVBnds of Iflen, bekig drawn from theonrfelres and their 
own A^ons. Of this the wittfeft Nations %ave al- 
ways made tire greateft irfe ; Aeir Writiflgs be!i» a- 
xteintfd wkh a Wit that was free of Aeir own Cftiesj 
confiftifig ttf E»amfies. and Jf^egn^^ and ^rth 
"verbsy derived from lieir Aneep^rs. This 1 allefce, 
becai^ rhis kind IS fonrcc yet t)egun in the Enghjh 
Lmguuge ; tbott^ -our own Civtl Ff^fhry bounds « 
mnch as -any other, with «ttat E^twifks and mteiora- 
Me !E>reirts, which may ferve for *c Omam^trt of 

The Manners, and Tempers, tmd fiictravagances of 
Men arc aftandrng and eternal 'Foondation of Wrt .- 
This if it be gathered from partictfttr KUhfetvations ' 
IS call'd iiumcmr ; and the more particular iiiey arc^' 
they are'HiH thcplea&nter. In thtsldndl jnay wdl* 
affimiifcat onrm^titm exccBs aH tniteirs, « pm ^!>ra' 
^wtffT ^^^fryimy wftncfs. 

The ff^ft xhst may^e ^?oIi( y W ^dfroplt^lt BH^k ii? 
mignificetit, and, as oil rtie o t li c i Tjresrforcs x/f Knaw-^ 
le^e k contatns^TnexhiadffFM.e, YhiiSDray1)eii5!Vi anfl 
^ow'd \^ii*iout any tfangeriDf fttjjftatrenefs. The ^- 
'Cient Heathens did the lame } they made-riberr '^Divime 



that meaas dusk RetigiMs hod a more awfiil Impcdib- 
oBi 'btcame more popular^ and lafledian^ in fesoc 
-than dfe diey 'ivicad hmtAamSj and wlnr may not 
-Chrifiian'tty adadt tbe £iinc Things if ic oe pradis'd^ 
i»utb Sobraety and Reoermce ? What Isicligion can 
then be in ^plying iiasMSa^ftm'e'Exp'effims tx> j^T^^ 
turalThingTi Why are^ootthe dnejEacher exalted and^ 
purify ^d, than the other defil'd by fuch Applications? 
The verj JEittlSmfafis thankhoSf who are wont to< 
itart at fiich if^if as jfyheijiicaly and more guilty of its 
Exceiles than ainy other ibrt of Men : for whatever 
Oihey aUec^ out of die Jii^bfrka/^fPrt^betical, or £- 
^mHgelital Writings, and apply it to tbeadeiyes» their 
•Enemies^ or their Country^ though they call it the- 
Mind of G^isj^ yet it \% nothing el&i bat Scriftw^t^kn^ 
^pmrijon and Sindikudt. 

The Scimces^ of Mws BiaUns are none of the beft 
Materials for this kind of Wit. Very few have hap- 
:piiy ihcccdded in jL^^im/^ Iditafhyjicul, "Grsmmuti- 
jcuI, nay e^n fcarce in MMbejMtic^l Comf4iri/ms ; 
rand^ dhc^it^fon Is^ becadib they are mod: of them oon- 
riper&firabottt liikigs removed fiom dierS^^iesy ^d fi> 
xttinot iurpri£e tht fancy with very obvious, or 4|ciick, 
of fei^ble Delights. 

11)e /3^tf that iSiforaded on tlie ^f/ of M 

is mafculine and durable : It confifts of Images that 

r^ie M&eiiafiy <^ftpv'4» and fixdi Tifibli^ Things which 

«c luffiii^ to Mens? Minds. This therefore I will 

reckon as the fitft fort, which is ftiU iiaprovable fay 

:the Advancement of Exfenments. ^ 

And to this I will add the WoHts 6fJ^atur^, which 
$xc one 6f the bd^ a^d moft ^fruitful Soils fc^ the 
growth of ^^^. It 4s appareni;^ that ^ Deftdl of 

3 the 

41^ The BISTORT of the 

tbe Antients in natural Knewledge did alio ftrengtheo 
their Fancies : Thofc few Things which they knew, 
they us'd fb ninch, and amly 'd fb often, that they even 
abnoft wore them away oy their ii(ing. The S weet- 
neis of Flowers, and Fruits, and Herbs, they had quite 
devoured ; they had tir'd out the Sun and MooHj aod 
Stars with their Similitudes, more than they fancy 
them to be wearied by their daily Journey round the 

It is now therefore feaibnable for natural Know- 
ledge to come forth, and to give us the ^nderjlanding 
of new Virtues and ^alities of Things, which may 
relieve their Fellow-Creatures, that have long bom the 
Burden alone, and have long been vex'd by the Inu- 
ginations of Toets. This charitable Afliftance Ex/e- 
riments will foon beftow. The Compairifbns which 
thefe may afford will be intelligible to all, becaufe 
they proceed from Things that enter into all Mens 
Senies. Theie will make the moft vigorous Impredions 
on Mens Fancies^ becaufe they do even touch their 
Eyes^ and are nearefl: to their Nature. Of theie the 
Variety will be infinite, for the Particulars are fb from 
whence they may be deduced : Thefe ,may be always 
new and uniullied, feeing there is fiich a vaft Number 
of Natural and Mechanical Things^ not yet fully 
known or improved, and by Confeqqeoce not yet fiif- 
ficiently ^ply'd. 

The ufe of Experiments to this Puipofe is evident^ 
by the wonderful Advantage that my Lord Baam 
received from them. This excellent Writer was a- 

. bundantly recompenc'd for his cable Labours in that 
^hikfofhy, by a vaft Trealure of admirable Imagina- 
tions which it affordfed him, wherewith to exprds 
and adorn his Thoughts about other Matters. But I 



Mart I ^s^A QA ^ ?v 5^ ?A\7 

in general of the Englijh tongue^ that as it q(a]|ttui^,a 

JU¥1 t(ii]»i(abk ^imJku4^i ■Qff^^^^ 

Mef^^ Hands aa4 thie W^qrP. of. N^^r/p, tHan ever ^7 

.-other Ltmgit4§e <)^ pipfVifle, .-, ^ _ , , ; ' ; ' Z, 

-fcwpthijlg witi^ the. /T*^ .?ffl4 i2^^w^/^^ttji^ ^3^^ 
(Secciacik -idi'tir 0{Niii<H^ «nd Difcousi^s tp thfi(e!o)tiRf- 
y^t .* &>T 9Af9fx\\Qy laay behojid ^v^ their Xnte^ i» 
..qotitQd with <ths^ of K\i^ , J^^J$9^tety \ ai^d >that )f 
:iihcy»:fl»iiIld(Jcry tfeijoqaqptiftgof^Af^^/fl^*/^ t^ 

,i?>r<^ :Mind.iiidf»d^t?- Jj^j>f?R jvith rfj)e^ ;Q; th92f 
^ttmbk:Mai» that I ii^vi^ 9?#Ae fl^s ic«|g, pi^e^pn. 

