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HISTO R Y 



SPANISH LITERATURE 



VOL. III. 



Hl ST o R Y 



SPANISH LITERATURE 



GEORGE TICKNOR 




IN THBEE V0LUME5. 
VOL. lU. 



THIRD AHERtCAK EDITIOM, COKRECTED AND SNLAKGEa 



BOSTON 

TICKNOR AND FIELDS 

1864 



Entered ncconlliig lo Act o( Congruas, iu tbe year 1863, by 

TICKNOK AND FIIfLDS, 

In tbe Clerk'e OBIce oT tbs District Court ai Oxe Distrlct of MaEsaehusctU. 



UnIVEHSITV PRESh. 
WBI.CH, BiGBL-OW, AND CoMPANY, 

Cambridcb, 



CONTENTS OF VOL. III. 



SECOND 


PEBIOD. 








COMTUfUKD.) 


CHAPTEB XXIX. 


Ltric Poktht. 


Eorly Lyiio Tendency 


S 


Híb «arlier Poetry ... 18 


Italian School of Boscan 


t 


His later Poetry 




. 30 


National School .... 


i 


His Extraragance . 




SI 


Lomas de CantorU 


4 


His Obscurity . 




. 33 


Francisco de Pignsroa 


5 


His Commentators . 




33 


Vicente Espinel 


& 


His Followers . . 




. 38 


Montemajor .... 


5 


Connt Villaraediana 




38 


Barahona de Soto, Rufo 


e 


Félix de Arteaga 




. 34 


Vegas, Padilla . 


6 


Roca y Sema 




3S 


Lopec Haldonado . 


6 


Antonio de Vega 




. 3& 


Femando de Herrera . 


T 


Anastasio Pantaleon 




3S 


Bis Odes .... 


8 


Violante del Cíelo 




. 30 


His CastUían SCyle . 


11 


Hanoel de Meló 




S« 


Pedro Espinosa 


13 


Houcayo, La Torre . 




. 38 


His Flores de Poetas Ilustres' 


13 


Vergara . 




36 


Rey de Artieda 


13 


Bozas, UlloB 




. 36 


Manoel de Portugal . 


18 


Salazar . 




37 




18 


Spread of Cultismo . 




. 37 


Crí3t<3val de Meta 


lé 


Contest aboat it 




27 


Francisco de Ocaña 


U 


Francisco de Hedrano 




. 39 


I>ope de Sosa 


. 14 


Pedro Venegas 




39 


Alonso de Ledesma 


14 


Baltasar de Alcázar . 




. 29 


The Conceptistas 


. 16 


Argaijo . 




SO 


Cultismo and its Causes 


16 


Antonio Balvas . 


. 80 


Lais de Góngora 


. 18 









The Argensolas . 
Lapercto 
Bartolomé . 
Their Poetry . 



CHAPTEB XXX. 

Ltbio Poetbt, concludkd. 

. 81 Juan de Janregni 

81 His Orfeo 

. 83 His Aminta 

33 Hie Ljrioal Poetry 



88 

84 
84 
86 



^^H 


COKTfiNTS. 


■ 


^^H KsiEvtiii R1»nuel ila Villcgiu 


. 3ft 


Ba.iTic>n, Lacio y Efiprnoiaii 


43 


^^^B Imitntes Anaüreon . 


87 


£vÍH, \n&£ de lu Craz 


. 43 


^^^1 fieniBTdo ÚB Balbueilft 


, -88 


Solíí, Caiidnmo, Mmvtiitiite 


43 


^^1 ' Burbadillo, Polo, Rdjiu . 


SS 


Alontoro, Nogreto 


, 43 


^^H Fnuickco de Ríojn 


-. 39 


Sqcü-kbs of Lyrio Poetry 


44 


^^H Borj& y £»i]uilaclie 


40 


Reli?l';uA .... 


. 44 


^^^H Antonio de Mendoza . 


. 41 


Secular and PopalFW 


d& 


^^H Bemanlinn He ICehHa11e<3i> 


42 


Secnlur anil more fiírtrutl . 


. ih 


^^H fiLbero, Quito.';, Estrella 


. ts 


Ite- t^üuenil ChAmcter . 


iS 


^H GHAFTEB XXXI, 




^^H SatibicjIl Poetrt, Epibtouuit,. Elboiío, Pastoral., Epibramhattc, | 


^^H DiDACnC, AKD 


DaacniPxivE. 




^^H Sfltírleal and EptstoJnry Poetrr il 


CiaiTill'Li, Eiiqiiiloche 


b6 


^^^M Mendoza, Boecan - 


i1 


QiiOTedo. Espinii!ia 


. b& 


^^^H CnstiUejo .... 


. 47 


Soto do RoiH?, Zarnt» . 


5ft 


^^^ MiraleulBror.Padiil», CiuituTi 


ú 4B 


ülloft, Lofl Reyes 


. 66 


^^^H McrtliOr Artie-da 


. 48 


BairiiB, Inez de la Cruz 


56 


^^H BnrahmiR de Solo . 


4S 


Píif tomltii aucceasñil . 


. 5ft 


^^H JFttQU ófl Jaore^ 


. 4B 


Epi^amü, lUJULtor; 


DT 


^^^B Th» Argfmsoliij' 


4B 


Maldonitdo, Silvestre. 


. BJ 


^^H QnerediJ, Oi^rigora 


. 4S 


Villogns, Góngora . 


S7 


^^H Cerviuitee, EspÍD'Bl 


48 


CnnioHns .... 


. 68 


^^H Arguyo, RioJ» . 


. 49 


ArgsTisoUg, Villegas, Lope 


}ir 


^^H Salcedo, IJIIoB, (felQ 


49 


Vega .... 


es 


^^H BoiJH, JiebolletLo, Villegas 


. &0 


Quevedci, Eaqujlaclie ■ 


. Ge 


^^H Satire dUconrnged . 


GD 


Francisco de la Torre . 


58 


^^^1 £togiiui Ptietry . 


- &i 


KebDlkdo . . . - 


. EB 


^^H Guoilitsao .... 


¿2 


Didfictio Poetty 


50 


^^^1 FigQH-ofl, Silvestra 


- B2 


EurlÍMt .... 


. 59 


^^H CaiiíoriU, t^e Ai^pü&dIiis 


G2 


In ttie CanuloneroB 


59 


^^H Batja, Henem . 


. E3 


Boacan, Silvestre, Mendoza 


. BD 


^^H BlojH, QuBvedo 


E2 


Guzman, Aldana, Bufo . 


SI 


^H Villegas .... 


. M 


Virusa, Cantoral 


. 91 


^^H E1>^S7 does aot íQCCMd 


E3 


MuriUo .... 


SI 


^^H PsstorsI Poetry - 


. &3 


SsIrs, the Argeimoliw, Artie^ 


íi . ea 


^^H GsrüilassOv Boscati, MetiiiloEfl 


Ga 


Mesa, EspíDflL 


B3 


^^^1 Plgueron, Cantoral 


. G3 


Juaii de lit GuGVB. 


. «a 


^^^B Mo'iteTnQyor 


93 


PaWií lia CíspedM 


Si 


^^H Siuido MiniDdfi . 


. M 


Lo[i@ de Vegii . 


. S4 


^^H Polo, BEÜbtiena 


GS 


Rebolledo, TrapoíR 


64 


^^H Barahom d<.> Soto 


. fia 


Emblema .... 


. 64 


^^M PadillB, &iW«3tra . 


ES 


Daza, Ccvarmbifis 


95 


^^^H Pedm d'B EiizlnHa 


. tG 


De»criptivia Poetry , 


. 86 


^^^1 Mondos, Tapia, Espiíiet 


ee 


DicastiHo 


es 


^^H BalvUf VüJeg&s . 


. &Q 


Didacllc Poetrj falla . 


. es 



HIST o JIY 



SPANISH LITERATURE. 



VOL. IIL 



H I S T o R Y 



SPANISH UTEKATURE 



VOL. III. 



^^^^j^^^^^^^^^^COTTEs'^^^^^^^^^^ 


■ 


^^^H Vnilstlnres^ ZaTS,!» . SS4 


Ei» Sí dQ laa Niñas 


364 V 


^^1 Comollti , , . , SH 


Hia TraiiBlations 


36L H 


^^H Morivt.iTi Chfi Younger . 955 


Stnt« of the Drama 


3B1 H 


^^1 Patranl^eil by Godoj . a&6 


Actors uf Nota . . , . 


aei H 


^^1 HisflratPIay . . . . 3£T 


SlAtoof the Tlientra 


3B^ H 


^^1 HiH Naevíi Gotnf«]Jii . EGH 


Fros£iect» . . > 


3Ei3 B 


^^H His Barón luid ílogígut^ . - $Sa 




^H 


^H CEAPTER VII. 


^^ 


^^1 Beighs of Cha&l£b xas Foi'ktf 


flp;p Ferpinajíd tbe Skvbmtb 


H 


^^H CaHCLUsiov. 


1 


^^M Chirles the Fourth and Gnday- S'tS 


l'ordinand the Savonth 


H 


^^H FreucH BevDliiCLni) $se 


EtTect of Hie Times on Lotlera . 


3Ga H 


^^H Iiiúez EspurgaForioa SSfi 


lüteiTOgiiuKi ift Giilture 


BTD H 


^^H AfíAb of Che Éscnriol . ÍGe 


Eovlval of Letlors . 


3T0 ■ 


^^M Abñ\t¡at\oa , s«7 


ChriTüPter oT tlie Feopla 


■ 


^^^H Freiicli Ie.v¡lsíoii . SQ7 


iHopcs for Lhe Fatnró 


373 ■ 


^^^1 Frmicli expalLed Sñ"! 




J 


^^^H 


H 


^^^^^H Obiodt of tits SPikNisn Lakouaqs. 


^H 


^ Spa-iii Büd ilí ífnma - . 3TS 


Thelr Effcet OB thg tangiliipj . 


9W 


^^H Tba IbfSTÍaDS ia !^pnÍD . S7Q 


The Amhs .... 


aso 


^H The Celia . . . . STT 


Th.eír Invasión 


ADA 


^^H Tbe CeSttbQrianH . . . STT 


Thoir Effect oQ lhe Pravenpals 


«@1 


^^1 Tba Pbícuicinna . STS 


Their Kcfinemcnt 


992 


^^H Ths (ÍHithai^imans 3T9 


The ClirLstlaus. and Polayo 


ASS 


^^M The Román!) , STS 


The Mozárabes . 


39S 


^^1 Their Calonies . . . SSl 


Their luBuence . ■ . 


3B4 


^^H Thelr Litnguxge SB2 


Their Heunlon 


asA 


^^H Their Writets . . . 3SS 


TliB LftiígiiagB oftlie Noith 


390 


^^H Chri^tiauityiiLtrn'ltiRed . . 3S4 


nDwinodilicd 


BBT 


^^^1 Its EReoU 011 the Laanaa-t^e. 5H 


First writien SpanUh 


j&r 


^^^1 Irraptiou of thq ÜorLhem 


CiLEtiM Pueblas . 


3BT 




The Bdiííuum . . . . 


too 


^^B The Fi^nks, Vaudali, etc. . SST 


The Spanish or Caatlliau 


400 


^H The Qdtlii . S«T 


Materials that compos-e ¡t 


400 


^H Tlieir Gultflre ... SSB 


Ita niiiid Frtsv&lenco . 


401 


^^^U APFENDIX, B. 


m 


^^^F Ths Eouakceros- 


^ 


^^H BuUade □□ Bepuat« SheeU . 403 


Bomancsro General . 


<,i ■ 


^^1 OLd^st Bii1lad-Boúk iVi 


Ently Seloctioiíia fhim the Ro- 




^^M That af ÁDtwerp .401 


manceroa .... 


411 H 


^^B Olhor eurlj BullHiJ-Biiok^i , aos 


B^veiit Selcotiona 


413 H 


^^M SaJlad-BüAk bNiii&FarU . 107 


Lutefit aud Best 


41& ■ 



CONTESTS. 



xm 



APPENDIX, O. 
Fkbmam Oohkz db Cibdarkál áxb thr Cutov Ennoi^Ria 



SD{gi;e8tíons on iCa Gennineneu 

Probably a Forgery . 

Ko BQcb Penon mentiODod ear- 

ly 

No Mamwcript of the Lettan 
Bate of Üie earliest Edition 

faUe 

Seoond Edítiou admita It 
Mo Date to the Letters at 6rst 
TheirSIyl 



iU 


That of the First Editioa . 


4ir 


416 


iliastatementa abont Juan de 








417 


416 


At>ont Barrientos . 


417 


416 


About Alraro de Limm . 
Appeared ín an Age of Forger- 


418 


413 




416 


416 


Stat« of the Qnestion 


410 


416 


Postscript, 1831, Beply to Oh- 




417 


jeotioiu .... 


419 



APPENDIX, D. 

ThX BuBCAPll. 



Statement hy Los Ttíos . 


428 


By Rnydiaz 


438 


Efiect of their Stat«nients 


424 


Don Adolfo de Castro . 


426 


Publishes a Bnscapié . . 


426 


Whatitis .... 


426 


Gontradicts Los Rios and Rny- 






427 


Its long Concealment euspi- 




cíone .... 


427 


Its Exlemal Evideace 


427 


Argote de Molina 


427 



The Duke of LafBes 
Don Poscnal de Gándara 
lt« Intemal Evidence 
ResembUncea lo the Slyle of 

CerTEDtes . 
Mistake aboat Enzioas 
About an oíd Proverb 
Its Title-page . 
Its Notice of Alcalá 
State of the QuestioD 
Postscript, 1881, Beply to Ob- 

jectiona . 



438 
438 
429 

42» 
430 
430 
4S1 
431 
432 

4«a 



APPENDIX, E. 
Editions, Tbaitsuitioms, ahd Imitaticks of the Dok Qinxorz. 



FirítPart . . . . 4SS 

Seoond Part. ' . . . 436 

Both Parts . . . .436 

Lord Carteret's Edition . 436 

That of the Academy . . 436 

Of Boirle .... 487 



OfPellicer . . . .487 
OfClemeocin ... 488 
Translations . . . .438 
ImitatiODS ont of Spain . 440 

In Spain 441 

Its Fame everywhere . . 443 



APPENDIX, F. 
Easlt Cou.zcnosB or Old Spanibh Plats. 

Varione emaller CollectíonB 



Comedías de Diferentes Antores 448 
Comedias Nuevas Escogidas . 444 



. 446 



TiV CONTENTS. 

APPESDIX, G. 

On thk Omora of Cultismo. 

ControTersy abont it in Itelj . 447 Arte&ge, and Isla . . . 448 

Bettinelli and Tiraboscbi . 447 Lampillas .... 449 

Spanish Jesnits in It&ly . . 44S End of the Gontroversy . 450 

Serrano and Andrés . . 448 Besult of it . . . . 4C0 

Vanaettí aad Zorzi . . 44S 



APPENDIX, H. 
Inkdita. 

I. Poema de Jpsé el Patriarca 451 . III. Kl Rabí Santob . . .454 
n. Danza General de la Muerta 453 



APPENDIX, I. 

1832. 

Recent Publicatiohs 456 



INDEX 463 



HISTORY 



SPANISH LITERATUKE, 



SECOND PEEIOD, 



THE UTKRATUKE THAT EXI3TED IK SPAIN FROII Tns ACCESBIOM OF TBB 

AUHTRIAM PAMILT TO ITS EXTIMCTION; OK FROH THB 

BKOIMNIKCt OF THE SIXTEENTIT CENTUBT TO 

THE EKD OF THE SEVENTEENTU. 

(OOniIHUBD.} 



VOL. m. 



HI8TORY 

SPANISH LITERATUEE. 



SECOND PERIOD. 

(OOITTIKÜZD.) 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

I.TB10 POKTKT. — IT8 OONDITIOIT WROX TH» tllD O» BOBCAH ÁSD 
OASCII^flSO DB LA TBQA. — OAMTOBIl, riOCSBOA, BBPIITBE., ItOH- 
TBMATOB, BABABONA DS BOTO, RDFO, DAHIAIT DI TZQAB, PA- 
DILLA, HALDOKADO, LUIS DE LBON, FBBNAKDO DB BBBBBBA AND 
H18 FOETICAL LANQUAOB, BSFIKOBA'S COLLBCTIOtf, XAMOXL DB 

POttTOOAL, MBSA, LEDEBHA ABD THE OOVCCPTJBTAB. CULTISMO, 

AMD SIMILAB BAD TABTB IM OTBKB COÜXTBIB8. — QÓItOOBA AMD 
HIS FOLLOVrSBB, TILLAHBDIAMA, PABATIOIMO, BOGA T BBBITA, 
AKTOMIO DE TBOA, rANTALBOK, TIOLANTB DEL CIELO, HELO, 
MOMOATO, LA TORKE, rEBO^RA, BOZAB, ULLOA, BALAZAS. — FABH- 
lOlT AMD FaETALEMCE OV THE SCHOOL OF OrÓSOrOSA. — BFFOBTB 
TO OTBBTIJBIT IT BT LOFB DB TEGA, QOETSDO, AMO OtHBBB. — 
XBDBAMO, ALCAZAB, ABOCIJO, BALTA8. 

A DECiDEDLT Ijtíc tendeDcy is perceptible ín Spanish 
líteratnre from the fírst. The ballads are full of ít, and 
occasionally we fínd snatches of songa that seem almost 
as oíd as the earliest ballads. AU thia, of course, 
belongB to a períod so remote and rnde, that sponiab 
what it produced was national, because Spain '^"' 
had as yet no intercotirse with other Earopean countries 
that drew after it any of their culture and refinement. 
Later, we have seen how the neighboring Provengal 
sometimes gave its measures and iones to the Castilian ; 
and how both, so ñir as Spain was concerned, were 



LTEIC POETRT. 




TWftMionta. 



[Pebiod U. 



fasbíoned by the tastes of tlie dilTerent courts of the 
country down to the time of FerdÍDand and IsaLeUa. 

But, from the next &>gB, which wae that of Boac&n 
and GarcilaíiBo, a new element was introdiiced into Span- 
i&L lyric poetry ; for, from Ihat peñod, nut only the fürras, 
but the g-eniuH, of the more cultivated Italiau are per- 
ceptible, ia a. miinner that docs Dot permit u$ for 4 wao- 
ment to questioü their great influeuce and final BUCcesB. 
Stíllj the diñerence hetween the cüiaracteris of the two 
nations was ao great, that the puetry of Spiún could not 
be drawQ itito Buch relationa with tho Italian models aet 
before it as was at firat attempted. Two currents, there- 
fore, were at once formed ; and after ihe first 
encounter hetweea them, in which Castillejo was 
the most promincnt, if not the carfiestr of those who 
etroye to prevent their uiaion, tho respective stitreums 
have conlinued to flow on, side by aide, but etill sepárate 
irom each other, dowa to our own daye. 

At the end of the sixteenth century, the ínfluence of 
Guch poetry aa had fillcd the Cancioneros from the time 
of John the Second was Btill acknowlcd^ed, and Bibcro, 
Costana, lleredia, Sancliez do Badajoz, and tlieir CoutenJ- 
poraricBf continued to be read, thougli they no ]onger 
Cnjoyed the fashionahlo admír.ation which had once wajted 
on them. But the chaiige that was doBtiried to overthrow 
tlie echool to which theee poeLa belonged was rapidly 
advancíng ; and if it were not the most favorable that 
could have been made in Spaniah lyrio poetry, it was oiie 
which, as we have seeu, the brilliant euccess of Garci- 
laBsOj and the circiitnstanceB producing and attending it, 
rendered inevitable.^ 

Among thoBe who contributed avowedly to thÍH cbange 
was Cantoral, who, iii 1578, publishcd a vol- 
*° Time of verse, in the Prefaco to which he docs 

not hesitate to eay that Spatn had haj'dly produc&d a 
poet dcserving' tlie ñame, exccpt Garcilasso ; — a poet, 
as he truly adds, formed on Italian models, and one 
■whoae footateps he himself foUowa, though at a very 



t Sm wMt l« ulú Id Chiiih ni. m AeuEfc, CeUao, SUvMtr^ etc. 



Ciur. SSIS.] 



TWO scnouLS. 



huiable difltaijce.' Aaotlier of !he lyric poeta of Ihe Eam& 
pt'ñoj, and oüo "who, with Vjuttfr siichjl'sb, ttiofc tlie same 
diroCtion, was Francisco de li'igqeroa, a geqtle- 
maa and a soldier, whoeo few CastUiari poema ^"^ 
are BtiW ackuowledged ld tbe more cholee cotlectioDS of 
hÍB nativc literature, but who Hved ao long ín Italy, and 
derúted himselí bo earnestly to tlie studj of its langUAge, 
tliat he wrotc Italiaa T^rae whh puríty, as well aa Spiui- 
isb.' To tbese shouM be added Vicente Espiuelj 
wlio inveoted the décimas, oc revived tho ubb 
of thciB, and who, in a volume of poctiy prínted io 1591, 
disting'ciisheB the Italian íbrms, to whích be gives pre- 
cedence, fi'om the Oaetilian, in wliicli hia ellbrts, Iboiigh 
fcwer in number, are occasionally more beautíful tbaa 
aiiything he wrote in the forma be preferred.* 

But the dispOBÍtion to follow the gre^t aiastera of Italy 
wiiB by ao means so general as the t!sanj|ile8 of Cantori], 
Fig-ueroa, and Espinel migbt seeni tr* imply, Their cases 
are, in fact, extreme caBcs^ as we can soe fram tlie circura- 
Btance, that, thúugh Monlemayür in hia " IHanft " 
was a profeseed ímit-ator of Sannazaro, still, 
among the poeme sCattered ttirüugh that profiC pastoral, 
and ín a voLumo which he affcerwards printed, are fomid 
many piecea — and some of them among the bcat he has 
Jeft— that beloüg decidedly to the oldcr and more oa- 
tional school.' Similar remarka may be appüed to othor 



Houlciaafor. 



rtl," UBdrid, IS7S. 13m", U opem wlth 
■ trftUiíliitkn rrom Ce-n^llli. ikEid LhB lyriíal 
pvnioiu ni Ui? ctirea IxuKs laCD irhlcb It ia 
rtlvlTivii me ÍD Ule ICaliaa miDiiei ; bol Uie 
Iffl \t oftenjaoTS onclaiuLl la lls> Iiftcib. 

> FilCUíRa, (bolD 1B4U, AliA 1020,) orUm 
mUM El SlTÍDD, ima (jcTJ'uipa tnartí tavivin 
vA HJlmfred la ItaJj, durlnir Che gmilur 
port o! Illa lií«, Ihunhs «os in Biisin ; biic 
lie áitU hc xtai, laufh lionaind, In Alvali, 
bii oativiB lAtj- 111» p(*ii7 le iJnieJ Id 
1B73, BiOd wap -ciTPiílniai In mHiiiii"«ri]>f 

quice u «srlf aa thaC dnEe Irapllea ; 1>ut it 
WM DDl prJiLKd, ¡ Llilali, U:tl It iipEiviu't.'il. iu 
isse, nr Llttioc, Id nmfamtf vt-lume iiail«r 
tliii siia^iüi'B qf Lulí IrH^aldo de Toluils. 
^ronl'jvr if PotIiíeiü, It 1h nUu lu :h« 



ttanlcR, HadrliJ- But, iliaugli It Is blgíil^ 
polUbEit, H £p cst iuB]>lrixl ti; n Diosculliía 
geniuj. 

* " Dlv.TMA Btnu di T- ^plcel," Ma- 
artd, 1501, IBID«. Hia linea un gwfctpff 
OuMsIom ftr JcAiouBj (f. í8) «ra »e^ 
llílppy, l^nil Eali Gamplnlnta nt^i^lEía^l FEt&L 
JlnppLne^s (f. 12^} nru liptiur CbiLU Uwi; na 
Iba aam» mlgeaL ty SUvulns, Obras, l£lf#, 
r. TI. 

<• MojiLpiinnjor, lu wo íXitül iee herciíOff, 
3TittiiiJU[?jd th*]- ]irtist^ pii.BLrjra3B, in imil^ 
tiun cir S:iiinHi[ii[Li, luto Spualsti^ in \Wl\ 
tinú a cullpcllgn or lili paetry, caUed a 
■^ OBDolatwro,'' WAS prlDLitJ la 1664: Li 
llie cfliilnciíi or Madrid, IfSS, ariil Alcalá, 
1603, Viran, WÜI^Il I US"!, almut One tWrf 
i)T ilievolijDpa is ¡n llii* eB9.tilEaD inuasnrai 
imd raBoner i ttlu>i Hhitb. It 1> farmBltf 



6 



TWO SCHOÜLB. 



[Fbriod n. 



authore of the aame period. Luis Barahooa de Soto, of 
V?hOflé Ijric poema only a. few have reíiched us, was by 
no meftDB exclusivelj of the ItaUan ecbool^ thoug'h his 
principal workj tho íamoiís " Tcais of Angélica/' i& in 

finfcana ^^^ manner of Arioato.'^ And Kufo, while he 
■^«f*- stroTo to tread iü the footaíepa of Petrarcbj had 
yet within him a Castilian gertius, wUicli seeme to have 
compelled hirnr as if againat hia wil], to rctnrn to the 
paths of the eider poets of hia own country.'' A etill 
larger namber of the contemporary lyrics oí' Damián do 
Vegas " and Pedro de Padilla " are national m tbeír tone ; 
but beat of all is this tone hoard, at thie period, irom 
López Malduaado, who, sometimes íd a gay Bpirít, aud 
Bometimes in one full of teüderuesa and melancholy, ia 
almost nníforraly inepired by the popular feeling- aod true 
to the popular mBtincta," 



BJUiaiuiced, '•' llfPQ tivgln llif «iiUDHtB, can- 
tioncu, SJid. olhar piecea lii U113 müssureii 
DÍ Itjitli,n veim." A conciun occitb [d 
ttB ei»t bout oí Uie "Ela-na," oü tlie re- 
greta ol B ibc|i]iifrdess vlio lianl drlveo hci 
lover to díípBir, whSíL i» T*ry ewuíl and 
q^tiuftl, uiiil Is vriW trauslau^il ^}y uld Sur- 
Uialoinew Vvos in blo v«^ralaQ et Ulb Diaua 
(LoiKÍoR, 16BB, Filio, p. 8)- Pala, vb9 wn- 
Unuei) the Diana, piiraued Uií »am« cooth 
In tLe poe^D bo iDSfHj.il lo liia wnlliLUU- 
'tian, má. ecvii maíiMKiia of ecvcnil ct 
Ihem muy be foimij in YcnK. 

" The worta nf MeBlflniftyor Waehing on 
Tteraclijij nnd Küligioii " — Lhoee^ t prq~ 
•ume, in tila " Oan-JiocMo " — uru pru- 
Llliiud in the Index oí IBQT, Bad I:ii ttiot 
oJ líOO, 

9- Xhti Iftle jioetry at BaraJionn lie goto 
li la ba Bonght iudod^ tJhe worli» nf ^U- 
vmLK, 1BQ9, sud In tbe '• ^lu-rea de P'>e[n$ 
Ilitelreí," by Eb^Jdchu, Ti(|la<la|ii], ISQÍ, 
«o. 

'1 <■ Liu S«79olsiitaa Apategmos de Juan 
ExifO, ^ otrna Olinn ec ícrso," TolBlu, 
1B36,$VD. Tbe Jpoítgmíu aee, in focl, 
uiecdotea in pre&B, His iu)iiii«(i aiiil eait- 
ctonei Are naL aa gooú AS lilEí LelCcr lii hia 
Son uii] hia iKíkx more Cuüüaii pu^ms, 
VL|c)i H tti« poD niBiing U> ilie wur Id 

e " Libro da PaeglR, por Eíiy DORiiU) 

Se vpau»," Tokilii, 1890, laiBth, ab<híe 1 



iQost ot Jl In llie o\á oaacer ; aml nearlj 
ali of iL i-er; dolí. &ee anfe, Chuji. JfX. 

i '' Pedio de Psdilli, Ejjlo^^^BüDeUB,'' 
es., BHVÜki, 1SB3, ito, ff. 246. Hiere nre 
mBJi; Ijrrica In thla ccliGctinn, gloiiu, it(> 
IfaneioBij and [eíríilíUy tliut ore quite Cna- 
tlllan i BDOLe of Lhem epliiced ildQ pleaannt. 
Oliiürs muy be fcaad Ld liía ^^TEieaori] <|e 
Tarias fuCHlns," (Mudrld, t&ST, ISmoJ 
(ThGM, iiovCTer, ttierc oru yiK; muro !□ Uie 
lUUau [DimB-, Be publlíbcd, also, '^Jur- 
illn üapJriHi&l," lía4, a euUeetítiD 9í re- 
Ug'loas lyrimi poetrr, (lie lca«t ijciiriiila 
of bla wuil£í,ikiid Li 15ST a r«li^9URHf- 
mH-yy iHMín ín Biue cantos orocuiíB y^me, 

enllL1o4 "Orunleí* í Bxíeleiiiflaa df la 
TirgeiL, Nnastra Seaont^' 

10 The ■' OuncioueCD " of jUaldonad» wta 
priQKl U aiadcid, lE»e, ff. IBQ, lu 4U, 
aud ibe bí^t pans ítT It nre i^i; «jnstipiy 
piKiiy, uamu of wlLif h la rvund |ii tli« tiilrd 
vulumi! t>r Fuiwi'a ■' Eiciwtkta." Ojw pnire 
poei mJGht bave iwen »4de4 be™, pa utit- 
iiig lii the Pía measwee, — JoAcbim lU- 

Uiero Úfl ^eperliL, — wJioae v-arko vera 
pTÍi4ted ftt SeyUle, lfiS2, ^a Ito, aLDd contaio 
a gmid manj en-íicianes^ Taaí^B, UDd i^/r^- 
fos; BjDun^ üie casi, tbme rernaikiiNa 
&sLiiieU, preseated \¡y bim In Pblllp II. Bi 
be pewsíl tbrQU£ti BadaJOK, yrbvt^ (¡^psiA 
¡iv'íú, -u» tuku (HuseisiDii of Fnrtagai, ]n 
1530. Bul tlie wli4l« TvLume la ■obtIi^ 
TtiOi cDcMtu aM qulbíln. 



Ciiip. XSIX.l 



FEBNANPO PE HERRERA. 



fint it should DOt he forgottea that iluñng tlm eame 
period lived tho two g^reatest ¡yi-ical poeta tliat Spain 
has ever prodaced, — excrcisiiig littl& ¡Dfluence over eacb 
otlier, una stiU lesa over their owa tiwea, Of oiio of 
tb«iii, Luía de León, who dicd in 1Ó91, after hav- uiida 
ing given harJly anythíug' of hts poetry to tho J^»' 
worltl, we have already spoken. TKe olber was Fernando 
de Herrera, aii eccleisiastic of Sevilla," of whom t.TT„„4„da 
we know only that lie líved in Ihe latter part "«"««. 
of tbe eistecDlh century ; tlmt he died in 1697, at the 
age of aixty-three years ; that Cervantes wrote a sonnet 
¡o bis honor;" and tliat, íd 1619, his frie-nd FraociBco 
Paclifico, the painter. publíshed Me worka, with a Freface 
by the kindreJ apirit of líioja." 

Tliat ITerrera was acqnaiiited with some of the unpub- 
liahed poetry of Luis de León is oertíin, because he cites 
it in hi» Icarned commentary on GarcÜasso, printed íq 
1580; but that he placed Garcüaifflo de la Vega above 
Luis de Lean Íb no less cortañi frum the Bame cout' 
mentary, wbere he often eípiesses an opinión that Gar^ 



11 H^TTO^'f- ¡pniACB Qf Sevilla nn^ i^a 
Qpad^^Qivir BUlSoicntlj bütra^ Lie oilgln, 
fo BflP»l»nt ar? Iflíy. Tbey «re, loo, MBW- 
UmeB &in»ng ít\e buppy «pcflicíUH of ]i[l 
TMW i for iBílanW, tu Ell-e ode in hrBQr of 
^ Pi?n3iíiLk[id, nba fVscuud Sevilla frúiu 
ÜíB Mflthn, snií 'D tho cli^gy, ■' (Jltn <|ffbes 

Booniiilor í^ríiw fliuio." 

1^ í(|tvBrr«t@, VtdJi ds Cerviiuloa, 181Q, 
p. 4iT. TS*' rtiite of Hum^n's dentb !■ 
ClTen í>i) 11(6 íura autJiorKy ijf (ume Wg. 

lauug or Pai!licc<>, hla Iriiuii], puliiialiea lu 
tbt Eeuianuiú L'iiitoMHO, IBW, p. mOí 
buTore «hieh It wuA uakDUWia. TlitieiMUí 
arulukcD (rom no inLerealíne MS. irb[dk 
orremfl Ut have been thu raagh úaú. iinptt- 
kai dralt of the ^'- Iedi^^^íihs " aDd " BLai^ia 
Vlrümrn Tllufitrínm," wbich Aulnoio (Bjb. 
SoT., Tum. I. p. 466) »ajs Pntlieco ¡5016 
to Uto nEU-knnvD Couiit BiikF< UlIíATFa, 
mmd itiit oí vrlilnb. 11 iiotiec orLiipe de yifgn, 
oonotitiiUuE !liv1cad1ne artlcle, laa, pñattú 
«Ith the lirst >tdlti<iD ot tibe: "lirmimlrii 
ConquiíUdL," IM'). Thrs lU^ in tlio Se- 
foajiuío Eniúltü, íiH, ¡ip. 3T1, uta. Stw 
&lio Ifuvturetu, Vida de CervauU'S, |ip. 
ESd, E3Y. Pachíi^D iraa b goad paJuter, 
Bnd Ceui BFTnmdeB ^icolanatio, Tom , TV. 



p- !) f ítoI a UIH Bf MiD- B» WM. too, B 
muioCwnB leuDlDg, «nd enl^crnt Lato ■ 
OOQlnTSnywUh Qoiarcda on tb« quralSon 

OT mik^í 5iml-]| T^^BB a CO-|HLLTI>1]V4fl- ot 

SpftlB WlCb HbhUh)^, «hiob QuEíAlD ro 
HltitiMl i bcBidei Hhk'b, in IMB, be pub- 
U«l)i!d In Uo, ftt eerllle, Lli "Alte áti I» 
ClulUTD, au AqUj^i^iul í Oíaaavtag,^' k 
Hito worli, piiiii¿i bj Cewi Bennnileí, 
Thloh I tiav« KWiiIWiMfl, Pnebepodlisl Ln 
ISM. BE'ilBiiiti<l'iriiM«£«p«ñal,Xam. IU> 
p. 117, imá Tam. vn. p. 02) glvag t«a 
«[ilgruna of PboLc^, «rhLeb feN WBDe«B<i 
nltli hitart, ajyi Whlch B4dua pflJwl, I 

t!iiDk, nioiñ thau ikey dmtm ta be 
pialaed. R; far UiB bHt uorant of Vm- 
ahtoa and bu TraatUe úB SklbUng La M 
bo faniid in fi41rilnK''il "ArtiSU of Blialn," 
1848, Yol. I, np. *8a-4Ta. Hla fe* HMOU, 
iiDltoWd from Herrera, uro lo Riboden*?- 
ni'i. lllhlLitcTiV, Tuní, XX.VII., 18S4. " 

1^ PiíClieC'i'í cilltltü ísinoconipaniml TlÜ» 
& nao iHirtrnit oT lliir BUthnr rram it pistura 
bj tho cdHiit, Hhkli bi» oftmi betD ía- 
■graiiBil tíncM, But tíiiiugh Hi-rrero ti?!» 
lud PucbeDo fur a fríend, he hu, we ara 
told, i«ry deúnlent la tute IDt thu arta. 
Cena Bermadui, DlcoUin., Ton. HI. |i>iMa. 



8 



FEBNANDO DE EEBBEBA. 



[pEiiiac IL 



cilassQ waa the greatest of all Spanlsh poeta ; ** — an 
opinioü Hufficiently obTÍcins in tlie volume of hÍB own 
poctrj puMiahed by bimeelf in J.5S2, "which ia altü- 
gGther in the Italían manncr adopted hy GarcilaBso, and 
which, increased by poems of a díflerent character in the 
ediüons oJ" Pacheco, in 1619, and of Fernandez, in 1808,^ 
constitutes all we posaesB of HeiTCra's verse, thoagh cer- 
tainly not all he wtot&." 

Some parts of the volume published by InmBelf have 
little valiie, auch as most of the sonnetaf — a form of 
composítíon on "which he placed aQ extravagant estí- 
mate.^*' Other parts are cxcellcnt. Stich are bis elegies, 
which are in fersa rima, and of which the one addreesed 
to Lovo besfiecbing Eepose is full of passion, wMle that 
in which he espresses hÍB g;ratitude for the resource of 
teare ia full of tAüderneas and the gentlest harmony." 
Bnt hig principal auccees ie iu his ca-nsones. Of these 
he trrote sixteen. The least fortúnate of them is, per- 
hapa, the one where he mo&t strove to imitate Pindar; 
— that on the rebellion of the Moors in the Alpuxarras, 
which he has rendered cold by fonnding it on the Greek 
mythology. The best are one on the battteof Lepanto, 
gaiued by Süerrera's favorite hero^ the yoong and gen- 



!*■ '' In onp Spftln, Iwysnil lül íompwU 
ion, GíroLLuaao #tai«4í Qrst," b? Bayí, 
(l>. 4ü9,) and tepeais lile Bame opLuioii 

" The ecütiop of rcnitin4«K, tlie Btiat 

Ci^mplGlE of nJlf^Jid Lwlce pr^ptgi], la ia U)? 

CuUUaikAE." Tbe laogsr poeml ai Títt- 
Kra, whli^b we taiíT t¡a\j bj Uiclr uu- 
pranfalag tlüea, are "The Bucle of tb« 
GiaiitJ," " The Ripe or Pcoetiplne," 
"Xbd Amadla," imd "Ilie Laves oí Lau- 
■iaa bDd C'D'romi." Fcrtiapa iré haré 
w&iOQ M legcet lb« lose or lila unpkib- 
llBlied Eülogiui hud " Cu^illlan Veret!','^ 
vblfib lut may bftva bocn in thí- eld Cm- 
UUmi nraaiu'M. Id IfiTI, he publlsbed « 
desctlpUTe ueúUhC aS the wm lA Cjprua 
&iíd the liAtile «t Lepanto, &d4, In ]í9S, a 
Lire of 8¡r Thcuna» Mütb, tahín Irttm Ihe 
Ifitlit " Livcs of Ihit Tljree Tlioinasea," by 
fltaplrtiín, the obnoilíun Knelish titpÍBl. 
iVaaá'a Ki.hf¡ta>> ed. 311x9, Toro. I. p. 
Alio A Hlatoiy of BjialD, bbM bj RLi^s 



lo hBT9 bflía fliiliil)E4 by Herré™ sbout 
Ifreo, Ld pnibLkbty Ldsl 

II Id Bocie remarka \>y the lAvmütJjf 
£iui[|D« de Duane, pr^fiííVil u> t|ie edltinq 

Bf UBffem's- jHW-iíy prin'«l in "laio, ha 

aí.y«, that, B Iew lays after Herrera'a 
tíeaih, a bound voiame, contaiiün^ all b¡a 

jiovtlCBl vorka, i>repu^ by h!iiiE«ll for 
tbe rr«4a, iraa úv-etro^ed, iiDd that hla 
ecBttered maauecrlpta woiild pnbatfij 
liaTe Bhikrcd the Kmu! htc, If Ibey Imd 
not beea oareínlly coUented by Psebeea, 

" In hla CDiDDi.en'tairy an Qaer.tlMBúhe 
B&yB, "Tbe .aonnet U U)e tacftl bEABUIuI 
foi-n oT cofüpúSitii^c Id Spiíalsb And Itaüí^a 
TiMtry^ Abd the Diia tiíat demanda Ihs 
anuBt iiíC la \iA «itbíteiictlútL ui.d Ihe greaU' 
«M (Tacé." (p. 66.) 

<' Tfae ^BA5 lo nhom Hfircrn dedieaUd 
híS lore, Íd b «iiiril Dt purc nnd Flatonia 
ikireclluii liLlte kncura l<i BiiuLlsb fctry, 
J0 anid tci' bartf bcua Lbc CouDteaH cf 
6el vea. 



• 
araos Ilk« J:¿x c^ A'sxñft. laJ v>a« oa tW oTifn!tT\^v 

caSed tfae» fc-nfa : aad K>tk wvrf JfL>naaAl)í^T cv*iukv|«>1 
vidí tlioee fedñ^ «^ t\>TaltT and ivliírtoii th*! alva^v^ 
eeeamed to spnnp sp io^i»lief in tbe miads of tlw Si>»D- 
tsh people, uiil to Iw of kindreti witfa all their hi^rtK^l 
poeticai in&püntioBs. 

Tbe fitst — that MI úae battle of Lopuito. whioh eni«tt- 
cipated m»nj tfaonsuni Christian captires. and «li'<p(>tf\l 
tí» second westwaid adrance of ih* Crwcont — is a loflr 
and dwetfid hyinn of Tictoiy, minglin^. to a ivmarkaMt» 
degree. tfae JubUant exnltation which brraks (i.>rth in iW 
Psalms and Propbecíes oa the conquesta of iho Ji:'W8 orrr 
their nnbelievÍDg enemies. with the fie«>)in^ of a dovoul 
Spaniard at the thoaght of eo dM-ísive au ownhr\tvr of 
the ancient and hated eneinj of hi9 fiüth aud counlrv, 
Theotber, — anodeon thedeath of Sebastian of Portugal, 
— compoeed, od the contntiy, íq a Teio of doíiiH>itdoiii\T, 
is Btin romantic and stñking'. eren more. pt>rhaps. than 
ita rival. That onfortunate mouarch, who v.-a8 ono of 
the most chiralrons príuces that onr sat on a throuo in 
Chiistendom, nndertook, in 157$, to follow up tho )::n^t 
■victory of Lepanto by rescuing the wholo of tho North 
of Airica from the Mosiem joko, uuder" which it hml oo 
long groaned, and to restore to thoir hornos tlio mnltitudt'M 
of Chrietians who were thero auffering tho most rnu'I 
servitnde. He peñshed in the generous uttunipt ; hnnlly 
fifty of hÍ8 Urge anny retuniing to recount tho dctuil» 
of the &tal battle, in which he liimsclf hnd dÍHa|>))OunHl 
aroong the heaps of unrecognized Blain. Hut no foiul itiid 
feívent was the popular admiration, that, Tur ahovii a 
ceatury afterwards, it waa believed in Portugtd Umt Onn 
Sebastian wonld etill return and resumo the power wtiioli, 
for a time, had both dazzled and doluded tho hoarta of 
his Bubjecta." 

>■ Tbere !■ ft book od tlils aabject irbloh oount ot k pMlrj-ovnk of Hkdrlnt, mho, 

ahoolil not be anttrely oTerlooked In « bit- Mvcntrnn yoitra tOet th» roul tti ArrlüM, 

Iai7 o( SpMiiih UUraton. It ii kd u- pHied hiniiir utt lu Djutlu m |)<m HpIhw, 
1* 



10 



FEENAIÍDO DE HERREJÍA. 



[pEitioD n. 



To tli3 raafn facta in tliís melancliolj disastcr Herrera 
has happiij giveo a rcIigi'oQs tiirn. He opeus his ode 
with a lametit t'or the afflictioD of Portugal, aod then goea 
OH to flhow that th-e g^CncrOus glory which. ahould ha^e 
accompanied auch an efibrt agaiust the common enemy 
of Ohrietendom had beeo lost in a cruel defoat, bccaoBO 
thoBct who itndcrtook the great cxpedition had bcen moveii 
otily by tníTOíiti arabition, forgetting the hi^her Christian 
feelingB. that sliowld have carríiid them ioto a war agaÍDst 
tho infidel. In this spirit, he enes out, — 

But woe to ihem who, ixuating in the Btrengl-h 

Of horsea anii thcir thajíols' multitud?, 

Híii-e hnaltned, Lvbia, (o thj desDrt guarí»! — 

O, wga to líiera ¡ Ibr ihiii-s is not it ¡lope 

Tlmt htinilily secks for cverlaitirig light, 

Biit iL prEí;inm|i1aaus pridc, that claíma bofoi'iítllttld 

TL*j uiicertain viclorj, und ure theír tyes 

Have louikcLl lo Heaven for hclp, witli conGdcnt 

And hardmcd hcnrta dindcs the unwoa spoüB. 

But He wlto liolds the hcaijstrong Tiack. from ruin^ 

Tlie'God of Israel — hnth nilnxed his hrnid. 

And tlie^ hiive rubhcd — che vharíot and tUe cboiioteer, 

Tlie lioríe ¡itiil LarEf'miin-^dDWTi (ho dread nbjSB 

Hls angur has preparcd for thoir prfsiimption.™ 

Complamts, not entirely without foundation, haTe been 



trian, and lifliuceil Annuor AuHlria, a nnlu- 
tnl diLu^litrr ot Una Joli □ uf AuftCriiL, 
livluí^ [a n. convent at Mbi^dg'hT, Ui giV0 
tiiiD rlchi Jcwcla, wlilch Itd to the detcctlnn 
■of UiE fniud. Tíie Blory Is inlíTirntlnir tnJ 
toell lold, awi nsa BTsb [irlnlHl In 16H3. ut 
GudiE, uuder Uib tSIlE of "Alllgtury ot 
OnljrlQl du EfptaoBs, the Piutr7-cHiuk uT 
Maáiíg»,\, whu pTElcnded bu be King- Duo. 
BubniíLian of Poita^tnl" Of coune, ['h.itip 
II< illd nnt tieal gvuUy icitti oae wbo mtkde 
■ucb [nctcnelous tu tbe crolm he iúaLKLT 
had i:!uU:bi!d, ta nltb Hay ot hia abEttcn. 
Tbi> Tins tir^cciuli nnd a monk on wlioia be 
had ini]ii]«d ¡ilq nirtlniía were liolh lniiigtíd, 
aKtr undrrgoiiiE llia uaual QTjpllaniQcs of 
mcliB BTid liirtureB ; and iIip poot princcsr 
waa ilegnided írtrin her raok, ond shut np 
IcL a cciuvciilual cdl far llft?. Thtre Li ao 
hattTiyiQoaa ploj cT laiidrrale mcrit bif- 
Ifin^Q^ lo lile cel^D nf Pbilip IV., entitled 
" H Psaietero de Madrigal ; " Bad the Ru- 



in anee rf Palrldn iln la Rtcnjaura, — "NI 
Rey ni Itoqup," 5n íoor snmll vulumes, 
ll}35, — [■ rttlirelj Tnund^ on Uio asroutit 
prlnted in. 16BI>, nelní; iotnctliivcs ita TBrjr 
wardia, but acianining alnaj» tliAt the 
psstrj-cuok. vtf» rrally the uuliappy tinf 
of FrTtugiÜ- Tile flny ia lielieved to have 
h^eu wrliUftl hg úerunyina de Cuellur^ 
Boa Uilncli vaa BcLlinghHUaeD, ]i. -99. 

99 Al da loi que piunron. ronltAdiiii 
En iui cfl'Pii.ltni, y en Ii muelit^^uTnbn 
J^p AiL» eorroffp cu li, Libln dísherlal 

Y en iiB ri^íT y fucrqna ua^ftmSríii. 

Kd algnicn tuiupenin^ii ñ ai^utUa i!nTa1>t* 

D^«LF-nLa lus ; aiiui con Bohema dvrCa 

S' íilVfcl-emia Uinf^lt^rLA 

Vii?lmriL. j BÍD bolvtr a DIubiui uJ'Od, 

f-iiii ivrlo r.UEllo y toníaa uro no, 

Bule alüntlLl^nm Hiempiu a Ilii ilripojotl 

Y ti 04intD ili' TinrI abrW ni mano, 

Y [un iaiü ! — J i«yO tin ij-?rpeüiá?r0 
E\ canfi, y el BOTalIn y íarall'CfíF. 

YatoB di. Fiera. Htnlüo, SeTilLk, 
JM¡3, Ve, f. 310. 



ClUF. X.XIX.] 



FERNANDO DE HERRERA. 



11 



mad« agaínet Herrera*» poetry, on tho gronnd tijat he 
wants a Biifficieiitly diticnmiiiatíu^ tasto in ttin cboico of 
liie worda, Quevedo, wLo, when ho printed tbe poema 
of the BacliiUer de la Torre aa models of piiritjr in elyte, 
flret made tliÍB auggefition, intimates tliat hís objectioos 
do not apply to the volume of poetry published by Her- 
rera himsuit', but to tbe sdditions th»t were made tu it 
afler the autLor's denth by h¡B friend Pacheco.'"- But, 
wiitLOUt etopping to ÍDqQÍTG wLether tikis íntimatíon be 
strictly tnie or not, it Í8 enoiígh to say, that, when Ifor- 
rei'a'a taste was formod and forming', the Caatíliau was 
in the Btate in which ít was dcscribcd to have beco abuut 
1540 by the wise author of the " Dialogue oq Lao- 
guagos" ; — that íb, it was not, in all reepects, fittod for 
th& htghest eÜbrts of the more Cullivated lyric poetry. 
Herrera Mt ttjia difficulty, and eomewliat boldly under- 
took to fiíid q remedy for it, 

The ccmrtie he ptiraued Íb BufBciently pointed ont in 
the aCute, biit pedaiitic, notes which hñ has published to 
hia editioD of OarcilasBo,*' He bef^an by cluína- nerrer»'» 
iiig" the right to íhrow oiit of the hígher poetry (^«uíi^- 
all words that gave a conimoii or familiar air to the 
thoiight. He íutroduced and defended ifjversíons and 
iaÜeclioaa approauhing thoBe iii the anuient clnflBÍciil laii- 
^gua.ges. And Iiti aiíopted, and 6ortietinios finrceeded ¡n 
Jtatiiraliaiiig iu the Castilian, worda from the Lutiu, the 
Italian, and the Greek. A modérate aod cautious use 
of meauB lilíe theae wae, porhaps, dcBirable in his time, 
as the atithor of tho "Dialogue on Lang^uages *' had al- 
ready endeavored to show. But the miafortuiie with Her- 
rera was, that he carried hia praCticB, if not hís doctriucs, 
too far, and has thua occasionally givcn to his poelry a 
stifT and formal air, and made it, tiut only too tnuch au 
iinitatioa of the Latín or the Italian, but a aLíght an- 
ticjpation ijf tbe false taste of Góngora, that so soon be- 
came faahionable. ThÍB ia particularly true of hia sonuets 

B Boe the addifaB of Qiumda bu hia aa gixiil CbsUEIui, vhlcli ttora bhelr natüro 

niiuli'ni [a th« "-Poesías del Bsubiller de la tliny wvru crhvn Hcmtta aied tbím. 

TcirTV,'" Some cil ilie -nnrrla, haveTEr, U) ^ ÚNmii de OaitllaBio, 15SCI, fp. ICi, 190, 

«rlikb he olijeuti, Uke pñmmo, infamia, 12&, GTS, uid gtttiiT ploues. 
dtidanza, etn., baw bean TücOBnlccd tiaoB 



13 



PEDRO ESPIXOSA. 



[f xBioD n. 



and sealinas, wlüch are often inrolved and awkwaM in 
their Btructure ; bul ín Lie more boIcihd odea, and eape- 
cially in thoae where tho stiinzas are regular, each con- 
BJstiiig of thirteen or more Uneis, there íb a " long-resound- 
ing miirch '* and a grand lyric moTeraent, that eweep on 
their tríiiiiiphaiit way in oíd Caatüian dlgaity, quite un- 
Cüiiacjoüa of a spiñt of ttnitatíon, and quite beyond ita 
reach. 

Perhapa a better idea of the lyric poetiy in higheat 
favor amoDg tlie more cultivated classes of SpaDisb. bo- 
ciety, at the end of the siiteenth centniy and tlie be- 
ginning of the Heventeentb, can be obtaiuod from the 
collection of Pedro Espinosa, entitled " Flo-ívers ísom tho 
Eminosa'a Most FamouB PuGÍs of SpaÍD," thau from any 
rkreí, other single volnme, or from any single author.'-^ 
It wae printed in 1605, and contains more or Igsb of the 
ivorka of about sixty poeta of that periotl, including 
Espinosa himaelf, of wbom we have sixteen piecea tliat 
are worthy of their place. Most of the collection ccin- 
sists of lyric verse ín the UBual forms, — chielly Italiati, 
büt not unfifequGntly national, — and raany of the writerfl 
are familiar to ub, Among them are Lope de Vega, 
QuevGdo, and others already noticed, togetber with G<5u- 
goia, tlie Argensolas, and aome of their contempoparíes. 

bieveral of the poeta from whom it givee selections or 
coTitributioDs aro to be found nowhere elae, — such as 
two tadies named Narvaesi, and another callad Doña 
Chrietovaliiia ; while, from time to timo, we find poema 
by obscure autbore, like thoge of Pedro de Liñan and 



e *•■ Piiinent Puta de tai Floim de 

Fnetoa Iliutrcs. de tBpiui&, urUenaái pov 
Pedro SgplDDiB, rJníural ilc la CluiJsi] di 
ÁuUquEía,'' ViüUilaliJ, 1I10&, 4.1», a. 2»1, 
rBlirInted In ICII>a(]eiH>yni''s BibllotiL'eB^ 
Tmd. XLIL, isa7. No poctry or Hüciv-ni^ 
hvvtveí, ÍB U be faaoA In tbls noUec- 
ttoo- AxkloDki (Bit). Nuf., l^nm. 11. p. 
)!KI) BjL^a Eapinuaii niiB atLo^Jicd to the 
grcat AnctiLluKiaiL riunilf uf tho Iludes iif 
UciUciB-Üi Jonia, tlie Qi.uuu.iin& 1 and ol Üiv 
UiüM íir t'ViT n'-tice nc prsituiiH^d, tira an 
ía huaM oT li!n phcrona. acd fjna wna pab- 
I¡»b«d bj liiiniciraalute íbfi 16U. Muclkaf 
tue patítx ia\i¡s'" Wlotiñ " li AaUkLualBa, 



— g. dniLuiiBtaiDM thaC nnden tha miLtt- 
ilDQ Df ficrrera tbe DLom Btiikliiig ; euniie uf 
Jl la 10 bo foUDd non-hirc ete. A cohic- 
Cliirt, sl[iill4Lr U> Lhn,l of Enplnoso, «as oíaáB 
by Jofli.'-.rAlíiij, b bDoIcst^Lk'r, and jjubHshGi] 
al ZixB^asn In ISOl, 4tD, B. IdO, i!Dtltl?d 
^^ PoealDA vnrLEu da G^^^dE^ lu^eoi os Es- 
pañolea," ^. I( CDDtabiB' tbe w-arLa at 
Ihirity-flTB gioetH, Ijiit UjOfre- v'ho ^tBJiú Id 
tbc ñrfít rajLk aad Dccupf Ule LBiTgist fljiftoe< 
an QiiGTeilo', Q-inirnra, Lape ds Tcgm, 
Frmicísra ií<: la Tcrri, nnd AdUhdIo d« 
M«ndoEa. The 1 urlr5(|ue Une preralLl. 
Bco Spuiiatt truislatlciiL «I tbls niatorj, 
Xmb. ni., lau, p. 60B. 



Chjj. XXTX.] 



VARIOCS LTRIC POETS. 



13 



Agtisttn de Tesada Paez, which, from their coastderv 
ble merít, it wouM liave beea a misfortuae to Idb.o.'' 
But Fernando de Herrera does not appear there at nll ; 
aod of more than two tbírds of its aulhcrs, ooly one or 
two sbort pieces «re given. It ía to he regarded, thor»- 
fore, as an c^xhibitioD of the tasto of tbe age wlien it 
appear&d, rather than as a Belection of what waa really 
best and highest íu tUe uMer aad more recent Spaiúuli 
lyric poí'try at the opening of tba seventeentli century, 
But, whatever we muy tliink of it ¡o thie poiot of view, 
it ia certainJy among the inore curiouB materiala for a 
Listory of that poetry ; acd btfore we condenm Espinosa 
foi" aeEecting less wisely than he might tiave done, we 
should reaiember, that, a.fter «ll. his taste was prubably 
morerefined than thal of hia ago, aince a second part of 
bis collectiou which he propused to publish waa pot 
called for, though he coutinucd to be kDOwn as an aii- 
thor many ycars after the app^arance of the first, 

But Herrera Es not the oníy lyrical poet of the pcriod 
who doCs. nOt uppeac Íd EspinoB^'H collection. Rey de 
Artieda, whoae Boniicts are among the best in 
the langn-iige, — Mauoel de Portugal, whose nu- AÍfi«it 
merouB rcligioua poems are often in the natíoiial "^ °oibt*. 
fomjB, — and Carrillo, a eolditír of proinise, who died 
yonDg, aiid who wrot.e BOmetimeB nith a BimplEeity and 
fhSBhness that never fail to bc attractive, and flometimes 
with offeneive afroctatioiie, — aro aíl omittiBd ; thongh 
theif works, publisbüd at Juet abuiit the eanie time with 
the collection of Eepin^^sa, had bceo known in mnDU- 
ijcript loug bcfore, as much a.B tbose of Luis de Let>n 
and Gdngora." 



4* Of tllB lodloB whfBO- poCIDÍ «ICUT lU 

Eg|>lnuBB, ] UiUiK UD«^, T)i>ns. CIiriKCuviilliia, 
la nulIcHia h/ AüIodIo (Blb, Nar., Tam. II. 
p. 34B), anil by Lnpe In hls " lAurel da 
Apoln," Of the nibnn I kuow noUiinK, 
■Míe til Vvñíii dü Lmnn, eicupt that bu wu 
H 'rriUDiJ QÍ Lnpt' de V^[^a^ oncl ocnarB Id Üm 
eroHiis oí Lhü '* Ln-Lirtl d* Apolo." ^^3EH- 
dn. U re axe told hy AnitinLs, dicd In 
1S3B, ai th<i tgH «r iii:itr-B4rtia ; — tbs üvb 
ponst priulsd thirtj jcbts 'befare }¡y £g|>l- 
nueiLbeiug >ll wc bftTB oí iüe irarks, 



to Aniim Haj de Artiedi, bctWkiMwa 
andar bis acarlviniriil □ume of AiU-miilnra, 
Ib pnLÍaifd bf tVrenDUM ab a Wffí-kmwTt 
poet tu 1SS4, tbeuitb bla workB wüFe naí 
prinUd Ciil thi?7 Apjieorpd %t 4^nmgi>^CL, 
W)b, Ito. He dtua In 1Q19- (Xira-enn, 
Tiiía I. p. !JS3.) UhtiivI lia Pnnuj^^l, una 
íiT Lb(iac PriTlllíni^'liO Whn^ I» tTi*!^ ilme nf 
PhUlp H, noa lll., aiJUjílit fBfOT witti til.) 
í>piiríiaBorí or Ihttr euuuiTj* t¡y wrISng la 
Spunipli, whb kmiWTi írn™ ifiH i huí i]ií 
coilcúLlua úl bta puiuii In neitrly ■. tiiua- 



u 



VAlílOCS yerno FOETS- 



[PEniúit n. 



Chríetiíval de Mesa comea a little later. Hís ]júc 
ppeniB were printed in 18U, and again, more amply, in 
ItílS. He profesBCB to havcf takeii Ilen-era for his mas- 
ter, or for oiie of his mastere ; but he was long in Italy, 
where, as he telle ue, he changed liÍ6 etyle, and from this 
time, at Ifiast, he belongs with absolute strictneae to tha 
Bchocil of iJoacaa and GarcilaBso,"' 

Fraociaco de Ooaña auA Lope de Sosa, on the contrar^j 
are as strictly of the oíd Spaaieh Bchool. TUe reagou 
may be that tlieir poetry is almoBt all religiouB, — Buch 
as is found arooug the eacred verses of Silvestre and Cas- 
tillejo in thü preceding century, — and that they wrote 
for popular effect, seeking to comiect theniselveg with 
feelinga that liad grown oíd in the hearts of the multi- 
tude. The littlo hymns of the former, on the Appioach 
of the Madonna to Bethlehetn, vainly asking for shelter, 
iind one by the lattei, on the Love and Grief of a Penitctit 
Sonl, are apecimcns of what is best in thia peculiar etyle 
of 8p:mieh poetry, which, marked as it is vfiih Boma 
rudettess, carriee back our thong^hta to the Bpiríted oíd 
viüaneicos in wbich it origínated.^ 

Alonso de Ledesma, of Segovia, ■who waa bom jn 1552, 
and died in 1623, wrote, or ratlier attempted to write, in 
the same style, btít faited : though he aucceeded in what 
may be regarded aa a corraption of it. üíg " Spiritual 



\ÍH[B valae, ñiú not up|)i>iu tltl k nsa 
prliK4 P' LlBÍion, 1905, 12nio, Lhi? j«ar 
l)«n>re blE death. (Bitrli^a, Tíim. £0. p. 
3tS.) Laya rto CurrUlo y SoW-maj-or'a 
Itúems iTcrc puMisLcd aíiít bis dantli bj 
Illa lirattiar, G.t Hailcíii, lOll, Ito, e-niL 
TíBjc TfiprlDlWl Ln lftl3 [ but iIíej Jiad baea 
cIhoIhIhA In US. rrocn tha üme^ lie «■» nt 
Uhi DnlvenHy cf SalauíkDcaí,. vliere be 
K>:14ed Blx ytikra. lUdied InieíO. Pcl- 
liser, Blb.,Tcrm. II. p. ]ÍS. 

« " RifiiM dfl Clirtsti»SLl lie Mesa," Ma- 
drid, leil, laiñui LO wlileb nJd bbouC 
jirtj HDuiit^lB in thu roluiiíú nt liia (mnn- 

lallun DÍ "V'ifsil'a Ecluinn'*, MMrlIl, IlrlH, 
l:ímo. Hí* iintiou or liEuincir In ia u luic^ln 
Icai epiítle ta Ita Count de Lviuns, vlien 
be tros gaiugí nsTieeinj bi SapIcOi (ElmiiB, 
1 1E(,] i-ivl !b such B» to sboír Ibat Iic tiaa 



samioaB U¡ üo a mcmbcr of tliaC pnetrrail 
■T0117I, ntu l miicb HtsafipolDl;-:)] at hEa 

*> Die pnetry or hath waa prEnlrd 
íd 1603 ; \>V\. 1 Ai> niit (tod any miintioii 
c-f the «SiKt tliBG wliPlí cfl-lier of tteni 
iiT«l, und am Qot iialtectirtuiti tliRt Jyijio 
de SoEB Is iiH>i. tbS! |>U!ít wJiu McuTe t^tteq 
is. ibs v\i CanciobsroB. 1 nlirtit üava 
added U Ui<! uollcü ■>r Uifii put'try b n»- 
tlix ot Bomc 'D'f ihe T«rae iu au msctlc irsA ■ 
I17 KUlan d'& Cliald«, callcil "La Cou- 
Ti;ri3liiri de le MjLgdalcna," confietlnE of 
iiinhfta, y'er4Lau& af tbe Psalnu, eu., 
wJilüh are varj plíaainp. llie beít, bow- 
íveí, — ñfi i*lii on the Uive iif Mary Mjig- 
tlalizii Uí Hic Siislnur aElcr liia resarrcütiim, 
— Ii- en gtitsBly ainutnrj ln lia (anr. that 
Ita pcctiOLl uietit ln mucb. rlitmnedl by It. 
Ed. AlEiJi, 1692, lano, f, SKI. 



C«AP. ZXIX.] LEDESHA AND THE C0NCEPT1STA3. 15 

Oonceits," aa he called a volame which was first tuIiwih 
printed íd 1600, aad which afterwards appeared c!^J^ 
8Íz times dariiig its author's life, are so ftiü of ■'"^ 
quaintnesses and exa^erations as to take from thcm 
ne^-ly all poetioal inent. They are religioua, and owed 
their Bnccess partiy to the preservation of the otd familiar 
forma and toaes, bot more to the pcrverse ingcnuity with 
which they abonnd, and which they cootributed mucli to 
make fashioaable. ludeed, at that time, and TCry much 
ander the leading inflaence of Lcdesma, therc waa a well- 
known par^ in Spanish literatura called the " Conccp- 
tástas " ; — a aect composed, lo a conaiderable degrcc, of 
mysticB, who expressed themselrea ia metaphora and 
pnna, alike in the pulpit and in poetry, and whoac in- 
floence waa ao extenaive, that tracea of it may be fuund 
in many of the principal writera of the time, inclading' 
Qneredo and Lope de Vega. Of thia achool of the Con- 
ceptistas, thongh Qnevedo waa the more brilliant maater, 
Ledeama waa the original head. Bia " Monatmo Imagi- 
nado," or Fanciful Monster, first printed in 1615, is little 
elae than a series of allegoríes hidden under the quibblea 
that are heaped upon them ; beginning with ballads, and 
ending with the short prose fiction that gives its ñame to 
the volame. Several of the poems it contains are on the 
death of Philip the Second, and sound very strangcly, 
from the irreverence with which that important event ia 
treated, both in its political and its religious áapects. 
Othera, which are on secular anbjects, are in a tone evcn 
more tree'. But the little he has left that is worth reading 
ia to be aought in bia "Spiritual Conceits," where thero 
are a few sonnets and a few lyrical ballads that are not 
likely to be forgotten.* 

M 8eduio, Pkniftso Eipañol, Toio. T. p. Chrlito," ec., Uaarid, ia2í, I2mo. One of 

zzzL Lope da Tega prsUeB Ledeuna tbe eturlieit, and, I beliere, ooe of the bett, 

more than anee, oDretisoiiablr. HU^Coii- «f the inluton of Ledeama «a* AIodio 

ceptoB," in the ñnt editlon, Madrid, ICOO, Bonilla, «ho Ib «ald bj Qarangos lo huTO 

li a miaU volume of 268 leaTee, but I be- writcen, aotwithBtandlng hls afifectatloni, 

liere the iabnequent editloni cootaln more " eleganteB 7 hannonlosoa TersoB." Anto- 

poema. Híb "Juegos de la Noche Buena," nloCBlb.NoT.,!!. ]3)glTeBUie titlesof four 

Barcelona, 1611,(KlTadeneyra,TDin.XX'V.,) ot hlB poetlcal pablicationi, among which 

Iff BtiicUj forbldden by the Index Expnr- are hli " Nuero Janlin de Florea divinas," 

eatoriuB of leaT, p. 04. He alio imCe (Boeía, IfllT,) chlefly lacred Irrlcal yene, 

" EpigramaB y Oerogliacos a la Tida de and " Nombret 7 Atributo* de la Virgen," 



THE CULTOS. 



■[Pkiiiod n. 



But there was a more formidable party iü SpanÍBÍi 
literaturc tliaii thiit of tlie Canceytistas ; oiie thiit aroso 
aboat the samo timo, and prcvailed lopffer and more in- 
jurioaBly. It was that of tho "Cultos"; or 
tho writers who claimed for themaelvee a pecu- 
líarly elegaut and ciütivated atyle of compositionr aad 
■wIiQ, wliile endeavoring to juslify tbeJr claime, ran into 
the moat ridiculouB estravagances, pedantry, and affectar 

tÍDDS. 

Tliat such follies ehould thrive more in Spain than 
elsewhere was natural. The broadcst and truebt pathe 
to intelletítual dietmction were there cloeed ; íind it wae 
uut remarkablc, thorcfore, tliat men should wander into 
by-ways uud obecure receseea. Thcy -were forlndden to 
SOSA Qf strug'glc hoDCstly and openly foc trirtli, and 
dnpiitiim. pleased themselves with brilliaut foUies that wers 
atleast freefrom moral mischlefa. Beapotic govemments 
have BOnietiiüeR aoug-bt lo amuse an oppresaed multitude 
■with holiday shows of rope-dancera and fireworka. Neíther 
tke ministcra of ríulip the Third and Fbilip the Fourth 
ñor the luquÍBÍtion parttcularly patronized the false etyle 
, of writing- that prevailed iu their time, and Berved to 
amuse the better educated portiona of aoeiety. But they 
tolerated it ; and that wae euough. It became fashion- 
able at court iranio di ately, and in time Btruck such root 
in the soil of the wliole country, and eo flourished there, 
that it has not yet been completcly eradicated.* 

It Wtt9 not, however, ¡i» Spain alone that such folIí<?s 
were bnown. From the middle of the fifteeiitli'century, 
when a knowledge of the great maetcre of antiquity had 
become, for tíie flrat time^ common amoTig echolars 
^roQghout the West, efibrts had beea made to build 
up and cultívate a Btyle of writing not unwonby of their 



so. (Boets, 1024) B rellgtons paem of tvo- 
■IderaUe lengüí, much ptuljwd by Lupe ile 
Vega. 

m Moro BipAiUto, P&rls, 1804,9*0, Tom. 
I. p. í^l. Ic H sorl b! DliLl-iigiiu vi -Uie 
l>eaij, nrlLUn Hilli more ju^Igmeiit nuil 
t&Bta ilvnQ ^ns ^oí^iQC'D ai. (he tímp vhiín 
H sj.ptiyí.*!l, C17MJ Lule VI»"!*, lili! great 



■cbnluT, la maáe k> say, irhen 
tpuiiliiiig a( che dcciLjf oT Iclleía Id Konie ; 
"FoeB qutcD po ti hnbcc «uccdldu cuco 
nklimu En imcslta. Eaiiaüa y hüber jMu 
Jj^QD^iut^iito pL iIvgGú c]c hrillor 8l ijiii? i^or- 
ri3rii|il'í TLuvslToa PBtu41oB J " Dcseog^ñd 
il malofl TrBdm'lorJi pnr Amolác EilOllOS| 
Miiili-iil, 178*, 18bw, [1. a». 



Cn*P. XXIX.] 



leitlOD OF DAD TASTE. 



IT 



example in tlie langtiages of Üie principal countries of 
Eiircipe. Some of Ihe-sc cEforta wcw wisely inario, anJ 
resulted íd the productioii of a series of authors tliat uow 
constitute the recognízed poets and prosp'Writerft of 
Chrifitendoni, and ernulate tho modela OQ whicb thcy were 
more or leas formed, Otheta, misled by pedunli*y and au 
unsound judgment, liave long sijice faJLen ínto otlívitiu. 
But tlie perifjd when such efTorts wcrc made wHh the 
least t»ste and discretioa vob the latter part of the six- 
teenth century and tho bcginuing of the seventeenth; the 
I period when the Pleiades, as they were ca.]led, prevai!«;d 
fin Flanee, the Euphuists ia Kngland, and the MariuSeti 
^íd Italy, 

How far the bad taete that was fashtoiiable for a timo 
in these several countne» had an efl'ect on the contem- 
porary tend^nciee of a eimilar kind Íii Spain, cannot be 
exactly determined, Probablj "what vf&s the Javorcd 
Ih-erature of London or Paria waa litlle knowri at Madrid, 
and lees cared for. But that whatever was done in Italy 
wa» inimediately carried to Spain, in the tiuDca of Philip 
the Second and Phiüp the Third, we haré abdiudant 
proof." 



*i It I> a «trUálDR and im^ortauC ü^t, te 
htí bLken [u Ihifl cnnuEN^tloD, CtiiLt Lupe de 
V^n, thougb npirwed lo IJi4^ ai^vt Hctioral 
upon |jHacÍ|jle, wüm a. cnnvflpikrielffiít .^4 
ndinirer of MArinl, — wha t tlj^r^Jf w(m< off 

9-pJ^JÜfl^ OTi^n &Tld pHfllj «dlLCUliGCl la 

^pjütif — c^ vrbopk 1m HECt blB porLraEL lund 
doliOBled B pli^y > &nil DiT wliom, in tbc 
«xEmvdgKnce oT tiis ñ&tlsjfy, its aiüil lliiut 
Taúdu «as but as 3l diLWU La Üis íuü glciry 
Df Muliii. Tür(>u.)i;b ttilB füuiiffiL. íbüTS- 
[DK, And. (Lroajcb muí; oChera, craccB cf 
whlth muy be f<miid tu tbe ci^Ueotlqn i! 
IiAllan «nlD^i «n Lope de Vceb, ve enu 
Bt anoa sh baw Huiul idís i'uLly huv» 
exQitlKd an iDflD«ii«« ovit ili« pocie cI 

I fipKln raDtHDpsTvj vlth bln, Sei' Lo^ie's 
•^ Judlit," ífl^tM, Tim, 1. p. iiS.} fine 
piinKH 1(1 102S, aua l\\* Dedti^llraii lo 
"VlTMíl. Pobre»» y >iaj6r" (t'üítu'ilLM, 
Tnm, XX-, Mjyirltl, Iflsn, r, SOS), Dut 
Jjipp's fflaUs wiK ta-r (nini wr?. Hí b&l 
(llstBliere (RmllciiHoB uf iba 'M'Ertlriilero 
Asunta"] pltuxti UanmiA aa tba «ame 
roDdng viib PtaioM. and Oarcllusa d« La 

-Ytfíí. 



Oí (he 1iiBi*pnna pf dnastca] untí^ulty 
li) G-cirrupLIn^ th^ ei^i|H!p diütllljin fit^Le^ 
I íao-vi cf no inarjuiGe enr1l?r Ümn tbat ot 
Tsaca pinz do Fn'XL-riat, nbo putallabLil »■ 
c4LrlyDslU7- HU ulijuct leema to Iihvh 
lieeii lo introduíS LuUdí wonli and cou- 
utrin^lfiLcg, Ju4C oí tbe Ple-liLilvs did. Ln 
^Rtoi?!?, al die aoDie tíme aind s. lillLc Lati^P- 
TliiB can íw leen iii íiia " Viílntt? TriunfüB," 
cIlLeflj -tft^v-EJU'd Iq a putfLÍL-al account oí 
crcDU La the lifc oF Cbarliíi V. i tixtk aa 
hift maiTlaiie, tbe fcirlli t>l bti eon FliLllp 
Il.ibla coroDation at Jkflaeoa, ew,, — ull 
irrltCen íq tbe oLd meMiiKii, and putil]»bed 
wítliiut iLoüce el the pía» or yvar, tnt 
iLecGBsaxUf aFKr 1£30, BJnce that vraa Iba 
date of Ibe KmpcTor'l DDrooatJciiF Tbiía, 
in tbí " Prahemls," where he apenlifl ot 
dfdii:a.tÍDig hi» "Twtmlj Tnuni|)tia " to Iba 
l^vcM? apwnldi DnlcfB, rrexenaJ layB: 
" UBi-te que la feTveDtlBtnia afL'cclqu, s la 
■iIiBsrT'AiitlEiinB Teriehbcian, rjiie i TUSBlm 
iiigTiií!Jmaji j FéLidsImAB Si^ñoraa áeio, A La 
dedicarían de mis Tclnl^ trl'Linplii>fl Uo Iboq 
cDnTlJoda. Coni-a qaie-ra qU6 mnJ (lorouoa 
ducalBB acEiui blI nDlIcla en U lodomLta 



IB 



LUIS DE GÚNGORA. 



[Pbrcod IL 



The poet wlio introduced " tbe cultívate^ style ■■' into 
Spanish literattirc, and whoBo iianiii that style has ever 
BiDce wortí, wae Luis áe Gíag'ora, a gentlemaD gf Cür- 
dova, who was born in 1581, and was educated 
at Salamanca, wtere it was intended he ehould 
qualify himaelf for the profesaion of the \a.w^ of wfíich bis 
iatber was a distinguiabed Omament, But it wa8 too 
late. The young mao's disposition for ppetry was a!- 
ready developed, and the onJy petTnaneDt result of his 
BtudioB at the TJmVersity ia to be aougbt in a large num- 
lier of ballads and other slig^ht composttíons, often filled 
"with bitter satire, but written wíth simplicity and spiñt. 

In 1584 he is Doticcd Ly Cervantes ag a knOwn author." 
He was then oiily twenty-three years oíd ; but he con- 
tínued to live in bis native city, poor and unpatrDnized, 
yet twenty years longer, when, to insnro a decent sub- 
HiBtencg for hia oíd age^ he toofc tbe tonauTe aud became 
a prieat. About the same time, Tre resorted to tbe court, 
then at Valladolid, and was there ín 1605, the year in 
"which Espinosa published his collection of poetry, to 
■wbich Góngora waa the largest contributor.^ But he 
was not moro favored at court thaa he had been at Cóu- 
dova ; and, after waiting" and watching eleven yeara, we 
do not íiud that he had obtained anything mpre than a 
titular chaplaincy to tbe king, a pleasaot note from the 



Zipaófe 310 bay, VírdoilcTiuiiciitc el pre- 

e&Dle es de poM pinjcio, j Ins □bnu del da 
mencii TAJor, j el BVloc dellu de metiai 
taLima. Pen sn apAtluu dMcrrikCietA, en 

Afe^cioBLoda SLlelidnd, y bu Q]ilQUr& sarrl- 
dumbr?, por ]aa iutbilLaimaq bonilitdeii, y 
TiteflbiatÍBÍ]iLas rirlnidce de YUCBtms eyac- 

De iBtinisea Ibbb Id Uib jiocms thut 
lúlloi^p b^obUBF ¡I is-inorü dinAtiiU to do it 
iVí Teruel biiL not bfoauae ba dizalrcs- It lefli, 
&a Lhu follut^injí tíuGH fnchin tbe ^' TiiuiDph-D 
Maplifcl VanJalico" (í. Ii.) prora platn- 
1S: — 

Al ««mpoi lut t\ nilmioída 

A|Hila IDtiy nrlini 
£iitr«Tii r-Ti b1 pnracr-gEdido, 
Do TLiiEcrú tí VH-UU lltJntdD 
En il djnt-norJiü i 
Posado tí iiuetto ño Al 
Da It )4M|jCrlct ctcLíiD, 



Por BÍ cuniD ocpirknUl 
Eqoltuida tu BüeUtpm, 

Tlnifl La very dlfftreat fruía wfaaC was wíU 
tfimpted bj Jujid de U^ful n NQtiuy 
herore ^ "he havin^ dcsártcl anly f^ taiís 
IniIlviditHl L«il[n WDnls, Hjid bDi^trl^g Ijttie 
of cLaBaCcttl anLiquity ; wliereHB FTfiXVIUll 
«iBhí3, ÍQ MnntaiRiiB'a pUrasí, " tó 14110- 
ií£," Bind glye La his CofLI^Eaii, a&Ct^tlCi^S L 
Rom-ELii iLÍr UDd ooQBtnL(?[JQD, b|]il M niay 
Lave bet^D, U) a ceTtojQ FilGn^i Itl^ p?e<lG- 
C!«£Hüf of GougarA, Anl^inla lu^nLi^jas tw-v 
or tliree otbf^c «úrl:B nf Frespas.] Id pmiE', 
dili^FI/ ra)l);iifUB, irLii^li E Ijuvc n?ver Bees f 
but I llave aoini> ridJimÜDiiB vi^.[w(^b, prliitjE4 
U tb? «Dd of hia D-mllüe encitled >' Jardin 

" O-alstci, ti. nsi, Tsm. II. p. SU. 
•» Píllicer, Tidji de CcrvBHüep, Ju Dun 
Quliculti,Tsm. I. p. cziT. 



Cmat. XZIX.] los de GONGOSA. 10 

patroDÚiiig Coant de Lemos,** the good-Datarcd SkvoT of 
the Doke de Lenna «nd the Marquis de Siete IglesiaSf 
and the general repntation of being a wit and a poet. 
At last be was noticed by the all-powerfíil faTorite, tbo 
Connt Doke Olivares, and seemed on the point of obtain- 
ing the fortone for wbich he bad waited and watcbcd so 
long. Bnt at this moment hia bealth failed. He re- 
tomed, langaiahing, to his native city, and died there íu 
peace &oon afterwards, at the age of sixty-^iz.** 

Mach of the early poetry of Oóngora Í8 in sbort linea, 
and rema^able for its aimplicity. One of hia lyrical 
bailada, — be^ning, 

The loveltest maidea 
Onr TíUage haa known, 
Only yesterday wed, 
To-daj, widowed, aloae,** — 

contains an admirably natural ezpression of gríef, by a 
young bride to her mother, oq the occasion of her hua- 
band's beiiig suddenly called to the wars. Anothcr yct 
more lyrical, — wbich begins, , 

Te fresh and soft breetee, 
That now for the Bpríng 
Uufold yonr bright garUnds, 
Sweet Tiolets fling,^— 

is, again, ñill of gentle tendernesa. And bo are sorae of 
his religioQS popular poems, which occasionally approach 
the character of the oíd viUancicoa. 

His odes of the same períod are grave and stately. That 
on the Armada, which must ' have been writtau as early 
as 1S88, since it contaios the most confident predictions 
of a TÍctory over England, is one of the best ; and that 
on Saint Hermenegild — a prince, who, in t]^ sixth cen> 



» Mbthu y SIbcu, Cartai, Tom. L ' U Lb mu bella bU* 

n 12^, I^ nufitCro livir i 

M B^ Uta llfc, by hia friend Hokb, pre- ?''JÍ"!^',:^ 

flied to hll WorkB, Madrid, 1664, *to. Ohi« d« Otogw». 16H, f. M. 

Hlí portralt viu palnled by Velaiciuex, and ge Fratoot tmallloi, 

li now In the Boyal Chillery at Madrid. Qaet|ii prlmuaent 

BttrtlriK'i ArUitB of Spain, ISiS, ToL n. I>Mt«iel> galrnBldu, 

pp. 587, 688. ^ Mpanwii tíoIíIm. 

Ib., c ttt 



tülS DF GONGORA- 



[Pkbiod IL 



tury, partly for hia reBÍstance to AiianÍBm and partly for 
political rebellioQ, was put to death by his own faÜier, 
and aft.erwar(la canonizcd by the Cbureh of Rotue — íb 
iiill of fervor and of Ihe gpirit üf ÜathoHc devotioQ. 
Both are amoug tho good spedmens of the more formal 
SpaDÍBh üde. 

But this poctry, which is of a hígh order, and all of 
whtch seema to havs been written before be weat to 
conrt, and while ho lived neglected a.t Górdova, failed 
to givc him the honora to which he aspired. It faiJed 
oven to give him the meane of living. Moved, pcrhapa, 
by these circuniBtaTiCGfl, and perhaps by ihe succe&s of 
Ledesma and Ma conceited echool, Góngora, ■with es- 
traordinary boldnesa and dcciBion, adopted another styk, 
and one that he thoug-ht mote likcly to command atten- 
tion. The most obvious feature in this style ia, that it 
conBÍutB almost cntirely of metaphora, ao heaped one 
upOTí íinothcr, that it is eomotimos as difficult tu ñnd out 
the meaning hidden under thelr grotestiue maas aa if it 
were absolutety a sedes of coiifused riddi&s. Thus, whea 
hil f'riend Luis de Bavia, in 1613, published a volume con- 
taining- the hiatory of three Popes, Góngora seut bici the 
following worda, thrown into tlic shapc of a commeuda^ 
tory sonnet, to be prefixcd to the book : — 

" Thia pocm, which Bavía has now oñered to the worltl, 
if uot tied up íq numbera, yet i& liled down into a good 
arraugeraent, and licked into shapc by tearniíig, is a cul- 
tivated histoiy, whose gray-lieaded style, thou^h not 
metricsl, is comhed out, and robs thiee pilota of the 
sacred bark from time and reecues them írom oblivion. 
But the pen that thus imm.ortahze8 the heavenly turnteys 
On the bronzea of it& history is not a pe'lj but the key 
of ages. It^opena to their ñames, not the gatea of failing 
memory, which atamps ghadows <m maases of foam, but 
thoBfi of ímmurtality," 

The tneaning' of this, as it is fiet forth in ten pages of 
commentary by one of his admiréis, is as follows ; — 

"The hi&tqry which By,via now ofíer?; to the worid ía 
not, indoed, in verae, but it ¡b wrrtten and flnished ín the 
tpirit of irise learning and of poetry. Immortahzin^ 



[Cbap, XXIS.] 



LUIS DE O^JUGOHA. 



21 



three Fopes, it bccomca the key of ag^s, opening to tlioir 
naiaCs^ not the gates of memory, wbich oftCn give passage 
to a transient and fnlse fame, but tliu gatee of eure and 
perpetual reuowti/* *' 

The extravagíinoe of the rnettiphors used lij- Gdngora 
■was ofteti aa remarkable as their cofifufliotí aiid obscu- 
rily. TbuB, wlien, iu 1619, juet aller tbe appearatice of 
two coroets, one of his friends propOBDd to accompany 
Pliilip thG Third to Lisbon, — a city foiiaded, according 
to tradition, by ülyaBus, — G¿ngora wrote to Jiira, " Wilt 
thüu, in a jear when a plural comet cutg out mourning; 
of evil augiiry lo crowtis, ti'ead iu the footeteps of the 
wily Cfreek ? '■""' Aad ag-ain, iu bis fir^t "Solitude," 
Bpeaking oía lady whom be admired, be calla her "a 
maíden so bcautiful, that she migbt parcb iip Norway 
with her two auna and bleach Ethiopía with lier two 
banda." Bnt though Ibeae are extreme cases, it is not 
to 1)0 demied tbat tbe latcr poema of Odngoru are oftcn 
mndc uüintelligible OT absnrd by eimilar extra\'agfLiic;e8," 

He did uyt, bowever, stop bere. He introduced new 
words ínto hís verse, chicfly takcn from tbe ancient clas- 
Bical languagCB ; he used oíd C'astJliaii ■WQrd& in ciew atid 
forced meanmgs ; aiid he adopted involved and niiiiatural 
couBtriiCtions, quite íbr^i^n from the geniua of tbe Spati- 
iafa. The consequence waa, that hía poetry, though uot 



" A iK Teretnv l'ftrUs -Je Ift HinLotia Pon- 
pcllim dfl la Capilla Real üi UmDUiia. 

Eiíe lo* DntUol muTiiloii; hacfteclclo 

P4<mii, il DD kaumaKM lUdu, 

Dula dl^MBÍBÍini .uiUa IIdibiIii. 

y ilf ]•' tradlDlDD deijiuei IuqIúq, 
Hlrlnnn fi rnka. cu^n iin[:HnviL-l¿a 

Ejidlü. «iiiD mqlrli'Oi p^^lnddo, 

Tm j% riEiMi llul vam^) «njcnliln 

HurU ai llitnpo, y fiüiimB r|rl oIbIiIj. 
F1iiiiiii« pi:na, qtH' cliiieriíir ci^Icrtlnlti 

£WfDLu pQ liH liruBrvFilii IU hÍBtf>r<B. 

Umip n}fe Je lirj lUUi, f Da a)dTinia^ 
£13a ■ lup acmbriB puor^ licmqrtiJcfl 

/bre«]iD 'Id Eiiilut^H un mcnvurli, 

CjnBKiinbpu fDlEa. «Q tumti1(ird« «AjiTimii, 
Q&dgnra, (Ibrai, l(VH,{.l,, 

Thci>i>tnineiiliu'J io !□ Coronel, Obrna ite 
Gírj/HIS r.Hiitnliuliií, TfrtD- II. Parte I., 
Mbdrtd, lUb, pp. 149 - 159 ; bul it ih[<Dl J 
be Doted, tMt the eoDCludltig libtM ue bs 



ob»care, Iftall.awiníroílicn, LID. H. c.Jí) 
gívea tbCTU b dltTersDt LuterprüUitluti, ■d4 
niiilBralsivIs tbe pltrue, " stamplag fbn']- 
ovi oD muiíes oí fauD," la r^rcí; ca Ibv Mi 
i»r pKDÜILg, «liii^ll io Dftfn prñlíCA LhCHIO 
«ho du Dot deurvg It. The Kh'Ai liinnBt 
il cltnL wia, númlratioD by QraoiMl, " AgU- 
dezA7Artei]elD^iiJV')>]B<raCK XXXII, ; 
k wiirk whLcb n% mii^l mealLoD btruAor 
U Ibe arl uf pol'lts ÍM ttie euffe Khoolj 

DEiiL hs tiiK «diiui-s Of iht " QUtId d« IM li- 

IcratoB de Eniiafia,"— Uieti (ht belMi tiute 
tbiuL n&a Anbiinuu iik lliíir tíraa, — whn re- 
pronchol Lunfth, Whíti Ihi'/ re'VítiTed bis 
" Poíliía" Ib 1138, wíih bíliía tío wiers 
-nu iliii «xtnbirdlriu? ni:fli«me. lADim, 
Sánenme Apolaeítlco de Louui, Punulono, 

1740. 1-Jraci, rip. 4a-7S. 

w ohrii», f. aa. 

"> la the KCDod eoi'd. 



22 



LCIS DE GdSGOHA. 



[Pebiod H. 



witliout hrilliancy, eoon becatne unintBlligible. Tliie ís 
the case wilii otie or two of hin souneta and other poema, 
príjitecl as early ag 1605 ; *' and still more witli his longer 
poema, sncii as hía " Solitudes," or DeBerta, hia '■' Polj- 
phemuS," hia " Panegyric qn the Duke of Lerma," oaá 
h¡8 " Pjramua and Thiebe ; " none of whích appoared till 
after hia dcath." 

CommeEttarioSr tberefore, were aeceBsary to explain 
theni, even while they stiU circiilated only íd 
ttj-k"^" mauíiecript. The earlieat were prepared, at hie 
"^™' own requeat, by FelLiccr, a acholar of much 
Tcputattoñ, who puLlíshed them ín 1630, under the title 
of " Sdema Díacourses oti the Works of Don Luis de 
Gditigora," espreBsidg, at the same t\m^, bis feara that he 
míght Bometiiuea ha?e failcd to deteot the meaning of 



Ule üm« he wesi. la court ; aiiiil Ihe \i¡-s 
flíBi of his soimití in BBpInoea'í "^ Florea " 
is ptmt Qmt. Ji^ bad iliuigcd it u c^ly 6i 
laos. 

" OraKatü DiBdi! no üoilecüon of hia 
worta, Like nmny oibet Spaniaráe, either 
Ule i11(Diiilt7 oE procuri&s lIBrniinSion tu 
[irltii, ^or the duDirereiu coMCq.diiBccB of 
prtntin^ TCbaC mtjilit be sabiequetitlf ítund 
ohiuisious M)«ílesÍ4StlíaileeMlli*, — oran 
•wirLUta£iiesB iú Appanr aa a tnnfuaGd 
HUthDT, vbich WU Uiuiifht ta intErfoi^ 
wmwwtiat fritti elie dlt-nití of a óabnltero, 
— Ésma ODE at Uieu (HiisUífAlJoaí, iit nH 
l^^Uier, pi^ventad hia ínvia <i\SeHag hiic- 
wlf •(> ttii pukllc Bi B poet. But bli po- 
tOj waa, gitwfiinB M Che faobion qf bjí 
tima, macfí clrctiJfetad in MS,, odcI ereatly 
bdinín»! by Ule SAeltulV't.'a aiiii l]i¿ cvurtly 
ilurÍDi^ Dll the liitMr IiáTt uf hiA Lifil. 
AmDDg Uoae miMt «amedl !□ Ihflir 1iutna«e 
«BE Dan Jdui Lupes ie Vlcilñlt, vlío, túí 
tireDty yoia tiuf^re the poct úitú, Wia 
em [ilcjifd Ld Kulbeilng all Iiaeiuld ñuH vi 
C)iiigDTii.'tl pDiícilB, and in ID^T, bitrdlj » 
;viu Bller h¡E desLlh, pnbli&bcd tb«ai ttIiIi 
Ule- ImpoBtEE tílk of "Obras en verso 4el 
Homero üappáol," DQt decmintr El- n«(]liil 
lo BiliDDuncs tb«tT nuthcr muri! dlEClnuUr. 
Tliíj make a volumi^ uf 3ÍIJ papr^, Ld 4to, 
uid It jfl hd i«ji:, tb&l I huTe ueT«r ««□ 
aufíupy otit, excepi BD]' úiTD- Itia.bow- 
evüp, iLD iiDiHi'rUat büuk, a» It ta l)i£] fiínn- 



eoMicÜiúe uf GóflgoTei'& wtiTkn. Id Mb 
Pr«[¡v;:e, Tlüuña aays cbuL Güagara D«ver 
k«i>ttbe ef]glnali oí his ptK^s, and thal 
n'ljcQ tbe fií^pLUE In clTiítilatlun Tter^ sliawii 
to bim he cltca faíled !<■ Ncogiiizu 11i<jid, 
— su ujuch «riíte tln-y nHvMd tiy fiuatiísire 
tfdi]»erii»i(>D^ Tbe valuiúe nf Vitniiá ia 
Lbt ii>>i>re iitifnrHint, bscaiustí W4 fcoi^Evit iJi 

tb« píi«ini! iC eijnUlrtS Ib (hr b£eit rni^ BUcb 

& liuf e t>i3riiiUíi, fh'ib u fíieíi<l of ihcir im- 

Iboi, and bcíaliH MVCr.S.1 ot lli^U ^1% DOt 

rauuil In tbc Ibtne coüecilonn, tbuu^h theie 
latot ocea uc u<>r« ampie. Two al Uia 
pDUEDií.oiDltted allerwsTiJB, [in panlsnlu'ij 
ÍDlcn'dtiDR rnim thelr olirious refcrvocc M 
tiiináelf t — újií beEÍDnlnii;, " Sí u gatlar 7 
PKMDder," (L iei9,>'iiiD tb4lir« dI s t>craim 
at sanrt eoLnr, na Ósngtn-n dif! ío Latí?, Tvi 
plnGc and iiDtruiifltre i IIqU ttlB tiítiet, Tie- 
ginnintr, " Dulce musa picaril," (f. 1D7,) 
nbi<:k iLüiicrlbi; 9 hin oirD mctrs miscbisTous 
vciiL irt poittj w\it¡ pleaaact wic. 

FabtuíCli; tltlea, Ulte tlie une c! tbc toI- 
Dme Jmt d-Eseilbed, sKta ta haré been 
thiiu^bt B,ppropriat« to Q<SajrDTa''s itotIee, 
an<ll ÍQ fiíct «Tere Eo. IrloBt of bi£ pofina 
««re tiabllslied at Earcelona in ISíO, vrltb 
tbefolíD-vlDEiiile. — "Ueliviaa ilcl FiruBí!» 
vn qu9 ae elfran CodH Ihm Rcimaneep lirt^sH, 
amorotoi, ifuilEiciDB, fivtme y dJ^iioiu iiei 
(«gMiJv'i iüt) lie laaUasBí, ti pradificE^ 
Van LulB de QriagAm." li ¡2 Lii liing' 
12iao, í>p. 701, sal iben is a eapy !□ tJ3« 
Blbilctb^riue de TArsEnal al futa, — th'a 
ODl; uü« I bAVG eier aeeo. 



CHAT. SXIX.] 



SCHOOL OF GtÍNQOBA. 



28 



what was often really aa obscore.** Ttiey were followed, 
in IfiSfl, by a defence and explimation of tho *' Pyrauma 
and Thisbe," from Salazar Marilonea.*' And, betwocn 
that year and 1646, Ihp seriea was clo&ed witli aii elabó- 
rate cotnmentary of above Eftee» hundred pagcs, by (íar- 
cia de Salcedo Corooel, bimaelf a poet." Tt> tliese were 
added coutemporary discQBsiona, by Juan FráncífiCo de 
Amaya, a jurist; by Martin Ángulo, in reply to an at- 
t&ck of Cuac&les, the rhctonciau ; ajid by otbersj niilU 
the amount of the notea on Góngora's poetry waa tonftild 
greater thaa tbat of tbe toxt they were intenJod lo 
elucídate,'** 

FoUowers, of cour&e, w^uld oot be wantíng to one 
who waa Bo famous. Üf these, the most diatin- Brhoniui 
guistied in rank, and p^rbaps iu merit, was the "•'ftPt». 
Couiitof Villainediana, — tbe earao unfortiinate nobleman 
l'wbose YCty bold amd ptiblic assassinatiou was attributcd 
tu the jealouBy ofPbilip tbe Pourth, aud created a viiia„,^ 
aensatioü, al. the time it bappencd, in all tbe courts i"»^ 
cf Earope. YiHamediaDa was a man of wH aad fásbíon, 
whoee poetry wag 4 patt of bis pretensión» as a courtier, 
and was not printed till L629, aoven yeara after his death. 



I tt JuH. PeOlecr 7 Tolnr, In Lta •■^T.a^ 
cluses Scilotnnls," (UBiliia, LB3I>, 4to, 
Cül.SHI-iirj and Mil,) espls'lD& bis- po- 
MiííiiO Ja K^tioD Eo Qúny^oF^ aih^ |}ts Ir^a- 

pungas IQ his wortH I lluu JuHJryiBg 
«hat Lhu Frinee -af l^vllwdH ñu, ]}nü- 

Biii; la Febrpnee to ttMe t«j oemmeii- 

(Hler: — 

QDDluiiGrpdüu ni mulor. 

El Pnndpu ) tu LlbrOr 

Ig bU linIQ«iU« Hit al PeMiítr'i 
wotJu ia A^MOio (Bib. Nu-r., II, Bn- Bltl), 
but all 1 hmye eMr Stíb oF Ihi'm ari; lu the 
voTBt EiMte. Hq «u born la 10(13 and 
dlFil la 107(1 -; !ko£ ta he btigad tu iriHtB 
wti«Q be «m dq17 □ínet^en, he fajS üme 
enoa^h In bla Iod^ lué ta wrili! H ijtva^ 
deal. 
U " nuBtraobm j Dthaia do la FibulB. 




da Ptramn y ttaba de ChrlsUTil ds S&Iuu 
MsrdonEs.,'" Uudrid, 16310, 4Co. 

*• Ttierc i» ñ.sotica oí Ounwiet ia Antc- 
ntc, ^Jb. Nova. Tho lEinte Taluniei oí íúa 
'OncwniU'r? (Usdrid, ila, 1KMI-4Q) ooo- 

the iíNDil lKCQf dUidüil luu ciru putH. 
A4 a pMt hiinatílf, lio prlnUd in Upilrid, 

1950, 41o, ü voluin* whiib ttcnJItl" Ciys- 
Hkln from Hellúou." une oí tbe wsiíl pro- 
dncljojia of {h« ocblMl «T OiiDgani. 

H ABttrnlo, aítlulii LwlflvtcaB' do Ova- 
gora," inentinnfl lile lalcntrcttmHKiiUitoTfl. 
The nUuak uJ Ga»:aleB, wbo tecmE ntiui 
lO'bfi íbunjugb iril-lt It, Is is bla " CoKat 
FhiloliÍKisaB-" MRtlltt de Ang[iLi''a MplJT 
to CnsGates ií «dÜÍIcA " JEplstolU uUlfiíe. 

itDríBj ¿ 1u£ olijeiici linca nue opiud i 1m 

])aíMn40 <le D. Luis d6 O'^agont eL UcCDEb&a 
Francloon CoBcalfa," GraDBdik, ISSi. At 
tbe eud bn Inserta n Ibl of Ul4 poeti ba. 
lüsiglii^ to Üiiiigoro-^J iKbdil, trbivh Í9 
cnjiiud by Gayuugiie. li ciiiuprüiCB lusrly 
tblrty namci, fuw oí wtiich are . üoír re- 
tnciabered. 



u 



SCHOOL OP GÓKGOEA. 



, [PiKioD n. 



Somo of it ÍH wTitten whhoiit afTectatíoTí, — probably the 
€arlier portioDS ; but, in generalj both by the cboice of 
liÍ8 8ubjectfl, — Buch as those of Phaeton, of Daphne, and 
of Europa, — anii by Me mode of treating tbem, he bears 
■wítness to bis imitaf-ioQ of the worat parta of Gdngora'a 
worlts. Hís Bonneta, of whích there are two or three 
hnndrcd, are in every style, aatiricalf religioHB, and sen- 
timetita!, aud a few of bis miscellaDcous poems bave 
something of thc older national air and tone. But he ia 
rarely more inteUigible tban his master, itud iievcr shows 
hia maater's talcnt.*' 

Aiiuther of those that favored and faciütated the suc- 
cess of thc new ecbool -wag ParaviCmO, who died 
En 1633, and whoae position as the popular court 
preacher, during- the laat sixteoQ jears of his Life, enabled 
him to introduce " the cwltivated etyle " into the pulpit, 
and help its ciiiTency atnong the higher classes of ao- 
ciety, Hia poetical worka were not collectcd and pub- 
lisbed till 1641, when they appeai-ed imder the imperfect 
disguise of a paii, of his family name, — Felis de Arteaga. 
They fill a sraall volume, wbicb abounds in sonnets, and 
contaíns a single drama of no valué. Tbs best parís of it 
are the lyríeal balliids, -whicb, though inyatical and ob- 
Gcure, are not witbout poetry ', a romark that should be 
extended to the narrative bailad on thc Lovea of Alfonso 
the Eig^hth and the JowesB of Toledo, "whicb Arteaga 



Fauravlilau, 



*• The queen, who was b, dAUghter d( 
Heory IV. of f'Tjini!<, was '>ne dij passlng 
thnmgh n guUerj oT tbu paUce, wl;eii 
lome ane ctune Tieblnd hee and co-veteil 
b» ejeñ wiih kia taDdB. "TVha,L ia Uiat 
íor, Cauílil!" shP esrlninied. £[|t, nii- 
liapiiUy fnr bfc, It wua duI, Olí Caimt, — 
H wos tLe Ving, Soon BlUrwnrd^ V^tU- 
iiiiiiiiui.li reocivffll B tÜBt Cq beoD tUaguari, 
ES hia Uri- vma In iluogE^r. lie ni!g|v{![eii 
tb^ rrLeiiiIly nutk^, Aod ws 4(^^^9910^104 

had buvQ vsry upen íd Líh a^dmjrntlpq gf 
Ibe qiiecQ, barlng, ou occa^Loa tit a tour- 
DaiD«Dt, EovErvd tlB p£TB>r>D wlth ailve-r 
r-talM iind tnlcsD Eti-e puBütng nurOjt, ~ 
"'Míe HmUTts bpd Tñal£t." (Ttla2qu.eE, 
DICK, 0~'<»lDBíD, lTe«, Bti, p. tiib.) Ad 
«UUaa ul bit VTorkg, aUdrld, 1K14, ía, 



with üJcditalinn in my copf dateiC lUS, 
ÍH u HltLe aitrc ampie, ¡"hp" Ui&t.V'f Oara- 
gínfif,, 10?9, 4to ; liut cint Ule beLWr (or it. 
Tlie Siturj ot the Cniiat'a iinbappy pru- 
S4|iipL1>>L| pud Taíe told a llttií: illifereatlr 
aay 5>e finind In Miid. d'A.ulniiy'a "Toy- 
JlgU ll'E?pp.EHí!," ed. 1988, tnra. TI. pp. 
n-31, íinl Ifl fhe Striklns bnHiula of 'lio 
Plífíil al lIXvRSyKuamaixñ Ili si 'VI coa, París, 
ISll, Bvo- 9eo, Qlflo, queveflo's" flrandtíB 
AnaU-s Oo Quince lilaa," and Oie noWa on 
It tfl tSe PiliKdteea ■ii? Blbaacneym, Tom. 
XXIH- p. BU- Gajaogm snyií itiat there 
1h tí v-alume at tlie iiupuI)lielL<-d poetry of 
VillnmciHint, cbiítij- filltil wltti ridluale 
íif üveiita iknd iwROtlí «t ttia l±inea of 
Ptilíp III. and IV,, Whlc!) la well Iznowa 
M TKreonH irurioan in sneb tpBttoTfi. BH» 
lUe laliía iiiEtíríodtoareallláiB. 



I 



Chap. SXIX] 



5CH0OL OV GysaOBA- 



25 



BeeruB lo hnve boen willing' to wríte in Ihe older and 
bhaplvr stj'ie." 

Tliese were llie ]>riiiciiJiil persona whoBc exainple gave 
cunoiicj tu tlie new etvle. lu siiccess, howfver, de- 
peiided, iii a grent ii<'gYcv-, on the toue of llip !iig;her eluss 
ol sociut.v !iml thu favur yf tlie court, lu wliích tbt;y iiiu&tly 
belonged, uud in wbich tbeir works were geueriilly circu- 
luted in npa-uuacript lung bcfore they were |»riiited, — a 
praüticu idwaya i.íüaimciri in Spain, from Ihe rigoroiis nupcr- 
visiuit «xeicieed ovcr tfao prCBSj and tbe formidable oh- 
Blacletí tlirüwtt iti llie wny oí' all who were Rontíenied in 
ita maniLgemeiit, udiethcr as authorg út aa publiahers, 
Fashiou waB, no duubt, the great nieans of succeas lur 
tLe foilijwers of Gdugora, and it waa able to pusb llitíir 
iníluc-Dce very wi(k='ly. Tlití iiiitriur poels, ulraost with- 
Out exception. bowed to it tliroiighüut tbe couulry. Rafia 
y Sema publÍHliüd, in 1623. a collection of poema, called 
"Tlie Ligbt of tho Sou!," wUiírh was often repriiitcd 
betweesi that time and the end of tlie ceiitury.** An- 
tonio Lopesí de Vega, tieithcr a kiusman ñor a comitry- 
man of liis great uametsake, who, however, prateea bina 
mtich béyoiid bis menta, pritited Ms " P&rfect Gentle- 
man " in 1lí2Ü ; a polítical drcam, to "whic^h he addcd a 
Bcnall cüUcctiOD üf píteme of a natura üut more gubótao.- 
tial« 

Anastasio Pantaleon, a young^ cavalior, who enjoyod 
great conaideratiun at court, and waa aaeassi- p^wieon 
nated in the streets of Madrid, being mistaben «^'' oiteri. 
for anotlier perstin, liad bis poecDia colLected by the afiection 
of bis frignda, and published in 1684, ñvú júati after hia 



íl BneniL, nijos lic- Mailrld, Tcm. IT, p. 
S3fl. Hiñ enllrv Dikme w^ FlurtGnpto Fe- 
lii Paravlíluo y *rl*BR«.. WUy the wliula 

vera nat |>r4iited iiíí rW}t Ijíh denlli, iL Ls 
riiL eiLA^ iii ii^ll. Theiv ure eiLtrinn^ oí 
thcm ¡a 1(141, I&4&, u¡i Hito | thu tiut, 
Álcali, Uma. 
■•» Aralipwlo da Ift Bon*ja<rDO wn» a 

Tnoi, [. |>. aso, ti»d í'ua.LíP, 'f>nin. I. |i. JIB.) 
He Hecnii tu |>avd bpen v|L|]ii.'4] ILtlle\ «u- 
eept u s rtllslou» p-jet, llUl lia ww v»lnf(( 
VOL- III, S 



loag. I lisíB n enpy ni hls . " Ime del 
Almo," vitbciDt year or place, 1iut prinlad 

» " Bl Pi-rfcW 3cínp, Pqmíí» T«iIm," 
«t«,, MiuliM, lACÍ, 4ln, Bu vniik iiriiiu 
diirhi-ir Üiith 9 ii^iini'J " Sa-kilmies." nii 
triiilriiiulJ! ■ri'l íhurwr pncms «.re mure !ii- 
tclltglhlii. tUuiigli nana ore |cnod. Be ma 
B, PortUHUiíHí by birth, buC llved la ütndrld, 
whifpa liiMlleíl Bfler IflüB. (BnrlwMn, TirtD. 
I. p. ato.) Tbora afs two eitkÍLina uf hti 
wüFlia, 



86 



raoBA. 



[Period 1L 



deatli." A nun at Lisbon, Violante ñe\ Cielo, ¡n 1946," 3,ml 
Maiiüel de ilelo. íd 1649,'''' gaTo proofs of a pride in 
tho Castílian which we shonld hardly have expoctod just 
at the time when their native cüuiitry waB ümancipating 
itself ñ-om Üie Spa,mBh yoke ; but which cnabled Ibem to 
claim thc favor of fasbiün ulikc at borne and ¡a Madrid. 
Itx 16Ó2, Moncayo published a volume of liie owii cxtr¡»v*- 
gant verses ;" aod, two yeare later, perauaded hia iiiend 
Francisco de la Torre to pulilisli a BÍmüar cüUection in 
equally bad titóte.** Verg*ra followed, ijj 1660, uoder tiie 
affected tiüe of " Ideas de Apolo," " and Eozas, iu 1662, 
uoder une still more aOected, — " Couversatiüii without 
Cards."" 

Ulloa, who prcpared bis poetry fur the prcBs as enúy as 



JO Boetia, T«Bi. 1. p- 93. Tbe "vr^t ní 
[■ui'ULl(.''sn ue sbrl^ua lintUtdatiíi »( aún- 
gora, Biiniy b« K«B íu bis "fáljulu á« 
I'roaéTpLaL," "f íbulbde AIfe»!r Ar<i1UM," 
ctc-, IhoQgL p«rhap« HUÍ man ie. hit auD- 
net* au<l Uésimas, Thay wíre Orel priottil 
la liB-l, hus upr"=-iire'J i'pv?™! lioits «ti>.'r- 
TSaíút^ ivllh iliglit ii'iMllluiii, ¡Oy cupj tí 
DÍ Madríil, laU, ISlDa. 

1^1 VioUiitedel Cielo (dO Ose, ifiPoTtu- 
gneev) díeil in 109S, nini^Cj-ttro ytari culi!, 
Lnvlikf 'nrltten buü ijablieb^ ídodj' tqI- 
nm^B uf PQrta£utañ p^trj and proee^ 
prtcna of l^e cnnteDVfi oT HhLch OJV too ^at- 
íaM to bE yeiT nuiJUte. Dfr " RimsB," 
cbiefly Sinuile-hi ictb prinlail in ELutra^ 

thotn ÚiíA can be reod íb bu oúg on tbe 
deatb oí Ijüpp lie Vega (p. -M) ; Iboaifli ít 
■hould ba n4clod^ tbat some of ber ahart 
TüHüluii» pofmn, scuiterej elaewhcrü in her 
irortB, BTO Twccor. A Diimber of oíhíp 
PormguijBU ciutiílnuoj to wrlte wIiqIIj- or 
ocoaalDiaBlly la ^[ikalali sTtf r (be KpiiTstIon 
arda twa klngdnitia lin 1644. But Ibe^ 
xj-e DDt oí iiiifGuiviit ooQBequeme to be 
noted. TbH( thí litíraturti «■[ tlia iwo 
counlrlüi werp lutlinAldlf eunnected, and 
tfaot Portugutuí ufCen wrute In Bpanlali, 
tíiough few 5pBii[nnlH returneil llie conk 
pltmenl, we liaru Imú ncciuian frequonllf 
lo obi«rvv, rrt-ii) tlio time nt Q¡l Vicenle 
uul Siiiiile MirsiiiliL. 

■1 Bloio, wbo dl^d In loeo, wbb one oT 
the raoit niDoeuirul portUEUi^s* B.uttiurB □! 
hit Lima. (Bifboiiii, tiim. 11. ]i. 182.) Hl9 
"Trn HUUB ilvl Meiodino," a inlume 



centkLnlDB bla Spai^b poetry, ftnd eaa- 
atatiag, la a greitt neasiLre, al scnimt, 
baJEaiIt, wleí, bjuI Mbcr ahiirt Ijtíes, iniich 
[□ the uaium of Quered», oa well h cf 
a<SD|(ora, me. larliited tvioe. In 1H19 ud 
1605, — Ule Cemer, LísIka, 4M. But be 
iriE a. Iiue Putiui^chq nt bfctkrt. Hia 
"Erco PiiljrllPü " <l(il6), whlth ii un nb- 
lück on tba go-yerpmfíiil ni Plilllp IV., 
jiruveí Ihb lieyoni] all duiiLL Sec jioff, 

cbap. xxvm. 

'>' Moucayu la abo knoürn bj ]iU lltte 
sí Muniuis de Sun PelUxn. HIb |H>ema are 
«itllled " Blniaa de Bou Juan du Muacaj'» 
i Gui'irai," (CaTOKo^Ai 1953^ lio,} bilí! con- 
■Í3t al soiioeta. a^Váliula deVenun I Ado- 
Dilíi," Inlladu, eto. Laluica, Itib. Nueva, 
Tora. in. p. 3S0. 

^ "KDlreteiiSmleii'to ile las Muaaa en 
ntft Somxik Nuera dr Versos, dirldida en 
J^uiiiro Mnit^nn,'», ve., por Fénix de la 
Torri!," (Jnri>irB(;a, ISM, dio. Tlie litis 
Epenlcfl ííír itaelf. Hía proper Dame W^La 
FrnDclBco., and h.e vas & Murcian. 

U "Ydcaa ile Apnb ; Uj^na THreaa 
iLet Ocio CoFteaaao," MuilNd, 1ɻ1, 4(o { 
alxiundlup in Bonpeta:, rell^lüua biLlEada, 
a,Dil ojuclly I/rica. A (f« oí lia poeica 
are □ajn'al:! v-e, illie' one Id tbe bullad [urm 
|>[D Ihe Blorf üf LliLDoe, and HnottKr al tbs 
und inotCava rima, aa the Sniliiig of tba 
Tlrgld of BalvnDpni. 

M " Huube» da Itiríerco ; ConTaraaeloB 
«lo Nayp^Bj" Madriil, lÜBü, At». tbe 
■ecimd ]uirc ot tlüH volume conalsU of bUT- 
lujiiua paraií, full or mii^rabie pnot and 
Tinle-cEseea. 



Cn-*p. XXTX.] CO>'TEST CONCERSING CULTISMO. 



ar 



1653. but did not priiit ít till manyyears afterwards. wn>to 
Bometimea plcasautly arjil iu a purc styl^?, hiit often fuL> 
lowed thüt prevailing in bis time.*' And fiíjalty, in ItiTT, 
appcareii " Tlie H^irp of Aiiolla," by Salaznr, mucti like 
ilB ptedeceBeors, and quite wurthy in all respecte to cIobs 
np the Biíries." More ñames migbt be addtid, but thny 
woiild he of pemons of tegs noto ; and ev^n of tbose just 
ennmerated little is iiow remembcred. and Ivm rcad, Tho 
whole mass, indeed, \s üf CCnaequeaCf! cliÍL'íty to abow tbe 
wide estetit of the evil, and the rapidity witb whiuh it 
spread oti all sidcs. 

Th& dcpth to which it strui^k Hb roots raay, however, 
be better estiiniited, íf we cotisíder two thiiigfa : tbe UQ- 
availing eSbrts niude by the leadiug upirits oi'the age to 
resist it, and tlie fact, tbat, after all, they ibemeelves — ■ 
Lope de Vega, Quevedo, and Calderón — ytolded frora. 
time to tiene to the popular taste, and wrote in the very 
BtyEe thoy condemuod.'* 

Of these diátinguisbed men, the most promSnent, whether 
we coüKÍder tbe itifliitinjít he exercised over bis contem- 
poruries or the intereat he took in tbis particular dis^ 
ciiBsioD, waa, unduübtedly, IjOpe de Vega. Giíngora had^ 
at ao-me period, been personally kiiOwn to him, probübly 
wben he w-sa iu AndaluBÍa En 1603, or earlier. wben he 
waa haateníug to joÍn the Armada ; and from tbia time 
Lope always retained an unaflected respect for contost 
the Cordovan poet's g^eniuH, and alwaya rendcred ^'Í^J^^' 
fall justíce to bia earlier merite, But be did not 



K ■* OlitBi át Dfin L11S9 d-e HIIdii, Pnans 
j" Vepao*,''' chf vhicli the «eccand ixl ilion iTfik 
puhllehci] iif hU sor, nt Miiilrid, IB^l, 411. 
Btíut» nf tLd reUplaiiB gx-erru, In llie olí] 
mvunnt», hit urcuii^ tliu bust of itic 
vnlumr; buc iTie verj Ikbi !e tbe "&&- 
qllel/' tn íibaat elfllLly octave aloeiijib, oil 
tha ewtj at tbt lova of Altonta Vttl. Iof 
UiQ Ur JíflieM DÍ Tiiled-o. 

M "OfHísra de ApolV' — puHliihed 
BftíT its aulhor'i d.L-Hili hj Tfra T]kaeli y 
Tillaroel, " hl» gríflH'at frknd "■ 1 — Ih* 
same pprsíin wtin crn]|iH'mi| ¡mi pulilishcd 
the |)lay* of Cuiilnroii, (¡(vicig btme^ll the 
aanie boMifu,) Mtl«. AlniiDE blB watiLt 

I* B Sqk'íad, ju pnihaKd ImíucLon oi Qfíit- 



gara, aañ Fibalaa or SloTlca uf Tcnni nnil 
Ailanli, and Or|;i1i«JJ lUii) Gur;dii:B, in tho 
niaiiiieror VilliimedianEi. ii]$. díSBABinr 
wa* IwrnlD 1ñt±, iiml died In 1B16. tiama 
iit hii BliDi-wr «.[id ^htrr pntiaa nje nrlb- 
tcu la a ^fra^^eful adiI pura Bljle-- 

i*- nr QuAveilo snd CaldTiriD t tuve il- 
rcmlf «i-olceii ) atid Mmitulvaa, Znrate, 
Tirflo de AloIliLiL, nuil ninsL tt Úis ilrLiiua- 
tliM of ñute, mlght base btflii mldeJ. 
Cpriiuti!*, IH hl» lili «.ge, fcesdi-d He nnir 
kIiCqI liltlfti bv,L tie campiHJtiK al Ü¡.e d1>- 
ICI1T<: Btyle <•! prwilry ti) hia ■* Ilastrii Tre- 
K&nn," LfilS, Kivinf? " "poBinim at rí, juid 
ttludí^ lo ít nEalu In tbe scaiaá purt uí 
bit Dnji 4ain>te, «, !«. 



as. CONTEST OONCEBNTKG CULTISMO. [Pebiod IL 

Bpare tbe extravagancfta. of Góngora'in Eater etyle ; nttack- 
iug it in bÍB tteventh Epietle ; in ati amuRing- sonnet, i,vhei'e 
be n^preseiits Boactin and Garcilaeso as uiiuljk' tu under- 
BtaDd it ; in the poetical cootest at t!ie canoiiiaaíio» of 
San Isidro; in tliC verfles jirefixed to the " Orfeu " üf 
McinLafvan ; and tu rnany other placuR ; biit, above iill, in 
a [ong lelter to a íViend, wlio had fijrma![y aakod bia judg- 
inoiit on the wbole auíjjeel,,*' 

Tbere can be no donbt, then, as to bis dfíMbei'atc opin- 
ión in relatiün to it. Indeed, G-ÚLgora assailed biin wítk 
gr-cat Bcveritj for it ; and tbougb Lcipo contiiiued to praiae 
tbe nneaay poet for such oj bie works as duserved com- 
mendalionj tbe attack on bis " cultivated atylu " waa 
ne^er for^vou by G^ng-ora, and a uroaU volame of bia 
impublisbed vetee still abows tbat bia bittemess con- 
tinuad to the iast.*^ And yet Lope himself not unfre- 
quently fell iiito tbe very faiilt he so sLarply and wittily 
repioheiidod ; as may be secn in niiiny of bis plays, par- 
ticulai-ly in Íiía " Wiae Man in bis own Uonae,'^ wbere it 
ia siiiguiarly nnsuited to tbe aubject ; and iu many of bis 
poenis, especial ly bia "Circe" and bis "Festival at Ce- 
nia/' in wbicb, if they had not becn addressed to conrtly 
readers, it can bardly be doubtcd tbat he would have nsed 
tbe sictplc aud üowiug atyle niost natural to bim, 

The ajíected style of ficltigora wau attacked by otbera ; 
■ — by Cáscales, tbe rbeturician, ín bis "' Poetical Tables," 
printed in 161tí, and in bis " Pbilologieat Lcttora," printed 
in 1634 ; ** by^auregni, tbe poet, in bis " Diecouree on tbe 
Cnltivated and Obacnre Style," in 1638 ;™ and by Salas, 
ín l^$3, in bis " Inqiiirtee coucerning Tragedy." ** But 



" Uipe (]■!■ Vega, Obfw BoíItaH, Tom. I, 
FP- 271, H2 ¡ Tam. XLL pp. 23t -*iSi ; 
Tnm, XIX.. p, i9 i ana Tom, IV, VP< 
tS«-iS3. In Che luildWd luwcagf, Lope 
BByi bí nlK'Bj'a placed FernaiiilDili: Her- 
rera LS a cnodel Ih'Icre ülmíelf. 

«■ N^tbiial Librnr;, Mudrld, EsiaaCe 
M, CaUvi 13S, Ito. At lesBt, It was tbcre 
lll IBIS, ¡A nlilch AnU I aB.n II, 

•a T^iWm i?ii6llcap, ed. ITIB, p. 1Q3. 
C*rt. Ph¡l, Dee. I. Can. B-IO, Cíitlet. 
4e BklAlu H&MúKM i]i>[«ii<l«il Q'ingonk la 
a rallUdfl of Dsuly 400 |iii£i's, cntltled . 



Iiiit4,"lft;feCianle, □ot«43), — Toium ail, 
Ba I iiivc neTff B««n thls i>íxk, bal 
Antsikia, in ble articte dd J&ur^^uj, {[tres 
iU ÜElí, wid PlSgEl íQetíti. üír KamUchen 
Litfnimr, Xüu, II. p. 303} gires Ihe date 
af Un piibllmtlnn. JAurf-gui, lianever, la 
hl« liunsliitiuii tí ihr- "PllhreiilU" OÍ 
Lucan, fulle InCn the TnllE ityl^ uf Q'b- 
^nru. UeclaiDaciciD GüiiLni \ili^ AbUgoi de 
la Lfiiriin Cnslrllpinni 11^, p. ISS. 

H Trnjíeain Antigua, Mailrid, J633, üo, 
pp, 8i, 8.5. 



Ch4p. xas.] LVKIC POETET Di SIHPLEB TASTE. 



20 



the uicist rormitlalile attack BUBiained by thi8 ittylc wos 
made by (iuevodo, who, in 1631, published botlj tho 
Bacliilltír Ju la Turre, and tlie poetry íif Luis i3e Loon, 
intcnding tn bIhiw by them what Hpmiiah lyriual verse 
miglit beCLune. whcn, wilh a prcservatioD <jf tho iiationul 
spií'ít, ít was fouiidcd on puré modolB, whether a.ncictit 
or mudem, whellier Castilian or foreiga. From this at- 
taiífc — madc, it etiould be tibacrved, about thc time Giín- 
g-ora'a works aad thoee of bis moet sticccssful foUDwera 
were piiblisbed. rather thaii at the time when they were 
written aod circulated in maiiuscript — OiJngora and bis 
Bchool iiever entirely recovered llie mcaBure of theír 
former triuiaphant Bticcesa.'" 

Quite UDtíonscioHs of this diBcussinn, if we may judge 
by bis styíe and inaniier, lived Francisco do Me- . 

1 1. 1 -1 , . * "limpiar 

araño, one oi the purcat ana most warm-hearted imIo. 
of Spaniíjb lyric poets, and one who Beeraed to ^^ 
be auch witíiuut an efiort to avoid the folties of 
bis time. His poems, fcw in mimb&r, are better tban any- 
thing in the '^Sestinas" of Venegaa, tfl^hich they form 
a stirt of siipplement, and with which Ihey were printed 
in 1617. Some of bis rcligious eonnets are espccially to 
be ntiliced ; but his üoratian odea, and, abuve all, one oa 
tbe Wortliiessnpss ni' Human Pursuita, boginniíig, '• We 
all, we all mistíilíe," must be regatded as the besl of his 
graceful remíiíus."* 

Atiotber writec of tbe same class, who can be traced 
back to 1584. but who did not die till 1606, is Bal- 
tasar de Alcíizar, a wítty Audahiaian, who has 
left a modérate niímbec of short lyricat poema written 
witb great epirit, moot of ihcm g"ay, and all of tbem iii 
a Tiiucb better taBte than was comnaon whea they ap- 
peared.^ 



Alfaioi'- 



M Bi>H Appcjid[i(0), 

» We Wijow iii)tlilti¡j nf irnlmoo, eicípt 
lili pwtn.», prlniíüi ut Pulcmin, in IBIÍ, al 
tlie ciiil of un Imlliitlihii, nitlifr Lhnii ■ 
ImiiAUljiuli, QÍ Oviirts Rpmedtum Amurca 
by Veiip(>ns, miii Iti KMmilcLir-jTa's Bihlio- 
leca, t'im. XXXll., ISM. Bal P«ilra 
TeiWBKi lie' SiMvadni nriu ■ ShvíIIdd gvo- 
llnmuD, suil Autoalu (Blb, Hav., Tijm. IL 



p. He.) hiats that the ÜDtitlat of the vd]- 
lune mn/ not Bbov Uie tma plncij of ICi 
pubUcntlDci- 

B' IJí Ib mcntlimoil in CpitiiiiIj.'í, '"Cnn. 
tri 1I4? Gallijpt/^ kiLit llif!ru En a [iía oí JiEid 
tn UaL' DJiteB lo ^JíirrkoihAI, t^pjiitljli Iniít^lii- 
l'wn [Tuni- í. p. 27-^)- Ule pitems ara frjAUiíl 



LTEIC rOETRT JN SIMPLIÍE TASTE. [rEBiow 



Similaír praise, if not tlie Bame, may be gjven to Ar- 
guijt), a Sevilian. gentlemaíi úÍ fortune, diatiiigiiigher! by^ 

hÍ8 palronage of lettera, to wbom Lope úe Yef 
^*"^"' dedicated three púema, and ■wbose versea Espti 
noaa — apparently to attract favor foi hia book — ^ placee 
at tbe openíng of his stóloctiona from íhe poeta of bis time. 
He doui'islied from 1590 to 1622, atid wrote, if wg are to 
judge from the little that has come down to na, in the 
Ittilian forma; for his sixty-one Bonnets, — which, wit 
A aingüLarly antique air, are Hometimes qíiite poeticaJ, 
■ — a good canción on tUe death of a frieud, aricí aaotber' 
oü a religioaa festival at Cádiz, constitiite the greater 
part of bis kriowti works, But his little lyric to bia 
g-iiitar, which he calis simply a " Silva," ie worth all tbé 
rest. It ÍB entirely Spanieb in its tone, ajid breathes a 
g-entle seusibility, not unmingled with sadneas, that flnda 
its way at ouce to the heart.'* 

Aiitouio BalvaB, whrj díed in 1628, is of more liuroble 
pieteiisious ae a poet than eitheroíthe last, but perhapa 
was more distiftitly oppoaed than eitber of thom to tbe 
fasLionable taete. When in bis oíd ag'e he hadfl 
prepared for puhlication a volume of liis versQ,^ 
be called it, after soine hesitation, '" The Oastilisn Poet," 
and Lope de Vega pronounced it to be puroly written,— 
and welt Stted to a períod " wben," asbeadded, "tbeaunS 
cient langiiage of the country waG begianing to sonnd lo 
him like a atrange tongqe." Still, in thia vety volume, 
humble in size and niodeet En all its pretensionSj Balvas 
compliments G-mgora and praises Ijedegnja : go necesaarT 
wa^ it to conciliate tbe favored BchooL™ ■ 



BoilTafl. 



witli BdiLlinnn Viy CdIoq y Culun ¡a IMl. 
Bee^ likewÍH«, VarGoro, No. ITT. p. 14 ^ 

Tnm. I. [I. 28:2 ; KüpIniisa, FLoreB ; nciD 
FiTnimil Pí, CinecKlon, Tom. XVJII. pp. 
§8-1-^1, «lili Úie lilillaWcn or Kiboqf- 
Dcyrn, Tíjdi. XIXH,, 185*. It muy, per- 
Latin, iM a-Mi hur^ Ihat Ibu " Hüdb de 
Sevilla lluitieB -üD SanU<lñtl, Letras, Ar- 
ma!, Art<» i Dii^iiinlt" putilistied Ln thiiL 
City iu nsi, ln Sto, ít A poor bnuk, bul 



whera to bi íoiitid, and one iliat I» mjw 
beOGjnie Ti^cy ron^, fri^m tbe clrcumst&tice 
tbatít wat publisbHl in sepárale iiumbera. 
Od ils title-paRe It íi «Btit to have Imicu 
B-rtlten by Dun Firmin Arann de Yarflura i 
llut KIau™ WhiM!, id «Rohlailo'* Lctlril," 
lü'i->, p. 499, «HjB !(■ anchuí «OB Fadd 
YolikiraiDii, ^t 

'« Hl Piwlft CaiWllan», Aatoiilo Baln«l 
Harona, Katural (!<; I» Ciiulad le B^Buiia,*' 

Vullad-üM, iO::t, lima. 



