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'i* I .■ ii. - ' i' 











The period has passed away forever when the once philosophic 
sentence — " A thousand years scarce serve to form a State " — could be 
used with propriety. The same may now be said of history. The busy 
activities of our days, the march of progress, the wonderful advances 
of science and art, contribute to the realization of ideas, and crowd into 
a period of fifty years a greater number of remarkable and important 
events than fifty decades of olden times in the Old World could offer to 
the chronicler. Therefore the compilation of history is not only justi- 
fiable, but also essentially necessary. It is the enduring record of years 
that can only through it be rA:alled, of men who will be honored 
by the American manhood of this and coming generations. 

This work is devoted to the people of Saginaw county, with the 
exception of the first part, the history of Michigan. It is distinctively 
local, and as such must be considered a magnificent record of an 
enterprising people. The work of the American Pioneers of the 
county extends over only half a century. Within that time they have 
raised it from its primitive condition to the rank of one of the first 
divisions of the State — cultivated its wild lands, built its villages and 
towns, and brought into existence two beautiful cities, of which the 
Union may be proud. They transmuted the valley marsh into firm 
earth, and decorated the river banks with factories — each a hive of 
human industrv, a monument to earnest and well directed labor. It is 
difificult to point out precisely the names of those who have contributed 
most to this result: all share in the prosperity of the county, and take 
a special pnde in its advancement; each one has experienced the 
luxury of doing good, and feels that life is not now a mere shadow or 
a dream. The anxieties and alarms attendant on the life of the pio- 
neers have been changed to certainties and happy greetings. Those 
who saw the primeval forest waving over the land, lived on through 
the days of its destruction to see the clearings covered with the houses 
of merchants and manufacturers, or the fields and homes of a pros- 
perous people. They wear the honors which justly belong to them; 
while those who died are not forgotten in their long sleep. They 
beheld the budding desires of younger days expand into the flower, 
and, seeing, went to the undiscovered land beyond the grave, leaving 
their memories and their acts to be carried down the stream of time. 

In these pages an effort has been made to treat the history of the 
county in a full and impartial manner. Doubtless a few inaccuracies 
may have crept in; but such must be attributed to other causes than 
the carelessness of the compilers. In regard to the pages devoted to 
personal history, the publishers exjxjnded a large sum of mouey vtv 
having each biographical sketch submitted to him of whom \l v^3i% 


written, for addition, abridgment or correction; so that if errors occur 
in this section of the work the party immediately concerned must 
attach all blame to himself. It will be evident throughout that the 
writer of the county history as well as the gentlemen who collated the 
personal sketches, have realized the simple fact of undeserved praise 
being disguised satire. In some instances this realization may have 
led to a too brief notice of many highly deserving men; but where 
praise was manifestly due it is given regardless of ideal character. 

The plan of the work is specially adapted to a great record book. 
All things pertaining in general to the State are dealt with in the in- 
troductory pages; the county history is carried down from the first 
Otchipwe invasion of the Valley, and treats very fairly every subject 
of general interest to the people ; so with the two cities, they have been 
very liberally sketched, while each township has just sufficient notice 
given it to render its history up to the present time a most valuable 
heirloom for the future. 

The cooperation extended to the writers was certainly not so general 
as it should have been. Conceding that the business interests claim 
almost all the attention of these citizens, whose connection with the 
county extends over many yeai*s, and who are fully qualified to be 
authority on many historical matters, they should not forget that other 
duties attach to their positions, nor neglect to contribute their knowl- 
edge of the past to pages intended for the instruction of the present 
and future. 

Of the number who assisted in rendering the labors of the writers 
comparatively light, are Geo. F. Lewis, Col. C. V. DeLand, Edward 
Cpwles, Dr. M. C. T. Plessner, W. R. McCormick, Dan P. Foote, 
Mrs. Eleazer Jewett and Mrs. N. D. Lee. To Charles Doughty, 
United States Land Register; Frederick B. Sweet, County Clerk; 
Thos. M. Busby, Deputy Co. Clerk; Alex. Ferguson, Co. Treasurer; 
and A. Zwerk, Registrar of Deeds, our thanks are offered for the 
manner in which the valuable and well-kept records of their offices 
were placed at our disposal, as well as for official courtesies extended 
on every occasion. Prof. M. A. Leeson, the historian, and his assistant, 
Damon Clarke, deserve special mention for the faithful and energetic 
labor put forth in the writing and compilation of this work. 

In this, as in other counties, we are conscious that our promises to 
the people have been honorably observed in every respect. We have 
brought out into sunlight many gems of local history which were sleep- 
ing previously in oblivion; we have snatched fugitive thoughts from 
the brink of their tombs; brought before the people, as a mirror, men 
and events long since passed away, and succeeded beyond measure in 
doing justice to Father Time in his half century's transactions with the 
settlers of the Saginaw, as well as to the settlers themselves, and the 
people of the present. Conscious of all this, we ask only a full, earnest, 
and impartial review of all the chapters of this work, before your 

Chicago, August, 1881. C. C. Chapman & Co. 





Mannen iiui' GuBtoms" ' 


close at tbe war 


^dmlnlstiBtloii ot Oen. Cass. . . 

Stale TJnlvBrBlW , 

StaM Nonnal Scbool 

ABrtcuitural College 

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Cliartlaljle Institutions 

StatePubllc Scbool 

Btate Rerorm School 

InstlcutrloD for tbe Deal anil Domlt, ani 

tHe Bllpfl 

Aarlum tor tbe Insane, at Kalamazoo... 

'■ •' " ■' " PoDtlac 

Penal InatltuClouB 

SlaW Agricnltnral socletj 

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State Board ol Public H 

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Towwrapby. . . . 
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Indian Camp ll 

Tbe XtnlgnntB. ii 



TreatTof Detroit..,. , u 
Hilrat Dance Betore 

Tbe Dog Feast.!!!!!.!! u 

Treatr ol Saginaw n 

second Treatj- witb 

llifl SaflnawB ii 

Treaty M 1838. ii 

TteatroriVH l( 

Scbookratt's Trtctery, IE 


Couriers d« 



'Plret .<innu^ Meeting, 173 
Reminiscences b; Hon. 
W. R. Mccormicl:.., 180 

Recor(ia,MeiiieDUn,etc, Vj» 
— 1 Ploneere ot tbe 


Retrospecl 2 


MENT , * 


Era ot Territoriai 

Store Prices in 18SI-i,. aao 

Season 01 Slclcneea Ka 

Belgnol Small-pox..., asi 

Tornado Its 

Dies InfauBliia MS 

Tbe BlKSnow M4 

A Mewor Us 

'Olt-Slafers ot Bagi- 

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Forest Fires • 

First celebration In the 


Tbe Surrogugeon Court at 
Tbe Lawyer and tbe 

Minister.... •. 2te 

Reminiscence ot 1816, , , ■xa 
Tbe Docuir'B Man 2M 

MaklOgaLerei MS 

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can War 
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Pbe rndliui 






Arcbieolog]' . 

. Cbaracterls- 

Tlie WkWr CoursPB ... '^ 

Saginaw Valley -i 


LocaUns die CO. seat., soi 
Saginaw Townahlp Or- 

janlzed 3(b 

CbaoKeoC Boundair.. to* 

OlKMlluUOD or Ull! CO. 309 

Early Heuord OC Super- 

vlBOni' Court soa 

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UunlcIpiLl Brlctlets ... »J7 
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TowIlBlllpBOItIl(^ Pant. 30S 
County CommlsalonerH 


second Keiiiiliin..;.^! .i 

The Emerson Mill s 

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nawand TrUjutiirTea 

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Election Returns. ■ii 




BWtorleal BrledetB.... M 
East Saglaaw Llgbt 

Military KBBOurceB o 


etatistlraof lSi«..'.V.V, aoi 

flHk and Hquare Tim- 

Woods ^ 



"'" erned Govern, a 

MBnufacturlnK Ci> 

First Salt Well 

SUDaeqaent Enipi 

statistics tor ISIO .. 

Flrat Oouoty Fair. * 

Saginaw tnaUtul« 1 


Fir^Sreax an Marked by 

Hocelpta and Expendl- 

LanU I' Ddtrr Ouluvatlou 

aadCropa 41 

ropulallon K 

Indiana U 

School census *t 

MiuTlafff KeconI « 


Saginaw Journal t 

TUB NOrtU Star. * 

Saginaw Enierprue... * 
Sa^aawRcpubtletn.-. * 

saiHuaw Herald * 

TlieCOWIer 4 

Evenlntr KxprMB * 

Saginaw Valley News i 

Saglnswlan 4 

Haglnaw Zellong * 

Tlwllutie Saginaw 

Abend zeltuug 1 

CUesanlng Pap^ * 

Oatlej- Cyclone 1 


Jllton I8« Mailon 8U 

in 791 RlcUland WT 

iQlng TM Spalding mi 

Kenmatb k3S si. cttartes 9oi 

ont M£ Swan Creek nt 

a M» Taymoutb *il 

ineia 841 Thomoaiown ess 

vllle S5S Tlttamwaanee •*« 

Held MS Zllwaukae »7 


(uenaMala .. 

Hap ol Saginaw County. 
HleroglyplilcB ot ( 


La Salle Landing at I 

Moutnot St. Josepli River 20 
Indians Attacking Pron- 


sen. Artbur St. Clair 1 

Trapping * 

Tecumacli B 

Pontine ( 

HunUng Prairie Wolves In 


Stale Public Bcbool, 

Cbapmau, oeorge W.... 
Chapman. Wellington, , . 

Cook, LIllT 

Darling, James 

;4onliwood, John.., 
ODonnell, Edward... 

Hoeser. William.... 

Savage, Isaac 

Sliattuck Samuel.. 





S cir- 
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fe from 

t with 

A what 
II her 




{that a 
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Michigan I If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look around yon,in 
Michigan. Every visitor at St. Paul's church, London, is over- 
awed with the magnificence of that structure, the work of Sir Chris- 
topher Wren. He wants to know where the remains of Wren ai'e 
now; in the crypt of the church they lie, where the following is 
engraved upon the headstone: Si monumeiUunb requirts^ circuni' 
spice, — If you seek a monument [of Wren], look around [and behold 
the work of bis brain in this mighty building]. The State of Mich- 
igan has appropriately adopted for her motto this expression, with 
a slight alteration, thus: Si qu(Br\s peaint^ulam amcBnam^ cir- 
cumspice^ — If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look around you. And 
indeed Michigan may as justly feel proud of its resources as Oreat 
Britain, of St. Paul's church, — ^yea, and infinitely more. What 
with her substantial foundation in agriculture throughout the 
southern counties, in horticulture throughout the lower peninsula, 
and especially the fruit belt alono^ her western boundary, in piner- 
ies in the central portion of the State, and with her crown of iron 
and copper in the upper peninsula, tipped with silver, she stands 
the real queen of the utilitarian world. 

It is a pleasure to write the history of such a State. Contrast 
this pleasant task with writing and studying the histories of States 
and empires which we have been taught to ponder and revere from 
our youth up, histories of European countries cobwebl)ed with 
intrigue, blackened with iniqiiity and saturated with blood. What 
a standing, practical reproof Michigan is to all Europel and what 
a happy future she has before her, even as compared with all lier 
sister States! 

Now let's to our chosen task, and say first a few words concern- 
ing the prehistoric races, observing, by the way, that the name 
" Michigan " is said to be derived from the Indian Mitchisawg- 
yegariy a great lake. 


The numerous and well-authenticated accounts of antiquities 
found in various parts of our country clearly demonstrate that a 
people civilized, and even highly cultivated, occupied the broad sur- 
face of our continent before its possession by the present Indians; 



but the date of their rule of the Western World is so remote that 
all traces of their history, their progress and decay, He buried in 
deepest obscurity. Nature, at the time the first Europeans came, 
had asserted her original dominion over the earth; the forests were 
all in their full luxuriance, the growth of many centuries; and 
naught existed to point out who and- what they were who formerly 
lived, and loved, and labored, and died,onthecontinent of America. 
This pre-historic race is known as the Mound-Builders, from the 
numerous large mounds of earth-works left by them. The remains 
of the works of this people form the most interesting class of 
antiquities discovered in the United States. Their character can 
be but partially gleaned from the internal evidences and the 
peculiarities of the only remains left, the mounds. They consist 
of remains of what were apparently villages, altars, temples, idols, 
cemeteries, monuments, camps, fortifications, pleasure grounds, etc., 
etc. Their habitations must have been tents, structures of wood, 
or other perishable material; otherwise their remains would be 
numerous. If the Mound-Builders were not the ancestors of the 
Indians, who were they'll The oblivion which has closed over them 
is so complete that only conjecture can be given in answer to the 
question. Those who do not believe in the conimon parentac^ of 
mankind contend that they were an indigenous race of the West- 
ern hemisphere; others, with more plausibility, think they came 
from the £ast, and imagine they can see coincidences in the religion 
of the Hindoos and Southern Tartars and the supposed theology of 
the Mound-Builders. They were, no doubt, idolators, and it has 
been conjectured that the sun was the object of their adoration. The 
mounds were generally built in a situation affording a view of the 
rising sun; when enclosed in walls their gateways were toward the 
east; the caves in which their dead were occasionally buried always 
opened in the same direction; whenever a mound was partially 
enclosed by a semi-circular pavement, it was on the east side; when 
bodies were buried in graves, as was frequently the case, they were 
laid in a diret^tion east and west; and, finally, medals have been 
found representing the sun and his rays of light. 

At what period they came to this country is likewise a matter of 
speculation. From the comparatively rude state of the arts among 
them , it has been inferred that the time was very remote. Their 
axes were of stone. Their raiment, judging from fragments which 
have been discovered, consisted of the bark of trees, interwoven 
with feathers; and their military works were such as a people 
would erect who had just passed to the pastoral state of society 
from that dependent alone upon hunting and fishing. 

The mounds and other ancient earth-works constructed by this 
people are far more abundant than generally supposed, from the fact 
that while some are quite large, the greater part of them are small 
and inconspicuous. Along nearly all our water courses that are 
large enough to be navigated with a canoe, the mounds are almost 
invariably found, covering the base points and headlands of the 


blttSs which border the narrower vallevs; so that when one finds 
himself in each poeitione as to command the grandest views for river 
scenery, he may almost always discover that he is standing apon, 
OF in close proximity to, Bome one or more of these traces of the 
labors of an ancient people. 

The Mound-Bnilder was an early pioneer in Michigan. He wae 
the first miner in the upper peninsula. How he worsed we do not 
know, bnt he went deep down into the copper ore and dug and 
raised vast quantities, and probably transported it, but just how or 
where, we cannot say. The ancient mining at Isle Royale,in Lake 
Superior, has excited amazement. The pits are from 10 to 20 feet 
in diameter, from 20 to 60 feet in depth, and are scattered throngh- 
out the island. They follow the richest veins of ore. Quantities 
of Btone hammers and mauls weighing from 10 to 30 pounds hare 


been found, some broken from use and some in good condition. 
Copper chisels, knives and arrowheads have been discovered. The 
copper tools have been linrdened by fire. Working out the ore was 
doubtless dono by heating and pouring on water, — a very tedious 
process; and yet it ie said that, although 200 men in their rndo way 
could not accomplish any more work tJian two skilled miners at the 
present day, yet at one point alone on Isle Royale the labor per- 
formed exceeds that of one of tlie oldest mines on the south shore, 
operated by a large force for more than 30 years. Since these 
ancient pits were opened, forests have grown up and fallen, and 
trees 400 years old stand around tliem to-day. 

Mounds have been discovered on the Detroit river, at the head 
of the St. Otair, the Black, the Ronge, on the Qraud, M lUe i:w>t, q'l 


Lake Huron, and in many other portions of the State. Those at 
the head of the St. Clair were discovered by Mr. Gilman, in 1872, 
and are said to be very remarkable. 


Mr. Breckenridge, who examined the antiquities of the Western 
country in 1817, speaking of the mounds in the American Bottom, 
says: ^' The great number and extremely large size of some of them 
may be regarded as furnishing, with other circumstances, evidences 
of their .antiquity. I have sometimes been induced to think that at 
the period when they were constructed there was a population here 
as numerous as that which once animated the borders of the Nile 
or Euphrates, or of Mexico. The most numerous, as well as con- 
siderable, of these remains are found in precisely those parts of the 
country wliere the traces of a numerous population miglit be looked 
for, namely, from the mouth of the Ohio on the east side of the 
Mississippi to the Illinois river, and on the west from the St. 
Francis to the Missouri. I am perfectly satisfied that cities similar 
to those of ancient Mexico, of several hundred thousand souls, have 
existed in this countrv." 

It must be admitted that whatever the uses of these mounds — 
whether as dwellings or burial places — these silent monuments were 
built, and the race who built them vanished from the face of the 
earth, ages before the Indians occupied the land, but their date 
must probably forever baffle human skill and ingenuity. 

It is sometimes difficult to distinguish the places of sepulture 
raised by the Mound-Builders from the more modern graves of the 
Indians. The tombs of the former were in general larger than 
those of the latter, and were used as receptacles for a greate)* number 
of bodies, and contained relics of art, evincing a higher degree oi 
civilization than that attained bv the Indians. The ancient earth- 
works of the Mound-Builders have occasionally been appropriated 
as burial places by the Indians, but the skeletons of the latter may 
be distinguished from the osteological remains of the former by 
their greater stature. 

What finally became of the Mound-Builders is another query 
which has been extensively discussed. The fact that their works 
extend into Mexico and Peru has induced the belief that it was their 
posterity that dwelt in these countries when they were first visited 
oy the Spaniards. The Mexican and Peruvian works, with the 
exception of their greater magnitude, are similar. Kelics common 
to all of them have been occasionally found, and it is beh'eved that 
the religious uses which they subserved were the same. If, indeed, 
the Mexicans and Peruvians were the progeny of the more ancient 
Mound-Builders, Spanish rapacity for gold was the cause of their 
overthrow and final extermination. 

A thousand other Queries naturally arise respecting these nations 
which now repose unaer the ground, but the most searching invest!- 


gation can give us only vague speculationB for answers. No histo- 
rian has preserved the names of their mighty chieftains, or given 
an account of their exploits, and even tradition is silent respecting 
them . 

Following the Mound- Builders as inhabitants of North America, 
were, as it is supposed, the people who reared the magnificent cities, 
the ruins of which are found in Central America. This people was 
far more civilized and advanced in the arts than were the Mound- 
Builders. The cities built by them, judging from the ruins of 
broken columns, fallen arches and crumbling walls of temples, 
palaces and pyramids, which in some places for miles bestrew the 
ground, must have been of great extent, magniiicent and very pop- 
ulous. When we consider the vast period of time necessary to erect 
such colossal structures, and, again, the time required to reduce 
them to their present ruined state, we can conceive something of 
their antiquity. These cities miist have been old when many of 
the ancient cities of the Orient were being built. 


The third race inhabiting North America, distinct from the 
former two in every particular, is the present Indians. They were, 
when visited by the early discoverers, without cultivation, refine- 
ment or literature, and far behind the Mound-Builders in the knowl- 
edge of the arts. The question of their origin has long interested 
archaeologists, and is the most difBcult they have been called upon 
to answer. Of their predecessors the Indian tribes knew nothing; 
they even had no traditions respecting them. It is quite certain 
that they were the successors of a race which had entirely passed 
away ages before the discovery of the New AVorld. One hypothesis 
is that the American Indians are an original race indigenous to the 
Western hemisphere. Tiiose who entertain this view think their 
peculiarities of physical structure preclude the possibility of a com- 
mon parentage with the rest of mankind. Prominent among those 
distinctive traits is the hair, which in the red man is round, in the 
white man oval, and in the black man flat. 

A more common supposition, however, is that they are a deriva- 
tive race, and sprang from one or more of the ancient peoples of 
Asia. In the absence of all authentic history, and when even 
tradition is wanting, any attempt to point out the particular location 
of their origin must prove unsatisfactory. Though the exact place 
of origin may never be known, yet the striking coincidents of 
physical organization between the Oriental type of mankind and 
the Indians point unmistakably to some part of Asia as the place 
whence they emigrated, which was originally peopled to a great 
extent by the children of Shem. In this connection it has been 
claimed that the meeting of the Europeans, Indians and Africans 
on the continent of America, is the fulfillment of a prophecy as 
recorded in Genesis ix. 27: "God shall enlarge Japheth, and he 
shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant." 


Assuminj; the theory to be true that the Indian tribes are of 
Shemitic origin, they were met on this continent in the fifteenth 
century by the Japhetic race, after the two stocks had passed aronnd 
the globe by directly diflferent routes. A few years afterward the 
Hamitio branch of the human family was brought from the coast 
of Africa. During the occupancy of the continent by the three 
distinct races, the children of Japheth have grown and prospered, 
while the called and not voluntary sons of Ham have endured a 
servitude in the wider stretching valleys of the tents of Shem. 

When Christopher Columbus had finally succeeded in demon- 
strating the truth of his theory, that by sailing westward from 
Europe land would be discovered, landing on the Island of Ber- 
muda he supposed he had reached the East Indies. This was an 
error, but it led to the adoption of the name of " Indians" for the 
inhabitants of the island and the main land of America, by which 
name the red men of America have ever since been known. 

Of the several great branches of North American Indians the 
only ones entitled to consideration in Michigan history are the 
Algonquins and Iroquois. At the time of the discovery of America 
the former occupied the Atlantic seaboard, while the home of the 
Iroquois was as an island in this vast area of Algonquin popula- 
tion. The latter great nation spread over a vast territory, and 
various tribes of Algonquin lineage sprung up over the country, 
adopting, in time, distinct tribal customs and laws. An almost 
continuous warfare was carried on between tribes; but later, on the 
entrance of the white man into their beloved homes, every foot of 
territory was fiercely disputed by the confederacy of many neigh- 
boring tribes. The Algonquins formed the most extensive alliance 
to resist the encroachment of the whites, especially the English. 
Such was the nature of King Philip's war. This king, with his 
Algonquin braves, spread terror and desolation throughout New 
England. With the Algonquins as the controlling spirit, a con- 
federacy of continental proportions was the result, embracing in its 
alliance the tribes of every name and lineage from the Northern 
lakes to the gulf. Pontiac, having breathed into them his impla- 
cable hate ot the English intruders, ordered the conflict to com- 
mence, and all the British colonies trembled before the desolating 
fury of Indian vengeance. 

The " Saghinan " (spelled variously) or Saginaw country com- 
prised most of the eastern portion of the southern peninsula indef- 
mitely. The village of the " Ilurons" was probably near Detroit. 
The term " Huron '' is derived from the French hure,, a wild boar, 
and was applied to this tribe of Indians on account of the bristly 
appearance of their hair. These Indians called themselves " Ouen- 
dats," as the French spelled the name, or "Wyandots," as is the 
modern orthography. 


The art of hunting not only supplied the Indian with food, but, 
like that of war, was a means of gratifying his love of distinction. 




The male children, as soon as they aspired sufficient ajj^e and 
strength, were furnished with a bow and arrow and taught to shoot 
birds and other small game. Success in killing large quadrupeds 
required years of careful study and practice, and the art was as 
sedulously inculcated in the minds of the rising generation as are 
the elements of reading, writing and arithmetic in the common 
schools of civilized communities. The mazes of the forest and the 
dense, tall grass of the prairies were the best fields for the exercise 
of the hunter's skill. No feet could be impressed in the yielding 
soil but that the tracks were the objects of the most searching 
scrutiny, and revealed at a glance the animal that made them, the 
direction it was pursuing, and the time that had .elapsed since it 
had passed. In a forest country he selected the valleys, because 
they were most frequently the resort of game. The most easily 
taken, perhaps, of all the animals of the chase was the deer. It is 
endowed with a curiosity which prompts it to stop in its flight and 
look back at the approaching hunter, who always avails himself of 
this opportunity to let fly the fatal arrow. 

Their general councils were composed of the chiefs and old men. 
When in council, they usually sat in concentric circles around the 
speaker, and each individual, notwithstanding the fiery passions 
that rankled within, preserved an exterior as immovable as if cast 
in bronze. Before commencing business a person appeared with 
the sacred pipe, and another with fire to kindle it. After being 
lighted, it was first presented to heaven, secondly to the earth, 
thirdly to the presiding spirit, and lastly to the several councilors, 
each of whom took a whiff. These formalities were observed with 
as close exactness as State etiquette in civilized courts. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the simplest and rudest 
character. On some pleasant spot by the bank of a river, or near 
an ever-running spring, they raised their groups of wigwams, con- 
structed of the bark or trees, and easily taken down and removed 
to another spot. The dwelling-places of the chiefs were sometimes 
more spacious, and constructed with greater care, but of the same 
materials. Skins taken in the chase served them for repose. 
Though principally dependent upon hunting and fishing, the un- 
certain supply from those sources led them to cultivate small 
patches of corn. Every family did everything necessary within 
itself, commerce, or an interchange of articles, being almost unknown 
to them. In cases of dispute and dissension, each Indian relied 
upon himself for retaliation. Blood for blood was the rule, and 
the relatives of the slain man were bound to obtain bloody revenge 
for his death. This principle gave rise, as a matter of course, to in- 
numerable and bitter feuds, and wars of extermination where such 
were possible. War, indeed, rather than peace, was the Indian's 
glory and delight, — war, not conducted as ia civilization, but war 
where individual skill, endurance, gallantry and cruelty were prime 
requisites. For such a purpose as revenge the Indian would make 
great sacrifices,and display a patience and perseverance truly heroic j 


bat when the excitement was over, he sank back into a listless, un- 
occupied, well-nigh useless savage. During the intervals of his 
more exciting pursuits, the Indian employed his time in decorating 
his person with all the refinement of paint and feathers, and in the 
manufacture of his arms and of canoes. These were constructed of 
bark, and so light that they could easily be carried on the shoulder 
from stream to stream. His amusements were the war dance, ath- 
letic games, the narration of his exploits, and listening to the ora- 
tory of the chiefs; but during long periods of such existence he 
remained in a state of torpor, gazing listlessly upon the trees of the 
forests and the clouds that sailed above them; and this vacancy 
imprinted a habitual gravity, and even melancholy, upon his gen- 
eral deportment. 

The main labor and drudgery of Indian communities fell upon 
the women. The planting, tending and gathering of the crops, 
making mats and baskets, carrying burdens, — in fact, all things of 
the kind were performed by them, thus making their condition but 
little better than that of slaves. Marriage was merely a matter of 
bargain and sale, the husband giving presents to the father of the 
bride. In general they had but few children. They were subjected 
to many and severe attacks of sickness, and at times famine and 
pestilence swept away whole tribes. 

The Indians had not only their good " manitous," but also their 
evil spirits; and the wild features of the lake scenery appears to 
have impressed their savage minds with superstition. They believed 
that all the prominent points of this wide region were created and 
guarded by monsters; and the images of these they sculptured on 
stone, painted upon the rocks, or carved upon the trees. Those who 
^'obeyed " these pupernatural beings , they thought, would after death 
range among flowery fields filled with the choicest game, while 
those who neglected their counsels would wander 'amid dreary soli- 
tudes, stung by gnats as large as pigeons. 


It is not necessary to dwell on the details of history from the 
discovery of America in 1492 to the settlement of Michigan in 
1668, as some historians do under the head of " the history of 
Michigan;" for the transaction of men and councils at Quebec, 
New York, Boston, or London, or Paris, concerning the European 
possessions in Anjerica prior to 1068 did not in the least affect 
either man, beast or inanimate object within the present limits of 
the State of Michigan. Nor do we see the necessity of going back 
to the foundations of American institutions, simply l)ecause they 
are the origin of the present features of Michigan institutions and 
societv, any more than to Greek, Latin, Christian or mediaeval civ- 
ilization, although all the latter also affect Michigan society. 

Jacques Marquette was the first white man, according to history, 
to set foot upon ground within what is now the State of Michigan. 


Rf WAS horn «)f an honorable fannil; at Loon, in the north of 
fVfcTKWw in 1687, the month not known. He was educated for the 
Ofci:h*^lio priesthood; in 1654 he joined the Jesnits, and in 1666 he 
•«tm$. it^inX a$ a missionary to Canada; after the river St. Lawrence 
♦,?•;. xh^ (tivat Lakes had been mapped out, the all-absorbing object 
A rrfcw^with Gov. Frontenac Talch, the '' intendent," and Mar- 
{viv^.v .,::a#oIf was to discover and trace from the north the won- 
7Ui'f^tI M'.^t^ippi that De Soto, the Spaniard, had first seen at the 
S»»t';:i V' hUL In 1668, according to Bancroft, he repaired to the 
^il.^*;v>tf;iu at the Sault, to establish the mission of the St. Mary, 
'•.ic^».o^t *<»ttlement begun by Europeans within the present limits 
s/i >l'.v:hiipiu. This was under Louis XIV., of France. 

Ill UWi^^ Father Marquette established a mission at Mackinaw, 
then ^.'aIUhI •*Michiliniackinac," from an Indian word signifying 
" ;i j<reat turtle," or from the Chippewa " michine-maukinonk, 
** a L»lav.v of giant fairies." Hero Marquette built a chapel in 1071, 
and v.vntinued to teach the Indians until his death. 

lii U»7o, in company with Louis Joliet, Father Marquette received 
ordortu t'lvni Gov. Frontenac to proceed west and explore the Mis- 
sis8ippi« which they did, as far south as the Arkansas river. 

Maniuette was a scholar and a polite Christian, enthusiastic, 
shri'Nvd and persevering. He won the affections of all parties, 
Kr\>noh, English and Indian. He was even a man of science, with 
H strong element of romance and love of natural beauty in his 
oharaoter. Parkman speaks of him, in characteristic epithet, as 
''the humble Marquette who, with clasped hands and upturned 
ovo*, siMMUS a figure evoked from some dim legend of mediseval 
eaintship." In life he seems to have been looked up to with rever- 
onoo by the wildest savage, by the rude frontiersman, and by the 
iH>lished officer of government. Most of all the States, his 
name and his fame should be dear to Michigan. He died in June, 
l(i7ft, and was buried with great solemnity and deep sorrow near 
the mouth of Pere Marquette river. The remains were afterward 
deposited in a vault in the middle of the chapel of St. Ignace near 
bv; but on the breaking up of the mission at this place the Jesuits 
burned the chapel, and the exact site was forgotten until Sept. 3, 
1S77, when the vault, consisting of birch bark, was found; but the 
remains of the great missionary were probably stolen away by his 
Indian admirers soon after the abandonment of the mission. 

The next settlement in point of time was made in ]67}>, by 
Kobert Cavalier de La Salle, at the mouth of the St. Joseph river. 
lie had constructed a vessel, the '' Griffin," just above Niagara falls, 
ftud sailed around by the lakes to Green Bay, Wis., whence he 
traversed " Lac des Illinois,'' now Lake Michigan, by canoe to the 
mouth of the St. Joseph river. The '' Griffin " was the first sailing 
vessel that ever came west of Niagara falls. La Salle erected a fort' 
at the n)outh of the St. Joseph river, which afterward was moved 
about 60 miles up the river, where it was still seen in Charlevoix's 


time, 1721. La Salle also bnilt a fort on the Illinois river just 
below Peoria, and explored the region of the Illinois and Missis- 
sippi rivers. 

The next, and third, Michigan post erected by authority was a 
second fort on the St. Joseph river, established by Du Luth, near 
the present Fort Gratiot, in 1686. The object of Ihis was to inter- 
cept emissaries of the English, who wereanxioas to open trafSc with 
the Mackinaw and Lake Superior nations. 

The French posts in Michigan and westward left very little to be 
gathered by the New York traders, and they determined, as there 
was peace between France and England, to push forward their 
agencies and endeavor to deal witn the western and northern 
Indians in their own country. The French governors not only 
plainly asserted the title of France, but as plainly threatened to 
use all requisite force to expel intruders. Anticipating correctly 
that the English would attempt to reach Lake Huron from the 
East without passing up Detroit river, Dn Luth built a fort at the 
outlet of the lake into the St. Clair. About the same time an 
expedition was planned against the Senecas, and the Chevalier 
Touti, commanding La Salle's forts, of St. Louis and St. Joseph of 
Lake Michigan, and La Durantaye, the veteran commander of 
Mackinaw, were employed to bring down the French and Indian 
auxiliaries to take part in the war. These men intercepted 
English expeditions into the interior to establish trade with the 
Northern Indians, and succeeded in cutting them off for many years. 

Religious zeal for the Catholic Church and the national aggrand- 
izement were almost or quite equally the primary and all-ruling 
motive of western explorations. For these two purposes expedi- 
tions were sent out and missions and military posts were established. 
In these enterprises Marquette, Joliet, La Salle, St. Lusson and 
others did all that we find credited to them in history. 

In 1669 or 1670, Talon, then " Intendant of New France," sent 
out two parties to discover a passage to the South Sea, St. Lusson 
to Hudson's Bay and La Salle southwestward. On his return in 
1671, St. Lusson held a council of all the northern tribes at the 
Sault Ste. Marie, where they formed an alliance with the French. 

^' It is a curious fact," says Campbell, '^ that the public docu- 
ments are usually made to exhibit the local authorities as originat- 
ing everything, when the facts brought to light from other sources 
show that they were compelled to permit what they ostensibly 
directed." The expeditions sent out by Talon were at least sug- 
gested from France. The local authorities were sometimes »made 
to do things which were not, in their judgment, the wisest. 


July 19, 1701, the Iroquois conveyed to King William III all 
their claims to land, describing their territory as '^ that vast tract 
of land or colony called Canagariarchio, beginning on the north- 



^v^^ s^vio of Oadarachqiii lake [Ontario], and inclades alLthat vast 

'.•e^cc '.'X l*^w^l l^'J^K between the great lake of Ottawawa [Huron], 

4:ivl iho Uk\^ callod by the natives Sahiquage, and by the Ohristiane 

:ho l.ako of Swet*giB [Oswego, for Lake Erie], and runs till it 

^utcs u^Hui tho Twichtwichs, and ii? bounded on the westward by 

ii\v* 'l*wioUtwiohs by a place called Quadoge, containing in length 

AvHMit SlH> inilofi* and breadth 400 miles, including the country where 

IVii^cfH and all sorts of wild game keeps, and the place 

Oi^'Unl l^ouglwHjchrondie alias Fort De Tret or Wawyachtenock 

I Virv»iti» and so runs round tho lake of Sweege till you come to a 

i'laoo oalUnl Oniadarundaquat," etc. 

U NVJH ohiotly to prevent any further mischief, and to secure 
mv»iv otlootually the French supremacy that LaMotte Cadillac, who 
lii4d ^loat intluence over the savages, succeeded, in 1701, after 
vai'iouH phuis urged by him had been shelved by hostile colonial 
iniri>;uo*, in getting permission from Count Pontchartrain to begin 
i« Hottlomont in Detroit. His purpose was from the beginning to 
ntako not only a military post, but also a civil establishment, for 
Irado and agriculture. He was more or less threatened and opposed 
bv tho monopolists and by the Mackinaw missionarios, and was 
tiulytH'tod to severe persecutions. He finally triumphed and 
obtained valuable privileges and the right of seigneury. Crafts- 
nion of all kinds were induced to settle in the town, and trade 
llo\irit»hed. He succeeded in getting the Hurons and many of the 
Ottawas to leave Mackinaw and settle about '* Fort Pontchartrain." 
This fort stood on what was formerly called the first terrace, being 
on the ground lying between Lamed street and the river, and 
between Griswold and Wayne streets. Cadillac's success was so 
great, in spite of all opposition, that he was appointed governor of 
the new province of Louisiana, which had been granted to Crozat 
and his associates. This appointment removed him from Detroit, 
and immediately afterward the place was exposed to an Indian 
^'liiij^Cj instigated by English emissaries and conducted by the Mas- 
coutins and Ontagamies, the same people who made the last war on 
the whites in the territory of Michigan under Black Hawk a cen- 
tury and a quarter later. The tribes allied to the French came in 
with alacrity and defeated and almost annihilated the assailants, of 
whom a thousand were put to death. 

Unfortunately tor the country, the commanders who succeeded 
Cadillac for many years were narrow-minded and selfish and not 
disposed to advance any interests beyond the lucrative traffic with 
the Indians in peltries. It was not until 1734 that any new grants 
were made to farmers. This was done bv Governor-General Beau- 
harnois, who made the grants on the very easiest terms. Skilled 
artisans became numerous in Detroit, and prosperity set in all 
around. The buildings were not of the rudest kind, but built of 
oak or cedar, and of smooth finish. The cedar was brought from 
a great distance. Before 1742 the pineries were known, and at a 
very early day a saw-mill was erected on St.Clair river, near Lake 


Haron. Before 1749 qaarries were worked, especially at Stony 
Island. In 1763 there were several lime kilns within the present 
limits of Detroit, and not only stone foundations but also stone 
buildings, existed in the settlement. Several grist-mills existed 
along the river near Detroit. Agriculture was carried on profitably, 
and supplies were exported quite early, consisting chiefly of com 
and wheat, and possibly beans and peas. Cattle, horses and swine 
were raised in considerable numbers; but as salt was very expens- 
ive, but little meat, if any, was packed for exportation. The salt 
springs near Lake St Clair, it is true, were known, and utilized to 
some extent, but not to an appreciable extent. Gardening and fruit- 
raising were carried on more thoroughly than general farming. 
Apples and pears were good and abundant. 

During the French and English war Detroit was the principal 
source of supplies to the French troops west of Lake Ontario, and 
it also furnished a large number of fighting men. The upper posts 
were not much involved in this war. 

"Teuchsa Grondie," one of the many ways of spelling an old 
Indian name of Detroit, is rendered famous by a large and splen- 
did poem of Levi Bishop, Esq., of that city. 

During the whole of the 18th century the history of Michigan 
was little else than the history of Detroit, as the genius of French 
government was to centralize power instead of building up locali- 
ties for self-government. 

About 1704, or three years after the founding of Detroit, this 
place was attacked by the Ottawa Indians, but unsuccessfully; and 
again, in 1712, the Ottagaraies, or Fox Indians, who were in secret 
alliance with the old enemies of the French, the Iroquois, attacked 
the village and laid siege to it. They were severely repulsed, and 
their chief offered a capitulation, which was refused. Considering 
this an insult, they became enraged and endeavored to burn up the 
town. Their method of firing the place was to shoot large arrows, 
mounted with combustible material in flame, in a track through 
the sky rainbow-form. The bows and arrows being very large and 
stout, the Indians lay with their backs on the ground, put both feet 
against the central portion of the inner side of the bow and pulled 
the strings with all the might of their hands. A ball of blazing 
material would thus be sent arching over nearly a quarter of a 
mile, which would come down perpendicularly upon the dry shingle, 
roofs of the houses and set them on fire. But this scheme was 
soon checkmated by the French, who covered the remaining houses 
with wet skins. The Foxes were considerably disappointed at this 
and discouraged, but they made one more desperate attempt, failed, 
and retreated toward Lake .St. Clair, where they again entrenched 
themselves. From this place, however, they were soon dislodged. 
After this period these Indians occupied Wisconsin for a time and 
made it dangerous for travelers passing through from the lakes to 
the Mississippi. They were the Ishmaelites of the wilderness. 


In 1749 there was a fresh accession of immigrants to all the points 
upon the lakes, but the history of this part of the world during 
the most of this century is rather monotonous, business and gov- 
ernment remaining about the same, without much improvement. 
The records nearly all concern Canada east of the lake region. It 
is true, there was almost a constant change of commandants at the 
posts, and there were many slight changes of administrative policy; 
out as no great enterprises were successfully put in operation, the 
events of the period nave but little prominence. The northwest- 
ern territory during French rule was simply a vast ranging ground 
for the numerous Indian tribes, who had no ambition liigher than 
obtaining an immediate subsistence of the crudest kindj buying 
arms, whisky, tobacco, blankets and jewelry by bartering for them 
the peltries of the chase. Like a drop in the ocean was the mis- 
sionary work of the few Jesuits at the half dozen posts on the 
great waters. The forest* were full of otter, beaver, bear, deer, 
grouse, quails, 6tc., and on the few prairies the grouse, or '* prairie 
chickens," were abundant. Not much work was required to obtain 
a bare subsistence, and human nature generally is not disposed to 
lay up much for the future. The present material prosperity of 
America is really an exception to the general law of the world. 

In the latter part of 1796 Winthrop Sargent went to Detroit and 
organized the county of Wayne, forming a part of the Indiana Ter- 
ritory until its division in 1805, when the Territory of Michigan 
was organized. 


Soon after the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi by 
La Salle in 1682, the government of France began to encourage the 
policy of establishing a line of trading posts and missionary stations 
extending through the West from Canada to Louisiana, and this 
policy was maintained, witli partial success, for about 76 years. 

The river St. Joseph of Lake Michigan was called " the river 
Miatnis" in 1679, in which year La Salle built a small fort on its 
bank, near the lake shore. The principal station of the mission for 
the instruction of the Miamis was established on the borders of this 
river. The first French post within the territory of the Miamis 
was at the mouth of the river Miamis, on an eminence naturally 
fortified on two sides by the river, and on one side by a deep ditch 
made by a fall of water. It was of triangular form. The mission- 
ary Hennepin gives a good description of it, as he was one of the 
company who built it, in 1679. Says he: " We felled the trees that 
were on the top of the hill; and having cleared the same from 
bushes for about two musket shot, we began to build a redoubt of 
80 feet long and 40 feet broad, with great square pieces of timber 
laid one upon another, and prepared a great number of stakes of 
about 25 feet long to drive into the ground, to make our fort more 



inaccessible on the river side. We employed the whole month of 
November about that work, which was very hard, though we had 
no other food but the bears' flesh our savage killed. These beasts 
are very common in that place because of the great quantity of 
grapes they find there: but their flesli being too tat and luscious, 
our men began to be weary of it and desired leave to go a hunting 
to kill some wild goats. M. La Salle denied them that liberty, which 
caused some murmurs among them; and it was but unwillingly, 
that they continued their work. This, together with the approach 
of winter and the apprehension that M. La Salle had that his vessel 
(the GrifBn) was lost, made him very melancholy, though he con- 
cealed it as much as he could. We made a cabin wherem we per- 
formed divine service every Sunday, and Father Gabriel and I, who 
preached alternately, took care to take such texts as were suitable 
to our present circumstances and fit to inspire us with courage, 
concord and brotherly love. * * * The fort was at last per- 
fected, and called Fort Miamis." 

In 1765 the Miami nation, or confederacy, was composed of four 
tribes, whose total number of warriors was estimated at only 1,050 
men. Of these about 250 were Twightwees, or Miamis proper, 300 
Weas, or Oniatenons, 300 Piankeshaws and 200 Shockeys; and at 
this time the principal villages of the Twightwees were situated 
about the head of the Maumee river at and near the place where 
Fort Wayne now is. The larger Wea villages were near the banks 
of the Wabash river, in the vicinity of the Post Ouiatenon; and 
the Shockeys and Piankeshaws dwelt on the banks of the Yermillion, 
and on the borders of the Wabash between Vincennes and Ouiate- 
non. Branches of the Pottawatomie, Shawnee, Delaware and Kicka- 
poo tribes were permitted at different times to enter within the 
boundaries of the Miamis and reside for a while. 

The wars in which France and England were engaged, from 1688 
to 1697, retarded the growth of the colonies of those nations in 
North America, and the efforts made by France to connect Canada 
and the Gulf of Mexico by a chain of trading posts and colohies 
naturally excited the jealousy of England and gradually laid the 
foundation for a struggle at arms. After several stations were estab- 
lished elsewhere in the West, trading posts were started at the 
Miami villages, which stood at the head of the Maumee, at the Wea 
villages about Ouiatenon on the Wabash, and at the Piankeshaw vil- 
lages about the present sight of Vincennes. It is probable that before 
the close of the year 1719 temporary trading posts were erected at 
the sites of Fort Wayne, Ouiatenon and Vincennes. These points 
were probably often visited by French fur traders prior to 1700. 
In the meanwhile the English people in this country commenced 
also to establish military posts west of the AUeghanies, and thus 
matters went on until they naturally culminated in a general war, 
which, being waged by the French and Indians combined on one 
side, was called '* the French and Indian war." This war was ter- 
minated in 1763 by a treaty at Paris, by which France ceded to 


Great Britain all of North America east of the Mississippi except 
New Orleans and the island ou which it is situated; and indeed, 
France had the preceding autumn, by a secret convention, ceded to 
Spain all the country west of that river. 

In 1762, after Canada and its dependencies had been surrendered 
to the English, Pontiac and his partisans secretly organized a pow- 
erful confederacy in order to crusli at one blow all English power 
in the West. This great scheme was skillfully projected and cau- 
tiously matured. 

The principal act in the programme was to gain admittance into 
the fort at Detroit, on pretense of a friendl v visit, with shortened 
muskets concealed under their blankets, and on a given signal sud- 
denly break forth upon the garrison; but an inadvertent remark of 
an Indian woman led to a discovery of the plot, which was conse- 
quently averted. Pontiac and his warriors afterward made many 
attacks upon the English, some of which were successful, but the 
Indians were finally defeated in the general war. 


In 1765 the total number of French families within the limits of 
the Northwestern Territory did not probably exceed 600. These 
were in settlements about Detroit, along the river Wabash and the 
neighborhood of Fort Chartres on the Mississippi. Of these fami- 
lies, about 80 or 90 resided at Post Vincennes, 14 at Fort Ouiate- 
non, on the Wabash, and nine or ten at the confluence of the St. 
Mary and St. Joseph rivers. 

The colonial policy of the British government opposed any meas- 
ures which might strengthen settlements in the interior of this 
country, lest they become self-supporting and independent of the 
mother country; hence the early and rapid settlement of the North- 
western Territory was still further retarded by the short-sighted 
selfishness of England. That fatal policy consisted mainly in hold- 
ing the land in the bands of the government and not allowing it to 
be subdivided and sold to settlers. But in spite of all her efforts 
in this direction, she constantly made just such efibrts as provoked 
the American people to rebel, and to rebel successfully, which was 
within 15 years after the perfect close of the French and Indian 


Thomas Jefferson, the shrewd statesman and wise Governor of 
Virginia, saw from the first that actual occupation of Western lands 
was the only way to keep them out of the hands of foreigners and 
Indians. Therefore, directly after the conquest of Yincennes by 
Clark, he engaged a scientific corps to proceed under an escort to 



the Mississippi, and ascertain by celestial observations the point on 
that river intersected by latitude 36^ 30', the southern limit of the 
State, and to measure its distance to the Ohio. To Gen. Clark was 
entrusted the conduct of the military operations in that quarter. 
He was instructed to select a strong position near that point and 
establish there a fort and garrison; thence to extend his conquest 
northward to the lakes, erecting forts at different points, which 
might serve as monuments of actual possession, besides affording 
protection to that portion of the country. Fort '' Jefferson " was 
erected and garrisoned on the Mississippi a few miles above the 
southern limit. 

The result of these operations was the addition, to the chartered 
limits of Virginia, of that immense region known as the " J^orth- 
western Territory." The simple fact that such and such forts were 
established by the Americans in this vast region convinced the Brit- 
ish Commissioners that we had entitled ourselves to the land. But 
where are those " monuments " of our power now? 


This ordinance has a marvelous and interesting history. Con- 
siderable controversy has been indulged in as to who is entitled to 
the credit for framing it. This belongs, undoubtedly, to T*4athan 
Dane; and to Rufus King and Timothy Pickering belong the credit 
for suggesting the proviso contained in it against slavery, and also 
for aids to religion and knowledge, and for assuring forever the 
common use, without charge, of the great national highways of the 
Mississippi, the St. Lawrence and their tributaries to all the citi- 
zens of the United States. To Thomas Jefferson is also due much 
credit, as some features of this ordinance were embraced in his or- 
dinance of 1784. But the part taken by each in the long, laborious 
and eventful struggle which had so glorious a consummation in 
the ordinance, consecrating forever, by one imprescriptible and un- 
changeable monument, the very heart of our country to freedom, 
knowledge and union, will forever honor the names of those illustri- 
ous statesmen. 

Mr. Jefferson had vainly tried to secure a system of government 
for the Northwestern Territory. He was an emancipationist and 
favored the exclusion of slavery from the Territory, but the South 
voted him down every time he proposed a measure of this nature. 
In 1787, as late as July 10, an organizing act without the anti- 
slavery clause was pending. This concession to the South was 
expected to carry it. Congress was in session in New York. On 
July 5, Bev. Manasseh Cutler, of Massachusetts, came into New 
York to lobby on the Northwestern Territory. Everything seemed 
to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. The state of the public 
credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, the basis of his mission, 
bis personal character, all combined to complete one of those sudden 


and marveloas revolations of public sentiment that once in five or 
ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like the breath of the 

Cutler was a graduate of Yale. He had studied and taken de- 
grees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. 
He had published a scientific examination of the plants of New 
England. As a scientist in America his name stood second only to 
that of Franklin. He was a courtly gentleman of the old style, a 
man of commanding presence and of inviting face. The Southern 
members said they had never seen such a gentleman in the North. 
He came representing a Massachusetts company that desired to 
purchase a tract of land, now included in Ohio, for the purpose of 
planting a colony. It was a speculation. Government money was 
worth eighteen cents on the dollar. This company had collected 
enough to purchase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in 
New York made Dr. Cutler their agent, which enabled him to 
represent a demand for 5,500,000 acres. As this would reduce the 
national debt, and Jefferson's policy was to provide for the public 
credit, it presented a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the North- 
western region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. The South caught 
the inspiration, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The entire South ral. 
lied around him. Massachusetts could not vote against him, be- 
cause many of the constuitents of her members were interested 
personally in the Western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends in the South, and doubtless using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convic- 
tions, he dictated one of the most compact and finished documents 
of wise statesmanship that has ever adorned any human law book. 
He borrowed from Jefferson the term "Articles of Compact," which, 
preceding the federal constitution, rose into the most sacred char- 
acter. He then followed very closely the constitution of Massa- 
chusetts, adopted three years before. Its most prominent points 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schools, giving one township for a semi- 
nary and every section numbered 16 in each township; that is, one 
thirty-sixth of all the land for public schools. 

8. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or 
the enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existing contraict^. 


Be it forever remembered that this compact declared tliat *' re- 
ligion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of eda- 
cation shall always be enconraged." Dr. Cutler planted himself 
on this platform and would not yield. Giving his nnqualified dec- 
laration that it was that or nothing, — that unless they could make 
the land desirable they did not want it, — he took his horse and buggy 
and started for the constitutional convention at Philadelphia. On 
July 13, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage, and was unani- 
mously adopted. Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin, a vast empire, were consecrated to free 
dom, intelligence, and morality. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared to save the union of States, for it was this act that was 
the salvation of the republic and the destruction of slavery. Soon 
the South saw their great blunder and tried to have the compact 
repealed. In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee, of which 
John Randolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact and opposed repeal. Thus it stood, a rock in the 
way of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 

The " Northwestern Territory " included of course what is now 
the State of Indiana; and Oct 5, 1787, Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair 
was elected by Congress Governor of this territory. Upon 
commencing the duties of his office he was instructed to ascertain 
the real temper of the Indians and do all in his power to remove 
the causes for controversy between them and the United States, 
and to effect the extinguishment of Indian titles to all the land 
possible. The Governor took up quarters in the new settlement of 
Marietta, Ohio, where he immediately began the organization of 
the government of the territory. The first session of the General 
Court of the new territory was held at that place in 1788, the 
Judges being Samuel H. Parsons, James M. Yarnum and*John 0. 
Symmes, but under the ordinance Gov. St. Clair was President of 
the Court. After the first session, and after the necessary laws for 
government were adopted. Gov. St. Clair, accompanied by the 
Judges, visited Kaskaskia for the purpose of organizing a oivil gov- 
ernment there. Full instructions had been sent to Maj. Hamtramck, 
commandant at Yincennes, to ascertain the exact feeling and temper 
of tL3 Indian tribes of the Wabash. These instructions were ac- 
companied by speeches to each of the tribes. A Frenchman named 
Antoine Gamelin was dispatched with these messages April 5, 1790, 
who visited nearly all the tribes on the Wabash, St. Joseph and St. 



Mary's rivers, bat was coldly received; most of the chiefs being 
dissatisfied with the policy of the Americans toward them, and 
prejudiced through English misrepresentation. Full accounts of 
his adventures among the tribes reached Gov. St. Clair at Kaskas- 
kia in June, 1790. Being satisfied that there was no prospect of 
effecting a general peace with the Indians of Indiana, ho resolved 
* to visit Gen. Harmar at his headquarters at Fort Washington and 
consult with him on the means of carrying an expedition against 
the hostile Indians; but before leaving he intrusted Winthrop 
Sargent, the Secretary of the Territory, with the execution of the 
resolutions of Congress regarding the lands and settlers on the 
Wabash. He directed that officer to proceed to Vincennes, lay 
out a county there, establish the militia and appoint the necessary 
civil and military officers. Accordingly Mr. Sargent went to Vin- 
cennes and organized Camp Knox, appointed the officers, and noti- 
fied the inhabitants to present their claims to lands. In establish- 
ing these claims the settlers found great difficulty, and concerning 
this matter the Secretary in his report to the President wrote as 

^'Although the lands and lots which were awarded to the inhabi- 
tants appeared from very good oral testimony to belong to those 
persons to whom they were awarded, either by original grants, pur- 
chase or inheritance, yet there was scarcely one case in twenty 
where the title was complete, owing to the desultory manner in 
which public business had been transacted and some other unfor- 
tunate causes. The original concessions by the French and British 
commandants were generally made upon a small scrap of paper, 
which it has been customary to lodge in the notary's office, who 
has seldom kept any book of record, but committed the most im- 
portant land concerns to loose sheets, which in process of time 
have come into possession of persons that have fraudulently de- 
stroyed them; or, unacquainted with their consequence, innocently 
lost or trifled them away. By French usage they are considered 
family inheritances, and often descend to women and children. In 
one instance, and during the government of St. Ange here, a royal 
notary ran off with all the public papers in his possession, as by a 
certificate produced to me. And I am very sorry further to observe 
that in the office of Mr. Le Grand, which continued from 1777 to 
.1787, and where should have been the vouchers for important land 
transactions, the records have been so falsified, and there is such 
gross fraud and forgery, as to invalidate all evidence and informa- 
tjon which I might have otherwise acquired from his papers." 


Mr. Sargent says there were about 160 French families at Vin- 
cennes in 1790. The heads of all these families had been at one time 
vested with certain titles to a portion of the soil; and while the 
Secretary was busy in straightening out these claims, he received 
a petition signed by 80 Americans, asking for the confirmation of 
grants of land ceded by the Court organized by Col. John Todd 
under the authority of Virginia. With reference to this cause, 
Congress, March 3, 1791, empowered the Territorial Governor, in 
cases where land had been actually improved and cultivated under 
a supposed grant for the same, to confirm to the persons who made 
such improvements the lands supposed to have been granted, not, 
however, exceeding the quantity of 400 acres to any one person. 


Soon after the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi in 1682, 
the government of France began to encourage the policy of estab- 
lishing a line of trading posts and missionary stations extending 
through the West from Canada and the great lakes to Louisiana; 
and this policy was maintained, with partial success, for about 75 
years. British power was the rival upon which the French con- 
tinually kept their eye. Of course a collision of arms would re- 
sult in a short time, and this commenced about 1755. In 1760 
Canada, including the lake region, fell into the hands of the British. 
During the war occurred Braddock's defeat, the battles of Niagara, 
Crown Point and Lake George, and the death of brave Wolfe and 
Montcalm. Sept. 12, this year, Major Robert Rogers, a native of 
New Hampshire, a provincial officer and then at tiie height of his 
reputation, received orders from Sir Jeffrey Amherst to ascend the 
lakes with a detachment of rangers, and take possession, in the 
name of his Britannic Majesty, of Detroit, Michilimackinac, and 
other Western posts included in the capitulation of Montreal. He left 
the latter place on the following day with 200 rangers in 15 whale 
boats. Nov. 7 they reached the mouth of a river ('* Chogage") on 
the southern coast of lake Erie, wliero they were met by Pontiac, 
the Indian chief, who now appears for the first time upon the pages 
of Michigan history. He haughtily demanded of Rosters why he 
should appear in his realm witli his forces without his permission. 
The Major informed him that the English had obtained permission 
of Canada, and that he was on his way to Detroit to publish the 
fact and to restore a general peace to white men and Indians alike. 
The next day Pontiac signified his willingness to live at peace with 
the Ens^lish, allowing them to remain in his country, provided they 
])aid him due respect. He knew that French power was on the 
wane, and that it was to the interest of his tribes to establish an 
early peace with the new power. The Indians, who had collected 
at the mouth of Detroit, reported 400 strong, to resist the coming 
of the British forces, were easily influenced by Pontiac to yield the 
situation to Rogers. Even the French commandant at Detroit^ 


Capt. Beletre, was in a sitnation similar to that of the Indians, 
and received the news of the defeat of the French from Major 
Bo^rs. He was indignant and incredulous, and tried to rouse tlic 
fury of his old-time friends, the Indians, but found them '^faith- 
less '^ in this hour of his need. He surrendered with an ill grace, 
amid the yells of several hundred Indian warriors. It was a source 
of great amazement to the Indians to see so many men surrender 
to so few. Nothing is more effective in gaining the respect of In- 
dians than a display of power, and the above proceedings led them 
to be overawed by English prowess. Tiiey were astonished also at 
the forbearance of the conquerors in not killing their vanquished 
enemies on the spot. 

This surrender of Detroit was on the 29th of November, 1760. 
The posts elsewhere in the lake region north and west were not 
reached until some time afterward. The English now thought they 
had the country perfectly in their own hands and that there was 
but little trouble ahead; but in this respect they were mistaken. 
The French renewed their efforts to circulate reports among the 
Indians that the English intended to take all their land from them, 
etc. The slaughter of the Monongahela, the massacre at Fort 
William Henry and the horrible devastation of the Western fron- 
tier, all bore witness to the fact that the French were successful in 
prejudiqing the Indians against the British, and the latter began to 
have trouble at various points. The French had always been in 
the habit of making presents to the Indians, keeping them supplied 
with arms, ammunition, etc., and it was not their policy to settle 
upon their lands. The British, on the other hand, now supplied 
them with nothing, frequently insulting them when they appeared 
around the forts. Everything conspired to fix the Indian popula- 
tion in their prejudices against the British Government. Even the 
seeds of the American Kevolution were scattered into the West and 
began to grow. 

The first Indian chief to raise the war-whoop was probably Kia- 
sliuta, of the Senecas, but Pontiac, of the Ottawas, was the great 
George Washington of all the tribes to systemize and render effect- 
ual the initial movements of the approacliing storm. His home 
was about eight miles above Detroit, on Pechee Island, which looks 
out upon the waters of Lake St. Clair. He was a well-formed man, 
with a countenance indicating a high degree of intelligence. In 
1746 he had successfully defended Detroit against the northern 
tribes, and it is probable he was present and assisted in the defeat 
of Braddock. 

About the close of 1762 he called a general council of the tribes, 
sending out embassadors in all directions, who with the war-belt of 
wampum and the tomahawk went from village to village and camp 
to camp, informing the sachems everywhere that war was impend- 
ing, and delivering to them the message of Pontiac. They all 
approved the message, and April 27, 1763, a grand council was held 
near Detroit, when Pontiac stood forth in war paint and delivered 


'' the j^reat speech of the campaign." The Engliah were slow to 
perceive any dangerons conspiracy in progress, and when the blow 
was strnck, nine out of twelve of the ^British posts were surprised 
and destroyed! Three of these were within the bounds of thir 
The first prominent event of the war was the 


on the northernmost point of the southern peninsula, the site of the 
present city of Mackinaw. This Indian outrage was one of the most 
ingeniously devised and resolutely executed schemes in American 
history. The Chippewas (or Ojibways) appointed one of their big 
ball plays in the vicinity of the post, and invited and inveigled as 
many of the occupants as they could to the scene of play, then fell 
upon the unsuspecting and unguarded English in the most brutal 
manner. For the details of this horrible scene we are indebted to 
Alexander Henry, a trader at that point, who experienced several 
most blood-curdling escapes from death and scalping at the hands of 
the savages. The result of the massacre was the death of about 70 
out of 90 persons. The Ottawa Indians, who occupied mainly the 
eastern portion of the lower peninsula, were not consulted by the 
Chippewas with reference to attacking Michilimackinac, and were 
consequently so enraged that they espoused the cause of the English, 
through spite; and it was through their instrumentality that Mr. 
Henry and some of his comrades were saved from death and con- 
veyed east to the regions of civilization. 

Of Mr. Henry's narrow escapes we give the following succinct 
account. Instead of attending the ball play of the Indians he spent 
the day writing letters to his friends, as a canoe was to leave for the 
East the following day. While thus engaged, he heard an Indian 
war cry and a noise of general confusion. Looking out of the win- 
dow, he saw a crowd of Indians within the fort, that is, within the 
village palisade, who were cutting down and scalping every English- 
man they found. He seized a fowling-piece which he had at hand, 
and waited a moment for the signal, the drum beat to arms. In 
that dreadful interval he saw several of his countrymen fall under 
the tomahawk and struggle between the knees of an Indian who 
held him in this manner to scalp him while still alive. Mr. Henry 
heard no signal to arms; and seeing that it was useless to under- 
take to resist 400 Indians, he thought only of shelter for himself 
He saw many of the Canadian inhabitants of the fort calmly look- 
ing on, neither opposing the Indians nor suffering injury, and ho 
therefore concluded he might find safety in some of their houses. 
He stealthily ran to one occupied by Mr. Langlade and family, who 
were at their windows beholding the bloody scene. Mr. L. scarcely 
dared to harbor him, but a Pawnee slave of the former concealed 
him in the garret, locked the stairway door and took away the key. 
In this situation Mr. Henry obtained through an aperture a vle^ 


of wha^ was ^ingon without. He saw the dead scalped and man- 
gled, the dying in writhing affony under the insatiate knife and 
tomahawk, and the savages drinking human blood from the hollow 
of their joined hands! Mr. Henry almost felt as if he were a vic- 
tim himself, so intense were his sufferings. Soon the Indian fiends 
began to halloo, *' All is finished I" At this instant Henry heard 
some of the Indians enter the house in which he had taken shelter. 
The garret was separated from the room below by only a layer of 
single boards, and Mr. Henry heard all that was said. As soon as 
the Indians entered they inquired whether there were any English- 
men in the house. Mr. l^anglade replied that he could not say; 
they might examine for themselves. He then conducted them to 
the garret door. As the door was locked, a moment of time was 
snatched by Mr. Henry to crawl into a heap of birch-bark vessels 
in a dark corner; and although several Indians searched around the 
garret, one of them coming within arm's length of the sweating 
prisoner, they went out satisfied that no Englishman was there. 

As Mr. Henry was passing the succeeding night in this room he 
could think of no possible chance of escape wom the country. He 
was out of provisions, the nearest post was Detroit, 400 miles away, 
and the route thither lay through the enemy's country. The next 
morning he heard Indian voices below informing Mr. Langlade that 
they had not found an Englishman named Henry among the dead, 
and that they believed him to be somewhere concealed. Mrs. L., 
believing that the safety of the household depended on giving up 
the refugee to his pursuers, prevailed on her husband to lead the 
Indians up stairs, to the room of Mr. H. The latter was saved from 
instant death by one of the savages adopting him as a *' brother," 
in the place of one lost. The Indians were all mad with liqnor, 
however, and Mr. H. again very narrowly escaped death. An hour 
afterward he was taken out of the fort by an Indian indebted to him 
for goods, and was under the uplifted knife of the savage when ho 
suddenly broke away from him and made back to Mr. Langlade's 
house, barely escaping the knife of the Indian the whole distance. 
The next day he, with three other prisoners, were taken in a canoe 
toward Lake Michigan, and at Fox Point, 18 miles distant, the 
Ottawas rescued the whites, through spite at the Chippewas, say- 
ing that the latter contemplated killing and eating them; but the 
next day they were returned to the Chippewas, as the result of some 
kind of agreement about the conduct of the war. He was rescued 
again by an old friendly Indian claftning him as a brother. The 
next morning he saw the dead bodies of seven whites dragged forth 
from the prison lodge he had just occupied. The fattest of these 
dead bodies was actually served up and feasted on, directly before 
the eyes of Mr. Henry. 

Through the partiality of the Ottawas and complications of mili- 
tary affairs among the Indians, Mr. Henry, after severe exposures 
and many more thrilling escapes, was finally landed within terri- 
tory occupied by whites. 



For more than a year after the massacre, Michilimackinac was 
occupied only bj wood rangers and Indians; then, after the treaty, 
Capt. Howard was sent with troops to take possession. 


In the spring of 1763 Pontiac determined to take Detroit by an 
ingenious assault. lie had his men file off their guns so that they 
would be short enough to conceal under their blanket clothing as 
they entered the fortification. A Canadian woman who went over 
to their village on the east side of the river to obtain some venison, 
saw them thus at work on their guns, and suspected they were pre- 
paring for an attack on the whites. She told her neighbors what 
she had seen, and one of them informed the commandant. Major 
Gladwyn, who at first slighted the advice, but before another day 
passed he had full knowledge of the plot. There is a legend that a 
beautiful Chippewa girl, well known to Gladwyn, divulged to him 
the scheme which the Indians had in view, namely, that the next 
day Pontiac would come to the fort with 60 of his chiefs, each 
armed with a gun cut short and hidden under his blanket; that 
Pontiac would demand a council, deliver a speech, offer a peace-belt 
of wampum, holding it in a reversed position as the signal for 
attack; that the chiefs, sitting upon the ground, would then spring 
up and fire upon the ofiicers, and the Indians out in the streets 
would next fall upon the garrison, and kill every Englishman, but 
sparing all the French. 

Gladwyn accordingly put the place in a state of defense as well as 
he could, and arranged for a quiet reception of the Indians and a 
sudden attack upon them when he should give a signal. At 10 
o'clock. May 7, according to the girl's prediction, the Indians came, 
entered the fort and proceeded with the programme, but with some 
hesitation, as they saw their plot had been discovered. Pontiac 
made his speech, professing friendship for the English, etc., and 
without giving his signal tor attack, sat down, and heard Major 
Gladwyn's reply, who suffered him and his men to retire unmo- 
lested. He probably feared to take them as prisoners, as war was 
not actually commenced. The next day Pontiac determined to try 
again, but was refused entrance at the gate unless he should come 
in alone. He turned away in a rage, and in a few minutes some of 
his men commenced the peculiarly Indian work of attacking an 
innocent household and murdering them, just beyond the range of 
British guns. Another squad murdered an Englishman on an 
island at a little distance. Pontiac did not authorize these pro- 
ceedings, but retired across the river and ordered preparations to 
be made for taking the tort by direct assault, the headquarters of 
the camp to be on *• Bloody run" west of the river. Meanwhile 
the garrison was kept in readiness for any outbreak. The very next 
day Pontiac, having received reinforcements from the Chippewas 
of "Saginaw Bay, commenced the attack, but was repulsed; no aeaths 


upon either side. Gladwjn sent embassadors to arrange for peace, 
but Pontiac, althougli professing to be willing in a general way to 
conclude peace, wonld not agree to any particular proposition. A 
number of Canadians visited the fort and warned the commandant 
to evacuate, as 1,500 or more Indians would storm the place in an 
hour; and soon afterward a Canadian came with a summons from 
Pontiac, demanding Gladwyn to surrender the post at once, and 
promising that, in case of compliance, he and his men would be 
allowed to go on board their vessels unmolested, leaving their arms 
and effects behind. To both these advices Major Glaawyn gave a 
flat refusal. 

Only three weeks' provisions were within the fort, and the garri- 
son was in a deplorable condition. A few tDanadians, however, 
from across the river, sent some provisions occasionally, by night. 
Had it not been for this timely assistance, the garrison would 
doubtless have had to abandon the fort. The Indians themselves 
soon began to suffer from hunger, as they had not prepared for a 
long siege; but Pontiac, after some maraudings upon the French 
settlers had been made, issued '* promises to pay" on birch bark, 
with which he pacified the residents. He subsequently redeemed 
all these notes. About the end of July Capt. Dalzell arrived from 
Niagara with re-enforcements and provisions, and persuaded Glad- 
wyn to undertake an aggressive movement against Pontiac. Dalzell 
was detailed for the purpose of attacking the camp at Parent's 
creek, a mile and a half away, but being delayed a day, Pontiac 
learned of his movements and prepared his men to contest his 
march. On the next morning, July 31, before day-break, Dalzell 
went out with 250 men, but was repulsed with a loss of 59 killed 
and wounded, while the Indians lost less than half that number. 
Parent's creek was afterward known as " Bloody run." 

Shortly afterward, the schooner "Gladwyn," on its return from 
Niagara with ammunition and provisions,ancIiored about nine miles 
below Detroit for the night, when in the darkness about 300 Indians 
in canoes came quietly upon the vessel and very nearly succeeded 
in taking it. Slaughter proceeded vigorously until the mate gave 
orders to his men to blow up the schooner, when the Indians, under- 
standing the design, fled precipitately, plunging into the water and 
swimming ashore. This desperate command saved the crew, and 
the schooner succeeded in reaching the post with the much needed 
supply of provisions. 

By this time, September, most of the tribes around Detroit were 
disposed to sue for peace. A truce being obtained, Gladwyn laid in 
provisions for the winter, while Pontiac retired with his chiefs to 
the Maumee country, only to prepare for a resumption of war the 
next spring. He or his allies the next season carried on a petty 
warfare until in August, when the garrison, now worn out and 
reduced, were relieved by fresh troops, Major Bradstreet com- 
manding. Pontiac retired to the Maumee again, still to stir up 
bate against the British. Meanwhile the Indians near Detroit, 



scarcely comprehending what they were doing, were indaced by 
Bradstreet to declare themselves subjects of Great Britain. An 
embassy sent to Pontiac induced him also to cease belligerent 
operations against the British. 

In 1769 the great chief and warrior, Pontiac, was killed in Illi- 
nois by a Kaskaskia Indian, for a barrel of whisky offered by an 
Englishman named Williamson. 

The British at Detroit now changed their policy somewhat, and 
endeavored to conciliate the Indians, paying them for land and 
encouraging French settlements in the vicinity. This encourage- 
ment was exhibited, in part, in showing some partiality to French 

At this time the flir trade was considerably revived, the princi- 
pal point of shipment being the Grand Portage of Lake Superior. 
The charter boundaries of the two companies, the Hudson's Bay 
and the Northwest, not having been very well defined, the employes 
of the respective companies often came into conflict. Lord Selkirk, 
the head of the former company, ended the difficulty by uniting 
the stock of both companies. An attempt was also made to mine 
and ship copper, but the project was found too expensive. 


By this important struggle the territory of the present State of 
Michigan was but little anected, the posts of Detroit and Mackinaw 
being the principal points whence the British operated among the 
Indians to prejudice them against the ^' Americans," going so far 
as to pay a reward for scalps, which the savages of course hesitated 
not to take from defenseless inhabitants. The expeditions made by 
the Indians for this purpose were even supported sometimes by the 
regular troops and local militia. One of these joint expeditions, 
commanded by Capt. Byrd, set out from Detroit to attack Louis- 
ville, Ky. It proceeded in boats as far as it could ascend the 
Maumee, and thence crossed to the Ohio river, on which stream 
Ruddle's Station was situated, which surrendered at once, without 
fighting, under the promise of being protected from the Indians; 
but this promise was broken and all the prisoners massacred. 

Another expedition, under Gov. Hamilton, the commandant at 
Detroit, startra out in 1778, and appeared at Yincennes, Ind., with 
a force of 30 regulars, 50 French volunteers and about 400 Indians. 
At this fort the garrison consisted only of Capt. Helm and one 
soldier, named Henry. Seeing the troops at a distance, they loaded 
a cannon, which they placed in the open gateway; and Capt. Helm 
stood by the cannon with a lighted match. When Hamilton with 
his army approached within hailingdistance, Helm called out with a 
loud voice, ^' Halt!" This show of resistance made Hamilton stop 
and demand a surrender of the garrison. ^' No man," exclaimed 
Helm, with an oath, ^^ enters here until I know the terms." Ham- 
ilton replied, ^^ You shall have the honors of war." Helm thereupon 


surrendered the fort, and the whole garrison, consisting of the two 
already named (!), marched out and received the customary marks 
of respect for their brave defense. Hamilton was soon afterward 
made to surrender this place to Gen. George Holers Clark, the 
ablest American defender in the West. The British soldiers were 
allowed to return to Detroit; but their commander, who was known 
to have been active in instigating Indian barbarities, was put in 
irons and sent to Virginia as a prisoner of war. 

The English at Detroit suspected that a certain settlement of 
pious Momvian missionaries on the Muskingum river were aiding 
the American cause, and they called a conference at Niagara and 
urged the Iroquois to break up the Indian congregation which had 
collected under these missionaries: but the Iroquois declined to 
concern themselves so deeply in white men's quarrels, and sent 
a message to the Chippewas and Ottawas, requesting them to'' make 
soup " of the Indian congregation on the Muskingum. 

These Moravian missionaries came to Detroit in 1781, before De 
Peyster, the commandant. A war council was held, and the council- 
house completely filled with Indians. Capt. Pike, an Indian chief, 
addressed the assembly and told the commandant that the English 
might fight the Americans if they chose; it Afas their cause, not his; 
that they had raised a quarrel among themselves, and it was their 
business to fight it out. They had set him on the Americans as the 
hunter sets his dog upon the game. By the side of the British 
commander stood another war chief, with a stick in his hand four 
feet in length, strung with American scalps. This warrior fol- 
lowed Capt. Pike, saying: '' Now, father, here is what has been done 
with the hatchet you gave me. I have made the use of it you 
ordered me to do, and found it sharp." 

The events just related are specimens of what occurred at and in 
connection with Detroit from the close of Pontiac's war until a 
number of years after the establishment of American independence. 
When the treaty of peace was signed at Versailles in 1783, the British 
on the frontier reduced their aggressive policy somewhat, but they 
continued to occupy the lake posts until 1796, on the claim that 
the lake region was not designed to be included in the treaty by the 
commissioners, probably on account of their ignorance of the geog- 
raphy of the i-egion. Meanwhile the Indians extensively organized 
for depredation upon the Americans, and continued to harass them 
at every point. 

During this period Alex. McKenzie, an agent of the British gov- 
ernment, visited Detroit, painted like an Indian, and said that he 
was just from the upper lakes, and that the tribes in that region 
were all in arms against any further immigration of Americans, 
and were ready to attack the infant settlements in Ohio. His state- 
ments had the desired effect; and, encouraged also by an agent from 
the Spanish settlements on the Mississippi, the Indians organized a 
great confederacy against the Urfited States. To put this down, 
Gen. Harmar was first sent out by the Government, with 1,400 men; 



HU hv itnprudently divided his army, and he was taken by surprise 

i:ivl JvtVAt%Hl by a body of Indians under " Little Turtle.'* Gen. 

VvtUur ^^ OUirwas next sent out, with 2,000 men, and he snf- 

■o»\xl a tik%> t\iti\ Then Gten. Anthony Wayne was sent West with 

i Atiil lai-^^r Hruiy, and on the Maumee he gained an easy victory 

'\^v tho' Indians, within a few miles of a British post. He 

iiK^liY vvnohuUnl a treaty with the Indians at Greenville, which 

■ *ix»ko up tho whole confederacy. The British soon afterward gave 

up IVtrxnt and Mackinaw. 

'^ i( wan a oonsidorable time before the Territory of Michigan, 
)uk\\ \\\ tho |Htt»sossion of the United States, was improved or altered 
r<j (kv Uio iuoiVHHO of settlements. The Canadian French continued to 

K^riM tho principal part of its population. The interior of the coun- 
try WHM but little known, except by the Indians and the fur traders. 
ri»o Indian title not being fully extinguished, no lands were 
bi'\Mi^ht into market, and consequently the settlements increased 
t^ut nUtwly. The State of Michigan at this time constituted simply 
th«» county of Wayne in Northwest Territory. It sent one Repre- 
MontHtivo to the Legislature of that Territory, which was held at 
iMillliiHitho. A court of common pleas was organized for the 
iHiunty, and the General Court of the whole Territory sometimes 
mot at Detroit. No roads had as yet been constructed through the 
intorior, nor were there any settlements except on the frontiers. 
The hal>it8 of the people were essentially military, and but little 
attention was paid to agriculture except by the French peasantry. 
A representation was sent to the General Assembly of the North- 
wuHt Territory at Chillicothe until 1800, when Indiana was erected 
Into a separate Territory. Two years later Michigan was annexed 
ti> Indiana Territory; but in 1805 Michigan separated, and William 
Hull appointed its first Governor." — Tuttle^s Hist. Mich. 

The iiritish revived the old prejudices that the Americans intended 
to drive the Indians out of the country, and the latter, under 
tho load of Tecumseh and his brother Elkswatawa, " the prophet," 
organized again on an extensive scale to make war upon the Amer- 
icans. The great idea of Tecnmseh's life was a universal confed- 
eracy of all the Indian tribes north and south to resist the invasion 
of the whites; and his plan was to surprise them at all their posts 
throughout the country and capture them by the first assault. At 
this time the entire white population of Michigan was about 4,800, 
four-fifths of whom were French and the remainder Americans. 
The settlements were situated on the rivers Miami and Raisin, on the 
Huron of Lake Erie, on the Ecorse, Rouge and Detroit rivers, on 
the Huron of St. Clair, on the St. Clair river and Macki?iaw island. 
Besides, there were here and there a group of huts belonging to the 
French fur traders. The villages on the Maumee, the Kaisin and 
the Huron of Lake Erie contained a population of about 1,300; 
the settlements at Detroit and northward had about 2,200; Mack- 
inaw about 1,000. Detroit was garrisoned by 94 men and Mack- 
inaw bv 70. 


I ft one shonld inquire who has been the greatest Indian, the most 
noted, the ^' principal Indian " in North America since its disoor- 
cry by Columbus, we would be obliged to answer, Tecumseh. For 
all those qualities which elevate a man far above his race; for talent, 
tact, skill and bravery as a warrior; for high-minded, honorable and 
chivalrous bearing as a man; in a word, for all those elements of 
greatness which place him a long way above his fellows in savage 
life, the name and fame of Tecnmseh will go down to posterity in 
the West as one of the most celebrated of the aborigines of this 
continent, — as one who had no equal among the tribes that dwelt 
in the country drained by the Mississippi. Born to command him- 
self, he used all the appliances that would stimulate the courage 
and nerve the valor of his followers. Always in the front rank of 
battle, his followers blindly followed his lead, and as his war-cry 
rang clear above the din and noise of the battle-field, the Shawnee 
warriors, as they rushed on to victory or the grave, rallied around 
him, foemen worthy of the steel of the most gallant commander 
that ever entered the lists in defense of his altar or his home. 

The tribe to which Tecumseh, or Tecumtha, as some write it, be- 
longed, was the Shawnee, or Shawanee. The tradition of the nation 
held that they originally came from the Oulf of Mexico; that they 
wended their way up the Mississippi and the Ohio, and settled at 
or near the present site of Shawneetown, HI., whence they removed 
to the upper Wabash. In the latter place, at any rate, they were 
found early in the 18th century, and were known as the '^ bravest 
of the brave." This tribe has uniformly beeYi the bitter enemy of 
the white man, and in every contest with our people has exhibited 
a degree of skill and strategy that should characterize the most 
dangerous foe. 

Tecumseh's notoriety and that of his brother, the Prophet, mutu- 
ally served to establish and strengthen each other. While the 
Prophet had unlimited power, spiritual and temporal, he distributed 
his greatness in all the departments of Indian life with a kind of 
fanaticism that magnetically aroused the religious and superstitious 
passions, not only of his own followers, but also of all the tribes in 



this part of the conntry; but Tecnmseh concentrated his greatness 
upon the more praetical and business affairs of military conqnest. 
It is doubted whether he was really a sincere believer in the preten- 
sions of his fanatic brother; if he did not believe in the pretentious 
feature of them he had the shrewdness to keep his unbelief to him- 
self, knowing that religious fanaticism was one of the strongest im- 
pulses to reckless bravery. 

During his sojourn in the Northwestern Territory, it was Tecum- 
seh's uppermost desire of life to confederate all the Indian tribes of 
the country together against the whites, to maintain their choice 
hunting-grounds. All his public policy converged toward this sin- 
gle end. In his vast scheme he comprised even all the Indians in 
the Gulf country, — all in America west of the Alleghany moun- 
tains. He held, as a subordinate principle, that the Great Spirit 
had given the Indian race all these hunting-grounds to keep in 
common, and that no Indian or tribe could cede any portion of the 
land to the whites without the consent of all the tribes. Hence, in 
all his councils with the whites he ever maintained that the treaties 
were null and void. 

When he met Harrison at Vincennes in council the last time, 
and, as he was invited by that Greneral to take a seat with him on 
the platform, he hesitated; Harrison insisted, saying that it was the 
"wish of their Great Father, the President of the United States, 
that he should do so." The chief paused a moment, raised his tall 
and commanding form to its greatest height, surveyed the troops 
and crowd around him, fixed his keen eyes upon Gov. Harrison, 
and then turning them to the sky above, and pointing toward 
heaven with his sinewy arm in a manner indicative of supreme 
contempt for the paternity assigned him, said in clarion tones: " My 
father? The sun is my father, the earth is my mother, and on her 
bosom I will recline." He then stretched himself, with his war- 
riors, on the green sward. The effect was electrical, and for some 
moments there was perfect silence. 

The Governor, then, through an interpreter, told him that he un- 
derstood he had some complaints to make and redress to ask, etc., 
and that he wished to investigate the matter and make restitution 
wherever it might be decided it should be done. As soon as the 
Governor was through with this introductory speech, the stately 
warrior arose, tall, athletic, manly, dignified and graceful, and with 
a voice at first low, but distinct and musical, commenced a reply. 
As he warmed up with his subject his clear tones might be heard^ 


ttn if '^ trum|H>t-tongued,'' to the utmost limits of the assembly. 
TUi) mi>«t (H'^rfoct silence prevailed, except when his warriors gave 
thiur guttural assent to some eloquent recital of the red man's 
wixuig and the white man's injustice. Tecumseh recited the wrongs 
which hi« ruoo hud suifered from the time of the massacre of the 
Moravian Indians to the present; said he did not know how he 
iH»uUl t>viT again be the friend of the white man; that the Great 
Spirit luul given to the Indian all the land from the Miami to the 
\li(tiii8t)ippi, and from the lakes to the Ohio, as a common property 
to all tho tribes in these borders, and that the land could not and 
nhould not l)c sold without the consent of all; that all the tribes on 
thu continent formed but one nation; that if the United States 
would not give up the lands they had bought of the Miainis and 
tho other tribes, those united with him were determined to annihi- 
lato thi)KO tribes; that they were determined to have no more chiefs, 
but in future to be governed by their warriors; that unless the 
whit4)B ceased their encroachments upon Indian lands, the fate of 
tho Indians was sealed; they had been driven from the banks of 
the Delaware across the Alleghanies, and their possessions on the 
Wuhasli and the Illinois were now to be taken from them; that in 
a fow years they would not have ground enough to bury their war- 
riors on this side of the "Father of Waters ;" that all would perish, 
all their possessions taken from them by fraud or force, unless they 
sto})ped the progress of the white man westward; that it must be 
a war of races in which one or the other must perish; that their 
tribes had been driven toward the setting sun like a galloping 
horse (ne-kat a-kush-e ka-top-o-lin-to). 

The Shawnee language, in which this most eminent Indian states- 
man spoke, excelled all other aboriginal tongues in its musical ar- 
ticulation; and the effect of Tecumseh's oratory on this occasion 
can be more easily imagined than described. Gov. Harrison, 
although as brave a soldier and General as any American, was over- 
come by this speech. He well knew Tecumseh's power and influ- 
ence among all the tribes, knew his bravery, courage and determi- 
nation, and knew that he meant what he said. "When Tecumseh 
was done speaking there was a stillness throughout the assembly 
which was really painful ; not a whisper was heard, and all eyes were 
turned from the speaker toward Gov. Harrison, who after a few 
moments came to himself, and recollecting many of the absurd 
statements of the great Indian orator, began a reply which was 
more logical, if not so eloquent. The Shawnees were attentive on.- 


til Harrison's interpreter began to translate his speech to the Mia- 
mis and Pottawatomies, when Tecamseh and his warriors sprang 
to their feet, brandishing their war-clubs and tomahawks. ^^Tell 
him,'* said Tecumseh, addressing the interpreter in Shawnee, ^^ he 
lies." The interpreter undertook to convey this message to the 
Governor in smoother lanjc^nage, but Tecumseh noticed the effort 
and remonstrated, '^ No, no; tell him he lies." The warriors began 
to grow more excited, when Secretary Gibson ordered the Ameri- 
can troops in arms to advance. This allayed the rising storm, and 
as soon as Tecumseh's ^^ He lies " was literally interpreted to the 
Governor, the latter told Tecumseh through the interpreter to tell 
Tecumseh he would hold no further council with him. 

Thns the assembly was broken up, and one can hardly imagine a 
more exciting scene. It would constitute the finest subject for a 
historical painting to adorn the rotunda of the capitol. The next 
day Tecumseh requested another interview with the Governor, 
which was granted on condition that he should make an apology to 
the Governor for his language the day before. This he made 
through the interpreter. Measures for defense and protection were 
taken, however, lest there should be another outbreak. Two com- 
panies of militia were ordered from the country, and the one in 
town added to them, while the Governor and his friends went into 
council fully armed and prepared for any contingency. On this oc- 
casion the conduct of Tecumseh was entirely different from that of 
the day before. Firm and intrepid, showing not the slightest fear 
or alarm, surrounded with a military force four times his own, he 
preserved the utmost composure and equanimity. No one would 
have supposed that he could have been the principal actor in the 
thrilling scene of the previous day. He claimed that half the 
Americans were in sympathy with him. He also said that whites 
had informed him that Gov. Harrison had purchased land from the 
Indians without any authority from the Government; that he, 
Harrison, had but two years more to remain in office, and that if 
he, Tecumseh, could prevail upon the Indians who sold the lands 
not to receive tlieir annuities for that time, and the present Gover- 
nor displaced by a good man as his successor, the latter would re- 
store to the Indians all the lands purchased from them. 

The Wyandots, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Ottawasand the Win- 
nebagoes, through their respective spokesmen, declared their 
adherence to the great Shawnee warrior and statesman. Gov. Harri- 
son then told them that he would send Tecumseh's speech to thePresi- 


dent of the United States and return the answer to the Indians as soon 
as it was received. Tecnmseh then declared that he and his allies were 
determined that the old boundary line should continue; and that 
if the whites crossed it, it would be at their peril . Gov. Harrison re- 
plied that he would be equally plain with him and state that the 
President would never allow that the lands-on the Wabash were the 
property of any other tribes than those who had occupied them 
since the white people first came to America; and as the title to 
the lands lately purchased was derived from those tribes by a fair 
purchase, he might rest assured that the right of the United States 
would be supported by the sword. " So be it," was the stern and 
haughty reply of the Shawnee chieftan, as he and his braves took 
leave of the Governor and wended their way in Indian file to their 
camping ground. 

Thus ended the last conference on earth between the chivalrous 
Tecumseh and the hero of the battle of Tippecanoe. The bones of 
the first lie bleaching on the battle-field of the Thames, and those 
of the last in a mausoleum on the banks of the Ohio; each strug- 
gled for the mastery of his race, and each no doubt was equally 
honest and patriotic in his purposes. The weak yielded to. the 
strong, the defenseless to the powerful, and the hunting-ground of 
the Shawnee is all occupied by his enemy. 

Tecumseh, with four of his braves, immediately embarked in a 
birch canoe, descended the Wabash, and went on to the South to 
unite the tribes of that country in a general system of self-defense 
against the encroachment of the whites. His emblem was a dis- 
jointed snake, with the motto, "Join or die!" In union alone was 

Before Tecumseh left the Prophet's town at the mouth of the 
Tippecanoe river, on his excursion to the South, he had a definite 
understanding with his brother and the chieftains of the other tribes 
in the Wabash country, that they should preserve perfect peaoe 
with the whites until his arrangements were completed for a con- 
federacy of the tribes on both sides of the Ohio and on the Missis* 
sippi river; but it seems that while he was in the South engaged 
in his work of uniting the tribes of that country some of the North- 
ern tribes showed signs of fight and precipitated Harrison into that 
campaign which ended in the battle of Tippecanoe and the total 
route of the Indians. Tecumseh, on his. return from the South, 
learning what had happened, was overcome with chagrin, disappoint- 
ment and anger, and accused his brother of duplicity and coward- 


Ino; induod, it is said that he never forgave him to the day of his 
<l(mth. A short time afterward, on the breaking out of the war of 
Onsat Britain, he joined Proctor, at Maiden, with a party of his 
warriors, and was killed at the battle of the Thames, Oct. 5, 1818, 
by a Mr. VVheatty, as we are positively informed by Mr. A. J. James, 
now a resident of La Harpe township, Hancock coanty, 111., whose 
father-in-law, John Pigman, of Cosnocton coanty, Ohio, was an 
eye witness. Gen. Johnson has generally had the credit of killing 


" Old " Okemos, a nephew of Pontiac and once the chief of the 
Chippewas, was born at or near Knagg's Station, on the Shiawassee 
river, where the Chicago and Grand Trunk Bailroad crosses that 
stream. The date is shrouded in mystery. At the time of bis 
death he was said to be a centenarian. The earliest account we have 
of him is that he took the war-path in 1796. Judge Littlejohn, in 
his '^ Legends of the Northwest," introduces him to the reader in 
1803. The battle of Sandusky, in which Okemos took an active 

[)art, was the great event of his life, and this it was that gave him 
lis chieftainship and caused him to be revered by his tribe. Oon- 
cerning that event he himself used to say: * 

" Myself and cousin, Man-a-to-corb-way, with 16 other braves 
enlisted under the British flag, formed a scouting or war party, left 
the upper Raisin, and made our rendezvous at Sandusky. One 
morning while lying in ambush near a road lately cut for the pas- 
sage of the American army and supply wagons, we saw 20 cavalry- 
men approaching us. Our ambush was located on a slight ridge, 
with brush directly in our front. We immediately decided trf 
attack the Americans, although they outnumbered us. Our plan 
was first to fire and cripple them, and then make a dash with the 
tomahawk. We waiteci until they approached so near that we 
could count the buttons on their coats, when firing commenced. 
The cavalry-men with drawn sabers immediately charged upon the 
Indians. The plumes upon the hats of the cavalry-men looKedlike 
a flock of a thousand pigeons just hovering for a lighting." 

Okemos and his cousin fought side by side, loading and firing 
while dodging from one cover to another. In less than ten minutes 
after the firing began the sound of a bugle was heard, and casting 
their eyes in the direction of the sound, they saw the road and 
woods "tilled with cavalry. The small party of Indians were 
immediately surrounded and every man cut down. All were left 
for dead on the field. Okemos and his cousin both had their skulls 
cloven and their bodies gashed in a fearful manner. The cavalry- 
men, before leaving the field, in order to be sure life was extinct, 
would lean forward from their horses and pierce the chests of the 
Indians, even into their lungs. The last that Okemos remembered 
was that after emptying one saddle, and springing toward another 


soldier with clnbbed rifle raised to strike, his head felt as if it were 
pierced with red-hot iron, and he went down from a heavy saber-cat. 
AH knowledge ceased from this time until many moons afterward, 
when he found himself being nursed by the squaws of his friends, 
who had found him on the battle-tield two or three davs afterward. 
The squaws thought all were dead, but upon moving the bodies of 
Okemos and his cousin, signs of life appeared, and they were taken 
to a place of safety and tinally restored to partial health. Okemos 
never afterward took part in war, this battle having satisfied him 
that " white man was a heap powerful." 

Shortly aller his recovery he solicited Col. Godfroy to intercede 
with Gen. Cass, and he and other chiefs made a treaty with the 
Americans, which was faithfully kept. 

The next we hear of the old chieftain, he had settled with his 
tribe on the banks of the Shiawassee, near the place of his birth, 
where for many years, up to 1837-'8, he was engaged in the peace- 
ful vocation of hunting, nshing and trading with the white man. 
About this time the small-pox broke out in his tribe, which, 
together with the influx of white settlers who destroyed their hunt- 
ing-grounds, scattered their bands. The plaintive, soft notes of the 
wooing young hunter's flute, made of red alder, and the sound of 
the tom-tom at council fires and village feasts were heard no more 
along the banks of our inland streams. Okemos became a mendi- 
cant, and many a hearty meal has the old Indian received from his 
friends among the whites. He was five feet four inches high, lithe, 
wiry, active, intelligent and possessed undoubted bravery ; but in con- 
versation he hesitated and mumbled his words. Previous to the 
breaking up of his band in 1837-'8, his usual dress consisted of a 
blanket coat with belt, steel pipe, hatchet, tomahawk and a heavy, 
long, English hunting-knife stuck in his belt in front, with a lar^e 
bone handle prominent outside the sheath. He painted his cheeks 
and forehead with vermilion, wore a shawl around his head turban 
fashion, and leggins. He died at his wigwam a few miles from 
Lansing, and was buried Dec. 5, 1858, at Shimnicon, an Indian 
settlement in Ionia county. His cofiiii was extremely rnde, and in 
it were placed a pipe, tobacco, hunting-knife, bird's wings, pro- 
visions, etc. An ambrotype picture was taken of this eminent 
Indian in 1857, and has ever since been in the possession of O. A. 
Jenison at Lansing, from whom we obtain the above account 

hull's subrender. 

Now we have to record an unexplained mystery, which no his- 
torian of Michigan can omit, namely, the surrender of Detroit to 
the British by Gen. Hull, when liis forces were not in action and 
were far more powerful than the enemy. He was either a coward 
or a traitor, or both. The conjmander of the British forces, Gen. 
Brock, triumphantly took possession of the fort, left a small garri- 
son under Col. Proctor, and returned to the seat of his government. 



lu Id 4^y« h^ ^^ moved with a small army 250 miles a^nst the 
<^MUV% «fi«<»U^ the surrender of a strong fort and well equipped 
i^nuv of StSlH) effective men, and one of the Territories of the 
l-nil^l StHtt*** Hull and the regular troops were taken to Mon* 
ir^U *nd tho militia were sent to their homes. 

In tho oapitulation Gen. Hull also surrendered Fort Dearborn at 
OUi\Hb^K o\M)unanding Capt Heald of that place to evacuate and 
ivtix^l to Fort Wayne. In obedience to this order the Captain 
»UrttHi tV\MU the fort with his forces; but no sooner were they out- 
*Mo tho wailt* than they were attacked by a large force of Indians, 
who t^H^k them prisoners and then proceeded to massacre them, 
kilUutf 5^S out ot the 6r» soldiers, even some of the women and 
ohiKlrtMU two of the former and 12 of the latter. Capt. Wells, a 
whito man wlio had been brought up among the Indians, but 
o*iH>U8od tho white man's cause, was killed in the massacre. 

Jhu, JU 1814, Gen. Hull appeared before a court-martial at Albany, 
N. Ym whore Gen. Dearborn was president. The accused made no 
obiiH^tion to the constitution and jurisdiction of this court; its ses- 
*i\mH woiH) protracted and every facility was given the accused to 
mako his defense. The three charges against him were treason, 
^H^wanlioe and neglect of duty. Hull was finally acquitted of the 
hitfh crime of treason, but he was found guilty of the other charges 
ana nontencod to be shot; but by reason of his services in the 
IJi^volution and his advanced age the court recommended him to 
iho inorcy of the President, who approved the finding of the court 
hut roniitted the execution of the sentence and dismissed Hull 
|\\»ni the service. The accused wrote a long defense, in which he 
tniuinerates many things too tedious to relate here. Even before 
ho was sent to Detroit he was rather opposed to the policy of the 
Government toward the British of Canada; and, besides, he had 
Iwon kindly treated by British oflScers, who helped him across the 
(h)ntier. Again, the general Government was unreasonably slow 
to inform the General of the declaration of war which hacl been 
made against Great Britain, and very slow to forward troops and 
supplies. Many things can be said on both sides; but historians 
generally approve the judgment of the court in his case, as well 
us of the executive clemency of the President. 

perky's victory. 

The lake communication of Michigan with the East, having 
been in the hands of the British since Hull's surrender, was cut off 
by Com. Perry, who obtained a signal naval victory over the British 
on Lake Erie Sept. 10, 1813. The Commodore built his fleet at 
Erie, Pa., under great disadvantages. The bar at the mouth of the 
harbor would not permit the vessels to pass out with their arma- 
ment on board. For some time after the fleet was read}' to sail, 
the British commodore continued to hover oflF the harbor, well know- 
ing it must either remain there inactive or venture out with almost 


a certainty of defeat. Dnring this blockade, Com. Perry had no 
alternative bnt to ride at anchor at Erie; but early in September 
the enemy relaxed his vigilance and withdrew to the nppor end of 
the lake. Perry then slipped out beyond the bar and fitted his ves- 
sels for action. The British fleet opposed to Com. Perry consisted 
of the ships " Detroit," carrying 19 guns; the "Queen Charlotte," 
17 guns; the schooner "Lady Prevost," 13 guns; the brig "Hun- 
ter,°' ten guns; the sloop "Little Belt," three guns; and the 
schooner "Chippewa," one gun and two swivels; and this fleet was 
commanded by a veteran officer of tried skill and valor. 

At sunrise, Sept. 10, while at anchor at Pnfc-in-Bay, the Commo- 
dore espied the enemy toward the head of the lake, and he imme- 
diately sailed up and commenced action. His flag vessel, the 
Lawrence, was engaged with the whole force of the enemy for 
nearly two hours before the wind permitted the other vessels to 
come in proper position to help. The crew of this vessel continued 
the fight until every one of them was either killed or wounded, all 
the rigging torn to pieces and every gun dismantled. Now comes 
the daring feat of the engagement which makes Perry a hero. He 
caused his boat to be lowered, in which he rowed to the Niagara 
amid the storm of shot and shell raging around him. This vessel 
he sailed through the enemy's fleet with a swelling breeze, pouring 
in her broadsides upon their ships and forcing them to surrender in 
rapid succession, until all were taken. The smaller vessels of his 
fleet helped in this action, among which was one commanded by 
the brave and faithful Capt. Elliott. This victory was one of the 
most decisive in all the annals of American history. It opened 
the lake to Gen. Wm. H. Harrison, who had been operating in 
Indiana and Ohio, and who now crossed with his army to Canada, 
where he had a short campaign, terminated by the battle of the 
Moravian towns, by which the enemy were driven from the north- 
western frontier. A detachment of his army occupied Detroit 
Sept. 29, 1813, and Oct. 18 an armistice was concluaed with the 
Indians, thus restoring tranquillity to the Territory of Michigan. 
Soon afterward Oen. Harrison left Gen. Cass in command at 
Detroit and moved with the main body of his army down to the 
Niagara frontier. 

Perry's brilliant success gave to the Americans the uncontrolled 
command of the lake, and Sept. 23 their fleet landed 1,200 
men near Maiden. Col. Proctor, however, had previously evac- 
uated that post, after setting flre to the fort and public store- 
houses. Com. Perry in the meantime passed up to Detroit with 
the " Ariel " to assist in the occupation of that town, while Capt. 
Elliott, with the "Lady Prevost," the "Scorpion," and the 
" Tigress," advanced into Lake St. Clair to intercept the enemy's 
stores. Thus Gen. Harrison, on his arrival at Detroit and Maiden, 
found both places abandoned by the enemy, and was met by the 
Canadians asking for his protection. Tecumseh proposed to the 
British commander that they should hazard an engagement at Mai- 


den; but the latter foresaw that he should be exposed to the fire of 
the American fleet in that position, and therefore resolved to march 
to the Moravian towns upon the Thames, near St. Clair lake, 
above Detroit, and there try the chance of a battle. His force at 
this time consisted of about 900 regular troops, and 1,500 Indians 
commanded by Tecumseh. The American army amounted to 
about 2,700 men, of whom 120 were regulars, a considerable number 
of militia, about 30 Indians, and the remainder Kentucky riflemen, 
well mounted, and mainly young men, full of ardor, and burning 
with a desire to revenge the massacre of their friends and relatives 
at the Biver Raisin. 

During the following winter there were no military movements, 
except an incursion into the interior of the upper province by 
Maj. Holmes, who was attacked near Stony creek, and maintained 
his ground with bravery. 


The war with Great Britain was now (November, 1813) practi- 
cally closed, so far as the Northwest was concerned, but the post at 
Mackinaw yet remained in the hands of the enemy, and active steps 
were taken to dispossess the English of this point and drive them 
wholly from the oomain of the United States. The first effort to 
start an expedition failed; but in the summer of 1814 a well- 
equipped force of two sloops of war, several schooners and 750 
land militia, under the command of Com. Sinclair and Lieut.-Col. 
Croghan, started for the north. Contrary, however, to the advice 
of experienced men, the commanders concluded to visit St. Joseph 
first, and the British at Mackinaw heard of their coming and pre- 
pared themselves. The consequence was a failure to take the place. 
Major Holmes was killed, and the Winnebago Indians, from Green 
Bay, allies of the British, actually cut out the heart and livers 
from the American slain and cooked and ate them! Com. Sin- 
clair afterward made some arrangements to starve out the post, but 
his vessels were captured and the British then remained secure in 
the possession of the place until the treaty of peace the following 

The war with England formally closed on Dec. 24, 1814, when a 
treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. The 9th article of the treaty 
required the United States to put an end to hostilities with all 
tribes or nations of Indians with whom they had been at war; to 
restore to such tribes or nations respectively all the rights and pos- 
sessions to which they were entitled in 1811, before the war, on 
condition that such Indians should agree to desist from all hostili- 
ties against the United States. But in February, just before the 
treaty was sanctioned by our Government, there were signs of 
Indians accumulating arms and ammunition, and a cautionary 
order was therefore issued to have all the white forces in readiness 
for an attack by the Indians; but the attack was not made. During 


the ensuiof^^ summer and fall the Uoited States Government ac- 
quainted the Indians with the provisions of tlie treaty, and 
entered into subordinate treaties of^eace with the principal tribes. 
Just before the treaty of Spring Wells (near Detroit) was signed, 
the Shawanee Prophet retired to Canada, declaring his resolu- 
tion to abide by any treaty which the chiefs might sign. Some 
time afterward he returned to the Shawanee settlement in Ohio, 
and lastly to the west of the Mississippi, where he died, in 1834. 
The British Government allowed him a pension from 1813 until 
his death. 


Previous to the formation of the Northwestern Territory, the 
country within its bounds was claimed by several of the Eastern 
States, on the ground that it was included within the limits indicated 
by their charters from the English crown. In answer to the wishes of 
the Government and people, these States in a patriotic spirit 
surrendered their claims to this extensive territory, that it might 
constitute a common fund to aid in the payment of the national 
debt. To prepare the way for this cession, a law had been passed 
in October, 1780, that the territory so to be ceded should be dis- 

Eosed of for the common benefit of the whole Union; that the 
tates erected therein should be of suitable extent, not less than 100 
nor more than 150 miles square; and that any expenses that might 
be incurred in recovering the posts then in the hands of the 
British should be reimbursed. New York released her claims to 
Congress March 1, 1781; Virginia, March 1, 1784; Massachusetts, 
April 19, 1785, and Connecticut, Sept. 4, 1786. 

Under the French and British dominion the points occupied on 
the eastern boundary of what is now the State of Michigan were 
considered a part of New France, or Canada. Detroit was known 
to the French as Fort Pontchartrain. The military commandant, 
under both governments, exercised a civil jurisdiction over the 
settlements surrounding their posts. In 1796, when the British 
garrisons at Detroit and Mackinaw were replaced by detachments 
by Gen. Wayne, Michigan became a part of the Northwestern Ter- 
ritory and was organized as the county of Wayne, entitled to one 
Kepresentative in the General Assembly, held at Chillicothe. 

In 1800, Indiana was made a separate Territory, embracing all 
the country west of the present State of Ohio and of an extension 
of the western line of that State due north to the territorial limits 
of the United States; in 1802, the peninsula was annexed to the 
Territory of Indiana, and in 1805 Michigan began a separate exist- 
ence. That part of the Territory that lies east of a north and south 
line t^irough the middle of Lake Michigan was formed into a dis- 
tinct government, and the provisions of the ordinance of 1787 con- 
tinued to regulate it. Unaer this constitution the executive power 
was invested in a governor, the judicial in three judges, and the 


legislative in both united ; the officers were appointed by the gen- 
eral Government, and their legislative authority was restrictea to 
the adoption of laws from codes of the several States. This form of 
government was to continue until the Territory should contain 5,000 
free white males of full age. It then became optional with the peo* 
pie to choose a legislative body, to be supported by them; but sub- 
sequent legislation by Congress more liberally provided a Legislature 
at the expense of the general Government and also added to privi- 
leges in the elective franchise and eligibility to office; as, for exam- 
ple, under the ordinance a freehold qualification was required, both 
on the part of the elector and of the elected. 

The lirst officers of the Territory of Michigan were: Wm. Hull, 
Governor; Augustus B. Woodward, Chief tfudge; Frederick Bates, 
Sr., Assistant Judge and Treasurer; John Griffin, Assistant Judge; 
Col. James May, Marshal; Abijah Hull, Surveyor; Peter Audrain, 
Clerk of the Legislative Board. May 5, 1807, Joseph Watson was 
appointed Legislative secretary; in November, 1806, Elijah Brush 
was appointed treasurer, to succeed Mr. Bates, and the books of the 
office were delivered over on the 26th of that month, and William 
McDowell Scott was appointed marshal in November, 1806, to suc- 
ceed Col. May. The latter never held the office of judge of the 
Territory, but about 1800-'3 he was chief justice of the court of 
cqmmon pleas. 

Augustus Brevoort Woodward was a native of Virginia; was 
appointed a judge of the Territory in 1805, his term of office expir- 
ing Feb. 1, 1824. He was soon after appointed judge of the Terri- 
tory of Florida, and three years after that he died . The gr«nd 
scheme of "Catholepistemiad," or State University of Michigan, 
with its numerous details described under sesquipedalian names 
from the Greek, owed its origin to Judge Woodward. 

John Griffin was appointed assistant judge in 1807, his term of 
office expiring Feb. 1, 1824. He was a native of Virginia, and died 
in Philadelphia about 1840. 

James Witherell was a native of Massachusetts; was appointed a 

dge of the Territory April 23, 1808, his term of office expiring 
'eb. 1, 1824, when he was re-appointed for four years, and Feb. 1, 
1828, he was appointed Territorial secretary. 

When in 1818 Illinois was admitted into the Union, all the terri- 
tory lying north of that State and of Indiana was annexed to Mich- 
igan. In 1819, the Territory was authorized to elect a delegate to 
Congress, according to the present usage with reference to Terri- 
tories; previous to this time, according to the ordinance 1787, a 
Territory was not entitled to a delegate until it entered upon the 
"second grade of Government," and the delegate was then to be 
chosen by the General Assembly. 

In 1823 Congress abolished the legislative power of the governor 
and judges, and granted more enlarged ones to a council, to be 
composea of nine persons selected by the President of the IJnited 


States from eighteen chosen by the electors of the Territory; and by 
this law, also, eligibility to office was made co-extensive with the 
right of suffrage as established by the act of 1819; also the judicial 
term of office was limited to four years. In 1825 all county officers, 
except those of a judicial nature, were made elective, and the 
appointments which remained in the hands of the executive were 
made subject to the approval of the legislative council. In 1827 
the electors were authorized to choose a number of persons for the 
legislative council, which was empowered to enact all laws not incon- 
sistent with the ordinance of 1787. Their acts, however, were sub- 
ject to abolishment by Congress and to veto by the territorial 

When Gen. Wm. Hull arrived at Detroit to assume his official 
duties as Governor, he found the town in ruins, it having been 
destroyed by fire. Whether it had been burned by design or acci- 
dent was not known. The inhabitants were without food and shel- 
ter, camping in the open fields; still they were not discouraged, and 
soon commenced rebuilding their houses on the same site; Congress 
also kindly granted the sufferers the site of the old town of Detroit 
and 10,000 acres of land adjoining. A territorial militia was organ- 
ized, and a code of laws was adopted similar to those of the original 
States. This code was signed by Gov. Hull, Augustus B. Wood- 
ward and Frederick Bates, judges of the Territory, and was called 
the " Woodward code." 

At this time the bounds of the Territory embraced all the coun- 
try on the American side of the Detroit river, east of the north and 
south line through the center of Lake Michigan. The Indian land 
claims had been partially extinguished previous to this period. By 
the treaty of Fort Mcintosh in 1785, and that of Fort Harmar in 
1787, extensive cessions had been either made or confirmed, and in 
1807 the Indian titles to several tracts became entirely extinct. 
Settlements having been made under the French and English gov- 
ernments, with irregularity or absence of definite surveys and 
records, some confusion sprang up in regard to the titles to valuable 
tracts. Accordingly Congress established a Board of Commission- 
ers to examine and settle these conflicting claims, and in 1807 
another act was passed, confirming, to a certain extent, the titles 
of all such as had been in possession of the lands then occupied by 
them from the year 1796, the year of the final evacuation by the 
British garrisons. Other acts were subsequently passed, extending 
the same conditions to the settlements on the upper lakes. 

As chief among the fathers of this State we may mention Q^n. 
Lewis Cass, Stevens T. Mason, Augustus B. Woodward, John 
Norvell, Wm. Woodbridge, John Biddle, Wm. A. Fletcher, Elon 
Farnsworth, Solomon Sibley, Bcnj. B. Kircheval, John R. Wil- 
liams, George Morrell, Daniel Goodwin, Augustus S. Porter, Beni. 
F. H. Witherell, Jonathan Shearer and Charles C. Trowbridge, all 
of Wayne county; Edmund Munday, James Kingsley and Alpheus 
Felch, of Washtenaw; Ross Wilkinsand John JT Adam, of Lena- 


wee; Warner Wing, Charles Noble and Austin E. Wing, of Monroe 
connty; Randolph Manning, O. D. Kichardson and James 6. Hunt, 
of Oakland; Henry R. Schoolcraft, of Chippewa; Albert Miller, of 
the Saginaw Valley ; John Stockton and Robert P. Eldridge, of 
Macomb; Lucius Lyon, Charles E. Stuart, Edwin H. Lothrop, 
Epaphroditus Ransom and Hezekiah G. Wells, of Kalamazoo; Isaac 
E. Orary, John D. Pierce and Oliver C. Comstock, of Calhoun ; 
Kinsley S. Bingham, of Livingston; John S. Barry, of St. Joseph; 
Charles W. Whipple, Calvin Britain and Thomas Fitzgerald, of 
Berrien; and George Redfield, of Cass. These men and their com- 
peers shaped the policy of the State, and decided what should be 
its future. They originated all and established most of the great 
institutions which are the evidences of our advanced civilization, 
and of which we are so justly proud. 


At the close of the war with Great Britain in 1814, an era of 

Erosperity dawned upon the infant territory. Gen. Lewis Cass, who 
ad serv^ the Government with great distinction during the war, 
was appointed Governor. The condition of the people was very 
much reduced, the country was wild, and the British flag still waved 
over the fort at Mackinaw. There was nothing inviting to immi- 
grants except the mere facts of the close of the war and the exist- 
ence of a fertile soil and a good climate. The Indians were still 
dangerous, and the country was still comparatively remote from 
the centers of civilization and government. Such a set of circum- 
stances was just the proper environment for the development of 
all those elements of the " sturdy pioneer " which we so often 
admire in writijag up Western history. Here was the field for 
stout and brave men; here was the place for the birth and educa- 
tion of real Spartan men, — men of strength, moral courage and 
indomitable perseverance. 

At first, Gen. Cass had also the care of a small portion of Canada 
opposite Detroit, and he had only 27 soldiers for defending Detroit 
against the hostile Indians and carrying on the whole government 
Believing that a civil governor should not be encumbered also with 
military duty, he resigneji his brigadier-generalship in the army. 
But as Governor he soon had occasion to exercise his military 
power, even to act on the field as commander, in chasing away 
marauding bands of Indians. The latter seemed to be particularly 
threatening at this time, endeavoring to make up in yelling and 
petty depredations what they lacked in sweeping victory over all 
the pale-faces. 

In times of peace Gov. Cass had high notions of civilizing the 
Indians, encouraging the purchase of their lands, limiting their 
hunting grounds to a narrow compass, teaching them agriculture 
and mechanics and providing the means for their instruction and 
religious training. The policy of the French and English had been 



to pacify them with presents and gewgaws, merely to obtain a tem- 
porary foothold for the purpose of carrying on the fur trade. Those 
oenefited by the trade lived thousands of miles away and had no 
interest in the permanent development of the country. The United 
States Government, on the other hand, indorsed Gov. Cass' policy, 
which was to result in the development of the wealth of the country 
and the establishment of all the arts of peace. Gens. Cass and 
Harrison were accordingly empowered to treat with the Indians 
on the Miami and Wabash; ana July 20 a treaty was signed with 
the Wyandots, Senecas, Shawnees, Miamis and Delawares, which 
restored comparative tranquillity. During the summer, however, 
there was Indian war enough to call out all of Gov. Cass' men, in 
aid of Gen. Brown on the Niagara. Indians can never remain long 
at peace, whatever may be the obligations they assume in treaty- 
making. Gov. Cass often headed his forces in person and drove the 
hostile tribes from place to place until they finally retreated to 

An attempt was made to recover Mackinaw from the English in 
July of this year (1814), but the British works were too strong; how- 
ever, the establishments at St. Joseph and at Sault Ste. Marie were 
destroyed. In the following winter the final treaty of peace was 
ratified between England and the United States. The population 
of the territory at this time was not over 5,000 or 6,000, scattered 
over a vast extent, and in a state of great destitution on account of 
the calamities of war. Scarcely a family, on resuming the duties 
of home, found more than the remnants of former wealth and com- 
fort. Families had been broken up and dispersed; parents had 
been torn from their children, and children from each other; some 
had been slain on the battle-field, and others had been massacred 
by the ruthless savages. Laws had become a dead letter, and 
morals had suffered in the general wreck. Agriculture had been 
almost abandoned and commerce paralyzed; food and all necessa- 
ries of life were scarce, and luxuries unknown. Money was difficult 
to get, and the bank paper of Ohio, which was almost the sole cir- 
culating medium, was 25 per cent below par. 