I acbasmkdgft fch<>J;fWp;ojMlirE.^o^^Tje>gr^^ p^^ 
^chfir Ppwfir:?: J^jtjufefe i^^ft^e Wftt.^^,^^< 

^dholjf, 4s michl^s 5Jw .hvMwroij^^^th? a^^;)rj 
iihej peilufS' bj- n>iyWpg.i^ ^rJ^i^fUfH^ hogadfc it^is 
«0i^ 4od becni^ th^' th^o^^v^ ar^ ajnwiumg tp 
cake pains . -^iktm. % imy ioit {opifc jojury than all 

' )Bb£8D^atntU:g|i>pdrWiilU I (fnui3x. ^o^g^wi^C .th!;Q^ 
-tiiatxthe FiaiUy ,«f l;h<t iK^i^^f-f ;^s,(^v;4.lr6mf:hp 
-fame Qti Anal V6l^ ;^ tPi(l/%^3>^^W-r. Thf! Foimd^ 

•'4ttbiii?AJrtlwfaflwi^^>;^j»||ftl(pM JLHeyiOuelit 

G g g comes 

4t» 'the Hl^TOkrvfihe 

. . . 

' cotixcs thcin to remember that it is the Fault, ancf nor 
the Exceliehce of Wit to defile its^ own Neft, and not 
to fpare itsown.Frcindsand Relations, fortheSaiie 

^;ofaJeft; , . 

-*• ' The truth is, tfic fijttremes of RatUety^x^ more 

; oflenfive than tbofc 'of StujHdHy : It is a Work of 
fiich a render and fubtil Spirit^ that it cannot be de^ 
cently perfbrm*d by all Pretenders to it ; nor does k 
always ag'ee well >vith the Temper of our ^^i^^; 
which as Ithas agister Course thae to foffer^ZJif^^ 
fb it has a firtiier Virtue tftan to be wholly' taken up a- 
bout deriding of others. . Such Meii are therefore to 
know, that ail things arc capable of abafe from the 
lame Toj^icks by ^which they may be^ commended ; 
they ^e .t9 coi[Uider,'that Laughter is ;^eea(ieft and 
theflendcreft;FTuJtof ^/?;^ they are to:^ under(land!» 
that it proceed^ fr6pa the bbferVatifen of the ^efor^, 
mitji of things'; but that there is a nobler and more 
maiculine Pieafure, which is rds'd ftom beholding 
their Or^^ and Beauty .• From thehce they may cott- 

dude, how great the Di^renc'e is bdtWcen'them and 
the it^^JnhJiphers-^'fot ^hiXt - Nktun has only 
form'd thcnf to be pleasM with its Irregularities and 
Monflers, it has given the other the Delight of know* 
ingand Itudying its moft beaMiful Works. 

\n plain Terms^ a imiverfid ^ Abufe ^f every thmg, 
though it may tickle the Fancy never fp much, iSiin- 
human Maine fs\ as one of the Antients wdl.ex- 
prefles it, who calls iuch Mirth humanis Bacchari re- 
bus. If all things were made the Subjeds of inch Hu- 
mour, all worthy defigDs would fbon be laughM outof 
the World ; and fbr oiit prdfent ' Sporty our Tofierity 
would become barbarbus. All good Eiiterprifes oi^t 
, to find Adiftance when they a^ b^un, Applauie when 

f '. ' they 

RJ!f TA L\Sj HCiR XT. 41^ 

diey £icoeed, and.evea PttV. and Pr^U^, if ch«y ' faul. 
The true lUiilery ihpuld' be a Defence fox good an4 
vertuous JVorks^ and ihoald only inteiid the DeriTioi^ 
ef extravagant, and tbe^Di^race. of vile and difhonour- 
aUe Things. This, kind f)£ j^srV-ought to have thq 
liaxmtti Saltj t€kvi^d^^^ whi^ 

preiirves and keep^iwettrthegnbiod ^drthe foiud Parts 
of all Bodies, and only firets, drfea up^ and deflroy s 
thole Htonouts which putrify and tiortupt. 

' r ^ 

This pleafant btit tmprofitable &rt of Men being.f xxxviii. 
thus difinifs^d with this feir jidmonitjon ; it now A^J!^' 
lows in the laft Place, that I examine the univer^d lurousto the 
rereft of the Englijh Nation^ and confider what Effed^;;^^^^^ 
the ^orAfof the Royal SocUtyjaiK like to have upon^ 
it, by what mbms thck La^oursjmy icrve to encreale 
oxxt Advantages and corred t>ur Imperfe(3:ioits. In 
the Entrance of this^ubje^^ there arc to many thin6$ 
|>refented to my Thoughts, which are worthy to be 
^eclar'd to my CoimrjffWH^ tbat I rather think it 
ought to, be largely .min^d by itiR^lf^ thjau to be kid- 
^Ucd up in: the end ^i msTredtifi .\ ^nd oortainly 
there is fcarce any ^matter, that more deferred to be 
bandied by the beft of otir EngHjh Wits^ than the 
Inter ^c£ thek Xkumr^. I do therefore take the to their Hands; and Co be* 
leech them to raife their Thou^ls £com ilighter ^Ur 
fmeiles, from unmanly Flattedes^.or Vanities . of Zi^t;^^ 
t>r;ufelds Burlefque^ to this, grave and this ndbk Argu- 
4nent ; and to remember that ifThemifiocles was in the 
right, when he preferred theniakingof aihiajl City ff est 
before the playing on a Fiddle, then oertainiy it is 
the braveft Employment, ifor a worthy Mind, to en- 
deavour to make a great Kingdom ^eaten 

Gggz Theit 


I'htl^iure very )ti«3r:ThfiigMft tie iMAMBffirsaw 
«f the EttgMP, wbicb ^vialUy dkiEfli o^oisfraaf t>dKir 
Ibr ft ^s^tning NMia^^ The Sdaathab of ott Omr* 

Ptc^i<%fofi« jltefflt}ft10^vikcabl&^for Jhr^ff^ anil Emu 

feVVft i>ftllird^«» «ift«urtit mis^', ^ilHaoas i>4Jei^ 
reteittteg to toe AlSIKifted), and merciftl i& Ooa^ii^^' 
Theimfort(diiil<ei)(^liifn«.by whidi 4>ar iimarltasbia» 
of late diftraded, are but of one or two Ages growth ^ 
^ Vi^^ to wtti^ch >i^e irtoi%bgcft kut: atK aatdnl ta 