CHAPTEK XXX. 



LTBIO POETKT, COXTIKtJ&D, THE XBIiEKSOLAB, JATIItEQri, ESTO- 
VAN Vll.I*e*B, BÜ-BOBÍfA, BA»Ul|»l.t-0, FOW, nOMAB, RIOJA, 

tainnj,íca&, icBnpúsa, &t:i<ctt.LHi]0, oüiros, e.tia., inkz de i^ 

CBDÍ, BOLfS, CANDAMO, AKl) OTHERfi. — MFtKRENr CHABACTEB' 
IBTírS or ÍPASISII LTKICAI. P08TRT, KBUOIODB AXQ BECOLdiB, 
PCIITLAB AKD ELEdANTi 



Amit-nc the lyric poets who flourisbed in Spain at the 
beginniíig' of the eeventeenth century, and who were 
oppfised to what began to be called tLe "Gongorism" 
of tlifl time, Míe first, as far as their general iiifluence was 
concerueil, were tlie two brothere Arg^ensola, — ti» Aro<a. 
Aragoiieee gentiemeii of a good Italiao fumily, •'*'*•■ 
wtiEch liad come frum Eaveoini in the time of Ferdinand 
and Isabclla, The eideat of thcm, Lnpereío Lcocardo, 
wüB liorn in 15fi3; and 13artolom¿ Leonardo, the other, 
was his júnior hy only a jear. Liipercio was ediicated for 
the civil uervfce of hía comitry, and niarried young. Not 
far frora the year 1587 he wrote the three trag'edies whicb 
have already been noticed, and tWo years later waa dia- 
tínguieUcMi at Alcalá de HenarcB in one of tbe public 
poetical contesta, then eo common in Spain. In 15^1, ho 
waa aent os an agent of the goTernment of Philip the 
Second to Saragosea, when Antonio Pérez fled into Ara- 
gón ; and he Buhfiequently became chronicler of that 
kingdom, and prívate secretary of the Emprtíss Marta of 
Austria. 

The happiest part of the Hfe of Lupercio was probably 
paesed at Ñaples, wliere he went, in, 1610, with the Count 
de Lemoa, wbon that accompüshed iioblcman was made 
its viceroy, and seemed to be hardly lees ansious to 
have poeta about hini than statesmen, — t-aking both the 
brothere^ as part of bis official Buite, and not only givin^ 



lOÍSOLAS. 



[PERimj n. 



Lupercio (lie poet of Secretary of Rtuto and of War, liut 
autborizing liim to appoirit bis snbordinatea from among 
Spiitiish weu of Lelterg. Biit hiB life at Naples was short. 
3ii Marcb, 1613, he dicii Buddeiily, and wasbuñ&dwith 
niucb eoleinnity by the Academy of the Odosi, which he 
had liimeclf helped to eatablish, and of wbich Slaiiso, 
the friend of Tasso and of Milton, was tben the hcad, 

Bartolom*?, Tvho, like hia brather, bore the ñame of 
Leonardo, waa cdncated for the Church, and, iindor the 
patnma^c of the Dnkc of YiHahormosa, early received a 
liviiig iü Aragón, wbich Gnally determinad liis pLiaitíün 
in society. Bnt until 1610, wben he went to Naples, 
he ]ived a great deal at tbe Univereity of Salamanca, 
where he waa devoted to literary pmsuitg and picpiíred 
hÍ8 bistory of the recent cocqnest of íbo Moluccas, 
which was pi-inted ín lfi09. At Naples, he wae a prin- 
cipal pereonage in tbe poeticai court of the Cuuut de 
Leinos, aiid showed, as did others 'vpith wbom he "wab 
asBOciated, a pleaaant facility ín acting dramas, that were 
iraproviay,ted as they were performed. At Húmt, too, 
he waa favorahly known and patronized ; and hcfore his 
rOtum hoioc in IGIG, he was made cliionicler of Ai'agoii ; 
a place ía -wbich he succecded bis brother, and which he 
Continued to enjoy till bis own dcath, in 1G3I, 

Thero is little in wbat was moet fortnnate in tbe career 
of these two reraark ablí? brof.bers that can servo to dis- 
tÍDgniah them, except 'íbe difíerent len^bs of tbeir lives 
and the tíiffcrent amounts of their works ; for not only 
were both of them poets, and posseased of iiitellectual 
endownients able to comniand genera! reapect, but both 
had the good fortune to rise to positiona ín the world 
which gave them a wide in9nence, and eaabled them to 
become patrons of men of lett^rs, some of wbom were 
tbeir Kuperiors. But both are now aeldom mentioned, 
exct'pt fov a volnme of poetry, ehiefly lyñcal, puhlished 
in 1631, aftcr tbeir deaths, by a &on of Lupercio. It 
consista, he Kays, of such of bis fatber'a and his nncle'a 
poema aa be had bcen able to collect, bnt by no means 
of all thoy bad wiitten ; for bia father bad destroyed 
most uf hia mauuscriptB juat hefore be died ; and hia 



CuAf. XSX] 



JAUnKOÜI. 



33 



únele, thoiigh he had given alujtit twcntj of his poema 
to Espiuosa ■□ IG05, had not, it ¡s appareut, Leen curcful 
to preserve wbat ba.d becn only ati ainrifiernont i>r hm 
leisiire hoüra, ratiker thari, a aei-iuus ocfiipatiuti. 

Such as it ití, liowevíT, lliie colloction of ttifir poeijia 
shows tbe ñnuiG rCscmblanc« in their tAlentB ¡Ltid tüMes 
thut was apparcDt in theír Wvgb. Ituly, a ui^untry iii 
■whieh thei'r famíly hail its oi-ig^m, 'wiicri? tlicy had tlieni- 
selvea iived, ¡md sume of whose poeta thny liad riMiiiliiiHy 
kniiwn, Beema almost always presettt to their thoughts as 
they write. Ñor ie^norace olleu abaciit, lUs pliilo- 
Bophícal epirit, hia careful hut rich veTsifi catión, aml hia 
tempered ectliusiasm. are the cbaracteristic mcrit» to 
which. the Argensolas nspired, alike in thcir ftirmal odu» 
and Iq the few of tbeír pocms tbat take tbo frcrer aiid 
more natioiial forciB. The eider slinws, on íhn whole, 
more of original .power ; but be left ooly hall' as many 
poeme, by which to jndge his meríl.8, as bis brothcr dtd. 
The yoanger is more graCpful, and Cuishes hJs conipo- 
sitiona with more car& an<L judgnient. Both, notwith- 
standing' they were Aragonese,, wrote witb eiitire purity 
of style, 8o tliat Lope de Vega said " it Bcoraod as if 
they bad come from Aragón to reform Castilian vprse," 
fioth, tberofore, are to be placed high in the list of Span- 
iah lyric poets ; ^next, perhapa, aftcr the great mas- 
tiers ': — a rauk which we most readily aseigo them, wheii 
vre are considering tlie shorter poema addreesed by the 
eider to the lady be sfterwards married, and the purity 
of manner and sustaíned dignity of feoling which mark 
the longer compositions of each.^ 

Amoug tbose who foUowed the Argenaolae, the earliest 
of Iheir euccessfnl imítatora waa probably Jau- 
regui, a Sevilian geiitleman, descended from an 
oíd Biacayan family, "and boro about l&VO. Having a 



1 iU neeitñil natícc! of líe tno Ar^n- 
Iti^lnq m^l UleIf riTks — juid more Loo ^ 
can be rminil In iIih eliblHrrata Uves tit thGm 
by PulliOPr, Id hU " Ülbllot^ca de Trariuo- 
iOCeS," 177B', pli. I - 141 ; anil hy LatoaiB, 
In tJiC ■-' IllliliiiLi^cn NuíVB. ile Emicltiiiva 
ArAB^'iep'g,''' Tom. [I. pp. 143., 41)1. Br. 
sldn Cbe orielno' eijilfon ol tbeir " Rlniu," 

a* 



(la,nscTJi, 1B34, 41o,) tiro DrlIliLioa are 
iouiid Id FernaDileí, "Colección," ths losl 
being of IH04. The noniiel rí BnrtolomS 
[>li Slüep Ib cuDLQioiil; much Bdmirt^ ; lint 
or hü pofms I |iP'f«rt1u' «iiinel rjii Pmv- 
lileiLiie, (p. 33U,) aiiil Ihe ocie in llQQi>r uf 
Ule Church afleF the baUle of Leps-Dlo, odi 
W34, p. 374, 

O 



JAUBEQUL 



[Pkblop 1L 



talent. for paintiiig: as well as poetry, — a fact we Team in 
muiiy ways, aiid aniong the rest from an epigratum-iíic 
sonnct oí Lope de Yega, — he went to Rome and devoted 
Limself to the studir of the art to which, at first, he seetua 
to have giveti bis life. Eut still poetry drcw him away 
from the patSi Le liad ctioeen. In 1607, while at Rome, 
he pttblished a tTanslation cif the " Aininta" of Taaso, 
and froiu that time waa numbcrcd among the SpaDÍsb. 
poeta "ífho were valued at hame and ahroad. On his 
returii tt> Spaia, he seems to have gone to Madrid, where, 
heralde-d by a g-ood reputatioa, he was liiiidly received 
at court. Tliis was probably aa carly aB 1613, fOr Cer- 
vantes in that year mentioned in his "Tales" a. por- 
trait of himself, painted, as he eaySj " by the famouB 
Jauregní." 

Iii 1618, bowever, he was again in Seville, and pub- 
lished a collectiün of hie worke ; but in 1624 hia " Orl'eo " 
appearEtd at Madrid, — apoem iti íive shórt cantos, on the 
Btory of OrpheuB. It ia writtcn with rauch lees puritj 
of Btyle than roight have been eipected from one who 
afterwarda denounced tbe estravagancea of Gdngora. 
Still, it üttracted so lively an interest, that Montalvan 
thought it worth while to publish anothcr on the same 
aubject, in competition with it, as soon aa poseible ; — a 
hral&hip in which he was openly abetted by his great 
maater, Lope de Vega.* Both poema seem to have been 
well received, and both authors continued to eiijoy the 
favor of the capital till their deaths, which happened at 
about the game,time ; that of Jauí-egui as late aa 1640, 
■when he finished a too free tranalation, or rather a pre- 
Bumptnous and diatastefu] rearrangement, of Lucaa'B 
" Pharaalia." 

The reputation of Janregui reate on the volume of 
poema he himself publíahed in 1618. The tranalation of 



■ It La ik CUTIOUR ráet, and one tamerbni, 
e1inriu:ti^rlalL« nC Ibe úarílmeDesB with 
irti¡«h wdrKd In Sptiin w«re alíribulci tu 
petauíis nti'i dlil nnt Tfrite llieni, Uiut the 
"OtIco" »f Janregul Ib prlolej In the 
" Cyltara <Ib A polo," a uollíi:tl [ici of tlie 
pcntLumouB puems or AgusLin d-oflaliuar, 
(wliicli uppecreij mi Uadríil, 1G91, líu,) os 



ir II ««re hlBi 9n far BS I bate camparíd 
1b<í tna, 1 üijd nidthing iLlH^red hmb the 
Cirst. BlacíO, uDil [he title ^r the poem, 
irhk]]^ uiftLuad of bt?ÍEjg sEiapI^ oallled 
'''OrfCD," ai <t voi by lis anLhur, ii en- 
titleit. Id Imlratloa or GnoEora's aaboaL, 
"Fibuls de Enriilice y Orfeo." 



CnAF. XKX.] 



JAUREGUl. 



ss 



Tasso'a " Amíiitn./' with which it opeim, is elaborately 
corrcctcd frum tbe edili a Ite had proviously príntci at 
Komc, withiMit bdng alw»ye improved by the c\iB.uf^va 
he introduced. But, iu each oí its forme, it íb probably 
tho most cai-eftilly (inialiod and beautiiiil tranelutioii iu tlie 
Spauiaii language ; murki^d bj great eaee and faciliLy in ha 
versilicatioii, and captícially hy tbe charming lyrical tone 
tbat rúas witb sucb barmony aud BwcetQess through tbo 
Itatiaii. 

Jaureg'ui's origÍDa] pocms are f'ew, and now and tbcn 
betray tbe saine traoee of submisaion lo the influence of 
yópgora that are to be Bcen i» his " Orfeo " and " Far- 
Balia.'^ Bwt tbc more lyrtcal portiona — wbich, eicept 
tbose ou reltgious subjects^ have a very Italiaii aír— are 
almoat entirely free frnm aiieh ranUs. Tbe Odc on Lux- 
ury is Dciblc and «levatcd ; and tbe silva qb seeiug Uíb 
mistress bathing, more cautioualy managed tban tbe 
similar ecene in Tboraeon's " Snmxn'Or," ¡9 admirable in 
íts diction, and butrays ín its beautiful picturesquenesa 
Sumething of its author'B skill and refinement in tbe kin- 
dred art to wbich be had devoted himBclf. Hia aonnetB 
and Bborter piecee are lesa aucceasful,* 



* BfdaD», Tqui. IX. p. xxü. Lnpe de 
T^A, OtiFM BOGltua, Tom. L p. ÜS. Slg- 
Qorelll, »orlA d«' Ifatrt, 1813, Tom. VI. 
V- 13. Ceivanlc», üavcliti, rr>li>ics. Or- 
no d« Juan de Jaur^^i, Madrid, WH, 
4tri. FvmsikdeE, Cal^^eciro, Tam. TIL. aaá 
VUI., c[)DttLÍiiinj[ Uis "FirdiLlIn " í luid 
Bimtuí d« Joan d« Janrepul, Stvllla, ISlfi, 
4b^ rüprinlcd b; FerniLLdn, Tiim. VI. 
Btit lb« bmc tL-xt trl the " Amlnta " íñ thnt 
b 8e<]&TUi. (EKrnBía, Toin. I.,) irbieL 19 
Biule by A EallHlInu of both Ihs «dltioDit 
tJiaL VtrF pr^iiared by ilnnrc^] himiürir, — 
UMtIriitaí 'Mhich ít a tiiniiJl deiiI («Iudig 
di duI; r if htf -f ^-vc7l pagfs, prinlCd at 
Bñtne In IHUT, n-ÍLb & miidifit And ¡viine- 
ffhal baKioas dEdicjitlon.. Qí bilis b^uuliiíul 
Vtniíi'a il may b? matfd Ihiit O-fTVuTiteB 
(DoD QnÍ3'ab?b PiirtJ? !!■ c. BU) nnj^et^ bb he 
ilfrf* bT th^ '* Papti]r Fldci" bj Pi^^ron, 
'"Wi^ !bjippíÍ7 doiabt whícb íh the ImoBlai 
tinn aml trbloli Ihe orilfinal." The " Par- 
■alIjL*' oT Jnuregui wn^ iiot publjahed t]11 
1B64, an3 sbí Üieo prtaceil 3.1. bladril rrr^ 
Ulf bnt BH we-n na I1 dcBcrrEp. Jfiurrgii] 
liardl^ rccognileg tlie part LnoaD iiuH lp it. 



Aavther tnknilatlon thnl ta noturidly (íobi- 
pm-ü wlcli It— Uiti canlvmpbrary truil4- 
CioQ, I nii!Bii,o( th<i Tli<.'bAi>l of .SUUnl — 
U'LU nal pniilisbed aulU ISU, wh«ti itkp- 
tmircd iu ihc ibLny-*dxUi v«lun« oT tha 
Bihijíiicoí df A-uinrw líipBi"lM. Tbe 
ñn\ a\ai liiKtíi w: b; Juan dv Aij'i>Qa, n 
frfend <t! U)v^ rW "Viitu, bul Arj"tiu''fl díath 
preven t-Tl bim [»m goios Inrttivr, nitcr 
ilx yi'ars' labur nn IL II itiib ü□ialll^a 
rairtaiüy bj Ojígoriu dr Hurillln or Uu-. 
l-lllí. [h>lll 6tl: bfUiT triuiBiLLtcn-B IbaO 
Jaiircüui,. bút ntiUiur d««tríen tbe bl«h 
[irniíM glVnn by tha Cdlb)! «ha publLlbefl 
Lhtir traneLAtloii. 

J níin-tcu í''b f^Yi^a cid an^lag bis mifitresa 
baihlne gad be comparad, mucL lo 11b 
odTaoLFkge dLnd hímor, wlÜL a tnn^r jtViid 
OD the aantv aubject, eotitled ^^ AnAflnrt'U^^'' 
ftnd piLbllahcd al th^? cnd -af hIa '^ Bi^ncto- 
mwiliISi" bj IHsniíL'l de Qullc)[o», LlBliaa, 
Eñ^n, 4:IpO^ leo ^r^rs afDj^r Uic- Appt^al'illaCí! fjf 
Jfturegur* píieiEi, The ^' AiiBiLUrelt ^' la 
am withuuL ^aci^ful psaejiices, bul It li 
murli lixi Inng, und Bhnsa (rcqa«Dt liaon 
of Lhc Ktaool of CMngcm. 



Aaother of the followera of the Arf^nacitas — and one 

who boasted that he liad trodden in tht;ir footateps from 

the daya of his "boylioodj when Bartolomé liad "been 

puinted out to hie jouog; admimtioD íq the etreets of 

Madrid — - Wii3 Estévan Manuel de Villegas,* He 

^*"' was horn at Naxera, in I5&G, and was educated 
parlly at couTt and part]y at Salaraancar whete he stud- 
ied the law. Afler ISIT, and certaiuly as eariy as 1626, 
Tvhcn he was marripd, he almost entirely abandoned let- 
tcrs, atid gavG hiinsulf up to such proljtuble occujuations 
connected with hís profuaBÍon as woiild aííbrd Bubsistenoe 
to those dependeot oii hi» labore. He, however, found 
leisure to prepare for publication a nuniber of learned 
dissertations oo ancient authora ; to make conaiderable 
progresa in a professioiial corameutary on tlie " Codex 
Theodosianua ; " and to publish, in 1665, as a consola- 
tioQ for bis own Borrowa, a translaliun of EoetliiiiB, 
-which, beeides its excellent veffiion of tbe poética] parta, 
íb amoiig the good specimens of Ca&tilian pro&e. Bat 
he rcmained, during his whole lífc, niipatrüiiiaed and 
poor, and díed in 1669, ao unfortunate and unhappy 
man,'' 

The p;ay and poetical part of the life of Villegaa — 
tbe period wben he preeumptuously aunounced himself 
as the risinf^ buií, and attackcd Cervantes, thinking' to 
picase tbe Argcnsolas* — bcgan vcry carly, and waa* 
Booa darkened by tho caros and troubleta of the world. 



1 Thls sTIubIod occors !□ B antí ra mi ibB 
c\ijla siylP iif popLry, not foiiuil in his 
colliKled «ailca, huí In S«i]aiio, (Tom. IX., 
Xllt, p. i¿ irtMra It appnjvd Tafe ü» fine 

IfaDB. 

■ An excellcijt 1l[b nrTLIlFgu li preflied 
to tlie aUMiin nf lilB Workn, ílailriJ, m4, 
2 laai. Hvn, tnlrl b; Guiírlnos (Bitlln)ecB 
de Kt^CricK ilel ReiliimlD He Carlm IH., 
Mmlrlil, 1786, Beo, Tom, V, p. 19J Ui ha-ra 
Ireen wiitlen lij Vicente de liis RlDii. 

« In Ihe eilllian cf tais pavtiy pahUnticd 
bj bluisHir aaá Bl blH üWn expense, üi 
1017, tí% al NaxerH, hia hEPlUiilHce, ha 
glVM on U)e 1'Ltli--pu|i« u priii-L at LLe 
tlting Rcui, viLli thi! fllnra groning dlm, 



tbe Qnt, " SicDt Bal iDiitntiDiia," and llie 
i>thür, ■■* Me aut^dIi?, qutd iatm ! '^ — tha 
Út^ wb-QUi bp tlAU.9 eW^h^s btiiig Lnp? d? 
"VígB, Quííedo, ama jndeed tbo whtila 
gBlB»y ot tSe tieat perifid or Spnolah llv 
eriiturg. I.a|x^ aeemB lo !ia.ne beeik ]i LiltlQ 
ilTfuojLHl at tbiBi lm^rL[RPUcc nad viuiiEy 
(kfVtU-e^BB ; for, In ollualan lo It, Itb sajq, 
Ip the inidsl gT K pwBoge oUierwfae InnlB- 
lory, — 

Annqne dSxoqcie toitoi n escondlefluif 
giuiiiifc lAi nyoi da iii ¡a»(Ciiia vlcifik. 
LluiiI du A(»la, Muilriil. 1CI3D, -iU, 
aili-ilil. 

iTor tbB bnrBlí iriirds ot Vlllfgoi nboal 
CcrvaDlm, ave Numimlv, yids^ § 128. 



I 



He tells «B himself that hí? wrute mnch of his poetiy 
■wheii be wati otiiy fourteen. yeare oíd; and he certaítily 
pultlisheJ nearlj' tbe -wbole of it wben be waa bardly 
twenty-one.' And yet there are fcw voluraea in tbc 
Spaiiisb lan^aa^e that añ'oíd surcr proofs of a poetical 
tcinperatneiit, It ¡b divided into two parta. Tho flret 
contaihs versiütiB of a nutnber of Odee from tbe First 
Book üf Horace, aiíd a translation of tbe whole of Anac- 
reon, folb^we-fi by ímitationa of Aiiacreon''B toanner, on 
BubJectB relatíng to their author. Tbe decond contaiiiB 
satires and elegies, "wLich are really epistles ; idyle in 
the ItaliaQ oiiaisa rima; íionnets, in tbe manuer of Fe- 
trarch ; and "Latinas/' aa he calla tliem, früm the cir- 
cnnistance íhat tbey aie written in the measarea of 
Román verse. 

A píietical spirit rims throng;li the whole. Tbe traos- 
latione are gonerally free, but more tljan commonly truc 
to the gcniuB of theír origináis, Tbe "Latinas" are 
curious. Tbey ñll ouly a few pagea ; but, exeept sliglit 
epccimens of the ancient meaeui'ea iti the cbonises uf 
tbe two tragedíea of BcrmudfZj forty years before, tbey 
are the first and the orily attempt worthj of notice, to 
introduce into the Castiliao thoae forins of verse which, 
a little before the time of Bcrmudez, bad obtaiiied some 
siiGceBB in Prance, and wbicb, a littlo later, our own 
Speneer songht to establinh íti Etiglish poetry. 

But thongh Yillcg^aa did not succeed in íhis, be buc- 
ceeded in his imitations of Anacreon. We Heem^ indeed, 
as wo read tbem, to have the simple and joyons spint 
of ancient festivity aTid lore revived before iib, -wáth 
uothítig, or almoBt notbing-, of what rendera that spirit 
ofleiisive, The odo to a littlo bird wihoííe ncst had becn 
rnbbed ; one to bimaelf ; " Love and tbe Bee ; " tlie 
iroitation of " Ut dos in Septia," by Catuilue ; and^ in- 
deed, nearly every one of the emaller piecea tbat oom- 
poae the thiril book of the firat división, with Bovsral 
in the firat book, are beautiful in their kind, and give 



7 Mil dulcn guiIUddaj^ 



A lofl ^ein ti> llmnúiri 
i iliw catorce cvcríÚL«< 



VAJtlUl'S LVEICAL POETS. 



[FZKIOD n. 



BHch a faitliful inipresBÍon of the natire sweetncsB of 
Anacieoii ae is not easily foiind etRewliere ia modem 
litpi'atiire. We cltise the voluine of Villegas, therefore, 
■with BÜicere re{iret that Le, who ¡n bis boyhogd could 
"wrítfi poetry bo buautiíul, — so deeply imbned with the- 
Bfiint of sntiqutty, and yet so full of the tenderneaa of 
inoi3í>rn feeling-, — bo clasBÍcnlly exact, and yet no fresh 
aiuS natural, — shoulii ha, ve survived ils publícation above 
lurty years witliuut firiding an iiiterval vihea the cares 
and disappointmeiits of the world pcrmittcd him to re- 
tiivii tü the ocuiipations that madc hia youtb happy, and 
that baTÉ prGa&rved liÍ8 naine fur a posturity of which, 
wbeB ho fií'st tisped ín üumbei'Bj he could hai'dly have 
bad a eerioua thoug-ht/ 

We paBB üver Balbucna, whoBe beat lyric poetry is 
TariDUB ijTi- ftiund in bis prose romance ; ' and Salas Barba" 
col pocw, dillo, who has scatlered similar poeliy throug'h 
his variüus publicatiDnSí, and collected more of it in hia 
" (-'aatilian KbymeB."'^" Both of tbem flouriebed büfore 
1630, and- — like Polo,"- whose talent lay chicfly in líghter 
compoBÍtiona ; Mira de Meecua, famous ibr at least one 
ode;*^ aud Riyutí, wbo succeeded best íjj pastorals oí* a 
very lyrio tone^'- — they lived at a time wben Lope de 



* There La nn Intereütlng notlen eT TlUc- 
BJUand lils wnrks by tiifi hitidreil eplril at 
Wklfind, iu tlie DuuMulifl Wi'rkur, mi, 
TiTu, T, ^p. sai, iw. 1 Che first lEme, I 
üUí'iKi;!, Ibat Ais nanc bai been taia- 
tliDí'A irlUí tbA priLLse It díiír-re^ ünt «r 
BpHin, r»r aceiitury. Itslinuld Tic retii«tn- 
berLii, hcTTETcr, Ihnt TlikgnB, thougli ho 
Beneíally wTírin wlth tltj gn-nt Biiriilicitj, 
nnd, !□ hia Elepy tu Bartíjlaaii^ dt Argtn- 
»d1b (Br-.tlcBB, Ifti;, Tüm. n. F. 2B) and 
elmiwherc, csnmitca the obsoure and uC- 
tüvti.-<1 writcrn oF liia tlnií, ysl aDmclimci 
himaL-ir wrllt!, Jn. the Imuí atyle lie noE.- 
i!i-mi>n, HJiiJ devntca bis aiiclb £lcc:y lo 
Iirulne aF the alKiard -" Plutetoo " dI tho 
Ciinnt TUUtmcilinnn. 

* Iii tbc Aciwlcinj''a cilillna oF the " St- 
íln dflOra," Mndrlil, 1821, 8»", thcrr \e. 
flhet [Hwlrjr IwíldcB that cuuulrjcd !■ the 
pasliiml \íie\l. 

1" Poema ar» tbund In all the stiirJM of 
Sslns ilnrtiiuilliía, vbicb nniild, pt:r1iH{iB, 
ilüublt! ilie nniuunc |ia1i]¡s1ied hj- lilm^clf 



tn hlK " RlmnB CHítcllEumE," Madrid, ISIB, 
ISuno, ADíl lij hia frl«D(lB iift«r bla *l»th, 
Iti lliií " CrirniiaB de-I Panuifo," Madrtd, 
1035, 12niD, ThQ vr1um: of Blmai is 
mam tbitn ball niiide np uf ftcoiieta and 

11 ^' Obras de gnlrador JMJntg FijId," 
ZiragDi;a, líTO, 4to. Biá " ¿pulo and 
Bap-bue " la pj^rlly in ridlcule of tbe f-uICo 
ekyle. Hlft " AcadeiniiiB del Jardin " werc 
¡jrlntd In IfiSQ ■ aad hia " Ilueii Huinor 
du- Ina HusMi,'' irhlcJi DChUlaiog Uie grcBler 
pnrt i)f bis jHieUr, wu» prlutcd, I Ijelleií-, 
the Bttme yccr, sllhougli my copí is uF an 
edllioü prlDleil In IBST, 

n StíHíe Canción "Uñino, ileste, alEI- 
ífl, eaHinoradii i^'-r— an tidt in. tliu cnrinnef- 
of Ptlrarai, whklj Qiüolaina in hia Teadro 
{Paria, isas, p. 403) piontiunoea lo- buy 
nirniiR Spanlsli i>ÍL'a, "rl rxi-mpiar nina 
eicek'nta A, por atejot decir, uulco ea au 
goiieru." 

la " T>cBciigBSo 3el Amoi-en HimBa por 
Peilfí) SutB úo V.'i¡sa," Madrid, 1023, ito. 



CiLir. XXX.] 



BrOJA. 



39 



Vega was poiiring- forth flooiís of v^rse, wlitcli werii iiot 
only suílicii-iit to dt-ltírmine tho rnuin ciitront of the Iit- 
crature of lliO Ctmntry, Imt to sweep aloiig, mii|ÍKt¡U- 
giiighcd ín íts tnrbnluiit Huod, tlic coutríbutíons of inany 
a 8tream, smallor, iudeed, thim its qwd, but purpr aad 
mtire gtacefiil-" 

Araorig tlipse Was the poctty of FrancÍBCo de Rioja, & 
nadve of Seville, wÍio waa boro in 1(100, luiA 
died in Ifi58 or 1659. Prom tbe circumstaitce 
tbat be occupietl a litgh place in the luqiiitiitiou, lie mtglit 
havc counted on a sbeltcr froin the etoruií; iif stntc, if he 
hud Dot couDected liiuLSclf too mucb wilb Üw Onurit 
Dtike Olivai'ez, wliose fall drew aftcr it that nf ttearlj all 
Vfho had shared in liis iutrl^cs, or eoaght the prutucliuri 
of hÍ8 overshadowing patronage. But the disgrace of 
Eioja was temporary: and the latter part of his lifc, 
■which he gavc to lettera at Sevillc, aecms to have beeti 
a& iiappy aud fortúnate as tbe lirHt. 

The amaiint of btñ poetry that has como down to na 
is smüU, but it IB all valued and read. Some of bis 
Boimeta are uncommonlj folicitous. So are hie ode " To 
Kiches," imitated from Hurace, and the correeponding 
one " To Poverty." which is qtiitc ori^nal. In ttiat " To 
the Opening Year," exiiorttng his young fcieiid Foiiaeca, 
almost in the worda of Perícles, not to lose the epriujf- 
ttine out of hÍ8 lifíí, there is mnch tendernees and loidan- 
choly ; a reflection, pcrhapn, of the re^grets tbat he íblt 
for mistakes in-his own ear]y and mvTc; aniliitioiis cai'oer. 
Biit hÍ8 chief distínetion has gcnernlly corne from au ode, 
full oí sadjiea» and g^niue, " Orí the Ruina of Itálica/' — 
that Roniaii city. near SevilICj which claims the honor of 
hu\-ing giveti birtU to Trajan, and wliich Riqja celelrates 
with tbe enthusiasm of one whosG childish faney bad 



B« wss nr ^mnoiln, ancl, rb hii cotmelB 
rIiow, n prait. Hilmircr nf (l'<iigiira, 

" One «t llirnn — bul ncH «di ot Uib 
Vni'C (JOM — mía flahrlel Uoeangel j tln- 

¿be wariiiiB CafürLEi-iufanLe jfsrJInaniI 

JjL thf Hrae "C Phnw T*"-! iinil who pah- 
Ushed ll) IBÍI& H TeluniB nhíeflj of Ijricol 

TOfie Ib ílie IUiUn tcinní, bnt witii a ibw 



Koud bulliu]!, CDtltlnl "Uní de la» Mu< 
lae." Somo oril hiul apjwarvd a» " Klnma 
HefoyBU " in IQST, ■mi bv wruls miiuf 
DCGiLilima] pleca* an*Tw«rda, ihiit Mere 

pridtm la edItloM nf tila Lm or l«Al md 

1062, bul tim» Of muí^h valué. Hv Ugitren 
tu Luli^'i " Luiiral da Apolo," lCaO> snii 

dlod iii i»e, 



I 



FEASCISCO DE BORJA. 



|Pu<ioD n. 



boeri nniirished bj waudering: among thc remaíns of its 
decaying' ampliitlitíatre aiid fiíUen palacDs. Tbifl disünc- 
tion lias, liowever, been conteated ; and the ode in ques- 
tion, OT rather a part of it, has been claimed for Rodiigo 
Cíiro, known in hia time rather as aa autiquariaii than as 
a píjyi, aniong whose impublished works a sketch of it is 
foiinJ with the date of 159ñ, wliiüh, if g'eoaiiie, carnea 
the genei'a! conception, aiid at least oiie of the best 
Btanzaa, back tu a period beíore the birtU of Eíoja." 

Among' those who opposed Ihe Bchool of (¡áügora, 
aud perhaps the pereon who, from his iiifliionce Iü pycietj, 
could bcst have checked its power, if he had not hímaelf 
BariftT been Bometúnes betrayed into íta bad taste, was 
EuioiiiEbi. francisco de Borja, Prínce of Eaquüache. llía 
titles — which ait', in fact, conuptions of the great ñames 
borne liy the Italian priucipalities of Borgia and Squillace 
— betraj hie origin, aud explajo some of bis tendencies. 
But thoTig"h, by a stvange coincídencej he was great- 
grandeoii of Pope Alexander the Sisth, aud grandsDli oí 
on& of the heada of tlie Order of the Jesuits, he wae a!ao 
dtíHcmJc'd from the oíd royal family of Aragón, and had 
a faithfiíl Spanish hoart. From hia híg-h rauk^ he easily 
fouiid a liLgb placü ía publíc añ'airs. He wa& diatin- 
guiahed both as a Holdicr aud as a diplomatist; and ai. 
one timo he rose to be viceroy of Perú, and adutiiiistered 
itB aií'aira dnring bíx yoars with wiadom and aiicceas, 

liut, like muriy othors of bis countrymeu, he never 
forgot Ictlora amidst tho auxieticB of public life ; and, in 
fact, funnd leieme t*iiough to ■\vr¡te eeveral vohimes of 
poctry. Of theac, íhc beat portiona are his lyrical bai- 
lada. n¡s soiinets, too, are g-ood, eapccially those in a 
giiyor vtíiii, aiid ao aro hia madrigak, which, like thafc 
"To a NightiHgale," üre ofteu graceful, and BometimeB 



" Tin- ¡"Hjiry rr Rl'iín nn« rutl iiuWi-hnl 

un ni-iiT lili; lililí vt Úie eUlitctililh ccnLury, 
*lwn It Bl>i>nirffil liii Chí CiJktdiiuB af 8t. 
lUciVi Vid ri-riiMUlt» ín 1174 nnd 1107. 
Tht «wií «Ic« ff Hiiijíi nna Cafi"! «t ¡irlnt- 
«4 ti^iiltifr lli Ihv ¡ÍIHifil^'h tmiiHlntli-iii iiif 
BUlBdmU'i" Htolrirjr u[ ¡^imiiblí Lllpral iiir," 
SivilLh, 19*3, in Ihf n-rti-i In whloli ii Ihu 
\KM iCtuiUnl to Ik louihl ii[ llliijn, (Toni. 



n, p. 1T9.) RWa, it mar T» «diiía. "''" 
n Irk'iid. [if Lnpe de VepL, ntio mldríí-wd W 
lilm n |ili-tisíint pocticid epis-tle «n bíB fi*ii 
Biinlcn, irhlfb WH« flrat firinled in WM. 
A artice ot Ihe LifB and Wnrka uf Cwo, 
wh,] WM Utm lu 1¿73 snd dlfd in 1M7, 
Tuiíj' hn fonjiil in llio Slennidiii Hiat-irifi» i'í 
tlin !»|wi>l»h Amliiiiij-- «r ttlsliory, liMn- 1- 
IHAt, p]! M4Í, ele. 



Ciur XXX] 



BORJA-- MENDOZA. 



41 



teiiiipp. Tn gr-neral. tliosn íif liís eliorter componilíons 
"wlncli ai"e a little p}iÍ]^rammatio iii tlieir fiiiie ainl very 
Biniple in llicir languiíge are tbe Wsl. Tlicy boloii^ tu 
a claas conNtunÜy n>ap[)e.iriiig in Spaiiish litcratnro, éj]' 
■wliieL the foUowijig may be takcn as a favorable bjmící- 
meu : — 

Te little fiHinW, ihat lanphing flow 

Aml frolic wLLh rtc Muids 
Say, B"l)ith(T, \i-h¡i!wr il'i ye go. 

And tvlint !<uc}i »|)cn] (l>iMiiiini)a ? 
Froui olí [lie W'niler fliiwurs ye Üy, 
Aq(I hiuitc lo nsi'k^, — rocks fdiJií aiid high; 
Tpr, íf ye hrre «kti ¡rítitlj «loop. 
Wliy íui'.h a wenrying huiry L«p ? i^' 

Borja was miicli reepecteil (iuríng^ his long lilb ; and Jk-tl 
at Madrid, h\& natíve city. io 1658j sevonty-seveii yunra 
oíd. His mlii^itjus poetrj, some nf wliích waa firsl pub- 
Yiehcñ after his deatli, has littlo valué.'' 

Antonio de Mendoza, thc cciirtly drumatist, who úour- 
ishcd atiout 1(130- L660, is alsu to be in)nibc?i~cd Antoiii...ie 
amoiig ihí! lyric poeta of hia time! and so are ""'"'"w». 
Cáncer y VtJasi:n, Cnlnllu. aiid Zarate, all of whom dii;d 
flomewhat latür in the Baine periud. llendona and Cáncer 



Y Clin I* «n-n» jugiii, 
Uondc valí I 

ir kif irf atfEAfl blUcálfl. 

SI lepfJtuJA 

IKindD ntiKüii'loiinli, 
FoTEiiLD corrvifl.. y m erKiunli í 
Obtu DD Vrraü ilu Biuju. AmbciCí.lIttl, tiu. 

n Tlie lite nt BflTJ* IR )n Aliar™ y 

tni pi-ivLii7,-ilefEiirllii|f |li4^ aLiler t\nd ilmpl^r 
aobuul, ar<? «?t JíjTLJk Iq sjiint Aécifna^ \ík- 

Uirre nrc «titjniia iir lii:i9, IdM, ftniJ llfU. 
GAyHr^iia iii.ilJccií il Vüliimc cif l'rliioG 
K!ic|iill4u;ti<.>, rlilcli 1 bnif nevvriepu «rpo- 
TNU', unlllleü "lAl'Htliin i!v N. S. Jeaii 
L'^Urlnln «■ (frci-lnj," (UuiLíIi3, WTM, 4io,) 
but U I» iti )ila "Ülinis «n Virmn," irUU, 
|i|i.Stf>t,«>ir). uriii-^lyric.il IihIImIií, Iwiiuld 
tiulkv InU-Ci>:DluTly, In Uit' «itlllnn of Aoi- 
b-irm, MVS. 4m, NoB, 40, G6, ai>ú l'JU. 'Hic 
triHi'lrniiíUM'^d lii Ui-i WxUí N'>, 2if ii.mniii! 
Uiv ¡".i-iuá whi-iili ii« ciillH B^tlta^, u Mrt 



ot r^/Voini wUh ■ glos*i whirc moiih pcatU 
ghB 3ii|^^[iiilLy &s dhc-Wü, in thf liiru iMjtll uf 
thc iKnuicht Liiid eií thr? phrv^^lLiiiy. 

Klea-fil Uiit " NapiTlta KruUliuPinJ*,'' 
lli« " l'tulun ie N. &.," aTHl "-Oltriid t¡t 
VpfBii," imíy DEo Wnrk -of Uic Prlucr oí Bh- 
^UllflChu hU !>«■□ prlntcd. I bellrrc |,.-^k 
qiuifli) Vnliune iT " MmlitndanED j Om- 
dftriT*," In<n>lnb:i] í(i hií oM «hc fomi 
tfimc iiF Wc ntiialleí: Ijntln tn.-nllMiii ntl.rlb- 
uhMl l^TItiiinu ri KrfliDpla. Il le lo 6üfr- 
li3>l, puré Co^ELlian priaer^ Aracl li iide of 
ÜiVA^ triliLiLpH El) rrequünljj ijfrrreil Ir^ 
Spiuiinnit of nubil? nkuk tü tbc ilciDanda 
of thrir rhorcli fi-nia an anxlnu» dfi^rc lo 
epüiii;^ ibi mf-i)icion3, ath] Icitv? behUid 
thtm n r¥|'>ulíhU4>Q far aiLuputleí] -artUm^ovj. 
It wim prlTiti'J, irilb iiknrp jüirclDaLskinn ba 
trtingrBIiliicikl licnul.; -Ihnn llic MnoG'a 
atíitr WiijLb, al limaiols In IIMI, llirce 

y«im atter Jils i^lcaUi, A pin)' i''i íha 

«íil cmri Ity uf BWrariíJK fi-iilly ta Princa 
TtiLllJiíiNiir lii 1U33, uliidí WM -nrltleii hy 
hlm Bill] uuUhI hL Uiu pnliuR, irna HGTor, 
1 bulteve, iirinlKil' 



42 



REBOLLEDO- 



[PuuoD n. 



B«boIledD. 



inclincd to the oíd ntittonal measuree, and tne two othera 
to the Itali^Ti, Nune of them, bowGver, ia now often re- 
metnbered." 

Not 80 the Coimt Bemardino de Rebolledo, a gentleman 
of the ancient Castilian starup, who, tbuugh not 
a gi-eat poet, ib one of thosc that are still kept in 
the memory and regard oí" their couatrjTueii. He was 
bom at León, in 1597, and from the age of foui'teen waa a 
soMier ; serving firet- againgt tbe Turks and the powers of 
Barbary, and afterwards^ diiring the Thirty Yeai's' w&r, in. 
diflerejüt parta of G-erraany, wbere, from tbe Emperor Per- 
dlnamlj he received the títle of Cuunt. In 1647, when 
peaco retorncí!, iie waa made ambasaíidor to Deninark, and 
íived loug in the North, counected, a.tí liie poetry often 
provea him to have heen, with the Danish court and with 
that of Chri&tina of Sweden, id whoiíe converaion one of 
hÍ8 letters shows that he boro a part," From 1662 he 
wae a inviiister of state at Madrid ; and wlicn be died, in 
1616f he was biirdened with ofliceB of alS kinds, and en- 
jojed pensione and salaries to tbe amonnt of fifty tbou- 
saiid ducats a year. 

It is singular that the poetry of a Spaniard ahouM 
bavc first appeared in tbe North of Europe. But 80 it 
"Wís in tbe case of Cíiunt Rebolledo. One voluine of bis 
"worka was pntlÍBhed at Cologne in 1650j and another at 
Ooponhageti iti 1655. Eacb coutains Ij^-ical poems, both 
in the national and tbe Italiau foriuís ; and if none of tbem ' 
are remarltable, many are writtín witb siniplieity, and a 
few ii-re beyo]id the spirit of tfieir time.'" 



19 '' Eí Ffnii CnBtellana de íot. de 
MendciEB,^^ LiSiboat 1Q9V^ 4ta ; '^ QbraB 

PoíiitM lie nufinlnin Caneery VeUÉco," 
leeo, Aaá MiKl.i'ii], 1761, -lln -, wllli LausBA, 
Bill, Nueva, Tvnk, lU. p. Zii -, " YA Eilaho 
de lu Muaika ile Alvaro Cubillo An Ata- 
gor," Itulrlil, leSl, 4t'i>, vbB wu, how- 
«ver, a! QranndiL'; 4iii'l * Otiria VorlíLi de 
Ifl. Ui^er. lie Ziratv, Alcalá, 16«1, 419, 
irhlrtí, alter t, !^&t ilral of n'irtbk'us 
paeEcy, li'ich in S|iani9b anil itallBu niiiiia- 
nceif, cnctainj!, ut thti «iKl, híB «q.u<illf 
■trcrUileas iragcily, " H^rculp» l^iirtni y 
4El«, con totle el rigor det Jr!í." !^ini.t«, 
Aowevf r, «nj mtLch udoilrad In bis tímf, 



and it HonDct af ble tji a Ropo niui pTaü&ed 
bj evfrybodj. OnyanRiM dltBi aiiídItiuD 
ot hia " Poeaina " o( 161», whicb is dedl- 
MMd to tb« Diiké B¡ MediiLB-BIduDiii, and 
enye tliat, Vhüa 7.4rUU íi?nl tbia nulikmsji 
a copy i'-r hia iirietiCHl wfítVi, Ihe l>iikB re- 
turneii Tiím sa many «-nUcn eifuwiiBifji ühi 
volume conlalDcd rcrsee. 

m ObfM, Undria, ITJS, &»a, Two. I. 
p. 671. 

»' Thtíre la í. notloe ftF RvliulIttJo, wliioh 
mHHI hHve beeo pcc-p&rcd by faiu otfn au- 
tbvrity, la Ibs Pri'tiux w lili " Oclm," 
PFlnl^d nt ¿nt^írp, 1069, ISmo ; but thcn 
¡B a bítUT liff oí hlm ic tbe attTi voIum*: «t 



Chat. SSX] 



DECAY OF LYBIO POETBY. 



43 



The mameB of eeveral other nuthore might be added to 
thia Ii8t, thuugh they wonid add nothiug to ita dig^iiity or 
valúe. Antnng thetm are Ribero, a Portuguese ; v«rf'>iMl;f- 
Pedro QuiruB, a Se\-iliaQ of note ; Faiilino do la '™'»"«* 
Estrella, anothíT Portugiiese, whíi wcqt to fcngland with 
ttie Q,ufeii uf Charles II., and piiblÍBliod iii London a Hmall 
■volurne of Spiínisti poema chieílj ia tho ballud mCaanre ; 
Barrios, the persocuted Jew ; Lucio y Espinoasa, ao Arar 
goneso ; Evisi, a natíve of GuayaquÜ íu Peni ; Inez de la 
Cruz, a Mexican nuii i ¡iíoÜSj tiie liietorian : Uandamo, liie 
dramatíst : and Marchante, Montorii, and Negrete : —- all 
of whoni lived iii the Lattor part of the seveutfenth cea- 
tury, fltid tfie laaE threc al'whom rcached the tlireshuid of 
the eighteoiith, wbcn the pootical spirit of their couotry 
seeras to liave becorae all but abBolntoly eitinct.'' 



Sejana's " Famoíij | " luiii liEs ¡Mwtry, 
■lid everjÜilDí rcluilnj; ui Tilm, la rmunl In 
hli Wiirlii, i>riateil ni Mwlrid, 1T7B, 3 Coni. 
Bvii, Üic Qrst viiliTjni: liclü^ iu twit (iitrld. 
Bnmcr of hSa |tn«r[rj hlU litLit Qirifforf.rqiie 
aBocta&mi ^ mnre vi It ]§ prosuic- lio 
vrute n »ÍDjrí(^ P^B^i ^ Amar i1.es|;nM^ljii:ido 
Rlngín," olilch be EaUrd u traj^iauíiiiGdy, 
ftuil vbEcL íh ui»l witbout merlt. 

<■ A-nt. Liiii Rll>ifrn áv ilBrroa;, «'Jcir- 
□ula de Mulríii," Miuiric], K^2, iia ', a. 
[HifR* mlicpUanf nr prosa aud veTB«-, «hiMC 
luthnr din) ia 1683. {BaitiiiBü, Bn¡., Tuid. 
I. p. 313.)— PnuUnodelalElaETvlU, " Florui 
de] TitfAi^rEa coj^dfiftem [fllc1 el Jarillii ile 
Ib daildor?! MinorillGa dr Lnü^reft, oEfti:- 
cidoi \sic\ D la MfijwiAd ü« Jo. Serení e«hu a 
Befondn lii.i3rniiBreu.ñn,'>i>ic., iea7,l!lmD, 
pp, 164, B, «er7 cnrlniía viiHirnc', ul •■hluh 
I íiiun'] H copy ía ih? tirüLlpli >1ash^urD. 
BilrVjosa. liiu a nnltüe al Uie mHliior, *hO 
dieil Iu IGSa. (Blb., Tum. Ul. p. Qie.) — 
FBilfq qilínjo, HITO, tteat fi"»"'! In Bísinnnai, 
IIL Eíji.. Sevilla, ]a»a, Xnn>. 11- p. 187, 
note í Tarfliiro, Un. TV. p. tW, Bnd In Ri- 
iBilentjni-'a aibUot^-'W, T'fra. XSX.ll,, 
1S54. — Hlpiel ilD BíJ-rius, "Flor 4t 
A|»ulci," Bnisel&A^ 1I54A, 4tiii, ftr^ '^ Coro ú^ 
ln« Mue&h/' BniBeErt-q, linSí l^rnop — 
"Oclusiilail l>ci]jiada y Oci4.pb-El un 0*'1"íft 
de EbIüí de l.ueiu j- Eíplnnísa," ftiimu, 
IflT-^i 410-; a 1iiindrt-'d lia^ VQ'tlIh'ttA. (Lfe- 

nunik BLb. í4w., lililí, jv. p. as.)— Ja- 
clnt? de £t1s, ■' atimlllGCe de Floici^a P'iúcl- 
Oí,'" Uodrid, 14Í7D, IU, whkíl HenUinH 

omnr poen» bMld£B Ua ovn.— luesdA Ia 



Cria, la Hi-cíaia Musa, " Poema*," Zan- 
g-itm, 1482-1725, 3 tinn. 410, etc. — Ant. 
du Bous, "PomiiB," Madrid, lfl93,itu,— 

Cjudamn, *' Obra.» Líricas," ». o, ISma 

JciiKpL Pwnidf MclnW^^, " Ohra* iMutBi. 
mía Lfrícn*, Eluniuniu ; Sagradas," Hi,- 
>iIfLií, 17^6, 3 titm. 4li:i ; uot prlnled, I 
llilkk, tlll ih&t jtar, Uioufh tbtlr auilutr 
■aiBd in laW-. — Mmuel iSe teim Mar- 
«hHuCe, '* Clb'ras P aumu,''' Madrid, 1(3^ 
3 UMU^ iUi } «here iomeuf the titioHcicoVj 
1>y Uiclr iMúeiuwa, uol tbelc poeliy, recall 
Jimn de La Kuilna. — AdiI, JimpjiIi T>i- 
ínllu NügrílB, " B.-UDllleU Poc-ilco." Tm»- 
£o^&, 'l'lM, 4lo ; ía vhicli lael add La^ 
1a»M. Bih, Niicv», Toca. IV, p. )M. — 
Pürhapt a. Tolani« printi^d In Vnlencln, 
lüíto, 4Ui, and «DÜtli^ "Yniíui ririitiiHiai 
Vlütes iltl raruBda," nllk, ¡.'apc-ciiLllj If 
mmparvd irlüi Üie alinilnr «ork vi Eapl- 
nuea |irln^ in l'iw5, kJ-^*^ ^'^ taírml Ul^ 
út the ].mr hUlih dT povtry at tb& llmt It 
appeared. Et BaoüiTiia pijemH l>y ADt. 
IlurCada de Usaduza, by Sulla, and iijr 
the rol3üwiij[^ pewt?, otbvrwísv tinlcDonn to 
me : naniL-ly, FnuiclEoii de la Tnrru j Bi'bi], 
ItiHlrlgo Aji-j» 7 Muüsi, MiLrttn, Juao 
Aarci^lii, pad Jiian Bautúta AguLIju ; — 
nll iri^rthlt'M. Of tlie pvrsunK munlloDal 
tti lilla iiutL^, \\ie oDe Uiu,t prudiinnl Uia 
gi-eileHt svuHtioD, uílvrSrilis, wiLa I UN de 
In Crat, — k reDmrkalila «oinun, l)ut duI 
a retparliBblB poel, wlií wm born ¡" Oui- 
piiz«»s in KÍ¡1, and ilied In tiii<: «^ii; ^ 
MfXlCD Id lSe5. B«BlBIllu1o rlDtWHOV, 
184a, p. 12. 



r. n'sRioD n. 



But though its lafilor pfriod ia dai'k and dishoíirtening-, 
]yriy pootrj in Spaiii, from Üie time ot' Charles tht3 Fifth 
to the accessiou of thc Bonrlions, had, on the wbolOj a 
more f'urtunate carcer than it cnjoyed in any other of t.ho 
coutitrEcs of Europc, cxccpt Italy and England, anil showa, 
¡a cuvli oF its diUcreot cUsBca, traite tha.t are oñginal, 
strikitig, and full of the iiatioual cliaracter. 

Perbap?, ÍKiin the difBculty of sfttisfying the popular 
taete in what was mattcr of aiich soleran rtjgai'd, witliout 
adhering to tho aiicieDt and setticd forras, ita reUgious 
Keiifioua portíotis, Hiore Irequontly than any other, hear 
]jr!jaiiKK.is. ^ Biark&d reaemblance to tho símplest and old- 
est moTomenta of thc natiiíiial geniua, Gonerally, they 
are pictiiresque, Kke the iittie songa we have by Ocaña 
OH the Madonna at Bethlchenij an J ou the Fhgbt to Egypt. 
Somctimea lliey are nade and coarse, recallitig the vülanci- 
Oís sung tiy the sliepheids of the eariy reli^nous diamaa. 
lint alinnst alwaya, eveij when tliey grow mystical and 
fail irito liad taste, they are completely initraed with the 
Bpiñt of tbc Catholíc faith, — a epirit more diatinctly ím- 
prceaecl oq the lyiic poetry of Bpaiii, in this departinent, 
than it Ls on any other of inodern timeB.*' 



□n Ulll pHH4a^ Ol til* tl11lálllt¡DD, (TciJD. 

UL. \ip, ^iñ. eis.,) eiliie sevursl CanSioucnja 
OQÚ üllicf wurkb nuntuinEn); iüu;njil lyilual 
fixaj ut tille purli-d, which, nlthauRh 
in tlm Dit.m«C uf Liihllu.RrEip'hlua] rnther 
Urna Df lUírai? nuCEoEri, nliAulil not ¡ji'I- 
liDipi be iThDlly pdísoil ovar btrc. tlittj 
are; —O-) Carslocicrcia* Juwi Jfi Lioaan, 
ZiiniBni¡"i IMS, itg, ¡3.) Ctuiclunvrii iIb 
diveríBS übrsBj re., pnr el Piíúte Vity 
AmiuMMlo SlnutENlna, TnlcJ-ii, liOS, 4tn, 
tbc lamu peraon tbat. I Iiiivt.' minl-IonErl 
ol íhe enil uf LHiiLti. XX[. vt íb« li'lret 
Poriodí (SO Flor dji VirtudíS-, ec^, inir 
Ali-nm de Kitm.ira, AIcbU, ISIiS. (4.) 
Vergel lie Naeslm Spfiom, trnnalalod hy 
Jaitu de Mnlliin friim tliu TBlundiiii, and 
liiibli&hnl, SetíIIu, 1543. (6.) (;ai>duuen> 
Bfíiritund pi>7 el ae-rtreiiü l'udre IdkB Ou* 
anp, Mexieo, lülS. (O '3 Cancioaiini emí- 
piritiuil lie un Kell^lrisn, Vitllniiulii!, Ihi9, 
(T.) Verp:! de Flciri-a ilii'irais, jK-r H Li- 
ccncljuln Juan Lopeí ilu irtfiln, Alcaii, 
lüea, buJ eulkr, I5«a, líST. Aud (K> 
Vurscl de PIbdias dlTiiu*, ce, pur Fr. 



Areíibgel de Alnrcotí, 1tiu««iDtin, JÍ94. 

Tbe bttsl or thuet', uíid, I dil|>g>iia, thG Obl:r 
one of anj cunseiiuiiuiíu, ia li'licdjk'í TuC- 
Kt'l, aiiá iTQci tLi« Diiin PikMrtiat bUi g¡V«1t 
good GElmcLa. Hin noíit h^ilfevtt, WU 
|iublia.hcil in 16U. Th« bfiKt ya», 18M, 
Ui(« nrneiríd (In Vol. XXXV. at Klíi»- 
(leii.eyift'4 Blbllaiecik, -Eotltl»! " nomiLQDEn) 
7 CanclOBíi-ii SíLgm<lúe," edltal by tlonj 
HiistJi át Bunnhfl,) tt nJosL ampie und satliK 
[^ctifcy eclleetiun ot nhu'Urver ifl worüi 
roultng Jn Spaai?^L EíkcruL L^rícal poetrj*, 
armnged under a[Ji>rapraaie heuüu, BiLUb ad 
Boniietd^ UhIIeuIb, Víllitni^iDoA, OiLDciüiifrf, 
L-ta., but begÍDulng, not lH|!i'tiB|ie i|ull« 
npTiraprlEitelj', hltL tli« " Coelí:» d» Ib 
Muertií," B ckirloiui t>lll rultn Bult Qí drHbltt 
on ths " DanBÉ IrP niíBlh," ty StlgUBl di 
Cariüin.! nnd L»ln Hu.rlul'l-, ílii' Din luat At 
nliom «fe ai\le, Piniitl 1. üli^p. XI>, itaA 
l^ei-lw! lí, OliulJ. VIL, uoW. üí tuwt iiT 
tíit pwtns 111116 ííileíkd liy BBuehi'E frBM 
the liUrBitiUre or l}|e sUteeiiÜi aiiA nrveth- 
teentli CEuLurii^e^ 1 hikve BpriliciJ nuIFi- 
c1euU>' wben bpeiwkbij; of tlii:lr nuíhum ) 
Buch aA Liiijí de leoo, Iaiib de VegA, (üra- 



Chap, XXX.] CHARACTKR üF SrAMSH LTRIC POETKY. 



4$ 



Ñor ía tlie secuJar portíon less strong-ly marlíed, tliovTgli 
witík aüribute» widely diUereiit. Iii its popular ««nUtiyr. 
i3ivisi(ju8, it is JVfiHli, natural, aud of'loii ruatic, "^ i"'""^- 
S011113 ijf tile tthort ftiricüiiicx, wil.h which it aliumids, and 
Sume of fta iltanzoiie/ae, ovcrUow willi ttíndcriiesd, and yet 
eiid waywardjy w¡th an epigrucuiimtii; pyinl «r a jent. 
Ita uíííflíicíoos. teirn«, and letrillas are even more trae to 
the tiature ol" tlie pcople, aud more fully expreas the pop- 
ular leelin^, (ienerally tlioy 8t*ize a coiijidod iucidciit. or 
an obviüus ttiouglit lur their eubject. Sometimee it ¡8 a 
IHÜB girl. whm, iij liur ulitldiéh BÍniplicity, confeiíses to hcr 
mcither tile vftry passion ahe is inatiüctive-Iy auxious to 
conceal. Sooietimea it ¡a one oldcr aud more aeverely 
tried, deprficatiiig a pOwer »\í<í ia tío longer able tü con- 
trol. And sometimos it ¡b a Ibrtunatc aud liappy maidcn, 
opeuly esultíng' ín her love as the light aud glory of her 
life. Matiy of tbese Uttle lyrícal enatubee are ationymous, 
and exprcBS the feelings of the íowtíj- classes of societyj 
frciQ whose heails tljty carne as freahly qb did tlic oíd 
Ivallads, with which they are ofteti foiind mfiig;ltd, aiid 
to which they are almoet always akin, Tlieii- forma, tou, 
are oíd and characteristic, and thcre is occosioEiully a fruK 
icB^rae and mtBcbicTous spirit ín them, — uot unimbueti 
with tLe truest tenderuesH aud pusaion, — wliich, again, 
ie füitlifVil to their origiu, ¡md «ulike anythiog found in 
the poctry uf other natioos. 

In Ehe división of secular lyric poetry tbat is less pr>p- 
ular and loaa faitlLful to the traditious of the countrj', a 
largue diversity of spirit is eihibited, aud eshibited aliiioat 
alway& iii the Ttalian raeaaureg. Sonnetaj above all, were 
louked upon with extravagaut favor during the whyle yf 
thia period, and their nuniber bccarae euormously large ; 
larg^er, pOrliaps, than that of all tho ballads iu the laiiguage. 
But from this restriütod furní up to that of long grave 
odes, in regularly constructed stanxae of ninetceu or 
twenty liiies each, we have every variety of nianuer ; - — 
muiih tliiit IB solemn, stately, and imposing, but rauch, 
alao, that is light, gay, and grateful. 

gorjD Siiv«m, reilrii d« FiulTIla, tbe As- In üúé voluine, w]i«h Uusr unliafd]/ liill 

fíar'iliiA, úiid ii£:rhape fúrty nr ñnj -oHiurt, Lo ñad tihsA thcj- uny nccd, But u uutlM 
lar tbe Miiuiiiiiiler, tbv tiurínus iviU lonk uC IL41d Juco lUut beltruy lieK. 



i6 



CHAitACTEií OF SFASTSH LYRIC POETRY. {Pskiod D. 



Takin^ all the dífferent claBSes of Spanish lync poetry 
together, tbe number of awthora wbose wfji'ka, or some 
of tliem, Uave been preBGrvt'd, betweeti tliti be-giniiing' of 
GtmenJ tlie TCÍgn of Charlea t!ie FiflU and thü enü of t!iat 
BpsDish ijrr- of the lüst of bia ruce, íb nvt lees thao a. hundred 
ictípMiiT. gf,¿ tweat;y.=^ But the nurabcr of thoae who 
were Bucce&sfül ie small, as it is everywliere, and the 
amoitnt of real poetry produced, even by the best, ia 
rarely couBÍderable, A Uttle of what was written by the 
Arg'ensolas, more of Herrera, and nearly the whole of the 
Bachiller de !a Torre and Luis de León, — with occasíonal 
eSbrts of Lope de Veg-a and Qnevedo, and single odes of 
Figueroa, Jauregui, Arguijo, and Ki,oja, — tnake up what 
gives its character to the graver and lesa popular portion 
of Spanish Ijric poetry. And if to these we add VillegaSj 
who BÍanda quite sepárate, uiiitittg the apií-it of Greek an- 
tiquity to that of a truly Castilian geniíia, and the fresh, 
gracefol popular songa attd roundelaya, whicb, by their 
very nature, break loóse from all forme and Bubmit tq 
no clasBÍficatioQ, we shall have a body of poetryj not 
indeed large, but one that, for its living natioBal feeling 
on tbe one sida, and its dignity on the olher, may be 
placed without queation among the more successfnl ef- 
forta of modern literature. 



lll B.ti crlki^ LandrEfl biuJ twanty lyrfc po^tfl 
of thl9 pyriod. inTow, lU. p[i. 633, íqq. 
uf ilio SpimiEii irai»iatiOD of lilla HUIory, 
Don FuAcniíLl de O^Lymigoa addfi et Í^W ^yT\- 
cal pasta Ca EtiOiae I Tihvs alrenüy ¡üisciiucd 
norc ar Isbb in llils i:liapter ; — buE sú fíir 
Uiikt I un eriLtltlied Allhu oniBlIiuaB oí Cbcir 
DiiiDlwr, Eliite It inií'lleALlLfitny HKaKb«s 
bdV? Boi b«i;n wlinlly vlULiiU sucuii. 
Thii ILrsC ncüoA Dy liliu Is BArtolome dy- 
tMtc 4tí fifuerfti, whH> wa* bofd lii tbe 
CBiuirlEE in líUI, uvU ú\t/l Üitm In 161^, 
1 hivt airead? ¡fcrldj I. Uhftp. 11.) httil 
s««i!iaD to aHiíii Sa bin "Tcsmplu Mill- 
UTite," a sort Dt venlúcd Llvea □! Itis 
8alnu, ivliiph be publlshíd ¡it ViüeacU !□ 
1403, ani] or.whlch the fnurttt «Jiclan ap- 
PdaiNd M liabnn íd fclio ia ItílS. Hia 



ítyíe le nffectel wift fila siieicijüa ítry 4iül 
nnd bcary* Ihs D«xt Ib- Slfg^ cl« V^rn 
y Odloñei, líhOM "Bí^riiyiliís peil-nss r 
Amr/tmne" nrpuBrel la 1&¿2 ; t>ul ii 
K(ioiic!| by tdc cM/(íwoi pt 5he time, nní 
tbird la Antaaio de farcdus, whíidii "Ri- 
mB£," printed M fíatúiirí, 1623, iMlun^ 
rotber lo I!l6 gMd ethoul oí the prijccitliig 
ceatury- Esurlh, Giiroiitau de Pumtó, 
wbo dk-d, wliCM be irajt kortí, ab Ante- 
£|iieim In lS4it. Hiv ■'AÍIDB& Tanas," 
pulillehed ttiúia ¡n ]>9Í)9, ar» gCaCibllj 
Eree líum tiaesULlliViiB, 1>\A liCil IdüiV (r^e 
tbim tb«ae oí Itia rricHd MuillulTín, dnd, 
flltli, Pedro Alvarcí ije Liigín, who, llkú 
CaytaaEo, was a aM\e ai tho Cíiduriw, 
uDd who published ut Mailrid, lo laoi, hl> 
" V til lisa del Sueñij." But ISe püíücal 
Vulue oJ theíe ñve uuthara la unEill. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

' 1ÍlTIS]Ci.L PÓBTRT ; tRB AltnCKBOLá.S, 'jlIKTKDO, ÍWD othess. ^ 
SLBQIAÚ l'OETRT JiSO BFIBTLBB : GARCELASBO, BESHBRA, AVU 
OTHBBA. — PASTOKÁL POETRY ; §«i OH MIRAKDA, BAI,EPB[»A, 
GS-O m LACHE, i.sb ÚTIIGftS — Gf[(-,ii.aM:3 : viLLKOAS, B.BUOLLEDa, 
AK» OTUBRB. — DiDAfTIP POETRY; BOFO, L'ÜBVA. CÉBPtLDES, AMD 
OTHER». EMHLIIMS ; DAZA, COTARRITS! AS. DEBCRCPTirU PO- 

KTRT : deoaStillo. 

■ 

Satibical poGtry, whether in the form of regular sat- 
ires, or Íii Uie more familiar g;uise of epietlea, ^tamai 
has nevcr enjoyed a wide success in Spain. Its i"«"t- 
spirít, iudeed, was known there from the times oí the 
ArchprieBt of Hita and Rodrigo Cota, botii of wLom eeeia 
to have beeo thoroughiy imbued with it,* Torres ti&- 
harro, loo, in tlie eariy part of tbe aistoenth century, and 
Silvestre ütiá Caetilleju a little later, still augtained it, and 
wpüte satíree in the short national v-erse, with nauch of 
tbe earlier freedotn, and all the bittemcss, that orif^nally 
accumpanied it, 

Üut after Mendoza and Boscan, in the middle of that 
ceutary, had aent poética! epistlea to oue another, written 
in the manner of Horace, though in the Itulian íerza 
riífta, the faabion was chauged, A rich, etrong' itivectivej 
Buch as Oustillejo dared to uaewhen he wrote the " Sátira 
on Women," whích was often reprinted and greatly rel- 
iflhed, was almost entirely laid aeide ; and a more culti- 
vated and philoBophical tone, euited to the stately times 
of Charles the Fífth and Pliilip the Second, took ita plajje. 



t FoeUi^al SatlrcB or l^la, l^ublÍElir Clr- "lij t\\» codc. Pttrtlda VU. TiL IX. LefM 

cnluted, aiid eomrtlnif^a tlironil íMrrtlr 8,30. ThtK "cbdIiebs" or "ríMU" H 

Ictn tile faausp-B oT the perBimB Ün^y riili- "'ili-^liíjüe. molos/' na tlhoy art: ht>t caU^i 

cil^lLi or Into the cliurchpB, tftm ti> LaVc are llkQLy eiijOU(fh, 1 cioDctiV4, Ui hATalKOA 

tiQED GoiDiDnD íb tbe tíioe uf Alíouno X.j «rítteu [□ Lbe b^tlod mi^osurii nod Tnan- 

imi^l^M, uid «ere «ererely pimltlied ner. 



SATIRÍOAL POETRY. 



[PEBion rr, 



Müntemuyor, it Is tnie, and Padilla, wifh a fcw wita of 
less ncjte, wrüte in both üiaiiners ¡ Lut Csuitünil wttb 
little talent> G-regorio Modllo, or Miirillo, with a gnod 
deal, aad Rey de Artk'da in a familiar stjle that was 
more ■winning tlian either, took the new direction so 
docidedíy, that, froai the b&giaiiing' of the sevciiteunth 
century, tlie chang-e maj be (¡onsidered aa ButistanLiüIly 
Bsttlod.^ 

Baraliona de Soto was among the earlEer that wrote ia 
■Rumbona ^^^^ ncw form, whith was a tLniotí of the Bom&n. 
áeüvui. with the Italian. We Lave four of his Batii'cs, 
composed after be had setved in the Monaco wats : the 
firflt and tlie last of whicli, assailing all bad poeía, show 
plainly the achoo] to which hebelongc^d, and the direetion 
he wished ^o follow. But his eíTorts, thoug-h seriously 
made, did not raise him ahove aa iintolerated modíocrity.' 

A single Batiré of Jauregui, addressed to Lydia, as if 
fihe jnight havo been the Lydia ofllorace, is bet- 
""^ tcr.* But iii the particular style aud uianiier qf 

the philoBophical Horatian Batiré, none eucceeded eo well 
■nifiArgcD- as the tfpo Aigeusolasi. Theír disQueaioDs are. it 
'"'"■ is true, sometiin es too grave aiid too long; bnt 

they g¡ve ca spirited pictureg of the inauuers of their 
times, The eketch of a proflígate lady of fashion, for iu- 
stance, in the one to Florn, by Lupertio, is exccllent.-aiid 
EO are long paBsagen in two otherB against a court life, 
by Bartulóme. All three, howcver, are too much pro- 
tracted, and the last coiitains a poor repetition of the 
fiíble of the Country Mouae and the City Mouae, ia 
■which, ae almoat everywhere elae, ita author'a relations 
to Horace are apparent.^ 



1 ¿Ll lliOBG 4&tirea are feíuDd Ib the 
WOtIc» at tliiflr rcepectire auLborft, bcicto- 
lore cltGit, eicept tliit ut Mfiríllcí " Oa the 
Coimpted ManDtrie iiT Mi Times,'" whiab 
la in KB|>ÍD[ian, Flirirn, 16DB, f. 119. Tlie 
"■Epiilolna " of Artii'iLa nere printal Ihe 
■HiDD jeai, UDHÍer Ihc ñame nr"flrlBiai- 
dDTo," and un: bíx íd nuinlHrri Tlii¿ bc^L 
ure one usaínsL Ihe üfc ol a Siiortibian, 
H.Dd ODe tu trolilciLl úefeoct af the: folILta of 
HjcLtitf. 

B Thej- irei« Brat príiited in Bedauní, 
Faruuio^ Tuin. IX., 1779. 



I tUTCiu, IBIB, f. isa. It 1s B remark» 
ilbly hujtp^ Luii'DD of the llalian. form qí 
yene a-od Lhe Rocían apLrit. 

i- nloiss, leñi, pfi. M, ^4, 3U. It ít 
BicgiiÜBT, tionerer., Umt, «bllu RnrhiliiroA 
iniitaltB HcracP, he cxptesícs Mb. prefer- 
cncu for JiLvtQali 

Pena qUBJido- ft nacrlblr qñüTBJi llü-^ev, 
A ningún InríLadn cmrIripBc]''i. 

B1Q16 kl flfl caalo Jovemil. tt lEiMBnM, 

Il« «Mms, toú, lo ha?e 'becn bcwiunt^ oti 
iDikUtor olJiíveiral byhia ccnKntptirwieB t 



CiiAP. XXXI.] 



SATIRICAL POETBY. 



49 



QuDnila. 



0<^Earh. 



(Juevedn, on thi? other band, follcuved Juvcnal, whoae 
hard, unspann^ tfiínper waa better suilcd to hia own 
tastcfi, and to a disposition imbitlered hy cruel 
pereecutioDS. Büt Quevedo ib olYen free and iu- 
decoroas, as welt ae harsh, and ollcuda that scubíIiíI- 
itjr to virtue which a satirist ouglit carefiilly to culti- 
vate. It shouM, however, be rerneinbered in bis favor^ 
tbiit, thoiigh liviiig- iinder the despotiBui of thc Philipgj 
and crushed hy tt, no Sp.inish poot st^inds beforc him in 
tho spirit uf an iiidepeudeiit and vignrnus Ratire. Gón- 
gfora approaehes hitu on some occasioiis, hut 
Gdngoia rarely deait with grave Biibjccta, and 
cútifined his aatire alrnost entircljf to burlesque bailada 
and soniietB, whích he WFote in the fervor of his youth. 
At no pfriiid of liis Ufe, atid certaiiily not aftcr he went 
to court, wou]d he liave hazardod a Balirical [-■pistle like 
the oue on the decay of Castílian Bpirit and the corruption 
of Castilian manuers, whích Quovedo bad the couragie to 
send to the Count Duke Olivares, wben he was at the 
hei^ht of his iuQuence." 

The greateat contemporánea of both of them hardly 
turned theír thoughts in this dírection ; for aa to Cer- 
vantes, bis " Journey to ParnaBa.iiB " \a qnite too good- 
Datured aa iinitatton of Oaporali to be classed among 
RatireB, even if its form pDrinitted it tci be placed there ; 
and as to Lojjg do Vega, though some of bts SOUnetS and 
other shorter poema are fuU oí" spirit and severity, eepe- 
cíally tbose tbat pass uudef the ñame of Burguíllos, stiíl 
hís whole conree, and the popular favor that followed it, 
naEurally prcvented biin from BCeking -O-CCaeions tü do or 
say anything ungracíous. 

Ñor did the state of Bociety at tbis period favor the 
advancemeDt, or evea the continiiance, of any Buch spirit 
Tbe epiatles of Espinel and Arguijo are, there- Ynrum» 
fore, abBoluíely gra^e and solemu ; and thoee of -«^«^«1 
Rioja, Salcedo, Ullua> and Meló are not on1y 
gravG, but are almoat entirely destitute of poetical merit, 



ttr Oovvara, Id hla " Dls.bIo Cujuelo/'' lec líal. he la Tull of Hor^lu] tumi of 

TruDüD IX., Ditlla biiu "DWluo JuE^n&i Ifanught. 

Ami^uDUii." Bul II le 1inp:«iible iiDt la a It li Uie Ijistpoecn [□lbe"MElpuiDeDe.'' 

VOt.. Itl. S D 



90 



SATIRIO AL POETE Y. 



P'KKroD n. 



except one hy the firet of tliem, addresaed to Fabio, 
whicti, if neither gfty iior Tritty, ia an a<]rairablj wiae 
moral rebake of the folly and irlísomeneBS of depecd- 
ittg on royal faror. Boeja íb more free, aa becarae hig 
hígh statioii, aud speake out mure plaiiily : but tbe beet 
of liis ppis.tl68 — the Dne against a, Court life — is not sd 
gocid as ttie youtliiul tercetos on the same subject by Gdn- 
gora, ñor oqual to hia own jegting address to hia coUectcd 
poems. Rebolledo, liie only Bucceesor of any note at the 
time, la moral, but tiresomc \ and Soh's, like the fow that 
followed hínir is too duU to be rememhered. Indeed, if 
Viltegas, in hia oíd age, -when, perliaps, he had been 
soureii by disappointmeijt, had not written three satirea 
whích he did not ■venturo to publísh, we should have 
nothing' worth notioe as we approach the di&licartening 
clüBe of this long period.'^ 

Nearly all the didactic Butiree and Q.e;trlj al! the eatii-i- 
cal epiatlea of the best age of Spanish litei-ature are 
Eoratiaa in their tono,, and written En the Italian terza 
rima. In. general, their spírit is light, though pliilo- 
sopbical, — eümotimea it if) courtly, — and, taketi to- 
gelher, they have lesa poetical forcé and a lesa deeided 
cüloring- than we might claim from the claes to wbich 
they belong. But they are frequently gracoful and agree- 
able, and some of them wíll be oftener rcad, for the mere 
pleaeure tbey bestow, than many in other languages 
whieh aro diBÍinguished for greater wit and severity. 

The trnth, howfivcr, ia, that wit and seyerity of thie 
BaHrediB- ^nd and in thia forra weie never heartily en- 
cauntgea, couraged i" Spain, The uatioa itaelf has aJwayB 
been too grave and dignjfied ío ask or endure the cen- 
sure tbey imply ; and if Buch a character as the Spanish 
hae Ub ridiculoua aide, it muat be appronched by any- 
thing rather than personal ftatíre. Boolis libe the ro- 
mancea of chivalry may, indeed, be aseailed with effect, 
as they wece by Corvantes ; men ín claBsea may be 



' TtlG HtlKI inr iiU LlicSB HutLnrB ore In (Tnm. IX. pp. S - 13) 4 or nLlhCr, XWi Of 
tllBlroolLcoled Worka, eitcpt th-uae (il Villc> them on bud ^nOa iTüre bd Sfrlnlut), fi^e 
.pu, n-hlctl W«re piintfil from icanuBcrliieB, Üít <JíAt-i HAtúf, t-A llftVE tecn euppT^Kd, 



Chap. SSXI.] 



SATIRrCAL POETBT. 



caricatured, as tliey are in the Spanish picaresque novela 

and iii the oíd drama ; and bad poetry rnay be ndiculcd, 
&$ it waa by half tlie poeta wlio did uut write it, and Ly 
Bome who did. But tlie characteips of iudividuale, and 
especially of thoee in Uigh statiou and of miii;h noiork-ty, 
are prolected, undtír euch circnrastaiicee^ by alJ the Bucial 
inílueQcea that can be brouglit to their defénce, &nd caa- 
DOt safely be assaSed. 

Sucb, at least, was the case in Spain. Poetical satire 
carne tUere to be lookod upon with diatrust, so that it 
was tlionght to be hardly in good tuBte, or accorditig to 
tlie conventioDs of good eociety, to indulge in ite com- 
poaítioii.^ And if, with all this, we remeraber the anx- 
ídus uature of tbe political tyraDoy whicb loug ruled 
tbe country, and the noÍBolesa, Hleepless vigilante of the 
Iliquiüilion, ^both wf whích are iipparent in tUe cortifi- 
oates and licensea that uaher in whatever siiccGeded in 
fiodin^ its way through tho prees, — we shall have no 
difliculty in accountiag" for the fact, that poetiual satire 
never had a vígcirous and healthy existence in Spuiíi, 
and that, aller the tatter part of the sc-venteenth cen- 
tury, it almost entirely disappeared till better titnea re» 
vived it. 

Elegiea, though from tlieir eiibjecta little coimected 
wítb Batiré, are jet, by their ineaaiim atid man- 
ner, Comaocted with it in Spanlfih pMtry ; fur '^ 



tn tbv liiacth chapt^r uf tila " Jdiud >■; M 
Fkfiuuwue,'' ItnmsiUktc-ly ftftar ipealciDg o! 
bii Don (juiíule, Ii« diiavoir* buviiig^ nyer 
■WTlllyn unjlliliiB üiulrical, aiul de-PüUiicHi 
aíl eucb wnnpnllinna u. \ov and Iijlbs. 
LTulei^d, the vevywurdíaáíira a-nd latíríEO 
carne aX luL w be uard in. p. Imd HflUBS 
ofbenpr lUad íd. h j^Dod ODñ, Buprta, 31- 
náulnKMCaaWllunua, Vbí-jucIu, 1ÍU7, Stom. 

Poeiím fifirreiDOt, tK paetiif In Uw 
noliipeaí br^uuL ínme or porodjf, CoolcmactL 
tha place oí BHtlrlcaJ poetr; jmii>erly ni 
ulkd ; and utiIi-ss vhea Chv luqulililon 
InwrTcntd wR1i It Tnr ili inunaralliiy or fur 
Mfaer Ivu ^usUflablo uaiLiea, il tiad gBoá 
(luuen Id Spuiíi. ÚT mauy «rltere I huiF' 



HlreSirlj «[HtkfD, miicli u> (Tuilíllíjo^ Ueii> 
■luza^ Quevuilv, cu., anil llojnDgrji In bla 
trnui'lHtloii [Tiiin. III. p[). KM, vtc) odilB 
twü OT itiree mliers, "lia, Uiou|[U of Tiry 
¡LtUe coiDiiiLrHLiTí Ijikpr^rtance. 4hioiild lie 
meiklJaneil hMHsiiiRe tfai-; ildvouxl them- 
B«lvGi ID thla Btjle of vene. Thej jiw, ^ 
(1.) Jacinto AIddbo Mnl^'^nsla, fiir wboae 
'^Bureo de loB Mush.h,^^ l&ÜI^ and Ilia 
'^Tropefon de ka ILíbh.t''* (aine anno^J §efl 
XllDeIia,TDni. L ■p. 321, and Pu«t«T, Tuni. 
I, p. 253. On^aD^OH ailrbí, "-La Cnuqui' 
lU dul Guau," 1326. Xnit (2.) La\» Aa- 
trinlii, nho publLihed n.1 ZüngoiiL, !n lObB, 
hll " Naevo Plab) du ManJaEvs^" In «hlall 
tbB BsJUdí Biul iKtcillu are Blalcied to be 
IpMd. 



S2 



ELEOIAO POETBT. 



JPkhiod IL 



bíilh are g'oneraíly written ín thc líalian ferza rima, aod 
büth are ofícü thrown iiito the form of epistlea.' Gar- 
cüasso couíd wiite ele^fies iti tbeir tiiie spirit ; bat thíe 
secoiid tliat passc^s uiider that uíime in hia works ís merely 
El fLiiuiliur epistle to a frieiid. Su íh tbe fir&t hy Fi^uE?roa, 
which Í3 folloTved bj" othcrs ín a Tone more appropriute to 
tlieir tilles. But all are íd the Italian verse and manner, 
and two of thom in the Italian lang^age. The eleven 
" Lamentations," as he callg them, of Silvestre, are ole- 
giac epistles to hia lady-love, written in the cild Castilian 
measürea, and not wi thout the o\ d Castitian poetical 
Bpírit. Caiiturál faüa ; ñor can the Argenttolaa and Eor¡a 
be said to llave succeeded, though thej wrOte in diflcrent 
manners, aome of which were scarcely elegiac, E&rrera 
is too lyric — too lofty, perhaps, from the very natnre 
of hia ^enius — to write g'ood elegió}» ; but eome of thoee 
on hÍB love, and one in which he mourns over tbe paa- 
sions that Burvive the decay of b¡8 youth, have certaiuly 
both beauty and tenderneee. 

HiojX OB the contrary, stíems to have been of the true 
tejnperameut, and to have written elegies from instinct^ 
though he caüed them Silvas ; while Quevedo, if he werñ 
the autlior of the poema that pasa under the ñame of the 
Bachiller de la Torre, nrnst have done violence to hia 
genins in the composition of ten ehort pieces, whicb he 
calla Endechas, in Adonian verae, but wliich read much 
lite imitatious of some of the gientler am<9ng Ihe gld 
bailada. If to theae we add the thirteen. elegiea of VÍ11&- 



* A Htrllclng' Ijistaoce nf (bis ii to lia 
niunil le tbe " Frimera Psrta d«J p4ri!íM 
Astirllefl," 1iy Díhi^d Metía, prlp<ie4 ac 
BctIIIg, IBDS, ¿Id, and lüe anly pnrtlao Ql 
It eva fDinlni}. II. coBgkls oí sd ürjglmij 
poellctl letter bj a ladj to Maiia, iind, 
■ tnnílutlDn ol tvenly-anH uC tbn E¡iÍal:Lf a 
of Ovii aod his ^'Ibla ^' ; alL íd /eraarívnii, 
anl iieurl; all in puré ana beautiful Coa- 
ti'ÜELD Feree. In ttie iNliClan In tha coLlu^ 
tijoa uf fernaiidüE, Toid, XIX-, 1703, thn 
ep'idilti l>y the ladj ia amhtLad^ wtilQl) li 
4 plty, kIjicc It coqUliub n-mÜEíiH af Bever^ 
8ou[:h Amurlcaii fio4!U. 

Tliegu Mexia wus a raatiTe a! Bevllle, but 
becanie an Ogd^T ia Ciudad de ¡.os Jleycsi 



[Llmul, la Pem- Whita thej*. Ib isoa. So 

weot lo WeKlCO. Üí Ttaa neiirlj aíilp. 
wr^lfGd Da. }^a pri^nnj^t and Lad a pninfiil 
Jniimef b^ laxid aH^^'cv'ard b. to tbe plai?e oT 
hÍB daetínaCJoB ; baC In tbe caureu ■>f Üiiife. 
moDths IhBt hia trp^ela iHiEtad he vputc tbo 
STV&tei |ian o! UtsBe itraDalatlans, vh Icll he 
calla ^' LLapriEDloliiada mi pobre mtiia,^' and 
wblEh, bairiiLit ouDipleted (bem Ib Stexlca, 
be Bent lo hia bative cLty ib Sptiln far pub- 
lícatinn. He nays iu hit. PreCaco, that he 
uses the ierra rima u hctnK r'^i'b'""''í' 
■)ípri>prtew (4 reiKlvr Latín i^legliic vtnie ¡ 
— an nplcúoii MDtraiiilag e'<r'>iiBif nitb 

thal «sprMSES by VIHegH. 8ee <nle, 
OU&p. II, «me S3, ftOd aotel «F Sayango. 



Cn.li-. XXXI.l 



PASTORAL POKTET. 



53 



gaa, ne.'ii-lj all of whicU are epistEes, and one or two of 
them iight and amusiug episÜcs, wc shall hnvo what is 
moHt wortlij ol' núticc in tliis smalli división of Spanieb 
poctry during the BÍxteeuth and aevcnteenth centuríes, 
tha.t hüfi not Leen already cotisidered, From the whule, 
■*e ahould natiirally iuler that the Spaaish tetniícrament 
was íittle fitted to the subdued, siiople, and gentío loue 
of ttie proptT eleg7 ; a conclueion that ía undoubtedly 
tnie, nDtwíthBtaQding tbe ex^mples of Gareilasao aad 
Bioja, the best iind moBt elcg-iac portione of whose poetiy 
do Qot eveo bear its uawe." 

Pastoral poetry in Spaiu íb direcllj connected witli 
elegiac, through the eclogucB of GarcilaBso, which anite 
the atlributes of both. To híg school, indeed, incl^KÜii^ 
BüBCan and Mendoza, we trace the earlioat suc- pa^,nj 
Cesal'ul epecimene of the more formal Spanish i^^rf' 
pastoral, wiUi tlie characteriatica atill recuguiaed. Biit 
its origiii ís EQUch earlier. The climate and condition of 
tbe Península, which from a very remóte perbd had 
favored the 9he[ihijvd's life and bifi pupHuits, facilitated, 
no dunbt, if they diJ not occasion^ the first introduc- 
tion into Sparjísh poetry of a pastoral tone, whose 
echoGs are ¡ii^ard far back amon^ the o)d bailada. But 
the Italian forms of paatoral verso werc naturalized as 
soou as they were introduced. Figueroa, Cantora!, Mon- 
temayor, and Saa de Miranda — the last two uf wbom 
were Porttigueae, íind a-Ü of whom visited Italj and lived 
there — contributed tbeir efforts to thoee of GarcilaBso 



W Tlie iM-iit -f kgino pocCry Iii fbc Spanlnlí 
Ungun^p b, ivrliHipii, tliat iii the tirn 
diTJaiMna-ar Llie Bral crliifui- oF üsicüaBOO. 
Elcjcl^n, DT ni-iiuriifül iKteiDft cif íkny tind, 
Are DÍtuak nklW Eadccñ-ia la l^jiaaiah^ .sa 
La TiitL^'- calLi'd hie mil nniíitory poCinfl i 
butthf iiriglb ü( tli^ Word i» nut gettkil, 
Diii lu mctiniíig' mi] ileBbtd. Vi-'n>;Kiu), In 
a *ociib(iiírj ui ^t\itit.-íir\- Kr-ría al [h* tmi 
rf Iri*" Agüüií del TfiflaUfl ■dii laMutrie," 
167*, it, ino, BFiys lií lUliiks it «loiflfl rrftfu 
ijiíifjcwe», m II iiio uiimi'nef fldiireeaíd 

Uie di:ai hu.1y. lliit tin» in ali^iinj. It 
ma¡f GúuiK frijm ihc íJn^Gk ','i 'Vi^.^^ Tur wb-ti] 
tbe loat Tcras ul eucb ntiuii»* coatubiicd 



just elaveh KylUtiUs, the pciem wu Hid (o 
be «rituit is eudtsha» rtalet. Sn Co- 
fUTublaft, utd th« A.<s£emy, ¡id iMr&tini, 
yfiíit g]TS M opLalDD. 1Volr iltlLlie' 11 otünea 
frMn tbn Pn>Teni;Bj JDirr, DeitAa, etc., 
"mkni," "loi»," etc., C*ee JiaUoc, Oír- 
iiiiiD muAbtluH df UiiB ni4t«ry, Vti, il. 
p]>. 734, TUBO and Dtei, Id hto eiu»U«iiC 
" EiriQülsgltiíliai iniKBrbuelí ili-r Koma- 
EiBchün ai.fneten," pasa, m verb. nee, 
(1. 601,) comes (9 tbt Eamv -c^itnviuaiaa. I 
Ihlnk Úirr irerigbt. Id Hue, JEndrcAon 
llnrir, in Uie B«ni>C ol s^imi^Lhla;; Oíanlid, 
or miii»ing, is ln Itarnnviard, Le-xiq-Ui^ íLo- 
DLUJ, IMD, Ttria. IL p. 20. 



u 



PASTOKAL rOETBT. 



[FüRionfll. 



aiíd Bascan, liy writing- Spanieh eclogues in tlie Italiaa 
fyan, mamicr. All had a good degree of sueceeaj but 
Mirmiu. nono Bo miicli aa Saa de Miranda, wlio was bom 
in 149&. and died in 1558, and wbo, ftom the prorapt- 
iiigB of hís own geniuB, renounced the profeasioQ of the 
law, to which he was bred, aiid the favor of the Cüurt, 
■wbere hís proBpectB were high, iu order to devote him- 
aelf to poetry. 

He wae the flrst of the Portugueee who wrote in the 
fonns introduced by Boacan and Garcilasao, and none, 
perhapep since his timt? has appeared in tbem with more 
grace and powei\ — oei'tainly none iu Ihe partícnlar form 
of evlogucB, His pafltorala, however, are not all in the 
new manner, On the contriry, eoroe of them are En the 
ancient short Terse, and eeem to Iiave bi^en written before 
he waa acquainted with the change thai had just been 
efiected in Spanish poetry. But hII of them are iii one 
Bpirit, and are marked by a eimplieity that well becomea 
the class of compositiona to which they belong-, though it 
may rarely be fonnd in them, Thia is true, botti when be 
Tirites his beaiitiful pastoral atory of "The Mondcgo," 
■which IB in Ihe manner of Garcüaseo, and contuins an 
acconnt of himsdf addreaacd to the king : and when he 
writes hia sovcnth eclog-uo, which is in the forma of Enzína 
and Viceivle, and acema to have been aeted amidst the ro- 
Joiüinga of the noble fan:iily of PereJra, after one of theír 
number had returned from nülitary Bcrvíce against the 
Turka. 

But a love of the country, of cotintry scenery and 
country occupationH, pervadee nearly everything Saa de 
Miranda wrote, The very animáis eeem to be treated by 
him with more naturalness and familiarity than they are 
elaewhere ; and throug-hout the whole of his poetry, there 
is an ease and aaienity that show it comea from the heart, 
Why he wrote bo mnch in Spanish, it is not now easy to 
tell, Perhaps he thought the langnage more poetícal 
than hjg nativo Portiig^ueBe, or perhaps he had mcrely 
personal reaeoiis for hia pretcrencc. But whatevcr may 
have been the cause, &ix out of llís eight eologucs ale 
compoEed in natnral, flowing Gastilian ; atbd the result of 



Ciup. XXSI.] 



PASTORAL POETRT, 



55 



the whole ís, that, while ou all accounts be is placed 
among- the four or five principal poets of his own country. 
Le occupies a position of euviable distinction amon^ tboso 
of the pmiídcr natioD tiíat sooii becuine, for a time, ita 
:niiete.r>í." 

Moiilomayor, Foloj and tlieir í'ullowers in prose pas- 
totals, BCattered bucolic vúrse of all kinds fredy thrúugh 
tlieir ñctions : and sometimcB, though seldora, they addcd 
to the iiitereet and merit of their storiea by t.his sort of 
oraament. One of tbosc wbo had leaet siicuoss 
in it Wíis CervaiiteB ; aml of tlinse wlio had inost. pi'JS 
Ba!biien« etande in the firet rank, líís '• Golden '""'"■ 
Age " cnntaíns sorae of the beet and most original ec- 
loguea in t!ie languagc ; written, ¡ndeod, rather iu the 
free, riislíc teme of" TheocrituB, thau with the careful finish 
of Virjfil, biit lint OH that accouiit the lusa attractive," 

Of Lijia BiLrJihiCiria de Soto, we poeaess ati eclogue bet- 
ter thau anytbiug^ cUe he híia left üs ; '* and of Pedro de 
Padilla, the fricnd of Cervantes and of Silvestre, a re- 
markablf! improvisator and a much loved man, we havc a 
nuiiibor of pastoral poems whích carry with them a pic- 
tare3i(|Lie, antique air, from beiog madc up in part of 
bailadla aud villancicos.^^ Pedro de Enzíiias «ttemiitod to 
write religious eclogucs, and failed ; ^' but, in tho CBtab' 



n Tbtrc nretnaiiy ciUlions of thr 'Wotks 
ol Smi iIr MiraodB > tmt Uid incauíl aud 
hntEi]. I.ICK, 4tB) Ib pnccdcil by a Ufo 
□T him. Klili^ti cUltn» lo liavv beta cfidi. 
plisad bj liia [uTioiml [ririidí, añil wliloli 
Htate» Uif ckIeI fací, lliHt Ibr [mly of ^'bimi 
he wna enamoreii was ao og-ty ihal the 
Taaiilf decl^nrd tli,e malcb iintlt lie tiul 
\rel\ oint\á--n:á thi^ 111.11.1,117 ¡ bnt Lliut Ike 
pCTit^en^rl, acld Wvranie au fondlj ¿tlaL-bol 
to bvr. thiit lie llcl, at lut, fnnu grlef at 
ticr Idbr. H)b iTiErilB ai a ]H>el are n.e'll 
diumiCil lij AdL du Ni:reB Pcrelra, Id 
Chv flítli mlunie of tbc " Mi-iacria* ilc LttL 
Pnrtugucía ■' uT thv Brysl AcBrteiny uf 
BeIrncíB, Liíbni, IlfiS, pp. tW, etc. Some 
of liln WHirht HTF ín thr Sinuilah Index 
Ki-pur^ratoriiu, 1II<37, p. ^3■ 

13 IJI Ihe |Mietí wlLCise erlogníí ure ílinnd 
Sn tUelr prose jiunloral* X «hall a|vnk nt 
lnr)fe irlii:!! I esaniiiiL ttiU ilEvi<i|[in of 
Bpanlih rcimnntic flcllim. MuDleiniLjíuii 



it thoiiM be notcd here, vroW cAIivt *»' 
Joji:i.if j, irbkli uc Id Lia CanclouDro. tfiSS, 
a. 111, fíe- 

1' II Is rntiiMl In ifac imrKittHat iudIIpo 
tlon. the " Flum," ur Bs]itiiw&, t, flO, 
wjii'r* It lliít ii;i|R-iir(il. 

« " Eijlnjnis Poíli-rlles Be Prdrcí ilo Pb^ 
dillu," SdvIlU, 16B3, 4tii •, tltirken In iiuai- 
boT, Id ull iDCUum, «.nd tliF biat utia 
parlly ¡n pniiiB. Of PiuHlln. nhn vns 
iqligIi cauQocr'^d vElVí ihv men af IttUm 
□r lila Elme, &1! EtmlfiU iiiiLki» ainy bo 
tonnd In HaTarrelc, '*\'Isftt flr Cervaoites,'* 
pp. 39(1-40!, anit la Clcniv uctn''» Nol«9 to 
Sim Qiijiiite. Ton). I. p. UT. Tbe curnta 
wcll aaí» ot bla "Tl-íotti de roesla»," i(Mb. 
írld, laST, llmD,) "Tbey wuulil lie betWr 
If tbi-y wfn- tewci." Tliey flU aticiTC nlou 
biuiilrud pages, and am tu lU rormg aiid 
«tyles. Faililla dliil aa lalr m Ififig. Sea 
adíe, PiTiod n. Ohap. XXIX. ñute S. 

w Tliora an? alx of UiHni,¡q ítna aod 



56 



PASTORAL P0>:TKY, 



[Ferio D IL 



lished furms, Juan de Murales and Gómez Tapia, ivlio are 
harflly kuown exct'pt for eiiit,''Io attemptB oí this kiriíí," 
and Vicente Espinel, - — aaiong whose ecUig-uee, tíiat in 
whích a Soldier and a Sbcplicrd diíicuss the Spaiiish waia 
iü Italy is both original and poetícal,*^ — were a!l auc- 
ceasfiil. 

The eclogues of Lope de "Vega, of which we have q.1- 
ready BjDoken, drew after them a traÍQ of imüationa, lilte 
his other popular poetry. Biit neither Balvas, ñor Ville- 
gas, ngr Carrillo, itor the Pñoce of Eaquilache equalled 
hini, Quovedo alone among his conipeers, and he only 
if he is tlití author of tlie poema of the Bachiller de la 
Torre, proved liimself a rival of the great master, uiileea 
we must give an ccjual place to Pedio de Espinosa, wboee 
Btory of "The Genil," half elegiac and half pastoral, is 
the iiiippiest and moat origfinal specimen of that peculiar 
form of whieh fioscan in hia " Ilero and Leander " gave 
the fií-Bt. imperfect examplc." Pedro Soto de EoxaB, — 
who wrote ehort lyric poems wjth epirit, aa well as 
eclogues, — Zarate, and UUoa, belong- to the same school, 
which wa& continued, bj Texada Goniea de loa Reyes, 
Bhjtíob the Jew, aud Inez de la Cru« the Mexican «un, 
dywn to the end of the century, But iu all ita forma, 
whetiiei" teudiug to beconie too lyrical, aa it does in 
Fig-ueroa, or too narrative, as in Espinosa, Spanish pasto- 
ral poetrj Bhowñ fewer of the defucts that ac- 
company such poetry everywhere, and more of 
the merítB that render ít a g^entle and idealized 
represen tation of nature and country life, than can per- 
haps be foutid in auy other literature of moderu tiniea. 
The reason is, that there waa more of a tnie pa&toral 
character ia Spaia on which to buiLd it." . 



HeriU a[ 

BpaDÍBh 
IMtWnil 



Oltm'a rima, tri'Qi A Tev IjíiOal piMlDB In^ 
terMp«K£>l, la nthcr n«ASure« nnd Ib & 
belicr li-ibü, Ln a, vnlumií cuUHíd ''Yk-mm 
Ea.pirliwilefl,"Cucní*, law, lQiai>. Their 
author wub b inoDk.. 

)9 Th'E Eclo^e o( UoteJcb Is in £apl- 
cnnj^ f, iS^ JiDd Ihnt í>t Tapia Dccura^ 
nbi're irc abütild lijirdl/ look l^ir it — iii 
the ^^ L]|)<ro de Unolf ría^ guti mrknd.i 
Cácrilrlr el K^j Püd HlbnBa XI,,'" eiljial 



hj A-rgote d« UnUiiB, ICSZ. It li on tbo 

nofiílfi of AriuijueEt and naa irrittcn ft^cr 
tits birth vt s. daushier iif Pltiljp II. ', Uub 
íta dfBcKiitlonft Arp lonf; und WGjhríqcinc. 

II RliDOEi, ISgl, IT. ^-d7. 

^* BapiuoBa kD-tlndt'B ít Ln hlB "^ Flortp,," 
1. 107, i^nd ]t IB reprínti^d m tlie BlblidttcA 
oí BHi[idíiii.yra,Ti™. XXJX. p. 4TJ. 

1° Tlid aulliLirD mi^otioiiad ln Llii» para« 
jn^Qpb aie, I htllerc, all more unjily do- 



Okap. XXXT] 



EnOHAJJMATIC POETRT. 



6Í 



EliIgruD», 



Quite as cliíiraL'turistic of ÍIig Spaiueh natioual goniíis 
as it« pastoniU were shart poeius in dliroi'c-jjt furms, but 
in an t^pigniniimatii: epíiit, wIiíl'Ii ü^pean^il tliroiigli the 
whole of the bíst age of ita Hterature. Thcy 
are of two kiiuls, Tlie íirst artí generally aaior- 
ouB, and alwaya sentimental. Üf these, not & few aro 
very Biiort and poiiited. Tbey are fouiid in the dM Canci- 
onerüs and Eoinanceros, iimoug' t!ie worka oF Maldotiado, 
Silvestre, Vill«;g*e, Gongora, and olliers «f lees merit, to 
the end cif the üciitury, They are g'enerully ín the triiPBt 
tone (jf popular vcrsC. One, which was set to music, was 
in thcrse fow BÍmple words : — 

To wliiir eivr sliall I tell iny grieffl, 

Gentil.' bvu iiiiiiü ! 

To wlüLt enr símil I tcll my gñeTa, 
If BOl 10 ihinc í '^ 

And another, of the a&tañ períod, which waa on a, Sigh, 
and became the Bubjcct of more tban one ^loes, was 
hardly lesa simple : — 



O gciiEle sij¡;!i I O ^ntle ?igh I 
For no tD0i-L> linppiaL'^s 1 pruy, 
Thau, twiy timo thon gotst ló God, 
Tü foJlow whcrc tUou Icad'st tli-a way.^' 

But of thoBG a little longer and more elabórate a favor- 
able epecitneü may be fouiid in Caniciens, who wrote euch 
with tenderness and beauty, not ouly in hie owo language, 
but sometímee in Sp^ínieb, aa in the foUowing unes oq a 



tkci] by me elaEvhere, ex<^pl )?^lrD &>tD 
de Aoxiu. He nai a. frleurl or Iri)p« ■]« 
Vogo, antl pnblíshieil in UodHd, 1623, itn, 

ar|»iem>ln tbu lulluu maari«r, t|i« bese 
oT nliícli s-re (be initi]rlgn.l£ und «uluguea. 
■OnyaugiM ollM lwi> olbiír puptíoaJ worta or 
Itoxim, '■ Lta Hafn* ilel FWitnB," 1839, naá 
"Pnrajíso Hji'rmilu,'* 1082 ;. Qe!llicr(rfvHÍoe, 
■jhI th.a Insl, whl?)) Ib na iieoiiuiit u( k 
]>leiuurf! gtkr[]ea ho tiEUl In íhf A]lia;-irLiL, 
belnii dlsSgiued wilh tlio ultuvni^iieci 
or cuiHiína no a despee ri^mitr^Ki^i^ cv?D 
■□ [Le lulddle ot thp aljcteenth (wMurr, 
SD Á qut'D c-itnUirc jü mlÉ i^aeíaa, 
Hl libio AUiut t 

3* 



^ qniía mclwo mli Qni^iu, 

Faber fnnitl Ibii KniJ a^Tev tnorc tu &iH- 
na'slrotlsa im MubId, ÍATT, huí pIugrI It, 
witb a icD[ia¡di:rBbtc numbcr ut slmllnr 
ahort rDiDiwi¡l<nii9i In tbu ñnt valame tit 
Ills cdIIgciIuh, pp. 303, clu. 

3] Q>r1nlr? BuniilTt] iDln t 
Nd qulpknl dlflilk mu, 

HhlLiLnDD dobilr be «nvlu. 

ÜÍJída, II*B, wa» th* flrat, I thlnk, irlio 

piraiiIiTBEf d UlLü eptgram ¡ buC irticce Iks 
úliEoVeni II 1 do not kaiJir, 



58 



EPIGEAMMATIO POETEY. 



[Fkkiod H 



coiicealod antl unhappy pasBion, the firat two of wbich are 
probably a snatch of some oLd song, and the reat hia awn 
g"lo8B upOD them : — 

Wítliin, witliin, my Borrow liveSj 
But nutwardly no token g¡?eH. 

All j-ouag' and genile in the sonlj 
All hidden froiti ed^d'g eyeE, 
Deep, Jeep withiii it lies, 

And sconiB the 1iody*s low control. 
As ÍTl the flint. Chü liiiltton spark 
Givea outwanlly n-o sign or mnrk, 

Wiihin, wiiliiii my sorrow livos.^ 

The number of snch compositioiiB, in their different 
eeriouB formB, ¡a g;reat i but the number of the second 
kind — thoHB in a lighter and livelier tuneáis stiJl 
g^reater. The ArgensoJaH, Villegas, Lope de Vega, Que- 
vedu, the Piiuce Eaquilachej Rcljolledü, aad not a few 
othera, wfote them with spirit and effect. Of all, how- 
ever, who indulged in them, nobody devoted to their cora- 
position so much aeal, and ou the wholo obtained so much 
sQccess, as Francibco de la Torre, who, though of the 
citUo school, eeemed ahle to fihake oS" much of its in- 
fluencej when he remeinbered that he was a fellow-country- 
man of Martial. 

He took ff>r the foundation of hie humor the reroarkable 
(hren Bnd Latín epigrams of John Oweop the Engliah Prot- 
L* tcfte. estant, who djcd iu 1622, and whoBe witty vol- 
ume has been often translated and printed at home and 
abroad down to our own times ; — a volume, it ehould be 
noted, ao oSeiisive to the Rumíeh Church as to have beeu 
early placed on ite índex Expurgatocius. But La Torre 
avoided whatever could g\ve umbrage to tho eccieaiastical 
autíiorities of his time, and, adding a great number of 
original epigrama quite as good as those he transiated. 



9S I^ dentro tongo m^ mM, 
Qnt da fom nn pj HeGal. 

MI nHvay lukt i4.ui;ieUj> 
EplLtrhlblt A]jiirpnU< ¡ 
K| «In» «nCB Insltnit, 
Qu' cd cuerpo na ti dino ód\k i 
Como U viin «ntí^U■ 



DedúETzu Wb^ mi mnl- 
Qnmlist, RliiiH, LiibvB,iJ9K, tta, f, in. 

Svvetal ttiíi praced.e aal MHiw, hoth In 
B|iiiii,Lil| and CprtUffWM, He woith ngliOS. 



Chai-. SXXI] 



DIPACTIC POETBT, 



S9 



mude a collectwm tLat filis two vulnmes, the last of whicÍL 
tras priutpd ¡H 1682. aj'ter ils aiitbor's deatb." 

Bnt thongb he wrote more gooi\ cpigrams, and in a 
greater variety of forma, thaa any other indÍTÍdiial Span- 
iard, he did not, perhapa, wñle the beat or the most na- 
tiuiial ; for a feu- of thosy tliat e-lill remaiii anonymous, 
and a still smaller nnnibcr by Rebolledo, sceni lo claim 
this Jistinction. Of the sort af mt frequently afiected in 
these HÜght compositíons the followtng is aii exarople : — 

Fair ImIj, n-hen yonr beads vou take, 

No donhc yottr praycr is alill 
Eictii^r for m}' poor uj unlcivil Eoke, 

Or lilsis fgr yqn» that kiil.-'* 

Hebolledo waH ñometimeB happier than he íe in this epi- 
gram, tbough rarely mote natioriat. 



Didftctic poetry Ln nnscttled and uncertain forme ap- 
peared carly in Spaio, and took, &om time to time, the 
air bcith of moral philosophy anJ of relígious instmction. 
Specimena of it iq the old Iong--line staiiza are Kaaciíe 
found from the age of Bercco to that of the chaii- pw'r?- 
CL'lkir Ayala ; few, indeed, in aumber, but Bufiícícntly 
mnrked En character to show tbeír purpoee. Later^ exam- 
ples betíome nior? tiuraeruus, aud prest;iit tbeuieelves in 
forms aomewüat improved. Several such occur in the 
Cancioneros, amuog the bost uf wliich are Luducña's 
"Eulee for Goud-Brocding" ; "The CompUint uf For- 
tune/' in imitalion of Uias, hy Díegrí de San Pedro ; aiid 
the " Coplas " of J)on Juan Manuel of Portugal, on the 



u i'AKodeEiu de Juan OTen,. ete.^ ttati 
Aaicáoii.M pflt Fruuelíca in liTiirrí," Mu- 
arid, l'S74, 16Í2, 3 Mía. ÍK. Ovm le Ihe 
Owsn ut Auilooniifl oT WdHil'í "Alh-n¡e 
Dn«'D.," It»Iii. II. p. nao. Hls " £|il^aiii- 
mktA," prlníQd abijMC & iIohíu Utnce bt- 
twten 1806 bnd 17)t5. irere placed nu [he 
Uat Dt prablliltEd bcjukl in la54. larfcx, 
EomiE, I7Kfl, «TO. p. 216. ThE Epigrama 
of Miguel H'.r-;).", wbleh buluog Ui thp 
reiini nr PMüp IV., but riere ntit pub- 
liíheil, I liclifVF;, tUI «as, mlehl liare 
bcm iiiLi|il.i(iiii;d herr, hut Itiey arf, tn 
Kcncrn!, vcry ojjlrilleBs. TTicro iirn jdbI 



LWn himilrcd of tfaeln, Bnd thilf ñn tt- 
prJDtfd by aibodeiLfjTiL Lu hli BibUotúm, 
Ufan. XL31., but DHL Lee uf Ihem ara 

Enuscrul or aijirlled. 

Xaduda que l-t i«ceLi 

Por mf, qqamiicnninpSHbel*. 

Bolwlledii. Obiw. IfTíi. Tom, I. p. JtW. 
Ctkmneng hikd thi-" unme Ideu lit soor Por- 
tUBUCse TC'inndiUaf, CUIquib, IfillS, f. 159,) 
IM Ihnt I Buspflcl bntfi o[ tticm took It 
from sütnc ii!rt populw eplgnun, Hee aníí, 
Cbap. XXn. ticiHc tB- 



60 



DiDACTic püe:i;y. 



[PEiitoD n. 



Sevcn Deadly Siiis ; — all of theni aulhora íciiO'Vrn at the 
court of Ford¡üaii4 aud Isubellii, Bubcuu'h poom on hÍ8 
OWTT Conversión, that of SiJveetrc on " Self^kuowledge/' 
that of Castilla op " The Virtuee," and that üf Juan de 
Mendoza on *' A TTappy Life," continué tile bciíeb through 
the reign of Charles tbe Fifth, but wilhuut materially ad- 
vancins ita cluima or ita character.'* 



■re tciuna In Ihcir reaiiCKbTO irfirlía, al- 

CTiuiEiJIu and of Juan liu Meruilosn aud Lh^ir 
fueíry U niaj^ be ftraprr lu glve íoiae 
Dotlce, os Lhtir naiDca bo-ire not occurr?! 
buieir. 

CuiUIa ■wat a gentluoiRH «piarent-l/ of 
Che oíd DntliMial tj-p«, dcsci^niliiil finm uti 
lUegilliEia.Ia bnuch i>r lia! ttJOÜf vi PtAra 
el Crael. He !!««! m tlie time of Churki 
T., aud puBed bis joulii n«3C Ltie penoo 
vT Itfit great saveru'Lgii ^ Irut, sm be sfiyfl lo 
■ lítter to hls brüther, tbe Blsb^ip of Ciiln- 
ht-mi, he Bt last " niilidn.-n biiuívlf, d<H- 
giLKtvá iillke nltb ttie abliuiTeil ru'bhli! BDid 
leUH'IeM llfH of Ihe oourt," nad "choae 
tfat edlate o! Ecatrimoiaf^ a? (mí mura BRfe 
dr b¡« ftoul ELiirl beLler Bu!t4Jd lo iiía w-urld]^ 
cauAiÜanV Hmv be fnreí) iii tbis expErl- 
nitíiLt he diK'fl nut tell iü ^ buL^ raij^itog, Ln 
Ule retÍFiímeot IL broiL^lhkt vith It, thoEe 
p^eits-Eir^g of flJHiinI (rjl^w^ur^e tc-itMi?h lie 

b«4 b««ii «musUi^Ba', lie Iwnght, u h@ 
Hfs, "tritli « snpiU inm nf mvuKy, Diher 
■arar tai nrlier lyi^ndi," «hoce ceans^la 
Mid MachiriB* bí puc liil« vene, Cbnt bia 
veak. meinory mlglit the h'IKr prcsure 
üietn, The rcBttU nf ilili llft nwrfllj an- 
templulive vf^ S- boiil(, io wtiielí h» ifivefl 
US, Qrat, bu "-Tbeiirlca du Vlccudcs," or 
BD exiiliuistlaa, ic tbc olrt aborb Spoblltl 
Tcrie, BccQDipiinifd wliii s, prose glan, of 
Uie dLOtn^Dt TIrEa«, Eadlag irltli Ute 

VrkDdililp, Ln bng DlDe-luae aUiivtf t ñl>i 
tliED, suicesalvely, b 'BntlrE ou Qmn&n 
Uf« «na itR vaiit eomfaru ; lu Alle^rj un 
Wnflilly FÍBppinMi ; i> acrlía oí Enhorlft- 
UiiD* to Tinuí and iI<>liQeaB, whielí he bu 
uiii!uitai)^ etíiti etb7iiittñ I ui4 a «Iiott 
dlBciiseioii, [ii diiífua*, Oh tha IninMftilalc 
□ noCeptioD, Al ltl«<9btl, «C[>lirn.lcly pttged, 
US if ¡t iccr« qulkr a dlatlact tri:atlsii!,.vc 
bavf a tnüTilpriiirt. ln thc "■Thiiniriua Je 
Vlrtudct," called líie " Ptútlca de lai Vli^ 
tudei de lo« Buenoi Kctei de Ejpaáa ; " 



a pwm in nboTe iwo hniiiircil ixrlnía 
■UinidS, DD the Vlituea <if tíie Klcge o( 
Bpalü, bff(tiiitilD.g wlLb AUtlc the Gntb ajid 
uoding willi iIiH Ünijierur Cbaricu T., lo 
wbrai he dídicatt* It irlt.h abniidaiii» of 
ciiurllj ÜDÍitry. riiu wbole Tolume, both 
In Llie profle and verau^ in TvrJ'tteu tn Üití 
tnanlj- oíd Coslillau atylc, anmetimcB en- 
cumbered wllli Icírdlng, bm otteiwr cieh, 
pSltij'p.aod Boirlng. TIib riilloiiliig «Cbjiu, 
NriHea Appiiríii.cly wben lu BUlhor rus 
alreaáy dÍB^tled »][h blB courl liJe, but 
had Do[ glven ít up, may buivü hh u ípeei- 
men ni hU bejt maimer : — 

Nqd» IuiIo (] Biiitía<w 

DEHeii Ili>(:«r«i po-erto 

Cad Ibrtuud' I 

VI OD liHlalljiBl biiop qii>grnjt> 

Set de m vlctoiia ckrkl 

tjuHDdo iiuRb \ 

ffk maitjv oí laHuiUr liljo 

Fiir pniir Kin tduU Eiflelon 

C^iirbn haver an ímcnndrijo 
SLn coe.t]«iidikfiJk un itiupcf^ 

r.u. b. 

Tn PRLgh hUl driLlQvd pori 

Witlj hapiiy fsle i 

Efa'tT iTiiI ifwid TBTrior, iu the fb« 

0^ bnEElOp vlLTtir/ euurli 

Wltli buiK^g Elati I 

Nnr m-iklliGr liiir her ?h!l[^> deor llfü, 

ToHi-rl úu the fiomiy w»íb, 

@D eankcirE: pnif , 

Aj 1 foír HkniD paLfc rvvB 

Tu htd? mi fiíQtn ttila rtitlni dfa4|tj 

At) edllicii ni CBitilIn'g vtr; nire toIubaí 
mar hayí! bcen -priaied nltaut \!SR, whaa 
Itmi Jicema] s biit L Mve iHver «ceu Jt, 
Qor anr nntjce nf íí. Iba copíeí I haré 
un B nniill 4t9, bluck Mltc, prínWd at 
BüffegodUa ln lbb2, and tWa in Vimii, 
prlukil Di Alcald, lSi03 Dad IBU ; tbi; Liet 
tnu lieiog n;nlly une edlUvii, wllti diVcreul 
dHiu&'iFD (he tltlL--paitciii OalUiQgus noUs 
an editlun of MuieIi, 1618, and Baya ILal 



cfciF. ssn.] 



PIDACTIC POETST. 



61 



Oucawu- 



Tn tlie age of Philip tbe Second« the didoctic, líkr most 
of the oUiei* brunches of Spuiiish poetrj, eprendií out more 
bmatUy. Francisco de (íuzmati's '• Opiuioua of 
Wise Men," and especially ti» düll allegory of 
*' Moral Triamphs." iu imitatíon of Petrarcli, are, for iheir 
leiigth, the most impoiiant of the diflereiit didactic poums 
whic'h tliat periüd produccd.* But more charac- 
leristic Ihan c-ilher ís the deeply religioiis letter 
of Francisco de Aldana 1» Mootano. üi ló~3 : aad much 
inore beautiful and tumíbing tíiínn either is one 
wTÍtten at about (he enme time hy Juaa RuJb 
tu his iiifiínC. BOD, filLed with gentle affection and wise 
comísela. 

ÍTeither sliould a cali (nade hy Aldiina, iu the ñame of 
militarj glorj-, to PLiiUp liimself, «rgíng- luía to deíond the 
BtifTerÍDg Church, be overloohed. It brcalbes the very 
spiíit <:iritB eubject, and inay woll be put in dircct poiitrAst 
withthe earnest and Bad per&uaeioiiH to peace hy Viriiea, 
who waa jet a Soldier hy profofi«ion, and wilb CanlünU's 
wiuning iuvitaíion to the quietness of a couiilry Í\fe. 
Some of the religious poetry of Diego de Murillo and 



wbín CbiüIIb «rote his poeiiy te w«» 
ÜOTEroiiT i>r BaiBa, Uüsdlx, nui) winic oibei 
|il£CM. Bnitthii awica u be cmlrary tü 
tlw tnUidiLtJoi'a or lila cuUrntwnt Rum 
allsire cunUiinRi: [a thv povDif. Üinnaelivei. 
tlie p<ietrf n( Jiiíti Hurtarlo üi? M«i" 
doo, *ka viu» KegidiFT ol ütnilrid, viá n 
tatnibet at the Cfiruiii of 1M4, (i, -jierlmi)!!, 
Bii>f« nra LbaQ üitt oí CietlllA, aaa ía 
eouUfiiciI in > amsll tisIudip prliiCeil ni 
Álcali In IMO, nnd eniltled '■ Slaev tlncer 
t^TJu^o CQ Cpae dlBCELütei ÚG quLrUk rima 
Coflli^llADu -Be^D Lmi Lición ilü trotruM Fr&a- 
cjfflbf,'*' <ea. li coniiuls uf llLlrtL>i.'iB üifl- 
quuraeH on ■ bappj blfi^, lUt £iic'ii.na nml 
□intivpfl-, nll «rrlLUii Iti f^Uiciai-i» üf fmQr IIiluí 
eiLGti, irtiich lliPir uiiHior í-Mln Frencli, 
I tnppüSL' IWEuuiic [hcy iro longLT lloes 
Umn tliip»! In ilia nlil imilunnl tnoaaarL>H, 
HDd rhfoivil iLlUTiiaUlf , — thi! rliyinvs of 
onísUUKH. niiiuliiy Inl-v chü iiíxt. At lliu 
GOd li «. Cinilo Bial, ai It la calkil, on u 
vtíM In llie FmiliJia, ■eomp'Miti] In Lhu aniña 
Biunner (. rinil «eviTjil «mullrr poema, gno 
uf wliiefi la a kiivi üt ptllgl-iiip riUnmita, 
%Dd Ti^ur ttt lUem qün^trlíí. lliij Ijiiie of 

t^e vb'ffiv li iltd,i)?tlc,uiil IU toctlinü frd^^ 



Btnall. I r)ti? eiHblL llnv*, ■■ m «pvclnin; of 
lis imiiiHur miinnBF Ukil ilijoiu*; — 

Env4a YB-ijuleU buBca hit cnntnnlD 

£b latl plu«r nnmt, qiit cnni4 KMo 

8a tep* J |i""-^T>rili»lniínu ma iili|ili% 

DvTRiMi liAfM (teiyi* mu; rtllrn»! 
Qoknilo Iu n«^raa tcIbi vui «n Utno 
Pi>l niiü tlMifr. viiuno r'US'VK, 
Df buen ^ríbclpiü > ilc btir<ü ftd 't^nii, 
NoliiUnn «la villa «o Típow. 

^[en^lüza. wHa-ii peraoD of rnuch oanalilvf^ 
Iloii iji ]|3a flmc^ and la uDLlwd na imi<1i bjr 
QuInCona, (Ilial'irlii de Mnilrtii, Miuirlll, 
lñ2V, rijillo,} who 'glvm ^mi? of IlLi anuntiKtA i^% 
r. 27.» H.t9Ü B akplvb -dC tils ^rhiirai^-t ac f, 
^5, TIu'n; are w!Ti.'rnl popma hy h^Tii li; 
Ibe CiuiElnntm oí Ib&l, ai<« on'i, Viil. !• 
p. .te.'J, nuld 8. 

M XhP ''< TrlnDlDi MDrnlfad» ^jupcínof 
He liiiiinaD" (SitIIIh, )Afll, l^ri) |ir> 
iBiliiiMiiriimr Pelrajca'B "■TriniiH," Imt iirs 
mucli moii? diclaciíc, irlvln^, ífir InaCjmeQ, 
andt'r Lhc Iiesil dI " Th* Trlumplí of Wl». 
dnn," Ihi' Dp1iiÍ4>r9 uí Ihv wlse ini'n <it 
arllqulty i und ODiier Ui« hcad of "Tbe 
TriüDiiih <.1( Prudente,''' Uio gcnlniL mtH 
fot prudeat cunduslu 



62 



DIDACTIO POIÍTRV. 



[Peihiod n> 



Pedro de Salas, in tha next reígns, with soveral of tbe 
oiiiw iiiiiic- '^^^-^'^ cpístlea of the Árgenscilas, Artiíida, and 
tjKpfWu. Keea, shuuld bo added ; biit they are all com- 
parativcly short poema, escept thoae by Miarillo on three 
of the Words of Cliriat upon the Croes, -which estend 
to B&vf?ral himdred linee on each word, and which, thotigh 
disfiyured by antEtbeHis and esagg-eratioii, are stroTig'ly 
marted apecirneus of the Catholíc didactie spirit," 

In tbe rnean time, and in the midst of thig gronp, — ■ 
partlj because the way had "been aiready prepared for it 
by the publicatiüD, in 1591, of a good translation of 
Ilorace'a " Art of Poetry "' by Espine], and partly from 
other c&nse&,^'^ — we have, at laat, a proper didactie poem, 
JuBnío or rather an attempt at one. It ia by Jnan de 
taCiwra- la Oneva, who in 1605 wrote in tema rima three 
epÍBÍles, which he entittecT " Egemplar Poético," and 
■which constitute tbe oldcst formal and original effort of 
the kind ¡n the Spanísh lang'uage. Eegarded ílü a whole, 
they are, indced, far from beiiig a complete Art of Poetry, 
• and in some parts they are injudicions and intonsequent ; 
fcut they not imfrcquently contain pasBages of acute criti- 
ci&m Lu flowing verse, and they have, besides, the merit 



f riie volamp cotitaininj the poem of 
M upi llp^ -^ '' Hübre las tres pKjiienifl Vola- 
hm? |14^ 3els SLi?tj; que diso C1iríEti> ca la 
OnLi,"^r-'íula3iia, JLLín, BCTeral potma of 
ci|Uul kiDntlb, nnil n c^[talil<;niblu number 
ni iih»rtpr oimn, whlcli Imit eu-b tüv lifsL 
It Ib mtiUed " DlvInB, dulce y iinifpchiii» 
PiieeiB wimimeBín |Jord l'iulre Fray DIcB" 
Murillo," ce., ^srapiga., Ifl-lS, ISmo, [T, 
3M. Its C&slÍIIhd poiky of etfle t», Ibc 
tíífí time whcu It wba pnblbhed, reino.rk- 
abW^i bat ii 3s e<|n[Ll9y remurknble fbr tlie 
EniBani'as of It» rcliiEicua IdciLB. The ful' 
IrktrÍEe línrH frnm llie opentn^ uta. priem Hkn 
&La. TertBH ari: a Bp^eclmen af wliat 1 meon^f 
fiTkd of rc^E'liiki^H theD ^crj cünunnn and 
d cerned dtv^oaL 

Quaikilfl Iílr« ifr «noininró 

Dfi vns, Tf tcflH fluriúwí, 

V gr opíngL i ¡inr ttBíttwiL, 
IM t[tir en pfto |.iteWfl.di4 

Fue uniiíUwiinQ DiiptoguL 

f. sre. h. 
BqmtHj Mmnge 'phmsea are fnund le the 
p<Km Dji Ihe " MEuldBleDü." 



