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Full text of "History of South Africa Under the Administration of the Dutch East India Company, 1652 to 1795"

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""TOHF — T" 



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HISTORY OF SOUTH AFRICA 



HISTORY OF SOUTH AFRICA 

tlNDEB TIE IDMniSTSAIIOII 

THE DCTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY 
[1653 TO 1795] 



GEOEGE M'CALL THEAL, LL.D. 

or TEi QDEntB mnnRSTTT, EnroaroN, Canada 
VOBSION aniBKB OF THi botal aoadur or BCKHom, AXSTiHii&ii, oOBanFomnra 



OOLORIAL BOTOBIOamAPHKR 




WITH MAPS 

LONDON 
SWAN SONNBNSCHEIN & CO., Limited 

FATEBNOSTEB SQUASE 
1897 



Fan EDTnoir, March, 1888 ; 
SiooiO) EomoN (B«yiMd and Enlarged), September, 1897 



PEEFACK 

Ebom the official records preserved in the archives of the 
Gape Colony and of the Netherlands much the greater 
portion of the information contained in this history has 
been drawn. These documents are so voluminous that it 
has been necessary to devote many years to their exami- 
nation. Before I entered upon the task, only two indi- 
viduals, so far as is known, had done more than look 
over them in a very cursory manner. One of these was 
Mr. Donald Hoodie, whose valuable work is referred to 
among the notices of books relating to South Africa at 
the close of Volume II, the other was the late Advocate 
De Wet, who spent much time in collecting material, 
with a view of preparing a faithful history of the Dutch 
settlement. It is to be hoped that the manuscript 
which he left at his death will some day be published. 

The documents in the Cape archives may be classified 
as follows : — 

I. Proceedings and resolutions of the council of policy 
from 1652 to 1795. With the exception of one volume 
containing the records from May to July 1793, these 
important documents are complete. When I held the 
position of keeper of the archives I made an abstract of 
those from 1651 to 1687, as the originals are not indexed, 
and in addition to being somewhat bulky are not easily 
read by persons unaccustomed to the writing of the 
seventeenth century. This abstract has been printed 
by the Cape government, and forms a compact volume 
of two hundred and thirty-three pages. 

382871 



vj Preface. 

W, Tho Cftpe journal. A diary^ in which records of 
all ffVfintM of importance were entered, was commenced by 
Mr. Van Itiebeek when he embarked at Amsterdam, and 
waM (}(intinun<l with only a break of an occasional day nntil 
tN()H. l^ho oconrronces of each year originally formed a 
voltunn of thrcie or four hundred pages of foolscap. By 
Hotnn tnoanii botwoen 1806 and 1830 a large proportion of 
ihoMo voluninH disappeared from the Gape archives. Eor- 
(tttmloly, thore were duplicates of most of them in the 
arohivt^N of the Netherlands, of which copies have been 
prttourml by tho Gape government. The journal is now 
ooniplc^to to 1788, except for the years 1675, 1688, and 
IQUl. From 1788 to 1705 it is missing, except for 1794. 

\\V rHwpatchet from the Gape government to the 
tUr«H^ti>r« and several chambers of the East India Gom- 
|VMiyi to the f(0\*«mor-generaI and council of India, to 
Ihfi^ gOY«imm«nt ot Ceylon, and letters to various officers 
in th^ Mirvic«« foreigners calling here, and others. The 
Y\\)umtM ivt thia eeriM after 1786 have been lost from the 
Ca|^ MK'hiv^^ and aome of those* of an earlier date are 

IVv l>Mipalieih«» wceiv^ by the Cape government from 
l)^ auU^orilM in the Xeth^lands and in India, and 
Mum w<^x^l lh>m xwous piearsons. These are not quite 
\\Mi\^|iM^ in thi^ Oa|>e awhivw^ 

\\ Journals of iexpk«tn$ panaets.. Copies of the 
WV>irin^ aw in the Otj>e aiv^ve? : — Joaireal kept by Jan 
I^Janv ttvvm :iMJi S^ywr-xbifS' lo Sri CVaolia' Itoi Kepi 
^>i* ^''^yij^w T^ftrwr^ frooe: il55 Ortoher to 14tii Xcvember 
l^VS^ K^ Vy »NO«ev^ Y«^ci^, free: ilsi Ociotitj to 
I4;>i N^^^^^rtfftWc Itfii. aM ir^ien ibi I>f05=.rer ito^ to 
1^. ,'ia»:tia?j aW* Kara Vx CvcyaraZ TTilis:!. M^i^isr, 



Preface. vii 

1657. Of the exploring expedition under Sergeant Jan 
van Harwarden, from 27th February to 2l8t March 

1658. Of the expedition under Jan Danckert in search 
of Monomotapa, from 12th November 1660 to 20th 
January 1661. Of the expedition under Pieter Cruythof 
to the Namaguas, from 30th January to 11th March 
1661. Of the expedition under Pieter van Meerhof, 
from 21st March to 23rd April 1661. Of the expedition 
under Pieter Everaert, from 14th November 1661 to 13th 
February 1662. Of Ensign Cruse's expedition against 
Gonnema, from 12th to 2Sth July 1673. Of the expedition 
under Commander Van der Stel to Namaqualand, from 
25th August 1685 to 26th January 1686. Kept on board 
the Centaurus, from 10th November 1687 to 19th Feb- 
ruary 1688. Kept on board the galiot Noord, from 19th 
October 1688 to 6th February 1689. Of the expedition 
under Ensign Schrjrver to the Inqua Hottentots, from 
4th January to 6th April 1689. And of others in the 
eighteenth century, of which special mention is made in 
the body of this work. 

VI. Instructions. These are papers of considerable 
historical value. There are in the Gape archives : In- 
structions of the chamber of Amsterdam for the heads of 
the party proceeding in the service of the Netherlands 
chartered East India Company to the Cape of Good 
Hope, 25th March 1651. Further instructions of the 
same for the same, 12th December 1651. Of the directors 
for the guidance of the return fleet, 20th August 1652. 
Of Mr. Van Eiebeek for the officers of the yacht Goede 
Hoop, 14th October and 22nd November 1652 and 21st 
January 1653; for the officers of the galiot Zwarte Vos, 
3rd February, 13th May, and 9th June 1653; for the 
officers of the galiot Boode Vos, 26th July, 4th August, 
3rd and 13th October, and December 1653, and 



viii Preface. 

21st Febraary and 6th April 1654; for the officers of 
the galiot Tulpy 26th June 1654. Of the commissioner 
tlyklof van Goens for the commander and conncil of the 
iort Good Hope, 16th April 1657. Of the commissioner 
Joan Cnneas for Commander Van Biebeek, 18th March 
1658. Of the commissioner Pieter Sterthemias for Com- 
mander Van Biebeek, 12th March 1660. Of Commander 
Van Biebeek for the exploring party under Jan Danckert, 
10th November 1660. Of Commander Van Biebeek for 
the exploring party under Pieter Cruythof, 29th January 
1661. Of the commissioner Andries Frisius for Com- 
mander Van Biebeek, 11th March 1661. Of Commander 
Van Biebeek for the expedition under Pieter van Meerhof , 
21st March 1661. Of Commander Van Biebeek for the 
expedition under Pieter Everaert, 10th November 1661. 
Of the commissioner Hubert de Lairesse for Commander 
Wagenaar, 22nd and 27th September 1662. Of Com- 
mander Wagenaar for the exploring expedition under 
Corporal Pieter Cruythof, 19th October 1662. Of the 
commissioner Herman Klencke for Commander Wagenaar, 
16th April 1663. Of the assembly of seventeen for the 
party proceeding to Madagascar, with addenda by Com- 
mander Wagenaar, 26th May 1663. Of the commissioner 
P. A. Overtwater for Commander Wagenaar, 7th Sep- 
tember 1663. Of Commander Wagenaar for the exploring 
expedition under Sergeant Jonas de la Guerre, 10th 
October 1663. Of Commander Wagenaar for the assistant 
Joachim Blank, head of the Madagascar party, 19th May 
1664 Of Commander Wagenaar for the assistant Jacobus 
van Nieuwland, head of the Mauritius party, — May 1664. 
Of the commissioner Mattheus van der Broeck for Com- 
mander Jacob Borghorst and his successor Pieter Hackius, 
14th March 1670. Of the commissioner Isbrand Goske 
for Commander Hackius, 23rd February 1671. Of the 



Preface. ix 

•commissioner Nicolaas Verburg for Governor Bax, 15th 
March 1676. Of the commissioner Sybrand Abbema for 
•Commander Simon van der Stel, 27th March 1680. Of 
the commissioner Byklof van Goens the younger for 
Commander Simon van der Stel and the council, 20th 
March 1681. Of the retired governor-general Eyklof van 
Goens the elder for Commander Simon van der Stel and 
the council, 24th April 1682. Of the high commissioner 
Hendrik Adriaan van Bheede for the commander and 
council, 16th July 1685. And others of a later date, 
which are referred to in the body of this work. 

VIL Beports to the directors. From the commissioner 
Byklof van Goens, 16th April 1657. From the conmiis- 
sioner Andries Frisius, 4th July 1661. From the commis- 
sioner Hubert de Lairesse, 22nd September 1662. From 
the conmiissioner Joan Thyssen,. 25th June 1669. From 
the commissioner Byklof van Goens the younger, March 
and April 1685. From the high commissioner Hendrik 
Adriaan van Bheede, 14th May 1685. 

Vni. Proclamations, placaats, and notices issued by 
the Cape government. The first volume of the original 
record of these in the Cape archives is slightly damaged, 
but nothing of any consequence seems to be missing. 
The other volumes are perfect. 

IX. Transactions of the conmiissioners-general Neder- 
burgh and Frykenius at the Cape. These volumes are of 
great historical value. They contain also, as annexures, 
many important papers. 

X. Burgher rolls or census returns. Every year a list 
was framed, giving the names of the burghers and their 
wives, the number of their children, slaves, guns, horses, 
oxen, sheep, vines, morgen of cultivated ground, etc. 
Such of the returns before 1795 as are not in the Cape 
archives I examined in the archives of the Nether- 



X Preface. 

lands, but there is not one that can be relied npon as 
accurate. 

XL Besolntions of the assembly of seventeen, the 
chamber of Amsterdam, the states-provincial of Holland 
and West Friesland, and other governing bodies, referring- 
to the Cape in early times. The originals are to be seen 
only in the archives of the Netherlands, but while at the 
Hague I made copies for the Gape government of such of 
them as are of any importance. 

Xn. Declarations concerning crime, and records of the 
high court of justice. I have examined only the volumes, 
of these papers which contain particulars concerning im- 
portant cases. It would require a hfetime to read them all. 

Xm. District records, which comprise proceedings of 
the boards of landdrost and heemraden at the various 
seats of magistracy and correspondence between the gov- 
ernment and officials in the country. I have examined 
these documents carefully in cases when noteworthy 
events were transpiring, and have otherwise glanced through 
them, but have not actually read them all. 

XIV. Miscellaneous documents during the period 1652 
to 1795. Under this heading there is an enormous mass 
of manuscript at the Gape and at the Hague, among^ 
which there are a few papers of considerable value. Such 
are the following : — (1) Statement, dated at Amsterdam 
26th July 1649, in which is briefly shown what service, 
advantages, and profit the United Netherlands chartered 
East India Company might derive from building a fort 
and making a garden at the Cape of Good Hope. (2) 
Further considerations upon certain points in the state- 
ment submitted by Mr. Leendert Janssen, concerning the 
project of constructing a fort and planting a garden at 
the Cape of Good Hope, Amsterdam, June 1651. (3) Ex- 
tract of a letter from the chamber of Middelburg to the 



Preface. xi 

chamber of Amsterdam, 5th December 1651. (4) State- 
ment of the condition of affairs at the Cape, drawn up by 
Mr. Van Biebeek for the use of his successor, 5th May 
1662. (5) Queries concerning Cape affairs by the com- 
missioner Hubert de Lairesse, and replies of Commander 
Wagenaar, 15th September 1662. (6) Statement of the 
condition of affairs at the Cape, drawn up by Mr. Wagenaar 
for the use of his successor, 24th September 1666. (7) 
Memorandum for the use of Governor Bax, drawn up 
by the retiring governor Isbrand Goske, March 1676. 
The greater number of the miscellaneous documents 
in the Cape archives are, however, of little or no 
value for historical purposes. There are sailing 
directions, directions for signalling, ships' log books, 
etc., etc. 

XY. In the surveyor-general's office are records of land 
grants, and in the registry of deeds are records of all 
transfers of ground and mortgages since 1685. In the 
archives of the Netherlands there are full details of the 
East India Company's accounts with the Cape, embracing 
salaries, expenses of all kinds, sales of goods, etc., etc. 
I have only glanced through these papers for the purpose 
of selecting such as are of most importance. A single 
lifetime is too short to read all the manuscript that is 
referred to in this and the preceding three paragraphs. 

In the archives of the Netherlands there are over fifty 
unpublished charts referring to South Africa, but many 
of them are of little or no value. I copied the following 
on tracing linen for the Cape government: — 

One of the fort and garden in Table Valley in 1654. 

One of the fort and garden in Table Valley in 1656. 

One of th^ route of the exploring parties of 1661. 

One of the castle, garden, and town in Table Valley 
in 1693. 



xii Preface. 

An elaborate chart of the journey of Commander 
Simon van der Stel to the copper mines of Namaqnaland 
in 1685, being the first map upon which any indication 
of the Orange river appears. 

I also examined carefully the maps and atlases of the 
sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries in the 
libraries of the British museum and of the university of 
Leiden. In the collection of atlases in the South African 
public library the following works, purchased by me at 
the Hague, are to be seen: — 

Ortelius, Abraham : Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. This 
work, so celebrated in its day, is in one great volume. 
It contains a large map of Africa, engraved at Antwerp 
in 1570. 

Mercator, Gerard, et Hondius, Jodocus: Atlas, sive 
CosmograpMcoB Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi et Fabri- 
eati Figura. The fourth edition, published at Amster- 
dam in 1619, contains two maps of Africa, both full-sized, 
or covering a double page. One is taken from Gerard 
Mercator's map and description of the world, and is the 
work of his son ; the other is by Jodocus Hondius 
himself. 

Hondius, Henry: Atlas ou Bepresentation du Monde 
Universel This is an edition of the last-named work, 
improved by means of the discoveries made in the 
interval. Though the title is French, the work is in 
Dutch, and was published at Amsterdam in 1633 by a 
son of the celebrated Jodocus Hondius. It contains one 
large map of Africa, drawn by Henry Hondius, and 
engraved in 1631. 

Doncker, Hendrick : Zee Atlas of Water Wcerelt, 
published at Amsterdam in 1666. This volume contains 
a chart of the west coast of Africa from the equator to 
the Cape of Good Hope, engraved in 1659; and one of 



Preface. xiii 

the east coast from the Cape of Good Hope to the Bed 
sea, engraved in 1660. 

Blaeu, Joan : Grooten Atlas, oft Werelt Beschryving. 
This was the standard atlas of its day, and is still of the 
greatest value as an unerring guide to the knowledge 
possessed by the most eminent geographers in the middle 
of the seventeenth century. Seven enormous volumes 
and part of the eighth are devoted to Europe; Africa and 
America are described in the remainder of the eighth ; 
and the ninth is given to Asia. Among the African maps 
is one of that portion of the continent south of the tenth 
parallel of latitude, engraved in 1665. A copy, reduced 
in size, appears in the first volume of this history. 

Goos, Pieter: Zee Atlas ofte Water WerelcL After the 
great atlas of Blaeu, it would be unnecessary to mention 
any other, if it were not for the estimation in which the 
marine charts of Goos as well as of Doncker were held 
in their day. This volume, splendidly engraved, orna- 
mented, and printed in colours, was issued at Amsterdam 
in 1668. It contains a large chart of the coast from Cape 
Verde to the Cape of Good Hope; another from Cape 
Negro to Mossel Bay, with cartoons of the coast and 
country from St. Helena Bay to Cape False, and Ylees 
Bay or Agoa de S. Bras ; and a large chart of the coast 
from the Cape of Good Hope to the head of the Bed sea. 

The manuscript records preserved in Capetown, the 
Hague, and London, are the only authentic sources from 
which the history of South Africa can be extracted, and 
as such they have been used by me. But I found it 
necessary also to know how events, as they transpired, 
appeared to visitors. For this purpose I consulted a large 
number of books relating to the country, printed in 
various languages. Most of them proved worthless, but 
they had to be read before this could be known. A list 



xiv Preface. 

of the printed books referring to the period embraced in 
these volomes is given at the end, with a short note 
indicating the value of each. 

An intimate acquaintance with the traditions and 
customs of the southern Bantu tribes, obtained during a 
residence of seventeen years among them, has been of 
inestimable service to me ; but, to leave nothing unused 
that could contribute to the correctness of the narrative, 
an outline of nearly everything that concerns the Xosas 
in these volumes has been submitted to their most cele- 
brated antiquaries, whose comments have been carefully 
considered. 

In order to simplify the narrative, where money is 
mentioned it has been reduced to English coinage at the 
rate of twelve gulden of Holland to the pound sterling, 
the present rate of exchange. The rixdollar of the records 
has been computed at four shillings and two pence before 
1770, at four shillings from that date until the issue of a 
paper currency, and thereafter according to the rate of 
exchange for gold ; the Cape gulden before 1790 at one 
shilling and four pence or one shilling four pence and 
two-thirds of a penny, according to circumstances. Ex- 
planations will be found in the body of the work. Weights 
have been reduced to English pounds at the rate of nine 
hundred and eighteen Amsterdam pounds to one thou- 
sand pounds avoirdupois. Unless otherwise stated in each 
instance, the muid of grain, as used in the records and 
in these volumes, weighs one hundred and ninety and 
three-fifths pounds avoirdupois. The legger of wine con- 
tains four aams or one hundred and twenty-six and one- 
tenth imperial gallons. The morgen of ground is equal 
to rather more than two and one-tenth English acres. 
The muid, legger, and morgen, being still in use in South 
Africa, I have retained; but Dutch money and weights 



Preface. xv 

having been replaced by English, I have reduced these to 
the terms now generally employed. 

In the statistics of shipping I have not included vessels 
employed as coasters or packets kept for the use of the 
Cape government. 

Throughout the work I have tried to use simple lan- 
guage and to relate occurrences just as they took place, 
without favour towards one class of people or prejudice 
against another. I have no interests to serve with any 
party, and I am on equally friendly terms with all. 
Though a resident in South Africa for nearly forty 
years, I am by birth a Canadian, the descendant of a 
family that sided with the king at the time of the 
American revolution and afterwards removed from New 
York to New Brunswick with other loyalists. The early 
years of my life after boyhood were spent in the United 
States and in Sierra Leone. Thus no ties of blood, no 
prejudices acquired in youth, stand as barriers to my 
forming an impartial judgment of occurrences in South 
Africa in bygone times. 

I have not tried to draw lessons from past events, or 
to give a polish to my writing, because I feel that for me 
to attempt to do so would be like a quarryman attempting 
to give the finishing touches to a statue. The duties of 
the various offices which I have held under the Cape 
government, the labour of research among such a quan- 
tity of records as South Africa possesses, and in past 
years the prolonged personal intercourse with natives 
needed for investigation into the traditions and oral his- 
tories of the numerous tribes, would have unfitted me 
for putting a gloss on literary work, if ever I had the 
requisite ability. In this respect I am like the farmers 
whose wanderings I have followed, who had plain food 
m abundance, but no means of decorating their dinner 



xvi Preface. 

tables. Eecognising this, what I have kept constantly 
before me was to relate all events of importance, to 
arrange them generally in chronological order, to give 
dates for every occurrence— even if they should cause the 
narrative to be heavy and dull, — to furnish minute de- 
tails of all subjects of interest to South African readers, 
and to prepare an index that would make reference aa 
easy as possible. 

A great part of this history has passed through three 
editions, though the present issue is termed on the title 
page the second, because only one other has been 
published in England in a complete form. It has been 
carefully revised, advantage having been taken of criti- 
cisms and reviews pointing out where improvements could 
be made, and many details — perhaps wearisome to readers 
in Europe but that will be valued by colonists — have been 
added. For this purpose I spent the winter of 1896-7 
at the Hague, where there is the greatest facility for veri- 
fying dates and obtaining such additional information 
as I needed. The winter of 1881-2 I had spent there in 
the same pursuit, consequently I had not to lose time in 
making myself familiar with the record department. 

To the government of the Cape Colony I am indebted 
for encouragement to carry out this work, to the author- 
ities of the archive department at the Hague for assist- 
ance in research, and to the late Mr. C. A. Fairbridge, 
of Capetown, for the use of books and pamphlets from 
his unique collection. To the many others who have 
rendered me kindly aid I can only express my obligations 
in general terms. 

GEO. M. THEAL. 

London, Jtt/^, 1897. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAOB 

JAN VAN RTEBEEK, COMMANDER, LANDED IN SOUTH 
AFBIOA 7th APRIL 1652, RETIRED 6th MAY 1662 - - 1 

Cause of the greater importance of Table Bay to the Dutch 
than to the Portngaese — Presentation of a document to the 
chamber of Amsterdam, setting forth the advantages to be 
gained by forming a settlement in Table Valley — Account of 
the wreck of the Haarlem — Deliberations of the directors of 
the East India Company — ^Decision to form a victualling 
station at the Cape^Instructions to the skippers of the 
Dromedaris, Reiger, and Goede Hoop — Character and previous 
occupations of Jan van Riebeek, commander of the expedition 
— Instructions of the directors to the commander — Departure 
of the expedition from Amsterdam — Events during the passage 
— ^Arrival of the expedition in Table Bay — Condition of Table 
Valley— Description of the natives residing there and roaming 
about in the nei^bourhood — Selection of a site for a fort- 
Description of the ground plan of the fort Gkx)d Hope — ^Land- 
ing of the expedition — Quarrels between the Gknringhaiquas 
and the Goringfaaikonas — ^Distress of the Europeans — ^Arrival 
of ships with many sick men — Elflfects of the winter rains — 
Account of the sick-visitor Willem Barents Wylant — Birth of 
the first Dutch child in South Africa — ^Abundance of game — 
Project of a whale fishery — Productions of Bobben Island — 
Inspection of the country back of the Devil's peak — ^Descrip- 
tion of forests in the kloofs of the mountain — ^Desertion of 
four workmen and their adventures — Cooomencement of 
gardening in Table Valley — ^Voyage of the Goedt Hoop to 
Saldanha Bay — Cattle barter with the Goringhaiquas — 
Account of the interpreter "Ebucry and his niece Eva — ^De- 
paHure of the Goringhaiquas from the neighbourhood of the 
Ga|>e — Efieets of the south-east winds — FrodactiKMis d the 
gardens — Diet oi the wodoneiL 
VOL. L b 



xviii Contents. 

CHAPTER 11. 

PA0K 

MB. VAN BIEBEEK'S ADMINISTBATION (wntimied) - . - 81 

War between England and the Netherlands — Condition of the fort 
Good Hope — Arrival of ships — Trade with natives — ^Damage 
cansed by wild animals — Appointment of the first secunde — 
Dealings with a French ship in Saldanha Bay — Bobbery by 
Harry and the beachrangers of the Company's cattle and 
murder of one of the herdsmen — Unsuccessful pursuit of 
the robbers — Discovery of an unknown ore — Betum of the 
Kaapmans and beachrangers — Celebration of the anniversary 
of the arrival of the Europeans — ^Despatch of a galiot to St. 
Helena for provisions — Appointment of the second secunde — 
Account of the south-eastern coast by a missionary of the 
Society of Jesus — ^Despatch of a galiot to explore the south- 
eastern coast — Commencement of trade with Madagascar — 
Arrival of the first Asiatic banished to the Cape — Celebration 
of a day of prayer and thanksgiving — Conclusion of peace 
between England and the Netherlands — Treatment of the 
crews of English ships — Arrival of a large fleet — Formation 
of sealing establishments at Dassen Island and Saldanha Bay 
— ^Introduction of the vine — Instructions of the directors re- 
garding the natives — Views of the commander as to the 
best method of dealing with the natives — Hostile acts of 
the Goringhaiquas — Account of the first exploring expedition 
inland — Betum of Harry to the fort — Benewal of the cattle 
trade — ^Bartering expedition of Harry and Corporal Muller — 
Arrival of a large Hottentot horde under the chief Gonnema 
— Account of the interpreter Doman — First shipbuilding at 
the Cape — Disastrous expedition to Madagascar — Allotment of 
garden ground to married servants of the Company — Arrange- 
ment with Annetje de boerin — Completion of a hospital — 
Construction of a jetty — Project of Byklof van Goens to 
convert the Cape peninsula into an island — Description of 
plants and animals introduced — Occupation of the first farm 
at Bondebosch — Thefts by Hottentots — Dealings with Harry — 
Efforts to destroy ravenous animals — Begulations for the 
preservation of herbivorous animals — Outbreak of sickness — 
Appointment of day of fasting and prayer — Constitution of 
the council of policy — Particulars concerning marriages — 
Treatment of Christian blacks — Instructions regarding the 
treatment of the crews of foreign ships. 



Contents. xix 

OHAPTBB in. 

BfR. VAN RIEBEEK'S ADMINISTRATION (txmtvmed) - - - 60 

Conditions under which some of the Company's servants became 
colonists — Visit of the commissioner Byklof van Goens — 
Alterations in the conditions — Appointment of the first 
burgher councillor — Names of the first colonists — Regulations 
of the conmiissioner Byklof van Goens — ^Appointment of 
Boelof de Man as secimde — ^Expedition to Hottentots-Holland 
— Information concerning the natives — Exploration by a party 
under the leadership of Abraham Gabbema — Discovery of the 
Berg river — Accoimt of various public works — Exploration by 
a party imder the leadership of Jan van Hafwarden — Dis- 
covery of the Little Berg river — ^Inspection of the Tulbagh 
basin — Importation of slaves from Angola and Ghiinea — De- 
sertion of the slaves — Seizure of Hottentots as hostages for 
the restoration of the slaves — General panic of the Hottentots 
— Arrangements between the Europeans and the Hottentots — 
Banishment of Harry to Bobben Island — Opening of trade 
with the Cochoquas imder the chief Oedasoa — Bemonstrances 
of the farmers against new restrictions — Price of wheat— 
Planting of a vineyard by the commander at Protea — Intro- 
duction of maize — Appointment of two burgher councillors 
— Begulations concerning sheepbreeding — ^Instance of great 
loss of life by scurvy — Increase in the nimiber of colonists 
— Unsuccessful attempt to visit the Namaquas — Conunence- 
ment of wine making in South Africa — Manufacture of ale 
— Enrolment of the burghers as militia — Constitution of the 
militia council — Changes in the council of policy. 

CHAPTEE IV. 

MB. VAN BIEBEEE'S ADMINISTBATION {continued) ... 92 

War with the Hottentot clans nearest the settlement — Conspiracy 
of some soldiers and slaves to seize a vessel in the bay — Con- 
clusion of peace with the Goringhaiquas and Gorachouquas — 
Duties of the secretary to the council — Wreck of a French 
ship in Table Bay — Illicit dealing in cattle — Manner of con- 
ducting trade with the Hottentots — Traits of native charac- 
ter — Search for the fabulous island of St. Helena Nova — 
Expedition under Jan Danckert in search of Monomotapa 
— Exploring expedition under Pieter Cruythof — Naming of 
Eiebeek's Easteel — Discovery of the Namaquas — ^Description 



Contents. 

PAffll 

of the Namaqnas — Exploring expedition nnder Pieter van Meer- 
hof— Efforts of Pieter van der Stael to teach the Cape Hot- 
tentots the principles of Christianity — Exploring expedition 
nnder Pieter Everaert — Feuds of the Hottentots — Conflict- 
ing accounts of the condition of the settlement — Appointment 
of Gerrit van Ham as Mr. Van Biebeek's successor — Death 
of Mr. Van Ham at sea — Appointment of Zacharias Wagenaar 
as commander — ^Disposal of Mr. Van Riebeek's farm — Arrival 
of Mr. Wagenaar — Ceremony of his induction — ^Departure of 
Mr. Van Biebeek for Batavia — Condition of the settlement — 
Privileges of the burghers — Treatment of foreigners — Anticipa- 
tions regarding the ohve — Actual knowledge concerning the 
natives — Fabulous accounts of distant tribes — Neglect of the 
government to keep a record of land grants — Character of 
Commander Van Biebeek as delineated in his writings — Offices 
which he held after leaving South Africa. 

CHAPTEB V. 

ZACHABIAS WAQENAAB, COMMANDEB, INSTALLED 6th MAY 
1662, BETIBED 27th SEPTEMBEB 1666 130 

Character of Commander Wagenaar — Deputation from Hottentot 
clans to the new commander — Visit of the commander to the 
Cochoquas — Accoimt of the Hessequas — Exploration by a party 
under Pieter Cruythof — Expedition imder Admiral De Lairesse 
against Mozambique — Litercourse with Madagascar — Explora- 
tion by a party under Jonas de la Guerre — Occupation of the 
island of Mauritius as a dependency of the Cape settlement 
— Account df George Frederick Wreede — Outbreak of war 
between England and the Netherlands — Besolution of the 
directors of the East Lidia Company to construct a stone 
fortress in Table Valley — Selection of the site for the new 
fortress by the commissioner Isbrand Goske — Ceremony of 
laying the foundation stone — Construction of a church in 
the castle — Attempt to capture an English ship in Table 
Bay — Succession of sick-visitors — Account of the first clergy- 
man of the Cape — Constitution of the consistory — Disputes 
concerning baptism — Scene at an afternoon service in the 
church — Subjects taught in the school — Succession of school- 
masters — Amount of school fees — DeiJings with Hottentots — 
Outbreak of a plague among the Hottentots — DeiJings with 
the beachrangers in Table Valley — Marriage of Eva with a 
European — Prices of various kinds of grain — Wages of farm 



Contents. xxi 

PAOK 

labourers — Price of horses — Occupations of burghers in 
Table Valley — Desire of the commander to be relieved — Ap- 
pointment of his successor — Arrival of Mr. Van Quaelberg — 
Installation of the new commander — Changes in the council 
of policy — Departure of Mr. Wagenaar for Batavia — Knowledge 
of the country at the time of his departure — Condition of 
the colony — Subsequent visit of Mr. Wagenaaa: to the Cape — 
Bequest by Mr. Wagenaar of a sum of money for the benefit 
of the poor. 

CHAPTEB VI. 

CORNELIS VAN QUAELBERG, COMMANDER, INSTALLED 

27th SEPTEMBER 1666, DISMISSED 18th JUNE 1668. 
JACOB BORQHORST, COMMANDER, INSTALLED 18th JUNE 

1668, RETIRED 26th MARCH 1670. 
PIETER HACKIUS, COMMANDER, INSTALLED 26th MARCH 

1670, DIED 80th NOVEMBER 1671. 
THE COUNCIL OF POLICY, 80th NOVEMBER 1671 TO 26th 

MARCH 1672. 
ALBERT VAN BREUGEL, SECUNDE, ACTING COMMANDER, 

PROM 26th march TO 2nd OCTOBER 1672 - - - - 160 

Character of Commander Van Quaelberg — Destruction of forests — 
Establishment of a French East India Company — Assistance 
given to the French by Commander Van Quaelberg — Action 
of the French at Saldanha Bay — Exploration of the coim- 
try — Discontinuance of work on the castle — Expedition to 
Mauritius and Madagascar — Conclusion of peace between 
Englfuid and Holland — Dealings with the Hottentots — Harsh 
regulations of Commander Van Quaelberg — ^Dismissal of Mr. 
Van Quaelberg from the Company's service — Appointment of 
Jacob Borghorst as commander — Succession of clergymen — 
Increase of the burghers — Removal of the French beacons at 
Saldanha Bay — Survey of the coimtry about Mossel Bay — 
Visit to the Attaqua tribe — Cruel custom of the Hottentots — 
Liberty of the Company's servants to trade to a small ex- 
tent on their own account— Incidents in the career of George 
Frederick Wreede — Expeditions of the Grundel along the 
western and south-eastern coasts — Search for metals — Visit of 
the commissioner Mattheus van der Broeck — Desire of Mr. 
Borghorst to be relieved — Appointment of Pieter Hackius as 
his successor — Arrival of a French fleet under Admiral De la 



xxii Contents. 

PAOB 

Haye — Hostile conduct of the French at Saldanha Bay — 
Begolations concerning slaves — Misfortunes of the seounde 
De Cretzer — ^Arrival of a few families of immigrants — Ideas of 
the day as to good government — Cause of so few inuni- 
grants arriving in South Africa — Death of Commander Hackius 
— Resolution of the directors to complete the castle and 
strengthen the garrison — Position of the castle — Selection of 
officers to conduct the government — Statistics of ships that 
put into Table Bay — Account of wrecks — Number of visitors 
yearly — Dealings with Gonnema*s people^Arrival of the 
secunde Van Breugel — ^Yisit of the conmiissioner Aemout van 
Overbeke^Purchase of territory from Hottentot chiefs — First 
distillation of brandy at the Cape — Intelligence of war with 
England and France — Arrangements for defence — Arrival of 
Gbvemor Gk>ske. 

CHAPTBB VIL 

ISBRAND GOSKE, GOVERNOR, INSTALLED 2nd OCTOBER 

1672, RETIRED 14th MARCH 1676. 
JOHAN BAX, ENTITLED VAN HERENTALS, GOVERNOR, 

INSTALLED 14th MARCH 1676, DIED 29th JUNE 1678. 
HENDRIK CRUDOP, SEOUNDE, ACTING COMMANDER, 29th 

JUNE 1678 TO 12th OCTOBER 1679 201 

Statistics of population — Influence of the war in Europe upon 
Cape afi&drs — Progress of the construction of the castle — 
Establishment of an outpost at Hottentots-Holland — ^Expedi- 
tion against St. Helena— Career of Lieutenant Van Breitenbach 
— ^Trade with the Chalnouquas — ^Accoimt of Captain Elaas — 
Account of Captain Gonnema — ^The second Hottentot war — 
Wreck of the Qrundel and of the Zoetendal — Method of 
raising revenue by farming out privileges — Occupation of the 
castle by the garrison — Conclusion of peace between England 
and the Netherlands — Career of the first baptized Hottentot 
— Account of the church fund for the support of the poor 
— ^Establishment of an orphan chamber — Regulations concern- 
ing ecclesiastical a£hirs — Visit of the commissioner Nioolaas 
Verburg — ^Terms of a petition of the colonists to the com- 
missioner — ^Position of the island of Mauritius with regard 
to the Cape government— Appointment of Johan Bax as suc- 
cessor to Mr. Goske — Measures for the protection of the 
farmers — Murder of three burghers by Bushmen — Condition 
of Hottentot clans when the Dutch settled in South Africa 



Contents. xxiii 

PAOK 

— Condition of the Bushmen — Unsuocessfol expedition against 
Gbnnema — Pnniflhment of Captain Eees— Conclusion of peace 
with the Cochoquas — Effects of the war with Gonnema upon 
the European settlement — Stringent regulations concerning 
intercourse between burghers and Hottentots — Account of 
WiUem Willems — Condition of the beachrangers — Measures 
for the suppression of robberies — Execution of five Bushmen 
— Principles of the government in its intercourse with the 
natives — ^Establishment of a matrimonial court — Particulars 
concerning slaves — Exploration of the western and south- 
eastern coasts — Selection of a site for a new church — Death 
of the reverend Mr. Hulsenaar — Bemoval of bodies from the 
old church to the site of the new one — Account of the first 
colonists beyond the Cape peninsula — Particulars concerning 
the first customs regulations — Arrival of a few families of 
immigrants — Death of Governor Bax — Assumption of the 
government by the secunde as acting commander — Appoint- 
ment of the reverend Johannes Ovemey as clergyman of 
the Cape — Conclusion of peace between the Netherlands 
and France — Naming of the five bastions of the castle — Posi- 
tion of the burghers beyond the Cape peninsula — Particulars 
of the census of 1679 — ^Appointment of Simon van der Stel 
as commander. 

CHAPTEE VIIL 

SIMON VAN DER STEL, COMMANDER, INSTALLED 12th 
OCTOBER 1679, RAISED TO THE RANK OF GOVERNOR 
1st JUNE 1691, RETIRED 11th FEBRUARY 1699 - • - 244 

Particulars concerning Simon van der Stel — Condition of the 
settlement — ^Visit of the commander to Hottentots-HoUand — 
Particulars concerning the naming of Stellenbosch — Occupa- 
tion of the Stellenbosch valley by Europeans— Improvement 
of the Company's garden in Table Valley — ^Account of Hen- 
drik Bernard Oldenland — Intercourse with the Hottentots — 
Visit of some Namaquas to the castle with specimens of 
copper ore — First information concerning the Orange river — 
Treatment of foreigners at the Cape — Method of taxing 
foreigners — Growth of Stellenbosch — Destruction of crops by 
insects — Establishment of a court of heemraden at Stellen- 
bosch — Particulars concerning the first school at Stellenbosch 
— ^Various duties of the teacher of the school — Resolution of 
the East India Company to make use of South Africa ag a 



xxiv Contents. 

PAftB 

place of banishment for Indian political prisoners — Fartionlars 
concerning the Bantamese civil war and the banishment of 
Sheikh Joseph to the Cape — ^Visit of the retired governor- 
general Byklof van Gbens — ^Instructions issued by Mr. Van 
Goens — ^Account of the wreck of an English ship — Establish- 
ment of a court for the adjudication of petty cases — Un- 
successful exploring expeditions of 1682 and 1688 — ^Receipt 
of more copper ore from Namaqualand — ^Formation of a 
number of outposts — ^Visit of Byklof van Goens the younger 
— Transactions of Mr. Van Goens at the Cape — ^First expor- 
tation of grain — Visit of the high commissioner Hendrik 
Adriaan van Bheede — Reconstruction of the council of policy 
and the high court of justice — ^Appointment of a landdrost 
to Stellenbosch — Constitution and powers of the court of 
landdrost and heemraden — Regulations concerning slaves 
and Hottentots — Grant of the farm Constantia by the high 
conmiissioner to Conmiander Van der Stel — Search for 
minerals of value^Imposition of transfer dues on sales of 
fixed property — Price of grain — Departure of the high com- 
missioner. 

CHAPTER IX. 

SIMON VAN DER STEL'S ADMINISTRATION (cantMVued). EX- 
PLORATIONS AND DISCOVERIES IN SOUTH AFRICA - 276 

Journey of Commander Van der Stel to Namaqualand — Particulars 
concerning Hottentots and Bushmen along the route — 
Description of the country along the south-western coast 
— Effects of rain and of drought — Discovery of the Copper 
mountain — Results of the commander's journey — ^Account of 
the wreck of the Dutch ship Stavenisae on the coast of Natal 
— Adventures of the shipwrecked crew — Account of the wreck 
of the English ketch Good Hope at the bay of Natal — 
Particulars concerning the building of the Centaurus at Natal 
— ^Account of the loss of the English ketch Bona Ventura at 
St. Lucia Bay — ^Escape of some of the wrecked men in the 
Centaurus — Search along the coast for the others — Rescue of 
many of them — Adventures of Guillaimie Chenut — ^Voyage of 
the galiot Noord along the southern and south-eastern coasts 
— Survey of Delagoa Bay — Occurrences at Natal — Particulars 
concerning the Bantu tribes between Natal and the Eeis- 
kama river — ^Account of the expedition under Ensign Schryver 
to the Inqua tribe of Hottentots — Information concerning the 
tribes between the Inquas and the Amaxosa — Second voyage 



Contents. xxv 

Pies 
of the galiot Noord along the south-eastern coast — ^Purchase 

by the Dutch East India Company of the country around 

the bay of Natal from a native chief — ^Account of the loss 

of the Noord on Elippen Point — Suffering of the shipwrecked 

crew before reaching the Cape — ^Hospitality of Captain Elaas 

— Causes of the hostility of all other races towards the 

Bushmen. 

CHAPTER X. 

SIMON VAN DEB STEL*S ADMINISTRATION [continued) . . 808 

Visit of French astronomers to the Cape — Particulars concerning 
emigration from the Netherlands to South Africa — Establish- 
ment of a yearly fair at Stellenbosch — Mode of target shooting 
in the seventeenth century — Arrangement for divine service at 
Stellenbosch — ^Erection of various public buildings at Stellen- 
bosch — Extension of vineyards — Experiments with the olive — 
Particulars concerning tree planting — Wreck of the Portuguese 
ship Nossa Senhora dos Milagros — Treatment of shipwrecked 
Siamese ambassadors to the king of Portugal — Particulars cbn- 
ceming the struggle with the Bushmen — Specimens of local 
regulations — Establishment of a deeds registry — Outbreak of 
a destructive epidemic — ^Visit of a French fleet of war — 
Extension of the settlement to Drakenstein — Survey of False 
Bay — Account of the naming of Simon's Bay — Condition of 
the colonists — Particulars concerning sumptuary regulations ~ 
Damage caused by locusts — Progress of agriculture — Particu- 
lars concerning the census of 1687 — Emigration from the 
southern to the northern Netherland provinces after the 
pacification of Ghent — Emigration from France after 1670 — 
Desire of the directors of the East India Company to 
obtain some of the refugees as colonists — Arrival at the 
Cape of various small parties of Huguenots — Account of 
the clergyman Simond — Assistance given to the Huguenots 
after their arrival — Location of the Huguenots at Stellen- 
bosch and Drakenstein — Arrangements for public worship — 
Establishment of a school at Drakenstein — Beceipt of assist- 
ance from Batavia — Names of the Huguenots in South Africa 
in 1690 — Failure of a project to send out a party of Vaudois 
to the colony — Grievances of the immigrants — HI feeling 
between the French and Dutch colonists — Establishment of 
a church at Drakenstein — Instructions regarding schools — 
Method of locating immigrants — Blending of the different 
nationalities. 
VOL. I. b* 



xxvi Contents. 

CHAPTBB XI. 

PAOB 

SIMON VAN DER STEL'S ADMINISTRATION (contmueO^ . - 345 

Arriyal of a number of Dutch immigrants — Intercourse between 
the Europeans and the Hottentots — Strife between the 
different Hottentot clans — Hostility towards the Bushmen — 
Progress of agriculture — Improvements in the breed of cattle 
— Introduction of Persian horses and asses and of Spanish 
rams — Intelligence of war between Holland and France — 
Capture in Table Bay of the French ships N<yrmands and 
Coche — Rapacity of the East India Company's servants in the 
Asiatic dependencies — Creation of the office of independent 
fiscal — Plans of the directors for reducing their expenditure 
at the Cape — Experiments with vines and olive trees — De- 
scription of Capetown in 1691— Elevation of the colony to the 
rank of a government — ^Names of the chief officials in 1091 — 
Names of the principal burghers in 1691 — Census returns of 
1691 — Particulars concerning revenue — Statistics of shipping — 
Improvements in the town — ^Experiments in the cultivation of 
various plants — Damage caused by wild animals — Shocks of 
earthquake in Table Valley — Changes in the staff of officials 
— Erection of a large hospital — Instances of dreadful ravages 
of scurvy — Various shipwrecks — Danger from pirates — Seizure 
of the brigantine Amy in Saldanha Bay — Contemplated 
abandonment of farming operations by the Company — Names 
of new colonists — Ghradual alienation of sympathy between 
Governor Simon van der Stel and the colonists — High opinion 
of the governor held by the directors — Resignation of his 
office by Simon van der Stel — Appointment by the directors 
of his eldest son as his successor — His retirement to 
Constantia and subsequent career. 

CHAPTER XIL 

WILHEM ADRIAAN VAN DER STEL, GOVERNOR, INSTALLED 
llTH FEBRUARY 1699, RECALLED 8rd JUNE 1707 • - 879 

Appointment of Wilhem Adriaan van der Stel as governor — Search 
for islands with forests on them — Extensive planting of trees 
— Tour of the governor — Inspection of the Tulbagh basin — 
Naming of the Witsenberg — Occupation by graziers of the 
country about Riebeek*s Easteel and the Tulbagh basin — 
Formation of a small military outpost in the Tulbagh 
basin — Permission to the burghers to purchase cattle from 



1. 

\ 



Contents. xxvii 

PAGE 

the Hottentots — Contract for supply of meat — Cattle breeding 
henceforth a favourite pursuit of colonists — Troubles with 
Bushmen — Dealings with Hottentots — Church matters — Dis- 
continuance of the use of the French language in the 
church at Drakenstein — Proceedings of a marauding party — 
Wreck of the Meresteyn — Expedition to Natal — Account of 
an English resident at Natal — Fruitless efiforts of the 
directors and the Cape government to make South Africa 
a wool-producing country — Experiment in silk culture — 
Placing of partridges and pheasants on Bobben Island — 
Long drought —Increase of population — Want of sympathy 
between the government and the colonists — Extensive 
farming operations by the governor and other officials — 
Complaints of the colonists to the supreme authorities — 
Violent action of the governor — Arrest of various burghers 
and their committal to prison — Banishment of a burgher 
to Batavia and of four others to Europe — Defiance of the 
government by the country people — ^Action of the directors 
in the Netherlands — Becall of the governor and other officials 
— Arrival of the newly appointed secunde Johan Comelis 
d'Ableing and transfer of the administration to him — Views 
of the colonists and of the directors as to the rights of 
burghers. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

JOHAN CORNELIS D'ABLEING, SECUNDE, ACTING GOVER- 
NOB, 3bd JUNE 1707 TO 1st FEBRUARY 1708. 

liOUIS VAN ASSENBUBGH, GOVEBNOB, INSTALLED 1st 
FBBBUABY 1708, DIED 27th DEOEMBEB 1711. 

WHiLEM HELOT, SECUNDE, ACTING GOVEBNOB, 28th 
DECEMBEB 1711 TO 28th MABCH 1714. 

MAUBITS BASQUES DE CHAVONNES, GOVEBNOB, IN- 
STALLED 28th MABCH 1714, DIED 8th SEPTEMBEB 1724 410 

Matters connected with the different churches and clergymen — 
Arrival of Governor Van Assenburgh — Proceedings against the 
late officials in Amsterdam — Division and sale of Vergelegen 
— ^Visit of the commissioner Simons — Begulations concerning 
the manumission of slaves — ^Abandonment of the island 
of Mauritius by the Dutch — ^Visit of the retired governor- 
general Van Hoom — Instructions concerning the tithes of 
grain — Damage to the village of Stellenbosch by fire — Placaat 



xxviii Contents. 

PAOB 

against destruction of trees — Neglect of tree planting — 
Definition of a boundary between the Cape and Stellenbosch 
districts — Death of Gk>Yemor Van Assenburgh — ^Election of the 
secnnde Willem Helot to act as governor — Enlargement of 
the colony — False alarm concerning an inroad of the Ghreat 
Namaqnas — First appecurance of small-pox in South Africa — 
Appointment of Colonel Maurits Basques de Chavonnes as 
governor — Efiforts to equalise revenue and expenditure — New 
taxes — Basis of colonial law — Dismissal of the secunde Helot 
— Hostilities with the Bushmen — The first colonial commando 
— ^Trouble caused by fugitive slaves — Struggle for place and 
rank — Important questions submitted by the directors to the 
council of policy — Experiments in the production of wool, 
indigo, tobacco, and olives — Efforts to find a market for Cape 
wine — New diseases among homed cattle and sheep — Scarcity 
of butcher's meat — Prohibition of sale of meat and vegetables 
to foreigners — Buin of the Namaqua tribe — Outbreak of horse 
sickness — Expansion of the Company's trade after the peace 
of Utrecht — Befusal of supplies to private traders — ^Establish* 
ment of a factory at Delagoa Bay — Shipwrecks on the coast 
and in Table Bay — ^Erection of church buildings at the 
Paarl and Stellenbosch — Death of the governor — ^Appointment 
by the council of Jan de la Fontaine to act as governor — 
Good and bad seasons and exportation of farm produce — 
Names of new colonists. 



I. 



MAPS. 



1 



II. 286 

ni. 388 



BISTORT OF SOUTH AFEICA. 



CHAPTER I. 

AN TAN RIEBEBK, GOMUANDBR, LANDED IN SOUTH APHIOA 
7th APRIL 1693, RETIRED era MAY lOlil. 

EB Portagaese, who were the first Europeans to visit 
le shores of Soathem Africa, did not attempt oitlior to 
nn a settlement or to carry on commerce below l>(4ai;oa 
ay, and a centiuy and a half after their occu)>Ation ot 
i^ala had never penetrated beyond the coast lK>lt of any 
lit of the present Cape Colony west of the Sundfty rivot. 
h^ were mere traders, and the Hottentots had iiolliinH 
liich they wanted to porcbase. Tho Dutch, who wrcHtml 
om them the traffic of the East, for a 1011)^ time had no 
tonght of colonisation either, but from the first appoaraiico 
I these people in the Indian seas tlie soutti-wuHtorn part ot 
le African continent acquired an iniportanco it novor lim) 
3fore. The Portuguese ocean road was wimt ot Mndn- 
iBcar, consequently they did not need a rofrnHltniMiit Htiitinii 
9tweeD St. Helena and Mozambique, hut tho Dntcli, who 
used south of the great island, required one at tho turning 
[>int of the long sea jouruey between Holland and Batavia. 
■wing to this, their fleets were in tho habit of putting into 
'aiile Bay for the purpose of obtaining news, taking in fnmh 
'ater, catching fish, and trying to barter cattle from the 
atives, which they were not always fortunate enough to 
rocnre. 

On the 26th of July 1649 a document setting forth tho 
ivantages that might be derived from the occupation of 
'able Valley was presented to the directors of the Amster- 
am chamber of the United Netherlands chartered East 
adia Company. It was written by Leendert Jansz — ot 

VOL. I. I 



2 History of South Africa. [1649 

Janssen as the name would be spelt now, — and bore his 
signature and that of Nicolaas Proot. The style and word- 
ing of the document show that its author was a man of 
observation, but it contains no clue by which his position 
in the Company's service can be ascertained. He and Proot 
had resided in Table Valley more than five months, and they 
could therefore speak from experience of its capabilities. 

The Haarlem, one of the finest of the Company's ships, 
had put into Table Bay for fresh water and whatever else 
could be obtained, and in a gale had been driven on the 
Blueberg beach. The strongly timbered vessel held to- 
gether, and the crew succeeded in saving not only their 
own effects but the ship's stores and the cargo. The 
neighbourhood of the wreck was not a desirable site for 
a camping-ground, and therefore when the Company's goods 
were secured against the weather, and a small fort had 
been constructed in which a few soldiers could be left, 
Janssen and Proot with the rest of the crew removed to 
Table Valley. Close by a stream of pure sweet water, on 
a site somewhere near the centre of the present city of 
Capetown, they threw up a bank of earth for protection, 
and encamped vnthin it. 

They had saved some vegetable seeds and garden tools 
which chanced to be on board the wreck, and soon a plot 
of groimd was placed under cultivation. Cabbages, pump- 
kins, turnips, onions, and various other vegetables throve as 
well as they had seen in any part of the world, and among 
them were men who had visited many lands. The natives 
came in friendship to trade with them, and brought homed 
cattle and sheep in such numbers for sale that they were 
amply supplied with meat for themselves and had sufficient 
to spare for a ship that put in with eighty or ninety sick. 
Gskme in abundance fell under their guns, and fish was 
equally plentiful. They were here in spring and early 
summer, when the cUmate is perhaps the most deUghtful 
in the world. 

At length, after they had spent between five and six 



1649] y<^^ ^^^ Riebeek, 3 

months very happily, the return fleet of 1648, under conl- 
mand of WoUebrant Geleynsen, put into Table Bay. The 
cargo of the Haarlem was conveyed to Salt Kiver, and 
thence re-shipped for Europe. And when the fleet set sail, 
it bore awav from South Africa men whose reminiscences 
were of a pleasant and fruitful land, in which they had en- 
joyed health and peace and plenty. The document which 
Janssen and Proot laid before the directors of the East India 
-Company took its tone from their experience. It pointed 
out many and great advantages, and overlooked all diffi- 
culties in the way of forming a settlement in Table Valley. 
The author considered it beyond doubt that fruit trees of 
every kind would thrive as well as vegetables had done in 
the garden made by the Haarlem's crew, that horned cattle 
and sheep could be purchased in plenty, that cows could 
be bred and cheese and butter made, and that hogs could 
be reared and fattened in numbers sufficient to supply the 
needs of the Company's ships. Then there were birds to 
be shot, and fish to be caught, and salt to be gathered. 
He pointed out how Uttle was to be had at St. Helena, 
and how necessary for the refreshment of the sick was a 
victualling station between the Netherlands and the sources 
of trade in the East. Already there was ample experience of 
the benefits derived by the purchase of a few head of cattle 
and the gathering of wild herbs at the Cape. 

There were sources of wealth also. Whales put into 
Table Bay at times in shoals, and could easily be made 
prize of. Seals were to be had in hundreds, and their oil 
and skins were valuable. The hides of the large antelopes 
would also in time readily find a market. The sickness 
caused in getting fresh water, by the men being compelled to 
wade in the surf at all seasons of the year, was referred to, 
and, as a contrast, a jetty and wooden pipes were pointed 
out. The natives were spoken of as a people indeed without 
such institutions or forms of government as those of India, 
but peaceably disposed and capable of being taught. It was 
true that Netherlanders had sometimes been killed by them, 



4 History of South Africa, [165 1 

but that was because other Europeans had taken their cattle 
by force. There was no doubt that they could learn the 
Dutch language, and in course of time could be educated in 
the Christian religion. Finally, the author expressed siu:- 
prise that the enemies of the Netherlands had not already 
formed a settlement at the Cape, and with a small war fleet 
captured all of the Company's ships as they were about to 
pass. 

The memorial of Janssen and Proot was referred by the 
chamber of Amsterdam to the supreme directory of the 
Company, who, after calling for the opinions of the other 
chskmbers, and finding them favourable, on the 30th of 
August 1650 resolved to establish such a victualling station 
as was proposed. The deputies at the Hague,^ who were in- 
structed to draw up a plan for this purpose, availed them- 
selves further of the experience of Nioolaas Proot, who was 
then residing at Delft, and to whom the post of commander 
of the expedition was oiSfered. On the 20th of the following 
March the supreme directory approved of the plan sub- 
mitted by the deputies at the Hague, and the chamber of 
Amsterdam was empowered to put it in execution. Thus 
twenty months were occupied in discussion before anything 
else was done towards carrying out the project. 

Five days later, instructions concerning the expedition 
were issued to the skippers of the ships Dromedaris and 
BeigeVy and of the yacht Goede Hoop. These vessels, which 
were destined to bring the party of occupation to our shores, 
were then lying in the harbour of Amsterdam. The Drome- 
daris was one of those old-fashioned Indiamen with broad 
square sterns and poops nearly as high as their maintops, 
such as can be seen depicted upon the great seal of the Com- 

1 Four deputies from the chamber of Amsterdam, two from the chamber 
of Zeeland, and one from each of the small chambers formed a committee 
called the Haagsche Besoignes, whose duty it was to arrange docimients for 
the assembly of seventeen. The Indian correspondence, in particular, was 
prepared by this body for submission to the supreme directory. The com> 
mittee had no power to issue orders or instructions of any kind. 



1651] Jan van Riebeek. 5 

pany. In size she was but a fourth rate. Like all of her 
class, she was fitted for war as well as for trade, and carried 
an armament of eighteen great guns. The Beiger was 
smaller, with only one deck, which was flush. She was 
armed also, but the number of her guns is not stated. The 
Goede Hoop, was merely a large decked-boat, and was in- 
tended to remain at the Cape to perform any services that 
might be required of her. 

The skippers were directed to proceed to Table Bay, and 
to construct close to the Fresh river a wooden building, the 
materials for which they were to take with them. They 
were then to select a suitable site for a fort, to contain space 
for the accommodation of seventy or eighty men, and to 
this fort when finished they were to give the name Good 
Hope. Four iron culverins were to be placed on each of 
its angles. As soon as they were in a condition to defend 
themselves, they were to take possession of sufficient rich and 
fertile ground for gardens, and also of suitable pasture land 
for cattle. The framework of some boats was to be taken 
out, and the boats when put together were to be employed 
in looking for passing ships and conducting them to the 
anchorage. All this being accomplished, the ships were to 
proceed to Batavia, leaving seventy men at the Cape. These 
men were to pay special attention to the cultivation of the 
gardens, so that the object might be attained for which* the 
settlement was intended, which was to provide the crews of 
the Company's fleets with refreshments. They were to take 
care not to injure any of the natives in their persons or their 
cattle, but were to endeavour to gain their attachment by 
friendly treatment. A diary of all events was to be kept, 
and enquiries were to be made for anything that could tend 
to reduce the expense or be of profit to the Company. A 
copy of the document signed by Janssen and Proot was an- 
nexed to these instructions for the guidance of the expedition. 

Nicolaas Proot having declined the offer of the directors, 
they selected as the head of the settlement about to be 
formed in South Africa an officer who had been previously a 



6 History of South Africa, [165 1 

surgeon in their service. His name, according to modem 
spelling, was Jan van Biebeek, but he himself wrote it 
Johan van Biebeeck, and it is found in the records of bis 
time also spelt Biebeecq and Bietbeeck, the last of which 
forms shows the origin of the word. A ship's surgeon of 
those days was required to possess some skill in dressing 
wounds and to have a sUght knowledge of medicine, but 
was not educated as a physician is now. Very often a 
copying clerk or a soldier, with no other training than that 
of an assistant in a hospital, if he had aptitude for the duties 
of a surgeon, was promoted to the oflBce. Mr. Van Biebeek 
was of this class, but he was nevertheless a man of con- 
siderable ability, who let no opportimity of acquiring 
knowledge escape him. A little, fiery-tempered, resolute 
man, in the prime of Ufe, with perfect health, untiring 
energy, and unbounded zeal, he was capable of performing 
a great amount of useful work. No better officer indeed 
could have been selected for the task that was to be taken 
in hand, where culture and refinement would have been out 
of place. 

He had been a great voyager, and had seen many 
countries. The directors placed in his hands the document 
drawn up by Janssen, that he might comment upon it» 
which he did at some length. He thought that the settle- 
ment could be enclosed with hedges of thorn bushes, such 
as he had seen in the Caribbees, and which constituted the 
chief defence of the islanders. He had noticed how hides 
were preserved in Siam, and how arrack was made in 
Batavia. He remembered what was the price of antelope 
skins in Japan when he was there, and he had seen a good 
deal of Northern China, and believed that its vjuied pro- 
ductions would flourish at the Cape. In Greenland he had 
observed the process of procuring oil from whales and seals, 
and saw no difficulty in carrying it out in South Africa. 
At the Cape he had resided three weeks on shore, during 
the time the cargo of the Haarlem was being transferred 
from the beach to the fleet under WoUebrant Geleynsen. 



1651] Jan van Riedeek. 7 

His opinions concerning the advantages of a settlement 
and the resources of the country coincided with those of 
Janssen, but they diiSfered with respect to the character of 
the natives. Van Kiebeek had frequently heard of white 
men being beaten to death by them, and he considered that 
it would be necessary in building the fort to provide for 
defence against them as well as against European enemies. 
He did not deny that they could learn the Dutch language, 
or that Christianity could be propagated among them, but 
he spoke very cautiously on these points. If it were as 
Janssen appeared to beUeve, it would be a good thing, he 
observed. In this respect a clergjonan would be able to 
perform the best service, and if the Company chose to be at 
the expense of maintaining one, his presence would tend to 
the improvement of the Europeans also. 

In those days ships were not despatched on long voyages 
with such expedition as at present, and hence it need not 
cause any surprise to find the Dromedaris and her consorts 
still in Netherland waters in December 1651. On the 
4th of that month the directors resolved that Mr. Van 
Biebeek should have power to convene the broad council of 
the ships, and should preside therein, or, in other words, he 
was appointed commander-in-chief of the little fleet. 

On the 12th additional instructions were issued concern- 
ing the expedition. Precautions were to be observed against 
surprise by an enemy. No offence whatever was to be given 
to any one calling at the Cape, except to subjects of the 
king of Portugal residing within the Umits of the Company's 
charter, who were open and declared foes. No representa- 
tives of any nation were to be interfered with who should 
attempt to form a settlement beyond the Company's bound- 
aries, but marks of occupation were to be set up without 
delay wherever the ground was serviceable. The Beiger 
was to be sent to Batavia as soon as her cargo for the Cape 
should be landed. The Dromedaris was to remain in Table 
Bay until the completion of the fort. There were strange 
rumours concerning the designs of Prince Bupert, and 



8 History of South Africa. [1651 

although the directors did not credit all they heard, it was 
necessary to be constantly on guard. Ships returning home- 
ward from beyond the Cape were therefore to be warned to 
sail in company and to be always prepared for battle. 

Attached to these instructions was an extract from a 
despatch of the chamber of Middelburg, giving an account 
of Prince Kupert. One Captain Aldert, who had been cruis- 
ing off the coast of Portugal, had just arrived at Flushing, 
and stated that he had frequently met the prince's fleet 
of eight ships, all of heavy burden, and had seen them 
plunder a vessel of Castile in which was a large amount of 
specie. The prince had prevented him from making prize 
of a Portuguese ship laden with sugar. It was supposed 
that he intended to proceed to St. Helena, and he in wait 
there for the return fleet of the EngUsh East India 
Company. 

On the 15th of December the directors named David 
Coninck, skipper of the Dromedaris, to succeed the com- 
mander in case of any accident. The day following, Mr. 
Van Eiebeek, with his family and some relatives of whom he 
was guardian, embarked in the Dromedaris, which vessel 
was still taking in stores for the voyage. Among the com- 
mander's relatives who accompanied him were two nieces, 
EUzabeth and Sebastiana van Opdorp, both of whom were 
afterwards married in South Africa. In those days, when 
the United Provinces possessed the largest mercantile 
marine in the world, Dutch women often lived on board ship 
with their husbands, and children were born and grew up 
almost as in a village on shore. Hence the young ladies of 
Mr. Van Kiebeek's family probably did not look upon coming 
to South Africa as much of a hardship, especially as they 
were accompanied by others of their sex. On the 17th the 
family of the chief gardener, Hendrik Boom, went on board, 
and a small cabin was assigned for their use. Shortly after 
this, everything being at last in readiness, the little fleet 
dropped down to Texel and cast anchor there, waiting for 
a favourable wind. 



1652] Jan van Riebeek. 9 

On Sunday the 24th of December 1651 an easterly breeze 
sprang up, and about noon the Dromedaris, Beiger, and 
Croede Hoop, in company with a great fleet of merchant 
ships, hove up their anchors and stood out to sea. The 
Dromedaris was now found to be so topheavy from bad 
stowage and want of ballast that in squally weather it was 
dangerous to show much canvas, and it was even feared at 
times that she would overturn. In consequence of this, the 
commander signalled to the other vessels, and on the 30th 
their skippers went on board and a coimcil was held. There 
were present Jan van Biebeek, senior merchant, David 
Coninck, skipper of the Dromedaris, Jan Hoochsaet, skipper 
of the Beiger, and Simon Pieter Turver, skipper of the 
Goede Hoop. Pieter van der Helm was the secretary. The 
council resolved to put into a port on the English coast and 
procure some ballast, but the skippers had hardly returned 
to their own vessels when the wind set in dead oS the 
EngUsh shore, and they were obliged to face the bay of 
Biscay as they were. Fortunately they had fair weather, and 
as soon as they got beyond the ordinary cruising ground of 
the privateers, the Dromedaris sent nine of her heavy guns 
below, which put her in better trim. The fear of Prince 
Bupert alone prevented them from reducing her available 
armskment still further. They beUeved he would not make 
much distinction between a Dutch ship and an English one, 
and for aught they knew, he might have a Portuguese com- 
mission. Very likely he was somewhere between them and 
St. Helena or Table Bay, on the watch for Indiamen, and 
therefore it was necessary to be constantly on guard and 
ready for defence. 

The weather continued favourable, and the vessels 
seldom parted company. On the 20th of January 1652 they 
were oflf the Cape Verde islands, and the commander sum- 
moned the council again. The skippers met, and decided 
that as there was no sickness on board any of the vessels 
they would continue the voyage without calling. From this 
time until the 29th of March nothing of any note occurred. 



lo History of South Africa. [1652 

Then, for the third time during the passage, the council 
assembled on board the Dromedaris. The probable lati- 
tude and longitude they were in was first determined 
by the very simple method of striking the mean between 
their different calculations, and they then resolved to use 
every exertion to reach 34** 20' S., after which they would 
direct their course eastward to the Cape. 

On the 5th of April, about the fifth glass of the after- 
noon watch, the chief mate of the Dromedaris caught sight 
of Table Mountain rising above the eastern horizon, and 
won the reward of sixteen shillings which had been 
promised to the first who should discover land. A gun was 
at once fired and the flags were hoisted to make the fact 
known to the crews of the Beiger and Goede Soop, which 
vessels were some distance to leeward. During the night 
the little fleet drew in close to the land, somewhat to the 
southward of the entrance to Table Bay. The 6th opened 
with calm weather, and as the vessels lay idle on the sea, 
a boat was sent in advance with the bookkeeper Adam 
Hulster and the mate Arent van leveren, who had orders 
to peer cautiously round the Lion's rump, and report if 
any ships were at anchor. About two hours before dark 
the boat returned with the welcome intelligence that the 
bay was empty, and, as a breeze sprang up just then, 
the Dromedaris and Goede Hoop stood in, and shortly after 
sunset dropped their anchors in five fathoms of water, off 
the mouth of the Fresh river. The Beiger remained out- 
side all night, but early next morning she came running 
in before a light breeze, and at eight o'clock dropped anchor 
close to her consorts. 

And so, after a passage of one hundred and four days 
from Texel, on the morning of Sunday the 7th of April 1652 
Mr. Van Kiebeek and his party looked upon the site of their 
future home. The passage for those days was a remarkably 
quick one. The oflicers of every ship that made Batavia 
Boads within six months of leaving Texel were entitled to 
a premium of fifty poimds sterling, and the Cape was 



1652] Jan van Riebeek, 1 1 

considered two-thirds of the sailing distance outwards. So 
that in 1652, and indeed for more than another century, 
anything below one hundred and twenty days was con- 
sidered a short passage between the Netherlands and South 
Africa. 

The people on board having been so long without fresh 
food were somewhat sickly, but the death rate had been 
unusually small. The Dromedaris had lost only two in- 
dividuals, one being a child of the ship's surgeon, who had 
his family with him, and the other a carpenter who was 
ill when he left the fatherland. No deaths are mentioned 
as having occurred on board the Beiger or Goede Hoop, 

At daybreak Skipper Coninck landed for the purpose 
of looking for letters and to get some herbs and fresh fish. 
It was usual for the masters of ships that called at Table 
Bay to leave journals of events and other documents con- 
cealed in secure places, and to mark on prominent stones 
directions for iSnding them. This had been' the practice 
for nearly half a century, so that a fleet arriving from home 
always expected to get here the latest news from the East. 
In time of war great caution had to be taken, so as to leave 
no information that could be made use of by an enemy, 
but otherwise the practice was found to be very convenient. 
The skipper took with him six armed soldiers and a boat's 
crew with a seine. A box containing three letters was 
discovered, and a good haul of fish was made. 

The letters had been written by Jan van Teylingen, 
admiral of the last return fleet, who had left Table Bay on 
the 26th of February with three ships out of the eleven 
under his flag. The others had been lost sight of soon after 
passing the strait of Sunda. The admiral had waited here 
eleven days, and had then gone on to St. Helena, in hope 
of finding the missing ships there. But in case they should 
still be behind and should arrive in Table Bay after his 
departure, he had left a letter addressed to their com- 
manders, informing them of his movements. In it he 
stated that he had only been able to procure one bullock 



12 History of South Africa. [1652 

and one sheep from the natives, though many cattle were 
seen inland. There were on board the missing ships some 
horses intended for the use of the people who were coming 
to form a victualling station, and he directed that these 
should be landed and placed in charge of a certain Hottentot 
who could speak English. The other two letters were 
addressed to the governor-general and councillors of India, 
and were left here to be taken on by any ship that might 
call. 

In the evening Mr. Van Riebeek and some others went 
ashore to examine the valley and select a site for the fort. 
It was towards the close of the dry season, and the land 
was everywhere parched with drought. The sources of the 
little streamlets which in winter ran into the Fresh river 
were all dried up, and their channels were gaping to the 
sun. The wild flowers of many hues, which at other sea- 
sons of the year delighted the eyes of visitors, were now to 
be sought in vain. The summer heat was past, but no 
rains had yet fallen to clothe the ground with a mantle of 
beauty, and make it what Janssen and Proot had seen. 

In many of the minor outlines of the vale the hand of 
man has effected a striking change since that day. The 
stream of sweet water, which the early voyagers called the 
Fresh river, then ran down its centre from the mountain to 
the sea. In the neighbourhood of the present Church- 
square there was in winter a great swamp fed by the stream, 
where hippopotami often disported themselves. All vestiges 
of this have long since disappeared. In other parts of the 
valley hollows have been filled up and hillocks levelled down, 
and along the flank of the Lion's rump a slight alteration in 
the contour has been made. The grand features of Table 
Mountain in the background, the Devil's peak on one hand 
and the Lion mount on the other, are all unchangeable save 
by untold ages of time. As Antonio de Saldanha, first of 
Europeans to enter the bay, saw them in 1503, and as they 
are under our eyes to-day, so were they seen by Commander 
Van Riebeek on that Sunday in April 1652. 



1652] Jan van Riebeek. 13 

When the boat returned, two natives of the Cape 
peninsula went on board the Dromedaris, One of them 
was a man who was closely connected with the Europeans 
for the remainder of his life, and was the same in whose 
charge the horses were to have been left, if the missing 
ships of Van Teylingen's fleet had put into Table Bay 
instead of passing on to St. Helena. His native name 
was Autshumao, but he was better known afterwards 
as Harry, or Herry as Mr. Van Eiebeek wrote it. He 
had spent some time on board an English ship, in which 
he had visited Bantam, and had acquired a smattering 
of the language of those among whom he had lived. This 
knowledge, very imperfect though it was, made him 
useful as an interpreter between the Europeans and his 
countrymen. The few families — fifty or sixty souls all 
told — forming the little clan of which Harry was the 
leading member, were then the only permanent inhabitants 
of the Cape peninsula. They had no cattle, and main- 
tained a wretched existence by fishing and gathering wild 
roots. Mussels and periwinkles also made up a portion 
of their diet, for they were in that stage of culture 
which is marked by the kitchen middens along the coast, 
though they were acquainted with the pastoral form of 
living. They called themselves Goringhaikonas, but were 
usually entitled Beachrangers by the Dutch. An im- 
poverished, famine-stricken, half-naked band of savages, 
hardly any conceivable mode of existence could be more 
miserable than theirs. 

There were two large clans, which were possessed of 
herds of homed cattle and sheep, and which visited Table 
Valley and its neighbourhood periodically when the pastur- 
age was good. One of these clans, known to natives as 
the Goringhaiquas and to the Dutch first as the Saldanhars 
and afterwards as the Kaapmans, had a fighting force of 
five or six hundred men. They were under a chief named 
Gogosoa, who had attained a very great age and was so 
stout that he was commonly called the Fat Captain. The 



14 History of South Africa. [1652 

other clan was the Gorachouqua, nicknamed the Tobacco 
Thieves by the Dutch. They had a force of three or four 
hundred fighting men, and obeyed a chief named Choro. 
The Goringhaiquas and the Gorachouquas wandered about 
with their flocks and herds, sometimes pitching their mat 
huts beside Table Mountain, sometimes at the foot of 
Eiebeek's Kasteel, or in the vale now known as French 
Hoek. The smoke of their fires might at times be seen 
rising anywhere within the farthest mountains visible on 
the north and the east. The Goringhaiquas, being the 
most numerous and wealthy, were 'looked upon by Mr. 
Van Eiebeek as better entitled than the others to be 
called the owners of this part of the country. They were 
feeding their herds on the opposite side of the bay when 
the party of occupation arrived. 

On the 8th the council, consisting of the commander 
and the three skippers, met on board the Dromedaris to 
arrange for commencing the work on shore. It was re- 
solved that they should land at once and mark out a site 
for the fortress. Exclusive of officers, there were one hun- 
dred and eighty-one men on board the three vessels, and 
of these, one hundred were to be set to work in raising 
the walls. The carpenters were to put up a wooden 
dwelling-house and a store-shed for temporary use. The 
men left on board the ships were to be employed in dis- 
charging the goods and in catching fish. 

This custom of bringing all matters of importance before 
a council for decision was the usual method of procedure in 
the Company's service. Every ship had its council, nomi- 
nated by the authorities before she left port. When several 
ships sailed in company, the principal men in each formed a 
broad council for the squadron. A settlement such as that 
in South Africa was regarded as similar to a single ship in a 
fleet. It had its own council, which was here for a long 
course of years a very elastic body, adapted to meet the 
circumstances of the times. It consisted of the presiding 
officer, who had no higher title until 1672 than that of 



1652] Jan van Riebeek, 15 

commander, and a number of officers of inferior rank, who 
were usually appointed by some commissioner on his way to 
or from India. When there were ships belonging to the 
Company lying in the bay, their principal officers and those 
of the Cape settlement formed a broad council, which was 
presided over by the highest in rank, who might be the 
commander here or a stranger to the place. These broad 
councils passed resolutions concerning the most important 
matters in South Africa as well as concerning the affairs of 
fleets. 

The gradation of authority in the Company's service was 
very clearly defined. The assembly of seventeen was su- 
preme. Next came the governor-general and council of 
India, whose orders and instructions were issued from the 
castle of Batavia. Then its authority was spread out 
among a vast number of admirals and governors and com- 
manders, each with his council, but wherever these came in 
contact, the lower in rank gave way to the higher. The 
Company's servants scattered over the eastern world were 
like a regiment of soldiers. The assembly of seventeen was 
the commander-in-chief. The governor-general and council 
of India was the colonel. The admirals and governors and 
commanders were the captains and lieutenants and ensigns, 
and wherever a captain appeared the lieutenants without 
question submitted to him. If the officers of a regiment 
were stationed in many different posts and were in the 
habit of assembling councils of war on all occasions, 
the parallel would be complete. This circumstance must 
be borne in mind, as it gives a clear insight into the 
mode of government under which the occupation took 
place. 

Mr. Van Riebeek and the three skippers, having made 
an inspection of Table Valley, selected a site for the fort on 
the ground close behind the present general post office. 
The outhnes were then marked out, and the labourers 
commenced the work without delay. The fort was in the 
form of a square, with bastions at its angles. The length of 



1 6 History of South Africa, [1652 

each of its faces was two hundred and fifty- two Bhynland 
feet. The walls were constructed of earth, twenty feet in 
thickness at the base and tapering to sixteen feet at the top. 
They were twelve feet in height, and were surmounted by a 
parapet. Bound the whole structure there was a moat, into 
which the water of the Fresh river could be conducted. 
Within, there were some wooden buildings and a square 
stone tower rising above the walls. The tower had a flat 
roof, from which its defenders could fire down upon an 
enemy who should attempt to scramble over the banks 
of earth. The buildings were used as dwelling-houses, 
barracks, and storehouses. In front, that is on the side 
facing the sea, a large space beyond the moat was enclosed 
with an earthen wall so constructed as to give additional 
strength to the whole. In this enclosure were the work- 
shops and the hospital, which was a large building, as the 
Company intended that sick men from the fleets should be 
left here to recover. At the back there was a similar en- 
closure, which was used as a cattle kraal. The plan was 
altered several times during the course of construction, in 
such respects as the thickness and height of the walls, but 
the general design remained as it was laid out on the 9th of 
April. Such was the original fort Good Hope, when it was 
completed. 

As soon as the tents were pitched ashore, the Goringhai- 
konas, or beachrangers, brought their famihes to the en- 
campment, where they afterwards remained pretty con- 
stantly. Occasionally they would wander along the beach 
seeking shell-fish, but as far as food was concerned they 
were now better off than they had ever been before. Mr. 
Van Eiebeek had instructions to conciliate the natives, and 
in everything he did his utmost to carry out the orders of 
his superiors in authority. He believed that Harry 
especially would be of great service in communicating with 
the inland hordes, and therefore he tried to gain his attach- 
ment by liberal presents of food and clothing. The others 
were often supplied at meal-times with such provisions as 



1652] Jan van Riebeek. 17 

were given to the labourers, but Harry always had a share 
of whatever was on the commander's own table. 

About noon on the 10th, as some of the workmen were 
busy with their spades and wheelbarrows, and others were 
beating down bushes and earth in the walls, nine or ten of 
the Groringhaiquas made their appearance. To the surprise 
of the Dutch, Harry's people immediately seized their 
assagais and bows, and attacked the strangers with great 
fury. Skipper Hoochsaet with a corporal and a party of 
itrmed soldiers ran in between them, but had some difficulty 
in separating the combatants and restoring peace. It was 
not four days since the expedition had arrived, and already * 
the Europeans had learned of the bitter hostility existing 
between the different Hottentot clans. At no distant date 
they were to discover that the scene they had witnessed was 
typical of the ordinary existence of the savage tribes of 
Africa. 

On the 15th the Salamander, one of the missing ships of 
Van Teylingen's fleet, came into the bay. She reported that 
the horses and various Indian plants and seeds which had 
been sent from Batavia were on board the other vessels, and 
must have passed the Cape before this date. It was after- 
wards ascertained that the ships had gone on to St. Helena, 
which was then an uninhabited island, and that the horses 
had been turned loose there. The Salamander left here 
a clerk, named Frederik Verburg, and two workmen, and 
sailed on the 20th for the fatherland. 

On the 24th Mr. Van Eiebeek and his family left the 
Dromedaris and took up their residence on land, in a build- 
ing roughly constructed of planks and standing close to the 
beach. One of the walls of the fort was already in such a 
condition that the cannon had been mounted upon it. Yet 
the commander frequently complained of the slowness with 
which the work was being carried on. The labourers were 
enfeebled by the sea voyage, and they had been disappointed 
in the expectation of being able to procure fresh food. The 

pastoral clans were encamped at a distance, and hitherto 
VOL. I. 2 



1 8 History of South Africa. [1652 

tbey had sent only one cow and a calf to be exchanged for 
copper bars. The wild herbs and mustard leaves and 
Bcurvy-graHa, for which they were longing so much, had 
almost disappeared in the drought. The earth was like iron 
under their picks, so that they were not digging but quarry- 
ing it. And to add to their troubles, the south-east wind 
blew frequently with such violence that they were nearly 
blinded with dust, and could hardly stand upon the walls. 

Their principal relief came from the sea. The bay was 
swarming with flsh, and they had only to go as far as Salt 
Biver to oast their soinoa. So weary were their palates of 
sbip*s meat that they believed some kinds of Cape fish were 
the most delicious in the world. There was nothing to ap- 
proach them in flavour, they said, even in the waters of the 
fatherland. On the night l)efore Mr. Van Biebeek's family 
landed, they killed a great hippopotamus, as heavy as two 
fat oxen, with a monstrous head and teeth five-eighths of an 
ell in length. Its hide was an inch in thickness, and so 
tough that their musket balls would not penetrate it. They 
fired in vain behind its ears, but at last killed it with shots 
in the forehead. To the people its flesh tasted as a delicacy, 
and they rejoiced accordingly. 

On the 7th of May the ships WaXvisch and Olifant 
dropped their anchors in the bay, having left Texel on the 
3rd of January. They had lost one hundred and thirty men 
on the passage, and their crews were in a dreadful condition 
from scurvy when they reached this port. On the 11th the 
broad council met on board the Dromedaris, and resolved 
that the fifty weakest invalids belonging to these two ships 
should be brought ashore and left here. Provisions suffi- 
cient to last for three months were to be landed for their 
use, and all who should recover were to be sent to Batavia 
with the first opportunity. The names of the four ships in 
the bay were given to the bastions of the still unfinished 
fort. That to the south was called the Dromedaris, to the 
north the Beiger, to the east the Walvisch, and to the west 
the Olifant. The little yacht had the same name as the 



1652] Jan van Riebeek. 19 

whole fort. As there were no refreshments except water 
and fish to be had here, the ships sailed again as soon as 
possible, and with them the Beiger left for Batavia. 

On the 25th there arrived the ship Hof van Zeeland, 
which sailed from home on the 31st of January, and had 
lost thirty-seven men by death on the passage. She took in 
water, and sailed again in a few days. 

On the 28th the Dromedaris sailed, and the party of 
occupation was left to its own resources. The cold stormy 
weather of winter was beginning to set in, and the misery 
of Mr. Van Biebeek and his people was daily increasing. 
The rain could not be kept out of the tents and the wooden 
buildings which they had run up for temporary use, and it 
was with difficulty that they could preserve their bread and 
perishable stores. With the change of weather came sick- 
ness, which they were too weak to resist, and now almost 
every day there was a death from dysentery or scurvy. On 
the 3rd of June, out of one hundred and sixteen men, only 
sixty were able to perform any labour. Fresh meat and 
vegetables and proper shelter would have saved them, but 
these things were not to be obtained. They had killed a 
second hippopotamus, and its flesh was so much to their 
Uking that they described it as tasting like veal ; but what 
was one even of these huge beasts among so many mouths ? 
There was no other game in Table Valley, though four men 
who went out with guns saw many antelopes behind the 
mountains. 

They were almost as solitary as if they had been frozen 
up in the Arctic sea. For weeks together they saw none of 
the natives of the land but Harry's miserable followers, from 
whom no assistance of any kind was to be had. The en- 
campment was like a great hospital, in which the attendants 
staggered about among the sick and the dying. The work 
on the walls of the fort almost ceased, for they had enough to 
do to take care of themselves. 

But the rains, which had brought on the dysentery, in 
an incredibly short time brought them also reUef. Grass 



20 History of South Africa. [1652 

sprang into existence as if by magic, and with it sprang up 
rarions plants of a nutritious kind. They were all correc- 
tives of scurvy, and that was mainly what was needed. The 
sick and feeble went about gathering wild herbs and roots, 
and declaring there was nothing in the world half so palat- 
able. God had looked down in compassion upon them and 
relieved them in their sore distress. With the grass ap- 
peared game, great and small, but as yet they had not 
learned to be successful as hunters. As soon as the first 
showers fell a piece of ground was dug over, in which 
Hendrik Boom, the gardener, planted seeds, and soon the 
sick were enjoying such delicacies as radishes, lettuce, and 
cress. Then they found good reeds for thatch, and when the 
buildings were covered in with these instead of boards and 
torn sails, they could almost bid defiance to the heavy rains. 

Those were days in which the observances ordinarily 
connected with a profession of religion were very strictly 
adhered to. No one was permitted to be absent from public 
prayers without good and suflBcient reasons, but no one was 
allowed to worship God publicly in any other manner than 
that the government approved of. Eeligious phrases were 
constantly in people's mouths, and their correspondence was 
charged with quotations from Scripture and ejaculatory 
prayers. A great deal of this was as much mere form as 
the words * God save the Queen * at the foot of a proclama- 
tion against evading the customs are at the present day, but 
it is certain that matters connected with pubhc worship 
then occupied more of the people's attention than they do 
now. 

lu these, its most prosperous days, the Netherlands East 
India Company provided for the religious needs of its ser- 
vants in a very liberal manner. Its largest ships and its 
most important possessions were all furnished with chap- 
lains paid from its funds. Its smaller vessels and such 
stations as the Cape for some years after its formation were 
provided with men of lower ecclesiastical rank. They were 
called comforters of the sick, or sick-visitors, and held offices 



1652] Jan van Riebeek. 21 

similar to those of catechists in the English church and 
evangelists in various Presbyterian bodies. They instructed 
the children and conducted religious services, but did not 
administer the sacraments. 

A sick-visitor, Willem Barents Wylant by name, came 
to South Africa in the Dromedaris with Mr. Van Eiebeek. 
His family was the first to whom quarters were assigned 
within the walls of the fort, where on the 6th of June his 
wife gave birth to a son, the first child of European blood 
bom in the Cape Colony. The chaplains of ships that called 
conducted services during their stay, and usually adminis- 
tered the sacraments. The reverend Mr. Backerius, chap- 
lain of the WcUvisch, was the first who is recorded to have 
done so in South Africa, but it is possible that the Haarlem 
had a clergyman on board, in which case the rites of the 
church would certainly have been attended to during the 
time the crew of that vessel remained in Table Valley. 

The duties of the sick-visitors were strictly defined, and 
in the Company's service no one was permitted to go beyond 
his assigned sphere of labour. Every one had his place, 
knew it, and was kept to it. During the time of greatest 
trouble, however, the sick-visitor Wylant took upon himself 
to address the people in his own words, instead of reading a 
printed sermon as he was bound to do. In the following 
year information of this was carried to Batavia, and 
reached the ears of the clergy there. No fault was found 
with the doctrines which he preached, but that an unor- 
dained man should venture to address a congregation was 
considered a scandal to the Christian church. The ecclesi- 
astical court of Batavia addressed the governor-general and 
council of India on the subject, and forthwith a despatch was 
sent to Mr. Van Eiebeek requiring him to prohibit such 
irregular proceedings. A letter from the ecclesiastical court 
was also sent to the commander to the same effect, in which 
it is stated that the sick-visitor should have known better 
than to put his sickle into another's harvest and take to 
himself honour which did not belong to him. This incident 



22 History of South Africa. [1652 

shows what importance the Dutch clergy then attached to a 
strict adherence to the established order of things, and how 
they objected to anything like innovation. 

During the winter there were many heavy storms, and so 
much rain fell that on several occasions the valley was quite 
flooded. The ground that was prepared for gardens was 
twice washed away. But as soon as a storm was over, the 
people set to work again and laid fresh plots under cultiva- 
tion. The land was now swarming with elands and harte- 
beests and steenbucks, but the hunters with their clumsy 
firelocks could not get within range of them. Mr. Van 
Biebeek caused pitfalls to be made and snares to be set, but 
all this labour was in vain, for during the whole season only 
one young hartebeest was secured, and that was run down 
by dogs. As soon as the workmen regained a little strength 
the fort and the buildings it enclosed were taken in hand 
again, so that by the 3rd of August the whole party managed 
to get shelter within the walls. The heavy rains were found 
not to damage the earthworks in the least, for the whole had 
been faced with sods as soon as the ground was soft enough 
to dig them. 

At times the bay seemed to be filled with whales. They 
came spouting in front of the commander's quarters nearly 
every day, and caused him to reflect with regret upon the 
loss which the Company was sustaining by his inabihty to 
secure their oil. He had no men to spare to follow them up, 
nor casks to preserve the oil in. On the 13th of August he 
summoned his council, principally to take this matter into 
consideration, and endeavour to devise and arrange some 
plan for getting possession of the wealth before their eyes. 
There were present at the council board the commander 
himself, Simon Pieter Turver and Gerrit Abelsen, master 
and mate of the yacht Goed^ Hoop, and the corporal Joost 
van der Laeck. Pieter van der Helm kept a record of the 
proceedings. They discussed the situation of affairs gener- 
ally, and expressed their hope that assistance to finish the 
fort would soon be furnished by the crews of the ships 



1652] Jan van Riebeek. 23 

expected from Europe. They then decided to represent to 
the admiral of the outward-bomid fleet, as soon as he should 
arrive in Table Bay, that in their opinion a good profit could 
be made out of oil, and to request assistance from him to 
establish a whale fishery. Without help they could do noth- 
ing, as even if they had all the requisite materials at hand 
the labourers were still so feeble and sickly that anything 
beyond the necessary work in the gardens and on the build- 
ings could not be undertaken. 

In the second week of September the Goede Hoop was 
sent to Eobben Island on a cruise of observation. She 
returned with more than a hundred sea-birds and three 
thousand eggs, a supply of food which was very welcome as 
a change. The commander immediately resolved to visit the 
island in person. He found that the gulls had destroyed all 
the eggs which had been left in the nests disturbed by the 
Goede Hoop's crew. The seals, from which the island has 
its name, were not seen in very great numbers. The sailors 
drove a flock of penguins like so many sheep to the water's 
edge, where they were secured and put on board the yacht. 

Soon after his return from Bobben Island, the com- 
mander proceeded to inspect the country back of the Devil's 
peak. He was fairly enraptured with the beauty and fer- 
tility of the land there, and drew a bright mental picture of 
what it might become if an industrious Chinese population 
were introduced and located upon it. In such a case, there 
would be an unlimited supply of fresh provisions always to 
be obtained. The Chinese seem to have been favourites of 
Mr. Van Biebeek, for he often wrote of them as the most 
suitable people to carry out the Company's designs in South 
Africa. He addressed the governor-general and council of 
India on the subject, and represented his views to the 
assembly o^ seventeen, but fortunately for this country there 
were no Chinese emigrants then to be got hold of. If there 
had been a hundred convicts of that race in the Company's 
eastern possessions in 1653 or 1654, the whole future of the 
Cape Colony would have been changed. 



24 History of South Africa. [1652 

During this inspection of the country, the commander 
and his party visited the forests then to be found along the 
base of the mountains and extending into all the kloofs. 
There were trees of great size in them, and some so straight 
that they seemed well adapted for ships* masts. The variety 
of timber was considerable. Mr. Van Biebeek observed that 
these forests had been visited long before, as on some of the 
trees the dates 1604, 1620, and 1622 were found carved, but 
no names or initials were seen. 

Toward the close of September a party of four men set 
out from the fort with the intention of making their way 
overland to Mozambique, from which place they hoped to be 
able to obtain a passage to Europe. So little knowledge had 
they of the distance of the Portuguese possessions and of the 
dangers of such a journey, or so utterly reckless had their 
past sufferings made them, that they left provided with no 
other food than four biscuits and a few fish. Following the 
Dutch custom in every voyage or journey, the leader of the 
Uttle band of fugitives kept a diary of occurrences, which he 
wrote with red chalk. It commences * In the name of the 
Lord Jesus Christ/ and tells of adventures with wild animals 
and how God preserved them, until at last Willem Hujrt- 
jens, Gerrit Dircksen, and Jan Verdonck could go no farther. 
Then the leader, Jan Blanx, not being able to continue the 
journey alone, was obliged to abandon hope of success, and 
they all returned to the fort and gave themselves up, praying 
for mercy. They had been absent eight days. During this 
time the commander discovered that a spirit of disaffection 
was widely spread among the workmen. They had been 
looking forward to the arrival of the outward-bound fleet of 
1652 for some relief, but it was now almost certain that the 
ships had passed by, and they were beginning to entertain 
feelings of despair. Mr. Van Eiebeek believed that severity 
was necessary to meet such difSculties, and he therefore 
caused some individuals who had uttered hasty expressions 
to be arrested and tried for sedition. Under such circum- 
stances, the return of the fugitives and their admission that 



1652] Jan van Riebeek. 25 

escape by land was impossible gave him great satisfaction. 
When brought to trial, they all pleaded guilty and asked for 
mercy, but they were condemned to two years* hard labour 
in chains and their leader to suffer severe corporal punish- 
ment. The last part of this sentence was carried out, but 
on the following new year's day the culprits were released 
upon promise of future good behaviour. 

The fort was yet far from completed, but it was considered 
by the commander to be capable of defence, and he was 
therefore turning his attention to other matters. A party 
of men was told off daily to assist Hendrik Boom in the 
gardens. Preparations were made for forming a whaling 
estabhshment near the mouth of Salt Biver as soon as men 
and materials for the purpose could be obtained. The coun- 
try for a few miles around was well explored. The fine 
forests at Hout Bay were inspected, and the facility with 
which fuel could be procured there was noted down. Then 
the yacht Goede Hoop, which had been lying idle all the 
winter and on several occasions had narrowly escaped being 
driven on shore in the gales, was made ready for a short 
voyage to the northward. 

So little did the commander and council then know of the 
south-west coast of Africa that they discussed the hkehhood 
of gold, ambergris, musk, and ivory being obtainable in trade 
at Saldanha Bay. They considered it at any rate certain 
that people would be found there, because Admiral Joris van 
Spilbergen saw the smoke of many fires inland when he 
passed by in November 1601. From the journal of Spil- 
bergen's voyage they ascertained that be had seen great 
numbers of seals and conies on Dassen Island. And Simon 
Pieter Turver himself, when last he was at St. Helena with 
a return fleet from the Indies, had heard a French skipper 
who arrived there at the same time boast that his cargo of 
sealskins and oil, which he had obtained on this coast, was 
worth over eight thousand pounds sterling. 

The yacht was detained by contrary winds until the 21st 
of October, when she stood out of Table Bay with a fair 



26 History of South Africa. [1652 

breeze, and in a few hours anchored off Elizabeth or Dassen 
Island. The skipper with a party of sailors and the clerk 
Frederik Verburg then went ashore. There was evidence 
that the island had been used very recently as a sealing 
station, for they saw some huts still standing, which had 
been constructed of sealskins and ribs of whales, and found 
some of the implements required in that pursuit. They 
killed twenty conies, the flesh of which they described after- 
wards as the most delicious meat they had ever tasted. 
They saw a great many seals, and wild fowl innumerable, of 
whose eggs they took on board about twelve thousand, and 
then set sail for Saldanha Bay. The description which 
they have left on record of this splendid sheet of water is 
fairly accurate, though they believed that a great river 
emptied into its southern end. It extends so far into the 
land that they did not explore it thoroughly. A few 
wretched Hottentots, of the same stamp as Harry's beach- 
rangers, were found on its shores, but there were none 
possessed of cattle living there at the time. After they had 
been in the bay several days, however, a party of pastoral 
Hottentots arrived and brought a couple of sheep which they 
bartered to the strangers, but beyond these, a handful of 
ostrich feathers, and three antelopes shot with arrows, 
nothing whatever was to be obtained in trade. Some fish 
were caught with a seine, and the advantages which the bay 
offered for this pursuit were duly noted. 

Skipper Turver, having venison, fish, and abundance of 
eggs, deemed it prudent not to slaughter the two sheep, but 
to put them upon an islet where they could graze until 
needed. For this purpose he landed upon Schapen Island, 
where as they were roaming about some of the men came 
upon a great heap of dried sealskins. Upon examination, it 
was found that a few on the top had been partly destroyed 
by the action of the weather, but there were over two 
thousand seven hundred in excellent condition. Scattered 
about were various articles which explained the matter. A 
French vessel had been there the previous season, and 



1652] Jan van Riebeek. 27 

having secured more than she could take away, had left the 
heap of skins behind. Some of the islands were then 
swarming with seals, so that Skipper Turver concluded the 
French ship would speedily return for another cargo. In 
his opinion the Netherlands East India Company, having 
built a fort at the Cape, was now entitled to the exclusive 
enjoyment of this source of profit. He therefore caused all 
the good skins to be removed to the hold of the yacht, and 
set up a mark of possession on behalf of the Company where 
the heap had been. After this the Goede Hoop examined 
the coast round St. Helena Bay, visited Dassen Island again, 
and then returned to her old anchorage off the fort, where 
she arrived safely on the 14th of November. 

About the 1st of October the fires of the Eaapmans 
began to be visible far away to the northward, and on the 
9th of that month two of their scouts arrived at the fort 
with news that the whole clan with its flocks and herds was 
approaching, to which Mr. Van Riebeek responded heartily, 
'God grant it. Amen.* The two strangers were much finer 
specimens of the Hottentot race than any of the famine- 
stunted beachrangers. They were naked, but each carried over 
his arm a kaross of prepared skins, just as a European dandy 
of those days would carry his mantle. As ornaments they wore 
solid ivory armlets and various decorations made of copper. 

The conmiander had positive orders to conciliate the 
natives, and his own necessities at this moment were so 
great that, apart from duty or inclination, he would have 
been obliged to show them every mark of friendship. The 
provisions which he had brought from the fatherland were 
getting low, the outward-bound fleet had evidently passed by, 
and it would be many months before the return fleet could 
be expected. The very existence of his party might depend 
upon obtaining a supply of cattle. The visitors were there- 
fore treated with the utmost hospitaUty; they were shown 
the stores of copper plates, brass wire, and tobacco, which 
had been brought for trade, and when they left they carried 
presents and messages of friendship with them. 



28 History of South Africa, [1652 

The Kaapmans were moving slowly with their cattle, as 
it was their custom to seek change of pasture only when the 
grass in any place was eaten ofiT. Their scouts and mes- 
sengers after this came often to the fort, but it was not until 
the 20th that they brought anything for sale. On that day 
the trade of the season commenced by Mr. Van Biebeek 
obtaining in barter three head of horned cattle, four sheep, 
three tusks of ivory, and two young ostriches. Shortly after 
this, the main body of Gogosoa's people reached the penin- 
sula, and thousands of cattle were grazing in sight of the fort 
and at the back of the mountain, where the villages of 
Bondebosch and Claremont now stand. The Europeans and 
the natives met together openly on the best of terms, but 
there are evidences that they were suspicious of each other. 
The conunander caused the guards at the fort to be doubled 
during the time the Kaapmans remained in the neighbour- 
hood, and often when a smaJl party of Europeans approached 
the Hottentots, these would scamper away in fear. A brisk 
trade was, however, opened up, and soon Mr. Van Biebeek 
had the satisfaction of seeing a goodly herd in his possession. 

All intercourse was prohibited between the workmen and 
the natives. The trade was carried on by the commander 
himself, assisted by one of the clerks, Verburg or Van der 
Helm. It was arranged that flat copper bars and tobacco 
should be exchanged for homed cattle, and brass wire and 
tobacco for sheep, so that bartering consisted principally in 
fixing the quantities of these articles. The Hottentots 
brought ostrich eggs, tortoise shells, and occasionally an 
ostrich feather or two, which the workmen seemed desirous 
of obtaining in return for bits of tobacco, but the commander 
threatened to punish any of his people very severely who 
should attempt to infringe his regulations. He had no 
notion of permitting anything that might hamper the Com- 
pany's trade, even in the slightest degree, and he feared also 
that the sailors and soldiers might hghtly provoke a quarrel 
with those whom he wished to conciUate. He thought that 
large quantities of ivory and ostrich feathers might in time 



1652] Jan van Riebetk. 29 

be obtained if the Hottentots could be assured of a safe 
mazket, bat veiy soon he foond that they were too indolent 
to hunt elephants and ostriches expressly for this purpose, 
and only Ixonght in what they picked up. It was not in his 
power to create among them new wants, for the gratification 
of which they would be willing to make any unusual exertion. 

The Eaapmans, though they were very fond of European 
food and ate heartily of anything that was given to them» 
were observed to be living in their own encampments almost 
^itirely upon milk. This they kept in leather bags, just as 
many of the Bantu do at the present day, and they partook 
of it by dipping a little swab into the bag and then sucking 
it Children sacked the ewes, which the mothers held ibsX 
for them. There was nothing which they coveted from the 
Europeans so much as tobacco, and without this no trade 
whatever could be dona 

Harry, who had his food from the commander's own 
table and who was dressed as a European, was the inter- 
preter between the two races. But whenever the cattle 
trade slackened or anything went wrong, Mr. Van Biebeek 
attributed it to the bad advice given by him to the oth^r 
Hottentots. He gave oflfence also by frequently expressing a 
wish for the arrival of an English fleet, and boasting of the 
favours he had received from people of that nation. His 
services could not well be dispensed with, but Mr. Van 
Biebeek was already endeavouring to educate interpreters to 
take his placa When the Goede Hoop was sent to Sal- 
danha Bay, a Hottentot boy was sent in her purposely that 
he might learn the Dutch language, and the commander had 
taken into his own house one of Harry's nieces, a girl who 
was called Eva by the Europeans, and who was being 
trained to civilised habits. 

In December the Kaapmans set fire to the dry grass 
everywhere except in the pastures which Mr. Van Biebeek 
requested them to spare for bis use, and they then moved 
away from Table Valley with their cattle. Before they left 
they made a proposal which shows forcibly the savage con- 



30 History of South Africa. [1653 

dition of the Hottentot clans. They asked the commander 
to join them in an attack upon their enemies, offering to let 
him take all the spoil in return for his assistance. Mr. Van 
Biebeek replied that he had come to trade in friendship with 
all, and declined to take any part in their dissensions. But 
while thus preserving the appearance of dealing justly and 
amicably, his correspondence shows how ready he was to act 
in a different manner if he had not been bound down by 
strict orders from the directors. It would be so easy, he 
observed, to seize ten or twelve thousand head of cattle for 
the use of the Company, and to send their owners to India 
to be sold as slaves, that it was a pity he was prohibited 
from doing it. 

Parties of the Eaapmaus remained in the neighbourhood 
for some time after the main body left, so that Mr. Van 
Biebeek was enabled to continue the trade with them by 
sending out a few men furnished with such goods as were in 
demand. By the end of January 1653, when the last of the 
stragglers had moved away, he had obtained altogether two 
hundred and thirty head of homed cattle and five hundred 
and eighty sheep. 

The strong south-east winds had nearly destroyed the 
wheat and peas, but the cabbages, turnips, and carrots had 
thriven wonderfully well, and there was a good supply of 
these in readiness for the return fleet. Bread and other pro- 
visions brought from home were nearly exhausted. In order 
to spare the cattle for the use of the fleet, the resources of 
the islands and the sea were still drawn upon. Conies, 
young seals, penguins and other sea-birds, eggs, and fish 
formed a large portion of the diet of the labourers. Natur- 
ally they were constantly complaining, and some of them 
even carried on a system of plundering the gardens at night, 
stealing and kilhng sheep, pretending to be sick, and other- 
wise setting at nought the general articles by which they 
were governed. Very severe punishments were inflicted, but 
all to no purpose, for the disorder continued until the cause 
was removed. 



31 



CHAPTEE II. 

MR. VAN RIEBEEK'S ADMINISTRATION (conUnued), 

For nearly eight months there had been no vessel but the 
little yacht in the bay, when on the 18th of January 1653 
the galiot Zwarte Vos, Skipper Theunis Eyssen, arrived. 
She had sailed from Texel on the 4th of the preceding 
September, and was sent to convey intelligence that war 
had commenced between the Netherlands and the Common- 
wealth of England. Two other vessels, the yacht Haas 
and the galiot Boode Vos, had been despatched on the same 
errand, but the Zwarte Vos had outstripped them both. 
The Haus, indeed, did not arrive in Table Bay until the 
26th of March, and the Boode Vos made her first appear- 
ance on the 2nd of June. 

The despatches brought by the Zwarte Vos are still in 
a perfect state of preservation in our archives. There are 
three documents dated on the 24th of July 1652, and five 
supplementary dated on the 20th and 21st of August. 
The first are addressed to the governor-general and coun- 
cillors of India, to the ofl&cers of the Company's establish- 
ments at Gambroon and Surat, and to the conmiander of 
the fort Good Hope. They all bear the original signatures 
of a committee of the directors, as several copies of each 
document were made and signed at the same time. The 
purport of these despatches is that since the English had 
beheaded their king and adopted a new form of government, 
they had determined not to live in friendship with their 
neighbours. The Dutch ambassadors in London had pro- 
posed every arrangement that was reasonable to maintain 



32 History of South Africa, [1653 

peace, but vnthout any effect. It was plain that England 
was bent upon appropriating all trade to herself, upon 
acquiring the dmmnium marisj the sovereignty and property 
of the high seas, and this no nation, especially the free 
Netherlands, could ever again submit to. The paths of the 
wide ocean must be open alike to every flag. For eighty 
years the States had fought for freedom, and had acquired 
renown not only for the generation then hving but for 
posterity. They were at war with Portugal, and the 
Almighty knew that they did not seek another enemy, but 
they could not submit to the pretensions of England, and 
depending on God's blessing on their good cause they were 
resolved to oppose such claims with all their power. 

It was believed that the EngUsh would send a fleet to 
St. Helena to lie in wait for the Company's vessels return- 
ing home with rich cargoes from India. Instructions were 
therefore given that the ships were to keep together and 
avoid that part of the Atlantic. Their course was laid 
down west and north of the British Islands to the coast of 
Norway, and then along the European shore to the havens 
of the fatherland. The commander of the fort Good Hope 
was directed to strengthen his garrison by detaining twenty- 
five or thirty soldiers from the first ships that should call, 
and he was to guard carefully against surprise by the enemy. 

The council at once resolved to detain the galiot here, 
and to send the Goede Hoop, as the better vessel of the 
two, to Batavia with the intelligence. The yacht had been 
for the second time to Saldanha Bay and Dassen Island, but 
was then at anchor off the fort. In five days she was ready 
for sea, and on the 23rd she sailed. 

Every exertion that was possible was now put forth to 
strengthen the fort, so that an attempt might be made to 
defend it in case of attack. There is no doubt that the 
commander would have done all that a brave and faithful 
officer could do to protect the post under his charge, but it 
was well for him thit no enemy appeared. His cannon, he 
states, were so Ught that they would not throw a ball more 



1653] y<^« ^^« Rtebeek. 33 

than halfway to the anchorage. The fort was commanded 
by the flank of the Lion's ramp, so that if an enemy of even 
trifling strength once landed, it must have surrendered. 
Several of the garrison were disaffected, and a few were 
ready to commit almost any crime. It is thus evident that 
Mr. Van Biebeek's means of defence against any force more 
formidable than a Hottentot horde were not at this time to 
be depended on. 