Vii^kiiglip G«dttoiiC7, Iidei|tyr llfegmlunutjs; Mo« 
^y, fintdglftyv t^y cn««tb i^rii&b^; tiidrLiODQ- 

lf«i?e Occeifibii of doing right tx> the Honbor of «5^ 
tj&imf^, JOidydtrtptiiiyjve^c^^^BKflt^ wioh iij«(t Ca^ 
^^ : %i^ ai^hc ie!!i^l2rifi n« WeaJUBd}eladkd)A]ilRUiA- 
Mi^&iKiiitKmj^dm^.^ lie iek^tsaaovb the oac^«tt8i 
«£i&ift the iftdMif-i -4f^iBigfac' c(nipa>9 xheiAdiofit^ 
«^ ant Altireprj^ \ii^K ^e M^ondbs of tbis fiSsni!, lol 
^«w %y >w^ 4e^«e» this eiaflicjliidoii: ctf ^Mii^ 
iC|!t^ik: h^ ioi^ iit'fili 01. gSittMttt «Dd^tg»irr Btoc^. 
•j^hp Hittl^iM iriie Card of 'Vbp Htl^ovt. ^ifiem^ 
fifw^-- lie £fiiB^)c wit^- iteafafabfe jA ^ uaunh axx3em^ 
■m ixcuel^ > wlat lif yasiSfy leOmc <die Vrn^ ^^wd by 
cfae Pdwef ^c^ de«&dflSck Etaupla vouioe itt hack li&> 
rdie diKidnt ^detit^r of 4A«/ii!fi^-y, aodiwKMleiKir o££ifiy, 
■ txsA ntaon o£ ^b/f^f'ejixi 

• TheDoi^ 0f fee^thte W4ttit:peiiftnio'difits.&in&ch 
OB ny Mmdy idlist I ^iimot htm once saoR fep«fttBtit 


ROTAl, SOClMXr. 4,1 

to:t^<>m£<k]MBkm.of lite Bttoy ^E^MgittJ: sod Jndii- 
diDw Jkth^^^ : widt wham «ur Nation i« now noxo 
abvndflittlDr ilinii)f<{ thaa €V€i-« Bat if ndtber cba 
^HkxxSiXj, imr Uf^fiiinefs ^ the Subject aor the Beo6« 
£c of }dNSai slam^ X«gid will prevail with them ta 
fe i^Qttjr i it is H^ fMiffip^ fo iexQCc tbeo) i^y ano^ 
tbcT W'^y^ 'wiiidi WlU «^cd be hazardous tor my ow» 
iii;^iKr«rMi^ yet ^l^>» IB^ take efic(3;. I wili tr}^ 
tibc £ime Strac^m ^rhich I have oftea ieea uaakil&l 
Stqgc m o fe , . »»»ak« tlioftt w^ have excdknt Voices 
iiesir fS^sx^u^'i^ hr aS tjhey by ill Singbfg £»ne excel- 
kttt Tuacasivv)6fi|: to |H:o¥pk€ i;he^>cbei:^ wbea 

oo FtexfisftQns dmU ffMive chemi fi> do I intend ae 
my ficft Leiib^ by ill btadUog 4^ this 09ifle Sub^£f^ 
M jftir Y^ ik^Eca ^iggc^ttr Abitiaes tacB^oy fkoix SiiK 
afid their Judgnittt i^ut it. 

Having tfaMSt tbken ttftG Task on myiel^ it will not 

be needfim iKie to mftft long w»Ml it befoce Jiaad : I 

wid only in Ibw Wocds deduce that it is^ the tcue 

Concernment of England to fecore itfelf from the 2)9-* 

mmiamiofStrangerj^Mtik JE^defiaJlifal md Tempore/; 

tD adnace its IndnAry in jpeacefiil yUrts ; to increaie 

itsTVn?^; (t9wift<y^eil^^mnMamifai}ur^; toin- 

tfoduce the jbceigOt of which our Soil is Ca^Ie ; to 

make jufe lof die two iC^iimx that are joyn'd with 

xtmnAer the £jne Menittahy f^ ^boie Prodvidions which^ 

grow noc dt Home; to obtain a Union of Mcnd^ both. 

mC/t^t/^aod SjfnrUual Matters I aod to pi^eictve the 

ancient Fotm oi^jrovefwntnt. 

Of ail tfaefe { wiU only touch upon tfaoie Parts of 
wir hrtremfl wbtcb b^vc f eference to the Defj^ of the 
jRoyal Society 

The feft thing chat oi^ht to be improved in the 
-Englijh MativH$: is their indufirj. This^ it is true^ has 


422 The HISTORTofthe 

of late Years been marvelloufly advanc'd ; as maty, be 
ihewn by the enlarging of Traficy the fpreading of 
many Fruits j the Plantations of Treesy and the great 
Improvement of Manual Arti. But it is evident, that 
it may ftill admit of farther Warmth and Activity ; as 
we may conclude, by the Want of Employment for: 
younger Brothers, and many other Conditions of Men ; 
and by the number of our Poor, whom Mknefi and 
not Infirmities do impoverilh. The way to compa& 
this, is not alone by ABs of Parliaments and good 
Laws ; whofs Force will foon be evaded by prefent 
Craft and Interpretation, or elfe will he antiquated 
by Time. This perlbaps our Country has found above 
all others : if our Labourers had been as diligent as oor 
Lawgivers^ we had prov'd the moft laborious Na- 
tion under Heaven. But the trtie Method of increa- 
iing Indufiry^ is l>y that Courfe which the Royal Soci- 
ety has begun in Thilojbfhyy by Works and Endea- 
vour s^ and not by the Preforiptionsof j^i^r^, or P^- 
per Commands. 

There is notliing wTiofc promoting is fo eafy as 2)/- 
Rgence^ wben it is once iet on foot. This does not 
only propagate Works but Workers ; though at firft 
it may Ix^in on Necefity^ yet it will afterwards pro- 
ceed upon T'leafiire : So that the farther it goes, the 
fwifter it advances, becaufe willing Works are iboaer 
performed than thofe to which we are compelled. This I 
will demonfbrace by an Injiance which I have already 
alledg*d, audit h of the Hollanders : for we mayfetcL 
Examples of Virtue from our own Countrymen, but of 
InduJIryhom them. At firft they were as laty as the 
worft of ours : their Hands were unus'd to labour ^ 
their manner of Life was much like that, of the antient 
Britains ; their Coafts lay defolate to die 'Sea, with- 


out Baoks or Towns, or Ship$» or Harbours : and 
when the Roman Emferor gathered Cockles there, per- 
haps there was little elfe worth gathering. But wnea 
by the nun]l>er of their People they were forc'd to 
look abroad, to triadei to fifh, to labour in Mecba^ 
nics ; they ibon found the Sweetnefs as well as the 
Toil of their ^i/i^^^r^ ; then: Succefles and Riches (till 
added new Heat to their Minds ; and thus they have 
continued i/^rm;sr^, till they have not only difgrac'd 
but terrify'd their Neigt}hours by their Inauftry. Nor 
will it fuffice to tell us, (hat 4:hey owe this A<^ivity to 
the Form of their Government. That Suppofition may 
prelently be confuted by the Example of Fnmcej the 
moft ahfolute Monarchy of ChriJienMm : There it is 
apparent by the prodigious Toils of their People, both 
ilKmche ]^arth,. and in their Shops, that Diligence niay 
thrive in a King4om as well as a Commonwealth. 