Mutlllc ima bnm tu 1£55 uid itled In 
10111 i^^ltie irolniii.e ol" hii pwítry belng 
poalliiutinua, anil Ldd. uti diiiilit, at itanll 
aeoDuiLl GoiupgiFcd witli hla nermnaa auil 
religluiia irorkB in priise. Ho «houlit be 
Dotlütii, LoweiíKr, as hufiog hecn amang 
LhoH« who tnaintained Úie ai^cknt prlvU 
Iv^ca of Ar-ogD-a ^i^lnat ^Llllp IIj IdL- 
tJtsHa, DIH. Nut:Ta, Toin. TI. p. ÍKK. 

a The "Arte I'oflica'-uf Enphel Ib ilie 
ñrBl Ihlnit publJshF^ In the " P&rriHhci 

mentlj ittackei]! bj Yriarle, when, iu 
1T7T, hf. iiiiotcd bi9 own trarBlB.I:iuD of tba 
sanie wncl!, (Ohrní ñv Yriartr, Undrlil, 
1806." 12mo, Tura. TV.J To ILíb ^daro 
miUerl In the oijith Tolura-B oí lis " l'ar- 
njwD," nn. Vrinrte rcJoftiEÍ lo ssatlri- 
cuS dialojroe, " Dnnde lúa ilnn loa tiimao " 
(ObraOtTam. VI.) 1 and ftrrliinn cloaed the 
CLinlrnveray with Ihe '' Ci>l"qn(ris do Espi- 
na," íl9il».ga, ]TSB. 2 [UTO. limo, imiler Ih-ff 
pSRudotipni! of Joan Mnrl» Obaiioi j 
üaluTa. It ia B vetj pnttj liurary ^uiu-- 
lel, quite lu Uie Siiaitliili maniier. 



Cn.\p. xsxr.] 



DIDACTIC POETRY. 



63 



of natioriatíty in their tone. In all reapects, tbey are 
"bettcr than &n aLsui-cl didactic poem, by (]je sarne author, 
on "The Inveotora of Tilinga," whicli he wrote threo 
yeara later, and which showSj as he showed elsowhere, 
tiíat he adventured ín too mauy departraente."' 

Pablo de Céepcdua, a SCulptür and painter of tbe same 
period, — now better fcuown ae a man of leariiiug i-abia.ie 
and a poet, — Carne ncarer to ftUOCeaft tlian OüCva. o*.piBiai- 
lie waa born in 1538, at Ciírdova, and died there, ín 1608, 
a mÍDOF canon of ite magnificcnt cathcdral, at tho age of 
sevQnty ; but he speiit a part of bis life in Italy and 
at Seville, and devoted miich of bis leísure to lettera. 
AmoDg other works, be began a poem, in vttavti rima, on 
" The Art of Painting." Whctber it was ever finished Í9 
iiucertuiíi ; biit all wo posseae of it is a Beriee of frag- 
menta, amouutiiig', when tfikea tog^ether, to aix or seven 
btinJrlid liues, wliich were insertad in a proae trcatiae on 
the same eubject by bia friend Francisco Pacheco, aiid 
printed abov$ forty yeara after their authot'a death. 
Tliey are, howeverj auch as to inak& ub regret tbat wo 
have reccived no more. Their veraiíicatiuij ía excellent, 
and their poetisa] en&rgy and compactnose are uniform. 
Perhapa the best passage tbat haa bccn preserved is the 
description of a horee, ^the animal of whoao race the 
pool'a aative city ba3 always been proud, — and of which, 
it ia evident. a singlo noble indiridiml stood pictured be- 
fore bis mind aa he wrote, But other portions show inuch 
talent, — perhapa more than thÍB does ; especíally yne in 
■ffbich he esplains the modea of acquiring practical skill 
in hie art, and that more poetical one Íii which he dÍ3- 
cusBcs color.** 



» ThB " Ejemplar Pt-ítloo " of O-neía 
wu-'ñr^t prEnLcfl tn ihe etfhtb Talante of 
Ibe " Punaao Htpañol," 1771; uud the 
"loveolorca de lu Caub," taken Kentrullf 
froiu Pnlylore Vlr^t, snd üatuiJ ISOS, nrns 
ftrat publdhtd ]n Itif- niatb voíaiae <¡t Ihc 
tiunii BiillrirClaD, 1*73. Ilutr nbaurd Üie 
Iftct te, mHj he laterreA frnm thi: foct íhít 
3t mtikra Alof«« L1ib ioii'EDtar uf hi!:c[UoPt«r 
Tüiss, and AlfiBudcr Úie Gmit tbc uldHC 
of pH-pr-mnJiei^, 

H Wbik'L remaiQi ot C^Bped>Fi'a poetiy 



is lo be üjaaii la the rlshlcrnth toIujüc or 
Peraaniliíi'B CDlIwtion, Bla Ufe I9 »rell «et 
forLti iu Úis Kíctílltul '' Dicclonuriu de Idb 
Prufvm-ríB ilo I» Bcllns Artes, por A. CíAn 
BecmwN'í." Miulriil, 18(10, B iom. ISimí, 
Tom. L p. 31fl i IxuldCB which, ÍIb leaniCd 
tnihor, at Ihe tiid or Tiim. "V., liaa npoli- 
liBbtd the frHKipent! ot thr poem oü P*.int- 
¡Dg !n n hetlpr onkr Iban that íq (Tbleh 
Ihpj liad liL'fiirc n)i|ipHrcil ; luldiiia 11 plcB*. 
Knt ]iroge d I iiCDi.ir*c, ¡n a pu« elyiti on 
AncLeot and Uoikni Paintlog auil iSckilp- 



u 



DIDACTiC rOETRY. 



[Pkhiod n. 



But iiie poems inf Cueva ariij íJiíspefies wgtb not printed 
tiU loug after the dputJi of Iheir uiitliors : aiid uoue of 
their con te mporaríes was ¡nspired by like influetioea. The 
best tliat waa done lq didiLctic poGtry, at aboiit ihe same 
time, w»9 tbe eligbt, but plüasant, sort wf dei'euce of hie 
own irreg-uIariticB produced by Lope do Vega, under the 
ñame of " The New Art of WriLiug Playa " ; and tbe 
best, wi'itlen later ¡ii the century, were tbe " Selvas," aa 
he ciLllerl tbem, loag poGms iu irregular verse, by Couat 
Rebolledo, on the Arta of War and Civil Governinent, 
which dfite fmm 1652, but which are little more than 
rbymed prose. A tedioim poem in ten cautos, and iu the 
ü\á quintilla "verRe, by Trapcza, piiMished in 1612, and en- 
titlod " The Cros3," because ií ia a sort of esposition of 
all tbo theolügtcal virtuea attñbated to that hoij- emblem, 
ia too duU to be notíced, even if it were more stríctly 
didactic in ita form.*'- 

SoDiQ ütber kiudred attempte Bhüuld, fiowever, be re- 

menihered, of which tbe oldestj raade ín the spirit of the 

sixteenth aud eeveuteenth ceaturics tbroug-hout Europe, 

were iu the form called " Ecublems," or eipla- 

natious in vei'se for hicroglyphical devicea, Tbe 



lun.wlilah CéipcdfB wrnte íd lOM, irlifn 
KOYQtlas frum a fpver, njiii Lwti oLliEr of 
]|ÍB trlfití ; to tba whnle (if wllli^h I« pTC' 
fi:D?d a JudlcioiH Prpírkcp hy Cenn }i!Di4eir. 
0£Hptilí.'D biul bera a Greek Bchnlnr Iu híi^ 
jooth, naá ssya^ thal, 3u hSa olil age, «hea 
lie «bMCtd lo open Piodiir, he " ncTcr 
biled Itt and a, trcll-dtawn nud rícti plc> 
CuiTE, i:raii4 drill II! fi)i' Mii:tiel A.i¡^e\n [o 
ptínt." Ve wae a, fri^nil nf CHmnrji, lIig 
great nr^lililahup, wliu, afUT silminlílcTlng 
L, Cljüriaí T. lie lime DÍÉcea nf reLl|>tLiii, 
Biul lirirr Ihíde a leadlng iD»m1iifr of t1ie 
Cuuini^El al TrvuE^ and iuüreaHfljr ot Mhry 
of EoílBiwl ss tlie w1(a dI Philip 11., was 
WDirled [o dciitli !>/ thíe loquielLioD js 
Wre. [flidí- an!e, Tol. I. p. 43l.) Cíapedes 
hlmnir C)iit]« aear BuDerliiK fnim a, íliiilliir 
yvrBtfCUt3uti, In oonaequence nf a letltr h? 
vraLu In Caminza Id 1&5S, ia whkh lie 
■[wke ñ IxTi.'e.ptxlfuU)' of tlie Qiajid lo- 
guisKor nud tbe HiAy OuTcC', an oSence 
which WS.S tipjronil hII pnnluii. Llorynta, 
Bil^ Tinii. II. II. Ml>. — An excL-lliint, ac- 
eonnt of Ceipades U to Iw rouní] Id Slir- 



llnK-i Ajüíti of Spaln, IStó, Aro, ToL. L 
pp. 321-344. 

iil Ltjpp'a "Arle Nuptu " liae been ul- 
resily niiikul. Tiio "S*I»a Mililar f 
PnlldcB." of Cebalkilo «aa ñc«l printed al 
OnlHgne, In ifílii, ISuio, ils nnthnr beiog 
Lh^n SpatiLub Mliilater id i>fnin]i.rlc, al 
nlifiae Bclhf.a hp bat glven o. acrLof' gbi>fía- 
lopicnl hlatoty ia anntbvr ¡joein, tía " Sil- 
las T).Liii(!aa," nr whlcli Üicrc is hd Gdttlvn 
wiüi a tvell-engrftvrd portmil dE the Jlttla 
Pruaptro, aon. ot PhlUp IT., to whuin tíiff 
íolilme ia dmllcatíd fnini CopenliuifeD, 
Jan. i, LHe], wliera H ipaa prioiad.^" La 
Crus, por Alhajilu RDmires de |a TnipcES,'* 

M&drla, ie]2, 12010, pp. 3es, Lo i*i)ich ara 

fldiied n few píigoa of ahort prjcmfl <hi| itiq 
ür-oaa. — linjíniígna add» iwo cither airtsctie 
potmi ; bul Uiey scem htrdlj' to flíiserva 
tbn naone. Oiie ii " TropJieo del Ow," ID 
gloriñenLion of the posrer of golfl, liy 
BUsfu J?eli;griu Cat}kalnn., Zimgnu, 16TS -, 
nnd, ¡lie pthi.'r Is " EUhnio a 1:1 BtlFilLi) de 
Phllippo IT ," <le l>on Ptdra GennJnio 
Quitar», SevHlH, leSL, 



Cbat. SXSIJ 



DESCBOPin-E POETET. 



6á 



most BQccessfal of thcse were pmbably the Emblema of 
Daza, ut 1549, imitaied &0(n tbe more l^mous Líitin onsB 
oí Alcititus : and tliose of Covarrubíos, publisbed ongi- 
QitUy íq ¡^patii$h bj their sutlior in 1591, and unerwanls 
iraDslated by him nil.t> Latiu ; — both óf llifui curíous 
8p«ciiDeD8 of this peculiar «tjle of composition, and aa 
anreeable^ pcrbape, as any which the age of Emblema 
prnduced." 

TLe otbcr furta was tbat in whicb tbe didactíc runs iuto 
the íioscriptive. Of tiiis tbe moát poctical examplc iu 
Spanísh ib by Miguel Dicastillo or Del Castillo, a Cartliti- 
siarj motifc, at Saragossa. wha publisbed in 1637, utidec the 
3Hspices of bis friend Meneos, a loug poetictil D^^tri-urí 
curiespotidence, inl^nded to teach the viuiUy of i™"/- 
bumau tbiugii, aiid tbe happiaees aud ment tú he fouud ia 
a lífe of penitcntial set^lusioD. The parla that relate to 
the autlior himaelf are aonaetiraes touching ; but the njsl 
is of Tery uner}ual worth, — the belter portions beiug de- 
voted to a dcscriptiun of the grand and sombre mouastery 
of which he was aD iiimate, and of the obaervíinces to 
which his life ihere was devoted." Caslilian vurae, bow- 
ever, did not oflen tabe a deacriplive cbaraeler, except 
when it appearcd in the fortn of eclofruea and idjla ; atjd 
even then it ia almost always raarked bj an Engt;niiity aud 
brílüancy far froni tbe heallhy tone inspirod hy a siuctire 
love uf wbat ís graiid or bcautiful in nstiire í — = » remürk 
which finris aiople iliuatration in the poema devotod to tho 
Spauish conquesta ¡n América, where the njarvellous trop- 
ical Teg'etalion of tbe vall£>y& tbrough which tde wíid 
adyeiiturora wotmd Uieif way, and tbé «now-capped vol- 
canoea that crowned tbe sterras above their hcada, seeai 



tt '» Loa EmbteniH» de AIríalo, pe., aTini- 
diil» ■); DUí-rus i^'blemiu,"' Ljiru, 1£>4U, 
ttc,^^ nn ttie Index Enpnri^türiD? laf 
liW. TliiH* iif roTurrubins inere priiil«3 
In Spiriíth !(i litrt i and íd. S-pmiiíh luiU. 
Inliii, Afrifemt, 3"Wll, 12nioí — the Iiibi, 
B ttikk viilDine, nith n Ickih and Ipurned 
LsLiii lÜBítnJiti'iii □(! BniíiVm» jireOíi'd. 
CiimiTu^iijLH WBá hr»!Lbrr 'if llii? l«<xJciit!r;L- 
phír ottlie Bacif niimie, Tcupcci, Art. Em- 
Meran- 

** " Aiik 4e Dioa, CartOKB. Rial úe 



Snrnf^oEA. Th»r^¥« Ir. Vida úf no* ME^n>- 
Ju^ acuM ts Vanidad d?l Slglü, ec., cmi«t.i. 
Érala A la Vclllclüd Fiiblica Ilvm ÍHicihI dfl 
Mfocim," Zanipmi, liUT, ('"- Ttii-j are 
«rltlEii iu ii^ii-ir,. niul LliL'ir tnip iiutluir'a 
naiDr is lTiLtli;ntL\l bií puní In Kiiini- or thfl 
Inudnu-ry ífr»"» Ihut ¡jtvciil« tlip irtirk. 
Iu iliu thlrd ríltllmi, IGTft, «Llilltlr.ii» uní 
nmdc liy A[riisiin Nnnuro, "iiim luiniji.- iId 
In mlMnii C.'tulum," — ;lie latal cmriuiis 
pqru ul irJ:ij(]]i un- twü miTiala, aotnv dd' 
Uyiw, luul a tmllul Imín BdUuIjr |iroocdiaB 



69 



DIDACTIC POETBY. 



[pRRtOfl n. 



to havG failed fiHke to stir Üieir imagínatioiiB or overawe 
their courage.** 

Butcscept the&c irreg^utar varietíeB of didactic poetry, 
we have, for the whwle of thc eixteciitb and seventeenth 
centuHes, nothing to add to whiit wo have alroacly noHced^ 
bejüud a repetition of tlie oíd fornas of epístles and silvas, 
wTiiuh Bo frcquently occur in tbe worka oC CastíUejOj 
Ledesiua, Lope de Veg-a, Jaurogiii, Zarate, and their con- 
tempoiaiíes. fíoi" could we reasonatily expect more, 
utucaue- Neitbet the popular character of Spameh poetry, 
^Z*t\c ^^^ '■'"^ sevete iiature of the Spanish ecclesiasti- 
P^'^- cal and política] eonstitutions of govemment, 
Tvaa favorable to the developtnent of th¡a particular fonn 
of veme, or likely to tolérate ít oii any important subject. 
Didactic poetry rcmaíned, therefore, at the end of the 
period, as It waa at the begnnning, one of thc feeblest and 
least BucccEsful departments of thc uatioiiul litcmture.*^ 



Ole iiítface at th* " Aiiidwnailnr," — all of 
tiii^m Ik'Ijijí 4i(;rinillc9, [n irlilrh Iht- niunk 
Bhowa thr cliivcii fniiL af a wurliJly liive, 

Aniflhi-t íXiuniili! cif ilf«r;rl|illve puctrj 
■hollín) hciE lie mitlcc)] : '' K\ Tr!uin]ihu 
ron» fnmiwii, ec, jmr Gmejiriii ilc aun Mar- 
Un" [UsliíBi, 11534, 4iii, (T. liB), !t is an 
arcmiin i>f ihf vi-ilt -if Fliillj) III. lii Lln- 
büii In IfllG ; — lite Ii:Iu[d[iIi»I eulry Ui^rc ; 
— kDil LbR RnrgoiiH hHupItalilieii i^hiiiriL lo 
hlm \>j a peü;[iLt^ hIio DPTtr cvuBed Ui bnUr 
falm. B.Dd hi» raer. Thf pn^in ¡» dlviclfcl 
inUí íii cantoK nnil malee* blnul nW Lud- 
iliivd ncuivv RlBimiii. Tu suttior wh) * 
kliiBinan of Lope do Vegt, bul had ütilc nif 
Lnps'x ¡moücul puwír. Ttiu nnwli «uriiiiis 
piut uT bis work !■ lui on^iunl, In Cantn T,, 
DÍ II mK^iilKiKcit ilTumnlJe entvrtHlutnoiit 
trlTen t^ Iba myBl pnny hy ibe muiik >. uf 
tlitt C'invetit ijf Sí. Anllaniiy ; — « ctrong 
cue ta piurc how iDUCti Ule cccicslnnllci or 
Ihe «cTenwi-nth cenmry eiwfiiinigwl tbc 
UlestrE. Seo onfe, Cbikp. XXVI. Dote 11. 



On Üic niuiic Habjidct í putrn lij Vabco 
Mauílobo dt Qiif?VFdo ia mEErtlimi^d by 
Gajanic^B. tt li ckIIeiI "-^ Triaüfb del Mo> 
nnrca FIBIppfi tlT-/' and waa prÜnted tn 
all Bftuto» ul otlava rima. Án nfcount 
uf Ibe autbnr., n>h»lB oniriu)! IhiS ^iTomluciBib 
ptiplA or pDTLu|;ikJ, lajiy be fuund Jo Bblt- 
boga, mil., lol. III., IJAa, p. TÍ7. 

'^ Thc pleai(B.Dte§L, if Ejai Eh-í mnat ba- 
pnrtABt exceptl^D lo tbia rvuLark., vlt][fh 1 
reciiUtct, Ib- id be faDcl lo. nn ejilaLle liy 
llie Ali!i]d or Liipe de V4>^^ CiifltjT&l de 
^ ]rE]P.B, to hia tirolliPr, dikteil Jiide 1^, 
ÍIHIñ, aitd glvln^ on accouD'L cif lild paaeii^ 
OTer tlií Saint dEtlinril wlth a hixl; iiT 
trnojig. Ti Ij in tiJank Tcme thnt 1a cirt 
íiTy osaf^t, but the ules'^ripllniip fin.' very 
giHHl, Riid Qiailiéd irKii ihe nivUiig vi UiuL 
ítem neCDtry. Obnis, 1600, í. 260. 

Ji^ Tlie Ii1iurti>r piwiiia, luiUocd ai dirltir- 
Clo, 9LFV rauDd Id tlitr Cbtu^ioDema nnri iiUii^r 
colleolloDS M.lTCBd)' rerepTOil tu, <a in Ibe 
irorki ar Uicb' leípecllvo sulbun- 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

B1.LLAD POBTRT CÜLTITATRI» : SKFÚLTIÍPJk, FÜEKTK?, T[»í>?íKpA, 
FAUlbLA, OITBTA., BITilr HIDAI^O, TALDIVIBLSO, IaOTE DE VERA, 
ASELLAK», ROCA T ^EBNA., ESQDII^flnE, XEN^DOZ\, QrKVEDO. — 
SOUAMCUR-OS OF HORE POPULAR BAI.I.ADS: THE TWKLVB PEEBH, 
THK CIU, ASfl OtílEJU. — OEBAT HOMSRE 0¥ WSITSMB OF BÍ.L- 
LADS, 

The ctilleíítion nnú puljlication of the ballade of tlie couu- 
try iu the GmicioiieroB and Romanceros, iri the course of 
tlie aijcteentli cciituiy, attracted to them a kind aud degree 
of atteiitiun they had lailed to receive diiring the loug' pe- 
rioil ín whícti tliey had bcen floating abuüt aniüng- the Uü- 
recordeil traJitions oí the commotí peopte. There waa so 
mnch that was beautiful in tliein, so raiich that appoaled 
Bucteasfully to the beet reotiUectionB of all claases,, eo 
much dírectly coTinected wíth the great peñods of the na- 
tioiial ylory, tli-^t tlie minds of all were stírrcd by ^u imiaj, 
them, as soon as they appeared in a permatient '"■'"'«i- 
form, and they became at ODce favorites of the more cul- 
tivatcd portion of the peoplo, as tlicy had alwaye been of 
the hiimblc hcafte thi»t gavc them birth, The natural con- 
sequence followed ; — tliny were imitatcd ; — and uot 
Tuerely hy poete who occaaíonally wTOte ín thís amOTt^ 
other forma of verse, but by pereons who composed them, 
in large numbers and publiahcd them by volumes.* 

The firKt of these persona waa Lorenzo de Septílveda, 
whoaiG Ballad-book can be trace d back to 1551, the fcry 
year aller tlie appearancc, at Saragosaa, of tho coUectvon 



1 "WTiín ImnlTliiiB tTimngh any of tbe perllrisnl an eicellunt rsirtarlc iil ttínRlfti, 

lurpe coIlfcLions ijl balliid*, Mpwjiully tLníe iii his " Arte PoiíliiiB," IftBS, p. 38! 

produted [n Ihi; «avíiiieonth teinnry hy •• There ií liiithltif ífsler Üinn to makc > 

tbt pnlraluríty '>f ^^^^ vh-ale daña nnrt tbo taJlHÜ, ñf^fí isothlDg morv iliffl^alt tlun to 

fiwUlly ilf tbtW nuilrlcal atruuluri!, no Hmí Eíílie It wll»t ¡t uuglll Ui bs," 




[PsnioD n. 



of pOpulat and anOnjTiiouH ba^lladB by Nacerá. Th& at- 
Lctfeiaude tíiropt of Sepiilveda waa niEide in tlie ñght diree- 
sei).;i™iii. tJQQ . fQp tig fomided it almoet entirely oq tbe oíd 
Caetilían Chroiiicles, and iippsaled, aa íhoy did, to popular 
traditiüü aad the tiatiúüíkl feelings for liis siippout, In his 
Preface, he eays tliat hia ballads "ought to be more 
aavüiy than many othcrs, tecause tiot oníy ate they tme 
and drawn from the truest histones he could ñnd, but 
wrítten ín the Caetitian measure and iu the tone of the oíd 
bíiH^idü, which," he adds, " is nota infaskion. They were 
taken," he declarea, " literally fram tbe Chronicle which 
was compiled by the most serene kJug- Don Alfonso ; the 
BHrae who, for bis good lettcrs and royal dcsirea^ and 
great learning in all branchcB of knowlcdge, waa calíed 
'The WÍBc' " In factj more than three foiirths of thia 
Cüi'ioiía volunie conaist of balUds taken from tbe " G-ea- 
éral Chronicle of Spain," often employing its very worda, 
and alwiiya ímbued witíl ita spirit. TliC reat is raade up 
chieÜy of bailad» foundcd oh sacrod and ancicut hietory, 
or on mythological and othcr atorícs of an imaginary 
nature. 

Biit, uofortunately, Sepúlveda was not truly a poet, 
and therefore, though he Bought his BubjectB in g-ood 
s(iiirce& and seldom failed to select them well, he yet 
failed to give any more of a poética] coloring- to Líb bal- 
lads than he foutid in the oíd chronícleB he followed. Ee 
was, however, succeüHfiil as fai" as the general favor was 
conceratid ; for not only was hia entire work reprint«d at 
leaet foiir times, but the sepárate bailad» itt it constíkntly 
reappear fn the oíd «ollcctions * that were, from time to 
time, published tO meet the popular domand. 

Quite as characteristíc of the pei'iod is a emall solectlon 
of ballads pi"ÍLted for the firet time iu 1564. It waa made 
Alvo» da ^y some poreon of diatínction, who eeut it to 
Vaeatca. AtooBO de Fuentes, with a request that he wotild 



■ '"RAaitti>eM]iilBramBDteE[ica,ilEiB da ni. TbntnflS^ GnoLniíiB om huTidml aüá 

■UritB AntlEUDí lie Iu Cr.nicn -ile Esfiíña, ÜAy-úii hnllajün ; — thM of 1551 conlnlul 

ciJiii|>u(!HtuB por rji>reDi;D de S^pitlvedA,*^ ame Svundred nnd forty-DÍTie^ 3innj uf 

ecn en A-DVerg, 1¿51, IBmo. Tbiiic ireFB Iheio un- in ilie RamMiiL-croa Oeibcralts, 

elitEnnii Bnlar^d uid HlU-red, in \hB3, Hod iii>t a (eir \n the receuL coUeiitluiia al 

ItSO^ 15S0, snd 16S4] mBctionied hf Etivii. Dppplag naá Uaná. 



cttM-, sxsn.] 



DALLA D&. — FUENTES. 



ad 



runiisli it M'il}] nll iiocdful PxplanationE ín prnse. TIiís 
lid ílid ; luí! Ilie ori^ttm! ciillcoNtr ilk'd btfi>re it was [lub- 
l¡iílii'<i. Of tlie f'Tty lialt.tils (if which it ci>iis¡&l«, ten are 
oii siihjcL't» fnvm tlie Biblc : ten Irom Koin:tn Lintory ; ten 
froiii i>ther )>ortioti« oracLcí&ut histury ; aud thc rrinaínder 
from tlie hístory nf Spain, cornin^ down to the CaII oí 
Granada. We are not told where tliey were obtuiíied, and 
none uf thpm has inuch valué: — tlie g:reat mcrit of the 
wíiole. in the eyes of thgdp wlio were concerned io lluíir 
pdlilicíktinn, consieting', no doubl, ín the wearisome Jiístor- 
iCiil and ninraJ tommentaij by which each ¡e fuitowed, 

Fncntoa, however, who intímales tíiat tlie task waa 
hardly worthy of his position, inay liavc had a befter taste 
ín encli tbiiigü than the pierson whü employcd híin : For, 
iri a |)rofiitnry epístle, he givcs ua, of hia own aceottl, Ihe 
folhwinfr bailad, evidently very oíd, tf not very spiríted, 
which he atlributcs to Alfonso the Wiae. But it is no 
otherwise the work of tliat monarch than that all but the 
last »tanxus are taken fruní Uie remarkable letter lie wrote 
on the disastrous poeition ú-f his aflairs in 1280, when, by 
the rebellion of hís aon and the dfBt-rtioii of the higher 
eúcleña«ticR of bis kingdom, he was rednced, iu liífi uld 
age^ to miBery and despair, ^a letter already cíted, and 
mure poetical than the bailad founded oa it. 

I left tu; laad, t iQÍt m; hoine, 

To servEí my God aguinst his loes ; 
N'or d^cniM, Miut, ici 8u sborbit space, 
ÍAj fortani^fi cguki in min cióse. 

For tvro Ehort nionths were hardly Epcd, 

Aod April was but gon«, and May, 
WbcEi Caaiile's lúm-rs oad Castíle'a towce 

From mj fait realm wore reni away. 

And rhej thai kIiouU linve counselled pesca 

BetweiMí llu> fitChiir uitid liLs son, 
My bi^hops and my lonlly prit^ts, 

f orgtíttiDg wliat thcj hhoLilil liare doQ«, — 

TSat bjr coatríTanize^ depp and <)aTlc, 

!Not Silenl:, IÍko the serrct tlitcf, 
B-Qt cnimpct-toninied. rebellion riiú'^d, 

And filled my house wilh gnilt and (jriüf. 



B ALLADS. - TIMONEDA. 



[PCBIOD Q 



Then, bíhc-b my hlood doniss wy fflBW), 

And BÍPce niy frieoilB «ítísart a.aá fleo, ^— 
Siiiice tliey nre gonii, who sliould have etood 

BetwLiiLi üii; guLliy blow aiid nie, — 

To thefc I bend, my Süvioai- Lord, 

To thoc, the Virgia Moüier, bow, 
Por your sujiport and gmcions help 

Poaring my daily, nighDly vow : 

My child's retMllLous ]}oweT hucli IqA 
To ftoothe tho piercini^r, pierciag ivoea 
That loiiTO me hera of hope bereft. 

And flince bcfore hls cruel niight 

My fríeiids havo all la terror ñcd, 
Do thou, Alniighty Faiher, thou, 

Prat«cf Biy uriproCocUd bcad, 

Bat I h&YS lieaM in formar days 

Tbe Btory of anothcr king, 
Who — fled from and bi?trayed like rae^ 

Beaolycd ali fear» n-way to fling-, 

And lanilch npoa tJie wide, wide sea, 

And tind uUventurous fortune there, 
Or peris-K ¡o hs rolllng wavee, 

The victitii or his bí-uve deepidrc 

This ütuíieEit monarch flir autl oenr — 

Oíd Apollouius — ■ was knowTi : 
I '11 fcillow wticre Ílq suught his fata. 

And where he fauad it liad my own.' 

Juan de Titñoneda, partly bookaeller and partly poet/ 
jiumiiü — '-'^^ fríend of Lope de Bueda^ aiid, like hsra, 
TimiiDeda. (iig authoT of farccs acted in the pnblic squares 
of Valencia, - — was, both. from his occupatione and tastee, 
a peraon wiio wotild naturally understand the genera! po- 
eíical feeling aud wauts of his time, In cODBequeoce of 



* ThH "■ Cantea da FueDles," Id the hls ** AüdbIí of Sevhle," ll»?, p, 685, os a 

EiilH'Uilii to whícb this bailad la found, kiiigliL o t oville "al' an 1|li]strl(>U< lln- 

wort prinb£il thnis timtíH, and ía the eáí~ ea^v ''' Sce jlIbci ante^ VpU I. p\^. 33, Sí 

tlOD a( Alcnll, 1587, 12lnD, MI, witL Cbelr I biLVc Bvtu au vlitíuii or CueDles «lled na 

tcdlunB cauunsntSirj, abore iiighl. bUDilndd of i:>50. Dut this icUBt undiiuliUidlj be m, 

l>U|;ea. FueatuB íh uoled lis Zuñida, in CQ¡i>tak.e. 



Chap. SSXn,] BALLADS.-T1M0NEDA, PADILLA, 



11 



thia, probably, he piiblished, íd 15T3, a coIJection of bai- 
lada, entitled ■ ' Tbe Rose," conaistíng, in no Etuall degree, 
of his owa coRipositions, bnt uontaining. aleo, Bnmc by 

I other and older poeta. Tnkoo togethcr, tliey coubtitutu a 
voliirae of nearly asveu huodred pag^js, dívided into " The 
Koae of Love;" " Tfae SpoDÍeh Rose;" "TheGsQtile 

¡Rose," su called, because ita subjecte are heatheo ; and 
" The Royal Rose," wbich is. on the fates aud fortunes of 
príuces ; — - the whole being" fallowed by about a hundred 
pagea of popular, miscellaneous verse, matíC ñong^, ajid 
fanciful glo?»es. 

The best parta of thia large collectioa are the bullada 
gatliered by ita author from popular tradition, moat uf 
wbich wer& Boon ptiblished in other Romancero», with the 
varjatioiía tbeir oi'i^m iieceBearüy iiivulved. The pooroBt 
parta are those writteii by himaclf, — such as the last 
divisioD, wtiich is entirely bis úwo, and is not superior to 
the BÍmilar ballads íq Sepiilveda and Fuentes. Aa a col' 

, lection, however, it ia important ; because ¡t ebowB how 
tnie the Spauish people reruained to tíieir oíd tniditions, 
and how coustautly they claimcd to hlve Üie best portiona 
of thelr hifltory repeated to them in the oíd forma to 
which they had bo long beÉo. acCuetomed. Iq auotber 
point of Tiew, also, it is of couBcquonce. It ñirniBbea 
bailada on the early héroes of Spaín, aome of which are 
uceded to £11 up two or three of the beBt among' tbeir tra- 

, ditioual Htoriea, wbile othere coiae down, with similar 

laccouuts uf later héroes, to the end of the Mooñ&h 

[wara.* 

Tu 158^, the serieB of such popular worfca "was still 

'furtJier contrnucd by Pedro de Padilla, who pub- pejmao 
bshed a Romancero containíng sixty-three long i^^li^- 



* The ottiy oapy of ibiBi vnlmag knoim 
Lo ixiti la iLOkDDi; iht nir& Hnii pTOcluufl 
Bp«b1«Il Iwoka gireiL bj ItvinhurL bi Uib 
ImpetlAl Llbrúrj ai VlcDna i liut «ji nx- 

SBllent acMiiut of It, Mlipníd !>y biKire 
Uxtj dF tbe more ItcpüctouC ttgjlula U 
DDDUias, H-Hii imlilighvd íA Lclpxlf, MS, 
ISmc, una^r Üib Uüt uf " ItL'iUi úe ao- 
mBODea," by Mr. Wnir, Uio udiairiiblo 
scbDior^ tu ^hovk tha loTera ot B^ioniab 
Ulenktare owe su miich. 



The " Uaiu iknEtra HlaiariüdiJ " uf Luciut 
aoÚTiFiiei (Álcali, 1&7U), b«lúDE* herí ¡i 
but 1 'h&'te uavej' iKen iL IJUíUli, Iti lilA 

lti>[aaiiGfri>,kS49- LSfil, tiHau Abcve elxty 
byiAdd tinm li, oail tuy» tlkUE lance llian 
Liilf iit lb« voliune ot KC'drl^viEi cmuLiUi 
of pucüpj lili \b\i clAsa, vliltli, chouíili doC 
&lrl«(l7 tn Ule mr^ltr pnjiuiBr tiinc, tñ 
^et nearcr tu it Cbaü raost af «bst (ol- 



n 



BALLADS. — OTTETA, HITA< 



bailada of hia own, — about half o£' thcm lalceii From un- 
certaiu tradítions^ or from fahlea like thoau of ArioatOj 
and the otbers frorn the known hiítory of Spain, whicb 
they folUiw (luwii througli tlie tímea of Charles tbe Fiftb 
aiid tbe Flemieb wa.cs uf Fbilip the SeconJ. Tbe Italian 
measurea sevcral times iutrude, wherc ihey can produce 
only an awkward and incongruous eíFect ; and the reet of 
the volnme, not devoted to balladaj — except flfty vilian- 
ci't'O-S, which are full of the oíd popular spirit, — \s com- 
poaud of poerjjfl in the Itaüan mamier, ihat add Dotbíng 
to its valué.* 

Juan de la Cueva, Suding the oíd national sabjects thua 
JüBPile &eüed upon by bis predecesaors, rcsorted, it 
toOuert would 866111» frotn neceBflity, to the historíea of 
Ureece aud Eome for his materials, aiid ín 158T published 
a volurae contaioing abovo a hundred batlada, which he 
divided into ten boofcSr placiüg nine of them utidcF the 
protection of the niue Muses, and tbe otber under that 
of Apollo. Tbeir poetical merít is inconeiderable. Tbe 
beat are a few wbose Bubjects are drawn from tbe ^old 
DaatiliaQ Chronicle, 'like that on the sad story of Doña 
Teresa, whc, after beiüg wedded agaioat her wjll to tbe 
Moorish king- of Toledo, was miracuLously permitted to 
take refuge in a convent, ratber tban conaummaíe her 
bated maniage with an infidel. Two bailada, bowever, 
in which the author gÍTcs an account of himself and of 
his literary unJertakiogB, are more curiouB ; — tbe latter 
containing" an amusing criticísm of some of tbe bad poeta 
of bis time." 

Tbe publication of the fitat part of " The Civil Wara óf 
Pera do Graoada," by Hita, in 1595, containing about 
^''»' sixty ballads, Gome of tbem very oíd, and several 

e "Romaneera de Pedrn ae Podllla," Fetfso de BomnaeM Hl3lor!ale9," ín bii 

Midrií, ISaS.JSmo. TLe buHMll ftlLaUout Mtlve Olty, BtHlIe, ISST, lS»iu, — * vnl- 

Lliroi; muared and bUij- [injtea. Tbs flrBl Ume of nearly BSTCIl hunflTpa pfttfea- Ooly 

twenty-twiMire on llie wüni ia YLiiiiilfira ( íuur or tve ore tu Sviinisll Bubjecia ; — that 

aílerwacúi tlmrE are cliie Caken (nipi un D'iyña l4r«S {f. Ülí) beiog obiioiiBly 

ArliiíW'B Itoriea ;, ttea sívora! on Il|í tflJCSIl frorn tbe " Crüqlca. Qenenil," Parte 

s-Uirj of RodrigD de Narríej, Md OQ otbír III, c. 33. Tbí haUnA atl<ireB!(íHl W blR 



Spaulshi tnLillCluiiB, Ele, 



bnalt, "Al Ubni," is al lb« vuá «r tb« 



• Cueva, wljom wu ha™ loaf\Ú In neyetal " M-tlpoMínc," ajid la oí ^alue for bis 
othet depsnmpLita ef SpdTilsJi llEwslUTí, iMisanM lilBtary, 
prlnted íiJb IqlIJuiIb wlUí th« tlti»! tí ^'^ Con 



Cbaf, xssn.] 



MANY BALLAD-VEITF-ES. 



T3 



great poetícal merit, inepeaseií, na diinbt, the impulíie 
whii;h tlie freqnerit appeftrance of Tolumes of popular 
aaonymous balliids continued to give to Spaiiish poctry fn 
thÍ3 attractive ibrm.' Ttiia íb ytít more fippar^nt id the 
new directiou talcen hy liíillad-w-riting-, wliich fn.m tliis 
time beg'an to eeleut particular subjecta aiid acldrees itself 
to sepárate classGs of readers. TliuB, in 1609, we have b. 
volunie oF ballaJs in the diaSect of tbe rogues, written in 
the very spirit of the vagaboiídn it rtpi-eficnts, and col- 
lected by Borne oiie who cpncealed himself uiider the iiamo 
of Juan HídaJgo ;^ — wliile in 1612, at tlio otlier 
extreme of the circle, Va,ldivJeJpo, the? fnshionablo baiiuii- 
eccleMiaatic, printed a larf^ " SpiritiiaE liallad- 
Book," whose bailada are aLl on religiou» subjeutSr and all 
iutended to promote habita of dcvotion.* Tn 1614 and 
1622, Lope de Vcg'a, always a lover of such poetry, gave 
to the religioufl world a collection of eimiiar devout 
bailada, ofteü repñnted afterwarde ; ^^ aad in 1629 and 
1634 he contributed oíateriats to two other collectiona of 
the same chariicter, — the first anonyraous, and entitled 
" A Bouquet of IUvine Flowera ; " and the other by Luis 
de Arellano, whích, under the uarae of " Counsela for the 
Dyiüg," contaitia thirty bailada, several of which are by 
the principal poets of the time." 



' tt¡tb'B"aiiieen4 Clrlleí de Qnruida" 
hIII 1k uticed iihfíii I «uiae Ut it^^alt of 
roioiatLo Ctctjsa. 

« " BaiUnbdt'S Je OtrniBiila,'' 1809- ; rs- 
printril, Uudnd, 117», Sto. Tlie wacila 
GÉfmiínta, Gürtnano, etc. wt^ epplk'd 
1(1 thv jHT^ii tu wblcll the nupuea i&l'kcd 
witli DDt nnotlif^r- Hiiljü^, wJio wntte 
only ali uf üic liallula lie pithUshul, glvta 
al tbe end ut hls collettlon a vnRabuLu'f 
□r Cbls ijiatect, «hkh i» reti>üiili«d K» 
gBnalri^ hjr May^ins j Siiscar, anl rGprinti.'d 
In hiji "Ori^ecse» f^' so ItiHt L\m «uR^BtEíiD 
of ClifiQCDi^lu, whicb I have fcjlliíweil Id 
the tuxL, nhsce t BpeHk Df Juan IltilAlgo bj 
m pHeudanjme, muy íínl ttu nvll ríimiiled ] 
--a íuggeitluD íurilipr iHtcounteiianeeil 
by [he tari, tlisc, t» Tom. XXXVIII. nf 
ti\e ComedLas EaBoglilpa, 1812, Ih-; ]'\ííj "I 
II 1,0» Mos.nibea Ja J(,1«*t" ii. atUlt'iltfltl 
tn t. Jims lllUntg^, Tlitit bHlla^í of Hl- 
dtlira tllPl tii)l1lliig"lv du wUli tbe UypiiÍBii, 

VúL- III. 4 



thanglk útbetiTljie suppued la tlie lut 
sdltiiiQ, te abniTtt in IlDrrow's "Ziucg,- 
li." Londin, ISÍl, 9tu. Tmb. U. p. lü. 
SsndataJ (CarluH V., Lll>. IIÍ, ^ 39) insT« 
th-aa once calli Cbe rebellJ^iU Camunefat 
of Valeacia a Usriniinta, lif liultatlElUillDa, 
whicb can IcHrt littte i^ouht almill tha 
□rtfEn flf Üie wnrd früm FÍErmandad, He.r- 
TnunUf ^^ bnjtberlLocd acd brüthe^r, ^ 
Lbinii^h (?oiiuTubliiB doeg dM tena luiw 
a'biju'i !S, lii verb. Htmania. 

^ V>dd1vif^1sii*B iiAme occurfl ver; oftcti In 
tli'i^ Aprobiti^itjJt oí büTilca in t1iB líxt-ecDÜL 
cíutur/- Hi* ^'RümairioeroKsplrltiial,''' Va- 
lencia, 1699,1211111, arí[]nintedlnWí2, wa» 
a^veral ltiiii;in!>pilDli.i],i.nd filia abare threa 
liuD[Ii¥d uiid (Lttj [laget. It Is Dot qiilt,a 
bU In Ihe bnlliad ntíasure oc In » cruve lone. 

"' In l^|iu> OhriJ Sueltas, Tom. XltL 
aii4 XTII. 

11 " HtunlíUBte ite Dlvlniu ílari» [lani el 



'74 



ROMAJÍCERnS. 



[rEnioc n. 



IUn)BDCl>K)ll, 



OtberB, lOce Ro(^a y Serna, wrote largé Dumbera of 
bailada, biit did not print thein separately,^'' TLoee of tho 
Priiice Esquilache, soíne of which ate CJícellcnt, amouut 
to nearly three buiídred. Antonio de Mendoza wrutQ 
about two hundred ¡ and perhapa as many^ in every pos- 
siblc variety of characttfr, aro acattered tbrougb tbe worka 
of Qnicveáo ; so that, by th& middle of the sevtnteenth 
century, there can be no doubt tliat large and anccessfuE 
efForts h,ad been made by tbe ktiown aiithora of the perlod 
to continué the oíd bailad epirit by free coutríbutlotiB, 
both iu Beparate volumoEi and in masstís of bailada inserted. 
airong their oLber pnblished works. 

Meantime the oíd spirit itself had not bcen loat. Tha 
bollad-book known oiiginally under tbe name of " Flor de 
Romancea," which we bave already traced úi ita 
individual parts to five gmall -polumee, — pnb- 
lifllied betweea 1593 and 159T, in sucli widely different 
portifins of Spain, that its materialB wÉre galhered from 
the aoil of nearly the wholo country, — contínued to be 
valued, and was reprinted and enlarged four times, under 
the ñame of " El Romancero tíeneral ; " tiíl, with the 
Baüad-Book of IñSO-lóSS, it comprehended neatly all 
the oíd bailada that had been preserved by tradition, to- 
g;ether with not a íew by Lope de Vega, Góngora, and 
other living authors. Out of tbese two vaat atoi-ehousee, 
and from auoh other sonrcca as could etill yield Buitable 
materialsj smallcr and moro popular ballad-booke were 
now aelected and publiahed. One appeared at Barcelona 
in 1582, and was reprinted there in 1602 and 1696, takeü 
in a considerable degree from the collectíon of 1550, but 
containing, besides, ballads not foond eleewbere, and, 
aniong" the rest, aeveral on the bisíory of the triple leagne 
and on the death of Phílip the Second," A ballad-boofe 



na, 1BS9, ISül^, (I. WZ " íviíM u&ta la 

MotrW, jKi» L. lEe Ai^IUiio," ?4i[iikd&b, 

1834, IMS, «tii., lawo, Bf¡ líi.yet. Eee 
mttte, Ytl. n. MI». 36B, HM, unte. 

!■! Xlio bailada ínr Koca y Befns, dflín 
dUifijíurtíi lij Illa Oongciriain, urr fuiínil in 
hlí '■ lía útl AlruB," Madriil, 17211, 12mo, 
■Orel prlpted iu leSi, and fregutHllj' íiiiOE). 

■1 It ia EntlUed '>gílv& de Varím Ro- 



IDancei," And cAntalllfl Úii weH-ltDDini: 
líallads ctf thfc C.tmlná" lílns, tho Uarquia 
oT Uuntua, dalít^tfi, anil Uiü Ccade CU- 
roll, with otJiCro, Ku Iho liuinlMr íit ttfsnly- 
liree, th»t are ib tl.e Ballifl.Eoofc af IBM. 
Thuse on the Je«tli oí Philip TI. and Driña 
iMbrlrtelaFaz urs, ij ciiursc, oat <n Uta 
lirBtedillDD ai tbia 8ilVA. Thry chdcut in 
Uiiit of Barcdonn, 1902, IBma. 



Cn&r. XXXn.I 



HALLAD -BOOJÍS. 



Í5 



for " The Twelve Peerá," aml their mnrvellciUR acliicve- 
ments, publifilied for (hf firat tinip ¡ii ICOS, Ima conluiiied 
to be a favorite ever since ; " and tbnr years aftti'WurJs 
3ppear«d " The BaLlad-Boofc of tlie Cid." which has licen 
printed and repñnted again and ag^in, at homo aud 
abroad. down to our own times. '' Tlieee were followud, 
in ltíá3, by the " Prímavera," or Spring- of Bailada, hy 
Per(?2, of wbich a Becond part was collected aud puhlit^ljc-d 
by Segura iu 16ái9, comprehending- together uearly thrce 
hiindred ; — most, but oot UiU, of them known before, and 
maiiy oí IhtíTn of great benuty." And other ballad-b<iok9 
of the satno sort, as well ae thes?, continued to be pniitod 
ÍTi chtíap forms for popular use till tlie oíd Castilíaii cull-nre 
disapjieared wilh tlie decay of the üM national charai,.<ei% 
But diiriiig tlio long' period of a cent«ry and a half 
when tliífi kind of poetry prevaíled bo Wldt-ly in Spibin, 
the ballads were uot lefl to the formal Románcenos, 
whelhet anonymciüs, like the largest, or by known 
anIhorB, like thoae of SepdWodft aiid Cueva,* ñor even 
to persons wlio wrote thom in ^i-eat numbers, niid 
printed tlicm ia a, sepárate department of their cotk-L'i- 
ed worlis, as did Prince Eaquilaehe. On the contrary, 
between 1550 aud ITOO, hardly a Spanish poot can be 
found through whose worka they are not scattored with 
Buch profíitíion, that the number of popular bal- «^^^ ,^ 
lads that ooidd be eollected from thcni would, if ot t*iM- 
brongbt tog-etber, greatly exceed in arnount a!l 
that are found in the ballad-books proper. Many of the 
baUads which thua occur either aeparatelj or in emall 



It " FloraUK de "VmIoi RCTBí,Dfei, ludí- 
ilM á« Ion HJfitorlKA ADtcgnns áe Lúa lie- 
cliMB Fiímnacii de loa Liwü Partí ile FraD- 
tía," Miuirid, 17'2X, lÜTaii, {1r4( prlnU^d 
In lOOW, iiTid cDÜlpeCHl bj I]|llB!a^ Liipeí 
da TwIajiiLil. Sm Sarmiento, ^ Í1B, far 
Itg pa[iuliirlt.f ; bul the lalur 'bnlbulB in 
Iba v«>tiiunEí dn nnt reUiLa la Lbe Tirellpe 
Peen. 

U H RoiBBiiacn> ; Hlitorl^ dfl muy 
T*t«TDM CaraUeru, el GLil Bu; DLiu de 
BtvNT, nT.ipilii'lí) inr loiD íit KicmlHir," 
Alc«l.\, I'AIQ, ISm", md mas? cCh>:r cdi- 
tlopí, ;biv mtK Eiiniplfte tt^lng lEíAt «-f 
PVUgaid, lUa, lama. 



!• BeFlilL« tbe adltlona of loaiuid lA», 
I yunir U|Hl nr Umclrld, ISB», ISnio, lo 
Iwü (larta, conteiiiiliiK aiIdlClons.-arantlrícBl 
n&II^B, ielritlaM, IM., Iiy Ffilodíico do 
Segur*. Spgnm alio liutllatiHl " Prlmcrm 
■■arte del KamoDDero HlilliirlsUlii>," M- 
Ai'iolBlt, Lisboa, laiiJP, ff. 183, Ele waa 
a SpaQlaid hf hirlti, lIliC hnd ínag bren In 
thu selvlof of PuTlugftl, to Itie tionnr o( 
ffhom! tlD^a Uleas hallada,, Ihirly^liíhl la 
niiQitwr, are dtVPWd. Tliey ara ([eiieralljr 
Ttry p*ür 1 the bíat, I iW'M, irclntlnir to 
thí Mplura of Llslwn, M-IH. Hi» " Bo' 
Bulo aACtB-UaRlms,'" Zatmgn^a, 1613, 12tDO, 

ff. IH, ta Bt* DutM, )■ n» bclttr. 



n 



GHEAT KÜMBETt OV BALLAD-WRrrERS. [PEnion IL 



gronpa are poetical and hcatttiful íh the same way the 
eider ones are, tliough rarely to l!ie saiine dcgree. Sil- 
vestre, Mouteniayor, Espinel, CaBtillejo, and, abovc all of 
lii* time, López de Malilojiiaiio, wrote them with suc-cgsb, 
towarde tbe etid of thc sixteenth century," A liltle lívter, 
tSíDse oí (ióngora. are adinirablc. ludeed, his itiúre simple, 
ctiildlike bailada, and thoae in wliich a gay, miBchíevous 
Bpirit Í8 madc to conceal a genüáne tenderness, are nnlíke 
atmo&t sTiy of thi3Ír clasB fouiid elsewbere, and can hardly 
be fiurpaased.'^ tiut Gdngora afterwards introdiiced tíie 
same aflected and falae style into this form of his poetrj 
tliat he did into the rest, and waa followed, with conatant- 
ly increasing abenrditÍB8, by Arteaga, Pantaleon, Villame- 
díana, Coronel, and the rest of his ímitatora, whose bailada 
are generally worae thau auythiog else they wrote, be^ 
catiBG, froin the very eimpHcity and truth required by the 
proper iiature of euch eompoeitiüus, they lee» tolérate 
any appearance of affectation. 

Cervantes, wbo was Góngiora's contémpOrary, tells us 
tbat he compoaed vast nomberB which are now loat ; and, 
frOm hia own opinión of th>etn, we bave no reason to 
reg^ret their fate. Lope's, oti the cootrary, which he pre- 
eerved with a care for his own repatation that was not at 
all characterietic of CervauteB, are still numeraus and 
often escelleat ; eapecially those Ihnt relate to himself 
and his loves, eome of the best of which seem to have 
beeu produced at Valencia and Liatón." At the same 



" IiUfei TíaiiaTada nía s frlcnd ot 
Gerv&atea, uul hi& CB.nctüri£ro (Mmlricl, 
15&fi, 4to) vas iLiDOD^ tíxt bonk» Id riou 
Q.[i!xd1v'b llbruT-. TIiefb bi a beautiTul 
butlad bi hbo, (r. ;3S,> berlanln-E, — 

OjoiUpiíoi de T>»1ilftd, 
AparUi^ dr vea la im* 
Y no pngUL-ii cnn nian^ra 
A loi qii« pt bmiMD rerdidi 

Tlie alher authori ler^rred ta In the teiC 
havc beCD htjíiice noticed. Baí to all 
ihuilH bt sÁáeA Qabrlrl Lbsío de Ib TCKa'a 
" MadoJucIo ele B.Dinaibce§^*^ of nhich the 
flnt part vm [luhllahüd in IdOI, Khcl of 
irliEch it \í pcHsJhlp Üia,t thvif mu a secaai 
pnn. Tbe ñní «ontiiiiia a huniíreil aod 
ÉJiIrtj-slx ttallui]»!, hlstiiricil bdiI unalorj. 



hat balli olten barleaiiae. OafAngoHi to 
whQiii I Hin Icdcbteú for this nitüu», ibje 
Bume of £h«iiii hm! sood ; bul DuniD leeniB 
UKver tD h&ve seua Ihls eicmaicel; Tare 
booll, though he tikea from Aaother Work 
of Loiso, "EIogliH BU IcKir de lien famoun 
Taranej,'" pricted il*) iii L6H, flva 1™L- 
lada wblcb &re hardlf above niedlucrltj'. 

IB gome of Oúugoni'e minantic balliidi, 
llke lila " Angélica and Medoro," uid 
■(pme of h<a burlegqas bailada, ate good ; 
bai the beal are thc liiniileBt. Tbere la o 
biraiiüful ope, gjving a, dEscnsal-ao betirtien 
B lictle baf B.nd gir1, bow Uiu; wUÍ úrea 
üp and speud a boJldaj- 

W Cenaol^E apenliB of lils " nutaberlüíi 
batlHidji ^^ in hia ^^ Viaü-e al Pamuo.^^ 
Thoae of Lope ¿e \'ega, ajHJii cam(; iuLn thc 



Chap. iSXiLl CaEAT POPULAItnV OF BXLIAÜS. 



11 



period, and later, good balUds were written by Qnevedo, 

■who desceuded evcn to the style of the rognxes iu thuir 
ccimpositioQ ; by Bernarda de Fereíra, a nun m the ro- 
mantic convenl yf Buz-acq», in Purtugal ; by Kebylledo, 
the diplomatist ', and perhaps, tliough with some hísita- 
tiun. we Bhould add, by So\is, the historian.*'* Iiidecd. 
■wherever we turn, in the Spanish poetiy of this period, 
we find b*IUds iti all their vaneties of tone and character. 
— often by aiithors otherwise little fcnown, Hfce Alarcon, 
who, in the ead of tho BÍxteeikth centurj', wrote oicellent 
derout ballads," or Diego de la Chica, who ia reinembered 
only ful' a single satirical one,, presepfed by E^pitioda in 
the beginning of the seventeenlL ;*■ — hut we alwnya find 
theai in the works of those poeta of oote who desircd to 
etand well with the masa of their couutrymeü. 

Ñor could it be otherwise ; — for bailada, in the severi' 
teeoth century, had become the delig-ht of the whyEe 
Spaniah people. The soldier soíaced himself PnpuUiHj 
with them in hig tent. and the muleteer amidst '^ t«u«i»- 
the sierras; the inwden danced to them on tbo green, and 
the lover sang them for bis Bcrenade : they eutered inte 
the low orgiee of thíeves and vagabonds, into the amnptu- 
ous ent&rtainments of the luxurioue nobihty, and utto the 
holiday sorvices of the Church ; the bliud beggar gathered 
aljns by chaating them, atid the puppet-showinan gave 
thetn iii recitative to explain hia exhíbilion ; tbey wcre a 
part of the Tcry foundation of the theatre, hoth secular 
and religiouB, and the theatre carried them everywhere. 
and added everywhere to their eíFect and anthority. No 



-popular biLllad^Knlca^ If, Eod^fd, dume of 
Ihe lieit of Lhcm wfrt not, aa I sunpiMt, 
orlglruillj irriLlcD for the " 1? Jor de ELoniHti- 
irefl'" o/ VIIIbIIb, pHabeJ ot T'sleciclft En 

M Solis, "-Poeílii» Bagradus y niUDi- 
niu," lOM, 1731, et& 

íl " Verpíl de riaata» HirlnaB, por 
Arcan pcl de Alarcon,"* 1594, 

^ li ia a bjLl'lnd abaat nBdoej^ (Kaplitnaa, 
Plorrii, I«UI5, f. ^> and ¡s tbv odI; ílilng 
I kEii^n bj Dliiiijii d? la ChinL I iiii^Ut 
add bahlada by olfaer uuQiora^ vliSch are 
tontitl w^ere thnf wmild Leaal be Icok^d 



for f tlh» ODP 1>jr Hnfo, In h!« "Apot^g- 
luHi," — uiic Ii-jr Juiucgul, In bis "Elnua,'^ 
— and a beautlful onu bjr Camooni, (Rl- 
iDus, IMS^ r. IST^ wartlij dF Oiitisura, uul 
buijlaiiliig, — 

Innt qtittm, fuidro, 
A lir|U«llH guliarat 

Cnii el [iHtliicri^ 
A mer niBJíncnL 

Bti nÜDr üft W iliire. 



ÍS 



GREAT PÜPULAKlir OF líALLADS. LPeuiod EL 



poetry of moiierii times lias bceu so widely apread through 
all claHsea of socictj', and nonc has bo entered inío the 
nationai cliaracter. The ballads, in fact, eeem to have 
b&en found yii evety spot of SpaaiaU aojl. They seeia to 
have filled the íery air that mea breathed.** 



^ thift ii lut D££d dC itiittiortiieB to 

ftu-viiChn U!i]VGr««J vreTíieaae ar bu linda 
Lrj Lb« ««ruDln-ulb ccTstUTy | far Uie llunt- 
tui^i ni Ui»t ^flUir; útien itmla lUn a 
uere mtfltntrínt at ic But Lf I TiBtKd u 
■ume ULjIlüQü, It irnnld be Üít Den. Qiits- 
ote, rbcK iSoncbú ia muile t<f4:i'K Lbem fru 
□dea i SiCiil tlis Novelis of Cerraules, 
EBjiíciaUj " TbB Lltue a7iHy," nrlko £ídei 

bec balLula-iii tJii^ hiuae^^ «rf iUe nablea And 
ibi: i^buri^b cf S^lilUl frljirja ^ aaü '^ Hiuco- 
uíla uid Corlad jlln^" wham Uib;' ■OiEik'E' Üis 
OHUH mecrliDnjil oí tho tbiCTEB oí Bc^ilJe. 



iDd-eod, u tba iiiiprfi-ibúwmaTi Hyt, Id 
Dcu (tulxúta^ (Farte II. a. aa.) "VHis; 

Tery buyi .in tlw BtrecM." The tbeatre, U 
Ibould bu uddtl, vbluli «w-ed b«' miuih lo 
llie bmllBdB, Asa in pan piLÍ-d bick tb«^ 
-dubt ; h» maDy papulinr balladE aon cur- 
runt are takcn Trom Uia iong DarrnMvci- iu 
>1]<^ playa of tbe B«v«iiKuiith «iibturjr, I 
büVe DiQuy ituob, auií Wolf glfes k IIbC □( 
more, Ui^üei' iliv RLimáuiEU-piiC.'dJie tlCE Spo- 
nlet, Wkn, ia4T, i Va, pp. 63 - 70. 



CHAPTER SXXIII. 

SOMAIITIC mCTIOR, CHAMOE OF IUKUBBH PSÚDtFCBi A CRi-ITQM 

OV THB ncrrOUS TOD^PED TFOM THKM. — riSTDBAL BOUÁNca 
ANn ITB QRlOiy: MONTBHATOK ANH IHS DJAHA. WITU ITB CON- 
TISLiATlOHS BT PE8.KZ ASD PULO: tí» FSsSHO, KONT AX-VO, CER- 
VAIiTES, K^iOtSn, BOVEDILLA, SHEVARDO Sr: LA VEGA. LOrB bH 
VKQAv nAI.ElUB^A, flQUÜItOA, AUOBfO, BOTElllO, QTJ 1 N TAITA, C0&- 
RAL, SAATEItRA. TKAttACTERIStlCS OF fABTORAL FtCT10:4. 



Tiiii! rotnaDces of chivatry, like tlie itistítiitionH on wbich 

tht-y ■were fouhded, üngered long iü Spain. Tlieír grave 

ficttons vrem s«ited to the uir of tlte eterii oíd castice witli 

■whicli the Mooriah contest had atuddcd large portiona of 

the «ountrv, whila their e;«neral tooe harraonized „ .. 

1 I . - . . 1 Tiie aid re- 

no leas happily with the stately manners wnica o>Bn™flr.f 

the upirit uf kniglitUooil had helped to iiupreas ''"^ *' 

on the higlier cIiiísbos of eociety, froni the niouutaíns of 

Bíacaj to the shor&s of tiie Meiíiterrauean. Ttieír m- 

fluentíG, therefore, was groat ; and, aa oiie natural reeult 

of its long COI 1 ti nu anee, other and better forras of prose 

fictiou were diatountenaticed ¡n Spain, or appearcd later 

thaii thej raíght have done utiAef diiTererit circumat-ances ; 

— a fact to which (Jervantes alliídea, wheti, even at tlie 

opeiiiiig of the Reveiiteeath century^ he complaioii íhat 

Spanish books of tiie latter character were still raj'Gty to 

be IbiLud.' 

Fitty yeara, howe^er, before that períod, aigns of a 

bomirig clianfife are perceptible. Tlic magnificeut suc- 

ceBsee of Charlee the Fiftb had already üEied the minda of 

men with a spíiit of adveuture very difTereüt from that of 



t DoD QulMte, Porte I. c 3B. 



so 



PROSE PASTORAL EOMASCP.S. 



[Pkbiod n. 



Amañis and bis dosccndants, íhoug'h aometimes hardly 
leas wíld and estravagant. T¡ie cruel wars unceasingly 
AumiDg ^spt up with the Burbary powere, and the 
•i™*"- miserieB of the thonsanda of captives who re- 
tnraed from África, to amaze their countrymon with trag- 
ical storiea of their own triáis and those of their fellow- 
suBerers, were fiill of tlaat titter roiuaoce of real life 
■which outninsa.ll fiction. MaiiDcrs, too, — the oíd, fur- 
nia], knightij manncrs of Éhe nobility, — were beglnniíig 
to be inodified by intercourse with the rest of the wnrid, 
and eapecially with Italy, then the moat refined and leaet 
miibtarj' coiintry of Chríntcndom ; so that rornaatio fiction 
— the deparl.nient of elegant literature, which, abova 
every other, depcnd& on the state of Bociety — was 
Jiatiirally modilied ¡a Spain by the gre&t chaug>e9 goiug" 
OD in the esternal relations and genera.! culture of tlie 
líingdom. Of this átale of thíüga, una of ita workings in 
the new forms of fiction produced by it, we shall find 
frequent proofs tts we advance, 

The first form, howeTcr, in -wJiicli a, •cbange in the na- 
tional taste maiiifestcd itself with well-deflned Bucceas — 
p,j^ that of prose paslorals - — is pethapa uot otie which 

itejítimiB. would have beeo anticipated even by the more 
sagaciouB ; thonjg'h, when we now look bacfc upon its bis- 
toiy, we can easily discover some of the fonndations on 
whicti it was originally built. 

Frorn tlje Middlc A|a;eH the occupations of a ehepherd'B 
lífo had prevaíled in Spain aud Portugal to a greater ex- 
pssi.iniiiin! ^^^^ '^^^ elsewhere in Europe;" and, probably 
inBpBip. ¡ji consequence of thia circnmstance, eclogites 
and bacoÜCB wcre eariy known in the poGtry of bcith coiin- 
triea, and became connected iit hoth with the orígin of the 
popular drama. On the othec hand, the military spirit of 
Buch a civihzatiotí as esisted in Spain düwn to tbe sis- 
teeuth century may have gladly tui'ned away from eucH 
a monotonous esaggeration of ita own cbaracter as Í8 



■ The Inwa oC libe " FñTÜBii,»,'' nlniíb ia Spain al thal puriod, aul Tar a long 
USB-, nlltint aliaoiisiib l]li:ilraLli>i38 of th« time bvícjre. 
liEtecit ftud Im iioitaace al tha piMtonil Vít 



Oiir- XXXm] PIÓSE FiSTOBJVL BOMANCSS. 



81 



timad in the romasceB of chiTalni-. wi-l poajitt ivftvsb- 
nral aa<Í repose íq tbi> peace and símplicilv nf a fkbulou^ 
ArCadik. Al lPA6t. tbese »re the two obriou^ circunstH^ 
cee ín the condición and cuitare of S|tain, ihml fikrorvd the 

■ppeanuice of so BÍagnÍa.r a form of fictioD as tliat of 
prose pastúrala, thoug-h how murh influoncp íilbrr exer* 
cised il iiiaT tiúw be impossible to dcteniiiue. 

On flue poi/it, huwerer, we axe doI Itft in dotibt, We 
fcaow whence thf impulse came that called forlh such a 
work for tbo Srst tiíD« in Castiliau literature. and vben it 

appeared there. It waa Sannaíaro, — a Xeapol- 

itati gentteman. whose fnnnilj ha<J beeii carried 
írüía SpaiTi to S^apIes br the political rí-x-oíiilioiisi of the 
precedÍDg centory, - — "wbo is tbe true ñithor uf the modem 
prose pastoral, whíuh, Ji-om bim^ possed directly to Spain, 
aad. during a long period of success in that country, 
nev'Pr entlrely lost tbe oharucter its author had originalljr 
inipressed upon it, Hís " Arcadia " — writteo. pri'baMy. 
without any reference to tlie tirc&k postoml of Lon^s, 
but hurdly without a fcnciwledge of the " Amoto " of 
Boccaccio and the Ecloguee of Bembo — was firet pub- 
lished entire, at Naples, in 1504.* It JKa genuiiie pastoral 
romance in prose and verBc, in whicb, with n sli^lit con* 
necting' narrative, and undcr the disg-nific of ihe lores of 
Bbepberds and shcpherdcsscs, Saiiiiazaro relates adven^ 
tnres that reaHy occurred to him nnd to eonie of bia 
friends ; — he himself appearing under tlie tiatno of Siii* 
cero, who la its principal piirsonage^ Such a worb, of 
course, is somewliat fatitastic from ita very natui'O ; but 
the fiction of Sannazaro waa wrítton in the piirest aiid 
most gracefiií Italian, and had a. gireat euccesa ; — a suc- 
ccsfl which, perhapB. from the Spiuiish connections of bis 
faniilj, was early extended to Spain, At ftuy rate, Spain 
was the firet foreigii country wliere iho Arcadia was iitii- 
tated, aud was afterivarda the only oue where such works 
appearcd in lar^e aumberiaj aud establishad a laeticig; in- 
fluCDce. 

It íb singular, however, that, líke the rotnancee of 



1 43!iigu<aí, HlBt. Utt. d'IML«t Ton, X-, pu MTl, p|i. HT, M. 
4* S 



THE DIANA ENAMOHADA. 



[Pebiod ZI, 



chivalry, pastora! romance was first introducen luto Spain 
Ohntúv ^y "^ Portujj;iiese, — bj George of Monfeinuyor, 
Monteinajor. a Dutive of tlie towB of thftt namc, near Coiinbra. 
Wheii he was bom we are not told ; probably it waa 
befoi-e 1520. In liis youth íie was a soldier ; but later, 
frota his skill in music, he becaírie attaclied to tlie travel- 
\mg cbapel of tlie pñniíe of Spain, aftcrwards Philip ths 
Second, and tbus enjoyed an opportunity of ■visiting 
foreign cüuntries, especially Ituly and FUnders. But bis 
líiind xc-ís little cuitivated by study. He knew no Latin, 
whítüb cveij Ihose of tlie humblcst Hterary attainments 
were wont to acquire, in the age when he lived ; so tliat 
hia ettcceBs Es due to his own geuiuB and to the prompt- 
ings of that passion which gaye ita color to his Life. 
Probably he left Spain írom disappoÍDttiient in leve ¡ prob- 
ably, too, he pcrished in a duel at Turin, in 1561. But we 
knuw nothiug more of him with any tolerable certaiuty.* 

Hia " Diana Enamorada," the chief of his ■works, wa.a 
fiíst prbited ni Valencia, in 15i2.^ It ie writteu in good 



* Bftrbma^ Bib. Ltieltaiin, Tuci. II. p. 
K3t, Knd Cbv Pr^ilügo to tíie Pltiiii uf rrret, 
ed. 1Q14, f.sei. 

s I have Diívvr bEfen anj ^Utiün of tlip 
DLaiia cilml «arLltrr ttiun llial it Nnilrid, 
IQib; but I |)o«i«3S« one ¡u tln¡ ]L2 leuveij, 
noli priDlpñ al VhIebcIs, in Í5i3, iriUitnit 
tlie uutiiB uf ilia prtntCT. Tlie irory of 
Hatmi-E, of wíiiílu 1 iholl liora oocanliin 
ta B-peulc wtien we ifoiDb tn Aiitünlo VIU^ 
gHK, dovi ttoit fltaiii] In the faartli bodk aí 
thEri ocltjy as it doEa lu thv copies uf Bcme 
*i]>>«squ:mt «ditluní.. Tlie nnl íd wblcli 
It Ib linnirn to <□« lo be tn^ertcd Ib odb 
pulJliíTied (17 Aloríu de Cllioi («ee anle, 
Olmp. Ir. notcl0)ttl VenioeliilBB», ISniD, 
on the ilile-pi^ of wliloli tllliai BBy», — 
" UikiiBe aijiuliaii en ella ollíLiía imprcaioD 
los verdailernn ainuri-a ilí AliunciTragt y 
\m. hermosa Xírifu,'' — ffaia wliieh I Infep 
cliHi Ullna, wlio wus flomewti»c fipe In 
handllDi^ llie apuolsh tionltn lie ri>]irliilvd, 
«m Ihe irat lo Inaert ilie tule of Narvnea 
In tb« Bkmihuce of MonlciDüjur, from 
which-, T Ihink, It haia uL>vi;r bíeicc hesn 
dnipped. Tliv Dluiin of MoDleiouj^ur »aB 
KD populer, lhJil4iL \a¡BÍ sIxlEun cdUlona of 
tliB original aiiTnwrifd lu e-lglily ytíarsi bIi 
FnriicL trenilaCtuDí, oecordbng ta Ütitiou 



do ferreL fBlíi. de ItlsEge ilep Haniane, 
TarJB, 1134, 12II1D, Twi. II, pp. 2ñ, SI) | 
tKO IlL'nnalij ac-cordiOig to Ebcrt.^ ajid -ijop 
Ed)(IIfIi. Th)! lajt, bJ.' BaTítinltimev Yoag, 
(Loiidan, LSOB, fcrllo,,] la esrvüent, ^nd 
Bonte of iis bappy vsrsioiía of tbe poe^^ 
o( Monltmiiyur uf^ fuund lo ^^ Eii^lajid^^ 
BellcOD," lAOO HUd 1<114, r«(iTintpd fn Ctie 
IIilFil Kolain? ot the >' British Blbllog- 
HL|ilier,'' Inmdmi, 1810, 8vo. The alorj 
«f ProWDB aaü julti, ta "llis l'n'fl Gen- 
tlamoii ur Vi-rciiia," "lU BUppnaiii hj Jilr*. 
JfnoK nnrl Í3t. Farrncr ia be Ullsen froDl 
that oT KflieniBTia-, la ttte Bedo^d bcoh tf 
WuiitPiajiyur'a Diana, and tijejujrnrí Clrt- 
lier liaa rppnbliaS ed Tí^uh'S ImOBlalii* flf 
the laat Id tba süwnd vijlum? Of blB " Sbtít- 
Bpeare'B LiíirAry," {Lwiilnn, 9. a, Bvo,) 
thon^h be iluLibls nhctbEr 3ha]i^p4arc 
WUTifl nsUy Indum^d to it. HJ^I^W'fl 
SbakeapcsEtrc, UüavtlFa ed., LoDÜon, 1631, 
Sfo, Val. IV. p. 3i, GDd BrydRL-a, KestltoU., 
IflDdotí, 1814, Kvo, Vol, I. p. 498. Tfonr 
Bl>rid);iii.i-i;itii ot Ihc Diana of IHaDKmayor, 
aiirt -jrpjiy'p Ccotinuslioiv, wer-! puhiiBlisl 
ativiniinn, 1T3S, 13151", flir Philip Sidiiíj 

tr&iialn.L!d tiTi> nr f^ree ijl' CUo (Lh'^fl p[>írat 
Id Moii[^Inaj'Lir''tí Diana ^ — tlie one |a 
Book I. beEl™ti'g, » übIkHm qn4B« 



Cii.U'. XX!üU.J TUli ÜlANA ENAMl'ÜAlJA 



83 



Castiíiaii, like hia paetl'y, wliicb ÍS publiished separatelj^ 
thougli. tüm tliat, with sojiie iiiCcririLstiire of hÍ8 native 
Portiiguese ; ^ aüd it contains, as he tella iis, stories nf ad- 
veiitures whicb really occurred.'^ We kuow, toOj tliat, 
Tinder tiie naiae of Sereno, he was hímaelf ita hero ', and 
Lope de Vcgüí adde, that Diana, its heroiue, wae a lady of 
Valeocia de Don Juan, a towu iiear the city of Leoií,* 
M«'utei[]!iyor'.B pnrp<.i:8e, therefore, like llist of Samiaxaro, 
is to give. in the forma of a pastoral romance, an accuuiit 
of 8ome eveiits in his own Ufe and iti tho Hves of H lew gf 
bÍ3 iriende. To eñect thia, Le bríngs togcther on tlie 
baiilis of the Ezla, at the foot af the tnountams of León, a 
number of shepheriJá and HliepherdeaHee, who relate thcir 
reKpecttve StOric» through eeven baoks of proas, inter- 
mitigled with verse. But tbc two principal pereonages, 
Sereno and Diana, who were iiitrodiiued at firat as lovers, 
are stiparated by magic ^ and the rDmance is bi'oug'ht to 
an abrupt ctinclusion, littleconforinable to all the previous 
intinmtions, by the aiarriage of Diana lo Delio, the unwor- 
thy rival of Sereno. 

ÜQ firet reading' the Diífcna of Montemuyor, it is not 
easy to understand it. The sepárate Htoiies of which 
tt is conipoacd are so involved wUb each other, and so 
inaFtíQcially uniied, that wo are constaiitly losing the 
thi-ead of the principal narratíon ; a diCBculty wliich ia 
much inereaüed by the mixture of truc and false geogra- 
phy, heathenism, magic, Cliristianity, and all the vai-iiíue 
contrftdictory iropoBeibílitiee that naturaüy follow an 
attempt to plaoe íd the heart of Spain, and near one of ¡Ib 
beat-knowi) citiea, a poetical Arcadia, that never existed 
anywhere. The Diana, however, better raerita the uame 
of a romance tluan the Arcadia, which aerved for its 
model. Its principal fiction is aiupler and more inge- 
biüusly coQStructed. Its episodes are more interestlug. 



DiudnniD.''' beinit dont vi^ry ^eü. It woe at ddc? ; 
□ulural (.hat. thi; nulbrr ví l)ie C'^untcaa nc detc, llh! 



&t lcB£t hs úiil It in ble Canclo- 
IB, f. 81, wbvre tf a lonnut wblcll 




PeiiiATobK''s Areu'líLk bIiouIíI bs íumitiiu' 
wltta Sli'iitcmnj'or, (HipEclDlIy na tic rus 
eHilGnUfl al a. t'iaií-- whriEía^iod iIl-ilI tif 
atltiitlmi nns ítsiií tu SppLci&i] lltarjiture ld 



miy Ik rend vlthsr ai Bpusftb w te Vrv- 

' In hit Afffiímcnla !«■ Iha wlüle ro- 

' DiiMtDU, Act TI, S«. 9. Obru fiuelCU, 
l*av. MI. p, U. 



S4 



Tni: DIANA ENAMORADA, 



[PErtion IT. 



Mudí of ít, is wn-rm wUh the ten(Jernea& oF a díeappointed 
attacbmcDt, which, uo doubt, caiiHed the whole lo lie 
written. Some of the poctry is beautiful, especiallj the 
lyric poetry ; and if ita proac Btyle is not so puré as Éhai 
of Sannaza.ro, it is BtíH to be remarked for ite grace and 
ricbneBS. Notmthalanding ite many defecte, thercfore, 
the Diana is nrtt without an intcrcst for ua even at this 
remote period, when the whole class of fictioiía to which 
ií belongs is difiCOuiHenanced and almoat forgottcn ; and 
we feel tbat only poetíeal jnstice waa done to ¡t wheu. ¡t 
was aaved, bj the good taste of the cúrate, in the de- 
etruction of Dou Quiíote's Eibrary." 

The Diana, as has been íntimated, waa left utifiriished 
by its author ; but in 1&64, three years añer his death, 
Alonso Alonso Pérez, a phyaiciañ of Salamanca, to 
Soez. wbom Montemayor, before he finally left Spaiii, 

bad comtnunicated hia plan for completíng it, published a 
secfind part, which openg in the enchatited palmee of .Feli- 
cia, where the first ende, and givee as the adve-ritiires and 
etoñee of several 6.hephfirdi3 and shepherdeases, not intro- 
duced befíire, aa well as a continuatioa of the original 
fiction. But this second part, like the firat, faila to com- 
plete the romance. It advancea no further than to the 
death of Delio, the bneband of Diana, -- which, according 
to the piirpose of Montemayor, was to have been followed 
by her unión wJth Sereno, her flrst and true lover, -^ and 



" Tho estrcme popalarity of Mínte- 
mnyor'fl |»Iftii^ uo? niilj «ailBíd Düny icü- 
tailDDs Ui be m&dcariL, rhich DiúAt tía aa- 
Ueed ]iereB.ft<r, bul itm tbo musIou tT 
B curI(niB IrATesty nt It fw ííliglirtia iiui^ 
pijeea, like Ibc tTBTenCieg uf DüfcilaaBod^ la 
l'iígn. The flctloii lo whiíh I ríter íñ 
callad " Prim-tra Parle de U Dlíiau il lu 
Divino lepartidí en siete LibrM c<>CApDesM 
par el muy BeTeruiido Padre l^ni; DurDio- 
loiDé l'UDcei'^ ní; (CankgAi,^ti, Íí90, \'¿a<y, 
367 S., bot ibi autltoritf to priat le ijlLteJ 
Id 1 &T1, and Ib ero vas ao. «dllioD at Ziira- 
gota jD 1541,) tu purpose le te da tianor 
lo t^e Müdonna. In ttiF DedLcntarta del 
Avilar 4l1 PruAcnU' LecUi-r, Pro; Uaithul-amé 
Baje that^ lii ihíí^, IfcIil^ qL cnurt on ttusi- 
iMwi cnuucctcl vith tÍB moaiiílíty, he 
bund eretsttodj nading ihe Slatift of 



Menicmnyor, — "la quai," he gi^* mi, 

"era WQ apcptn q'íBnlJi ya jninaB otrq Ul>ni 

ea aanuuc «ya rlñtó," — «.cd tbitc, tn 
coDsequeoce oT ttiia, he hatl Si^uglit tita 
acqualaCaEoc al Uontcmayar .a^ud uiel htm 
at í Irleiul'B. Tti« result oí tticlr latcr- 
cauraewAí. Uts.t tbe Priar WTatcthle ap [rit- 
ual fiarcdy oí tbe BlaLji ia ttif same □um- 
iKr ■>! booiía and vltli paraliel characlen | 
uilieuBclug ul Ebecnú aeDn.tinaall4a.vhlc]) 
wnr ncrer publlstied. He allkidee lo Uon- 
lcmHjiir''B dentb in a duU p«iii, uad t^vica 
U FE^iinl le as a Judifmfynt froni Beavifn. 
Tbe yriar «lied about 15S¿, and a Jllghl 
□otice oí b\m vill Ibe (ailañ in Lalassa, 
Bib. SaV., Tom. L ti'. B6G. Tbe »ti]y tapf 
I «ver saW «r ÜÚÉ VeiT EUfiaU« baok b^ 
loúgA tú ModS. Vistor' CouíJiL, FnríS, uní 

wu inlict^ud by hlm Imta rtuiflel. 



Cb»f. ?ncyru.i tre diana esamükada. 



85 



then stnpB abrnptly, witli tho promiee nf yet a tliirj pari, 
"Whích DPver appOiired. Nur wns it, probably, demanilcd 
witli any carnostriesB ; fnr the aecond, protracted through 
eight books, and cousidcrably longer than its prtideceseor, 
ie mucU inferior to ¡t iii merit. It lacks, in all its inany 
atories, t!ic tendc-niess wliich the disappointmcut of Moii- 
tetnayor liad g\vei\ to the ürat porliotí of the work ; ani, 
■wliat perbaps is of no lesa conaequence in this kind of 
coTnpositíon, the proee íb heavy and monotoDouB, aud the 
■verse worae." 

But tbifi uufm' túnate attempt was uot tbe ouly conse- 
quencc of Montcmayor'a succeaa. Tb& same year with 
that in whicti the work of Pérez was published, another 
continuation appeated at Valencia, by Gaspar Qajp^pflu 
Gil Polo, a geutleman of that city, wha was a ^'^'* 
Prufesaor of Oreek in íts Umvcrsity." The Diana of Polo 
haa the merit of beiiig sliuríer than either of ilB predecce- 
Bors. It is divided into five books, and containa an ¡ic- 
count of the falsehood uad death of Delio, and tbe mar- 
riage of Diana to Sereno, whom she finda when she ia 
Heeking tbc husband who had bascly abandoued her for 
aiiotber ahepherdeaa. fíeveral epiaodee and mucli pasto- 
ral poetry of dillerent kinds are skilfully in&ertcd ; but 
thongh the original plan ofMontemayor appeara to becom- 
pleted, the book ends witii the promiae of a Btill further 
coDtinnation, whieb, though tlie author Hved nearly thirty 
years after he inade it, seeins aeverto have beeo fulfilled." 



10 Ule fliat edltion dtcd (AntL, Blb. 
Üma^ Tora. I. p. &39J ¡a uf 1664, sod thrre 
B.re üLliiini |irLDtL<d «lili Müiijl?nuLjcr*a 
WavA, Vriitce, íbtA, ]Sa5, narc^elDiia, 1014, 
eu¡., liiil lu pojjiilíríty irss emoJl, nnrt I 
Uiinlí It nue atícr prlDt»] by itsdf after 
lifl*. Tlie eilKHina oí IMM ntid, Iflll, 
whicb 1 pnsosa, tjv curiQua. le trae, 
iLQireTur, (raDs,lAiciJ it\lei |*r^D.cb, aiDil bj 
5Mt- Toar lotU Sdgllííl í e^riil wjia priDlíd. 

In (b« QFti|lni.l caan ibae on^ "iiti tha 
DImnft oT M4>Di«mnyvt, 

]>rbited lu 1664, in'i üveb MlltlAna tiF the 

nriglniíl appi'areii Id hnir a CSi^Ucy, witlL 
t'iTü Fretkcb tranaljitiicií J3jid a Lntln (^b(^ ! 
for wblcb tte poat, nat6 ÍA. It \i WCU 
trniutAtviI by Bart. íoag, ai Ibe lAifif part 



of the ÜÍBiiB, In íhe lamB Tolimie «illi the 
olbera j but ia reallj tlvfi Mtcond parL 

11 Ttiete la u. Hilnl p».ri o( üie tiiann, 
encinal ** IjL nianh de hJan Le mayor, Due< 
ramiinlE emni'ucaüi por HieronyinD da 
Tejteaa, CaaLellann laterjirete i)e Lenguai, 
Ri!íiile[ilcetilii'VUlQdí-[*nrla,"tW. A Varia, 
ACosIn ilal Aiictor,]e37. U la iLliI Icalcd ta 
lliB PriDCe de Jrrinvlll?, mid (lilla two vo|. 
uates, — tbvfinitur34iipngeaanil theaücaad 
oí 304, — but iny eoiiy líTunimt u anf ToU 
itm^, a^d a^BiDB nevtr to haví hAd but ooa 
tltlt-pag^. tbs Coatlllsn Btyli^ •iltítr whiilB 
la i>lni[il.B but ineagTc, and t.bc itivoDliOD 
qutu iTürthleaA í — madv up («itiuiUiniiIlr 
úl i>l<l nnd vetL-kn<>irn ntcrfi.-», H\iv thaC it 
the Cid, m íli.E í1xth Ijüült, — llie Abfü- 
cerragtie, in the BeT«ath, — I&« Ulbutc of « 



THE FJLIPA. 



[Pbri(»> IL 



Hía work, hnwevcr, waa BiiccPBsfuI. Ita prose has alwuys 
found favor, »nd so havc Bociie |)ortious of ita versa ; ea- 
peciaUy the vanífion of Nerea iu the tbird book, and 
eevcral uf the shoftar puems iu the last,^' 

The "Ten Boiíks of Fortune aml Love," by Autoiiio de 
AntBnioiii- '-'" í'rasao, a Sardiiiian and a soldier, piibliahed 
Lo Vtomo. in 1573, Í8 the next Spauísli romancí^ of tUe sanie 
claas with the Diana: but it ia without merít, and waa 
forgotten 8(.ioa after it appeared." Níne yeare later, ia 
1582, a better one Wiis published, — the " Fílida," ^ 
whích passed early throu^h fíve edítious, and íb still 
Lilia Qnir™ valued íHid read." Its author, Luis Oalvei! de 
diíWnQtuiví. MoTitalvo, was biírn in Goadalüsam, a, town nGar 
Alcatd., the bírthplace of Cervantes ; atid, perhaps from 
thlS circnmBtaDCej they ^oon bccamd acquaioted, for they 



hnndred danmcli eit-irlpd b; Haiireirn.li>, 
in Lbc uiatli, — and •" dti. At the enil u[ 
Uif Icnth sn-l liut IhkiIi: ■/burCí purl Ib 
pionLljtd, irhlcli wa» luiipElji iievvr pub- 

V Tli«lKstedlUaiLaf Ql) Püla'f Dknn Ib 
thftt with n lirb ot lilm by CerAi, Mndrid, 
16'U2. 12cio f puUculurlf TnlLuibie fbr tijo 
DDWt u> t^e ''- Ca.D\a ún Turía,'' lu w])l(;h, 
JnnlLatiaíi Vae " Csntn ^o Ürrki,'' wbt^re 
HnnUmnynr glvef. hu auoount of lli« h- 
mijus ladirf q[ hlí [(mu, l'olo glvet. aQ 
acc^nuii [jí lli4- rniiiiiiis parí» (ir Tulvnclii. 
For lives u( Pniv tirv, also, Ximeocí, Esorí- 
luree de ValPiii;]», Tijín I. ]i. ITi), aiiil 
Fusln-, Blh. Voli-uLltiD, Tum, I. p. 150, It 
ia «iniíiLlar tlijií Fulo, «ho liad BUCh «iin- 
ceaü wilb hb biana, ihnuld ha.ue prliilv^ 
nuL^iug uhe, ijso'pl nne ar two Bliort and 
Llifitng' IHK9DB.. Ilíi Diana iriu Iniri^li^v^ 
loUi íatía b; Cbseulf Eonh, (pü? aníR, 
Perlod 1. Ctiaji. XIU. nute ^,) unili^r Ibe 
ñama or i^ EmlotlidEmcalue Bive ^eracrji- 
lium," íúiii\ y., BiLHOUlai, 1425, l^iuo, pp. 
&l£, !Som'a oT Che mL'LritiuL TerHloiiB ore 
Very ^noil. 

Gujaogoe noliea horing tbc EnrUeet imi- 
UtioDH ol Ihu UJana, one b/ Hyíronlmn de 
Arbiilauche-i, prlnteH al XuragirrEa li3 15(10, 
4Ltid. Gii(.iLD«4Í ^' Lu ITjirJiliis/'' rrtini AIiíiIíb^ 
one af Lhe pvnAtnngea Ihit Ü^re in it, 
The jlory ¡B Eitrnn^, oud In ^lart dlB^ust- 
iHig, huí <J3iyhn^'iB iSpHrrLbDB Holne ot the 
"fiwlxj na vrnrtli rcafliu}^. 

Be pl>t^ similar prniae ta >' El T'rada de 
Tklenciti," Id linuur uf Philip IIE.&ail Che 



1>i]k< of Lerma, wlio apimr Iu the ^Ub 
ut ■hcplicril*, aad In Vbc couise of whtdi 
ihrre are tan Certam^na, nr [uietical 
Jiiiutlngí, i» irhlcti Li>[)e( MaldaDudu, El 
CjLpican Arlledfi, i3aIE3eih úv Csketi-D, onil 
oú\vj linnvji prjutB of the tioB, flfrure^ II 
HBiS puhlialicd lu Valeneii in IflOI. 

I< tt la tbu tome büiik Ihat C«rvDnl«i 
rltlicuteB tn llie aiith cliiipli.'t of Ihe ilrst 
part ol ItaD Qnliole, aixl In Chr ttilid 
chapter oí hia "Jonniey [o Poniaaíiis |. " 
and ÍB cUFÍQUa for tome tpeclnirDB o[ &ar- 
ilEolou imetr; «lilch It cnninlrrg. BuC 
Pedro de Pinfli1.&, a leiuiher ot b^imilah la 
LondoD, lulíiu)! tti« Irnn; íX the good 
curale !□ Don. Qulxntií aa La Praisa'i 
moianoi! Ui lie flocmi pralse, prlctod s 
neir eitlllon of ll, In two very liaiiilBoma 
TolumíEi, (Loudcín, 174(1, Bva,) «¡ih a faot- 
Ish Rail kncl lie Qiul PrJI.aqD, ulk-irtn^ Iha 
autDinrlCj oí Cer^aoieB for it» i^rent rnvrlL 
Bikrdly itcijf Qther of t}ie Sp^inlsb priyae 
pastomlt Ib en atnurrl ii£ IhJB, or coDlnliia 
ich uiitcb batí vdTae i b. ^<n?at denl af rblulx 
U ulIiI rcsBt'i] to bvtnjr iiTiil knoirn p^motia 
hj thsir llllea. Th*' tentüi brwlt, Indi'Wl, Is 
alDivgr i^Eitlrelj niade up ^f BUrh |iofi'try- 
I lia not Fccollect á\aX. CervuaSfx li so 
«erire c>n un; poet, In lii) "Jiuruey w 
TaniaMana,'" aa hs lü nn Lo Ftb.md. 

H The lieat iJ3tli>« or Itf -'yiHda" ji 
tlie nlith, (MeilrM, ITM, Svo,) with a blrj- 
gniplilciil priiliigiin bji Mujaní^ j Blícnr i 
lll-dlHeslsfl, n! ani n,U the Blrallar pn-fuceB 
bf lilinsiiir wiit tila broCher ; Init nol -witSi- 
out valiLikble loatlor. 



Cbat. XiSU].] 



THE FILIDA. 



ff 



werc !ong frionds. and oñen prniseil each otber io their 
respective works." They seem, bow^ever, tt> haré had 
very dífferent ciiaraí-lers ; for, instead of the lile of adven- 
ture k'J hy Cerrantes, Montulvo attached himse!/ to lite 
great lamilj' of lufautadOj descended froDi tbe jVíarquis uf 
SiUitÜlann, axid paesed niost of hís tife as a sort of idle 
courtier aod r<Mainf r in their dncal halls, ue^r tbe place of 
fats nalivity. Subseqnently he went to Italy, wliere he 
ti'ansUted and publislied, in I5ST, "The Tcars of Suint 
Peter," by Tansillo, aod bad beguo a translatiou uf tlie 
" Jerus&lem Delivered " of Taaso, wlien he was i-ut oíf in 
the mitlst of bis labora by au accidental doath^ la Sicüy, 
abobit theyear 1591.^" 

nis " Fílida," io seven parts, was writteü whiSe he wae 
attiftcbed to the Du^íq of Infantado ; for be announceH 
himself on the title-page aa " a gcntleman and a coortíer/' 
and, in bis Dedicatiou' to oae of the family, auys that 
" bis greatest labor ib to live idle^ contented. and honored 
as one of the sorvants of their bouse." The romance 
oontaina, as was uauat in 8uch works, tbe adventures of 
living aiid kiiown personag'es, among" whwm were Montalvo 
himself. Cervantes, and the nobleman to wbom it ia dedícat- 
ed, But the íone of pastoral liie ís uot better preserved 
tban it i:; in the otber fiutious of the aame class. Indecd, 
in tbe sixtb part> there íb a most inappropmte critical 
distiussion Olí the merits of the two scliools of Spaniah 
püüLry then contendiiig for faí^itiionable mastery ; aud Íti 
the sevenlh ia a coiirtly feslivaU with running- at tbe ring, 
V\ which tbe Ebepberds appcar on horai^back with lances 
and armoi'ial bearing^s, like knt^hta. The prose atyle of 
the wbole ¡a pure and good ; arid among tbe poems with 
which it abounds, a few in the oíd Spanisli measure may 
he aeletted that are nearly, if not quite, eqiial tO the simi- 
lar poema of Muntenaayor. 

Cervantes, too, as wo have already noticed, waa led by 
tbe spirit of the times, rather, perhapB, than by bis own 



1» NaTiiprele,' Tía» iie CerTaUíH!», pji. QulKiite, ed. ftlumeiielii, Trun. I. p. lifl, 

IH, ■J.'ii, un. nud tuoL. ni. f. lU, In Ihe unif.g, Tha 

11 [«IH de Veg^ Úbraa fliielía*, lum. >i Tuilti " iiT X^juIUij r iijuyod Che liinnar uf 

I. p. 17, hdí Tara. XL p. xxriil. Don belng sil ÜmM- trji.Ti»lHWii liitii Bpsuiíh. 




VAB10D3 PROSE PASTOBALS. 



[PsnioD U 



4 



taste, to bcgín -^ as an oflenng to the lady of iiíet lope — 
the "G-alatea," of wliicli thu first six. bookH, püblJHhud in 
1584. were all that ever appeared.'* This waa followed, 
inl586,b7 "Triitli for the Jealous ; " ag^ain a romauce id 
sis books, aTid, like the laet, uafiíiisiied. It Was written 
g^ by Bartulóme López do Eucísd, r>f whom we 

i«iM-»iie fcuow froia himselí that he \vas a yoiiug man 
when lie wroLe it, aiid that it was hifl purpoee to 
puhlísb a eeccind part, of wliich, however, nothing more 
wae hcard. Ñor can we rcgrct that he failed tü fulfil his 
prürniec. Ilia fictione^ which are occnpicd chiefly Trilti 
thc njmphs and shepherds of the Tagne, are amoiig the 
most confused aiid unmeaning that have ever been at« 
tempted. His scene is Inid, froiu its üpeníng, in the daya 
of the moat aTicíent Greek mythology ; but the Genins of 
Spain, ¡11 the íiftli boot, carnes the eainc BhsphcrdH who 
thds figure in tlie first to a magnificent teniplcj and shows 
thcm the statuea of Charlea tlie Fifth, uf Philip the 
Second, and even of Philip the Third^ who was not yet on 
the throne ; — thua CodfoundÍQg; the earíioet times of das- 
Bical antiqíiity with an age which, at tho end of the bís- 
teenth century, wae yet to come. Other iiiconaequences 
■follüw, in great imiubera, as matteni of course, -wliils 
nothing in either the proae or the poetry is of valué 
enough to compénsate for the absurditieB ¡n the síory. 
Iwdeed, few portíons of Spanish Hteratnre show snythin^f 
more stifT and wearíaome tban the long declamations and 
diacusajona in thta dull fiction," 

Auothtir pastoral romance m sis boolta, entitled " The 
GoD»Li«]d« Nyrophs of the Henares," by Bernardo Go'nzalez 
BoioBüiiB. Je BovadilUj was printed in 1581. The anthor, 
■who waa a native of the Ganíry lelaads, confeeses that he 
has placed the scene of his story on the banks of the He- 
nares without having ever eeeu thenj ; but both he and 
liÍ8 romance have long- since been forg-otten. So baa 

" Jnír, Tnl. ILpp. 9B-1Ú1, qb ot hlmaolf tu Ihla mmancsi— an ei- 

U " Desengaña de Ci^Iih, GUIIi])U«Ua por trcnielf rupe booli, of vllkll I IMIKSI Ule 

Barthulciiní Lopes de EucIbo, NiLltirnl 4e copy t.hnl lH;|ua|;üd Ip Cerúi y Rl?a, RSl 

Tcndlllu,'» MaiLrlil, 1336, tanic, 321 IsiiFee. wtiloíi IV'lllc» borroi^erl, 4>r tiim 19 DiAlC* 

Hi«!re la, I twlivFB, rÍhüIuu.'íj' cccbiiig t>|i^ llwlTill ni-ite «II £»e|go fbr hlü CiWtlMl 

koom of Un? üuihor, einepi vbat bí lelli of poa QuUote, CailP I- C. B. 



chaf. xxxin.] 



EL SIGLO 



"Thfi Shepliords of Iberia," ¡n four bookSf by Bernardo 
de la Vt^a, siipposed to have becn a naíive of B^r^^^jo 
iliidrid, and ccrtaiiilj a cauou of Tucuman, íd '^«J-i'sí». 
Perú, wlioae ¡Il-wríttcu atory appeared iri 1591. But tbat 
theee, and all tbat preceded them, enjoyed for a time tbe 
piiblic favor Í9 niade plain by the fact, that they are atl 
foTind iu tbe übraiy of Dgn Quíjcote, and tliat three of 
them receive liigh praiec from Cervantes ■; — niuch liig-her 
thau has been coiifirmed Ly the dtíciston of subsequcut 
getierationf.'* 

Some timo, howcver, elapssd bofore another CamO to 
continué tlie aericB, except tho *' Arcadia" of Lope de 
Vega, whiL-h, tiiongh written long before, wna not priutcd 
till 15fl8.=^ At last, "The Age of Gold," by Bernardu de 
Balbuena, appeared. Itá aulhor, botu oti tlic n^nuniuda 
vine-clad declivitiea of tliD Val de Feñas, íq b^i'"»'"'"- 
1568, carty accompaníod hís family to M^esico, where he 
was educated, aud where, when only seventeeu yeara uld, 
he was already known as a poet. Once, at leiíatj he visit- 
ed hÍB native coiintry, and pcrhaps oftener ; but be seems 
to bave spent inost of hÍB Ufe, eithcr iu Jamaica, wbere 
he etijoyed ao cccleaiastical beneGce, or in Puerto Kicg, 
of which he waa añerwardB bishop, and where he died in 
162T. 

Of the matinefB of the New World, hnwever, or of its 
niagftiilici'nt eccncry, bis " Age of Gold in the Woods of 
Ki'iphile " BhowB no trace. It was prioted at Madrid, in 
ItiflS, and might have been written if its authür had 
never beeii in any otber city. But it is not without merit. 
The poetrj with wbicb it aboimds is gCnerally of the Ital- 
tan BchooL, but is much better than can be found in most 



" DOD Quilate, cd. Pelliier, Pnrle I. 
Tom. I. p. 6T, buieI ed. ClemeuciD, 'ínsa. I. 

™ hJjiíí, Tol. n. p,15ft. The '^Bnftmo. 
ruin UlJara''* of (J-erAnamo de rorairu^ 
blku Ut^nTrA, iiriittfiL ih lñ¡>4, Sv-ii^ i^hüuLd 
nLn be oxcepLr-d ^ bait [ kiiuw íhía Wbrk 
gnl^ from the occnuikL of lí h^ (Sji^migfw. 
Aod cirrtHTnlj nii excepllou edí^IkL bL^ oíod^ 
Tac the '^Tni^^tlas de Amor " of Jaiui 
Ante SülorseinUf pubMAlici] íd 11104, onil 



rtgahí in. l>a(IT, — ft ptOW pajiti>rn1, — If Et 
were nnt tu> poar, tliat it ia hfinlLj iroT^b 
eniimerating. It vas wriLtFii in th-& aií- 
LbnT''fl rurly j cmthi Cn HfCetn " BcloffQ-e*," 
,a8 bí calla the Tioüke (nCo whicb \i ¡A 
dlvlihM» aiiJ it íTii^ llrrtt pulílioliWl ürhen 
he Hm twiíolj.rͧ-ht jeara líld J IítIL Ivo 
V4::Uiircd Ui «¡ve ih<f wiirld only Uve of 
lbi:< ñriitfUii, AjLlIahir to muh. al^r Lüie riishlitji 
4if Lhe agv, H misemblo allegorícal luter* 
prvtBtioDi. 



TETE CONSTANTE AMARILIS. 



[Pkriod n. 



of theae drtabtfiíl romanccB ; and íts prose, thoug-h Bome- 
timPs allecfe<3, is ofteiier sweet, simple, a»d ñowing. 
Prubably uulliíng in the nine ecLogues — as íts divisious aro 
unsuitably called — is connectcd with eithcr the hístory 
or the scandal of the times ; and if tliis be the case, we 
have, perhape, an explanation of tht> fact that it waa leas 
i-eguriíed by thoee conteiuporary with ita pubücaüon than 
were Biinilar works of inferior merit. But whatcvcr maj* 
have been the cause, it waa 1oq|e; overloolted ; no Eecoiid 
editioii of it being demanded tul 1821, when it received 
the rare honor of beip^ pubUshed anew by the Spanish 
Acadcmy."- 

The very ues.t year aftcr the flrst appearance of " The 
BuareKie ■^6"'^ "^ tíold," Chrístóval Suarez de Figueroa, a 
pifc-uET-m native of Valladolid, a juriat and a eoldier, pub- 
lished his' " Gonstant Amaryllia, in Four Discourses," 
crowded, h"ke all its predecessors, with short poema, and, 
like raoat of thera, claiming to tell a tale not a littie of 
which waa true.'^ ItS autbof, who livod a gj'Oat deal in 
Italy, waB already known by an excelleut translation of 
Guarini'B "Pastor Fidu," ^ and publiaheil, at diíTereíat 
times afterwarda, several origina! würke whitíh enjoyed 
much reputatJon.* 



« lite prEfalvry Qotks te Ihls edltfan 
taatains all that ia Icdíitli d( Enlbueas. 

" Ilicru val an «aítiPQ n'iUi n FRQch 
InQSlHtlnii ^D 1614, tlM lll^ beat Ir thALoí 
MailTíil, IISI, 8vi). 

plea, Íd ]M^ Vae vrae Improred íd the 
tdititin at Viil-E^Dcio, 1609, 13id<i, p[i. STS, 
Ir'nii wLleti I tnuiscrlbe Ibe a^oiig oí 

Aüt. ni. 1 — 

o prlniíTPnifJuvpntiiil del nflik, 

Nuera cimBlru i\rt ñuiva, 

Db I1U9VIU jppTjjTillMy d'imoret, 

Tib huflY-QS, mu coní]^ 

Nn faaQlvpii.lQa Bar^pgi 

TaTEüiliiTmn» divide nili puflDr i 

Tu bittlrcB» sí, la tme\vvé. 

Mu nnn'Ustr nv In-mit - 

SlitD la m^icmbinLiqi 

Dv mi coro E«Dro ^iLpardLdo. 

P.IH. 

TSIa pu«ir« li í« iw*rir wrí' f" woni, 
tíM it, iü UM wanb wbilc W cop; tlia 



ItAlloíi, A^ jÉt líH BQi&iier uid eiu an 

There <a a InmElatÍDii «r Ihe "PutWj 

File," br a JttfiaB, i>[iria rsübEi Jt Vom», ' 

oí Afaidh I ICn-nA ijd]j>- llm tlilM elUtiúD, 
Ihikí aFAntnurp, lO'ílí, I^idd. It lÉ aa^ ul 
ths fe* trnphips in pwtr/ cUimeil by Ihe 
fiur aex of its aulhor^s ÍEÍ'íh ; bul iL la ntA 
worüiy of mucli praia^. Gingnché cciiD' 
plains tsf tb? íiríglnnl, Tvbli^b i?:i'tvadB to 
eeren thaimiLnil Iíikmi, Tur Ikíhg^ Ino latir.. I 
It i» BQ ; bnc thí» tranaULion of ütha Ifw> 
bel la much lonpn'r, ciitiUiniue', I tlilnh, 
ahiive eleven. i]kuu3An'd ^inei^ ItA wfrrtit 
(üult, briwcFCT, ¡H ití liad t.ii9t':i. — Tlicre 1» 
a, iln-mH with the Biirae littr. "El Panlur 
Tirio," in ttie Comedlaa EseugLdnn, Tnm., 
TUL, 16^7, r. lOfl; — but., though It <E 
Bald la Ihi «riten by UiTVe paplfl nn Icrb 
ÍBiDoUB thuiL Salte, Ca?llo, uad CHiilT^rou, It 
hus VL-ry lltUe «alue. 

x> AutoiiLn (Bll). Nora, Tom. T. p. 3Gt) 
flyes a Ikl cl nJiw of the votIcb or ?&■ 



Chat. XXXnr.] THE CONSTANTE AMARIUS. 



91 



Biit he aeems to have becn a mau of aii unkinfl and un- 
faitliful í^harattcr. In a curioua acCQUot o£ hia owii life 
wbiub appeared in his " Traveller/' Le apeaks Iiarsbly and 
insidioDsly of wanj OÍ bis contemporánea ; and towards 
Cervantes — who had just died, after praiaing cverybody 
most gonerouslj during- Im whole life — Le i& abBüIntcly 
maligniíiit.'-'" Uiu litat work Es dated in 1)521, and thi'a íg 
the last fact we kiiow iu reJiatioD tu biin. Híb " Aiaarjllis," 
whicb, ae be intimates, waa composed to pleaso a pcrson 
of great cousideratioii, did ool eatiety its autbor.^ It ts, 
however, wrkteD in an easj and tolerably puré style ; and 
tbough it Coiitains formal aud weaiisoine dii^cussionB, ]ike 
that ¡D tbe lirst part ou Poetry, and awkward machinecy, 
siich as a vieüm of Veuus and ber court in tbe second, it 
Í8 the oiily one of his works that has heen reprinted or 
mucb read wHIjír tbe Iset century. 

A few piíatoral romancea appeared in Spain after 
the Amaryllis, but Pone OÍ SO macb merit, and none 
that enjoyed any considerable degree of favor. Espi- 
nel Adorno;^* Botelbo, a Porttigij&ee ;™ Qiiintana, wbo 
aaaumed the ñame of Cuevas ; " Corral ; " and Saave- 



^fiímk i^Hae of wükich miiat be uotlceil 
UuL'^ir tlLL^L^ rtflpecL^TB lienta i but it La 
prnhKbl> ri-it cumplelc, for Figiieroa hlm- 
UJr, [u ISIT, <ruíaü(rr9, I. STT.) aaye be 
hitd a'lreuil; siublliLed Bercn bmks, and 
AuLquíg KÍT^3 oa\y »íx b?fore thnt dulc j 
bealdt^ tvlilch, a fodeiid^ in. thit IVefacie ta 
P£|fiieroB.''B Life of ihe Murqn^a ot Cañeleg 
ISIS, aaj* I" liB^ wriEtiiri eigbt vortí In 
Iba leu yesm íAcn jjreceillng. 

« (iíi'iuTetí, Viat da CcTTanUs, ¡ip. 
ITB-ISI, anil aliewhepa. Tha very en- 
riiiui ciiitlceii'flvcn lij- Figuenm at tila owa 
Ktt, «rblch hsfe uftct twgn iisect Fot Iiüi 
biiignipliy, UPO In hla "J?iuagoro," rruní f. 
2¡UÍ Ui r. 31>2, und UM, llke rriHny otbar 
ItasBOi^eR ni tliBl siD^lar btwk^ fbU oí 
bllti!ruDB9 LoWBrila lita oootcinpenuieB, 
Lnp? de Vepu^ ValU'giiH, EflplnuBH., cta. 

31 fiLiik^rii, r. a^. b. 

■ " El PpeBll» l\ií !■ Catlítlitialll J P*í- 
tOTW rte Siírrfc ppml'^J», pur Jarinlo dp 
EM|)II>el Ailftcoc," HAdríil. 169), 12Lnu, lU-2 
leuvas. 1 finJ tiO iioliin ni H, tsf^pl, tb^ 
Uiltht ■>□« ib Ariiiie,l0, Bill, NuV., Tutu. I. 
p, flJA i lint it ií bC'ller iliiaii budic Ihait 
Imra mura ^eiK'nilly Yoluad. 



w "Kl Puatiir de Gk'UBTclii iie Mlgael 
Bi>lflliD do Oarralho," Mailiid, 1623, 8to, 
Bs winlv, nl»ii) scvurel ulliur irnrksi olí In 
C&stíliaii, !:xceiíl bis " 1^1 lis," a poem Id 
ocCare stanuB, whlch la rbllict a tlorj of 
hia oirtí lifa Had advcntum ihcn aDjthloB 
e\ie. Ikrbiiflii, Blb. Lufl, Trun, in. p. 4l3fl. 
M " BipctlCDcias de Anicr y Foitua», 
por el Licencindo Fr&Dcisco da las Cuctu 
de Madrid/* Umcelniía-T 1443, l^mo, Si^ 
■tsi) B&an», BIjra de MariríJ, ITnin. It. pii. 
112 and iSO. FnLiivÍBaa de QuInlanB-dull- 
caCad thíi pBSlOFUl (a Lope ds Vago, wlia 
nniLe blm & canipIlmvntHif ■^P'Ji 1° 
«liicli he ire&ls UMalan* tí a yauDí; mao, 
.aud Lbla be Líe firat work. Tbarr «'(>pe 
lediClonE dI iC in lQ-24, lQl«i, IQBt, US neU 01 
the ona at Barceloim, ubuvc ijdUíü, aml uiifl 
at Mndriri, ^má. 12inj ; niid la tb«' Diiie- 
UaDlIi volante of La^H!''i3 Obr^fl SuifktuB, 
PP' ^^ '4Wi ¡F A 9^i7Qi>a wliTali 4¿uliitaim 
doltvore^ r4t the ihEequ,|aB or Lope, jo tbe 
{IUee( ?rliJi!tt belacalled Lope'ii'MQllinnte 
frifluü." 

JL "1* ClbCllk de AmuJuM, Proím y 
"VCffiM, p*r Don Qjibtltl de Corral, NMa- 

íol d« VBUiUlúlId," UuUld, lies?, lamq. 



riCTlON. [PíBMDlL 

dra,^ cloge up the series í — tho last briuging- us down 
to jiiBt about a century froni the first appeamoce of such 
fiutiona in the time of Montetnayor, and all of them in- 
fecteil with the fiílse taete of the period. Taken to- 
gether, tbey leave no doubt that pastoral romatice waa 
the ñrgt Bubstitute in SpaJn for tho romances of chivalry, 
und that It iutierited no small dcgree of their popularity. 
Mo&t of the worke we have noticed were scveral timeB 
rcprioted, and the " Diana " of Montensayor, the Jirst 
aiid beet of them all, was probabty more read in Spain 
during- the aijctecuth century thati any Spanish work ot 
amusetncnt except the "CeleBtiaa." 

AU tbis Beeni3 remarlsable and strange, when we con- 
Bider only the absiirdities and inconsequencea with which 
Buch fictions TieceS'Sarily abound. Bu.t there is anütber 
HÍde to the queetioD, which ehouíd aot be overlooked. 

Pastoral romance, aftcr alt, haS ¡ts foundatjtin in 
of pauíoraj One 01 the trueet and deepeat pi'inciplea of onr 

CoEnmoD nature, — that love of rural beauty, of 
rural peace, in short, of whatever goca to constitute a 
country lifej as disting-iiislied from the cnnstrained life of 
a city, which few are too dull to fcel, and fewer stitl bo 
artificial as whoUy to reject. It has, therefore, prevailed 
moru or ices in all niodcrn countrics, as we may see in 
Italy, from the succees that foUowed Sannazaro ; iti 
Francc, from tbc " Aetrea " of Durfé ; aiid in England, 
frúm the " Arcadia " of Sir Philip Sidney ; — the two lat- 
ter bcing pastoral romauceg of eaormoua length, compared 
with any iu Spanielí ; aud the Tery !ast enjoying for 
above a century a popularity which may well be compared 
with that of the " Diana " of Montemayor, if, indeed, it 
did not eqiial it." 



20$- kBt^B, I kcDw of na otlter eiütiob, 
nu Htüú Lo BtDLC from 1^0 Ui 1632, AFiQ 

prolmt-ly iDÜEL'T. (AllloKlA, Bjl). NflVA, 

T'>t:l I, p, -545.] He ii 0(rneareai)iiQ la Ala 
ilylu, ús i* QuídUdo. 

^ "• hv6 Paatores del Bc^^el^ par Gon- 
EAlv-v-ile guAvudrs," TrniiL, 1IÜ3, 41a, pp. 
SS'O'. II íKIdj (b haré bsxn nrltteii ío 
ItAly i ^t vfG kaow nuthio^ ai ita anthor, 
eiueiit LLut he H-Bs a. Vt'aiíiifiaJ.ro nC Cúr- 



dWA. HIsMylei? AEccteri. Iil n]' CDp7<' 
irbich Lú th««)lúlihcn U aat£d 1S34, Lbera 
HT#-, uH a. síiaertU! ifMt, four lEnsta of tc- 
IIkíod» sDil inúrh.1 nilvice Ut Ihí auCbor'i^ 
Bsni, tihofi lie vm B-niíg «3 gnrcifiiw tó oní 
uf ite prui-iace» ai Naplen ; beltor wrilten, 
Üino the ruiauDL-e tliuC ¡iri-veilri it. 

W PorluBüJ roiglit have licen ailded, 
Thf " Meuiíiu é Mix;» " iit Bcrniirdiiio El» 
bejro, priut»! id 1SÍÍ7, Í6 a bcuutlíul trae- 



CtíAf. 



I.] POPÜLABlTy OF PASTORAL FICTIOHS. 



93 



No dciiibt. in Spain, as elsewhere, the inccnigruitíea of 
Buch fictiona wore aoon perceived. Even soine oF tliose 
who mosi iudulged iu tbein showcd tbat it waa iiot entire- 
ly ñora a. miaapprehensicín of thdr nature. Cervantes, 
wLo died regrettíng tliat be ehotild leavc liie " Gahilcji'' 
unfinished, strll inakes himsclt' merry more thati otioe in 
hÍB "Don Qiiixote " with all such faacíes : aiid, iu bis 
■* Cutloquy of the Doga," permita one of thera, wbo liad 
lícen in sheplterd service, to eatiriKe the false exhíbilinn 
of llftí in the best pastorata of hia time, not forg^ettÍii|f bis 
owD among the rest." Lope de Vega, loo, tlioui¡,-h he 
publiabed hía " Arcii.dia " iinder cÍTCumstaiicctJ whicb sbow 
tbat be set a permaneiit valué upoa its getitle tales, coutd 
etill. in a play wbere ahepherda are ititrodueed, maktí Oüe 
of tbem — who foiind a real lifo amoDg fluuka and burda 
in rough weatber inuch Iohs agreeabte than tbe lífe he 
had road of ín the paBluraU — aaj, whcn suSeríng ia a 
Btorm, — 

Anil I tíhould líkc juHl now to ae« ttioüe inen 
Who writc snu!] tvoDkü aboai h sÜicpticrd's lifo, 
Wliere all is spring- aiid Qowers iitid treta and brooka.^ 

Still, neither Cervantes^ ñor Lope, ñor anybody elso in 

tbeir time, thong^ht seriuusíy of discouatelIrtTicing piistoi'al 
fictiüiia. Oti tbe contrary, ihere was in tbeir vory atyle — 
which wa,s generülly an ímitation of tbe Italian, tbat gave 
bírtb to them all — sometbiog attractive to a eul- iviimurity 
tívated Oastilian ear, at a time when the echool «rtí^"^ 
of GarcüasBO was at tbe height of its popularity ^t^'"' 
and favor. BesiJes tbisj the real eretits they recorded, 
and the love-storiea of persona in hig-h life thal they wero 
known to coDceal, made them sometimea riddlea aad 



meiit ; ¡uid Üic " PrlmavetiM " nf I'rsnct»- 
ci> Rinlribllil ¡le Lnbn, in Uim loug pnrtB, 

prlatfd lietwisun lliOl aEid IBli, — llii! ¿rat 
of wllicb Had InLDBlated Into ^paniab kf 
Jliun BaiU Horalca, laS9, — Iü wii.aiig tbe 

Iluth lur Lluiig tliiii; viiní farañXiií ¡n Pur- 

ligal, and ore eliU ffiA tlieiv. Bacfculii, 

Blb. Lúa., Ton. I. r. 51S, Tuíd, H, p. ÍA2. 

" UoD Üulxiit^, Pmu i. & tt, ia the 



«'iBiiiIiMtiQti of the tlbrary, There bli aloot 
iHPgs Lbat Lbe paslumln iniiy be bumt u 
ffíill as ihe bnoliB nt chlvnlrj, leat, If ber 
únele orere Gurvú oF lin|);bi-í-ri'iLntT7, he 
Ihuald ga DLiiíl SB B ■h'^í'tl'iínl ; — nnd 
Parí* II. e. e; und 73. wherH li" Ibuis ira 
Tery nlgli belat rcnIJísi. 

i.* CoDcdliu, Pivrte Vl„ Mudiiiil, 1Í15, 
+10, r. ma. B1 Ciwrdo e» iU Ciua, 
A£t. L 



BOmetimes masqueradea, whích engagef! ihe Cüliosity of 
ttiose wlio moved in the circles eitlier of thcir authors or 
of their héroes and heroines.^' But tuoee tban all, the 
glJmpBes they aflbrded üf nature and truth — such gea- 
uíiie and deep tendernese ae ia shtíwn by Montera a.yor, 
and Buch frequeut deeeriptions of natura! scenery aa 
Dcciir iu Balbnena — were, uo doubt, refreshing in a 
State of Bociety stiflFand formal as was that at tíie Spaníah 
qourt in the times of Philip the Socond and Philip th$ 
Thirdj and in the niídst of a culture rnore fonnded on 
luilitarj viituea and the spirit of knighthood than, any 
other of modero timea. Ab long, tlierefure, aa tfiis Btate 
oí thiagB contÍDued, pastoral fictions and íancies, ñlled 
wfth the dreame of a po&tical Arcadia, enjoyed a degree 
of favor íq Spain which they uever enjoyed anywhere 
elee. But when thia disappeared, they ditiappeared 
with it. 



os "Ths Dlaas of Montcmajor," ínjs Flll.i iif FigiiíroB, wcn- rtiil iieraimageB." 

Lupe de Vega, Iq Van poean^ from hls Othcn might br ulded, □□ Dik nuüinritf oí 

" Dnrolea" lUrtariy cited, (d. B,) "web a thelr iiuthi>rs, Boch as "Los Dies Ltliros da 

l&dy cil ValcDCÍH de Ttan Jqbd, E«ir Lhod, Fnrtuitii j AiDOr/' " La Clatia áa Aran- 

and he lint, made \müi her anil Üie rívur jiii:<i," ele. Bee a note □< Okanipnaiii, Bou 

E1.IJ1. imniartal. So UiB Fhillda o( Mdd- QaixuOe, Tom. YI. p. 444. 
Uítv, Úe Oiiaten oí Cervoolca, uid íhe 



CHAPTER XXXIT. 

BOMAjrCGB IN THE STrLE OF EOOüEi. — BTATE OP MANIfEES TOAT 
PBOnCCKD THEM, — MBTÍDOZA'B LAZASIlI^ KM TORMES — ATX- 
MAn's nUZ^HAN UK ALFABAUUE, WITR THB BPUKIOUS COUTINCÁ- 

TioN o¥ iT BT bátateos:*. Asn TOE tude omk bt al£I1AN. — 

fUBEZ. — ESPINEL AND HIS MARCOS DE ÜBKEGON, — TaSbz.— 
QDEVF.nO. — flÜLOKÜAh'O. — EHBIQíCEZ G-OHEí. — BaTBTAMILLO 
OVKZJLLSZ- 



, Tbelr orlgln. 



Thr next foim of proae ñctioii produced in Spaiii, and 
the one which, froin its greater tnith, has eujoyed a. more 
[neriuauciit rog-ard tbuu tbo las-l, ia- luuud iii thuse Htoríea 
tliíit have commonly cone under the ñame of 
"tales lu tno gu^to picaresvo, or taiee m tho fuijidiiim- 
style of roguea. Taken as a, clasa, they conati. ""™' 
tute a singular exhibition of charactcr, and are, in fact, as 
sepárate and national in thcir aír aa anytliing^ iu the wUole 
"bifdy of Biodern Uterature. 

Their origin is obvious, and the more so frora what is 
inoBt singular in theíi' charactcr. They epraog 
directly from the cüiidition of aome portiona of 
eoüiety io, Spaio whien they appeared ; -^ a condition, it 
should be added, which has exiated there ever since, 
and contributed to preserve for the etoriea that bear ita 
impresa no little of the favor they have always enjoyed. 
Befare speaking of them in detail, we must, therefore, 
notice the peculiar circumatances of the country, and the 
peculiar etate oí manners that gave them birth. 

The wara of the opposing races and religions, that had 
constituted ao much of the buaineaa of lifu, and so Íong 
©ngrosfied the thoiightB of mea, in Spain, had, indeed, 
nearly ceased from the time of Ferdiuand aud laabella. 
Büt the State of cLaract«r they had produced iu the 
Spaniah people had by no meaos ceaBed with them. Oq 



S6 



THE GUSTO riCARESCO AKD ITS OiíIGIN- [Perwd 



the contrary, it had been kept in tlie freslieet activity hy 
those Tast í!riterpnse& wliicli Charles the Filtli liad pusheíl 
forwarci in Italy, France, and lieimany, with Buch succesn 
ttiat tlié Spauish n&tion, alwiLys markcd hy a sangujrje en^ 
thuj^iaBnfc, liad become fully pcrsuaded that it was destined 
to achieve ati eüipire which, covering tlie whole of the 
New World and wliatever was moet desiraljle in the Oíd, 
Bhuuld gurpasa in gloiy and power tbe empire of tbe 
Csesare in tlio daya of its palmÍGBt supremacy. 

TbÍ8 maguiScéüt result was a matter of sucb geDeral 
faitb, that men of^en felt a desire to cotiíriljute their per- 
soTial exertions to aCCOmplish it. Not Oiily tbe higb 
ufíbility of Spiíin, therefore, but all cavaüera and men 
of hunor wlio sought distinction, saw, witb tbe exception 
tif places iii the civil administratiun of aHairs or in the 
Church, no road open before tbem on whieb tliey were ao 
rauch t&mpted to enter aa tliat of railitary entorprige, 
LaboriuHS occupation in tbe buKineas of COmmon life and 
practical and productive induBtry were, in consequence, 
dÍBcountonanced, or h&ld ííi couteiüpt, while the ai'miea 
were thronged, and multitndes of gentlernen and men of 
culture, like Oervantcs and Lope dé TegSj gladly sCrved 
in tbem as Btmple eoldiers. 

But large as were tbo armies of Challes the Pifth and 
Philip the Second, all whü de&ired it could not be soldiers. 
Many persons of decent conditioü, therefore, remained 
idle, becaufie they found no occupation which was not 
deemfid below thelr ranit in socíety ; while otherBj having- 
made an esperiment of railitary life snSicient to disguat 
tJiem witb ¡ts bardsbips, retqroed home unfitted for cvery- 
thing: else. Tiieee two Borte of persone formed a clasB of 
idlers tbat hung toOse iipoo eocicty in the principal ciliea 
of Spain, thriving at best by fiattery and low intrigue, 
aod Bocnetimes dríven for Subaistence to crime. Their 
number waa by no meane small. They were known and 
marked wherever they went ; and their characters, repre- 
eented with much spirit, and often with great faíthfulness, 
are stiU to be recogiiized in the proad^ starving- cavaliers 
of Mendoza and Quevedo, who BtaLfc about the etreets 
upon adveiitnre, or Crowd the antechamber of the ministOFj 



Chap. XSSIV.] THE GUSTO PICARESCO ASD ITS OEIGIN. 9^ 

aQ<I weaiy his patíence wHíh their alyect suppticatioiía for 
the meaneaí pkceB it is iii his power to bestow.' 

But Lliere was jet atiother body of persona ¡n Spaín, 
D€atty aktu to the lasÉ iii spírit, thuugh diS'ertiig from 
Ihetn íd their Qrígitiii^l pogition, wbo Sgur» no tess iu tbit» 
ipecmliur form of ÉictioTi. Tbey were ttie acLive, the 
'brewd, and thp nnsdnipMloiiB oF tbe lo-wef pofliOnS of 
society ; — meu who wero able lo perceíve that the re- 
flourcea and power of the country, witb all the adTantages 
thoy deeired to reach, were already la possession of an 
anstocratic cáete, who looked to thein for notLiDg- but a 
sincere and fiiithful- loyalty, Duriug a, long; períod, — the 
period of danger and troiible at borne, —the fidelity of 
tiús clasB had been complete and unUeeitating ; briuging 
vitli ít little feeling of wrong, aiid perbapa no sense of 
degradation ; for ^cicb men, iu sucb timCS, claitned from 
their siiperÍDre uuly protectioii, aud, receiving this, asked 
for uothÍTig else. 

At laet, however, otber pro&pQcts opened upoQ them. 
Peace camc gradually, aa the Moiors were driren ont ; and 
with it came a Bense of iudepi^udcüQce and perauoal rightB, 
which sometimes expressed itself in social restlesaneas, 
aa iü. the frequeut troubWs at the univerBitiei» ; and SDCue- 
times, ae in tbe wars of the Comuiicros, in opon rebellion. 
CüuteüLporary, too, witb thcse upward strngglea of tbe 
masBes of the people, whích were alwaya eucceasfiílly 
rebuked and repreased, carne the conquesta in America, 
pouring Buch floodB of wealtb a» thü worid had never bo- 
fore seen upon a counti-y that had for ages been one of the 
paorest and moet sufferitig iu Europe. The eaflily got 
treasufe- — which was at llrst only in the hatids of mili- 
tary adveiiturers or of ihose who had obtaíned grants of 
oUBce and territory iu the New World — wae scattered as 
lightly aa it was won, The shrewd aud unprinciphjd of 
tbe lees favored claseee aoon learued to gatLer round ita 



1 DI tb«so ponr, pronil KldKlijta, 'Sa.ia, pIíséquo ean aiipiírbia, ó, «ouie diücno luni, 

C¡<t<t, WkL a Slnirlr toucb, flfci a livlají con bnüiBia, Idla quite t^no ei rlculj'l, 

plíluri; u Le ttiiB- (hiíoi tí Tclaln in IIUS. ch«, se feaSLTu rguali It BiEiilti, iiuu b&aU- 

"Di' eiYMiri iHKhl BODD cliG hsbbluD ría U macuLii ootitra Inrn." Gd. IfrSSi 

KidIU talTJLU i nu, lli Iaco di quilla, aup* t. 10. 