On the 2nd of March five ships from India, under the 
flag of Admiral Gerard Demmer, arrived in the bay. That 
very morning the last ration of bread had been issued to the 
workmen, but there was then no fear of starvation, for Mr. 
Van Riebeek was able to supply abundance of fresh meat 
and vegetables to the crews of all the ships that called 
during the next two months. On the 26th the Haas arrived 
from the Netherlands, and on the 14th of April the yacht 
Windhond followed her in. On the 17th of April the bay 
was clear again, for on that day Admiral Demmer*s five 
ships sailed for the fatherland and the two yachts proceeded 
on their voyage to Batavia. But next morning the Muyden 
arrived from Texel with news up to the 26th of December, 
and within a few days three Indiamen from Batavia entered 
the bay, where they remained until the 6th of the following 
month. From these various ships the commander was able 
to replenish his stores with everything that he needed, 
except the material for carrying on a whale fishery, which 
project he was obhged to defer still longer. 

A few weeks after the departure of the Goringhaiquas, 

some small parties of another clan living farther inland 

arrived in Table Valley. They had heard that copper and 

tobacco were to be obtained in exchange for cattle, and they 

came therefore to trade. This was precisely what Mr. Van 

Riebeek most desired. From them he obtained seventy-five 

head of horned cattle and twenty-one sheep, besides a few 

tusks of ivory. These figures added to those previously 

given show the extent of trade here in the first year of the 

European occupation. 

VOL. I. 3 



34 History of South Africa. [1653 

On the 2nd of June the gahot Boode Vos, which had long 
been given up for lost, made her appearance. Her skipper 
and mate had died at sea, and for three months and a half 
the galiot had been beating aboat off the Cape, looking for 
Table Bay. She was kept here in order to bring shells from 
Eobben Island to be burnt for lime, wood from Hout Bay for 
fuel, eggs, birds, and conies from Dassen Island for provi- 
sions, and other such purposes. The Zwa/rte VoSy which had 
been employed in this service, was sent to Gambroon with 
despatches. 

The second winter spent in South Africa was uneventful. 
There was plenty of food for all, and consequently not much 
sickness. Building was carried on in a satisfactory manner, 
oxen were trained to draw timber from the forests behind 
the Devil's peak, and much new ground was broken up. 
Wild animals gave more trouble than anything else. The 
hons were so bold that they invaded the cattle kraal by 
night, though armed men were always watching it, and the 
leopards came down from the mountain in broad dayUght 
and carried away sheep under the eyes of the herdsmen. 
One morning before daybreak there was a great noise in the 
poultry pens, and when the guards went to see what was the 
matter, they found that all the ducks and geese had been 
killed by wild cats. The country appeared to be swarming 
vdth ravenous beasts of different kinds. 

In August the ships Salamander, Phoenix, and Koning 
David arrived from home, and were provided vnth fresh pro- 
visions during the stay. On board the Phoenix was a young 
man named Jacob Byniers, who held the rank of junior 
merchant, and whom the commander was desirous of having 
for an assistant. He therefore convened a broad council, 
and represented that in case of his death or temporary 
absence from the fort there was no one of higher rank than 
a sergeant to perform his duties, in which event the Com- 
pany's property would be exposed to much hazard. The 
council thereupon agreed that Mr. Byniers should remain at 
the Cape. He was the first who held the office of secunde, 



1653] y<^^^ ^^« Riebeek. 35 

or second in authority, in the settlement. Three months 
later he was married to Miss EUzabeth van Opdorp, niece 
and ward of Mr. Van Eiebeek. 

On the 2nd of September a small party of Hottentots 
came to the fort with a few cattle for sale, but as they were 
not followed by others, the council resolved to send the 
Boode Vos to Saldanha Bay to ascertain if the Goringhaiquas 
were in that neighbourhood, and, if so, to try to open up a 
trade with them. The galiot was just about to sail when 
Harry informed the commander that he had heard from two 
Hottentots that a large ship was lying in Saldanha Bay. 
Thereupon it was resolved to send Mr. Ryniers and six 
soldiers to ascertain particulars. After an absence of eight 
days, the party returned overland, with intelhgence that the 
ship was under the French flag and that her crew had been 
engaged more than six months killing seals on the islands. 
They had nearly completed a cargo of forty-eight thousand 
skins and a good many casks of oil. The skipper intended to 
sail shortly for Rochelle, and very pohtely offered to take 
any letters or despatches, which he promised to forward 
to Amsterdam. 

The correspondence which is found concerning this event 
shows how lightly falsehood was regarded by Mr. Van 
Riebeek. We must remember, however, that duplicity was 
in that age generally practised by men in his position every- 
where throughout Europe. He had the ideas of the seven- 
teenth century, not of the nineteenth, and one of those ideas 
was that deceit was allowable in conducting public affairs. 
The commander believed it to be to the interest of the East 
India Company to keep foreigners away from South Africa, 
and he did not scruple to practise fraud towards them. Mr. 
R)miers represented that many of the French seamen wished 
to desert, as they were provided with no other food than 
what could be collected on the islands. Mr. Van Riebeek 
thereupon caUed the council together, and suggested a plan 
for damaging the Frenchman. It was resolved to send four 
men overland to Saldanha Bay, with instructions to the 



36 History of South Africa. [1653 

officers of the galiot to entice as many as possible of the 
French seamen to desert, as by so doing the ship might be 
crippled and her owners discouraged from sending her back 
again. 

Frederik Verburg, who miderstood the French language, 
was at the same time sent with a complimentary message to 
the master of the French ship. He was to say that Mr. 
Van Biebeek regretted very much that he had no convey- 
ance by which he could send a supply of fresh provisions to 
Saldanha Bay, but if Monsieur would do him the honour of 
coming to Table Bay he would be very happy to furnish 
him with abundance of everything, including geese, ducks, 
partridges, and salad, for his own table. A letter was sent 
for the directors, but the most important paragraph in it 
was written in a strange language, which only two or three 
persons in Amsterdam were able to interpret. 

There was nothing gained, however, by this double deal- 
ing, for the French skipper suspected that hostile designs 
were entertained against him, and took such precautions 
that only four of his men managed to escape. With these 
the Roode Vos returned to Table Bay, having had no com- 
munication with any Hottentots from whom cattle were to 
be obtained. The parties who had travelled overland saw 
many rhinoceroses, and on two occasions were obUged to 
make a detour to avoid troops of elephants. 

On the 18th of October the second child of European 
parentage was born in the fort Good Hope. The infant 
was a son of Commander Van Kiebeek, and was destined to 
become a man of distinction. In 1709, when he was fifty- 
six years of age, he attained the rank of governor-general of 
Netherlands India, which he held until his death in 1713. 

On the morning of Sunday the 19th of October the 
garrison was assembled in the great hall of the commander's 
residence, where religious services were regularly held. The 
sentries were at their posts on the ramparts, and Hendrik 
Wilders and David Janssen, the two cattle herds, were 
tending the oxen and cows, but nearly every one else was 



1653] Jccn van Riebeek. 37 

listening to a sermon which Dominie Wylant, the sick-com- 
forter, was reading. Ever since the Europeans landed, the 
beachranger Hottentots had been living mostly with them, 
the men idling about all day and the women and children 
carrying firewood and performing other trifling services in 
return for their food. They were now well clothed after 
their fashion, for the skins of the cattle that had been 
slaughtered were given to them to be made into karosses. 
As for Harry, the principal man among them, he lived in a 
hut not a pistol shot from the gate of the fort, but he had 
his food from the commander's own table, and was sup- 
plied with bread and other provisions for his family in return 
for his services as an interpreter. When the Europeans 
went to their devotions that morning, all was still and quiet 
as usual. There were no strangers in Table Valley, and no 
one was moving about, for a drizzUng rain was drifting 
up from the Atlantic before a westerly breeze. 

When the sermon was over, one of the guards reported 
to the commander that Harry, with his whole family carry- 
ing his household effects, had left his hut during the service, 
but no notice was taken of this at the time. In a few 
minutes it was observed that Eva was missing, and then, 
just as the commander was sitting down to dinner, came 
Hendrik Wilders, the herdsman, with information that his 
companion had been murdered and that the beachrangers 
had driven off forty-two of the cattle, leaving only two 
behind them. His story was that he had come to the fort 
for some food, leaving the youth David Janssen in charge 
of the cattle, which were grazing at the end of the Lion's 
rump. Upon his return he found the corpse of the lad, 
who had been murdered vsrith assagais, and saw the cattle 
being driven hastily round the mountain. 

Mr. Van Biebeek had three Javanese horses, which 
had been sent from Batavia in the last ships that arrived 
here. Upon these, soldiers were mounted and sent round 
by Sea Point to follow up the robbers, while another 
party proceeded over the low neck l^etween Table Moun- 



38 History of South Africa. [1653 

tain and the Lion's head in hope of intercepting them. 
But the pursuit was a failure, though it was continued for 
several days. On one occasion Corporal Jan van Har- 
warden with his company of seventeen soldiers nearly over- 
took the fugitives at the head of False Bay, but the sand 
was so heavy that the Europeans became exhausted, and 
though all the cattle were then in sight, only one cow was 
recovered. 

Since 1653 this scene has been repeated a thousand 
times in South Africa, but it was new to Mr. Van Riebeek's 
experience. Its immediate effect was to incite an intense 
hatred of the Hottentots among the soldiers and other 
workmen. In consequence of this, the commander was 
compelled to make the regulations prohibiting intercourse 
with them more stringent even than they were before. 

During the next two months very few Hottentots 
visited Table Valley. Harry's people made their peace with 
the Goringhaiquas, among whom they took refuge, and 
probably persuaded them not to go near the fort. The 
supply of flat copper bars, the only sort in demand, was 
exhausted, and without this article in stock very few cattle 
were to be had at any tima And so there was httle trade 
done, and a great deal of suffering was the result. In 
place of beef, the labourers were obliged to eat penguins, 
and even salted seals' flesh. The theft of the oxen imposed 
additional toil upon them also. The fort was being enclosed 
with palisades, cut in the forest behind the Devil's peak, 
and instead of being drawn on a waggon these had now to 
be carried on the shoulders of the men. Besides this work, 
a sealing establishment was formed at Dassen Island, and 
a redoubt, which was first called Tranenburg and after- 
wards Duynhoop, was commenced at the mouth of Salt 
Eiver. 

In December the ships Naarden, Breda, and Lam arrived 
from Texel, and were supplied with vegetables in plenty, 
but only three oxen could be obtained for them. They 
were followed early in 1654 by the Vrede, Kalf, and Draak, 



1653] Jcin van Riebeek. 39 

these six ships forming the outward bound fleet of the 
season. The Vrede belied her name, for her olB&cers were 
quarrelling so violently with each other that the council 
considered it necessary to place some one in authority over 
them all. For this purpose the secunde Jacob Ryniers was 
chosen, and to enable him to fill such a position, the rank 
of merchant was given to him provisionally. After his 
departure, the ofl&ce which he had held here remained 
vacant for some time. 

When exploring along the base of the mountain, one 
day a stone was discovered which contained some glittering 
specks, and on quarrying deeper it was found in large 
quantities. The commander was nearly certain that the 
specks were silver, and to enable him to test the mineral, 
he sent a party of men to a Hottentot horde encamped 
close by to purchase some earthenware pots, which would 
stand exposure to intense heat. It is by casual references 
of this kind that a good deal of information is often con- 
veyed. These naked Hottentots, it seems, understood how 
to make earthenware jars, and Mr. Van Biebeek had ob- 
served that the jars were so well tempered that they could 
be used as crucibles. Not one, however, was to be obtained. 
The commander then caused several crucibles to be made 
by one of the workmen who knew something of that busi- 
ness, and had a small quantity of charcoal prepared. The 
experiments made here vdth the mineral proved nothing, 
but specimens were afterwards sent to Batavia and to 
the Netherlands, when it was ascertained not to contain 
silver. 

The return fleet was now beginning to be anxiously 
looked for, as supplies were expected from Batavia, and 
various necessaries were almost exhausted. Of vegetables 
there was abundance, but of nothing else. The few sheep, 
which the commander was reserving for the fleet, were 
placed upon Bobben Island, where the pasture was ex- 
ceedingly good. Some European rabbits and a number of 
conies were also turned loose there. A small party of men 



40 History of South Africa, [1654 

was stationed on the island to collect seal skins and oil, 
and look after the sheep. 

Bepeated efforts were made to induce the Hottentots to 
re-open the cattle trade, but without success. One large 
horde had been plundered by Bushmen of neaxly the whole 
of its stock, and therefore had nothing to spare. Others 
wanted flat copper, the supply of which was exhausted. 
Harry was said to be somewhere inland, but the remaining 
beachrangers were seen with Gogosoa's people, and the 
Company's cattle were recognised among herds grazing at 
the back of the mountains. The sailors and soldiers were 
eager to recover the stolen property and to take vengeance 
for the murder of the youth David Janssen, but the com- 
mander would not permit any hostility whatever. He had 
received instructions to inspire confidence by kindness, and 
though he would gladly have seized a herd of cattle and 
made slaves of "their owners, he would not disobey his 
orders. He states that it was hard to do so, but he allowed 
the very robbers to shake hands with him, and actuaUy re- 
purchased from them two or three of the cows which they 
had stolen. 

This kind of treatment dispelled the fears of the Goring- 
haiquas so completely that by midsummer they came about 
the fort as freely as before, but would not barter their cattle 
for anything in the magazine. Most of the beachrangers 
also returned, and finding that they were not to be punished, 
took up their residence near the fort again. Their principal 
service, as stated by the commander, was to collect fire- 
wood, but as that was a great relief to the labourers, he was 
very glad to encourage them. 

The 6th of April 1654, being the second anniversary of 
the arrival of the party of occupation, was kept as a day of 
thanksgiving to God for the measure of success which had 
been attained. It was Mr. Van Riebeek's desire that this 
anniversary should be observed as a holiday in perpetuity, 
but it seems to have been forgotten as soon as prosperity 
returned. Probably the distress in which they were, owing 



1654] Jan van Riebeek. 41 

to the scarcity of bread and meat, and the anxiety with 
which they were looking for the return fleet, caused them 
to keep this as a sacred day, for they had not so kept the 
6th of April 1653. It was impossible for them to have a 
feast, but they abstained from labour and listened to a long 
sermon, and thus made the most they could of the occasion. 

By the 15th of April the supply of imported provisions 
was so nearly exhausted that the people were reduced to 
two meals a day. All eyes were turned seaward for rehef, 
but not a sail appeared from the east. On the 18th the 
gaUot Tulp arrived from home, with information that secret 
orders had been sent to Batavia in 1653 that this year's 
return fleet was not to call at the Cape, but to push on to 
St. Helena and wait there for instructions. There was then 
only sufficient bread to last five or six weeks on the reduced 
scale, and no peas, beans, barley, or rice. It was therefore 
immediately resolved to send the Tul'p to St. Helena to pro- 
cure a supply of food from the return ships. The ^aliot 
was hastily got ready for the voyage, and sailed, taking 
with her the clerk Frederik Verburg, who was to represent 
the condition of the garrison to the officers of the fleet, and 
the assistant gardener Willem Gerrits, who was sent to 
bring some young apple and orange trees from the island. 

The Tulp returned from St. Helena on the 11th of June, 
having been only forty-one days absent. She had found 
the return fleet at anchor there, and had obtained a supply 
of rice and other provisions sufficient to meet immediate 
wants. Frederik Verburg, who left a clerk, returned a 
junior merchant, having been raised to that rank by the 
admiral and council of the fleet, by whom he had also been 
appointed secunde at the Cape. The gardener brought back 
some young fruit trees, which he had obtained from those 
long since planted and at this time growing nearly wild 
upon the island. 

After this the Tulp was sent to explore the coast of 
Africa from the Fish river to Delagoa Bay, and then to pro- 
ceed to Madagascar, where her officers were to endeavour 



42 Histoiy of South Africa, [1654 

to procure a cargo of rice. In one of the ships that called 
here in 1653 there was a missionary of the Society of Jesus, 
Martinus Martini by name, a German by birth, who was 
returning as a passenger from China to Europe. This man 
professed to have obtained from others of his order much 
knowledge concerning the country along the south-eastern 
coast, and he informed Mr. Van Eiebeek that gold, amber- 
gris, ivory, ebony, and slaves were to be obtained there in 
trade. He stated that the Portuguese obtained slaves and 
gold at Eio dos Eeys and Os Medaos do Ouro, for which 
purpose they sent two or three small vessels yearly from 
Mozambique. Very few Portuguese, he affirmed, were at 
any time to be found south of Cape Correntes. In his 
instructions to the secunde Frederik Verburg, who was sent 
to ascertain if Father Martini's account was correct, Mr. 
Van Eiebeek quoted Linschoten's description of the country 
as generally believed to be accurate. 

The galiot ran along the coast, but did nothing to rectify 
the errors on the chart. It was during the winter sea- 
son, and stormy weather was often encountered. A heavy 
surf was rolling in on the land, so that after leaving Mossel 
Bay no communication was had with the shore, and upon 
reaching the latitude of Delagoa Bay, the Tulp stood east- 
ward for Madagascar. At the bay of Antongil the natives 
were foimd to be friendly, and a considerable quantity of 
rice was purchased, with which the galiot returned to the 
Cape. 

In July two vessels arrived with supplies. The first 
was the yacht Goudshloemy from home, bringing with her 
an English sloop of seventy tons, which she had captured 
on the passage. The name of this vessel was changed 
from the Merchant to the Kaap Vogel, and as she was 
too lightly timbered for use on this coast, she was sent to 
Java. A few days later the yacht Haas arrived from 
Batavia with a quantity of rice. With her came the first 
of a class of persons afterwards numerous in South Africa, 
and whose descendants form at the present day an im- 



1654] J(tn van Riebeek. 43 

portant element in the population of Capetown. Four 
Asiatics had been sentenced by the high court of justice 
at Batavia to banishment and hard labour for life, of whom 
three were sent in the Haas to the island of Mauritius, 
which was then in the Company's possession, and one 
was brought to the fort Good Hope. 

On account of the war with England, the governor- 
general and council of India ordered a day to be set apart 
for prayer that the Almighty would bless their righteous 
cause and thanksgiving for the mercies vouchsafed to them. 
In the Indian seas they had secured five rich prizes, and 
had not lost as yet a single ship. Mr. Van Eiebeek con- 
sidered that in the case of the dwellers in the fort Good 
Hope there was cause for special thanksgiving. They had 
been in sore distress for want of food, and God had sent 
them abundance. He had so favoured the Tulp that she 
made the voyage to St. Helena and back in only forty- 
one days. Then He had given to the Gotcdsbloem such 
success that she had not only reached her destination safely 
and speedily, but also brought an English prize with her. 
And lastly He had filled the sails of the Haas with a 
favouring breeze, so that now there was plenty in their 
stores. The 23rd of July was for all these reasons set 
apart and observed as a holy day. 

On the 15th of August the yacht Vlieland arrived from 
Texel, having made a very rapid passage, for she brought 
news to the 19th of May. She was sent by the directors 
to convey tidings of the peace which had been concluded 
between the States and the Lord Protector of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland. Hereafter the English were to be 
treated as friends, for one of the articles of peace was that 
ships of either nation visiting the harbours of the other were 
to be permitted freely to purchase stores, provisions, or any 
other necessaries. 

A few months after this, the English ship East India 
Merchant, bound to Bantam, put into Table Bay, and was 
liberally supplied with vegetables. Her ofl&cers were enter- 



44 History of South Africa. [1655 

tained on several occasions by the commander, and in return 
the officers of the fort were invited on board, where they 
were very well received. An exchange of presents took 
place, and a little trade was carried on between them. 

The conclusion of peace with their great maritime rival 
enabled the Company to send out this season without risk a 
large fleet to India, and in a short time no fewer than 
twenty-one vessels called at Table Bay on their way east- 
ward. All were supplied with vegetables in abundance. 
Some of these ships had lost as many as fifty men on the 
passage, and when they dropped anchor had over a hundred 
helpless with scurvy. It would have been impossible for a 
little state hke the United Provinces to keep great fleets 
afloat with such a terrible loss of life occurring year after 
year, if it had not been that the lower ranks of the service 
were very largely recruited from foreign countries. The 
advantage of the Cape as a port of refreshment can hardly 
be realised without a knowledge of the ravages caused by 
scurvy in those days. The fresh provisions obtained here 
saved hundreds of lives yearly, and the detention was not so 
very great, for it was usual to put the feeblest men ashore 
and to take healthy ones in their place. The officers, in 
order to gain the premium of fifty pounds sterling for mak- 
ing the passage to Batavia within six months, at first some- 
times ran past without calling, but when this became known 
the temptation was removed by adding to the six months 
the time spent here. 

During this summer from twenty to thirty men were 
kept employed at Dassen Island and Saldanha Bay in con- 
nection with the sealing establishments, and the gahot Boode 
V08 was engaged pretty constantly in going backwards and 
forwards. The commander believed that the profits on the 
seal skins alone would more than defray the Company's 
expenses at the Cape, but the directors did not endorse his 
o]ainion. The Tulp was sent to 8t Helena for some horses 
'which were taken past in a ship from Batavia, and to try 
to zeoover those set ashore there from Van Teyhngen's fleet, 



1655] y^w ^^« Riebeek. 45 

but she returned with only two. It was in this season that 
the first vine stocks were introduced. They came from the 
borders of the Bhine, and were received by one of the out- 
ward bound ships. 

Since the robbery of the Company's cattle by the beach- 
rangers in October 1663, very Uttle trade had been done 
with the Hottentots. These people were still treated by 
the commander with kindness, but it was only because he 
had no choice in the matter. In this early stage of the 
colony's existence, the policy to be pursued towards the 
natives was already regarded differently in the mother 
country and in South Africa. The directors wrote to Mr. 
Van Eiebeek that the actual murderer of the youth David 
Janssen should be put to death, if he could be discovered, 
and that if necessary Harry could be sent as a prisoner to 
Batavia, but none of the other beachrangers were to be 
molested. Only the same number of cattle as were stolen 
should be seized in reprisal, and none were to be taken 
except from the robbers. 

The commander replied that it would be impossible to 
detect the real perpetrator of the murder, and that the 
robbers had nothing to be seized. He admitted that to 
retaliate upon their allies would cause a war, unless the 
whole were made prisoners at once. The correct way of 
relieving the settlement of a horde of idle and useless 
robbers would be to reduce them to servitude. lie main- 
tained that the provocation received was ample to justify 
such a proceeding, while the advantages of obtaining ten 
or twelve hundred head of cattle to breed from, and a large 
number of slaves for service on the islands and in Batavia, 
would be very great. 

The Kaapmans had of late visited Table Valley in large 
parties, and their conduct had every appearance of hostility. 
The Europeans were replacing their frail wooden houses 
with substantial brick buildings, they had turned about 
twelve morgen of ground into gardens, and dull as the 
Hottentots were, they could not but see that all this in- 



46 History of South Africa. [1655 

dnstry meant permanent occupation. This was not what 
they desired. They were willing for Europeans to come 
and trade with them, even to remain for months, as the 
Haarlem's crew had done, but to be excluded for ever from 
any portion of their pastures was not to then: Uking. They 
came and made their huts on the very margin of the moat, 
and when they were requested to move a little farther away 
they rephed that the ground was theirs and they would 
build wherever they chose. Everything that was left un- 
guarded was stolen by them. They even cut the brass 
buttons off the clothing of some children who were playing 
outside the fort. The workmen could only move about in 
companies and with arms in their hands. So apprehensive 
was the commander that they would proceed to the length 
of attacking the fort, that he caused the sentries to be 
doubled and extraordinary precautions to be observed. He 
was under the impression that Harry was at the bottom 
of all the mischief, and that the Kaapmans were following 
his advice. If he could be communicated with and induced 
to return to the fort all might yet be well, but where he 
was no one would say. 

Meantime it was with difficulty that the workmen were 
restrained from avenging the insults daily received. It was 
evident also that as long as the Kaapmans remained here, 
the natives farther inland would not bring cattle for sale, 
because there were constant feuds between them. Mr. 
Van Eiebeek at this time began to conceive the idea of 
entering into a treaty of friendship with some of the distant 
clans, enemies of those who were giving him so much 
trouble. But nothing was then known of such clans beyond 
the fact that they were in existence. Their names, 
strength, relationship to each other, and places of abode, 
were yet to be discovered. The commander had, however, 
no difficulty in finding men ready to go in quest of the 
knowledge required, and as soon as he expressed his wishes 
a party of volimteers came forward. 

In the service of the East India Company, recruited as it 



1655] Jan van Riebeek, 47 

was in all the Protestant countries of Europe, there were 
never wanting adventurers ready for any enterprise of 
hazard or daring. And it was a feat almost of rashness in 
the autumn of 1655 for a few men to attempt to penetrate 
the interior of this country. It was certain that there were 
enemies behind, and who was to say what foes and dangers 
there might not be in front ? Serving in the garrison of the 
fort Good Hope, in a capacity only one step higher than 
that of a common soldier, was a man named Jan Winter- 
vogel. He had been the leader of a band of explorers in 
the service of the Netherlands West India Company in 
Brazil, and had assisted in the discovery of a silver mine in 
that country. Then, starting westward from the Atlantic 
shore of the continent, he had travelled until he looked out 
upon the waters of the Great South sea. How he came 
into the East India Company's service is not stated, but 
here he was on the 15th of March 1655 ready to repeat in 
Africa his exploits in South America. Seven soldiers volun- 
teered to accompany him. 

The party was supplied with provisions for three weeks, 
and took six pounds of tobacco, six pounds of copper bars, 
and some beads, as samples of goods to be obtained at the 
fort in exchange for cattle. Their instructions were to learn 
as much as they could of the country, to try to induce some 
of the inland clans to come to the fort for the purpose of 
entering into alliance with the Europeans, and to search for 
precious metals. 

The route taken by the exploring party cannot be accu- 
rately laid down, but it appears to have been in the direction 
of the present village of Malmesbury, that course being 
chosen to avoid the mountain barrier that extended north 
and south on their right hand as far as the eye could reach. 
The travellers came in contact with a party of diminutive 
Bushmen, who were making ready to assail the strangers 
with bows and arrows when Wintervogel went towards them 
with some tobacco in his hands and beckoning in a friendly 
manner. The savages thereupon dropped their arrows, and 



48 History of South Africa, [1655 

accepted the tobacco, with the use of which they seem to 
have been acquainted. Wintervogel ascertained nothing 
more than that they had neither cattle nor huts, and that 
they were enemies of all their neighbours. He afterwards 
met several small parties of Hottentots, by all of whom he 
was treated in a friendly manner, and a large horde with 
great herds of cattle, of which they seemed disposed to part 
with some for flat copper bars and tobacco. None of them 
could be induced to come to the fort while the Goringhai- 
quas were in the neighbourhood. One of the party, named 
Jan de Yos, died from having eaten too many bitter 
almonds, but the others met with no accident. The ex- 
plorers were absent from the fort nineteen days. They 
brought back some useful knowledge, but the most im- 
portant result of the expedition was in proving that such 
undertakings could be conducted with safety. 

The native difficulty came to an end for a time by the 
unexpected return of Harry to the fort. On the 23rd of 
June he made his appearance with fifty strancjers, who 
brought forty head of cattle for sale. He made some very 
lame excuses for his long absence, and denied flatly that 
he had taken part in the robbery of the Company's cattle 
or the murder of Janssen. The commander was so well 
satisfied with his return that he received him in a friendly 
manner and pretended to believe all that he said. From 
what occurred afterwards, it seems probable that Mr. Van 
Eiebeek's suspicions of the mischief caused by Harry during 
his absence were correct, for a brisk cattle trade at once 
commenced and continued during the winter. Towards 
spring the natives by whom it was carried on removed 
from the peninsula, and Harry then proposed that he should 
be sent with a trading party to the interior. 

The commander called together a council to consider this 
proposal. Frederik Verburg was absent in the TwZjp, so that 
there was no one of the rank of a junior merchant at the 
fort, and the council consisted, besides the commander, of 
the pilot, the sergeant, and two corporals. The clerk Boelof 



1655] Jem van Riebeek. 49 

de Man kept a record of the debates. It was resolved to 
send inland a trading party, to consist of the interpreter 
Harry and nine soldiers under command of Corporal Willem 
Muller. They were to take a good quantity of provisions, 
and for trading purposes flat copper bars, brass wire, beads, 
pipes, and tobacco, all of which was to be carried by four 
pack oxen. 

The party left the fort on the 7th of September, and 
was accompanied by a number of Hottentots, men, women, 
and children. They crossed over to the shore of False 
Bay, and then continued for some distance close to the sea 
coast, travelling a few miles every day. When the pro- 
visions were nearly exhausted, the Europeans were obliged 
to turn back, but they left Harry to continue the journey, 
and gave the merchandise over to him. They were absent 
four weeks, but made no discovery of importance. The 
journal kept by Corporal Muller contains only one item 
that is of interest. 

He says that they came to a certain great flat rock 
which was in their way, when the Hottentot women 
gathered some green branches, and holding these in their 
hands fell prostrate upon the stone with their faces to it, 
at the same time giving utterance to some words which 
the Europeans could not understand. When asked what 
this meant, the women pointed upwards, as if to signify 
that it was an act of worship. 

Harry did not return until the 8th of December, when 

he brought thirteen head of cattle to the fort, but it was 

discovered soon afterwards that he had acquired a large 

herd in exchange for the merchandise, and had reserved 

the best of them for himself. During his absence a clan 

that was very rich in cattle visited the peninsula. They 

came from the country about the north and east of Sal- 

danha Bay, and were under a chief named Gonnema, who, 

on account of his using soot instead of clay to paint himself 

with, was usually called the Black Captain by the Europeans. 

During the month of November there were not less than 
VOL. I. 4 



50 History of South Africa. [1655 

ten or twelve thousand head of homed cattle grazing with- 
in an hour's walk of the fort. One of Gonnema's encamp- 
ments at Rondebosch contained fully two hundred huts, 
which were ranged in a great circle, according to the usual 
Hottentot custom. The spaces between the huts were closed 
in with thickly wattled fences, so that the whole formed an 
enormous corral, in which the cattle were secured at night. 
From this circumstance, a native village as well as an 
enclosure for cattle soon came to be spoken of in South 
Africa as a corral or kraal, a word then in common use 
in India and America, though unknown to the Dutch and 
to native languages. 

From Gonnema's people three or four hundred head of 
homed cattle and as many sheep were obtained in barter, 
and a thousand of each could have been secured if the 
supply of copper had not become exhausted. The sheep 
were placed on Robben Island as a reserve stock, the pas- 
ture there being exceedingly good. The trade was carried 
on through the medium of two Hottentots who had picked 
up a smattering of the Dutch language. One of these was 
a beachranger called E^aas Das, because he had been sent 
to Dassen Island to learn Dutch from the seal hunters. The 
other was a Eaapman who was called Doman, because Mr. 
Van Biebeek said he looked as innocent and honest as a 
Dominie. He had been for some time living with the 
Europeans, and was believed to be attached to them and 
faithful to their interests. Four years later they had reason 
to change their opinions concerning him. 

In September a cutter of eighteen or twenty tons 
burden was launched and named the Bobbejacht, She was 
built almost entirely of Gape timber, and was intended to 
be used in connection with the sealing establishments. 
The galiot Boode Vos was sent to Batavia, as she was 
needed there. During the winter the other galiot belonging 
to this place made a voyage to St. Helena, from which 
island she brought some more fruit trees, some pigs, and 
two horses. Then she was sent to Madagascar to re-open 



1655] J(^^ ^^« Riebeek. 51 

the trade which had been commenced in the bay of Anton- 
gil. The secunde Frederik Verburg went in her, leaving 
here his wife, to whom he had been married only five months. 
The Tulp never returned to the Cape. In the following 
year tidings were received by a French ship which put into 
Saldanha Bay that she had taken on board fourteen slaves 
and some rice at Madagascar. From that date nothing 
more was heard until March 1657, when four of her crew 
returned in the French ship Marichal They reported that 
the galiot was wrecked in a hurricane on the 2nd of Decem- 
ber 1655. The crew got safely to shore, and proceeded to 
the French settlement on the island of St. Mary, where 
they were attacked by fever, of which Frederik Verburg 
and eleven others died. 

It was in this year 1655 that the directors first resolved 
to locate free families on ground about the fort, as a means 
of reducing the Company'^s expenditure. The plan had been 
found to answer well in India, and there was reason to 
believe that it would be equally successful here. Freemen 
would assist to defend the station, so that the garrison 
could be reduced, and they would grow food for sale at as 
cheap rates as the Company could raise it with hired 
servants. 

But as it would take some Uttle time to make the 
necessary arrangements, the commander bethought him of 
a scheme by which a few of the most respectable of the 
Company's servants might be induced ultimately to make 
South Africa their home. He gave them permission to 
cultivate httle gardens for themselves, with the right freely 
to sell their produce whenever there were ships in the bay. 
The wife of the chief gardener Hendrik Boom having been 
accustomed to dairy work at home, it was resolved at a 
meeting of the council to lease the Company's cows to her, 
by way of encouraging individual enterprise. Boom had a 
house in the great garden, and was a steady industrious 
man. EUs wife, after the custom of those days, was called 
from her occupation Annetje de boerin. The arrangement 



52 History of South Africa, \^^S^ 

made with her was that she was to pay yearly twenty 
shiUings and ten pence for the lease of each cow, that she 
was to supply milk and batter at fixed charges to the com- 
mander, — who was not, however, to demand all, — and that 
she could sell freely to the ships' people at the best prices 
which she could obtain. This lease of cows was the first 
transaction of the kind in South Africa, and it is so fully 
recorded in the documents of the time, together with the 
reasons for entering into it, that it merits a sUght notice 
still. 

Besides the ships previously mentioned, before the close 
of 1655 eleven bound outward and twelve bound homeward 
called at the Cape, and were amply provided with refresh- 
ments. There were more vegetables, indeed, than could 
be made use of. Two English ships also called, both of 
which were liberally supplied with fresh food. One of 
them was eight months from London, and after losing 
many of her crew reached this port with the remainder 
almost helpless from scurvy. The weakest of her men 
were taken into the hospital on shore, where the same 
attention was paid to them as if they had been servants of 
the Company. The officers were frequent guests at the 
fort. And it may serve to show the price of garden pro- 
duce in 1655, to state that the charge made ,for as great a 
quantity of vegetables as the men chose to consume was 
at the rate of two pence a day for each individual. 

One of the principal objects of the Company in form- 
ing the station was to have a hospital in which sick soldiers 
and sailors could be left, thus doing away with the necessity 
of detaining the ships until their recovery, as they could 
be drafted into the next fleets that called and needed men. 
Early in 1656 a large building for this purpose was com- 
pleted near the seaside in the enclosure in front of the fort, 
an objectionable situation in a military and, as afterwards 
appeared, in a sanitary point of view. Still it answered 
for more than forty years the purpose for which it was 
intended. 



1656] Jan van Riebeek. 53 

The attention of the commander was then turned to 
the construction of a wooden jetty, to facihtate communi- 
cation with the shipping and to enable seamen easily to 
get water to their boats. Large and heavy beams were 
cut in the forests behind the mountain and transported to 
the beach. There they were formed into square trunks, 
by fitting their ends across one another in the same way 
that log huts are built in Canada. The trunks were placed 
fifteen feet apart in a straight line out into the bay, and 
as each one was put together it was filled with stones 
80 as to form a pier. Upon these piers a heavy staging 
was laid down, and when, after two years' labour and by 
assistance from the crews of calling ships, the jetty was 
completed, it was an exceedingly solid structure. 

After the Boode Vos was sent to India, the galiot 
Nachtglas was kept here for general purposes. Among 
other services she was sent to examine the islands of 
Tristan da Cunha, to ascertain if they could be made use 
of in time of war. The report upon them was unfavour- 
able, as no harbour was found. 

There was at this time a considerable amount of cor- 
respondence concerning the feasibility of converting the 
Cape promontory into an island, by cutting a wide and 
deep canal across the isthmus between Table Bay and 
False Bay. The idea originated with Mr. Eyklof van 
Goens, admiral of one of the return fleets, who spent a short 
time at the Cape. After close inspection, the commander 
reported that to carry out the plan would cost millions of 
money, and that it would be of very little use as a means 
of confining the natives to the mainland and leaving the 
Europeans undisturbed in the island. 

Nearly every garden plant of Europe and India was 
already cultivated at the Cape, though potatoes and maize 
were not yet introduced. It was ascertained that seeds 
attained great perfection here, and on this account large 
quantities were forwarded yearly to Batavia. Fruit trees of 
many kinds had also been introduced. Young oaks and firs 



54 History of South Africa, [1656 

were sent growing in boxes from Europe, and various kinds 
of vines from the Ehine provinces and from France were 
sent out in the same way. Even strawberries and black- 
berries had been brought from the fatherland. The foreign 
animals that had been introduced were horses from Java, 
and pigs, sheep, dogs, and rabbits from Europe. Some 
rams and ewes were selected from the best flocks in Holland, 
and were sent here to see how they would answer. Babbits 
were sent out on several occasions, and the commander 
was instructed to have them turned loose upon the islands, 
but to take care not to allow them to become wild on the 
mainland, as they increased very rapidly and could do 
enormous damage to crops. 

Every season wheat and barley had been sown, but the 
crop had invariably failed. Just as it was getting ripe, the 
south-east winds came sweeping through the valley and 
utterly destroyed it. But it was noticed that even when a 
perfect storm was blowing at the fort, there was nothing 
more than a pleasant breeze back of the Devil's peak. The 
woodcutters in the forests there reported that the wind 
never rose to a gale, and the conunander himself, after fre- 
quently visiting the locality, was able to verify the state- 
ment. He determined then to try if grain could not be 
raised there. At a place where a round grove of thorn trees 
was standing, — from which it was called at first Bonde 
Doom Bossien and afterwards Bondebosch, — a plot of 
ground was laid under the plough, and some wheat, oats, 
and barley were sown as an experiment. A small guard 
house was built of sods, in which a couple of men were 
stationed to look after the ground. The experiment was 
most successful, for the grain throve wonderfully well and 
yielded a very large return. 

The pilfering habits of the Hottentots had always been 
a source of annoyance to the Europeans, but hitherto the 
commander had not proceeded to the length of punishing 
the offenders. The beachrangers in Table Valley were sup- 
posed to be under the jurisdiction of Harry, who was now 



1656] Ja7i van Riebeek, 55 

a rich captain, having a large herd of cattle piu'chased, so 
the commander states, with the Company's goods. One 
day a plough was left in the garden, with a chain attached 
to it, which was soon missing. This article could not be of 
any use to the thieves, and must therefore have been stolen 
purposely to annoy the Europeans. Mr. Van Eiebeek here- 
upon caused three head of cattle belonging to Harry to be 
seized, and announced that he intended to keep them until 
the chain was restored. Harry protested that he was inno- 
cent of the theft, but the commander was firm in his refusal 
to give up the cattle. This course of action had the desired 
effect, for it was not long before the stolen article was 
brought back, when the cattle were released. 

The next difficulty with Harry was concerning the pas- 
ture. There was not sufficient grass in the neighbourhood 
of the fort for his cattle and those of the Company, and so 
Mr. Van Kiebeek informed him that he must move. Harry 
replied that the ground was his. The commander answered 
that the Company had taken possession of it, and would not 
permit him to remain unless he would sell some of his oxen. 
Mr. Van Biebeek then proposed a plan which would be ad- 
vantageous to both parties. Harry should become a 
cattle dealer, and undertake to supply ten head for 
large and five for each small ship entering the bay, 
one ox and one sheep every fourth day for the use of 
garrison. For these, which he was to purchase 
countr}rmen inland, he was to be paid such qi 
copper and tobacco as would leave him a fair ptofiiL 
consented, but after the very first delivery he bcid 
tract by moving away. Many of the poorest of 
people as well as the beachrangers were at Hoe 
in Table Valley, where they managed to 
and carr}dng fuel and occasionally 
labour in return for food. 

The settlement was beginning to 
council resolved to offer to all the rnmm wwr m«- ^j^. - ^ 
with them as much garden ground 1 



56 History of South Africa. [1656 

vate, free of rent or tax for the first three years. At the 
same time the women and children were struck off rations 
and a money payment instead was made to the heads of 
famiUes, according to the custom in India. This was a 
great incentive to gardening, poultry rearing, and other 
industries. Annetje de boerin, wife of Hendrik Boom, 
who was farming the Company's cows, was ' privileged to 
open a house of accommodation, chiefly for visitors from 
the ships. A similar Ucense was granted shortly after- 
wards to the wife of Sergeant Jan van Harwarden. 

The damage caused by wild animals was very great. 
The carnivora destroyed oxen, sheep, and poultry, and the 
grysbucks, besides trampUng down the beds in the gardens, 
ate the young sprouts off the vines. It was not safe for 
people to go out at night. On one occasion two guards 
at the cattle kraal were badly wounded by a leopard, and 
once as the commander was Walking in the garden a Hon 
was seen at no great distance. A fine large stud horse, 
the only one in the settlement, was torn to pieces and 
devoured close to the fort. 

The council then decided to offer premiums for the de- 
struction of these ravenous animals. Twenty-five shilhngs 
was the reward offered for a lion, sixteen shilhngs and 
eight pence for a hyena, and twelve shilhngs and six pence 
for a leopard. In every case the dead animal was to be 
exhibited to the commander. These premiums, be it re- 
membered, represent a much greater purchasing power 
than the same amounts nowadays. At that time twenty- 
five shillings was a larger sum of money than a labourer 
earned in a month, and there were very few individuals 
at the Cape who were getting such wages. The com- 
mander himself was in receipt of only 7Z. IO5. until 1656, 
when his monthly salary was raised to lOZ. 16s. 8d. 
Such large rewards as these show, therefore, how destruc- 
tive the Uons and leopards must have been. The skin of 
the first lion that was shot was hung up as a trophy in 
the great hall of the commander's residence, where 



1656] Jan van Riebeek, 57 

religious services were held. The next laws in reference 
to game were made for the preservation of herbivorous 
animals. The Company kept two hunters employed in 
procuring venison for the use of the garrison. Every one 
else was prohibited from shooting other animals than 
those for which a reward was offered, under penalty of a 
fine equal to forty shillings of our money and the for- 
feiture of the gim if it was private property. 

During the winter of 1656 there was a good deal of 
sickness among the people, which the council considered to 
be beyond doubt a punishment inflicted upon them for 
their sins. It was therefore resolved to set apart Thursday 
the 29th of June as a day of fasting and prayer to the 
Almighty to have mercy upon them. The people were ad- 
monished not to sit down to their meals, as some of them 
had been in the habit of doing, without asking a blessing 
from God before eating and returning thanks afterwards. 
Those who disobeyed this injunction were to be fined a 
shilling for the first offence, two shillings for the second, 
and so on, in addition to arbitrary correction. A few 
weeks later a placaat was issued against bathing or wash- 
ing clothes in the river above the place from which water 
for culinary purposes was taken, so it may be inferred 
that perhaps the particular sin of which the people had 
been guilty was a disregard of the laws of health. 

In October it was arranged that for the present the 
council should consist on ordinary occasions of the com- 
mander Jan van Riebeek, the sergeant Jan van Harwarden, 
and the bookkeeper Boelof de Man. When sitting as a 
court of justice or as a military tribunal, the constable of 
the fortress and the two corporals were also to have seats. 
The records of proceedings were to be kept by the clerk 
Caspar van Weede, who was also to perform the duty of 
fiscal. 

On account of there being no clergyman here, marriages 
at this time took place before the secretary of the council, 
but it was necessary that the banns should be published 



58 History of South Africa, [1656 

three times by the sick-comforter. The ceremony was 
usually performed on Sunday mornings after the reading of 
the sermon. One or two marriages were solemnised by the 
chaplains of ships that called, as for instance that of the 
late secunde Frederik Verburg, whose bride was the clergy- 
man's sister. Up to the end of 1656 the marriages that 
took place in the fort were as follows: — Adolphus Benge- 
voort and Janneken Willems, Jacob Ryniers and Elizabeth 
van Opdorp, Pieter van Dujme and Sebastiana van Opdorp, 
Jacobus van der Kerkhoven and Elizabeth Stadtlanders, 
and Jan Wouters and Catharina, a freed slave, daughter 
of Anthonie, of Bengal. 

• Marriages such as this last were encouraged in those 
days. Mr. Van Biebeek has left on record his opinion of 
the advantages derived by the Portuguese from the large 
mixed population of their possessions in the East, without 
whose assistance their fortresses could not have been held 
so long, and he thought it advisable that the Netherlanders 
should have a similar link between themselves and the 
coloured inhabitants of their dominions. A hundred years 
later very different views were held, but in the middle of 
the seventeenth century no distinction whatever appears 
to have been made between people on account of colour. 
A profession of Christianity placed black and white upon 
the same level. The possessions of the heathen were the 
inheritance of God's people, and could be taken from them 
without sin. The heathen themselves could be enslaved, 
but Christians could not be kept in bondage. The archives 
of the Cape Colony contain numerous illustrations of this 
doctrine. A black professing Christianity was spoken of in 
identically the same language as a white. Thus Catharina, 
the Bengalese slave girl, who was placed in freedom by 
Admiral Bogaert, as soon as she was baptized was styled 
' de eerbare jonge dochter,' and the commander's own niece 
was spoken of in precisely the same words. 

The number of foreign ships that touched at the Cape 
was very small Mr. Van Biebeek asked the directors to give 



1656] Jan van Riebeek. 59 

him explicit instructions as to the treatment of strangers, 
and was informed that they were to be allowed to catch 
fish and to take in water freely, but they were not to be 
supplied with refreshments, as the Company needed all 
that could be obtained for its own ships. Courtesy was 
to be observed, and the commander was to use discretion 
and not give offence needlessly. But the expense of keeping 
up an establishment at the Cape was incurred solely for 
the Company's own benefit and not for the accommodation 
of strangers. In the year 1666 forty-four vessels put into 
Table Bay. Of these, thirty-five belonged to the Company, 
five were English, and four were French. The English 
and French were treated in as friendly a manner as could 
have been expected under the circumstances. They were 
permitted to purchase vegetables from those individuals 
who had gardens, and exchanges of presents were made, 
though the conmiander in writing to the directors excused 
his liberality by stating that the beef which on two occasions 
he sent on board was of unsound cattle. 



6o 



CHAPTEE III. 

MR. VAN RIEBEEK'S ADMINISTRATION {amimued). 

The preliminary arrangements for releasing some of the 
Company's servants from their engagements and helping 
them to become farmers were at length completed, and on 
the 21st of February 1657 ground was allotted to the first 
burghers in the Cape Colony. Before that date individuals 
had been permitted to make gardens for their own private 
benefit, but these persons stiU remained in the Company's 
service. They were mostly petty ofl&cers with families, who 
drew money instead of rations, and who could derive a 
portion of their food from their gardens, as well as make 
a trifle occasionally by the sale of vegetables. The free 
burghers, as they were afterwards termed, formed a very 
different class, as they were subjects, not servants, of the 
Company. 

For more than a year the workmen as well as the 
officers had been meditating upon the project, and revolv- 
ing in their minds whether they would be better oflf as free 
men or as servants. At length nine of them determined 
to make the trial. They formed themselves into two parties, 
and after selecting ground for occupation, presented them- 
selves before the council and concluded the final arrange- 
ments. There were present that day at the council table 
in the conmiander's hall, Mr. Van Eiebeek, Sergeant Jan 
van Harwarden, and the bookkeeper Eoelof de Man. The 
proceedings were taken down at great length by the secre- 
tary Caspar van Weede. 

The first party consisted of five men, named Herman 



1657] Jdi^n van Riebeek. 61 

Eemajenne, Jan de Wacht, Jan van Passel, Wamar Cor- 
nelissen, and Boelof Janssen. They had selected a tract 
of land just beyond the Liesbeek, and had given to it the 
name of Groeneveld, or the Green Country. There they 
intended to apply themselves chiefly to the cultivation of 
wheat. And as Bemajenne was the principal person among 
them, they called themselves Herman's Colony. 

The second party was composed of four men, named 
Stephen Botma,^ Hendrik Elbrechts,^ Otto Janssen, and 
Jacob Comelissen. The ground of their selection was on 
this side of the Liesbeek, and they had given it the name 
of HoUandsche Thuin, or the Dutch garden. They stated 
that it was their intention to cultivate tobacco as well as 
grain. Henceforth this party was known as Stephen's 
Colony. Both companies were desirous of growing vege- 
tables and of breeding cattle, pigs, and poultry. 

The conditions under which these men were released 
from the Company's service were as follow : — 

They were to have in full possession all the ground 
which they could bring under cultivation within three years, 
during which time they were to be free of taxes. 

After the expiration of three years they were to pay a 
reasonable land tax. They were then to be at liberty to 
sell, lease, or otherwise alienate their ground, but not 
without first communicating with the commander or his 
representative. 

Such provisions as they should require out of the maga- 
zine were to be suppUed to them at the same price as to 
the Company's married servants. . 

They were to be at liberty to catch as much fish in the 
rivers as they should require for their own consumption. 

^ Galled Stephen Janssen, that is, Stephen the son of John, in the records 
of the time. More than twenty years later he first appears as Stephen Botma. 
From him sprang the present South African family of that name. 

'Also written Elberts and Elbers in the records of the period. His de- 
scendants in the male line died out at an early date, hut in the female line 
they are stiU to be found in South Africa. He and Bo^tma were the only per- 
manent colonists among the nine. 



62 History of South Africa. [i^S? 

They were to be at liberty to sell freely to the crews 
of ships any vegetables which the Company might not 
require for the garrison, but they were not to go on board 
ships until three days after arrival, and were not to bring 
any strong drink on shore. 

They were not to keep taps, but were to devote them- 
selves to the cultivation of the ground and the rearing of 
cattle. 

They were not to purchase homed cattle, sheep, or any- 
thing else from the natives, under penalty of forfeiture of 
all their possessions. 

They were to purchase such cattle as they needed from 
the Company, at the rate of thirty-four shillings and nine 
pence for an ox or cow and four shillings and two pence for 
a sheep. They were to sell cattle only to the Company, 
but all they offered were to be taken at the above prices. 

They were to pay to the Company for pasture one-tenth 
of all the cattle reared, but under this clause no pigs or 
poultry were to be claimed. 

The Company was to furnish them upon credit, at cost 
price in the fatherland, with all such implements as were 
necessary to carry on their work, with food, and with guns, 
powder, and lead for their defence. In payment they were 
to deUver the produce of their ground, and the Company 
was to hold a mortgage upon all their possessions. 

They were to be subject to such laws as were in force in 
the fatherland and in India, and to such as should there- 
after be made for the service of the Company and the 
welfare of the community. 

These regulations could be altered or amended at will by "; 
the supreme authorities. 

The two parties immediately took possession of their 
ground, and commenced to build themselves houses. They 
had very little more than two months to spare before the 
rainy season would set in, but that was sufficient time to 
run up sod walls and cover them with roofs of thatch. The 
forests from which timber was obtained were at no great 



1657] y<^« van Riebeek, 63 

distance, and all the other materials needed were close at 
hand. And so they were under shelter and ready to turn 
over the ground when the first rains of the season fell. 
There was a scarcity of farming implements at first, but 
that was soon remedied. 

On the 17th of March a ship arrived from home, having 
on board an officer of high rank, named Eyklof van Goens, 
who was afterwards governor-general of Netherlands India. 
This ship had sighted the South American coast and had 
then run down to the fortieth parallel of latitude in oi^der 
to get the west wind, but ii) the middle of February she fell 
in with icebergs and very cold stormy weather, so that all 
on board were delighted when the anchors were dropped in 
Table Bay. 

Mr. Van Goens had been instructed to rectify anything 
that he might find amiss here, and he thought the con- 
ditions under which the burghers held their ground could 
be improved. He therefore made several alterations in 
them, and also inserted some fresh clauses, the most impor- 
tant of which were as follow : — 

The freemen were to have plots of land along the Lies- 
beek, in size forty roods by two hundred — equal id thirteen 
morgen and a third — free of taxes for twelve years. 

All farming utensils were to be repaired fi:ee of charge 
for three years. 

In order to procure a good stock of breeding cattle, the 
freemen were to be at liberty to purchase from the natives, 
until further instructions should be received, but they were 
not to pay more than the Company. The price of homed 
cattle between the freemen and the Company was reduced 
from thirty-four shiUings and nine pence to sixteen shillings 
and eight pence. 

The penalty to be paid by a burgher for selling cattle 
except to the Company was fixed at eighty-three shillings 
and four pence. 

That they might direct their attention chiefly to the 
cultivation of grain, the freemen were not to plant tobacco. 



64 History of South Africa. [1657 

or even more vegetables than were needed for their own 
consumption. 

The bmrghers were to keep gaard by turns in any re- 
doubts which should be built for their protection. 

They were not to shoot any wild animals except such 
as were noxious. To promote the destruction of ravenous 
animals the premiums were increased, viz., for a lion to 
thirty-four shillings and nine pence, for a hyena to twenty- 
seven shillings and nine pence, and for a leopard to thirteen 
shillings and ten pence. 

None but married men of good character and of Dutch 
or German birth were to have ground allotted to them. 
Upon their request, their wives and children were to be 
sent to them from Europe. In every case they were to 
agree to remain twenty years in South Africa. 

Unmarried men could be released from service to work 
as mechanics, or if they were specially adapted for any 
useful employment, or if they would engage themselves for 
a term of years to the holders of ground. 

One of the most respectable burghers was to have a seat 
and a vote in the court of justice whenever cases affecting 
freemen or their interests were being tried. He was to 
have the title of burgher councillor, and was to hold ofl&ce 
for a year, when another should be selected and have the 
honour transferred to him. To this oflBce Stephen Botma 
was appointed for the first term. 

The commissioner drew up lengthy instructions for the 
guidance of the Cape government, in which the commander 
was directed to encourage and assist the burghers, as they 
would relieve the Company of the payment of a large 
amount of wages. There were then exactly one hundred 
persons in the settlement in receipt of wages, and as soon 
as the farmers were sufficiently numerous, this number was 
to be reduced to seventy. 

Many of the restrictions under which the Company*s 
servants became burghers were vexatious, and would be 
deemed intolerable at the present day. But in 1657 men 



\ 



1657] Jan van Riebeek, 65 

heard very little of individual rights or of nnrestricted trade. 
They were accustomed to the interference of the govern- 
ment in almost everjrthing, and as to free trade, it was 
simply impossible. The Netherlands could only carry on 
commerce with the East by means of a powerful Company, 
able to conduct expensive wars and maintain great fleets 
without drawing upon the resources of the State. Indi- 
vidual interests were therefore lost sight of even at home, 
much more so in such a settlement as that at the Cape, 
which was called into existence by the Company solely 
and entirely for its own benefit. 

A conGonencement having been made, there were a good 
many persons desurous of becoming comgrowers and garden- 
ers. Most of them, however, soon found such occupations 
unsuited to their habits, and either re-entered the Company's 
service, or went back to the fatherland. The names of 
some who remained in South Africa have died out, but 
others have numerous descendants in this country at the 
present day. There are even instances in which tlie same 
christian name has been transmitted from father to son in 
unbroken succession. In addition to those already men- 
tioned, the following individuals received free papers within 
the next twelvemonth : — 

Wouter Mostert, who was for many years one of the 
leading men in the settlement. He had been a miller in 
the fatherland, and followed the same occupation here after 
becoming a burgher. The Company had imported a corn 
mill to be worked by horses, but after a short time it was 
decided to make use of the water of the Fresh river as a 
motive power. Mostert contracted to build the new mill, 
and when it was in working order he took charge of it on 
shares of the payments made for grinding. 

Hendrik Boom, the gardener, whose name has already 
been frequently mentioned. 

Caspar Brinkman, Pieter Visagie,^ Hans Faesbenger, 
Jacob Cloete,^ Jan Beyniers, Jacob Theunissen, Jan Bietvelt, 

^Numerous descendants now in South Africa. 
VOL. L 5 



66 History of South Africa. [1657 

Otto van Yrede, and Simon Janssen, who had land as- 
signed to them as farmers. 

Herman Ernst, Cornelis Claasen/ Thomas Eobertson 
(an Englishman), Isaac Manget, Klaas Frederiksen, Klaas 
Schriever, and Hendrik Fransen, who took service with 
farmers. 

Christian Janssen and Pieter Cornelissen, who received 
free papers because they had been expert hunters in the 
Company's service. It was arranged that they should 
continue to follow that employment, in which they were 
granted a monopoly, and prices were fixed at which they 
were to sell all kinds of game. They were also privileged 
to keep a tap for the sale of strong drink. 

Leendert Cornelissen, a ship's carpenter, who received a 
grant of a strip of forest at the foot of the mountain. His 
object was to cut timber for sale, for all kinds of which 
prices were fixed by the council. 

Elbert Dirksen and Hendrik van Surwerden, who were 
to get a living as tailors. 

Jan Vetteman, the surgeon of the fort. He arranged for 
a monopoly of practice in his profession and for various 
other privileges. 

Eoelof Zieuwerts, who was to get his hving as a waggon 
and plough maker, and to whom a small piece of forest was 
granted. 

Martin Vlockaart, Pieter Jacobs, and Jan Adriansen, 
who were to maintain themselves as fishermen. 

Pieter Kley, Dirk Vreem, and Pieter Heynse, who were 
to saw yellow wood planks for sale, as well as to work at 
their occupation as carpenters. 

Hendrik Schaik, Willem Petersen, Dirk Einkes, Michiel 
van Swol, Dirk Noteboom, Frans Gerritsen, and Jan Zacha- 
rias, who are mentioned merely as having become burghers. 

Besides the regulations concerning the burghers, the 
commissioner Van Goens drew up copious instructions on 
general subjects for the guidance of the government. He 

^ NuznerouB desoendants now in South Africa. 



1657] Jan van Riebeek, 67 

prohibited the Company's servants from cultivating larger 
gardens than they required for their own use, but he ex- 
cepted the commander, to whom he granted the whole of 
the ground at Green Point as a private farm. As a rule, 
the crews of foreign ships were not to be provided with 
vegetables or meat, but were to be permitted to take in 
water freely. The conmiander was left some discretion in 
deahng with them, but the tenor of the instructions was 
that they were not to be encouraged to visit Table Bay. 

Eegarding the natives, they were to be treated kindly, 
so as to obtain their goodwill. If any of them assaulted or 
robbed a burgher, those suspected should be seized and 
placed upon Eobben Island until they made known the 
offenders, when they should be released and the guilty 
persons be banished to the island for two or three years. 
If any of them committed murder, the criminal should be 
put to death, but the conmiander should endeavour to have 
the execution performed by the natives themselves. 

Caution was to be observed that no foreign language 
should continue to be spoken by any slaves who might here- 
after be brought into the country. Equal care was to be 
taken that no other weights or measures than those in 
use in the fatherland should be introduced. The measure 
of length was laid down as twelve Ehynland inches to the 
foot, twelve feet to the rood, and two thousand roods to 
the mile, so that fifteen miles would be equal to a degree 
of latitude. In measuring land, six hundred square roods 
were to make a morgen. The land measure thus intro- 
duced is used in the Cape Colony to the present day. In 
calculating with it, it must be remembered that one thou- 
sand Ehynland feet are equal to one thousand and thirty- 
three British imperial feet. 

The oflBce of secunde, now for a long time vacant, wa& 
filled by the promotion of the bookkeeper Eoelof de Man. 
Caspar van Weede was sent to Batavia, and the clerk 
Abraham Gabbema was appointed secretary of the council 
in his stead. 



68 History of South Africa. [1657 

In April 1657, when these instractions were issued, the 
European population consisted of one hundred and thirty- 
four individuals, Company's servants and burghers, men, 
women, and children all told. There were at the Cape 
three male and eight female slaves. 

Concerning the protection of the settlement from the 
natives there was much discussion between Mr. Van Goens 
and the commander Van Biebeek. Regarding the Cape 
peninsula as ample territory for the needs of the Com- 
pany, — for as yet there was no intention to do more than 
raise grain, vegetables, fruit, pork, and poultry, together 
with a few sheep and the horses and horned cattle required 
for working, the Hottentots being depended upon for most 
of the beef and mutton needed for the garrison and the 
fleets, — ^both considered that if the isthmus could be made 
impassable the dwellers in Table Valley and along the 
Liesbeek would enjoy complete security. Mr. Van Goens 
brought forward again his old scheme of a canal, which 
the commander had written so unfavourably of to the 
directors. The land between Table Bay and False Bay he 
observed was as flat as Holland, and the soil was easily dug. 
He caused the distance to be measured, when it was found 
to be five thousand one hundred and twenty-five roods, or 
a little more than twelve English miles. Jan van Har- 
warden, who had served long in the army under the prince 
of Orange and was well acquainted with digging and delv- 
ing, was called upon for an estimate of the labour required, 
the canal to be twelve feet wide and six feet deep. The 
sergeant did not take long to consider the question. He 
would undertake to complete the work in three months, he 
stated, with seventy good men. 

Mr. Van Goens believed that if there were plenty of 
tools it could be done within two months by the crews 
of the ships Orangien, Malacca^ and PhceniXy then in port, 
and without detaining the last two longer than fourteen 
days beyond the time they must in any case remain. 
The sea in winter, driven before the north-west wind, he 



1657] Jd'f^ van Riebeek. 69 

thought, would then widen and deepen the canal, it might 
be even suflBciently to permit a ship to sail through or 
anchor within it. The only diflBculty that was apparent 
was the drifting sand that would be carried to and fro, and 
that he regarded as a real danger, for in time it might even 
destroy Table Bay. Still, upon the whole, it would be worth 
risking, for there was no other way of securing the peninsula 
except by Mr. Van Biebeek's plan of a line of at least fifteen 
redoubts connected with walls, which would be vastly more 
expensive. 

Ultimately the matter was left for the decision of the 
directors, before whom both schemes were laid ; but they 
chose rather to endeavour to avert trouble with the natives 
than to undertake either. 

In the meantime, until instructions could be received 
from the Netherlands, the commissioner deemed it prudent 
to strengthen the fort Good Hope by enlarging the moat 
around it. Mr. Van Biebeek was of opinion that a width 
of ten feet would be ample, but Mr. Van Goens had seen 
how nimble-footed the Hottentots were, and he believed 
that they could spring over such a moat without difficulty. 
In his view it should be sixteen feet vdde, which would 
ensure safety, for though the Hottentots were so agile on 
dry land they were very indifferent swimmers. This vddth 
was settled upon, but the work was postponed for more 
pressing duties, and eventually it dropped out of sight. 

Commissioner Van Goens permitted the burghers to 
purchase cattle from the natives, provided they gave in 
exchange no more than the Company was offering. A few 
weeks after he left South Africa, three of the farmers turned 
this Ucense to account, by equipping themselves and going 
upon a trading journey inland. TraveUing in an easterly 
direction, they soon reached a district in which five or six 
hundred Hottentots were found, by whom they were re- 
ceived in a friendly manner. ^The Europeans could not 
sleep in the huts on account of vermin and filth, neither 
could they pass the night vnthout some shelter, as lions and 



JO History of South Africa. [1657 

other wild animals were numerous in that part of the 
country. The Hottentots came to their assistance by col- 
lecting a great quantity of thorn bushes, with which they 
formed a high circular hedge, inside of which the strangers 
slept in safety. Being already well supplied with copper, 
the residents were not disposed to part with cattle, and the 
burghers were obliged to return with only two oxen and 
three sheep. They understood the natives to say that the 
district in which they were living was the choicest portion 
of the whole country, for which reason they gave it the 
name of Hottentots-Holland. 

For many months none of the pastoral Hottentots had 
been at the fort, when one day in July Harry presented 
himself before the commander. He had come, he said, to 
ask where they could let their cattle graze, as they observed 
that the Europeans were cultivating the ground along the 
Liesbeek.^ Mr. Van Kiebeek replied that they had better 
remain where they were, which was at a distance of eight 
or ten hours' journey on foot from the fort. Harry in- 
formed him that it was not their custom to remain long in 
one place, and that if they were deprived of a retreat here 
they would soon be ruined by their enemies. The com- 
mander then stated that they might come and Uve behind 
the mountains, along by Hout Bay, or on the slope of the 
Lion's head, if they would trade with him. But to this 
Harry would not consent, as he said they lived upon the 
produce of their cattle. 

The native difficulty had already become, what it has 
been ever since, a most important question for solution. 
Mr. Van Kiebeek was continually devising some scheme 
for its settlement, and a large portion of his despatches 
Tiad reference to the subject. At this time his favourite 
plan was to build a chain of redoubts across the isthmus 
and to connect them with a wall. A large party of the 
Kaapmans was then to be enticed within the line, with their 
families and cattle, and when once on this side none but 
men were ever to be allowed to go beyond it again. They 



1657] Jan van Riebeek, 71 

were to be compelled to sell their cattle, but were to be 
provided with goods so that the men could purchase more, 
and they were to be allowed a fair profit on trading trans- 
actions. The women and children were to be kept as 
guarantees for the return of the men. In this manner, 
the commander thought, a good supply of cattle could be 
secured, and all difficulties with the natives be removed. 
But the directors would not give him an opportunity to 
make the experiment, for the expense frightened them. 

During the five years of their residence at the Cape, the 
Europeans had acquired some knowledge of the condition 
of the natives. They had ascertained that all the little 
clans in the neighbourhood, whether Goringhaikonas, Gora- 
chouquas, or Goringhaiquas, were i^embers of one tribe, of 
which Gogosoa was the principal chief. The clans were 
often at war, as the Goringhaikonas and the Goringhaiquas 
in 1652, but they showed a common front against the next 
tribe or great division of people whose chiefs owned rela- 
tionship to each other. The wars between the clans usually 
seemed to be mere forays with a view of getting possession 
of women and cattle, while between the tribes hostilities 
were often waged with great bitterness. Of the inland 
tribes, Mr. Van Eiebeek knew nothing more than a few 
names. Clans calUng themselves the Grigriqua, the Cocho- 
qua, and the Chainouqua had been to the fort, and from the 
last of these one hundred and thirty head of cattle had 
recently been purchased, but as yet their position with 
regard to others was not made out. The predatory habits 
of the Bushmen were well known, as also that they were 
enemies of every one else, but it was supposed that they 
were merely another Hottentot clan.^ 

^ There is great confusion of names in the early records whenever native 
clans are spoken of. Sometimes it is stated that Gogosoa's people called them- 
selves the Groringhaiqua or Gk}ringhaina, at other times the same clan is 
called the Goringhaikona. Harry's people were sometimes termed the Water- 
mans, sometimes the Strandloopers (beachrangers). The Bushmen were at 
first caUed Visman by Mr. Van Biebeek, but he soon adopted the word Sonqua, 



72 History of South Africa. [1657 

Some stories which Eva told greatly interested the com- 
mander. After the return of the beachrangers to Table 
Valley she had gone back to live in Mr. Van Biebeek's 
house, and was now at the age of fifteen or sixteen years 
able to speak Dutch fluently. The ordinary interpreter, 
Doman with the honest face, was so attached to the Euro- 
peans that he had gone to Batavia with Commissioner Van 
Goens, and Eva was now employed in his stead. She told 
the commander that the Namaquas were a people living in 
the interior, who had white skins and long hair, that they 
wore clothing and made their black slaves cultivate the 
ground, and that they built stone houses and had religious 
services just the same as Netherlanders. There were others, 
she said, who had gold and precious stones in abundance, 
and a Hottentot who brought some cattle for sale corro- 
borated her statement, and asserted that he was familiar 
with everything of the kind that was exhibited to him 
except a diamond. He stated that one of his wives had 
been brought up in the house of a great lord named Gho- 
bona, and that she was in possession of abundance of gold 
ornaments and jewels. Mr. Van Biebeek invited him press- 
ingly to return at once and bring her to the fort, but he 
replied that, being accustomed to sit at home and be waited 
upon by numerous servants, she would be unable to travel 
so far. An offer to send a waggon for her was rejected on 
the ground that the sight of Europeans would frighten her 
to death. All that could be obtained firom this ingenious 
storyteller was a promise to bring his wife to the fort on 
some future occasion. 

After this the commander was more than ever anxious 

which he spelt in various ways. This is evidently a form of the Hottentot 
name for these people, as may be seen from the following words, which are 
used by a Hottentot clan at the present day : — Nominative singular, iSop, a 
Bushman ; dual, Sakara, two Bushmen ; plural, Sakoa^ more than two Bush- 
men. Nominative singular, Sas^ a Bushwoman ; dual, Scuara, two Bush- 
women; plural, Sadif more than two Bushwomen. Conmion plural, Sana^ 
Bnshmen and Bushwomen. When the tribes became better known the titles 
given in the text were used. 



1657] Jan van Riebeek. 73 

to have the interior of the country explored, to open np a 
road to the capital city of Monomotapa, as laid down on 
the best maps of the time, and to the river Espirito Santo, 
where he believed gold was certainly to be fomid, to make 
the acquaintance of Chobona and the Namaqaas, and to 
induce the people of Benguela to bring the products of their 
country to the fort Good Hope for sale. The commissioner 
Van Goens saw very little difficulty in the way of accom- 
pUshing these designs, and instructed Mr. Van Biebeek to 
use all reasonable exertion to carry them out. 

The innnediate object of the next party which left the 
fort to penetrate the interior was, however, to procure cattle 
rather than to find Ophir or Monomotapa. A large fleet 
was expected, and the commander was anxious to have a 
good herd of oxen in readiness to refresh the crews. The 
party, which left on the 19th of October, consisted of 
seven servants of the Company, eight freemen, and four 
Hottentots. They took pack oxen to carry provisions 
and the usual articles of merchandise. Abraham Gabbema, 
fiscal and secretary of the council, was the leader. They 
shaped their course at first towards a mountain which was 
visible from the Cape, and which, on account of its having 
a buttress surmounted by a dome resembling a flat night- 
cap such as was then in common use, had already received 
the name Elapmuts. Passing round this mountain and over 
the low watershed beyond, they came to a stream run- 
ning northward along the base of a seemingly impassable 
chain of mountains, and for this reason they gave it the 
name of the Berg river. In its waters they found barbels, 
and by- some means they managed to catch as many as 
they needed to refresh themselves. 

They were now in one of the fairest of all South African 
vales. To the west lay a long isolated mountain, its face 
covered with verdure and here and there furrowed by little 
streamlets which ran down to the river below. Its top 
was crowned with domes of bare grey granite, and as the 
rising sun poured a flood of light upon them, they sparkled 



74 History of South Africa. [1657 

like gigantic gems, so that the travellers named them the 
Paarl and the Diamant. In the evening, when the valley 
lay in deepening shadow, the range on the east was lit up 
with tints more charming than pen or pencil can describe, 
for nowhere is the glow of light upon rock more varied or 
more beautiful. Between the mountains the surface of the 
ground was dotted over with trees, and in the month of 
October it was carpeted with grass and flowers. Wild 
animals shared with man the possession of this lovely 
domain. In the river great numbers of hippopotami were 
seen ; on the mountain side herds of zebras were browsing ; 
and trampling down the grass, which in places was so tall 
that Gabbema described it as fit to make hay ot were 
many rhinoceroses. 

There were little kraals of Hottentots all along the Berg 
river, but the people were not disposed to barter away their 
cattle. Gabbema and his party moved about among them 
for more than a week, but only succeeded in obtaining ten 
oxen and forty-one sheep, with which they returned to 
the fort. And so, gradually, geographical knowledge was 
being gained, and Monomotapa and the veritable Ophir 
where Solomon got his gold were moved farther backward 
on the charts. 

During the year 1657 several public works of importance 
were undertaken. A platform was erected upon the highest 
point of Kobben Island, upon which a fire was kept up 
at night whenever ships belonging to the Company were 
seen off the port. At the Company's farm at Eondebosch 
the erection of a magazine for grain was commenced, in 
size one hundred and eight by forty feet. This building, 
afterwards known as the Groote Schuur, was of very sub- 
stantial construction. In Table Valley the lower course 
of the Fresh river was altered. In its ancient channel it 
was apt to damage the gardens in winter by overflowing 
its banks. A new and broader channel was therefore cut, 
so that it should enter the sea some distance to the south- 
east of the fort. The old channel was turned into a canal, 



1658] Jan van Riebeek, 75 

and sluices were made in order that the moat might still 
be filled at pleasure. 

In February 1658 it was resolved to send another trad- 
ing party inland, as the stock of cattle was insufficient to 
meet the wants of the fleets shortly expected. Of late there 
had been an unusual demand for meat. The Amhem and 
Slot van Honingen, two large Indiamen, had put into Table 
Bay in the utmost distress, and in a short time their crews 
had consumed forty head of horned cattle and fifty sheep. 

This expedition was larger and better equipped than 
any yet sent from the fort Good Hope. The leader was 
Sergeant Jan van Harwarden, and under him were fifteen 
Europeans and two Hottentots, with six pack oxen to carry 
provisions and the usual articles of barter. The land sur- 
veyor Pieter Potter accompanied the party for the purpose 
of observing the features of the country, so that a correct 
map could be made. To him was also entrusted the task 
of keeping the journal of the expedition. The sergeant 
was instructed to learn all that he could concerning the 
tribes, to ascertain if ivory, ostrich feathers, musk, civet, 
gold, and precious stones, were obtainable, and, if so, to 
look out for a suitable place for the establishment of a 
trading station. 

The party passed the Paarl mountain on their right, 
and crossing the Berg river beyond, proceeded in a north- 
easterly direction until they reached the great wall which 
bounds the coast belt of South Africa. In searching along 
it for a passage to the interior, they discovered a stream 
which came foaming down through an enormous cleft in 
the mountain, but they could not make their way along it, 
as the sides of the ravine appeared to rise in almost per- 
pendicular precipices. It was the Little Berg river, and 
through the winding gorge the railway to the interior passes 
to-day, but when in 1658 Europeans first looked into its 
deep recesses it seemed to defy an entrance. 

The travellers kept on their course along the great bar- 
rier, but no pathway opened to the regions beyond. Then 



History of South A/nca. [1658 

' dyeentery attacked some of them, probably brought on by 
fatigue, and they were compelled to retrace their steps. 
Near the Little Berg river they halted and formed a tem- 
\ porary camp, while the surveyor Potter with three Nether- 
IdanderB and the two Hottentots attempted to cross the 
e. It may have been at the very spot known a hundred 
years later as the Roodezand pass, and at any rate it was 
not far from it that Potter and his little band toiled wearily 
up the heights, and were rewarded by being the first of 
Christian blood to look down into the secladed dell now 
called the Tulbagh basin. Standing on the summit of the 
range, their view extended away for an immense distance 
along the valley of the Breede river, but it was a desolate 
scene that met their gaze. Under the glowing sua the 
ground lay bare of verdure, and in all that wide expanse 
which to-day is dotted thickly with cornfields and groves 
and homesteads, there was then no sign of human life. li 
was only necessary to rmi the eye over it to be assared 
that the expedition was a failure in that direction. And 
BO they returned to their companions and resumed t^e 
homeward march. 

The increasing weakness of some of the party caused 

them frequently to halt, but now they came across sonae 

small encampments of Grigriquas. and managed to obtain 

few oxen and sheep in barter. One man died, and 

\ another could hardly bear to be carried along for a day or 

I two, when he followed his companion to the grave. The 

I night before they reached the fort they were all sittiikf; 

I down partaking of the fast ration of bread, when withoat 

any warning an enormous lion sprang upon one of them. 

Sergeant Van Harwarden fortunately had his firelock at his 

side, and raising the piece he presented the muzzle to the 

lion's forehead and instantly shot him dead. The man upon 

whom the beast sprang saved his life, but lost his right 

arm. Such were some of the perils attending exploration 

I in those days. 

Previous to the year 1658 the only slaves in the settle- 



1658] Jan van Riebeek, yy 

ment were some ten or twelve individuals, brought from 
Batavia and Madagascar. But as labourers were now 
urgently needed, the Company sent out the yachts Hasselt 
and Maria to endeavour to obtain some negros on the 
west coast of Africa. These two vessels cruised for some 
time off St. Paul de Loanda, in hope of obtaining a Portu- 
guese prize, and when that scheme failed the Maria came 
to the Cape, and the Hasselt sailed to the gulf of Guinea. 
In the meantime, on the 28th of March, the Indiaman 
Amersfoort arrived in Table Bay with one hundred and 
seventy negros. On the passage from Holland,^ she had 
fallen in with a Portuguese ship bound from Angola to 
Brazil, with more than five hundred captives on board. 
The ship was old, and upon examination it was found that 
she could not be brought to the Cape. The ofl&cers of the 
Indiaman, therefore, permitted her to proceed on her voyage, 
after they had selected and removed to their own vessel 
two hundred and fifty of the most valuable slaves, including 
all the big boys and girls. Of these, eighty died before 
the Amersfoort reached Table Bay, and the remaining hun- 
dred and seventy were landed in a miserable condition. 

A few weeks later the Hasselt arrived with two hun- 
dred and twenty-eight slaves, out of two hundred and 
seventy-one which her ofl&cers had purchased at Popo, the 
remainder having died on the passage. The number at the 
Cape was now greater than was considered necessary, and 
one hundred and seventy-two were sent to Batavia. Of 
those that were left, eighty-nine were sold on credit to 
the burghers at prices ranging from 4Z. 3s. 4i. to 8Z. 6s. Si. 
each, and the Company retained the remainder in its own 
service. 

One of the first regulations concerning them was that 
they were to be taught the doctrines of Christianity. On 
the 17th of April a school for their instruction was opened 
by the commander's brother-in-law, Pieter van der Stael, 
who in 1656 had succeeded Willem Barents Wylant aa 
sick-comforter of the settlement. To all of them pronounce- 



78 History of South Africa. [1658 

able names were given, and they were then sent to school 
for a short time every day. The reward of diligence which 
was held out was not exactly in accordance with modern 
ideas, for it consisted of a glass of brandy and a little 
tobacco. For some days after the opening of the school 
the commander himself attended, for the purpose of seeing 
that everything was conducted in strict order. He has 
left on record that the prize offered was observed to stimu- 
late the pupils to application. 

As to their food, it consisted principally of seabirds 
and seals* flesh. Mr. Van Kiebeek'*s testimony is that they 
were very fond of seals* meat, and there is no reason to 
doubt the accuracy of the statement. It was procured in 
large quantities from Saldanha Bay. Fomr burghers, named 
Thomas Christofifel MuUer, Jurien Appel,^ Joachim Elberts, 
and Gerrit Harmanssen, took out free papers upon condition 
of becoming coast traders. They purchased a large boat 
from the Company, with which they plied between Saldanha- 
Bay, Dassen Island, and Table Bay, bringing eggs, fish,, 
oil, seals' skins, salted birds, and dried seals* flesh for dis- 
posal. They had liberty to sell freely to any one who chose 
to purchase, at the highest price which they could obtain, 
and the surplus was delivered to the Company at fixed 
rates, — the seals' flesh at 4s. 2d the hundred pounds. 

The captives were subject to the caprice of their owners, 
though regulations were issued to protect them against gross 
ill-usage. But whether treated well or ill, the natives of 
Guinea and Angola could not be reconciled to a state of 
slavery at the Cape, and as soon as they recovered from 
the effects of the sea voyage they commenced to run away. 
They knew that their own country was somewhere to the 
north, and in that direction they set their faces. Their 
desertion caused no little alarm among the burghers, who 
had purchased them upon credit, and who now saw no 
hope of freeing themselves of debt. They at once jumped 
to the conclusion that the Hottentots — a good many of 

1 Descendants now in South Africa. 



1658] Jan van Riebeek, 79 

whom were then in the neighbourhood — were enticing the 
slaves from service, an opinion which was shared by Mr. 
Van Riebeek. Some Hottentot women, he observed, had 
often been detected giving them trifling presents of food, 
the object of which must have been to induce them to 
desert, and doubtless the Kaapmans were disposing of them 
by sale to people living farther inland. 

A few weeks before this the burgher Hendrik Boom 
had lost seven head of cattle, which had either strayed 
away or been stolen from the pasture in open daylight. 
Old Gogosoa, the fat captain of the Kaapmans, happened at 
the time to be vdthin reach, and Jan Keyniers with some 
other friends of Boom immediately arrested him and de- 
clared they would keep him in custody until the cattle were 
brought back. This bold act at first alarmed the com- 
mander, who feared that it would create enmity far and 
wide, but no other consequence seemed to follow than that 
the whole Kaapman clan instantly set about searching for 
the lost cattle, so that they were recovered vdthin a few 
hours. 

Upon the desertion of the slaves, the principal burghers 
came to the fort and urged the commander to adopt the 
same course to insure their restitution. Thereupon Mr. Van 
Riebeek called together a council, consisting of the senior 
merchant Willem Bastink, of the ship PHns Willem, the 
secunde Roelof de Man, and the sergeant Jan van Har- 
warden, when it was resolved to seize the son and heir of 
Gogosoa, who was called Osingkima by the Hottentots and 
Schacher by the Dutch, his brother Otegno alias Pieter, 
and another named Osaoa. These persons were sitting in 
the courtyard of the fort, unsuspicious of any danger, when 
they were arrested and conducted to the surgeon's kitchen, 
where a guard was placed over them. It was then an- 
nounced that the prisoners would be kept in confinement 
until the runaway slaves were brought back. 

Next morning, Sunday the 23rd of June, there was much 
excitement among the Hottentots near the fort, and matters 



8o History of South Africa. [1658 

seemed so perplexing that the commander called the council 
together again. As soon as it assembled, came the inter- 
preter Doman with the simple face, and tendered his advica 
This individaal had recently returned from Batavia, where 
he had picked up more knowledge than the commander at 
first was disposed to give him credit for. However, he came 
back apparently as much attached to the Europeans as 
before, and even requested to be called Anthony, so that he 
might have a name like a Hollander. He now recom- 
mended the seizure and detention of Jan Gou, one of the 
chief men among the beachrangers, in order that they as 
well as the Kaapmans might be compelled to go in search 
of the fugitive slaves. No one suspected the beachrangers 
of having had anything to do with their disappearance, still 
it was resolved to have Jan Gou arrested, that all men 
might see that the council did not favour one clan more 
than another. No time was lost in carrying out the resolu- 
tion, for Jan Gou, who was with his people in the court- 
yard, was immediately seized and confined with the othera 

A strange scene then took place in the council chamber. 
Eva presented herself, and passionately protested that the 
beachrangers were innocent of crime, but she accused the 
. Kaapmans of all manner of roguery. Doman retorted, and 
repeated an old story of Jan Gou having stolen fourteen 
of the Gompany^s sheep, besides bringing to remembrance 
the murder of David Janssen and the robbery of the cattle 
five years previously. Each abused the other and the clan 
to which the other belonged. Then Harry entered and 
informed the commander that the prisoner Schacher wished 
one of the principal men of the Gorachouquas also to be 
seized, so that all three of the clans might be interested 
in the restoration of the runaway slaves. The council at 
once resolved that the leading men of the Gorachouquas 
should be enticed into the fort with fair words, and that 
the chief should then be seized and confined with the 
others. 

This resolution could not be carried into effect, however. 



1658] Jan van Riebeek, 81 

for as soon as the detention of Jan Con became known the 
Gorachouqnas fled from the neighbonrhood. The Kaapmans 
and beachrangers scoured the country in search of the 
slaves, but only succeeded in recovering two of them. Three 
others returned of their own accord, having been compelled 
by hunger to give up their hope of freedom. Then the 
Hottentots abandoned the pursuit, and reported that they 
could do nothing more. 

On the 3rd of July the council met again, and as the 
position of affairs was critical, two officers of ships in the 
bay were invited to assist in the deliberations. All were 
by this time convinced that the Hottentots had nothing to 
do with the desertion of the slaves. It was believed that 
the Gorachouqnas, who had fled inland, would cause mis- 
chief, and that the seizure of Schacher, becoming gener- 
ally known throughout the country, would deter others 
from bringing cattle to the fort for sale. The prisoners 
were becoming desperate, for they feared that they would 
be put to death. They made an offer to purchase their 
liberty with cattle, and gave it as their opinion that Harry 
was the proper person to be kept in prison. 

Then the misdeeds of the old interpreter were all gone 
over, and it was asserted that the stock in his possession 
belonged of right to the honourable Company, having been 
purchased with goods entrusted to his care. It was resolved 
to entice him into the fort with fair words, to seize him, 
and then to take possession of his cattle, which were grazing 
near the old redoubt. An hour later Harry was in prison 
with the others, and Sergeant Jan van Harwarden, with 
a party of soldiers, was on the way to Salt River. 

That evening the council was hastily called together 

again, for it was feared that the Hottentots would attack 

the settlement. Sergeant Van Harwarden, upon reaching 

Harry's kraal, had found the natives hostile, assagais had 

been hurled at him, and before the cattle could be driven 

away one Hottentot was shot dead and another was 

wounded. 

VOL. I. 6 



82 History of South Africa. [1658 

The sergeant succeeded in bringing in one hundred and 
ten head of homed cattle and two hundred and sixty 
sheep, but it was feared that the natives would retaliate 
upon the farmers. There were then only ninety-seven 
European men, all told, resident at the Gape, and twenty 
of these were invalids who had been left behind by the 
last fleet. It was therefore resolved to land from the 
'Prins Willem without delay twenty soldiers with a thou- 
sand pounds of gunpowder and two hundred hand grenades, 
and to mount two pieces of artillery upon the redoubt Koren- 
hoop, which had recently been built to protect the grounds 
of the farmers at Bondebosch. The burghers were also to 
be armed, and any one who did not possess a gun was to 
apply for such a weapon at once under penalty of being 
fined eight shillings and four pence. 

The next morning Pieter Otegno was released and sent 
with a friendly message to Gogosoa, requesting him to 
come to the fort and make an imperishable alliance, as 
the commander was disposed to settle all differences between 
them amicably. The chief of the Kaapmans with fourteen 
of the leading men of the clan returned with the messenger, 
and stated that on their part they were most anxious for 
peace. This being the case on both sides, the terms of a 
treaty were arranged without any difficulty. The clauses 
were in substance as follow : — 

Past offences on both sides were to be forgotten. 

In future, offenders on each side were to be punished 
by their own countrymen. 

The Kaapmans were to move to the east of the Salt 
and Liesbeek rivers, and to leave the pasture on the Cape 
side for the use of the Dutch. But if they were attacked 
by enemies they were to be at hberty to remove to the 
back of the Lion's head, where they would be under the 
protection of the Europeans. 

The Kaapmans were to see that their cattle did not 
trespass upon the cultivated grounds of the Company or 
of the burghers. 



1658] Jan van Riebeek. 83 

The Kaapmans agreed to do their utmost to recover 
fugitive slaves, and for each slave brought back they were 
to receive as much copper and tobacco as for the purchase 
of an ox. 

The Kaapmans were not to prevent other Hottentots 
from coming to the fort to trade. 

The Kaapmans agreed to sell for copper and tobacco ten 
head of homed cattle and ten sheep for every large ship 
that arrived, five of each for every small ship, and two of 
each every Sunday for the garrison. 

One of the Kaapmans with the interpreter Doman should 
go on board every ship that arrived, and there should be 
given to him two sacks of bread or rice, two or three 
pieces of pork, and a small keg of brandy. 

These terms having been' agreed to, Schacher and Osaoa 
were released from confinement, when to ratify the treaty 
the Kaapmans presented the commander with ten cows and 
nine sheep, and received from him Uberal gifts in return. 
The beachrangers desired to make terms of peace at the 
same time, but the council declined their proposals. Doman 
and others of his clan were inveterate in their animosity 
against these people, and, acting upon their advice, the coun- 
cil finally resolved to transport Harry to Eobben Island and 
detain him there. With him were sent two others, named 
Elhamy alias Jan Cou, and Boubo alias Simon, who were 
informed that they would be kept upon the island until 
the murderers of David Janssen were surrendered by their 
clan, when they would be released. After a detention of 
about two months, however, these last were restored to 
hberty, upon the urgent soUcitation of their friends. As 
for Harry, he remained upon the island, no one excepting 
Eva pleading for him. He might have had his wives and 
children with him if he wished, but he preferred to be 
without them. 

In the meantime the slaves, the original cause of all this 
trouble, continued to desert from service. Some were re- 
covered by the Hottentots, but many made good their 



84 History of South Africa. [165 

escape, probably to die in the wilderness. The bnrghei 
were kept in such a state of anxiety that at length man 
brought back those they had purchased, and requested tfa 
commander to take them off their hands. They preferrei 
they said, to employ only such Europeans as the Compan 
chose to release for that purpose, rather than be worrie 
by slaves. Finally the council resolved to place all th 
males except infants and very old men in chains, as th 
only means of keeping them in service. 

For some months after the settlement of the difficult 
with the Eaapmans, matters went on smoothly betweei 
the Europeans and the natives. They did not come mud 
in contact with each other. Gogosoa and his people kep 
at a distance, and so evaded the fulfilment of the clans 
concerning the sale of cattle. The Gorachouquas avoidei 
the neighbourhood of the fort, and only the beachrangere 
who were few in number, remained. They were permittee 
to make a kraal at the foot of the Lion's head, and ther 
they lived in a miserable manner. Sometimes they wer 

induced to collect a little firewood in return for brands 

■ 

and tobacco, but no other reward was tempting enougl 
to overcome their aversion to labour. 

Occasionally a party belonging to one of the inlan< 
clans brought a few cattle for sale, but the number of oxei 
so obtained was insufficient to meet the needs of the Com 
pany. In October a large and powerful clan of the Cocho 
qua migrated to within a few homrs* journey from the fori 
when it was resolved to open up a trade with them. Thi 
resolution was carried into effect through the instrumen 
taUty of Eva, one of whose sisters was a wife of Oedasos 
chief of the Cochoquas. The Hottentot girl acted so faith 
fully in the interests of the Europeans that a large suppl; 
of cattle was obtained in barter, and the Cochoquas wer 
brought to regard the Dutch with great favour. There wai 
a perpetual feud between them and the Kaapmans. Evi 
visited the clan on several occasions, the first time alone 
and afterwards accompanied by Sergeant Van Harwarder 



1658] Jan van Riebeek. 85 

and a trading party. She gave them an account of the 
Christian faith, as she had learned it in the commander's 
household, to which they listened with attention. Mr. Van 
Eiebeek was greatly pleased when she informed him that 
though she left her Dutch clothes behind and put on the 
greasy skins of the Hottentots when she visited her sister, 
yet she never forgot what she had been taught nor omitted 
to say her prayers night and morning. 

In December the farmers presented a remonstrance 
against some restrictions which had recently been placed 
upon them. The commissioner Van Goens had accorded 
them the privilege of purchasing cattle from the natives, 
but at Mr. Van Kiebeek's instigation the assembly of 
seventeen had withdrawn that liberty. The local council 
thereupon made stringent regulations against such traffic, 
and as the law now stood a burgher purchasing any animal, 
dead or alive, directly or indirectly, from a Hottentot, was 
liable to a fine of hi, for the first offence, lOZ. for the second, 
and for the third to be prosecuted for persistent opposition 
to the government. All intercourse between the two races 
was so strictly prohibited that a burgher could be punished 
for permitting a Hottentot to enter his house. The privi- 
lege of going on board vessels three days after their arrival 
was also withdrawn, because some freemen had secreted 
themselves in the last return fleet, and special permission 
from the commander was now necessary to enable a burgher 
to visit a ship. Against these restrictions the burghers 
remonstrated, but to no purpose, for they were informed 
by Mr. Van Eiebeek that not a letter of the regulations 
would be altered or withdrawn. 

In the same document the farmers complained that the 
price of wheat was so low as not to pay for its cultivation, 
and desired that it might be fixed at I65. 8(2. the muid. 
The commander promised to support this request, which he 
considered reasonable, when a commissioner should arrive, 
but for the present he was unable to raise the price, as 
it had been laid down by higher authority than his at 



86 History of South Africa. [1658 

from 5Z. 165. 8d. to 8Z. 65. 8d. the load of three thousand 
six hundred pounds. The remonstrance was referred to 
the Batavian authorities, who instructed Mr. Van Kiebeek to 
pay for wheat at the rate of 65. 11(2. the hundred pounds. 

In this year, 1658, the culture of the vine was extended 
beyond Table Valley. The first plants introduced had 
thriven so well that cuttings were plentiful, of which the 
commander himself now set out twelve hundred on a plot of 
land that he had recently received as a grant from Commis- 
sioner Cuneus. The ground given to him by Mr. Van Goens 
at Green Point was found not to be capable of cultivation, 
und besides it was needed as pasture for the Company's 
cattle, 80 that at his request Mr. Cuneus exchanged it for 
a freehold farm one hundred and one morgen in extent, 
situated on the south-eastern bank of the Liesbeek, near 
its source. On account of the vineyard planted by the 
commander, this farm was at first called Wynberg, but 
that name was shortly afterwards transferred to the ele- 
vated ground on the south and east, and Mr. Van Eie- 
beek*s property was then termed Boschheuvel. 

The burghers were encouraged to follow the commander's 
example, but most of them merely set out a few cuttings 
round their houses. The first maize was brought in the 
Hasselt from the coast of Guinea. The farmers were 
directed to plant considerable quantities of it, because the 
slaves understood its culture, but they set about it very 
reluctantly. They preferred the fruit and grain of the 
fatherland to such foreign plants as the vine and maize, 
as of the manner of cultivating these they professed them- 
selves absolutely ignorant. 

When the time arrived to elect a burgher councillor, 
the freemen were called upon to nominate some of their 
number, from whom a choice would be made by the council 
of poUcy. They put forward Hendrik Boom, Jan Reyniers, 
Herman Bemajenne^ and Jacob Comelissen. Of these, the 
council selected Hendrik Boom, but resolved to retain also 
the services of Stephen Botma for another twelvemonth, so 



1658] Jan van Riebeek, 87 

that in future there should be two burgher councillors, one 
of whom was to retire every year. 

It had been ascertained that half-breed sheep throve 
better and increased more rapidly than those of pure Cape 
blood. The burghers were therefore prohibited from keep- 
ing any other than imported rams. As soon as the Com- 
pany had sufficient stock, each farmer had his flock made up 
to fifty Cape ewes and one European ram, all other sheep 
being taken in part payment. The Company at this time 
kept about five hundred breeding ewes upon Kobben Island, 
where a couple of men were stationed to look after them 
and to keep a fire burning at night when ships were oflf 
the harbour. 

Among the ships that called in this year was one nstmed 
the West Friesland, which left Holland for Batavia with 
three hundred and fifty-one healthy men on board. A hun- 
dred and forty-eight days after sailing she put into Saldanha 
Bay, when her crew was unable to furl her sails. Seventy- 
two men had died, and more than half the living were then 
in such a condition from scurvy that they could not walk. 
In Saldanha Bay they received assistance from the free 
traders, and supplies of fresh provisions were forwarded 
from the Cape, so that the crew soon recovered. 

In all countries where land is easily obtained, where 
population is sparse, and the products of the soil bring 
fair prices, labour will be in demand. It has been so in 
South Africa ever since the day when freemen were first 
located on small farms at Bondebosch. The intention of 
the Company was to create a body of peasant proprietors, 
who would till the ground with their own hands, or at 
most with the assistance of a couple of European servants 
or heathen slaves, and for this reason the largest grant of 
land to any individual was only twenty morgen. But the 
faxmers alresidy began to aspire to a position in which 
their work would consist merely in directing others, and 
everything in the circumstances of the country favoured 
such a desire. There was thus a constant call upon the 



88 History of South Africa. [1659 

government, which may be summed up in the words protnde 
us with cheap labour. The Company had imported slaves 
from the West Coast, but that scheme had not been satis- 
factory, as has been seen, and now only European servants 
were asked for. Any soldiers in the garrison who were 
disposed to enter the service of the farmers were therefore 
permitted to do so, but the number who took their dis- 
charge for that purpose was not very great. About twenty- 
five names are mentioned, but they need not be given, as 
none of these men remained long in the colony. 

At this time also several mechanics took out free papers, 
and ground was assigned to three farmers, named Jan 
Louw,^ Philip van Eoon, and Jan Coenraad Visser.^ The 
council requested the assembly of seventeen to send out 
some families of poor but industrious farming people, to 
which a reply was received that efforts would be made to 
do so, but that it was very difficult to induce such persons 
to emigrate to a country of which nothing beyond the 
name was known. A few were occasionally obtained for 
India, and if any of them chose to remain at the Cape 
when the ships called, they could do so. Any resident in 
South Africa could have his friends sent out to him; and 
proper care of females, whether wives, daughters, or affianced 
brides, would be taken on the passage. 

The supreme authorities were desirous of having the 
country explored, in order to ascertain what prospects there 
were of pushing trade in the interior, and Mr. Van Kiebeek 
was instructed to offer premiums for any discovery of note. 
The reward held out was sufficient to induce a party of 
seven burghers to go in search of the powerful nation of 
Namaquas, of whose wealth and civilisation Eva told very 
wonderful stories. It was believed that these people could 
be reached in from twenty to thirty days. The party left 
the Cape on the 3rd of February 1659, taking with them 
on pack oxen a supply of provisions sufficient to last three 
months. They travelled northward for twenty days, suffer- 

1 NumerooB descendants now in South Africa. 



1659] Jdft van Riebeek. 89 

ing mnch from thirst, for they did not know where to look 
for water, and from heat, for it was the sultriest month 
of the year. They reached the Berg river not far from 
where it empties into St. Helena Bay, and noticed the 
ebb and flow of the tide in its channel. Their pack oxen 
were by this time so worn that they gave up the intention 
of proceeding farther, and turned back to the fort, where 
they arrived on the 7th of April, without adding anything 
to the existing knowledge concerning the interior of the 
country. 

From the vintage of this season a small quantity of wine 
was made, for the first time in South Africa. The fruit used 
was Muscadel and other round white grapes, and the manu- 
facturer was the commander himself, who was the only 
person in the settlement with any knowledge of the manner 
in which the work should be performed. The event is 
recorded on the 2nd of February, and it is stated that the 
Spanish grapes were not then ripe, though the vines were 
thriving. There is no mention now to be found of the 
introduction of vine-stocks from Spain, but this observation 
appears to verify the common opinion that the hanepoot was 
brought from that country. This was not the only importa- 
tion of plants of which the record has been lost, for the 
introduction of European flowers is not mentioned in any of 
the documents of that date still existing, though the rose 
and the tulip are incidentally spoken of as blooming at this 
time in South African gardens. Similarly, olive and mul- 
berry trees are stated to be thriving wonderfully well, and 
currant bushes of three varieties are said to have died. 

Much trouble was taken with the manufacture of ale, as 
that beverage was used more generally than wine by the 
people of the Netherlands, and was considered indispensable 
for scurvy patients in the hospital. Barley throve well, and 
there was no difficulty in making malt, but the hop was 
planted again and again without success, though the greatest 
care was bestowed upon it. This industry was persevered 
in for many years, and samples of ale were often sent to 



90 History of South Africa. [1659 

Batavia and to Holland, bnt always became soar before their 
destination was reached. At length it was found that the 
heat of the climate prevented ale being made for exporta- 
tion, and the efforts were then relaxed. 

Every burgher was required to have a gun in his posses- 
sion, and was at all times liable to be called upon to per- 
form military service. Early in this year the freemen were 
formed into a company of miUtia, so as to keep them 
practised in the necessary drilL They were enrolled in a 
corps with one sergeant, two corporals, and one drummer, 
exactly the same as the garrison of the fort. For the first 
year the council of poUcy selected Stephen Botma to be 
sergeant and commander of the militia, and Herman Bema- 
jenne and Wouter Mostert to be corporals, but subsequently 
all appointments were made according to the established 
custom of the fifttherland. A council of militia was created 
—consisting of the two burgher councillors, the sergeant, 
and one of the corporals — and to this body was entrusted 
the regulation of all petty matters. Every year the council 
of militia submitted a double list of names to the council 
of policy, from which list the appointments for the following 
twelve months were made. 

Election by the masses was not favoured in the Nether- 
lands at this period, and the nearest approach to such a 
system at the Cape was in the form of nomination of 
burgher councillors, which was observed for a short time 
while the freemen were few in number and lived close 
together. The burghers met in a body and put forward 
their favourites, from whom the council of policy made a 
selection. In 1659 they nominated in this manner Jan 
Beyniers, Jacob ComelisseD, Wouter Mostert, and Jan Eiet- 
velt, of whom the council of policy selected Jan Beyniers 
to take the place vacated by Stephen Botma. 

In the council of policy a change was effected by the 
death in February of Jan van Harwarden, who only a few 
months before had been promoted to the rank of ensign by 
the admiral and brosid council of the return fleet. The 



1 6s 9] Jdft van Riebeek. 91 

fiscal Abraham Gabbema was allowed to have a voice and 
vote, and was released from his duty as secretary, to which 
office the clerk Gysbert van Campen was appointed. Ser- 
geant Pieter Everaert, in right of his office as head of the 
military, took his seat at the board. 



92 



CHAPTEE IV. 

MR. VAN RIEBEEK'S ADMINISTRATION (continued). 

Early in the year 1659, when the Kaapmans moved with 
their herds to the peninsula, they found large tracts of 
ground at Wynberg and Kondebosch dotted over with the 
houses of the settlers. They could no longer graze their 
cattle on the rich herbage at the foot of the mountains, 
as they had been wont to do in days gone by, and their 
hearts swelled with bitter hostility towards the strangers. 
The white men, though few in number, possessed weapons 
so destructive that the Hottentots feared to attack them 
openly, but there was a possibility of driving them from 
the country by systematic plunder. The Kaapmans and 
Gorachouquas tried this plan. They came down upon the 
farmers' kraals at night and drove the cattle away, while 
by day they were nowhere to be seen. One night Doman 
disappeared from the fort. He left his European clothes 
behind, and the next that was heard of him was that he 
had been recognised as the leader of a party of plunderers. 
From that time he made his presence felt in the neighbour- 
hood. He knew that in wet weather it was difficult for 
the Europeans to use their firelocks, and so he selected 
rainy days and nights for his cattle-hfting excursions. 

The harassed farmers soon grew tired of acting on the 
defensive only, and sent a petition to the commander to 
be allowed to take revenge. Mr. Van Biebeek met them 
assembled in a body on the Company's farm at Bondebosch, 
and tried to argue the question with them, for his orders 
from the directors were emphatic, that he was not to do 



i6s9] Jdn van Riebeek. 93 

the natives harm. He considered also that part of the 
freemen's losses should be attributed to their own negli- 
gence, as some of them often sent their cattle out to graze 
without a herd to look after them. He warned the burghers 
that the Company would not give them a second start in 
life, much less compensate them for any losses which they 
might sustain in war, but they asserted their willingness 
to take all the risk upon themselves rather than remain 
longer in a state of insecurity. They asked that the soldiers 
should be employed against the Hottentots, or otherwise 
that they might be permitted to avenge themselves, for 
which purpose they believed they were strong enough. 

The commander then summoned the council to discuss 
the serious aspect of afhirs, and invited the burgher coun- 
cillors to take part in the proceedings. On this occasion 
there were present : Commander Van Kiebeek ; the secunde, 
Boelof de Man ; the sergeant, Pieter Everaert ; the burgher 
councillors, Hendrik Boom and Jan Keyniers; and the 
fiscal, Abraham Gabbema. They placed on record that 
the desire of the Europeans was to live in peace and friend- 
ship with the natives, but it was impossible to do so as 
matters were going then. If messengers were sent to the 
Hottentots they would at once conclude that they were 
masters of the situation, and this could not be tolerated. 
The council considered that there was ample cause to 
attack the Eaapmans and to do them as much injury as 
possible ; that this course would be righteous before God, 
and such as they could be responsible for. The true object 
of attacking their enemies was not booty in cattle, nor 
revenge, for that belonged to God alone; but to enable 
them afterwards to live in peace, and that the Company's 
designs of discovery by means of exploring expeditions 
shoT^d not be frustrated. They then resolved, that as there 
appeared to be no other means of attaining quietness and 
peace with the Cape people, advantage should be taken of 
the first opportunity to fall upon them suddenly with a 
strong force, and to seize as many cattle and men as pos- 



94 History of South Africa. [1659 

sible, avoiding all unnecessary bloodshed, but keeping the 
prisoners as hostages so as to hold in check those who 
should escape. 

In the settlement at that time there was one Simon 
Janssen, usually known as * Simon in't velt/ a nickname 
given to distinguish him from numerous other Janssens — 
or sons of men named Jan — who had no surnames. This 
* Simon in't velt ' was looking after some cattle when Doman 
and a party of Hottentots suddenly came upon him. He 
tried to prevent his cattle being driven away, but was 
overpowered and murdered with assagais. The news of 
this occurrence reached the fort within an hour after the 
council had broken up, and it was followed by a panic. 
The beachrangers immediately fled from Table Valley, and 
some of the more timid burghers began to remove their 
families to the fort for safety. A few commenced to place 
their houses in a condition for defence, the example being 
set by Hendrik Boom, who had the best building at the 
Cape. Among the burghers, who so recently had been 
clamouring for revenge, there was nothing but confusion. 
Each one wished to have his own way, and the wildest 
schemes were suggested, so that the commander found it 
impossible to do anything with them as a militia corps. 