And if ever the Englijh will attain to the Maftety 
of Commerce^ not only in Difeourfcy but Reality^ they 
muft begin it by their Labours^ as well as by their 
Swords : they muft do it by awakening their Minds, 
by rouztog themlelves from this Lithargy, by Antony 
by Trialsy by fForkin^ : Unlefs this be done, they 
will in vain be Victorious : at the end of their Wars 
they will cool again^ and loie all the Fruits of their Va^ 
lour. Thiqf Arts of Peace, and their Improvements, mufl 
proceed in jequal Steps with the Succels of their Arms : 
The fVorks of : our Citizens, our Ploi^h*men, our 
Gardeners, our Wood-men, our Fiihers, our Diggers in 
Mines^ muft be equally advanced with the Triumphs 
of our Fleets ; or elfe their Blood will be fhed in vain ; 
they will loon retivn to the fame Poverty, and want 
of Tradcy which they (hove, to avoid. For as Tully 
profeffes, neminem video eloquentem fa^um ejfe vk£io* 

rid : 

424 The HlSTORTot the 

Hit: S6I Will ^afikm, tk^t we jksU never he made 
Inii^rious hy f^i6kiy^^tme. 

The ftcGuA Thing to be cfvreded i&thd Engkjh 
Humeury is an laelittatiaa w every NtiwUfy ^d V v 
nity of foreign X^tmntries^ ^sA aConkempt of the good 
Miingsof <Jur own. This Fen^fieis ik the Blual Fauttof 
young Trove Iters y but k has alfo ill Effects on Men of 
foil jige: For this they are wont to alledge the Excolc 
of good Breeding. But if we cotild not flud j or mtder- 
ftand tiur owh Country, without the Imputation of itf 
Manners, ^c^ Breeding w^re the moft perhicious 
thing in the World. For there was never yet any Nati^ 
en great, which only admirVi the Cdftoms oFothcf 
People, and wholly made tfccm the Pattern of their 
Imitation. This wancfcing and z^lk&eA Hunieiff Expe^ 
rhnents wiU leflen above aH other Indies : they wfll 
employ onr Thoughts about our native Conveitiiences : 
f bey will make us intend our Minds on what is contaki'd 
witn in our own Seas : and by confidering and band- 
ling thttn more, will aMb make them.mote worthy of 
our Confideration. 

The tbird /w^f!f^^/e7w is on the ot^r Extreme^ 
^uid that is a Horrownefi of Mmd^ and a ^fiUanimous 
confining our Thoughts to ourfelves, wlthottt: reg»d- 
ing any-thing that is foreign, or beMeying that any 
of tbeir uilrts or Cuftoms may be preftrrVi ae^re our 
own. This indeed is a Perver&ds, of wbicb the jffir- 
gtifh are not wholly to be acquitt^ : it being proper 
to IJUnds^-^in^to fuch Countries that are divided from 
the reft of the PTi^r Id. This will, be cut'd hj theef^ 
fd^al ^iBemonJh'atims that the Society wm give of 
the Benefit of a mliretfal €drreJ]^Mdenc*e and domnfu- 
nicatidH. And this, according to thdr Method, wiB 
I>e dcnte without Ming into the other Vice of affer 

3 <^ing 


6ti]ag fyt^ep. HdtitSy ^inA Manners^ mAGeftures. la 
thde the Englifi} need not be beholden to others ; 
iKit in their Fruits, in their Manufiuftures, in their En- 
gines, in thek Works in Odd, and Silver, and Btais, 
and iron, we may follow their Pradtice, and emulate 
their Curioftties without Aflediation* 

There is one Inftance which will (hew how our Re- 
aped to outiandiih Things is to be regulated. To de- 
pend on the French for every little Famion of Cloaths, 
and to equal their Nokility inth^t way of Life, is nei- 
ther for our Honoof nor Profit. For the difierence 
between their Gentry and ours, and their CM$monaU 
ty and ours, is fo great, that the fame Manners will not 
be decent in us, which become them well enough. 
Bift to learn from them their Skill in Horjemanjhif and 
uirmsj their Buildings their Cultivation of Fruit Sy the 
^arfimony and Induftry of their TradefineUy is com- 
mendable ; for in thde Things we are defective, and 
they excell. It is therefore the Admiration of foreign 
Rxtravagancesj and not the Imitation of their Epicel- 
lencies that is to be condemned. If we will rather ob- 
Ainately be content with our own Store, than borrow 
what is good from Abroad ; we flatter ourfelves with 
idle iame foolifh Imaginations, that all Countries had, 
while they were bsurbarous. To them their Acorns 
and their Cottages wsire at iiril the utmoft ends of 
their Ambition. They knew no more, nor'd to 
any farther Addition ; out as foon as a new Light fprung 
forth amongft them, they defpis'd chemi^ve^ and 
their former Condition ; and then they fki& began to 
imderft^u^ their WantSy when they perceiv'd how 
they might be fiipply'd. As long as we find that 
all parts of our Country are not; Ingeniou^ Inventive^ 
an^ Iiiduftrious alike, we cannot preiiune, that' we 

H h h have 

4^ TheBlSitdRr ifitbe^ 

by others Fattem* As loiw as we b«*»M «DQr CWji 

ckceed the woTft ol onr^i. i «il4 «*. toy ^ boft in fin* 
IliM^ bfXi^, or Vkafimtnefs and Sk)^«KbM^o^ A^tm- 
nersy we have no xeafi>a to anogiaie cw) omdiL to our 
ielvcs ; but we tatbier fhould aauxMrfi if tctbe 9, tefs 
di^race to: tftad, m that jFiiofj$i(^> ibsM «>. wmt tMr 
PeS^ioiis. As long as tlKse nonanift ao]( rofHUL 6r 
o»r moft civd f^^ir to erow aaOTe.Grt//& f:be bitottr 

but neeejfiuy ; foir fiich is tkfi. K«ntt& of GmtH^ that 
as it incrtafes, it ftill reqnises matiArffp ^^ it 
contents itfetf with Icfe-Fotms. o€.li«rii?g. 

Tike fi>«ith Miichiel by which the Gixamefii of the 
Entlifl* is r,ipprcfs\J^isa want^rf. Vnioaof X«l?<r^aod 
jijpefions. This is originaUx caus'd by. a i^ataia} Rq. 
ftiVediic&, to which oqr Tem^is ioclia'd;. but it 
lus been heightened by. bur C%c;ti^i^Moey!,.aBd, As- 
Ufims'iHftraetktu. For tbc^^sOttiie oC%b0iflea> 
tMnA. it isnocbcifc at firflstaanect andbcDnibic about 
of State, or %iritiial ContnnnBEGtf . Faecfaoib 
occafion cm AMim»^iej, and thct-niDit. they 
dfe'rubb'd, the raw«r th^- wiM protM. Bo( cbc nMit 
cffcdualRdaMdy cobe us.'4 is» ^^ ^ ajSeni^f about 
fome calmasid htdiferekt Thk^ efecciady BPOferi*^ 
utewts. In them tto'c can be no caulc ofi mtmnTiS'Ay 
0jper4ti9ns: In thcsi they, xnay agree*, ot di^Gsm ^ 
oot Fftdion or Fievceqcft:; aad ia 6ote ttBkuaag 
others, d'M^'i^y tliey maysiii^ td.aL bearing, ofidack 
others' 0^i»iM(r ; fibdm thcnqctQt.a|i.exdMf^:Q£\gbQd 
Qjl^esi from thqaee texeai /Vifai^iA.^^^Utatilaft 
by &ch a genite aod cafy ^(rtMi. vn Iwanji Im^ 

^ tanie PeaceatW^ as Mefi c^ 
oa€ hy anodbex ia the £mie Street. 