TOL. iic. s a 



GUZHAN DE ALFARACHE. 



[Petíiod n. 



poBsessorB, aa ihey carne lióme with tlieir temptíng tur- 
dens, and found ready m&anB to profit by the goldea 
ehower tbat fcll do ull Bidés, with a profusicn nvLich car- 
ried aü unliealtliy actJou thmngh every ílirisíün of Bociety. 
Littie, howevcr, could be obtained by men so hurable aud 
in A poaition SO (alee, except by the arts of cuoning andj 
flattery, CuiiDÍDg and flattery, therefore, were büod caLicd 
forth among them in great abmidance, The wealth of the 
Indies was a rich compost, that broug-ht up paraaites and 
rogTies "mth other nosious weeda ; and Panl, the son of 
a barber, and nephew of a hangroaii ; Cortadillú, a young 
thief, whose father waa a villag-e tailor ■; and Littk Laza^ 
rus, who could never BOttIc Lis gGnealogy to his owu sat- 
isfactjon, becamer in the literature of theír countrj, the 
permanent representativos of their cIííbs ; — a class well 
küowü under the degrading ñame of the Cataribtraa,^ or 
the g^ayer oiic of Picaros. 

The firet íustance of a fiction founded on this átate of 
tbingB W9,s, as we have already seen, the " Lazarillo de 
iMariikt TórmoB^.' of Mendoza, wbich waa published aa 
fleTirmti, early ae 1553 ; a bold, uDflniBhod sketch of the 
Ufo of a rogne, from the very loweat coüditioa i» eociety. 
Thia was followed, forty-eis years afterwarde, by the 
Mateo " Guzman da Alfarache " of Mateo Alemán, the 

ajhmb. moBt ampie portraiture of tbe claaB to which ít 
belonga that íb to he found in Spanish literature. What 
ibduced Alemán to write it we do Hot know, ludeed, we 
fcnow littie about him, except that he wae a native of 
Seville, and wrote three or four other works of lees con- 
Bequence than thia tale ; that he was long employed iu the 
treasury department of tbe g-overnuient, and eabj-ected to 
a vesatiouB suit at law iu conseqnen-ce of it ; and that at 



S For Üese Low, Tuauboncl nCtotn^ya, or 
ÍboIliiIb ot Bttornuyj, — Ü\a CaCariieriu, — 
me unl-e, Vol. 1, pp. «8, 4ÍS, nnle. Th« 
effect of tliP we&lth of the IniJIíH in cor- 
ruptlag Lho maDníra or a¡e g]iiiDÍs1i ¡kd- 
|i]e, Diid esfveciall/ thoEe. oC Itíi; laM^Wag 

Della. íli illa rcmarkjüile distuiiirso <Pritt<D 
iu priBDQ La pereaaAe Philip IV, (4 Btrive 
(br anlriiíBal i^(ia»rcla.y, pjuJ íiDwiag- bim 



Lu» lo ettiln it. "Vare iifftemiiin! pnani- 
mua," iie 9íísb^ ^muDclmo novuní quwlKiB- 
modo pentlda^B^ muncLuin velerr^Ea ^ '^ -^ 
arlilEs^, l)i&í mea ga.ve up i^vvrylhiDg fOr 
AlDerlGAJí B^^^i — ^"^ mojiaiponte? MipBD* 
fSrtilitatl pe^uiiis et divitum dDiclhiK-''' 
Tb. CampaDeUs de Moniircbla nLTii.nlCA 
DíseuraiiB, Eá. Ebevtr, 1610, aup, Le, ppi 

no, 111. 



OflAt. XSXIV.] GU7.MAN DE ALFARACHE. 



99 



last, retiring- of bÍB own choice to prívate Ufe, he visítcd 
México in 1609, and dcvoted the remainder of Iiíh daye, 
eitlier there or in Spaiu, to letters." Ee may, at Bome 
periüd, have beeii a Boldier ; for one of hia fricnds, io a 
eulogium prefixed to the Becoad part of " Guzman de Al- 
farache," suma up his character by saying that " never 
Boldier had a poorer pui'we or a licher beaii-, or a life more 
uaquiet and fiiH of trouble, tban hís was ; and all bccauee 
he accoirnted it a grealer lioüor to be a poor philoBopher 
tifian a rich flatterer." 

But wliatever Le may have been, or whatever he may 
have Buflered, hia claíius. to be remenibered are now cen- 
tred in his "Guarnan do Alfaracho." As it has o,jij„,n j^ 
rcachcd ua, it is divided into two parts, the Gtat AiEaintiie. 
of which was publiehed at Madrid, iu 1599, Its hero, 
who anppoB-ed himBelf to be the son of a decayed and not 
Tery reputable tietkoege nierchunt established at Seville, 
escapes, as a boy, ftom his motiier, after hia father'a ruin 
and death, and plung-es into the world «pon adventwre. 
He sonn firids himaelf at Madrid, though not till h<! has 
passed through the hands of Justice ; and in that capi- 
tal undcrgocs all aorta of auficríngíj serving as a scul- 
lÍQn to 3 cook, and as a rag'g'ed errund-boy to wbomsoeTcr 
would emptoy him ; «Titila Beizing a g-ood opportunity, he 
eteaU a large Bum of money that had beeo intrusted to 
him, anii eacapea to Toledo, where he acta up for a gentle- 
man. But tliere he becotnes, i» hie tiirn, the "victim of a 
cunning' like hia owil; and^ finding hia moaey nearly gone, 



¡> AntDD^ Síb. Nova, Aitlule JUattHau» 
Alemán ; niDd Balv.l, KcpcTtorl» AmcrL- 
ntiis, ISST, Tcm, m. p. as. IToT hij 
IniLbliie nlih tbv jTDV?rDiiLaDt, s<í Nnvar- 
relé, "Vida d« Curvantes," W19, p. 411. 
He HCDu to Iiit7e bcfi) ottl irhEn Ub vcnt 
Id UnsicD ; BiDil Uún ^iltilfa de Cubito, ti 
tiií tai "J! Ilie " BuaoHplfl," 1B*B, (tItcb iu 
a ieoet, úatcii at &;t-[llc, Aprtl 20i.h, ISOT, 
froni Aleaiiui M C«rvaaUn, qí wlio» uri^lii 
OT dliADVvry re reccíw do aei-uant irhAt- 

ever, niid into whii^ IU aullinr serme to- 
haVL' ÜiniHt d11 Üie pruvcrha aiuI Hl.hiaEoeifl 
be i^uuld üdllect ¡ ^ naue, hawevtr, hü 
obocLtre tbal the curlcihu? learr-hig oí Don 
AEltilb CADnob flucIdulF tTieiD. The wbole 



Istter ii B Dotaplaint (vf AletDBu'e oiFq 
bard ronune, aaS a pKdictlQii «I IllM ■>r 
CerrapteB, miillag wUh a iJcclMratlup nf th« 
parpóse >i>f it« «rltír M go W Iloxl«o. II 
úxt nti-t leem ts m« tu t>« getiulD« ; but IF 
IC jí, le ^vcs the coup de ¡roee (o CIpn^ii- 
c!d'b GAnj^ctureB,. La híe oott^a to butb Ibe 
firBC and, eeocnd parí d1 Bja ilolxvit, 
(Parte I. c. 82, and Psrte II. o. 4,) Uiat 
Ci'rrant«3 InUodcd to sjua'i e'iiiíiMaiíly of 
tba " Ouimiui de Aifarachu i " — H eonjeí- 
ture nal l« Im saeieÁaeá, \¡ ths ivUlioiU t^ 
Curvatileg «ith «lemán nfcre A4 IVlcatllj as 
thla kikr, publlahed b; Soa ¿dcllo de 
Onetro, Implica. 



100 



GUZJtAK DE ALFARACHE. 



[Peiuop n. 



enliats for tlie Itiilian wars. Día ytar íb now on tbe wane. 
At Bai"celijT!ía, he agJiin tufiia shaipcr and tliitif. At 
Genoa and Rume, he sinka tu the loweet coiiditions of a 
Htree); begg^ar. But a cardinal picks him. iip ín the last 
ciíy ttiid makes him bis page ; a place iii which, bnt for 
hm líold iVaiids ¡iiiid tnciís, he might long havc thriveD, 
aud which at last lie leaves ¡a great distresB, froni loases 
at play, and entera the service of the French arabaaaador. 
Here the Firat Py.rteT)d9, It wa& veiy succesaful ; fa!l- 
ing in with the vices and hiimorB of tbe timea, juet as the 
loóse court of Philip the Third, aud the corriapting; iaflu- 
ences of hia favorita, the Duke of Lernia, carne to ofler a 
&ort of carnií-al lo IbUy aud vice, after the hypocrisj and 
conetraiats of the laat dark years of Philip the Second. 
Tbe Cíiizman, tberefore, withiii a tweiveracinth after it ap- 
peared, paBsed tlirough tliree editions ; and, iu Ices tban 
BLx years, as we are told, tbrough twenty-ais, besides be- 
íng traiiBlated into French and Italian.* It waB imitated, 
BpuriiM. ''00, in a Second Part by some unltnown person, 
BíMadEart, probsbly by Juan Marti, a Valencian advócate, 
who dÍBgTiised himaelf under the ñame of Mateo Luxan de 
Sayavedra, and published ¡a 1G03 what he boldly called 
& coDÉinyation of the Guzman * But íf was a baae at- 



* 1lL« flnt tbree -edltiona, Cbay4"(if Ho- 
dTiii, Karc^lsoa, uad BaragccuEt, are W4ll 
ÜDown, uid Hr« sil lí 1M>? ; bul tnuEl of 
thij nmabnin.^ thT^^^O^'lvunfj ivst iii) Oíg 
ftlLthorli; cf VH^Ld^a, iti ^ ]attcr pjvZ^eá ta 
tht Qnt eillüan of che Boccnd parE^ (Vn- 
letiut», 1W5, I2111Q4) BE. nutliorit;, b»wi>c«r, 
vbich tbVK «^HimB ao Eufllclent rtuun tn 
qvnUoD, rvniu-faiLbl? aa tbt» ¡ívrs le^ '^e.V 
d«a Mys ex|jre»3|y, ''The numtKrfTprínt' 
«& TbluiKuxcefds flitj' iliwMad, anú tbe 
HiDiIwr'Br'nipreHiora Cbat ba*e cvne U 

Bjy aiMee la tBPOty-Klx-'" If (t!b eotíjec- 
Cu^re ol Cl^menctn pi^ii^ljiíncil ^d t||e ^lu^ 
cata Lü fiíuEikJnvidí, 1 Bhoul-d thlot Cervantes 
■DGimt to riúícnlí Itila Blntuiavnl nf AIb. 
■dkd'd fríi'Dil, whvn tje miilii» T)au Qiiixabe 
tj at Ihc Bril pjirt. o( hli own hliiury, 
^'ThlPEy llirpuAjLiiri v'oloini'B at my iite h&ve 
^fQ prlnteil, nnd Ihlrl; tfmpK thlrl^ 
Uq-oiHsaa un! llhclj Ui he, irHvBTeailiaiild 
paLBtop It '" Parle ]!. c. IvL 
t lilis íODtlniíallDn, aol qalce lo laDQ u 



the SreL part of Cbe «Igüial wwk, wu 
printoil nt liikdtld, 131«, Svu, In tb^ II1IM 
Tolumc at tbtí " BibliuCecB " of AribAU. 
PKvtDaalT, ic tksd been harúlr tcuoirn in 
literarr bistivry. uní mueh evi-rlvohe^ by 
th«bi);Uni!'rnpta<^'rt''; Kl^rt, wbohad [ouoil 
Mme tcHiK» i>C fi, ntirlbutidE It tu Alennu 

llinteelf, «itü Cnh^¡d-;riiig íl a« b truc tíooai 
part d( the Oumhwi. But ihis ia ú. aiiá- 
uke. B»tb Alrmiia MinajII nnrl hiA fñcai 
TaJlea are ísp-llcll aii Ihí aultji-fil, in thetr 
cplEtli» pKñxtí to the ÜTat -ediU^ii a¡ ün 
lecand pirt ;^ Valdrá declaílng thut llLe 
authar uf tbe eontlDuatlaii in questloit wu 
" a V-alCDeiaii, wbo, falal^Oig bU oim 
naine, called blniKlC tbtea louno, ts u- 
íiraittile bimnif I» Hateo AlemiaD." Ale- 
Bi;ir iitmiíaif fuy» he wíb oblli^ed to tl-- 
■Tlie his Seeíoíi Pírt, bí'Caosi; h-! Iisrt, 
IhsTiuíli. n proaipal i¡nihiiiahirAt.|[>h "if li£i 
papera, been iobb«d naA düfrimaíi! ol Iha 
mnteTMls vit vf whieL t't btd Dilgiiially 
nagpíiKd It, TuiUr, lo bie "Blbliueo," 



CfTAp. XXXrV.] GUZMAK DE ALPABACHE. 



tempt, which, tbough not without Iit-er«ty iRerít, brought 
upou ¡ts author \he just reproaches oí Alemán, who inti- 
mates tliat bis own uimiiiacripte had been improperiy used 
iti rta cnmpoaitiiín, and t!ie juat saruasoí of Alemaii's 
friiiiid. Lilis de Valdue, wliu cspüBcd the meanoesa of tbe 
whülc fraud.* 

lu ItiOS, the geauino Second Part appeared.' It begios 
witb the life of tiuanian iu the houee ol' t!ie Freiicb ae,^a\ac 
ambaesador at Rome, wh^re he serves ia some of ^*'"^ ^"'■ 
tbe moBt disliotiorabJe cmployiaenlB to whícb the great üf 
tliat period degraded tbeir meicenury depeüdents. B«t 
his own Ibllies niid crimea cirire him away from a place 
for which hií scems t*j buve beeii in moat respecte well ñt- 
t-ed, and be go&s to Siena. At this point in bis story, it 
seems to havc occurved tw Alemaü tu attack the Sayave- 
dra who had endeavored to impose upon the world with 
ft falBe second part of the ÍJuzman. He tberelbr© intro- 
ducee a peraon who ia madc tbus to describe himself : — ~ 



Ttal. 1. p. IQB, plvE2 Btrong rensonl Tar 
mipfülng' Ib'C' siiurlsiu Sec^UiOcl Part vaa 
wilLlcu by Juan MuirU, b ValeDnlna euI- 

TOQttC. 

t Id thu edltloD o! the Fiíat l^urt, i-rlnU 
ediLLSruuuIs, in 1690, («.nd priiliiililj' ttii;rí- 
fore Ie] thr ñnt ediLlon, whích wii)t< ]irii[]U.'rL 
In l&B6,j Alemán íast hia BecDnil Piirl, niui 
aJrcnily nrltlcn, nnil vaa mude tu eml ií* 
Ibtt frue SccoDd Vari reallj- does end, irllli 
QuEmiui'B (iiiBiahnient in llie ¡jnUcyB ; — u 
ÍÉicl kriilcli canñriDa vhAt h? aftfrvnniia 
ntiil hIhidI the plurnler or til» 119. tur tbe 
tpurioKH BfcnDÜ FaK, iriilch dld not ap- 
pe»r lili 1003, tiiifl emls lo tJii? flRmc wajr. 

( Ttrre tiaa bvaa ancav cdüITiiiiIijd lu ilie 
TBduuB ■taUinii'a'Ui atiuuc ihe llirio nf tlie 
nppeanLEHJt' dÍ thcsp tum ñ<vouá PíirLB i 
lioth iKluir MDuiig thi! nimt lioiil:s In Cag- 
tJilqn liíeniture. Bnt I poetáis batli, »Dil 

Tlit lyninniii Scccnd Piiit wiUfi flral 
pr|tib<4 aC U'idrid In 160;!, triLb {h« rolliiu-- 
Ing ritl^- ^^S^i^pduL P^rtr! dt' la Vida d^l 
P^ciL^ Gñisratia de AlfELrzknhE-^ EnmpueBta 
pw Sfuti-n T^xail úe S(iyavB(lrB, Nulurul 

Veelrú lia Sfi'lila. (^-ii Lídímíh, -ta Ua- 

driaell1nlintit^litulh.!h1," 160S, iaillri,ltp, 
4117. UltMiiúe Apraiiacion ilati^il Valfnfila, 
lltyiiet B, 1002, aud jinotliüT ub VallndullLl, 
tlie Init «r Misj, lesai — tiii; LIWnSí' U 
fviDt, VallOiloUd, 1 Jiilj, IDD^ i Uiü Tusa, 



U Bept., 1903] — aní A Hunewlmit dlslo- 
ütimoaB I'c£bt« by Frantlaoo iiiiikci, la 
boakaeLkr Bad pablislierF dutod Sept. 23, 
IBüa. 

The gcnaine Benoad Part vas Hnit 
printcd 0.Í Valencia In IMSirilli the Ibh 
lowiüjt: tille ; " Sciiuuitn PoTtc de la Vliladc 
GmDiHii di' AlFariiche, Atalaya de la Vida 
humana, por Maleo Alcioaa, eu verdadtio 
autor. Y adrlrrtu ol Lclori -qU'C Is Be^nds 
PKríc que gallii HtilCB dustA na tra müj 
t:j\a eeta rocniíozCD por Uú, üirlgida," ec. 
AJio 1005, l'ali-nritt, The limosí to prinl 
ts datcd Vulenciu, S2 S^pt., IfiOS, aiid ths 
Aprnvacion, whlch, lílte the (Inl onf o( 
niB_ífi/irí 9econd Part, li given bj- Putnifl 
JrmanM de AageiinlaB, ia dniod 17 Ocl., 
10U5- ACiSLQjín, Iherefore, seems to hará 
■nhiwen lo pobliab k In ttie cllj where 
Martí llvuid, «nd in ihe maonermoat oí- 
[t'Usive hi biDí, It Is ileúicuud tu !Doa 
Juan di> Ucniloia, aart lia« n Prslfnne full or 
bttu-rneís aiioaí Che fbleui 3ecund Part and 
tUn Enurluiüry noilo? hy B! Alferen Lals de 
V^iIps, plreudy Gllid. 11 makM .Mft pp., 
l'ÜW, iirUT w)i(cS i«inii! thL- Tatla «ad a 
lAllu cpIgtUQl aai í Bi»antjti luttijei hj i 
PnrliigueM Mm Dvued Lgpe, La banor of 
I be WOTt. 

Eiieh di Uieu BeconA Fbrta promism a 
Iblrcl, whloli oereí apinatüd. 



GüZMAN DE ALFABACHE 



[p«iííoi> n. 



" He tolii me," saya Quzman, who alwajB writes in the 
Btylc of autobiograpliy, " he told me, tbat he waa an 
AndaluHian, born ín SevUIe, my own native city, Sayar 
Tedra Ijy ñame, wUh papors to show that he bolonged to 
one of the olcleat and most distinguiahed familíes amon^ 
na. Who woulá BuspCCt frauíi undír euch a fair Outsíde ? 
And jet it wae all a líe. IIc waa a Valencian. I do not 
give his true ñame, for good reaaons ; but what with his 
flowing Castilian, bis good luoke, and his agreeable maii- 
ners, it was impoesíble for me to suapect that he was a 
thief, a Bpoiige, and a chtat, ■who Isad dreased liímself up 
in peacock'e featherg only to obtain by falsehood Biich an 
ontrance into my apartmente that he could rob me of 
wltatever he liked." " 

This peraonage, his hiatory and adventuree, ftll too 
large a space iu the second part of the Gnzman ; for 
when once Alemán had scized bún, he seenied not to tire 
of inflicting puíiishment so soon aa the reader does of 
witDCBsing it, Sayavedra robe and choats Giizman early 
in this portion of the story : but afterwatds accompaniea 
biiD, ín an equivocal capacityj through Milán, Bologna, 
and G-enoa, to SpaÍQ,. wbere, p^rtly perhaps. to get rid of 
him, and partly perhapa, as CcrvantGa díd afterwards in 
the case of Don Qojxote and Avellaneda, in order to end 
his atory and prcvent hia eTiemy from continuíng it any 
íurtber, Alemán bringe his victim's life to a cióse, 

Tbe rcmainder of the book is filled with the adventnrcB 
oí" Guzman liifnHelf, wMeh are as wild and variouB as pos- 
aible. He bocnnieB a merchant at Madrid, and cheats his 
cníditors by a fraudulent bankruptcy. Ue mames, but 
his wilc diea soon ; and tben he begiiia, aa a atndent at Al- 
calá, tí) prppare himBelf for the Ohurch ; — a con8uniniaf.ion 
of wickedneHs whioh ia prevented only by hja marnage a 
Bccoiid time. His secoTid wife, however, ieavee him at 
SiM'jllc, whore he had established liimsclf, and elopes wíth 
a luvfii- tú lliuiy. After this, he is u-ducod again to abject 
poverty ; and, miable to live witb his nld, wretchedj and 
eliameless niother, he becomes major-doino to a lady of 
fortune, roba her, and íb sent to the galleya, whcre he has 

é í¡uU! U. Lib. L 1. S. 



S^^XXrV,] ODZMAM DE ai.fauache. 



103 



the good luck to reveal a comspiracy, and íñ rewarded 
with hÍB freedum and a full pardon. 

Wiíh this ftnnoiiTicemeut the eccond part abmptly ends, 
Dot without promÍBÍng a third, whicL wae uever pubüahud, 
though the aiithor, ia his Preface, saya it was alrettdy 
written. The work, thorefore, as it bas conie to ub, ía im- 
perfect. But it was notj on that aocoont, the leas favored 
and admired. On the coiitrary. it was tranelated q^^^ 
and printcd n.U over Eiirope, in French, in. Italian, »'"™"- 
iu Germati, iii Portug^ueae^ In EngHeb, íq Dutch, and evea 
in Latín : a rare success, wbose secret lies partly in the 
age whea the Guzman appeared, and etill more ¡a the 
powcr and talent of thtí authoT." The long moralizing 
dÍBcoutsea ■with wbích it abounds, written in a puré Cas- 
tiliaü style, with much quaíntneas and skillj tboagh in 
fact to UB diill, wore then adroired, and eaved it from 
ceiiBurea which it could otherwiBe hardly bave failed to 
encounter, Tbese «re, no doubt, the paseages tbat led 
Ben JotiBou to epeak of it a.B 

" The Spaoish Proteus, whích, tbongh writ 
Btit in ono ton¡_ruc, was runiied witli Üie wodd'a wit, 
Avñ liutli i}ic Doblest mnrk of a good b-ooke, 
Thal an ill man doth ngt aecun^-lf 'ioake 
Upoii ¡I ; huí will lonthe or Icl il pasSO, 
Ae a deformed face dotli a trae gla&se." '^ 

This, ho'wevúT, is not itB r^al, or at leaat not íta luain 
character. The Guzman ia chiefly curioiiB and iuteresting 
hecaufie it shows us, in the costutno of the timea, the life 
of an ingenÍQii8, MacliiavelÜan rogiie, who is never at a 
loas for an expídient i who alvvaya trcats himself and 
Bpf^aks of hímficEf as an honcat and Te8pf3Utalile man ; and 
who sometímes goca to mans and saya his prayers just he- 



9 Tbc catnaiDii blbllograpl kflra ^vn tlatf 
nr a.lJ the tnin^liitiiin?, The flrtt Eagllili 
Ifl hy Mabhe, anA ís exc^llctit, (Bw 
Wood'a AthíUH), ed. Bliiw, Twn. m. p. 
B4, ana RcL Uerícw, ToB. T. p, 189.) It 
■FBit llif[iuíh Bi leuBl fiiut winSiiiia, the 
fijiirü) bolng priDifd at tnoilon, 1060, íjlio ; 
beildea «liich Ltirm Liia biKii a iubaci]U?iit 
iKiislnClaD by ísseral rianilB, laki-ii, tuw- 
eree, 1 thlnli, Iraat Uiu Fci'ucti ur Lo Sage. 



TliB Litln irajialaUon wru by Oaspai Bm, 
aud I huTC Bccti eilkhiQa orit lelenei lo ■■ 
or 1423, lti24, atid ie&3. Eterftblnp, Id. 
deed, showj thii' íhe pnpTilar aaccrsa or 
tli« OuiiDBJi «ES ImnicaBe UnuuBbmit 

I« See thi? i^ncí prpQied to thü tnuiK 
lAtlua of lUalitH, UDia Silgned b; Ben Joo- 




GUZMAN DE ALFAEACHE, 



[Tbidod ü. 



fore he cnterñ on an extraordinapy Buhóme of rog^nery, as 
if on purpciee tu bring it yut ¡n more Kiriking aiid brilliáiit 
relief. So far from being a moral book, therefore, ít íb a 
Tery iiomoral one, and Le Sage spoke in the epirit of ¡ts 
author, tvhen, in the rt&st century. uiidertoking to give a 
new Froiicb vprsjon of ít, lie boasted that he " had purged 
it of \t& auperfluons moral reSecjtions."" 

It- hn-B, naturally, a cniíaíderable number of epÍHOdes. 
Tliat of Sayiivedra haa already beeo iioticed, aa ocísiipying 
a spfice iü the work disjiroportionate to everythirtg but 
the aiigíir of íts anthor. Anothcr — Ihe story of Oenijn 
and Damsa, which occurs early-^ie a pli?asiag Bpecimen 
of thoee halF-Moonah. hall-Chrifltian fictions that are bo 
cliaracteriatic a portion of Spaniah líteratnrc.^^ AuiJ jet 
QTiother, which is placed in Spain and in the time of the 
Great ConstabLer Alvaro de Luna^ ia, after all, aii Italiaii 
tale of Masuccío, vbgí subsequently by Btíatimtmt and 
Fletchcr in "The Little French Lawyer."" Bat, od the 
whole, the attcntion of the readcr íb iairly kept either up- 
OQ the boro or opon the long diBcusBÍonB in which the hero 
índulg'es hime^elf, and in wbích he draws stríkiug', thong-h 
not unfreqnently cxaf^gorated and burlesqne, aketches of 
all flasses of Bociety in Spaiu, as they BucceBsively paaa 
in review hefore him. At first. Alemán thought of calling 
hie work "A Beacon-light of Life." The ñame would not 
Lave been inappropriate, and it íb the quiílities implicd «n- 
dei it — the aag-acity, the knowlBdge uf lifc and charaeter, 
and the acnteneas of its reflectiona on men and manners — 
that have pieeerved for it eoraewbat of Ít9 original popu- 
larity down to our own timea. 



n Tb*fB itre fonr Tn-nch trBial«tÍonB oT 
U, beilaaiDK vith aun by CbsppulJi, in 
UW, ftnd ooining doim to tliU nt lí Siígr, 
IT33, iTliielí l&fb ttea becn piany tluiea 
nprlDM. TbH lUrá ^a IIid anter ot dotes 
wat nude iy Enanant, nhilp In prí»n la 
Hollnnd ; ^m¡, mit <ií spltu Hi;iiLnBt tlic 
ada|[L)ijtI.iniCIijDi dI jil9(!c>', rrnm wiiirh tic 
niM auiTi>rÍD)r. bu louilu bütiir biUIlIíiíqh to 
tbe oTl[riiinl wbencmr n. Jndge or a baülff 
íiiDv liiUi blB band». Bes tbe I'iBhce of 

" Porte I. Llb. L e. B. li ¡h [clited by 



Qannaiii hniiTTer, wbo Íí ranch too joQof 
to Icll Biich B elihi-y. Umny (w nntcá, «Ino, 
Ibot Ouítnan grr™B ícryauíUpiily Uhhj.u'h 
esbiU^ niftcr l^fi-ríog Kladrifl Aud befará 
reachlDg' Tiilrilo, -nblthei' lie Wtnt U Casi 
BH he eua1d lo cacap^ purduiL 

f^ Hoaumont iLod Pletcher^ eá. WeboTa 
Eilínhureh, 1B12, 8TO^ Vol. V. p. ISO. LA 
Baj^ <ftEllÜi It la hia vtraloa^ becniuD, bo 
Bayii, Scarrou had maje It one In his cal- 
1«ctlQQ of loica, It hís, in laat^ been oftea 
□icd^ BJi h&ía mnD^ othcr atoríea ni the 
nuneolABa. 



I 
I 




Tn 1605 anotlier story of the Game claas appearcd, the 
" Picara Justina," Or the Craftj Jiiatiiia, — again a seem- 
ing antob¡fjg:raphy, aml again & fictjou üf veiy doubtful 
Diorality. !t waa written by a Dotninican tDODk, Andreas 
Pérez of Leoii, who wílb ktiown, botli before and Aminwfl 
afler ita uppearaiice, aa the autlior of woi-ks of ^'■■"'■ 
Oliriatiao devotion, and whu had so far a seuse of the in- 
congruity of the Pícara Justina with his relí^üus poaition, 
tbat lie pñnted it under tbe asBumed name of Francisflo 
López de Ubeda. He claims to have written it when he 
■w-RB a stiident at the Univeraity of ¿IcaU, but admita 
that. after the appearance of the " Guzman de Alfarache," 
he made large üdditione to it. It íb, however, iu truíh, a 
mcie iniitatian, and a very poor oue, of Alemán. The 
first book Í8 filled with a tedíoua, rambling account of 
Justiiiii'a anceetora, who are barbera ati J pnppetrHhowmen ; 
and the rest Coiíaists of her own life, broug^bt duwn to the 
time üf liLT lirst niaiTJag'p, markcd by few adventurtíB, and 
ending-wHL an intímation, that, at the time of ■writmg it, 
ehe had alteady been married yet twice more ; that ehe 
was then the wife of Guzman de Alfarache ; and that sha 
Bhould continne her mem^ire etill further, ia case the pub~ 
lic should care to hear more about her, 

The Justina discovers little power of invention in the 
incidetita, which are few and unintereatiEg-. Jndeed, the 
author himseJf declares that ncarly all of them xhePtcat» 
were actual occurrencea witbin hÍ8 own esperi- Ju*""*- 
ence ; and thia circumatancG, tog^ether with the meag;re 
" improvements," aa tliey aro Called, — or waroiiiga 
agaiiiat the ÍDllies and guilt of the heroíno, with which 
^ach chapter eiids, — i& regardcd by hira as a sufficient 

tification for publishing- a work whose tendency íb ob- 
Tiously mischievous. Ñor ¡e the style better than the 
iDcidenta. There íb a constant effort to say witty and 
lirilliaTit thbngs, bnt ¡t is rarúly Buccessfwl ; and heaides 
thiSi there íb aii affectation of new words and sing-uEar 
phrasea which do not belong to the ^niua and analogies of 
the langnag-e, and which have cauBcd at leaat one Spanish 
critic tü L-cgard Pérez as the firat authür who left the Bobet 
5# 



106 



MARCOS DE OBRRGON. 



[pEtiMD n. 



and dignified style of the eider times, and, from mere car 
price, uiidertook to inveiit a iiew oue." 

But tJioug'h tíie Picam Justina" proved a failure, the 
nverwhelming popularity of " Guznian de Alfarache," 
"when added to tbat of " Lazarillo," rendefed tbis form of 
fiction 80 g'enerally wolcome iii Spaiu, that it made its way 
iiitü the diictile drjima, and into tlie etylft (>f the sfíort&r 
tales, as we have already seen when treating- of Lope de 
Vega and Cervantes, aad as w^e sliatl eee hcreaftcr when 
we come to speak of Salaa Barbadillo aud FrancÍBCo de 
Santos. Meantime, howeveT, the "Escudero Marcos de 
ObregoD " appeared ; a work which baa, on many ac- 
couiita, attracEed atteutioii, and whieh desertes to be 
remembered, as the best of ita kind in Spanish literatura, 
esíjept " Lazanllo'" and " Guzman." 

It was written by Vicente Espinel, wbo was born, prob- 
Ticent* ^'^ly 'II lóñl, at Eonda^ a romantíc town, huldlv 
jíspiDEi. built in the mountain range thítt stretciie^ tbroug'h 
the southwcBtera portioii of ths kingdotn of Granada, and 
strikinglj deecribed by hímself in one of the most happy 
of hie pnems.'^ He waa educated at Salamanca, and, 
when Lope de Vega appoai^ed as a poet befóte the pwblic, 
Espinel waa already so far advanced in hia own career, 
that the youn^ aspirant for pubüc favor submitted his 
Terses to the eritícal skill of Mh eider friend j " — a favor 



» Tb« Srst eíiiion of at " Piwm Jaa- 
tlua" li Ihbt üT Medlivii ilel Caní», KOb, 
iUi, tíate whielí tlcac U has becn úWh'ü 
prlntcd i thti txti i^lllcra Sclup; prnüali-!/ 
ttiBtot MuIrKl, n^lia, 4tn, ^dited ti7 Mu. 
jaag y ñl^var, rhn, in ii. prefatorj aottcie, 
Dinke-fl Lhe reprcacli n/ainet lia auLbor, 4h 
the oli^eat corniplrr cf íht ñjahleh pm^e 
BtylGf alluded to id the Lcxt. There \n a 
§;iwd deal of pwiry Bcnltered tUrou^ll tha 
VnlUme ; ull T6ry CDncellcil and pnor. 
EoniA of Bt Ed ía thn,b BorL of versea trmri 
which Oiü final Bjrllal.>ld ie cnt off, — Hnch 
verai^. I iDí^itli, U Cctv^iítiiñ has lurBUí'd 

La ifti ñreí ]mn qC Uou QüIxccu ; ana m 
bolh Ihftl part ftnil the " l'iíain Jaatina" 
ivcre nflgiiially publlshcd in the bsiuí 
ycsir» 1006.. sino-c qüeBÜim haa arisBc vvíUl 
Fvllicfr anij Clpinencin, tfha Ié V]i*¿ tTiVCn- 
tor at lh<:He poofi tniDoalesL VtiraeÍH I/cjÉu 
n< faul paa Ha ciaadelit. But, 6t tb« 



firet inkfC <)r Dsn CtulxatE, ee<Mrditt; to the 
TmSíi i'pfiHiiíil M It, wHí itracl: off u 
Carly iiiftha SQth nf Ueceriiber,lS04,thDiu;Ii 
llie rulL cflpjrlirlit v\w not i^imntcd I[ll tb« 
9lh cí Kthruary totloirtTi?, thp-re nan bs 
1ÍU.IG dnubt (.bul. Cerraati» WltB tbí' eu-li^b 
>s Bee t3ic"Cai]tiini iéQ Palrln," ffhích 
iS cr^Ltablí; alibe ta his T^raonoA feeüngi 
auá — with UiC i;¡ceeptlDa d{ & IfW foolíab 
«unoiite— to bitl pLFCCÍínl ChMI^ter, Pl- 

T^F^sie BitmiB de V. Bejiliiel, Madrtii, IBDi, 
12MCI, r. ^. But Enplccl KciBB. ncT U be 
whally rvreolt¿n la the tiit; ílckI TielglLbiir- 
faoDd lie Bc mual] Jqrsd. An EnRllBb e^h- 
tlein«t9 In liW Aiktd lliece dLliirSDtlT t<?r 
his Mnrcu -li: übrcijaB, and lhe psnpte dld 
DDt IzcDir nliether b« VBnt«4 " a moa oí b 
iMnk." W- O. CUrke, G&r.pacho, Lnndon, 

ISoU, p. ]1»9. 

II £Aptiivl'« dWu Pni]«eD t4 " Ubtm) de 
OSiegon." 



Cme. 5XXT7.] MARCOS DE OÜEEGON. 



lOT 



P 



whicli Lope afiei'wards rcturaed by praíscs in " The Laurel 
of Apollo," mure hcartfc-lt and cftcctive than he lüía usiiaU 
ly giveu in tliat indiacrimmate eulug-ium of tbe poete of 
bis time.'" 

What was tho course of EapiíiGl'B Ufe we do not know. 
It haa generally been supposed that many of its events 
are related ia hia " Marc-os de Obregon ; " Lut Mm^c^ae 
though thia is probable, and tbough some parta í"">B"n- 
of that Btory are evidently true, yet maay othere are as 
evidcntly fictioiiB, bo that, on the whole, we are bound to 
regard it as a ryjnance, and not as an autobiography. We 
know, however, that E^piners life in Italy was mach like 
that of bis hero ; that iic was a &L>ldier iu Flaudei'B ; tbat 
he wrote Latín vorses , that he published a volume of Oas- 
tiliaii poetry ín 1591 ; and that he was a chaplam in 
Eonda, though he lived mucb in Madrid, and at laet died 
there. He was regardcd as the author of the forra of 
vereo called eoraetimes décimas, and eometiraes, after him- 
self, Ef!pi/ielas ¡ and lie is said tu have added & fil'th &lnng 
to the guitar, whích Boon. led to the invention of the 
eixth, and ihiis completéd that truly uatíonal inetruraent,"* 
He dieJ, accordirig to Aritoniü, in 1634 ; but accordíng to 
Lope de Vega, he was not aüvc in 1630. AII accounte, 
however, represent him ae. having lived to a great age," 
and oñ haTing- paased the latter part of his tife in poverty 
atid in mifriendty relatioiie witíi Cervantes; — a fiict the 
more observable, becauao botb of them cnjoyed penáions 
from the satine distint^uislied ccclesiastic, the Jtindly oíd 
Archbiahop of Toledo.^ 

Tho "Escudero Marcos de Obrog-on " waa ñrat piib- 
lislied in 1618, aud thercfore appeared in the oíd age of its 
author,^ He preseats hia hero, at once, as a peraon 



"■ End o( the Brel *Ütta Iq the " I«u- 
nl de A[)o]d," wblcb HUÍ piLbliabed ¡n 
1630, 

i-' Lnpc de Vci^ Dorotea, Acto I. So. 8. 
36 HnTeninañOi TlTlll*, 

Hwlle ti'dbtSi-i-fic. pucoeictlhltlí,— 
nyg Lipe, In ilin "Lniirel." Bul thia 
niuC br b mlaluVo, If Nat-arrete U right 
Iu itlriag ihc bapUím ot Espioet i>n Ule 
SaUl ot Dncmber, lASl. sée StbilaUoa 



de AnWres RapiSoleB, Tiiin. XSXm., 
1SS4, p. Iexv. ddüc %, 

>■ Sslas Enrbadllla, KbUíbUi ilel Dlm 
MoraOj 1827, Ikillcadan. NafarccU;, Tfi!». 
de C«rTBates, 1B19, 3va, irp. 17B, 449. 

21 Ilio tmst tíi\.úf>a is dsdlpnli'il lo tis 
patEon, Ihí Aiwhblíhnp o( Tí.leilo, wlrjBe 
daily ptnslon lo him, howeTer, tnai/ liiive 
icall baepuHlleil " sIdib" — Jíin<«nij— bj a*. 
líiA Borbodllli). OLberedt'tloTisibllqn'eiI, uut 



108 



MARCOS DE OPIÍÍGOX. 



[Pkuioo 11 



already past tlie luíilille years of life ; oue of tlie fisriujrea 
oí dames, ivbo, at ihut pentiU, were persoiiages of hiimbler 
preteusious and j^^raver character lliaii tlioeewho, with the 
same title, had followed the men-atrarms of old.*^ The 
Btory of Marcos, however, though it opens upon na, at 
firet, with ecenee la-ter ia bis lüe, soon retuma to Lie 
youth, and nearly the whule volume is mude up of hia 
own accüUDt of bis adventures, ns he relaled them tü a 
hermit wbom he had kuown. when he was a soldier ¡n 
Flandere and Italy, aud at whose cell be was now accideu- 
tally detained by a etorm and floüd, while ou an eicursioa 
from Madrid. 

In maoy paiticalai'B bis bist&ry reserables tbat of his 
predccesfior, Guzmaii de Alfarachc. It is tbe atory of a 
youtb wbo left, hie Jktbor's Iiousg to aeek his íoiluce ; be- 
came first a studcnt, atid afterwards a soldier; vÍBÍted 
Italy ; wae a captive in Algiers ; travelled over a large 
part uf Spain : and after going" througb a great Tariety of 
dangers and tríala, iutríguea, füllies, atid crimes, sits down 
quietly En bis oíd age to give an accomit of thena, all, with 
an air aa grave and Solf-satisfied as if the groater part of 
tbem had not been of tlie moBt díscreditabCe cbaracter. 
It cont.ainS a niodefate number of wearisome, ■well-wril.teii 
moral reflectione, iutendcd to retider ita record of tricks, 
fraudR, and critnes more sauory to the readei' by contrast ; 
but tbough it falls below hotb the " Gruzraan de Alfarache " 
aiid the '" Lasarillo " in the beanty and spirit of ita etyle, 
it ha$ more hfe in its action than eithcr of tbem, and the 



" Hai'cos " has contlauefl lo be reprlnLeá 
anil r«ad iii Spatn rtawti to out own times. 
Id Liiiitlen, a goud Bngliab IranBlatHon ot 
it, by MíJ'ir Algtruun lanalDU, wiia pub- 
llihüil In IBIO, !□ twD voluEuea, 8vo ; anl 
In Brcslan, in 1I82T, thcte «ppitarBd a víry 
•plrilad, but írirEiiliat {nv, tmiislaLion 
Inlo Qi-rman, by Tlpcb, In tuo volutnei, 
ÍSoío, nltb B valnable PrcfBCd and gMxl 
notti. The oiiginal |g on the Index oí 
IWT lot eipuruBlioTi. Tln> fint eilitinn 
troB prloled tiy Jobji de Is Cutuita, wha, 
tbe annie fiiír, lOlB, pabliibed bd mllUon 
of clm Secodd PmtL of Lojje lIü "Vtga'fl 
Coraeilíat, In Itie PrtíiKB lo which be 
laji- be potd ^{linel b baiidr«d |,'rild 



ccoiTOB for the Morcos da Obre|rna j Liit 
that he liad suñered miicli In the wde ot 
ttanl., Ihe Aniu4!nna, and Dtbcr bmke Uist 
he enum* ratee, bj the rejirlota of plrittcal 
boulcaellcrs. 

*• The Kicudera ¡itiiie plays acd norel» 
ot the leveuleFtith ceitliiiy is wballf áih 
ferent from Üib Eirruilífu cf fhc romiuicí-s 
uf chiTBilry of the sLíicenlli. CoTnrrublaa, 
in iierb., well rieBcrSbca both aorta, Bdd- 
!ng," Now-a-dayí "' P1611) " «squlií» ara 
chleflf uacd hy ladlen, but men wbo tava 
aujthliia te Uíe opun preler Ui keep at 
homo ; fur us eequlrea ihtj earn llttle^ jLnd 
bsTe k hard B«rvLce o( IV. 



e. XIXIV.] ALONSO MOZO DE MUCHOS AMOS. 



lOií 



series oí' its cvcnts is carríed on mtli greater rapidiEj and 
liroug^ht to a more reg-utar couclusioa.^ 

Ten ycars later, anotlier roraancti of the sama sort ap- 
peared. It waa by Yanca y Rivera, a phyaician v^jj^y 
of Segovia ; who, aa if on purpose to show the kí'*™. 
Tarietyof his talont, published two works oij íacetic devo- 
tioii, as well as this pisaresque romance : all oF them 
remoto from the cares and stmíies of bis regular profes^ 
BÍciii. He calis tis etory " AIodso, the Servant oí Matiy 
Mustera" ; and the ñame is a sort of índex to its Aicuan 
cüiit-ents. Für it ia a liiatory oí the adveiitures í!n"'¿M 
of its hcrOj Alonso, in the service, first of a mil- ■*■""»• 
itaiy üfficRT, theii of a sacristán, and afterwards of a gcn- 
tleman, of a lawyor, and of not a few othera, who 
Lappencd to be willing to eiuploy him ; and it is, in fact, 
neither more ñor lesa than a ¿atire on the different ordiírs 
and conditions of eociely, aa he atiidiee them aU iu the 
hoTiees of his difierent mastera, It íb evidcntly written 
with eiperiouce of the world, and ita Gastihan atylc is 
good ; but tíoiuething' of its spirít ia dimiuiahed by the 
circumsliLUce, ttiat it ia throwii into the furm of a dialogue, 
and thut it iiiuch reaemblea the Mareos de Obret,^ou. 



GBilonsIlf a guod dcul tUacntied, "itoíb hy 
tbim whu hiivi' retul [I xuá thoüu Hbo 

■D¡ii>i>Kd Ln liHir^ Bivio ul il hi tlia Clidi- 
petiüíni of 011 Ulas. The cliarite wiíí flrgt 
■nnDUEcecl hy Vcltalre, who hall persunuJ 
ruaoDi I» ii<t1IV.B he Sage, oiul wlici, In lili 
" Slíclf de Imql» KIV.," (ITfta,) anirt, bolü- 
ly «wush, lliHl "TliB <ill niftí lí uken en- 
Üre\y tnrní the ai>aol«li. nunanueí-otltiíd 'la 
VU*d de In E«a"llL'rfiIiHHii Mureo* d'Obni- 
g-o,''' ((Kurres, wl. BeBiim«.peh4Us, Paris, 
niS, 8*«, Toro. XX. p. Iñb.) IHI* ie one 
oí Ihr" rprasíli" Vultjilm someiimi'a hnianl- 
e<l wátb llttJtf knon'leilge of Ih'í^ maUer bi! 
was ilCauuHlnR, »tiii 1[ la nol trae. Tbdt 
Le Sugt tiAil seeD ibe " MarcoB ile Ohrt> 
goii '^ there cno he isd dnabL | nnd ñame 
tb&t he. made Bfinie UfiF? oí it íd the cidid* 
paaittoQ o( the Oil Bine. Tilia is appBreiit 
Bt iiBce by tht abirj whleti coiiBtltutti iti 
Prtfftoe., DDd nhlcb I) U¡iii-n Hmm n limlísr 
aCorj In the Pr ilugci to tti* Spanlah ro- 
tnnncP ; iinil H !> n(f leaa plain (reqiurtitly 
sltürM-Didii, la Ibe liulj of Ihe irork, wbüre 



the trkJc playea im thu vanllj-íif fll1 Bla», 
DB ho U notag 1(1 HaUmmica, (Llb. t. o, 3,) 
is Buhatao Lliillj the BajDe w\l\i Ihnt plojr-d 
™ ílarCM, [RkIícIdu L Dbbü. B.) — whi;rB 
the Btcriea of CiimillB (011 filus, Lir. L c. 
10, Mun-ns, Ed. in. íh^c. S) nai oí Mct- 
RellÍDn (01! SluD, LíVl n. c r, Monroi, 
Bel. I, ñeMt. 3), vlth manj otber matten 
□r ks9 mnicquenbe, corroBpaDd ■□ a mnn- 
ner iiiit to be inlatvlirn. But tbis «'u the 
wiiy vllh Lg Sagv, «bu has utrd Eiteirii- 
iiI[1li GniittÜEi, GuwHra, Roxu, Áii-tnaLo 
&e Mcndooi, atiilí othm, «itb no tnan 
cerumwiy. He «c^tnoil, too, to cacB mrj 
Ultle AÍxtal con ees I mu nCr for une or Iba 
fwrsuiiBgi'S In I1I3 fíll BIilb I:í citllEd Harón 
de Obregon. But ihe Idea, that the 011 
Ble» waa laktit fiiliritjy rrtJtn tha MaKtn 
lie Obrt^QD of Eaplael,, frr waa rery acrfl- 
QmT^ fiihiltbt^l 10 thBt Bork, íb bb abaurü 
HB VeLlAlre^B mude of B|>e11!ln^ the Lkle of 
Ihe bonk, vb^ch PTiíloutlj^ lie bad oerer 
aeen., and of wlikh hr> couM evi>a hura 
heard serj llttlB. Sre tht! nexi Ptriod, 
Cliiip. rV., ¡iol<^ on Pither bliu 



CASTILLO aOLORZANO. 



[pEHifiD n. 



CsBtlINt 



When Tañez piiblíshísd the firet part, in 1624, lie eaid that 
he had already been 9 practiRÍng- physician twcnty-eia 
years, and tíiat he shoutil print notliiiig; more, uDlesa it 
related to Ihe profcasion he followed, Blia succesa, how- 
ever, witli hia Alonso was too tempting. He printed, in 
1626, a BOCond pai-t of ¡t, coittaining his hero'e adventures 
among Üie Gypsiea and in Algerine captivity, and died in 

Queveáo'a *' Paul the Sharper," whích we hiíve already 
notíced, was piiblished the year after Tañez had completed 
hís atory, and did much to extend the favor with which 
works of tilia anrt were received. Castillo Solor- 
zano, thercforc, well known at the time as n 
writcr of popular tales and dramas^ vcnturod to follow 
him, but with lesa good fortune. Uis " Earpies of Ma- 
drid," fonr tales of four iutii^uing- waraen, who plunder 
creníulous men, appe¡ired ín IBSl ; his " Teresa, the Cbild 
nf Tricka," was publiflhed in 1632, ^nd was eucceedcd 
immediatcly by " Tlie Gradúate in Praude,'* of which a 
continnation appeared in 1634, onder the whimsical title 
of " The Seville Weaael, or a Hook to Catch Pnrsee," 
This laat, which Í8 an account of the adventuree of the 
G-rad líate 's daughter, proved, though it waa never finished, 
tJje raost popular of Solorzano'e worka, and has not only 
been often reprinted, but was early translated into Fretich, 
and gained a leputatiou in Europo g;CDeral1y. All foar, 
however, are lesa strictly picaresque talos than the similar 
fictions that had preceded th^m ; — not that thej are 



^ Tlie aniat ot tbla untliar ía une uf Uie 
bknny Ihot occur In Spacilitb HlFTA-tnri; and 
Matoiy, wllEtc tí ia dWcult to detErnilnB 
nblob piui.i>f it aboold be aivrl to ijcslg- 
cnte Ita uirner. Thf uliule nf It Id Qe- 
ranjmo de Alcnlá YufuTS y Bivijra ¡ aoH, 
no ¿ov,hl¡ li.[n pprei>ii&l ucqnalTitaDcea iaev 
him Olí "-Iloctor Oeronjoo»," or "Doclor 
Qfrilnjnia de Álcali." In tbf Index io 
Antonio's DIb. Suvji, he li ploMd nudor 
Alcalá i hiit BB llitTt natne imly ImpUed, T 
presuToe, llial lio bafl gtudlcJ !n AIcslS, 
I hHTB prtfcrred tii c«U Mni Yañei y Rl- 
yeíM-i Ü\e flrflt being hia Tathtr^a iiaiiit Fbiid 
(he Be^nod hía iD^'Eher^a ; aad I nieuüon 
tbe clrcuiDiiUiUce nnl^ brcauBf It ia a 



ilifQcnltT nhlch occiin Iq CDonji caaci of 
Ihe SEDie lart. uní Bhnnld lie noliceá oaca 
for aU. TEi« tilla of lila rainiince \t " Aluu- 
nn Moi^D ñ*2 Mucbm Amo^^* nnd tbe flrat 
part ITHS first print«d iit Mailrii], In W!A ^ 
\iwl my cnpy u of ILe editiun of B^reeloua, 
1S2Í) VtsDK, ahnniag that it uas «ell re> 
Eardc-dl !n lia tiene, uid moq came toa. 
Kcnnd editlüD. Mnnj Tillttans Iibvp Tieen 
pubhahcd alnce ; saraftlmcti., liki; Ihat oi 
Mivlrid, 1804, 2 ic^m, IJnio, witti Ihe title 
*r "ni Pi.ioailri IlaliJaikir," or Ths Talks- 
llvf Liij'-H rutilar, Lli»l liBÍog the cbamcwr ' 
in wliiíh the hero ti-lla bifl story. líajii!i 
y RlTern KaH bum \a 1503. 



XXXTV,] 



m 



wautiiig in coarse sketchíB nf life üdií caricaturcB as broad 
as aiiy in Guzman, but that romaritic talca, ballads, aud 
«ven farces, or parta of dramas, are introdiECed, ahowiug 
that tbis forra of romance was hecoming mingled with 
úthere mora pOiCtical!, \í tiot more true to the cofltiitiou ul' 
mannera and Bociety at the tírae."^ 

Aoathec prúof of this. change ie to be fonnd m " The 
Pythag'oric Age " of Enriques G-omez, first pul> Kori^acj 
liahcd in 1644; a book of little valué, which t^^iata. 
tokes tlie oíd doctrÍDo of traasmigratioD a» the means of 
introducirig a succesBÍou of pictures lo serve as subjccls 
for its sátira. It begins with a poem in irregular verse, 
describing the existcnctj of the sonl, first in the body of 
ao ambitious man ; then íd that of a elanderer aud iji- 
fonner, a coquctto, a minister of Btate, and a favorita ; 
and it ■eiida with aimilar fikctciiea, half in poetry and balf 
in prose, of a küight, a echemer, and othera. But in tlie 
ínsdille of the book atands "The Life of Don G-regorio 
Guadaña," in prose, which \& a tale ín direct ímitatiou of 
Qiievedo and Alemán, sometimos aa free and coarse as 
theirB are, but generally not oSeudiu^ agaiust the propri- 
etiea of life ; and occasionally, as iu the seenes duricig a 
jooruey and iii the town of Oarraona, pleaaant and inter- 
eating, becau&e it evidently gives hb Bketches'from the 
anthor's owu experience. Like the reat of its class, it 13 
moet succesafuL when it deals with Buch realiticB, and 
least su whon ít wandera off into tlie regióos of poetry 
and fiction.^* 



" Aknio do Cnatilln Solor^Bina Kbiñs to 
IwfcTe hjíñ Éiia ^rcüttat íucccbí bttrfrfü 
Ift24 iiDLl 1M9, anil 1<aa at ont tímí in th« 
Hrvlce nf VvíIto F4i3snla, Ihú UAíigUb OT 
Velra, wTio irna Cnplnin-Sílicrill at Valen- 
Dia. ThtTV \i un eilitiún 4f tbe " H^plOB 
dt Miidríi! f tloílie dp felafna " of Itffll ¡ 
aneontn^" Ñliiatle liia Jímbu?Le»"' lus-iarly 
aa 1332 1 and nnf at Üa: " GnrliiHOi dv Se- 
Tlllm"lDlfiM; aÜDrahlrhlhsTB. But, 
cjocpl the ífw hlnlB oonCCTnlii^ tíielr au- 
thiir to he «nllierud from IIib tilles naá 
piefeco» M his slurlcs, md. the mciigre but 
Mo liiuiliitary ii^tlc» hi l^ipt du Vega'a 
"Lauítel de Apula," SllraVILL, and An- 
lonln, Blb. Nuva, Tom. L p. IB, wc kiiow 
Uttlc el hím. Be socErs nt citiciímo na 



one [mee of hli " Ulna dr 1d« Embiutes," 
aiul f»Lln JutQ It (irii the next. 

»"B1 Siglo PItaEírico y In VlJn de 
Don Grcgfl'rlu Guadaña," raa nrittcn tj- 
AbtirnLa Gnrlqitpc Gómez, a Piirtu^^se by 
d»icEnlf «hn wna edui^ai^d in CaaLile, unA 
lired muiib io Fnince, wh-ere aL-veral nf hÍEi 
purkü K-crv firaL |jrii]lH?d. TI'Lfl eaKii^at 
ediLíun crf the '" SIkIo Piliíg .rica " l&duteiL 
Riiuc», Ifl-H, bu! Lhr one I uac iñ ní Bni*- 
bpIb, 1T27, iii -llij. Tlierc io a, qoIÍcb nf tlin 
Mtb ol flnincí lii IJArhnBJv Tum. 1. |i. S97, 
and nn exaiD^iiai-lrin oí hii vrorhn \a AiEiü- 
dar !)d 1o»Kioa, "Judíos di; Emuím, " lS4a, 
pp. £49, eto. Be waa or a JcwliU Portu- 
gaeae Family, uid Barlnisa laya Lo win 
bum In Portugal, but AiaiLdor dv loa Rlini 



ESTEVANtLLO GONZÁLEZ. 



[Pei:eod II, 



But the work wiiich moat plttinlj' shows tlie coaditíoD 
of aucial lite that produced íill thcse tales, if not the work 
that beat exLibits thcir charíLcter, is " The Life of Eeteva- 
Esievnninu "'""^ GoDzalez," wiiich appeared i» 1646. It is 
OnniHiiii. iiiQ autobiographj of a bufloQu, wlio was loog in, 
thfi scm'ce of Ottavio Piccoloraini, the gi-cat general of 
the Thirty Yeara' war ; but it is an autobiograplij eo fvR 
of fitítitm, thitt Le Sa¿;e, bíxIj- years after ils appearanco, 
ea3Íly chíinged it into a mere roraauce, whicli has contin- 
ued to be repiiblished as sucb with hie worts ever since.^ 

Buth in the original and ín tbe French tranalation, it ii 
called " The Lífu and Actüevements of EstcTaulUo Gonzst- 



tayí he i«hs bnni ¡n S^iOViih. Thllt he 
Tfüounmd the Chíl#Ü*íi fetlelon, whlcb 
hLi Inlliur hhi a^uplcfl, tli&C Ae tted lo 
Francc^ in 1S3S, and uncTvaTds ta OulLond, 
and thaS. he «HA liiirDi m eSlay i>S the 
ToqulBÍtinn iii IHED, ai^ tBCE9 nat dDuhtvíl. 
Bill íiiuniAh Jlikllic nua Eorlqu'yf: de Pus ; 
and ¡D Mía PrtTe.ca 11 hia " B^Dsqa tina- 
tvtiv " hii jLyca D iJil 4Í lila putiliBbed 
vorlíB. 

»r " Villa j Hech?l ie EBKTaElllo Qod- 
■ aira, Uiiuilüre de Bueu IlumDf, CliQiilllíBtd 
pLir el mÍBQBrí," wiiicEi baa ^omtllüicri bi^i;u 
DUribdttd tPi Oiii^Vara, the HUtliiir uf Ihe 
■^líiablu Cojinjlni" wns pr¡ntu(4 Bt Aut- 
werp i» lúM, and at Mairid Id 1852, 
TThelher üierv \s nnj eililiíiii bftweCn thífla 
KDil tbe onc of ]T(I£, Mii<lriJ, 2 tara. IStUO, 
1 du Tiot knciw. ^h£ rifaciniRnia o[ Lg 
finge ap|>nired, I bdlBVB, taf tLe fiflt time 
in 170". 

AcDÜiGr nork, connfCtM wilh llie StAtS 
Df nocict; thal piodílced Esld mullid, ftlid 
lUnsinitinf that ttnn^ «tury, Bhiiulil uut 
be nholly ra*»t:d "íiir. It la entiUrf " Ln 
Tilla lIüI Fnlan Huiicio de PortuBnlj Alnciso 
Ver™ lie Smii'cdni." My coiiy of it, witli- 
Dut diBtf üM th& tlLk-pD^k Beema to hnr^ 
bcen pnnted ln ITSfl, but Ihe nrlginal atcry 
CDiina ítaai a MB. ar th-c Üws üt rbllí]] Qi 
in thfl BacurÍBkl. It Lb th.e aiiüntiin^mpliy^ 
penulTii: ar pretended, of a brillíJLnt rngue 
of ineAli orlgiu, Vh-i^, darinic tEit; relian oí 
Charitfl V., Üy n. SÍ!Yi«t al luckj aiÍTBn- 

tsr««, rute high. entiugh t» t}« able tn t3í«- 

HDt falmM'ir ít thO CdUrC úF PilrtUgft! U 
Papal Nunclr-, — then <ius ¡¡t the grrat dia- 
cltles uf Cbr];teiidoiD. — and, es h': prc- 
lends, lo e&Libiiih the Inqulaltlon lii Uiol 
kln^dom iu 1639. Tracea id thla forbn' 



gnese Bd7<iiitiiRr can bs Einmd ln kneim 
biBtury ^ f^ back iu QucaiLa de JllesoM, 
whv, in Lie " Hiaturia i'nntlllcil," 1&74, 
nlnliua 1t ¡u un cccurnuce qí Lia «-wn tiíac 
whkb hs bvlicTEd, addinK ni Suav^dra 
IMntoiiulI]^, '" I ¡nw hLm onernimlf rarnag 
!□ hLe ÍIs^iisIj^'b Eallsy^i wbíru be rvmaiiicJ 
■nhuy rea»-" L\ii9 du FanuDv-iLlsn [ded- 
Iltins tile lamc ilvry ln ISOB, and fsdrs de 
Saluar ln 161)3 1 — ss that ibere eaa be no 
doabt thcr-í vu a b-dhímFdI inipv«h>r «f 
th-BiiHiriBof SaaiVedra U'bih liv«d ln the ticad 
oí VAinñíñ V. nnd Pbili[> II. But Fc^ ti, 
in liÍB"TeHtmOrltio<>," CTuni. VI, Ilii-C.llí., 
Brst prinled Id 1734,) nlac LeaVIM no doubt 
tbat B4> edugL of tíís tsl': aU relülta lo Lha 
BBtBUlisliEDGnL cí tbi; iDqnEBÍtl'jra ¡d Por- 
tug^ íb a Qctian- WbeLlker llilfl üurlnus 
piece Qf Ekuti>bio£rapÍLy uraa ñrst prínttd Id 
the precise farm in whlcb Wd nc^Tí huve it, 
1 da niit knaw, bat I baVb tWo úcpled ot a 
pía? viitb í\iñ BBine lltle, " ISI FalM üaniíla 
de Portaial," contalnlng AübPtanlially tha 
aaiae Btury, — ohe; irltbout rInW, and tba 
olber ptinlcd lo 1769,— ^whloh seemn la 
Imvc li[u5 a conalrierable rof^B ln the cailj- 
port of Iho plgliteenth ccntury, and ^ 
nithcr Iban tlio prose díütqIííb — to bava 
pntvnked tüi&^tlcal an^r of Yejy-a^ 

I llave HlrewJy noliced (ottíf, Chop. 
XSIX. imtf! laj '* The Paatry CoofcnrMad' 
Henil" — whn (nlíin in tTia tlniE of Philip 
II.) waa hanged forpasBing Eiimself nlT ea 
KÁng BcbaetlnTi of Portugali and^ libe tba 
Fu.1q,«- NuDcln, hod & plnj made nbnut bim. 

Bolh Rrt corEoaH and even Impnrtiint ta 
ilB, bi:G4LnEH; Itiej Bboír aüme of tbe elementa 
of n slute of jricicly whiüli jfive blrth t4 
thi> Ouuito Picaresco ln rninanlln ñctlno, 
Budjaeti^ll. 



Chap. XXXIV.] ESTEVANILLO GONZÁLEZ. H3 

lez, the Good-natured Fellow," and gives an account of 
his travels all over Europe, and of his adveatures as 
oourier, cook, and valet of the different diatinguished 
masters whom he at diflerent times served, from the king 
of Foland down to the Duke of Ossuna. Nothing caá 
exceed the coohiess with which he ezhibits himself as a 
liar by profession, a conetitutioDal coward, and an accom- 
plished cheat, whenever he can thus render his story more 
amusíng ; — but then, on the other hand, he is not with- 
out learning, writes gay verses, and gives os sketches of 
his times and of the great men to whom he was sncces- 
sively attached, that are anything but dull. His life, 
indeed, would be worth reading, if it were only to com- 
pare his account of the battie of Nordlingen with that in 
De Foe's " Cavalier," and his drawing of Ottavio Pieco- 
lomini with the stately portrait of the same personage in 
Schiller's " Wallenstein." Ita faults, on the other hand, 
are a vain display of his knowledge ; occaaional attempta 
at grandeur and eloquence of styte, which never succeed ; 
and numberlesa intolerable puns. But it shows diatinctly, 
what we have already noticed, that the whole class of 
fictions to which it belongs bad its foundation in the mao' 
ners and society of Spain at the period when they 
appeared, and that to this they owed, not only their suc- 
cees at borne, in the age of Philip the Third and Philip the 
Fourth, but that succesa abroad which subsequently pro- 
duced the 6il Blas of Le Sage, — an imitation more 
brílüant than any of the origináis it followed. 



CHÁPTER SXSV. 

BERianB J.ND HISTOUrOAL HOMASGEB. JUAN I>B FLORES, KBIITOBO^ 

LU/IS'DAIIO, COKÍREHAB, HITA AHU THE WAItB OP GEANABA, 
FLBUETOA'IB, MOYUE.VE, CÉSMÍD.EB, tiCRVA-MEB, LAMAHOA, TALI 

DAKES, TKXADA, LOZANO, FAILUItt; OF THSS FORM OF FlCTlí 

tu ñTA.iW. 



Ir Tras inevitable that grave flction Buited to the 
changad times ehould appear in Spaiu, as well as Sctlun 
fniauded on the eatire of prevalent mannera. But there 
were obstaclea m ita way, and it came late. The oíd 
chroiiicles, bo full of the same romantic spirit, and the 
mOrc interefiting becaiifie they wcre sometimea liiñlt up 
out of the ulder and lotiger-loved hulLads ; the cid bailada 
thGinaelveB, still oftener made out of the chTODÍclfiB ; the 
romances of chivalry, which Lad not yet loat a popularity 
that, at the preaCnt day, Seema ncarly inCredible ; — -all 
contributed, in their respective proportioiiB, to Batiefy the 
demand tbi' bookií of arauaement, and to represa the ap- 
pearance and limit the sliccsbis of serious and historiual 
fiction. Biit it waB inevitable that it ahould come, even 
if it should wíd littie favor, 

We havo alroady noticed the attcmpts to introduce it, 
made ¡n the tíise of Feí-diaaud and leabelU, by 
Diego de San Pedro aud bia ímítator, tbe anoriy- 
inmiB aiithor of " The Questicín of Love."' 
Others followed, ia the reig-n of Charles the Fifth. The 
Gtnry, that very imperfectly connecta the diaciissiona be- 
tween " Aurelio and Itíabella," on the inquiry whether 
man «;ive3 moTS occasion for sin to woman, or iroman to 
nun, ia oue of thcm. It ia a sltght and meagre fiction, 
by Juan de Florea, which dates aa fai- back aa l52l, and 
which, iti un early Bnglish translation, was at one tiiM 



Earllest 



Oh*p. XXXV-] VABIOÜS GRAVE ROMANCES. 



116 



thought to have furnishcd hÍTÍts for Shafcespeare's " Tem- 
pest."* "The Lotcb of Clareo and Florisea," published 
in 1552, by Nuñea de líetnosu, at Venice, where he theo 
lived, ia anothcr ; — íi fietinn parlly íilleg'orica!, partly sen- 
timentat, and partly in tlie manner of the romances of 
chivalry, but of no valnc for the invention of its incidents, 
and of Tcry líttle for ita etyltí,^ Tbe story of " Luxindavo 
and Medniahitt," printed as early as 1553, whichj in the 
mid^t of eiictutitments and allegoiies, preserves the tone 
and air of a seríea of coinplainta agoiiiet love, and enda 
tragically with the dcath úf Luziodaro, is yet a third of 
theae cvude aLterapÍB ; * — all of which are uf conseqaence 
only becaijHG they led the way to hetter thíngs. Biit ex- 
cepting; those and two or three more trifles of the Bame 
kiüd, and of even tesa valué, the reign of CharloB the 
Fifth, Bo far as grave fictiun was concerned, was entirely 
given up to the romancea of chivalry.'' 

In the reigTi of PUílip the Secoad, when the Üterattire 
of the conntry bogan to develop itself on all BÍdea, aeriona 
roftiftnces appeared in bettec forme, or at least with hig'hec 
pretensions and attrihutes. Two ínstances of attempta in 
new directions, and with more coDBiderable suctess, pre- 
sent themeelvea at once. 

"The firat was by Hi-erónirao de ContrerM, atid beare the 
afiected title of " A Thicket of Adventures." It wae pub- 



1 I fenitr Dnij lli« cdicioo nT Antirerp, 
IMS, I2nn>, buE tb«re are bototAiI aChcr?. 
Lowndn, Bfa, Unnual, Anide jlitrili<¡, 
sad Hal'ihbE''a 8h&kc«puir«, b; Uoairell, 
VoU XV. 

1 '■ niH^iHit lío \'íñ AtBüevt d€ Clarea t 
WiDñie», pcif A1«Bao Nuñu de B«íddIo," 
Tenecln, líM, «p"""^' lü thii thinl ToI- 
IUIL9 Df A-rlUau'i. Il!'bllú(£e&, ISU. Tbe 
anchor La said b; Antonio lo tiavii bNii n 
DftClTe <tr OuadMaxfu^ snd, frútn hl« 
■Hiemí, published al ilie Mtae tltde with 
bli it«7, end or na tMuí, ha «ectna U¡ 
bsTB l«l ftD uti1tn|>r>; Ule, úivlded t>«- 
tv«ii the lAv, ici whli:h he T«lt hi^' had aú 
TtKBtltin, íiid arva, \a irhielí h« Liid mi 

lillGCeBB. 

' It ulHíma líi Ik "faradii del estilo 
OriG^n," and la tlil^ ImlUitm ons oF Ihe 
coiDnLDa fi-QÜDQFi io Üit tít\e^jiíLgtB dF the 
ronumcei of chlTulry. TLcro are «evcral 



eAItlaní aC It, — dhí U V>gqí«, lti3, ISmo, 
rhleh is Ib bij llbrarr, entltleil " Qaesa j 

AfiíD dG UD OlIVsIItlM llAICElda liOJílMS- 

mi." Bdt, u QaTiingA» well wya, thcM 

atlcmiita, acil thu slmllur uaHlct anca at 
BlagoáeSa-a Pcdm ein d otlicrs, Dullced at 
the eini] lí Chap. XXII, of the- íirst Pe- 
riodo canic rrum [taly. and wcra soon TnaaS 
utiahic lo cDatccid ngalniít the boakji ol 
cblvalry. 

-> " HlBbartB de ta Rejoa Serllla," 1B32, 
and Ifl^l ¡ — and '^ L'lbm de íoí üaiieBlcHl 
Amores il? F^r€RTÍDO j ác Jin^bra,^' Ifi^Ti 
151S. Thi;} are in (he tone cir boufcft uF 
Chiralri, and taiark ttw trant^l tirso ¡d a 
tnunnír nüC to be mlEtsken. Tbt Ihfi flnt 
oflhtin, "Lo Rryna Sri'IUit,'" nec P. Wolf, 
" ITebír die tieueslnii Leintunsea iler Pran- 
íOíi'u f-lr die HtrBttBgaihe Ihreí naüoniil 
ntl.U.!|mil¡clJfc," Tflen, 1833, 8fa, pp, 



116 



SELVA TE AVESÍTURAS. 



[PiKwmn. 



lished in ISÍS, and is tho atory of Luzuraan, a gf>nt]eman 
iikr..sifflo *^^' SeviUe, wbo h;id beeri lirud from childlmod 
de CoDtitrBj., jn great intiraacj with Arboleda, a lady of equal 
ConditioD with hioiBclt'; but whcn, as he gTOWS uj», ihig 
iiiüniacy ripens iuto love, tlie Iiidy rejects bis suit, íjd tbe 
^routid that she prüfars a religious life. The rcfuaal iñ 
gentle and teader ; but he is sü disheartetied by it, that 
be eecrctly leaves bis home in. sorrow and tnortificatíoa, 
and goes tu Italy, where be moets with abundance of ad- 
ventiires, and travels through tbe whole pcninsula, down 
to Nfiples. Wearied with thia mode of life, he Ihen embarks 
for Spaín, but üii bis pasi^age is taken Ly a cora aii* and 
carried to Algiere, There he remaioB in. cruel stavery for 
five years. His master then gires him his fT&ertoTii, and 
he retiinia to his home as eocretlj as he leñ it ; but fiud- 
ing that Arboleda had takeu tlie veil, aiid that thc aociety 
to which lie beloiiged had forgytten híus, aud h-id tloned 
over tbe place be had once fiUed, he avoids makiiig híra- 
HGlf krmwn to auyliody, aod retires to a hermitage, with 
the purpoee of ending hie days in acts of devotion,^ 

The wholp story, somewhat solemniy divided into seven 
bouks, ¡B dull, from want botli of auEBcient variety in the 
detail», atiá of sufficient spirit in th.& atyle. But it is of 
eoiae impoi'tanCG, because it is the fli-st in a claas of 
fictioua, afterwavda numerous, which — relyifig oti tbe 
cuiioBity tben felt in Spain about Italy, as a country full 
of Spauiarda enjftyiTig- luxuries and relincmcnts not yet 
ktiowu at borne, and atrnut Algiers, crowded with tbou- 
Banda of other Spaniarda sufferiug the most severe fotraa 
of captivity — trusted, for no small parí of theír ¡nterest, 
to the- accountB they gave of their héroes as adventnrera 
in Italy, and as slaves on tbe coast of Barbary. Lope de 
Vega, CervajiteB, and several more among the most popu- 



i Tlie " Spira de Atentnrsa," BomrtJmes 
fUblloil " Luimtin y Arbalea," wtia prlnted 
Dt Enlamaticn, \a UTA, l^nm, nni) prohiibl; 
ckrllrr, btiLlEs whicb tbert ure aubgequeut 
eiIlLiong iif Biirci-loiia, 3ii.n)tn«aB, etc. 
(AhIudÍo, Bib. Nova, Tom, 1, p. 6'i) ¡ bnt 
itia In the Inúfji EipurEmoriue nf lÚdT, 
p. 629. Philip U., tn lie: Lietncia, cali* 



CoDCreraH " nueatrn üTíiTiáata-*' Ttie S«lv^ 
vas Iroiifljit^ Inta ^renoh bj G. ClLa[iuyfl, 
and {irinUd Id IHIO. i;Si:h1lnUi¿t|q« 411 
nuv^nlitr, Tom. IV. p. Ü21.) ConlperM 
vTOiu, olea^ a tjIuihg nf füulogLea \n proas 
BDil ven^ (IkioliBrlo de Turliw gvtJVUt, 
ZnmEiKi, lATZ, and A.la>lá, ]5S], lamDj 
v«r^ furtna.1 and dolí. 



TAP. SXXV.] GUERRAS CTVILE& DE GRASADA. 



llí 



lar authors of the seventeenth century, are among tha 
writere vi 6ctiuuB liko llicso. 

The other forra of grave fictioa, «bich appeared iu the 
time of PhÜip the Secoud, was the proper historical 
roaiance ; and the earliefit speeimcn of it, except such un- 
Buuccssfiil and slight attcmpís as we have already notíccd, 
is tu be 6>utirl iQ " The Civil Wara of Granada," by GídiÍs 
Pertíz de Hita. The autlior of Ihis Ktriking book pp,^je 
waa an inhabítant of Murcia, aiidj from the little ^"■■ 
he te]l8 U8 of himaelf, muet not only have been familiar 
witb the wild moimtains and rich vallera of the Deightior- 
irig kiii^dom of Granada, but itiiist hav^e had an intimato 
personal acquaintance with many of the oíd Mcioriali 
famíües that still ling-ered in the homes uf tbeir íatbere, 
repcsLting- tlie traditicins of tbeir aiicient giory and its dis- 
astrons ovprtbrow. Perhapa tbese circumstances led him 
to the cboicc of a Bwbject for bis romance, Certainly 
they furnished him with rts hest materíala ; for the atory 
he relates ¡b Ibiuided on the fall of Granada, regarded 
rathcr fi'om within, amidst the feuda of the Moore thetu- 
BelvfiB, than, as we are accustomed to eonaider it, fmm 
the Chríatian portlon of Spain, gradually g-athered in mil- 
itary array Dutfiide of ita walls. 

He begiuB bis Btoiy by seeking a. safe bnBia for it in the 
oñgiii and history of the kingdora of Granada, according* 
to the best authorítiea witbin hia reaeh. This part of hia 
wurk is formal and dry, and ahowB how imperfect were 
the notions, at tbe time he Wved., of wbat an histtirical 
romance should he. But aH he advaTices and entere npon 
the main gubject be had pruposed to himeelf, bis tone 
chatigea. We are, indeed, stitl Burrounded with person- 
agtíB that are familiar to us, like the beroic IVInza ou one 
Bidé and tbe Maeter of Calatrava on tbe other ; we are 
preaent with Boabdil, tbe laet of tbe long- liue of Moorieh 
eovcreigna, as he carriea on a fierce war against bis owu 
father in tbe midst of tbe city, and with Ferdinand snd 
hia knighta, as they lay waale all tbe kingdora withont, 
But to tbeee bistoncal tignreg are iidded the moro imag'L- 
iiative and fabulüua Bketohea of tbe Zegría and Abencer- 
rages, Bednan, Abenamar, and Ga^nl, as fnll of knig^htly 



118 



OUERBAS CIVILES DE GRANADA. 



[Petronl 



TÍrtues aa any of tlie Christian cavaliers nppoBeí to thera ; 
and of Haja, Ziiyrta, aiiii Fatíiiia, as fair and winniíig sb tbie 
dames whciu Isabella had brought witb hcr to Sauta Fé to 
cheer on the cunqueat. 

But wbile he i^ thus mingUng the creations of biB owa 
fancy wíth the facts of histoiy, Hita has been particularly 
ekilful Jii giving to tlie whole the nianners and coloriug 
of the time, lie shows us a luxurious empire tottering' 
to ¡ta fall, and yet, whüe the attceta of its capital are 
ñLlGd with war-críes and blood, its prioceB aud nobles 
abttte iiot oóe jot of their accuatomed revelry and liot. 
Muiriage festivala aud midnight dances in the Alhambra, 
and gorgeoTia toumaments and gameá in prCsence of the 
court, altérnate with duela and feuda betwoeo tho two 
great preponderating families that are destroying" the 
state, attd vñíh. skirmishcs and single combatB agaiiiBt the 
advancing Chriatians. Tlieu come tíie cruel accnaatiüTi of 
the Sultana by the false Zegriü, and her defence in anns 
by bnth Mdora and Chriatians ; the ati'ocious murder of 
his sistfir Morayma by Boabdil, who Buddeiily breaks out 
with all the joalouB violence of a» Oriental despot; and 
the mournful and Bcandalous apectacle of three kings CO»- 
tendiug daily for ernpire io the aquaree and palaues of a 
citj dtístiued in a few eliOrt weeka to falE into tbe handa 
of the enemy that already aurrounded ita walls. 

Much of this, of courae, ia flction, so far aa the detaila 
are coiicenied ; but ít is iiot a ñctioo false to the spirit of 
tile real events oh whieh it is founded. Whenj therefore, 
w€ appi'oach the end of the story, we come agaio. withoitt 
TÍoleiice upou historioal ground as tme as that on whlch 
it opeued, though almost ae wild and romantic as aiiy of 
the tales of fonda or festivala throu^h. whioh we havc been 
led to it. In thia way, the temporary captivity of BoabdU 
aud hÍ8 cowardly EuliniiaBion, the aiege and eurrender of 
Alhama aud Mtilaga, and the Tall uf Granada, are brought 
before us ueither nnexpectedly ñor io a mannor out of 
keeping with what had preceded tfiera ; and the story 
endtj, if not with a regular cataBtrophe, which such mate- 
ríala might eaaüy have furuished, at least with a tale in 
the tone of all the re&t, — that which records the sad fate 



'Our. XXXT] GUEK&áS CIVILES DE GRANA&A. 



11» 



of DoD Alonso áe Aguilar. It sboukl he iid<l>ed, that not 
a Eew of tti@ fine&t of tlm oíd SpaELish bAÜads are scattfred 
throug-h the work, fumisbing- niaterials for the story, rich 
fUiíj &ppi-opTÍitte to theoiseW'es, and giviug' ftti üif of rcality 
to tbe evenls described^ tbat could bardlj bave bcoo ^vf^o 
to them bj anjthing else. 

This fírst part. as it is cotuinoTily called^ of Üie Wars of 
Granada was written betw&ea 15S9 and 1695.* It cl&ims 
to be B traoslatioo from the Arabic of a Moor of Granada. 
ana in the last chapter Ilita gives a circimialaiitial oo 
CDuat of the way ia which he Qbtained it frum África, 
wbere, as he would have us lielieve, it had been carríed m 
the dispersión of the Mitorísli race. But thcufch it is iiot 
ikQÜkely, that, ín hís wandcnogs Ihiough the kingclom of 
Graaada, he may bave obtaiued Arabic materials for parts 
of bis story, and though. in Ibe lasl century, it was ranra 
iban once attempíed to make out an Arabic origin for Ibe 
whole of it,' atill bis accouütj upnn ite very face, \s nt»t at 
all probable ; besides which, be repcatcdly appealá tO thü 
chroniclea of Garíbay and Moncayo as authorítisB for his 
Btatemente, and giveg to the meún curreat of his work -~ 



• Tbt Chrontclc of Pnlro de M-miiniiyck, 
poblúbed la l&BSs £» cjt^d In lUiap. XIIh 
■od Ihc Hrat edltion ot the firet iMrt of the 
" GUcrnyi CItíIpb," aa ía well hnowiLt \p- 
lieand at Sar^oaBa m Ii&illS, ISulq.. TIiíb 
pirL iTüA reprLDted mui:h oftf nf r I1inb tho 
tMoDd. TbrrenrB«li(.iuuBofÍtln]!i9S,lS03, 
U(H(lhrve},]aD9,l!Bl[l, IBl;i, Ití]Q,ctc., bi> 
Aidea «¡Ti^ruD ^tbtioiLL -ilaLf . RivnfirDt íd b^B 
"PoBeoí |kar (irnoada," (1T64, 4tu, Tum. I. 
Pueo XXV.) saya, Üiit in QraiiAcls.a. Tiilhcr 
Hf»DliLEd LimBcllf Tiiihii|]-py ^f he cúulii unt 
g\VK ■ 0i>pj of the "'■GaciT»s CítUísi" lo 
liÍB AatL nhcD he irif nt to bcIiikiI, ea tbnt Lbt 
tieikplr, hy n^iullc}^ it íq tlieir cliililbood, 
hrul ciitBL- Ui heUtve ít nll t«i be trae hi»> 
Uiry i — a fact Tnr wbicb tbi' gcod BoiDUní 
■ottiiwK tmich iDiire lhAD i» ncc-dful. 

^ PfTlmrh, Mh^utIti d'or BpftaLicheQ und 
FiírluirleslHiliFa Lilfrnlur, Tgieq. T., ISSl, 
pp. 2T5-2S0, wílb iJie citmct thrre ^m 
" Curtsr's Traveli." A BLgjreBtlna Teísnl- 
iy r^ptirtj'il ^ Díst, licwuím-, vitboat ex- 
|irc9S.big duDlfU utilH accuncy — tijr Count 
Altiett de drcourt, In 'b!« curit-ss and Im- 
potUiiil "Bhtulie dci Anbus d'Ei]iiignc," 



^Farla, 19W. 9to, Tom. III. p, 340.; IhU 
Sun Pucual do GaruiEiM, of MuiLHil, liu 
in Mf iiiasuBaLitn Ük Ánbl« briitln^l oí 
Ihn Oucrrui ite OrahtdB, í» -L-qiMllj un- 
fimitili:d. Frmn IMD PbMiM] bliDiolr, 1 
Icnru Ihnl thB M9, ttrirrtd fci ti une i.h- 
taiiied hf hlct iú liiuidon, nhen It biwl 
becn cairitn] fnnb Rluiltid M U port d( 
Conde'* Co1t«iC1iiin, nUd Ulftt It i» infrc-ly 
■n lll-made translttlnn, nr mlhrr khrldt- 
ment, nf ihu Kumatice ot Illtd ; — priihulily 
tbc Hork of tiimi: M»ri«ra Simnluril, iiot 
tbnroDEbljf BcquaioLcd «lili lil« inrii Lmi-- 

SbnUar sag^itloii» alnut na Aruhlo 
□rlgltid fur thn nimniicti are mad-c In the 
prcFfloe to a Frtnch tmnalntlnii oT H I>jr 
A. M. Bnafi, P™^l^lallfl. S tom., Svo, At 
Pu íltll. he n.attcHi dlITerenl Krruch imita 
tiont ni it, bcdlnnlnK wllh tlio "-(lutiro» 
Ciíllei de Greñudo," by Mllc. ilr In Ifcirlio 
OqHIíh, whlcb I h«TH EicriT ii-rii. hal 
vblcb 1 b^lleve wflB rsther a trrtiijiUtU-n iif 
HLu'i wnik pulillslied. Id 188U, líiati mi 
imlt&tltha at IL 



120 



GUERRAS CIVILES 0E GRANADA- [Ppmod D. 



eepeciully in tiiich passag-es as the convereion of the Sul- 
ta,ua — a Chriáüari air, whiüli iloés nOt pcrmüt na to bujh 
pose that liciy biit a Chrietian coiild havo writlea it, Not^ 
withstanding his deniul^ therefore, we must give to Hitft 
the honor of being' the truc author of oue of tbe most 
attractive booka in tbe prose literature of Spain ; a baok 
writteu iti a puré, ricü, and picttireeque etyle, which 
eeeme in Home respecte to be in advance of tho age, and 
ia ftll to be wortby of tbe best modele of the best period. 

In 1604, be published the second part, on a subject 
tiCarly COuneCted witb the first. Sevgnty-Beven yeare af- 
ter the conquest of Granada, the Moors of that kmgdom, 
niiable any long;er to bear the oppreBsions to which they 
were subjected by the rígorous govemment of Pliilíp the 
Secotid, took tefuge in the bold raoge of the Alpuxarraa, 
on the coaat of the Me diter ranean, and Uiere, electing a 
king, broke out into open rehellion. They maintaiued 
tbemselycB bravely ia their mouatain fas-tnessefi nearly four i 
yearB, and were not fiaally dcfeated till three armieB had 
been sent against tbem ; tbe last of which waB coíDmand- 
ed hy no leea a general than Don John of Austria. Hita 
Bsrved throvig-h the whole of thia war ; and the eecond 
part of hÍ8 romance contains itá history. Much of what 
be relates ia trufi ; and, indeed, of much he had bcen an 
eyewitness, as we can aee in bis accounts of the atrocitteB 
Committed in the villagea of FeÜX and Huesear, whílo else- 
where, aa for the horrora of the siege of Galera, he relies 
oü teatimony do lese trustworthy. But other portiona, 
like tbe imprisoament of Albexari, with his love tbr Al- 
manzora, and the jealousiee and conapiracy of BenalguacO, 
iiiuet be chíeüy or wholly drawn from his own iinagiuation. 
TEie moBt interesting part is the atary of Tiizani, which he 
relates with great minutenese, and which he declares he 
received from Tuzani himaelf and otber persons concerned 
in it ; — a wild tale of Oriental pasaioQ, which, as tfe have 
Bsen, Calderón niade the aubject of onc of hifl moat pow- 
erful and charaCterietic dramas. 

If the reet of the second diviKÍon of Eita'a i-oraance had 
been like tbis story, it might have been worthy of the 
first. But it Í8 not. The bailada with which it is diverai* 



TAT. XXXV.] GUEBBAS CIVILES DE GRANADA. 



12Í 



fied, and which are probnlily :i\\ his ovtti, Eire mucti inferior 
iu merit to thG oíder ballads hv- had inaertod lefore ; and 
hÍ9 narrative ís given iti a much lesa rich and gKiwing 
Btyle. PerhapB Hita felt the waiit t>f the oíd MoofÍbÍ 
traditions that liad beforé ÍDS|jircd hira, or perhaps lie 
fr>und himself awkwardly construined wiien dealing' with 
Jacte too recent and notorioua to be rnanag-oublG for the 
purpoees of fictiou. But whatever may Lave beeii the 
cause of ita inferíority, tlie fact ia plain. Ilie second part, 
rogardeti as g:enuine liistory, Í8 not to be compared with 
the account of tho same events by Diego de Mendoza; 
wjiilej regarded as a romance, he had alrcady fai' BUrpaesed 
it himself.' 

Tbe path, however, whicli EHa by theee two workfl 
had opeoBd fur hístoHcal Sction amidst tho oíd traditions 
and píctiítesque mannerí? of the Mtjors, temptiiig- ss it 
maj now seem, did not, in bis time, seera eo to otherB. 
Hi8 Own romaneo, it ia truc, was often repriated and much 
read. But froai tbe uature of hia subject, he eliuwed the 
MooriBh charaeter ou ita favorable aide, atid even went no 
far as to espreea his horror at the crueltiea iaflicted by bis 
coutiti'ymen On their hated eneniiee, aod his Benae of the 
irijuatice doue to the vanquished by the had faith that 
kept neíther the promiaes of Fcrdinand and laabella ñor 
thoBe of DoD Joha.° Such sympathy with the infidel 
eneiny that had ao long held Bpain in fec waa not accord- 
ing to the spírit of the times. Only tive yeara after Hita 
had publiehtíd hia accoutit of the rebelliou of the Alpuxar- 
ras, the remaindcr of the Moors against whom be had 
there fought were violently expelled from Spain by Philip 
the Thtrd, amidat the rejoiciriga of tho whole Spanísh 
people i few even of the moet humane apirits lookiug up- 
on the sülfetitig'H they thua iuflicted as aiiythidg but tbe 
just retrihutione of an oflended Heavea. 

Of conree, while this waa the state of feelíng through- 
oat the natioQ, it wae not to be espected that ivorlíe of 



■ Thc-fruDnd pan BppEnred rorlbc ne«t uF bntb )ufUi Mndrld, 1S3S, 3 tmn, IZmo, 

Un« at AIchI'-, in IBUl, but hoa beeiv re- und bot.li «re in üi". mifé rolume ot Ait 

priflWd M nmlT Bínce, itiit a\a espíes of baWi Blbliutecu, IS^- 
ItaK^erywarM. Ihcre la a ncoc «Aílita u PmW 1,0.19, Parten, o, aS, 
VOL. 111. fi 



122 



BIDICULE OF SEBIOUS ROMANOBS. T^'kMOKI 



BctíoB repreaeDÜng' the Moora ín i'omantic antl attractlve 
color», aíid fillctl roith adventures di'awn frotn thcir tradi' 
tiona, shouM find favor Ín Spain. A ceutury Sater, iiideed, 
a tiiiríl part of thc Wara of Granada — wlietlier wñttea 
by Hita or sometody else we are not loJd — was liceneed 
for the presB, though nevcr puljlished ; '" and, in France, 
Madame de Scudári soou begao, íd "The Almahide," a 
Beries of flctione on this foundation, that has been con- 
tiuued down. throqgli the " Gotí salve de Oordoue " of 
FloriaDj to "The AJjencerrage ^' of Chateaubriand, with- 
out g;Íving any tokcn that it Í8 likefy Boon to CeaaB." But 
íd Spaíu it Btruck do root, aod had no BuccesB. 

PerhapS otber círcu matan ees, besidea a national JeeJbig 
of unwillingneBS that ruinantic fictiun ehould occupy the 
debatablg ground botwecn the Moore and the GhrístiaDS., 
conti'ibuted to check its progresa in Spjiín. Perhapa the 
publicatioíi of the firat parE of Don Qtiixote, defittoyíng', 
by its ridiculez the ouly form of romance much known or 
regardcd at the time, was not without an effect on the 
othei- forms, by exciting a prejudice against all grave 
prosc wíirks of invention, and Btill more by furniehing a 
Kiib^titate much more amustug than tbey could aapír'Q to 
be. But whether thís were bo oii not, attacka on all of 
tbem foUowed in the same &pint. "The Cryselia 
of Lidaceli/' which appeared in 1609, — and 
which, as well as a dull prnse aatire on the fan- 
tastic AcadcmieB then in fashion, bears the ñame of Captaia 
Plegetonte, — assaila fi-eely whatever oi" prose flction had 
till then enjoyed rcgard in Spain, "whether the pastoral, 
the hietorícal, or the chivalrouB.^^ Its attacb, however. 



REdicule uf 

flctÍDD. 



10 !□ mr tzopj ot thí Kcond part, prfut- 
al «[ MftdriH, 1731, ISms.ilie Jpfoftosiffn, 
ílikled ID til ur BEptcpib^r ar l.l;^ot yi^E^r, 
tpfHka diíLiiictlií u{ liire' iiprn, Biüutliiti- 
Ing Iha Hüooml sí llie ase Ibat was {i^JnlM 
ai AlcaU in 1(104, unü the íhírii ¡¡.f i; gcll] 
Id nmiiuncFi |Jt. 1 bnow nn oLücr i^ntiiK «r 

Mimrcii Hq>u-JarEB ct iea Mot^situcá) hita 
(r^quengy re^iied qq th? Becqad \twn ¡¡a 
•n i-aUínrlt]', aoit, In tía veati-se ^aai 
(ICed, glv94 b!9 rMEODí íiK IbD C'i>aSdcaDe 



^1 aoott la npOTl«d t« bnn laid, «a 

Miig itiawii Uke Wuri of Grui&da lo Uko 
liiLL?r part 'A bú Ufe, íbaí, \í he bul 
eariler katmn üí tbc buck, bti tni^ht have 
pl^«d la hiíaía tbf kxtk of sdiii« i^r bia 
ova QctiDiia,^ DcnLa, Cbroolquea Chevul- 
re9i|ii<V!, Parla, 1S20, Bro, l!>m. I. v- 323. 
1 tbluit Qulniíull. liui'w s^mii'tblQg ah^ix 
tbe tViBiiiioe ü[ lillñ When hv n-rnte hia 
"Ofiní-rauíe Ingwil-lmiii!," IBM, luf theío 
are Kíuinbiniiaeá taetifííD tb« Inb ool 
ntberwlM easilr aMwilülei íor. 
M " ].■ Crjselia ac LldaQell, FUdau y 



Chít. XXXV.] OTHER SERTOtTS EOJIAUtíteS. 



123 



was eo íneflectiial, ae to show only the tendency of opín-^ 
ion to diecourage romance-wrítiTig in Spain ; a fendency 
yet more nppacvDt a üttle later, not only in sorae of the 
tieflt ascetfc writcrs of the seventeenth ccntarj, but in 
such works'as " The Mortit Ilistory of tlie God Moiniie," 
by Noydens, piiblished in 1666, which, as its author tells 
US distiDctly iu tho Prologue, waa íuteuilcd to drive mit 
of Bociety alí dovgIb and booka of adventure whoae sub- 
ject was love." 

Still, aeritnis romance was written in Spain during the 
whole of the sCvOntGéotli century, and written ID 
severa! varietiea of íbrm and tone, though with mhuiií 
no real Buccees. Thas, Gonzalo de CúepedeB, a "***'*•' 
native of Madridj and author of sCFeral other worka, pub- 
lÍHhed tbe first part of his "Gerardo " in 1615, ain3 the 
Becond in ItílT. Ee calla it a Tragio Poem, and divides 
it into dÍ8Coüree9 ittetead of chapters. But it ¡a, in fact, 
a proae romance, conaísting of a series of sÜghtIy con- 
nected adventurea in the Ufe of it» hcro, Gerardo, and 
epíBodea of the adventures of diSerent perauna mure or 
lees asHociatcd with him ; in a1[ whicb, amidat mucU th^t 
ia Bentimtiiital and romautiu, there la more that is tL'agic 
than ÍB common in anch Spanísb Rtories. It was aeveral 
timea repriüted, and was aucceeded, in 1628, by hia 
" Varioua Fortunes of the Soldier Píndaro/' a similar 
wurk, bat leaa íuteresíing, aud perhaps, on that account, 
uever S.uished accoiding to the original purpose of ita 



Venlitc-IcrA nisLoria ils Varías AcODli>eI' 
inaentiA de Amor j Pfl-rtujia,'" was SfAt 
prínteü ut Puria. llIDtl, ISma, and dEdi- 
GbL^l to thf^ triüceEB ijf CouLi I benLdrfi 
vbiclt 1 hiL^c Been a tJiird -f-littong iif M&- 
dlti* ITM. Á-l tíiG ead a a^ond part ¡¡4 
uinaunceú-, vhicb. DCTer appi^artd. Th^ 
ci^licr trnrk of El Capitaa Fl^^toiiLe hi ca- 
Utlnd '' La FamuSii f Tcmí^niiriD. C<ini|iBniiL 
de &ampe ColumniLa,^^ uod wb^ aisa l>Tlul- 
ed In 1809, <sith tifo Dlalugu^a mi íott ; 
a-ü ni poor as eac W«ll bv iliitigii!<il. Tliií 
"CrjselÍB," ia a BtmiígD Gouluniíiii of Cbv 
pUtomL nlyle «ilb ilmt of serious fq- 
nis.Qc« ; — the «biile minirled iril.b iiC' 
coonEfr of p[iaiiU uod enchaiktmonlB, and 
oocRiloii^lj' wl-lh shurt luema. 



" D*l)Íto flíMllto N07JÍDB TU [inUiot 
or a aiiMlMr or ot-riil ¡.ai uuUc worki. 
Tbe ■-' llInlLurln MDral del Dloa M#iiui " 
(4Lc, M^iri J, IfifiS, IStd») ú iu HDniuLt' tt 

tllB eslíe L}T ItlC (jAd U.(UCI1£ froB bEa?«t, 

bDd hU UAMBllgTatlaa Chiougli the bwdlM 
n! (lerisorii lii íU cnoditlDiu od eíictb, d9- 
íaé miacbííf whirever he gans-, £4LEh 
clintikr c[ l}ie cluliLcen iiiio wtiicli ic li 
di/idcd te fnlIniFcrl bf a maraliiüiE tllU4- 
tMti'isTi ; ki, (i>r Lnataní^?, (c. t,) ibe iliS' 
turbance Mijinua tvcittí au curtii BSiiinit 
lieaven La illuBtratud tj Che liersBVE-g -at 
Uernmny and Eiigliiiiil, ía irtiicb Ib'! Dukv 
uf Soxniij- HEid Bsiiry VlIL. bpiienr U 
Tcrj llUle advBDU|(«. 



OTOCE SEBIOÜS ItOMAKCES. 



[Peeuod IL 



author. Botli. however, show a power of invention which 
Í8 bard!y tt' be f'pmid in wcirks oí títe same clase pi'oduced 
Bo early, either in France or England, and lioth make pre- 
tenaions to style, though rather íq fcheir lighter than ia 
their more eeriouB portions." 

Ag'aiu in 1617, — the same jear, it will be recollectcd, 
in which the " Persiles anJ SigiBmwTida " of Cervantes 
appeared, — Francisco Loubajssin de Lamarca, a Fr&uch. 
BíBcjiyan or Gascón by birth, published bis ^'Tragícomic 
Historj of Don Enrique de Castro ; " in which known 
factB titid faneiful adventures aro mingled in the wildest 
confiisiun. The scene is carried back, by meana of the 
story of the hero'e unde, who has become a hermit ia hia 
oíd age, to the Italian wars of Charlea the Eighth of France, 
and íbrwará, in the person of the hero hitn&elf, to the con- 
queat of Chili by the Spauiarda ; covering meanwhile 
ahy intermediate space that seeme convenient to itn au- 
thor's purposes. Ae an hietorical nove!, it ia an entire 

A similar remark may be made on another work pub- 
Jislied ¡Q 1625, which takes in part the guise of imaginary 
travels, and ia called " The Hiatory of Two Faithful 
Fricndis ; " a stoi-y fonnded on the SupposGd adventnres 
of a Prencbnian and a Spaniard in Persia, and coneiating 
chiefly of ineredible accounts of their intrigues wíth 
Pereian íadies of rank, Much of it is given in the ehape 
of a corrcapondence, and !t ende with the promiae of a 
contiauatíon, which never appeaied," 

Many, indeed^ of the worka of fiction begnn in Spaín^ 



u "-Poema TrJglco del EipaBnl Oetardo 
j Deaengaíin á¡:l Ainnr Lasciva" in tb-s 

tille uf the flturj' ; u.di:I, be^i-dcB the first 
edition, it ma pHiitt'd íu WIT, IStS, 16£1, 
leas, lflS-1, íW, Tl.e"Vaiia Furtuna del 
Boldado Piudatni" irbD, notiri.ttialaiiilliiE 
bis chiaílcal uamr, 1» n.'firoaMiUiil ük n it^ 
tÍTE of CBBiile, iroa les» favorcl. I ¡mow 
011I7 tbo eiliUijiui lit ISiS aod lUBl, tUl trp 
oamt. (o Uia( uf MBdrid, 1846, Kva, IIIub- 
trated irith mocil í.piriL Of Céspedes y 
UfDescB a HUglkC: noCie^ Íb to be found [q 
Al ifUTíT; y Ilucim, Uijoa de Bladriil, Tum. 
n. p. SG2. Tbe O^eranLo In much. liijuied 
bj SaD(:oriani, — Üie Plndmo I«Bi, butlls 



Htorle» aie more lÜBconiiEclAd ond extamr- 

IS Tlie " Historia Tragicáoil™ do Don 
Bitnqne de Castro" wba priaCed kí Pnris, 
In 161íf wh^D Its aathnr wjia Iwestj'-QiDfl 
yearB oíd. Two jcHra eartler he hnd pub- 
liabed "- £ii.|[b.tio8 dee-tc Sigla." (Aotonla, 
Bíb. Nov., Tora. n. p. 368.) I btHevG ho 
Bometimuí wrute Id Vrench, 

11 I do not kaoR tIio vas the autbor úl 
Uils faollsh faiicy, which lí, perliai», a 
throniqut tcandaleust of fbo court. II 
wiia prliiled at RuosBlHoa, aud ie a, bciuU 
IBma Toluoe. 



Chaf. xxsv.] el oaballeho venturoso. 



125 



durñig" the sevenleenlli centurj', remaíncd, llko the Two 
Fai'thful Friends, unfinished, früni want of ciicourag'etnent 
aad popnlarity ; wliile others that were writteu were 
never published at all." One of thcse laat, called " The 
FortuQQ.te Kuight," by Juan Yalladaree de Taldclomar, 
of Córdovaj was quite prepared for the prcss in 1617, uiid 
Í8 Btill cxtant íu tbe orjgiaal manuscript, with the propor 
licenaeB for printíng and the auto^sph approbaCion of 
Lope de Vega, It is an Listoncal novel, divided iuto 
forty-flve " Adventiireí ; " and the hei-o, Hke Eipghaitpn, 
many others of hís class, is a soidier m Italy, ">'*ociirew 
and n ciiptive in África ; serving first nnder Don John of 
Austria, and afterwürds "undep Sebastian of Portug-al. 
How much of it ia tnie íb uncertain. Regular dates are 
given for manj of ita eventH, fióme of wliich can be veri- 
fied ; but it is fuU of poetry and poetical fancies, and 
several of the storiee, like that of the loves of the knight 
hiinseSf and the fair Mayoriuda, mugt have teen taken 
írom tbe autbor'B imagination, Stül, in the Prologue, al! 
books of fitítioa are treated with Contempt, as if thewhole 
clasB were so little favorod, that it waa discreditable ta 
avow the iutention of publisliing another, even at the 
moment of doing^ it. In the Btyle of its prose, the Fortú- 
nate Knight is as good as otheT BÍmilar works of the same 
period ; but the poeniB TOÍth which it ib crowdcd, to the 
nnmber of about a híindred and flfty, are of small merit.^^ 
The discoura^&nient just alluded to, whether prooeeil- 
ing from the ridicule thiown on long worka of fiction by 
Cervantes, or from the watchfuluess of the ecclesiastical 
authoríties, or from both causes combined, was probably 
oue of the re&&on6 that led pecBOUs writing eerious roman- 
ces to soek new directions and unwonted forms in their 
Oompoeition ', sometimes g'oing as far as possible from the 
truth of faot, and sometimes coming dowB almost to plain 
htstory. Two inetaíices of such deTÍations from the 



ir The iiaineiii oí n buihI niBiiy unpiLb- Iwton!^ la Dud Paacuiil de Qhjaitgufl, Vm- 

llsbed mauuscTipU ot sucb wurliLS ea.a 1>a rvtsnr or Ariililu iti ch« Uiilv>Fra][j' of Mar- 

ftiuiid In tbe BiNiuHieon. of AnCanio, uid ilrlil, and ñll» ^SS-vloaF^lf irriueii LeaiBt, In 

Id Baena, "Hijiia de Uikdrid." 4to. A asaoiKl ¡nu'C ís linnuiiaced, bat wu 

1» Tliis MS. of" Kl CnballiT» "Veulunno," protablj aevec wrlttei). 
Tlilch Ib. UTldciil}; jiutograiih tliruui;liuiu, 



123 



THE LEOS PBODIGIOSO. 



[pbbkíd n 



teatsn patha — probablj the Only eiamples in fheir time 
of the clttss to which each belonged — ehoukl be iioticed, 
for tbeir síiigularity, if not for their literary merit, 

Tiie first is by Ciísme Gómez de Tesad», atid ib called 
aomíide " íiie Marrellous Lion." It was orifrioally pub- 
Triüda. lishe-d in IfiSG, and consists of the history of 
"' the great Lion Auricrino," bis wonderful adventures!, 
and, atJaet, Lis mairiage wíth Grisaura, bis lady-luve, It 
ia dívided into fifty-four ApologueSj -whieh míght ratber 
have beeu called chaptere ; and ií, instead of tbe namei 
of anímala given to its personages, it bad such poctical 
tiames. as usually occur in romaiitTc fiction, it woiild — 
except wbere it irivolves satírical sketches of the foJlica 
of the times — be a mere love rotiiance, neither more an- 
natural ñor more estravagant tban maoy of ita fellowa. 

SuCh as it Í8, how^ver^ it did not Cntirely satísíy itg 
autbor. The early portions bad been writtenin hia youth, 
whüc he was a atudent ia theology in Salamanca; and 
wheu, Bomewhat later, he resutned bis task, and broug^bt 
it to a reg-ular coticlusion, he wtia already fat advanced in 
the composition of another romance atill more grave and 
spintualized and still fui-ther removed from tbe realities 
of lite. Tilia more caiefully matured ¿ctioo is called 
" ünderstanding and Truth, tbe Pliilosopliicai Lovem ; " 
aod all its personages are aliegorical, fillíng np, with tbeir 
dreatnB and triáis, a shadowy picture of humiin life, from 
tlie creation to tbe general judgment. How long Texada 
was Gmplojed about this cold and urjaatisfactory allegory, 
we are not told ; but it waS flOt published tilt 16Tíij nearly 
forty years after it waa bogun, and tben it wae g'iven to 
the public bj hig brother as a posthunious ^vorlí, Tvítb the 
inappropriate title of "The Secoad Partaf tbe Marvelloua 
Lion." Neitber romance bad a lÍTliig intereat capable of 
inBDriug it a pcrmauent auccesB, but botli are written in q 
purer style than was cotnmoü in such works at the same 
period, and tbe first of them occasionally attacks the 
iaults of the conteraporary litcrature witb epirít and g-ood- 
bumor.** 



S»"Lmii ProdlgioBo, ApsLsgli. Moral, l«í B«j-ea," llacidl, 1870, 410 i — "fle- 
^r d Uixcxlado Cduhu aomuí Teinda <ls euudu. Puiu del Lmd. FcíKllgLMO, Bateadla 



CuAF. XSXV,] LOS EETES NUEVOS DE TOLEDO. 



lat 



Quite diflerent from both of them, " The New Eíngs of 
Toledo," by Ghriatóval Lozano, introducía only chutuirRi 
rtísl pereoiiftg-es, and contaiiis Uttle but the facía »«"»■ 
of knowu history and oM traditíon, slíglitly embelliabed 
by the spirít of romance. It» author wae attaohed to thu 
mfítmpolitfiD cathedfal of Tcikdo, and, with Calderón, 
etrved iii íhe chu[iül Gct apart for the buríal of ihe New 
Kings, as the monarcha of Oaatile were calkd from tlio 
time of Henry of Tra?tamara, wtio tbere estabUshed for 
himself a cemetery, sepárate from that in which the race 
eiidiíJg with the disliooorcd Don Pedro íiad boGn en- 
tombtíd. 

The pious cbaplain, wbo was tbus called to pray daity 
for the aouls of the Une of aovereigns that had conatitutud 
the house of Trastamaraj determinad to illastrate thetr 
meiuories by a vomantic hístory : and, beginning wíth the 
oíd national traditions of the origin of ToledOj tfie cave 
of Hercules, tlie marriagc of Cbadcmague wiih. a Moorish 
pritieeaa whom he converted, and the refusal of a Christian 
princeea to marry a Woor wboia ebe could not coQ^ert, he 
givea OH an acCount of the building- of tlií chapel, and the 
adventures of the kings who sl&cp «nder its altare, down 
ae late as the death of Ilenry tbo Thírd, íq 1406. From 
internal evidence, it waa writteu at tb© end of the reign 
of Philip the Fonrth, -when Spanish prose had loat miich 
both of its ptirity and of it* diguity ; but Lozano, though 
not frce from the aífecíatlons of hia age, wrote ao much 
inore gidiply tlian hia contemporaries goriefally did, and 
bis story, though little indebted to hia own inventioii, was 
jet found ño ■ attractive, that, in about half a century, 
eleven oditiona of it were piiblishcd, and it obtained for 
itself a place in Spanish literature which it has never en- 
tiraly loat.'» 



mleiiM y Tenlwl, Amantes Plloiiüco»,^' 
Aloal'i, IflTn, 4tiO. Tlie flrst purt waa 
UeotucJ iii 1334. ITie auUinjt pLil)llBh6d 
" Kl Flli'.jiripbi},'' a. mtscellacij' on tte iiliys- 
tcal «dIuhhteí Skud mnral plillasgphy^ In 
lOAO- iBk Ihu *^ fionn. P;^>dS^iii§D **' ta s. 
gmd áesX ot pifBlxy ; pojrüciUurlyg in Lbe 
Urab part, a. pnsiD calted ^'T^i Njula,^^ 
wtdcl^ls very dpjL, asd rae In Üie aeooQit, 



dllea "Bl Torto," whtch Ib bÜII >™wi. 
tJ!a rlillccile of Ulc cuito Ityk, In Parte L 
p|i. 3.1.7, 3B1-S9B, la arate and Biiu?3Biir<i]. 
SI Mj copr le oí Ihe devínlh ihlltlfa, 
. MHilrid.-lia*, íbi; aiid Lib. III, c. l,p. 
237, «rna wrkt<--ri Just Bt Ihi; mLimcat oTiba 
aoceüíon of CliiLTles TI. Ihe Bturj !b con- 
nect^i Wíth Ulo fe.varí'tc iliHStrliis nC lUd 
Spuilsb. üiiiircb, — ttial ol Oía InunacolaUi 



128 



SMALL AMOmiT OF SEBIOUS FICTION. [Pkbiod IL 



Añer all, however, the serious and híetorical fictions 
produced in Spain, that merit the ñame of fuU- 
íerious length romances, were, from the first, few in' 
number, and, with the exceptioo of Hita's 
" Civil Wars of Granada," deserved little favor. Sub- 
eequent to the reign of Philip the Fourth, they almost 
disappeared for above a century ; and even at the end 
of that períod, they occurred rarely, and obtained little 
regard.^ 



conceptlon, vhoee smnuictatíon by tbe 
UadoDnn Ib deacribed wlth dramatíc effect 
In Llb. I. c. 10. Tbe earlleet ediUon I 
have Beea noticed ta of 1667. 

1 Tbe onl; grave romance ot thil clara, 
sder 1660, Uint aceda, I beileve, to be 
reierred to, U " La Historia de liueao y 
Tenlss, por Francisco Pairaga Martel de la 
Fuente," (Madrid, 1701, 4to,) — a very 
bad imlt&tioD of the " Gerardo Eapaóol *> 
olCtepedea y Menesea. Fertaaps 1 should 
ftlso men^DQ aD unflnlahed romanoo^ ei^ 



tltted <* EDgañoa y Deaengañoa del probno 
Amor," «riltea Id Cogliart la Bardinia 
aboat 1686, by Don Joaeph Zatrilla j Tico, 
CoQDt ot Tillaaalto, etc. ; bu( it is quita 
Tithout valae, though 1( la In a better 
■tyle thau was tbea conuooa. It Ib Id- 
teuded aa a rellgioos mrolng agalnat 
Ucentioug paaeign. I knov it only io tbe 
edition of Barcelona, 1737| 4to, pp. S91, 
but I thlnk It waa orlglnally printed la 
twqTolomes, 



OHAPTER XXXVI. 



«AI.B8. — TlLLtOAS, TIltOMBDA, ÜV»TAtrTH«, HlbALaú, TIAÜXROa., 
BABBilDILt.O, EBL&VÁ, ÁORBDAj L1ÑAN T TER^nGO, LOPB DB 
TEQA, BKLír.íR, LOGO, CAMSRIKO, THtLIPiE, HOI(TJJ.VAJ?, KETES, 
FKRALTA, CÍSfKDBa, HOrA, ANArA, MARtArfA Z>£ CASBAJAL, HABÍA 
HE KAVia, MATA, CASTTLLO, LOEAKO, BDLOBZAKO, ALONSO DB 
alcací, VJLI.ALL'ANDD, PBAXIO, ROIILBA, ODEVARA, POLO, GARCÍA, 
SAtrTClJI. — ÚltbAf NIlAfBBU Off VALES, — OKMB&AL BEDIAAkS OH 
ALL THE FOBua OP SJ-AMBH FICTION. 



SaoRT Etoríes or tales were more Huccesaful in Spaín, 
dnring the latt&r part of the BÍxteenth ceutury and %ha 
L^wbole of the seventeenth, than any other form tif proee 
■flctioii, and were produced in gre-atet ntimbece. They 
Beem, iudeed, to bave aprun¡^ afr&sh, and witb great vig- 
or, trora the prevailing- national tastea and man- oid™t,Bp»B- 
uers, nyt at all coiineded with the tales of Orí- Nin*!™. 
ental tir¡g;]Q, that Uad beea iiitroduced above two hundred 
j-cars earlier hy Don Juan Maouel, and Httle affected "by 
tbe brilliaüt Italian Bchool, of wbicli Boccaccio was tbe 
head ; but showing rather, in the hnfia they borrowfid 
from tbe longer contemporary pastoral. Batirical, aod hÍB- 
torical romatic&8, how truly they belonged to the apirit of 
their own timeB, and to the Btate of society in wbich they 
appeared. We turn to them, therefore, with more than 
common interest, 

The oldest Spanísh tales of th& sixteenth centnry, that 
deserve to be noticed, are two that are found in j^^lqdíd a« 
A small volurae of the works of Antonio de Viíle- ''íiiobm. 
gas, aomewhat conceitedly callod "EL Inventario," and 
prepared fo-r the prese about 1550, thongh not knO'Wa to 



130 



SHOST PHOSK TAtE9. 



[pKBjonlt 



have Seen published till 1561.* The firsl of them is entí- 
tled " Absence and Sulítude," a pastoral Cousiating of 
abont equal portions of prose and poetry, and ie as af- 
fected and Íti as bad taate aa the ampler flctione of the 
claas to which it belongB. The other — "The Stoiy of 
Kar\*aez " — is mach bettcr. It is tbe Spauisli versión 
of a romantic advcnture that really occurred on the fron- 
Üers of Granada, in the daya when tuightbood was in its 
glory amung Moore as well ae among Chrístiana, Its 
jirincipal incidents are a& follows. 

Eodrigo de Narvaez, Alcayde of Alora, a lértress oq 
the Spanish border, grows weary of a life of inactjon, 
from which he liad been for some time Giiffering, and goea 
out one uight with a few fo]lower&, in mere wantonnesa, 
to Beek adveiitureB. Of couree they soon fiad trbat they 
seek, in euch a apirít. Abiudarraez, a noble Moor, 
beloDging to the persecüted and exiled farailj of the 
Abencerragesj comes well mounted and well armed along 
the path they aro ^patching, and singa cheerily th.roQgil 
the atiUnesa of the night, — 

In Granada was I born, 

Is Cartanm w»» I brol; 
But in Ooyu hy Aloru 

LÍTes ÜiB maídcQ I would wed. 

A fight followa at once, and the gallant young Moor ia 
takeo prisoner ; but his dejected manner, after a réeist- 
anee ao brave as be had made, surprisea his conqueror, 
who, on inquiry, Énds that his CaptívG was on his way 
that very night to a Bccret mam'agG with the lady of hía 
love, danghter of the lord of Coyn, a Mooriah fortreas 
near at haud, Immediatelj oa learuiug this;, the Spanish 
küight, like a tme cavalier, releases the young Moot 
from his preseat thraldom, oa condütioa tkat he will 



1 Thn " InrenCarlo " dI VUIegas «a^ rLlryln)] tliM UiB ¡ínense ta prlnt it waa 

WíU [)rint.4, In 4tQ, I34Í, e,vi\ ia emall ¡rmntcd ia 1d51. IIi^k Ib, la hot, an 

ISmij, 197T, 141 IWTes \ ^batb tlmet it vdliilía «r IS&I, noil it«i>uI)I5' om rarilcr i 

Uí^lnu del CumjíD, of ■nblfti iis aiitlmir ■■ &dU. (l {a íd the iJiinj vi>luiii« i>r the B11>- 

HiniM TTiih. k note espeelBUy preBstd, tlg- 



Cu\p. XÍTXVI.] 



ANTONIO DE VILLEGAS. 



I31p 



voluTitarily rettim iu three (laya ftiid submit himsclf agaiü 
to bia fate, The noble Motir keeps hís wordj brilíg'íng 
with him hie stolen bride, tu whura,, by the interventioa 
of tbe geueroüs Spanianl with tile kÍDg- of Granada, her 
father ib recoacilcd ; aiid ao the tale eoda to the honor and 
Cuntent of all the partios who appear in ít. 

Some passagea iu it are beaiitiful. like the flrat declara- 
tion oí' hia love by Abiudarraea, ae described by him&elf ; 
and tbe darkness that, he saye, feU upon his vevy Houl, 
when hÍB lady, the next day, waa can-ied away by her 
father, "as if," he adáe, "the suti had been. auddenly 
eclipsed over a man wandering amidat Tvild and precipi- 
toue mítuutaiiiB." His Mütírish boncr and faith, too, are 
cbaracteristically and finely expresaed, wlicn, oa tbe 
approacb of the ticue for bis retum to captivity, he re- 
Teala to hís bride tbe pledge he bad given, and in reply to 
ber tirgent ofier to send a rich ntiisom and break hís word, 
he Bays, " Surely I may not nvw full into ao great a fault : 
for if, when forraCrly I Carne to yon atl alone, 1 kept truly 
my pledged faith, iny duty to. keep it íb doubled nuw 
tbat I am yours. Therefore, questionleBS, I sball retiiru 
to Abjra, aud place myBelf io the Álcayde's banda ; and 
wben I have done what I o^igUt to do, he must also do 
wbat to him aeeiaa right." 

The story, ae clairaGd to be told by Arabian writcrs, ia 
fciQiid at the end of '* Tbe líistory of the Arabs in Spaio," 
by Conde, who says it waa oftcn repeated by the poeta of 
Granada.^ But ¡t waa too attractive in itself, and too 
flattfring to tbe charactcr of Spaniab knighlbood, not 
to obtain a Bimilar place in Spanisb literature. It wa3, 
thctefore, nnscmpulously taken frotn tbe Inventarío of 
Villug-as, and either by Montemayor hiinself or by bis Ve- 
Tietian editor inaerted, after alteñug its style materially 
for tbe worse, in tbe Diana Enamorada, thovíg'Ii it har- 
monizes nol at all with tbe paatoral scenery wbiüh tbere 
BurriOTinde it. Padilla, too, sooq afterwarda took possea- 
BÍou of it, and wrou^ht it into a seriea af bailada ; Lope 
de Vega founded oii it his play of " Tbe Remedy for Míb- 



* BayuPBcia doubl* irhethBr Conilc touDd lEirkl, rapcciidlr In his third ídülOfl, OirndB 
Útil Bloiy Iu sny Ai&blc blBte!rÍB.D,ii.Dil aádi otteií ri^ssrU tu Uie a\i SpBBÍtb «liroalfllc^ 



TÍMONÉDA. 



[Fesjop n 



fortune ; " and Cervantes introdnced ít into tis " Don 
Quiicite." On all iSides, therefore, traces of íé are to lie 
fouiid, but it nowhere presente itself with Buch grace or 
to Buch advaiitag€ as ií does iü tbe s<imple tale of Yill'e- 
gaa.' 

Juati de Timoueda, already noticed as one of the found- 
ere of the papular theatre ia Spain, waa also an early 
iuanao writer of Spanish tales. Incíeed, aa abooksell&r 
Tbnanrda. ^¡,0 sQug'ht to make profit of whatever was 
agreeable to the genernl tA5.te, and who wrote and pub- 
liebed in this spií'it several volumes of ballads, roiscellane- 
ouB poetry, and farcea, it waa quite natural he abould ad- 
veníiire iu the waya of proas íiction, now become so 
attraetive, Híb first attempt seeme to Lave been ín bis 
"Patrañuelo," or Story-teller, the first part of which «p- 
peared in 15t6, but waa not continued.* 

It is a amall worfc, wbich draws ita mftteriala firom 
widely diflerent Bourcea, Gome of tbem being found, like 



• The slory of HareKüí, who Íi hu-nar- 
ablj iHitiia:d in Pnllgar'» " Claruii Tb- 
raaea," THulu XVTt., noá wtt» li sjiU (o 
liAVc been the anoeatnr of NnrTJiüí^ the 
mÍD3HV«Tof HiAta lo Is&hclln IL, 1^ rjuncl 
In AiguLe de Mollmii (Nuiílezjl, ISSB, T. 
29fl) i Id Conde (HIsUitId, T'Iíh, III, p. 
fiíSÍ); la TUJE(fiiB{IiiTeiiUirln,l4G5,f.lM>j 
Id Padilla (RumBuraro, 1683, S. líT -12T) ( 
la Lepe de VpgH Remedio de Ib. IteHdU 
chB ; CoiDídías, Tcoi. XIIL, ia2b) ) iu 
IioD Qutiote (Parto I. c 6), eta. 1 Ihink, 
tou, that It mnjr hnVD b«ea a^ven hy TI* 
nwiOEd», unflfr the tltl-a of "HiíLorla del 
Enaniomdo ainro AblntliirrBeí,"ííne onnn, 
(faEWr, ll!b., Tom. I. p. 162,) BUJ It iB 
ivrtH.iu]]f Hlnoi]g ihe bj^llsils Lti his '•^ Rosa 
EBpanolH," 15T3. (3ee 'WiACí rapilDl, 
1S46., p. ICI.) I^ '9 the iulijecC, ilao, DÍ 3 
iDCg pi>«in h; B Cciraicui, l^ranciicu Enllii 
lie Corregla, l&SlS. (Deppiag's Soaiaii- 
erro, L)-lpHliiiii', 1^44, 12ido, Tom. H. p. 
S3L) Tlist Mnntín-iBynr Look tie «Hraloa 
c[ ihe BtJiry nf Narvues (com Villegaa no- 
hody will dúubt "hn compBRs both U>- 
gctbor mili rcTBEmbErg th!,t Lt dses not 
BppBBí lo the Areteditlon of [i)e"'Diniia \" 
that H i9 vtUíiny an£iilt«tl to Itft place I11 
Biich u rinaunae i odú Ihal the SíUírencB 
Iwtween the twn U oqIj ihat the BLory, bs 
lold bj MoolBJDBjitr, la thn "DUna," 



Bocik tV-T tlioagh Jt is ofleo, for B^veral 
tfSDttnces togeUi.f!r, Id the aame norda wltíí 
the vtory La VlIIu^bh, Is made H j^ood deiU 
IníiBcr by mere leTbiBgB. Bwe anir, Chap. 
XXIIII,, nota. 

Jn the "NílJitlarto " of Peranldo Mexla, 
fBeyillB, 14^1, folio,) — - 3, cuiloua book, 
Wrtttto irllh Oofitlllaa dignit-y of slyle, and 
rail «r Ibe feudal gpiHt nf nd age that bb 
llprerl In tbe iaberent qnallties of nnbla 
blood, — iti aatbor (Llb, IT. c IB) boBata 
thnt MarvBM waa the brallior nf his grand. 
lUther, oaJllng; him " cnrallcro de los blena- 
TentoradaB qae ovo cu oaestnti tletdpoi 
dracle el Cid acii TiBtBlIrmo i viclocloío." 

4 Roilrieupz, BiblLotscB, p. ^3, Xime- 
ao, Elb,, T«m. I. p. 12. ruaWr, 6111^ 
Tum. I. p. 161, tom. IL p. 530. The " 80- 
bicineaa ; Alivio de CamioBBtca,''' by Tl- 
mnneda, piiated jn 1SÜ6, aikd prnhablj 
earller, imiereljf a collK-Unn of a handred 
and aiitf'Mine anecdntea and jests, In the 
maaner of Joe Milltir, thau^h aometlinca 
clled ai a cillsclioa n( talca. Tbey are 
freceded hy iwflve atollar oDecdotCii, hj 
a peraon who ia calleil Juao AragüToee. ta 
all tbv iidltloaa ol Ihe " Fatrañueln," 1 be. 
\lnve, uxeept the Ünt, aad tbat la Aríbau'i 
Blliliaieca, Voí. III., there 3K only tirenty- 
oae tales ^^ — Ihe el^hth, «hlirh bacnaiM 
oae korraved ñrom AcIolLo, bdng omIUcd. 



taAi". XXXVI.] 



TIUONEBA. 