Such was the gloomy state of domestic affairs when Gen. Cass 
assumed the ofiice of governor. Besides, he had the delicate task 
of aiding in legislation and of being at the same time the sole exec- 
utive of the law. In 1817 he made an important treaty with the 
Indians, by which their title was extinguished to nearlj'^ all the land 
in Ohio, and a great portion in Indiana and Michigan. This treaty 
attached the isolated population of Michigan to the State of Ohio, 
made theTerritorial government in a fuller sense an integral mem- 
ber of the federal Union, and removed all apprehension of a hostile 
confederacy among the Indian tribes along the lake and river 

Hitherto there had not been a road in Michigan, except the mili- 
tary road along the Detroit river; but as the Indian settlements and 
lands could not now be interposed as a barrier, Gen. Cass called the 







^^'i '' 


attention of Congress to the necessity of a military road from 
Detroit to Sandasky, throngh a trackless morass called the black 

In the summer of this year, the first newspaper published in 
Michigan was started at Detroit. It was called the Detroit Gazette^ 
and was published by Messrs. Sheldon & Keed, two enterprising 
young men, the former of whom published an interesting and val- 
uable early history of Michigan. 

The " Western Sun " was the first newspaper published in the 
Indiana Territory, now comprising the four great States of Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, and the second in all that country 
once known as the " Northwestern Territoi^." It was commenced 
at Yincennes in 1803, by Elihu Stout, of Kentucky, and first called 
the Indi/jma Gazette^ and July 4, 1804, was changed to the West- 
em Sun. Mr. Stout continued the paper until 1845, amid many 
discouragements, when he was appointea postmaster at the place, 
and he sold out the office. 

May 6, 1812, Congress passed an act requiring that 2,000,000 
acres of land should oe surveyed in the Territory of Louisiana, the 
same amount in the Territory of Illinois, and the same amount in 
the Territory of Michigan, in all 6,000,000 acres, to be set apart for . 
the soldiers in the war with Great Britain. Each soldier was to 
have 160 acres of land, fit for cultivation. The surveyors under this 
law reported that there were no lands in Michigan fit for cultiva- 
tion! This unconscionable report deterred immigration for many 
years, and the Government took the whole 6,000,000 acres from 
Illinois and Missouri. The language of that report is so remark- 
able that we must quote it: 

" The country on the Indian boundary line, from the mouth of 
the Great Auglaize river and running thence for about 50 miles, is 
(with some few exceptions) low, wet land, with a very thick growth 
of underbrush, intermixed with very bad marshes, but generally 
very heavily timbered .with beech, cottonwood, oak, etc.; thence 
continuing north and extending from the Indian boundary east- 
ward, the number and extent of the swamps increase, with the 
addition of numbers of lakes, from 20 chains to two and three miles 
across. Many of the lakes have extensive marshes adjoining their 
margins, sometimes thickly covered with a species of pine called 
* tamarack,' and other places covered with a coarse, high grass, 
and uniformly covered from six inches to three feet (and more at 
times) with water. The margins of these lakes are not the only 
places where swamps are found, for they are interspersed through- 
out the whole country and filled with water, as above stated, and 
varying in extent. The intermediate space between these swamps 
and lakes, which is probably near one-half of the country, is, with a 
very few exceptions, a poor, barren, sandy land on which scarcely 
any vegetation grows except very small, scrubby oaks. In many 
places that part which may be called dry land is composed of little, 
short sand-hills, forming a kind of deep basins, the bottoms of many 


of which are composed of s marsh similar to the abore described. 
The Btreams are generally narrow, and very deep compared with 
their width, the ahoree and bottoms of which are, with a very few 
exceptions, swampy beyond descriptioa; and it is with the utmost 
difflonlty that a place caa be fouDd orer which horses can be con- 
veyed with satety. 

"A circamatance pecaliar to that country is exhibited in many 
of the marshes by their beinff thinly covered with a sward of grass, 
by walking on which evinced the existeuce of water or a very thin 
mud immediately under their covering, which sinks from six to 
eighteen inches Irom the pressure of the foot at every step, and at 
the same time rising before and behind the person passing over. 
The margins of many of tlie lakes and streams are in a similar 
situation, and in many places are literally afloat. On approaching 
the eastern part of the military lands, toward the private claims on 
the straights and lake, the country does not contain &u many swamps 
and lakes, bat the extreme sterility and barrenness of the soil con- 
tinues the same. Taking the country altogether, so far as has been 
explored, and to all appearances, together with the information 
received concerning the balance, it is so bad there would not be 
more than one acre ont of a hnndred, if there would be one out 
of a thousand, that would in any case admit of cultivation." 

It is probable that those Government surveyors made a lazy job 
of their duty and depended almost entirely upon the fnr traders, 
who wore interested in keeping settlers ont of the conntry. But we 
must make allowance, too, for the universal ignorance existing at 
that time of the methods of developing the Western country which 
modern invention has brought to bear since the days of our fore- 
tathers. We must remember that our Western prairies were counted 
worth nothing, even by all the early settlers. 

By the year 1818 some immigrants crowded in and farther 
explored and tested the land; and in March, this year, Gov. Cass 
called for the views of the inhabitants upon the question of chang- 
ing the civil authority by entering upon the second grade ofTerri- 
torial government. A vote was taken and a majority were found 
to be against it; but for the purpose of facilitating immigration and 
settlement, Gov. Cass recommended to the Secretary of the Treasury 
that the lands in the district of Detroit be at once brought into 
market. The department immediately complied, and the lands 
were offered Ibr sale the following autumn. Immigration was now 
increased more than ever before, and the permanent growth of the 
conntry became fully established. 

In 1819 the people were allowed to elect a delegate to Congress. 
The population was now 8,806 in the whole Territory, distributed as 
follows: Detroit, 1,450, not including the garrison; the Island of 
Mackinaw, still the entrepot of the fur trade, a stationary popu- 
lation of about 450, sometimes increaeed to 3,000 or over; Sault 
8te. Marie, 15 or 20 houses, occupied by French and English 


The year 1819 was also rendered memorable bj the appearance 
of the first steamboat on the lakes, the '' Walk-in-the- water," which 
came up Lake Erie and went on to Mackinaw. 

Up to this time no executive measures had been taken by the 
people to avail themselves of the school lands appropriated by the 
ordinance of 1787, except the curious act passed by the Governor 
and judges establishing the •'Catholepistemiad," or University of 
Michigan, with 13 " didaxia," or professorships. The scheme for 
this institution was a grand one, described by quaint, sesquipe- 
dalian technicalities coined from the Greek language, and the whole 
devised by that unique man, Judge Woodward. The act is given 
in full in theTerritorial laws of Michigan, compiled and printed a 
few years ago. It was Judge Woodward, also, who laid out the 
plan of Detroit, in the form of a cobweb, with a •' campus Martins'^ 
and a grand circus, and avenues radiating in every direction, grand 
public parks and squares, etc. Centuries would be required to ful- 
nil his vast design. Like authors and artists of ancient Greece and 
Home, he laid i^he foundations of grand work for posterity more 
than for the passing generation. 

Settlements now began to form at the points where now are the 
cities of Ann Arbor, Ypsilanti, Jackson, Tecumseh and Pontiac. 
There were still some annoyances by the Indians. The Sacs and 
Foxes annually made their appearance to receive presents from the 
British' agents at Maiden, and as they passed along they would 
commit many depredations. This practice of the British Govern- 
ment had a tendency to prejudice tne Indians against the Ameri- 
cans, and it thus became necessary to take some measures for 
removing the Indians beyond British influence or otherwise putting 
a stop to this dangerous custom. Accordingly, in the fall of 1819, 
Gov. Oass desired the Government at Washington to cause a more 
thorough exploration to be made of the lake region, estimating the 
number and influence of the Indians, their relations, prejudices, 
etc., with a view to the further extinguishment of Indian title to 
land, etc.; but the Government deemed it advisable at this time 
only to take 10 miles square at Sanlt Ste. Marie for military pur- 
poses, and some islands near Mackinaw, where beds of plaster had 
been found to exist. However, the general Government soon 
ordered an expedition to be fitted out for such an exploration as 
Gov. Cass desired, to travel with birch canoes. The men composing 
the expedition were Gen. Cass and Robert A. Forsyth, his private 
secretary; Capt. D. B. Douglass, topographer and astronomer; Dr. 
Alex. Wolcot, physician; James D. Doty, official secretary; and 
Charles C. Trowbridge, assistant topographer. Lieut. Evans Mac- 
key was commander of the escort, which consisted of 10 U. S. 
soldiers. Besides these there were 10 Canadian voyiigeurSj to 
manage the canoes, and 10 Indians to act as hunters. The latter 
were under the direction of James Biley and Joseph Parks, who 
were also to act as interpreters. 


This party left Detroit March 24, 1820, and reached Michili- 
mackinac, June 6. On leaving this place June 1^, 22 soldiers, 
under the command of Lien t. John S. Pierce, were added to the party, 
and the expedition now nnmbered 64 persons. They reached the 
Sanlt Ste. Marie the 16th, where Gren. Cass called the Indians (Chip, 
pewas) together, in order to have a definite understanding witli 
them concerning the bonndarj lines of the land grants, and thereby 
renew also their sanction of former treaties. At first the Indians 
protested against the Americans having any garrison at the place, 
and some of them grew violent and almost precipitated a general 
fight, which would have been disastrous to Gen. Cass' party, as the 
Indians were far more numerous; but Cass exhibited a great degree 
of coolness and courage, and caused more deliberate counsels to 
prevail among the savages. Thus the threatened storm blew over. 

The next aay tbe expedition resumed their journey, on Lake 
Superior, passing the '^ pictured rocks," and landing at one place 
where there was a band of friendly Chippewas. June 25 they left 
Lake Superior, ascended Portage river and returned home by way 
of L#ake Michigan, after having traveled over 4,000 miles. 

The results of the expedition were: a more thorough knowledge 
of a vast region and of the numbers and disposition of the various 
tril)es of Indians; several important Indian treaties, by which val- 
uable lands were ceded to the United States; a knowledge of the 
operations of the Northwest Fur Company; and the selection of 
sites for a line of military posts. 

As the greatest want of the people seemed to be roads, Congress 
was appealed to for assistance, and not in vain; for that body 
immeaiately provided for the opening of roads between Detroit 
and the Miami river, from Detroit to Chicago, and from Detroit to 
Fort Gratiot, and for the improvement of La Plaisance Bay. 
Government surveys were carried into the Territory. Two straight 
lines were drawn through the center of the Territory, — east and 
west, and north and south, the latter being denominated the 
principal meridian and the former the base line. The Territory was 
also divided into townships of six miles square. 

In 1821 there was still a tract of land lying south of Grand 
river which had not yet been added to the Uniteo States, and Gov. 
Cass deemed it necessary to negotiate with the Indians for it To 
accomplish this work he had to visit Chicago; and as a matter of 
curiosity we will inform the reader of his most feasible route to 
that place, which he can contrast with that of the present day. 
Leaving Detroit, he descended to the mouth of the Maumee river; 
he ascended that river and crossed the intervening country to the 
Wabash; descended that stream to the Ohio; down the latter to 
the Mississippi, and up this and the Illinois rivers to Chicago! 

At this council the American commissioners were G«n. Cass 
and Judge Sibley, of Detroit. They were successful in their 
undertaking, and obtained a cession of the land in question. On 
this occasion the Indians exhibited in a remarkable manner their 


appetite for whisky. As a preliminary step to the negotiations, 
the commissioners ordered that no spirits should be given to the 
Indians. The chief of the latter was a man about a hundred years 
old, but still of a good constitution. The commissioners urged 
every consideration to convince him and the other Indians of the 
propriety of the course they had adopted, but in vain. " Father," 
said the old chieftain, '' we do not care for the land, nor the money, 
nor the goods: what we want is whisky; ^ive us whisky." But 
the commissioners were inexorable, and the Indians were forced to 
content themselves. 

This year (1821) also two Indians were hung for murder. There 
was some fear that the event would be made by the British an 
occasion of arousing Indian atrocities in the vicinity, and the peti- 
tion for the pardon of the wretches was considered by Gov. Cass 
with a great deal of embarrassment. He finally concluded to let 
the law take its course, and accordingly, Dec. 25, the murderers 
were hung. 

In 1822 six new counties were created, namely, Lapeer, Sanilac, 
Saginaw, Shiawassee, Washtenaw and Lenawee; and tney contained 
much more territory then they do at the present day. This year 
the first stage line was established in the Territory, connecting the 
county seat of Macomb county with the steamer '^ Walk-in-the- 
Water " at Detroit. 

In 1823 Congress changed the form of Territorial government, 
abrogating the legislative power of the governor and judges and 
establishing a '^Legislative Council," to consist of nine members, 
appointed by the President of the United States out of 18 candi- 
dates elected by the people. By the same act the term of judicial 
ofiice was limited to four years, and eligibility to office was made to 
require the same qualifications as the right to suffrage. The peo- 
ple now took new interest in their government, and telt encouraged 
to lay deeper the foundations of future prosperity. The first 
legislative council under the new regime met at Detroit June 7, 
1824, when Gov. Cass delivered his message, reviewing the progress 
of the Territory, calling attention to the needs of popular education 
and recommending a policy of governmental administration. Dur- 
ing this year he also called the attention of the general Government 
to the mineral resources of the Superior region, and asked for gov- 
ernmental explorations therein. At its second session atter this. 
Congress authorized a commission to treat with the Indians of the 
upper peninsula for permission to explore thaf country. 

in 1825 the Erie canal was completed from the Hudson river to 
Buffalo, N. Y., and the effect was to increase materially the flow of 
people and wealth into the young Territory of Michigan. The citi- 
zens of the East began to learn tlie truth concerning the agricult- 
ural value of this peninsula, and those in search of good and 
permanent homes came to see for themselves, and afterward came 
with their friends or families to remain as industrious residents, to 
develop a powerful State. The number in the Territorial council 


W8fl increased to 13, to be chosen by the President from 26 persons 
elected by the people. In 1827 an act was passed authorizing the 
electors to choose their electors directly,, without the further sanc- 
tion of either the President or Congress. The power of enacting 
laws was given to the council, subject, however, to the approval of 
(yongress and the veto of the Governor. This form of Territorial 
government remained in force until Michigan was organized as a 
Htate in 1837. William Woodbridge was Secretary of the Territory 
during the administration of Gov. Cass, and deserves great credit 
for the ability with which he performed the duties of his office. In 
the absence of the chief executive he was acting governor, and a 
[lortion of the time he represented the Territory as a delegate to 
Congress. In 1828 he was succeeded by James ^Vitherell, and in 
two years by Gen. John T. Mason. 

In 1831 Gen. Cass was appointed Secretary of War in the cabi- 
net of President Jackson, after having served Michigan as its chief 
executive for 18 years. He had been appointed six times, running 
through the presidency of Madison, Monroe and John Q. Adams, 
without any opposing candidate or a single vote against him in the 
senate. H^ faithfully discharged his duties as Indian commissioner 
and concluded 19 treaties with the Indians, acquiring large cessions 
of territory in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan. 
He was a practical patriot of whom the people of the peninsular 
State justly feel proud. Probably more tnan any other man, Gen. 
Cass was the father of Michigan. 


On the promotion of Gen. Cass to a seat in the cabinet of Presi- 
dent Jackson and his consequent resignation as Governor of Michi- 
gan, Gen. Geo. B. Porter was appointed Governor in July, 1831, 
and Sept. 22 following he entered upon the duties of the office. 
The population of the Territory at this time was about 35,000, pros- 
perity was reigning all around and peace everywhere prevailed, 
except that in 1832 the Black Hawk war took place in Illinois, but 
did not aflfect this peninsula. In this war, however. Gov. Porter 
cooperated with other States in furnishing militia. 

While Gov. Porter was the chief executive, Wisconsin was de- 
tached from Michigan and erected into a separate Territory; many 
new townships were organized and wagon roads opened and im- 
proved; land began to rise rapidly in value, and speculators 
multiplied. The council provided for the establishment and regu- 
lation of common schools,incorporated '^The Lake Michigan Steam- 
boat Company," with a capital of $40,000; and incorporated the 
first railroad company in Michigan, the ^' Detroit & St. Joseph 
Railroad Company," since callef the " Michigan Central." iSie 
original corporators were, John Biddle, John K Williams, Charles 
Lamed, E. P. Hastings, Oliver Newberry, De Garmo James, James 
Abbott, John Gilbert, Abel Millington, Job Gorton, John Allen^ 


Anson Brown^ Samnel W. Dexter, W. E. Perrine, Wm. A. Thonip- 
8on, Isaac Crary. O. W. Golden, Caleb Eldred, Cyrus Lovell, Calvin 
Brittain and Talman Wheeler. The act of incorporation required 
that the road should be completed within 30 years; this condition 
was complied with in less than one-third of that time. The same 
council also incorporated the ^^ Bank of the Biver Raisin," with a 
branch at Pontiac. Previous to this two other banks had been 
chartered, namely : the " Bank of Michigan," in 1817, with a branch 
at Bronson, and the '^ Farmers' and Mechanics' B^nk of Michigan," 
with a branch at St. Joseph. 

The Legislative Council of 1834 also authorized a vote of the 
residents to be taken on the question of organizing as a State and 
becoming a member of the Union; but the vote was so light and 
the majority so small that Congress neglected to consider the matter 
Berionsly until two years afterward. 

During Porter's administration a change was made in the 
method of disposing of the public lands, greatly to the benefit of 
the actual settlers. Prior to 1820 the Government price of land 
was $2 an acre, one-fourth to be paid down and the remainder in 
throe annual installments; and the land was subject to forfeiture if 
these payments were not promptly made. This system having 
"been found productive of many serious evils, the price of land was 
put at $1.25 an acre, all to be paid at the time of purchase. This 
change saved a deal of trouble. 

During the administration of Gov. Porter occurred the "Black 
Hawk" war, mainly in Illinois, in 1832, which did not affect 
Michigan to any appreciable extent, except to raise sundry fears by 
the usual alarms accompanying war gossip. A few volunteers 
probably went to the scene of action from thisTerritorv, but if any 
systematic account was ever kept of this service, we fail to find it. 

In October, 1831, Edwin Jerome left Detroit with a surveying 
party composed of John Mullet, surveyor, and Utter, Brink and 
Peck, for that portion of Michigan Territory lying west of Lake 
Michigan, now Wisconsin. Their outfit consisted of a French 
pony team and a buffalo wagon to carry tent, camp equipage, 
blankets, etc. Most of the way to the southeast corner of Lake 
Michigan they followed a wagon track or an Indian trail, and a 
cabin or an Indian hut to lodge in at night; but west of the point 
mentioned they found neither road nor inhabitant. They arrived 
at Chicago in a terrible rain and " put-up" at the fort. This far- 
famed city at that time had but five or six houses, and they were 
built of logs. Within a distance of three or four miles of the fort 
the land was valued by its owners at 50 cents an acre. 

After 23 days' weary travel through an uninhabited country, 
fording and swimming streams and exposed to much rainy weather, 
they arrived at Galena, where they commenced their survey, but in 
two days the ground froze so deep that further work was abandoned 
until the next spring. The day after the memorable Stillman bat- 
tle with Black Hawk, while the Mullet party were crossing the 


Blae moundB, they met au Indian half-chief, who had last arrived 
from the Menominee camps with the details of the battle. He 
stated the slain to be three Indians and 11 whites. The long shak- 
ing of hands and the extreme cordiality of this Indian alarmed 
Mullet for the safety of his party, but he locked the secret in his 
own heart until the next day. They had just completed a town 
corner when Mullet, raising himself to his full height, said, ^' Boys, 
I'm going in; I'll not risk my scalp for a few paltry shillings." This 
laconic speech was an electric shock to the whole company. Mr. 
Jerome, in describing his own sensations, said that the hair of his 
head then became as porcupine quills, raising his hat in the air and 
himself from the ground; and the top of his head became as sore 
as a boil. 

July 6, 1834, Gov. Porter died, and the administration devolved 
upon the secretary of the Territory, Stevens T. Mason, during 
wnose time occurred 


This difficulty was inaugurated by a conflict of the acts of Con- 
gress from time to time, made either carelessly or in ignorance of 
the geography of the West and pf the language of former public acts. 
Michigan claimed as her southern boundary a line running from 
the extreme southern point of Lake Michigan directly east to Lake 
Erie, which would include Toledo, an important point, as it was 
the principal terminus of the proposed Wabash & Erie canal. This 
claim was made by virtue of clauses in the ordinance of 1787. Ohio, 
on the other hand, claimed that the ordinance had been superseded 
by the Constitution of the United States, and that Congress had 
the right to regulate the boundary; also, that the constitution of 
that State, which had been accepted by Congress, described a line 
different from that claimed by Michigan. Mr. Woodbridge, the 
delegate from Michigan, ably onposed in Congress the claim of 
Ohio, and the committee on public lands decided unanimously in 
favor of this State; but in the hurry of business no action was 
taken by Congress and the question remained open. 

The claim of Michigan was based principally upon the follow- 
ing points: The ordinance of 1787 declares the acts therein con- 
tained '^ articles of compact between the original States and the 
people and States in said Territory (northwest of the river Ohio), 
and forever to remain unalterable, unless by common consent." 
This ordinance defines the Territory to include all that region lying 
north and northwest of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi rivers. 
In the fifth article it is provided that there shall be formed not less 
than three nor more than five States within its limits. The bound- 
aries of the three States are defined so as to include the whole Ter- 
ritory; conditioned, however, that if it should be found expedient 
by Congress to form the one or two more States mentioned. Con- 
gress is authorized to alter boundaries of the three States ^ so as 


to form one or two Btstes in that part of the said Territory whieh 
lies north of the east and west liae drawa throngh the sontherly 
bend or extreme of Lake Michigan." 

In 1802 Congress enabled the people of Ohio to form a coostitn- 
tioD, and in that act the boundary of that State ie declared to be 
" on the north by an east and west line drawn throngh the aoutherly 
extreme of Lake Michigan, running east, after intersecting the due 
north line aforesaid from the moutli of the Great Miami, until it 
shall intersect Lake Erie, or theTerritorial tine, and thence with 
the pame through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line." The con- 
stitation of Ohio adopted the same line, with this condition: 
"Provided always, and it is hereby fully understood and declared 
by this convention, that if the southerly bend or extreme of Lake 
Michigan should extend so far south that a line drawn dne east 
from it should not intersect I^ake Erie; or, if it should intersect 
Lake Erie east of the mouth of the Miami river, then in that case, 
with the assent of Congress, the northern boundary of this State 
shall be established by and extend to a direct line running from the 
soathem extremity of Lake Michigan to the most northerly cape 
of the Miami bay, after intersecting the due north line from the 
month of the Great Miami, as aforesaid, thence northeast of the 
Territorii^ line, and by said Territorial line to the Pennsylvania 

Congress did not act upon this proviso until 1805, and daring 
this interval it seems that Ohio herself did not regard it as a part 
of her accepted constitution. 

Again, this section of the act of 1802 provides that all that 
part of the Territory lying north of this east and west line " shall 
te attached to and make a part of the Indiana Territory." Still 
u;ain, the act of 1805, entitled "an act to divide the Indiana Ter- 
ritory into separate governments," erects Michigan to a separate 
Territory, and defines the southern boundary to oe "a line drawn 
east from the sontherly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan until it 
intersects Lake Erie." 

The strip of territory in dispute is abont five miles wide at the 
west end and eight miles at the east end. The line claimed by Mich- 
igan was known as the " Fulton line," and that claimed by Ohio 
was known as the " Harris line," from the names of the surveyors. 
This territory was valuable for its rich farming land, but its chief 
value was deemed to consist at that time in its harbor on the Mau- 
mee river, where now stands the city of Toledn, and which was the 
eastern terminus of the proposed Wabash & Erie canal. This 
place was originally called Swan creek, afterward Fort Lawrence, 
then Vistula and finally Toledo. The early settlers generally 
acknowledged their allegiance to Michigan; bnt when the canal 
became a possibility, ana its termination at Toledo being dependent 
upon the contingency whether or not it was in Ohio, many of the 
inhabitants became desirous of being included within the latter 
State. Then disputes grew more violent and the Legislatures of the 


..*v *;■ t; .viHiiiuiiw^iltbs led off in the fight In February, 1835, 
^T**\v*-^^^^-^^^^ .;\^hio t>assed an act extendinff the jurisdiction of the 
N^ V'^J^'i* :i\i^ :tTricv.»rv in question, directed local elections to be 


'>ii'i '^ ^iii*- ^"^b' P*s^ *^ ^^^ making it a criminal offense 

\^^*\ '^lic rx* iiwtytupt to exercise any official functions within the 

- ' *, -c !'.'» ot ilioiiiiTHn without authority from the Territory or the 

.V "^ i ^iovenimont March 9, 1835, Gov. Mason ordered Gen. 

?s '././',» lioid the Michigan militia in readiness to meet the enemy 

"^ '-'i ' icivi ■» case an attempt was made by the agents of Ohio to 

^*^ ;' tlie prv>visions of the Legislature of that State. On the 

"i"^* ^j'^r^' \,iu'«5>*of Ohio, arrived at Perry sburg with his commis- 

^. »^i -:s!^ v»M h;5i way to re-survey the Harris line. He was accom- 

^ r^xi S' a militia of about (500 men. In ths meantime Gov. Mason 

'*''*. ^^^.j^^i^j jilnmt 1,200 men, with Gen. Brown commanding, and 

* r*'i iKv^ession of Toledo. In a few days two commissioners 

^ ^wN^VrvMn Washington on a mission of peace, and remonstrated 

* . '•» vix»\\ I'Ueas. After several conferences with the two Gover- 

x^-s t!iov submitted propositions of a temporary nature, virtually 

-iv 'stiT the disputed territory to Ohio until the following session of 

i^»ui:rtv<s, to which Gov. Lucas assented, but Gov. Mason did not. 

>>Wident firtckson asked the opinion of the attorney general, Mr. 

Ktttler, ^vho replied in favor of Michigan; notwithstanding, Gov. 

I woa* nroceeded to order his men to commence the survey, but as 

ihev were passing through Lenawee county the under-sheriff there 

Arre^ttnl a portion of the party, while the rest ran away like Indi> 

Aus. and spread an exaggerated report of actual war. This being 

vrrtHJted hy an amusing official report of the under-sheriff, Gov. 

I.ueas called an extra session of the Ohio Legislature, which passed 

Jill act ** to prevent the forcible abduction of the citizens of Ohio!" 

It rtli*o adopted measures to organize the county of '' Lucas," with 

Toledo as the county-seat, and to carry into effect the laws of the 

State over the disputed territory. 

In the tneantime the Michigan people in and about Toledo busied 
themselves in arresting Ohio emissaries who undertook to force the 
laws of their State upon Michigan Territory, while Ohio partisans 
fiHsbly attempted to retaliate. An amusing instance is related of 
the arrest of one Major Stickney. He and his whole family fought 
valiantly, but were at length overcome by numbers. The Major 
had to be tied on a horse before he would ride with the Michigan 
posse to jail. An attempt was then made to arrest a son of the 
Major called "Two Stickney," when a serious struggle followed and 
the officer was stabbed with a knife. The blood flowed pretty freely, 
but the wound did not prove dangerous. This was probably tfie 
only blood shed during the *' war." The officer let go nis hold and 
Stickney fled to Ohio. He was indicted by the grand jury of Mon- 
roe county, and a requisition was made on the Governor of Ohio 


for his rendition, but the Governor refneed to givo him np. An 
account of tliie affair reaching the ears of the President, be reoom- 
mended that Gov. Mason interpoee no obstacle to the re-aurvey of 
the Harris line; but the Governor refueingtoabideby the "recom- 
mendation," the President superseded him by the appointment of 
Charles Shaler, of Pennsylvania, as his successor. He also advised 
Gov. Lncns to retrain from exerciein" any jurisdiction over thedis- 
puted territory until Congresa should convene and act upon the 
matter. This was humiliating to that Governor, and he resolved 
to assert the dignity of hia State in Toledo in some manner. He 
hit upon the plan of ordering a session of court to be held there, 
with a regiment of militia for the protection of the judges. Accord- 
ingly the judges met on Sunday afternoon, Sept. 6, at Maumee, a 
few miles from Toledo. Some time during the evening a scout 
aent out by the colonel returned from Toledo and reported that 
1,200 men. under command of Gen. Brown, were in Toledo ready 
to demolish court, soldiers and all; but this report turned out toM 
false. During the scare, however, the judges hesitated to proceed 
to Toledo, and the colonel of the regiment upbraided them for their 
cowardice, and proposed to escort them with his militia during the 
dead of night to a certain school-houee in Toledo, where they might 
go througli the form of holding court a few minutes in safety. 
About three o'clock Monday morning they arrived at the desig- 
nated place and " held court " about two minutes and then fled for 
dear life back to Maumee! Thus wae the " honor and dignity " of 
the great State of Ohio " vindicated over all her enemies I" 


It appears that Mr. Shaler did not accept the governorship of 
Uidiigan, and John S. Horner, of Virginia, was soon afterward 
appointed secretary and Acting Governor. He proved to be rather 
unpopular with the people of Michigan, and the following May he 
wae appointed secretary of Wisconsin Territory. He carried on a 
lengthy correspondence with Gov. Lucas, which resulted in a die- 
oontinnance of all the suits that had grown out of the Toledo war 
except the demand for Two Sttckney. Gov. Lucas persisted in refus- 
ing to deliver him up; but it seema that finally no aeriona troable 
came of the affair. 

The first Monday in October. 1835, the people of Michigan 
ratitied the constitution and by the same vote elected a full set of 
State officers. Stevens T. Mason was elected Governor, Edward 
Mandy, Lieutenant-Governor, and Isaac E. Crary, Represenative in 
Congress. The first Legialature under the constitution was held at 
Detroit, the capital, on the first Monday in November, and John 
Norvell and Lucius Lyon were elected n. S. Senators. A regular 
election was also held uuderthe Territorial law for delegate to Con- 
gress, and G^o. W. Jonea, ot Wiaconain, received the Cirtificate of 
election, although it is said that Wm. Woodbridge received the high> 


est number of votes. John S. Homer, tlie Territorial Governor, 
was still in office here, and this singular mixture of Territorial and 
State government continued until the following June, when Con- 

fress formally admitted Michigan into the Union as a State and 
Corner was sent to Wisconsin, as before noted. This act of 
Congress conditioned that the celebrated strip of territory over 
which the quarrel had been so violent and protracted, should be given 
to Ohio, and that Michigan might have as a compensation the 
upper peninsula. That section of country was then known only as 
a barren waste, containing some copper, no one knew how much. 
Of course this decision by Congress was unsatisfactory to the peo- 
ple of this State. This was the third excision of territory from 
Michigan, other clippings having been made in 1802 and 1816. 
In the former year more than a thousand square miles was given to 
Ohio, and in the latter year nearly 1,200 square miles was given to 
Indiana. Accordingly, Gov. Mason convened the Legislature July 
11, 1836, to act on the proposition of Congress. The vote stood 21 
for acceptance and 28 for rejection. Three delegates were appointed 
to repair to Washington, to co-operate with the representatives 
there for the general interest of the State: but before Congress was 
brought to final action on the matter, other conventions were held 
in the State to hasten a decision. An informal one held at Ann 
Arbor Dec. 14 unanimously decided to accept the proposition of 
Congress and let the disputed strip of territory go to Ohio, and 
thereupon Jan. 26, 1837, Michigan was admitted into the U nion 
on an equal footing with the original States. 



A State ! This word contains avast amount of meaning. Before a 
community becomes a State, there is comparatively a dead level of 
homogeneity, the history of which consists simply of a record of 
independent or disconnected events, as Indian wars, migration, etc.; 
but when a people so far advance in civilization that they must 
organize, like the plant and animal kingdoms, they must assume 
^'organs," haying functions; and the more civilizea and dense the 
population, the more numerous and complicated these organs must 
oecome, — to use the language of modern biology, the more the 
organism must '* differentiate." 

Correspondingly, the history of Michigan, up to its organization 
as a State, like that of all our Territories, is almost a disconnected 
series of events; but on assuming the character of a State, its organs 
and functions multiply, becoming all the while more and more 
dependent upon one another. To follow up the history of the 
State, therefore, with the same proportional fullness as we do its 
Tenjtor^l epoch, would swell the work to scores or hundreds of 
volumes; ipr the compiler would be obliged to devote at first a 
▼olame to d^^ feature^ say the educational, and then soon divide 
liiB snbjeot h^^ ^^^ various departments of the educational work of 


the State, devoting a volume to each, and then snbdivide, taking 
each local institution by itself, and subdivide still farther, and so on 
ad infinitum^ devoting a volume to each movement in the career 
of every institution. 

As it is therefore impracticable to preserve the proportion of 
history to the end, the writer is obliged to generalize more and 
more as he approaches the termination of any selected epoch in the 
progress of a growing organism. Accordingly, from this point 
onward in the history of Michigan, we will treat the subject mat- 
ter mainly by topics, commencing with an outline of the several 
gubernatorial administrations. 


Stevens T. Mason was the first Governor of this State, having 
been elected (Governor of the State prospectively) in 1835, as before 
noted, and he held the office until January, 1840. This State, at 
the time of its admission into the Union, had a population of about 
200,000; its area was about 40,000 square miles, which was di- 
vided into 36 counties. 

]!^early the first act passed by the Legislature was one for the 
organization and support of common schools. Congress had already 
set apart one section of land in ^vw^j township for this purpose, 
and the new State properly appreciated the boon. In March of 
the same year (1837) another act was passed establishing the 
University of Michigan, of which institution we speak more fully on 
subsequent pages. This Legislature also appropriated $20,000 for 
a geological survey, and appointed Dr. Douglass Houghton State 
geologist. For the encouragement of internal improvements, a 
board of seven commissioners was appointed, of which the Gov- 
ernor was made president. This board authorized several surveys 
for railroads. Three routes were surveyed through the State, which 
eventually became, respectively^ the Michigan Central, the Mich- 
igan Southern, and the Detroit & Milwaukee. The latter road, 
however, was originally intended to have Port Huron for its east- 
ern terminus. The next year appropriations were made for the 
survey of the St. Joseph, Kalamazoo and Grand rivers, for the 
purpose of improving the navigation. 

In 1839 the militia of the State was organized, and eight divisioos, 
with two briradesof two regiments each, were provided for. This 
year, also, the State prison at Jackson was completed. Nearly 
30,000 pupils attended the common schools this year, and for school 
purposes over §18, 000 was appropriated. Agriculturally, the State 
yielded that year 21,944 bushels of rye, 1,116,910 of oats, 6,422 of 
buckwheat, 43,826 pounds of flax, 524 of hemp, 89,610 head of cat- 
tle,14,059 head of horses, 22,684 head of sheep and 109,096 of swine. 

Gov. William Woodbridge was the chief executive from January, 
1840, to February, 1841, when he resigned to accept a Beat in the 


U. S. Senate. J. Wright Gordon was Lieut.-Govemor, and became 
Acting Governor on the resignation of Gov. Woodbridge. 

During the administration of these men, therailroad from Detroit 
to Ann Arbor, a distance of 40 miles, was completed; branches of 
the University were established at Detroit, Pontiac, Monroe, Niles, 
Kalamazoo, Grand Rapids, Jackson, White Pigeon and Tecumseh. 
The material growth of the State continued to increase, propor- 
tionally more rapidly than even the population, which now amounted 
to about 212,000. 

John S. Barry succeeded Gov. Gordon in the executive chair, 
serving from 1841 to 1845. In 1842 the university was opened 
tor the reception of students, and the number of pupils attending 
the common schools was officially reported to be nearly 58,000. In 
1843 a land office was established at Marshall, for the whole State. 
In 1844 the taxable property of the State was found to be in value 
$28,554,282, the tax being at the rate of two mills on the dollar. 
The expenses of the State were only $70,000, while the income 
from the two railroads was nearly $300,000. In 1845 the number 
of inhabitants in the State had increased to more than 300,000. 

Alpheus Felch served as Governor from 1845 to 1847. During 
his time the two railroads belonging to the State were sold to pri- 
vate corporations, — the Central for $2,000,000, and the Southern 
for $500,000. The exports of the State amounted in 1846 to $4,647,- 
608. The total capacity of vessels enrolled in the collection dis- 
trict at Detroit was 26,9*28 tons, the steam vessels having 8,400 and 
the sailing vessels 18,528 tons, the whole giving employment to 
18,000 seamen. In 1847 there were 39 counties in the State, con- 
taining 435 townships; and 275 of tiiese townships were supplied 
with good libraries, containing in the aggregate 37,000 volumes. 

In the spring of 1846, on the account of northern and eastern 
immigration into Texas, with tastes and habits different from the 
native Mexicans, a war was precipitated between the United States 
and Mexico; and for the prosecution of this war Michigan fur- 
nished a regiment of volunteers, commanded by Thomas W. Stock- 
ton, and one independent company, incurring a total expense of 
about $10,500. March 3, 1847, Gov. Felch resigned to accept a 
seat in the U. S. Senate, when the duties of his office devolved upon 
Wm. L. Greenly, under whose administration the Mexican war 
was closed. 

There are few records extant of the action of Michigan troops in 
the Mexican war. That many went there and fought well are 
points conceded; but their names and country of nativity are hid- 
den away in D. S. archives where it is almost impossible to lind 

The soldiers of this State deserve much of the credit of the 
memorable achievements of Co. K, 3d Dragoons, and Cos. A, E, 
and G of the U. S. Inf. The two former of these companies, re- 


oruitCHl in tins State, were reduced to one-third their original num- 

In May, 1840, our Governor was notified by the War Department 
of the United States to enroll a regiment of volnnteers, to be held 
in rtnulino88 for service whenever demanded. At his summons 13 
indojHMulont vohmteer companies, 11 of infantry and two of cav- 
alry, at onco fell into line. Of the infantry four companies were 
from I)ot»x)it, bearing the honored names of Montgomery, Lafay- 
ette, Scott and Brady upon their banners. Of the remainder 
MonrtH) tendered two, Lenawee county three, St. Clair, Berrien and 
llillsdalo each one, and Wayne county an additional company. 
Of these alone the veteran Bradys were accepted and oraered 
into service. In addition to them 10 companies, making the First 
Regiment of Michigan Volunteers, springing from various parts of 
the State, but embodying to a great degree the material of which 
tlio first volunteers was formed, were not called for until October 
following. This regiment was soon in readiness and proceeded to 
tlio seat of war. 

K)>aphroditus Ransom was Governor from 1847 to November, 
lS4tK During his administration the Asylum for the Insane was 
established at Kalamazoo, and also the Institute for the Blind, and 
the Deaf and Dumb, at Flint. Both these institutions were liber- 
ally endowed with lands, and each entrusted to a board of five 
trustees. March 31, 184S, the first telegraph line was completed 
tVi>m New York to Detroit. 

John S. Barry, elected Governor of Michigan for the third time, 
succeeded Gov. Ransom, and his term expired in November, 1851. 
While he was serving this term a Normal school was established at 
Ypsilanti, which was endowed with lands, placed in charge of a 
Hoard of Education, consisting of six persons; a new State con- 
stitution was adopted, and the great " railroad conspiracy " case 
was tried. This originated in a number of lawless depredations 
npon the property of the Michigan Central Railroad Company, ter- 
minating witn the burning of their depot at Detroit in 1850. The 
next year 37 men were brought to trial, and 12 of them were con- 
victed. The prosecution was conducted by Alex. D. Fraser, of 
Detroit, and the conspirators were defended by Wm. H. Seward, of 
New York. Judge Warner Wing presided. 

Robert McClelland followed Barry as Governor, serving until 
March, 1853, when he resigned to accept the position of Secretary 
of the Interior^ in the cabinet of President Pierce. Lieut.-Qov. 
Andrew Parsons consequently became Acting Governor, his term 
expiring in November, 1854. 

In the spring of 1854, during the administration of Acting Gov. 
Parsons, the ''Republican party," at least as a State organization, 
was first formed in tlie CTnited States " under the oaks " at Jackson, 
by an ti -slavery men of both the old parties. Great excitement 
prevailed at this time, occasioned by the settling of Kansas and 
the issue thereby brought up whether slavery should exist there. 


For the purpose of permitting slavery there, the ^' Missouri com* 
promise" (which limited slavery to the south of 36** 30') was re- 
pealed, under the lead of Stephen A. Douglas. -This was repealed 
by a bill admitting Kansas and Nebraska into the Union as xerri- 
torieSy and those who were opposed to this repeal measure were 
in short called '* an ti -Nebraska " men. The epithets " Nebraska" 
and "anti-Nebraska" were temporarily employed to designate the 
slavery and anti-slavery parties, pending the dissolution of the old 
Democratic and Whig parties and the organization of the new 
Democratic and Eepublican parties. At the next State election 
Kinsley S. Bingham was elected by the Republicans Governor of 
Michigan, and this State has ever since then been under Republi- 
can control, the State officers of that party being elected by major- 
ities ranging from 5,000 to 55,000. And the people of this State 
generally, and the Republicans in particular, claim that this com- 
monwealth has been as well taken care of since 1855 as any State 
in the union, if not better, while preceding 1855 the Democrats 
administered the government as well as any other State, if not 

As a single though signal proof of the high standard of Michi- 
gan among her sister States, we may mention that while the taxes 
m the New Eng^land States, New York, New Jersey and Pennsyl- 
vania average $10.09 per capita^ while in Massachusetts the average 
is $17.10 per inhabitant, and while in the West the average is 
$6.50, in Michigan it is only $4.57. At the same time it is gen- 
erally believed even by the citizens of sister States, that Michigan 
is the best governed commonwealth in the Union. 

Kinsley S. Bingham was Governor from 1854 to 1858. The 
most notable event during his administration was the completion of 
the ship canal at the falls of St. Mary, May 26, 1855. An act of 
Congress was approved, granting to the State of Michigan 750,000 
ncres of land for the purpose of constructing this canal. The 
" sault," or rapids, of the St. Mary, have a fall of 17 feet in one 
mile. The canal is one mile long, 100 feet wide and about 12 feet 
deep. It has two locks of solid masonry. The work was commenced 
in 1853 and finished in May, 1855, at a cost of $999,802. This is 
one of the most important interival improvements ever made in the 

Moses Wisner was the next Governor of Michigan, serving from 
1858 to November, 1860, at which time Abraham Lincoln was 
elected President of the United States. National themes began to 
grow exciting, and Michigan affairs were almost lost in the warring 
elements of strife that convulsed the nation from center to circum- 
ference with a life-and-death struggle. 

Austin Blair was the 13th Governor of Michigan, serving during 
the perilous times of rebellion from 1861 to 1865, and by his patri- 
otic and faithful execution of law and prompt aid of the general 
Government, earning the well deserved title of " the War Gov- 




ernor." The particulars of the history of this State in connection 
with that war we will reserve for the next section. 

Henry H. Orapo* succeeded Gov. Blair, serving one term. He 
was elected during the dark hours just before the close of the war, 
when lie found the political sky overcast with the most ominous 
cloudsof death and debt. The bonded debt of the State was $3,- 
541,149.80, with a balance in the treasury of $440,047.29. In the 
single year just closed the State had expended $823,216.75, and by 
the close ot* the first j'ear of his term this indebtedness had increased 
more than $400,000 more. But the wise administration of this 
Governbr began materially to reduce the debt and at the same time 
till the treasury. The great war closed during the April after his 
election, and he faithfully carried out the line of policy inaugurated 
by his predecessor. The other prominent events during his time 
of office are systematically interwoven with the history of the vari- 
ous institutions of the State, and they will be found under heads in 
their rtspettive places. 

Henry F. Baldwin was Governor two terms, namely, from January, 
1868, to the close of 1872. The period of his administration was a 
prosperous one for the State. In 1869 the taxable valuation of real 
and personal property in the State amounted to $400,000,000, and 
in 1871 it excieded $630,000,000. 

During Gov. Baldwin's time a step was taken to alter the State 
constitution so as to enable counties, townships, cities and incorpo- 
rated villages, in their corporate capacity, to aid in the construction 
of railroads. Bonds had been issued all over the State by these mu- 
nicipalities in aid of railroads, under laws which had been enacted 
by tlie Legislature at five different sessions, but a case coming before 
the Supreme Court involving the constitutionality of these laws, 
the Benirh decided that the laws were unconstitutional, and thus the 
railroads were left to the mercy of "soul-less" corporations. Gov. 
Baldwin, in this emergency, called an extra session of the Legisla- 
ture, which submitted the desired constitutional amendment to the 
people; but it was by them defeated m November, 1870. 

The ninth census having been officially published, it became the 
duty ot the States in 1872 to make a re-apportionment of districts 
for the purpose of representation in Congress. Since 1863 Michi- 
gan had had six representatives, but the census of 1870 entitled it 
to nine. 

During the last two years of Gov. Baldwin's administration the 
preliminary measures for building a new State capitol engrossed 
much of his attention. His wise counsels concerning this much- 
needed new building were generally adopted by the Legislatnre, 
which was conveneain extra session in March, 1872. 

Ample provision having been madefor the payment of the funded 
debt of the State by setting apart some of the trust-fund receipts, 
and such portion of the specific taxes as were not required for the 
payment of interest on the public debt, the one-eighth mill tax for 
the sjnkiDsr fund was abolisned in 1870. 


The fall of 1871 is noted for the many destructive conflao^rations 
in the Northwest, including the great Chicago fire. Several villages 
in this State were either wholly or partially consumed, and ranch 
property was burned up nearly all over the country. This was due 
to the excessive dryness of tlie season. In this State alone nearly 
3,000 families, or about 18,000 persons, were rendered houseless 
and deprived of the necessaries of life. Relief committees were 
organized at Detroit, Grand liapids and elsewhere, and in a short 
time $462,106 in money and about §250,000 worth of clothing were 
forwarded to the sufferers. Indeed, so generous were the people 
that they would have given more than was necessary had they not 
been informed by the Governor in a proclamation that a sufficiency 
had been raised. 

The dedication of the soldiers' and sailors' monument at Detroit, 
April 9, 1872, was a notable event in Gov. Baldwin's time. This 
grand structure was designed by Randolph Rogers,formerly of Michi- 
gan, and one of the most eminent of American sculptors now living. 
The money to defray the expenses of this undertaking was raised by 
subscription, and persons in all parts of the State were most liberal 
in their contributions. The business was managed by an associa- 
tion incorporated in 1868. The monument is 46 feet higli, and is 
surmounted by a colossal statue of Michigan in bronze, 10 feet in 
height. She is represented as a semi-civilized Indian queen, with 
a sword in her right hand and a shield in her left. The dedicatory 
lines in front are: " Erected by the people of Michigan, in honor 
of the martyrs who fell and the heroes who fought in defense of 
liberty and union." On the menu men tare many beautiful designs. 
At the unveiling there was a large concourse of people from all 
parts of the State, and the address was delivered by ex-Governor 

John J. Bagley succeeded to the governorship Jan. 1, 1873, and 
served two terms. During his administration the new capitol was 
principally built, which is a larger and better structure for the 
* money than perhaps any other public building in the United States. 
Under Gov. Bagley's counsel and administration the State pros- 
pered in all its departments. The Legislature of 1873 made it the 
duty of the Governor to appoint a commission to revise the State 
constitntion, which duty he performed to the satisfaction of all 
parties, and the commission made thorough work in revising the 
fundamental laws of this commonwealth. 

Charles M. Croswell was next the chief executive of this State, 
exercising the functions of the office for two successive terms, 
1877-'81. During his administration the public debt was greatly 
reduced, a policy adopted requiring State institutions to keep 
'within the limit of appropriations, laws enacted to provide more 
effectually for the punishment of corruption and bribery in elec- 
tions, the State House of Correction at Ionia and the Eastern 
JLsylnm for the Insane at Pontiac were opened, and the now capi- 
tol at Lansing was completed and occupied. The tir&t «k;(!.\. o^ \v\% 


■oooiul torin vftx^ to preside at the dedication of this building. The 
groat riot of 1S77 centered at Jackson. During those two or 
tim>o foarful days Gov. Croswell was in his office at Lansing, in 
(H)rroii{><)n(lonoo with members of the military department in differ- 
out parts of the State, and within 48 hours from the moment when 
the daiigor became imminent the rioters found themselves sur- 
rounded by a military force ready with ball and cartridge for their 
annihilation. Were it not for this promptness of the Governor 
thoro would probably have been a great destruction of property, if 
not aUo of life. 

At thin date (February, 1881), Hon. David II. Jerome has just 
aNMUinod tlio duties of the executive chair, while all the machinery 
of tlio Government is in good running orderand the people gener- 
ally are prosperous. 


As soon as the President called for troops to suppress the Rebel- 
lion in April, 1861, the loyal people of the Peninsular State 
I»roriiptly responded and furnished the quota assigned. Austin 
Slair, a man peculiarly fitted for the place during the emergency, 
wa« (Jovernor, and John Robertson, Adjutant General. The people 
of Michigan have ever since been proud of the record of these two 
ifUMi during the war, but this does not exclude the honor due all the 
iMiinblo soldiery who obediently exposed their lives in defense of 
I ho (vimtnon country. Michigan has her full share of the buried 
finad in obscure and forgotten places all over the South as well as 
III decent cemeteries throughout the North. It was Michigan men 
that captured Jeff. Davis, namely: the 4th Cavalry, under Col. B. 
K. Pritciiard; and it was Michigan men that materially aided in the 
•iiiccesftful capture of Wilkes Booth, the assassin of the martyred 

The census of this State for 1860 showed a population of 751,- 
110. The number of able-bodied men capable of military service 
was estimated in official documents of that date at 110,000. At the 
same time the financial embarrassment of the State was somewhat 
serious, and the annual tax of $226,250 was deemed a grievous bur- 
(l(»n. But such was the patriotism of the people that by Dec. 23, 
1S62, an aggregate of 45,569 had gone to battle, besides 1,400 who 
had ^one into other States and recruited. By the end of the war 
Michisran had sent to the front 90,747, or more than four-fifths the 
estimated number of able-bodied men at the beginning! 


Michigan has as good a public-school system as can be found 
anywiiere in the Union. Ever since 1785 tlic acts of Congress, as 
well as the acts of this State since its organization, have encouraged 
popular education by land grants and liberal appropriations of 


money. The 16th section of each township was early placed in the 
custody of the State for common-school purposes, and all the pro- 
ceeds of the sale of school lands go into the perpetual fund. In 
1842 the superintendent of puolic instruction reported a dis- 
crepancy of over $22,000 in the funds, owinff to imperfect records, 
probably, rather than dishonesty of ofiScials. Sept. 80, 1878, the 

!)rimary-school fund ainountfed to $2,890,090.73, and the swamp- 
and school fund to $361,237.20. 

The qualification of teachers and the supervision of schools were 
for many years in the hands of a board of three inspectors, then 
the county superintendency system was adopted for many years, 
and since 1875 the township system has oeen in vogue. The 
township Board of School Inspectors now consists of the township 
clerkf one elected inspector and a township superintendent of 
schools. The latter officer licenses the teachers and visits the 

In 1877 the school children (5 to 20 years of age) numbered 
469,504; the average number of months of school, 7.4; number of 
graded schools, 295; number of school-houses, 6,078, valued at 
19,190,175; amount of two-mill tax, $492,646.94; district taxes, 
$2,217,961; total resources for the year, $3,792,129.59; total 
expenditures. $3,179,976.06. 


By an act of Congress in 1804, a township of land was to be 
reserved in the territory now constituting the lower peninsula " for 
the use of seminaries of learning;" but'the most of this reservation 
in 1841 went to a Catholic institution at Detroit. In 1824, through 
the exertions of Austin E. Wing, delegate to Congress, Gov. Wood- 
bridge and others, a second township was granted, with permission 
to select the sections in detached localities, and about this time 
Judge Woodward devised that novel and extensive scheme for 
the " catholepistemiad," elsewhere referred to in this volume. In 
1837 the Legislature established the University at Ann Arbor, and 
«ppropriatea the 72 sections to its benefit; 916 acres of this land 
^ere located in what is now the richest part of Toledo, C, from 
xvhich the University finally reah'zed less than $18,000! 

But the State in subsequent years made many liberal appropria- 
tions to this favorite institution, until it has become the greatest seat 
of learning west of New England, if not in all America. It is a 
part of the public-school system of the State, as tuition is free, and 
pupils graduating at the high schools are permitted to enter the 
freshman class of the collegiate department. It now has an average 
attendance of 1,200 to 1,400 students, 450 of whom are in the college 
proper. In 1879 there were 406 in the law department, 329 in the 
meaical, 71 in pharmacy, 62 in dental surgery and 63 in the homeo- 
pathic department. There are over 50 professors and teachers. 
The University is under the control of eight regents, eltt(i\.^dVi\\\\^ 


people, two every second year. Rev. Henry B. Tappan, D. D., 
was president from 1852 to 1863, then Erastus O. Haven, D. D., 
LL. D., to 1869, then Prof. H. S. Frieze (acting) until 1871, since 
which time the reins have been held by Hon. James B. Angell, 
LL. D. 

The value of the buildings and grounds was estimated in 1879 
at $319,000, and the personal property at $250,000. 


John D. Pierce, the first superintendent of public instruction, in 
his first report to the Legislature, urged the importance of a normal 
school. In this enterprise he was followed by his successors in qfiice 
until 18^9, when Ira Mayhew'was State Superintendent, and* the 
Legislature appropriated 72 sections of land for the purpose; and 
among the points competing for the location of the school, Ypsi- 
lanti won, and in that place the institution was permanently located. 
The building was completed and dedicated with appropriate cere- 
monies Oct. 5, 1852; next year the Legislature appropriated $7,000 
in money, for expenses. Prof. A. S. Welch, now President of Iowa 
Agricultural College, was elected the first principal. In October, 
1859, the building with contents was burned, and a new building 
was immediately erected. In 1878 the main building was enlarged 
at an expense of $43,347. This enlargement was 88x90 feet, and 
has a hall capable of seating 1,200 persons. The value of buildings 
and other property at the present time is estimated at $111,100. 
Number of students, 616, including 144 in the primary depart- 

Each member of the Legislature is authorized by the Board of 
Education to appoint tv^o students from his district who may attend 
one year free of tuition ; other students pay $10 per annum. Grad- 
uates of this school are entitled to teach in this State without re-ex- 
amination by any school oflicer. 


The Michigan Agricultural College owes its establishment to a 
provision of the State constitution of 1850. Article 13 says, " The 
Legislature shall, as soon as practicable, provide for the establish- 
ment of an agricultural school." For the purpose of carrying into 
practice this provision, legislation was commenced in 1855, and the 
act required that the school should be within 10 miles of Lansing, 
and that not more than $15 an acre should be paid for the farm and 
college grounds. Tiie college was opened to students in May, 1857, 
the first of existing agricultural colleges in the United States. 
Until the spring of 1861 it was under the control of the State Board 
of Education; since that time it has been under the man^g^LOlQnt 
of the State Board of Agriculture, created for the purpose. 



In its essential features of combining study and labor, and of 
uniting general and professional studies in its course, the college 
has remained virtually unchaneed from the first. It has had a 
steady growth in number of students, in means of illustration and 
efficiency of instruction. 

An act of Congress, approved July 2, 1862, donated to each State 
public lands to the amount of 30,000 acres for each of its Senators 
and Reprcpentatives in Congress, according to the census of 1860, 
for the endowment, support and maintenance of at least one college 
where the leading object should be, without excluding other scien- 
tific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach 
such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the 
mechanic arts. The Legislature accepted this grant and bestowed 
it upon the Agricultural College. By its provisions the college has 
received 235,673.37 acres of land. These lands have been placed in 
market, and about 74,000 acres sold, yielding a fund of $237,174, 
the interest of which at seven per cent, is applied to the support of 
the college. The sale is under the direction of the Agricultural 
Land Grant Board, consisting of the Governor, Auditor General, 
Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Attorney General and Commis- 
sioner of the State Land Office. 

The Agricultural College is three miles east of Lansing, com- 
prising several fine buildings; ^nd there are also very beautiful, 
substantial residences for the professors. There are also an exten- 
sive, well-filled green-house, a very large and well-equipped chemi- 
cal laboratory, one of the most scientific apiaries in the United 
States, a general museum, a museum of mechanical inventions, 
another of vegetable products, extensive bams, piggeries, etc., etc., 
in tine trim for the purposes designed. The farm consists of 676 
acres, of which about 300 are under cultivation in a svstematic 
rotation of crops. 


At Albion is a flourishing college under the control of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. The grounds comprise about 15 
acres. There are three college buildings, each three-stories high, 
having severally the dimensions of 46 by 80, 40 by 100, and 47 by 
80 feet. The attendance in 1878 was 205. Tuition in the prepara- 
tory and collegiate studies is free. The faculty comprises nine 
members. The value of property about $85,000. 

Adrian College was established by the Wesleyan Methodists in 
1859, now under the control of the " Methodist Church." The 
grounds contain about 20 acres. There are four buildings, capable 
of accommodating about 225 students. Attendance in 1875 was 
179; total number of graduates for previous years, 121; 10 profes- 
sors and teachers are employed. Exclusive of the endowment fund 
($80,000), the assets of the institution, including grounds, build- 
ings, furniture, apparatus, musical instruments, outlying lands, 
etc., amount to more than $137,000. 


Hope College, at Holland, is nnder the patronage of the Dutch 
Beformed Church. It was begun in 1851,ana in connection with the 
ordinary branches of learning, it has a theological department. In 
1877 it had 10 professors and teachers and 110 pupils. Up to 1875 
there had graduated, in the preparatory department, begun in 1863, 
95; in the academic, beginning in 186(5, 53; and in the theological, 
beginning in 1869, 24. V alue of real estate, $25,000; of other prop- 
erty, above incumbrance, alx»ut $10,000; the amount of endow- 
ment paid in is about $56,000. 

Kalamazoo College, headed by Baptists, is situated on a five-acre 
lot of ground, and the property is valued at $35,000; investments, 
$88,0(X>. There are six members of the faculty, and in 1878 there 
were 169 pupils. 

Hillsdale College was established in 1855 by the Free Baptists. 
The " Michigan Central College," at Spring jirbor, was incorpo- 
rated in 1845. It was kept in operation until it was merged into 
the present Hillsdale College. Tlie site comprises 25 acres, beauti- 
fully situated on an eminence in the western part of the city of 
Hillsdale. The large and imposing building first erected was 
nearly destroyed by fire in 1874, and in its place five buildings of 
a more modern style have been erected. They are of brick, 
three stories with basement, arranged on three sides of a quad- 
rangle. Their size is, respectively, 80 by 80, 48 by 72, 48 by 72, 
80 by 60, 52 by 72, and they contain one-half more room than the 
original building. Ex-Lieut-Gov. E. B. Fairfield was the first 
president. The present president is Rev. D. W. C. Durgin, D. D. ^ 
Whole number of gr^uates up to 1878, 375; number of students ' 
in all departments, 506; number of professors and instructors, 15; 
productive endowment, about $100,000; buildings and grounds, 
$80,000; library, 6,200 volumes. 

Olivet College, in Eaton county, is a lively and thorough literary 
and fine-art institution, under the joint auspices of the Presbyterian 
and Congregational denominations. Value of buildings and 
grounds, about $85,000. Fourteen professors and teachers are em- 
ployed, and the attendance in 1878 was 190, the sexes in about 
equal proportion. There are five departments, namely: the colle- 
giate, preparatory, normal, music and art. 

Battle Creek College, conducted by the Seventh-Day Adventists, 
was established in 1874, with four departments, 11 professors and 
teachers, and an attendance of 289. It is practically connected 
with a large health institution, where meat and medicines are 
eschewed. In 1878 there were 15 instructors and 478 students. 
Special attention is paid to hygiene and hygienic medication. 

Grand Traverse doUege was opened at Benzonia in 1803, as the 
result of the eflfbrtsof Rev. Dr. J. B. Walker, a prominent divine 
of the Congregational Church. The friends of this institution 
have met with serious discouragements: their lands have not risen 
in value as anticipated and they have suflfered a heavy loss from 
fire; but the college has been kept open to the present time, with 


an average of 70 pupils. The curriculum, however, has so far been 
only *' preparatory." The land is valued at $25,000, and the build- 
ings, etc., $6,000. The school has done a good work in qualifying 
teachers for the public schools. 

Besides the foregoing colleges, there are the German- Americau 
Seminary in Detroit, a Catholic seminary at Monroe, the Michigan 
Female Seminary at Kalamazoo, the Military Academy at Orchard 
Lake, near Pontiac, and others. 


No State in the union takes better care of her pov^r than does 
Michigan. For a number of years past, especially under the 
administrations of Govs. Bagley and Croswell, extraordinary efforts 
have been made to improve and bring to perfection -the appoint- 
ments for the poor ana dependent. 

* According to the report of the Board of State Commissioners 
for the general supervision of charitable, penal, pauper and reform- 
atory institutions for 1876, the total number in poor-houses of the 
State was 5,282. For the five years preceding, the annual rate of 
increase was four times greater than the increase of population 
during that period; but that was an exceptionally ^'hard"time. 
The capacity of the public heart, however, was equal to the occa- 
sion, and took such measures as were effectual and almost beyond 
criticism for the care of the indigent. 

At the head of the charity department of the State stands 


In the year 1870 a commission appointed by the Governor for 
that purpose, visited many of the poor-houses in the State, and 
found a large number of children in them under 16 years of age, 
indiscriminately associated with idiots, maniacs, prostitutes and 
vagrants. Their report recommended tlie classification of 'paupers^ 
and especially, that children in the county houses, under 16 years, 
should be placed in a State school. The act establishing the school 
was passed in 1871, in conformity with the recommendation. As 
amended in 1873,it provides, in substance, that there shall be received 
as pupils in such school all neglected and dependent children that 
are over four and under 16 years of age, and that are in suitable 
condition of body or mind to receive instruction, especially those 
maintained in the county poor-houses, those who have been deserted 
by their parents, or are orphans, or whose parents have been con- 
victed of crime. It is declared to be the object of the act to pro- 
vide for such children temporary homes only, until homes can be 
procured for them in families. The plans comprehend the ulti- 
mate care of all children of the class described, and it is made 
unlawful to retain such children in poor-houses when there is room 
for them in the State Public School. Dependent orphans and half 


orphans of deceased soldiers and sailors have the preference of 
admission should there be moro applications than room. Provi- 
sion is made for perserving a record of the parentage and history 
of each child. 

The general supervision of the school is delegated to a Board of 
Control, consisting of three members, who are appointed by the 
Governor, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Board 
appoints the superintendent, officers and teachers of the school. 
One officer is appointed to look up homes for the children, to 
apprentice them, and to keep a general oversight of them by visita- 
tion or correspondence. To complete the work of this institution, 
an agent is appointed in each county. 

The internal government of this school is that known as the 
"family" and "congregate" combined, the families consisting of 
about 30 members each, and being under the care of " cottage 
managers," ladies whom the children call " aunties," and who are 
supposed to care for the children as mothers. Each child of suffi- 
cient years is expected to work three hours every day; some work 
on the farm, some in the dining-room and kitchen, while others 
make shoes, braid straw hats, mate the*ir own clothing, work in the 
bakery, engine room, laundry, etc. They are required to attend 
school three to five hours a day, according to their ages, and the 
school hours are divided into sessions to accommodate the work. 

The buildings, 10 in number, comprise a main building, eight 
cottages and a hospital, all of brick. The buildings are steam 
heated, lighted with gas and have good bathing facilities. There 
are 41 acres of land in connection witli the school, and the total 
value of all the property is about $150,000, furnishing accoramoda- 
tions for 240 children. 


This was established at Lansing in 1855, in the northeastern por- 
tion of the city, as the " House of Correction for Juvenile Offend- 
ers," having about it many of the features of a prison. In 1859 
the name was changed to " The State Reform Scnool." The gov- 
ernment and discipliiie have undergone many and radical changes 
until all the prison features have been removed except those that 
remain in the walls of the original structure, and which reniain 
only as monuments of instructive history. No bolts, bars or guards 
are employed. The inmates are necessarily kept under the surveil- 
lance of officers, but the attempts at escape are much fewer than 
under the more rigid regime of former days. This school is for the 
detention, education and reformation of boys between the ages of 
eight and 16 years, who are convicted of light offenses. 

The principal building is four-stories high, including basement, 
and has an extreme length of 246 feet, the center a depth of 48 
feet, and the wings a depth of 33 feet each. Besides, there are two 
^^ family houses,' ' where the more tractable and less vicious boys 


forifi A kind of family, as distinguislied from the congregate life of 
the institution proper. The boys are required to work a half a day 
jifid attend school a half a day. A farm of 328 acres belonging to 
the school furnishes work for many of the boys during the working 
tecason. Some are employed in making clothing and shoes for the 
inmates. The only shop-work now carried on is the cane-seating 
of chairs; formerly, cigars were manufactured here somewhat exten- 
sively. There is no contract labor, but all the work is done by the 
institution itself. 

The number of inmates now averages about 200, and are taken 
care of by a superintendent and assistant, matron and assistant, two 
overseers and six teachers. 


This is located at Flint, 60 miles nearly northwest of Detroit. 
The act establishing it was passed in 1848, and the school was first 
opened in 1854, in a leased building, it is a school in common for 
deaf mutes and the blind,^ rather from motives of economy than 
from any relation which the two classes bear to one anotlier. 
The bnildings were commenced in 1853. The principal ones now 
are: front building, 43 by 72 feet, with east and west wings, each 
28 by 60 feet; center building, 40 by 60, and east and west wings, 
each 50 by 70 feet; main school building, 52 by 54, with two 
wings, each 25 by 60 feet. All of these buildings are four stories 
high ; center of the front building is five stories, including base- 
ment. There are also a boiler and engine house, barns, etc, etc. 
The total value of the buildings is estimated at $358,045, and of 
the 88 acres of land occupied, $17,570. 

The number of inmates has increased from 94 in 1865 to 225 
in 1875. Including the principal, there are 10 teachers employed 
in the deaf and dumb department, and four in the blind, besides 
the matron and her assistants. Tuition and board are free to all 
resident subjects of the State, and the trustees are authorized to 
assist indigent subjects in the way of clothing, etc., to the amount 
of $40 a year. An annual census of all deaf mutes and blind per- 
sons in the State is oflScially taken and reported to the overseers 
of the poor, who are to see that these unfortunate members df the 
human family are properly cared for. 


This institution was established in 1848, and now consists of two 
departments, one for males and the other for females. The capacity 
of the former is 280 and of the latter 300 patients. In their general 
construction both buildings are arranged in accordance with the 
principles laid down by the Association of Medical Superintendents 
of American Institutions for the Insane. The buildings are of 
brick, with stone trimmings, and are very substantial, as well as 


beautifnl. The entire cost of both baildiDgs, with all the aaxiliarj 
stractares, and 195 acres of land, is abont $727,173.90. The 
baildings were constrQcted during the war and immediately after- 
ward. The asylum was opened in 1859 for the care of patients, 
and ap to Oct. 1, 1875, there had been expended for the care and 
maintenance of patients, exclnsive of the cost of construction, 
$994,711.32. Indigent patients are received and treated at the 
.asylnm at thejexpense of the connties to which they belong, on the 
certification of the county authorities, tlie average cost of main- 
tenance being about $4.1 2^ per week. Pay patients are received 
when there is room for them, the minimum price of board being 
$5 per week. 


These large, beautiful and verjp modern structures are located 
upon a farm of upward of 300 acres, and were erected in 1873-'6at 
a cost of about $400,000. The general plans are similar to those 
at Kalamazoo. Thev are built of brick, with stone window caps, 
belt-courses, etc. lliere are accommodations for not less than 300 

Michigan pursues a very enlightened policy toward the chronic 
insane. Provisions have been made for tiie treatment even of 
the incurable, so that as much good as possible may be done even 
to the most unfortunate. The design is to cure whenever the 
nature of the mental malady will permit; but failing this, to cease 
no effort which could minister to the comfort and welfare of the 


The Detroit House of Correction, although a local institution, is 
used to a considerable extent as an intermediate prison, to which 
persons are sentenced by the courts throughout the State for minor 
offenses. Women convicted of felonies are also sentenced to this 

5 lace. The whole number in confinement at this prison for the past 
ecade has avera^ged a little over 400 at any one time, more males 
than females. Tlie average term of confinement is but a little more 
than two months, and the institution is very faithfully conducted. 

The State Prison at Jackson is one of the best conducted in the 
Union. The total value of the property is valued at $552,113. The 
earnings of the prison in 1878 were $92,378; number of prisoners; 
800. Their work is let to contractors, who employ 450 men at 
different trades. A coal mine has been recently discovered on the 
prison property, which proves a saving of several thousand dollars 
per annum to the State. The earnings of this prison since Gen. 
Wm. Humphrey has been warden (1875) has exceeded its current 


- • 

I Uw' Si<^t^ IVi^u at lotua was established a few years ago for the 
v;s\juvNt^s»Jt' vsmviots whose crimes are not of the worst type, and 
UsN5*s* >ikii\^<^r^ young, but too old for the Reform School. The 

civui^t vHMuprises 53 acres of land, 13^ of which is enclosed by a 
Viivik \^*H IS feet high. Estimated value of property, $277,490; 

sUi^Mt t»x}HMise8 for 1878, $45,744; earnings for 1878, $5,892; nnra- 

I.VV x^t prisoners Dec. 31, 1878, 250; number received ddring the 

\^>Hr. Mi). 


ill distinct from the State Agricultural Board, the latter being sim- 
ply an executive over the Agricultural College under the laws of 
the State. The former was organized at Lansing March 23, 1849, 
and was specially incorporated by act of April 2 following, since 
whicli time it has numbered among its officers and executive mem- 
bers some of the foremost men of the State. It has held annual 
fairs in various places, and the number of entries for premiums has 
risen from 623 to several thousand, and its receipts from $808.50 to 
$58,780. The premiums offered and awarded have increased pro- 


At an informal meeting of several gentlemen in Grand Kapids 
Feb. 11, 1870, it was resolved to organize a State pomological 
society, and at an adjourned meeting on the 26th of the same month, 
the organization was perfected, and the first officers elected were: H. 
G. Saunders, President; S. L. Fuller, Treasurer; and A. T. Linder- 
man. Secretary. The society was incorporated April 15, 1871, " for 
the purpose of promoting the interest of pomology, horticulture, 
agriculture, and kindred sciences and arts.'' During the first two 
years monthly meetings were required, but in 1872 quarterly meet- 
ings were substituted. It now has a room in the basement of the 
new capitol. T. T. Lyon, of South Haven, is President, and Charles 
W. Garfield, of Grand Rapids, Secretary. Under the supervision of 
this society, Michigan led the world in the centennial exposition at 
Philadelphia in the exhibition of winter apples. The contributions 
of this society to pomological literature are also richer than can be 
found elsewhere in the (Jnited States. 


Very naturally, the denser population of the white race, as it 
took possession of this wild country, consumed what they found 
already abundant long before they commenced to renew the stock. 
It was so with the forests; it was so with the fish. An abundance 
of a good variety offish was found in all our rivers and little lakes 
by the early settlers, but that abundance was gradually reduced 
until these waters were entirely robbed of their useful inhabitants. 


Scarcely a thought of re-8tocking tho inland waters of this State 
was entertained until the spring of 1873, when a board of fish 
commissioners was authorized by law; and while the people gen- 
erally still shook their heads in skepticism, the board went on with 
its duty until these same people are made glad with the results. 

Under the efficient superintendency of Geo. H. Jerome, of Niles, 
nearly all the lakes and streams within the lower peninsula have 
been more or less stocked with shad, white-fish, salmon or lake 
trout, land-lucked or native salmon, eel, etc., and special efforts are 
also made to propagate that beautiful and useful fish, tho grayling, 
whose home is in the Manistee and Muskegon rivers. Much more 
is hoped for, however, than is yet realized. Like every other great 
innovation, many failures must be suffered before the brilliant; crown 
of final success is won. 

The value of all tho property employed in fish propagation in 
the State is but a little over $4,000, and the total expenses of con- 
ducting the business from Dec. 1, 1876, to July 1, 1877, were 

The principal hatcheries are at Detroit and Pokagon. 


was organized April 13, 1875, at Battle Creek, for " tlve protection 
and promotion of the best interests of the firemen of Michigan, the 
compilation of fire statistics, the collection of information concern- 
ing the practical working of different systems of organization; the 
examination of the merits of the different kinds of fire apparatus 
in use, and the improvement in the same; and the cultivation of a 
fraternal fellowship between the different companies in the State.*' 
The association holds it meetings annually, at various places in the 
State, and as often publish their proceedings, in pamphlet form. 


This Board was established in 1873, and consists of seven mem- 
bers, appointed by the Governor,'the secretary ex officio a member 
and principal executive officer. It is the duty of this Board to 
make sanitary investigations and inquiries respecting the causes of 
disease, especially of epidemics; the causes of mortality, and the 
effects of localities, emploJ;^lents, conditions, ingesta, habits and 
circumstances on the health of the people; to advise other officers 
in regard to the location, drainage, water supply, disposal of ex- 
creta, heating and ventilation of any public building; and also to 
advise all local health officers concerning their duties; and to 
recommend standard works from time to time on hygiene for the 
use of public schools. The secretary is required to collect informa- 
tion concerning vital statistics, knowledge respecting diseases and 
all useful information on the subject of hygiene, and through an 
annual report, and otherwise, as the Board may direcl^ to dim^mv 


nate such information among the people. These intereeting daties 
have been performed by Dr. Henry B. Baker from the organization 
of the Board to the present time. The Board meets quarterly at 


of this State has a great deal of business to transact, as it has within 
its jurisdiction an immense amount of new land in market, and 
much more to come in. During the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 
1877, the total number of acres sold was 50,835.72, for $87,968.05, 
of which $69,800.54 was paid in hand. At that time the amount of 
land still owned by the State was 3,049,905.46, of which 2,430,050.- 
47 acres were swamp land, 447,270.89 primary school, 164,402.55 
Agricultural College, 310.26 [Tniversity, 160 Normal School, 2,- 
115.63 Salt Spring, 1,840 Asylum, 32.40 State building, 8,342.75 
asset, and 380.31 internal improvement. But of the foregoing, 
1,817,084.25 acres, or more than half, are not in market. 


Territorial Library ^ 1828-1835. — The first knowledge that we 
have of this library, is derived from the records found in the printed 
copies of the journals and documents of the Legislative Councils of 
the Territory, and in the manuscript copies of the executive jour- 

The library was established by an act of the Legislative Council, 
approved June 16, 1828, authorizing the appointment of a librarian 
by the Governor, with the advice and consent of the Council. 

The librarian so appointed was required to take an oath of office 
and give bond to the treasurer of the Territory in the sum of $1,- 
000, for the faithful performance of his duties; his time oi service 
was for two years or until another be appointed. 

The librarian was also required to take charge of the halls and 
committee room, and other property appertaining to the Legislative 
Council. He was also required to make an annual report to the 
Council, upon the state of the library, and upon all such branches 
of duty as might from time to time be committed to his charge. 
For his services he was to receive annually the sum of $100. 

The library seem^ to have been kept open only during the actual 
sittings of the Legislative Council. 

The executive journal by its records shows that under the pro- 
visions of this act, William B. Hunt was appointed librarian July 
3, 1828, by Gov. Lewis Cass, for the term of two years. Mr. Hunt 
continued to act as librarian until March 7, 1834, when Gersham 
Mott Williams was appointed by Gov. Porter. Mr. Williams seems 
to have acted as librarian until the organization of the institution 
as a State library. 

The honored names of Henry B. Schoolcraft, Charles Moraii, 
Daniel S. Bacon,Calvin Brittain, Elon Farnsworth, Charles 0. Ha >- 


call and others are foand in the list of the members of the Library 

March, 1836, the State li\)rarj was placed in charge of the Secre- 
tary of State; in February, 1887« it was given to thecareof the pri- 
vate secretary of the Governor; Dec. 28 following its cnotody was 
given to the Governor and Secretary of State, with power to appoint 
a librarian and make rules and regulations for its government. 0. 
0. Jackson acted as the first librarian for the State. Lewis Bond 
also had the care of the books for a time. Oren Marsh was appointed 
librarian' in 1887, and had the office several years. In March, 1840, 
the law was again changed, and the library was placed in the care 
of the Secretary of State, and the members of the Legislature and 
executive officers of the State were to have free access to it at all 

Stdte Library. — The library was of course increased from time 
to time by Legislative appropriations. In 1844, as the result of the 
efforts of Alexandre V attemare, from Paris, a system of interna- 
tional exchanges was adopted. 

April 2, 1850, an act was passed requiring the Governor to 
appoint a State librarian with the consent of the Senate, and it was 
made the duty of the librarian to have the sole charge of the library. 
This act, with some amendments, still remains in force. It reouires 
the librarian to make biennial reports and catalogues. The libra- 
rians under this act have been: Henry Tisdale, April 2, 1850, to 
Jan. 27, 1851; Charles J. Fox, to July 1, 1853; Charles P. Bush, 
to Dec. 5, 1864; John James Bush, to Jan. 6, 1855; DeWitt 0. 
Leach, to Feb. 2, 1857; George W. Swift, to Jan. 27, 1859; J. 
Eugene Tenney^ to April 5, 1869; and Mrs. Harriet A. Tenney to 
the present time. This lady has proved to be one' of the best libra- 
rians in the United States. She has now in her charge about 60,- 
000 volumes, besides thousands of articles in the new and rapidly 
growing museum department. She is also Secretary of the '* Pio- 
neer Society of the State of Michigan," and has charge of the books, 
papers and relics collected by that society. The library and these 
museums are now kept in the new State capitol at Lansing, in a 
series of rooms constructed for the purpose, and are all arranged in 
the most convenient order and with the neatest taste. 


The earliest effort for the establishment of a bank within the pres- 
ent limits of the State of Michigan was in 1805. The act of Con- 
gress establishing the Territory of Michigan conferred legislative 
powers on the Governor and judges; and at their first session as a 
Board, a petition for an act incorporating a bank was presented to 
them. Tnis was at a time when the local business could scarcely 
have demanded a banking institution, or have afforded much prom- 
ise of its success. The small town of Detroit had just been laid in 
asheSy and the population of the entire Territory was inconsidera- 




ble, being reckoned five years previously at only 551; in 1810, it 
was less than 5,000; the country was possessed mainly by the 
Indians, and the few Frencli in the State were neither enterprising 
nor prosperous. No road pierced the forests of the interior; no 
manufactories existed; au^riculture yielded nothing for market^ and 
navigation had scarcely begun to plow our rivers and lakes. In 
general com tnerce the fur trade was almost the only element. 

The petition for a bank charter was presented, not by citizens of 
Detroit, but by capitalists of Boston, Kussell Sturges and others, 
who were engaged in the fur trade. This petition was granted Sept. 
15, 1806, incorporating the "Bank of Detroit,^' with a capital of 
$400,000. The great distant of this locality from New England 
gave those capitalists the advantage of circulating inland bills of 
credit against their Western banks for a long time before their 
redemption. Judge Woodward, one of the judges who granted the 
act of incorporation, was appointed its president, and the bank went 
into immediate operation; but imputations unfavorable to Judge 
Woodward in regard to this and other matters led to a Congres- 
sional investigation of the act incorporating the bank, and the act 
was disapproved by that body. The bank, liowever, continued to do 
business; but in September, 1808, the Governor and judges, in the 
absence of Woodward, passed an act making it punishable as a crime 
to carry on an unauthorized banking business, and this put an end 
to the brief existence of the institution. Its bills were quietly with- 
drawn from circulation the following year. 

The next bank established in the Territory was the "Bank of 
Michigan," incorporated by the Board of Governor and Judges, 
Dec. 19, 1817, with a capital of $100,000. The validity^of this act 
was fully established by. the courts in 1830. By the terms of its 
charter, the corporation was to expire on the first Monday in June, 
1839; but the Legislative Council, Feb. 25, 1831, extended its life 
twenty-five years longer, and subsequently it was allowed to increase 
its capital stock and establish a branch at Bronson, now Kalamazoo. 

The two above named are all the banks which derived their cor- 
porate existence from the Governor and judges. 

The first bank charter granted by the *' Legislative Council "was 
to the Merchants' and Mechanics' Bank of Michigan," approved 
April 2, 1827. The bank was to be established at Detroit, with a 
capital of $200,000, with lil>erty to increase it to $500,000. This 
corporation was also made an insurance company; but it does not 
appear a company was ever organized under this charter, March 
29, 1827, the *' Bank of Monroe " was incorporated, its capital stock 
to be $100,000 to $500,000, and to continue in existence 20 years. 
The " Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Michigan " was chartered 
Nov. 5j 1829, and March 7,1834, it was allowed to increase its 
capital stock, and establish a branch at St. Joseph. The *' Bank of 
River Raisin " was chartered June 29, 1832, and allowed to have a 
branch at Pontiac. The " Bank of Wisconsin " was chartered Jan. 
23, 1835, and was to be located in the Green Bay country, but on 


the ornnization of the State of Michigan it was thrown outside of 
its jnrisdiction. 

March 26, 1835, there were incorporated fonr banks, namely: 
« Michigan State Bank " at Detroit, " Bank of Washtenaw" at Ann 
Arbor, ^^ Bank of Pontiac," and the ^' Erie and Kalamazoo Railroad 
Bank" at Adrian. The '^ Bank of Pontiac" was also a railroad 
bank, its establishment being an amendment to the charter of the 
^^ Detroit and Pontiac Railroad Company." 

The nine banks last above named are all that were created by the 
"Legislative Oouncil." 

Next, the State Legislatnre in 1836 chartered the Bank of Man- 
hattan, Calhoun County Bank, Bank of St. Clair, Bank of Clinton, 
Bank of Tpsilanti, Bank of Macomb, Bank of Tecnmseh and Bank 
ofConstantine. The same Legislature passed ^'an act to create a 
fund for the benefit of the creditors of certain moneyed corpora- 
tions," which was in fact the famous safety-fund system of the State 
of New York. It required each bank to deposit with the State 
Treasurer, at the beginning of each year, a sum equal to one-half of' 
one per cent, on the capital stock paid in; and the fund so created 
was to be held and used for the oenefit of the creditors whenever 
any bauk subject to its provisions should become insolvent; but this 
statute was destined to have but little practical effect. The system 
in New York proved inadequate for the security of the public 
interests, and it was practically abandoned here. 

By this time, the financial affairs of the whole country had 
become sadly deranged, consequent upon a wild and reckless spirit 
of speculation. The currency became greatly inflated, fabulous 
prices given to property, and the masses of the people subjected to 
the cruel mercies of shrewd financiers. The session of 1837 was 
flooded with petitions for the creation of banks, and the Legislature 
met the emergency by adopting a system of free banking, under 
which were organized a great number of those institutions since 
known as " wild-cat banks." The statute authorized any 12 free- 
holders of any county who desired to do banking, to apply to the 
treasurer and clerk of the county for that purpose, and books were 
to be opened for subscriptions to the capital stock, $50,000 to $300,- 
000. Ten per cent, on each share was required to be paid in specie 
at the time of subscribing, and 30 per cent, of the entire capital 
stock in like funds before the association should commence opera- 
tions. The president and directors were also required to furnish 
securities for the payment of all debts and redemption of all notes 
issued by the association. 

This new law was popularly received with great enthusiasm. 
On its final passage in the House, only four members were bold 
enough to vote against it, namely: Almv, of Kent; Monfore, of 
Macomb; Purdy, of Washtenaw, and Felch of Monroe. This 
Legislatnre closed its session March 22, 1837, by adjournment to 
Nov. 9, following; but the financial embarrassments of the country 
increased so rapidly that the Governor called an extra session of 


the Legislatare for June 12, and in his message he attributed these 
embarrassments, in a great measure, to the error of over-banking, 
over-trading, and a want of providence and economy. The banks 
east and south had already suspended specie payments, and Mich- 
igan was of necessity drawn into the vortex. The report, to this 
Legislature, by a special commissioner appointed by the Governor, 
held forth, however, that the banks of Michigan were solvent, but 
that a little time may be granted them as a defense against the 
results of suspensions in New Y^ork and elsewhere. The number 
of banks doing business in this State at that time was 13 in num- 
ber, previously mentioned. The Legislature granted them time 
until May 16, 1838. The session of the winter following under- 
took to secure the public by appointing three bank commissioners 
to visit all the banks in the State at least once in every three 
months, to examine the specie held by them, inspect their books, 
and inform themselves generally of their affairs and transactions; 
monthly statement's of the condition of the banks were required to 
be made and published, and no bills were to be issued without 
bearing the endorsement of a bank commissioner, etc. Under the 
general banking law, as already stated, every subscriber to the stock 
was to pay in 10 per cent, in specie on each share at the time of 
subscribing, and 10 every six months thereafter, and 30 per cent, 
of the whole capital stock was required to be paid in like manner 
before the bank should commence operations. The specie thus 
paid in was to be the capital of the bank and the basis of its busi- 
ness operations. The requirement of it involved the principle 
that banking could not be carried on without bonajide csLpitsl^ and 
without it no bank could be permitted to flood the country with its 
bills; but the investigations of the commissioners showed a very 
general violation of the law in this respect. In many cases, instead 
of specie, a kind of paper denominated '^ specie certificates " was 
used; in some cases, specie borrowed for the occasion was used and 
immediately returned to the owner; sometimes, even, a nail-keg 
filled with old iron, or gravel, or sand and covered over the top 
with specie, was employed to deceive the commissioners; and 
sometimes tiie notes of individual subscribers or others, usuallv 
denominated ^^ stock notes," were received and counted as specie. 
The books of the banks were also kept in so imperfect a manner, 
sometimes through incompetency, sometimes with fraudulent de- 
sign, as frequently to give little indication of the transactions of 
the bank or of the true condition of its affairs. By proprietorship of 
several banks in one company of men, by frequent sale and trans- 
fer of the stock, and by many other tricks and turns, a little specie 
was made to go a great way in flooding the country with, worthless 

It is manifest that this conditon of things could not have existed 
without a fearful amount of fraud and perjury. In the excitement 
and recklessness of the times, amid ruined fortunes and blighted 
liopes, the moral sense had become callous. The general banking 


law was not without some good features, but it oaine into exiBtence * 
at a most nnfortuaate time, and the keenness and unecrupnlous- 
ness of desperate men, taking advantage of its weak points and 
corruptly violating its salutary provisions, used it to the public 

Under this law about 40 banks went into operation, many of 
them in remote and obscure places, aud before the commissioners 
could perfect their work of reform the crisis came and the catas- 
trophe could not be averted. Failure rapidly succeeded failure, 
and legitimately chartered banks were drawn into the same vortex 
with the ^^ wild-cat -' institutions. Only seven banks escaped the 
whirlpool, and the worthless paper afloat represented more than a 
million dollars. As ex-Gov. Alpheus Felch well says: 

*^Thus ends the history of that memorable financial epoch. 
Forty years have passed since these events, and few remain who can 
remember the excitement and distrust, the fear aud despondency, 
the hopes and disappointments which agitated the community, 
in those days of innation and speculation, of bankruptcy and 
financial distress; and fewer still remain who bore part in the 
transactions connected with them. We look back upon them to 
read the lessons which their history teaches. The notion that 
banks without real capital, or a currency which can never be 
redeemed, can relieve from debts or insolvency, is tried and 
exploded. We are led to the true principle, that prosperity, both 
public and individual, awaits upon industry and economy, judicious 
enterprise and honest productive labor, free from wild speculation 
and unprofitable investments, and a wise and prudent use of our 
abundant resources." 

In 1875 there were 77 national banks in this State, doing an 
annual business of about $26,000,000 ; 15 State banks, with a busi- 
ness of nearly $4,000,000, and J 2 savings banks, with a business of 


The lower peninsula occupies the central part of a great synclinal 
basin, toward which the strata dip from all directions, and which 
are bounded on all sides by anticlinal swells and ridges. The 
limits of this basin exceed those of the peninsula, extending to 
London, Out., Madison, Wis., Mar(juette and Sault Ste. Marie. 
The whole series of strata may theretore be compared to a nest of 
dishes, the lower and exterior ones representing the older strata. 

The upper peninsula is divided by the Starquette-Wisconsin 
anticlinal into two geological areas, the eastern oelonging to the 
great basin above alluded to, and the western being lacustrine in 
its character, and largely covered by Lake Superior. The southern 
rim of the latter is seen uplifted along Keweenaw Point and the 
south shore of the lake, and these strata re-appear at Isle Royale. 


Between the Michigan and lacustrine basins the metalliferous Mar- 
quette- Wisconsin axis interposes a separating belt of about 60 

The palaeozoic great system of this State measures about 2,680 
feet in thickness, of which the Silurian division is 920 feet, the 
Devonian 1,040 feet, and the carboniferous 720 feet. 

The coal-bearing group occupies the central portion of the 
peninsula, extending from Jackson to township 20 north, and from 
range 8 east to 10 west. 

Of iron, hematite and magnetite, in immense lenticular masses 
of unsurpassed purity, abound in the Huronian rocks of the npper 
peninsula. The former of these, under the action of water, 
becomes soft, and is called Limonite, and is abundant throughout 
the State as an earthy ore or ochre, bog ore, shot ore, yellow ochre. 
etc. Sometimes it is deposit^ in stalactitic« mammillary, 
botryoidal and velvety forms of great beauty. Kidney ore abounds 
in the Huron clays, and ^' black-band " in the coal measures. 

Of copper, native, in the *' trap ^ of Lake Superior, abounds in 
the form of sheets, strings and masses. Gold, silver and lead are 
also found in unimportant quantities in the Lake Superior region. 

Salt abounds in the Saginaw region, gypsum, or ^' land plaster " 
in the vicinity of Grand Kapids, building stone throughout the 
State, manganese in many places, and many other valuatue earths, 
ores and varieties of stone in many places. 


There are about 275 newspapers and periodical publications in 
Michigan, of all classes. Of these 224 are published weekly, 17 
daily and weekly, two daily, seven semi-weekly, onetri-weekly, four 
semi-monthly, 19 monthly, one quarterly, and one yearly; 112 are 
Republican, 46 Democratic, 73 independent and neutral, 14 relig- 
ious, and 15 miscellaneous. Among the latter are two Methodist, 
seven Adventist (two Dutch or Uollandisch), one Episcopal, one 
Catholic and one Baptist: four mining, five educational, one 
Masonic, one Odd-Fellow, one Grange, three medical and one agri- 
cultural. Five are printed in the German language, six in the 
Dutch, one in the Swedish and one in the Danish. 

The present population of Michigan, according to the census of 
1880, is as follows: Male, 862.278; females, 774,057; native bom, 
1,247,989; foreign, 338,346; white, 1,614,087; colored, 22,248; 
total, 1,636,335. 



Sow. Diin'nr FrmA RuU. 




Bienr de Front«iuc 

Blenr de IjiHurre 1683 

M»niuU de DenonTllle 1685 

Bienrde FronleDac 1689 

CheTOlier de Callierea 1699 

Marquis de Vaudreuil 1703 

Uarquisde BonuharnoiB ^36 

Compt <le In GallBBoniere 1T4T 

Sieiir d^lft JoDt|uiere 1749 

Haiquu (lu Quesnc de MGnnevill(>.17S3 

Sienrds VaudrcuildeCavBgnal.- - .1760 

Qott. Durioff Brituk Hale- 

Jame* Mumj 1763 

P&uliu B. Irring 1766 

Guy Carlelon. 1786 

HectorT Cramahe 1770 

Guy Cu-leUm 1774 

fYederick tialdimuid 1778 

H«tu7 BamilUm 1784 

Henry Hope 1786 

LordUorcUeitBT 1786 

Alured Clarke 1701 

Lord DorclieBler I7B8 

Oowmort of UiekigaK Territori/. 

William Hull 1805 

Lewis CasB 1818 

Ueorge B. Porter 1881 

StevensT. Xuon, ex offlclo 1834 

JohnT Horner ex officio 1885 

State Oovernort. EUeUd. 

SterensT Mason 18SS 

Wiillam Woodbridge 1840 

J. Wright QflrdoD, acting 1841 

Johns Bany 1842 

Alpheus Felch 1846 

Wm. I.. OrecDly. acting 1847 

Epaphrodltus Ransom 1848 

JoliD a. Bany mW 

Rohcn McClelland 1868 

Andrew Parsons, acting 1868 

Kinsley S. BingbatD 1856 

Moses Wisner 18fi0 

AnsUn BUir 1861 

Henry H. Cnpo 1865 

HenryP. Baldwin 1860 

John J. Bagley 1878 

CharlwM. (.■roswell 1877 

David H. Jerome 1881 

Lievi -Q<n>^nor» of Michigan. 

Edward Mundy 1885 

J. Wright Gordon 1840 

Origen D. Richardson 1848 

Wm. L. Orcenly 1846 

WnLH.FHitOQ 1818 

Andrew Panona 1888 

George A. Coe 1866 

Bdmiind B Furfleld I860 

James Biruev 1861 

Joseph R U''illLHRiB. acting 1861 

Henry T. BacKus, acting 1862 

Charles S. May 1868 

E, -U. Gmsvenor 1885 

Dwijjlil Miiy 1867 

Morgan Bates 199S 

Henry H ilolt. 1878 

Alotizo .Sessions 1877 

Hureau S. Crosby 1B81 

SeerttarUt of Stato. 

KintEing Prilclielte 1886 

Kandoipli Manning. 1888 

ThuinuB Uonland 1840 

Uohert P Eldridue 1818 

O. 0. WliilUjmure 1840 

GeorgeW. Peck 1848 

George Redfleld 1860 

Charks H . Taylor I860 

William Gravi'g 1868 

John McKinney 1855 

Nelson U. Isbell 1850 

James B. Port«r 1861 

O. L. 9pauldiog 1867 

Daniel Striker 1871 

E. G. D. Holden 1875 

William Jenney 1879 

SUiCe Tretuurer*. 

Heniy Howard 18S6 

Peter Deanoyers 1880 

Robert Stuart 1840 

George W. Germain 1B41 

JohnJ. Adam 1818 

Gmrge RedBold 1845 

George B. C'cwpcr 1846 

Ilarnard ( '. Whillemore 1850 

SiiasH. Holmes 1856 

John McKinney 1850- 

John Owen 1861 

E. O. Orosvenor 1867 

Vlcton- P. Collier 1871 

Wm. B. McCreery 1875 

Benj.D. Prilchard 1879 


Daniel Le Roy 1886 

Peler Morey 1837 

Zephaniah Piatt 1841 

Elon Farnsworth 184S 

lienryN Walker 1846 

Edward Mundy 1847 

Geo. V. N. Lothrop 1848 

William Hale 1801 



Jacob M. Howard 1W5 

Oharlea Upson 1861 

Albert Wniiani* 1868 

Wm. L. Stouicblau 1867 

Dwight May 1869 

Bjron D, Ball 1B73 

Isaac Hanton 1874 

AniErew J Smith 1878 

OttoKirchner 1877 


Robert Abbott 1686 

Henry Howard. .-. 1889 

EuroiaaF HaAtinin 1840 

Alphem Felch 1848 

Henry L. Whipple 1842 

Cbnrfea G. Hammond 1845 

JotanJ. Adam 1849 

Digby V . Bell 1846 

JohiiJ. Adiim 1848 

John Swegles, Jr 1881 

Whilnev Jon» ,186B 

Daniel L. Case 1859 

LangronlG. Beny 1861 

Emil Annekc 1888 

William Humphrey 1867 

Ralnh Ely 1876 

W. Irving Latimer 1879 

SupU. Pub. Iiul. 

John D. Pierce 1888 

Franklin Sawyer, Jr 1841 

Oliver C. Corastock 1848 

Jra Maylicw 1843 

Francia W. ShturiiiBn 1848 

Ira Maylicw 1865 

.loliii M. Grts'Ty 185B 

Onimi-l Hogforii 1865 

Daniel B. Brine 187il 

Horace 8. Ta^ll 1877 

C-ornelius A. Gower 1878 

Judge* of the Supreme Court. 

AusuMus B. Woodward 1805-24 

Frederick Bates ISaVS 

John Orifliii 1808-34 

Jamca Witherell 1808-28 

Solomon Sibley 1884-:(6 

Henry Cbipman 1827-33 

Wni. Wootibrldge 1828-32 

Rom Wilkina 1833-6 

Wm. A Fletcher 18a6-»3 

Epaplirodilua Ttansom 1886-47 

Ueorge Morell 1836-13 

Cbarfea W- Wliipplu 1848-53 

Alpheus Fekh 1843-5 

DavifHSotdwin 1K43-0 

Warner Wing ISil-fte 

(leorge Miles 1846-50 

FJward Mundy 1848 51 

Sanford M. Green 1848-57 

Geortce Martin ia'il-3 

Joseph T. Copeland 1852-7 

Samuel T. Doii|i;laii 1853-7 

David Johnson 1852-7 

Abner Pratt 18B1-7 

Chariea W Whipple 1858-6 

Nathaniel Bacon 186S-8 

Saudford M. Green 1836-8 

E.H.C. Wilson 1868-8 

Btnj. F. H. Witherell, BenJ. F. 
Grnvt>^, Jo^iali Turner and Ed- 
win I^n-rente, to fill vacancies 

ni (he latter part of 1867 

George Marlin 1858-«8 

IlanUniph Munning 1 868-64 

Isaac P, ChriBliaocy ,1888-77 

James V- CanipbeU. 1858 

Tlioimw JI . (.■ooley 186* 

BenJ . F. uravea 1868 

Isaac Uarslou 1876 

U. 8. Smaton. 

John Norvell 1885-41 

Lucius Lyon 1888-40 

AugustiuB. Porter 1840-5 

Wm. Woodbridge 1841-7 

Lewis Case 1845-57 

Thos. H. Fitzgerald 1848-9 

Alpbens Pelcb 1847-58 

Cnailes K. Stuart 188S-9 

Zachariah Chandler 1867-77 

Kinaley Si. Diniiiiam -186Q-41 

Jacob M. Howard 1868-71 

Thomas W. Ferry 18T1 

HenryP Baldwin 1880 

Z. Cliondler 1878-9 

OniarD- <onget 1881 

litpraeJiliitiBti in Congreit. 

Isaac E. Crary 1886-*! 

Jacob M. Howard 1841-8 

Lucius Lyon 1848-6 

Robert McClelland 1848-9 

James B. Hunt 1843-7 

John S. Chipnian 1846-7 

Charles E. Stuart 1847-9 

Kinsloy S. Bingham 1849-61 

Alex. W. Biiel 1849 51 

William Spraeue 1849-60 

Charles E. Simin 1861-8 

James L Conner 1&1I-8 

EbeiitKer J Punniman 1861-8 

fNiniuel t:iark 1853-fl 

David A. Noble 1868-6 

Hester L Stevens 1868-S 

David Stuart 1858-5 

(JwrgeW Peck 1855-7 

Will. A. Howard 1855-61 

Henry Waldron 1866-61 

David S. Walbriitge 185C^9 

\\ C- Leapii 1857-61 

Fruiiuis W Kellogg 1859-86 

B. F. Granger. I861-S 

P. C.Beaman 1861-71 

R. E. Trowbridge 1861-8 

Cliarles Upson 186S-9 



John W.Longyear 1868-7 

JohnF. Driggs 1863-9 

R. E. Trowbridge 1865-0 

Thomas W. Peny 1869-71 

Austin Blair 1867-78 

Wm. L. Stoughton 1869-78 

OmarD. Longer. 1869-81 

Randolph Strickland 1869-71 

Henry Waldron 1871-5 

Wilder D. Foster I87i-:^ 

Jabez G Sutherland 1871-;) 

Moses W. Field 1873-5 

George WUlard 1875-7 

Julius C. Burrows 1873-5, 1879 

The State printing is done by contract, the contractors for the 
last 13 years being W. S. George & Co. (Geo. Jerome), the former 
the active partner, who also publishes and edits the Lansing Re- 
publican^ a paper noted for originality, condensation and careful 
'' make-up." 


Josiah W. Begole 1878-5 

Nathan B. Bradley 1878-7 

Jay A. Hubbell 1873 

W.B. Williams 1875-7 

Alpheus 8 Williams 1875-9 

Mark 8. Brewer 1877 

Charles C. Ellsworth 1877-9 

Edwin W. Keightlcy 1877-0 

JoTiHs H. McGk)wan 1877 

John W. Stone 1877 

Edwin Willite 1877 

Roswell G. Horr 1879 

John S. Newberry 1879 

Michigan is a little southeast of the center of the continent of 
North America, and with reference to all the resources of wealth 
and civilization is most favorably situated. It is embraced between 
the parallels of 41^692 and 47^478 north latitude, and the merid- 
ians of 82**.407 and 90^536 west of Greenwich. The upper 
peninsula has its greatest extent east and west and the lower, north 
and south: The extreme length of the upper peninsula is 318 
miles, and its extreme breadth, 164} miles; its area, 22,580 square 
miles. The length of the lower peninsula is 277 miled, its width, 
259 miles, and its area, 33,871 square miles. The upper peninsula 
is rugged and rocky, aflbrding scarcely anything but minerals as a 
sourceof wealth; the lower is level, covered with forests of valuable 
timber, and is excellent for all the products of Northern States. 

The total length of the lake shore is 1,620 miles, and there are 
over 5,000 smaller lakes in the States, having a total area of 1,114 
square miles. 


And now, how natural to turn our eyes and thoughts back to the 
log-cabin days of less than 50 years ago, and contrast it with the 
elegant mansion of modern times. Before us stands the old log 
cabin. Let us enter. Instinctively the head is uncovered in token 
of reverence to this relic of ancestral beginnings and early struggles. 
To the left is the deep, wide fire-place, in whose commodious space 
a group of children may sit by the tire and up through the chimney 
mav count the stars, while ghostly stories of witches and giants, 
and still more thrilling stories of Indians and wild beasts, arc 
whisperingly told and shudderingly heard. On the great crane 
hang the old tea-kettle and the great iron pot. The huge shovel 
and tongs stand sentinel in either corner, while the great andirons 


patiently wait for the huge back W. Over the fire-plaoe hangs the 
trnsty rifle. On the right side ot the fire-place stands the apin- 
ning-wheel, while in the further end of the room the loom looms 
np with a dignity peculiarly its own. Strings of drying apples and 
poles of drying pumpkin are overhead. Opposite the door by 
which you enter stands a huge deal table; by its side the dresser 
whose ^' pewter plates" and ^'shining delf" catch and reflect ^^ the 
fire-place flame as shields of armies do the sunshine." From the 
corner of its shelves coyly peep out the relics of former china. In 
a curtained corner and hid from casual sight we find the mother's 
bed, and under it the trundle-bed, while near them a ladder indi- 
cates the loft where the older children sleep. To the left of the fire- 
place and in the corner opposite the spinning-wheel is the mother's 
work-stand. Upon it lies the Holy Bible, evidently much used, its 
family record telling of parents and friends a long way off, and 
telling, too, of children 

Scattered like roses In bloom, 

Some at the bridal, and some at the tomb. 

Her spectacles, as if but just used, are inserted between the leaves 
of her Bible, and t«ll of her purpose to return to its comforts 
when cares permit and duty is done. A stool, a bench, well notched 
and whittled and carved, and a few chairs complete the furnitnre of 
the room, and all stand on a coarse but well-scoured floor. Let us 
for a moment watch the city visitors to this humble cabin. The 
city bride, innocent but thoughtless, and ignorant of labor and care, 
asks her city-bred husband, ^^Pray what savages set this up?" 
Honestly confessing his ignorance, he replies, ^' I do not know." 
But see the pair on whom age sits ''frosty but kindly." First, as 
they enter they give a rapid glance about the cabin home, and then 
a mutual glance of eye to eye. Why do tears start and fill their 
eyes? Wliy do lips quiver? There are many who know why, but 
who that iias not learned in the school of experience the full mean- 
ing of all these symbols of trials and privation, of loneliness and 
danger, can comprehend the story that they tell to the pioneer? 
Within this chinked and mud-daubed cabin, we read the first pages 
of our history, and as we retire through its low doorway, ana note 
the heavy battened door, its wooden hinges, and its welcoming 
latch-string, is it strange that the scenes without should seem to be 
but a dream? But the cabin and the palace, standing side by side 
in vivid contrast, tell the story of this people's progress. They are 
a history and prophecy in one. 

'• - 

rf« « 


• --' -- 




The origin of the red men, or American Indians, is a subject 
which interests as well as instructs. It is a favorite with the 
ethnologist, even as it is one of deep concern to the ordinary 
reader. The era of their establishment as a distinct and insulated 
people must be set down and credited to a period immediately after 
the separation of the Asiatics and the origin of the languages. No 
doubt whatever can exist when the American Indian is regarded as 
of Asiatic origin. The fact is that the full-blood Indian ofthe pres- 
ent is descended directly from the earliest inliabitants, or, in other 
words, from the survivors of that people who, on being driven from 
their fair possessions, retired to the wilderness in sorrow, and 
reared up their children under the saddening influences of their 
unquencnable griefs, bequeathing them only the habits of the wild, 
cloud-roofed homes of their exUe — a sullen silence and a rude 
moral code. In after years those wild sons of the forest and 
prairie grew in numbers and in strength. Some legend told them 
of their present suflFerings, of the high station which their fathers 
once had held, and of tne riotous race that now reveled in the 
wealth which should be theirs. The fierce passions of the savage 
were aroused, and uniting their scattered bands, all marched m 
silence upon the villages of the Tartars, driving them onward to 
the capital of their Incas, and consigning their homes to the fiiimes. 
Once in view of the great city, the hurrying bands halted in sur- 
prise, while Tartar cunning took advantage of the situation, and 
offered to the sons of their former victims pledges of amity and 
justice, which were sacredly observed. Henceforth Mexico was 
open to the Indians, bearing precisely the same relation to them 
that the Hudson Bay Company's villages do to the Northwestern 
Indians of the present time, — obtaining all and rendering little. 

The subjection of the Mongolian race, represented in North 

America by that branch of it to which those Tartars belonged, 

seems to have taken place about five centuries prior to the arrival 

of the Spaniards^ whue it mav be concluded that the war of the 

races, which resulted in n>ducmg the villages erected by tli^T«ix\«c 
« (IIS) 


hordes to ruin, took place between one and two hundred years 
later. These statements, though actually referring to events which 
in point of time are comparatively modern, can be substantiated 
only by the fact that about the periods mentioned the dead bodies 
of an unknown race of men were cashed ashore on the European 
coasts; while previous to that time there is no account whatever 
in European annals of even a vestige of trans- Atlantic humanity 
bein^ transferred by ocean currents to the shores of the Old 
World. Toward the latter half of the fifteenth century, two dead 
bodies, entirely free from decomposition and correspondinj? with 
the characteristics of the red men, as afterward seen by Colum- 
bus, were cast ashore on the Azores, and confirmed the great 
discoverer in his belief in the existence of a western world and a 
western people. 

Storm ana flood and disease have created sad havoc in the ranks 
of the aborigines since the occupation of the country by the white 
man. Inherent causes have led to the decimation of the race even 
more than the advance of civilization, which seems not to afifect it 
materially. In the maintenance of the same number of represent- 
atives during three centuries, and its existence in the very face of 
a most unceremonious, and, whenever necessary, cruel conquest, 
the grand dispensations of the Unseen Ruler are demonstrated; 
for, without the aborigines, savage and treacherous as they were, 
it is possible that the explorers of former times would have so 
many natural difficulties t<T contend with that their work would be 
surrendered in despair, and the most fertile regions of the conti- 
nent saved for the plow-shares of the coming generations. It is 
very questionable whether the ultimate resolve of Columbus wbs 
not strengthened by the appearance of the bodies of Indians on the 
coast of Europe, even as the fact of the existence of a people in 
the interior led the French explorers into the very heart of the 
continent in later days. From this standpoint their services can 
not be over-estimated. Their existence is embraced in the plan of 
the Divinity for his government of the world; and it will not be a 
matter of surprise to learn that the same intelligence which sent a 
thrill of liberty through every nerve of the Republic will, in the 
near future, devise some metnod under which the remnant of a 
great and ancient race may taste the sweets of public sympathy, 
and feel that, after a long season of suffering, they have at last 
found a shelter amid a sympathizing people. 


Among such a people did the Jesuit fathers — Claude Allouez 
and Claude Dablon — venture in 1665; Father Jacques Marquette 
and Louis Joliet in 1668, and the hundred missionaries who fol- 
lowed after them. Many of those zealous men visited the lodges 
of the Saginaws while yet the spirit of Pontiac was living and 
breathing death to the pale-face; out the very warriors who went 
forth in 1762 to aid the great Indian chiefuun in his proposed 


capture of the English garrison of Detroit were among the first to 
bid the Frenchmen welcome to the valley of the Sagmaw, as also 
to go to the aid of La Balme in 1780, when he marched against 
the English position at Detroit. 

About the year 1520 the Chippewas gained possession of this 
district, when the massacre of Skull Island resulted in almost the 
total annihilation of the original possessors, the Sauks. The story 
of this massacre is thus related by William McCormick: 


^^ On nearly all the tributaries can be found mounds filled with 
human bones, which I have opened for my own satisfaction, and 
found them lying in all directions, showing they were thrown 
together without any re^lariihr, upon whicn I became satisfied 
they were killed in battle. This awakened in me a curiosity to 
find out what people they were, and where and what had become 
of them. I often questioned the Indians in regard to it, but they 
would invariably say that there were two or three very old Indians 
living on the bay that could tell me all about it, giving me their 
names. Accordingly, in one of my journeys to the bay I sought 
out the Indians in question. I think this was in 1834. I found 
him a very old man, and asked him his age. He said he thought 
he was a great deal over 100 years. His faculties were as bright 
as a man of 50. I told him I understood he could give me the 
tradition of his race. He replied he could, as it was handed down 
to him by his grandfather, who he said was older than he was now 
when he told him. For fear I would not get it correct I called to 
my aid an educated man who was part Indian, Peter Grewett, a 
man well known by the early settlers as an Indian trader, and is 
still living, I believe, in Gratiot county, and has spent his life 
with the Indians, in the fur trade, and was for many years in 
the employment of the American Fur Company. 

^^Tlie old Indian, Puttasamine by name, commenced as follows: 
He said the Sauks occupied the whole of the Saginaw river and 
its tributaries, extending from Thunder Bay on tne north to the 
head of the Shiawassee on the south, and from Lake Michigan on 
the west to Detroit on the east. The balance of Michigan was 
occupied by the Pottawatomies, and the Lake Superior country wa& 
occupied by the Chippewas and Ottawas, while the Monomoniea 
were at the head of Green Bay in Wisconsin, and another tribe 
west of the Mississippi which he called Sows. The main village 
of the Sauks stood on the west side of the Saginaw river, just below 
where the residence of Mr. Frank Fitzhugn now is, and opposite 
the mill of the Hon. N. B. Bradley. The Sauks were always at war 
with their Chippewa neighbors on the north and the Pottawatomies 
on the south, and also with other nations in Canada, until at last 
a council was called, consisting of the Chippewas, Pottawatomies, 
Monomonies, Ottawas, and mx Nations of New York. At an 
appointed time they all met at the Island of Mackinaw^ whet^tJckft^ 



fitted out a large army and started in bark canoes, and came down 
the west shore of Lake Huron. They then stole along the west 
shore of Saginaw Bay by night, and lay concealed during the day, 
until they arrived at a place called Petobegong, about ten miles 
from the mouth of the Sa^aw. Here they landed part of their 
army, while the rest crossed the bay and landed to the east of the 
mouth of the Saginaw river in the night. In the morning both 
armies started up the river, one on each side, so as to attack both 
villages at once. Tlie array on the west side attacked the main 
village first by surprise, and massacred nearly all; the balance 
retreated across the river to another village, which stood near 
where the court-house now stands, near the ferry, in Portsmouth. 
At this time that part of the army that had landed on the east side 
of the river came up, and a desperate battle ensued in the vicinity 
of the residence of William R. McOormick, that being the highest 
land, and where they had attempted to fortify themselves; and at 
the present time, by digging in this hill, you will find it full of 
human bones which were killed in that battle. Here they were 
affain defeated. They then crossed the river and retreated to 
SkuII Island, which is the next island above what is now Stone's 
Island. Here they considered themselves safe, as their enemies 
had no canoes and they could not fortify themselves. But the next 
night after their retreat to the island the ice froze -thick enough for 
the allies to cross, which they did, when another massacre ensued; 
here Ijiey were all exterminated with ^ the exception of 12 females. 
Since that time this island has been known as ''Skull Island,'' 
from the number ot skulls found on it in afler years. The allies 
then divided, some goinff up the Cass, some up the Flint, others 
up the Shiawassee, Tittabawassee, and so on, where there were 
ditterent bands located. But the largest battles were fought on 
the Flint on the blutt. 

^'Another Indian' traditionist says another reinforcement met 
them here, coming through Detroit. Here there is a large number 
of mounds filled with bones, which can be seen at the present 
day. They then came down the river and fought another batde 
on the blun, about a mile from the present village of Flushing, on 
the farm formerly owned by a Mr. Bailey. Here there is also a 
large number of mounds yet to be seen; and, if you should dig 
them open as I have, you will find them filled with human bones. 

"The next battle was fought about 16 miles from Flushing, on 
the farm formerly occupied by the late James McCormick. There 
were several battles fought on the Cass, at what is now called the 
Bend, or Bridgeport Center, where there was a fortification of 
earthwork whicli was plainly to be seen 35 years ago. The next 
important battle was fought on the Tittabawassee just above the 
farm on which the late James Fraser first settled wlien he came to 
the Saginaw Valley. This differs from the rest, as the remains of 
the slain were all buried in one mound, and it is a very large one. 