Nor is ic tih€4€«j(lCoD3mendatio(Q the J^MiaJ Sschfy 
.cUfervQSy fV^ f^i^gnii^ a XTjcvon dI* Mens rioff^ and 
he4f(ms^ it has pf oceeded ib J^ in loniditt t^e .^^« 
i^i^Gnu*: for there we unviual Smt to the 

£nglijh UatioHj -t^atMen of di^eeiog Barttes, ami 
ways of l^ife) Wc ibigcftten to bate^ and liave m^ t 
an nhe |unanimcfu$ Advancement o^ the 4aaie Wm^hs. 
^bcrethe Sal^^j the Tradefinan^ th^i4^,cbaMty^^ 
Scfjolarythc Gent lemaHythe Courtier^ l^ fZPliviiN^ the 
Tf^skjitepiafhthc ^4^ifiyt^^'l»dej^^daMt;^ t^ lihole 
of Orthodox ju^ment^ haye laid ziiAp their Barnes HDf 
rbiftindiony and <;aMv conlpir'd in a ^ntoai 4^cie- 
jnentbf Z^i&0jarjandx)4/2K^i*.* A BleHingwhich .1^^ 
^en to have exceeded tt0u:*£yang^lical&^ TtHxtt 
tbelAonnnd the Lamb Jhall iie dofutm^ogether ^ Jor 
^ece tliey .do not on^y endure each -othets PxeW:e 
withbut Vioknoe or Fear, but they ^srA suidthiMi 
in Con|pany> .and cosifer .their help to-oach others Xu- 

!!tjiB;laft|partJof the^^^40/ J&rf^i?^oF»our Htdftio/^ji. xxxix. 
Ill which! will'fiirvqr the influence vo?jE^drii»eiifcf;,JSx^^ri«f»- 
is Obedience, tp the Civil G(fvernment ; and w^ '^^'^^Sl^'^ 
to be very watchful that they prove not offenfive ^to^i^^^ 
ihcSi^reme^ower; ^iSHrlkingthtiti^^ has honoured o^^^^i^, 
them wiih his i^4/!?^4^ifw that the 

i^refyu^ati!^es 4(nisCroim ihdiil<il>e.npjloiers^by t^eir 
Increase. It is indeed a oommon Accbiationy w4iich ,1$ 
Wont to be made againlll all rnaiuier of /G«^ ,hff . 

dioie^Vho have it npr, . thatdt i«n4«rsMen njiutinpus, 
larroguir, . md ^in^paWc of f f^f ww ; ^vjt if tbiS;^ 

' Hlih X admitted 

4iS The HlSTORrof the 

admitted^ we Ihall afperfe human Nature and (hvern^ 
ment with the greateil Calumny. This were to afGrm,, 
that Men cannot exercife xhtix Reajon without bcii^ 
FdStious and VnruPy ; and that Civil Government wiu 
be infiipportable to all but ignorant Men and Fools ; 
which is fb far from being true, that it were cafy to 
prove that thoft Nations which are void of all jlrts and 
[Knowledge^ cannot be properly laid to pay a right 
Obedience to their Sovereigns ; but that the Subje- 
dion under which they live, rather deferves to be ftyl'd 
the Stupidity and Slavery of Beafts, than a juft and a 
manly Submiflion. 

But to limit this Queftidn to the particular kind . of 
Knowledge^ which is now under debate, it is certain 
that the Skill oi Nature ought {o litde to be. fiifpeded 
for making Men perverfe and ungovernably that it is 
the beft Prefervativc againft ^tjobediente. One of 
the principal Caufes of this is a mi^ided Con/cience^ 
and oppofing the pretended DidJfates of God^ againft 
the Commands of the Sbvereign\ ' This I have alrea- 
dy Ihewn, that thele Labours will moderate and reform 
by aboliihing or reftraining the Fury of Enthujiajm- 
Another is idle Poverty, which drives Men, into Sul- 
lennels. Melancholy, EWfcontenr, and at lad into refi- 
fiance of law ful Authority . To this Experiments wiH 
afford, a certain Cure ; they will take away all pre- 
tence of rdlencls, by a conftant courfe of pieafant En- 
deavours ; riiey will employ Men about profitable 
PTorks^ as wpll ais dj^ligbtjiil ; by the Plealure of their 
"Dijtoveries they will wear off'^thc Roughnefs, and 
fweeten the humorous Peevifhnefs of Mitm, whereby 
miany are fowr'd into Rebellion. 

But the moft fruitftd Parent of JV^//Vi(?» is Pr/*, 
and a lofty conceit of Meni oynnWifdom ; whereby 

- they 

R OTALIS^ act E.TT. 4*5> 

tbey ]preiehdy imagine thomiHves fiifficieiitto dijced 
and cenfure all the A£tt(ms of their Governors. And 
here that is true in Chik Affairs^ which I have already- 
quoted out of my Lord Bacon concerning !Dm>r^ ; A 
little : Knowledge • is fubje<3: to Jtnake Men headftrong^ 
iafblent, and untradiahle ; but a g^eat deal has a quite 
contrary Efle<^, inclining them to be iiibmifliye to their 
Betters^ and obedient to the Sovereign Tower. 

The Science that is acquir'd by Titjputatiifn^ teaches 
Men to cavil well, and to find ^ult with accurate 
Subtilty; it gives them a learlefs Confidence of their 
own Judgments ; it leads them from contending in 
Sport, to Oppositions inearaell; it makes them be* 
li^ve that evciy thing, is . to be handled for and^agamft, 
in the ^tate^ as well as in i^ Schools. Bat. the un- 
feign'd and laborious Thllofofhy gives no Countenance 
to vhe vain Dotages of private 7^//firiui^i? ; that bends 
its ^ifcifles to regard the Benefit, of Mankind, an4 
not the Difquiet ; thaf by- the Moderdtion it prdcribes \ ; 4 . 
to bur Thoughts ikio\& ,N(iiuralTbings^ wiiluUb ta^e >^ 
away aU iharpne& aftd violence ^bout Civil; the '*- 
J^ork of that is fb vail, that it cannot be performed 
without the Afliftance of the Trince ; it will not there- 
fore undermine his jiuthority^ whoie.Aid it implores ; 
that preicribes a better way to beftow our time, than 
in contending about little Diflerences, in which both 
the Conquerors and the Conquered have always rear 
ion to repent of , their Succds ; that ihews^ii^ the diffir 
culty of orderkig the very Motio)is of. lejifclefe/and 
irrational .Things ; and therefore how /muqjb hard^ > \t 
is to rule the reftldls Minds ef Mm' ; that teaches Men 
Humility^ and acquaints themwith their own £rr^rx; 
and To removes ail overweening Hai^htijieis of Mindv 
and fweUinglm^nations, that they;; axe x better a|>]^ 