133 



the well-known story of Apollonina, Prince of Tyre, ín 
tfatí " Gesta Romanormn," but many mgre m the Italian 
rnastera, libe the story of Gritíeldií in Boccaccio, and tlie 
one familiar tu Eagliab rcaders in the bailad of " King Juhn 
and the Abbot of Canterbury," which Tinaoneda probably 
took from Sacchetti.* Three or four — ■ of which the first 
in tlic volume ia une - — had already heen ueed in the con- 
Btruction of dramas by AlúnSO de la Vega, and Lope de 
Rueda. All of them tend to show, what is proved in 
other ways, that such popular stories had long been a 
paii. of the intellectual aamsementfi of a state of £Dcíety 
little depondieiit on booka ; and, after floating' für ccntu- 
ries up and down through the difiereiit countries of Eu- 
rope, — borne by a general tradition or by the minatrela 
aiid Trou\xiirs, — were about thie peñod first reduced to 
■writing. and then agaiu passed omvard from haad to 
hand, till tbey were embodied in some form that became 
permnnent. What, therefore, the Novellieri had been 
düiu^^ in Italy fof above two hündted year&, Timoneda 
hüw undertook to do for Spain. The twenfj'-two tales of 
hia " Patrañuelo " are iiot, indced, Connected, lilte those 
of the " Decaiaerone," but he has given them a uniform 
cfiaracter by investing them. all with hiii own easy, if not 
very puré, etyle ; and thuB, with little real merit on tbeir 
part, he has sent them out anew to constitute aportion 
of the settled literature of his co«ntry, and to draw after 
them a long train of similar fictione, same of which bear 



' Th? «ory of ApoHculas — thí aamt 
wltli tbFit Ib 8li-íi<e8['eRre'B "-PerlclHí" — 
wpí, (p wB bftVB seBii,{Voi. I, p, 33,) knoTm 

In SrHiilRb (i'wtry very «iiíly, Uiough th< 
oíd pwtl'Ml VBcaion of i[ W49 nnl priBKd 
tUI HW* f bMt It i9 mope HUs^lj to híTO 
haen lalten l>y TlnmnejQ fnjni tb(i " flvEta 
ponmtHiriiDi," Tule lii3, Ip ibu «lltiiin of 
1488. The s(g«7 of Origelfla be EO (S-HlSt 
l^jiik rrom tbu TEreáon of ii with whili^h H\f 
'^ DpGKDieiroibe " enda, thnugh ^a muy b&ve 
obtalDCd it eleewht're. (Munni, IiCoris ücl 

DecMner^tií, Tíreiiv, ITIQ, ato, p- G03.] Ab 
tD ihi! »|j>ry BU rumiiinr le us Iq Perey'B 
"Kellriiies," lie Tmitinhir ohiulned ií from 
Üie rbunb NSTBllB «i 9l>«]l«tl, wrlttetl 
about J310 ; befODd whtch I thíok EC ckd' 



Dirt be tTMrf, thmigi! it bu bwn maunoa 
flnoBgb eíer síqpe, down to BUrser'B vBT- 

^OV- oJ IL SimilELT Inquirida «ould no 
driiibt leaü lo HlnLll&r naults abont other 
talGH in Ubq ^' PatrañuElo t ''^ buL thpae in- 
HlnTioes ore enou^H to fi%rtw Lbnt TüniintdQ 
iDcilc nnfltaiD^ TtB found Buáled ta hie pMr- 
¡iiHíe, jUBt oB tbí lULlÍBji Navellieri aoilllie 
Frenth TFD-uveura hfid ilom? beíuFa bliu, 
vlÜiouL JDqaMng or CBiiag trfieiioe ll 
CB-BiB, Inilíi-a frijm. the iiole o( Velti 
Lii'bjrcGlit to litfl ^i^rmon traoBlHlEnii of 
PmHt.p*s nutnry or Pleilon, (HerSln, 1931, 
FP' bW, OOl,) ilshoiild wrüiB UiulTIaiiiiiiMlii 
rBTely Inoh v-he LmiiQ^u lu gu bcyoni tbe 
¡firvellieri (ar bli matucialav 



m 



CEltVANTES. — UinALGO. — FIGUEItOA, [Pkbiod IL 



the most emincint ñames known amoog thoae of Spanísli 
prose-writers. 

Indeed, the very nest íb of thia high order. It is that 
of Cervantes, who began by insertíug' siich storieB in the 
firat part of hía " Don Quísote " in 16ft5, and, eight 
yeara later, prodiiced a. coUectíon of theiUj which he pub- 
liebed separately. Of theae tatea, bowever, we have 
already spoken, and will therefore now only repeat, tbiit, 
for origjnality of inveutiyn and bappineee of atyle, tbey 
fitand at tile bead of tlie ulaes to whicb tbey belong.^ 

Others followcd, of very varióos character, Hidalgo 
published, in 1605, an account of the froHcs permitted 
du.ríng' tbe laat thre& days of Oarnival, in whicb are maiiy 
sbort thiea and anecdotes, libe tbe Blightest and gayest of 
tbe Italían tiovelle;''' and Suarez de íigueroa, wbo was no 
friend of Cervantes, if be waa bis follower, iuBerted otber 
tales of a more ruinantic tune in bis " Traveller," wbitb 
be publíshiod in ISII.* Perbaps, bowever, no writer of 
Biich fictiona in the early part oí the seventeenth century 
fiaiosBnr- ^^^ more success thau Salas BarbadiUo, who was 
haiüiio. tora at Madrid, abcmt 1580, and died in 1635," 
During tbe last eigbteen yeare of bia bfe, he pubbsbed not 
iesfl than twenty díñercut works, al] of which, except three 
or ft»iir tbat aje fiUed witb sucb draniaa and poetry a& Lope 
de Vega bad made fashioaable, oonslst of popular BtoFlea, 



» 9m anít, Vo!. ü- p. 119, 

I It Ib In itie ronn vi e\n\vgae>, nud 
tB.IIvri. " CamesIdenAjia ile Costlllil, divi- 
dida cu Ihb tree Noches del Dcn]Ui};ff>, 
Lunan y Knrii^ Ae AulinieiQ, par Ui^por 
Laciiü iiiilnlK'^i ^■^zino ile la ViB]£. d<^ M&< 
dpi.l," Buraclniía, 1908, 12rno, ff. JOB. 
Edltinns are fdiio E.sUd of ISUfl asiá leU, 
■nd 11 la püjpTlnLRl lu llm Itllilíolí'cii ác 
Anlnfw Eipníiolea, tom. XXXVI,, ISM, 

i "fcl tiiíB4;tru" (MwlrW, 31117, Lainn, 
tí tüf Ib In líD dlnlo^fcs, caniHl on l.n 
the pniuts iir r?BtB nf twí iFMvellen, qileI 
th^t^iK» affecteúljr cullevl JíÍ\ií.oit- 1 bQTe a 
nuB-ll BuluiiLe «ntiüled '* Klsiorli dct Iüb 
Slvtc Babiira ilc Rnma, compu-Btii por Hnr- 
c(« Vptei^ Bimiotuaii (lor Rafat! Figuírij," 
Vtaui, — u>] Olla i liut, I thiiil;, prlnltil Lq 
ehe BlpblBtnUí cpnlury. II «oDbilii» tire 
Marj- cil 't The dí^v«a Wse Uiatír»,'' 
vhloh la noe of Ihe old*st. or moiiera flo- 



tlona, — Ih» ZmpvrdT, Id UiIs Tei«lDn dT it, 
belng ii!iiii«i] Foiiclunn, Kiid tielng callnl 

the Buu oí Dloclcilon. Tbe atjle Ib smde- 
wbñ.í better Üiad LhBt of tfae "^ IIouifüIji 
Teodor,'" (anfe, II. £<e,) bul teaní ta 1» 
af aliout tlic saiiie jieilod. 

' íJoLices For tbü Ufe uT BiLrb&iIlllj idii.; 
fíe round ia AJvaivc y Bbi»iiBi (HiJ(u 4|ti 
Madrli), Tiim, I. ]i. i2) ¡ lu Aulauiíi <Blb. 
Nuv.., Tom, I. p. 38) j Biul ía íha SfKtacvH 
lo lili iiwn "ISiafeta. ilel TJIob Muni.i," 
CMuilriil, 1327, lamo,) and tlü •' t'JroUKB 
drl PntD&io" (Madrid, 1036, 12m>i}. He 
wnr anaoriUud wíEh Cerfaiitea ic [liu Bume 
rellgliiiit rrMurnlíy, nncl fHve li\t Umtig 
leBDlmniir in Cbsop of tJie lalcB nrhla rríond 
In ihülr SrHl aminii, (Jínvurrílí, Vida, 
55 líl, 13a.) üf WJWB UJ biLue h(i4 un 
odiee bX outLrt, Esjr bU ClUId M[qb47I1 ** CrlBh^ü 
de BU MagvuLiud.''' 



ÍÜSAP. XXXVLl 



SALAS BARBADELLO 



136 



neiüitir 60 short ae tlie tiilea of Timoneda, ñor long 

enoTigli to be aCCOunted reg'iilar romances, but all written 
íd a ti'uly natioutiL spirit, and in a stroDgly iiiarked Oao- 
tilían atyle. 

" The lugeuiouB Ilelen, Daughter of Celestina/' which 
ia oce of tbe earlieat and moet spiríteJ of tliese fictionB, 
appeared. ¡n 1612, and was frequt'iitLj' printed afterwards. 
It Í8 thc story of a courtfsan, whose adventur-es, from 
the hjgb game ebe uuderta,kea to play in Ufe, are oí the 
boldeat and most desperate kind. She íb called tlie 
daug^hter of Cele&Unw, bec^iwe she íb njade to deBcrve 
thaE uame liy her tiilent and her crimes ; but, wíth iu- 
etinctive truthj sLe is at Uist left to perieh by the most 
disgraceful of all tbe forma of a Spauieh esecutiün, for 
poÍBoniii^ an obícure and viilg-ar lover, One pr two 
mitior atories are rather i'nartificially introduced in tho 
courBG of tlie raain narrative, aiid so are a few ballads, 
which have no valué exe&pt aa tbuy berve to Illufitrate 
the ruffian lífe, as it waa caltcd^ then to he found in the 
great citícs of Spain, The best parta of the book are 
those relating to Helen herself and her machiiiatione ; 
and tbe moat Btriking- Bcenee, and perhaps tho moet true 
to the time, are thoee thiit occnr when ahc risea to the 
hei^ht of her fortmiee bj settrag- up for a Baiut and im- 
pu:BÍng on aW Seville.'" 

Of Cüurse, wíth such materials and íncidents, the 
Helena takes much of its tone from the storíüa in the 
gusto picaresco, or the style of Spaai&h rog-uea. Quite 
opposifce to it, íherefore, in character and purpose, ib 
" The Perfect Knight," — a philosophical tale, not with- 
out Bome touch of the romaiicea of chivalry. It is ad- 
dreaeed to al) the noble youth of the rcalm, at a time 
when the Cortes were assembled, and is intcnded to set 
the ideal of true knighthoud before them, aa before an 
atídience tbe younger part of which mig-bt be excited to 
Btrive after its attributes and honora. To accotaplish 



U "Td. iDgVFilnen Hi^lena,, Hija de Ce- Lbe va; he tTcated nther Bi-imiíli fli^tlonH, 

lEitlDS,'' IiCriau, ]l>r2, iLuú orteD aÍDce. by Scarron, nliii u(ai] It for hlH lUry «ikl]u4 

The Bdltlnn I Jiavo ÍB o f Madrid, 1T31, "Lea HjpDcPlU'í," Noopellea TrjHjlBo- 

ISaia. It iTBg cut lo piEuis anl aJlorvil^ iü Diiquea, PilfIi, 17&2, Yiuii. I. 



138 



SALAS BABBADILLO. 



[Pkbiod ir. 



this, Barbadílltí giveB the liiñtory of a Spania-h cavalier, 
■who, travelling to Italy during the reign of Alfonso of 
Aragón, the conqueror of Naplee, obtaius the favor úf 
that monareh, and, after scrvíng him ín the liighest raili- 
tiívy and diplümatic poste, — commaudia^ armies íd Ger- 
manj, and raediating hetween imagmarj kinga of England 
and Ireland, — retires to th« neighborhood of Baia and 
enjoye a serene and religious oíd age.^ 

Again, "The Housí of Respectable AmuBemente" díf- 
fers from both of the pcecediog fictions, and exhibits 
another vatiety of their anthor'a vcry flesible talent, It 
rc!late& the froUcs of four gaj Btudenta- of Salamanca, who, 
wearied by their conree of life at the Univprsity, come to 
Madrid,, open a lusurious house, arrange a large hall for 
exhibitiona, and invite the ranfc and fashion of the city, 
tfilling atoriea for the amosement of their gnesta, reciting 
ballads, and acting playa ; — all of which constitnte the 
materials that Gil the volume. Sis tales, however, are 
really the effective part of it ; and the whole Í8 ahruptly 
teronnated by the dangeroue Ülness of the tnost active 
among the four gay cavaliere who had arranged theae 
leuten entertainmenta.'* 

But it ¡a not necesBary to esamiae further the light fic- 
tiong of Barbadillo. It ia enough to say of the rest, that 
" The Point-Device Knight," in two parts, is a groteaque 
Btory iQ ridicule of thoae who pretend to be flrst ín every^ 
thing ;" — that ■" The Lucky Foo3" i& what itg ñame im- 
plifiB;'* — that " Don Diego'' consistB of the love-adv&n- 
tnres,. dtidng nine successive ñights, of a geiatleman who 



n "ElCaba1lETOPer(B«i,"Msáiia,1920, 
ISmo. 

is '■ Cusa ael Plaííí Honsatn," MBdrid. 
1620, S2iao. 

i5 "£1 CBbalIrra Puntual," Pfini«ra 
Parte, Madrlíl, lOli ; Seguiidi Pnpw, Ma- 
áiM, lÜIH, ISmo. At Uifl ena B< tbe 
stcuad part Ie a. \A&Y, *' Loa Prodígaos d,a 
Amir." A -wurt not enllrvij imlike tta 
" Caballero- Puotuiil ^ wa> prlnted at 
RoiiBn !□ I61I),1Zdici, cHlIcd " RMlomiiiita- 
das OBstellanaB." It Íb \n Spaiulsli, oa 
verc maiij' ollivr ^lookB prlnted at that 
tUna la Wiínce. fmai the coanection oí the 



Fr^QG& ifonrt ni-th Spaln, und it dburIiH 
oT tbv iDVtrillble boaftings ni a hrtss^^ 
vía, BDtD^MilD.e 1lk« Uaran HutiebituieiL 
íiaf n bo! liitk VAlue vr any twt, atiiS 1 
oneiitlotí It t-nl; t)«íiaiu« jt prewcleiJ the 
flctioD iif Bftphaiillln ^y rcar yEtvn- It 

Bhould nnt lia cp'nriun'^»^, h'^wavpr, wttfa, 
a amall voIotii^ ai vvry poor jasta baartnp 
DCHTly One siLiTie tille, — " ECodomonladna 
ÍBpoSol^,'' — ptlnMd iu 1ÍT6, K "VUTiles, 
iit 3pn.nLali, 3lAlla.n, ^rL'TB^II, t^f\ Ocrm^n. 

" " El Necio bleu AfortuLad-i)," Madrid, 
lesl, 13aia, tnLitals.ted bj' Philip Ayraa, 
ttiB lersa-maker, aol printed tn lAtD- 



,CaAP. XXXV 1.] 



SALAS BASBAPaLO- 



181 



alwaya fails in what he Hndertakgs ;•* — and thnt all of 
theoí, and all Barbaiiillo's olher prodiictíims, are n'ilbm 
thc ra»^ of laleot of Qot a very liigh order, but uiiuora- 
moulj ductile, and dcaling rather witU the snrface of 
maancrs than with ihe BCcrots of character which uaa- 
pers sen-e to hide. A latcr work, entitled " Parnasst&u 
GrowDs aod Dishcs for the Muses/' coQsists of u medle,v 
of verse and prose, etoríes aud dramas, which wcre ar- 
ranged for the press, and licensed in October, 1630 ; " but 
tb^ la^t publishcd during his lifctime, thou^h wríttoD 
earlier, was a eeries of satirical character-drawiiiga, enti- 
tled " El Curíoao y Sabio Aiesandro," which was liceasicd 
anew in Octubet, 1634, oiily a few montha before be üied. 
Durillo the life of BarbadiUo, and probably in sume do- 
gree frum bis example aad success, Buelí fictíons beuanto 
freqnent. "The Winter Eveningñ" of Antonio 
de Eslava, pablished iu 1609, belong to this Agmiis 
cluBS, bat are, indeed, so early In tbeir date, 



^ 



I' « Don DieRO de Nache," MiulrH,lS23, 
Itoa. Don Liie^ di: Niche niram anj 
cafkller irhociK» aboal apoo idii-utare in 
Uic niübl, diagulud. It Ib m toMfuti. 
AK alne of tat Qikh&pft^ AdTeDlurfB ocf iir 
ID. the qI^L F»r Bome rer>»jn« 1 ]cihi« 
nol what, Úi\t aory Hppi^rini aniatig tbo 
UuulBtol kutIeb or Quue^cId, fBdiuburgb, 
1198, 3 toIb. Sto,} ■□d, I bellrvt:, muy 
níto he tound in ths prfTÍoiu Inm^latlnD 
midt l]^ BLcri^Di. Thi^rc li s pin; "Ilh 
UiF iamu title, " Don DitRD Jr Noche," bj 
Baiai ([□ Toai. Vil. of thc ConFÜina 
Sno^BB, 10fi4)j huí It iuM, I LUInk, 
noChlnR lo da nlth th« ta.]p ol Barbiiillllo. 

Perhjips Ctro more Bc-lkiiis gl üdrliSidlIlo, 
a llillf Jiffeiriil Iu lutip írcim ihe prcced- 
¡Bf, bul wrltwu wilh na tesa «pirit, ahuiiH 
he msnltfned. Tlio Orst L», "■ Kl Sai^iulb^ 
laclo, Slurldu exuiiiln4ulu,'" (Mmilrid, WSO, 
12inu, ir, IB&,) n imcaí\a Btarr In ibre« 
■cu. fiiunileil ou the BBine iden irith Flctcll'- 
er'i "Rule n Wifi; ajid lni»e a Wlto i " — 
E¿lA[rlii_ tEiL' hcn.1, paíiaiojc lilmfrcir ulTupou 
a bidy 'iT fortuní? as n EDHiiiBRt-'FhblG foal 
irhlle liH Ib hiT Bulu>r. but itiiviriili>g 1!ll^^ 
wllh ^renL spiril ub b4iod nj bLií Ia h.in vifr;, 
Tbe iiLI;tr Ib '' Lu Fi<'!.ui9 iIe k IIuiIb de b. 
laeiwnÉrie mat CaBJulH," (ílmlrlil, IflíS, 
lamn-, ir. lai,) hi>lci|f Üie miuT'Uiec iit a liidjr 
af giF&t [brtiuu, tklsnt, uod wiouiiiiillali- 



mcntii, ifho díllhnralelj nhoosra > íocl, 
fnim thc «lieiinJ lanlty of shonlug Jiuraclf 
olfby cüntríut, «.nil In ihuroiigUljr riihculiil 
Bod mciitíQd^ Tur It in a .vrEea of dr¡iutibE.ic 
aod udiEjr riiLerbiJn[iLPEiU ¡jiren Ut Úia 
manird pntc bj k purtj of DiliHlliIrTDtill 
stodents., — tlie vlinle ending wllli tlio 
opea dÍ9Erniie nt tht ■llly brlilefTaniD. 
EacIi (>r Ui«iKi totes boa porlr; lalunniD^tcJ 
M~lth Its priMF, uid the iBit trlveñ, in s 
livrlj DjoiiDtr, billt* bnw prlvnlc thcBtri- 
cbIb rere luHUnginl la Uib times oí Philip 
III. aod IV. 

|o '> Ciirwuu del Parnioo ; PlntM de tMi 
Muma," Mudriil, 1636, 12ino. Thri» la 
«uint TvaeiDlilBrDcu la tíke Idra ia thali úf the 
" CoDriLu " of Dante ) bullt íb ncjt lllci.'ly 
thiit Sa.laa BarbadLllo Imitaled the pililo. 
BoptilcA.1 allegory of ilie Breat Itftllnii mos- 
tei. It Ib aDDoiLDiKd lU n pulJiuniiniB 
warlL, but Uu.- Tassa it datal .Iiily 9, 1<I3G, 
■nd he died the ncxt dn/. íinyaagm nales 
two or thrco morn uf Uin Wles of Salas 
Barlnidlllo, euch n» *■ CurriTclon do Vlrloí," 
lBiaí_"EI9iiblilCQnliirtsPtdroi]í Üt- 
dcmalM," ÍBÜOi — "El Owk-ButiO dcacfir- 
lí»," Iflll 1 — "Ln Sabln F1.iT4 MulMba- 
dllla," laai i — aiKl"L>iEalalttaden)io8 
Momo," ]a27. A Hit lU'BrlJ oí «lOi» Mln- 
plete iDuy im fuuud Ld Alf l>ret J fiACBA, 
loe. cit, 



k 



139 



LINAN T VERDUGO, AMD OTHEBS. [Pebiúd IL 



that thej may Lave rather given aa impulse to Earbadillo 
than received one früió Lim." But " Tbe Twelve Moral 
Talca" of Dieg-o de Agreda y Vargas, iii 1620, belong 
cleady to liis mamier,^^ aa doea also "The Guide and 
Counsel for Strangers at Cüurt," publisbed tbe same 
vear, bv Liñan y VÉrdueo, — a BÍiiirular seriea 
Vcfdiiiíti, üf BtüiieSj related bj two elderly geutlemen to a 
■vegfcwd yoMiifí tüan, in ovder to wara hiin agamst the 
""■"^ dangera of a gay Ufe at Madrid/" Lope de Veg-a, 
as usual, tblíowed wbere succcbs had already becn ob- 
tained Ly otbers. In 1621, he added a ahort tole to bis 
"Philomena," and, a little later, Ihree more to b¡B "Cir- 
ce i " bu t ho himself tboug:tit them a diíubtful esperjmeiit, 
and tbey, in fact, proved an imbappy one.^ Otber per- 
sone, however, eucourag;ed by tlie general favor Ibat evi- 
dcntly waited on light and amiiBÍng collectioaa of Btories, 
crowded more earuGatly along in tbe same path ; — S&- 
lozar, witli hia " Flowera of Eecreation," in 1622 j'-'^ — Lu- 
go, with bis " Novelas,'-" the same yeaT;^^aíid Camerino, 
■witb bis " Love Tales/' ^ only a year later; — all tbe last 



17 nha " 7ctneM VioK, de lu Nocbei 

tifltiWI al fMUliloiA In IIM)V, tllnl ni VniH- 

eele In 1010, Vina ; huL.Aü ireis an eoubi'oíD 
In UiLñi wiiri:^ «f aoiueüM'icni, I tai'Usv« ua 
BecfFüfl part fiiUíFiTeJ. It a ürjírui Vi bs 
expurüHtía tu Ihe Iniíei of laej, p. er. 

lai'Daea JJovl-Lm Waffai^ y Eiaio- 
plare»^ par TjIceh de Agreda y Vat^iía," 
ílAdiid, IQW \ reprinted I17 one or hla 
dvíciüi'lanU', at Muirid, íd 11'^ i2mb. 
Diego da AgTvd», oE wharn thfre la a 
bOUcCí la Ki&tilí, (Turn- 1, p, -331,] wbb b 
HidJer u ircll se ilu aulliur, lUJil, iii Itie 
talelií<:aU«d "ill LTcmlo íI¿ la Viriml," 
FElatci, spparesUy, aa ev«ut IQ Lbc blalt'ti'y 
of liU uwD EíUDily. ütLi:» at bLa taLiís are 
l*]UD [me Lbe iuli&n. Th&c nf " A,iirelio 
r Aleuodn," íit iDiUDce, Ib a rt/tíf- 
ntntv vr BEiDd.BiJ'O'i ntw; dT "' aomca and 
Jiillt^t," lUKil at juat iitfuut Ibu aune llms 

11 "üiiia y Avisas "le EOTuBitmí, «a,, 

par -ti LICK^DtlUlo DV'i; Ami^nLii Llfiía y 
TüfilUfc'Ci," MiiLlrlii, IS'JU, ito. In & dií- 
GfUTse prendliig ibi Uli--», irlilíb iti^i Unt- 
Icen in uuiiitMf, LLicir 4uttior Ib apokiin al 
at tAslug irrUtAU qÜixx irorlu, &nd as 



beibí ud oM idiin i iiiiL I fiad na aoUcii «( 

hlm CKCc[it lliat ¡11 AntoDÍD, (Bll)-. CToV-, 
Tutu. 1. p. lU,) VLish kLVeii only tll« titlci 
aC tbe talfB, aiiil mlelukL-a the JCat bl 

which tbuy wi^rA piHniRil, Amsii al Uib 

ltetÍLí9. it muy IK udiJi^d, «íein iruc. Sod 

nucúc uF Lhe dkL'U'liía oí uúdneís laa 
llTely. 

■) Gajo «iCe, T0I. H. pp. 13(, laE, fta 
acüotint ct theflo tales cf I/i-pe, anil iba 

Wliy iit Wl]kL ftiOJ' vVíi.ü'Hi ItiBi Hte ant bil 
ncre nddi^il U Ihíu. aniL yct appCEU- to hií 
collecücd workuj Tnm. Vrtl. 

-' LitOraJly, S'in/íi ot BecreaUon, — 
^' C]iLV4:]IDinae de KccreiLcIcirLi i>rtr AmbroflEf) 
de Balayar," BUan, lS^,.]Sn:ia. Ko htdIo 
Oi^vvral olh^r Bprinisli líorJtp, pdnted, u 
tbifi ^na^ Ici Franca, nh^ri; l:ii; was kck* 
tary lo thií queea. AnLonio, fíib. HoT.j 
Ti>iD. 1. p. 5B. 

^ ■' Niiteial día Fl«nCL«ea d« Lsen J 
AVIti," Sluilriil, 1Í123, lama. 

S3 " NoveloB AnlMBitaB pot JoéPpJi Cfc. 

merlni>," SliidrifJ, 1423 uii<l 1736, Itu. 

(AutonU-, Blb. Huya, Tura. II, p. 331.) 
He wiiB un lullnn, na sppi.'Hri rrntii l}ie 
hiatiii Lnpe de Vaga'» Bouucl prcflxcd Ca 
hia IbIéS, aS (fell as rram Ui iiirD Proemio. 



Chai-. XXSn.] 



TIESO DE MOLItíA. 



139 



BÍx works having been produccd ín three years, and all 
"belonging to tlie Hchool of Timoneda, ae it had been oíodj- 
ñoá by tlie genius of Cerv&at'ea and the practi'Cal e.kill of 
SaUa fiarhadillo. 

Tliis was popular succeea ; but it was bo much ín oce 
direction, that ita resulta became a little monotoüuus. Va- 
ríoty. Uierefyre. ■wss soon deraandod ; and beiiig denianded 
by tho Toíce of fasbion, it wae soon obtained. Tlic iiew 
form, tlius iütroduced, wae uot, however, u violent cbauge. 
It waa loade by a %vell-kiiown dramatic author, wlio — 
takiiig ft hiiil hcm tbe " Deeaiueroiie," alreadj ¡n psrt 
adopted by Barbadillo, íii Uie " Hou&e af Kespcctabie 
Amusemcnts " — substituted a theatricfd framewtiik to 
connect hia sepárate atories, inatead of tbe merely oarra- 
tive one used by Boccaccio and hia foUowers. Thia IfeU 
ín, happily. witb llie paaeion for tbe etage wliídi tbeo per- 
vaded all Spain, and it waa auccessful. 

Tiie change referrcd to ís üret ibuod ín tho "Cigarrales 
de ToEedo," publisbed in 1621, by Gabriel Tellez, e,^,^i,g 
who, a.B we have already obeerved, wlien lie left fieToiaiu. 
hie convent and came befoTe the pnblio aa a secular au' 
Ihor, always disguised biraeelf latider the ñame of Tirso de 
Molina. It ia a aingular book^ and takea ita ñame frotu a 
word of Arabio origin peculiar to Toledo ; Cigarral there 
signifyiug a smaLl country-bouse in the neighborhond of 
the City, reaorted to only für recreation and only in the 
aummer aeaBon.** At one of theae houBes Tirso auppuaea 
a weddíng to have happened, undcr circum atan ees Ínter- 
eetíng to a large number of persona, who, wiahiug in con- 
aequsnce of it to be much togetber, iigreiíd ta hold a senes 
o-f entertainmenta at thoir different huuace, in an order to 
be determined by lot and nnder the superíntendence of 
oue of their company, each of whom, during the single 
day of his aTithoríty, uhauld have suprema controt, and be 
reepouBÍble for the amuaementa of the whole party. 

Bit Bpnnlati, bontrer, l> pare enoD^h, certaEnlj nliall not cauteat nVh htm b paínt 

eirx\¡t In IhiiMi Afftctntioiin nr »ty\ii whlc)i of Amble karnlni; i bul¡ •riiulil muly ciV 

be ilinrcil wílh \aíuij CwetWhin wTÍi«rg of eerve llis,^ I ljc<k inj iieii tmia Cuiíhtu- 

hti Um-e. nin "DniD» SenUí," n Umt'nr b\s,s ad osrA,, sod rrcrní [lid tnrgtr Dlctiüi^ 

tale, wns printetl at UaJrJil, lu IfiüS, asj ot tbe S[)a.nÍ8b AcHdem;. IdcIcb],, 

in ilo. I BupimSE GajxupiM luluiItB lu Arabia 

M <lH;aiL|!De ilonlutg thla el^moligy. I orígiD, but dmibu üil» ^arüculor furin oí (L 



140 



TIRSO DI MOLINA MOSTALVAN. [Pkriod IL 



The " Cigarralea de Toledo'' is an account oí theeo en- 
tertflinmente, conaiattiig of atories tliat were read or re^ 
lated at them, poetry that waa recitedj and plays that were 
acted, — -in ahort, of all that made np thcvariouB exhibi- 
tioQB aad amueGQietits of the party. Some portíoaa ofit 
are flueiit and harmonioua beyond the common succeas of 
tlie age ; but ¡d uearly aU tbe proBe, Biich as the descñp- 
tionfl and iu the poor coatrívance of the " Labynnth," it is 
diefigured by cQnceits and extruTag^ncee, belonging- to íhe 
füllicB of GüngorÍBin. The work, bowever, plcascd, acd 
Tirso hinüself preparad another of tho same kiiid, Called 
" Pleasure and Frolit," — grav-er and more religdous in ita 
tone, but of leas poeiical merit, — wliich waa wrttten ÍH 
1632, and priiited in 1635. But, thongh both were well 
received, neíther was finished. The laat enda with the 
promiee of a second part, and the first, whích undertakea 
to give an. account üf the entertaiumcnts of twcnty daya, 
embraces, in fact, only five.^ 

The style they adopted was soon ímltated. Montalvan, 
•who, like hia master, iiever failed to follow the mdicatioDB 
of the popular taate, printed, in 1632, hia " Para 
Todos," or For Everybody, contaíning the iinagi- 
nary arausementa of a party of líterary frienda, who agreed 
to cater for each olher during- a wcok, and whosc fcstivi- 
tíes are eiided, as those of the "Cig'arralea^' bcgan, with a 
wedding. Some of íta ÍTi¥etition.B are very leamedly dull, 
— not a few paeaagea are in the "very bad taate then prev- 



Tbtb, Todos. 



»■ Ilitcaa, "-Hijos de Mírtrid," Tom. H. 
p, 301. I Bad nu (dltbn oí the "-Cigar- 
tbIc! da Tulcdu" dtifd eajlkr than 1631 ; 
Init my cnpf ia dHEed. MiuJrld, 1334, iíe, 
Hnd i» evldently ot tlic flnit |iuljUcatioii. 
Co'ramj'bÍAa (ad Forb. CígaiTal) gEvís the 
praptr idi'julId^ ot the wunl. 7)iI(Jl is 
pírhapn plnlik L'Qiiu^h fram tha v»rk l[a^ir 
The " flclajta-r \ prcree^hnndu " waH re- 
l>riiited ni lUHilríiI ra ITHü, Tn 3 lom, 4U), 
In lh(í ^-^ Cipnrcaltn '* Tirso pronmlften to 
imbllah tAi-hi; ii'fVtJ^v, «itit nu argum^ut 
(o CBnnicl- thtin, ailding, satiricallj, " ÍVoí 
ítdlen rrnrn tho Tuscstií i " — but thpy 
nevíT uppcsred- Thu excrllerce nf hia 
"Iríii MnrldiiB burladoi " !□ Ibp dijarra- 
ha DifLf malte lu rcgrct tbe'r h-«a, 

Ibe Clyarroiea wbieh Dvnrijning riHinil 



at Tal-edo when he «raí Ihi-re In IIle Intter 
p&rLi)rtheB[Blit«eii.lh conturf Bre descrlbed 
bj- him as nuglhliig huí íttracllire- (Voy- 
»ge sa Ks^eae, 1799, Svd, Tom. IK. p. 
32a.) Tliey wrre h»rdlj betlfr, 1 ¡auppcBu, 
la tbe tlina at Tlraa. but, Üd Imlh, u 
fioarga^Dg* hna rbcvhere Dotíoed., the man 
cuHivfitfil anA wealtbj clikAPieBinf BpaDÍ&rdl 
h&re bnil ULtle taate Tor cDDDtrj Ufe, " Le* 
plalalra CaniKena et Buins iW. lu dunpagna 
leur aiiDt b ¡iüu prea iocnnTi.UBi . , . . H 
aemlt FbcíIb de cuiopter lEnrs inB.!*ons do 
cBiopaifinc," etO: (Tom, TE. p. 310.) TIiIb, 
perkapa, Is coonccteJ «ilh thdr drüclEn' 
dea ín deecrirLlTB jioetrj" and UnilaonpB 
pftintiiig. Sce ante. Val, II, p. 47'2, nole, 
and Tol. 111. p. 65. 



CRÍt. XXrVT.] HONTALVAN, AHD OTKERS. 



141 



alenÉ, — and ¡t is tbroiig-bout leas well arraiiged than the 
account of the entertainmenta near Toledo, aud falláHcss 
naturally into a dramatic framework- But it sltuws ita 
aiithnr'B talent. The individual etüriea are generally pieag- 
auHy toiíl, especialty tlie orie called " At tbe End oí the 
Year One Thouaínid;^' aiid, as a wholc, tlie " Para Tudoe" 
was popular, going throngh nine editiotia iti lees than tliir- 
ty years, uutwithstaudÍDg^ a veiy serere attack oq it hj 
Quevcdo,^ Ita popularity, toOj had the natural effect of 
producing isnitatione, among^ which, íq lii40, appeared, 
"Para Algunos," — For a Few, ^by Matiae de loa 
Reyes; " andhi ISGl, " Para Sí," —For onc's owu Self, — 
Tiy Juan Fernandez y Peralta."" 



" Buua, Tom. Jll. p. ]5Í. 1 own Lhe 
ninlh vdJttoD ai " Puj-i Ti>dDii," AlcoJi, 
]eei, 4ui ; and !□ the Prchce to Iha Qrtt 
TDlEime or }ii? CamediaA-, Lt E&ji Ihnt hIk 
edlii-iou of IC wen; pubLJahifíil iu tNO yea.r], 
&[ul, apoii Lhe Hlren^lli uf BUch flbcoumgv- 
moDl, proiDiítH u Eucatid jiart- But I ib 
wu brübeii Jova li)' LiinaniLy Üx üuxl 
jesT. Qu^v-alo g'ieinB Cu liiiri^ borne Home 
penonal ilt-irlll b^uIcüI MonUlvHiu, nhom 
be calis "b IíUIb rwariBiitot IjO|>eilit"ffgii," 
anü HLye lilj "Tnra Todis " la '•liUtK Uie 
ciiHUÍt ftijni AIgoJA lo UiLdriiI, ñiU or all 
tikriA uf pAj9ffn|¡tfm^ lucSudiug Itiü «triiTHt.'* 
(Obrii!, Tum. XI. p. 12S.} Clueredo daes 
pi.it appv^ar umoug Üiosis aílo In 1639 of- 
li-reil veisFi or utbi^ cribuwit ta Cb« mem- 
iirj of MirataUaii, lliou^li tlicir numbtt !■" 
abriviEB. huiiüi-cJ »i<(l íkíly, aoil iDcluilee, I 
thiak, neurlj' ur ipilte L-rcry iitlier Bjustils-h 
BQthor nf any uule rilen llyitii;. Src"La- 
Erimia Panceyíicsii en la Muerb: ñf IS-aa- 
talva.D,'' isas. 

^ UutlLia Qe I04 hef«s wn-fl the aiiEhor 
iif nublar Dilles hHÍde.& tbo«e Id hia ^^ t*a.ra 
Algunos-'' Ens. ^^ Gura^ del FB.r[iuio/* 
(Uiulrid, 1624, Bti>|) uÍ which oiily tlie 
first pnrt «j^B |jLiM&ahi^i3, •carita.ltati BBVL'ral. 
He nUa mole Tor tlin HCdBv. TÍIb ^' Pan 
AlipititH " WBS prinlcJ ot Ilwlrid, 1610, IT. 
^S, in qiurto, Hiid Ib ikiC itl wilttuii for Its 
ÜDe. Il BD.ppiiBeB IwD pvrtODH truvulliDg 
fram Madrid ou a viiw tu Our Lady üf 
Omiiialape. Th*; tliiij at Uielianseor a 
friínd utirue of tíifia 1 rujul .a. plajr of Las 
BfjcB^ (El Agravia A gradee Idii) ^ dlBcuía 
gnj^Btiolií üf oiagie ; iuid cell tna ton^ sto- 
flea Di}iLaL''i;Lcd qlllL IL ^ — ¡s^r which Lhe^ 
pimue theit JiiUTiiey. tbe wliale ia di- 



víSeá tntn Trere Diaciirsoa, nuil i) q,aK8 
ulalHirate. BK^na^ Hijoa, Ti>m. IV. p. W]. 

A poor norlc of Üie aame iort hj El.Mjtcfl- 
tn> Aisihrofiú ^ondia appi'iLrHl m. Zarn^aEU, 
(loai, 4w, pp. eíB,) enUtla) " f jtliani.-Je 
Apolo 1 PnmoBO en ArngaD,''' ec. Il Gon> 
aEsta of faur dají-' DLinuiMíLnuDtH ia a ^' ct^J^h 
de retTCo"' oear Ihe citj, Hh«re a pnrly cf 
Üfatiemcn aiid laiLln iii«et lia ile tUater 
hoüdnja., acd is a mlxlopí of protíe an4 
iíra.e, — ilrumuí, bU., etc., «iili^D; in glo. 
rtñcaüao of Lhe kLngdoItl fiT An^oü, — and 
qLL ^^ry l3ün}^i>rÍKLIe. 1 fi>Licid It orpy ilt 
Ü¡e Uot Biltlinthek, Vlenua. <Vor the 
DiLLhnr, at^e LatHSBiL, Blb. !NueviL,III. 1?Ú.) 
InLIji blhlioIbfCH Bf^la at Parma I (uund 
a «nrk i( Lhv tamu iiort, iH'tLer Ihaa Bou- 
dln'í, hut wriittn by a cnuutrjiniin or Iiíb, 
MatiMí lie Aijuirro di'I Poao ; Fi^Iíefs. It 
waH ¡irlnlial la (¡*rae<ii;a,l6bí, 4itn,pp.3M, 
and i> cadled " Karidad ds Zaragoza." It 
ii au accoimt uf íourvvrDlngB ullhe Cbuíat- 
mafl hclidaj-fi aod thuir aii9us.enicDts aa 
provided in a paiaco úttsd np for the 
occaal^iD, wl:ten& pla^B w-erü acCvd, povtry 
rücltiid, queatiouR of phllutopliir ilIvniuBvd, 
aEDFica [oíd, nnd Imcarloua auppers vulao. 
Apotiíat ¡iHtl la proiolied, buí uuvee tjt- 
peared. 

*JB I ¡uve «tett the '' Para Si <¡» Don 
iTuin FBcmindeE de Pata!ia" CKanigiaa, 
Iflfll, pp. 2Tí¡i oiilj il! tije [rBp!rial iii- 
brarj at Vlenoa.. It la dli-liled luto eteEeii 
" IJlacaifloa '' nuil liaa p-jeLry In li, an 
alle.jor!', S limín», «. luye Hlíirj, etc., ail ia 
ílte eiiltu Alj'le, P-iuJ nut wltliout rtcollucUoiL 
of Llie " Pure TodoB," to iiLtuh relerduoe li 
madv Id u " CurUi ie Apuli>'> pri>Sx«d. 
TiTü Dtbvr almilur wvrk*, uf a lalcí data,. 



143 



MONTALVAN, AKD OTHEIÍS. 



[Pbbiod n. 



Meantime tlie aucceaeion of sepárate tales had been ac- 
Mduuüvad ti'^^lj ^'^P'^ *^P- MontaLvati piibli&hed eíghí in 
f;rt|>t»48B, 1624, written with more than thc uaual meaBure 
cmms of grace in sucli Spanish compuaitions ; one of 
^"■^^ tijem, " The Disastrous FriendBhip," fouQded oa 
tbe siifleriügs of an Algeriue captiTity, being one of the 
beet in the langtiag-e, and all of them ao euccesaful, that 
they werc printed eleven times in about thirty ydars.'^ 
Céspedes y Menesee foUowed, in 1628, with a series en- 
titlod " Bare Histories;"''' — Moya, at abont thc same 
time, publisÜied a aing-le whímsical story on " The Faacios 
of a Fiight;" iu which he relates a Bucccasion of itiarvel- 
louB mcidentsj that, a^ he declares, ílashed through his 
own imagiiiatioii while fallíeg down a prccipice in the Si- 
erra Morena ; " — and Castro y Ajsaya published, in 1632, 
five talea called " The Auroras of Diana," becauae they are 
told in tbe early dawn of each raorning', duriiiE five buc- 



may he ftdilEil til theB*- Tbe flrat le " El 
£nLr4?tenlÜLji/'-t9y AntaDiii S^-nchCr^ T'>n^l4V, 
Tblíh wis liceascd lo be [irlnlHl in 1B11, 
Iral of whlil» I ha TE atea no eaiilim eicepl 
tbat «;.\LaÜTld, Jlas, «o. 11 sulfl TiH-Lti 
the ikinuf;m£iiU aC&n AeadC'eitj ilurinir tbe 
CbridtiDikE liiill'layti nuHBly, & tilnf^ en- 
(rrniM, and pMU», irltti diseoi^liiDa dq 
BubJeEta dF aaiural hitlnrV, kiiriiliif, unil 
thi^niaey. Bm ft ««nialDS nn Utca, ani 
poea tlitoiKli ouljr tóii i,r Ilie fourtíín 
ctgq'íb^ wbGS4 cntecLílnifi.entB It ftc- 
nsances. The remivliiing Cciut wtrc llIleS 
u^ br Josepti Mtraleju, <Madrld, IHl, 
4W^) with maMrliLlB cfnsfDily moTC' l.ijjlit 
büú fuj*! üXíd, \a onb inatmc-ce, with a bile^ 
Tin; mthcr würb rcfcrred to ii "Oíaatuaj 
DiStlIblng del L>:nti?icBrdC esHutiena, jurr 
Gl LlcScCiikd» O-inee CampülD dn Bnjle " 
CV»l<;i»;ÍA. 19B9, 4la). It tákes ite DAme 
rrLin thfl " Ijeo.llBifti'," a íiwt neal- Car- 
ltil.tri-lil> Wli«M Ihe LualincO or rnaslio- 
trtt alMUnJl 1 liDd it euiLBiaLi or LvrEtlre 
ñiíJ6^ €nL«r^E lamen L» ^ítcq at n cnuiitry^ 
hrkQdC to n j'nuDg Imly whii bcsitnleil at-ic-iit 
blklng Ihe vell, huC^ fiuding her miatitlfe 
rrnm thp UDhnppj irndÍDEr of eacS of 
these duya sif plL-aanre, rituroB ^Ifldly ta 
hcr COL.re3btfl.nd cnuiplelcB hf^r pTofiiosl^o. 
Nelther of the&p KorW» in iforth the troulile 
of rcadiiiR. Thr foiat " Aosdímliin" of 
JaiAuio PolO) the uci memo ata o! tonr áaja 



or R weiiillDB, (Dbnu, IfiTO, pp. l-lOa, 
flrBL«fiii¡>>n 1«30,) m better, bnC coiuUt 
chiva; oí |H»eing, 

" Thíy were truulntód ¡nld Proaih by 
KuDvala, and prtnud K Pañi Ih 16il4^(««a 
BuíiDL iní Hranec) ; iLiid are lo tbo Índex 
£Kpar»r:i.tt;K[v «r leeT, f. ^!a. 

Hi QqqzuId da C.¿-apedi:B 7 Uscf-Bea, 
''' HisunBB. PcKgrluuz," Zarusozo, 1G2S, 
1630, BDÜ 1M7, tbe lan !□ 12IILÍI. Uoly th6 
finí p&rt WBB GTcrputiliBlitid. luis a ctirl^ua 
bnoic. ItcpEDEvIUi"' Aa AbridcrmiinEtiriha 
£xc«Ueiv«t9 DÍ BpalD,"'iiid CKVli of thv ejx 
ttlVB o¡ vhlch U maslats. bHVing IU ft^DS 
l&i'l iu Kumv fuciniB Spuiitib «15,. Li pr«- 
cedíd b$ H Himllu' nMlglflftiI OT tb« 

B}H«ll«iicu of (he iiiirticuljii' city Cíi rhioli 
11 reU-i^j. Céíp^lt^ i» tti« BiiihfT uf th4 
"OtrAnl^ Bdjfunal,'" Doliced sitie, p- 134, 
AiiA, lllcti tatuxy iif th<i itnrr-wrlUTa ij( b\ñ 
tímt, Tiu ti. nativa t-r Miulrid. 

^ Jiiaii Mftrilnsí! de Moya, " Funtaaias 
de aa Sujila." n i^ümlQda ub oí Lbe thf-nry 
of Cokrliliíe fitenal ítie rapidity witb which 
A iwtiat vt cvüfiU can bc¡ harried tlirougb 
Üie llloueMs <>r B dTQWiLiQR mao, or noy 
¡icraún oiider AMmilarescitemaist of tcln^l. 
TE íá| huwflvi^r, A vcry poor bIítí, lEattiulCd 
for D haIítc dh muQDers^ snd 3b fiih oF bjid 
renco. There ds a Ti:prliil oC 'L, üaúríáf 
1759, 12mo. 



Chap. SXXFl.] MABIAMA DE OARBAJAL. 



143 



ceasive daya, to amuse Diiuia^ a lady who, after a loog 
illuesa, had fitlleii iutu a stute of melanchuly,*^ 

Tlie fair «ex, too, eutereil into the general faabionable 
conipetitiun. Mariana de Carljajat, a native tif Bitritaa 4e 
Granada, and descended from tho ancient ducal CurimjuL 
fiímiliies of Sao Carlas and BiraB, publishcd, in lOSS, eíght 
talsBt pleaBÍng both by thcir invention and by the eímpli- 
city of Üieir style, wliicL ehc callGd " Obti^tmas at Mar 
drid,'' or " Eveiiiiig" AniUHetnentH." " And íd 1637 atid 
16iV, María de Zayas, a Imly of thc Court, and a eturdy 
defender of women'e riglite, printed twü uoltections ; the 
Brgl called simply "Tales," and the last "Saraos," or 
Balls ; each a seríes of ten BtorioB wühin itself, and both 
connected tugether by fne entertammente of a party of 
friends at ChriRtmaa, and the dances and féies at the wed- 
ding of two of tJjeir niimber, duríng the hotidays that fol- 
lowed."* 

Again» slight changes in Bncb fictians were attempted. 
Mata, ia two duU tales, crikd "The Solitudes a^ií, 
of Anrelia," publishud in 1637, endeavored to c^li^i^^"^ 
give thcni a more religioue character ;*^ and in i^mniu, and 
1641, Andrá del Castillo, in bis stones misnamed 
"The Masquerade of Taste," sought to gívG thetn even 
a lighter tone than the oíd oDe.** Both fuund auüceBsors, 
Lozaiio's " Solitudes of Life/* *hich are four atorieb aiip- 
poaed to lie told by a burmit on tlie wild peaks of the 
Mouaerrate, belong to the ñrat clasB, and, notwithstanding 



B '* Auroras Ai üilELEiELg por Don Püilro 
de Gnatro y AQ;ii;y~ik-** Ha vju a iiiiüve of 
Uumisu, HFiii thtre ore «ditbüiiH ot ihla 
" AuroTJVa " oí lua^, lü'Sl, 1610, iiiid 1054, 
thf IbhI prmttü at Colmbro., íii L2idi>. 

B MsriiLDB de CiLrbiiJiil j SulIHl^^ 
"ITcmlua EatruCF^iiIdaB," Müáriil, 1(133, 
ila. Ál tbe e-mi tf thenu clght sUirlc». »he 
pnimiMji a u-cond part; B.nd lii Iht' ciditírjti 
of llIS thurt lUT, Id fiuiL, Iwo Tii»re itorlea, 
iDiitk«il a* tha nidili uid tr-cUt, bi>( I Uilnk 
üiíj hTt níi[ hera. 

u itiii.'ii.u, UIJn«, Tiim. IV. p. 41. Balh 
collwtliina tra prltiliMl tugeUinr In the 
edlUnD ot MudrEd, 119&, 4Ui; — llie fi.r¥t 
bfl^ng' cailed JV^ueJíiM^ nod Üie aecund Sa- 
roo*, Omeorcbe atorleí, — El Frtvenidii 



Enf/a'mdo, T niaari, — thiHigli wrilleti by 
" a luty of tbi! cuurc,'" li otie at' thi: inoit 
grúas I niDi-uibtr to buve Tvud, anñ vu 
lUied li)- 3nimiii lii tiia " Fricnutiop Ino- 
dli?," Hiih Ihüc mklgntloQ oí iU tbHma- 
luaa Iclccencj. 

3i aeciulmn FfrDandci de HB.tii, *■ Boln- 
ilBiii-a dt Anrellii," ISnS, ts whlch, In tba 
edilinD oí llsdrld, 11^7, Mwn, In adilüd a 
pouT dia.lu|^[: br^twoen Criktca ulii'I hb wirs, 
ElpparcbB, BicuuBt ombltlon «lid iriichtlU 
neaH ; Dri^nnllj prínted in 1637^ 

« Ardrí ilet TiuiLillo, "lia MoflEsnga, 
di^l GuaLd," 7iaraginiL, llMI. BeRunili J Di» 
preaioD, Uadlid, ITM. Thtj- are- vritteil 
íd UiD afíBcCal Btj'le oC Ui« cutlot. 



t 



U4 



ALONSO DE ALOALjt, ANO OTHEBS. tPEmoDlL 



a samewhat. afibctcií sfyle, werc rauch praÍBcd by Calde- 
rón, and went tSirough at least sia editionB ; " — wliiLe, ia 
the oppoaíte dlrection, betweeii 162.5 atid 1649, we have a 
number of the freest secular tuleíj, \¡y Castillo Sotorzaao, 
amoug- which íhe beet are prübably " The AlleviatioTia of 
Caseandra," and "The Oountry-HouBe of Laura," both 
imitationB of Castro'a " Liana." ^' 

Id thu samo "way, the Bucceasíon of ehort fictioiía wag 
coDtiuued nnbroken, untíL it ceaaed with the general decay 
of Spatiish litei-ature at the ecd of the century. Thus 
Manr nrit- '^^ bave, in 1641, '* The VarioiiB EíTects of Love 
erioiíaiia. ^nd Fortunc," hy Alonso de Alcalá ; five etoties, 
such as may he imagined from the fact, that, ia each of 
thetn, one of tlie five vowels íb entirely t»mitted ; ^ — in 



^ Chrlstóval Loíiiuo, " SijlufliideB de la 
TiíJjk," Qa tniprcaiíiti, Barculoua, 1J2Í, 4Ui. 
Afier tbi.' tune cuniiecud itorlíB tnlá bp l:he 
faermll, Lhero fi>llD«, in this viliUnii, iti 
ctliers, Hbicti, IhiiUfh seimnile, lu-e ia tbe 
same toce aai Btylct. Lmalin wrolc l.b« 
"Mejrea ¡JiiíiTüB lír Twl-cil'i," notlcerf bu/í, 
p, í'll] Lhe *" lia vid t>erai^^lclo,^^ n.Dc] oUier 
eieoiljir wnrks ^^uL teosL, X b«]lt^ve Ltiej 
are all liy une persao, LliDugh tde Td^hk 
^xpLir^atdiTÍua of ITM laAkifs ihc "Sulp- 
daüe&*> the «urk ai Üasitor Loulqü, ía Lf 
he ñera nut itie nume. I íounil lúet In ihe 
laiperlal Librar at "VlT'iimi "I-a» Peraeau- 
G]oiH*a d« LuciiiilB, Dúos. Vnienciana y 
IrngleiiBSusBíii* ile Don Carlos, por el tloB- 
tcit ChrletQval Ln^aDo,^' V&tencia, lño4, 
l'2c]o, pp. ISÍi -^ — a. poor 'ñcÜOD^ divided 
llltn iviglit PürBet^iiGlaiieB, lilíe cb.iL]jleTBf 

na<¡ wntainiitie a piity in one of them. 

3> Of AluriEUD del CsBtillo Sulnmuiia I 
bave epnlren, (ttitf., p. 110, as Üls aillhür ot 
pÍEttrtiifíiB Ul|4?s.. a. list uf olobL aF hiH 
trürlia roay lie ronnd Id Antonio^ {B^b. 
^OT.^ Titía. Ir p. 'lG,)&n]DD¡; wliich \t aaort 
Of H^ILe FiLh the folloivin^ tilLüB : ^* Jof~ 
uaü"» Aliares," 1Q38 i — •' Tardes Entto- 
tenldoa," íB^i ; — anil " Hor.htt du Pl]l- 
QtT," 1B31. None ni llieae liad, muvh 
BUe-Lsaa ^ nihr, Indi.'ed., did iie Bilccved Diu-c-h 
|i] &ny nf hila UlI-íb-, exce^it " LiL Oanlkina 
d« Berüln," alreiuly n^^lctíd. Büt. bis 
"(iuiLts da Lüurs." we* prlüted ilirec 

timen, HHd tití "Allvlíia rte Caaaauririi," 

wliiob flríi appearítl la isa», — and i? 

VVlfUlLtie'lUl'lí Ilie "PiiniTQdcn'" ai Kan. 



talv-Bn, betng a collecíloD üt ilruDBg, pD- 
ci[7, tite., Ubíidí;» bíx Btoriita, — vas triid*- 
LHt<3l lato Fri-ucli, tiiiii prlalcil u PhHb, 
bolii la 16ít3 and ld8&. A almllar remark 
aiTiy be maile ibuiLt twü utLeT worka nf 
SuloriLuio, — the " Noches dn Pluzec," 
(earucldoa, lUai, 12tno, f. £10,) whirh ara 
iwiíive sLories lold lo a pany uf rplencUoQ 
a\x eveiiluga oí ilie CliFÍBUnua ImUilBya, — ■ 
anil üin «Sala üe Hteresi; liin," (iEuragoía, 
1049, latuo, pp. 3M,) wJilelí cocaliti of 
uve lulea ana a pljty entitled '* Ia Turre de 
Fliiriíl>eila,"eaplk iJelnglike" PamT'Him." 
u AIdjuso de Alcalá y Herrera, ** Varitn 
EretDi de Anuir," Usboa, IftH, í8nio. 
He tras a Pjttuguí«e, bul «as ar SpaulBlí 
oiigiD, aiiil nrcitu Spanlali vlíh purity, aa 
well aa Puruigueae. (ÜarboBi, Bib. Lus., 
fol., Tom. 1. p. IB.) Cletuenein Eitea Iíiísb 
atories o{ Aiínli 6B proot írt" Itie rl<llMH 
ni Ihe SpaniBb lan^uaRe. (Kd. pou Üuis- 
Dte, ToQi. IV. p. sao.) Tbíre le a tale, 
fritiLHl h^ OijevanL, í5aSl.ed "Loa TrQI 
BenDa.ni)a,'^'ÍD tbe voluioe nriLb bia "pl^ 
blo Cctiuelo," (IVIadrid, i;33, IBrno,.) In 
nhiQh lile ¡eller A la omUled ; ^nH la 
1664 l^erriaado Jac^lnuide Zarate pabll^bed 
a dul] lav-B-Btnry, callEd. ^^^eiiloa dlapoDeq 
Premtua, Blscurao Lirüeo,'' OEnlttiaff tbo 
B-Bine vowel ; — but the Hv-í taleí vT Álcali 
aro betttr donv LbaTi GiíliorT thuugli I oan- 

"iE tbltik tbat %hvy tbtíli ■)« clto^i, h( 
liiíy ara, not ooly by Otcmínoln, but by 

[lie Mpniílflli Aomlecüy in iho ppifMs (q 
Üielp Dicitonnry, lu piov* Ihe t1cIi,q«m sf 
■Hieir iBUBiwgí. 



CiiAP. xxsv:.] 



ALLlíGOFtlCAL TALES. 



145 



1645. "The Warnings, or E:;j)eneuco6, of Jacmto," hy Vi- 
llulpajidu, wlik'!i muy bave bccrt tiilteu from liia owu lífe, 
siiicu' Jíiuitito waa tlie first of Líb owq iiames;*'- — iii ÍÜ63, 
" Ttiü FesíivaSs of Wít and Eiitertaiiiments of Taste,'' by 
Aadree de Prado; " — aiid, iu JOOt!, a seriee collected fmm 
diffiírcTit autliora, liy Isidm de Rtibles,** and publislicd 
undcr ILe title of " Woriders of Lüve." AIl theae, as 
their natnca iüdicate, be[otig to oiie ecliool ; and altlioiig-li 
there is ao octasional variely íd their individual touea, 
somo of tliem lieirig humorüiia aud otliLTs sentimecita], 
aiid altliough Bome of ttieui huvo their aceiiCB in Spain 
and otliers in Italy or Algicre, büII, as the pnrpose of ali 
"was oiily tlic lightcRt amuBument, tln?y muy all he groiiped 
togetbcr and characterized in the maaa, as of titile valué, 
aud slS falljiígofí" in inerit the uearer they approach ttie 
period whGn aitch fictions ceased in the eider Spanish lit- 
erature. 

One more varicty in tlie charactcristica of this etyle of 
writing: in Spaiu is, howeyer, so diatiiict from the reet, 
tliat ít (íhould be eeparately mentioned, — tha.6 which has 
Bouietimce been callod the Allegoricul and Satiri- 
Cal Tale, aiid which geiieraüy took the form of a andiaüXa] 
Vifiion. It was, probahly, siigg-ested by the '^™" 
bold and urigiuíil "Vi&iuna" of (¿uevedo ; aud the ¡n- 
Btnnce of it most worthy of Dotice is " The Limping 
Devil " of Luie Telez de Gfuevara, wliJch apptared in 
1641. It is a bhort Btory, founded on the idea that a etu- 
dent releafiea from his eonfiíiement, ín a magician's iríaL, 
the Limping' Devil, who, in retum for this eer- díkMo 
vice, carnes h^s íiberator through the air, aud, o<iJ>"'s- 
utironfingj as it werCj the housea of Madrid, during the 
Btillness of the night, shows him the Becrets that ai-o 



*> Jiioinlo Sr, VillnlpAiiil», " EKairnitea- 
Ua it Jiui^ntn," KiicHeinii, 1Ü46. lie vaa 
At^qUie -af 0»ni, atiJ pulilíeTiiíd other 
WiU-lie ia the C'iiintu of thi; nnit ten yíari 
tSltt Ule ajtpejirBiicc of the "Jacliiii)," 
oue nr nlLich, KL UnsL, ap|i?urvd miilur l)ic 
■umr oí " Fnhíif Cljnií-ritu," See unle, 
Tol. II. p, *B7, m.lc. 

« LitcruUy, Lwaclifn-ají «r Wlt, etu. 
"Meritndíui t]el Inganin ¡i TSülTOItiilmiUin- 

VOL- 111. 7 



toa del Haato,'* Zaragoia, 1883, Svo. BIi 
tilles. 

i* fuldro Hs RoI)1«K collecu-i ttia "■Vt^ 
Has BMoi Jt Amor" (MHilrM, IQM, +Ln), 
Thoj «Rre pulilblii^i] H^tHlu, wlch tlie (Ire 
tiilus uf Alenl.l, nlrcndy violnl, in 1709, 
1719, and 1*00; — Ihe rnimbei" uf bilM 
ImIüj; ttiua Hieren, tritl] thfie "&iiefJiaa" 
BC thu üiid, — lili oT wlilcli Ihun npiHHUvd 
na thu " Varlus PiiHUgiai áe Amor." 



146 



G^UKVAKA.-l'OL(í. 



[Pkkiod IL 



pafiñiug -mtliin. It íb dividcd iiito teu " Leapa," as they 
nflerwartls epiiiig' írom place to place ¡n dilJerent parts of 
Spaiii, iii oi-der to pouiice un thcir prey, aiid it is aiitírical 
tbroiighout, Parts of it are very happy : amoiig; which 
may lie eelected thos» relatiag; to fashlonable lUe, to tlie 
Ufe of riíguea, and to that of inÉn of Ictters, in the large 
citica of G'astilc and AiidaluBÍa, thoiigh theae, like the 
rest, are gomeLilaes disfignred wilh the bacl taste thon so 
coramon. On the whole, Lowever, ¡t is a most amusing 
fiction, — partly allegorical and partly sketched frota lív- 
ing mannerB, — aud is to be placed among^ the more ppir- 
ited proae satircs in modem titemture, buth in ita nrigiiml 
tbrrn and iii the tbira given to it hy Le Sage, whose rifai-i- 
■fílenlo has carried it, under the iiame of " Le Diablo Boi- 
teus," wherever lettere are known/* 

Eatlier than the appearanc& of the Lirnping Devíl, liuw- 
ever, Pulo had written, ín 1636, bis " Huspíta! of Incura- 
bles/' a direct íraitation of Quevedo ; and ia 1640 there 
appeared as his the " UuiverRÍty of Lore, or Scliool for 
SelfiahneaB," a aatire ag-aioBt merceiiary matches^ thrown 
into the bhape of a viaioü of the üuiveraity of Love, 
tTnivtisidtó where the fair ees are brought up in the arts of 
de AiuM-. prufitable intrigue, and receive degreos according 
to their progresa.** It is, in general, an ill-managed alte- 



« ADlonto (Blb. No»., Tüiq. n. p. «8) 
■.Dil MdDtJtlTun ([II tbfl catolrijfue al the 
end of hia ■" hita taüiin," 1681, p. 64S) 
mak« blcí uní- «r tlie [iriiiii!l¡inl iiud mueC 
Ais)i!unA)ile ilnuniiilo au.thi>rs nC hli Lime. 
(BMtmfe, VdI. II. p. 303.) TliB " niBHIU 
Ccijllitlo " has bean vary oRetl repIinWd iD 
Biñniíh aloca 1S«. l^ ítijia pnliHiHied 
hla "SlaMa BuiUiix" Id l'^l, Eblefl; 

■wsnls unliipginl it hy H|e í(i)dlClon uf tBiT* 
Bpaiii9b 9\titti^t IruiQ &irimB. atid Otiii-rí, 
■JKl snnre PHiifian wanúit]. Ip, |Iie sean 
lime, le biul beon cBrri^il Tllioiil Ihí HUtpe, 
wliun.', HB Hi'U x^ jn j^ origlDUl r->mi, it 
biul n pnxLÍ}flDUfl 4^ucEeii9t 

(raf r^ngín ramiÜ^jaB LwaQthPt' IDCOTIfidvr' 
alile wriU'TB or tule^, iHrf^HHill-í U> lililí p^ 
rlwl, vil. ; — (l.J Juan CíPtei At Tnlma, 
vM>KDEiiitl[iuaUr>nuI iM^arlÜHf, 1620, Dfu 
kJnwlT' beta ncUoM] !n Cbap. I¥. nt tbis 
píilwt, BDd vho pnblliliel hla " riiKunuia 
MimJsa y Novtliw," )□ 1617 ; mí (3.) 



PrauclBüo da KiiTBJTele 7 Sttwn, wbo 
puUlKliPd, In HH4, ÍilK"CaísdE Juego," 
Lo'f^xsioiiu Iha goDibLlDg-lioiaBev üf "íún Lioifl 
nnil tlie tríük» nnd frauíla dI ijioae wha 
kept ÜiciD. 

" " OnlTeratilaj! da Amor j Kínnela det 
iDtenm., 'VPTdiHlC? Satind^ ú fiDGÁii V'^r* 
díiiora," Tíie Sr»!- ri'" Hpppared ander 
tba DQ4^a or ^DtgUDEK d^ flGdrn Eiiann, 
(autbor or ^^ CjkriLf autiendoa dé Zuíiiifoza,*' 
l'DOl,) UDd KUe i^aoaá undEr tlut of E) 
Bachiller GuLítaTi Dull&a de Oraaí^D 3 bq.( 
boLb veré prlntenl sulif-equenlly in thu 
wür|[B of Juelnln- Polo, íloA liuLb ap[hfHT 
|n|retli£r Id a. iepjunlt^ EtlIlloD, lOOl, ñUijag 
al^ly-tlir^^ leiLVeíi, ISmo, And JDcladin^ 
Bciiue af [^kla'fL povtr^. l^lAisa, hcnrcvcr, 
[Bill. I^avvii, Ti-in. iri. p. Bi,} mukca [l]t 
Hriil: T'ftn aníinymauE, And AitUlbQlca tbe 
flíeftiid l<f Jusfi FrancÍMo Andrí» de Üa- 
inrruE, llia blíUrUo, aa dnea slao N. An- 
Cdiüo (Blb. Nov., Tniu. [. p. 993), irliD 
(Tnm. U. p. 340) glTcs cfí« Qr» pan t« 



Chap. SXXVL] polo.-marcos gabcia. 



147 



g-ory, fil]c<l with tind puna and worBi> verse ; but there is 
oiie passag? eo cbftravt crie Lie of Spanisli wit iu tliís foriu 
of ñctioH, tliat it may be cited as an illuBtration. of thñ 
eiilire class to which it belongs. 

" ' That yotiiig Rreature whom yon see thero,' said the 
God of Lnve, US be led me ojj, 'is the cbief captaiu of ray 
war, the one that has bmught niost Botdiers tü my íeet, 
and eiilisted inost men uuder my batiuera, Tlie eMerly 
perBOu that is leading her aloiig by tbe liacd ia ber aiint.' 
' Iler üurit, did you aay í ' I replied ; ' her auntf Then 
tbere is an end of all rny love for her. That word aunt m 
a counter poison that haa dÍ85nft;cted me cntirely, and 
quite healtíd the wound your well-plantcd arrow W!i.b he- 
ginxiiíig la make*in my heart, For, however much a man 
may be iu love, tbere can be iio düubt ati aunt will always 
be enough to purge him clean of it. InquiBitive, suapi- 
oiuua, ouvioua, — one or the otber ehe cannot fail tu be, 
— and if the tiíbcq have the luck to escape, tlifi- lover 
never hss i for if ehe is enviyus, she wanta biui for her-' 
Belf; and if sbe Is only BUBpicioua, Bhe stiU Bpui]» all 
comfort, so dieconcerting' every Uttle project, and so dia- 
turbing^ every littlc níce plan, as to recider pleaoure itself 
unsavory,' ' Why, what a deaperaLely bíid opiniím you 
have of annta ? ' eaid Lave. ' To "be aure 1 have,' aaíd I. 
' If the etate of innocence in whicb Adana and Eve were 
created had nothíiig et&e to recommend it, the simple fact 
that there could have been no aunfg iu Paracliae would 
have been enoug'h for me. Why, every laorniíig', as Boon 
as I get up, I croas niyself and say, " By the sign of the 
Hüly Boüd, from all aunts deliver ua tbia day, Gooá 
Lord I " And every time I repeat the Palemoitier, after 
"Load ua Qot iuto temptatiotí," I alwajs add, — ■ " nor 
into tibe way uf aunts cither." ' " 

The csample of Quevedo was ag^ain followed, partly 
ÍTi jest, by Marcos García, who iu 1657 puhliehed msícm 
liig " Phlegm of Pediro Hernandeít," an imagi- ^'^'^ 

Bcuudlctn] Kii!i. OitjBDinit ooiiLiiiota ErjmewliB-l simllBr mirt, "■Hoíipllal do In- 

Ihíne dc>iil>l& Hiul antCivs nothiuK : tnit tl]« curables j VUge deíU MuDdií s el 

"llolvcraiiiail de Ainor," he síj», fioB, Oiro i " nliích imij be nmind IQ tbí tdltltm 

príntcil lu eail; u 13M, w[th oUiEír w'ürli& d( ISTD, vv- S3&-a4L, baC wu pDbllaliüd 

ot Fub. nDd U. he IbinkL irreri<ir la I'oIo'b ni.KarLy úa 1S3S. 



íé» 



MAltOOS GARCJA. -SANTOS. 



[pEiuon n. 



naiy, but popular porsoniígc, wliose armg, according to 
au oid Spauisli peuvtrb, lull üiit oí' tlitír sückets from the 
mei'G lielIeBSiieae of their üivuer. It is a vieion, in which 
woiaen-servants whn spciii] their Urea ín active chealmg, 
Btudeiita preasíag vígorously forward to become qnacltB 
ftüd pettifogg-ets, apendthrift büIiíígts, and similar un- 
easy, iiiiprincipled pciaciia of other cüDditione, are cua- 
traated with tliosc wíiOj tnistitíg to a quiet dispoBÍticu, 
float noiselesBly down the current of life, aud Bucceed 
■wiíhout an efltipt and without knowíng liow they do it. 
Tlie general iillegoiy is rneagre ; but fiome of the individ- 
ual sketcliea are well imagiiied.*' 

The pei-Bon, however, who, iu the lattor part of the 
sereateenth tientury, auccecded beat íil tfíia Btylo of cotn- 
ínweiiM pnsition, as weU ae in tales of ollier kinde, was 
*'°'™'- Francisco Santos, a nativo of Mailrid, who died 
not fñT from the year 1700. Betwcen 1663 and 1697 he 
gave to the world Bixteea volumea of diflerent kinds of 
■wcirks fof popuUi' aniiiaerañnt ; — generally sljort etoriea, 
but some of them encumbered with allegorical persoDagea 
and tcdioua moral diecii*eÍ0Q9.** Tfae oldeat of the series, 
"Día y Noche en Madrid," or, as it may be translated, 
Life in Madrid, thotig-Ei a mero fiction founded on raan- 
nera, íb divíded into what the author terms Eighteen Dis- 
courses. It opens, as snch Spaníah tales are too apt tú 
open, Bomewhat pompously ; the first Bcene describing 



BernitiMleí, Ul^iirsg t)"n\ y PoMiM," 
Hadrtil, ieB7, 1LÍI1L3. Trie ii4Lli'jr \sü a 
snrgeaii <>r lUailrld, aad wrote " Hn-aot úu 

la H«i]|i:inii;" iLod aDotli^r, " Papi.'IJl¡A," 
wic^uqt btft Duint!, whlcb be mcutloaB in 
hls Priilofo, (Aatonio, BLb. Nav.^ Tom. 
II. |>. iS,) Bí aturre, al lüs bcglaulns oí 
bis "FIcjDft," thut he mcuií ta ImiUite 
QuEieda ; livit li« Ilu ft gowl deal or CUi- 
liamo fu bl« Hjít. foc Une meaAlne Ol 
"FltinB,"íeeC0Virrubiika,dptf wrS.^One 
more tria? tan? hwe be niiiiLttoned i ilie 
" pesGngaíio (jíi HíiDijre en d IribanAl de 
UFúrtuMb^ Cua ie DeBcnntenUia, Idrndo 
psr DOQ Jittta AIbtUdbe db Cm^llar," lASS, 
It Ifr 4b Vifliao, ía vhicL Úio Autbor gties to 
the birtjAe of '' Dfidajigano-,'* — Uiat p^a- 
llarly ClatUian wará, whiali nmy here be 



truriatsua Truih. He [a lt<l aft^nrar^s t« 
1b« t)&liiCG and IribuDiLl ol FArtutie, wtinn 
hi! i« lUiIBlHiiíiil itf lli?. ctfiírf CoiiCei'niíiK all 
oarthlj' Kii™l' Plir ficlEofi la if HWIf; horth, 
ariil Ilic etj>Ii] u ilu! or ttke echunl e! Q >ii- 
gor&. A DWire MBipleía ípecimcn of OiIq- 
eoriífei (hsy, Loifoiier, be fltnnd io n ula 
eutillid " FirtncAd tu \úi Iu[ii>(iitilaii i 
Fiíiiia ea Icn Dcífiri-i!li>!i ; «scrivínlo I>an 
BtllaíAf Altafnlranij y i^rliMarrerd," 
((^iLíAito^e, laJH-, 12010,} — s Btory roimied 
An Ibe rutlilna «aiítLecrT af tb4 heroína 
hh4 the ImpenarbHttl'B eonsiuiiicf of tb« 
liftúi Tb'i at lAsi geeka dedtb in b naf il 
h^ile nlth the Freiiuli. 

" AlnaieB j Baenit, Blíiia de MadriJ, 
Tom. II. p. SI6. TliGTc !s b oosne edir 
tJun ni the vorkE of Bankis, la i tom. HA,, 
Uadrld, ITSS. 



Ckaf, X:X3CVI.] 



BANTOa 



149 



wíth too much elaborciteness a procoBsion of three hun- 
dred emancipüted oaptives, who ciiter Madrid pra.t(fjng 
GoJ urjd rcjuiuiíig nt ttieir releuse from tlio horrors ol" 
Algeriiie H&ivituile. One úf theae captivea, tlie hero of 
tho etorj, falla inimedíatelj into the hancls of a shre'wd 
and not over-hotieat Bcrvant, named Juanillo, who, having 
begnii ttia world aa a b&^gar, and riseD by cminíng bo fat 
as to be empluyed ifi íhe capndty of an inferior aervant 
by íí fitiLemity of mtínks, now uodertafceg to make the 
stTfLTigcr acquainted witli the cutidition of Madrid, serv- 
ing bim aB a gukte whercver he ^oes, aiid interpreting' to 
hioi wliatever is most characteristic of the mannera and 
folliee of the capital, Some of the tales aiui sketches 
thiTB iiitrodiiced are fiíU of lüe and truth, as, foriustance, 
those relating' to tlie prisons, gatiiing--house8, and bos* 
pitáis, and especially orie ín wliich a coquette, mceting' a 
poor man at a bull-íig^bt, so dnpes him by iier blandish- 
mentB, tbat abo senda liim back: penriíleas, at raidnigrht, to 
hifl deapairing" witc and childrenj who, anxious and with- 
out food, liave becn waitijig- froni tlie earty morning to 
have hila return with thdr dinner. This tittle ■polnme, 
several paits of wbich have beeo freely utied by Le SagOf 
ends wilb an acrwnnt of the captive'a adventuree in Italy, 
in Spain, and in Algíers, ^ven by hiniself ín a tndy aa- 
tional tone, and with tlueucy and spirit." 

"Periquillo'^ — anot.her of these collectiona of sfcetchea 
aud tales, lesB welL wrítten tbaii the last, eicept ín the 
merely uarrative portions — contams an account of a 
foundling, wlio, after the ruin and death of a pious coaple 
tbat fií'st picfced Lira up at their door on a Chrístinas 
moTodug, begina tbe world for tiiniself as tbe leader of a 
faliud beggar. From thia condition, which, in auch Span- 
ieh storiea, always seems to be regarded as the loweet 
poasíhle En society, be risea to be the servant of a cava- 
lier, who provea to be a mysterious robber, and aCter 
escaping" from whom he í'alls into tbe banda of jet wofse 
persons, and is appreheuded under circw matantes tbat 
remind iíb of the story of Doña Meneia in "Gil Blas," 



*^ " Día y Nuche en ^liwJHilf Discurniifl diid, \Wñt límai ; IjealdeH ivliicb Uitre aro 
-delmune EJoUbld que en 61 paasa," M.a> cdlUuua uJ 170S, 1734, ele. 



15D 



SANTOS. 



[Pbiuod II. 



He, however, YÍndicateH híe ínDOcence, and, being re- 
leascd frotn the farigs nf juBtieB^ retums, weiiry of the 
world, to hJB firgt boioe, where he leads ati aacetic life ; 
mafces long, pedantic dÍBCOiirnes ou virtue to hÍB ttdmiring 
towuemeD ; aiid provsH, iu fact, a aort of humble pbiloeo- 
pher, growing^ cotistíuitly more and more devout till the 
accpunt ol' him onde at laat with a fftayer. Ttie whole ig 
iDteresting- aniong Spanisb worka oí" Üction, beoause ít \s 
evidcntly wrilten both in imitatton of the picaresqite nov- 
ele and m oppusition to thena ; sin.ce Periquillo, frum the 
lowest origin, gets on hy neither rog-uery ñor cleTemesa, 
but by honeaty and good faith ; and, inetead of riaing ia 
the woi'ld and becotning rich and conrtly, settles pEi- 
tiently dowii iiito a villago bermit, or a Bout of poür 
Chriatian Diogenea. No dunbt, he lias neither the wit 
n(ir the uunning^ of Lazariflo ; but that he ehould ventura 
tí) encountei" that shrewd little beg-gar ia any way ma.keB 
Periquillo, at once, a persoü&ge of Some conüequence." 

Tet one more of the works of Santos shonld be noticed ; 
an allegorical tale, called " Truth on the Rack, iir the Cid 
come to Life again," Its general Ettory ia, tbsit Truth, in 
the form of a fair wOtnan, ifi placed orí the rack, eiirround- 
ed by tlie Cid and othcr formsj that riae from the oarth 
abont the ficaffold on which she ia tormented. There ahe 
íb foreed to give an account of thiii|j;8 as they ueaüy esísfc, 
or have esisted, and to discouree concertiiiig shadowy mul- 
titudes, who pass, ¡Ji pigbt of the cpmjjaDy that surrounds 
her, over what seems to be a lojig hridge. The wEíolt! is, 
therefore, a satire ín the form of a v¡BÍon, but ite cbitracter 
is confiietently Bustained only at the beginníng and the 
eiid. The Cid, however, ia much the same personage 
thronghout, — bold, rough, and free-epoken, He ia heart- 
ily díssatiafied with everything he finds on eaith, espe- 
cially with the popular traditione and bailada about him,- 
Belf, and goes back to his grave well pleased to escape 
from sucb ^ wodd, " which," he says, " if they would give 
ít to me to iive ín, I would not accept." ** 



U '■- Periqalllo, é1 iIf Ihb Oiilllurnis," lie wni em pLnjed to tske cute- of cblcl:- 
Maiirll, IBflS, 12ipo. Hv ^el« M» iiiune coa. 
trom tbü clrcumglaDce, Uiat, at a nbilil, • " Bl Verfsd eo d Potro y il Otó 



CnAP. XSXVI.] GBEAT NUMBER OF TALES IN SPASISH. 151 

Other works of Satitos, like "The DevÜ let laose, ot 
Tnitlis of tlie otlier Wcftlil dreanied about íd thÍB," aud 
" Tlic LivG Man and the Dead One," are of the same so 
with tbe last :™ wliile yet oibcrs run even more to alle- 
gory, like 1i¡s " Tarascas de Madrid/*"' atid his "Gigan- 
tones," ^ suggeBted bj Üie hug-e and uneigljüj forme led 
abüiit to aniuse or to frighteii the multitude in the ann-ual 
proccBBÍouB ol'the CorpnB Chiiati ; — the satirical iiiterpre- 
tatíoM he givcB to tíiem being-, that worse monst-ers than 
tlje Tarascas might be sean every day jn Madrid by those 
■who cuulJ diatingHÍsh the siu and fijlly tliat aJways 
Ihrodged the eticíits of lliat luJturious capital, Biit 
though Biich Batirea werc Bucceaaful whca they firat ap- 
peared, they havtí Itnig eiuce ceaaed to be so ^ piirtly 
beoauae they abouud iu alliisions to local circumetaiices 
now knowu only to the Cunoslty of antiquariauB, aud 
partly becanae, iu alt respectSj they depiut a. state of 
Bociety and loanners of which hardly a vestige remaüis. 

HantoB 18 the laat of tho wiitcra of Spanish tales pre- 
vioufl to the eighteenth centnry that iioeds to be noticed.** 



affilUAJ»!];!." Mailrid, 1EI9, 12mD, aaá 
Bf4lm 11196. me huJlwtfl clted or rDüeatcd 
[lt U)lB Tuiíime, ai tbe popalar ballmls iíuu^ 
In the ittCíU itibauotoS ttie Ciil, nrc, il js 

In Bliy ijf tbú Kam&[3GenkBp Thuíi4, tbt vaa 
QQ 1)|E IrtaUlt CO ILg CJd'E íaUícT brgliiB| — 

Df- IliklriB^ .1 CmhilIflBíi, 
Ciildnitílü ea Iu nii:ii^ii grande 
HilcLcí a un hojnlire de cu gndui plc^ 
p. ftid-lBIW. 

tt In quSte diJTerebLfrDin Cbo b&lkil on the 

samE ii-uhiii::L En an; uT Hit ballaid-banilie. 
Sú Ib IHe ene ai i>, 33, upun tbe deiiLh ni 
Connl Ltohdd, aa ii(;!l os tbc odc kí ]i. IOS, 
Tilma tbe Cld'a Uimüt tn Ibe Pope at [lome. 
On heBT^ns l.ha loft Hun^ in tbf atrrfta, tho 
■Oid la miule, In llie ataiy, to cry ont, " la 
lt prelcndii! 1 nik» «rer Ruütj of Buuh 
Bffrnntrcj T I, wliiim 13™l ¡nade a Caa- 
llllftü, — f troat the gmit Bhcphüril of tbe 
Chiiir!) Ba7 — í bi! giiilty of such follj ? 
Bj Si. Ptier, St. Piiul, quiI 3t. Lubtqb, 
wICh whEini I li«l<l voUTerSH on varlti, j'ou. 
llt!, bu« 1>Bl1ad-s'in.K>^r ! " ^rernl bailada 
mlgbt be Uk-en íriFOi thla vulume uid 



adilcil eren i» the "RomB-oCero do] Cid," 
Kellcr, Stutlj^Dj-d, ISID, irbÍGh íb Uie mnHt 
amplu «hf all (Ke cotiidOtioDü- od thn Cid. 

S" ''El Iliahlu a.1ldA Eaclto," (Madrid, 
1S77,) and '■ EJ Vivo y el DIfuülO," (laSS,; 
uTE buLh vvry aLt'li)ii& fietiiiiia, 

:t >L jj^ TiiruiMAfl úi MadrU i trLbuiua 

EfllMuliiHo," M4iilrid, 1664, T^ebCth, \SM, 
tle. " La TjuiWCa iLe FnrUi el) Cl Slee^ú 
del I[i!ii.'rni) y Dilit dú FR'ftUiS |iui: la 
Nuche," tlnilríd, 16?!, Talemslft, IGüi, afO 
agn-iii latvreDtiDK. partty beCEiiuu íhey oaa- 
tuÜn anecilotes BLEid sketches thiib aerv« to 
expliiln the ]>Drular rtlágloiLi Chr^atrCb 

M " Los GiiTUDlonCB di; Madrid iior de- 
fuera," Miulrid, IHfliS, 13mo. "Kl nn im- 
pnrliLde Esgjaoa " (Madrid, ISDB. 12ina, pp. 
269) ig BDjtherof tho saine aart, ahoiriag^ 
ia a sort of dilata, Ihal juuc true dpntiiurd 
hus a, '■' DD ui&t<«r" fnr cvcr/Lbltig. lt In 
ilii-id.rd Inlo Iwulvc hours, (tod llie dootrine 
it Inculi-'atea ia tbut UiiscureleaBEitaa, wliiuli 
¡lloatTHtra overy hoiir -nf the dnj, niüifl 
fíeryctilrljfi ^- '* tl.ej.ia perdido el nauíado." 

E^ Ibti SfHnUIi tulea af the middle nud 
IntUr parí nf Llie »eveatcciiíh caatury ata 
miii-h I-nfected iríth tliu faiae tists o[ citl- 
iinmu; na piírtion cX Sgiaulet lltetulure 



TBS 



eBEAT KUMBEH OT TALES DI SPANISH. [Pitinrtfi IL 



Eut thoiigh the number we Uave gone ovor is large for tho 
length oí' tho period in wbich tbey appeared, n^t a few 
Taatnam- otherB might be added. The pastoral romancea 
bp"dí^ f'¡'*^™ t^^ ^^•"*^ "^^ Múntemayor are fiill of tliem ; 
taki. — ^,]jg " Galatea " ofCervatites, and tlic '■■ Arca- 

dia " of Lope de Vega, being- little more than a series of 
Buch Btoriea, slightly bouod togetíitíi: by yet anotber that 
connectB tbcm all. So are, to a ccrtain degreCj tbe pioa- 
TCaque fictioQS, like " G-uzman de Allaracbe " and " Marcos 
de Obregon ; " — and so are such Beriitua fictiotis aa " Tli& 
Wars of Granada" and "The Spanisb Geru-rdu." The 
popular drama, too, was near atin to the whüle ; ae we 
have 8eeii in the case of Timoneda, whcise atories, tefore 
be produced them as taleB, had alread_y been exhibited in 
tho forra of farces oii the rtide stage oí' llie public sitiares ; 
and ín the case of Cervanteaj wbo not only put part of hta 
tale of " The Captive" in "Don Qiiixote" iiito his secOMd 
piay of "Life in Algiere," but conetructed hiB Btorj" of 
" Tbe Liberal Lover" aliuost whoUy ont of bis earlicr 
play on tbe same Bubject. Indeed, Spaiii, during tbe ps' 
riod we have gond over, was full of tbe spirit of Hiím cla&s 
of Sctioss, — not only producing thtm ín great numbers, 
and Btrongly marked with the popular character, bwt ear- 
rying- their toue iato the longer roiriaüces and upou the 
atage to a degree quite unknown elaewhere/''- 



mnre to. Át we appinwujb l!ie etiil ot the 
ccnturjr Qot one, £ ttiijilc^ I9 rree \mta Vl 

Apaln In lÜTS-S-O, hiliI irba cBrtAltily wtiB 
A. i^^EHl Ju^^e iu sucb maiteTs, ulirilr^d 
Ümja Tery iDoch. *' L'od liml cocvenSr,'^ 
«:)iw «njq, ■ehua aiNrakiiig uf tb» Spantunl^ 
v-ctX rj:ieír novefa/i^ *^ ga'íls cnt □□ ^édÍb 
purlteitller pv-at ee» soiWa d'otienLges." 
(Vrjynge, Tum. III. p. 117.) ADd alie 
prniiiiiaeB to íencl homH tii ber frteads la 
FniDce ipedmeiis oí tliese cLnrmiriB lal*s. 
Tlie Imih la, Blie liiul itlieaily liona 11. In 
tnr fuurEh Jetter, ai tht ennl or hl'T fiTSt 
vi>tiiiDe, íhe story g( tba MjircKiliin'PSfl de 
liiH RLds la a rntíTE ti^Lliin iji Ibí! ^]>h.n¡^]l 
mn-blKii' \ ]Lna!, aftertfords, jii J6Ü3, al14 
pplnttil futir iithüT sUirit», inxkr ch« tille 
'^Bifilurití couvelle ds \sLCoarA'Kmmt¡a^ ;" 
* — rurjr gpod lioLtatiDua ni iln: ¡^ovslaí Qf 



MonlalvELn, SjiDtaa, onS Salus Barbjulill'O, 
but B litUe tari lüag. 

'^ lUüy i' Üi^ Ba\Y cavnlij íhU. cae 
cntvr iblu cnnipc^i^^oi^ witb 9<paiD. Ui tbe 
iji?pnrl^-<^Dt i>r t^l^fa clurlDj^ tb>i] alKk'cuUi 
QJiQ úJíV^niAM^iiUi centuriEip. Icdp^^ I 'Ata 
Laí oerHlln, CDnsUcrlng tht alnirt jicrhid 
(B liEÜii luoTv [I^fijs a aBnlnry) durlpg: prlilc^b 
)4píirilfl^ ulLüfl wtre tiifibÍLiTliLl>liT, tlIHt bb 
IDUfty in propQTlívri were ditL pnidui^^l UB 
ir«jri> prüduued ur ItAl!s.n tali~< lli Itgly 
ilurtng' ttB Itnig piTiod — rmr ei'nturl™ 
and u lialf — ia líhich iboy linTE nu« Iwwn 
prevBleiiL Umn!. Ariil If, lo thn Sjiaatab 
tales Tarind In ^ouhB profra^ln]i aiitl nol 
pr^Hr^fiing' lo l>s «jillf^MuiiB of Lliuní^ wb 
aiy (hf ItioniHiuiis uH-'d np íd S|iiinii(ti 
drnniiu. tg «-tildi Ibn Bkler Ituliiui ULfBtra 
i^i^na p^r ctkuiLLErpii.rt, I aniipoiB thcto god 
[lArilly be a duuljL lliat tbi^tv aie rst¿lg 



OH/r. X5XV1.] THEIB EAHLY SUOCESS AND FAILUEE. 



163 



The mciet atvikíng circumstance, howevoi-, connectcd 
witb tlie history of all rtiinaTitiis fiction in Spaiii^ tücj-kic- 
— whattíver forro it assiiniGiJ, — is its early ap- ™«''«vií' 
peaL'auce, and íta early decay. Tho story of "Amadís" 
fiUed the worLd witSi its fjime, when do other Spanisli 
proBB romíim.!e of chivalry waa heard of; and, what ib 
singular, thyíigh the olJcat of its clasa, it stül reraiiins Use 
Tjt'St-writteii lii any langiiage ', — while, od the other hatiá, 
the büok t.hat ovGrthrew this Bams Amadia, wjth all hie 
(ihivalry, is the "Dou ftiuxote;" agaiii, the oldcBt aod 
bent of all similar worlcB, and one tliat m etill read aod 
admired by thousaiids whu kiiow notliiiig; of the ahadowy 
multitudes ít destroyed, except what its grcat autliur telle 
tliera, T!ie "Conde Lui:anor"¡a otder thaa the " Deea- 
mercjne." Tlie " Díatia^' of Montemayor soon eclipsed its 
Italian prototype Íii popularity, and, far a time, ehoQo with- 
out a auccossfiil rival of its cEasB thrcinghout Europe, The 
pivaresquc atoriüs, esclusively Spauish íd their origin, and 
the multitudes of tales that füUowed them with attributos 
baidly lees sepu.rate and n^tional, uever lose tbeir Spaniab 
air and costume, even in the most succeseful of theic for- 
eign imitations, Taken together, the Duinber of theso fic- 
tions ia very great ; — so great, that their mass may well 
be caíled enormoue, But whüt is mure remarliable than 
their tnultitnde ¡a the fact, that they were produced when 
the reat of Europe, with a partial exCCption ín favor of 
Italy, was not yet awakened to correepoiidiiig efforts of 
tlie imagiiiatioii ; befóte Madnme de Lafajette had pub- 
liahed lier " Zayde;" before Sidney's "Arcadia" had ap- 
pearod, or ]>'lTrfé''B "Astrea," or CorneilJe'a "Cid,''' or Le 
Sage'a "Gil Blas." In Bhort, they were at the height of 
theit fame, jcist at the period «heo the Hotel de Ram- 
bonület reigned BupTerae over the taete of Francfij and 
when Hardy, following" the indicationa of the public will 



■nare SpnniBlí flotloDR gf Cbla BtBsa tn ei- 
iMtuDCe llituí ihere ue Ilull!m. LT, haw- 
eyer, ne vrem lo scltlu Üv! pniíLLomly bf a, 
CH>mparii(>n of thv metilo una Iiitp>er1>»c 
cAlaL'iRucB of Sjraniíh itorieti In ¿QtonLn's 
Blbliiitbfcii <rr¡(b tbe a^lmimbly c(!m|>ktí 
OQC QÍ Ituljun Blnrics in Olí " Bfblts^ASa 
dcLlt Hofülle Ituiliiii]'," tif Oue^n, we 
7* 



«liotild tftOe It dlSírenlIf. Bnt, lo any 
eTcnt, MüeD «peakiug al ihe llalUia tan' 
veUe, «e ebnali] rcmciiilWT, lIiBt, notU. 
wry iBtely, tbe whuU; spí'lc hqiI pow-Ff oT 
fictLon la Itfcly, fO lo apeafe, Jiave Iteen 

CUl LIlM üimn fttori lalm. 



154 THEIR EARLY SUCCESS AND FAILtIRE. [Pebiod IL 

and the example of his rivals, conld do no better than 
bring out upoD the stage of París nearly every one of the 
tales of Cervantes, and many of those of Cervantes's rivals 
and contemporaries.'* 

But civilization and manners advanced in the rest of 
Theyfaii Eutope rapidly from this moment, and paused in 
°^y- Spain. Madrid, inetead of sending its influences 

to Prance, began iteelf to acknowledge the control of 
French literature and refinement, The creativa spirit, 
therefore, ceased in Spanieh romantic fiction, and, as we 
shall presently see, a spirit of French imitation took its 
place.** 

w Pulbusque, Histolre Comparte, Tom. may be found in Tolnme XXXDI. of 

n. o. 3. Blbitdeiieyra'i Bibllotecs, 1B&4, wlth > 

M k collectlon of Spanish Btoriei and good hiMorlcal wtA critirál ees»; on thli 

tales of difibrent kindi, all of which, I ityte of wrlUng bj Sutsquio Fenundaí 

twUere, h&re been notioed In tbte Hiabn?, de Navtrrete. 



CHAPTER XXXVII, 

BLOQUEHCE, FORB^BIC AMD PULPIT. — ÍVIB DB LBOM. — LriB DB 
GBANADi.. — PABAVICINO AHD THH BCHOOL OF BAD TA8TB. — SP18- 
TOLABT OORBBBPOMDBNCH — ZOKITA. — PKKBZ. — BAKTA TBBBSA. 
— ASQBNSOLA- — LOPE DB TEGA. — QUETBDO. — CABOAIAB. — ^ 
ANTONIO. — SOLÍ 3. 

We shall hardly loofc for forensic or deliberative elo- 
quence in Spain. The whole conetitution of things there, 
the political and ecclesiastical instifutipna of the country, 
and, perhaps we should add, the veiy genius of the peo- 
pie, were uafriendly to the growth of a plant like thie, 
which flourishes only in the Boil of freedom.* 

The Spanish tribunala, in the fifteenth and eixteenth 
centuries, whether in the ordinary course of their poreiuia 
administration of justice, or in the dark proceed- «'oque™^ 
inge of the Inquisition, took lesa cognizance of the influ- 
ences of eloquence than those of any other Chrietian coun- 
try of modern times. They dealt with the wheel and the 
fagol, — not with the fipirit of persuasión. Ñor was this 
spirit truly known or favored in the political assemblies 
of the kingdom, though it. was not supplanted there by, 
the formidable . instramente familiar in the conrts of jus- 
tice. In theancient Cortes of Oaatile, and still more in 
those of Aragón, there may have been discussions which 
were raised by their. fervor to something like wtat we 
now cali deliberative eloquence. We have, in fect, inti- 
mations of such discuesions ip the oíd chronicles ; espe- 

■ A p«rsoii calUng himaelf Don Oabrlel Kurenmeot m under another, — under a 

García Caballero pubUahed tlt Madrid, In despoüsm as under s rei«bllo. The doo- 

17T0, a pamphiet entltled " DiBCuno sobre trine was fltted to the latitude )□ which It 

la Bloquencia del Bflro," In which he deoied waa laugbt, but no eloquence appeared In 

sil the oíd teachlngg ot Cicero ftsd Quiu- Spqin tlll the Cortea were reriTed atter the 

Idllaii, and malrltailned Uiat eloquence can 7rench carne, 
be al well cultirated under one Ibnn of 



156 



FOBENSIC ASD l'ULPIT ELOQUlüHOE. [PBRion IL 



ciallj in tljose tliat record the trouljles and violence of the 
gre:it nolilea in the rtigna of Jolin tho SeconJ and Ileury 
the Fonrth, But a. íroe, living; diíbate oii a great poIiticaE 
principie, or on the cutaluct of tlioae who manag-cd the 
afTairs qí" the conutry, — such a debate as sometimes shouk 
the popular asBemliliea of antiquity, anii in modem times 
fauB üfteii controlled the destinics of Christciidciin, — ^was, 
i» Spaiu, fi thlug- abaoiIiite]y unknown. 

Even the grave and ñcy disctisBíons to which the pros- 
eare üf afFíitrs gave ñse, were rure aud accidental. TLere 
■wae no trainiíig for them ; and they could he followed by 
uoue of tbe great practical resulte that are at once the 
only sufficient motive and reward that can make them 
enter freely ínto the iiiBtitutious oí" a etate. ludeed, whafp 
ever there was of diácufi&ion in any open asaembly could 
occur onEy in the earlier period of the naonarchy, when tha 
lauguajje and culture of the natíon were etill too little ad- 
Tanced to produce sp^cimene of carefu! debate ; ÍOr from 
the time of Ferdinand and leabella aiid the daya of the Co- 
munidadea, the Cortes weie gratlually restraíned in thcii' 
privileges, until at laet they ceased to be anything but a 
part of the pagCantry of the empire, and sérred only tO 
record the lawB they should themselves have dJBCUBsed 
and modelled. FroM thia períod, all opportunity for the 
growtb of political eloquetice in Spain was loat. It would 
have been no more tolerated by onti of the PhilipB than 
líUtberanism. 

The eloquence of the pulpit was checked by similar 
Pa\ait causcB, but íii a difl'ereiit way. The Catholic re- 

«lomiunoc, ligiou has maintaiued in Spaínj down to a late 
periüd, more thaa it has in auy other country, tUe charac- 
ter it had duriug the Middle Ages. It haa been to an ex- 
ti-aordinary degree a religión of mysteries, of fortae, and 
of peuance ; — a religión, therefore, in which such tijodes 
of movin^ the Tinderstanding and the heart aa have pre- 
vailed in France acid England aince tbe middle of the eev- 
eiiteenth centnry have been rarely attempted, and never 
with great BuccesB. 

If any exception ia to be made to this remark, ítmuet 
be made ia the case of Luis de Leou and íd that of Luis 



Ohap. XXXVU.] 



Í,UIS DE GKANADA- 



15T 



do Granada. Of the fimt we liave nlready spoketi. Hñ 
priiitcící, ijidi;cd, no eermuije ag snch ; but he in- tM\td<3 
aerttíd iti IiÍh uther works, aud etip{.'GÍa.lly in bis ^""■ 
" Nyniescif t'luñst " audmbie " .PerJect Wife," long- decla- 
Tniítions, BomctimeB preceded by a test and sometimea 
not, but reg^ularly divided into h-eads, and wearing" the 
general appearance and attributcs of reli^ions discourec». 
Tbese, siuce tliey were priiited as early as 1684, ina_y be 
acBounted the €)iiri¡eBt specimetiB of a higher Spanísh 
elgquence fitted for the pulpit, aud, if not actuaUy deliv- 
ered, are Btill worthy of iiotice.^ 

The case of Luis de Granada Í8 one more diiectly íq 
poiiit. That rcmarkabl c nm-n wae head of the lui, ,io 
TJtHiiiiiiCini ordev, or the order of tlie Preaching; ^^i^nuda. 
Mimka, so that botli hís place and h¡8 prtifeBsion led him 
to tlie cultivation ofthe eloquence ofthe piiEpit. But, be- 
eidea tbici, he eeccns to have dcToted himaelf to it with Uie 
strong piefererice of getiiua. preaehing extempúraneoiisly, 
it is saíd, with grcat power aitd unction. In 1576, he pub- 
lished A Latió treatíse oii the snbjcct uf Pulpit Eioquence ; 
and in I5&5, afíer bis death, his friende printed, in addition 
to tbose publiahed during bis lifetiinc, foiírtecn of bis mora 
formal diacourees, ¡n wbiuli he has been thought, not only 
to have given a full illustration of the precepts he incu!- 
caled, but to have placed biinself at the head of the de- 
partment of eíoquence to whícb he devoted aa much of his 
iüe/ 

They are in a bold and nfiSneut style, •— somewhat mys' 
tical, as were hia owa religious tendcneiea, — and often 
more declamatory than eeenis iii Iteepiíig with the severo 
and solemn nature of their Bubjecta ; but they are wríttcn 
witb remarkabLe pujity of idium, and brcathc everywhete 



vaoat bcButlful, ípocimca li lu thn flrgl biMik 
[rf"TlieNiimP8arChrÍHl(" tha Wxt belj.g 
fTiim la&Jab Ik^ 5: "Tba everlubtiPK Fb^ 
thi-r." 

B II shoulil be obnervoij, tlinl Luis de 
GreiniiilH wan oim aT llinat illntliitfulubcd 
wrílen obu, b/ tbi.'ir cxamp!?, dUcnunijcil 
the uuror wurii* durlvüil frum cbv Arüilc, 
aud naantd mure uul incrH Mi tliu true 



fnnniJations of tbe CaíLtilan la the Latía, 
and «o t«DLled Iralli M etirich aiiñ purify i't. 
ludeeil, tht^lr InOumoD was to etcaLIil Iho 
velen <if PliUlp II, ts to miilte, if Dot > 
n^viiliTtiuct Ui tlir-lr iiatlv<^ lanfutuí^, út It^HAt 
dintliiclly to mridlly !t. How luniiy ivonU 
oTlsltr iiTiutn it im» it flrsl neot&iary (o 
expldlp we bnTe alixTidy ntm, VuL iL ir. 
S2, noLe, aiid el^i^iilierc. 



UnS r>E GRANAPA- 



[Pkiiiod 



the Bpirft tif tte relígfion Üiat wafl bo deeply iraprcesed 
un hia age aud couütry, PerljapB a míjre [.:ljaratteiistic 
Bptícimen of Spaiiiab eloqueuce can liEirdly be Ibund, than 
that in whit-'h Luis do Granada describes tbe resun-ection 
of the Saviour ; addiiig tr> ¡t his descent inta hell to reacue 
the sou!b of the rigJiteous who were pinüig there becauae 
they had died befoi-e his great sacrifice was completed, — 
a doctrine of the CatholJc Churcb capablt^ of hígh poetícal 
ornament, and oue whicb; from the time of Dante, haa 
becn often sCt fortli wítb tho müat aolemn eflect, 

" O» tkat glqrious day," líKcIaime Luis de Granada, in 
his sermón oii the Eesurrectioüj " the eua fihone more 
biiglitly thfln ou iill otberB, serving its Lord in dutíñd 
Bpleiidor auiidst his rejuicing^B, as it had served biui ¡n 
darlciieas tbrougb hie anBcriiigs. Tbe Leavena, wbicli had 
lieeri vfiled iu mourniug to bidé hia agoniea, were now 
tirígbtwitb rcdcíuLIed glory as tbey saw him rise conquer- 
ing from ihe grave. And who wcnld nat rejoice in such 
a day ? The wbule bumanity of Christ rejoiced iu it ; all 
th© disciplea of Christ rejoiced in it ; heaven rejoiced, 
earth rejoiced ; hell itself shaced in the general jnbilee. 
Poi' the tnumphant Princc descended iato its depths, 
clotbed -witb splendor aud might. TEie everlasting- dark- 
ncas grew brigbt before bis. eteps ; tbí eternal lamentap 
tionB ceased ; the leaLms of torment paused at bíe ap- 
proacb. Tbe prineea of Edom were disturbed, aud the 
mig-bty men ofMoab trembled, aud they that dwelt in t-ha 
liuid of Canaan weie filled with'-fear. And tho muUitiido 
of the 8ul]'tiríng murmui'ed and said, 'Who is this mighly 
one, so resplendent, so powerfiíl ? Never before was hia 
IJltenefíe &een in these reairas of hell ; uever hath the trib- 
ntary worid seitt such an one to these doptha, — oue who 
demanda judgment, not a debtor ; one who filis us witb 
dread, not oue gmlíy like oureelvea ; a judge, and not a 
culprit ; a coaqueror, not a einner. Say, where were onr 
watchmon and onr guards, when he bnrst in victory on 
onr- barred gatea ? By what migbt liae he enterad ? And 
wíio J3 be, that can do íhene thiugu ? If be were gniltyj 
he were not thus bold ; it' tbe abade of bíti lay oii his Bonl, 
how could our darkneas bo raade bright witb hÍB glory ? 



ÍRAÍ 



isd 



If he be God, why shouhl liell receive Iiim ? aini íf he be 
man, whence huth he thia uiig'ht 'f If be be Gud, why 
dwelt he in the grave ? aad if man, by what authority 
woald he thus lay waste our abodes ? 

" Thus jnuríDtíred the vassiils of hell, aa the Gonqiieror 
entered in glury to frue his chosen captives. For there 
stood ihey, all assembled together, — all the bouIs of the 
just^ wlio frum the ibundation of tho worid till that day 
had passed through the g-atca oí" the grave : all ihe prüph- 
ets aud mea of niight wba had glorífied tbe Lord iii Lite 
maiiifuld figotsieB of martyrtlürn ; — a glorious corapany I 
— amighty treasiiue I — ^tfie ricbest inheñtance of ChrÍBt'a 
triumph I For therc etood the two oiiginal part-nts of the 
generations of mankind, — the firet in sin and the ürat in 
faith and hope. There stood that aged saint whü peBCUcd 
in thii mk of eafety Üw^e that n^peupfed the wnrld whea 
tho waíers of tho deh.ige were speut. Tliere Btood the 
fatber of the faithful, who first reeeived bj merit the reve- 
lation (if God'a will, and wore, in Lia persoa, the mwTka 
of his electüm. There etood his obedient son, who, bcar- 
iug on hÍB ehouldcTB the wood of hia'own sacriflco, Bhowed 
furth the redeniption of the woiid. There stood the hnly 
progetntor of the Twelve Tribes, who, witmíiig hia fa- 
ther's hlesaiíig Íü the titrünger guise of auother's garh, set 
fórth the mystery of the bumanity and mcarnatiou of 
the Divine Word. Thcr-e Btood aleo, as ¡t wero ^uests 
newly arrived in that etrauge land, the Holy líaptist and 
the blesaed Simeón, who pniyed that he might not be 
taken frora the earth till with his own eyes he had sceu 
itB ealvation ; who reeeived it in his arma, and aang gen- 
tly íLb canticle of peaee. And there, too, found a place 
the poor Lazarus of the Gospel, wba, for the patience 
with whii;h he bore hii? wounds, deserved to join so noble 
a corapany, and ahara its longing hopea. And aíl tliie 
mtiltHude of sanctified spirits stood there moni'niíig.and 
grieviiig ful- this day ; and in tlie midst of them all, and 
aa the leadei" of thetn ali, the holy king and prophet re- 
peated without coasing his ancieot lamcntation : " As the 
hart panteth after the water-brooks, 90 panteth my soul 
after thee, O G-od I My teara have been my meat day 



160 



LL1S DE CHANADA. 



{riiRiuu u. 



and night, wLile they coatíniíaUy say unto rae, WEioro ia 
th^y Gi>d 'í ' O blesKOd and liulj' ÜJig', if ihia te the cause 
üí thy lamüntation, Ict it veana íuievev ; Ibr btibulJ ttiy 
God ! bcliold tliy Saviour ! Change, tlieiij thy chatit, and 
sing aa iboii wast wont to eing oí' oíd : ' Lurd, tliou liaet 
been favoríible mito thy laúd ; thou hast pardoned the of- 
fericea of thy people ; thiíu liust liidden thy face from the 
iiiiiltitude of their aiua.' " ' 

It would not be easy to sclcct a naoro striking example 
tban thia of the peculiar rhctuñc that waa most tsought 
Íd the Spa-uisb pulpit. But the portioiie of equal meiit 
are few, and tiie aniuuut of tlie whyle Í8 Bmall. Af'ter the 
btíginning' yf tUe eeventeenth uentury, the aflected style 
of üÚHgoL-a and the coticmtB of the scbool uf Ledeema 
cuitisinn in fo»nd thcír way into the cburchea g-enerally, 
fiiKiufíicK. and eepecifdly into the lihurcliea of Madiid, 
This was natural. No persone depended more úli the 
vuiee of faahiüu than the preachers of the court and tha 
capita!, and tlse fashion of botb was tíioroughly infected 



t Bea the iccounla a( Laia ile Oran^i. 
In Antiiaiii, soil iu Üiv PrcfscD to the 

"(JuiaJe Pecndort'í,''' MHd.riii,nB], 2 lum. 
B/o. HÍB trr^-atC^e on ]pu)pit eloqueiice, 
eatiLI*MÍ k^ Rhí^Uirica; Eccívhíelsücji!, bWc 
de Rjitlüi;e Cotii^oDikDd!, Libri Sei," «lai 
vaiaeá íd cithur counCrii-a. An i-ditiua i>r 
il, Coljgnc, 161L, 12inn, SLI^ ulH-ve 500 
doBclf prlnud fiiLgeii. It Is B«i]ii:v''hKl- 1«- 
niB.rk&bli?, Ujuí, buniíleE tlie B«rtniiii od tbe 
Resurreniiim, fpiim wlilcb Üi« vitrant I 
buTv LniuíluLeil WHS uiixln, une of the beat 
vi hia niBiliuiUiiiiB, llIHt ■■iitll.leJ " De Jn 
AIortí-h. de Ina SnnUiB iPiwlres," iS OH the 
sjimii BUhJ-nrt. He nna bgm In IBM, tud 
llU>d lo 15«S. 

Two utiier of hii MorkB — the only tran^ 
IMiODl, I llellí.ve, tlint be ever iDoití — 
maj aperné uoíla:. Tüb a.rsL is tlie trí'li- 
tíse ''* l>e ImilHUuDe," uctribut^d la Ttinmit^ 
A Kempis, whiili LutB de Orauí-diL puti. 
illliod Id IMT, alltrinK il, hiiwever, stii] 
T^PU-QxÍEg tci it a bIiite 1>al befi^Biru] üDl 
□loTiay PKriue. The otliet^ vbích ap- 
píiuvú Id 15as, Is the " EcnJa. P&rodlBl >' gl 
Joba, u Qi<kI¡ niBak ot Moniit Slnul Id I1ie 
■Lxth cGTktuTj, who obuLoi^ú tbe Diuae of 
Juhann«B Clymacue írum ki.. .!.!>;, — the 
míe sf hia bcot: in eIig cii^liml. Uatfí Are 
na elikTBGtcrlBtic of Líiíb lie 'Qnuiidii's 



dlDd uul ■ffteUoitS' ss muíit or hk cim 

WDTltB. 

It I» DOt DUt üf ¡ilaeo here to Blulí Chat 
the " Scalii Piinidlai " eiijo/ed two other 
KDLiirlk ublo dls^nctlotil Id Lbe SpAulsb 
Iiiii.|i;uii^. Lj ]504 It WHS-, bf iiider ot 
Catdliía! XLmeiifB, yrloied mTuleilu lo aii 
BDOuyincms í'itHltillLrl senlu-n uf niuoh. mírit 
IU lo lis Bljle, miiLIng a, lasarloiis fulb nf 
u tauudredlmwvi, cuplés of n'hkh^ as eñrly 
aa l&Sd, had nlrutulf Iiecntnn ver; r&jv?, 
Mid or whleh Iha one I ¡«isBCía le rbe «inlj 
ane oíffhiisb 1 biivi> an^ notice. (■* P&gcla- 
BJmi QiiBC inTenlUUlur et mil pwtluro tnri- 
tata ftAailgent," #tyi Alvares Gaiaea, Da 
REbiM OMtlí i Fr. Sippeillo, 15ti», f. ID.] 
The üther dlBllnction t-r ths " Sc.ila. Filia- 
dla I " la, tÜBL, íd a tmwtatloD niaJc liy 
Er. Jnaa de EslTEda, ít *«« Lhe firal IhhjIc 
eTír prinWd tu. Mvxíeo, ^nd Iherufíire tha 
flist took eTBF fiTlliU-d t" IhB New Wntlil, 
hETlng- appeanid in l.«3, (N. Ani., Blb. 
Mov., Tem. 1. p. 69^, »nd Pelllcer, BIh, <]a 
Trsd., Tom, II. p. 13fl.) The tililonco o[ 
aa eíirlicT BnanlBlí iranslatlno hna been 
dtíniíil, tiecunee thí niic prlntía hy order 
of CuTíUnul XitflCBSB í» ao níarly niilinoirii. 
Lílíjde OmiiSil*, I Uilnt, litnriíver, murt 
hav« IcuíWb It, 



Orap. XXTVn,' 



PAHAVIODíO. 



161 



PanvlclDir. 



with the new doctrines. Paravicino, at t>iÍ8 pci-iod, was 
at the hcad of the popular prcachera ; himsetf a pmet dc- 
Toted to tbe attectationa of Cióugora: u man of wit, a 
gentlciimü, aod a conrtier. Fruía ¡fíl6 he was, 
diiring twenty years, pulpit urator tu Pliilip íhe 
Tliinl anii Philip ttiG Fourtli. iind enjoyed, as sucli, -a ktiid 
and dpgree of popnlarity bcfore unknown.^ As niight 
haré been eípectüd, he had raatiy followers, eacii pf 
wliiim soug'bt to liave a fafttiiunuble audieiice. Siicli audi- 
encL's wciT suon systeniaticaíly provided. They were, io 
fact, colltictcd, arraiiyed, and seated by the triends and 
adnúrer3 of the preaiiher himaelf, — generally by tliose 
who, from their eccleBÍaetical relations, had un üiterest in 
his sucGCBS : and tben the crowda thiis gathered veré 
mduced iit diílercut ways to cxpress their appiubutiün of 
the more chiborate passagcs in hia discourae. From this 
timo, and in this way, ri?3igiciuB dignity dtsappeared fnitn 
the Spatiish pulpit, and whatever there was of valne in 
itg eloqiience was coiifined to two forme, — the leomed 
dÍBOUBBÍünB, often iri Latín, addresaed to bodies of ecolesi- 
aetics, and the estcmpuraneons eshortationa addreaaed to 
the hiwer claBaes;— the latter popular and vehemcnt in 
their tone, and, by their coarsenosB, ofteo unworthy of 
the aolenuí Bnbjecta they touched.* 



B Wtille Vncflvklan vm u fh« htíBhl ivt 

b\í »ii4^»ii, a- iDO-]ui!t trC'Rilfe en Fuliilt 
Orainry, iitiiuHy vvlHi mCuijucu lo ttí tn- 
llglnus íhíiT!ií[i-'r, ii,p|>i-ur>-il, in whicU Ilic 
eiiUivm.a ni th<i Mmv le írcatiMl with graat 
m^ítf, U A tnvTtrr.sM\t<]tjKr/.:iaií\ Tunüj', 
Wbiali, itt tmíiiy •miM.-B, I iloUtit not, U nua. 
&;b '^ t4u mi Lililí! rte Dncumcritíis de Ir Prf- 
dlOlttloQ KvunETllm, |Hir el V, MufaCra 
llíMa Km^li^u™^ PrtshLtero," E^HtU, IMÜ, 
Itu, ChiLp. X. 

■ Vnr PjinLvicinD aiijd hlil achool^ ice 
Bprfiin» (VftTitiBfi Ks-puñol, Tiim. V. p. 
hItíIIO. Bju'iih (HIjnH 4ÍG Mnrlrld, Tnm. II. 
p. aSW), Jiml Ant.inín tUlh. N^^v.^ Tlidi. I. 
p> ftI2}« wh(D qjj^ikkB Jiü l( he hn4 nftrn 
bfnnl PiirnvÍiTlnG''s e]iiii|Hpi->cr', nud wilr 

whii,lnl.ií"l',bidpe™," (1*117, A-livii. IV.,) 
Ip scvert' iii^nn íUe prünchL-re niii) iiunif^iLiNfa 

acrnl," ia'2S, DLi PhUl|i IIL, wsa aLUickfd 



hy Bíi nnnnyinoiu wríWr, whn acauíed him 
□I |] liL|;lBriíRi ñ!, vvll a» litul Ufie, divI I( 
iras úeípsdi;!! h; Juan du Jnurvgui In a 
tncL, tliü BaLmd yvar^ dtillcjitiüij in the 
Cunde Duqir^ de OUvar^i, E«« Spanlsli 
traQElB,tl4n cf tliis BisMi?, Xom. iU. 
p. as^J. Thi: fucí, iLDweTcr, tbaC CiLiiRuuir.> 
In hlH STe fmpdrlBiit TolumES deyatnd to 
S|>iiiiÍBh cLuquence, (" TcaDci UistiFilco- 
crltl«a de In El^quenula, Espaúalit," Uiv- 
ilrld, I7ae-Ql, i taio., ST'»,] hubcen abls 
U> HinilTiiiEtiine lutbeeíTebUenthceuMiTi 
citiur in LtiL' ir&y ot fiirensle orMlnna nt 
nr't'Ulnr nuli'it cliiqiitiitA, wiLti whlch u 

ñll IiEí i>ii)r<4, liiK in nhli^d tu r^eoM tfl 
lh<: Cloqucnt jiTtiíe ni hhitor; aild pbilaM- 
[ihr, nr etbiii anil rdlglirlM UKBHalfln, 
Itlb ni tmue, in a ita-y nuf-fn he miotaken, 
üie taic nf llie deflc ií iiciif a lo Onalilinji 
cliiqiience, lui ihc nJjnl (■faouíucf Ib ira- 
dcrBtoud in EDKHBh. A slnilljir R'mnrk 
ma/ be nmile DDniwriiIng iiu tnciütlie «□ 



162 



EIMSTOLARY GORRESPOSDKNCE. 



[Pbbiud n. 



Turning now to Spanish epistolary correapoadence, we 
firid littie that reqnirea notice aa ¡t portion of the 
oirmp^- elegatit literuturG of the couutry. The heartíneaa 
"** ol'aíiimpler 'úge gives, indeed, a charra to such 

letters as those wLiuli ulaira to have been writtcn by Ciii- 
darea-1, and iii a less degree to tliose of Pulgar and Diego 
de Valera, Later, the despatcbes of ColumbuB, ia wliich 
he made kuown to the world liia vast dJiscoverics, are oc- 
casionally marked by the fervor of an enthiiaiasm inepíredl 
by bis grcíit siiliject ; and those of liie quotn and pattod, 
tlnuigh few in tiumhcr and lesa iiiLereatin^, are quite as 
characteristíc and qiiítc as íme-hearted. 

B\it, with tlie BtiLtely court hrought froria the North by 
OhiirleB the Fifíh, all tiiis was chaiiged, Added forma, 
aiid tuore than the oíd natioiial gravity, paased iüto the 
inteicoiirsí; of aocial life, aud infected the style of the" 
ccimniüiicst correapondence. Gracefid familiavity disap- 
peared irom the k'ttí^rs of íViendftr and even prívate afiec- 
tioQS and fccliiigs were oither seldom expreseed, or were 
so covered up as to be with diffíctilty recogriized. Tlius, 
what was mwst vabicd ín this departtiieiit at the time, 
aiid for a centuiy afterward», were Guevara'a 
" Güiden Epistlea," whicli aro oiily forcnaC dia- 
sert.ations, and the " Epistles" of Avila, ■whicli are ser- 
mona ¡n disguise, that moved the hearts of his country- 
mon becanBc tliey were Buch earnest exhortations to a 
religioue life.' 



€ii«viira, 



lIlDqu!:D(;íik," Sta, Uadrfú, 17TB, and Lon- 
dun, 1H12. 

CiLpiiiikDj', to whonL w< are indebwd, 

VDTlie lu Uiatoiy and Polítl-oj, v/ns bom M 

FBlkcImieDtJ> de D. AdUmiío rupisAny 7 
llontiiaUu, Madrid, I^IS, pp. Si. 

' Tbeu vrltdrB havc' nJl besn mcnllnncil 
«irliEr, (ata aníe, "Vol, I. pp. 366, TI. ITv 
etc..) exci'irl. Queen Isa^zlliL, v/biBS Iclteía 
DnbtsLtoiud ¡D Cl'ímiiQcin'e í'SGvLIcnlirorl: 

vulume of thci ^'Mernitria^ de la AdiEinlrmia 
lie la Hisbirhu" Tliíy are addrtastd to 
ler nfjnrfaior, Herniitiilo ile Tñlavcra, aiid 
■transly iUiwlriiM.- WuUi her prudeucc nüd 
bec «u^mlasind ia ecclsBlaatlciil üiBuedcbb. 



(Soe pp, 3H-S83.) Sfv^ral IMIm» a*. 
drc^acHl líi Cifluubua, aiid Diurt'Ed wltli bet 
eplrtt ratlLer th^LH Lfíat oí Lcr buabaad, 
UiüUíh slgníd bj iH.tli íf tlicri, niay ha 

(VEagen, fU,,) wblcli is liuh In KOEb cu- 
Tbua duiuacnU. 

Juan de Vastar, a ItURsyan, publUhedp 
Iq IfiSB, a BorL út camplctf IclCsr-wrltfr, 
Tliirb he dcillcated lo the wíll-knowii 
l'rlncf of EtKhli^ at trticse requeet íl wat 
prKpAíed. It xE=ni3, from Siírlliig's tus- 
eAtiiiE ul il, la tinvn ^ecu a curli^iUfli l>Mli ; 
liiií I tKVít HHw 1t, Hnil •In iioLiíupiHixt tbuL 
It liml su much influeiicc nu lutttr-writing 
Iti gpain US -liucYiiru'a Soldea Bplullfs, 
putillsLeil Ihlrl; yain liL-fure. Aitbila oi 
Bciniii, IBJS, Vol. la. p. 1341. 



P. XlXVn.] ZURITA. - ANTONIO PEBEZ. 



16& 



Kurtts, 



Piom tillase remarks, hnwever, w© ahould except por^ 
tions of tlie corrtíBpondcnfe of Zurita, the biato- 
riaiij extonding over the Ijist tliirty yearg oC Kifj 
life, ani] etitling: iii 1582, jiiat beCore his death. Thcy git-e 
US tliíí busine&s-]ike intercourse of a mtin ol' letter», car- 
ried on witli all claases of Bociety. from ministerH of state 
aod íhc hi)íhoet eccleBiastivB of the realm dciwu to pcr- 
BOTiB distifiguiabed only becauae they were occupted ¡n 
6tiidie«) Hke his owu. The niünber of letters in tliiti cnllec* 
tioü Í8 lar^e, amountirií!; to abovc twu hiiiidred. More 
yf tliem are hvm Antonio Ag-n^in, ArchbiJihop of Tarra' 
f^ona, au emiaent ecbolar in típaaish hiatory and civil law, 
thüu íroni uiiy other pfirsüii ; but tiiG miist interestiiig are 
fmm Zurita htnisclf, frum his frientl Ambrcisio MiTiriJus, 
from IHe-^o de Mendoza, Üie liitiforiaii, Argote de Molina, 
the aritif¡nanan, and Feí-nan Nuñcz^ the Qreck Com- 
niandcr. Each of the^e actíeB is inarked by soniething 
chai-acteriatic of ita author, and all üf thom, taken to- 
getlier, show more familiarly the interior condition of a 
scholar'a lifií in Spain, in the aixtcenth ccntuiy, thnti it 
can be found anywhere elae." 

But the principal exception to be madc in favor of 
Spaiiish epiatotary carrcspündence is foutid in the case of 
Antonio Perex, aecretary of Philip tlie Secünid, Antonio 
and fnr sorne time his favorile rotnister. His '^'■"■ 
fathev, who waa a scholar, aTid madc a tranalation of the 
" Odyssey,"" tiad been in the euiploynient of Charles the 
Fifth, so that the younger Pérez inherited somewhat of 
tlie eourt inflnence whi^h wae then so important ; but bis 
rapid advfinceinent was owing to his owii genius, anii tO a 



> Tha carne [tondence of Zorita and bfa 
HediIs Li t» bo SQu^ht !□ tiit " ProgrcfoB 
de Ll QÍ9Lorli en ?1 Ilc^na de- An^oD," by 
DleR» .Ic/Evf llormíT, (Zuragaa, 16SD, fcüo.) 
■od CB[ici;ínlly jrp. 'iÜ'l-tOS, wbícli ore 
GUb^Jy trlvtD up ta ll. 

" " Lii Ulyst» lia Unniern," etc., pnr 
Gcmzalo ^ri.-t^ (V^neclft, \¡ih3, 19mi^,] Is in 
l>Ui ik rtraF í tiut iii tliE» rilithiii ni; Ignvc 
onty t([Q Rnsl Ililrtf-Mi bjiiks, «ilii n dnli- 
cMlnn tu Pliili)! thi: Prliicp, vfiíiitc ii\ñet 
luhnx-tar/ GuDinlo Pt-TL'z thvn nuE, H9 \¡U 
Dnii A.riu>a1ii vax íkTíerWLirdB oítriílary üf 
Ule lame PblUp dd ihc UitoDC. SuIíbc. 



«IDentLy, irbGii lie liul tmulated llie Tfr- 

ouiliilss «kren bonkE, he dtdkaUd Iba 
wliale anen* ta l'tiilip na kiofc. (Aoven, 

im, ISniD,) ceTrecLlng uid amcDúlug Ule 
nrat pFkft cnteíuHf . Lope de feg». ([a bli 
Di-rOluíi, Aíla IT. 16. S) pralKB Ibe ver- 
&ÍI1I1 ai PüSvX i bul, likfi tnL>9t nf th.e SyiiUi- 
Íe1i ITuTiBlntlciiie friLim (lin naclenU Im tbB 
«litceiilh cerlury, ¡t ühiiwa lilllv üf Uis 
splrit of the orlfiinul. A pi^l Ufí- uf Giin- 
Mto l'em. bj RaH'ban de A «£11644 T 
tii]«;i, Is lo be fcui4d in BftlYft ! B[Wiiir]a, 
IhiciiiB «litis IneJtUifl, 8tUj lulb. XIII., 
1S4ÍI, j>p-631-64a. 



1S4 



ANTONIO PEEEZ. 



love of intrigue and adventure, which seenied to "be a part 
of his nature. At last, in 15?8, a.t tiie commaiid of bÍB 
raaater, he not unwiningly brotig-ht aboot the murder of 
Ejícovedo, a person Iiigh iii tliu coisíidence of Don Júhn. 
of Austria, whose growiiig ioüiiiGnce it was thoug'tit wortli 
while thus to deatmy ; — ti crine wliicli, perpetrated ub 
it waa in coasequence of the official coiiDection of the 
secretai-y wñth the raonarch, brought Pérez to the very 
hciglit of liÍB favor. 

Bnt it was not long before the guUíy ag-ent became as 
unwelcome to iiis guilty inaster ae tlteir victjm had beea. 
Achangue in their relatiuua followed, cautiously brought 
on hy the unscnipulous king, but deep and fatal. At 
first, Pliilip, whose murrier of Montigny had made hita 
an adcpt .ia crime, peimitted Perea to be piirsued by the 
bi[i5im<?n of the muidiired man, and afterwards, contriving 
plausible pvetexts for hidiug his motives^ began hiinself 
to jüín in the perBecution. Eleven long years the wretch' 
ed courtier wa& watchcd, Tcscd, and inipriaouedat Ma- 
drid ; and ütice. at leust, he was subjectcd to cruel bodily 
tí>rtni'eB. Whcn he could endure tiiís no louger, he iied 
to Aragón, the kiiigdom from wbieh his family oiiginated, 
whoae fteer politícal conetitution did not permit him to be 
crusü&d in seeret. Tliia wafi a great surprise tn Philip^ 
aiid, for an instant, seeme to liave disconcorted his dark 
BchcraCs. But laia resoiirceó were equal to thc cmcr- 
geucy. He pnreued Pérez to Saragosea, and, findiu^ the 
regular means of juatice unequal to the demands of bis 
vengeance, cauaed hifi vicLim to be aeized by the Tnqnisi- 
tion, undcr thr; absuid charge of hcresy. But tbis, agaioj 
in tlie form in wliich Philip found it ueceBKary lo proceed, 
was a violaliDn üf the ancifint privilegos of the kingdom, 
aTid the people broke ont in opon rebellion, and releaeed 
Pere?4 from prisoii ; — a conaeqiaence of bis measnTOB, . 
whích, perhapa, was neither unfore-eeen by Philip ñor iin- 
weloome to liim. At any tato, he inimediii.ti;ly svut an 
army into Aragón, Bnfiicíent not only to overwhelin all 
open resistance, but to Btrik© a terror that ^honld prevent 
future opposition to his will ; and the result, beaides a 
Vaet uumbcr of rich conñacations to the l'oyal treaeury,. 