In this state of affairs the council resolved to release the 
slaves from their chains and to employ them in military 
operations against the Hottentots. A few days later those 
burghers who had ceased to carry on their ordinary employ- 
ment were formed into a corps, with pay at the rate of ten 
pence a day each, in addition to rewards that were offered 
for the heads of marauders. Some soldiers were sent to 
assist those who remained upon their farms, and ambuscades 
were planned for the enemy. But it was in vain that 
attempts were made to surprise them or to draw them into 
an engagement, for the Hottentots were as difficult to be 
reached as birds in the air. 

A virulent sickness at this time appeared among the 
homed cattle and sheep, so that of some flocks and herds 



1659] Jd'^ van Riebeek, 95 

not less than four out of five died. On Kobben Island only 
thirty-five sheep remained out of a flock of five hundred. 
The nature of the disease is not stated ; it is only recorded 
that famine was not the cause, for stall-fed sheep perished 
like the others. The council attributed this plague to the 
direct action of the Almighty, and recorded their belief that 
it V7as sent as a punishment for their sins. They therefore 
resolved to hold a prayer-meeting every Wednesday after- 
noon at four o'clock, to pray that God would withdraw His 
wrath from them and help them against their enemies. 

Those enemies were certainly doing much mischief. The 
Europeans were harassed and worn out in looking for them, 
while they were never seen except where no resistance could 
be ofiered. At last the council thought of Harry, the pris- 
oner on Eobben Island, and resolved to make use of him as 
a guide to the secret retreats of his countrymen. For that 
purpose they decided to oflfer him great rewards, but they 
placed on record that they had no intention of fulfilUng 
their promises. A boat was accordingly sent for Harry, 
with a suit of clothes and a friendly message from the com- 
mander, but before its return the condition of affairs had 
assmned a new and entirely different phase. 

Oedasoa, chief of the Cochoquas, having heard that the 
Europeans were at war with his enemies the Cape clans, had 
moved towards the fort, and was now encamped on the 
opposite shore of the bay with many thousand people. 
From his kraals there he sent messengers to the commander, 
offering a close and firm alUance, which the council imme- 
diately agreed to enter into with him. Eva and thirteen 
Europeans were sent with a present and instructions to 
discuss with him the method of ruining the Kaapmans and 
Gorachouquas, these being the common enemy. And so 
when the boat from Bobben Island reached the jetty, before 
Harry could put his foot on land, orders were given to the 
boatmen to take him back to his place of exile. 

The assistance which the Europeans desired of Oedasoa 
was merely a party of guides, for they felt themselves strong 



96 History of South Africa. [1659 

enough to win a victory if they could only be brought face 
to face with their enemies. But the chief of the Cochoquas 
either could not supply such men as were wanted, or was 
not so fast a friend as he wished the commander to believe, 
for though deputations and presents were frequently sent to 
him, he did nothing more than make promises. In the 
accounts which are given of interviews of the Dutch mes- 
sengers with him, his council is more than once mentioned, 
and it is stated that this council consisted of old and experi- 
enced men. From this it may be inferred that the govern- 
ment of the Hottentot clans was similar in form to that of 
the Bantu of the present day. 

The arrival of a large Indiaman enabled the commander 
to strengthen the garrison with twenty-five additional soldiers, 
and to exchange some of his old hands for more useful 
ones. From another Indiaman he obtained eighty soldiers 
to assist in an expedition into the country. A Gora- 
chouqua spy was captured, and through the interpretation 
of Harry, who was brought from Kobben Island for the 
purpose, was compelled by threats of death to lead the 
way to the camping-place of the Kaapmans. The party 
marched only at night, so as to avoid being seen, and 
intended to fall upon the enemy at break of day. To 
encourage the members of the expedition they were promised 
a share of any captured cattle, a reward of fifty-five shillings 
for each prisoner, and twenty-seven shillings and six pence 
for each one of the enemy killed. A premium of one hun- 
dred and thirty seven shillings and six pence was offered 
to any one who should apprehend Doman. But the expedi- 
tion was a failure, though every precaution was taken to 
insure success. The enemy always escaped in time, and 
at last Harry pointed out that the attempt to pursue them 
was useless, for they had men posted as sentinels on every 
hill. 

Shortly after this failure, the fiscal Gabbema, with three 
horsemen, almost by accident encountered a party of five 
Hottentots, and killed three of them. The remaining two 



i6s9] Jdn van Riebeek, 97 

were wounded, one of them being Doman, who managed to 
escape, but the other was taken prisoner and conveyed to 
the fort. A fortnight later Corporal Elias Giers, with eleven 
soldiers, came across a camp of beachrangers, which they 
quickly dispersed, kilUng three and wounding many. The 
beachrangers then solicited peace, and were permitted to 
return to their old location in Table Valley, while the Kaap- 
mans and Gorachouquas removed from the neighbourhood, 
and for some months nothing was heard of them. Harry 
was sent back to Bobben Island, and with him was sent the 
captured Gorachouqua spy. One night the prisoners suc- 
ceeded in launching an old and leaky boat, with which they 
put to sea, and though the chances were all against them, 
they were driven ashore on the coast below Saldanha Bay 
and safely effected their escape. 

As soon as the field was deserted by the enemy, the 
council began to debate schemes for protecting the settle- 
ment from future attacks. Mr. Van Biebeek brought to 
mind what he had seen in the Caribbee islands, and favoured 
the plan of a thick hedge of thorn trees beyond the culti- 
vated grounds. It was decided finally, as a temporary 
measure, to deepen the fords of the Liesbeek, to build three 
watch-houses along the outer line, and to put up a strong 
fence, through which cattle could not be driven. A thick 
hedge or belt of thorn bushes was afterwards to be set out. 
The watch-houses were built, and received the names of 
Turn the Cow, Hold the Bull, and Look Out (Keert de Koe, 
Houdt den Bui, ende Kyck uijt). Between them a strong 
fence was made, and in them were stationed a few horsemen, 
whose duty it was to patrol along the line. This force was 
the frontier armed and mounted police of the day, for the 
line was the colonial border. At the commencement of 
hostilities Mr. Van Biebeek urged the Batavian authorities 
to supply him with a few more horses, as he had then only 
about twenty, including young foals, and with the return 
fleet sixteen were forwarded from Java. Some powerful 
dogs were also received at the same time, so that the 

VOL. I. 7 



98 History of South Africa, [1659 

Europeans now felt themselves more than a match for a 
legion of Hottentots. 

Towards the close of the year a plot was discovered, 
just in time to save a richly-laden vessel lying in the bay. 
The surgeon of the fort, William Eobertson by name, a 
native of Dundee, came to learn one Sunday at noon that 
a large party of men intended to run away with the yacht 
Erasmus that same night, and he at once gave information 
to the commander. Thereupon some of the conspirators 
were arrested, when they confessed that they had planned 
to desert and march overland to Angola, but that when 
the Erasnms arrived in Table Bay they changed their views 
and resolved to seize that vessel. Twenty-nine men in all 
were ascertained to have agreed to this project, of whom 
fifteen were slaves, and among the remainder were indi- 
viduals with such names as Colin Lawson, John Brown> 
John Beck, and Alexander Crawford, all of Dundee, Jacob 
Bom, of Glasgow, and Peter Barber, of Hampstead. The 
principal conspirators were sent to Batavia for trial, and 
those who were implicated in a lower degree were heavily 
punished here. A result of this plot was that the council 
resolved to send all the English and Scotch from the Cape 
to Batavia, so as to rid this place as much as possible of 
rubbish (omme soo veel doenlijck dese plaetse van alls 
oncruijt te suijveren). An exception was of course made 
in favour of the surgeon, who received a reward equal to 
10/. for having detected and made known the conspiracy. 

The losses from cattle sickness and the Hottentot war 
were to some extent compensated by a remarkably good 
season for agriculture. The crops exceeded the utmost 
hopes, and never before had food been so plentiful. During 
the short time the Cochoquas remained in the neighbour- 
hood a great many cattle were obtained in barter, so that 
notwithstanding the mortality the commander was able to 
supply the farmers with fresh stock. 

One of the regulations made during this year was to 
the effect that every burgher was to be at liberty to buy 



i66o] Jan van Riebeek. 99 

or sell anything whatever except com and cattle, but the 
prices of all articles likely to be brought into the market 
were fixed by the government. The fiscal and the two 
burgher councillors were required to go round at least 
once a month and see that everything was sold at the 
legal rates. 

In the early months of 1660 the settlement was appa- 
rently in a state of peace, but this was only because the 
Cape clans had removed inland for a time. With their 
return to the peninsula, it was anticipated that hostiUties 
would be renewed, unless some arrangement with them 
could be entered into beforehand. For such a settlement 
as would allow the Europeans to pursue their avocations 
unmolested, Mr. Van Biebeek and the members of his 
council were most sincerely anxious. There was not a 
doubt on the mind of any one as to the cause of the war. 
The wounded Hottentot, who had been made prisoner and 
brought to the fort by the fiscal, spoke Dutch well enough 
to be understood, and upon being asked why his country- 
\ men were stealing the farmers' cattle, he replied that it 
was because the farmers were occupying, without their 
leave, land which had from time immemorial belonged to 
them. They could no longer even drive their cattle to 
the river to drink, said he, without crossing cultivated 
ground, which they were not permitted to do, and they 
hsA therefore determined to try to force the intruders to 
leave the country. Soon after making this statement the 
prisoner died, and from that time Mr. Van Eiebeek always 
gave this as the true origin of the war. 

Yet admitting that the natives had natural cause for 
enmity, as the authorities at Batavia candidly did, it was 
not possible to grant them redress. The question was very 
simple : — Was the right of the nomad Hottentot clans to 
the soil to be admitted so far that Europeans ought not 
to deprive them of any portion of it, or was the European 
justified in planting his outposts in such positions as the 
Cape? Assuredly there could be but one answer, though : 



• w 



lOO History of South Africa. [1660 

it could be admitted at the same time that it was natural 
for the natives to resist the intruders. 

The Kaapmans were the first to make overtures for 
peace. Early in the year 1660 they sent a message to the 
commander from Saldanha Bay by the coast traders, pro- 
posing a treaty of friendship. They asked for a written 
safe conduct, to be signed by the commander, the secunde, 
and the fiscal, that their delegates might visit the fort. 
This proposal emanated from Harry and Doman, who had 
observed that a bond was preferable to a verbal promise. 
The safe conduct was sent as desired, and under its protec- 
tion the two former interpreters presented themselves before 
the commander and settled the preliminary arrangements. 

On the 6th of April the fat captain Gogosoa, accom- 
panied by Harry, Doman, and forty of the leading men of 
the Kaapman clan, arrived at the fort and concluded a 
treaty. The terms were that neither party was to molest 
the other in future, that the Kaapmans were to endeavour 
to induce the inland clans to bring cattle for sale to make 
up for those which they had stolen, that the Europeans 
were to retain possession of the land occupied by them, 
that roads were to be pointed out along which the Kaap- 
mans could come to the fort, and that Europeans doing 
wrong to the natives were to be severely punished. These 
terms were not arranged until after long discussion and 
much argument, which was only ended by Mr. Van Kie- 
beek's plain declaration that the ground would be held by 
the sword. The Kaapmans, after ceding the point of 
possession of the land under cultivation, entreated permis- 
sion to be allowed to come within the boundaries to gather 
bitter almonds and edible roots, but this request was re- 
fused, l)ecause the bitter almonds were needed for the 
hedge which was to enclose the settlement. They brought 
forward numerous instances of ill-treatment from burghers, 
but were fain to be contented with an assurance that if 
they reported any such cases to the Dutch authorities 
thereafter they would receive ample redress. 



i66o] Jan van Riebeek. loi 

Soon after the conclusion of peace with the Kaapmans, 
the Gorachoaquas sent three delegates to the fort to ask 
if terms would be entered into with them also. The answer 
was in the affirmative, and on the 5th of May Choro, with 
Harry and Doman as his interpreters, and about a hundred 
followers, appeared at the fort. Ankaisoa, a petty chief 
of Gogosoa's clan, but who was not included in the treaty 
of the 6th of April, was there also. They wanted to enter 
into a discussion about the ownership of the ground along 
the Liesbeek, but the commander abruptly informed them 
that nothing must be said on this subject again. Terms 
of peace similar to those with Gogosoa were then agreed 
upon, in ratification of which Choro presented the com- 
mander with thirteen head of cattle, and received in return 
a gift of copper, beads, pipes, and tobacco. 

The Gorachouquas were entertained, as the Kaapmans 
had been, with a feast of rice and bread, and as much 
spirits as they chose to drink. A tub was placed in the 
courtyard of the fort, and was filled with a mixture of 
arrack and brandy. The Gorachouquas then prepared to 
celebrate the conclusion of peace with a grand dance after 
their manner. The men ranged in order, while the women 
seated themselves on the ground and set up a monotonous 
chant, clapping their hands sharply at the same time. 
The dancing, or rather springing up and down and quiver- 
ing the body, continued for two hours, while one after 
another the Gorachouquas fell to the ground, overcome by 
exertion and the strength of the mixture in the tub. As 
each man fell he was picked up and carried outside of the 
fort, where he was laid down in the grass to sleep. When 
at last the dance ended, only three or four men were able 
to keep their feet. This was the concluding festivity, and 
the commander was thereafter able to say that he was at 
peace vnth all the people of Africa. 

About this time the secretary Gysbert van Campen left 
the Gape for Batavia, and the clerk Hendrik Laciis was 
promoted to the vacant post. The duties of this officer 



I02 History of South Africa. [1660 

were then differ ent from what they were at a later period, 
as the government changed to some extent with the growth 
of the colony. He kept a record of the proceedings of the 
council of policy, but had neither vote nor voice in the 
debates ; in the absence of a clergyman he performed the 
marriage ceremony ; he drew up contracts and agreements ; 
before him declarations concerning crime were made, though 
prosecutions were conducted by the fiscal ; and a great 
amount of work in copying letters, journals, and other 
documents, was performed by his hands. One of his most 
necessary qualifications was that his penmanship should 
be good; and now, after the lapse of more than two cen- 
turies, the beautiful black letter which the early secretaries 
wrote can be read by those who know its characters 
almost as easily as print. The paper which they used 
was rougher in surface, but tougher and stronger than 
that of our times. Age has altered its colour, but the 
characters upon it, traced with a quill dipped in the black- 
est of ink, stand out in bold clear lines as evenly arranged 
as if the work had been done by machinery. They used 
fine sand to dry their writing, and to-day, if the pages are 
held aslant in the rays of the sun, the finishing flourishes 
are seen to sparkle in the light. Yet the great-grandsons 
of the great-grandchildren of those who in early manhood 
traced those flourishes may have been in their graves long 
before any of the readers of these pages were bom. 

It was necessary in this year to appoint two new 
burgher councillors, as Jan Reyniers, having been ruined by 
i;he war, had returned into the Company's service, and Hen- 
drik Boom had served the full term. The freemen nomin- 
ated Jacob Cloete, Leendert Cornelissen, Wouter Mostert, 
and tlurien Appel, of whom the council of policy selected 
the second and third. The council of militia at the same 
time presented a list of six names, out of which Hendrik 
van Surwerden was appointed sergeant, and Herman Bema- 
jenne and Elbert Dirksen were chosen to be corporals for 
the ensuing year. 



i66o] Jan van Riebeek. 103 

On the 9th of May 1660 the French ship Marichal, 
Captain Simon Yesron, from Nantes bomid to Madagascar, 
pnt into Table Bay. She had, all told, one hundred and 
forty-eight souls on board, among whom were Lieutenant 
Pierre Gtelton, who was going out to assume the govern- 
ment of one of the French factories at Madagascar, a bishop, 
and three minor ecclesiastics of the church of Eome. On 
the morning of the 16th the wind set in from the north- 
west with rain, and gradually increased in force until on 
the 18th it was blowing a gale, while a heavy sea was 
rolling into the bay. The Marichal was riding with three 
anchors out, but her ground tackle was much weaker than 
that of a Dutch Indiaman of her size. Before daylight on 
the 19th the cables parted, and then, as there was no 
possibility of saving the ship, the fore-sail was dropped to 
cause her to swing, so that she struck the beach with her 
bows on near the mouth of Salt Eiver. Some of her spars 
were then cut away, and a boat was got out, but was 
swamped and broken on the beach. 

When day dawned, the people on the wreck were seen 
to be making rafts, but they did not succeed in getting 
any of them to land. In the afternoon they sent two letters 
on shore in a cask, in which they earnestly prayed for help, 
and a whale-boat was then mounted on a waggon and 
conveyed to the beach. A line was floated in, and a strong 
rope followed, along which the whale-boat plied once or 
twice, but only half a dozen men reached the shore that 
afternoon. In the night the gale abated and the sea went 
down, 80 that there was no longer any danger of loss of 
life. A place was then assigned to the shipwrecked crew, 
where they could put up tents and store the cargo. Several 
testrictions were imposed upon their liberty. One was that 
all munitions of war, except the arms of the six officers 
highest in rank, should be given into the custody of the 
commander; another, that they should not go beyond as- 
signed limits; a third, that no meetings should be held 
for the celebration of worship according to the ritual of 



I04 History of South Africa. [1660 

the church of Eome. A proclamation was also issued by 
Mr. Van Eiebeek, one clause of which prohibited all re- 
ligious ceremonies in the settlement, except those of the 
reformed church of Holland. This seemed to every one 
so reasonable that no demur was made to it, but Lieutenant 
Gelton objected in forcible language to the surrender of 
the arms. The commander was firm, however, and the 
lieutenant was compelled to submit. 

Captain Vesron and forty-four of the crew were Hugue- 
nots, and the sympathy between them and the Nether- 
landers seems to have been stronger than between them 
and their own countrymen of the other faith. Thirty-five 
of the Frenchmen entered the Company's service at the 
Cape, and the remainder of the crew did the same as soon 
as they reached Batavia, to which place they were sent in 
the first ships that left South Africa after the disaster. 
The ecclesiastics remained here neajrly a year, and then 
took passage for Europe, after having in vain endeavoured 
to engage a conveyance to Madagascar. The bishop, Es- 
tienne by name, was a man of great wealth and of good 
family, who had suddenly exchanged a career of profligacy 
for a hfe of fervent piety. He had devoted himself to the 
establishment of missions in Madagascar, and though this 
was the third time he had been thwarted in the attempt 
to reach that island, he informed Mr. Van Biebeek that 
he intended as soon as he arrived in Europe to charter a 
vessel at his own cost, if none were being sent out by 
the owners of the factories. 

It has frequently been observed in South Africa that 
an individual European has acquired enormous influence 
with the natives. This has sometimes been the result of 
confidence on the part of the weaker race in the good 
judgment, truthftihiess, and friendly feeling of some parti- 
cular European ; sometimes it has been the result of the 
white man's descent to the level of the native in everything 
but energy, daring, and skill. An instance of this occurred 
in the earliest days of the settlement. It was discovered 



i66o] Jan van Riebeek. 105 

in 1660 that Herman Eemajenne, the man whose name 
heads the Ust of South A&ican settlers, had long been 
carrying on an illicit trade with the Hottentots. Dming 
the period of hostilities, when the government was making 
every effort to find the Kaapmans, he had twice visited 
their camp secretly. When the Marichal was lost, he 
managed by night to supply the crew with abundance of 
fresh beef in exchange for articles saved from the wreck. 
He was carrying on a large cattle trade unobserved under 
the very eye of Mr. Van Biebeek's government, and when 
he was at last taken red-handed, it appeared that he had 
few other accomplices or assistants than natives. One 
night he was detected with a party of Hottentots driving 
a herd of bartered cattle to his kraal, and then the whole 
of his past transactions became known. His punishment, 
taking into consideration the circumstances of his case and 
the ideas of that period, was very light. The bartered 
cattle were forfeited to the Company, and a small fine 
was inflicted upon him. 

Large herds of cattle were at this time frequently 
brought for sale by the chiefs of inland clans. The 
natives were very eager to obtain beads, and parted with 
many hundreds of oxen and cows to gratify their fondness 
for these trifles. The quantity of beads given for an ox cost 
only firom eight to ten pence, but there were other and 
larger expenses connected with the trade. Presents, con- 
sisting of copper plates, iron rods, axes, tobacco, pipes, and 
other articles, were continually being made to the chiefs to 
secure their friendship, while all who came to the fort were 
hberally entertained. The mode of conducting the barter 
was somewhat ceremonious. 

A party approaching from the interior sent a couple of 
messengers in advance to inform the commander of the 
number of cattle on the way. At the gate close to the 
watch-house Keert de Koe, the party was met by a horse- 
man and escorted to the fort. The leader was perhaps 
Oedasoa, chief of the Cochoqua, a tribe estimated to consist 



io6 History of South Africa. [1660 

of seventeen or eighteen thousand souls. If so, he was 
mounted on an ox, and at his side rode his favourite 
daughter Namies, who was his constant attendant. Behind 
came a third draught ox laden with mats and necessaries 
for the journey, while forty or fifty men brought up the 
reaj: and drove the cattle for sale. Or perhaps it was 
Sousoa, chief of the Chainouqua, a tribe even more numer- 
ous and powerful than the Cochoqua. In that case, he 
was accompanied by his son Goeboe, and the train behind 
was similar to Oedasoa's. 

Arrived at the fort, the chiefs dismounted, and were 
conducted to the commander's own apartments, where they 
were seated upon mats spread on the floor. For Oedasoa, 
Eva, or Krotoa as she was called by the natives, always 
interpreted, but when any other chief was the commander's 
guest, Doman or Harry attended. After being seated, a 
complimentary conversation was carried on for a short 
time, and then an entertainment of bread, rice, cheese, 
sugar, and wine was served up in tin dishes and cans, 
which the guests were informed were used only by persons 
of rank in Holland, never by common people. Sometimes 
they were treated to music from the virginals, and if it 
happened to be Sunday the military and burgher infantry 
were reviewed after divine service, and salutes were fired in 
their honour. While the chiefs were entertained in this 
manner in the commander's quarters, their retainers were 
feasting in the courtyard of the fort on bread, rice, and 
' brandy. As a rule, no trade was done on the day of 
their arrival, but on the following morning the cattle barter 
took place. This was followed by another entertainment, 
which sometimes lasted for two or three days. When the 
visitors left, their pack oxen carried presents which had 
been made to the chiefs and a good supply of biscuits and 
brandy for use on the road. 

The behaviour of the Hottentots on these visits was 
always satisfactory, and pleasing traits in their character 
were often noticed. If a present was made to one, it was by 



i66o] Jan van Riebeek. 107 

him immediately divided among them all. The attachment 
of Oedasoa to his daughter Namies has been mentioned. 
Once when the Cochoqua chief with a party of his followers 
was endeavouring to secure some young zebras for the 
oonamander, who wished to try if they could be tamed and 
used as horses, a great lion sprang upon him and dreadfully 
mangled one of his arms. His followers rushed to the 
rescue, and after killing the lion with their assagais, carried 
the bleeding chief to his hut. Namies then proved her 
filial affection. She would permit no one else to dress the 
wounds, and watched day and night by her father's side 
till he was able again to assist himself. Once she was ill, 
and then we are told nothing would tempt her father to 
leave her, though the commander sent most pressing in- 
vitations to hiuL An attachment such as this shows that 
the natives were by no means destitute of humanity. 

Yet events are recorded which are in strange contrast 
veith these. The mother of Namies was an elder sister of 
Eva. When she was a girl the Chainouquas visited the 
Cape, and she was carried away by one of them. After 
^ time the Cochoquas made a foray upon the Chainou- 
quas, and among the spoil was this young woman, who 
then attracted the attention of Oedasoa and became his 
wife. In a state of society where such events were of 
common occurrence, it might be thought that family ties 
would not be very strong. It seems to have been other- 
veise. 

It frequently happened that ships were blown past the 
Gape without being able to put into Table Bay, and 
sometimes vessels were actually at the mouth of the har- 
bour when a strong south-east gale sent them to sea 
again. It was therefore considered advisable by the direc- 
tors to have a second place of refreshment somewhere in 
the Atlantic, and as by order of the Protector Cromwell 
in 1659 the English had taken possession of the island of 
St. Helena, search was at this time being made for 
another equally convenient station. It was believed that 



io8 History of South Africa. [1660 

there was a beautiful and fertile island, well adapted for 
this purpose, somewhere between St. Helena and the 
African coast. 

One Lodewyk Claessen, of Delft, who was serving a& 
master ship's carpenter at Batavia, gave out that in the 
year 1652 he had been twice on St. Helena Nova, as- 
the Portuguese named the island. Hereupon he was re- 
quested by the governor-general and council of India to 
tell them all that he knew of it, and a very pretty story 
he put together for their gratification. For four years, he 
said, he had been a prisoner in the hands of the Portu- 
guese, and during a portion of that time had been com- 
pelled to serve in a ship of theirs which was cruising 
about the Atlantic. They came once to a very fertile 
and lovely island, abounding with fruit, vegetables, and 
cattle. He knew nothing of navigation, and consequently 
could not tell its position, but he had heard from the 
sailors on board that it was half a degree south of old 
St. Helena. He went ashore twice, and observed that 
the Portuguese had two small fortresses there, and were 
building a third and larger one. In his opinion, the 
island would make an admirable station for refreshment,, 
as it had a good harbour and everything else that could 
be desired. 

It was not only from Claessen's account that the exist- 
ence of St. Helena Nova was believed in, for it was laid 
down in various charts long before his story was told. 
Various expeditions were sent from the Cape to search for 
this island, but all to no purpose. The fleets, when they 
left for Europe, sailed in a long line with the ships a few 
miles apaxt, and so the ocean was scoured for years, until 
St. Helena Nova was erased from the maps. 

An attempt to reach the fabulous empire of Monomo- 
tapa was also made from the Cape in this year 1660. 
Under the stimulus of large rewards, which were offered 
for any discoveries of importance, a number of volunteers 
offered their services to the commander. Since the return 



i66o] Jan van Riebeek, 109 

of the last exploring expedition, Mr. Van Eiebeek had 
been diligently studying different books and atlases which 
treated of the geography of South Africa, and he believed, 
therefore, that he could now fix the exact position of 
Monomotapa and its chief cities. As authorities he had 
liinschoten's celebrated work, Father Martinus Martini's 
verbal description of the country, a number of maps, and 
several Portuguese books, though certainly neither the 
great histories of De Barros and De Couto nor the volume 
of the Dominican friar Joao dos Santos. The commander 
was of course famiUar with the Portuguese language, which 
was then the common medium of conversation between 
Europeans of different nationahties in the east, and it must 
have been frequently used at the fort Good Hope, for it is 
stated that Eva could speak it tolerably well. 

From the sources of information at his command, Mr. 
Van Eiebeek laid down the city of Davagul, in which the 
emperor of Monomotapa was believed to keep his trea- 
sures, as eight hundred and twenty-eight English miles in 
a north-easterly direction from the Cape of Good Hope, 
and three hundred and twenty-two miles westward from 
the coast of the Indian sea, that is, in the neighbourhood 
of the present town of Pretoria. It was built on the bank 
of the river Espirito Santo. The city of Cortado on Eio 
Infante was beheved to be in the same direction, but much 
nearer than Davagul. The inhabitants on the route are 
stated to be the Cochoqua, the Chainouqua, and the Han- 
cumqua. Next to these last were the Chobona, who were 
believed to be the civiUsed people of Monomotapa. 

The volunteers were thirteen in number, and were under 
the leadership of an intelligent petty officer named Jan 
Danckert. Two of them were men whose names will fre- 
quently be met with again. One of these was George 
Frederick Wreede, a German of good education, who had 
by some means got into the lower ranks of the East India 
Company's service. The other was Pieter van Meerhof, a 
Dane, who came to this country as a soldier, but as he 



no History of South Africa. [1661 

possessed some skill in dressing wounds, was soon after- 
wards promoted to the rank of under-surgeon. With the 
party went also the interpreter Doman, who had been 
living at the fort since the peace, and was now doing his 
utmost to regain the confidence of the commander. They 
left the fort on the 12th of November, taking with them a 
supply of bread and other food on three pack oxen, and 
trusting to obtain a sufficiency of meat with their muskets. 

The explorers travelled northward, keeping along the 
base of the mountain range which separates the western 
coast belt from the interior. Here and there they en- 
countered small parties of Bushmen, some of whom dropped 
their arms and fled in consternation at sight of the strang- 
ers, while others held friendly communication with them. 
They passed through a region which they described as the 
veritable kingdom of the moles, where travelling was most 
difficult, as at every step the ground gave way beneath 
them. At length they came to a river flowing towards 
the Atlantic, and on its banks were two or three hundred 
elephants feeding, from which circumstance they gave it 
the name which it still bears. 

At the Elephant river some of the party rested, while 
the leader and a few others pushed on a little farther to 
the north. At the most distant point reached they saw 
smoke rising a long way ahead, and were informed by some 
Bushmen that it was from the fires of a Namaqua encamp- 
ment. Most of the party were by this time so fatigued 
that they were indisposed to go farther, and the leader 
was therefore compelled to turn homeward. They made 
no discoveries of importance on the return march to the 
fort, which they reached safely on the 20th of January 
1661. 

The intelligence which they brought of having seen 
the fires of the Namaquas called forth such a spirit of ad- 
venture that in ten days another exploring party was ready 
to set out. It consisted of thirteen Europeans and two 
Hottentots, under the leadership of Corporal Pieter Cruyt- 



i66i] Jan van Riebeek. iii 

hof, with the tmder-surgeon Pieter van Meerhof as journal- 
ist and second in command. This party followed the same 
route as the last, along by a mountain to which they gave 
the name Biebeek's Kasteel, and then selecting the least 
rugged pathway to the north. Not far beyond the Elephant 
river they fell in with eighteen or twenty Namaqua hunters, 
who, after some hesitation and repeated invitations given 
through the interpreters, approached in a friendly manner. 
Presents of trinkets were made to them, and in a few 
minutes confidence on both sides was fully established. 
Some of the natives remained with the Europeans that 
night, and on the following morning conducted them to 
a kraal at no great distance. 

This encampment of the Namaquas, under the chief 
Akembie, consisted of seventy-three huts ranged in a circle, 
with a few others in a group outside. Meerhof estimated 
the owners of the huts at three hundred men and four 
hxmdred women and children, the proportion of these last 
being small because the kraal was only a temporary out- 
post. They had about four thousand head of homed cattle 
and three thousand sheep, with which they were moving 
from place to place wherever pasture was to be found. 
The travellers were welcomed with many demonstrations 
of joy. A calf and a sheep were presented to them for 
food, and the leaders were invited into the chiefs hut, 
where a kaross was spread upon the ground for them to 
sit upon while they were regaled with milk. 

In the evening a grand dance took place in their honour. 
A ring was formed of between one and two hundred men, 
each of whom held in his hand a hollow reed differing in 
length or thickness from that of his neighbour. In the 
centre stood a man with a long stick, singing and giving 
directions. Those in the ring blew into their reeds and 
went through various evolutions, while outside of the circle 
the women were dancing vigorously. This entertainment 
lasted about two hours. 

Meerhof describes the Namaquas as larger in person 



112 History of South Africa. [1661 

than other Hottentots, and as being better dressed. They 
wore karosses of leather, or of leopard, wild cat, or 
cony skins. Their hair was the same as that of the Cape 
clans, but by attaching copper ornaments to some of the 
tufts, they managed to stretch them out so as to fall round 
their heads. On their arms they wore ivory and copper 
rings. They were acquainted with the art of smelting 
copper and iron, of which metals they manufactured orna- 
ments and weapons. Their habitations, like those of their 
race elsewhere, were merely hemispherical frame-works of 
wood covered with mats, and could be moved from place 
to place almost as readily as canvas tents. The most 
important article of their food was milk, which they kept 
in large calabashes and in vessels hollowed out of wood. 

The Namaqua warriors carried shields of double oxhide, 
so large that they could conceal their persons behind them. 
As arms of offence they used the assagai, clubbed stick, 
and bow and arrow. At the time of Cruythof's visit there 
was a feud between them and the Cochoquas. Some Bush- 
men had recently robbed them of a lot of cattle, and they 
were seeking an opportunity for vengeance upon that plun- 
dering race. Presents of beads, copper plates, tobacco, 
and other articles, were made to these people, but that 
which seemed to please them most was a red nightcap. 
The strangers were well treated as long as they remained, 
and when they left presents were made to them, of which 
they took to the fort a young ox and also a goat, the first 
animal of the kind seen at the Cape. They reached the 
fort on the 11th of March, having been absent only forty 
days. 

It has more than once been mentioned that the Hot- 
tentot clans were generally at war with each other when 
Europeans became acquainted with them. Some of their 
feuds appear to have been hereditary, but others were only 
petty quarrels. The ill-feeling between the Namaquas and 
the Cochoquas at this time was not very deep-seated. It 
had its origin in a deed of spoliation, such as is common 



i66i] Jan van Riebeek. 113 

among all uncivilised people. Oedasoa, the Cochoqua chief, 
had fallen upon the clan known as the Great Grigriquas, 
and had taken their cattle, upon which they fled to the 
Namaquas. These espoused their cause, but were so luke- 
warm in the matter that Akembie informed Corporal Cruyt- 
hof he would make peace at once if Oedasoa would send 
messengers for that purpose. 

The conmiander was anxious that the clans in the in- 
terior should be on good terms with each other, so that 
all might come unmolested to the fort with cattle for sale. 
He therefore no sooner heard Cruythof s report, and read 
the journal of the expedition, than he paid a visit to 
Oedasoa, whom he addressed and spoke of as the ally of 
the honourable East India Company. The Cochoqua chief 
was requested to observe that the Netherlanders were the 
friends of all people, their desire being that all should live 
in peace and trade in friendship. For this reason he, 
Conmiander Van Biebeek, requested his good friend and 
ally to appoint delegates to enter into a treaty with the 
Namaquas, when a party of Europeans would be sent with 
them and the tranquillity of the country be secured. Oeda- 
soa replied that he knew the conmiander wished all people 
to live in peace, but he was not so good himself. His 
followers were more numerous and more powerful than the 
Namaquas and the Great Grigriquas combined, and he was 
disposed to make them feel his strength. He was per- 
suaded, however, to change his views, and after a short 
delay three delegates of the Cochoquas were appointed to 
arrange for peace. 

Volxmteers offered again, and on the 21st of March a 
party consisting of nine Europeans, the three Cochoqua 
delegates, and two interpreters, under the leadership of 
Pieter van Meerhof, left the fort for the country of the 
Namaquas. They took with them large presents for Akem- 
bie, his three grown-up sons, and the leading men of his 
clan. The country as far as the Elephant river was now 

well known, and when Meerhof reached that stream for 
VOL. I. 8 



114 History of South Africa. [1661 

the third time he was not sorry to find no Namaquas near 
its banks, as their absence gave him an opportunity to 
lead his party into regions where no explorers had pre- 
viously been. 

Six days longer he pushed on northward, through a 
country more barren and desolate than he had ever before 
seen or had any conception of. On the sixth day of this 
wearisome march the party came upon an encampment of 
the Great Grigriquas, and found in it some of Akembie's 
people, who had been left there purposely to receive any 
Europeans that might arrive during the chiefs absence. 
The main body of the Namaquas had migrated to the 
north. The object of the expedition was attained, how- 
ever, for peace was concluded between the belligerent clans 
by their representatives, and Meerhof's party returned to 
the fort Good Hope, where they arrived on the 23rd of 
April, bringing with them every prospect of a large increase 
to the Company's cattle trade. 

While efforts were thus being made to open up South 
Africa to conmierce, the improvement of the natives was 
not altogether unthought of. There were indeed no mission- 
aries, in the present meaning of that word, sent from the 
Netherlands, but there was at least one man at the Cape 
who was doing the work of an evangelist. His name was 
Pieter van der Stael, and the office which he filled was 
that of sick-comforter. He was brother-in-law of the com- 
mander Van Kiebeek. In 1661 his term of service expired, 
and a new engagement was entered into for three years, of 
which the original record is still in existence. In this 
dooument it is stated that the sick-comforter had been very 
lalooB in trying to teach the Hottentots and slaves the 
atoh language and the principles of Christianity. His 
[mdnct in this respect having been brought to the notice 
! the directors in the fatherland, they entirely approved 
! it, and to signify their satisfaction they issued instruc- 
118 that his pay was to be increased to 3Z. 15^. a month, 
ah was then considered a very large salary for his office. 



i66i] Jan van Riebeek. 115 

In the agreement, the work in which he had been engaged 
was recognised as part of his future duty, though he was 
Btill to attend to the sick in the hospital, and conduct the 
Sunday services. The whole number of Hottentots within 
the settlement at this time did not exceed fifty souls, so that 
the Dominie, as he was usually called, had not many of 
that people to labour among. Their manner of living, 
also, was such that any efforts to improve their mental 
faculties must have been almost hopeless. 

Already there was a suspicion in the minds of some 
observers that the only method of civilising the Hotten- 
tots was the plan followed in the case of Eva. She had 
grown up in the commander's household, where she had 
acquired European habits and tastes, and where she had 
learned to read and to act outwardly as a Christian^ 
though as yet she was unbaptized. It appeared as if 
two systems were upon their trial, each of which finds 
advocates to this day. Pieter van der Stael exhorting 
the beachrangers among their wretched hovels under the 
Lion's head, trying to make them comprehend the Chris- 
tian faith, teaching naked and half-famished savages the 
ABC, would be regarded as a model missionary by 
many great evangelising societies of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. And the individuals are not few who would have 
greater hopes fi:om the plan adopted with Eva, who was 
to as great an extent as possible weaned in childhood 
from the customs of her race, and who underwent a train- 
ing in habits of industry and conformity with civilised 
modes of living, before any purely religious teaching was 
attempted. 

Mr. Van Riebeek was desirous of entering into a treaty 
of alliance vdth the Namaquas, as he anticipated great ad- 
vantages to the Company from trade with that tribe. The 
old belief concerning their high civilisation had been broken 
by personal intercourse, and it was now known that they 
were merely ordinary Hottentots, far even from being so 
numerous or so powerful as the Cochoquas. But it wa& 



ii6 History of South Africa. [1661 

also known that they were very rich in cattle, and it was 
hoped that by their means those golden regions laid down 
in the charts might at length be reached. As yet, the com- 
mander's faith in the accuracy of the maps of the time was 
unshaken. He still spoke of Vigiti Magna and of the great 
river which ran past it as if they were well-known geo- 
graphical facts. Beyond this river was the land of wealth, 
and to get to that land it was necessary to have the Nama- 
quas as friends. 

A party was therefore made ready to visit Akembie for 
the purpose of inviting him and his three sons to the 
fort. Most friendly messages were to be conveyed to them, 
and such presents as were known to be acceptable were 
to be taken. In the outfits for journeys such as this we 
can see the style of hving of the Company's servants at 
that time. The food was ample, though coarse; tea and 
coffee were unused ; arrack or brandy formed part of the 
ration ; but that which would strike as strangest any one 
unacquainted with colonial tastes was the large quantity 
of spice — cloves, nutmegs, and especially cinnamon — which 
was consumed. 

The expedition to the Namaquas consisted of thirteen 
volunteers, of whom Sergeant Pieter Everaert was leader, 
Pieter van Meerhof second in command, and Comelis 
de Cretzer journalist. They left the fort on the 14th of 
November 1661, /jjid did not return before the 13th of 
February 1662. • North of the Elephant river they suffered 
greatly from Poarcity of water, and even when they found 
a little, it /veas so bitter that they could hardly drink it. 
The country was a dreary desolate wilderness, burnt up 
by the rays of a fiery sun, a vast expanse of sand in which 
they wandered for days together without encountering a 
sign of . human Ufe. At length they learned from some 
Bushmen that the Namaquas were far away to the north, 
and though they tried to follow, they did not succeed in 
reaching any members of the tribe. By this expedition 
no discove:ry of any importance was made, nor did anything 



i66i] Jan van Riebeek. 117 

transpire on the journey more worthy of record than the 
tramphng to death of one of the volunteers by an elephant.^ 
In the settlement at this time only a few trifling events 
occurred. The burgher councillor, Leendert Cornelissen, 
had suffered heavy losses by the desertion of his slaves, 
the disturbance with the Hottentots, and mishaps in his 
business as a dealer in timber. These troubles had driven 
him to habits of carelessness and intemperance unbecom- 
ing his position. It was then the custom for the court of 
justice, of which he was a member, to meet every alternate 
Saturday afternoon at two o'clock. On one occasion when 
a case came on for hearing he was found in a tavern unfit 
to make his appearance. Hereupon the council of policy 
deprived him of office, and from a double nomination by 
the freemen appointed Hendrik Boom in his stead. 

The two burghers who had an exclusive privilege to 
shoot and sell game had also become dissipated in their 
habits, so that a supply of venison was only procurable at 
irregular and uncertain intervals. The commander here- 
upon gave permission to all the freemen to kill wild animals 
for the consumption of their own families, but not for 
sale, on the ground that the pubhc welfare demanded such 
a modification of the privileges of the licensed hunters. 

The farmers, instead of attending to their work when 
ships were in the bay, were frequently visiting the port, 
on such occasions generally bringing in a waggon load of 
firewood for disposal. To prevent this waste of time, the 
council enacted that no firewood should be brought for 
sale except on Saturday afternoons or on Sunday mornings 
before nine o'clock, and an official was sent to Eondebosch 
to compel the farmers to plough their lands. But such 
enactments were by no means confined to the Cape Colony. 
In England, for instance, at this date labourers were not 

^ The original chart of this expedition is in the archives of Holland, and 
a copy of it on tracing linen, made by me, is in possession of the colonial 
government. The bearings are very inaccurately laid down. The point aimed 
at is shown to be the town of Yigiti Magna. 



li8 History of South Africa. [1662 

permitted to receive more than an arbitrary rate of wages 
fixed by the county authorities. A dozen regulations of 
as despotic a nature as any enforced in South Africa could 
probably be selected from the records of the freest country 
in Europe. 

Early in 1662 the ancient feud between the Cape clans 
and the Cochoquas under the chief Oedasoa, which had been 
dormant for a short time, was revived, when the Cape clans 
drove their cattle as close as they could to the European 
settlement, and sent messengers to the commander to im- 
plore his protection. Hereupon Mr. Van Kiebeek with a 
small guard rode out to see for himself how matters stood, 
and just beyond Wynberg found four kraals containing in all 
one hundred and four huts, occupied by fully two thousand 
Goringhaiquas and Gorachouquas. The commander dis- 
mounted and sat down under a screen which the natives 
hastily made by planting poles in the ground and spreading 
a mat upon them. 

The chiefs then informed him that fi:om Oedasoa they 
did not expect mercy, that unless they could fall back upon 
the mountains they were unable to defend themselves, and 
as the Europeans now held those mountains they thought 
they were entitled to protection. Mr. Van Eiebeek replied 
that if they would undertake to dehver ten head of homed 
cattle and ten sheep for every vessel that entered the bay he 
would take them under the guardianship of the honourable 
dompany. The chiefs requested the commander to allow 
ihem to consult with their people about this important 
matter, and asked him to remain till the consultation was 
over. This being agreed to, an old man was sent round to 
•call the sages together. They met, and imder the presi- 
dency of Choro discussed the question for fully four hours, 
when a small committee of the leading men went apart and 
finally arranged an answer for the commander. This was, 
that it would be impossible for them to dispose of so many 
cattle without destroying their breeding stock, but they were 
willing to sell all that could be spared, without, however. 



1662] Jan van Riebeek. 119 

binding themselves to any number. Mr. Van Eiebeek tried 
to persuade them that by his plan they could easily enrich 
themselves through barter with their countrymen inland, 
but his reasonings were of no avail. Finding that his terms 
would not be agreed to, he at last left the Hottentot encamp- 
ment, affcei; informing the chiefs that as the grass was then 
becoming scarce in that neighbourhood they must at once 
move away. 

Yet at that moment Mr. Van Eiebeek had no intention 
of leaving the Qoringhaiquas and the Gorachouquas to the 
mercy of the Cochoquas. He says that although Oedasoa 
was the friend and ally of the honourable Company, he was 
so powerful that it would not be judicious to allow him to 
destroy the others and to become the immediate neighbour 
of the settlement. In that case he would probably soon 
become troublesome, and would cei-tainly prevent intercourse 
between the fort and the tribes inland. The commander 
chose therefore to watch the course of events and to main- 
tain the balance of power. On the morning after the con- 
ference Gogosoa and Choro with Harry and a troop of 
followers, in hope of appeasing him, brought fourteen oxen 
and eleven sheep for sale, when they were liberally enter- 
tained and given to understand that the Europeans were 
friendly to them, though no promise of protection by means 
of arms would be made. 

The vision of obtaining control over rich gold mines and 
stores of ivory if possession were taken of the eastern coast 
of Africa, which had dazzled the Company in the early years 
of its existence, was still floating before' the eyes of the 
directors in Holland. At this time they were preparing a 
fleet to attack Mozambique, and orders were sent out to the 
Cape to detain two hundred and fifty soldiers from homeward 
bound ships and to hold this force in readiness to embark 
upon the arrival of the expedition. In April the soldiers 
were landed, and were placed under command of Lieuten- 
ant Fran9ois Tulleken, who, during the short period of his 
residence here, took mihtary precedence of Sergeant Everaert. 



I20 History of South Africa. [1662 

The accounts of the condition of the settlement given 
verbally to the directors by the skippers of their vessels 
did not always accord with the despatches prepared by Mr. 
Van Eiebeek. There was a tendency on the part of the 
commander to overrate the advantages of the Cape station, 
and a tendency on the part of the skippers to underrate 
them. It was, said the commander, a place abounding 
with fresh meat and vegetables, and having a certainty 
immediately before it of an equally plentiful supply of fruit 
It was, said the skippers, the dreariest place in the world, 
where the meat was so tough and lean that they could 
hardly eat it, and where often the ships were straining and 
chafing their cables half the time of their stay, riding in 
a heavy sea with a farious gale blowing. It was, said the 
commander, a place with many conveniences and comforts 
for the officers and sailors whenever they wanted to take 
a run ashore. It was, said the skippers, a place where the 
town burghers obtained a living by keeping lodging houses 
and brandy shops, and selling poultry and eggs, without 
having the fear of God before their eyes when making 
charges, but as for such comforts as could be procured in 
the smallest village of Europe or India, they were entirely 
wanting. On board every return fleet some of the garrison 
or freemen managed to secrete themselves, and these run- 
aways, upon arriving in the fatherland, naturally supported 
the statements of the skippers. 

The directors called the commander's attention to the 
complaints of the skippers, which, they observed, they were 
inclined to believe must rest upon a good foundation, as 
in one instance beyond dispute he had misled them. He 
had often held out prospects of the Cape being able to 
furnish its own food, and still the Company was compelled 
to import rice. Most certainly this charge was unjust, for 
the imported rice was a very small item to be placed as a 
set-off against the supplies of provisions to the fleets. But 
the belief had come to be general in the fatherland that 
the resources of the Cape were by no means so great as 



1662] Jan van Riebeek. 121 

Mr. Van Biebeek was constantly representing. Strict orders 
were therefore sent out that no more men were to be 
released from service to become town burghers. We do 
not see, said the directors, of what advantage they are in 
a country that does not raise its own food. Farmers are 
needed first of all. 

Mr. Van Eiebeek had long been anxious for removal 
from South Africa. He had a high opinion of his own 
abilities, and believed that he deserved promotion. Further 
advancement here being impossible, he had more than 
once requested an appointment in India, though he always 
added that he was content to abide by the decision of his 
superiors. In 1660 the directors resolved upon his removal, 
and appointed Mr. Gerrit van Ham as his successor, with- 
out intimating their intentions regarding himself further 
than that he was to proceed to Batavia and there receive 
instructions. 

Mr. Van Ham sailed from Texel in the Wwpen van 
'Holland^ a first-class Indiaman of which David Coninck, 
formerly of the Dromedaris, was then skipper. Soon after 
leaving home sickness broke out among the crew, and 
before they had been many weeks at sea the ship was Uke 
a hospital. Twenty-five corpses had already been com- 
mitted to the deep, when, on the 17th of March 1661, Mr. 
Van Ham died. 

As soon as inteUigence of the decease of the commander 
designate reached Batavia, the council of India appointed 
in his stead Mr. Zacharias Wagenaar, who was then serv- 
ing as a merchant in the Company's service, and with the 
first return ship Mr. Van Eiebeek was apprised that he 
might shortly expect his successor. He received the an- 
nouncement with satisfaction, for his arrangements to leave 
South Africa had been sometime made. His two sons 
had been sent to the Latin school at Eotterdam to receive 
their education. His farm had been handed over to the 
council as representing the honourable Company, and it 
had been arranged that the next commissioner who should 



122 History of South Africa. [1662 

call at the Cape should appraise the amount to be allowed 
him for improvements. On this farm a good deal of labour 
must have been bestowed, for there were then growing 
upon it one thousand one hundred and sixty-two yoimg 
orange, lemon, and citron trees, ten banana plants, two 
olive, three walnut, five apple, two pear, nineteen plum, 
and forty-one other fruit trees, besides some thousands of 
vines.^ 

^A list of the saccessive owners of this estate and the sams paid for it 
will show the value of landed property in the Cape peninsula at different 
periods. Unlike nearly every other plot of ground originally given out in 
this part of the colony, Mr. Van Biebeek's farm has never been sub- 
divided, but remains intact to the present day, with the same boundaries 
as were assigned to it in 1658. The council was of opinion that it would 
make a good garden for the use of the Company, and agreed to keep it 
for that purpose; but the directors decided against this arrangement, and 
issued instructions that it should be sold by public auction for Mr. Van 
Kiebeek's benefit. It was purchased by Jacob Bosendaal for 1102., to be 
paid in yearly instalments extending over a long period. The next person 
who is found in possession of it is Tobias Marquart, but what he gave for 
it cannot be ascertained, as there was no registry of deeds before 1686, 
and no mention is made of the transaction elsewhere. In 1686 titles 
were issued to the individuals who were then in possession of estates, and 
an accurate record of transfers began to be kept. In Marquart*s title it is 
stated that the ground was the same hundred and one morgen that had 
been first granted to Mr. Van Biebeek, and it is termed Boschheuvel, but 
no particulars are given as to when or how it came into his possession. 
In August 1690 Cornells Linnes purchased it from the executors of Mar- 
quart's estate for 4872., and in June 1691 he sold it to Willem Heems for 
500/. The next purchaser was also named Willem Heems, who in July 
1726 bought it for 9202. from the estate of the heirs of the former pro- 
prietor. In February 1758 Jacob van Beenen bought it from the heirs of 
Heems for 2672., and in September of the same year sold it to Jacob 
Neethling for 4002. In February 1773 Jan Boep bought it from Neethling 
for the same sum that the latter had paid for it, and in May 1783 he sold 
it to Pieter Henkes for 2,2672. In June 1804 Henkes sold it to Justus 
Keer for 2,8672., and in August 1805 Keer sold it to Honoratus Christiaan 
David Maynier for the same amount, 2,8672. Maynier changed the name 
of the fatrm from Boschheuvel to Protea. On the 10th of June 1818 he 
received from Lord Charles Somerset a grant of seventy-seven morgen and 
one hundred square roods of waste land adjoining the old estate, at a 
yearly quitrent of 12. lis. 6^., and in subsequent transfers this ground 
was included. After his death his widow became insolvent, and under an 
order of the supreme court the property was sold at public auction on the 



Jt662] Jan van Riebeek. 123 

On the 2nd of April 1662 Mr. Wagenaar arrived at the 
Oape, having come from Batavia in the capacity of com- 
modore of the two ships Angelier and Ojevaer, which formed 
part of the return fleet of 1662 under command of Arnold 
de Vlaming, ordinary councillor of India. Three other 
ships of the same fleet, with Joan van der Laen as com- 
modore, were already lying at the rendezvous in Table 
Bay. There were four others still behind, one of which 
was afterwards known to have gone down at sea in a gale, 
and the remaining three were never again heard of. 

Mr. Wagenaar was warmly welcomed upon landing, 
but the reins of government were not handed over to him 
before the 6th of May. On the afternoon of that day the 
freemen were all assembled at the fort, where the garrison 
was drawn up under arms before a temporary platform. 
•The ceremony of inducting the new commander was very 
simple. Hendrik Lacus, the secretary, read the commission 
of the governor-general and council of India, the troops 
presented arms, the secunde Roelof de Man, the Ueutenant 
JPran9ois Tulleken, the fiscal Abraham Gabbema, and the 
minor ofl&cers of the government engaged to support the 
Authority of the new commander, the freemen repeated a 
formula promising obedience to his lawful orders, and the 
whole ceremony was over. 

On the 7th Mr. Van Riebeek with his family embarked 
in the Mars^ and early on the following morning he sailed 
for Batavia. He had governed the settlement ten years 
and one month. A lengthy document which by order of 
the directors he drew up for the use of his successor con- 
tains a statement of the condition of the infant colony, 



drd of May 1886. It was purchased by Andries Brink, who received 
transfer on the 14th of March 1837. Brink sold it to Honoratus Christiaan 
David Maynier, a grandson of the former proprietor, and transfer was 
passed on the 23rd of August 1842. This Maynier sold it in June 1851 to 
the trustees of the colonial bishopric fund — one of them being the right 
honourable William Ewart Gladstone — for 3,100Z. Since that time the 
.bishop of the English church has resided on the estate. 



124 History of South Africa. [i66» 

remarks upon planting at various seasons of the year, an 
account of all the Hottentot clans that were then known^ 
and a great deal of hearsay information, much of which 
was afterwards discovered to be inaccurate. 

The settlement was then in a fairly prosperous con- 
dition. The Javanese horses had increased to over forty^ 
old and young, so that a body of eighteen mounted men 
could be kept patrolUng the border. The hedge was grow- 
ing well, and promised in the course of three or four 
years to be so high and thick that nothing could be driven 
through it, consequently from the Hottentots there was 
little or no cause to fear trouble. Of homed cattle, sheep^ 
and pigs, there was a good stock on hand. Every farmer 
had at least twelve working oxen and six cows, every one 
whose wife had arrived from Europe had at least twelve 
cows, and as they were permitted to exchange any inferior 
animals for the best that the Company purchased from 
the natives, their stock was the choicest in the country. 
Each had his Uttle freehold farm marked out, and beyond 
the agricultural lands the whole open coimtry was common 
pasture. 

The directors had reproved Mr. Van Eiebeek for the 
severity of his regulations, and by their order many re- 
strictions upon trade had been removed. The farmers 
could not legally purchase cattle from the natives, they 
could not legally sell a muid of wheat, an ox, or a sheep, 
except to the Company, but they could dispose of anything 
else freely, even to the master of a foreign vessel, at the 
best price which they could obtain. The town burghers, 
were dependent upon strangers for their living. During 
the decade 1652-1661 twenty-five of the Company's ships 
on an average put into Table Bay yearly. One with 
another, there were on board each of these ships about 
two hundred men, so that every twelvemonth there were 
five thousand visitors, remaining usually ten or twelve 
days. In addition to these, during the period of Mr. Van 
Biebeek's government seventeen English and six French 



1662] Jan van Riebeek. 125 

ships dropped anchor in Table Bay, and their crews were 
customers for many articles which the freemen had for 
sale. It is true that foreign ships were not encouraged 
by the government to make this a port of call, but it is 
no less true that in none of the colonial possessions of 
England or France were Dutch seamen better treated at 
that time than English and French seamen were treated 
here. 

That was an age in which foreigners had nowhere the 
same commercial privileges as the owners of a country. 
At the Cape the government would sell them nothing, but 
they had the use of all the lodging-houses and taverns, 
they could purchase vegetables, pigs, and poultry from the 
burghers, and in some instances at least the authorities 
closed their eyes to sales of cattle. The instructions of the 
directors were to give the burghers a helping hand, not to 
enforce harsh regulations when imnecessary. It was fre- 
quently considered unnecessary to enforce the regulations 
against the sale of cattle, if the Company was fully supplied 
and a foreigner offered a high price to a burgher. 

This mode of procuring a livelihood was somewhat 
precarious, and was adapted to form a class of petty 
traders not over scrupulous in their transactions, rather 
than such a body of colonists as the Company was desir- 
ous of establishing at the Cape. Mr. Van Eiebeek re- 
ported that many of them were doing so well that they 
were never seen with their shirt sleeves rolled up, but 
only a few years later another commander stated that 
some were in extreme poverty. Both were right. 

When Mr. Van Eiebeek left South Africa he antici- 
pated great profit from the cultivation of a particular plant. 
That plant was the oUve. Nowhere in the world could 
there be a finer specimen of a young olive tree than on the 
farm which had once been his. In the preceding year it 
had been overloaded with fruit, which had ripened well, 
and now he had himdreds of young trees ready for trans- 
planting in July and August. Yet to the present day it 



126 History of South Africa, [1662^ 

is an open question whether the olive can be cultivated 
with profit in South Africa. 

Among matters to which Mr. Van Eiebeek directed his 
successor's attention were the taming of young ostriches 
and the stocking of the islands in Saldanha Bay with 
rabbits. On several occasions tame ostriches had been sent 
to the Indies, where they had proved acceptable presents 
to native potentates, and it was for this purpose alone that 
they were needed. Their feathers were saleable, but it 
does not seem to have occurred to any one in those days 
that it would pay to tame the bird for the sake of its 
plumaga The object of stocking the islands in Saldanha 
Bay with rabbits was to increase the food supply there for 
the crew of any ship that might arrive in distress. These 
animals were already swarming on Bobben Island, but it 
was noticed that a species of snake, harmless to men, had 
of late so greatly multiplied that the rabbits would likely 
not increase further. 

The native clans that were known in 1662 were the 
Goringhaikonas, the Goringhaiquas, and the Gorachouquas, 
inhabiting the country in the immediate vicinity of the fort ; 
the Cochoquas, in two divisions under the chiefs Oedasoa 
and Gonnema, and the Little Grigriquas, occupying the 
country along the coast from the neighbourhood of the 
Cape to the Elephant river ; the Namaquas and the Great 
Grigriquas, north of the Elephant river ; and the Chainou- 
quas, to the east of the Cochoquas. Altogether, these well- 
known clans were supposed to number from forty-five to 
fifty thousand souls.^ Scattered over the whole country, 

>I have arrived at this estimate, not from any single statement of 
Mr. Van Riebcek, but from observations scattered throughout his writings. 
Where ho has given only the number of fighting men in a clan, I have 
multiplied that number by five to represent the total of men, women, and 
children. In two instances he has given no information further than say- 
ing the clans were about as strong as some others which he had previously 
named. The spelling of these tribal names is that generally, though by 
no means uniformly, employed in the early records. The letters g and 
ch were in those days used for each other apparently at the pleasure of 



1662] y^^^ van Riebeek. 127 

wherever it had been explored, were a few diminutive Bush- 
men living by plunder and the chase, but of their number 
the commander did not venture to give an estimate. 

The Hessequas, whose pastures were next to the east- 
ward of the Chainouquas, had sent a messenger to the 
fort to ascertain all that he could of the strangers who 
had come from over the sea and made themselves homes 
at the end of the land. But of the Hessequas only the 
name was known. Mr. Van Eiebeek had heard of the 
Hancumquas, whose chief, called Choebaha, was believed 
by him to be the head of all the Hottentot race, of the 
Chamaquas, the Omaquas, the Attaquas, the Houteniquas, 
and the Chauquas, but he had never seen any one be- 
longing to any of these clans. The boundary of the 
Chauquas he believed to be the great river on which 
Vigiti Magna was built, and beyond that stream he 
thought an entirely different people from the Hottentots 
would be found. These he called the Chobonas. They 
wore clothing, dwelt in substantial houses, were in pos- 
session of gold and jewels, — in short, were the civilised 
people of Monomotapa. Besides all these, Mr. Van Rie- 
beek had been told of amazons, of cannibals with hair 
80 long that it reached the ground, and of a race that 
tamed lions^ and used them in war; but of their exact 
place of abode he professed himself ignorant. 

Within the last three years several farmers had taken 
out free papers, but though each man's ground was sur- 
veyed, a neat chart of it framed, and a title deed issued 

every writer, e.^., Gorachouquas, Ghorachouquas, dag, dach, etc. Tribal 
names given in the text, and also the names of individuals, must be taken 
to represent the closest approximation to the sounds as spoken by Hotten- 
tots, which could be written in the letters of the Dutch alphabet. That 
these words contained clicks, which could not be represented by Mr. Van 
Riebeek and the early secretaries, is certain. It would doubtless be of 
advantage to an ethnologist if they were written in all instances in their 
correct Hottentot form, but as in that case they would be utterly un- 
pronoonceable by English tongue, in a book such as this it seems prefer- 
able to retain the Dutch spelling. 



128 History of South Africa. [1662 

as soon as the terms of occupation were completed, the 
most methodical of all governments — the government which 
has left detailed information concerning every ship that 
entered the bay — neglected by some unaccountable oversight 
to keep an accurate record of its land grants. This is 
not, however, a matter of any great importance, as out 
of all those who became burghers at this time, only 
three men remained and left descendants behind them in 
South Africa. Those three were Willem van der Merwe, 
Hans Eas, and Pieter van der Westhuizen, ancestors of 
colonial famiUes now widely spread. 

The character of the first commander of the colony is 
delineated in the thousands of pages of manuscript which 
he left behind. A more dutiful servant no government 
ever had, for he endeavoured to the utmost to carry out 
in spirit and in letter the instructions which were given 
him. He was sanguine in temperament, energetic in action. 
So active was he that he accomphshed, in addition to all 
his other duties, more mere writing than any ordinary 
clerk would care to imdertake. 

On the other hand, his judgment was weak, and his 
ideas of justice were often obscured by the one object ever 
present in his mind, — the gain of the honourable Company. 
He was inclined to be tyrannical, and, as is not unusual 
with men who rise above the rank in which they are bom, 
he treated with contempt the class from which he sprang 
whenever he could do so with impunity. He was reUgi- 
ous after the fashion of his day, but his religion did not 
prevent him from acting falsely and treacherously when- 
ever there was any immediate gain to the Company to be 
made by a falsehood or a treacherous act. 

Perhaps this was rather a vice of the age than of the 
man. He, at any rate, did not regard it as a vice at all, 
for he recorded with the utmost simplicity how on one 
occasion he sent a false message, on another made a pro- 
mise with no intention of fulfilling it, on a third entrapped 
a Hottentot by means of fair words. Nor did any of the 



1 662] Jan van Riebeek. 129 

directors, or commissioners, or Indian authorities, ever pen 
a line of censure on account of such doings. In addition 
to these remarks upon the most prominent features of his 
character, it may be added that the first commander was 
a man of no great delicacy of feeling, and that in refine- 
ment of mind he compared unfavourably with most of his 
successors. 

After his arrival in Batavia, Mr. Van Eiebeek was ap- 
pointed head of the Company's estabhshment at Malacca, 
which post he fiUed until 1665. Subsequently he became 
secretary of the council of India, and remained in that 
situation for many years, but never had a voice in the 
debates or proceedings. 



VOL. I. 



I30 



CHAPTEE V. 

ZAGHABUS WAGENAAB, GOMMANDEB, INSTALLED 6th MAT 1662, 

BETIBED 27th SBPTEMBEB 1666. 

CoMHANDEB Wagbnaab was a man whose habits and dis- 
positdon formed a strikiDg contrast with those of his pre- 
decessor. Mr. Van Eiebeek was a little man of restless 
energy and fiery temper, who got into a passion whenever 
he fancied a slight was offered to his dignity. His con- 
temporaries called him ' the little thomback ' (de Inttel 
rogh), and the nickname was decidedly appropriate. Mr. 
Wagenaar, on the contrary, was an elderly man of grave 
demeanour, who never allowed a passion to disturb him. 
He possessed no ability, either mental or physical, natural 
or acquired, in any high degree. He was dull, impassive, 
averse to exertion. If he had ever been ambitious of 
fame or rank, the feeling had died before he came to 
South Africa. 

He was not, however, without considerable experience 
in the management of business, and he had once filled a 
post as important as that of head of the Company's fac- 
tories in Japan. Long residence in different parts of 
India had shattered his health, and at times he was laid 
up for weeks together, unable to do anything beyond at- 
taching his signature to official documents. There was 
no fear of such a man .pushing the settlement forward too 
rapidly, as some of the commissioners thought Mr. Van 
Biebeek had been doing. Bather, he was one under 
whom it was unlikely that any expense not specially 
authorised by superior authority would be incurred. The 



1662] Zacharias Wagenaar. 131 

only relatives who accompanied him to the Cape were his 
wife and a widowed daughter-in-law. 

Shortly after his assmnption of office, deputations from 
the various Hottentot clans with which his predecessor 
had been acquainted waited upon him to ascertain if the 
relationship in which the Europeans stood towards them 
was likely to continue as before. They were received 
with every mark of kindness, were hberally entertained, 
and were assured that the commander desired nothing 
more than that the firm friendship between the two races 
should be unbroken. Sufficient merchandise would con- 
stantly be kept on hand, that when they brought cattle 
for sale all their wants could be supplied. 

The first coimcil over which Mr. Wagenaar presided 
renewed the regulations forbidding every one from molest- 
ing or insulting a Hottentot. The Cape clans were de- 
clared to have a perfect right to come and go where and 
when they chose, the only exception being that within 
the boundaries of the settlement they were required to 
keep to the recognised thoroughfares. 

When the rainy season was over, the commander re- 
solved to visit the Cochoquas in person, as by so doing 
he thought they would be flattered and very likely could 
be induced to sell cattle more freely. A fleet was then 
expected for which a large supply was requisite, and as 
the encampments of Oedasoa and Gonnema were within 
a day's ride of the fort the enterprise did not seem very 
formidable. Mr. Wagenaar took Eva with him to act as 
interpreter, and ten horsemen and twelve foot 'soldiers as 
a guard. He was absent from his quarters eight days, 
and his observations show that these were days of little 
enjoyment. 

At the Hottentot kraals he found no one from the 
chiefs down to the poorest individuals ashamed to beg. 
From small and great there was an unceasing request for 
tobacco and brandy as long as he had any to give. It is 
true, the chiefs made him presents of cattle and sheep, 



132 History of South Africa. [1662 

and offered abundance of such food as they had, but they 
looked for ample gifts in return. As for the milk, it was 
served in such filthy utensils that he could not touch 
it, and he was therefore in doubt whether he had not 
offended them. His only satisfaction arose from the fact 
that his people were getting together a ^ood flock of 
sheep by barter. For this purpose he remained at each 
of the kraals a couple of days, but upon the whole his 
experience of life among the Hottentots left such a dis- 
agreeable impression upon him that he never again paid 
them a visit. 

Soon after his return to the fort a party of Hessequas 
arrived, bringiug with them a goodly herd of cattle for sala 
These strangers stated that the country in which they fed 
their flocks was far away to the eastward, beyond a range 
of lofty mountains, where no European had ever been. It 
was a district somewhere between the present villages of 
Caledon and Swellendam, and the mountain range was the 
nearest of those seen from the Cape peninsula, or the one 
which is now crossed by the high road over Sir Lowry's 
pass. The Hessequas knew of no other people than pas- 
toral clans like their own in that direction. Mr. Wage- 
naar did not gain much geographical knowledge from these 
visitors, nor did he question them very closely after he as- 
certained that they were ignorant of any place which would 
correspond with Yigiti Magna. 

In hope of discovering that long-sought town, thirteen 
volunteers left the fort on the 21st of October 1662. They 
were under command of Corporal Pieter Crujrthof, with 
Pieter van Meerhof as assistant. The party followed up 
the old northern path until they reached an encampment of 
the Namaquas deep in the wilderness beyond the Elephant 
river. This should have been their real starting point, for 
the country through which they had passed was already 
well known, but the Namaquas would not permit them to 
go farther. The clan was at war with its neighbours, and 
therefore gave the Europeans only the choice of assisting 



1662] Zacharias Wagenaar. 133 

them or of turning back. They chose the last, and thus 
the expedition was a failure. It was, however, attended 
by an occurrence which deserves mention. 

One night as the travellers were sleeping round their 
watchfire a shower of darts was poured upon them by an 
unseen foe, and four of them were severely wounded. The 
assailants were believed to be Bushmen, though who they 
were could not be positively ascertained, as they fled be- 
fore the white men recovered from their surprise. Not 
long after this event the expedition suddenly came upon a 
Bushman encampment in which were some women and 
children. Corporal Cruythof hereupon gave orders that 
these should be put to death, and that all their effects 
should be destroyed in revenge for the injuries which the 
Europeans had sustained. But he met with an indignant 
and unanimous refusal from the volunteers, who stood by 
Pieter van Meerhof and replied that they would not shed 
innocent blood. Cruythof was therefore compelled to aban- 
don his atrocious design. Upon the return of the party to 
the fort, which they reached on the 1st of February 1663, 
the authorities expressed approval of what under other 
circumstances would have been treated as mutiny, and 
Cruythof, though he underwent no trial, at once lost favour. 
Shortly afterwards he committed a trivial offence, of which 
advantage was taken to degrade him in rank. Being a 
good soldier he was restored at a later period, and even 
rose to a higher military position, but he was never again 
employed in deaUngs with natives. 

Towards the close of the year 1662 another expedition, 
but of a different nature, left the Cape. A fleet of six large 
ships and a tender, under command of Admiral Hubert 
de Lairesse, put into Table Bay, where the soldiers who had 
been waiting some months were taken on board, and the 
fleet then left for the purpose of trying to wrest Mozam- 
bique from the Portuguese. All went well until the lati- 
tude of Delagoa Bay was reached. Then stormy weather 
was encountered, with a head wind which blew violently 



134 History of South Africa. [1663 

for nearly two months. The crews at length became ex- 
hausted, scurvy broke out, and the admiral was compelled 
to seek a place of refreshment. The ships were put about, 
and by the following noon were as far south as they had 
been five weeks before. They were then close to the coast 
some distance above Delagoa Bay. Here good holding 
ground was found in a haven or bight, so they let go their 
anchors and sent some men ashore to ascertain if any re- 
fceshments were to be had. 

In a short time it was known that cattle in plenty 
were to be obtained from the natives in exchange for iron 
or other articles of merchandise which they had on board. 
Every one now thought that all would yet be well, for as 
soon as they were assured of refreshment they considered 
their troubles as past, and anticipated the time when the 
monsoon should change and permit them to renew their 
design against Mozambique. But their joy was of short 
duration. The scurvy had not left them when the fever 
which is endemic on that coast suddenly made its appear- 
ance, prostrating whole companies at once. One hundred 
and fourteen men died within a few days, and half the 
remainder were laid up when the admiral gave orders to 
raise the anchors and set sail for Batavia. 

At this time another effort was made to open com- 
mercial intercourse between the Cape and the island of 
Madagascar. By order of the directors a small vessel was 
fitted out and sent to the bay of St. Augustine, with a 
trading party and a wooden house ready for putting up, 
as it was intended to form a permanent establishment 
there if the prospects should be found at all good. The 
directors appointed the secunde Eoelof de Man head of 
the expedition, but that faithful and deserving officer died 
on the 5th of March 1663, before the vessel was ready to 
sail. The council of policy then selected Joachim Blank, 
the ablest clerk on the Cape establishment, for the com- 
mand. In December Blank returned to the Cape with a 
report of failure. He stated that there was very little 



1663] Zacharias Wagenaar. 135 

trade to be done either at the bay of St. Augastine or 
at other places which he had visited, as the inhabitants 
were impoverished by constant wars which they carried 
on among themselves. He had only been able to obtain 
eight or nine tons of rice and seven slaves. 

The many failures in the efforts to find Yigiti Magna 
by a northern route had not yet caused the Cape authori- 
ties to try in another direction. Accordingly, the explor- 
ing expedition of 1663 followed the path of those which 
had preceded it. The leader was Sergeant Jonas de la 
Guerre, Pieter van Meerhof was second in command, and 
there were besides these fourteen European volunteers and 
three Hottentots. Among the volunteers was a soldier 
named Hieronymus Cruse,^ who was for many years after- 
wards a prominent person at the Cape. The instructions 
given to De la Guerre were that he was to take no part 
in any native quarrels, but to endeavour to induce the 
interior clans to make peace with each other and to come 
to the fort to trade. If the Namaquas should act as they 
had done towards Cruythof's party, he was first to threaten 
them with the enmity of the commander, and if that had 
no effect he was to march his men forward, when if they 
attacked him he was to pour a volley of small shot in 
among them. The sixteen men with firearms in their 
hands, it was believed, would be more than a match for 
the Namaqua horde. 

They had with them a waggon,^ in which their stores 
were conveyed as far as the Elephant river, where they 

^ Descendants in the female line now in South Afrioa. 

^The Cape tent waggon is nothing more than the waggon in common 
use in the Low Gonntries when the first settlers came to South Africa, 
except that the wheels are somewhat higher. When the first waggon makers 
set to work in this colony, they modelled axle and schamel, draaiboard 
and tongue, disselboom and longwaggon, precisely as they had done in the 
ftttherland. The rivers and the sand fiats necessitated higher wheels, then 
long journeys called for enlargement of the vehicle, but the model remained 
unaltered in aU other respects down to the days of iron axles and patent 
brakes. 



136 



History of South Africa. 



[1664 



took it to pieces and boried it in the gronnd, together 
with eome provisioos. Starting iresh from thie point with 
pack oxen, and having a supply of food in reserve againet 
their return, they had hardly a doubt that they would be 
able to reach the great river of the map. But the want 
of water in that arid region destroyed all their hopes. 
They pushed on bravely, though their sufferings were in- 
tense, but at length they were compelled either to turn 
back or to lie down and die. Fainting with thirst they 
reached the Elephant river again, and found that during 
their absence their stores had been discovered and removed. 
The waggon had been burnt, probably for the sake of the 
iron work. Still the oxen were left, so that they were in 
no danger of starvation, but they arrived at the fort after 
an absence of more than three months in a very different 
condition from that in which they left it. 

In this year a public work of considerable importance 
was completed. A water tank one hundred and seventy- 
eight feet long, fifty feet wide, and from four to five feet 
deep, was constructed about a stone's throw westward of 
the fort and near the margin of the bay. It was intended 
for the convenience of the shipping. 

Shortly after the establishment of a residency at the 
Cape, the East India Company had withdrawn its garrison 
from Mauritius, as that island was not in a good position 
for a victualling station and nothing of commercial value 
except ebony and a small quantity of ambergris was pro- 
curable there. Before they embarked the Dutch turned 
loose a number of cows, goats, and pigs, which in a few 
years multiplied into large herds. Mauritius remained un- 
peopled from this date until 1664, when the directors 
resolved to take possession of it again, more for the pur- 
pose of keeping other nations away than for any direct 
profit which they could draw from it, 

Just then the French were making strenuous efforts to 
form settlements in that part of the world. Their king 
had taken into his own hands the direction of the factories 



1664] Zacharias Wagenaar. lyj 

at Madagascar, and that great island seemed likely under 
his guidance to become a place of importance. Bishop 
Estienne had at length succeeded in reaching the field 
upon which his hopes had so long been set, and now 
with a large staff of ecclesiastics he was engaged in erect* 
ing a monastery near Port Dauphin, from which niission- 
aries were to be sent out to convert the natives. The 
French had also just taken possession of Mascarenhas, 
and placed a small garrison upon that island, which they 
named Bourbon. It was evident therefore that Mauritius 
must be reoccupied, or the Company would be excluded 
from a large portion of the Indian sea. It was not in- 
tended, however, to form an expensive establishment there, 
but merely to keep a few men upon the island, which was 
to be an outpost of the Cape residency. 

In May 1664 a small party was sent from this place 
under the leadership of Jacobus van Nieuwland, an officer 
selected in Holland and sent out for the purpose. On the 
26th of June they landed on the island and resumed pos- 
session on behalf of the honourable Company. They had 
with them a wooden house, a quantity of seeds and tools, 
and a twelve months' supply of provisions. These were 
put on shore, and then the vessel in which they arrived 
set sail, leaving the little garrison in loneliness. 

For a whole year after this the island remained unvisit- 
ed. Then a cutter was sent from the Cape with supplies, 
and in case the garrison had in the meantime met with 
any disaster, a fresh party of men and a new command- 
ant were sent also. This party found the establishment 
at Mauritius completely disorganised. Jacobus van Nieuw- 
land was dead, and the soldiers had thrown off all restraint. 
Most of them had left the residency as soon as the last 
keg of spirits was drawn off, and were then leading a half 
savage life, depending upon wild goats for food, though 
the stock of foreign provisions was still ample and the 
garden only wanted attending to. The new commandant 
was unable to restore order until three of the chief mutineers 



138 History of South Africa. [1664 

were Reized and put in irons on board the cutter. They 
were brought to the Cape, where they were tried and 
punished, one of them very severely. 

From this time matters went on smoothly at Mauri- 
tius, though the growth of the estabUshment there was 
very slow. Every year a vessel sailed from Table Bay 
with supplies, and brought back ebony logs. Sometimes 
a soldier would request to be discharged there, when he 
became a burgher just as at the Cape. Once, three families 
were forcibly transported from Bondebosch to that island 
by Commander Wagenaar, because their heads were worth- 
less characters, and the council of policy thought a change 
of residence might bring them to their senses. In process 
of time councils were formed there similar to those in this 
country, but all were subordinate to the Cape authorities. 
Thus a man who lost a case in the court of justice at 
Mauritius could appeal to the court of justice at the Gape. 
Mauritius, in fact, stood in the same relationship to this 
coimtry as this country did to Batavia. 

The commandant who was sent to that island in 1665 
was a man who deserves more than mere passing notice. 
His name was George Frederick Wreede. A runaway 
German student, like many others in similar circumstances 
he enlisted as a soldier, and came to South Africa in 1659. 
At that time no government in Europe offered such oppor- 
tunities of advancement to men of merit as did the East 
India Company of the Netherlands. Many of its foremost 
commanders and governors had risen from the ranks, and 
the directors were always ready to make use of ability 
wherever they could find it. Whatever the fault was which 
caused Wreede to leave Germany, it could not have been 
connected with want of brain power or distaste of study. 
He was no sooner in Africa among a strange race of sav- 
ages, of whose inner life absolutely nothing was known, 
than he set himself to the task of studying their character- 
istics. In a few years he had acquired a thorough know- 
ledge of their language, so that after the death of the old 



1664] Zacharias Wagenaar. 139 

interpreters Harry and Doman the commander employed 
him on all important occasions as his messenger to chiefs 
at a distance. He was at this time utiUsing his spare 
hoars by arranging a vocabulary of Dutch and Hottentot 
words, two copies of which he sent to the directors, to 
whom he dedicated it, in November 1663. The command- 
er, when forwarding the work, requested that it might be 
printed, and asked that some copies might be sent to the 
*Cape, where it would be useful. What became of these 
manuscripts cannot be ascertained from any documents 
hitherto found in South Africa or in the archives of Hol- 
land, but there is strong reason to believe that they were 
lent to the historian Ludolf, and were among his papers 
.at the time of his death. The directors, though they 
deemed it more advisable that the natives should learn 
the language of the Dutch than that the Europeans should 
learn that of the Hottentots, promised to have the work 
printed, but whether that promise was carried out appears 
to be doubtful. 

The first Cape author had no reason to complain of his 
labour not being remunerated. The directors instructed 
the commander to present him in their name with a sum 
of money equal to twenty pounds sterling, and they ordered 
him to be promoted to a good situation in any branch of 
their service that he should select. There was then a 
design to establish a residency on one of the islands of 
Martin Vaz, which were believed to be suitable for a vic- 
tualling station in time of war. A vessel was being fitted 
out at the Cape for that purpose when the despatch of the 
directors was received, and upon the order being com- 
municated to Wreede he asked for the commandantship of 
the new station. His request was at once acceded to, but 
upon arriving with his party at Martin Vaz, he found that 
his government comprised nothing more than a group of 
bare and almost inaccessible rocks. It was impossible to 
form a station, and as the master of the vessel objected 
to cruise about in search of a habitable island, he was 



140 History of South Africa. [1664 

obliged to return disappointed to the Cape. His journal 
of the voyage to Martin Vaz and his report to Commander 
Wagenaar are still to be seen in the colonial archives. 
Upon his return from this expedition he was sent to Mauri- 
tius, and assumed the command there. 

In September 1664 intelUgence was received at the Cape 
of the likehhood of war between England and the Nether- 
lands. The directors wrote that the government of Charles 
II seemed bent upon a rupture, though the States were 
anxiously striving to maintain peace, if that was possible 
without loss of honour. It would appear that conmiercial 
rivalry was at the bottom of this ill-feeling, and that the 
English government could not suppress the war spirit of 
the people. But though it is usual for historians of all 
nations to throw the blame of the humiliating war which 
followed entirely upon the English, there is proof extant 
that outrages were by no means confined to one side. 
Piratical acts were committed in distant seas by Dutch 
and EngUsh ahke, without the perpetrators being punished. 
In the colonial archives there is a detailed account of 
one such act, which was committed by the crew of an 
Indiaman that put into Table Bay. On the passage out 
they overhauled two English vessels and searched them 
for treasure. The officers of one they tortured with burn- 
ing ropeyam to make them confess whether they had any- 
thing of value on board. 

For many months matters remained in a state of sus- 
pense. On the 24th of October the directors wrote that 
news had been received at the Hague of the capitulation 
of the West India Company's possessions in North America 
to ah English fleet. The Dutch factories on the coast of 
Guinea had also been attacked, though war was not yet 
formally declared. At length, on the 9th of June 1665, 
tidings reached South Africa that the EngUsh had seized 
a great number of ships in the Channel, that the Dutch 
wepe retaliating, and that the two nations were openly at 
war. 



1665] Zacharias Wagenaar. 141 

Daring the period of uncertainty preceding the formal 
declaration of hostilities, the directors took into considera- 
tion the importance of their residency at the Cape, as 
commanding the highway to India, and its defenceless 
condition in the event of a sudden attack. The old earthen 
fort was indeed sufficient protection against the largest 
force that the natives could bring against it, but it could 
not be held against a European enemy of any strength. 
Its walls were frequently falling, especially after heavy 
rains, and the guns mounted upon it were harmless to a 
ship at the usual anchorage. 

After much consideration the directors resolved to ere<;t 
in Table Valley a strong stone fortress capable of suh 
taining heavy guns, and sufficiently commodious for t)i<; 
acconmiodation of a large garrison. With this view t)j«;y 
caused plans to be prepared, and having approved of th*; 
one which seemed most suitable, they gave the nw;i5bbary 
orders for putting their design into execution, luhtrii^ 
tions were sent to Commander Wagenaar to detain th/M, 
hundred soldiers from passing ships, and to employ ti^/;. 
in getting materials ready. Pieter Dombaer, an i'Aiv^s,t:^ 
was appointed to superintend the work. The wAi'/iU*^ y 
a site for the new fortress, being a matter of ti^, j^^ 
importance, was entrusted to the commissioner Mr,«^v 
Goske,^ one of the ablest officers in the Company 'k ^.^^ 

A scene of unwonted activity was now prewsaj^ ^ ^^ 
Cape. The three hundred soldiers were landw *^ ^.^.^ 
immediately set to work quarrying stone. A y^,. ^ .^^^ 
victs and slaves was sent to Bobben Island tc. ^ 
and three or four large decked boats wen^. k^ _ ^ 
porting these shells, as well as fuel from Jfe^ ^ 
Jhe Umekilns. On the 18th of August M/ % 
in the Niemo Middelburg. and after eigU 4 
of the valley, with the approval of a U« ^, 
the ordinary council o Poli^^J ^nd a n«a4^ ^ 
military officers he selected the site ol ^ 

1 Saelt variouBly in the documents of tU ^ 



142 History of South Africa. [1666 

spot chosen was two hundred and forty-eight imperial yards 
south-east of the old fort. 

It was supposed that solid rock would be found near 
the surface, but upon opening trenches this supposition 
was proved to be incorrect. At no point could the foun- 
dation walls be commenced nearer to the surface than 
eleven feet, while in some parts excavations more than 
double that depth were needed. All the waggons in the 
settlement which were not required for agriculture were 
engaged in the transport of building material. The farmers 
were paid at the rate of six shillings and three pence a 
day for each waggon with oxen and one man, whether a 
hired servant or a slave. 

On Saturday the 2nd of January 1666 the ceremony 
of laying the first stones took place. The trenches of only 
one of the five points were completed, for as the founda- 
tions were to be twelve feet in thickness the excavation 
of itself was a work of some magnitude. It was a gala 
day at the Cape. At an early hour the farmers with their 
wives and children came in from Bondebosch and Wyn- 
berg, the sailors came ashore from the cutters, and all 
the Company's servants and other residents in Table Valley 
appeared in their best attire. There were four large hewn 
stones ready to be lowered to the bottom of the trench 
where during the years which have since sped away they 
have supported the walls of the castle of Gt)od Hope. The 
first was laid by the commander Zacharias Wagenaar, the 
second by the clergyman Johan van Arckel, the third by 
the secunde Abraham Gkibbema, and the last by the fiscal 
Hendrik Lacus. 

When they were all laid, a sum of money equal to six 
pounds sterling was presented by the commander on be- 
half of the Company to the master mechanics. This 
concluded the formal part of the proceedings, and the 
remainder of the day was devoted to pleasure. 

Two oxen and six sheep, the choicest in the Com- 
pany's herds, were slaughtered for the occasion, and a him- 



1 666] Zacharias Wagenaar. 143 

dred huge loaves of bread had been specially baked. Eight 
casks of Cape ale stood ready for tapping. The tables were 
spread on the levelled ground inside the trenches, and if 
they were not covered with such delicacies as are essen- 
tial to a modem public dinner, those who sat round them 
were probably quite as happy and contented as if the fare 
had been a feast for kings. 

A holiday was not properly kept in the opinion of the 
people of the Netherlands without a recitation of poetry 
specially composed and containing allusions to the event 
which was being celebrated. Such a time-honoured ob- 
servance in the fatherland could not with propriety be 
omitted in its South African dependency. Accordingly, 
some lines had been prepared — ^by an amateur poet says 
Commander Wagenaar, without mentioning his name — 
which were considered so appropriate that after they were 
recited a copy was placed for preservation with the re- 
cords of the colony. Whether they display poetic genius 
may be questioned, but that they clearly record the event 
celebrated is beyond dispute.^ 

^Th« following are the lines referred to. It will be obflerved that the 
poet has taken care to record the date, though in a rather unusual man- 
ner; — 

Den Eersten Steen Van't NIeuwe CasteeL Goede Hope 
Heeft VVagenaer gelecht Met hoop van goede hope. 

Ampliatie. 

Soo worden voort en Toort de rijcken uijtgespreijt, 
Soo worden al de swart en geluwen gespreijt. 

Soo doet men uijtter aerd een steene wall oprechten, 
Daer't donderend metael seer weijnigh can ophechten. 

Voor Hottentosen warent altijts eerde wallen, 

Nu oomt men hier met steen voor anderen oook brallen. 

Dus maeckt men dan een schrich soowel d' Europiaen, 
Als Toor den Aes- Ameer- en wilden Africaen. 

Bus wort beroemt gemaeokt 't geheijligst Christendom, 
Die zetels stellen in het woeste heijdendom. 

Wij loven 't groot bestier en seggen met malcander, 
Augustus heerschappij, noch winnend Alexander, 

Noch Caesars groot beleijd, zijn noijt daermee geswaerd 
Met 't leggen van een steen op 't eijnde van de Aerd. 



144 History of South Africa. [1665 

Just a fortnight later there was another gathering of 
the Cape community on the same ground. In the centre 
of the area inside the trenches the framework of a wooden 
building was being put together, part of which was in- 
tended for use as a place of worship. To that framework 
the cofiGin of the man who laid the second stone of the 
castle was borne, and there in the ground beneath the 
spot where the pulpit was to stand was placed what was 
mortal of Johan van Arckel. It was a custom of those 
days to bury persons of note within the walls of churches, 
so that the minister's was not long the only grave there. 
Within a few months the wife of Commander Wagenaar 
found a last resting-place in that ground, and soon the 
walls were studded thickly with the memorial escutcheons^ 
of those who lay beneath. 

In the afternoon of the 20th of September 1666 an 
Indiaman with the red flag of England floating at her 
mizen peak stood into Table Bay and dropped an anchor 
without farling her sails. The Loosduynen, a clumsily rig- 
ged, slow sailing flute, just in port after a long passage 
from Texel, was the only vessel Ijring in the roadstead at 
the time. The stranger sent ashore a small boat with a 
petty ofiGicer, who informed the conmiander that the ship 
was the Boyal CharleSy of thirty-six guns, bound home- 
ward from Surat with a cargo of pepper and calico. The 
captain, James Barker by name, requested permission to 
take in a supply of water and to purchase some fresh pro- 
visions. 

The English had not the faintest suspicion that their 
country was at war with the Netherlands, and as soon as 
Conmiander Wagenaar became aware of this he determined 



^At the head of the funeral procession a small framed board was 
carried, upon which the coat-of-arms of the deceased was painted, which 
board was afterwards hung on the walls of the church. It was often care- 
fully prepared and kept in readiness for years before it was used. It was 
customary for every notary and every one who rose to the rank of a mer- 
chant to choose a coat-of-arms for himself. 



X 



i66s] Zacharias Wagenaar. 145 

to take advantage of their ignorance and get possession of 
their ship by strategy. The four men who had come on 
shore were therefore hospitably entertained, their request 
was apparently acceded to, and when they returned to 
their ship a present of fruit and wine was sent to Captain 
Barker. The object of this was to induce the captain to 
visit the fort, so that he could be detained as a prisoner 
without any trouble or danger. 

The scheme was nearly thwarted by a drunken mate 
of the Loosduynen, who happened to be coming on shore 
with a strong crew as the English were going oflf. He 
pulled alongside of them, took their boat in tow, and 
forced them to return to the fort. There he was instantly 
committed to prison for his trouble, and many apologies 
were offered to the Englishmen for the rudeness and vio- 
lence to which they had been subjected. 

During the night arrangements were made to carry the 
Boyal Charles by surprise as soon as the captain should 
land. About two hundred and fifty men were armed and 
distributed in the Loosduynen and the large decked boats 
which were employed to bring shells from Bobben Island. 
It was intended that these should approach as if by chance, 
and suddenly board the unsuspecting stranger. 

At daybreak next morning the Boyal Charles sent her 
empty water casks ashore in the longboat, with the cap- 
tain's brother and ten seamen, who took a present of some 
value for the commander in return for his courtesy of the 
preceding evening. The Enghshmen were invited into the 
courtyard of the fort, when to their astonishment the gate 
was closed upon them and they were informed that they 
were prisoners of war. 

Meantime all the non-combatants of the settlement, 
male and female, betook themselves to the side of the Lion's 
rump to witness the capture of the Indiaman. About seven 
in the morning Captain Barker became suddenly aware 
that something was wrong. There was no sign of the re- 
turn of his longboat, a couple of cutters were evidently 

VOL. I. 10 



146 History of South Africa. [1665 

creeping alongside, the Loosduynen was shaking out her 
canvas, and two or three shallops full of men were seen 
at different points along the shore. The sails of the Boyal 
Charles were still hanging loose from her yards, and a 
light breeze from the north-west was rippling the surface 
of the bay. There was not a moment to be lost. In a 
few seconds the topsails were sheeted home, the hempen 
cable was severed by a couple of strokes from an axe, and 
the Indiaman, gathering way as her canvas was spread to 
the breeze, was soon standing over towards the Blueberg 
shore. 

All hope of carrying her by surprise being now dis- 
pelled, the Loosduynen and the cutters hoisted their colours 
and followed in pursuit, keeping close together. Then com- 
menced a chase which may have seemed exciting to the 
onlookers from the Lion's rump, but the story of which is 
calculated only to create mirth at the present day. The 
Boyal Charles had the weather-gauge and was the fastest 
sailer, but she could not beat out of the bay, and so she 
kept tacking about for three or four hours, the pursuers 
in vain attempting to get alongsida About eleven o'clock 
the breeze died away, and then she let go an anchor and 
fired several shots of defiance. There were not enough 
rowing boats in the bay to attack her with, so she was 
safe as long as the calm should last. 

At noon Captain Barker waved a white flag as a signal 
that he would like to communicate with his pursuers. A 
boat was sent alongside, when he demanded to know the 
cause of all the commotion, and why his men were detained 
on shore. He was informed that he would learn all par- 
ticulars if he would go on board the Loosduynen^ and 
he was then requested to strike his flag. To this request 
his reply was more emphatic than polite. It was to the 
effect that he had no intention of doing anything of the 
kind. He was so obliging, however, as to throw to the 
boat a package of letters he had brought from Surat but 
added to it a scornful message for the commander. 



1665] Zacharias Wagenaar. 147 

Towards evening the breeze sprang up again, and the 
chase began once more. After a couple of tacks, howevtsr, 
the Boyal Charles was fortunate enough to weather Green 
Point, passing close to the hostile squadron as she did so. 
The pursuers and the pursued had not been within range 
of each other during the whole day, but at last there wa& 
a chance for a shot. It was getting dusk when the Loos- 
duynen fired a broadside, to which the Boyal Charles re- 
pUed with her four stern guns. Nobody was hurt on either 
side, and before the culverins could be loaded again the 
Englishman had disappeared in the darkness. 

Commander Wagenaar was disappointed, but he made 
the most of what had fallen to him. That evening he 
calculated to a gulden the value of the longboat and the 
water casks, the present that the captives had brought 
ashore, and the two anchors and cables in the bay, allow- 
ing, of course, a reasoflable margin for the expense of 
searching for these last and fishing them up when found. 

The prisoners offered to work without payment if the 
commander would promise to send them to Europe with 
the first return fleet. This offer was decUned, and they 
were sent to Batavia, after having been provided with a 
very scanty outfit 

For thirteen years after its foundation the settlement 
was considered too small to demand the services of a 
resident clergyman. A sermon and prayers were read 
regularly every Sunday and on special occasions by the 
sick-comforter, and the other rites of the church were 
performed occasionally by ships' chaplains. Marriages were 
usually celebrated before the secretary of the council. The 
first sick-comforter, Willem Barents Wylant, and his suc-^ 
cesser, Pieter van der Stael, have already been mentioned. 
Van der Stael left the Cape for Batavia in September 
1663, when Ernestus Back, who had previously held the 
same office on board a ship, was appointed to the vacant 
place. 

This man was so addicted to intemperance that at ti^x^l^ 



■t * 



148 History of South Africa. [1665 

he was unfit to perform his duties. He was repeatedly 
suspended, on which occasions the fiscal conducted the 
services, but punishment and disgrace seemed only to har- 
den him« The commander was fearful that his conduct 
would bring down divine vengeance upon the community, 
all the members of which by some method of reasoning 
were considered subject to the consequences of his guilt. 
Mr, Wagenaar's alium was increased by the appearance 
of a comet, which for two months was seen nightly in 
the sky. He and his council did not doubt that the ter- 
rible star with a tail was put there by God as a threat 
of righteous punishment, and therefore they considered it 
high time to get rid of the chief offender.^ A yacht was 
lying in the bay ready to sail for Batavia. Back and 
his family were unceremoniously hurried on board, and 
the office was once more vacant. A fortnight later it was 
filled by the transfer of a sick-comforter named Jan Joris 
Graa from a ship that called. This man was giving every 
promise of a useful and honourable career, when he was 
removed by death in June 1665. Thus there had always 
been some one whose special duty it was to represent 
the church, though in a very humble capacity. 

But when it was decided to replace the old earthen 
fort with a substantial stone castle, it was also decided to 
provide a resident clerg3m[ian who should attend to the 
spiritual instruction of the constantly growing congrega- 
tion. The reverend Johan van Arckel, who received the 
appointment, arrived in South Africa in the ship Nieuw 

^ ' Omdat ons Godt alreede met sijn reohtvaerdige straff over onse vaijll 
en Bondich bedrijff nu wel twee maenden alle nachten achter een door een 
ijzelioken steert sterre aen den hemel is comen te dreijgen, weswegen dan 
nu oock hooch noodich geacht hebben ons de gemelte onwaerdige leeraer 
quijt te maken en de selve nevens sijn familie per dit jacht mede na Bata- 
via vertrecken te laten.' Despatch of the Cape council to Governor-Gene- 
ral Joan Maetsuijker and the councillors of India, of date 7th February 
1665. Stringent regulations against sabbath breaking also followed the ap- 
pearance of this comet, and wore attributable to it. — Proclamation of 15th 
J^ituary 1665. 



1665] Zacharias Wagenaar. 149 

Middelburg^ which cast anchor in Table Bay on the 18th 
of August 1665. A few days later an ecclesiastical court 
was established, the constitution of which shows the in- 
timate relationship that then existed between the church 
and the state. The court consisted of a member of the 
council of policy, who was termed the political commis- 
sioner (commissaris politicque), the clergyman, who was 
a servant of the Company, the deacons, who were se- 
lected by the council of policy from a double list of names 
furnished yearly by the court itself, and the elders, who 
were indeed elected by the court as representatives of the 
congregation, but who could perform no duties until the 
elections were confirmed by the temporal authorities. 

Such was the constitution of the consistory or ecclesi- 
astical court, which had primary control of all purely re- 
ligious observances, and the direction in the first instance 
of all educational institutions during the ^hole period of 
the East India Company's government of the colony. It 
was in one sense merely an engine of the state, and it 
was always and in every case subordinate to the council 
of policy. In practice it was guided by the decrees of the 
sjmod of Dort and by precedents of the courts of the father- 
land, which were never disputed, and its decisions appear 
generally to have been in accord with pubhc opinion. 

Not long before this time a fierce dispute had arisen 
among the clergy of the reformed church in India, and 
the strife was hotly carried on in every congregation and 
often in the very households of the laity. The question 
debated was whether the children of unbelieving parents 
should be baptized or not. At the Cape the custom had 
been for the ships' chaplains to baptize all slave children 
that were brought to them for that purpose, at the same 
time admonishing the owners that it was their duty to 
have such children educated in Christian principles. Many 
of these children were half-breeds, and on that account en- 
titled by law to freedom ; but even in the case of pure 
blacks baptism and a profession of Christianity wereJaJ--^ . 



4 • <« 



150 History of South Africa. [1665 

ways at this time considered substantial grounds for claim- 
ing emancipation. Yet it does not seem to have been a 
mercenary spirit so much as a genuine conviction that 
the act was not in accordance with the teaching of the 
bible which induced many persons at the Cape to object 
to such baptisms. The members of the council of poUcy 
as well as the burghers were divided in opinion, and as 
no agreement could be come to here, reference was made 
to Batavia. 

A reply was received from the governor-general and 
council of India, dated 25th of January 1664, in which the 
authorities at the Cape were informed that the ecclesias- 
tical court at Batavia, in conjunction with the classis of 
Amsterdam, had decided that the children of unbelieving 
slaves ought to be baptized, provided that those with whom 
they lived bound themselves to have such children edu- 
cated in the Christian religion. They had arrived at this 
opinion, it was stated, from the precedent furnished by the 
patriarch Abraham, all the males of whose household had 
been circumcised on account of their master's faith. In 
<5onfomiity with this decision, the honourable Company 
had estabhshed a school at Batavia for the education of 
the children of its own slaves, all of whom were baptized 
in infancy, and the Cape government was directed to act 
in the same manner. 

In some of the Company's possessions, however, the 
burning question could not be set at rest even by all the 
authority of the Indian government and the Amsterdam 
classis, supported by the precedent of the Hebrew patri- 
arch. Many clergymen took a different view of that pre- 
cedent. The laity continued to be divided, so much so 
that not a few congregations were rent asunder and were 
ranged anew in hostile order. The strife even extended 
into famiUes and created bitterness between the nearest 
relatives. 

Mr. Van Arckel embraced the views held by the classis, 
atid baptized all the children that were brought to him. 



4 



1 666] Zacharias Wagenaar. 151 

whether they were of believing or unbelieving parents. 
The Company's own slave children were sent to school, 
where they were taught to say their prayers and to repeat 
the Heidelberg catechism. For a time all strife ceased in 
matters ecclesiastical, for the clergyman had won the affec- 
tion of the people by his gentleness and piety. But he 
had hardly time to do more than take his work well in 
hand when, on the 12th of January 1666, less than six 
months from the date of his arrival, he died after a very 
brief illness. To supply his place temporarily the council 
detained the chaplain of the next ship that called, pend- 
ing the appointment of a permanent successor by the su- 
preme authorities. The chaplain so detained, Johannes de 
Voocht^ by name, remained at the Cape for several months, 
during which time he followed the same course as Mr. 
Van Arckel. The recent burning question of the day was 
nearly forgotten, when an incident occurred which revived 
it for a moment. 

On the afternoon of Sunday the 21st of March 1666 
the congregation was assembled for worship in the great 
hall of the commander's house in the old fort. The room 
did not much resemble the interior of a church in its fit- 
tings, but as yet the building which was to be specially set 
apart for religious services was not completed, and this 
apartment had always been used for the purpose. Bound 
the walls hung various trophies of the chase, chiefly skins of 
slaughtered lions and leopards, and over the end windows 
and the doors which on each side opened into smaller 
rooms were polished horns of some of the larger antelopes. 
At the end opposite the entrance usually stood the figure 
of a zebra made by stufiGLng the hide of one of those animals 
with straw, but this was removed before the service com- 
menced. When Commander Wagenaar came to the colony 
the windows of the hall like those of the private rooms 
were unglazed, Mr. Van Biebeek having been satisfied 

iThis name is spelt variously in the doouments of that date Voooht, 
Vooght, and Voogt. 



152 History of South Africa. [1666 

with calico screens, but this defect had been remedied, 
and now the congregation had plenty of light to read their 
bibles and psalm books. 

The preacher was the reverend Johannes de Voocht. 
Occupying an elevated seat just in front of the httle plat- 
form which served for a pulpit was the commander, behind 
whom sat the secmide and the fiscal. The elders and the 
deacons had stools to themselves on one side of the plat- 
form, and on the other side sat the reverend Philippns 
Baldens, chaplain of the ship Venenhurg, the same man 
who six years later published at Amsterdam a large and 
beautiful folio volume descriptive of Malabar, Coromandel, 
and Ceylon. The body of the hall was filled with people 
of less note. 

After the sermon a child of European parentage was 
brought forward and baptized. Then a slave woman went 
up to the platform with her infant in her arms, but be- 
fore Mr. De Voocht could dip his fingers in the water up 
rose the reverend Mr. Baldens and protested against the 
performance of the rite. The commander was astonished 
at the audacity of the man who dared in such a manner 
to interfere with a service conducted with the approval of 
the Indian authorities in one of their own forts, but he 
chose to remain silent. Mr. Baldeus went on to say that 
he was better informed in such matters than any one 
here, and that the practice in vogue was decidedly wrong. 
Upon this interruption, the officiating clergyman desisted 
from performing the baptism, and the service was abruptly 
terminated. 

Next morning the council met and went over in de- 
bate the whole history of the dispute. It was then unani- 
mously resolved that the orders received be implicitly 
obeyed, so as to preserve harmony and peace in religious 
as well as in political matters, and that therefore the 
reverend Mr. De Voocht be instructed to baptize the slave 
child on the following Sunday, together with any others 
brought to him for that purpose. This settled the ques- 



1 666] Zacharias Wagenaar. 153 

tion for a time at the Cape, but some years subsequently 
it came to the surface again, and down to a recent date 
continued to cause disruptions, happily however not at- 
tended by the violent animosities of a bygone age. 

Subsidiary to the church was the school of the period, 
in which the children were taught to read and write, to 
cast up accounts in gulden and stivers, to sing psalms, 
and to repeat the catechism and sundry prayers. The 
first school at the Cape was that opened by Pieter van 
der Stael for the instruction of the slave children from 
the west coast. It was closed after a few weeks, owing 
to events that have been related. Towards the end of 
1668 a school was again opened, with Emestus Back as 
teacher. The fees were at first fixed at two shillings a 
month for each child of a burgher, but this charge was 
shortly reduced to one half. Slave and Hottentot children 
were to be taught without charge, for God (pro Deo), as 
stated in the regulations. The school was commenced 
vnth seventeen pupils, four being slave children, one a 
youthful Hottentot, and the remaining twelve Europeans. 
Back's misconduct, however, soon necessitated his suspen- 
sion as a teacher of youth, when a steady well-behaved 
soldier named Daniel Engelgraeff was appointed school- 
master. Under his care the pupils increased in number, 
and nothing occurred until his death to interrupt the 
work. 

The early settlers at the Cape showed even by their 
school regulations how thoroughly practical a people they 
were. Thus, there was no fixed time for holidays, be- 
cause the loft in which the school was kept was needed 
for the accommodation of visitors if a fleet was in the 
bay, when the children were of necessity released. 