4^ m DISTORT 4 ^^ 

t^ <iiaiige «^f^itB klflM -ttidfe «to pbiffi& -dMk 
I'hi^ \vft%<Mft AodRriMi, is «fae ckidf Root of ill tttaetar* 
eniifii^s «f •$'i^>/^ CO -ilidr ^Vwr^. The W<mU 
\ltio\AA ht %«t& ^i»&V]> ^ ifo tta»f did not f(rt> 

^eM^. IHo^reffitXft «f tike L»w is iddlstry : thb 
Rifajon of Metts cbtteeai^ oil JimftUam$ uaA 
ToweryfttiC^^ fitWnHhefr >iMiKiftg their tftv^i #1nr ^ 
tSiiey ihi^ tkeir o^w^ ^jwdeace diiiiii^f»Mdftc ; ckcjr 
f^ip^iolethemftlYte ir^iUb1e% theyftcu]^ tiiefrtfd^ 
6^iW/<Mr, Ittid W«»rdiip tbetti. Bdc efais v^ iTWMM^ 

T^ch itt it Is'ih ^Mi{^ (to litttnKMKa: tfiif (fliTe • «SiQKr. 

Sea. XL. 9 <H A V E Ji«^^t klftt)fMt^ttyfl<eiiderty a «9d(- 
7i^Comib-to|:GiMlipH&,4:6'theeiid<«f obr |o«tnftiy> : ^^ ^eth 
P^* being al4li^Mtm ^to 1«dk IXicSe^ sidl^ 'nisjfce li(R^II<)iftio& 
Vtieral Rt- ^ ^jj^ IVIattefS df ^Ottcli 'I fcttvc <tre&led. «ii thfe Hftk 

^ ''^^ Which thefe iVxMlttpf wete fttpftfcfis'd iM tiil >fi>An(ir 

'^ 'J^s^i whi<ih'hkv^eetilifte#dll5«f ($>i^«i:beiVi{tfidnce 

of ^i()(^^i^ii^,^t$fe't^l;iu^e y^^es'of Slf^^iHf,' the ^tf. 

fe'Wi^ fif^tlie fOndm^H^Sy ^ah^ihe Mnfait<tff ^'^ed^o^ 
:dmade tif^Bficfirminfits. 4a'ihe ^etiotidt^tf^fli^w'd 
By Whta Sfef^s the^4/^(^^#(^(y afdib, t(4)at-it'fa»t>io- 
j^'d t6 tttt^di^t, i^hiKiC^diMe ithhs fai^ii'to Ittlte 
\t&'^Jii^)iei&nsvtme^^6iii\f^^tmXi wfattt (»fi> 
Atti'ce -hib >l>€$to ^fTdiiled it to tb^t Vlvpttft, 4idH ibdt^ 
^h&tl%«icQl^fs(iti»is''1>eto^dii<^i^a^t. "In this^tbMt 
th^^ t^d tbift(9e 'it^fiom (he 'J^fe' Scsmefols of >/#iiv- 

4 to 


f»])ii9v«tlM( its fiflbasvaitt nfia^tmianftditHtHy nf9 
to ovm own Counts^. 

My- Rcadw turn bohokts an AiTfoibly ftttM' «f 
many eoiatnt l/i«\ of lU <QnaUcifB» wIka h^Ytn^jf^i 
to\MSI»w chetf La^ozs oa i 6tc£gfx fo pujUtoi^ ind fb 
S^ 6om dl Sii^icioBof meaii or pEivaiQt lM3ar«flb. 
What Fboadatioa dMy: ka«e wiiiiii^ ihASiftife^ % 

prefent amosMS veiy near c^ liwa £bi^i4.i ^ nfc 
The ^wrV Maj^fty, ft«p»i*r and -P*^ 

Hi$ I^pH Highi?e6 the iRfifeof i^f A, '/ ^ 

^lis Highnffs Prince (?{,»je^r<. 
His HigWe^ Ferigrmi 4hrA* Xh*h of 
fiMM^ii'M and ii^MTftiby!^ . ; . . 

« \ 

• > ft « 

.\''V .i I" / 

Earl^of Ar^iUythe Lord-Afbity^ ^^ £*rdi Muejfy, 
Mr. Afimoky Sir iSo^^rr .^iIS^Hiim^ Mr. Amfiin^ Mont 
jiitaout^'^i.Anilnfmt-. -.'-'. ,• •, -/^ ....'. 

the Lord Breret^n^ Mtv Bofnaiy Mr. Bafm^I^t' H^il^ 
iiam Balte, Mr. i/2t<w BafrfiWy Dr. Gterge Bt^e^ Dtf. 
Bathurfti Dr. ^M^Monf. Beaufiftet4UJFyafiufsfiii Jabm 
Birkenhead, Mr. BhHt'J^.BtyJ^, Brot^t^BK^t^ 
Monf BuUiaUiu^ Mr, J^mv^^ Sic EHHkintBy/te'. 

"the hovd'j&eh^iJk«^ of CattM^ihtiyLi .ihp' 
CiareMdm,l.Ofd-ChMHeeifitr' o£ ^r/fW^itfaetEatiof 
Cwifky the Earl of Cf^/W^ aad Xia^^^ the: Zjord 
C4%rd7i<^j9^thfiLofdCi^^Mr.(;M^ (Oaxtunet. 


Sk Clifford Clifton, Mr. George Cock, Sir Richard Cor- 
het. Dr. Cottont Dr. Cox, 'b/ti. Thmat Cox, Mr; darnel 
CoXi Mr. Creed, Mr. Crijhei Sir John Ckter. 
■■ The Marquefk of^Dorcoefier^hc taaiafDevoMfifire, 
die Earl of ^or/et, Monf. Vitnlde Damds, SixGeorge 
Ent, Mr. Elltjfe, Mr. 3^© A» EvefyrifSvt Francis Fanf, 
MorS. le Fehvre, Sir Jo/Sir Finch, Mx.HeMty Ford, Sk 
SembardGaJmgne, Mr. jfio/e^h.Glsnvi^, t)r. ^/(/S 
/8«, Mr. Jf^i}liam Godo^hin, Mr. Graunt. 
" '^ The Lord Tiattm, Mr. /T^it ^, Mi". WiUiami. Ham- 
mond,Mx,WiUiam Harrington, Svt Edward Harley, 
Sit Robert Harley, Mr. Harley, Dr. Henfl>aw,M6aC 
Hevel$u*, "Mxr^hriihamHill^ Mr Hoar, Dr.Holder, 
Mr. Hooi, Mf , Charles Howard, MonT Huygens. 

Mr. Richard Jones, the Earl of Kincardin, Sir^«- 
^/r^te/ iir/«^, Mr. Edmund King, ikit Earl of Lindfey, 
the LordBifliop of London, Mr. Z>^t/^e,Sir £//^j' Leigh- 
ton,Mr. James Lonf, Sir J'oi&ii Lowthfr, Mr, Lawther, 
Monf Hugnes de Lyonne. 