CwAP. XXXVII.J 



ANTONIO l'EitEZ. 



16S 



was tlie condemnation of BÍxtj-eig'ht persona of dÍBtíníj- 
tiun tci deulli by tlie Inquisítíün, aiid tbe IJual overthrow 
of neurly everyUíing tliat remaiued uf tlie Itíng-cherishod 
liberties of the country. 

Meaíitime, Pérez eecaped secretly frora Saragoeea, as 
"he liad before cscapcd from Madrid, and, watidering uvcr 
tlie ryxt'BeeB. iu the diaguiae oí u ahepEierd, sougbt refuge 
in Beariij at the íittle conrt of Cathcrínc of Bourbon, fiie- 
ter of Eenry the Fourth. Public policy causeU hini to be 
■well received both there and in Francc, where he after- 
warií* p!i8Red Üie greater p^rt of his long exile. Duniig- 
tíie troubles betwfen Eüzatieth and PJiilip. he inBtinctively 
went io Eng-huiil, aud, wliile there, was luuch with Etifiex, 
and became more fumiliar with Bauoo than the wise aad 
pious mother of the future Ühancellor thought it well one 
Hú proflígate aa PereB Bhould be." Philip, who could ill 
endure the idea of having such & witnusH of bis crimes 
intñgais'ig at the courta of híe great enemiefl, endeavored 
to have Pürez íiíi6a>í«SLnated botb in París and London, and 
failed more from accidcut than from went of well-con- 
certed plana to accomplisb hig yhject, 

At IttRt carne peiice Letween Eng-lanii and France on 
oue siJe, and Spain on tbe other ; and Pcrez ccased to be 
a pers'iü of conaequence to ihose who bad bo !ong usod 
him. Eenry the Fourth, indced, with hia customary good 
natiire, Btill iiidulg:ed him even in vcrj estravag:a!it modea 
of life.'whieh ratber rescmbled thoee of a priuce than of 
an Bxile. But hia claime were so uureasonable, and were 
nrgcd wilh such boldnesH and pertinacity, that everybodj 
wuai'ied of hím. He therefore fell into unhoaored pov- 
erty, and dragg-cd out the miserable life of a neglected 
and ruined courtier till 161Ij when he died at París, 



ttrtt vüluma iir Iljmli's Mirmoirii ot tbc 
Bcign urtíueen Eliiiibrlh, lTEt4, miitiBiiiíingr 
otlier thlngs, n Idtfr, atp, 1J3, hi-m LoitI 
Bbcuii'b miaChír to ber bou Anthiiiiy, in 
■hich the *ií-rn ola laily S"i¡di¡ muth ilis- 
tur^ed thst her «qh Fninda — hhí whiat 
llítiire fn^Blnf-BB ahí Iind no vistan — shiiuM 
BUDdace -wiiLh B mHU nii nii|irÍDii;l|iliM si 
Vetcx. ahí BQji : "1 pit)" juar htothtr i 



yeí go lüi>g lu he pEtie-S not hiniSSll^ bul 
kacptlli tlmt 'binad/ Pi'm, jen, os a CD&dh- 
ctniípnaLoQ ajul b^-compaDlou ¡ A t'^On&tl, 
priirint, cmtlj- (füdW, v-hnie belng HtiAUt 
liim I rerilj- fvia Mri Liird Gi-a ilotli tttla- 
Ukc Biul doíh leaB blues riiUJ* Tirúlhsr lo 
ctc^iL íiTid Dtherwl^ü in l]i:iUtli j — puri-ly 
I uní mbirlj íismuniKed iitid miike Dan- 
aclcnce furtliPr to nudo lliyaríl lo raainlaia 
audj wntches &s ho le, that devgt layad 
f O'ur hiDlhcr bul for hia owu nreúit" 



166 



ANTOSIO FE HEZ 



[PiKIOD U. 



FouL* years later, the Inqiiiaítioiij which !iad caiiLged hím 
to be burnt ¡n üffig:y as a heretic, reluctautly did hiin the 
impierfcct jnstice of removiug theír iiiiiitbetnaa from his 
meitiory, and tliiiB permitted )ús cliildren to enter into 
civil rifíljtB, of rt-hicli ncithiüg biit the most shamílesa vío- 
lencc liad ever deptived Ümm. 

From the tiraf! of his firsf imprÍBonment, Pérez hegan to 
write the lettera that are still estaiit ; and their series 
never stops tfU we approaüh the period of hia death. 
Bome of tl>em are to his wife and children ; othera, to Gil 
de Meea, hia Cíjnfldeutiiil friend aTid agent ; and othcrs, to 
persona high in place, früoi whoae itiflüCiice he hopod to 
gíiin favor. Hía NarrativeB, or "Relations," as he calla 
thoui, and his " Memorial " on hia own case, occasion»]ly 
invotve otlier letters, and are themaelves in the nature of 
long epistlBB, written with great talfint and still greater 
ingenuity, to gain the favor of !iíb judgea or of the 
■world. All theae, eome ot^ which his position forhade 
him ever to send to the peroona to wlaom they were ad- 
drcfised, he carefnlly preserved, and durín^ hia esile pub- 
lished them from time to time to suit hia own poÜtieal 
purpoees ; — at firat nnonymoualy, or under the aasumed 
natne of Raphael Pereg-dno ; afterwards under the acem- 
ing- editorahip of his friead Mesa ; and finallj, without 
diaguiae of any snrt, dedicating- them to Eenry the 
-Fourth, and to the Pope. 

Their numher is large, amounting' ia the most ampie 
collection to above a thouaand pagea. The test are those 
tliat are most familiar ; for even in the slightest of them, aa 
when he íb seiiding a preaent of gloves to Lady Rich," or 
a few new-faehioned toothpiclts to the Duke of Mayenne, 
there ¡a a nice preservation of the Castílian proprietiea of 
expressioi}, M^ny of them gparkle with geiiiua ; some- 
times most unexpectedly, tiiongh not always in good taBte. 
Thus, to hÍ8 innOCcnt wife, shamefully kept in piison dur- 
ing hie esile, he aays: " Though yon are not allowed to 
write to me, or to enjoy liphat to the absfint is the breath 
of life ; yet here [in France] there ia no puniwhment for 

11 Tbia ia tbe Lidy Bicb so iiidg!i noQDFHTCed with Uil' d»3.¡ipa! DlmenU Dud «orrowi 
of 8irPtillípa¡d[ie?'>]lCe. 



Chap. SXXVII.) 



ANTONIO PEEEZ. 



16Í 



tlie prnmptingR of natural affectiúii. I answer, thcrcfore, 
wliat I liouf iu the sjiirit, joiir complainls of the punish- 
ment lüíd un ytiiir iiwn virtuea and on the iunncence of 
your cMMfüti, — Complaitita which reach me froiQ that 
asylmn of ilarknesa and of the shiidow of death íd whiclj 
yon uow lie. Bnt when I Hsteu, it seeniB as if I ouglit to 
hear you no lese with iny üutwai'd ears, just as títo worda 
ariil cries tliat come from the Caves uuder Lbe earth ouly 
reeininrl the loudcr, aa they are rolled itp to ua froui their 
dark hídiug-places,"^'^ And again, when speakiug- yf the 
cfugI condiict oí his judgCB to hÍB faiuíly, he breaks out : 
" But let them not be decGived, Their victims may be 
imprifloried aud loiidcd with ironB ; but tbey liave the two 
mightiest advoctitcs of ibe earth to defciid them, — theír 
Innocencc and their wronge. Fof neither could Cicero 
ñor Deraosthenes so pierce the ears of men, nor so stir 
up thcíir mínds, ñor eio sbakc tlie frame of thingB, as can 
these two, to whom God has gívcn the eapecial privilege 
to stand forever in his presence, to cry foi' juetSce, and to 
he witnesBen and advocatea fór one another in wliatsoever 
be haa reaerved for h'm owa awful judgment."''^ 

The lettcrs of Pérez are in a great vacíety of atylog, 
frevm the cautious and yet fürvent appeak that he madc to 
Philip the Second, down to the gallant notes he wrote to 
coQrt ladiee, ^rnd IIja overSowing-e of hig heart to hia 
young- children. But they are all written in rcniai'kably 
ídiomatic Caatiüan, and are rCndered interesting from the 
cii'cum ataluce I that in each claas thei'e íb a stnct obeerv- 
ancc gf euch eonventional formg, as were requivíd by the 
relative social puBitione of the author and his correapond- 
enta," 



w Obra», OlDcrra, IGM, 12iao, p. 10T3. 
i»™*,, p. 9fl. 

11 TLe ftrst pulUlíiitlon tit the Rttaaionr.a 
Ql AdMdIc Purea WAf \WVe bee^i in the 
vürj> rarc VLíldluP «btllleil " Pedamos de 
lllKCoria, fí¡., luiiJi'eto va Lmn," n. n., k 

eniíiU Ito, SUS iKigFí, bL'Blili!! Ibc prcléi- 
Mry bulI suiípkineDtBry inaWw. Tt la 
dedlraileil ti> VIhiwm, anij vnti, Jiiilirlng fruní 
the type mil paprr, prliiteil iii Ktiglacií, 
where Perra then UtoJ, und perliapí at 
tbu expeniB oí Qtuseii Eliiabeth., idia |tiil> 



roQiEed him nod Is Qattcpcd BxLrava^Dtlj 
In the iledicalioD. Ttín vaa rui t&riy as 
1^, Car Micnet ti>. Í3i3. cnto) ctU» a 
ItnnolpitkiQ oí It Into Sulc'h, vuIíllElieil la 
tbikt ytnr Id Iha Lon- Ciiuntrlcn, n-blcli 
hiul Ui?u bccn tu \aí¡% iu n'lic'llian ai^luat 
Bpb!e. Bill I íicüeTC Urnt Uie sepcirule 
RtJacionet of whut hniitHrlicil at Snr&- 
£11993 aa tht 24tL ffll May snd ihe Ulth of 
Sopleiiilwr, IBfll, had l*i!ii priried tsrlli^r 
&añ circnlaleil tu Ulr up dlBaojileait Bt homev 
In anj event, bmrever, tbe " B«1acloue>," 



IGS 



SANTA TEBESiV 



[PEiUOb It 



BaliU 



The It.'ttera nf Santa Teresa, who was a coiitempoTftcy 
of the secretar^ ui' riiilijj thií Hccoiid, and dit'd 
iii 1582, are entirely difiertiit ; foi- while mothing 
can Uo more practical and worldly tlian tliose of Pérez, 
tbe lettei-s of ttie devout nun are entirely apíritual. She 
believed hiirself to be iiiapired, auil tliereforL' wrote with 
an air of authonty. whiclj is almost always sotemn and im- 
positig. Luí ivliicli sometímcB, throiigb its very büMiieea 
and freedotn from &11 reatraint, becomes eaey aud gracefut. 
Her taleata were verEatile and her perceptions acute. To 
each of her many c orre apon de nta she eaya something- that 
5«emM «uited to the occaaion od whicli stie ia cousulted ; — 
a taak iiot easy fot a nun who líved forty-seven ycaia in 
retirement fiom tliu woild^ and during that time waa caLled 
upoii to give advice to arclibishops and bishops, to wise 
and able state&men like Diego de Mendoza, to meo of 
g^eiiius likc LuÍ9 de Granada, to perfiona 5a prívate life who 
were in defip íffliction or ia great danger, «nd to women 
In the ordinary coiirs-e of their daily lives. Her lettern fill 
four volumes, and thotigh, in general, tbey are Oiily tO be 
regarded as ferveut esbortatiuns or religioua teachings, 



aa Uicy are cnmnioDlj' oiHeiJ, ncrc prinLed 
BE-a-i»! but wUh tiiiiDfrnu» utiAtigos atid 
iia[|lIIi>nB, st PArls, Id 1698, iía, |i|i. ^31(1, 
liceiilti thu pri'Iulory &Ld Bup|i1rme¡]birf 
mratlcí, Binunjc nliich la^í ane lelíers of 
Prm.'Ctii. At tlil» lime, hoiiuvur, t>elne 
In France, be dnllciitfs hli vulumc tu 
Henrí IV. ; but in my copj( wlth a «pn- 
ralc pBgínutiiiD, ti bIh í dnllcatlon lo the 
¡■jipr Biid Ihr Colli'i-e af Cardinals, vlildi 
waa. ao diiubt, ^lltoln1l!J logn (instend of 
the oiiH til Henry tV.) lii Iha cnpiemmt to 
Bnmei Indeed, PcrcE flf'tnia to havc b1- 
waj* puhliaheiJ lila wurk& wJlli iiliaiqgíi ta 
mlt the place nnd tliu iltne wlifre thejr 
arlMiirtd (.liut tLn masl complete ■uuHetUon 
Ib thnt of Oenrra, 1054, 12ihu, p.p. 1126. 
Rli life Is üdinlnihlf dljKUiUL'd b; M. 
Mignet, Id lile " Anlonli' Pereí ni PIíl- 
lippe II." (Mn *Mt-, Pírtí, ISÍfl) The 
Work of Balndor Dcnuuilrii de Caplro, 
eotiUed "Antuinln IVrex, Katmlio» lliflt ri- 
co*." (Mudriü, t!l41. Svn,} wiiuld be bctter 
Ir the QTithnr hi&d nol permlllul hlnifleír to 
hlilulí^p in tí.ct]aDK, flLich && bjillod pcM^Lry^ 
iFhlch he cali» Uie jiwlj; of PeivE, ana 
whlob he glxt u pan of Ül« meana Peres 



ivA Co vtlr up Ule p^ple oT BrkraRii4rift« 
'Ule iiyta nr l'rreí in Batan {Tum. I,, 17S9, 
p. 1211 '^'d LiitafiBa (BIh. H-iV-, TdMi. 1L, 
llfíV, -p. laSÍBlioirLotrutiBldmenof EfUres 
wiTü, its LiLi! OB the ead Uí Chii eigbUcutli 
ceutiLryi ta apiiruuch aoj autJt'Ot Ihill qqd- 
neetti] wllh rojalty. Ths worka of PetiiB 
are ntrlirtly fiictiliiden bj Ihe l»AiX RipuT- 
p^ntAríujB nr the tnqulpítlon to tbt laatp — In 
l'iW anil ltiD&. Tlic letl.fr« aC Pct«l tO 
KxBci Hre In prEÍtj' (tiMid LH-tln, and nnt ni 
Illa Bpiiuiah irorlca Lberc ircre earl; muda 
twa nr Üiree DoUccLlana nf Ufriile lad ^trík- 
Itig nphor bilis, wblch buvE tatVD aeifrnl 
timen )irlDted. Thero nrc ttmiiij' MIS. let- 
tcra nf Perea m.t the Qagnn nnd f^laewherc, 
rer^rred to lij Ulicnet. atid thcm in in Iba 
Biiyul Llbrorj ut Faríi an ItApniiant ]»>- 
lllical treatlae wlilrb hca.ni hls □»□», but 
whieti, ttiDiiglh eIrtiOKl}- mAiriied wich 1ib 
■cuU'nGM sdJ bTlIllancy, OehoB. hi»ltALeB 
to aUrlhult to hlin. It i», howevcr, I beta 
lieTi'i liia. (Sne Ochim, MsTmafrítoa Ba- 
pnínlea, pp. IdS - IW ; sníl aeniiiujtria 
Knutlto, Tum. VIH. jip. 2tí iiíid 2Su.) 
FnrbbvT DJ»!riiijile of Psrcí kre to be fbuiid 
In Llórente, Tom. III. |ip. Bla-37IL 



Craf. XXXVH.l AEGESSOLA, CASOALES, SOtis. 



U& 



still, by ttie purity, beauty, and womanly grace of thcir 
aíyíe, they muy fiúrly claim a diatingoished placo in the 
epistolary literature of ber coiintry.'* 

SomG portiona of thc corTcspondcnce of Bartolomé de 
Arg'ensola aboat 1825, of Lope de Vega before ^^ ^ |^ 
16S0, and of Quevedt> a littU later, have been pre. i-oi-cae 
Bcrved to as ; bat they are tüo in considerable in. QiitToiJo. 
amount to have much. valne. Of Cáscales, the Ant^oit^ 
rhetorician, we have moro. In. 1634, he printed ^''"" 
tliree Decadea of Letters ; but they are alinoet entirely de- 
voted tu di&cuseions oí poiuts that ¡nvolve learned lore ; 
and, even where thcy are not &uch, thoy are atiff and 
formal. A few by Nicolaa Antonio, the literary historian, 
who died in 1684:^ are plaia aod bueiness-like, but are writ- 
ten in a hard etjle, that prevente thera froni" being ín- 
tereating. Those of SoUb, who closea up the century and 
the period, are better. They are Buch as belong to the in- 
tercuciree of an oíd tnaa, left to etruggle through the laat 
yeara of a lotig Ufe wítb poverty and misfortiine, and ex- 
prese the feelinge becomíng ble situatioa, both wilh philo- 
Sophícal calmnegs and Ohristian resignatlon.'^ 



V « CartaB ijo Santa Teréa» fle Jesutij" 
Hudríit, 11S3,\ bnon., Ha, — chkBs miUen 
■n tlif liLtti^r psrt «r licr lilii. 

SfiTeu MUm;» oí Juan de I& Snl, Ittehop 
ti nniiB, jii ll^ie, te tht DiLkB uf Mtilliiu 
BldoDis^ miLf Ijc rouod la Lhc B lili io Leen d« 
Aulorr» l^itpnnulcs <Toiii. XXXVI., lS6b^ 
Bnri aro nurtb Dotice. Tbi')i coDcern tlie 
bnclei ur pr«t^GHÍDiia ur ■ ««cultir clérigo, 
nuncd Fraucigco Míiides, whu lalil ho 
■hciuli! -lli! un a curljilu iliijr, 1>ut sutTired 
KTcrsI muiitb9, auil Lfirn diei, It «as 
Uiaugbi, uf uiun.incittlQU ut tbe bllore (jf 
hla pnipliwy, anii ciglit juira afíerwsrfs 
mu burnl \a Biliar bjr the taquJalllnQ qb 
■n Impostor. Qe was prubably, aa Don 
Jium thaujcht, (luly a erasj man, who ut- 
tertü a, vasl 6«n.l oí Donseuse, aad wbo 
BttrBcLuí] murL' attfntEün bj h\í claima te 
mlra^^ulouí- ÍítTCf\¿\ii tlmn. (Ley d^etirrE^d- 
Tho lEttiíta aro [lUIn and ftbnple, irith k. 
KLUIh huDicir ELíid mucli [^üoü-Bensej but Ds>t 
odLprtrj.%? reinnrbaliCp. 

'^ the tcUFr^ uf Ai^enBoln are {n the 
" Cwcu de Varluí AuUirea KapnDulBS," bjr 
MajmnB j Siaoai, (Vuleoda, Vl'li, 5 Latn., 
TOL, III.' B 



13nii),) — ItKlf a mantuDctiC of tbe p^ 
crty ur BpaDlBlí ILlcraiurc In tbit dtpnrí- 
mEDt fram n-hlub jt AtLeiniJ'le to moka a 
Eullectlrjii, etaco b; br tl]>e^ ((n^atec piut oF 
*lt cutitilBls oT oM prlotcil licillcations, Tor- 
miLl riil.iitl«9 or appmlnUíia Lhst had boca 
l>reflieil W bnuis wlicn they werp ílntt 
püblishuti. Uves of authors Uiat had scrved 
fa ijrefíces to thtlT wnrk». e\c. Ttio kltüra 
«t Quuvidu DDil Laiw are EhleSy on [It- 
erarjr Biih3i:c1s, B.ud sre acstlered Üirau^li 
Üielr respective «r!tlag$. Tho»B of Aa- 
loiiio and SdI¡& are In n Hmall v-oliime 
puhllBllBd lijr MajraDB ai. LjroBB, tn 1733 ¡ 
to vbicli majbc added tih(»K; at tiho cod uf 
AnUmio'g " Censura de UIstorlsB Fabulu- 
BBS," Madrid, 1T42, fol. The "Carta» 
Fhiiolc^cna " of Cnacalea, (of irbkb llii;rH 
is a nent «dltloD by Sandiei. Uadríd, VW, 
Sio,] are to BpatD and Lbt; bek llLilhich 
they were irrítien nha-t tbe "btno and plena- 
aat letJter& piiblíshed by Melmoth, uiider 
th« jiaeudonyme of Titíi isluirne, are lo 
EnglaDá in the reígn of George 11-, — ail 
attenipt La nnite as much Icaroisg oa the 
public «aiild btivr wíLh &□ lufuslun oí 



170 



EPISTOLAR^ COKEIÍSPOSDENCB. 



fPKftIOB D. 



But no writer íq tbiS hisíory of Spanish epietolary 
correspondence tsan be eompared for acutenoaa and bril- 
laancy witU Antonio Pérez, or for eloquence with. Santa 
Teresa. 



Ughur iiiB.tUr ín dlHoMiDni oiuui«eted 
trltli iD-úriEB aun "■"■""" To tlisse mar 
bi íAátá, U3 oíth BLDilLir faat not ei|im1 
pnUEulDDo, Ihe "SpIsloUi Tariai" <a 
Fd.ll! d< Lodo £9pliiDaa, oí EslilooBEa (4to, 
I^TS) i — ui aiutbar alniody naCiceil Tcr blB 
pwr aonQCts, (aafe, Tol. III. |i. 13, Dotí;,) 
tal nhat* letten, UiDugh. the-y ¡js raLher 
leimsd HS4TI than. leiitr», ue beitiT ttasa 
Blght beiixpectedrToni il)£ir perlod. Ihej 
&^ addrps-icil Eli N'LcDlRa Autoiiiü, JoA^f 
FéllÍG&r, J-osef Di:innFrt &uA otbí-T ecbülare 
di Uic timo, ADd. lame of tbem uc BarioiiB, 



fifr Üielr nooMIte KAurch ; e>. gr., cha 

cn'cirUi, tu tbe obÉ cI bevi^rag'EE u-CiScliülr 
ccoIhI. But tbe (eiT lettcra of {aonzalo 
Ay'OTB, dT ttio lime ol e^Tllnand the Dith- 
Dlic, uad oí f niDclBco Ortii, of thí liffi« if 
Uburles. V., tbough prcaB«d ¡01^ thu ecr- 
Tliw b/ tb« cdllvctor -of the EpIíiulailQ 
Eapsñol tLat [(^^jde- VoI. XIII, of Klb|l<3D- 
□«frn's ])fblLiih:c^ ISBC, do not IwIodb bl 
u oull^cCiüCi i>r the «piBlulnrj cvrteapoid- 
OncB oC u □al1oú, And ouly pture, llkE Lbe 
cijllectiiii] vf MayEíoa, hun litUt Ibere fi tu 
be gnChfrt^, 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 



HI&TOKIOAL OOMFOBITION. — EDRITA, UORAL'BB, BlBUtBNETBA, SI- 
^nEKEAj tfkSlASA, SAKDOTAL, H£RBERA, ABCE;H'§OLJl, TDB INCIA. 
GilSCILA&SO, METfHOZA, HONCAT>A, COLDHÁ, MBLÜ, HAAVEDKA, 
BOLfa. — GKKBBAI, KGKAJ1SH ON TIIB SMKIBH BIST0B1AN3. 



TsE fathers of Spaniah tietOry, as distiDg-uished from 
SpaDisb chrouiclíng^, are Zurita and Morales, both mitoria»! 
of whotn, educated in the reigu of Charies the*™^"""" 
Fiflh, Bhow that tliey were not inseuaiblü to the iufluencea 
of that great period in the aonals of their countty, and 
botU of whom, afiec its cióse, prcpared and published their 
works under the happicst auepices. 

Zorita waB bora in Sarag'OBsa in 1512, and died there in 
lóSO : Bo that he had the happineaB to live while 

,, . , ... -., . '^'^ . , . , Zurita. 

the political pnvileges of his native kingaom were 
yet littlo impaired, and to die just before they were eflect- 
■ually brok&n down. Ilifi fathet waS a favOred physician 
of Ferdinaud the Catholic, and accompanied that monarch 
to Naples in 1506. The son, who showed firom early youth 
a great facility in the acquitjition of knowledge, was edu- 
cated at the Uuiversity of Alcalá, whcre it was his gooA 
fortune to have, for hÍ8 chief instructor, Fernán Nuñez, 
■who waa commonly cailcd the Greefc Commander, frotn 
the circum&tance, that, while his poaition ín the state as 
a member of the great family of the Guzmans raade hím 
Knigbt Comraander of the Order of Santiago, hie personal 
acquÍBitiona and talents rendered him tíie first Oreek 
fiohobit- of his ag^e and. COuntry. 

Ab the eider Zurita cúntisued to be much truated bj 
Charlea the Fifth, and as his son's coniiectione were cbiefly 



ZUBIIA. 

wíth persons of great cansideratioD, tLff progTeas of the 
fiíture historian waa at ñtBt lather Íri the Jirc-ctioc of 
ptiblic aflaire. But ia ISiS^ under ci reuní etau cea peculiarly 
houorable to him, he was appointüd Historíographer of 
Arag^on ; beiug; elected unammously by the free Cortea of 
that kiug'doiii to the office^ whích they had juat estublished, 
and as a Címdidale for which he hnd to encounter the most 
powerfui and leamed competitorB. The clection seems to 
llave Batisfied hi& atíibitioü, aüd to have given a new direc- 
tion to his liíe. At any rate, he immediately prccurefl a 
Toyal warraiit to eiamine and nee all documents iieedful 
for hÍB purpoee that cuqM be found iii aay part of the em- 
pir&. ünder thia liToad authotity he went úvermuch of 
Spain, Consulting and exaaiinin^ the great national rec- 
ords at SimaiicaB,^ and then visited Eicily and Naples, 
from whoee raonasteriee and pubüc archives he obtaiiied 
furtlier ampie and Icarned Bpails. 

The result was, that between 1562 and 1580 he pub- 
lished, in sis folio volumes, "The Annals of Aragón," 
from the invasión ofthe couptrj by the Arabs to 1516 ; the 
last third of bis labor being eiitirely given to the reign of 
Ferdinand the Uatholic, for which the recoUectioDB of his 
father's Ufe at the court of that TOOnarch probably sflbrded 
BOtne of the most interCsting matcrials. The whole worfc 
Ib more important for SpanÍBh history than any that had 
preceded it. It has hai'dly anythíng; of the monfeish ere- 
dulity of the oíd chroniclea, for Zurita waa a man of the 
world, and alwaya concemed in the Blirrtng iutereeta of his 
timo ; firHt, from having bcen intrueted with the municipal 
affairs of one ofthe principal citiea ofthe kingdom ^ next, 
fmra beiag charged with the general correepoodence of 
the luquÍBitioii ; and fiíially, from his dutics as one of the 
seci"etaries of Philip the Second, which kept him much at 
court aiid about the king'e person. It shows, too, not un- 
frequently, a love for the ancieut privileges of Aragón, 
and a generoaíty of opinión on poütical subjecte, reíaark- 



I in DccDiiDt a{ Ibia rieiaaiíi>il)1« udIIm- rciiinil In the ■' Revlals LitcniTiB. del Eip 

tlunnr records, nbkh rrütii 15m, Wbea il ñnl," 3S d« Ju1lD^ líl-tS. It la very eiMou 

Vaa iiegac, }iai be«]i LCi C¡biir¡i« ut f)ttB Ubi Tt)t Snt BDegc-IllOD ct fonnlng asilen 

the Bune familri, -nhe prHerV« h tradiliim- (LTCÜItíb U dae, I belieTe, Ca Cvdmkl 

«J-; kaon-ledK-B ot itS H;Bú>ICC«B, Biay bt XimuieB. 



CHáF. ssjcvrn.] 



ZURITA. 



173 



ab!e ín one who was aware thst whatever ho wrotc woiild 
not only be sabmitted before its publication to the censor- 
sbip o>f jealoua rívula, but read hj the wary aud gevere 
monarch on whom all his fortuiies depended, aad toTvliom, 
ou BOüie' OGcaBitias, be has been accused of a aubniiaaion 
or subsemency ínconsistent tritli his independence as an 
hietoriaa ; althoug-h, perhaps, oot more thaa was needñil to 
juaure hÍB succees or even his safety aa such.* Ita faults 
are its great len^b and ^ carelesene&B of style, scarcely 
regarded aa faulta at the titne when it waa written.* 

JMoraies, who wns an admirec of Zurita, and defended 
him froíD ODo of bis asBailanís in a tract pubitshed 
at the end cf the laet volmne of the " Annals of 



M'dnüM. 



t Sea G-of uigm, 1nuutBtÍl>P, Tvm. III. 

s Tíie bíat nCFtloe Di Gei^Euraa de Zorita 
Ib U)« uao at Uio «cd of Pnrt n. Cüe^p. I. 
nf PrescoH'B " Ff nlliitnií sad Isabcltiii ; " 
— Iba iDoaC ampio la íke tolia Tolimie ar 
iJlego Jaseí Dunuar, enUtled " Progre^jw 
de Ib. JtLalartii cu Ar&Baa" [Zarat^tica, 
jase, foiiij) ( pially a ll/e oí Zurito, pub- 
Ifsrieil in tiii haOM IJJ thfl C-tfrWfl o[ liLa 
pative kiiigiiain. Tb«re are Beríral -edU 
tiDiu úr hlB ¿nnali ; aod LütiEBD (Blb. 
Huesa, Tain-L pp.3Ba-37a) eI^üb u UaC 
■f abiive fíifly n[ til9 TOEka, -nearlj bIL un- 

puiiiiBjied, Hjid nuiíu nf ihi-m, ii'f'jhably, of 

InfBPi^ thpy are (^pnorplLy fliitiíiii1Í4Lryr Qe 
held aevcrrkt ofCc^B ui^der ^2iUt{> [I^, and 
tUere Íb el leltdr Lu liUn (njm lía tltig In 
Sonner, (p. 309,) wl(lcü ahowa tliat te 
eojojcd iDusn -uf Ule mf&t aDUfideraUQU ; 
ITmiixli, M I have intlniited, Qiül ra ipny 
be fully Ecen in Dormer, CLIl». II- o. 2, 3, 1,) 
he wiifl lUTiuli tcaiiPii , ut one lltnti hy llie 
cenaora of hU ÍJlsUiry. Tho flcal nJltfoii 
of the '^ AnnkB"ile La Cíironn ñb hrAgaa" 
W^ [luliliSiheiE in dlflisreot. yraire, M Snirn' 
ÍDtBa, beLnstn Ibe'l noá I5B0, la wtAch n 
TelUQie llf Iui)ilt<iA HAS ^ded iii líüM, 

nakbg seveD voliuaes, riilLsv in «H. The 
Ulnl iKlItli^n. Zia&¡i<>ia, W\*)-W21,'l tola. 
rolle, Is ibG úbe itkU ¡a f rcfcrieú, 

AmittiCT VQluiae wu tvlitcd lA I)iD AtianlH 
of ZurlU {ZHragcn&, ISOO, rol.) by Bar. 
lalamL' l^cutinrilLi de A-rgerianln, tbe pciel, 
nbn tirnu^'ht thvm. duwn. (o 1&2Ü ¡; liut It Ib 
loa dlílusc. BIHng abnva eleveu hundreil 
pocet wlUi the ovouu al ddI? íejiu ycon, 



— ISlf) *Q 162», — ^Jid íb Isbb wUb and tar- 
partlal ib»n Znr(ta=a greaL wurtí, tftoftgli 
|>ettB? nrUlen, In paiot of atyle- Xo XX9 
n^TD, the lil&lary of Argcnfiolii n'^ cafí- 
t1ailí?d üj Fraa. Diego de Hh^bs, {is Í|i0 
" AllBlJ« de Aragón," (fol., toej,] Iíi b. utan- 
ni^r ftlniE^fit equQlLy dlífuAC-, glving q^v^ 
vSg'bt t|u.Bdred pagcs u> aibout Ecar yparfl 
maTS ; 1. e. [rom íits end of 15:10 to JSSS. 
Sa^aa, wLs dieü JiilGSD, wriiteuthfrvDr^i, 
Itut hdqBf i tbiolL, Df csQSEqueDC«, (1a- 
Ussa, Blb. KoT., Tom. III. p. &G1.) Dar- 
nnr, wbo ald «9 amelí ivx Zurita iti uUier 
Vftya, publiBtied, in lOST, as EDbsLdiarj t4 
Zutlih's B'^"'^f woTli, a íullo THliinia, e-n- 
tlüed " Anales ili! Ara^QO, d'ÍBd^- 16^ 
JiBSts. i«lo," pp. TiM i tiit, Hk« B prcat 
ipanf jth^^r bÍBCuriciU narka tlie-t b4 ga^ 
tli-ltka world, It Is Ghrcriba|li]|g ^tld doca- 
■meriiwy, *nd makeB littii: iifcianeion tu 
siyle. pormer dísd le llOi., 

1 Itbva Hild Uuvt ZiítUa. wu employ^ u 
tlLflr«[!lIT ot Pllilip II,, ffíila tííDU te time i 
«nd tiiUlt mu the ÍMl, Bul thie tltle oilifii 
lilit>li«(l lilUii exdtilit Hierlglit olChepervia 
WliO llOW [t to rtcelve a mod-erate mlarjr 
fromlhf ^iibllti IjíuBiLry i — a clrcumatanco 
HbEch I Ojiiiitíon becausá 1 hava ücclaIíih 
l!r«iiuulitly t<) aHiLlCB aiithorB irhti ircrs 
roya! bi^úi^-ÍArlÉa ar scrIi>eB, froni the Eme 
al ElaHna, tliB J«t, in Uie dayí aí Joba Ll., 
dowQ 1(1' Üie dÍBfippear4inefl< of Lhe Aueiriojí 
faraflj'. Thaa Qaosala Fefee a-aá hia Gom 
Aül4i[iin "w^Tc rri-yid 9e(;retBHeH< ; biv ircre 
ihE.' two Qui^vicdoa., and many intareí lia 
1C06, Philip UI. hall twcnty-ultie hucIi 
«ecrelurlen. Ckoicnoüi, Dotc to Doo Qalj^ 
oto, eane n. o. 4T. 



1T4 



MORALES. 



[PkEIODlL 



Aragón," was bom m 1513, a year after his friend, and 
died sn T591, having- anrríved him by eleven years. He 
was educated a.t SalaniaTica, and, besidea oarly obtaíniug^ 
Cburch prefermentB and distinctiona, rose subs&quently to 
emíuence as a Profeesor ín tbe Dniversity of AlcaU. But 
from láíO, when he was appuinted Hietoriographer to tbe 
CrowB of Castil-e, bo devoted Limself to tbe completioo of 
the Eiatory beg^un on so vast a acale by Ocampo, whoB^ 
work be sgema to havo tahen up in some degree out of 
regard for the tiiemory of its author. 

He began bis taskj liowever, too late. He was already 
Bisty-aeven yeare o!d, and wben be died, eleven years af- 
terwfttda, he had becn able to bring it down no ftirtber 
tbau to the unión of the ctowdb of Caetile and León, in 
103T, — a poinfc from which it waa afterwarda carríed, by 
Sandoval, to tbe death of Aifonap the Soventh, íd 1097, 
whcre it finally ütopB. Jmperfect, howeMír, ae ¡s the por- 
tion compiled in bis oíd age by Morales, we can bardlj fail 
tü regard it, liot, indeed, as so wiec aad well-weighed an 
hiatorícal composítion as that of Zurita, but as one marked 
with much naore general abilíty, and sbowing a much more 
enlightened spirit, tban tbe worfc of Ocampo, to which it 
serves as a contínuation. Its style, uiibappEly, is wanting 
in correctneas ; — a circumetance the more to be noticed, 
siqce Morales valued bimself on bis puro Castiliao, botb as 
tbe Bon of a gentleman of high caste, and as tbe nephew 
of Fernán de Oliva^ by whom he was educated, aiid wbose 
works he had publisbcd becauae they had done so mncb 
to advanCB proae composition in Spain,* 



1 Tbe HUtary at Aicbrinls de HonJe» 
wat bnt piLbllahed tn tlirer ioilis, Aloal^ 
1574 -TT i but iJie be» «ditlan Ib ihat aí 
UlulHd, ITBl, id ais sqibIÍ r]uu-UH, lo 
«lilob ara cammanl]' added taro votmcta, 
dstfd 1T92, un SfiAnisb AotiguitiE^e, a,Dd 
tbree mure, ilatcü 1:793, of IiIr iciacellaiiF- 
ooB WDrts; — the wliole bclng firereilal bj 
tbe vark o( Ucampa, la twD roluniic», oL- 
reaijjr hciIíchI, aiid rollaweü by llic oontlou- 
■ílrin of Smtitnvul, In nao valum ?, n vntTc oT 
■-bruL rqunL miirll w\íh tbut at MoriiliM, 
sjid írtt priQlud ni PuraplooB^ in IBIS, 
lona. Ilia Uuec BUthorn, Ocumpo, Uoriilas, 
Rj^d SiuidavHl, token tü|ii!tlier, are tbaí 



made to fi.ll liralTe TolamM, wi it Uiey b»- 

longed !•> ana watt, to vblch li gívea Cba 
imauitable utie oí "OdiduIca Gk'Deml d» 
Eepaúa,," 

Sloriües, tti Ha ynutli, oruelly inutilalal 
ÍLÍ9 peraon, Íd 'Order ta Inanre a. |>TÍeil^ 
|i-LDrÍty of lifcj acd wellnigb died of thtt 
CQüBequf^aoVB- 

I miiflbt baií iii<ulioi;i«il ben tbe " Ct» 
meutsFio i]i<1ii Guenada Alcuiülii. lie Lutt 
de Aullii y Z.iii'i ign,' ' a «tnall vulame, (An<- 
vefs, loso, 13tl!D,) BríL pricteil la 154S, 
üaú frequeDlly ufMrnardfi, io Id«tÍEL, ItaL- 
loo, liad I^Dcfa, as welL a» íd SpuLish. 
It i) aa acconiiL of tbe campalgoa ut 



ChAf. sxxvtu.j mendoz.\ asd others. 



175 



Contemporary with botli Zurita and Morales, bat far in 
advaiice of büth of tbwm aíi íí writcr of hintory, was the 
oíd Htateaman, Díeg'o de Menduzip whuse fresh and vigor- 
ouB liccount of tlie rebellion of the Moore in 1568 we have 
ali"c-ady coueidereii, uoticÍTig- it ratJier at tbe period when 
it waa wríttcn thim at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, when it was firet given to tho ivorld, and wben 
Siguenaa, Ribadeneyra, Mariana, Saiidoval, atid Herrera 
had already appeared, and determioed the character which 
BhQuId be doully impressed oa Üáa department of Spanish 
litoratctre. 

Of tbis group, tbe first two, wbo devoted tbemBelves to 



Oharlsi T. !□ Oertnnn;, in 1540 md lUTr 
prepu-al, pmbBbljr, Iniai lufnrin ^ti-im fur- 
nliheiL b; Ihc Emigrar himii^ir, CK^THira^ 
SLíIdr^h, 1&S7, I 13,J >|]1 vrílten ja K 
iuttiiT4i.l, büt by □■> mcuna pallahed, Cs«- 
tlliají Btjle. Parla oT it btw Inltrnal ít[- 
dcDC! of linv litg be«D atitcposeá at tbe tcij 
time uf the uvciiUI Üicy reco-nl, uiil tho 
wbftii^ {b erlileDklj the VLDrb or ooc at the 
fijw prrwiial frlenda Charlts T. eser hait ; 
one, liuwieverg wlko don^a nut &i:ipeHr to 
mucli Jiilvauti&t'e &n the prlvaLu lettere ot 
GulliuUTni! ViiD Mjik, iiriiiird by tli« UvU 
gliul BibU-aptiili'B, tn 1313. Bi»inl(<, ToL. 
I. p- IW^ DDte. 

Eellicer de ToTir, in bia t^aiorU de 
Eflliuiís,''' (4tD^ IDóll, p, Ifl,) speaki af tlie 
•^ Ct.ilii4^nl]ir^E] '* afl if it were reillj llie Work 
oí í.-liurle» V.^ juid GubrerrLf in hia trvatlke 
■^IlB Ülsioria para. eoteiLilerln f uacrirlr- 
la," (mil, <- T. b.) ¡Dtlin&li» (he fUDC 
tblu^ ;. bul tht; accoanl ijf FfiivikTTa ti nloiv 
tlkely to be Ini:. Btilí, Ihat CbaiÍRi íi- 
r^i^^tíÁ cojOMavnlati'ia ítu hit DVD ívlgn 
^vim c^rtaiD, anú It ii eütrcm-ely proliublo 
tlni^ PliiLlp II. ilmtirojíil tbcm. Kul tliiif 
veré ei^mpUed by liintunlf aiid Tao MaJe, 
and huí ouEhing tu úa Kllli tbe CooiLaeD- 
lnrieB dí AdlH, thoagb tbi'y muy faikve 
IpT^Q rlae I» tbe mialake aad cenTri^íuD.. 
(OuNard, " Eftraite el Murt de Cburiea 
V.,"Toin. rr,, isas, p, eslvi.) Bci-tb ¥ud 
Hn.le jLotl AvIliL Kari muab ubuut Úia per- 
SCT| or CharU» V. H.Í3 a.ttBclimeDt ta botb 
pc«m9 la have contluned to the Inat. Avila 
boa an eslUe by liia irire at Ploaenela, 
neu Vue-M, and livciL Eb«rt; wliile th4 1£id- 
fem wtB ÍD tb« roovtat ; Tlaiud Lii ota 
uuUrolUik 1 and iros cae cd Ibe few per- 
Hu oT eonililenUJini ud nuk irb» me 



roand Edi dBalli-bi>d aed (rho monmed U 
1il3 l^pcfxJ. Oiie lis;-, we ole told, «hea 
the Emporor bul dlii»l fijnriti^ir at tbe 
coavcnt OH cipoQ, be suJit, " Pal a.vraj the 
red oflt far Don Luh ^ — ¡wchapa wa shiül 
hiTe iMithluig eine to eIvü hlm." And, oti 
BiiaUíKr occsjalnn.siieslLEne oTtiit " Comes- 
Uirio," he shM, " Alcimniei ujhiíred 
tjiíU-r chinga th&n I htvn, bul he liad ost 
■11 g<K)d 4k chrinilclcr." Veta j Flyueroft, 
Vüdu y Uec}io<i de Carloe V. (Madtiii, 
IBM, Ito, IT- 12S, 129, 130,) — a pleBaiui:, 
gii»slpln({ iKult. liiit tull or the iQtoloranoa 
and Wss lufully ar lu ame. 

'Vheru ta t. QennaD tcaD§tatlDa of Lhe 
" ComentarlD,''' pnbltaheil iritli the tiUa 
'■^ C}e§ch.j-{:hle dpfl Schii]alku.ldi«^heaKriegea 
Dích Den Luis di! Avila y Ziiiíi]p'a,"(fifrlÍE], 
18S3,) whicb B«snia to he oarírutljr dnoe. 
EoliErtSDQ u»i'd the Latín veT«lii.n <if pmr 
VuL MaJe, prliitvil lii I5SD, He Diliiht, 
hiiweveí-, ií he LhhI buen coríou* iu euch 
miLlleiH, hikie fuiLiiii niti Eii!(llHhi:i]iv pdnltd 
¡o 1&S6, af iFhielí Mr. SLJill.ng^ tiu a ecipy 
ia bla very pr«clnoa ccIloctlDii, It ru 
made, 1 tblnk, hj Jotin ^Vllkiaiicín, and li 
desflKbeil in UIIhUh'x .imcs, l»ie, Vnl, IT. 
p. 42r. ThL' original li. ri-piibüíheili la 
the BibUoíuGH lIu Auliirta Espnñnl-e-g, 'foDi. 
XXI., 183-í. — I fauve nn IlAllaii truiu* 
latina of It [lEinted. Ii.t Vcnii» lo 1ÜH, tila 
very jear uf ita Qp|H.'araDCE* in 3[.iiuiiHb., 
and onl; Due or tfro ymri aJl«p tli<^ eianbi 
it recurilB. It ma; bo be» &dded, Üiat 
Btlrtlag, Íd a pleaaaiit and IncereBtinif trnct 
prlalPÍ Tor tiie FhlloMblon Sooiety, Lon- 
liiiii, 1866, mi'l eiiiltlal " Nutleaa of llie 
Emperor Cliitrii^» v. in 15Sa and ISiO," 
bu same cnñous bata aboat Aviu. 



116 



rtIBADEÍÍEniA.-SI(!UENZA.— MAEL4NA. [PehiodIL 



Kputoxft. 



ecclesiastical liiatory, and entered into the religious díe- 
SihadE- cussioQS of ttiGir time, wercíf pcrhaps, originally 
nnyr». i\iq niost pmmiiieíit, Eibadeneyra, oiie of tíie 
early and t-fficietit merntiera of th-e Society of Jesuíta, dia- 
tiiigiiinhed himself by hia " History of "the Schianí in the 
Englisb Ohurch," in the time of Heary the Eig-hth, and 
by h¡B " LiveB of the Saints." Siguenza, who 
was a disciple of St. Jerome, waa no lesa faithfiil 
to tlie brotherhood by whom he was adopted and honored, 
as hia life of tbeir founder aiid his hiatory of their Order 
aijundantly prove. Both were men of uncommon g-iftg, 
and wrote with a manly and noble eloquence ; the firat 
with more ríchness aod fervor, the last with a more sim- 
ple digciity, but each with the earnest and truating apirit 
of his peculiar faitb.* 

Froia the nattire of their -Buhjects, however, neither 
qf them rose to be the great historian of his COuntry ; — 
an honor whtch belonga to Juan de Mariana, a 
foiuidlíng, who was born at Talayera in 1536, 
and whose extraordinary tal^nts attracted the attentíoa 
of tha Jesuíta, then fast advancing' into notice as a relig- 



Uirlom. 



■- Pedro ds EltiBAeocrTa, whQ died, ni-ed 
84, In ISll, aall Icrtiiata a b^imlliü epi- 
teplí WM cúupoasd tij MulHi», ircDU 
atvenl wariit íl hAnor dt IiIa Compftnj, 
uiil MTwal ucttie q'orka, beeldca hli 
•■ Clmft de InsiiAerra," CBircslona. IBM,) 
v¡a hli " Flúi a&netDrtinV' Haicfd, 1«Í9 
-IVOl, 3 lam. folio. The Hnl Jarer; ui]- 
lair, but the aabj^cC itu tfiEptln^ to a 
ei)9Ei3h Cal huUe, J lint «itiir AnwiiJfiWDH 
etllhii útit; *iiid, tiEijbI>i::i, Ibe pcraeeuCloDB 
o( Eli!»i.bQtli iFcre eufUcUnt to JuetlTy n 
•tero febults. Xbe bntM'e popularit; «bova 
Ebat 1t vu weLl tlmcd. Three erlitioiiB oí 
itkppeared Id IfiSS. ULa '■Iciktado da li 
EGlieion," dedlckted t4 l'billp II. Id ia9fi, 
sdI Intended u an aníwer te Uafbis- 
TcUI'i " Principe:" i^ontüDS eloqaaut pia- 
IBKea, but l&ckB Lhc iicuti^ntao aod power 
iKEdfu] %i encauníorlag un adv^re/iT; ao 
bnnidsble by bis ievire Btreugth. 

Ja9í de eiKUvniEh *ho vu ti(»-n in IMS, 
KUl dioil in leos, ai Frl«r sT Uig Eacorlnl, 
- — Who^íi tQDStruclioü !lí TíitoEílíd &\id 
á*t£tíÍttA, — piihliihlti his ""Vid^ <ití Ban 
Qi^ruDtlA'U," in UAdiid, IfiCí, 4lo, ajid biB 
"UlBtoñbátiiíOiútü de Bbil OeeñuiAiii," 



(UBddi,lS00-16»5,Stom.,fal{o,g«iftDDeil 
bj FraaclEco de lúa Saatol, leSÜ, Filia.} 
He «u perB«iil«d by Ch« InqnlaliiDn, 
Llórente, Hiat. de riEqulalUoD, Tam. U., 
1817, p. «4. 

It wouid be Msy lo adl tu tbííe tm 
wTltíra ob eceleelMllcsJ hlítorr the luniea 
cf man; moK. Hirdly a coiiiíent di a 
aalDt oí íuj note in apatu, ■laTlIns \lhs eLi- 
leentta aod ievi;u't(u>ntb ceuturfei. failvd at 
«Speci&l EomoiSlDotatlúD \ kUd eult Of th6 
rellslaai atútrñ ftbd greu cbihedraig had 
M le«K 0D« LlilorLan, and UMt of <h«eii 
íevcfal, Tlie iiuraher of booliian Spinisb 
eccleslAftlctU blsury to be- foucd In Ibe lUt 
U the end iif tbc ae£i>aú Tolume or Ao- 
taclifr^B Biblistbeca Nova la, therefore, oae 
Ihat m&y well tw called en'ynDuiU'. S^me 
ai Cliem, too, llke Cbe Blitur/ or th« Order 
oF St. Benedist, by Sepes, and s«veral Di 
the Itletotifi «f IhoBe urden- thal Trere botli 
knig'titlr Bud reUnloiiB', are oí na Utlie itn- 
poTtnnce fsr Ibe faeU and doeumíDtti vlih 
nliicb th67 HT« EiuvídEd. But ACarlf a]l 
qF thEm OT^ Le^v;, fiíi-uklsh Lliilnlh and 
núK oae, I bcü-eve, búí lIMr&TJ BOrlt 
taiDUgh tú aLUad nnf Bt(«'ntÍDii. 



CwAP. xsxvni.] 



MARIANA. 



m 



íous pOTOer.^ HavÍDg gone througn a Hevere conrBe of 
studiea at Alcalá, he was selected, nt tlie age of twenty- 
four, to fill the mofit important place in the great colleg'e 
■which tlie merabera of hia aocíety were then cstabliohing' 
at Rome, aod wliich the^ regartled as one of their princi- 
pal iiiatitutiona for coiisolidatíng and eitending their iuflu- 
ence. After ñve years be was removed to Sicily, to 
introduce BÍmilar studies iiito ttiat island ; and, a little 
later, be was traneferred to Paris, where he waa received 
with honor, and tanght for several jeara, lecturiog chíefly 
on the works aod opiíiíons of Thomaa Aquinas, to crowded 
audíences. But the climate of Frauce wae unfiicndly to 
hís health, aiid m 1514, haviiig spent thirteen years in 
foreign countricH, as a public instmctorj Le returned to 
Spain, and established himself in the hous« of h¡s order 
at Toledo, which he bardly left du ring- the forty-nine re- 
maining yeais of his Ufe, 

TbJB long period, which he devoted to literary labor, 
waa not, however, permitted to be as peacefitl as his moc- 
ita Bhould have made it. The Polyglot Bible — A.iit<^!ist 
publiahed by Arias Montano at Antwcrp, in 1569 Powifi- 
- 72, wbich was at first received witb great favor, but 
afterwards, by tbe intrigues of the Jesuits, was de- 
nounced to the luquÍBÍtion^escited ao bitter a quarrel, 
that it was deomeJ necessary to inquire into tbe truth of 
tbe charges broiig-ht against it, By the management of 
the JeauitBj Mariana was the principal perBoa employed 
to make the ioTe^tigatíon ; and, thrOugh hia leaming and 
ínfluence, they feJt aure of a triumph. But tbough he 
waa a faithñil Je^uit, be was not a Hub^ervient one. His 
decisión was in favor of Montano ; and this, togetber 
wíth the eircuraetance that he did not follow the intima- 
tionB given to him when he was employed ¡u arranging 
the Index Espurgatorius of 1584, bronght upon him the 
displcanure of bis superíors in a way that caused bim 
mucb troubie/ 

<> Hk niludea ver; grascrully U> tbe f\vx HQltkor <>t tba " mgio Hie torios " o( HoD' 

«t hii tiirlli lu the «pening tí ble IKíClie IkOfl. Jii tbe ^Bvcníb TolQtne ar tbe Me~ 

'•BíRksS,'IÍ9I1. mal™ iflSa Atadumí ■>( Ulslcr?, ¡1832, 

r Lloreol?, Tuni. I, p. ilG, Tras». II. p. lAo, p, Si,} dcm □•>( Oíídíl ihe nwirK of 

iS7,T<m. lU. pp.75-sa. CwtbJiü, tha UaHwm tu thlB líi»e«Ja"'ioni '«* " 

a* L 



US 



MARIANA. 



[FsRioD n. 



In 1599, he published a Latin IreatÍBe oti the iDatitatioQ 
of Royalty, and dedicated it to Pliilip tlie Tliird ; — a 
work liberal ín its general political toae, and 
^ even ¡utitnating that tbere are cages iii whieh it 
may be lawful to put a mtinarch to death, but suataining', 
with great acuteneas, the power of the (Jhurch, add tefid- 
iag eveo to the eetablishment of a tbeoeracy, At homtf, 
it Caused little remark. It was rcg-ülarly approved by 
tho ceuBors of the prese, and ¡b oven said to have beea 
favored by the policy of the g'ovcrnni'Cnt, which, in the 
time of Philip th£ Second, had seat asaaBsms to cut off 
Elizabeth of England and the Pritice of Orange. But ín 
Frailee, whero Henry the Third had beeii thue put to 
death a few years beforGr and where Henry the Fourth 
Buütered a BÍmilar fate a few yeara afterwards, it excited 
a great eenaation. Indeed, the sixth chapter of the firat 
book dii'cctíy mentions, and by implication conntenaHcee, 
the murder of the former of these monarche, and waa 
claimed, thotigh contrary to the truth of faCt, to have 
been among the causes that etimulated Ravaillac to the 
asHassination. of the latter, It was, therefore, both atr 
tackeá and defended with estraordiaary acriniony ; and. at 
laet, the Parliament of París ordcred it to be buriied by 
the hands of the common hangman.' What waa more un- 
fortunate for its author, the whole diacussion bafing 
brought miach popular odium on the JeauítB, who were 
held responaible for a book which waa written by one of 
tlieir order, and could not have been publiahed without 
permission of its heada, Mañana himself became more 
than ever uuwelcome to the grsat body of hÍB religioua 
asBociatea,' 



tns.k u It thd'olil haVc hvea. PcrhapB lt¡ 
TU not ) but hs 'dune Ut tbo Kghl cqqcIu- 
iJüQ at litAtj aaá it waa a bold &[id hoD&at- 
Ihllig to du so. 

■ lili ordér to burn It may be louml In a 
BDlIoui llHHili «Dtillial " L^Antlm&rlaDii,"' 
(PuU, l^D, Svo, pp. 281,) uaá li dalcd 
June 10^ ItlQ i iaa tbHD « maatb kft-er 
thfi iuiBHa»iuiitl»n of HrDrj IV. The liook. 
Wbb written lijr Eonasel, (Barbierj Hu-. 938,) 
Ud tbfl ard«r i3 ot Uie ead. 



* The accaaDi ot thle bnoU, una oT tfaí 
dlicuuioaB l( ncca^lnnvdv ít glTen amiilr 
hy IU^If, la tho notCH to lili urtlcle Ma- 
riana i but, SI In usual nlth hlin, ia a 
Dihoner that Bhoini liln dlillke et ib^ 
Jesuíta. Tha Qrci edltion ar It coulAlnfl 
the autborltr tiolh nf the kln.; [in.[l of tha 
Examlner of the ünter «r the Jeiulta ta 
prLni the nnrlc. Tlie paiqviafe in cxteiia^ 
tioii or defeocB of the munlEr offlonijIIL 
h¡i JoqoeB ClemeD» la la Llb. I. «. A, «hWQ 



Cn*r. xsxvm.] 



UASLANA. 



U6 






At Iftst. un occasion was fouad where he could lie ae- 
aailecl wUhout aasigiiing' the tme rcüaons for the attack, 
In lBí>9, he published, not in Spiíio, but »t Cologne, Boven 
Latín treatises on varioiiB Bubjccta of theology and criti- 
císm, sueb ae the Btate of the Spauish theatre, rfaciaina 
the Arab computatioo of time, and the yeor and ^'i*»"- 
day of the Saviour'a birth, Most of them were of a asf 
ture that iííiuld provoke rio auimadverBioQ ; but one, " On 
Mortality aud Immoftftlity," wag seizcd npon for theo- 
logical censure, ajad anuther, " De MutatioiiB Monette/' 
was asaailed ou political groimde, because it showed how 
unwiBe and Bcaudalous had been the practicee of the 
reigning favorite, the Duke of Lerma, in lAmperixig with 
the currejicy and debasing it, The Inquisítion toot cog- 
nizance of both : and thc^ir aiíthor, though then sevcnty- 
tbree yeít.rs oíd, was eubjected firi^t to coDÜneiueot, and 
afterwarda to penance, for his offences. Both worka 
were placed at once on the Index Sspnrgatoriqs ; and 
Philip the Third gave ordora to collect and deatroy as 
many copies as posaible of the volumo in which they 
were contained. As Lope de Vega said, " Eia coun- 
try did not pardoo the iwost learried MEkriaua. -when he 
erred.*' 

nis trítatm^nt on this oCCaaion was undoubtedly the 
more eevcre, becauae among hia papera was found a dis- 
sertation " On the Errors in the Government of the Soci- 
ety of Jeauits," which was not priuted tul afi*r j3,„^(,dB 
ita author's death, and then wlth no friendly ^■^^"^1'^'^ 
TÍew8 tg the Orderl'" But the firm apirit of M»- Compañl*. 



lí li aalleil " moBlmonhuii nnliDe." Rae 
fortbvr, 8laiiiadd.I(HlBtidEE PrsDi^ati, Tcm. 
XXII-, ISZ'i, p. iny¡ twl. giemnadl U 
■rmtijí Jn lUting the publicallnn bT Ihe 
trentiiD tfma 16IÍ2. I bsTO a ecpy «f it, 
Xolcti, 4ti3, 1690, pp. 4ifl, Frtuii the wtry 
reimnrlialilB. IctUra nf IiuhjjBj Ule oonrcMor 
Of Charles V., ani] «ulnequently Arch- 
blsbop at BbtIIIe Arid IjiqiiLslL'ir^OeiiBnil^ 
It 4r>]ifcíirt that Ihe EFPBt EniEieriir himsíir 
HU OB Ultic MrLliluInuB M liiil tfon úl AíXi'.h 
moliere. ThlB rcuil«r» ttic paamgí íd Ma> 
ríniut mvro eisy of exiiUtuLtl-vo. &<^e 
Bdrh an Kaiser Kart V., ele., ron D. U. 
Heioe. Derlin, IS-IS, Btd, p. 13C uml nota. 



Tba Idea that (be CrFntíBO of Uarlallft In- 
flaeoci^l RHTstUBii la aet tbrlh, in hla rani- 
blEn£ irny^by Vaii^boD, id hls verf curíoiid 
ani mn " Oiriiliiii PiOc™," IfliO [Piirt I. 
Cbaps. 1 ond 2) \ — airnrk Goanectcd i^ilb 
aur rmu Newtoundluiid. But B&}l4 — Ul 
UTiffiUlng irltneflB Lu faVof o-f a Jrauit — 
Bbi>*re tliht Itia noLirin \w all a deliLslOu. 
(ArL, ATariand, n. BDil S-) RdTalUutMrika 
Deii fiO ^eampd by il i^nt dc&i. 

"■I "Job. MD.rLo.ii^ « Bao. JeSD, Trscca- 
lua TU,, niiiLíi prlmum lo LtiMm ftJitl,'" 
Colon. Aipip., 190», fol. i oy íop7 or 
wUch b nmllluUd sccoilillllB ht tba rolcitla 
dlrectlami glitea In Ch« Ili4uc ExÍDTgACl»- 



180 



MARIANA. 



[Pebiod n. 



liai^a was not brolíen bj his persecations. He went for- 
ward with his literary labora to the laet ; and when be 
died, m 1623, it waa of the ínfirmitiea which extreme 
age liad naturally brougbt witL it. lie was eighty-seven 
years oíd. 

Tbe main occupation of tbe laat thirty or forty yeara of 
nisiortsde ^^^ T-^*"*^ ^^^ ^'S great Historj. In the foreign 
Bipañi. countries where he hiid long; lived, the earlier an- 
nalB of Spaia were eo little koown to the leartie-d men 
toith whom he had been assaciated, that, as a Spaniard, 
ha had felt mortiflod hy an ignorance wMch seemed dis- 
respectfiíl to his countiy."- He determined, he saye, iu 
cooaeqneTice of thís, to do somethíng that ahould ahow 
the world by what maiily stepa Spam had come into tbe 
larger íntereeta of Europo, aiid to prove by ber hiatory 
that she deaerved the coiisLderation she had^ fram tbe time 
of Charles tbe Fifth, everjwhere enjoyed, He began his 
labora, tberefore, in Latín, that all Ghriatendora might 
be able to read them, and ia 1592 published, in that lan- 
gTiage, twenty out of the thirty booka which conatitiite 
the whole work. 

But, even before he had prínted the other ten boofce, 
wbich appeared in 1609, he was fortunately ¡nduced, like 
Cardinal Bembo, to becouie liis owa íranslator, and to 



rlm, leai, p. Tío, (be treatlse " Il« Mci- 
taÜ'One MohbUb" helng CRrerully cat aut, 
«nil erevy trouc ur H oldllerMMl. Bat it 
mny be faunrl, aa traiialAtefl bj' bliDfteLf, 
nllt the tltle of '■ Sobre la Moneda, ¿e 
TíDoii," at iTie eml ol Vol, XXXI. oí the 
Bibliüteca lie Autores EapuriolGS, LBSl- 
(Bactnniler, CuLalogn;, ]tas, Sfo, fose.. Vi. 
pp. 16£,l{i3, artlvle Proceso ilel Padr* Ma- 
riana, MEIi, — LcpcdoYi^i, 0brBii.SiiiEl£3i, 
Tdlh, i. p, iiñ.) ThB "Discurso d« las 
KnrcrmodajlvR ilc la Comiiar íb^" nrlttcu In 
MhcIuiei's benatlCu] fluirlni! stylf, «as Ikrat 
printel Bt Bordesoí, lOSíi, 8 vi), and theu 
^JÜQ un ttie aiippresalaa of ffaB iirder b^ 
OliBi1»B TU- ; but In the Index Ex]iar^a> 
toriuB, (lOflí, p, 7aS,> whcre It !b Btrtcü? 
pniliiblled, ll ¡s cniftUy treatcd bb If M 
veré icllJ lu lEftiiuacrlii)!, and bb \t ila aa- 
thKT wcru jKjt ciertairily kQown. Thía Idea 
□f llie noBerUInlj ot ttie anUiarsblp urthe 
''&i»CQl»o" WHB Bo aÜlgenUy Í3iculca.led 



for a cenlTirj tnd a hnlí by Ijlgh nutliDrltjr, 
Lbaí lo the ediLLon. of l!r^ Jt wbb deeiiQQd 
□cvdiul io proví, tiy a formal DlasertatÍDii, 
Ihat MHríunn-WroW il \ a polnt about wh [fji 
(hEre should. aever haví? b?en ain; qu^Btisn. 
In the ludex or 1TM, ha Ii Ktlll criieurel 
wllh great eeíeHty, A ooiiBlilcrB'ile num- 
ber of hÍB anpnbUBlied niarm^ciipti ík sald 
to bnpB IwETi loDg preservea iii iba JeBoilB' 
Librarf at Toledo. 

li lik oae of the many coüIroTpniB] 
pBiiiphl«ts exclted b; Fathar F«)^rm'i 
WcrkB, the folloirioi; whüsaicBl buL trulf 
CaJtl lian idea Lb oaed lo expresa tbu letl- 
lag of ohllgatlon wbich ha* nlwuja b««i 
«DUrtalaed 1>r the Spanlah natlori loi tha 
honor Marlaiia'B IIIalur]i bnA dnue them 
abinad, "Hasta el. tl^mpí en que esle 
doctoJeaullB íBcrli'líi bu matarla Latina, 
pBi9.alaiiJiioe enir» í-atrsiiírerDS. por jenía 
xin aliuelat/' KbiibAu ÚJltiací, a.]- ITS, 
íto, p. M. 



CsAP, xxxvnr.] 



MARIANA, 



gire his worlí to his countrymcn in the puré CaBtilian of 
Toledo. In doing tiiis, fae eiijoyed a gieat advatitage. 
He míght uae a freedoni iii lita verswo that could be 
cJainaed by no one elae ; for he had not only a ríg'ht to 
charig-e the phraseology and arrangement, but, wbenever 
he R!IW 6tj he might modify the Opinions of a book wHicb 
was aa much his own in the ono laoguage aa iu the 
othor. His " llistoria de España," therefüre, the first 
píirt of which appcared in 1601, haa all the air and 
merit of an original work ; and in the aucceasive edí- 
tiona published under bia own dircction, aud espccialljr 
in the fourth, which appeared the very year of hiB death, 
it WBB graJually enlarged, enrichod, aud in every way 
improved, iintil it becarae what it haa remained ever 
fiiiice, the proudest monument erected to the bÍBtor7 of 
his couutry." 

It begiuQ wiíh the stipposed peopling of Spain hy Tu- 
ba!, the BOU of Japhet, atid comee dowu to the death of 
Ferdinand the Oatholíc and the acceasion of Charles the 
Pifth ; to all which Mariana himBetf afterwards add&d a 
corqpcessfid abstract of the courae of eveuts to 1621, 
when Philip the Fourth ascended the throne. It waa a 
hold undertaking, and in Bom& respecta is niarked *Íth 
the peculiar epirit of its age. In weighing the valué of 
authorities, for inatance, he has been leas careftil than 
hecauíe the hig;h office he bad as^umed. He foUows 
Ocampo, and eapecially Qaribay, — credulouB compilers 
of o!d fablea, who were bis owu contemporarisB, — Con- 
fesBing freely that be thought it eafest and bea1¡ to take 
the received traditi&ng of the country, uniese obvíous rea- 
Bona called upon bim to reject thera. Hia manner, too, Ib, 
in a tew particul ars, opea tú re^mark. In the beautífal 



u Tlie mnst carefullf pctnted Biiñ brau- 
tlllil eaillon nf Miirlaitu'íi niitoc; ia the 

/ourteeiitL, puhllsheil at Madrid, liy Uiarra, 
{'I vuli-, fdl., ITSO,) urvJ^r ibt dicection of 
(be Superíiitfnilf Dtfl Di iht Boyal Llbrarj ; 
-~ a 110011: ^hn».? moc^B-Tikal e^rtcutioa 
would ds h-cioor lo anj pivB& dii Kürope. 
Tt in r^aiB.r)(flb1r< Iiow miich Marlam 
unculcil bis Hlstnrj' Id [he eucceiiive 
«didoiu dnrinji hi] Uíetime j 0¡e tñáítíoOM 



bntireeD 1-609 uid 1023 helng equl, sj 
sUteJl hj lliB tflltou of lh«t et USO, lo 
B Dindcrade roluma. The n¡i>lorjr oí Ma- 
flariB BDil fourof hi» IreatlJita uro [iiililUlieii 
íd UkQ biblioteca of KlboJtiif jra^ Tjm, 
XXX. and XXIÍI,, 1S64, — llie arntlse 
'^ T>« R«ge'^ belEig tra.E«lated f^ir Lhe ac- 
casion, nuil tnro uuluipaTtELEit ^' Eicrltofl 
9uelUií," to|;etber wkb H " OKlalogu '^ ot 
h!i ■orki, bcing added ot Ibe tai. 



182 



MARIANA. 



[PkeiodIL 



dedication of the Spaiiish verRion of hís Listory to Fhilip 
the Third, lie admita tliat anLíqujvted words occaBÍoually 
adhoreto bis stjle, frora. üi« familiar etudj of the oíd writ- 
ers ; and Suavedra, who was ploaeed to í]iid fault with 
him, naya, that, as other people dye thelí' beaids to make 
theftiaelvee look young-j Mariana dyed his to make him- 
self logk olii,^ 

But there íh another side to all tliis. Hia willirig belief 
íe the oíd cbi-onicles, temperod, aa it neceasarily is, by lúa 
great learning, givee an air of true-heartednese and good 
faith to his accounts, and & vivacity to his details, which 
are singularly attractive ; while, at the same tiiU'e, his 
oecasioua! aiitiquated worda and pliraees, eo well auited 
to such views of hi& subject, add to the idicimatic riclmess, 
in whích, amoDg Spaníab prose compoBÍtÍons, the Btyle of 
Mariana ib all büt unrivaLlod. His narrativee — the most 
important part of an hiatorical work of thís clnsB — are 
peciiliarly flowing-, free, and imprefisivo. The aCCOuntS 
of the wars of Hannibal, in the eecoud book ; thoise of the 
iiTiiption of the Northern nations, with which the 6ít!i 
opeuB i the conepiracy of John de Frocida, in the foitr- 
teentli ; the last scenes in the troubJed life of Peter the 
Crnel, in the seventeenth ; and most of the deacriptionB 
of the leading eventa in the reign of ^erdínand and laa^ 
bella, and e&pecjally the deBcription of the faLl of Gra- 
nada, at the end of the twenty-fifth, give abundant proof 
of thifi peculiar historical talent, Tbey seem iuBtiact 
with life and tnovcment. 

His formal apeeches, in which he mads Livy hÍ8 Qiodel, 
are, generally, lees fortúnate. Moat of them want indi- 
viduality and appropriateneBS, But the one 'which in the 
ññb book he haa given to Euy Lope DavaloB, when that 



IB Iba-lan», Hlit, Llb. I. u. 13. Baava- 
drn, Rcp^bJica Lll^ru-la, Madríd, 1756, 4lo, 
pi 44r Mhriaua admllD the wuRt o[ crÍLl- 
ca\ f^XACÍuQBB In sfmiK ptuls üf his hla-tury, 
wlioii. n^iJlyiiie W a lell«r of Luptraiorio 
Arijcnmilit trliü had niiUacd hii Eniatak? lo 
colling Fnfktnlluii H DUlIve uF Calatiarra, 
be eays : *-' I ncver unilcTUnk ta mulm a 
hlitory ot Spaid, la wlilch I fltiould \erí1j 
oveif psrljinLkr TnoL j fbr It I liad, I sbonM 



nevtr have ñnisbed tC ; bat t UDdartook ta 
a.rn(iige in e. Lecomlug atyk, aoil It) Iha 
Lotlii, lanRuofi^e, nhal utilera biul CDlIected 
aa Diaterlnls loT lli» Isbríc I ileslred M 
nibs. To loot up autbiiTlifoB fiír crcry- 
lliing woalil hme left Sjifllr, far anuthtT 
sarilla orc^nturlea,. wüfionla L^iCln HJatorJ 
Uiat coiiijl ahoH itaeU iu Ihe norld." 3, A., 
PeUlrar, KiLBaja de ana Hlblinleca d» Ktl- 
doctores, p. M. 



Cbap. ixsvín,! 



MARIANA. 



isa 



nobleman oflbra the crown of Castile to the Infante Doa 
Ferdiriand, is reuiarkable íút the courageúua apirit in 
which ít discusBea the fuundationa of all pulitical gtfveru- 
meot, and leaves the rightB oí" kinga to reat on the asaent 
of tfaeir BTibJects ; — a boldneae, it should be added, which 
19 ftpparent in many other parts of hJG works, as it was in 
mudí of hJB life, 

The characters he has drawn of the prominont persoii- 
agCB that, from time to time, conie to the froot of the 
Btag-e, are almost always Bhort, sketchcd with a few 
touehsB, and slrtick üfl' witEt tlie Laúd of a inaster. 
Sucli are those of Alvaro de Luna^ Alfonso the VVise, 
and the mihiippy Pnijce of Viaiía, in wliich so few words 
could hardly be made to esprcBS more. 

Ah a general reuiarb, a ccrtain nobteneas of air and 
carriajíe, uot, ptn'haps, witliout Bometliinff of the 
Oíd Caetuiati sturdineBG, bnt never wuhout its or ihi 
digiilty, is the churiicteristic that roost pr&vaila "'"'''' 
throughout tho whole work ; and thÍ8j with its adroirabty 
idiomatic style, — so fuUj yet bo uneocumberedj bo puré 
and yet ao rich, — reiidere it, if Dot the most truBtworthy 
of annals, at least tho most retnarkable unión of pic- 
turesque chronicling- with Bober history that the world 
has ever seen," 



■.etioTl lime, Gouonruinif tliE tniBlitiii'Üii- 
PBBa oí M&rJHJui^biiL it djd ont prüceed far. 
Pedra MuntuíinD, a ^ijuiig Bphnlonl, H'Cn;- 
i&ry Ui VeluflCo, — Orunil C-DDetbblB of Cas- 
tile, and a. man cf learoLiig, thm ia Ihe gov- 
emniL'uti^r Mllikii, — pTliil«tl thvrt-, la De- 
tember, IQüT, atx Bhcets at" Advcrteticina" 
or Rtmarkíi-uu tht El bUirj of Marine m, and 
BEDt t]idm ta ¡Ib uuth-nr, wha rppllvit In Cbe 
BepLPQi'her foUtm'Euíc ^j merelj rt^tuniing' 
themirltli bis isarglnal mitrB. Tbcci! Ib« 
miLller restpd nntll 15L1, vlirn ti AD I nano, 
perbnpa aiiury s.t a uiiUbc mi nllglit^ jialk 
litbrí) hb " AÚTi^rtoadns " at MÜAti, coc- 
■blenbly calacgu). and am¡n kt Mndrid, 
wtlh oluuiECB, i n 161 3. TMnafoilf Vargas, 
■Itmraxdi K T-nluniltiiina vrller, but tben a 
juiíDg bf ^UDQr, AnsvEirriS bien ia a bcMik 
entUli^d ^'HlíLurin, re de Mariana deTen- 
dída," Toledo, 1613. But Mariana iriaelj 
cefusel ta rcad «Itbcr ol ttiB dlsnauLopa, nr 



to ebliT at ttl lato tbo ecaCroTErcj, NeU 
tb'er of thcm, fndeed, ti -^r rauEb cdds& 
q.Q«nce, aS iatj be Icf^ired ¡nna tbe faula, 
that ManluanD halMU tu WM oa\f tnoatj. 
aix j^TB oíd ^hpD he WTulA bia buok, aod 
that Tomasa de ¥ar|{aB jifplieB vítb an* 
oCher boaat, tliat. It hxik him üdIj a frirt« 
night to aDBWcr It. The wbole matter maj 
b& Hecn !d the Rfi^n or Acojont oí 3t hj 
"VaTfoa at th« tnil of b[s " IkrmBa," which 
ÍB, ¡D Ri:Denil, a saÜelteUny^ thuagli ■ume- 
wbut bElti^^r, reiilj to tho Inoonsldcrable i^ 
Jectlaait iif Mautiuvno, TamB.ya de Vareas 
dkil Iti IMl. aiiil a]nnlnB.uo iii 16M. Ths 
Marquia ot Monflcjnr, a mott rmpi'oUiblo 
autbiirltj, iTMiBWirEl tUe diacuBjtun., and bita 
" AdverteivoLuí " TTíre publieTícdi (Valen- 
cia, 1746, tulla,) irlth apretacC hy lAhJM» 
f i^isíiT, BQmFwhBl mltlnu'tJiiK Ihelr Ion». 
Slill, iii^llhpr thes*, «Uch an Ote pHOUiptí 
critlcUma tbal Lave o^iptAred Oa UarlUia, 
Por HIT' °tJi<r*, hkie, Id tbe eitiwatiaii at 



184 



SASDOVAL. 



[TxRiap n. 



AtndoTat. 



Prudencio de Saudoval, who wae one of the salaríed 
chronicltírs of the rnonarchy, and who, in tliat capacity, 
prepared tho continuation of Morales, already 
Tioticed, seems to have beeo ■willing to constitute 
hiraself the euccesBor of Mariana, and prosecute the 
g;ei]eral history of Spain wliere that eloquenfc Jeauit was 
likely to leave tt, rather tUan frota the point wbere he 
had bimself officinJIy taltcn it up. At least he began 
theve, and wi'üte an elabórate life of Charles the Fifth, 
But it íb too long. It filis aa manj pagee as the entire 
woifc of Mariana, and, though writtea with aimplicity, 
is not attractive in its atyle. His projudicea are etrong 
and obvious. Not only the mouk, — for he waa a Bene- 
dictiiie, and enjoyed suecessively two very rích bishoprics, 
— but the courtier of Philip the Third, ie constaotly 
apparent. He laye tho whole crtme of the aesault and 
Capture of RoraC tipon the Gqnatablie de Bourbon ; and, 
bcaidoB tracing" the Auatrían famíly distinctly to Ádaní, 
he connects its honora geuealogically ^ilb thoae of HeT' 
culos and Dardauua. Still, ttie Histury of Saudoval, from 
the many important documente iinbedded in it, is a worb 
of authurity mueh relied oa by Kobert&on, and oae that, 
on the whole, by its arapl& and minute detaile, gives a 
more Batiefactory account of the reign of Charlea the 
FiftEi than any othor single history estant. It waa flrat 
publi&hed in 1604-6, aad its anthor died March 12, 
1620." 

After this, no ¡raportant and Connected wori on the Lia- 
tory of Spain, that falla witiiin the doraain of elegant 
literatüre, appeared for a long period." Portions of 



Simarardn, Beríounly lut^rfered wltn bis 
clBlmilnhe rejiiiu'díd ae Lhe givat IiIbick 
rJBu af hÍB countr/. 

li Antonio, fiib. Noí-, Tom. n. p. 265. 
Xa Mu the k Vajer, likB.iLEa^^üurnca^ldresi^ 
tu Cordiiial Misarin, (CEuttps, Pnria, 1SA2, 
lblLQ,Tani. L pp. '£!6, etc.,) bb&oíIs BBnd'i» 
TnlfurlDQiily, nuil ■fnnellni'^a nueces s-fullj, 
for hlB Etcilalitr, BapersUtÍDiL, fiaUf ry, etc., 
noC fiiri^tlEtiB lil* ttjív^ l( vu» b, purt nt 
Hií warfíiro of Frfuice agalnuL Spuiíi. The 
brsC ei:i:aouc <tr 8aniIoval li In Ferrar ilet 
nio, " Dcai^enda de EajuuiB," Sva, ISEOí, 



pp. x!i., m-, and 3ñb -S6S- It ma; bo 
aiLded, tliat Bart. Leo ¡ntila di: ArgenuLa,iii 
lllB '' Analea de Arignol," 1630, pullIL» ODi 
(kcsbídobI oierBi^hU and niUtsItes o( fact 
in Ba,ncluiínL Hfa " Croulesi de AI9D10 
TU,," already aociced, (p. 1T4 aod note,) 
v/aa priated [n ISM, and hia oUicr warba 
— b1Í liÍBtartcat and olí of leaa accouiit" 
appeAred betirecn 1601 Biiid IGl^d. 

W During Ihia iienod, embraolnif a largo 
pare of Lhe ssvciiteinLh centurj-, twu re- 
jQiurka^lB cnntroveTskj l^ok place Id Epalti, 
irMcfa, by IctioduDlng m. mure crllloü oau- 



0a4P. sxxvm.] 



OTHEB mSTOWANS. 



186' 



Spaaish history, aiid portionH of the history of Spanish 
diecOTery íind touqueet in the Eaat .and thc Weet, «ere 
indecd publiished IVurn time to tirae^ but the official chroot- 
cltírs of the crowns of Castile íkiid Aragón no longer felt 
tliemBelviHS bnund to go on witli the greut worke of their 
predecesBors , and the decaying- spirit of the munaichy 
roade no earneat demanda on others to tread in tbeir 
Bteps. Some, however, of theae hiatoríans of the out- 
posta of an empire which now estended round the globe, 
and some of the accountíi of iaolated events in íts annuls 
at home, sUotild be notíced. 



wUhoiiE Lhi:^1r EiTect i>q Mariana, and tn&y 
h^ve Cecid^ú ui- dlnklnLall lUe Dumbcrof bÍB 
Hiicresíur^, bj Atihjvctíng EiÍHtory, In all lU 
ftKTni, lo Dicire riíjoroaa rules. The i3is- 
OUSAJims reítrnül to uriñe iii CODBiIflilli^ILCe 
of iwo eitninntinHry forijtrics, wliich tur 
«Üme cruHlfd a yritiit MLiautlin thrauglf 
mt Üie ooDtitrji., uA deluduil uoL l lew 
ÍDti>IU|¡EUl mKU Hiiil liunest hIioIbih. 

Tlio Brat rclMid ti> ccnalD naetalHo 
plslis, Bi'tnetltin-'a oC\-^ "Tlie Irfaden 
Buoli8|" wlilcli, liartng beeo prapared anil 
bBPCpí tiM" ihü purposo BeveruI fean be- 
tón, mía dlaínterreil iiear ÚruuKda b«' 
twwo ISS-S HridlSBS, aiul, wlieiulrclplicred, 
»e«nni tu oITsr malerjula Tjr ilcfcnaiiig' Lhe 
favoriLe daoLrioe ttt Ikie Spaillftb CliQrt^h od 
tbe liDoiBcutaLLe Cr>iaGeptlüa^ o-oi Teit estab- 
lliliing tbs greal üarDvr^Btniíi; ol Spanlili 
ecdvsibAtTcuJ bieloiy, Ite conjlog lo SpüLÍa 
of Ihs A|Hiatlt! Jumee, tbe patrón aalct of 
tb* coiLMtry. Tbít i^roas fbrgiir? «as re- 
celvcd Tor anlLuDlic htiLorj- by Philip n., 
PHil]]! ni-, anil Fbilip IV., «ach »r wlinn], 
jn s cu'snvll of ttatv, conslsting úT Ole jirlD- 
GtjiRl )i«rai^nagea iif [bo hlngiiom, Bnkmiily 
ndju<]g¥d U [o ta Buch ; as Iliat, At oao 
period ol ItiedlHcuíninn, Bome imnwni b& 
llurecl llie " Ijfajlen Bonta'' wculd be od- 
mluiil iutü lhe Oaiion of lhe 3crjp-mpi.«. 
The questlon, howeier, vaa In time s«tllvil 
nt Roote, Hnil üiey wcre iliseiilt-d, hy llia 
bigheit Irlbiuial al xhe CbarGli, to IM ñilae 
and Tur gal i n úccisinn is ntiirli apaJn 
HXta accjulps^ed- 

Tb« othur rmiid «fai ««nnwWJ nilli Ítala 
onc thf (Se " U'aden Büt-ki," whoM m- 
Lbnrlt; It una ajlüguil [n goDQrn t l>ll( tt 
waa mupb brosdef fttiii l»1der la its eiaScat 
ouil clianieler. It cooíiiWd ol b 9erl« Of 



rraginiiQts cf chrcnlclpti, drculutíil varller 
In DiacuacTiiit, bul flrat prlnteil ül ItilO, 
snd theu rrprfsented to havc come, bi 
I&Dt, from clic monasicrj' of Fulda, atar 
Worin^ t» Patli-Er Hlfurra, tit Toledo, a 
J^uIl, aml a pcT»uDnl uuiiuaimaiiEe of 
MmIiuh- Tlicy purpurtfd, on thi-ir fnoE, 
to heve heeu writicii by Flivluj LuEloa 
Dexter, MarcuaMsiiinuajJklviiaiBiii) olher 
prlmltlíe ChriBCinna, aiiit ■raiiiUluBil im- 
portaol and wholly inew «teiL-iiiCB lí loiipb- 
lug tbc tarly cLvil end eccleílugilcal hiatory 
of Spaía- Tlie; veré, no douSil, oo iuiitii- 
iLDO of íh€ forgvrieH of Juhtl ilT Ti'EQrlx), 
glveii bi the wurid iWiuL a iwntu.ry berure 
aa the worlta of Be-rosus aoil i>liibeüBQ f tiut 
Lhe Sputiln-h fiirgerlittB. nert prtpared vitli 
EDOTí lesraLtie aail a nloer iogvuiiity. ViaU 
tecing íicllons wpre fllunl Co reco'^lied 
nieta, Bj ir hnLh r^lcd on. the «lune un. 
tliurliy ; iicw siiinta wtre glveu tochuiclieB 
tbat wcre not well ¡iroilded io Ibis ili'pnrt- 
meot oT liaglulogy ; a dlgnlClHl oi-lglii irai 
tnicrd for Dolile fxiD¡IIv>, Ibat bod bcrrini 
been untihlP ¡o IwaBl of thelr füDBdsre ; 
aod a muUKude of Christian conqueBU ani 
achiesemínCB wpre blulei at or ressrded, 
tbst eraCiSeil tbu pride of the wtkOii^ nUIIU 
Ibe mnre beduae ibey had. neyer Ull thca 
beea licard of. Few doubied wtmt It WU 
BO agtcckble tn bU to bellov^, SíLbúovn], 
Temafo de Varga», Lorerixa Rjivnilrw de 
l'raúu, stii3, Tor a time, Nlitulna Anhílllo, — 
all líBinefl «jen,— «ero pcrsnftied thJK 
ÚlPtv BLinimarli^B of E^rgplf^i^., cJfroni- 
tonss Ra UiBj wert culleil, vüru uuthetltlC ; 
m4 1( Arias M-vnuiao, tbi: cdílaE <rT ttia 
tiFljglot, Mnrlnna, lhe historian, koú. An- 
tonio A^stln, the anutloua osd crlClcoI 
fiicad or Zorito, b'tid an olkpwltv Tallh, 
tta€7 dLd Dot thluk it irsrth <irbU« opeul? ta 



Í8A 



EERREBA. 



[P&iaOD n. 



Of thÍB clasa, the firet in iinportance and the most 
Anmniíde comprehensive ín character ie "The GeneraL 
Bcrrtri. HtBtory of tliB lüdies," hy Antonio de Herrera. 
It embraces the pcriod frora the firet discovery of Amer- 
ica to the year 1554:; and as Herrera waa a practised 
■writer, aiid, h-om hit* official positioa as hiatorio^rapUer 
to the IndieSp had acccBB to every Buurce of iuformation 
knowTi at thc time, hia work, whlch was prmted in 1601, 
íb of great valué. Bnt he was the author of other hÍBtor- 
ical works, for which hia qualifications and rcaources were 
lees fiatÍ5factí>ry and bia prejudices more abundant ; - — 
eiach as a " Hiato ry of tlie World duriug the Rdgn of 
Philip the Secoud," a History of the aíi'airB of England 
and Scotland, during the unhappy timea of Mai-y Staart ; 



ran Stru^Hlj Iti IB-I'li' or Uie Eor|j*rleSi ; and 

toiry tm about IBSU ur & little later, uod. 
Pi^r^íQre tJU l^Qg ofter tbv d>^]ith ai tLelr 
rcn\ nxttt^ir, Í3i,tber Higueru, qhich hafr- 
penfd in iea4. Indí^ed, os Intu bb ItWT - 
Id'Jb, Qr^godu de Argüís, aanaof mucb 
w-urlblí^i IsaraLDR, publifb4KL in defi;DCB ol 
Ihim súc loTJCd folio TclamBB, ene oF irbicb 

SuclLor the Leaden B^nke — "Lí^kb 6i 

BUrcb aod M^, l-^^^- <^^i^ Kl^miil; un- 
oouncvd to ttE' public >pv epIscPEiul úh- 
ChoriEy ia b íolio Etif«l prÍDt«d at Crruiad& 
ac th« ümet tuIL oí the most ExtnragBJiit 
abeiiTLlittcs. I huTt; a copy sf il ; &íid Uie 
hiMiiiiileE st tbe loBcriptiona ore eml- 
cenüj TidicnlouE. Bat, u 1 tiiav-e- &a,Iíl, 
tht; Bi«aD3tih tM^ople, hiLvisg reodil; occcpted 
tlieiD lu H^iiaiiie^ wen5 vtrj nlow to believB 
Ihej" were ÍGrjcürfcüB. The C^rotitcoiff 
coQttnual tu €iijay lÜTcr CTta lciD|i{í!r tban 
(h6 /.eaden BaakaM I liavir íaund tmc^ 
of btilit^f íd Ihtíia !□ LliB LaliteT port ot the 
bisbltentl] otaturj i — the apurlnuB Flü- 
Viiui D^it^r btins citecl bs aD unLhurity in 
a trark fnt fuiíUlof íultructiDD CB.IIed " Cdd- 
TeMBOíudM dcL R. P. Ciiput-hino Fr. Ttúa- 
tima d« lo« ArSoS," 1764, Omniul^ 4td. 
&« C^la Imr D, Jaim Vicifulu (TuiDñS (lú 
Yrlarlf], ai R, P. Pr. de los Arr™, Sla.triii, 
USA, pp. IT, ele. T]ke discusaton i.bbi]b 
llicaí, btiireTer, whicb, It is ertdeub, waa 
jGoJLLif quletl; o-Ti d^rln^ Tca^b -of Iht iveveit- 
terutlioeiil.urjwaauíefu]. Uoublit irere m nl- 



tipLied ; C\\^ dlaTujlier in ttilis EflliülneoesB, 

wliiEh b!i4 iieen expreea*'! to f lU'iicru liim- 

B6lí, aa aarlj tu 159S, bj tiiu mmlest lUId 
lesimed JuuD Biiiiciatü |>j!rvt, BlBh>:t> nf í^9 

gcrire, (¡radiiftliy gttlned sriífflod i wriwwof 

liiatury gww CimtiiiUEi 1 B'lí at liiat, in 
l«03,NioilaB Acw-nio betrw btí "nlalorlBa. 
Fabulosa! ¡" a hiijte ídHii, wtiiclL lie leA 
iiD'flulEhad M hl« ütaMi, ned whlcti wai 
nnt pHiLlfiíl Ull liibg afkirwanlA, ImE ^hicta 
witk lu cuaibriiLií, tlkuugli oUar-eigbted 
]e«.rfitti£, latí vui ilaobt na i/i tiii nacuK &ad 

«KtCllt of tlie iVlLúit ill FAthET BlíUCTt, 

&tid niAde blB cBse b tcachlag lo sil nitnte 
ítp&Qioíi hiAfirían», Itiat doea bM uesi to 
Ika'Tc been loai oa tliEía. See Ibe CliroD.lolD 
lor Dexier at Lh« eoiL nf Antonlo'B Biblic- 
tll,Di;a Vetua ; tíie " UlatorlaE Subolosaa" ni 
Antocld, wjta the LLfo ol ila nutbor pre- 
OjKd br MoTons y Sigcar, (Madrid, 17J3, 
folio,) lo tibnW the tn^íDcea ol ttl« Wlinl« 
iiDiiwEure \ aai llie"Clir'<lkiC(t Universal" 
uf AlOiiBoMald-uiitUlA, [Mrulrld, 1H24, fullo,) 

t» e^noiT buK ImpliciLlj It wbí theD b«li«ved 

iLDd füllüit'ed bj ItíarH'Gd bi4jbi. Tb^maDoT 
l^iorniíiK' wliiB v^HÜLemo^t unvampronilfllQ^ 
ahout ■' The LtadeD BooIih " imJ Ihe Chfo- 
niüonis^ oFid Who beJiuvcd Vitb the íñnit 
courBil^ íd relalioD to UiEm fmiD ths fimti 
wDa, 1 pujipons, tbe BJehop ol B^Rorbe. 
Vbn Íh noticed Id VtlIaDueTa,. '^ Viagt 
Literario á Ins Ig'lcdina di; Eüpa-ña,*' (Mzi- 
drLj,l«CU,»vo, Tura. EII. p. 18ft.)i*hen:li, 
bIbo, the dDci]iiii>;nt (rp. 269-:¿T81 le vblch 
the BLhIiop tüipooeB thv (rhok fraud, bni 
vhicb p-Bc Deitrbetbre pubUibed. 



OoAr. xxxvm.] 



AEGENSOIA. 



a History of the Lcagiie m France ; nnd a Üistory of the 
aflair uí' Antonio Pérez and tíie troubles that fylltjwed it ; 
— all written under the mflueuce of contemporary paa- 
BÍona, and all publiaíieii betweea 1&89 and 1612, before 
any of theee paseicine hud beeu much tranqiüllizcd. 

It- ¡8 sufficjent to say of Ihem, that, iu the case of An- 
toDJo Pérez, Herrera SQppresaes oearly every one of the 
important facts that tend to the justificatíotl of that re- 
markable man ; and that, hy way of a gloriouB tertnina- 
tion to híB Universal Hístory, he gives Philip the Second, 
in his death-Btrug-glefi, míraculDUB aBsistaacG from heaven, 
to enahle him to end hís long and holy life by an act of 
devotion. Herrera's cliief reputatiou, therefure, as aa 
historian, must rest upon hia great work on the DiS' 
coverj and Gonqoest of America, in which, indeed, his 
atyls, nowhcre rich or powerful, eeems better and mora 
efiective than it íb in hia other attempts at historicai Com- 
poBÍtion. líe died in 1625, aboTe Boventy-sis years oíd, 
müch valued by Philip tlie Fourth, aa he had beea by tbat 
moiíaich'e father and grandfather." 

But the East, as wcU as the West, wag now opened 
to Spaniah adventure. The conqueet of Portugal had 
brought the Oriental dependencies of that feingdom under 
the autborítj of the Spacish crowa ; and as the 
Ootmt de Lemos, the great patrón of lettera in 
bis time, and President of the Council of the tndi&8, 
cbanced to have hLs attention particularly drawu in that 
direction, he comraaTided the young'er of the Argcnsolaa 
to write an account of the MoluccaB. The poet obeyed, 
atid pmbliahed his work in L609, dedicating- it to Philip 
tlie Thírd. It íb one of the laüfit pleasing' of the minor 
Spanish histories ; ful) of the ttaditioQS found aniong the 
natiyee by the PortugueeOj when tbey ñrst landed, and 



Areeuiííila. 



W '^ BiHinrIs. (íüiipral üf Iqu Hacbos da 
Ina CiuUllniiüa en lai l«l!ifi ; Tipira FirniH 
del Mar Oapano,'' Muarlil, 16111 -16, 4 
Tol»., fol. — " Historia Oanmil del Muudu 
di-i TúiDpn di>l St'üor iley Pitfí r«l<|>i- U., 
desde 15^», baata su Huv-rld," Hadrld, 
1901-13, 3 Tola., tul.— FiTi,' füulte on tbe 
Hlatury jit Portugal and the Cnoquesl d{ 
tiía Asares veni prlnteú, Jlodrld., IWl, 



4ta ; the Hlitory a( the Lesgiae, Madrli],. 
15Sg, Ira ; and íhc Histary of tbo TWni.. 
Mfn In Arugnn, iu 1Q12, ala ; tbBluit behig 
va\y a UUíl u[ 110 [hlbüb. A «urk tin the 
BÍBi«ir].' or Ituly, rram ISSl Cd líe», p-rlntüd 
M Maclrkl Id lS3i, folio, I ha.iis níver aeen, 
The Biíliirlft üeiieriil del Mmulo UonÜM 
Indi» of 11167, tur espurgalLiu, 



THE INCA GAECILASSO- 



[Pebiod H- 



of thc Tvíld advcnturcB that followcd wlien they had taken 
posseseiou of tliG ielanda. Parte of it are, ind&ed, in- 
conBÍBtent with tlie riature of tiie civllization thoy found 
there, such as formal aud eloqiietit haraagues attribüted 
to the uativGB; while otlier parts, like aome oi' ita love- 
sioricB, are romantic enoug^h to be BUSpectíd üf invention, 
even if they are tcue. But, in general, the work ia writr 
ten iu an ag^'eeaUe poetical style, such as is not unbefit- 
tÍDg an account of the myeterioue islea 

" Of Témate and Tiáore, ffhetice merchacta btoüglit 
Thoir epky dmga," — 

striving, for a long time, to bidé from the competition of 
other natioBB thc history and reeoiirces of the oppresaed 
race whotn they compelled to minigter to their love of 
gain }^ . • 

Quite as nncertaín in anthority aod lesa eleg'ant itj 
The Inca style are the histories of GarcÜasao de la Vega, 
aiirdiaiBo. _ a gentte and trusting spirit rather thaii a wíse 
one ; proad of beiiig a captaiu in tLe aer¥it3e oí ttie king 
of Spaiit, and allied, as a son of otie of the unBCriipulona 
cooquerors of Perú, to the great house of Infantado ; but 
alwaya betraying the weater nature of his mother, who 
wae i)f the blood royal of the Incas, and never entirely 
forgetting the glories of his Indian race, or the cmel inju- 
ries they had euffered at the hands of Spa,in, He waa 
born at " Cuzco, in Peni, the Beat of Atabalipa," in 1540, 
and waB educated therG, amidst the tunmlte of the COn- 
quest ; but when he waa twenty years oíd he waa aent 
to SpaJn, where, under difficult and trying circnra atan cea, 
he maiotaíned an honorable reputation during' a life pro- 
tracted to the age of &eventy-sjs." 

The mílitaTy parí of hÍB personal history, which con- 



i> "Odoqulata de Iu 1e1u Malncu," 
U&dñd, ISÜQ, tulla. Pellic», Bib. de 
Trad., Tniu, I. p. W], Ilitl lov<í-BtcTy d¡ 
Dunuití!, ah CbUlijn, lii thC tlllid t<>ub d1 
lb« " Coniiul^lA,"' ta goad niul probDbk i 
abd Ui« McenEit nt Lbe PjiUigoDüc. gLuilE, 
JD the uua b«>k, lurcs uit to tue almost 
Ira», lilEc june of Ihe IcaE-díBcrfdlted 



■Mries cf Usrea Foto anil Uead« PiQ- 
to. 

le diere ía a curloiiB US. 0'en'Hü.a[ri& da 
Garcí PrreE Ag Vñig^uB^ (noticetL anta, Pc- 
rlod I. Chap. VI., aote,) IniUeD if Ule 

Inca vbA'ClAilwa tobe ade«ceiidaticar tliat 
fímbUB ImJgM. See S|»i.iibb tniiislattaii 
si tbl» RííUrry, Ul. 5B6, 



Chaf. XIX\Tn.] THE INCA QARCILASSO. 



189 



sistod of eornce under Don John of Austria against Ihe 
Moriscos of Gt-íinada, WaS not of much consequence, 
thoügli he seeme to have valued hiDieclf upou it not a 
little. The part he gave to lettera was morB iiiterestiiig 
and importaat. This portíoa he bcgan, m 1590j wítb u 
truiislation of tho " Dialogues on Love," by Diaioco» 
Aharbíinel, a Flatoaizing' Jew, whoso familj' had "J* *"""■■ 
becn expelled from Spain in the perBecution uiider Ferdi- 
iiaud nnd leítbe^lla,, a.nd who iu Italy bad published tbis 
singular work uuder the tiame of Leoue, the Hebrew Phy- 
gician. The atterapt, 90 far as Gurcilasao was conccmed, 
■waa not a fortiinate one, The Dialogues, which enjoyed 
CüTinicleraMe popularitj at the time, had been already 
printed ¡n Spanish, — a fact evidently uiLknown to him ; 
and thoügh, as it appeara from a aubsequeot statemcíit by 
hiniaelf, lie ¡lad obtaiiied for h¡a trímslation the favorable 
regard of Philíp the Secand, Btill there waa an odor both 
of Judaism and beathen free-thlcking- about H, that roa- 
dercd it obnoxiüus to the eeclesiastical authoritie-s of tho 
etate. GarCiJaeso'B firat work, iherefore, waa speedily 
placed on the lodes Expurgatorius, and was rarely heard 
of afterwards, 

Eis next atterapt wae oa a subject in wbích he had 
3, nearcí interest. It was a " Hiato ry of flofi- hii tarta da 
da," or rather of the first diacovery of tbat Ja- -í i^rwii- 
coiintryj and waa published in 161)5,- — a work which^ 
when, tweiity years bofore, he spoke of wnting it, he 
more appropriately called "The Espedition of Femando 
de Soto ; " fiíiice the adventureH of that extraordinary 
maíi, and his strangc fate, not only form its most hrilliant 
and attractive portioii, bat cüii&titute nearJy the whole of 
its subatance. In thia Garcilaaso was more aucceasftil 
than he waa iu bis versión from the Italian ; and bis 
" Hiatory of PLorida," as it is Btill calledj has been ofteo 
reprinted fiince. 

But in bis oíd age bis heart tiirued more and more to 
the thoug^htB and feelings of his youth, and, gathering to- 
getlier the few materiaJH he could collect frora amoog his 
kinsmen on the Pacíüc, as well as frora tbe stores of hia 
owü memoi^y and the records already accmnnJated in 



THE 



[PsuioD TL 



Spain, he pnblished, in 1609, the first part of his " Oom- 
Cmneninrios nicDÍLiries OQ Peru ; " the secoiid. of wbich, though 
uei erra, licenaed for the presa itt 1613, did not appcar till 
1617, the year after íta author''8 death. It íe a garruloua, 
gossipiíig' book, writteti in a cUfFuse style, aiid abotiiiding 
iii mattern perBoua! to hiraaelf. Id its very divíaion, he 
ackriowledg'cs frankly the conflicting claims that he felt 
were upen hiin. The earlier half, he sa^s, i-etatea to the 
eighteen Incas known to Penivian hiatory, and contaios 
an accouot of the tradítíona of the comitry, its institu- 
tioDB, manuera, and general characfcer ; a!! which he ofibra 
aa a tribute due to his descent from the Children of the 
Sun. Ttie reinainder — which, with many opistides and 
miiCh irrelcvant, but not alwaya nnpleasant, diacussíon, 
contaíua the hietory of the Spauiah comqueBt, and of the 
qnarrela of the Spaníards with each other growing ont of 
it — he ofFere, in like nianüer, to the glories of the great 
Spanish family with which he waa conneeted, aad which 
numbered oii its roUs sgme of the brigUteet namee in the 
Ca&tiiiau annals. In both parta, hia Commentariee are a 
etrikÍLg at]d interestiog hook, showing much of the spiñt 
of the oíd chronicleei, and infocted with evon more than 
the Commoii m&aSure of chronícling credulity ; sinCCj with 
a natural wiHiagnoBs to belEeve what^ver fables were hoB- 
orable to the land of his birih, he míng'les a conatant ans- 
iety to show that he is, ahov© eTerything else, a Oalholio 
Christian, whose faith was mtich too ampie to reject 
the most extravagant legenda of hi& Ohurch, and too 
pure to tolérate the ídolatry of that royal anceetry which 
he yet c34inot help regardiíag- with reyerence and admira- 
tion.» 



■" "'PiíInRhE cU Au«ra composll per 
Leone Msiico Hcbí^o," is th« tille of lie 
Wlglni,! IHillBD la tba tienl Aklm« rdiliou, 
lB4'3v Ib« laca callctl Lis IfUnglntlnn, 
" In Trs.av!íeion del Indio di¡ loa Tres DLi- 
logiwda AtB'T.de Lmn Hebrcn, etíhidodi) 
luainria en F^ipaiin»!, par QBrolLüBCi Tnjítt 
(le la VeBft,." ftlurlrLil, ISÜO, 4lt). A Btwii- 
i?h Craníl&tlfiii oí It, wlikh I Iib'Ib bcbd, 
bsd ikppeartd ¡X VeniM ih ISSS, and I 
bdisví Ihere wis Wiotlict ttC KiihignSn in 

IMl, t>r TTbicli it B«4m(i Bírane«,tbiib Qkf- 



EnaMgkDC'ff hdUlídI;. (Bwr>OM,Blb, los-, 
Tnm. n, p. 9-29 i Caatru, Bi6„ Tfi.a. E. p. 
3T1 ( nml AntíDio, Bill. Níií., Toro. I. p. 
^Q.) ¿U the trnnrd&tlúus Hará Ucoe 

Hebreo are □□ Ibs ludes ExpiinfialnHut, 
1007, p. TS9. Tha IctLer ttt Gjirelliiiao W 
Flillitjli:., with iildltloiinl remiLrkB hí itl 
author, cantalnin^ Inkrc^tTn^ mjLtPfiíilA for 
Macrern Ufe, ia preHsed lo llie BiTt i-rHUon 
<X Lhe íwond Tiiut of Uie Cnratnentatíce on. 
Pera. " La Pl-orlrln " waDpHnted at Usn 
Ikid íd laae, Ua -, Ule fint part at IIib Peta 



chaf. xssvm-i 



MONCABA. 



191 



The piiblicatíon, in 1610, of " The War of Granada," 
by Mendoza, had^as niight have been antici- i,n,™d:o 
pated from it& attractive subject and Bty!o — ucnd™». 
aa eñbct on Spauish hfstorical composition ; producitig, 
ÍB the coarse of the century, several imitations more wor- 
thy oí uotice than anytbing in thcir clasa that appe&red 
after the great work of Mariana. 

The flrst of tliera is hy Moneada, a nobleman of the 
hi^best raiik in tiio South of Spam, and connected witb 
seyeiral of its principal familicB^ botb in Catalo- 
nía and VaSentíia, Mia father was, successively, " ""'' *" 
TÍceroy of Sardinia and Aragón ; he hiniself waa g'over- 
nor of tlie Low Oountriea and coniinander-ÍD-cUief of the 
armicB there ; and both of them fliled, in their reapective 
timefi, the moat iiAportimt of tiie Spatiiah etubassies, But 
the younger iloncada had testes widely diñerent from 
the cai-es that fceeet his life. In 1623 he puhSiehed iiis 
" Elxpedition of tlie CataSaiiB ag^inet the Turks and 
Greeka ^ " and when he died, in 1635, just aflcr putting 
to roijt two hostüe armiea, he left aeveral other works, of 
leas valué, one or two of which have since been priuted. 
The History of the üatalan Expedition, by which alone 
he has been much known in later tinies, is ou the roman- 
tic advetiturcB aud achievementa of so extraordinary band 
of mprceuaries, who, under Roger de FltJc, — eucceesively 
a freebooter, a greát admira!, and a Ci»Bar of the Eaatern 
EtDpire, — drove bacJc the Turks, as they approached the 
Bosphorua in the beginning of the fourteenth century, 
and then, after being for Bome time no less formidable to 
their allies than they had been to the infidel, settled down 
into a BOTt- oí uneaay tranquilLity at Athona, where their 
Spanish historian leaves them. 

It ia En fttcouní, therefore, of a moat wild passage io 



Btl/tibon, l'SOQ^ rollo; ajiiI (he e«<!oiid jiart 
uOinlsiB, IQIT, rnlln, Bjitb iir the hia- 
(oiíeilI nnrliH nrv lo l« tiiaad m luvuraJ 
otliür viliLln^H, aml tH>ib I^utü bwn cnina- 

Uia u[)puaíte ktodi oT ItiBt crciln.lil]' In 
QmUMf) Whlvti ■■) Jnuch iminlrs Uie 



mine ot bis ComoieiiUdn. He tielleiíil 
tbui: the lubJeuCliiD d! Pcru bj Lhe Bpao- 
isiá» waa ¡iredkWtl 1>j Ihn Ust nf iJia 
Iue:bh Chat ri^l^ncil bf<ftjT& LheLr hTdviJ, 
tParte I. Llh. IX. c. 16, aml Pírtn n. Llh. 
vm. o. 19,>an>l he IwIIi'I'hI Ibm «U Ihn 
apBnLiiKlii lii iha iinny oí Psru, who ircre 
noUirlaue b1iLJipb?meri., prrlRhud b/ nciuniAd 
[aUie«ouU(PuteII., Llb. IT. cXl). 



192 



COLOMA- 



[Pkriod n. 



tLe affaira Tatber of tlieMjddle Ag^B than of the Spaníah 
península ^ one tliat may be tniatett, uotwitbatandíng 
its air of romaDCO, Hínce its foundatioDs are laíd íq the 
great work of Zurita ; and oae by no mearie wanüiig m 
picturesque effect, eince its detaile are gften taken from 
Ramón Muntaner, tLe oíd Catalán, who had himself sliared 
tliÉ perils of tiiis very expeditioo, and descríbed them Íq 
liia owD Chranicle witli his accustomcd spírit and vigor, 
Parts of it are very striking in thcmselvea, and etrikÍDgly 
told ; eapecially the rise of Eoger de Flor till he had 
reached the higheat place a eubject could hold in tbe 
Greek empire, and then hja a^^assination iu tbe preeenco 
and by the command of the ganie Emperor who had raised 
him so high, — hís blood aoiliiig tbe imperial table, to 
whicíi, with treacherous hospitafity, he had been invited. 
Tbe whole ¡e writteu iu a boid and free, ratber tban in a 
careful style ; but the colonug- is well suited to the dark 
grouodwork of tbe picture, and thougb lesa euergetic 
in its tone tban Mendoza's " War of Granada," of which, 
&om the first aentetice, we aee it is an imitatiúu, it ¡b 
often more ea.Ry, flowing, and natural.''* 

Ánother military hiatory written by a noblemati con- 
nected wíth the aervice of hia country, both in ita armiea 
aTid ita diplomacyr is to be found in an account of eleven 
caispaigns iu Flandera by Carlos Colooia, Marquís of es- 
pinar, publtehed in 1625. A triinslation which 
be uiade of tbe " Aun al 8 " Of Tacitus hae been 
regarded as tbe best in tbe language ; butj in hia own 
■Work, he shows no tendency to imítate the añcietits. Oa 
tbe contrary, it íb, aa it were, freeh from the flelds of the 
autbor's glory, and full of the honorable feelinga of a sol- 
dier, aketcbing the adventures of the army when in camp, 
■when in ímniediate action, and -when in winter-quarters ; 
and adding to bie main narrative occasional glimpsea of 



1 " Bl^klOTí de l<ie CnhiloneB ciiQtrs 
arle|ti>9 y Tacoi». P'if- Franclsou de Mod.- 
CAÍEl, Conde de Oaan^" BBrr.felanií., 1635, 
and UfuJrid, 1773 und IBOB, I3iqo. There 
ia an «lition, abn, uf llanx-l-iini, IStS. Svo. 
Cititifd by Dan Jslrae TId, v¡tti a pacm al 
the cDd bj Galiito Fctiinndei Campo- 
ndoiidD, rbloh is □□ tbe laaifi subjecl with 



the Hiatory, and in 1841 Biinad a prlafi 
at Barcelniía far ita sitcótrfift nt b fmtivil^ 
thnt ri;aLln[]s us oF the dújB oí thir Flisrol 
OuiiiíB taá of Dúú EuriqW áe TilIvnB. 
The lucst olitliiu i>f Miin-LTula, hnwcyer, Ib 
Id the " Gjbllattwa de Autora £bpiuí ultís,," 
Tom, JUU., ISfia. 



CttAí. ÍSSTUL] 



tíELO. 



153 



Meto. 



the Edg-otíatíons tlien going on ín the Low Countrí-es re- 
spectiiig" Spaiiieh afrair», íiud of tlie intrigues of tlie cour- 
tiera at Madrid round tlic death-bcd of Pliilip the Second. 
The style of Coloiua is iinequd ; but mncb of wlitLt he 
descfibcs he had seen, and the rest h»d passed wítfiiti the 
compaes of wlmt he dceinod suro inforraíitíou ; so tlmt ho 
speaks, üot o^nlj wíth authority, but witb tlie natural vi- 
Tacity wliich comea from Leíiig ao near the evoiita he 
records, that tlicir colof is imparted to his lauguage.^* 

To the samo claea with the laat beloii^s tSie spirited 
hirttory of a portiun of the Cütalan rebellion ín the time 
of PliÜip Ihe Fourth. It waa written by Meló, a 
Portugiicae gentleman, who remaiiied attached 
til the Borvice of Spaio till IG40 -41, wheo he joined tha 
standard of tho Braganzas, and fouglit for the jndepcnd- 
ence of his own courttry, Hie Ufe, wbich extended from 
1611 to leCíj waa full of adventure. He was íq the 
dreadful tempest of 1627, whea the whols navy, ae it 
were, of Portugal fluffered shipwreck ; and it fcll to hia Jot 
to SupCríntend thc bnrial of above two thousaud budies OÍ 
those who had penahed iu the waves, from which he him' 
self had hardly eecaped. He was iu the ware of Flandera 
and of OataloDÍa. Twelve years he wa& in prison m hia 
ortn COuntry, undor an aC.Cusatiotí of murdür that wa.s at 
laat proved to be wilhout íbundatioa ; and eix yeara he 
was an exile in Bi-axil. Eut ntider all circumtitances, and 
throiigh all his tríala, ha sought cooBolatiun lq lettcre. 
IIíb published wotkB, in proee atid verse, in Spanish and 
iu Portuguese, Bome of which have been already noticed^ 



M " Lm Oapn-HS de ln« Eitmlnli D4IX01, 
d«ede Ujlío, lasS, hAiLn ni Afio ISBO,''' Am- 
bvrti, lli^S ikDd l-tUÍ, 4IO, aivil JíiirRQliiua,, 
Iflifl. Xim-fiio, "EraD. t. p. 33S. fte mas 
HinbajWBdür to Jnines I, of KniilCLiid, iloí- 
roj uf Unjfjrca, ele,, anil ilit-d tu 1337, 
ibity-toar füorH DJd. He wni iitn [if Jilbii 
de Giiinmik slready noUeed, caHe, \a\. II, 
pp. 403 i>»d 4dé, ante. T)an ItL-piiiinliiio 
d« MviiditEii biul i'Urltf iiullui putijil lilrn, 
fITid plvua ILD JlcuaU3iC of ttn je&ea cf lEie 
trar of Etuiidatt, jn }il« " Couii^iiUtrlai de 
Lil Quvrní ñr l¡ gneeñUi-'' un luy PilIhi-i 
IlnxLM, leja-lSIl," prliiceri w nindiid Iu 
ldB'2. JinA uní »prlnl«il, I lliliik, uatll IL 
VOL. III. 9 



ap|)es.rsi] )il tb« lilblIntccK ñf Aulnre* 
£spanDle«, Tara. xrVlU., 1BS3. It did 
u-iit (tCMvTve auf-ti n^iilcrL^ tur aUtiougb it Ii 
much diívoHífl to «tTHti'geiie gclenne, u 8I- 
l]ltiil«il ■□ llist liiiig ajid. dlBaiiiniiiu wu, [t 
in writtíD vllb tiri^nt piirítf nr Hgle. lí 
bad hc-ei;! pnioüilEí] tiy n viiFk of lila »Met- 
ly üD Lhu art üilJItarj, anil onHClm! "Tbeo- 
ricB y Pra-otloa do Iu OuBira," whicli wa» 
HnK priiiKil Ül IÍ77, and went Ihrüugli 
t(rn iit Hireo ediliíjn*, bejMss being trans. 
imi'i (iiui rtJtliivn. >tendi.iii|i died, hlíud, 
BLCd 'V^vy ^\á, ill ^ feUfiT ItiB eumVGiLL ori;]A 
Dunea^e gt. B^FPiird at Uadríd. 



M 



lU 



MELÓ. 



[Pkkioti n. 



'-*- 



eiceed a handred volumes, and fhe mipublished woiild 
materially increase even this vast amount. VVÍiat Ís more 
remaikable, he is, iu both laiiguag-ea^ admitted to the hon- 
ora of a claaaic writer. 

HÍ8 "-History QÍ tbe War of Catalonia," which em- 
braces oüly the Bhort períod duriug wliich Eie etirved in 
it, waa writteQ while he was in prison, aud wae firgt pub- 
liahed in 1645. Owiiig to political causes he did not give 
liis ñame to H ; and when one of hia friends in a letter 
expressed Burpríse at this circumstaQce, he aoswerQd, 
■with a cbaracteriñtic turn of phraae, " The book loses 
nothiog for want of niy ñame, and I «hall !otie notbing for 
wftüt of the book." It wub, howeyer, Buccesafiil. Tbe 
accouutB of the firat oiitbreak in Barcelona, on tho feast 
of Corpus Obrifiti, when the city was throng;ed with the 
bold peasantfj of the interior ; tho subaequent strife of 
tbe exasperated füctions ; the debates in the Junta of 
Cataloniaj and thuíie in the king''s council, uudei" the lead- 
ing oí the Count Duke Olivares ; and the closíng ecene 
of the wbole, — the ineffectual storming of the grand 
fortresa of Mon Juich by the royal forcea, and the diaaa- 
trous retreat that fallowed, ^— are all giveo with a fresh- 
ueea and power tbat could come only from one who had 
shared in the fcelíngs he deacribea, and had wituessed the 
very movenieuts be seta before us with auch a lifetüte- 
epirit. Ei& style, tpo, ia siaited to hia varying eubjeijts í 
eu'metitnee ünimate^ and forcible, so^metirnes qmiitjt and" 
jdiomátie, and aornetimes in its dark hinta and''».brug^ 
turtis reinindiiig us of Tacítua, Eüt the Work ig sliort, 

— uot long'er than tbat of Mendoza, wMch wae itBrinodelj 

— and it fiovera onlj the space of abouC sixmqatbfl at 
the end of 1640 and the beginning of 1641. ' ^.^ 

Whether Meló iiitended to carrj hia narrative farther 
ia nnceitaiu. From hí3_ etrikirtg coDclusíon, wtiere he 
Baya, '' The events tbat followed^ greatér i» thcmaelvea 
than those I have related — arO perhaps reaowe.d for a 
greater liistorian," we might infer tliat he was deüirous 
to describe only wbat he had witnessej, But, on the 
other 6ide, in liia Proface we have the foUbwing oharacter- 
istjc ^ddrg^e tn bia r^aders, alluding to tbe conoeatmeñt 



Obap. SXXVm.] MELÓ.— SAAVEDUA FAXARDO. 



195 



of his ñame aa the author of the vcork he oñers theni, 
" If Í0 anytfaing I havc served you, I ask only tkiat yon 
would Tiot endeavor to know inore of me Uian ít pleiiaea 
my humor to tell yon. 1 present to you my faíthfuL opin- 
ión of things, juBt as it has heen my lot to form it ; — I 
do Dfit present myaelf to you ; for a knowledge of my 
person ie not neceseary to enable yon to judge either 
kindly or hursKly of what I have writtcn, If I do not 
pleaao yon, read lue uo further ; ^if I do, I make no 
claíma on your gratitude. I apcak without fear and with- 
o«t vanity. The iheatre before ua is vast ; the tragcdy 
long. We ahall meet agaiii. You will kimw me by my 
voice ; I sKall know you by your jndg-ment." But, what- 
ever raay hiLve beeii Mclo'a original intentions, he sur- 
vived the publication of thia interestirig work above 
twenty yeara, and yel added nüthing; to ita pages.^ 

From thÍ8 period, prose composition. wbich had bocn 
long infected with the baii taste ofthe a^e, suffered a 
Btill farther and more marked decline. Saavedra Fasar- 
do, indeed, who lived forty years outofSpaín, auTnii™ ^ 
employed ín diplomatic missiona, waa etiucated ^^i'kbkIo. 
iu a bettcr school, and fortned hínmelf on more worthy 
■modela, thau he COnld hat-e found among' hia coiitiftiiporap 
riee at home ; but bis " Hietory of the Gotha in.Spaia'*" 



oRini jkPaerniilB íT»taluña, ji-pf Fniiicljco 
Manuel de ilclii,'\tilihi>^.]S4S,'ai3fl' «cv- 
ernl otHtr dltloiia ; '¡tne ti/^HOcIiei, ISOS, 

eime tD Ul^ 'HUirpEÍE^gA ef ^I^eimI' lie J^1l-Io, 

IbJLI tlLtfrt- U n ttt§crepKiiay m Ihe R«« 

oQuiiia. tíie ünnujiDu tjtit^niíiit uf tbe 
LsDi^lZl at bis Smpri§ODnienti aaú f\ñr It 
eJg.htetíD yean, &Qd Borboea. nink«& It 
flftp<?[9 \ buc 1 hupi^f from n CHTeTLiI ooin-i 
pariAdD Di duE^if that \i\ñ imprlaounkent 
ailsaclfld anlj^ tri¡m lo44 to Itilj, iiiid thut 
hil exIlG úid uol l^ist jilirivE írruryeju'B more, 
^lat ililfl is hti'l tinijuplí, Hiu (icK^ry íd 
BpAdiAh hiLj EJtH.'u EEir-ntionnl, anír, p. 
ae. IfiiT hU Itl? anil □iijliiltiTlIriinii Hiirki, 

BwbMa M^liadf], (LmIitib, 1741 - B^, 1 
tam,, ítAiO,) ntlich I Iliire often refuiTerJ l(t| 
U W Ihit gr>nt HiiUinrKf on ii|l niultiri Di 



(sel IrfPuiltiipw*' llteraíy Hlslnry, ttmig^ 
of llttíe or'nu «jilue fof ihe lifrrarj opig-i 
lüUA ti cxprtihJf, It Ifl^BHke ilr t!ir unplí^ 
and Diwninparlnnt VDTkB'<jf lltinirj' lii- 
ogmti'hj' AUt] bLIrlIit^apIky «Ter piLblItbpÁl } 
but, 'Lin}iiiipfjf1f , It IH al«i tine of Hi^ r»Lrfiflt, 
t\ largü pnrt cf th« imprvAaiuA M Els^ flnt 
ttirtu voliiibea tiavlng theon dl'^ETufecL 1^ 
th* Qre.thut rullu-wnl, Lhí greul i;ji,rl.h(|ual!0 
Ht Lii)Mii 1d-J'¡&5. tía nuttip/, trlin gives 
guTceaccMiiit a( blmiñlC Id Illa «'Hnniirli, 
■rof biimln l^HS.and dieii, I brlle^i!, Iu 1T7U. 
AnnChtr hlBIorlcni worjt o£ tbPHanw eoft 
willi that ul Meló, uoá Te^rrriny: ti> Uia 
ssin? period', ronj lie nMIoeU h(T<', thoHBla 
Lt Ib ofJíid'coiiíeqnEPBe, — T muají, "Ta- 
mulífli de la CliiJud j V^yair (Ib No[iolea 
en el Ar^o 344'7,^ür Uu» Pu^Iih Áiiti»»1odti 
Trkratn,'! (Lco^ do VritDPiii, lOTIJ, íbl.,) — « 
curi-ciufi Biiil iiiU^n?Bnnx Isaok-oa lite vlld 
aod ALTUBi^v tTuublea In }l3Ld]iTtn.'no'fl tlcnCg" 
FCgorded fmni clic Spiaulsl] jiu1q( of vIq^tl 



ISff 



so Lis. 



Bnllt. 



is an ímporfcct -work, publiahed m IQIS, at Miinster, 
wheri he was tbcre as a member of the c-tmgreaa that 
iDade the peace of Westphalia, and waa left unfiíiished at 
Iiis death, wbicli occurred at Madrid twü yeare later."* 
Tlie oniy hisuirian of eminence thiit remaina t.o be no- 
ticed iii thÍ8 period ie, therefure, Solía. 

Of hiiii we have already epokeri as a lyrical poet and 
a drEtm;itÍRt, who in 166T had ratUed froxü the 
worid, aaid dedicated liimself to the separata 
aervice of religión. He waa, liowcvor, thé official Ilisto- 
riogpapher of the índice, aiid ihoüght himsell'bound to do 
something^ ia fulñlraent o( the duties of ati office to which 
a poor salary waa attached, that, aftfir all, BeeoiB to have 
been ill paid. He choso for bis subject "The OonqucHt 
of México," aiid, be^inniíig; with the condition of fipaiu 
"wJien it was midertak&n, and the appoiiitment of Cortés 
to cominand the invading: forcé, he brin^s bis hietory 
dqwu to the fall of tho city aod the capturc of Gualieie- 
zio. The period it embrac-es íb, iudeed, ehort, — leBS thaa 
three yeara ; but tbey are years so crowdt-d with bnlliant 
adveuturea and atrocioue criDiea, that hardly any portion 
üf the hiatofy of the world is of eqnal ijiterest. The suh- 
ject, too, froiQ tliis cii'cumñtaTice, is more eaeily inan- 
aged ; and Solís, who looked upon it with the eye of an 
artist, as well as of an hiatodan, haB aucceeded in giving 
hÍ8 work, to an ert.raordinary degree, the air of an his- 
toñcsl epic ; ■ — so cxactly ate alL Un parta and epiaodes 
modelled into an liarmoiiioue Tvhole, whoee cataatrophe ia 
the fall of the g'ieat Medican euipire. 

The atyle of SoL's is somewhat pp-cuh"aT. That he had 
the Román bistoriang, and especially Livy, beíbre him, aa 
he wrote, is apparent both in tlie general aír of liis work 
atid in the Btructnre of tts individn^ll sentences, Yet 
theie are few wñtera of Spanieb proae who are more 
abaolntely Castilian ia their idiora than he ÍB. His Un- 
guage, ií Qot simple, íe rtch and beautiful i suitcd to the 



« Tbe work -of Sansdra »*■ cobUbuMÍ, eilillfin ot Madiid, 1789- «(, lamo, of 

TPTjr imorly, \iy Aliiiifli) NuílUí ile CmUm, whlelí the ñrat two ouly, coniíng-duwii tu 

UiroQjth tlie rtígn ur Iluiiry ÍI., the iBbon TLC, art tiy SsaTeara. 
ol' both iDEitElDg BBTeu vulunies {d tha 



«HAT. ffKxvm.] 



197 



ro-mantic aiabject 3ie had chosen for a*s nístory, and deeply 
ícobued trith itB poética! spirit. In boIdncBa of matmer he 
falls bclüw Mendoaa, apd in dig-nity is not equal tu Mari- 
ana : but for ccipiouB and suEtaioed eloqueuce, he may 
be placed by the side of either of them, Tbat hie work 
Í3 as iiitereatiiig aa either of theirs ia proved by the uiiiía- 
paired popularity it has eujoyed from iis first appearaaoe 
down to our owii timoB. 