During the period of Mr. Wagenaar's government the 
Europeans and Hottentots Uved generally on the best of 
terms with each other. Once only an event occurred 
which caused a little unpleasantness. A party of Cocho- 
quas with cattle for sale encamped one evening close to 



154 History of South Africa, [1666 

the watch-house Eeert de Eoe, where the gate was through 
which they must pass to enter the Company's territory. 
There a soldier on guard detected some of them in the 
act of breaking down the fence to make a fire, and upon 
his ordering them off they belaboured him severely with 
their sticks.^ Next morning they came on to the fort as 
if nothing had happened, but the soldier was there before 
them, and upon making his complaint two of them were 
arrested and placed in confinement. The others were in- 
formed that upon their producing the actual assailants the 
prisoners would be released, but not until then. There- 
upon they returned to their clan to arrange as to what 
should be done, and after a short delay ten good oxen 
and as many sheep were sent to the commander as a 
recompense for what had occurred. Mr. Wagenaar ac- 
cepted the cattle insteaki of the hostages, with a promise 
on his part that they would be returned at any time 
upon the production of the disturbers of the peace. These 
never were produced, and so after waiting some months 
a pecuniary award was made to the soldier and the 
cattle were slaughtered for the benefit of the Company. 

The Cochoquas and Chainouquas* were by this time 
80 well supplied with copper and trinkets that they seldom 
brought cattle for sale except when they were in want of 
tobacco, but from the Hessequas large herds were fre- 
quently bartered. All were anxious to procure iron, and 
the commander could at any time have obtained from the 

^The word kerie, by which this weapon is now generally known to 
Dutch and English alike in South Africa, had not yet come into general 
use. This word closely resembles in sound the native name for a short 
stick with a jackal's tail attached to it, used for brushing away flies and 
other purposes, and which the Hottentot men carried about with them 
just as the Betshuana do now. There being no Dutch name for either 
this or the fighting stick with a clubbed head, the latter may easily have 
had the native name of the former given to it. 

^ About this time the Chainouquas began to be called Soeswas by the 
Europeans, though the old chief Sousoa, from whom the new name was 
derived, died in 1664. In the same manner, one branch of the Cochoquas 
kad now the name Gonnemas given to it. 



1 666] Zacharias Wagenaar. 155 

nearest Cape clans as many oxen as he required in ex- 
change for the much-coveted article, had he chosen to 
supply it. But under no circumstances would he part 
with as much iron as would make an assagai, for fear of 
the ultimate consequences to the Europeans. Some of the 
natives understood how to smelt this metal for themselves, 
but the quantity in general use was very small 

In the disputes between the clans the policy of Mr. 
Wagenaar was that of strict neutrality whenever he could 
not mediate so as to preserve peace. In 1664 the Cocho- 
quas and the Hessequas were at war with each other, 
when Oedasoa offered to pay six hundred head of good 
cattle in advance for military assistance, and as many 
more after the return of an expedition which he was plan- 
ning, if it should succeed in crushing his enemy. The 
-offer was declined without hesitation, and Oedasoa was in- 
formed that the Dutch were determined to quarrel with 
no one unless they were compelled in defence to do so. 

In the following year the Hottentots suffered very 
severely from a disease which broke out among them. 
What its nature was is not stated, but as the Europeans 
were not attacked by it, it is improbable that it was in- 
troduced by them. It was certainly not small-pox. Mr. 
Wagenaar computed the loss of the Goringhaiquas and 
Gorachouquas at one-fifth of their original number, so that 
they were left with only about eight hundred fighting 
men. The Cochoquas suffered even more. In the words 
of the commander, they melted away. Whether other 
clans were affected is not mentioned, but the disease, 
whatever it was, can hardly have been confined only to 
those nearest the Cape. 

The number of Hottentots residing permanently in Table 
Valley increased during Mr. Wagenaar's administration to 
about eighty souls. This increase was owing to an influx 
of some of the most worthless individuals from the pastoral 
clans. They had a kraal of their own on the slope under 
the Lion's head, where after Harry's death in 1663 they 



156 History of South Africa. [1666 

were nominally under the government of Jan Cou. The 
commander never interfered in any quarrel among them* 
selves, but he gave them notice that if any were caught 
steaUng from Europeans he would have them soundly 
flogged. They lived, according to Mr. Wagenaar, by send- 
ing their women to collect firewood for sale, placing their 
little daughters in service, and further by fishing occasion- 
ally and begging constantly. The men could seldom be 
induced to do any other work than tend cattle, and that 
only in return for spirits and tobacco. They could all 
understand Dutch so well that an interpreter was no 
longer needed. 

Eva, who had been brought up in Mr. Van Biebeek's 
house, was baptized soon after the arrival of Mr. Wage- 
naar, and two years later was married to that sturdy ex- 
plorer Pieter van Meerhof. The commander and council 
beUeved that this union would tend to promote goodwill 
between the two races, and they resolved to show their 
approbation of it in a substantial manner. Eva was con- 
sidered a child of the Company, having served as an in- 
terpreter for many years without other pajonent than food 
and clothing. A bridal feast was therefore prepared for 
her at the Company's expense in the commander's house, 
and a wedding present of ten pounds in money was made 
to her. The bridegroom was promoted to the full rank 
of a surgeon, with pay at the rate of three pounds a. 
month. In the following year he was further advanced to» 
the office of overseer on Eobben Island, where in addition 
to the old establishment a party of men was placed to 
collect shells and dress stones for particular work in the 
castle. 

The prices paid by the Company for grain were raised 
at this time, as the burghers complained that the old rates 
allowed them no profit. Wheat was raised to eleven shil- 
lings and eight pence, rye and barley to nine shillings 
and two pence, and oats to six shillings and eight pence 
the muid. The farmers were paying from sixteen shillings. 



1 666] Zacharias Wagenaar, 157 

and eight pence to twenty-five shillings a month to Euro- 
pean men-servants as wages. The Javanese horses had 
increased so greatly in number that the Company began 
now to supply the farmers with them. In 1665 the first 
troop of sixteen were sold by public auction, and brought 
on an average four pounds five shillings each.^ 

In 1666 there were sixteen free families living in Table 
Valley. Of these, four kept canteens, one had a retail 
grocery, one was a baker, and the remainder were me- 
chcuiics. The government fixed the price of everything 
that was sold. An ofl&cer went round periodically to test 
all weights and measures. Such as were correct were 
stamped by him, and such as were not according to the 
Amsterdam standard were destroyed. 

Commander Wagenaar had not been two years in South 
Africa when he requested the directors to reheve him of 
the cares of government, owing to his ill health. In De- 
cember 1664 his request was so far compUed with that he 
was informed of the appointment of a successor in the 
person of Cornells van Quaelberg, who, however, was un- 
able to leave Europe just then. It was intended that the 
commissioner Isbrand Goske should remain here until Mr. 
Van Quaelberg*s arrival, but when he reached the colony 
the commander's health was so improved that it was un- 
necessary for him to stay after the site of the castle was 
fixed. 

Mr. Van Quaelberg left Holland in the ship Dordrecht 

^It was the custom to post up copies of proclamations and notices in 
a public plaoe, where every one could see them. The wording of the notice 
of the first sale of horses in the colony may amuse some readers: — Men 
adverteert en laat een ijgelijck mits desen weten dat den commandeur en 
Baedt van't fort de goede hoope voomemen is eenige Jonge paerden die 
hier te lande Toortgeteelt zijn soo hengsten als merrijen aen meestbiedende 
off nijt de hant te vercoopen, die daer gadinge in heeft die come op 
woensdagh aenstaende des achtermiddaegs te drie uijren zijnde den 25en 
deser in des E Gomps Paerdestal en doe goet coop. 

In*t fort de goede Hoope adij 21en Februarij 1665. 

Sboobt voobth. 



158 History of South Afrua. [1666 

on the 19th of December 1665, bat did not zeach South 
Africa until the 25th of Angnst 1666. Dnring the war 
ships sailing from the Netherlands for the Indies did not 
attempt to pass through the Enghsh channel, but stood 
away to the north-west and rounded the British islands. 
In midwinter the 'Dordrecht was so battered and tossed 
about in the stormy North sea that she was compelled to 
put into the Faroe isles, where she lay for nine weeks. 
After leaving those isles she lost by death one hmidred 
and ten sailors and soldiers, and when she at last entered 
Table Bay hands had to be sent from shore to drop her 
anchors and farl her sails, for there was not a single 
person in sound health on board. Mr. Van Quaelberg 
landed at once with his family, but he did not take over 
the government until the 27th of September. On that 
day a ceremony took place similar to that with which Mr. 
Wagenaar assumed office. Four years and a half had 
gone by since that event, and only one of the old mem- 
bers of the government was present on this occasion. 
Boelof de Man and Pieter Everaert had died in the in- 
terval Abraham Gabbema, who followed the first named 
of these as secunde, had left for Batavia high in favour 
with the directors only a few months before. Hendrik 
Lacus, secretary when Mr. Van Eiebeek left, was now 
secunde, and beneath him at the council board sat the 
lieutenant Abraham Schut, the fiscal Comelis de Cretzer, 
the ensign Johannes Coon, and the chief surgeon Pieter 
van Clinkenberg. 

On the 1st of October Mr. Wagenaar with his daughter- 
in-law sailed in the Dordrecht for Batavia. He knew, 
when he left, very little more of the country and its peo- 
ple than what his predecessor had taught him. After the 
return of the party under Sergeant Jonas de la Guerre, 
he sent out no more exploring expeditions, and no new 
clans except the Hessequas had visited the fort during his 
government. The boundary of the settlement remained 
exactly where Mr. Van Eiebeek had left it. Two of the 



1 666]. Zacharias Wagenaar. 159 

old watch-houses, Houdt den Bui and Koren Hoop, had 
been broken down; the other three, Duynhoop, Keert de 
Koe, and Kyck ujrt, were kept in good repair. 

The number of men to whom free papers were given 
during this period was very small. There were only four 
whose descendants are in South Africa at the present day: 
Dirk Bosch, Elbert Diemer, Jan Pretorius, and Jacob 
Bosendaal. Further, too or three women, either wives 
of or betrothed to men already in the colony, arrived from 
the Netherlands, and were added to the settled popula- 
tion.^ Mr. Wagenaar seems to have been prejudiced 
against the burghers, for the statistics which he was 
obliged to famish show that they were far from being 
as idle as on more than one occasion he pronounced them 
to be. In the last official document which bears his name 
he wrote that in his opinion twenty-five industrious Chinese 
families would be of as much service to the Company as 
fifty families of such Europeans as were estabhshed here, 
and regretted that they could not be procured. The poor 
opinion which he entertained of his countrymen was pro- 
bably a reflection of their feehngs regarding him, for there 
is no trace of the slightest sign of regret shown by any one 
on his departure. 

Two years later Mr. Wagenaar*s name occurs again 
in the colonial archives. He was vice-admiral of the re- 
turn fleet of 1668, and in that capacity spent a few days 
in the settlement. Not long after this it is found once 
more, when information arrived of his death, and that 
he had bequeathed a sum of money for the use of the 
guardians of the poor at the Cape, so that this outwardly 
cold impassive man was at heart a philanthropist. 

^ On the 22nd of April 1664 the directors authorised the different ohambera 
to send to the Gape two or three respectable girls, from orphan houses or 
elsewhere, with suitable families proceeding to India, in whose service and 
Tinder whose care they were to be regarded while on board ship. Before 
leaving the Netherlands the girls were to bind themselves to remain fifteen 
years in the colony. None, however, availed themselves of the ofier at the 
time, except one or two who were affianced to men living here. 



i6o 



CHAPTEB VL 

CORSnSLIS TAS QUA£LBEBG. COlOCAIfDER. INSTALLED 37th 
SEFTE3CBEB IfiG6» DISaOSSED Idn JU5E 1668^ 

XACOB BOBGHOBST, COmCANDEB, INSTALLED l»rH JUNE 1668, 

BETIBED SSCH XABCH IfiTa 

PIETEB HACSIUS, COMMANDEB» INSTALLED S»n MABCH 1670, 

DIED 90kh NOVEMBEB 1671. 

THE COUNCIL OF POLICY, 90kh NOTESCBEB 1671 TO 3&eh 

MABCH 1673. 

ALBEBT van BBEUGEL, SECUNDE, ACTING COMMANDEB, FBOM 

S9TH MABCH TO 3an> OCTOBEB 1673. 

Of Commander Van Qoaelbei^, previous to his arrival in 
South Africa, no information is given in the colonial ar- 
chives, except that he was the head of the Company's 
factory at Masnlipatam from 1652 to 1657, and that he 
had amassed considerable property. He was a younger 
and more active but in many respects a less estimable 
man than Mr. Wagenaar. It is impossible to read a dozen 
pages of the mass of documents bearing his signature 
without observing that he was intensely selfish, hursh to- 
wards his dependents, cringing towards his superiors, a 
man who studied no one's happiness but his own. He 
was a skilful naval commander, however, and must have 
possessed some special qualifications for the post he now 
filled, or the directors of the East India Company would 
not have selected him for it, though what these were 
cannot be ascertained from his writings. In his letters 
be was fond of calling attention to the mistakes of his 
predecessor, and of boasting of the different way in which 
he was managing affairs, but neither the supreme author- 



1 666] Comelis van Quaelberg, i6i 

ities nor the residents at the Cape looked upon that differ- 
ent way as a better way. To the burghers he was a 
tyrant, who acted on the principle that prosperous subjects 
are insolent subjects and therefore they should be kept 
poor. The freemen were not long in finding out that if 
Commander Wagenaar had personified King Log, Com- 
mander Van Quaelberg knew well the part of King Stork. 
As soon as the Hottentot clans in the neighbourhood 
heard that the Europeans had a new head, their chiefs 
sent complimentary messages and presents of oxen and 
sheep to him, as was customary among themselves. These 
friendly greetings were replied to in the same manner, for 
upon the cattle trade rested to a large extent the utility of 
the Cape residency, and the instructions of the directors 
were emphatic that the natives were to be conciliated 
in every possible way. 

Mr. Van Quaelberg found the walls of the point of 
the castle nearest the anchorage rising slowly out of the 
ground. One of the difficulties which the workmen com- 
plained of was the scarcity of timber such as they needed 
for a variety of purposes at the quarries as well as at the 
walls. The forests which Mr. Van Eiebeek had found in 
the kloofs of the mountain side above Eondebosch were 
already exhausted, so that no timber was obtainable closer 
at hand than Wynberg. The government issued orders 
against reckless waste, but as the wood-cutters were left 
without supervision, the orders were constantly neglected. 
The forests — hke all others in South Africa — were com- 
posed of a variety of trees mingled together, in which it 
rarely happened that half a dozen of one kind were found 
growing side by side. Often the kind of timber required 
at the time was far from the outer border, and then, to 
get the log out, a pathway was opened broad enough for 
a team of oxen to move in and straight enough to prevent 
jamming. For this purpose great numbers of small trees 
were cut down, and left either to decay or to furnish 
material for a destructive fire. With such a system of 

VOL. I. II 



1 62 History of South Africa. [1666 

working, the forests, which were at first of no great size, 
soon disappeared altogether. 

About three months after Mr. Van Quaelberg took over 
the government a fleet of twelve ships, under command of 
the marquis De Montdevergue, viceroy of the French pos- 
sessions in the East, put into Table Bay. The equipment 
of this fleet had been watched vnth unusual anxiety in 
the Netherlands. During the preceding sixty years the 
French had made frequent but fruitless efforts to form a 
powerful East India Company, but now the minister 
Colbert had organised an association which Louis XIV 
was determined should prove successful It was modelled 
generally after that of the Netherlands, but the share- 
holders had various privileges which those in the Low 
Countries did not enjoy. They had a guarantee from the 
government against loss during the first ten years, their 
fleets were to be convoyed by national war ships free of 
charge, everything needed by them for shipbuilding was 
to be admitted into France duty free. In addition to 
these and other substantial aids, honours and titles were 
freely offered by the court to those who should display 
the greatest zeal in the new Company's service. With 
these odds against them, the traders of Holland and Zee- 
land felt that they had cause for alarm. 

There was yet another reason for them to regard vinith 
anxiety the first large fleet fitted out by the Company 
which was trying to wrest from them a portion of the 
eastern trade. France had enormous wealth and resources, 
her king had inspired his nobles and his people with en- 
thusiasm for the new enterprise, but she had no men with 
the knowledge and training necessary to conduct it suc- 
cessfully. The alarm of the directors was therefore in- 
creased when they learned that an officer who had grown 
grey in their service, and whose ability was unquestioned, 
had taken employment with their rivals. Fran9ois Caron, 
the officer here alluded to, was of French descent, but had 
long held positions of trust under the Batavian govern- 



1 666] Cornells van Quaelberg. 163 

ment. He was intimately acquainted with every branch 
of the Indian trade and with the pohtics of the various 
eastern courts. And now, stung to the quick by some 
slight, fancied or real, he had left the Dutch service, and 
offered himself to Colbert and the French Company. 

But in the post assigned to him a blunder was made 
such as the ministers of Louis XIY can seldom be charged 
with. He should have had the chief command in the East, 
instead of which the title and power of viceroy were given 
to a man of high rank but with no qualifications for the 
post, and Caron was forced to take the second place. The 
mistake of giving the authority to one man when another 
had the ability was discovered only after the expedition 
had undergone ahnost incredible suffering and disaster in 
endeavouring to form settlements at Madagascar, but not 
too late for Caron to form the first French factory on the 
coast of Hindostan. 

Notvnthstanding all the trouble that was taken in France 
to equip the fleet, it was sent to sea ill-conditioned for a 
long voyage. The ships were crowded vnth landsmen and 
soldiers, but of seamen there was great lack. Order was 
wanting on board, and although they left Bochelle vnth 
large supplies of provisions, the waste was so great that 
when the fleet put into Pemambuco for refireshment symp- 
toms of distress were beginning to be apparent. A Dutch 
sailor who was there at the time visited the admiral's 
ship, and immediately aiterwards wrote to the directors at 
Amsterdam a description of what he saw. He described 
the ship as so filthy that it would be a wonder if pesti- 
lence did not break out, and so ill-provided with every- 
thing requisite that he did not believe she could ever reach 
Madagascar. 

From Pemambuco the fleet sailed for Table Bay. 
Though the French could not be regarded as allies of the 
Dutch, they were also at this time at' war with England, 
and therefore De Montdevergue might reasonably have 
looked forward to a friendly reception here, in outward 



164 History of South Africa, [1666 

fonn at least. His fleet was scattered on the passage, and 
his own ship was the first to reach Soath Africa. As 
soon as he let go his anchors he sainted the fort with 
fire gons, which courtesy was promptly returned with 
three, according to the custom of the day. Mr. Van 
Quaelberg inmiediately sent a messenger on board to 
welcome the French viceroy and to in^^te him to land. 
The viceroy excused himself for that afternoon, upon 
which the conmiander himself visited the St Jean and 
tendered his services to supply the fleet with anything 
that was to be had in the settlement 

Of this offer De Montdevergue availed himself to its 
fullest extent. He not only thoroughly refreshed his 
people, but he drew a considerable quantity of sea stores 
from the Company's magazines. One of his vessels 
was so leaky that it was considered dangerous for her to 
proceed farther. Mr. Van Quaelberg had her repaired 
with materials kept for the Company's own use and 
by carpenters maintained for the Company's own service. 
Upon the whole as much was done to assist this French 
fleet as if it had been the property of the owners of the 
settlement and not of their declared rivals, so that by the 
aid thus given the viceroy was enabled to reach Madagascar 
with his forces undiminished. 

The commanding position of the Cape of Grood Hope 
had not escaped the observation of Louis XIV, and he 
had accordingly instructed his deputy to take possession 
of Saldanha Bay and establish a residency there. Against 
this design the council of policy entered a protest, on the 
rand that the honourable Company was already in occu- 

on. A dozen men were sent overland with all haste 

^danha Bay, where two were stationed on each of 

■dots Jutten, Marcus, and Schapen, and five with a 

officer formed a camp at the watering place. The 

. surveyed the bay and set up landmarks with their 

i^Km them, but left; without forming any establish- 



1667] Cornells van Quaelberg, 165 

As soon as bis visitors bad gone, Mr. Van Quaelberg 
took a careful view of tbe situation. Tbey bad eaten 
nearly everytbing, so tbat little was left for tbe return 
fleet from Batavia, wbicb migbt be expected in tbree or 
four montbs. Tbe cbief want was slaugbter cattle, and 
witbout loss of time trading parties were organised and 
sent to tbe different clans. Scbacber, wbo bad succeeded 
bis fatber tbe fat captain Gogosoa as bead of tbe Kaap- 
mans, appears now in tbe cbaracter of a trader. He was 
entrusted vntb a good stock of mercbandise, witb wbicb be 
went inland bartering cattle on commission for tbe bonour- 
able Company. Tbe commander's wife beaded anotber 
party, wbicb took a Cocboqua encampment across tbe 
bay for its field of operations. Mrs. Van Quaelberg was 
out tbree days, and returned boasting of a fair measure 
of success. 

Hieronymus Cruse, now promoted to tbe rank of cor- 
poral, witb a tbird party struck away to tbe eastward, 
crossed tbe Hottentots-Holland mountains, and collected 
some bundreds of oxen and sbeep among tbe kraals of 
tbe Hessequas. Fusbing still fartber on bis next journey 
be encountered a tribe called tbe Gouriquas, from wbom 
be bartered tbe finest berds yet seen in tbe settlement. 
Tbe kraals of tbese people were on tbe banks of tbe river 
wbicb bas since tbat time been called from tbem tbe 
Counts. Tbe corporal went as far as tbe bend in tbe 
coast to wbicb Paulus van Caerden sixty-five years earlier 
bad given tbe name Mossel Bay. Tbere tbe Gouriquas 
informed bim tbat tbeir next neighbours were tbe Atta- 
quasy wbo were also ricb in cattle, but tbere was now no 
necessity for bim to go fartber. 

In May 1667 letters were received from bome witb an 
account of tbe victorious career of tbe Dutcb fleet and of 
the memorable exploits of De Euyter in tbe Thames. 
The directors believed tbat there was no longer anything 
to be feared from the naval power of England, and there- 
fore deemed it unnecessary to be at the cost of completing 



i66 History of South Africa. [1667 

the castle in Table Valley. They gave orders that the 
work was to be suspended forthwith, ajid that all the 
soldiers who could be spared were to be sent to Batavia. 
When these instructions were received, four out of the 
five points of the castle had not been commenced, and 
the one which had absorbed the labour of nearly three 
hundred men for more than twenty-one months was not 
fully completed. Its walls were a little higher than the 
stone bearing the date 1667 which can be seen from the 
side of the bay a few feet from the angle nearest the 
present railway station. 

It was intended that the vessel which took the sup- 
plies for Mauritius in 1667 should call at Madagascar for 
trading purposes and then explore the south-east coast 
of Africa, but the last design was frustrated by a tragic 
event. 

Pieter van Meerhof, the most energetic of early South 
African travellers, was sent as director of trade and ex- 
ploration. It will be remembered that he had married 
the interpreter Eva, to whom some interest attaches on 
account of her being the first Hottentot to profess Chris- 
tianity and to conform to European habits of hving. By 
the time of her marriage her services as interpreter could 
be dispensed with, as nearly all the children of the beach- 
rangers, and particularly the girls who were in service, 
could speak Dutch fluently. Soon afterwards Van Meer- 
hof was appointed superintendent of the party on Eobben 
Island, and she went there with him. Then for a couple 
of years her name disappears from the documents of the 
period, excepting in a brief paragraph concerning her com- 
ing from the island to the fort with a child to be bap- 
tized. In 1667 it occurs again to record the particulars of 
an injury which she sustained by an accidental fall, after 
which for another twelvemonth her name is not men- 
tioned. 

When the building of the castle was suspended there 
was no longer any need for the establishment at Eobben 



1 668] Cornells van Quaelberg. 167 

Island, and so Van Meerhof was appointed head of the 
expedition to Mauritius and Madagascar. At the bay of 
Antongil he went ashore with eight men to see what 
trade could be done, and while unsuspicious of danger the 
little party was attacked by natives and all were mur- 
dered. 

In February 1668 news was received from the Nether- 
lands that a treaty of peace vnth England had been signed 
on the 24th of the preceding August, but that it was not 
to have effect south of the equator until the 24th of April. 
A large Enghsh fleet had put to sea shortly before the 
letter was written, and as the directors were unable to 
ascertain its destination they gave instructions to detain 
all of their ships that should call at Table Bay, and to 
keep a good watch until the period of possible hostilities 
Wis ended. 

Mr. Van Quaelberg maintained the same attitude as 
his predecessors towards the natives. They were not per- 
mitted to be molested, nor was there any interference with 
thex domestic affairs. Even the beachrangers living in 
TaUe Valley were left to themselves, and were not made 
8ubJ3ct to the Dutch tribunals except when they com- 
mitt^ offences against Europeans. There are only two 
instances on record of Hottentots being punished at this 
tima The first offender was convicted of theft, and was 
soundy flogged and sent as a prisoner to Bobben Island, 
but vas released soon afterwards upon payment by his 
Mends of two oxen and eight sheep. The second was 
found guilty of assault, but compromised by the payment 
of ei^t fat sheep. If these punishments be compared 
with those inflicted upon Europeans for similar offences, 
they vill be found exceedingly mild. 

Diring this commander's administration only one other 
event occurred which is worthy of mention in connection 
with :he natives. In May 1668 a strong band of Nama- 
quas made a foray upon some small Cochoqua kraals at 
Saldaiha Bay, and seized their herds. A few oxen and 



1 68 History of South Africa. [1668 

sheep belonging to the Company which were running in 
the neighbourhood of the post fell a prey to the raiders, 
and two or three of the Europeans who attempted a res- 
cue were wounded with arrows. Thereupon they opened 
fire with their muskets, with the result that three of the 
Namaquas were shot dead. The remainder escaped with 
the booty. But next morning they sent messengers back 
to ask for peace with the white men, whom, they said, 
they had no desire to offend. This was at once granted, 
and in the course of the day the Europeans sent out a 
trading party and bartered as many of the plundered cattle 
as they had copper and beads to pay for. A messengei 
was despatched in haste to the commander, who approved 
of this proceeding and immediately sent a reinforcement 
of men to the outpost with a large stock of merchandise, 
but the Namaquas had by that time fallen back too fix 
to be reached. This transaction was referred to in after 
years by the plundered natives as an unfriendly proceed- 
ing. They could never be made to understand that it 
was fair for their allies the white men to become pos- 
sessed of their sheep in this manner. 

The regulations forbidding trade between the fireenen 
and the natives were very rigidly enforced by Commaader 
Van Quaelberg. Some of the farmers were suspected of 
purchasing sheep privately at prices greatly in advance of 
those which the Company was giving. To prevent this, 
the burghers were required to surrender at a valuatim all 
the African sheep in their possession, and were proKbited 
firom keeping any other than those showing Euopean 
blood, so that if they persisted in setting the law it de- 
fiance they would be easily detected. The old reguktions 
prohibiting the burghers from selhng cattle to each other, 
which had been nearly dormant during Mr. Wagmaar's 
government, were hkewise revived. These oppressive laws 
caused much discontent in the settlement, which wis in- 
creased when a proclamation was issued forbidding the 
freemen to carry firearms without special permission. The 



1 668] Comelis van Quaelberg. 169 

commander was treating the burghers and their complaints 
with utter contempt, and writing of them in most dis- 
paraging terms, when his connection with them and with 
South Africa was abruptly brought to an end. 

In those days news travelled slowly. The French fleet 
under the viceroy De Montdevergue was in Table Bay 
in December 1666, and it was not until the following 
November that what had occurred here became known 
in Amsterdam. It may be imagined that the directors 
were not a httle incensed to find that the fleet whose 
outfit had caused them such uneasiness had been as- 
sisted so greatly by one of their own servants. They 
considered that there could be no excuse for his conduct 
either in leaving the fort and placing his person in 
the power of the foreigners, or in furnishing strangers 
and rivals with stores kept at the Cape for their own 
service. There were sixteen out of the seventeen di- 
rectors present when this subject was discussed, and 
they resolved unanimously to dismiss Mr. Van Quaelberg 
from their employment. A successor was inmiediately 
appointed and instructed to proceed to South Africa 
and take over the government as soon as possible. In 
the letter of dismissal (20th of November 1667) Mr. Van 
Quaelberg was required to transfer everything without de- 
lay to the new commander, Jacob Borghorst, and either 
to return to the fatherland or to proceed to Batavia as a 
free man by the first opportunity. Instructions were laid 
down in the most positive terms that in future foreign 
vessels were not to be supplied with the Company's stores, 
but were to be left to their own resources. 

Mr. Borghorst sailed from Texel in the Hof van Breda, 
and after a wearisome passage arrived in Table Bay in 
the evening of the 16th of June 1668. Next morning he 
landed, but as it was Sunday he did not produce his com- 
mission. On Monday the 18th the council of policy was 
assembled, ajid the two burgher councillors were invited 
to be present. Then the authority of the directors was 



170 History of South Africa. [1668 

produced, and without further ceremony Mr. Borghorst 
assumed the control of affairs. 

Of the leading men whom Mr. Wagenaar left in the 
settlement, few now remained. The secunde Hendrik La- 
cus had been suspended from office on account of a defi- 
ciency in the stores under his charge, and was at this 
time a prisoner on Eobben Island. Comelis de Cretzer, 
formerly secretary, was now fiscal. The ensign Smient 
was on the point of leaving South Africa for a better situa- 
tion elsewhere. In November 1666 the reverend Johan- 
nes de Yoocht left for Batavia, and was succeeded as 
acting chaplain by the reverend Petrus Wachtendorp. Mr. 
Wachtendorp died on the 15th of the following February, 
just before the arrival of the reverend Adriaan de Voocht, 
who had been appointed by the directors permanent clergy- 
man of the settlement. To the burgher population had 
been added seven names now well known in and far beyond 
the colony: Gerrit van der Byl, Theunis van Schalkwyk, 
Amoldus Basson, Gysbert Verwey, Wynand Bezuiden- 
hout, Douw Gerbrand Ste3m, and Gerrit Victor. 

Mr. Van Quaelberg left for Batavia on the 12th of 
August. He sent a petition to the directors to be rein- 
stated, and on the 21st of May 1670 they resolved that 
the governor-general and council of India might give him 
employment again. In time he rose to be governor of 
Malacca, but was never afterwards connected with South 
Africa. 

Commander Borghorst was in ill health when he landed, 
and he remained an invalid during the whole period of 
his stay, so that practically the government was for three- 
fourths of the time carried on by his subordinates. Of 
these, the ablest was the fiscal, Cornelis de Cretzer. The 
secunde, Hendrik Lacus, remained in the settlement, but 
under suspension of office, until March 1670, when he 
was at length brought to trial, and though the greater 
part of the deficiency in his stores was satisfactorily ac- 
counted for, he was sentenced to be reduced to the rank 



1 668] Jacob Borghorst. 171 

of a common soldier and in that capacity to be sent to 
Batavia. During the long period that he was kept await- 
ing trial the situation was virtually vacant, except for a 
few months in 1669, when it was provisionally filled by 
an officer named Abraham Zeeuw, who was detained from 
a passing ship. The lieutenant, Abraham Schut, was a 
man without weight of character, and was even deprived 
of his seat in the council soon after Mr. Borghorst's 
arrival for having slandered the widow of the late act- 
ing chaplain. The office of the secretary, Jacob G-ranaat, 
gave him little or no authority in the direction of affairs. 
Upon De Cretzer therefore rested the oversight of nearly 
everything, but as the times were quiet there was very 
little to look after beyond the cattle trade and the gar- 
dens. 

Some of the landmarks which had been set up around 
Saldanha Bay by order of the viceroy De Montdevergue 
were still standing. They consisted of the French coat 
of arms painted on boards attached to posts, and were 
so firail that one had been destroyed by a rhinoceros and 
another had been used by a party of Hottentots to make 
a fire of. The commander lost no time in removing those 
that were left and causing all traces of the offensive 
beacons to be obliterated. Where they had stood shields 
bearing the Company's monogram were placed. 

By this time the country along the coast had been 
thoroughly explored northward to some distance beyond 
the mouth of the Elephant river, and eastward as far as 

» 

Mossel Bay. The Berg river had been traced from its 
source to the sea, and Europeans had been in the Tulbagh 
basin and the valley of the Breede river. But no white 
man had yet climbed the formidable wall which skirts 
the Bokkeveld and the Karoo. No one had sought en- 
trance to the unknown interior through the gorge where 
now a carriage-drive amid the grand scenery of Michell's 
Pass leads to pleasant Ceres, or had entered the valley of 
the Hex river where to-day the railway winds upward from 



172 History of South Africa. [1668 

fair and fertile fields to a dreary and desolate wilderness. 
So, too, the opening known to us as Cogman's Kloof, 
through which a waggon-road now leads from the valley 
of the Breede river past the village of Montagu, was still 
untrodden by the white man's foot. 

Beyond the outer line of their own discoveries the 
maps of the period were yet relied upon vnth almost as 
much faith as if they had been compiled from actual 
survey. No one doubted the existence of the great river, 
which was laid down in them as forming the western 
boundary of Monomotapa. And by some chance, which 
cannot be accounted for, the hue it made on the maps 
was in reality a tolerably correct boundary between the 
Bantu and Hottentot races. 

The bartering parties that went inland no longer kept 
careful journals as they had done at first, because now 
there was nothing novel to be noted. Unfortunately, too, 
they had given Dutch names or nicknames to most of 
the chiefs in the country explored, so that in many in- 
stances it is quite impossible to follow them. A state- 
ment, for instance, that fifty sheep had been purchased 
from Captain Thickhead, gives no clue by which to follow 
the traders, unless the circumstance under which that 
name was given to some chief happens to have been 
mentioned previously. This is less to be regretted, how- 
ever, as fresh discoveries were still carefully reported. 

In August 1668 the yacht Voerman was sent to ex- 
amine the east coast carefully as far as Natal. Corporal 
Cruse and fifteen men were sent in her, with instructions 
to land at Mossel Bay and explore the country in that 
neighbourhood. The Voerman got no farther eastward 
than St. Francis Bay, where she put about on account 
of springing a leak in a storm. Her officers discovered 
nothing, but they must have been incompetent or faith- 
less, for there is no part of the South African seaboard 
more worthy of close attention. They should at least 
have noticed the grand cleft in the lofty coast line by 



1 668] Jacob Borgkorst. 173 

which the Knysna basin communicates with the sea, and 
have looked through it upon the charming scenery beyond. 
Farther eastward they ought to have observed the bight 
known to us as Plettenberg's Bay, and farther still the 
forest-clad hills and vales of the Zitzikama. 

The party put ashore at Mossel Bay did much better. 
Corporal Cruse visited for the first time a tribe called the 
Attaqua, of whom he had heard during his previous 
journey. He found them very wealthy in cattle, and was 
able to exchange his merchandise to such advantage that 
he returned to the fort with some hundreds of oxen and 
sheep. The Attaquas occupied the country between Mos- 
sel Bay and the present village of George, and had as 
their eastern neighbours a tribe called the Outeniqua. 

Corporal Cruse's success induced the commander to 
send him back without delay at the head of another trad- 
ing party. On the way he encountered a company of 
Bushmen, having in their possession a great herd of cattle 
which they had stolen from the Hottentots of those parts. 
This Bushman band appears to have been a perfect pest 
to the pastoral clans between the Breede and the Gourits. 
The Hottentots called them the Hobiqua, and in the jour- 
nals they are spoken of by that name as if it was the 
title of a clan, though in one place the commander states 
expressly that they were Sonqua. But the Hottentot 
word Hobiqua means simply the murderers, which accounts 
for all that would otherwise be obscure in the records. 

Upon the appearance of the Europeans, the Bushmen, 
having no conception of firearms and believing the little 
party of strangers to be at their mercy, attempted to 
seize their merchandise. Cruse tried to conciliate them 
by offering presents, but in vain. There was then only 
one course open to him, and that was to resist, which he 
did effectually. In a few seconds all of the plunderers 
who were not stretched on the ground were fleeing in 
wild dismay, leaving their families and cattle in the hands 
of the incensed Europeans. No harm whatever was done 



174 History of South Africa. [1668 

to the women and children, but the corporal took pos- 
session of the whole of the cattle as lawful spoil of war, 
and with them returned to the fort. It was a valuable 
herd, for there were many breeding cows in it, such as it 
was hardly ever possible to obtain in barter. This exploit 
raised the Europeans high in the estimation of the Hes- 
sequas and their neighbours. They sent complimentary 
messages, and expressed their thanks in grateful language 
for the service rendered by the chastisement of the Bush- 
men. 

There is in the journal of this date a notice of a cruel 
custom prevalent among the Hottentots. These people, 
unlike some other African races, did not expose their 
dead, but buried them in any cavity in the ground that 
they could find. When the mother of a helpless infant 
died, the living child was buried with its parent, because 
no one would be at the trouble of nourishing it, and this 
was the customary method of ending its existence. Some 
Dutch women happened one afternoon to observe a party 
of Hottentots working in the ground, ajid were attracted 
by curiosity to the spot. They found that a corpse had 
been thrust into an excavation made by some vnld animal 
and that an infant was about to be placed vnth it. The 
women were shocked at such barbarity, but they could 
not prevail upon any of the natives to rescue the child. 
No one however objected to their taking it themselves, 
as they seemed so interested in its fate, and with a view 
of saving its life they carried it home vnth them. 

Among the means adopted by the Netherlands East 
India Company to attach its officers to the service was a 
regulation which gave each one liberty to trade to a cer- 
tain extent on his own account, except in spices, which 
were strictly excluded from this arrajigement. Hardly a 
skipper left Europe or the Indies without some httle ven- 
ture of his own on board, and even the mates and sailors 
often took articles of merchandise with them to barter at 
any port they might put into. The officers on shore had 



1669] Jacob Borghorst. 175 

corresponding privileges whenever it was possible to grant 
them without detriment to the pubhc welfare. The first 
commander at the Cape, for instance, had a farm of his 
own, and his immediate successors heui also landed pro- 
perties which they cultivated for their exclusive benefit. 
But the Company was at this time anxious to encourage 
the freemen, whose largest gains were derived from the 
sale of produce to visitors ; ^ so, to prevent rivalry, instruc- 
tions were issued that none of the members of the council 
of policy were to keep cattle or to cultivate gardens 
beyond the requirements of their households. 

In 1669 a small vessel named the Grundel was sent 
out by the supreme authorities to explore the coasts of 
Southern Africa. On the way she visited the rocks of 
Martin Vaz, and searched in vain in their neighbour- 
hood for a fertile island suitable for the establishment 
of a residency. George Frederick Wreede, the same who 
visited Martin Vaz in the Pimpel in 1665, was on board 
the Orundel on this occasion. It vrill be remembered that 
he had been appointed conunander of the party occupy- 
ing Mauritius, but, on account of some of the people 
there being mutinous, he was unable to carry out his 
instructions. For this he was held responsible by Com- 
mander Van Quaelberg, who not only recalled him, but 
caused him to be tried by the council of a fleet on a 
charge of neglect of duty. He was sentenced to be re- 
duced again to the rank of a soldier, with pay at the 

^One of the oonditions under which free papers were granted was that 
the fanners were to be at liberty to sell their produce (but not homed 
cattle, sheep, or grain) to the crews of vessels three days after arrival. 
After Mr. Van Quaelberg's dismissal, captains of foreign vessels were in- 
variably referred to the freemen, under the plea that the Company had 
nothing to spare. There is at this period no instance of the farmers being 
debarred from selling vegetables, poultry, eggs, milk, butter, and similar 
articles, to the crews of any ships, Dutch or foreign, but frequent men- 
tion is made of their having disposed of such articles. Grain and cattle 
were reserved for the Company's own use, and could not be sold without 
special permission, which was however sometimes granted. 



176 History of South Africa, [1669 

rate of fifteen shillings a month. But Wreede found 
means of getting to Europe and of bringing his case be- 
fore the directors, who annulled the sentence of the court 
that tried him, gave him the rank and pay of a junior 
merchant, and sent him out again to be head of the 
estabhshment at Mauritius. 

The Grundel arrived in Table Bay some months before 
the time fixed for the sailing of the Mauritius packet. 
Letters were shortly afterwards received from the direc- 
tors vnth instructions to station a party of men perma- 
nently at Saldanha Bay, to prevent any other European 
power taking possession of that port. It was beheved 
that the French had at last resolved to abandon Mada- 
gascar, where they had met with nothing but loss, and it 
was suspected that they had an intention of establishing 
themselves somewhere in the neighbourhood of the Cape 
of Good Hope. Wreede was accordingly sent with four- 
teen men to fix a site for the outpost and to put up the 
necessary buildings. He was relieved when the Mauri- 
tius packet was ready to sail, but a day or two before she 
was to have left a party of convicts managed to get pos- 
session of her. The leader of these convicts was an old 
mate of a ship, who had been sentenced to a long term 
of imprisonment for insubordination. Under his guidance 
the Lepelaar was captured, and the next that was heard 
of her was that she had safely reached Pernambuco. A 
few weeks later a yacht that called was laden vnth stores 
for Mauritius, and Wreede sailed to resume the position 
of commandant of the island. On the 29th of February 
1672 he went oilt in a boat to explore some islets, the 
boat was overturned in a squall, and he was drowned. 

The Grundel was sent first to examine the coast to the 
northward beyond St. Helena Bay, but brought back no 
information except that the greatest part of the country 
as far as she sailed along it appeared to be an unin- 
habited desert. South of the tropic there were no other 
people than Hottentots. Her skipper wished to change 



1670] Jacob Borghorst. 177 

the name of the inlet in latitude SG"" 36' from Angra 
Pequena to Gnmdel Bay, but his desire was not gratified. 

In the following year she was sent to the eastward, but 
discovered nothing worthy of note. The farthest point 
reached was the bay Os Medaos do Ouro, in latitude 26'' 
4(y S. Here an officer and sixteen men went ashore to 
examine the country, but never returned, and owing to 
this disaster the Grundel pat about and sailed for the 
Cape. 

In 1669 a party of experienced miners and assayers 
was sent from Europe to search for metals in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Cape. They examined Table Valley care- 
fully, and then proceeded to the Paarl mountain and 
Biebeek's Kasteel. For several years they were busy 
making excavations over the country, sometimes believing 
they were in a fair way of finding valuable ores, though 
always disappointed in the end. In one of their reports 
the Windberg is called the Duyvelsberg, which is the first 
instance in the records of that name being used. 

The arrival of the commissioner Mattheus van der 
Broeck early in the year 1670 was an important event 
in the history of the infant settlement. The commissioner 
was one of the ablest of the Company's officers, and was 
then acting as admiral of a richly laden return fleet of 
fifteen ships. His instructions from the Indian authorities 
were to rectify anything that he should find amiss at the 
Cape after due investigation. Upon his arrival, Mr. Van 
der Broeck handed to Commander Borghorst a list of 
questions, to which he desired written replies, and he 
added to the ordinary council of policy five of the .chief 
officers of the fleet to assist in its deUberations. 

One of the questions had reference to the growth of 

com. Hitherto there had not been sufficient grain raised 

at the Cape for the consumption of the garrison and the 

inhabitants, so that it had been necessary to import a 

quantity of rice yearly. This expense the Company wished 

to be relieved ol Commander Borghorst proposed to form 
VOL. L 12 



178 



History of South Afri 



[1670 



a large farming eBtablishment at Hottentots-Holland, a 
part of the country to which be had once paid a visit, 
and where he believed unusual facilities existed for both 
agricultural and pastoral pursuits. He suggested also that 
the freemen should be encouraged by an offer of higher 
prices for grain than those previously given. His views 
were adopted by the council, and with the commissioner's 
sanction it was resolved that the Company's cultivated 
ground at Kondebosch should be leased by public auction, 
and the staff of servants there be removed to Hottentots- 
Holland. The price of wheat was raised to 7s. hd.. and of 
rye to 5s. 1\d. the hundred pounds. 

A great evil existed, in the commissioner's opinion, in 
the number of canteens that had been recently established. 
They were even to be found at Kondebosch and Wynberg, 
■where they were a sore temptation to the farmers to 
spend their substance in dissipation. On the other hand, 
each paid for its license, and all provided board and lodg- 
ing for strangers when ships were in the bay. The com- 
missioner and council reduced the number to nine for the 
whole settlement, but in addition permitted Jacob Bosen- 
daet, who had enlarged the vineyard planted by Mr. Van 
Biebeek, to sell by retail wine of bis own making. 

Some samples of Cape -wine had been sent to Batavia, 
but had not been received there with much favour. It 
was therefore a question what was to be done with the 
produce of the vineyards. The coimcil decided that each 
individual could send his wine to Batavia, to be sold 
there on his own account, upon payment of 12s. 6d. 
freight on every half aom, and such duties as the Indian 
government should impose. This was practically throwing 
the Eastern markets open to Cape wine farmers to make 
the most they could in. But so far from being viewed as 
a privilege or a concession by the colonists of those days, 
it was held by them to he equivalent to a prohibition of 
wine-making. They wanted a market on the spot, for 
they were too poor to wait a twelvemonth for the price 



1670] Jacob Borghorst. 179 

of their produce. Neither were they a people inclined to 
run any risk, and therefore their idea of a good market 
was a market where the price of everything was fixed, 
where a man could reckon to a stiver what his wine 
would bring before it left his farm. The freedom of sell- 
ing in India was thus no inducement to them to increase 
their vineyards. 

In the matter of public works, the council resolved to 
construct a stone watercourse from the reservoir to the 
jetty, and to plant twenty-four morgen of ground vrith 
trees, half alders for timber and half kreupel bushes for 
fuel.^ The watercourse was thrown open to tender, and 
a contract for its construction was entered into by the 
burgher Wouter Mostert for the sum of 625Z. It was 
farther resolved that in future all bricks and tiles re- 
quired by the Company should be purchased from free- 
men by public tender. 

The duties of each member of the government were 
accurately defined. Comelis de Cretzer was promoted from 
fiscal to be secunde, and Jacob Granaat from secretary to 
be fiscal. In the council of poUcy, the secunde, Comelis 
de Cretzer, the heutenant, Johannes Coon, the fiscal, 
Jacob Granaat, and the bookkeeper, Anthonie de Baaf, 
were to have seats, while liberty was left to the com- 
mander to admit one or two other fit persons, if he 
should deem it necessary to do so. 

In the written instructions of the commissioner the 
Cape authorities were directed to encourage and assist 
the farmers, not alone on account of the produce of their 
fields, but because of the assistance to be derived from 
them in time of war. The freemen then constituted a 
company of mihtia eighty-nine strong. Mr. Van der 
Broeck, in ordering the lease of the Company's farm at 

'The plantations were never laid out, however, as upon further con- 
sideration the commander came to the conclusion that they would he 
dangerous in Tahle Valley on account of the shelter they would afford to 
ravenous animals. 



i8o Histmj of SnUk AfruA. [1670 



fiondebotdi, htA m riew an iimnwHaae inoease c^ this 
immber. Hedirectad also that as socm as the C<»npaiiT 
had made a good stait at Hottoitots-HoUaiid. that tract 
oC eooDtiy sbcmld Ekewise be piren cot to freemen. 

During Commander B(HghoEst*s administraticm licenses 
were 6at granted to the boig^iezs to hunt bLrge game 
wfaererer they chose. Hippopotami abomided at that time 
in the Berg rirer, and parties were freqnently fitted ont 
for the purpose of shooting th^n. The flesh of these 
animals was brought in large qoantities to the settlement, 
where it was used for food, and the hides were soon 
found to be useful for making whips. During these ex- 
peditions the burghers were exposed to the temptation 
of bartering cattle from the natives, but the government 
kept a watchful eye upon their flocks and herds, and con- 
fiscated every hoof that could not be satisfsMstorily ac- 
counted for. 

Owing to the commander's ill-health he had no desire 
to remain long in South Africa, and only a few months 
after his arrival the directors sent out instructions that 
the merchant Jan van Aelmonden, who was expected with 
the next return fleet, should be detained here as his suc- 
ceBBor. But that officer was not on board the fleet, and 
Mr. Borghorst then sent a pressing request for the ap- 
pointment of some one else to relieve him. The directors 
selected Pieter Hackius, another of their old servants 
whose health was completely shattered by long residence 
in India, and who was then on furlough in Europe. Mr. 
Haokius and his family sailed from home in the Sticht 
van Utrecht on the 7th of December 1669, and reached 
Table Bay on the 18th of the following March. The 
new commander lauded a more confirmed invalid even 
than the officer whom he had come to relieve. But he 
tt)t). like Mr. Borghorst, hoped that after a short term of 
Korvioo in this country he would be permitted to return 
to the fatherland to end his days there. On the 25th of 
March 1070 the government was formally transferred, and 



1670] Pieter Hackius. 181 

a few weeks later Mr. Borghorst embarked in the Beem- 
ster and returned to Europe. 

For several months after the arrival of Mr. Hackius 
nothing beyond the ordinary quiet routine of life occurred 
in the settlement. The commander himself was for some 
time unable to take an active part in the administration 
of affairs, and it was not until June that he held his 
first council meeting. It had become necessary to make 
greater efforts to destroy the lions and leopards, which 
were prejdng upon the flocks and herds in the settlement, 
and the hyenas, which had even scraped up dead bodies 
in the churchyard and devoured them. As this was a 
matter affecting the taxation of the burghers, their coun- 
cillors were invited to assist in the deliberations. It was 
resolved that the premiums for the destruction of raven- 
ous animals should be increased, and that in general half 
the rewards should be paid out of fimds raised by the 
burghers. In the particular case of lions killed between 
Table Mountain and the Tigerberg the premium was 
raised to 6Z. 5*. for each, two-thirds of which was to be 
paid by the freemen. 

In September the second large fleet fitted out by the 
French Company put into South African waters on its 
way to the east. Admiral De la Haye saluted the fort 
with five guns, and was answered with only one, which 
he complained of as an insult to his king. He expected 
to be able to get here whatever fresh provisions and sea 
stores he needed, but he was soon undeceived. Com- 
mander Hackius made no objection to his purchasing 
vegetables from the farmers, but informed him that the 
Company could not furnish him with anything from its 
own gardens or magazines. The admiral was indignant 
at receiving such treatment, but at the very time he was 
asking for supplies he was acting towards the Dutch as 
enemies. 

Six of his ships had put into Saldanha Bay. They 
found at the place now called the old post a station 



1 82 History of South Africa. [167 1 

occupied by a few soldiers under command of Sergeant 
Hieronymus Cruse. Of this station they took forcible 
possession, and made prisoners of the soldiers. Some 
burgher fishermen who were carrying on their ordinary 
employment in the bay were also seized and made prison- 
ers. The Company's flag was taken down and its beacons 
were destroyed, the French substituting the flag and arms 
of their king. The council of policy entered a formal 
protest against these acts of violence, but they had no 
force with which to resist, and so they prudently did 
nothing to provoke the French farther. After a short de- 
tention. Admiral De la Haye was good enough to release 
his prisoners, and he sailed without leaving any of his 
people behind. The French flag was not disturbed for 
four months. Then the garrison at the Cape was rein- 
forced with three hundred men, and the station at Sal- 
danha Bay was again occupied. 

At this period there was less distinction made between 
black men and white than between professing Christians 
and heathens. A baptized black, indeed, enjoyed all the 
rights and privileges of a European, but a heathen could 
hardly be said to have any rights at all. At the Cape 
there were a few Mohamedan slaves, natives of the Indian 
islands, who had been banished to this country as a 
punishment for crime. The first of this particular class 
arrived on the 21st of May 1667, but at an earlier date 
one or two Asiatic convicts who were not Mohamedans 
were sent from India. Some of these were sentenced to 
slavery for a limited number of years, after which they 
becajne free, others were condemned for life. The great 
majority of the slaves were negros from Madagascar or 
the mainland of Africa, mostly males, who had been made 
prisoners in war and had been sold by the chiefs of vic- 
torious tribes. Of the children bom here of slave mothers 
only about one-fourth were black, the remainder being 
half-breeds. The commissioner Isbrand Goske, who visited 
the settlement in February 1671, considered this circum- 



1671] Pieter Hackius, 183 

stance so scandalous and demoralising to the whites that 
he attempted to legislate against it. 

The commissioner had no idea that heathen Africans 
understood the obligations of marriag^e or respected fidelity 
between man and wife. In his opinion, therefore, the 
slaves could not be married as long as they remained 
heathens, but he issued instructions that the females 
should be matched with males of their own class. They 
were all to be sent to church twice on Sundays, and every 
evening they were to be assembled for instruction. The 
sick-comforter was then to recite prayers slowly, which 
they were to repeat after him. As soon as they should 
be sufficiently advanced in knowledge and should profess 
belief in Christianity, they were to be baptized and 
married. All the children were as heretofore to be sent 
to school, so that none might grow up heathens. And, 
lastly, special care was to be taken that no half-breeds 
were retained in slavery. 

For a long time the secunde Cornelis de Cretzer had 
been the most active member of the Cape government. 
He was a favourite with the burghers and stood high in 
the estimation of the superior officers with whom he had 
come in contact, for he was able, honest, and attentive 
to his duties. From being a copying clerk he had suc- 
cessively held the offices of secretary to the council, fiscal, 
and secunde, and had now the title of merchant and a 
good prospect of being commander of the settlement at no 
very distant date. 

It was customary for the principal officers of ships in 
the bay to be invited frequently to dine on shore, and as 
both Mr. Borghorst and Mr. Hackius were confirmed in- 
vahds, the duty of receiving and entertaining guests was 
sometimes undertaken by Mr. De Cretzer. On the 10th 
of April 1671 the skipper of an Indiaman and a passenger 
by the same ship dined at the secunde's house, where 
they revived an old quarrel between them. De Cretzer 
endeavoured to pacify them, but the skipper at length 



184 History of South Africa. [167 1 

became so violent that he assanlted the passenger, and it 
was necessary to employ force to remove him. He went 
out of the house, but presently returned using threaten- 
ing language, when the secunde, giving way to passion, 
drew his rapier and ran the brawler through the body. 
It was the act of an instant, but its penalty was life- 
long. 

De Cretzer at once fled from his home and concealed 
himself somewhere in the settlement. As a matter of 
form the government cited him to appear before the court 
of justice and offered rewards for his apprehension, but 
no one wished to see him brought to trial, and he was 
never arrested. After a time he left the colony quietly 
in a homeward bound ship, and returned to Amsterdam. 
There the case was investigated, and he was pronounced 
free of blame. The directors then restored him to the 
position of secunde at the Cape, but the ship in which he 
took passage was captured at sea by a Moorish corsair, 
and the last that is known of De Cretzer is that he was 
sold as a slave in Algiers. 

This unfortunate event left the Cape without any man 
of note to direct affairs. The commander was so feeble 
that he seldom appeared abroad. Jacob Granaat had gone 
to Batavia some time before. The three offices of se- 
cunde, fiscal, and dispenser of the magazines, had all been 
filled by De Cretzer, and there was no one to succeed to 
any of them. The chief military officer was Lieutenant 
Coenraad van Breitenbach, who had only been a month 
in the settlement, and whose experience was confined 
to matters connected with his own profession. Next to 
him was Brevet-Lieutenant Johannes Coon, who was little 
more than a cipher. 

The two ablest men at the Cape were both in sub- 
ordinate situations. One of these, by name Hendrik Cru- 
dop, was a young man of good birth and education, who 
had taken service with the East India Company as a means 
of pushing his fortune. He had passed through the 



1671] Pieter Hackms. 185 

stages of copying clerk and bookkeeper, and was at this 
time secretary of the council, with the rank of junior mer- 
chant and the address of sieur, but had no voice or vote 
in the proceedings. The other was Sergeant Hieronymus 
Cruse, a man with Uttle education, but intelUgent, active, 
and capable of carrjdng through any business that he 
undertook. He was the explorer of the day, the man 
who knew most of the interior of the country and of the 
native tribes. But, though his opinions had weight out- 
side the council, and men of lower rank were often ad- 
mitted in an emergency, he had no voice given to him in 
the management of affairs. Such being the personnel of 
the government, it was fortunate that no disturbing ele- 
ment was at this time brought to bear upon the harmony 
of the settlement. 

For ten or a dozen years the authorities of the East 
India Company had been endeavouring to induce garden- 
ers and small farmers to migrate from Europe to South 
Africa, but with little success. Now and again they were 
able to send out to their eastern possessions a few families 
who were attracted by the glowing tales told of those 
wondrous isles from which wealth was being poured into 
the Netherlands. But the Cape had no charms of this 
kind, for its inhabitants were savages and it contributed 
nothing to commerce. Of all the Dutch dependencies it 
was the one that possessed least attraction for emigrants. 
In October 1670, however, the chamber of Amsterdam 
was able to announce that it had secured a few families 
who would be sent in the next fleet, and in the following 
December another party is spoken of as being about to 
leave for the Cape and Mauritius.^ 

1 These ^uoailies numbered in all sixty-one individuals, and at the time 
they accepted the proposals of the Company were engaged as agriculturists in 
the county of Meurs, which was not annexed to Prussia until 1707. How 
they came there, or what led them to wish to emigrate, is not stated in the 
documents of the time, but all of those among them whose birthplaces are 
given were Dutch. See Besolutions of the Assembly of Seventeen of 21st May 
and 28th August 1670. 



1 86 History of South Africa. [1671 

The families were dispersed among the ships in such 
a manner as best to secure their comfortable acconmio- 
dation. Some vessels had only one spare cabin, and thus 
took only one family as passengers, others took two or 
three. Among the new names of burghers at this time 
are fomid those of Jan van As, Jacobus van den Berg, 
Adriaan van Brakel, Jan van Eeden, Albertus Gilden- 
hnyzen, Hans Helm, Matthys Michiels, Jan Mostert,^ Jan 
Lambert Myburgh, Jacob and Dirk van Niekerk,* Her- 
manns Potgieter, Abraham Pyl, Gerrit Romond, Hendrik 
Verschuur, and Fran9ois Villion (now Viljoen).* 

To the tjrranny of the government has usually been 
ascribed the small number of free inmiigrants that arrived 
in South Africa between the years 1652 and 1820. But 
upon close examination this will be found incorrect. It 
is true that if we judge by the standard of the present 
day, and take representation of the people by election and 
parliamentary institutions into consideration, the govern- 
ment of that period will appear to be an arbitrary des- 
potism. But before the French revolution the nations 
of Europe judged by a very different standard. 

The people of the United Netherlands were in name 
and reahty the freest on the continent of Europe, yet the 
great majority of them had no direct voice in the govern- 
ment. The municipalities, which were the seats of power, 

I The founder of the large Mostert family of the present day. He 
was a younger brother of Wouter Mostert, who has been frequently men- 
tioned in these pages, and who left no children. 

'Comelis van Niekerk, the founder of the large South African family 
of that name, was probably either a younger brother or a son of one of 
these. His name is first found in the records of 1691. Neither Jacob 
nor Dirk van Niekerk left children, unless Comelis was a son of one of 
them. All the others named above have numerous descendants either in 
the male or in the female line scattered over South Africa now. 

'Olof Bergh, the founder of the South African family of that name, 
was at this time a military officer in the Company's service in Capetown. 
Among the burghers there was one named Jan Botha, who may have 
been the father of Frederik Botha, the founder of the present widely dis- 
persed family of that name; but this is doubtful 



1671] Pieter Hackius. 187 

-were self-perpetuating corporations. On the part of the 
masses the idea of good government was light taxation, 
•coupled with the making and administration of laws that 
agreed with their views and prejudices. They did not 
care to be at the trouble of assisting to make the laws 
themselves. That was in their opinion the duty of the 
authorities as constituted by the customs and traditions 
of time immemorial The veto of the citizens consisted 
in the right of protest, a right which they sometimes 
exercised in the form of an armed and clamorous body. 
The requests of burghers made in this manner were not 
to be disregarded, and hence in a country where prudence 
is the commonest of virtues, those in authority usually 
took care to avoid any action which might lead to dis- 
content. Without being a representative government, the 
government of the United Netherlands existed for the 
good of the people and by the will of the people. It was 
their ideal of what a good government ought to be. 

The directories of commercial bodies were modelled 
after this pattern. In the first charter of the East India 
Company, which was signed at the Hague on the 20th 
of March 1602, the directors of the different chambers 
were appointed by name, and provision was made for 
filing any vacancies that might thereafter occur by the 
states-provincial selecting from a triple number nominated 
by the remaining directors. Yet the capital of the Com- 
pany was subscribed at once, no shareholder imagining 
that his interests would be safer if he had a direct voice 
in the management. The charter terminated in 1623, and 
when it was renewed some fresh clauses were added. By 
one of these the shareholders were empowered to assist 
in certain elections, but in no manner resembling the pro- 
ceedings of a commercial association of the present day. 
Such then was the ideal of good government, and to sus- 
tain this ideal there was the plain fact that the people 
of the United Netherlands were the most prosperous on 
the face of the globe. 



1 88 History of South Africa. [1671 

It was taken for granted that the institutions of the 
parent country would as far as practicable be transplanted 
to the colonies. No Netherlander thought then that by 
going abroad he would lose the rights to which he was 
bom, any more that an Englishman of the present day 
thinks he forfeits his privileges by residing in a crown 
colony. Looking back upon those times it is easy to see 
that the colonial institutions were but shadows of those 
to which they corresponded in name in Holland, that the 
power of the colonial authorities was infinitely greater 
than that of the Dutch town governments, because they 
had not the fear of an offended and indignant populace 
always before their eyes. But these simple truths were 
only discovered after long experience, and could not have 
been predicted in 1671. Modern colonisation was then 
in its infancy. The most advanced nations, among which 
were England and Holland, had as yet no conception of 
colonies governed as they now are. There was no ma- 
chinery in their systems either to build up or to regulate: 
distant dependencies, hence all of them created powerful 
trading companies for the purpose. 

The Netherlands East India Company was then the 
greatest and most powerful trading association in the 
world, and it was even more than that. It was the 
owner of vast and wealthy provinces. Yet it was itself 
subject and responsible to the states-general, and its ad- 
ministration was watched with a jealous eye by all wha 
were not shareholders in it. There was always a strongs 
party ready to arraign it when guilty of oppression or 
abuse of power. That in later years it was on many 
occasions oppressive and often did abuse its power is na 
less true, but at this time such charges could not fairly 
be made against it. The dread of its tyranny probably 
did not prevent a single individual from settling in its 
dependencies. 

The cause of so few Dutch families settling in South 
Africa at this period was the absence of any necessity for 



1671] Pieter Hackius, 189 

a large number of the people of the Netherlands to leave 
their homes. A prosperous country, where there is abun- 
dance of employment for all, is not a country from which 
men and women migrate. The people of the Netherlands 
were attached to their fatherland, there was no sectarian 
persecution to drive them into exile, and so they did not 
choose to remove to far-away regions, where the condi- 
tions of life were uncertain or unknown. Their territory 
is small, and though it was thickly populated it could not 
send forth large bands of colonists without exhausting the 
parent state. The Cape was but one of its many depen- 
dencies, and received its fair share of the few Dutchmen 
of that period who chose to settle abroad. Foreigners, in- 
deed, could have been obtained, but no nation has ever 
yet chosen to plant colonies of alien blood. The Dutch 
went as far in this direction as prudence would permit, 
by settling in their dependencies as many foreigners as 
could be absorbed without danger of losing their own 
language and predilections. 

There was little communication between the Europeans 
and the natives at this time, and that little was not alto- 
gether friendly. In December 1670 the branch of the 
Cochoquas under the chief Gonnema paid a visit to the 
settlement. Their presence caused quite a panic among 
the frontier farmers at Wynberg, some of whom abandoned 
their houses, which the Hottentots afterwards broke into. 
Happily they did not remain long in the neighbourhood. 
In the following year a war broke out between the Cocho- 
quas and the Chainouquas, and the first-named tribe was 
nearly ruined. While the clans were fighting with each 
other, two burghers who went into the country to shoot 
game were surprised by some Bushmen and murdered. 
An account of this event was brought to the fort by a 
party of Chainouquas, who asserted that the obiquas had 
been instigated by Gonnema to commit the crime. Their 
statement was believed, but the accusations of their 
enemies by savages can seldom be received as trustworthy 



190 History of South Africa. [1671 

evidence, and there is no other proof of Gronnema's guilt 
in this matter. 

The iUness of Commander Hackius at length assmned 
a form which forbade all hope of recoyery. For some 
months after his arrival he had bnoyed himself up with 
the prospect of a speedy retnm to the fatherland, bat as 
time wore on this comfort failed him. The spring of 
1671 found him bedridden and hardly conscious of what 
was transpiring about him, and in this condition he 
lingered until his death on the night of the 30th of 
November. The funeral took place three days later. It 
was attended by all the inhabitants of the settlement, 
but could not be conducted with much pomp owing to 
the circumstances of the tim& The body was laid be- 
neath the floor of the building used as a church, in the 
ground now enclosed by the castle walls. Another escut- 
cheon was added to those already hanging there, but in 
the course of a few years grave and escutcheon were alike 
undistinguishable, and nothing was left to perpetuate the 
memory of Commander Hackius. 

On the morning after his death the council assembled 
for the purpose of making arrangements to carry on the 
government. There were present the two mihtary officers, 
Coenraad van Breitenbach and Johannes Coon, a junior 
merchant named Daniel Frojrmanteau, who had been de- 
tained from a ship some time before to act as issuer of 
stores, and the secretary, Hendrik Crudop, to whom a 
vote in the proceedings was now for the first time given. 
There was no one in the settlement whose rank would 
warrant the council in placing the administration of affairs 
temporarily in his hands. It was therefore arranged that 
each member of the government should retain the exact 
position which he held before the late commander s death, 
and that there should be no other distinction between the 
councillors than that reports of unusual occurrences were 
to be made by the officers at the outposts to Lieu- 
tenant Van Breitenbach, who was immediately to lay 



1672] The Council of Policy, 191 

them before his colleagues. The settlement was thus for 
a few months governed by a board of ofl&cers without any 
local head or chief. 

There was at this time throughout the United Nether- 
lands a general feeling of impending danger. Hostilities 
with France were beUeved to be inevitable at no distant 
date, and it was beginning to be suspected that England 
would not much longer abide by the Triple AUiance. 
That the conquest and partition of the Free Netherlands 
had actually been arranged by Charles 11 and Louis XIV 
as long before as May 1670 was unknown to the Dutch 
people. But, though the treaty of Dover was a secret 
to the intended victims, the unfriendly conduct of the 
SngUsh court gave abundant cause for alarm. With so 
gloomy an outlook the directors of the East India Com- 
pany considered it advisable to strengthen the defences of 
their possessions, and the Cape was one of the points 
which they resolved to secure more firmly. The castle, 
the building of which had been for some time suspended, 
was to be completed according to the original design, the 
garrison was to be increased, and the administration of 
affairs was to be confided to a class of men superior to 
those hitherto employed. 

Instructions were received here in February 1672 to 
utilise all the available force of the settlement in collect- 
ing shells, quarrying stone, and conveying these materials 
to the site of the new fortress. The woodwork for the 
various buildings connected with the castle was being 
prepared in Amsterdam, and was sent out as opportunities 
offered in the fleets that followed. Large quantities of 
bricks and tiles were also sent out, and in the same ships 
came skilled mechanics to do the work. The position of 
the castle is considered so faulty by modem engineers 
that it is difficult to realise that when it was built it was 
beheved to be almost impregnable. Yet that it was so 
considered is beyond all question. 

A few years after its completion, a constable ventured 



192 History of South Africa. [1672 

to express an opinion that if the French were to land 
and take possession of the slope of the Devil's peak they 
would be able to shell the garrison out. The governor 
came to hear of this, and as he considered that if such a 
belief gained ground among the burgher militia it would 
cause them to lose confidence, he ordered the constable 
to be placed in confinement. His Honour, with Lieu- 
tenant Cruse and Surveyor Wittebol, then measured the 
distance carefully, and came to the conclusion that no 
cannon which could be brought out in a ship and landed 
here could harm the castle. After a few days the con- 
stable's wife went * to the governor, and asked that her 
husband might be set at liberty. Everybody knew, she 
said, that he was a man who allowed his tongue to run 
too freely, but just on that account no one paid any 
attention to what he said, and so there was no harm 
done. He was a sober and diligent person, and if his 
Honour would but pardon him this time she would 
guarantee that he would never again be guilty of talking 
so foolishly of the Company's stronghold. 'He does not 
get drunk, I will admit,' replied the governor, 'and he 
does his duty reasonably well, but this is a serious matter 
of which he has been guilty. He must be brought before 
the council.' The council decided to be lenient with him, 
but that he must counteract the mischief which his sedi- 
tious language might have occasioned. He was there- 
foze to select the two best cannons at the Cape, which 
should be conveyed to the place that he had asserted 
eommanded the castle. There he was to load them with 
fall dhargeS) and if he could throw a ball into the fortress 
6 was to be free of fine or punishment. The experiment 
I* ouxied out, and the castle remained unscathed. The 
liable was then compelled to proclaim himself a fool- 
felloWy ^d was fined three months' wages to cover 
npense of removing the cannon.^ 

jMzs later the authorities admitted that their predecessors 
In 1686 a oommissioner of high standing informed 



if-rs" ^ /It ZDViKn .'- .^" -..'.-. 



V. 



Brencei. and P'let-e: ir Z^-ftl Tii- nrs- Tra- *. nija: rr:-. 
had £LLed Tranonf resr rrjEiDc- Ermai.-.iif :l n- ir.i^?^ ^.r.- 
nad arwwyt acnumriL .mit.r=i- 2:-i:u».:.:-. B- r:>v: v- -.: 

XL I.-^i'DX ar.: :r iirr ':-»its: -.: ;\ii.;a':»i: 

who ssiBCsed xnt sit-*: z: iirr s^^n^ vrii^i. ::. r^ tt* - 

pacTt 'cradf' xhert aiiL icra::- 'F-ir=i ^^ - t .j -t - - i^-.^jr :: 
1671 he ^VTBs f'fia^rqrc ttih -ll-t in— -j r-.^iirir::: ai— i:.::i^ 
here nhfia TmxrnT i>t aim==. Zuiis^i n* iite siaiidarc ':: Ui^ 
nineZf&eDxh oeirrnry hs "^irvrr -v^'^L r-r 2kl:-x narr^v ;l 
fTic c^wii OHj he intr litnc t' irr 1.T: -:i.- i ^-.:il ru: £ 
"wisje and libera, niaz. li. r&:.i li* vrsii Lirr^ir* i*irij's: 
^VtB-Ti a camniancisi azic v-nei. ire "vraf rraiiejcreL !■ as^un-r 
the dxTBCsiaZ: af afiairf a" iii* I E7?t iiit resiaeiir* T-tf 
nased lo he & irJ^emniSin. aiiL it*- vtif erini-e-c ^r»"'en.''j: 
At xhe saxDe linnt he va* a]TT»iiin-rL l-:»i:ii2I!jx *:rm>'jri.- 
nsTT at T^^yria^ Hjtt siufiTT' vfef i: r»* a* tiit n^Tf .c -^> 
B rr' nT^*^^ or ODHuie t'tie: r£ t :•:■?: TiiKii^e: vtil t ^er' 
cahie aarn^Ttiice. ani lesjitf riajrerf ::_ "iij* ''-r: 

cixjffliisnial siTQer: at ir'iiifrir'aL-i. viierf i:r I'-'iiJi e-.L^r:- 

main of "i fwg experisiiSr xiiki. Zsst >-fj:r :»r: vtf :»f:ir-e: 
to be a saii igm&i fc::c t-r-Jt rfi-ittr. 

isz«£7 at Nfn-. tti: ''^t.f ?»tfi": rr* fc^? r.?-:-t. 

rijg nir-riJ i-hLra:ir^i "wk? i.:: ii-T.'i'r-tirr 
and pob&bed afcff r^ rrrzn: :: -r-^:T»r resr? i-^ ~ 

vol* I. 



194 History of South Africa. [1672 

press of a man of some genius, to whom close thinking 
was familiar. Many of the verses are characterised by 
the same peculiarities as the writings of Sterne, but the 
expressions are coarser. He also prepared a work upon 
the marriage customs of various nations, which gives 
proof of extensive reading. The fiscal was the first of 
the three new officers appointed, and when he arrived at 
the Cape he experienced some difficulty in getting himself 
recognised by the grave godfearing councillors who were 
then ruling the settlement. 

During the ten years fi:om the 1st of January 1662 to 
the 31st of December 1671, three hundred and seventy of 
the Company's ships put into Table Bay, either on the 
outward or homeward passage, and all found ample re- 
freshment. In the same period twenty-six French, nine 
English, and two Danish ships cast anchor hera The 
only other stranger was a small Portuguese vessel brought 
in as a prize. There were no wrecks or losses in Table 
Bay during this period, but on the coast nearly opposite 
Dassen Island a cutter was run ashore by a drunken 
skipper in June 1668, when two men were drowned, and 
in May 1671 another small vessel was wrecked on the 
FoundUngs, when the crew got safely away in the boat. 

It was estimated that for the refreshment of the Com- 
pany's ships three hundred and fifty head of homed cattle 
and three thousand seven hundred sheep were required 
yearly. This was exclusive of the hospital and the people 
on shore. The average number of men on board each 
vessel that called in time of peace was about one hundred 
and eighty, but first-class Indiamen carried from three to 
four hundred. It needed seventy or eighty hands to set 
the enormous mainsail of such a ship, for they were igno- 
rant of many of the modem appliances for multiplying 
power. Shipbuilders were only beginning to learn that 
by reducing the size of the sails and increasing the num- 
ber they could do with fewer men. Large crews were 
needed also for defence in case of attack by pirates, and 



1672] The Council of Policy, 195 

allowance had to be made for at least one-third of the 
complement being laid up with scurvy in a passage ex- 
ceeding four months. Thus, notwithstanding the number 
of ships appears small, over seven thousand strangers 
visited the Cape every year, who after consuming fresh 
provisions for ten or twelve days carried away with them 
as much as would keep good. 

Nearly every year the branch of the Cochoquas under 
Gonnema paid a visit to the Cape peninsula, where they 
seldom failed to create trouble by their pilfering propensi- 
ties. The normal condition of this particular clan was 
that of a roving band, always at feud with its neighbours, 
either plundering the Namaquas, or the Chainouquas, or 
the Kaapmans of their cattle, or itself plundered and re- 
duced to want. They had yet to leam that a European 
settlement was not to be dealt with in this manner. 

At this period the Europeans felt themselves more se- 
cure than ever before. There was a garrison of three 
hundred men in Table Valley. The burghers formed a 
body of militia one hundred strong, a fair proportion of 
them mounted on Javanese ponies. The council was in 
no mood to brook either affront or wrong. The members 
were plain men, who looked at the native question as a 
VCTy simple one. They had no thought or desire of harm- 
ing a Hottentot or of interfering in the slightest manner 
with the internal government of the clans, but they were 
determined to punish any one who should molest a Euro- 
pean, and to do it in such a manner as to inspire all 
others with a feeling of terror. 

On the first opportunity that offered they put this 
principle into practice. Five of Gonnema's people were 
taken redhanded in the act of sheepstealing, three of the 
number being guilty also of assaulting the herdsmen. They 
were bound and carried to the fort, where shortly a party 
of their friends appeared with cattle for their ransom. 
The council declined to release the prisoners on any 
terms. Day after day came messengers offering more and 



196 History of South Africa. [1672 

more cattle, but always without effect. The five prisoners 
were brought to trial, and were sentenced all to be soundly 
flogged, the three most guilty to be branded and to be 
banished to Bobben Island for fifteen years to collect 
shells for the public benefit in return for their food, the 
other two to be banished for seven years. The first part 
of the sentence was strictly carried out, and the latter 
part would have been so Ukewise if the convicts had not 
made their escape from the island in a boat. 

On the 23rd of March 1672 the Macassar arrived from 
Texel, having as passenger the secunde Albert van Breu- 
gel. The councillors went on board to welcome him and 
to escort him to the fort, but a strong south-easter 
springing up suddenly, they were unable to return to 
land before the 25th. Mr. Van BreugePs commission em- 
powered him to act as commander in case of no one 
higher in rank in the service being at the Cape, so that 
he at once assumed the direction of affairs. 

On the same day there arrived in a homeward bound 
ship a commissioner of the Cape residency in the person 
of Amout van Overbeke, member of the high court of 
justice at Batavia and admiral of the return fleet of 1672. 
The commissioner was received with the ordinary state 
observed towards officers of his rank. The walls of the 
old fort would not admit of the cannon being used too 
freely, but the ships at anchor lent assistance with their 
great guns. Amid the roar of their discharges Mr. Van 
Overbeke landed on the jetty, where the officers of the 
settlement met him. The troops, with as many of the 
burgher mihtia as could be assembled, were drawn up and 
presented arms as he passed along the lines, and as he 
entered the fort his flag was hoisted and saluted. 

After investigating the affairs of the settlement, the 
commissioner Van Overbeke thought it would be expe- 
dient in order to prevent future disputes to make a formal 
purchase of the country about the Cape from the Hottentot 
claimants. A negotiation was accordingly entered into 



1672] The Council of Policy. 197 

with the chief formerly called by bis countrymen Osing- 
kima and now Mankagou, to whom tbe Dutch had given 
the name Schacber. 

When Mr. Van Eiebeek arrived in South Africa, 
Schacher's father, tbe fat captain Gogosoa, was tbe princi- 
pal chief of tbe three clans, Goringhaiquas, Gorachouquas, 
and Gt)ringhaikona8, in occupation of tbe Cape peninsula 
and the adjacent country. Since that time some changes 
in the condition of these clans bad taken place. Tbe larg- 
est of them bad been subdivided into several little bands. 
The permanent residents of tbe peninsula bad increased 
in number, owing to tbe facility of obtaining food afforded 
by the presence of the European settlers. Tbe others had 
not yet recovered from tbe loss sustained during the pesti- 
lence of 1665. But to them all Schacher's position was 
the same as his father's had been, so that if any one bad 
a right to barter away the country, that one was be. 

Tbe Hottentot chief, when applied to, readily con- 
sented to tbe conditions proposed, for they took nothing 
from him which he bad not already lost. The agreement, 
which is still preserved in tbe registry of deeds in Cape- 
town, contains eight clauses. In the first, the Hottentot 
prince, as he is called, agrees for himself and his heirs in 
perpetuity to sell to the honourable East India Company 
the whole district of tbe Cape, including Table, Hout, and 
Saldanha bays, with all the lands, rivers, and forests there- 
in and pertaining thereto, to be cultivated and possessed 
without remonstrance from any one. With this under- 
standing, however, that be with his people and cattle 
shall be free to come anywhere near the outermost farms 
in the district, where neither tbe Company nor the free- 
men require the pasture, and shall not be driven away 
by force or without cause. In tbe second, he agrees for 
himself and his people never to do harm of any kind to 
the Company or its subjects, and to allow them tbe 
rights of transit and trade not only in the ceded district, 
but in his other possessions. In tbe third, he promises 



198 History of South Africa. [1672 

to repel all other Europeans who may attempt to settle 
in the district. In the fourth, he engages that he and 
his descendants for ever shall remain the good friends 
and neighbours of the Company, and be the enemies of 
all that seek to do the Company or its subjects harm. 

On the other hand, the Company engages in the fifth 
clause to pay to Prince Schacher goods and merchandise 
such as he may select to the value of 8002. The sixth 
clause guarantees to him and his people the peaceful pos- 
session of his remaining territory, and gives them the right 
of passage through the Company's ground wherever the 
exercise of this privilege may not cause damage or an- 
noyance to the Company or its subjects. The seventh 
secures to Schacher the right of refuge in the Company's 
territory in case of his being defeated by his Hottentot 
enemies, and binds the Company to protect him. It also 
refers tribal disputes to the decision of the Company, and 
provides for a present to be made yearly to the protecting 
power. The last clause is Schacher's acknowledgment 
that the foregoing having been translated to him he 
^agrees to all, and that he has received the amount stipu- 
lated. The document is dated in the fortress of Good 
Hope on the 19th of April 1672. It is signed on behalf 
of the Company by Aemout van Overbeke, Albert van 
Breugel, Coenrad van Breitenbach, and J. Coon, and has 
upon it the marks of Prince Schacher and 'T Tachou, 
who is stated to be the person next in authority to the 
prince. The secretary, Hendrik CrUdop, signs as a wit- 
ness. 

The document is drawn up in precise legal language 
and it is clear in its statements, but it cannot be held to 
give the Company any claim to the Cape district not 
possessed before. The seller had no choice in the matter. 
If he had declined to agree to it, the result, so far as the 
Company's retaining possession of the soil, would have 
been precisely the same. Saldanha Bay is included in 
the purchase, though the country thereabouts was known 



1672] The Council of Policy. 199 

to be occupied by the Cochoquas. The price paid is 
stated to be 800Z. ; in a despatch to the directors the 
value of the goods actually transferred to Schacher is put 
down at 2Z. 16«. hd. It was not, and under the circum- 
stances could not be, an honest open bargain made by 
two parties who thoroughly comprehended what they were 
doing and knew the value given and taken. 

An agreement identical with that signed by Schacher 
was concluded on the 3rd of May between Albert van 
Breugel and Coenrad van Breitenbach on the part of the 
Company, and the two leading men of the Chainouquas 
on behalf of their minor chief Dhouw, wherein the district 
of Hottentots-Holland adjoining the Cape, with all its 
lands, streams, and forests, together with False Bay are 
ceded to the Company in return for merchandise amount- 
ing in value to 800Z. The goods actually transferred were 
worth no more than 62. I65. 4e2. 

At this time experiments were being made in the cul- 
tivation of various useful plants from other parts of the 
world. Sugarcanes and cocoanut trees were brought from 
Ceylon, and cassava plants were introduced from the west 
coast of Africa, but these all failed. The olive was still 
i^arded as a tree that would untimately succeed. Some 
seasons the fruit fell before it was ripe, in other seasons 
it was small and of very inferior quality. But the trees 
looked so well that the gardeners always maintained that 
they had not yet procured the best kind for bearing, and 
that if they could only get proper stocks or grafts the 
plant would to a certainty answer here. 

In this year the first brandy was distilled at the Cape. 
It was made as an experiment to ascertain if the wine 
of this country could not be turned to some account. 
The general opinion of the quality of the brandy was, 
however, even less favourable than of the wine of which 
it was made. 

On the 31st of July intelligence arrived that war had 
commenced between France and England on one side and 



200 History of South Africa. [1672 

the United Provinces on the other. Orders were there- 
fore sent out to take every possible precaution against 
surprise. The council hereupon made the best arrange- 
ments which they could for the defence of the settlement. 
The establishment on Dassen Island was broken up, and 
the five hundred sheep which were kept there were re- 
moved to the mainland. At Saldanha Bay and Bobben 
Island preparations were made for abandoning the posts 
upon the first appearance of an enemy, and destroying 
everything that could not be carried oflf. In case of need 
the women and children with the cattle were to be sent 
to Hottentots-Holland. The work at the castle was mean- 
time diUgently carried on. 

On the 2nd of October Governor Goske arrived in the 
ship ZuiA PoUbroeky after a passage of five months from 
Texel. The Zuii Pohhroek had lost eighteen men, and 
there were sixty down with scurvy when she dropped her 
anchors. The governor landed at once, and was received 
by the garrison under arms. As soon as his flag was 
distinguished on the ship the news was signalled to 
Rondebosch and Wynberg, so that the burghers were fast 
assembling on the ground which now forms the parade. 
To them the governor was presented by the secunde Van 
Breugel, and was saluted with loud acclamations of wel- 
come, mingled with discharges of firearms from the troops 
and the roar of cannon from the Zuid Polsbrock and the 
finished point of the new fortress. The governor's com- 
mission was then read, and the ceremony of induction was 
over. 



20I 



CHAPTEE VII. 

ISBRAND GOSKE, GOVERNOR, INSTALLED 2nd OCTOBER 1672, 

RETIRED 14th MARCH 1676. 

JOHAN BAX, ENTITLED VAN HERENTALS, GOVERNOR, IN- 
STALLED 14th MARCH 1676, DIED 29th JUNE 1678. 

HENDRIK CRUDOP, SECUNDE, ACTING COMMANDER, 29th JUNE 

1678 TO 12th OCTOBER 1679. 

At the time when the Cape settlement was raised tem- 
porarily to the dignity of being called a government, the 
European population consisted of sixty-four burghers, 
thirty-nine of whom were married, sixty-five children, 
fifty-three Dutch men-servants, and about three hundred 
and seventy servants of the Company and soldiers, in all 
not exceeding six hundred souls. But there are circum- 
stances under which the deeds of six hundred individuals 
may be of greater importance in an historical retrospect 
than are ordinarily those of six hundred thousand. These 
few white men were laying the foundations of a great 
colony, they were exploring a country as yet very imper- 
fectly known, they were deaUng with the first difficulties 
of meeting a native population. Their situation was the 
most commanding point on the surface of the earth, and 
they knew its importance then as well as England does 
now. The Cape castle, wrote the directors, is the frontier 
fortress of India, an expression which shows the value 
they attached to it. 

At this time the Free Netherlands were engaged in 
the most unequal struggle that modern Europe has wit- 
nessed. The kings of England and France, the elector of 
Cologne, and the bishop of Munster were allied together 



202 History of South Africa. [1672 

for the suppression of Batavian liberty. In May 1672 
Louis XrV in person with a splendidly equipped army 
invaded the provinces from the south and within twenty- 
eight days no fewer than ninety-two cities and strongholds 
fell into his hands. To Utrecht, in the very heart of 
the repubhc, his march was one continued triumph. The 
ecclesiastical princes poured their forces into Overyssel, 
and completely subdued that province. Charles 11 fitted 
out a large fleet, but fortunately for English Uberties the 
Dutch were able to hold their own on the sea. 

The unhappy country in its darkest hour was distracted 
by rival factions. The Perpetual Edict, by which the 
prince of Orange was excluded from supreme power, was 
the law, but most men felt that the only hope left to the 
republic was to place the guidance of affairs in his hands. 
The towns called for the repeal of the edict, the states 
obeyed, and William of Orange, destined at a later day to 
wear the crown of England, was appointed stadtholder of 
Holland and Zeeland and captain and admiral-general of 
aJl the provinces. Then followed (20th of August 1672) 
the murder by a furious mob of the two most eminent 
men of the Loevestein party, Johan de Witt, pensionary 
of Holland, and his brother Comelis de Witt, burgomaster 
of Dordrecht. 

Of the seven provinces three were at this time entirely 
occupied by the enemy, but internal discord was at an 
end. One clear head guided the forces of the country, 
and hope began to take the place of despair. The sluices 
were opened, and the dykes were cut. The whole of the 
low lands in South Holland were laid under water. An 
army sprang into existence, an army indeed of boors and 
artisans, but animated by intense patriotism and capable of 
meeting any dangers and any fatigues. In the harbours of 
Zeeland and North Holland a great fleet was got together, 
ready in the last extremity to convey two hundred thou- 
sand free people to the islands of the East, to form a new 
Batavian republic there. 



167a] Isbrand Goske. 203 

In the fiB.ce of such opposition the allies were compelled 
to pause. Then a change in the situation took place. A 
combination of great European powers was formed against 
France. The English government, which had entered into 
the war and carried it on against the wishes and interests 
of the people, was obliged to make peace (February 1674). 
Six months later the Dutch had recovered all their terri- 
tory except the towns of Maestricht and Graave, their 
fleet was keeping the coast of France in continual alarm, 
and the prince of Orange with seventy thousand men, half 
of them Germans and Spaniards, was preparing to attack 
the prince of Conde at Charleroi. 

The effect of the troubles of the mother country upon 
the Cape settlement was felt for many years. The number 
of ships that called fell off very considerably, for even 
after the recovery of their territory by the Dutch, it took a 
long time to estabUsh again their European trade. In the 
East the Company suffered no reverses of importance, but 
its commerce was crippled by the necessity of maintaining 
a large fleet on a war footing. The high admiral there 
was the elder Ryklof van Goens, subsequently governor- 
general of Netherlands India, and associated both before 
and after this date with Cape affairs. Under him, com- 
manding a division of the fleet, was Cornelis van Quael- 
berg, once commander of the Cape settlement. The best 
contested battle fought in Indian waters during the war 
was between Van Quaelberg's division of the fleet and a 
squadron of ten English ships that met off Masulipatam. 
The EngUsh were outnumbered, but they fought bravely, 
and it was not until one of their ships went down and 
two others were surrounded and reduced to wrecks that 
the remaining seven made sail for the Hooghly. 

The first and most important object that Governor 
Goske had to attend to was to prepare the Cape for de- 
fence in the event of its being attacked, and for this pur- 
pose he had authority to land from passing ships as many 
men as could be spared and he might require. But the 



204 History of South Africa. [1672^ 

troubles in Europe caused a falling-off in the number 
of ships sent out, and further made it so difficult to 
obtain soldiers and seamen that for some years hardly a 
vessel sailed with her full complement of hands. Urgent, 
therefore, as was the necessity for completing the castle, 
it was not possible at any time to employ more than two- 
hundred and fifty to three hundred men upon it. What 
the Free Netherlands did in those days cannot be com- 
pared with what the present mother country is capable 
of doing. But, if measured by their resources, and especi- 
ally by the number of their inhabitants, the efforts which 
they put forth are worthy of the warmest admiration of 
all hberty-loving people. 

The governor resolved as a temporary measure to re- 
pair the old fort, the earthen walls of which had by this 
time so crumbled away that he described it as being like- 
a ruined molehill. It was hastily built up again, and 
then every man that could be spared from ordinary duty 
was set to work upon the castle. 

Nearly three years had elapsed since the commissioner 
Van der Broeck authorised the Cape government to form a 
farming estabUshment at Hottentots-Holland, but, owing 
to the illness of Commander Hackius and the absence of 
any one of high authority after his death, nothing had yet 
been done in the matter beyond surveying the ground^. 
Now, however, besides the original object in view there was 
a special reason for forming an outpost in the country; 
as a place was needed to which the cattle could be sent,, 
and upon which the garrison could fall back if compelled to 
abandon the Cape. On the 18th of October 1672 Sergeant 
Cruythof and twelve men left to put up the necessary 
buildings, and thus the first step was taken to extend the- 
settlement towards the interior. 

The description of Hottentots-Holland which was sent 
to the Netherlands for the information of the directors 
would seem at the present day to be too highly colourr 
if we did not know that within the period which 



167a] Isbrand Goske. 205 

since elapsed the face of the country has undergone a 
change. Western valleys were then covered with long 
rich grass, just as Kaffraria is now. Every summer a 
party of men used to be sent out with sc}rthes to the 
Tigerbergy and thirty or forty waggon loads of hay were 
brought back to the Company's stables as forage for the 
horses. The recesses in the moantain sides facing the 
sea contained patches of evergreen forest, in which were 
found great varieties of useful timber. 

The grass at Hottentots-Holland and the forests in 
the immediate neighbourhood were mentioned as being 
superior to those of any other part of the country yet 
visited. The soil was described as rich, and the south- 
east wind, that scourge of the husbandman in Table 
Valley, was far less violent there. It was a bountifully 
watered land, its streams were stocked with fish, and on 
its pastures at certain seasons browsed elands and harte- 
beests and other game. It was easy of access by sea. 
A cutter could run up to the head of False Bay, where 
without any difficulty produce could be shipped, and thus 
the journey through the heavy sand of the Cape flats be 
avoided. It seems to have been almost a natural law in 
South Africa that all the advantages of a locality should be 
seen at first, and its defects only become known gradually 
afterwards. 

With a view of crippling the English East India Com- 
pany, orders were at this time received from Holland to 
fit out an expedition to attack and endeavour to destroy 
its victualling station at St. Helena. For this purpose 
the ships Vryheid, Zuid Polsbroek, Cattenburgh, and Vlie- 
gende Swaan were made ready at the Cape, and a hundred 
and eighty soldiers and a hundred and fifty sailors above 
their ordinary crews were embarked in them. The ex- 
pedition was placed under the direction of Jacob de Geus, 
skipper of the Vri/heid, and subject to his general orders 
Lieutenant Coenrad van Breitenbach had command of the 
land forces. 



2o6 History of South Africa, [1675 

The little fleet sailed from Table Bay on the 13th of 
December 1672, and arrived at St. Helena on the 29th, 
but was miable to reach the usual anchorage off Chapel 
Valley. Commander De Geus therefore anchored at a 
place which is described in his report as off Apple Valley, 
two or three leagues from the spot where two English 
ships were lying. During the night of the 10th of January 
1673 the Dutch forces landed and scrambled up a preci- 
pice, as they termed it, no opposition being offered. In 
the morning they set out for Chapel Valley, and without 
any difficulty drove back some small patrols that were 
met on the way. In the report there is no reference to 
killed or wounded on either side, except an expression at 
its close that almost without any bloodshed whatever the 
island was taken. 

On the 12th of January Commander De Geus appeared 
in the rear of the English fort, when the garrison and 
colonists, who were too few in number to attempt to 
defend it, embarked in a ship and set sail, after spiking 
their guns and destroying everything that could not be 
carried away. On taking possession, the Dutch found on 
the island only one woman, a negro slave, and five sick 
men. A slave ship from Madagascar bound to Barbados, 
with two hundred and forty negros on board, which had 
put in for refreshment, was also abandoned, and was seized 
by the Dutch. 

Commander De Geus caused the spiked cannon to be 
drilled, landed some munitions of war and provisions, and 
then returned to the Cape, leaving a hundred soldiers 
under Lieutenant Jan Coon in occupation. A few weeks 
later intelligence reached the Cape that Lieutenant Coon 
and the only other commissioned officer had died, and 
that a man with no higher rank than sergeant was in 
command of the garrison. Governor Goske and the coun- 
cil then directed Lieutenant Coenrad van Breitenbach to 
proceed to the island with the first opportunity, and 
assume direction of affairs there. 



1673] Isbrand Goske. 207 

The ship in which the English residents of St. Helena 
made their escape sailed towards the coast of Brazil, 
where she fell in with a squadron under command of 
Commodore Bichard Munden, who had been directed to 
meet and convoy the homeward bound East India fleet. 
Commodore Munden resolved to retake the island, and 
with that object he made his way there and early in 
the morning of the 15th of May 1673 landed two hundred 
men under Captain Kedgwin without notice on the east- 
em coast. Then, proceeding with his ships round to the 
northern side, he appeared before the fort at the entrance 
of Chapel Valley, where Jamestown was afterwards built, 
just as Captain Kedgwin reached it behind. The Dutch 
garrison, taken by surprise, immediately surrendered. 

Lieutenant Van Breitenbach sailed from the Cape in 
the ship Europay and reached St. Helena on the 21st of 
May. The Europa ran round a point which concealed the 
anchorage, and came unexpectedly within range of the 
guns of Commodore Munden's war ships, when after a 
futile attempt to escape and afterwards to resist a frigate 
that chased her, she became a prize to the Assistance. 
Lieutenant Van Breitenbach and the garrison were taken 
to England as prisoners of war, and were there exchanged 
for some Enghshmen detained in the Netherlands. The 
lieutenant subsequently committed a military offence for 
which he was cashiered, and he then went out to India 
as a free colonist, calling at the Cape on the way. Just 
at that time the Company was at war with some of the 
native powers, and Van Breitenbach, who carried with him 
excellent recommendations from Governor Goske, was re- 
quested to return into the service, where he soon regained 
his former rank. 

For a considerable time no trading expeditions had been 
sent inland, because the directors thought the Hottentots 
would bring cattle to the Cape for sale if they could not 
obtain tobacco, copper, and beads at their own kraals. But 
in this expectation they were disappointed. The rich clans 



2o8 History of South Africa. [1673 

living at a distance were unable to come, owing to the 
constant feuds in which they were engaged with others 
nearer at hand. Those in the neighbourhood of the Cape 
occasionally brought a lean cow or a few sheep for sale, 
but they had become impoverished through being plun- 
dered, and could not supply as many as were needed. It 
was therefore determined to send a trading party of twelve 
men to the kraal of the Chainouqua captain Dorha, who 
had intimated a wish to obtain some tobacco and copper 
in exchange for cattle. 

This Captain Dorha, or Klaas as he was called by the 
Europeans, who now appears for the first time, was for 
many years to come intimately connected with the colony, 
and regarded as its most faithful ally. The tribal govern- 
ment of the Hottentots was so weak that the slightest 
cause seems to have been sufficient to break them up into 
little clans virtually independent of each other. This was 
the case at least with all those who came into contact 
with the white people. There was still in name a chief of 
the Chainouquas, but in fact that tribe was now divided 
into two clans under the captains Ellaas and Koopman. 
Each of these was recognised as a ruler by the Cape 
government, in proof of which staffs with brass heads, 
upon which the Company's monogram was engraved, had 
been presented to them, just as such symbols had pre- 
viously been given to six or eight captains nearer the 
settlement. These staffs soon came to be regarded by 
the Hottentots not only as recognising, but as conferring 
authority, and thenceforth it became an object of ambition 
with every head of a few families to obtain one. 

Klaas attached himself to the Europeans, but not from 
any incUnation to acquire civilised habits, for he remained 
a savage till his death. Successive governors, indeed, 
maintained that he was a model of virtue and fidelity, 
but the proofs they give are far from conclusive. As an 
instance, he once brought a little Hottentot boy captured 
in war, whom he offered as a present to the governor to 



1673] Isbrand Goske. 209 

be a slave. Hereupon the governor described him as 
having the mercifol heart of a Christian, inasmuch as he 
spared the life of an enemy. 

Whatever his object may have been, he proved a firm 
supporter of the European government, always ready to 
take part with it against his own countrymen. On this 
occasion he bartered away two hundred and fifty-six head 
of horned cattle and three hundred and seventy sheep, a 
very seasonable supply for the governor, whose slaughter 
stock was nearly exhausted. Elaas was then requested to 
furiiish fifty young oxen to draw stone to the castle, and 
in less than a fortnight he collected them among his peo- 
ple and sent a message that they were ready. Such con- 
duct on his part naturally called for a return of favours. 
The Chainouquas and the Cochoquas were at this time at 
war, and whenever Klaas wished to visit the Cape an es- 
cort was sent to Hottentots-Holland to protect him on the 
journey. Presents were frequently sent to him with com- 
plimentary messages, and he was provided with a showy 
suit of European clothing, that he might appear at the 
fort with such dignity as became a faithful ally of the 
honourable Company. The attention paid to him may 
partly explain the hostile conduct of Gonnema, chief of 
the largest division of the Cochoquas. 

Gonnema, who was known to the first settlers as the 
black captain, usually had his kraals in the neighbourhood 
of Riebeek's Kasteel and Twenty-four Rivers, but occa- 
sionally he wandered to the shores of Saldanha Bay, or 
eastward to Hottentots-Holland. All his neighbours were 
in dread of him, for whenever there was an opportunity 
he was in the habit of plundering them. It was from 
him that the whole of the Hottentots in the neighbour- 
hood of the Cape were fifty years later called Gunjemans 
by the Dutch. The people of his own clan were even 
at this time called Gonnemas, and the word gradually 
became Gonnemans, Gonjemans, and Gunjemans. And as 

the Goringhaiquas and others soon lost their distinguish- 
VOL. I. 14 



^lO History of South Africa. [1675 

JQg tribal titles, they all became blended together under 
this one name, by which alone Europeans knew them. 
Among themselves the old names were preserved, but 
when speaking to white men they employed the word in 
common use. In precisely the same manner various bodies 
of natives have lost the titles of their clans and acquired 
more general ones from some corrupted name, down to 
our own day. 

In November 1672 the burghers Gerrit Cloete and 
Ockert and Hendrik Olivier obtained permission from the 
governor to shoot hippopotami, and for this purpose they 
travelled along the banks of the Berg river down to 
Riebeek's Kasteel. There Gonnema with forty or fifty 
of his followers came upon them and seized their waggon, 
oxen, provisions, and whatever else they had with them» 
barely permitting them to escape with their lives. It 
does not seem to have occurred to the governor that 
Gt)nnema might object to the destruction of game in his 
district, and so the act was attributed solely to his enmity 
to the Company. But there was then no force that could 
be spared to chastise the offender, and the injury was 
therefore left unpunished. 

In January 1673 the five Cochoquas who had been de- 
tained on Bobben Island made their escape, and as among 
them were some men of rank in the tribe, it may be as- 
sumed that the feehng of hostility towards the Europeans 
was increased. Five months afterwards eight burghers 
and a slave went out with the governor's permission to 
shoot large game. They had two waggons with them, 
which it was their intention to load with skins and dried 
meat for the sustenance of their famiUes and for sale. 
Finding no antelopes this side of the Berg river, they 
crossed at a ford near Biebeek's Kasteel and went up into 
the mountains beyond Twenty-four Rivers. There, at & 
place which long afterwards bore the name Moord Euil^ 
they were surrounded by G^nnema's people, who detained 
them for several days and then murdered them all. 



1673] Isbrand Goske. 211 

On the 11th of July a rumour reached the fort that 
the burghers were hemmed in, and the council immediately 
resolved to send out a relief expedition. The freemen 
were called upon to furnish a contingent of thirty-six men,, 
who, with a like ntmiber of soldiers, were placed under 
command of Ensign Hieronymus Cruse. Next morning 
the expedition left the fort, provisioned for eight days,, 
and with orders that if they should find violence had been 
used towards the burghers they were to retahate upon 
Qonnema and his people in such a manner that their 
descendants would be too terrified ever to oflfend Nether- 
landers again. At Captain Kuiper's kraal across the Cape 
flats they found one of Gonnema's people, whom they 
compelled under threat of death to act as guide. Passing 
by Paardeberg and Biebeek's Kasteel they reached the 
Berg river, which they found too deep to be forded, so 
that they were detained until a raft could be made. They 
were resting on the other side when they were joined by 
a party of eighteen horsemen firom the fort, under com- 
mand of the burgher officer Elbert Diemer. 

These brought word that on the 6th of July some of 
Gonnema's people under the petty captain Eees appeared 
at the Company's post at Saldanha Bay, with the appar- 
ent object of selling sheep. The post was occupied at the 
time by only a corporal and two soldiers, but there was. 
a fishing boat belonging to a freeman afloat close by, and 
two of her crew were on shore. Suddenly and without 
any warning the Hottentots rose upon the Europeans 
and murdered four of them, only one soldier managing to 
escape to the boat. The Hottentots then plundered the 
post. The boat sailed for Table Bay, but owing to con- 
trary winds was detained at Jutten and Dassen islands, 
and did not reach her destination until the 14th. Upon 
receipt of this intelligence the council at once despatched 
the horsemen to Ensign Cruse's assistance, and they 
brought instructions to attack Gonnema's people and en- 
deavour to punish them severely, sparing none of the men. 



:ft\^ History of South Africa. [1673 

Th« oombined forces marched across the district of 
Twtmty-foar Bivers, and on the 18th saw smoke rising at 
11 distance among the mountains. They then halted and 
•6ttt oat scouts, who returned in the evening with in- 
formation that they had discovered the position of a kraal 
and had observed a number of women digging bulbs. 
Next morning before daylight Ensign Cruse marched upon 
the kraal in hope of surprising its inmates, but upon 
reaching it he found that they had fled with their cattle. 
The huts were standing and the fires were still alight, 
showing that the place had not been long abandoned. In 
the huts were found the cooking utensils, clothing, and 
other property of the murdered burghers. 

At daybreak the horsemen followed the fugitives and 
soon overtook them, when the Hottentots abandoned their 
cattle and fled into the mountains with their women and 
children. The cattle were then, taken possession of, and 
without any further attempt to reach the enemy the expe- 
dition commenced its homeward march. But they had not 
proceeded far before they discovered that the Hottentots 
were following them. At their first resting-place an 
attempt was made to recover the cattle, and though it 
failed the enemy kept hovering about for some time. The 
casualties during the march were one burgher wounded 
and two horses killed, while ten or twelve Hottentots 
were shot. The expedition reached the fort again on the 
25th, and dehvered to the governor eight hundred head 
of horned cattle and niiie hundred sheep. 

Captains Klaas, Schacher, and Kuiper now tendered 
their services against Gonnema, Klaas especially being 
delighted at the prospect of his enemy's ruin. The others 
commenced scouring the country in search of stragglers. 
On the 20th of August, Schacher and Kuiper with more 
than a hundred of their people appeared again at the 
fort, bringing with them four of Gonnema's followers 
whom they had captured. They dehvered these prisoners 
to the governor, who at once caused them to be tried by 



1673] Isbrand Goske. 213 

a committee of the council acting as a court martial. 
They were found guilty of participation in the murder 
of the burghers, and were thereupon delivered to their 
captors to be put to death after their own manner of exe- 
cution. 