"After the extermination of the whole nation, with the exception 
of the 12 females before spoken of, a council of the allies waa then 


held, to know what should be done with them. Some were for 
torturing and killing, others for sparing their lives; finally it waa 
agreed that they should be sent west of the Mississippi, and an 
arrangement was made with the Sioux that no tribe should molest 
them, and the Sioux should be responsible for their protection, 
which agreement was faithfuUy kept. The conquered country, of 
which the present Saginaw Valley is a part, was then divided 
among them all as a common hunting ground. But a great manv 
who came here to hunt never retumea, nor were ever heard of. 
It became the opinion of the Indians that the spirits of the dead 
Sauks still haunted their hunting grounds and were killing off 
their hunters, when in fact it was a few Sauks who had escaped 
the massacre and still lingered around their hunting grounds, 
watching for straggling hunters and killing them whenever an 
opportunity occurred. Ton-do-gong, an Inaian chief who died in 
1840, told me he killed a Sauk while hunting when a boy. This 
must have been over 80 years ago, and up to a few years ago the 
Indians still believed there was a Sauk in the vicinity. They had 
seen the place where he had made his fires and slept. I have 
known them to get together and not hunt for several aays, for the 
reason, they said, there was a Sauk in tlie woods; they had 
seen where he had slept. I used to laugli at them, but it was ot 
no avail; you coUld not make them believe otherwise. 

"But to go back to the Indian tradition. The country was con- 
sidered as haunted, and no more Indians came here to hunt, 
although game was abundant. Finally it was converted into what 
wouldbe termed among civilized nations a penal colony. Every 
Indian who committed a crime would flee or be banisned to the 
haunted hunting grounds (Saginaw Valley) to escape punishment, 
for the Indian laws were more severe and strict then than now. 
This was long before we became degraded by coming in contact 
with the whites, said the Indian. 

"The Chippewas becoming the most numerous, finally their 
language predominated, and at the present time the Indians in the 
Saginaw v alley do not speak in all respects the same as the Chip- 
pewas on Lake Superior, from which they originally sprung, 
showing that the mixing of different nations in the Saginaw Valley 
has been the cause oi the same. Put-ta-qua-sa-mine said his 

frandfather told it to him when he was a boy, which was 90 years 
efore, and that it had been handed down to his grandfather from 
his ancestors, and was a custom with him to repeat it often to his 
people, so the tradition or history should not be lost; and a suc- 
cessor was always appointed in case the traditionist should die, 
that the history of the nation should not be lost, and be handed 
down from generation to generation. 

" I have talked with two other old Indians on the same subject, 
and their tradition is precisely the same, word for word, with one 
exception. They sav the battles on the Flint were fought by the 
army coming from l5etroit. I have no doubt that the above is a 


correct narrative, as much so as if it had been written at the time 
and handed down to us as a matter of history." 


About 12 miles below Saginaw City is " Skull Island," so named 
by the Indians in consideration that upon it exists an endless 
quantity of " dead heads," which were left here after a great fight, 

J ears long past, between the Chippewas and Sauks, their owners 
aving no further use for them, especially after they had passed 
through the hands of a set of hair dressers who took off skm and 
hair together. These Indians were queer fellows in their day; 
and at this battle of Skull Island, which the Chippewas had trav- 
eled " many a weary mile to enjoy," they made a general Kilkenny 
cat fight of it, and as, like Maturin's tragedies, ^^all stabbed and 
everyoody died," except about six on each side, each party of 
them retired and celebrated the victory, leaving the field m undis- 
turbed possession of the " skulls," which, having seen the folly of 
fighting, were willing to lie quiet, friend and foe, "cheek by jowl," 
and compose themselves for a few more years of hunting and 
fishing, by the glorious expectation of taking a squint at the "nappy 
hunting grounds," and the proud consequence of having dedicated 
their respective knowledge-boxes to the christening of about two 
acres of Bad Island. 

Just below this locality of warlike memory lies Sag-e-nong,upon 
a high bank on the west side of the river. This is tne Saginaw of 
the red man, and the only place known to him by that name. The 
meaning of the word is the "land of Sauks." The place known 
to white men as Saginaw lies 12 miles or more up the river, and is 
called Ka-pay-shaw- wink, which means the "camping ground." 
Here it was that the tribes living hereabout were wont to 
assemble, statedly to hold council together, often continuing some 


During the year 1827 a war party of the Winnebagos attacked a 
camp of the Cliippewas, and succeeded in killing eight warriors. 
The Winnebagos engaged in this ruse de guerre were arrested 
under authority of the united States, and four of them riven up to 
be tried by the court of warriors of the Chippewas. The Winne- 
bagos were of course found guilty and suffered capital punishment. 
Red Bird, a chief of the WinneDagos and a kinsman of the four 
braves who were executed, sought revenge, attacked the Chip- 
pewas, and, being defeated, turned his savage arms on unoffending 
white men, but he and six of his band were soon made to surren- 
der; three of them were hanged, and the chief with three others 
j>]aced in prison, where they died. 



The following legends and descriptions have been collected from 
many sources, and relate to history so far as they are character- 
istic of Indian life: 

No person who has ever traversed the valley of the Saginaw but 
remembers the "lone tree," which stood upon the east side of the 
river above Portsmouth, isolated upon the prairie, far from its 
fellows. It looked like some lone misanthrope, who, having 
become disgusted with the vanities and foibles of human nature, 
had taken up his abode in the desert, where, far from the busy 
haunts of his fellow man, he might pour out his heart's bitterness 
to the wild winds, and waste his spleen and discontent upon the ^ 
"desert air." There it stood, majestid in its loneliness, like the 
last rose whose companions are gone. A spirit of romance cer- 
tainly seemed to linger about it; a whisper of the past gently 
breathed through its desolate branches, ana the question naturally 
arose, Why is it that this tree thus stood alone? A greater 
interest was imparted to it by the fact of its having been for years 
the abode of a white owl, whose dismal whoop fell mournfully 
upon the ear of night. The Indians had a ^eat reverence for this 
tree, and also for its occupant, which they believed to be a spirit. 
There is a beautiful belief existing among the aborigines of our 
country in regard to a guardian spirit, which they say is often 
seen, and which appears in the form of a bird, sometimes the 
dove, sometimes the eagle, but more frequentlv assuming the form 
of a night bird, though the disposition of trie deceased, while 
living, has much to do with the species. For instance, a great 
warrior dies whose disposition had been fearless, ambitious and 
untamed; his spirit-bird personilies an eagle; a blood-thirsty chief 
tain's spirit-bira is a hawK. A gentle maiden passes away to the 
spirit-land, and her friends know that she is hovering near them 
when they hear the mournful notes of the turtle dove at morn or 

A legend, or tradition, concerning the "lone tree" exists among 
the Indians of the Saginaw Vallev. Many, many long years 
before the white man's foot had leu, its impress upon this valley, 
Ke-wah-ke-won ruled his people with love and kinaness. He was 
a patriarch among them, and oeloved for the gentleness of his man- 
ners and the mildness of his government. He had been a great 
warrior in his day, but his youth had departed, and languid pulse 
and feeble footsteps told, alas! too plainly, that he would soon be 
treading the hunting grounds of the Great Spirit. The good old 
man felt that indeed ne was passing away— dying — and he was 
desirous to see once more his tribes in council, and bestow upon 
them his last blessing, and impart to them his dying counsel and 
admonition. The old chief lay upon his death-bea, and around 
him were gathered, in moumfdl silence, his beloved people, eager 
to catch the first and last words that should drop from tne lips of 
their dying chieftain. It was a mournful and melancholy pictvir^.^ 


that death-bed scene in the wilderness. At length the chief spoke, 
while the fire of his youth seemed to kindle again in his dim eye, 
and his voice, though weak, was calm and clear: 

''My children," said he, "the Great Spirit has called to me, and 
I must obey the summons. Already is the hand raised to sever 
the last chord that binds me to my children; already my guide 
stands at the door to convey me to the hunting grounds of my 
fathers in the spirit-land. You weep, my children, but dry your 
tears, for though I leave you now, yet will my spirit-bird ever 
watch over you. I will whisper to you in the evening breeze, and 
when the morning comes you will know that I have been with you 
throuffh the night. But the Good Spirit beckons for me, and I 
must hasten. Let my body be laid in a quiet spot in the prairie, 
with my tomahawk and pipe bv my side. You need not fear that 
the wolf will disturb my rest, for the Great Spirit, I feel, will place 
a watch over me. Meet me in the spirit-lana, my children. Fare- 
well." And the old chief slept the sleep that knows no waking 
till the end of time. 

They buried him in a lone spot in the prairie, near the beautiful 
river, with his face toward tne rising sun. His remains were 
never disturbed by bird or beast; for it would indeed seem that so 
the Great Spirit had ordered it. Time passed on, and a tree arose 
from his grave and spread its branches over it, as if to protect it, 
and a beautiful white owl took possession of it. The Indians tell 
us that the "lone tree" marked the last resting place of Ke-wah- 
ke-won, and that the wliite owl was the spirit-bird sent to watch 
over it. The " lone tree " is no longer seen by the boatman or the 
passer-by, for vandal hands have cut it down; yet the spot is often 
pointed out upon which it stood, and where sleeps Ke-wah-ke-won, 
the beloved of his tribe. 


There is a vast difference in the Indian payment day of the 
present and that of "olden time," loui^ before Saginaw had 
attained its present importance and standing. The writer of this 
had occasion to visit Saginaw City many years ago, at which time 
he had an opportunity of attending an Indian payment. About 
twelve hundred Indians, of " all sorts and sizes," from the toddling 
pappoose to the swarthy niche-naJwoa^ were assembled together in 
the morning, upon the beautiful lawn which gently sloped toward 
the river in front of the council house. It would be almost impos- 
sible to give the reader an idea of the hub-bub and confusion of 
tongues that prevailed upon the occasion. Aside from the 1,200 
Indians were a variety of other characters, including the chattering 
Frenchman, the blarneying Irishman, and the bluobering Dutch- 
man, all mingling their discordant jargon with that of the vocif- 
erous Yankee. Groups of Indian boys, some exercising with the 
bow and arrow, others jumping, running, wrestling, and making 
the welkin ring with their noisy merriment, were collected in the 



The Chippewas and Ottawas inhabiting this section of Michigan 
were frienoly to each other, and during the hunting seasons fre- 
quently encamped near each other. In the fall of 1853 a party of 
one tribe built their cabins on the banks of the river, and a 

fiarty of the other tribe, about 80 in number, encamped close by. 
t is unnecessary to speak of their life in these camps; suffice it to 
say that the days were spent in hunting and the nignts in drinking 
"fire water" and carousing. In one of the revels at the camp a 
Saginaw Indian, maddened by liquor, killed his squaw, and to 
conceal the deed threw her body upon the fire. 

Recovering from the stupor of the revel, he saw that the signs of 
his ffuilt were still before him, and fearing the wrath of his tribe, 
he ned toward the other encampment 

His absence was noticed, the charred remains of the poor squaw 
were found, and the cry for blood was raised. The avengers were 

.i ■ 

vicinity of their respective tents. The river, too, was covered with 
canoes, and here the " dusky maid " in a more quiet and becoming 
manner was enjoying the occasion; and it was really surprising to 
see the dexterity and fearlessness with which she managed the 
''li^ht canoe." A list of all the names of the heads ot Indian 
families, chiefs, etc., was taken by the Indian superintendent, 
each Indian being entitled to a certain amount. The money to be 
paid was placed upon a table in the council room, in piles ot $10 
and $20 each, in American half-dollar pieces. Around the table 
sat the Indian superintendent, interpreter, clerks, etc. Com- 
mencing at the top of the list, a crier called off the names, the 
parties presented themselves, were paid off, and immediately made 
room for others. It was amusing to observe the great number of i 

friends that would gather around the Indian after he received his ' 

money from the paymaster. Here a trader suddenly recollects 
some debt of long standing against Mr. Indian; there a seedy indi- 
vidual with sad eyes and nasal promontory coUur depmque^ most 
seductively offering him a drink of river water slightly tinctured 
with poor whisky, while one or two dear friends are advising him 
to look out for sharpers, at the same time intimating that the 
superintendent has been paying off in bogus coin. In the evening, 
while the drinking Indians were rioting and carousing in the town, 
the evangelized natives were encamped upon the opposite side of 
the river, and the surrounding forest fairly resounded with their 
loud singing, preaching and praying. Instrumental music, from 
the fiddle to the Indian tattoo, might also have been heard arising 
above the "horrid din." 

The scene that presents itself at the Indian payment now-a-days 
is altogether a different one, at least at Saginaw City. We are 
happy to see measures adopted to prevent the sale of intoxicating 
drinks to the poor Indian on sucn occasions. Would to God it 
might be prohibited upon all occasions. 

I ■ 


soon upon his track, and they pursued him to the encampment of '-^ 

their neighbors; he was found, apprehended, and in solemn coun- 
cil doomed to the death which in the stem old Indian code is 
reserved for those only who shed the blood of their kin. It was a 
slow, torturing, cruel death. A hatchet was put in the victim's 
hand, he was led to a large log that was hollow, and made to assist 
in fixing it for his coffin. iSiis was done by cutting into it some 
distance on the top in two places about the length of a man apart, 
then slabbing off, and digging the hollow still larger so as to admit 
his body. This done, he was taken back and tied fast to a tree 
Then they smoked and drank of the *'fire water," and when even- 
ing came they kindled large fires around him. And now com- 
menced the orgies; they drank to intoxication, they danced and 
sang in their wild Indian manner, chanting the dirge of the 
recreant brave. The arrow was fitted to the ready bowstring, and 
ever and anon with its shrill twang it sent a missile into tha quiv- 
ering flesh of the homicide, and to heighten his misery they cut 
Dff his ears and nose. 

Alternately drinking, dancing, beating their rude drums and 
shooting arrows into the victim, the night passed. 

The next day was spent in sleeping and eating, the victim mean- 
^vhile still bound to the tree. What his reflections were we of 
course cannot tell, but he bore his punishment as a warrior should. 

When night closed around it brought his executioners to their 
s¥ork again. The scene of the first night was re-enacted, and so it 
WAS the next night, and the next and the next, and so on for a 
iveek. Seven long and weary days did he stand there, tortured 
with the most cruel torture, before his proud head dropped upon 
[lis breast, and his spirit left his clayey tenement for the hunting 
grounds of the Great Spirit. And when it did they took the body, 
svrapped it in a new clean blanket, and placed it in the log comn 
le had helped to hollow. They put his nunting knife by his side 
;hat he might have something to defend himself on the way; his 
wrhisky bottle, that he might cheer his spirits with a draught now 
md then, and his tobacco pipe that he mi^ht smoke. Tlien they 
3Ut on the cover, drove down stakes each side of the log, and filled 
ip between them with logs and brush. The murdered squaw was 
ivenged. The camp was broken up, and the old stillness and 
luict once more reigned over the forest spot where was consum- 
nated this signal act of retributive justice. 


About the year 1820 David Henderson was sent by Gen. Cass 
nto the valley to work for the Indians. Having been there a 
hort time he left for Detroit on business, his family remaining at 
Jaginaw until his return. During Henderson's absence Kish-kau-ko 
ookhis family captives and made known his intention to kill them. 
Facob Smith, of Flint, hearing of the capture and threat, mounted his 
lorse, and came with all possible speed to Saginaw. Hastening 






to the old chief, he demanded to know of him what were his de- 
signs regarding the wife and children of Henderson. ^'I am 
goi^to Kill them," answered the chief. ^'Whatl" said Smith, 
^^will yon kill diose little children, who have never done yon or 
any other one any harm?'' nervonsly the chief replied, '*Take 
them away qnick." " But," said Smith, " it is of no use for me to 
take the woman and her children through the woods. I shall 
meet some other Indians, and tliey will take them away from me 
and kill them. You must give me some men to go with me to 
Detroit." The chief gave him six men who went through with 
the party to Detroit, where the Indians were taken prisoners and 
connned in the fort; but through the influence of Smith they were 
released, supplied bountifully with rations, and sent in charge of 
a file of men beyond the reacli of danger from the white settlers 
near the fort, then greatly exasperated on account of recent Indian 


Eleazer Jewett, while in charge of the Fur Company's post at 
the Forks, was threatened by the Indians with deatn if he would 
continue doing business at the post for the company. He treated 
the menace lightly, never dreaming that the chiefs and warriors of 
the tribe, agamst whom he never raised a hand would venture to 1 

carry out the threat. Their earnestness took practical shape, how- 
ever. One day the Factor saw about 120 Indians approacningthe 
log house, marching in Indian file along the trail, which led thither, 
through the snow. The warriors were adorned in that peculiarly 
grotesque style that bespeaks war. The inhabitant of the post, 
undaunted, went to the door, otfered presents of tobacco to the 
chief, which were spurned, and being well enough conversant with 
Indian custom to realize the danger of his position, he fell back for 
shelter, closed the door, bolted it, and flew to one of the embrasures 
to give battle. Here he was aided by a half-breed assistant, who 
had a number of rifles readj'. Before he fired a shot 100 
tomahawks were buried in the door, which he had just closed 
against the invaders. Now the decisive moment arrived; he fired 
over the heads of the savages; again sent some buck-shot into the 
bodies of a few of them, and continued to proceed thus until the 
chief ordered his force to retire. This old warrior was named 
O-ke-maw-ke-ke-to. He was always known to esteem and applaud 
true bravery, and on this occasion he saw enough to convince him 
that the new master of the trading-post was no coward; that his 
consciousness of innocence was his greatest power, and relying 
upon his right to stay there, he was prepared to give battle to 
all comers. 

Next day O-ke-maw-ke-ke-to visited the post alone. Mr. Jewett 
gave him a dish of houiUi^ which was, evidently, much apprecia- 
ted. His visit was repeated, and a similar reception accoraed to 
him. On the third day he came, took a dish of the favorite soap, 


and afterward addressed Mr. Jewett for the first time. "Friend,'* 
said he, " I did what was wronc in seeking your life, but now it 
is all over and you and I are friends forever." For long vear» 
after this event 0-ke-maw-ke-ke-to made full amends for all the 
troubles he caused this early settler at the beginning of his career 
among the Indians. The Indian's friendship was so sincere that 
he transacted all the business for the trader among his band more 
economically^, perhaps, than himself could do it. After his return 
from Washington in 1837, the old chief whiled away days in Mr. 
Jewett's society, telling him of all he had seen, and the great 
fathers he had met. 


The Williams family arrived at Saginaw in 1828. Eeaume wa& 
agent for the American Fur Company at that point. He and 
Messrs. Campau had personal difficulties of long standing, which 
had become an inveterate feud, creating unprofitable divisions 
with the Indians, amounting with them to fierce partisan hatred. 
The current was turned against Keaume, and his personal safety 
becoming endangered, his store was kept closed too much of the 
time for him to continue a profitable agent for the company at 
that post. Judge Abbott, the company's superintendent at Detroit, 
selected Messrs. WilUiams as the successors of Keaume, who came 
on as before detailed, and became the owners of his interests at 
Saginaw City, and also the Little Fork of the Tittabawassee (Mid- 
land City), where he had another post. Dequindre, an active 
young Frenchman, had been his sub-agent, until a vicious Indian 
named Wah-be-man-i-to, or White Devil, forcibly took possession 
of the post, driving out the sub-agent, who fled for his life, for 
several days roaming about, lost in the woods, and untimately 
coming into Saginaw City with his feet frozen. The Campaus had 
a rival post at the same place, and by the abandonment of the 
other the valuable trade of the Tittabawassee was left wholly in 
their liands. The winter after Mr. E. S. Williams had established 
himself at Saginaw City, he was deputed to take stores to that 
point and re-open the trading-house. He. chose for his assistants 
Jacob Graveradt and the two younger Roys. Prudent friends 
endeavored to persuade him not to embark in an enterprise sa 
evidently fraught with danger, but the company's interests required 
the venture, and he soon with his assistants presented himself at 
the post. A short time only elapsed before Wah-be-man-i-to 
resumed his attitude of hostility. He was on his way with his outfit to 
the trapping ground, somewhat in liquor. He stopped at the door 
of the trading post, and with an insolent and defiant oearing, which 
a half-drunken Indian only can assume, demanded liquor. ^'Mish- 
sha-way '' (Mr. Williams name, meaning Big Elk), "give me 
whisky." It was refused. He placed his hand upon the handle- 
of his tomahawk, and repeated trie demand more fiercely than at 
first, and was met by another reftisal as defiant as the last demands 


He sprang for Mr. Williams with his tomahawk upraised and 
aimed a blow at him which, if it had not been dexteriouslj avoided 
would doubtless have proved fatal. With a well seasoned hickory 
club Mr. Williams defended himself, knocking his assailant down 
and being about to repeat the blow, the discomfited hero begged 
for mercy. After getting upon his feet and recovering from the 
stunning effects of the blow, he walked out of thcfc rading-house and 
sat down in front of it, in apparently deep thougnt. He soon after 
called to Mr. Williams and expressed great mortification at the out- 
rage he had attempted; and to confirm his sincerity, promised that his 
next ftirs he would bring to his new *' friend " Williams. He kept 
his promise faithftilly, and became the fast friend of the man at 
whom only an hour previously he had aimed a deadly blow. 

The Messrs. Williams soon after bought out the trading post of 
Antoine Campau, who had, as before stated succeeded to his 
brother Louis, which quieted the dangerous spirit of rivalry^ that 
had already culminated in some serious aftrays between the Indians 
and others who had become parties to the feud. 

Among other agents who had residences, at different times, at 
Saginaw, were Sherman Stevens, the father of the distingushed 
actress. Miss Sara Stevens, who has achieved in the drama no 
ordinary position. To considerable solid acquirement he united 
a view of romance and sentiment which made him at that time a 
genial conapanion and a rare social acquisition to the limited 
society of Saginaw. He was master of the Chippewa dialect and 
spoke the language fluently. 

Archie Lyons was another trustworthy agent of Messrs. Will- 
iams, whose history is identified with the Saginaw, Valley prior 
to the treaty. He was a fine penman, well educated and a musi- 
cian of no little skill. He was located at the Little Forks of the 
Tittabawassee (Midland City), and in coming down from that point, 
on the ice, upon skates, for the purpose of playing the violin for a 
dancing narty at Saginaw City, ne was drowned. 

The Messrs. Wilhams had another agent, Mejeau, an Indian of 
quarter blood, an accurate clerk, although he could neither read 
nor write. Thousands of dollars passed through his hands yearly. 
His mode of keeping accounts was the same as that usually 
adopted among tne agents. A straight mark symbolized one 
dollar; one O a muskrat or a quarter of a dollar; two O's a half 
dollar. Instead of the name of the Indian his totem was dravm 
upon the book and prefixed to his accounts. 0-ge-maw-ke-ke-to's 
totem was a long nsh, a spotted pickerel, which he made with 
some skill; another's was a beaver, another's a bear, etc. 

Judge 6. D. Williams died at his homestead at Saginaw City, 
on the 11th day of December A. D. 1858, beloved and mourned. 
His brother, Mr. E. S. Williams, is still living, at Windsor, 
opposite Detroit, with his constitution unimpaired by his early 
border life, and a strength of muscle still intact, that would make 
any Wah-be-man-i-to tremble in an encounter. 



The troops while stationed at Sa^naw City, or where it now 
stands, suii^red many privations and inconveniences, besides the 
petty annoyances and insults to which they were continually 
subjected by the Indians, who looked upon them as trespassers, 
not daring, however, to make any advances toward hostility; for 
they knew full well that the troops were prepared to meet any^iing 
of that nature with "promptness and dispatch.'^ Still, the "rect 
skins" lost no opportunity m reminding them that they (the troops) 
were not at home, but upon pounds claimed bv others than them- 
selves. There was one chief in particular, wnose wigwam was 
nearly under cover of the fort, who was exceedingly annoying at 
least to the soldiers, but more particularly to the sentry; for every 
night, as he, on his accustomed round, would give the hour witn 
the usual "all's well," this rascally chief would mockingly reiter^ 
ate the watchword together with a taunting shout and whoop, mak- 
ing the very welkin nng and startling the inmates of the fort, who 
not infrequently imagined, upon being so unceremoniously awak- 
ened, that an attack was at hand. The scamp had repeated this 
a number of times, and our men determined to punish nim a little, 
and at the same time enjoy some sport at his expense. Accord- 
ingly, they loaded an old swivel to the muzzle, with grape and can- 
ister, and mounted it upon the pickets, pointing it in the direction 
of the old copper-colored gentleman's wigwam, — in such a position, 
however, that the sliot would merely rattle over his head, with no 
other effect than that of frightening him into silence, if nothing 
else. Night came at last and "all around was still; not even a 
leaf stirred," and the heavy tramp of the sentinel as he paced with 
measured tread his accustomed round, and the distant howl of the 
hungry wolf alone were heard. The men were lying quietly be- 
hind the gun, though by no means asleep, while a matcn was ready 
to apply at the signal, which, by the way, the old chief himself 
was unwittingly to give. Hour after hour glided silently by, and 
12 o'clock came, the hour usually selected oy Copper Face for his 
echo. "Twelve o'clock, all 's well," sang out the sentry. "All 
well," echoed the Indian, "Ke-whoop-ke-kee-who-whoop," making 
the same time a grand flourish after the war style oi his fore- 
fathers — "ye-ye-ye-yeep-ke-who ." At this instant a bright 

gleam of fire shot from the walls of the fort, accompanied by a re- 
port so loud, so deafening, that the very stars shut their eyes, the 
moon hid behind a cloud, and the ground and buildings shook 
with the concussion, while the grape and canister rattled fearfully 
over the wiffwam and helter-skelter through the branches of 
the trees overnanging it. The old chief thought his time had in- 
deed come, and cfdled lustily for all the gods in his unlettered vo- 
cabulary and medicine men of the nation to save him. After this 
salutary rebuke, no niche in the tribe was more courteous or defer- 
ential to the troops than this same Indian. Perhaps he thought it 


advisable to keep on good terms with beings who repaid insalt 
with thunder, lightning and iron hail. 


In April, 1825, Kish-kaw-ko killed an Indian in Detroit, in the 
presence of Unde Harvey Williams, on Water street near the cen- 
ter of the present depot of the D. & M. K. E. The dead Indian 
was taken to Harvey Williams' blacksmith shop, an inquest was 
held by Coronor Benjamin Woodworth, while Eish-kaw-ko and 
his son were conveyed to the fort. The jury foimd the Ijidian 
ffuilty; but the criminal drank the hemlock in his prison and died 
Before a trial could be had. His son, who was no party to the 
deed, escaped. 


For an account of this celebrated Indian see pa^e 56. During 
the treaty negotiation at Saginaw he was one of the most pro- 
nounced supporters of the motion to accept it. 


In the history of the Chippewa Indians there cannot, perhaps, be 
found a character so magnincently stoic, or so rashly courageous 
as he whose name heads this notice. He was as gentle as a lamb 
when stroked, but the moment he encountered opposition, he be- 
came at once a fierce savage and remained one until those who op- 
posed his speech or interests fell. W. R. McCormick, in referring 
to this Indian warrior, bays: 

"For the particulars of the following tragic story I am indebted 
to Hon. E. S. Williams. It occurred while he was trading with 
the Indians at Saginaw, some time before De Tocqueville's visit 
and about two years before I came to the Saginaw Valley. The 
event was witnessed bv Messrs. Williams, Judge Jewett, CoL 
Stanard and others, and strangely illustrates the peculiarities of 
frontier life and of the Indian character. 

" Neh-way-^ was a youn^ Saginaw brave, living, in his earli^ 
life, at Green Point, which is at the mouth of the Tittabawassee 
river, and in his later years upon the shores of the Saginaw Bay. 
He is described as a model or native strength and grace. While 
living at the former place he killed a son of Red Erd who lived 
on the Tittabawassee river. The relatives demanded satisfiEiction, 
and by Indian laws his life was the forfeit He presented himself 
at the chief mourner's wigwam, where the warriors of the family 
of the deceased had assembled, and informed them that he had 
come for them to strike at his heart He bared his bosom and 
took his position for the selected number to pass by him and in- 
flict the mife wound.; They passed and innicted, as they hoped, 
the mortal thrusts. ; That done, and Indian usage being satisfied, 



he was making the best speed he could with his streaming wounds 
to his own wigwam, when he was struck in the back by a cowardly In- 
dian, inflicting a severe stab, but, as it is appears, like the other 
blows, not fatal. He. was jet enabled to reach his own wigwam, 
some distance off, where his young wife was waiting, not expect- 
ing ever to see him alive again. She received him and bouna up 
his wounds. He was restored after fearful suffering. 

" After this event he removed to Kawkawlin, where he remained 
until his wounds were nearly healed. When he came up to Sagi- 
naw in a canoe with his wife, to do some trading at the Indian tric- 
ing Dost of the American Fur Company, which was then operated 
by G. D. and E. S. Williams, he was not yet able to get out of his 
canoe and go to the trading post, which was but a few rods from the 
river, without the aid of his paddle to lean upon. B. O. Williams, 
who was there at the time, describes him as a walking skeleton. 

"Some Indians were there at the time. They sent word to 
0-80w-wah-bon's band at Green Point, some two miles distant, that 
Neh-way-go had arrived at the American Fur Company's trading 
post. The Messrs. Williams were well aware that if they met 
there would be a dreadful tragedy. They therefore placed per- 
sons to watch whether any Indians came from that direction. It 
was not long before O-sow-wah-bon and two Indians were seen ap- 
proaching, while Neh-way-^o was still by his canoe, standing 
on the bank of the river leamng on his padale. He was told by 
the Messrs. Williams to get into the canoe with his family and go 
down the river. This he refused to do, saying he was no cowara, 
but like a brave man patiently awaited the attack. E. S. Williams 
went and met O-sow-wah-bon and told him he must go into the 
store, as he wanted to see him. After he was inside, the door was 
closed and he was told that they knew his business, and that he 
must now give up his knives. He reluctantly drew his knife from 
his sheath and handed it to B. O. Williams. They asked him if 
he had any more, and if so, to give them up or they would search 
him. He finally nulled out another which he had concealed down 
his back. They then asked him if he had any more ; he said ' ' No, " 
when E. S. Williams said he would have to search him, which he 
refused to submit to. Mr. Williams clinched him, and with the 
assistance of B. O. Williams, now of Owosso, and some others, 
after a severe struggle, as O-sow-wah-bon was a very powerful man, 
they threw him on the floor. While B. O. WilUams and some 
others were holding him, E. S. Williams commenced the search, 
and inside the legging they found a large knife, a very formidable 
weapon and as sharp as a razor. When Mr. Williams drew it 
from his legging he caught it by the blade and refused to give it up; 
the result was, before they could wrench it from his grasp, it had 
nearly severed his hand in two. They then lethim up and dressed 
his wound. While this proceeding was going on, B. O. Williams 
and another person slipped out of the back door and found Neh- 
way-go still standing on the shore leaning on his paddle, awaiting 
the attack, while his wife was sitting in the canoe crying^ They 

I • 
I ■■ 

r , 



told him to get into his canoe and be off, which he refused to do, 
repeating he was no coward. They then took liim by mam force, 
put him mto the canoe with his wire and shoved it from the shore, 
and ordered his wife to paddle him home and not to come back 
again. * He returned to his home on the Kawkawlin, where he 
soon after fully recovered from his wounds. 

^^ Finding the coward afterward upon his hunting ground, who 
had inflicted upon him the wound in the back, he visited him 
summarily with Indian vengeance — death. Soon afterward the 
Indians were assembled in large numbers at Saginaw at an 
Indian payment, when an altercation ensued between Black 
Beaver, an Indian of considerable note, and the brave Neh-way-go. 
The former reproached him with the outrage he had committed j. 

upon the Indian who had struck him in the back. Neh-way-go *' 

defended the act as just and brave; the reproof was repeated, and 
upon the instant he slew Black Beaver. This was at the upper 
end, where the city of East Saginaw stands, near where the upper 
bridge crosses the river in the vicinity of the old Curtis-Emerson 
mill. Black Beaver and his band were here encamped. On the 
west side of the river, on the open plain near where the residence 
of E. J. Ring now stands, Neh-way-go and his band were 

''After the bloody deed Neh-way-go crossed over to the west 
side of the river amongst his own people. A warrant was at once 
issued by Colonel Stanard for his arrest, acting as Justice. Neh- 
way-go fled back to the east side of the river, and accompanied by 
a friend, secreted himself in the woods upon what is now the site 
of the city of East Saginaw. He preferred to trust himself on the 
same side of the river with the tribe whose leading warrior he had 
stricken down than to endure the mortification of arrest and pun- 
ishment of the white man's laws. He sent word to two or his 
white friends, Antoine Campau and Ephraim S. Williams, desiring 
them to cross the river and come to the woods in which he was 
secreted, when by giving a signal he would come to them. They 
did so and he soon made his appearance. He informed them that 
he had sent for them for advice; that the white man's punishment 
(imprisonment) was only tit for cowards; death by the hands of 
his own race was glorious in comparison, if any relative of Black 
Beaver should choose to make it a cause for vengeance. They 
advised him to cross back to his own camp, present himself to his 
people, and let the affair take . the course warranted by Indian 
usage. The arrest by the officer was waived and he presented 
himself at his own camp openly. 

''The hour for the burial of Black Beaver arrived. An 
immense number of Indians, from two to three thousand, were 
present, as it was Indian payment at Saginaw at the time, as 
mourners and spectators. The place of burial was just below the 
old Campau house on the brow of the hill, west of where A. W. 
Wright's planing mill now stands and near where Neh-way-go and 
his band were encamped. Tlie body had been placed in the coffin. 



The relatives with their faces streaked with black had gathered 
about it. The few white settlers then in the valley were all there 
as spectators. The fearful outrage so near their own doors had 
absorbed and engrossed the attention of all. 

"While the solemn Indian rite was in progress over the 
remains of their favorite warrior, Neh-way-go was seen approach- 
ing from his camping ground. He was dressed in full and carefi.l 
costume, tomahawk and knife in his girdle and a small canteen of 
whisky at his side, his whole appearance imposing and gallant. 
He made his way with a lofly and majestic step to the center of the 
mourning group. Walking with measured step to the side of the 
coflSn, he placed upon it his tomahawk and knife. He filled his 
calumet with kinakanick, composedly and with dignity. After 
smoking from it himself first, he passed it to the chief mourner, 
who declined it. He passed it to the next, and the next, with the 
same result. He passed his canteen of whisky with the same 
formality, and with the same result. They declined to partake. 

"He then undid the collar of his hunting shirt, and bared his 
bosom, seating himself with calm dignity upon the foot of the 
coffin. He turned his face full upon the chief mourners, and 
thus addressed them: 'You refuse my pipe of peace. You refiise 
to drink with me. Strike not in the back. Strike not and miss. 
The man that does dies when I meet him on our hunting ground.* 
Not a hand was raised. Upon the dark and stoical faces of that 
cloud of enemies by whom he was surrounded, no feeling found 
expression except that of awe; no muscle moved. He arose from 
his seat on the foot of the coffin, and towering to his full, fine 
height, exclaimed: 'Cowards! Cowards! Cowards!' As com- 
posedly as he had taken them out, he restored, unmolested, the 
tomahawk and knife to his girdle, and with his canteen at his side, 
walked away from the strange scene as lordly as he came. He 
had awed his enemies, and was evidently master of the situation. 
Removing soon after to the bay shore away from the scene of his 
early feuus and fearful exploits, he fell ultimately upon the hunt- 
ing ground in a personal encounter with a relative of one of his 


This chief of the Saginaws was born in the Indian camp which 
once occupied the site of Saginaw City. His birth took place in 
1798. It is said that his mother's name was the almost unpro- 
nounceable Ke-ne-wah-nah-ah-no-quay, and that the name which 
she bestowed upon the infant savage, was Kay-pay-yon-quod. 
While bearing this extraordinary title he was generally ill, and, 
believing that its change would lead to good results, he cast it 
aside in regular Indian form and adopted that of his father, 0-saw- 
wah-pon. He was very much attached to General Cass, and, on 
his account, principally, used h^s great oratorical powers in 
defense of the American. It is even said that he urged Tecnmseh 


to desist from his purpose of opposing the Gk>veniment He died 
in Isabella county early in 1859, and was buried with all the cere- 
mony attendant on the Indian funeral. 


Macose was an English half-breed. Notwithstanding his savage 
associations, he retained that'habit, peculiar to his parent on the 
one side, of sounding the H where it should not oe heard, and 
of dropping it where it should be heard. On this account his lan- 
guage was amusing to the American pioneers, even as it resulted 
unprofitably to himself. The people whom he met told him he 
was an Englishman; he became convinced of the fact, and as soon ]\ 

as he did, he determined to take unto himself the dusky Indian 

Sirl, the daughter of the great chief Oge mawkeketo. The half- 
reed and his fiiU-blood better half procee ded to England, where 
the poor girl died after the fashion oi the sympathetic l^ocahontas. 
What the end of the great Macose was is uncertain. If it were 
no better than his life among the wilderness of the Peninsula, it 
must be poor indeed. 



or Red Bird, was the hereditary chief of the Indians of the Chip- 
pewas. Owing to his quiet disposition and his aee, he permitted 
the duties of his position to devolve on Okemawkeketo, even as 
the latter invested the grotesque Tonadogamaw with similar 
powers subsequently. Old Miz-co was a lazy Indian for many 
years previous to his death, the heroic achievements of his earlier 
years were forgotten, and he sank to a most degraded position 
among the people who once called him "chief" 


This warrior lived at the Indian Mills on the Chippewa river in 
Isabella county. He was very popular among the Chippewas, and 
was always received with honors by the Indians of the Ottawa and 
Pottawatomie tribes. The village now known as Sinnence was 
named after him. 


was the head chief of the Chippewa nation. This honor belonged 
to him on account of his great powers of debate, acute understand- 
ing and great prowess in the hunt. He was ugly in every sense. 
He wore only a hunting shirt from April to September, and this 
hung loosely from a hunch-back, which won (or him the name 
"Richard III." 


Oke-maw-ke-ke-to was not chief by hereditary title; but aware of 
the high order of his accomplishments, his brother Indians con- 


ferred on him the title and privileges which belonged to Mi2-co-be- 
na-sa, who was content to lead as chieftain of a band. It is said 
that both the hereditary and d&-;facto rulers were savages of most 
noble parts, requiting justice with a lasting friendship for its dis- 
penser, and punishing treachery with instant death. 


the hermit Indian, was another of the strange beings inhabiting 
the country in pioneer times. Like the hartiroken gentleman 
referred to in the marriage record, his girl "went back on him,'' 
and he ever afterward Ted a life of retirement, seldom, speaking 
to the Indians or the traders. There are very few Indians of that 
class now-a-days. 


Naw-awa-chic-a-ming was made one of the chiefs of his tribe on 
the death of his father, since which time he was constituted head 
chief of the Chippewas. He was well and favorably known to all 
the early white settlers in the Saginaw Valley. His honesty and 
friendship have been proven in numberless instances. Naw-qwa- 
chic-a-ming, Okemaw-Ke-ke-to, Shaw-e-be-no-se, Wosso, To-na-dog- 
a-naw and Mozhe-ga-shing, with Henry Connor, Gardner D. 
Williams, Capt. J. F. Marsac, Cliarles H. Rodd and Benj. O. 
Williams visited Washington in 1830 for the purpose of carrying 
out the sale referred to in the treaty of that year. The subject (3 
this sketch departed this life for the "happy hunting grounds" 
Oct. 26, 1874, at a remarkably advanced age. 


This Indian was known to the white settlers from his boyhood. 
At a very early age he took a place among the warriors of his 
tribe as a great hunter, and in after years, when the new settlers 
ottered a bounty for wolf scalps, Shaw-we-nos-se-ga was among the 
principal hohlers of bounty certificates. As late as 1857 he pro- 
duced 12 wolf certificates before the supervisors' board, when one 
of the local law-makers wrote the following poetical tribute: 

Shaw-we-nos-se-ga! is not thy name 
Feared by the beasts that scour the plains ? 
Is not their fearful howling mute 
When on the fleet, wild deer's pursuit? 
Shaw-we-nos-se-ga. hath not thy care 
Searched out the depth of the wild-woods lair, 
And in the deep and wild recrss 
Dealt out the fearful blow of death ? 
Shaw-we-nos-se-ga. hath not thy hand 
Laid low full twelve of the fearful clan 
And scatt red wide the wild woods through, 
The remnant of the fearful crew? 
Shaw-we-nos-se-ga has reverence past 


From the fearful Jiowl on the fo^st blast! 
Canst thoa no longer in friendship roam 
With the howling wolf around thy home ? 
Shaw-we-nos-se-ga, in reverence Mride, 
Thy father oft the wolf espied, 
But thou hast thrown the veil Hside 
That long was reverenced by thy tribe ! 
Shaw-we-nos-8 *-^, dost thou not fear 
The spirit^ of thy fathers near ? 
Do they not whisper to thy soul 
To stay thy hand from death's control ? 
Shaw-we-nos^e-ga, the wild wolf dread 
Where to the wild woods haunts hath fled, 
The white man wish you pleasure there, 
Within a clime serenely fair; 
Where soft winds murmur in sweet repose, 
Like twilight hour at evening's close ; 
When springtime's warm and genial breath 
Over the southern landscape rests. 


Muck-a-ko-kooh, a hunchback, known to the early settlers as 
Richard III, failed to kill his father. He was one of the most 
savage of his race, yet at times so peaceable that he would actu- 
ally follow agricultural pursuits. He died in 1869. 

Sog-e-che-way-o-sway, of Pe-waw-ne-go-ing (now the township of 
Taymouth), the predecessor of Elijah H. Pitcher, died in 1865. 
He was present at the ratification of a treaty in 1864, within the 
store of P. C. Andre. 

Otawas, chief of the Tawas band, had two sons, one of whom 
married a lady who, afterward became school-teacher. 

Muck-u-ta-me-shay-way, or Black Elk, was said to have been the 
finest Indian of the tribe, though Beau Temps, a Cass river 
Indian, is said to have been the truest specimen of Indian man- 

Notawa was one of the oldest chiefs of Cass river. He died 
about 1850. 

Ken-e-wap, one of the greatest elk hunters on the Cass, died 
23 years ago. 

Chib-auk lived on the Crow Reserve, five miles below Saginaw 
City, on the east side of the river, for whom a reservation of 640 
acres, including a small island in the river, was made in 1832, 
under arttcie of treaty. -He-^eold to G. D. & E. S. Williams^ 
and removed to Canada, where he died. 

Pay-mah-se-ffey, chief of the Pine river band, died in 1856. He 
was considerea a good man. 

Saw-waw-mic was a celebrated hunter of the Chippewas, for- 
merly from Sibi-way-mk; lived six miles east of East Si^inaw. He 
was known to run down a bear or deer and fight to the death. 
When he was to draw his annuity he would look at the money 
soomfolly and fling it in the river. 



A visitor to the Indian camp at Green Point gave the following 
description of his journey thither, as well as of what he saw there : 
*' During the sojourn of the Indians at Green Point it was cer- 
tainly wortn one's while to pay them a visit I remember one fine 
afternoon, some ten years since, of accompanying an old Indian 
trader there, while it was in full possession of the Indians (184T). 
Seated in a light canoe and each armed with a paddle, we started 
ftom Saginaw City for the ostensible purpose or bartering with the 
Indians for furs, etc. For my part I was perfectly delighted with 
the idea, as I never had an opportunity before of seeing the In- 
dians 'at home,' at least during the summer season, ana was also 
Slad to exchange the monotony of a clerk's life for a paddle o'er 
le bright waters of the beautiful Saginaw. The river was sufficiently 
agitated to cause our tiny boat to rock dreamily, and as we spea 
from the shore the rich waves leaped and sported against our 
canoe's prow and sides, like sportive kittens, ever and anon greet- 
ing our faces with a ' damp paw,' that was by no means unpleasant. 
On, on we sped, now under the shadow of the green woods, now 
by the fringed, rich border of the prairie. We could readily dis- 
cern in the distance the white tents of the Indiana fluttering in the 
wind, and hear the wild, Joyous shouts of the dusky juveniles as 
they pursued their uncouth sports and games. As we approached 
their camp what a busy and exhilarating scene presentea itself to 
our view! I clapped my hands in the exuberance of my spirits, 
for never before nad I witnessed a scene so full of real, unaffected 
natural happiness as there greeted my senses. Mv companion did 
not seem to partnke of my enthusiasm, for he had oflen witnessed 
similar scenes. Little Indian boys and girls, resembling so many 
Oupids (in one sense) could be seen; some wrestling, some shoot- 
ing with tiny bows and arrows, some paddling their tiny canoes, 
while others were bathing and splashing in the river, like so many 
amphibia, each striving to excel the others in the manner and 
demonstration of its enjoyment. Superannuated Indians and 
squaws sat by the tent doors, looking on with a quiet, demure 
pleasure, or arrani^ing some toy or trinket for some little toddler, 
while the more efficient were engaged in various occupations or no 
occupation at all. Oh, how I longed for an artist's skill, that I 
might sketch the wild and picturesque scene! Here, thought I, is * 
human nature in its free, untramraeled state. Care, to these chil- 
dren of nature, seems to be a stranger; no thought of the morrow 
engrosses their minds, but the world with vicissitudes and vexa- 
tions, passes along apparently unnoticed by them. Buoyancy of 
spirit is a striking feature in the Indian character. 

"As we drew our canoe out upon the beach, the Indians came out to 
meet us, with a hearty shake of the hand, and a cordial bonjour. The 
shady urchins for a while suspended their games and stood with gap- 
ing mouths and suspicious loots, gazing at the Keche-mo-ko-mon, then 
with a yelp and a Tbound returned to their sports, more vociferously 


than ever, their wUd cries and shouts merrily ringing over the 
prairie, and echoing in the green wood beyond. Situated upon the 
greenest and most oeautiful portion of the camp ground, were a 
number of very white and neat looking tents, which I observed 
were closed and entirely isolated from the din^y, smoky tents of 
tiie encampment. My companion, who seemed a sort or privileged 
character, appeared,. perfect^ at home, while I, consider&g myself 
among strangers, dung to him, and followed him wherever he 
went, not venturing to ' throw myself upon my own responsibility.' 
I was therefore pleased when I saw him start toward the white 
tents, for I was curious to know what they contained. Drawing 
aside the canvas, he entered without ceremony, I of course, follow- 
ing after. Seated upon beautiful mats of colored rushes which 
served as carpets and divans, were some three or four good-looking 
squaws, very neatly and even richly attired in the fanciful style of 
the native, busily engaged in embroidering and ornamenting moc- 
casins, broad-cloth leggings and blankets with variegated beads and 
porcupine quills. Everything around evinced the utmost order, 
neatness and taste. No bustling nichee or dirty urchin was allowed 
the freedom of these apparently consecrated tents, but all was quiet 
and calm within, or ii any conversation was carried on, it was in 
that soft, musical tone so peculiar to them. So, so, thought I, here 
we have a sort of aristocracy, a set of 'exclusives,' and a speci- 
men of high life among the natives; yet it was just that kind of 
* high life in many respects, after which their white sisters might 
take pattern. No idle gossiping or scandal was indulged in; they 

?uietly plied their needles and Kept their counsels to themselves, 
f they had occasion to visit their neighbor's tent it was done 
quietly and pleasantly, after which business was resumed." 

Tliis description is based upon fact. Though the camping ground 
is now far away from the Saginaw, the Chippewa women of the 
Churchill river region observe the same custom to-day. 


The days having arrived when the aborigines had to leave the 
shores of the Saginaw, in accordance with the terms of the treaty 
which they accepted, both men and women were overcome with 
sorrow, and having picked up the varied treasures, seemed to wish 
that they could carry with them the very earth upon which they 
trod. It was a sad and mournful spectacle to witness those children 
of the forest slowly retiring from the home of their childhood, that 
contained not only their ancestors' graves, but also many endear- 
ing scenes, to which their memory would ever recur as sunny spots 
along their pathway through the wilderness. They felt they 
were bidding farewell to the land of their infancy; to the hunting 
grounds of tlieir youth, as well as the stem and bloody fields of 
tneir riper manhood, where they had contended, on which they 
had received wounds, and where many of their friends and relatives 
had fallen covered with gore and glory. All these were to be 

meroRT of saoInaw oonsrr. 

left behind to be tora by the plowshare of the white settler. Ab 
they cast mournfQl glances back toward these loved scenes, thst 
were rapidly fading in the distance, tears fell from the cheek of the 
downcast warrior, old men trembled, matroDB wept, the swarthy 
maiden's cheek turned pale, and sighs and half suppressed sobs es-* 
caped from the motley groups as they passed along, some on foot, 
some on liorseback, some in wagons, sad as a funeral procession. 
Several of the aged warriors were seen to cast glances toward the 
sky, as if they were imploring wid from the spirits of their departed 
heroes, who were looking down upon them from the clouds, or 
from the Great Spirit, who would ultimately redress the wrongs of 
the red man, whose broken bow had fallen from hishand, and whose 
sad heart was bleeding within him. Ever and anon one of the 
party would start into the brush and break hack to the old encamp- 
ment, declaring he would die rather than be banished from his 
country. Thus hundreds returned to the villages of their youth, 
and years elapsed before many ol'them coukibe induced to join 
their tribe in Isabella. Only in 18fi6 the Indian village and mis- 
sion, two miles above the mouth of the Kaw-kaw-lin, was vacated, 
and the Indians and missionaries, acting on the old advice of 
Horace Greeley, went West, to possess themselves of the newfields 
granted them by their white Father at Washington. In 1868 a 
Cliippewa village, containing 15 lodges, existed on the banks of 
Cheooygan creek. To-day there are many dwellings in the county, 
and even those who left long years ago, now would come back in 
silence to speak to the survivors of the Kichokowans tliey first saw 
in the valltiy, and take a look at all the wonderful changes that are 
being inaugurated where once stood their simple wigwams. 




The only treaty negotiated in the Territory of Michigan prior to 
1819 was that of Detroit in 1807, which gave the United States a I 

possessory title to the southeastern portion of the State of Michi- 
gan as af present constituted. Detroit and the territory adjacent 
to it became the property of the general Government by right of 
conquest, strengtnened by an article of the treaty of Greenville, 
made in 1795. The treaty of 1807 merely bound the aborigines 
to surrender their hunting grounds south of lattitude 43^ 10 
Iforth, and therefore did not comprise the northeastern river re- 

fion, or deal with that section of the Indian people known as the 
aginaws. To this point the attention of the United States Gov- 
ernment was drawn in 1818, and a year later Gov. Lewis Cass was 
commissioned to enter the council of that section of the Indian in- 
habitants and present the articles of treaty for their acceptance, 
ceding to the United States all the land north of a line drawn 
through the second tier of the northern townsliips of Oakland, 
through the northern tier of the townships of Livmgstone, thence 
north to the head of Thunder Bay river, and northeast to Lake 
Huron, leaving the six-mile tract along the rivers Detroit and St. 
Clair unnamed. 


A few days before the arrival of Gen. Cass on the great camp- 
ing ground of the tribe, the Indians of the Chippewa nation re- 
solved upon performing the ceremonies peculiar to their great 
feasts. The chief proclaimed a day for holding the white-dog 
feast, fixing the commencement of the exercises for Sept. 3, 1819. 
Bands of Indians had encamped there for several weeks preparing 
for the fe8tival,"Which was ox a propitiatory^AS well.As.penetential 
character, the peculiarity of the ceremonial being that tlie dancers 
should, not eat, drink, or sleep until the proceedings were con- 
cluded, — a period ranging from two to four days. 

In order to fully carry ; out the program, it was necessarv to % 

erect a temple. !]for this purpose 40 or 50 warriors with their 
squaws set out on horseback in search of a center pole. This cav- 
alcade was preceded by the medicine man dressea in an old Brit- 
ish uniform, surmounted with a gaudy head-dress. He carried the 
^' tum-tum,'^ a tin pan and a small cane. The former he beat with 



thi> Uttor« while the chief who traveled close behind him, uttered 
wild w\mi« of incantation and threats, so that the evil spirit would 
not «>ntor on their pathway. A *tree suitable to the purpose was 
«iH>u finind and was approached with whoops, yells, cries of joy 
and tirini; o( musketry. In a short time it was cut down, and the 
warriom ranging themselves alonff its trunk, attached their lariats 
ami dtt^w it into the camp ground amid shouts of joy. The medi- 
oino n\an selected a few warriors to raise the sacred pole; the men 
cK> doltH'tiHl performed the duty, while the remainder of the congre- 

tX^Unl Indians prayed to their god to keep off the evil spirit and 
>io88 the undertaking. The tent was then pitched. Inside were 
four stalls erected, with walls three feet high, two for the male 
anil two for the female dancers, generally youni^ people who had 
in a moment of imminent danger vowed to perrorm this service of 
pniino to the Great Spirit if he would only save them. 

The medicine man announced everything ready, when the 
danc'ers, numbering 40 maids and braves, entered their respective 
Htalls. The latter wore feathers in their scalplocks and otherwise 
dinuhiyed a style of costume not yet adopted by the children of 
civilization. They had nothing on but a coat of paint. Some of 
thorn were frescoed gorgeously and tastefully, while others, prob- 
ably the married men and philosophers, put on their favorite colors 
liidoously and carelessly as if they cared not whether the girls 
smiled on or spumed them. The squaws, however, had completed 
their varied toilets with much care. They moved about among the 
braves with perfect indifference and gave no sign that the airiness 
of the warriors' dress offended them m the least. The orchestra, 
(M)mp()sed of half a dozen chiefs with the usual tum-tum apparatus, 
took its place shortly before midnight on Sept. 3, and to their mu- 
sic, the grunting of the medicine man, singers and head men, with 
a wild song by the dancers, the ceremonies commenced. Each 
dancer was provided with a whistle, made from the wing bone of a 
goose, ornamented with feathers and colors. As they jumped 
about they sounded shrill notes on these "musical" instruments, 
which, blended with the whoops, grunts, yells and monotonous 
tum-tum of the drums, fell upon the civilized ear with startling 
effect. Hour after hour the dance was kept up, the only intermis- 
sion being at the will of the drummers, who were relieved at inter- 
vals. At times the surging and noises subsided, when one of the 
wise men recited tales of heroism for the edification of the young 

During the day-time the warriors gave sundry exhibitions of 
their powers of endurance. A muscular brave stood unconcerned 
while two chiefs stuck long skewers through the flesh of his shoul- 
ders. The lines of a horse were attached to the skewers, and the 
warrior ordered to lead the animal around until the flesh gave way. 
With blood streaming down his back and breast, and mingling 
with the paint upon his dusky body, the strong savage walked 
around for some hours without a murmur. Though the flesh upon 
liis shoulders tore in the direction of his neck, yet it did not give 


way, and the medicine man with much ceremony, nnbonnd the 
hero, withdrew the skewers and l^ft him at liberty to walk aroimd 
the camp in trinmph. 

In the second trial a yonng brave was introduced, who allowed 
two skewers to be thrust through the flesh of his breast, to which 
two lariats were attached. l%ese were suspended from the root 
pole of the tent He then began to swinff around the tent as far 
as the lariat would allow him, throwing his whole weight upon 
these raw-hide lines in an endeavor to break loose. During this 
barbarous exhibition, the drummers drummed with all their might 
and the dancers wore outtheir new moccasins in their eflbrts to dance 
harder. After two hours of such terrible exercise, the brave dem- 
onstrated the toughne<^s of his flesh, and the entire band called out 
for his release, when the medicine man withdrew the skewers amid 
grunts of approval from old and young. 

Another neroic scalper permitted three wooden pegs to be driven 
into his flesh. To these pegs heavy muskets were tied, and with 
this load the Indian walked proudly into the midst of the girls' 
dancing ground and flirted with the dusky maids as if nothing 
troubled nim. 

The dance was kept up for a few nights, when the medicine man 
made "medicine for rain," and in an hoiir a perfect down-pour 
came to announce to them that the Great Spirit was pleased with 
the festival. 


After the dance the " white-dog feast " was spread. It was sup- 
posed by those sons of nature that the eating oi a dog's liver, witn- 
out regard to the quality of the dog, made them strong-hearted. 
The temple used for the thiist dance was taken down, the pole 
alone bemg allowed to stand. Around this remnant of the tem- 

51e the warriors seated themselves for a convivial smoke. Sud- 
enly a cry was heard, the warriors sprang to their feet 
and commenced circling around to the dismal music of a drum; the 
Quivering carcass of a white dog was cast into the circle by one of 
tne 8C[uaws; the men whooped m ecstacy ; the carcass was cut open, 
the liver taken out and suspended by a shag-a-nappi thong from 
the sacred pole; the warriors stepped forward one fcy one, and each 
taking a bite of the yet warm liver, marched off contented. As 
soon as this liver was consumed another dog was cast into the cir- 
cle, when a similar performance was enacted. This continued to 
the end of the great feast until, perhaps, 100 dogs were thus sac- 

Such is a description of only one barbarous festival held on the 

ground where Saginaw City now stands. It was, however, the 

most pacific exhibition of Indian endurance and religious ideas, not 

-approaching in barbarity many terrible dramas enacted on the 

-camping grounds of the red men. 



Kmlv in June, 1819, General Cass received a copy of the treaty, 
wlucK the (Government desired should be made with the Indians. 
Ill that di>cument a few extraordinary articles were presented, which 
liowt^ver were not read before the coancil. The following is a 
trauMcript of the first treaty of Saginaw, with the names of tSl par- 
tit»M uugagod in its presentation to, and acceptance by the Indians. 

Aht. 1. Tlie Chippewa nation of Indians, in consideration of the stlpalations 
h(»rt«in lua^le on the part of the United States, do hereby forever cede to the 
riilt<ul States the land comprehended within the following lines and boundaries: 
Beginning at a point iu the present Indian boundary line, which runs due north 
f^-oiu the mouth of the ^eat Anglaize river, six miles south of the place where 
the base line, so called, intersects the same; thence, west, sixty miles; thence, in 
a (liroct line, to the head of Thunder Bay river; thence, down the same, follow- 
ing the course thereof, to the mouth; thence, northeast, to the Imundary line 
Iter ween the United States and the British Province of Upper Canada; thence, 
with the same, to the line established by the treaty of Detroit, in the year one 
thousand eight hundred and seven ; thence with the said line to the place of 

Art. 2. From the cession aforesaid the following tracts of land shall be' 
reserved, for the use nf the Chippewa nation of Indians. 

One tract, of eight thousand acres, on tlie east side of the river Au Sable near 
where ihe Indians now live. 

One tract, of two thousand acres, on the river Mesag^'isk. 

One tract, of six thousand acres, on the north side of the river Kawkawling, at 
tlie Indian village. 

One tract, of five thousand seven hundred aod sixty acres, upon the Flint 
river, to include Reaum*s village, and a place called Kishkawbawee. 

One tract, of eight thousand acres, on the head of the river Huron, which 
empties into the Saginaw river, at the village of Otusson. 

One island in the Saginaw Bay. 

One tract, of two thousand acres, where Nalmlask formerly lived. 

One tract, of one thousand acres, near the island in the Saginaw river. 

One tract, of two thousand acres, at the mouth of Point Au Gn s river. 

One tract, of one thousand acres, on the river Huron, at Menoequet*s village. 

One tract, of ten thousand acres, on the Shawassee river, at a place callea the 
Big Rock. 

One tract, of three thousand acres, on the Shawassee river, at Kelchewaundau- 

One tract, of six thousand acres, at the Little Forks, on the Tetabawasink river. 

One tract, of six thousand acres, at the Black Bird's town, on the Tetabswasink 

One tract, of forty thousand acres, on the Saginaw river, to be hereafter located. 

Art. 8. There shall be reserved for the use of each of the persons hereinafter 
mentioned and their heirs, which persons are all Indians by descent, the follow- 
ing tracts of land : 

For the use of John Riley, the son of Menawcumegoqua, a Chippewa woman, 
aix.iittndced and-lioctA' acr s of land, begianing at the head of the^drst marsli 
above the mouth of the Saginaw river, cm the east s^de thereof 

For the use of Peter Riley, the son of Menawcumegoqua, a Chippewa woman, 
six hundred and forty acres of land beginning above Hud adjoin ntt the apple> 
trees on the west side of the Snginaw river, and running up the same for quantity. 

For the use of James Riley, the son of Me lawcumegtoqua, a Chippewa "woaaii, 
six hundred and forty acres, bej^inning on the east side of the Sarinaw riTer, 
nearly opposite to Campau's trading house, and running up the river for quantity. 

For the use of Kawka^viskou, or the Crow, a Chippewa chief, six hundred and 
forty acres of land, on the east side of the Saginaw nver, at a place called Men- 
itsgow, and to include, in the said six hundrea and forty acres, tne island opposite 
to the said place. 




For the use of Nowokesliik, Metawaoene, Mokitchenoqua, Nondeshemau, 
Petabonaqua, Measawwakut, Checbalk, Kitchegeequa, Stffosequa, Aimoketoqua, 
mod Tawcumegoqua, each, six hundred and forty acres of land, to be loeatea at 
and near the grand traverse of the Flint river, in such manner as the Tresident 
of the United States mav direct. 

For the use of the children of Bokowtonden, six hundred and forty acres, 
on the Kawkawlinff river. 

Art. 4. In consideration of the cession aforesaid, the United States agree to 
pay to the Chippewa nation of Indians, annually, for ever, the sum of one thou- 
sand dollars in silver ; and do hereby agree that all annuities due by any former 
treaty to the said tribe, shall be hereafter paid in silver. 

AftT. 5. The gtipulatioD contained in the treaty of Greenville, relative to the 
right of the Indians to hunt upon the land ceded, while it continues the property 
of the United States, shall apply to this treaty; and the Indians shall, for the 
same term, enjoy the privilege of making sugar lipon the same land, committing 
no unnecessary waste upon the trees. 

Art. 6. The United States agree to pay to the Indians the value of any im- 
provementa whicli they may be obli^d to abandon in consequence of the lines 
established by this treaty, and which improvements add real value to the land. 

Art. 7. The United Stales reserve to the proper authority the right to make 
roads throuffh any part of the land reserved by this treaty* 

Art. 8 The United State -i engage to provide and support a blacksmith for 
the Indians, at Saginaw, so lon^ as the President of the United States may think 
proper, and to furnish the Chippewa Indians with such fanning utensils, and 
cattle, and to employ such persons to aid them in their agriculture, as the Presi- 
dent may deem expedient. 

Art. 9. This treaty shall take effect, and be obligatory on the contracting 

Earties^sosoonastbesaroe shall be ratified by the President of the United States, 
y and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof. 
Id testimony whereof, tlie said Lewis Cass, Commissioner as aforesaid, and the 
Chiefs and Warriors of the Chippewa nation of Indians, have hereunto set their 
hands, at Saginaw, in the Territory of Michigan, this twenty-fourth day of Sep- 
tember, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and nineteen. 


After the contracting parties agreed, the following names were 
affixed to the document : 








Shingwalk, Jr., 












Kauguest , 













Mutch wetau, 
Nu wagon. 

< ) k e e m a n peenay- Okumanpinase, 


Shawshauwenau- Waubishcan, 
bais, Peaypaymanshee, 

Okemares, or Oke- Ocanauck, 
mes. Ogeebouinse, 




Puck wash. 









Naynooautienish- Kewaytinam, 




A n u e e m a ye ow n- Agangonabe, 












Nemete owwa, 




















John L. Lieb, Secretary; D. G. Whitney, Assistant-Secretary; C. L. Caae, 
Uapt 8d Infantry; R. A Forsytli, Jr., acting commissioner; Chester Root, 
Capt U. S. Artillery; John Peacock, Lieut M U. S. Infontry; G. Godfrey, 
sub-Agen{; W. Khaggs, 'sdb-Agent; Wifliam Tuckey, Louis Beaufort, Jolm 
Hurson, sworn Interpreters Jsmes V. 8. Rylev. B.' Campau, John Hill, Army 
Contractors; J. Whipple, Henry I. Hunt, mlliam Keith, A. E. Lacock, M. b. 
E. ; Richard Smyth,ix>uis Deqiiindre, B. Head, John Smyth, C(mrad Ten Eyck. 


Owinff to the number and ferocity of many of the Indian inhab- 
itants ot the valley, it was a matter of the greatest importance that 
not only should the Governor be a true representative of the power- 
ful young Republic, but also that every one associated with him in 
the enterprise, should fully realize the great value of the issues at 
stake. They would have to reply to the natural logic of nature^s 
children; and obtain bv the power of mild persuasion all that 
which force might possibly fail to obtain at the time. With this 
sense of responsibility resting upon him, and shared in by the 
members of his party, he left Detroit Sept. 7, and arrived at Cam- 
pau's location near the great Indian camp three days later. The 
story of this visit of Gen. Cass, and the varied places of treaty- 
making with the Indians has been graphically described by Hon. 
Charles P. Avery. He refers to the Territorial Governor at the 
beginning, and follows up the story of the treaty of 1819 from its 
beginning to its close: — 

'' Gen. Cass," he says, " was then in the viffor of his manhood, 
with a laudable ambition to achieve a national reputation, and to 
identify himself by his exertions with the acquisitions of such a 
valuable body of land, feeling that the influx of immigration, then 
beginning to be felt at Detroit and its vicinity, required a wider 
domain for it to spread over, and with the greater security it 
would give to life and property of settlers upon the domain which 
had been acquired by tlie previous treaty, and felt the importance 
of the enterprise into which he was about to embark, and that if 
successful, it would be an achievement upon which any statesman 
might well ground a elai.n for the gratitude of those then living at 
and near Detroit, and might be excused if he looked to such 
achievement as the ground work of future national honors. He 
appeared upon the Saginaw, upon the site of what is now Saginaw 
CStv, on the 10th of September, 1819, with his staiF of interpreters 
and assistants. They made the journey the whole distance upon 
horseback, from Detroit i)ia Flint, and thence down the river by 
what was until lately the Indian Reservation of Pe-won-ny- 
go-wingh, which was at that time the Tribal home of Chief Ne-ome 
and his successor in the chieftainship, Tone-dok-a-nee. 

"Before leaving Detroit the General had directed Mr. Louis 
Campau, who had been, since 1816, an established Indian trader 
at that point upon the Saginaw, to build the council house and 
wake tiie necessary arrangements for the reception of the Com- 



missioner and his company. No other man conid have been 
so appropriately selected to meet the Ciommissioner^s expectations 
and aid him in the details of the enterprise. 

'^Mr. Campaa yet sarvives, an aged gentleman, bat with an 
accurate memory, a fine representative of the better class of early 
French pioneers; a liberal, pnblic-spirited and worthy citizen. 
Two Government vessels, laden with stores for the subsistence of 
those upon the treaty ground, were sent around by Lakes St. Clair 
and Huron. One ot these was a company of United States 
soldiers, commanded by Captain Cass, a orotner of the General, 
who had been ordered to the treaty ground for the protection of 
those in attendance. By the time the Commissioner, with his 
staff of interpreters, had arrived, Mr. Campau and his employes 
had constructed the council house. It was spacious and commodi- 
ous, extending several hundred feet along the bank of the river a 
few rods back from the shore, and of the requisite width to accom- 
modate the large number of natives who were expected to be 
present. Situated nearly between the present site of the Webster 
House and the river, but several rods farther down on the slight 
ridge or second rise from the shore, its position was commandmg 
and pleasant. Trees conveniently situated furnished the columns 
of the council hall, and boughs interlaced above made the roof. 
The sides and ends were open. It was of an order of architecture 
not recognized by Kuskin, Downing, Upjohn or any professional 
writer upon that branch of science. It was doubtless more nearly 
assimilated to that temple described by the great poet of nature, 
Bryant, in the opening of his Forest Hymn, — ^ Tne groves were 
Grod's first temples.' A platform made of logs, faced or evened 
by the ax, was elevated about a foot above the ground, and broad 
enough to accommodate company upon rustic benches. Com- 
missioner Cass and the other officials occupied the central portion 
of the council room. Huge logs in their native roughness had 
been rolled in upon the other space to be used as seats by the 
native lords of the soil when in common council. The bordering 
woods were dotted with temporary wiffwams, hastily and rudely 
built by the natives for the accommodation of themselves and fam- 
ilies during the pendency of the negotiation. 

Among other preparations, temporary but convenient additions 
to his trading house had been made by Mr. Campau, sufficiently 
spacious to make a good-sized dining-room for the large number 
of officials present, and comfortable quarters for the Commissioner. 
The number of Indians present at the time of his arrival was not 
as large as was expectea. Messengers or runners had been sent 
among the different bands, some living quite remote from the 
place of holding the council, to notifv them of the proposed treaty, 
and others out for like purposes after the fact became apparent 
that some localities were not properly represented. The number 
present upon the treaty ground on the day when the third council, 
which was the fullest, was held, has been variously estimated from 
1,600 to 4,000. They were mainly Chippewas, but not «Alw 


Thor«> wore present some Ottawas of pare and mixed blood, and 
altlu^utfh in our State papers the parties of the treaty are spoken 
of U8 tlio United States on the one side, and the Chippewa nation 
on the other, there are the names of chiefs and head men affixed 
to tho treaty wlio were of Ottawa descent. There were but three 
regular councils or audiences held during the 10 or 12 days that 
the negotiations were pending. At such formal councils only the 
ohiofs, warriors, head men ana braves were called and admitted into 
the coimcil hall, although the sides being open and the opportunity 
for hearing and seeing unimpeded, the Indian women and their 
children gathered in timid groups close by. They were silent, but 
hy n(j means disinterested spectators of the solemn negotiations 
proceeding within, which involved no less than a full and final ' 
Hurronder of the burial places of their fathers, the ancient hunting 
grounds of their people, the fair and beautiful heritage of forest 
and com ground, lake and river. 

^^At the first council Gen. Cass made known to the natives, 
through Henry Conner and Wliitmore Enaggs, experienced and 
highly respected Indian traders, and as interpreters most compe- 
tent, the object of his journey from Detriot and the general 
))nrpo8e8 of our Government. He endeavored to impress upon 
them the paternal regard which their 'Great Father' at Wash- 
ington haa for their welfare, and the hope that the peaceful 
relations which had existed between them since the close of the 
war should be rendered perpetual. He reminded them of their 
condition as a people, the swelling of the wave of civilization 
toward their hunting grounds, the growing scarcity of game, the 
importance and necessity of turning their attention more to agri- 
culture and relinquishing the more uncertain modes of living I)y 
the chase, and the better condition they would ultimately be in by 
confining themselves to reservations ample for the purpose of 
agriculture, to be provided for them by the proposed treaty, and the 
cession of the residue of the territory then occupied by those who 
were there represented, upon such terms and guarantees as their 
condition reauired, including therein stipulated annuities. He 
was answerea by their chief speaker with a gravity and eloquence 
])eculiar to Indian councils. Three chiefs of high repute acted as 
speakers for the Indians, who survived for some years after the 
treaty, and were kntjwn to some of the earlier settlers in the 
valley. Their names were often pronounced by early traders 
and pioneers differently, and are found in documents with different 
orthography, but as they appear at the foot of the treaty they are 
Mish-e-ne-na-noi\-e-quet, 0-ge-maw-ke-ke-to, and also, at the first 
council, Kish-kaw-ko. At the subsequent councils the latter was 
not present, except at the last, and then merely to affix his totem 
to the treaty afler it had engrossed for execution. He had put 
himself out of condition at the close of day by drinking, and 
remained in a state quite unpresentable as a speaker for the 
residue of the time. He was an Indian of violent temper, and in 
excitement of liquor was reckless in the commission of outrage. 


Subsequent to the treaty, after many acts of violence, he was 
arrested and died in prison at Detroit. He was less dangerous in 
his wigwam quietly drunk than in the council room tolerably 

"The chief speaker, 0-ge-maw-ke-ke-to, opposed the proposition 
made by Commissioner Cass, with indignation. His speech, as 
remembered by persons still surviving, who were interested listen- 
ers, was a model of Indian eloquence. He was then quite young, 
not more than 25 years of age, above the average height, and in his 
bearing, graceful and handsome. Although in the later years of 
his life he was often seen intoxicated, he never fully lost a conscious 
dignity which belonged to his nature as one of the original lords 
of the soil. In true eloquence he was probably hardly surpassed by 
the Seneca chief, Sa-go-ye-wat^ha (Red Jacket). His band livei 
at the Forks of the Tittabawassee, and like the famous Seneca chief 
he wore upon his breast a superb Government medal. He addressed 
the Commissioner as follows: 

" 'You do not know our wishes. Our people wonder what has 
brought you so far from your homes. Your young men have 
invited us to come and lignt the council fire. We are here to 
smoke the pipe of peace, but not to sell our lands. Our American 
Father wants them. Our English Father treats us better. He has 
never asked for them. Your people trespass upon our hunting 
grounds. You flock to our shores. Our waters grow warm; our 
land melts like a cake of ice. Our possessions grow smaller and 
smaller. The warm wave of the white man rolls in upon us and 
melts us away. Our women reproach us. Our children want 
homes. Shall we sell from under them the spot where they spread 
their blankets? We have not called you here. We smoke with 
you the pipe of peace.' 

''To this the Commissioner replied with earnestness, reproving 
the speaker for arrogant assumption, that their Great Father at 
Washington had just closed a war in which he had whipped their 
Father, the English king, and the Indians too; that tneir lands 
were forfeited in fact by the rules of war, but that he did not pur- 
pose to take them without rendering back an equivalent, notwith- 
standing their late acts of hostility; that their women and children 
should nave secured to them ample tribal reserves on which they 
could live, unmolested by their white neighbors, where they could 
spread their blankets and be aided and instructed in agriculture. 

'•The council for the day closed. The Commissioner with his 
stafi' of earnest and devoted assistants, composed of gentlemen 
distingushed at Indian councils, Whitmore Knaggs, known to the 
natives as O-ke-day-ben-don, and beloved by them; Henry Conner, 
known to them as Wah-be-sken-dip, meaning literally white-head, 
significant of the color of his hair; Col. Beaufait, G. Godfroy 
suD-agent, John Harson and other gentlemen of deserved influence 
with me Chippewas, all retired to tneir lodgings disappointed and 
anxious, while the chiefs and head-men of the natives retired to 
their wigwams in sullen dignity, unapproachable and xmci^^^A^^^ 



vvrt5i"<nlx * vory unpropitious opening of tlie great and important 
uu\ivrt5iKxnjr nml trust which Gen. Cass liad in hand. The juncture 
vkiikL A cntJoiil one, and for a full appreciation of it a brief allusion 
tv^ 'lu^ n^lrttivo stattis of the two parties becomes pardonable 
it' t^^t lUHx^j^ary. The proposition for a cession of the Indian 
tiiU^ v^MU* tV\>ni us, not them. Their possessory control by our 
uir.fv^rtu rtHH>gnition and action was as yet perfect. For any 
L>4\\tcv^nos8or vindictive act upon the treaty ground there would 
iu^xo Uv» immunity from immediate punishment and probably 
Mlii»u54to 08('rtpe. The whites, comparatively, were few in number. 
The uulitiiry comj)any on board the schooner, anchored in the 
^t»Vx*^u\» \VHS(]uite inadequate to successful resistance against an 
v*i>irtui/od and general outbreak. 

^^Sutlicient time had not clasped to wash out the bitter memories 
\vl' lHM\lor feuds, of fancied or real wrong. Footprints were yet 
t\v5*h uj)()n the war-path. Indeed, only the fifth summer had passed 
Niuro that war had closed which had laid low many Chippewa 
w nrriors. Our Commissioner and his staff of assistants had placed 
ihoinsdves voluntarily within their strong hold upon the Saginaw, 
Xy\ wliich no pale-face had entered throughout that formidable 
e*t niggle, unless as pinioned and care-depressed captives, with the 
o\(H»i)ti(m of the single memorable instance of the daring trader 
Smitn, to rescue from captivity the children of the Bover family, 
who had been taken captives with their father from their homes on 
tho Clinton river near Mount Clemens. Here witliin a half dozen 
Hummers previous, they had drilled in martial exercise, trained 
tlu^mse'.ves to warlike feats, and prepared for those deadly excur- 
nioiiH into our frontier settlements, and for those more formidable 
cuigagements where disciplined valor was called upon to breast 
their wild charge. After the bloody raid, to this valley they 
looked as to a fastness, and to it returned with their captives and 
streaming trophies. And here, too, had been for generations their 
simple altar in the unpruned forests; their festivals, called lyus, 
without reference to their true significance; their dances, when 
thanks went up to the Great Spirit for the yearly return of the 
successive blessings of a fruitful season, following to its source, 
with direct purpose and thankful hearts, the wann ray which gave 
to them the trickling sap, which reddened the berry, wmch 
embrowned the tassel oi the com and perfected their slender 

''Xe-ome, the chief of one of the largest bands of the Chippewas, 
•occupied and assumed to control the most southerly portion of 
their national domain. The Flint river, with its northerly afiilu- 
ents, was, by the line of the treaty of 1807, left a little north of the 
border in full Indian possession. It was called by the natives Fe- 
won-unk-ening, meaning literally " the river of the Flint," and by 
the early French traders. La Pierre, as was the principal fording 
or crossing place of that river, called by them Grand Traverse, a 
few rods below the Flint city bridge. By the Chippewas the site 
of that city was called Mus-cu-ta-wa-ingh, meaning '* open plain 


burnt over." That river, after leaving the northerly part of Lapeer 
county, bears southward to the GranoTraverse (city of Flint) and 
then curves nortlierly to meet the Saginaw, tne crescent which 
it thus describes lying upon the southern border (or nearly so) of 
what were the home possessions, intact and unaffected by previous 
treaties, of those bands of Chippewas whose chiefs and head-men 
met Gen. Cass in council at Saginaw. 

* 'Well-beaten trails upon the Flint and its tributaries, reaching 
to their headwaters and upon all the affluents of the Saginaw, all 
converging to the main river as the center, forming a network of 
communication which might not inaptly be compared to an open 
fan, with the handle resting upon the treaty ground, gave the 
Chippewas, upon the banks of those streams, unobstructed access, 
by land as well as by canoes upon the rivers, to the Commissioner 
in council. The advancing wave of white settlements had already 
approached, and in some instances had without authority encroached 
upon the southerly border of their net- work of trails upon the 

''In point of location, geographically, Ne-ome and his powerful 
band stood at the door, the very threshold of the large tract of 
land which our Government, through its faithful and earnest 
Commissioner, wanted. To any one standing at Detroit and 
looking northerly to the beautiful belt of land lying westerlv of the 
river St. Clair and Lake Huron, it was plain that the old chief, 
Ne-ome, stood, unless well disposed toward the treaty, indeed a 
lion in the path. Ne-ome was honest and simple-minded, evincing 
but little ot the craft and cunning of his race, sincere in his nature, 
by no means astute, firm in his friendships, easy to be pursuaded 
by any benefactor who should appeal to nis Indian sense of grati- 
tude; harmless and kind. In stature he was short and heavily 
molded. With his own people he was a chief of patriarchal 
goodness, and his name is nev^er mentioned by any of the members 
of his band, even at this remote day, except with a certain tradition- 
ary sorrow, more impressive in its mournful simplicity than a 
labored epitaph. 

"After Gen. Cass had made known the purpose of the Govern- 
ment in calling the council, he found the Chippewas were, as before 
detailed, with minds by no means disposea to treat or cede. 
There was a power rested in the hands of an Indian trader who was 
known to the Chippewas as Wah-be-sins (the Youn^ Swan), and to 
the border settlers as Jacob Smith. He had been for a long time 
a trader among the Indians at different points on the Flint and 
Saginaw, both before and after the war of 1812. His principal 
trading-post, which he made his permanent one, the same year of 
the treaty, was at the Grand Traverse of the Flint, in the first ward 
of that city, near where the Baptist church now stands. By long 
residence among tiiem he had assimilated his habits and ways of 

ving to those of the natives, even to the adoption of their mode of 
dress, and spoke their language fluently ana correctly. He was 
generous to them, warm-hearted and intrepid. T\iOug\i %\nsJ\ m 


stature and light in weight, he was powerful as well as agile. Like 
most men living upon our Indian frontiers, he had become the 
father of a halftreed family, one of whom, a daughter, by the 
name of Mo-kitch-e-no-qwa, was then living. Skilled in wood- 
craft, sagacious and adroit, he may be said to have eqjualed, if not 
excelled, the natives in many of those qualities which, as forest 
heroes, they most admire. Brought into almost daily intercourse 
with the large band of Chippewas upon the Saginaw and its tribu- 
taries, the opportunity was at hand of ingratiating himself into the 
confidence of the chief and head men of that influential branch of 
the natives known as Ne-ome's band; and it is safe to say, that of 
the 114 chiefs and head men of the Chippewa nation, whose totems 
were affixed to the treaty, there was not one with whom he had not 
dealt and to whom hehadnot extended some act of friendship, either 
dispensing the rights of hospitality at his trading post, or in substan- 
tial advances to tnem of bread or of blankets, as their necessity may 
have required. He had entrenched himself in their friendship; 
and at tne time of the treaty, so nearly had he identified himself 
with the good chief, Ne-ome, that each ever hailed the other as 
brother. Even to this day, Sa-gos-e-wa-qua, a daughter of Ne-ome, 
and others of his descendants now living, when speaking of Smith 
and the old chief, invariably bring their hands together, pressing the 
two index tigers closely to each other, as the Indian's symbol of 
brotherhood and warm attachment. 

" Upon the treaty ground the two fiaends acted unitedly and 
in perfect unison. Smith had no position at the treaty, either as 
interpreter for or agent of Gen. Cass. He was personally known to 
the General, for when not at his trading post he was at Detroit, 
where he had a white family; but it is quite evident that he was 
looked upon with some distrust by the Commissioner. For days 
the most active efforts of the authorized interpreters and agents of 
the Government were ineffectual in conciliating Ne-ome, 0-ge- 
maw-ke-ke-to and the other cliiefs. Not a step of progress was 
made until Mr. Knaggs and other agents, who assumed, but with 
what authority is somewhat doubtful, to speak for the Govern- 
ment outside of the council room, had promised the faithful Ne- 
ome that in addition to various and ample reservations for the dif- 
ferent bands, of several thousand acres each, there should be 
reserved, as requested by Wah-be-sins (Smith), 11 sections of 
land of 640 acres each, to be located at or near Grand Traverse of 
the Flint. Eleven names as such reservees, all Indian names, 
were passed over to Mr. Knaggs on a slip of paper in his tent. A 
council was again called several daj^s after the first one and fully 
attended by all the chiefs and warriors. This, with other points of 
difficulty, had become Quieted. The storm which at first threat- 
ened to overwhelm the oest efforts of the Commissioner and the 
active agents had passed over, and then a calm and open discussion 
ensued of the terms and basis upon which a just and honorable 
treaty should be, and at length was concluded." 


There was but one more general council held, which was mainly 
formal, for the purpose ofnaving aflBxed to the engrossed copy of 
the treaty, the signature of Gen. Cass and the witnesses, and the to- 
tems of the chiefs and head men of the Chippewas and Ottawas. 
A removal of the Chippewas west of the Mississippi, at least west 
of Lake Michigan, was one of the purposes sought to be gained by 
our Government at the treaty, in addition to the cession of the 
valuable body of land lying upon the Saginaw and its affluents. 
In the instructions from the War Department to the Commissioner, 
this purpose is set out among others; but it was discovered by the 
General soon after his arrival at the council, that it was impossi- 
ble to carry out that part of his instructions which related to the 
removal of the Indians, without hazarding the consummation of a 
treaty upon any terms. This country has been so long occupied 
by their people, and was so well adapted to their hunter state, in 
tlie remarkable abundance offish in its rivers, lakes and bays, and 
in the game yet left to them and not very materially diminished in 
the forests,that they were not inclined to listen to any proposi- 
tion of removal. During the afternoon of the last day of the 
council the Indians agreea to tlie various articles of the treq^y, 
affixed their totems or names in the presence of the Governor's 
staiF and assistants, and received their first treaty money from the 
United States. 


A treaty was made at Detroit, Jan. 14, 1837, between Henry E. 
Schoolcraft, in behalf of the United States, and the Saginaw tribe 
of the Chippewa nation, by their chief and delegates assembled in 
council, in which the Chippewas ceded to tlie United States the 
following tracts of land lying within the boundaries of Michigan, 
namely: One tract of 8,000 acres on the river Au Sable; one 
tract of 2,000 acres on the Misho-wusk, or Rifle river; one tract of 
6,000 acres on the north side of the river Kaw-kaw-ling; one tract 
of 5,760 acres upon Flint river, including the site of Reaum's vil 
lage, and a# place called Kishkawbawee; one tract of 8,000 acres on 
the head ol Cass (forraerly.Huron), river, at the village of Otusson; 
one island in the Saginaw Bay, estimated at 1,000 acres, being the 
island called Shaingwaukokang, on which Muckokoosh formerly 
lived; one tract of 2,000 acres at Nababish, on the Saginaw river; 
one tract of 1,000 on the east side of the Saginaw river; one tract of 
640 acres at Great Bend, on Cass river; one tract of 2,000 acres 
at the mouth of Point au Gres river; one tract of 1,000 acres on 
the Cass river at Menouuet's village; one tract of 10,000 acres on 
the Shiawassee river at Ket-che-waun-daugumink, or Big Lick; one 
tract of 6,000 acres at the Little Forks, on the Tetabawasing river; 
one tract of 6, 000 acres at the Black Bird's town, on the Tetaba- 
wasing river; one tract of 40,000 acres on the west side of the Sag 
inaw river. 


The sum of money derived fjpom the sale of these lands after de- 
ducting expenses of survey and treaty, was to be invested under 
the direction of the President, in some public stock; and ^he in- 
terest thereof to be paid annually to the Indians. Certain sums 
were also set apart for the payment of their valid debts and for 
depredations committed after the surrender of Detroit, in 1812. The 
Indians agreed to remove from Michigan to some point west of 
Lake Superior, or locate west of the Mississippi and southwest of 
the Missouri rivers, to be decided by Congress. 

A supplementary article to a treaty between tlie United States 
and the Saginaw tribe of Chippewas, provided for tlie erection of 
a lighthouse on the Na-bo-bish tract of land, lying at the mouth of 
the Saginaw river, and a subsequent article of t'le same treaty, con- 
cluded at East Saginaw, changed the location of the lighthouse to 
the 40,000-acre tract of land at the mouth of the same river. 


A treaty was concluded at the city of Saginaw, Jan. 23, 1838, be- 
tween a commissioner of the United States and the several bands 
of tlie Cliippewa nation, comprehended within the districts of Sag- 
inaw, in which the chiefs of the Chippewas represented, that at the 
sale of lands for their use, a combination was formed and the prices 

})er acre greatly diminished. Tlie treaty then provided that all 
ands brought into market under the authority of the previous 
treaty (Jan. 14, 1837) should be sold to the register and receiver 
for two years from date of commencement of sale, at $5 pi r acre, 
which sum was declared the minimum price; provided, t at should 
any portion of said lands remain unsola at the expiration of the 
two years, the minimum price was to be reduced to $2.50 per acre, 
at which price the remaining lands were to be disposed of; and 
after five years from date of ratification of treaty, if any lands then 
remained, they were to be sold for the sum they would command, 
but none less than 75 cents per acre. 

THE TREATY OF 1855. ^ 

Subsequently, a treaty was concluded at Detroit, Aug. 2, 1855, 
between George W. Many penny and Henry C. Gilbert, Commis- 
sioners on the ])art of the United States, and the Chippewa Indi- 
ans of Saginaw, Swan creek and Black river, in whirh the United 
States agreed to withdraw frotn sale six adjoining townships of 
land in Isabella county, and townships Nos. 17 and 18 north, 
ranges 3, 4 and 5 east; agreed to pay the Chippewas the sum of 
$220,000, to be used for education, agriculture, building material, 
etc. ; build a saw-mill at some suitable water-power in Isabella 
county, at a cost not exceeding $8,000; to test the claims and 
pay the just indebtedness of said tribe of Chippewas; to provide an 
interpreter for said Indians for five years ana longer if necessary; 
and said Chippewas of Saginaw, Swan creek and Slack river, ceded 


to the United States all lands in Michigan heretofore owned by 
them as reservations; and that the grants and payments provided 
in this treaty were in lieu and satisfaction of aU claims legal and 
equitable on the part of said Indians, jointly and severally against 
the United States, for land, money, or other thing guarantied to 
said tribes or either of them, by the stipulation of any former 
treaty or treaties; the entries of land made by the Indians and by 
the Missionary Society of the M. E. Church for the benefit of the 
Indians, in townships 14 north and 4 east, and 10 north and 5 east, 
were confirmed and patents issued. 

schoolokaft's trickery. 

Tlie treaty of 1837 is said to have been drafted by Government 
Commissioner Schoolcraft in 1836, and presented before an Indian, 
council the same year. James McCormick, who was then settled 
among the bands on the Indian fields, received from his aborigi^ 
nal neighbors a tract of 640 acres of land in recognition of his kind- 
ness to them during the prevalence of the small-pox epidemic. Thift 
valuable present was received by Mr. McCormick, and went into 
his possession; but in the treaty presented by Schoolcraft therewas 
no mention made of the Indian grant to McCormick. One of the 
Indian counselors demanded why this important item was omitted, 
merely gaining for his trouble the laconic answer from the Com- 
missioner: ''It can't be done." *'Very well," said the Indian 
orator; ''we will not sell our land unless our white brother is pro- 
vided for. We will not sign the treaty." The assembled Indians 
dispersed and the Commissioner was left to dream over the situ- 
ation in the d« sorted wigwam. 

In January, 1837, the Commissioner invited the counselors to 
meet him at Detroit, and on the 14th of that month they assembled 
agreeably to such invitation. Mr. Schoolcraft assured them that 
the treaty paper as now presented, contained full assurances that 
Mr. McCornuck would be continued as lessee of the lands in ques- 
tion. Thus assured on the honor of an ofiicer of the United State& 
Government, the children of the forest deeded away their hunting 
grounds, and, as a few years proved, their munificent gift to their 
white brother also. The Commissioner never inserted an article 
guarantying a title to James McCormick, and as a result he was 
evicted from a home and farm which he improved, which he mer- 
ited, and which was endeared to him by many associations. About 
this period small-pox decimated the ranks of the Indian warriors, 
and where it failed to secure a victim, the oflScials appointed to 
carry out the treaty articles, generally succeeded. 



As early as 1811, the French traders found a home among the 
Saginaws and for years after carried on an extensive trade, giving 
food and peltries in exchange for furs and pemmican. Among them 
was one American named Jacob Smith, better known as Wah-be- 
sins, or Young Swan. He was a favorite hunter with the Indians, 
and accompanied them in their hunting expeditions until the period 
of the establishment of his post on the Flmt river. For years his 
friendship for the Campau brothers was unquestioned, and \Vith 
them ho found a home whenever his travels led him to the great 
camping ground. Years rolled by, and this friendship lasted; but 
before the ink was dry on the treaty of 1819, a passion, as unfortun- 
ate as it was unjust, seized upon him; he deserted his old friend, 
and was the primary means of urging the Indian^ to ignore their 
debts, and rob the resident trader, Campau, of money which was 
justly due him. In the following pages a reference is made to the 
white trappers of the Saginaw. 

Louis Campau, or Ne-ta-ba-ba-pin-is-id, formerly a "voyageur," 
settled at Detroit immediately succeeding tlie close of hostilities in 
1815, though for years previously it was his custom to visit that 
part. He was a native of Lower Canada, and in possession of 
those faculties which are peculiarly adapted to the life of a front- 
iersman. Genial and even polite in his intercourse with his Amer- 
ican friends, he extended to the Indians, also, a warm greeting 
which won their confidence. In May, 1816, Mr. Campau entered 
upon the life of an Indian trader. Traveling to the Saginaw Ka- 
pay-shaw-wink, or the ffreat camping ground of the tribe, he 
erected a house, on which he conferred the title, " Campau's Trad- 
ing Post." Tliis building stood on the west side of Water street, 
opposite the locati(m of Wright & Co.'s mill. Three years after 
Ins settlement here, Louis Campau built a log house on the east 
side of the river, but owing to the opposition of Kish-kaw-ko and 
Mish-ne-na-non-e-quet he retired for safety to the old post. The 
deserted structure stood where the Methodist mission was subse- 
quently established. The house of Norman Little took the place 
of the mission and in later days it formed the site ofTenEyck's 
mill. In June, 1826, Mr. Campau left for Grand Rapids, where 
in the fall of the same year, he located two fractional quarters of 
the public domain, and maybe said to be the prime mover in build- 
ing u]) the city of that name. Generous to a fault, he served the 
settlers who flocked toward his location, faithfully and liberally; 
aided in every movement to build up the city; so that after the 



war of 1861-'5, the people of Grand Rapids presented their first 
friend with a valuable and well-filled purse. In the history of the 
county the old trader's connection witn the valley since the coming 
of the American pioneers, will be referred to, and thus the name 
of one of the earliest white inhabitants of the district shall be per- 

Stephen V. R. Reilly, a trader among the Chippewas, married 
Men-aw-cum-ego-qua, the beauty of the Indian village, the Poca- 
hontas of the tribe. The three sons resulting from this marriage 
were named respectively, John, Peter and James. In the negoti- 
ation of the treaty, Stephen V. R. Reilly exerted all his great in- 
fiuence over the Indians, and succeeded in urging them to agree 
to the terms which would be offered to them. In the grant of In- 
dian reserves, he located John Reillv's lands near the mouth of 
the Saginaw, where Bay City now stands. For Peter Reilly he 
obtained a grant of 640 acres of land beginning above and adjoin- 
ing the apple-trees on the west side of the Saginaw river, and 
running up the same for quantity; and for the use of James Reilly, 
^40 acres oe^nning on the east side of the Saginaw river, nearly 
opjposite to Oampau's trading house and running up the river for 

Quantity. Part of the city of East Saginaw is built on this last 
escribed reservation. 

In 1836 Gen. Stephen V. R. Reilly, who was then 73 vears of 
age, and postmaster of Schenectady, New Y^ork, revisited l)etroit, 
met his son John there, and advised him to sell his lands to 
Andrew T. McReynolds and F. H. Stevens, of Detroit, for not 
less than $30,000. In this manner also, were the claims of other 
boys disposed of. 

Francois Trombley, grandfather of the Trombleys named in this 
review, was well known at the military posts of the St. Lawrence 
and the lakes as early as 1782. Ten years later, in 1792, he 
visited the Saginaw Indians, which proved to be his first and last 
exploration trip in this direction. This adventurous Frenchman 
was drowned, while flying far away from the Indian camp. The 
storv of his death states that he maae a spear for an Indian, to be 
used in killing muskrats; another Indian came forward to beg a 
similar favor, and for him Trombley made a very improved rat- 
killer. The owner of the first spear grew jealous, abused the good 
old hunter, and ultimately staboed him in the back. Retiring to 
his b^at, he set sail for Detroit, but never reached that post. It 
is said he was knocked overboard by the boom of his boat, and 
was drowned in the waters of Lake lluron. 

Jacob Smith, or Wah-be-sins, settled with his parents in 
Northern Ohio. In 1811 he pushed forward to the Detroit river 
district, and thence north to the Flint and Saginaw. During the 
rambles of the "Young Swan," he won the friendship of the 
Indians, and as his intercourse with them became more extensive, 
he entered into all their manners and customs, sympathizing with 
them as a tribal member, and claiming their syinpathy in return. 
Smith was the first American who settled in the Saginaw diattvct. 



He arrived here shortly after Campau, and erected a temporary 
tradinff-post; at Flint another structure was built by him; but the 
irreater portion of his time was passed at Detroit, where his wife 
and family resided. In 1819 he built a substantial log house in 
Flint on the spot now occupied by tlie Fii*st Baptist church. Later 
in the year he made a journey to " Campau's Trading Post," and 
aided in conciliating tlie Indians of that band, if not in urging 
them to sign the treaty which Gov. Cass presented. His post, at 
Flint, was left in charge of liis Indian assistant An-ne-me-kins, 
while Baptiste Cochios, a French friend of Smith's, known in later 
years as Nick-an-niss, accompanied him on his patriotic journey. 
In October, 1819, Smith and Cocliios returned to the post, found 
that the young Indian had discharged his duties faitnfuUy; and 
being satisfied that he could be further trusted, both Smith and 
his friend visited the Canadas, where they traded until 1821. 
Fn^m this period until 1825, the two travelers and traders con- 
tinued to have an extensive trade, the while enduring many hard- 
ships. Smith succumbed to disease in 1825; Cochios was the o .ly 
white friend present at his death-bed; An-ne-me-kins, the Indian 
bov of his adoption, was tlie only red man who witnessed the dying 
struggles of the popular trader. The former made a rude coffin, 
in which he placed the body of the deceased, and, choosing a 
secluded spot near the post, interred the remains in the presence 
of the assembled Indians. 

Patrice Reaume, or Wemitigoji, was, like Campau, a native of 
the French province of Quebec. For a period ot eight years he 
was a trader among the Indians of the Raisin and Huron districts. 
Ultimately he was appointed factor for the American Fur Company 
at the post near Pontiae, and subsequently their trader at the posts 
of Tittabawassee and Saginaw. Keaume's assistant was named 
Louis DeQuindre; both factor and trader were impopular; nor did 
the action of thiir countryman, Cami)au, aid them. On the 
contrary, since the American Fur Company's interests were 
opposed to his, he took every opportunity to notice the faults 
of the employes of the company, and ultimately succeeded in 
driving Reaume and De Quindre from their post< on the 
Tittabawassee and Saginaw. De Quindre, who was in charge of 
the store at the former place, was ejected by the desperate 
Wah-be-inan-ito; and, running for his life, left the post in possession 
of tlie Indian. After a series of wanderings through tlie forest, 
he was fortunate in reaching Saginaw. This summary ejectment 
was made in the winter of 1828-9, so that the young Frenchman 
suffered much as a refugee, and ever afterward was mentally 
pained whenever the sobriquet "missabos'' (liare) was given to him. 

Louis Beaufort, or AVagash, was one of the most genial habitants 
of the valley in the pi*e-treaty times. He was mucTi younger than 
Campau, Smith or Keauine, was a friend of each and all, and, 
being 8«», was the peacemaker in the traders' circle. It is recorded 
tliat, immediately after the treaty of Saginaw was signed, 
pau and Smith had an altercation which would doubtless end 


tragically had not Beaufort's calm and gentle reasoning prevailed. 
He was one of the seven interpreters employed daring the nego- 
tiation of the treaty of 1819. 

Jacob Gradroot, the first white man who made a permanent 
aettlement in what was known as Lower Saginaw, married the 
daughter of the fierce Kish-kaw-ko. Gradroot was a German, 
who settled for a time at Albany, N. Y., and, moving West, found 
a home among the Indians, and a wife in the person of Miss 

Barney Campau, known amons: tlie Indians as Oshkinawe, was a 
nephew of the first trader. Well fitted for either the chase or a 
trader's life, he whiled away his years in one or other of these 
pursuits, and was looked on by the aborigines as one who would 
not venture to take an advantage in buying or selling. They 
called him the "young man," and acquiesced in all his proposi- 
tions. His knowledge of French, English and Otchipwe [Ojibway 
or Chippewa] rendered him a very useful man during the nego- 
tiation of the treaty of Saginaw. He was ^gaged as an army 
contractor in connection with the 3d U. S. Infantry, and in this 
capacity he was present at tlie signing of the treaty. 

Henry Connor, or Wah-be-sken-dip, was perhaps superior to all 
the traders of that period in disposition and manner. He was said 
to be a man of great muscular strength, possessing a child's 
simplicity, and only p^-ominent where justice should be enforced, 
or some important point carried. He was employed as interpreter 
between U. S. Commissioner Cass and the Chippewas, from Sept. 
10 to 22. For some years afterward he followed the pursuit of 
trade, continuing to the close to merit the confidence and friend- 
ship of the Indians. Connor was present at the death of 
Tecumseh, Oct. 5, 1813, when James Whitty encountered the 
great Indian and killed him. Whitty and Gen. Johnson, he 
stated, attacked the warrior simultaneouslv; but the former began 
and ended that part of the battle of the Thames. 

Whitmore Knaggs was among the early white inhabitants of 
the valley. His trade with the Indians was extensive, and so 
conducted that among the many years of his intercourse with 
them, he won their esteem. He was present as an interpreter, 
during the treaty proceedings of 1819, and his rendition of official 
language had much to do m securing the successful issue of the 
negotiations. He was a sub-agent to the Indian agent, and is 
reported to have acted faithfully in that position. 

Antoine Campau, known as Wabos, was a brother of Louis 
Campau, and his successor in the control of the old trading-post 
of Saginaw. In 1826 Antoine became the factor of the po^ and 
held that position until his interest was purchased by the 
Williams brothers, and they until the tradei's gave place to the 
merchants. Jean Baptiste Desnoyers converted the post into a 
dwelling-house, and continued to live there until 1862, when the 
old landmark was destroyed by fire. 


Jean Provencal, or Arvishtoia, was the '^ village blacksmith." 
Possessing good, manly qualities, he endeared nimself to his 
white associates, and also to the Indians, for whom he was 
appointed to labor. Indeed, it has been said that this blacksmith 
claimed a much more respectful attention from the traders and 
Indians than was accorded to the other official. Rev. Mr. Hudson, 
a zealous missionary sent into the country by the general 

Edward Campau, or ISTow-o-ke-shick, lost an arm from the acci- 
dental discharge of his rifle. Notwithstanding the rude surgical 
operation, which only the medicine men of that period could per- 
form, he survived and was among the most active and most popu- 
lar trappers. By the treaty of 1819 he was made proprietor of one 
section of land in the neighborhood of Grand Blanc. 

Archibald Lyons was. Tike many of the white inhabitants of the 
valley, engaged in trapping. He did not, however, dwell within 
Saginaw county as now constituted. During the year immediately 
preceding the treaty of 1819, he passed mucli of his time around 
the Campau quarters, and there married the beauty of the Indian 
towns, Ka-ze-zhe-ah-be-no-qua. This woman was a French half- 
breed, peculiarly superior to all around her, intelligent and in pos- 
session of principles which would not sanction a wrong. After 
the death of her nusband, Antoine Peltier married her, and again 
the post of the Tittabawassee was untenanted. Lyons, while skating 
down to Saginaw to play for a dancing party, fell through the ice, 
and was never seen again. He was known among the Indians as 
Ai-an-i-kan-o-ta-ged, or the interpreter. 

Gabriel Godfroy, known as Menissid, was a trader from the 
Huron. He was one of the Godfroy family to whom was granted 
the lands where the city of Ypsilanti now stands. His trading 
visits to the Saginaw Indians were made at long intervals; but his 
acquaintance, acquired during his official intercourse with them as 
a sub-agent, was extensive, and consequently when the treaty was 
proposed, he was asked to be present. His name a])pears among 
those of the signatory witnesses, Sept. 24, 1819. 

John Hurson and ^William Tuckey were sworn interpreters dur- 
ing the pendency of the treaty question. Like Beaufort, they acted 
well their part, and liad much to do in subduing the stubbornness 
of the barbarians. Peter Gruette and Francois Corben, both 
farmers, entered upon the cultivation of garden plats immediately 
after the cession ot their lands to the United States. A reference 
to the names subscribed to the copy of treaty will lead the reader 
to a knowledge of the other French and American traders resident 
at Saginaw previous to or during the year 1819. 

Henry NeUon was another Indian interpreter, and a trader 
among the bands of the Saginaw district. He moved with the 
Indians to Isabella and died there a few years ago. 

Louis Mashoue was a native of Montreal, Canada, and at an early 
day was connected with the Northwestern Fur Company. While 
in the employ of that company he was subjected to nardships and 


privations of every nature. It will be remembered tliat tbe Nortb- 
western Company required its emploves to carry each 200 pounds, 
a task that few men of our day woula accomplish. He was en- 
gaged in nearly every encounter of his company with the Hudson 
Bay Company, and in their battles he received several severe 
wounds. After serving 12 years in this company, he received 
an honorable discharge, and soon after came to this county. He 
has been, as near as we can learn, a resident of Saginaw county 26 
years. For several years past he has had charge of the ferry at 
the upper end of Saginaw City. He was at his post as usual on 
Nov. 15, 1853, and while crossing his scow with a horse and buggy 
aboard, was precipitated into the river by the horse, which became 
unmanageable from fright, and leaped from the scow into the river 
with the buggy, taking with him Mr. Mashoue. It was supposed 
that Mr. Maslioue received a severe blow on the back of his neck 
from the horse's head, and was so stunned as to be unable to 
make an eiFort for his life, and went to the bottom in about 14 feet 
of water. His body was recovered after about 30 minutes' search, 
but the skill of physicians in attendance could not restore him. He 
was 70 years of age. 

Capt. Joseph F. Marsac was born near Detroit on Christmas 
Day, 1793. He was present on the treaty ground of Saginaw in 
1819, in company witn the U. S. Commissioner, Gov. Qiss, and 
became a permanent settler in the valley in 1838. The title 
" Captain '' was given him during the Black Hawk war, when 
with a party of men he and Capt. Swarthout went to the front. 
Marsac was the happiest model of the French- American. Genial 
as a man can be, he endeared himself to all. He died a few years 
ago, leaving behind him an honored name. As recently as itarch 
20, 1878, Marsac filed an affidavit before Notary Public Wm. 
Daglish, of Bay City, explanatory of the treacherr which resulted 
in robbing James McCormick of the magnificent Indian present of 
640 acres of land. He was present at that treaty, in 1837, and 
states under oath that Commissioner Schoolcraft promised that 
that article of the treaty would be faithfully observea by the U. S. 
Government, and upon this assurance the red men signed the 

Leon Suay, a hunter and trapper ofgreat repute, dwelt in a log 
house, erected by the American Fur Company, which stood near 
the spot where the first school-house of East Saginaw was built, 
now occupied by the Bancroft House. He belonged to the better 
class of French traders, and held the military title of Captain. 
For many years previous to 1840 Captain Suay was favorably^ 
known to the American pioneers. 

Jack Smith, an improvident trader, visited the valley for the first 
time in 1821. His trading house was established in 1830, north 
of Campau's on the river front. His trade was limited as the 
house in which it was conducted, — a small log house, thatched 
with salt-marsh grass. He left the country at an early day. His- 
property he left unbequeathed. * 


I ■ 


Other traders established posts here at a later date, but the 
rapid advance of the cities, under the r^yiTTi^ of enterprise banished 
the old-time trading-post and erected on its ruins magnificent 
houses devoted to trade. 


In the treaty paper the names of soldiers and citizens participat- 
ing in that important transaction are given. Here it will be neces- 
sary to notice only the next important military movement in con- 
nection with this county. Early in 1822 it appeared to the Terri- 
torial Government, that their new acquisitions on the Saginaw 
would be utterly worthless unless the articles of the treaty could 
be carried out m full. Owing to the great number of Indians 
then inhabiting the district a civil government would prove as 
mischievous as impolitic, particularly as the warriors of the tribe 
were characteristically wild if not savage, and beyond the range 
or power of merely civil government. Aware of this, the Legislative 
Council asked for special powers from the United States, which, 
being conferred, a detachment of United States troops was 
ordered to proceed from the military outpost of Green ^a,j en route 
for the treaty ground of the Saginaws. During the first days of 
July, 1822, two companies of the 3d U. S. Infantry embarked at 
Fort Howard for the mouth of the Saginaw river, under command 
of Major Daniel Baker. The command arrived below the present 
location of Bay City, where the men and stores were transferred 
from the transport to canoes and flat-boats for the ascent of the 
river, and the entire command pushed forward to its destination. 
The troops arrived at a point on the river near the location of the 
Jackson, Lansing ik Saginaw R. R. depot, July 25, 1822. Disem- 
barking, they marched to the plateau, and pitched their tents 
upon tlie ground where the Taylor House blocK now stands. Sub- 
sequently the men raised a block house, surrounded it with a 
strong stockade, and literally built a fortress in the heart of the 

Notwithstanding all the promises made by the Indians, not a 
few of them looked with jealousy upon the new-comers and their 
labors. A council was held and the designs of the American 
soldiers fully discussed; but the peace party prevailed, and the 
troops were permitted to pursue their operations unmolested, until 
a building defensive and offensive in all its belongings rose above 
the river. The officers of this garrison were: Major, Daniel Baker; 
Captains, John Garland, S. H. Webb; Lieutenants, Otis "Wheeler, 
Edward Brooks, Henry Bainbridge, Charles Baker, Wm. Allen, 
and Surgeon, Zina Pitcher. The last named officer joined the 
command in October, while the Surgeon, accompanied by Whit- 
more Knaggs, arrived overland from Detroit on the evening of 
July 25, 1822. The families of Maj. Baker, Capt. Garland, and 
Lieut. Brooks accompanied the command, as also John Dean, sutler; 
Cliauncej Bush, Elliot Gray and T. C. Sheldon, army contractors. 


Harvey Williams, John Hamilton, E. S. Williams and Schuyler 
Hodges arrived at the Fort in December, 1822. 

It 18 related by Surgeon Pitcher that the winter of 1822»'3 was 
very cold, and much snow fell. " When y)rinff came on the rapid 
solution of it caused a great flood in the TittaBawassce and otner 
tributaries of the Saginaw, so that most of the prairie between the 
post and Green Point was under water. The succeeding summer 
was very warm, and the troops, unused to the climate, became 
sickly as early as July, when, late the following fall, they aban- 
doned the fort, and moved to Detroit by water, in two schooners, 
one commanded by Capt. Keith and the other by Capt. Walker." 

Before the departure of the troops, in September, 1823, Lieut. 
Charles Baker, a brother of the oflScer in command, and Lieut. Wm. 
Allen, succumbed to disease. A few private soldiers died within the 
year of occupation, and were buried near the fort. These deaths, 
and the wane of that esprit du carps so necessary for troops, had 
fiuch a detrimental effect that nothing less than removal from the 
district was called for. Maj. Baker, sympathizing with the men 
of his command, reported that " nothing but Inaians, muskrats 
and bull-frogs could possibly exist here. The War Department 
being made aware ot this state of affairs ordered the evacuation 
of the post. Of the officers and men who lived to reacli another 
station, there are only a few survivors. All have served with the 
U. S. regiment in the Mexican campaign. 


established a post at Saginaw in August, 1824, with William Mc- 
Donald as trader. This post occupied the abandoned fort, a 
short distance southwest of Campairs trading house, where the 
Taylor House now stands. For more than two years McDonald 
transacted the company's affairs, winning for his post an import- 
ant position. In 1827 Eleazer Jewett was the next factor. Pat- 
rice Reaume, of the Tittabawassee post, was put in charge of the 
store at Saginaw; but his irascible qualities opposed the mterests 
of the company, and so led to his withdrawal from the Saginaw 
<iistrict. He was suceeded by Ephraim S. Williams in 1828. This 
early trader employed Jacob Graveradt, Louis Roy and F. Roy to 
assist him in taking supplies from Detroit. The journey to Sag- 
inaw was duly performed and the company's post reopened. In 
the course of a few years the Williams brotiiers purchased the 
rights of the American Fur Company, ultimately the interests of 
the Campau brothers, and became tlie great fur trader^ of North- 
em Michigan. During those early years Judge Abbott, of Detroit, 
was the chief factor of the company, and wisely made the appoint- 
ment which resulted so beneficially to his employers and finally to 
the energetic trader whom he sent into this wild territory. 



; ^:is vuviiuHl[H>liticby the principals of the American Fur 
^". c '.<*v.^ ^iswollasbv the Indian, French and American trapper, to 
^.v«c4 c^i^rv iuduonee which might have a tendency to turn the tide 
^f ':!«L:«5^CW^iv^J* away from the Saginaw Valley. To accomplish 
f>;Ts ticx &ileil not on every occasion to give woful accounts or the 
>Mj>t«r>^ Such accounts were verified by others who merely saw 
f\yi 'sfMr^ land bonlering on the river. Even the Government 
>ii,-HV\v>r* $tH>intHl to have been carried away wirh the same idea. 
jj^\:^^jHm tlio statements of the trappers, manj' of them never 
^v^t^i '-^* ^'^^* interior, and actually made their plat£f from the rep- 
^j^^*^Uons of the interested parties. (See pages 68, 69.) Their 
v^'^^^ wort\ similar to their plats, fictitious, and it was not until 
;vi'?h«^t the Government becan to realize the great wrong done the 
i)r>4r^*i as well as the trick played upon the United States. A re- 
>diJtc\^> was made during that ^ear wnich resulted in spreading a 
^NOMfcUnlgo of the greatness of the forest, valley and the districts 

ttt cK»5*ing this section of the work, it is just and proper that a 
<j5^% vvf the traits of Saginaw's first white visitors ana ^^labitants '^ 
xhs^uld be reviewed. The first and perhaps the noblest of those 
^jk'^ls* was their attachment to that Republic which LaFayette com- 
ti^'udoil to them. "To be known as a Frenchman," says Hub- 
NAiMt ** was to be known as a patriot." In the times which tried 
hiH^u's souls, few parts of the country had more bitter or varied 
c\iH»rioTice than the border counties oi Michigan. The Frenchman 
^a^t always our reliable and active ally, — cool and unflinching in 
sUugor, and shrewd and watchful when caution was most needed. 
If a num was wanted for some dangerous enterprise, it was a 
bSviichman who was chosen. Few men survive of the old " habi- 
tants '' who were interested and intelligent witnesses of Gen. HulFs 
5iurrender of the fort at Detroit and with it the whole territory of 
tlio Northwest to the British arms. As late as 1825 the feeling of 
indignation was still fresh in the hearts of the French population, 
anil it would have been a vain attempt to convince one of those 
who witnessed and entered into the scenes of those times, that the 
action of Hull was one of mere timidity or weakness, and not of 
liigh treason. 