But the Coiiquest of México waB written iti the oíd age 
of itB authíir, and ¡s darltened by the feelings thaí ahut 
hini out from Ihe intercsta and cares of tho World, He 
refuaed to see the fierce and marvellijus coutest which he 
reconied, except í'rom the at^ps njf the altar wbere hl had 
been coneecrated, The SpauiardB, thcrefore, are in his 
eyes oiilj Cbristiaiía ; the Mexicane, ünly heatiien. Th& 
battie he witneases and desci'iboB is wholCy betweea the 
powecg of light and the legions of darkness ; and tho 
uuhappy Indiana, — whom the Spaniards had no more 
right to invade, in order to root out relignona nbomÍDa- 
tions, of which thej had nei^er heard tíU after their land- 
ing^ than Heury the Eighth or Eliüabeth liad to invade 
Spain, iu ortler to root out tho abominatious of the Spaa- 
ieb Inquisitíonj — ^the iinhappy Indiana receive none of 
the historian's Bympathy in tbe estremiíy of suEFering- 
thoy underwent durirjg" their vain, but lieroic, strug-gle 
for all that could inake eiiatence valiiablo in their eyes. 

Tiie work of Solía, beaiiíifully written and flattering to 
tile Tiational vanity, was at onCú suCceBSftjl. Ent aucceas 
waa then a word whose meaning- was dífferent frora that 
whic;h it beafs dow, or had borne iQ Spain id the time of 
Lope de Ve^a. Tlie pul.i!íc¿UTon, which took place ín 
1684, by the aBsistanCc of a iriend who defrayed the 
chaiges, found ita author poor, and left him so. On thia 
point thei'e are passagea in hia corroapondcnce which it ia 
paítiful to read ; — one, for iustancej where he Bays, " I 
have many creditora who wouEd stop me in the atreet, if 
tiiey saw I had new shoea ou ; " and another, "wbere he 
aska a friend for a wanii garmeiit to protect him from the 
wíiiter'e t;o!d. Still, he was gratified at the applause with 
which hÍB work waa receíved, though, at tbe sad ai a 



198 



solís. 



[PáBIODU. 



year, only two hutidred copies had beeti aold. Two yeara 
afterwards he died, at the age of süventy-aíx, "leaviag," 
in tiie technical phraao and th« techiiical haWtof tlie time, 
" hÍB soul to be the only lietr of hia body," or, in otlier 
words, giving the remnants of liis poverty to pnrchase 
expiatory maeseB.*^ Diego de Tcbar, tho eame eccleeíae- 
tic who had bccn confcssor to Quevedo and Nicolás An- 
tonio, atood by the bedside of the áying- man, and con- 
floled the last moments of Solís, a.B he had consoled 
thcirs.=« 

Solís was the last of the good Trriters in th& eider 
Echool üf Spanieh ¡lietory, which, even during ita best 
days, nurabered but few. ñames, and which, now that the 
jTaainrenf whole litorature of the country was decayÍDg-, 
túaiarr. shared the general fate. Ñor conld it be othcr- 
"wfse. The spint of politítai tyranay in the goverurneut, 
and of religious tyranny in the Inqnieition, ■ — now closor 
tfaan ever coited, — was more ho&tile to bold and faithful 
inquiry in the department of hiatory than tu aímoat any 
othei' ; 90 that the generons national independence and 
bonesty annonnced isi the oíd chrouiclee were atopped 
midway in their career, before half of their power had 
been put forth.» * 



'" MaJ. a'Aulnoy (VojBge, cj. 1SB3, 
Tniu, (1. Fp. IT, IS] ex[jltiluB tilia ciuEdid^ 
luiil «liiniFs Id what an nbeurd and Tidlcoi- 
]inu! IciiRtli It Wüs coirltil lii íbe lime of 
Solía. A.D !iiB<tuDG9 nol clleí] by ber^ how- 
cyi;r. bnL one LIibI Jtj4crt'€3 trj be cnlli^d ntaig- 
]iiticei]t,iiiaf be adñei. Wkcn Pbillp IV. 
dlcd in 16ÚS, ít «aa tonaá thnt be hud 
tullí l>y privatel]/ b. thoiubud doublonna to 
pay Tur Gre-^nJ-Üiirt^ thüiLwiiJ maHoea 
tía hix tiiitl {mmeillatiei; altur hla deutb, 
besEL^ca a bciiidrod tliouBnnd orilerel b^hlík 
will. Pellru RwJrÍKaei i!b Munforte, l)e- 
■crípclnn ñv \bí EEi>riruft d>e Ph^Bppe IV., 
Wadrirl.lflSe, 4bi, f. 29. 

M Tlicre are amoy edlllon!. of the " Cod- 
■liilsta áv Méxioi," the flrst beinc Ihat oF 
Madrid, lOU, fnlio, anii tbv best in tna 
iriiLli,, íln, Madrjil, l'lSS, — tllL" latlBt iKtni! 
thf5 -BUDiipiunu« unH tfhlcb f.ti:r1iiiig >ch1Ib 
"-the triumph oí Ihe prritit or SiiUcliíi." 
Whttlier Úie Anely tngiari^d bvad oí Eiü\it 
p-reBiEd lu it La tbe oae hj Cuno I dn noL 



IcduSl It Imks se ir It might be woTtfay of 
liim ; buL tbere was aiiuther b; Tomas de 
A^íbt, whii:b Bolli btniíeír pruisnl in m 
saoneL Stirilnic'n Art!í>U uf BpkJq, 1S48, 
pp. llSi, SOa» 137T, The nuthor oF Olí 
IIFe preliied to bis pcKoa íays : "Snill 
]e1l materlala for a cootlnoaElDD of tbc Ula- 
tor/ itf México, Uiit Ibej ate not adir 
Ttnowu ta eilat." A fcw of b!a iettet», wlth 
a. akctcb oF hia Ufe, by Muyaos j Bl»cwr, 
were publisbed, os I hiLVC Alromlj' nntlccd, 
In 1133. Thej app^ar apiln, caríFully 
rerlBed, la the "Cartas HornlM," etc., 
1713. See anU, II. «'28, IIL 43, 160. 

T Botf litsle Ihe trae cbaructet vt hln- 
tory aad bbc Jiist altribntea of an blstcirlan 
ven; ILiidersLood ld Bpaln cveti In ¡En bftti^r 
dajD, jnay ití irel] aeen Lo úie Ireadae of 
Luin de Cabrem, tbe hlatr-rlaD of tbitífi Ff ., 
eDtitl^ ^* Jtil H[flLoría para eiilead^rla. j 
pari escrlTlrlB.," {lladrid, IGll, Ito.) It 
ia a mere plece of piiáiíntry juid prvtenBÍOD, 
wboJly iiDWOTlhj a pereoc wlio must Ihen 



Chap. XXXVni.] CEABACTEB OF SPANISB HISTOBIANS. 199 

Still, as we bave eeen, severa of the historians that 
were produced even uDder the overshadowing character 
influcnce of the Auetrian family were not unwor- S"*^. 
thy of the national character. Mariana shows hutorian». 
much manly firmness, Solía much fervor, Zurita much 
conscientiouB diligence, while Mendoza, Moneada, Colo- 
nia, aiid Meló, who confined themselTes to subjects em- 
bracing shorter penods and lees wide interests, have 
given US some of the niost strikíng sketches to be found 
iii the historical literature of any country. AU of them 
are rich and dignified, abounding rather in feeling* than 
philosophy, and written in a tone and style that mark, 
not 80 much, perhaps, the peculiar genius of their re- 
spective authors, aa that of the country that gave them 
birth ; so that, though they may not be entirely classical, 
they ure entirely Spanish ; and what they want in fiuish 
and grace, they make up in picturesqueness and origi- 
nality.'™ 

have been conaiderlng how he ehould him- cUies obtalned tbelr oim septirate bhiuIb 

Beir write oae of the moBC Important reigns from the hand of ti leuC one ftuthor, — 

in the affairg oí modern Snrope. He Bometimes worka ot aiühorit?, llke tlui 

banJIy notice* any of the precedíog Spau- on Segorla b; ColmeDares, kod that on 

lab histuriana, and nben he refere to Mb- Sevllle by Ortlz de Zaulg&. Bat Uiongh 

riana (t. 33) it Is only to carp at bim, wbile more of snch local hiitories were mitten 

on tlie otber bond be is reBpectful to Be- la Bpidn betireen the middle of the <Ii- 

roeua, Uanetho, and the otber mleerable teentb and tbe end ot the seienteenth 

forirerieB of AnniaB at Titerbo (Slae. 16), century, than were written dnrtng the 

and U full of Buperetltion and orednlity tatne period, I beliere, In any other couo- 

(DiBc. 17). try la £nrope, none of them, 80 far aa I 

« PriKa the tlmea of Charlea T. and know, has tueh pecoUar merit ai to be 

Philip 11., Tben, Id Aragón and Castlle, noticeable In the literary history of the 

chroniclcra were DoItipUed a< a part of tbe cooDtry. StlU, the aplrlt that prodaoed 

pagi;antry of tbe conrt, the reat of the them in incb great nambers, and especlally 

kingdoms that entered Into tbe anited the iplrlt whlch, dorlng the reigo of Philip 

Bpanieh monarchy began to dMlre to have U., made, with so mnch cara and coat, the 

their ovro repárate histories, as <re can see vaat callectiona of docmnenti yet t4i ba 

In Valencia, wbete those of Beuter, Eko- tbnnd in the Caatle of Simancas and the 

laño, and Dlago wera written. Besldea convent of the Escniial, ihonU not be 

thls, a great nomber of the IndlTídual overlooked. 



CHAFTER XXXIX. 

r&OVEK&S: flíHTILLARÁ, flASAT, NHKEZ, UAL LASA, FiLLV ERBHOj 
DtrniM, BOUAFAM, CEJUDO. TKlAItTB, — DIUAÜTIQ PBOB£ : TDRQUC' 
MAPA, AC08TA, miH Oü OBAIfAlíA, JOAN BB LA CHUZ, BAJSTA 
TKRE&A, MAt^S" DF. CnAtlHü. BOSAS, FIOUBRCrA, MAHQrBZ, TRflA 
Y ZCÑIGA, HAVAHBÍTK, SflAVEPRA, QDEyBlíO, ANTOKIO PK TKGA, 
laiEitKMIEEUO, GCZMAN, DANrjaCO, ANDRADA, TILLALOROS. PATOH, 
AlíKMAN, TAHlA Y 30U6A, FHaKCIBÍIO DB PORTUGAL. — GOIfClOIllBM 
líi puosa: GRACIAS, ZABAt-BTA, LOZANO, UEHÜDIA, SAUIEEZ. — 
FAILIIUE OP COOS DIDACTIG PROSE.. 

TaE last department in tlie literature of (wy coiintry, 
that comea withia the juriBtliction of críticism on account 
'BrcjHcttc ofíte style, is that of Didactio Frose ; since íq 
rra«. ¿jjjg branch, so ruinóte from evcrylhing poética], 

the ornaments of iDanncr are more accidental thati they 
are elBewhore, aud, beyond ít, are not at all to be exactcd. 
In looítem times, the French seeni to have been more 
anxiouB than any otLer natíon, not esccpting even tba 
Italiaua, to add the grace of an elegant style to theír dt- 
dacüc prose, wbile, on the üther band, none bave becn 
more nnsucccssful than tibe Spaniards in their attempta to 
cultívate it, 

In one particular form of didactie conipositíon, how- 
ever, Spain standa in advance of all other countiiea ; I 
mean that of Proverbs, which Cervantes hae hap- 
pily- called " Bhoit Beutciice& drawn from loog 
esperíence." ' Spanish proverba can be traced hacfc to 
the earliest times, One of th-e best knowa — " Laws- go 
■where king-s please they shonld " — ía connected with an 
event of iuipürtance in the reign of Alfonso Ihe Siíth, 
"vpho dicd in the Lcginníng of the twelfth centui-y, when 



I ttoD. ijulxuU!, Porte 1. u. Sfl. 



Ctur. SXXIX.] 



PKOVT.EIIS. 



201 



the languagG of Castile bad hardly a diatinct exieteiice.' 
Aíiüther has beorí traced to a custom beluiigiug to the 
tlaj'S of tbe Infantes de Lara, íiud is itseU" prybably oí iiot 
laiich. luter dat^.' Othere are fotitid ¡a tlie Gc-ücraJ Cbron,' 
icle, whicU íb one of the oldest of Spauíeb prose compo- 
sitiüiiB, and among tliem íb the happy oiie oii dÍBEippoÍuted 
expeetatious, ciEed in Don Quísote more thaii once : "lio 
went ftii" wool and carne back shorü." "• Severa! occur 
in the "Conde Lucanor " of Dou John Manuei,' and 
raany in the poetry of the Archpneat of Hita," both of 
whúni lived in tha time of Alfonso the Eleveath. 

Tbua far, howovor, we have ouiy sepárate aad ÍBolated 
Sajines, evideutlj belonging to the oíd Spiíuish race, aud 
alwayg used aij if quite familiar and notüriouB. But iu 
the reign of John the Secondj and at bis requeat, «m^uj, ^r 
the Mai-q^uia *f Santillana colleuted a hundred, SaacuLuí». 
in rhyme, wbich we have ah-eadj noticed, bt-sidea above 
BÍi hundred, he says, sucb aa tb© oÍd women were wout 
to repeat in their chimney-comerB. Fi'oin thia period, 
therefore, or ratber from 1508, wbeo thia collection wag 
publisbed, the oíd and wiee proverbs of the lauguage luay 
be regarded as havju^ ubtaioed a Bettled place in its 
dídactic Uterature.' 



• Inlbc Brcat eneilcsi ti#twM[i ise im 
HtnrKlH, Uia üJiiuiiii itonl Oit Muiltle,irbtíih 
d.l^tiirtnd che Churcli nf Spaln far sa lang 
•.pcrlod, Alfoüsa VI. ilcitrEflincd tn [titaff 
■i cap7 dC eaoli Into a Ere úoly klnúled íaá 
blcMed iDr the purpogE, und gíTe the s«- 
prcmbar to Ui-s one íbU ahsuld aatat anl 
uncThDBnmed. The OoLhio MU- was íug- 
cesariil 'j hiiL the kin^ bmlie his vord» AJjd 
ídbshI It bocb. íutn íhe ñamni, L[iu& ^^taK* 
Hhi;^ ít te Eaiili tn bhe provcrlii ^' ALI& ran 

are Lhln^a tbflt TdIIow hlogs.'^ (Sarn^ieTkLn^ 
■^ áll.) A HlinÜAr bietoricEbl origin in tfireD 
tu thi; lirGVfrt]^ "Mi quito rej^ oí poDira 
Tey,'* — -'■^Na bjug Ilski;,no binglmake \" 
Vhleñ le tríVCtd hr thi peráoonl guarrel n[ 
FUE/ Ibti L'euel ftbd fain bnUior bdí euo- 
oeuor. Pon Entiíjtl.e. GleQi«ni;Ln, ed. Don 
QlLlxoU^ Túm. VI., 1830, f- 326. AilJ iu 
thp " raBligos" »f KLng Sanchuí ohap. 38, 
^ZKG ante^ Vsnod L. Chap. tV,, unUj 14,) 
vritleiii abonl 1293, rt huTo ttm fblluivlns 
Hurds : "-' l^jr caá diz la tMLli^nh del 

3* 



IiiMT«f1)l4 atttigiís. Tía hí^a, Et usa intai 
t t¡iilKt¡," — u Lliat the pTort^Tb was píd In 
tlt£ UtlTtsentb. ccDtuT?. Ciutra Ptüm^U- 
EúB bien planuü», Caili, 1830', 4t4, p. 
12, U3d note 6. 

" DÍBuriaUan cf Cunit) In >f»ritQi J 
8lK»r, Oiijüínej, Ton. IL p, 211. 

^ Chr/nlcs Qcncral, leQl, PArU IU. t 
61, and Ddh Quísote, Vmttit I. C. T. 

» Foc eiample: *' Ayudtd T<H, y DlM 
a-TudoTTOB ha," — " HBlfi jftarwir sad 
Ood sill belp jDd," — hCjir tbe tnd t BOd 
"Bl Bieo nUiK* fnilnfe," — "Qo44 aotte 
dies," — wbLeb le lú tbfi Qnt tale. 

* " Qukti ua 1' «Kital ntutitu, noo OíIIr. 
íieguiaeM," — "Hí ÜiA.t i'iwa un the bcbi- 
b«Mii reHSK iiuie r^i' iiiinnuif," atBDiB i«o. 
P*iliy"w«í, i slngülai" wurü, Tíhiidi «euif 

imae Ib DoD Qulxii^tfl, iB ttii by Clemc^neül 
(Tara. IV. p. 34) tO Cíilitfl Iraní pecuHa. 
See, Bise. Pftrlidii I., Tit. isi. Lo? S, íin4 
Partida IV, Tit- sfU. Ley T- 

T Reprluted Iu Mhjsqs, Oflg«neSi Tam. 
II. pii. 170 -aiO. fies abo tbe Pr»TertH 



sos 



PROVERBS. 



[Periob IL 



The Humber of proverbs, indeed, was eootí so great, — 
not only thoae floating abouí. in the common talk of meo, 
but ttiose cullected and printed, — that th&y began to be 
CoUBeüc.™ tumed to íiccount, Garay, who was attached to 
rfpeoTertí. thccathedral of Toledo, aiid therefore lived )Q tbe 
centre of whateFcr was peculiarly Castilian, wrote a long- 
lettcr, every Bstitence of which waa a popular Bayiug- ; to 
whicb he acEded two similar lettera, ibund, as he eaya, Viy 
accideat, aad made up, ín the same way, of proverbs.* 
But, in the míddle of the century, a etill higher honor 
awaited the oíd Spanieh adages. Pedro Valles, who 
wrote the history of the great Marquia of Pescara, pub- 
lishüd an alphabetical series of fotir thousand thi'ee hun- 
dred of them in 1549 ; and the famoua Greek scholar and 
distinguished nobleman, Hernán NuBez de Gnzman, Pro- 
fesBor successively at Alcalá and at SalamaDCa, found 
amusement for hia oíd age in makíng another Berica of 
them, which araounted íq all to above six thoueand, To 
sonie he added esplanatioíie ; to otherB, varione parallel 
sayingB from diSerent langUages ; but finding his strength 
fail hicif he gave the taek to a irietid, who, like himself, 
was a ProfeBHor in Salamanca, aiid wbo publigLed the 
whole m 1555, two years after the deatli of Nuñez ; rath- 
Or, ati he intimates, frora reepCCt to tbe person from wbom 
he received the eharge, than from regard to tbe dignity 
of tbe employment." 



rrnm Seifcn b^ Pero Dlsx, meiitloneil tn 
aiK 34 to IVri'{>d I, tlmp, 19, udI pp.. 31D, 
341,of Vrj. 1. 

> I hiLvs nEvci í^cE, the Fa^vcrha evt- 
letrCed bj Pfdro Yalles, Che htiseaest, 
IC19, Ifut Uiiviiiis J BJEcar had ¡a tiia 
lilirary a ccpr of tbi'oi, irtiicfí is dHwrlbsil 
in Ibe " Spi^imen BillIctheciB lliaEhiLno- 
HftJaaBlalkK, uta-, ex llu^mo l>avi(lif Cle- 
uenllif,"' EBDiiDvermr 17á3, 4to, p. G7. 
Th« "Carue ie filus^a de Ou-b;" IiikTe 
bwn orcuD pr!nl«d ; but Ibe oUest aad 
tiiMt tumplcitc nllilon l b!,\teisa la Ihet 
cí Vvafw, 1*63, limo 1 pryíiBtJlr rf I tüe 
firat. Tbe neentid til tJie ieasn of Gsiray 
Ib ¡jo-I In ptoverli«, and, Id Mu cdition, H 
íoUowfJ hy a ilíviiut prasiif t tírn «rhdfl 
b«lDii iiiteiiilcd, aa ün autbúT saya, " to 
Tía ilie Attetitliiit uot m muab tí the ivíh 



SB oT ttioic •uta m iront Xa reod onUilnn 
tuL C«l(:BtlDa aDlí aucb bncika,"' IJie 
" Pfoíírbioa " of PriíaCiPíu ilí filStillo, La 
th« VL'lilhlit wUh his "Thei:riiií de Vir- 
tudes," (1¿SS, a.&i- 690 «n boc itrúrertiii, 
kiii: OD exliorlAttaü iu v^rai; lu a witie and 
liuly ilifi. 

< " a^franirs, ec., i|ua wlíjitA y ílo«d, d 
CDHCha&dDr, Hcriitta Muñu, l'r^teaor de ' 
Eettiriiin en 1» üniT4t»id«id 4c ^i4LU)UGra,'' 
Uodrld, IGlfl, Aut. TbG preíiue, b; Ln 
de CsHiK-i irapIteB iti^t, ttie vciluoie wai 
prl£ted duriiig Uie Ufe '^f HLinEz. wbo 
diüd )d 1£'í3 ; hut I Qmi nn túliiúu aLder 
ttiu Uiat <ir I&55 Bpe t.he naw oí l'eKl- 
cer tu Dun Q.i3ÍxuUrp PhrL« Jl* c, ^^ Gero- 
ijimti de Scrraita^ in bíj^ liinjrrupliiirjü no'EiGd 
tn tbe " Laude de MüífercB," MíIhdd, 1BS>II, 
tayg tbaL ilB outbor, Juua de apIncMb, had 



-CaAP. XXXlX-l 



PROVERtS- 



203 



Out of tliese proverbsj another of the friends of H&rnan 
Nanea — Mal Lura, a SeviLian — eelected athousand, and, 
adilíiig" a commentary to each, puMisIjed tliem in 1568, 
imder the aot inappropriate tiíle of " Philosopliy of the 
Common People ; " a volame whichj iiotwíthstandiag' its 
cumberBqine learniug, can be read with pleasure, both for 
the stylii iu which mariy parta of it are written, and for 
the unuaual historical atiecdütes with which ¡t abouiíds. 
AnothtT coUection, laade hy Falmireno, a TaleDciaD^ in 
1&6Í), conaistÍTig' of aboTG two hundr&d proverbe appropri- 
ate to the tahle, showa how abuodaat popular aphorisms 
must be in a lan^uage that can fiumelí so vaany on one 
Kabject Yet atiotlier, by Oudin, was puLliahed at Paria 
in 160S, for the nse of foreígnerSj and ahows tio lesa 
plaiíjly how mnch the Spanish bad become spread thmugh- 
ont EnriJpe. Sorapan, ¡n 1616 and 1617, published two 
coUecEíone, in which it was ínt^nded thiit the condensa- 
tion of popular experietice and wiadom should teach medi- 
cine, as, >n the hands of Mal Lara, they had bccíi tnade 
to teach the philosophy of life. And finally, in 16T5, 
Ot^udu, a schoolrqaster qf Val de Pefiag, gave the worU 
abmit sis thouBaad, with tlie correa pondiiig Latín adages, 
'(rhcnever he could find them, and with explanationa 
more satisfactory than had been furmshed by hís prede- 
ccBsora.*^* 



" niB do k\¡ mil piwwbloe tu¡ebt««, vk 

muTi; DÍ thcm nvr: t>v«r waú aboce tbe 
t\x Lhwisnnil v( HeniaD NiiñtE, ih ahuulil 
be tvTí «üriuua la bm Ihli «ul; wUee- 

Ki --iM 7i1ii#iiC¡« Va\su tlf Jnu 4t 
HbI Laca, VMínu úa S&rlllii," (S«ni1k, 
U&B, Undrlil, leía, 4tu, eu.,)— » í'tnna 
or n4ie ib liin tiiQ'í', irlivu wv Ji&ve uch- 

Foeu, BDú ivh4 ú'ieH lii lili, léictr-FMir 
yeui oíd. (Bcman. FLdIutuod, IStS, f- 
H.) Tb4 cvJlecUso af Lútiinco Palalnoo 
ia reprinled lo tbi feuctb viiEiune í>[ HtiSe*, 
ed. Hn^irid, IBIM. Urna. Oüúlu'd coIIk- 

tian ims rtTirialH al BruasíU in 1611, 
13mi^ and nL PbtÍh Iu Iflfilk. Juad ScrapAu 
de RicroÉf '^ MerirciriA Ej<iin.Erjhi., ta Pin> 
Wíbina Tnlpir'^ ile Nueafrn LdiRUa," 
wal ¡Hkitrd ut flroonda, 1018-11, 4to, Id 



líiUnoa, Fí., por el UfcoclRdn Qer^n» 
Martín Cnm j C^udo," Madrid, 167 í, *»J 
reprlTited 1TB3. IJu nM. mitlM HiB "Apo- 
UgmAS"" of Jiukn aur«, (1¿U6,} ñor Lhe 
" Vlor^La dd A'PHie^itiits -kí Banta Cru&," 
(Qnt prLuCed Ib IM4, «nd ofitli uRcfimnli ; 
e. g. Sr>iuli>4, le'íO, MiKlf-ld, lOSf, «te.,} 
— tti« lA;:iC af vhleh t* a pltiuiut bvali, 
IrtttlHid by l*iie rte Ceg» in hls nral ta1c, 
Atid al Rhti^i) t euri<>u9 a'>4:iiuAt mnr Ik 
Fuund in WifU, ota fraiieea il« ZtioLgk'a 
CJlMbilí, p^ 3, S, — IWMlkK boUl BTlbOB 
an Hiher ]ui-lMHlít Ibu edlccMaDa al 
EiWTMl». Tto " Pni«f1)iaf Haraleí " ol 
OhidK. Perú de HcMXira (Uttdrtd, 161 S, 
Alfi} an Id rtjrmt^ — icara^ Imi^tiniífl of 
Vnirnet, — rrisid tun-pmr ta dtarrre EiQtiCft* 

The "-rrciTiTbiü) de Alnnsu d(! VaffM 
concón] iid<"ii pnr el Macslro Bartolomf 
XimGDrE PaUíu " (Bae^-a, 41o, IfiOS, S TS) 



204 



PBOVERBS. 



[Thiuod 1L 



Still, thoiigh Bo manj thouBaiiils have been coüected, 
many thuuHiiii'ls still rcmam uiipublÍBlicd, known only 
atnuug the tT^iÜticing of the bumbler classes of Bciciety, 
tbat llave givcn liirth to them iú\, Juau de Triarte, a 
learned man, wlio waa nearly forty yeara at the head 
of the King's Lihrary at Madrid, coUected, about the 
middle of the eighteeath century, no lees than twenty- 
foiir tluniBand ; and yet it is not to be suppoaed that a 
single individual, however ÍDdustrious, liviiig iu Madrid, 
coüld eshaiist theír number, aa they belong rather to 
the provincea than to the capital, and are eprend every- 
whei'c amoug the commoD pecplc, and thi'ough all their 
dialects.'^ 

Wliy proverba should abound ao niuch more in Spain 
than ÍQ any other coüntry of Ohriatendom, Jt is not pos- 
eible tü tcll. PerhapB tbe Arabs, whose laoguage is rich 
in ButhwisdoTQ, may have furnishcd some of thcm ; or 
perhaps the wholc maas may have spraiig írom the origi- 
nal BOU of the leas cuUívated claases of Spanish Bociety. 
But however tbis may be, we ktiow thoy are often among 
the pleasantest and most charaoteristíe oruameiits of the 
national literatnre ; and tbose who are most familiar with 
them will be most ready to agree witb the ■vrise author of 
ths "DÍEitogiie OH Languagf's," when he anys, aad cepeats 
the remark. that we must go to the oíd national proverba 
for wbat is purest in bis native Castilien.^* 



Hro rlcTcn bundrcd Qre^k and Latín Ptdt- 
Erl» tr8.[iiilaW4 Into LEXeii CustllisD rbj^eg, 
Hiid 60111*1 i mea, Uiüiigh nirely, renderütl lig 
corrcapondlnt; naciiunAt pmvvrba. Tk&y 
ircra vi;ry populir ín tliPlí lime, fnr ilie 
Brab editluti «ra« üí 16e^, qili! veíb loVunEjil 
by Bt kasl flvü otlierB. I tiavo an Italian 
tranalatlotí of them, V-enlct, ]022- AH tüe 
IiniHeTlM ot Varrua except tlio flrHl tíve 
btgln wlLh tte «nra "Nli"^!. jioor 
BiTfcIHÜau. Olher oollectlaDS Hrv inUD- 
ttoned by GajannoB ; — vh. AkidBo de 
FoftatCB, 1S4S ; Juun Ibilz de 3lu«ULmi!nLP, 
1551 ; and Fnmcisca llmninni, inBZ, (Sse 
Spimlíh Iranslatlon of t||Í8 JíJBtWJ, TolE. 
m. \i. 66B.) Abogt peveiilcín llU-lidrea 

tiíjnury ot Ibe Aendaraj and Gli)i;i4aíetl, 

"¡Kf be laimd is " B^Qwe^ de Iti h^agaa 



CeateOaia." ÍBajcHlaDA, K16, 3 ToL, 
Itam}. 

II TpT,gaB y PoDcí, Tteclamacloii, Mb- 
drld, ITB3, 41o, App,, [>. 93. An hniiny- 
mouB nattior^ hoveri^f, whn Appakfl vi Q\e 
coUactore nf rriivvi"lM, Biid, Jirnnng thíi redi, 
or Yrijirte, HtiyB IIle? mosl completf^ Pollec- 
ti-on hBj3 been laíás h^ D. Gouzulo CorivlL. 
" Defeust de l>. Eira. Peres, Aiitíir Se In 
Carta d« Pamcuelli»," Maitrld, ITBC.p. 30. 
Tliere le h vniry BBod liíe oí "írlsrleln \ol. 
II, ot Uie " Eipagiju MUíralru," llíi ; n 
poor [mriodical tijt Niaolaa fttlGBlire da 
Dlimeiie, which diü mil íurvlri^ the j*«i 
□r iU blrtb, QKtilUgh in 131Q ^ aorb of 
rifacinrenla of It icna imiiUsted hí Pnr¡s. 

1= Miiyana y SIímt, Origen»a, Tüm. L 
pp. 198-101, Qnd Üi-eDíJlfiKO fla laa I*n- 
g«u, p. la, trhen tbv tatbw nra, "Xa 



ClI^^. XiXUÍ.] DIDACTIC THOSE. — TORÍJUEMADA. 



205 



TornÍDg' now to tha proper Didacttc Prose of Spanish 
litera.ture, tlie first instance wo tind — - añer those for- 
merly «oticed as imitating' thc Italian philtisopKical die- 
eusaions of the sixtepnth centuiy — -ie oue that comes 
near to the borders of áction. It is the " Gardou of Curi- 
ous Flowers," by Torquemada, tirigiinally publishud ío 
15*10, of which the cúrate, ín tho eurutiny ñf Don xiwnus. 
Quixoto'a liljiory, suya, that " hu doea uot kiiüw ™^"- 
whether it is more triie, or, to speak strktly, lesa full of 
liea, than tíie Olivante de Laura," a book of chivalry by 
the Bame author, whieh, for itB poeuHar absurditie», he 
senda at ouee to the bonfire id the court-yard. "The 
Carden ofCurioiía Flowers," however, ía stiU a curiouB 
Wok. It coDsiats of aix colloquies betweea frieoda, who 
ta!k foF their amuaement on Buch Bulijects aa thc mon- 
strous productitina of nature, the terrestrial parHilis», 
pUaiitaBms and enchantrneuts, tbe íufluGuco of thc Btara, 
and the history and ooHditiüD of thofie couutríes that iJo 
neareat to the North Fole. It is, in fact, a colleotion of 
whatever etrange and estravagant atories a learocd raaii 
could make, begimiing wUh 9uch as he found in Anstütle, 
Pliay, Soliuus, Olaus Mwg'nus, and Albertua Miig-ims, »nd 
¡Gcluding tliofse told by thc moat crodulous of his own 
time. Beiag put into a forra then popular^ and relutud in 
a pleasÍDg atyle, they had no little Biiccesfi. They were 
Beveral times prínted in the original, and, beside being 
translated into Itaüaa and Freoch, are well fcnown to 
those -who are curioua in the literatnrs of Queeri EÜza- 
beth'a tirac, under the much-abiiBcd naiuc of " The 
Spaniali M4,nde\*tne," It may be added, tliut eome 
of Torquemada'a accaunts of spcctres aud víbíorb are 
Btill pleaaant reading ; and that, though Cerrantes 
Bpoke BltghtÍDgly of the whoie book in bis " Doo Quís- 
ote," he afterwardñ reaort.ed to ít, both for facta and fnr 
fanciee respecting; the wouders of Friealaod aad Iceland, 



onr proTprb», yon lee the puríl; of the apnolíli igi^fi-tiiK i hit I flhwultí r»iJier 

Caitlliaa lonpriiiipff ; " ani p. 170, wliere cllf UiC " C<l«ltlDii," WhírB thuír "uhiImt 

hl nja, "The pumt ClLiclIlBn «« baia Li, 1 Ihink, eqiull; £r<^f 1° pni|i>irl|rin, 

is in DUr provnrba," The " Don Quljoii! " anil tlwlr nrdlHJ t-IJp-llWlua nioni ^f- 

wlH oeaur ta etürylicKl; aa a banli Lbat f«üie- 
proFES ha» muEb pravertx eainc lulo 



206 



AGOSTA. 



[FxBioD n, 



ABBKO. 



when he wrote tbe first part of bis " Persiles and SigÍB- 

Obiistóval de Acosta, a Portugueae Lotaniat, — who 
was accustojued to cali himgclf " the Affioaa," 
becauae he liappeiied to be borri in one of the 
Afrioati poascssi'ona of Portugal, — travclled much io tbG 
East, aiid aftüc his return pulilished, ín 1578, a work on 
Oriental planta and drug-s, to whtch. he added at the end 
a treatiee oo tíie natural history of tbe Elepbaut. But, 
though he Bucceedcd in attracting" the atteiition of En- 
lopQ Id tbis publícatioD, aud thougb tbe early part of bie 
life had been tbat of a soldier, ao adventurerj atid a cap- 
tive among piratea and robbers, he epent many of his 
later years, if pot olí of thera, in relig-ious retirem&nt at 
hume, wbere, besidea otber things, be wrote a discourae 
on "Tbe Benefits of Soliíudc/' aod a treatiae on "The 
Prai&e of Women." Tíie last was priiited in 1592, aud, 
except tbat it is too ful! of learning, may still be read 
with aome interCst, if not with püeasiire.^* 

It waH Dotj however, moral and pbiloeopEticat writerttj 
iíke Oliva and GuGvara, ñor writerB on subjects COnnectod 
with, natural bistoiy, like Torquemada and Acoata, tbat 



II >■ Jardín ie FIotm Curiíüifl, f*., pof 
ADt. d« l^I»^tjttCR)aAl^" 16T0, lí73, l&ST, 

1¿S9. Tlia «ilillDij of ¿nrur^E, 1575, IBtno, 
filia ¡ññ pheUÉ. "TtiB S|miiJ£>i Blaii.krilk 
tí iUmní&B, ¡ic Ih-i; □onlíD af Ciaridiis 
FlURCrg," (LuDiIud, 16ÜU, Un,) ¡s a. truDo- 
btlou iiito í^nd vid Enjílish, by L^wgb 

LL'iFií«ijar, M B|it«surs 1>I ihe ¿treand Svái- 

EbJiioa in tht et-coLi^l eflitLo<n, JQIE^ [hoii^b 
ib ¡B Gulnilconly htlributed tt FenlLpAnO 
Walh^r, whii DTi^inEdly publieiliud ít. I 
li&V4 aliEti hd Ilalian ErjiTiBlntiiiu of ¡L bj 
C^liii MutiHi|>ÍEi, príuíi^ uh Veoiiv, 1612, 
bal Wltli B dL'dicatlDn dnlird 1691). The 
btirllilil ia «tfkilj -pruMbiLed in Lhe ludes 
BínurgBtijriíji oí 186T, p. 68. Tlie " Co- 
IcjililiuB E^utlrlcoit,'' \iy Ule Bame Datb'or, 
(lí^,) E huvu ■¡«fur Sti:o. 

i< " Trrtñtiidit dp Iqb DrsiiiLB y M«ilfclnsa 
de ion- liqiEinih Ocien laLlies, |iGr Clirl9tjv«.1 
AcostV Buriri», !,15TS, Un,) obere lia 
■iithH>r VM.4 A qiir^üCGTi ; huí llierf nre Dtiter 
edltlHiía, (15SZ aotl I693.>b™ü mrij liultan 
■ad rraiH;h Inninlsliiins, The "Trüctido 
en Loor le ]i¡» M.i.iei;n:ii, por Cbriüt iVaJ 



AcnsiA. Aí^eiuiD," vu prlotisd ii Venice, 

Ij-dS, 4to, ADd I kjiott- nn dthCT «dillAJi. 
BurüiDBa,, in hla lid úf AfMU, B.píll« hLk 
t¡ntaí¡ Ds Cuata- AU Oía worka a( AcMUk 
Wi'M prinlcfl eit V-sulcie íjy Olacatuo Cor- 
llÉttl, 1633, iW. 

A iTorli Dct iiaH]LG Ataabk'* "Lo<r di 
IM Mudeces " wu paljllElicd Bt Bulan in 
lASO. atCer the d-enth of ita author, ioáa d« 
gpiíiiisa, Büd eotillsd " DlalDíii) «li Lalldó 
Li Eafl Mugtre&i'* bul il Was d^dJiMiitxid by 
himftBlI lu Mni^, EnipreBÍ of Aultrl^ BJid 
daii^hUr of Oiinrlee V. BpiíioEu tras á.\t- 
Ün^ulñh^-íl BO n eddÍL^r Trnln Ihc litíit ^í thC 

battlt of Itureiinu, &ud Mlb;rwIl^'<Ia 4« n 

diplamatiBt ; bUt hu lOTtrl irtUIÍ, 6Ud 
«rnte viLh rlicur in Ch6 iiuee BiíJ'le af the 
time ni Philip 11-, thougb wir.b a liLtk 01- 
tecLatiiio of leaming. He ntaiDlüin» (ff. 
th^ elC') thjib ncmuu by her or^iniBation \ñ 
raaiQ ¡lerlTeet Iban miin. Auutlitr Híitk 
by h^m, cif wh^cb bs BpejLks Tu tliis miCf^ 
tbe Micracanthi», — t hnve nei-er Beat, 
nnfl Eiii pnt sure tbat ií wua crer prioted. 



Cbap. SXXIX.] 



LUIS DE GRANADA, 



20Í 



I 



were raost favored in thc reigns of Philip the Second 
and his imuiediate siicceseora. It was the aBcettcs and 
myeticB, — the uatuml produce of tlie büíI of Spain, and, 
alniuBt witbyat eiceptíon, faithrul to the oíd CaBliliao 
geni u 3. 

Ainoug thc moBt promÍDent of thia class wns Litis de 
Granada, dietiugiiished as a Spaiiíah preucher, but atiU 
more remarcable for his eloquecice as a myetic. Luiada 
His " Medita tioiis fui- the Sevon Days and Nights «tmiad». 
of a Woek," his treat¡Bea " On Prayer" and " Ou Faith," 
aud his "Memorial of a Christíaii Life," were early trans- 
latcd into Latijj, Ttaíi&ü, French, and Eiiglish^ — oiie of 
ihem ¡uto Tiirkish, aud otie into Japaneee,- — atid, líke hís 
other Bpanish worka, have COnttniíed to be priuted and 
admired iri the original down to our own times. 

The moat eflfective of them all was hia " G-inde for Sin- 
nerH," first publiüii&d in 1556. It makea two q^í^¿^ 
mcidcratc volumea, aud portions of it are markcd í'^ca-íurei. 
with adiS'ugo declamatiou, which ia perhapa iuiitat&d from 
that of Juau de A%-¡lu, the Apostle of Andahisia, whose 
friend and foUower he ¡nuie than once boasts hiuaself to 
have been, But its general tone is that of a moviiig^ and 
barmoDÍüus eloquunce, which has made it a favontc book 
of devotiüu Í!i Spain evcr since it first appeared, and has 
spread ita reputatiou so widely that H has been trans- 
lated Lnto uearly all the laiiguüges of Jíurope, incliidiug 
the Groek and Poliah, aud at one time eeemed likely to 
obtain a place in the religioua literature of Christendom 
Tcry near that of the great aecetic worfc which passes 
undep the namc of Thouias á EempÍB. In ita native 
coufitry, however, the Gtiide for Siuners encountered at 
first not a little oppOKitioTí, As early as the year after it 
"wan publiahed, it liad beeu placed on the Index Expurg-a- 
toiiufl, and no edition ejícept the firet seenia to have been 
perinitted till we find that of Salamanca, in ISIO. But 
tbe very Indes that condeuined it became itself the 
auhjeet of condeinnatiou ; and, in tbe caae of the Guide 
for Sinnera, the eccleBiastical powers wcnl ao far iu the 
oppoait^ directíon as to grant speeial indulgences by 
proclamation to all ^bo ahould haye read ur heard a 



2oa 



SAN JUA2Í DE LA CBUZ, 



[Fekiod n. 



chaptfir of tlie very work they Lad earlier so liarehly c&n- 

BUI'OlI. 

Luía de Granada paased alL the lalter part of his life ia 
Liabüu, — pcríiaiís because he bad bueu iGpeat'etlly an- 
noyed by the Inquisition at home, perhaps becausB hís 
dutiea Bisemed to lead hiai tbere. But, whatever may 
have becQ the cause, it is certaín that he onjoyed much 
more favor in Portugal thao he did in Spain ; aud wheu 
he died, ia 1588, eighty-four yeara oíd, he could boasí 
thal be had refused the highe8.t honorg (if the Purtugueae. 
Churcb, and hiinibly devoted the whole of hie long life to 
the leformiitíon and advancement of the Order of Pteacli- 
erB, of which, diiriug ite bcat yeara, he had been the ac- 
tive aud veueriited head,'* 

Sun. Juaa de la Cruz, who waa in aome rcepects ao imi- 
tator of Luis de Griinnda, waa born in 1543, and, having 
Bpent the greater part of hia life ín refortning 
dq m ^°° the discipline of the Carmelite cüoiaasteriefl, died 
'■""'' iii 1591, aud wasbeatified in 1&T4. Hia works, 

■whicli are chiefly contemplative, and obtatned for him the 
title of tho EcBtatic Doctor, are written with great lervor. 
The chicf uf them are the allegory of "The Agcent to 
Mount Carmel," and " Tbe Dark Ni^ht of the Saúl," — 
treatiaea which have given hita much reputation for a 
mystical eloquence, that gometimos rises to the sub- 
lime, and Bometimea ia loat in the unintelligible. Hia 
poetry, of -which a little is printed ia sume of tho many 
editiona of hia worfca, ia of the aame general charac- 
ter, but marted by great felicity and richness of phrase- 
ology." 



'^ Prfficí! h) Obras áé Lqíe dé QranodiH 
M>ilrii], 1BÓ7, liilio, auá Prcf&ce to Qaia áe 
PtHUloTva, Madrid, 1791, fivo. Anlonicif 
Bitl-ÍJO¥., T{tQi. II. p. as. Lliirente, Uisl., 
Tüin- III. p. 123. UiliUoteca de Autoría 
E«l>,, Tum. Vt., VIIL, XI. HJa wotIíb aro 
numérenla, biulI he ejiJHtyaLhe bÍii^uIrt Lonnr 
of hnvin^ huri aü edíUoo ot them publdftbcd 
b; Plüll^ ilI th-s Kxpeaae of tbe Daka oí 
AIta^ t!ie mbdister aTkd ^n^rulof Philip II. 
A wliLiiiatE:^.! ¡ntimiitlojí oF thp pinpulHrltJ 
in Fruiicei jihoiitlflCfli, of the Frcnch Er^-aa- 
lallouDf tlie " fliila líe l'eoariorca," may 
bo taaoO In HoUírc'a " Oocu Imagina Ire," 



(bc. 1)) Trlirre bbE Aitlicr, rnilcaTariiig b> 
^li-e hia ilauglil*r whiit he deema proper 
nDthona ixboiit llro^ recommeíida ta hcr 
BeierBil booka InstfBd of llie EnahionaWa 
nimanGB of "■OIéIId," and, ammig tiiB 
olhcrs, aajB at ttli one, " Im Quld^ úci 
Píchfíura cat encnna un hnn llrre." 

l^ IJ-bma de San Juan dp l^ Oms, flfr 
tIIIh, 1703, folio. Iweiah ediüon. A TeiT 
curlouiv Ufe cf tiui waa HritWQ In IBSHt 
(cntillrf '■ Bunia ile Ia Vida 7 Milugrc» del 
Vcnenible Piwln;, Prnj Juao At^ la Cnit" 
My co^iy ia ]u 4u:i, and waa printed aL AiiU 
n-tirp ia 1025. IL waa a popular wcjrk^ li>.. 



m 



áP. XXXI S,] 



BAHTA TERESA- 



20& 



Santa Teresa, who was associated with Juan de la 
Cruz in the work of reforming the Carmelites, — ^^^ 
or rather with wbom he was aseociated, since ^ewj». 
herB waB the leading Bpirit, — died in 1582, sixlj-BeTen 
ycara oíd, Her dJdactic worfcs, the raost reraarkable of 
■which are " Tbe Paíh to Perfeotíoü " and " The Interior 
OasÜe," are lees obscure than those of her coadjutor, 
tbough more declamatory. Biit al! she wrote, including 
an accoant of her qwq life, and several díscus&íous coq- 
uected with the religious duties to which she dedicatad 
herself, were Cninposed with apparCrit roluctance du her 
part, and üi obediciiuo tu the comiDands of her superiorg, 
She believed heraelf to be aftgn in direct cC"inrauiiÍL)D wilh 
Uod ; and as those about her fihared her faith oa tliia 
pojnt, she waa continually urged by thüm to make kcowi) 
to tbe world what were tbus rogardod as revelations of 
the Divine wílL On one occaaion she saya ; " Far with- 
íq, Grod appeared to me in a visión, as he has been wout 
to do, and gave me his ríght hand, and said, — ■ BehoM 
this priot of tbe nail ; it íb a gig^n that, from tbis day 
forth, thou art my spouBe. Hitherto, tfaoü hast not 
deeerved it ; but hereafter not only sbalt thou regard 
íny honor as tliat of thy Ci-eator, and King, and G-od, but 
aB that of a truo spouse;— for my honor íjj dow tbinCj 
and thÍDO íb mine." 

Livitigj as she undoubtedly did, undcr the persuasión 
that ahe waB favured wítli numberless revelatíona of this 
kind, she wrntc boldly and rapídly, and ciorrÉCted noth- 
ing. Her styte, in conseqnence, ib dilTiise and open to 
objectione, which, in Spain, the epirit of a merely liter- 
ary critieism is too reverent to deeiro to remove. But 
whatever she wi'ote is full of carncstncBS, sincerity, and 
love ; and therefore her worke Lave never ceased to be 
read by those of her owd nation and faith. Duríug her 



tended vrobabl; to prepare th« wa.y fiiT liln 
t7HaiinÍ2¡Ldii-ii, Fuiíl i» trell cakulbiUd fuJ ¡LA 

phanu^lii^r at Juan >de D^ CruK, wJiq!« 
Recular naiiiL' irs£ VL^pira, m LhE' LiT'O-üty- 
flevGuLh vuluniG of [he BLbLloLeCB [1«- Ad- 



uf tbtí laint, aod veBt wnrth Teadmg. Híi 
works are li\ th« ^anie TilLDiue. me fxjijtr; 
hiís bt'E^n pTjnL£4 In a iiBut vuluDiv., Mud- 
Bter, lHS-4, EÜIttil hy W. Slunsk, vhu ha! 
wi^LI tTpfi^latgi) ^t MUo Oefidild, ía atialher 

iif-iic vQlnM?, pttnKi 1)1 tb« same time boQ 

pluoa. 

K 



2« 



SCBOOL OF SPIBITÜAtlSTS. 



pesío» n,' 



life, slio WIV8 persecuted bj the InqnisitioD ; tut after her 
deatlij her nianascripts were cnlEccted with pious caro, 
and puliüeíied, in 1588, by Luis de Leop, who exhorta all 
meii to foltow in the bright path she has pointed out to 
them ; addcDg, " She hd^s seca Gud face to face, aiid Bhe 
now stiiowa hiin to you." " 

Tilia school of spiritualists, to srliich belong-ed Juan de 
Avila and Luie de León, of whom we have bufore spoken, 
had, no doubt, a very considerable effect on Spauish 
Bchijol'f didüctic prese. Thej raiaed ite tone, aod dij 
siiiHtuiiiiais. roore tüWii,rda plaeiüg it on thc oíd ibundations, 
wliere Lhe chrociicles and the earlier writti-B of the cumi- 
trj', like Liicena, bad loft it, tban had been done for nearly 
tiro ctíiituriea. Sucli efforta güve digtiity, if not purity 
Dr an exact finiah, to the propet- Oaatiliau Btyle ; so that, 
at the eud of the reigii of Philip the Second, it was not 
only of more consequence to an author's reputation to 
write well Tipoo any ^rave Bubjijct iu prvise than it had 
ever been before, but, witb such exampIeB bofore hira, it 
Was eaaier to do so. In all tbis, tbe movement made waa 
in the ri¡!;ht diroction, and produced happy results. Bnt> 
On the otber band, we should reniecnber that it coiifirmed 
m the didactic üteratnre of. the country that tendency to 
a dííTüse and flrtrid decíaraation, whicb wae Ciirly oiie of 
its blemishes, and "fram which, wíth such authority in íta 
favor, CastiÜan proae has never aince b&ea able completely 
to eoiaucipate iteieLf. 



" Obrui da Santa Tere*», {Mwlriú, 1193, 
2 tiim. lUJ,) Iqm. I. p. ÜB3. 01 lii;r lectun 
I hsv? ipDlctiii ot the eud d( CliHliteí 
XXXYII- ol thl^ Psñaií, and an ¿xeLlktit 
diHUsnlcín li bsr churacUT, aad tí\M af tli6 
mretle&l ichool la ítIiíeIi ah« 'bcLin^'cd, 
may be fiurifl in Lhc OíiriBlian EsAminej, 
Nü. 163, UoElton, HíifCh, 1843. H«r «rrka 
BUG acGi>Qkpd.[ile>] Y\íh Inan; hiScie of íd- 
dulREnns L9 t-Iioan: wIilI ittvi a shajituf OS & 
IHk'r ar ahy nf th^m, di h^ar [t rcad. 
tnf htJf li'iiLiMm nitli Lhe Inquiñition^ bgg 
LlurL-ntr. Tnm, II¡, p. 111. Banta TtruBa 
wiia hrjitltlEül la lt14, anil criiinnlirii) In 
16í'2> )jc3i.t» HliL-b, in ISIT unil 1626, 
tbe Cckrtea chnutr her lo h? the co-pAtmnesa 
aibi adwjcatjo of Spatn ivitb 3nnt!^o í an 
liniUfT IhHt nno k-n^ resisteil, but wnB 
Qr,^d fiiKir hjr Uie leoi&ntEui ot Oliarliai 



n., and «Mifinsed i)r tb9 CprteB oí IZ12, 
JuDB a$, Bl tlig utsevt itetltion «f the <7u- 
niclitcs, in a. íiiiril wnrtby fl.r the agí m 
whioh che liítid. Eco S.hiuh-ty'fl li'íLinatilJir 
Wor, LundCD. ISUa, 4ta, I«iik. III. p. b2S. 
Quetedij enttífvd iiiK) [he dlBcnsainn Btwiit 
the patronáhip o-f üpftln, defenfllnR Ueex- 
clüsive rlirht uf 81. Jftutea la his " Fatro- 
imto de Sí. lagc," — ft Ixact whtcti eoít 
him nn eirile oiinl impriionnient oí «freíBl 
monthB, — Bo fltííM waa the quarTEl Lq 

The Worlia r,f Siinlfl Tfreaa. H may te 
[jflti.il, art atlrncting rcganii iii thi Uollfid 
Stakü, vhtri- lirr " Autntiuiirttjihy" aod 
" "Wiiy of PerrtcHnn " are ñnCiattll-ffHl 
BmaiiR the HlAi.idard ¡ikihUcaÜoQl Ol lhe 
CbUidUc Chiuub. 




Chap. XXIIS.] 



MALOlí DE CHAIDE, 



211 



A remarkaD.e proof of thia is to he fnund in " The 
Mag-daleü " of Maloa de Chaide, Crst published in 1592, 
after the death of ¡ta authtir, It is a rctignous „gf^^ ¿^ 
work, aud íb divided auto four parta ; Ihe firüt cimiau. 
being nierely iiitraductoryj and iLo tiiree others oii the 
three characters of Míiry Magdal-en us a eiutier, a peni- 
teiit, aiid a Bsviat, It has a very rliettiricaL air throiig-ii- 
out, and Botnctimss reaiis ahnust Eike a romance ; — sú 
free ia its conccptioa af the charactor and coiiverBatiuiis 
of the eaiiit. But fioim? of íta discuseíons, like ono ovt 
fushLuiiuble drees, and one en religiouB piutiues, are c un- 
cus ; and &ome of its religioua eshortationa, liko that to 
repent beforo oíd ag^ comes on, are movíiig' and pwwerfíil. 
The moral tone of the wbole is severe. With a great 
deal of the spirit of a muiik, Ihc author is eunmüt itg'uiuBt 
books of chivalpy ; and he not only lebukrs the habit of 
reodiog- the sncient claEsius, but evnii sucb Spani&h poeta 
as Cíarcilassn de la Yeg'a, because he thitiks admiratiun of 
them iiiconsistent with a preaervation of the Christian 
charact-CT. OccaBionally, he growB mystical ; and then, 
tbongh biB slyle ia more thaii ever prodiga], hia meaning 
IB iiot alwayB plain. Biit, on the whole, and regardcd as 
an exhortafiüu to a religious Ufe, the CoDvoreion of Mary 
Magdaleii ia wHtten with so much richness of language, 
and is often so eloquent, that it waa much read wlieti it 
ftrst appearcd, and has not, even in recent timeR, ceased 
to be repritited and adiuired." 



■> tS*¡im Si Clitli]« vna ma AuicnetínlBrí 
nOQk, (LnA Pftifoadnr fit BdiIiiDidnejí t aiid 
Ukk «lTC edltluiií vT hit Miuidul-cn ciíld^, 
Ait^l,, lima, tí 1G9«, l^SS, imS, 1T91, 
«O,, iDd It ia In t>>c ílibUthlcAü de Aulorea 
Bapaú,9li»,TdQi..\XVlLlS&a. A «rioiBwliBt 
rtmilu book 1ib<1 precedvil 11, "Tbn His- 
Ury iKf (he Queea of 9h±bik, irhtii «be dts- 
(warMd irtih King Siilonioii In Jíruínlídi," 
It wu wTiiteD bj anoitier AuguíUuian 
mvnt. AloDao áa Haromo, b Ciilcrutily 
voluminnuí aulbíT, anil was prlnrc!.! at 
BalnnaDcii In ISOB, lUra-it. Bul Itlalltile 
Bi6tt Lhikli n cul]i-GÜniiorurLlluarT acrmonfiq 
fíibtf^ üt WhlcU úv not iD«nt¡OD tlie Quren 
Of SbetaiL M ull, «nd. £« ia Im rtiInrdFil uní/ 

■I a caurily dTcrlnK to iMbcllA. wiru uC 
miUlp II,, whdH BhaplAlu JloruH» vut. 



e&;iin);ii« U> be the " Rplstolario CliristLicio 
para, ladtM Kebvili»," IMT, And It nut tbe 
luEt, Or tho same clJiia wl'th tbp Maitrila- 
lena, and mere llko it than HonMcii''8 wiirt, 
ID Bome renpecta, ís thr Iri-Btiso ciii IhrLnve 
of God — " Amor Jf Dloa"^tiy Chriflu- 
thI ele PoDFVcn, an AufruqtlnlratintQriht wha 
-dlíJ ahavt seveal)' jenm oíd, nhont the 
yenr 1314. II wapi llnit prínüid, I bL'llrvp, 
íu 1591, 1>at thETG ivi-rti raanj eiiíMíma uf it^ 
calkij Tirth no dniíVit lij tbe freiitlencín ni 
ita Kpií'IE, no Lfbb thiLD hy the Ciutllian 
piirlly iif iw bIíIl-, iTL-irth; tht ntlirlibor- 
himi) nf Tiilei|[i, ntit'rc Fuiuccb irua burn 
ana alwuyB bveil. 

The ^^ inaciirflaa de la Pjiclencla CJirla*- 
ÜaDB," Shluh. Wiis UiB ODly iiuck of frtf 



EOXA&. 



[Pkrioii n. 



Bdau. 



Quite diflerent from tliia is "The Amuaíng Journey " 
oí Aguetin de Roxas, — a book that hardly falle 
within the strict limita of any class, but oae 
which has alwaya beca popular iti Spain. Ita aiithor waa 
an actor; and liia tiavels coosiet oi" ari acccunt of eome 
of his personal adventuree and esperiences, ttirown into 
thtí fortn of dialogiieB between. three of his fellow-cumedi- 
ans and himsclf, as they visit some of the principal cities 
of Spain io the oxercÍBe of their profesaion as BtnjUiug 
playcrs. Thoy travel on foot ; and their conversatianB, 
wLich are little moleated by ecruples of any sort, uake 
up a very amusing book. 

In aome parts of it, we have sketches oif the places 
Üiey TÍH¡t, with nutices of the local liiatory bclonging to 
each. Id otherB, Roxaa himBelf, in a epiñC tbat uot un- 
íVeqtteotly reiuinds ua of Gil Blaa, relates his own previ- 
ouB adventurea, ae a soldier, as a captive in Frauce, and 
as a play-actor at home, In yet others, we have fictioiiB, 
or what Stícni to be such, and ainong them, the atury on 
which Shakespeare Toundcd his Chnstopber Sly and the 
JuülHction to " The Tamiug of the Shrew." Biit, id gen- 
eral, it is rather an account of what relates to the thcatre 
aud the afTaJTs uf the four gay couipaniona at Semille, 
Toledo, Segovia, Valladolid, Granada, and on the ronde 



TeTDkDdo ÚB KBTa.te, — fíret publlnheil tn 
IdW), aga-ín Id 16^7, onil ooír liueljr lo 
3»SS, In Llie }JLti1lnt€ca. et KítiíúcneyTtk, 
Tula. XXVII., — bIiouIi! be udded, but It 
Ib mil uf i¿qiial iiti?riL 'Vith. tbe w<j<rtB oi the 
pdnE?ipsI myiatkiü Ribd osuetic «rilen 
wlígm «-0 liBve «Iready DiHImil. Paita nT 
le ace \VT¡: Hat, ■ — wniie imrui ari; aven vul- 
gar, — bul h is aliTEiyii eleur in Its stylc, 
Bliil Hcnti^timEB farclble. 

beiWir, however, ilum elltisr of Ifieliut 
■re iki; ^^ iínáiía£íf^teñ EáplriE-imlea,*^ che 
priaclpjLl aad twHt qT nev^tral ^liinilar worhH 
of Luía de Ía ífupute^ un eialni^iit Jciult 
who died xt VulladaLld, hLe DALiTe ctty, in 
]a¿4, i^vtínty jtnrs oíd. Hli MeilttaLi.aDB 
on the ^ifBterieri ot Cbri^tiiLii F^llh^ oci 
MerilHl PrHJT'^r, lliicI ona mulllcuile üí uther 
pinüllur BL3l\jeets, ^Dmmcnly lili tht^s vaU 
Qmes, a'aQ fkfe trrltieii in the Holcnin, 
lenraüil, p^re BI:yleof Üte aisteenlíi etQtury. 
^bvy were llmt pD^ll4lici) id lEOB, toTit tbe 
uuiDber of e41-Ui>i^B ^tncD hiu becb ^T^J 



gTPBt, and Üirj ban, besMea, beec Irana- 
laUlL Evo or three timefi lato Idtin^ twlce 
Ieiio Prencb^ aiul once, At luaul, lut^} iLaliac, 
Kn^llslü, ajid FiejuÍBh. 

A rerf atmllar worli, af aboutEqnal the, 
za¡¡¡ ir iif luiuEwhiit leM power abri. pupLi- 
larlly, jet lo be aolcil íev tioLIi, nu pab- 
iLalicd ut Scvllle In iai4, «íifq loe vas 
etghty-elglit years cikl, bj- Aljiboneo Kod. 
rlgueE, onnllier JeHUÍt, bara In ValluiiDlId, 
hut who Itffed ohleHy at Sevllle, una dJal 
tbiire, ílelí, 21, Ifilfl, (he daj »(■ liad enm- 
pletcd biB Dlnctieili jpcar, Tbia irorli, t|)a 
cliIlEl (rf IU4 etcrí^m^ulil age, Has, I belieie, 
the DDly nne he e<iE>r nroLu, ard ia eeiICIeS 
'' Eiercicln de l^epreccLfjti," Iwiíjg Lhe k- 
euU, in gomt eurt, or bis loD.); reliKioua e^- 
perii-DCí. Lilje tfii! "MnlilaclunES ■' í-r La 
PüEQie, (t u wrttten In a puT5 ítyle, bí- 
uDmiiig lis iiniiiK ainl iiiirpiwc, and em- 
tirat;E« a!mcifl.t all Lije bi4ltJi:ctB '>r ChrlatLan 
rt'UüMlün and mefllmtltin. Likn tha), lo«, 
it waí lraiLsia.tHd uiiü fp.sd ii]l ovíj íurop». 



betweeo a!! of them, íntersperBed wiüi forty or 6fty hn.t, 
wliich lídxaa wrote with recugliÍKetl BWCCees, a.üd or'wlnuh 
be ie evídently vt^ry proud. It is a plcusaiit bnok, looticly 
and carcloBsIy put togethci', but inipoftant foi- the hietory 
of the Spaiiifítk drama, aiiíl with tüluiit enoug;h to attruct 
the atteiitiiin of Pcarrotí, wbo ttiijk t'rom it the hijit fur 
hÍ8 " Rtiman ComirLue." From iiitcrnal ovídeuc^r "The 
Amusing Journey" was writteti in 1602, and, at the 
end, a contiiiuation ie aunounced ; but, like bo raany olber 
promiseB of the same aort in Sp^iiish literatufe, thte onfl 
wm Dfver kept.^* 

Perbapa tho wofli of Roxae served, aleo, as a bint for 
the " FasBfjero," or Traveller, of Suarez de Figueroa. 
At any rate, tlie well-known author of the " Amaníís/'' 
publifihed itt ]fU7 a h;ilf-narrative, Imlf-didftctic sun^nde 
work with tb!s title, ci>ntain¡ng^ leo loiig dÍBCua- pibu'""., 
áions, On íi great variety of aubjecta, held by four pei'snns 
as they journey from Madrid to Barcelona, in ordor to 
embark for Italy ; — the diHCvissioDs tbi^iiisfilTGB boing- 
called alivios, or reata by tbe way. The cbief conversa- 
tion ia in the bands of Fig;ueroa, the priiicipn,! pcTSun ¡n 
bis own di'uiDit ; and so far as he ia coiictriied, and so fiír 
Aa tbe diaciissionfl relate to the mOn of letlers of bis own 
time, the Pasagero is aomewliat cynical. Ilia aiitobiogra- 
phy, whitih is coataified in the eighth dialogue, ia iutereat- 
lug", aiid 80 are the niiith and tentli díalof,'iií!s, in wbich he 
gives bis view of the Btato of Spain at the tune be wrote, 
aod tbe mearía of leadiiig* an bonest and hononible life 
tbere, But the moat important con versal ioiis are tbe 
tliirdr whicli relatefl to tbe theatre, and the fuurth, which 
ía on tbe popular and courtly niode of preacbing. Tbe 
wliole work íb too difTuse in ita stylej thoug'h leas de- 
clamatory than much in tbe didactic prose of the period.** 



» Ad tiIItlaooflSSaiidlod hy Adlanli), 
(Ulli, Níii., Tmii. T. p- 179.) but thl» ora- 
iiitt bs, Sl-c Vlngp, lljulriil, IMO, ISmii, 
f. '9ff, a. Tlit fint eilitii'ni muit 1h UiaL af 
HuIrH, 1(MIS, ciLni In Ihr. liiüci, Eipurjni' 

Luc iTnce wliEcli it liLu^í'rrnurii^ci Ta.'jiHijr«1, 
ri>iiii:uiriii. (lian Qulii^te, Tjin. HI. I>. 
SM,) wlieii BpraWlnu üt flpinilih aclt-n, 



rlelittr otBs the Tlae^ oT Rniua ■■libra 
rciígiatrel eo la malerl»," A nolh ec wurlc 
□r Ro.iiia, calltd "El Buen Ri^jiiiMliía," 
le-ll, waü whinllf prublliibil , aiedilllDft too 
ItiiLirh vith i^ii-^Htluní uf bIhW' 

iDHii i la Vtdn Humunn, par el U'Xtar 
Clirbt. auurrí Jii Flsucroa," MuíMil, 
1917, tSmn, IT. 4»'J. Iil^croa ulaa l>Ub- 



311 



VAWOÜS PTOACTIO PROSE WRITEHS. [Pkrtod n. 



' Some of the lieat portions of the didactic literature of 
Vírímm Spatn diiring the seventeeiith ceútury were 
ñMKtíc partly or wholly politkal. Márquez, a writer 
■rilen. iti the Hch old style of the reign of PhiJip the 
Secood, publislif-'d in 1612 hía " Christiau Govemor," as 
ftet forth in tlií lives of JVloses and Joshua, a work com- 
poeed at the rcqiiest of the Duke of Feria, then yiceroy 
of Sícily, and intcndcd to serve ae an auawer to Mfichia- 
velli'a "PrÍBce."" Vera y Zuñiga, autbor af a strange 
epic on the conquest ofSeville, who waa a better miniater 
of Philip the ThJrd thati he wae poet, publiahtíd in 1620 
a treatisB, in foiii" discourseH, on the character and ciútica 
of a» auibatiaador ; full of leamÍDg, and occaeionally illus- 
trated with appropriate anecdotes drawn frora Spanish 
histyry, but citing iiidiscriininately booka of authoritj and 
no authority on the grave Bubjects he discusses, and 
relyijig- apparently witb as mucb Cóiifidence, m q^uestions 



Habed (HndHd, Uü, 4u) 3. valume atine 
huadnd pxgea, etitltlcd "- Variiu Notlclaa 
impoitanUí i la TíamBua, ConLunicacton," 
whkb he illvlilii InHi twstitf CHBuya, vu- 
tlllcd ^' TurlLHlhiles." It iu Ivis wfII «rlt- 
len tlian. tti4 Piuuigcro, riilllDg tnim- inla 
tlig ruulls uf thv limí!. TIip ai-reriUiCUlli 
Eauy^ hun #Vf r, iv-hicli is, tm H-imetllc hite, 

ÍtfillL llIuBtrulioTsa irním ^paniBh ttifiUkr^ , lí 
«nfea^Tit. Hls " Pbu^ 'LrTkÍ7eTJuü de l&B 
• jCleiHTiiia," ñrsl; ¡irlule.! ut Hajiriil, !□ lOlS, 
4Co, [knil i^fkc^TiLed ic lollo, witb lor^ru 
cho-n^-i^^ ^d. uddLtÍDn^ lo-lT¿Ty Lh hei al- 
U'-uijit, rniai tbi! ItaHou <it Tinaii Sanjinl, 
at a coni|)i>Qd!uni of SiiamiiD ^ilD'XIeitBS, 
mirlBU* ia ttm ünt cilltlíiii, iu nhuvlng tbs 

ond , whieh obUíj m vij- paísagvB or cigneroft 
Ihiil 111* na»' iiir vpitté, nuil wliiíli, la oth^r 

-PMpWW, BÍÍBlí U> Ñ fltUMl Ifl tSe OílW 

w]]«ir it WM piib1M)i«il, wiiti a siciil la rv- 
HiUngJI, acqalrcd, l^giipwc, eman^ Ui? 

í mOfC HeflouB bQGk: oT Lravela ml^fat 

Seré Luve iwwn ad-iSeú ] tbut uf Pedro Or- 

doiia de C'^veUIQb* entltlei ^^VLa^ del 
UUbdO," tilKd ArBt pTliLLed at Madrid^ 1811, 
ASit, II Is AD ngrecDible and afMn lD't«tl^oC- 
lltf HULnbiOgi'SthT Di its uutb-Dr, iKRinaLnK 
irilii hlA \>\f\ii at Ji^ii Bud bfE «diiuation ai 
SevJUs, Ruaelvliiii hiB traTrlB, for tfíiriy- 
nlJie fcbra, bII uver the iriirld, lnclU'illDB 



Cfalmt, Ameirtca, mtay parta of AFríim, and 
the uurbhcru kltigdnma ol Europe. 'uta 
■pirlt l« prnlncmlj' ualJana!, nod iu atjtei 
■iiii[j|« unil OH«tl]lsn, 

Khls tvurk uf Cifinllin fumlslied soma n(. 
tlie raBMTialB for aa amuFlTig Fraioli astlnn 
ol tbe plcar«!iqiii> »otí, cullcl^d *' I^B Aveh- 
Llir^ de DnTD JiirLa Ati Vurg-liH r^conLet^B p^r 
iHl-tn ^me. Trndult» dü rEíjiaKiiil aur 
1>! iii)Ldii*crll.1iiédít." , (Furia, li&3, ISmo.) 
áiima vf the ra-vicwg (bot DoMced. |c vtfa 
dt^llHlH] Ititii JUEe|iUiig Jt OB A genuiíia 
tiuíiBlutioii froDi' ihe &|>Biiljb, '-an UHilonal, 
la lea u>iiB ar^^ m anner, -'^ liui It 1B tcnUj' 
tlne itforfc of Tk]viiB.. Henrl Teniftaj-Coln.- 
pana^ tbe wHl-kuüwn SqilííiIbIi Bcholnr, 

Tb^re Ib aiao imotbeT Bmalk-r W4>rlí Gt 
CevaDlriB^ ^utiEL'.'d ^^ RelauirjDPB ver[lu>i|(iuL 
iLi; loa KeyniH d? In Cbina, CJicbin-Clilca, 
Champaa," ec., (.Tacfn, l&W), 4ta,) ruU af 
«lid stoiíea of Uur auibur^B adventurca ^n'l 
or llie [iroRiuBE dP ChrLaClEmitf lii <.'blnB, 

11 '¿m QuverDikdur Clirintiiuiu, dmlut^ldo 
d& lís Vidas de~ Mcj «i?B y Joau^, pcir .liiai^ 
Marques." Tbere are «ditiociB of IB¡'1, 
%aiSI, 1634, lasi, etc., wiili trunipl stl/ipa 
luto ILuluLD uBkd Fr(?n[?br Tbe sajne auLh^ 
wrote alBü^'IK}? Eeti^dnB de Ib ]üs]pfrlEU9^l 
JerUEaltm," ISOSf Hí wob bfrn Id IBM, 
■nd ill'-d in 14il. CupmjiTiy (Elaqueocin, 
Ton. IV. pp, íes, etc.) prniBEB Itlm ttlglil]r 
Minoi tM mucb. 



Obap. XX3£IX.J 



SAATEDBA FAXABDO. 



216 



of clíplomacy, upon an opinión of Ovid as upon oue of 
Coniines." Fernaikdoz de Nsvan-ote, a secrctary nf the 
same nimiiircii, cbüse hia Bubject a Httlc higlier iip, and m 
1620, under tlie disguise of ao assumed uatue, and ia a 
letter to a Poliah prime-minister who tievcr existed, gave 
the world liis ootions of wliat " a roya! favorito " atiDiiM 
be ; liut it is evident tbat Spajn only was ¡ti hja thoiighta 
wlieii he wrote, and his líttle treatise is st> encundiered 
wi'th ill-aesorted learning and ungraceful conceits tliat it 
was soon forgotten.** 

Not Bo the " Idea of a Ghristian Prince," by Saavedra 
Pasarán, who died at Madrid iri 1648, aftor hav- gnB„,i„ 
\ug been long in the diplomatic service of the í'"""'"' 
Spauish crown. It was a higher subject thini either of 
thoeo taken by Navarcete and Figueroa, and managüd 
with more talcnt, and with a larg:e and liberal wisdnm 
rare ¡o his time, ünder the awkward arraiigemeiit of a 
huudred ing-etiious Einblenis, with mcjttoeSj that art* geji- 
erally well choeen and poínted, he haa given a hiimlred 
easaye on the ediicatiíJi] of a printe ; — hiB reíationa with 
his ininisters atid subjccla ; his duties as the head of a 
Bfate in ita interrial and external rtlafiona ; and hÍ8 diitíea 
to hinjBclf'in oíd age aiid hi prepariittutt for Jeath ; — all 
irttended for \he iiiatruction. of paltljaaiir, hou o J" Philip 
the Fj:)Mrth, to whom it ib iJoiiica|«dj but who died tso 



■3 " El ErntiainJl'.if, p«r 4tnii Junn An 
toiii'j ño tvrn y Kuai^," Sevllln, 1630, fio,. 
■iSB l^TiSt 'I l|QVe noticcil hl|D os rntejilc 
pm[, TÍíi, ll'|.. iilJ3, 

* su 11 Kl l>írlWt'ci PrlTiidn, Cíjuí rio UKn 
Peregrino i BstaiiiHlto Dwliij, Pplvudn iltl 
Rey de Polonia." It la [onpd Ir n lotlor 
wSiií Úie da-ts at Mny SO, ]6T1, ac (Iit fui 
. of Üic ncitbDr''fl *' OftaierTnciuii Ap MfiQELr- 
qnl:!!,''*. :riillü, Mndrld, IKS^It biliI hIsü In 
^VhKdb E.1oiu?n1efl Libros ivcit^oH en 
ano," (Miubii), 11ÍH^ ^Ui,) a lolunii; »}ili;hi 
betides tlie ntiare work nf Navairelo, con- 
biinii ttif " H^trniD Poikicchild Rey A\ta-a»a 
Vlfl.," hy Oufíiar Mercader y Crrfcllcín, 
(KtXiniiviij.Toiii.ri. p. UB,) the '■' Ooílcr-:. 
1111 ISuml '• ,iif l'old, (noLIepíl, ante, pp. 88, 
uii1-I4^, I'ITt) i^ltb »iiaii> dlBcu^nküiiia whr>7b 
iletclteil, ahd tlit'' Ijí(frliHKii duliLincUto 
defendida»)" n tract hy AaíeaWáv Vliíjrs, 
mad befaré CTirlaHnuuf Bw^cn,' at Komc, . 



to pro'A LbHt'tÍje Wcirld lii iDimi w.orlby af 
lielnK «i^pt weT tli-^n UqkIi^ "t | all af 
Uiem^atleinpta ni vliul^ nud Mlt la Cbo 
■woratÍBílfl or Llielr HibbI. 

tt niHf be niilffl], Lliat tlie " Clnuier(4- 
clon do MunaniuliLi ■" oT NjivwrrtF, ^i, 
boki) vork, Ln which ciHiiif H7kn1cnani4 
truths, iirit aiiosixtd wiLli iiiiljiütblt eTriira^ 
are tiilil t» l'lil]!)i LV., — na arI;;IniiJ1r 
pLibllílitil Id Wa, lu ths time of l'lilllp,. 
LII., wltb lh« tille or " niscnmii l^itl»!.' 
uoB," B0.1 tlmt ¡D tbi» rarai It La mach 
sbiiTter, KlthoUKh rqiiiitly pluIri-apnliiMi. 
üotli tlil* vrotíí ¡taú tile " (Jucla du Lcllf " 
are ln ilie tn-enlí-Hnb valiime ni íhi; Dl- 
hlIriLecadc AaLirt.>> Eapiirrilií:^ IJWI. No- 
. viirtirLa Is HlrniiH ií¡inn Lh» ciiuicH uf tíiv ili> 
cuy iil S|)ii1ri, iioinii]; wliLcti liv iiniiuir'rB.t«l 
lIw-^iF'iihlcMi ivl Ihir JuitH mu] Muj-lneuua, 
Un? launiullc estaSlkbintiiU, thr omfcippt 



su 



rABIOÜS DIDAOTIO PROSE WHTEItS. IPkMOB 



young" to pmfit by ita wieflom. It is written íd a com- 
pBct, aentcntious etylw, with much qunint and curiüus 
knowlídgG of history, and witt a. lai-ge snd not alwaya 
jiiJicioiía display nf íearníng. But in many pointe it re- 
minde us rif Sir Waltor lialei^h'a " Cabiimt Coiincil " and 
Owcn Feltham's " Resolves i " — a measirre of praiae tUat 
Clin be givcn to few Buch prose works in the Spanish ln.n- 
girage. Its Rnccess was great ; nor i& ít y et fallen into 
neglect. The firat cditiotí wbb ptiblished in 1640, at 
Mimater. Many others followed iii the course of the 
century. It was tranelatcd into all the languagos of 
Eiirope, aod, m Spíiu »t least, has continued lü bo 
pi'intcd and Talupd down to onr own days." 

"The Divine Pulitica " of Quevedo, a part of whicii 
waa pulilifthed before the Chrisrian Pn'iice and a pnrt after 
rnriiius it tnu.y have sH^gested bis Bubject to Ssavedra, 
but nol the modo of treating it ; and, in the 
same way, thp }¡;roíit s^itirist niay havo had some 
íalliiencc in dotermíning Antonio de Veg-a, the Portu- 
gueae, to write hia " Polítical Dream of a Perfect Noble- 
lunii," iti 1620;'* Nierembcrg. the Jeeuit, to v/ñle hía 
"Manual for üenllemen and Frincea," wbich appeared 
in 1029 ;^ aud Benavente, his " Advice fur Kings, Priu- 

M '■Em'preíai PtilHlcu, Idta ílt ua ™ "'ObniB? ntne, Mimual At Serio^^iiy 
PrtiDElpí: Chrlstlmo, [ídt Mcgd- EiuiriíilM IViacIpci. ik'I'''»''^^. ^•*i'<;l'l') ^>'^'^'i>tx!'?i'^ 
Farard-i}." Ttit numbcr úíeillt^JAS Iji 'Vítr Mndriú, l!l:i3, 4t.i), ir, '£¡0. Uls lutlie-r and 
fFreat, — SiboTe evactj, — íaü so Ig tliAlur raotlLcr trcre HetmOiEiB, «ha cune la SpiJD 
tba tTUDilatlans. Thcre- nre, i Uiltili, IWo irlüi Llie EEnpreea ot AuBtrüii, Doük HruU, 

but be blmself wu bcín ac UndrU la 
Ifi^í, noli íM thclQ ÍQ l»i9- jLvwnía 
(.Hlb', Kov., Tun, L V. me) Bod Hitena 
(Tuia, ni. p. ISO] ghe laDg lista al hU 
Wufkí, nllielly ín Lülin. TIjí "ConEeni- 
Eilúltons -tin thí Blsta of Msn," pubUahed [a 
18S4. flCTfltikííi) ycAr» urier ün death dÍ 



«rtti-rs. 



!□ Erglluh, HD? 4f vlilcbtíb? Slr J. Atttj, 
Iionilcín, 17D0,2t4Ii. BrOr A Uitln vfeñlan 
vlilcb ]Lp|>ejin.'<l at BruiíCln íd IBJD, the 

IKiirsd nt Mun3tci','h»«it!guIi<:C[i rc^irlntiid. 
" "El l-ficíeto Btáat, ÉC-, át AnUiQlo 
LopM di yega^" una atid leíS, tlií latkf, 
tl4Srli), (lo. De pabllatied alaa (MacIHi!, Jfrtuj Taller, a» hiJí ui-arit, lums inil to 



IHl. tW) ■ tcrici ot jD(>ral Iflaltiguf £, an 
▼urinal fulijwu. eoDasdttd wlih lUjth, 



liH.Te bccn pub.iUiDtUlI; lulcfii] (rnm e> trca- 
liBc nr CTUTbinberg, (lublialiud ua early u 



WenlUí, uno L(tt«n, undcr the tít¡t¡ oí ISM, and ss late as ITS-fr, and eatitl«d 



" IlvracllíJ y P«tnrtr1l<i ila auíatra Siglo," 
uid irlTlng tbc qppiTSiIs 7Len'B af -each, 
wB,l«]i Ibe DiiDKS of tb-i iDHrlDcuton 1m- 
plr 1 ■ toak IbU aHiHile Elcctchtrs oí miti- 
nrifi Mili opininnn ftt tiiC íltae It wan writ- 
Un, thiit ítr«i>ni>a«Enuíiin[;, «.cil geitErall; 
AellTtfed in un unalI(.'clGd itjlti, Tbe 
IKittry of Anlonlo de YegL ha* becD bo- 
H(te4, imff, I-. Sí, 



' Dlfeceocla de lo I?inpvnil y EU;rno-," 
the "ConlíTEplntloní," hon'ííei', l»elog ■ 
Tifs^ñnt-nta <¡t an ínyüBh tfa.riBlotIi>ii of 
Ule tiipU ef Hiere mürTj!;, liy Sir Vítíbji 
Mullí iifOiUX, v<^bllElied In IBTS. (S?e fco 
InteTeitlnn pB.iiphl<:t on thle ButiJecE, "Lf.l- 
ivr t>) Jdíhua WAtaon, Ss^., el*)., >; £úiT, 
ChurUiu, SI. A., Arc!id»{<in of Ckrelarid," 
LsndSQ, 1S4B, Sto.) Wliy (lií tnÍ9U¡i« was 



chap. xxxix.j saa^"edha fasardo, and others. 



21T 



Cea, and AmbasBudorB,'' whích appearcd iti 1643.^ But 
none cif tlieee workB, car ¡inything- else ín the nature of 
diiiactic pmse that appcared in the seveiiteenlh century, 
íb equal to ttie Chriatiari Priate of Saavedra ; goi^Tciir* 
unlesB, iiidced, we ave to except liia owa vJsiun *=!j*">o- 
of a Btate, which he calle "The Literary RepubSíc," and 
in wbich he diacHsses somewhat eatiricallyr S^ut iii a vem 
oí agreeable criticierQ, tho müiite of the principal writera 
of aucíent and modern times, foreign and Spanish. The 
Literary Eepublic, however, was not pubÜsbed tUl aftec 
ita author'a death, and never enjoyed a popularity like 
that enjoyed by bis tcinger and eider work ; ivbich leavcfl 
far behind everything in the claas of booka of emblems, 
that so long eerved to tax tbe ingennity of the hig-her 
classefl of socioty in Europe.-' 

To these writers of tbe end of the Bixteeijth and the 
firet balf of tbe BeveDteeotb century a few more might lie 
added, of less consequence. Juan de Guzman, 
in 1589, publiahed a formal treatise on Khetoric, uíSÜÍ 
in the seveuth dialogue of which he makea an '*"""«»■ 



haA Djt«d ihe dUfistfiítee bíifffiea Ih6 6tyle 

oídiiK-Hork ttbd Lhnt oF Biabop TojIdi^'A 
WoTÍ» gmacuHf, 11 ÍM dilBúuLl to WU. Tb« 
treatÍBC nf Siéftíúlxtg has allía$S. heia 
Tolavd iu Bjíud'IsIl, &n<l, bi„i^i:ü ti<;ía¿ üArlf 
traailsted IdIu LntlD, Ibilian, Freuch, and 
EnglJihvWaJí puMiíliBd ib Aratrk In 1T33- 
Si, At tbe ConvClit uf Bt. JoLd, du Lbe 
MouDtala of tbí Drusíl. ñdt Bruni't. 

NJeriaubírK'í tturkJt, LbaUgh poEJiilai' In 
Uidrlimí'^ árt «( litCle irorth, One of tíic 
nmrí rbaracLeriiti-c or tliem Li hli "Cu- 
rlina, FlkBoSa ; Tt^nrú de MjunvilLas de la 
Natnnlua," 1639 ; — intended tn lie ■ 
phUmapbical JlaDUBBTo-a on Bubjecte oT 
lukreit nUtlne lo Lhn ¡ihjaii^l sciencei ; 
tmt a» foll of ciEíluIlty aa IgDnraoce uiil 
■upentlilon United CUD maku IL No bnab 
could more cilalclj- slioiii the <raut of Fa- 
Uier Fí/Jou'a "Teatro Crítico," «hích waí 
yet a century iiS- 

JW " AJTertfoiciaHparaRc/eH, FrÍEBeipea^ 
Y Sm1)aKadnre§, por ^n CEirÍBtjTal de 
lleEaTínCe ¡i BscavídeB," Madrid, 16^13, 
4LO, pP' ÍDQ. le a pood deal refl^mbleB the 
" Btobamiliií '' oí Vera j Zañlga. i o.nd, 
lUte lbe ttalhor or tbat «arle, DeaaTeple 

TOL. IU. lÜ 



b4iJ ixtD un htnbuMder oí B)»i1ji lo otTist 
ccivntTiea, iwil nrctfi úb ttio AUb^L-ít ul nhat 
rnay boconsiaure:! to baTO l^L'eE. íiíb pío- 
raaaüiic irltb exp£ritDC« áiti «urlaiu Ieatd- 
Lug. 

^ Ulj-'llcii¿itliu Literaria" iialiebt 
vutk, In the ibiiiDer of I/húIaii, wlttau 
vtHk greal tiiirit)' nJ ltiuguag«, b&d tru 
b«t jiflaleil tlU IKID- FaxnJ^iti'B alaioi U 
it& natliGr&bíp haa be^a questiuned j bot 
the dedícate an ¡a KhbiidebeyTa^B IFi'bUol'lGa 
(Tom. XXV. p, 3SS) ougíit, I tbink, W 
nrmore olí donbl. From tliSa, the "-^ Re- 
pubKea'* aeeios lo have beeo Ita auLhor^a 
llret vürk, — -a cirL'umBtance wbieb viü 
BccQoíit for tbat ir^ht and íestlve tune 
irhSch, among ocher thiit^a, caastl tho 
qnDBtiofi Lo be ratasL^ A epírited día- 
togne betiFeea Murciiry and Lucían, oq 
"The FulUe» oT Europa," in whicli Saave. 
dra duenda tlie Ituuac uf AuatrÜa QE^tijBt 
the BttnckB el tlie reit ot tbe nnrid, re- 
nmlbed In lunnowript tUL it wab priHliLced, 
In l'iST, tpi the Bixili Tnlurnt oT Itie Sema- 
Taur\a lirurllLo. Uut, vllb Ibo tcat at bfa 
vorkE, It 1> round \u tbe treu ly -B ítti inl- 
lune or Ule ÍLlbUeteca de Auloreí b{B- 
Salea, ͻS3. 



218 



TABIOQS DIDACnC PBOSE WUTEBS. |1>EXKtDlL 



1ng«nintin ftppllcatioo of tbe mies of ihe Greek and Bf»- 
man maett-ra lo the demanda of modero sermoaízing in 
Spaín.'* Oracian Dantisco, one of the secretariea of 
Philip tlje SecuiiJ, publíóhcd in 1599 a small discourse on 
thc tniíiior moráis of íife, wUích be called the •* Galateo," 
in imitation of Uio-vanoi delU Casa, whose ckssical Italian 
trealiflB bearíug- tbe same iiame was already well trandat- 
ed into Spaníeh by Domingo Becerra. ■• In the same year 
AnflTwi», appeareid a curióos work by Pedro de Andrada. 
viiiniur™. on 'fXhe Art of Horsemansbip," well written 
and learned, with amusÍDg aoecdotes of hornee ; and this 
waB fdllitwcd, in 1605, by a similar treatise of Simón de 
VillaCobnB, but ooc which, from ita moie military cbarac- 
tcr, and from the exaggerated importance it gives to ít« 
Biiliject, mi^ht well have been made a part of Don Quix- 
ote'fi librury," Both of them bear strong- marks of the 
etate of society at the time they w^re written, 

PatoD, Ihe anthor of several worke of little valué, pub- 
lished, in 1604, a Crude treatise on " The Art üf 
Spanish Eloquonce,"' fonnded on the rules of 
the ancients ; " ^ and, in México, Alemán, while 
livin^ there, prínted, in 1609, a treatise on " Caatilian 
Orthograpliy," which, besides what is appropriate to tbe 
title, contuiíiB plcasant discuBsions on other tópica coa- 
nected with the laiiguage, over which he has himecilf 
ebown a great maetery in bie " Guzmíli de Altaracbe." ** 
A Beries of convcrsationa on miacellaiieous BubjectB^ dí- 



PkUin, 

KB-ria-í 

JJüUlB. 



<i> " Prlinprn PiitIe iIb |i RIlQt'Tleo, ec, 
p-r iJiMii dv Ouiiuiii]," Ali»lj, \t,m, 12[DD, 

S91 ii^Hv«». it I* amded uiTiHiuaír into 

fiíuiifFij " CupibltM," M Invltallang^ M 
KcAatj. ]u nvtLhvr wu » jiupLl iil ihú 
ruruo|i9 3i|iiJ!ili|Ei, " Kl BnicCDH." 

"1 ThB ■' OtvlHli'v" WM MTSCkl liftlM t6- 

prliiwl. It t» « nana tutak, cantAlnlng, la 
lUHotliltoi. nrMadrl-l,. leM.MilíiaBleaTM 
la IKlDO. Antoiiln, ilili, Vr., Ti^M. II. 
p. I", U»i)il4™ WM niBu ftn «aiciteur 
piliiwr, ojid »iK?ini tu Un-i." kínn ii mun iif 
fiuliloii nc eoun, nnú. miiíb (iiv«r«d thtre, 
aili-lliit;'! AKUtB (It BihUil, IM8, Sal I. 

■> "-libra ia U Glnr-ui ^e fií^fmiin, por 
TinuuidM le ADdndt," StrilU, lb$0, lio. 



por SimcQ d<i Villalobos" Val'ladolíd, laos, 

" " Rlwiiiübiilh Bipañíiila en Ari?. por 
d MatatCb Bftrt«lC9)é Xlmestc FjUde," 
TüWda, 11104, 12tiia. The exlFAcEa Imm. 
D-ld Spanioh iHMks, and blnti tíaal tLeir 
hiitliui^, Ib thia tjri;ii.tLBe, are nEiec tk1ii~ 
tibie i but hnií wiae Lu ci^cUhI suggra- 
UoM ati muí be iníliXted fMín U)< tKt, 
that 11 recnmiDvnds an dMUiC tA itreil^ea 
IkLii lurmurj by nn-aLDlÍDg bid buil 'wjth ft 
cocupttuiiil Durkü-t EÜili-ñ^ of bbur'A ítüfrU 
kDi) nlkitc mi. Fot otLeC,. bat iDfDMlll- 
cnble, Wiulii of Patón,. wC B|iíifilflb tTBD». 
InÜDii of tbiB Wttnrf, Tnm. m p. MI, 
AQil nníí, ivntc 10 iií tht> c&ipter. 

H " Orto([r«nt Cn»lrll«nii, por Malea 
Alcmnn," VeviiM, 1W9, iin, S3 kaiu. 



CiiAP. XXXIX,] VARIOUS DIDACTIC PKOSE WBITERS. 



219 



vided ¡lito eeven nif^'hta,- — w'hich their autlior, Faria j 
Bousa, intended to (lavc callea simply " Moni] Dialogues," 
but wliich his hoülíseller, witliout his líTiowlcdgc, pubüshcd 
in 1024, with i.h& title cf "Brilliaut Nights/'—are dull and 
pedantic, liko nearly everything; thia learned Portug'ueKe 
wrote ; and tUe secoud part, which he olfered to the 
pnblic waa never called fur."* And, finally, another Por- 
tu^ruese, Francisco de Portug-al, wlio dicd in p^^^i^j^^g 
ItiáS,** wrote a pleasant ti-eatisG on "TLe Art of ^'""'s*^- 
Oalbntry," wíth anecdotea ahowing the etate of fashiona- 
blcj or rathcr courtly, society at tbe time ; but it wae not 
priuted (,¡11 laag after ite autbor's díatb.*^ 



w " Sixhn Clans, Primen» Porie, par 
Htflwl as fam j SuQW," WttdrM, wjA, 
UmUiBtfíiok Tolumií. VMi>a^,iaiu. ni. 

t>. SfiT. 

^ F(SBíi*wle P«rtiiBal, Cvant vitnlo* 
IV, kP. a Din, whB |iu.))lLali«4 liij r»i.)i«r'8 
piatiS vitb s ]i[f proQseiL, byt I l:noi> nn 
Giiiitiúa of tivi " Artu úf- Unl^nt^^ri»,'' f«,, 
earlÍET tbaD Uiat ol liibco, 1S70, 4U)- 

« BePíre we flume iBtntfi-?^ [wrM wt^n 

bail UBW üTíCWhelinii4 íBetytlilnB, W9 

Bhould BligbtJ; rer<:r 10 a rev Aiitltari wbo 

sen D»! ¡DrecUil by l^ ftlid IFÍI4 ycC are 

utit ar ifDUnftauíie caougb la be l&trHlDixd 
intu thu l£2tt. 

Thu ñrst or Uil&i In I>kgD de EsteU^ 
«lio iroa bDTD Ja li21, And dled ¡a L5ilj, 
He Wae femelí esDiiMied wlth lite sceat 
itlplnmalísl, Cardtn&l GrsDTeUe, and pub- 
liahed manf VotkA ib IacIDi aoú Spi^lali, 
Uii^ bdst i]f Htilcb, Aii U BtylQ and maiuicr, 
srB"LuaftB de 8o.ti JliSh" [ISSl] ; "Va- 
nidad áel Molido" (161*3 1 and "Medita. 
ciDciea áe[ Aninr da Dios 
iast Ebll dF □ncfjoni 

Severalto-rallsen liithGlbnn orhlag-nipli;, 
bul rcially bsccÜe nniS dlilactis la Uieir 
diHmtlcr, vi-K publialiad mqu aflenviirda, 
vlikh Are fTrlltfD wltli ftame purjlj san 
Ti^nr ¡ aiicti bb tht: Life of Flus V-, (lá9&,) 
hy AnlcDin 'Ku.cDTn&ynr^ vho ditd bt tht 
Ebrljr üi^e ar tbírUy ^ '^Bancto laoceute^* 
(I.W3) í " SaacU Fluríntioa " (15341 j and 
"Sánela Ttresa " (lilW), by DIcko de 



dS bis Sacipty D.t t|iB Gourt ^f líanae. Rojl, 
v^D i1l€id |D H^Tn wruLE? noaiiy ff-iitrUp 1u 
(<atiD| ^Q^il aoiDG iu Sponlah., tl)e moet fnip- 
lIlBt Di wlilet! liwt WM« h(B"Ktilliiloli; ¡ija 
Biínavanturadíg en e| Qíele, ije lúa Nlñoa 
en 6| tlmlio," ec. {JOSO)^ UU "AUqsB en 
pargj<.Lar|a " (1^1) i ^"^ ^^* " P^Beñelíi^ 
del Sltnlo Angül de iiueutra, Giitirdl*" 

(193-4). Pul ttiure ftre raany bíícíobb oX 
üncí) ur tbL'm ; — jiurbaps- tii-mí Uutt an 
eatÜBt tt)6D tti«*e Eii're iSt*i. 

Tn (hísí jiiftj beüildrf (breo olher woílt» 
□r TEry dilTeríDt cbaracters. 

Tli« "£ianiuiti de lzigei¡\e3," nr, lioír u 
deWnmne, fram Ui«ir pb^aUal and •:KCcr- 
nal coQditliin, rbo on» fic fsr lralQin){ la 
Cbe BüieuCbU, bj Jnan Biute de Sac Jiun, 
irritlEa, I IhÍDl:, ls earl; az laíT, bist úret 
pubUabEd, BccurdiDs lo 14. jLatoiiLa, In 
1&T5, i£ Ike most remürkiiblic oí tlism. It 
woB tbe ddI; wnrk qI íEb nuib-or, aivd sa- 
jajed a. fraáigiMiE reputatloD Tac ft Iúds 
tloLE \ 90 Uiat I bave Teckcn-ed raarieco 
(1ÍÍ7B) T ^UiG edUÍDii« ai it lu Spanialit cf vrhicb 1 hará 
thoae or IDUS Dad IfllU ; upd lii LallD^ Ilal- 
mn,, Fr^ncb, &Qd En^ltsh I ba.ro fnund 
noled as ntaiij T^rHlonfl, ÜLat ía tboao 
InoeuBgca ¡twQB publlalicd B.1 lene-í twenty- 
Ki-íD timea. The lon-t Kiuo U appEi^rcd la 
s l:niDEi]aitJDa wsa, I aappntia, ía Ihut oT 
a peraon no lesa cmincnt ihaa Qaltliald 
EphraEm LeaaiDR, ivBiioae veralant entUl&d 
" PrUfung der Küpío," waa prialrd for tho 
Bccood time at WlUcmberg* ITBB, 12niQ, 



Tepes, one of lier carireapundnEls, and the wiUi moob odded leaTnlng In the quota- 

eoaRíiBot nf the list darle j-íara ol l'liilip ti-(ini. In Engllili we liiivc II In liS*, bf 

n. ) aod the LiTca oí Ib-q deToul wmnen, Eichard Carew, wTio unnataled it fram tliB 

Dona Suijchi CatCllo, htiiJ Riniii Ar4ii FuiKu Ilnlian, aad in 1S69 by E. Bell^my. «lio 

de Lean, (1604,) bj Uuctia de Boa, a trsDiIa.lHd \l Irom tba .Spanlab. tt ta ■ 

Jeidt, «bo lung represeiikd the iut«fe«u irork full of ilrlklng but oíLen wlld dlKiu- 



OIJLTISMO IN PltOSE, 



[Pkbiod IL 



Diiñiig; tlie period embraced by tbe workB laat meri- 
tioned, a tSiliet; tiiste liad invaded típanieh prgse. It was 
the Bame unhappy taato wliich we ha-ve noticed in Span- 
ish poetry by the naine of " Goiigorisiu," but wliicb ita 
cmttiinia admirers CaUed somctiines " the polite," and 
inpnmj. fiometimea " Lbe ciUtivated " etyle of writing'. 
Traces of it have been souglit iii the sixteenth century 
amung aome of the beat writerS of tbe country ; but for 
thÍB there seems no fuundatioa, esuept in the fact, tbat 



IjanB- nnd 9peiculBtioiifl la ph^ilotog^, vrít- 
tea 7iLA fúrcible, puiv sljlc ^ Rjtá Lcp^Iiir 
aptl^ lampares ít^ DuÜLDr Ut Jii Hpirittrd 
linr»^, Uiiit, In [{nlliiplii|í oser Uie sloDee, 
DDVsr HLrikpH Ure !i> br]llLjLQlLy as he d oes 
ffb'íD h« atumblei. Tt lh nüliced. pleasan^ 
ly Ijj g-imd olJ Bir Heorj TTottou, (Ríll- 
qulw, ISTi, p. SI,) — It 1> uiKd íDd cum- 
nivuile^l by Ln-Vatni-, (Eugliih truiBlatiDD^ 
Lonilun, fol-, iTfla-lTW, Vnt. II. p. *28, 
sjiil Tul. m. ¡jp. 4S-49J — iiid iC isark'Q 
pralned Id enuK- recent Limes by Furner 
auil ntlicr cultiralcí! SpanUnli- But 14 
waí 11 ul un llielijjei ExpurBUUirius (IflH?, 
p, ^34),. uid su tliiiruu^Jily ijiíl tli-e Inqul- 
BiLIun and tlio CbDressIuuBl do tbelrvork, 
litíl. In 17115, BlUinugll eleren editlana o( il 
lo ÍSpucilali has Itieo beeo publlihed, the 
letimod rejj'lo l»ggefl a friecil to procure 
H aop/ or ic fur bim Id Latía, Imljan, oí 
Freiich, lieEniiBS, hs be sati), ¡■«'coull hu^- 
ly biDpí.' lo ñnil aaa la S[iiinl8b, — " qae vti 
el idluma EapiDul y «D EBpuia sera dIScn 
balliLrIe." Buyle liOH u goCKl arclcle aa 
HunrtC!, wliu WUB un >i!uiüieai: ptiyslclim lo 
Uu! lime DlPhlU|i II., aul Lliave u l-earunl 
siii3 üiimutline! juíute teply lu Híb EiBJnen, 
puHíítlia lo iB3l, f.1. ÍM-ía, bj (tnotlier 
p&JlIfllB-ti, JonrUaln Oiilbajet, EB(Jt|e4 
"BlBineB 3« !l'KxBJnenfltílBprits,"|OBB^r 
tbui t&e orí gl QBl work, Imt byno [qeiiBB ao 
IfcU vHLteq. T^s ** £i££.QieD de l^lBTidaa,,'' 
B Bp^riti^ pU]/ Df AlB-rcon, (aee avCE^ H. 
Q^9,)2jiii Lhe ** V[^Ka.meii de iogenlcB," & 
llvelf prese Balare of CaDDtr, (Obnu, ITÜl, 
p-, los,) were perlBBpB UDdt^ntned by Lhvlt 
4;u^teinpaFEirieE ta liHVfl rcfürVQCe ta tho 
tit-l4 eí t|kB '^ExniDeu 4^ lugCDlcks," 
th-4D v$r^ pcpolar. A vofk not nalite 
tllt "EsamoD die IngeaioB," ani B«me- 
tltnes liiii:l)U!il to It, nppi^nritl it Bnr- 
teloao, (liSS?, ita,) «Dtitled " £1 Sul Sd1ii, 
ec, j Annlflinl* de logeLiios," taking- a 
vicn dI the biudü gilttjcet, aomewhat more 
ib the naCnre nt Pb^alAüIiuiDj, aaá Dut 



trílhaut an apFnrach lA «faat hu allWB 

lieeu caUed I'lireDDleji:y, nf ffhiCb, alíQi 
Uiern ute^ iTocea la the "fiíameni" iUclK 
Tha " 8ot Suln " wi» written bj Eitcisn 
PujOBol, ao ArngüiifBe ^ and Ib curluim Fbr 
ite mamicT ef treatlog Uie lubjcrla IL dll- 
caBKea, ^^ hull JLnnhioijIcal] lí-iüf spiritaal i 
bul li Bot otTicruiBe lotcreBtiujf al. Ite 
ptcffDt d&y. 

Tho «rcond Ii the "FllslorlB Moral f 
Plill(«í pillea " of Pero SariclieB of ToleJn, 
publl»heil st TiiMq, 1590, Inlio, B-hen ita 
BUÜiur, nha wsa cunnectnl with ihe ca- 
tbeJral Lherc, waí Jilrcadj' an alJ lusn. It 
cdub-IxI* of tliG Livi'B of illstlujruIttLti) mea 
ar aElIquily, like Flato, Aleiiiudtr, otid 
Clucm, fluí] «UQ.E iTltli ■ LrsatlB^ en. Doith ; 
— eacb or lti« Llv» bettig aeoompiui<ed lij 
mural aiid CI:r¡iLIu.D R-Hec^Du», irhieh ara 
BomvtameB wrkt^iL In a tiU'WiiL^ ari' f^rvcnC 
BtyLe,bul are rur(?1y apprcprlaf .. .^id never 
eri^QU.! or poveríul. 

The laat ía by Vtacencío CiLrdusha, ^ 
Flurt-nfl^e jiainlf r, wha, nhen qaiÉe a büy, 
W9A braughl to ^paia lo llkA5, b^ lula 
hrntlier D artaloni i>, and diei OifCv i» ISSS, 
hivvínp Tisen to coDililerBill-!' ^DilDíOCC lll 
lila art. la 1934, he i^ui^liab^, U ftloücLil, 
•' ÜillogQE de lA PLutuni. su PcfeOBn, Ori- 
gen," «<, (ilty, 239 líawé) ; *)Ul tbv licifl' 
eim JLTB iaWl 163S BBd ISOS, It Ig wrll- 
leu in good plain tiKüs, wllhuiii. pirt^talu 
merit as to Btylc, frnil ít iHttnred bj Cesa 
Bírtnuilsi, (D ludan* rio, 7>¡m. i. p. asi,) in 
hlB nutlee e^r itio Btitlni', to be " ei ai^aü 

llljro qiie WeiíMob le plnlqra en CsBtelI». 

no." ÁA Ui« cni) U a» Appeiidlx, l(i whloli 
ars attMlcs 4[ Lr^po 4q Vsgn, Ja^q As 
Jnuttgvtl, nD4 oLhen, op a aitty iHíd up«B 
pleturet, n'í\icn,CEaB Berpiuiiei Bays, "ilis 
eíRi'ru ti[ C&nJnctin and hlg me-iMB^ íue- 
eeciLed lik ranavlng In 1637." An latef- 
BBtlnB hbf T&Iuable Dotl<K of CatduiiliD li 
tú b« fímnd Ifi B-tirlinK's árU«t« dT Bpuln, 
IS-;^, Tol, I. Pli. 111-439. 



Crap- XXXIX.] 



CULTISMO m PEOSE. 



221 



a rig-nrous taate never at aiiy time prevailed in Spuín, and 
thitt tlie tuxiiLÍíint succcss uf Ictters towarda tlie end cif 
tho reigrn tif i'liilip tlie Scicoiid, and tlie conaeqncnt Jiffl- 
cuUy oí obtainiíig fashifinaljle díStinctinn by aufcborahip, 
hni led to occasional affectations even Íü the style of 
tbose who, lite Cervantas and Mariana, etood foreiUOSt 
amnrig; the better writers of tlieir time. 

üiit now, the admifation that followed Góngora attnost 
necessíirily iritrctdinied coin.'eits iiito prose writing, siich 
as were thimght SO wúrthy of imitation in poetry, Those, 
thcrefure, wbo moet coveted publiu Favor, hegan to play 
with worda, and seefc to surpriae by an unexpccted oppo- 
BÍtiun uf ideas and qnaintnesa mf mctaphor, li'ttie coneist^ 
ent with the oíd Castilian dignity, uiitil al- la&t they quito 
left the stately constrnotions in which residea so much of 
wJiat ia peculiar to the KOnOroua declamationH of Lui» de 
Leun a»d Liiia de Granada, and by esceeaive effortB at 
brilliíLncy liecame soinvolved and obsCure, that thnj were 
not always intelligible. lustancea of such affectatioa 
may he found in Saavedra and Francisco do Purtngal. 
But the ¡nnoYation itself is ulder than either of their pub- 
lished works. It broke out perhaps with Andreas Pere?, 
and certaiiily was notoriouH in Paraviciiio, who, beaidoB 
imitating tíóngoni's poetry, aS we have alrcady seen, car- 
tied similar extravagancea of metaphor and construction 
intü hÍ8 oratfjrical and didactíc prose ; tntimatingf in a 
characteriatíc plivase, that he claimed the honor of beitig the 
Cohimbus who had made this grcat díscovery. As early 
as 1620, it waa matter of censure and ridicule to LíñaHj 
in hia " Gnide und Oüilnse! tO Sírangers in Madrid," and 
Boon afterwarda to Mateo Velazquez, ín hia " Viliage Phi- 
loaophcr ; " so that from thia period we may consider cwí- 
túfíLo iiearly or quite aa pievalent io Spanieh proBe aa it 
was iü Spaniah poetry.^ 



" 'See Díelmnacloo, «e., oí Tarpaa y 
tf^Ki, UÍÜ, Appv ^ 11. and Msj-iua, En- 
PAjí?, iiL SStmrjríii? liv la Acad. di' níflt-f 
f i«n. [V., INOl. LlmiD y Vfnlngu, Aviuoa 
dii Ftuci^atfros,^ lü^, itoticcd (mfe, p. 138} 
uiidrr tli^ 1i>iniil o! ííniíinnlK: VM{irn¡ tihaWB 
Cbal -the cuito slylo woa kmufo ae esrly sí 



t!u.t dat<! (a«« «dlc 1TS3, p. 19S, etc.). &Dd 
it \s n hiikud Ity nnm* in PvtuiIpíb'i' " Cln- 
ío Eicellracio» riul Gniiaíiil" (1Q39, f, 87, 
n], indio -"Kl t'iloEufiKld AI.lIi'A., yitUí.Cua- 
«srHavtDnes FimiLliiríe, «II Aatül tí Alfcrvl 

paz Dli^g» n^hrcicr^ ISedd, IDQ Iu^vi^b, e. &., 



GEACIAH. 



[FucTuo IL 



The pcraon, however, who eettled its character, and iti 
Bome rcBpects gare it an íiír yf philüsophÍQal pretensión, 
Bmiiíw '"*•'' Baltazftr Gracian, a Jeaait of Arügon, who 
Qr«iDb. livad between 1601 and 1658 ; exactly the period 
when. the cultivatj;d Btyle tciok posscssíoo of Spani&h 
prose, and rose to its gr&ateet considuratíort. He began 
in 1630, by a tract callea "The Hero," wliich ia Tiot bd 
much the descriptiun o( a, hcro's character as it is a. 
lecipe to form one, given iu ehort, compact senteücea, 
coriatructed in tlie iiew style. It was succesafu], and was 
fi)llíiwfd liy ñve or ais otlier works, written in the Bame 
maimer ; afLer which, to cotifirra and justify thcm. all, 
tiiere appeared, in IfiáS, híe "Agudeza y Arte de Inge- 
uíq ; " a reg-ular Art of Púetry, or rather system of rhet^ 
oric, accornuitidftted to tho school of Gcíngora, and Bhow- 
ing great aciiteiiess, eapeciiilly in the ingenuity with 
which tlie authi)r prosaes iuto hia aervicc the eider poeta, 
Büch as Diego de Mendoza, tlie ArgensoIaHí and even 
Lula de León and the Bacliiller de la Torre. 

The moBt reniavkable work of Gracian, however, is hia 
" Críticoo," published in three parta, between 1650 and 
■Pj, 1653. It is an allegory on human lifo, and gives 

Criticón. US the adventurea of Ci'itihis, a noble Spauiard, 
wreclsed on the desert ÍBland of Saint líeleiia, whei'e he 
finds a Bolitat'y uavage, who koowe nothiug about hiniBelf, 
except that he haa facen nnrsed by a wild beast. Afier 
much communication in dumb show, they aro able tO 
nnderstand each otlicr in Spanigh, and, being lakcn from 
the island, travol tog-ether through the world, talbing 
oñen of the leading men of their time En Spain, but hold- 
ing" intercourse more with allegorical personafros than 
■with one another. The Btory of their adveaturea íb long, 
and itB thrce portions represent the three periods of 
human Ufe ; the flrst being called the Spring of Child- 
bood, the aecond the Auturan of Manhood, and the third 



!b a ílnsiilur baait, ¡|[iliiclli: In Iti maln 
pariiiHt', but Uluscraticg wiib etnrio ll« 
honiBly ¡ahllnsopliy. I Bni5 no untloii vi U, 
lliou(j!i thE Hallinr, In bis UtdlcatlúD, Inti. 
inabL-» i!iii.t It la tiai lila írst pulillülicd 
«ork. It B«ei3u tu hav« Iiíod «rltten luou 



Bfbr 11]« (liaMh nf Phlllii ITL in 1(121, «mi 

ita lajt d9 iliDj^e ¡a jiRaÍE9:it cnlclgnfv,f>t t^P 
intioiliictloii oF whicli inCo Spuuidli prxBe I 
Lave ft¡Hkk«iL wLpd noticing the ^^ Picara 
Jiiil[iin" o! Aadrün» Peres, 160b, úiitt, p, 
lúa, note, and aí Paia-vicino, ante, p IQL 



CiiAi-. SXXIX.] 



GRACIAN. 



223 



the "Winter of Oíd Age. In eoine parte it shows much 
talent ; and eloquent diBcuBsioiiB on moral Bubjects, and 
g^lowing desciiptiona of eventg and naturaE scenery, can 
occasionally be tafeen from it, which aie little infccted 
with tíie extravag^ances of the Oiillivatod Style. Some- 
timea, we are reminded of the " Pitgrrim's Progresa/' — 
fLB, for instance, in the &CGneB of the World's Pair, — and 
might almost aay, tbat the " Criticón " Ib to the Catholic 
Tcli{;^ícin and the notionE of life in Spain duríng the leiga. 
oí Philip the Fourth what Bunyaii's tiction is to Puritan- 
iara and tlie Engliah character in the age of CroiBwell. 
But there is littJe Tita,lity in the shadL>wy personagus of 
Gracian. He bodíes cothíng forth to which onr ejmpa- 
thies can attach them&elvE>s as thoy do to suuh sharply 
defined creatEons as Christian aiid Mr. Greatheart, and, 
when we are moved at all by hira, it ia only by hia acute- 
nees, ingenuity, and eloquence. 

Hia oíber works are of Binall value, and are yet more 
deformed by had taete ; eapecially luis " Pcilitico-Fernan- 
do," which is aít extravagant eulogíum on Ferdinand the 
Catholic, and hia " Disurcto," which íb & coüection of 
prose miBcetlanies, iuclodtug a few of his letters, It ia 
Biiigular, tbat, lo conaequence of being an eccleaiastic, he 
thciugiit ít proper that all his worfes should be pviuted 
undor the nanie of hie brother Lorenzo, who lived at 
Seville ; and it is yet more singular, perhaps, that they 
yrere pubtished, not by himself, but by his fiitind, Lasta- 
E-osa, a gentleman of literary taste, and a collector of 
ancieot wyrks of, art, wíio üv&d at Huesca iu Aragón. 
Eut hüwevcr indirectly and cautiouely the worka of 
Gracian won their way iuto the world, they enjoyed 
great favor there^ and made much noise. His " Hero " 
went early through six editions, and his coliected proae 
•Wíirks, must of -whicli were translated into Freiich and 
It^baí}, and BOme of them iuto Eng-lish and Latin, were 
oFten rcprinted in the original Spaniah, both at home and 
abroad."* 



» Tlifre an! eailíniísiir Oracimi'íWprltJ, ÍIls Lite IíId LiituBía, Blb. Niniva, Tom, 
lOñi, IHUJ, na6, n-4!, 1767, 1713, hW, Itl- pp- aej^ctó., Aoa n. pleusaiit scpount 
1 une Chut uf BaiccIuuB^ 1749i 2 Mn. V", hiKil v( Vin ujil ul bis rríviid LasLaüou U 



CULTISMO m PKDSE. 



[pKBIOD tí. 



From tliis peTÍod, tlie rich oíd prosc sfyle oT Luis de 
Leou ai)d hie contetnporariea inay be said lo Ijave been 
driven. out of Spanlsh literatiire, Lope de Vega and 
Qiiev&do, afier resisting the innovíiticniB of vultiKmo for a 
time, hiid long- lieffire yielded, and Calderón waí! now 
u,lt-ernatcly assailíug- the depraved taste of hie andiences 
and gratifying it by rimning iiitLH cstravagancoB almoet 
Cüitbsnio *^ great aa tlioae he ñdicnlcd. The language of 
{.rcvuiis. tije moBt affected poetry passcd iiito the proee 
of Ihe ago, and took ftom it the power and digiiity wliicb, 
even in ita more declainatory portiona, tiad conetitwted its 
pmminent merit. Style becamc faiitastic, and the veiy 
thottghte that were tu bo ccinveyed were not unfrcquently 
covered np with iiigenuíties of illustríitíon till they dís- 
appeared. In the phraee of SancJjo, men waiited better 
bread thaii could be made of wheat, and rendcred thera- 
S(;[vea ridiculoLiB by attemptinp^ to oIjtaiQ it. Tropee atid 
figures íif all kindia were scttlcd into formulas of speech, 
and then weie repeated, appropriately and ¡nappropriately, 
till the roader could often anticípate, írom the be(;;inning 
of a sentence, how it wonld inevitably end. Everything, 
iiideed, in proae compoBitioD, as in poetry, announced that 
corriípted taate which both precedes and híistens íhe decay 
of a literature ; and whích^ in the case of Spain during ths 



tAbe Tnand in Asts^db, Tajaes d^Espa^cnÉg 
ISET, r'. S9J, nii>l ÍD íhe ducLiGatíoa lu Las- 
tuÑMa ilf th« Hrst Hiiltiou of Qurce<la''a 
" FfíMaiVS Mb &tHO," laso. Gmclnu's 
pMDi en. "The Fuitr S«muiis," ««□iTalb' 
prinled at ütt cnit nt \ih W">rki>, I», I 
bi^lhtivr, tivc warf^t uf thcm j cerlaiiiiljr It 
nuvJit h& diflicua ta ñná much lu anj 
truij^aeC iQDre nbsiird nnd eitrjL^agjiDt ia 
¡ta rniKc UíHa. 

dnl'llluD'S Vorlte Viirb a tiuod iLCnl trunS- 
lALed iljEü Frstilili And Itnlliui ; bUt líttle 
iñV\ JÜIlgli^b- I haré hie " CudrUer'H 
MatiUilt 0»C1C," (IidnilDO, X<IS4,) UD apüio- 
riBtlt yrofít iihI nliPBJI tni* to tha DrijóiiQl 
¡Oráculo ^Janllal / Arte rtt Pcuflciielii), biíl 
iKiíM\iniAny vcry M^ff 1» aivinltig ilie 

Butliiir'M iiieu.iilng «tid t'i>'l"g ^t with piilul 
ttiid fflVcL Auil I hBTi! alno Graeian'» 
" Herii," Ij-ttinlulcil ínini n Freocli Yerilnn 
Df ít. by FathiT UijurbevIllB, wlth goaii 
QdIh», aud [iiliiLed biith al LaodnD ddiI 



Scblin, lisa. Bnt exECpt those I rémetiL- 
bcr DO EDgEieb traTiplabi^DG. 

PerhaipQ tno otlicr bai^k.i nhould hftV« 
heen niiiIlcFd hcre. The fint ií, "-Inííe- 
Iíta PoeliCB contra cíddo Viciad, Soberbih) 
iDvJdtu, AmbÍK^on^ MunDuracion. j~ Ira, 
te, por r] Licpíi-cijido Luis SaocbeE da 
Meló" (!ÍB.\ugí^ 1044, 4ta), tis ■Lulli4ir 
wns H natWc of Liíbon, but a Ijin^r oT 
Malaeit, and nrotí; bla " Torectlva," aa )ia 
tvHa \i>. Id tifüctj da.;» vhea he was biuj 
wátll his proft-Bfllon- I can rtH.úlly belieTO 
hím. II rearls, nutvlthstiuidlag ita liitej> 
mliAiuti or TeriM) Wka a aeries ot ipooi' 
«rrnion» lo tbc muat conceiled bIjIf. Tha 
ntlier lo " Adertna «Ichrados de la Aatl- 
Euedaii, BU nutor Don Josef de la Torre'* 
(Xarugoin, leSl, limo, pp. iSi) ; n collec- 
tion or Btrihine Tiuta stiil ant!cil<ilea Iraní 
alajaln «uihora, III cnmmenled liy La Tnris, 
(f bci a.rti'rwü.r[1ii he^rjitau a diüdIl aaít died 
Ht Madrid inlflTl. 



Cmap. XXXIX. j zabaleta. — £? 



jr^RAMTREZ. 



225 



Lmann, 



lafter h^ll" of the SPrentefinth ccntury, was biit tli6 coa- 
contitaiifc üf íl gcnoríil duGUne in the arts and the gradual 
degradatioH of the monarchy. 

Among thoae who wrote beat, though atÜI iafected 
with the prevailíng iiiflueiicea, was Zabaleta. 
His " Moral Fraljlems " and '' Fiinioua Errors/' ^^"^ 
biit eapeoially hííi " Feaat Days at Madrid," m which he 
givea livelj satirical sketches of the inaiiners of the me- 
trópolis at those perioda whon idlenesa brings the people 
itito tile Btreets and plucee of ^miiK^inent, are worth read- 
ítig. B«t he lived in the re\g\i of Philip the Fourth ; and 
so did Lozano, whoBG different ascetic wurke OD 
the charaeter of Ktng David, if not so good añ 
his historicíil romance on tbe New King* of Toledo, are 
better tliaii anything elee of the kind iii the same period. 
Thcy are, however, the last that can be read. The reign 
of Charles t!ie Second doea not offer exnmpleB eveii bo 
favorable as these of the remaína and ruing of a better 
tasto. " The Labora of IlerculeB," by Heredia, b„^i, 
in 1682, and the " Moral Esaaya on Bocthiiis," «unirví, 
by Ramírez, in 1693, if thcy serve fur nothing elBc-^ serve 
at least to mark tjie ultímate limita of dnlnesa and alfecla- 
tion. Indeed, if it were not for the History of Solfa, 
which has been alrcady noticed, we ahoulil loofc in vaín 
for an inetamcfe of respectnble proae composítion after this 
]ast and nioat degenerate desccndant of the House of Aus- 
tria had mouiitod the Spanigh throae/* 



3< Juan as 7jitaleM aourt^bed ai un 
■uth«r frcm ]eS3 to lflE7 ', aail bis vurhe, 
whtch ffere ¡íon onüe-irLed, hnre bWQ fw- 
qu^DUj prbtteil, 1607, ñlsúrii, ITSi, iio, 
irM, etc. ISiieDa, I«m. lii. p. SU.) — 
CbiiBKÓTBl Loitaoo (□«tícud, ants, px>' 1^, 
143) TU ¡tuuwa oB an uulh^r rr?m 1649^ ^S 
tLi-'UavtúAiTiiiJt'B tillo," Sti wh1i;hbí>ufwr- 
wHrtí üii'led bi« " Diiviii persi^giiiilo-,'" !□ 
IkKS vsLumra, tn-i yut uriJiiliür w«rk un 
ta-saubj^ot or Davld's EsiiiBfle illu^^LrMea 
tf tbe LlRht o[ ChrtstlnDllr ; »!) n! litile 
villas. — Juan Fran^lsoí FíroBtidiA de 

HurCuk'V Madriii, 14lt2, 4lu. Ke tnBlíiíA 
a& k¡[ilL uC bjuk of emlrlvins, liUt ¡t i» Biití 
ú( LhC ■muñí B>f ita cuncj:tbi¿d cLlíD. LatnlAA 

CBIK St¡f., Tdin. IVv p. 3) acñoü Utü, 
10* 



Oí Anuíale Fcm Kamireí, I knov onlj 
tbf '■ Anuas criiiln la Furtuna," [Madrid, 
1899,110,) vhkh li a IraDElstloii ar 1ID2- 
tbluí, «'ítb dl«»írCationi iu Ihe wírsE posíl- 
ble tasie dul^rapt-rscd bctireeD lea sevecHl 
divlBicui, 

Odü othrr iLUthot tnlE-ht, pcrliap», haTc 
bfi>;D ]ililMd al Ibt Bldi¿ of LoEaTio, — Jo- 
típll d« la Ve^a,— nbi puhUfhcil (aC 
AtnECiTdraa tn IQSS, 12mij) tbKS dlslDRUds, 
enlitl«d "CourusisTi di: Ccnn^íioiiM,"' M 
ridieuln ths paseÍDc for at'K;][Jr>bti'l'ne M-blili 
f&mv jn »i(L tbii Dutch £as( Lc<11il Cm- 
IiHUy, ll> l'Sll'2, uuil viu» tían ni Ihe IgCitbC 

of !ij freniy. Tliíy Rffi afitHeirhivl tneiica- 
t>£íií>l wiU) lí/inilng, t)ut vuntniD anecilisics, 
anílvul Aüi Qinilertí, v^iy wrll t'^lrj. 'ThB 
«uthur WM « rlcli Jeir oí Aiitwcri), whft 



226 



cnAIlACTEB OF DroACTTC PBOSE. [Periotj n. 



Cliu-acui 

«r dldulic 



Kor i« this. remarcable, Od the contrary, it ig rather to 
be consjdereii worlhy oí Dotice, thal dídactic prüse shonld 
have liaiJ any ment or oblainoi any shcCbsb ia 
Spuiíi duríng the eisteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turieSt For the end it propOsCS is not, like that 
of poetry. to amiiae, but, like that of philosophy, to en- 
lig'hten and amend ; and Low daiígercius ín Spaia was the 
Bocial poBÍtioD of any teacher or moral raunitor, "who- 
claimcd for himsetf that dogrec of independence of úpin- 
ion withoiit wliicíi instruction becomeB a dead form, needs 
not now to be aet forth. Fevc persons, in that unhappy 
conntry, were enrrounded with more difficuUies ; none 
were more stríctlj watched, or, if tJiey wandered from 
the petmitted patha, were more Beverely punisLed. 

Ñor was it possible for such personsj by the most no- 
toriou8 earneetuess in tbeir convictions of the just control 
of the religión of the state, or any degree of faithfulaess 
in their loyalty, to avoid sometimes falliTig tiiider tba 
rebuke of the jealousy that watched each etep of their 
Conree : a fact safñcíently apparent, when wc recoltect that 
iicarly all the didactic writcrB of merit during this period, 
Buch as Juan de Avila, Luía de León, Luis de Granada, 
Quovedo, San Juan de la Cruz, aud Santa Teresa, were 
pcrsccuted by the InquÍBition or by the governmetit, aad 
the worka of eveiy one of them expur^ated or forbiddea. 

Under aueh oppression, free aad eloqiient writera — 
meii destined to teach sad adv-ance their generation — 
could Dot be espected to appear, and the few wbo ven- 
tured iuto ways eo dangeroue dwcit as much as posaíble 
in generala, and becanie rayatical, like Juan de la Cruz, 
or eitravagant and dcclainatory, like Luis do Granada. 
Nearly all — etrictly prevented from UBÍng; the logic of a 
wise atid Iliberal pliilosophy— fell into pedantry, from an 
aniiouB desíre, wherever it "¡vas poHsible, to lean upon 
autbority ; 60 that, from Luia de León down to tbe moat 
ordinary writer, who, iu a prefatory letter of approbation, 
wished to give curreucy to the opiniona of a frieiid, no 
oían Bcemed to feel at esse uniese he could justify and 



bail Üed fhitltcr from BpalD^ a.nd piihllahed pdd^., t thlnV, nf much vn1uc. Amurtfvr 
9i-icrat nerita liecwi^eD \0ñ& anit 1033, but de Jos Kios, Judlna Bap^fialaj p, 6SS. 



Chap. XXXIX.] CHABACTER OF DIDACTIC PROSE. 22T 

Bustain what he had to aay by citations from the Scríp- 
tures, the fathers of the Ghurch, and the ancient and 
scholastic philosophers. Thus, Spanish didactic prose, 
which, from its original elements and tendencies, seemed 
destined to wear the attractiooB of an elevated and elo- 
quent style, gradually became so formal, awkward, and 
pedantic, that, with a few striking exceptions, it can only 
be said to have maintained a doubtful and diflBcult exist- 
ence during the long peñod when the less snspected and 
lesB oppressed portions of the literature of the country 
— ita drama and its lyric poetry — were in the meridian 
of their success. 