The scene that followed, as described in the documents 
of the time, is highly illustrative of savage life. On the 
open ground in front of the fort the Goringhaiqua and 
Gorachouqua warriors assembled, each with a clubbed 
stick in his hand. Then they commenced a war dance, 
in which they leaped into the air and sprang about, 
chanting and stamping, until they had worked themselves 
into a state of frenzy. Then one would spring forward 
and deal a blow with his stick upon a wretched captive 
lying bound and helpless, at which there would rise a 
general yell of exultation. Another would follow, and 
another, until at length the mangled corpses were dragged 
from the place of execution, and amid a deafening din of 
shouting and yelling and stamping were cast into the 
sea. After this barbarous scene the governor caused a 
quantity of arrack and tobacco to be distributed among 
the warriors, as a reward for their fidelity. 

For several months after this event nothing was heard 
of Gonnema or of his people, and no effort was made to 
search for them, as a strange disease broke out among 
the allies of the Europeans, especially among the followers 
of Captain Elaas. What this disease was is not stated, 
but it is certain that it was not small-pox. Though its 
ravages were not very great, for a short time it kept the 
Hottentots from moving, as they considered it a bad 
omen. Governor Goske, in recording this circumstance, 
adds that before coming into contact with Europeans the 
Hottentots were not subject to any particular fatal mala- 
dies. Many of them attained a very great aga War and 
,ud& ., . jiMOuional famine kept their numbers down, the last kill- 

: outright, but not producing pestilence as it does with 
pettDS. In recent times the same peculiarity has been 



214 History of SatUh Africa. [1674 

observed with the Bantu. There have been periods of 
famine, in which great numbers have perished, but those 
who survived, though reduced to mere skeletons, suffered 
from nothing else than weakness. As soon, however, as 
they come into contact with white men, and particularly 
when they begin to change their food and habits of hving, 
they become subject to diseases from which they were 
before exempt. 

On the 24th of March 1674 Elaas paid a visit to the 
governor, and reported that the sickness had left his 
people. He had sent out spies who brought back infor- 
mation that many of Gonnema's followers were encamped 
«t the Little Berg river, where it issues from the gorge in 
the mountains now called the Tulbagh kloof. It was im- 
mediately resolved to send an expedition against them, for 
which purpose a combined force of soldiers, burghers, and 
Hottentots was made ready. There were fifty burghers 
under command of Wouter Mostert, four hundred Hotten- 
tots under the captains Elaas, Eoopman, Schacher, and 
Euiper, and fifty soldiers under Ensign Cruse, who was 
:also commandant-general of the expedition. The party 
inarched along the line now traversed by the railway, 
passing round Elapmuts, down the Paarl valley, and 
following the base of the mountains to Vogel Vlei. There 
they rested for a few hours, and planned their next march 
so as to surround Gonnema's encampment before day- 
Ught. 

But, as on a former occasion, the people who were to 
be attacked managed to make their escape just in time to 
avoid the onslaught. They left all they possessed behind 
them, and the commando seized without resistance eight 
hundred head of homed cattle and four thousand sheep. 
The Hottentot contingent stripped the huts of everything 
that could be of use to them, and then set fire to what 
remained. Upon arriving at the fort, the spoil was divided 
among the members of the commando. The burghers re- 
ceived three hundred cows and ninety young cattle. Each 



1674] Isbrand Goske. 215 

of the four Hottentot captains received a fair share of 
homed cattle and three hundred sheep in full possession, 
and a loan of three hundred sheep, to be returned when 
required. The honourable Company kept the remainder. 

The same thing happened when the Hottentots were 
driving away their share of the cattle that usually occurs 
with native allies on such occasions. The best of those 
dealt out to the burghers and reserved for the Company 
were whistled away, and if the governor had not taken 
summary proceedings to recover them, the Europeans' 
share of the spoil would have been very trifling indeed. 

Gonnema now adopted a plan which greatly incom- 
moded the Europeans. He retired to the strongholds of 
the first mountain range, and by keeping scouts moving 
up and down he completely cut off the trade in cattle 
with the Hottentots beyond. The clans that were in 
alliance with the white people were unable to supply as 
many slaughter oxen and sheep as were needed, so that 
in a few months the scarcity of meat began to be severely 
felt. The settlement was in a state of blockade, and one 
of the principal objects of its formation was being frus- 
trated. 

Neither side made any further movement until Novem- 
ber 1675, when Gonnema one night surprised the kraals 
of Schacher and Euiper at the Tigerberg, and succeeded 
in killing several of the inmates and driving off most of 
their cattle. As soon as this was reported at the castle a 
strong party of mounted men was sent in pursuit, but the 
Cochoqua chief retreated with his booty so hastily to the 
mountains that only fifteen of his followers who were 
lagging behind were captured. These were instantly put 
to death by Schacher's people. After this occurrence the 
blockade continued as before, and no method either of 
subduing the enemy or of restoring peace could be 
devised. 

Meantime the farm work at Hottentots-Holland was 
pushed on, and a guard of twenty-two men was kept 



2i6 History of South Africa. [1673 

there to protect the establishment. There was no other 
outpost to care for, except the one on Bobben Island, 
where a boat was always in readiness to bring the people 
away in case of an enemy appearing. On the Lion's head 
a good look-out was kept, so as to give due notice when- 
ever a ship approached. Every man that could be spared 
from other occupations was at work upon the castle walls, 
or transporting building material to them. 

In the year 1673 two wrecks occurred upon the south- 
em coast. On the 20th of February the Grundel was 
lost a little to the eastward of Cape Hangklip. She had 
been sent from Batavia to Mauritius with supplies, but 
her skipper was unable to find that island, and so en- 
deavoured to reach Table Bay. All of her hands got 
safely ashore and were taken on board a little vessel 
which happened to be at anchor in False Bay. On the 
23rd of September the homeward bound ship Zoetendal 
was lost a short distance to the north-eastward of Gape 
Agulhas. Four of her crew were drowned, the remainder 
made their way to Hottentots-Holland, and thence to the 
Cape. The name of the ship is still preserved in Zoe- 
tendal's Vlei, close to the scene of the wreck. 

At this time was introduced a system of raising 
revenue by means of farming out certain privileges, a 
system which remained in force as long as the East India 
Company was the governing power in South Africa. In 
principle it was precisely the same as the lease by public 
auction to the highest bidder of the exclusive right to 
gather guano on an island, or of the right to a toll, such 
as is practised at the present day. But by the East 
India Company the system was carried to such an ex- 
treme length that every branch of business that could 
be conducted in the colony was conducted as a monopoly. 
It was the simplest plan to raise a revenue that could 
be adopted, which is all that can be said in its favour. 
That it was not intolerable to the colonists was owing 
entirely to there being a maximum price fixed by law for 



1674] Isbrand Goske. 217 

everjrthing sold. The purchaser of a monopoly for deal- 
ing in salt, for instance, could have oppressed the people 
if he had been at liberty to make what charges he chose, 
but as he was bound to sell at a fixed price he had no 
power to practise extortion. The colonists did not object 
to the system, which seemed to them fair and reason- 
able. It was introduced by the disposal of the privilege 
of selling spirituous liquors, the price at which all such 
liquors were to be purchased for cash at the Company's 
stores as well as the price at which they were to be 
retailed being fixed in the conditions under which the 
monopoly was put up at pubhc auction. In course of 
time the exclusive right to sell wine, beer, tobacco, salt, 
bread, meat, etc., was farmed out in the same manner. 

By the beginning of the winter of 1674 the castle 
was so far advanced as to be considered more capable 
of defence than the old earthen fort. The garrison was 
therefore moved into it, and the walls of the old fort 
were broken down. On the 13th of July a despatch 
vessel, gaily decorated with flags, sailed into Table Bay, 
bringing intelligence that peace had been concluded with 
England. The French naval power hardly gave the Com- 
pany a thought, so there was no longer any necessity for 
extraordinary exertions to complete the castle. From this 
date, therefore, the work was carried on regularly, but 
was not considered of such urgent importance as to 
require a large staff of men to be kept here purposely 
for it. 

On the 29th of July of this year died Eva, the 
Hottentot girl who had been brought up in Mr. Van Rie- 
beek's household, and who was afterwards married to the 
surgeon Van Meerhof. In her, as one reads the records, 
may be traced the characteristics of her race down to our 
own times. In childhood she was apt to learn, readily 
acquired the Dutch and Portuguese languages, adopted 
European customs, professed a belief in Christianity, and 
gave promise of a hfe of usefulness. But no sooner was 



History of South Africa. [1674 

she free from control than she showed an utter absence of 
stability, a want of self-respect and self-reliance, which left 
her exposed to every temptation. 

After Vau Meerhofs death she remained some time 
npOQ Bobben Island, and then requested to be broaght 
over to Table Valley. Here her manner of living attracted 
the attention of the officers of governmeat, and after re- 
peated warnings she was brought to acconnt. She had 
been guilty of drunkenness and other misconduct, had 
more than once gone to live at a Hottentot kraal and 
while there had fallen into filthy practices, and had 
neglected her helpless children. For these offences she 
was sent back to the island, and her children were placed 
under the care of the deacons. But there was no desire 
to be harsh with her, and upon a promise of reformation 
she was again permitted to reside in Table Valley. Then 
the same thing happened as before, and so it continued, 
removal to Eobben Island alternating with short periods 
of scandalous conduct in Table Valley, during the re- 
mainder of her lite. 

The conclusion which Governor Goske arrived at from 
a review of her career was that the hereditary disposition 
of the Hottentots was too unstable to admit of their 
adoption of civilisation otherwise than very slowly and 
gradually. As Eva was the first baptized Hottentot, the 
governor decided that she should have an honourable 
funeral, and the day following her death she was buried 
within the church in the castle. 

Three years after this date a burgher who had been a 
personal friend of Van Meerhof, when removing with hia 
fotmily to Mauritius, requested of the council that he 
might be allowed to take two of the children with him 
aa apprentices. This was agreed to by the council and 
by the church authorities, at whose expense the children 
were being maintained. Formal contracts were entered 
into by which the burgher bound himself to educate them 
kod bring them up in a proper manner, and in which 



1674] Isbrand Goske. 219 

they were placed under the protection of the commander 
of Mauritius. The boy when grown up returned to the 
Cape, but fell into wild habits and died at an early age. 
One of the girls subsequently became the wife of a well- 
to-do Cape farmer. The fate of the others is unknown. 

The duty of supporting destitute orphan children de- 
Yol^^d, as has been seen, upon the deacons. There was a 
fund at their disposal for the purpose of relieving the poor 
of the congregation, out of which all such charges were 
paid. This fund was raised partly by church collections, 
partly by certain fines and fees, and was often augmented 
by donations and bequests. The first person who be- 
queathed money for this purpose to the Cape congregation 
was Commander Wagenaar, but since his death other 
contributions had been received in the same manner. In 
the year 1674 the capital of this fund amounted to rather 
more than a thousand pounds sterling, which was invested 
as loans on mortgage of landed property, bearing interest 
at the rate of six per cent per annum. The collections 
were more than sufficient to meet the current expenses, 
so that the fund was constantly increasing.^ 

For the protection of the rights of children of another 
class, an orphan chamber was at this time estabhshed. 
The necessity for such an institution was apparent from 
the fact that recently several widows had remarried with- 
out previously securing to the children their legitimate 
portion of the property of the deceased parent. It was 
enacted that in future no marriage of a widower or widow, 
whether a servant of the Company or a burgher, could 
take place in the colony without a certificate being first 
obtained from the orphan chamber that the rights of the 
children by the previous marriage were secured. The 
chamber was empowered to invest money belonging to 
orphans, and to collect interest therefor at the rate of six 
per cent per annum. It was constituted guardian of 
^orphans in all cases where none were named by the will 

^In 1679 it was equal to 1,635^., and in 1684 to l,824i. 



History of South Africa. 



[1674 



of the deceased parent, and was authorised to provide for 
the maintecaoce of minors imder its care by a reasonable 
allowance from the property belonging to them. 

The orphan chamber thus created consisted of a presi- 
dent appointed by the governor in council and four mem- 
bers, two of whom were servants of the Company and 
two burgbers. It was provided with a secretary, who 
received payment for his services. The first president 
was Hendrik Crudop, the first secretary Jan Pretorias, 
formerly secunde at Mauritius and now a burgher at the 
Cape. Every year one servant of the Company and one- 
burgher retired, and were succeeded by two new member* 
chosen by the council of pohcy from a list of four names 
presented by the chamber itself. It was thus to some ex- 
tent a self-perpetuating corporation. The large sums of 
money which the orphan chamber had charge of were 
commonly invested on mortgage of landed property, so that 
it served the purpose of a loan bank.' 

'In tha report of the president and members of the board of orphan- 
niMterB prepared in 1824 for the conumasionerB of inquiry sent from Eng- 
land it te stated that the chamber was created in 1691. As authority for 
this statement, reference ia made to tbeir oldest ledger Ibeo in existence, 
nbicb vpiLg comriieoced in that year. They report, however, that the book 
opens with the accounts of twecty-Beven wards whose ioheritaiioes were 
□f an earlier date ; but it does not eeem to have ocourred to them that a. 
new set of hooka began then to bs used, to which previous ledger accoanle 
were transferred. They enter into a series of speculations — aU wide of thr 
muk — as to how these accounts could have arisen, and never once thought 
of referring to the resolutions and debates of the council of policy for a. 
correct explanation. But theirs is by far the best of ail the leporls Bupplied 
to the commitsioners by locsJ boards. Conjecture evarymhere took the- 
plaoe of that long and diligent reaearch in the ancient records of the colony 
whiob alone could hare supplied accurate information. In 1834 the dnties- 
of the orphan chamber were transferred to the master of the supreme- 
couit, and the records of the institution are now in charge of that officer. 
They are of considerable value for historical purposes. After 1699 tha 
board consisted of six memberB, including the president, who was alvn^ 
a government official, and the vice. president, who was always a bnigbw. 
conltDued to be perpetuated as described above. From that da'- 
its instructions were carried out by a secretary, a dork, and >■ 
Since 1711 it has been requirtd by law that all willi ihc 



x674] Isbrand Goske. 221 

Some regulations regarding church matters which were 
made in December 1674 show how complete was the 
control exercised by the council of policy. The church 
council submitted two names for the election of an elder 
in place of the one retiring, but objections were taken 
to both, and fresh nominations were called for. The 
church council was informed that one of the elders should 
be a servant of the Company and the other a burgher, 
and that the officer who held the position of political 
commissioner should not be nominated as an elder. 

Another question which was referred to the council 
of policy for decision had reference to baptism. Some 
Boman catholics had settled in the colony, and though 
they were at Uberty in their own houses to worship God 
in the manner approved by their consciences, they could 
not assemble together for public worship nor have the 
services of their church performed by any clergyman who 
might chance to call in a foreign ship. Under these 
circumstances, one of them requested permission of the 
consistory to have his children baptized in the Beformed 
church, and offered sponsors who were also Boman catho- 
lics. Hereupon the church council expressed its opinion 
that the children should be baptized if other sponsors 
were not forthcoming, but that the parents ought first 
to be admonished to endeavour to procure sponsors of the 
true reformed faith. Before taking action, however, they 
submitted this opinion to the council of policy for ap- 
proval. The council of policy referred them to the in- 
structions concerning baptism which had been received 
from Batavia in the time of Commander Wagenaar, which 
accorded with the view they had taken, and informed 
ibflm that the customs of India were to be observed in 




^tiie reverend Budolphus Meerland was 



% ftoted upon, and since 1746 testament- 
nixed to register inventories of the estates 



222 History of South Africa, [1676 

clergyman of the Cape, having succeeded the reverend 
Adriaan de Voocht on the 12th of February 1674, when 
the last named left for Batavia. 

The return fleet which put into Table Bay early in 
the year 1676 waa under command of Nicolaas Verburg, 
who occupied a position in the Company's service next 
only to the governor-general of the Indies, and who, 
upon his arrival, produced a commission from the Indian 
authorities empowering him to examine into and arrange 
the affairs of the Cape settlement. Mr. Goske had stipu- 
lated when he accepted the appointment of governor that 
no one should act as commissioner here during his stay, 
but he cordially assented to an inspection of the various 
departments of the public service and to the issue of 
instructions for the guidance of his successor. The visit 
of this commissioner had little effect upon the settlement 
one way or other, but a petition which was presented to 
him in the name of the whole body of freemen by the 
burgher councillors, who had been increased in 1675 to 
three in number, is deserving of mention, as showing 
their view of the laws and regulations under which they 
were hving. 

In this petition the burghers enumerated their griev- 
ances and asked for redress. Their first request was that 
some cattle which had been taken from Gk)nnema and 
lent to them might be given to them in fuU possession. 
Next that they might be allowed to sell wine, grain, and 
fruit to any one at the best price which they could ob- 
tain, upon payment of such taxes as might be considered 
proper. That they might be allowed the same rights of 
trade in merchandise as the freemen enjoyed in Batavia. 
That those among them who had no ground might have 
freehold farms assigned to them at Hottentots-Holland, 
and might be supplied with cattle on lease. And, lastly, 
that for the comfort of those who were poor, rice should 
be sold out of the Company's stores at reduced rates. 

These requests were forwarded to the directors for 



1676] Isbrtsaui Ooske^ 22 



o 



ooQsideraticm, as Cammisaooer Yeriyorg did not cdioose 
to incar the rapcmfatalhy d ^p^nifn^^ iipoii them. In 
oouise of tin^ the first leqfoest was folhr acodded to, the 
secx^nd, third, aiid fomth were ptiiiy gruited, and the 
fifth wms lefosed. The CcHnpanj, it was asserted, in- 
tended to disocmtinue the iniportati<m of rice as soon 
as possiUe, and to reduce its cost woold discourage the 
cohiTation of wheat and thus fmstrate <Hie of the most 
important objects kqpt in view. 

Daring the last three years the officers at the head of 
the several departments had been entirely r^aced The 
seconde Albert van Brengel had been charged by the 
governed with inattention to his duties, and though upon 
investigation of the matter the Batavian authorities ac- 
quitted him of carelessness, he was removed from the 
post Hendrik Crudop, now advanced to the rank of mer* 
chant, was appointed secunde in his stead. The fiscal De 
Neyn had gone to Batavia in October 1674 The explorer 
Hieronymas Cruse had climbed the ladder of promotion 
in the army, and was now a lieutenant The council 
of policy consisted of the governor, the secunde Hendrik 
Crudop, the captain Dirk Smient, the lieutenant Hierony- 
mus Cruse, the treasurer Anthonie de Vogel, and the chief 
salesman Marthinus van Banchem, the last named being 
also the secretary. 

In 1671, when the Company was making preparations 
for the defence of its Indian possessions, the island of 
Mauritius was raised from being a dependency of the 
Cape to a separate seat of government, and Mr. Hubert 
Hugo, an officer of some note, was appointed commander. 
But after the conclusion of peace with England the island 
was reduced again to its old position. It was at this time 
of very Uttle advantage to the Company, as except a httle 
ebony, which was brought back to the Cape every year in 
the despatch packet, it exported nothing. Very few ships 
called there for supplies. A few burghers and a garrison 
of thirty or forty men were its only inhabitants. So de- 



224 History of South Africa. [1676 

pendent were its authorities that they could not even 
carry their sentences into execution, unless in cases of 
extreme urgency, until they were reviewed by the court 
of justice at the Cape. 

The government of Mr. Goske is associated with the 
building of the castle and the establishment of an out- 
station and farm at Hottentots-Holland, but with little 
else of interest now. He had no opportunity to originate 
any improvements. He kept the large garden in Table 
Valley in order by means of slave labour, bat to obtain 
ten or twelve men to work on the castle he leased the 
vineyard and garden Bustenburg, at Bondebosch, to free- 
men, retaining only the lodge there for his own use. 
With a like view he leased the com mill to a burgher. 
One experiment, indeed, he made, which his predecessors 
do not appear to have thought of. He caused oysters to 
be brought froni the south coast and deposited in Table 
Bay with a view to their propagation in a convenient 
place. The experiment was twice made, and on each 
occasion it failed. The fiGLrmers increased very slightly in 
number during his administration. Only five new names 
of burghers whose descendants are now in South Africa 
are found in the records of his time: Jan Pretorius, two 
brothers Hendrik and Ockert Olivier, Hendrik Smidt, and 
Gerrit Visser, the last named being a younger brother of 
Jan Coenraad Visser already mentioned. Immigration, 
owing to the war, had ceased, and no one who could be 
kept in the service was permitted to leave it. 

Governor Goske was sent to the Cape for a particular 
purpose, namely, to hold it for the Netherlands at a time 
of great peril. That time wa>s now past. Peace had been 
made with England, the only naval power capable of in- 
juring the States, and, in addition, a special treaty had 
been entered into (18th of March 1674) by the two East 
India Companies, in which each engaged to ptt«««*» **»• 
honour and profit of the other. There waf> 
to retain here any longer an officer of 



1676] Johan Box. 225 

and ability, more especially as he reminded the directors 
of their engagement to relieve him at an early date, and 
requested permission to return to Europe. 

In November 1674 the assembly of seventeen appointed 
Johan Bax, the second officer in rank at \ the island of 
Ceylon, to succeed Mr. Goske as governor of the Cape, 
but without the additional title of councillor extraordinary 
of India. At the same time they complimented the out- 
going governor very highly upon his administration, and 
issued directions that he was to supersede any officer of 
lower rank who might be returning to Europe as admiral 
of a fleet. The new governor embarked at Galle in the 
Voorhouty and arrived in Simon'^s Bay on the 1st of 
January 1676. Two days later he took part in the de- 
hberations of the council at the Cape, bat as no ships 
were then leaving for Europe Mr. Goske retained the 
direction of affairs until the 14th of March, on which 
day Governor Johan Bax was installed with the usual 
ceremony. 

The Netherlands were still at war with France, but 
as no fear was entertained of an attack upon the Cape 
by a hostile fleet, the attention of the authorities could 
be directed to some other object than the completion of 
the castle. The settlement was still in a condition of 
blockade, inasmuch as Hottentots from beyond the first 
range of mountains could not bring cattle to the fort for 
sale, through fear of being intercepted by the Cochoquas. 
The farmers at Eondebosch and Wynberg were pressing 
their claims for protection, and it was necessary to do 
something to allay their apprehensions of Gonnema mak- 
ing such a raid upon them as he had recently made upon 
the people of Schacher and Euiper at the Tigerberg. In 
the open field they felt confident that the whole Cocho- 
qua tribe would not dare to attack them, but their cattle 
might easily be swept off and their houses be burnt by a 
Iden foray on a dark night. To prevent such a disaster 
redoubts Eyk uit and Eeert de Eoe, which had long 

tL.L 15 



226 History of South Africa. [1676 

since fallen into decay, were now rebuilt with stone, and 
parties of horsemen were stationed in them for the par- 
pose of patrolhng along the ontermost faims. 

A few days after Governor Bax assumed office intelli- 
gence reached the castle from Hottentots-Holland that 
three burghers, who were so foolhardy as to venture 
across the mountains, bad been mardered by Bushmen 
at the Breede river, where they were shooting seacows, 
Upon the evidence of Captain Klaas and of a European 
who escaped from the massacre, these Bushmen were 
termed dependents of Gonnema, and the murder was set 
down as a charge to his account. But it is by no means 
certain that he had anything to do with the matter. 

"When the Dutch came to South Africa they found a 
nomadic pastoral people living in separate small com- 
munities, each community or clan having a name by 
which it was distinguished from the others. A group of 
two, three, or more such clans formed a tribe, nominally 
under one paramount chief, but the bond of cohesion 
among the members was so weak that there were frequent 
feuds among them. The tribes, or groups of clans having 
a recent common origin, were usually at war or watching 
their neighbours with suspicious eyes. This was the high- 
est form of society known to the natives. Sometimes a 
clan which had lost its cattle would be reduced to such 
circumstances as those in which the beachrangers were 
found on the shores of Table and Saldanha bays, but 
there was always a posaibihty for people in this state to 
regain their former position. There was no race prejudice 
to prevent their amalgamation with other clans of their 
own tribe, to whom they bore the same relationship that 
the poor bear to the rich in all countries. 

But wherever the Europeans penetrated they found a 
class of people whose homes were among almost inacces- 
sible mountains, and who maintained themselves entirely 
by the chase and by plunder. That these people were of 
a different race from the herdsmen was not even sua- 



1676] Johan Box, 227 

pected by the Dutch, who believed them to be simply 
Hottentot robbers or brigands who had thrown off all the 
restraints of law.^ There are peculiarities in the personal 
appearance of Bushmen — such as the greater breadth of 
the upper paxt of their faces, the absence of projecting- 
chins, and the want of lobes to the ears — which enable 
men like the late Dr. Bleek to pronounce unfailingly, at 
first sight, and before a word has been spoken, as to their 
nationahty; and scientific examination into the structure 
of their language has shown them to be a people far 
removed in point of relationship firom the other races of 
South Africa, but the Europeans who first came into 
contact with them did not detect these differences. Very 
likely a party of Afghans, if transported to Ireland without 
any previous knowledge of the country and its people, 
would be a long time in making the discovery that the 
Saxon speaking English and the Celt speaking Irish were 
not closely related in blood. To them the Celt would be 
undistinguishable from the Saxon. And this was precisely 
the position that the Bushmen and the Hottentots stood 
in to the Dutch of the seventeenth century. 

The Hottentots called the Bushmen Sana, a title dis- 
tinguishing them as a distinct race from their own, but 
spoke of them usually as Hobiqua, or robbers and mur- 
derers. They seldom spared any who fell into their hands* 
Still, necessity had in some instances brought about an 
arrangement by which parties of Bushmen were either 
in alUance with Hottentot clans or were in a condition 
of dependence upon them, serving as scouts and spies 
and receiving in return a precarious protection.* The 

^ The first notice of any one having formed an opinion that the Hottentots 
and Bushmen were distinct races does not occur until more than ten years- 
after this date. The word race is here used in the same signification as- 
when speaking of a Celtic race as distinguished from a Teutonic. 

3 This is the case with regard to the Bushmen along the eastern, 
margin of the Kalahari and the Betshuana clans in that country to the 
present day. All the natives of South Africa have distinct race names for 
Hottentots and Bushmen. The Kaffirs on the frontier of the Cape Colony 
call the Hottentots Amalawo, and the Bushmen Abatwa. 



aa8 History of South Africa. [1676 

Hottentot ohiafa without exoeption denied that they had 
imy right or meana of control over the Bushmen in their 
neighbourhood. The European authorities frequently called 
upon them to preserve order in the districts in which they 
were reaiding by suppressing the brigandage of their sub- 
jeota» but their reply was always to the effect that the 
robbers were not their subjects, and that they would cheer- 
fully exterminate them if they could. 

It is thus unlikely that Qonnema had anything to do 
with the mut>)er of the burghers by the Bushmen. The 
CH>\mci) decided to s^nd an eaqpediticod against the mur- 
derev^ foor which purpose a commando was ai^embled 
co^aikiug of fifty foc4-«oldiefs and tw»ity-thiee horse- 
u^e«u fifty bwtighets^ under Woat^ Mo6tart» and a large 
btia^ ol Holtetttot^ under the Mptais^ Elaas». Koopman, 
$wiiacher> Kuiperx and Soofioou The commaoido was pco- 
YiFiiiOiMd (;« thtei^ w^^<^:s,. aad was luider tibe gaiosl 
Oir^teir^^ ol Lfeimlenaat Oraig^ Sqocl after set&big oot^ a 
^unuei^SiNr wW w^ bueii to W a spy was se£z»d acui com.- 
^tb^ 1^ ad %$ ^Wnle^ b<xt as hie teii 1^ esqseiitfizcm to 
^tttii^ ab««tjJk>i3(!i^i kraals^ hit^ w«$ boaoKfed ovi«^ to C^taizt 
KtitMK^ wt)t>> ^ hmt to dmii^ Thi^ Bu^miHi GoaLi net 
W tst><m^ ami after a wettriscixr!^ march tt&$ commando 
i^Ktirujti^ t^ 1^ vMsdi» withoat having eifi>cteii anything. 

$tx m»ntiu)i$^ aSter thii$ a ^cty capoun* wtio was caQeii 
%r%>^ by Mtt«^ Pttfitnu carns^ taumi d[!Qm Saltrmifra Bay in a 
:$maU ^tt^t^iS^ thrimigtn^ tc^ a &eemaa« ami tsteidta:^ his sias 
^uctN" Qt^ liA^ tor v^knm^ma. Cm£ffit ni^fiHiim Jt nmca^Bng 
oactie ^^ mat): was aimt auc ^s a spy. md recocitid wim 
miiormaaim tjtafi: db^ tm^ny was ^xcaoipeu or ism Su^u> 
iM:^;!kttr amy a viay^ maodu cnmmii di* S^ci rr^Tic Be^ 
hitia w^c^ :iw Xamaqoas imi dw Gcgnuaas> iifrwiitary 
tHi«miit)$^ ^ dM Coc2iu%{ixa£^ » 'iua£ ^seaue ji zhar ^r«9c- 

£{»irtm(iou a Ju:^ ^:uiumaoim ':vas jisiHnbieiL .uid onufst 
^dauc^ :k iai»H> letit :ite Cape or ^speetacuu it i«ung: 
aiM :u >uf^ttsje vjonmrnia. ^mi xr oomsi ami ^vcudchv. 



1677] Johan Box, 229 

The expedition marched only at night, and took every 
precaution to avoid detection, but by some means the 
enemy became aware of its approach and escaped in good 
time. Foiled in its principal object, the commando then 
made a detour to Saldanha Bay, and fell upon Captain 
Kees, who had destroyed the Company's post there three 
years before. Several of his followers were killed, and 
the whole of his stock, which consisted of one hundred 
and sixty-five head of homed cattle and thirty sheep, was 
seized. The booty taken on this occasion being so small, 
the Hottentot allies were rewarded for their fidelity by 
presents of such articles as they most desired out of the 
Company's stores. 

This was the last expedition sent out during the war 
with Gonnema, which for four years kept the country in 
a disturbed condition. On the 8th of June 1677 Euiper 
and another petty captain appeared at the castle accom- 
panied by some messengers from the Cochoqua chief, 
who reported that their mission was to ascertain if peace 
could not be established. They were persons of no rank, 
and brought no peace offerings, having merely been sent 
to make inquiries. They asserted that if the prospects 
were favourable it was Gonnema's intention to visit the 
governor, and thereafter to trade in friendship with the 
Europeans. He and his people had become weary of 
living like Bushmen in the mountains, always on the 
alert against attack. 

The council hereupon decided to let the messengers 
know that the overture was agreeable, and that if the 
Cochoquas would send a more respectable deputation to 
make due submission to the honourable Company, the 
government was prepared to enter into a firm peace, in 
which, however, the allies Of the Europeans must also be 
included. A safe conduct to hold good for three months 
was given to the messengers, and a small present was 
sent to Gonnema as coming from Lieutenant Cruse. 

On the 24tb the same messengers returned to the 



230 History of South Africa. \}^11 

tsastle, bringing with them a present of nine head of 
cattle, and accompanied by three men of position, named 
Nengae, Harru, and Nuguma, who were empowered to 
ask for peace. The ambassadors with their followers 
were admitted to the council chamber, the bmrgher coun- 
cillors and the chief officer of the militia being present 
also. There the conditions, which were purposely em- 
bodied in a few short clauses, were interpreted and ex- 
plained to them, and to these they signified their assent 
by a general exclamation of ' Sam ! sam I ' or ' Peace I 
peace!' They were as follow: — 

In the first place the ambassadors request forgiveness 
for the acts which occasioned the war, and ask that a 
friendly intercourse may be established as before. 

They offer and promise to deUver as tribute thirty 
head of cattle upon the arrival of the first return fleet in 
-every year. 

They promise to punish their people in the same 
manner as the honourable Company does.^ 

They promise not to wage war against any of the 
lionourable Companj^s allies without the knowledge of the 
government. 

In this peace are included the captains Euiper and 
Schacher, also the petty captain Eees, and all who are 
subject to Gonnema, Schacher, and Kuiper. 

The above conditions having been placed on record 
with the signatures of the officials and the marks of the 
envoys attached, presents were made to each of the 
Hottentots, and a good quantity of tobacco, pipes, beads, 
etc., was sent to Gonnema in return for the nine head of 
cattle. And so the country was restored to a state of 
tranquillity again. 

^This clause would seem to be somewhat obscure, but subsequent 
transactions show that it was intended to mean that the Cochoquas 
should regard certain offences, particularly thefts of stock, as crimes of 
magnitude to be punished severely, and not to be lightly passed over as 
had been their custom. 



1677] Johan Box. 231 

The war with j;he Cochoquas, though in itself a petty 
matter, had very important effects upon the European 
settlement. The Company had learned from it that the 
supply of cattle from the Hottentots was precarious, that 
at any time the hostile action of a single clan might cut 
off access to the tribes beyond and prevent the barter 
which furnished the garrison and ships with meat. The 
establishment in Table Valley was too expensive to be 
kept up merely for the purpose of providing vegetables for 
the crews of the Indian fleets. It was necessary therefore 
to increase the number of colonists, and to induce some 
of them to turn their attention to cattle breeding, so that 
the danger of being left without animal food might be 
averted. Hitherto the burghers were regarded as being 
useful chiefly in furnishing poultry, eggs, vegetables, fruit, 
and grain when required, and the Hottentots were mainly 
relied upon to meet the other pressing need : henceforth 
a larger field of industry was placed before Europeans, 
and a system of colonisation was encouraged which when 
fairly entered upon tended to the rapid expansion of the 
settlement. 

Notwithstanding the strict regulations that had from 
time to time been enacted prohibiting trade between the 
burghers and the Hottentots, it had not been prevented. 
It was now discovered that the forbidden traffic was being 
carried on to a large extent, and laws even more severe 
than the old ones were therefore issued and enforced. It 
was made a capital offence to furnish a Hottentot with 
firearms or any kind of munitions of war. Two guns 
that had been bartered by farmers to Hottentots for cattle 
were recovered with great difficulty and at considerable 
expense. It was made a penal offence to pay natives for 
labour in money, because they did not know the value of 
it, and rated their services altogether too dear, or in half- 
breed sheep, because robberies could not be traced if they 
were in possession of such animals. One of the reasons 
assigned for desiring to prevent traffic between the two 



232 History of South Africa. [1677 

races was the fear of the govermnent that the ftunners 
might impmdently commit some act which would lead 
to serious difficulties. No doubt there was good cause for 
such fear. There are instances on record of some lawless 
deeds committed in Commander Borghorst's days, and at 
this time there was a case which was giving no little 
trouble. 

In the year 1672 a lawless character named Willem 
Willems deliberately shot a Hottentot upon very sUght 
provocation, and then escaped to Europe in a Danish 
ship. Soon affcer his arrival in Holland, he presented 
himself before the prince of Orange, and by means of 
false representations procured a safe conduct to return to 
this country, where he had a family and some property. 
Upon making his appearance here again, the council felt 
itself bound to respect the safe conduct, but as the 
Hottentots far and wide clamoured for justice, the crimi- 
nal was placed upon Bobben Island until instructions 
could be received from the directors. A close investiga- 
tion into the particulars of the homicide was made, and 
the evidence was sent to Europe. In course of time in- 
structions came back to send Willems with his family to 
Mauritius, but his wife, who in the meantime had been 
causing a great deal of trouble by her misconduct, objected 
to this scheme, and some delay took placa Eventually 
the family was deported to Batavia, but as they returned 
again to the Cape they were banished to Mauritius and 
not permitted afterwards to leave that island. 

Another reason for prohibiting the burghers from trad- 
ing with the Hottentots was to keep down the price of 
cattle. In this traffic the Company could not permit its 
niibjectR to become its rivals. The government was anxi- 
ous that the farmers should be in possession of large herds 
atid flocks, and it not only supplied them with stock at 
rat^m very little above cost price, but it hired breeding 
oowN and ewes to them on equal shares of the increase. It 
oven promised that if they would bring to its stores any 



1677] Johan Box. 233 

Hottentots who might come to them with anything for 
sale, they might purchase it again out of the stores at 
exactly cost price. Offering these inducements to obedi- 
ence, it prohibited the purchase of cattle by a burgher 
from a Hottentot under penalty of severe corporal punish- 
ment, and the purchase of any other merchandise, such 
as ivory, ostrich feathers, peltries, etc., under penalty of 
a fine of 4/. and such other punishment as the court of 
justice might deem proper to inflict. To protect its cattle 
trade, the Hottentot captains who were under the influ- 
ence of the government were required not to purchase 
from those farther inland, under pain of being considered 
unfriendly. 

All these restrictions, combined with police regula- 
tions for searching waggons passing the barrier beyond 
the castle and the watch-house Eeert de Eoe, as well 
as frequent inspection of the kraals of the farmers, could 
not entirely suppress the forbidden traffic. That these 
severe regulations produced no remonstrance from the 
burghers shows how different were the opinions then 
held from those of the present day. There was never a 
people more unwilling than the Dutch to keep silent 
when they felt themselves aggrieved. They never scrupled 
to raise their voices and claim what they believed to be 
their rights whenever they thought they were oppressed. 
But in this case they did not consider that their privi- 
leges had been invaded. 

A quarter of a century had now elapsed since the 
arrival of the Europeans, during which time the habits 
of the natives living permanently in the Cape peninsula 
seem to have undergone very little change. They had 
increased considerably in number, and had a kraal in 
Table Valley, on the upper side of the present Hottentot- 
square, but in general they were to be found lounging 
about the houses of the burghers. The men could not 
be induced to do Any other work than tend cattle, but 
the women gathered fuel for sale, and the young girls 



234 History of South Africa, [1678 

were mostly in service. They were dressed in sheepskins 
and cast-off European clothing, and depended for food 
principally upon supplies of rice obtained in return for 
such service as they performed. They had become 
passionately fond of arrack and tobacco. 

Early in 1678 there was such a scarcity of rice in the 
settlement that the burghers were compelled to dis- 
charge their dependents, and as these were no longer 
able to live as their ancestors had done, they were driven 
by hunger to seize sheep and even to plunder the houses 
of the Europeans in open day. Just at that time a 
party of Bushmen took up their abode in the mountains 
at the back of Wynberg and descended at night upon the 
kraals of the farmers. In great alarm the burghers ap- 
pealed to the council for protection, and measures were 
promptly adopted to suppress the disorder. There was 
a large supply of ships' biscuits in the magazines, and it 
was resolved to sell these at a very cheap rate to the 
burghers, so that they might again employ and feed the 
Hottentots. Food was to be offered in payment to all 
who would work at the moat which was then being 
made round the castle. The country was to be patrolled 
night and day by horsemen. Eewards were offered for 
the apprehension of robbers. Schacher and Kuiper were 
0ent for, and upon their arrival at the castle were in- 
formed that they would be detained as prisoners until 
their followers brought in such of the robbers as were 
known to be their people. These were accordingly cap- 
tured and delivered over without delay, when with some 
others they were transported to Eobben Island. 

These captains subsequently captured five of the Bush- 
men, whom they brought to the castle and delivered to 
the governor, requesting that the prisoners might either 
be punished by the Europeans or be given back to them 
to be put to death. The council decided that as their 
crimes had been committed against the honourable Com- 
pany, they should be tried by the court of justice. A 



1676] Johan Box. 235 

present of goods to the value of hi. was made to the 
captains in return for their faithful services, and to en- 
courage them to search for such of the brigands as were 
still at liberty. The prisoners were tried by the court of 
justice, were sentenced to death as highwaymen, and were 
executed. 

The principles upon which the government dealt with 
the natives were that the European power was supreme, 
entitled to take cognisance of all cases between whites and 
Hottentots, and to settle all differences between the clans 
so as to preserve peace and to secure its own interests, but 
it rarely interfered in matters affecting natives only. The 
Hottentot captains accepted without murmur the posi- 
tions assigned to them, and at this time Klaas, Eoopman, 
Oedasoa, Gonnema, Schacher, Kuiper, and the others were 
on such good terms with Governor Bax that they were 
ready to do whatever he wished. A large cattle trade 
was carried on with them and the Hessequas. Occasion- 
ally there were cases of violence on one side or the other, 
and in one instance two Hottentots were shot in a 
quarrel with the Company's hunters, but the government 
did all that was in its power to prevent such disturb- 
ances, and upon the whole succeeded very well. 

In 1676 a matrimonial court was estabUshed. It con- 
sisted of four commissioners, two being servants of the 
Company and two burghers. Half the members retired 
yearly, and their places were supplied by election of the 
council of pohcy from a double hst furnished by the 
court itself. Before these commissioners all persons in- 
tending to marry were obliged to appear, for the purpose 
of showing that no legal impediment existed. As long 
as the frontier was only a few miles distant this was no 
hardship to any one, but with the extension of the colony 
it came to be felt as oppressive. 

The slave population was at this time considerably 
increased by importations from Madagascar and Ceylon. 
Most of these slaves were men, but there were a few 



236 History of South Africa. [1677 

women and children among them. The children were 
sent to school, but it was resolved not to baptize them 
until their parents should be instructed in Christianity, 
when all could be baptized at the same time. A person 
was employed to recite prayers morning and evening, 
which the adults were required to repeat. Some of the 
cleverest youths were selected and placed with master 
mechanics to be taught trades, so that they might be- 
come more useful. The price charged by the Company 
to the burghers for an adult slave was equal to six 
pounds sterling, barely the cost of introduction, and it 
could be paid in thirteen hundred pounds weight of 
wheat. 

In January 1677 a little yacht named the Bode was 
sent along the west coast to examine it carefully, to as- 
certain how far the Hottentot race extended, and to- 
endeavour to discover the island of St. Helena Nova. 
She was accompanied by a cutter drawing very Uttle 
water and therefore adapted to run close inshore. The 
Bode went as far as latitude 12'' 47' S., where she found a 
small Portuguese fort named Sombreiro. Some distance 
to the southward the last Hottentots had been seen, but 
the line of demarcation between them and the negro 
tribes could not be exactly ascertained. The Portuguese 
knew nothing whatever of such an island as St. Helena 
Kova, and from this date its existence was held to be a 
fiction. Along the coast various bays or bights were dis- 
covered, but all were found wanting in fresh water and 
fuel. It is surprising that the mouth of the Orange river 
was not noticed in passing. The Bodt returned to Table 
Bay at the end of May, having been rather more than 
four months engaged in the survey of the west coast. 

The seaboard of the district now called Zululand was 
at this time carefully examined by the Voorhovi and 
Quartel, two small vessels that were sent to the bay of 
St. Augustine to trade for slaves. 

As the work at the castle was proceeding very slowly 



1678] Johan Box. 237 

owing to the small number of labourers engaged, a plan 
which seems somewhat whimsical was adopted to expedite 
the excavation of the moat. On the 25th of November 
1677 the governor himself, his lady, his little son, all the 
Company's officers and their wives, the burgher councillors, 
and other leading inhabitants with their wives, set to 
work for a considerable time carrying out earth. The 
governor carried out twelve baskets full and his lady six. 
After this a regulation was made that every one who 
passed the castle, male or female, irrespective of rank, 
should contribute labour to the same extent. 

The little wooden church inside the fortress was now 
quite full of graves. The ground on which it stood was 
higher than the general surface, and it was considered 
advisable to level it and to remove the building. It was 
therefore necessary to select a site for a new church, and 
for this purpose a portion of the lower end of the great 
garden was chosen, as the garden could be extended with 
advantage towards the mountain. A plot of ground suf- 
ficiently large for a cemetery was enclosed with a strong 
wall, and on the 9th of April 1678 the foundation stone 
of a church was laid in the centre of it. 

The edifice was not completed until December 1703, 
but the ground was used as a cemetery. The first inter- 
ment in it was the body of the reverend Petrus Hulse- 
naar, who upon the removal of Mr. Meerland to Batavia 
in Maxch 1676 succeeded him as clergyman of the Cape, 
and who died on the 15th of December 1677. He was 
buried in the middle of the site on which the church was 
afterwards to stand. Subsequently the remains of those 
who had been interred beneath the old building were re- 
moved to this ground and deposited in a common grave. 
A fee of five pounds was thereafter made payable to the 
funds of the consistory for a grave inside the church, and 
eight shillings for one outside. 

The project of settling European cattle breeders on the 
tract of land which stretches beyond the Cape flats firom 



238 History of South Africa, [167S 

the Atlantic shore to the first range of mountains had 
been under consideration since the war with Gonnema, 
but it was difficult for the Company to carry it into 
effect. Where were the men who were to be turned into 
cattle breeders to come from? The free Netherland pro- 
vinces were occupying stations in the Indian islands and 
carrying on an ocean conmierce that required a number 
of soldiers and sailors altogether beyond the capability of 
their own people to supply, and though many hundreds 
of young Germans, Swiss, and Scandinavians took service 
yearly with the East and West India companies, they 
were not usually the sort of men to make good pioneer 
colonists. They came chiefly from towns, and — the Ger- 
mans especially — ^were better adapted for mechanical work 
and mihtary employment than for either agricultural or 
pastoral pursuits. Many of them, indeed, as well as many 
Dutch seamen were willing to make an experiment in 
farming, but experience had proved that such experiments 
were costly. The Company had to provide them with 
food, live stock, and implements to commence with, and 
after failure in more than nine cases out of ten had to 
take them back into service in its strongholds and fleets 
with debts that could never be paid. In some instances 
discharged men had turned out so badly that after re- 
peated warnings it had been necessary to place them by 
force on board ship and send them to India. A few, 
more industrious and more prudent than the others, were 
left; by this kind of selection ; but the cost of estabUshing 
a colony in this manner was not to be lightly regarded. 

Still there was no other way of obtaining cattle 
breeders and gardeners, for the number of suitable persons 
that could be induced to emigrate from the Netherlands 
to South Africa was too small to be taken into account. 
The best that could be done was to exercise great care 
in releasing from service only those men who appeared 
likely to be able to get a living as burghers. These were 
chiefly either married men of Dutch birth or foreigners 



1678] Johan Box. 239 

who had married Dutch women, though single men were 
often discharged for the purpose of taking service with 
farmers. 

It needed no small amount of courage for any one to 
hazard living beyond the Cape peninsula at this time, as 
— except in two localities — he would be secluded from 
companionship and exposed to the depredations of the 
natives. To men provided with no better weapons than 
the firelocks and flint muskets of those days, the wild 
animals with which the country swarmed were also a 
source of danger as well as of heavy loss. In a single 
night at one of the Company's cattle kraals no fewer 
than a hundred and twenty sheep were destroyed by 
lions and hyenas. There was, however, the outpost at 
Hottentots-HoUand, where com was cultivated, and a 
station at the Tigerberg, where a party of soldiers guarded 
the cattle kept for the use of the fleets, so that in their 
neighbourhood graziers would feel they were not alto- 
gether secluded from the society of their kind. 

In January 1678 a beginning was made. The govern- 
ment arranged with two men named Jochem Marquaart 
and Hendrik Elberts for the lease of a tract of land at 
Hottentots-Holland with stock of homed cattle and sheep, 
and they became the pioneer graziers of South Africa. 
They were followed in February by two others named 
Henning Huising and Nicolaas Gerrits, who established 
themselves as sheep farmers on the adjoining land, and in 
August by another named Cornelis Botma, who also set 
up as a sheep farmer. These were the. only freemen who 
settled beyond the isthmus at this period, so small was 
the first ripple of that wave of European colonisation 
which now after the lapse of little more than two cen- 
turies is flowing into territories drained by the Zambesi. 

It has been mentioned already that the servants of 
the Company, including the ofl&cers of ships, were per- 
mitted to trade for themselves to a small extent. They 
brought various articles to the Cape, which they sold 



240 History of South Africa. [1678 

either to the privileged dealers or the burghers generally, 
under supervision of the council. This trade was found 
to interfere with the Company's sales, and therefore in 
1678 it was resolved to levy duties upon it equivalent to 
the loss sustained. As this is the first tariff of customs 
duties levied here, and as it shows some of the articles 
in which private trade was carried on, the Ust is given 
in full: — ^For a keg of brandy 33s. 4(2., a keg of arrack 
16s. 8(2., a half aam of Ehenish wine 33s. 4e2., a half aam 
of French wine 25s., a cask of mum 25s., a pound 
of tobacco Is. 4(2., a gross of pipes 2s. 6(2., a thousand 
pounds of rice 20s. 8(2., a canister of sugar 4s. 2(2. 

On the 4th of January 1678 died Joan Maatsuyker, 
governor-general of Netherlands India during the preced- 
ing quarter of a century. He was succeeded by Eyklof 
van Goens the elder, who has been mentioned several 
times in connection with Cape affairs. 

Governor Bax was in robust health previous to the 
winter of 1678, when he caught a severe cold which 
settled upon his lungs and completely prostrated him. 
He was confined to his bed for fifteen days before his 
death, which took place on the morning of the 29th of 
June. Just before his decease he gave instructions for 
carrying on the government, and appointed the secunde 
Hendrik Crudop to succeed him, with the title of acting 
commander, until the pleasure of the authorities at Ba- 
tavia or in the Netherlands should become known. 

On the 4th of July his remains were laid with as 
much state as possible in the ground where the new 
church was to stand. It was a dark and rainy day, but 
all the Europeans in the settlement attended, as did also 
several Hottentot captains and their chief men, for the 
late governor had been esteemed by whites and natives 
alike. A neat slab was afterwards brought from Eobben 
Island and laid over the grave, but it has long since dis- 
appeared. 

During the administration of Mr. Crudop very little 



1679] Hendrik Crudop. 241 

occurred that calls for mention. It was a time of peace, 
there was no important work in hand, and nothing new 
conld well be midertaken. 

For ten months after the death of the reverend Petms 
Hulsenaar there was no resident clergyman at the Cape. 
Services were occasionally held by the chaplains of ships, 
and a sermon was read every Smiday and on special 
occasions by the sick-comforter, just as in the early days 
of the settlement. On the 18th of October 1678 the ship 
Wwpen van Alkmaar arrived with a chaplain named Johan- 
nes Overney on board, and as he consented to remain 
here the council appointed him acting clergyman until the 
pleasure of the supreme authorities should be known. He 
was afterwards confirmed in the appointment, and re- 
mained at the Cape for several years. 

On the 10th of February 1679 intelligence was re- 
ceived of the conclusion of peace between France and the 
Netherlands. This was followed by another reduction of 
the garrison at the Cape, and by the release of all the 
European labourers employed on the castle. The com- 
pletion of the moat was the only work of importance that 
then remained, and that could be performed by slaves at 
a trifling expense to the Company. 

On the 26th of April the council resolved to name 
the five points of the castle in honour of the stadtholder. 
The one first built — that near the shore of the bay on 
the side towards the Lion's rump — was named Buren, 
the next — that near the shore of the bay on the side to- 
wards Salt Eiver — ^was named Nassau, keeping round in 
the same direction the third was named Catzenellenbogen, 
the fourth Oranje, and the fifth Leerdam. Within the 
massive walls there were residences for the officers of 
government, storehouses for grain and wine, barracks for 
soldiers, and apartments for the transaction of public busi- 
ness. It was the head quarters of civilisation in South 
Africa. Of ornamentation it had Uttle, but above the en- 
trance, which was between the bastions Buren and Leer- 

VOL. I. 16 



L 



242 History of South Africa. [1679 

dam, were the arms of the six cities in which the 
chambers were established, with the monogram ol the 
Company on either aide, and over all the lion ot the 
Netherlands, carved in stone. The archway was also sur- 
mounted with a neat bell turret. 

In Angust 1679 permission waa given to Henning 
Huising and his partner to graze their sheep along the 
Eerste river, provided they could satisfy the Hottentots 
who generally used the pasture there, and so prevent ill 
feeling. At the same time the burghers Pieter Visagie 
and Jan Mostert obtained leave to occupy a tract of land 
on the eastern side of the Tigerberg, the place where the 
Company usually gathered its hay. The tenure upon 
which the seven burghers who were now residing beyond 
the isthmus held the ground they were using was merely 
a license of occupation, and they were not required to 
pay rent. The country, in fact, was before them to 
select the pastures that would best suit their flocks and 
herds, and everything that the government could do to 
encourage and assist them was done. It was different in 
the neighbourhood of the castle, because there agriculture 
was the chief industry, and on that account the plots of 
land that were occupied by burghers at Kondebosch and 
Wynberg were defined by survey, and were held in free- 
hold, or in full property as the tenure was termed in 
those days. 

During the time that Mr, Bax was governor two or 
three families of immigrants and several women whose 
husbands were already here arrived from the Netherlands. 
In the records of this period are found the names of 
eleven new burghers whose descendants are now scattered 
over South Africa: Frans Bastiaans, Dirk Coetsee, Simon 
Faasen, Paul Heyns, Jan Hendrik de Lange, Nicolaas 
Loubser, Roelof Pasman, Diederik Putter, Jan Wessels, 
and the brothers Willem and Adriaan van Wyk. Accord- 
ing to the census of 1679 there were eighty-seven free- 
men, with fifty-five women, one hundred and seventeen 



J 



1679] Hendrik Crudop. 243 

children, thirty European men servants, one hundred and 
thirty-three men slaves, thirty-eight v^omen slaves, and 
twenty slave children in the settlement. 

Upon intelligence of the death of Governor Bax reach- 
ing the Netherlands, the directors of the East India Com- 
pany considered that it v^ould be unnecessary to appoint a 
successor of higher rank than a commander. The colony 
vv^as, therefore, reduced again to its position before the 
arrival of Mr. Goske. The oflBcer v^hom they selected 
to fill the vacant post v^as then living in Amsterdam, and 
v^as in the service of the chamber there, but he readily 
consented to remove to the Cape in the v^ay of promo- 
tion. His name v^as Simon van der Stel. He embarked 
in the ship Yryt Zee, v^hich arrived in Table Bay on the 
12th of October 1679. The secunde Crudop, with the 
members of the council, went off to welcome him, and 
amid discharges of cannon and musketry he landed and 
was received by the garrison and militia under arms. 
In the council chamber in the castle the commission was 
read by the secretary, the officials all promised lawful 
obedience, and the new commander assumed the direc- 
tion of affairs. 



244 



CHAPTER VIIL 

SIMON VAN DER STEL, COMMANDER, INSTALLED 12th OCTOBER 
1679, RAISED TO THE RANK OF GOVERNOR Ist JUNE 1691, 

RETIRED llTH FEBRUARY 1699. 

The officer who was now at the head of the Cape govern- 
ment was destined to exercise a greater influence upon 
the future of South Afirica than any of his predecessors 
had done. He was a son of Adriaan van der Stel, com- 
mander for the honourable East India Company of the 
island of Mauritius. Bom there on the 14th of November 
1639, Simon van der Stel when very young was sent to 
the fatherland, and received a liberal education in the 
best schools of Holland. Connected by marriage with an 
ancient and influential family of Amsterdam, he had 
hitherto maintained the character of a highly respectable 
burgher, though the situation which he held in the ser- 
vice of the East India Company brought him in but a 
very limited income, and he had inherited little or nothing. 
He was poor, and so when an opportunity of improving 
his fortune was offered to him he gladly accepted it. 

In person Simon van der Stel was small, with a dark 
complexion, but open cheerful countenance. His habits 
were refined, and as far as his means would permit he 
surrounded himself with objects of taste. His courtesy 
and exceeding hospitality to strangers are dwelt upon by 
more than one visitor to the Cape, as is also his fondness 
for telling marvellous tales of his adventures and creating 
merriment at his own expense. Witty, good natured, and 
polite, he was also shrewd and possessed of a very large 



1679] Simon van der SteL 245 

amount of plain common sense. Against all these good 
qualities, however, must be placed an inordinate desire 
for wealth, which was hardly noticeable during the eaxly 
period of his government, but which increased as he ad- 
vanced in years, and which towards the close of his life 
drew upon him a suspicion of not being over particular 
as to the method of making money. 

The most prominent trait of his character, as it af- 
fected South Africa, was perhaps his intense patriotism. 
In his eyes everything that was Dutch was good, and 
whatever was not Dutch was not worthy of regard. From 
the day that he landed on our shores to the day that he 
resigned the government he constantly studied how he 
could best make the district round the Cape resemble as 
closely as possible a province of the Netherlands. The 
Dutch language, Dutch laws, Dutch institutions, Dutch 
customs, being all perfect in his opinion, he made it his 
business to plant them here uncorrupted and unchanged. 

Commander Van der Stel brought here with him his 
four sons, of whom the eldest, Wilhem Adriaan by name, 
was in after years governor of the colony. The youngest, 
Frans, became a farmer; and the remaining two, after 
farming, speculating, and holding various appointments in 
South Africa, removed elsewhere in the service of the 
East India Company. The commander's lady was unable 
or unwilling to accompany him from Amsterdam. She 
remained there with her friends, and never again saw 
her husband, though he continued to regard her with 
much affection. 

When Simon van der Stel arrived in South Africa the 
colony comprised only the settlements around the foot of 
Table Mountain, the outposts at Saldanha Bay and 
Hottentots-Holland, a cattle station at Tigerberg, and the 
ground held on lease beyond the isthmus by the seven 
burghers whose names have been mentioned. The in- 
terior had been explored eastward about as far as the 
present village of George, and northward forty or fifty 



246 



History of Soulh Africa. 



[1679 



miles beyond the month of the Elephaot river. The 
•boundary betweeo the Hotteutot and Bantu races bad 
not yet been ascertained. The existence of the fabulous 
atream Camissa was firmly believed in, and it was laid 
■down in the charts as entering the sea by two mouths, 
one of which was named Bio Infante and was placed 
in the position of the present Fish river. The Orange 
had never been heard of. 

The commander devoted a few days to a thorough iu- 
apectiou of the government offices and of the coautry in 
the neighbourhood of the castle ; after which, on the 3rd 
of November, he left the Cape for the purpose of visiting 
the station at Hottentots-HoUand. He was attended by 
a few servants and a small escort of soldiers. The party 
encamped that night at a place called the Kuilen, close 
by a stream which still bears that name. The follow- 
ing morning the commander rode to Hottentots-Holland, 
where he was greatly pleased with the condition in which 
be found the farming establishment. After making him- 
self acquainted with all particoJars there, he resolved to 
examine the country inland, towards the mountains which 
seemed to forbid farther progress in that direction. 

In the afternoon of the 6th or 7th of November, — it is 
not certain which but it was probably the 6th, — the com- 
mander with his attendants rode into the moat charming 
•valley he had yet seen. The hills which enclosed it were 
diversified in form, but all were clothed with rich grass, 
and in their recesses were patches of dark evergreen 
forest trees. Through the valley flowed a clear stream 
■of sweet water, which at one point divided into two 
■channels and uniting again farther down enclosed an is- 
land of considerable size. There, under a wide-spreading 
tree, the commander's pavilion was set up, and close by 
was pitched a tent which was to serve him as a bed- 
chamber. 

At the beginning of November the heat, even at mid- 
day, has not become oppressive, and the moruings and 



i68o] Simon van der SteL 247 

evenings in the pure air and under the clear sky are al- 
most invariably pleasant. The commander, fresh from a 
long sea voyage, and at all times capable of appreciating 
the beauties of nature, was enchanted with the scene 
before him, as indeed a man of much colder temperament 
than Simon van der Stel might have been. He observed 
that the valley was not only beautiful to the eye, but 
that its soil was rich and its water abundant. It might 
be made the home of many thriving families. At this 
time there were no signs of human life beyond the com- 
mander's own encampment, though the spot must often 
have been visited by bands of nomad Hottentots bringing 
their herds to graze upon its pastures. The island was 
dotted over thickly with fine trees, which suggested to 
the conmiander a name that should perpetuate his own 
memory in connection with the grove. He called it 
Stellenbosch. 

On the 8th of November the party reached the castle 
again, but during that journey of five days extensive 
plans of colonisation had been forming in the conmiander's 
mind. He would build up a thriving settlement here at 
the extremity of Afirica, which should furnish not only the 
cattle needed by the Company, but articles suited for 
commerce. He would begin at the place which bore his 
own name, and plant there a body of freeholders who 
would become attached to the soil. The great difficulty 
was to find men and women to make colonists of, for the 
fatherland could not furnish people in large numbers, and 
the commander objected to foreigners. The process of fill- 
ing up the country must therefore be slow, and could only 
proceed as suitable men were discharged from service and 
settled in the Cape peninsula, so that those who had ex- 
perience might remove to wider fields beyond. 

Before the close of the year the first farmer of Stellen- 
bosch had put his plough into the ground there, and in 
May 1680 he was followed by a party of eight families, 
who removed together. The heads of these families were 



248 History of South Africa, [1680 

induced to leave the Cape district by an offer of as much 
land as they coald cultivate, with the privilege of select- 
ing it for themselves anywhere in the Stellenboach valley. 
It was to be theirs in full property, and could be re- 
claimed by the Company only upon their ceasing to 
cultivate it. Like all other landed property in the settle- 
ment it was burdened with the payment of a tithe of 
the grain grown upon it and not consumed by the owner. 
The cultivation of tobacco was prohibited under severe 
penalties, but the farmers were at liberty to raise any- 
thing else that they chose. To encourage the breeding of 
cattle unlimited use of all ground not under cultivation 
was permitted, and upon this branch of industry no tax 
of any kind was levied for the benefit of the Company. 

Before the arrival of Simon van der Stel the large 
garden in Table Valley was used chiefly to produce vege- 
tables for the garrison and the fleets. Very little had 
been done in it in the way of ornamentation. But one 
of the earliest acts of the commander was to prepare a 
plan which he steadily carried out until the Company's 
garden at the Cape became something wonderful in the 
eyes of visitors. For nearly a hundred years &om tbia 
date writers of various nationalities could hardly find 
words to express their adniiiration of this famous garden, 
and to the present day a remnant of its original beauty 
remains in the oak avenue which was once its central 
walk.' By Simon van der Stel the ground was divided 
into a great number of small parallelograms separated 
from each other by hve hedges high enough to break the 
force of the wind. Some of these plots were devoted to 
the production of fruit, others to the production of vege- 

'The trees now (onniiig the B^eaue »w not of very great age. Those 
firat planted were orange trees, wLich were shortly afterwards replaced 
by other kina» which could be ased for timber when full grown. On two 
or three occasions the avenue has been utilised in this manner, but wbeO' 
ever a roi* or part of a row was removed, young trees were set out again 
in the same ordet. 



i68o] Simon van der SteL 249 

tables, others again were nurseries of European timber 
trees. In some of them experiments were made with 
various foreign trees and shrubs, in others the wild plants 
of Africa were collected in order that their properties 
might be ascertained. Twenty years after Simon van 
der Stel laid out the ground afresh, visitors who had 
seen the most celebrated gardens of Europe and India 
were agreed that nowhere else in the world was so great 
a variety of trees and shrubs, of vegetables and flowers, 
to be met with together. 

The commander enlarged the garden towards the 
mountain, but he cut off a narrow strip at the lower 
end on which he intended in course of time to erect a 
hospital and a building for the accommodation of the 
Company's slaves. Just inside the new main entrance, 
on the ground where the statue of Queen Victoria now 
stands, he had a pleasure house or lodge put • up, and 
there he usually entertained visitors of rank.^ The whole 
garden could be irrigated by the stream then called the 
Sweet river, and its drainage was also carefully attended 
to. Over a hundred slaves were usually employed in 
keeping it in order. These slaves worked under the 
supervision of skilfal Europeans, who in their turn re- 
ceived directions from a chief gardener or superintendent. 

Next to Simon van der Stel the credit of beautifying 
the Company's garden is due to Hendrik Bernard Olden- 
land, a native of Lubec, who occupied the post of superin- 
tendent shortly after this date, while the most important 
improvements were being made. Oldenland, who had 
studied medicine for three years at Leiden, was a skilfal 
botanist and a man devoted to his work. Apart from 
his duties in the Company's garden, he collected and dried 
specimens of a great number of South African plants, 

^ After the erection close by of the slave lodge— the present public 
offices — this pleasure house was removed, and a commencement was then 
made farther up the garden with the building still used as the governor's 
residence. 



250 History of South Africa, [1681 

which he intended to send to the Netherlands to be pre- 
served for the use of botanists there, and he was preparing 
a descriptive catalogue of these plants in the Latin lan- 
gustge when sudden death arrested the work. Before that 
time Commander Van der Stel had retired from the 
government, and Oldenland's collection of plants together 
with his papers fell into the hands of a man who could 
not make use of them. They were seen some years 
afterwards by the historian Valentyn, who speaks very 
highly of the herbarium, and copies several pages of the 
'Catalogue of Plants.' Kolbe quotes even more largely 
from the same work, though he has given the author's 
name incorrectly. Stavorinus also gives an abstract of it. 
Long after Oldenland's death the herbarium was sent to 
the Netherlands, where, in 1770, Thunberg found it in 
possession of Professor Burmann of Amsterdam. 

The under-gardener, Jan Hertog by name, was also a 
skilful botanist, though less highly educated than the 
superintendent. 

At this time the Hottentots were living on the best of 
terms with the Europeans, but now and again a party of 
hunters was molested by Bushmen. A large cattle trade 
was carried on, principally with the Hessequas. The com- 
mander was anxious to become better acquainted with 
the Namaquas, as he was of opinion that there must be 
some sources of commercial wealth in the part of the 
country in which they resided. In August 1681 he sent 
Captain Eees to endeavour to induce some of the leading 
men of this tribe to visit the Cape, and a few months 
later he was gratified to hear that a party of them had 
reached the Grigriqua kraals on their way to see him. He 
immediately sent a sergeant and some soldiers with pre- 
sents and complimentary messages, and under their escort 
the Namaqua deputation arrived at the castle on the 21st 
of December. 

The men were accompanied by their wives, all riding 
on pack oxen. They brought their huts with them, these 



i68i] Simon van der SteL 251 

<;onsisting merely of a framework of long twigs fastened 
together in the form of a beehive and covered with rush 
mats. These huts could be taken from the backs of the 
oxen and be put up almost as quickly as tents could be 
pitched. They were habitations such as none but nomads 
would use. To furnish food, the travellers brought with 
them a herd of cows, for they depended almost entirely 
upon milk for subsistence. 

The Namaquas presented some specimens of very rich 
copper ore, which they asserted they had taken out of a 
mountain with their own hands. This information was 
exceedingly interesting to the commander, who concluded 
with reason that the ore must exist there in great abun- 
dance when such specimens could be collected without any 
iippliances for mining. He questioned them eagerly about 
their country. 

Were they acquainted with the great river Camissa 
iind the town of Yigiti Magna? 

They had never heard of any town near their country, 
but they knew of a great river, very wide and deep. 

Was it far from their kraals, and in what direction 
was it? 

It was far, and it was on the side of the sun at noon. 

In what direction did it flow ? 

Across that in which they had come to the castle. 

Were they sure of this ? 

Quite sure. 

And so the first authentic information of the Gariep or 
Orange river was obtained, though it was long yet before 
European eyes were to see it. 

The Namaquas, of course, knew nothing of the fabu- 
lous empire termed Monomotapa on the maps. They in- 
formed the commander that they were acquainted with a 
race of people whom they called Briquas, the same who 
are known to us as Betshuana. They also told some 
stories which they had heard of tribes still more distant, 
but these accounts were merely visionary tales. Of their 



252 History of South Africa. [i68r 

own tribe they gave such information as satisfied the 
commander that the only trade to be carried on with 
them would be in cattle, unless something could be done 
with the copper ore. After a stay of five days the visitors 
left the castle to return to their own country, taking vnth 
them a variety of presents, including a staff of ofl&ce for 
their chie£ They promised to return in the following- 
year with cattle to trade and more specimens of copper 
ore. 

At the beginning of his government Simon van der 
Stel interpreted the instructions received from the direc- 
tors concerning the treatment of foreigners to mean that 
he was not to permit them to obtain other refreshment 
than water. Some Danes and Englishmen who visited 
Table Bay were unable to purchase anything whatever.- 
The commander treated the officers with politeness, and 
invited them to his table, but declined to supply their 
ships with meat or vegetables. He informed some of 
them that they were at liberty to purchase what they could 
from the burghers, but privately he sent messengers round 
to the farmers forbidding them in some instances to sell 
anything under very heavy penalties, and in other cases 
requiring them to charge four or five times the usual 
rates. Complaints of such treatment as this speedily 
reached Europe, and representations were made to the 
assembly of seventeen which caused that body to issue 
instructions that foreigners were to be treated as of old. 
They were not to be supplied, except in very urgent cases, 
with sea stores out of the magazines, as such stores were 
sent here solely for the use of the Company's own ships. 
They were to be at liberty to purchase refreshments from 
the burghers. No wheat or fuel was to be sold to them, 
as the Company needed all and more than all that was 
procurable of both. They were to be at Uberty to refresh 
themselves in the lodging-houses kept by the town burgh- 
ers. They were not to be permitted to sell merchandise 
in bulk. 



1683] Simon van der SteL 253 

The restrictions of Commander Van der Stel lasted only 
until November 1683, after which date foreigners, though 
not encouraged to visit the Cape, were treated here quite 
as fairly as subjects of the Netherlands were in the 
colonies of other European nations. A system was gra- 
dually introduced by which they were indirectly taxed 
for the benefit of the Company. This was done in the 
farming out of the privilege to sell bread, meat, wine, 
etc. The exclusive right to sell bread, for instance, was 
put up for sale with the condition that a certain fixed 
price should be charged to burghers, but foreigners might 
be charged a higher rate, which was sometimes fixed 
and sometimes as much as could be obtained. There 
were two methods of holding sales of this kind. One 
was to farm out a privilege for the highest sum obtain- 
able at pubhc auction, when the bids were successively 
enlarged, and a sum of money was paid into the revenue. 
The other was when the Company required for its own 
use supplies of the same article, when the bids were 
successively reduced, and something was saved to the 
revenue. Thus A might bid up to twenty-five pounds 
for the sole privilege of selling salt for a year to 
burghers at one penny, and to foreigners at a penny 
hal^enny a pound. B might bid down to seven-eighths 
of a penny a pound to supply the Company with beef, 
with the right to sell to burghers at two pence and to 
foreigners at three pence halfpenny a pound. In each 
case the foreigner was taxed for the benefit of the 
Company. But where was this not the custom in those 
days ? 

The colony had now fairly commenced to expand, 
though its growth was necessarily slow. In 1681 several 
families were added to those already living in the Stellen- 
bosch valley. That season the wheat crops there were 
so exceptionally good that for the first time the soldiers 
as well as the burghers could be supplied for several 
months with as much fresh bread as they needed, instead 



254 



History of South Africa. 



[1683 



of the biscuits and rice to which they had been accus- 
tomed. The farmers had been permitted to select ground 
for themselves, but this liberty bad giveu rise to various 
disputes and contentions, to settle which the commander 
paid them a visit. His presence and the friendly interest 
which he took in the welfare of all had the effect of 
restoriiif; concord, and after fixing limits to each man's 
estate he arranged for a proper survey of the ground and 
the issue of titJe deeds, 

The fruitfuhiess of the soil, as proved by the abundant 
cropa, caused many of the most industrious individuals in 
Eondebosch and Wynberg to turn their attention towards 
Stellenbosch, and in May 1682, when the ploughing season 
commenced, a party of fifteen or sixteen farmers removed 
to the new district. But this year a plague appi 
which caused much loss to the settlers, for the crops 
attacked by prodigious swarms of small insects, wl 
nearly destroyed them. On the same ground where in 
Novenaber 1681 the commander had counted one hundred 
and five grains of wheat in ear on a single stalk, in No- 
vember 1682 there was hardly a sound ear to be seen. 
This plague continued for several successive seasons to 
inflict severe loss upon the farmers, though it was never 
again so destructive, and gradually it disappeared. 

To provide for the settlement of trivial disputes be- 
tween the burghers of the new district, a board of heem- 
raden was established on the 30th of August 1682. This 
court consisted of four of the leading inhabitants, who 
held ofBce for two years, without receiving salaries for 
their services, The powers of the board of beemraden 
were not at first very accurately defined, but its decisions 
appear in every instance to have been treated with re- 
spect. Two members retired annually, when the court 
itself sent to the council of pohcy a hst of four new 
names from which to select successors. The first heem- 
raden were Gerrit van der Byl, Heuning Huiaing, Hans 
Jurgen G-rimp, and Hendrik Elberts. At the end of 1683 




1683] Simon vaft der SteL 255 

the two first-named retired, when Douwe Steyn and 
Matthys Greef were elected to take their places. Grimp 
and Elberts retired at the end of 1684, and were suc- 
ceeded by Jan Mostert and Harmen Smit. 

In 1683 the first school at Stellenbosch was estab- 
Ushed. On the 28th of September of that year the 
burghers presented a petition to the council of policy, in 
which they represented that there were then about thirty 
landowners in the district, many of whom had families, 
but as yet there was no school in which the children 
could be taught the principles of Christianity as well as to 
read and write, so that the young were in danger of grow- 
ing up as barbarians; that they were Uving at too great 
a distance from the castle to be able to attend divine 
service on the Lord*s days, and were thus Uable to fall 
into careless habits ; that on this account the condition 
of both young and old was very unsatisfactory, and if it 
continued God's blessing could not be expected upon them- 
selves or their crops. They therefore requested that a 
suitable person should be appointed to keep a school, to 
read a sermon on Sundays, and to act as visitor of the 
sick. They asked further for some assistance towards the 
erection of the necessary building. 

The council of policy viewed this petition with great 
favour. The members resolved at once to send masons 
and carpenters at the expense of the Company to put up 
a residence for the teacher with a large hall in it for a 
schoolroom, and also to supply the nails free of charge, 
the inhabitants providing the other materials. As soon as 
the building could be got ready a teacher was appointed, 
by name Sybrand Mankadan, and the school was opened. 
The commander took as warm an interest in it as did any 
of the parents, for he regarded Stellenbosch as a place 
of his own founding, and anything that tended to the wel- 
fare of its people secured his sympathy. It was his custom 
whenever it was possible to spend his birthday there. He 
usually arrived in the vill9»ge a few days earlier, so as to 



256 History of South Africa. [1683 

have time to inspect all the improvements made dniing 
the preceding twelvemonth, to inquire after every one's 
prospects, and to make himself acquainted with all that 
was transpiring. On these occasions he did not fail to 
visit the school and ascertain what progress the pupils 
were making. His birthday was, of course, a general 
holiday. Every man and woman in the district, dressed 
in their best, came to his paviUon to compliment him 
and to drink his health in a glass of wine. The school- 
children came also, marching in procession with Dominie 
Mankadan at their head, and carrying a banner which 
he had presented to them. Each was sure of a friendly 
greeting, and of receiving some Uttle token of kindness. 
The boys over nine years of age were drilled every 
Saturday in the use of arms, and the juvenile corps 
always took part in the parade in honour of the com- 
mander. 

The course of instruction at the school did not extend 
in secular subjects beyond reading, writing, and the ele- 
ments of arithmetic, a large portion of the time being 
occupied with religious teaching. At the age of thirteen 
years the pupils were supposed to have completed their 
education. The standard aimed at was the ability to pass 
an examination before the consistory preparatory to being 
publicly admitted as members of tbe church. It was 
necessary to be able to read the bible, to repeat the 
Heidelberg catechism, and to write a little. The pupils 
were also taught to sing psalms in the tunes then com- 
monly used. At Christmas prizes were given at the ex- 
pense of the Company. Each of the three most advanced 
and best behaved pupils received a prize of the value of 
four shillings, the next three carried off prizes valued at 
two shillings, and each of the others received one shilling 
in money. The commander added a cake for every child, 
the size to depend upon the merit of the recipient. 

Dominie Mankadan, the first teacher at Stellenbosch, 
remained there in that capacity for many years. He 



1683] Simon van der SteL 257 

acted also as sick-visitor and conducted divine service 
every Sunday. After a time he united with these duties 
that of district secretary, so that he was by no means 
an idle man. Yet his salary for all these services com- 
bined was only about fifty shillings a month, in addition 
to which, however, he had a free house, a large garden, 
and some small school fees. Probably he was as well 
off with that trifling salary in those simple times as 
many district schoolmasters are at the present day, for 
there was no ordained chaplain in the Company's service 
who was paid more than ten pounds a month, and only 
a few old and tried men among them drew that amount. 

In 1681 the Cape was first made a place of con- 
finement for prisoners of state of high rank, who were 
sent into exile by the Indian authorities. Some Macassar 
princes with their famiUes and attendants were at this 
time lodged in the castle, but owing to their violent 
conduct it afterwards became necessary to disperse them 
among the out-stations. As long as South Africa re- 
mained a dependency of the East India Company it 
continued to be used for this purpose, and many tragic 
narratives might be written in connection vdth the un- 
fortunate exiles who were doomed to pass weary years 
in banishment here. Their treatment varied according to 
their offences. 

The name of one of these prisoners is associated with 
an event which nearly caused a war between England 
and the Netherlands. It took place at Bantam, in the 
island of Java. 

On the 1st of May 1680 Sultan Ageng, the last really 
independent prince in Java, resigned the government of 
Bantam to his son Abdol Kahar, commonly called the 
Sultan Hadji, on account of his having made a pilgrimage 
to Mecca. The young sovereign immediately formed a 
close alliance with the Dutch East India Company, be- 
tween whom and the agents in Bantam of the English 

Company there was a strong feeling of jealousy. The 
VOL. I. 17 



258 History of South Africa, [16S3 

English were as yet far behind the Dutch in foreign 
commerce, the tonnage of mercantile shipping which sailed 
out of English ports at this time being less than two- 
thirds of that which sailed out of the Netherlands; but 
in some parts of the Indies they were already formidable 
rivals. The old sultan Ageng, after a brief period of 
retirement, began to regret the step he had taken, and in 
February 1682 he raised an army and endeavoured to 
drive his son from the throne. He was assisted by the 
EngUsh and Danes in the country, by his younger son 
Pourbaya, and above all, by the sheikh Joseph, a Moslem 
religious teacher of great reputed sanctity and enormous 
influence. 

Sultan Hadji was unable to hold his own against the 
forces of his father, so he shut himself up in a castle 
garrisoned by troops under command of a Netherlander 
named Jacob de Boy, and sent to Batavia to beg for 
help. The governor-general and council thereupon di- 
rected one of their officers, Isaac de St. Martin, to proceed 
to the reUef of their ally with three hundred European 
soldiers and some native auxiliaries. De Boy, who was 
by calling a baker, but who had become by force of cir- 
cumstances the chief military officer of the young sultan^ 
managed to hold the castle of Soeroesoeang until the 
arrival of the Dutch troops, when at once the fortune of 
war was changed. Ageng was soon in the same position 
that his son had been in, reduced to the possession of 
a single stronghold. This he was obliged to abandon on 
the night of the 28th of December 1682, when he caused 
the building, which was the most, beautiful edifice in the 
island, to be blown up; and he with a few followers 
sought concealment in a mountainous district. Ageng 
himself soon afterwards fell into his son's hands. He 
was treated with barbarous cruelty until the Dutch East 
India Company in pity came to his rescue, supplied him 
with a residence at Batavia, and provided for his decent 
maintenance until his death in 1695. 



1682] Simon van der SteL 259 

Sultan Hadji, in return for the assistance given, ceded 
to the Dutch East India Company a monopoly of the 
commerce of his dominions, thus excluding the English 
and the Danes. This affair caused great excitement in 
England, and many narratives of it in angry language 
were written and printed. 

When Sultan Ageng surrendered Sheikh Joseph es- 
caped, and for nearly another twelvemonth he kept the 
country in a disturbed condition. At length, at the close 
of 1683, he was obUged to abandon the unequal strife, 
and was induced to give himself up to the Dutch. The 
governor-general and council of India considered it unsafe 
to keep him in Java, as he was held in the highest venera- 
tion by the whole of the natives, not only as a saint and 
a man of great ability, but as the last champion of 
Bantamese independence. He was therefore sent to Ceylon 
for a time, but in 1694 with his family and numerous 
attendants he was removed to the Cape Colony as & 
prisoner of state. On the 23rd of May 1699 he died, and 
was buried on the farm Zandvliet, in the district of 
Stellenbosch. During all the years that have since 
passed away, the ^amat, or tomb of Sheikh Joseph, has 
been regarded by the Moslems as a holy place. It is 
kept in repair by a special custodian, who permits no one 
to enter the enclosure with covered feet. To it pilgrims 
wend their way, though few, if any, of them know the 
true history of him who was buried there. Various tradi- 
tions, however, have gathered about his name, and it is 
commonly believed by those of his creed at the Cape that 
he performed many miracles. Thus it is asserted by them 
that when he was on the passage to this country the 
fresh water in the ship failed, upon which he dipped his 
foot in the sea and told the crew to replenish the casks, 
when to the amazement of all on board that which they 
took up in buckets was perfectly good to drink. 

On the 16th of February 1682 the retired governor- 
general, Eyklof van Goens, arrived at the Cape on his 



26o History of South Africa. [1682 

way to Europe in pursuit of health. Though he was 
very feeble he managed to visit Stellenbosch, and to issue 
instructions upon a good many subjects. He directed that 
experiments should be made in the cultivation of flax, 
hemp, and indigo, but none of these were found on trial 
to answer sufficiently well to encourage the farmers to 
undertake their growth. He strictly prohibited the plant- 
ing of tobacco, lest it might interfere with the existing 
trade, from which a large profit was derived. The 
governor-general remained here until the end of April. 
Before embarking he ordered the 13th of May to be kept 
as a day of prayer that God would be pleased to avert 
warlike attacks and protect the homeward bound fleet. 
He died soon after his return to Europe. In the follow- 
ing year his widow called at the Cape on her way to the 
fatherland, and was treated while here with all possible 
respect and attention. 

On the night of the 8th of June 1682 the English 
Indiaman Joanna, flrom the Downs bound to Bengal, was 
wrecked twelve miles to the westward of Cape Agulhas. 
One hundred and four of her crew saved themselves on 
a raft, the remainder were drowned. Those who reached 
the shore found themselves destitute of provisions, and 
were beginning to suffer from hunger when some Hotten- 
tots made their appearance who conducted them to the 
kraal of Captain Klaas. There they were supplied by 
this hospitable native with abundance of milk and meat 
as long as they remained, and were provided with food 
for the journey and guides to conduct them to the Cape. 
The master of the Joanna, who was too infirm to walk 
any farther, stayed behind as the guest of Klaas until a 
waggon could be sent for him. The shipwrecked seamen 
met with equal kindness from the Company's officers. 
They were comfortably lodged and furnished with pro- 
visions until they could get away. The Joanna bad a 
large amount of specie on board, and as the wreck could 
be reached with a boat in calm weather a party of men 



1683] Simon van der Stel. 261 

was sent from the Cape to try to recover it. They 
succeeded only in getting coin to the value of a little 
over two thousand four hundred pounds sterling, but a 
considerable quantity of cargo and wreckage which was 
washed ashore was also secured. 

With the growth of the settlement, it was found that 
too much of the time of the high court of justice was 
taken up with hearing petty civil cases, and it was there- 
fore decided to establish an inferior court to have juris- 
diction within the Cape district. This court was to be 
composed of four members, two of whom were to be 
servants of the Company, and two burghers. It was to 
sit at least once a week, and had pow^r to adjudicate in 
all cases wherein the amount in dispute was less thaQ 
twenty pounds, sixteen shilUngs, and eight pence sterling. 
For convenience sake it was arranged that the last re- 
tired burgher councillor could at any time take a seat 
instead of one of the burgher members. The body thus 
constituted was termed the court of commissioners for 
petty cases. It was first established on the 31 st of 
August 1682. 

The specimens of copper ore brought to the Cape by 
the Namaqua visitors in 1681 excited the curiosity of the 
directors to know more about the country in which the 
metal was found, and instructions were sent to Com- 
mander Van der Stel to cause it to be carefully explored. 
At the end of October 1682 an expedition consisting of 
thirty soldiers, a joumaUst, and a chart-maker, under 
command of Ensign Olof Bergh, was despatched for that 
purpose, but after a month's absence it returned with a 
report that the country was so parched with drought that 
it was impossible to proceed. 

The attempt was renewed on a larger scale in the 
following year. On the 27th of August 1683 an expedi- 
tion better equipped than any that had previously left 
the Cape set out for the Namaqua country. It consisted 
of forty-two Europeans — among whom were draughtsmen, 



262 History of South Africa. {j^^$ 

miners, and journalists — and ten Hottentots, all under 
command of Ensign Olof Bergh. It was provisioned for 
four months. It bad a train of waggons and carts to 
convey its supplies as far as possible, two boats, so that 
no delay need be caused by swollen rivers, and a herd 
of pack oxen and five horses for use when the waggons 
could get no farther. The expedition proceeded by the 
way of Kiebeek's Kasteel to the Berg river, which was 
found too deep to be forded. The boats were then 
brought into service, and after everything was ferried over 
the march was resumed. At the Elephant river it was 
the same. There a camp was formed, as the boats would 
not be needed again. Across this river a party of Grigri- 
quas was encountered, and with them were four or five 
Namaquas who offered to act as guides. Soon after this 
a sterile district was entered, but they pushed on until 
they reached the nearest of the Namaqua kraals. Close 
to the kraal was a high mountain, from the top of which 
the Atlantic could be seen at no great distance. Beyond 
it to the north the whole country was a desert without 
grass or water, for rain had only fallen once within the 
preceding twelve months. It was impossible to get any 
farther. The ensign was obliged to retrace his steps, and 
on the 24th of October he reported at the castle that 
the expedition had failed. 

In February 1684 a party of Namaquas visited the 
Cape, and when they returned Sergeant Izaak Schr5rver 
with fifteen soldiers and three miners was sent with them. 
The sergeant succeeded very little better than Ensign 
Bergh, though he managed to proceed somewhat farther 
and to collect from the people he visited a number of 
pieces of copper ore which he brought back on a pack ox. 
This ore was melted in crucibles, and the pure metal was 
sent as a specimen to the directors. 

In 1683 a tract of ground at Klapmuts was turned 
into a stock-farm for the Company's use, so that the 
cattle kept at Hottentots-Holland might have a change 



1684] Simon van der SteL 263 

of pasture. In 1684 the Company discontinued sending 
trading expeditions into the interior to purchase cattle, 
and handed over that business to Captain Klaas, who 
bought up large herds at very low rates upon receiving 
one head for himself out of every five. By this agency 
so many oxen and sheep were obtained that it was neces- 
sary to select fresh stock-farms. The Company, there- 
fore, formed outposts at the Kuilen, Diep Eiver, Visser's 
Hok, and Eietvlei. At each of these places four or five 
soldiers and a few slaves were stationed, the same as at 
Hottentots-Holland, Tigerberg, and Klapmuts. Burghers 
who could be induced to become cattle farmers could 
now be supplied with as many cows and ewes as they 
needed, and they had further the protection and com- 
panionship which the new outposts afforded. 

The office of secunde had for some time been vacant, 
owing to Hendrik Crudop having been advanced to a 
higher post in India, when in June 1684 the assembly 
of seventeen appointed the fiscal Andries de Man to it. 

In October 1684 Ryklof van Goens the younger, ordin- 
ary councillor of India, and previously governor of Ceylon, 
arrived in South Africa, on his way from Europe to the 
East, and assumed authority here above that of the com- 
mander. He remained in this colony until the following 
May, but as he was an invalid during the whole of that 
period he seldom left his room in the government country 
house at Bustenburg, where he resided. He made some 
changes in the official staff by the promotion of the clerk 
Jan Willem de Grevenbroek to be secretary of the council, 
and the bookkeeper Cornelis Linnes to be chief sales- 
man. He also appointed the junior merchant Albert van 
Breugel to act as fiscal, but this officer was obliged soon 
afterwards to resign the situation to Jan van Keulen, 
who was sent out by the supreme authorities. To all 
the officers in the Compan/s service who desired it he 
allotted ground for cultivation, but titles were not to be 
issued until the directors should approve of the measure. 



264 History of South Africa, [1684 

To Adriaan van der Stel, a son of the commander, he 
granted several exclnsive privileges. This young man had 
been issuer of stores,^ but he now became a burgher, and 
obtained a grant of land in full property. The right to 
put up a fowling net, within five hundred roods of which 
no one was to shoot, nor was any one else to put up 
another within a distance of five hours' journey, the right 
to catch fish in False Bay without payment of taxes, 
the right to shoot all kinds of game and birds, were 
privileges granted by Mr. Van Goens to his favourite, 
and at his instance approved of by the council. 

These monopolies naturally caused dissatisfaction to 
the other burghers. The commander Van der Stel him- 
self was beloved by all, and no one would have thought 
of offending him, but from this time it began to be freely 
said that the sons were not hkely to follow in the 
father's footsteps. The privilege of shooting game at any 
time and in any quantity was regarded as particularly 
unfair to other farmers, because they were all bound by 
stringent regulations to kill nothing without special per- 
mission, and no one of them was ever allowed to shoot 
more in a year than a single rhinoceros, a hippopotamus, 
an eland, and a hartebeest, for his own family's con- 
sumption. 

In the year 1684 the first exportation of grain from 
South Africa took place. The crops of that season were 
very good, and the insect scourge had been less destruc- 
tive than usual. To encourage the growth of grain, the 
governor-general Van Goens had relieved the burghers 
from payment of tithe& for two years, and this had the 
desired effect. In February and March, after the har- 
vest was gathered, fifteen hundred muids of wheat were 
brought by the farmers for sale, so that there was more 
than sufficient for the supply of the garrison. A quantity 

^ Shortly after this Adriaan van der Stel entered the Ck>mpany*B service 
again. He rose to be governor of Amboina and councillor extraordinary of 
Netherlands India. 



1685] Simon van der Stel. 265 

of rye was also stored in the magazines, and of this grain 
twenty-five muids were sent to India. This export, small 
as it may seem, shows, as the commander exultingly 
wrote, that the settlement was no longer dependent upon 
foreign countries for its food. 

In October 1684 the assembly of seventeen appointed 
a commission of three members to examine into the 
a£fairs of their possessions in Hindostan and Ceylon, and 
at its head they placed an ofl&cer with very extensive 
powers. His name was Hendrik Adriaan van Rheede, 
but he was commonly known by his title of lord of 
Mydrecht. He had previously served the Company in 
various capacities, and had only recently filled the post 
of councillor of India. In the administration of affairs in 
Hindostan and Ceylon various abuses had crept in, which 
the directors considered could only be rectified by some 
one on the spot possessing unbounded authority and with- 
out any interests to serve other than those of duty. The 
high commissioner had power given to him to appoint 
or displace governors and admirals as well as officers of 
lower rank, to proclaim new laws, to issue new regula- 
tions concerning trade, to create new offices and to 
abolish old ones, to enter into treaties with native rulers, 
in short, to do anything he might think advisable in the 
Company's interests. 

Before leaving Europe he was instructed to rectify 
anything he might find amiss at the Cape, where also 
he was to exercise supreme power as representing the 
assembly of seventeen. Some of the changes which he 
effected here as well as elsewhere were afterwards found 
not to be improvements, but at the time he made them 
the Netherlands were only beginning to acquire experi- 
ence in the government of colonies. Nearly all was as 
yet experiment, and it would have been surprising indeed 
if every experiment had been wise and successful 

The high commissioner arrived in Table Bay on the 
19th of April 1685, and remained here until the 16th of 



266 History of South Africa. [1^85 

July, during which time he put in force a great number 
of regulations. A few days after his arrival he issued a 
notice calling upon all persons who had complaints oft 
grievances to make them known, so that he might rectify 
whatever was felt to be oppressive. He then proceeded 
to examine the constitution of the various public bodies, 
and to inquire into their efficiency. The result of this 
was that the church council, the board of militia, the 
matrimonial court, the orphan chamber, and the conrt of 
commissioners for petty cases were approved of as they 
existed, and no alterations were made in any of them. 

The council of poUcy was enlarged so as to consist 
of eight members, and seats in it were assigned to the 
commander as president, the secunde, the two military 
officers highest in rank, the fiscal, the treasurer, the chief 
salesman, and the garrison bookkeeper. This council was 
never again enlarged during the government of the East 
India Company, though the officers who had seats in 
it were not always those who held the situations here 
named. The secretary at this time had no vote, but 
merely kept a record of the debates and resolutions. 

The high court of justice was reconstituted, and was 
made to consist of the following members : the com- 
mander, Simon van der Stel, president; the secunde, 
Andries de Man ; the captain, Hieronymus Cruse ; the 
heutenant, Olof Bergh ; the junior merchant, Albert van 
Breugel; the chief salesman, CorneUs Linnes; the garri- 
son bookkeeper, Jan Hendrik Blum; the secretary of the 
council of policy, Melchior Kemels ; and the two oldest 
burgher councillors. Jan Blesius was appointed secretary, 
but had no voice in the proceedings. The fiscal appeared 
in this court as public prosecutor. 

In the court at Stellenbosch great alterations were 
made. It was in future to be presided over by an officer 
called a landdrost, who was also to have supervision of 
the Company's farms and out-stations, and who was gener- 
ally to look after the Company's interests. This officer 



1685] Simon van der Stel. 267 

was to have two Europeans to assist him, and was to be 
provided with a horse and a slave. He was to receive 2L 
a month as salary and I65. as maintenance allowance. In 
the court of landdrost and heemraden civil cases under 
2Z. I5. 8d. were to be decided finally, but where amounts 
between that sum and 101. were in question there was to 
be a right of appeal to the high court of justice. No case 
could be heard where the amount in dispute exceeded lOZ. 
The court of landdrost and heemraden was to hold 
monthly sessions for the trial of civil cases. It was to 
preserve order, and was also to act as a district council, 
in which capacity it was to see to the repair of roads, 
the distribution of water, the destruction of noxious ani- 
mals, and various other matters. It was to raise a 
revenue by erecting a mill to grind com, by collecting 
annually a tax from the inhabitants, which was fixed by 
the council of poUcy in the following year at Is. 4id. for 
every hundred sheep or twenty head of large cattle 
owned in the district, and by sundry other small imposts. 
Further, it was to have power to compel the inhabitants 
to supply waggons, cattle, slaves, and their own labour for 
public purposes. 

On the 16th of July the high conmiissioner appointed 
Jan Mulder, a Netherlander of good reputation, first land- 
drost of Stellenbosch, and named the burghers Gerrit van 
der Byl, Henning Huising, Jan Mostert, and Herman 
Smit as heemraden. No territorial limits were assigned 
to the jurisdiction of the landdrost, and as the Company's 
outposts at Diep Eiver, Visser's Hok, and Eietvlei, as well 
as those at Hottentots-Holland, Kuilen, Klapmuts, and 
Saldanha Bay were placed under his inspection, the dis- 
trict of Stellenbosch for some years included the whole 
country beyond the Cape peninsula. 

Prior to this date, the laws concerning the treatment 
and manumission of slaves were somewhat vague. Eman- 
cipation was very common before 1682, and the directors 
at one time even contemplated the location of a large 



268 History of South Africa. [1685 

body of freed slaves at some place where agricaltnre conld 
be carried on. They despaired of getting a sufficient 
number of European colonists, and thought by this meana 
to secure a supply of refreshments for their fleets. But 
the individuals emancipated had in most instances fiEJlen 
into idle and depraved habits, in the end becoming burden* 
some as vagrants or paupers, so that when the governor- 
general Van Goens was here a regulation was made that 
no more heathens were to be manumitted except for very 
good reasons, and that all freedmen of this class who 
would not earn an honest living were to be consigned 
again to slavery. 

A profession of Christianity and an ability to speak 
Dutch were, however, still considered sufficient reasons 
for claiming freedom, and no slaveholder could have an 
infant black baptized without promising to educate it as- 
a Christian and to manumit it. This was a regulation 
made by the ecclesiastical council of Batavia, who wrote 
that 'it was the custom in India to baptize children of 
unbelieving parents if the Christians who presented them 
for baptism bound themselves to bring them up as their 
own, to educate them as Christians, and if they were 
slaves to manumit them.' In those days nearly every one 
believed it his duty to have his slave children baptized,, 
and hence those who were born in this colony usually 
became free. But these were few in number, because 
nearly all the slaves brought from abroad were males. 
They were not all imported in Dutch bottoms, for though 
foreigners were debarred from selling merchandise in bulk 
at the Cape, an exception was occasionally made in their 
favour when their cargoes consisted of stout negros. 

The laws made by the high commissioner regarding 
emancipation were as follow: — 

Every male half-breed could claim freedom as a right at 
the age of twenty-five years, and every female half-breed 
at the age of twenty-two years, provided only that he or 
she professed Christianity and spoke the Dutch language. 



1685] Simon van der SteL 269 

Slaves imported from abroad, whether male or female, 
after thirty years' service, and negro slaves born at the 
Cape, at the age of forty years, were to have their freedom 
as a favour, not as a right, upon payment of 8/. 6s. 8c?., 
provided they professed Christianity and spoke Dutch. 
Each case was to be considered on its own merits, so that 
well-conducted slaves might be emancipated, and those 
of bad character be kept under control of a master. 

Slave children under twelve years of age were to be 
sent to school, where they were to be taught the prin- 
ciples of Christianity as well as to read and write and to 
conduct themselves respectfully towards their superiors. 
Slaves over twelve years of age were to be allowed two 
afternoons in the week for the purpose of being instructed 
in the Christian religion. The females were to be taught 
by themselves. All were to attend the church services 
twice on Sundays, and in the afternoon when the sermon 
was ended the clergyman was to require them to repeat 
the Heidelberg catechism. As schoolmaster for the slaves, 
a well-behaved mulatto named Jan Pasqual, of Batavia, 
was appointed, and as schoolmistress Margaret, a freed- 
woman of the Cape. 

Marriage between Europeans and freed slaves of full 
colour was prohibited, but Europeans and half-breeds 
could marry if they chose. 

It was a common occurrence for slaves to desert from 
service and lead lawless lives thereafter, sometimes even 
forming themselves into bands and maintaining them- 
selves by robbery. Care was to be taken not to drive 
them to such a course by cruel treatment. But fugi- 
tives who were captured were to be severely flogged and 
heavily chained as a warning to others. 

Slaves belonging to private persons could be moder- 
ately punished, but were not to be tied up and flogged 
without an order from the fiscal and the consent of the 
commander. This consent, however, was not to be 
refused if a crime deserving such punishment had 



270 History of South Africa. [1685 

been committed, for it was not meant that the alaTes 
should be allowed to become nnmly, bnt that they 
should be protected from the caprice of harsh and crael 
masters. 

Ck)nceming the treatment of the Hottentots, the hi^ 
commissioner laid down some general regulations, but 
made no definite laws. There was at the time a veiy 
friendly feeling between them and the Europeans. The 
different chiefs and their people came to the castle to 
trade in perfect security, and as yet there was no lack of 
pasture for the use of all. On one occasion, indeed, 
Schacher trespassed upon the ground where the Company 
made its hay at the Tigerberg, but upon being requested 
to move he did so very civilly. Gonnema had failed to 
pay his tribute, and it was not thought necessary to irri- 
tate him by speaking about it any longer. E^laas was so 
anxious to serve the Europeans that on one of his trad- 
ing expeditions just before the conunissioner arrived he 
took by force the cattle of the Goringhaiquas because 
they declined to part with any in barter. The injured 
people appealed to the commander for protection, and 
obtained justice. On another occasion the young men of 
Schacher's clan rebelled against their chief. Schacher 
and the old men who adhered to him thereupon went to 
the castle, when the rebels were summoned to appear, 
and by the commander's mediation peace was restored 
in the clan. Thefts were not unusual, but robbery with 
violence was seldom committed except by Bushmen. 
When it was, and the perpetrators could be discovered, 
the chiefs were always ready to punish them. At this 
very time four Hottentots were convicted of the murder 
of a Dutch servant, and were executed by being beaten 
to death with clubs by their own people. The Company's 
interests, however, were always regarded as having a pre- 
ference above those of the natives. For instance, in 
August 1684 three dead whales drifted up on the beach, 
when a party of Hottentots began to feast upon them, 



1685] Simon van der SteL 271 

but were driven away by the commander's instructions, 
in order that the oil might be secured. 

The high commissioner directed that nothing should 
be done to disturb the peaceful and friendly intercourse 
then existing. He thought it was wisdom to keep the 
clans in a condition of jealousy, but not to allow them 
to fight or to plunder one another. The Company was 
desirous of increasing the number of colonists, and there- 
fore it would be necessary to occupy more land. But it 
would not be just to take the pasture from the Hottentots 
in such a manner as to expel them or to force them to 
make war upon those farther in the interior. The com- 
missioner was an upright and humane man ; his remarks 
on the land question are those of a philanthropist. But 
here he was confronted with a great difficulty. How 
could colonists be introduced without expelling the orig- 
inal occupiers? There was only one way, and that was 
by inducing the natives to adopt other habits, to cease 
being nomads. The lord of Mydrecht directed that efforts 
should gradually be made by means of presents to induce 
them to consent to have certain boundaries laid down, 
so that both they and the Europeans might have their 
grounds defined. In other words, his idea was to per- 
suade them to retire within certain reserves. 

This plan was thereafter kept in view, though it was 
not carried out in the neighbourhood of the Cape until 
more than thirty years after the instructions of the high 
commissioner were issued, because there was no necessity 
for restricting the liberty of the Hottentots to wander 
wherever the ground was not cultivated. 

The greatest abuse which was at this time prevalent 
in the East India Company's possessions arose from the 
private trade carried on by the officers of government. 
Their salaries were miserably small, but they were per- 
mitted to supplement them by buying and selling to a 
hmited extent on their own account any articles except 
spices. The object in granting this liberty was to attach 



272 History of South Africa. [1685 

them to the Company's service, but in many instances it 
had developed into a straggle on their part to amass 
wealth at the cost of their employers. In some of the 
eastern dependencies the whole machinery of government 
was thrown out of working order by the rapacity of the 
officer who had the greatest amount of power. Various 
plans were from time to time suggested for the rectifica- 
tion of this abuse, but none of them succeeded. No mean 
could be found between absolute prohibition of private 
trade and its enlargement into rivalry of the Company's 
own commerce. 

At the Cape there was not as yet an opportunity for 
the officers of government to carry on business on their 
own account, except in a very small way, and they had 
therefore seldom been content to remain here. To go to 
the East, where fortunes were to be made, was the aim 
of their ambition. As a remedy, the high commissioner 
approved of a grant of land in full property being made to 
each of them, that they might carry on farming and sell 
their produce to the Company on the same terms as the 
burghers. There was no Ukelihood of rivalry, he thought, 
because the demand in India for various products was 
much greater than any supply the Cape could be made to 
yield. Subsequent events proved how greatly he was mis- 
taken, but at this time no one objected to the experiment 
being tried. 

The commander Van der Stel selected for himself a 
tract of land next to the last farm that was occupied at 
Wynberg. Most of the burghers who had once been 
living on that side of the mountain had removed to 
Stellenbosch, so that there were then only twenty-four 
families remaining between this ground and the castle. 
The boundaries chosen were agreed to by the high com- 
missioner, a surveyor was instructed to measure the land 
and make a chart of it without delay, and on the 13th of 
July the title was issued. In it the commissioner granted 
to Simon van der Stel eight hundred and ninety-one mor- 



1 68s] Simon van der SteL 273 

gen, three hundred and eighty roods, and twenty-eight 
square feet of ground, to be held by him in full property. 
This farm the commander named Constantia. 

For several years a number of miners had been en- 
gaged in searching about the Cape for valuable ores. Be- 
fore 1671 the country as far as Eiebeek's Easteel was 
examined for this purpose, but the search was then 
abandoned, and it was not resumed until the specimens 
of copper ore from Namaqualand attracted attention. The 
directors then sent out a party of men under the master 
miners Frederick Mattheus van Werlinghof and Gabriel 
MuUer, with instructions to cause a thorough search to be 
made. The miners were divided into two parties, one of 
which examined the country around Stellenbosch, the other 
the mountains along the Cape peninsula. In several places 
they sank pits twenty-seven or twenty-eight fathoms deep, 
in one — at the Steenberg — thirty fathoms deep, but with- 
out finding anything until the beginning of the year 1685, 
when great expectations were raised by the discovery in 
large quantities of a new kind of mineral. Neither the 
miners nor any one else at the Cape could say what it 
was, but it was assumed by all to be valuable. 

Some thought it was gold, others silver, others a kind 
of copper. There is Uttle doubt that it was only manga- 
nese. In February four packets of the ore, each of fifty 
pounds weight, were sent to the directors, and when the 
high commissioner was here its value was not yet ascer- 
tained. He therefore gave instructions for the miners to 
continue their work, and he further authorised the com- 
mander, who was very anxious to undertake this duty, to 
proceed in person to examine the copper mountains of 
Namaqualand. 

The high commissioner added another item of revenue 

to those already existing. He ordered that whenever 

landed property was sold, two and a half per cent of the 

purchase money should be paid to the government. If 

such property changed hands within three years of the 
VOL. I. 18 



274 History of South Africa, ['685 



first grant of k by the Company ten per cent was to 
be paid, or haK that amount if it was sold before the 
grantee had been in possession of it ten years. No trans- 
fer of land was to be Talid nntil these dues were paid. 

He fixed the price to be giren in cash for wheat at 
fifteen shilUngs the mmd of one hundred and serenty-fonr 
pomids, that being in his opinion the highest rate at 
which it could be sent to India with adyaiitage to the 
Company. But he instructed the conmiander to receive it 
at sixteen shillings and eight pence the muid in payment 
of debt or in exchange for goods. 