. The fiari x>{ManchefteriMxyr£. NichoUs Mercator, 
Dr. il(/«r<?. Dr. Jajper Nleedham, Dr. Needham, Mr. 
Thomas Neile, Mx.WilUam Neile, Mr. NeUhorp, 
Mr. Newburgh, Sir Thomas Nqtt, the Earl of SP^f^rr 
,*«r^*^ Mr,yiW'i^, Mr. Satmel T^ker, Sir Robert 
■Tafion,. Dr. >»« Tear fin. Dr. Tell, Sir William Ter- 
fail. Sir TeterTett, Mx.TeterTett, Motif. Tetit^ 
&xWilliam Tortman, Mr. Francis Totter, Mr. ^o- 
<v^, Dr, jP<m/#rySir RichardTowle, Mr. Te$ys. 

irhtLordRobertsLorA Tr ivy Seal, the Lord BiAop 
tiiRoch^eriMr. Rolt, Mr. Rycaut, the Earl efSand- 
!wich, the Lord Vifcouijt Stafford, ri»e Lord Stermonty 
JMr. Schroter,S\xJames Shaen, Mr, Skiff on. Sir Nicho- 
las Slaney^Mt. Henry Slingsby, '^.Smethwick, Mr. 
4 Edward 

JtOrAL SOCIETr. ^ 4J-5 

Edi^ardSpnthjJ>r. George SmithyMq^^^ Sir 

Jlo^eri Southwelly Mr. Alexander Stanho^e^ Mr, Tho^ 
mas. Stanley. 

\ The Ezrlof Twe^Jale^ Sir GllbertTalbot^ Sir^oh» 
Talbot y Dr. Terne^ Mr. Thomas Thyn^ Dr. Thrufton^ Sir 
Samuel Tuke^ Sir Thefidore^ de Vauxj Mr, Vermuyden^ 
MovS.IfaacVojfflus. . 

' The Lord Bijhojf^ of mnchepry Mr. fTaller, Dn 
^^///V, Mr. JVaterhoufe, Pn JVhifiler, Mr. >y?>6 
fVilliamfon^ Dr. JVilllsy Mr. Francis Willoughbyy Mr. 
>^;W, Mr. fFinthorp^ Mr. Woodford^ Mi. Matthew 
Wren^ Dr. Thomas PFren^ Sir Cyril fFyche^ Six Teter 
Tfychey Mr. -^/</(?, the Lord Arcb-BiJho£ of Tir/^, 
the Lord Tejier. 

The prefent Council are th'efe that follow : 
William Lord yifcoimt Brouncker^ Prcfident ; which 
Office has teea annually renewed to him by Eledion^ 
bat of the true Judgment which the Society has made 
br his great Abilittes in all Natural^ and elpecialTy 
Mathematical Knowledge. 

, Mr. WilliamAerskin^ Dr. y^^^r uB^//, Dr. Timothy 
ClerkyMr. "DanielColwallyTiT.Croony thcLord Bijhc^ 
o£Exetery Dr. Jonathan Goddard^ Mr. Henry How- 
ard oi Norfolk^ Mr. Henjhaw^ Mr^ Hoskins^ Sir i?^- 
i^^r/ Moray^ Sir Anthony Morgan^ Dr. Merret^ the 
Earl of Northampton^ Sir ,P^«/ iNTl?/^', Mr. 0/^/^»- 
^^r^y&. Sir William Tetty, Dr. 5P^/^, Dr. Wilkinsj 
Dr. Chrijlojph'er Wren, 

. Ju this number perhaps there may Ibme be found,' 
whole Employments, will not give them leave to pro- 
mote thefe Studies with their own Handi. But it 
tefpg their Part to contribute )oyxit\Y towards the 
Charge'^ and to'pafsj^^^^^/r/ on what, others IJialf 
Z;^ ; they 'will appear to be well-nigh a^ ulefiit as 

Hi -^ thofe 

434 riemSTORTcf *%9 

Wintertf ItPotnue'^ttf^ioA ni& by iHs or W]^ 
other means, di^ iatend thereby to makeui 13Sai)bm» 
ttkctt ftn tfadr Curstvrs. In this Office they have 
jdready admitted fbaie of tihek feUbwi^ wbQm the^ 
will «mplGiy ^cooiding to their Smdies iuid 5S^ 
rinrr^ ; Some fhall be ient to travel abrbad to fbatch 
^T ^ijhveries ; fcmeftall coAfbntly itmsdn in Ltm- 
im, aod r(;pteieift their 'Obfiroatims to die wedd]^ 

The Waccs of Aeir HefidenctiSity have appoitftedt 
to be two : one a CoSegty which they defign to buHd 
in Loniibni to ferve ^ their iVJ^r^rmtj^^, thdr Lobars^ 
torses, thek Re^ofitory, their Library, and the Los- 
ings for their Gfcr««irj .^ The otherthe Cb//;pf ^ at C5&f A 
Tly^ which the lt/»? has beftow'd oa them ; \9htt^ 
they have a laige Inaoforeto fefvt fbt aQ Ex^er'tments- 
ti^ardenhtg a&d J!grinitwn\ acid by the neighbour- 
hood of the kivermc^ have excellttit Opportunity of 
making all Trials that belong to the ^ater. 

And now a$ I have i^ken of a Soriefy ibat prefers 
^oris before H^$riSy lb it becomes their fSpry to 
endeavdtir after real Ihitits and Sfe^s. ' I will thett- 
foreconclude, by recotomending. again this 'OHJer-^ 
tahitg to the EngMjb Nation ; to the iravejf Teopkg 
the m<^^6nerous 'DeJ^gn ; to the moft zealous Lovers 
bf Liberty, the fiitcft Way to ranfom the ^iCudS of 
all Mankind firom Slavery. 

The Pfiviiedges diatom Kin^s Dominions enj(^ for 
this End, appear tb be equaled by no other fSmtffry, 
The Mefi that we have now living to employ> are ex- 
cellently fiimiih'd with all manner of A^d» : Their 
Method is abeady ihded, andplac'd out of the reach 
of Calumny ot Contradi^n, 


RarAL sotiETr 435 

Cdmifible, what it t$ cfm^er'd ia (jy<^ : Bw tb«y 

fiHrtek. . Thq| luye ftswu 19 ibc Woyld tMs, g^r^aK 
Secie^ Thtt ^bikji^ ovght not only to be atteiK^ 
«d byt kledk CQinpaD]r ^ rfjkfd^fkfifs. As cb^y 
4efipe riiar its Prowi&iQnjS ItouM b^^w^^'t ^ cb«y 
dilfb declare diac they may be prooiPte^ t^ iw^^^r 
f^<n!ri£r. They ex«£t att extr^fmyiiMy PreMn^cieAft 
ofUarniftr ; to bsvft &«adt ^ei^/^ and Tri^lt I9 with 
thcaa afamdent QoaUfieatifm. Hercis eQ9ggh Bon 
ftneis for AHmdt of all Sixes ; And fe b€mftdte£l i5 tb« 
Variety of thefe StnAtfy that bet^ is alib eoonig^ Oe-< 
light to recompeace the Labours of dicm all, ftoist tb(Q 
moft ordinary Capacitiea^ tothehi^gecftandm^ftaidbh 