Whittemore Knaggs, well known among the Otchipwas as well 
as by the early settlers, and his brother, James Knaggs, equally 
well known, were among the truest conservators of the Union in- 
terests in the northwest from 1812 to the total expulsion of the 
British forces, and the partial annihilation of their fierce Indian 
allies. Judge Witherell, speaking of this French trapper family, 
says: " Capt. Knaggs was a firm and unflinching patriot in times 
when patriotism was in demand, during the war of 1812. He was 
one of the Indian interpreters, spoke freely six or seven of their 
languages, together with French and English, and exercised 
great influence over many warrior tribes. On the surrender ot 


Detroit to the enemy, he was ordered by the British commandant 
to leave the country, and did so, of course; but joined the first 
corps of United States troops that advanced toward the frontier. 
He acted as guide to the division under General Winchester, and 
was present at their bloody defeat in the valley of the Raisin. The 
British Indians discovered him after the surrender and determined 
to kill him. There happened to be present an Indian whom 
Knaggs had defended in rormer years, who resolved to save the 
pale-face at every hazard; but the savages would not listen to him. 
Nothing daunted, however, tiie brave red warrior placed himself 
between Knaggs and his foes and succeeded in keeping them off 
for some time, the Indians pressed closer, and as a dernier resort 
the red friend seized Knaggs around the waist, kept his own body 
between him and his enemies and so prevented the repeated blows 
of the tomahawk and war club from taking effect upon the head of 
Winchester's French guide. Tliis means of defense continued un- 
til the Indian sought refuge for himself and his white friend among 
a number of horses which stood harnessed close by. Here Knaggs 
was enabled to avoid the repeated blows aimed at his head until 
a British officer, who was not so savage as his Indian friends, in- 
terposed and saved him from a cruel death." Knagffs survived 
this terrible trial for many years, and rendered good service in 
the negotiation of treaties with the Indians subseauently. His 
services at Saginaw in 1819 cannot be over-estimated. He, with a 
band of Frenchmen, including the extensive Campau family, was 
present and failed not to recognize among the banded red-men 
many of those who sought for his blood a few short years before. 
James Knaggs was present at the death of Tecumseh, and was con- 
sidered one of the most unflinching and honorable supporters of 
the American troops. 


It is acknowledged that the French character is naturally social 
and capable of ingratiating itself with civilized or uncivilized man. 
It differs from that of the Anglo-Saxon and even the reserved dis- 
position of the Spaniards in so much that it can realize all the better 
qualities of the people it comes in contact with, sympathize with 
tneir failings, and demonstrate a disposition at once kind and 
genial. Bela Hubbard, who was in the State before innovation in- 
terfered much with the manners and customs of the French occu- 
piers, says: — " I am not aware that intermarriage was very frequent, 
or that tills relationship was often entered into by the peasantry of 
this part of Canada. It was common enough at the remoter posts 
down even to times within my personal knowledge. The Indian 
trader, whether Frenchman, Scotsman or Yankee, prompted partly 
by interest, usually took to himself an Indian wife. At such places 
as Mackinaw and Sault Ste. Marie, half-breeds were numerous. The 
class known as voyagewrs the coureura des hois of the older tim!^^^ 
had become, to a very considerable extent, oi mixed \Aood. Tci^ 

^>iV*** « x^.OfAW COUNTY. 

1 _ 

•V * 



.•^ '■ 





V •" 

« • "»• 


. V. 

, 1 

» ^ 

^'- ^ 

» • *•' 

k • 


■.;vT< wiUiwood rangers was not only well 

. Vvvc ;r' much conij^laint at a very early 

tJuA::Y points there was greater assimila- 

"^ ^,, ^^z^ ia-,: rtie people from France than was the 

"^„N '-ai any other country. Between 1830 and 

*" ,. .r*'-v» tvrrion of Michigan and alon^; the large 

* ,^ ^^ ■ \i H5 not uncommon to find the solitary lodge 

"~ ' t M .:5S Indifin wife, and a troop of half-breed 

,J V .,>i :uore like Indians than white people." The 

.^^^ »:v> v\»rn and grease, with a small supply ofpem- 




world by Tom Moore in his "Canadian Boat 

• ' ^ \ *• ^>: prose, were a peculiar set of mortals. Light- 

"^ "'■ ' ^ N..^^iOUs; rough in the extreme, yet capable of enter- 

'^ . v^.%. /ivtorving the finest feelings of man ;'musical, romantic, 

" * "^ ^^x A*uforred on thegreat lakes and rivers of North America 

* »v:i more than any other won for them the early notice 

\x .«\; of the last century. 

,^ XlAokinac barge" or the " great canoe," was their home. 

^,. .K'Ut the livelong day they sped alonff plying massive oar 

'*rr^ \\ *^t* sleeping upon their freight, while their little vessel 

* S'toro some favoring gale. These rude masters of the lakes 

^*^ .Hs-rs were peculiarly French. Whether in the storm or in 

W*^-^^* their spirits never drooped; ever and anon the beautifully 

" .^_.\.»»iint of the boatmen rose above the rush of the waters, and 

* '- -viniT with the music of the winds, charmed those on shore as 

^. ' HS banished whatever little care mav have brooded over the 

1 \^sis of the voyageurs. In early days, before old Fort Saginaw 

^xo place to the Taylor House, or the Campau Trading Post fell 

>it5o ilecay, the songs of the couriei' cUs hois were heard on the 

^^\or. To preserve for the future a few of those old songs the fol- 

>\ving verses are given: 

Hon pere a fait bati maison, 

Ha, ha, ha, frit a V huile, 
Sont troia charpentiers qui la font, 

Frilaine, friton, fritou, poilon. 

Ha, ha, ha, frit a V huile. 

Frit au beurre a V ognon. 

Sont trois charpentiers qui la font, 

Ha, ha, ha, frit a' V huile, 
Qu* apporte tu dans ton giron ? 

Fritaine, friton, fritou, poilon, 

Ha, ha, ha, frit a' V huile. 

Qu' apporte tu dans ton giron ? 

Ha, ha, ha, frit a' V huile, 
C'est un pate' de trois pigeons, 
Fritaine, friton, fritou, poilon, 
Ha, ha ha, frit a' 1' huile. 


C'est un pate' de trois trois pigeons. 

Ha, ha, ha, frit a' V huile. 
Assieds — toi et le mangeons, 

Fritaine, friton, fritou, poilon, 

Ha, ha, ha, frit a' V huile, 

Frit au beurre a' 1' ognon. 

This song could be extended ad infinitum. Witli the voyageura 
it was a common thing to go through all its verses on Thursday, 
devoting the entire day to it to the exclusion of all other pieces. 
Another song, known as Youjw Sophia^ was very popular with 
those semi-barbarous men. The original contained four verses, 
with a chorus ; but prior to the close of the voya/jeur ])eriod, perhaps 
one hundred more were added, so that the coureurs could have a 
"love refrain" to equal in extensiveness that which occupied every 
''wild Thursday" of their career. The following lines will con- 
vey an idea of their Sophia: 

La jeune Sophie 
Cliantait Tautre jour, 

Son echo lui repete, 
Que non pas d'amour — 
iN'est pas de bon jour. 

Je suis jeune et belle 

Je vieux m' engag^ 

Un amant Ddele 

Je suis jeune Sophie. 

Mais ce vous etre belle, 
Ce n'est pas de jour; 

Ce n'est que vos veaux 
Que bris a la chanaelle ; 
Mais ce vous etre belle. 

Unisons ensemble, 
Son cour et le mein, 

Pourquoi tant le defendre. 
Puis qu'il s'amaient bien ? 
Unisons ensemble. 

Point temps de badinage, 
Envers mon amant; 
Car 11 est jaloux : 
Tont lui port embrage. 
Point temps de badinage. 

These with a hundred other songs, were characteristics of the 
olden davs; they are now seldom heard, save when a circle of 
French Canadians, gathered round the festive board, look back 
to realize all that their countrymen and the old French pioneer ac- 
complished in opening up this great continent. In the libraries of 
Pans a collection of the ballads of the Courev/r dea Boia period is 
in existence, another collection in possession of the Seminarians of 
St Solpice in Lower Canada, both of which tell of their vast num- 
ber ana strange composition. 



Over half a century has passed away since the American pio- 
neers began to exercise dominion in this region of country. Those 
years have been full of changes and the visitor of to-day, ignorant 
of the past of the country, could scarcely be made to realize the 
fact that within this comparatively short period, a population 
approximating 60,000 grew up, and now occupy the country, 
"riiese people are as far advanced in all the accomplishments of 
life as are those of the old settlements of the old States. Schools, 
churches, colleges, palatial dwellings, extensive marts, busy facto- 
ries, and cultivated fields now occupy the hunting grounds and vil- 
lage sites of the aborigines, andf in every direction there are 
evidences of wealth and progress. There are but few left of the 
old landmarks ; advancing civilization and its demands have tended 
to raze almost every monument of the red-man, to obliterate almost 
every trace of his occupancy. 

Previous to 1819, and for a few succeeding years, the only white 
inhabitants were the Campaus, and the French trappers who made 
his post their home. The treatv attracted a few more white men, 
but not until 1822 did the Americans visit the district with a view 
of occupying it. In 1824 the American Fur Company introduced 
a few more ''pale-faces" to the savages, and in less than three years 
the first American settlers visited the land and resolved to make it 
their future home. 

It is not strange that among the pioneer settlers of a country, a 
deep-seated and sincere friendship should spring up, to grow and 
strengthen with their years. The incidents peculiar to life in a 
new country, the trials and hardships, privations and destitutions, 
are well calculated to test, not only the physical powers of endu- 
rance but also the moral, kindly, generous attributes of manhood 
and womanhood. Then are the times that try men's souls, and 
bring to the surface all that there may be in them of either good or 
bad. As a rule there is an equality of conditions that does not rec- 
ognize distinctions of class; all occupy a common level, and as 
a consequence a brotherly and sisterly feeling grows up that is as 
lasting as time. In such a community there is a nospitality, a kind- 
ness, a benevolence, and a charitv unknown and unpracticed among 
the older, richer and more densely populated settlements. The very 
nature of the surroundings of these pioneers teaches them to feel 
^ch other's woe and share each other's joys. An injury or wrong 
^j^ be ignored, but a kind, generous, charitable act is' never for- 
m; — the memory of old associations and kind deeds is always 



green. Raven locks may bleach and whiten, round cheeks become 
sunken and hollow, the fire of intelligence vanish from the organs of 
vision, the brow become wrinkled with care and age, and the erect 
form* bowed with the accumulating years; but the true friends of 
long ago are remembered as long as memory itself endures. 

As a general tiling the men and women who first settled this 
land were bold, fearless, self-reliant and industrious. In these 
respects, no matter from what country they came, there was a 
similarity of character. In birth, education, i4li^on, and language 
there may have been difi[erences; but if they did exist at all, they 
were soon lost by association, and a common interest united all. 

In pioneer life there are always incidents of peculiar interest, not 
only to the pioneers themselves, but also to posterity. It is a mat- 
ter of regret that the old settlers did not continue to hold their an- 
nual meetings, for a record of the reminiscences related at such 
meetings would be ike direct means of preserving to the literature 
of the Kepublic the history of every community. Aside from the 
historic importance of such reunions, they would serve to enliven 
and cement old friendships and renew old memories that might 
have been interrupted by the innovations of progress. In the Sag- 
inaw Valley the pioneers were not slow to observe all that was 
lost to themselves and their new neighbors by the want of an or- 
ganization. In 1873 a movement to organize a society was entered 
upon and proved successful in its results. 

The executive committee of the pioneer society met at the court- 
house in Saginaw City, Jan. 6, 1874, for the purpose of arranging 
the details of a reunion of old settlers. Hon. Albert Miller pre- 
sided, with George F. Lewis, secretary. Moses B. Hess, the sec- 
retary of the society, was absent. The members of the executive 
committee present were W. R. McCormick, J. Blackmore, Oteo. 
Davenport, Samuel Shattuck, with the president and acting secre- 
tary. After some discussion, a program for the carrying out of 
the first annual meeting of the society, to be held Feb. 21, 1874, 
was adopted. Geo. F. Lewis, Joshua Blackmore and Geo. Daven- 
port were appointed a committee to provide dinner for the pioneers 
after the annual meeting. Geo. F. Vimfleit, Geo. Davenport and 
W. K. McCormick subscribed their names as members of the 


The first regular meeting of the Pioneer Society of Saginaw Val- 
ley took place on Saturdav, Feb. 21, 1874, within the court-house 
at Saginaw City. Hon. Albert Miller, who was elected president 
at the meeting for organization, presided, with Moses B. Hess as 
secretary. A constitution and set of by-laws were adopted, after 
which C. W. Grant moved that the names of many pioneers, as 
suggested by Q^o. F. Lewis and Joshua Blackmore, should be in- 
serted on the roll of honorary members. This motvon^M f^axfv!^ 
and the following named peraona were chosen memb^x^ oi ^^ %*c^ 


. - -tirv^v Williams, E. R. Swarthout, Geo. Oliver, Nan-qua- 

ii^iJiV *^*^^-^^* ^^- Henry, Mrs. Malone, Mrs. Joseph Trorabley. 

V'S'" *^^ *^^*^^P^^^^ ^^ ■^^- Grant's motion, it was resolved to 
V,-»v !fc ^n^vting Feb. 28, for the purpose of electing delegates to a 
v»i ^V'V:v^^ of old settlers to be neld at Detroit, March 11, to con- 
svt^i^ ;\o advisability of forming a State Pioneer Society. 

; * ::;v afternoon the literary and social features of the meeting 
♦v-^v ',»rt*sonted. Addresses were delivered bv President Albert 
XI^.A'r. W. R. McCormick, Charles D. Little, (jreo. F. Lewis, C. 
XX Ki^nint and others. Tlie dinner was ffiven at the Taylor House, 
j^y,xi was, perhaps, the most characteristic dinner party on record. 
\Vvi piH^ple met together after years of toil, chatted about the olden 
V^mo5« and lived the past again. 

rUo President, addressing the meeting, said: 

^^ Ft If aw Pioneers^ Ladies and Gentlemen: — I am sorry the duty 
v\f addressing you did not devolve upon some one more capable of 
iHM'forniing the service acceptably, for the occasion is one that 
luiglit call forth eloquence from one possessed of that gift. As- 
jioinbled as we are, for a re-union of a remnant of a band of 
pioneers who first settled in the Saginaw Valley, on this day, 
which is celebrated as the aniversary of the birth-day of the Father 
ot his country, who was first in war, first in peace, and first in the 
hearts of his countrymen; who, by the rare qualities of his head 
and heart, and in consequence of his unbounded patriotism and 
strict integrity, was the main instrument in the hands of an All- 
wise Providence in conquering a powerful foe, and in establishing 
for us a free government, under which it has been possible for the 
institution we planted here in the wilderness to flourish, and the 
growth and prosperity of our beautiful valley within the last forty 
years is a type of the progress of our whole country within the 
last century. And what the progress of our valley has been since 
1830, when its whole extent was little more than a past wilderness, 
may be conjectured by comparing the commencement of some of 
our institutions and industries with their present condition. 

"I first became a resident of that portion of the Saginaw 
Vallev which is comprised within the limits of Genesee county, in 
the fall of 1830, shortly before the United States census of that 
year was taken. At that time Saginaw (which comprised all the 
territory between the Flint river and the straits of Mackinaw) con- 
tained 28 inhabitants who were called white. (There were counted 
some of very dark complexion and of doubtful origin to get that 
^Mimber.) What is now Genesee county, which was the only 
^mmaining portion of the valley that was then settled, had a popu- 
ion of 70. So, then, the Saginaw Yalley had a population of 


about 100 whites, all told. Forty years after that date, in 1870, 
the six counties over which our society extends, contained a popu- 
lation of 117,706, and estimating for tlie increase since that time, 
we may safely set the present population down at 150,000, — not a 
bad showing: nearly five times the number in all Michigan at the 
time first mentionea. Within the limits above referred to, there 
are four cities, containing in the aggregate over 50,000 souls, and 
more than 20 villages with a population ranging from 100 for the 
least to 3,000 for the largest. 

" The facilities for communication between those sparse settle- 
ments, ^0 years ago, were not the best that ever were, ouch was the 
condition of the road between Flint and Grand Blanc in the spring 
of 1831, when my mother and sisters came to reside with me, that 
I purchased a farm in the last named settlement, to avoid the 

i'ourney through the Grand Blanc woods, though otherwise I should 
lave preferred a residence at Flint, and was offered as a rift, one 
acre of land (which includes the present site of the Fen ton Slock in 
that city) to build upon, if I would settle there and purchase for a 
farm the 80-acre lot, upon which the Thread mills are now located. 
The lot was then Government land. 

*' Forty-two years ago last fall, John Todd, Phineas Thompson 
and myself spent two weeks in building bridges and clearing the 
trail 01 fallen timber between Flint and Saginaw, so as to make it 
possible for sleighs to pass between the two points in winter. All 
communication between other portions of the valley were by Indian 
trails, except on the rivers where the canoe was universally adopted 
as a means of conveyance. There are those present who came 
from Flint to Saginaw by way of the river, being obliged to haul 
their boats and transport their baggage by hand around the drift- 
wood which obstructed the navigation of the stream for a long 
distance. At one time that, by the way of the river, was the only 
mode of travel for ladies, who dare not undertake a journey of 40 
miles through the wilderness on horseback, and the river route 
involved the necessity of camping in the woods one or more nights 
while on the way. But now we can reach the center of either of 
the six counties in a little more than an hour's ride, and in a short 
ride of two hours we can penetrate the regions north and west of 
us, which in the early days of our settlement here, was supposed 
would remain an unoroken wilderness for generations to come. 
But now we can ride in palace cars, the magnificence of which the 
pioneer could have no conception, except by reading a description 
of the palaces produced by tne genii of Aladdin's lamp. 

*' The means of conveying intelligence from one part of our 
country to another even in the older settled portions of it forty 
years ago, were not what the people of the present day would 
expect them to have been then. In 1830, '31, '32 and '33, 
it ordinarily took about three weeks to convey a letter from my 
home in IVfichigan to my former home in Vermont, and the same 
time for the return of an answer. I well remember with what d!^\i!^\» 
I received my first letter from Vermont, and wiI\l "wViaX. ^^«»WQCt^ 


.'s-: vi.^vvl iiH contents while sitting on a stump of a large oak tree 
wUu U I huil just felled, near the site of the present court-house in 
vivuoAOo ^vuuty. The letter was handed to me by some person 
\\lu» hi\»ught it from Grand Blanc, then the most northerly post- 
x^tiioo in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. That postoffice was 
.Hup|)liod with a mail from Pontiac once in two weeks. Rufus 
Stovens, the postmaster at Grand Blanc, transported the mail between 
the two points for the proceeds of that office; and notwithstanding 
tiio fact that he receivea 25 cents for each letter (delivered from his 
ottico) which had been carried over 300 miles, and that he had a 
monopoly of all the postoffice business in the Saginaw Valley, in- 
cluding a part of Oakland and Lapeer counties, his compensation 
tor carrying the mail was very meager. 

"In making these comparisons I shall not attempt to give sta- 
tistics, but merely call attention to the state of the country as it 
existed ( when the pioneers firstjtook up their residence in this wil- 
derness), and as it now exists, letting the imagination of my hearers 
trace the wonderful progress that has been made, and contrast the 
few privileges that were accorded to the pioneers, with the many 
that are enjoyed by the inhabitants of the present day. Now 
our postoflSce facilities are such that almost every village and ham- 
let in our whole valley has a daily mail, and some oi our cities 
have four or five; and instead of paying 25 cents for the convey- 
ance of a letter 300 miles, for three cents a letter is carried across 
the continent, and in less time than some letters had to wait in the 
post-office at Pontiac, for conveyance to Grand Blanc. And beside 
our post-office facilities, we have the electric telegraph (which I con- 
sider the greatest invention of this or any other age) by means of 
which intelligence is flashed with lightning speed from one end of 
the civilized world to the other, and all tne important occurrences 
of a day are printed in our daily papers and presented for our pe- 
rusal early on the following morning. Well may the pioneer 
now repeat with wonder the message which the great inventor 
permitted Miss Ellsworth to dictate, for the first one to pass over 
the magic wires, ' What hath God wrought!' 

" I shall next refer to the progress of our educational institutions 
as a subject of primary importance, for without intelligence dif- 
fused among the masses ot our people a free government can not 
be obtained, and the earliest pioneers of the valley were alive to 
the importance of educating those whp should after them possess 
the land. As early as 1830, or in the summer of 1831, a school- 
house was built in the Perry settlement at Grand Blanc, and one 
term of school taught previous to the winter of 1831-2. Daring 
the winter last referred to, I taught about 20 scholars in that 
school-house, who gathered from the settlements around; and that 
I believe, was the second term of school ever taught within the 
present limits of the six counties. 

" In the winter of 1834-'55 I taught school in a portion of the 
old barracks erected, by the soldiers in 1822, whicn occupied the 
resent site of the Taylor House in this city. I had in attendance 


from 12 to 20 scholars, some of whom were half-breeds; that was 
the first school taught iu Saginaw county. For a contrast between 
the past and present you have only to imagine the little dingy 
room, made of hewn logs, where were gathered all the children 
within two or three miles around, to be instructed by one 
teacher, for a few weeks in winter, and then turn your 
eyes toward the windows aud behold the temple of science erected 
by one of our cities, at an expense of 8100,000, which is fur- 
nished like a palace, and provided with a corps of a dozen or more 
teachers, who are instructing, during 10 months of the year, hun- 
dreds of children from the rudiments to the higher branches of an 

'' Our religious privileges, or the want of them in early days, 
must not be forgotten. There are those present who heard Mr. 
Fraser, then of the Ohio Conference, preach the first sermon that 
was ever delivered in Saginaw. But they are not present who 
sheared his horse's mane and tail as a punishment for boldly 
preaching against the besetting sin of the place. It was not the 
norae that preached the sermon for which he was punished, but the 
minister; but afterward the horse, with his shorn mane and tail, 

S reached so powerfully, that I am not sure he did not convert our 
[ethodist brother to the doctrine of man's total depravity. 
"It was in 1832 or 1833, that Mr. Fraser was here; he came to 
Saginaw but a few times, and after he left we had no preaching un- 
til 1835, when the Rev. William H. Brockway came and remained 
with us one year. Some who are present will remember him as 
an athletic young man, who, upon his arrival with us, mingled 
freely with the pioneers, and ii he saw dram-drinking, or heard 
profane language, he would rebuke the sin in a mild, friendly 
way that would be heeded far more readily than if the offender had 
been denounced with wrath to come. If he was at the raising of 
a building, he was invariably rendering such efficient aid as few 
could bestow. If the farmer was in the harvest field, or at any 
other employment, or if Mr. Brockway was his guest, he was sure 
to be at his side, performing more labor than any other one pres- 
ent (when in the pulj)it, I was goingto say, but there was not a 
pulpit within sixty miles of him). When preaching, he .was bold 
and impressive. He did not mince matters there — and in prayer, 
he was ])owerftil, wrestling with the Almighty for a blessing, seem- 
ing unwilling to let him go until he had obtained it. At that time 
there was no religious organization in the county, and if it was to be 
saved from destruction on the terms awarded to the ' City of the 
Plains,' there were not half enough righteous men to save it. But 
notwithstanding all that, every house was open for a home for Mr. 
Brockway, and he was treated with as much kindness and consid- 
eration as if he had all the time been with his Methodist brethren. 
There was no special revival, or awakening, during his stay; but 
there are those living who believe that a revival which occurred 
on the Tittabawassee years afterward, was in answer to Mr. 
Brockway's prayer, made in that locality. 


"In 1836 there was a large accession to our population, and 
among those who located here at the time were many good Chris- 
tian people. A Presbyterian Church was organized, which for a 
time was under the pastoral care of Rev. H. L. Miller, and from 
that time there was a marked change in the morals of the place. 
The Sabbath was more generally observed, and many who had for 
years been deprived of the privilege of attending religious wor- 
ship regularly, availed themselves of it then. In 1836 the old 
school-Rouse (which is now a part of the Methodist parsonage) was 
built, which answered some years for a school-house, church, 
court-house, town-hall, lecture and show room, etc. Some pres- 
ent will remember with gratitude the team furnished by the late 
Norman Little and driven by Erastus Vaughan, which in winter, 
on Sabbath mornings, woula stop at the door of every house where 
the inmates were in the liabit of attending meeting, and take them 
to the school-house, and after service carry them all home. 

*' In the fall of 1838 there was a revival of religion in a pro- 
tracted meeting conducted by the Rev. O. Parker, who is now, at 
an advanced age, engaged in the work of an evangelist. In that 
meeting there were several conversions, some of whom at that time 
took upon themselves vows of fidelity to their Redeemer, lived to 
adorn their Christian profession by lives consistent therewith, be- 
fore they were called home to receive tlieir reward, while others 
yet remain, waiting for the summons; so that the good work pro- 
gressed, till now we see the church spire pointing heavenward 
Irom every portion of our valley. We have earnest, intelligent Chris- 
tian ministers instructing the people from Sabbath to Sabbath in 
the way of salvation; and in our Sunday-schools there are thou- 
sands of children receiving instruction in the word of God; fitting 
them for the position (which we hope they will occupy) of Chris- 
tian men and women. 

"In 1834 there was but one saw running on the Saginaw river; 
that was before the day of mulay saws, but the machinery that pro- 
pelled that saw was fearfully and wonderfully made. Charles A. 
Lull was the sash, and I was the pitman. T^Hien I was a lumber- 
man, the season's cutting for one saw was estimated at one million 
feet. We fell short of that amount that year; but we did cut 
enough to lay the floor in Mr. Lull's log house that he built on his 
farm, which is now in the town of Spaulding, and which was the 
first house built in Saginaw county away from the banks of the 

''In 1835, Messrs. Harvey and G. D. & E. S. Williams built 
the steam saw-mill just above the foot of Mackinaw street, in this 
city; and so little was known at this time about running saw-mills 
economicallv, that when they commenced to build their mill they 
contracted tor large quantities of cord-wood to be delivered, for 
fiiel with which to run it. It is not necessary for me to trace the 
progress of the lumber business from that time to the present, 
when it has flftained such enormous proportions. Last year there 
were manufactured in the valley over 619,000,000 feet of lumber, 


which, in order to give some idea of the magnitude of the busi- 
ness, I will say that if the lumber had all been cut into one and 
one-half inch plank, there would be sufficient to lay a walk three 
feet wide around the circumference of the earth, and have 25,000,000 
feet left. 

"Many who are present to-day will remember the genial, tal- 
ented and now greatlv lamented Dr. Houghton, who many years 
ago lost his life while prosecuting his researches in bringing to 
light the hidden riches of the Peninsular State, and who, I believe, 
was the first to adopt the theory and define the limits of our great 
salt basin, which theory has been very nearly verified by subse- 
quent development of facts. You remember also the undertaking 
of the State, under Dr. Houghton's supervision, to develop the 
salt interest, near the mouth of the Salt river, far up the Tittaba- 
wassee; which point Dr. Houghton selected in opposition to his 
better judgment, fearing that in case of a possible failure, if he 
undertook to penetrate the salt rock in the lower part of the valley, 
he would be voted a humbug by the people, and the development 
of one of the great interests of Michigan be indefinitely postponed. 

'*The work of sinking a well was prosecuted under many diffi- 
culties till they had reached a depth of about two hundred feet, 
when difficulties incident to such operations occurred at the well, 
which delayed the business till our great State became bankrupt, 
and unable to furnish more money to prosecute the work, anci it 
was abandoned, and twenty years passed awav before another ef- 
fort was made to penetrate the salt rock of the Saginaw Valley. 
In the meantime other scientific men so fully demonstrated the 
correctness of the theory adopted by Dr. Houghton, that some 
enterprising citizens of £ast Saginaw determined to penetrate the 
eai^, and bring forth the riches that had so long remained be- 
neath its surface. Their enterprise proved a success, as has every 
other one of the same kind that has been undertaken in this part 
of the valley. Last year there was produced over 800,000 barrels 
of salt, for which there was paid to the manufacturers nearly 

" The wealth lying beneath our rivers and marshes is greater 
than that of any equal span in the rich State of California. The 
gold placers of California will be exhausted while the wealth be- 
neath us is a perennial spring, which will flow, to enrich the inhabi- 
tants of our valley till the great convulsion which shall overwhelm 
all sublunary things. The commerce of our river must necessarily 
have kept pace with the other material interests of our valley. 
There are those present who remember when the 'Savage,' a 
schooner of 40 tons burden, was the only craft, larger than the 
redman's canoe, that disturbed the placid waters of our beautiful 
river; and two trips of that craft per year was sufficient for all the 
carrying trade of DOth the white man and red; and the supplies 
that were brought in were in proportion of four barrels of wiiisky 
to one of pork and two of flour; and sometimes when the vessel 


was discharging her cargo the people would wonder what would 
be done witn so much pork and flour. 

"In the winter of 1847-'8, when the schooner 'Julia Smith,' of 
60 tons burden, was built at Saginaw with a view of trading be- 
tween this city, Detroit and other ports, the people thought we 
were making wonderful progress; and so we were. But let us look 
at the progress made since that date. A large portion of the hun- 
dreds of millions of feet of lumber and the hundreds of thousands 
of barrels of salt, are exported by water, and the imagination must 
furnish the details of the amount of shipping necessary to do all 
this business; for I find I am extending this address beyond the 
limits I first intended, and there are many other matters of interest 
that I would fain have mentioned to-day, but for want of time I 
must defer till some other occasion. 

"We, mv fellow pioneers, who have witnessed the growth and 
progress of the material interests of our valley during tne last 40 
years, had great anticipations for its future, or we never would 
iiave been willing to have undergone the privations and hardships 
we did in making this our home; but can one of us put his hand 
on his heart and truthfully say, that those anticipations have 
not been fully realized? And now let us thank our Heavenly 
Father that He has so far permitted us to realize the consummation 
of our earthly desires, ana that so many of us are still living to 
enjoy the fruits of our earlv labors. The material progress of our 
valley will not stop now, tne prospect for its future prosperity was 
never brighter than it is to-day; greater manufacturing interests 
other than salt and lumber will soon be ranged along the banks of 
our river, giving employment to thousands, who will hereafter be 
supplied with the products of our soil, which, when properly drained 
and cultivated, will yield such bountiful crops as cannot be pro- 
duced in any other locality in this latitude. 

"But, my fellow pioneers, we will not be here to see the full 
development of all tne resources of the Saginaw Valley, for accord- 
ing to the common course of nature, in a few more days or years 
the places that knew us here on earth will know us no more for- 
ever; and may those days and years be so spent that, when the 
summons comes to call us from these scenes, which we have so 
loved and cherished, we shall be ready; having a well-grounded 
hope of meeting our dear ones who have gone before, in the man- 
sions above, where there will be no more parting, where our blessed 
Savior has gone to prepare a place for those who love and serve 


" My father removed with his family from Albany, N. T., to 

Michigan, in the suoimer of 1832. I was then a boy of 10 years. 

We came by canal to Buffalo. From there we crossed the lake in 

the steamer 'Superior.' My father paid $50 for a steerage 

passage to Detroit, where we arrived the first of August. Detroit 


was then but a small place, not nearly as large as Bay City is now. 
Here he rented some rooms for his family until he conla go into 
the country and find a location for a farm. By the advice of the 
late John K. Williams, an old Albanian who was living in Detroit, 
he decided to go to Saginaw. After seeing his family settled, he 
started with my two brothers, Robert and the late «fames J., for 
Saginaw, with a horse and wagon which we had brought with us. 
It was some time before we heard from them; my mother became 
quite anxious. At length James returned witn the horse and 
wa^on, accompanied by a young man whose name was Miller. 
This was the nrst time I ever saw the honored President of our 
society. My father wrote to my mother that he had bought a 
piece of land containing 125 acres, of a Mr. Ewing, a half- 
oreed title, on the north side of the river and east of Saeinaw 
street, now in the city of Flint, comprising at present a portion of 
the 1st ward of that city, for S125. 

"My mother hired a man by the name of Mosher with his team 
to take the family and household goods to Flint river, as it was 
then called. We took our own horse and wagon, and were three 
days in reaching Grand Blaiic. We could go no farther with the 
team, as this was the terminus of the wagon road. There was a 
bush road cut on the Indian trail down to the Flint river, by which 
sleighs had gone through in the winter. My mother paid off the 
teamster, and he returned to Detroit. We here left what little 
household goods we had, and the next morning started for the 
Flint river, my mother and the smaller children riding in the 
wagon, and the rest of us going afoot. We had to cut away the 
brush and trees on each side of the trail to let our wagon pass 
through. It took us all day to reach the Thread, which is one and 
a hall miles south of Flint river, and a hard day's work it was, 
although the distance accomplished was but six miles. Here we 
moved into a little log house until my father could build some- 
thing suitable to live m on the place he had bought. With the 
assistance of my brothers he soon built a house on the north bank 
of the river, and on the east side of what is now Saginaw street, 
near where the north end of the bridge now is. John Todd lived 
on the south bend of the river, and on the west side of Saginaw 
street. The late Judge Stowe lived about 40 rods below on the 
north bank of the river, in the old Indian trading house of Jacob 
Smith. Tliese three houses constituted what is now the city of 

'' After getting his family settled, my father turned his attention 
to securing provisions for the winter. There was plenty of venison 
to be got of the Indians, but there was no pork in that part of the 
country; so he and George Oliver, now of East Saginaw, started 
down the Flint in a canoe for Saginaw, to try to buy some pork, 
and at the same time to see the country. They were gone 10 or 
12 days. They finally bought some pork of a man by the name 
of McQelland, I believe. They then commenced their return, and i 
on the way up the river camped on the old * Indian Fields' abo'ViL\, ' 


seven miles south of what is now Bridgeport Center, and about 14 
miles from Saginaw City by the present road. My father took a 
great fancy to this * old Indian field, which contained about 150 
acres, without a stump or a stone and ready for the plow, where 
he could raise enough to support his family. The Indians had 
left years before because the grub worms had eaten off their com. 
They said that the Great Spirit had sent them as a curse on the 
land. They therefore left the place, and made new corn-fields 
farther up the river. On my father's return, he told my mother 
that he would sell his place at Flint at the first opportunity, and 
would remove dpwn the river on the old Indian fields, where he 
could raise better and more extensive crops. 

" This year Rufus W. Stevens moved from Grand Blanc to Flint, 
and James Cronk built a log house half-way between the Flint and 
Thread. The late Judge Davenport, of this city, had built a small log 
house near Hamilton's saw-mill, but had left it and removed back 
to Grand Blanc. In this building the first school was started; the 
fioor was made of split basswood logs, and the roof was 
made of basswood logs hollowed out, overlapping one an- 
other. In one end was a large stick chimney and a window; 
the rest of the light furnished to that primitive school-house came 
down the chimney. In the rear and on the river bank was about 
an acre of cleared land, an old Indian camping ground. This was 
our play-ground. The scholars consisted of Leander, Albert and 
Zebediah Stevens, Corydon, Walter and Abigail Cronk, Edwin 
Todd, Adaline and Emeline Stow, William R., Ann, Elizabeth and 
Sarah McCormick. The boys, as a general thing, were full of 
mischief and hard on clothes. Our mothers were all visiting one 
day at Mrs. Stevens', and they came to the conclusion that they 
could keep no pants on us, without they dressed us in buckskin 
breeches. The next week six of us came out in our new pants. 
At first we felt very proud of them, but the feeling of pride aid not 
last long, for opposite our play-ground there were rapids in the 
river, six or eight inches deep, and in our play we used to catch 
the girls, carry them into the rapids, and dip their feet into the 
water; for we all went barefooted in those days. Sometimes the 
girls would get the best of us, when they would push us into the 
river, bucksKin breeches and all. 

" Any old settler knows the effect of water on buckskin, and can 
appreciate how we would look when our pants got dry. They be- 

fan to skrink until they got up to just below the knees. At the 
end of the knee they stuck out as big as your two fists, but at 
that part, known in strict parliamentary language as the. unmen- 
tionables, they stuck out lite the hump on a camel's back ; else- 
where they were skin-tight. They called us the buckskin raga- 

'^Our teacher was once taken sick, and a young woman who had 

lately come into the place volunteered to teach in his stead; she 

weigiied nearly two hundred, had a ^ bran new ' calico gown,aiid a 

high back comb which stuck up about six inches above her head. 


Of this she felt quite proud. I recollect hearing the women say 
she was dressed too finely for a school ma'am. She was middling 
tall and looked like a perfect Amazon. She opened the school and 
said that she understood we were a hard lot of boys, but she was 
goinff to lay down her rules, and the first one that broke them 
should be punished. She held in her hand a pine stick about 
one and a half inches square and about two feet long, something 
like a policeman's club, but larger. One of her rules was that no 
scholar should spit on that puncheon floor. This was unnecessary, 
as we could spit in the cracKS, which were two or three inches wide. 
I sat next to the chimney, which, with the hearth, took up about 
one-quarter of the school-room. The boys were all looking at me 
to see how I would take the new order ot things; so 1 made a pro- 
digious effort and spit in the fire. This achievement made all the 
scholars laugh. Just in front of the heartli and across the 
room was a low bench for the smaller children, on which there were 
some children at the time. Amazon called me up between this 
seat and the fire-place, and said she would teach me not to disobey 
her orders. She told me to hold out my hand; I did so, and when 
the big stick descended, I caught it and threw it into the fire. At 
that she seized me by the collar, when I gave her a push back. 
Her feet caught against the seat where the little ones sat, and over 
she went, down among the frightened small-fry. I am sorry to 
say that elegant high comb was smashed all to smithers. She was 
up in a minute, and when she saw the damage that had been done, 
her rage knew no bounds; she caught me by the collar and the 
ampler part of my buckskin breeches and pitched me clear across 
the room, my heaa striking against the logs on the other side, pro- 
ducing an astonishing astronomical revelation. I never saw more 
stars at one time than suddenly glimmered through those logs. I 
dodged her and ran out of the door. The boys always said they 
knew why my buckskin breeches were enlarged to such extrava- 
gant dimensions, so far exceeding my motlier's calculations. I 
waited outside, and in a few minutes the scholars all came out, 
saying the school ma'am had dismissed school. This was the last 
of her teaching; so you see how I graduated with distinction. 

"My father sold his place to a man by the name of Smith, son 
of Jacob Smith, the Indian trader, for six hundred dollars, who 
afterward sold it to Mr. Paine, now of Flint. My father thought 
he had made a great speculation. I understand this property is 
now worth over $200,000. We then moved down the river to the 
Indian field spoken of before, and arrived at that place on the 
second day, unloading our canoes after dark. We haa no place to 
sleep, but we went to work and built a large fire and made a 
tent of blankets for my mother and the little children. I recol- 
lect a circumstance that night, which made me feel very bad at 
the time, and which I cannot even now recall without a sense of 
pain. My mother was sitting on a log close to the fire crying; 
we asked her what was the matter, she said she had never thought 
ihe would come to this, — no roof to cover her and \ier\>iN:>^%^ lot ^V. 


that time some of the children were quite small. She had known 
^better times', as they say. My father had been the owner of a 
handsome estate near Albany, and the home over which my mother 
presided was as delightfol as any which at that early day 
graced the banks of the noble Hudson. It was a fiftte that a 
mother's heart could not easily bear,-^to see that beautiful home 
sold to satisfy the debts of a New York broker, for whom my fa- 
ther had undersigned; to see the toils of a life-time brought to 
ruiu ; to see the hopes of the future all struck down by one rude 
and cruel blow, and to turn her face and steps toward the great 
wilderness of the West, there to seek, with such strength as may 
be left, to partially retrieve the fortunes that had been so suddenly 
wasted to redeem another's name and obligations. Hard, hard 
indeed, was it for her when the darkness of that memorable 
night surrounded her in the great forests, and she wept because 
there was no roof to shelter her from the weather! 

'•The next morning we all went to work and on the second day 
we had quite a comfortable shanty to live in. We then b^an the 
construction of a log house, which we soon finished, when we took 
down our shanty and moved into the house, where we lived many 
years. Our first year's crop was excellent. The second year we 
sold 1,000 bushels of com to the American Fur Co., to be taken 
to Lake Superior for the Indians. The only draw-back we had 
was in converting our grain into flour. A grist-mill had been 
built at the Tliread, one and a half miles south of Flint We had 
to take our grain in a canoe up the river some 35 miles, 
and then get it drawn to the mill and back to the river, and then 
come down the river home. It usually took us four days to go to 
mill and back, camping out every night, and the hardest kind of 
work at that. This work always feU on my brother James and 
myself; for, though a boy, I could steer a canoe, and my brother 
could tow it over the rapids with a rope. Our feet used to get 
very sore walking in the water so mucn. When winter came on 
it was impossible to go to the mill, as there was no road. So in 
the winter evenings, we all took turns pounding com in a mortar 
made in the end of a log of wood, sawed about three feet long, 
with a hole in one end to pound com in, and similar to what the 
Indians used for the same purpose in those davs. 

''Many of the old settlers of Saginaw will recollect how in 
coming down the river they would make calculations to reach our 
house to stay all night, witliout camping out, and how happy they 
were when they got there, for at that time it was the only place 
between Flint and Saginaw where they could stay without camp- 
ing out. 

"There was nothing but a trail, or bush road, between Flint and 
Saginaw, and part of the year it was impassable, and especially 
for ladies; consequently most of the travel went up and down the 
river in canoes and skiifs. 

"In 1835, my father went back to Albany, his native place, and 
was 11 days in reaching his destination. He consiaered it a 


quick passage. This was before the age of railroads. When he 
returned, he brought a mill something like the old-fashioned cof- 
fee-mill, but five times as large. The hopper would hold about a 
peck, and had a handle on each side. This was a great thing in 
those days, for with it we could grind a bushel of com in an hour. 
We now threw away the old mortar, and stopped going to mill, 
as we had a mill of our own. Tliis year we nad two neighbors, 
and they used to come in the evenings to grind their com at our 
mill, which was worth its weight in gold to that little settlement. 

"A circumstance happened at this time that I will give, if you 
will have the patience to hear me. My father, being of a poetical 
turn of mind, the day after he came back from the East, sat down 
on the bank of the river and composed the following verses, which 
I have taken from his note book: 


" Down the banks of Flint river, — 

Tliis beautiful stream 
Where my cottage remains, — 

Vyq returned home again ; 
And who, in his senses. 

Can help but believe 
That this was the garden 

Of Adam and EveV 

" Here the fields yet remam, 

With the corn-hills in view, 
And the bones we dig up 
^; Which Cain no doubt slew ; 

And the soil is so fertile 

We can but believe 
That this was the garden 

Of Adam and Eve. 

" Some apple-trees here yet. 

As relics remain, 
To show that a gardener 

Once thrived on this plain, 
And in those floe days, 

Ere a snake could deceive, 
How happy here lived 

Old Adam and Eve ! 

" The natives we saw here 

Were forced fh)m their plain 
By a curse which they say 

Here yet does remain ; 
And in all their looks 

We can plainly perceive 
That these are the descendants 

Of Adam and Eve. 

" Here the chembim stood 

With their winn widely spread^ 
Lest Adam shoula enter 

And eat up that bread. 
Here the wild sporting deer 

Tet the hnnters deceive, 
That once ftunished bacon 

For Adam and Eve. 


" Here the lofty black walnut 

With its boughs spreading wide, 
And the elm and the hackberry 

Flourished in pride ; 
And a mound gently rises, 

Whereon we perceive 
There once stood the altar 

Of Adam and Eve. 

" But far from this place 

Have those characters flew. 
And we bid them a lasting 

And farewell adieu. 
In confidence thinking, 

And still shall I believe 
That this was the garden 

Of Adam and Eve. 

" In 1836 (this was the wild-cat time) the country was overrun 
with persons looking for land; in fact, the people, had gone ' land 
crazy.' My father's house was crowded with land speculators, and 
as there were only three beds in the old log house, it was neces- 
sarj^ to make what is called a field-bed, before the old-fashioned 
fire-place, that would hold from^ 10 to 15. On one occasion we 
had got out of flour: so my father started my brother James and 
myself to Saginaw, in a canoe for some. At that time there were 
three drift-woods in the river — one 60.feet, one 35 and one 12 rods 
long. Around these we had to draw our canoe, and carry what 
we had. At Saginaw we purchased two barrels of flour, for which 
we paid $18 per oarrel. On our return it commenced raining, and 
rained all day. We paddled till late in the night up the Flint 
river, to find land high enough to permit us to Duild a fire, dry 
ourselves and lie down. But we did not sleep long, for in the 
middle of the night the water rose so that our camping ground was 
under water. We had to take to our canoe, and sit in it until day- 
light so we could see to go ahead. We soon arrived at the drift-woods. 
Here we had another obstacle to contend with. How to get our flour 
around was a question, as the mud and water was four inches 
deep; and carry the barrels we could not. There was no other 
way but to roll them around in the mud and water. We arrived 
at home that night, with our two barrels of flour covered all over 
with a coating of mud. The next winter my father sold his crop 
of corn to parties in Saginaw, for $1.60 per bushel. As usual 
my brother James and myself drew it down on the ice to Saginaw, 
and got our pay in bills on the Flint Rapids Bank. 

'' A few days after our return home, my father started for Flint, 
and found after his arrival that the Flint Kapids Bank was a wild- 
cat concern, and had failed a day or two beiore. Thus was all our 
hard year's labor gone. In the fall of 1837, my father sent me to 
Saginaw to school. The only school-mates I then had, who are 
now within the jurisdiction of this society, were Michael Bailey, of 
Bay Citv, and Walter Gronk, of the city of Flint. The rest are all 
gone. 1 was to board with Major Mosley, and to do chores night 
and morning for my board. Major Mosley lived in one of the 


old block houses inside the fort. This fort was located where the 
Taylor House now stands, and part of the block east of it. It was 
then the highest ground near tne river, but is now graded down. 
Thomas Simpson, alias Sixabogo, also lived inside the fort. I 
believe he has a son living here yet, by the name of John Simp- 

"The school-house, if I recollect rightly, stood where the jail 
stands now. I forget the first teacher's name. He had to quit, as 
the boys were too hard cases and ran the school to suit themselves. 
Thomas Simpson, now of California, was the ring-leader. Our 
next teacher was Horace S. Beach. I understand he is yet liv- 
ing, and is a farmer on the Tittabawassee. Mr. Beach was a kind- 
hearted man, and an excellent teacher. He had a lot of hard boys 
to contend with, but he was equal to the emergency, and soon 
brought order out of chaos. I will relate an incident that occurred 
in the winter of 1838. Walter Cronk was living with his uncle. 
Judge Davenport, and ^oing to school. Walter and I fell out 
about somethmg while m the school-room. He said he would 
whip me when school let out for nooning. So while going out of 
the door, he gave me a kick, which pitched me headlong off the 
icy steps. This got my Scotch up, and at it we went. Walter 
was more than a match for me, but accidentally I got my hand in 
his neckerchief, and before he was aware of it, I had blackened 
both of his eyes. He got me down, and was paying me back with 
interest, when the master came out, and marched us both into the 
school-house. He told us then to go home, and he would settle with 
us after dinner; but Walter's eyes looked so bad he was ashamed to 
go home for dinner, and stayed at school. At this time, south of 
where the court-house now is, there was a thicket of blue beeches. 

"I took a hasty dinner, and hurried back to school, where I 
found Walter, and made up friends; but we were, meantime, 

{flancing out of the back window looking for the master. It was not 
ong before we saw him coming out of the blue-beech thicket, with 
five good-sized blue beeches (.over his shoulder. The boys all 
shouted we would catch it. They need not have told us that, for 
we had found it out before on several occasions. We had learned 
from past experiences what kind of a man we had to deal with. 
The master came in, sat down, and very coolly commenced trim- ^ 
ming his blue beeches. I looked at Walter, and he at me. We 
knew our hour had come. He called the school, and then said: 
'Boys, step forward; I want lo settle this little affair!' He wanted 
to know wnat we had to say why we should not be punished. By 
this time Walter's eyes were swollen so he could liardly see. 1 
said I did not think I ought to be punished, for I did not begin 
the fight; and as for Walter, judging from the looks of his eyes, lie 
had been punished enough already. 'Well,' says the master, 'I 
have a proposition to make. You see those whips, and you see 
those SIX cords of maple wood at the door; you can cut that wood 
at recess or noon-times, or settle things now!' I did not like the 
idea of ^ settling things now;' I had tned that before^ ^o 1 ^^\!^\ 


would cut the wood. Walter partly concluded he would * settle 
things now;' but on second thought, as the master held up one of 
those blue beeches, with the remembrance of past experiences, he 
concluded to help saw the wood. My father nad sent an Indian 
down the day before to tell me to come home, and help with the 
spring work. At recess that afternoon, we commenced our job on 
tne six cords of wood, I sawing and Walter splitting, while the 
boys all stood around laughing at us. That niffht I got Thomas 
Simpson to bring my books out of school, and Sie next morning I 
started for home with the Indian. Some two months afterward, I 
came down to Saginaw. At noon-time I thought I would step 
over and see the ooj's. There was Walter sawing wood. He said 
he had jumped theiob three or four times, and every time he had 
got a whipping. Finally he had concluded to finish it up. 

" A few years ago, I was talking with an old friend in the citv of 
Flint, and he said, ' Haveyou seen \Valter Cronk?' I replied, '^o; 
not in over 25 vearsi' ' "Diere he is now,' he said, ' coming up the 
street. See if he will know you. ' When he came up, my friend 
said, ' Walter, do you know this man?' He looked at me a mo- 
ment, and said, ' Yes. He made me saw six cords of wood over 
30 years ago, and I got three whippings besides.' Walter and I 
have been, and continue to be, the best of friends ever since our 
school-boy fight nearly 40 years ago. 

'* In the winter of 1837-^8, Mr. iBeach, the school-master, very 
kindly oflered to teach us to sing, evenings, if we would get up a 
class. We accordingly formed a class of 12 scholars, six girls and 
six boys. Among the girls was one whom I will call Sally. She 
was homely, her parents were very poor, and she could not dress 
as well as the rest. As a consequence, she was very much slighted 
by the rest of the girls. It was no more than gallant that we 
should see the girls home after school, but none of the boys 
wanted to go home with Sally. Tlie first two or three evenings 
she went home alone. This we thought would not do; so we agreed 
to go out in the hall and draw cuts, to see who should go nome 
with Sally; and I was the unlucky individual. We continued to 
draw cuts, and four times out of five it fell to my lot to go home 
with Sally. At last I began to think Sally was not so bad-looking 
after all. Then I told the boys I did not care to draw cuts any 
more; that I would take care of Sally. Sally is now one of the 
most highly respected ladies in the Saginaw Valley, and is at the 
top of the ladder, while most of those who felt themselves above 
her are at the bottom. 

'' My father continued to live in what was called the * Garden 
of Eden ' until 1841, when he and my brother James J. bought 
out Capt. B. K. Hall's interest in the ' Old Portsmouth steam- 
mill,' rormerly built by Judge Miller and others. Captain Hall 
had been for many years of nis life commander of a packet ship 
on the ocean; thinking that he could make his fortune lumbering, 
he removed to Portsmouth, but because of hard times and want of 
eA7>eiience, he lost all his property. He sent his family back to 


Cambridgeport, Mass., and remained all winter with mj father 
settling up his affairs. He was of a pious turn of mind, full of fun, 
especially with children, and had seen much of the world. My 
little brothers and sisters became very much attached to him dur- 
ing the winter he lived with us. Many of the old settlers recollect 
Capt. Hall. With your permission, I will read you a letter from 
my father to Captain Hall, after he had retumea East and taken 
command of his vessel: 


** On Eden's garden yet we live, 
Where Providence us plenty eive ; 
I say, my children, silence all; 
I'm going to write to Captain Hall. 

*' Last winter he was here, you know. 
And in the summer off did ^o ; 
Don't you yet mind him, children all ? 
You used to play with Captain Hall. 

*' He was as busy as a bee. 
And much we loved his company ; 
And from my children tears yet fall. 
When thinking back of Captain Hall. 

'' He made our fires and sung his song. 
He charmed the hearts of old and young ; 
The time seems long to us, one and all, 
Since he's departed, Captain Hall. 

" On Saginaw river he did stay — 
A steam-mill ran there many a day ; 
And when he spent his money all, 
We bid adieu to Captain Hall. 

** And now he's left this wild country, 
To sail again the stormy sea ; 
May Providence, who guides us all, 
Make smooth the path of Captain Hall. 

" Now, to your lady I'll resort : 
May she live long in Cambridgeport ; 
An^ comfort take with children small, 
And fold her arms round Captain Hall. 

" By this time you will plain discover, 
My letter's full and running over ; 
My children join me, one and all. 
In sending love to Captain Hall. 

''Soon after this my father removed to Portsmouth, and, with my 
brother James, commenced the manufacture of lumber. This was 
the second mill built on the Saginaw river. My father shipped the 
first cargo of lumber that ever went out of the Saginaw nver. It 
would run 60 per cent uppers, and he sold it at Detroit to the late 
James Busby, brodier-in-law of the late James Fraser^ for ei^kt 


dollars per thousand, one-third down and the balance on time. The 
vessel was the ' Old Coneant Packet,' Captain George Roby, and 
the cargo consisted of 40,000 feet. Clear lumber was then selling 
at the mill for $10 in store trade, as there was no money in 
the country. So, you see, lumbermen did not get rich in those 
days. They only opened the way for those who came after them 
to make their fortune. 

"The early pioneers came into the valley too soon to get rich. 
But then again, what would our beautiful Saginaw Valley have been 
to-day but for the perseverance, privations and hardships of those 
early pioneers ? I see about me only a few of them left, and in a 
few years none of them will remain to tell their children of the 
sufferings they have passed through, and of which the present 
generation are reaping the benefit. 

'' 1 look back with pleasure on some of the earlier scenes of my 
life; for truly we were a band of brothers in those times that tried 
men's souls. If one had a barrel of flour it was divided with the 
others. No one was allowed to want what another had. Would 
to God the present generation might take counsel by the past, that 
they might profit in the future! I am happ^ to meet the old pio- 
neers here to-<lay. Our band is small, ana in a few years its last 
member will have passed into the remote and unknown land of the 
hereafter,. We have seen this wilderness made to blossom as the 
rose; another generation has usurped our places. The crowded 
iron pathway of >imerican civilization has taken the place of the 
unfrequented Indian trail. School-houses and churches stand 
where once were only the wigwams of the savage, and the lairs of 
the wild beast. 

"Our work is done. It was a humble work. The pioneer's name 
never shines among the brilliant and illustrious names on the 
historic page. He is only a pathfinder, carrying the torch of dis- 
covery into the wilderness; yet without him civilization is impossible. 
Those busy manufactories that to-day line the Saginaw river; those 
beautiful church edifices that crown our prosperous towns; those 
magnificent school buildings, that stand as the proudest and best 
monuments of modern civflization, — these are ail the fruits of our 
work into which other men have entered. Let us be content to 
leave our work, knowing that for the day and the place it has been 
well done. May this rich country, that we have helped to reclaim 
to civilization and human happiness, be ever guided in affairs of 
business and State by a higher wisdom and a no less sacrificing and 
unselfish spirit than that which in the rude and sparsely settled 
wilderness governed the pioneers of the Saginaw Valley!^' 


Captain Anthony R. Swarthout, the subject of this short sketch, 
was bom in Seneca county, New York, in 1796, where he resided 
with his parents until his marriage with Miss Hannah Kose, of the 
someplace, in 1816. About this time Capt. Swarthout, having heard 


much of the Territory of Michigan, resolved to risk his all in what 
was then called the "Far West." After a tediousjoumey of weeks, 
he reached Washtenaw county, and commenced his Territorial life 
as a farmer. He was one of the pioneers of Washtenaw county, 
in clearing the almost unbroken forests of that portion of the State. 
At that period railroads were hardly known in the United States, 
and telegraphs had not been dreamed of. Communication with the 
State of New York took weeks where now minutes suflBce. The only 
means of transporting goodsand family stores was the " ox team, , 
and the ''log cabin " furnished shelter to those who dared to brave 
the privations incident to the opening up of a new country. 

At this time, Gen. Lewis Cass, a warm and personal friend of 
Capt. Swarthout, was Governor of the Territory. While living in 
Washtenaw county, the difficulties between the settlers and the 
Indians culminated into what is known as the "Black Hawk war." 
Capt. Swarthout was among the first who volunteered his services 
in defense of the settlors and Government; was enrolled in a 
company of riflemen, known as "Minute Men," and remained in 
the serWce until the troops were discharged. In July, 1835, having 
heard of the Saginaw Valley, the abundance of game of all kinds, 
and being fond of hunting, he ventured through the unbroken wilder- 
ness between Ann Arbor and Saginaw. Arriving at the latter 
place, perceiving its advantageous location, and finding such ex- 
cellent farming land in the immediate vicinity of the city, he de- 
termined to make it his future homo. He returned to his family 
in Washtenaw county, disposed of his property there, and in Sep- 
tember of the same year he moved through tlie woods to Saginaw, 
an undertaking then much more beset with difficulties than a Jour- 
ney to California is to-day. At the first township meeting held in 
Saginaw, the spring after his arrival, there were 17 votes polled 
At that time Saginaw township embraced almost the entire terri- 
tory of Saginaw, Tuscola, Bav, Midland and Gratiot counties. 
He was, at that meeting, elected one of the township officers, and 
has, since that time to the present, a period of nearly 40 years, 
filled some one of the township offices. He has several times been 
elected supervisor, 16 years ot the time has been highway com- 
missioner, and with the assistance of Abraham Butts, anotherearly 
settler, laid out and established most of the public highways of 
Saginaw, Bay and Tuscola counties. For 14 years he has held the 
office of township clerk, of Saginaw township. In all public po- 
sitions, whether as supervisor, commissioner or clerk, his unbend- 
ing integrity and sterling worth have commanded the universal 
respect of his fellow townsmen. 

(Japtain Swarthout had a family of seven sons and five 
daughters. Eight of these children, with the exception of 
one daughter, reside in Siaginaw countv. And now, after more 
than filnng the measure of time allotted to man, with ' his 
aged and amiable wife, who has shared with him all the hard- 
ships of pioneer life, he has seen fulfilled his anticipations of the 
growth of Saginaw, while the majority of his children are spared 


to him with their own children, comfortably settled immediately 
about them. Abundantly supplied with this world's goods, a liv- 
ing record of tlie early events of Michigan colonization, he among 
the few pioneers of Michigan, still lives, 

** Only waiting till the shadows 

Are a little longer grown ; 
Only waiting till the glimmer 
Of the day's last betim is flown.*' 

May he still be spared, and may his last days be as pleasant as 
his whole life has-been honorable! 


Harvey Williams, son of Oliver Williams, was bom at Concord, 
Mass., in 1774. In 1808 he visited Detroit, and after prospecting 
for a time returned to Concord. He visited Detroit again in 1809, 
and remained until 1811, when he concluded to engage in busi- 
ness. He proceeded to Boston, and procured a general assortment 
of merchandise of the value of $10,000. Alplieus Williams, a 
brother-in-law of Oliver, became his indorser for the purchase at 
Boston. While these goods were being transported from Buffalo 
to Detroit, they were seized by the British Government. Mr. 
Williams was made a prisoner and conveyed to Halifax. After 
being confined at Halifax for a number of months, he was released, 
and returned to Detroit. Oliver Williams did not remove his 
family — which consisted of four sons and four daughters — until the 
year 1815. 

Being a man of the strictest integrity, determined that his brother- 
in-law suould lose nothing by his indorsement for him, and though 
he had lost everything, he told Alpheus he would and could, if his 
life and health were spared for a few years, accumulate enough to 
pay every dollar of the 10,000. With this honest purpose in vi^w, 
in a new county, but with indomitable will and unswerving integ- 
rity, he commenced the herculean task of raising $10,000. This 
situation — with a large family of children to support, the eldest 
only 13 years of age — would have disheartened most of men, but not 
Oliver Williams. By strict economy and untiring effort he suc- 
ceeded, and in a few vears paid every dollar of the debt. 

The sons and daugnters of this man are well remembered by the 
older settlers of Northern Michigan, and have been prominently 
instrumental in developing its resources. EphraimS., better known 
as Major Williams, is now a resident of Flint; Gardner D. became 
a resident of Saginaw City, and died in 1858; Alfred and Benjamin 
O., are now residents of Owosso; Mary Ann, who married Schuy- 
ler Hodges, is now a resident of Pontiac, while Alpheus and 
Harriet, now Mrs. Rogers, live in California. 

In 1815 Oliver induced Alpheus to remove from Concord to 
Detroit; and this brings us to speak of Harvey Williams, better 
known throughout the Saginaw valley as "Uncle Harvey." He 


is one of the oldest, if not the oldest, of the Yankee pioneers to 
Detroit now living, as he came with his mother to that city in 1815. 

From Concord, Mass., to Buffalo, N. Y., the journey was accom- 
plished by wagon, from Buffalo to the mouth of Detroit river on a 
schooner of 40 tons burthen, called the " Salem Packet;" the 
master, or captain, of the '^Packet" was Eber Ward, father of 
Capt. Eber B. Ward, now of Detroit. It required 13 days to make 
the trip from Buffalo to the Detroit river. At this point the "Packet" 
was detained by contrary winds. Mr. Williams' father chartered 
a cart, and had bis goods carted to Windsor, opposite Detroit, 
from which point they were ferried over in a dug-out. In those 
days mo\ang was a rather rough experience. Mr. Williams paid 
$15 each for passage from Detroit, and $5 per barrel bulk for the 

At this time Benjamin Woodworth kept the chief tavern in 
Detroit. It was not a very extensive establishment, but was 
enlarged from time to time, and, under the good management of 
*' Uncle Ben," obtained great reputation as "Uncle Ben Wood- 
worth's Steam-boat Hotel." For years it was the headquarters of 
steam-boat men, after steamers began running on the lakes. It 
was situated on Woodbridge street, immediately behind where the 
Firemen's Hall now stands. Oliver Williams kept a tavern of 
less pretensions on Jefferson avenue, under "the old elm tree," 
and another tavern was kept by the fatlier of the late Judge C. W. 
Whipple, down near the Cass farm. These were at that period 
the hotel accommodations of the village of Detroit, then contain- 
ing about 1,000 inhabitants. "Emerson, Mack & Conant" was 
the leading mercantile house in Detroit at that time. The firm 
was composed of Thomas Emerson, father of Curtis Emerson, 
Esq., of East Saginaw, Stephen Mack and Shubel Conant. They 
kept a general assortment of dry-goods, groceries, crockery and 
hardware. Henry J. Hunt, Abel May, Edward and John S. 
Kj-ebel also sold goods, but did not carry as heavy stocks as Emer- 
89n, Mack & Conant. All these merchants were in the habit of 
issuing what were called "shin-plasters," which passed as the 
" legal tender " of the country. • 

James Abbott was the agent of the American Fur Company, 
whose " headquarters " for the West were at Detroit ; he was also 
postmaster. The mails from the East were verv irregular. It 
often took four weeks or more for a letter from JS^ew England to 
reach Detroit, and the postage was 25 cents. 

Gen. Lewis Cass, Messrs. Larned, Ten Eyck, Witherell, For- 
sythe, John and Thomas Palmer, and Juage Woodward, who 
afterward made the plat of the city, were among the prominent 
men of the Territory. 

In the same year (1815), " Uncle Harvev" commenced black- 
smithing on the ground where the Russell House now stands, 
making steel-traps, axes, and doing general custom work for the 
inhabitants ; there was only one other shop of the kind in Detroit, 
which was owned by a Frenchman named relky. 


" Uncle Harvey's " business increased rapidly; he soon added 
a small furnace to his shop and commenced casting plows ; when 
his business increased so that he cast three plows a day the fact 
was published as an evidence of the " great progress Detroit wa» 
makmg in her manufactures! " 

The coal used for melting the iron was charcoal, and the blow- 
ing was done by a single horse. Mr. Williams' business grew 
from year to year, until it reached $100,000 yearly. He pur- 
chased and set up the first stationarv steam-eneine ever usea in 
the Territory of Michigan. He built for J. K. Dorr and C. C 
Trowbridffe the first steam-engine for the first steam-mill in Michi- 
gan, and his last work in his shop at Detroit was the building of 
the two steam-enffines for the old steam-boat "Michigan." 

Mr. Williams changed his location twice while in Detroit. He 
removed from the Russell House lot to the ground n»w occupied 
by the D. & M. R. R. Co., and from that to the triangle lot on 
Cass street, Jeiierson avenue and Woodbridge ; here he purchased 
105 feet front for $105. Mr. Williams says that the nrst circua ' 
performance ever ffiven in Michigan, and which he considers the 
oest, was in the middle of the street, between where the Biddle 
House now stands, and the old jail that used to stand on the north 
side of Jefferson avenue, opposite the Biddle House. 

Mr. Williams furnished all the iron work for the first substantial 
jail that was ever built in Michigan, and he has now in his pos- 
session the contract in which they furnished to him the iron. — iO 
tons, at 17 cents per pound. He did the iron work on the first 
Presbyterian church, erected on the comer of Woodward avenue 
and Larned street, in 1818, and also for the French Catholic church, 
which was commenced the same year. 

Witli his stationary engine he pumped the water for the in 
habitants of Detroit. The reservoir was situated on Fort street 
west, between the former residence of Gen. Cass, now owned by 
Gov. Baldwin, and the City Hall; and it is worthy of note that a 
three-inch pipe was suflScient capacity to furnish all the water used 
at that time. The city paid Mr. Williams $500 per annum for the 

Late in the fall of 1822, Major Whitney, United States Quarter- 
master, stationed at Detroit, was desirous of getting supplies 
through to the troops, then stationed at Saginaw Citv. Knowing 
the determination and indefatigable perseverance of iTncle Harvey, 
and realizing the exceeding difficulty of getting the supplies 
through, but thinking if anyone could succeed it would be "Uncle 
Harvey," he approached him on the subject. With great re- 
luctance, and after much persuasion ''Uncle Harvey" con- 
sented to make the trial. Calling to his assistance the late 
John Hamilton, of Genesee county, the jouraey was under- 
taken, and accomplished. After eiffiit days' hard labor they suc- 
ceeded in carrying 80 cwt. of supplies from Detroit to Saginaw. 
In doing so they were obliged to lord the Clinton river five times, 
the ThreR(], Cass and Flint rivers, as well as Pine and Elm rivers. 


Their success was fortunate for the poor soldiers; for when the 
supplies arrived they were almost famished, having been without 
rations for two days. 

This incident is mentioned because it waa at this time that 
" Uncle Harvey " formed — from conversation with the officers— 
the opinion that at some future time Saginaw would become one of 
the important points in Michigan. 

After his return to Detroit, and for 12 years, he thought much 
of Saginaw, but not until 1834 did he see his way clear to taking 
up his residence in the Valley; and when he aid determine to 
move there it required more than ordinary courage to try living in 
a wilderness, 40 miles from civilization. 

Upon his arrival at Saginaw, his first work was the erection of 
the steam saw-mill which was situated at the back of Mackinaw 
street, in Saginaw City, and will be remembered as the " G. D. & 
E. S. William's mill," and was the first steam saw-mill erected in 
the Saginaw Valley. Afterward, a run of stone was added to the 
mill, which was used to grind com. In 1836 and '37, Mr. Wil- 
liams built the steam saw-mill which for a number of years was 
called the " Emerson mill," and was located on the present site of 
the East Saginaw Gas Companv's works. This was the mill of its 
day. It was managed by H. "Williams until the disastrous crash 
of 1837. Those of the Saginaw pioneers still living remember the 
result of that panic. Hundreds of workmen hitherto constantly 
employed at the highest wages ever paid to their class, were 
thrown out of work. Paper currency, which up to that time was 
considered as good as ffold, became worthless, and could hardly 
be sold at any price. The result was, that those who could "went 
through the woods," a familiar expression used for taking the 
Indian trail to Flint, which was the only road out of Saginaw at 
that time. Thus Sacinaw became almost depopulated. 

Those were days that tried men's souls; but " Uncle Harvey's " 
faith in the ultimate prosperity of Saginaw wa-^ not shaken. Al- 
though he went down in the general crash, he did not become dis- 
honored, but with the heroism still characteristic of him, he 
determined ''never to give up" until he had seen the full realiza- 
tion of his hopes concerning the Saginaw Valley. 

The " little steam saw-mill " at the foot of Mackinaw street did 
all that was required of it in its day; the " Big mill " at East Sagi- 
naw; the ''Model Mill" of 1837, when finished was supposed to 
be. equal to — indeed far beyond — anything that would ever be 
required, and some were wise enough to pronounce Mr. Williams 
foolish in the extreme for thinking that the full capacity of that 
" big mill " would ever be tasked in supplying the demand for 
lumber. K those wise ones could look at the millspn the Saginaw 
river to-day, and the hundreds of millions of feet of lumberlumed 
out by them, they would acknowledge their own short-sightedness, 
and the wisdom and judgment manifested by Uncie Harvey in his 
prophecies of the future of the Saginaws. ^ 


Mr. Williams removed to the Kawkawlin river in 1842, and 
remained there until 1864. Daring the 20 years he remained 
there he was extensively engaged in the fisheries at the mouth of 
the river in the spring months of the year, and in the summer and 
fall months his operations were extended down the Bay and Lake 
Huron. During the winter his business relations witli the Chip- 
pewa Indians were extensive, amounting in the aggregate to 
hundreds of thousands of dollars. No man ever possessed the 
confidence of the Chippewa Indians to the same extent that Uncle 
Harvey did, and, certainly, no man was ever more generous and 
kind to them. 

Fifty-nine years in Michigan! Few, but very few men can say, 
with " Uncle Harvey," that they have seen the infant in the cradle 

frow up to the full stature of manhood as he has seen "our beautifui 
*eninsular State " grow. How little was known in 1815 of the 
vast mines of wealth that lay buried beneath her surface! Who 
then ever dreamed that Michigan would successfully compete with 
the whole world in copper and iron? Who then imagined that the 
Saginaw Valley would turn out more lumber than any other point 
in the country? Nevertheless, ''Uncle Harvey " has lived to see 
all this. 

Energy is still manifested in all that he does, and he bids fair to 
outdo many men whose years do not number one half of his. 

Mr. Williams was married to Miss Julia Foumia, in 1819. The 
lady is still living. 

The following letter was read by Mr. George F. Lewis from 
Townsend Nortn, of the Tuscola Pioneer Society. 

Vassar, Mich., Feb. 19, 1874. 
M. B. HenB, Esq : 

MY DEAR SIB: — YouF c'lrcular letters of invitation to the pioneers of our county 
came to hand to-day. I will distribute them, and would be pleased to attend your 
meeting, but fear I will be unable to attend, as I would be pleased to meet with 
the early settlers, — men that conquered difficulties, endured privations, and now 
live to enjoy the fruit of their labor, and to congratulate each other on the im- 
provemi'nts and changed condition and developments of the entire valley. 

I came to Flint in 1845, made my first visit to Sas^inaw City that summer or 
fall with a full load of the legal profession. Judge Whipply, William F'enton, E. 
H. Thompson, A. V. Thayer. A. W. Davis and James McKabe (of Pontiac). They 
went there to hold court. I think they did up the work in one day. What a 
contrast ! There was no East Saginaw then. Good pasture in the streets of Sag- 
inaw, where you now have the Nicholson pavement. Court calendar cleared in 
a day. Now your courts are nearly perpetual. Two years after, I made my first 
trip to Lower Saeinaw, as it w^as then called, in two little dug-outs lashed to- 
gether. Two Indians composed the crew, and I the only passenger, sittinff flat 
m one of the little canoes, with my hands on each side of the little craft wim my 
fingers in the water. Now you have two railroads, and your river, during nav- 
igation, alive with steam and sail. 

What a change has come in a few short years! The rich resources of the val- 
ley are beinij made known, and the 1 ankees and co-workers from Oregon to 
Maine, and from Maine to Faderland, have taken the key-note and checked their 
baggage for the valley that teems with life and lumber and salt, sufficient to 
pickle a nation. 

Yours truly, 




A leaf from the note book of a pioneer of 1836, which was truly 
interesting, was read by G. F. Lewis, as follows: 



c4* * * * * * ^prii 24, 1870— BUBNED— The building 
formerly owned by the late James Fraser, known as the old BIock 
House, an ordinary casualty of not much note; but to some of 
us old residents the memory of that old block house and its sur- 
roundings are pleasant as the echo of music in our youth, for we 
are now old, our hair is whitened by the frosts of many winters, 
but more with the sorrows that have fallen upon us when our 
hopes were the brightest, our love of the strongest. 

" In the summer of 1836 a party of gentlemen on board the old 
steamer "Gov. Marcy," made tiie first trip ever made by any steam- 
boat on these waters, to old Fort Saginaw, the present site of Sag- 
inaw City, where years before Dr. Little, of Avon, N. Y., with many 
others, made large purchases, with a far-seeing eye to the future of 
this valley, which was felt by them to be only a question of time; 
among the passengers on that steamer were Norman Little and 
Charles L. Kichman, who were then prospecting, with a view of 
permanent settlement. They found a few white settlers here, who 
gladly gave them the right hand of fellowship. Among them 
were G. D. and E. S. Williams, with their families, Mr. Jewett 
and family, Judge Davenport, James Fraser, Mr. Busby, Butts, 
Bullock and Barber, Tibbetts, McCardell, Spare, Gotee, Mosely, 
Maiden, Havdeo, Stevenson, Hill, Simpson, besides a few others 
who passed from memory. Under the firm of Charles L. Kichman & 
Co., a mercantile business was established; made large contracts 
for building, then returned for their families; we took a last, linger- 
ing look at our dear old home in Canandaigua, aptly called '' Sleep- 
ing Beauty," bade adieu to the friends of childhood, youth and 
young married life; gave up the blessings of our well beloved 
Church privileges of an advanced society; embarked at Buffalo on 
steamer ''Gov. Marcy" for Saginaw, leaving>,s we then thought all 
that was desirable in life, save the novelty (Robinson Crusoe like) 
of making a new home in the wilderness. Among the emigrants 
wereT. L. Howe, of Genesee, N. Y.,with a lai^e hardware stock, 
with Cynthia the lonff^ B. Hammet, William L. P. Little, L. M. 
CoUum, with many others, as the little steamer was heavily la- 
den with human freight. We had a pleasure trip to Detroit (then a 
small village),but meeting with rougn weather in Saginaw Bay, were 
obliged to put back to St. Clair three days. We improved and en- 
joyed it in rambling about the beautiful region, visiting Fort Gra- 
tiot, and so on; when efforts were again made to reach the 


tempestuous bay we succeeded and arrived at old Fort Saginaw^ 
the ' embryo city,' on Saturday morninff,Oct. 1, 1836, in a drizzling 
rain, amid the cheers of the assembled multitude — and the wav- 
ing of a table-cloth, which to us, who came up on the last day on 
an allowance of pork and hard tack, was at least suggestive. 

"We were very kindly and hospitably received and entertained 
by Mr. and Mrs. H. L. Miller, who had been here a short time: 
came down the Flint river in a canoe. Things in general seemed 
the newest of the new and the pi'ospect was drearv in the extreme; 
but then we reflected on poor 'Kobmson' and took heart and went 
into the store to write back my 'first impressions' and met my old 
friend Peyton K. Morgan, of Avon. He thought I had better wait 
till the 'sun shone' before writing; but I didn't. They preserve 
that letter home as a gem of the West. 

"The question now arose. Where were we all to find shelter? Very 
fortunately, yea, a kind and over-ruling Providence, sent us to that 
same old block house, and to the kindness, friendship and unwea- 
ried attention of Maj. Mosely and his dear wife. The morning 
after our arrival, which was Sunday, a good part of our colony 
met at the house of H. L. Miller, who was a Presbyterian min- 
ister. He assisted us in returning thanks to our loving Father for 
our safe passage after our many perils. It was thoughtful and 
kind in him to suggest and cany out the religious services. It 
formed a bond of union between us all that has never been dissev- 
ered. The old block house stood inside the fort, partially sur- 
rounded bv the original pickets. But few buildings left of the old 
fort; this tlie best; they were all occupied as were every available 
nook and corner, even to standing boards from the pickets, as we 
when children made play-houses. One of the buildings was used 
as a hotel, kept by IMr. Tibbets, with the modest name of Saginaw 
.City Exchange. That same old block houfee has \^lcomed many a 
pleasant gathering, for thev were the very souls of hospitality, and 
the way we feasted on wild game, on trout, sturgeon and white 
fish, which were brought from the Bay — corded as they do wood! 
Cranberries were so plenty that vessels on their return trips were 
ballasted with them. Neither did we sweeten them with Indian 
sugar — ah, no! 

''During the ever remembered and pleasant winter we passed in 
the old block house, there were many amvals in town, so that our 
society was good and intelligent, and, as in our isolated condition 
we were very dependent on each other for our mutual comfort and 
happiness: the memory of that winter is a 'green spot.' On the 
1st of January, 1837, we introduced the Eastern style of calls — 
with 'hot cofiee and cake.' The calls were not so numerous as to 
be oppressive, although the constant repetition gave a sameness. 
The gentlemen had a sleigh, and as they laughingly expressed it, 
they 'called and returned it.' Some thought they were ^called for,' 
but the Jinale was at the place of pleasant memories, the old block 
house; — one of 1836." 


C, W. Grant was loudly called for, and created considerable 
amusement by his remarks, and a copy of a Fourth-of-July cele- 
bration at East Saginaw, in 1855. 

C. D. Little presented from Mrs, C. E. Hayden some copies of 
the first papers published in the Valley — TKe Journal, of 1837. 

Mrs. A. M. Eichman presented copies of the first papers printed 
in the Valley — 2he Journal, Jiepwlican, Spirit of the Itmea, 
North Star, and others. 

Robert TJre presented a Territorial map of Michigan and 

Numerons other relics and mementoes were presented, each and 
«very one telling its own story of pioneer life. 


at the Taylor House was not the least interesting feature of the 
reunion. One hundred pioneers were present. After dinner the 
toasts were given and responded to, but, owing to some oversight, 
that of the " President of the United States " was omitted. 

1. The Pioneer Society of the Saginaw Valley. Response by 
the President. 

2. The Old Settlers. Response by W. R. McCormick, of Bay 

3. The Times as they were and are. Response by C. W. 
Grant, of East Saginaw. 

4. The County Societies of this Jurisdiction. 

6. The Press. Response by R. W. Jenney, of Flint, 
6. The Ladies — God bless them! Response by George F. 


At the meeting for the organization of the State Pioneer Soci- 
ety, held at Lansing, March 11, 1874, Messrs. Morgan L. Gage, 
S. C, Munson, Murdock Eraser and Hon. Albert Miller were 
present as representatives from Saginaw and Bay counties. 


A number of members of the society assembled May 21, 1874, 
to make arrangements for a grand celebration to take place June 
34, in honor ot the birth of Michigan as a State. This meeting 
was held at the Bancroft House. There were present Hon. Albert 
Miller, Capt Gage, Israel Oatlin, C. A. Lull, A. K. Penny, C. 

W. Grant, W, R. McCormick, Stanton, Moses B. Hess, G«o. 

H. Richardson, Geo. Lord, Luther Be(*with, Geo. W. HotchkisB 
and Oeo. F. Lewis. 


A corresponding committee, consisting of M. L. Gage, C. A. 
Lull and Geo. F. Lewis, was appointed. An advisory committee 
comprising Curt Munger, Benj. JF. Price, C. W. Grant and C. D. 
Little, was also formed. To tnese names were added Hon. Town- 
send North, Tuscola ; Hon. Geo. F. Ball, Midland ; Hon. E. H. 
Thomson, Genesee ; Gen. Ralph Ely, Gratiot ; Douglass Nelson, 
Isabella. The names thus given constituted the committee of 
general arrangement under the presidency of Hon. Albert Miller. 

The committee on program coinprised Hon. Albert Miller, M. 
B. Hess, Geo. W. Hotchkiss, Greo. F. Lewis and Geo. H. 

The following letter of reminiscences, addressed to the *' Pioneers 
of the State of Michigan," was written by Edwin Jerome: 

''I am happy to meet you on our first social reunion in this 
flourishing Bay City, standing uppn grounds sacred to memory, 
and on which 41 years ago your relator camped and slept. 

" In the latter part of the summer of 1833, I enlisted in the 
War Department commanded by Col. Anderson, then a resident 
of Detroit, to assist in a coast survey of Lake Huron, under the 
immediate direction of three cadets from West Point, Lieut. 
Heintzelman, since General, a distinguished Union soldier in our 
late fratricidal war, as our leader ; Lieut. Poole, second in com- 
mand ; Lieut. Lee, third or junior commander ; Commissary, 
George Moran , of Groesse Point ; Government hunter, your ven- 
erable and much respected townsman, Capt. Francois Marsac, the 
crack of whose rifle, aimed by his keen eye, fed the stomachs of the 
party with some 200 wild duck, I think, four bears, several deer,, 
and a number of raccoons, etc. Yet, the speed and hardy endu- 
rance of the Captain's body were inadequate to the task of over- 
taking and capturing a moose, whose Keen eye, ear, scent and 
fleet foot successfully evaded a hard day's chase ; among the pri- 
vates in the Yankee mess were myself and six others, Henry 
Snelling, Mr. Cowles, a nephew of Col. Anderson, Mr. Jacobus 
and three others, whose names are not now called to memory. 

''In the French mess were Benoit L. Trombly, Francois G. 
TrOvTibly, Leon Trombly, Joseph Trombly, Antoine Trombly, 
John Trombly, Baret Leparls, Gilbert Lacrois, Dominique Sney, 
Leon Snev, John Grant, Louis Duprey, William Thebo and 
Joseph Alloir, 14 in number, making a total of 26 souls, counting 
Lieut. Poole, whose whereabouts we never learned. 

"Our field service commenced on the shore of Lake Huron, a 
few miles above Fort Gratiot, at the then northern terminus of the 
Government land surveys of Michigan. Speaking wholly from a 
41 years' memory, I shall omit any attempt at describing minutely 
the majestic forests, romantic spots, jotted now with cities, the 
marble rocks found upon the beach, etc., but will note the fact 
that our pioneer party made the first survey of the pearly little 
stream, the beautiful site, took the extraordinary soundings of the 
noble harbor, varying from one foot to four in depth, dotted 



with boulders one mile from shore over which the white caps 
dashed, of the far-famed city of White Rock. 

"Leaving this capricious harbor, so well stocked with defensive 
boulders, we soon arrived at, and successfully doubled that rough, 
rocky, small-cavemed cape, Pointe aux Barques. Leaving the 
broacl expanse of Lake Huron, and entering the extensive Imy of 
Saginaw, whose dangerously rough seas were brought vividly to 
mind on reading the accounts of the perilous voyage of the lislior- 
man, floating upon its bosom, on cakes of ice, the sacrifice of six 
brave and noble-hearted men from Alabaster, in an attempt to 
rescue them, during the last winter — my memory reverted with 
singular clearness to one of the most perilous scenes of my life. 
On the arrival of the party at Piffeon river, we crossed over to, 
and made a survey of Charity island, but unfortunately left a 
small cur dog running in the woods, belonging to Lieut. Poole ; 
the next day I was detailed, and four others, in a yawl, with two 
days' provisions, to rescue the dog ; we sailed about fifteen miles, 
propelled by our muscles applied to oars, under a calm, still sky, 
and smooth, placid waters. 

"On approaching the cove-sided island, we were forcibly 
reminded of the errand of mercy upon which we had been sent, by 
the dog's leaping in the air, running and capering up and down 
the beach, making loud and jo;y^ous yelpings ; on nearinff the 
shore, the dog leaped aboard ; just at this moment, a Tight, 
vaporing shadow flitted away from the spot the dog left, and it 
has been a matter of much serious speculation whether it was the 
shadow of Lieut. Poole's soul flitting off. We immediately set 
out on the return, with tlie briglitest of prospects and full spread 
canvas ; when about eight rods from shore, we encountered, sud- 
denly and unexpectedly, a southwesterly gale, and twice 
attempted and failed to come in stays, with a view to regain the 
islana ; on the third endeavor, our mast cracked about half off 
near the foot, and the sail dipped water, bringing us in stays 
double quick, with an ominous and fearful sheet of water pouring 
over the side, shipping about a barrel of water ; by great ana 
despairing effort, with our weight upon the upper edge, the sail 
lifted from the water, and the craft righted ; hats and shoes were 
vigorously applied in bailing, and as soon as possible our oars 
were put in motion, and the boat headed for the island, then about 
a quarter of a mile distant, and we into a direct line into Lake 
Huron. After an hour of the hardest struggle for life we found 
ourselves nearing the island, and on arriving, joyouslv camped 
for the night. The following day the wind veered northwesterly, 
and blew directly for Pigeon river ; at 4 p. m., the sail was reefed 
to the size of a farm-house window, our staunch and crank little 
craft was placed before the gale, and one hour and ten minutes 
sped us safely into camp. Your relator will here add his testi- 
monial to the many others related of the crank and turbulent 
waves of Saginaw Bay in rough weather ; and state, that while on 
this speedy passage, he stood upon the thwart holding fast to tlv^ 



mast, and when in the trough of the sea, nothing but the sky 
could be seen to the front or rear at an angle 45 degrees ; on look 
ing at the white-caps chasing in the rear, apparently to engulph 
me 15 or 20 feet beneath their crest, my hair pulled fear- 
fully, and my heart seemed leaping from my body. At this 
alarming moment, the base of the wave up-ended our yawl, and it 
leaped ^rward with such force as to cause an involuntary squat, 
dashing spray over the stem, giving us an oft repeated sprinkling. 

" Passing over the minor incidents in the progress of our work, 
from the encampment at Pigeon river to the Saginaw river, we 
finally pitched our tents on, or near, the site of your enterprising 
city, and took observations, for nine successive days, of the sun 
crossing the meridian, to determine the latitude and longitude of 
this capacious river; your relator each time noting the exact second 
from an excellent chronometer. 

*' Now, wjien I ride into the cities of Saginaw Valley, in palace 
cars, on first-class, well stocked railroads, or ride up and down 
this river in a noble steamer, beautifully furnished, viewing in 
surprise the almost continuous line of cities along its banks; teem- 
ing in wealth and splendor; the immense yards of lumber, contain- 
ing millions of feet; salt works suflicient to resuscitate and save all 
this thrift and industry from any serious decline; in contemplating 
all, memory of 1833 and 1836 leaps forth and asks. Did all this 
spring from chaos, or more than chaos, with so much forbidding 
sterility upon a stream lined with extensive marshes, deep bayou 
or sturdy torest, uninhabited, save a few log houses near the river, 
in Saginaw City? In those early years, your water lines of river, 
bay or lake were familiar. I then traversed the Tittabawassee and 
its branches, Chippewa and Pine, Bad river, Cass, Flint and Mish- 
tegayoc, exploring their forests, selecting their choicest timber and 
finest lands. 

'* And now, my old co-laborers in the woods and fields of Mich- 
igan, wishing vou long life and joyous end, I say adieu." 

Thomas J. t)rake sent the following letter, under date,- Pontiac, 
June 19, 1874, addressed to Hon. Albert Miller: 

'' Dear Judge: — It is difficult for me to find words, to express 
adequately the pleasure which your letter gave me. 

"The celebration, to which vou so kindlv invited me, is one of 
no ordinary character. The earlv settlement of the Saginaw 
Valley, and the organization of our State government, are subjects 
deeply interesting; and, while I remember the one, I cannot forget 
the other. There are few events more deeply seated in mv memory 
than my first visit to Saginaw. Perhaps it is well onfered that 
we cannot look back on the past and view over by-gone years 
without commingled emotions of pain and pleasure, and thus we 
are preserved from the evil eflfects of satiety and despondency. 

*' The incidents of that journey, though manv and important, 

were known to but few, — my traveling companion and associate, 

Commissioner Frost, who alone knew what occurred to us on our 

jonmev there and back to this place, has passed away, — a pioneer 


in other realms, and there remains none to relate our adventures. 
Forgive the egotism, and let me say to you what I think I have to 
none else. On our way home, the question of life and death was 
forcibly presented for our consideration without time for reflection. 
It rained heavily while we were at Saginaw, and when Frost and I 

fot ready to return we were ferried over the river at Green Point 
y Jewett. We moved rapidly to the usual crossing on Cass river, 
but the increased velocity and volume of water plainly told us we 
could not cross there in safety. It was raining liard, and we put 
away for the upper crossing a mile or more up the river. When 
we reached that point we found the river mucn narrower, and the 
north bank quite elevated. There were a few deserted Indian 
cabins on the north bank, some of them made of logs split into 
halves or slabs. We hastily unsaddled our horses, and drove 
them into the river; they swam easily to the opposite shore, went 
out of the river, and went to feeding. We hastily pulled down a 
cabin, took the timbers to the edge of the water, and there formed 
a raft. We fastened the timbers together as well as we could with 
our bridles and surcingles, laid timber and bark on top for a floor 
or platform, put our saddles, portmanteaus, and blankets on, and 
having two of the poles we could find at any of the cabins, we 
shoved our frail raft into the surging waters, and both leaped 
aboard. The first push we made carried us into water so deep we 
could not reach bottom with our poles, and down stream we 
went with the rapidity of a race horse. Our poles were so 
slender that they served us but little assistance as oars. We ap- 
plied ourselves with all the energy we possessed, and so shaped 
the course of our raft that it came so near the south shore in pass- 
ing one of the bends of the river, that I caught hold of the tops of some 
wfllows standing on the bank. By holaing fast, our raft swung 
around, and brought Frost so near that he got a firm hold of the 
bushes, and thus we got to shore all safe and not the least frie^ht- 
ened. Our horses were soon caught, and our bridles and sadclles 
thrown on, our blankets and trappings secured, and we upon full 
gallop for Flint river, which we readied a little after sun-down. 

''Our business at Saginaw was to locate the seat of justice for 
that county. When we got there we found Judge Dexter and En- 
gineer ana Surveyor Risder platting the city of Saginaw. Dexter 
approached the dommissioners with his skeleton map in hand; one 
of the lots he designated as the ' court-house lot.' He very abruptly 
informed them that if they located the site for the seat of justice on 
the lot he had designated he would donate it to the county, and he 
would give to each of the Commissioners a lot, perhaps two. Our 
other associate was satisfied with Dexter's proposition, and from 
that moment until we left, I think he looked at nothing but the 
lots Dexter proposed to give him. I felt inclined to treat Dexter 
with contempt, and for awhile Frost agreed with me and we looked 
at other places. 

"There was then an uninhabited forest where East Saginaw now 
stands, and it was said that the whole country, after getting back 


from the river, was a morass, and uninhabitable. However, we 
resolved to inspect it ourselves. With Jewett to guide lis we trav- 
eled the country up and down the river and from the river back, 
until we were satisfied that it was the best and most proper place 
for a court-house. Besides Jewett, there was with us that day a 
man by the name of Joshua Terry, who lived at Pontiac. Frost 
and I fixed upon a site, and drove a stake to indicate the spot se- 
lected. We took measurements from different points on the river 
with such bearing as would enable one to find the identical spot, 
and agreed to meet next morning and make our report. I went to 
Jewett's shanty at Green Point, and Frost went to the fort, as it 
was called, where he could find our other associate. The next 
morning, to my surprise, I found that Frost had been overcome, 
demoralized, and had actually signed a report locating the site on 
the spot selected by Dexter. Through the love of wnisky which 
was entertained by Frost, and the love of gain entertained by the 
other Commissioner, the county seat of Saginaw county was located. 
I was then a member of the Legislative Council from Oakland 
county and all the Lower Peninsula north and west of it, and with 
pride I endeavored to extend and uphold the interests of my con- 
stituents, the pioneers of old Oakland, as well as those of the beau- 
tiful valley of the land of Saco. I have with deep solicitude and 
great pleasure witnessed the untiring exertions of the pioneers, and 
tlie marvelous growth and prosperity of the country. 

" Fifty years ago and this vast country, of which the Saginaw 
Valley may be considered the center, was the home of the deer 
and the red man; its deep forests were then unmarked by the steps 
of the pale face; the most of it was beyond the pale of civilization. 
And what do we see now? Towns and cities adorn the land; rail- 
roads traverse the country in every direction; its rivers are utilized 
as highways for commerce and travel, and as a resistless motive 
power for manufactories; its forests are receding before the re- 
doubled blows of the ax men, and being molded into articles of 
commerce, are wafted away thousands of miles for improvement or 
ornament in distant countries. And above all and beyond all, on 
the 24th of June, 1874, the pioneers of the State proposed to in- 
augurate and to cany into execution the celebration of the anni- 
versary of the organization of the State government. 

"All hail! Pioneers of Saginaw. Long have you suffered, and 
gloriously have you conquered. May you long enjoy the rich re- 
wards with which your labors are crowned. Receive the congratu- 
lations of an old pioneer." 


In their own circle within the original boundaries of Saginaw, the 
pioneers have done much which deserves honorable mention. It 
IS true that the fame of a Washington, or the terribly earnest 
patriotism of a Montgomery have not been their share; yet there 
IS no reason whatever to suppose that, did circumstances create 


an opportunity, those courageous men who entered the fastnesses 
of the Chippewas and battled successfully with all tlie obstacles 
which life in the wilderness presented, would not have risen to the 
highest grades in military affairs and carved for themselves a 
name as proud as any which pertains to citizens of the United 
States. Providence ordained another life i'or the pioneers, many 
of their fathers fought the good fight for Liberty and won the bat- 
tle, leaving Peace and Freedom to their children, and bequeathing 
to them the gi'eatest land the world ever knew, to be cultivated 
and guarded. 

If the pioneers of Saginaw were denied participation in the con- 
test whicn gave to the world a ffreat Republic, and again pre- 
vented by affe from guarding it when treason threatened to destroy 
the Union, tlieir ancestors won honor for them in the first instance, 
and many of their children supplied their places in the second. 
Thev were born to open up the land and possess it. This accom- 
plisfied, their mission was fulfilled. Labor, alone, has wrought 
this change. There are many whose names deserve mention in 
this connection, many to whom special honors are due, and whose 
names shine in the records of the county. Here we will speak of 
a few of them: 

Eleazer Jewett, born in Massachusetts in 1799, arrived at Sagi- 
naw City in 1826 and died Feb. 18, 1876. His daughter, Mrs. 
Lee, was the first white child born in the county. She it was who 
planted the seed of the two trees which grow opposite the dwelling 
house numbered 407 Washington street. Mr. Jewett served two 
years under the American Fur Company. On, Oct. 24, 1831, he 
married Miss Azubah L. Miller, and a few days later led her to 
her home on the Saginaw. He was the principal surveyor of the 
valley even before tne organization of the township of Saginaw, 
and on its organization as a county, he was appointed 
county surveyor. He held the office of justice of the peace for 30 
years and judge of probate for 14 years. On the death of Mr. Jew- 
ett, Hon. Albert Miller succeeded to the name which he enjoyed 
of being the senior of the surviving American pioneers of the Valley. 
Mr. Jewett's name has come down to us unstained by even the 
least word of scandal. To-day his memory is revered, his labofs 
in the interest of this count}' well remembered. 

Gardner D. Williams was descended from a Welch family. His 
ancestor, Robert Williams, settled in Roxbury, Mass., in 1638, being 
18 years after the arrival of the Mayflower. The branch of the 
family from which Judge Williams aescended, remained in Rox- 
bury for five generations down to Oliver Williams, the father of 
Juage Williams, who removed to Concord, Mass., about 1794, 
where Gardner D. was bom Sept. 7, 1804. Oliver Williams 
came to Detroit in 1807, leaving his family in Concord. He 
engaged in business as a merchant, and was one of the largest 
dealers in Detroit, bringing at one time 864,000 in goods from 
Boston. About the year 1811, he built the sloop "Friends' Qtood 
Will,'' on board which he visited Mackinaw in 1812, and at tiiat 


place his vessel was chartered bv the Government to eo to 
Chicago for furs. Arriving at Chicago, Mr. Williams took on 
board 99 packs of fiirs belonging to Government, besides a quan- 
tity of his own. On his return voyage, his vessel was captured 
bv the British at Mackinaw, that post having capitulated in his 
absence. The capture was effected by a ruse of the enemy. On 
approaching the fortress, Mr. Williams saw the American flag fly- 
ing and a sentry in American uniform on guard, and had no sus- 
picion that the post had changed hands. He was undeceived only 
when too late to escape. He lost his vessel and cargo, and it is 
little to the credit of the Government that it never made up to him 
the loss. The British changed the name of the vessel to "The 
Little Belt," and was one of the vessels captured by Commodore 
Perry in the battle of Lake Erie. 

The family of Oliver Williams, including Gardner D., arrived at 
Detroit Xov. 5, 1815, and resided there until March, 1819, at 
which time they removed to Silver Lake in Oakland county, being 
almost the first settlers of that county. In tlie spring of 1827, 
Judge Williams removed to Saginaw City, and witn his brother, 
Ephraim S., established himself in the fur trade, under the 
American Fur Company. He married in 1829, Eliza Beach, and 
died Dec. 10, 1868. 

Judge Williams occupied during his busy and eventful life sev- 
eral offices of public trust. He was a member of the first conven- 
tion to form a constitution for the State of Michigan, a member of 
each branch of the State Legislature, Commissioner of Internal 
Improvements, County Judge and Treasurer of Saginaw county, 
and was at the time of his death Mayor of Saginaw City. 

Mr. St. George was bom in Montreal, Ont., in 1774, and was a 
French Canadian. He came to Michigan when a voung man and 
took up his abode in the woods, near where Detroit now is. He 
cleared of timber the land where the city hall stands and consid- 
erable more in its immediate vicinity. When the war of 1812 
broke out St. George joined the American forces and fought 
through the war. In 1815 he visited the Chippewas of the Sagi- 
naw region for the first time, and a year later was a trader amon^ 
them. His death took place in 1880. Judge Woodward and 
St. George, of Detroit, Harvey Williams and the children of 
Oliver Williams, of Saginaw, formed the survivors of the pioneers 
of Detroit, of 1815, in the centennial year. St. George ana Wood- 
ward have since passed away. 

Norman Little, son of Doctor Charles Little, of Livingston 
county, N. Y. settled permanently in Saginaw in 1836. His 
journey thither was made on the first steam-boat that came up the 
Saginaw. His father is said to have visited this valley as early as 
1822, and again in 1823-''4, when he entered almost all the land 
along the river from the northern limits of East Saginaw to Green 
Point and from Saginaw City to the Tittabawassee. In 1836 Norman 
Little bought the site of Saginaw from the enterprising Dr. 
Millington, of Ypsilanti, and followed up this purchase the year 


sticceedinff by introducing the building era. In 1850. he formed a 
partnership with J. M. Hoyt & Son, of New York, purchased 
2,400 acres of land on the east side of the river, ana with his 
partners aided in inaugurating and building up that city. In 1852 
ne moved to his new home on the east bant or the river, where he 
resided until the village, which he nursed, rose to the importance 
of a city. His death occurred one year later, in 1860. 

Asa Whitney settled on the Tittabawassee in the fall of 1825. 
The succeeding spring he entered upon the cultivation of a farm, 
but owing to his life of "single blessedness" this proved almost 
impracticable. He was drowned in April, 1827. It is said he 
committed suicide. 

Sherman Stevens ser^^ed at the post for some time. His knowl- 
edge of the Otchipwe language enabled him to hold a very 
important place in the estimation of the Indian, even as he did 
already in that of the French and American traders, with whom 
he came in contact. He was the father of Miss Sara Stevens, the 

W. L. P. Little, born at Avon, N. Y., in 1814, may be said to 
have settled here as early as 1832, though he did not become a 
permanent resident until 1836. Entering the office of the Saginaw 
City Company, he imbibed their principles of enterprise, and in 
1840 began that commercial career which conferred so many 
advantages on the district. 

James McCormick, bom at Albanv, N. Y., May 25, 1787, 
traveled westward in 1832, and settled at Flint that san:o year. 
He moved to Lower Saginaw in 1841, where he resided for five 
years previous to his death. It was stated that never was the 
loss of a pioneer more deplored. While li\'ing he was the In- 
dians' friend and the associate of the American pioneer. 

James Fraser was born in Scotland. He leu that country for 
the United States in 1829, and five years later located lands on the 
Tittabawassee, near Saginaw City. From that time to his death 
he was among the first citizens of Michigan. 

John Farley, son of Capt. John Farley, of the U. S. Artillery, 
visited Saginaw in 1831, and, associated with Samuel McCloskey, 
platted a portion of the land now comprised in the city, under the 
name of tne Town of Saginaw. McCloskey was a son-in-law of Ga- 
briel Godfroy, of Ypsilanti. Farley was subsequently appointed 
on coast survey duty. He was born in 1800, and died in 1873. 

Sidneys. Campbell was born at Paris, Oneida Co., X. Y. He 
moved to Pontiac, Mich., in 1830; to Cass River Bridge, in 1836, 
where he platted the town of Bridgeport, and to Lower Saginaw 
in 1837. 

Israel Catlin, bom at Chemung, Schuyler Co., N. Y., in June, 
1814, settled at Saginaw City in 1841. 

James G. Birney, born at Dan\'ille, Ky. In 1841, he settled in 
the Lower Saginaw district, and three years later entered the 
Presidential contest of 1844 as the nominee of the "Liberty Par- 


Samuel Dexter, whose name is so familiarly connected with the 
history of Washtenaw county, platted the northeast quarter of 
section 24, township of Saginaw, in 1835, and a year later sold his 
interests here to Mackie, Oakley and Jennison, of New York. 

Medor and Joseph Trombley settled at Portsmouth in 1836. Ben- 
wa Trombley arrived in the fall of that year. Leon and Louis 
Trombley arrived in 1832; the former as Indian blacksmith. The 
Trombleys were Frenchmen, and amonff the most energetic of the 
early settlers. The grandfather of this family is said to have 
visited the valley in 1795, for the purpose ol trading with the 

Cromwell Barney located lands in the Lower Saginaw district 
in 1837, and erected a log house on the site subsequently occupied 
by Munger & Go's store. 

Thomas Rogers settled at Portsmouth, in 1838, and moved 
shortly after to the district known as Lower Saginaw, where he 
operated a blacksmith shop. During the cholera epidemic of 1852, 
this settler was one of the many which it claimed lor a victim. 

Louis Clawson came to the valley in 1839, with instructions 
from the Government to make a survey of the territory extending 
from the southern lines of Ogemaw and Iosco counties to the north- 
ern limits of Montmorency and Alpena. 

Charles L. Richman settled at Saginaw City in 1836. He came 
here with Norman Little and Gov. Slason, making the trip from 
Detroit on board the " Gov. Marcy," which was the first steam-boat 
that appeared upon the waters of the Saginaw. 

Benjamin Cusliway, a resident of Saginaw for the past 39 years, 
quietly passed to his rest May 25, 1881, after an illness of about 
eight weeks. He was able to be up one day, but was taken worse 
about 5 o'clock next morning and died, as above stated, of paralysis 
of the heart. Mr. Cushway was born in Detroit in 1809. He 
learned the blacksmithing trade, and in 1832 was appointed by 
Gen. Cass, then Territorial Governor of Michigan, as United States 
blacksmith for the Chippewa Indians, with lieadquarters at Saginaw 
City, a position which he held for 34 years. In 1834 he married 
Adelaide Robison. Their home was in Fort Saginaw on the block 
where the Taylor House now stands. In 1836 his headquarters 
were moved to Bay City, then Lower Saginaw, where he remained 
10 years. Returning to this city, he built a house where the Miller 
block now stands, in which he lived several years. Since 1865 he 
had not been engaged in active business. Three years ago his wife 
died, and recently in conversation with a friend he expressed tile 
opinion that he would not last long. He had a wonderful memory, 
and within the last two weeks before his death recounted many 
of the trials and pleasures and the fate of early inhabitants of 
Saginaw. Four children, Mrs. A. C. Andre, Frank, Alfonzo and 
Charles Cushway still reside in this city. 

Stei)lien Wolverton arrived at the mouth of the river, Julv 19, 
1831), with authority to erect a light-house. He commencea the 
work, which was completed by Capt. Levi Johnson. 


Capt. John S. Wilson, Capt. B. F. Pierce, Seth Willey, Dr. 
Eosseau, ancle of Gen. Kosseau, F. W. Backus and B. K. Hall, 
were among the pioneers of Lower Saginaw. 

Aloney Kust, a pioneer of the Saginaw, died September 18, 
1874. He arrived here in 1834. 

Abram Butts was among the earliest and most patriotic of the 
settlers. He was collector in the early township days, and played 
the base drum at the first celebration of I^idependence Day. 

James Busby was among the early settlers of the county. He 
filled many positions of trust, and the greatest confidence was re- 
posed in him by the people. 

Elijah N. Davenport moved from Flint to Saginaw in 1830. He 
loaded two flat-boats with his family and effects, and proceeded 
down the river. The journey continued for seven days, owing to 
delays caused by portages, at points where the drift-wood dammed 
the river. 

Hiram L. Miller arrived at Saginaw in 1835. He was the first 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church, editor of the first newspaper 
projected here, and one of the leading citizens of the present time. 

Tliomas McCarty, one of the earliest settlers of the Saginaw, as 
well as a pioneer of the State, left Roxbury, Mass., in 1829, for 
Michigan. He settled in Saginaw in 1830. He died at the resi- 
dence of his brother, Edward McCarty, a settler in the township 
of Tittabawassee, Sept. 21, 1865. lie was a resident of Saginaw 
county for 25 years. In company with his father, Edward McCarty (a 

fentleman connected with the Irish revolution of 1798), he came to 
[ichigan, and, with ax and pack upon his shoulder, trod the un- 
broken wilderness northwest of Detroit to the home of his adop- 
tion in this county. After seeing the lands in the vicinity of the 
old fort, he resolved to locate in Tittabawassee. In 1850 he was 
elected ReT)resentative to the State Legislature. Mr. McCarty 's 
brothers, Edward and James McCarty, settled here in 1834. 

Geo. W. Bullock, born at Savoy, Berkshire Co., Mass., Aug. 
27, 1809, traveled west in 1831, and settled in Saginaw in 1836. 
He t^ok an active part in every movement connected with the prog- 
ress of the city. His death took place June 6, 1861. 

Robert Ure, whose name is associated with the early political and 
commercial affairs of the Valley, arrived here in 1831. He filled 
many public offices, and was otherwise honored with the confidence 
of the people. 

Dr. D. H. Fitzhugh was one of the early proprietors of the 
Saginaw Valley. He made large purchases of land in the vicinity 
of Saginaw in 1835, and about 1840 he bought several parcels of 
land on the opposite side of the river, and with the late James 
Fraser and James G. Birney purchased the stock of the Saginaw 
Bay Company, and became one of the proprietors of Lower Sag- 
inaw, now Bay City. His death occurred at Mt. Morris, N. 1., 
April 23, 1881. 




For the purpose of the county history proper, the names of those 
who patented the lands of the county oetween the years 1822, 
the date of the garrisoning of Fort Saginaw, and 1837, are here 
given. Of the entire number of buyers named in this list, only a 
Few left for other scenes ; so it may be stated with a degree of cer- 
tainty that the men whose names follow were among the old set- 
tlers of the county. In the histories of the various townships the 
names, locations, and dates of purchase of all lands bought from 
the general Government, situated within such township will be 
given. This list is confined to the term between 1822 and 1837, 
tlie last 10 years of which may be considered the pioneer period, 
as by that time the valley was well known, and the troubles which 
usually beset the new settler partially removed. 

Jonathan Kearsley, 

Smith Justin, 

A. L. Whitney, 
Hermann Ladd, 

David Stanard, 
Henry C. West, 

Thomas Simpson, 

Gardner D. Williams, 
James P. Hayden, 

Caroliis A. Stebbins, 
George Damon, 
Abel Miller, 
William Good, 

Noah R. Campbell, 
Henry Campaii, 
Joseph Holden, 
Francis Anderson, 
William Witchell, 

William Richards, 
Leander Smith, 
Lewis Dupratts, 
Benedict Tromble, 
Thomas Simpson, 
Elijah N. Davenport. 
Willard B. Bunnell, 
Augustus Harrison, 
Peter A. Cowdrey, 
Abel S. Peters, 
Benjamin Clapp, 
Thomas H. Newbold, 
Sidney S Campbell, 
John Neate, 


James McCloskey. 

John Biddle. 


Charles Little 
T. Chappel, 


Govener Vinton, 
Luther Jones. 


Donald Urquhart^ 


Ephraim S. Williams, ^ 
Eleazer Jewett. 


Andrew Ure, 
Lancelot Spare, 
Joseph Busby, 
Har\'ey Rumvil'*. 


John McMillan, 
Edward Green, 
Hugh McCubberish, 
William Draper, 
David E. Corbin, 


William Barclay, 
^Vnthony Swart hout, 
Charles H.Rodd, 
Mary B. Brown, 
Cornelius Bergen, 
Gardner Mott, 
Thomas H. Newbold, 
Albert H. Dorr, 
Daniel H. Fitzhugh, 
James Marsac, 
Enoch Olmstead, 
Bradley Bunnell, 
Trumble Cary, 
Abel Millington, 

John Brown, 
John Lacy, 
John Cameron. 

.Fohn Thompson, 
Robert Thompson, 
Phineas Spauldmg, 
Joseph Pitcaim, 
Angus McDonald. 

Stephen H. Herrick, 
Schuyler Hodges, 
Stephen H. Herrich, 
Eleazer Mason, 
Joseph E. Town, 
John Malone, 
James R. Slausson, 
John 8. Le R<*y, 
Thomas H. Newbold, 
Edward A. Leroy, 
Duncan McEiozie, 
Weston G. Elmer, 
Edwin Herrick. 



Gardner D. Williams, 
James Fraser, 
Charles H. Carroll, 
E. S. Cobb, 
Edward G. Faile, 
Augustus C. Stevens, 
Paul Spaffbrd, 
James Bucbey, 
Benjamin Cushway, 
Harvey Montgomery, 
John Todd, 
Matthew Cobb, 
John McNiel, 
James 11. Jerome, 
James Hosmer, 
Ashbel S. Thomson, 
Andrew C. Scott, 
Charles Matthews, 
Amanda Vance, 
William Prout. 
Thomas P. Sawyer, 
Thomas L. L. Brent, 
John M. Hubinger, 
Hiram G. Hotchkiss, 
Josiah Beers, 
Peter F. Ewer, 
Ephraim Williams, 
Norman Little, 
William T. Carroll, 
John W. Edmunds, 
Lot C. Hodgman, 
Hestor L. Stevens, 
David Lee, 
John S. Tolbott, . 
Toupaint Laferty, 
Albert Miller, 
Zenas D. Bassett, 
Benjamin E. Hall, 
Charles B. Granniss, 
Allen Avrault, 
Alexander Baxter, 
George Chandler, 
William S. Hosmer, 
Miranda Vance, 
Robert Stone, 
Abraham I. Shultz, 
Douglas Houghton, 
William Finley, 
Calvin Hotchkiss, 
Leman B. Hotchkiss, 
Stephen Beers, 
John G. Gebhard, 
Nicholas Bouck, 

James Fraser, 
George W. Williams, 
John S. Bagjz, 
Gardner D. Williams, 
Alpheus Williams, 
Joseph G. Ba gg, 
James Morse, 


Zuba Barrows, 
Wait Black, 
Peter F. Ewer, 
William Thomas. 
Thomas Malone, 
Loomas Thyer, 
Allen Ayrault, 
Perry G. Gardner, 
Elias Colbom, 
Hellasy Burchhart, 
Russell G. Hurd, 
Samuel A. Godard, 
Jerome B. Garland, 
Asbel Aylsworth, 
Caleb H. Wirts, 
Robert Smart, 
Oliver Atherton, 
Rowley Morris, 
Philander Truesdell, 
Renssellar Blackmer, 
Freeland McDonald, 
James Francis Clark, 
Thomas J. Drake, 
Henry G. Hubbard, 
David Dietz, 
David Ellis, 
William McCullock, 
Orzamus Willard, 
John Rudd, 
Warner Lake, Jr., 
John D. Jones, 
John Clifford, 
Nathan Phillips, 
Nathaniel Foster, 
Jared H. Randell, 
John Patterson, 
John J. Charrnaud, 
William Moon, 
Fredrick Boell, 
Charles Pratt, 
David G. Hammer, 
William Bingham, 
Charles P. Holmes, 
Richard Dibbley, 
George Call, 
John llathbun, 
John Farquharson, 
John A. "Welles, 
Gideon Paull, 
William S. Stevens, 
Charles McLean. 
Elijah D. Efner, 
Anthony Ten Eyck, 


Harvey Miller, 
Charles A. Lull, 
William Rice, 
Robert A. Quartermass, 
Mortimer Wadhams, 
Caleb Embury, 
John L. Eastman, 

Ralph Wright, 
Joseph Adams, 
Elias H. Herrick, 
Alexander Howell, 
George Manhall, 
Jacob B. Herrick, 
George Young, 
Thomas Smith, 
Nahum W. Capew, 
Josiah G. Leecn, 
Thomas McCarty, 
William C. Baker, 
Sherman M. Rock wood, 
Curtis C. Gates, 
James J. McCormick. 
Lot CArk, 
Henry Dwight, 
John Smyth, 
James Davidson, 
Cornelius Bergen, 
James R. Jackman, 
Gabriel V. N. Hetfield, 
Joseph Lawrence, 
Stephen V.R.Trowbridge, 
Ranson V. Ashley, 
Charles J, Sutton, 
J. A. Blossom, 
James Wadsworth, 
Alexander McAuther, 
Silas Leighton, 
Isaac Frost, 
Zenas D. Bassett, 
Thomas Howell, 
Henry Stringham, 
William Churchill, 
Patterson Ferguson, 
Daniel Wood 
Thomas Wiard, 
Francis G. Macey, 
Joseph F. Marsac, 
John McCullogh, 
James Rioey, 
Nicholas N. Stover, 
Stephen Warren, 
Lansing B. Migner, 
Eliza Chapin, 
Abner D. Debolt, 
Nicholas Hay ward, 
Ralph Hall, 
Ebenezer Conkling, 
Chester Ingalls. 
John G. Ireland, 

Miriam M. Cummings, 
Polly Todd, 
Almira Woodford, 
Charles Chamberlain, 
Alexander Lee, 



Barnard Hackett, 
John Falls, 
Maiy F. Barbour, 
Mary Ann Hunt, 
Frederick H. Stephens, 
Orsmans Lon^, 
Joseph J. Maiden, 
Lemuel Brown, 
Zenas Morse, 
Alba Lull, 
Horatio Abell, 
Simeon Cumings, 
Gideon Lee, 
Simon Law, 
William Eastman, 
Robert C. S. Page, 
Horace Gilpin, 
Venus Howe, 
Francis Anderson, 
Andrew Middleton, 
James B. Hunt, 
John Barbour, 
Elizabeth A. Barbour, 

Hugh Quin, 
Thomas Crickals. 
Samuel H. Fitzhugh, 
James M. Williams, 
Joseph T. Tromble, 
Silas Bams, 
David Kirk, 
Peter Kemp, 
Thomas Barger, 
William Renwick, 
James Marsac, 
Thomas Townsend, 
Heniy H. Le Roy, 
Benjamin McLellan, 
Moses P. Butler, 
Eurotas P. Hastings, 
Philander R. Howe, 
John T. Tallman, 
Samuel Noves, 
Benjamin F. Town, 
William H. H. Elliot, 
John Tallman, 
Chauncey Metcalf, 

Lemuel Brown, 
Obadiah Crane, 
Barnard Huckett, 
Silas Leonard Parks, 
James Marsac, 
Volney Owens, 
John Kemp, 
James Laing, 
Tiiomas Freeman, 
John Drysdale, 
Thomas JBloor, 
John Ballard, 
Timothy Bic^ell, 
Duncan McCellan, 
Stephen Reeves, 
Calvin Townsend, 
Abraham Buckee, 
Charles English, 
Isaac Brown, 
Clarissa Hamilton, 
Robert Harper, 
George Waraman, 
David Van Warner, 


AVhat a change has come over the land since they first saw 
it! The metamorphosis from the sickle and the cradle to the 
modern harvester is not more wonderful than other changes which 
have been wrought; and he who brings up sad remembrances 
of a hard day's work, and a lumbago caused by the swinging of 
his cradle or scvthe, smiles, when he thinks of that semi-barbarous 
period that could neither produce a harvester nor a mower. To- 
day he mounts into the seat of one of these machines, as he would 
into his phaeton, and with the assurance that, no matter what the 
condition of the grain, whether tangled, lodged or leaning, he 
masters a quarter section of wheat field more thoroughly and with 
greater economy than he could have managed a five-acre field 
25 years ago. 