Some other regulations, but only of temporary import- 
ance, were made by the high commissioner during his 
stay at the Cape. The orders which he issued were laws 
in a different sense from those of the ordinary commis* 
sioners who visited the settlement. Their instructions 
could be repealed by their successors or by the Indian 
authorities, but the laws made by the lord of Mydrecht 
could only be reversed by the assembly of seventeen. 
Several of his regulations remained in force during the 
whole period of the East India Company's rule in South 
Africa. 

On the 16th of July, having established the govern- 
ment here, as he believed, on a satisfactory footing, he 
left for India, when the commander and council, whose 
authority had been in abeyance while he was present, 
again assumed the direction of affairs. 



275 



CHAPTEE IX. 

SIMON VAN DEB STEL'S ADMINISTRATION (c(mtinued). EXPLORA- 
TIONS AND DISCOVERIES IN SOUTH AFRICA. 

Commander Van der Steles Journey to Namaqiialand. 

As soon as the lord of Mydrecht left South Africa, the 
connnander began to make ready for the expedition to 
Namaqualand which that officer had sanctioned. He had 
long been anxious to make an inspection of the country 
from which the specimens of copper ore had been brought, 
but it would have been contrary to established rules for 
him to have gone so far from the castle without special 
permission. The arrangements were completed by the 
25th of August 1685, and on the morning of that day 
the baggage waggons were sent forward, the commander 
himself following on horseback in the afternoon. The 
secunde Andries de Man, Captain Hieronymus Cruse, and 
some other members of the council rode with the com- 
mander until they overtook the advance party, when his 
Honour was saluted with three rounds of discharges from 
the muskets of the whole company. 

The train as now completed consisted of fifteen wag- 
gons, each drawn by eight oxen, eight carts, and one 
coach. Of the waggons, eight belonged to burghers, and 
it was intended to take them no farther than the Ele- 
phant river. There were two hundred spare oxen, most 
of them trained to carry burdens on their backs, thirteen 
horses, and eight mules. There was a boat for the pur- 
pose of crossing the Berg and Elephant rivers, and 
there were two small cannons to impress the natives with 



276 History of South Africa. [1685 

proper respect for the power of the Europeans. The 
travelling party consisted of Commander Van der Stel, 
with three slaves as personal attendants, fifty-six Euro- 
peans of various callings, including soldiers, a Macassar 
prisoner of state, named Dain Bengale or Manalle, with 
a slave as his attendant, forty-six drivers and leaders, 
mostly of mixed blood, and a number of Hottentots to 
serve as interpreters. Even to-day the train would form 
an imposing sight, and it must have been considered a 
very grand spectacle by those who saw it moving slowly 
northward in that eventful year 1685. 

At the Tigerberg the kraals of Schacher and Kuiper 
were passed, the last of whom presented the commander 
with an ox for slaughter, according to the Hottentot 
custom of treating visitors of rank. The country was 
covered with grass, which has long since disappeared, and 
with beautiful flowers of many colours, such as are yet 
to be seen in the months of August and September. 
Keeping down the valley of the Berg river, which was 
found tenantless, Paardenberg, Dassenberg, and Eiebeek's 
Kasteel were passed, while bounding the view on the 
right was a range of rocky mountains, inhabited solely 
by Bushmen. These Bushmen lived by the chase and 
plunder, but savage as they were they have left me- 
morials of their existence in rude paintings upon the 
rocks, which are still as perfect as if the pigments had 
been laid on but yesterday. 

On the 31st the expedition reached the Sonqua ford 
of the Berg river, but as the commander preferred to 
keep along the western bank, he did not cross there. 
About Twenty-four Eivers and the Honey mountains, 
many Bushman huts were seen, but no people. These 
huts were merely branches of trees fastened together and 
covered with loose reeds. Farther down two kraals of 
Cochoquas were passed. On the evening of the 2nd of 
September an encampment was formed at the Misver- 
stand ford, and next morning at daybreak, after prayers 



1685] Simon van der SteL 277 

had been said and a psalm sung as usual, the boat was 
put upon the river and a commencement was made in 
ferrying the baggage across. Two days were occupied in 
transferring the camp to the other bank. At this place 
a trading party which had been sent in advance to pur- 
chase slaughter oxen and sheep joined the expedition 
with an ample supply. 

On the second day five natives were seen, who took 
to flight as soon as they observed the Europeans, but 
upon a sergeant and two men being sent after them with 
a present of pipes and tobacco, they were induced to 
return. They stated that they were Sonquas and lived 
upon honey and such game as they could shoot, and that 
they were then following up an eland which they had 
wounded with a poisoned arrow the day before, and 
which would die about that time. They were armed 
with assagais and bows and arrows. Their skins were 
covered with scurf, as they had undergone great want 
some time before, and were without grease to rub upon 
themselves. The commander made them a present of a 
sheep, which they immediately killed, and they did not 
cease eating until every particle of the meat and entrails 
was consumed. They rejected nothing except the gall and 
four little pieces from the thighs, which they said it was 
not their custom to eat. They cooked the flesh by laying 
it in hot ashes. In return for the commander's kindness, 
they presented him with three wild cats* skins which 
they had with them. 

On the day after leaving the river, when near the 
Piketberg, an incident occurred which nearly cost the 
commander his life. Of a sudden an enormous rhino- 
ceros rushed through the middle of the train, and then 
charged the carriage in which his Honour was seated. 
The commander sprang out, upon which the rhinoceros 
made towards him, but was fortunately turned just in 
time by a ball. The brute then charged in the direction 
of some horsemen, who in their &ight threw themselves 



278 History of South Africa. [1685 

from their saddles to the ground and were severely brais- 
ed. The cause of the confusion did no further harm, 
however, but rushed away with incredible swiftness, fol- 
lowed by a volley of musket balls fired at random. Owing 
to this incident the place received the name Bhenoster 
Bug. 

At the Piketberg the grass was observed to be very 
rich, and there was timber in abundance in the kloofs, as 
well as thorn trees for fael in plenty along the banks of 
the rivulets. At one encampment an eland weighing a 
thousand pounds was shot, from which circumstance the 
place was called Elands Vlakte. 

On the 9th of September the Little Elephant river 
was reached, and the train followed its course through a 
district which was Uttle better than a solitary wilderness, 
but where some elephants were seen. On the 14th a hill 
was passed, which was named Uilenberg, on account of 
the great number of owls found there. At this place a 
fountain of sweet water was discovered and named Klip- 
fontein, and a remarkable echo which the hill gave back 
was noticed. The next encampment was at the foot of 
Dassenberg, in a spot where there was abundance of 
wood, water, grass, and game. On the 15th the train 
passed through Pickenier's Kloof and moved on to the 
Elephant river, where preparations were made for cross- 
ing. 

The banks of the river were found to be clothed with 
willow and thorn trees, and in its waters were fish of 
large size and good flavour. A kraal of Grigriquas (called 
in other places Chariguriquas and Gierigriquas) was met 
v^ith, and it was ascertained that Sonquas were numerous 
along the whole course of the stream. The burghers now 
turned back, having first obtained permission from the 
commander to load their waggons with the flesh of elands, 
rhinoceroses, and seacows on their homeward journey. It 
occupied three days to get everything across the river, 
and in the afternoon of the 18th the train again moved on. 



1685] Simon van der SteL 279 

It was by this time evident that the season was an ex- 
ceptionally favourable one for exploration. In the north, 
after four years of drought, heavy and continuous rains 
had fallen, so that there was good hope of meeting with 
grass and water in the country to be traversed. Where 
the surgeon Van Meerhof in bygone years, and the ensign 
Bergh only recently, had found bare and parched ravines, 
there were now streams of water three feet in depth. Ani- 
mal Ufe was abundant. The day after crossing the river 
quails in great number were met with, which the Hot- 
tentot interpreters knocked over with great dexterity by 
throwing knobbed sticks at them when on the wing. 
Hares and antelopes of different kinds were seen sporting 
about in grass a foot and a half in depth, and were some- 
times secured for the table. The whole party was in 
excellent health and spirits. Every morning and evening 
they sang a psalm, Ustened to a chapter of the bible, and 
repeated a prayer, no one but the cattle herds being per- 
mitted to be absent on these occasions. When on the 
march, a party rode on ahead to select the best paths and 
the most suitable places for encamping. And when a halt 
was called, and the cattle were turned loose to graze, the 
scene resembled a pleasure excursion of a picnic party. 
If the sun was bright an awning was spread for the com- 
mander's use, and if it was dull a tent was pitched; in 
either case the Batavian tricolour being hoisted in front, 
and the pennant of the honourable East India Company 
floating above. 

On the 20th the expedition halted in a narrow valley, 
with the Elephant river on one side of the camp and a 
rocky mountain on the other. In this neighbourhood 
most of the Grigriquas were then living, and as a quarrel 
had broken out among them, in which a section of the 
clan had rebelled against the chief, the conunander was 
detained four days in making peace. He succeeded in 
reconciling the belligerents, and in purchasing a number 
of cattle from them. On the 26th the mountain called 



28o History of South Africa. [1685 

Meerhof 8 Kasteel was passed. The country was now be- 
coming every day more barren in appearance. There was 
plenty of water, though it was strongly impregnated with 
salt, and there was a sufficiency of grass for the cattle, 
but there was no wood for fuel. The only inhabitants 
were Bushmen. 

On the 29th the Little Doom Bosch river was 
reached, and from an eminence the sea was visible at a 
distance of about twenty-eight English miles. The follow- 
ing day an encampment was made at the Great Doom 
Bosch river, which was found a deep and rapid stream 
with numerous trees on its banks. Here some Bushmen 
were seen, and after a little scheming were induced to visit 
the camp, where they were presented with a sheep and a 
flask of brandy. They were wretchedly thin, for they were 
living upon nothing better than tortoises, caterpillars, lo- 
custs, and bulbs of wild plants. They made very merry 
over the feast provided for them, and danced and sang 
right joyfully. The treatment they received was so much 
to their liking that for some days they accompanied the 
expedition, making themselves useful as guides. 

On the 4th of October the commander was informed 
by the Bushmen that there were some Namaqua kraals 
in the neighbourhood, whereupon a halt was made at a 
place where there was plenty of grass and water, and 
four Hottentots were sent with pipes and tobacco as 
presents to the chiefs. A full week was spent here in 
making inquiries concerning the country, and in arrang- 
ing treaties with the chiefs, of whom there were six, over 
as many kraals. The intercourse was very friendly except 
with two or three individuals, but the commander as- 
serted and maintained a position of authority, to which 
they submitted without question. He entertained the 
chiefs and their wives with European food, but pleased 
them more by supplying them with a little brandy and 
tobacco. 

On the 11th the march was resumed. The country 



1685] Simon van der SteL 281 

was now found to be so rugged that progress was very 
difficult. Fortunately there were water and grass, and 
Captain Oedeson, who claimed the Copper mountain, and 
some other Namaquas acted as guides. Along the route 
various kraals were passed, and at nearly every halting 
place fresh visitors were found. With all the chiefs 
treaties of peace and friendship were made, and they 
further promised not to quarrel with each other or with 
the Hottentots in the neighbourhood of the Cape, the 
commander on his part undertaking to prevent these last 
named from attacking or molesting them, so that they 
could trade with the Company without let or hindrance. 

Sunday, the 14th of October, was the commander's 
birthday, and in compliment to him the camp, which 
was in a good position, was not broken up. The cannons 
were taken from the waggons and loaded, and at noon 
three volleys of musketry were fired by the whole com- 
pany, each volley being followed by the discharge of a 
cannon. There was a large party of Namaquas present, 
and they arranged a dance, which was their manner of 
complimenting persons of rank. Twenty men formed a 
circle, each having a reed in his hand. The reeds were 
of various sizes and lengths, so that different notes were 
sounded by blowing into them. A master musician stood 
in the centre, having in his hand a long rod with which 
he gave directions, singing a tune and beating time with 
his foot as well. The players kept leaping up and down, 
but produced music which surprised the Europeans by its 
harmony and power. Outside was a deep circle of men 
and women, dancing and clapping their hands in time 
with the music. This entertainment continued until even- 
ing, when the commander had an ox slaughtered for his 
visitors, and distributed a small keg of arrack among 
them. 

The commander here began to obtain information con- 
cerning the great river to the north. Many of his visitors 
had been to it, and they all described it as being about 



282 History of South Africa. [1685 

ten days' journey beyond the Copper mountain, as run- 
ning towards the setting sun, and as being very wide 
and deep, with banks clothed with large trees. Some of 
them produced a quantity of glittering sand which they 
stated they had brought from it. According to the 
accounts received, the commander conjectured that it must 
enter the sea about the latitude of the gulf of Yoltas 
of the charts, which is really the correct position of its 
mouth. 

The 15th of October was spent in bartering cattle, and 
on the 16th the train moved forward. For five days after 
this the track was through a rugged country, where the 
waggons and carts were often overturned and where 
progress was extremely difficult. But on the 21st the 
commander's perseverance was rewarded, for on the after- 
noon of that day the camp was pitched at the Copper 
mountain, the place he had so long desired to see. 
He calculated that he had travelled three hundred and 
sixty-five English miles from the castle, and that he 
had reached the latitude of 29"" S. This was not quite 
correct, owing to the means at the command of the 
expedition for determining latitudes being faulty. In 
reality the Copper mountain is more than half a degree 
farther south. The distance from the castle in a straight 
line is about three hundred miles, and the direction is 
a very little to the westward of north. 

A fortnight was now occupied in getting out ore and 
examining the country around. It was found to be a 
very uninviting district. The Namaquas who were with 
the party acted as guides and gave all the information 
they possessed, which was indeed not very much. Aloes 
were found in abundance, but wood for fuel was very 
scarce. Barren mountains, naked rocks, and desolate 
wastes made up the scenery. But copper ore was dis- 
covered in great quantities and of surprising richness. 

The next object of the commander was to explore the 
country between the Copper mountain and the sea, and 



1685] Simon van der Stel. 283 

on the 5th of November the camp was broken up for 
that purpose. A direct route was impracticable, and the 
expedition was compelled to return some distance to the 
south before a pathway to the shore could be found. 
Travelling had now become very diflScult. The beds of the 
rivulets were dried up and baked as hard as brick. Water 
was rarely met with, and when the guides pointed it 
out it was so salt that it could hardly be used. The 
Namaquas— even Captain Oedeson himself, once the most 
friendly of them all — grew very anxious to hasten south- 
ward, and became sulky and stubborn when their wishes 
were disregarded. But the work of exploration was only 
half performed, and until the coast was thoroughly ex- 
amined the commander was unwiUing to retreat. 

On the twelfth day after leaving the Copper mountain 
an advance party on foot reached the sea, but it was not 
until the 22nd of November that the whole expedition 
encamped at the mouth of a river then nearly dry. Along 
the shore of the Atlantic much driftwood was seen, in 
which were many large trees that came, as the Nama- 
quas stated, from the great river of the north. From 
this circumstance the commander concluded that the river 
could not be far off, but he was at that time unable to 
obtain any additional information concerning it, though 
among the Namaquas with him were some whose usual 
place of residence was on its banks. One thing, however, 
was now certain. There was no town of Vigiti Magna. 
And as this great river of which he had heard so much 
certainly did not correspond with the Camissa of the old 
geographers, it would require another name. Thenceforth 
it was called by Europeans the river Vigiti Magna, until 
it obtained from the farmers in the next century the 
name of the Groote, and from Colonel Gordon that of the 
Orange. The people who Uved upon its banks near the 
sea, though they were clans of the Nama tribe, were 
named by Commander Van der Stel Camissons, after the 
Oamissa which was now to be removed from the charts. 



284 History of South Africa. [1685 

The place where the expedition was encamped was* 
nearly a degree farther south than the Copper mountain. 
From the 22nd of November until the 12th of December 
the time was spent in endeavouring to proceed to the 
north. A heavy arurf was rolling in on the beach, and 
not a single harbour could be discovered suitable for large 
vessels to anchor in. One little cove was visited, which 
was partly protected from the swell of the sea by reefs- 
of rocks that ran out from each side nearly across it& 
entrance, leaving a narrow but deep passage about the 
centre where boats and small cutters could get in and 
out. The cove was capable of containing two or three 
decked boats in a tolerable condition of security, and 
there was a smooth sandy beach that extended half round 
it, upon which the sea did not break in calm weather,, 
but no fresh water could be found in the neighbourhood. 
Parties of men were sent out in all directions to examine 
the country. One of these proceeded along the coast 
until the officer in command thought he had reached the 
position of Angra das Yoltas on the charts, but he was 
in reaUty still fully seventy miles from it. The Buffalo 
river was explored a considerable distance upward from 
its mouth. It was so called on account of some Bush- 
men stating that they had once seen two buffaloes upon 
its banks. 

Meanwhile the cattle were becoming weak, and were 
suffering terribly from the scarcity of water. Some of 
them ran into the sea and drank, and immediately after- 
wards died. The exploring parties were at times reduced 
to great distress from the same cause. It was evident 
that everything had been done that was possible, and so 
on the 12th of December, to the great joy of every one, 
the commander gave the order to turn homeward. It 
took the expedition eighteen days to get back to the 
Elephant river, and they were days of anxiety and suffer- 
ing. The heat of the sun exhausted both man and beast 
Water was so scarce that at times forced marches had to 



1 686] Simon van der Stel. 285 

be made at night to reach a pool which after all would 
only aflford a quart or two for each ox. The httle that 
was obtainable was so bitter with salt as to be nauseous. 
On the last march some of the cattle lay down exhausted, 
and were only recovered by sending water back to them 
in kegs. Four days were spent at the Elephant river 
refreshing the worn-out animals, during which time the 
stream was explored some distance upward, and down- 
ward to its mouth. 

The difl&culties of the journey were now over. There 
was plenty of grass and water in front, and every part of 
the route was well known. Nothing remained to be done 
in the way of exploration except to examine a few leagues 
of the coast. This the commander did, and made a 
careful inspection of the inlet now known as Lambert's 
Bay. At the Little Elephant river the Cochoqua kraals 
were met with, and the men were found with their heads 
shaved clean as a mark of mourning. They stated that 
it was on account of the death of the old chief Gonnema, 
which had recently taken place. At their request, the 
commander confirmed his son as his successor. Nothing 
further of any lasting interest occurred on the homeward 
journey, which ended by the safe arrival of the expedition 
at the castle on the 26th of January 1686. 

The commander had been absent from the seat of 
government five months and one day. During that time 
a great deal of geographical information had been ac- 
quired, and what was perhaps equally important, much 
that had formerly been received as accurate was ascer- 
tained to be incorrect. From this date the maps of the 
western portion of what is now the Cape Colony were 
fair representations of the country. They did not give 
the correct courses and lengths of the rivers, it is true, 
nor did they place them in their exact positions, the lati- 
tude being out in some instances as much as forty miles, 
but the general features of the country were accurately 
delineated The river known to us as the Orange was 



286 History of South Africa. [1686 

laid down from report only, but its size and its conne 
from east to west were known. The conmiander brong^t 
back with him to the Cape a Hottentot of the 'CarniB- 
sons nation/ who had passed his youth in wandering 
about the country along the lower course of the great 
river, and who was therefore well acquainted with it* 
This man was dressed in European clothing, and was 
placed where he could acquire a knowledge of the Dutch 
language. The commander hoped in course of time to 
learn a great deal from him; but he was disappointed 
in this expectation, for the Namaqua was never able to 
tell much more than was already known of the country. 

As to the copper mines, it had been ascertained that 
ore, rich and easy to be collected, was there in abund- 
ance, but that it was in such a situation as to be useless 
to Europeans. With the appliances at the Company's 
disposal, it could not be removed in such quantities as to 
pay expenses. Under these circumstances it was con- 
sidered needless to spend more money or thought upon 
the matter, and so it was left until the improved means 
of communication of modem times made it possible to 
turn the mineral wealth of Namaqualand to account. 

The Wreck* of the Stavenisse, 

On the night of the 16th of February 1686 the East 
India Company's third class ship Stavenisse^ on her return 
voyage from India to Europe, was wrecked on the African 
coast about seventy Enghsh miles south of the bay of 
Natal. The weather had been overcast, and Skipper 
Willem Knyf and his officers beheved themselves far 
from land. In those days longitude at sea was always 
uncertain, but in this instance the latitude had also been 
miscalculated. When the look-out reported that he saw 
land, the chief mate, Ysbrand Hogesaad, who was the 
officer of the watch, replied sharply that it could only 
be a bank of mist. He would not even take the trouble 



1 686] Simon van der SteL 287 

to go forward and look for himself, so confident was he 
of being well out at sea. Presently the look-out reported 
again that land was close under the bow, and almost at 
the same moment breakers were seen, and the roar of 
the surf was heard. It was very dark, and the light 
breeze was djdng away into a perfect calm. The alarm 
was given, when all hands sprang on deck, and as fast as 
possible the two bower anchors were got out. 

The Stavenisse was drifting slowly towards the shore. 
The port bower held, and she swung to it, but by this 
time she was among breakers. In this condition she 
lay for a couple of hours, when the cable parted and she 
struck. As the ship immediately filled with water, the 
crew tried to save themselves by getting to land, in which 
effort sixty succeeded and eleven were drowned. When 
day dawned it was seen that one side of the wreck was 
stove in, the masts had gone, and the cargo of pepper 
was washing out. Fortunately the main and fore yards, 
with the sails attached to them, had been thrown up on 
the beach. The sails when stretched over a rough frame 
made a tolerable tent. On the 17th and 18th the com- 
passes, charts, and instruments for measuring altitudes, a 
couple of casks of pork, a small quantity of biscuit, and 
some clothing were recovered from the wreck. On the 
19th a general consultation was held, when it was con- 
sidered advisable to start at once and attempt to travel 
overland to the Cape. 

The resolution was acted upon without delay. There 
were three ofl&cers who had been severely bruised in get- 
ting ashore, and these, being unable to travel, were left 
behind in the tent. The others, fifty-seven in number, 
set out that same morning. But within a couple of days 
the skipper, the three mates, the sailmaker, the boatswain, 
and four sailors, finding themselves unequal to the effort 
of walking over such a rough country, abandoned their 
companions and returned to the wreck. The remaining 
forty-seven men continued their journey along the coast. 



288 History of South Africa. [1686 

Those who were now at the wreck resolyed to repair 
a broken boat and endeavour to reach the Cape in her. 
This work occupied a fortnight, and when it was com- 
pleted the compasses and charts, with a small quantity of 
stores and clothing that had been recovered, were placed in 
her and she was launched. But in trying to get through 
the surf the boat was overturned and everything was lost, 
the voyagers barely escaping with their lives. 

Meantime the natives in great numbers flocked to the 
scene of the wreck. At times there were as many as a 
thousand armed men present. The Europeans managed 
to purchase a little bread and millet from them for nails 
and bolts, but they soon set to work to bum and cut out 
iron for themselves. Having now nothing to buy food 
with, the wrecked seamen were in great distress, when 
one day two Englishmen made their appearance. These 
strangers stated that on the 17th of May of the preceding 
year they had lost their vessel at the bay of Natal. For 
nine months they had been living with the natives at 
that place, and upon hearing the report of the wreck of 
a ship to the southward they had come to oflfer assist- 
ance. They could speak the native language sufficiently 
well to make themselves understood, and they had plenty 
of beads and copper rings to trade with. At the bay of 
Natal, they stated, they and their three companions had 
sufficient merchandise to purchase bread and meat for 
thoni all for fifty years, and Skipper Knyf and his party 
were very welcome to share it with them. 

The wrecked men gratefully accepted the timely aid 
thus offered. Three of them were unable to walk, and 
the natives could not be induced to carry them, so they 
were left in the tent with one of the Englishmen as their 
protector. Ten of them, guided by the other Englishman, 
immediately set out for the bay of Natal. After a while 
one of the sick men died, and the remcdning two re- 
covered and joined the main party. In the meantime a 
petty officer had been trampled to death by an elephant. 



i686] Simon van der Stel. 289 

so that the little European community, when united, con- 
sisted of eleven Dutchmen and five Englishmen. 

The EngUshmen were part of the crew of a ketch 
named the Good Hope^ of fifty tons burden and manned by 
twenty-four hands, which had gone to the east coast of 
Afiica to trade in ivory and slaves. In warping over the 
bar at Natal she was struck by a squall and driven on 
the Point, where she remained inmiovable. Her crew 
then proceeded to put together a large decked boat, the 
materials for which were on board, and when this was 
finished the master and nine men left for Mozambique. 
Another English ketch about this time put into the bay 
of Natal to procure a supply of beef, and four more of 
the crew of the Good Hope got away in her. Five had 
previously died of dysentery, and the remaining five were 
those who welcomed the people of the Stavenisse, They 
had a good supply of beads and copper rings, with which 
to purchase food, and they had even got in barter about 
three tons of ivory. Some of them, being anxious to ex- 
amine the country, had gone far inland, and had every- 
where found the natives friendly and hospitable. 

After about four months spent in idleness, the Dutch 
and English unitedly resolved to build a vessel with which 
to make their escape. There was plenty of timber at 
hand, and the wreck of the Chod Hope would furnish 
some of the other necessary materials, but there was not 
a sufficient supply of bolts or of tools. A large party of 
natives was therefore hired to proceed to the wreck of 
the Stavenisse, where a quantity of iron was collected, 
which they carried back. For a single copper arm-ring 
each one bore a burden ranging from fifty to a hundred 
pounds in weight over the intervening seventy miles. 

Among the Europeans there was an EngUshman firom 

Bristol, John Kingston by name, who was fertile in 

expedients for overcoming difficulties. They had no 

saw, and without one it would be vain to attempt to 

build a vessel. Kingston set to work, and with only the 
VOL. I. 19 



290 History of South Africa. [1687 

shank of an anchor for an anvil, he turned a stout iron 
ring into a tool that answered for one. Then they laid 
the keel of a vessel fifty feet long and fourteen feet beam. 
They employed natives to carry the timber from the forest, 
and to do the rough work in hewing planks. But it was 
an arduous undertaking with the limited means at their 
disposal, so that nearly eight months elapsed before their 
craft was completed. 

Early in 1687 another party of shipwrecked men ar- 
rived at the bay of Natal. On the 25th of December 
1686 the Bona Ventura, of London, a ketch of twenty 
tons burden, was lost at St. Lucia Bay. One of her 
crew was drowned, and the remaining eight men and a 
boy set out with the intention of walking overland to the 
Cape of Good Hope, but to their great joy they found 
at Natal a party of Europeans and a vessel nearly ready 
for sea. The new comers were welcomed to a share of 
whatever the others had, and in return joined them in 
the labour on hand. 

Soon after this the little vessel was launched and 
named the Centaurus. A supply of provisions was pur- 
chased from the natives, consisting of about six or seven 
thousand pounds of millet, a thousand pounds of salted 
and smoked meat, a quantity of millet ground into meal, 
twenty goats, between two and three hundred fowls, and 
a hundred and fifty pumpkins. Seventeen small casks of 
water were put on board, and the ivory which the 
Englishmen had obtained in barter was shipped. 

The diflicult task which they had undertaken was at 
length finished, and on the 17th of February 1687, a 
year and a day after the wreck of the Stavenisse, the 
Cenfauni8 was ready for sea. But at the last moment 
throe of the Englishmen who had been wrecked in the 
(hml Hope resolved to remain behind. They had formed 
connections with the natives, and contrasting the ease of 
life at Natal with the hardships endured at sea, they 
clung to the former. An Enghshman and a Frenchman 



1 688] Simon van der SteL 291 

of the Rmoi Ventura's crew also preferred to stay where 
they were. There sailed then in the Centaurtis the eleven 
men of the Stavenisse, seven of the Bona Ventura, and 
John Kingston and William Christian of the Good Hope. 
They had neither chart nor compass, so they kept in 
sight of the coast all the way to Table Bay, where they 
arrived safely on the 1st of March. 

The Voyage of the Centaurus. 

When reporting themselves at the Cape, Skipper Knyf 
and his party expressed great surprise that nothing had 
been heard of the forty-seven men who left the wreck 
of the Stavenisse on the 19th of February 1686. The 
council, after taking a number of depositions, considered 
that they ought to be searched for, and with this object 
the Centaurus was purchased from her builders. Her hull 
was found to need only a Uttle finishing off, and after 
she was rigged afresh she proved to be a staunch sea 
boat and an excellent sailer. Kingston and Christian 
were paid 33/. 6s. 8d. in cash for their share in her, 
and were then engaged as quartermasters in the Com- 
pany's service, on the understanding that they were to 
be employed in any expedition sent to Natal. The crew 
of the Bona Ventura worked their passages to Batavia 
in the next eastward bound ship that called. 

After the Centaurus was refitted she was used at the 
Cape for a few months, and it was not until the 10th 
of November that she was sent to look for the missing 
men. East of Mossel Bay she encountered a succession 
of head winds, so that on the 6th of February 1688 she 
was only as far as the mouth of the Kei. It was then 
a calm, and the current setting south-westward, carried 
her back with it. On the afternoon of the 7th she was 
off the Coffin, or as now called Cove Bock, which she 
had previously passed and repassed several times. Being 
close inshore, an anchor was dropped, and a boat was 



292 History of South Africa. [i688 

sent to see if a landing place could be found. Daring 
the time the boat was away some persons on shore were 
noticed making signals, but whether they were Euro- 
peans or Hottentots waving karosses was uncertain. The 
boat returned with an unfavourable report, and, as a 
light breeze was then rising, sail was again made on 
the Centaurus. But next morning the officers began to 
reflect that the signals which they had seen were pro- 
bably made by Europeans, and they therefore determined 
to go back and make sure. 

On the afternoon of the 8th it was nearly calm, and 
the sea was quite smooth. Something which could not 
at first be clearly made out was noticed on the water at 
a distance, but as it came nearer it was seen to be a 
small raft with three naked white men upon it paddling 
towards the vessel. When the strangers reached the Cenr- 
taurus they announced themselves as part of the crew 
of the Siavenisse, and stated that there were on shore 
eighteen others, besides a French boy who was the sole 
survivor of a boaf s crew that landed on the coast. Upon 
hearing this, every effort was made to get close in to the 
land, and at sunset the anchor was dropped in sixteen 
fathoms of water and the national flag was hoisted. 
That evening another of the wrecked seamen was got on 
board. 

The French boy who was with the sailors of the 
Siavenisse was a youth that had seen many troubles. His 
name was Guillaume Chenut. Of a respectable family in 
Guienne, he had received a good education, but had fled 
from France with an uncle on account of being a Hugue- 
not. Losing his relative soon afterwards and being in 
great distress, he apphed for aid to an English merchant 
skipper, who conveyed him to New England, and took 
him next in his ship which was proceeding to the Indies. 
When off the Kaffir coast it fell calm and the sea was 
smooth, which tempted the skipper to land and inspect 
the country. Guillaume him in the boat. 



i688] Simon van der SteL 293 

Being unsuspicious of danger, the white people were un- 
armed, and could make no resistance when a party of 
savages fell upon them. All were murdered except Guil- 
laume, who was badly wounded, but whose Ufe was 
spared. When he recovered he was taken under the 
protection of a chief named Sotopa. The people of the 
country were Amaxosa, and Togu was then the para- 
mount ruler of the tribe. The youth rapidly acquired some 
knowledge of the native language, and being informed 
that there were white men scattered about in the neigh- 
bouring districts, he made his way to a party, whom he 
found to be seamen of the Stavenisse. From that time he 
kept vnth them until the appearance of the Centaurus. 

On the 9th the sea was so smooth that communication 
with the shore was easy. Fourteen men of the Stavenisse 
and the French boy were brought oflf, as also the flesh 
of a fat ox which was bartered from the native chief for 
an arm-ring of the value of four shillings. The following 
day a present of five pounds of beads, a neck-ring, and 
two arm-rings was sent to the chief in the name of the 
honourable Company, as an acknowledgment of the kind- 
ness with which he had treated the Dutch sailors. The 
chief was highly pleased with this present, which was to 
him one of considerable value. Two more oxen were 
purchased for an arm-ring each, but before they could be 
slaughtered and the meat got on board, a stiff south- 
easterly breeze sprang up, and it was necessary to get 
the Centaurus away firom her dangerous position. She 
accordingly made sail for the mouth of a river which was 
distant about six or seven English miles to the east- 
ward, and there dropped anchor again. This is the 
river known to us as the Buffalo, but it was called the 
Eerste by the Dutch sailors. The surf at its mouth 
was so high that it was not found possible to enter it 
vdth a boat. The coast was vdld and exposed. To the 
right, as the men of the Centaunis looked upon it, sand 
hills partly covered vdth low thick bush were seen, and 



294 History of South Africa. [1688 

behind was a rolling grass-covered country, gradually 
rising, though no mountains were visible. To the left the 
Coffin rock formed the extremity of a curve fifteen or 
sixteen miles in extent. There were still three men of 
the Stavenisse on shore, but as it was believed that they 
preferred to remain with the natives, and were therefore 
purposely keeping out of the way, the officers of the Cen- 
taunts determined to wait no longer for them. On the 
11th sail was set for Table Bay, where the little vessel 
arrived safely on the 19th. 

Guillaume Ghenut was fortunate enough to meet at 
the Cape a man who knew his family and who took an 
interest in him. From this friend the youth learned that 
his elder brother was then occupjdng an honourable and 
influential post in the service of the stadtholder of Fries- 
land. The directors of the East India Company were 
communicated with, and instructions were sent out that 
the youth was to be forwarded to Europe in a becoming 
manner. This was done, and Chenut was at length re* 
stored to his brother. 

The First Voyage of the Noord. 

A few months after the return of the Centaurus it 
was resolved to send another search expedition along 
the coast. For this purpose the galiot Noord was made 
ready, and was despatched on the 19th of October 1688, 
with a crew of nineteen men including the quartermaster 
William Christian. Her instructions were to proceed first 
to Delagoa Bay, and carefully examine that harbour and 
the country around it, and then in returning to search 
along the coast for the still missing men. 

The Noord arrived in Delagoa Bay on the 15th of 
November, and found there two vessels, one of them 
English, the other Portuguese. On one of the islands 
the crew of the English vessel had put up a tent, where 
they were trading with the native- iw •^ friendly manner. 



1689] Simon van der Stel. 295 

On the mainland, near the mouth of the Manisa river, 
the Portuguese had a small lodge or temporary habita- 
tion, where they were carrying on traffic, some of the 
ivory which they purchased being brought from a distance 
as far south as St. Lucia Bay. The Dutch found the 
natives friendly upon the whole, but inclined to be thiev- 
ish. They remained in the bay, surveying it roughly and 
exploring the rivers — particularly the Maputa and the 
Tembe, — until the 29th of December, when they sailed 
vdth four men down with fever. 

On the 4th of January 1689 the Noord came to anchor 
off the Bluff of Natal. People were seen making signals 
on shore, and when a boat was sent in two white men 
came running into the water to meet her, thanking Gk>d 
that they once more saw Christian faces. They proved 
to be two of the Stavenisse's crew, who had returned from 
the main party through Kaffirland. It was only two days 
before full moon, and on the shallowest part of the bar 
the water was sixteen feet in depth. On the following 
day the Noord went inside. The sick men were taken 
on shore, where two of them died of the fever which 
they had brought from Delagoa Bay. The natives were 
friendly as before. Supplies of food were brought by 
them for sale, and were purchased at very cheap rates. 
A hen could be bought for three beads, three pumpkins 
for four beads, milk, millet bread, etc., on the same scale. 
The water-casks were emptied and sent on shore in the 
boat, and the women filled them with fresh water, which 
they carried in large earthenware jars poised upon their 
heads. A party of men, vdth whom were William Chris- 
tian and an experienced miner, went inland searching for 
indications of ore, and were away eight days, but dis- 
covered nothing of consequence. 

Twenty-three months before this, when the CerUaurus 
sailed from Natal, four Englishmen and one Frenchman 
were left behind. They were not there now, and not a 
word is said of thier fate by the journalist of the Noord. 



296 History of South Africa. [1689 

But when the galiot was ready to sail, William Christian 
gave three letters into the custody of a native, a futhfol 
friend of his in bygone days. It may therefore be pre- 
sumed that his old companions were still in the country, 
and that they had probably gone on a journey inland. 

On the 23rd of January the galiot left Natal. On the 
26th she was off the mouth of a river in latitude 33^ 2^ 
S., according to the skipper's reckoning. The great rock 
where the men of the Stavenisse were picked up the year 
before was visible to the westward at a distance of about 
a Dutch mile and a half, or seven English miles, fifteen 
Dutch miles being equal to a degree of latitude. There 
a storm from the north was encountered, which drove 
the gaUot out to sea. On the morning of the 28th she 
was again at the mouth of the Buffalo, where she dropped 
anchor, and a boat was sent in. The surf was too high 
for the boat to pass, but a strong swinuner made his way 
through it to land, taking with him a letter for any 
Europeans who might be there. He returned safely after 
delivering the letter to some natives, and ascertaining that 
two Dutchmen were living close by. 

That afternoon the boat was sent in again, but the 
bar was still too rough to be crossed, though an old man, 
one of the Stavenisse's crew, swam out through it and was 
got on board. He stated that two white men had 
recently left that part of the country with the intention 
of proceeding to Natal The European who was still on 
shore was an indifferent swimmer. On the 30th an effort 
was made to get him off at Cove Eock, but the surf was 
so high that he could not reach a line sent towards him. 
He then made signals to the boat's crew to desist from 
attempting to rescue him. The galiot therefore set sail 
for the westward, and that evening shortly after sunset 
she passed the Bird islands. Between Cove Eock and 
these islands her officers observed the mouths of the four 
rivers now named the Keiskama, Fish, Kowie, and Bush- 
man's, none of which could be entered. Heavy weather 



1689] Simon van der Stel. 297 

followed and prevented her from examining the coast 
between the Bird islands and Mossel Bay, now the only 
portion of the southern seaboard not well known. On 
the 6th of February she arrived in Table Bay. 

From the men of the Good Hope and Stavenisse full in- 
formation was obtained concerning the coast belt of 
South Africa from the Tugela to the Buffalo. Their 
observations upon the country are of little importance 
now, but their descriptions of its inhabitants are highly 
interesting. They had lived long enough among the 
natives to acquire some knowledge of the language, so 
that the names of the tribes which they give are even 
more correctly spelt than they are by many modern 
writers. For instance, they term the Amaxosa the Magosse, 
the Amampondo the Mdponte, the Abatwa (the Bantu 
name for the Bushmen) the BatiuiSy etc. 

Within the century that had elapsed since the wreck 
of the Santo Alberto^ the great tribes of modern Kaffirland 
south of the Umzimkulu had either been formed from 
scattered families or had grown from petty clans into im- 
portant communities. There had also been a general 
advance southward of the Bantu people. Unfortunately 
the seamen of the Stavenisse did not place on record the 
names of the leading chiefs in the territories they passed 
through, so that it is not possible to connect their ac- 
counts with native traditions collected during recent years, 
except in the solitary instance of the Amaxosa. Togu 
was then great chief of that tribe, and according to native 
antiquaries he was sixth in descent from Xosa, its founder, 
which would give about twenty years as the term of 
government of each of his predecessors to take the origin 
of the tribe back to the time of the Portuguese account. 
The other divisions of the Bantu south of Natal have 
genealogical tables of their chiefs of about the same 

^ See my Yolnme entitled The Portuguese in South Africa. 



298 History of South Africa. [1689 

length, BO that these tables may reasonably be taken as 
accurate. 

According to the wrecked seamen the tribe which 
occupied the coast lands of Natal was the Abambo. Next 
came the Amampondomsi, or Pondomisis as now termed 
by Europeans. Following them were the Amampondo, 
and next the Abatembu. Farther westward Bushmen 
were met, and last of all the Amaxosa. No clue is given 
by which the exact position of the various tribes at that 
time can be fixed on a map, but from explorations of a 
later date it is certain that the Bantu did not extend in- 
land more than half the distance from the sea to the 
great mountain range, and it is equally certain that many 
of the clans were then living farther north than now. 

The Europeans had been well treated by all these 
people except the Bushmen, by whom they had been 
stripped and robbed of everything they had. They were 
naked when they reached the country of the Amaxosa, 
where they were received with great compassion and 
were supplied with food and shelter. Five of them had 
perished before that time, two being drowned when at- 
tempting to cross a swollen river, two others being left 
on the way exhausted, and the fifth being murdered by 
Bushmen. After resting awhile in the country of tl^e 
Amaxosa, they all wished to proceed on their journey 
westward, but some of them were induced not to do so 
by being informed that the next people were Bushmen, 
who would certainly murder them. Twelve of the boldest, 
however, made the attempt, and reports had been re- 
ceived that they had all been killed. Of the forty-seven 
who had left the wreck of the Stavenisse to travel south- 
ward, seventeen were dead, twenty-one had been rescued, 
and the fate of the remaining nine was unknown, but 
it was supposed that they were still living among the 
natives in different parts of the country. 

Among the Pondos the travellers found an old Portu- 
guese, who had been wrecked on the coast forty years 



16S9] Simom van dtr SteL 299 

before. He had entiiely forgotten his mother tongue, 
and had become in all respects except colour like the 
natiyes. 

They did not discover a single haven along the coast, 
nor anything in which a profitable trade could be opened 
up by the honourable Company. Slaves, they stated, were 
certainly not to be procured, as the inhabitants were 
friendly in disposition and were very fond of each other. 

Of the customs of the Bantu the seamen of the State- 
nisse gave as accurate and almost as complete an account 
as any which is extant at the present day. The men did 
no work except milking the cows and making the kraals, 
the women being required to till the ground and to per- 
form all the household labour. Circumcision, with its 
attendant ceremonies and the rights which it confers; 
polygamy, with the method of obtaining wives and the 
marriage customs; superstition, with the sacrifice of cattle 
and the pimishments for alleged dealing in witchcraft, 
were among the subjects noted by them and fairly de- 
scribed just as they are to-day. 

They spoke of the natives of that part of the country 
as more handsome in person than the Hottentots of the 
Cape, as so hospitable that at every kraal there was a 
hut kept purposely for the accommodation of strangers, 
as so social that they never passed each other without 
stopping and conversing. They described the ceremonies 
of mourning, the laws of the chase, the rules for the 
division of spoil taken in war. They gave an account of 
the knowledge possessed by these natives of -smelting iron 
and copper, and of making various tools and orna- 
ments. 

The mountainous districts were infested with Bush- 
men, that inhuman race who not only stole cattle, but 
murdered men, women, and children alike, whenever they 
had an opportunity. These savages, who were armed 
with bow and poisoned arrow, had every man's hand 
against them here, just as everywhere else in South 



300 History of South Africa. [1689 

Africa. The stalwart Bantu used the assagai and shield 
in fighting with them and in all their wars. 

The system of government was described, together 
with the method of trying and ptmishing criminaLs, nor 
is it omitted to be stated that fines for assault of a 
subject were paid to the chief. The name of the chief 
who governed the clan occupying what is now the district 
of East London was Magama. The wrecked seamen 
called him king, but he was not the paramount chief of 
the Amaxosa. It is impossible now to ascertain what 
section of the tribe he ruled over, but that is a matter of 
small importance compared with the fact that in 1686 a 
branch of the Xosas was found settled so far westward. 

The principal plants cultivated by this people are 
stated to have been millet, pumpkins, and beans. Tobacco 
was found also in the northern districts. The Europeans 
considered the beer which was made from millet very 
palatabla The grain was preserved from weevil by stor- 
ing it in pits underground, precisely as it is to-day. The 
country was exceedingly well stocked with homed cattle 
and goats, and teemed with wild animals of many kinds. 

These particulars show that the travellers had made 
themselves thoroughly well acquainted with the domestic 
life of the people among whom they had been living. 
Their statements, coupled with the log-book of the Noord^ 
supplied such information as enabled the commander to 
frame a rough chart of the south-eastern coast region. 
The chart was certainly far from accurate, but it was a 
great improvement upon the old maps. The fabulous 
empire of Monomotapa was now confined to the distant 
interior, and Cortado and kindred towns disappeared alto- 
gether. 

Ensign Schryver's Expedition to the Inqiias. 

Before 1687 the most distant Hottentot tribe known 
to the eastward was the Outeniqua, who occupied the dis- 
trict beyond the present village of George. Of them even 



1689] Simon van der SteL 301 

very little more than the name was known, as no Euro- 
pean had ever penetrated farther than the kraals of the 
Attaquas, who adjoined them to the westward. Between 
the Attaquas and Hottentots-Holland lay the districts of 
the Gouriquas, the Hessequas, and the Chainouquas, all 
well known people. Beyond the Outeniquas many hordes 
were reported to exist, and some fifteen or twenty words 
then held to be tribal names were written down by 
different commanders, a repetition of which would only 
cause confusion. They may have been imitations of the 
sounds of titles of petty clans, but supposition is needless, 
for in whatever manner the words were obtained, they 
disappeared as soon as the light of exploration fell upon 
the country. 

In February 1687 there came to the castle an indi- 
vidual who represented that he had been sent by a very 
powerful chief living far in the interior to ascertain what 
kind of people the white men were, of whom rumours 
had reached him, and what kind of things the wonderful 
articles were which it was reported they exchanged for 
cattle. According to the messenger's account, he was 
himself a chief, but from the way in which he boasted 
of the exploits of himself and his people, the commander 
concluded that his following was a band of robbers. He 
told just such a story, in short, as a Kafi&r bard would re- 
cite to-day, and which would deceive any one who was a 
stranger to native customs. From the statements which 
he made concerning the powerful ruler by whom he had 
been sent, the Europeans were led to beUeve that this 
could be no other than the emperor of Monomotapa, the 
great potentate whom they had so long been searching 
for in vain. The messenger remained at the castle only 
two days, during which time he was well entertained, 
and upon leaving he promised soon to return with the 
brother of the great chief who had sent him. 

During the next two years presents were frequently 
forwarded by the commander through the medium of Cap- 



302 History of South Africa. [16^ 

tain Elaas to the individual who, from being consideied 
a mighty emperor, soon came to be termed the chief of 
the Inqna Hottentots. In December 1688 another depu- 
tation from him arrived at the Cape, and announced that 
he was desirous of entering into a friendly agreement 
with the Europeans, so that they could carry on trade 
with each other. He sent word further that his country 
was very populous, that it was well stocked with homed 
cattle and sheep, and that no white men had ever visited 
it. 

The council immediately resolved to send a party 
back with the chief's messengers, and for this purpose 
an expedition was organised which left the castle on the 
4th of January 1689. It consisted of twenty- two Euro- 
peans and a number of Cape Hottentots, the whole under 
command of Ensign Izaak Schryver. Two waggons laden 
with supplies of food and articles for barter accompanied 
the expedition. 

Passing over Hottentots - Holland kloof, the party 
reached the kraal of Chainouquas or Soeswas, under Cap- 
tain Klaas, where some pack oxen were obtained. Thence 
eastward a course was followed the same as that of the 
high road which passes through the present villages of 
Caledon and Swellendam to Heidelberg. From this place 
the guides led the expedition to within a few miles of 
the site of the present village of Oudtshoorn, and then 
crossing the Zwartebergen went on some distance farther 
north-eastward, until on the thirty-ninth day after leaving 
the castle the kraals of the Inqua tribe were found, under 
a chief called by the Dutch Hykon. The point reached 
cannot be fixed with precision. It was described as being 
on the bank of a river running from north-east to south- 
west; north-east by east was a lofty mountain with a 
long and crooked pass through it, and to the south-south- 
east beyond the river was a high peak whose summit re- 
sembled a castle in ruins, from which circumstance the 
name Vervallen Casteel was given to it. 



1689] Simon van der Stel. 303 

Captain Hykon is described by Ensign Scbryver as a 
man of much greater authority than any of the captains 
about the Cape, and his people are stated to be larger 
and better proportioned than other Hottentots. More 
than five hundred head of cattle and a good many sheep 
were obtained from them in barter, and the intercourse 
with them was of a most firiendly nature. On one occa- 
sion only there was a slight misunderstanding. It was 
a law of Hykon's tribe that any one killing game was 
not to eat of it until a present had been made to the 
chief. In ignorance of this custom, one of Ensign Schry- 
ver's party shot a bird and cooked it, upon which Hykon 
expressed his displeasure. As soon, however, as the en- 
sign was made aware of the circumstance and of the law 
of the tribe, he sent the chief a present of beads, which 
was received as ample atonement for the mistake. 

From the Inquas the Europeans obtained information 
concerning other tribes, which enabled them to fill up the 
vacant place on the map between the country of the 
Outeniquas and that of the Amaxosa. They stated that 
the people whom they called Kobona, and we call Kaffirs, 
were to be reached in a journey of five days to the east- 
south-east. They described the dwellings of the Kobona 
as differing from those of the Hottentots, inasmuch as the 
frames were closely wattled and covered with clay and the 
roofs were thatched. Between the two races there was 
often war, in which much damage was done. The Inquas 
were too far away to take part in these wars, but they, 
like every other South African tribe, were constantly en- 
gaged in hostiUties with Bushmen. 

To the south-east of the Inquas the tribes on the coast 
were the Granumqua, the Nambunqua, the Gonaqua, and 
the Damaqua, the last adjoining the Bantu. From these 
the Inquas obtained dagha, a species of wild hemp which 
they used as the Dutch did tobacco or the Chinese opium. 
The Inquas were a numerous people, and carried on a 
large bartering trade with their neighbours. 



304 History of South Africa. [1689 

When the expedition was returning it encountered a 
horde of Bushmen who had just seized a great number of 
cattle belonging to the Attaquas. For several days these 
Bushmen continued with the Europeans, causing much 
annoyance and creating strong suspicion that they were 
watching for an opportunity to make an attack. At length 
their conduct became so provoking that the ensign ordered 
a general volley to be fired among them. Thirty fell, and 
the rest fled, leaving the cattle, which the Europeans took 
possession of. When the Attaquas heard what had taken 
place, they expressed great joy that their enemies had met 
with such a disaster. 

During the remainder of the journey little of import- 
ance transpired. In the Hessequa country a few cattle 
were stolen from the party one night, but upon informa- 
tion being given to the chief he took steps to recover 
them, and put to death one of the thieves who was cap- 
tured. On the 6th of April the ensign reported himself at 
the castle, having brought back his party in safety, and 
having with him over a thousand head of homed cattle, a 
herd larger than any obtained by the most successful trad- 
ing expedition previously sent out. 

The Wreck of the Noord. 

In October 1689 the council of policy resolved to send 
the galiot Noord for the second time along the coast as 
far as Natal. The objects in view were, first, to rescue 
the nine missing men of the Stavenisse who were believed 
to be still hving with the natives; second, to endeavour to 
purchase for the honourable Company the bay of Natal 
and the land around it; and third, to survey Algoa Bay 
and purchase it and the country about it from the native 
proprietors. 

The galiot sailed from Table Bay on the 28th of 
October, but, owing to contrary winds, did not arrive be- 
fore the bay of Natal until the 9th of December. There 



1690] Simon van der SteL 305 

three men of the Stavenisse were found and taken on board, 
and the desired purchase of territory was effected. A for- 
mal contract was drawn up by Laurens van Swaanswyk, 
the journalist of the expedition, to which the chief resid- 
ing near the bay affixed his mark. In this the honourable 
Company was aicknowledged to be the proprietor of the 
inlet and surrounding land, for which merchandise in rings, 
beads, copper plates, wire, etc., to the value of about 1,650/. 
English sterhng money was said to have been paid, though 
in fact 501. would more nearly have represented its value. 
Landmarks, with the Company's monogram upon them, 
were erected in several prominent positions. 

On the 11th of January 1690 the JVoard sailed from 
Natal, and on the 15th arrived in Algoa Bay, or as it 
was then called, Bahia da Lagoa. A stiff breeze was 
blowing in, and the bay was hke a stormy sea. Skipper 
Pieter Timmerman pronounced it nothing better than an 
exposed bight, and deeming it worthless to the Company, 
he did not even drop anchor. 

On the evening of the 16th the galiot was believed to 
be well off the land, when about half-past nine o'clock 
she struck suddenly, and with the next wave was washed 
high up on the reef called Elippen Point, about fifteen 
or sixteen English miles west of Cape St. Francis. Her 
officers were afterwards severely blamed for her loss, but 
they appear to have used due precaution. The night was 
dark, and it is now known that the Agulhas current at 
this place often spreads out so as to cause a drift towards 
the shore. 

At low water the crew found that they could walk to 
land without wetting their feet. They numbered eighteen 
men, all strong and hearty. The wreck was full of water 
at high tide, but they had no difficulty in getting what 
they wanted out of her. No natives were to be seen in 
the neighbourhood. On the 23rd they started from the 
scene of the disaster, to make their way as best they 
could overland to the castle. Each man took with him 

VOL. L 20 



3o6 History of South Africa. [1690 

a matchlock with ammnnitioiiy and as much food as lie 
could carry. For several days they kept together, but at 
length they broke up into parties, the sturdiest pushing 
on ahead. 

On the 27th of March the mate Theunis van der 
Schelling, with three companions, arrived at the Cape and 
reported the loss of the Noord. These men had suffered 
much from hunger until they reached the kraal of Cap- 
tain Klaas, by whom they had been entertained and cared 
for in the most generous manner. Indeed, they attributed 
their preservation to his kindness. Klaas inmiediately 
sent some of his people to search for the other men, but 
most of them perished before aid could reach them. The 
few that were rescued told piteous tales of the misery 
they had gone through, and the cruel treatment they had 
received at the hands of Bushmen. 

One result of these expeditions and disasters was a 
knowledge of the country and its inhabitants such as was 
hardly added to during the next hundred years. From 
this time forward also the Europeans in South Africa re- 
garded one class of those inhabitants less favourably than 
they had done before. That class was the wild, untame- 
able, cruel race previously known as Sonquas, Obiquas, 
Hougliquas, Makriggas, Batuas, etc., but thenceforth com- 
monly called Bossiemans or Bushmen.^ The country 
from • Delagoa Bay to the Cape of Good Hope could be 
travelled over in perfect safety, wrote the commander, if 
it were not for these banditti. The hand of the Hotten- 
tot and the Kaffir everywhere was against them, and now 
the European was added to the number of their foes. 
By all alike they were regarded as thieves and murderers, 
and ere long it came to be considered the duty of honest, 
law-abiding people to aid in purging the settled districts 

^The word Bossiemans first occurs in a manoioript dated 20th of 
October 16S5. 



1690] Satum vmm dtr St^L ^07 



of their pveseDee. A ^luggje then commeDoed between 
tlie cokmygK and diese saTiiges, which oontmued until 
the nineleendi u c i iiuii was wdl adrmnced, when the 
Bnshmen who remained weze too few in nnmbw to giTe 
further trouble. 



3o8 



CHAPTER X. 

SmON VAN DEB STEL'S ADMINISTBATION {eoiUmuedi. 

In June 1685 a French ship bound to Siam put into 
Table Bay, having on board an embassy sent by Liouis 
XIV to the government of that comitry. Accompanying 
the embassy were six missionaries of the Society of Jesos, 
among whom were two astronomers provided with the 
best instruments of the day. The missionaries were 
treated in the most courteous and considerate manner by 
the high commissioner and the conunander, though they 
were not permitted to conduct public worship on shore. 
The pleasure house in the Company's garden was assigned 
to them for an observatory, and there they made astrono- 
mical observations during the few nights of their stay at 
the Cape. From an echpse of one of Jupiter's satellites 
they calculated the difference of time between Paris and 
their station to be one hour, twelve minutes, and forty 
seconds, which is about eight minutes too much, so that 
they laid down the African coast-line two degrees too far 
east. The variation of the magnetic needle they found 
to be eleven degrees and thirty minutes west.^ 

^When the Portuguese first doubled Africa, the needle was found to 
be without yaziation at Agulhas, from which circumstance that cape 
received its name. At the end of the sixteenth century, when the 
Dutch commerce was yery rapidly extending, much thought was expended 
in endeayouring to find out some means of ascertaining longitudes. 
Christopher Columbus, who found a point of no variation two degrees and 
thirty minutes east of Corvo, was the first to suggest that the position 
of a ship at sea might be known by means of observations of the com- 
pass. A centuiy later the idea of Columbus was adopted fay many men 



1685] Simon van der SteL 309 

In the year 1686 the directors renewed the attempt to 
induce emigration from the Netherlands to this colony. 
They distributed notices throughout the provinces, oflfering 
to industrious famiUes free passages to the Cape, farms in 
full property as large as each could cultivate, and a 
supply of agricultural implements, seed, and cattle, at 
cost price on credit. The emigrants were to remain in 
South Africa at least fifteen years, and should they desire 
to return to Europe at the expiration of that period, they 
were to be conveyed back at rates which were specified. 
Before embarking they were to take an oath of allegiance 
to the states-general as the sovereign and supreme 
authorities, to the prince of Orange as governor, captain, 
and admiral-general, and to the East India Company. 

It has already been related that there was no dearth 
of employment in the Netherlands, nor dissatisfaction of 
any kind in religious or secular matters, so that the 
motives which ordinarily induce men to leave their coun- 
try were wanting. Still there were persons who might 
be expected to take advantage of an offer like that made 
by the directors of the East India Company. These were 
either such adventurous individuals as are always to be 
found in maritime countries, or Germans from the neigh- 
bouring states who had come to Holland in search of a 

of note, but by no one was it so elaborately worked out as by Dr. 
Petros PlanciuB, a ^clergyman of Amsterdam, fakmons for his geographical 
knowledge and for his activity in promoting commercial enterprise. His 
plan for determining longitudes was based upon the supposition that 
the yariation of the compass increased regularly from a minimum to 
a maTJmum point, and then decreased regularly in the opposite direction. 
One of the minimum points, or places of no perceptible yariation, he 
set down from the observations of numerous seamen at seventeen Dutch 
miles east of Agulhas, or about the cape now called Barracouta. This 
was in 1696. The scheme of Plancius was approved of by the greatest 
authorities of his time, and it was not altogether discarded when the 
French expedition was here. Calculations of longitude, based upon the 
variation of the compass, are frequently found in the old log-books, though 
the experience of nearly a century showed they were in most instances 
valueless. In 1714, according to the historian Valentyn, the variation 
«t Oapetown was eleven degrees west. 



3IO History of South Africa. [1685 

liviDg, and who had taken to themselves Dutch wives. 
So many men had gone from the republic to fill positions 
of trust in the Indian dependencies, and so many more 
were serving in the fleets, that the number of females 
was greatly in excess of that of males throughout the 
provinces. Thus it happened that while all the women — 
with one exception — who came from Europe to the Cape 
Colony before 1688 were Dutch by birth, a considerable 
proportion of the male settlers consisted of naturalised 
foreigners. 

The new colonists of this period whose descendants 
are still in South Africa were not, however, all immi- 
grants who came out under the terms offered by the 
East India Company. Commander Van der Stel was 
always on the watch for men Ukely to make good 
farmers, and whenever such a one was discovered either 
in the garrison or the homeward bound fleets, induce- 
ments were held out to him to become a landowner. If 
he had a wife or one in prospect in the Netherlands, she 
was sent out free of expense. The new names of burgh- 
ers found in the records of this time are those of Andries 
Beyers, Jan van den Bosch, Pieter Boshouwer, Hendrik 
Bouwman, Nicolaas Cleef, Gerrit van Deventer, Pierre le 
Febre, Matthys Greef, Abraham Hartog, Christoffel Hase- 
winkel, Jacobus van der Heyden, Abraham de Klerk, 
Pieter van Marseveen, Willem Meyer, Hendrik Christoffel 
Holler, Jan Lambert Myburgh, Adriaan Prinsloo, Frederik 
Bussouw, Izaak Scheepers, Jan Smit, Marten van Staden, 
Joost Strydom, and Jan Vermeulen. 

To provide wives for those men who were unmarried 
when discharged from the Company's service in South 
Africa, the commander on several occasions requested the 
directors to send out a number of females,^ who, he 
thought, could easily be induced to emigrate from Hol- 

^ In 1672 the directors renewed the attempt made in 1664 to induce young 
women to proceed to South Africa under the care of clergymen, sick-com- 
forters, and others with families, but they met with no success. 



1685] Simon van der Stel. 311 

land. In October 1685 he was informed that his re- 
quests had been under consideration, and that forty-eight 
marriageable girls would be sent out as a commencement. 
To obtain them the directors applied to the orphan 
masters of some of the great towns of the Netherlands. 

Homes for orphans were then, as they are still, among 
the most important charitable institutions of the Low 
Countries. They partook of the practical character of the 
people, and had for their object the maintenance and 
education of poor orphan children. In these institutions 
the inmates wore a particular kind of dress to distinguish 
them from other children, strict discipline was main- 
tained, and habits of industry, cleanliness, and frugality 
were enforced. The masters or guardians acted as parents 
of the orphans : they apprenticed the boys to trades, 
placed the girls in service, and generaUy watched over 
them until they could make for themselves a fair com- 
mencement in life. All classes of people regarded the 
inmates of the homes with a friendly eye, presents were 
often sent to them, and it was considered a scandalous 
action to harm them in any way. Better schools than 
these there could not be for training boys and girls to be- 
come useful members of the commonwealth. The children 
did not receive, it is true, more than a very elementary 
education from books, but they were taught to fear God 
and to do their duty in that station of life in which it 
had pleased Him to place them. They formed a commu- 
nity like a large family presided over by careful and 
devout parents. 

The orphan guardians of Amsterdam and Botterdam 
consented to allow marriageable girls who were so in- 
clined to emigrate to the Cape, but only under conditions 
which so far as human means can go should serve to 
screen them from harm. They were not to embark un- 
less accompanied by other emigrants and under the care 
of a respeetable elderly woman. The commander of the 
Cape was to see that they were comfortably provided for 



312 History of South Africa. [1686 

and properly protected until they were married to honour- 
able, sober, and industrious burghers. They were not to 
be detained in the colony against their will if after five 
years' residence they or their husbands wished to return 
to Europe. Even under these conditions very few young 
women were found willing to leave the fatherland, so 
that instead of the forty-eight that the directors wished 
to send out in 1685, only three embarked in the fleet of 
that year. They were from Rotterdam. In 1686 they 
were followed by seven or eight more, who also came 
from Botterdam. During several years small parties of 
them continued to arrive, though never more than seven 
or eight at a time. They were married to the most pros- 
perous of the Cape burghers, generally within a few 
weeks after landing. 

In 1686 a fair was established at Stellenbosch, and was 
thereai^ held yearly from the 1st to the 14th of Octo- 
ber. It was intended by the commander to be similar in 
every respect to a kermis in the fatherland, such as is 
still kept up in many Dutch towns, though the kindred 
institution of an English fair is almost forgotten. At this 
fair every one was at liberty to buy and sell the products 
of the country without restriction. It was intended also 
to be a season of general recreation, and it was provided 
that the drilling of the militia and target-shooting should 
then take place. 

The method of target-shooting in those days was so 
peculiar as to merit a description. A figure resembling a 
parrot, and hence called a papegaai, was fixed upon a pole 
iu the centre of a circle with a radius of sixty feet. The 
marksmen chose their positions upon an arc of this circle 
in the order in which they paid the subscription fees, 
which were — to residents of Stellenbosch one shilling, and 
to all others four shillings. They fired in the same order, 
standing and without rests for their guns. The small 
prizes were — for knocking off the head four shillings, the 
right wing two shiUings, the left wing one shilling and 



1 686] Simon van der SteL 313 

sixpence, the tail one shilling, and a splinter sixpence. 
The great prize was given to him who knocked off the 
rump and by doing so destroyed the whole figure. It was 
five pounds in cash from the honourable Company and 
whatever subscription money was in hand. The winner 
was escorted home in state by the whole body of shooters, 
and had the title of King of the Marksmen until some 
one else could wrest it from him. 

Target-shooting was also practised with pistols. In 
this exercise a small object was set up ten paces on one 
side of a straight furrow. The marksmen were mounted, 
and rode at full gallop along the furrow, firing as they 
passed. The drill-master, who was always a man of ex- 
perience, arranged for target-shooting, and was the sole 
judge in disputes. He received one-fifth of all prizes, 
more as a mark of his authority than as payment for his 
services. The government encouraged these exercises as a 
means of keeping the burghers skilled in the use of their 
weapons. Towards the end of September in every year 
the drill-master appeared at the castle and received from 
the issuer of stores, as the honourable Company's con- 
tribution to the sports, one hundred and fifty pounds of 
gunpowder, one hundred pounds of lead, and three hun- 
dred gun-flints. 

During the period of the fair, the colonists of the Cape 
district usually went in their waggons to Stellenbosch, 
and gave themselves up to the enjoyments of the season. 
If there were ships in port, as many of their people as 
could get away generally did the same. It was the 
pleasure time of the year, when labour was laid aside for 
a short space, and firiends renewed their acquaintanceship. 
The commander, who loved to see his people happy, was 
always present on these occasions. On the closing day 
of the fair, which was his birthday, every one waited 
upon him and wished him happiness, the school-children 
marched in procession, carrying their banner and directed 
by Dominie Mankadan, and in the afternoon the whole 



314 History of South Africa. [1686 

body of militia was drawn up and fired three volleys in 
his honour. Any Hottentot chiefs who were in the ' 
neighbourhood were also in the habit of paying their 
respects on these occasions. They were always well en- 
tertained according to their ideas, and it was not unusual 
for them to present an ox in return. 

When the commander visited Stellenbosch to be 
present at the fair of 1686 he was accompanied by the 
reverend Johannes Ovemey, who on Sunday the 13th of 
October conducted divine service in the house of one of 
the residents. It was the first service held by a clergy- 
man in the new settlement. A sermon was delivered 
from the text Isaiah hi. 7, and in the afternoon three 
infants bom at Stellenbosch were baptized. 

On the following day the question of putting up a 
building expressly for public worship was discussed, and 
it was resolved to take it in hand as soon as the crops 
were gathered. An arrangement was made that the 
clergyman of the Cape should visit the village once every 
three months, to conduct divine service and administer 
the sacraments, and that the sick-visitor Mankadan should 
continue to read a sermon and prayers regularly on all 
other Sabbaths in the year. 

On the 20th of December the council of policy form- 
ally estabhshed a new congregation by the approval of 
Dirk Coetsee, a burgher who had been several years in 
the colony, as elder for Stellenbosch. In January 1687, 
when Mr. Overney visited the village to conduct the 
services, the elder and a deacon were installed in office, 
and a consistory came into existence which was after- 
wards perpetuated in the same manner as that in Cape- 
town. A few weeks later, on the 14th of February, the 
first stone of the church was laid. The building was 
forty feet in length by twenty-two in width. The com- 
mander was a liberal contributor towards the cost of its 
erection, and took such a warm interest in the under- 
taking that be sometimes visited the village purposely to 



1 686] Simon van der.StcL 315 

superintend the work in person. It was opened for use 
during his next birthday tour, on the 19th of October 
1687, on which occasion the reverend Johannes van An- 
del delivered a sermon from Numbers vi. 23-27. 

A residence for the landdrost and a courthouse were 
erected in 1686, and a mill was built at the expense of 
the district. The price for grinding corn was fixed, and 
the mill was then leased by auction to the highest bidder, 
the rental going to the district funds. 

The cultivation of the vine was advancing in the new 
district, and already Stellenbosch had the reputation of 
producing better wine than Eondebosch or Wynberg. But 
the very best was so far inferior to the wines of Europe 
that the commander believed either that the grapes were 
pressed too soon or the right kind had not yet been intro- 
duced. He therefore issued a placaat prohibiting every 
one under a penalty of ten pounds from pressing grapes 
before the vineyards had been visited by a committee and 
pronounced by himself to be of the requisite maturity; 
and he not only obtained new cuttings of different varie- 
ties from France, Germany, and Spain, but managed to 
produce Persian vines from seed. With all these he was 
experimenting on his own farm Constantia, as well as in 
the Company's gardens in Table Valley and at Busten- 
burg, and he was encouraging the burghers of Stellen- 
bosch to do the same. 

Experiments were repeated at this time in the cultiva- 
tion of rice, cassava, and hops, which were found to 
answer no better than on former occasions. Millet, ob- 
tained from Natal, did very well, and it was found to 
make good beer. The olive, which had excited such 
hopes in the first commander of the settlement, was tried 
again and again by Simon van der Stel. He had the 
trees planted in every variety of soil and position, but 
he could not make them bear to his Uking. In some 
seasons the fruit would fall before it was mature, in 
other seasons there would be no fruit at all. Only occa- 



3i6 History of South Africa. [1686 

fiionally a few good olives would be obtained, just suffi- 
cient to keep up hope. At last all the trees died off 
except three or four. 

The commander was an enthusiastic tree-planter. He 
observed that the indigenous forests of the country were 
rapidly being destroyed, and that nature unaided was not 
replacing them. Unless trees were planted by man there 
would soon be neither timber nor fuel to be had. The 
fuel used by the garrison was indeed even then obtained 
from a grove of alders beyond Bondebosch, which had 
been planted by Mr. Crudop in 1679. Various kinds of 
European and Indian timber trees were being produced 
from seeds in the nurseries of the Company's garden, but 
of them all none seemed to thrive like the oak. The 
commander, therefore, endeavoured to get as many oaks 
planted as possible. He offered young trees to the burgh- 
ers, and at a date somewhat later he issued a positive 
order that every farmer was to plant at least one hundred. 
He set the example at Constantia and on the Company's 
farms. In the spring of 1687 he had the satisfaction of 
seeing between four and five thousand oaks already begin- 
ning to bear acorns in the Stellenbosch and Cape districts, 
and he had at this time over fifty thousand in the nur- 
series nearly ready to transplant. 

In the night of the 16th of April 1686 the Portuguese 
ship No88a SenJurra dos MUagros, on her return voyage to 
Europe, was wrecked on the coast between Capes Agulhas 
and False. She had a crew of several hundred souls, 
besides a good many passengers, including three ecclesi- 
astics and three ambassadors from the king of Siam to 
the king of Portugal, with their servants and other at- 
tendants. The night was fine and clear, but the master of 
the ship, believing he had rounded the Cape, neglected to 
set a watch, and was steering directly on shore. Many 
lost their lives in trying to get to land after the ship 
struck, and those who succeeded in reaching the beach 
found themselves without food and half naked. 



1 686] Simon van der SteL 317 

The eldest of the Siamese ambassadors died of grief 
and distress shortly after getting to land, and the others 
left with a party of Portuguese to make their way to the 
Cape. On the 8th of May ten of the seamen reached the 
castle, where they were kindly received. Some waggons 
and horses, with provisions, were immediately sent to meet 
the other unfortunate travellers. Two days later Captain 
Manuel da Silva, a number of officers, Boman catholic 
priests, sailors, and soldiers arrived. They had undergone 
such terrible suffering from hunger and thirst that a large 
proportion of those who left the wreck perished on the 
way to the Cape. They informed the commander that 
they had saved nothing whatever except diamonds to the 
value of one hundred thousand pound& The Siamese had 
been abandoned by their Portuguese companions on the 
way, and no one could tell what had become of them. 

The council resolved to lodge the Portuguese officers 
and priests at Bondebosch, and the sailors and soldiers 
in the hospital, which happened to be free of patients. 
Bations according to their rank, on the same scale as 
those supplied to the Companjr's servants, were issued to 
them, and a sum of 100/. in money was lent to the officers 
to purchase clothing. The priests were required not to 
give offence to the inhabitants by public celebration of 
their worship. They were all forwarded to Europe with 
the next fleet, except some sailors who chose to enter the 
Company's service. 

A sergeant and six soldiers were sent to look for the 
Siamese, and to give them all the assistance in their 
power. After the lapse of about a month from the date 
of the wreck most of them were found in a wretched 
condition wandering about among the mountains. They 
were received at the castle with firing of cannon and 
other marks of honour, on account of the friendly feeling 
of the Siamese government towards the East India Com- 
pany. A present of clothing was made to them, they 
were furnished with 200/. in cash on loan, and at their 



3i8 History of South Afrua. [1686 

own request they were lodged at the house of a burgher 
rather than with the Portuguese. About four months 
after being rescued, the two surviving ambassadors with 
their attendants, twenty-eight in number, were forwarded 
to Batavia, where they found a ship in which they re- 
turned to their own country. 

In 1686 an incident occurred which illustrates the en- 
mity that was already felt towards the Bushmen. Some 
Uttle time before this a party of Europeans who went 
out hunting was attacked by a band of these savages, 
when one of their number was killed by a poisoned 
arrow, sixteen oxen were stolen, and their two waggons 
were burnt. There was no possibiUty of retaliating in 
the same way as with an agricultural or even a pastoral 
people, for it was useless looking for Bushmen when they 
did not wish to be seen. The Chainouqua coimtry was 
infested with them, so that travelling was unsafe. The 
commander called upon Captains IQaas and Koopman to 
suppress their depredations, but Elaas was himself so 
sorely pressed by the marauders that on one occasion he 
was compelled to abandon his kraals and flee to the 
neighbourhood of Cape Agulhas. 

At length this good and faithful friend of the Company, 
as he is often called, appeared at the castle and stated 
that he had succeeded in inflicting a slight punishment 
upon the common enemy.* His account was that as he 
was preparing to attack them they sent three women to 
request a renewal of the friendship that had once existed 
between them. He returned a favourable answer, with 
a present of tobacco, by which means he decoyed eleven 
of them, including their leader, to his kraal. There he 
caused a sheep to be killed for their entertainment, and 
while they were dancing and rejoicing be had them 
seized and ordered them to be put to death. The order 
was instantly carried out upon eight of them, the other 
three having managed to escape by the fleetness of their 
feet. For this act of retaliation for the injuries done to 



1 686] Simon van der SteL 319 

the Europeans, as the council chose to view it, Klaas 
was rewarded with a present of twenty pounds of Vir- 
ginia tobacco, an anker of arrack, one hundred and fifty 
pounds of rice, and a few trifles. 

Among the various placaats which had been issued 
from time to time since the formation of the settlement, 
there were many which had fallen into disusa Some 
were no longer adapted to the condition of affairs, others 
were only enforced by particular conamanders. It thus 
became necessary to revise and pubUsh them afresh, so 
that there might be no uncertainty about the local laws. 
Most of the revised placaats had reference to what would 
now be termed municipal matters, and by them not only 
was individual Uberty more restricted, but the penalties 
for infringement were much severer than at present. In 
these respects, however, the Cape did not differ from the 
most enhghtened European countries. A few of the gen- 
eral placaats are here given to show the character of the 
collection : — 

"The breed of horses in this country having degener- 
ated in size, any one who shall use for labour a horse 
under three years of age shall be subject to a penalty of 
ten pounds." 

"Many slaves having deserted from service and caused 
great trouble and danger by forming themselves into 
bands of robbers, no one is to permit a slave to carry a 
gun, even when tending cattle, under penalty of a fine of 
twenty pounds." 

"No one is to sell any implement of war, even a 
knife, to a slave, under penalty of arbitrary correction." 

"To prevent fraud, the Company's cattle are to be 
branded C & O on both ears, and no one is to keep cattle 
with chpped ears, under penalty of confiscation." 

Another useful measure was the more perfect registra- 
tion of titles to land. On the 1st of July 1686 a reso- 



320 History of South Africa. [1687 

lution was passed by the conncil of policy, calling upon 
all persons to produce within two months their title-deeds 
and leases, for the purpose of having them copied into a 
strong book and authenticated by the secretary. The 
existing records were also to be copied into the same 
book, so that all cause of dispute and actions at law 
might be prevented. The volume framed in accordance 
with this resolution is now in the office of the surveyor- 
general in Capetown. From this date a record of titles 
has been kept, but it must not be inferred that the names 
of all, or even a majority, of those who obtained grants 
of land will be found recorded at the time of their 
arrival in this country. As a means of tracing the pro- 
gress of immigration, for instance, these records are nearly 
valueless. Title-deeds were never issued until the ground 
was surveyed, and this was sometimes delayed twenty-five 
or thirty years after it was allotted. The occupailt: in' the 
meantime held merely a note authorising hfm to take 
'possession of and cultivate the land. In many instances 
the original occupier died or sold out and removed, in 
which case the titles were issued in the name of the one 
in possession when the survey was made.^ This will 
account for the apparently defective condition of the land 
record books for a long series of years. 

Towards the beginning of the winter of 1687 the 
colony was visited by a destructive disease, a kind of 
fever which carried off many of the inhabitants. The 
natives suffered very severely from it, so much so that one 
kraal is mentioned in which half the people were dead 
while the others were all sick. Schacher, chief of the 
Goringhaiquas or Eaapmans, died at this time. The clan 
was so thoroughly subject to the Company that the ap- 
pointment of his successor was made by the commander. 
He chose a nephew of the deceased chief, whom he 
named Massanissa, and to whom he gave one of the 

^Thirty years* undisputed possession of ground gave the oocupier a 
legal claim to a free title. 



1687] Simon van der SteL 321 

ordinary staffs of office. Among the Europeans who were 
carried off were the reverend Johannes Overney and 
Captain Hieronymus Cruse. The clergyman died on the 
5th of May. The pulpit was not long vacant, for on the 
4th of June the reverend Johannes van Andel called here 
in a ship of which he was chaplain, and consented to 
remain. The old explorer Captain Cruse, often mentioned 
in former years, died on the 20th of June. He was 
succeeded in the command of the garrison by Lieutenant 
Dominique de Chavonnes. 

In June 1687 a fleet of six ships of war, sent by the 
king of France with a second embassy to the king of 
Siam, put into Table Bay. The admiral's request to be 
permitted to purchase refreshments and to lodge his sick 
in the hospital was at once acceded to, but on condition 
that all healthy men were to go on board before sunset 
and that arms were not to be carried by any of them 
when ashore. The garrison of the castle was at the time 
very small, but to make a brave show, the commander 
called in some men from the outposts and required the 
Cape mihtia to mount guard. Stellenbosch also furnished 
a contingent of forty armed burghers.^ 

In October 1687 a fresh tract of land was given out 
to settlers. About fifty individuals belonging to the home- 
ward bound fleet which put into Table Bay in September, 
being charmed with the appearance of the country, peti- 
tioned the commander to allow them to make a trial of 
farming. He would very cheerfully have done so if they 
had been married men, but as only a few had wives he 
thought it best to reject two-thirds of them. At the close 
of the fair at Stellenbosch there were twenty-three in- 
dividuals in all ready to take possession of farms. The 
commander therefore resolved to foimd a new settlement 
with them, and for this purpose he selected the beautiful 

^ There was a system of signals by means of guns and flags between 
the castle and the drostdy at Stellenbosch, by means of which the 
militia coold be called to the defence of the Gape at very short notice. 

VOL. I. 21 



322 History of South Africa. [1687 

valley visited first by Abraham Gabbema thirty years 
before. At daylight on the morning of the 16th of Octo- 
ber the new burghers left Stellenbosch, and were followed 
a little later by his Honour with a party of attendants on 
horseback. At Simonsberg they halted to rest, and there 
the commander overtook them. It was a lovely view that 
met their eyes as they looked down into the valley where 
they were about to make their homes. A stranger cannot 
gaze upon it in the pleasant spring-time without feeling 
a thrill of delight, and if to-day the many homesteads and 
groves add to its beauty, it has lost almost as much in 
that rich carpeting of grass and flowers which covered it 
in 1687. It had as yet no name, so the commander 
called it Drakenstein, after an estate in the Netherlands 
belonging to the lord of Mydrecht. 

That afternoon the frontage of the twenty-three farms 
was marked out along the Berg river. Each farm was to 
extend backwards six hundred roods and was sixty roods 
in width, thus containing nearly one hundred and twenty- 
seven English acres. Like all other landed property in 
the colony, that now given out was legally burdened with 
the payment to the government of tithes of the produce 
of grain. This tax was, however, not very rigidly ex- 
acted, and was generally either wholly or in part re- 
mitted in bad seasons or when the occupants of the 
ground met with any heavy losses. An experiment was 
once made in farming it out at public auction. The pur- 
chaser had the right to every eleventh sheaf as it stood 
in the field, for though called the tithe, a full tenth was 
seldom demanded. But the plan gave rise to complaints, 
and it was soon abandoned, after which the tenth part of 
all grain brought to the Cape for sale was deducted as it 
passed the castla The only other charge upon the ground 
was the cost of measurement and title-deeds when it was 
surveyed. The farms were given out in full property, sub- 
ject to these conditions only, but they could be forfeited 
if the grantees neglected to commence cultivating them 



1687] Simon van der Stel. 323 

within a yeax, or if they afterwards abandoned them. It 
was necessary to make this provision, as the great major- 
ity of the Company's servants who became farmers soon 
got tired of that occupation. 

In November of this year False Bay was examined by 
the commander in person. In March 1682 it had been 
surveyed, but not so carefully as to satisfy the directors. 
The galiot JSoord conveyed the commander with some 
surveyors and a draughtsman round from Table Bay, 
and while she was engaged taking soundings, a party 
proceeding along the shore was measiuring distances and 
angles. The bight previously known as Yselstein Bay 
was found to be capable of affording good shelter for 
a small fleet. It was ascertained that fresh water was 
to be had there, and fish of excellent quality in great 
abundance Its advantages were observed as a place of 
call and refreshment for the Company's ships in time of 
war, when an enemy's fleet might be watching Table 
Bay. The commander gave it his Christian name, and 
as Simon's Bay it has ever since been known. 

The colonists were at this time in a fairly prosperous 
condition. There were no avenues to great wealth open 
to them, but on the other hand no one was suffering 
from want of the necessaries of life. There were no 
beggars in the colony. The thriftless and unstable 
burghers who had given so much trouble in the earUer 
days of the settlement had died out or returned into the 
Company's service, and their places were occupied by a 
more industrious class of men. Still, there was one cir- 
cumstance in connection with the colonists which caused 
the commander much uneasiness. Only about one-third 
of them were married, and none but these could be con- 
sidered permanently settled. Everything that was possible 
had been done to procure female immigrants, but the 
number that arrived was very small indeed. Notwith- 
standing the laws against European men forming con- 
nections with slave and native women, inmiorahty of 



324 History of South Africa. [1687 

that kind could not be entirely checked, and many chil- 
dren of mixed blood were bom in the settlement. These 
naturally grew up as a class inferior to Europeans, but 
priding themselves upon being better than either pure 
Hottentots or negros. 

The burghers of the town, who were all discharged 
servants of the Company, were chiefly dependent upon 
the shipping for means of living. They showed their 
prosperity by a tendency to display in dress, which the 
commander deemed so unbecoming that he forbade it* 
He did not want any spurious grandees here, he said, but 
honest, industrious people, of whom alone good colonists 
could be made. His ideas in this respect were those of 
the cleverest statesmen of his age.^ When, for instance, 
he prohibited the wives of mechanics from carrying sun- 
shades and expressed an opinion that such a practice was 
too outrageous to be tolerated, he was but following the 
example of the most advanced people of Europe. 

Toward the close of the year 1687 a plague of locusts 
did much damage to the gardens, but notwithstanding this 
the crops were so good that there was not room in the 
magazines for all the grain and wine and other produce 
that was brought in. On the 31st of December, when the 
yearly census was taken, it appeared that the Company 
had at Bustenburg in round numbers one hundred thou- 
sand vines bearing, and had on the several farms one 
thousand one hundred and sixty-four head of homed cattle, 
one hundred and forty horses, and nine thousand two 
hundred and eighteen sheep. 

The returns in connection with the colonists,* their 
stock and produce, were as follow: — 

1 In October 1686 certain sumptuary laws were put in force in India 
by tbe directors. 

* The number of burghers is always understated in the yearly lists,, 
owing to the omission of names through carelessness or for some other 
oause. 



1687] 



Simon van der Stel. 



325 



Burghers 

Wives of burghers and widows 

Children of burghers 

European men servants 

Men slaves 

Women slaves . 

Slave children . 

Horses in possession of burghers 

Homed cattle . 

Sheep 

Muids of wheat from last crop 

Muids of rye . 

Muids of barley 

Vines bearing . 



254 

88 

281 

89 

230 

44 

86 

155 

2,951 

80,142 

1,857 

197 

205 

402,900 



During the last twenty years of the sixteenth century 
the population of Holland and Zeeland was largely in- 
creased by immigrants of the Protestant faith from the 
southern Netherland provinces. Many of these immi- 
grants spoke no other language than French, and wher- 
ever they settled in sufficient numbers clergymen using 
that language were appointed to conduct religious services 
for them. In this manner nmnerous French and Walloon 
congregations were established throughout the free Nether- 
lands. 

These congregations, however, did not form separate 
churches, but only new branches of churches which pre- 
viously existed in the towns where they settled. To 
each ecclesiastical fabric several clergymen were usually 
attached, and when a French congregation was formed 
one of these clergymen was selected to attend to it. In 
the same building where the ordinary Dutch services were 
held French services were conducted at different hours, 
the whole body of worshippers being united in one church, 
with its deacons, elders, and other officers.^ 

^The baptismal and marriage registers of these churches have been 
carefully examined by the French and Walloon Church Historical Society, 
as they furnish a great amount of curious as weU as valuable information. 
The names and dates have been written on slips of paper and arranged 
alphabeticaUy, so that investigation is now veiy easy. Through the kind- 



326 History of South Africa. [1687 

Daring the century following the Pacification of 
Ghent, these congregations were constantly being aug- 
mented in size and in number by immigrants from France 
and Belgium, though gradually the settlers became undis- 
tinguishable, except by name, from other Netherlanders. 
Strong sympathy in religious matters and facility of 
obtaining employment were the attractions which drew 
French Protestants in numbers that more than compen- 
sated for the loss of those who by long residence became 
thoroughly Dutch. 

When, therefore, about the year 1670 the larger stream 
of emigration, which was the result of the cruelties inflict- 
ed by Louis XTV upon his Protestant subjects, com- 
menced to set out of France, there was no country to 
which the refugees looked more hopefully than towards 
the United Provinces. Numerous Protestant French fami- 
lies had branches already long settled there, so that when 
the immigrants arrived, they found men of their own 
tongue and blood, and very often of their own name, ready 
to welcome them. The world-wide commerce also, which 
had its centre in the free Netherlands, had created such 
a demand for labour of all kinds that many thousands 
of them found no difficulty in making new homes. But 
owing to this very cause the republic, though it had vast 
foreign possessions, could not become a great colonising 
country. 

A few of the refugees who left France between 1670 



neia of Mr. Bnaohede, the highly esteemed archiyist of Haarlem, in whose 
charge these slips are, I had an opportunity of inspecting them, and 
therehy of obtaining in the conrse of a few hours some knowledge which 
I needed, and which otherwise would have taken me weeks to acquire. 
The Walloon Library, belonging to this Society, is kept in two rooms at 
Leiden. It contains only one South African work, a French sermon 
preached in the colony shortly after the arrival of the Huguenots. The 
talented secretary, Dr. Du Rieu, who is also librarian of the university, 
kindly gave me all possible assistance in prosecuting researches. (This note 
was written in 1883. Mr. Enschede died several years ago, and Dr. Du Rieu 
in December 1896.) 



1687] Simon van der Stel. 327 

and 1685 entered the service of the East India Com- 
pany, and some of these were stationed in South Africa. 
On the 3rd of October 1685 the assembly of seventeen 
passed a resolution to send out French refugees with 
other emigrants, but so few were found willing to leave 
Europe that in the course of two years only three or four 
were obtained. These were persons of irreproachable 
character, who gave no trouble to the government or em- 
ployment to the courts of law. 

The ordinances which annulled the edict of Nantes — 
issued by Louis XTV in October 1685— though they for- 
bade the emigration of the Protestants, gave a tremendous 
impetus to the movement. But now, as it was not pos- 
sible to leave the kingdom openly, every kind of property 
except money and jewels was of necessity abandoned. 
The fugitives, escaping in various disguises, were glad to 
cross the frontier in utter destitution as far as worldly 
wealth was concerned. One of the saddest features in 
this sad chapter in the history of human woe was the 
small number of women and children who escaped, com- 
pared with that of young and strong men. Very often a 
single youth found himself in safety after every other 
member of his family had perished or had been lost to 
sight for ever in prisons and convents. 

During the two years that followed the revocation of 
the edict of Nantes the towns of the free Netherlands 
were filled with refugees, still those who were suited to 
make good colonists ' generally managed to find employ- 
ment. At the same time the Protestants were migrating 
in great nmnbers from the valleys of Piedmont, and, 
though most of these found homes in Switzerland and 
Germany, a few made their way to the United Provinces. 
When the directors of the East India Company met in 
the autumn of 1687 it seemed possible to obtain some 
Piedmontese and French families as colonists, and they 
therefore resolved to make another attempt. 

With this view they promised, in addition to the 



328 History of South Africa. [1687 

advantages pieviofiisly held out, that a clergyman speaking 
the French language should be engaged to accompany the 
emigrants, and that any lefogee desiring to return to 
Europe after the expration of five years should be at 
liberty to do sa On the 28th of October they engaged 
the reverend Pierre Simond, minister of the French con- 
gr^aticm at Zienckzee, at a salary of 11. 10s. a month, 
to proceed to the Cape, and on the 5th of November 
they resolved, as a further inducement, to offer a gratuity 
of from 5/. to 8/. 6s. S^/., according to circumstances, to 
every head of a femiily, and from 2/. 10s. to 4/. 3s. 4^ to 
every young unmarried man or woman, to assist in pro- 
curing an outfit. Several small parties then consented 
to emigrate, and on the 16th of this month the directors 
wrote to the commander and council that these would 
be sent out at once. The conditions under which the 
Huguenots agreed to come here as colonists were, vnth 
the exception already named, the same as those pre- 
viously offered to natural subjects of the Netherlands. 
They were to be provided with free passages and with 
farms in full property without payment. They were to be 
supplied with all requisite farming stock at cost price on 
credit. They were to subscribe to the same oaths of alle- 
giance as those taken by persons bom in the United Pro- 
vinces, and were to be in all respects treated in the same 
manner and to enjoy the same privileges. 

While making such efforts to procure Huguenot emi- 
grants, however, the directors had no intention of making 
the Cape a French colony. Owing to the competition 
arising from the influx of such numbers of refugees, it 
was now less difficult than it had hitherto been to obtain 
emigrants of Dutch blood, of whom more families than of 
French origin were being sent out at the same time, so 
that these, together with the settlers already in South 
Africa, would absorb the foreign element without under- 
going any change. At no time did the French exceed 
in nmnber one-si^th of the colonists, or one-eighth of the 



1687] Simon van der Stel. 329 

whole European population, the Company's servants in- 
cluded. 

The directors hoped that the Huguenots would supply 
the knowledge which the Dutch colonists lacked in some 
particular kinds of industry believed to be suited to South 
Africa, such as the manufacture of wine and brandy and 
the cultivation of olives. The vine bore grapes here equal 
in flavour to any in the world, yet the wine and brandy 
hitherto made were greatly inferior to those of Europe. 
The olive tree was found wild, and the varieties intro- 
duced flourished as well apparently as in France or Spain, 
but the production of fruit had so far been a failure. 
Some of the Huguenots sent out were men who had 
been reared among the vineyards and olive groves of 
France, and who were acquainted not only with the best 
methods of cultivating the vines and trees, but with the 
manufacture of wine, brandy, and oil. At the same time, 
the directors were careful to lay down the rule that such 
occupations were not to be pursued to the neglect of the 
more important industries of growing wheat and rearing 
cattle. 

Arrangements were made by the different chambers of 
the East India Company for the passages of the Hugue- 
not emigrants to this colony, as they had been engaged 
in different provinces and could not all embark at the 
same port. As much as possible, families and friends 
were kept together. 

The emigrants were sent out in the ships Voorschotm, 
Borssenburg, Oosterland, China, and Zuid Beveland, The 
Voarschoten sailed from Delftshaven on the 31st of December 
1687, with the following passengers, according to a despatch 
from the chamber of Delft to the Gape government : — 

Charles Marais, of Plessis, 
Catherine Taboureux, his wife, 
Claude Marais, 24 years old, 



Charles Marais, 19 years old, 
Isaac Marais, 10 years old, 
Marie Marais, 6 years old, 



their children. 



330 History of South Africa. [idSJ 



i, \ 
)ld, I 

old, J 



Philippe Fouch^ 

Anne Fouch^, his wife, 

Anne Fouchd, 6 years old, 

Esther Fouchd, 5 years old, \ their children. 

Jacques Fouchd, 8 years ol 

Jacques Pinard, a carpenter, 28 years old, 

Esther Fouch^ his wife, 21 years old. 

Marguerite Bach^ unmarried woman, 28 years old. 

Etienne Bru^re, a waggon-maker, bachelor, 28 years old. 

Pierre Sabatier, bachelor, 22 years old. 

Jean le Roux, bachelor, 21 years old, ) brothers, of Blois. 

Gabriel le Boux, 17 years old, ) 

Gideon Malherbe, bachelor, 25 years old. 

Jean Past^ bachelor, 25 years old. 

Paul Godefroy, bachelor, 22 years old. 

Gaspar Fouchd, bachelor, 21 years old. 

The Borssenhurg sailed on the 6th of January 168£ 
Her passenger list has been lost from the archives o 
this colony and also from those at the Hagae. 

The Oosterland left Middelborg on the 29th of Januar 
1688, having as passengers, according to a despatch o 
the chamber of that place to the Cape government : — 

Jacques de Savoye, of Ath, 

Marie Madeleine le Clerc, his wife, 

Antoinette Camoy, his mother-in-law. 

Marguerite de Savoye, 17 years old, "j 

Barbae de Savoye, 15 years old, > his children. 

Jacques de Savoye, 9 months old, J 

Jean Prieur du Plessis, surgeon, of Poitiers, 

Madeleine Menanteau, his wife. 

Sarah Avic4, yoomg unmarried woman. 

Jean Nortier, agriculturist. 

Jacob Nortier, do. 

Daniel Nortier, carpenter, 

Marie Vytou, his wife. 

Isaac Taillefer, vinedresser, of Thierry, 

Susanne Briet, his wife, 

Elizabeth Taillefer, 14 years old, 

Jean Taillefer, 12 years old, 

Isaac Taillefer, 7 years old, 

Pierre Taillefer, 5 years old, 

Susanne Taillefer, 2i years old, 

Marie Taillefer, 1 year old, 



their children. 



their children. 



1688] Simon van der SteL 331 

Jean Cloud on, shoemaker, of Gondd. 
Jean du Buis, agriculturist, of Calais. 
Jean Parisel, agriculturist, of Paris. 

The China sailed from Botterdam on the 20th of 
March 1688, with the following passengers, according to 
a despatch from the chamber of that place : — 

Jean Mesnard, 
Louise Corbonne, his wife, 
Jeanne Mesnard, 10 years old, 
Georges Mesnard, 9 years old, 
Jacques Mesnard, 8 years old, 
Jean Mesnard, 7 years old, 
Philippe Mesnard, 6 years old, 
Andr^ Mesnard, 6 months old, 
Louis Corbonne, bachelor, 20 years old. 
Jean Jourdan, bachelor, 28 years old. 
Pierre Jourdan, of Cabridre, bachelor, 24 years old. 
Marie Koux, 10 years old, "^ orphans, nieces of Jean and 

Marguerite Koux, 7 years old, / Pierre Jourdan. 
(A second) Pierre Jourdan, also a bachelor, 24 years old. 
Pierre Joubert, 23 years old, 
Isabeau Bichard, his wife. 

Susanne B^ne, 20 years old, young unmarried woman. 
Jacques Verdeau, 20 years old, \ ^jyo^g^^ 
Hercule Verdeau, 16 years old, / 
Pierre la Grange, bachelor, 23 years old. 
Matthieu Fracass^, bachelor, 26 years old. 
Andr6 Pelanchon, 16 years old. 

And twelve others who died before the ship reached her desti- 
nation. 

From the orphan chamber of Rotterdam eight young 
women at this time consented to emigrate to South 
Africa, and were sent oat with the French refugees in 
the China. They were described as being of unblemished 
reputation, industrious, and skilled in farm work. They 
were all married in the colony within a few months after 
their arrival, the last of them on the 8th of May 1689 to 
a young burgher of Stellenbosch. Their names were, 
Adriana van Son, Wilhelmina de Witt, Adriana van den 



332 History of South Africa. [i68S 

Berg, Judith Verbeek, Petronella van Capelle, Judith van 
der Bout, Catharina van der Zee, and Anna van Kleef. 

The Zuii Beveland sailed from Middelburg on the 
22nd of April 1688. She brought out a number of 
passengers, but the list is missing at the Hague as well 
as in Capetown, and the only names known are those of 

Pierre Simond, of Dauphin^, minister of the Gospel, and Anne 
de Berout, his wife. 

The lists of names show that more men came out 
than women. This disproportion of the sexes was just 
what the Company wished to prevent, for it was the very 
evil that Conunander Van der Stel was continually com- 
plaining of. And yet it could not be rectified, as in every 
group of refugees who escaped from France the number 
of males was enormously greater than that of females. 
Among the immigrants were several individuals who had 
occupied very good positions in their own country before 
the commencement of the persecution. The surgeon Du 
Plessis was of an ancient and noble family of Poitiers, 
though he was now penniless. Mr. De Savoye had been 
a wealthy merchant, but had saved nothing except his 
life and his family. 

On the 13th of April 1688 the Voorschoten arrived in 
Saldanha Bay, having put into that harbour on account 
of a strong south-east wind, against which she could not 
beat up to Table Bay. The rocky islands covered with 
sea-birds and the desolate country around formed a strik- 
ing contrast to the beautiful France which the emigrants 
had leffc. Yet they would be cheered by the knowledge 
that in this secluded wilderness there was at any rate 
freedom to worship God in the manner their consciences 
approved of. From the Company's outpost at Saldanha 
Bay a message was sent overland to the castle reporting 
the Voorschoten* 8 arrival, and stating that as the ship 
needed some repairs her ofl&cers thought it would be advis- 
able to remain there to effect them. The cutter Jupiter 



1 688] Simon van der SteL 333 

was therefore sent from Table Bay with fresh provisions, 
and when she returned she brought the immigrants to 
the Cape. 

On the 26th of April the Oosterlaiid cast anchor in 
Table Bay, having made the passage from Middelburg in 
eighty-seven days, then one of the quickest runs on record. 
She was followed on the 12th of May by the Borssenburg. 

On the 4th of August the China reached Table Bay, 
after a disastrous run of seven months from Rotterdam. 
Her crew and passengers were nearly all sick, and twenty 
individuals, twelve of whom were French refugees, had 
died during the passage. 

Fifteen days later the Zuid Beveland .cast anchor in 
Table Bay. The arrival of their pastor had been looked 
forward to with anxiety by the Huguenots already here, 
so that by the time the first boat put off there was a 
little crowd of people waiting to welcome him on the 
wooden jetty, then the only pier in Table Bay. But just 
after the boat left the ship she was capsized by a sudden 
squall, and those on the jetty had the horror of seeing 
eight men drown before their eyes- without being able to 
render them any aid. A few hours passed before com- 
munication could be had with the Zuid Beveland, when 
it was ascertained that the drowned men were three 
officers and five seamen of the ship. 

The Dutch were accustomed to treat their clergymen 
with great respect, but they were incapable of participat- 
ing in such feelings as those with which the Huguenots 
regarded their pastor. A French Protestant clergyman in 
those days was of necessity a man of earnest faith, of 
great bravery, of entire self-devotion, and such a man 
naturally inspired strong attachment. In the great perse- 
cution under Louis XIV the pastors stand out prominently 
as the most fearless of men. Nothing short of death could 
silence them, there was no form of suffering which they 
were not prepared to endure rather than forsake what 
they believed to be the truth. It was not from any 



334 History of South Africa. [1688 

superstitions reverence for their office, but on account of 
their force of character, that they were regarded with the 
highest esteem and affection. 

The reverend Mr. Simond was a man of determined 
will, who possessed just those qualifications which would 
cause him to be regarded by his flock as a fit guide and 
counsellor in secular as well as in religious matters. A 
quantity of his correspondence is still in existence, and in 
it he showd himself to have been sadly lacking in charity 
towards those who differed from him in opinion, but that 
was the fault of the age rather than of the man. For 
his faith he gloried in having suffered, and for those of 
his own religion there was no honest sacrifice which he 
was not capable of making. As for the members of his 
congregation, their interests and his own were insepar- 
able. The little band of refugees who were about to 
make a home on South African soil for themselves and 
their children therefore felt their circle more complete 
after his arrival. 

The Huguenots landed in South Africa without any 
property in goods or money. The East India Company 
sent out a quantity of ship's biscuit, peas, and salt meat, 
to be served out to them as provisions for a few months, 
and deal planks to make the woodwork of temporary 
houses. Whatever else they needed was to be supplied 
on credit from the Company's stores. From Europe they 
had no assistance to expect, for the demands upon the 
purses of the benevolent there were unceasing. A fund 
for their benefit was raised in the colony, to which each 
individual contributed in cattle, grain, or money, accord- 
ing to his circumstances. The amount subscribed is not 
mentioned, but Commander Van der Stel reported that it 
was very creditable to the old colonists and very service- 
able to the refugees. It was given to the reverend Mr. 
Simond and the deacons of Stellenbosch for distribution. 

The burgher councillors furnished six waggons free 
of charge to convey the immigrants to their destination. 



1 688] Simon van der Stel. 335 

The heemraden of Stellenbosch supplied six more to be 
used until the refugees should be all settled. Some of 
the Huguenots were located in and about Stellenbosch, 
but the larger number at Drakenstein and French Hoek. 
Particular care was taken not to locate them by them- 
selves, but to mix them as much as possible with the 
Dutch colonists who were already here or who were 
arriving at the same time. This was almost from the day 
of their landing a point of disagreement between them 
and the conunander, for they expressed a strong desire 
not to be separated. Several even refused to accept the 
allotments of ground which were offered to them, and in 
preference engaged themselves as servants to some of the 
others. 

With regard to church services, an arrangement was 
made that Mr. Simond should preach in French on al- 
ternate Sundays at Stellenbosch and at the house of a 
burgher at Drakenstein. The sick-comforter Mankadan 
was to read a sermon and prayers in Dutch at Stellen- 
bosch when the minister was at Drakenstein, and at 
Drakenstein when the minister was at Stellenbosch. Once 
in three months Mr. Simond was to preach at the Cape, 
and then the reverend Mr. Van Andel was to hold ser- 
vice in Dutch and administer the sacraments at Stellen- 
bosch. 

This was in accordance with the custom of the 
Netherlands, or as closely so as circumstances would per- 
mit. There, the refugees as they arrived formed branch 
congregations of established churches; here, they formed 
a branch congregation of the church of Stellenbosch. 
That church, though as yet without a resident Dutch 
clergyman, had a fully organised consistory, which was 
presided over by the minister of the Cape acting as con- 
sulent. It was an arrangement which was designed to 
meet the wants of both sections of the conmiunity, but it 
did not satisfy the French, who desired to have a church 
entirely of their own. 



336 History of Sotdh Africa. [1689 

The refugees commenced the work of building and 
planting with alacrity. Those who had been accustomed 
to manual labour soon erected rough dwellings of clay 
walls and thatched roofs and laid out vegetable gardens, 
but there were men among them who had been bred in 
the lap of ease, and to whom such toil was exceptionally 
severe. These fared badly at first, but with some assist- 
ance in labour from their countrymen they also were able 
to make a good commencement in farming. The Com- 
pany had promised to supply them with slaves as soon as 
possible, but was at this time unable to procure any. 

Those who were located at Drakenstein had hardly 
got roofs above their heads when they addressed the com- 
mander upon the subject of a school for the education 
of their children. He approved of their request, and on 
the 8th of November 1688 Paul Boux, of Orange in 
France, who imderstood both languages, was appointed 
schoolmaster of Drakenstein. He was to receive a salary 
of 255. and a ration allowance of 12s. &d, a month, and 
in addition to his duties as a teacher he was to act as 
church clerk.^ 

A few months after the first party of Huguenots left 
the Netherlands a number of others were engaged to 
come out as colonists. They embarked in the ships 
Wapen van Alkmaar and Zion. The first of these vessels 
left Texel on the 27th of July 1688, and arrived in Table 
Bay on the 27th of January 1689. She brought out 
about forty immigrants, young and old. The Zion arrived 
on the 6th of May 1689, and in her came three brothers 
named Abraham, Pierre, and Jacob de Villiers, who were 
vinedressers from the neighbourhood of La Eochelle. 



^This was not an exoeptioxiallj small salary. The schoolmaster of 
the Cape received only IL Is. 9d. a month, in addition to a fee of 
eight pence for each pupil, *if the parents, whether Company's servants 
or hurghers, could afford to pay it.' The schoolmaster of Stellenbosch 
received more, hut he had various other duties to perform. All of them 
were provided with a free house and a garden. 