Here firft they may take »plain View of ^ pairif 
cular Things, their Kinds» their Oider> thoir F^cek 
their Place, their Motion : aod even this oaked nor 
fpe& cannot but fiil their Thoi^MS wiA mich Sati^ 
^on, feeaie it was the fiift ^caiure which the Sofipdtrt 
relates G^^hinsielf to have taken ac the drtt^wt t aod 
that not only oaxxy bnt at the end o£ every Days 
Work, when he iaw all diat he had mule* and ap- . 
pro¥*d it to be good. From tJus they auf ptoccnd 
to fiirvey the Difference of iAmx OmetpQVSMOt iksk 
'SMeSe^ tbe lafbvnems of their Boiogs and Ii?eafc 
the Subtilty and Strodiite,. dM! Decay and Samily of 

their Pares; whefciikhowlai^tStlK^iaceQf fheirDt^ 
Jig^t, fed^ the very Shape of a NRti^ and ^ fitiog of 
ft ^f# ^pears fi> ptod^oi:^ From bcDce tbey wgr gt 
•o apply- Things togeoiqr,^ to make! them weak oae 
tipORaadtfaer, to imilMe thieir .PnoK^udklQns^ tQ hel^ 
ifteir DtftdSy and with the aofaieft Dnty to a/Sft Nk- 

\. Hi % ture. 

4;tf The HISTOKT of ihe^ 

turey our common Mother, in her Operatiims ;: fibm 
benee to aU the works of Mens hands, the divers Ans 
tifices of leverai j^gesy the yarious Materials^ the im^ 
provement 6f Trades^ the advancement of Ma»ufa^ 
€ittr€s\ in which laft alone there is to be found fb 
great Content, that many mighty Princes of the fbraier 
axKi prefent Times, amidft the pieaiures of Government i 
which arie no doubt the higheft in the World^. have 
ftrivcn to excel in fome Manual Artr. 

In this Ipacious Field their Obfervations may wan- 
der, and in this Whatever they Ihall meet withj they 
jftiay call their own. Here thej^ will not only enjoy 
the cold contentment of Learnings but that which is 
Ikr greater, of ^i/tovering. Maay Things that have 
been hitherto hidden, willarife and expofe. themfelvea 
to their view ; many Methods of advancing whaa 
we have already, will come in their way ; nay, even 
many of the loft Rarities of Antiquity will be hereby 
reftor'd. Of thcfe a great quantity has been over-* 
whelm'd intheirainsof T/)Krr; and they willfooaec 
fee retrieved by oar labouring anew in the material 
JSubjcds whence they foft arofe, than by our plod- 
ding everlaftingly on the antient fTritings. Their 
Inventions may be fooneft regained the fame way by 
which their Medals^ and Coins hai^e beea found ; of 
which the greaceft part has been jrecovtr'd, not by 
tbofe wha fought for them on pmpole . ia old E^ubbiiOb^ 
but by diggingtip Foundations to ta&new Buildii^s^, 
and by plowing the.Ground to fow new Seed. 

This is'^ the iflTe^ri' we^propofe to be encourag'c^ 
whicbat oncesegards the cUicovering q£ nm Secrets^ 
^md the pofifymg and repairing, all the profitable 
Thmgs of jMtiquify. The Supply that; is bc^dftl to 
fijoiib Tiy. will /ndthef impoveriin Eamijie$>: npr. exr 

1^ hauft. 

. \ 

ROTAL S.Q,ClETr. ^jj. 

hand a mighty Income. So near is .Mankind to its 
Happinefs^ that fo great an Attempt may be plentifiUr 
ly endowed by a fmail part of what is fpent on apiy 
one fmgie Liift, or *extrav^;anc Vanity of the Time* 
So moderate is the Society in their defires of Affiftanee^ mucheharity as is.b^ow'd in England in one! 
Year^ for the^ relief of particular Poverty and Difea- 
fcs, were enough for ever to fiiftain a T>ejign^ which 
endeavours to give Aid a^iijft all the Infirmities and 
Wi^tsoS human Nature^ 

If now this Enterprise :^4i cIkhicc to fail for want 
of T atronage Mijd Re:yenuey iht World will not only 
be fruftrated of their prefent Expedations; but will 
have juft ground to deipair of any future Labours^ to- 
wards the increale of the J^aUf&^WhihJdphy. If our . 
^ofterity ihall find, that an IpfiitutsM lb • vigoroufly. 
b^un, and fi> flrengchen'd by many fignal Advanta-) 
gcs, could not fiipport itlelf ; they will have r*eafbn' 
in all. times to conclude, That the long barrennefs of 
Knowledge was not caused by the corrupt Method 
which was taken, but by the Nature of the Thing it- 
felf This will be the laft great Endeavour that will 
be made in this way, if this Ihall prove inef?e(fhial ;. 
and fb we fhall not only be guilty of our own Igno^ 
rance^ but of the Errors of all thole that come af- 
ter us. 

But if (as I rather believe andprefage) our Nati- 
on fhall lay hold of this Opportunity, to deferve 
the applaufe of Mankind, the forccL of this Example 
will be irrefiftiWy prevalent in all Countries round: 
about us ; the State of Chriftendom will fbon obtain ar 
new Face : whilethis Halcyon Knowledge is breeding, 
all Temjpejis will ceafe ; the Opjpofitions and Conten- 
tious Wranglings. of Science^ faflly fb called, wiU fooa 


4}^ ntfiisraRrof the, &c. 

vui^ «ir«y ; cb« peaceable rahmirtft of Mcqs 3^0^* 
mmAr wla hstre adnurtble infticnce oa tbecr Htm* 
i(0iv 1 ^e fipceriiy of their VM^^dmUngs wiil ap, 
pear in t^eir jWi^f j tbdi^ Opim<mt will be k& xio* 
Intend dogmstka^ but mote ccitaia ; theywiUooljF 
be Godf eme to aH>tlie5 and not fVtiva ; the vsJntt 
erf* their jirts will be elleem'd by the great TTtimf 
tiwfpcHbna, and not bj Aofe they ftieak : While me 
«ld 'Fhihjbfb*^ could only at the hen pretend to the 
Portion of Nepthali, to give gaodP^ 'words, tbe New 
"Will hare the Heiffic^5 of Jo^k the younger and the 
belov'dSon; It jhali he like a frnitfki Sottgh, even 
a fruitful Bomgh ky a Weil wbaje Brauches rum 
over the H^'aU : It fiaU hanje the Bie^ags of HttKoat 
ak&vey the Bteffings tff the ^eef that lies nuSrr, tho 
BU^Hgi of the Sreap and of the 1¥om& .- Wliile the 
Old could only bellow on us Ibme barren Terms and 
Notions, the New fhall impart to ns the liies of all the 
Creatures, and fliall enridi us with aU the Benefits of 
Prmtfitlm^ and "Bknt^.