"flie change is certainly material. They realize it; but yet they 
look back to the never-forgotten past, when contentment waited on 
the work of the old cradle, plow, and s])ade — to that time when the 
primitive character of all tnings rendered all primitively happj^. 
Then contentment reigned supreme, and continued so to do until 
knowledge created ambitions, and those ambitions brought in their 
train their proverbial and numerous little troubles. 

The change has been revolutionizing indeed! Then political 
meetings were called by messages passed from mouth to mouth, 
from neighbor to neighbor; now the columns of the great daily 
journals of the city, and of the weekly papers, supplemented by 
glaring posters call the attention of the people. Well organized 
comet bands are sometimes employed to aid all that printers do, 


and even this has a satellite supplied to it, in the shape of a band 
of small hovs, with a base drniu, a snare drum and a dozen tin- 
whistles. The latter organization is solely the creatnre of a great 
political campaign, and discourses its peculiar music only previous 
to the qaadriennial election. On very speclBl occasiong the comet 
band is called out, and oftentimes a quartette party accompanies 
the candidate in his round of the townsfiips. Change is stamped 
on everything. Progreaa accompanies it to the end. 



The history of the county was in the main, undoubtedly, made 
bv the American pioneers. They had just opened up tne new 
settlements on the Saginaw, advertised the resources of their land, 
and prepared as it were a way to peace and prosperity for the too- 
much-governed, industrious, and sedate German. Within eight 
vears after the admission of Michigan into the Union of the States, 
and nine years after the organization of Saginaw county, the people 
of Central Europe began to direct their attention to the land ot 
great forests, and to contribute their quota to its settlement. As 
early as 1846, the Kremer settlement was made here, and within 
the "years immediately subsequent a representative of all the coun- 
tries from the Rhine to the Russian frontier could be found 
beginning a new life on every section of the lands of this county. 
Great numbers of the Germans, who came here between 1845 and 
1859, made this county their home, and have contributed, in a 
high degree, to raise it to its present prosperous condition. 

That such a people should claim pioneer honors will not be denied. 
In peace and war the German citizens of Saginaw have acted a 
patriotic part, and there is every reason to presume that, with 
their knowledge of all the evils which a monarchical form of gov- 
ernment entails, thev will stand by the Republic, and teach tneir 
children to honor a land dedicated to Liberty and marked out as 
the true home of manhood. 

Of the German citizens of this county the following may be 
classed among the pioneers, the date of arrival and place of settle- 
ment being given: 

1847— M. Huber, Blumfleld ; J. Meyer and M. Herbst, Saginaw. 

1848— Carl Dhrele, Salina. 

1849— Dr. M. C. T. Plessner, A. W. Achard, M. Ziegler, P. Herig, and C. Ulrich, 
Saginaw; F. Dieckman, E. Saginaw; F. Lepsch, Buena Vista; M. Ulrich, Frank- 
entrosl ; and F. Vanfleet, Blumfleld. 

1850 — J. Nerreterand Charles Lan glass, E. Saginaw; E. Barck, J. Liskow, 
Wm. Fischer, Charles Wapler, Z. T. Schoerner, J. Bauer and H. Bernhard, Sagi- 
naw; J. Scbabere, Blumfleld; and C. Hage and Val. Simon. 

1851— A^nton Crane, Blumfleld ; Ernst Franck and L. and E Bloedon, Bay City; 
Henry Miller, Saginaw City; Wm. Seidel, Saginaw; and Wm. Orandjean and'j. 
C. Spaeth. 

18^2— Fred. Eoehlerand Wm. Zwerk, E. Saginaw; R. Scheurmann, L. Zagel- 
meier and Charles Babo, Bay City ; J. Backus, Saginaw ; F. Fischer, Joseph 
Elderer, John Leipold, Peter Schneizer, M. Heubisch, John Stroebel and F. W. 

1858 — John Foetzinger and H. Romeike, Saginaw; J. Bechrow, E. Saginaw; 
and M. Riedel and John Ruflf. 



1854— John Lentz, Bay county; Richard Euehn, Wm. Schieb andEmil Bcheur- 
mann, Saginaw ; Wm. Eumphert, Flint ; and Geo. Schietberger, Franz Eoehler 
and M. Stoker. 

1855 — F. Y. Ementher, Blumfield ; and Wm. J. Deindorfer. 

1856 — H. Erause, £. Saginaw ; Peter H. Erogman, Saginaw ; and H. Stoeltz- 
rider, Jr., and J. Baesche. 

1857— John Weiss, Saginaw ; and A. Heine, Bay City. 

1859— August Fuehr and J. C. Ziegler, Saginaw; and August Zoelner. 


A meeting of Germans was held at the Teutonia Hall, Saginaw 
City, May 26, 1881, for the purpose of organizing a Pioneer Soci- 
ety. The meeting was formally organized by the appointment of 
L. Bloedon as president and F. Dieckman, secretary. The resolu- 
tion to organize was made by Ernst Franck, when the chairman 
appointed Messrs. Liskow, Uaack, Nerreter, Barck and Spaeth, a 
committee on permanent organization. Dr. M. C. T. rlessner, 
of Saginaw City, was nominated for the presidency of the society 
and elected unanimously. His inaugural address, delivered on 
the occasion, is full and historically valuable, and on that account 
deserves notice in these pa^es. He said: 

'^ It is my dutv and my pleasure to bid you welcome in this 
meeting of the old and tried pioneers of tlie Saginaw Valley; it is 
refreshing to see again the faces of those who fouglit with us in the 
battle witli the elements and witli the forest, many years ago; to 
look into the eyes of those steadfast men who assisted to change 
the primeval forest into smiling lields and fruitful gardens; the lit- 
tle log houses and shanties of tne wilderness into nourishing cities 
and villages; who helped to evoke order and civilized life from 
chaos and the rough life and manners of the frontier. 

'' Such meetings as ours are not only desirable, but of great ben- 
efit to all participants. Time is fleeting fast, and the eyes of many 
of those wlio haa their share in the developments of this country 
are already closed; many more have passed the middle age. and 
are on the downward path, soon to be ended in the grave. If the 
memory of small beginnings and hard struggles is not to be en- 
tirely lost, the recollections of the pioneers must be collected and 
sifted; our posterity will take an interest in them, no doubt — may- 
be they will be benefited by them. 

'' The duty to welcome you here is the more pleasant to me, as 
all the men nere are acquaintances of mine from ' auld lang syne.' 
Some of them I have been happy to call mv friends during a quarter 
of a century, and not a few during my life-time. Allow me, as a 
basis for our labor communications, to lay before you a sketch of 
the history of this Saginaw Yalley, and principally of the German 
settlement in the same. This is not based on documents, which 
are not accessible to me, but mostly on personal recollections. It 
may abound in errors and inaccuracies, which no one better than 
yourselves can detect and correct, but I give my promise that noth- 
ing will be said in hatred, malice, or even in prejudice, if it can be 



avoided. Old age makes .men tolerant, even if in no other way it 

mproves them. 

*' The Saginaw Valley is a portion of the northeMtem quarter of , 
the lower peninsula of Michigan. It is bounded on the south by 
tlie hilly watershed between Flint and HoUr; on the west bv the 
watershed between the rivers tributary to the Saginaw and (rrand 
rivern; on the north by the watershed of the Sable river; and on 
the east by Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron. It is a very flat country, 
only a few low hills in it, that were formerly covered with heavy 
primeval forests. The valley is very xnncn intersected by many 
rivers, the Saginaw being the largest. This river is only 18 miles 
in length, short but wide, having at Bay City a width of 1,000 feet 
The deptli averages from eight to nine feet, and its current is gen- 
erally sluggish. Its tributaries are the Cass, Flint, Shiawassee 
and Tittabawassee, coming from tlie four points of the compass. 
All of them are navigable for small vessels, although their navi- 
gation is very much neglected; their obstructions not removed, yet 
their almost innumerable sources, such as the Pine, Tobacco and 
many other such smaller streams are in the spring exclusively used 
in floating down logs from the lumber camps near them. A pe- 
culiar feature of this region is that the lakes and lakelets, so 
abundant north and souUi of us, are here entirely missing. Sag- 
inaw Valley has undoubtedly been the bottom of a great lake. Its 
soil is 80 to 100 feet above the rocks and boulders; on top of this 
is rich, alluvial black loam, varying in depth from six to eight 
inches; the hills are mostlv covered with sand. The forests con- 
sisted of pines on the hills and hemlock, oak, beech, maple, elm 
and ash on the plains. There is comparatively little praine in the 
valloy, and that is very low. It is well known that tne land con- 
tains very large reservoirs of salt brine, the making of salt being 
r)no of our great industries. Coal has been found in some parts 
of the valley, but so far has not proved profitable. Metals have not 
yet been found. Limestone and gypsum are abundant in some 
parts of the valley. The Indians roamed free and undisturbed in 
Saginaw county until half a century ago. 

''It is said that the Sac and Fox tribes occupied this valley, 
and gave it the name it bears, and that the Chippewas came over 
from Canada, defeating the former tribes in three great battles, 
two of them being fouglit on the Saginaw river, and the last and 
decisive one on the Cass river, driving the Sac and Fox tribes 
sf)uth and west. Whether this happened 100 or 1,000 years ago 
none can toll. The more civilized Indians, as the Mound Builders, 
which left so many traces in the Upper Peninsula and south of us, 
do not seoni to have settled in this valley. The Indians became 
unpleaHiintly notorious in the last' war with England. During the 
sirge of Detroit, they marched down there as allies of the English, 
under their chief, Ivish-kaw-ko, and his son, Chemick, plunaered 
the settlers, murdered men, women and children, and sold their 
scalps to Knglish otficials in Canada. They did not fight, their 
warnire being only against the unarmed and unwary. A few years 

<i_7V-%t-t.^^ <j 



after the peace of Ghent, Oen. Oass conclnded a treaty with the 
Indians, by which they gave up their claims to the land, except 
some reservations, and received an annual bounty. Tliere was an 
Indian farmer appointed to teach them farming, but they made 
very indifferent farmers. Gen. Cushway, a Canadian Frenchman, 
was appointed as a blacksmith to repair their guns, and held his 
appointment several years, dying within a few years, at quite an 
advanced a^e. The Government also sent them two Methodist 
preachers, out the Indians sent them back, saying they would 
rather have another blacksmith. Kisli-kaw-ko was subsequently 
imprisoned in Detroit as a drunken vagabond, and while there 
took poison, thus ending his unhappv life. 

"Trie Indians in this Valley lost all political significance. Once 
during the war of the Rebellion, the rumor was started that the 
Indians were assembling and arming themselves, but it caused 
very little alarm among the inhabitants of the Valley, as their 
courage and fighting qualities are now held in utter contempt by 
the wnite settlers. 

"Indians, as we saw them thirty years ago, and longer, were 
well built, swarthy, never handsome, prominent cheek bones, black 
coarse hair, no whiskers nor beard; their covering being a dark 
calico shirt reaching to the knees, the lower part of the legs 
incased in woolen leggings, the feet covered with moccasins; no 
covering of the head whatever, but now and then a long feather 
stuck in the hair; while sometimes, but seldom, they had red, 
yellow or blue streaks painted on their faces. The women, ugly 
almost without an exception, wore a long calico dross, also mocca- 
sins, but nothing else. Their babies — '^papooses" — were encased 
in narrow shingle boards strapped upon their backs. They were 
very much given to loitering around, staring at everything, asking 
for anything that pleased them, which was generally bread, pork, 
and otner things, out principally tobacco and whisky. They did 
not steal, and were not quarrelsome, even when drunk; but were 
altogether an inoffensive, harmless and worthless rabble, not at 
all romantic or picturesque. They lived by hunting and fishing, 
were considered very poor marksmen by the whites, who excelled 
in rifle-shooting, sola cranberries, whortleberries, baskets and moc- 
casins. Tlie painting of their baskets with gay colors, and tlie 
embroidering of moccasins was the only approach they made 
toward the fine arts. They lived in their tents, or in huts made 
from bark, some in shanties, and even in log houses. Their 
farming consisted mostly of planting a little corn, by the 'squaws'. 
They spoke their own language, could understand" English, and 
even speak it, but usually denied their knowledge of it. Some of 
them were Christianized by Methodistand Lutheran ministers, but 
they seemed very indifferent to religion. 

''Well, I am afraid 1 have devoted too much of my time to 
them: only allow me to describe 'pay-day' among them, and 
the conveying of the mail from Saginaw to Mackinaw in the win- 
ter season. 'Pay-day' was the great festival for the Indians, in 



spring-time tliey receiving their annual bounty, which was four 
dfollars (if I am not mistaken) for every man, woman and child. 
They assembled first in Saginaw City, and afterward in Midland. 
They pitched their tents on the vacant blocks, decorating them 
with nags. The streets swarmed with Indians full of fire-water. 
There was much jum])ing and running, but no quarreling or fight- 
ing; so no precautionary measures were taken, or needed. The 
mails were carried on sleds made of a very few boards, two 
crooked branches serving as runners, and 10 or 12 dogs har- 
nessed to them 'tandem' fashion. The Indians ran at the sides of 
the sleds, almost 200 miles through an unbroken wilderness, 
through forests and swamps, over livers and straits, to their des- 

''In 1822, the Government established the fort at Saginaw, in 
the midst of Indians, a company of soldiers forming the garrison. 
Dr. Zina Pilcher was the first medical attendant. Life must then 
have been a burden, in the midst of the forests, far from all inter- 
course with civilized men, surrounded by malaria, tormented by 
millions of mosquitos; no wonder that the officers 'hankered' 
after the 'flesh-pots of Egypt,' and prayed to be relieved. 

"After one year the f )rt was given up, and the soldiers went 
home. The principal fort stood on the Taylor House block; was 
a long, two-story log house, surrounded by stockades. A second 
one, similar in size and appearance, stood on Hamilton street, op- 
posite Molls' drug store, while a third was situated about half a 
mile north, between tiie river and Washington street. Two of 
them were inhabited as late as 1850, but were rather dangerous, 
and soon after torn down. One was used as a bonfire on a Fourth 
of July celebration. After the establishment of the fort, some 
settlers came into the Yalley, locating moartly on, or near, the Tit- 
tabawassee river. In 1822, the first city was laid oiit on quite a 
modest plan, the streets running in the same manner as now, be- 
ing only 10 or 12 in number, and quite narrow. A few log houses 
were erected on AVater street. 

"In 1837, a change came over the place. Norman Little, 
Mackey, Jennison, and some others formed a company, bought the 
city plot and the land adjoining, laid out the city on a large scale. 
built some houses, some of them at a very great expense, a hotel 
at a cost of 835,000, a large, four-story warehouse on the river, 
at a cost of $25,000, started a bank, issued bank notes with a red 
back, and on the face canal and steam-boats. The canal boats 
never came to the city, steam-boats only many years later. The 
canal was intended to join the Bad to the Looking-glass river, 
and in this way to connect the Grand and Saginaw rivers. Every- 
where was life, and speculation ran wild. Lots were h^ML^a 
higher price than ever afterward. The glory of the new city 
not last long. The panic came, and shattered all these air castles^ 
the company became bankrupt, the settlers moved away, and de- 
cay was everywhere. In 1845 the German immigration to this 
valley began, and helped, directly, in clearing up the country, but 




more indirectly, by drawing the attention of outsiders to the riches 
of the forest and the soil, and in this way laid the foundation for a 
slow, but steady and solid improvement; The first Germans who 
came to this valley were three Westphalians, Henry Stelgrider, 
long and well known as 'Dutch Henry,' Tuerke and Sittereing, the 
date of their arrival being about 18^1:0. They found some work in 
the city, soon bought wild land on the 'cross-roads,' and made 
excellent farms of it. 'Dutch Henry' died a short time ago, at an 
advanced age. He was a model of a German farmer, a hard, 
steady worker, economical, a good neighbor, witliout any political 
ambition, but devoted to his Church — the Lutheran — which he as- 
sisted freely as far as his means would permit. The first meetings 
of this religious body were held at his house. Tuerke died many 
years a^o, also at a very old age. Sittereing moved to Franken- 
muth when that township was organized. His three daughters 
married Americans, and are yet living in this county. 

*' A larger German emigration followed in 18^1:5. Thev were 
inhabitants of Franconia and a portion of Bavaria, who felt them- 
selves oppressed at home, and under the advice of Pastor Loehe 
decided to emigrate to America, to follow the Lutheran creed in 
all its strictness, and, as far as possible, to convert the Indians. 
They numbered 15 in all, under the guidance of Pastor Kraemer.' 
Pastor Schmidt, of Ann Arbor, had selected for them a place on 
the Cass river, where they soon located, built a church, scnool and 
parsonage, and gave the settlement the name of Frankenmuth. 
They began to clear the land, and their chosen duty of converting 
the red man, but the latter soon left the neighborhood. The num- 
ber of the white settlers rapidly increased, until they now make a 
flourishing and thickly settled township. In 18^1:7 another colony 
was formed,' by a man from the same country, and of the same re- 
ligious denomination — Frankentrost, about 12 miles east of the Sag- 
inaw river, in the middle of the forest, no river near, no road 
leading to it for over 10 years. The soil was as rich as that of 
Frankenmuth, and was very flat and swampy. Malarious fevers 
increased; also the hardships of the first settlement, and men, as 
well as women, were quickly worn out. 

*' A third settlement, Frankenlust, was founded in 1848, by the 
Rev. Sievers, who resides there at the present time. This location 
was by far better than that of Frankentrost, being only three miles 
from the site of Lower Saginaw (now Bay City), and no great difti- 
culty to make new roads. Two more German settlements were 
founded in 1850; Amelit and Frankenhuelfe. Quite a number of 
these settlers, mostly mechanics, moved into Saginaw City and 
Bay City, where they now have churches and schools. These col- 
onists were mostly small farmers and mechanics. Tlie educated 
classes were represented by the ministers, teachers, several young 
matrons, and one physician, Dr. Koch, of Frankenmuth, wno set- 
tled at the latter place in 1847, from Ragensburg. Bavaria. He 
was a very active man, with ffood, common sense, and worked so 
hard that at 60 years of age he was entirely worn out. 


^ *' These German settlers worked steadily on their farms, never 
taking any part in the lumber and salt interests of the Valley, and 
at present are in very comfortable circumstances. They are truly 
conservative in their religious life and customs, in politics invari- 
ably castine a heavy Democratic vote. Tlie German language and 
customs will live longest among these settlers and their descend- 
ants. Those Franconians had never a pauper at the county farm, 
and only once or twice a criminal in the county jail. No small 
praise for a population of nearly 10,000, and for over a period of 
35 years. It is not likely that colonization from religious motives 
will take ]>laee again, religious liberty being more extended at the 
present time; but their relations and friends will follow them to their 
new home, and most likely scatter over the county. 

'' In 1849 and the years following, another wave of emigration 
struck the shores of Saginaw river. In 1 848 there had been an 
uprising in Germany, for liberty and unity, which was followed by 
a severe and often bloody reaction. Many who had taken a more 
or less active part in the revolution, left the old country and came 
to America. Michigan had at this time the only successftil emi- 
gration agent, Mr. Thompson, of Flint, by whose influence many 
Germans were directed to Saginaw county. These settlers be- 
longed largely to the educated classes — lawyers, physicians, mer- 
chants, manufacturers, army oflicers and otners. A great many 
had fought in the revolutionary ranks in Baden, among others, 
Alberti, Otto, Fischer, Stuber. They came from all parts of Ger- 
many, but among them were a large number ot Westphalians. 
The latter established a settlement of their own, called Cheboy- 
ffonun, in the township of Blumiield, which latter received its name 
from a noted leader among the Germans. The first settlers there 
were Post, Van Vliet and Diekmann. It may be of some interest 
to recall how we found Saginaw City at this time, some 32 years 

'' The access was not easy. From the East to Detroit we could 
come very easily by railroad and steamer. From Detroit to Pon- 
tiac we rode on the railroad of that name. The engine looked like 
a large coftee mill; one car was attached, about as large as a street- 
car of to-day, which jumped from the strap-rails about every half- 
mile. All passengers then got out and assisted in replacing the 
car on the rails; so we made 20 miles in four hours. But the trip 
was not so unpleasant as may be supposed, for, on seeing many 
ripe blackberries, we left the car, gathered them, and went on 
board again. From Pontiac to Saginaw it took two days more, 
over very rough roads. The city of East Saginaw did not exist. 
On the north of the present city was a single farm-house; in a small 
clearing on the south, where are now located the city gas works, 
was Buena Yista, containing the saw-mill, a small boaroing-house, 
three or four shanties, and the ' Halls of the Montezumas. This 
was the residence of the owner, Curtis Emerson, remarkable for 
his eccentricities and great thirst. West Bay City did not e.\i8t, 
there being only one house near the river. Bay City, or as it was 


commonly termed, ' Lower Saginaw/ had a hotel, the Campbell 
House, about half a dozen small frame houses and a dozen or more 
shanties. Zilwankee had just been located and contained only 
one family, one house and three shanties. OarroUton consisted of 
a small log house. Saginaw City, the most pretentious place in 
the valley — the county seat then as now — had about 200 inhabi- 
tants; the big hotel was closed; the warehouse contained one stove, 
but was otlierwiso empty; several larger houses and also the build- 
ings of the fort were in a state of great decay; one small saw-mill 
at work; about a dozen frame houses and as many old huts. The 
river tieet consisted of one dilapidated stem-wheeler; roads were 
very few; one, the old Government road, led to Flint; and the river 
road from Saginaw City to Midland. Between Saginaw and Lower 
Saginaw there existed no road on either side of flie river. The 
county was covered witlj^ heavy forests; was quite swampy; only 
small clearings, and the greater portion of those along the Tittaba- 
wassee river. 

'• Living was very cheap, as far as game and iish were con- 
cerned — a full barrel of wliite iish costing two dollars, and a full 
grown deer about one dollar; but other things, which are com- 
monly considered the necessaries of life, were luxuries here. Flour 
came trom Detroit, and sometimes not at all; fresh meat we had 
onlv when our onlv butcher, Havden, killed a cow and sold the 
meat; when this was gone, hti locked up the butcher shop again 
tor the next three or fojir months. Beer and wine were very uri- 
eonimon, but whisky was plenty. The country had the name of 
being very unhealthy and deserved it in some respe('ts. Malari- 
ous diseases, such as fever and ague, were very prevalent in the 
fall season, so that once in Bay City, out of a population of about 
120, I could not find a single person able to stand on his feet. 
Otherwise the country was very healthy; typhoid fevers unknown; 
consumption only imported, and even some very bad cases got well, 
and are living at the present time. 

'' Crime was at this time unknown; we had no iail and didn't 
want one. We had a })Oor-house, to be sure, and the keeper of it. 
Nelson Gerry, who held tliis position for several vears, threw it up 
in disgust, when the first pauper was entered. Churches, we found 
none, there being one in Frankenmuth, but at entirely too great a 
distance. In the ' high times ' of Saginaw City, they had started 
everything except a Cliurch. The first one built in any of the cities, 
wa'^the Lutheran, of Saginaw City. 

• '• Life was quite pleasant here, there being many well educated 
people from New i ork, Massachusetts and New Hampshire, 
oehool was held now and then, in a small building at Saginaw City. 
Only since 1852 has a change take^ place for the better. The 
country contains a population made up of Americans, French, 
Canadians, a few Irish and ^Te Germans. The Indians had wig- 
wams on the Tittabawassee, opposite Freeland, near the mouth of 
Swan creek, and at Cliesaning and Taymouth, until they were 
removed to Isabella county. We cannot complain about the 


Americans of this time; they were always kind and obliging, and 
lent a helping hand where they could. Even such as were com- 
monly called 'not over-honest,' were honest in their dealings 
with the Germans. The lawyers who came here all went to fann- 
ing, one receiving afterward a judicial office, which he held for 
many years, and to the present time, showing that he gives satis- 
faction to the people. 

\ ''Of the pioneer physicians, your speaker is the only survivor. 
Drs. Koch and Sauner died of old age; Drs. Francke and 
Fuohsius met with accidents, both of them being drowned in the 
Saginaw river, at different times; Doctor Bondaniels shot himself 
at East Saginaw. The army officers, of whom we had many, 
mostly belonging to the Austrian and Prussian armies, did not ao 
very well; some got very poor, and all left the county years ago. 
To show to what hardships they were exposed, let me mention two 
brothers, formerly lieutenants in the I^russian army, and noble- 
men by birth. Once, during a storm, some neighbor visited them, 
lie could find neither until he heard a voice, and found that each 
one had overturned a barrel, crept in with the upper part of the 
body, let the lower limbs stay out, the latter being covered with 
high boots, all the time the rain pouring through the roof in great 
sheets. The other men of '48 mostly went to farming, ana are 

V usually termed 'Latin farmers,' because they understood Latin 
better than farming. They found farming: twice as hard as oth- 
ers on account of their inexperience, and their being unused to 
bodily labor. 

" In 1854, the German Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons was 
organized, which is in existence now. Later, but not in pioneer 
times, the German lodges of I. O. O. F. and K. of H. were cre- 
ated. The first Turnverein was established at East Saginaw, and 
soon required a hall. Out of it grew the singing and the school 
sections. It was subsequently merged into the Society Germania, 
giving to the latter those splendid buildings and gardens of their 
own that form the center of all German life. In the same way, 
in 1857, was the Turnverein of Saginaw City established. Soon 
followed the Singverein and the Schulverein, which afterward were 
merged into the V erein Teutonia. The Arbeiter Vereins were es- 
tablished at a later period, and are doing a very successful work 
in relieving the sick, the widows and orphans of their members. 
^'In 1858, a militia company was formed at Saginaw City. Dr. 
Francke was the first Captain. Under Capt. Henry Miller, they 
formed Co. K of the 5th Reg. Mich. Vol. Inf , the so-called 
'Fighting Fifth.' Many of the members were left on the bloody 
battle-fields of the 'Old Dominion.' Another company was formed 
at East Saginaw, which, under Capt. Emil Moores, formed part of 
the 2d Reg. Mich. Vol. Inf. Many other Germans joined other 
regiments of this and adjoining States. All the men did their 
duty bravely, and many gave their lives for the preservation of 
their adopted country. 


"In the following years, the emigration to this county came in 
a large measure from the northern portion of Germany and Lower 
Germany, but mostly from the Province of Pomerania and the 
States of Mecklenburg. They are a healthy, strong, industrious 
and economical set of men ; work for a few years in the saw-mills 
and salt works, then with their savings buy some wild land, cut 
the trees into cord-wood, at the same time clearing their farms, and 
soon get a moderate competence. 

"At the close of my speech, wliich may have been tedious to 
many of you, let me ask, and try to answer, two questions. The 
iirst one — Did we do well in coming here? did we find what we 
were in search of? The second — Has our coming here benefited 
the county and the State ? The first one can only be answered 
from individual experience, but I believe it ought to be answered 
with 'yes.' If any one came here with the hope to find a new 
'Eldorado' where he could get rich, mighty and powerful without 
work, he found himself deceived, and deserved no better fate. 
But any one who wanted to work, to keep his expense within 
bounds, soon saw the bitter care for daily food flee him; saw him- 
self able to furnish not only subsistence, but the decencies of life 
for those who depended upon him, and he felt himself a man — a 
free man — an equal of the best. In politics, even if not all our 
desires are fulfilled, we find a great step forward from the 'Old 
Faderland.' It is the opinion of the majority of the settlers that 
no one of them returned by his own choice to Germany; that such 
as went there, even with the purpose of remaining, came back very 
Quickly, and don't talk any more about their visions of staying 

"The second question I believe I can also answer with 'yes.' 
The Germans learned a great deal from the Americans — enter- 
prise and self dependence; but the Americans have also learned 
something from tne Germans — steadiness of purpose and honesty 
to the trusts reposed in them. The American settler was far 
ahead of his German neighbor during the first years, but after 10 
years the tables have turned, and the Germans are leading. As a 

f^roof of this, compare the adjoining towns of Frankenmuth and 
Bridgeport. Honesty to the trust imposed upon them, is shown 
bv the fact that although we have had many defaulters in 'public 
o&ices, not one of thein was a German, A great many held offices 
of consequence, as treasurers, sherifts, register of deeds, etc. 
The German members of the Board of Supervisors^are respected 
and influential. Of city offices the Germany hav.crhad their share 
— chiefly of such as gave plenty of work and*' no income, viz. : 
Water, Cemetery, School, Fire and Poor Boards. 

"Let us devote our time as we have done so far, to the welfare 
of our county, so that our nation may become a wise, free and 
powerful one, and this Republic a model for all countries to imi- 
tate. For this purpose let us work and strive, each one for him- 
self, and for all.'' 


There is every probability that the organization will be con- 
tinued ; that it will be free from ijl these petty disagreements which 
oftentimes creep into such societiee is to be hoped. Let nativeism 
be observed at its meetings and in the households of its members; 
let it be forgotten in politics and trade, and the welfare of the or- 
ganization is a certainty. 



In local history, a large nuraber of important events have to be 
recorded, some of which claim a detailed account, others merely a 
mention. In the former instance a chapter may be devoted to 
each topic, while in the latter it is only necessary for the writer to 
group all in one section or chapter of the book. Here, then, will 
be treated smaller items which go to make up a county history. 
Each of them gained some attention from the people of the past, 
some of them are known to tliose of the present, and all wul be 
instructive to the coming generations. 

ERA OF tp:rkitouial roads. 

Some years after the gi'eat western highway to Chicago was laid 
oft, the Council of the Territory directed some attention to the 
northern districts, and declared, '' that there shall be established 
a Territorial road from Mt. Clemens up the north branch of the 
Clinton, following as neai* as ])ra(?ticable the route of an old sur- 
vey, to Komeo, thence on the most elegible and direct route to the 
to the seat of justice in the county of Lapeer; thence to the seat 
of justice in the county of Saginaw; thence to the northern ex- 
tremity of the Peninsula; thence to the Sault Ste. Marie in the 
county of Chippewa. The commissioners appointed to establish 
this great thoroughfare were Daniel L. Roy, Horace H. Cady and 
Nathaniel Squires. If they were unable to perform the entire 
duty, they were instructed to establish the road, at least, as far as 
the seat of justice in Saginaw county. Tliis authority was given 
by a Legislative enactment under date of March 4, 1831, ana the 
duty of the commissioners carried out faithfully so that within the 
succeeding year the northern highway was open to immigrants. 
Within the 12 months succeeding, the people of the township 
of the county of Saginaw desired to lay out township roads. 
Eleazer Jewett was appointed deputy county surveyor. 

The earliest records of road surveys made in Saginaw township, 
are reviewed as follows: 

A survev of a road from Sjiginaw to the Tittabawassee river was 
made by fileazer Jewett, Apru 12, 1832. This roadway extended 
a distance of 11 miles and 9.57 chains from a point near the cor- 
ners of sections Nos. 23, 24c, 25 and 26, townsliip 12 north, range 
4 east, to a point one chain east of the east bank of the Tittabawas- 
see in section 2, township 12 norlh, range 3 east. 

• ■ .1 


"^ •T' 


^.-. .\ waii that t>t the alteration of the Green Point 

- *^.-*«v besrau at a point one chain south of the line 

X .^.:y> 11 iiiiJ 1-' ^^^ ^1 chains west of the corners of 

. .. -i'\\n:>liii» 11 north R. 4 east, and sections 33 and 

....^. *,• -j.rrii, K. 4 oast, to tlie intersection of the Saginaw 

, -, - ju >L'srin at the di visi( >n line of the southwest fractional 
. .; . •.'\v!i?hip 12 north, R. 3 east, following the west 

': ,. ' :::i?awas?ee, to the road leading up that river, a 
•■ . -^oiiains. 
... :^'a«l, surveyed in April, ls32, was that beginning on 
.,T.. V >^ad un a lino with the divisic>n line of section 26, 
^^ ,. : -lorth, K. 4 cast, and running 4 miles and 20 chains 
.. :; '"'-o Tittabawassee ruad opposite Abram Whitney's 

V iv^'-**"'^' l>^33, a road was surveyed from a point on the 
...^ '.n- X .:' the river in a line with the roa<l, which ran between 
^..v.'* .'fthe Williams brothers, to a point on a line with the 
. :• .- fc-d Saginaw turnpike. 

• \.i:vh, 1S;{4, the road from G. D. ct E. S. Williams' store 
•.c:i'. l\^int was laid out. 

■•». x.irvi'v of a road from the extreme point of the confluence of 
, >; .iwassee and Tittabawassee rivers to a p6int near Stephen 
>,.;.^jj*s himse, was reported at the same time. 

*N- v'ighth road laid otf was that from a |)oint near the old shop 

* 'u'luas Palmer in the lower village of Saginaw to Newcomb's 
. ,.x^\ a distance of 205.44 chains. 

\.\ivl No. i) was surveyed from the head of Saginaw river, along 

V ^\ist hank, to the Detroit turnpike on section Xo. 1. This, with 

, vMd starting on the line between sections Nos. 25 and 3G, town- 

V' I* I- north, range 4 east, where the Pontiac and Saginaw turn- 

. xV was then supj)ose<l to pass, to section 18, township 12 north 

aiiii' «"> east, was laid off in Se]>tember, 18o4. The last road sur- 

xvw'il by Deputy Surveyor Jewett was that from a point near the 

oik »»t'the Tittaoawassee to a point in section 19, township 14 

•i*»rjh, range 2 east, laid oft Oct. 25, ls:J4. 

The county was organize<l in 1S35, Mr. Jewett ceased to act as 
di'piity to the county surveyor of (Oakland, and was appointed sur- 
\i-yt»r of the new county of Saginaw. The description of his lirst 
Nurvcy, under authority of the l>oard of Commissioners, is as fol- 
lows: '* Minutes of tlie survey of a road starting from a point 
where road Xo. S commences; thence north 5u ^ east, 36.50 chains; 
iH»rth, 3l» ^ east, 1<^.S0 chains; north 20 ^ east, 14.50 chains; north 
1«>^ east, chains; nortli, 11 ^ east, 18.50 chains; north SO^ east, 
ii chains; to the section line between sections 13 and 24, township 
12 north, of range 4 east; variation 2i^ east." This bears date 
flan. 8, 183(], and appears to have been the first road surveyed 
under authority of the iiome government. 



The early settlers of the valley substittrted oi^cked com or corn- 
meal for wheat flour. The corn-dodger held the same relation to 
them which the wheaten loaf does to the peo ple of the present. 
The establishment of the village mills by the Williamses did not 
abolish this article of food, it tended rather to increase its popu- 
larity, since cracked corn was more easily obtained. In 1834 the 
settlers desired to change this com food for something more sub- 
stantial, and almost universally raised wheat during that year. 
During the year 1835 many went forth with a sack of ffrist to 
Flushing, or perhaps to Pontiac, with the intention of having the 
wheat ground; but owing to the old-time manner of doing business, 
the miller was not always quite ready to perform the work, or 

Serhaps the custom work" was so large that one had to wait some 
avs or weeks for his " turn." 

It is related that one of the early settlers left his home for the 
purpose of liaving a grist of wheat ground; reached Flushing, and 
there learned that his *'turn " miffht come in a week or two. Dis- 
appointed and angry, he started lor Pontiac, only to learn from 
the miller, that he might come in two or three days. Here he 
^was determined to stay until that wheat which he carried so far 
^was converted into flour. Anxiety urged him to visit the mill often 
during the afternoon and night of his arrival, and one of such 
^^isits led to the most unexpected and satisfactory results, at lieast 
for him. Night came on; the miller slept so soundly that he did 
Tiot hear the alarm which gave signal when the supply ran out. 
INot so the northern settler; he heard it, rushed for his grist, cast 
it into the supply bin, satisfied the alarm, and received his flour. 
Be did not halt to wake up the sleeping miller, but running for 
liis oxen, started that night for his home. 

Even after this, men continued to run all the risks of traveling 
many miles through the wilderness to procure wheaten flour, 
llany settlers went to tlie old Thread mill near Fliijt City, and 
were agreeably surprised to find everything in readiness there to 
prepare their grist. Urged by the fortune which attended some 
of tliose who went there, Murdock Frazer ventured forth with his 
ox team, and 30 bushels of wheat. To his horror he found the 
well known Thread mill in the hands of a millwright, who assured 
him it could not be made readv for grinding before six days. He 
proceeded thence to the Flushing mill, where another delay had 
to be endured; however, there he was fortunate to get his grist 
gi'ound, and was enabled to return to his settlement on the tenth 
or eleventh day . Those delays cost him half of the wheat; so that 
on his return he possessed only so much flour as formed the 
product of 12 or 13 bushels. In those early days few, if any, of 
the settlers escaped such losses and annoyances. 



July 14, 1830, Gov. Cass approved an act empowering the 
iu;*ckv!> of the County Court of Oaidand, or a majority of them to 
^nftiit unto E. Jewett, of *'Sagana," or to such other person as 
th<*y may think proper, a license to keep a ferry over the *'Sagana" 
rivor at Green toint, for any period of time not exceeding 10 
Vi^iurs, with such privileges, and under such restrictions as may be 
vWvmod necessary and proper to secure the establishment of such 
torry and to protect the rights of the citizens. The act provided that 
»s jioon as the county Court should be established in the county of 
Saginaw, the justices thereof should be invested with the same 
jK»wer8 in this regard as are now conferred upon the justices of 
i>akland. The legislative mithority of the Territorv reserved full 
pi)wer to annul or alter the powers and privileges wtich might be 
granted by the courts of OaKland or Saginaw. 


The Legislature enacted in April, 1833, that Gardner D. Will- 
iams and Ephraim S. Williams may claim the exclusive right of 
conveying persons, property and animals across the Saginaw river, 
\\>r hire, at a point where the Tittabawassee road strikes the river, 
near the store of Williams. The rates of toll were specified, with 
a proviso that mail-carriers, ])ublic exi^resses, and troops m the 
service of the United States, or of Michigan Territory, with guns, 
stores, etc., should pass free. 

At the same period the AVilliams brotiiers were authorized to cut 
a canal across the island or neck of land, as would enable them to 
pursue a direct course in fen-viiig across the river. 


Asa Whitnev and Eleazer Jewett set out the first orchard in the 
county. They selected the best sprouts from the apple-trees which 
the Indians had set out many years before, and bringing them to 
their location on the Tittabawassee (section 5), planted the orchard. 

Mr. Jewett brought the first swhie from Pontiac to Saginaw in 
1828. The Indians considered it great fun to kill the hogs when- 
ever opportunity ottered; but owing to the watchfulness of the 
owners the noble redmen were not generally successful. 

In 1832, Eleazer Jewett rafted down tlie river a quantity of 
lumber which he purchased at Flint, and raised a trame building, 
the first in the county, on the east bank of the river, opposite Green 
Point. Five years later, in the winter of 1837, he moved this 
house across the ice, and located it near the Campeau trading-post 
opposite Wright iV: Company's mills. 


The first brick dwelling-house ever erected in the county was that 
by George W. Bullock, located on Court street, Saginaw City. 
"The first mill was the one constructed in 1834 by Harvey Will- 
iams, situate where is now the Williams Bros' Salt Block. The 
first lumber sawed in that old mill was subsequently bought by 
Norman Little. 

The first raft of pine lumber ever floated on the S^inaw or its 
tributaries is said to have been that brought from the Thread mill 
at Flint in 1832 by Eleazer Jewett, for the purpose of constructing 
his house opposite Green Point. 

The first white farmer was Asa Whitney, who began cultivating 
a garden in the spring of 1826. In referring to him a pioneer 
said he '^commenced farming on the Tittabawassee, near where 
Thomas Parker now resides.'' He was a bachelor, and was 
accidentally drowned in the spring of 1827. 

Alpheus Williams and Joel Day cut the first logs for milling 
purposes, in 1834, below the mouth of Tobacco creek. 

The first regular sale of sawed lumber made in the Valley, was 
that by Har\'ey, G. D. & E. S. Williams, to Korman Little. 

The only survivors of all the American pioneers in the Territory 
of Michigan in 1815, are the grandchildren of Oliver Williams, 
of whom the Williams brothers are members, and Uncle Harvey 
Williams, son of Alpheus Williams. 

As late as 1859, 1,000,000 acres of land in the Valley of the Sagi- 
naw, were subject to entry at from 12^ cents to $1.25 per acre. 
The State placed the minimum price of salt-spring lands at $4 per 
acre, leaving the selling price of improved salt land to be deter- 
mined bv the State's commissioner. 


did not exercise that baneful influence over the few settlers of this 
valley which it did throughout the settlements on Grand river, 
or south and southwest of Detroit. It is questionable whether the 
settlers paid much more attention to the exaggerated accounts of the 
advance of Black Hawk's warriors than they would to the reported 
attack on Drasnovitcheborsk by the prince of Kharizanlinkskoi. 
Consequently they saved themselves much trouble and all the 
petty annoyances which civilians encounter in taking the field as 

A few men, who subsequently made Saginaw their home, were 
prepared to go to the front; among them were Captains Marsac and 
Swarthout; but even their warrior zeal was checked when they 
leanied that Black Hawk and his men were prisoners. In the final 
encounter with the Indians on the Mississippi, Black Hawk surren- 
dered, was imprisoned from 1832 until 1835, and about three years 
after his pardon was granted he died on the banks of the Des 
Moines in Iowa, and was buried in Davis county in that State. 



<I\>K£: PBTCES IN 1S31-2. 

T!*!. ..;»;.• :»». .»id--imo trading post of the A. F. Co. gave place 
• .V vAix .»*».i pioneer store. Those were little bee^hives of 
i'. *>.'rv 3L^vssary article, as well as a few luxuries, were 
>.ivlv. .iii'i bu:iine8s conducted on well-defined principles. 

• « 

V*^v C. ^-^'Itii *'* * U?t 01 





s d 

\% ' v^;.- •* r ^.il ■-*u 



Skein cotton thread 


N , i ■»- >t a 1%-Jk ^H^r lb. 



Plaid factory, per yd. 








Martin skin 



Calico, per yd. 

1 6 

t X'fc^V 



Arm bauds, per pair 



Sock.s, per pair 



Brown shining 


>;, .x \.*.:'4:i> 


The meat of one small deer 


. ..!.>».»« '\AiU> 


.'^kates, per pair 


';^^ x-vki-x 





v.. ,*i\*tK' VtKUl 


1 brl. flour 



1 bush, corn 



Tobacco, per lb. 


>:«.*;i N'll 


Fish-hooks, per 100 


■ *x^* vu 





Hog, weighing 204 lbs. 




Brl. potatoes 


•Ax;i.ol pistol 

Beef, per lb. 




Salt pork, per lb. 


j<iuov'Kuh, per yd. 


Pav for splitting 1,000 rails, 

5 to 7.50 

>^.i^ I 


It appears from this that the word '' shilling " was in use among 
rho Indians, as in the foregoing list the price of all the small articles 
t> luarktjd in sliillings and ])ence. In 1S81 one of the store-keepers 
i«ii>»duced the words '^ dollars and cents," and henceforth the 
Hiubiguuus term ^'shilling'' fell into disuse. 


Among the numerous troubles which the pioneers of Saginaw 
had to encounter was the common ague, generated by miasms 
arising from the lowlands along the bank of the river, and from 
the <lecaying vegetable matter of swales in the vicinity. This dis- 
ease, known also as the *' chills and fever,'' formed a stumbling 
block in the path of progress, being one of the great arguments 
presented by the American Fur Company against the settlement 
of the district by the American pioneers. This disease was a ter- 
ror to tlie men who did come here. In the fall of the year everv 
one was afflicted, every one shook. Kespecting neither the ricfi 
nor the poor, it entered summarily into the system of the settlers 
and became part and mrcel of their existence. They all looked 
pale and yellow as if trostbitten. It was not literally contagious, 
out owing to the general diffusion of the terrible miasma which 
was so easily absorbed into the system, it was virtually a most dis- 
ble, if not dangerous, epidemic. The noxious exhalations of 


the swamps continued to be inhaled or absorbed from day to day 
until tlie whole body became charged with it as with electricity, 
and then the shock came. This was a regular shake, — a terrific 
shake, with a fixed beginning and ending, coming on each day or 
alternate day, with an appalling regularity. After the shako came 
the fever, and this last state was even more dreaded than the first. 
It was a burning, hot fever, lasting for hours. When you had the 
chill you could not get warm, and when you had the fever you 
could not get cool. It was a change of extremes. 

This disease was despotic in every respect. If a wiedding 
occurred in the family circle, it was sure to attack a few if not afl 
those participating in the festivities. The funeral processionists 
shook as they marched onward to some sequestered spot where 
the body of their departed friend was to be laid. The ague 
proper had no respect for Sundays or holidays. Whether they 
were engaged in tlie sacred, the profane, or the ridiculous, it 
came forward to the attack, and generally prostrated its victims. 
After the fever subsided, you felt as if you were some months in 
such a prison as Andersonville, or Libby, and, in come cases, as if 
you had come in collision with a wandering planet, — not killed out- 
right, but so demoralized that you could enjoy nothing. A feeling 
of languor, stupidity and soreness took possession of the body, 
the soul was sacl, and the sufferer was forced to ask himself that 
criminal question, What did God send me here for anyway? 
Your bacK was out of fix, and your api)etite was crazy. Your 
head ached, and your eyes glared. You did not care a straw for 
yourself or other people, or even for the dogs, who looked at you 
sympathetically. The sun did not shine as it u^ed to, — it looked 
too sickly by half, — and the moon, bless your soul! the sufterer 
never ventured to look at it. In fine, you heartily wished that 
Mother Shipton's prophecy would be fulfilled and this portion of 
our planet, at least, dissolved. 

It was no wonder, after all, that the American Fur Company's 
officers looked most unfavorably upon the country, and cautioned 
all against coming here. 

The detachment of the 3d U. S. Infantry garrisoning the Sagi- 
naw Fort in 1822-\3, realized what chills ana fever really meant. 
It was here that Baker, Allen, and a half-dozen soldiers fell vic- 
tims to it. It was from it that Major Baker and his troops fled, 
and, owing to it, the settlement of Saginaw was retarded fully six 


In referring to the settlement of James McCormick on the 
Flint river, it has been stated that his kindness alone to the 
Indians saved many bands from death by starvation. Later, about 
the year 1837, the dreadful scourge known as small-pox spread 
through the villages of the Saginaw and claimed, as its victims almost 
two-thirds of the Indian inhabitants, sparing the white settlers in 


!UArvh. with only three exceptions. Eighteen years later, in 
vbruary. IS5S, a citizen of Saginaw related the story of famine 
.i:»vi t»^«<tilenct^ in immortal verse. As this poem is so minute in its 
i^*cs^'ription and historical characteristics, it is given, as follows: — 



Not far from where our Union meets to-night, 

Two lovely rivers their broacl streams unite ; 

*l he one through prairies brorid. where wild rice grows, 

'Hie other from the hills of Midland flows: 

Through verdant vales and forests wide they run. 

And like loved spirits "mingle into one," 

Aid form a river fair as man e'er saw, 

Our loved, our lovely crystal Saginaw. 

A broad green belt of fertile bottom land, 

(Converges gently from the golden strand ; 

Itii l)oraers fringed with stately elm and willow% 

While far as the eye can reach, around is seen 

Waving luxuriantly the prairie green. 

A scene more sylvan I ne'er viewed before. 

So eloquent with savage legendary lore. 

It was the month-— fairest of all — of lovely June, 

When the sweet air was laden with perfume 

Of budding flowered gorgeous prairie rose 

Which round the scene in wild profusion flows. 

And many a feathered songster perched on tree, 

Wafbled m sweetest strain its minstrelsy. 

The timid deer, emerging from the wood, 

Gazed on his shadow in the crystal flood ; 

Or his lithe limbs in playful sport did lave. 

Or drank refreshment from its limpid wave. 

On wing of gossamer, the busy bee. 

From forest home, in distant hollow tree, 

Gathered the sweeta from many an open flower, 

To deck with wealth his home in sylvan bower. 

Amid^a grove of elms in the cool shade. 

An Indian band, its rude encampment made; 

And in the shadow of its branches green 

Were warrior, chieftain, children, and maiden seen. 

Here were old braves in social circle met. 

Smoking in silence grave the calumet. 

Or here on withes distended, dressed the skin 

For hunting shirt or graceful moccasin. 

The infant savage, rocking to and fro, 

Its cradle pendant from overhanging bough, 

Fanned by each gentle zephyr that passed by, 

While murmuring breezes sung its lullaby. 

The patient wife toiling o'er mortar rude, 

Crushing the grain to iorm their simple food, 

While other forms tlie lurid fires revealed. 

Preparing for the tribe their evening meal. 

Suspended from the bough, o'er rustic couch, 

Hang the dreaded rifle, tomahawk, and pouch. 

And implements for fishing Ij'ing near — 

The glittering fiy, the net, the barbed spear. 

The warrior circle, seated on the ground. 

The frugal meal was served — the pipe passed round. 

The shades of evening gathered o'er the west. 

And chieftain, maid, and waiTior sunk to rest. 

It was the soft and solemm hour, 

When silence reigned over lake and bower, 

The silver moon m grandeur led 

The starry host, and mildly shed 

«-^fL<^ $erU^ 



Its refluent and unclouded light 
Hesplendeot on the tranquil night. 
And myriads of stars that move, 
Obedient to the power above, 
Holding their silent intercourse 
Onward in their aerial course, 
Forever sparkling pure and bright 
■Mid regions of crystal light. 
The hour when lovers love to meet, 
In sweet embrace, in converse sweet ; 
Whispering love's tale to list^^ning ears, 
Tlieir fondest hopes — their wildest fears, 
When lips meet lips, in raptured bliss. 
In passion's deep and fervid kiss ; 
When heails in rapture fondly blend, 
And dre^m not that such moments end ; 
The swelling breast, the bursting sigh, 
Love wildly beaming from each eye, 
Hand clasped in hand and heart to heart. 
In smiles to meet, in tears to part, — 
Alas I They cannot last for ever; 
Time, chance, or fate may soon dissever; 
Then in those eyes we love are starting 
The pearl v lear-drop shed at parting. 
Gemmed like the morning flower with dew ; 
One last embrace, one kiss — adieu! 

It was the hour when on his cot, 

No more repining o'er liis Tot, 

The toil-worn lab'rer in repose, 

Forgetful of his many woes; 

And every sense is buried deep 

In sweet forgetfulness of sleep. 

No saddening thought obtruding there. 

To fester with corroding care; 

No dreams of dark ambiticm wake 

His senses from their tranquil state. 

Sleei) ^^^ • ^-^^ ^^ ^^^^ beguile, 

For vice would quail beneath that smile 

Which on his lips rests playfully — 

Proof of the heart's tranquillity. 

Not so with those who nursed in power, 

Who boast a kingdom for a dower, 

The wealthy poor, the poorly great — 

The beggar kings of many a state. 

Boasting a long^ncestral line. 

And ruling by a *' right divine ;'* 

The slaves of fortune or of power. 

But seldom realize an hour 

Of j^^entle peace, of tranquil rest, 

Like that which fills the poor man's breast. 

Sleep on I The eye of Heaven will keep 

Its guardian watch upon thy sleep. 

The moon shone soft from its meridian height, 
Bathing the Indian camp with humid light, 
When on the night air, wildly there arose 
A shriek that startled each from his repose. 
Some danger threatened their beloved chief. 
And each m haste drew near to his relief. 
Stricken and low by some strange malady, 
To them unknown, ind knowing not the remedy, 
In vain their prophet chanted incantations, 
Or in their mystic rites' performed oblations; 


In vain their medicine man his knowledge tried^ 
The strange disease his remedies defied, 
And ere the morning dawn the chieftain died. 
In consternation dread, they formed his bier. 
And o'er his grave in silence shed a tear. 
But ere another sun had passed away. 
The chieftain's wife and children stricken lay. 
Each day increased the horror and the dread, 
As throu^ their camp the dire contagion spread; 
It seemed that fate with unrelenting hand, 
Had doomed the remnant of their fated band. 
In vain when, racked with pain, the sufferer cried 
For help from those untouched — it was denied. 
Fear held them spell-bound, palsied every sense ; 
To aid was to incur the pestilence. 

"When writhed the warrior, hadst thou seen 

The conquering anguish on his mien ; 

In the last struggle of his stalwart frame, 

His dauntless courage not e'en death could tame ; 

His longing eyes fixed on his fragile wife. 

So loved, alas! the dismal wreck of life ; 

How as his elazing eyes meet hers in death, 

He heaved a Ditter sigh with his last breath ; 

The last fond look bestowed on things below. 

He winged his spirit's flight to " Manito. " 

And near him his attenuated wife, 

In the last struggle of departing life. 

With deep despair, toi-e from her anguished breast 

The lovelV baby that knew no other rest; 

Lest the wul breath of dire pestilence — 

As yet unstricken — soon might bear it hence. 

While others praved for death, in shrieking prayer, 

And others ravea — the madness of despair ; 

And many a wandering brain, by fever wrought, 

The burning tongue the crystal waters sought; 

Exhausted fell ere they could reach the wave, 

No hand to help them and no friend to save. 

In vain the mother cried, the child, the daughter, 

For one sweet drop, a simple cup of water ; 

While those who reached it with remaining breath, 

Took their last drop and quivering sank in death. 

To us in health, it seemed a little thing. 

To have some friend a cup of water bring ; 

Yet when 'tis proffered unto feverish lips 

Worn by disease, and these its coolness sips, 

Of sweet refreshments, it will give 

Strength to the weak, and make the eye revive ; 

Will give a shock of pleasiu*e to the frame. 

Robbing disease of many a throbbing pain. 

It is a trifling thing to speak a phrase 

Of common comfort, or of little praise ; 

By almost daily use its sense nigh lost ; 

Sweet drop of comfort, at but little cost . 

Yet on the ear of him who thought to die 

Without one gentle word, one pitying sigh ; 

To perish by himself, unmoumed, alone : — 

On such an ear will sympalhy's sweet tone 

Fall like sweet music from the distant spheres. 

And the glazed eyes overflow with crystal tears : 

Relax the knottea hand, and palsied frame, 

To feel the bonds of fellowship again. 

And e'en when death his sad pilgrimage seals, 

'Tis Joy to know tb^JL there is oine who feels, 

That one of the p6«t family is near 

To shed a tear of pity oyernis biar. 

Hin«BT OF 8AOINAW OOinfTT: 3^ 

Not thus the dying savage that laj 

Upon the shore, at Green Point, on that day. 

Those left ontonched by raging pestilence, 

Dreading the awful malady, fl^ hence ; 

8hed on the sufferers one pitying sigh. 

One frenzied look, and left them there to die. 

And when the day was ended, and the night 

Refulgent with the moon's unclouded light, 

And twinkling stars that gemmed the heavens above, 

Looked down upon the scene with eyes of love, 

The solitude was broken by the howling 

Of the fierce wolf, around the stricken prowling. 

These, and the noisome buzzard of the wood, 

Feasted on those unburied by the flood. 

And thus they died ! the beautlfVilj the brave ! 
Some on the river bank, some in its wave ; 
No kindred arm outstretched to aid or save ; 
No hand, alas ! to furnish even a grave ! 
And now as Indian maid, or children glide 
In light canoe upon the silver tide; 
In solemn silence and with recumbent head, 
They pass this spot with undissembled dread. 
And to the ** Spirit Great,** ascends a prayer 
For those who suffered, they who perished there. 

Tills dreadful disease followed the tribe in their wanderings, and 
carried off ffreat numbers of the old inhabitants of Saginaw, in 
May, 1854, desolating their villages in their reserves on the shores 
of Lake Superior. 


Perhaps the best remembered as well as the most extraordinary 
phenomenon was that which took place in December, 1835. On 
Cliristmas day of that year a heavy fall of snow covered the 
frozen ground, which was followed on the 26th by a mist, and this 
was succeeded in turn by a drizzling rain. The rain ceased sud- 
denly, the clouds lowered, grew dark and assumed such appear- 
ances as would lead the spectator to believe the end of the wond to 
be at hand. The storm king at length broke loose, swooped down 
from the northwest in black night, uprooting trees, sweepmg every- 
thing in his track, and carrying with him such a current of icyair 
tliat men and animals not then in shelter were frozen. This 
storm was as sudden as it was strange and unaccountable. It is 
remembered by the old settlers, and forms for them a mark on the 
page of time. 

The comet and wandering star created some excitement in the 
settlement, which soon died away. 


Scarcely two months alter the treaty of Saginaw was signed the 
'^ Black Day '' rose upon the Indians. On the morning of Sunday, 
Nov. 6, 1819y the sun rose upon a cloudy sky, which assuned, a# 


the light grew upon it, a strange greenish tint, varying in places 
to an inky blackness. After a short time the whole sky became 
terribly dark, dense black clouds filling the atmosphere, and 
there followed a heavy shower of rain, which appeared to be 
something of the nature of soap-suds, and was round to have 
deposited after settling a substance in all its qualities resembling 
soot. Late in the afternoon the sky cleared to its natural aspect, 
and the next day was fine and frosty. On the morning of Tues- 
day, the 10th, heavy clouds again covered the sky, ana changed 
rapidly from a deep green to a pitchy black, and the sun, when 
occasionally seen tnrough them, was sometimes of a dark brown 
or an unearthlv yellow color, and again bright orange, and even 
blood red. Tte clouds constantly deepened in color and density, 
and later on a heavy vapor seemed to descend to the earth, and 
the day became almost as dark as night, the gloom increasing and 
diminishing most fitfully. The French traders and Indians were 
more or less alarmed, and many were the conjectures as to the 
cause of the remarkable occurrence. The more sensible thought 
that the immense woods or prairies were on fire somewhere to the 
west ; others said that a great volcano must have broken out in 
the province ; the superstitious quoted an old Indian prophecy 
that one day the Peninsula was to be destroyed by an earthquake, 
and some even cried that the world was about to come to an end. 
About the middle of the afternoon a great body of clouds seemed 
to rush suddenly over the valley and the darkness became that of 
night. A pause and hush for a moment or two succeeded, and 
then one oi the most glarling flashes of lightning ever beheld 
flamed over the country, accompanied by a clap of thunder whicli 
seemed to shake the very earth. Another pause followed, and 
then came a light shower of rain of the same soapy and sooty 
nature as that two days before. After that it appeared to grow 
brighter, but an hour later it was as dark as ever. Another rush 
of clouds came, and another vivid flash of lightning, which was 
seen to strike a tall pine tree near the Indian camp ground. 

A moment later came the climax of the phenomenon. The sky 
above and around was as black as ink, but right in one spot, in 
mid air above them, the lightning rushed in a circle, then forward 
and was not seen again. 6ut the darkest hour comes just before 
dawn. The glow above gradually subsided and died out, the 
people grew less fearful and returned to their homes, the real night 
came on, and when next morning dawned everything 'w as bright 
and clear, and the world was as natural as before. The phenomenon 
was noticed in a greater or less degree throughout the northern 
portion ot the continent. 


^ The tradition of the Indians points out the years 1755 and 1775 as 

^mihe winters of the great snow. These severe storms sweeping over 

e peninsula, within a period of 20 years, destroyed great nuhibers 


of forest animals, the bones of which in after years literally encum- 
bered the ground. Within the pioneer period the snow of 1822-'23 
was the heaviest. It fell to a depth of four feet on the level, and was 
accompanied with such a cold atmosphere that the deer, wolves 
and bears perished before its withering advance. In ISSO-'Sl the 
snow-storms set in early in November, and continued throughout 
the month, destroying the forest animals, and inflicting upon the 
settler many severe trials. In the month of August, 1831, a frost 
set in which brought in its train many serious troubles, and almost 
tempted the settlers to evacuate a land where the climate was so 
eccentric in its changes. 


The meteor seen Nov. 1, 1S5T, at 8 o'clock, passing southward, 
proved to have been a very remarkable one. It was visible at 
various places in the State. It seemed to pass over very nearly 
the center of the peninsula. It was seen at Jackson, Lansing and 
also in Eaton county, and probably very generally througli the 
central part of the State, where it api>eared much larger and more 
brilliant than here, and was followea by a sharp, rumbling sound 
like thunder, supposed to be the report of an explosion of themeteor. 


This strange visitor, belonging to that numerous but erratic 
family whose movements are carefully and correctly noted by as- 
tronomers, and the time of whose entrances and exits is a matter of 
mathematical certainty, appeared to the people of Saginaw on the 
evening of June 30, 1861. Whatever may De its attributes and 
peculiarities, one thing is certain, it had no rivals in the comet line, 
and its sudden and unlooked for debut at that time was the cause 
of much speculation on the part of both learned and unlettered. It 
was first visible in a northwesterly direction, and when first seen 
had the appearance of a bright star. It attracted but little atten- 
tion at first, it being supposed to be a light attached to a kite; but 
directly a train of light shot up which gradually increased in length 
until it passed the zenith. The nucleus, or head, of the luminous 
object when viewed through a glass, presented a very clear and 
sharply defined outline, shining with the brilliancy of a star of the 
first magnitude. Its motion was in an easterly direction, and was 
exceedii^ly rapid, passing over a space of eleven minutes in an 
hour. Tne train oi light extended bevond the constellation Lyra, 
and the center of its extremitv was airectly over the star Yega. 
Its length extended over the immense distance of 100 ^ ! 

It will be remembered that the tail of the great comet of 1843, 
which attracted such universal attention throughout the world, ex- 
tended over a space of only 70 ^ . 



One of the most sublime astronomical events of 1881t— a total 
eclipse of the moon — occurred Sunday morning, June 12. The 
moon appeared above the horizon at about 8:20 p. m. in its usual 
brilliancy. When about two and one-half hours high, it received 
the first contact with the penumbra of light shadow of the earth 
upon its eastern limb, which became slightly dim, and a loss of 
lunar light followed as the moon entered the penumbra. Fifty-six 
minutes then elapsed without further change in its appearance, 
while traversing the partial shadow of the earth; but when the 
umbra or dark shadow of our planet was reached, the eastern 
limb of the moon again darkened, suddenly, almost to invisibility. 
The circular shape of the earth's shadow was distinctly seen when 
passing over the face of the moon. At 38 minutes past 12 the 
moon was wholly within the umbra and the total eclipse com- 
menced. It continued in darkness for an hour or so, and then 
all was the same as usual. 


Immediately after the organization of this county (1837) the 
board of commissioners resolved to pay a bounty for wolf-scalps 
in addition to that offered bv the State. This was a great incen- 
tive to clearing the district oi those destructive creatures. Many 
of the settlers at once took the field, and took rank among the most 
expert wolf-hunters of the land. In the following summary the 
names of wolf-slayers are given from 1838 to 1848. At the close 
of the latter year it is said there could not be found within the 
boundaries of Saginaw county, as now constituted, one wolf lair; 
nevertheless large numbers of the pests visited the district at 
intervals and supplied food for powder as well as subject for 
bounty. The bounty for killing a wolf was $8; so that in the 
following enumeration of the slayers, the number of times eight 
is contained in the number of dollars written, will represent the 
number of wolves killed: — 

In October, 1838, the following wolf-slavers received the 
amounts appended to their names: — Cornelius Wiltsie, $24; Medor 
Tromble, $48; J. B. Garland, $8; Charles Tibbitts, $40; E. Jewett, 
$24; Silas Barns, $8; Antoine Peltier, $16; Peter Loire, $8; Arden 
Moses, $8; A. R. Swarthout, $16; James Tyrrell, $8; Ben. Sever- 
son, $8; Sherman Wheeler, $40; Henry Campeau, $8; J. H. Da\is, 
$16; Roderick Vaughan, $8. This list represents the destruction 
of 36 wolves. 

In April, 1839, Roderick Vaughan killed two wolves; Sherman 
Wheeler, two; and John Malone, one. In July, Douglas Thomp- 
son killed one, and in October Medor Tromble and Leverett 

^ Hodgman caught two. 

m. In Feb., 1840, Charles 8. Tibbitts killed eight wolves} Mark D. 
avasa, one; an Indian, one; Cornelius Wiltsie, five; Wm, Shaw, 


one; Charles Conkwright, one; Alex. Davis, one; Squab-no-kee, 

In 1841 Ben. Goodwin, Medor Tromble and Joseph Tromble 
killed six wolves, the former destroying four of the number. Geo. 
H. Powell and Curtis Goodwin aided in killing one. Na-o-ta 
killed one; Medor Tromble, two; Amos Davis, one; Joseph King, 
four; Cornelius Wiltsie, three; Sa-wa-ban-am, one; Erial Cham- 
berlain, one; Mas-ke-os, one; Pliineas Spaulding, one; Charles 
Conkwright, six; Naug-chig-a-mi, one. 

In 1842 the wolf-scaTpers were led bv Peto-qua-da, one; Sag-e- 
ge-wa-a-se, one; Wm. Fields, four; Ira t Farrand, one; Mon-sus, 
one; Caleb Lincoln, one; Naug-ehig-a-mi, eight; Amgrad Granger, 
two; Wm. Fields, one; Na-zee-ga-kin, one; James Kent, two; 
Phineas Spaulding, four; Medor Tromble, one; Kaw-ga-cum-ego, 
one; Thomas Smith, one; Cornelius Wiltsie, four; Wm. Badgeron, 
one; Sa-can-see-kee, one; Eleazer Jewgtt, one; Pa-ma-wa-tum, one; 
Green Bird killed two, but did not produce the heads, and there- 
fore lost the State bounty. Wo-ba-ge-ma and Saw-waw-bun lost 
the State bounty for the same reason. Mas-ke-os, killed one; 
Pete-wa-we-tum, one; Es-que-bon-e-quiet, one; Pa-ma-wa-ting, one; 
John Davis, one; Wm. Harrison, one; Wm. Fields, two. 

In 1843 B. F. Pierce presented the scalps of two wolves, 
received §16 bounty, and inaugurated the wolf hunt for that year. 
Pay-bo-no-quong and Eleazer Jewett, received bounty during the 
same year, while J. F. Marsac, Naug-chig-a-me, Sang-ge-chi-wa- 
sa, Cornelius Wiltsie and Oliver Davis killed 11 wolves, the 
lx)unty on which was allowed in 1844. 

In 1844 Naug-chig-a-me killed seven wolves; Sang-gi-chi-wa-sa, 
four; Solomon Stone, four; Walter Scott, two; Leonard Scott, four; 
Cornelius Wiltsie, six; Leverett Hodgman, four; A. R. Swarthout, 
two; Wm. Ellis, six; Joseph Tromble, two; John Wiltsie, four; 
Pa-ma-wa-ting, one; J. D. Smith, two; O. H. Davis, two; Mushe- 
won-a-quet, one; Louis Desprau, two; Caleb Gardner, two; 
Edward McCarthy, four; Thomas S. Kennedy, two; James A. 
Kent, two; x^^elson Garey, two. 

In 1845 Medor Tromble, Wm. Puffer, Geo. Whitman, John 
A. Whitman killed seven wolves. In 1846 Osaw-wa-bon, Nah- 
gon-wa-way-donk, Thomas Gardner, Sag-git-way destroyed four. 
James Kent, Osaw-wa-bon, and A-chi-di-wa-bi-dunk, killed four in 
1847. During the year 1848 the wolf harvest reached its climax. 
No less than 16 animals were destroyed during the first six 
months of the year. The slayers were" Saw-wa-bun, A-che-ta\\»- 
wa-bi-dunk, Saw-gah-se-gay, Kin-wa-wa, Ma-ne-gaw-sung, Kali, Ash- 
to-wu-ba-muck, Muck-a-to-ma-sha-way, Saw-wu-no-co-me-go, Pay- 
ma-chi-won, Cornelius Wiltsie, Denis McCarthy, J. Yock. 

In 1849 John and Cornelius Wiltsie, Mechin-e-ny, Sos-wa-way- 
sing, Nock-chig-a-my, Ma-ma-go-gen, Shop-pe-no-gonce, Pa-ma- 
saw-dong, Ba-me-saw, Sa-gi-to, On-me-qua-to, TiMa-qua-wassin, 
Ah-me-ma-ouoin, Sha-naw-bis, Non-o-quom, Israel Marsac, Denis 
McCarthy, Thomas Dalton, and Way-no-quoin killed 32 wolves. 


The woU hunting season of 1S50 was ushered in by Non-a-ouam, 
Kenewoop, Black Elk, Shaw-in-orso-quy, and Anson G. Miller, 
who destroyed nine large wolves. Before the close of 1S52, the 
country was cleared of 46 devastators bv the Indians and settlers. 
Since that period the wolf-hunters enterprise declined, until at 
present there are few, if any, in this county who devote attention 
to the old pastime. 


E. W. Perry, who erected the first saw-mill on Perry creek, a 
tributary of the Cass, entered upon the work of clearing the river 
of drift-wood in 1837. He reported at the time that the obstacles 
must be the accumulated drift-wood of ages, as it occupied the 
time of himself and his workmen for many months to make even 
such a passage as would enable him to raft the sawed lumber to 
Saginaw City, which he contracted to supply to the builders of 
the Webster House during that year. 


On Monday afternoon, Jan. 17, 1859, Thomas O'Hara, and his 
son, James O'Hara, started from East Saginaw, each drawing a 
hand sled with a load of mill feed, on their way home to Swan 
creek. On Tuesday morning they were found in the road within 
two miles of home, the young man was frozen to death, and the 
father so nearlv so that he lived but a short time after reaching 
home. Mr. O'tlara (the elder) had been employed in Whittier 
& Merrill's mill, and is spoken of as a faithful hand. 


How often fires have swept through the forests of the Peninsula 
cannot now be computed. Again and again have they been des- 
troyed — each fire clearing large tracts, and each tract being aeain 
covered with luxuriant forests, different in appearance ana in 
quality from those which were burned. Oak gave way to poplar, 
poplar to pine, and so on in time until the last great fire, 
which swept over the timber countries of the north prior to the 
settlement of this State, made way for the pine woods. The month 
of October, of 1871, will be ever memorable, not only in connec- 
tion with the terrible fire which decimated one of the fairest cities 
of the West, but as well in connection with the destruction 
of vast forests of pine timber throughout this and the neighboring 
State of Wisconsin. In the territory tributary to the Saginaw 
Vallev, the effect of the fires was most disastrous and widelv 
spread. To realize the extent of territory embraced in what is 
known as the ''burnt district," a glance at the map of Michigan 
becomes necessary. Commencing at a point on Lake Huron near 
Lexington, a line drawn across Sanilac, Lapeer and G^nesoe 


comities .to the south line of Saginaw county, thence in a north- 
westerly direction across the State to the north line of Oceana 
county, will mark the southern limits of the destructive fire, while 
all the country north of this line and east of the Saginaw Bay, 
was involved in the conflagration. . On the west side ol the bay a 
line drawn from the north line of Bay county west to, and includ- 
ing Manistee county and embracing all the territory south to the 
iirst given line will give the reader a very good idea of the amount 
of land burned over. According to the closest estimates which 
can be made, an amount of pine timber equal to live years, cut of 
the Valley was destroyed, or in round numbers 4,000,000,000 of 
feet. Of this vast quantity, no doubt a large amount, variously 
estimated at from 300,000,000 to 500,000,000 feet, was watered 
during the following winter, and was saved. The balance of the 
timber was attacked by the insect whose destructive effects are 
always manifested in ''down timber,'' and while available for 
coarse timber for building purposes, was worthless for the nicer 
work to which lumber is applied, its distance from streams render- 
ing it, in its depreciated value, nearlv worthless. The loss in the 
coarser timber, particularly liemlocls:, the value of which was 
then beginning to be appreciated, is beyond computation. 


The 56th anniversarv of Independence was celebrated at Green 
Point, July 4, 1832. l" he idea of the celebration originated with 
Eleazer Jewett, and the program carried out under his direc- 
tion. The people from Saginaw went up the river in a fishing boat; 
the Indians were around in great numbers and admired the first 
reunion of the settlers, if they did not actually share in their enthu- 
siastic recognition of the glorious event which they assembled to 
honor. There were present on that occasion : Thomas Simpson, 
wife and daugliter, Gardner D. Williams, E. S. Williams and 
Mrs. Williams, Daniel Hunter, the Indian blacksmith, and wife; 
Abrara Butts and wife, Sam Russell, John Henderson, Jr., 
Abram Whitney, Charles McLean and wife, Thomas McCarthy. 
Capt. Jeremiah Smith and Wm. L. P. Little, visitors to the Yalley, 
arrived in the afternoon and took part in the proceedings. 

It is not related that this meeting of patriotic pioneers was 
organized ; but the statement is fully verified that every article of 
the Declaration was read by Mr. Jewett, and received with evi- 
dent manifestations of deliglit. 

The entire party were the guests of Eleazer and Mrs. Jewett, 
and the latter alone prepared that happy dinner or little banquet, 
which took such an important part in rendering the great anniver- 
sary of political and military supremacy over England as pleasing 
in this feature as it was patriotic in general. The dinner table used 
on that occasion was tne first introduced into the district, and 
comes down the present time through Mrs. Lee, whose father was 
the original owner. 


From that period to the present time the birthday of the nation 
has been honored. Each year the knowledge of all the Fathers of 
the Republic did for the world is becoming more widely appreci- 
ated ; and, as that knowledge spreads, men look on the day as 
sacred in the calendar — the greatest national holiday, the annual 
remembrancer of all that pure and simple patriotism won for the 
enslaved people of the period and for the generations of the 


Among the great events which have taken place in Saginaw 
county, not one excels in pleasant association that of the celebra- 
tion of the centennial of American Independence. At midnight 
the Fourth was announced by cannon, and, at its dawn, the music 
of the cannon and cliurch bells joined in a welcome to that day 
on which patriotism consummated its desire. Fully 20,000 
people assembled to witness the procession, which moved 
under Cliief Marshal James W. Dawson. On arriving at Farley 
street, the first and second divisions of the East Saginaw proces- 
sion, under C'ol. Geo. Lockley, united ^vith that of Saginaw City, 
and marched to the court-house square, where were erected a num- 
ber of poles with streamers flying, and upon each pole was a 
shield bearing the name of one of the Presidents, and the term of 
his office. Floating from the pole at the Court street entrance were 
the National colors. The stand was erected upon the south side 
of tlie square, and upon the front was placed a portrait of Geo. 
Washington. The entire space between the stand and Court 
street was filled with seats. West of the speaker's stand was the 
stand for the vocalists. 

Hon. D. H. Jerome, chairman of the committee of arrange- 
ments, having called the assemblage to order, the Mayor delivered 
tlie following address : 

'' We have come together, my countrymen and countrywomen, 
in recognition of an event, no less remarkable, no less worthy of 
public observance than the Centennial Anniversary of American 

'* While this auspicious event — so full of common interest, so 
full of historic memories — amply explains this gathering, many of 
you are, in one sense guests of this city. In one sense, all who par- 
ticipate here are guests ; and it falls to me to ofter you a word of 
welcome. To all then, men, women, children, welcome. To the 
citizen, to the neighbor, to the stranger guest, cordial greeting, 
heartv welcome, all. 

'' Something of acknowledgment, too, is due the many who are 
with us from beyond our own borders. And in the expression of 
this general and wide-spread obligation, it is fitting that I should 
uiention the special gratification of our people at so cordial a join- 
ing with us from our prosperous sister citv over the water. (Glad- 
ness and gratitude, not more for the imposing civic and military difi- 

UI8T0BT OF 8 AGIN AM' COtmTT. 361 

play whidi adds so largely to these ceremonies, than for the broad 
spirit of neighborly good will wliich alone could have found so 
graceful ana generous an expression. 

" It remains only for me to direct your attention for a moment 

to the, in some respects, distinctive character of the occasion which 

calls us together. From among the many anniversaries of striking 

events in the early history ot our country, the impulses of the 

^Ajnerican people long ago chose the fourth day of July as their 

national holiday. And its annual observance, with honors and 

cjustoms peculiarilv its own, and peculiarly American, has long 

"been common. The profound interest, tlie national importance 

attaching to the one hundredth anniversary of that day is such, 

lowever, that its special observance with appropriate and peculiar 

honors, has been recommended by the President of the United 

States in public proclamation, made in accordance with the joint 

resolution of both Houses of Congress. And the Governors of 

manv of the States, our own among the number, having issued 

proclamations to the same end. 

''So cordially, so heartily, have the patriotic impulses of the 

Ceople responded to these wise suggestions that this day goes into 
istory as a grand, united national jubilee. Tliis majestic pres- 
ence, wdth its pageantry of national colors, its heraldic emblems of 
our country's progress, is but a feeble part ; a single chord in the 
deep broad chorus with which America greets the years before 
her ; one breath in the mighty tone of thanksgiving and praise 
which swells from the hearts of a great nation of freemen, as they 
hail this solemn hour. AVhen 

Through slonn and calm the years have lead 

Our nation on from stage to stage 
A century's space, until we tread 

The threshold of another age. 

^"Altogether glorious, however, altogether sublime as is this 
common demonstration, how doth its glory fade by the side of 
that other coming together which has marked the progress of the 
centennial year. Awakened interest in Revolutionary annals has 
re-taught the lesson that the fabric whose founding we celebrate 
was the work of all, not part, that Yorktown and Saratoga have an 
equal luster; that Adams and Jefferson, Warren and Washing- 
ton, struggled and fought shoulder to shoulder; and that North and 
South, we are indeed brothers, by a common heroic parentage. As 
one year ago South Carolina and Georgia, through their citizen 
soldiery, joined Massachusetts in commemorating Bunker Hill, so 
onlv last week, at Charleston, the soldiers of New York and Mas- 
sachusetts joined South Carolina in doing honor to the memory of 
the Revolutionary battle of Fort Moultne. And to-day, in Phila- 
delphia, a united band, these comrades, brother citizens and sol- 
diers, bow, elbow to elbow, at the common shrine of American 
Independence. Both proof and symbol that the fulfillment is at 
hand ; nay, is now, of those ringing words of prophecy : 'The 


mystic chords of- memory, stretching • from every battle field and 
every patriot grave, to every living heart and hearthstone all over 
this broad land, shall yet swell the chorus of the Union.' 

''Hail! All hail to that victory of peace which crowns with 
such a halo of glory the triumphs of one hundred years! 

" Fellow citizens, we cannot glorify this day. Nought that 
can be said or done here can consecrate or hallow it. It is rather 
for us to receive baptism of its glory. Rather for us, in the noble 
words of Lincoln at Gettysburg, to this day, ' Highly resolve that 
the nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and 
that government of the people, bv the people and for the people, 
shall not perish from the earth.' '' 

Hon. Daniel P. Foote then addressed the great assemblage in 
one of the most excellent orations delivered during the celebra- 
tion of the day throughout the Union. 

A historical sketch of Saginaw, by W. H. H. Bartram, and a 
poem, entitled "Liberty's Song," written by Mrs. Clark, of Ches- 
aninff, were read. The various events referred to in the former 
are rally treated in these pages ; the latter is as follows : 

liberty's song. 

There is music, feasting, rejoicing, 

An orator's eloquent strain. 
From the lonely star of Katahdin 

To that over Texas plain. 
By Columbia's dashing river. 

From foot to the grand Cascades, 
Through Cumberland's beautifli! valleys. 

To Florida's everglades 

The booming of cannon, resounding 

From the great north lakes of our own 
Is met by responses loyal. 

From dwellers in tropic zone, 
Blithe winds from the golden Sierras. 

Atlantic banners unfurled. 
Then wafted their jubilant tidings 

Triumphantly 'round the workl. 

Where the htart of the gulf stream's throbbing, 

Where there's aught for mankind to prize. 
Where the north wmd rudely whistles. 

Where the soothing south' wind sighs, 
American hands are bequeathing 

Myrrh and frankincense to-day, 
For Liberty's shrine that they're wreathing 

With choicest leaves of the bay. 

With jov undivided they're telling 

Of Adams, Jefferson, Lee, 
And others of dauntless courage 

Declaring these colonies free . 
How the people were hoarse with shouting 

Praise that kings never could call 
By bribes, or the fear of proscription, 

From hearts of suld«c|^ in thrall. 


No triumphant victor in passing 

With trophies 'neath conqueror's arch. 
With princes for slaves from the kingdoms 

Laid waste in blood-sodden march, 
Ever heard such music transporting 

In midst of wildest applause, 
Aa the notes which without exhorting, 

King in our country's " hurrahs/* 

In cabin of brave pioneering, 

At the cottager's humbl^ aoor. 
From velvet, marble and crystal. 

From cheerless haunts of the poor. 
Across the rich teeming prarie, 

And the clover-scented lea, 
From the iron-hearted mountains. 

And the evanescent sea, 
Kuiig out the glaJ chorus at dawning, 

.* We've been a cent a r}* free ! " 

Free from all tribute and tithing, 

Free from foul tyranny's breath, 
Free from conscription and gyving. 

Free from inquisitor's deatn, 
Free from all balel\il controlling 

( )f pulpit, or press, or plea. 
Free as Divinity's image, 

Was here intended to be. 

But scroll of past ages imfolding 

The struggles of free men declaie, 
When fortimes, and lives without stinting. 

Wore given for Liberty's care. 
She r*c'hly repaid their devotion, 

So long* as their hearts were true ; 
When gold was the idol they worshiped 

The angry deity threw 
Them a crown for their pride's destroying 

Peace, and prosperit}' too. 

But proud was the goddess when wearing 

Athenian chaplets of yore. 
For heroes whose deeds were immortal 

Though fading the garlands they wore. 
In iruarding her temples and altars. 

Till stained was her marble and sand, 
With patriot's blood that in flowing 

Extinguished Liberty's brand. ages before Greece was treading 

In freedom's name, under her feet. 
The l)eauty of Spartan women, 

With everything tender and sweet. 
Till her field-trained maidens. 

Brawny, athletic and nude. 
Could in helot's trembling IxxJy, 

The death dealing dart intrude ; 
But bpartan courage divided 

Against itself could not stand, 
And she grew from the first and the bravest. 

To be meanest in all the land. 



Tor IJ ,^ oods"^ 

•ml ffi. " «"" ' . cat »»";?.„ tW .Tst»w» 




buried envy and all uncharitableness. Mourners there are none." 
Benjamin's blacksmith and wagon shop with six men at work. 
"The carriage of 1776.'' An ox cart. Willard Shattuck, with a 
IBuckeye Reaper of 1876. G. Spatz's Bakery. Alex. Hurtubise, 
shoeing a horse, and three other blacksmiths at work. 

These, with all the other features of the procession, rendered it 
one characteristic of the great event which was then being cele- 
T)rated. Here in this northern city the self-same enthusiasm pre- 
vailed which marked the day at the political center of the Union, 
and few there were who did not give thanks to Providence for be- 
iug permitted to be present at the 100th anniversary of the forma- 
tion of the Republic. 


Among the most interesting chapters of a local history is that 
which embraces a list of first events. To such belongs the history 
of everything connected with the county, and in such a list many 
of those events, any one of which would scarcely afford subject for 
a chapter, are noted. Beginning with the vear 1819, when one of 
the brightest characters on the pa^es of Michigan history visited 
this region to negotiate a treaty with the Saginaw Indians, let us 
pass tlie years which have elapsed in review. 

In 1822 the United States troops took possession of the Indian 
campground, and erected the first fort built by Americans north 
of Detroit. During the same year the first deaths were recorded 
among the white inhabitants, a few of the infantry having died 

In 1823 the first white children born in the district claimed the 
old fort as their birth-place and the wives of soldiers as their mothers. 
Han^ey Williams, John Hamilton, E. S. Williams and Schuyler 
Hodges arrived at Saginaw in 1822. 

•^ In 1824 the American Fur Company established the first regular 
trading-post here, under McDonald. Rev. Mr. Hudson was the 
first missionary appointed by the Government to administer to the 
spiritual wants of the Indians. Provencal was the first Indian 
blacksmith. On account of the red man having no "spiritual 
wants,"' Mr. Hudson left the district, while the man of iron re- 

The first deaths among the white inhabitants occurred in 1822, 
when four or five members of the garrison fell before the advance 
of disease. 

First celebration of Independence Day, July 4, 1832. 

The first house was that erected by Louis Campeau in 1816. 

The first farmer, Asa Whitney, purchased his land in 1822, and 
began farming in 1826. 

Dr. C. Little located Saginaw* City in 1822. 

Eleazer Jewett was the first American settler within the county 
as now constituted. Having arrived in 1826, he ma^de it his home 
until his decease. 

The first orchard was set ofifln 1828. 


-- Saginaw township was organized in 1831, and comprised the 
county of Saginaw as then known, the counties of Midland, Tuscola, 
Alpena, Iosco, Bay, Cheboygan, Roscommon, Ogemaw, Gratiot, 
Isabella, Clare, Gladwin and Oscoda. Gardner D. Williams was 
first supendsor. 

The first local roads were laid out by Deputy-Surveyor Jewett. 

The French traveler, De Tocqueville, visited Saginaw. 

In 1834 the first saw-mill was built by Harvey Williams, G. D. 
and E. S. Williams. 

The first frame house was built by Eleazer Jewett, in 1831. 

Miss Mary Jewett, now Mrs. Dr. N. D. Lee, was born Feb. 11, 
1834. She was, therefore, the first white child bom in the county 
within the American pioneer period. 

The first cargo of lumber was shipped from the Emerson mill in 

William Williams, bom March 12, 1834, was the first white male 
child bom in Saginaw county. 

Judge Albert Miller taught the first school in the valley. 

In October, 1835, the county of Saginaw was organized under 
authority of the Territorial Legislature. The plat of Saginaw was 
enlarged and the first map ot the city drafted. Wheat was har- 
vested that year for the first time and sent to mill. A clearing 
was made on the east bank of tlie river. 

C. A. Lull raised the first crop of wheat, in 1835. He brought 
the first sheep into the district. 

The Presbyterian Society was organized in 1836, being the first 
religious association established. 

iSie same year Norman Little purchased the United States' Gov- 
ernment block-houses and military reserve, from Dr. Millington, 
of Ypsilanti. He also brought with him type and newspaper press 
from New York, and projected the Saginaw Journal, The ''Citi- 
zens' Library Association " was formed, and the era of improve- 
ment entered upon. 
^ The first steam saw-mill at East Saginaw was built in 1836. 

The first dock was constructed at Saginaw City in 1836. 

The first boring for rock salt or brine was done by Douglass 
Houghton in 1838. 

The financial crisis was brought under control in 1838. 

The first turnpike road was begun in 1840. 

Tlie first ferry was chartered in 1842. 

E. W. Perry m<ade the first attempt to clear the rivers of drift- 
wood in 1837. 

Tlie same year Nelson Smith built and launched the schooner 
- Julia SmitlV^ 

The first ])lank road to Flint was made in 1850. 

The first sta^•e yard was established by Humphrey Shaw in 1850. 

Tlie first Tniou school building was erected in 1851. 

The first brick-yard was established at East Saginaw in 1852. 

The first secret society organized here was the Odd Fellows' 
lodge, No. 42, in 1849. The first Masonic lodge was formed in 
March, 1854. 


The first select school was established at East Sacinaw in 1852. 

The first steamboat, ''Buena Vista," was launched in 184:8. 

The first German settlement was made under Rev, Geo. Cramer 
in 1845. 

The first efforts to detach Bay county from Saginaw were made 
in 1S55. 

The first bank was opened by W. L. P. Little in 1865. 

Gardner D. Williams was elected first Mavor of Saginaw City 
in 1857. 

Captain Leon Snay was the first white settler of East Saginaw. 

The first association of salt manufacturers was formed in April, 
1859, and the first salt well sunk the same 3'ear. The same year 
the citv of East Sai^inaw received a charter, when W. L. P. Little 
was elected mavor. 

C.W. Grant was the first town clerk of Buena Vista, and Curtis 
Emerson the first supervisor. The former was the first American 
pioneer to settle on the east side in 1^49. 

Tlie first ice-house was built in 1862. 

The first school on the east side of the river was built in 1851. 

The first teacher was ^Miss Carrie Ingersoll. 

The Saginaw street-car track, 2f miles in length, was laid down 
hi 1804. 

Alfred M. Hovt was the first j)0Stmaster at East Saginaw, and 
M. B. Iless the nrst mail-carrier. 

The first birth was that of Lyman Ensign, in 1850. 

The first death which was recorded at East Saginaw occurred in 

The first free bridge across the Saginaw was constnicted in 1878, 
at a cost of $19,000. 

The first business men of East Saginaw were Curtis Emerson, 
C. W. Grant, W. F. Glasby, M. B. Hess, Geo. Hess, Alfred M. 
Tloyt. James Little, Col. W. L. P. Little, S. W. Yawkey, Alex. 
English, John Elsfier, A. Fe^uson, F. H. Kochler, Thomas Wil- 
lev, ^[engo Stevens and Seth Willey. Tlie first lawyers who opened 
oAices there were Wm. L. Webber, J. L. T. Fox and Charles Ilunt. 

The first rail of the F. & P. M. K. K. was laid Au^. 19, 1859. 

The J., L. & S. R. R. was completed in 1867, and the first through 
train from Jackson entered the citv. 

Li 1804 the first bridge was built across the river by the citizens 
of East Saginaw, and in 1865 those of Saginaw City constructed 
another eaually substantial viaduct one mile south. 

The Holly water-works were constructed in 1872. 

The Mayflower mills were built in 1851, being the first flouring 
mill of the valley. 

Warner and Eastman erected the first iron foundrv in 1864. 

The first military encampment was held in the valley in Sep- 
tember, 1860. The commands present were Flint Union Grays, 
Saginaw City Guards, East Saginaw Guards, and the East Saginaw 
Light Artillery, all under CoL T. W. B. Stockton. 





First organization of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Union, Septem- 
ber, 1879. 

What changes have been effected since these events were first 
chronicled are noticed in other pages. The march of progress has 
not for a moment been impeded. Commercial, political, religious 
and social organization has so advanced that eacn has risen almost 
to that standard which the civilization of our time demands. 


Among the many stories in circulation, connected with pioneer 
times, a few have been handed down through the press. That 
there is every reason to believe them is conceded, and as they 
tend to give a good idea of the habits, customs and manners ot 
the early settlers of Saginaw county, as it was known previous to 
1857, they are given in these pages. 


Among the pioneers of Lower Saginaw were Julius B. Hart and 
George Lord. Both gentlemen were the proprietors of fisheries 
on the bay shore, and carried on their fishing operations within a 
short distance of each other, where, in proper season of the year, 
they caught and shipped to Detroit and other points the results 
of their endeavors, often realizing large amounts of money in 
successful seasons, and at other times resulting in "fisherman's 
luck " generally. Both enjoyed, and each knew how to give and 
take a joke. 

One cold bright morning in the fall of 18 — , the two met near 
the foot of Third street, and after passing the time of day, turned 
to separate, when Hart exclaimed, " By the way. Lord, I'd nearly 
forgotten; I was down to the shore this morning, and Joe (Lord's 
foreman at the fishery) told me to tell you that the fish were run- 
ning like blazes, and he wanted you to send him down a lot of 
dressers [men to dress and pack fish], salt and barrels." '' Thun- 
der!" shouted Lord, " Is that so?" and away he sped to pick up all 
the adepts in dressing fish he could find, and in an hour his large 
boat was loaded with fish barrels, salt and men, and ready to start 
for the shore, with Lord along to enjoy the rich harvest in prospect 
awaiting him. Just as the boat was shoved away from the dock 
to sta,rt on her trip. Hart came hurriedly to the dock with, " Hold 
on. Lord; I've just heard from the shore again; the fish have 
8to])ped running, and Joe don't want anything more than he's got." 

Lord saw that he was sold, the boat was hauled to the dock and 
unloaded, and with vengeance in his eye, Lord went home. Weeks 
passed by, and the joke was almost forgotten by those who had 
enjoyed a hearty laugh at Lord's expense. Not so with the chief 
victim, however. His opportunity came at last. The saloon in 

e basement of the Wolverton House was the fashionable resort 

that day, and looking in at the door one afternoon, Lord espied 


Hart at the table with some friends, playing an innocent game of 
'* Penny Ante." While he looked, an Indian entered with a musk- 
rat skin, a commodity in which Hart dealt, and which it is said 
at one time bore the same relation to " legal tender " as shingles 
have often done at a time of scarcity of money. '' Ugh!" said Lo, 
" Jiile Hart, you buy um skin?" " Yes," was the response; ''give 

Ka ten cents; throw him over in that corner; here's your money." 
e Indian took the money, threw down the skin and departed, 
at which Hart turned his attention to the game, which was oecom- 
ing interesting. Lord picked up the skin, and unnoticed left the 
saloon. It was but a few moments before a young boy entered 
the saloon, and sold Hart a rat-skin, throwing it into tne corner 
as directed, and receiving his pay. The game went on, interrupted 
every few moments by a rat-skin trade. Skins came in stretched 
on shingles, on double twigs, and unstretclied. Hart bought them 
all. At last the day was drawing to a close, and the game came 
to an end. Hart arose from the table, remarking, "I've lost at 
the game, but I've bought a thundering pile of skins this afternoon," 
and he threw his gratified eye over toward the comer where his 
skins had been disposited. '' Whew!" was his exclamation, as but 
a single skin met his vision; " who in thunder has stole my skins?" 
Lord, at that instant edging toward the door, remarked, " It's 
been almost as ffood a day for rats, as that morning was for fish. 
Jule Hart saw that he was sold, he had paid out about $5 on one 
rat skin, and Lord was made disbursing officer, to see that the 
price of that skin was duly appropriated for the general good, in 

the manner common to those davs. 



This tribunal did not approach that of the golden age known as 
the Secret Tribunal in extensiveness, though it may have equaled 
it in utility. In the earlier years of the county many good souls — 
intellectual men — sought a vein through which the blood of pleas- 
antry might course, and among other thines formed the Surrogu- 
geon — so named from the fact that one of their number indulgedin 
a lap8U8 linffvue, and in an attempt to name the Surrogate court, 
called it the Surrogugeon. 

It had its faults. Though founded, perhaps, without a thought 
of its efiect upon the moral being of the citizens, it was no less bene- 
ficial in its tendency to nip vice in the bud by checking the pas- 
sions of men. Every little social error had to be scrutinized by its 
officials, and this inquiry was carried out with such a demonstration 
of legality and authority that not a few innocent men came before the 
bar in obedience to its summons. Whatever means were taken to 
uphold its authority, or by whatever influence men allowed them- 
selves to be convicted, punished or acquitted by that tribunal, is a 
mystery. All the terrors of the law proper surrounded it, all the 
finding of jurors or judges were made out in regular form, and in 
fact it differed from the circuit court only in the terrible charact^ 


of its judgments, which consigned its gullible victims to life-long 
imprisonment for some trifling crime, or perhaps imposed upon 
them some ridiculous penance, the performance of which on the 
morrow would both amuse and delight the initiated members of the 


In early days when hotels were scarce, new-comers to the State 
of Michigan were forced to ask favors of the older settlers, which 
would now be looked upon as the heis^lit of presumption. Andrew 
C. was a young lawyer, residing in ttie then small village of La- 

teer, having but recently taken to himself a wife and commenced 
ousekeeping. There was no hotel in the j^lace, and travelers 
oftentimes made use of A. C's. barn, sometimes without as much 
as saying "^by your leave."' A. G. had decided to remove to Bay 
City, and was making preparations to do so, when his barn was 
appropriated by a new-comer to the neighborhood, who put a load 
ot iiav into the loft, and drove a cow into tlie yard to eat the 

"the evening before he left for Bay City, A. C. was in the store 
of the villae:e, and met the Kev. !Mr. Smith, a Congregational 
minister (afier\vard settled in East Saginaw), who had but recently 
taken charge of the little flock about Lapeer. As they conversed, 
Mr. Smith remarked, '" I wish I could buy a good cow. ' — "Do you 
want a cowf said A. C. " I'm glad you mentioned it, for 
tliere's one up at my barn which I can't take away with me. You 
can have her if vou will, and there is a load of hav in the barn to 
feed her with." Profuse were the thanks of the reverend gentle- 
man at so munificent a beciuest. ''But, " said A. C, " 1 must 
tell you about her. She is tlie most peculiar cow you ever saw. 
She must be milked before five o'clock in the morning or you can't 
get her to give down a drop of milk.'' *' Well, I am an early riser," 
said the dominie, ''I can milk lier before five as well as after." 

A. C. moved to Bay City; and the minister was careful to milk 
his cow '' before five o'clock'' each morning, and a noble mess of 
milk she gave, and with liberality was the hay fed to her. Things 
went well for several days, until while milking one morning, the 
parson's ears were shocKcd with the profane expletives of a voice 
which called him a thief, a robber and sundry other pet names, 
which to the minister were simj)ly horrifying. " I've caught you 
at last, you hypocritical, thieving parson; preaching honesty to the 
people, and robbing your neighbors of their milk. I'll break your 

head," etc., etc. Rising from his milking stool, the parson 

faced the irate farmer, who for a time would give him no chance to 
put in a word edgewise. '*But it's my cow, at last got in the 
parson; ''AC. made me a present of her, and of the hay in the 
bam the night before he left." 

Explanations ensued, and as both realized the sell, thejr enjoyed 
a hearty laugh, and were good friends. A C still lives, and 


persists in saying that he enjoys a practical joke and loves to play 
one on his friends. 


The following sketch was written by a grand-daughter, "Lena,-' 
of one of the American pioneers of the valley, and is characteris- 
tic of life in the German settlements of 30 years ago. 

'^The first German settlement made in Saginaw county was at 
Frankenmuth, about 1S45. From Saginaw, by the path through 
the woods, it was 14 miles; but the traveled road, where they 
went with their teams, was much farther. One of the German girls, 
Margaret, came to my sfrandfather's, as a servant, and she was 
such a si)ecimen as is seldom seen now-a-days, — five feet fiv^e in her 
stockings, with broad shoulders, great brawny arms, and feet in 
thick cloth shoes nine by fourteen, lined with sheep-skin with the 
wool on. She always wore a red and black petticoat, and a thick, 
close jacket, ai? did all the German girls. 

'*^ow, Margaret had a lover, and it would have made the most 
sober ]K>rson in the world laugh to have seen them together, for 
this lover was a small, thin, white-haired youth of eighteen, who 
did not look as if he had the ambition of a snail. A erv comical 
they looked, — the tall, strong girl, and the little, thin, weak boy. 
He did not come to see his 'fraulein' verv often, for it was a 
good distance to walk. At last came the time for the wedding; 
niv mother made Margaret a large, frosted wedding-cake; so, with 
this and her bundle, she started for h<jme onu morning, bright and 
earlv. She arrived safelv within a little wav of her home, when 
being tired she sat down to rest. She fell asleep, and when she 
awoke it was dark; being sleepy and bewildered, instead of going 
home, she went squarely in the opposite direction. Great was my 
grandmother's astonishment, when Margaret's lover came the next 
day to see why his 'schatz' had not come home. If she had not 
been home, she must be lost; so men went in every direction to 
search for her. 

''My grandfather was one of them, and the first night he was 
obliged to sleep at Margaret's home. He got into a bed four feet 
long (very comfortable for a man six feet tall), with a feather bed 
over him, as well as under; and he was not without comj)any, for 
under the bed he found a pig, and roosting on slats above the bed 
were the fowls. Very good companions, but not exactly to mv 
grandfather's taste. You can imagine how much sleep he ottainea, 
with the mother wailing in the next room, the roosters crowing 
overhead, the gentle hum of the mosquito, broken by an occa- 
sional bite, and the pig grunting under the bed. 

'•But about Margaret. Three days and three nights she wandered 
through the woods, and at last came out at Portsmouth. She was 
brouglit to Saginaw in a canoe, and the cannon was fired (the only 
one on the river) to let those searching for her know she had been 
found. But not once had she tasted the wedding cake, which she had 


carried all the way, though she was nearly starved when she came 
out at Portsmouth. When asked why she had not eaten it, she an- 
swered : 'Oh, it was my weddinff cake, you know. ' The wedding was 
celebrated a few days afterward, and the quests ate for dinner, out 
of their wooden bowls, soup made of smoked ham and rice boiled 
together, and the wedding-cake." 

THE doctor's man. 

The late Dr. was one who could seldom resist telling a good 

story, even when it turned the laugh against himself. On one 
occasion an Englishman whom he had recently engaged astonished 
him by appearing to wait at breakfast with a swollen face and 
a pair ot unmistakable black eyes. *' Why, John," said he, 
" you seem to have been fighting?' " Yes, master I have," was 
the reply. '' And wlio may your opponent have been? " 
"Why sir. Dr. M.'s man," naming a rival Esculapius. "And 
what did you fall out about?" " Why, sir, he said as you wasn't 
fit to clean his master's shoes." " And what did you say?" " Well, 
sir, I said you was!" 


It is within the recollection of many present citizens ot Bay 
City, and they by no means very ancient in point of years, when 
bears were roaming the woods within its jM'esent limits. An in- 
veterate joker from the up-river village, on occasion of a visit to 
his brother at Bay City (" Lower Saginaw," as it was then) stopped 
at the hostelry of Judge Campbell, who had recently built the hotel 
since known as the " Globe, ' on the corner of what is now Water 
and Fifth streets, although its original size bore little resemblance 
to its present proportions. As ''joker " sat in an easy chair 
toasting his shins by the tire, his brother entered in a hurry with 
a declaration to "joker," "' There's a big bear just out in the 

Guns were always in readiness for sport, and it was but a few 
moments before the joker, led by his brother and one or two 
other friends, were hurrying througli the stumps of the clearing 
which extended almost to Washington street. Cautiously feeling 
their way through the woods, they reach a point not far from the 
]>resent site of the court-house, when joker was shown the bear, 
which proved to be a very large coal-black hog belonging to the 
brother, his pilot. After a good laugh the party wended its way 
back to the house. Joker watched his chance, by the way, to sep- 
arate from the rest, and to place in the gun a charge about 
six inches deep. On reaching the house, the gun was carelessly 
placed in the corner, and the company about the fire indulged in 
a series of jokes, and the enjoyment of a good time generally. 

Presently joker left the house, and went down to tne river bank, 
about in the rear of the present Jennison block, returning after a 


short time with the carelessly imparted information that there was 
" a thundering flock of duct just settled on the river. '" " We'll 
have some for upper," exclaimed his brother; and, seizing the gun 
from the corner, cautiouslv picked his way to a favorite log on the 
river bank, behind which lie was accustomed to lay in wait for the 
feathered tribes. Joker and the rest of the company followed be- 
hind, and watched the si)ort. With the butt to nis shoulder, and 
the barrel resting on the log, sportsman blazed away at the 
innocent ducks. It was hard to tell which end of the gun killed 
most. Sportsman fell back on the ground with his left; hand to 
to his rigtit shoulder, in his agony, asking between the paroxysms 
of pain, '' What in thunder had got into that gun?" Why, you 
foolish fellow," said joker, " you've been trying to shoot ducks 
with a bear charge." All present saw the ])oint of the joke, and 
it is said joined in attempting to relieve the sufferer, by copious ap- 
plications of whisky internally and externally. 


A farmer, not a day's journey from the city, had occasion to ask 
one of his plowmen to go to j)lovv with a pair of horses which had 
not been put into harness. The man excused himself, saying, "he 
wudna buckle wi' them, as tliev war some fashions an' no to be 
tiggit wi'. " Without further argument the fanner went to the 
stable, harnessed tlie horses, took them to the iield, i)ut them in 
the ]>low, and, although he had passed his 00th year and iiad not put 
liis hand to a ])low for fifteen years, did what the young fellow 
(lemurrecl to do, and flnished a day's plowing in capital style. 


Squa-conning creek enij)ties into the Saginaw river but a short 
distance above Kay City, and further than to sav that at its mouth 
it is a creek of considerable size, no other description will be 
needed. Harry C, brother of that old pioneer, our respected fel- 
low-citizen, Ju^ge C, resided in early days at Sagiuaw City, and 
was noted as an inveterate wag and practical joker. Having re- 
turned from a visit to the Judge at Bay City, llarry met a travel- 
ing dentist, who, in his peregrinations, had stumbled into the 
Saginaws, and was operating upon the mouths of the scattered set- 
tlers. * 'Doctor,'' said llarry, ''I've just come up from the mouth 
of the river, and 'Squire Conning wanted me to send you down to 
fix up his mouth. It's a thundering big mouth, and hasn't got a 
tooth in it." Elated with the prospect of a good job, the dentist 
iunij>ed into a canoe (the only means of transit between the two 
places), and paddled to Portsmouth (now 7th ward. Bay City), 
Reaching there, after eighteen miles of paddling, he made diligent 
inquiry for '' *Sauire Conning, "and his uisgust may be better imag- 
ined tfian descrioed when he found that he had passed the 'Squire s 
mouth some miles up the river. 


MAKING A "level." 

Among the first constabulary force of Sao;inaw was one H., an 
old covey, W'ho imagined that what he didn't know was hardly 
worth knowing. Let any one venture to tell him he did not un- 
derstand his business and see what would hapj)en. He was given 
to lisping, whether for the beauty of the thing, through misfortune 
or what not, we are unable to inform the reader; but one thing is 
certain, he did lisp. Coming one day into the shop of Seth W., 
shortly after the election, he was accosted by Setli with, "Well, 
H., how do you get along? Have plenty of business now-a-days?" 
"Yeth thiree," rejoined H., "lotth of it: made one level to-day, 
thir." "Ah, what did vou lew on to-davf' asked S. "Leveled 
on a yoke ot thteerth." Where were the steers," asked ;S. ''who 
owned them^' "They belonged to old Brown, up the Tittabawa- 
thee — were on liisplatlie." "'You've not been there to-day, have 
you! I*ve not mis.^ed you out of town,'* observed S. "That ithent 
nethethary; don't have to gotliereto level; can do itjustath well at 
home. The cattle are allthafe enough, and I know they are there; 
aint that enough I Do you thuppose I don't know what I am 
about ^ You don't fool old H. with anv of vour nonthenth, no 

And tlie in<lignant official left the shop, cursin^^ the stupidity ot 
"thonie folktli.'^ This is what his friend ''Mose ' would call mak- 
ing a "dead level."' 


It was during a certain term of the Circuit Court, when the Hon. 
Judge ^L, of liai)py inemory, was i)residing, that an old man was 
indicted by tlie grand jury on a cliarge of grand larceny. After 
receiving an imi>artial trial he was finally brought in ''guilty " by 
the ]>etit jury. As the Judge was in some haste to leave. — this 
case having been the last one on the calendar — he proceeded to 
pass the sentence of the law upon the ^jrisoner, the jury still re- 
maining in the " box." 

"Mr. B.," commenced the Hon. Ju(lo:e, "it becomes mv most 
painful duty to pass the sentence of the law upon you — a duty which 
I fain would escape ])erforming; yet I often fin<l myself obliged, in 
the course of my judicial duties, to shut all the avenues of teeling 
leading to my heart, and forget for awhile that I possess the sensi- 
bilities of a man. Mr. B., in this case I find my uuty doubly pain- 
ful, for I have known you for many years, and when you occupied 
a high and honorable position in society, and were respected by 
your fellows for your u]>rightness and integrity. But what do I 
see before me to-day? A man made after the image of his Maker, 
with his head silvered with age, found guilty of a crime bv a jury 
of 12 of his own countrvmen. Have vou auffht to sav, Mr. B., 
why the sentence ot the law should not be pronounced upon youT' 

''Judge," blubbere<l the old culprit, " I know that I am guilty; 
that I ought to sufier; that I deserve all, and more too, than the 


law can inflict upon me; but Jud^e, look at that d — d jury. To 
think that such a miserable looking set of desperadoes should find 
me guilty, is more than I can stand; but go ahead, Judge; don't 
let me interrupt you." The reader may imngine the explosion 
that followed this speech, in which the Hon. Judge lost a little of 
his '' specific gravity." 


A notice in one of the county journals tells of a tomato whic h 
was raised in the Valley that year. It shows that duty rose above 
private interests in that office. Carter should have presented it 
and thus obviated silent profanity. ''A big tomato 21 inches in 
drcuraterence and 7 inches in diameter, weighing 3^ lbs., 

was brought to our office by George Carter and carried 

it away again. He was kind enough to show it to the boys; for 
which he lias our thanks/' 


When tlie early denizens of ihe Vallev started out on a duck 
hunt, a trip down the river, or into tlie woods, the powder, ball 
and shot were not more es-ential elements for success or comfort 
on the expedition, than was the jug or bottle ot whisky. This was 
of course in the times wlien everybodv drank whiskv and no 
evil was thouglit, whatever may have resulted from its use. Gard- 
ner Williams, '^ Lixa Boga" and Major Mosebv (all long since 
departed this life) jumpe<l into their canoe at Saginaw City one 
afternoon and pa<ldled down the river to Masho s house, which 
was situated not far from McGraw's present mill. It was late when 
they started, and the shades of night came on hmg before they 
reached the liead of Crow Island. Meantime, sundrv lunches had 
been taken from the jug in the bow of the canoe, and all was 
merry. At last the voyagers concluded that they must be almost 
down to Masho's, and began to scan the shore. The rice marshes 
near Willow Island were taken for those which led to Masho's, 
and carefull}' they ])ulled themselves through the long grass, won- 
dering what had become of the eagerly sought-for dwelling. All 
night they worked among the tall grass, until the gray light of the 
morning disclosed to them the fact that they were seven miles 
from Masho's, and that their sanguine hopes had been more the 
wonderful eftect of their brown jug in dispelling distances, than a 
reality. It was breakfast time wlien the three wearied and dis- 
pirited men reached their destination, where the justice done to 
their breakfast was good evidence that they had been disappointed 
in their supper of the night before. 


Harry C. was the most popular school teacher in the Saginaw 
Valley, and for many years ^' taught the young idea how to shoot 
straight," in the humble school-house at Saginaw City. Finding 


his scholars disposed on one occasion to be unruly, he coaxed them 
to obedience by the promise of a sleigh-ride as soon as snow came. 
The promise was enough, the unruly youths knew that it would not 
be forgotten, nor yet neglected ; for their teacher always kept his 
word, whether it was to rewjard or punish. Good order and dili- 
gence in study resulted, and all looked forward with impatience to 
the advent of the winter. At last it came, a good snow-storm 
made glad the hearts of the youth, and ere many days the announce- 
ment was made that the sleigh-ride would take place on a certain 
afternoon. The long lookeu-for hour came at last, the expectant 
and hilarious scholars were gathered at the school-house, awaiting 
the coming of the teacher with the team. At last he came in 
sight, and such a team, and such a shout as the scholars raised, 
as Harry drove up to the school-house door, with a diminutive 
donkey hitched to a jjair of bob-sleds! They piled upon the 
boards, boys and girls together, and they had their ride, and if 
thev did not make Goldsmith Maid's time of 2:16, the survivors of 
the present day assure the writer that at the rate of two miles in 16 
hours, it was tiie most laughable and enjoyable sleigh-ride of their 



However strange it may appear to the people of the future to 
learn that amid the industrious people of the present time a pecul- 
iarly lazy character known as the '' tramp'' existed, the fact of its 
existence remains. 

John Sharp, a genuine member of the genus ''Tramp,'' was 
arrested by an officer of the Saginaw police^ force, and placed in the 
lock-up. As usual, before entering this palatial abode, his pockets 
were searched. On his person were found three silver-plated 
spoons, one marked ''Mc. ;" one entirely new improved Phcenix 
tnroat anatomizer, manufactured by Widaul, Tatham ct Co., ot 
Philadelphia, a pint-and-a-half b<)ttle of horse liniment ; one shirt; 
a piece of tapestry carpet about a yard long, and nine cents in 
money ; also a begging letter to the clergy as follows : 

Rev. Sir. — ram just ulter comiug out of the hospital, where I have been for 
some lime witli the ague, and being a perfect stranger, I want to get to Bay City 
where I can gel a boat. I hope you will be so kind as lo \^n<\ me a trifle t'» help 
me; and may God ble^syou. Jack Thompson. 

The tramp of ls80 cannot be surpassed. Endowed will a 7ian- 
chala7ice as terrible as his laziness is revolting, he spends his days 
in a semi-barbarous condition, oblivious alike to the opinions of 
gods and men. 


Just below Sai!:inaw City lives an old French settler, a happy 
type of the genial and happy class, one M c, not unknown 



to the older residents of Hamtramek and Detroit. He has resided 
here many years, and gained his living bv hunting and farming 
and acting at times as interpreter. His talk is a perfect case of 
non seguitnr, his delight being at times to get ideas into prorimity, 
having no relation one to the other — producing at times an effect 
which would defy the gravity of a puritan elder. A few years 
afi:o, during the Mexican war, at an independence celebration, 
;r2[— c, becoming patriotic, volunteered the tollowing as his senti- 
ment: "De peoples on do Mexico — I hope dey all get licked like 
do d — ol aint itf ' The applause which followed had no equal in 
that days rejoicings. 