1690] Simon van der SteL 337 

Shortly after the refugees arrived in South Africa, the 
consistory of Batavia sent a sum of money equal to 
twelve hundred and fifty English sovereigns to be distri- 
buted among them according to their needs. This money 
had constituted the poor funds of a church at Formosa 
which was destroyed by an enemy, but the guardians 
managed to save their trust, and deposited it with the 
deacons at Batavia to be used for charitable purposes. 
Nowadays 1,250/. may not seem a very large amount, but 
if its purchasing power at that time be considered it will 
be found to have been a generous and noble gift, and it 
was appreciated as such by those whose wants it was 
intended to relieve. It was decided that all the Hugue- 
nots should share in this present, except a very few who 
were othervnse provided for. 

The money was distributed on the 18th and 19th of 
April 1690, by commissioners who had taken every indi- 
vidual's needs into consideration. A copy of the list of 
distribution is in the archives at the Hague, and it is 
given here, as it contains the names of those who arrived 
in the Borssevburg, Zuid Beveland, and Wapen van Alkmaar, 
and shows further what havoc death had made in the 
little band of refugees previous to this date, with some 
other particulars. With a few names added from another 
docmnent, it forms a complete list of the Huguenots who 
settled in South Africa at this period. 

Pierre Lombard, a sick man, with wife and one child 

Isaac Taillefer, with wife and four children 

Pierre Jacob, with wife and three children . 

Widow of Charles Marais, with four children 

Philippe Fouch^, with wife and two children 

Abraham de Villiers, with wife and two brothers 

Matthieu Amiel, with wife and two children 

Hercnle da Pr^ with wife and five children 

Lonis Cordier, with wife and four children 

Jean le Long, with wife and two children 

Widow of Charles Pr^yot (remarried to Hendrik Eek 

hof), with four children by her deceased hnsband 

VOL. I. 22 



. £62 


1 


8 


60 








44 


8 


lOf 


. 41 


13 


4 


. 41 


13 


4 


. 39 


11 


8 


. 38 


3 


lOf 


35 


8 


4 


. 32 


19 


8t 


32 


12 


H 


31 


6 






33^ History of South Africa. [1690 

Mafgaerite Perrotit, widow with two children . £30 11 1^ 

Jean du Plessis, with wife and one child . 29 17 8} 



29 3 4 

28 2 6 

28 2 6 

27 15 6} 

27 15 6} 

25 

24 6 \\ 

21 10 6} 

20 16 8 



Daniel de BueUe, with wife and one child 

Jean Mesnard, widower with four children 

Pierre Joubert, with wife and one child 

Nicolas de Lanoy, with mother and brother 

Pierre Bousseau, with wife and one child 

Gnillaume Nel, with wife and two children 

Daniel Nortier, with wife and one child 

Gideon Malherbe, with wife 

Jacques Pinard, with wife .... 

Etienne Bm^re, with his espoused, Esther de Buelle . 19 15 10 

Marie and Marguerite Boux, two little orphans . . 19 8 10} 

Esaias and Susanne Costeux, two orphans now living 

with Nicolaas Cleef 17 7 2} 

Jean Jourdan, with wife 15 19 5( 

Jean Margra, with wife 13 17 9^ 

Widow Antoinette Camoy 13 17 9^ 

Louis Fouri6 11 2 2f 

Jacob Vivier and Etienne Viret, each iBlO 8 4 20 16 8 

Jean Cloudon and Jean Durand, each ^ 14 5^ . 19 8 10} 

Louis Barr^y Pierre Jourdan, Pierre Boux, Jacques 
Th^rond, Francois B^tif, Jean le Boux, Gabriel le 
Boux, David S^n^chal, Salomon Goumai, Jean Jou- 
bert, Jean Nortier, Daniel Couvat, and Pierre 

Meyer, each £9 6} 117 7 2} 

Jean Boi and Jean Boux (or le Boux) of Provence, 

and Matthieu Fracass^, together . . . 26 7 9} 

Marie le Long (married to Adriaan van Wyk) . . 8 6 8 
Daniel Hugod, Michel Martineau, and Hercule Yerdeau, 

each £868 25 00 

Antoine Gros, Daniel Terrier, and Paul Godefroy, to- 
gether 24 13 0} 

Jacques Malan and Pierre Jourdan, each £7 198} . 1519 5^ 
Nicolas la Tatte and Jean Gard^, each £7 12 9^ 15 5 6} 

Abraham Vivier and Pierre Vivier, each £7 5 10 . 14 11 8 

Elizabeth du Pr^, young unmarried woman 6 18 10} 

Andr(^ Pelanchon, Louis Corbonne, Pierre la Grange, 
Pierre Batt^ Antoine Martin, Zacharie Mantior, 
Jacob Nortier, Jean Parisel, and Pierre Bochefort, 

each £6 18 10} 62 10 

Jean Magnet 650 

Pierre Sabatier and Pierre Beneeet, together . 11 16 1} 

Jean du Buis 5 11 1|^ 



1690] Simon van der Stel. 339 

Abraham Beluz^ £64S 

Jean Bouz, of Nonnandy 4 17 2} 

Jean Mysal 434 

Pierre le F^bre (wife and three children) . . . 3 9 5^ 

Guillaame du Toit (wife and one child) . . . . 3 9 6} 

Francois du Toit (wife) 3 9 5^ 

Those who were otherwise provided for, or who did 
not need assistance from this fund, were: — 

Bev. Pierre Simond, with wife and one child, 
Jacqnes de Savoye, with wife and two children, 
Louis de Berout, with wife and three children, 
Pierre Barilla, with wife, 
Andrd Gaucher, 
Paul Brasier, and 
Paul Boux. 

This list gives a total of one hundred and seventy-six 
souls, while in despatches of nearly the same date from 
the Cape government the number of Huguenots of all 
ages in the colony is stated to be one hundred and fifty- 
five. But in the last case those in the service of the 
Company were certainly not included, and possibly those 
who were married into Dutch &milies would not be 
reckoned. It is more than likely also that out of these 
hundred and seventy-six souls there must have been 
several who, from long residence in the Netherlands, 
would not be considered refugees by Commander Van der 
Stel. This supposition is strengthened by the fact that 
many names in the Ust had been familiar in the Low 
Countries for two or three generations. Thus, a branch of 
the family Le Febre had been settled at Middelburg since 
1574, there had been De Lanoys at Leiden since I6489 
Nels at Utrecht since 1644, Du Toits at Leiden since 
1605, Cordiers at Haarlem since 1627, Jouberts at Leiden 
since 1645, Malans at Leiden since 1625, Malherbes at 
Dordrecht since 1618, and Mesnards at Leiden since 1638. 

Before the Wapen van Alkmaar sailed, the directors 
had it in contemplation to send out a party of six or 



340 History of South Africa. [1689 

seven hundred Yaudois, all of the labouring class, and 
most of them understanding some handiwork as well as 
agriculture. This party had taken refuge in Nuremberg, 
where they were in such distress that they sent deputies 
to beg assistance from the states-provincial of Holland and 
West Friesland, and offered to emigrate in a body to any 
colony of the Netherlands. Their wretched condition in- 
cited the warmest compassion of the states, who, after 
providing for their temporary relief, addressed the di- 
rectors of the East and West India Companies, asking 
whether either of those associations would be willing to 
receive the applicants as colonists. 

The assembly of seventeen replied, offering to settle 
these poor people, their oldest co-religionists as they 
termed them, at the Cape of Good Hope; and arrange- 
ments were thereafter made for sending them out. The 
states-provincial agreed to contribute a sum of money, 
equal to 42. 3^. 4d. for each emigrant, towards the expense 
of furnishing them with outfits for the voyage and con- 
veying them from Nuremberg to Amsterdam, where they 
were to embark. The Company was to provide them 
with free passages, to supply them on credit with building 
materials and provisions for seven or eight months after 
their arrival in the colony, and was further to treat them 
in every respect as Dutch subjects and to allow them 
all the privileges granted to previous emigrants. But 
when the arrangements were concluded, the Vaudois de- 
clined to go so far away, so that the project of sending 
them here fell through. 

During the next twenty years individuals of French 
origin continued to arrive with other immigrants occasion- 
ally in the colony, but never more than two or three 
families at a time. The subject of emigration, from having 
been a prominent one in the discussions of the directors 
of the East India Company, disappears from their records 
after June 1688. Exciting events were taking place in 
Europe, which occupied their attention to the exclusion of 



1689] Simon van der SteL 341 

everjrthing that was not of primary importance. The 
siunmer of this year was passed in anxiety, for it was 
feared thai; war with France and England combined was 
imminent, and the first thought of the directors was the 
protection, not the enlargement, of their possessions. In 
the autumn the garrison of the Cape was increased by 
one hundred and fifty men. Then followed the landing of 
the prince of Orange in England, the seizure of Dutch 
ships and the imprisonment of their crews by the French 
government, and finally war with France. While such 
events were transpiring, no thought could be bestowed 
upon colonisation. 

The commander, Simon van der Stel, would much 
rather have seen Netherlanders alone coming to South 
Africa, but as the supreme authorities chose to send out 
French refugees he could not do otherwise than receive 
them and deal with them according to his instructions. 
It was impossible for him to be as friendly with them as 
with his own countrymen, still he did not at first treat 
them with undue reserve. In 1689 he appointed Jacques 
de Savoye a heemraad of Stellenbosch, and he stood 
sponsor at the baptism of one of his children and of a 
child of the reverend Mr. Simond. 

With most of the Huguenots the first difficulties of 
settling in a new country were speedily overcome; houses 
were built, very small and rough it is true, but still giving 
shelter from sun and storm, gardens were placed under 
cultivation, and as the crops of the first season were par- 
ticularly good there was no want of the necessaries of life. 
A few, however, who declined to accept farms at Stellen- 
bosch, were in very poor circumstances. The manner in 
which they had been located was by all felt as a griev- 
ance, though as each one gradually improved his property 
it was a grievance which would naturally soon disappear. 
But there was another cause of discontent, which was 
that they were considered by the government as part of 
the congregation of Stellenbosch, whereas they understood 



342 History of South Africa. [1689 

the proaiise of the directors that they shonld have a 
clergyman of their own as implying that they should form 
a congregation by themselves. The commander declined 
to take any notice of individual representations on this 
subject, and the Huguenots therefore resolved to proceed 
in a more formal manner. 

On the 28th of November 1689 a deputation, consist- 
ing of the reverend Pierre Simond, Jacques de Savoye, 
Daniel de Buelle, Abraham de Yilliers, and Louis Cordier, 
appeared at the castle, and on behalf of their country- 
men requested to be permitted to estabUsh a separate 
church of their own. The commander broke into a fur- 
ious passion. He declared that the project was rank sedi- 
tion, and that the French were the most impertinent and 
ungrateful people on the face of the earth. It is not only 
their own church, said he, that they want, but their own 
magistrate and their own prince. They shall have nothing 
of the kind. Here have we been treating them actually 
better than our own Netherlanders, and this is the way 
they turn upon us. 

The commander called the council together, but not 
to ask advice so much as to express his opinion of the 
French. The deputation was for some time left waiting 
in an outer room. By-and-bye they were reminded of 
the oath of allegiance which they had taken, and were 
ordered to return to their homes, the commander inform- 
ing them that they must be satisfied to remain as they 
were, a branch congregation of the church of Stellenbosch. 

The clergyman Simond had written to the supreme 
authorities concerning the grievances of the Huguenots 
some five months previously, and nothing further could be 
done until a reply to his letter should be received. And 
now for a time the two nationalities, which were so soon 
thereafter to be inseparably blended together, regarded 
each other with a bitter spirit of hostihty. 

The commander saw in the projects of the Huguenots 
nothing but an attempt to thwart his darUng scheme of 



1690] Simon van der Stel. 343 

a pure Dutch colony, they saw in him nothing but a de- 
termination to compel them to be Dutch, whether they 
would or not. On both sides very rash words were utter- 
ed. In open meeting the French resolved not to inter- 
marry with the Dutch, forgetting apparently that if such 
a resolution could be carried out, most of them could 
never marry at all. There were individuals among them 
who did not scruple to say that having braved the anger 
of the great king of France, they would be ashamed of 
themselves if they were afraid of the commander Van der 
Stel. Many of the Dutch colonists ceased to hold inter- 
course with the French, and some were even reported to 
have said that they would rather give bread to a Hotten- 
tot or to a dog than to a Frenchman. 

On the 6th of December 1690 the assembly of seven- 
teen took the request of the reverend Mr. Simond on 
behalf of the Huguenots at the Cape into consideration, 
and resolved to permit them to establish a church at 
Drakenstein under the following conditions: — 

1. The deacons and elders chosen yearly were to be 
approved of by the council of policy, which meant in 
practice that a double hst of names should be submitted 
by the consistory, the same as at Stellenbosch, from 
which the council should make a selection of deacons, 
and that the elders nominated by the consistory could be 
rejected if they were not considered suitable persons. 

2. A political commissioner was to have a seat in the 
consistory. 

3. Important matters were to be brought before the 
church council of the Cape, in which deputies from the 
country consistories were then to have seats. 

4. The consistory of Drakenstein was to have control 
of poor funds raised by the congregation, but contributions 
sent from abroad were to be under the control of the 
combined church council. 

With regard to schools, the teachers at Stellenbosch 
and Drakenstein were to be men who understood both 



344 History of South Africa. [1691 

languages, and care was to be taken that the French 
children should be taught Dutch. 

Lastly, the request of the Huguenots to be located to- 
gether was refused, and the government of the Cape was 
instructed, when granting ground, to mix the nationaUties 
together so that they might speedily amalgamate. 

The despatch in which these resolutions were em- 
bodied reached the Cape in June 1691, and on the 80th 
of the following December the people of Drakenstein were 
formed into a separate congregation by the appointment of 
elders and deacons from among themselves. The elders 
chosen by the council were Claude Marais, Louis de 
Berout, and Louis Cordier, and the deacons were Abra- 
ham de Villiers, Pierre Meyer, Pierre Beneset, and Pierre 
Bousseau. 

This arrangement satisfied the Huguenots, though in 
all other respects matters ecclesiastical remained several 
years longer as before. The clergyman Simond continued 
to reside in the village of Stellenbosch, and held services 
alternately in the church there and in a room at Draken- 
stein. Early in 1694 he moved to a residence built for 
him among the Huguenots, and after that date only 
preached occasionally at Stellenbosch. The earliest bap- 
tismal entry in the church books of Drakenstein is on the 
29th of August 1694. The first pages of the register were 
written by Paul Boux, who was clerk and schoolmaster, and 
they show clearly that the proportion of Dutch members in 
the congregation was from the very commencement large. 

Before 1691 most of the Huguenots who had been 
located elsewhere managed to purchase ground at Dra- 
kenstein, and when the next census was taken only 
three French families were found residing in Stellenbosch. 
Already there had been several intermarriages, and hence- 
forward the blending of the two nationalities proceeded 
so rapidly that in the course of two generations the 
descendants of the Huguenot refugees were not to be 
distinguished from other colonists except by their names. 



345 



CHAPTER XI. 

SIMON VAN DER STEL'S ADMINISTRATION (corUinueO^, 

At the same time that the Huguenots were settling in 
South Africa Dutch colonists in equal numbers were set- 
tling here also. Some of them had famiUes, others were 
just married, and others still were single men and women, 
precisely as was the case with the French. A few Ger- 
mans with Dutch wives also settled in the colony at this 
time. Some of these immigrants left no children, but all 
of those whose names follow have descendants here at 
the present day, though two or three of them in the 
female line only: Lourens Backstroo, Pieter Bekker, Booy 
Booysen, Frederik Botha, Hans Jacob Brits, Theunis de 
Bruyn, Barend Burger, Lourens Campher, Bastiaan Colyn, 
Jan Cruywagen, Jan van Dyk, Adriaan van Eck, Pieter 
Erasmus, Albertus Gildenhuyzen, Christoflfel Groenewald, 
Hans Hendrik Hattingh, Comelis Knoetzen, Jan Kotze, 
Matthys Krugel, Barend Lubbe, Godfried Meyhuyzen, 
Philip Morkel, Andries Oelofse, Jan Oosthuyzen, Wemmer 
Pasman, Pieter van der Poel, Michiel Comelis Smuts, 
Ghristofifel Snyman, Jan Swart, Adam Tas, Hendrik 
Venter, Jan Vosloo, Gerrit van Vuuren, Matthys Wieg- 
man, Gerrit Willemse, and Willem van Zyl. 

The new settlers were provided with farms sufficiently 
large for agricultural purposes, chiefly in the valley of the 
Berg river as far down as the Green mountain beyond 
the present village of Wellington, though a few were 
scattered about the Koeberg and the Tigerberg, and a 
few others over the land near the head of False Bay. 



346 History of South Africa. [1691 

There was no longer a feeling of isolation among the 
residents beyond the isthmus, for their houses were no 
great distance apart. The farms were held in freehold, 
and were too small for cattle-rearing purposes, but the 
whole land that was not given out was regarded as a 
common pasture. 

The Goringhaiquas and Gorachouquas were thus losing 
every year more and more of the country that had been 
theirs as long back as their traditions reached, yet they 
were never more friendly. There was still room enough 
and to spare for all. The kraals of the Hottentots were 
thinly scattered over the country, and were moved from 
place to place just as in olden times, except that they 
could not be erected on ground occupied by white men. 
These people had become poor in cattle, owing partly to 
the waste caused by their perpetual feuds, partly to de- 
predations by Bushmen, and partly to their wiUingness to 
exchange oxen for brandy and tobacco. The burghers 
were forbidden to trade with them, under severe penalties, 
but in defiance of the placaats and of the punishment 
which invariably followed conviction, some of the least 
respectable carried on an extensive barter. 

At length the clans became so impoverished that, to 
assist them, in 1696 the government supplied them with 
some cattle to tend on shares, but the e£fort to restore 
them to their former condition was fruitless. Of their 
own accord they referred their most weighty disputes 
to the European authorities for settlement, and upon 
the death of a captain they always apphed for the con- 
firmation of his successor. A staff with a copper head, 
upon which was engraved on one side the Company's 
monogram and on the other the name given to the new 
captain, was considered indispensable to the exercise of 
chieftainship. 

The colonists would gladly have employed some hun- 
dreds of Hottentots, if they could have been induced to 
take service, but the men loved their wild, free, idle life 



1692] Simon van der Stel. 347 

too well to exchange it for one of toil They had no 
objection, however, to do light work occasionally to earn 
tobacco and spirits, and in harvesting especially they were 
very useful. They were willing also to hire out their 
female children, and by this means a few household ser- 
vants were obtained and a knowledge of the Dutch lan- 
guage was spread. None of them had yet progressed so 
far in civilisation as to make gardens for themselves, or 
in any way to cultivate the ground. 

The clans could not always be prevented from engag- 
ing in hostilities with each other. The two captains of 
the Chainouquas, Elaas and Koopman, were frequently 
quarrelling, but before 1691 whenever they came to open 
war the con>mander interfered on behalf of lOaas, who 
was held to be a faithful ally of the Company. Through 
his agency large herds of cattle were obtained as they 
were required, though the farmers were constantly en- 
couraged to breed oxen and sheep for slaughter, so as to 
insure a supply of meat under any circumstances. 

A savage, however, is incapable of continuing long in 
any pursuit that demands much exertion, and ESaas got 
weary of travelUng about the country purchasing cattle for 
the Company, whose wants must have seemed to him in- 
satiable. It became necessary again to send out trading 
parties of Europeans, and these so excited his jealousy 
that he did his utmost to put obstacles in their way. 
This conduct led rapidly to something more unfriendly, 
and in 1692 he used threatening language towards Ensign 
Schryver, the head of a bartering party. 

Eoopman was not slow to take advantage of the new 
condition of things. He came to the castle with an accu- 
sation against Klaas of being in league with those burgh- 
ers who were carrpng on an illicit trade, and he professed 
to have so great a regard for the Company's interests as 
to be willing to place his services entirely at the disposal 
of the government. In the minute details of these events 
entered in the records of the time, there is found an exact 



348 History of South Africa. [1693 

counterpart of numerous well-known transactions of native 
chiefs of the present day. The result was that Koop- 
man became an ally of the honourable Company, and 
Klaas was regarded as an ill-affected mischief-maker. 
Thus the government completely changed sides with the 
rival branches of the Chainouqua tribe. Elaas had as 
wife a daughter of Goukou, paramount chief of the Hesse- 
quas, who was commonly called the oude heer by the 
colonists. His people and the Hessequas were living in 
close friendship. 

On the 20th of April 1693 an urgent request for help 
was received at the castle from Eoopman, who represented 
that he was about to be attacked by Klaas and the Hes- 
sequas. It was therefore resolved to send Captain Willem 
Fadt with a hundred soldiers and a hundred burghers to 
Koopman's assistance, with instructions to endeavour to 
capture Klaas. 

The commando, aided by Koopman's adherents, sur- 
rounded Klaas's kraal in the night, took possession of bis 
cattle, and arrested him and two of his leading men. 
Some of his followers who attempted to escape were 
killed by Koopman's people. The cattle were driven to 
the Kuilen, where they were counted and divided between 
Koopman and the honourable Company. 

On the 8th of August the three prisoners were brought 
before the council of policy. Klaas admitted some of the 
charges against him, but endeavoured to give a satisfac- 
tory explanation of his conduct. He denied having ever 
had hostile designs against the Company. The council 
admitted that he had not been guilty of any overt act 
of war, and, on the 17th of August, resolved that as no 
Christian blood had been shed, further proceedings against 
the prisoners should be dropped, but to secure tranquillity 
Klaas should be detained on Eobben Island. 

The fate of the unfortunate Hottentot, who had once 
been regarded as the most trustworthy of his race, and 
who had befriended many Europeans in distress, called 



1693] Simon van der Stel. 349 

forth a large amount of sympathy. Intercession was 
made to the government on his behalf, and in January 
1694 he was released from confinement and permitted to 
hve near Muizenburg^ with some of his retainers. He 
had previously been ill, and had been brought to the 
mainland for medical treatment, but upon recovery had 
been sent back to the island. When he was allowed to 
reside at Muizenburg, his wife, the daughter of Goukou, 
was sent for. She had lived with him about ten years, 
but when he was arrested by Captain Padt, Koopman had 
taken her with other spoil. Her father had never visited 
the Cape, but as a partisan of Klaas he came to the 
castle on this occasion. The woman was asked by the 
governor if she desired to live with her husband, and re- 
plied that she preferred to remain with Koopman. 

A Uttle later Klaas was allowed to return to his old 
kraal, upon giving a promise to hve quietly and peace- 
ably. But he and Koopman at once resumed their quarrel 
In February 1697 both were summoned to the Cape, and 
an apparent reconciliation was e£fected. Goukou, whose 
friendship was valued, as he was considered the most 
wealthy and powerful of all the Hottentot chiefs in the 
neighbourhood of the colony, appeared again on this oc- 
casion as the friend of Klaas. 

The captains had hardly returned to their kraals when 
fighting between them was renewed. Goukou's daughter 
changed her mind and attempted to return to ESaas^^ 
upon which Koopman put her to death. In retaliation 
Klaas and the Hessequas attacked Koopman, and took 
his cattle together with some belonging to the Company 
which were in his charge. A sergeant and twelve men 
were then sent from the castle to request Klaas to re- 

^Of recent years this place has usually come to be known as Muizen- 
berg, a mode of spelling that may possibly become fixed, as the moun- 
tain behind it is now also called by the same name. In olden times 
the mountain was known as the Steenberg, and the ground at it&< 
eastern base as Muizenburg. 



350 History of South Africa. [1693 

store the Company's property, but he could not comply, 
as the oxen had abready been killed and eaten. This 
matter brought him into disfavour again, and thenceforth 
he was regarded as the principal mischief-maker in the 
country. Occasionally he visited the Cape in company 
with Gk)ukou, and promised to live in peace with Koop- 
man, but the promise was soon disregarded. The feud 
between the two captains was kept up until in a skirmish 
between them in June 1701 Klaas was killed. The story, 
as written at the time in minute detail, might be copied 
as a faithful description of a quarrel between native clans 
livday* 

Other Hottentot communities farther from the Euro- 
pean settlement were engaged in the same way destroying 
each other* 

tu &raroh 1689 the Namaquas and Grigriquas crossed 
the Elephant river in such force that fifty-two kraals 
WTre cvHinted on the southern side. Less than two years 
)>revioUHly the Grigriquas had sent a present of six oxen 
h^ the oa$tle« and had stated their wish to continue in 
hnendship with the Europeans. The messengers had been 
\>vU revHMved, and had loft pleased and satisfied. Though 
nothing had \K\nirred since that time to disturb the peace 
with either them or the Namaquas, this inroad alarmed 
the nettUMns, and the fifirmers of Drakenstein and Stellen- 
K^seh pn^pared for defence. But it soon- appeared that 
the C\K>hiHiua.s not the Europeans, were to be the victims. 
The invadern attacked a kraal near Saldanha Bay, killed 
the chief and as many of the men as they could get hold 
of» and carried off the women, children, and cattle as 
lHH>ty. 

The commander did not see fit to interfere in this 
diRtiul>auce» though the Cochoquas were said to be under 
the jm^tection of the Dutch. But when a similar raid 
WttR made at the end of the following year, he sent 
thirty or forty soldiers to preserve order. The invaders 
were then attacked, and several thousand head of cattle 



1693] Simon van der Stel. 351 

were captured. The whole of the booty was restored, 
however, and in addition some presents of tobacco and 
spirits were made, upon the late disturbers of the peace 
entreating a renewal of friendship and promising not to 
repeat the ofifence. In the interval between these events 
the old chief Oedasoa died. One of his brothers there- 
upon applied to the commander to be appointed in his 
stead, when he received a stafif of office and was named 
Hannibal. 

A few years later the Grigriqua tribe gave ofifence 
by harbouring runaway slaves. In December 1696 En- 
sign Schryver was sent with thirty soldiers and twenty 
burghers to endeavour to obtain the fugitives in friendly 
barter. If the Grigriquas would not restore them, the 
ensign was instructed to sdze some individuals, male or 
female, and bring them to the castle as hostages. The 
expedition was not successful in finding the tribe. Some 
friendly Hottentots, however, secured two Grigriquas, who 
were detained at the castle for a couple of months. One 
of them was then sent to his people with a friendly 
message asking for the slaves. He did not return, and 
the other was shortly afterwards released. 

In March 1693 four Hessequa kraals were pillaged by 
the Attaquas. As this was the normal condition of all 
the tribes that were known, there can be httle doubt that 
those at a greater distance were engaged in the same 
kind of strife. 

It happened occasionally that crimes were committed 
by Hottentots against Europeans, and in such instances 
the ofifenders were tried by the Dutch tribunals, and 
punished according to Dutch law. Thefts were not un- 
common, but other offences were rare. During a long 
course of years only one crime more serious than cattle- 
hfting occurred, a colonist, the elder Charles Marais, 
having been murdered by a Hottentot at Drakenstein in 
April 1689. The offender was tried and executed. Natives 
committing crimes against their own people were left to 



352 History of South Africa. [1693 

be dealt with by their own laws, the policy of the govern- 
ment being not to interfere with them farther than waB 
necessary for the safety and welfare of the Europeans. 

The Bushmen had retreated from the open country 
occupied by the white people, but parties of them oc- 
casionally came down from the Drakenstein mountains 
and committed depredations in the valley below. They 
were regarded as outlaws, and if any had been captured 
they would have received very httle mercy. But they 
were too wary and fleet of foot to be made prisoners 
of. The Hottentots pursued them with greater success. 
Before Captain Klaas fell into disfavour, he was almost 
constantly scouring the mountains in his neighbourhood 
in search of them, and though on several occasions they 
nearly brought him to ruin by sweeping off his herds, he 
managed to destroy a large number of them. In April 
1694 some of these robbers made a descent upon Eoop- 
man's kraals, and drove off fully half of his cattle. The 
Hottentot captain applied for assistance to the governor, 
and ten soldiers under a sergeant were sent to his aid. 
The Bushmen were followed up, most of the cattle were 
recovered, and sixteen or seventeen of the marauders were 
shot. 

Agriculture was now so far advanced in the colony that 
suflScient grain was produced for the consumption of the 
inhabitants and the garrison and the refreshment of the 
people of the fleets. In good seasons there was a sur- 
plus of fifteen hundred or two thousand muids of wheat, 
which was exported to Batavia. Experience had taught 
the government, however, always to keep two years' sup- 
ply in the magazines, so as to provide against a season 
of drought, or the destruction of the crops by locusts or 
caterpillars. The Company had not yet altogether aban- 
doned farming operations, but it was gradually doing so, 
as it could depend upon obtaining supplies of food from 
the colonists. It had still, besides the garden in Table 
Valley and the vineyard at Bondebosch, seven farms, or 



1689] Simon van der Stel. 353 

cattle places as they were called, in different parts of the 
country, the most remote being at Hottentots-Holland. 
On two of these farms a few hundred muids of wheat 
were grown, but the others were merely stations for breed- 
ing cattle and for keeping oxen and sheep purchased from 
the Hottentots until they were required for the fleets. 

The Company was also making efforts to improve 
the existing stock of cattle and to introduce new breeds. 
Horses, originally brought from Java, had increased satis- 
factorily in number, but had deteriorated in size and ap- 
pearance. These useful animals were so indispensable, 
however, that small as they were they brought at auction 
from 42. to bL each, or as much as four or five large oxen 
in prime condition. To improve the breed, in 1689 the 
Company imported some stud horses from Persia. At the 
same time some Persian asses were introduced, and during 
several years thereafter stock of this kind continued to arrive 
by way of Ceylon. Spanish rams were sent out, as the 
directors thought it possible that the valuable kirman wool 
might be produced by a cross between those animals and 
South African sheep. 

The cultivation of wheat was the first object with the 
farmers, because it brought relatively a higher price than 
any other product. Next to growing wheat, rearing cattle 
was the most profitable occupation. The production of 
wine followed, the Company purchasing it at bl. a legger 
for the use of the fleets. It was not saleable in India, 
on account of its being of very inferior quality. Some of 
it was converted into vinegar for the use of the sea- 
men. 

In March 1689 inteUigence reached South Africa that 

all Dutch ships in French harbours had been seized, and 

that on the 26th of the preceding November the king of 

France had declared war against the United Netherlands. 

It was feared that England would join the enemy, but 

that apprehension was removed a few days later, when 

despatches were received in which it was stated that the 
VOL. I. 23 



354 History of South Africa. [1689 

prince of Orange had landed at Torbay and had been 
welcomed by the English people as their dehverer. 

On the 26th of April the French ship Nbmtande, from 
Pondicherry, with a valuable cargo on board, put into 
Table Bay. Captain De Courcelles, her commander, knew 
nothing of recent events in Europe, and beUeved he was 
anchoring in a friendly port. He sent a boat ashore with 
a complimentary message to the Dutch authorities, the 
bearers of which were made prisoners as soon as they 
entered the castle. The boat was then manned with 
Dutch sailors dressed hke the French, who kept her flag 
flying, and pretended to put off from the shore. 

The Kormande now commenced to fire a salute, and 
while her people were thus engaged, she was boarded by 
the crews of the Dutch ships in port. There was a short 
scuffle, in which no one was killed, though two Dutch- 
men and eight Frenchmen were wounded, and which 
ended in the surrender of Captain De Courcelles and his 
crew. The French flag was left flying on the NoTTrvande^ 
so as to decoy her consort, the Coche^ to a similar fate. 

On the evening of the 5th of May the Coche came to 
anchor, and shortly afterwards saluted the Dutch flag 
with nine guns, a compliment which was at once returned 
with the same number. She had no communication with 
the shore, but late in the evening she sent a boat to the 
Normande. As the boat did not return, and as a large 
Dutch ship was evidently ranging alongside, shortly after 
midnight Captain D'Armagnan became alarmed, and com- 
menced to prepare the Coche for action. Seeing this, the 
master of the Nederland poured in a broadside at less 
distance than his own ship's length, when Captain D*Ar- 
magnan and three of his crew were killed and eight 
others were wounded. With five hostile ships around 
them, the officers of the Coche saw no chance of defend- 
ing her successfully, and they therefore surrendered. 

Both the prizes were plundered by the Dutch seamen 
immediately after their capture. The value of their car- 



1689] Simon van der Stel. 355 

goes was estimated at 50,000/. The Normande and the 
Coche were renamed the Ooede Hoop and the Afrika, and 
were sent to Europe with the next fleet of the Company. 
The prisoners, one hundred and forty in number, were 
forwarded to Batavia, to be detained there until an ex- 
change could be effected. 

The capture of these vessels was a fortunate occur- 
rence for Commander Van der Stel. Some time before 
the war broke out he had received from the king of 
France a present of a gold chain and medal with a por- 
trait of that monarch, in return for the civilities shown 
by him to the fleets which called at Table Bay in 1685 
and 1687. The directors did not approve of his receiving 
this present, and it might have fared ill with him if for- 
tune had not furnished an opportunity of clearing himself 
of suspicion. 

At this time a change in the form of conducting 
public business was made, which continued in operation 
during the next century. The simplicity of manners and 
honesty of purpose which were characteristic of the early 
Dutch traders in the Indian islands disappeared with the 
estabUshment of the great power which they built up, 
and before the close of the seventeenth century corruption 
in the administration of affairs had become widespread 
throughout the Asiatic possessions of the Company. There 
were many men of sterling honesty and of great ability 
in its service, but the majority of the higher oflBcers were 
unscrupulous in their pursuit of wealth. In some of the 
dependencies private trading was practised to such an ex- 
tent as to destroy the whole of the Company's profits. 
Worse still, many officials used the power entrusted to 
them to make money in ways that were decidedly crimi- 
nal. The remedy would seem to be in making the service 
attractive by offering liberal salaries to men of talent, 
while prohibiting every description of private trade and 
making it penal to take bribes under the name of fees or 
presents. But in those days of experiments in governing 



356 History of South Afnca. [1689 

dependencies, this remedy did not occur to the directors, 
or if any one made such a suggestion it was not acted 
upon. The only commerce reserved exclusively for the 
Company was that in the various kinds of spices, and 
had any one dared to deal on his own account in a 
pound of pepper or cinnamon, cloves or nutmegs, he 
would have been very severely punished. With this ex- 
ception, the old system of small salaries, with permission 
to receive fees for various services and to trade to a 
moderate extent, continued in favour. 

The directors tried to check the evil by a kind of dual 
government. In March 1688 they created the new office 
of independent fiscal, differing greatly from that of the 
guardians of the law in former times. Before 1690 the 
fiscals at the Cape were only junior merchants in rank, 
and the most important duty which they performed was 
to conduct prosecutions in criminal cases. They were 
subject to the head of the government just as much as 
ordinary clerks were. The independent fiscals were re- 
sponsible to the supreme directory alone, and were free of 
all local control. To them was confided the regulation of 
justice. By right of their office, they had a seat in the 
council of policy next to the secunde, and had access to 
records, registers, and state papers of every kind. They 
had entire control of all accounts connected with ships* 
cargoes, supplies of food for the garrison, and other expen- 
diture. Such were the duties assigned to those appointed 
to the possessions of the Company in India, and the 
system at the Cape was made uniform with that else- 
where. 

It was hoped that with these extensive powers the 
independent fiscals would be a check upon corrupt gover- 
nors, commanders, and subordinate, officers of every grade. 
But no care was taken to put them in a position where 
they would be unexposed to temptation themselves. Their 
salaries were inadequate, and they were permitted to 
charge various fees. They had summary jurisdiction in 



1689] Simon van der Stel. 357 

petty criminal cases, and were allowed to retain for their 
own benefit one third of the fines which they inflicted. 
The first independent fiscal at the Cape, Mr. Comelis 
Joan Simons, who was appointed in 1689, had a salary 
from the Company of only 100/. a year. 

There seemed now to the directors to be a good pros- 
pect of attaining the objects which the East India Com- 
pany had in view when forming a settlement at the Cape. 
Refreshments for the crews of their fleets could be had 
in ample quantities. Hitherto, however, the expense of 
their establishment had been so great that they looked 
upon it as the dearest victualling station in the world. 
The formation of what was for those days a considerable 
colony should, they thought, enable them to reduce their 
expenditure, first, by furnishing a body of militia, so that 
a large garrison would be unnecessary, and secondly, by 
producing food at cheaper rates than formerly. 

In their despatches they pointed out that while wheat 
was being sold in the Netherlands at 65. 8i. the muid, 
they were then paying 12s. 6d., and even 13«. lid., the 
muid for it at the Cape. In the Netherlands the farmers 
had to pay rent as well as tithes and heavy taxes, while 
at the Cape they had no rent whatever to pay, and hardly 
any taxes. They were of opinion, therefore, that the price 
could be gradually reduced to that of the fatherland, and 
that the farmers would still be left in a much better 
condition than those in Europe. 

They were further of opinion that the colony ought to 
produce for exportation a sufficient quantity of wheat, 
wine, and olive oil to enable them, after paying a fair price 
to the farmers, to defray a considerable portion of the 
cost of government out of the profits of the sale of such 
articles. With this view they directed the commander to 
continue making experiments with different kinds of vines 
until he should ascertain which was best, that the colo- 
nists might know what was the right sort to plant. With 
regard to the olive, they expressed great disappointment 



358 History of South Africa. [1689 

that its cultivation had apparently not been persevered in, 
and directed that it should be carefully attended to. 

The commander replied that experiments with vines 
were being made in the Company's gardens, by several 
of the farmers, and by himself at Constantia. As for the 
olive, he had spared no pains with it, and though it had 
hitherto been a failure, except in occasional seasons, it 
was still being tried. A few of the Huguenots were 
making experiments with it also, and were not only try- 
ing the cultivated variety, but were grafting upon the wild 
olive of the country. Generally, however, the burghers 
could not be induced to take any trouble with it, because 
not only was its success doubtful, but under any circum- 
stances they would have to wait a long time before 
enjoying the profit. 

The plans of Table Valley of this date show the town 
as covering part of the ground between the Company's 
garden and the shore of the bay, while extensive private 
gardens occupied a large portion of the remaining space. 
There were no private residences beyond the present 
Plein street on one side and Burg street on the other. 
On the north side of the Heerengracht — now Adderley 
street — the Company's garden extended as far down as 
the present Long-market street, but on the opposite side 
it terminated where it does still. There was a reservoir 
near the site of the original earthen fort on the parade 
ground, to which water was conducted from the Fresh 
river in a wooden pipe laid down in the year 1686, and 
from which it could be conveyed along the jetty to the 
ships' boats. Close to the reservoir was a mill for grind- 
ing com. As far as the buildings extended the streets 
were regularly laid out, and crossed each other at right 
angles, but none of them bore the same names that they 
do now. 

The directors of the East India Company considered 
that a settlement of such importance as the Cape Colony 
had now attained should have as its head a man of 



1 691] Simon van der Stel. 359 

higher rank than a commander, and as Simon van der 
Stel was regarded as deserving promotion, on the 14th 
of December 1690 they raised him to the dignity of 
governor, and granted him a salary above his mainte- 
nance expenses of 16/. ISs. 4^. a month. On the 1st of 
June of the following year the ship Java arrived in Table 
Bay with despatches to this effect, since which date the 
colony has always been presided over by an officer with 
the rank of governor. 

In 1691, when this change took place, the council of 
policy consisted of the governor, Simon van der Stel, the 
secunde, Andries de Man, the fiscal, Comelis Simons, the 
captain, Willem Padt, the treasurer, Ludowyk van der 
Stel, the garrison bookkeeper, Jan Hendrik Blum, and the 
secretary, Jan Willem de Grevenbroek. 

There were still but two clergjrmen in the colony. In 
January 1689 the reverend Johannes van Andel had been 
succeeded in Capetown by the reverend Leonardus Ter- 
wold, and had gone to Batavia as chaplain of the Wapen 
van Alkmaar. The church of Stellenbosch was still with- 
out a resident Dutch clergyman, though it had a con- 
sistory. The sick-visitor continued to read the services, 
except when the minister Simond preached there in 
French or Mr. Terwold in Dutch. 

Jan Mulder, the first landdrost of Stellenbosch, re- 
tired from office at his own request, and on the 12th of 
June 1691 was succeeded by Mr. Comehs Linnes. In 
the board of heemraden and in the . consistory men were 
taking part whose descendants are to be found there to 
the present day. The same may be said of many of the 
members of the various boards at the Cape, for in the 
consistory, the orphan chamber, the matrimonial court, 
and the court of commissioners for petty cases, were men 
with names now well known throughout South Africa. 
In a roll call of the miUtia a large proportion of the 
names would be familiar to-day anywhere between Cape 
Point and the Limpopo. 



360 History of South Africa. [1691 

According to the census returns of 1691, corrected by 
entries in the church registers, the most notable burghers 
in the Cape district were: — 

van As, Louis, with wife, 

Baokstroo, Lourens, with wife and three children, 
*de Beer, Jan, with wife and six children, 

Bezuidenhout, Wynand, 
^an der Bol, Jan, with wife and three children. 

Tan den Bosch, Jan, with wife and two children, 

Botma, Comelis, with wife and seyen children, 

Bouwman, Hendrik, with wife and two children, 

van Brakel, Adriaan, widower, with six children. 

Burger, Barend, with wife and one child, 

Colyn, Bastiaan, with wife and four children, 

Cruywagen, Jan, with wife and one child, 

Diemer, Abraham, 
^Diepenauw, Hendrik, with wife, 

Eems, Willem, with wife and one child, 

Gerrits, Comelis, with wife and one child, 

Gildenhuyzen, Albertus, with wife and five children, 

Gtildenhuyzen, Albertus, with wife and three children, 
^Gunnewoud, Christiaan, with wife, 
^Harst, Hendrik, with wife and three children, 

Hartog, Abraham, with wife and three children, 

Heyns, Paul, with wife and two children, 
^Huising, Henning, with wife, 

Eotze, Jan, with wife, 

Loubser, Nicolaas, with wife and three children, 

Louw, widow of Jan, with one child, 

Louw, Pieter, 

Lubbe, Barend, with wife and two children, 

Meyer, Willem, with wife and one child, 

Meyer, Gerrit, 

Meyhuyzen, Godfried, with wife and two children, 

Michiels, Matthys, with wife and three children, 

M511er, Hendrik Christoffel, with wife and seven children, 

Mostert, Jan, with wife and six children, 

Myburgh, Jan Lambert, with wife and two children, 

* Those mskrked with an asterisk, though married and many of them 
with children, have no descendants in South Africa at present, as far 
as can be traced. The names of some of the unmarried men in these 
lists have also died out. 



1691] Simon van der Stel. 361 

Olivier, Hendrik, with wife and six children, 
^Persyn, Hendrik, with wife and five children, 
^Phyffer, Jan, with wife and one child, 

dn Plessis, Jean, with wife and two children, 

van der Poel, Pieter, 
^Pousioen, Marthinus, with wife and three children, 

Pretorius, Jan, with wife and six children, 
^PretoriuB, Dirk, with wife and three children, 
^PreTot, Carel, with wife and one child, 

Prinsloo, Adriaan, with wife and three children. 

Patter, Diederik, with wife and five children, 

Ras, widow of Hans, with three children, 
''^Beyniers, Willem, with wife and one child, 

Bussouw, Frederik, with wife and one child, 

van Schalkwyk, Theunis, widower, with two children, 
-K^Simons, Lambert, with wife and two children, 

Smidt, Hendrik Evert, with wife and three children, 

Smit, Jan, with wife and three children. 

Smuts, Michiel Comelis, with wife and three children, 
""^Sneewind, Hendrik, with wife and three children, 

Strydom, Joost, with wife and three children, 

Verschnur, Hendrik, with wife and six children, 

Victor, Comelis, with wife and one child, 

Victor, Gerrit, with wife and one child, 

Villion (now Viljoen), widow of Fran9oi8, with five children, 

Visagie, widow of Pieter, with two children, 

Visser, Coenraad, with wife and three children, 

Visser, Gerrit, with wife and eight children, 

Visser, Jan, with wife and one child, 

Visser, Jan Coenraad, 
*Vlok, Jan Hendrik, with wife and five children, 

Wessels, Jan, with wife and two children, 

van der Westhuyzen, Pieter, with wife and six children, 

Wiegman, Matthys, with wife, 

Willemse, Gerrit, with wife and one child. 

The most notable inhabitants of Stellenbosch were: — 

Appel, Ferdinand, with wife, 
van den Berg, Jacobus, 

Beyers, Andries, with wife and four children, 
Boshouwer, Pieter, with wife and four children, 
''^Botha, Jan, with wife and two children, 
Botha, Frederik, 



362 History of South Africa. [1691 

Botma, Jan, 

Botma, Stephanas, with wife, 

Brand, Borchard, 
-)hran den Brink, Barend, with wife and two children, 

Brits, Hans JsKSob, with wife, 
♦Brouwer, Jacob, with wife, 

van der Byl, Gerrit, with wife, 

Campher, Lonrens, with wife and one child, 

Cleef, Nioolaas, with wife and two children, 

Cloete, Gerrit, with wife and six children, 

Coetsee, Dirk, with wife and five children, 
""^van Daalen, Comelis, with wife, 

van Dyk, Jan, with wife and two children, 

van Eeden, Jan, with wife and one child, 

Elberts, Hendrik, with wife and eight children, 

Faasen, Simon, with wife and one child, 

le F^bre, Pierre, with wife and fonr children, 
'^'Gerrits, Pieter, with wife and five children, 

Greef, Mathys, with wife and four children, 
'K'Grimp, Hans, with wife, 

Ghroenewald, Christoffel, 
^Henning, Christofifel, with wife and two children, 
*van Hof, Lambert, with wife and two children, 
''^Holder, Albertns, with wife, 
^JsKsobs, Hendrik, with wife and one child, 
"^Janssen, Amoud, with wife and four children, 

de Klerk, Abraham (a youth), 
'^'Eonterman, Hans, with wife and two children, 
^Linnes, Comelis, with wife and one chUd, 
^an der Lit, Anthonie, with wife, 
'K'Mankadan, Sybrand, with wife and one child, 
♦Mol, Dirk, with wife, 

Morkel, Philip, with wife, 

Mulder, Jan, 

Nel, GuiUaume, senior, with wife and two children, 

Nel, Willem, junior, with wife and one child, 

Oelofse, Andries, with wife and one child, 
*van Oldenberg, Jan, with wife and four children, 

Olivier, Ocker, with wife and three children, 

Pasman, Roelof, with wife and two children, 

Pasman, Wemmer, with wife and one child, 
^Paterbom, Jan, with wife and one child, 

Potgieter, Hermanns, with wife and six children, 

Fyl, Abraham Sebastiaan, with wife and two childr^i, 



1 691] Simon van der Stel, 363 

Scheepers, Izaak, with wife and two children, 
^Simond, Pierre, with wife and two children, 

Steyn, Douw Q^rbrand, with wife and two children, 

Tas, Adam, 

da Toit, Guillaome, with wife and one child, 

Venter, Hendrik, with wife and one chUd, 
♦Verbrugge, Lourens, with wife, 

Vermeolen, Jan, with wife and three children, 

Vofdoo, Jan, 
♦de Wereld, Willem, with wife, 
♦Wsmer, Jan, with wife and two children. 

The most notable inhabitants of Drakenstein were: — 

-^Amiel, Matthien, with wife and two children, 

van As, Jacobus, with wife and one child, 

Basson, Willem, with wife, 

Bastiaans, Frans, with wife and two children, 

Bekker, Pieter, with wife and one child, 

Beneset, Pierre, 
^de Berout, Louis, with wife and four children, 

Booysen, Booy, with wife, 

Bru^re, Etienne, 

de Bruyn, Theunis, 

da Buis, Jean, 

van der Byl, Pieter, with wife and one child, 

Claasen, Jan, with wife, 

Cloete, Coenraad (a youth), 

Gordier, Louis, with wife and five children, 

▼an Deventer, Gerrit, with wife and two children, 

Durand, Jean, 

▼an Eck, Adriaan, 
^Eckhof, Hendrik, with wife and four children, 

Erasmus, Pieter, 

Fouch^ Philippe, with wife and four children, 

Fouri^, Louis, 

Fracass^, Matthieu, 

Gaucher (now Gous), Andr^, with wife and one child, 

la Grange, Pierre, 

Hasewinkel, Christoffel, 

Hattingh, Hans Hendrik, 

Helm, Hans, with wife and six children, 

▼an der Heyden, Jacobus, with wife and one child, 

Hugod, Daniel, 



364 History of South Africa. [1691 

Jacob, Pierre, with wife and two children, 

Joubert, Pierre, with wife and two children, 

Jourdan, Jean, with wife and one child, 

Jonrdan, Pierre, 

Enoetzen, Comelis, with wife, 

Krugel, Matthys, 

Erogel, Andries, 

de Lange, Jan Hendrik, with wife and three children, 

Lombard, Pierre, with wife and three children, 
'"'le Long, Jean, with wife and one child, 

Malan, Jacques, 

Malherbe, Gideon, with wife and one child, 

Marais, widow of Charles, senior, with two children, 

Marais, Claude, with wife and one child, 

Marais, Charles, 

van Marseveen, Pieter, with wife and one child, 

van der Merwe, Schalk, with wife and one child, 

Tan der Merwe, Willem, with wife and eight children, 

Mesnard (now Minnaar), Jean, widower, with two children, 

Meyer, Pierre, 

Tan Niekerk, Comelis, with wife, 

Nortier (now Nortje), Daniel, with wife and two children, 

Oosthnyzen, Jan, 

Pinard (now Pienaar), Jacques, with wife and one child, 

du Pr6 (now du Preez), Hercule, senior, with wife and four children^ 

dn Pr^, Hercule, junior, 

R^tif (now Betief), Fran9ois, 

Boi, Jean, 

Bomond, Michiel, 

Bousseau (now Bossonw), Pierre, with wife, 

Bouz, Paul, with wife and one child, 

Rouz (or le Boux), Jean, of Provence, 

le Bouz, Jean, of Blois, 

le Bouz, Gabriel, 
*de Buelle, Daniel, widower, with one child, 

de Savoye, Jacques, with wife and three children, 

Senechal (now Senekal), David, 

Snyman, Christoffel, with wife and one child, 

van Staden, Marthinus, with wife and eight children, 
^tiwart, Comelis, with wife and two children. 

Swart, Jan, with wife, 

Taillefer, Isaac, with wife and three children, 

Terrier, Daniel, 

Therond (now Theron), Jacques, 



1 691] Simon van der SteL 365 

du Toit, Fran9ois, with wife and one child, 
Verdeau, Hercole, 
'^Vermey, Stephanus, with wife and one child, 
Verwey, Gysbert, with wife and three children, 
de Villiers, Abraham, with wife and two children, 
de Villiers, Jacob, with wife and two children, 
de Villiers, Pierre, 
Viret, Etienne, 
Vivier, Abraham, 
van Vuuren, Gerrit, with wife. 
Tan Wyk, Willem, with wife and two children, 
van Wyk, Adriaskn, with wife, 
van Zyl, Willem, with wife and one child. 

In addition to these there were in the whole settle- 
ment in 1691 some three hundred European men, many 
of whom did not remain long in the country, and none 
of whom left descendants to perpetuate their names. The 
permanent colonists, numbering about a thousand indi- 
viduals of all ages and both sexes, sprang from different 
European nationaUties, though Netherlanders greatly pre- 
ponderated. As nearly as is possible to analyse it, the 
blood consisted of rather over two-thirds Dutch, about 
one-sixth French, a very small fraction Swedish, Danish, 
and Belgian, and one-seventh German. The female immi- 
grants — except the Huguenots — were practically all from 
the Netherlands. The German male settlers were chiefly 
from the borderland where high and low Teuton blood 
is intermingled, and in religion, language, and sentiment 
they were as near to the people of Amsterdam as to 
those of Berlin. Owing to the foreigners having come 
from different countries, they lost their national character- 
istics more quickly than if they had all been of one 
origin, and the Dutch element was strong enough to 
absorb them without itself undergoing much change. 

In the colony there were also at this time about fifty 
free Asiatics and negros, with their wives and sixty 
or seventy children. They enjoyed identically the same 
political privileges as European burghers, with whom 
they were classed in official documents without any dis- 



366 History of South Africa. [1691 

tinction whatever. In social life, however, they formed 
an inferior class, for between them and the Europeans in 
thought and conduct there was a great gulf which politi- 
cal equality could not bridge. 

The colonists owned two hundred and eighty-five men. 
slaves, fifty-seven women slaves, and forty-four slave 
children. The children were all baptized, and were receiv- 
ing instruction in the principles of Christianity. The 
disproportion of the sexes was the cause of much crime 
with them as with the Europeans. Several parties of 
runaway slaves maintained themselves in the mountains 
and committed depredations upon the farmers, others took 
refuge with Hottentot clans, by whom, however, they 
were generally surrendered sooner or later. 

The burghers possessed two hundred and sixty-one 
horses, four thousand one hundred and ninety-eight head 
of homed cattle, forty-eight thousand seven hundred sheep, 
and two hundred and twenty goats. They had five hun- 
dred and eighty-four thousand nine hundred and fifty 
vines bearing, and had harvested in the last season four 
thousand one hundred and eighty-one muids of wheat, 
eight hundred and eight muids of rye, and two hundred 
and two muids of barley. 

The revenue of the government was almost entirely 
derived from the following sources :— 

Licenses to sell wines, spirits, bread, meat, and various 
other articles, which were put up at auction yearly, and 
brought in altogether about 1,500/.; the tithes, which 
fluctuated greatly, and, with the deductions allowed to the 
sick, the very poor, and generally in bad seasons, were 
not worth more than about 700/. ; and transfer dues on 
the sales of fixed property, which brought the whole up 
to about 2,250/. yearly. The colonists were thus appa- 
rently taxed at the rate of about forty-five shillings for 
each individual, over and above the profits derived from 
the sale of goods by the Company, but in reality strangers 
contributed the largest portion of the license money. 



1 691] Simon van der Stel. 367 

The number of ships that pat into Table Bay between 
the Ist of January 1672 and the close of the century 
was one thousand two hundred and twenty-seven, — nine 
hundred and seventy-six Dutch, one hundred and seventy 
English, forty-two Danish, thirty-six French, and three 
Portuguese, — on an average forty-four every year. Since 
the middle of the century many improvements had been 
made in the construction of ships. They carried now 
more sails, but each one smaller, so that they needed 
fewer seamen than formerly. The average crew of a 
Dutch Indiaman at the close of the century was one 
hundred and seventy individuals of all ranks and classes. 
The English ships that put into Table Bay were as a 
rule much smaller, and did not carry on an average more 
than one hundred men. Many of them were engaged in 
the slave trade between the West Indies and Madagascar. 
Others were private traders, or interlopers as they were 
called. The EngUsh East India Company's ships usually 
passed by Table Bay, as they had a refreshing station of 
their own at St. Helena. 

The records of the colonists and their industries are 
the symbols of a community so small that its history 
would scarcely be worth recording, if it had not occupied 
such a commanding position, if it were not that from it 
the present colonies and republics of South Africa have 
grown, and if it had not been in contact with the bar- 
barism of a continent. In 1691 it was in fairly pros- 
perous circumstances, with no one accumulating great 
wealth, but on the other hand with no one wanting food. 
There were none so indigent as not to have bread and 
meat, and milk or wine, three times a day, there were 
vegetables at all times for those who cared to grow them, 
no season was without its fruit, and no table need have 
stood without flowers, wild or cultivated, upon it every 
day in the year. What may be termed luxuries were 
indeed wanting, but their use was either unknown or 
unappreciated. According to the testimony not only of 



368 History of South Africa. [1691 

official documents, but of the writings of travellers of 
various nationalities, English, French, German, Danish, 
and Dutch, the little colony was a settlement in which 
life could be passed as comfortably and happily SrS any- 
where in the world. 

As yet the burghers found no fault with the constitu- 
tion of the government under which they were living. 
They did not consider themselves any the less free on 
account of having no voice in the selection of their rulers, 
but regarded all alike as bound by the law and protected 
by the law. They were not the people tamely to submit 
to any infringement upon what they believed to be their 
rights and hberties. Their views of rights and liberties 
were not indeed those of to-day, because they were men 
of the seventeenth, not of the nineteenth, century. But 
they possessed a full share of the sturdy spirit of inde- 
pendence which led the people of the Netherlands on 
more than one occasion within that century to risk life 
and property in defence of freedom. They may be the 
poorest, but they are not the least courageous or liberty- 
loving people of any country who go forth to found 
colonies in distant lands. And assuredly the men who 
built up the European power in South Africa were, in 
those quaUties which ought to command esteem, no whit 
behind the pioneers of any colony in the world. They 
brought to this country an unconquerable love of liberty, 
a spirit of patient industry, a deep-seated feeling of trust 
in the Almighty God : virtues which fitted them to do 
the work marked out for them by Providence in the land 
that to their children was home. 

Between 1691 and the close of the century several im- 
provements were made in Capetown. In January 1693 
the botanist Oldenland, who was superintendent of the 
Company's garden and land-surveyor for the government, 
received the additional appointment of town engineer, 
with an annual salary of 6/. 18^. 10^. He died four 
years later. In October 1695 the Keizersgracht, the pres- 



1694] Simon van der Stel. 369 

ent Darling street, was laid out between the Heerengracbt, 
now Adderley street, and the back of the castle. The 
road to the country at that time ran between the castle 
and the shore of the bay. In October 1697 the work of 
levelling the ground between the new street and the 
shore, since termed the great parade, was commenced. 
It was previously intersected by several deep guUies, and 
some knolls of considerable size were standing on it. The 
Company furnished a party of slaves, and the burghers 
contributed the remainder of the labour. The work was 
completed in 1699. In April 1696 the streets began to 
be patrolled at night by a burgher watch. Constables 
were not employed in the town, though at Stellenbosch 
and Drakenstein two of those useful officials, there termed 
veldwachters, were engaged in seeing that the placaats 
were observed. They were paid at the rate of \l. 25. 3rf. 
a month. 

In February 1693 a waggon road was completed over 
the neck beyond Wynberg to Hout Bay. In 1698 the 
church at Stellenbosch was enlarged, as the original build- 
ing was too small to contain the congregation. In the 
same year an abortive attempt was made to form a safe 
harbour for boats by cutting a passage through the sand 
from Table Bay to a reach of the Salt river. 

IJfforts to produce olives were continued, though in all 
instances resulting in failure. Experiments in the culti- 
vation of the hop were al^o being made; but without 
success, as the high winds destroyed the tendrils. The 
planting out of young oaks in different parts of the Cape 
peninsula was assiduously attended to. 

Wild animals were still giving trouble. In May 1694 
a burgher at Drakenstein was killed by a leopard, and 
another at Stellenbosch was nearly torn to pieces by a 
lion. On one day in the following month nine cows were 
killed by lions in sight of the castle. Though the pre- 
mium for destroying a lion in the Cape peninsula was 

5/. 4s. 2^., a large sum of money in those days, the fire- 
VOL. L 24 



270 History of South Africa. [1695 

arms in use were so clumsy that it was a long time, 
before all were exterminated. As late as 1702 an ele- 
phant was killed just beyond the Cape flats. 

In the morning of the 4th of September 1695 the first 
recorded shock of earthquake was felt at the Cape. The 
weather was perfectly calm and clear, when suddenly a 
noise like a clap of thunder was heard, and a trembling of 
the earth was felt as if something was rolling beneath the 
foundations of the buildings. In a few seconds it ceased, 
and was not repeated. No damage was occasioned by the 
shock. In the afternoon of the 11th of January 1G96 
another slight trembling was felt in the town, bat un- 
accompanied by noise. 

During this period several changes took place in the 
official stafL On the 22nd of June 1694 Mr. Grevenbroek 
resigned his situation as secretary to the council of policy, 
and became a burgher at Stellenbosch. He was succeeded 
as secretary by Hugo de Goyer. On the 18th of Novem- 
ber 1694 the independent fiscal Comelis Joan Simons 
transferred his duties to Johan Blesius, and proceeded to 
Batavia to fill a post of greater importance. In April 
1697 Mr. Samuel Elsevier arrived from the Netherlands 
with the appointment of secunde, Andries de Man having 
died in March 1695. 

In August 1693 the reverend Leonardus Terwold was 
transferred to Batavia. Services were held occasionally by 
chaplains of ships and by Mr. Simond until the 22nd of 
September 1694, when the reverend Hercules van Loon, 
chaplain of the Nederland, was detained here, and was 
appointed provisionally clergjrman of the Cape. The direc- 
tors, however, sent out the reverend Petrus Kalden, who 
was inducted on the 4th of December 1695, and Mr. Van 
Loon was obliged to return to Europe. He left re- 
luctantly, and with the good wishes of the congregation. 

The hospital, built by Commander Van Biebeek close 
to the beach in firont of the earthen fort Good Hope, was 
at this time in a dilapidated condition. Its site was not 



1693] Simon van der Stel. 371 

good, as it was exposed to the full force of gales. Upon 
the governor's representations, the directors authorised him 
to huild a larger hospital in a more suitable place, and for 
a site he selected the ground between the upper ends of 
the present Adderley and St George's streets, then termed 
the Heerengracht and Berg-straat. In December 1694 the 
foundation was commenced, but the building * was not 
taken properly in hand until July 1697. It was designed 
to accommodate five hundred patients without crowding, 
or seven hundred and fifty on an emergency. On the 
24th of October 1699 it was completed and opened for 
use, when the sick were moved into it from the old build- 
ing on the beach. 

A hospital of this size was none too large for the 
requirements of the Company's fleets at the close of the 
seventeenth century. Owing to improvements in the con- 
struction of ships, passages were now often made in 
ninety to a hundred days between Europe and the Cape, 
but scurvy still caused terrible havoc among seamen. 

On the 8th of February 1693 a boat reached Saldanha 
Bay with a feeble crew and a sick officer, who reported 
that they had left their ship, the Bantam^ anchored off 
Paternoster Point. On the passage out, two hundred and 
twenty-one men had died of scurvy, and those left alive 
were too weak to work. They had therefore dropped 
anchor, and some of them left in a boat to look for assist- 
ance. The boat was swamped, and of her crew only two 
men got to land, of whom, it was believed, one died of 
hunger and the other was killed by wild animals. A 
second boat then left for Saldanha Bay, and fortunately 
found a large Indiaman at anchor thera A party of men 
was sent to the Bantam, and she was brought safely to 
Table Bay. 

On the 4th of May 1693 the Ocvde Buys sailed from 
Enkhuizen with one hundred and ninety souls on board, 
and on the 19th of October dropped anchor off the coast 
about fifteen miles north of St Helena Bay, when there 



m 



372 History of South Africa. [1693 

were not a dozen of her crew capable of working. On 
the 11th of November seven men left the ship to seek 
assistance inland. Of these, five perished of hunger, one 
wandered along the banks of the Berg river until he was 
found by some Hottentots and taken to the Company's 
post at Saldanha Bay, and the other, after roaming about 
for seven weeks, was rescued. When intelligence of the 
state of the ship reached the Cape, a yacht was sent to 
her assistance. Only one Uving person was found on 
board, and he died soon afterwards. The Qcnide Buys had 
drifted ashore, and could not be got off, but most of her 
cargo was saved, and all the small vessels at the Gape 
were for some time employed in transporting it to Table 
Bay. 

On the 23rd of November 1693 the Schoondyk arrived 
from Texel with her whole remaining crew of one hxm- 
dred and twenty sick. One hundred and thirty-four had 
died on the passage out. On the 23rd of December 1694 
the Pampm arrived from Botterdam with only sixteen 
healthy men on board. Sixty had died on the passage 
out, and eighty-three were down with scurvy. On the 
11th of November 1695 a fleet of eleven ships afrived 
from the Netherlands, with six hundred and seventy-eight 
men unable to walk, some of whom were so far gone 
that they died while being conveyed to the hospital. A 
great many others were ill, but were able to go about. 
Two hundred and twenty-eight had perished on the pas- 
sage. On the 17th of October 1696 the Vosmaar arrived 
from Flushing with only four sound men on board. One 
hundred and thirty-nine were ill, and ninety-three had 
died. Of ten Huguenot passengers for the Cape, five had 
died. 

Several wrecks took place at this time. 

During the night of the 4th of June 1692 a heavy 
gale set in from the north-west, and before daylight of 
the 5th the Company's ships Ooede ffoop and Hoogergee$t 
and the English ship Orange were driven ashore near the 



1697] Simon van der Stel. 373 

mouth of Salt Kiver. There was a large fleet in Table 
Bay at the time, but the other vessels held to their 
anchors. The Goede Hoop was the same ship that had 
been taken from the French in April 1689, when she 
was named the Normande. She was now homeward 
bound from Ceylon. She held together^ and most of her 
cargo, though damaged, was recovered. The Hoogergeest^ 
from Batavia, and the Orange^ from Madras, broke up 
quickly, but only a few of their people were lost. The 
men of the Hoogergeest were rescued by a quartermaster of 
an Indiaman, who happened to be on shore at the time. 
This brave seaman, Jochem Willems by name, fastened a 
line to his body, and made his way through the surf to 
the wreck. A hawser was then pulled ashore, and by its 
means most of the crew escaped before the ship broke up. 

Early in the morning of the 20th of January 1694 the 
yacht Dageraad, laden with cargo — ^including a quantity of 
specie — from the Gronde Buys, ran ashore on the western 
side of Bobben Island, and broke up immediately. Six- 
teen lives were lost. Some of the specie was recovered, 
but not all. 

In the afternoon of the 24th of May 1697 the Com- 
pany's homeward bound ships Waddingsveen and Oosterland, 
with valuable cargoes on board, were driven ashore at 
Salt Biver mouth in a great gale, and were dashed to 
pieces at once. Two other ships out of a large fleet that 
was lying in the bay narrowly escaped the same fate. 
Only seventeen men in all were saved from the two 
wrecks. Among these was the clergyman Hendrik Willem 
Gordon, whose name is prominent in the history of Am- 
boina, on account of his opposition to the governor 
Nicolaas Schagen, and of the severe treatment he received 
from that official. The clergyman reached the shore almost 
exhausted, and a minute later the corpse of his wife with an 
infant fast locked in her arms was washed up on the beach. 

On the 27th of May 1698 the Huts te Crayenstein, 
from Middelburg bound to Batavia, anchored in a calm 



374 History of South Africa. [1693 

off Camp's Bay. During the night a thick mist set in, 
and before dayhght of the 28th the ship was found to 
have parted her cable and to be adrift. She was already 
in the breakers, and before anything could be done to 
save her, she struck on the rocks behind the Lion's head, 
and became a complete wreck. No lives were lost. 

Scurvy and wreck were not the only perils of the sea. 
Towards the close of the seventeenth century the Indian 
ocean began to be frequented by pirates, who were ready 
when opportunities offered to pillage the coasts as well 
as to seize defenceless ships. Among them was the fam- 
ous Captain Eadd. 

On the 2nd of May 1693 a small armed brigantine 
under English colours, with her main mast gone, put into 
Saldanha Bay. There was a ship belonging to the Eng- 
lish East India Company lying in Table Bay, and her 
officers assured the governor that the stranger was a 
pirate, urging him at the same time to take her in cus- 
tody. An armed vessel was thereupon sent to Saldanha 
Bay to ascertain particulars. The brigantine was found 
to have two conflicting sets of papers, and to bear traces 
of having been in an engagement. Her master, George 
Dew by name, stated that he was from the Bermudas, 
bound to Madagascar for a cargo of slaves, and that his 
crew consisted of twenty-four men. The vessel was called 
the Amy. The Dutch officers considered that they were 
justified in seizing her, and they brought her to Table 
Bay. Twenty-four hours after she was in their posses- 
sion some men were found concealed on board, when her 
crew reached a total of thirty-five. 

There was no doubt as to her true character, so she 
was condenmed, and was kept for use by the Cape govern- 
ment. Captain Dew and his men were sent prisoners to 
Europe. But it was found impossible to prove legally 
that Dew was a pirate, and he then put in a claim for 
damages against the Company and caused the directors 
much trouble and expense. 



1699] Simon van der SieL 375 

On the 10th of May 1699 intelligence was received 
at the castle that a pirate vessel with an English crew 
had put into Saldanha Bay and taken possession of some 
galiots and decked boats belonging to the Company and 
to private individuals, there being nothing else to plunder 
within reach. Two ships were at once sent to try to 
capture her, but before they could reach the bay she had 
sailed. She had taken the little vessels outside, but had 
then abandoned them, after her master had generously 
presented four negros to the owner of one, in return for 
his stores. A few weeks after this a squadron of English 
men-of-war touched here on their way to the Mozam- 
bique channel, where they were about to cruise in search 
of pirates. 

On the 28th of December 1699 an English vessel 
named the MargcUe put into Table Bay. Her master 
stated that he was from Madagascar, bound to the Ber- 
mudas with one hundred and twenty slaves. Another 
English vessel, named the Loyal Merchant, was lying at 
anchor in the bay. Captain Lowth, who commanded her, 
had a commission from Eang William, authorising him to 
search for rovers and seize them. He examined the Mar- 
gate, and then took possession of that vessel on the ground 
that she had been engaged in piracy. The governor pro- 
tested against this violation of a Dutch port, but to no 
effect, for Captain Lowth kept his prize and took her 
away with him. He also examined another English vessel 
which put in before he left, but released her after two 
days' detention. 

In 1696 the directors issued instructions that as soon 
as possible farming and cattle dealing should be given up 
by the Cape government. They were disposed to call for 
tenders to supply the garrison and fleets with beef and 
mutton, and to allow the colonists to purchase cattle 
from the Hottentots and fatten them for sale to the con- 
tractors. But no steps towards carrying these instruc- 
tions into effect were taken until some years later. 



376 History of South Africa, [1699 

Between the years 1691 and 1700 the following names 
of burghers who left children in South Africa are first 
found in the records of the colony : Pieter Barend Blom, 
Jan Bockelenberg, Christiaan Bok, Frederik Conradie, Jan 
Jacob Conterman, Pierre Cronje, Hendrik Oostwald Ek- 
steen, Christoffel Esterhuyzen, Abraham Everts, Paul le 
Febre, Jan Harmse, Jan van Helsdingen, Pieter Jurgen 
van der Heyden, Pieter Hubner, Frans Joosten, Bar- 
tholomeus Koopman, Hary Lecrivent, Jacques Mouton, 
Louis le Kiche, Pieter Eobberts, Floris Slabbert, Pieter 
Swanepoel, Etienne Terreblanche (now Terblans), and 
Jacobus de Wet. 

Before the year 1692 Simon van der Stel enjoyed the 
esteem and affection of nearly every European in South 
Africa except the French immigrants, but about this date 
a different feeling began slowly to develop. He was now 
a disappointed man, for his dream of earher years, to 
form here a purely Dutch settlement, had been thwarted. 
The love of wealth had grown upon him, and his farm 
Constantia, already beautified with vineyards and avenues 
of young oaks, year by year occupied more of his atten- 
tion. The strong personal interest which he had taken 
in the welfare of the colonists seemed to them to be 
dying out. And a comparison of the records of the first 
twelve years of his administration with those of the last 
seven shows that a change in his feelings had really 
taken place, for the enthusiastic language of the first 
period gives way to cold official expressions in the last. 
Still there were no open complaints, and to strangers 
and others who could not see beneath the surface every- 
thing appeared to be working smoothly. 

The directors continued to hold a high opinion of the 
governor, though occasionally they complained of some of 
his acts as prejudicial to their interests, and at other times 
charged him with remissness of duty in connection with the 
provisioning and speedy despatch of their ships. In 1692 
they conferred upon him the rank and title of councillor 



1699] Simon van der SteL 377 

extraordinary of Netherlands India, and when in 1696 he 
requested permission to resign, so as to spend the evening 
of his Ufe in comparative freedom from care, they named 
his eldest son as his successor. The newly appointed 
governor could not inmaediately leave the Netherlands, 
however, and it was not until the 23rd of January 1699 
that he and his family reached South Africa. 

After handing over the administration on the 11th of 
February 1699, Simon van der Stel retired to his farm 
Gonstantia, where he had built a large and handsome resi- 
dence. There during the next thirteen years strangers 
of note were always sure of a hearty reception, and 
the hospitality of the late governor was so great that 
his house was seldom or never without visitors. He 
devoted his remaining years chiefly to agriculture and 
cattle rearing. On the 11th of March 1699 he obtained 
from the commissioner Daniel Heins a grant in freehold 
of Zeekoevlei with the ground surrounding it, an hour's 
walk in diameter, and on the 1st of February 1700 the 
commissioner Wouter Yalckenier granted him the use of 
the Steenbergen for the term of his lifa Practically 
therefore he had the whole peninsula beyond his property 
as a cattle run. The wine which he made was the best 
in the colony. The burghers believed that he possessed 
some secret for manufacturing it, and strangers attributed 
its quality to the care which he took in pressing and fer- 
menting, but it is now known that it owed its flavour to 
the soil. 

The late governor did not confine his attention wholly 
to these pursuits, and was always ready to embark in any 
undertaking that promised large returns. In June 1711, 
when he was nearly seventy-two years of age, in company 
with the burgher Jan PhjdBEer he entered into a contract 
with the council of policy to supply for five years dried 
and salted fish, in which the partners secured a monopoly 
of fishing and seal hunting at Saldanha Bay, on condition 
of an annual payment of twenty-five leggers of train oil. 



27^ History of South Africa. [171 2 

Simon van der Stel died on the 24th of June 1712. 
His remains were buried beneath the pavement of the 
church in Table Valley. A monument to his memory was 
erected behind the pulpit, but when during the present] 
century the church was enlarged, it with everything else 
of its kind was removed and never restored. His property 
he bequeathed in equal proportions to his five surviving 
children, Wilhem Adriaan, Adriaan, Catharina, Frans, and 
Hendrik. His estate Constantia, which he had made one 
of the most beautiful spots in the world, passed away 
from his family. It was divided into two portions, known 
to the present day as Great and Little Constantia, and 
was sold for the benefit of his heirs. 



379 



CHAPTEK XII. 

WILHEM ADRIAAN VAN DER STEL, GOVERNOR, INSTALLED 
llTH FEBRUARY 1699; RECALLED Sbd JUNE 1707. 

WiLHEM Adriaan VAN DER Stel had for ten years been 
filling various offices in the city of Amsterdam, among 
others that of judge, when the assembly of seventeen, in 
recognition of his father's services, offered him the ap- 
pointment of counciUor extraordinary of India and goyer- 
nor of the Cape Colony and its dependency the island of 
Mauritius. He had once resided here for a short time, 
and was well acquainted with the circumstances of the 
country. There is nothing in the records or contemporary 
pubUcations to indicate what manner of man he was in 
personal appearance, though the details of his administra- 
tion are given very minutely. 

Notwithstanding the pains taken by the late governor 
to promote tree planting, there was a scarcity of timber 
and fuel at the Cape. It was a difficult matter to supply 
the ships with firewood. Some skippers reported that in 
passing by two islands, named Dina and Marseveen, in 
latitude 41'' or 42"" south and about four hundred sea 
miles from the Cape, they had observed fine forests, which 
they suggested should be examined. The master of the 
galiot Wezd was therefore instructed to proceed to the 
locality indicated, to inspect the forests closely, and ascer- 
tain what quantity of timber was to be had. The Wezel 
sailed from Table Bay on the 31st of March 1699, but 
returned on the 13th of May with a report that the 
search for the islands had been fruitless. 



380 History of South Africa. [1699 

The governor, like his father, regarded the cultivation 
of trees as a matter of great importance. Daring the 
first winter after his arrival twenty thousand young oaks 
were planted in the kloofs at Stellenbosch and Draken- 
stein where the native forests had been exhausted, and 
over ten thousand were set out in the Cape peninsula. 
In the winter of 1701 a further supply was sent to Stel- 
lenbosch from the nursery in Table Valley, and the land- 
drost was instructed to have them planted along the 
streets. 

On the 23rd of November the governor with a party 
of attendants set out on a tour of inspection of the settle- 
ment. He visited Stellenbosch, Drakenstein, and the 
£a.rms about the Tigerberg, where he found some persons 
to whom no ground had yet been allotted. The country 
was inhabited by Europeans, though thinly, nearly as far 
as the present village of Hermon. Small Hottentot kraals 
were scattered about, of which the occupants were found 
to be very poor and very lazy. 

Keeping down the Berg river, the range of mountains 
on the right was reported to be tenanted by Bushmen, 
who were in the habit of descending from their fastnesses 
and plundering the burghers and Hottentots below. The 
range was on this account known as the Obiqua moun- 
tains. The governor crossed over at a place since termed 
the Boodezand pass, just beyond the gorge through which 
the Little Berg river flows, and entered the valley now 
called the Tulbagh basin. 

Though not greatly elevated, this basin is in the 
second of the steps by which the mainland of South 
Africa rises from the ocean to the central plain. If a 
cane with a large round head be laid upon soft ground, 
the mark will give an idea of its form. The hollow 
caused by the head of the cane will represent the basin, 
the long narrow groove will indicate the valley between 
the Obiqua mountains and a parallel range six or seven 
miles farther inland. The Breede river has its source in 



1699] Wilhem Adriaan van der SteL 381 

the third terrace, and, rushing down a gorge in the in- 
terior range, now called Michell's pass, flows south-east- 
ward through the valley. Close to MichelPs pass the 
mountain retires, but shortly sweeps round and joins the 
Obiqua range, the keystone of the arch thus formed being 
the Great Winterhoek, six thousand eight hundred and 
forty feet in height, the loftiest peak visible from Cape- 
town. 

It wa^ the basin thus enclosed that the governor and 
his party entered. It was found to be drained by the 
Little Berg river and its numerous tributary rills, whose 
waters escape through a gorge in the Obiqua mountains, 
and flow north-westward. The watershed between the 
Breede and Little Berg rivers is merely a gentle swell 
in the surface of the ground. At the foot of Michell's 
pass, at the present day, a mill race is led out of the 
Breede and turned into the Little Berg, and thus a few 
shovels full of earth can divert water from the Indian to 
the Atlantic ocean. 

The ba^in excels all other parts of South Africa in 
the variety and beauty of its wild flowers, which in early 
spring almost conceal the ground. It was too late in the 
season for the governor's party to see it at its best, still 
the visitors were charmed with its appearance. Very few 
Hottentots were found. In the recesses of the mountains 
were forests of magnificent trees, and although the timber 
could not be removed to the Cape, it would be of great 
use to residents. Immigrants were arriving in every fleet 
from the Netherlands, so the governor resolved to form a 
settlement in the valley, where cattle breeding could be 
carried on to advantage. Agriculture, except to supply 
the wants of residents, could not be pursued with profit, 
owing to the difficulty of transport. The governor named 
the basin the Land of Waveren, in honour of a family of 
position in Amsterdam. The range of mountains enclos- 
ing the valley on the inland side and stretching away as 
far as the eye could reach, as yet without a name, he 



382 History of South Africa. [1700 

called the Witsenberg, after the justly esteemed burgo- 
master Nicolaas Witsen of Amsterdam. The land of 
Waveren has long since become the Tulbagh basin, but 
one may be allowed to hope that the Witsenberg will 
always be known by the honoured name it has borne 
since 1699. 

Several burghers who had been living at Drakenstein 
were now permitted to graze their cattle at Biebeek's 
Kasteel, and on the 31st of July 1700 some recent immi- 
grants from Europe were sent to occupy the land of 
Waveren. As it was the rainy season, the families of the 
immigrants remained at the Cape until rough cottages 
could be put up for their acconmiodation. At the same 
time a corporal and six soldiers were sent to form a mili- 
tary post in the valley for the protection of the colonists. 
This post was termed the Waveren outstation, and was 
maintained for many years. On the 16th of October 
several additional famihes were forwarded to the new 
district to obtain a living as graziers. 

The Company's garden in Table Valley was kept by 
the new governor in the same state of cultivation as that 
in which his father left it. To its former attractions he 
added a museum — chiefly of skeletons and stuffed animals 
— and a small menagerie of wild animals of the country, 
to which purposes one of the enclosed spaces at the upper 
end was devoted. Near the centre of the garden he 
erected a lodge for the reception of distinguished visitors 
and for his own recreation, which building by enlarge- 
ments and alterations in later years has become the 
present government house. 

In the winter of 1700 Governor Wilhem Adriaan van 
der Stel also caused a new garden to be laid out a 
short distance beyond Kustenburg, and spent much time, 
thought, and money in its ornamentation. As originally 
planned, this garden and the plantations attached to it 
covered forty morgen of ground ; but in course of time 
from twenty to thirty morgen more were added to it. 



In this map the extent 
lown. The part of the o 
nd Hottentots is coloured 
lottentota. Id 1700 
nd in the Tulbagh basiu, 
bis jear also the [jasttire al 
cactor for the Supply of me( 

There was no defined ^ 
loept the sea, nor was th^ 
f the Gape and Stellenb*"^ 
■tellenbosuh had juriadictio 
«ninsula, except the gover 
The places where there \' 
Capetowti, founded 
Stellenbosch, ruun( 
and heemradei 
The churches were 

Capetown, eatahliBl ' 
St^leaboHisli, estab] J 
Drakensteiu, eatabi 




« 



f 



lyoo] Wilhem Adriaan van der SteL 383 

A superintendent was stationed here with assistants and 
a strong party of slaves, by whose labour the place 
soon became exceedingly attractive. In this garden, which 
bore the name of Newlands, a small lodge was erected, 
which grew half a century later into the favourite country 
residence of the governors. 

Ever since 1658 trade between the burghers and the 
Hottentots was strictly forbidden. The chief object was 
to prevent any act that might bring on a collision with 
the natives. In opposition to the law, however, paoi^ies 
of deserters and other persons of loose character carried 
on a cattle trade, and were often guilty of conduct that 
cannot be distinguished from robbery. Governor Simon 
van der Stel thought to check this by threatening more 
severe punishment, and on the 19th of October 1697 he 
issued a placaat in which the barter of cattle from Hotten- 
tots was prohibited, under penalty of whipping, branding, 
banishment, and confiscation of property. 

The directors disapproved of this. They were disposed 
to allow the colonists to purchase cattle from the Hotten- 
tots and fatten them for sale to such persons as would 
contract to supply the garrison and fleets with beef and 
mutton. They therefore annulled the placaat, and on the 
27th of July 1699 issued instructions that the cattle trade 
should be thrown open, on condition that the burghers 
should supply draught oxen to the government, whenever 
required, at fourteen shiUings each. 

The council of policy had then no option, but was 
under the necessity of obeying orders. Tenders were 
called for, and in February 1700 the burgher Henning 
Huising entered into a contract to supply the garrison, 
hospital, and Company's fleets with beef and mutton at 
twopence halfpenny a pound, he to have the use of the 
Company's slaughter-houses and as a cattle run the whole 
of the district of Groenekloof that was not occupied by 
Hottentots. The contract was signed provisionally for ten 
years, but the directors reduced it to five. With this 



384 History of South Africa. [1700 

transaction the Company designed to relinquish sending 
expeditions into the interior to purchase cattle, as had 
been the custom for nearly half a century; and henceforth 
it was only when draught oxen were needed in greater 
numbers than the burghers could supply that military 
bartering parties went inland. By a placaat of the council 
of poUcy presided over by the commissioner Wouter Valc- 
kenier, on the 28th of February 1700 the trade was 
thrown open to the burghers, with such restrictions as 
were considered necessary to prevent its abuse. 

From this date cattle breeding became a favourite pur- 
suit with yearly increasing numbers of colonists. There 
was as much to be made by it as by agriculture, and it 
was attended with less expense and less anxiety. The 
government gave permission to appUcants to use land for 
grazing purposes at some defined locaUty, but if the pas- 
ture failed or did not prove as good as was anticipated, 
the occupiers did not hesitate to seek other and better 
places. 

Many men and women were thus undergoing a special 
training for pushing their way deeper into the continent. 
They were learning to relish a diet of Uttle else than 
animal food, and to use the flesh of game largely in order 
to spare their flocks and herds. They were becoming ac- 
customed also to live in tent waggons for months together, 
so that the want of houses soon ceased to be regarded as 
a matter of much hardship by these dwellers in the wilds. 
They were acquiring a fondness for the healthy life of the 
open country, with its freedom from care and restraint, and 
its simple pleasures. For the town, with its government 
officials and law agents and tradesmen and speculators of 
many kinds always seeking to take advantage of their 
simplicity, they acquired such a dislike that they never 
visited it when they could avoid doing so. They took 
with them no other books than the bible and the psalms 
in metre, so their children came to regard education in 
secular subjects as entirely unnecessary. In self-reliance. 



lyoi] Wilhem Adriaan van der SteL 385 

however, they were receiving the most complete training 
possible. The tastes and habits which were thus formed 
were transmitted to their of&pring, and in a few genera- 
tions there was a body of frontiersmen adapted, as no 
other Europeans ever were, for acting as the pioneers of 
civihsation in such a country as South Africa. 

To encourage the cattle breeders, no rent for ground 
was charged until 1714, and no other tax than the one 
for district purposes was laid upon their stock. A Uttle 
experience proved that occasional change of pasture was 
advantageous in the rearing of oxen and sheep, and the 
authorities made no objection to the graziers going yearly 
for three or four months to a tract of land far from that 
on which they Uved at other times. This grew into a 
custom for each one to select as winter grazing ground a 
particular part of the karoo on the third terrace upward 
from the sea, his right to which was respected by all 
the others, though it was not directly recognised by the 
government. 

With the enlargement of the settlement, fresh troubles 
arose with the Bushmen. In March 1701 a band of 
those robbers drove off forty head of cattle from Gerrit 
Cloete's farm at Biebeek's Kasteel. A commando of ten 
soldiers and thirty burghers was sent after the depreda- 
tors, but was unable to find them. A temporary military 
post was then established at Yogelvlei, at the foot of 
the Obiqua mountains. 

This protection soon proved insufficient. In April 

Gerrit Cloete was again robbed, and eleven head of cattle 

were lifted from the Waveren post. A commando of 

twelve soldiers and fifty burghers was then organised to 

olear the country of Bushmen, but did not succeed in 

effecting its object. It was hardly disbanded when one 

hundred and thirty-seven head of cattle were lifted within 

sight of the Yogelvlei post. Upon this a reinforcement 

of six mounted soldiers was sent to each of the two 

posts, and twelve men were stationed at Biebeek's Kasteel. 
VOL. I. 25 



386 History of South Africa. [1 

The Goringhaiqua and Cochoqna Hottentots now \ 
dered their services to assist the Europeans against 
Bushmen, and requested that the captain Kees, who "^ 
then living at Groenekloof, might be recognised as tl 
leader in the expedition. But it was discovered that K 
who had suffered severely from the Bushmen, had aire 
joined a commando of Gerrit Gloete's friends, and t 
the joint force was scouring the Obiqua mountains, 
receipt of this information, the governor sent instructi< 
to the landdrost of Stellenbosch to have Cloete arres 
and brought to trial for waging war without leave, f 
to ascertain and send in the names of those who ] 
joined him in the expedition. 

The prosecution fell through, and the governor thou] 
it best after this to send out only parties of soldiers agai 
the robbers. In September one of these parties recove 
one hundred and twenty head of cattle belonging pai 
to burghers and partly to Hottentots; but in the follow 
month more than two hundred head belonging to the o 
tractor Henning Huising were lifted at Groenekloof, s 
a patrol of thirty-five soldiers was obliged to fall bi 
from Piketberg, where the Bushmen made a resol 
stand. 

In November a sergeant and ten men were sent 
form a permanent military post at Groenekloof. In 1 
land of Waveren forty head of cattle, mostly belonging 
Etienne Terreblanche, were seized by Bushmen, and ( 
of the soldiers who tried to recover them was kill 
Two hundred and seventy-four head belonging to Hott 
tot kraals at Biebeek's Kasteel were driven off, but a pa 
of soldiers followed the robbers to Twenty-four Eivers, a 
retook most of the spoil. In trying to afford protection, 
distinction was made by the government between burgh 
and Hottentots, the officers at the outposts being instruct 
to do their utmost to recover cattle stolen by Bushm 
and deliver them to their proper owners whoever th( 
might be. 



1702] Wilhem Adriaan van der Stel. 387 

In 1702 the military patrols were kept busy on behalf 
of the Hottentots, for no complaints of depredations were 
made by burghers. A large number of cattle were re- 
covered and restored to various kraals, and so many 
Bushmen were shot that the robbers seem to have been 
terrified. At any rate they gave less trouble during the 
next few years, though occasionally it was necessary to 
chastise them. The sergeants and corporals in command 
of the outposts were directed to endeavour to induce the 
Bushmen to keep the peace. When those wild people 
committed depredations they were to be followed up and 
punished, but under no circumstances were they to be 
attacked without provocation. The ruthless nature of the 
warfare pursued by the Bushmen was exemplified in 
February 1702, when a Hottentot captain came to the 
castle and reported that they had killed five of his wives 
and every one of his children. 

There is Uttle else on record concerning the Hotten- 
tots at this period. Some of them made such complaints 
of the rapacity and violence of burgher trading parties 
that the council of policy provisionally suspended the 
liberty of free barter, and, owing to the governor's re- 
presentations, in 1703 the assembly of seventeen withdrew 
the privilege. Commercial intercourse between the two 
races was again made illegal, and the European graziers 
were chiefly depended upon to provide as many cattle as 
were needed. 

In September 1704 several Namaqua captains visited 
the Cape, when an agreement of friendship was made 
with them. This tribe, hke the others with which the 
Europeans had come in contact, at once accepted as a 
matter of course the position of vassals. This was shown 
in October 1705, when three Namaqua captains came to 
the castle for the purpose of requesting the governor to 
confirm their authority. They were kindly treated, their 
request was complied with, and they left carrying with 
them presents of beads and other trifles and copper- 



388 History of South Africa. [1702 

headed canes upon which the new names given to them 
— Plato, Jason, and Vulcan — were inscribed. Thenceforth 
they were termed allies of the honourable Company. The 
number of captains mentioned as having applied for staffs 
is an indication that the tribes were now more broken 
up than formerly. Sometimes a clan requested the ap- 
pointment of a regent, as its hereditary captain was a 
minor. There are instances of clans applying for a 
brother of a deceased captain to be appointed in his 
stead, but in such cases they always gave as a reason 
that the dead chief had left no children. Feuds between 
clans of the same tribe caused frequent disturbances, 
though these same clans usually acted together against 
the adjoining tribe. 

After the removal in 1694 of the reverend Pierre 
Simond to Drakenstein, there was no resident clergyman 
at Stellenbosch for nearly six years. Once in three 
months the clergyman of the Cape visited the vacant 
church and administered the sacraments, and occasionally 
Mr. Simond attended for the same purpose. On the 
remaining Sundays the sick-comforter conducted the ser- 
vices. At length the assembly of seventeen appointed the 
reverend Hercules van Loon, who had once been acting 
clergyman of the Cape, resident clergyman of Stellen- 
bosch. He arrived from the Netherlands on the 11th of 
April 1700. 

In April 1678 the foundation of a church in Table 
Valley had been laid, but with that the work had ceased. 
For another quarter of a century services were conducted 
in a large hall within the castle. But in course of time 
the poor funds accumulated to a considerable amount, and 
the consistory then consented to apply a sum equal to 
2,200/. of our money to the erection of the building. As 
the original plan was now considered too small, it was 
enlarged, and a new foundation stone was laid by the 
governor on the 28th of December 1700. By the close 
of the year 1703 the edifice was finished, except the 



1702] Wilhem Adriaan van der SteL 389 

tower. The first service in it was held on the 6th of 
January 1704, the reverend Petrus Kalden being the 
preacher. Of the building then constructed the tower and 
one of the end walls still remain, the last forming part of 
the eastern wall of the present church. 

At Drakenstein service was conducted sometimes in 
the front room of a farmer's house, sometimes in a large 
barn, there being as yet no church building. There was 
a French clergyman, who was assisted by a French sick- 
comforter. In April 1700 a sick-comforter and school- 
master was first appointed for the Dutch portion of the 
congregation, that had previously been neglected. An able 
and zealous man named Jacobus de Groot, who was 
returning from India to Europe, was detained here for 
the purpose. 

The reverend Mr. Simond had prepared a new version 
in metre of the psalms of David, which he was desirous 
of submitting to a synod of the French churches, as great 
interest had been taken in the work by the Huguenots 
in Europe. He therefore tendered his resignation, to the 
regret of the Drakenstein people, and requested permission 
to return to the Netherlands. The assembly of seventeen 
consented to his request, on condition of his remaining 
until the arrival of the reverend Hendrik Bek, whom they 
appointed to succeed him. Mr. Bek reached the Cape in 
April 1702, and was installed at Drakenstein a few weeks 
later. 

There was a desire on the part of the directors that in 
the families of the Huguenot immigrants the French lan- 
guage should be superseded by the Dutch as speedily as 
possible. It was only a question of time, for the propor- 
tion of French-speaking people was too small compared 
with those of Dutch and German descent for their lan- 
guage to remain long in use in the mixed community. To 
expedite its decay the new clergyman was directed to 
condact the public services in Dutch, though he had been 
selected because he was conversant with French and could 



n 



390 History of South Africa. [i7< 

therefore admonish, comfort, and pray with the ag( 
Huguenots who understood no other tongue. Instructioi 
were at the same time sent out that the school childr< 
were to be taught to read and write Dutch only. Tl 
sick-comforter Paul Roux was not prevented, howevc 
from ministering to the Huguenots of any age in whicl 
ever tongue was most famiUar to them. 

This arrangement created much dissatisfaction. Tl 
French immigrants sent in a memorial requesting thi 
Mr. Bek should be instructed to preach in their langua; 
once a fortnight. They stated that they comprised over 
hundred adults, not more than twenty-five of whom onde 
stood sufficient Dutch to gather the meaning of a sermo 
There was also even a larger number of children of the 
nationality. The council of pohcy recommended the mem< 
rial to the favourable consideration of the assembly < 
seventeen; but before action could be taken upon it, M 
Bek requested to be removed to Stellenbosch as successc 
to Mr. Van Loon, who died by his own hand on the 27t 
of June 1704. The directors then appointed the reverer 
Engelbertus Franciscus le Boucq ^ clergyman of Drakenstei 
and gave instructions that upon his arrival from Batav 
Mr. Bek should be transferred to Stellenbosch. They ga'^ 
the council of pohcy permission to allow the French lai 
guage to be used alternately with the Dutch in the churc 
services at Drakenstein, if it should seem advisable 1 
do so. 

The newly appointed minister did not reach the Caj 

^ This clergyman was of French descent, was educated for the ministry 

the Boman catholic church, and had been a monk in the abbey of Bonel 

in Belgium. After becoming a Protestant he wrote a book entitled Dwali\ 

gen van het Pausdom. He could converse in many Ifimguages, and wi 

III unquestionably a man of high ability and learning, but he was of irascib 

disposition and wherever he went was engaged in controversy and strif 
Subsequent to his residence in South Africa he became a doctor of laws, as 
died at a very advanced age at Batavia in 1748, after having been durii: 
the preceding nineteen years minister of the Protestant Portuguese congregi 
tion at that place. 



1702] Wilhem Adriaan van der SteL 391 

until the 30th of March 1707. Mr. Bek then took charge 
of the StellenboBch congregation, which had been for 
nearly three years without a clergyman, except once in 
three months when he had preached and administered the 
sacraments. Mr. Le Boncq should have taken up the 
duties in the parish to which he had been appointed, but 
instead of doing so, he got into difficulties at the Cape, as 
will be related in the next chapter, and Drakenstein was 
for several years without a resident clergyman. 

In the evening of the 3rd of April 1702 the outward 
bound ship Meresteyn^ an Indiaman of the first class, ran 
ashore on Jutten Island, and in less than an hour broke 
into Uttle pieces. Her skipper was endeavouring to reach 
Saldanha Bay, and the ship was in a heavy surf before 
any one on board suspected danger. The majority of her 
crew were lost, as also were two women and five children 
passengers for the Cape. Ninety-nine persons managed to 
reach the shore. 

In Mar9h 1702 a marauding party consisting of forty- 
five white men and the same number of Hottentots, 
whose deeds were afterwards prominently brought to 
light, left Stellenbosch, and remained away seven months. 
They travelled eastward until they reached the neighbour- 
hood of the Fish river, where at dayUght one morning 
they were attacked unexpectedly and without provocation 
by a band of Xosa warriors who were fugitives from 
their own country and were living in friendship with the 
Hottentots. The assailants were beaten off, followed up, 
and when they turned and made another stand, were de- 
feated again, losing many men. One European was kiUed. 
The party then commenced a career of robbery, excusing 
their acts to themselves under the plea that they were 
undertaken in retaliation. They fell upon the Gonaquas 
and other Hottentot hordes, shot many of them, and 
drove off their cattle. 

The perpetrators of these scandalous acts were not 
brought to justice. In after years when the governor and 



392 History of South Africa. [1705 

the colonists were at variance, and each party was en- 
deavouring to blacken the reputation of the other, the 
governor stated that they were in league with the colo- 
nists and were too numerous to be punished vnthout 
ruining half the settlement. This statement was, however, 
indignantly contradicted by the most respectable burghers, 
who asserted that the marauding Europeans were mis- 
creants without families or homes, being chiefly fugitives 
from justice and men of loose character who had been 
imprudently discharged from the Company's service. The 
burghers maintained that they ought to have been 
punished. The names of the forty-five white men who 
formed the robber band are given. Forty of them are 
quite unknown in South Africa at the present day, and 
the remaining five are of that class that cannot be dis- 
tinguished with certainty, so that the statements of the 
burghers are strongly borne out. 

Owing chiefly to the scarcity of timber and fuel, in 
1705 it was resolved to send an expedition to Natal and 
the adjoining coast, to make an inspection of the country, 
and particularly of the forests there. The schooner Ctn- 
taurus, which had been built at Natal in 1686-7, princi- 
pally from timber growing on the shore of the inlet, was 
a .proof that the wood was valuable, for she had been in 
use nearly fourteen years before needing repair. The 
galiot Postlooper was made ready for the expedition. Her 
master, Theunis van der Schelling, had visited Natal 
when he was mate of the Noord in 1689 and 1690, 
and therefore knew the harbour. He was instructed 
to make a thorough exploration of the forests, and 
to frame a chart of the coast. A sailor who was ex- 
pert in drawing pictures was sent to take sketches of the 
scenery. 

The Postlooper sailed on the 20th of November 1705. 
She reached Natal on the 29th of December, and found 
the bar so silted up that she could only cross at high 
water. There were not so many cattle in the neighbour- 



lyos] Wilhem Adriaan van der SteL 393 

hood as there had been sixteen years before. Wood still 
remained in considerable quantities. 

In December 1689 a purchase of the inlet and sur- 
rounding land had been made from the chief then living 
at Port Natal, and had been recorded in a formal con- 
tract, two copies of which had been drawn up. The one 
kept by the Dutch ofl&cers was lost when the NootA was 
wrecked in January 1690, and the master of the Fost- 
looper had therefore received instructions to endeavour to 
procure the other, that had been left with the chief, in 
order that a notarial copy might be made. The chief 
who sold the ground was dead, and his son was now the 
head of the tribe or clan, whichever it may have been. 
Upon Skipper Van der SchelUng making inquiry of him 
concerning the document, the chief stated that he knew 
nothing about it, and supposed it had been buried with 
his father's other effects. It was evident that he did not 
recognise the sale as binding upon him or his people. 

At Natal an Enghshman was found who gave his 
name as Yaughan Goodwin, and who stated that he was 
a native of London. He had two wives and several chil- 
dren. His story was that he arrived in February 1699 in 
a vessel named the Fidek, and with two others had been 
left behind by Captain Stadis, who intended to form a 
settlement there. They were to purchase ivory from the 
natives, for which purpose goods had been left with them, 
and were to keep possession of the place until Captain 
Stadis should return, which he promised them would cer- 
tainly be within three years ; but he had not yet made 
his appearance. In 1700 the natives some distance inland 
had killed the other white men on account of their having 
become robbers. 

The Ufe which Goodwin was leading seemed so attrac- 
tive to two of the PosUooper*s crew that they ran away 
from the vessel. When crossing the bar in leaving Natal 
the gaUot lurched, and the tiller struck the skipper in the 
chest and hurt him so badly that he became unfit for 



394 History of South Africa. [1705 

duty. There was no one on board who could take his 
place, so the vessel returned to the Cape without any 
farther attempt at exploration being made by her crew. 
She dropped anchor again in Table Bay on the 8th of 
March 1706. 

The directors were desirous of procuring 8heep*s wool 
from South Africa, as some samples sent to Europe were 
pronounced of excellent quality. They were of opinion 
that if it could be produced at eight pence a pound, they 
would be able to make a good profit from it, and the 
colonists would have another reliable source of income. 
Instructions were sent to the government to have this 
industry taken in hand by the burghers. But it was not 
a pursuit that commended itself to South African farmers 
at that time. Although a good many European sheep had 
been imported in former years, there were very few of 
pure breed left, nearly all having been crossed with the 
large tailed native animal. It was commonly believed 
that woolled sheep were more subject to scab than others, 
and the havoc created by that disease was so great that 
the farmers were in constant dread of it. Then there was 
the expense of separate herds. Further the carcase of the 
woolled sheep was not so valuable as that of the other, 
so that the graziers who bred for slaughter could not 
be induced even to make experiments. 

In 1700 the government sent home two hundred and 
eighty-five pounds of wool shorn from sheep belonging 
to the Company. This was received with favour, but 
instead of increasing, the quantity fell oflf in succeeding 
years. In 1703 one small bale was all that could be ob- 
tained. It realised about fifteen pence English money a 
pound on the market in Amsterdam. In 1704 a very 
small quantity was procured, in 1705 none at all, and in 
1706 one hundred and fourteen pounds. In the mean- 
time the governor took the matter in hand as a private 
speculation. He collected all the wool-bearing sheep in 
the settlement at a farm of his own, wrote to Europe for 



1705] Wilhem Adriaan van der SteL 395 

rams and ewes of good breed and to Java for some 
Persian sheep, and was about to give the industry a fair 
trial when he was recalled. 

The governor had previously endeavoured to encourage 
the production of silk. He made experiments with the 
white mulberry, which was found to grow and thrive well, 
but the silkworms which he obtained from imported eggs 
all died. He then gave up the trial, being of opinion 
that the mulberry was in leaf at the wrong season of the 
year for worms from the south of Europe. 

A less important but more successful experiment made 
by this governor was placing partridges and pheasants on 
Kobben Island to breed. 

From 1698 to 1705 the seasons were very unfavourable 
for farming, and no wheat could be exported. In 1700 
it became necessary to import rice from Java, as there 
was not sufficient grain in the country for the consump- 
tion of the people and the supply of fresh bread to the 
crews of ships. In 1705 the long drought broke up, and 
the crops were very good; but as the wheat was being 
reaped heavy rains set in and greatly damaged it. There 
was, however, a surplus above the requirements of the 
<50untry, and in 1706 exportation was resumed and four- 
teen hundred muids were sent to Batavia. 

The population of the colony was at this time in- 
creasing rapidly. The families of the burghers were gener- 
ally large, they married at an early age, and no young 
women remained single. From Europe every year a few 
-settlers were received. A custom had come into vogue of 
allowing soldiers and convalescent sailors to engage for 
short periods as servants to burghers, their wages and 
cost of maintenance being thus saved to the Company, 
while they were at hand in case of need. From a hun- 
dred to a hundred and fifty of the garrison and seamen 
were conamonly out at service. A great many slaves were 
l)eing introduced from Madagascar and Mozambique. 

The bad seasons tended to produce a spirit of restless- 



396 History of South Africa. [1705 

ness among the farming population, which was increased 
by the conduct of the principal ofl&cers of the government. 
Between Wilhem Adriaan van der Stel and the colonists 
of South Africa there was not the slightest feeling of 
sympathy. In all the ofl&cial documents of the period 
during which he was at the head of affairs, and the 
quantity is great, there is not a single expression like 'our 
own Netherlanders ' of his father. He requested the direc- 
tors indeed to send out industrious Zeeland farmers and 
no more French cadets, but the sentence displays as little 
affection for the one class as for the other. 

The governor was engaged in farming for his own 
benefit on a very large scale as things were estimated in 
those days. He could not take ground for himself, but 
in February 1700 a commissioner, Wouter Valckenier by 
name, holding authority from the governor-general and 
council of India, had visited the Cape, and at his request 
granted him in freehold four hundred morgen of land at 
Hottentots-Holland. To this he afterwards added by 
granting a tract of the adjoining ground to a subordinate 
official, and then purchasing it from that individual at a 
nominal rate. The estate he named Vergelegen. 

Upon it he built a commodious dwelling house, with 
a flour mill, a leather tannery, a workshop for making 
wooden water pipes, wine and grain stores, an overseer's 
cottage, a slave lodge, and very extensive outbuildings. 
He was in the habit of frequently residing there for ten 
days or a fortnight at a time, when public business was 
partly suspended. This was concealed from the directors, 
for there is no mention of Vergelegen or of the governor's 
absence from the castle in the official journal of occur- 
rences or the correspondence of the period, copies of which 
were sent to Holland. On the estate were planted nearly 
half a million vines, or fully one fourth of the whole num- 
ber in the colony in 1706. Groves, orchards, and cornlands 
were laid out to a corresponding extent. Beyond the 
mountains at various places the governor had six or 



1705] Wilhem Adriaan van der Stel. 397 

eight hundred homed cattle and eight or ten thousand 
sheep. 