Visions ot 2:40 were before mo vesterday, as in company with 
G. D. W— , N. L— , C. E— and t. W— , 1 entered W.'s iamily 
sleigh for an ice ride to Zilwaukie, Portsmoutli, Lower Saginaw, 
Bangor, and ''as far as the ice would permit." The river was as 
glare as a French mirror plate, and the sharp-shod ponies shoved 
along over it with tight rems and loose traces, at a pace that defies 
pursuit from any tiling less than a '^quarter horse.'' There are few 
sensations more invigorating, especially when the enjoyment is 
not j)alled by too frequent habit, tnan an ice ride of twenty miles; 
under a clear, Ijright winter's sun,, with a bracing air, a spanking 
team, and a jovial com])any. All these I had, and I longed for 
nothini|^ more than to have had along F. W. 13 — , Barney C — , 
M — , B — , and a few more of the fast pony and horse men, who 
go down the Kiver Rouge to trot, and pretend to call that ice to 
trot a horse on. 

THE Indian's whisky bottle. 

Some of these Saginaw In<lians are intense wags in their way. 
One of them having given a trader some annoyance, was told that 
in case he was seen again with a bottle, it would be tjiken from 
him and thrown in to the fire. A few davs after, the Indian 
appeared with his pint flask in his blanket as usual, but the 
trader was as good as his word, and demanded the bottle, which the 
Indian gave u]> and started for the door. The trader threw the 
tiask into the stove upon which, whang went the stove, and out 
went the windows, the trader following close behind. The next 
time that man burns an Indian's whisky bottle, he will examine 
it, to see that it is not of ''Dupont's'' make. 




The geological formations of the Lower Peninsula vary little 
from those of New York, Western Canada and Wisconsin. The 
first, the oldest formation, exists in the Upper Peninsula. Its rocks 
point out to the geologist the fact of its antiquity, and enable him 
to conclude that, if it is not actually tlie nucleus of this continent, 
it is at least coeval with the first formations. It has been stated 
that the land reaching from Trenton Falls to Saratoga was the firet 
that appeared above the sea on the creation. Here are the trilo- 
bites in great variety, all modeled in black marble, so perfectly 
preserved in form that the multitudinous lenses of their eyes are 
as apparent under the microscope as are those of a living fly. 
Millions of years before man walked the earth these creatures lived 
their life; the limestone took on their forms; they had become ever- 
lasting stone millions of years before there was a living man to see 
them. Of late years, however, the o])inions of many men are in 
favor of locating the first upland north of Lake Huron, extending 
through Southwestern Canada to New York State. This is known 
as the Laurentian system^ and is characterized by granite, gneiss 
and Syenite rocks. It existed long years before the drainage of 
the great sea, and was old even at the beginning of the Silurian 
era. Approaching nearer to the Yalley^of the Saginaw is the Huron 
system — something bearing the same relation to geology that the 
''Iron Age" does to history, from the fact that its mean character- 
istics are iron ores, quartz, chlorites, and all the rocks peculiar to 
the northern iron mines. A^e mav not be said to have aided in 
the formation of these ores; nor is it within the scope of the geo- 
logical knowledge of the present time to decide definitely as to the 
period or manner of their formation. 

There are numerous systems and groups of rock connected 
with the Upper Peninsula, and with the northern portion of the 
Lower, entire! v unknown in Central and Southern Michigan. It 
is stated by W^inchell, Rominger, Hall, and some of their review- 
ers, that the ''grou]) of rocks which form the Lower Peninsula of 
Michigan, being like so many oblong saucers one within the other, 
depressed in the center of the State and outcropping at the edges, 
comprise, first, or lowest, the dolomitic limestones which are re- 
garued as the Helderberg group of New York. These are the 
oldest strata, whose outcroppings are found in the Lower Peninsula, 
and the lower portions are regarded as the bottom of 8ome lagoon 




in the old Devonian ocean, which in drying up lias deposited its 
saline properties in the form of rock salt. The next two saucers 
represent the Hamilton and black shale groups. Above or within 
there is another group whose only outcroppings are found around 
Saginaw Bay ana on the pastern shore or Lake Michigan. This 
is known as the Waverly group, and is formed of the salt-bearing 
sand rock, which is the source of the Saginaw brine. It is a sea- 
shore rock. Prints of sea weeds are found in it, and sharks' teeth, 
some of enormous size, and also the remains of enormous reed 
trees, are found, testifying to the proximity of land. Hence we 
can infer that the waves of that Devonian isea, whose rocky bottom 
was far below, here dashed against the shore and deposited their 
brinv burden for our use. 

'' Let us understand that the formation wliich gives the most 
valuable salt brines in Saginaw Valley is now named the Waverly 
group by Dr. Kominger, State Geol«)gist, and consists of a series of 
sandstones and blue and red shales amounting from 1,00^ to 1,- 
200 feet in thickness. This formation commences Jit the bottom of 
the gypsum formation and extends downward to the black shales 
as seen at Sulphur Island, Tliunder Bay. Indications of solid rock 
salt have never been found in anv of the salt wells of Saginaw 
Valley; but the outcrop of this XVaverly group'' on the eastern shore 
of Lake Michigan is composed of sand drift, some GOO feet in thick- 
ness, which has long ago been deprived of its salt. Kecent borings 
at Manistee, in the northwestern part of the State, passed through 
the 000 feet of sand, then into the soft shales of the Huron group, 
then into the limestones of the Hamilton group, and lastly of the 
Ilelderberg group, striking, at. the distance of 1,950 feet from the 
surface, the rock salt of the old Devonian ocean, and corresponding 
in all probability, to the rock salt of Goderich. In making these 
borings, brines of various strengths were found at different depths, 
but all below a depth of 1,400 feet. A well has quite recently 
been projected at Cheboygan. This point being in the Helderberg 
formation, there are grounds for supposing that borings will de- 
velop the same results that have been obtained at Goderich, Can- 
ada, where six strata of rock salt have been found.'' 

The period of the formation of underlying rocks from ocean 
sediments may be taken; upon which to base a geological inquiry. 
As has been stated, the Laurentian system formed tlie only land 
upon this continent at that time, and all south of what is now 
known as the line of the Canadian Pacific railroad, north of the 
Huron and Georgian waters, formed the interminable ocean. This 
relation of the land to the sea was maintained until the close of the 
completion of the corniferous gri)up, when the uplifting of the sea- 
bottom formed a broad belt of land in the southern part of the 
Peninsula, together with a narrow belt, connecting it with a similar 
formation in Southern Ohio. At this time all central Michigan 
was submerged; but as yeai*8 rolled on, the belt of land widened, 
and continued to expand, until, at th^ beginning of the formation of 
the coal rock, the greater portion of the Lower Peninsula rose 


above tlie waters and formed the marshes which ultimately re- 
solved themselves into coal beds, and kindred rocks. By the time 
the coal formation was established, the Peninsula was all upland. 
Lakes Michigan, Erie and Huron were not in existence: but, as 
Prof Winchell remarks, "A stream flowed along the tracts, which 
have become the site of these lakes." 

A great geological a?on passed while such a condition of the sur- 
face existed. We know that it was a vast succession of ages 
marked by mild climates, luxuriant vegetation and active animal 
populations, progressivelv advancing in the scale of being. This 
was the mesozoic ajon/ The Tertiary age came next and was 
marked by the growth of the mastodon, elephant and hundreds of 
large animals, as well as by the diminution of the reptile species. 
The physical characteristics of Saginaw did not vary much then 
from those of its pioneer days. There were forests then as vast as 
those which covered the bosom of the land in 1819. In the course 
of time one wide glacier sheet buried the country', and the Green- 
land of the present time was pictured here. This glacier, esti- 
mated to be one mile in depth, dissolved before the sun of the 
geological summer, and left behind its wealth of " boulder drift," 
** Modified drift," and the thousand vestiges of its existence. Sub- 
sequenth^ the country was deluged almost throughout its entire 
area. The barrier at the mouth of the Niagara river had not been 
then worn down, and the water, set back as one great lake from the 
bluffs of Lewiston to Detroit and westward still to Chicago. A 
broad channel continued from the present site of Saginaw Say up 
the valley of the Shiawassee into the Grand River valley and 
westward to Lake Michigan. All the country north of that line 
was insular, with a channel from 156 to 175 feet in depth, separating 
it from the main land. Inland from this point, barriers existed 
wliich partly dammed, for a time, the waters resulting from the 
melting of the glacier; the cold water accumulated in large inland 
lakes over many of the central and southern counties, and were 
congealed by the severity of the winters to a depth of three or 
even more feet. 

Around the borders of those lakes, and on shoals, the ice became 
consolidated with the underlying bed materials. Along the south- 
ern border, the Hamilton corniferous limestonesT occupying the 
surface were thus attached to great ice sheets. The return of 
spring renewed the dissolution of the glacier, and the water so dis- 
engaged rushed to the inland lakes. Those swelling in resp<mse to 
new accessions, burst their icy coatings, and the liuge tables of 
stratified limestone, to which the ice-coats were attached, were 
raised up and floated with great ice-rafts before the southern 
breeze to the north, where s])ring-tinie dissolved their attachments 
and permitted them to settle, llie era of submergement was not 
of long duration, as the waters, seeking release from their prisons, 
wore out the stubborn sand and rocks, reduce<l Niagara itself, and 
rushing through their conquered ga]>s, reduced the flood materially 
an<l left the present confines of the great laKes to be almost de- 


finable. The valleys of the Shiawassee, Raisin, Huron, Saline, 
Grand and other rivers point directly to the great aqueducts of this 
period, and leave little room to douot theconclusioijs of geologists 
m this connection. Among all the formations there is not one 
holding a higher place in economical geology than the Michigan 
salt group. This consists of beds of clay and shale, with a lime- 
stone strata thinly intercalated and a bed of gypsum ffbm 10 to 20 
feet in depth. It may be considered the main reservoir, which 
supplies tlie wells along the Saginaw river. The brine is remark- 
ablv strong, mixed with a few parts of chloride of calcium, bromine 
and other substances. The bitter waters as they come from the 
salt blocks, contain chloride of calcium, chloride of maffnesium, 
and a trace of the bromide of magnesium. By proper manipulating 
these can be separated, and are used in the manufacture of cement, 
artificial stone, and also in drying houses for the preservation of 
fruit. Bromine from the bromide of magnesium was manufactured 
in 1868, by Dr. Garrigues. 

Geologists have asserted that the coal measures of the State un- 
derlie the counties of Saginaw, Shiawassee, Ingham, Jackson, 
etc. Experimental researches have been made in the counties of 
Tuscola east, and Shiawassee south of Saginaw county, but with 
limited capital, and without developing coal in paying quantities. 


comprises almost all the orders known in the Northern States. Of the 
130 orders represented in Michigan, fully 110 are common in the 
Valley of the Saginaw. The represented genera within this county 
are estimated at 370, comprising 850 species. New and beautiful 
flowers are added annually to the pioneer garden beds of the valley; 
wild flowers appear and fade, many beautiful colors, remembered 
by the old settlers, have disappeared within the last decade, and 
thus one of the most beautiful features pf nature is undergoing 
marked changes. 


The changes wrought by time have lightened the task of treating 
the zoological features of the county. All the great animals of the 
forest known to the pioneers have ceased to inhabit the district; 
the remains of the pre-historic animals are hidden beneath the for- 
mations of ages; the millions of reptiles which preceded the great 
summer lie Duried hundreds of fatlioms down. All that is left to 
remind us of uncultivated nature are the beautiful birds which visit 
the county periodically or make it their home. Of these feathered 
denizens, there are about 250 species known within Saginaw county. 
Of these birds a large number liave been seen only at long inter- 
vals; others have been seen once and disappeared, such as the 
summer red bir<l {Pyranga cestiva). The Connecticut warbler 
(Oporomis dgilis) is one of the most recent settlers and evidently 


intends to make the county his home. In the following list many 
birds never hitherto mentioned as belonging to this portion of the 
State, are named and placed in tlie class to which they belong. 


Family Sylviadae. — PoUoptiUi cervlea. — Blue-gray gnatcatcher^ 
a common summer resident. Regulus ccdendxda^ or ruby-crowned 
kinglet, is a spring and fall visitor, which spends the winter in the 
Southern States. Regulm satrapa^ or the golden-crowned kinglet, 
is found everywhere during the spring and autumn months. 

These being woodland birds, seek a home here and create the 
envy of the other families by the beautiful structures, or nests, 
which they build in the hemlock, oak or elm forests of the land. 
The eggs are three-eighths of an inch long, white in color, speckled, 
and dashed with umber and lilac. 

Family Turdidue. — The robin, or Tiirdm migratoriu8^ is a resi- 
dent during spring and autumn, and even throughout mild winters. 
The wood tlirush, or Turdm rwustelinus^ is a common summer bird. 
The hermit thrush, or Tu7'dus pallasi^lms been found breeding dur- 
ing the spring and fall. Tlie olive-backed thrush, or lurdiis 
iwainsoni^ is very common during the spring and fall. Wilson's 
thrusli, or Turdiisfmcescens^ visits the county during spring, and 
in some instances builds its nest here. The brown thrush or 
thrasher, Haiporhynchxi^ rufu%^ resides here during the summer 
months. The catbird, or Mmus carolinensis^ come in large num- 
bers during the summer. The first and last mentioned may be 
seen in orcliards and around barn-yards; the others in willow thick- 
ets, berry bushes, and round brush-heaps, where they build tem- 
porary nests. 

Family Saxicolidae, — The blue bird, or Sialia sialis^ is found 
everywhere during spring, summer and autumn. It nests in de- 
caying trees, fence-posts, and feeds upon worms, grasshoppers, 
spiders and berries. 

Family Sittidae, — White-bellied muthatch, or Sitta caroUnensiSj 
is a common resident. The red-bellied hatch, or Sitta canad^nsis^ 
comes here to spend the spring, summer and fall. It nests in 
holes in trees, and feeds upon spiders, ants, insects' eggs and 

Family Paridae, — The titmouse, or black-capped chickadee, the 
Pants atricapillus of the Europeans, nests in the woods during fine 
weather, and comes into the city or village to spend the winter. 
It thankfully receives all the crumbs which fall trom the tables ot 

Family Certkiadae. — The brown creeper is the only representa- 
tive here. It dwells here all the year round, finding a storehouse 
in the forest to lay up animal and vegetable food, in the shape of 
insects and seeds. 

Family Troglodytidae has six representatives here. The Caro- 
lina wren, though a straggler, is well known. He comes from the 
south, where he is known as Thryothorus Ivdovidam^ua. 

^1 CL/'-t/ae((° ^^^t^ciL0<_ 


Bewick's wren, or Thryothorua bewickil, appeared here • for the 
lirst time very recently. His advance from the south was gradual. 

The house wren, or Troglodytes cedon^ is found in large num- 
bers in the central townships of the county. 

The winter wren is a well known visitor, sometimes spending 
the winter in the valley. He is known by the telling title Anor- 
tkura troglodytes. 

The long-billed marsh wren, or Telmatodytea palustrisj builds 
a suspended nest among the marsh-reeds or in sand grass. There 
he remains during the summer and then migrates. 

The short-billed wren prefers meadow land and builds a large 
nest in a secure place. This familv of miniature birds feeds upon 
insects, gra8shopj)er8, snails, moths and other delicacies. 

Family Sylvicolidae comprises no less than 33 representatives 
in Saginaw county. The black and white creeper nests beside a 
fallen tree, — the blue yellow-winjjed warbler m the tree-tops of 
swamps and heavily timbered land. The blue-winged yellow war- 
bler is a rare visitor. The blue golden-winged warbler remains 
here during summer and breeds in low, damp woodland. 

The Nashville warbler, orange-crowned warbler, Tennessee 
warbler, yellow warbleK, black-throated green warbler, 
blue warbler, Blackburnian, yellow-rumped, black-poll, bay- 
breasted, chestnut-sided, black and yellow. Cape May, prairie, 
yellow-throated, Kirtland's, yellow red-poll, pine creeper and per- 
haps two or three other species of the warbler family, are well 
known visitors. 

The water thrush, short and long billed, and the redstart be- 
long to the family, and are common here. 

Ine Connecticut warbler, a stranger here until 1881, the Mary- 
land yellow-throat, the mourning, the hooded fly-catcher, black- 
capped fly-catcher, Canada fly-catcher, all favorite warblers, are 
beginning to make the county their home. 

This is the second family in importance among the birds of North 
America. Their food consists chiefly of insects, varied with fruit 
and berries. They peep into crevices, scrutinize the abodes of the 
insect world and never suflfer from want. This family is the 
scourge of the orchard and oftentimes destroys fruit fields of great 

Family Alavdidae — ^The homed lark, or Eremophila alpestris, is 
a winter dweller here and nests during the close of the cold sea- 
son. There is another species of the homed lark, which leaves on 
the approach of winter. Both build their nests on the ground, 
breed in April, and play around the farm yard or over gravelly 

The titlark belongs to the family MotacilUdae. They flock 
hither in tens of thousands during spring and often remain until 

Family Tamagridae. — The scarlet tana^er,or Pyranga rvhra^x^ a 
common visitor. The summer red-bird, hitherto referred to as a 
recent explorer of the North, is very rarely seen here. 



Family Ampdida^, — The Bohemian wax-wing, or Ampdia 
yarridxis^ is a recent and rare visitor. The cherry oird, or Caro- 
lina wax-wing, breeds here in August and September. They feed 
upon apples, cherries and berries, but are not numerous enough 
to cause anv great anxiety to the pomologist. 

Family IStrundinidae comprises the barn swallow, the white- 
bellied swallow, the eave swallow, the sand swallow and the pur- 
ple martin. These birds destroy myriads of winged insects, and 
make them their principal food. The swallow, though not so 
showy as her gaudy neighbors, confers more real benefit upon the 
peopie than any otner member of the bird tribe. 

Family Vireonidae comprises the red-eyed vireo, brotherly-love 
vireo, or Vireo philadepriicus^ warbling vireo, yellow-throated 
vireo, solitary vireo and white-eyed vireo. They feed chiefly on 
insects, dwell in the forests, and seldom as they come to town, are 
in a hurr}'- to return to their rustic homes. 

Family Lanidae, — The great northern shrike, or Collurio bore- 
alis^ sometimes remains here to breed, but is not such a perma- 
nent settler as the loggerhead shrike, which makes its home here 
the year round. The white-rumped shrike is seen here during the 
summer months. They are very quarrelsome among themselves, 
and savage toward other birds. They impale their victims on 
thorns and leave them there until driven by nunger to eat them. 

The Family Corvidae is becoming extinct, or at least, very un- 
common here. During the present year the few which visited left 
suddenly, contrary to all precedent. This birds are omnivorous, 
and comprise among others the raven, crow and blue jay. Their 
evil ways are almost compensated for by their good qualities, and 
some are inclined to believe that the benefits they confer are far 
in excess of the damage they do. 

The Family Fringulidae is the most extensive known in the 
States of the Union. It is graminivorous, except during the breed- 
ing season, when it feeds itself and young on insects. The rose- 
breasted grosbeak is the only member of the family which feeds 
upon the potato bug. The white-crowned sparrow's food is the 

f rape-vine flea-beetle; the fox-sparrow and chewink search out 
ybernating insects and snails; tne English sparrow, a recent im- 
migrant, feeds on seeds; the purple finch and crossbills feed on 
oily seeds and the seeds of pine cones. 

The names of the varied representatives of this tribe, are: The 
pine grosbeak, purple finch, white-winged crossbill, red crossbill, 
red-poll linnet, mealy red-poll, pine linnet, goldfinch, snow bunt- 
ing, Lapland longspur. Savanna sparrow, bay-winged bunting, 
yellow-winged sparrow, Henslow's, Lincoln's, swamp, song, chip- 
ping, field, clay-colored, white-throated, white-crowned, fox, and 
English sparrows. The latter bird was introduced here in 1873-'4. 
The blue-oird, martin, swallow, and other sparrows have to fly be- 
fore the approach of their legions. The lark, finch, black-throated 
bunting, rose-breasted grosbeak, the indigo bird and the Towhee 
bunting, or chewink, are not so destructive as the English spar- 


row; they have their uses; but it is likely that when the people 
realize the importance of the destruction of the imported sparrow, 
the whole family will fall with that branch. 

Family Ictendae. — ^The bobolink, cow-bird, red- winged black- 
bird, meadow lark, rusty grackle, crow black-bird, Baltimore and 
orchard oriolei belong to this family. The cow-bird destroys the 
eggs and youne of stranger birds. The oriole feeds on hairy cater- 
pillars during Uie season of breeding; this bird is of service in the 
orchard, and for this service she accepts the first small fruits and * 
other luxuries of the garden. The other members of the family 
may be termed gregarious; they feed on the seeds of weeds, oats, 
wheat, com, and on flies and insects. 

The Tyrannidae jFamiZy subsist almost altogether on flies, which 
they pursue and capture in the most open places. The pewee 
ana king-bird pursue their victims in the lignt of day, and even 
should it escape for a time, it eventually falls before the lance of 
its pursuer. The family comprises the king-bird, wood pewee, 
phoebe bird, together with a half-dozen fly-catchers, variously 

The Caprimvlgidae Family comprises the whippoorwill, or An- 
trostomvs vociferus^ which is a common summer resident here, 
and the night-hawk, another well-known summer bird. They are 
given to '* jay-hawking," and select the night for seeking their 
prey. Then thousands of grasshoppers, moths, beetles, winged 
insects and flies become their prey. The chimney swallow cap- 
tures its prey upon the wing in a similar manner; but it belongs 
to the Cypselida^ family. 

The Mcedinidae, — The only representative of this family in the 
county is said to be the belted king-fisher, which comes here in 
summer to spend the fishing season. If it does not at once succeed 
in catching one of the finny tribe, it is capable of abstaining until 
success crowns its eftbrts. 

The Trochilidae. — This family is well represented here by the 
humming-bird. This is an animated cluster of emeralds and 
rubies, which comes to delight the people in May, and continues 
with them until September. 

Ouculidas, — ^The only member of the 6^i/(?MZi^ residing here dur- 
ing the summer months is the black-billed cuckoo, which comes 
to visit the woods and orchards of the State in the middle of June, 
and remains until harvest time. 

The Picidae Family^ as represented here, is composed of seven 
species of woodpecker, known as the downy, the nairy, the Arc- 
tic black-back, the yellow-bellied, red-bellied, red-headed, and 
f olden-winged. The family subsist on timber insects, fruit, 
erries and green com. The yellow-bellied woodpecker is very 
destructive to apple trees; he sucks the sap of trees in some parts 
of the Union, but owing to the length of winter in Northwestern 
Michigan, he has no time to do much mischief here. 

The Strigidas Family comprises the barn owl, great horned owl, 
long-eared owl, short-eared owl, snow owl, hawk owl, sparrow owl, 


AuJ Acadian owl. A few of these are very common residents here, 
ch^ last named is an immigrant which settled here in 1879. All 
tbrm the noctunral branch of the raptorial species, and select for 
their prey rats, mice, fish, frogs, chickens, birds of all kinds, 
and sometimes young pigs. Tney have their uses. 

The Falconidae JFarmly is comparatively extensive, and is fully 
repi'esented here. It includes the marsh hawk, white-tailed kite, 
sharp-shinned hawk, goshawk, Cooper's hawk, pigeon hawk, spar- 
row hawk, red-tailed hawk, red-shouldered hawk, broad-winged 
hawk, Swain son's hawk, rough-legged hawk, the fish-hawk, and the 
bald eagle. They are birds of prev which select day-time for car- 
rying on their operations. The fisli-hawk will eat only fish. The 
bald eagle's favorite food is carrion and fish. When his taste 
leans toward fish, he generally makes a descent upon the fish- 

Family Cathartidae, — The turkey buzzard, or Cathartes aura^ is 
common in the county during July and August. They are entirely 
carnivorous, and come here after the period of incubation has 
been passed in the Southern States. 

Family Mdeagridae is represented here by the wild turkey. 
This bird was well known here in olden times, but has now almost 
ceased to be a resident. 

Family Tetraanidue is peculiarly one of game birds. It 
includes the partridge or runed grouse, the quau and the prairie 
chicken. Tne quail is a common resident of the county, and 
appears to attain its greatest size here. These birds subsist on the 
various grains, seeds, berries, buds, grapes and chestnuts. They 
form a family of large and beautiful birds, but incapable of being 
thoroughly domesticated. 

Family Columhidae includes the wild pigeon and Carolina dove. 
The latter resides here during the greater portion of the year. 
The pigeon is thoroughly graminivorous in its tastes, and in this 
respect differs from the family Tetraoiiidae, 

Family Phalaropodidue comprises the northern phalarope and 
Wilson's phalarope, two migrants whicli build their nests here at 
long intervals. 

Family Charadridae^ or the plover tribe, is represented here by 
thekilldeer, semipalmated, piping,golden and black-bellied plovers. 
They feed upon mollusks, water insects, grasshoppers, beetles, 
etc. This family is inferior in size to its European kindred. 

Family Ardsidae includes the great bittern or Indian hen, the 
little bittern, the great blue, great white, green and night herons. 
These birds are summer residents, with the exception of the night 
heron, which dwells here the year round. 

Family Gruidae^ represented here by the sandhill crane and 
the whooping crane. Js either of these birds breeds here, and they 
may be set down as common stragglers or "tramps." 

Family Colymhida^ is very small. Only two representatives are 
found here, viz. : the common loon, well known for many years 
and the black-throated loon, a recent visitor. To form an idea Of 


the quickness of this apparently unwieldy bird, one must make an 
Attempt to capture him alive or even to shoot him. During travels 
in the Northwest the writer found three specimens of the family 
living quietly in a lakeside nest. 

Family HaUidae^ or rail tribe, is comparatively well known 
here. It includes the Carolina rail, Virgmia rail, Florida ffalli- 
nule, and coot, all common summer birds ; together with the black, 
yellow, king, and clapper rail, rare summer visitors. 

Family Za/rida£ comprises all the terns and gulls known in the 
temperate zone of our continent. The birds of the tribe common 
to Saginaw county are the herring gull, the ring-billed, the laugh- 
ing, and Bonaparte's gulls. The forktail gull is an uncommon visi- 
tor. The terns best known here are the marsh, Arctic, least, 
black, Forster's, and Wilson's. 

Family Podicipidae^ or grebe tribe, comprises the homed grebe, 
pied-billed grebe, common residents ; together with the red-necked 
and eared grebe, a class of rovers which direct their flight hither 
at long intervals. 

Family Anatidae is perhaps the best known and most useful of 
the feathered race. It comprises the goose, duck, widgeon, teal 
and merganser. The birds of the tribe common to the county are 
the brant and Canada goose, tlie mallard, black, pin-tail, gadwall, 
wood, big black-head, little black-head, ring-necked, poachard,. 
canvas-back, golden-eye, butter-ball, long-tailed, Labrador, ruddy 
and lish ducks, the rea-breasted merganser, the hooded merganser, 
American widgeon, green-winged teal, blue-winged teal, and the 
shoveller teal. 

Tlie Family Scolopacidae includes the woodcock, American 
snipe, red-breasted snipe, upland plover, long-billed curlew, stilt 
sandpiper, semipalmated, least, pectoral and red-backed sand- 
pipers, Willst, greater yellow legs, lesser yellow legs and solitary, 
spotted and bun-breasted sandpipers. All these birds are common 
here. They are all "waders," and subsist on aquatic insects, grass- 
hoppers, mollusks, crustaceans, etc. 


The New York bat and brown bat are common. The mole shrew 
visits the gardens and appears to be quite at home in the county. 
The common mole is found in the low lands, and the star-nosed 
mole in dry and wet lands throughout the county. 

The Fam/ily Fdidae is represented here by the wildcat. Until 
recently the animal was abundant in the Valley. 

The Family Canidae is represented by the red, black and gray 
foxes. The two latter are very rare now; even the former, once 
so abundant, is fast passing away. The wolves were all killed off 
manv years ago. 

The Family Mustdidae comprises the brown weasel, the Richr- 
ardsonii^ or little ermine, the white and least weasels, the common 
weasel, the mink, the otter, and the skunk. Even these animals, 
once so common, are being thinned out. 


The Family Urmdae is represented here by the raccoon, the black 
and white coons. This year fiome fine specimens of the family 
were captured and brought under notice oi the writer. The black 
bear roves into this county at times. 

The Family Sciuridae comprises the fox, gray, black and flying 
squirrels, the common chipmunk, the striped gopher, and the 
woodchuck. All are common here, with the exception of the com- 
mon gopher, which has wandered away to the more open counties. 

The Family Muridae includes the common mouse, the jumping 
mouse, the harvest mouse, deer mouse, meadow mouse, short-tailed 
meadow mouse, the brown and black rats, and the muskrat. These 
are all found within the county. 

The Family Cervidae is still represented here by the Cervus vir- 
gimanius^ or common deer. 

The Leporid/ie family is well represented by the common rabbit 
of the land. 

The bear, wolf, lynx, and all the other Camivora have left the 
county forever. 


In the wanderings of the Mound-Builders the Peninsula was not 
overlooked. Here are many evidences of their coming and their 
stay. In dealing with their occupation of Saginaw Valley it will 
be necessary to extract the following from a lengthy paper, pre- 
pared on the subject, by W. R. McCormick: 

" My father emigrated with me to the Saginaw Valley in 1832. 
My associations were mostly with the Indians, whose language I 
became very familiar with. For several years I was engaged in the 
fur trade, during which time my business was to go up the several 
tributaries of the Saginaw to buy furs of the Indians, and on nearly 
all such occasions I found indications that the Saginaw and its 
tributaries had been densely populated at some remote period by 
another race of people prior to the Indians. 

" On the blun just below the city of Flint there were, 48 years 
ago, when I first saw them, eight large mounds, which I saw 
opened. They were from 20 to 40 feet in diameter and about five 
feet high. When opened they were full of human bones, all of 
which were in a better state of preservation than in any mounds I 
have examined. We found one shin-bone with a flint arrow em- 
bedded in it and broken oflf, showing that it was part of the leg of 
an Indian killed in battle. We found no implements but pieces of 
flint. The bones indicated a larger race of people than the pres- 
ent Indians. 

"We now proceed down the Fl nt river until we come to the high 
bluff* one mile above the village of Flushing, on the Bailey farm, 
and examine the mounds at that point which I shall designate as 
the Bailey mounds. I first saw tnese mounds opened in 1833 or 
1834. At that time this farm was one dense forest. I think there 
were about 20 mounds, great and small, some 40 feet or more in 


diameter and six feet high, with pine trees growing on the top of 
them as large as those in any part of the forest. We found upon 
opening the largest one that it was full of human bones. The skel- 
etons did not appear to be arranged in any order, but had been 
thrown promiscuously together before they were covered, leaving 
hardly a doubt but they had been slain in some battle. The bones 
were too much decomposed to find any marks of violence upon 
them. Subsequent events in after years have confirmed my belief 
that this once populous race of the Saginaw Valley had been exter- 
minated by another race of people. 

" From the Bailey mounds we will resume our explorations 
down the river. At several points, always in the elbow of the river, 
and also always on the blun where you could get a view up rmd 
down the river, there would be two or three mounds, but of not so 
large dimensions as those above until you reach a point about 12 
miles below. There, contrary to the custom of the Mound-Builders, 
you find on the east side of the river and on the flat nearly 100 
graves, which tradition says are those of Indians, all of whom died 
in one day and night with some sickness which the Great Spirit in 
his anger had sent amongst them. This must have been some 
epidemic, for we know that when the Indians have had the small 

Sox or any other contagious diseases amongst them they have all 
ocked together. In tlieir tradition of this incident thev say it was 
their own nation, over 100 years before that time, whicli was then 
in 1835, and not the Mound-Builders. 

'' Some 10 miles further down the river, having seen only a few 
small mounds, we come to the old Indian fields — now the Ross 
farm, but formerly the residence, in an early day, of the old 

fioneer, James McCormick. This land was given to him bv the 
ndians — their white brother, as thev used to call him — and was 
on the Indian reservation. Here there were four large mounds 
together in the elbow of the river on the bluft', like the Flint and 
Bailey mounds heretofore described, and several more on the fiat 
below. The bones in these mounds were very much decomposed, 
especially those on the flat which I helped to plow down myself; 
so that when they were exposed they crumbled to pieces. This 
was no doubt owing to the diflerence of soil, the ground being 
much lower and subject every spring to overflow of the river. But 
I have no doubt all the mounds are nearly of the same period. We 
plowed up in those mounds a great variety of stone implements, 
which were carried oflf by curiosity seekers. 

'' Proceeding down tlie river to the mouth of the Tittabawas- 
see, at a place formerly called Green Point, a favorite camping 
ground ol the Indians in olden time and where they had their com 
fields, quite a distance back from the river on the prairie, contrary 
to all previous experience, we discovered two very large mounds. I 
think when I first saw them in 1836 they were 60 feet long and 30 
wide by four or five feet high. They are on very low ground and 
subject everj' ®P^^8 ^^ ^® inundated by the river, and for con- 
venience I shall cau them the Green Point mounds. I also saw 


one after it had been opened, and the whole interior appeared to 
be of a whitish substance, evidently of decomposed Indian bones, 
the decomposition being more rapia than for the same length of 
time elsewhere, owing to the lowness of the land and the overflow 
of the river. What the relic hunters found in these mounds I 
never ascertained. 

''We now proceed up the Tittabawassee river some four miles, to 
tlie farm on which the late James Fraser first settled when he came 
to the Saginaw Valley, where there is one very large mound, which 
I shall call Eraser's mound. This is also situated on the bluft' in 
the elbow of the river. This mound comprises nearly half an 
acre of ground. Xo one ever imagined this to be a mound until 
some years since, when the river had worn away the bank and the 
ice in the spring had torn away the side so that the bones fell into 
the river. 

''From this point we will proceed up the Cass river to the farm 
of A. Lull, now tlie village of Bridgeport, which is about six 
miles from East Saginaw. Mr. Lull informs me that there were 
several mounds there. And I have been informed by the old In- 
dian traders that when they first came to the Saginaw Valley, at 
the bend of the Cass where the village of Bridgeport now stands, 
there was also a regular earth-work fortification, comprising sev- 
eral acres. I have never examined these mounds, but have got 
my information from M. A. Lull, who is an old pioneer, a mem- 
ber of this society, and from other old settlers. The present In- 
dians say this fortification was built by another race of people be- 
fore the Indians came here, and that they were more like white 
peo])le, as they made kettles and other dishes of clay. I have in 
my possession several S])ecimen8 of pottery, which I have taken 
out of mounds. 

"On the Saginaw river, toward its mouth, when we come to 
what is now the corner of Twenty-fourth and Water streets in Bay 
City, where the Center House now stands, we find the old McCor- 
mick homestead. Here were two large mounds in the garden, 
which my father plowed and scraped down. They contained a 
number of skeletons, stone axes, knives, and quite an amount of 
broken pottery. Some thirty rods below, on Water street, 
between Twenty-second and Twenty-third streets, is an elevation, 
the highest on the river, on which is located the Bay City brew- 
ery, Barney hotel, the residence of W. R, McCormick and other 
residences, comprising nearly two acres. I wish to describe this 
elevation as I saw it, in a state of nature, over forty-five years 
ago. For many years it was considered to be a natural elevation 
of the land, but subsequent excavations have proved it to have 
been constructed by some remote race of people. 

"When I first became acquainted with the location it was cov- 
ered with a dense growth of timber, with the exception of the 
mound and about an acre and a half in the rear of it, where the 
earth was taken from to build the mound. It was then a duck pond, 
with water three feet deep, grown up with alder bushes. In 


grading Twenty-second street through the north end of the mound, 
some years since, we found at a depth of 11 feet three skeletons 
of very large stature with large earthen pots at the head of eacli. In 
excavating for the cellar of the Bay City brewery, we found at the 
depth of four feet the remains of Indians in a good state of preser- 
vation, with high cheek bones and receding forehead, while, below 
these again, at the depth of tour or five feet, the remains of a 
more ancient race, of an entirely difterent formation of skull, and 
with those burned stone implements and pottery were found. * I 
have been unable to preserve any of these skulls, as they crum- 
bled to dust when exposed to the air. I found one skeleton in a 
sitting position, facing the west, with a very narrow head, and long, 
as if It had been compressed. I laid it aside in hopes to preserve 
it, but in a few hours it had crumbled to pieces. This mound is full 
of the remains of ancient pottery and small stones that have been 
through the action of fire. A friend of mine found an awl made 
of copper which was quite soft with the exception of about an inch 
from the point which was so hard that a file would scarcely make 
an impression on it. This seems to me to show that the Mound- 
Builders had the art of hardening cop])er. We also find that they 
had the art of working in metals, as we will show. This comprises 
the mounds on the east side of tlie Saginaw river. 

"We will now pass over to the west side near the mill of More, 
Smith & Co. There was here, 4.") years ago, a mound just 
above the mill about 100 feet across in a circular form and atout 
three feet high. Originally it must have been much higher. I 
have never examined this mound, but have understood from old 
settlers that there was a great many stone implements found in it. 
The plow has nearly leveled it, so that it is scarcely noticed any 

"The mound which was located near the west end of the De- 
troit & Bav City railroad bridge, for reference I will call the 
Birney mound, as it is located on the lands of that great phil- 
anthropist, the late Hon. James G. Birney. This mound was not 
so large in circumference, but much higher than the one just no- 
ticed. In this were also found human bones, in a much better 
state of ])reservation than any of the rest. I procured from this 
mound a skull with a hole in it just above the temple bone, pro- 
duced by a sharp instrument, which undoubtedly caused death. 
This skull I presented to J. Morgan Jennison, of Philadelphia. 
It was of an entirely dift'erent formation from the Indian skull of 
the present day, as it did not have their high cheek bones nor 
their receding forehead, but a very intellectuariy developed head, 
showing that it was of a difierent race of people from the Indian. 
Some years since some boys were digging in the side of the 
mound, as they had often done before, to get angle-worms for 
fishing, when they came across a small silver canoe, about five 
inches long. A gentleman who was fishing with them, ofi'ered 
them 50 cents for it, which they accepted. After cleaning it up, 
he found it to be of exquisite workmanship, with the projecting 


ends tipped with gold. A rough copper kettle of peculiar shape 
and maKe, having been wrought into shape by hammering, witn- 
out any seam, was also taken from one of these mounds, and is 
now in the State capitol amongst Mr. Jennison's collections of 

''The next mound was about half a mile up the river, and for- 
merly stood in the center of Linn street. West Bay City, but has 
been graded down many years since. I was not there at the time, 
but was informed by others that it contained human bones and 
stone implements. Charles E. Jennison, a pioneer of Bay City, 
informs me that he duff up two skeletons many years ago, in tne 
side of this mound. lie found with the skeletons two copper ket- 
tles, which he has still in his possession. I am inclined to think 
these were not the remains of the original MoundrBuilders, but a 
race of a subsequent period. 

''We now proceed a half-mile more up the river, to the rise of 
ground in the rear of Frank Fitzhugh's grist-mill. This eleva- 
tion, 4r5 years ago, when I first saw it, was the most picturesque 
spot on the Saginaw river. Here was also a beautiful spring of 
cold water, and was a favorite camping ground of the Indians. 
It was also, according to the Indian tradition, the original site of 
the Sauk village, and where the great battle was fought when the 
Chippewas exterminated that nation. This I will call the Fitz- 
hugli mound, as it is on the lands of Frank Fitzhugh. This eleva- 
tion, comprising two or three acres, was always thought to be 
natural; but I am satisfied from recent excavations, and a low 
place to the southwest, that the earth has been taken from this 
point to raise the mound higher than the surrounding land, and 
that it is, therefore, mostly artificial. Then again, tne land ad- 
joining on the north is a yellow sand, while on the south the land 
fell oil abrupth', and is composed of the same kind of soil as the 
mound, black sand and loam, from where the earth was taken. 
I am now speaking of this mound as it appeared 45 years ago. 
Since then the railroad company have excavated a part of it for 
ballasting up their road, and many other excavations and altera- 
tions have taken place, so that it has not the same appearance it 
had when I first saw it. Some years since Mr. Fitzhugh, or the 
village authorities of Wenona, now West Bay City, excavated a 
street through this mound, which brought to light many relics and 
proved beyond a doubt that this eminence was a mound built in re- 
mote ages. A great many skeletons were exhumed, together with 
a great many ornaments of silver, broken pottery, stone imple- 
ments, etc., and, like the McCormick mound on the opposite side of 
the river, was full of broken stone which had been through the ac- 
tion of fire. 

"There are also four fortifications on the Rifle river, in township 
22 north. They contain from three to six acres each, containing 
several mounds of lai'ge size. They are also situated on the 
bluft's. The walls can yet be traced, and are from 3 to 4r feet high 
and from 8 to 10 feet wide, with large trees growing upon them. 


A friend of mine opened one of these mounds and took from it 
a skeleton of larger size than an ordinary person. He says he also 
saw several large mounds on the Au Sable river. 

'*I have thus given the societv an idea of how these mounds ap- 

§ eared before the hand of man Iiad destroyed and leveled them 
own. Many of them can yet be seen, but the plow has helped 
to level many of them, with the exception of the Fraser, Fitzhugh 
and McCormick mounds. And to prove that the last three are arti- 
ficial and not natural is the fact that in the rear of all these are low 
places, showing where the earth had been taken from to build the 
mounds, which had taken the work of years. Again, the soil on 
the mounds differs from the soil around them, with the exception 
of the low places referred to from where the earth was taken; and 
finally, the most convincing proof of all is that you can dig 
down until you come to the original surface and will find various 
kinds of stone implements, broken pottery and great quantities ot 
stone broken by the action of fire. And in no part of the valley 
will you find those relics except in those mounds. The main ob- 
jection to my theory is, How could so large an elevation and of 
such extent be built by so primitive a people as the Fitzhugh, 
Fraser and McCormick moundsi? but more extensive works have 
been found in Butler county, Ohio. I account for so much small 
broken stone being in these mounds by the manner in which they 
cooked their food. As their pottery was not made to stand fire, 
the stones were heated and then put into the vessels to cook their 
food, which occasioned their breaking to pieces when they came 
in contact with the water." 

That the valley of the Saginaw was inhabited at the time when 
Egypt, the East Indies and trie Chinese Empire wallowed in luxury 
cannot be questioned. That it was settled when the Delaware 
filled its valley to overflowing ; while yet the lands south of it 
were covered with the waters of a great lake, may be taken for 

f ranted. Its settlement may have occurred prior to the age of the 
leanderthal man; but that it was accomplisned in later days by 
the Mound-Builders, or their kinsmen, the Cave-Dwellers, must 
be conceded. The dej^osits, the depth at which relics have been 
found, the repetition of soils, impressions in rocks and location of 
boulders and fire-stones — all indicate its occupation by that race 
of beings which has lefl only mute memorials of their stay to 
guide inquiry. 


Tlie region of the Saginaw presents a comparatively level appear- 
ance, which does not vary even in the valley proper. The Saei- 
naw Ridge, known to geologists as the western limits of the Lake 
Erie of ancient days, runs through the county, and forms a continu- 
ation of the 'Make ridge" running southeast through the southern 
townships of Washtenaw to the beginning of the formation in 
Monroe county. When the settlers nrst entered this district the 


beech and maple flourished along this eminence, with the more 
sturdy pine lorests stretching away on each side. Since that 
time the trees have disappeared beneath the advance of the lum- 
ber-man and agriculturist, and what formed the fairest portion of 
the wilderness is now transformed into the most productive and 
richest grain garden in the valley. Along the Saginaw and 
Tittabawassee the lowlands are simply musKeg formations — ^rich 
in everv component of soil, but so liable to inundation that their 
utilization as farm lands must be brought about by the labors of 
another generation. 

Throughout the county there are many acres of marsh land easily 
drained and capable of high cultivation. Great advances have 
been made in this direction during the last quarter of a century. A 
large portionof the tract on which the city of East Saginaw now stands, 
was, within the memory of the pioneers, aland of reptiles and miasms; 
but the reptiles disappeared before the advance of man, the slug- 
gish waters flowed on through channels made by enterprise, a few 
short years sufficed to convert the muskeg into solid land, and a 
few more to render it fit for the erection of the vast buildings of a 
great northern city. 

The soil is all that the farmer could desire. A deep, dark, 
sandy loam, with a yellow or blue clay subsoil, is found through- 
out the valley. At mtervals a small boulder formation may occur, 
but generally tlie rich soil is free from rock. The land approaches 
that of the Red River valley in almost every particular, notwith- 
standing the fact of its pine production, and as capable of produc- 
ing cereals as is the alluvial soil of the treeless and inhospitable 
Northwest. Within the limits of the county are several thriving 
towns and villages, every one with its circle of lumber, salt, and 
agricultural resources. Important rivers and streams course 
through the county, each forming an avenue of prosperity. 
Railroads spread out in every direction, communicating with the 
older and auUer world beyond the woods, and bearing to that 
world large supplies of lumber and salt and even grain — all 
wrung from the bosom of this land. Enterprise directs all, — ^from 
the newly built log cabin to the great marts of the two cities of 
the county, business rules supreme, winning men from thoughts 
of idle hours to the higher and nobler ones of building up a new 
land, of serving others of the present, and preparing for those of 
the future while winning for themselves a competence and the 
honors to which their industry and enterprise entitle them. 


of the district comprise the Sac-haw-ning, or home of the Sacs; the 
Onottoway-se-be-wlng^ or river of the Onottoways, now called Cass 
river; t\\Q Pe-wa-ne-fjo-inhse-he^ or YWnX river; the Tit-ta-ba-was-see, 
or river running j)arellel with the shore; the Shiawassee^ or beauti- 
ful stream; the 0-gah-haw-ning^ or Pickerel river, now called the 
Kaw-kaw-lin; the Mich-te-gay-ock'^^ the Ma-qua-norke^ee^ or Bear 


creek; the Che^oy-gun\ Matchisibi^ or Bad river; Mis-sorbossihi^ 
or Hare river; Zau-wis-haw-ning, or Bass river; Squci-havming^ or 
Last Battle river. 


forms the great receiver of all these rivers and streamlets. The 
Cass flows into it from the east; the Tittabawassee from the North- 
west; the Flint and Shiawassee from the south, — all contributing to 
render the Saginaw a great navigable river. The length of the 
river proper is estimated at 25 miles, and with its great foeders and 
neighboring streams, drains 3,390,400 acres. The estimated length 
of these feeders is set forth as follows: The Cass 125 miles, the 
Flint 103 miles, the Shiawassee 95 miles, the Bad 54 miles, and 
the Tittawabassee, 105 miles. The Saginaw pursues a northeast- 
erly course and flows into the head of Saginaw Bay. It varies in 
depth from 15 to 20 feet, and its average width is 240 vards. The 
banks of the river are in some places bold, while in otners they are 
low and skirted with wet prairie. Numerous bayous or extensions 
are formed by this river and its tributaries, in some instances ex- 
tending miles into the country. Long years ago these extensions 
were bordered with a plentiful supply of wild rice, and formed a 
camp ground for wild fowl. To this time the rich and fertile valley 
of the Saginaw is indebted for its wealth, its wonderful growth and 


has its source in Sanilac county, whence it flows 'southwest, and 
forms a confluence with the Saginaw, three miles south of the city. 
Like the main stream, its banks are steep in some places and low 
in others. Along its entire length of 125 miles, so much driftwood 
accumulated that up to the clearance of a drive-way in 1837 by E. 
W. Perry, even travel by canoe upon its waters was impracticable. 


takes its rise in Eoscommon county, and flowing southeasterly, 
forms a confluence with the Saginaw near the city. The average 
depth of the river is about 10 teet, and its average width about 
140 feet, throughout its entire length of 105 miles. The oldest 
farms of the historic period were established on the banks of this 
river by the American pioneers, and there are suflicient evidences 
that in the distant past the mysteriouspeople who dwelt in the 
land formed their garden beds there. Tiie Tittabawassee Boom 
Co., organized in 1864, commenced operations immediately, and 
within a few years placed several miles of boom upon its waters. 


has its source in Lapeer county, whence it flows in its Seine-like 
course, and joins its waters with the Saginaw a few miles south of 



Saginaw City. In 1831 this river was so completely filled with 
flood-wood that it was impossible to bring a ooat down stream. 
About that year Eleazer Jewett loaded a flat-boat with lumber for 
building his house opposite Green Point, but owing to such ob- 
structions he was compelled to haul the boat ashore, attach his oxen 
to it, and have it thus portaged past each mass of drift-wood. Like 
the other streams, it has been cleared of obstructions, and now 
forms a link in that chain of waters on which wealth is floated to 
the Saginaws. 


This river is 95 miles in length from its head waters in Living- 
ston county to its confluence with the Flint or Saginaw, a few 
miles south of Saginaw City. The river is all that its name implies; 
along its banks are numerous happy homes, highly cultivated 
farms and valuable forests. 

The Missabos, or Hare river, with its tributary, the Bad river, 
flows northerly and forms a confluence with the Shiawassee 12 
miles south of Saginaw City, after a course of 54r miles. 


Cheboy creek rises in Tuscola county, and flowing in a north- 
westerly direction, through the townships of Blumfield, Buena 
Vista and Zilwaukee, enters the Saginaw above Bay City. 

Squahauning creek (south branch) rises in the township of Koch- 
ville, and flowing northeasterly enters the Saginaw river about six 
miles from the mouth. In aadition to these streams are Beaver 
creek. Swan creek and numerous streamlets. 


W. L. Webber, in an address delivered before the Farmer's In- 
stitute of Saginaw in 1877, Quotes Prof. Winchell as follows: 
" Viewing the peninsula as awiiole, we discover, first of all, a re- 
markable depression stretching obliquely across from the head of 
Saginaw Bay, up the vallev of the Saginaw and Bad rivers, and 
down the Maple and Grancl rivers, to Lake Michigan. This de- 
pression attains nowhere an elevation greater than 72 feet above 
Lake Michigan. This elevation is in the interval of three miles 
separated, the waters flowing in the opposite directions. * * * 
It is obvious that when the lakes stood at their ancient elevations, 
their waters communicated freely across this depression, and 
divided the peninsula into two portions, of which the northern was 
an island. This depression, for convenience of reference, may be 
designated the "Grand Saginaw Valley." 

Mr. Webber proceeds: "Assuming this as a correct definition 
of the Valley, so far as this depression has eastern slope, in other 
words, that portion the waters of which flow into the Saginaw river 



and Bay to constitute the Saginaw Valley, we have a territory 
well entitled to the terra of ' Grand Saginaw Valley.' Its extreme 
length north and south is something over 125 miles; its extreme 
breadth about 120 miles. That portion of it, the waters of which 
drain through the Saginaw river proper, comprises about 170 town- 
ships, as per Government survey, over 6,000 square miles, and 
over 4,000,000 of acres. If we add that portion which is drained 
into the Saginaw Bay through streams which do not empty into 
the Saginaw river, like the Kawkawlin, the Rifle, Au Gres, etc., 
it will increase the size of the valley by about 50 townships, mak- 
ing a total of about 220 townships, — about 7,800 square miles. 
• ^' The Saginaw Valley is the largest in Michigan. Grand river 
valley is next in size, and that contains about 150 townships. It 
was in 1831 that the French philosopher, DeTocqueville, visited 
the Saginaw Valley. He came to see nature untouched by civil- 
ization. He wanted to see the forests in their primitive condition. 
Inquiring at Detroit of Maj. Biddle, the register of the land office, 
as though he desired to purchase land, he inquired indifferently 
toward which side of the district the current of emigration had up 
to that time least tended, and received for answer, ' Toward the 
northwest. About Pontiac and its neighborhood some pretty 
fair establishments have lately been commenced, but you must not 
think of fixing yourselves further oft*; the country is covered by an 
almost impenetrable forest, which extends uninterruptedly toward 
the northwest, full of nothing but wild beasts and Indians. The 
United States proposes to open a way through it immediately, but 
the road is only just begun and stops at Pontiac. I repeat that 
there is nothing to be thought of in that quarter.' 

''DeTocqueville came; for it was this quarter that he desired to 
visit. He came, crossed the Saginaw river, and landed at the 
point now known as 'Saginaw City,' which then contained 30 
persons, including men, women, old people, and children. While 
at Saginaw, concerning his views of the present and future, he 
wrote as follows: ' In a few years these impenetrable forests will 
have fallen; the sons of civilization and inaustry will break the 
silence of the Saginaw; its echoes will cease; the banks will be 
imprisoned by quays; its current, which now flows on unnoticed 
and tranquil through a nameless waste, will be stemmed by the 
prows of vessels. More than a hundred miles sever the solitude 
irom the great European settlements, and we are, perhaps, the 
last travelers allowed to see its primitive grandeur.' 

"Think of it! Only 46 years ago, no highway from Detroit 
into the Saginaw Valley! A road had been but just begun, but it 
stopped at Pontiac. The advice which Maj. Biddle gave to De- 
Tocqueville seems to have been the advice which was given to all 
who desired to settle in the then Territory of Michigan. Northwest 
from Detroit was not to be thought of. The heavy forests shut 
out the sun, the face of the country jgenerally level, the water- 
courses choked with logs and brush. The eftect was that the waters 
were not carried away by evaporation, and only slowly found 



their way into the principal streams, leaving the surtace of the 
ground to a considerable extent wet. It was reputed as an un- 
healthy country to settle in, fevers and agues were supposed to 
lurk in its forests, and nothing but the wealth of its timber tempted 
men to wish themselves injside its boundaries. A few years nave 
changed not only the face uf the country, but its reputation. The 
population of all the territory embraced within the valley (over 200 
townships) at the different periods, is substantially as follows: In 
1840, 12,290; in 1850, 28,621; in 1860, 72,597; in 1864, 85,258; in 
1870, 152,141; in 1874, 184,346. 

*' Concerning the health of the valley, lean speak, after 25 
years' residence, and I have no hesitation in saying that its aver- 
age healthfulness will equal that of any other portion of the State. 
Tliere are many, even among the people who reside in the south- 
em portion of our own State, who suppose Saginaw to be very far 
to tlie northward. In some way — I do not know how — they have 
associated Saginaw and Mackinaw together, and imagine that they 
are near each other, when in fact they are 150 miles apart. They 
do not understand the geography of their own State, and this being 
so, we cannot wonder tliat those who do not reside in Michigan 
should labor under a like erroneous idea. As a matter of fact, the 
geographical center of the lower peninsula of Michigan is, on the 
authority of Prof. Winchell, to be found on section 24, in township 
13 north, of range 3 west, being in the township of Code, which is 
the southeast corner town of Isabella county. If a line be drawn 
fi:om the straits of Mackinaw to the south boundary line oi\ the 
State, its center will be on the same parallel with the central por-- 
tion of the Saginaw Valley. Mackinaw is about 46^ ^ north lati- 
tude, the southern boundary of the State being about 41^^. The 
Saginaw Valley is about the same latitude and has fully a8 favored 
a climate as the formerly famed wheat region of Western New York 
and the now famed dairy region of the Mohawk Valley. 

*' It has also been rumoreB that the Saginaw Valley was not fit- 
ted for agricultural purposes. Saginaw had obtained its reputation 
for pine lumber, and as people generally had found regions covered 
with pine to be comparatively worthless for agricultural purposes, 
it was assumed that the whole of Saginaw was filled with pine, and 
therefore the soil was unfitted for the farmer's use. The experi- 
ence of the last 25 years has also exploded this erroneous notion. 
I doubt if there can be found in the State of Michigan six thousand 
square miles of territory in one body with a greater agricultural 
capacity than the six thousand miles drained by the Saginaw and 
its tributaries. More than one-half of this territory for agricultural 
purposes is the very cream of the State of Michigan, and there is 
but little comparatively but what will make good farming land. 
Look at the reports of the cereal products of Michigan, and you 
will find that the average production per acre of this valley is fully 
equal to the average in anv portion of the State. Wheat, com, 
barley and rye are grown here in perfection. 




'^For fruits, the climate is well adapted to apples, pears, plums 
and small fruits, while for vegetables, the success of the Saginaw 
exhibitors at the State fair for a series of years has demcmstrated 
that no other portion of the State can compete with it. Our mar- 
ket facilities are unrivaled. The Saginaw river and Bay give us 
water communication with all portions of the world for the largest 
vessels. The Valley is crossed bv railroads, so that there is no 
considerable portion of it but has a market near by. Agriculture, 
manufactures and commerce are said to constitute the true wealth 
of a people. We have them all here c »mbined in immediate proxim- 
ity to each other. Our manufacturing facilities are unequaled. It 
has lieretofore been a drawback that agriculture being neglected, 
the cost of living was greater than in older portions of the 
country, and consequently manufacturers did not find it to their 
interest to locate here, except where this drawback was overcome 
by the cheapness of raw material. But our development has now 
become such that the cost of living is not greater than in other 
portions of the State; and our superior facilities for trans])ortation 
and other arlvantages must, with the earliest return of business 
prosperity to the country, give a new impetus to manufacturing 
establisl'ments in this locality. 

'*It is but a short period since salt was first discovered in Michi- 
gan. The first barrel of salt ever made in the Valley was manu- 
factured in 1800. Since that time over 11,500,000 barrels have 
been made. And here let me say that the State of Michigan, I 
a})prehend, hardly appreciates the obligations it owes to the Sagi- 
naw Valley for cheapening salt for the use of the i)eople througli- 
out the State. It is well known that the Onondaga Salt Company 
controlled the entire market prior to this discovery, and when the 
manufacture of salt was commenced at Saginaw the Onondaga 
comj)anv, in its eftbrts to break down the manufacture here in its 
infancy, put so low a price upon their own salt as to make the Sagi- 
naw manufacture comparatively without profit. The Onondaga 
company <lid this without reference to the cost of the product to 
them. They would sell salt at a dollar a barrel within the terri- 
tory reached by the Saginaw salt, while they were asking at the 
same time S2.25 a barrel at Syracuse, their place of manufacture. 
They made a profit in the territory which they controlled which en- 
abled them to sell at a loss here with a view to crushing out this 
dangerous competition. The result has been that the people of 
Michigan have liad cheap salt, and saved probably over $10,000,- 
000 in that one article in the last 17 vears. 

"If this were a proper occasion I would be glad to allude to the 
action of the State in withdrawing the bounty which it offered 
for the discovery of salt without providing for the remuneration 
to those who risked their money in its discovery, and who at^reat 
expense and heavy loss to themselves made the experiments as to 
the best mode of manufacturing. It would seem as though it would 
have been just had the State made provision to save those parties 
from loss. But I pass that. The salt product is continually in- 






creasing, and has already reached over a million and a half of 
bnrn»ls ]>or year, and Onondaga no longer attempts to crush out 
this manufacture. 

**Lumber has been the chief manufacture heretofore, and will be 
for many years to come. In 1S54, at the request of a gentleman 
in Chicago, I made an enumeration of the mills then in operation 
upon the Saginaw river and its tributaries, including Kawkawlin, 
and of their pnxluct, showing that there were then 61 mills in 
operation, a largo number of them being water-mills, and only 23 
on tlio Saginaw river, having a total cut for the 61 mills, of 108,- 
l"KH>,iHHMVot per year. From that time until 1S63 no authentic 
liijuri^s wore Kopt, Since that date accurate reports have been 
made vearlv. Fn^m these data at hand, estimating for the years 
for which wo have no accurate figures, the lumber manufacture of 
the Sacinaw Valley from 1850 to the close of 1877 aggregates about 
8,:hHmh»^\iVh> foot.* 

**lt would bo for the interest of our Valley, as well as for the in- 
terest of our lumbermen, if they would subject the lumber to finer 
inairh^Uiations before shipment, so that it may be ready for the 
<^^r!^^T's use. Until recently but little attention has been paid 
t^^ ::.;>. but the practice is now growing in favor; and as the timber 
K\\^:nos juore valuable and more difficult to obtain, the manufact- 
v,r^i^rs will endeavor, by handling a smaller quantity, so to handle 
iV :i> to make the same profit on the less as they have heretofore 
on ':ho irroater quantity. This gives employment to a greater num- 
ivr of men and of course tends to the general profit of the Val- 
';ov. H<>^^' ^^".^ lumber will remain as the leading product of the 
valley it is inq^ossible to say. It will probably continue at least 
duriuiT tlio )»resent generation. I remember over 20 years ago 
that peo))le would then assume to demonstrate that in 10, 15 
or 20 years the ])ine would be entirely gone at the then rate of 
oonsumptioii. Its annual ])roduction lias increased more then 
tive-fold, and yet it is nearly as difficult now to say when the end 
will come as it was then. AVlien Lewis and Headley published 
their annual statement of the salt and lumber statistics of the Val- 
lev in the vear 1808, they assumed to i^ive a careful estimate of 
the tindxTtlien standing within and tributary to the district em- 
braced in the statement, and they gave for 'Saginaw and *'the 
shore'' to and including Sable river and tributaries, 5,24:1,600,000 
feet,' and estimated tliat the timber would be entirely exhausted 
in less than 17 years, manufacturing at the rate of 500,000,- 
000 feet annually. As a matter of fact, as their subsequent esti- 
mates show, tliere has been actually manufactured at the Saginaw 
river mills ahme, from 18r>J) to 1877 inclusive, 5,211,987,099 feet 
of lumber. If their estimate then had been correct, we shoidd 
have been out of pine timber before this time, yet last fall our lum- 
bermen were maKing arrangements to stock their mills heavier 
than ever, and the cut for the Saginaw river and Kawkawlin in 
lb77 was over 04-0,000,000 feet. Iwill not assume to state bow 
long this manufacture will continue, nor assume to estimate the 



quantity of pine yet standing within the Valley. But it is safe to 
venture this prediction, — that the manufacture of lumber will be a 
leading industry in the Saginaw Valley during the lives of the pres- 
ent generation. 

''The agricultural development of the Valley has been very 
rapid the last few years. AVhen salt was discovered at first, those 
who had timber lands near the salt-producing districts assumed that 
their timber would be of great value for wood to be used in the 
manufacture of salt, and consequently neglected to cut it, holding 
for higher prices. It has been found, however, that the waste 
from tiie lumber mills produces sufficient fuel for this purpose, and 
those who made their calculations for profit from their fuel proved 

-' When^tlLQ-fii'es of 1871 swept over this part of tlie State, 
thousands ofacres of timber were destroyed. People up to that 
time had been giving their attention to manufacturing. The 
farmer could work in the woods winters with his teams, and thus 
secure for himself and family what it was necessary to purchase, 
devoting himself to farming only for the purpose, apparently, of 
furnishing his own family and his own teams with their supplies. 
After the panic of 1873, by which manufacturing industries were 
so seriously checked, more attention was given to farming, and 
these lands where the timber had been burned were cleared to 
such an extent that the agricultural development of the last five 
years in the central and northern parts of the Valley is more than 
equal to all that prece<le<l that period. The farmers of Michigan 
have a great advantage over those of the States west of the Mis- 
sissippi in the better price they obtain for their products. The 
report of the department of agriculture for 187<> shows that the 
cash value of the pnxluct of one acre devoted to agricultural pur- 
poses in Michigan, wavS sl4.4t> as against an average of ^9.61 in 
22 other States west and south, including among them Ohio, Indi- 
ana, Illinois, Wisconsin, etc. 

*^I have said that the latitude of this Valley was about the same 
as that of the Mohawk valley. I may add that it possesses supe- 
rior advantages over the Mohawk valley for dairy ])urposes We 
have less waste lan<l; we can raise as good hay and have as good 
pasture. Our transportation facilities are such that the difference 
m the price that can be obtained for the products of the dairy here 
and those they obtain would be hardly noticMl. Clu^ese is an 
article of large export. At a recent meeting of the American 
Dairymen's Association at Cleveland, it was state<l that the exports 
of cheese to Great Britian alone during the past year had been 
about 110,000,000 ft)8., valued at over ^1-^, 000, 000; and the export 
of butter for the same period had been over 14-, 000,000 ft)s. Tliere 
is no danger of overstocking the market witli these products so 
long as this export demand continues, and it is constantly grow- 
ing. The lands of the Saffinaw Valley are natural grass lands. A 
piece of land cleared will seed itself, at least it will be found cov- 
ered with a turf of good pasturage grasses, and you cannot tell 


how \\\^ i*w\l iHUiu^ there. We neeil plenty of good cheese fac- 

loi^it^si, ihir termors may with profit to themseles give moreatten- 

ti\*u t\^ vUirviii^ Ji\ the futun* than in the past. There is profit in 

\t an woll as in tho rai;jiin^ of ^rain. and in our climate a mixed 

iiu^^vauvti'> is tvtter tor tlio land, and bv this combination of 

v^ulu>V^tv«i tanus v*ri^irtaltv rich may bt^ matle richer, while should 

l\c •*Hv«vi v.ivvv*:v Miucwl^^\clu<£v^lv t> irnkia he would soon im- 

».vvv^^v^ ,s ^v»i:\ rv uiact^r iiow rVr^ile in its ori^nal condition. 

V'X' 'ii.**vcr ',x*iiCv*vl '.'I tb.^ Saginaw Valley has ii*^ reason to 

V'Hvav rx \vari«-'.v.. A'lbioigli the surface of the country 

i;sv\i X c^v.\ > vr ***,~v ^-s surfioient fall for gooil draina^. Hard- 

^^ i ;;.*.. .«»' \v \*u'*,i V,;: what will j>ermit the water to flow oft* 

'* ^* %'.- » »^x t'v .".xr.'.Hi. In time under-ilraining will become 

iv .. « ■.. ,-,i^ subsoils, but at present most of our farmers 

.. .V ^ ., •, .. s'ves with surtaee draining. 

' •:. X v.i < wl;:oh llow iiito tlie Saginaw in their united length 
x>.. . \vvv- *..>■•• tniles, of size sutKeient to give a valuable navi- 
^,». ^ .. •'. .Ni^x a:ul timber, and in addition are thousands of miles 
v.w* ^ xcrv^uns and rivulets, through which the drainafire of 

■K ^ . 'Li'. V' 

aeeomplislie<I. Tlie basin of the Valley of the bagi- 

»vov X iS u: 4r)t> feet lower than its southern border just south of 

;.'. V .K'-A U\m\ 500 to GOO feet lower than its northern and north- 

.vvA vi'i lv»!*der found on the dividing line between the Muskegon 

i i ! Si;;i!iaw rivers, while on its southwestern side between the 

ua'vr> v»t' Had and Maple rivers it is some 72 feet, that being the 

v.\\vxi iu»int in the whole boundary of the Valley, except the outlet 

V\ ilu' l*ay. With proper attention to drainage, with proper care 

'v' Miv^orve the fertility of the soil, and with proper industry and 

.utx^utioii to business, it will be but few years before the farmers 

v't the Saginaw Valley, with their fertile and well stocked farms, 

will rank in the extent of their productions, as they do now in 

vpiality, with the best on the continent." 

It is said with truth that as late as 1860 the general impression 
ill regard to the Saginaw A^alley shared in by many prominent 
residents as well as by a large majority of those outsiders who hap- 
pened to know from observation or experience any thing concern- 
ing this new region of country, was that while its timber was 
inuiuestionably valuable — at that date this resource was not esti- 
mated at one tenth of its actual value, by reason of its intermin- 
able swainps and marshes, the sterility that ordinarily attaches to 
land in pine districts, known at that time to the casual observer as 
''pine barrens" — the liability to frosts, the lack of drainage and 
the unusual obstacles to be met with in clearing the forests and 
making the soil available for cultivation, it could oy no possibility 
ever become even a moderately productive farming district. There 
were grave doubts at that time ni the minds of many fair-minded, 
excellent citizens, gentlemen thoroughly identified with the inter- 
ests of the Valley, whether the county, many portions of which 
are to-day as rich and productive as the best agricultural districts 
in the West, was not too frosty and unreliable as to climate to war- 


rant the broad extent of farming improvements that had already 
been vigorously inaugurated. This doubt, and the persistent mis- 
representation in regard to Saginaw Valley as a land of swamps, 
frosts and sterility, made previous to 1860, lias seemed to keep the 
farmiuff interest, never too prone to prosper in a lumber country, 
far behind what it should be at this time, and the loss in accumu- 
lations by reason of this delay may be counted by millions of dol- 
lars; but with all this slow progress these facts have been fairly and 
firmlv fixed. 

In 18f>0 the number of acres of improved land in the county was 
estimated at 18,048 acres, 10 years later at 33,383 acres, and in the 
fifth decade after settlement at double the area reported as improved 
in 1870. 

As hinds are cleared and opened to the light and heat of the sun, 
they improve every year, and in the broa<ler clearings untimely 
frosts are so marked an exception to the general rule tuat there is 
no further fear of that dread *' bug-bear." The soil througliout all 
that range of counties drained by Saginaw river and its tnbutaries 
is as a rule excellent for farming purposes, and among some of the 
pine tracts, as is the case on the Cass, the Flint, the Tittabawassee, 
Chippewa and other streams, are found some of the most productive 
lands in the district. 

The timber will not last for ever. Within a half century the 
owners of these fertile lands will wish for a pine grove ana find 
none; in their rush after gain the forest will be leveled, and then, 
in possession of rich and ])roductive farms, the husbandman will 
look back to the time when each quarter section held a mine of 
fuel, and curse the want of foresight which led to its destruction. 



The tliird decade of the 19th century will ever be remembered 
as the beginning of a movement of the people toward Western 
homes. During those years the Eastern people rose to a full con- 
ception of the worth of the land and the liberties which the toilers 
of the Kevohition won for them, and resolved to direct their steps 
thither. Michigan was not forgotten. Tlie country from the St. 
Joseph to the Grand river, and still northward to the villages of 
the Chippcwas, was explored, and in some cases settled. For some 
years succeeding this decade the forests of Saginaw boasted of all 
their primitive grandeur. In 1835 the scene was changed. At 
intervals the American pioneer built his log house, made a small 
clearing, and transformed portions of the mighty forests into spots 
of pastoral beauty. Many acres were already fenced, and the 
stacked harvest of the preceding year was seen near at hand. The 
country was then replete with beauty; the singularly attractive 
monotony of the wildwoods was varied by tracts of cultivated lands; 
and the aborigines lived in proximity to civilized man. 

Solidarity of interests joined the pioneers in a bond of fraternity, 
the strength of which tended to render their loves and friendships 

On the completion of their spring farm labors those settlers of 
the land— those true foresters — did not seek a rest, but turning 
their attention away from manual, embraced mental labors, to the 
end that their political condition might advance hand in hand with 
the social status already attained, or at least within their grasp. 
Before the springtime of 183G had called them to their fields they 
established lor themselves a county and a county government. 

In reviewing the history of those days, it is proper that the do- 
ings of the local government should iind a place among the rem- 
iniscences of the times. That the first statesmen of the country 
labored faithfully in the interest of their neighbors, will appear 
from this record; and as their labors are briefly described in the 
following pages, it is hoped that this section of the history may re- 
ceive from the reader such attention as the labors of older legislators 


The following description of the boundaries of Saginaw county 
was contained in a proclamation of the Governor, issued in 1822. 
Nine years later this portion of the proclamation was abrogated^ 



and the boundaries revised. As laid off in 1822, the county com- 
prised all the country included within the following boundaries: 
"Beginning on the principal meridian, where the line between 
the 14th and 15th townships north of the base line intersects the 
same, and running thence south, to the line between the eighth 
and ninth townships north of the base line; thence east to the 
line between tlie sixth and seventh ranges east of the principal 
meridian; tlience north to the continuation of the line between the 
14th and 15th townships north of the base line; thence west to the 

f>lace of beginning, — shall form a county to be called the county ot 
Jaginaw." This proclamation of Gov. Cass, defining the boun- 
daries of the county of Saginaw was issued Sept. 10, 1822. While 
laying otf this division of the State, it deiined the boundaries of ' 
Lapeer, Sanilac, Shiawassee, Washtenaw and Lenawee, providing 
that their organization should take place wlienever competent 
authority for the time being should deem such a course advisable. 
Of the six counties, the boundaries of which were deiined in this 
proclamation, Saginaw, Laj)eer, Sanilac and Shiawassee were at- 
tached to Oakland county, until the i)eriod ot their organization; 
Washtenaw was attached to Wayne countv under the same con- 
dition, and Lenawee to Monroe county. 

Wayne courity was laid otf Nov. 1, 1815, Monroe July 14, 1817, 
and Oakland Jan. 12, 1819. To the latter county, Saginaw, and 
all the country not included within the boundaries of the counties 
described in the proclamation (to which the Indian title was ex- 
tinguished by the Saginaw treaty, signed and sealed Sept. 24, 1819) 
were attached; while all the country to which the Indians relin- 
quished their claims by the treaty of Chicago, was attached to 


In the earlier years it was the.custom of the Territorial officers to 
foresee, if possible, the action of the people, and concede that which 
appeared would prove beneficial prior to the offer of a petition. 
This was the case with Saginaw. Even before its organization 
as a township, the Legislative Council directed the establish- 
ment of its judicial center, and the proclamation of Gov. Lewis 
Cass, under date Jan. 11, 1831, resulted. This document states: 
"Whereas, Solomon Frost, OrigenD. Richardson, and Thomas J. 
Drake were ap})ointed commissioners to locate the seat of justice 
in the county of Saginaw, and have j)r()ceeded to execute the said 
duty, and have by a report signed by a majority of them located 
the seat of justice of the said county of Saginaw upon the north- 
east fractional quarter of section 20, in township 12 north, and 
range 4 east, and designated upon the plat of tlie * City of Sag- 
inaw,' so called, as the two squares marked on said plat 'Public 
Buildings,' which plat is recorded in the register's office of Oakland 
county; now, therefore, by virtue of authority, given in the act 
of July, 1830, the seat of justice of Saginaw county is established 


,'^v .u xiivi t>*o 5^4uares of land described, and lying in the said city 


b\»r ii i»oriiHl extending over four years between 1831 and 1835, 
ihv^ vliNinvt known as the county of Saginaw formed a township 
j*iiiiolio\l to Oakland for judicial purposes. 

rUo Li^gislative Council of the Territory ordained that "all that 
i»«rt ot' the country lying within the limits of the county of Sagana 
hoivtoforc set off and established as the county of Sagana, be and 
the sami' Is hereby set off into a separate township, and the name 
therei»f shall be Sagana. That the lirst township meeting to be 
held in such township shall be held at tlie fort of Sagana, on the 
tirst Monday in A])ril, which will be in the voar 1831. Tliat noth- 

•J X •> 

ing in this act shall in any manner affect the assessment and col- 
lection of taxes made or to be made within the said district of 
country, as a part of the township of Pontiac, for the year 1830." 
This act was approved July 12, 1^30, and came into force 1831, 
when (xardner D. Williams was elected supervisor, David Stanard 
overseer of No. 1 district, or Saginaw; Eleazer Jewett, overseer of 
No. 2 district, or Greenpoint; Charles McLean overseer of the 3d dis- 
trict, or Tittabawassee. This first meeting was held April 4, 1831, at 
the Saginaw fort. After the election tlie board organized, and 
proceeding at once to business appropriated $25 for the poor fund, 
and $50 for building roads and bridges. 


The act of the Legislative Council approved March 2, 1831, ab- 
rogated that portion of (xen. Cass' proclamation dealing with the 
county, and ordained that its boundaries shall begin at a point 
where the line between ranges 6 and 7 east intersects the line 
Detween townships 8 and 9 north; thence west to the meridian, thence 
north on the meridian line to the line between townships 12 and 
13; thence east to the line between ranges 2 and 3 east; thence 
north to the line between townships 14 and 15; thence east 
to the line between ranges 6 and 7 east; thence south to the 
place of beginning, containing 32 townships. Within this district 
Eleazer Jewett surveyed the first county roads in 1832, as elsewhere 
noticed. Gardner t). Williams served as supervisor from April, 
1831, to April, 1834, when William F. Mosley was elected to serve 
until the election of 1835. 


During 1834, the question of conferring on the township of Sagi- 
naw the status of a county was discussed, and a resolution of the 
Council passed to the effect: — "'That the county of Saginaw shall 
be org:anized when this act takes eftect^ and the inhabitants entitled 
to all the ri^^hts and privileges to which, by law, the inhabitants ot 


the other counties of this Territory are entitled; that all suits, prose- 
cutions and other matters now pending before the courts of record 
of Oakland county, or before any justice of the peace of said county, 
shall be prosecuted to final judgment and execution; and all taxes, 
heretofore levied and now aue shall be collected in the same man- 
ner as though the said county of Saginaw had not been organized; 
that the circuit court for the county of Saginaw shall be holden on 
*such days as the law will provide, and that it shall be the duty of 
tie sheriff to provide a suitable place near the county site, for the 
holding of court, until public buildings are erected in said county; 
that the townshij) board for the township of Saginaw shall, until 
there be three townships organized in the county, sit as a county 
board for said county, and are authorized to transact all business 
now incumbent on the board of supervisors in the rc'spective 
counties of the territory.'' 

This act of organization was approved Jan. 28, 1835, and put in 
force the second Monday of February, 1835. 


The first record in possession of the county clerk of Saginaw is 
dated the second Tuesday in October, 1835. It recounts the formal 
meeting of the county board, which adjourned to Friday, Oct. 23, 
to meet at the house of E. N. Davenport, in the village of Saginaw. 
There were present at this adjourned meeting, 6. D. Williams, 
Supervisor; Wm. F. Mosley, J. P.; Albert Miller, J. P., and E. 
S. Williams, Township Clerk. Albert Miller was chosen president 
of the township board, and E. S. Williams, clerk. At this meeting 
a number of accounts, aggregating $98.63, were ordered to be paid! 
Among such accounts was an item of $5, allowed Albert Miller for 
copying assessment roll and proportioning tax for the collector. A 
sum of $1 5 was voted Wm. i . Mosley in payment for his services 
as district attorney during the year 1835. To E. S. Williams a 
sum of $2 was voted for services rendered as clerk of the board. 

The record further shows that the amount allowed for expenses 
in the township of Saginaw was $93.94, to which the sum ot $4.69 
was added, being the collector's fees at five per cent. One hundred 
dollars was voted for the purpose of building a bridge in district 
No. 1. 

The next meeting was held March 21, 1836, in the county clerk's 
office, Saginaw village. Albert Miller, Andrew Ure, and E. S. 
Williams were present. The annual meeting was held Oct. 13, 1836 

E. N. Davenport, Wm. F. Mosley, Albert Miller, G. D. Williams, 
and Wm. McDonald were present. Supervisor Davenport was 
chosen chairman, and Wm. McDonald, clerk. In passing the ac- 
counts, E. Jewett was allowed $15.50 for services as coroner; Wm. 

F. Mosley, $50 for services as district attorney; Abram Butts, $37 
for services as constable. The board directed that $250 be raised 
for building a bridge across the bayou near the steam mill in dis- 
trict No. 1. At a meeting of the board, held two days later, it was 


resolved to raise $1,570.59 to be applied on building a county jaU in 
the **eitv" of Saginaw. 

The board of supervisors met at the clerk's office, Oct. 3, 1837. 
Jeremiah Riggs, Supervisor , Albert Miller, J. P., E. S. Williams, 
and Samuel G. Watson were present. J. Riggs was chosen 
chairman, and Samuel G. Watson, clerk. The first trar)saction of 
the new board was a direction to the clerk to notify the inhabi-^ 
tauts of the township and county of Saginaw that they would be 
requiriHl to vote, on the 0th and 7th of November, 1837, for or 
UiTiinst a k>an of §10,000, for the erection of a court-house and 
i;iil, and also to have such notice publislied in the new paper 
oallcd the Saginaw Journ^il. The vote on the (question of the day 
was dulv taken, a loan of §10,000 made, bearing 7 per cent, per 
annum interest, negc)tiated with thi3 directors and company of the 
Siiirinaw City Bank, and the bond signed by Andrew Ure, Jere- 
miah Kigg^? I^- S. Williams, and Albert Miller, binding them- 
Si'lvi's, and their successors in otKce to pay the banking company 
the amount of loan, with interest, within lO years from Jan. 1, 
l.s:lS. The members of the board assembled March 8, 1838, at 
the house of Joseph J. Maiden, when the following proposals 
for building a court-lumse were handed in: Asa Hill and Benj. 
S<»verson, si 1,500; Wm. L. P. Little, §^12,000; R. H. Renwick, 
si 1,000; Bunker A. Tuthill, sll,l)50. This action was followed 
bv a most singular result. On motion of xVlbert Miller, it was 
resolved to sell the contract for building, at auction, reserving 
the right of sale. This procedure resulted in reducing the pro- 
posals to siN^lO, Hill reducing his price f$l,090. At a meeting, 
field within live days, a contract was awarded to Asa Hill, on 
condition that the court-house be completed June 1, 1839, and that 10 
per cent, on the amount of contract be retained until the work was 
finished, and accej>te(l by the county board. The expenses, attend- 
ant on making loan, drafts, contracts, etc., aggregated ^157.75, 
paid out as follows: J^enj. Severson's account for drafting, $50; 
Asa IlilFs, for ground |)lan, $n18; Jeremiah Riggs, for services, 
g;i4;E. J. Williams, for services, §n14; A. Miller, §14; A. Ure, $8; 
W. V. Mosley, i^(S\ S. (J. Watson, $^32 75; Saginaw e/(?wr/i///, for 
advertising, $12. Ephraim S. Williams was appointed building 
superintendent, and Samuel G. Watson additicmal superintendent 
of the work. 

During the year 1837, the census of the county was taken by A. 
Butts, Collector. His pay was §n1 for every 100 persons, or $9.20, 
which shows that in that year, there were only 920 people in the 
county. The board, however, in consideration of the great num- 
ber of miles traveled and money expended by him, granted him 
an addititonal sum of $5<). Asa Hill died in 1838, and his secur- 
ities were empowered by the county board to take posfeession of 
all building material and proceed with the work. 

In November, 1838, Sherift* tllijah N. Davenport was directed to 
lease from Abraham Butts a block-house standing in rear of his 
dwelling, to fit it up as a jail, and use it for a house of detention. 


The county commissioners of Saginaw met at the clerk's oflSce 
Nov. 19, 1838, when lots were drawn for terms of oflSce. Duncan 
McLellan drew for a three years' term, Cromwell Barney for two 
years, and James Fraser for one year. The board organized by 
electing James Fraser, chairman and C. S. Palmer clerk. During 
the years 1839-'40 nothing of importance was transacted b^'- the 
toard, with the exception oi arranging many little disputes arising 
out of the erection of the county buildings by the executors of 
Asa Hill. In January, 1841, the Saginaw City Bank building 
was leased to the county at $50 per annum by Wm. L. P. Little. 
The board authorized the clerk to subscribe for the Detroit Daily 
Adve7*tisei\ then edited by Dawson A: Bates. James Fraser, Eben- 
ezer Davis and Duncan '^IcLelUm formed the board of commis- 
sioners in January, 1841. Any two members ot tliis board took 
to themselves some extraordinary j>owers, among which may be 
mentioned that of appointing anotlier member, as a substitute for 
an absent member. In April, 1.S41, a committee composed of Ira 
T. Farrand, Cromwell Barney, Thomas McCarthy, Eriel Barber, 
E. X. Davenport, G. 1). AVilliams, and John Farquaharson, was 
appointed to superintend the work of Xorman Little on the court- 
house and jail; while Farrand, Barber and Samuel Shattuck were 
appointed appraisers of the material supplied to the original con- 
tractor, At^a Ilill. The expense of one meeting of this com- 
mittee, tocrether with the work of the appraisers, w^as 
|;8t).lH; nor did this settle the matter; it is evident from 
entries made Jumc 18, 1841, that Little did not agree to the terms 
proposed, for on that date it is recorded that Eriel Barber was ap- 
pointed by the board to superintend the building of the court- 
house in the most economical manner;, to procure hme, brick and 
stone for foundations, and to hire mechanics and laborers. 

In 1841 the townships of Tuscola and Tittabawassee protested 
against the assessment of real and personal property, stating that 
it was much in excess of the valuation of Saginaw. The board, 
having inquired into the matter, equalized the assessment, but 
decided ultimately that the ditterence was not so great as to justify 
the expense which would attend the amendment of the assessment 
roll. The commissioners, appointed to inquire into the amount of 
county j)roperty which passed into the hands of the administra- 
trix of Asa Hill, reported Nov. 13, 1841, stating that the widow 
Hill knew nothing positive regarding county property. During 
this year, the transfer or copy of deeds and mortgages from the 
records of Oakland county was made, at a cost of §89.19. For 
this sum copies of 84 deeds and mortgages, together with the plats 
of Saginaw and East Saginaw, were made by Joseph D. Sharp, 
Oct. 6, 1841. 


The government of the county changed in 1842. James Frazer, 
Andrew t^re, and Ebenezer Davis, the last commissioners, held 
their last meeting March 18, 1842. On July 4 following, Hiram 


L. Miller, Supervisor of Saginaw township; Thomas McCarthy, 
Supervisor of Tittabawassee; Ebenezer W. Perry, Supervisor of 
Tuscola, and John Farquaharson, Supervisor of Tayraouth, met 
and organized, with Hiram L. Miller as chairman, and J. J. Mai- 
den, clerk. 

Among the first acts of the board of superWsors was the grant- 
ing of a license to G. D. Williams, authorizing him to keep a ferry 
on the Saginaw, one mile up and down the river, from the Macki- 
nac road, for three years, ending July 7, 1845. The following 
rates were recognized; Foot passengers, 12^c each; man and 
horse, 25c ; man with horse and wagon, ST^c ; man with two 
horses and wagon, 50c ; cattle or horses, 10 cents eacli ; slieep or 
hogs^ 6Jc each. The price was not to be increased upon the ferri- 
age of horses and wagons, even though more than one person 
accompanied each and all of them. In ferrying cattle, sheep or 
hogs, the drivers were to cross free of charge. 


The board contracted with G. D. Williams for the construction 
of a bridge over the bayou on the east side of the Saginaw river, 
on the line of the Saginaw turnpike. 


The proposition of W. L. P. Little, presented to the supervi- 
sors July 6, 1842, stated that to the board would be given a choice 
of the lands lying between Cass and Flint rivers, at the rate of $5 
per acre, on condition that the price of such lands should be taken 
m payment of the debt of the Saginaw City Bank on the bond 
given by the county to the bank, and in any and every other way, 
the selection to be made by the board between the two rivers 
mentioned, for which a good title would be given free of incum- 
brances, except the taxes now due, for which other lands would be 
deeded. The board accepted tlie proposition, on the understanding 
that the property be transferred to the county within a reasonable 
time, and after the parties concerned could agree as to the indebted- 
ness of the bank to the county. A few days subseouently, several 
citizens signed a protest against the acceptance of Little's proposi- 
tion. The board replied laconically, regretting that the remon- 
strance was not maae prior to the record of the acceptance of 
Little's proposition. E. W. Perry was appointed to examine the 
lands offered, and to make such selections therefrom as might be 
considered most valuable. 

The troubles arising from the $10,000 bond given to the Saginaw 
City Banking Company by the Board of Supervisors proved long- 
lived, but the matter was ultimately settled March 8, 1844. On that 
day, the committee appointed to settle this business submitted a re- 
port, from which the following extract is made : "The county is to 
give a bond, payable in four annual payments, for $5,267.76, and 


interest on the whole yearly; and the sum of $1,208.25, the interest 
dne on the $5,257.75 up to Jan. 1, 1844, to be paid. The bond to be 
given by the county to draw interest from Jan. 1, 1844. Upon the 
payment of the $1,208.25, and the execution of the bond for the 
$5,257.75, the bond now holden by the State to be given up and 
cancelled. It is understood that there is to be deducted from the 
$1,208.25, some $80 paid by the county on the interest. In this 
settlement the county has been allowed the $650 appropriated by 
the Auditor General, and $350 of the $700 paid into the Saginaw 
City Bank. The $1,208.25 to be paid as follows: — The county 
treasurer of Saginaw is to give an order on the Auditor General 
authorizing him to apply one-half of the taxes received into his 
office from the non-resident taxes, returned from said county until it 
shall be paid, and the said order is to embrace and ratify the $650 
alreadv paid by said Auditor General to the Land Commissioner 
from the taxes received by him for Saginaw county. 

This report was signed by R. P. p]ldridge. Chairman Board of 
State Auditors; G. I). AVilliams, (Chairman Board of Su))ervisors, 
Saginaw county, and IT. L. Miller, delegate from the County Board 
of Supervisors. This affair may be said to have been closed 
!May 1), 1844, when the board executed a bond to the State in 
accord with the terms of settlement, signed by G. D. Williams, 
Enoch Olmstead, Murdock Frazer, Lovira Hart, and John 


The six streams above Cass river bridge were bridged in 1842-'3. 
At the same time a scow was provided for the use oi the public at 
the crossing of the river at the Saginaw and Taymouth road. 
In 1843 the board resolved to have a copy made of all entries 
of county lands from the Detroit and Flint river records. 
Authority was given to James A. Kent to establish a ferry 
over the Cass river, at the crossing of the Saginaw turnpike. 
The rates were 50 per centum less than those charged by G. 
D. Williams. In May, 1844, II. L. Miller notified the officers of 
school district No. 1 that, owing to the proximity of the school 
building to the new court-house, and the danger in which the latter 
structure would stand in case of fire, it was deemed proper to 
cause its removal to a more suitable location. 


The organization of the townships may be said to begin in 1840 
with Tuscola. Tittabawassee was admitted a township in 1841; 
Taymouth in 1842; Hampton, now forming a portion of Bay 
county, in 1843; Northampton, now an integralpart of Bay county, 
in 1846; and Bridgeport in 1848. Chesaning, or ''Big Stone," 
was set off in 1849. Buena Vista was organized in 1849; Midland 
in 1850. 

^ .,....•;■: ■ 'ivS*- 

* • 

•^tiv 1I)«1HMIV or «.U«K.VW COUNTY. 

VJnti * *^<*^ v,Nii ^^f ^5" ^^l^*''^^'*- ^^i'^^ ^^'^^ "^ Blumfield were 
,v^%Y. v-vvv ^^vAc- Av;:^^v-i;v c:von Kr The b.>ani of superrisore in 
x^.wA V,<^ r. :n>^ Vr*r.kcT.Tl:3:"-^. J:,wafc.ikee, Hale and Pine 
^\. - • V '*" U:^:* .^-^ ■* *- v'> w^ t** «f:ubraced in Bay county. 
1\^V\^.^/ ^N- -^vv,. Ym^-^iK WLlIiams, Thomastown and 
Vw . . V - >i. i.-wfc:-* -. >^*- c^r-jf^iv was organized m Ib^i 
V. . . . . -i- .* H-. '^ rts4tt.^urh m 1857; Brant and 

x*»V '* • ^'^^ ^*--- '^""^ '' ''■^^^ Kichland, 18B2; Albee. 
** '* ^ >^... \. .• .:k iu l^»^»: Jonesfield, 1873: James. 

: . i V5*' vwiisliips the board of supervisors 

. V , \uiiding the principle of local govem- 

. ».-wi.ii*i:on of any portion of the county pointed 

■^.ivu."v However, in the case of Zilwaukee, 

:n :'ili jH^wers, and postponed the organ- 

.... a 'i' :[io county fully two years. The petition 

.^. . ,1 */.:lwaukee was laid before the board Jan. 5, 

^ ' X k iviitiou of remonstrances against such petition, 

r ...iiuris rt^siding within the limits of the would-be 

. , >: I ; ; ». The ])etitioiicr8 for organization withdrew on* 

>^ _ ^ .vi :.»ivsontod again Jan. 8, a petition with amendments. 

.^ V. - NKt*u\i against the organization of said t-ownship, even 

, ^.v.NivMts, bv a vote of live to three. 


• "u x^* ':^iii{>s organized and now separated from Saginaw, in- 
;^...^^^ N\ :!liaius, was set oil Oct. 10, 1855, which comprised 
■ ^.^v ..> J ■* I ^ iiortli, of range 3 east. 

t Mv !'>i amiual meeting for the election of township officers 
w.i-^ u'^vi at tht' house of William A. Spatford, on the lirst Monday 
>:. V'.'iiU isr)«>, with the following named persons : William A. 
VM't".>i» Simon Wilbur and Amos (Xilbner presiding over such 

Vi» v^rdor of the P>oard of Supervisors, dated Oct. J>, 1855, di- 
•wu^l *• that the territory known as township eleven (II) north, of 
liiugo number two (2) west, in Saginaw county, be and the same 
• x hvTeby set olf from the township of Tittabawassee, and organ- 
i-.ovl into a township to be known as Jlmerson, and that the first 
iv»\\n>hip meeting for the election of township officers shall be 
lu'UI at tlu* house of Krastus Hunt in said township, on the 24th day 
v»t"Oct(iber, A. 1)., 1S55, and that Isner Allen, Melancthon Pettit 
iii\il Israel Preston, three qualiiied electors of said township, be 
and they are hereby designated as inspectors of such election.'' 

The townshij) of Pine liiverwas organized under authority given 
by the board, i)ec. 27, 1854, in the following order: That the terri- 
tory known as township number 12 north, of range number 2 west, 
and township number 12 north, of range 3 west, in Saginaw county, 
bo and the same is hereby set off from the township of Tittabawassee, 
and organized into a separate township, by the name of Pine River, 


and the first township meeting for the election of township officers 
shall be held at the house now occupied by Joseph Clapp in said 
township on the first Monday in April next; and that oylvanus 
Groom, Alexander B. Runyan and George E. Gifiord, preside 
over such election. 

The township of Hale was organized in October, 1854, under 
authority given by the board at its session of Oct. 11, 1854. It 
comprised the territory described as follows: ' ' Township number 11 
nortn of ranges number one, two and three west, and townships 
number twelve north, of ranges number one, two and three west. " 
"The first annual meeting for the election of township officers in 
said township to be held at the house of Ralph Ely in said town- 
ship of Hale, on the 31st day of October, A. I)., 1854, and 
that the following named persons, Ralpli Ely, Harvey Vanvleet, 
and James Kress shall be inspectors ot election. " 

Portsmouth township was organized under an order of the 
board dated Oct. 14, 1857. It comprised ''all that portion of 
fractional sections number twenty-eight (28) and twenty-nine (29) 
in townships number fourteen (14) north, of range five (5) east, 
that is covered by a recorded plat of the village of Portsmouth; 
also all that portion of section number thirty-two (32) that lies on 
the east side of Saginaw river; and entire sections thirty-three (33), 
thirty-four (34), thirty-five (35) and thirty-six (36), in town num- 
ber K)urteen (14) north, of range number five (5) east; and all that 
ortion of town number thirteen (13) north, of range number 
ve (5) east, that lies on the east side of Saginaw river, save sec- 
tions twenty-one (21), twenty-two (22), twenty-seven (27), twenty- 
eight (28), thirty-two (32), thirty-three (33) and thirty-four (34), 
and town number thirteen (13) north of range number six (6) east." 

The first annual meeting was held at the school-house in the 
village of Portsmouth, on the first Monday of April, 1858, and 
at that meeting Ephraim Smith, Jesse M. Miller and William 
Daglish, presided as inspectors of the election. 

The organization of all the townships belonging to Saginaw 
county up to April, 1881, is noted in the pages devoted to township 

The assessment rolls of the county, as submitted by the board 
in October, 1844, show the real and personal property of the dis- 
trict to be as follows: Saginaw, $222,066.20; Tittabawa8see,$108,- 
589.73; Taymouth, $56,664.13; Tuscola, $27,282.00; Hampton, 
$32, 051. 83 ; aggregating $446, 653. 89. 

The estimated expenditures of the county for the year, were 
$3,110.86. This sum was provided by a tax of seven mills per 
dollar of the valuation, aggregating $3,126.55. 

This may be considered the first regular estimate for a succeed- 
ing fiscal year made by the board of supervisors, and the modest 
inaugurator of that system of polity which has been carried out by 
the county governing boards. 

In reviewing the liistory of the county, many of the acts of the 
supervisors will be noticed, so that here it will be necessary 



to jfivo only the names of the citizens who shared in the Iionors 
and labors of the various boards from the organization of the 
otnmtv ti» this time. 

i'OrXTV 0>MM1SSIONKR8 FROM 1835 TO 1842. 

IWl. UHixlnrr 0, WUlUm ,Su|Hnis«r. 

1884. WniiHiu K. Miislov. 

ISJUV li. IV WUUam*, ' W. F. MtJslev, J. P., An)ert Miller, J P. 

ISW. K. N. l>HVtM»iH»ru (». IV Williams, W. F. Mosley, Albert 

ISit:. JertMuiiih KijijTH. • Albert Miner, Andrew Ure, W. F. Mosley. 

tSaS. Joivmi h Kitr^rs, " James Frftser, Duncun McL'llan, C. 

I SHi>. J* null inU K !»:»:>, James 'Fraser, Duncan McLellnn, 0. 

IS40. J»'ix'iuiah Uicsr-s Eln^nezer Davis, James Praser, D. 3IcLel- 

isn, Jir«*miah Uiirjr«. Andrew Ure. All>en Miller, Eben. Davis. 

^IPKUVISOlfS OK saoixaw corNTT, 1S42 — 60. 

IS4'.\ llinini L. Miller, John Far(iurtl»ir8t)u, Eben W. Perry. Thomas McCarthy. 

ISCt, U. I). WillianiH. S. S. (-anipbell, Tliomas McCarthv. John Farquaharson. 

IS44. Murdorh Fniser, Lovini Hart, Knoch Olmstead, John Farquaharson, S. S. 
rjunplH'll. (t. I). WillianiH. 

IS4.*>. C'.S. Pulmer, S. S. Campbell, Thnmaa McCarthy, W. H. Nelson, A. 

is4(i, Alheit Mill<r, Lovini Ilnri, Wni. Smith, W. H. Nelson, M- Fraaer. 

ISi:, Luk«* Wcliin/rlon, W. Smith, A. Holmes, N. Smith, S. S.Campbell, W. 
11. Nrlsnii. 

ISIS. (ico. Davis, H. 1*. Miisoii, Pusrhal liichoRlson, James J. McCormick, Oc- 
iavni>i Thompson, A. I). (Jovit, Noah Bi-ach. 

1S40, J.. \V. TunuT, J. \i. Oarlaiul, Aluntum Calkin, Bernard Hackett, Dion 
Birucy, Frederick I.)err, L. F. Harris. 

isr>0, J. \V. Turner, J. B. Garland, 1). Birney, J. H. Richardson, David D. Ross, 
H. S. I^ach, Curtis Emerson, F. Derr, C. C. I'ltzhugh. 

is.'ii, J. W. Turner, C. C. Fitzhugh, H. Beach, II. M. Beach, D. D. Ross, F. Derr 
1). W. Norton, Timothv Bettel. 

IS.").?, O. Tlmmpson, b>anklin Millard, C:. C. Fitzhugh, H. M. Beach, M ...xless, 
I). 1). Ross, F. Derr, T. Battel, J. \V. Turner. 

1'he board of supervisors met 3Iay 7. 1858, when those elected to represent the 
new townships took their seats. W. H. Sweet represented Saginaw; Thomas 
McCarthy, Tittabawassee; C. C. Fitzhugh, Midland; U. M. Beach Bridgeport; 
M. W. Smitli, Taymouth; \V. D. Fitzhugh, Hampton; M. L. Ghige, Buena Yista, 
C'harlcs Post, Blumfield ; Joseph Matthewson, Birch Run ; D. Gould, St Charles; 
J. W. Turner, Chcsaning. W. II. Sweet was elected chairman of the board. 

1854. 1855. E. B. Bow, 

II. L. Miller, Chairman. Morgan L. Gage,Chairman Sl^l^;?^iJ?f}l„ 

Jerome B. Garland, H. S. Penoyer, * ^^^^'^^ JNelson. 

Joseph Matthewson, M. L. Gage. 1856. 

Albert Miller, H.C. Ashman, 

H, L. Miller. L. W. Vaughn, J. W. Turner, Chairman. 

Bcnj. F. Fisher, JetVenicm Jackuth, Nathan lieers, 

H. S. Beach, David Josvlin, Charles Bra^lford, 

Isaac Bennett, Geo. Smith, , B. F. Fi.sher, 

Charles Post, Hiram Burges-s, ' Jacob H. Lewis, 

(ieo. Smith, Luke Wellington, D.D.Ross, 

Henry C. Ashman, John G. Schnell, Oct. Thompson, 

D. D.'Boss, Geo. L. Spicer, Luke Wellington, 

(reo. Smith, Geo. I^ord, B. Haack, 

M. L. Gage, James Fuller, X. B. Bradley. 



John W. Card, 
M. B. HesSf 
Geo. Lord, 
Geo. Schmidt, 
John \V. Turner, 
J.D. Williams, 
J. B. Garland. 


August. S. Gaylord,Chair- 

Theodore Smith, 
JohD G. Schnell, 
John W. Card, 
Lorenzo Hodgman, 
Reuben W. Andrus, 
Lewis Loetfler, 
Brunson Turner, 
Thomas Berry, 
D. I). Ross, 
Daniel Burns, 
A. R.Swarthout, 
A. S. Gaylord, 
Jacob H. Lewis, 
Geo. W. Smock, 
M. B. Hess, 
L. W. Haines, 
Geo. Schmidt, 
Beuj. F. Fisher. 


John W. Turner, Chair- 
Franklin R. Copeland, 
Oliver H. Baldwin, 
Thomas Berry, 

Theodore Smith, 
Bernard Hock, 
Joseph Babcock, 
Horace S. Beach, 
Levi W. Haines, 
Geo. F. Ball, to fill va- 
John W. Turner, 
Geo. Schmid', 
Lewis Loeffler, 
John Hunter, 
Robert R. Thompson, 
Peter C. Andre, 
Geo. Armstrong, 
Geo. Lewis, 
W. W. Guilford. 


Hiram S. Penoyer, Chair- 
H. S. Penoyer, ) 
D.F.Mitchell, ^Saginaw 
L. B. Curtis, ) City. 

R. W. Andrus, 
O. H. Baldwin, 
John Benson, 
Thomas Berry, 
W. G. Elmer, 
Wm. L. Goulding, 
Bernard Haack, 
D. D. Ross, 
Geo. M. Schaefler, 
Perry Joslin, ) 
J. H. Springer, >- East Sag- 
David Lyon, ) inaw. 
Alfred Holmes, 

George Lewis, 
Jacob H. Lewis, 
Lewis Loeffler, 
D. A. Pettibone, 
Aetna P. Pettis, 
Jesse H. Quackenbush, 
Wm. Sanderson, 
Stephen Bull. 


W. H. Sweet, Chairman. 
W. H. Sweet, j o 
L. C.Curtis, f?«?J°*^ 
Wm. Binder, ) ^"y* 
Thomas L. Jack.son, Sag- 
inaw tp. 
John W. Card, 
P. H. Warren, 
D. A. Pettibone, 
Thomas Berr>', 
Reuben W. Andrus* 
A. B. Pettis, 
Jacob II. Lewis, 
Bernard Haack, 
Augustus Lull, 
Perry Joslin, ) East 

Henry Woo<lruff, >■ Sagi- 
C. T. Disbrowe, ) naw. 
Geo. M. Schaefer, 
Lewis Loeffler, 
Stephen Bull, 
Jesse H. Quackenbush, 
I. W.LaMunyon, 
John Benson, 
Alex. Alberti. 
Geo. W. Armstrong. 

The names of the members of the Supervisors' Board from 1861 
to the present time are given in connection with the townships 
which tney represented. The following is the roll of members of 
the board for 1881-'2: 


Albee— Thos. S. Craig. 
Birch Run— Enoch Smith. 
Blumfield— B. Haack. 
Brant— David J. Webb. 
Brady — Geo. W. Sack rider. 
Bridgeport— Chaimcey W. Wisner. 
Bueoa Vista — Chas. M. Payment. 
CarroUton — Martin Stoker. 
Chapin — John McQuiston. 
Chesaning — A. Davis Agnew. 
East Saginaw — 

First ward — Patric 0*Qrady. 

Second ward — Jeremiah Firtin. 

Third Ward— Fred Louden. 

Fourth ward— Edwin Aiken. 

Fifth ward— Chas. W. Grant. 

Sixth ward — Victor Schlessinger. 

Seventh ward — John Ingledew. 

Eighth ward— Anthony JSlankerts. 

Comptroller — H. M. Newton. 

City Aasessor — C. H. Shaw. 

Ci^ Attorney — O. W. Wisner. 
Frankenmuth— John M. Gugel. 
Fremont — Richard Graham. 
James— Edward H. Fayerweather. 
Jonesfield — Joel S. Nevins. 
Kochville — Mathias Reichhardt 
Jjakefield— Wm. Galloway. 
Marion — Daniel Paul. 
Maple Grove — Harrison Magofiin. 
Richland — Geo. W. Carson. 
Saginaw— Edward 0*Donnell. 
Saginaw City — 

First ward— A. T. Bliss. 

Second ward — Chas. Moye. 

Thbrd ward — R. J. Bimey. 

Fourth ward— Hagh McPhillips. 

Fifth ward — ^Emil Bcheurmann. 



91xlh ward— Julius Gradt. 
ComptToUer— DeWitt C. Dixon. 
8iuiuiding— John Barter. 
Swan Creek— Chas. B. Tefft. 
^U Charles— Edward A. Stinson. 

Taymoath — Arthur Ross. 
Thomastown— Jacob Wiltse. 
Tittabawassee— John A. McGregor. 
Zilwaukee— John H. Doyle. 

The Board organized in June, 1881, by electing Hon. John 
Barter chairman, who appointed the folio winff committees: Fi- 
nance — Aiken, Dixson, Carson, Galloway, Webb; county affairs 
— Grant, Bliss, Sackrider, Smith, McGregor; eaualization — ^Dix- 
son, Shaw, C. W. Wisner, Teift, Doyle, Agnew, MagoflSn; claims 
— Haack, Moye, Ross, Blankerts, Brown; taxation — C. W. Wis- 
ner, Newton, O'Donnell, McQuiston, Reichardt; county poor — 
Payment, Stoker, Paul, McPhillips, Craig; jails, prisons and 
asylums — O. Wisner, Birney, Cummings, Graham, Hevins; roads 
and bridges — Wiltse, Fayerweather, Smith, Ross, Gugel; public 
buildings — Scheurmann, Gradt, Fisher, Schlessinger, Ingledew; 
drainage — Doyle, Brown, Magoffin, Smith, Paul; organization of 
towns — Carson, Paul, Louden, Craig, Galloway. 


located on the Dexter square of Saginaw City have been referred 
to in former pages. With the exception of the castellated structure, 
through which the county oifers hospitality to her dan^ferous 

The court-house is an Ionic structure so far as its east and west 
facades are concerned. Within are two large hallsy one on 
the ground jfloor known as the Supervisors' room, with a suite of 
ante-rooms stretching along its northern side, and one on the second 
floor devoted to the courts. Both are useful, but by no means orna- 

The county offices comprise the Clerk's, Treasurer's, Registrar's 
rooms, and that of the Judge of Probate; all located in alow, 
French roofed building. There is nothing architecturally beautiful 
about it, yet the records whiclj it contains are very complete, and 
the county officials genial, affable gentlemen. Such men and 
records lend to the county offices an importance which the building 
under any other circumstances never possesses. 

The county jail has many old memories attached to it. It was 
inaugurated immediately after the organization of the county, and 
has occupied the same position ever since. The stranger arriving 
at Saginaw may see a pretentious building, just southwest of the 
business center of the city. Were it not for the great display of iron 
bars, he would never dream of its being the county jail; but would 
at once jump to the conclusion that some barbarous European had 
come here to re-establish feudalism and had begun his mediaeval 
work by erecting a castle fortress. Notwithstanding its antiquated 
style of architecture, it is a fine building, and as such is creditable 
to the Supervisors' Board, under whose order it was constructed. 




The list of county officials from 1835 to 1881 is as follows: 


E. S. Williams 1885 

Wm. McDonald 1836 

E. 8. Williams 1?37 

8. G. Watson 1837 

Sam. K. Haring 1838 

C. 8. Palmer 1839 

Joseph J. Maiden 1840-1 

Hiram L. Miller 1842-3 

Wm. L. P. Little 1844-6 

Absalom F. Hayden 1846 

Alpheus 8. Williams 184!i-9 

Augustus Gaylord 1852 

Hiram F. Ferris 1854 

Hiram S. Penoyer 1858 

Charles D. Little 1858 

H. 8. Penoyer 1858 

Wm. Moll 1858 

G^eo. Schmidt 1862 

Heman B. Ferris, deputy 1868 

Edward Bloedon ) .q^,* 

Fred B. Sweet, deputy J ^^' 

Fred B. Sweet, Geo. W. Savage, Itont 
D. B. Richardson, L. A. Hurlbun \ ^^^ ^ 
Byron G. Stark, S. W. Kennedy j <^„„ 
and Geo. H. Paine, deputy j^ ao* • 

Fred. B. Sweet, ) iqai q« 

Thos. W. Busby, deputy ]'" ^^^-^^ 


Harvey Williams laW 

Charles b. Palmer 1840-2 

Hiram L Miller 184^-5 

Samuel Gordon :... .1846-54 

J. Blackmore 1^54-2 

W. J. Barton , 1863-4 

Thomas L. Jackson 1865-6 

G. A. Lyon.. 1867 70 

G. F. Vanfliet 1871-6 

J. Schwartz 1877-8 

J. C. Valentine 1879-80 

Alexander Ferguson 1880-1 


James McCormick, jr 1838 

Eleazer Jewett 1839 

Alpheus 8. Williams 1840 

Eleazer Jewett 1841 

Martin L. Miller. 1842 

James J. McCormick 1844-8 

Abram Butts 1850-2 

Alexander Alberti 1854 

Abram Butts 1856 

Lewis Loeffler 1858 

Ira W. La Munyon I860 

Lewis Loeffler 1862-4 

Darwin A Pettibone 1866 

Isaac H. Leavenworth 1868 




Harrison Carey ..1876 

Isaac H. Leavenworth 1878 

Solomon C. Goodale 1880 








Elijah N Davenport 1838 

Henr>' Pratt 1840 

James Kenney 1841-2 

Samuel Gord<m 1844-5 

Jerome H. Gotee 1846-50 

Elias lookstaver 1850 

Jerome H. Gotee 1852 


" " 1854 

ChailesW Grant 1^55 




John W. Turner 1^58 

Woodruff! ..!!.....! .1861 


Jesse Quackenbush 1863 




















Jesse Quackenbush 1865 


Henry Miller 1866 





Austin Rankin 1870 


Reuben W. Andrus 1872 



J B. White 1876 

John F. Adams 1h77 




Henry Miller issi 








E. 8. WilliamB 1885 

Hiram L. Miller 1838 

Joseph S. Sharp 1840-1 

Horace S, Beach 1843-5 

Coe Garratt 1846-50 

Peter C. Andre 1850 

JobD ParisLJr 1854 

Joha Parish 1SS6 

O. P. Burt, deputy 

George Schmidt 1858 

Geo. Schmidt 1860 

Geo. P. Veeofliet 1860 

Jamea W. Ootee 1863 

James N. Gotee 1864 

A. L. BingUam 1867-69 

J. K. Stephena 1870- 

Fruuk Lawrence 1877-80 

HermaaR Zwerk 1881- 

OORONEBS FROM 1835 TO 1858. 

E. Jewett 1836 

Phineas Spauldlng, I . 

George DsTJa f 

Abram Butis t .g.^ 

Hugh McCullough f "^ ' 

Thomas Smith i ..ajo 

Hugh McCuIloughf '"^^ 

E. N. Davenport ) ,q,. 

Eben.DaviB f ^^ 

Thomas Rogers ) .q.™ 

Joshua Blockmore j '^" 

Peter Lane I -qjo 

DeuDis Harrison f ■^®*' 

Julius B. Hart ) ,„,, 

Geo. Q. Hess f ^''^ 

Jerome H. Gotee \ ,o«a 

Julius B. Hart f "™ 

Jerome H. Gotee I ,ona 

Reuben Fairchild f ^"^ 



It is an acknowledged fact that wherever the American pioneer 
settled he carried the craving for justice with him, which rfoon was 
followed by the establishment of courts of justice. It is also true that 
the administration of the laws in the courts of the early settlements 
was not earned out with the same dignity as surrounds it to-day; 
but, thanks to the intelligence which the Revolution engendered, tne 
people simply wanted justice, and got it. There were few lar- 
gesses bestowed in those olden days; the example of the fathers of 
the Republic was not forgotten; men looked only to the honest 
path and were determimed to travel whither it led; and thus justice 
was dispensed without fear or favor and in a manner creditaole to 
its officers and beneiicial to the people. 



The Circuit Court of Saginaw county was established under an 
act of the Territorial Legislative Assembly, approved Feb. 12, 
1835, which provided that a term of court should be held for the 
county of Saginaw on Tuesday next after the fourth Monday in 
, June, and on the second Tuesday next after the fourth Monday in 
January in each year. 

Among the first acts of the State Legislature was one dealing 
with the Circuit Court. It decreed that ''the fourth circuit shall be 
composed of the counties of Oakland, Lapeer, Shiawassee, Gen- 
esee, Saginaw, Ionia and Kent, and the counties attached thereto, 
for judicial purposes." The sessions of the fourth circuit were or- 
dered to be held at Saginaw on the third Tuesdays of February 
and July in each year. Subsequently the term was changed to 
May. In after jy^ears a desire to have the spring term of the 
court held in April was expressed. 

Among the bills passea by the Legislature during the winter 
session of 1858-'9 was one changing the terms of tne Supreme 
Court and reorganizing circuit districts. The spring term of the 
Supreme Court was authorized to be held on the first Monday of 
April instead of May. 

Sarinaw county was detached from the seventh circuit and 
added to the 10th, which henceforth comprised Saginaw, Gratiot, 
Isabella, Midland, Iosco, Bay and Alpena. 

From 1831 to 1835 justice was meted out by Justices Albert 
Miller, G. D. Williams, W. F. Mosley, Andrew Ure and E. N. 



Davenport. This was done in the mildest manner and without all 
the formalities whicji now characterize its administration. It is 
said that even the revenue oflScers, stationed in the district to pro- 
hibit the introduction of contraband stores, paid less attention to 
the duty which they owed to "Uncle Samuel" than to that which 
they considered due to the little commonwealth of Saginaw. Con- 
sequently they received rare presents from the captains of Detroit 
boats and were always far away, when the wily Detroit man sailed 
up the river to land his cargo, or, if present, merely took a cursory 
glance at the ship, pronounced it all right and left the lake cap- 
tain to pursue his way unchallenged. Neither did the law pre- 
servers regard those proceedings with any great disfavor. Thev 
shared in the hospitality of the revenue officer, and the result 
was such as might oe expected. 

The Court journal begms with the chronicle of the October ses- 
sion of tlie Circuit Court in and for the county of Saginaw, held 
at the school-house at Saginaw City, Oct 24, 1837, Hon. George 
Morrell, Circuit Judge, with G. D. Williams and P. J. Gardner, 
Associate Judges. 

The first grand jury sworn comprised Eleazer Jewett, Jas. J. 
Maiden, Geo. Davis, Obadiah Crane, Artemus W. Bacon, A. F. 
Hayden, Eleazer Miller, Sidney S. Campbell, James Frazer, 
Thomas Simpson, Harvey Williams, Joab Lull, Humphrey McLean, 
Asa Hill, Duncan McLellan, Roderick Vaughan, Pnineas Spauld- 
ing, John Brown, Nathaniel Foster and Geo. Youngs. 

Edward McCarthy and Anthony R. Swarthout were summoned on 
this jury, but were not present. Thomas Simpson was appointed 
foreman, and as such was empowered to subpoena and swear wit- 
nesses. These preliminaries iiaving been observed, the jury re- 
tired to consider presentments in charge of Deputy-Sherift' Allen. 

The petit jurv, sworn the succeeding day, comprised John 
Simpson, Peter 6uillott, J. B. Truesdell, Charles A. Lull, Benj. 
McLellan, Benj. Cushaway, James McCarthy, Thomas McCarthy, 
Stephen Benson, Harvey Rumville and Weston G. Elmer. 
Albert Miller, John B. Desnoyer and Benway Tremble were 
summoned, but did not appear. 

The first cause brought before the court was that of Humphrey 
McLean vs, John B. Desnoyer represented by Attorney o. G. 
Watson; the second was that of John Todd vs. Moses Maynard, jr., 
in which Attorney Watson represented the plaintiif. On the 
second day of the term Samuel G. Watson was appointed district 
attorney 2>rc? tern. The causes presented for trial on that day were: 
Joseph J. Maiden vs, Elisha Rice; John C. Tibbetts vs. Nath. 
Bennett, Gardner D. Williams and E. S. Williams; Isaiah Hall 
vs. Duncan McLellan; John Brown vs. same; and Harvey Rum- 
ville vs. same. Those law cases were simple in character, yea, a 
few of them were continued from session to session untd the 
most ardent lover of leeal delay was disposed to retire from the 
court and forswear all litigation. During the early years 
there is not one case of a criminal character on recorcf; but as 


the settlement grew older, the criminal presented himself in 
almost every phase. 


Elijah N. Davenport and William Smith were the Judges of the 
County Court from its inauguration, Feb. 15, 1848, to Dec. 30, 

The last entry on the record of the Saginaw County Court was 
made Dec. 30, 1851. The last case brought before the court was 
that of the People vs. Solomon Johnson, which resulted in his 
discharge. The first case tried before that tribunal was the com- 
plaint of W. L. P. Little against Judge Davenport, for the illeffal 
seizure of his goods and chattels. Judge W. Smith, second judge 
of the court, adjourned the hearing of the case from Feb. 15 to 
March 21, 1848, when, after the examination of the plaintiff, Joshua 
D. Smith, and Royal W. Jenny, he gave judgment against 
Judge Davenport for §150, with costs amounting to $3.95. The 
defendant's only justification was that he acted as treasurer of the 
township of Saginaw, and in the interest of the people. 


Jan. 10, 1836, the first entry was made in the record book of 
the Probate Court at Saginaw county. During the first ten years, up 
to Jan. 10, 1846, just 100 pages of the record were filled, and in 
those pages is contained the whole probate business of the county 
for that period of time. 


1837- Geo. Morrell, C. J.; G. D. Williams, A. J.; P. G. Gard- 
ner, A. J. 

1839-'40— Charles W. Whipple, C. J. ; J. D. Williams, A. J. ; 
P. G. Gardner, A. J. 

1841-'2— Charles W. Whipple, C. J. ; G. D. Williams, A. J. ; 
Elijah N. Davenport, A. J. 

1845— Charles W. Whipple, C. J.; G. D. Williams, A. J.; 
Andrew Ure, A. J. 

Sanford M. Green, C. J., 1849; Josiah Turner, 1857; W. J. 
F. Woodworth, 1859; Josiah Turner, 1859; W. F. Woodworth, 
1860; James Bimey, 1861; J. G. Sutherland, 1864; Josiah Turner, 
1865; J. G. Sutherland, 1866-'9; Charles R. Brown, 1869; J. G. 
Sutherland, 1869-'70; Wm. F. Mitchell, 1870; John Moore, 1871-'3; 
S. M. Green, 1873; W. S. Tennant, 1874-'8; Henry Hart, 1878; 
Wm. S. Tennant, 1878-''80; Dewitt C. Gage, 1880-'l; ChaunceyH. 
Gage, 1881. 


Albert Miller, 1836; Eleazer Jewott, 1846; Luke Wellington, 
1861; Otto Roeser, 1866-1881. 



Hiram S. Penoyer, 1850-'l; Eichard B. Hall, 1852.'3; John 
Moore, 1854-'7; William L. Webber, 1858-'9; William H. Sweet, 
1860-1; ChaunceyH. Gage, 1862-'5; Edwin H. Powers, 1866-'9; 
Daniel P. Foote, 1870-'!; William Gillett, 1872-'5; George A. 
Flanders, 1876-7; Lorenzo T. Durand, 1878-?81. 


Charles D. Little, 1852-^3; William L. Webber, 1854-'5; Jabez 
G. Sutherland, 1856-7; Augustus S. Gaylord, 1858-'61; Will- 
iam J. Loveland, 1862-'3; John J. Wheeler, 1864-'5; William A. 
Lewis, 1866-'9; Thomas M. James, 1870-'5; John J. Heeley, 1872- 
'5; James B. Peter, 1876-7; De Forrest Paine, 1876-7; Frederick 
Anneke, 1878-'9; John E. Nolan, 1878-'81; Herman Pistorius, 


The pioneer lawyers of the county may be said to include all the 
member^ of the profession residing within the county in 1866. 
Among the members of the profession, who settled here previous 
to 1858, were Augustine Gaylord, Irving M. Smith, William Gillett, 
John B. Dillingham, John Moore, E. C. Newell, H. S. Pen oy er, 
W. H. Sweet, C. I) Little, John H. Sutherland, W. Benedict, Wm. 
J. Loveland, W. L. Webber, J. L. F. Fox, C Wheeler and D. 
W. C. Gage. Together with those, were G H. Freeman, S. P. 
Wright, James Birney, A. C. Max\sell and W. L. Sherman, of 
Lower Sagi-iaw. From that period until 1866, the influx of legal 
gentlemen, and additions to the bar from within the county, 
swelled tlie list of lawyers. Messrs. Brown, James, Clark, Camp, 
Gamble, Perkins, Iloyt, Sturtevant, Button, Harvey Joslin, E. H. 
Powers, Lewis, Wisner, Herring, Flanders, Thoinpson, Brousseau, 
James Clark, Cross, F. L. Eaton, Hanchett, Miller, Cook and 
Foote, are names well and favorably known to the people since 


Names of tlie lawyers of the county in 1881 are as fol- 
lows : L. T. Durand, James W. Clark, William A. Clark, Wm. 
A. Clark, jr., Frederick L. Eaton, Dan. P. Foote, Benton Han- 
chett, Albert Trask, Gardner K. Grout, William H. Sweet, Gil- 
bert M. Stark, N. S. Wood, Eugene M. Joslin, H. Pistorius, 
Frederick E. Smith, Byron G. Stark, Thomas M. James, De Forest 
Paine, Oscar H. Jannasch, C. Stuart Draper, C. H. Camp, Chaun- 
cey H. Gage, L. C. Holden & Kendrich, William J. Loveland, 
Daniel W. Perkins, Harlan P. Smith, E. Wilber, William L. Web- 
ber, Chauncey W. Wisner, Geo. B. Brooks, Wheeler AMcKnight, 



Oscar F. "Wisner, W. R. Starr, H. H. Hoyt, Seth G. Huckins, 
James B. Peter, Bradley M. Thompson, Samuel M. Porter, Isaac 
Delano. John H. McDonald, Heman B. Ferris, Jno. E. Nolan, 
Frank E. Emerick. Cromwell Galpin, Michael Brennan, John 
McArthur, S. G. lliggins. Timothy E. Tarsney, George W. Wead- 
ock,.I. A. Edget, T-V. G. Gage, II. Miller, Hanlan P. Smith, George 
A. Flanders, George B]-iicker, 11. Moore, W. S, Tennant, 
D. W. C. Gage. John T. Hall and B\Ton L. Ransford, 
connected with tlie profession until recently, liave removed. In 
the pages devoted to biography sketches of many of these gentle- 
men are given. 




The interest taken in political matters by the people of Saginaw 
county is deep indeed. Their principles are so well set that neither 
time nor change seems to affect them; so that he who was a Whig 
in his earlier years is generally found in the ranks of the Republi- 
can party of the present time, and he who was a Democrat then 
remains one still. There is, however, a tendency manifested to 
cast away the tyranny of party for theprivileffe of an untrammeled 
vote for the truest citizen. They do tliis, and, while acknowledg- 
ing the great benefits conferred upon the country by the two great 
parties who claim to be the President-makers, yet they cannot 
overlook the magnitude of the abuses which have entwined them- 
selves with the present system and contribute to lessen that great 
name which should cling to the greatest of governments. 

The followers of party in this county have not been silent when 
the commonwealth needed reforms; they have scanned the actions 
of legislators with jealous eye, and rewarded or punished just in 
such measure as justice pointeth, and thus secured a fair repre- 
sentation in the councils of the Republic, as well as in these of the 
State. Nativeisra, 8ectionalism,know-nothingism, and demonism or 
religionism in politics appear to be on the margin of the grave — 
some of the vices already there; but enough remains to cause some 
little disunion, and so destroy what would be otherwise a magnifi- 
cent solidarity of public interests. Mercy, Justice and Patriotism 
require every corner of the land for tenancy, so that sectionalism 
and all its concomitant vices must yield — must give place to what 
is good and noble, and let peace rule on forever. 

During the first few years of the county's history party lines 
were not acknowledged, nor conventions held, nor buncombe of 
any kind indulged in. The first settlers were attached to the Jack- 
son school of politicians. They saw in the general one who held 
the Constitution of the United States above all else. When in 
1832 South Carolina assumed the right to nullify the laws 
of the United States, and to oppose the collection of the revenue, 
Gen. Jackson, then President, acted, with his usual decision, to up- 
hold the Union. He immediately ordered troops to South Carolina, 
sent explicit instructions to the Collector of Charleston to perform 
his duty, and notified Calhoun that he would be arrested on com- 
mission of the first treasonable act. This action, together with the 
terms of his proclamation, cemented, as it were, all political parties 
under one leader, and all ready to subscribe to his political belief, 

which may be learned from the following extract: 



'^ I consider, then, the power to annnl a law of the United States 
incompatible with the existence of the Union, contradicted expressly 
by the letter of the Constitution, unauthorized by its spirit, incon- 
sistent with ev,ery principle on which it was founded, and destructive 
of the great object for wLich it was formed. To say that any State 
may at pleasure secede from the Union is to say that the United 
States are not a nation, because it would be a solecism to contend 
that any part of the nation might dissolve its connection with the 
other part, to their injury or ruin, without committing any 
oflfenee. * ^ * The States severally have not retained their en- 
tire sovereignty. It has been shown tliat in becoming parts of a 
nation they surrendered many of their essential parts of sover 
eignty. The right to make treaties, declare war, levy taxes, exer' 
cise exclusive judicial and legislative powers, were all of them 
functions of sovereign power. The States, then, for all of these 
important purposes, were no longer sovereign. * * * Xhe 
duty imposed on me by the Constitution, to take care that the laws 
be taitht'ully executed, shall be performed to the extent of the 
powers vested in me by law." 

In those olden times an honest man was chosen on his merits, 
and asked to represent this country, and not himself, in the halls of 
the legislature, in the supervisors' court of Oakland, and again 
in the board of this county. A reference to the election returns 
subscribed will prove this statement precise in every particular. 
Years rolled on and still party lines remained unobserved. In 
1836 there was an apparent tendency to party politics, but the 
effort was comparatively a weak one. Two years later, in 1838, 
the abolitionist doctrine was received with favor on one side and 
with suspicion on the other. In 1840 " Abolition " and " Liberty " 
were the watcijwords of the country, and four years later, the Val- 
ley sent forward a candidate for the Presidency, as the nominee of 
the Liberty party. James G. Birney, a native of Danville, Ky., 
who settled here in 1841, was sent into the field of political battles, 
to contest it with Ilenry Clay on one side and James K. Polk on 
the other. Birney was honest, enthusiastic and honorable. In this 
matter he lived before his time, and as a result did not become an 
occupant of the Presidential chair. His party acquiesced in the 
doctrine, laid down at that memorable meeting, held '* under the 
oaks " at Jackson in 1854, and the name and fame of the '• Sons of 
Liberty " were henceforth embosomed in that party. 

The American party, organized immediately afterward, soon 

Eassed away. In this county, its impracticable, unjust and un- 
oly principles were stigmatized, and to the credit of the people, 
may it be said, entirely ignored. It was no more American in 
principle than tlie tea tax was. The contest between the humble 
Abraham Lincoln and the noted Stephen A. Douglas in 1860 was 
characteristically interesting. Here it was made a trial of power 
between Democrats and Republicans. 


Tlie election of Hon. T. Jerome as Representative in 1866 was 
one of the most stirring political contests held here. He was an 
opponent of the proposed measure to organize a portion of this 
county into a new county by the name of Bay, and consequently 
was opposed by Geo. Lord. Mr. Jerome was elected by a large 
majority. He opposed separation earnestly, but finally agreed 
witn the majority in passing a bill authorizing the organization of 
Bay county, which was approved Feb. 17, 1857. The act was 
submitted to the people. In the district now comprising Bay 
county the number of votes in favor of separate organization was 
204, against 14 dissents, but the unanimous vote of the people of 
Saginaw county, as now known, opposed the measure, tinder the 
advice of C. H. Freeman the people of Ba}- county ignored one 
section of the act, which gave power to the people of Saginaw to 
vote on the question, and recognized their own voice in the matter. 
An election of county officials was held in June, 1857, which was 
followed by a series of troubles, all resulting in bringing the mat- 
ter before the Supreme Court. The case was laid before the court 
by Wm. M. Fenton, a lawyer of Flint, acting under the advice of 
C. H. Freeman, of Bay City. Hon. John Moore, of Saginaw, op- 
posed the idea of organization, but the rights of the people of the 
northern county were sustained, and the organization of tlie county 
declared to be a matter of fact. 

The following communication, addressed to C. H. Freeman, 
Prosecuting Attorney of Bay county, Mich., under date of Detroit, 
June 11, 1858, contains the opinion of Atty. Cren. J. M. Howard, 
on the organization of the county and the jurisdiction of the courts: 

''Your two letters, one of the 5th and the other of the 7th inst., 
are at hand. 

"1. My opinion is that by Act No. 130 of the Session Laws of 
1857, Iosco county was an organized county from and after the 
17th of May, 1857, when that act took eftect, and that until the 
county oflicers were chosen, as provided in section 2 of the act, it 
was for judicial purposes attached to Bay county, under section 15 
of Act 117 for the organization of the latter county, the last named 
act being ordered to take effect on the day of its approval (Feb. 17, 

"2. I do not think these two acts inconsistent, nor, consequently, 
that Act 171 repeals Act 130, but that they can well stand together. 

'* 3. It is evident that in reorganizing the judicial circuits last 
winter, the Legislature did not recognize the fact that Bay county 
was dulv organized for judicial purposes, but treated the territory 
of which it is composed as belonging to Saginaw, Midland and Are- 
nac; and when they provide, in section 1st, that the seventh circuit 
shall be composed of the counties of Livingston, Shiawassee, Gen- 
esee, Lapeer, Tuscola, and Saginaw^ they mean Saginaw as it was 
bounded before the passage of Act No. 171 of 1857; and that when 
they provide that the tenth circuit shall be composed of the coun- 
ties of Gratiot, Isabella, Midland^ Iosco and Alpena, they mcian 
Midland as it was before the same act took effect. The county of 


Arenac had been merged in Bay county; and yet they attach Are- 
nac (comprising the northern and larger part of Bay county) to 
Midland county for judicial and municipal purposes. Thus the 
part of Bay county formerly lying in Saginaw county is left in the 
seventh circuit; while the whole of Midland and Arenac counties, 
as formerly defined, are included in the tenth circuit. 

"That tiie whole of the old Arenac county and that part of Mid- 
land falling witliin the limits of Bay county, are regularly within 
the jurisdiction of the circuit judge of the tenth circuit, I have no 
doubt, because by the terms of tine act of 1858, the portions of ter- 
ritory are plainly therein included; and as they both are attached to 
Midland coimtv for judicial purposes, I see no difficulty in the 
judge treating them as a part ot that county. 

''As to tliat part of Saginaw county which now falls within the 
limits of Bay county, my opinion is that for all the purposes con- 
nected with the Circuit Court, it must be treated as belonging to 
Saginaw county and as falling within the seventh circuit; but for 
all other purposes as a part of Bay county. This view of the 
question may lead to some embarrassments, but none that are seri- 
ous, so far as I can foresee. 

" The slight clerical error in the description of fractional town- 
ships 15, in ranges 4 and 5, by which they are placed in ranges 5 
ana 6, is not of any importance; the act plainly includes them in 
Bay county. * '^ '^ ^ * * " 

This action of the Legislature and all the events in connection 
with the organization of Bay county, go to form one of the 
political affairs which agitated the i)olitical circles of Saginaw to 
their very depths. 

In 1864 Geo. B. McClellan opposed the war President. The 
merits of the former were many and much appreciated; but he who 

f reclaimed the abolition of slavery from the highest seat in the 
'nion,wasdestined to continue in its occupation sometime longer. 
In 1868 Hon. Horatio Seymour, a Democrat, and a refined, en- 
lightened statesman, was nominated to oppose the fortunate Grant. 
Notwithstanding all the high qualifications which Mr. Seyjnour 
possessed, the man of the epaulettes was elected. In 1872 he was 
re-elected over the patriotic genius, Horace Greeley, as well as 
over the independent candidates. 

The election of 1876 created much excitement in Saginaw politi- 
cal circles during its progress. Owing to the quiet administration 
of Mr. Hayes and the return of prosperity, the Kepublicans lost no 
ground by the political disputes consequent upon that election. 
Througifiout all the celebrated campaims the citizens of Saginaw 
have as a rule voted in the interest of the Republic. They have 
always desired to witness the victory of virtue over vice, and have 
often been rewarded by the result of their battles. 

The question of setting off part of the town of Kochville from 
Saginaw county and attaching it to Bay county was brought before 
the Legislature April 20, 1881. When the bill was called Mr. Es- 
tabrooK rose to refiite the arguments of Mr. Partridge, of Bay 


county. The member for Saginaw talked and read for over an 
hour, and was still at it when time was called at noon. He re- 
sumed at 2 p. M. and continued his argument until 2:15 p. M.,when 
Mr. Cobb joined in the debate. He spoke for half an hour, and 
was followed by Bloom, of Detroit, who appeared for the Kochville 
and Bay City side of the question. At about 3 p. m. Mr. Estabrook 
opened again in refutation of the arguments advanced by Messrs. 
]Soom and Cobb. Gorman, the one-armed orator of T\''ashtenaw 
county, lifted up his voice for Bay City and the pleasant pastures 
over the river, and Capt. Henry Woodruff of Farwell, formerly of 
Saginaw, eloquently combatted the proposed session, on a point of 
its beinff poor State policy. 

Finally Mr. Van Loo moved the previous question, shutting off all 
debate. A call of the House was ordered, which brought in most of the 
members from tlie lobbies, where the eloquence had driven them, 
and the vote was taken, resulting in 53 ayes to 27 nays. Mr. Esta- 
brook took the defeat very coolly, and by an apt remark prevented 
giving the bill immediate effect. 

It is said that the great majority of the people of Kochville de- 
sired annexation to Bay county, on account of the little attention 
bestowed upon that quarter of Saginaw by the Countv Board. The 
cause and the effect should never have to be recorded. 

In the following pages the results of the various elections, so far 
as this county is concerned, are given. It is not to be presumed, 
however, that the majorities given for State officers or members of 
the United States Congress by this county, led to their election in 
all cases. 


The first election ever held in the county was that of April 4, 
1831, which resulted in the choice of Gardner D. Williams as 
supervisor; Ephraim S. Williams, town clerk; A. W. Bacon, 
treasurer; David Stanard, overseer of Saginaw district; Eleazer 
Jewett, overseer of Green Point district, and Charles McLean, over- 
seer of the Tittabawassee district. Those officers were elected viva 
voce by 13 citizens. 

The Presidential campaign of 1832 must have passed off quietly 
here, as there is no record of the vote taken. However, the demo- 
cratic Jackson had the sympathy of the few white men then resid- 
ing here. 

A review of the elections since 1833 to the present time is given 
in the following pages: 




RepreisrUative to CongreM, 

Charles C. Hascall, dem 31 8 

Gideon O. Whittemore, whig 28 
Scattering 8 



Harvey Williams^ whig 

Regi%ter of Deeds. 
Ephraim S. Williams, dem.. 

Eleazer Jewett, dem 

ELECTION OF OCT. 5, 6, 1885. 


Stevens T. Mason, dem 35 35 

Jiepresentative to Gongrese. 

Isaac E. Crar}% dem 45 

State Senator. 

Charles Hascall, dem 45 

John Slocklon, dem 45 

Ebenezer Raynale, dem 45 

John Clarke, dem 45 

State Representative. 

Gardner D. Williams, dem. . 44 44 

A'loption of Constitution. 

For Constitution 40 38 

Against 2 

ELKOTION OF NOV. 7, 8, 1830. 

Presidential Electors. 

David McKinstry, dem 65 1 

Daniel Le Roy, dem GO 

William Uoag, dem 04 

State Senator. 

J acol) Summers, dem 73 1 

Ra mlolph Manin^, dem 72 

John Chirk, dem 03 

T. I. Drake, whig. 10 

State Representative. 

William F. Mosley, dem 73 70 

Jeremiah Riggs , aem 8 

Judge of Probate. 

Albert Miller, dem 74 74 


William P. Little, dem 70 70 


Gardner D.Williams, dem... 76 76 

Register of Deeds. 

Ephraim S. Williams, dem. . 76 76 


E. N. Davenport, dem 75 75 


Eleazer Jewett, dem 


Andrew Ure, dem 

Asa H[ill,dem 

ELECTION OF NOV. 6, 1888. 

RepresentcUive to Congress. 

Hezekiah G. Wells, whig. . . 95 18 
Isaac E. Crary, dem 82 

State SencOor. 

Reuben S. Smith, whig 94 1 

Ira Porter, whig 98 

Jacob Summers, dem 84 

Ebenezer B. Harrington,dem. 81 

State Rmyreseniative. 

Norman Little, whig 110 42 

Samuel G. Watson, dem 68 


Samuel K. Ila'-ing, whig . . 87 2 
Amos Dixson, dem 85 


Harvey Williams, whig 109 42 

Joseph J. 3Ialden, dem 67 

Register of Deeds. 

Hiram L. Miller, whig 92 5 

Ephraim S. Williams, dem. 87 


Elijah N. Davenport, dem. . . 99 21 
Alpheus F. Williams, dem. . 78 


James McCormick, dem 99 20 

Eleazer Jewett, dem 79 


Phineas Spalding, whig 96 11 

George Davis, whig 98 8 

Jeremy T. Miller, whig 85 

Eleazer Jewett, dem 79 

ELECTION OF NOV. 7, 1889. 


Elon Famsworth, dem 83 28 

William Woodbridge, whig. 60 

State Senator. 

Robert Eldridge, dem 80 28 

Justin Rice, whig ..57 

State Representative. 

Gardner D. Williams, dem . . 88 87 
Hiram L. Miller, whig 51 

Judge of Probate. 

Albert Miller, dem 99 9 

Jeremy T. Miller, whig 90 


Joseph J. Maiden, dem 89 1 

Horace S. Beach, whig 88 


Charles S. Palmer, whig. ... 99 7 
William McDonald, dem 92 


Regiiitr of Dfdi. 

Josepb S. Sharp, dera 101 1 

Horace S. Beach, whig 8* 


Heorv Pratt, dem 97 H 

George W. Green, whig.,. . 67 

AlpheiisF. Williaius, ilem.. M 
Eleazer Jeweit, Jem 01 

Abmhiiiu Bull-, tl'-iii 9S 

Hugh Mi'Ciill.vk. ilciii 186 9 

Alploas F. Willuuiis,,!^,.!,. H 

Cromwell B!.ruey, wliig 02 

ELECTION ' IF NOV, 3, 1840. 

Martin Van Biiren. dem 100 I 

W.II. iliiiTisim, >^bii.' BO 

JlfpreienfiUive (•• Conyrtai. 

Alpheiis Felch, ilciii.. 00 

Jacob A. Howiird. whig 01 

at 'ill- Sfii'itiir. 

Dewitl C. Wiiiker, <lem Hit 

James L.Conj;tT.wl.iK 00 

St..l,- li>j,r>;e:l'iUve. 

Hiram L. Miliar, whig M 

Jeremiah Ui^f. ilcm 04 

."^ptci'il Kleetioit. 

Hiram L. Miller, wliig 93 2 

Gardner D. "WilHtimg, dem. . 72 
ELECTION OF NOV. 1,2, 1841. 

Jobn S, Bam-, dem 74 

Philo C. Fuller, whig 78 

St'ite tienatvT. 

Hiram L. Miller, whig 108 2 

MospB Wisncr. whig 83 

Daniel B. Wakefleld, dein... 55 

Isaac Wixom, dem 40 

SfaU Reprettntalire. 

Norman Little, whig 88 ' 4 

Elijah N.Davenport, dem... 49 
Sheriff [to pi taoiney). 

James Kennev, whig 71 1 

Alpheus F. \\ illiams, ilem... 54 

Eleazer Jewett, dem 72 2 

James J. McCormick, whig. , 45 
ELECTH )N OK Ni )V 7, 8, 1842, 
State Sanator. 

Saoford M, Greeu.dem 104 i 

George W. IVisner whig ... 78 
:S/..(f RcpvuenMUe. 

Noah Beach, dem 70 i 

Luke Wellington, whig. 64 

Jeremiah Riggc, dem 03 


Hiram L. Miller, whig 67 

Joseph J. Maiden, dem 02 

Sidney S. Campbell, dem 16 


Charles S. Palmer, whig 124 6 

Albert Miller, dem 58 

RegUter of Deedt. 

Horace 8. B.^a.ij, whig 66 1 

Charles L. Hichinan, whig,.. 56 

JameBKenuev, whig 07 1 

Elijah X. Davejipon, dem... 81 


ManinL. Miller, whig 62 

JamesJ. Mcr..niiick, .lem.. 54 


Hugh McCiillock. dem 84 1 

■n.-imns S.niih, dem 72 

George W. IJiillock. whig.., 68 
A, I', naydcii, dem 62 

ELECTION OF NOV. 6, 7, 1843, 


John S, Barrj, dem 101 3 

ZiuaPiitlier whig 70 

Jicprcfieittatire to ConffTU*. 

James B. Hunt, dem 101 3 

ThoniaM J. Drake, whig,.'.,. 71 
folate Senator. 

Jobuson Niles, dem 98 

Alvin N. Hart, dem 98 

John M. Lamb, whig 7S 

Rufus Hosiiicr, whig TS 

State Repruentiitive. 

Hiram L. Miller whig Ill 5 

'fliomaa McCarty dem 60 

f!on»titutioaal Amendment. 

For Amenilment 106 9 

Ag'iinal Amendment 11 

ELKCTK IN OP NOV. 4, 5, 1844. 

Henry Clay, whig 107 

James K. Polk, dem 104 

Scaitering 2 

Sejirenentalire to Oongrett. 

Jaiiie^B. Hum, dem 107 

George W. Wisiier whig,... 106 
Stnte Setiator. 

Hiram L. Miller, whig 118 H 

Gardner D. Williama, dem,. 100 

.stale liep-reientativt, 
Cbarlea L. Richmao, whig. ..lOG i 

Alfred Holmet, dem . 71 

James G. Bimey, abolltiOD... 88 






Constitutional Amendment. 

For Amendment 165 162 

Against Amendment 3 

Judge of Probate. 

Charles S. Palmer, whig 115 16 

Albert Miller, dem 99 


William L. P. Little, dem 111 11 

Frederick W. Backus, whig .100 


Hiram L. Miller, whig lOS 3 

Sidney S. Campbell, dem 105 

Register of Deeds. 

Horace S. Beach, whig 125 40 

Thomas Simpson, dem 85 


Samuel Gordon, whig 115 

Joshua Blackman, dem 100 


James J. McCormick, dem. ..118 
Luke Wellington, whig 97 


Elijah N. Davenport, dem. . .109 

Ebenezer Davis, dem 108 

Pet-r Guillot, whig 107 

William Kenwick, whig 106 

ELECTION OF NOV. 4, 1845. 


Alpheus Felch, dem 89 2 

Stephen Vickery, dem 87 

James G. Birney, abolition... 9 

Sttite Senator. 

William M. Fenton, dem. ... 90 8 

Sanford M. Green, dem 96 8 

William Burbank, whig 88 

John C. Gallop, whig 88 

State Hepresentative. 

Charles S. Palmer, whig 101 25 

XWmt Miller, dem 86 

ELECTION OF NOV. 3, 1846. 

Representative to Congress. 

Kinsley S. Bingham, dem.. . 108 
George W. Wisner, whig.. . . 90 

State Senator. 

iVndrew Parsons, dem 130 

Johnson Niles, dem 128 

Elijah B. Witherbee, whig.. 98 
John H. Button, whig 92 

State Representative. 

Albert Miller, dem 187 46 

William H. Nelson, whig. . . 91 

Judge of Probate. 

Eleazer Jewett, dem 127 27 

Luke Wellington, whig 100 





Absalom F. Hayden, dem.... 118 
George Davis, whig 105 


Samuel Gtordon, whig 128 

Royal W. Jenny, dem 98 

Register of Deeds. 

Coe Garratt, dem 129 

Daniel Woodin, whig 91 


James H. Gotee, dem 115 

Ebenezer W. Perry, whig. . 96 


James J. McCormick, dem.. 129 
Horace 8. Beach, whig 100 


Thomas Rogers, dem 137 

Joshua Blackmore, dem 135 

Caleb Gardner, whig ". . 95 

David G. Philbreck, whig. . 92 

ELECTION OF NOV. 2, 1847. 


Epaphroditus Ransom, dem. 156 
James M. Edmunds, whig. . 114 

State Senator. 

Alvin N. Hart, to fill vacan- 

cjr, dem 157 

James K.ipp, whig 113 

Edward it. Thompson, dem. 157 

James McCabe, dem 157 

David Bush, jr., whig 113 

Henry W. Lord, whig 110 

State Representative. 

Murdock Fraser, dem 131 

Luke Wellington, whig 124 

ELECTION OF NOV. 7, 1848. 


Lewis Cass, dem 182 

Zachary Taylor, whig.- 118 

M. Van Bureu, free soil 47 

Representative to Congress, 

Kinsley 8. Bingham, dem . . 185 
George H. Hazleton, whig. . 118 
John M. Lamb, whig 45 

State Senator. 

Jonathan P. King, dem 282 

Alvin N. Hart, dem 185 

John Bacon, whig 118 

Charles Draper, whig 118 

Thomas Curtis, free soil .... 34 
John B. Barnes, free soil. .• 84 

State Representative. 

Alfred Holmes, dem 188 

Royal C. Ripley, whig 152 

















Judge of Probate. 

Deazer Jewett, dein 183 35 

Dr George Davis, whig 148 

AJphousF. Williams, dem.. 178 26 
William H. Nelson, whig. . 152 

Roval W. Jenny, dem 149 

Samuel Gordon, whi^ 164 15 

Regut''r of Deeds. 

Coe Garratt. dem 810 86 

Octavius Thompson, whig. . 134 


JenmieH. Gotee,dem 193 46 

Caleb Gardner, whig 147 


James J. McCorraick, dem,. 172 

Joseph Lawrence, whig 167 


Thomas Rogers, dem 203 64 

Peter Lane, dem 194 55 

Dennis Harrison, whig 139 

Kufus P. Mason, whig 127 

ELECTION OF NOV. 6, 1849. 


John S. Barry, dem 213 72 

Flavins J. Littlejohn, abol..l41 

Constitutional Amendment. 

For Amendment 290 296 

Against Amendment 3 

State Senator. 

Thornton F. Broad head, whig 214 20 
Noah Beach, dem 194 

State Rejyresentative. 

Thomiis McCarty, dem 213 

Rufus P. Mason, whig 140 

ELECTION OF NOV. 5, 1850. 

Jif'presentative to Congress. 

Charles C Hascall, dem 266 34 

James L. Conger, whig 232 

State Senators. 

Samuel Axford, dem 281 63 

Elijah J. Roberts, dem 2«0 62 

Samuel Ashman, whig 218 

Sullivan R. Kelsey, whig 218 

Johnson Niles, vacancy ,dem. 224 1 

John P. Leroy, vacancy,whig 223 

State Representative. 

Jolm W. Turner, dem 319 241 

Norman Little, whig 78 


AlpheusF. Williams, dem.. 301 115 
Henry C. Ashman, whig 186 


Coe Garratt, dem 229 

Samuel Gordon, whig 270 41 

Register of Deeds. 

Peter C. Andre, dem 264 85 

Timothy Battell, whig 229 

Prosecuting Attorney. 

Hiram S. Penoyer, dem 297 112 

Charles J. Hunt, whig 185 


Isaiah Bookst aver, dem.... 297 103 
Menzo C. Stevens, whig 194 


Abraham Butts, dem 264 83 

Horace S. Beach, whig 231 


Peter Lane, dem 281 62 

Jerome H. Gotee, dem 281 68 

Israel Catlin, whig 219 

Abner Hubbard, whig 218 

ELECTION OF NOV. 4, 1851. 


Robert McClelland, dem.. . . 220 91 
Townsend C. Gidley, whig.. 129 

ELECTION OF NOV. 2, 1852. 


Franklin Pierce, dem 694 327 

Winfleld Scott, whi§ 867 

John P. Hale, abolition 73 


Robert McClelland, dem 691 

Zachariah Chandler, whig. . 374 
Isaac P. Christ iancy,free soil 67 

Representative to Congress. 

Hester L. Stevens, dem 660 283 

George Bradley, whig 377 

Ephraim Calkms, ab 40 

State Senator. 

Daniel Johnson, dem 609 

John H. Richardson, whig. . 448 

State Representative. 

Alfred M. Hoyt, whig 425 34 

Jabez G. Sutherland, dem.... 391 
Franklin Millard, free soil . . 287 

Judge of Probate. 

Eleazer Jewett, dem 649 193 

Hiram L. Miller, whig 456 


Augustus S. Gay lord, whig. 556 5 
Dion Birney, dem 551 


Samuel Gordon, whig 615 132 

Peter C. Andre, dem 483 

RegiMter of Deeds. 

Coe Garratt, dem 711 324 

William Binder, whig 887 

Prosecuting Attorney. 

Richard B. Hall, dem 661 286 

I Henry C. Ashman, whig... . 485 



Circuit Court Commissioner. 

Charles D. Little, dem 483 56 

James L. T. Fox, whig 427 


Jerome H. Gotee, dem 716 820 

William Packard, whig. ... 396 


Abraham Butts, dem 696 361 

Alexander Alberti, wjiig .... 335 


Charles W. Grant, dem 701 278 

George E. Smith, dem 087 264 

Octavus Thompson, whig. . . 423 
Israel Catlin, whig 238 

ELECTION OF NOV. 7, 1854. 


John S. Barry, dem 651 134 

Kinsley S. Bmgham, rep. . . 517 

Represcntatire to Congress. 

George W. Peck, dem 701 189 

Moses Wisner, rej) 512 

State Senator. 

Henry J. Alvord, dem 093 341 

Charfes Kellogg, alml .352 

John W. Lamb, fus 74 

State Itepresentative. 

Jonathan S. Barclay, dem.. . 494 6 

Hiram L. Miller, dem 488 

Franklin Millard, rep 144 


Hiram T. Ferris, dem 6W 101 

Augustus S. Gaylord, rep.. . 559 


Joshua Blackmore, dem 717 

Samuel Gordon, rep 453 

Register of Deeds. 

John Parrish, jr., rep 607 310 

Placidus Ord, dem 297 

Charles D. Little, dem 282 

Prosecuting Attorney. 

John Moore, dem 809 537 

Henry C. Ashman, rep 272 

Circuit Court Commissioner. 

William L. Webber, dem. .. 779 777 

John Moore, dem 2 

Israel Callin, rep 2 


Charles W. Grant, dem 653 285 

Willard Packard, rep 368 


Alexander Alberti, dem 713 254 

Darwin A. Pettibone, rep.. . 459 


Jules B. Hart, dem 702 191 

George G. Hess, dem 762 251 

Adoniram Dann, rep 511 

Israel Catlin. rep 480 

ELECTION OF NOV. 8, 1856. 


J. Buchanan, dem 1222 180 

J. C. Fremont, rep 1042 

M. Fillmore, Amer 17 

Gov* rnor. 

Alpheus Felch, dem 1247 210 

Kinsley S. Bingham, rep. . . 1037 

Representative to Congress. 

George W. Peck, dem 1252 118 

Dewitt C. Leach, rep 1034 

State Senator. 

Alfred L. Williams dem. . .1124 
Thomas Whitney, rep 1152 28 

State Reprcrentatice. 

Timothy Jerome, dem 1222 165 

George Lord, rep 1057 

Judge of Probate. 

Dewitt G. Gage, rep 1135 

Eleazer Jewett, dem 1149 14 


Hiram T. Ferris, dem 1808 385 

Geoige W. Sutton, rep 973 


Joshua Blackmore, dem 1449 600 

Charles Post, rep 849 

Register of Deeds. 

John Parrish, jr., rep 1196 299 

Henry Flatare, dem 897 

Prosecuting Attorney. 

John Moore, dem 1294 306 

Stephen P. Wright, rep 988 

Circuit Court Commissioner. 

Jabez G. Sutherland, dem. .1254 230 
William J. Loveland, rep. ..1024 


Charles W. Grant, dem, 1846 417 

Willard Packard, rep 929 


Abraham ButU, dem 1127 60 

D. A. Pettibone, rep 1067 


Jerome H. Gotee, dem 1242 194 

Jules B. Hart, dem 1242 194 

Octavus Thompson, rep 1048 

William I. Craagge, rep 1089 

ELECTION OF NOV. 2, 1858. 


Charles E. Stuart, dem 1060 280 

Moses Wlsner, rep 789 

Representative in Congresr, 

Robert W. Davie, dem 1028 

Dewitt C. Leach, rep 848 



State Senator. 

Robert R. Thompson, dein...ll24 888 
James Birney, reb 741 

State Bepreaentative. 

John F. Driggs, rep 984 81 

Peter C. Andre, dem 908 


Charles D. Little, dem 896 

William Moll, rep 948 47 


Joshua Blackmore, dem 1201 545 

C. Eliakim Ripley, rep 656 

Reg liter of Deeds. 

George Schmidt, dem 886 24 

Oliver P. Burt, rep 8G2 

Prosecuting Attorney. 

William L.Webber, dem.. 973 101 
William H. Sweet, rep 872 

Circuit Court Commissioner. 

George B. Benedict, dem . . . 856 
Augustus S. Gaylord, rep.. . 1002 146 


John W. Turner, dem 796 170 

Asa H. Paine, rep 626 


Lewis Loeffler, dem 979 101 

Darwin A. Pettibone, rep. . . 878 


Jerome n. Gotee, dem 1076 257 

Reuben Fairchild, dem 1039 220 

George A. Lathrop, rep. . . . 819 
Octavius Thompson, rep. . . . 766 

ELECTION OF NOV. 6, 1860. 


A. Lincoln, rep 1479 272 

S. A. Douglas, dem 1207 

John Bell, Amer 8 


Austin Blair, rep 1476 147 

John S. Barry, dem 1229 

Reprtsentative to Congress. 

Rowland E. Trowbridge, rep..l477 264 
Edward H. Thompson, dem..l2l3 

State Senator. 

John N. Ingersoll, rep 1514 337 

William L. Webber, dem. ...1177 

State Representative. 

Benjamin G. Hill, rep 1447 208 

Jabez G. Sutherland, dem. ..1239 

Judge of Probate. 

Luke Wellington, rep 1846 9 

John Moore, dem 1387 


William Moll, rep 1718 782 

George F. Ball, dem 981 


Joshua Blackmore, dem 1428 182 

Benjamin F. Fisher, rep 1246 

Register of Deeds. 

George Veinfliet, rep 1427 165 

George Schmidt, dem 1262 

Prosecuting AUoniey, 

William H. Sweet, rep 1474 156 

Bradley M. Thompson, dem..l218 

Circuit Court Commissioner. 

Augustus S. Gaylord, rep.. .1611 542 
Lester Cross, dem 1069 


Henry Woodruff, rep 1461 241 

John W. Turner, dem 1220 


Ira W. La Munyon, rep. . . . 1378 665 
Alexander Alberti, dem 718 


Robert Clark, rep 1481 249 

Charles T. Disbrow, rep 1456 224 

Jerome H. Gotee, dem 1232 

Jesse L. Fisher, dem 1219 

ELECTION OF NOV. 4, 1862. 


Austin Blair, rep 1106 

Byron G. Stout, dem 1354 248 

Representative to Congress. 

John F. Driggs, rep 1100 

John Moore, dem 1363 263 

State Senator. 

David II. Jerome, rep 1141 

Appleton Stevens, dem 1328 182 

State Repreuhtative. 

Solomon B. Bliss, rep 603 59 

John Gallagher, dem 544 


George Schmidt, dem 1250 37 

WilUam Moll, rep 1218 


William J. Barton, dem 1855 249 

Veeder W. Paine, rep 1106 

Register of Deeds. 

James N. GJotee, dem 1287 109 

George F. Veinfliet, rep 1178 

Prosecuting Attorney. 

Chaimcey H. Gage, dem 1312 163 

WiUiam H. Sweet, rep 1149 

Circuit Court Commissioner, 

WilUam J. Loveland, rep... 1297 127 
Patrick Glynn, dem 1170 


Jesse H. Quackenbush, iem.1948 88 
Franklin A. Cuitis, r^ 1215 




Lewis Loeffler, dem 1810 155 

Darwin A. Pettibone^ rep. . .1155 


Albert G. Bissell, dem 1887 201 

John B. White, dem 1332 190 

Louis Baumgart, rep 1136 

Ethan Allen, rep 1128 

ELECTION OP NOV. 8, 1864. 



Geo. B. McClellan, dcin 1900 109 

A. Lincoln, rep 1731 


AVilliam M. Kenton, dem. . .1911 189 
Henry il. CraiK), rep 1723 

HeprcHtutative to Congrens. 

William Willard, Jem 1872 113 

Jolm P. Driggs, rep 1759 

^Staie Stiiator. 

George Lord, dem 1882 127 

David H. Jerome, rep 1755 

Stt tte Jit}) resenta t ives. 

Firtd D.Btrict: 

William IL Taylor, rep 1033 194 

Dan. P. Pcx>te, dem 839 

George Luther 33 

^Second Dmtrict : 

Samuel W. Yawkey, rep... 966 188 
John G. Hubmger, dem 848 

Judye of Probate. 

Otto Roeser, rep 1823 21 

Robert R. Thompson, dem. .1802 


George Schmidt, dem 1914 190 

William Moll, rep 1718 


Thomas L. Jackson, dem. . .1910 192 
Emil Moures, rep 1718 

Register oj Deeds. 

James N. Gotee, dem 1956 286 

Thomas \V. Ilastiugs, dem. .1670 

Prosecuting Attorney. 

Chauncey 1 1. Gage, dem 1881 124 

Chauncey W. Wisner, rep. . .1753 

Circuit Court Commissioner. 

John J. Wheeler, dem 1891 148 

Daniel AV. Perkins, rep 1748 


Jesse H. Quackenbush, dem.. 1952 287 
Augustus Lull, rep 1665 


Lewis Loeffler, dem 1929 222 

Ira W. La Munyon, rep 1707 


John R. Whit«, dem 1910 181 

John Era, dem 1*07 178 

Israel N. Smith, rep 1728 

Seth Willey, rep 1729 

ELECTION OF NOV. 6, 1866. 


Henry II. Crapo, rep 2339 590 

Alpheus S. Williams, dem . . 1749 

Representative to Congress. 

John P. Driggs, rep 2341 599 

Julius K. liose, dem 1742 

State Senator. 

David H. Jerome, rep 2352 627 

John R. Chcesmer, dem ...1725 

State Rcpresentatices. 

First IHatrict : 

William n. Taylor, rep... 1182 159 
Julius Brousseau, dem 973 

SecomJ Uisfrirt. 

George K. Newcombe, rep... .111^ 857 
George A. Plaudcrs, dem. . . .778 


Edward Bloedon. rep 2180 311 

Henan R. Perris, dem 1869 


Gideon A. Lyon, rep 2190 295 

Thomas L. Jackson, dem 1895 

Register of Deeds. 

AIonzoL. Bingham, rep.... 2262 458 
Rolla Glover, dem 1809 

prosecuting Attorney. 

Edwin H. Powers, rep ...2306 529 
Daniel P. Foote, dem 1777 

C ircuit Court Commissioner. 

William A. I^wis, rep 2364 683 

John J. AVheeler, dem 1781 


Henry MiUer, rep 2482 882 

Ephraim W. Lyon, dem 1600 


Darwin A. Pettibone, rep... .2853 618 
Lewis Loeffler, dem 1740 


Nehemiah Osbom, rep 2359 615 

Ljnnan W. Bliss, rep 2859 615 

George J. Northrup, dem . . . 1744 
Jonathan G. Rouse, dem. . . .1744 

ELECTION OF NOV. 8, 1868. 


V. 8. Grant, rep 8860 599 

Horatio Seymour, dem 2761 


Henry P. Baldwin, rep 8254 487 

John Moore, dem 2767 



BepresJfUntice to Congress, 

Randolph Strickland, rep . . .8128 288 
William Newton, dem 2845 

State Representatives. 

First District: 

Peter Lane, rep 1778 207 

Joseph N. Eldral, dem 1571 

Second District. 

Samuel W. Yawkey, rep 1507 271 

Moses B. Yless, dem 1236 

State Senator. 

Alfred B. Wood, rep 5481 1258 

James L. Ketchum, dem 4173 

Judge of Probate. 

Otto Roeser, rep 3460 843 

George M. Schaeffer, dem. .5623 


Edward Bloedon, rep 3127 277 

Heman B. Ferris, dem 2950 


Gideon A. Lyon, rep 3267 443 

Thomas L. Jackson, dem. . .2824 

Eegister of Deeds. 

Alonzo L. Bingham, rep 3349 610 

Clark M. Cujtis, dem 2739 

Pronecuting Attorney. 

Edwin H. Powers, rep 3290 480 

William A. Clark, dem 2810 

Circuit f'ourt Commissioner.*^. 

William A. Lewis, rep 3340 580 

Daniel P. Foote, dem 27>>0 


Henry Miller, ren 3507 1036 

Thomas E. Douiihty, clem. ..2531 


Isaac II. Leavenworth, rep. 3298 544 
Louis LoetHer, dem 2754 


Theodore Krauss, rep 3348 592 

Nehemiah Os orn, rep 3346 590 

J. H.White, dem 2756 

W. H. P. Benjamin, dem . ..2755 

ELECTION OF NOV. 8, 1870. 


Henry P. Baldwin, rep 2882 391 

Charles H. Comstock, dem.. 2491 

Reprtsentative to Congress. 

John F. Driggs, rep 2250 

Jabez G. Sutherland, dem. .2832 582 

State Senator. 

Alfred B. Wood, rep 4745 956 

ohn Jeffred, dem 3789 

State Representatives. 

First District. 

Israel N. Smith, rep 1402 

Charles D. Liitle, dem 1534 132 

Second District: 

John J. Wheeler, dem 1120 

Bernhard Haack, rep 1259 189 


Fred. B. Sweet, rep 3104 898 

George F. Lewis, dem 2206 


George F. Van Fliet rep . . .2808 289 
Thomas R. Mosher, dem 2519 

Register of Deeds. 

Jerome K. Stevens, rep 2888 508 

William J, Howard, dem. ..2385 

Prosecuting Attartiey. 

Daniel P. Foote, dem 2659 3 

Daniel W. Perkins, rep 2056 

Circuit Court Commissioner. 

Thomas M. James, rep 2899 380 

Frederick L. Eaton, clem . . . 2519 


Austin L. Rankin, rep 2S81 453 

Orange S. Thompson, dem. .2428 


Isaac H. Leavenworth, rep. .2850 330 
Louis Loeftler, dem 2520 


Daniel Forrest, rep 2796 214 

Henry Miller, rep 2761 189 

Benjamin B. Ross, dem 2582 

John B. While, dem 2430 

ELECTION OF NOV. 5, 1872. 

Prendt nt. 

U. S. Grant, rep 3674 1021 

Horace Greeley, lib. rep 2653 

Chas O'Conor, dem 139 

Scattering 10 


John J. Baglev, rep 3705 971 

Austin Blair, dem 2734 

Representat ve to Congress. 

Chauncev W. Wisner, dem.3620 748 
Nathan B. Bradley, rep 2877 

St ite Senator. 
Charles V. De Land. rep. . . .3499 518 
Joshua Tuthill, dem 2981 

Sta^e Representative. 

Thomas C. Ripley, rep 1081 

Charles D. Little, dem 972 

Second District : 

Conrad Fay, rep 1274 278 

Bradley M. Thompson, dem.lOOl 

Third District : 

Francis Ackley, rep 1184 289 

Jared Freeman, dem 945 

Judge of Probate. 

Otto Roeser, rep 4044 1554 

Julius K. Rose, dem 2490 




Fred B. Sweet, rep 4297 2088 

William Kremer, dem 2214 


George F. Van Fliet, rep. . .4294 2029 
John L. Krafff, dem 2265 

Beffis'er of Deeds. 

Jerome K. Stevens, rep 4428 2367 

Aaron A. Parsons, dem . . . 2061 

Prosucntiag Attorney. 

William Glllett, rep 3902 1291 

Daniel P. Foote, dem 2611 

Circuit Conrt CoinmimHioner. 

Thomas M. James, rep 3811 1046 

John J Iloeley, rep 3807 1042 

Nathan S. Wood, dem 2585 

George A. Fl mders, dem. . .2765 


Reuljen W. Andrus, rep 3544 574 

T. Dailv Mower, dem 2970 


Isaac H. Leavenworth, rep. 3801 1086 
Louis Loettler, dem 2715 


Daniel Forrest, rep 3967 1336 

William P. Biirdick, rep. . .3775 1144 

George Maiirer, dem 2631 

Gre^ry Adams, dem 2572 

ELECTION OF NOV. 3, 1874. 


John J. Baglev, rep 2637 

Henry Chamberlain, dem.. .3410 779 

RepreHi'iitntive to C tnynss. 

Nathan B. Bradley, rej) 2630 

George F. Lewi^, dem 3432 802 

SUite Senator. 

Ezra Rush, rep 2723 

William L. Webber, dem.. 3372 649 

State lieprratntatitf'S. 

First £) s'rict, 

Thomas C. Ripley, rep 678 

Charles D. Little, dem 1216 538 

Second District. 

Daniel Forrest, rep 895 

Joseph A. Ilollon, dem 1189 294 

Third District, 

Francis Ackley, rep 843 

William II. P.Benjamin,demll92 249 


Frel B. Sweet, rep 3224 531 

Joseph C. Leonard, dem... 2693 


(Jeorcre F. Vanfliet, rep. . . 2628 84 
Thomas R. Mosher, dem. .2589 

ELECTION OF NOV. 7, 1876. 


R. B. Hayes, rep 4182 

8. J. Tilden, dem 4850 068 

Charles M. Croswell, rep. . .3982 
William L. Webber, dem. .5051 1069 

Represeniatite to Congress. 
Charles C. Ellsworth, rep. . .4132 
Fred H. Potter, dem 4906 774 

State Sena' or. 

Charles L. Draper, rep 4510 

Dan. P. F(X)te, dem 4513 8 

State Representatives. 

Firs*. District : 

Charles D. Litile, dem 1613 434 

Gardner K. Grout, rep 1179 

Second Dis'ric' : 

Herbert H. Iloyt, rep 1402 

Lawson C. Ilolden, dem. . . 1412 8 

Third District : 

George AV. Sackridge, dem . 1760 200 
I-Kjuis P. Racine, rep 1560 

Ueyater of Deeds. 

\ Jerome K. Stevens, rep 3000 447 

Porter Davenport, dem 2553 

Presecutiny Attorney. 

William Gillett, rep :K)45 238 

William A. Clark, dem 2812 

Circuit Court Commissioner. 

Thomas M. James, rep 2700 

John J. Heelev, rep 2438 

James B. Peter, dem 3124 424 

De Forest Paine, dem 2802 102 


Reuben W. Andrus, rep. . . .2740 115 
Murlin C. Osborn, dem 2625 


Isaac H. Leavenworth, rep. .2466 
William Brenner, dem 3122 656 


Andrew Mclnnes, rep 2488 

William P. Burdick, rep. . .2257 

John B. White, dem 3201 718 

William Ballard, dem 3062 574 

Judge of Probate. 

Otto Roeser, rep 4525 87 

Joseph X. Eldred, dem.. . .4488 


Charles H. Richmond, rep. .4144 
Byron G. Stark, dem 4807 668 


Herman Gk)e8chel, rep 4488 

Jacob Schwartz, dem 4503 15 

Register of Deeds. 

Theodore L. Bnmdage, rtp. .8977 
Frank Lawrence, dem 4774 797 



Prosecuting Attorney, 

Albert Trask, rep 4008 

George A Flanders, dem 4981 975 

Circuit Court Coinmisfdoner. 

Lozinc A. Hurlburt rep 4270 

WUliam G. Gage, rep 4237 

James B. Peter, dem 4710 440 

DeForest Paine, dem 4832 562 


John Barter, rep 4357 

James F. Adams, dem 4651 294 

Isaac H. Leavenworth, rep. .4159 
Harrison Cary, dem 4847 688 


Samuel Kitchen, rep 4226 

Sidney I. Small, rep 42Ji6 

Charles T. Martin, d* m 4845 559 

Daugald Mclntyre, dem 4720 434 

ELECTION OF NOV. 5, 1878. 


Orlando M. Barnes, dem . . . .3099 3;32 
Charles M. Croswell, rep.... 2767 
Henry L Smith, gr'nb'k. . .1960 
Walson Snyder, proh 84 

J\*epreiti'ntatices to Congress. 

Bradley M. Thompson, dem . 3 129 1591 

Roswell G. Ilorr, rep 1538 

Herlxjrt H. lloyt, greenback 1910 

Stffte Senator. 

William IL P. Benjamin, d.3093 352 

Gardner K. Grout, rep 2741 

Benjamin J. Downing, g'b'k 1965 

.S7// te Ecp restn to t ices. 

First District : 

Willard Sliattm k, dem 1 021 280 

Myron Butman, rep 741 

Baitholomew Griffin, gr'nb'k.671 

Second District : 

Byron B. Bach, dem 8 (8 

John S. Estabrook, rep 1047 239 

Daniel Forest, gr'nb'k 751 

Third District: 

George F. Vienfliet, rep 1094 80 

George M. Williams, dem.. .1014 
James W. Morse, gr'nb'k. . . 615 


Byron G. Stark, dem 3300 907 

Leroy C. Driggs, rep 2 93 


John 0. Valentine, dem 3017 98 

Alexander Ferguson, rep 2919 

Well8 W. Parshall 73 

Register of Deeds. 

Frank Lawrence, dem 3140 428 

Fred AV, Koch, rep 2712 

Prosecuting Attorney. 

Lorenzo T. Durand, dem . . .3215 681 

William H. Sweet, rep 2584 

Lawson C. Holden, gr'nb'k.. 2027 

Circuit Court Commissioners, 

Frederick Anneke, dem 3089 261 

John E. Nolan, dem 3221 883 

Eugene M. Joslin, rep 2744 

John McArthur, rep 2838 

Samuel M. Porter, gr'nb'k.. .1883 
William A. Clark, gr'nb'k . . . 1650 


James F. Adums, dem 3246 637 

Solomon B. Bliss, rep 1977 

Charles C. iMiller, greenback2609 


Harrison Cary, dem 8154 347 

Isaac H. Leavenworth, rep. .2807 
James Bean, greenback. . . .1933 


Benjamin B. Ross, dem 3120 339 

Charles E. Brenner, dem. . . .3092 'Ml 

Sidney I . Small, rep 2781 

Jonathan S. Rouse, rep 2743 

Manasseh Dougherty, gr'nb'k 1946 
Dr. Titus Duncan, gr'nb'k. .199 » 

Daniel H. Cheeney 79 

A.J. Kniffln 79 

ELECTION OF NOV. 2, 1880. 


James A. Garfield, rep 5208 

W. S. Hancock, dem 5234 26 

J. B. Weaver, greenback 609 


David II. Jerome, rep 4994 

Frederick M. Holloway, dem. 5506 612 

Ri'piiHcntatices to Congress. 

Roswell G. Ilorr, rep 4829 

Timothy E. Tarsney, dem . . . 5801 972 

State Senator. 

John Welch, rep 5471 461 

William II. P. Benjamin,dem5010 
David Geddes, greenback . . . 597 

State Representatites. 

First District : 

Rolxjrt J. Birney, rep 1511 

Jacob Knapp, dem 1695 184 

Elias C. Andre, gr'nb'k 195 

Second District : 

John S. Estabrook, rep 1578 2 

Frank Lawrence, dem 1837 

Daniel Forrest, gr'nb'k 608 

Third District : 

Hawley J. Hopkins, rep. . . .1917 92 

Arthur Ross, dem 1825 

George A. Wallace, gr'nb'k.. 298 

Judge of Probate. 

Otto Roeser, rep 5489 864 

Julius E. Rose, dem 6075 

Thomas W. Newrick, gr'nVkftOS 




Fred B. Sweet, rep 5452 404 

Hiram W. Robinson, dem. . 498>3 
Joseph D. Wilson, gr'nb'k. . 458 


Alexander Furguson, rep 5285 48 

John ('. Valentine, dem 5237 

John Mason, G. B 552 

Beffisttr of Deeda. 

Charles Shaw, rep 5279 

Herman B. Zwerk. dem 5475 196 

Benjamin J. Downing, g. b. 95 

Prona'i/fiuf/ Attoi'in-y . 

Albert Trnsk, rep 5 133 

I^renzo T. Durand. dem 5430 297 

Samuel >I. Porter, greenba'k 520 

Circuit Court ConiminHion^rn. 

Samuel G. Higgins, rep 518s 

Herman Piatorius, rep 5293 

John E. Nolan, dem 5333 

Frederick Anneke, dem 5207 


Henry Miller, rep 5590 

William Reins, dem 4930 


Solomon C. Goodalc, rep 5225 

William Brenner, dem 51^5 

Henry G. RothwelKgr'nb'k. .593 

Jonathan S. Rouse, rep 5230 

Sylvester C.J. Ostrom, rep. .5234 
Newton D. Lee, dem 5202 20 






John Scanlan, dem 5261 25 

WillianiT. Arnold, gr'nb'k. 599 
Edward S. Dunbar, gr'nb'k. 595 


Circuit Judge. 

DeWitt C. Gage, rep 40^0 

Chaunce}' H. Gage, dem... 4811 

JunticcM of the Supreme Court. 

Augustus C. Baldwin, dem. .8332 

Isaac Marston, rep 4002 

John B. Shipman, gr'nb^k. .1151 
Charles G. rt3'de, temperance 251 

Bcf/nttsof the University. 

James F. Joy, rep 3933 

Austin Blair, rep 3931 

Geo. V.N. Lothrop, dem... 3564 

Ilenrv Fralick, dem 35(J4 

i Charles J. Willette, gr'ub'k.lll7 

I David Parsons, gr'nb'k 1117 

' I.«5aac W. McKeene, tem'nc^. 234 
Edward C. Newell do. . 284 

AmrmhnentH to the Constitutiou. 

Rfhitin- to Pdtal FincH: 

, V(s 1348 

No 248 

i litfitirt to tlu Clerk of tlie Supreme 

I Yes 1888 

No :... 170 

Rrhitu't to Circuit Court \ 

Yes 1446 

No 288 



As the history of the civil war comes next in importance to that 
of the Revolution, and as it is entwined more closely with the newer 
States and their various districts, it is just that, as the work of 
the writer proceeds, he should pass in review what one new State 
has done for the Union, and make special mention of those gallant 
men who left their homes to join the thousands who appeared upon 
the field in defense of all these precious liberties under which they 
lived, and for the preservation of the most sublime political union 
that ever bound ^reat States together. In April, 1S61, immediately 
after the wire flashed the Presidential call for volunteers, the people 
of Michigan ruslied forward to respond. Perhaps, throughout all 
the land, there were no more earnest respondents than the men of 
Saginaw. Organization was earnestly entered upon, and when the 
crisis arrived, few, if any, counties surpassed this northern one in 
celerity of military movement, or in the number and quality of the 
men and officers sent forth to the field. 

In this history of Saginaw in the war for the Union, each regi- 
ment sent forward claims a very full notice. This is due to the 
county, for in each battalion of patriots it had a representation. 
On this account, and also for the purpose of rendering the history 
of the period more familiar, the writer deems it a matter of great 
consequence to deal with the subject as extensively as the plan of 
the work will allow. In the first part of the chapter the military 
history proper is given, and this is succeeded by the personal his- 
tory, in which the names of the soldiers of this county who died 
during the war, and of those who survived to be discharged with 
their honors, are recorded. To the collation of facts much care has 
been given, and if an error should appear, it must be credited to a 
generally accepted theory rather than to a want of attention or 
carelessness in compilation. 

The proclamation of President Lincoln was issued April 15, 1861. 
The day following, that of Gov. Blair, addressed to the people of 
Michigan, was made public, and on the same day the ^' East Sasrinaw 
Light Guards " received orders to go into training. The proclama- 
tion of the Governor of Michigan appeared in the local journals of 
the two cities April 18, and four days later one of the greatest 
meetings held to consider the best means of defending the Union 
did honor to the people. On that Monday of the eventful April of 
1861, 3,000 citizens of the Saginaws assembled to devise such 

measures as would correspond with the desires of the general Gov- 



ernment and those of the State. The people massed on Genesee 
street, East Saginaw, and were addressed ny J. B. Dillingham, 
from a platform erected in front of the Bancroft House. There was 
little time spent in speculative philosophy, the orator proceeding at 
once to organize the meeting. He nominated Col. L. P. Little for 
chairman; John Moore, Geo. W. Bullock, J. G. Sutherland, C. B. 
Mott, W. L. Webber, D. A. Petti bone, B. F. Fisher, J. Quackon- 
bush and F. D. Babcock, vice presidents; S. B. Bliss, B. M. Thomp- 
son, W. J. Barton and V. A. taine, secretaries. 

Col. Little said that "The war, with all its horrors, had begun. 
The Capitol is surrounded with enemies. This is no time for in- 
quiring into the cause; it is sufficient that the stars and stripes are 
assailed, and we must meet this condition of things as it behooves 
us; we must furnish our quota of men and means." 

Hon. John Moore saia, that having enlisted for the war, he 
would respond to a call made by the meeting. "The war has com- 
menced; the fight has begun, and cursed be he who would not 
defend his country's honor. The time has passed when we shall be 
known as Democrats or Republicans; the man who will stand by 
and say that he will not stand to defend the flag of his country is a 
traitor in his heart. I stand by the Government, no matter by what 
name it may be called. The administration has done all it could 
do; it has sought to avoid that which is now upon us. The traitors 
have, notwithstanding all this, precipitated the country into a civil 
war, and if we must tight, I am in favor of having a big fight, and 
teach a lesson to those traitors. The Saginaw City Guard is pledged 
to go to the defense of the country, and I am informed that the 
company here is ready. We can well risk the honor of Saginaw in 
their hands. While they go, we should provide for their families." 

The speech of Mr. Moore was followed by the reading of a resolu- 
olution, carried unanimously by the members of the Saginaw City 

The offer of H. W. Trowbridge to raise a military company was 
accepted in the following terms: "Whereas, This meeting has re- 
ceived the offer of H. W. Trowbridge, Esq., to raise a company of 
infantry, 60 strons:, to defend our country's honor, with emotions 
of pleasure, knowing, as we do, that Mr. Trowbridge is fully capa- 
ble of taking the command of such a company, therefore be it re- 
solved that the Governor be requested to bestow upon Mr. Trow- 
bridge the commission of captam, that he may have fuUl power to 
raise such company." 

A letter from the captain of the Saginaw City Guards, addressed 

to Col. Little, was retid before the meeting. Its tenor was as 


I desire in this public manner to express my thanks to John Parrish, Esq., for 
the present of a Colt's revovler to be used in defense of my countr^^s flag, and it is 
my determination never to return with dishonor to my home in the S^naw 
Valley. Henry Millbr. 

Captain of Saginaw City Light Infantry. 


The singing of the ^'Star-Spangled Banner," with an additional 
stanza by Mr. Warrie, was one of the happiest efforts of a great 
multitude in the musical world. All seemed so imbued with the 
spirit of the time that each one present took a part in the rendition 
of this magnificent national hymn. To the original four verses a 
fifth verse was written for this occasion, as follows: 

And now, though its honor is shrouded in gloom, 
And its stripes with the blood of its brave sons arc tarnished. 

Yet the traitors shall meet with a merited doom 
And the flag of our country with victory be garnished. 

'Neath the folds then repair, as they wave to the air, 

And show to the world that its stars are all there, 

And the star-spangled banner shall evermore wave 

O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. 

Rev. A. M. Fitch said he was on the right side of the question; 
he never read a word or sentence against the Government and there 
is not a single reason why he should not now step forward and 
vindicate the justice of our cause, even at the sacrifice of blood, 
lie had heard the tales of the Revolution, and he believed there 
was now the same incentive to action as there was then. The man 
who would not defend the honor of his country should not receive 
the Fmile of a single woman. The wives and children shall be 
cared for while the soldiers are foUowino^ their countrv's battles. 

Dr. II. H. C. Driggs offered his services as surgeon to the troops 
during the war, and a resolution of conditional acceptance was 
passed. B. M. Thompson, Harvey Joslin, Hon. John F. Drigffs, 
Benj. F. Fisher, Hiram L. Miller and A. A. Parsons addressed tne 
meeting, each dwelling on the responsibility of citizens, their 
duties to the Republic and to human liberty. W. L. Webber, 
chairman of a committee on resolutions appointed immediately 
after the organization of the meeting, read the following series: 

WnFijEAs, Our counlry is now distracted by civil war, which has been com- 
menced by rebels in arms agaiust the Government, and we, tlie people of Saginaw 
and county, without d stiuction of parly, have convened for the purpose of express- 
ing our views in relation to the awful calamity impending over the nation; there- 

liesolcrd. That political divisions among the people are solely with reference to 
the policy by which the Government should shape its action, and are entirely con- 
sistent with united devotion to the Government itself. 

lieHolced, That we regard the doctrine of secession, claimed by certain citizens 
of the United States to exist, as a dangerous heresy, and as being no other or better 
than revolution (rebellion) against the Government. 

hinndted, That in our judgment, ignoring past difference on political questions, 
it is the duty of ever>' citizen to give his support to the Government of the coun- 
tr}', with such united firmness and loyalty as to show to the world that we are 
wrrtliy citizens of the "bebt government the world has ever known." 

Resolved, That we duly appreciate the soldier-like promptness with which the 
various military companies of the Valley have responded to the call of our Gk)v- 
ernor, and that we hereby pledge our honor as men to sustain the families of 
such as go forth to maintain the flag of our country. 

Resolved, Tiiat the Common Council of East Saginaw be requested to appropri- 
ate !*2,000 for the support of the families of those of this city who shall volunteer in 
their country's service. 


All these resolntions were carried, and the immense gathering 
dispersed after cheering for the Union, the Constitution, and the 
Star-Spangled Banner. 

Tlie Council of the city of East Saginaw, at a meeting held on 
the 24th, decided to leave the matter of appropriating $2,000 
before the people, and ordered the polls to be open on Monday, 
April 29, for that purpose. The vote was a most substantial 
recognition of what was due to the country and the wives and 
families of the volunteers. 


Mayor Mott and W. F. Glasby set an example which does credit 
to the State. They agreed with the soldiers not to charge them 
interest on money due for city lots, which they purchased, and 
further promised that in case of the death of any volunteer owing 
money on such lots, a full title would be granted to his widow, 
unconditionally, securing her in possession. 

On July 2, 1S62, the President called for 500,000 men, and the 
War Department assigned 11,686 as the quota of Michigan. This 
was followed by an order from the State Department for the 
organization of the 18th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 22d and 23d regfiments, 
the latter under Col. D. II. Jerome, to be organized at East Saginaw. 

Addison Brewer, Commissioner, Iliram C. Driggs, Surgeon, 
were commissioned officers for carrvincj the draft into effect. 

H. C. Farrand, of East Saginaw, was among the volunteer sur- 
geons of the State. 

Amoni' the militarv officers of the State duriufi: the war were 
David H. Jerome, aid-de-camp on the staff of the Governor, and 
member of the State Military Board, with DeWitt C. Gage, Judge 

July 29, 1S64, Hon. John F. Driggs was appointed to take charge 
of the organization of the 31st Michigan Infantry. This was the 
first of the new regiments to leave the State. Striking camp at 
Saginaw Oct. 6, 1864, it left the same day for Nashville, Tenn. 

I. S. Estabrook, of the military election commissioners, took the 
vote of the 1st and 16th Michigan regiments, in October, 1864, 
then serving with the Army of the Potomac. 

The aggregate expenditures of the county for war purposes, up to 
and including the'year 1866, was $158,099.59. The various sums 
of money granted by the county to th*^ families of the volunteers, 
aggregatea }B81,000. The donations of money, clothing, etc., etc., 
amounted to about 87,000. The direct expenditures amounted to 
$246,099.59, a great sum of money, when the condition of the 
country at that time is considered. 



I, iU«4u Kvk'hvl 

bNiiA rivhethin. 
.ViiUm Si'hmitz. 

<,ivi». K. Stoltz. 

Jv>hu bVKHt. 

ChrU. lU'lulrichs. 
Ki'lu l-.ange. 
John Kanklaz. 
Krllz Fischer. 
JiMM^ph Lense. 
UolTprind Denhly. 
Krltz Gland. 
John Witz. 
Martin Kremer. 
Gustave Werschky. 

'1;n ^*r^Auitaiion April 19, 1861, under Oapt. William 
Kir^t and Second Lieutenants — Emil Moored and 
Hie volunteers comprised the following citizens: 

Charles Gonnia. 
Hugh Mills. 
Jacob Kremer. 
i^eorge Baur. 
Gustave Reigle. 
Christoph Rietz. 
John Kutz. 
F. C. Brennett. 
Geo. Wheeler. 
Albert Hibbert. 
William Phillips. 
John Hittermeir. 
John Schmidt. 
Martin Reihl. 
Alins Sailor. 
Franz Kleinfleld. 
Frank Schmelzer. 
Michael Rapp. 
Fred. Schulz. 
Henrich Heinlein. 
John Ode. 
Henry Heldebrand. 
Charles Lechantin. 
Nicolaus Therry. 
Louis Kurzmann. 

Wm. Esheobury. 
August Kremer. 
'I eodor Bencke. 
John Strank. 
Valentine Herbert. 
Fried Gtenlher. 
Herman Krause. 
John Dobson. 
'^rhomas Dramble. 
Frank Otto. 
James H. Robertson. 
Henry Howe. 
Gilbert Norton. 
John Ryan. 
John Ch. Freyler 
Francis Moore. 
James LeoDard. 
Wm. Lange. 
Geo. B. Richardson. 
Richard Luster. 
Charles Peters. 
Leonhurd Holzinger. 
Charles Hiegel. 
Philip Hairg. 

James A. Scott. 

The troops forming the command of Capt. Kremer Jeft Saginaw 
en route for Detroit April 30, 1861, and arrived there on the eve- 
ning of May 1. The departure of the new warriors of the Sagi- 
naw was made the occasion of tendering to them that peculiarly 
beautiful good-by which ever dwells in the memory of a soldier. 
The journalists of the city were present at this grand farewell 
meeting, and did not fail to describe it minutely. 

At 8 A. M., the company having parted from many ot their 
friends at their armory, marched down Genesee street in fine order 
to tlie Bancroft House, where they were drawn up in two lines, 
and after a neat and appropriate speech from Mayor Mott, the 
ladies presented each with a Union cockade, as a token of their 
appreciation of the gallantry they manifested in so promptly re- 
sponding to the call of the Government. The ceremonies were con- 
tinued by cheers for theladies,the Guards and the citizens and others. 
A sword was presented to Capt. Kremer by his respected fellow- 
citizen, Capt. John Erd, with appropriate remarks, after which, 
under escort of Osmond's Cornet Band, the Buena Vista Guards 
and the East Sas^inaw Light Artillery, the company proceeded to 
the depot of the Flint & Pere IVlarquette railway, where the train, 
which liad been generously tendered by Superintendent Potter to 
convej' the troops to Pine Run, was in waiting. At the cars a re- 
volver, the gift of J. H. Mershon, was presented to Lieut. Emil 
Moores, by Col. W. L. P. Little, who made some fitting remarks, 


to which Lieut. Moores responded witli feeling; cheers were^ivcn 
for the Mnyor, Mr. Merahon, the Guards, the citizens, the t^ion, 
and everybody, when, after some affecting parting scenes between 
the soldiers and their relatives ana friends, the locomotive, be- 
decked with a handsome display of American ensigns, was hitched 
on, and the train moved off to the tune of the "Red, White and Blue" 
amid the loud and enthusiastic cheers of the thousands assembled, 
the waving of handkerchiefs, hats and star-spangled banners 

All along the line of the railway, at Bridgeport Center, Birch 
Run, Smith's Mill, and at every little crossing, people were congre- 

fated in squads of from five to fifty, and cheering, waving of hand- 
erchiefs, etc., was the order of the day. At Pine Run, where the 
cars connect with the plank road, a very fine demonstration was 
made, — a beautiful ensign suspended over the street under which 
the company marched, and the booming of cannon mingled with 
the tumultuous shouts and cheers of the enthusiastic populace. 
The liberal citizens and farmers in the vicinity had furnished teams 
and gratuitously transported the company over the plank to Flint. 

Arrived within about three-fourths of a mile of Flint, the band 
and military left the wagons, and, forming in order, marched in. 
At the outskirts of the city they were met by Marshal Fenton, 
who escorted them to the Genesee House, where they were received, 
by the Mayor, who, in a few well-timed remarks, tendered them the 
hospitalities of the city; the marching was then continued up the 
Main street as far as the town hall, and then back to the armory of 
the Flint Union Grays, who had just departed for Detroit, when 
the order to break ranks was given, and all made their way under 
escort to the several quarters which had been assigned them. In 
the afternoon and evening the baud serenaded the two newspaper 
establishments and many of the citizens, being most hospitaoly 
received on all hands. 

Wednesday morning at half-past eight the Guards were formed 
in order in front of the armory, and marched to martial music 
through the principal streets, after which they embarked in vehicles 
provided by the citizens of Flint — the band again taking the lead — 
for Fentonville, under escort of Judge Ames and many of the 
prominent citizens of Flint. 

At the toll-gate one mile this side of Fentonville the procession 
was met by a marshal from Fentonville. and having again left the 
teams and formed in marching order, were escorted to the station 
house of the D. & M. railway, where the ladies of Fentonville had 

Erepared a capital collation, which being slightly devastated by the 
ungry crowd, and a toast, three cheers and a " tiger " tendered to 
the ladies for their munificent hospitality, the line of march was 
resumed, and under escort of Turner's Cornet Band of that city — a 
highly creditable musical corps — they paraded the principal streets, 
returning to the depot in time for the down train, which arrived 
at a little atler 3 p.m., and was soon off for the City of the Straits. 


People were gathered at many of the stations along the line, and 
at Pontiac an immense crowd had assembled, who received the 
company with hearty and enthusiastic cheers, which were returned 
with interest, accompanied by an instalment of inspiring music by 
the band . 

Arriving in Detroit at 6 P.M., the company was formed on the 
depot grounds of the D. & M. railway, and, preceded by the band 
marched to Cantonment Blair, a distance of between two and three 
miles, where the soldiers were provided with rather scaly quarters. 
The band, leg- weary and pretty much used up generall}^ returned 
to the Michigan Exchange, where they were comfortably housed. 

Mayor Mott joined the command at Flint, and proceeded with it 
to the rendezvous at Detroit, when, after a farewell word to each 
of the volunteers, he returned to his home. 

Shortly after the East Saginaw Guards left for the rendezvous, 
no less than 37 volunteers returned to their native heath; 
some changes were made in the list of officers, and other disposi- 
tions made to insure confidence among the troops. Captain W. L. 
Whipple, who in 1846 served as a lieutenant in the Mexican cam- 
paign, was placed in command, and the company left ^;^ route for 
Washingtonjas Co. H of the 2d Mich. Inf. (3 years), June 5, 1861. 
This was the first three-years regiment which left the State. Cap- 
tain Whipple was promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcv of 21st 
Mich. Inf., Aug. 13, 1862. 

Lieutenant R. W. Ransom, who opened a recruiting office at 
East Saginaw, in the building formerly occupied as the old post- 
office, enlisted 66 men prior to July 20, who reported for service 
at Detroit before the 25th of that month. 


perfected the organization of a full company April 24, under 
Capt. H. W. Tro\vbridge. The officers elected were: Captain, H. 
W.Trowbridge; First Lieutenant, Wm. O'Donnell; Second Lieu- 
tenant, Charles H. Hutchins; First Sergeant, Daniel Jeffers; Sec- 
ond Sergeant, Hiram Jenkins; Third Sergeant, Thomas Abbott; 
Fourth Sergeant, Dexter D. Keeler. The corporals were Peter 
Mashioe, Chester E. Roy, Wm. Mooney, and Henry Connor. The 
musicians were John Ryan and John Stout Park. No doubt what- 
ever can exist regarding the desire of this command to go to the front 
in the early days of the war. The orders of the War Department, 
and the fact that all Michigan had already done its duty, conspired 
to check the zeal of the troops and urge them to keep their powder 
dry for the " big fight." 

The three-months regiment was under arms April 25, 1861, and 
was constituted as follows: Orlando B. Wilcox, Colonel; L. L. 
Comstock, Lieutenant Colonel; A. B. Bid well. Major. Companies 
— Detroit Light Guards, Jackson Light Guards, Coldwater Cadets, 
Manchester Union Guards, Steuben Guards, Detroit Hussars, Burr 

^ t 



Oak Guards, Ypsilanti Light Guards, Marshall Light Guards, Har- 
dee Cadets. 

The second regiment comprised the Scott Guards, Adrian Guards, 
Hudson Artillery as infantry, Flint Union Greys, Battle Creek 
Artillery as infantry, Oonstantine Union Guards, Kalamazoo Light 
Guards, Kalamazoo No. 2, Niles Company. A. S. Williams, of 
Detroit, was the General of Brigade. 


A military census of the county was made under authority of 
Gov. Blair's proclamation of August, 1862. The assessors were 
required to return the names of all white males between the ages of 
18 and 45. The number of men enrolled in Saginaw, and named 
in the lists furnished by those assessors, Sept. 10, 1862, was 2,951, 
of whom .S21 were declared exempt from draft, leaving 2.130 
subject. In June, 1S62, it is learned, from returns made under the 
State law, that the total number of men in Saginaw county tit for 
military service was 2,497. It must be remembered, however, that 
between the time the June returns were made and September, no 
less than r»sn men from Saginaw county enlisted and were in active 
service. Of this number, 28 were on duty with the 1st Inf.; 39 with 
the 2(1 Inf.: 72 with the 5th Inf.; 12 with the 7th and 8th Inf.; 38 
with the 9th and 10th Inf.; 92 with the 11th, 12th, 18th, 14th and 
15th regiments; 102 with the IGth Inf.; 8 with the 17th, 158 with 
the 23d Inf.; 9 with the Engineers and Mechanics; 100 with the 2d 
and 3d Cavalry; 14 with the 4th, 5th and Gth Cavalry; 3 with the 
2d Battery ; one with Mathers' Sharpshooters, and 10 with the Mulli- 
gan brigade, attached to McDermott's Michigan Company. The 23d 
Michigan Inf., mustered into service at East Saginaw, Sept. 13, 
1802, was principally composed of soldiers furnished by this county. 
TJie 29th, mustered in at Saginaw City, Oct. 3, 1804, was filled by 
volunteers from this Congressional district. 


During the year 1803, Saginaw contributed 365 troops, which, 
together with those who went into service in 1862, aggregate 1,041 
soldiers furnished to the Union armies since the beginning of the 
war. During the year, only five men from this county volunteered 
^or service in the first 26 infantry regiments. The 27th 
Infantry received 50; the 1st Sharpshooters, 18; Engineers, 1; the 
three first cavalry regiments, 26; the 4th Cavalry, 39; the 5th and 
6th Cavalry, 14; the 7th Cavalry, 138; the 8th, 42; the 11th, 23, 
and the Artillery, 9. The draft made in February, 1863, numbered 
only 19 men in Saginaw county, of which four were delivered at 




The enlistment of troops continued throuorb 1864:. Fronn Jan. 1 
to Oct. 31 no less than 821 men were enlisted. Fort^'-three who 
volunteered immediately, prior to Jan. 1, that year, brin^ up the 
credits of the county for the first ten months of 1864 to 864, aggre- 
gating 1,005 troops since the beginning of the war. Of the 821 
troops referred to, 634 volunteered, 26 were drafted, 153 were re- 
enlisted veterans, and 8 entered tlie navy. Again, 40 enlisted for 
one year, and 781 for three years' service. From Sept. 19, 1863, 
to Oct. 1, 1864, 396 men enlisted for one year, 613 for three years, 
756 enlisted in the arm3% 153 veterans re-enlisted, 8 entered the 
navy, 75 drafted men commuted, and 28 were drafted. The 29th 
Mich. Inf was mustered into service at Saginaw, Oct. 3, 1864. 

The proclam^ition of the President, calling for 300,000 volun- 
teers, was issued Dec. 19, 1864. The quota assigned to Saginaw 
under the call was 130, while the enrollment was so high as 2,160. 


The number of Saginaw volunteers who went into the Union 
army from Nov. 1, 1864, to the period when recruiting ceased, 
April 14, 1865, was 134, of whom 115 volunteered and 19 responded 
to the draft. Those figures show an aggregate representation 
of Saginaw soldiers in the Union army of 1,154 men, all en- 
listino: between Sept. 19, 1863, to April 14, 1865, which number, 
with 885 enlistments credited the county previous to Sept., 1863, 
show a grand military representation of 2,039 men, or about one- 
forty-fourth of all the troops furnished by the State of Michigan 
from April 17, 1861, to April 14, 1865. 'Throughout the brilliant 
campaigns which marked the progress of the terrific struggle there 
is scarcely a black letter in the record of the troops furnished by 
this county. Few desertions, unexcelled bravery, and magnificent 
endurance marked their service throughout. 

A review of the ipilitary affairs in which these troops partici- 
pated, and in which so many of them won the soldier's crown, 
would necessarily take in every field, whether contested in Vir- 
ginia, Georgia, Maryland, South Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, or Missouri. 

Following down the regimental rosters, from those of the first 
engineers and mechanics to the most recently organized military 
company, one is forcibly reminded not only of the enduring quali- 
ty of the Union soldier, but also of that terrible sacrifice whicli he 
was willing to make in defense of the Union. 

All the sacrifices made, all the dangers passed through, were not 
in vain. The country survives its great losses in that war, and 
though her sons who fell in defense of the Union cannot be re- 
stored to this world, the memory of them lives on, and will forever 
live, to inspire the present with a full sense of all that liberty is 


worth, and teacli the fnture to guard it as nobly and as faithfully 
as they did. 


(three years) completed its organization Sept. 16, 1861, showing a 
roster of 950 men, subsequently raised to 977 by the addition of 
recruits. • During the winter of 1861-'62 the regiment was on duty 
at Annapolis Junction. In March it advanced into the Peninsula, 
was present at Mochanicsville June 20, at Gaines' Mills June 27, 
at Malvern Hill July 1, at Gainesville Aug. 29, at Bull Run Aug. 
30, at Antietam Sept. 17, at Shepherdstown Ford Sept. 20, and at 
Fredericksburg during the fight of Dec. 13 and 14, 1S62. The reg- 
iment sustained a loss of 306 men during the year, together with 
the loss of 45 taken prisoners, so that in the reports of Nov. 30, 
ls62, the entire streiiffth of the command was onlv 592 men. 

April 27, 1863, the regiment marched on Chancellorsville. 
During the tigliting in that vicinity it lost 3 killed and 17 wounded. 
Morrisville, J>randy Station, Aldie, Gettysburg, Manasses Gap, 
Kappahannock Station, and Mine Run, l)ear witness to its unex- 
celled bravery. During the year 46 died and 107 were wounded. 

In March, 1864, the regiment returned to Detroit, but left for the 
front again April 10, and arrived at Reverly Ford on the ISth. It 
was the inauguration of the campaign of 1S64, having crossed the 
Rapidan May 4, and engaged the enemy on the 5th. During the 
succeeding S days it lost 23 men killed. With the array of the 
Potomac it was j)resent at Spottsylvania, Jericho Mills, and Cold 
Harbor during May. In June and August it served before Peters- 
burg. In September it participated in the fighting around Poplar 
Grove OUurch. The regiment was on dut\^ along the Weldon rail- 
road until Feb. 5, 1865, when it moved on Hatcher's Run, and par- 
ticipated in the action of Feb. 6 there. From April 1 to April 9 
the command was engaged along the White Oak road, at Amelia 
Court-IIouse and High Bridge on 5th and 6th, and at the Appo- 
mattox Court-House on the 9th. It did duty at City Point until 
May 16. The regiment returned to Jackson, Mich., for discharge, 
July 12, 1.^65. 

Offh'trn. — benjamin F. Keatintf, Saginaw. SergCHnt Co. ¥, July lo, 1801; 2nd 
Lieut., Oct. 1, lSGl:lst Lieut., Xov. 1, l.S(»4 ; was discharged for disability Feb. 23, 

Charles S. L<jctch, Saginaw, 1st Lieut., Nov. 30. 1801; resigned Sept. 14, 1802. 

Francis McCuUough, East Saginaw. Sergeant Co. F, July 10, 1801; 2nd Lieut. » 
July 7, 1805; was discharged J uly U, 180o.' 

Kollin A. Pratt, Saginaw, Sergeant Co. K, July 15, 1861: 1st Lieut., May 30, 
1805; Cai>t., July 15, 1805; was mustered out July 9, 1805. 

A7//<v7.— Thomas Corris, at Gaines Mills, June 27, 1802: John [McCoy, at Mal- 
vern Hill, July 1, 1802; Geo. Rowell, at Bull Run, Aug. 30, 1802; Kdward E. Hart, 
at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862; Charles H. Stehman, at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 
1802; Austin Whitman, at Gettysburg, July 2. 1803. 

JJieti of IHseose. — Hiram Purchase, at Harrison's Landing, Aug. 10, 1862. 

3funtere(f Out. —1862— ^ohneonUenry B., Smith W. H. 1803— Crane Perry, 
Feize Henry, Fisher Goo., Hayden C H., Keating B. F., Penny Th-o., Smith Geo., 
Thurgood Eben. 186-t— Iloltzingtr Leonard, McOullough Francis, Noblock John, 
Pratt Hosea A., Pratt Rollm A. 1865— Lewis Daniel, McMurphy Wm. 



The first Michigan regiment to offer its services for three jeara 
left Detroit for the field June 5, 1861. Previous to its first service, 
which was given at Blackburn's Ford, Va., July 18, 1861, it mus- 
tered 1,115 men. Under Gen. McClellan it participated in the 
affairs of Yorktown April 4, Williamsl>urg May 5, Fair Oaks 
May 27, Charles City Cross Roads June 30, Malvern Hill July 1, 
and at Chantilly Sept. 1. In the military report rendered November, 
1862, it is stated that the strength of tlie command was reduced to 
642 men. At Williamsburg those placed hora de combat num- 
bered 17 killed, 38 wounded and 4 missing; at Fair Oaks 10 were 
killed and 47 wounded. 

The movements of the regiment during the first months of 1863 
were varied. On July 10 it arrived before Jackson, where it lost 
12 killed, 36 wounded and 8 prisoners. It took a part in many 
minor transactions, and traveled 2,100 miles during the year. At 
Knoxville it aided in the defense until the retirement of the rebels, 
Dec. 4, 1863. 

The regiment returned to Detroit Feb. 24, 1864, and received a 
furlough of 30 days. Leaving Mt. Clemens April 4, it moved to 
Annapolis, and thence to East Tennessee. It shared in the honors 
of the Potomac army of that year; losing 100 men in the field, 257 
wounded, 23 died of disease, and 85 prisoners. The principal 
service of the command during 1805 was rendered at Petersburg. 
It returned to^ Detroit Aug. 1, 1865, and was discharged soon 

Officers. — John Ludlin, Saginaw, commissioned 2nd Lieut., April 35, 1861; Ist 
Lieut., Dec. 1, 18G1 ; resigned Sept. 17, 18C2. 

Martin Ruehle, East Saginaw, Sergeant Co. H, May 25, 1861; 2nd I4eut., July 
22, 18G5; was wounded, and absent at muster out of the command. 

John ('. Schentz, Saginaw, Sergeant Co. II; 2nd Lieut., Dec. 4, 1861; Ist Lieut., 
Feb. 7, 18()2; Lieut. Battery K., 1st L. A., Xov. 21, 1862; Capt., Feb, 21, 1863; 
Major 1st L. A., April 11, 1865; was mustered out July 29, 1865. 

kilM or iJiuJ of Wonmls.—n\\g\\ Mills, at Williamsburg, May 3, 1862; Geo. B, 
Richardson, at Fair Oaks, May 31, 1862; Albert llebbert, at Jackson, Miss., July 
11, 1863: Wm. Blomburg, at Campbell's Station, Nov. 21, 1863; Edward Cutler, at 
Campbell's Station, Nov. 25, 1863; Charles Schweiker, near Petersburg, June 17 

]rt;?/«r/<f/.- -James H. Robertson, Oct. 23, 1862: John Dobson, Nov. 1, 1862. 

Dictf of I J i.'<a(Hr.— Ebeuezer Paine, at David's Island. Sept. 2,7 1862. 

}[ii<sinq in Action. — Leonard Wishlein, at Petersburc:, Julv 30, 1864; W. C. 
Hall, at Petersburg, July 30. 1864; Wm. English, at Petersburg', July 30, 1864; La 
Rue P. North, at Knoxville. Nov. 24, 1863; Lucien Hunt, Petersburg, Nov. 24, 
1863; Michael Sink, Petersburg, Nov. 24, 1863. These were all regained in 1865. 

i>/Wa//v/r(/.— 1862— Frost John. 1863 -Gibson Henry. 1864— Barker H. M., 
Brennert F., Carter Michael, Contre G. W., Fischer George, Ilenricks Grates, Her- 
bert, Val., Kraemer Aug., Lemmou Wm., Loomis St. Clair, Massey G. F., McCoy, 
Abel C, McGee G. F., McMann Thoma.s, Norton Albert, Ohda J., Ohland F., 
Peterson Thomas, Reihle Martin. Roe F., Ruytz J., Schweigert, D. Terry Nicholas, 
Thomson W. U., Wheatley John, White John, Willis Geo., Wood James. 


left Detroit for the front Sept. 11, 1861. Entering into the 
Virginia Peninsular campaign in March, 1862, it participated in. 


the terrific battles of the year. It mustered in with 988 men and 
reported a loss of 426 before November, 1862. At Fredericksburg 
Dec. 13, Lt. Col. John Gillooly and 10 men were killed and 73 
wounded. Between January and May, 1863, the command lost 17 
killed, 43 wounded and 31 prisoners. Lt. Col. Edward T.Sher- 
lock was slain at Chancellorsvillc May 3. The battle of Gettysburg 
was entered by the command at 4 p. m. July 2, and within one 
hour it lost 105 men, 19 of whom were killed, 90 wounded and five 
missing during the terrific struggle. The losses of the regiment 
for 1863 were 76 dead, 197 wounded and 42 prisoners. 

It is unnecessary here to follow up the brilliant history of the 
5th Inf. through the campaign of 1864. The following reference 
to its service and losses will be suflicient: At Kelly's Ford, 1 
wounded; Locust Grove, 1 killed, 15 wounded, 2 missing — total, 
18; Mine Run, 3 wounded; Wilderness, 38 killed, 167 wounded, 
16 missing — total, 221; Spottsylvania Court House. 6 killed, 60 
wounded, 9 missing — total, 75; North Anna river, 1 killed, 9 
wounded, 1 missing — total, 11; Tolopotamy creek, 2 killed, 4 
wounded, 11 missing — total, 17; before Petersburg, 15 killed, 52 
wounded, 10 missing — total, S6; Deep Bottom, 12 wounded; 
Boyd ton Plank Road, 9 killed, 52 wounded, 43 missing. The losses 
for the year were 103 killed, 17 died ot disease, 375 wounded, and 
75 taken prisoners. The regiment was discharged at Detroit July 
17, 1S65. 

Ofl'^trM — Aloxander Albert! was commissioned Ist Lieut, June 19, 1861; pro- 
moted to a Captaincy, July 12, 1862, and discharged July 9, 1864. 

James Colville. East Sagiuaw, mustered into service Aug. 28, 1861, as Sergeant, 
Co. C; promoted 2d Liout., Sept. 16, 1862; Capt., Jan. 1, 1863; missed in action 
June 22, 1864; gained to the command, April 22, I860, and died of disease at Fort 
Hamilton, X. Y., April 27, 1865. 

Andrew Haulin, Saginaw Citv, entered service Aug. 28, 1861, as Serjeant Co. 
K: commissioned 2a Lieut., Sept. 17, 1862; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., 
May 3, I8»i3; promoted 1st. Lieut., June 26, 1863, and mustered out Oct. 3, 1864. 

Ilenrv Miller, Saginaw, commissioned Captain, June 19, 1861; was discharged 
Feb. 18' 1863. 

Willi iin O'Donnell. Saginaw, commissioned 1st Lieut., June 19, 1861; resigned 
Jan. 30, 1862, to accept a position on the staff of Gen. J.H.Lane; promoted 
Major, 26th Inf.. Oct. 30, 1862, and died at Portsmouth, Va., Mav 14. 1863. 

liugo Wessener, Saginaw, conmiissioned 2d Lieut., June 19, 1861; resigned 
Ai)ril 16, 1802. 

Killed. — Lewis Broad, at Williamsburg, May 7, 1862 ; .John Cleveland, at Fred- 
ericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862; Franklin DooliUle. at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862; 
Obed Hancock, at Frederick.sburg, Dec. 13, 1862; Channery Burton, Albert Gil- 
bert, Alexis Guenat,P'red.K<xhler, Geo. LangA^-eller, Peter Maerz, John Muhlle- 
der, Caspar Stein, Benjamin Widman, on various fields from May 31, to Dec. 
13, 1862 ; Uc'uben Howe, at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863 ; George Lawrence, at Get- 
tysburg, July 2, 1863. 

Died of Disease. — Michael Beyerleine, 1862; Edward Bigelowe, 1862; Peter 
Christie,' 1862; Ben Bird, 1864; Fred Cransnick, 1863; Barney C. Green, at 
Andersonville, Aug. 16. 1864. 

DiHrh'n''jt:d, 1862.— Boers David A., Cameron Alexander,.! Cameron John, 
Conmy Franklin, Dennis James, Harold Mathias, Harrington Ben. Jones 
Henry D., Kronkright Geo., Laubenheimcr Fred., Lester ( h'arle«, Seeger 
Wm.,' Wright James. 1863— Alger Peter E., Barber John, Becker Charles, 
Bell Geo. W., Budde Wm., Conlin Martin, Frazer Charles. Hadstate Rielly, 
Herbet F. K., Hewitt Henr>', Johnson Gideon, Maerz John, Schwab 
Frank, Sparrow Louis, Struve Christian, Frellman H., Green B. C, Klendi 


F., Lindner H., Schmitter F., Schultz Geo., Wolf J. N. 1865— Curry Came- 
ron, Gregory Wm., Haney John, Lubenthal Wm., Reins Wm., Saultor John 
C, Theick Sudolph. 


comprising 915 officers and men, left Detroit Sept. 27, 1861, for the 
front. Leaving Annapolis Oct. 19, it participated in the expe- 
dition into South Carolina, under Sherman, and in the nine im- 
portant engagements which marked the progress of Sherman, dur- 
mg the twelvemonths succeeding its organization, 89 were killed 
in oattle, 55 died of disease, 243 wounded, and 48 made prisoners. 

The regiment lost, during the year 1863, 50 dead and one 
wounded. It served, since leaving Micliigan, in six States, and 
traversed 5,000 miles. 

The 8th acted well its part during the campaign of 1864. Its 
service with the army of the Potomac resulted in 86 men killed; 
40 died of disease, 28 were wounded and 37 made prisoners. 

On March 25, 1865, it participated in repulsing the 
enemy in his assault on Fort Steadman, and April 2 
was engaged in the attack on his position at Fort Mahon, when 
it assisted in carrying the works at that point, and is reported to 
have been the first regiment to place its colors on that rebel 
stronghold. On the 3d it marched into Petersburg, and on the 5th 
was (letailed to guard the South Side railroad, where it continued 
until the 20th, when it marched to City Point, and on the 21st 
took transports for Alexandria, wliere it arrived on the 23d, and 
moved to Tanallytown on the 26th. MusteVed out at Washington 
Julv 30th, it left en route for Detroit, where it was discharged Aug. 
3, 1865. 

Officers.— iohn'R. Dougherty, of Shiawassee, entered service Aug. 11. 1882, as 
Sergeant Co. B, was promoted 1st Lieut., April 25, 1865, and mustered out July 30, 

Died of (lise(ue.—lj&w\B hrnoX^, at'Milldale, Miss., July 22, 1863. 

Discharged. 1862.— Allen Charles D., Leland Wm., Sutherland Wm. D., Walsh 
Harvey B., AVhittalser Thomas. 1863.— Cartwright S. S. E., Savage Abram, Wil- 
liams £ben. 1865. — Brown Geo., Crampton Alonzo, Loomis Harvey, Munger M 
MuDger Seth. 


was mustered in at Flint, and left for St. Louis, Mo., April 22^ 
1862, with 997 men and officers forming the command. During 
the year it served in Mississippi, Alabama and Tennessee. The 
service of the Tenth during 1863 was signally brilliant and useful; 
a portion of it seemed to be everywhere, and present at a time to 
save valuable lives and property from the hands of the rebels; 55 
men died durang the year, one was shot for desertion, and 11 were 

This regiment inaugurated the campaign for 1864 at Buzzard's 
Koost, Ga., I'eb. 25, 1864, where it lost 13 killed and 36 wounded. 
It was furloughed in March for 30 days; at the expiration of which 


time it returned to the post of duty, and entered on its campaign 
in (reorgia. During tlie year it lost 59 killed; 27 died of disease 
and 113 were wounded, amonjjwdiom was Lt. Col. Dickenson. 

During tlie hitter months ot ISO-i and the spring of 1865 the 
regiment was engaged at Florence, Aha., Louisville and Savannah, 
Ga. ; Averysboro, femithfield Roads, and Bentonville, North Caro- 
lina. It was present at AVashington in the ranks of Sherman's 
army May 24:; moved to Louisville, Ky., in June, and reported at 
Jackson, Mich., for discharge, July 22, 1865. 

Ojfinrs. —\hwon D. EUis, mustered into service as Sergeant Co. B, was promoted 
2d Lieut., .Tune '2:^, 1802, and resigned 3Iarch 2, 18G3. 

Eraslus B. Paxton, Saginaw, Sergeant Major, Sept. 10. 1801, 1st Lieutenant, Nov. 
10, 1804; C'apt., Ma\^ 20, 1805; mustered out July 10, 180."). 

Cpharles H. Riclmian, Saginaw, commissioned Captain Oct. 1, 1861, was mustered 
out Feb. 0, 1805. 

A7/M— Peter P:. White, Aug. 6, 1862; Wm. Dennis, at Vininsr's Station, July 
21, 1804; Stephen B. Munger, at Atlanta Sept. 10, 1864. 

Dial of (U»f is(. — Horatio Geary, near Farmington, June 13, 1862; John Mason, 
near Farmington, July 30, 1802;*\Vni. Miner, at Flint, Nov. 8, ISOl. 

I)Uch<ir(/t<l. — 1802 — Frost Benj.,LeRoy Homer, Lexey Geo., Sparks John, Staples 
James L., Sticknev Jos. 1805 — Andrews Sam B., Benjamin D. W., Blanchard 
Willis A., Braley Uiram, Brown W'm., Brown \V. X., Byron Rob., Dates John, 
Green Nat., Grilley Edgar E.. Helner Henry, Horner T., Hough E., Hough li B., 
Kilsey Theo. V. 1865 — McMillan Neil, Pierce H. F., Pierce Phinneas J., Roedal 
Geo., Snayc Leon, Sowles J. D., Stewart W. A., Truax Charles, Van Patten Henry, 
Walker W. B., Woodard 3Iyron C 

thp: fourtkenth infantry 

left Ypsilanti April 17, 1802, for Pittsburg Landing, with a force 
of 1<25 rank and tile. During the first ten months it participated 
in many minor military affairs. Jan. 3, 1863, it participated in 
the battle of Stone River, having marched through rain and mud 
from ]S'ashville, 30 miles, the previous night. It was stationed at 
Franklin, Tenn., from the 8th to the l-ith of March, relieving the 
cavalry forces there. With its division it moved to Brentwood 
April 8, and held tlie line between Xashville and Franklin. Re- 
turning 'to its old camp at ^fashville July 3, it was ordered to 
relieve the force at Franklin. Sept. 0, the regiment was ordered to 
be mounted, and eight companies were sent to Columbia, provided 
with Spencer rifles, revolvers and a complete outfit of cavalry 
equijunents, together with a section of light artillery. Since it 
has been mounted, this regiment has captured 12 rebel ofKcers, 
2.^5 enlisted men and '^i^> guerrillas — among the latter some of the 
most notorious in that section. The regiment, Nov. 1, was engaged 
in holding Franklin, Smith Station and Columbia, and the line of 
railway between those j>oints. The number of deaths repoitod, 
during the year 1863, was -iT. 

The regiment re-enlisted as veterans Jan. 4, 1864, and received 
a furlough of 30 days. It was again present in the field. May 21, 
and 13 days later was attached to the army of General Sherman. 
It took a brilliant part in all the action of the Georgia campaign, 
losing 14 killed and 21 who died of disease. In me winter cf 
1864-''65, the regiment rendered splendid service in North Care- 


Jiua. July 18, 1865, it reported at Jackson, and was disbanded 
on the 29tli of that month. 

Officers. Morgan L. Gage, East Sagiuaw, was commissioned Captain Nov. 18 
1861, and resigned July 9, 1862. 

John C. Lind, East Saginaw, 2nd Lieut,, Nov. 18, 1861 ; Captain, July 9, 1862; 
was discharged, and died at home, Aug. 8, 1863. 

Joseph Schefniker, tra^inaw, 1st Lieut. Nov. 18, 1861, resigned Nov. 16, 1862. 

Geo. W. C. Smith, Sagmaw, Sergeant Co. A, Nov. 28, 1861; 2d Lieut. Aug. 5, 
1864; Fir^t Lieut, and Adjutant, March 14, 1865; Captain, July 7, 1865; was mus- 
tered out as Adjutant July 18, 1865. 

Abram C. Spears, Saginaw, Sergeant, Co. A, Oct. 11, 1861; 2d Lieut., July 9, 
1862; 1st Lieut., March 9, 1863; wounded at Chattahoochee river, July 5, 1864, 
and discharged on account of disability, Oct. 25, 1864. 

KilleiJ. Patrick Meaffher, at Columbia, Ga., Jan. 26, 1864; Fred. Bower, at 
Kenesaw Mt., June 22, 1864; Geo. Shancel. Kenesaw Mt,, July 5, 1864. 

Vied of Diaease or Wounds. Wm. Wells, at St. Louis, May, 1863 ; Johi\S. 
Parke?, at Jeflerson, Juno 1, 1862; John Trowbridge, at Farmington, June 26, 
1862; James Nisbitt, at Big Springs, July 3, 1862; Jeremiah Sullivan, at Farm- 
ington, July 17, 1862; G. W. Dunne, at Farmington, Aug. 6, 1862; Gilbert 
McC«»y, at Tuscumbia, Aug. 12,1862; Henrj' S. Fuller, at Jackson, 3Iiss., Sept. 
16, 1862: John O'Donnell, at Lavergne, Oct. 7, 1862; Henry Wagner, at Nash- 
ville, April 14, 1863; Wm Cate, at J efferson Barracks, April 80, 1863; Napoleon 
Rooney, at Detroit, Apr. 28, 1864; AdMm Held, at Atlanta, Oct. 17, 1864; Ransom 
Randall, at Savannah, Dec. 19, 1864; F. Schmellzer, at Savannah, June 12, 1865. 

Discharged. 1862— Crandall Wm. M., Elliott Geo. W., Luther Columbus S., 
McCarthy William, Robbins James. 1863 — Davison Oliver, Fisher T. L., 
Looney Edward, Mann Geo. W., Slider John D., Thompson Daniel, Van Flint 
T. A. 1864— Bochbam John, Clark Adam C, Daniels L. S., Deizell Geo., Dow 
John, Eshenburg Wm., Gavin Edward, Hard Anthony O., Heller Emil, Kins- 
ley Charles, Button Geo., McGce R, McLenithan B. F., Miller Perry, Raibald 
Peter, Records CM., Shephei'd A. R., Sidmans A., Smith Esson, Tozer H., 
1865 — Arnold Jared, Ashelford Luke, Bershaw Maxmie, Blakesley Freeman 
F., jr., Chadima Francis, Chapin Walter A., Crandall Eber B., Crandall Syl- 
vester, tiawford John W., Curtiss Herman, Davison Albert, Decker Giles C., 
Diezell Geo., Garey M., Heller Emil, Herrick Gilman. 1865^Katharin Biuo, 
Kraemer Martin, Litenmire Piter, Major Ed., Man W. N., McKay Robert, 
Potcher Wm., Reno Joseph, Shepherd Alfred, Shollz C, Sttinburg Charles 
Thompson Upham, Tromble Daniel, Tromble Edmund, Zeigler John G. 


organized as " Stockton's Independent Regiment," went into the 
tield Sept. 16, 1861, with a force of 761 men and officers. Under 
Gen. McClellan it participated in all the engagements of the period 
from Yorktown to Fredericksburg. Crossing tlie llappahannock 
on the 12th of December, it participated with the army of the 
Potomac in the battle of Fredericksburg, losing 3 killed, 20 wounded 
and 8 missing. The regiment crossed the liappahannock and the 
Rapidan, and from the 2d to the 6th of May was engaged at the 
battle of Chancellorsville, with a loss of 1 killed and 6 wounded. 
Marching with the army in June, on the 21st it was engaged in the 
battleofMiddleburg, capturing from the enemy a piece of artillery 
and ID officers and men, with a loss on the part of the regiment of 
9 wounded. The 16th, by a series of forced marches, arrived at 
Gettysburg, Penn., on the Ist of July, and on the 2d, 3d and 4th, 
it participated in the battles at that place, sustaining a loss of 2 
officers and 21 men killed, 2 officers and 34 men wounded, and 3 


men iniesinfif. July 5th, the regiment engaged in the pursuit of 
the enemy, arriving at Williamsport, Md., on the 11th. It crossed 
the Potomac, at Berlin, on the 17th, and on the 23d was at the 
battle at Wapping Heights, though not actually engaged. Partici- 
pating in the movements of the army in October, on the 10th it 
crossed the Rappahannock, recrossed on the 11th, and as skirmish- 
ers advanced to Brandy Heights, but did not become engaged. 
Falling back with the army, on the 23d it marched to Auburn, 
where it remained until November 1st. "The total number of 
miles marched by this regiment from station to station, between 
Noven^ber 1, 1S62, and November 1, 1S63, exclusive of marches 
on ])icket duty and reconnoisances of minor importance, was 
SCO." During the year, the command lost 45 men killed, 17 
died of disease, 82 were wounded, and 11 made prisoners. During 
November and December, it captured the rebel works on the lett 
bank of the Rappahannock, losing three men. During the crossing 
of the Rapidan and the move to Mine Run, it performed guard 
duty with the wagon train. The 16th re-enlisted as veterans, and 
were mustered into service as such Dec. 24, 1863. The command 
reached Detroit Jan. 9, where it received a 30- day furlough. 

Feb. 9, the regiment reported at the rendezvous at Saginaw City, 
and on the 17th left for the army of the Potomac. It went into 
winter quarters near Bealton Station, where it remained until the 
1st of May, when it marched to Brandy Station. Engaging in the 
campaign of this year, on the 4th the regiment crossed the Rapidan 
at Germania Ford. On the 5th it was detailed to guard the wagon 
train at Wyckoff Ford. On the 6th and 7th the regiment partici- 
pated in the battle of the Wilderness, without loss on the 6th, but 
on the second day losing 35 in killed and wounded. On the morn- 
ing of the 8th the regiment proceeded by a forced march to Spott- 
sylvania C. H. During the evening of the 8th, while attempting 
to cross an almost impassible swamp, a portion of the regiment was 
attacked, the enemy making an attempt to capture that portion 
engaged, but the rebels were thrown into confusion by its fire, 
during which a charge was made and a rebel colonel and a large 
number of men were taken prisoners. The loss to the regiment 
was small, and was mainly in prisoners, who were subsequently re- 
captured by our cavalry. The regiment remained in the neighbor- 
hood of the Spottsylvania C. H. until the 21st, when it moved with 
its corps toward the North Anna river. On the morning of the 
22d, while acting as advance guard for its corps, the regiment en- 
countered the rear guard of the enemy near Polecat creek. Four 
companies were deployed as skirmisiiers, who, advancing, drove 
the enemy from their position, and captured a large number of 

Erisoners. On the 23d it forded the North Anna river. The enemy 
aving attacked and caused a portion of the line to retire, the 16th, 
with other forces^ were ordered to regain possession of the ground. 
The movement, although made under a very heavy fire, was suc- 
cessful, the enemy being driven back with great loss. On the 24th 


the regiment moved to a point on tlie Virginia Central railroad, 
and on the 25th to near Little river. Recrossing the North Anna, 
on the 26th and 27th, it proceeded by forced marches toward the 
Pamunky river, which it crossed at Hanovertown on the morning 
of the 28th, and went into line of battle on the South creek, throw- 
ing up a line of breastworks. On the following morning tlie regi- 
ment moved to near Tolopotamy creek. On the 30tli it again 
moved ibrward. During the afternoon, the army having become 
engaged, the regiment was ordered into position on the left of the 
line. Though exposed in an open field to a raking fire, the men 
stood their ground with great pertinacity, protecting themselves by 
throwing up earthworks with their hands, bayonets and tin plates. 
Major Robert T. Elliot, while leading the regiment, was here killed. 
The enemy were finally driven back, and the regiment held the 
ground during the night. On the 1st of June the 16th drove the 
enemy from the rifle pits, which it succeeded in holding against all, 
eflbrts to retake them. On the 2d, 3d and 4th, the 16th was en- 
gaged near the vicinity of Bethesda Church. On the 5th it moved 
to near Cold Harbor, and on the 6th to Dispatch Station. 
June 13 it crossed the Chickahominy at Long Bridge, en route for 
the James river, which it crossed on the 16th, arriving in front of 
Petersburg on the following day. From this time to Aug. 15, wlien 
it was placed in reserve, the regiment was employed in the trenches 
in front of Petersburg. It participated in the movement, Aug. 18, 
on the Weldon railroad, and remained in this vicinity, constructing 
and occupying a portion of the line of defenses, until Sept. 30, 
when it took part in the engagement near Poplar Grove church 
forming part of the* storming party which drove the enemy from 
their works. During this assault the regiment again lost its com- 
manding officer. Col. Norvel E. Welch, who was killed. Its loss 
during the engaMment was 10 killed and -12 wounded. Oct. 27 
the regiment took part in the movement on the Boydton Plank- 
Road, but did not become actively engaged. On the 28th it consti- 
tuted a portion of the rear guard in the retrograde ino\ement to the 
position near Poplar Grove Church. During its service through 
1864, 52 men died in battle, 12 of disease, 178 were wounded, and 
16 made prieoners. 

During the last days of the war it served at Dabney's mills, or 
Hatch run, Va., Feb. 6th and 7th, and March 25th; at White 
Oak road, March 29th; Quaker road, March 3l8t; Five Forks, 
April 1; Amelia Court-House, April 5; High Bridge, April 6th; 
Appomattox Court-House, April 9; and all tlirough the siege of 
Petersburg, from June 17, 1864, to April 3, 1865. Having been 
present in the review of the P.otomac army at the Capitol, May 23, 
it left for Jeffersonville, Ind., where it was mustered out July 8. 
Arriving at Jackson, July 12, it received its discharge on the 
25th of that month. 