The secunde, Samuel Elsevier, obtained a ^grant of the 
farm Elsenburg, near Klapmuts. The reverend Petrus 
Kalden, clergyman of the Cape, in like manner obtained 
the farm Zandvliet, between Stellenbosch and the head of 
False Bay. These ofl&cials engaged in agriculture and 
stock breeding on a much smaller scale than the gover- 
nor; but, in the case of the clergjnnan especially, neglected 
their public duties to attend to their private properties. 
The governor's brother, Frans van der Stel, was a farmer 
at Hottentots-Holland. His father was a farmer at Con- 
st antia. The market for produce was small, and all of 
these persons had an entry to it before the burghers could 
dispose of anything. 

There has never been a people less inclined to submit 
to grievances, real or imaginary, than the colonists of 
South Africa. Some of the farmers determined to com- 
plain to the supreme authorities, and in 1705 privately 
forwarded to the governor-general and council of India a 
list of charges. At Batavia no action was taken in the 
matter. While the complainants were awaiting a reply, 
one of their number, Adam Tas by name, a native of 
Amsterdam and now a burgher of Stellenbosch, drew up a 
memorial to the directors in the fatherland. This docu- 
ment contained thirty-eight paragraphs, some of great 
length, in which the governor and the others were accused 
of acting as has been stated, and the governor was further 
charged with corruption, extortion, and oppression. 

It was affirmed that he employed the Company's ser- 
vants and slaves at his farm; that he used the Company's 
materials for building; that his agents when sent to barter 
cattle from the Hottentots had taken them by violence ; 
that he bought wine at very low rates from those who 
could find no market for it, and disposed of it at very 
high rates to strangers; that instead of Ucensing by auc- 
tion four dealers in wine, to each of whom the farmers 



398 History of South Africa. [1706- 

bquld sell without restriction, he caused the privilege of 
dealing in that article by retail to be sold as a monopoly 
to a man who would buy his at a good price; and that 
he would make no grant of land without a bribe. Some 
other offences of an equally serious nature were com- 
plained of. The memorial was signed by sixty-three indi- 
viduals, thirty-one of whom were Frenchmen. Their in- 
tention was to send it to the directors with the return 
fleet in the early months of 1706. 

The official records of the early years of Wilhem 
Adriaan van der Stel's administration, to which the burgh- 
ers had no access, prove that some of the most serious of 
the charges against him were without foundation. One of 
his principal opponents — Jacob van der Heiden — was at a 
later date strongly suspected of having been guilty of dis- 
honest practices himself, and there is good ground for 
beheving that the opposition of another — ^Henning Huis- 
ing — arose from his loss at the end of 1705 of the lucra- 
tive contract he had held for five years. At the instance 
of the governor, tenders were called for, and four butchers 
were licensed, the price of meat being fixed at a penny 
three farthings a pound to the Company and two pence to 
burghers. Huising resented this, and as the contract had 
made him the richest man in the community, he could 
make his resentment felt. 

But after taking these circumstances into consideration^ 
the charges that were unquestionably true make a formid- 
able indictment, and the majority of the governor's op- 
ponents were the most godfearing and respectable men 
in the country. Among them was J. W. Grevenbroek^ 
recently an elder at Stellenbosch, who took an active part 
in the movement, though his name was not attached to 
the memorial. 

With the arrival of the homeward bound fleet on the 
4th of February 1706 it came to the governor's knowledge 
that a document in which he was accused of malpractices 
bad been sent to Batavia in the previous year. He inmie- 



i7o6] Wilhem Adriaan van der Stel. 399 

diately concluded that similar charges would be forwarded 
to the Netherlands, and that a memorial embodjdng them 
must be in existence; but he was unable to learn where 
it was, or who were parties to it. The danger of his 
position now drove him to acts of extreme folly as well 
as of tyranny. He caused a certificate to be drawn up, 
in which he was credited with the highest virtues, and 
the utmost satisfaction was expressed with his adminis- 
tration. The burgher residents of the peninsula were 
invited to the castle, and were then requested to sign thia 
certificate. The landdrost of Stellenbosch, Jan Starren- 
burg by name, who had held ofl&ce since July 1705, waa 
directed to proceed with an armed party from house to 
house in the country, and get the residents there to sign 
it also. By these means two hundred and forty namea 
in all were obtained, including those of a few Asiatics 
and free blacks.^ Many, however, refused to aflfix their 
signatures, even under the landdrost's threats that they 
would be marked men if they did not. 

The governor suspected that Adam Tas was the writer 
of the memorial, so the landdrost was directed to have 
him arrested. Early in the morning of Sunday the 28th 
of February 1706 his house was surrounded by an armed 
party, he was seized and sent as a prisoner to the castle, 
his premises were searched, and his writing desk was 
carried away. There could be no truce after this between 
the governor and his opponents, for if a burgher could be 
treated in this manner, upon mere suspicion of having 
drawn up a memorial to the high authorities, no man's 
Hberty would be safe. Bail was immediately offered for 
the appearance of Tas before a court of justice, but was 
refused. He was committed to prison, where he was kept 
nearly fourteen months. 

In his desk was found the draft from which the 
memorial to the directors had been copied. It was un- 

^ This docTunent is in as good a state of preservation as if it had been 
drawn up yesterday. 



400 History of South Africa. [1706 

signed, but a list containing a number of names and 
various letters which were with it indicated several of 
those who had taken part in the compilation. The com- 
pleted memorial was at the time in the house of a burgher 
in Table Valley, where it was intended to be kept until 
it could be sent away with the return fleet. 

The governor thus became acquainted with the nature 
and terms of the charges against him. Some of the ac- 
cusations were so overdrawn that he felt confident the 
directors upon reading them would acquit him of all, and 
in this belief he did not hesitate to request that a com- 
petent and impartial person might be sent out with the 
first opportunity to examine matters. 

On the 4th of March a number of ships' officers were 
invited to assist in the deliberations of the council of 
policy, and the retired and acting burgher councillors were 
summoned to give evidence. These answered a few ques- 
tions put to them by the governor, in a manner favour- 
able to him. The broad council then consented to the 
issue of a placaat, in which all persons were forbidden to 
take part in any conspiracy or to sign any maUcious or 
slanderous document against the authorities of the country, 
under pain of severe punishment. The ringleaders in such 
acts were threatened with death or corporal chastisement. 
The fiscal and the landdrost were authorised to seize 
persons suspected of such offences, and to commit them 
to prison. This placaat was on the following Sunday 
affixed to the door of the Stellenbosch church. 

Within the next few days the governor caused the 
burghers Wessel Pretorius and Jacob van der Heiden to 
be arrested and committed to prison, Jan Eotterdam to be 
sent to Batavia, and Pieter van der Byl, Henning Huising, 
Ferdinand Appel, and Jan van Meerland to be put on 
board a ship bound to Amsterdam. The burghers deported 
were informed that they must answer before the supreme 
authorities at the places of their destination to the charges 
of sedition and conspiracy that would be forwarded by the 



1706] Wilhem Adriaan van der Stel. 401 

Gape council, and if they had any complaints they might 
make them there also. 

By these highhanded proceedings the governor hoped 
to terrify his opponents into signing the certificate in his 
favour and denying the truth of the charges against him. 
But not one of those who were confined on board the 
ships in the bay faltered for a moment. Their wives 
petitioned that the prisoners might be brought to trial at 
once before a proper court of justice, and when it was 
hinted that if they would induce their husbands to do 
what was desired, release would follow, these truehearted 
women indignantly refused. 

The arrest and committal to prison of Nicolaas van 
der Westhuizen, Christiaan Wynoch, Hans Jacob Konter- 
man, and Nicolaas Meyboom followed shortly. In the 
meantime the memorial had been committed to the care 
of Abraham Bogaert, a physician in the return fleet, who 
was refreshing himself on shore, and who had warm sym- 
pathy with the burghers. On the 4th of April the fleet 
sailed, and when at sea and all fear of search was over 
Bogaert deUvered the document to Henning Huising. 

The anchors of the ships were being raised and the 
topsails being sheeted home when the governor must have 
reflected that he was making a mistake in sending four of 
the burghers to Europe. In great haste he embarked in 
a gaUot and followed the fleet as far as Bobben Island. 
In the official records it is stated that he did this to show 
respect to the admiral, but no such method of showing 
respect was practised here before or since, and his op- 
ponents were probably right when they asserted that his 
object was to overtake the ship in which the burghers 
were, and release them. He did not succeed in doing 
this, however. 

Within a week or two further arrests were made, 

when Jacob de Savoye, Pierre Meyer, Jacob Louw, Jacob 

•Cloete, and one or two others were placed in detention. 

The health of some of the prisoners broke down under 
VOL. I. 26 



402 History of South Africa. [1706 

the rigorous treatment to which they were subjected: one 
— ^Van der Heiden — was confined for twenty-seven days 
in a foul dungeon, with a black criminal as his companion. 
Most of them then, to obtain their liberty, disowned the 
truth of the assertions in the memorial, and expressed 
contrition for having signed it. They excused themselves 
afterwards for so doing by arguing that it could not affect 
the charges against the officials, which would be brought 
before the directors by those who were then on the way 
to Europe. And so after an imprisonment varying in 
duration from a few days to a few weeks, all were re- 
leased except Adam Tas and Jacob Louw. 

For a short time matters were now quiet, but on the 
governor coming to learn the names of some more of his 
opponents, Willem van Zyl, Fran9ois du Toit, Guillaume 
du Toit, Hercules du Pre, Comelis van Niekerk, Martin 
van Staden, Jacobus van Brakel, Jan Elberts, and Nicolaas 
Elberts were cited to appear before the court of justice. 
These came to a resolution not to obey the summons 
before the decision of the directors should be known, and 
so they failed to attend. They were cited by placaat, but 
in vain. In consequence, on the 9th of August, by a 
majority of the court of justice sitting with closed doors 
each of them was sentenced for contumacy to be banished 
to Mauritius for five years and to pay a fine of 412. \Z$. 
4(7., half for the landdrost as prosecutor and half for the 
coart. They were at the same time declared incapable 
of ever holding any political or military office in the 
colony. 

This sentence was made public on the 23rd of August^ 
and it tended to increase the hostility to the government. 
The military outposts, excepting those at Waveren, Klap- 
niuts, Groenekloof, and Saldanha Bay, at which twenty- 
four men in all were stationed, had been broken up before 
this date, so the burghers felt free to act. 

In the early morning of the 18th of September the 
farmers of Waveren, Biebeek's Kasteel, and Drakenstein 



1706] Wilhem Adriaan van der Stel. 403 

rode armed into the village of Stellenbosch, and at beat of 
dram drew up near the landdrost's office. Starrenburg 
went out to them, and requested the drummer to be still; 
but that individual, who was a Frenchman, kept on beat- 
ing, only observing that he did not understand Dutch. 
Some persons, to show their contempt for the landdrost, 
began to dance round the drum. Others inquired why 
there was to be no fair this year, such as there had 
always been since 1686. Starrenburg replied that the 
Indian authorities had prohibited it; but they would not 
believe him, and laid the blame upon the Cape govern- 
ment. Yet it was correct that the Indian authorities were 
solely responsible in this matter, as with a view to save 
expense, on the 29th of November 1705 they had in- 
structed the council of policy not to contribute longer 
towards the prizes or to furnish wine and ale at the cost 
of the Company. There was thus no kermis or fair in 
1706 and later. 

After this the women expressed their views. The wives 
of Pieter van der Byl and Wessel Pretorius, speaking for 
all, informed the landdrost that they had no intention of 
submitting to his tyranny, but were resolved to maintain 
their rights. The spirit of the women of the country dis- 
tricts was thoroughly roused, and their opposition was as 
formidable as that of their husbands.^ Starrenburg was 
obliged to return to his house in humiliation. The 
burghers remained in the village the whole day, setting 
him at defiance, but otherwise preserving perfect order. 

A few days later two of the persons sentenced to 
banishment . appeared in Stellenbosch without any support^ 
and jeered at the landdrost, who dared not attempt to 
arrest them, as he could not even depend upon his sub- 
ordinates. All respect for the government was gone. 

It was now arranged between the governor and the 

^ * Maar Edele Gtestrenge Heer, de wyven zyn alsoo gevaarlyk als de 
mans, en zyn niet stil.' Extract from letter of the landdrost Starrenburg 
to the goveznor Wilhem Adriaan van der Stel, 18th September 1706. 



404 History of South Africa. [1707 

landdrost that during the night of the 28th of September, 
after the closing of the castle gate, a party of monnted 
soldiers should march secretly to the Kuilen. At two 
o'clock in the morning of the 29th the landdrost was to 
meet them there, and was then before daylight to arrest 
those who were believed to be the leaders of the defiant 
party. But a petty official at the Kuilen, who sym- 
pathised with the burghers, managed to detain the party 
for a time, and when they at length left to try and seize 
CorneUs van Niekerk in his bed, the alarm had been 
given. 

Daylight broke, no one had been captured, and there 
was nothing left for the landdrost and the soldiers but to 
retire to the village of Stellenbosch. No one there would 
give any information or sell a particle of food to the 
troops, and the landdrost was obliged to kill his own 
goats for their use until provisions could be sent from the 
Cape. Starrenburg having now soldiers at his back, the 
burghers sentenced to exile fled to Twenty-four Rivers, 
where they concealed themselves. The landdrost did his 
best to capture them, and on the 4th of February 1707 
succeeded in arresting Hercules du Pre and Jacobus van 
Brakel, who were sent on board the Mauritius packet. 
A month later Guillaume du Toit was also arrested. 
During this time the governor dismissed the heemradeu 
and other officers who had been elected in the legiti- 
mate manner, and arbitrarily appointed creatures of his 
own to the vacant places. 

At this juncture the homeward bound fleet arrived 
from Batavia, and in one of the ships was Jan Rotter- 
dam, who returned to the colony in triumph. The gover- 
nor-general and council of India had taken very little 
notice of the charges made against him by the authori- 
ties here, had treated him with exceptional kindness, 
and given him a free passage back. A ship also arrived 
from Europe, and brought letters to some of the burghers, 
informing them that their case had been decided favour- 



1707] Wilhem Adriaan van der SteL 405 

ably by the directors. As yet no official despatches had 
been received, but on the 16th of April 1707 the Kattcn- 
dyk from Texel cast anchor in Table Bay, and her 
skipper, in presence of witnesses as he had been in- 
structed to do, delivered to the governor a letter from the 
assembly of seventeen dated the 30th of October 1706. 

Of the four burghers sent to Europe, one, Jan van 
Meerland, died on the passage home. The others, on 
arriving at Amsterdam, presented to the directors the 
memorial which Tas had drawn up. The charges made 
by the authorities at the Cape had already been received, 
as had been the governor's denial of some of the state- 
ments made by the burghers, and explanation of others. 
In a matter of this kind it was necessary to act with 
promptitude as well as with justice. The Company had 
numerous and powerful enemies always watching for an 
opportunity to arraign it before the states-general, and a 
charge of oppression of free Netherlanders in one of its 
colonies would be a formidable weapon for them to use. 
A commission of investigation was therefore appointed 
without delay, and the documents were laid before it. 

The commission sent in a report condenming the 
governor and those who acted with him, in consequence 
of which the letter brought by the Kattendyk was written. 
It announced that the governor Wilhem Adriaan van der 
Stel, the secunde Samuel Elsevier, the clergyman Petrus 
Kalden, and the landdrost Jan Starrenburg were removed 
from office and ordered to proceed to Europe with the 
first opportunity. The governor's brother, Frans van der 
Stel, was to betake himself to some place outside of the 
Company's possessions. The burghers were acquitted of 
conspiracy, the three sent to Europe were restored to 
their homes at the Company's expense, and orders were 
given that if any were in prison in the colony they should 
be immediately released. It was announced that Louis 
van Assenburgh, who had previously been an officer in 
the army of the German emperor, had been appointed 



4o6 History of South Africa. [1707 

governor, and Johan Cornelis d'Ableing, recently com- 
mander at Palembang, secande. In case neither of these 
should arrive in the colony at an early date, the adminis- 
tration was to be assumed by the independent fiscal Johan 
Blesius and the other members of the council of pohcy 
acting as a commission. 

The Mauritius packet had not sailed when this letter 
arrived, and the fiscal, who was directed by the assembly 
of seventeen to carry out their instructions, at once set. at 
liberty the five burghers Adam Tas, Jacob Louw, Jacobus 
van Brakel, Hercules du Pre, and Guillaume du Toit. 
The first named henceforth called his farm Libertas, to 
signify that freedom had been won, or, as he wittily ex- 
plained to inquirers as to the meaning of the term, to 
denote that Tas was free. The place is still so called. 

Next morning the council of policy met. It was re- 
solved that the administration should be transferred to 
the fiscal and others on the 15th of May, if the newly 
appointed secunde, who was on his way out, should not 
arrive before that date. It was Sunday, and the reverend 
Mr. Kalden preached twice in the church. 

During the week an arrangement was made by which 
the reverend Messrs. Le Boucq and Bek should con- 
duct the services on alternate Sundays at the Cape, and 
Mr. Kalden ceased to officiate. Starrenburg, whose last 
report was that the mutineers were constantly revihug 
him and that only a Masaniello was wanting to produce 
an open outbreak, was sent by the fiscal on board a ship 
returning to Europe. An officer named Samuel Martin 
de Meurs was appointed to act provisionally as landdrost. 

Johan Cornelis d'Ableing, the newly appointed secunde, 
arrived on the 6th of May 1707. He was a nephew of 
the recalled governor Van der Stel, and, under pretence 
that the books required to be balanced, postponed taking 
over the administration until the 3rd of June. The re- 
called officials could not then leave for Europe before the 
arrival of the homeward bound fleet of the following year. 



1707] Wilhem Adriaan van der Stel. 407 

From the vast quantity of contemporaneous printed 
and manuscript matter relating to the complaints against 
Wilhem Adriaan van der Stel, the views of the directors 
and of the colonists concerning the government of the 
country and the rights of its people can be gathered with 
great precision. In the Netherlands at that period repre- 
sentative institutions, such as are now believed to be in- 
dispensable to liberty, were unknown. Yet the people 
were free in reality as well as in name. There is not 
a word expressing a wish on the part of the burghers 
for an alteration in the form of government, what they 
desired being merely that the administration shotdd be 
placed in honest hands, and that their rights shotdd be 
respected. 

The directors desired to have here a large body of 
freemen in comfortable circumstances, loyal to the father- 
land, ready and willing to assist in the defence of the 
colony if attacked, enjoying the same rights as their peers 
in Europe, and without much diversity of rank or posi- 
tion. They stated clearly and distinctly that the closer 
the equality between the burghers could be preserved the 
more satisfactory it would be to them. Positive orders 
were issued that large tracts of land, upon which several 
famihes could obtain a living, were not to be granted to 
any individual. 

In giving directions concerning Vergelegen, they stated 
that as its grant by the commissioner Yalckenier to the 
governor had never been reported to them, they resumed 
possession of the ground. The large dwelling house upon 
it, being adapted for ostentation and not for the use of a 
farmer, must be broken down. The late governor could 
sell the material for his own benefit. The other buildings 
and improvements could be fairly valued, and the amount 
be paid to Mr. Van der Stel, or he cotdd break them 
down and dispose of the materials if he preferred to do 
so. The ground must then be divided into four farms, 
and each be sold separately by auction. 



4o8 History of South Africa. [1707 

An estate ouch as Yergelegen would by many people 
to-day be considered useful as a model. Van der Stel had 
imported the choicest vines, plants, and trees from foreign 
countries, and was making extensive experiments there. 
The ground was the most skilfally tilled in the whole 
country. But the directors held that such a farm as this, 
owned by one individual and cultivated chiefly by slave 
labour, could not be of the same advantage to the infant 
colony as a number of smaller ones, each in possession of 
a sturdy European proprietor. 

For this reason Frans van der Stel was required to 
sell his property, and remove to some country not included 
in the Company's charter. The former governor Simon 
van der Stel was left in possession of his farm Con- 
stantia, but directions were given that upon his death the 
other land which he held should revert to the Company. 

Emphatic instructions were issued that for the future 
no servant of the Company, from the highest to the 
lowest, was to own or lease land in the colony, or to 
trade directly or indirectly in com, wine, or cattle. Those 
who had landed property could sell it, but if they should 
not do so within a reasonable period, it would be confis- 
cated. The burghers were not to be molested in their 
right to dispose of their cattle or the produce of their 
ground in any way that suited them. They were to be 
governed in accordance with law and justice. 

On their part, the colonists claimed exactly the same 
rights as if they were still living in the fatherland. They 
held that any restrictions to which the early burghers 
had agreed were of a temporary nature, and afifected only 
those who consented to them. In their opinion they had 
forfeited nothing by removal to a dependency, and the 
violence displayed by the governor towards Adam Tas and 
his associates was as outrageous as if it had taken place 
in the city of Amsterdam. They asserted their undoubted 
right to personal liberty, to exemption from arrest unless 
under reasonable suspicion of crime, to admission to bail, 



1707] Wilhem Adriaan van der St el. 409 

to speedy trial before a proper court of justice, to freedom 
to sell to any one, burgher or foreigner, whatever their 
land produced, after the tithes had been paid and the 
Company's needs had been suppUed, except under special 
circumstances when restriction was needed for the good 
of the community. And these claims, made in as explicit 
terms as they could be to-day by an Englishman Uving 
in a crown colony, were not challenged by the directors 
or even the partisans of the late governor, but were 
accepted by every one as unquestioned. 

The directors were fully aware that a colony of free 
Netherlanders was to be ruled in a different manner from 
a dependency inhabited by Asiatics. 



4IO 



CHAPTEK Xm. 

JOHAN CORNEIilS D'ABLEING, SECUNDE, ACTING GOVERNOR, 

8bd JUNE 1707 TO Ibt PEBBUABY 1708. 

LOUIS VAN A88ENBUBGH, GOVEBNOB, INSTALLED lap PEB- 
BUABY 1708, DIED 27th DECEMBEB 1711. 

WILLEM HELOT, SECUNDE, ACTING GOVEBNOB, 28m DECEM- 

BER 1711 TO 28th MABCH 1714. 

MAUBITS BASQUES DE CHAVONNES, GOVEBNOB, INSTALLED 
28rH MABCH 1714, DIED 8th SEPTEMBEB 1724. 

The only circumstance deserving note during the few 
months that the secunde D'Ableing was at the head of the 
government was the violent conduct of the reverend Mr. 
Le Boucq. which caused much disquiet in the community. 
That clergyman had arrived at the Cape at a time of 
clamour and strife, and instead of preaching peace, at once 
became a promoter of further discord. He took side with 
the colonists, though there was no good object to be 
gained by his entering into the question of party politics, 
since all that the burghers had contended for was secured. 
Ho was conversant with the Portuguese language, and 
could therefore have been of greater service in India than 
hero, but as he was of quarrelsome disposition the authori- 
ties at Batavia were glad to get rid of him. 

Upon Mr. Le Boucq's arrival at the Cape, the reverend 
Mr. Bek removed to Stellenbosch, that the new clergyman 
might enter upon his duties ; but as soon as he ascer- 
tained that there was neither church nor parsonage at 
Drakenstein, he declined to take up the work. Before any 
pressure could be put upon him, the reverend Mr. Kalden 
was suspended, and the government then decided that 
Messrs. Bek and Le Bouc*q should conduct the services at 



1707] Johan Cornells d^Ableing. 411 

the Cape on alternate Sundays. After a little, the two 
ministers arranged between themselves that Mr. Le Boucq 
should take all the services at the Cape, Mr. Bek going 
occasionally to Drakenstein; and to this the government 
made no objection. 

The Dutch sick-comforter of Drakenstein had been 
transferred to the Cape, and the council now resolved to 
send some one else there. On the 8th of June 1707 Mr. 
Hermanns Bosman, sick-comforter of the ship Overryp, was 
selected for the post. Thereafter he conducted service in 
Dutch, and Mr. Paul Roux in French, at the houses of 
farmers at Drakenstein, except when Mr. Bek went over 
from Stellenbosch. 

In the morning of Sunday the 28th of August 1707 
the congregation of the Cape assembled in the church and 
listened to an exciting sermon prepared and read by Mr. 
Le Boucq. He had chosen as text the first verse of the 
29th chapter of Proverbs, and had previously given out 
the last two verses of the 149th psalm to be sung. Ac- 
cording to his exposition, the saints were the burghers 
who had recently made a stand for freedom, the noble 
who hardened his neck and was in consequence destroyed 
was the recalled governor Van der Stel. At the last 
election of church officers, Abraham Poulle, who was in 
the government service, had been chosen elder, and the 
burgher Jan Oberholster, who submitted quietly to the 
ruling of the authorities, had been appointed deacon. 
When the service was ended, the clergjrman annoimced 
that these persons were deprived of their offices, and ex- 
horted the congregation not to acknowledge them any 
longer. 

This proceeding took most of the congregation by sur- 
prise, and caused great excitement to many individuals. 
One woman fainted, and was carried out of the church to 
the hospital. No member of the government or of the 
consistory anticipated anything of the kind, though they 
were accustomed to very eccentric acts of the clergyman. 



412 History of South Africa. [1707 

The members of the council of policy at once retired, and 
held a consultation, after which they sent a request to Mr. 
Le Boucq not to conduct service in the afternoon, a 
request which he construed into an order. 

Next morning he sent a letter to the council, in which 
he asserted his right as a clergyman to depose elders and 
deacons without assigning any reason for doing so, and 
protested against interference by lay officials in spritual 
matters. He followed this up by a letter on the 6th of 
September, in which he stated that he did not intend to 
perform service again until the council admitted his views 
to be correct. Thereupon the council suspended pajrment 
of his salary, and instructed Mr. Bek to assume duty at 
the Cape. Mr. Kalden was requested to assist in the 
emergency, and showed himself very willing to do so, by 
holding service occasionally so as to allow Mr. Bek to 
visit Stellenbosch and Drakenstein. 

By the more violent members of the party which he 
had espoused Mr. Le Boucq was now regarded as a 
martyr. He went about declaiming against the govern- 
ment, and stirring up people's passions until it was con- 
sidered necessary to bring him to task. Certain language 
of his was reported to the government, upon which it was 
intended to bring a charge. The principal witness was 
Maria Lindenhof, daughter of a clergyman in Overyssel, 
wife of Henning Huising, and aunt of Adam Tas. Upon 
being questioned, she asserted that she had forgotten what 
he said. The court of justice then decided to confine 
her for eight days to her own house, and then to place 
her under civil arrest if she did not in the mean time give 
correct evidence. She remained obdurate, and after eight 
days was confined in a suite of rooms in the castle. A 
petition for her release, signed by Tas, Grevenbroek, Van 
der Byl, and twenty-four others, men and women, was 
sent in, and after nine days* detention in the castle the 
government thought it best to hberate her. 

Mr. Le Boucq next appeared before the court of justice 



1708] Louis van Assenburgh. 413 

as a litigant in a case with Mr. Kalden, and, upon judg- 
ment being recorded against him, appealed to Batavia. 
There also the decision was against him. In the mean 
time the coimcil of policy, in the belief that concord could 
not be expected at the Cape as long as this quarrelsome 
clergyman was here, resolved, 17th of January 1708, to 
send him back to Batavia with the first outward bound 
ship; but it was not until the 13th of the following Sep- 
tember that this resolution could be carried into effect. 

On the 25th of January 1708 Governor Louis van 
Assenburgh arrived in Table Bay, and next morning he 
presided at a meeting of the council of policy, though he 
did not at once assume the direction of affairs. He had 
been eight months on the passage from Holland, and had 
been obliged to put into a port on the coast of Brazil. 
In the same ship with the governor was the reverend 
Johannes Godfried d'Ailly, who had been appointed clergy- 
man of the Cape, and who preached here for the first 
time on the 5th of February. Henning Huising, one of 
the deported burghers, was also on board. He had entered 
into a contract with the directors for the supply of half 
the meat required by the Company at the Cape during 
the next three years, the object of dividing the contract 
being to secure competition. Pieter van der Byl and 
Ferdinand Appel had reached the colony seven months 
before. 

When the arrival of the governor was known at Ver- 
gelegen, Mr. Van der Stel sent a petition to the council 
of policy requesting that he might be allowed to retain 
the estate a few months longer, as he had hopes that by 
the next fleet from Europe inteUigence would be received 
that the directors had mitigated their decision. The coun- 
cil refused to comply, and the utmost that he could obtain 
was permission to press the grapes then ripening and dis- 
pose of half the wine on his own account, the other half 
to be for the Company. The quantity pressed was fifty- 
six leggers. 



414 History of South Africa. [1708 

On the 23rd of February Henning Hoising Bummoned 
Mr. Van der Stel before the court of justice for 3,056/. in 
addition to the value of nine thousand sheep. The late 
governor then requested the council of policy to allow 
him to remain in South Africa another year, in order to 
get evidence to defend himself in this case; but upon 
Huising stating that he preferred bringing the action in 
the fatherland to being the means of keeping Van der 
Stel longer in the colony, the council declined to accede 
to his request. 

On the 23rd of April the return fleet sailed, taking to 
Europe the late governor, secimde, and clergyman of the 
Cape, with their families. Nineteen of the burghers em- 
powered Adam Tas and Jacob van der Heiden to continue 
pressing their charges against the recalled officials, for 
these, though deprived of authority, were still servants of 
the Company and receiving salaries. Tas and Van der 
Heiden therefore left in the same fleet. Another investi- 
gation took place in Amsterdam, which resulted in the 
absolute dismissal of Van der Stel, Elsevier, and Kalden 
from the Company*s service. They left agents in the 
colony to dispose of their estates and transmit the pro- 
ceeds. 

Vergelegen was divided into four farms, which were sold 
by auction in October 1709. It was found on measure- 
ment to contain six hundred and thirteen morgen. The 
large dwelling house was broken down, and the material 
was sold for Van der Stel's benefit. The other buildings 
were taken over by the Company for 625/., though the 
materials of which they were constructed were appraised 
at a much higher sum. The four farms brought 1,695/. 
at public sale, the purchasers being Barend Gildenhuis, 
Jacob van der Heiden, Jacob Malan, and the widow of 
Gerrit Cloete. 

Frans van der Stel returned to Europe in the same 
fleet with his brother, and took up his residence in 
Amsterdam. His wife, Johanna Wessels, was a daughter 



1708] Louis van Assenburgh. 415 

of one of the leading burghers of the colony. She re- 
mained behind with her parents to dispose of the property 
to the best advantage, and did not leave to rejoin her 
husband in Amsterdam imtil April 1717. 

On the 1st of February 1708 Governor Louis van 
Assenburgh was installed in office. He had been a brave 
and skilful mihtary officer, but in this country he speedily 
developed a fondness for the pleasures of the table, which 
caused him to be described as a winebibber. He carried 
out the instructions of the directors^ however, in letter 
and in spirit, so that he won the regard of the burghers. 

The return fleet of 1708 was under command of Cor- 
nelis Joan Simons, who had been the first independent 
fiscal at the Cape, and had resided here in that capacity 
from 1690 to 1694. He had recently been governor of 
Ceylon, and was now empowered by the governor-general 
and council of India to act as commissioner during his 
stay in South Africa. He issued a number of regulations, 
but the only one which needs to be mentioned here is 
that referring to the emancipation of slaves. 

During the period that had elapsed since the first 
appearance of the Dutch in India and Africa, the views 
of Europeans with regard to African slavery had been 
gradually changing. At first blacks were enslaved on the 
plea that they were heathens, but a profession of Chris- 
tianity sufficed to free them and to place them on a level 
in civil rights with their former masters. As time wore 
on, it became apparent that in most instances emancipa- 
tion meant the conversion of a useful individual into an 
indolent pauper and a pest to society. Habits of industry, 
which in Europeans are the result of pressure of cir- 
cumstances operating upon the race through hundreds of 
generations, were found to be altogether opposed to the 
disposition of Africans. Experience showed that a freed 
slave usually chose to live in a filthy hovel upon coarse 
and scanty food rather than toil for something better. 
Decent clothing was not a necessity of life to him, neither 



41 6 History of South Africa. [1708 

did he need other fomiture in his hovel than a few 
cooking utensils. He put nothing by, and when sickness 
came he was a burden upon the public. Such in general 
was the negro when left to himself in a country where 
sufficient food to keep life in his body was to be had 
without much exertion. Emancipation then became less 
common, and the view began to be held and asserted that 
slavery was the proper condition of the black race. 

But it sometimes happened that a slave was set free 
from a desire on the part of the owner to be rid of all 
responsibility with regard to him. It was evident that if 
a check were not put upon such a practice, it might lead 
to people evading their liabilities, and to old, infirm, or 
otherwise helpless slaves being set free, in other words, 
cast upon the compassion of the conmiunity. To prevent 
this, the commissioner Simons, in his instructions to the 
Cape government, dated 19th of April 1708, directed that 
no slave was to be emancipated without security being 
given by the owner that the freed person should not 
become a charge upon the poor funds within ten years, 
according to the statutes of India. This was henceforth 
the law in South Africa. 

There was, however, one notable exception to this law. 
It frequently happened that ladies returning from India 
to Europe took slave girls with them as waiting maids, 
and sometimes gentlemen were in the same way accom- 
panied by their valets. These slaves were almost invari- 
ably sent back again, as they could be of no service in 
the Netherlands. The directors issued instructions that 
such persons were to be treated as free people, proof 
of their having been on the soil of the repubhc to be 
equivalent to letters of manumission. 

This was the last year in which nominations from the 
Drakenstein consistory were sent in the French language. 
Upon receipt of the usual documents, written in French, the 
council of policy directed that in future the nominations of 
church officers and letters to the government must be in Dutch. 



1707] Louis van Assenburgh. 417 

The island of Mauritius, hitherto a dependency of the 
Cape Colony, was at this time abandoned by the East 
India Company. It was of hardly any use as a station 
for refreshment, and beyond a little ebony and ambergris 
it contributed nothing to commerce. It was further one 
of the usual places of resort of the numerous pirate ships 
which at that time infested the Indian seas, and whose 
crews were in the habit of landing on different parts of 
the coast and keeping the little Dutch settlement in a 
state of alarm as long as they remained ashore. The 
directors came to the conclusion that it was not worth 
the cost of maintaining a large garrison, and that with a 
small garrison it was not secure. 

Of late years the Company had sustained severe losses 
there. During the night of the 9th of February 1695 
the residency and magazines were destroyed by a violent 
hurricane. In 1701 a pirate ship was wrecked on the 
coast close to the settlement, when two hundred armed 
men got safely to shore, together with twelve English 
and thirty Indian prisoners out of captured vessels. The 
master of the buccaneers was an old acquaintance of the 
Dutch Company, having been in the Arrfiy when she was 
seized in 1693 in Saldanha Bay. The colonists thought 
it prudent to take refuge in the fort. The commander of 
the island, Eoelof Diodati, to get rid of the unwelcome 
visitors, was obliged to sell them at half price the Com- 
pany's packet, for which they paid him 167/. out of 
money saved from the wreck. On the 15th of November 
1707 the Company's premises on the island were totally 
destroyed by fire, the books, records, and goods in the 
magazine being burned with everything else. The build- 
ings were thatched with palmetto leaves, so that the pro- 
gress of the flames was extremely rapid. 

In February 1707 instructions were received at the 

Cape to withdraw the garrison. The colonists were to 

have the choice of removal to Java or the Cape. When 

this inteUigence reached the island, the burghers were 
VOL. I. 27 



4i8 History of South Africa. [1710 

found to be very averse to the breaking up of their 
homes, but as a matter of necessity nine heads of families 
elected to come to the Cape, the remainder preferring 
Batavia. In September 1708 two vessels, the Carthago and 
Mercurius, were sent to commence transporting the people 
and their effects. The Carthago went on to Batavia, the 
Mercurius returned to the Cape, and landed her passengers 
here on the 26th of January 1709. Among them were 
Daniel Zaaiman, Gerrit Bomond, and Hendrik de Yries, 
with their families. The names of the others need not 
be given, as they have long since died out. 

The Beverwaart was then sent to remove the garrison^ 
and on the 25th of Januarv 1710 Abraham Momber. the 
last Dutch commander, with the subordinate officers and 
the troops embarked in her and set sail for Batavia. 
Before going on board, the garrison destroyed everything 
within reach that could not be taken away. Even the 
forests were damaged as much as possible. All the 
hounds were left behind, that they might become wild and 
exterminate the game. The object of this wanton waste 
was to prevent the abandoned station being of service to 
any one else, but that object was defeated, for in the 
same year the French took possession of the island, and it 
was held by that nation until 1810, when it was annexed 
to the British dominions. 

On the 10th of January 1710 the retired governor- 
general Joan van Hoom, accompanied by his wife^ and 

^ Joanna Maria van Riebeek, eldest daughter of Abraham van Riebeek» 
and granddaughter of the first commander of the Cape station. She was stiU 
very young when after the death of her first husband, Gerard de Heere» 
governor of Ceylon, Mr. Van Hoom, then a widower and advanced in years, 
offered her his hand, and on the 16th of November 1706 she became his wife. 
Her father succeeded her husband as governor-general of Netherlands India. 
Mr. Van Hoom had amassed enormous wealth, it being generally believed 
that he was worth a hundred tons of gold, that is 833,838^. of English money. 
He could be generous at times, but ordinarily he was thrifty, if not miserly, 
to an extreme degree. At the Cape he presented a trifling amount to & 
domestic who had served him well, with the remark ** keep that coin, it cornea 
from Joan van Hoom, and luck accompanies it.*' 



1710] Louis van Assenburgh. 419 

daughter, arrived in Table Bay on his passage back to the 
Netherlands. He remained several weeks in the colony, 
where he acted as commissioner, presiding in the council 
and on all occasions taking precedence of the governor. 
On the 26th of February the three burgher councillors 
appeared before him, and on behalf of the whole body of 
freemen preferred a complaint. Instructions had recently 
been received from the supreme authorities to demand 
tithes of the whole quantity of com gathered, and not of 
that portion only which was brought for sale, as had pre- 
viously been the custom. The burgher councillors re- 
quested that the farmers might be reUeved from payment 
of tithes of such grain as they required for their own 
consumption and for seed. The commissioner considered 
their request reasonable, and suspended the levy upon the 
whole until further instructions should be given. 

The directors took another view, and in despatches 
received here in February 1711 the farmers were required 
to pay tithes upon all grain harvested, as those in Europe 
had to pay. In vain they represented to the council of 
policy that in the fatherland the tithe was collected upon 
the ground, whereas here it was delivered at the Com- 
pany's magazines. They were informed that the council 
had no power to make concessions in opposition to com- 
mands of the supreme authorities. An effort was made in 
1712 to farm out the tithes by public auction, the pur- 
chaser to collect upon the ground; but no one would 
make an offer of any kind. Then the directors required 
their share of the com to be delivered in Capetown as 
before, and persisted in their claim, though it soon became 
evident that it was evaded to a very large extent. 

It would be impossible to devise a worse method of 
taxation than this, so far as influence upon the character 
of a people is concerned. Once a year the farmers were 
required to make a return of the quantity of grain of dif- 
ferent kinds which their lands jaelded and of the number 
of cattle that they owned. Of the first, one-tenth was de- 



420 History of South Africa. [1710 

manded by the Company; and on the last the district tax 
called lion and tiger money was collected, at the rate of 
five pence for every thirty sheep or six large cattle. The 
people who regarded as grossly imjust the claim to a 
tithe of all their grain had thus the temptation placed 
before them of eluding payment by making false state- 
ments. The result was that only a fraction of the pro- 
duce of the country was given in, and the burgher rolls, 
as far as property is concerned, are so misleading as to 
be worse than useless. Under this system of taxation 
four generations of colonists were born, for nearly three- 
quarters of a century passed away before a reform was 
made. That the whole of the people were not demoralised 
by it was owing solely to the strong hold which the prin- 
ciples of Christianity had upon them. 

For four years the government kept possession of the 
writing desk of Adam Tas, which was seized when he 
was made a prisoner. A council, presided over by Mr. 
Van Hoom, appointed a committee to examine its con- 
tents. A report was brought up that some of the papers 
were seditious, when it was resolved that they should be 
destroyed and the others be returned to Tas. 

On the 10th of March, at another meeting of the 
council of policy under the presidency of Mr. Van Hoom, 
various regulations were made with regard to the manner 
in which the church books should be kept, the poor funds 
be administered, and other matters of the kind. There 
was a very well informed clergyman, named Jan Marens, 
returning to Europe with the homeward bound fleet, and 
he was requested to give his views on these subjects, 
which he did in writing. The reverend Mr. D*Ailly did 
the same. Mr. Marens was of opinion that a classis or 
presbytery should be formed, to meet every three months, 
and to be composed of the full consistory of Capetown 
with the clergymen of Stellenbosch and Drakenstein and 
an elder from each of those congregations. When instruc- 
tions were received from the directors in 1691 concerning 



lyio] Louis van Assenburgh. 421 

the establishment of the congregation of Drakenstein, such 
meetings were provided for, but they had never been held. 
Mr. D'Ailly was of opinion that they would be productive 
of strife, and he stated his conviction that the church 
authorities in the fatherland would certainly object to 
them. The council therefore decided that the matter 
must await the decision of the directors, and by them the 
formation of a presbytery was not approved of. The 
three churches thus remained independent of each other, 
their clergymen were regarded as chaplains of the East 
India Company, and the classis of Amsterdam continued 
to be the final court of appeal in matters ecclesiastical. 

The schools were closely connected with the church, 
and the consistory of each parish had control over those 
within its limits. But it was now resolved that the 
secimde and the clergyman of the Cape should act as 
scholarchen or general supervisors. In that capacity their 
principal duty was to examine the qualifications of persons 
desirous of becoming teachers, and reporting thereon to 
the government, as by law no one was allowed to keep a 
pubUc school without special permission from the authori- 
ties, though before 1715 such permission was not neces- 
sary in the case of any one employing a private tutor in 
his own family. On the 3rd of September 1715 a regula- 
tion was made that no one released from the Company's 
service should follow any other occupation thaji the one 
mentioned in his certificate of discharge except with the 
written consent of the council, under penalty of being 
compelled to return to duty as a soldier or a sailor. 

Another matter settled at this meeting of the council 
under the presidency of Mr. Van Hoom was the direction 
in which Capetown should be enlarged when an increase 
of population required it. There was a desire on the part 
of some persons to encroach upon the open space between 
the castle and the Heerengracht, that is the great parade, 
but the burgher councillors objected to that design. They 
presented a memorial, recommending that the parade 



42 2 History of South Africa. [1710 

should not be built upon, and that when needed an en- 
largement of the town should take place along the sides of 
the Company's garden. Of this the council approved. 

At the same time the first grant of ground was made 
where the village of Caledon now stands. The burgher 
Ferdinand Appel had twelve morgen of land given to him 
in freehold there, in order that he might plant a garden 
and build a house of accommodation for persons making 
use of the hot springs. These springs had already come 
to be regarded as efficacious for the cure of rheumatic 
affections of all kinds, and were often visited by people 
with those ailments. 

On the 15th of March 1710 a young man named Jan 
de la Fontaine arrived in Table Bay as bookkeeper of the 
ship HoTstendacU, The commissioner Van Hoom took a 
liking to him, and gave him the appointment of master 
of the warehouses, thus introducing him to a career of 
official life in this colony which ended many years later 
in his occupying the post of governor. 

On the 30th of April 1710 the secretary to the council 
of policy, Willem Helot by name, who had been sixteen 
years in service at the Cape, was by order of the direc- 
tors raised to the rank of senior merchant and took over 
the duties of secunde, Mr. D'Ableing having been in- 
structed to proceed to India to fill an office of greater 
importance. The late secunde left South Africa on the 
10th of the following July. 

On the 17th of December 1710, at ten o'clock in the 
morning, a fire broke out in the village of Stellenbosch. 
There was a high wind, and a slave who was carrying a 
lighted fagot allowed some sparks to be blown into the 
thatch with which the landdrost's office was covered. In 
a minute the roof was in flames. The fire spread to the ad- 
joining buildings, which were all covered with thatch, and 
in a short time the church, the whole of the Company's 
property, and twelve dwelling houses were burned do^Ti. 
Fortunately the church books and district records were saved. 



1 7 "J Louis van Assenburgh. 423 

There was not so much attention paid now to the 
cultivation of tree^ as there had been in the time of the 
governors Van der Stel, still this useful work was not 
altogether neglected by the authorities. In the winter of 
1709 a number of young oaks were sent to Stellenbosch 
to be planted along the streets. Some of those previously 
planted in the same places had been wantonly or thought- 
lessly destroyed. In consequence, on the 8th of August 
of this year a placaat was issued, in which damaging 
trees on pubHc property was prohibited under penalty of 
a sound flogging at the foot of the gallows, and a reward 
of 2/. 1$. 8e2. was promised to any one bringing offenders 
to justice. 

There was a regulation under which any one feUing a 
tree on his own ground was to plant an oaJ^ in its stead, 
but it was generally neglected. The farmers of Stellen- 
bosch and Drakenstein assigned as a reason for not carry- 
ing it out that as they had only sixty morgen of land 
they had not suf&cient space, because trees in the neigh- 
bourhood of vineyards and cornfields attracted and har- 
boured birds. The forests in the mountain kloofs near 
the Cape were by this time exhausted, but a commission 
which was sent to examine the land of Waveren reported 
that a considerable quantity of timber suitable for waggon 
making and house building was still to be found there. 

On the 13th of April 1711 the council, presided over 
by the conmiissioner Pieter de Vos, admiral of a return 
fleet, decided to press upon the landdrost and heemraden 
of Stellenbosch and Drakenstein the necessity of plant- 
ing trees along the roads and of selecting suitable places 
for laying out groves. A commission, consisting of the 
acting fiscal Willem van Putten and the master gardener 
Jan Hertog, was appointed to examine the mountainous 
country along the left bank of the river Zonderend, and 
report upon the forests there. The commission found a 
supply of timber sufficient for existing needs, which set 
the question at rest for a while. 



424 History of South Africa. [17" 

In consequence of an attempt of the landdrost of Stel- 
lenbosch to press for the public service some waggons be- 
longing to residents of the Cape peninsula, the burgher 
councillors appealed to the council of policy to define the 
bounds of that officer's jurisdiction, and on the 16th of 
December 1711 it was decided that he had no authority 
on the Cape side of the Mosselbank and Kuils rivers. 
Beyond those streams his jurisdiction extended as far as 
Europeans were settled. 

Governor Van Assenburgh was taken seriously ill early 
in the year 1711. He had never interfered with the pur- 
suits of the farmers, and had given the colonists that 
protection to which they were entitled, so that he stood 
fairly well in their regard. He had not indeed mixed 
with them and interested himself in their personal afiiairs, 
as Simon van der Stel in his earlier years had done, so 
there was not that affection for him that there had once 
been for the other. He seldom left the castle. On new 
year's day and on his birthday it was the custom for the 
principal burghers with their wives to call at the castle 
between ten and eleven in the morning, and present their 
compUments. They were then invited to remain to dinner, 
and did not usually leave until nine in the evening. Also 
on the yearly muster of the militia of the Cape district, 
when the company of cavalry and two companies of in- 
fantry had gone through their exercises and been in- 
spected, the officers were entertained at the castle. At 
these receptions the governor was very friendly, and he 
was at all times easy of access, but he did not court 
society. There was only one instance of departure from 
his usual habits, and that somewhat startled the steady 
burghers of the Cape. When the afternoon service was 
concluded on Sunday the 11th of November 1708, the 
governor invited the principal townspeople to the castle, 
and made an effort to entertain them with a fight between 
bulls and dogs. 

When he was taken ill, the burghers suspected that he 



i7ia] Willem Helot. 425 

had been poisoned, and one writer of the period does not 
hesitate to affirm that the poison had been administered 
to him in a glass of wine when on a visit at Constantia. 
The dates of the visit and of his illness, however, over- 
throw this statement. He was confined to his room about 
eight months, and died on the afternoon of Sunday the 
27th of December 1711, five days after he had completed 
his fifty-first year. 

Next morning the council of policy met, when the 
secunde Willem Helot was elected to act as head of the 
government imtil the pleasure of the directors could be 
signified. The election was a matter of form, for there 
was no one else ehgible. On the 2nd of January 1712 the 
body of the late governor was buried beneath the pave- 
ment of the church, with a great deal of state. His 
administration had not been an eventful one, and bis 
name was soon forgotten. 

Some years before this date immigration from Europe 
had practically ceased. Occasionally a family from abroad 
was added to the burgher population, but the increase of 
the colonists was now due chiefly to the excess of births 
over deaths and to the discharge of servants of the Com- 
pany. Cattle farmers were pushing their way from the 
land of Waveren down the valley of the Breede river and 
from Hottentots-Holland eastward along the course of the 
Zonderend. 

The town in Table Valley was growing also. It had 
not yet become the custom to call it Capetown, it being 
usually termed the Cape, or sometimes the town at the 
Cape. Official letters were addressed from and to the 
Castle of Good Hope. At the date of Governor Van 
Assenburgh's death the town contained about one hun- 
dred and seventy private houses, besides the buildings 
belonging to the Company. 

In October 1712 a report reached the castle that four 
or five thousand Hottentots of the Great Namaqua tribe 
had made an inroad upon the natives living along the 



426 History of South Africa. [1713 

Elephant river, and had threatened to plunder some gra- 
ziers at Piketberg, who had in consequence been obliged 
to retire from their farms. The government thereupon 
instructed Jan Mulder, who was again landdrost of Stel- 
lenbosch, to call out twenty-five burghers from Draken- 
stein and twenty-five from Stellenbosch. The same 
number were called out in the Cape district, and with 
twenty-five soldiers wer6 sent on to meet the country 
contingents at the farm of Fran9ois du Toit. Lieutenant 
Slotsboo was in command of the expedition. His instruc- 
tions were to endeavour to come to an amicable under- 
standing with the Namaquas, if possible to induce them 
to return to their own country, and not to attack them 
unless they had done some harm to the burghers. The 
conmiando returned to the castle on the 22nd of Novem- 
ber, and reported that there were no Namaquas at Piket- 
berg and no burgher had been molested. 

In 1713 a terrible calamity fell upon the country. In 
March of this year the small-pox made its first appear- 
ance in South Africa. It was introduced by means of 
some clothing belonging to ships* people who had been ill 
on the passage from India, but who had recovered before 
they reached Table Bay. This clothing was sent to be 
washed at the Company's slave lodge, and the women 
who handled it were the first to be smitten. The 
Company had at the time about five hundred and 
seventy slaves of both sexes and all ages, nearly two 
hundred of whom were carried off within the next six 
months. 

From the slaves the dise^e spread to the Europeans 
and the natives. In May and June there was hardly a 
family in the town that had not some one sick or dead. 
Traffic in the streets was suspended, and even the chil- 
dren ceased to play their usual games in the squares and 
open places. At last it was impossible to obtain nurses, 
though slave women were being paid at the rate of four 
to five shillings a day. All the planks in the stores were 



^7^3] Willem Helot. 427 

used, and in July it became necessary to bury the dead 
without coffins. 

For two months there was no meeting of the court of 
justice, for debts and quarrels were forgotten in presence 
of the terrible scourge. The minds of the people were so 
depressed that anything unusual inspired them with terror. 
Thus on the 10th of May two doves were observed to fall 
to the ground from the parapet of the governor's house 
in the castle, and after fluttering about a little were found 
to be dead, without any injury being perceptible. This 
was regarded by many as an omen of disaster. The very 
-clouds and the darkness of winter storms seemed to be 
threatening death and woe. During that dreadful winter 
nearly one fourth of the European inhabitants of the town 
perished, and only when the hot weather set in did the 
plague cease. 

The disease spread into the country, but there, though 
the death rate among the white people was very high, 
the proportion that perished was not so large as in the 
town. It was easier to keep from contact with sick 
persons. Some families living in secluded places were 
practically isolated, and the farmers in general avoided 
moving about. 

The burgher rolls are not to be regarded in any year 
lis more than approximately correct, but, in common with 
all other contemporary documents, they bear witness to 
the great loss of life. According to them, in 1712 the 
number of colonists — men, women, and children — was one 
thousand nine hundred and thirty-nine, and in 1716, 
three years after the cessation of the plague, notwith- 
standing the natural increase, only one thousand six 
hundred and ninety-seven. The records of the orphan 
chamber show that the board was perplexed with the 
iidministration of the large number of estates that fell 
under its management, and in many instances had a diffi- 
culty in the division of property, especially in cases where 
families had become wholly or nearly extinct. 



428 History of South Africa. [1713 

Among the Hottentots the disease created the greatest 
havoc. Of the Europeans who were smitten, more re- 
covered than died; but with the Hottentots, to be ill and 
to die were synonymous. The state of filth in which they 
lived caused the plague to spread among them with fear- 
ful rapidity. When the kraals were first infected, and the 
number of deaths became startUng, the Hottentots of the 
Cape fled across the mountains, declaring that the Euro- 
peans had bewitched them. But as soon as they got 
beyond the settlement they were attacked by tribes of 
their own race, and all who could not get back again were 
killed. The probable object of this slaughter was to pre- 
vent the spread of the disease, but if so, it failed. Then 
the wretched creatures sat down in despair, and made no 
attempt to help themselves. They did not even remove 
their dead from the huts. In Table Valley it became 
necessary to send a party of slaves to put the corpses 
under ground, as the air was becoming foul. Whole 
kraals absolutely disappeared, leaving not an individual 
alive. 

The very names of many of the best-known tribes 
were blotted out by the fell disease. They no longer 
appear in the records as organised communities, with 
feuds and rivalries and internal wars, but as the broken- 
spirited remnant of a race, all whose feelings of nation- 
ality and clanship had been crushed out by the great 
calamity. The farmers who had been accustomed ta 
employ many hundreds of them in harvest time com- 
plained that none were now to be had. Strangers who 
had visited the colony before 1713, and who saw it after- 
wards, noticed that the Hottentot population had almost 
disappeared. From this date imtil the Bantu were 
reached by the expansion of the settlement, the only diffi- 
culty with natives was occasioned by Bushmen. Owing 
to th(B isolation of these people, they escaped the disaster 
which overtook the higher races. 

Upon intelUgence of the death of Governor Van Assen- 



1714] Maurits Pasques de Chavonnes. 429 

burgh reaching the Netherlands, the directors appointed 
as his successor Lieutenant-Colonel Maurits Pasques de 
Chavonnes, a native of the Hague, who had commanded 
an infantry regiment in the army of the States, hut had 
been thrown out of employment by the reduction of the 
troops at the peace of Utrecht. He had the rank, title, 
and salary of a councillor extraordinary of the Indies 
given to him. The new governor arrived at the Cape on 
the 24th of March 1714, and was formally installed on 
the 28th of the same month. 

The first object to which the new governor turned his 
attention was an attempt to make the revenue of the 
colony more nearly meet the expenditure than had pre- 
viously been the case. Though the returns were made 
out yearly to fractions of a farthing, it is impossible to 
say exactly what was the expenditure of the colony, as 
the accounts of the Cape were kept as of a branch busi- 
ness. Every penny received from every source was 
entered on one side, and every penny paid out, no matter 
for what purpose, was entered on the other. 

Thus, in the charges against the Cape were included 
all sums paid for refreshment of the crews of ships, wages 
paid to sailors in such ships, the expenses of the hospital, 
and other items which should not fairly be placed against 
the colonial revenue. But these items cannot be wholly 
struck off. The hospital, for instance, afforded accommoda- 
tion for the sick of the garrison, and thus a portion of 
its cost was a proper charge against the colony. Then 
again, sums paid in the Netherlands and in India for 
strictly colonial purposes do not appear in the accounts. 
The most that can be done is to state the expenditure 
approximately, and probably no two persons examining 
the records would do this in exactly the same figures. 

The principal source of revenue was the money paid 
for the exclusive right to sell wines and spirituous liquors 
by retail, and this was determined by pubhc auction on 
the last day of August. During the first quarter of the 



430 History of South Africa. [17 14 

eighteenth century it averaged 3,1672. Besides this, there 
were the tithes of grain, transfer dues on sales of ground^ 
and profits on sales of goods. On an average, these 
together amounted at this date to 4,7392. yearly. The 
colonial revenue was thus about 8,0002. a year. In con- 
verting the money of that day into British coinage, the 
heavy gulden generally used in accounts transmitted to 
the Netherlands is valued at one shilling and eight pence,^ 
and the light gulden used in transactions in the colony 
and in India at sixteen pence and two-thirds of a penny. 
Before 1743 it is often doubtfol which was meant. In 
that year an order was given that the heavy gulden 
should be exclusively used in accounts prepared for the 
directors. 

The expenditure, after deducting all expenses con- 
nected with shipping, cannot be estimated at less than 
14,5002. a year. It was kept at the lowest possible sum 
by the payment of very smaU salaries and allowing privi* 
leges of different kinds to the officials, by permitting from 
one hundred and fifty to two hundred out of a garrison 
of about five hundred and fifty men to take temporary 
service with farmers, and by employing slave labour in 
building and gardening. The cost of transport, ammuni- 
tion, building materials sent from the Netherlands, and 
various other items are not considered in this calculation,, 
because it cannot be even approximately given. 

There was thus a large excess of expenditure over 
revenue, though it is not possible to state the exact 
amount in figures. The directors instructed the governor 
to try to devise means of meeting it, in part if not 
wholly. 

No revenue had yet been derived from leases of land 
used for cattle runs. After the 3rd of July 1714 a rental 
of twenty-five shillings for six months, or fifty shillings a 
year, was charged, in addition to the tithe of grain pro- 
duced. Old residents in the land of Waveren and else- 
where were permitted, however, to take out freehold titles 



1715] Maurits Pasques de Chavannes. 431 

on application to the governor, in order to encourage 
them to improve the ground. All building sites given out 
in the town were to revert to the Company if houses 
were not put up on them within twelve months. 

After the 20th of July 1714 it was required that 
stamps should be affixed to difiEerent kinds of documents 
to make them legal These documents included deeds of 
transfer of land and slaves, wills, contracts of marriage, 
certificates of inheritance, licenses to trade, powers of 
attorney, and generally all notarial acts and papers pass- 
ing through courts of law. The stamps required ranged 
in value from six pence to twelve shillings and six pence. 

On the 12th of March 1715 a tax of four shillings and 
two pence was laid upon every legger of wine pressed in 
the colony. This article had not been subject to tithe 
or any tax whatever before this date. 

The fundamental law of the colony was that of the 
Netherlands, or in other words the body of law of the 
Boman empire, with such alterations from the code of 
Justinian as had been made by the legislature of Holland 
and embodied in the commentaries of the foremost Dutch 
jurists. The forms of proceedings in the courts were 
identical with those of the fatherland. But the circum- 
stances under which the East India Company took pos- 
session of distant parts of the globe were so different 
from any previous experience of the Dutch that numerous 
laws and regulations varying from those of the Nether- 
lands bad been framed for its dependencies. Some of 
these were not adapted for a European colony, and from 
their nature could only be applied to certain Asiatic com- 
munities ; but it was doubtful to the high court of justice 
which of the general statutes, if any, were to be regarded 
as of force. The question was referred to the council of 
policy, and on the 12th of February 1715 it was decided 
that the statutes of India were to be strictly followed, 
except when they were modified by placaats issued by 
competent authority at the Cape. The question was not 



432 History of South Africa, [1715 

considered whether laws made in Holland after the for- 
mation of the colony in 1652, or only those prior to that 
date, were to be regarded as having force in South Africa. 

In 1716 the summary jurisdiction of the court of land- 
drost and heemraden was extended in civil cases to 10/. 
8s. 4rf. 

In May 1714 the secunde Helot, who had recently 
been acting head of the government, was suspended for 
appropriating to his own use property belonging to the 
Company, and upon the circumstances being reported to 
the directors, the council was instructed to send him to the 
Netherlands without rank or salary. Abraham Cranen- 
donk, recently fiscal of the establishment on the Hoogly, 
who was named as his successor, arrived at the Cape and 
took over the duty on the 4th of March 1715. 

For some time back the Bushmen had not been 
giving much trouble, but in 1715 their depredations were 
renewed. These people would not change their mode of 
living, and, as the game was being destroyed, a conflict 
between them and the farmers was inevitable. At that 
time no one questioned the right of civiUsed men to take 
possession of land occupied by such a race as the Bush- 
men, and to the present day no one has devised a plan 
by which this can be done without violence. 

In August 1715 the wife of a Drakenstein farmer ap- 
peared at the castle and informed the governor that the 
Bushmen had driven ofif over seven hundred sheep belong- 
ing to her husband, after murdering the shepherd. There- 
upon the governor gave a general permission in writing 
to the neighbours of the man who had been robbed to 
follow the plunderers and retake the spoil. A notification 
to this effect was also sent to the landdrost. 

With this permission the first purely colonial com- 
mando took the field. It consisted of thirty mounted 
burghers, who chose as their commandant a farmer 
named Hermanns Potgieter. They did their utmost to 
trace the robbers, but without success. 



17x6] Maurits Pasques de Chavonnes. 433 

The Bushmen then commenced plmideri^ig generally 
the farmers along the Berg river and in the land of 
Waveren. They murdered some herdsmen, set fire to 
severed houses, and drove off a large number of cattle. 
It wa& feared that they would bum the ripening com. 
Some of the most exposed farmers abandoned their homes, 
and a few families were quite ruined. Several commandos 
in succession were raised and sent to expel the marauders, 
the government supplying ammunition, but giving no 
other aid. The instructions under which the conmiandos 
took the field were emphatic that bloodshed was to be 
avoided if possible, and women and children were not to 
be molested, but this was a kind of warfare in which 
men's hearts were apt to become hardened. 

It was easy to resolve to drive the marauders from 
a stated tract of country, but very difficult to carry the 
resolution into effect. The keen-sighted Bushman, when 
he observed the approach of an enemy, concealed himself 
and his family; and as soon as his pursuers retired, worn 
out in looking for him, his depredations were resumed. 
None of the commandos sent out in this year effected 
their object, though some of them believed they had done 
so until they learned that as soon as they were disbanded 
the marauders were busy again. 

Early in 1716 one of the commandos lost a man killed 
with a poisoned arrow, and had another wounded. A 
sergeant and twenty soldiers were then directed to guard 
the most exposed positions, and a strong party of the 
Company's servants and burghers was sent with some 
arrack, tobacco, and beads to try to make peace. This 
party succeeded in obtaining a meeting with a company 
of Bushmen, and returned to the castle with a report 
that an agreement of friendship had been entered into. 
And it certainly was the case that robberies ceased for a 
time. 

In August the newly-formed military posts were with- 
drawn at the request of the burghers, who had a lively 

VOL. I. 28 



434 History of South Africa. [1719 

dread of tjrranny being established by means of troops. 
The old outposts at Waveren, Saldanha Bay, Groenekloof, 
and Klapmnts were still maintained; but there were never 
more than seven men at each. 

Until January 1719 no fresh charge of depredations by 
Bushmen was made, and then the complaint came from 
another direction. Seven hundred head of cattle were 
driven away from Jacob van der Heiden's farm on the 
river Zonderend. The Bushmen asserted that this raid 
was in retaliation for injuries inflicted upon them by 
people who gave out that they were sent to barter cattle 
for the Company. The records do not supply sufficient 
evidence in this instance to enable it to be said whether 
they had, or had not, received such provocation as they 
complained of. At Van der Heiden's request, permission 
was given for a commando to assemble; but the cattle 
could not be recovered. 

At this time fugitive slaves were giving a great deal 
of trouble to the colonists. These wretched beings formed 
themselves into bands, and plundered the farmers when- 
ever necessity impelled and opportunity offered. Though 
they usually selected a retreat in some place difficult of 
discovery and access, they were much more easily found 
than Bushmen. 

A subject that occupied a good deal of attention during 
the whole of the eighteenth century was the relative rank 
of the different individuals in the community, and, as 
the church was the place where all met, the position 
which each should occupy in that building. The directors 
desired that the burghers should be as nearly as possible 
of the same station, but when civil and military offices of 
various kinds were created, some distinctions were inevit- 
able. There was, however, a general feeling of respect for 
le^timate authority properly exercised, so that with the 
burgher population each one's place was recognised with- 
out much difficulty. In the country the landdrost ranked 
first, as the representative of the honourable CompaDiy. 



lyiB] Maurits Pasques de Chavonnes. 435 

He had the front seat in the church, which was sUghtly 
elevated and distinguished by a canopy. Next to liim in 
rank came the clergyman. The heemraden followed, and 
had a special seat in church just behind the landdrost. 
The elders and deacons had seats on each side of the 
pulpit, and the military officers had recognised places in 
the body of the building, according to their grade. The 
wives of all these notables sat on chairs placed in the 
order mentioned above, it being one of the duties of a 
church officer called the koster to see that the seats were 
in their proper positions. 

Among the servants of the Company the struggle for 
place was constant. In the army and navy it was easy 
to define the grades, but outside of these branches of 
the service complicated questions were constantly arising. 
There were the grades senior merchant, merchant, and 
junior merchant, yet these did not meet the difficulty. 
The following instance will show how important such 
matters were considered. 

The supreme authorities having decided to erect addi- 
tional fortifications in Table Valley, on the 20th of Feb- 
ruary 1715 the governor laid the foundation stone of a 
battery which he named Mauritius, near the sea shore at 
the foot of the Lion's rump. But the assembly of seven- 
teen then thought that before proceeding further, plans 
and specifications should be drawn up by an engineer and 
submitted to them, and Mr. Pieter Gysbert Noodt, director 
of fortifications in Netherlands India, was instructed to 
visit the Cape for that purpose. He arrived on the 6th 
of May 1718, and remained until the 18th of April in the 
following year. He was a surly quarrelsome man, who 
would not so much as show the governor the plans he 
was making, though repeatedly requested to do so. He 
had not been here long when a quarrel arose between 
him and the secunde Abraham Cranendonk upon the 
question of precedence. They disputed as to which should 
the highest mihtary salute, whose wife should 



43^ History of Somih Africa. [1717 

occupy the foremost seat in chnrdi, whose carriage was 
to keep the crown of the street when they met, and other 
similar matters. They came before the conndl of policy, 
each with a long written statement of his claims. The 
coondl took the matter into smons consideration, and 
after some discussion decided in favour of Mr. Noodt. 

On the 24th of Jnne 1716 the directors submitted a 
series of questions, upon which they required the opinions 
of the members of the council of policy. 

The principal queries were whether the country could 
maintain a larger number of colonists; whether it would 
not be more advantageous to employ European labourers 
than slaves; whether such articles as coffee, sugar, cotton, 
indigo, olive oil, tobacco, flax, silk, and hops could not be 
produced, so as to enable a larger number of people to 
gain a Uving; and whether a direct tax could not be im- 
posed on provisions supplied to foreign ships. 

Each member of the council was required to take 
these questions into consideration and to bring up a re- 
port Probably no subject of equal importance to South 
Africa has ever since engaged the attention of the au- 
thorities, for upon these reports was to depend whether 
the country should be occupied solely by Europeans, or 
whether there was to be a mixture of races in it. As yet 
slavery had not taken deep root, and could easily have 
been done away with. The number of slaves was small, 
and nearly five-sixths of them were adult males. With- 
out further importations, the system would have rapidly 
perished. 

It must ever be deplored that of the men who sat in 
the council in February 1717 there was but one who 
could look beyond the gains of the present hour. The 
governor, Maurits Pasques de Chavonnes, the secunde, 
Abraham Cranendonk, the fiscal independent, Comelis van 
Beaumont, and the junior members, J. Cruse, J. de la 
Fontaine, K. Slotsboo, and H. van der Meer, were all in 
favour of blave labour. They stated that a slave cost 



1717] Maurits Pasgrus de Chavonnes. 437 

less than 8/. a year for mamtenance, whereas a white 
labourer would cost at least as much as a soldier, whose 
pay and rations amounted to more than 122. a year. The 
slave was tractable, whereas the European was prone 
to be rebellious. White men often became addicted to 
drunkenness, and none could be obtained who would be 
willing to perform the severer kinds of labour in this 
climate. 

The commander of the garrison, Captain Dominique 
Pasques de Chavonnes, a brother of the governor, was 
alone in advocating the introduction of European work- 
men only. Slaves in this country, he observed, were like 
a malignant sore in the human frame. They kept the 
colonists in a state of unrest, and notwithstanding the 
terrible punishments inflicted upon them, they were not 
deterred from running away and committing atrocious 
crimes. If the cost of purchasing them — about 42. each 
— bringing them to this country, providing for them, and 
guarding them, were taken into consideration, their labour 
would not be found much cheaper than that of white men, 
especially as they required supervision, and did neither so 
much nor such good work. On the other hand, Euro- 
peans would give security to the country, and would help 
to increase the revenue. 

There is Uttle doubt that if these views had been 
held by the other members of the council, and had been 
pressed upon the directors, the many evils which the 
introduction of negros produced in South Africa would 
have been prevented. Nothing was said of the bearing of 
the question upon the African : it was almost a century 
too early in the world's history for his interests to be 
taken into consideration. 

Whether cofifee and the other plants named would 
thrive at the Cape was regarded as doubtful by all the 
members. Some of these plants, such as the olive and 
indigo, had already been fruitlessly experimented with. In 
any case, men having special knowledge would be needed 



438 History of South Africa. [17 18 

to test them, for no one in the colony understood their 
cultivation. Whether a larger number of Europeans could 
exist here without being a burden upon the Company or 
the poor funds would depend upon the result of such ex- 
periments. 

All were agreed that it would not be advisable to levy 
a direct tax upon provisions supplied to foreigners, as 
it would not amount to much, and might drive avniy 
strangers who brought money into the country. None of 
the members thought that any profit could be made from 
an alleged discovery of coal on Pierre Bousseau's farm at 
French Hoek. Nor were any of them of opinion that 
manufactures could be introduced. Isaac Taillefer, it was 
stated, had made good hats from Cape wool ; but when 
he died that industry ceased. Others had knitted socks 
and gloves of woollen yarn made by themselves, but that 
also had been discontinued. 

Upon receipt of these reports, the directors resolved, 
17th of April 1718, that experiments should be repeated 
vnth all diligence in the cultivation of tobacco, silk, indigo, 
and oUves ; and that a person having special knowledge 
in the production of each should be sent out to superin- 
tend the work. 

Sheep's wool was not referred to, as all attempts to 
encourage the growth of a marketable article had hitherto 
failed. In 1714 six hundred and fifty pounds were sent 
to Europe, but the quality was so bad that it did not 
produce at public sale as much as it had cost. Another 
experiment was made in 1716, when three thousand 
pounds were purchased at seven pence a pound and sent 
to Amsterdam. The quality of this shipment was like- 
wise so inferior that it was unsaleable for spinning pur- 
poses. It was then resolved to let this industry remain in 
abeyance until another breed of animals could be intro- 
duced, and as the greatest difficulty was now being ex- 
perienced in getting as much meat as was needed, wool, 
which was of less importance, was not spoken of. 



1719] Maurits Pasqttes de Ckavonnes. 439 

In 1719 a large quantity of indigo seed was sent from 
Batavia with a man who understood its cultivation, and 
for many years experiments were made with it. There 
was no difficulty in getting the plant to grow well in 
sheltered positions and in rich soil; but it was found that 
it would not answer as a general crop. 

Silkworm eggs from Persia and Bengal were sent at 
the same time, but were found to be bad on their arrival. 
The white mulberry trees which were planted throve as 
well as could be desired. The chief experiment in the 
production of silk was not, however, made until a few 
years later, and will be noticed in another chapter. 

A man who had large experience in the cultivation 
and manufacture of tobacco, Cors Hendriks by name, was 
sent from Amsterdam in 1719. He made a tour through 
the colony, and upon his return to the castle pronounced 
very unfavourably upon the appearance of the soil. The 
most suitable place for an experiment that he had found 
was a plot of land about two morgen in extent, adjoining 
Eustenburg at Eondebosch. There and in the Company's 
garden in Table Valley a large number of tobacco plants 
were set out by slaves under direction of the manager. 
At first they throve well, but after a time some were de- 
stroyed by violent winds, and others by the heat of the 
sun. The seed had been carefully selected, but the leaves 
which reached maturity were so bad in flavour that Hen- 
driks, who attributed the quality to the soil, despaired of 
success, and advised that the experiment be given up. 
The members of the council of policy were of the same 
opinion, and in 1722 further trial was abandoned. 

The experiments with the olive had the same result as 
on every previous occasion. The trees grew most luxuri- 
antly, but many of them suddenly died without any ac- 
countable cause. From others the fruit dropped when still 
young, and the few olives that ripened in exceptionally 
good seasons were of very inferior quality. 

The directors were of opinion that if the flavour of 



440 History of South Africa. [17 19 

Cape wine were improved, a large market could be fonnd 
both in Europe and in India, to the advantage of the 
colonists as well as of the Company. They were then 
paying 62. a legger for ordinary wine for the use of the 
fleets, and 8/. for old wine for use in the hospital On the 
27th of June 1719 they wrote for some selected samples, 
and with the next return fleet six half aams were sent. 
When it reached Amsterdam it was found unfit for use. 
It was the same with six half aams sent to Batavia. The 
directors supposed that the reason might be the small size 
of the casks, and therefore directed another trial to be 
made with half leggers instead of half aams. In 1722 
ten half leggers were sent to Amsterdam and Middelburg, 
but the result was the same as before. An experiment 
was then made with bottles, a thousand of which were 
sent out to be filled with wine and returned. It succeeded 
no better than the others. 

The wine made at Constantia had, however, a good 
reputation in Europe. Jan Colyn, the owner of Great 
Constantia at that time, produced yearly firom ten to 
twelve leggers of red wine, for which he received 16/. 13«. 
4ti. a legger, and about twenty leggers of white wine, 
which he sold readily at 10/. 8s. 4d. 

In 1714 a fatal cattle disease, unknown before, made 
its appearance in the settlement, and attacked both oxen 
and sheep. By 1718 it was so difficult to obtain animals 
for slaughter that when the contract to supply the Com- 
pany with meat was offered for sale by auction there was 
not a single bidder. The sheep in possession of the 
burghers had decreased by nearly fifty-six thousand. It 
was necessary to make a private arrangement with Jacob 
van der Heiden, by which he undertook to supply meat 
at three pence a pound and live sheep at twelve shillings 
and six pence each. On the 2nd of July 1720 the sale of 
live animals to foreigners was prohibited by placaat, and 
henceforth no sheep were sent on board the Company's 
ships. Meat had now risen to 3^. a pound. 



1723] Maurits Pasques de Chavonnes. 441 

English captains had been in the habit of purchasing 
cattle in considerable numbers, slaughtering them, and 
salting the meat. They had also generally taken away a 
number of sheep. Upon the prohibition being applied to 
them, they made loud complaints in Europe, and the 
directors issued instructions that they should be treated 
as well as possible. 

After a time Van der Heiden informed the council 
that he could not continue to supply meat unless permis- 
sion was given him to procure cattle from Hottentots at a 
distance. Leave was therefore granted, but in February 
1723 it was withdrawn upon the Drakenstein consistory 
complaining that the trading parties had used violence to- 
wards the natives, and had even murdered some Hotten- 
tots. The matter was investigated by the fiscal and the 
landdrost, but sufficient evidence could not be obtained to 
secure the conviction of the offenders, though there was 
no doubt that very atrocious crimes had been committed. 

The price of sheep sold at pubUc auction at this time 
was from 11«. 1^. to 13^. lid, taking one with another in 
a flock, and of draught oxen U, 3^. 4td, each. The scarcity 
was increased by the tongue and hoof sickness making its 
first appearance in 1723. 

By order of the directors, a placaat was then issued, 
24th of February 1723, prohibiting the sale of fresh meat 
or vegetables to strangers, under penalty of deportation 
to Europe and a fine of nearly 70/. This was construed 
to mean that permission must first be obtained from 
the coimcil, for upon English captains requesting to be 
allowed to purchase supplies of fresh provisions for their 
sick, leave was invariably granted. On the 6th of April 
of the same year another placaat was issued requiring the 
farmers to provide the Company with meat at two pence 
a pound and sheep at ten shillings each, under penalty 
of a tithe of eJl animals reared being required. But legis- 
lation such as this was fruitless. 

An attempt had previously been made to procure cattle 



442 History of South Africa. [1723 

from the Hottentots of the interior, and even from the 
Xosas, by licensing a certain burgher to carry on the 
trade under surveillance ; but the great distance caused 
the scheme to fail. Ensign Bhenius was then sent with 
a trading party to the Namaquas. In November 1724 he 
returned unsuccessful He reported that the Namaqua 
tribe had been fearfully reduced in number by a disease 
resembling small-pox, that the Bushmen had taken advan- 
tage of their weakness to rob them of most of their cattle, 
and that in reckless despair they had slaughtered and 
consumed the remainder. 

The Company was then compelled to submit to circum- 
stances, and to pay the high prices determined by pubUc 
tender. 

The troubles of the community were increased by the 
horse sickness making its appearance in a very severe 
form early in 1719. Between sixteen and seventeen hun- 
dred animals had perished when in July there were some 
frosty nights, and the disease disappeared. There is no 
mention of it in the records before that date, and it is 
described as a new plague. It has never left South Africa 
since. 

On the 11th of April 1713 the peace of Utrecht con- 
cluded a war with France of twelve years' duration. The 
Company then resolved to enlarge its commerce, and a 
number of ships of the first class, canying from two hun- 
dred and eighty to three hundred and fifty men each, 
were speedily built. After 1715 the number of persons 
visiting the Cape every year was much greater than before. 
During the fifteen years from 1st January 1700 to 31st 
December 1714 one thousand and seven ships put into 
Table Bay, or on an average sixty-seven yearly. Of these, 
six hundred and eighty-three were Dutch, two hundred 
and eighty English, thirty-six Danish, six French, and two 
Portuguese. During the ten years from 1st January 1715 
to 31st December 1724 the number that called was eight 
hundred and seventy-one, or on an average eighty-seven 



1723] MauHts Pasqties de Chavonnes. 443 

yearly. Of these, six hundred and forty-five were Dutch, 
one hundred and ninety-two English, seventeen French, 
ten Danish, four Portuguese, and three Flemish. 

The Company's ships assembled in Table Bay to re- 
turn to Europe in a fleet. The slowest sailers were de- 
spatched first from Batavia, and usually arrived here in 
January. Then came the Ceylon squadron, and last the 
late ships from Batavia. They endeavoured to leave Table 
Bay about the end of March or beginning of April, and it 
must have been something worth seeing when twenty to 
thirty large ships set their sails and stood away together. 
This was called the summer fleet, and it usually carried 
to Europe merchandise which had cost from five to seven 
hundred thousand pounds sterling. Sometimes a number 
of EngUsh vessels sailed in its company. The vdnter fleet 
was much smaller, often consisting of only three or four 
ships. At a date somewhat later than the period to 
which we have now arrived, it became usual for the 
summer ships also to sail in small squadrons, as they 
could be got ready. 

The English government had protested against the as- 
sistance formerly given to private traders at the Cape, and 
an arrangement had been made between the assembly of 
seventeen and the directors of the English Company that 
neither would permit interlopers to obtain anything what- 
ever in their ports. In consequence, when an EngUsh 
vessel arrived, unless her master could produce a royal 
commission or proper credentials from the East India 
Company, she was warned to make sail at once, and no 
intercourse was allowed with the shore. The Flemish 
ships which put in for supplies were treated in the same 
manner. 

About the commencement of the eighteenth century — 

the exact date cannot be given — the Portuguese ceased 

sending vessels from Mozambique to trade at Delagoa 

3ay. They had found that very little profit was to be 

made there, and the port was frequented by pirates, 



444 History of South Africa. [i7»r 

whose visits caused it to be a dangerous locality. The 
last vessel sent from Mozambique had been taken by these 
rovers of the sea. She had a crew of blacks, with only a 
European master and supercargo. A ship flying the white 
flag of France sailed in and dropped anchor close by, and 
the two white men, who did not suspect the real char- 
acter of the stranger, very imprudently went on board. 
They were not allowed to leave, so during the night the 
blacks in the trader became alarmed and thought it well 
to have their firearms ready. At daybreak next morning 
the pirate got out three boats to seize the Portuguese 
vessel, and in one of them sent the captive bookkeeper* 
As the boats approached, the prisoner, who must have 
been a man of the highest fortitude, shouted to the blacks 
to defend themselves, and they, after firing at the rowers^ 
quickly hoisted sail and tried to escape. The little vessel, 
however, ran aground, but the crew got to land, and were 
sheltered by the natives. The pirates then took every- 
thing that was of value out of the prize, and set fire to 
the empty hull. 

Sofala was the farthest station south permanently occu- 
pied by the Portuguese, but occasionally a trading vessel 
was sent from Mozambique to Inhambane, where she re- 
mained five or six months. Some mixed breeds who had 
their home at that place then went about the country 
collecting ivory and wax, and occasionally travelled for 
that purpose as far as the Tembe river. ^ 

^ For a full account of the condition of the Portuguese stations see 
my volume entitled The Portugtiese in South Africa, The manuscript 
records of the Dutch settlement at Dalagoa Bay are much more complete 
in the archives at the Hague than in those at Capetown. At the Hague 
they are bound in seven leurge volumes, and comprise letters, reports, in- 
structions, judicial proceedings, a continuous journal with daily entries of 
occurrences, etc. I have made exa.ct copies of several of the most inter- 
esting papers, in order to publish them in the series of pamphlets issued 
by me under the title Belangryke Historishe Dokumenten, At the Hague 
there cure also several plans of the fort Lagoa and of Fort Lydzaamheid, 
which was built at a later date. 



i72i] Maurits Pasqties de Chavonnes. 445 

In 1720 the Dutch East India Company resolved to take 
possession of Delagoa Bay and establish a factory there. 
It was intended that the station should be a dependency 
of the Cape government, just as Mauritius had been. 
Thus important cases were to be sent for trial to the 
Cape, and in all cases except the most trivial there was 
to be a right of appeal to the high court of justice at the 
castle of Good Hope. 

Towards the close of the year the advance party sent 
from the Netherlands to form the station, consisting of 
forty-four soldiers, as many sailors, and a few mechanics, 
with the oflBcers one hundred and thirteen souls in all, 
arrived in Table Bay in two small vessels, the Kaxvp and 
Oouda. The officer who had been appointed head of the 
expedition died soon after reaching South Africa, when 
the council of policy selected a clerk on the Cape estab- 
hshment, Willem van Taak by name, as his successor. 
A council was chosen to assist him, and a petty court of 
justice was constituted. 

On the 14th of February 1721 the expedition, accom- 
panied by a small vessel named the Zeelandia, sailed from 
Table Bay, and on the 29th of March reached its destina- 
tion. The natives near the mouth of the Espirito Santo 
were found to be very friendly. They were under a chief 
named Maphumbo, who was a vassal of another named 
Mateke, though he seemed to be the more powerful of 
the two. Among his people was a black from Mozam- 
bique, who spoke the Portuguese language fluently, and 
who was at once engaged as an interpreter. This man 
stated that in his early days he had frequently come from 
Mozambique in the trading vessel, and it was on his 
seventh visit, about twenty years before, that he escaped 
from the pirates. Since that time no Portuguese had 
visited the place. He pointed out where the huts in 
which they had resided formerly stood, but as these had 
been made of reeds, no vestiges of them were left. The 
site was on Shefina island, which the Dutch afterwards 



446 History of South Africa. [1721 

called on that account the Portuguese possession. The 
interpreter stated also that during the period of their stay, 
which was often six or seven months, the Portuguese 
formed little stations along the Manisa river, but never 
at any great distance from its mouth. 

The country as far as it was known to the Delagoa 
Bay natives was occupied by little tribes or clans, which 
were almost constantly at feud with each other. Farther 
to the south the Bantu have traditions of a time of 
general peace, but certainly wherever and whenever Euro- 
peans have come in contact with these people they have 
been found in a state of war. 

Maphumbo readily gave the strangers permission to 
build a fort, and near the bank of the river, where the 
tovm of Louren^o Marques now stands, they commenced 
to make a pentagonal earthen wall capable of carrying 
cannon, within which a storehouse and quarters for the 
garrison were put up. Male blacks could not be induced 
to work, but offered the services of their wives and 
daughters in exchange for beads, and often over twa 
hundred women were employed in digging and carrying 
ground. 

Before much building was done fever attacked the 
Europeans, and within six weeks over two-thirds of them 
died, including the conmiander and the engineer. At 
length, however, the fort was ready for occupation, and 
then the Zeelandia was sent back to the Cape with letters 
and a little ivory and wax obtained in barter. She re- 
turned in August, together with the yacht J7no, taking 
provisions and eighty soldiers to strengthen the garrison. 

Upon learning what had occurred, the council of policy 
appointed Caspar Swertner successor to Mr. Van Taak, 
with the rank of junior merchant and a salary of 21. 15s. 6d. 
a month. He was then at Delagoa Bay, but he died 
before the news of his appointment reached the station. 
A subaltern, named Jan Michel, was the next head of 
the party of occupation. The council hoped that by this 



1722] Maurits Pasques de Chavonnes. 447 

time the sorviyors from the fever were seasoned to the 
climate, and that henceforth all would go well. Bat the 
outpost was destined to further trouble. 

Time passed in trading, exploring, and gathering infor- 
mation, until the 19th of April 1722, when a report was 
brought by some blacks that three ships had entered the 
bay. These proved to be manned by buccaneers, who at- 
tacked Fort Lagoa, took possession of it after a short 
cannonade, and plundered the store. They did not, how- 
ever, otherwise illtreat the garrison, eighteen of whom 
joined them. When they were ready for sea they com- 
pelled one of the officials, named De Bucquoi, to pilot 
them out, as he had surveyed the bay and made a chart 
of its soundings. They also took with them the vessel 
which was employed as a packet, to be able, as they said, 
to send the pilot back when they got outside. They 
failed to keep their word, however, and De Bucquoi and 
the crew of the Kaap were obliged to remain with the 
buccaneers until they reached another port, from which 
they made their way to India. 

The garrison was by this disaster cut off from com- 
munication with the outer world. But in course of time 
relief came, and the exploration of the country around 
the bay for a few miles inland was then completed. A 
little gold was brought by blacks from the interior to ex- 
change for beads, and though the whole quantity was less 
than two ounces, it was sufficient to excite hope. The 
natives who brought it asserted that they had travelled 
three moons and a half, but this statement was not 
credited. The first who came had a little scale, with 
pebbles of different sizes for weights, from which it was 
known that he had dealt before with traders. Over two 
tons of ivory and four hundred and ninety pounds of 
copper were procured. The locality in which the copper 
mines were situated could not be ascertained, as the 
natives either could not or would not give information 
concerning it. 



44^ History of South Africa. [17 13 

A report of an iron monntain some distance inland 
lured a psuHiy of nineteen men, nnder the secnnde Jan 
Christoffel Stefler, to go in search of it. They left Fort 
Lagoa on the 9th of August 1723, with three pack oxen 
to carry provisions. At the end of a week they were in 
a charming country. In mountain kloofis were magnifi- 
cent forests, the soil was rich and covered with long 
grass, streams of fresh water were numerous, and different 
kinds of game, particularly elephants, were seen in great 
abundance. When crossing a river, the leading division 
of the exploring party was attacked and destroyed by a 
band of natives, and as no one capable of giving direc- 
tions was then left, the survivors returned to the bay. 

In May 1724 an active junior officer, named Jan van 
de Gapelle, who had come to the station as a soldier with 
the first party under Mr. Van Taak, but who shortly 
afterwards became a clerk, was appointed secunde and 
provisional conunandant of Fort Lagoa, as Jan Michel 
had requested to be relieved. It was not a place to 
which people went willingly, for the cUmate had the repu- 
tation of being in the summer season one of the most 
deadly in the world. 

During the first quarter of the eighteenth century 
there were some notable shipwrecks on the South African 
coast. 

On the 16th of February 1713 the BenTuhroek^ home- 
ward bound from Ceylon, after being disabled in a storm 
ran ashore in broad daylight on the coast of Natal, at 
some point which was never exactly ascertained. She 
commenced to break up immediately. Fifty-seven Euro- 
peans and twenty Malabar slaves intended for the Cape 
got to land on pieces of the wreck, the remainder of the 
crew perished. Those who were saved collected some 
food which washed up, and then set oat to traTd to tibe 
Cape. But they could not cross a deep 
in their way, and after a few days 
back to the neighbourhood of the 



Jt« >, 



1 7 14] Maurits Pasques de Chavannes. 449 

remained until June, subsisting upon milk, meat, and 
millet which they obtained from the natives for pieces of 
iron and copper. At last the metal in the wreckage was 
exhausted, and they then made another attempt to reach 
the Cape by going far inland to avoid the lower courses of 
the rivers. But they did not succeed, and, after wander- 
ing about for some weeks, hunger and fatigue compelled 
the Europeans who still survived — seven in number — to 
take refage with a tribe of natives, who treated them 
with great kindness. Here they found a Frenchman who 
had been wrecked thirty years before. 

The natives with whom they thenceforth lived were 
carrying on perpetual war with Bushmen. Their resi- 
dence was near the coast, on the bank of a river with a 
navigable mouth. The food of the tribe consisted chiefly 
of milk, varieties of pumpkin, and bread made by rubbing 
soaked millet between stones, then mixing the pulp with 
water, and baking it in ashes. 

Of those who did not turn back to the wreck, 
all perished except one Malabar slave. He pushed 
on westward for a whole year, overcoming every diflS- 
culty in his way. At length a burgher found him 
near the mouth of the Breede river, and sent him on 
to the castle, which he reached on the 26th of February 
1714. 

Six months later, on the 4th of September, a decked 

boat twenty-eight feet long by nine feet beam arrived in 

Table Bay under English colours. Her master reported 

that she had been built in England purposely for trading 

on the south-eastern coast of Africa, and had been taken 

to Delagoa Bay in pieces in a vessel named the Clapham 

Oallejf. She had been put together there, had since been 

tndiDg on the coast, and had now come to Table Bay 

to uxiiDgement to wait for the return of the 

Adby ftom India. She had entered a river, the 

idi is not given, and had there found the 

§ tiilon of the Bennebroek^ four of whom 

29 




450 History of South Africa. [1722 

she brought to the Cape. The most interesting part of 
the narrative of the master of the boat is that at varions 
places at which he had touched below Delagoa Bay he 
had obtained a large quantity of ivory in exchange for 
beads and copper rings that had been expressly manufac- 
tured in England for trade with the Bantu. 

In November the galiot Podlooper was sent to search 
along the coast of Natal for the wreck of the Bennebroek, 
and if possible to recover her cannon and anchors as weU 
as the three surviving sailors ; but after an absence of 
nearly six months she returned with a report that neither 
men nor wreck could be found. 

The year 1722 was the most disastrous one yet known 
for the Company's fleets in these seas. On the 17th of 
January the richly-laden ships Sampson and Amstelveen, 
belonging to a large return fleet, encountered a great gale 
off the southern coast, and went down in the open ocean. 
Two men belonging to the first and one belonging to the 
last were found by other ships of the fleet some hours 
later floating on pieces of wreckage. The remainder of 
their crews perished. 

On Sunday the 14th of June a gale from the north- 
west set into Table Bay. There were lying at anchor, 
belonging to the Company, two second class outward 
bound ships, the Standvdstigheid and Rotterdam, together 
carrying four hundred and fifty-three men, two third class 
outward bound ships, the Zoetigheid and Lakeman, together 
carrying two hundred and eighty-three men, a small out- 
ward bound vessel, the Schotsche Lorrendraayer, carrying 
fifty-two men, the packet boat Gkmday ready to sail to 
Delagoa Bay with supplies, and the brigantine Amy, 
which had been in use at the Cape ever since her seizure 
in Saldanha Bay in 1693. There were also lying in the 
bay three English Indiamen, the Nightingale, bound to 
Madras, with a crew of one hundred and forty men, and 
the Addison and Chandos, with crews respectively of eighty 
and seventy men, homeward bound from Bengal. The 



1722] Maurits Pasques de Chavonnes. 451 

last named had put in a fortnight before in distress, 
having been dismasted in a gale at sea. 

All that day the danger to the shipping was great, but 
no accident worse than parting cables and swamping boats 
occurred. On Monday the gale lulled, but during the night 
the wind shifted to north-north-west, and on Tuesday 
morning the bay seemed to be covered with breakers. 
Still up to dusk the ships held to their anchors. 

As darkness set in the gale increased. At seven 
o'clock minute guns were heard between the gusts, and 
the firing continued until midnight. The sea was break- 
ing on the beach with such violence that it was danger- 
ous to pass along the road between the castle and the 
shore. 

At dawn in the morning of the 17th, it was seen that 
not a single vessel was afloat in the bay. The Amy was 
under the castle, and had broken up, but her crew had 
got safely ashore. The Chandos was next, close to the 
castle. She had partly broken up, but only two of her 
crew had been drowned.^ Then came fragments of the 
ZoetigJieid, nearly half of whose crew had perished. The 
Laheman was high on the land a little farther on, with 
only one man missing. Just beyond were the crushed 
fragments of the Standvastigheid^ Rotterdam, and Schotsche 
lorrendraayer, all together, and of their crews only forty- 
five men were living. The Oouda and the Nightingale 
were some distance off, both high on the land and not 
much broken. The Nightingale had lost one man, the 
other none. The Addison had struck in the mouth of 
Salt Biver, and had overturned and broken up. Only ten 
of her crew had got to land. In all six hundred and sixty 
men perished in that dreadful gale, and property valued 
at nearly a quarter of a million sterling was lost. 

On the 20th of November of this disastrous year the 

^In the Chandos was a Portuguese boj, Ignatius Ferreira, who re- 
mained in South Africa, and was the ancestor of the present large family 
of that ncune. 



452 History of South Africa. [1723 

Schoonberg, homeward boand with a valuable cargo, was 
ran ashore near Cape Agulhas in broad daylight and in 
fine weather, through the culpable negligence of her officers. 
The ship broke up, but all on board got safely to shore. 

The next wreck that occurred on the coast was on the 
7th of November 1723, when a little vessel named the 
Meteren, which was on her passage out to be employed as 
a packet between the Cape and Delagoa Bay, was lost on 
the coast a little to the north of the mouth of the Elephant 
river. She had left Texel with a crew of twenty-nine 
souls. Scurvy made its appearance, and six died on the 
passage ; while of the others, only ten were at length able 
to work. In a calm her anchor was dropped close to the 
coast, but a swell set in, when she dragged, and was cast 
ashore a complete wreck. Five men were drowned. The 
remaining eighteen got to land, where nine of them, who 
could walk, wandered about for twenty-five days before 
they were found. The others were believed to have died 
of want. 

In the church, matters had assumed a very satisfactory 
aspect. The reverend Mr. D'Ailly remained as first or 
chief minister of the Cape. In 1714 a high school was 
established in Capetown, when the reverend Lambertus 
Slicher, of Middelburg, who had been six years chaplain 
of the garrison at Lillo, but had then of his own accord 
resigned and engaged as a midshipman in the ship 
7 Vaderland Getrouw, upon the arrival of that vessel in 
Table Bay was found anxious to abandon his new calling, 
and was appointed rector by the council of policy. In this 
school instruction was given in the Latin and Dutch 
languages, and pupils from any part of the colony were 
taken into the rector's house as boarders. But it received 
such scanty support from the burghers that after being 
bolstered up by the government for some years it seemed 
a waste of energy for an educated man to devote his 
whole time to it. Mr. Slicher then, at the request of the 
council of policy and with the consent of the directors* 



17^3] Maurtts Pasques de Ckavonnes, 453 

began to assist in the church. His first service was held 
on the 15th of June 1721. He still continued to perform 
the duty of rector of the school, though in February 1723 
he was formally inducted as second clergyman of the 
Cape congregation. In 1720 some persons subscribed the 
necessary funds for the purchase of an organ for use in 
the church. 

The reverend Petrus van Aken, who ha,d been ap- 
pointed by the directors clergyman of Drakenstein, arrived 
in August 1714, and took over the duty at once. In 1717 
a conmiencement was made with building a church at the 
Paarl for the Drakenstein congregation. The funds were 
derived from a legacy of 208/. 6s. 8^. bequeathed for the 
purpose by Henning Huising, 314/. 8s. 6rf. left with the 
government here for charitable purposes by individuals in 
the fleet under the governor-general Van Hoom, 698/. 12s. 
2d, lent by the consistory of the Cape, and 716/. 12s. 
6d. raised partly by special collections and partly by 
making use of the poor fund. The building was com- 
pleted in 1720. When Paul Boux died, the consistory 
requested the council of policy to appoint another French 
sick-comforter in his stead, as there were still some 
twenty-five or twenty-six old people Uving who did not 
understand Dutch. The council, 23rd of February 1723, 
declined to do so until the pleasure of the directors could 
be made known, and their decision was unfavourable. 

At Stellenbosch, where the reverend Mr. Bek was 
clergyman, a commencement was also made in 1717 with 
building a church in place of the one that had been de- 
stroyed by fire. The cost was borne by applying the poor 
fund, by special collections, a loan from the Cape consis- 
tory which had then over 9,300/. to the good, and by a 
lottery for which permission was obtained from the direc 
tors. 

On the 8th of October 1721 Abraham Cranendonk 
died, when Jan de la Fontaine, who had been working 
his way upward during the eleven years of his residence 



454 History of South Africa. [1724 

in South Africa, was chosen by the council of policy to 
act as secunde until the pleasure of the directors could be 
known. In 1724 the appointment was confirmed by the 
assembly of seventeen. 

On the 14th of June 1724 the fiscal independent, 
Gomelis van Beaumont, died. He had held office since 
March 1713. The council selected Adriaan van Kervel, 
who had been sixteen years in service at the Cape, to act 
until a new appointment could be made by the directors. 
He also was confirmed in his office. 

Governor De Chavonnes managed to preserve the good 
will both of the directors and the colonists. He embarked 
in no costly undertakings, did his utmost to keep down 
expense, and preserved concord in the settlement. He 
was a quiet, religious man, who might have taken for 
motto a verse which closes the journal for one of the 
years when he was at the head of affairs : — 

'C^eluckigh is hy die syn tyd 
In stille mst en weldoen slyt, 
Die al hetgeen den Hemel geeft 
Nooyt in syn hert mispreesen heeft.' 

The directors were so well satisfied with his adminis- 
tration that they raised him to the rank of ordinary coun- 
cillor of India, a dignity enjoyed by none of his prede- 
cessors. The letter containing the announcement of his 
elevation reached the Cape on the 1st of June 1721. 

The governor, who had just passed his seventieth year, 
was suddenly taken ill on the 7th of September 1724, and 
died early on the following morning. A few hours later 
the council of policy met and decided that Jan de la 
Fontaine should act as head of the government until an 
appointment could be made by the assembly of seventeen. 
His nomination as secunde had not yet been confirmed 
by the directors, and he was only in rank a merchant ; 
but there was no other officer at the Cape in a better 
position. Within a few months despatches were received 



1734] Maurils Pasques de Chavannes. 455 

in which he was promoted to be a senior merchant, and 
was approTed of as seconde. 

On the 14th of September the body of the late gover- 
nor was baried under the pavement of the church, with 
all the state that was possible, nearly the whole of the 
colonists of Stellenbosch and Drakenstein as well as those 
of the Cape district attending the funeral. His widow 
and daughters returned to Europe with the next fleet 
from India. 

A complete account of the seasons is given in the 
harvest returns preserved in the records of the eighteenth 
century, though the rainfall was not measured. From 
1700 to 17W the crops were poor, owing to insufficient 
rain. In 1705 a series of good seasons set in, and it 
became possible to send a considerable quantity of wheat 
to Batavia. From 1706 to 1711, both years included, the 
average export was rather over four thousand muids. 
The Company paid a little less than twelve shillings a 
muid for it at the magazines. Bye, barley, beans, and 
peas were also grown in quantities sufficient to supply 
the wants of the shipping and of the Indian government. 
There was, however, a very limited market lor these pro- 
ducts in India. In 17(8 the quantity of rye and beans 
grown was in excess of the demand, and a notice 
was issued discouraging their cultivation and stating 
that the Company would not purchase any more of 
either. 

The crop of 1710-11 was a poor one There was a 
quantity of ^ain in store, however, which enabled the 
government to keep up the supply to Batavia. But in 
the two follovi-ing seasons also insufficient rain fell, and 
the yield of the harvest was so small that only one thou- 
sand and twenty muids in 1712 and nineteen hundred 
and fifty-six muids in 1713 could be exported. In 1713 
the fall of rain was ample, but the small-pox prevented 
extensive cnltivation. The returns for seed sown were, 
however, exceptionally large, and in 1714 the quantity of 



456 History of South Africa. [1724 

wheat exported amounted to fonr thousand three hun- 
dred and seventy-five muids. 

The crops of 1714 to 1716 were so good that fifteen 
thousand four hundred muids of wheat were sent U> 
Batavia, or more than five thousand muids on an average 
yearly. But in the Company's possessions in India the 
demand for wheat was limited, and it could be obtained 
elsewhere at a lower rate than was paid at the Cape. 
The governor-general and council of India were of opinion 
that their requirements could be supplied from Bengal 
and Surat to greater advantage. They were satisfied with 
the quahty of South African wheat; but it was too dear, 
and the quantity produced fluctuated so greatly from 
season to season that a constant supply could not be de- 
pended upon. They proposed to allow the Cape farmers 
to send it to any part of India, and sell it there at what- 
ever price could be obtained. But to this the burghers 
objected, as they asserted that they were not in a posi- 
tion to carry on a trade of this kind, and could not a£Eord 
to wait long after harvest without any return. The 
colony would be ruined if the Company ceased to pur- 
chase their grain. 

The directors decided that it would be better to sup- 
port the burghers than natives of Hindostan, but the 
price of wheat was reduced to ten shillings and eight 
pence a muid. As it was asserted that they must pur- 
chase all that was grown, or ruin would follow, they 
wrote that no more ground was to be given out for the 
production of wheat and wine, without their approval 
being obtained in each instance. To encourage the colon- 
ists to grow other produce, they gave directions that ships 
from India were to be supplied at the Cape with peas, 
beans, and husked barley sufficient for the passage home, 
though peas were then bringing the high price of twenty- 
nine shillings, and beans twenty-five shillings a muid. 

This arrangement had hardly been made when a series 
of dry seasons set in. In 1718 the harvest was poor, bat 



1724] 



Maurits Pasqties de Chavonnes. 



457 



a small quantity of wheat was exported. It was the same 
in 1719. In 1720 less than a hundred muids were sent 
out of the country. In 1721 it was not possible to supply 
the ships with beans, peas, and barley, and rice was 
served out to the garrison instead of bread; but fifty-one 
muids of wheat were sent to Batavia to keep up the name 
of exportation. In the winter of 1721 the seasons 
changed for the better. In 1722 nearly three thousand 
five hundred muids of wheat were exported, followed in 
1723 by over four thousand, and in 1724 and 1725 by 
over five thousand muids. 

The principal persons who settled in South Africa 
during the first quarter of the eighteenth century, and 
whose descendants are still in the country, were 



Oerrit van Aarde, before 1714, 
ChristiaAn Ackerman, 1720, 
Marthinus Ackerman, before 1713, 
Adam Albertyn, before 1723, 
Casper Hendrik Badenhorst, be- 
fore 1713, 
Jan Izaak van den Bank, 1713, 
Jan Barnard, before 1713, 
Jan Zacharias Beck, before 1722, 
Matthys Andries de Beer, before 

1705, 
Andries Bester, 1712, 
Jan Beukes, before 1705, 
Jan Frederik Bierman, before 

1725, 
Bemardus vsui Billion, before 

1724, 
Jfiui Blankenberg, before 1706, 
Jan Blignaut, 1723, 
Jfiui Pieter Blom, before 1724, 
Pieter Boeiens, before 1717, 
Hermanns Lambertns Bosman, 

1707, 
Bobert Brand, before 1719, 
Jan Lodewyk Bouwer, 1724, 
Pieter van Breda, 1719, 
VOL. L 



Jan Bronkhorst, before 1718, 
Andries Bmyns, before 1714, 
David du Buisson, before 1708, 
Carel Diederik Buitendag, before 

1722, 
Barend Buys, 1715, 
Jan Hermanns Carstens, before 

1711, 
Josu^ Gellier, 1700, 
Elaas Claasen, 1720, 
Jacob Coetzer, before 1716, 
Hermanns Combrink, before 1720, 
Jacques Delport, 1701, 
Willem Dempers, 1712, 
Jean Durand, before 1701, 
Daniel Dnuring, before 1725, 
Jan van Ellewee, before 1718, 
Albert Gerritse van Emmenes, 

before 1704, 
Jan Engelbrecht, 1717, 
Antoine Alexander Faore, 1714, 
Ignatius Ferreira, 1722, 
Thomas Ferreyn, before 1716, 
Anthonie Fick, before 1711, 
Jan Franke, before 1713, 
Jan Melchior Frick, 1721, 
29*