Offlcenn. — Michael Chiltick entered service as Sergeant of Co. B. Aug. 5/1861, 
was commissioned 2<l Lieut., June 27, 1862, and fell at the second Bull Run , 
Aug. 30, 1862. 


Oscar C. Evans, Saginnw, Sergeantjn March 23, 1864; 2d Lieut., May 8th, 1805 ; 
1st Lieut. 3d Ind'pt. Co. S. S., July 7, 18(55; was mustered out as 2d Lieut., July 
8, 1805. 

Benj. F. Fisher, East Saginaw, Captain Aug. 9, 1861; was wounded and made 
prisoner at Gaines' Mill, Va., June 27, 1862: paroled Aug. 12, 1862, and commis- 
sioned Major, 23d Inf., Aug. 23, 1862. He resigned Feb. 13, 1863. 

Giorgc Jjirdine, of Saginaw, Captain 3d Co. S. S., May 1, 1864, was discharged 
April 4: 1865. 

Wallace Jewett, Sadnaw, mustered into ser\ice as Sergeant, Co. K, March 1, 
186'i ; promoted 2il Li^eiU., July 29, 1862; 1st Lieut. Feb. 1, 1863; was killed in the 
action uf Gettysburg, Pa., Jul}' 2, 1863. 

Frank Keeler, East Saginaw, Sergeant Co. D. Aug. 1, 1861: 2d Lieut. April 26, 
1863 : was niusterod out Sept. 10, 18(Jo. 

Stephen M. Kent, Saginaw, Serireant Co. K, March 1, 1863; 2d Lieut, May 8, 
1865; l>t Lit'ut., July 7, 186."); was mustered out July 8, 1865. 

Thomas E. Morris,' East Saginaw, commissioned 1st Lieut, and Adjutant, Aug 
22, 1861 ; wa.-^ ]>r()moted Major, and trimsferred to the 15th Inf. Kegt., Aug 21, 1863- 
HeresiL'ued Mav31, 1863. 

Jo?f'ph B. Slack, East Sa<:inaw, SerL^cant Co. D, Aug. 1, 1861; 2d Lieut., Feb. 
10. 1863; \vu> mustered out Sejit. 9, IWU. 

Edward H. Smith, Sairinaw, SorL^eant-Major, Auir. 1, 1861; 1st Lieut., Mav 8 
1805; Cai)tain, July 7, I8ti5; was mustered out July 8, 1865. 

John W. Ward, f^agiuaw. Sergeant Co. D, Aug. 21), 1861 ; 2d Lieut., May 8, 18*55 
1st Lieut., July 7, 1865; was mustered out July 871865. 

Lewis Wpb.ster, East Saginaw, commissioned 1st Lieut., March 19, 1862; Cajv 
tain, July 29, 1862 ; resigned Dec. 11, 1862. 

I. Ariiold West, Saginaw, commissioned 1st Lieut., 3d Co. S. S., May 1, 1864, 
was ])romoted to a Capiaincy Mav 8, 1865, and discharged 7 days later. 

Il.'ber II. Womlruir, E.UHt Saginaw, Sergeant Co. D, Aug. 1, 1861; 2d Lieut., 
Aug. 23, 1862; 1st Lieut., April 11, 1863; wasmu.stered out Sept. 7, 1864. 

The soldiers of the I6th, from Saginaw, who died from the etfects of the hard- 
ships of war, wero— Francis M. Briggs, Dec. 13, 1862; Henrv II. Never, Nov 1, 
1861, at Baltimore; Henry S. Tower, Nov. 9, 1861, at George*town; Alfred Well- 
injxtou, Hall's Hill, Nov 9, 1861 ; Samuel F. Wellington, Georgetown. Oct. 23, 
1861; John Norris, Philadelphia, Auir., 1862; David G. Watson, Fort McHenry, 
Oct. 10, 1862. 

KHUd. — Samuel Comfort, at Chickahominy, June 27, 1862; Henry C. Smith, 
at Chickahominy, June 27, 1862 ; Lewellyn Soule. at Chickahominy, June 27, 1862 ; 
Charles F Dobson, at Newbridge, June' 27, 1862; Josiah Wadsworth. at Malvern 
Hill, July 1, 1862; Useb Le Charita, at Bull Run, Aug. 30, 1862: W^illiam Badger, 
at Gaine.s' HilK June 27, 1862; Alanson Hubbard, at Gaines' Hill, June 27, 1862; 
Henrv Lvman, at Gaines' Hill, June 27, 1862: John S. Gardner, at Gaines' Hill, 
June *27, 1862; Wm. F. Kellv, at Gaine.s' Hill, June 27, 1862; Oliver W. Stephens, 
at Gaim-s' Hill, June 27, 1862, Alfred 3liller, at Gaines' Hill, June 37, 1862; 
Drowne Potter, at White H(mse, June 16, 1862; Oscar F. Drake, at Gettysburg, 
July 2, 18113; Charles McBratnie, at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863; Thomas Rolf, at 
Washington, June 14, 1864; Michael Scanlon, near* Petersburg, July 23, 1864; 
John Shaw, near Old Church, June 3, 1864; Thomas Buckhead, near Poplar 
Grove, Sept. 30, 1864; Hiram Whitehead, of 2d Indpt. Co., July 1, 1864; Alonzo 
Macumber, near the Rappahannock, Nov. 4. 1864; John White, Sept. 30, 1864; 
W. A. Carney, died at City Point, Va.. July 27, 1864; John Livingstone, died 
July 25, 1864; Peter McGuinness. died at Anclersonville ; Sidney Scratch, died at 
Philadeli>hia, July 25, 1864 ; Harman Miller, died at Anderson vflle, Aug. 15, 1864; 
Peter AVeaver, died at Petersburg, July 30, 1864; Daniel Chamberlain, died at 
Field Hospital, Oct. 27, 1864; John Mittermere, killed at Hatch's Run, Feb. 6, 

JJ{Mrhi/t'f/((i.^\S6'2 — Babcock Nelson A.. Bunting Richard A., EllsetTer Geo., 
Engelkee August, Eraser Thomas G., Griswold William, Guillote Charles F., 
(Timn Henry, Herrick E., Ingham Albert, Lane Moiris McHenry, Lyons John, 
Miller James, Niver Geo. A.. Smith Jacob, Stoddard Geo., Teal A. M., Ward John, 
Ward Stephen. 1863— Blair Oliver, Brookins G. R., Burton E. N., Clarke 
Thomas D., Goulding J. B., Kenyon II. M., Killen Wm. S., Lipscomb Ezekiel, 
Mackerill S. P., Miller G. F., Purchase O. R., Rivenay V. A., Rogers T. B., Rose 


John, Rushton R. M., Stephens C- D., Sutherland W., Vassaw Silas, Vibber Svl., 
WaiTen Fred., Whitney A. H , Wyner Charles. 1864— Baker Nelson, Barber 
Phil., Bradley Frank, Clark R., Cresswell Wm., Damon O. W., Fields F.W., 
Glover Wm., Green Cordell B., Heath Martin, Higgins Wm., La Clare Peter, 
Holstead E. M., Mills Stephen, Orton Geo. A., Parker James, Patterson Ed., Perry 
T. U., Rosa Daniel, Sebring W. H., Sherman C Silliman S. B , Smith Charles, 
Tavlor Charles, Ward Geo., Werdner H., Weller J., Woodruff F. W., Young D. 
T.f 1865— Abbey Charles H., Allen Thomas, Andrews Peter, Applebee J., Araion 
Alfred, Barbour Philelus, Barnes Almond, Barrett Oliver, Baxter Alonzo, Bellisle 
C, Black John, Blover Wm , Bolton E. B. Bothwell James, Bounting R. A., 
Bradshaw Jos., Broullotte Edward, Bullfinch Oscar F., Bunyan Chauncey, Burns 
John, Busha Cannon, Cary John, Cavenaugh John, Chamberlain James A., 
Chamberlain Lewis B., Clark Robt., Cole Egan, Collins James, Cooley Alfred, 
Cressy Allen, Croy Jacob, Davis Edward, Davis Lorenzo. Dickinson Charles, 
Dickenson C. W., Doran Wm, Douglass Geo., Duben Gregoire, Dunne James, 
Dunne Jeremiah, Evans Selby, Farrell John. Fawcett John, Fitzgerald Patrick, 
Gomis Jos., Green Cordelle B , Greenberry Jones. Grimes Gottlieb, Gunn J. S., 
Halstead E. M., Heath Martin, HeudrixCharles, Hinds John, Horton James, Jell- 
ner Wm., Kelly James, Knapp Charles, Lang Renthold, Lannou Conrad, Leon- 
ard Francis, Leonard J. J., Leonard Martin, Lewis « harles A., Likam Jolm, 
Lowrv Eben., Manley Wm., Marcette Charles, Martin John, Maxwell Henry, Mc- 
Kay James, McKeeva Peter, McLenithan Saui., Mohn G. H., Montne}' * Levi, 
Moore Joseph, O'Connor James, Ormsby Ira C., Orten Geo. A., Parker James, 
Pier Wm. D., Potts Joseph, Ranger W. H. H., Ross David, Ross Hugh, SanlM)rn 
Lucius, Scott David, Seymour James D., Shaker John, Simpson James, Smith 
Ed. H,, Smith, R. R., Smith R. R., Smith Samuel, Snay Moses, Soyles ( yrenius 0. 
Sticknev Jos., Thompson Benj., Thompson David, Turner Wm., Van Horn Henr\% 
Webster Rielly O , Wellington J. H., Whittock Abram, Wilber Silas, Wilson 
Christopher, Witbeck Ulark, Yates Isaac, Young D. F. 


<50iii prising 982 men and officers, moved irom Detroit Aug. 27, 
1862. It took an an active part in the war, and rendered efficient 
service in suppressing tlie rebellion. It served with the army of 
the Potomac, and was present in the seige of Petersburg. It took 

5»art in the grand review at Washington, and was mustered out 
uno 7, 1865. This regiment did not contain many from this 
county, as is seen below: 

0//?'v/'w.— Albeit Daniels, of Richland, Asst. Surgeon, Aug. 8, 1862; resigned Dec. 
15, 1&03. 

VMlliam S. Logan, Richland, 2nd Lieut. June 17, 1862: was wounded at Antie- 
tam, Sept. 17, 1802; promoted 1st Lieut., Feb. 22, 1863; Gapt., Sept. 19, 1863; was 
wounded attlie Wilderness May 7, 1864; made prisoner at Spottsylvania, May 12, 
1864; gained to command Dec. 10, 1864, and mustered out June 3, 1865. 

A'///r(/.— Fixil R. Randall, at South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1862. 

IJi!<rh(frf/e(l.~\Sii2—Co\burn'NormsLn.J. 1863--Comstock J. B., Fischer Wm., 
Perkins Guy C, Verbeck Sylvester. 1865— O'Deli Sam. 


was ororanized at East Saginaw in August; 1SC2, under Col. Mar- 
ahall VV. Chapin. Oliver L. Spaiilding- was appointed Lieut.-Col. 
April 6, 1863, and Colonel April 16, 1864. 

The conmiand was tilled by volunteers from the Sixth Congres- 
sional District, coniprisins^ the counties of Clinton, Shiawassee, 
Oenesee, Gratiot, Saginaw, Tuscola, Huron, Isabella, Midland, Bay, 
Iosco, Alpena, Chippewa, Marquette, Houghton, Ontonagon, and 


a few others not orji^nized. D. H. Jerome was appointed com- 
mandant of camp. It left East Saginaw Sept. 18, and proceeded 
at once to Kentucky, its muster rolls showing a force of 983 officers 
and enlisted men. Until May 29, 1863, it was employed in garri- 
soning that port, guarding railroad trains, etc. May 31 the regi- 
ment arrived at Glasgow. Marching from Glasgow, it proceeded 
to Tompkinsville, from which place it started July 4 in pursuit of 
the rebels under Gen. John H. Morgan. Moving rapidly through 
Munfordsville. Elizabethtown and Louisville, it proceeded to Jef- 
fersonville, Ind., Cincinnati, Portsmouth and Chillicothe, Ohio, 
and arrived at Paris, Ky., June 29, just in time to save the railroad 
bridge from destruction, and a small force stationed at that point 
from capture by a rebel force that made an attack soon after the 
arrival of the regiment. The rebels retired after a short skirmish. 
Leaving Paris Aug. 4, tlie regiment proceeded via Lexington and 
Louisville to Lebanon, and thence to New Market. It was here 
assigned to the 2nd brigade, 2nd division, 23d corps. Leaving New 
Market Aug. 17, it participated in the advance into East Tenn- 
essee, arriving at Loudon Sept. 4. On the 15th it made a forced 
march, 30 miles, to Knoxville, and moved thence to Morristown. It 
returned to Loudon on the 19th. With the exception of these and 
some minor movements, the regiment remained near Loudon dur- 
ing September, and entered on picket and entrenchment duty in 
October. The deaths from disease during the year numbered 109, 
and I killed in battle. 

During the first two weeks of November, 1863, this regiment 
was in camp opposite Loudon, East Tennessee, doing picket duty, 
whence it marched to Lenoir. The regiment, with the army, then 
returned toward lluff-s Ferry, and attacked the enemy, driving 
them some miles toward the Ferry. On the following morning 
the command fell back to Lenoir. On the 16th orders were 
received to destroy the "transportation equipage and officers' bag- 
gage, and turn over the teams to the several batteries. The papers 
and records were here lost or destroyed. The retreat to Knoxville 
then commenced, the enemy vigorously pressing the pursuit. A 
halt was ordered at Campbell's Station, and an endeavor made to 
check the rebel advance. The position was maintained against 
repeated attacks of the enemv for several hours, when the com- 
mand, tired and hungry, continued the retreat, through mud and 
rain, to Knoxville, where it arrived at 4 a. m., on the 17th, after 
a march of 28 miles and a battle of five hours' duration, without 
food or rest. The loss of the regiment in these movements was 
S killed, 23 wounded and S missing. The regiment assisted 
actively in the defense of Knoxville, until the siege was raised on 
the 5th of December.* Dec. 7 it marched in pursuit of the 
retreating rebels, and on the 13th went into camp at Blaine's 
Cross Roads, where it was stationed until the 25th, when it received 
orders to proceed to Strawberry Plains and build fortifications at 
that place. From the commencement of the retreat to Knoxville 


to this time tlie regiment suffered greatly. It subsisted on quarter 
rations of meal and fresh beef, foraged from the country. It had 
few tents, and many of the men were without blankets, overcoats 
or shoes. 

Jan. 14, 1864, the regiment marched to Dandridge, but on the 
17th fell back to Strawberry Plains, whence, on the 21st, the 
march was continued to a point near Knoxville, where it was sta- 
tioned until Feb. 15, engaged on picket and out-post duty. The 
enemy's cavalry attacked its pickets Jan. 27, and mortally wounded 
one man and captured seven others. The res^iment returned to 
Strawberry Plains Feb. 23, where it encamped until the 29th. 
Thence it proceeded to New Market and Mossy creek, ani on the 
12th to Morristown, returning to Mossy creek on the IStli. There 
is no report of the movements of the regiment during the month 
of April. May 2 it moved from Charleston, Tenn. On the 7th it 
marched toward Tunnel Hill, and on the 8th encountered the 
enemy at Rocky Face. The regiment advanced as skirmishers, 
and took possession of a ridge in front of the enemy's works. On 
the 9th it was engaged in a reconnaissance of the rebel position. 
Moving from Rocky Face and marching through Snake Creek Gap, 
the regiment arrived in front of Resaca on the 13th, and on the 
following day participated in an unsuccessful charge on the enemy's 
works, losing, in a few minutes, 62 men killed and wounded. 

The enemy having evacuated Resaca, the regiment engaged in 
the pursuit, and came up and skirmished with them on the 21:th, 
on the Etowah river. The rebel forces having fallen back to 
Dallas, the regiment took a position in front of their vvorks at that 
point, which it occupied from the 27th to the Ist of June, and dur- 
ing this time, was almost constantly, da}^ and night, engaged in 
skirmishing. May 31 it assisted in repelling a charge made on 
our lines. The regiment participated in the various movements 
following the retreat of the enemy from Dallas, and was engaged 
at Lost Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, on the Chattahoochee river, 
and before Atlanta. It was present at the capture of tiie latter 

t)lace, and subsequently moved to Decatur, Ga. This department, 
lowever, has received no detailed report of these operations. The 
regiment marched from Decatur, Oct. 3, in pursuit of the rebel 
army under Gen. Hood, who was then moving northward through 
Georgia and Alabama to the Tennessee river. During^ the month 
it marched to Marietta, Dallas, Xew Hope Church, Sig Shanty, 
Alatoona, Cartersville, Kingston and Kome. From Rome it 
moved to Calhoun, thence to Resaca, and through Snake Creek 
Gap to Villanon, Summerville and Cedar Bluft', Ala. 

During the year 42 died in battle, 49 of disease, 75 were wounded 
and 32 made prisoners. Having taken a distingiiished part in the 
affairs at Fort Anderson, Feb. 18; Town creek, Feb. 20; Washing- 
ton, Feb. 21, and Goldsboro, March 22, 1865, it was mustered out 
of service at Salisbury, and reported at Detroit July 7, 1865. 


Officers.— kelson A. Balxjock, Saginaw City, was commissioned 2<;1 Lieut, Nov 
7, 18G2, and resigned Nov. 20, the same year. 

Alonzo H. Crandall, of Fremont, Sergeant Co. G, was commissioned 2d Lieut., 
Feb. 24, ISrW: Isl Lieut.. Oct. (5, 1864, and mustered out June 28, 1««5. 

Lester E. Cross, of Saginaw City, commissioned 2d Lieut., Aug. 1, 18G2; 1st 
Lieut,, Oct. 19, 1802; resigned Dec. 17, 1862. 

Oscar L. Davis mustered into service as Sergeant of Co. B, Aug. 6, 1862; i)ro- 
moled 2d Lieut., Dec. 17,1862; 1st Lieut, and Q. C, Julv 20, 186:3; was discharged 
for di.sability, Feb. 253, 1864. 

Judson H* Gregg, of Chesaning, volunteered Aug.l), 1862, as Sergeant of Co. B: 
wa<* commissioned 2d Lieut., Aug. 15, 1864, and mustered out, June 28, 186.J. 

Dexter D. Keeler, East Saginaw, Sergeant Major, Aug. 6. 1862 :2<i Lieut, June 
25, 1863; Ist Lieut., Oct. 6, 1864; Captain, Dec. 29, 1864; was mustered out after 
servic.-e at the Western i)o.sts. 

William A. Lewis, East Saginaw, 2d Lieut., Aug. 1, 1862; l^t Lieut., Oct. 3, 
1862; Captain, Oct. 6, 1864; was mustered out June 28, 1865. 

Charles D. Little, of Sai^inaw, commissioned 1st Lieut, and Q. M , Aug. 6, 1862; 
re.siLMied July20, 1868. 

Gideon a1 Lvons, Sairinaw, Sergeant Co. C, Autr. 21,1862; 21 Lieut., Dec. 
29,1862; 1st Lieut.. April 16, 1864^ C^iptain, Aug. io, l>64;was transferred to 
28th Inf.. June 2.S, 1865, and mustered out June li, 1866. 

Heurv C. Norville, Saginaw, commissioned Cajnain, Aug. 1, 1862; died of dis- 
ease, Oct. :], 1862. 

Talbot Sleno, Saginaw, Commissionary Sergeant, Aug. 2. 1862: 2d Lieut., Oct. 
6, 1.^61; 1st Lieut.,' March 4, 1865; was niusterod out June 28, 1H<;5. 

Henry Woodrutf, East Saginaw, commissioned Captain 2:jd Inf., Aug 1, 1862; 
resigned Aug. 24, 1864. 

KilM. — Lewis I). Ricker, at Louisville, Dec. 6, 1862; Leonard Stearns, at 
Bowling Green, Dec. 10. 1862; (Jerardus Becker, at Bowling Groen, Dec. 80, 1862: 
W. II, II. Cleveland, at Bowling Green, Dec. 8'), mvi\ John IL»cker, at Frank- 
fort, Dec. 30, 1862; E. E. Deane, at Frankfort, Dfc. 80, 18112: Clark J. Briggs, at 
Frankfort, Dec. 30,1862: Daniel L. Bennett, at Frankfort, Nov. 5, 1862; bylvan 
Cornford, at Lebanon, Nov. 1, 1862; Joshua Whittle, at Lebanon, Nov. 1, 
18(J2: Charles S. Gustin, at Ilarrodsburg, Nov. 80, 1862: Daniel S. Potter, at 
Louisville, Nov. 22, 1862; Edwin Warden, at Nashville, April 10, 1863; Lucien 

B. lyrrel I, at Ue.saca, June 25,. 1868; Andrew L. Marvin, at Marietta, June 27, 
1868; John Dutllo, at K-saca, Mav 14, 1868; Daniel Wakefield, at Kesaca, May 14, 
1868; Geo. Biddlecomb, at Kesaca* Mav 14, 1868; Wm. C. Stuart, at Resaca, May 14, 
1868; Wallace King, at Chattanooga. 'July 24 1868: Ed. Van Du.sen, at Kno.wille, 
Feb. 3. 1864: Wallace W. Boune, at Franklin, Tenn., Nov. 30, 1864; Louis Pippin, 
at Stone Mt., Ala., Sept. 7, 1864. 

J>(\kI of Woft/tdx or iJisf'isr. — Wm. Andrews, at Bowling Green, Ky., 1863; Ed- 
ward Pi'erc*, at Bowl in«j: Green, 1868; Geo. W. Alger, at Bowling Green, 1863; 
Wm. O. Walker, at Bowling Green, 1868; Alanson Simons, at Bowling Green, 
1868: Freeman B. Stoddard, at Gla.sgow, Ky., June 11, 1868; W'm. Savage, at 
Knoxville. Dec 11. 18')8: H«mry Paine at Lexington, Sept. 7,1864; Andrew 
Johnson, at New Albanv. June 15, 1864: John Backer, at Bowling Green. Marcli 
25. 1868; Ed. C. Harrington, at Detroit, Dec. 8, 1864: Albert E. Smith, at Smith- 
Ville, N. C, Feb. 24 1865; Aetna Pettis, in Libby prison, May 18, 1864; Henrj- 

C. Jenning-, at Louisville, Feb. 12, 1865. 

Dtsrhngnl. — 1865 — Blackmer R. Briggs Hubbard, Carpenter Wm. Cobb 
L., Honeywell S., Malone Wm., Mor»e Jay, Munger J. I)., Paine Roger, 
Purchase A., Rou«e W. H., Simms M. A., Surrvhead Ed. Ward J., Wilcox 
Ej)., Wright J. E. 1864 -Becker Alonzo, Devine Thomas, Doud Geo. W.. 
Fletcher John, Fremont Benj., Hariington James, Higley Milton, Lemon 
Wm., Metzger John J., Ormsby Geo. M., Porter Albert, Smith Seneca. 1865 
— Allen Ethan G., Allen Robert, Allen W. H., Anthony Geo., Armstrong L. 
T., Barnes John, Bamum Allen, Beach M., Becker Alonzo, Beers Luther J., 
Bern way Richard, Bennett E. 8., Bennett Judd. Bissell Jerome T., Blackmer 
Austin. Bouns Nelson M., Brant Wm., Brennan James Brown John, 
Buchanan W. R., Bullock Wm., Burt Eugene, Butts C. H., Cam S., Carlton 
Sidney, Carpenter W. D., Chapman Jefferson, Clayton John E., Cleveland 
Libbius, Cleveland M. J., Cooper Thomas, Delaviyne Louis, Dent R. IL, 
Dewev Richard, Doran Peter, Doyle Godfrey, Finney Edmund, Fisher Ben., 
Fix il., Fletcher John, Fortier Jacob, Freeland Geo., Gerow John A., Gil- 


let Milan, Goft* Nelson, Grey Geo., Griffin James H., Hall Geo., Hall J. M,^ 
Hendsall M., Horton Charles, Horton VV. J., Hubbard Eugene, Irish John, 
Jacob Michael, Jock Peter, John-on Morris, Johnson D. W., Jones Wm,, 
lOiobo Charles, Lens3 Joseph, Lilgers Lazarus, Lonsby W., Lucke A., Lud- 
lum A. E., Mahew F, Mayhap Jo-eph, Marr B. F. N., Matter Win., McFarland 
Andrew, McGregor Win.. Merrick J, C, Merrill A. J., Miller John F., 
Monroe J. S., Moore Eli, Morgan W.W., Mould T., Jr., Neff C. A., Neff H. 
C, Ormsby Geo. H.. Osjorn Duane, Overton J. H.; Powelson, Wallace; 
Richmond* Ira, Radoo Aaron, Roberts Alexander, Robinson J. H., Roland 
John li., SaxtOQ Wm. H:, Serring Charles, Shantzell Michael, 8mith J. B., 
Smith Seneca, Snider Bates, Sleirn C, Strong Wm., Tremper M. O. Van 
Dusen llarrv, Walcott Wm., Wellman J. R., Whitman Nathan, Williams 
Ambrose R.; Williams A. O., Wiltsie M. D., Wonch Richard, Wood Wm., 
Woodrult'A., Woodruff D. M., Workrun John, ZieroffJos. 


was organized at Ypsilanti, April 12, 1863. The nucleus of the 
27th was ordered from Port Huron to the former point, where it 
was consolidated with the 2Sth Inf. under the name of the 27th. 
Eight companies of 108 men each, or 804, were mustered in on the 
12th of April, and ordered to report at Cincinnati, where the reg- 
iment completed its organization. 

The regiment was stationed at various posts in Kentucky, until 
the 0th corps, to which it was attached, was sent in June to Missis- 
sippi. It moved with the army in its advance on Jackson, Miss., 
in J uly, and in a skirmish near that place on the 11th of that 
month, lost two killed and five wounded. After the evacuation of 
Jackson bv the rebels it paiticmated in a reconnaissance to Pearl 
river, and thence returned to Milldale, Miss. During the follow- 
ing month, August, the regiment returned with the 9th corps to 
Kentucky. Sept. 10 it was ordered to proceed to Cumberland 
ga]). It arrived at the gap on the 20th, and from thence marched 
to Knoxville, Tenn., arriving at that place Sept. 26. In 1863, 
three soldiers died in action, 20 of disease and six were wounded. 
The history of the 27th during 1864 is an exceptionally brilliant 
one. From Knoxville to Poplar Grove church it distinguished it- 
self on every field, losing over 200 men who fell in action, 57 who 
died of disease, and 511 who were wounded. Toward the close of 
the war it served at Fort Steadman, Port Mahon, and at the siege 
and capture of Petersburg from June, 1864, to April 3, 1865, re- 
ceiving its discharge at Detroit, July 30, 1865. 

(>ffinr». — Alonzo L. Bingham, of East Saginaw, commissioned Captain Oct. 10, 
1802; wounded in action at Jackson, Miss., July 11, 1863; again at the Wilderness, 
May 6, 1864; a third time at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864, and atrain at Petersburg, 
June 28, 1864; was mustered out July 26, 1865. 

Oliver I. Davison, East Sa«^inaw, Sergeant Co. H. Nov. 14, 1862; commissioned 
2d. Lieut., May 25, 1863 ; 1st. Lieut., April 20, 1864 ; wounded in action near Peters- 
burg, July 30, 1864; commissioned Captain 1st. Ind'p't. Co. Sharpshooters, Nov. 
15, 1864; Brevet Major U. S. Vols. March 13, 1865, for distinguished services; was 
mustered out July 26, 1865. 

Died of Wounds or Diseane. — Edwin Rose, at Milldale, Miss., July, 1863; Peter 
Smith, at Milldale, Miss., July. 1863; Enoch Bennett, at Milldale, Miss., July, 
18<J3; Barton Edsall, at Knoxville, Tenn., Dec. 1, 1863; Albert Ammee, killed at 
Spottsvlvania, May 12, 1864; Jas. B. Helch, killed at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864; 
Richard Campeau, killed at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864; W. H. Smith, killed be- 

<5?^/c/^ ^ -^ ^^1^/v^ 


fore Fredericksburg; Lewis Clement, killed before Fredericksburg; Beni. Com- 
fort, killed before Fredericksburg ; Stephen Ward, died of disease at Detroit, 
April 20, 1864; a 0. Soper died in rebel prison, March 4, 1864; R. R. Moll died 
in prison at Florence, S. C, 1864 ; Jerome Turner died at Harwood Hospital, June 
20, 1864 ; Cyrus L. Sparks died at Annapolis, May 3, 1864; Augustus Madison died 
at Belhiire, O., April 5, 1864; John \. ameron died at Andersonville, May 25, 1864. 
JJischargtd. — 18fj3 — Davisc^n Geo. 1864— Benjamin R. L., McMahon Thomas, 
Mills Pool, Pratt W. A., Segmiller Geo., Stablecock J., Ward John, Whitman 
Robert. 18a5— Abbe Howard J., Anice H. C, Block Fred, Chadwick Richard, 
Comfort Thomas, Connor James, Cook David, Dendon Wm., Derby H. B., Filz- 

ferakl Tliomas, Gavin Domi nick. Hunt A. G., Lackland Leonard, La Tourtte J 
>., Lowtzki Fritz, McKeever Wm., McKenzie Wm., Molloy Michael. Owen 
Willis, Parks H. S., Rosl)orou^h Joseph, Runciman Francis, SpicerHiles, Stone 
house, Stephen Stut Andrew J., Wilbur John, Wray James. 


was organized at Saginaw, July 29, 1864, bvHon. JohnF. Driggs, 
and mustered into service Oct. 3, 1864, with 856 officers and men. 
The command left Saginaw, Oct. 6, for Nashville, under Col. 
Thomas Saylor. 

The command was stationed at Decatur, Ala., garrisoning that 
place until Nov. 24, when it marched to Murfreesboro, Tenn. ; ar- 
riving there on the 27th, it composed a part of the force at that 
point during the siege of Nashville and Murfreesboro by the en- 
emy under Hood, and was engaged with the enemy Dec. 7, at 
Overall Oeek. On the 13th it was sent out as an escort of a rail- 
road train to procure fuel, when it was attacked by a superior force 
of infantry and artillery near Winchester church, when a severe 
battle ensued, in which the enemy was repulsed with loss, the 
regiment losing seventeen killed, woundea and missing. The 
enemy having taken up the track, tlie regiment succeeded m relay- 
int!^ it under nre, and saved the train, bringing it into Murfrees- 
boro by hand, after the engine had been disabled by a shell. On 
the 15th and 16th, while guarding a forage train at Alexandria, 
near Murfreesboro, it became engaged with two brigades of the 
enemv's cavalry, on the Shelby viUe pike, with slight loss, and 
was also engaged at Nolansville on the 17th. On the 27th it 
moved by rail to Anderson, and was assigned to duty guarding 
the Nashville & Chattanooga railroad; remaining there until July 
following, it moved to Dechard, and thence to Murjfreesboro, ar- 
riving thereon the 19th, and was employed on garrison duty until 
Sept. 6, when it was mustered out of service, and on the 8th left 
for Michigan, arriving on the 12th at Detroit, where it was paid 
oH and discharged. During its term of service it took part in the 
following battles and skirmishes: Decatur, Ala., Oct., 26, 27, 28, 
1864; Overall Creek, Tenn., Dec. 7, 1864; Winsted Church, Tenn., 
Dec. 13, 1804; Shelby ville Pike, Tenn;, Dec. 15, 16, 1864; Nolans- 
ville, Tenn., Dec. 17, 1864. 

Officers.— John A. Berser, of Frankemnutb, was commiflBiQiied Lieut., July 29, 
18C4, and mustered out £pt. 16. 1866. 

Alanson B. Cole, of Salina, was mustered into sendee Aug. 90, 1864, as Com- 
missary Sergeant ; commissioned 3nd Lieut., July 7, 1866, and mustered out Sept. 6« 
tlie same year. 



Titus Duncan, commissioned Surgeon July 29, 1864, resigned March 19, 1865. 

Daniel E. Guiley, Bridgeport, Sergeant Co. D, Aug. 22, 1864; 2d Lieut., July 7, 
1865; mustered out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Truman W. Hawley was mustered into service July 29, 1864 ; mustered out Sept. 
25, 1865. 

Edwin Saunders, Saginaw, commissioned Captain July 29, 1854, was mustered 
out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Geo. T. Swim, St. Charles, commissioned Captain July 29, 1864, resigned March 
27, 1865. 

Edwin C. Turver, Saginaw, Serceant Co. C, Sept. 22, 1864; 2d Lieut., Dec. 
15^864; was mustered out Sept. 16, 1865. 

William 11. Tuttle, Saginaw, commissioned 2d Lieut. July 29, 1864; 1st Lieut. 
Feb. 19, 1865, was mustered out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Robert Whitton, E'ist Saginaw, Hospital Steward, Aug. 17, 1864; 2d Lieut. Aug. 
7, 1865, was mustered out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Died of WoundH or Disease.— (Jteo. Poyness, at Vassar, Mich, Sept. 6, 1864; 
Stephen Vangile, at Madison, Ind., Dec. 10, 1864; William Lewis, at Huntsville, 
Ala., Dec. 10, 1884; F. A. Van Fliet, at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 15, 1864; Wm. C. 
Bottsford, at Stevenson, Ala., Feb. 19, 1865; Geo. Keynolds, at Mufrreesboro, 
3Iarch, 25, 1865; Robert Binder, at Jefferson, Ind., April 7, 1865; Geo. Sharpstein, 
at Hilton nead,S. C, May 19, 1865. 

Diftcharged. — The regiment was discharged Sept. 1865, and then consisted of the 
following men: Ames W. A., Andrus S., Arman John, Backer R., Bean Patrick, 
Berry F., Blair Perry, Blocmlien J., Boetcher W., Braley Ephraim, Brandstaller 
C, Br.)wn Francis, Burling Aug , Burlisjn Wm., Butler H., Campbell C, 
Chennell R., Clarke T., Cole Alanson B., Cook Jerry, (^mpton Charles, Cramp- 
loa Nithan, Croronover D. W., Cummings Win., Davis John C, Denzie N., 
Dunzler J. L., Dico Henry, Doyle Fred, Eadley Charles, Edwards Ephraim, 
Eilenherg Chapmtin, EwaldlG., Fughman H., Fughman Matthew, Gilman Dan- 
iel, Gil man James, Glaser G.. Goeppord. C, Godfrey George, Graham DeForest, 
Graham J., Graham J., Graham W. IL, Green H. L., Gugel P. L., Gusley J. H., 
Guilford R. D., Hammond D. X., HartnerC, Harvey James, Haskell J. L., Haverly 
J., llawes D. W., Heonan Thomas, Hoerauf M. W., Holiday O. W., HoUwede F., 
Hom(*r L., Horn Thomas, Houghtaling Francis, Howard Herman A., Howe G. W., 
Hoyt J., Hubbard Benj , Hugenon P. J., Hutching E., Jacobs R., Johnson Charles, 
Jone.s J(jlm, Jones Stephen, Kipfmuller A., Kliplegal J., Klumpp Wm., Koch Ber- 
nard, KridmanC, Lacy Lucius, Liwrence Thomas, Lipscomb E., List John J., 
L icks \V., Malchon C. M irstcr John, Marsh James, Massncr P., McDonald Peter, 
McLean Munlock, Mc(2aecn Janie^, Miller Hezekiah, Mills David L., Moeller H., 
MoelltT .lohn, Morris John. Morris Wm., Mount Alford, Nelson B. D., Oakley M. 
M., Ohhmd H., O'Xeil Wm., Orton A. Y., Pawhis J., Pearson Jos. E., Pelus C, 
Pine C. J., Rettineier Ed., Richner Sam., Rikowski C, Rindbolt T., Robbtose 
Joseph. Robinson B. W., Rodamer J. F., Rose P. A., Sackett J. G., Sihs Adam, 
Schirping fheo., Schmidt John, Schmitzer John, Schmitzer J. C, Schuettle 
Charles, Sceger F., Servier Frod., Smith John, Smith Lorenzo, Spell man, H. F. 
Spencer Whitman, Stiles W. F., Stoltz Louis, Sloyl A., Struck John Tarpey 
James, Taylor H. M., Templeton D., Tromble F., Turner J., Valkner P., Valler J., 
Valley Stephen, Van Ever Geo., Van Fleit R., Wagner J., Wagoner Robert, Ward 
Geo., Ward 8am., Weber J. G., Weiss G. C, Wetz J., Wetz R., AMiite Emerson, 
Whitton Robert L., Winas Alonzo, Winnie C. W., Zilk Charles. 


was orojanized at Marshall, under Col. W. P. Innes, and left for 
Louisville Dec. 17, 1861. A detachment of this command, under 
Gen. O. M. Mitchell, was amon^ the first battalions *to enter Bowl- 
ing Green. The regiment was on duty on the railroads between 
Nashville and Chattanooga, Nashville and Columbia, Corinth and 
Decatur, Huntsville and Stevenson, Memphis and Charleston, and 
Nashville and Louisville. During the first 11 months of its 
service, 75 men died of disease, 3 were killed, 17 wounded and 15 


made prisoners. Toward the close of the year 1862, the regiment 
was reorganized with three battalions of four companies of 150 
men each, or 1,800 men iu toto, 

Jan. 1, 1863, while at Lavergne, the regiment was attacked by 
a cavalry force numbering between three and four thousand, with 
two pieces of artillery, under the rebel Generals Wheeler and 
Wharton. Tlie rebels retreated with considerable loss, after having 
vainly endeavored to compel a surrender. The loss of the regiment 
was one killed and six wounded. June 29 the regiment received 
orders to move south trom Murfreesboro, to open and repair the 
line of the Nashville & Chattanooga railroad. During July and 
August it was engaged in repairing the railroad from Murfreesboro 
to Bridgeport. In July the regiment built five bridges, one of 
which, over Elk river, was 400 feet in length, and one at Duck 
river crossing 350 feet in length. 

During September and October, detached companies were em- 
ployed in building a bridge at Chattanooga, making pontoons for a 
bridge at Bridgeport, constructing commissary buildings at Ste- 
venson, building and repairing bridges, etc., on lines of the Nash- 
ville & Chattanooga railroad, and the Nashville & Northwestern 
railroad. Oct. 31 the headquarters of the regiment were at Elk 
river bridge, Tenn. During the year, in addition to the work 
mentioned, the regiment got out a large amount of timber for 
building, and a great number of railroad ties, and performed a very 
large amount of re])airing to railroad tracks and stations. 

The Engineers and Mechanics carried on their operations around 
Chattanooga during the year 1864. In the fall, the headquarters 
of the command were moved to Atlanta, Ga. The deaths from 
disease during the year numbered 112. Together with performing 
the onerous duties which devolve on such an organization, it took 
an active part in the following battles and skirmishes: Mill Springs, 
Ky., Jan. 19; Farmington, Miss., May 9; siege of Corinth, Alay 10 
to 31; Perry ville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862; Lavergne, Tenn., Jan. 1; 
Chattanooga, Tenn., Oct. 6, 1863; siege of Atlanta, from July 22 
to Sept. 2; Savannah, Ga., Dec. 11 to 21, 1864, and Bentonville, 
N. Carolina, March 19, 1865. The command reported fordischarge 
at Jackson, Sept. 25, and six days later was disbanded. 

Died of Disease or Woundu — Edward ('owan, at Stevenson, July 29, 18C4; Rich- 
mond Hauford, at Gentervillo, Aug. 1, 1864; Joel Eastman, at Ringold, Aug. 28, 
18(^4; Charles H. Duncan, at Selma, Ala., Feb. 1, 1865. 

lJischargefl.—\S(i2.—Gm\\<)ii Peter, Snyder Batus. 1864— Burdick E. D., Con- 
nolly Phillip, Cornwell James, Guillotte Eugene, Hall David, Miller Joseph, 
Valley James K. 1865— Arnold H. P., Bauford Oliver, Bates W. A., Bludner 
Frank F., Burdick Charles P., Burr Wm., Chesterfield Al., Cornell James S., 
Cotter Dennis, Coyne John, Davidson Wm., Dunne John, Fitzgerald John, 
Fourme Charles, Cibraith James, Giroux John, Hall Roderick, Holmes John, 
King Patrick, Leighton Anthony, Lockley James, Mantich Wm., McGaw Martin, 
McLaren Rob't, McMichael Geo., McNamara Denis, Meader James M., Mila^ 
Wm., Morion Theo., Nye Charles, O'Brien Michael, O'Brien Wm. B , O'Grady 
Martin, Oveesb)' Wm., Parish Anthony, Richardson Dan., Savage Wm., Stokes 
Henry, Stone M^ D., Stone Robert, Tonally James, Valley James K., Weaver J. 
M., White Oscar E., Williams G. H., Wilson John, Wisson Wm. 



was partially organized in September, 1862, at Kalamazoo; and 
completed its organization as a battalion at Dearborn, in January, 

1863. It numbered 963 names, under the command of Col. C. v . 
De Land. The service of this regiment throughout the war was 
exceptionally brilliant. It took an active part in the siege of 

Officers. — Edwin V. Andress of Chesaning, was commissioned Captain July 22, 
1863; wounded in the action of Spottsvlvania, Va., May 12, 1864. He was dis- 
charged on account of disability July 26, 1864. 

Casualties. — Sash-ke-bouquot was accidentally killed at Camp Douglas, 
Chicago, Dec. 27, 1863; Thomas Wabesis died at Isabella, Mich., Jan. 7, 1864. 

Utscharged. — 1865 — Cain Geo. A., Chetego Thomas, Church Albert, Corbin 
George, Dennis James, Dutton L., Hero William, Jackson Wm., Eeabuorga 
Geo., Shaw-anax Joseph, Stone Harrison, Whipple Olson W. 


Owing to the small number of Saginaw volunteers in a few of 
the infantry regiments furnished by the State, the following per- 
sonal mention merely is necessary: 

Seventh Inf. The representation of this county in the 7th was held by Virgil R- 
Lamson, until he fell at Frederick, Md., Sept. 24, 1862. 

Ninth Inf. In this regiment the county had Sinrett McCartney, who died at 
Nashville, Oct. 11, 1862; Robert A. Hamilton, disabled Nov. 18, 1862; John 
Considine and Cicero Weathers, mustered out Sept. 15, 1865. 

Eleventh Inf. contained Joseph Kitelingcr, killed at Stone river, Dec. 31, 1862; 
and Charles ^IcQuade, Stephen Pettibone, Frederick Joylin, Silas D. Patterson, 
and Lyman D. Whittaker, discharged Sept. 16, 1863. 

Fifteenth Inf. comprised Tony O'Hara, discharged for re-enlistment Feb. 14» 
1864; and August Otto, Isaac Totten, L. D. Webster, Druses Shumway, Stewart 
Douglas, Milan Calvin and Munson A. Simmons, mustered out Aug. 13, 1865. 

Nineteenth Inf. Saginaw county furnished one officer to this regiment, 
Dwight J. Corwin, of Bradv, Sergeant Co. K, was promoted 1st Lieut., Jarf. 31, 
1865, and discharged June 10, 1^65. 

Tict'nty-aecond Inf. C. W. Winnie and Stephen Sturtevant were transferred to 
the 29ih for nuLster-out; Duncan Morrison was discharged June 11, 1865. 

Ttcentij fourth Inf. John Chapman was reported missing Aug. 19, 1864, and 
died at Salisbury, N. C, Dec. 9; George H. Barnum died April, 1865 ; and Thomas 
McMann, Geo. Brown, and Wm. Devaney were mustered out June 30, 1865. 

Tirenty-ffth Inf. contained Albert Stantou, discharged June 13, 1865. 

2\reutf/^if/hfh Inf. contained Isaac J. Brooks, of Maple Grove, Sergeant Co. B 
commissioned 2d Lieut., Dec. 20, 1865, and discharged, June 5, 1866; and pri- 
vates Wm. Bullock, J. E. Clayton, J. Fortier, Geo. E. iVnthony, Lazarus Litzgus, 
Mourad Fisk, and John Workman, who were mustered out in the fall of 1865. 

Thirtieth ////. contained Therson T. Hubbard, of Saginaw, commissioned as 
Asst. Sergeant Dec. JiO, 1864; Sunreon23d Inf. May 2, 1865, mustered out June 
28, 1865; and Ansel J. Kane, of Richland, commissioned 1st Lieut, Nov. 28, 

1864, and mustered out June 23, lb65. 


was organized in Aufi^ust, 1861, under Col. T. F. Brodhead. It 
left Detroit Sept. 29tli for Washington, with a force of 1,144 men 
and officers. It participated in all the actions along the Upper 
Potomac, and Shenandoah, and east of the Blue Ridge mountains, 


before the close of the year, witli tlie result of losing 30 men 
killed, 5S wounded, 60 who died of disease, and 170 who were 
nude prisoners. 

During the early part of the vear 1S63 this regiment was 
engaged in guard dutv in front of tTashington, on a line extend- 
ing from Edward's t^erry to the mouth of the Occoouan. The 
duty was the most arduous and difficult the regiment had to per- 
form, requiring incessant watchfulness and vigilance; but wiiile 
two cavalry regiments from other States, who were sharing? in the 
service, lost each about 200 men from the frequent attacks and 
suq^-ises of Mosby's guerrillas, the loss of the 1st was only 30. 
During the raid about the T'liion lines, made by the rebel Gen. 
Stuart, in February, a detachment of 56 men of tliis regiment were 
sent out to watch his movements. Xear Occoquan the enemy came 
within range of the carbines of this party, and fell back in confu- 
sion at the first fire. Discovering the weakness of the force 
opposed to them, the rebel cavalry recovered and charged vigor- 
ously with a large force, before which the detachment retired, 
figliting from beiiind bushes, etc., during a pursuit of several 
miles, with a resulting loss to Stuart's troopers of 15 in killed and 
wounded, and to themselves of none. June 27, the regiment took 
up its line of march northward in the Gettysburg campaign, and 
was in 15 engagements and skirmishes in as many days. Jiuy 3, at 
Gettysburg, it met, in a charge, Hamj)ton'8 Legion, composed ot 
three regiments of Virginia cavalry, and beat it in six minutes, 
losing 80 men and 11 officers out of 300 that went into action. On 
the 4th, it met and defeated two regiments of rebel cavalry at 
Fairfield gap, sustaining further loss in officers and men. At 
Falling Water, after a severe engagment, it captured 500 confed- 
erates and two stands of colors belonging to the 40th and 47th 
Virginia infantry. The number of men Tost by death during the 
year was 21*. 

The o]>erations ot the command during 1864, from the expiration 
of its furlough at Detroit, Feb. 7, was of varied brilliancy. It 
made the crossing of the Rapidan May 4, and served in all the 
principal battles in which the army of the Potomac engaged dur- 
ing the summer of that year. In August it moved into Virginia, 
and was attached to the army of the middle military division 
under General Philip II. Sheridan. The command marched 1645 
miles during the year, lost 82 men in battle, had 102 wounded, 
and 33 died of disease. During the winter of 1864-V)5 the regi- 
ment participated in the following engagements : Mount Craw- 
ford, Va., Oct. 2, 1864; Woodstock, Va., Oct. 9, 1864; Cedar 
Creek, Va., Oct. 19, 1864; Madison Ct. House. Dec. 24, 1864; 
Louisa Ct. House. Va., Mar. 8, 1865; Five Fork^^, Va., March 30, 
31, April 1, 1865; South Side, K K, Va., Ai)ril 2, 1865; Duck 
Pond Mills, Va., April 4, 1865; Ridges, or Sailor's Creek, Va., 
April 6, 1865; Appommattox Ct. House, Va., Ai)ril 8, 9, 1865. 

The affair of Willow Springs, D. T., Aug. 12, 1865, in which 8. 
L. Matthews and Walter Cotton were killed fighting against the 


Indians, may be termed its last field day. The command re- 
enlisted at Fort Bridger, in Nov., 1865, and consolidated with the 
6th & 7th Cav. Reg^ts, forming the Ist Regt. Vet. Cav. Subse- 
quently eight companies were stationed at Salt Lake City and four 
held Fort Bridger until March 10, 1866, when the entire command 
was mustered out. 

• Died of Disease. — Robert Mitchell, at San Antonio, Aug. 18, 1861; Alvin M. 
Bugsby, at San Antonio, Aug. 18, 1861. 

Disc?iarged.-'1QQ5—Be\rd David, Black W. J., Bradford T., Brush Matt R.,Burn8 
Albert, Darby J. P., Deyo G. W.. DUlabaugh Daniel, Dobson R. T., Farr J., Fer- 
ris John, Fogle Matt, Gates Geo., Hall Benj., Johnson Ed., Jones Rob., Killem 
Sam., Kimball Wm., Kincaid E., Kusteroe Jolni, McConnell A., McLaren A. J., 
Ogden M. A.. Perkins Sam., Rapleye D. L., Rock James, Rogers Levi, Sammer- 
scales Jesse, Smith John, Webb Russell J. 


was organized at Grand Rapids by F. W. Kellogg, and left for St. 
Louis Kov. 14, 1861, with a force of 1,103 men and officers. 

In December and January it participated in the raid under Gen. 
Carter, into East Tennessee, severing the enemy's communications 
and destroying his stores. During this affair, which occupied 
22 days, the regiment was engaged in several severe skir- 
mishes. Soon afterward it proceeded to Louisville, and from 
thence, Feb. 3, to Nashville, Tenn. During February and March 
it was stationed at Murfreesboro and Franklin. It made many 
important reconnaissances on the roads leading out of these places, 
and liad numerous skirmishes with the rebels. In February it 
was engaged, on the 18th near Milton, on the 19th at Cains- 
ville, and on the 27th near Spring Hill. On the 4th and 5th of 
March it had a severe skirmish with the enemy, imder Gens. Van- 
Dorn and Forrest, on the Columbia Pike, the regiment losing one 
killed, four wounded and one captured. From the 8th to the 12th 
it participated in an important reconnaissance, during which the 
enemy were driven across Duck river. March 25 it had a sharp 
encounter with a large force of rebels under Stearns and Forrest, 
killing and wounding a large number of the enemy, and capturing 
52 prisoners, and a number of wagons loaded with arms, 
ammunition and baggage, with a loss to the regiment of one died 
of wounds, six wounded and two missing. On the 4th of June, 
while returning to Franklin from Triune, it had a brisk skirmish, 
with a loss of two killed and three wounded. Marching to Triune 
on the Oth, it remained at that point until the advance of the army 
from Murfreesboro, when it moved forward with the chivalry di- 
vision to which it was attached. On the 23d it was engaged at 
Kover. On the 24th it drove the enemy through Middletown, and 
on the 27th charged the rebels into Slielbyville. On the 2d of 
July it aided in driving the enemy from Elk river ford, and on the 
3d from Cowan. In the early part of September the regiment was 
actively engaged in scouting among the mountains near Chatta- 
nooga and in northern Georgia. Le iving Rankin's ferry, on the 


Tennessee, October 3d, the regiment participated in the chase after 
the rebel cavalry under Gen. Wheeler, who were then engaged in 
making a raid on the comnmnications of the army. During the 
pursuit of Wheeler the regiment crossed the Cumberland moun- 
tains, marching on the 3d, 4th and 5th of October 103 miles, and 
on the 6th, 7th and 8th 82 miles, the greater portion of the dis- 
tance over rough and mountainous roads. 

Tlie 2d took part in numerous military affairs during 1864. From 
Dandridge, Dec. 24, 1863, to the battles in Alabama in Oct., 1864, 
it won well-merited honors. Of the troops forming this command, 
25 fell in battle and 57 died of disease durin«: the year. 

During the month of December, 1864, the regiment participated in 
the actions of Nashville, Richland Cr., Pulaski and feugar Cr. In 
1865 it was engaged at Pricetown Yard, Corinth, Tusccaloosa, 
Triune, Bridgeville and Talladega. The camp at Macon was 
broken u]) July 17, 1865, .and detachments of the command sent 
to occupy Perry, Thomaston, Barnsville, Forsyth and Milledge- 
ville, only two companies remaining in the garrison at Macon. 
The regiment reported at Jackson, Aug. 26, and received its dis- 

OfficerH. — Merritt H. Blackmer, of Sagiuaw, coinmissioned 2d Lieut., Sept. 3, 
18(ll; promotedlHt LieutSept. 25, 1862; resigned May 17, 18C3. 

Geo. Carter, East Saginaw, commissioned Ist Lieut., Sept. 2, 1861; Captain, 
Sept. 25, 1802; resigned Nov. 5, 1863. 

Hiram .Jenkins of East Saginaw, Sergeant Co. A, August 28, 1861; 2d Lieut., 
Dec. 26, 18<i4; Ist Lieut., July 31, 1865; was mustered out Aug. 17, 1865. 

Hoyal IL Loomis, Saginaw, Sergeant Co. A , Auff.21, 1861; 2d Lieut., March 1, 
1864; Captain, Dec. 26, 1864; was mustered out Aug. 17, 1865. 

Theo. F. Smith, East Saginaw, Sergeant Co. A., Aug. 22, 1861; 2d Lieut., Jan. 
1,1863; 1st Lieut., May 27.^1863; resigned May 4. 1864. 

Cattualt/es. — James L. Booth, killed May 7, 1862; James Ross, died at New 
Madrid March 24, 1862; John Burga, died at Farmington, Miss., July 9, 1862; 
David D. Stilf, at Triune, Tenn., June 11, 1863: Irwin C. Bartlett, at Pulaski, 
Tenn., Sept. 27, 1864; Ezekiel Lemmon, at Tuscah)osa, Ala., April 4, 1865. 

iJiHcJvciryed. — 1862 — Davis Malcom B., Hazzard Thomas, Lennan "Wm., Mc- 
Donald John H., Oliver Jerome, Parks Wm., Redson Thomas, Van Kough- 
natt Lester H., Way Thomas II. 1863— Bouraj-sa Bernard|F., Barley August, 
Cole Jonas W., Mead Jos L. 1864 — AlthouseGeo.,Anthonv Chas., Bedford J., Beyer 

Michael, Boyd Alex., Campbell Alonzo. Canlield ,Ciark V^ m., Clement Geo., 

Cole David, Davis J. W., Deman Ed., Douglass James, Fay Alfred, Fisher Wm., 
Ganes Alonzo, Gordon Thoma.^ Graves E. O., Graves Ira, Green James P., Griffin 
W. A., Grover Eben, Hoag Joseph, llarrerR. S., Higgins C. C, Ilurlbut Syl., 
Hutchinson James, Jackson Francis, Jenkins H. J., Jones J. M., Kimball E. S., 
Lansin Henry, Lemmon Ezekiel, Lockwood Henry, Loomis R. H., Love John H., 
Lyon Cliarles, Murtindale Alpheus, Peel George, Keichel U., Sovay Charles, 
Washburn Louis, Waikins Oretus. 1865 — Andrews S. E., Anthony Charles, 
Beyer Michael, Bierling Mathias, tourassaBarnhart, Cahoon Washington, ( hap- 
pel Lewis. Danning Malcolm, Davis J. W., Donley Plumley, Gordon ( hris., 
Graves E.G., Grover Eben, Uale Albert M., Higgins C.C, Hoagjos , Kimball E.S., 
Ljon Chas.,Moody Bonaparte,01iverJehiel,ParkerLeornard, Parks John S., Keichel 
I rlin, Richards John, Saphy ( harles, Sylvester F., Walker Wm., Washburn Lewis, 
Watkins Oretus, Wheeler Jehiel, Williams John IL, Williamson Martin T. 


was organized at Grand Bapids, and left for the front, under Col. 
J. K. Mizner, Nov. 28, 1861, with 1,163 rank and file. It entered 


upon field service at New Madrid, March 13, 1862. and concladed 
its first and brilliant series of military work at CoflFeeville, Dec. 5, 
1862. During the first 12 months its losses were as follows: 
Killed 7, wounded 45, died of disease 104, made prisoners 59. In 
1863 the command was prominent in almost every well-fought 
field in northern Mississippi and western Tennessee. In addition 
to the principal engagements, the regiment has participated in a 
large number of skirmishes of minor importance. In the aflPair at 
Grenada, the 3d was in the advance. It gained possession of the 
town after a sharp engagement, and immediately commenced the 
destruction of the enemy's machinery and rolling stock accumu- 
latedjat this point. Over 60 locomotives and more than 400 
cars were destroyed. At Byhalia and Wyatt's Ford the regiment 
was warmly engaged. In these actions the enemy were completely 
routed, with large loss. The 3d Cav. aided largely in driving the 
notorious rebels, Richardson, Dawson and Cushman, from West 
Tennessee, together with numerous bands of guerillas that infested 
that section, and who were destroyed or dispersed by it. From 
Nov. 1, 1862, to the close of the war, the regiment captured an 
aggregate of 1,100 prisoners, nearly 50 of whom were commissioned 
officers, making the number of 2,100 prisoners taken from the 
enemy by the 3d. During the year the regiment marched a dis- 
tance of 10,800 miles, exclusive of marches by separate companies 
and detachments. It lost 53 men by death, 33 wounded and 38 
prisoners. The service of the command in 1864 ina}' be said to 
Gate from Aug. 1, when its equipment was completed, as a veteran 
volunteer regiment. During its campaign in 1864 it lost 11 men 
in the field and 115 by disease. After the capitulation of Mobile, 
the 3d Cav. formed Maj.-Gen. Can by 's escort when he received the 
formal surrender of the rebel army under Gen. Taylor. Subse- 
quently it was attached to Sheridan's army, and remained in service 
until Feb. 15, 1866, when it left en route to Jackson for discharge. 

Officers. — Thomas Saylor, Saginaw, commissioned Captain, Sept. 7, 1861 ; Major 
July 12, 18G2; Colonel 29th Infantry, July 29, 18(>4; was mustered out Sept. 0, 1865 • 

James H. Cardy, Saginaw, entered service Sept. 21, 1861, as Sergeant of Co. M . 
He was promoted 2d Lieut., May 12, 1862; 1st Lieut., June 12, 1863; Captain 
Nov. 14, 1864; and resigned Nov. 8, 1865. 

John G. Busch, Saginaw, entered service Sept. 2, 1861; appointed Commissary 
Sergeant; promoted 2d Lieut., Feb. 24,1863; Ist Lieut, and Quartermaster, May 
24, 1864; was killed in the affair at Petersburg., V a, July 30, 1864. 

Killed.— ^icn\. Lade, at Water Valley, Misi., Dec. 8. 1862. 

Died from Disettse.— The. following died in Alabamri and Mississippi in 1862: 
John Currier, Matthew White, Chris. Dambadier, Geo Glf^eHugiel, Egbert Eldred, 
Harvey Moll, Joseph Johnson, Michael Ebbler, Nelson B. Hicks; Jackson Aldridge, 
at DuVall's Bluff, July 8, 1864; Eldridge Godfrey, at Du Vall's Bluff, Aug. 10, 
1864; James Ijovd, at Du Vall's Bluff, Aug. 24, 1864; Martin C. Bates, at San 
Antonio, Texas, Sept. 15, 1865. 

JJisrh(trf/ed.— \Sii2—Uo]meB John, Lobdell Warner J., Rhodes John G., Bichard- 
Bon Charles; 1 868 - McCullough John; 1864 — Andrews A. R., Austin Geo., Bashnell 
John, Bloedin Edward, Bushel L, Decker Wm , Finchart James, Flood R. A., Gable 

Henry, Hitchcock Amos D., Huss Herman, Johnson , Krick Adam, Krogman 

F., Manser F., Miller A. W., Miller R. A., Monaghan Francis, Patterson S. J., Pattie 
C. D., Phy Nelson, Rank John, Rhodes S., Rupprecht I., Schnettler F., Bmitzer J. 
M., Swarthout C. M.: 1865— Andrews A. R., Armsbruster Wm., Austin Geo., Backer 


F., Beron C. A., Bninning Oerrard, Buell James, Curtis Lazelle, Dean Jason. Decker 
Wm, Ebling John, Flood Reuben A., Fox H. B., Fritz Godfried, Green Dennis, Hal- 
stead Milo, Hicks Daniel C, Homer L. L., Kelly F., Kilboum John, Liscomb 
Rlnald, Lockhman Aug., Londback John, Marvin Henrv, McCullcugh John, McDon- 
nell Michael, Merrick Henry V., Miller Arnold W., Miller Oscar, Miller Reul)en A., 
Monaghan Frank, Nafus William F., Nessell G., Patterson R. F, Patterson S. J., 
Pearston James T., Peck Germain, Phole F. W., Phv Nelson, Ponder John, Rhodes 
Sherman A., Schmitzger J., Schmitzger J. M., Sheflfer James, Smith C. G., Smith 
G. W., Stacey John, Steams C. M., Tanner Joseph, Templar Allen, Vandermark A. 
S., Winans John, Winkley Theo., Wisson James, Wright C. P. 


was organized at Detroit July 21, 1862, under Col. R. H. G. 
Minty. The command comprised 1,233 men and officers, fully 
equipped as a cavalry regiment, and left for Louisville Sept. 26. 
For the ensuing three years it was actively engaged in various ser- 
vices, always with honor to themselves. It participated in eight 
important battles and more than a hundred skirmisnes. The regi- 
ment was mustered out at I^ashville, July 1, aiid July 10 it re- 
ported at Detroit for discharge. 

Killed. — James Stark, at Kingston, Ga., Mav 13, 1864; John McMahon, at Kings- 
ton, May 15, 1864. 

DiBcliarged. — 1865— Austin Hiram, Burns James H , Card Jos., Chase Henry, 
Clayton Edwin, Drisco Darius, Edwards I). H., Falley Thomas, Field Gilbert, Fur- 

feson Rob., Hall Geo., Herrick Aug., Hubbard Ben , Hughes C. D., King Geo C, 
lOwe John, Lucas Wm., North A., Read Orville, Powell Charles, Powell Peter, 
Rielly Joseph, Robinson J. W., Smith Cornelius, Snyder Douglas, Spaulding 
Cliarles, Stagg George, Taylor Perry, Underwood Sam., Wright Fraik. 


was organized under Col. J. T. Copeland,in August, 1862, and left 
for Washington Dec. 4. The command was engaged in important 
services during the war, and was generally successful in its 
attempts. Its history is interesting, but would be out of place 
when so few men from Saginaw were in the regiment. 

KilUd. — Louis Derwin, at Winchester, Va., Sept. 1864; Alphonso Chant, at Sa 
lem, Va., Oct. 23, 1804; Corwin Kenney died at Andersonville, Nov. 14, 1864. 
DUcharged. — George Geigrich and A. S. Aldrich in 1805. 


was organized at Grand Rapids by Hon. F. AV. Kellogg, and under 
Col. Gray George proceeded to Washington, Dec. 10, 1862. 

During the year 1863 this command gained some distinction 
while attached to the army of the Potomac. Thirty-six men fell 
in the action, 45 died of disease, 75 were made prisoners, and 65 
were missing. 

The work of the 6th was entered upon for the year 1864, Feb. 
28, when it went forward with the raiders under Gen. Kilpatrick. 
In June it participated in the series of magnificent movements 
under Gen. Sheridan, and served as his escort in the ride after 


Mosby's rebel guerillas. It lost in battle 55 ftien, by disease 44, 
and 5 missing. The 6th served in the same actions as the 5th, 
beginning at Ilanover, Va., June 30, 1863, and concluding a bril- 
liant service at the Appomattox Ct. House, April 9, 1865. It was 
mustered out at Leavenworth, Kan., Nov. 24, 1865, and arrived at 
Jackson for discharge on the 30th of the same month. 

Officerft. — William J. Driggs, of East Saginaw, mustered into service Aug. 29, 
18C2,as Corporal Co. L; trnnsferred to Co. C, 7th Cav., Nov. 12, 1862; commissioned 
1st Lieut. Sharpshooters, Julv 22, 1803. and discharged on account of disabilitv 
July 0,1864; entered the U/S. army as 2d Lieut., Feb. 23, 1800; promoted 1st 
Lieut., Feb. 28, 1806, and was mustered out Jan. 30, 1871. 

Died of DiHcise.—'SaiXx B. tlinkley, at Richmond, Xov. 2, 1803; A. F. Davis, at 
Annaix)lis, March 15, 1864 ; Joseph Stevenson, at Annapolis, April 2, 1864 ; lieuben 
G. Parmelia, at Baltimore, March 20, 1805. 

DhcJuiryed — .18<)5 — Bender John, Blaney Bi'ock, Broderick Saginaw, Confer 
Erastus, Darby John P., Drigg-) \V J., Jones Robt., Kitridge Aaron, MacLarcn A. 
A, Moore R^, ParmeUa O A., Rapelye Dan., Smith Geo, Smith Wm , Stoltz 
Thomas, Voorhees Wm. M. 


This recjiment entered the field daring the year 1863, two bat- 
talions leaving Grand Rapids for Washington Feb. 20, and the re- 
maining companies joining them in May. The number who died 
in action during the year was 30; of disease, 50; prisoners, 75; 
wounded, 62, and missing, 46. In February, 1864, the command 
moved forward under Gen. Kilpatrick. In May it crossed the 
Rapidan with the army of the Potomac, and again served under 
Gen. Sheridan. At Cedar creek, Oct. 19, it performed some bril- 
liant deeds, capturing 100 prisoners in one charge. Its losses dur- 
ing the year are stated to be 31 killed, 128 wounded, and 37 died of 
disease. It was in the field before the Fifth and Sixth, and remained 
there after them. 

The command was mustered out at Fort Leavenworth, and were 
compelled to pay $25 each for transport to Michigan. It arrived at 
Jackson, Dec. 20, and was discharged on Christmas day, 1865. The 
money which the troops paid the railroads was subsequently re- 

Officen- Lewis Carson, East Saginaw, entered service Aug. 26, 1SG2, as Ser- 
geant of Co. G , Ttli Cavalry. He was promoted 1st Lieut., Oct. 14, 18G3, and re- 
signed June 2G, 1865. 

>Vm. H. Clipperlon, East Saginaw, commissioned Captain, June 11, 1863; 
transferred to 1st Vet. Cav., Nov. 17, 1^65; was mustered out March 10, 186(J. 

Kolla Glover, Buena Vista, entered service as Sergeant Co. C, Aug. 29, 1862; 
promoted 1st Lieut., June 13, 1803; Captain, Jan. 7, 18f»5; transferred to Ist Mich. 
Cav., Nov. IT, 186."), and mustered out, March 10, 1S60. 

Wm. Jackson, of East Sai^inaw, Sergeant- Major, April 18, 1863 ; 2d Lieut, June 
26, 18(15; mustered out as i5. :M. , Dec. 15, 1865. 

Joseph L. Mead, EasfSagiuaw, commissioned Lieut., June 11,1863; died of 
woimds received, Aug. 29, 1864. 

Robert Sproul, Birch Run, commissioned Lieut, Oct 15, 1862; Captain, 
June 13, 1863; wounded at Kelly's Ford, Sept. 16, 1863; promoted Major, May 
24, 1865; transferred to 1st Mich. Cav., Nov. 17, 186»>; was mustered out, March 
10, 1860. 

Bradley M. Thompson, E ist Siginaw, commissioned Captain, Oct 15, J862; re- 
signed, July 31, 1«64. He was appointed paymaster U. 8. Volunteers, July 2, 


1864, and was breveted Lieut.-Col. U. S. Vols , March 18, 1865, for distinguishec 

Casualties. — Ben Church died at Gettysburg July 3, 1863 ; Thomas Motley diet 
at Gettysburpr, July 3, 1808; Charles Smith died at Gettysburg, July 3, 1868; E. R 
Wright died at Aunapolis, Nov. 24,1863; H. C. Bayard died at Washington, Jan. 7 
1864 ; John Smith died at Washington, Sept 24, 1864; G. M. Gifford died at Wasb 
ingtou, March 19, 1864; David H. Pomeroy killed at Tumble Kiver, June 9, 1865 ; Mau 
rice Kelcher died in prison at Richmond, March 30, 1864; B. F. Fredenburg die< 
in Anderson ville prison, Nov. 1, 1864; John Hill was killed near Fort Leavenworth 
Kan., June 24, 1865; Joseph Parmalee died in Andersonville, July 19, 1864; Frank 
lin Robinson died at Fort Leavenworth, Kan., June 10, 1865 ; Geo. A. Terry a 
Salisbury, S.C, Jan. 13, 1805; Daniel Cameron, Thomas D. Thompson, Charles D 
Rollin died while in rebel prisons; Albert Green died at Richmond, Jan. 23, 1864 
Al()n20 H. Iloakes, at Annapolis, Md., Dec. 3, 1804; David Seil, at Andersonville 

Tniiuferred and Discharfjed. — 1804 — (Jlavan Maurice, Gregory A. P., Hasset 
Marion, Rose Phillip A., Schaller Geo., Wallenwine Wm.. Wilcox Darwin. 1865- 
Ahcren Martin, Barbarin Geo. F., Barnes Albert, Bedell B, (>., Bemley H., Bien 
I)., Call Henry, Cameron W. J., Care T. S., Carson James, Chase Sabin, Cook J 
IL, Con y, E. II., Dcyo G. W., Dillabaugh Daniel, Duncan F., Farnsworth R. K. 
Ferris J., Finnell Isadore, Gage Wm. (t., Gradt Francis, Gradt L. W., Griffin B. 
Gross Peter, Gallagher Timothy B.,|nall Benj., Harrington John, Hays F. E., 
Houghtaling Charles, Hunter W. W., Jackson Wm., Jarvey Julius, Johnson Ed. 
Killam Sam., Kimble Wm., LeDuc Ed., Lockney T., Long John, Luther C. L. 
Markham Wm., Marsh C, McCracken Wm., McPherson James, Menthou Geo 
Morton R., O'Brien James, Payne Jos.. Perkins Sam., Perry O. H., Rich Edwin 
Rudell Bryant, Ryan Thomas, Sawtell Vincent, Seymour Henry, Smith C. A., Smitl 
John, Sharp J. L., Terry J. B., Tharritt Joshua, 'I'ozer Philder, Trombley Alexan 
der, Twitchell Charles, Van Daniels E., Waters Michael, West J. C, Zibble Albert 


was organized at Mount Clemens, and entered the field in Kentucky 
during the month of May, 1863, having on its rolls the namei 
of 1,117 ofiicers and men. Leaving Covington June 1, it wen 
immediately into active service. Between that date and Angus 
10, it was on the route 52 days, and during this period marchec 
1,242 miles, exc usive of 1,622 miles marched by detachments o 
the regiment, while scouting, etc. It participated in skirmishes oi 
the Triplett, Kentucky and Salt rivers, and at Lebanon, Ky., anc 
also in the pursuit of the rebel cavalry of Gen. John H. Morgan 
when he made his noted raid through Kentucky, Indiana anc 
Ohio. The regiment was engaged for 16 days in the latte; 
movement, overtaking Morgan at Buffington island, Ohio, Jub 
19, when it immediately attacked his forces, capturing 217 mei 
and killing and wounding a large number, with a loss to the regi 
ment of only two wounded. Twice the regiment marched, during 
the chase after Morgan, 48 hours with feed for man or horse onb 
twice on each occasion, and marched at one time 24 hours withou 
stopping to feed or rest but once. From BntBington island th( 
regiment returned to Kentucky, and during the month of Angus 
engaged in the advance into East Tennessee, having in the mean 
time participated in the pursuit of Scott's rebel cavalry, skirmish 
ing with them from Lexington to Stanford, Ky. At Calhoun, Tenn. 
the brigade to which the 8th was attached, was attacked by a foro 
estimated at 15,000, under Generals Forrest and Wheeler. After j 
sharp engagement with some loss, the command retreated to Athens 


where it endeavored to check the rebel pursuit, in which it was 
temporarily successful, but was compelled finally to fall back to 
Loudon. In actions at Calhoun and Athens, Sept. 26 and 27, the 
regiment lost 43 killed, wounded and missing. Oct. 26, while on 
a reconnaissance from London, it became engaged in a severe action, 
losing 9 in wounded. Oct. 28 it was in camp at Lenoir, Teim. 
From June 1, when the regiment left Covington, Ky., to Oct. 8, 
including marches of detachments, it marched 2,866 miles, and 
during the same time captured 574 prisoners and 652 horses, with 
a large amount of stores and equipments. The command lost one 
man Killed, 57 prisoners, 108 deserters and 48 who died of wounds 
or disease during the year. In 1864 the 8th lost 13 killed and 72 
who died of disease. It fought on various fields during the first 
half year, and added more laurels to its name in the Georgia cam- 

Died of Disease. — Anioine Ricalli, at Lexington, Ky., Apr. 7, 1864; Alexander 
Oliver, at Andersonville Apr. 12, 1804; Joshua Titus, at Camp Nelson, July 25, 
18(54; Silas "Windless, at Andersonville, Dec. 18, 1864; Chris. Jackson, at AJnder- 
sonville, Jan. 29, 1865; Welster Marsh, a( Andersonville, Nov. 20, 1865. 

/?/«r/4ar<7^rf.— 1865— Coldwell Arthur E., Cowell Wm., Guillotte Peter, Hemis 
Peter, Le Gault Albert, Marsh Geo. M., Murray Charles, Patton L., Heimer Carl. 


began its organization in the fall of 1862, at Coldwater; and in 
May, 1863, left that rendezvous for Kentucky, leaving two com- 
panies to follow, on their completion. The muster-in rolls of the 
regiment contain 1,073 names. Proceeding to Hickman's 
bridge, it was ordered, June 12, in pursuit of Everett's guerrillas, 
who were overtaken at Triplett's bridge, routed, and a number of 
them captured. On the 4:th of July, the regiment joined in the 
pursuit of the forces of Gen. John ll. Morgan, who were at this 
time engaged in making their raid toward Ohio and Indiana. The 
regiment followed Morgan through Kentucky, and skirmished 
vith his rear guard at Lebanon. A detachment of the regiment, 
wiiile on the pursuit, captured a lieut. colonel and 51 prisoners. 
Arriving on the 12th, at nestport, Kv., the regiment was divided. 
Part, embarking with a section of Battery L, 1st Mich. Artillery, 
landed at Cincinnati, joined the forces of Gen. Hobson, overtook 
and engaged Morgan's forces at ButKngton's island, on the 19th, 
and cai)tured 500 prisoners, 3 pieces of artillery, and a large num- 
ber of arms; over 2,600 prisoners being taken by the Union forces. 
Another detachment, with a section of the same battery, embark- 
ing at Lawrenceburg, Ky., on the 14th, landed at Portsmouth, 
Ohio, pursued the enemy in the direction of Chester, overtaking 
them and capturing prisoners. Joining the forces of Gen. Shackle- 
ford, at BuHington island, this detachment marched to Eight- 
Mile island, and engaged the enemy. Over 1,000 prisoners were 
here ca]>tured. The remaining portion of the regiment and battery 
proceeded to Covington, Ky., and was joined by two companies 
which had started with another detachment. Receiving orders on 


the 24th, to join in the pursuit of the portion of Morgan's cavalry 
that had escaped, this detachment proceeded by cars to Mingo 
Junction, on tlie Ohio river, thence marched to LaGrange and 
Steubenville, overtaking Morgan near Steubenville, July 25. 
The command skirmished with his forces, driving him during the 
night, and on the following morning succeeded in pressing Wm 
into an engagement, whicli resulted after a severe fight, m the 
complete rout of his forces, with a loss of 23 killed, 44 wounded, 
and 305 prisoners. Morgan, flying with the remnant of his troops, 
was then chased, until,meeting with the forces under Gen. Shaclcle- 
ford, he surrendered. The regiment having again been united 
at Covington, proceeded to Hickman's bridge, and participated in 
the expedition of Gen. Burnside into East Tennessee, arriving at 
Knoxville, Se})t. 3. From Knoxville it proceeded to Cumber- 
land gap. On the 7th, a detachment of the regiment drove in 
the rebel pickets, entered the gap, and burned a large mill, on 
which the enemy depended to a great extent for subsistence. On 
the 8th, the rebels, 2,500 strong, with 14 cannon, surrendered to 
the Union forces. Subsequently the regiment was engaged at 
Carter's Station, September 22; ZoUicotfer, September 24; Blue 
Springs, October 5 aud 10, and Raytown October 11. Since 
it arrived at Covington, Ky., in May, 1862, the regiment marched 
nearly 3,000 miles, exclusive of marches by detachments wliile 
scouting and foraging. 

It lost 4 men killed, 18 died of disease, 11 were lost, and 9 were 
missing in action. The worst feature in connection with the 
organization is that during the year 1803 no less than 227 deser- 
tions were reported. During the year 1864 the losses were 14 killed, 
iiO died of disease, and 20 missing. Its services in Tennessee, Ken- 
tucky, aud Georgia were replete with good results. 

The regiment entered on service at Triplett's bridge, Ky., June 
19, 1863, and completed its splendid labors round rulaski Sept. 
22, 1865, when it was mustered out. Returning to Jackson Sept. 
28, it was discharged. 

Cnsualtifs. — Major T. Lockwood fell at Stone Mountain, Oct. 2, 1864; Wm. 
Tindlater fell at Stone Mountain, Sept. 13, 1864; Robert Fischer died at Marietta, 
Oct. y, 1864; John R. Dees died at Atlanta, Oct. 24, 1864. 

Discliarued. — 1865 — Fisher James, Fisher John, Gruat Peter, Hammer Geo., 
Huntley Albert, Jackson John, Lamb Henry, Lamb Paul, Lockwood Geo. N., New- 
man Mark, Sampson J., Shawbeissa J., Sims W. H., Smith John, Spencer Maurice, 
William W. P. 


was raised at Grand Rapids in September, 1863, and, under Col. 
Thaddeus Foote, left for Lexington Dec. 1, 1863, with a force of 
912 men and officers. It here encamped nntil Jan. 25, 1864, 
when it moved to Burnside Point. April 26 the regiment was 
ordered to proceed thence to Carter's Station, and destroy the rail- 
road bridge over the Watauga river. Keaching Carter's Station on 
the 25th, after a severe engagement, it drove the enemy from a 


strong position occupied by them,' but the rebels beinff posted in 
heavy force in fortifications on the opposite bank of the river, it 
was impossible to destroy the bridge without great loss of life, and 
the regiment was directed to retire. The casualties in this engage- 
ment were 3 killed, 8 wounded, aiid 3 missing. May 28, 160 of 
the regiment engaged in a reconnaissance, proceeding to Bull's gap 
and Greenville. Encountering a force of the enemy, the battalion 
engaged and routed them with severe loss, killing and wounding a 
large number, and capturing 26 prisoners and a number of horses 
and mules. July 23, the regiment took part in an engagement 
with a rebel brigade at Blue Springs, and after a sharp tight suc- 
ceeded in forcing the enemy from a strong position and in driving 
them in confusion through Greenville. The casualties of the regi- 
ment were 6 wounded, 2 of whom died of their wounds. During 
its absence on this expedition, on the 24th, the detachment, num- 
bering 60 men, left in garrison at Strawberry Plains, with about 
150 from other commands, were attacked by the rebel cavalry corps 
under Wheeler, numbering from 6,000 to 8,000 men, with 9 pieces 
of artillery. The Union troops made a successful defense against 
this force, and thus saved the post from capture and the great rail- 
road bridge from destruction. Eight men held the ford for three 
hours, and prevented a rebel brigade from crossing, and surrendered 
only after ttiey were surrounded. Three men were wounded during 
the day. On the same day (24th) the detachment left at Knoxville 
charged a rebel regiment (11th Texas) near Flat creek bridge, and 
routed it, capturing its colonel and other prisoners, but coming 
suddenly on one of the enemy's cavalry divisions in line of battle, 
it retired. The enemy pursued, and succeeded in recapturing their 
men, and in taking a number of prisoners from the detachment. 
On the 4th of September the regiment participated in the sur- 

firising and routing of Gen. John II. Morgan's forces at Greenville, 
n this engagement Gen. Morgan was killed and a large number of 
his men captured, among whom were Morgan's staff. On the 30th 
of September the regiment assisted in driving the enemy from 
their position at Carter's Station. The command participated in 
56 general and minor actions during its service. It reported at 
Jackson for discharge, Nov. 15, 1865. 

Died of Disease— Geo. Smith, at Gamp Nelson, Jan. 24, 1804: Curtis E. Whit- 
man, at KnoxviUe, April 13, 1864; L. H. Dunne, at Camp Nelson, March 14, 1865 

Dinrhiir fieri. — 1865— Jos. Alien, W. M. Blackman, D. H. Chapman, W. Crane» 
J. C. Davison, H. H; Goodrich, H. Hewitt, Jacob Ripley, C. Tertz, Geo. I. 


of which three companies were raised in Barry, Calhoun, Eaton, 
and Jackson, was organized in August, 1861. 

The command was mustered out, after a brilliant service, Sept. 
21, 1865. 

CMfcw.—Lucien B. Potter, Maple Grove, commissioned 3d Lieut, Ck). I, July 
2, 1862 ; afterward Ist Lieut, of the same Co. 



Theodore Sanderson died at Jeffersonville, Ind., Jan. 23, 1866. Denis Gold- 
wood, Ferdinand Lebsch, James G. Sanderson, Willis W. Dibble, A. Griffin, Hiram 
Weaien, Joseph Gra-iswiser, Frei Klais and Conrad Schwartz, were discharged 
August, 1805. Sam. Parker, of the Thirteenth Battery, mustered out July 1, 1865, 
with the Battery. 

Dwiglit O. Booth, of the 2d Batterv, was disabled, and discharged April 19, 


Immediately succeeding the commencement of hostilities the 
ladies of the county became tlioroughly imbued with a sense of 
patriotism, formed a society to aid the sick and wounded soldiers 
of tlie armies, and so organized that the society was made very 

The citizens, whose militarv davs were over, acted well their 
part. Cooperatin<j with the State Military Board, they rendered 
most important aid to the Republic. 

The soldiers' history is one of duty done. The troops of Sagi- 
naw, attached to the regiments sent forward from this iState, were 
soldiers in the full acceptation of the term. When they are con- 
sidered, with what pricie may tlioir relatives and fellow citizens 
look ])ack totlie ])ast, wlien such a number of gallant hearts went 
forth to offer themselves ui)on the altars of patriotism, to 
preserve the Republic. 

The most terrible fate tlireatened the truest federalization upon 
the earth. A visible enemy from within, aided by unnumbered 
enemies of liberty from without, conspired to destroy all that 
which the Revolution won. The soldiers who saved the Republic 
must live at least in memory. Let the people of the present and 
the future follow in the tracks of their illustrious dead, and thus 
transmit, from generation to generation, a land of illimitable 
possibilities, a patriotism incorrui)tible, a government at once 
strong and just, a set of public ])rinciples honorable to the age, 
that so it may offer happiness to its own citizens and teach the 
outside world the lesson of freedom. 


The soldiers and sailors of Saginaw county organized a Union 
with Capt. C. D. Little, President; Capt. F. Ackley, First V. P.; 
Capt. Rev. Theodore Nelson, Second V . P. ; Capt. A. Trask, Sec- 
retary; Major N. S Wood, Treasurer. The corresponding mem- 
bers for the townships and wards of the city were appointed as 

Town6hip9 — St. Charles, Major Stimpson; Bryant, Geo. Ward ; Clie^nning. D. W. 
Damon; Fremont, 8. B. Andrews; Maple Grove, Wm. Denean; Tittabawassee, 
Geo. Barbour ; Lakefleld. B. Nesserdew ; Kochville, John Avenaw ; Jamestown, 
Edwin Dunbar; Taymouth, N. McNally; Blumfleld, Barden ; Thomastown, Chas. 
Graham; Brady, A. W. Tucker, sr.; Carrollton, D. Beard; Zilwaukee, R. Mc- 
Donald ; Birch Run, Duane Osborne . Saginaw, Lucius Lacy. 


Saginaw Cttj/— First Ward, Capt . A. T. Bliss; Second Ward, Capt E. C. Turner; 
Third Ward, Capt. Wm. Reins; Fourth Ward, Capt. Henry Miller; Fifth Ward, 
Capt. E. St. John ; Sixth Ward, Lieu. O . T. Hosier. 

Bast Saginaw — First Ward, Capt. D. D. Keeler; Second Ward, L. C. Stoors; 
Third Ward, W. G. Gage; Fourth Wartl, Col. Lockley; Fifth Ward, F. A 
Ashley; Sixth Ward, W. L. Goulding; Seventh Ward, Dr. Rouse; Eighth Ward, 
Matt. Cranage. 

The committee on plan of organization comprised Capt. Shaw, 
Major Wood, Capt. Ackley, Capt. Stimpson, Sergeant JDumond. 

Major Wood, Major Stimpson and O. W. Damon, appointed a 
committee on constitution and bv-laws, reported a constitution 
with tlie foil wing preamble: '' This society shall be known as 
the Soldiers' and Sailors' Union of Saginaw County, and all sol- 
diers or sailors, now or hereafter residents of said county, are con- 
stituted members thereof, and the object of the society shall be 
the securing of closer social intercourse, and the promotion of the 
best interest of its members." This was adopted. 

Previous to organization 60 men, who participated in the 
war for the Union, assembled around the camp fires on the Fair 
Grounds, Saginaw City, and whiled away a pleasant time, char- 
acterized by a field dinner, bugle calls, etc. The meeting to or- 
ganize the union succeeded. It was presided over by Hon. D. 
H. Jerome with Capt C. D. Little, secretary. 


was held Sept. 15, 16 and 17, 1880. It was in every respect a 
thorough reunion of soldiers who had been in the field, endured 
all the hardships of war, and now wished to remind themselves of 
the ordeal through wliich they passed in their successful defense 
of the Union. The annual meeting was held on the third day of 
the reunion. Cai)t. Albert Trask was elected President; Charles 
F. Shaw, First V. P. ;E. A. Steinson, Second Y. P.; Rielly Jones, 
Secretary; Dr. House, Treasurer and Surgeon; Cliarles D. Little, 
Orator. Capt. A. L. Bingham, Capt. Henry Miller and Lieut. O. 
T. Mosier were appointed a committee to take charge of the re- 
union of ISSl, which was ordered to be held at Saginaw City, in 
the second week in October. This happy meeting closed with a 
sham battle or skirmish between the V eterans and the East Sag- 
inaw Kifies, in which the former were defeated. 

With the presence of so many veterans in tlie county, and large 
number of young men among the j)eople, it is a matter of surprise 
to learn that only a few military companies are in actual existence. 
With the amendment of the military code of Michigan, there is 
every reason to hope lor an increase in the number of military or- 
ganizations here. The new regulation provides for a division and 
a brigade organization; fixes the pay of all commissioned oflScers 
while performing any duty under orders at the rate allowed to 
officers of a like rank in the regular army; non-commissioned 
ofiicers on duty, $1.75 per diem, and privates $1.25; provides for 
annual encampments, and fixes the pay at the same rate as for 


other duties, with an addition of 75 cents per day for subsistence. 
A temperance provision is also inserted, to the effect that any 
officer or enlisted man guilty of dmnkenuess shall forfeit all the pay 
whicli would bo coming to him for the entire tour of encamp- 
ment. With such a code as this, there should not be a township 
of this county witliout a uniformed company. 



The history of the rise of tliis industry throughout the Valley of 
the Saginaw must be as interesting as the trade itself is 
magnificent in its proportions. Never, perhaps, have the forests 
of any land approached the pine woods oi Northeastern Michigan 
in extent or quality; never nave they afforded such a field for the 
lumberman's enterprise, and never yet have so many advantages 
been conferred, directly, upon a single district as those conferred 
by them upon this region, xhe great industry may be said to have 
been inaugurated in 1834, when the first saw-mill in the Valley 
was erected in Saginaw City by Harvey Williams, for the purpose 
of supplying the early settlers with building materials, as the 
manufacture and shipment of lumber as a commodity of commerce 
from the Saginaw river had not at that time been tliought of. 
Ephraim S. Williams joined ''Uncle" Ilarvey in this enterprise 
immediately after the latter erected the building and put in the 
machinery. It is stated that this milling concern was located 
south of the city mills, where the salt blocks of the Williams 
Brothers are located. The machinery was manufactured at Detroit 
by Ilarvey Williams, and was sufficient to run one muleysaw, and 
the single run of stone for custom grinding. This latter append- 
age of tlie mill was used to crack corn for the inhabitants : wheat 
was seldom or never introduced. The fly wheel was the same 
used on the old steamer "Superior," the second steamboaton the 
lakes, about the year 1820. It was 11 feet in diameter, and in the 
steamer was fixed on a shaft distinct from the main shaft, and was 
geared to make three revolutions to each revolution of the paddle 
wheels. This large wheel and other machinery was brought over- 
land from Detroit in 1834, by Mr. Williams. The difficulties at- 
tendant on the journey may be conceived from the fact that the 
sleighs, on which the machinery was loaded, were drawn through 
the Clinton river five times in a distance of nine miles. The first 
lumber ever manufactured in Saginaw Valley was cut at the Wil- 
liams mill, solely for home consumption, for at that time the idea 
of manufacturhig pine lumber for export was but slightly, if to any 
extent, entertained. Mr. Bennett owned the mill a year or so, 
and afterward the property again came into the hands of E. S. & 
G. D. Williams, who held it until it was burned, July 4, 1854. 
This was the pioneer mill and pioneer property of the Valley. 






During the year 1836 another mill was built nearly opposit 
Saginaw City, known as the " Emerson Mill," considered at that 
period as a model of the kind, having a capacity of 3,000,000 feet, 
and the first lumber shipment was made from this mill in 1836. It 
formed a building 55x120 feet, containing three upright saws, one 
butting saw, one edging table, one engine of 75-horse power, three 
boilers, each 18 feet long by 42 inches in diameter. This concern 
was perhaps the largest of the kind in the State. It closed down 
in 1856, two years after the burning of its predecessor. After 1836 
some attention began to be paid to the manufacture of lumber, but 
the panic that followed 1836 produced a lethargy that existed for 
some years, and it was not until 1849 that the business began to 
brighten up, and several mills were erected. In 1854 there were 
23 mills on the Saginaw river, with a capacity for 60,000,000 feet. 
The mills were of the cheaper class, the average cut being not over 
3,000,000 feet. In 1857 there were 44 mills in operation on the 
Saginaw river, manufacturing that year 113,700,000 feet of lumber. 
In 1867 there were 82 mills in operation, manufacturing that year 
423,963,190 feet of lumber. In 1870 there were 83 mills operated, 
the cut that year aggregating 576,726,600 feet, increased to 923,- 
000,000 feet in 1880. Notwithstanding the financial crisis of 
1836-'7 the pioneers labored on, until in 1849 they beheld the re- 
turn of prosperous times. Henceforth they were destined to 
tender a daily welcome to men of enterprise. The farmer as well 
as the lumberman was received warmly. The advent of labor 
and capital to the Valley, as witnessed 30 years ago, is thus de- 

" There is scarcely a day when there are not more or less parties 
here from the Eastern cities, negotiating for mill sites, or purchas- 
ing pine lands, and the steady, rapid influx and tendency of capital 
now setting in this direction, while it is gratifying and exhilarating 
to those wno have stood by the country in its days of poverty and 
destitution, leads naturally to the inquiry, how long tliis fruitful 
and prolific resource of the present growth and prosperity of Sagi- 
naw, unprecedented as it is, and unnoticed and little understood at 
large through the State, is like to continue in view of the constant 
and immense drain upon it. This resource is derived chiefly from 
the tributaries of the Saginaw river, there being little or no pine 
upon the river proper, except to a limited extent, and of an inferior 
character, near to lower Saginaw. The Cass river, which empties 
into the Saginaw about two miles above Saginaw City, together 
with the tributaries making into it, passes through a belt of pine 
100 miles in length, and varying in width from one and a 
half to ten miles. 

" The logs when cut are hauled up to the banks of the small 
streams, and there await a high stage of water to be floated into the 
mainstream. These logs are not rafted, but are floated in bodies 


WO or three thousand and are boomed and chained together 

.ly when they reach the main river, thus materially saving ex- 
jense. It is a low estimate to say that each 80-acre lot of this 
^ almost endless tract of pine will yield 400,000 feet, and from this 
estimate, taking the dimensions of the tract, some guess may be 
made as to how long it will require to exhaust the pine. But Cass 
river is not the only resource ot pine, neither is it the largest. The 
Tittabawassee river, and the Chippewa, Pine and Tobacco rivers, 
which empty into it, are all heavily clothed with the finest quality 
of pine. The aggregate length of the pine tract upon the main 
stream and the branches is 80 miles, and the width about five 
miles. There are more trees to the acre upon the Tittabawassee 
than upon the Cass, but the trees are not so large and do not pro- 
duce as much clear lumber as the former, but the quality of the 
lower grades is better. There is a large tractof pine land upon the 
Bad river (a stream which empties into the Shiawassee) 25 miles 
in length and from one to two miles in breadth. The quality is 
quite equal to that upon Cass river. 

" The Flint river and its tributaries has at least 100 miles 
in length of pine, lyin^ in Saginaw, Genesee and Lapeer counties, 
with an average widtli rather greater than upon the Cass river. 
Though a very large portion of the pine upon this stream is of ex- 
cellent quality, being reduced by inferior kinds, it is not quite as 
high as that upon the Cass. 

"Taking the aggregate of these tracts, and reducing them to 
acres, and allowing the yield to be 5,000 feet to the acre, and at 
the rate of consumption of 100,000,000 per annum, it will yield a 
supply for upward of 39 years, from pine alone, aside from which 
the amount of oak timber is endless, together with large amounts 
of black walnut and white-wood, all of which will bear transporta- 

"There is now on hand, piled up, upon the docks, and n»ady for 
shipment at theopening of navigation upon the Saginaw river, 11,- 
000,000 feet of lumber of all qualities, averaging one-third of the 
first qualitiy, clear-stufi^ lumber, at an average value of $10, making 
in all $110,000. 

"The sawing season commences with the breaking up of the ice 
about March 20, and continues until the river closes again about 
the middle of December, making a season of about nine months. 

"The complement of hands for a * single mill,' as it is called, 
driving the upright, one siding, and one edging and butting 
saw, is seven men for 12 hours, or 14 men ofi^ and on, 
where the mill runs night and day. The wages of these hands 
average a $1 per day, the head sawyer receiving $30, the engineer 
$40, and the sawyers and lumber pilers $20 per month, with board. 
A day's work is 12 hours. 

" The ' single mill,' as it is called, is looked upon by lumbermen 
as the most economical and proficablc,for this reason, among others : 
that in case of a breakdown or derangement of the engine, only the 


time of half the number of hands is lost to the miller that would be 
in case of a double mill." 


The following brief sketches of the various mills in the Valley, 
clipped from a paper published in 1853, give an excellent idea of 
the extent of the milling business and refers to the enterprising 
men who began the development of the great lumber interest of 
this region: 

The first mill on the east side of the river is F. Millard's, which 
has two upright saws, one siding and flooring saw, and one edging 
and butting saw, and cut last season 3,000,000 feet of lumber. 

Gardner D. Williams' two mills are at Saginaw City, which is on 
the west bank of the river. The older of these mills drives one 
upright and one siding saw, with one buzz saw. The new mill 
which was finished last season, about Aug. 1, has one upright, ong 
siding saw three feet diameter, with four buzz saws. They cut last 
season 3,000,000 feet of lumber. 

Emerson's mill, which was built in 1836, by Harvey Williams, 
Norman Little and others, on the east side of Saginaw river, at 
Buena Vista as Mr. Emerson has named it, has three upright, one 
siding saw, and two butting and edging saws, and cut last season 
between 3,000,000 and 4,000,000 feet of lumber. 

John Gallagher's mill, half a mile below Emerson's, has one up- 
right, one siding and one buzz saw, and cut last season about 
1,500,000 feet. 

Garrison & Bristol's mill, which is the only one now in motion, 
was built by Little & Hoyt 80 rods below the last named, has two 
upright saws, one siding and one buzz saw, and one planing 
machine; it cut last season 1,500,000 teet of lumber. 

J. M. Edmonds' mill, half a mile below the last named, has one 
upright and one circular saw, and cut last year about 1,000,000. 

Westervelt^s mill is at Carrollton, on the site of Chapin and An- 
drews', which was burned down last summer, together with the 
docks and 4,000,000 feet of lumber. The new mill has two upright 
saws, one 3 feet siding saw and four buzz saws. 

T. Whitney's new mill, which is now taking in the machinery, is 
on the west side of the river, below Saginaw City, and nearly oppo- 
site E^ist Saginaw. It will run one upright, one 3-feet siding and 
four circular saws. 

Jeffrey's mill, which will start work when spring opens, is 80 
rods below Whitney's and is to run two upright saws. 

D. Johnson's mill at Zilwankee, which is five miles down the 
river, on the west bank, and is upon a wholly different plan from 
the foregoing, having a gang of 25 saws, in one frame, set 
to cut lumber of all widths, passing through the log at once, and 
cutting up into inch, 1^ inches two and three-inch, or other 
dimensions, with one operation. There is no gigging back, bat aa 


fast as tlie log is worked through, another comes up to the saws, 
the log having first been sided or slabbed off by an upright saw. 
Aside from the gang saws, this mill drives two upright and six 
buzz saws. The cost of this mill was $40,000, and it cut last sea- 
son from 6,000,000 to 7,000,000 feet of lumber. 

D. Johnson's mill, which was built by Shephard, is below the 
former and has two upright and two buzz saws. 

Fisher & Johnson's mill, which was built by Purmont, has one 
upright and one buzz saw. 

D, Johnson has still another mill, at Zilwaukee, devoted wholly 
to making lath from the offal of the other mills. 

Water's mill is near Portsmouth, about 12 miles below East 
Saginaw, on the east bank of the river. It has two upright, one 
siding and two buzz saws, and cut last year 3,000,000 feet. 

Kussell's mill, called the " old Portsmouth," was built by B. F. 
Towne and others in 1838. It has two upright, one siding and 
two buzz saws, and cut last year 3,000,000 feet. 

Kussell's new mill, which is 20 rods below the old, has two 
upright saws and two buzz saws, and cut last season 1,500,000 

Campbell & McCormick's mill is at Portsmouth, about half a 
mile below Kussell's, and has one upright and two buzz saws, and 
cut last season 1,500,000 feet. 

Wm. Doty's mill is half a mile below the last named, and is now 
nearly ready to saw. It has two upright, one 3*feet siding, and 
five buzz saws. 

Stanton's mill, is at Lower Saginaw, half a mile below; it has 
two upright, one siding and four buzz saws, and cut last season 
about 1,500,000 feet. 

Frazer & Catlin's mill, so called, owned by Hugh Dunlap of 
Chicago, is 40 rods below the last named. It has two upright, one 
siding and buzz saws, and cut last year 3,000,000 feet. 

Frazer & Hopkins' mill, so called, owned by Hugh Dunlap of 
Chicago, is 40 rods below the last named. It has two upright, one 
siding and five buzz saws, and cut last year 3,000,000 feet. 

Mr. Raymond, formerly of Trenton, Mich., has a mill half a 
mile below the last, which has two upright, one siding and four 
buzz saws, and cut last season 2,500,000 feet. 

Drake's mill, so called, is owned by Judge Copeland and 
others, and stands on the west side of the river, near Lower Sagi- 
naw. It has two upright, one siding and five buzz saws, and cut 
last season 3,000,000. 

Whitney's mill, so called, owned by Judge Copeland and others, 
is at Bangor, just below the former. It has three upright, one 
siding and six buzz saws, and cut last season 5,000.000 feet. 

Partridge's mill, on the east side of the river, is nearly ready to 
run. It has two upright, one siding and five buzz saws. 

McEwen's mill, which is about three miles below the last, has 
two upright, one siding and four buzz saws, and cut last season 
'3,000,000 feet. 


There are two mills in process of erection at Lower Saginaw, and 
one above Saginaw City, near Millard's. There is one large steam 
flouring mill at East Saginaw, with four run of stone; also two 
steam planing machines. At Saginaw City there are two steam 
shingle mills, and one otthe same kind at Portsmouth. 

Aside from these is a steam mill now building by Hulsey, about 
12 miles up the Tittabawassee river, capable of driving one upright, 
and two edging saws. 

Clark & Wisner's mill is at the forks of Bad river (which is a 
branch of the Shiawassee^, about 14 miles above Saginaw City. 
This mill, which was built last season by Nelson W. Clark, of 
Clarkston, and Moses Wisner, of Pontiac, has two upright, and one 
siding saw, with three buzz saws, and is capable of cutting 3,000, - 
000 feet of lumber. 

Corey's mill, built by Smith & Gould,is at the forks of Bad river, 
and has one upright and one buzz saw, and can cut perhaps 1,000,- 

Blackmar's mill is upon the Flint, about eight miles from the 
mouth. It has one upright, and one buzz saw, and cuts about 1,- 

000,000 feet. 

The Birch-Run mill is upon the plank road leading from Flint to 
Saginaw, about 15 miles from the latter place. There is a pine 
ridge here, which yields a most excellent quality of lumber, com- 
manding a high price. This mill has two upright, one siding and 
flooring, and two buzz saws, and cuts about 2,000,000 feet. 

There are two mills upon the Kawkawlin river, which empties 
into Saginaw Bay, two miles west of the mouth of Saginaw river. 
The first of these is a water mill, which cuts 3,000,000 feet, and 
the steam mill, which drives two upright and two buzz saws, cuts 
2,000,000 feet. These mills were both built by James Frazer, and 
are owned by him in company with others. 

Adding to the above tne mills already in operation, Wm. P. 
Doty's mill, now beingerected at Lower Saginaw, that in process 
of erection by Messrs. Baugh man and Partridge, that in process ot 
erection by R. Moore, of St. Clair, and H. J. V orce, just oelow the 
Bangor mill, by Judge Copeland, H. N. Walker, and Mr. Ripley, 
of St. Clair, that of reter Rodgers, at Lower Saginaw, the Wester- 
velt mill at Carlton, Jeffers' mill and Whitney's mill opposite 
East Saginaw, and Corloss' mill, above Millard's, and there is no 
doubt that there will be cut in Saginaw county at leskst 90,000,000 
feet of lumber during the coming season (1854). The sawing price 
for lumber was $4 per M. last season, at which price is included, 
of course, the wages of the men and incidentals. Of this amount, 
the mill, if energetically driven, and economically conducted, will 
save $2 per M. above all-making $180,000, aside altogether from the 
profits of the lumber. The aggregate amount of the manufacture, 
estimated at $9 per M., which is alow average estimate, would be 



Within the five succeeding years, the lumber trade so increased 
that in 1857 no less than 58,500,000 feet of lumber was cut within 
the boundary of Saginaw county alone, and 53,700,000 in the 
Valley. The saw-mills of Saginaw county, in 1857, comprised 
Gushing & Co.'s, HilPs, Curtis', D. G. Holland's, Gallagher mill, 
then operated by W. F. Glasby, Copeland & Co.'s, Whiting & 
Garrison's, the Atwater mill, all located at East Saginaw; J. A. 
Westervelt's, at Carrollton; the Johnson mill, operated by John 
Drake, and B. F. Fisher's mills, at Zilwaukee; the Gang mill, G. 
D. Williams & Sons', and Curtis & King's mills, in Saginaw City, 
Bradley & Co.'s, and Wendal's mills, at the forks of Bad river; 
Morley's, Turner's and Fuller's mills, at Chesaning; Shaddock's, 
on the Tittabawassee; Hoyt's and Updike's mills, at Birch Run; 
and Hubinger's mills, at Frankenmuth, making a total of 24 
milling concerns in actual operation within Saginaw county in 
1857. Of this number, 20 mills were run by steam power, while 
Hubinger's, Fuller's and Turner's requisitioned water power. 

From 1857 to 1863 the advance of the lumber interests was not 
marked so much by the increase in number as in the capacity of 
the mills within this county. Between 1863 and 1866 the progress 
of the industry was remarkable. The later year was the mill build- 
ing era; large structures and modern machinery began to occupy 
the place of the more primitive concerns of earlier years ; new men 
joined the brotherhood of enterprise, and henceforth the work of 
the foresters was destined to proceed steadily^on a comparatively 
certain basis. 


The following table ebows the location of the millB of tliia comity, 
an well ae ttio quantity of sawed lumber produced by each during 
the years 1863-6: 


Biindy & Loiininn 


Rusl & Eugledew 

Curtis & CornlDg 


Greon & Harding 

Forest Valley 8. & L. Co 


BaiDurd & Co 

TlioiniKuiD Broa 

'WilUmns Bros., two miils 

A. W. Wright&Co 


Chicugo S. & L, Co 

Merrin-B Hilla 

U S Gilbert 

Shaw & Williams 

Gould's Mill 

J. P. AllisoQ 

Hale & .Teroiiie 



RiiHt, Eaton is C" 

Oneida IS.* L, Co 

Cbapin & Ban:* 

E. Hriggs 

E. P, Seaw 

G C Warnor Jc Co- . . . 

U Lee. twoi.iills 

W.I, P Lillle & Co.. 

Jewpi) & Gordon 

S M McClslne 


■Wnriici-ic Kistmnn 

4,500,000 S,260,000 S,000,000 

000,000 500,000 1,500,000 

3,500,000 3,.')00,000 ,5,000,000 

4,000,000 3,700,000 3.«00,000 




2,000,000; 3,500,000 
8,000,000 5,800,000 

, 2,500.000 

new mill. 

4,000,000 5,300,000 
4,noO,000; 5,0(10,000 

6,500,000. . 

3000,000 3,000,000 
5,500,000 0,000,000 
new mill. 



5,500,000 5,000.000 

I 4,000,000 

0,600,0001 7,000,000 
5,700,0O0' 8,350,000 
3,71)1,000! 4,300,000 
4,000,000] 4,100,000 
3,800,000 3,!iO0,OO0 
1,000.000! 3,500,000 
3 000,000: 200,000 
3,7OO,000| 3.800,000 





The totals of these statistical columns, dealing witli the Valley, 
are us I'ullows: 

" circul'ir!ian»i,T& 

" gang S!iws...51 

Capacity, 661,500,000 

Lumber cut in 70. .670,726.806 

Capital $8,091,000 

On hand, udboUI. . . (12,660,190 

On dock, sold 47,862,000 

Logs Id boom 30,138,462 

Men employed, 3,184 

Lath cut 61,287JKK) 

I.AlhonbaDd.. 6,704,000 
Picl(ets cut.... 8»1,6M 



The following statistical snrainnryof the lumber busineSB during 
the years I871-'5, will be sufficient to abow the state of trade in the 
SaginHw Yatley distiict during the first half of the last decade: 

1811. 1K2. 




OtJ 54 



" muleysawa 


" circular saws 

83 m 



52 51 




Total DuinDerof saws.. 

1U8 SOfl 




Capanily of mills, ft. , . . 





CapiUl invesled 

1 4,288,000 

1 4,394,000 

¥ 5,070,000 

1 4,808,000 

$ 5,033,000 






On (lock, Hold, ft 






Logs in mil! boom, ft... 




Men employed, No 





Lath cut, pea 


16,05 Lew 




Lath on hand, pes 






Pickets cut, pea 

516,6101 fl3,150 

The cut for 1876 exceeded that of tlie previous year by 2,549,770 
feet being 573,950,771. In 1877, the manufactured lumber of the 
Valley aggregated 640,166,231 feet. The cut of 187S fell behind 
that of 1877 by 86.003,504 feet, but advanced in 1879 to 736.106,000» 
and in 1880 to 863,356,009. 

aT4TI8TlCe FOE 1880. 

The tbllowing ib a statement of the lumber cut of the Saginaw 
river mills in Saginaw eonntr foi 1880: 



li II 

iiif li 






itMiii i I 

siSfsiiii liiisij; im 


a oo = o Q o o o c 





It may now be aeked from which corner of the worlJ are the 
loge brought to supply kU tbese busy mills. The elaborate tigures 
coTlaied by tlie editor of tlie CourUr answer, and fignres never lie : 


3, » E 5. 

m ?- i I I 

g 2 S S 13 g 

i i s' i 

I s J s § 

g S 3 = S 

i I i i < 

s g i I 
s I i s 

li i 


The streams that have fnrnished the logs for the Saginaw river 
mills, and in what is commonly termed the Saginaw lumber dis- 
trict, are the Cass, Flint, Shiawassee. Bad, Tittabawassee and 
tributaries, Kawkawlin, Rifle, Shore, Pine, Saginaw, Au Gres, 
Au Sable and tributaries. The great bulk of logs, however, during 
the past years, have been furnished by the Tittabawassee and trib- 
utaries, and when this supply commences to diminish the back- 
bone of the log product will have been broken. The Au Sable and 
tributaries contribute of late but few logs to the Saginaw mills. 
They are mamufactured at Au Sable, Oscoda, and other siiore points, 
and rafted to lower lake points. The Au Gres contributes a por- 
tion of its stock to Tawas mills, but the bulk of Rifle and Au Gres 
logs come to the Saginaw river. 

The Cass, Bad, Shiawassee and Flint, among the first lumbered, 
have passed out of calculation as log-producing streams, as a basis 
of supply, each contributing but a small amount. Although logs 
had been run out of Cass river previous to 1864 in large quanti- 
ties, the Huron Log Boom Company was not organized until that 
year, and has since handled the product of the stream, which has 
diminished from one hundred million feet to less than six million 
feet the past year. 

The main source of supply for the Saginaw mills, as stated, is 
the Tittabawassee and tributaries, which are the Chippewa, Tobacco, 
Molasses, Pine, Salt and Cedar. 

The Tittabawassee Boom Company was organized in 1864, and 
during the first year of its existence rafted out 90,000,000 feet of 
logs. In 1865 the product was 180,000,000 feet, and in 1866, 
186,000,000 feet were rafted. In 1867 the company rafted out 
and delivered ii36,000,000 feet. The amount furnished this season 
however, exceeds any previous year. The Bad River Boom Com- 
pany rafted out 20,000,000 feet of logs in 1866, and 23,000,000 in 
1866. The Kawkawlin, Rifle and Au Gres Boom Companies were 
subsequently organized. 


Briefly summarized, the rafting operations for the years desig- 
nated aggregate as follows: 

Feet. Feet. Feet 

1872 645,285,»78 

1873 680,979,461 

1874 589,225,404 

1875 584,848,701 

1876 572,229,472 

Not enumerated in the amount rafted in 1879 from the streams, 
755,182,686, was 25,000,000 from the Shore, Pine and Saginin;and 
24,300,000 in 1880, would make the grand totals for the past 
two years: 1879, 780,182,286 feetp 1880, 948,174,274 feet. 

In the foregoing statement of the amount rafted during 1880, 
all of the logs handled by the Bad River Boom Co., for convenience^ 

1867 420,207,806 

1868 446,960,583 

1869 521,350,663 

1870 623,397,353 

1871 521,796,927 

1877 651,567,948 

1878 558,079,674 

1879 756,182,586 

1880 923,874,274 


are included in the estimate for that stream, although all of them 
do not properly belong to that stream. The total number of logs 
rafted out of the Bad river boom in 1880, was 39,327, scaling 
4,877,570 feet. The total number of logs rafted out of the Baa 
river, Shiawassee, Flint, Swan creek and Ferguson bayou, was 
66,039, scaling 9,668,139 feet. The latter are the figures em- 
braced in the tabulated statement. In addition to the amount 
given as rafted, 922,583,664 feet, there came out of the Shore Pine 
18,000,000 feet, and out of the Saginin 6,300,000 feet, making a 
grand total of logs rafted, as stated above, of 948,174,274 feet. 


The foregoing figures represent the logs handled b}' the respective 
boom companies on the streams named. It is estimated that there 
is now in the limits of the Tittabawassee Boom Co. 35,000,000 feet 
of logs, and there is 79,759,100 in the mill and store booms. Added 
to the 580,290,610 feet rafted, the 35,000,000 in the boom limits 
would make a total product of 615,590,610 feet. At the close of 
operations in 1879 there was held back in the Tittabawassee boom 
limits 65,000,000 feet of logs, and at the close of operations in 1878 
there was held back 21,900,000 feet of logs. At the close of oper- 
ations in 1879 there was in the mill booms of the Saginaw river 
31,700,000 feet of logs. As each of the several streams contributed 
to the amount now in the mill booms, and they are rafted and 
delivered, they are of course included in the foregoing tabulated 

The amount rafted from the An Sable and Sable Pine is given 
at 138,500,000 feet. There is in the boom and boom limits 
17,000,000 feet, which, added to the amount rafted, makes a total 
for those streams of 155,500,000 feet. At the close of operations 
on the Au Sable in 1879, there was a stock of 13,000,000 feet in 
the booms. 

There was rafted on Rifle river, as shown in the table, 79,314,661 
feet. There was left in the boom at the close of operations this 
season 3,573,438 feet, and in the river 8,000,000 feet, which added 
to the amount rafted as given in the tabulated statement gives the 
total for the stream 90,888,089 feet. 

There is 500,000 feet in the An Gres boom, and about 5,000,000 
ill the river, which added to the 95,719,614 feet rafted, makes a 
total for the stream of 101,219,614 feet. Of the amount rafted 
from the Au Gres, about 10,000,000 feet went to Tawas, and the 
balance came to the Saginaw river. Of the Au Sable stock only 
2,000,000 feet came to the Saginaw river. 


During the year 1880 the Flint & Pere Marquette railroad 
hauled 87,485,547 feet of pine logs, of which 58,205,194 feet came 
direct to the Saginaw river. The Mackinaw division of the Mich- 

OF SAGINAW oonmr. 

igan CoDtral railroad aleo baaled to the Saj^innw rivi 
1880 about 15,000,000 feet of logs. 


Tliis branch of the Ininber trade may be said to have been 
inaugurated in 1852, and to have been nsliered into public notice 
in 1853, when fi,650 M. were shipped out of Saginaw river. The 
following year, 10,000,000 were maniifactnred and shipped at prices 
ranging from $2.25 to $2.50 per thousand. Since that period this 
industry has grown prodigiously, reaching 120,BOO,000 in 1872, 
and meeting with an annual increase until 1S80, when it rose to 
241,075, IfiO. Following is a summary statement of shingles man- 
nfaetured in the Saginaw Valley since 1872: 

1878 laO.eOOOOOl 1875 124.030,240 1 1878 158,989,750 

1878 130,6(8,550 I 1876 183,179,750 1879 318.884,000 

1874 130,631,500 1 1877 167,806,750, 1880 341,075,160 

During the year 1880, the shingle factories of the county were 
as follows: 






10,000,01 «)