OHAFTER XL. 



COKOr.CDIlíG EEMARK! OH THE SBCOFD FEBJOD-— PÜCAT OF IBB 

KATIOHaL CHAnACTKK. DIMINISHKO HOMBEK ÚFWK1TE.R§ AND 

BlHlItiaHI^ID ISTKRBBT t>F THB PUBI.tC IN LETTE.HB. — R13JN OP 

TBB srAix ujlgijj« in tue timk ne phelii* tue becosu, akd 

COHTIIflTBD IK TME RKIAHS OF FHILIP IHE THtltD, FUILIF THB 
POUKTU, AKD CnAHLKS TIIB HECOSÍf. — EFFECT3 OF TDia CON" 
BITJOS OF TIIIKGa ON LITEEAJIT CULTURE, — FAL3& INFLDEKOXB 
OP RÜLtaiOS. FiliBE INFLUJtNCBa OF LOTALTT. 



Ir ía íraposaible to atudy with care tlie Spanish litera- 
ture of tlie seventeeiith centiiry, and not feeL that we are 
iij the presence of a g^eneral decaj of tlie uatiotial char- 
Tf„^ auttT. At cvery Btep, as we advance, the num- 
^til^ñni ^^^' ^^ writers that eurroünd us ¡b diminished, 
ohiu-aetBr. ij] ift'hat CFüwds tlicy were g-athercd together 
duriag the rcigns of Phiüp the Sccond and Philip ihe 
Third, we may see ia the long lista of poete given hj 
Cervantes in his " Galatea," and his "Jonrney to Par- 
nnsBUS," aod by Lope de Vega in his "Laurel of Apollo." 
But ¡n the reígn of Philip the Fourth, though the thea- 
tre, ñ'om accidenta! circumstancea, flourished more thaii 
eve7, the other departmenta ahowed symptomB of de- 
cline; and lo the reign of Charles the Second, wher- 
ever we turn, the number of authors BÍnks away, till 
it ía obvious that aome great change must tafce place, 
or elegaut literature iu Spain will speedüy become ex- 

tJDCt. 

The public ioterest, loo, in the few writer& that re- 
TDaínod, waa g-one. At least, that general, natíonal 
iQterest, whích atone can auBtain the life it alone can 
give to the literature of any coiintry, wae no longer 
there ; and atl tbe favor that Spaniab poets and men of 



Crr^r. XL.} DECAY OF THE NATIONAL CHARACTER. 



220 



Charla V. 



letterB enjoyed at the end of the cenlur^ carne frora the 
court and ttie superficial fashion of tlie time, wiiich patron- 
ized the aOected style of those füllujwera of (rÓTig-gra 
whoae bad taste H&cmed to go on iftcreaning in eitrava- 
gance, as talent aniurig theiu grew more rare. 

Everythitig, meanwliile, aniiouDCed that the great fouii' 
dationB ofthe nattijiial character -n-ere giving way on aí\ 
sides ; and that the íiiiling- lUerature of the ctnintry waa 
only Qne of the plmses and sigria of the coming ovecthrow 
of its institutioTiH. The dceay which waa sn viaíble on 
the surfacü of thinffs had, however, lung mÍDed unBéen be- 
neatli what had heen thimght a period of extraor- 
diiiary aecurity and ^lory. Charles the Piflh, 
whiíej on the one sido, hy the war of the ComuneToa, he 
had cnished nearly all of polítical liherty that Cardinal 
XiraencH had left Íri tlie oíd corietitutioiiB of Castile, had 
given, o!i the olhcT, by hia magnificent forcign conquesta, 
a false direction tn the character of his people at home ; 
— both tetiding" atikc to waate away that vigor and inde- 
ptíiidenco whícli the Moorish wara had Gourished in the 
hearta of the nation, and wlnch had so long constituted 
Hb real Btrength. Pliilip the Secoad, who fol- 
lowfid in the foot^ops of Símenes, had been leas 
Biicceesfal than his fath&r m bis great labors to &dvaiice 
the permanent proaperlty of Ihe Tnonarchy. He had, in- 
deed, added Portuga! atid the Piíilippine iGlands to hifi. era- 
pire, which DOW comprcheuded above a hundred luillions 
of human beinge, and seemed to threaten the iuteresti of 
all the rest of Europe. Bat Buch doubtfnl benefits wera 
heavily overhalaoced by the relígious rebeUion of the 
Netherlande, the fatal source of unnumbered mÍRchíofa f 
by the exhansting wats wíth Elizabeth of England and 
Henry the Fourth of France ; by tlie contempt for labor, 
that followed the extraordinary prevalence of a epirit of 
müitary adsenture, aud broke down the induetry of the 
countiy ; by the vast increase of the eccleaiastical insti- 
tiitioTiB, which created a ruinouB amount of peneiotted 
idlencfis : and by the wasteñd Eusury brought in with the 
g'old of Araerica, which aeeined to corrnpt whatever it 
touched; ro that, when that wary príiice died, he left ao 



PhUlplL 



230 



PinUP TUE THIRD- 



[PKEtop n. 



ftltUp UL 



impoveñslied people, whose energiea he had overBtrained 
and irnpiiired hy I1Í9. despotism, and whone characíer he 
liad wurped and 111 ís di roete d by his unrelenting and un- 
scrupulous bigotry,* 
Hi6 euccesaor, feeble-tnioded and nuperstidouB, was 
neither alile to repair the reeutts oí sucb mis- 
cbiefa, nor to contend with the difficníties they 
entaíled npon his coimtry. The pciwei' cif the clergy, 
growQ enormoua by the favor of Philip tho Second aud 
the Consolidated influence of the Jesuits, contibucd to 
gaiti fitren^th, as it were of itself ; and, under the direct 
persuasión* of thiB mighty hierarchy, nearly eix hundred 
thoasand dcsc&iidaiitB tif Moore — who, though preserv- 



' Tbcre 3b a nmartable pape-r, ín tlie 
■Ixlb ToLuice tf tliH " Semanaria Urnditis," 
OH Chv causes r>( Uie decline tf Gpitin ; — 
remíTk&lile becauBc, IhcuEh wtíeUh ia tbe 
reignoE í"bÍLlp IV., by Juan ie l'tOiiííisy 
filendDui, e,a «cluisdEía of nuii:, whobl 
Charlti LLl. aRci^rdnlB as¡itíl bk haye 
caamilird, It yet miri&u'teí Ch>i orliflu al 
thí pnistraLícin nrider whloh Spalii «ul- 
lered [d hU time malnly to llio WM with 
th^ HgÜikúkíiHb. Thl^ voTt friJiti 1^67 te 
1^13, ia aald loharc CMt Bpdn above tWD 
tiiiiidred mllll'>iia •rf dullim, (Eavtniiiuin , 
p. 2S9, nolrO luid üic dtbtof Spiím to liavr 
rÍHeii. In tba tloic a! Philip 11. froDi thlrtj- 
tlvit iDlUlnns sif dun¡iita lo ooe liumiitd tad 
fjtiy. Ibiil., p. 3!2. 

DnL Iho ditiwr dlIEcullj- of contcmpt 
lor Inbor wns firlt muub earlier. In Che 
curioufr **' Diftlcdt'Ui' of IVIercury and Cha- 
loD," atlrlbutol to Jiiiiii Tnlilri, uml 
prluted. HTiüut IfiSO, tti« good Fiiar lajs, 
Hmi he entíreil a religinu] liouse "jjor 
poder koarulamtnlt trabiffar," anil glvn 
the rcaaon whj he «ob ubiiged to |1^ ll„ 
''^ pnrcine,"* he #ajB, "-^ ni mi IíidaJi!, iii mi 
Britadn-iDe erinaeDtira trtLboJar, hE lín mi]- 
dubnel hiLblbi." (lid. Wiflen,p. 30S.) Ttiat 
Iji, beL[)i2 weLl buró, ht caiild ilo n-uüilng 
crodfiabijr for bis UíSd^, uaLeaa be eacert'd 
the Churcb or the army. Ubis mas ebrlj' 
In the reign. oPthmrEca V_ 

In 1QG3, ihe Cortes epoke plainlj' to tbe 
Eiujierur ubaut Lhe «aormaus íncr^aBe of 
ehurch pn»p*nj^ mjLltiii^ tlisir Éfly-fl/lh 
" Pet]c¡OD** Id tbe füllüivlo^ nords ; 
^'YLgiiLt par experiencia ae vee que Í5X 
hacIftiilAi están tmlas en (lodiT de Y|¡les¡BB, 
Qoleglaa, EaBpilsleH, et ManaJItrioide quo 



Tiene □nts.bLe ilaiíci b Tueitru rentu retUí 

et a TusetruA suliili^a ce noturalea i 6t t-lna 
aa tcmetlla tAd«a IM hik/Ji;ndu terinib a 
p»der deIJus. BupUcacioj a TUHtra Ub- 
gcíi^ BCA servido de mandar qao de &<iuj 
aátUnit, niiigiuia rglnlA, si moDuterio 
ccmiiri.' tiiuDte cnjAes," ce Ii«;ea, «t«., 
vaiitd'Hid, roiio, u&a, r. xm. 

[a lh& Uiueiir Ph-lllii II, ñuah CMoiilalDU 
rere tLLtli: likcl? to be biiard í but as coon 
as be was [i<.-iv1, t^vcn !□ une vr Che funeral 
dlscnarecs In honnr al }il« inumiH-y, It lis 
dietioutly Bllud-ed lu. (Scnnoneo faiii-ralí« 
del Rey n. rclíftci[., Madrid, ieOL,f.lTa i 
-^the diBconrse In qorstlíin helag hy Fray 
Aeusííq BalDclo,) In tbe time at Philip 
III. <ia^) ÚeroDljQD de Cei^alloa published 
LIb ^''i^iecurbo de l&a EoEenefli** Lo ahow 
hav wiiie-jpread b man rou^^t fíi-lluw tbo 
great liacreaae oí eeclf-niaAtjc^ Loetituliotiai 
Dud in tlie BHniB yeat Dutlnr Otitlem', 
Jlunjuea de CarrEUgn^ ansu'L'red blm^ in a 
"■ ¡lea pn rata al Dlacurín," «;., In wtilch he 
deniea the Injurlea Impaiul to Üie «ocW- 
bIhíÜcilI curfiuratlnni, aiiú itialnLniíia th>.t 
ibe klnsdom wuuld aoon iwnie to ruin 
vltbout llicir [¡m-ytin, raxllnga, nud bIoli. 
£iit Dclthcreí tbeeu nrlwra vni cqaal U» 
the üTiiv» suhj^t lie itudcclaik In treat ; 
>uid besidí'^ the mlacblef — stlll Telt lobo 
liej"uil tíie cTBcli of Iculalailun — Jiad TieBn 
dúne ía cbe Üme nf l^bllUp II. Kod earller. 
An esrtrMnrdlniíry i-]r[ti^dieiit w&s aduplrd, 
In lñ-23, by Pbiltp til., lo reniüd? it aoA 
Lo «jicooragtf pn pula Lien. hy a anlenuí 
prtjnadca, he f^nted tlie privlle^a ol 
DübillLy for ^ur feoTB. to akl «ho irould 
Diarr;, and ÍUr lite lo all mlia tiad eix maLe 
cbiidreu. 



Crap. XL.] 



PFTLTP THl THIBD. 



231 



!D{j, as tfieir fatlicps had lione fur a century, the esternal 
appearaiicGS ai' Cliristiaiiitj, were yet suspectfid of beiug 
Müliamniedans at heart — were now, by a great crime of 
state, expelled from the land of their btrth ; a crime fol- 
lowed by ÍHJiiríeB tñ the agrículture ajsd wealth of the 
Bouth oí Spain, and indeed of the whole cauntry, from 
which they have never recovered." 



IkecOUEiM (rf Iba niuiiber aí MfrrÍBCoa ex- 
tiellcd rram Simia, lOOS-ll, ~ Beicnl 
Inabliig \l B tDÍtLioQq and Dne rcdacing Lt&o 
]dW nifl a hiiDclTifd Aud Hisly tlinusAcid, 
Jtut, wha.tevEr may Lnve betn Uic uuDibf r 
cf {icllcd, nll ucdunLi sgrur na t<i tbi' dln- 
kfttrotuí efTccEá prodacicd pod a po|kiilBUi:in 
tdrcudj de-[:íL^]ag b^ itie luaA nf ftu> naajiy 
psFBoiu, nliü lililí long bien Ibv moat skil- 
ful [naiaiilB[.-L[irers hud n^rícnliniÍBtfl la th'9 
kinKiloiu ; cITccti lu nliloh Üie manjr der- 
pahíndoii noLcd on our reiient mapa of 
Epafn atlH híar melancholj tBítlmuny. 
(Cleniencin, SiWs lii Dun flurnole, Parte 
ir. c. 54.) tn HhiUne í\x hucárri Lbou- 
Band 1(1 liHíe tietn the numlH-r liHvi'n oat, 
I íuLve Uki^n Iba recliODliig e-l ClrciHUt, 
(taa. ni. i^. 103,^vbluli Be«ms mulé nilli 
eufL 

Ttieae nabappf |i«rsoii! 1isd amnDg tbem 
■i gnod d»! of Cmtiüan culture, wüijie 
IrocO! atílS rema.la 1i; maimai^FlpLdp vLLch, 
llkü IhjLt ct tlie Qtd pr>em oF JusepITi, al- 
nadj described, ^Perlod I* cbi[|i, S,} uru 
cnmpoied 1q SpaDJelk, but are wriUcD 
[hriiu|;boiit la tile Arable charnuu»'. Of 
jiBTls ot two EURt) mjinu.sotlpla I posstis 
oupiee, thnii]|[ti the kliiiliieiis iif Dan Fni- 
cnnj de nnjBpgoH- TliB fiCBl la a pwm 
«rietm In 1HD3. íiinl ünMtleii " DIscouTBe 
iMi tbe 'Llg!h[f n-nd Deni^Dt, ,m\ú LIdODJ^ of 
oor Cbiernnd Blüíaed I*ro|>t(6t, Mohaniinwd 
CuIaid, GnoLp^uHed ued cd'niplIgCI by bfS 
SemLTit, ivbo mc^t needs liltf PHttIOLK ^^ 
hiiminHl RíibndaD, a. ?JailV'e-'>r flue'l&, OQ 
Ltiij KJPLír Xa1ua." It ]¿ divided [utü clgtit 
JJIsl«rk>«, of wtilcli I poseen [be foiL[tb, 
íDtllltd " HinCorf -or He^irq," ivJlCI WUB OM 
or Lhe anccBlfira «í tS? Prophet, It CCO- 
iKlna nboEe twn tbone^iiii Ituta iLi tti! alllltl 

Cas tiiíj^TL bailad m^iiEur^« atid id rcBíarlc- 
3iblj Anblí: «Tid MohiiiBimGAati lu tu g«Q- 
«ral tone, ttiuuf-b irltli {KKaaíoiiíil Alloaians 
» tb« GNPt DirttolüBy. It 19, toii, boC 
wHbMit pocticDl ni'erlt, u In tbt MIc^ltiE 
lln-M, nhich tipfii U)C lecund eaMit, nu-i 




drncrilif Ida uujiEclalUDiDcidng'af Bvxlm'i 

laijTLagc ; •^ 

Altíta¡í^i¡at íl alba b«llk 

Y, ti>tn|i¡L-D<L:i lii enichlua, 
S-K cl«ra Luí resplaii d£ef ., 

ÜKiño Lu auCBEía que c1 din 
En ín ■pj^iiiniiQQ'fiú vJeiie^ 

Y el niX? Apínli} iTBd-rllD, 

Di^^d'nil^lüfl eunpGfl r^Td» t 
QuuiU-i^lu 4v«ii afíGliamii* 
Be Ttcogea va ■□ aLlwrgha, 
y Lu qofi bt lai ioUmibo 
£L delgado Tiento hieniLEn i 
QujjieI-lp hm bamtrreí deiplcitu 
VflL peudo-iuenci-'BC-iii:^!!!]., 
Pw diir 4 lu Uucc-dor 
£ld:eblLu utifi \m drben r — 
£ii cate tl«ntpo la cninpijtla 
Del hijo da ALioliminer 
Be EeruibiQ ; apcrcrbau 
Al Buaailsiilu icltmii;. 

Tn Lhe frthjx to l,bi! wbole poem, tba 
Aulhar Hayjh AIIilIi alone katiwa bon iDucti 
Ulior ILIias cnsc hlm locojlect. tbe ina.Le- 
rinla neccauu'y for bis bu k, •' scaLtered," 
he adda, "a* Lt\cf vire, all ciTer Spn.ia, 
BJid biat B.nd MddEH Ibran^t fear ol Cb« 
InquIstUDii." ín Becaaat ai Ibis inB.nU' 
Bcripl:, nf whlcb coplee vxlst Id tlie NatiuD'. 
ni LUirury a( Puria and in the BriCisJi Mu.- 
Bdim, muy be Iüu,nd tn Ll|e " Cntt|:u)io 
AuKtsnudo de kVlLuu^rsPfi £^|>añ^t|W/' iKu, 
iwr E. de pohdu, 4H Parí», IS44 ; a cn- 
liijuí aod Taluahia wyril, miU (lOB ol mn-ny 
Buríioes Señdr (Jfbei bu rcndíred lo Ihf- 
litemture of l)ia «"IDITJ, TbiS IHXUUTIt 
(pp. fi7 eí|fi-) poitialns un InCervitintc lifiWr 
Uen DO'D P. de OtiyaoBoa, >i>n almLlíu- Kla- 
PBfiA-Ara1>l« MBS. LbBt are fbnnd cli«- 
vbere, and adila mpHünf UiU doí;, ttuu 

se WU frnUKhl to EoglIlAd In 1719, by 
Jowpb Mnrgan, Biitísh Cobüul Im Taela, 
wb.'.i arwrwurdí madí d. fr^iíis aod fmiierfeot 
truueUliiiD dP a \>a.tí of IL, whlali iros puV 
líÉbídmLmdun, ÍQl73^-3í,iTÍIlieli<;tiCle 
of "MfthDim^taniflin fiílly espliined ;" — 
a Ví'ry <;ii[iuti B húuk.. 

Tha oihBf «'oík W whloh I rttei is ctitBy 



PHTLTP THE FOÜETH. 



[PKBTñS U 



Th© easy, gay splfiebnees nf Philip the Foiirth^ and the 
open proflig-iicy of his minieíGra, g'ave ¡ncreaEed 
actiíity to tliB CauBGs that were hastetúng on 
tliG threatcned ruin. Ciitalouia broke out into relbellion ; 
Jamaica was ecixed hj the Eoglisti ; RouesilloQ wae ceded 
to Francei Portiigal, wliich iiad aever bceo heartily ia- 
corporated into the monarchj, reauraed her aneient place 



In pmtsB^ and ií «liOliytDijiiq. Jli siithof 

vna landcd nt TlIdís nllLi iiIhiVb tLreu tliou- 
HLCid i^f lilf miLiippy crmiitrruiifn, i«tiii, 
tlin^u^h Úte Inag abi>du nf litii^ir m^^e 4ii & 
CtirbtLun liuid Bud iiürleí* Lhe ñeiT-? pi:ra^> 
cuc^onfl of Vite lDr|u1sLt¡oit, hiid at ouly ho 
I414I 4 Xriowledge üF thi? HtEfl And cetc^ 
mt-nita mi llitir rfl%iiin, tbaL It ivas ue. 
c:«»iMr]' U> iiidiJUirliiíilG them llki! chlMrrtí, 
hat had 80 loai sil prr<>pcr iDinli^dge uí the 
Aruhic, that it wks iieveíieM'r In dn il 
llirüu^b til o C'aHtlIUri- Tjie Uadhaw of 
TuEil*^ lliiírtfurf^ stnt fsir ihc Qiithr>r. Juid 
cnmimaudei] liim ta wrtt^ a búQk lu Co^iU- 
lan, Fnt thr InstrnctluD oF Ihese Biiigular 
ncophjtcs. lie did ao, and produced ttie- 
preaeikL wcrrlc, «"hlcli Jie callea -^ Mu- 
min,''* or ITie Believer in Allah i a woTd. 
wlil^rh hp ases to HigiLlfj' & cilj' popu- 
looH and ífirtLaitjdf vhicli ís nlLjLcked bj' 
IhE ViopB »nd defendíd lyy ilie Vir- 
luea nf EEie hfnhamiupdaii rvUglitD, ud^ 
íd ifbiclk Gae oí the pi-rjanB^B yeEikles ai 
hlatarjr Df hÍ8 üHti lifo, üavvntures, nml 
íiiEfiT¡ngi ; bII 10 glíBo bs lo Inslmct, 
BOOBtlmes by dLrecL prvoept und Aome- 
timEB bj üxonjplt, the Dewly Rirlverl Mr?^ 
risci>i la Eheir dull^H. nnd ñilLh- It Ip, of 

couise, pirtiy lulero fi-wi nad romntic, 

J[a jLir Ib oftea A.ratilG, msil bq ^4 Ita fityle 
ocCHsi^nially ; but Borq» |if |t« b^P^S nPQ 
betv??D JchVerB at ^rnt(;d vUid^^ns, DB- lí \a 
a. Cualilian cLtj^ anii. lE iq li^u^T^pJ^ff^ WIEb 
CaBtllEHD poE^iQB "by Monlemfhyor, G^l^E^rn, 
ind IhH ArjrHnBolaa, wllli, IwrliBpí, pijmp 
b; th? uuEhrsr bímstlf^ wha e4-<Liba tO Ii^V9 
been & mUD oí rultivHtinD \\w\ Of a gi^Utll? 
^apirll, Of tblB mnooBctlpt I bttve 4igbty 
payMt — staiito. Bfiji nf tlip whiilí-. 

Fw'li^r noile»» on tbe Uonsm-Spuilsh 
llícrattire mny tic fuuriiL Ir un aecaunt by 
Uin Oílesitdllat, Sü'eptTü dt Sbcj', of two 
manui^cript.i in FrnniM:, like thi^t just 
dt3CTll>cü (ücboiEi, MauuflcrilOB Ejpaüutüs, 
vm, pp. B-3i)i biit a niAre udt>1e abd 
B«Clt<rftClar7 dLKuesIoii af it osAdet Id a 



ICnfñ^ Brticttln lhe BHtIeh ond Fonrign 
Bptíbw, Jatinury, 1839. 

It Sbünld be ivmeiiilHer^ Lbat Morigao 
Wnfl eubeCitukd fnir Mari^ ufUrr the OTtr- 
llliVriT of IJie Mocjrisb imW^ ín Spibin, as an 
cx[il«l«l[m oí tlie cnaCifmpt. nitli nhídi tha 
Cbríet^Hn Spuníiu-d» hHVE nevirr utnsed ta 
porsiLC LbtÍT o!d CDnqaercir^ and lintcd 
fDemles, fnrní tbt tíat of tbe faJü of tira* 
nuda to tbt pfEflebtdBj. 

£ncnurBK'^ l^í tíie expiLlslon of Ui? JewB, 
In 149^ Bnd hy tbat of the Moorti, In 
Ip&QD-U, Dan Sancho de Mühcbóa, h 1'to~ 
feBBor ín Úie UniTtrelL^ oP TokJoj ad- 
dreaaed Philip III , in & diacoiirae put^ 
Uahed In 1619, mjfipig thil. miHiHrcU 10 
áríve ont llie Ujpijlua. llat he f»11cd. Mía 
dlBD^UTBe la hi Hidal);ü, "' Rouinn^tfi de Gi?r- 
nittnlii,'' (Miidrll, 17TIÍ, fivo,) nnil ia Inina- 
1iil*iJ Iky Butrow, In lila reinurlcalik' n-orlc 
OB Ihu -SípeisB (LundDD, 1841, Bvo, ToL 
I. EliBp. xl,). fbilBiBr df niaailojEii, ac lita 
eisd or bis " DLgtiidailcB dv Cifllilu," pub- 
llsliEfl lu ISI8, snys ha liad hiíaaelt pr& 
pnrod a meuioiial Uf th^- asme cfDict, for 
ilrlvIUig uut llic ÚjpBlBg ) and lie add>, 1il& 
irue CiMtIllBit siitrlt, Ibst >Mí \» hclog 
otar-iiltre 1.0 talumte biii;Ii s. peíaiciuus aaá 
perverae race.''* 

ípora the time of Philip Ilt. tea; ba fo^iD^ 
ic the ^^DiacuraoBobre la Eduoaelon Pop^- 
Jar,^' by Campóla anes, the w\b& ralaiHter ot 
Charlee III. (MaJild,infi,liitT»i]. npilpp, 
412 i<gi]0- '^tie nniveraJtieB. amd @^.ao1S, 
bnwever, wure nunitrous and E^ronnad ab 
that perlod, but ven p]a<sa nf Idle nTl4 
wnrthl-eaa learnlng- F^rnnnde& d^' E^UVtlir- 
K!* puys the™ were IhlrtJ unlvcrelttM 
iinilfuurthiiUBuiiii Eslmlir/i //rGramoHiia, 
er ííhijols wher» tatin wbb taught, te^p. 
Philip III. Oat tií odilB tliat tlxEj eeat 
onl ehii-flj inllIHtiiaGfl oí Tagiíbüria tO 
liréj lltratl íuelftly. " Conaerviicicii da 
Mana.riiuiA«," 1620, Mío, Dlecureo xlrl. p. 
aaa, — am uubiuned in leai. 



Cpap, SL,] 



CHARLES THE SECOND, 



among the i nd cpendciit natione of the earth ; — every- 
tliing, in sliort, ehowetí how the external relationB of the 
stato were diHíurbeni and endatigered. Its interna! con- 
dition, meanivhile, was no Less ehaken. The coin, nofc- 
■ffitlistamliiig- the ■wisn -warningfl of Mariana, had been 
adulterated anew ; tíie tases hiíd been shojnelesBly iü- 
ereased, while the iulereat ou the ever-growing pnbüc 
debt waB dishonegtly diminished. Meo, everywhere, be- 
gan to be alarmed at the signe of the timee. The timJd 
tOük slieltcr intelíbaCy and the institutione. of the Church. 
The holder ernigrated, At last, the universal pressure 
began to be vii^ilile in the state of the population. Whole 
ttiwns and vilUges were deserted. Seville, the ancient 
Capital of tEie monarchjj lost three quarters of its iiihabit- 
ants ; Toledo, one third ; SegoTÍüt, Medina del Campo, and 
others of the large cities, fell off atill ftiore, not only in 
their iiumbere and opulence, but i» whatever goes to 
niiilíe up the great aggi'egate of cirjlization- The whule 
land, io fact, was impoveríshod, and was falling into a 
premature decay. 

The neceaaary results of such a deplorable etate of 
thingB are yet more apparcnt in the next reign, 
— the unhappy reigti of Charles the Second, — 
wiuch began wíth the troubles incident toalong minority, 
and eiided wíth a failure in the regular line of succGsaion, 
and a contest for the throne. It waa a dreary period, 
with maricB of dilapidaticín and ruin on all sides, Begin- 
níng at the aouthern borders of Fraoce, and following the 
coaíit by ñarcelona and Gibraltar round to Cádiz, not one 
of the great ibrtresseB, which were the keya of the king- 
dom, was ín a state to defend itself against the most 
modurate forcé by which it niight be assailed. On tho 
Atlantic, the oh! arsenals, from which the Armada had 
gone fortb, were empty i and the art of Bhip-building had 
been so long neglected, that it was almost, or quite loat.' 
And, in the capital and at court, the revenues of the 
country, which had long been exhauatod and anticipated, 
were at la&t unable to provide for tbe common wants of 

> CnmFoUirlo ie la flucrpa. de Sapa- dota, i. &, ato, Tora, f- Llfa. H.^ bEo 
na, [wr e1 Uatituc* de San Fballpe, fle- 170L. 



Cliarliia H. 



231 



DECAY OF TBE NATIONAL CEAfiACTER. [Febiod IL 



the govenjmentj and Gomotimes even failed to fiírnish 
f )rth thc royal table with ita accustomed propriety ; BO 
that the eiivoy of Austria expreseed liia regret at havitig^ 
accepted the place of ambaseador at a cotirt whcre he 
■was compelled to witness a raieery sq disi;reditable.* 

It was a new lesson to the world in the "vicissitudea of 
fimpíre. No country in Christendoni had, írom such a 
height of power ae that which Spain occupied in the time 
of Charlea the Fiftb, fallen into such an abjss of degrar 
datioD as that in which every proud SpaiJfaid felt Spaín 
to be aunk, when the last of the great Hotiae of Austria 
appryached the grave, believing himeclf to be ulider the 
influünoe of sorCery, and seeking rclief hy exOrCÍsinS 
wbicih would have disgraced the credulity of the Middlo 
Agea ; — all, too, at the time when France waa jubilant 
with the vrctoriís of Conde, aad England preparing for 
the age of Marlboroug'h.' 

Id auy country, aiich a decay in the uational cbaracter 
atid power would be accompanied by a correspondí iig-, if 
pBciineof ""^^ ^'^ equal, decay in it& literature ; "but ia 
bd cuitare, gpain, whcre both had always beeu so inti' 
mately connected, and wbere both had rested, in aucb a 
remarkable degree, on the same foundations, the wise 
wlio looked on from a distance could nut fail to anticípate 
a rapid and disastrous decline of all that waa intellectual 
and elegant, And so, in factj it proved. The dd relig- 
iott of the country, — -tbe most promincnt of all the 
tiatioiial charaCtcrietics, — the inighty impulse which, in 



• Tapia, Hlst. ile la C<vll¡E.1cion Eipn- 
nnlEL, Madrid, 1S40, 12tni), Tom. üll. p. 
107. Tüe same lict Is Qieutluntil by 9tan- 
hope, tbe Eii^llah Aml'assadur at M.-i^driil, 
tn tlie curlouB wid. intírirsting cuirupriid- 
anee pub1Ialiei3 by fiitrcl Muliun, eiiClUsil 
"SpalQ unilcr Cbatlea II," (_2i. ídll-, 
IjiiiilIu», 1844-, aro). !□ « lettiT lo the 
toLltr-SccreUry uf Btnie, Jatcd May 26, 
IflflS, (p. 131,) GciicrBl Slumtmpo iAys, 
Tlio Óonilo de Andera, wliQ \í Suprala- 
WniiientB iJ*liiJ Ueutaa, li^larea he U imt 
nblu ¡o And monvy for Ma Ha¡eHs's tuli- 

^ Thv dtCaUi — dlagu^tlTig (!riiu|;li — ara 
given lijr L. F. Hnr&tlu, In the nutea <e Illa 
edlUon oT Lhc " Auto de Si de Lugnñs, 



'del Alio lOlú,^^ EL wurk orl^inaJlj putDÍ]:»bHl 
for^envral^dilAci^tíoD, by ods al thia |>?r> 
BOQH conceraed ín the au/cj It&elf, and ver- 
tlfLed Ui be true hy otheTB ; but reprhnleti 
(Cadlc, ISIS, Umaybj Moratin, ttit camla 
pocL, to shnw flhe ipnnninte and hrutaLICT' 
uf all irbu bnd a hanii In It. TtiLTü Is & 
pta; on tbesutiject bj' Gil ; Zarate, IS^'J ; 
bul lL dtKa DoC jp-apecL the Lratb of hti« 

Blanhnpe, En the correiponileiiGe ref^irnt 
to lu the Ingt Eobf, saya (p, ISl) Úíat tba 
iNHLlFíhlDi^Eit of the kípi^ waa j^eneralif 
iH-lleVKtl ili Madrid. SiioiDiiili (Hiit. áv 
Frniigals, Tum. IXV., 1841, p. «5, Tura. 
XXVI. p]i. 207, 20S) Kirce u nivolling «o- 
coontor the luyul InibiMiLJJtj. 



Shap. XUJ 



BIGOTKT OF THE PEOPLE. 



236 



the daya oí the Moora, had Aune everythíng but worfc 
míraclea, — was now eo pprverted from its truo character 
by the enormous growth of the intolcrance which sprang 
up ortginally alinoüt aa a virtue, that it tiad becocne a 
meana of oppression Buch aa líurope had neveí" before 
wituesaeii. Through the whole penod of the Biiteeiith 
and seveuteetith centnrieB whicb we haye jiiat gone over, 
— from the fafl of Granada to the extiuctiotí of tlie Aus- 
trian dynasty, — the IiiquÍBition, as the grand expoiient 
of the power •of teligioíi iti Spain, had not oidy main.- 
tained an imiuterrupted aiithority, but, by coaetantly ia- 
Creasing; He rclatiótis tü the state, aiid lending itaelf more 
aiid more freely to the puiiishinent of whatever was ob- 
noskms to the goveroment, had eflectually brokeu dowQ 
all that remained, from earlier daya, of intellectual inde- 
pendcuce and matily freedam. Büt thiiS was not done, 
and coiild not be done, without the aeseat of the grcat 
body of tlic peoiple, or -without auch an active co-opera- 
tion 011 the part of the goverument and th'S higher 
classes as broug-ht degradation and ruin to all who 
Bharcd iu íts Bpirít. 

Uhhappily, thia spirít, niistaketi for the religión that 
had austaiiied thein throug-h their lung-protracted contest 
with their infidel invadera, was all but universal 
iu Spam during this wbole penod. The firat «r al^ 
and the last of the House of Austria, — Charles '""P"- 
the Pifth and the feelilest of bis descendanta, — if allke in 
nothing elae, wero aliko ia the «eal with whicb tbey aua- 
tained the Ho!y Office wbile they lived, and with which, 
by their testamenta, they commended it to the BUpport 
and veneration of their respective Buccessore," Ñor did 
the ¡iitervening kinga ahow leísa deference to its authority. 
The first royal act of Philip th& Secondj when he carne 
from tho Low Gountiies to aasunie the crown of Spain, 
was to celébrate an auto de fé at Valladolid.' When the 
yoimg and gay daughter of Ilenry the Secoud of France 
arrived at TuledOj in 1560, that city offered an auto de f¿ 



) TaplB, rtlsL i]« li OlTQiEadan, Tura. 1 Lloreote, HUt., Tobl IL, 1817, p. 
III. p, 77 B-iiil |i. ISB. SuidaT&l, lUst., 23B. 
Tom. II. p. S&T. 



S36 



BIGDTRT OF THE PEOPLE. 



[Peihiod n. 



as part of the tcjoicing'a Anemeá appropnate to her wod' 
díng ; and the same thijig wbb done; by flladrid, iii lBíí2, 
for jinotlier Ftench princesa, whoii elie gave hhth to an 
heír to the crown í * — oAíoub proofo oí tlic dcgroe to 
which bigotry hatj stifled both the dictates oi' an enlig-ht- 
ened reason and the commoo feetings of hnmanity. 

But in all tbi3 the people and their leadcrs rrjoiced. 
WliPD a nübleman, about to die fur adherence to the Prat- 
estant faith, passeii the balcony wbere Philip the Second 
sat ia Btate to wítness the horrors of his executioii, and 
appealed to hím not to see his iiinoccnt oubjectB thiia 
cruelly pyt to death, the oíonarch replied, that, íf it were 
his own son, he woiild f^lndly carry the fa-^otn for iñá ex- 
ecutiou ; and the anewer was reccived ut tbe timí;, and 
recürded afterwards, as one wcirthy of the head uf the 
mightiest empire in the world.* And again, jn 1080, 
when Charles the Second waa índuccd to Bignify bis 
desire to enjoy, with his yornig- bride, the speCtacle of an 
fLitfo de fé, the artisans nf Madrid volunteered in a body 
to erect the needful amphitheatre, and labored with such 
enthuBiasm, that they completed the vast atructure ¡n an 
incredibly short Bpace of time ; cbeering' one auothcr at 



< Uorento, Blit, Tom. H, p.aSS, Toin.TT. 
p. 3. I CblDk 1Q32 in LLurVDie iü a mluprint 
fOr IG'^l, IwcaQüO Isabel du BourbuD baiL no 
clillcl liuFii in 168:2, wfail« 'Qie Iníauta. Doria 
BlbrgiiriU Mari» CatallDa vas borc 23 
Nuv,, laaa. (Floreí, Ruyuna Catulicii!, 
Tom. II., 17T0, p. gjO.; ThB tlaCe In Ifi^ 
biiít., Id thB,I..»ue., ahouU be VSli. 

* Tupi», mm., Iiim, 111,, p. SS. Psr- 
rañn (PlfliM y HechuB ile PheU-pe II,, 
•rrillvu le^, Cbap. :S.\.\.'i slid Cabrera 
(piicHiMi i[., Lib. T. CLp. ilL, writwn 
eariicr, (n>t puíillíhed In Ifllflí plv* tlie 

wnnLi of (.lit |<)[|g (o I>nn CwlM di 8eM, 
Üjí ualiH|i.[iy giítiili'irmn In ilUMltotí, S9 he 
waa pi*9ai-[iB' Ui hi» ««mi fate i ■" Y» iraere 
bt laña. pare, qurmar a mi hij't', «1 [U«re Un 
mnlo tapaiP vna." AgusUn Dh,v11», WhO, BQ 
tíl-J Slh Pf NiiTember, 15H8, pranimticeil a 
faiiL'ral Biinnnq on Philip 11. In Vallildíilid, 
— Ihe vsry fíUj B-híTE- CwIob da Sííe hml 
bvOnburiiEAlIVii, — -spciLlia irllliiíntíiasinain 
fñ Uieae iulOnnus «mii U a " lunosit aec^ 
UdcIa." C&dnBoaeBiFuneral»Galusnonrai 
H> Vullps [I., Madril, 1601, Vx¡, 1. T».} 



Ferhnps, hflwsirar, 11 Ifl fel more «nurk- 
able that Üie guy aiiii Eiiipureao PhLljilV. 
exprí.'EBvd HlinllUT rccIIngE, and Clial, Id a 
limLlar waj', íhitj mvrt recboDod ainoog £i]i 
poaLliuiDiüGs. hoLiürs- But hucIi \s the fací. 
On beiiiB sbIiinI, hb h maiter of torra, for 
p«mil^1<j<i^ (o ilirust □□« dI bEa MinisBera 
of Btale inwi ttie InqnIsib'oD, he gave il, 
Md aiiileij, ai & volnnwpr protascation, 
tliat, " If his nwti "00 were (fniltr, híKanld 
glví blm ap Wltb BH equ-aJIy gocri íTill." 
BtllUlBílu' WHS t}|*n ftMye, and a cblW ho 
PMaiOQBitíly luiBd. Pul (bifl Bpirlt wai 
ltifUB«a Ijy tbe InnulBtUsD nherevet lu 
iDfloeiiieíS eswnacq- {See Pedro Ktidri- 
^^1 'l€ ]l|<^|LR^^^t T^Hiiaraj, ec. dií F&IÉps 
IV,, Mí,üTliJ, IMfl, ItD, p. 10,) It msy be 
valí liare tu n-uLe, thai SJvsJcn olainied H sa 
pna af tbe boagn oí L'Llllp II. tbaL be la^ 
trr.>cluee^ Ibe InqnlftlliüTi Llii?re ia lfi74, ana 
Cfí&l Id l&OG ei^'bt penona. Uva uf w1ipm 
weíe wüm¿n, were bdmt alii"? tu Ji^wa, 
ExEquiíks de Pbilipps II., M«:X>en, Iboq^ 
ItD, ir. 133, liVÍ- 



OnA?. xr,.] 



231 



thetr work wit.h detoiit cxhiirlationfí, atid declarltig tíjat, 
if the materialB fiirniehed tliem ehoulil fail, they would 
pulí dowri their own housea in order to obtain what niight 
be waDting trj complete the holy task.^'' 

Nui- liad Lbe principie of loyalty, aJways bo promJtieiit 
in the Spuniah character, becoine lesa perverted and mis- 
chievous than the religinuis principie. It offered 
its sincere homage alíke to tlie cold ee^-erity of ninyoftiw 
Philip the Second, to tlie weak big-otry of Philip 
tbe TliirJ, to the luKurioua sGLfitíhness of Philip ttio 
Foiirth, and to the miserable imbecility of CJiarles the 
Secoud. The waste and profligacy OÍ' fiuch royal favor- 
ites U8 the Dnke of Lerma" and the Oount Duke Olivares, 
wbích ended ¡n oational baakrnptcy and diSgraCe, failed 
Berioiisly to atfect the BontímentB of the people towards 
the person of the monarch, or to change thtír pcreuasiona 
that their earthly BOTereign was to be addreBsed in words 
imd with feelinga similar to tiiose with which they ap- 
proachtíd the MajeBty of Heaven." The king' — -mereiy 



Uiil ckii be eansulteü, to UluairaK the «bar- 
ícur aad leeliii^ ol ilU cluzee <tC aacleEj 
In BpBin al tb* md cf Ehf EcreDtcfuEh 
iHiitur?, Ig tb« "'Belatlifti," «W, vi thls 
"Auio eeníiul " ff IW*. pmutohWl iroiní- 
dialelr aHarvatili ai. Madrid, by JoBípIi 
del. Olmp, «no af tll¿ peraons wha tnd 
bet^n lll-r>lft ^ü^y ín ^t» arra.o^i^meE][s. It is 
a ^nall i|UBrto-ur 'ma pagine., and glví^, ua 
If dnort^i^R a [nsj^iQ.cvi]t lhvD[.ric:iL jja- 
(QUl^ tlL-edeíoilHof tbc Bcene, vbLcb twgan 
tX BeveD o'diKk ki the mamljig oC Jone 
aotti, i.Di WBS DDt ovcT CiU Hiñe d'eImIc of 
UiG fDlioiTiDg iDDniLDg, üLt tíOB snl queeti 
E-llUn^ tD tliclr boi <¡r ÍMwtvf, U> trlIMM 
it, ffiurceeii Loars- oC tkat Uní?, £ÍEÍity- 
fivu ítrauacEj (^oMrud Ibt'toevlvcu as ecpi^- 
cUL /umiiiaris, or lírvuiiM, oí tbc H<vly 
OfflGB, w fl'i bnnot t" ili« Mcasiijii; aail 

Ihe liiaj gBqt ffnn bis owu íiantl luí (lf8( 
fUgPt to tllf MUllBUMl |i;i9, TIlP Wbola 
nutnbijt i^r "Iclimí ealiíliti^ij. ivaa noe hiin- 
dri;<l mi'l twmily, •>( whnqi twtuty-ütie 
■«r6 hu^nl íil¡V£ i biit U iasi nm upptAP 
tbut th» fayul jhitrly Actu&lly vlincMfil itil* 
porliih ni Ui-i dcraeltles. Ftam Clie whale 
ftcírkutit, tluireTcr, tb«ra ctta be □'i ilciiibt 
tliiil dCTQUI SpuiÍAidE gcnerull; re^iirileil 



Üie cxlilbltinn vrltb faTori aivl moetof thocs 
wlilt a amflh sircn^er Feellnt!. Mutlnme 
d''AulaDy (VayaRí, Tum. m, li, I&4) luiil Pl 
dfscriptiDii vf (be ci!reiQ«[]!«8 iiiiriicl«il Igr 
tüiB auts de /r glTeo W Ii'Cr, b» If It «*«« 
to be no hoDsr to Itio ■n*>[iar<.'by, by od» df 
tle Coimstllori uf ttiu inqaipiiioD ; but I 

tbink Bbí loft Hiiüiriit lielgre le uegurreij. 

11 Id b euriiíP of «rtícK-B in Die " Keitetn 

LiWniriaia*IE8IHlíial,"l«45,tliu [iroülpioj 
of tbifl minJi^D ^r ^n SrrpdpoiLBlble ñcñ- 
putitm la B«t íriTtíl hy po» L. L. Corradl. 
Hia incDcui: nuuuiklly Teimí lite ruyo] TATor 
— éscluiiiüí «citótanal gtuluitiía — waí 
foitr huuLltvil nliLl Ebghry-elíjbt thiiusaüd 
(lucata M ttae |i«ii«d «r lila aulborlty. 

i^ Bc« tbe flrRi Di Coblado-'B remu-katil^ 
Lf^tí<.'rá, irtitre lie saya, "Ynvi bsat Irum 
th» pú\\M üte a^üea thst mCL dw« W 
■ bctli ibüLr Mikji.'slk'» | ' oiid n ruri^lgn^r 1« 
orieii auipríBCd Bt tbe bepcí cxpreBseil bf 
aponíanla, Uia-l ' Ihls MiiJ<J«l7 ' wlO ba 
plcaaíd lo gTftul l-b>^in lite and hcaMIi tur 
Bomi! yi'ars niur*," The [ilei. oliüc Acad- 
emj, 1730, vtTb. MagfXCad, lllU«lrMe» 
Itiií Btlll fiifther. lint a more ei^klng 
Insiahcc üf Uiis popular UK »l tbo wii]4 
thftii any there ctMd, ow«r9 lo ^ traet 
emitled " E¡iLi<iiDf Uiswriflt, ix, d<! Uv 



938 



FAILUllE OF THK NATIONAL CEABACTEB. [Periop H. 



because he was the king — was loolted upon Gobetantially 
B8 he had been in t!ie days oí Saiut Ferdinaad and the 
" Eurtidas," ■when he was accoiinted the direet vinegerent 
of üeaveii, and the personal proprietor of all thoáe por- 
tionsof tbe globe'which he had inheritcd with htBCrown.'^ 
The Duc de Vend5ine, therefore, showed hie thoroiio^h 
knowledge of the Spatiish cSiai-acter, when, in the War of 
the SuccesBion, — Madrid being in posHeflBloii oí the eue- 
my, and everything Beeming to be lost, — he stni dedared, 
thatj if the persons of the kiog, the queen, atid the prince 
were but safe, he wüuld bimaelf anewer for final buc- 
ceas." Iti fact, the oíd principie of loyalty, aunk into a 
submisBÍOD — ^Toluntaty, it ib true, and not without grace, 
but atlit au unhesitating subTuiasíon — to the mere author- 
jty of the king-, eeemed to bave become the only efficieat 
bond of cünncetion between the crown anr! Ita subjecta, 
and tlie maíii resource of the state for the pisBervation of 
BoRÍal oi'deFi The natiiin ceased to claim its inoat impor- 
tant rig^hts, if thej' Cn.me in conflict "prith the riglite claiined 
by the royal prerogative ; ao that the retjtstance of Aragón 
in the Case of Pérez, and that of Catalonia againet the 
íippreBsive adminfstnitJon of the Count Duke Olivares, 
were easily pnt down by the zeal of the yery descendantH 
of the CvTiiuneroa of Castile. 

It is thia degradation of tbe loyalty and religión of the 

Gountry, infecting- aa it díd every part of the na- 

ibe QHiaoDiii tional character, which we have felt to be under- 

chsj-acter. mining the genera! Culture oi SpatD during tbe 

aeventeenth century ¡ its workinga beíng sometimea viai- 



oa^e Hartfref VmneEiicBíitii ie QotcohiId, 
qui! caíTlTls ímj AJonin Tjifez Miiftia- 
l«nft,^' (idadrld, 1078,} in (rblnli, Bfwaking 
□r H tiimult. In tbe nity nS Goraum In Hol- 
lund, IL La BBjd Id Imvo ^e^n, "Empii- 
ñinjdn lüs herp^ea loa nimas conlts todos 
loa Jieleí^ VAHallos áe aniboA Majffrtfde»'^ 
Cp. 13^ t — meanlii^ Hoil rnifl Ftiillli II. 

Mmjputfid wofl Dlao appU'&d tü ttte ^y^^ 
B£ DO-DEaEnln]^ 1^0 BSLcrojDtiDIaE vafera. Jd 
B trooLuii a Bhüvy fcsllval lu LhE! iiAríali i>f 
Su. Cmi, In UBJtrid, Ld Mn;, 1638, oo 
0cM!flaloD of tile tranaler of the KacrumeDE 



Iibrones aa the Ibllovlng'; "Tenjdb BiieTa 
aUiBonavosH Hageeted pabjiiw j" — "Cn 
Purew i!flii.jB oBtiivD su Wnpwtad," so, ; — 
" Bwpe Ccmpín-iií 'Ipl Apwsto y FlMt»," 
PC. msiirlri, ítn, 1*28. 

1 cIL^ thpae paaaíLjies, tiat locje-ly ía ex- 
plalD Clie ü-ri piia]^l na?y ^ae uF Chu «or'fl 
Ma^^atad, huL ta ^lluatmlie- a aentlITH^nt 
OOTin-lanllj reiipfwarLDi^ iii Spi^fM^II llUirq 
ttiri', snd InTolvls^ ii coofufLiiD In Hiíliltus 
DÍTíliiilcua t\Wíi and perpo-nol lr>ynliy vMdh 
niE mlBchlcToua ta tbe nUlnaal £n«rAeier 

" PHrtiauBcRundB.TIt. XIII. 

" Trtpiík, Hífil.,,Tii:4. IV. p. 19. 



Cku. IL.) FASLC1£ OF TttS XATI08AL UriCkJa 

ble 00 the Bor&ce, and sometiuea hid^lvii b.v tlw v^t'üt Au^t 
ebowT appantas of dí»(>yUstu tu^t ft«i'v»T(ili\'u «lul^'v 
which it was often concealt^l ©veu IK*m Ua victituw. Hw» 
it Í8 a most melaucholr ÍM't m thv' fact?, Ihat whutvvur i>l' 
Spanish litemttire survived at tho iMul of tliiá )ivi-ii»t 
fouud its n'>ari!í}nnent iti eucK tt>t<liu^'t* ul' n-U^imí kluI 
loyalty »s slíll snstaiiicd llic forniH o\' tho iih>itnrotiy, — ikit 
ioiperlect ajid Tmhealthy líFo, Wívstiiig uwmj' in tui iklmim- 
phere of deatb, At last, oa wg upitruauti tlio oimitluiiiuii 
of the Centurj, the Inquisitioii and (luí dti(*pi)li(*iii npimi lo 
be everywhere preseut, niid to huvo i;iihL llioir Itli^'M üvhi 
evñrything. AJÍ the writPiM ol' llio linid .yinld Un tlinil' 
ÍTiflaeDces, but noiie in a mniiiii'r iiinrn piünriil lu wIiiuihn, 
than Caldei'OD aud Solfa ; tliú Iwtj wIiiihii iiiiitidH i^Iiihh itp 
the period, aud leave ao littlo to liiipo fiir tluí fiit iiiii, l''iti' 
the ''Autos" of Caiderun and llm '• lll*it.ii-y" oí H«ill« 
were midoubtcdly regardod, IjüUj by tlmir mj|.lii>iN nuil liy 
the public, a9 workg emíiiúntjy rcl¡g;ioiiH ju ilÉ'tir iiiUurot 
and the rcepcct, and eveii ravvtmxco, wítli whjtdi '^tudí nf 
theBe great meo trfcaled the wrítlcliiul ntirl iinbM.'ilw llíutrUm 
the 3ect>nd, were as Hiiduiiljtiídly a(rf:(íuiitfld Uj tlmut \ty 
their cüDtfrinporaríes fof relif^iifUN \hya\iy nuil intt tiifiítiin. 
At tbe preseDt day, we CMDOt 4uubi tliat n liti<r«lMr« 
vliielí reste in aay cooflderabl» df^;fea on im:!! ¿/UltfU- 
tiov* arovt be oear to ÍU fiíll^** 






^*ó,á 



I tá inir nii'nr"' ' 1/ >■» IMay» ■ mM t' ^o»- 

•«• «• *i« «w «« AMkf «I MUtwM frü M^fciy 



HISTORY 



SPANISH LITEKATUEE. 



THIRD PERIOD. 



TBB LITKRATURE TKAT KXISTBD IN BPAIK BEmVEEK TRE ACCESfilOH OT 

TIIE BOURBOK FAHILT AKD THE INVASIÓN OF BONAFARTB j 

OR FROM THE BEOIKHIMO OF THB EIOHTBENTH 

CKNTÜRT TO THE KARLY PABT OF 

THE NINBTEEHTH. 



11 



HISTOKY 



SPANÍSH LITEHATTJEE 



THIED PERIOD. 



CHAPTER I, 



WAR OP THE SVCCfiSHtOK, BOUB.IION FAMILY. PHILIP TBB FIJ'Tq. 

— ACAbKafV Of The BfANISH lu^NítüAOB: ITS SICTIOIÍART, Olt- 
TllOmnAPHT, GHAMMAR, ÁFÍI OTITEH n'OttKS. — ACADE,U¥ ov 

BASCELDÜA. AOADEMY OF IIISIOBT. 8TATE OF LKTTKRB, — 

FOETRY : MORAE3, BAItHlTGTO, IlBYNliai, ZETALLOS, LOBO, BENS- 
QASI, PITILLAS. 



Chaules The Second wa9 gathered to ÍiÍS fathers on thfl 
firet day of November, in thc year 1700. How low he 
left the ititellectual culture of his coutitryj and liow com- 
pletely the oíd national titeratiire hail dieij oui peatuof 
in his reign, we havo jilrcady seca. But, before Pti»-fi>^* *!■ 
there could be »tiy serioiía thoiight of a revival fi'om this 
diBaatmus state of tlüngs, a civil war was destined to 
sweep over the land, and etUl farther exhatist its resour- 
ces. Austi'ia aud FranMj it had been long uuderBtood, 
"Would make pretensions to the throne of Spain, so booq 
as it shúuld he left vacant by the extinctiaD of the retgn- 
ing' dynaátj ; and the partisaus of eacli of theae great 
powera w- re numerous and coiifident of success, íiot only' 
in Spain, bi.í thi'oiighont Enrope. At this moment, while 
standingiuu the verge of the grave, — and knowing that 
he stoúd there, — the last, unhappy deacendant of the 
Houee of AuBtria, with many mifigiving-e and a heart-felt 
reluctance, finally announced his preference ; and, by a 



244 



WAE Oí THE SÜCCESSION. 



[Pee roo 



socret political tostamcnt, dedared the Diike of Anjou, 
Becoiid son of tlie Dauphiii and grandaon of Louis the 
Fouvtceiith of France, to be aole heir to liia Ehroue aE 
düEiiiiiicins, 

The dccisioD wae not unespeeted, and was^ perhaps, 
wise as a wieer king would have made under similar cií 
Wiirifihe cumstíincea. Eut it was nüt the more likely^ 
BudDíiPBiiiD, eithcr accüunt, to be acquiesccd iii, Anstña 
declared war agaiiist tlie new dynaety, as aoon as the wilj 
of the dcceaaed monarch was divulged ; and Englni 
aüd Holland, outraged by the bad faith of Louia ti 
Fourteenth, who, hardly two yeare beforo, Imd made 
arrang^ment with them for a wholly diffcrent settlement 
of the Spanish queation, soon joined her, The war, 
known as " the War of the SucceBsioD," became general 
in ita character; Spain was invaded by the allied powera ^ 
and the contest for Hs throne was kept up on tiie soil oh 
that unfortnnate country, partly by foreígn troops^ and 
partly by divisioos amüug its own people, until 1713, 
when the treaty of Utrecht confirmed the elaiins of thí 
Bourbon dynaety, and gaye peace to Europe, wearií 
with blood. 

So far a.B Spain waS COncernod, the resulta of this ws 
LosíHor were moBt iinportant. Ou the one Ijand, sha^ 
Spain. jQgt by it nearly half of her European domin- 
íonSj and fell, if not in proportion to Buch a toss, yet very^ 
g-reatly, ín the scale of nations. Bnt, on the other haot^l 
the vast resources of her American coloniea still rcmaiued i 
«iitoiiched ; her people had been roused to new energy 
by their exertions in defence of their homes ; and their 
ancient loyalty had been, to an estraordUiary degree, 
concentrated ou a young and adveaturons prince, who, 
thoug-h himaelf a foreigner, Btood before them as tbeít 
defender ag-ainst foreig'n invasión. It scemed, thcrcfore, 
-aa if atíll there wcre Ufe in Spain, and aa if Bomething 
remaiíjed of the oíd n^tional character, on which to buil^ 
a oew culture.' ■ 



oelleiil "Hislnrj ol tbe War «f clie Siic- 
Icfeveí tliB «iiDie geoorsl iiD[irGBeiDii on tlia 



Toiníi of iTie rpsikr, a? to ttie eBírt or that 
werotí Itiü SlWii|"h oliarncler, iiisc (p leR 
liy llie cnnte-Dipni'M'y ftewuntí oI It. I> I 
310 auiitit, thí irue oiLp. 



CUAP. LJ 



THILIP THE ETfTH. 



245 



That Philip "the Fifth ehould desire to reatore the intei- 
Itíctuttt diguity of the coutitry, that had so gener- 
OUSly adiipted him, was natural. But while the ^""'i' '''■ 
war hiBttíd, it demandad all the care of bis gorernraent ; 
and when it waa over, and he turiicd hims^lf to the taak, 
it "was plain that, in hia personal relatíona aod diapofli- 
tions, he was bat impGrfectly fltted for it.* Notwith- 
BtandiDg tho sincerest eflbrts to assimílate hitnself tn the 
poople he ^ovcrned, he waa still a fcire-igner, íittie ac- 
quaiuted wjth tbeir couditioii, and unable to eyTnpathize 
with thcir peculiar natío iijility. He had been educiited 
at the court of Louis the Fourteentb ; the most brilliant 
oonrt in Europe, and that in which, more than in any 
other, lett&ra were regardod as a part of the pageant of 
empire. Ilia character waa not Btrongly niarkeií ; and 
he exprcssed no decided love for any deGnite form of 
intellectual cultivation, thoug-h he had good taate enoug'h 
to enjoy the elegance to which he had always bc&n ac- 
customed, and which had been an important part o f bis 
breeding-. He was, in fact, a Frenchman ; and ne-pcf 
could forget^what hia grandfathcr had unwisely told 
him alwaya to rerQemhor — that he wae such. When, 
therefore, he deaired to encourage elegant Uterature, it 
Waa natural that he should first recur to the meaos by 
which he had seen it encouraged where, more than ¡n 
any other country, it had been succeasfnlly fostcrcd by 
royal patronage ; and If, in aome re&pects, his poaitton 
waB little favorable to Buch a uae of hia power, in one, 
st least,. it wa9 erainíntly fortúnate ; for the earlier Utera- 
ture of Spain had so nearly diaappearcd, that it could 
offer little resietance to any atteinpt that might bo made 
to introduce new forma or to infuse a new character into 
tbc oíd. 

At this moment, the idea of patranizíng and control- 
ling the Uteratare of a country by academieSj eatablished 



s A POiilTOipnrjiry Benil-DHIeUI acpoTint 
or hia cri>9^iiiir th^ írouti'er lo enler hb 

■pcnk Bpuniíti, *i4C Krii Jillgentljf leitcniOB 
iÉt '^ N^ M^ Ü^li-Lt^r e\ J<!dpBnaL auniiu^ lo 
IbprtOdO OOfi KnQÚs apBicacioD." {Eutcmiii 



del E#y naeítru Síiinr on Tlayona, ce,, j en 
Trun, primur liilfiUu 'le Kspiüo, Uudríil, 
aTrteKnero, i;01, iUi, pp. J.) Ufflllljen!- 
membertfd that Ch iirle?, lUiíflisi afthe Aiu- 
trliLD liunllf,eDl«Kd.áp>i.ljiiiaÍEiiüriLDtarlta 
lasgnHgii u Ule fifitor lile BDUibnaB did. 



2i6 



SI'ANISU ACAÜEMY. 



[Pbrio» m. 



undcr th-e authnríty of ite goveriimeot, and corapoeeJ of 
Bprinirt *^^ principal raen {ifletters of the time, was g-cn- 
AeadpQuy. eially favpred ; — the French Academj, foiiniieci 
by Cardinal Richelicn, and jUways the model of tts class, 
beÍDg now at the height of its succees and fame. To 
establifih a Spanish AcadnL'iny, which should have BimilaT 
objectH and reach similar resulte, was, thereftne, naturally 
the great Hterary pmject of the reign of Philip the Fifth.' 
Probubly the kiug hiineelf had early eiiíertaintjd it. Cer- 
tairily h was formally brouglit to bis notice, la 1^13, by 
tbe Mai-quís of Villena, a Dubleman, who, amidí^t the cares 
of ñve suceeeeive viceroyaltiea, had found leinure to 
devute himseír, not only to letters, but to some of the 
more KGvere branches of the physical and exact Bciences. 
His írat purpoee Beems to have been to form an academy 
whos& empíre should estend, on all sides, to the limita of 
hiimun knowledge, and whose subdivisiooB should be siib- 
Btaiitially mude according to the systím of Lord Bacun. 
This, buwover, was edod abandooed as too vast an iin- 
deríakíug'; and ít was deterrnined to beg-in by conliuiíig 
the duttes of the new association principalíy to " the 
cultivation and cstablishment of the purity of th& Castil- 
ian language." An Academy for this object went into 
operation, by virlne of a royal decree dtited the 3d of 
October, 1714.* 



1 Tlie llA-yal LEbrarf, nnw ttie Nnllcmal 
Llbrnry, at Mailtid, whích irsi BLríctly Iba 
ekrlii'&t lllemry pnijccl. of the reíga el 
Fhtiip V., -wat lauad-ió Id ITll j bat fue 
KTirriil yi^nrg U whí an luíUlaClOQ nr llicla 
linporlano;. (3tl Bihüjlerarin j Pl Ttora- 
aot, Miidriíi, 1S«, foli>i, p-3.) THü Con- 
íIifuejunM wtre glv-f-n Jao. 2, ItlO, «nd tC 
Ib n diiirncterltillR el reuní stnnce ihac the 
flist rj[ Lbi'Di rvqaírea Ibe kin){'i eanfeiter 
M b?, iu a/l fufuTe Jfme, Its responslIiLa 
Pireclur. (Punilaclon ; EstHlaUía ie la 
Llbreriu publlcu, Uudriil, 1110, 4U>.} It 
beisnii!, ckf conree^ ril crthodoi librury, 
Kiá Uttl-e-«lB«^ for a long tiiD>í, 

* ■-' Hiatoria d« In AGadenila," [□ the 
Etetiue I» t1iE *' DJccioDiLrio de la Lmisu^ 
CutellAní), poT Ibi [Uní AcodeiDla Zspit- 
ñolí," MftarW.Toin. I. 1720, folEo. Bsm- 
pere y Qtuulnos, Bíblinicfik, ITBB, DiKarB(> 
fndlnlnv, BQd iDm. I, p. 5i, S^ntiaciea 



y EaUtutflx ilc In Real Acailemtii Eijuiridu, 
Mfulrlil, 1715, tco. The Gr«t meeliDí w»b 
hfW Julj ■S, 1T13, nnd righl peraona wera 
prescat. Tbn Murqul» n( VllleriA, iU reU 
foundur nai Bret ]>lrecli>r, beuer í:i»^hd la 
üitellsb hLatary ai tbe Duke ol Keculoiia, 
mudured miliUirip »et<i\Tes W bis cductr^ 
M well as civil, but In tbe Wnr ur tha 
fliiCQ^aalon he was tJifcen pr¡BODerT.H.nil «x- 
cbariged far GeceraL SiBDb'Qpe, He á\iíá 
ín ll3.1^, nrty'Dlne yesn alil. Hia Bananc- 
ceetleil blm Da aecond Director oí the 
A-cntl^JEhy^ [md ditfd Id 17&1, a^d Üilrt^" 
e-igbt. ^n botli, tbti Acaulcmf uff?red dia- 
ÜTiguÍB^ed fnneroJ bo-Don. SEe '''ItEljiolim 
de Ina Exeqoios que tu Renl AcajlEinia 
Bapniíaln m^lebr'i por n\ E\-ca3iio. 5E.>ntor Mur- 
4!urlo AntD-iJíii LolH!z PiivhJ^cxr, Mur^iueB de 
Vlll^Q9V^upjT¿pE:or,^^eG.^Ms.tiriJ, J7^At^^**] 
HíiÚ. " Elogln HÍBtíjTieo, ec. de) ilurquea de 
VilleDU II) Bf-jpiDiJii DLrcctOT] pur D. Staa- 



CltAP. I.] 



DIGTIONAEY OF THE AOADEirY. 



24T 



Aa it was modclled almOst exaCtly after the forra of 
tlie French Academy, so the first project oi' its memberB 
was thíit of makiiig a Dicttotiary, The work waa 
much ncüdeii. From tlie time of Fernando de " "°'^' 
Herrera the langaag-e had not teceived larga addittotis, 
but it had received some that were of valué. Mendoza 
and Cciloma had introduced a few militíLrj terma, 
that have- Bince pasBed iiito common nse ; aod ümii, 
both of them, with Ercilla, TJrrca, and raany oth- mÍ'Si^ 
ers, had been so familiar with the Italian. aa to ^i^^'^^. 
aeize some of its wealth for their owa. Cervan- í'^nEeamid 
tes, howcTer, had perhapa doue more thaii any- themn- 
body else. That lie was insensible neither to ^"^*' 
the danger of a too free inter mixture of foreign -wordB, 
ñor to the true pi'inciples that ñhould govern their ititro- 
duction when needed, he has Ehown iii tlie conversatione 
of Don Quísote with the priutera at Barcelona, and with 
Sancho at the Duke's castle ; but etill he íelt the rightB of 
geniua withtn him, and esercised them in this reapect as 
boldly as he did in most others. His new compoundH, hís 
Latiniams, hie restoration of oíd and neglected phrases, 
and hÍB occasional recourse to tbe Italian, have all been 
noted ; and, iu nearly everj instance, the worda he adopt- 
ed now enter iuto the reCog'ntzed vocabularj of the lan- 
guage. Other writera ventured ia the same direetioiit 
with tese euccese ; but still, from the glossarieg added to 
the poema of Blaaco, in 1584, and of López Pinciano in 
1605, there can be no donbt that many words, which were 
thea thougbt to need expíanation, have long aluce be- 
come familiar, and that the oíd Castiban stock, during 
the reigna of Philip the Second and Philip the Third, 
W&8 receiviüg' additions, which ought, in some way, 
to be recog-nized as an important part of ita permauent 
resourceH.' 



Btmn AnWule. 4í ABBftlo," Jladrid, ITBl ; 
Lhe npss wunlSitlIlil tu pwf QÍ a. Ealogy 
by HIai d^ I^BÍltmi Ul? cJILiír »( tbe Cu- 
nedlM de CEtvacilca ; uid the last bciug 
by lhe Si;tr*lAry ar iIje Acftd-emy. 
&ee Alan Fel>í«ati, üiit-tulra üa VA.'x\A(~ 

ISil« ftaili¡tÍBb, AíDUénliun, ISUD, 1T17, 
p. 63. 



o (Jatcíí, Vigor j ElegAncla de la 
Lengua CaalL'ltana, MailrlO, iTBl, '2 lom., 
9\c, Prülagu to t^kcb vuLume. Muailrisa 

OMd reloeíatitiy woii woriuaa cíníínefn, 

Uid CiloCPI» iMlrwlUBeiJ rliifue, etc. frorn 
bie Putch íMpfrieQes- Nmatrele {Vtfln ÜB 
Cír/imEeii, pp, aí3 - IM) aai «bícém (loe. 
At.} Aoír Ule Tuliie q( irbikt CerviuitM dua. 



24S 



DICTIONARY OF THE AOADEHT. [PkfiOD IIL 



Biit, c ti Úío other haad, liuring the ecventeenth cpntiiry, 
the (lili ]iiii¡2;n:i.giL' hiid beeu raucli abiisefl. Friíni the ap- 
pearanuG of (jÚLi^oríi no proper rejí^ard had been paid to 
wordii í*^!^ j^>reBervatioii ol" its. purity or oí ite oiigiual 
ttL°ckiu'' cliaraüttírístics, by maiiy ot' the mogt popular 
rirt«i. authora that employed it. The Laíiniparla, as 
Queyedu called t-hc aEI'ectation of his time, bad brought in 
many Latín words and many strange phrases, whully 
reptigiiiiit to the genius of the Spanish. Such woirds and 
constructioTie, too, liad enjoyed miicb favor ; and Lope de 
Vega, Calderón, and the other lüading spíritB, who pro- 
Douuced tliem to be aSectatioiiB and rcfiised diicctlj to 
countenance thetn, yet occasionally yielded to the fashion 
of iheir time, in order to übtaaa. the appluuse which was 
Bure to foUúw,' 

Bi>t]í to receive the words that had been rightfully 
naturalized in the languag-e, and to place a mark of di&ap- 
probation on tbos-e that were unworthy to be sdopted, a 
Dictionary restiiig on aiithority was wanted. None siioh 
had been attempted in Spain. Indeed, diiring the whqle 
of the preceding centuiy, only one Spauiah Dictionary of 
auy kiiid liad been produced that receif ed, or deserved, 
the notÍG6 of the Academy. Thia was the work of Covar- 
rnbias, whoBG "Tesoro," fiíst printed in 1611, Í8 
a ciirioua boak, full of learnlng', and, in the ety- 
mological part, valuable, but often eonceited, and rarely 
nhowing philoBophical acutenoiSB ín its deñnitionB.' The 



COTUTU'bUS. 



snd eiemcmin (sd. D. Qalxole, Tora. Y. 

pp. «9, 292, aitd 363) B-líBB pi llst or ihc 
LiktLD, IlalJ[Ln, and Dther u~GFd« \3sed by 
OtfrvjLiileap but noL alwiLyi irntumliEed, -iiD 
whíct, la BHFlüua uqiíí eliewhere, ho 
aeein«i lo Imit with leu» (nvnc Iftan Úureéa 
doea., QaJle lu ciirloun at oUlicr ure ü¡e 

ttM) una Lopeí l'ljicliuio (ül telaych, IGOa) 
tboaght it ueG»isB.ry La puL Uila Tocnbi]^ 
liirlejí ni t.he ctkI of liheir rfajii^ctlve pocins, 
and u> denite lor th«lr reiiiltrtk, Bimong 
which nra fntnt^ natíil^ fií^oz, fjriíío, 
phjinjlonaT, cHíHlfir, o»i*íí?, ap!ail-»o, ar- 
rn^arte, wftiti^, VK-, — all now famillsr 
CnaLUIsn. 

° II W ImiKissible W Qpen the witrlíi oí 
CanDt TlLLunedJiLDB, Aod tbe athet íoUqw- 



cn o( Gi'Dgora, vJthaut Dndlng prooh of 
Chcir wlUlngnmn tu ctiHcg»' Ox langaago 
at Spaclíli liietiitare ) but thero !■ n Binn.U 
anil vety iippertv'ít Itst pr Ui« woida and 
ph'Mes (tele Jtmsvsiori! («parea, %o tm 
fMDí Ib Ule " Dfelamaelfia contra ing 

AbMriis (5e lu IflBgtlB CasWllH-Tia," by Tar- 
gUj y Pdei-(^, p. l^^ whIch wiil R.L üDoe 
l||i4«tTa.te tl^lr i^e^fral purpoae. 

i Tbere íh an eilltloa ol Ihe "Tetnro'* oT 
C-DVHrmbln», by Ftidníta Remilgo Nu-yd^ns, 
[Miilria, ie74, iDlid.) wbloh it btiter nnd 
amplür Ihan tüe nTiginal work. Vejy Ittlle 

bm íwep flono sl'ií? for Siiiniíh etyraDiu. 

gfeSr Tlli) la«l of inncll prctpnatnn vpa the 
" Dicifonario de EtimoliJulBi," hy ixm Ru- 
men Cabrera, who dlcd in 1833, Ht Ibe se« 
of acTeilf-iiiiie', leBVLug -túa nurlt lu avrodB 



Chaf. t] 



DICTIOSARY OF TIIE ACADEMT. 



249 



new Academ.y, therefore, could obtaiii but little help fmm 
tlití hibürs of thcir predecessnra, iincl, for such as waa 
wortli biíving, were obliged to go bacfc to Lebrixa and 
bÍ8 editoiB. Bat they "were ín earnest. They ]abored 
dili^fently, and between 1726 aiid 1739 produced tlieir 
graud work, iu bíx folio volumea. Ou the whole, it did 
tLem bonor. No doubt, it ebowe, io eeveral parta, a 
warit of matute conaideratiou and good jndgment. Many 
wui-de were omitted tUat eliould have been inserte d ; 
many were inseited whicb were aftenvards stricken out ; 
and many were given on unsatisfactory anthoritiea, But 
itB deñnitioiis are geueraLIy good ; ite etyranlogies — - 
tbough thla part of the würk was Httle regardcd by its 
anthora— are respoctable ; and its cítatíous ure ampie 
and ptirtiuent. In fact, all that had been done for the lati- 
giiage, in the way of dictionaries, siitce ita origin, waa 
not equal to what. waa now done Ín this single work. 

But the Acadeniieiatie were not slow to perccive, that 
a Dictionary BO large could exerciae little popular influ- 
ence. They begaii, tberefore, eooo añerwafdsj to pre- 
pare an abridgment, in a single folio voliime, for i,|„tro„„y 
more general use, and publifjlied the Gret editíon "'«í'Ik"!' 
of it in nS4J. The project wae judicious^ and ita execu- 
tion skilful. It omitted tbe discnesions, citations, and 
formal etymologies of the largor work ; bnt it estab- 
lisbed a betler vocabulary, and imprOved many of the oLd 
defiaitions. It had, therefore, from its Srst appearaacre, a 
decíded authority í and, by the perserenng labora of the 
Academy, hsB conttnued, ia its succesaive edition&, to be 
the proper standard of the langnage, — labora whicb, 
BÍnce the latter part of the eighteenth centnryj have been 
always heayy, and someíimes disagreeable, from the con- 
Btant tendency of evcn the better writers, like Melendez 
and hia school, to fall into GallieíamB, wbich the increaa- 
ing intercouree wíth Frailee had rendered fashioaable in 
the society of their time ' 



np 1 mnBtl«r^rlcirT níate, tn whh* «rodltinn mr loa Araulcmicoa en Jii GoiúpMieiU) ieí 

U Baa jiuWbTied tiy hi« hisni nna Juiíii quívo DicílonurlQ ; " — aml turn snuBllar 

Feídni Afi-|pil, Meilrlil, IBA'!, 2 vii1., Svo. Inu^is vilthml: unte, L-uLitled " RitkIbs para 

B I hnie ji pnmplilL'i. In tea, 1T13, cu- InCoivcciDn y Aiinienladi.<l Dlccluiinrín)"— 

tllled " PlBiita j Tá-ftaio que de-ren obaer- diK^ituf cunalderably from ench ather, lyot 

u* 



250 



DJiTHOORAPBY OF TEE ACADESIY. [PeRioo m. 



OrtoijiVIjk. 



Another diíUculty, however, soon preeented itself to 
tbc Acadeuiy, quite un seríous aa tlie sue of tlieír 
Dictionarj'. It waa lliat of the orthography 
tliey liad aJopted. TUe (jpelling of tlie Castilíau — parlly, 
perhapes, from the verj varíous elements of which it was 
cumpuacd, and purlly frura the pupiilar character uf Ha 
lit<?rjil.ui'e — haii alwiiya been m<jrc unsettlcd thaii that of 
lUe othtíT müdertí laragiísges, Lebrixa, tlie great scholar 
of the tÍTD€ of FerdiDand and leabella, first attempted to 
rtfduce it to order, and the eraplicity of his gyatem, 
which appeared in 1517, seemcd at first likely to secure 
^piieral favor and acccptance.' But thirty treatisea, that 
at diübrent times followed, had — with ihe eseeption of 
the acute and ptessant one printed by A]<:nian when he 
WOB in México, in 1609 — aei-ved ratlier to unsettle and 
coiifuse the whole matter, than to det&craine aiiything iu 
relatirjn to it--"' 



all ihri* con tnU ilng senilble rule? flltal tu 
sncE^ulPí fitagí» Id tbe cümpoeitJnD of Ihe 
Dltillunwj, HTid nll three publLshed bj- 

OT iVt aii-BitiiTJ wllíle i'nKftB'i't I" lile laal(. 

o II WM reprlOLBj by Mayniia J Stscar, 
fTPCna tiil^J' wHli"UiSi-|ile-|ift(5c, wlüelí waa 
the -trcilr '<>n>i hv cunld ñnH In Miuirta vr 
SaliunikiiEA, íd 1I35v wjtb prefAUC'f utaú fíe- 
Ji:cf,iai\i:s, irhicli wEru llHIenucclea aQ4 
EKliUüi UECIe. It 1E a v';ry imsli, »t!>ii>l<; 
trenlisQ, insl!¡iiR bnraiy íD VB^, '° IKmo. 

1" Amnas thfl Biwmriii tu «wr™-, »nd 
tetíii gpsnish ■>r(-h';8re pb í, ttere np- 
pejUíd, whili! t-tio Ansrtewy waa buBj" wíúi 
IB veri:, &. pomphlet, vltoee tttJf anQOUD'CeB 
IU ubíurilli}', tíe. ; " AiraMM c nu^im 
qiiloqiulciQ de \ub leCrw qDDUzlda-^ «n nutü- 
Cro idlemt QHStvIluQD. ec, por Pi)B Jc>4é 
IpullW BalkiJtM, PtitrJScr dt Aries en lo* 
KetadlD! á< la ^lujait d<! riM«i>r.Ui t it 
J/^ya en la Uniiiersl<lul de balamnaijs.,'" 
ItD, 1731. It (TU &ni««r«d by a pfttn- 
plilet, eiitlüwJ "Hy|irilli*H;iji«rfr liimno, pI 
llspuniil ríndkodv, ««-, |ior Ti- Uatirtti 4« 
ALorbE y Anglilta," Mimrlil, 113-2, IM, 
TALi lAit tToct. miLnlulDS tlit^ uti pVíliilelí* 
oí U-ic ]BDguiis«, nut vrry vell, tu tte »iir«, 
bul wrll enouRh In d«h:«t &□ £.dTcrn^ty ai> 
EnlrUiVfiK'aiit. The " UrUigríJii. <li> Id 
lengua CbsIcIIiidb" (Mesitu, 1809. 4tti, 
K 83) la B pleasuit and itajiortBDL Lr«aCisit, 



■*blch, an thínoTBllít IntlmnieB, Le bepui 
(c «rile tn Castile and flDlshed in Meidoo. 
It \,rn]Miwe Ui TevErBF the lelter a Jd order 
i£ ^xynwtK the B^í íli, as in miteiio, Co bv 
prl.nb3jt jnutif ¡ mbví two larme ur tbs ItLiLer 
T ,' «rlte^ the cdu'UDCllmi y alvaya í, na 
SdlVit UDV InaLata it «houH ^x ; aad ElniíBLB. 
^, ¿/, nnd n u> be flepural« kllcra, r& Ihey 
have Inng l>L-eci fi.úiDl[led to ho. As t« the 
use ol í tD t^iprtsB ^bi^coiltJi.iiKiElrDQ v,*'hl<^b 
n]]ty JH be Bdo^lcd, it bai rrequcnllj Ijvcil 
in^lauít upoD. It ia iliiiie in the Otima 
IJFlCDii oí Viruee, ItHK, tbv prlnter, bmr- 
tVKT, vuterÍD)! Lhv follDWing KBVtaCr "La 
Ürtujrruris quu ILí'Ga eitf llhira se pum a 
perBuaBloD del Autor y 0° ci-wo en ]h Int- 
preuLa k una," Aad agalti tc t» don» by 
£Et«'ban de Villeg'aE in bis Ert^tirap, IfllT ■, 
but attalu Che pctoter proivsis thHI !&« 
boak ij prlDt«d "a cobIa dníl Auinr L pvr 
«1 Ovrceplln Jb crtasrefiiL." Ali^dub wm 
contempcTar; w\ití both, anit tnoy buvBllML 
BímethinE K ic iriih Ihefr ByBKms. 

lj¡ sp;atir\B t{ Al^mao, I ani rt'lBlnl^ 
of hie "Bnn Anlonlv- dt Piiiiia,'' prioied 
jn l^mo, At Tal«aciB, in 14U7, ft', :tqa. IC 
helon^E to th« ULtae closs ai bocke «ICÍl th4 
'■Ban. Patricia" a( McaCnlvun, (se« antt, 
Yol. U.pp. 319, 35',DDtif,>but lomof^Uat)- 
UTEkte and moreflGVBut, Ibn nuiDlitir nf tlib 
Salni'H Dvi ruello thitt itreBurJa larerj ífmt. 
WlieUier Akinan invented iíij- al tl;«ia 



Craf. i.] 



GKAMMAlt OF THE ACADE5IY. 



251 



■ 



It is not aurprÍBing-, therefore, tliat tlie firat attpmpt of 
tlie Acadeniy, made iu Ihe form of a shurt diacoiirso, pro- 
fixed to itB larger Dictionary, produccd litüe efli'ct. A 
sepaiate wütk, which appeared iu 1742, did something 
inore, but Dot mnch ; and the succcsbívc editions of it 
which were calted for bj the public ratber showed the 
uneasy átate oí' opinioQ in relation to tbe pi'^ínts ünder 
discuBsiou, than aiiy^hing clee. At Last, iu 1815, the 
Aeademy, in the ieigbth recensión, of its treatifíe on Oi'thog- 
rapby, and in 1811, in the fiftli of jts smaller Dictionary, 
began a eenes of important change&, whicb have been 
geiierally adoptcd bj feubsequeilt writerS of authority, and 
appear to have neariy settled the apolling of the OastiliaD, 
thuiig"h Btill it Beema open tO a few fnrther modificatioiis, 
anil eveu to invite thcm." 

A Grammar, like a Díctionafy, was piOYided for in the 
etatutcs of the Aeademy. But tbe original members of 
thüt bodj, fow of whom ■wcre men of note and 
authority, sbuwed a mark'íd unwiUingneaa to 



GiBinmat. 



fbr Lbc otxa&Tnn, I da not kibutr , but tbey 
HamelinieB rcaá as miiah lik? nnvFfa^ z.i 
íífínE üf LIq atorítíl íd llii: ^* Üusnkan '^ do, 
And are nLn'nj'd wríClij^u fn tht tH-mc IilEí^ 
niiiLli: ntiit uiiiiiulturatcil Cuutilliia. It Ib 
InlrtidutX'Bl by a caficitjjt \a l]DD'>r of íl by 
Lu |K de Vi'g^it ; I)IL(. I cmitiui liiid t1iB.t U 
TfR*4>íi^r riri'rtTitcd j ^ why, íi 13. difficLilb 
'tr'iiiyj r^ir il 13 &n un-riímlnLinlj jittractive 
I1410L üf Its cUaa i ^ much bctlrr than 
MhuIaIvuu'li, ur ait uniiuyin'vus oni?, eutHl^d 
""Ltliro de la HEstorín. y MEBa^TuH LeclinB. 
n. ¡DviDES^cíon áv nuví-tri Beñuni de Mon- 
«lorrac " (Baroclana, Ifiirt, limo, ff. 26!»). 
ThlB LisC^ huwever, ii n cnriniiB nLcinU' 
m^iitol SpEinJsli ñiLlb, brln^in^ davn Lts 
BUBC^BsIirD út :yiíi mLractea Ici tí¡ü very jear 
Chf It^ piihllcatljtn., dudng irliích the Ir?4L 
Ibur jire renjirdiíd t-o have ta"?en perriiruníd. 

n the íllUlüulIlci In Caatillnn Drthngci- 
p]'\y aro set fortli in Ih'i '^T)iAl^go úe las 
tíEigmi^í ** (Mnyaní y Siicurj OrigeLU'-fi, 
Ti>ni- II, [>]}- 47-fl5)i but the iat^^-aSous 
■uthor (if llini ilLwLi^^lnn la niore s^^ero 
Oiín rs! nfi;c"nrjpii i^hrJKL Ad auenj- 
mouí Wriler <'T Hti eJíwllMiit essay 011 lliu 
BQtQ^ Fiultji-'^^v lO- |lic Hrpt vu-tume af Lhe 
KepfrlflPfií Anis^riusno, (Tura. I. p. aT,) ía a 
gRItt (Iml tVín Jt]4leiDU9. Rut hrjw iiq 



■^tiltil much s.tlll reimins Id prncUice maf 
Iw seen in fhe "Mnnuiil 3i\ CaJLila, ¡lar 
Juse Mari* tiilock-í," Mnddd, lS4i, limo, 
whcre (p¡i, 134 - 1W> las" Priintusrlo de 
lia Vücífr de dbdc&a Ortografla,.^^ ci>titain- 
Ing abo ve 18110 wünls. 

1 do not knínr nnj country iphere, fc/ a 
gisnCTs.] popalat coiLBeDtj AlLurend -ijiullEDg 
hn9 been aomueb D&íleGb:d hs InSpaEii i^ 
a ÍELCt <rbvltiii4 to sjijbody ifb» hn» iiiiLbiifd 
tb» hIeus ni tbe stiiiiB au-d truilL-9|>f npb In 
ELa difTerciit cEtlee^ and rhue weLl rlilíi-iil^ In 
H ¡iHDpbleí, enlltled " Helio üuotn ^litlco 
da TtiscrlpcIunt^B,^^ (Madrid, 17^^^ IHsna,) 
pm[jii«iiig,ji.iinne o( Molii-re'a líneheii;( dixB, 
Eo lutwu un oEFlce of iBLapd'-Cnr ot alio-[j tli^niSi 
vhldi (tue fif bis aDaGtntnr& &Ey^ &t unu 
time rcaTI; eEÍaled lo París. Mjirlrlil i»iild 
luitdu hiitWr thitii Lo rollón tbe exnniplu. 

Tbo VTlhoipraplijr of Ihe AcBíIeíay vas 
attj^ckud, Ijj 1406, b^ as auoD^iooiia wrlt«F, 
v]m> pri^pijsod-, nmon^ otber cbiLu^H, to 
BUipprt^ag the letters A, f, l-, x^ and y^ glv- 
Inj; H prortJt:;!] e]ialnplG oí bU Lloeory, In 
the api^Oinff of bis treatise. (RedexIoneB 
B4'>bre I.B. Ortaj^nifin de la Leii^uu Cnslvll^ 
no, ve., UnúHJ, líBO, ISiuo, pp. 41.) A,q 
atCHrapt íu sbpuni, of cornee, pTifiíisBa no 
effect. 



Zb2 



QTEKH LAB0K5 OF TOE AC^DEMT- [Pebiop m. 



approach the difficnlt discusBÍons inToWed íd anch a work, 
aad diil uot uiidertakc theoí at all till IT40, £ven then, 
tlioy weut on alowly and with anxiety ; so- that the reBoIt 
of tlieir labora did uot appear till lili. For thia delay 
tliey wcre not wholJy in fiiult. They hud little to gníde 
tbenij escept the riva! Giammars of Gajoso and Sau 
Pedro, which were publiahcd while the Academy waa 
prepariiig its own, and the orígiua! attempt of Lelir¡-xs, 
which had long becn forgotten. But afler so prütracted 
a. labor, Ihc Academicians should have produced Bome- 
tiaing: more worthy of their cLaims ; for what tliey g-ave 
to the world, at last, Wa6 an uQphílosopbiCa] and unpraC- 
tical work, which, thougjh Bubjected to frequent revisión 
BÍnce, Í6 hardly an otitlíue of what it ought to be, and 
quite inferior to the Grammar of Salvá."^ 

A Ilistory of the Castiliaii Langnage, and an Art oí 
Poetryj which were also expres&ly preacribed by 
jíBMofthe the statutes üf the Acaáemy, have never been 
Acudíiuy. preparad undcr their authority ; but, instead of 
theae tasks, they have sometimea performed duties not 
originally impoBod upou them. Tbua they have piibUehed 
carúfu! editíonsof different works of reeognized authority, 
partícuíarly a tnagriificent one of " Don Quíxote," in lífiO 
-84, Since 17ÍY, they have, from time to time, offered 
pL'izes for pootícal compoBitionB, though, as is usual ia 
siich caaes, with lesa iroportant reaulta tlian bad beea 
hoped, And occaeiüoa.lly they have priuted, with funda 
granted to them by the governinent, works deemed of 
Bufflci£nt merit to deserví such patrona^e, aad, amoug^ 



<9 OriiElirixa'i Ominmar 1 have alieAdj 
KpolteD, [Tol, II- 1>, 22J Blid Ihe memíiij 
ofll n-ascowfo nuoh mvIvtMl Chai a. ccun- 
IcrTcit ^ICIsD uf IC -waa t»it>li?lied, ELbr^t 
1116-, íd bdi&U folla, hurdl;, I stiould JuiJgi: 
Iniín lU Bppf&nujcs, wiLh the InUoticEi sf 
4a»:lTÍng. DuE Bii«h tliicgs 'fíit not on- 
Hjamman tínnit Ihut Usis, m Méndez Eaye, 
wbo UiliilEa (he (adición Iq iiiii;etloii bad 
1w«E prinMd a*"¡M tu'eniy y-iínte whisb hí 

pulillalied bis Work IQ 1193. (SiHí IrpOU., 

p. 312.) II. Isv liuwRV'Ci', nlriTLiilJI Bii rare, 

ihat I obUln»! n cjpr ni jt >rll}i ilfCnUlt/. 

Thul üf Q-ibjosü naa Crat prluL^ at 



MitaTitl, la ITU, 13DI0, btiá Cb&L «r BaU 
S'edraln VaL5iicli,1760, ISmi), whkh Isft 
Qnyosa, lUsgUiBEllg j||[»s<.'tf undeí u EorLiir 

luiBenun, attackE^L, tn bh "Voafsia^ 
^iaiíSB Cntliu, pi>r Üao Amaiilo Qobejoa," 
(SladTid, i'SQ, i£itia,] wiKifi üe shoira Lbat 
SsiD Pedro wiu not au oritt^iiial bf lie ouglit 
to brkve besn, tiU trenta liífl Or&intBar iríth 
taom liQj'ítiDSH thaii II ilciflcívird, Salvi't 
" QraiD-ltic-a. de la Longu^ CastcUhna ccmú 
iLhnru Be hjülu" waB ñrst prl:iktAl in 1S31, 
and llic bítLIi nlltioD apptn^reJ at Madrid 
¡D 1B44, ]2aiD i B Büf&ci^Dt prcu-r of tha 
want uf Bach a. baok. 



Chap. i.] 



OTHEB AOADEMIES. 



263 



otliers, the ©icelleTit treatise of Garcée on "The Vigor 
and Beauty of the Spaiii&h Languag-e/' wLich appeared 
iinder thcir auspicea im 1791.'* Duriug' the whole cen- 
tuvj, tlierefoie, tbc Spíiuish Academy, occupjed in thcse 
varioiía wüjs, coritinued io be a useful i iistitution , care- 
fuily abstairiing froin Buch chuma to control the piiblic 
tastc aB Were at Grst madc by ¡ts modél ín Franca, atid, 
though not always vcry actÍT-e and effiuieot. still never 
deaervín^f the teproach of ncglecting- the dijties and taska 
for whicb it WEB orig-inallj instituted. 

One good eflect tbat followed from the fouudatíon of 
tbe Spanieh Academy was tlae establisbm ent of q^^^ ^^^j. 
other académica for kindred purpoeea. Theae "°''-'"- 
academies were eiitirely difi'^reut from the social meet- 
ing3, Uüder tbc same ñame, that were imitated from the 
Italiaii Avademias in the t¡me of Churles the Fifth. — one 
of tbe earlinst of which waa hcid ín the houso of Corté&," 
the conqueror of México ; — Ihongh stílI the eider asgo- 
ciationa aeem aomotimea to have furnished materiala. oiit 
of whiíh the inetitutiona that Biicceeded tbcm were con- 
BtrucEed. At least, this was the case wíth the Academy 
of Barcelona, which has rfindered good service to the 
cause of letters siüce ITol, after havíng long exieted as 
an idte afFectation, under the title of the "Acadetny of 
the DilRdent." The only oue, however, of any conse- 
qnence to the general literatiirc of the cotmtry, was es- 
tatlished during the reign of Pbilíp the Fifth, — the 
Acadeniy for Spanish Hiñtory, founded in 1138 ; the char- 
acter and amount of whose labore, both publtshed and 
nnpubliehcct, do its members much honor." 

But such aBsooiations everywhcrcj though tbey may be 



W Brearla Osrcéi, írhDse " Faoflamento 
de] Vigur y Ele^ancta dr 1u InjoguaCss- 
tellajia " wat prjiítnl al Miiiríd, 1701, '¡ 
tnm., Ata, wiin ii Jeaiilt, qtiiI prepared Lbia 
ImriurliiciL nnrk I nrillcat Ferrara, In wtilcli 
dty liellicl nliDVa tlilirby fcaj-*. and TriHa 
whlcli he rclumeil liDine in ITl'B, niider 
tbe ilcctci: af Chiulm IV. nhroeatln^ thnl 
of big fxtbvr Tur Ihc cxpuliloD of theOnl^r 
rmm Spuin, la llfiT. 

I< Sve ante. PurtH. n. &, naá unte, To]. 

n. p. u. 



lí For UD Account ct fhciw Acnilcmln, 
aee QuArmre, " Bibtlotecu; '' nricl Tnr n 
□ntícc of the origin al thi: Riiya! Ac«Jtirij 
at Bintitry, tea the SnA Taluidie cif Its 
MumolTs. Tbe oíd ^cadcmfas. Id iinlta- 
IIdq uf Ihs IlaliaDj — «uch os un rlilleukit 
lii tbr " Diahli) Cojuílo," Tmiicií IX,, ^— 
hall much E-niic nut nf ñuitilnn aiii] been 
dtaplacwl by ihe mwlcrn Tertuíiiu, irhíre 
biiUi evxea ateiít, nnri whkii In thelr tum 
have been rídiculeil In the Sayntiei oí 
ILajiion de la Crui and Cnatillo. 




254 J'OETBY IS THE TIME OF PHILIP THE FIFTH. [Pbeioh EL 



oseful and eveo important in theü proper relatione, can 
neitlier créate a imw liloralure Ibr a. country, 
(í lU^^"' iior, where tlie o5d literature is seiiously decayed, 
"''""■ do miich to revive it. Tlie Spauiali aoaderníea 

were no exceptions to thie rernürk, AU eleg^ant culture 
had BO nearly diaappcared before the acceasion of tbe 
iiourboiiB, and tliere waa sucli an insensibility to its valué 
iu thoae classes of society where it should have lieen 
most cherishod, tbat it wa3 plaia the resuacitation must 
bo the wark of time, and tliat the land tnust long lie fal- 
Idw beforñ another harveat could be gathered in. Duríng 
the entire reign of Philip the Fífth, therefore, — a reign 
wíiitíh, íncluding the few nmnths of h¡8 nominal abdica- 
tion in favor of hís son, extenda to fortj-six, years, — we 
shall find undeiiiable traces of thla imhappy state of 
tbinga ; fcw authora appearing who deserve to be named 
at all, aüd stiLl fewer wiio demand a careful notice. 

Poetry, indeed, or wliat pívssed under that narae, coa- 
tínued to be written ; and some of it, though litóle en- 
couraged by the general regard of the nation, was printr 
ed. MoraRS, a Portugueae gentleman of rank, 
who had lived in Spaín from his youth, wroto 
two heroic poema in Spanieh ; the first on the diñcovery 
of "The New World," which he published in 1 TOlj and 
the üther on the fouudatio» of the kingdom of Portugal, 
vffhich was printcd in 1712; both appearing origiiially in 
an un^nished state, in conaequence of the author's imp^ 
tience for fame, and the earlier of tliem etill remaining 
80. But they have been íong forgotten. Indeed, the 
firet, which is ñdl of estravagarit allegoricsj Boon fouud 
the fate which its author fwlt it de&erved ; and the otlier, 
thougb written with great deference for the rules of art, 
and more than once reprintcd, has not at last enjoyed a 
better fortuno. 

The moat arausing work of Moraee ie a prose satire, 
printed iu 1734, called "The Caves of Safamanca," where^ 
in certaia grottos, which a popular iraílition suppoged to 
exist, aealed np hy maglc, within the banhs of the Tdr- 
mes, he fiíids Amadis of Gaul, Oriana, and Celestina, and 
diaconrBcs with thera and otber fanciful peraooagea on 



Wof^p^ 



Chap. i.] POIÍTRT 1N toe time OF PHILIP THE FTFTn. 



355 



such aubjects as his humor hnppcns t.o BujTfjest, Pírts 
of ¡t are very wilJ ; parts of it are boÜi aimi.'iiiig aud 
wise, eKpecially what ia suid about tlie Spaniwli laii- 
guage aiid acaderaies, and abúut the " Teleinacluia " of 
Féuelon, then at the height of ita fame. The wlictle 
shows few of the aflectationa of style that still deforuied 
and dcgraded whatever there was of literatiire in tlie 
eonntry, aud wliich, tliouyíi ridiciiled in " Tlie Caves 
of Salamanca," are abundaat iu the other works of the 
same author.''* 

A long heroíc poem, in two part&, in honor of the con- 
que^t rjf Perú by the Pizarras, wag printej ¡n Limii En 
1132. It íh fosindcd priTicipally on the prosc Illstory of 
the luca Garcilasso, but is rirely so iiitereetÍDg' as the 
goasip oiit of which it waa coiíatructed. The author, 
Pedro de JJarnuevo, was an officer of tlie Spaniah 
"goveniment in South America; aud lie givea in 
the Pi'eface a Eong list of hia worka, pubhshcd and unpub- 
lÍBhed. He was, uudoubtedly, a man oi learohiff, but 
not a poet. Lilie Moraes, he has arranged a iiiyatiea! 
interpretation to hia atory ; eome parta of wlitcb, auch 
as those wbcre Aineñca comea before God, and pr.iys to 
be (ionquer&d that ahe may be convoited, are reaily alle- 
gorical ; while, in general, the iíitei'pretatíon he gires ia 
merely au after-thought, íorced and unuaturaL. But bis 
work is duH and in bad taste, and the octave stanzaa 
iu which it Ls writteu are mauaged with le-ss ekilL tliau 
URual ." 

SeTeral religioue poems belong to the same peñod. 



BiiniiiieTu, 



I' Vliírs [9 HD ?r]iílaD of (1|« " KWTO 
Badiln," prlDled uE HEiK.-bo», 1701, 4l^ 

ftnnDiln>c«a bis Inlfíiitjnn la ñ\\ q|i Of thp 
^ AiraQHi, {i \u. Fundur.'l[ii) ije] fl^^^D? 4b 
PonuBnl," LÍHTearB artilirina nf 1712,1718, 
17.11. ]llll 17^7. Thvre íb n. n^tl-^ nf Lije 
nuthnr — Francifrc:^ Uat^ljiív inH)<rnfH e 
VaBConrtlluH — ia Biip>)ii3ii., (Ton. If- p- 
119,] a.ai ni Ih^ cnd <<í the «ailli>n Df Lhe 
Airansí, Bhlnnitincn, 173-1, 4bi, H o, ñrfenoi 
oT H t':w iM^cullojiíira lu lU orthueTaplij. 
"Lbí CflíTas de Satnmsildil" (s. I. ITM) 
fB a, ímnll vdunie, djviilsd loto sevan 



boakB, vritlen, pFíiieps, &1 aalam-anca. K- 
sell', nbicd Mcniea laVinl, Bnd irhero lis 
^lln![l !□ hia dIiI a^c. He^ publi&b^d anG 
or twa wcrka íd B^iaoJEih, hetlLilVFI lh[itJG 
alreskdy mi:L.tioDtil, and odq ot Iwo in 
Liitüi,,but 114)1 -iilherB of ci9TiBrr|ui!ii4?«, QjlJ' 
on^i» doUti a. trífling popticnl work ot 
fUntunB Id gpiiDlBlí n« Fsrly iin IfilM. 7( la 
ft pjULL'ijyrícal nL'connt nf tlío great Sou-ha 
fUEnily In Elglity-flíght íifdfirag. 

" ■" Urna PuiidEMla, Viesa Hsrilío Je 
Pnu pL-úra de PtrulW ft amuevo,'" Lima, 
1733, *to, ftbout TWI piiB« i but bo [U 
TiAftil ClUbl It ti Dt-l «finy W ilvtemililU. 



256 POETIEY rS THE TIME OF PHILIP THE FIFTH. [CiLMon ID. 



Rejlinpa. 



One by Podro de ReyíioBa, príiited m 172Í, ¡s on " Santa 
Caailda," tlic cnnvGrtod düUg'hU.T of a. Moorish 
kiiig (jf Toledo, who figures ¡n tlie Ejistiury oí 
Spain during tbe eicvonth ceatnry. Aiiutlicr, caEled 
"The Eloqueiicc of Silcnce," by Miguel de Ze- 
viillos, ifl. 1Í38, íh devoted to the houor of Saiut 
Jolm of Neporauck, who, iti the fonrteenili centmy, was 
thro^rn iiito the Moldíiu, by order of a k\ng of Enliiímia, 
bocauBO tlie Ijoly man would iiot revi?al to tlic JcuIouh 
rüonarch wbat t.lie queen híid iiitiiíaled to liiin under Lhe 
eeal of the Confeasional . Both are in the octave fitanZaS 
common to bucL poems, and are full of the faulte of.tbdr 
times. Two mock-heroic poema, that naturallj followcd 
Biich attempta, are not better thao the eerious poema 
which provokcd thcm.'* 

No account more favorable can be g:iven of the lyríc 
and niisccllaneous poetry of the period, than of the nar- 
rative.*° The best tbat appeared, or at least what was 
thought to be the beat at t!ie time, Js to be found in the 
poética! works of Eugenio Lobo, first printed in 
ItSfi. He was a aoldler, who wrote verses only 
for hh amu&enient ; but his frieads, who admired them 
mueh beyoiid their merit, prititod portiou& of thera, frota 
time to time, «ntíl at last he hiraself thuught it better to 
permit a religíous congregation to publi&h tise whole in a 
volume. They are very varioug in íbroi, from fragmenta 



Lt*0. 



" "-BantA Ciutlidí, FiKTDil Éo OcÍB-ras 
Ranim, pKT íl B. P. Fe. PiAfa At HoynDBii," 
HmlrlJ, 1T2T, 4to. It I9 iii kvcu ruDl'»^ 
ortil ench cniLto biu a Bort ot ccdicil bn U, 
nlTe-ctcdly rallpd a Canlrapiinío.- — '* Lii 
Klirqu^ncla di^l Silsni^ia^ Paprna Hi^ri'iiarii 
por U¡|^4l de la Bej'nA Zevalloa^" MadñiJ, 
1739, 4U.^0f Che mock-herDlc pwma 
Iriunllsaud lli Oís lexl, atin is " La Piaal-r- 
^íbí, FocmiL n«r'il^, ¡f<¡I D. Pedro Sil- 
»CiU«,"Madrlll,17SI.4U,.— tWdVr mortal 
MflhA, The fitlier la*'Lit Burfamoquia," 
Which la iKltft, liut aCUI tir^t am-osiDR. It 
la uuftnJBLed, Süil IB fouigd íd the "-ObraB 
P.i!.tu!niia de QaSíiíl AI»aí4B ile Toleiin," 
The divisiotis iire nnt calICLl "-Ca-DtoB," but 
^^ Brai^ingx.''^l havG d1bo b. paem <iii St. 
JoliD Che Ea^tis-t, by AnLoido de Vctm, 
171?! — Aiirmn oa &1. Jenunc, b; Patti'.-r 



FrancEBed á6 Iñti, USB 1 — a incCrJial 
HÍBtory nf Ihc Wírli, Itj BermUÍ de Pttla- 
[01, Marquen di L»Bin, 1J34 ; — nrid San. 
Elaptael, or a histofy nt oerUiin flsioan o[ 
a moDk of Corilcrrñ In the Rlxte^nth cta- 
tur;, bj Ffilber Buea&vejkLura. Tvrría, 
1736, — a!l dtlcatalilB tniBli. MíííDVe^^I 
haré ^en very rldiculou^ extraúta from & 
poeiii by FaUíer BuLrun ou Suata. Ten», 
but I liavf Dfrec hBppeneii to lall in irilh 
the poem ILsílf, wlilcli seeniB to be as bad 
aa any at ita dmu. Qaynn^oE aa^a U Vaí 
prlot^ Id usa. 

L^ Tlií^rc «as tt p^od dea! of p^npiiiaf 
poetry diirinR lhe Ws.c of tha Snccetilon ^ 
vzlbkedcus, dialoguen, 1iiillnila,ctr.,orwblcIb 
I pijBWBS H coDíiilcritfclE c'illcction. Bnt 
they un of llie most orrlltiary character j, 
— aometíinE'g tDÍB«iuhly tiiI|^t. 



CBAF. 1.] POETRY Rí TEIE TIME OF PBILIP THE FIFTH. 251 



of two epícB duwn tu soiinets, and equaÜy varioua in 
tone, from that appi'opriate to religiuua viU^iMicos to that 
of tiie í'reest saLire. Biit tliey ¡ire in verj bad I^üIq \ and, 
ii* auytliiug- like pcietrj appeitra Jn tlicni, it ¡a at rare in- 
tervals. Beneg^así y Lusaii, who, iii 1143, pub- Bení^gíuiy 
lishcd a Tolurac of sutíh light voraca as were i"»"'!- 
callcd for by the gay socíety íu whích he Uved, wrtite ín a 
BÍmpIer style than Lobo, thongh, oii the whíile^ be euc- 
ceeiJed no better. But, escept these two, aad a few who 
iraitated tljeoí, such as Alvarez de Toledo and Antonio 
MuñuZf we havu uothíng from tbe rcign of tbe fitrst of tlie 
Bo-tii'bona that can claím noüce in either of tbe forma of 
poelry we have thus f»r examined,^* 

More characterietic than eitber, bowever, were two col- 
lectjons of verse, wi-itten, aa their titles profeas, by tbe 
poets of most note at the time, in bonor of tbc king and 
queetb, who, in 1Í22, meetiiig the Host, aa it f>,i,„ po. 
wae píissing- to a tlying man, gave theír own «»»• 
carriage to the priest who bora it, and then, accordíng 
to the fashion of the country, followed reverently on foot. 
The names of Zamora the draraatist, of Diego de Torrea, 
well knowii fcir hía variouB accoinp3ÍBbmentB in scieiice 
arid lettei'S, and a few otlicr poetft, who are Btitl remcm- 
bered, oct^iir in thü first coUection', but, in general, tbe 
obscurity of the authors who cjontributed to it ia such as 
we njigbt anticípate fium reading- their poetry ; while, at 
the same time, the charaoter of the whole Bbowa bowlow 
was the culture whicb could attribute any valye to sucb 
publicatioiis.*' 



10 if Obraa r-ikttltas Lyrlew, pw ti Coro- 
nel V. Eugenia Qcrarda Letiii," MsJlrld, 
173», Ua. — "[■«Kaíaa hitiMt, 7 Joco- 
Scriía, «u Autor li-, Joeoph JoAcblm litait- 
EBil j Luxan,''' Madrlii, IT-t^I, luí. — Oub. 
Aivu;i;z ile loleü», vt aflZ4. — Altlcnlo 
Miiñra."ATsni|u.rafleQ Vet*i>r en Píirtiflii," 
(¡K.) no iSuti', bul UueDBCÚ 17^, ihü." Mo- 
rli vWiuEdd en la .íIíIí» s vivir inuricnda 
<¡a la Cwts" (Itiulcíd, ITST, 120u) t a 
poDi lak riilieulíng' ciiuiury gi<ii.Ucnitn, 
who pluk iiil^ & e3l3wuIaIi ILÍl- nrU'r tvjliiip 
hretl ín Bonn'llikns hclicr. — ^Oiit laiíii ainy 
bE uldeiliLit lIjl' 1lBt| — l>anaTtr4^a Uuittu 
of Ctulie,^whn, In ITSó, jifluUil u iiOBll 
ToLuniG "t vcry raiaEralile verec. 



Bul It ja itU nangbt, ¿nd wta loaettm^í 
Euspeeíed U tve lo eren ni tho tieri^Hl v/hm 
it iras iprodaced. Tfíua, Don Fruideco^e 
la ILua, wbD WicU: i. txuiip!il<:t e^1>tlünl 
'■lJ4iitÍ!;rrD d« Pobres, Ln Poifítil mu-erla," 
(M.»driri., 1731.) nod whis* tB4U? í-ul nut 
prercnt bimlr«iiii praiBÍnKftKiiL ^'rlt'prH as 
Iiúboand Inei de 1a Criu, tiays ((>- IS) o' 
Ule nniloDBl paett^' dI bis tiu«, ibac lie 
cijUpely díapaln of It Iw^aUíe " it he dlffl- 
íillt. W-rívlvt R.body Kial hs* 115611 dund no 
aiBuj yrafi." Ilv aili'lsr?, IbcTíTi-IV, tlkat 
tbe thouglita nf llii.- liiHiun ahíulil b9 lurtiefl 

Duly bi i^hiit U <M-.lí\\, am¡ It avun» ulnoat 

aa if hjs adrice mUM buve b4fin vita. 

II " EugrwliiA Fkrca del Famiui>, C«q- 




2fi8 l'ÜETEY IS THE TIME ÜF PütLlP THE Plí'Ta [PfiMon m. 



BeibM. 



Á single brig'ht spot ¡n tbe poetical history of thie pe- 
riod ia oiily tho mure rciiiarkalile from tbe gloom that eur- 
roundw it. It ia a satire attributed to HerLas, a 
p&reon otlierwÍB& unkuowii, who di&guiseJ hiin- 
self ujider the name of Jorge de Pitillas, and printed it 
m a literary journal .^ It waa singularly Bucceaaful for the 
tiaae wheo tt appeared , a circamstance the more to be 
noticed, as thie succees seema not to have iiiepired any 
BimUai attcmpt, or evfin tO liave cüCoiiraged íes autiiof 
to venture again belbre the public. The subject he chose 



RaUDdu Helrlcu de Ia bka LcraEilüda 
I^n da A.p«10i itita i Ib t-tife^'e^Bie üíUMsí 

Acolan de hari;r lio accutopañuDdu tas 
iliíeetlaiíti el Samo. Sucninicuto quR <hit d 
doira? |>«r viatica i aaii. Eotcrmn el Sla S8 
dr fiovtmbre, LT2i^ i^iLotaj-GQ loa mcjurepi 
CEaaL'a d« Caparía,'* 4U]_ I gire (.he tiÜe 
of Üie Grat ctilk'clíoD En fiill, oa an IihIIi:^- 
tíciQ ai tL^ hall tuate üt Ka ctrutenlfi, Dq>Lll 
cijII&c&Iqoa, takfra Lo£E:Lljt.-r} [njik'& nbtxkit 
204 lugos, and conLuiu pwma by ainral 
Srty uuLhnrK, gi^ai^mlly ia Ihu «Dni.t. and 
mDSl alTcctcd Blyk, — tho vci? drc^^ oí 
(9ang>jTlstii. A volume cnlllled "Sacra y 
Uumuuii Ljra, Poemas lie Sou Guliridilc 
IiODU," [Mti-Iríil, lio, 1'34,)Ib ñt lago irlLli 
tlie " üsi-ríiiLiia Flnma," aud — rvlu-Ung 
lirgrlj' to tbe Tío\f Bacrameut aud miiei 
■Imllkr lutjcicu — b Dntcti lílie iL 

One «liIklDg proof i>r tlie diiMiy and 
ihe1i>c( oI kttera iu Itie neiga gI Pliili|i V. 
Is Lo be íuiind in tho sinall iiii.nihM uf 
copina prJDtvd of büoka that cilght tu 
reckonud of a popular ctaractnr. lime, 
JD Ibc ^Ii1re98 cif IhQ Prinler tu tht RtudEír 
pn-dicd lo the Ihlrd cdltfira o! the " Cry- 
■cliii le Li¿sCL-1l," íllHh set ontt, f. ISS,; 
hi! 9BÍS: "Twu bmiflrwl aciil ñTíf copiíiB 
hawe Si-so peETitaJ, «niJ Uia «ame 1a diine 
willi nlhcr hoDk-í, ^ BOIQ* "f llieni two 
Siiniirefl and fllty cnpisB, snii olliprí oiie 
tjiiTiiired cr two huiidced, wi llinc lüe tu- 
rli>ua Diaf ncrt rtkll nf a at]s.ncv Éo reucl 
theon.'^ but lÍ there verc ao row bu^'era 
and roaüeraor ^'llhr^i&de en L retona idIizilEo,^" 
whBl mijtive wjta there for wrUlPg trieiii ! 
Iu rsrl and Iti irmti, tbey we-ra nol wrkteii. 

^ ThB ''Sitlrn GODHa lúa Mn.l->s Kw-Tl- 
tort'9 de I « tíepipo " \s commiiiily «tlrt')- 
Ul^il tu Joaé OcTanÍj ila Müriiiya 5 hiit 
Tftpi^ (G|v|lte:i?!i]ii, TriTU. IV. p. SSS] aiiys 
]t wnp tvrjtten by Joac Cabu dt |a Tü^r<^i 
iKllllef wJtíflb It la tnaertijd in Uia " Re- 



baneo át Sta OtttA» LiMíAi-ias de J. B. de 

li\A," (MiHlrld, 1799, 12III0,) A» íF Lt VüTO 
un(|ueBtIi>Dsbl; lal^^B. It Qrst appcbred 
!d the becoud cdlClua nf tüc s-ixtb voluma 
nr llie "-Diario de loo LilcriLlnii" — tbe 
radlcst itcrínlical aurk Id tbi: B]ilrlt uT 
modcrn critioiBm ih^t woa publiat'^ Eu 
"SpíLin, and oue ao mviüb lo BjdvBince oí ITit! 
-age lUaí ít dld poi aur^Eve ita aecuud year^ 
boTing becp bl^gnln ia 171)7-, aiid fooc aa 
ODc j-tar aud ulve nkont'ha, tfU lE taa^e 
Uü^VPQ amall Tolumea. ILviia In vain that 
it waa comhteELauoüd b.y the kEikg, and 
Favored lij t^e Tcadlup peraooa at caorC 
It waa toa lairge a worU ^ Et vna a Jtew 
LtiiniE, whicb SponEarda rare^y llke ^ and U 
tfaj «evera ld lita ciitlctama^ «o that tbe 
biLilhurB ot ÜiH time generally took tfae 
fluid agaioat ll, aud brolie It do»n. 

Atnoiig t)i« jnost aeVEre afaalEaiita oí tba 
" DlarEo" waB Majaíia y Siacar, whsf waa 
muoh oflEQdvd b; an orticlu ud IlÍs. " OrU 
fcnea da U L(^^f:ua Enpiunolii," hdú im- 
plica bf a viDlunift, eutitkd " Piinvcraiicioa 
gjjbre el Diarlo de lus. LlCeratus de EApafm ; 
I& puWlcJ », Placido Vímulo," tSliidciil, 
1737,3 — "°'i however, wrlttEU itilh tta 
g?Dtte«UDi.mcr-blii-iD[ldni!U Eijlcnded tulte 
aonoumccd En hl« pneudonyinu, ArntLi-e of 
tbeir BBSBllanU wu» S. Tícenlo dü Ijl Vi'a- 
lura y V^Edcs, vlw atLii^ked II ia bia 
'> TrlumfiraCa i!« Roidb," (Mhiirid, 1T38,) 
tbe ^pTobapinneM to wbi-o-h npe very long 
aud. aa bitler na tbe w-itrk jli^clf. Atkd yi^( 
IHUotbE^r ]iBSB.EInDt wn$ .A.ñürbe y C^iTrat*^!, 
llie ponp plajwhglit, wltnaí |ii>"uril re- 
lIploQa dr^BjBfL, Iii tlirce parís, '^LiLTalor^ 
de la Igleaia,,^'' tbey liad re'vlewed, (Tora. 
IV. p. SCS-,) aui «ho aiiBwered lit tbe 
preface to hia sfiually ubsurd ^Jinuela, 
'^JupltizT 7 OiMBiE," icUlmlEig tf atsDd OH 
IbR' SíiQiE' pUtr'frm nUK Lope df VFgB ud 
Citldemov — u tr he lutd (ha Ieabí rig^iC to 



Cbap. L] POETBT IN THE TOiE OP PHILIP THE FIFTH. 259 

was fortunate, — the bad writers of his age, — and in 
discussing it he has epoken out boldly aud manfully ; 
Bometimes calling by ñame those whora he ridiculeB, 
and at other times índicating them so that tbey caunot 
be mistaken. His chief merits are the e^e and eirapli- 
city of his style, the pungency and justnesB of his satire, 
and his agreeable imitations of the oíd masters, espe- 
cially Persius and Juvenal, whom he further resembled 
in the commendable qualitieB of brevity and sententious- 
nesB. 



be there, escept m hr u he tallowed theii 
extravBgaoeea and folUei. Bat "Xrsf, 
BlsDche, and Sveetheart — «U the littU 
dogí"— barked at the"T>UTÍo" and ita 
editora as well aa the re» ; and ao, aa I 
haré said, it blled ot lucoeai. Other 
periodical «rorkl appeared aboat the same 
time, loch u the " Uercnrio " b; Maóer, 
Hilb'i"I>1aTioCiirtowi,''eto.} buttheytoo 
ynn lUtle enoDarafíed. 



To the aame period wlth the S«tii« Ot 
ntlUaa aod the <* Diario de loe Literatea,'* 
iMlonga ths poem on " DeoDalioo," by 
Aloaao Terduga de Caatllla, Coont ot Tot- 
reptüma. It ii an imitatioD Di Orid, tn 
alMiut alxt7 ootaTe ataniaa, aomeirhat re 
rouliahle for iu TersiAcation. But tu 
a better period It voold not be no- 
Ueed. 



CHAPTER II. 



HAKQuia oe a*.y fhki.ípB. — iutujencb Of feanob oh aPAKlsn 

LITERATTIHB. — LUZArí. — BÍB PHEUECESBORS A^D Hl» DOCTKIMKa. 

LOW BTAIK OF AI.I. IKTKLLKCTtil. COLTDRB lH 6FMH. 

FBTifOÓ. 



Onk hisÉoncal work of &ome consequence belongs en- 
tirely to thD rcign of Philip the Fiftli, — the Commeata- 
ries on ttie War of tlie Succeasiunj anil tbe history of the 
Mjirgu«ie cfiuütry from líül to 1125, by the Mai'quJa of 
Bou Piiviiiic, Sau Phclipe. Its author, a geutleman of Span- 
ieh (leecent, waa hora in Sardinia, in the lattep part of the 
HeveiiteCHt-h c&ntiiry, and Carly filled several oñGces of 
conseqncnce under the governm&nt of Spain ; but, when 
hifi aative island was conqueied by the Austrian party, 
he reinained fftithful to the French family, under whoíii 
Le bad thue fai' e^rved, and mado bis esc^ape to Madrid. 
There Philip the Fifth receiveil hira with gr&at favor, 
Ee was crcated Marquia of San Phelipe, — a títle cliosen 
by biraself in compliment to tbe king', — and, besidee 
being much eraplnyed during the war in military affairs, 
he was eent aftcrwards as arabasHador, first to Genoa^ 
and then to the Hague, where he died, on the Ist of 
Julj/ 1Í26. 

In bis youth the Marquie of San Phelipe bad been 
éduCated with care, and theiefore, daring^ the active por- 
tioDB of hia life, found aa'agreeable reaource in intellect- 
ual oCcupatíons. He wrote a poem in octave stanxas on 
the story in the " Boolí of Tobit," whích waa printed in 
1^09, andabtetory of "The Hebrew Monarchy/' taken 
from the Bible and Joaepbua, wfaich did not appear till 
1Í2Í, the year aftér hÍB death. But bis chief work was 



^^^^^ ob4p. h] 



MAB<1UES DE SAN PHELIPE. 



261 



OH the War of Ihe Succesalon, Tho f^roat inlerest he 
took iii thc BonrbüD canse induceil him (o wrile ¡t, and 
the posilioü be liad occiipíed in tlio affaíi-B of bis time 
g'ave hira umple tnatcríala, quite Wyúnd Hie reach uf 
í^lhcrs les» favured. lie caUed it " Coinmeritaries i>n tlio 
Wiii- of SpaÍQ, and üistory of its King^, Pbíhp the Fifth, 
ílie Courageous, from tlie Begiiining of his Heipn to 
the Tear 1125 ; " bnt, althoiigb the compliment to his 
sovereJg-n impÜed oa tlie titlc-page ia faitlifuUy carried 
thmií^h Üio whole narrativo, the book was not publistied 
wiliiout dilKculty. Tlie tírst vulumo, iii folio, after being 
pi'tiited at Madrid, waa BupprcBsed by ordei' of the kirig, 
out of re^f-ard to the honor of cectain Hpauish families that 
bHow to little advantage iii the troublc&otne timos it re- 
corría ; eu that the earüeat cütQpIete editíon nppcui't-d at 
Geiioa witlioiit dale, but probably in 1T29, 

It is 3. fipirited book] earncst iii the cauao of Caetilü 
agairist Catalonia ; but Btill, iiütwjthstanding its parlifliin 
cliaracter, it ¡a the dost valuable of the contetuporury 
accounts of the everits to wbich it relatOR ; nnd. iiiitwit.li- 
Btaiidiiig it has a good doal of the lively airof th»? Fit-iich 
mernoÍL'S, tbei) so miich rn fashion, it Íb Bli-orifrly iiiitrki^U 
with the oíd Spaniísli feelingfB of reb'giou and loyiilly,— 
feelingB which thiB very book proven Ui hiívt; purtly Hiir- 
vived the getieral docay of tho natiunal chunicttn" dtn'iiijf 
the eeveiitecnth ceiaturyj and the couviiÜHiuriB tliiit liad 
ahflken it at the opening of the eighiowith In niylif ll. Ih 
not perfectly puré. Fcrhaps tokeiis of its authoi'ii iiixr- 
diuian education are saen in hie choiüo of wordM ; and 
certainly his pninted epigrammatic pliiattoK utid Heritauooii 
often show, that he leancd to the rbetürituit dncttiuí^H i»f 
Gracian, of whoni, in his narrativo püv.m, wu Hfn that In* 
had once bcen a thorongh disciplc. But tho Uiimmoutiv- 
ríea are, aftcr all, a plcaBant book, and ubuund Íti Uflaíln, 
given with much modeBty wherc their authnr m perinirinlly 
coíicerned, and with apicturesquoiiosB wítich btihiiij,'-!* iinly 
to the narrative of oue who has beeu an actor iu the 
Bcenes he deBciibes.^ 

1 "LíB DoH ToTiliM, BU A'liln «eribi w Marqaíi «le San PtiPllpü," ote-, -iw. pp, 
OoUivjuí, por D, VIiMDW BogilUu j Sauía, i:s, niüiuoí date, üut IIwdmiI lll». — 



262 



DÍFLÜENCE OF FEASGE. 



[Fertod EL 



But when we Bpeak of Spanish literature in the reign 
írewii in- °^ Philip tlie FiHh, we mufit nCver forgct that the 
flneDoob ¡Ftilueiice of FrancG was gradually becomnjg- felt 
in all the culture of the couutry. The masg of tbe peo- 
pie, it is truc, either took no cog'nizance of the coming 
chatige, or resiBted it ; atiá the new government wilÜngly 
avoided whatever might seem to offend or undervalue 
tlie oíd Castiliati apirit. But París was then, as it had 
long beeii, the itiost refined capital in Enrope ; and the 
courts of Lnuis the Fourt&enth and Loiiis the Fifteenth, 
necesaarilj" in iiitimate relatione with that of Philip the 
Fifth, coitld Eot fail to carry to Madi-id a tone which waa 
alrcady spreading of itself into Germany and the estrome 
North. 

French, in fact, aoon begun to be spoken ia the elegant 
society of the capital and the Court ; — a thing before 
unknown in Spain, though French princesseB had mora 
than Oüce eat on the Spanish ttirone. But now it waa a. 
compliiuent to the reígning' monarch hiniBelf, and courtiers 
strove to indulge in it. Pitiltaa, under pretence of luugh- 
ing" at hiniself for following the fashiuu, ridicules the 
awkwardness of those who did so, when he saya, 

And French t talk ; ut lenst ¡cnough to knoir 
That nL'ither I nqr oífier men inori! sJirewd 
Clin coiriprchcnrt tiiy words, tlioiigli stíll enilued 

With püw-er to luiso mj- huavy S[iaiiisíi dough. 

And Father TsEa mukea himaelf meny with the idea of 
B man who faucies Ue has married an Andalusian or Oaa- 



" HonarchlB Hebrta," Hiwlriil, 172T, 2 tmn., 
«o, Bn Haya, Uii, i Inm., l^nnu. Ven 
baokB are mere rlult, -^" Corntutnrios deln 
Querrá de Espatia Lobíh. el Ano 1T2S," 
Oenoa, no dntp, 3 tom., Ata. Or Ihe Isal 
fcbí^rc \lt íí ponr coatí □natSün, brlEi^nf; Lhc 
hio-tury doKii to VH-2, eniiúeS., " Conlinuií- 
Clan ÍL los CcmemarlDa, ec.^ por D. Jn§i^ph 
díl CamiHi HjiíiD," Maslrii, lT66-e3, a 
tora-. Ka. 

An jDnporíiiiat ncirk ícit the hE»ü>rj of 
8|ianlel] Piiiiitinjf a|ipeared In ITIS-ITS^, 
wljicb wnuM lie fntíy naticei) h«T« ir It 
wiiti: Dot HO HI-writ[í.'[Sj "bul n~hiclL, vvíl] 
auch íix ií \^, shnulrl noE he eaiLlrely pKaiíed 
orar, It li b; Airiarlo Antontü PiLLanilnQ 
j Tclíícii, "lliu Vaasri of SjiBÍn,"^»D 



Brtiat vho vas buni In \Sbli. and illcil In 
TIW. It i» In tvD raliini-:3 fnllo i Ihe last 
belní; dÍTÍdi^ lata ttro pu-U, and in fanliu- 
(ícíilly enliUcd " EL Museo Pictórico j 
E«cala Oiitica.,'" be^lnnlDs wüb un nccniínt 
of Palntlng as an Art, und enilinjr nlEh 
Iilren oí Ihe Bpanlsb Palillera. An ampls 
account «r tti> BUllior and of bis »i>rk 
CDíij be found lo Ceao BcrmuileE, (Dicclo* 
narin, 1900, Toai. IV. pp. SB-41,) and» 
bIIII belter une Id Stlrllii|; (Arrl&unf Spaln, 
1848, Viil, m. i.p. 3120-1134). Can, tn 
hlB ir ilogii, «jKiiitia taiidírly of Palntnlue'i 
liad Lasb!, rernoniburins, uo iluiilil, huw 
muuh he inrifd lo i)l« dlllgenin!. Hr. BLtr 
II afi-, ton, gnuselUlls iLckoovledg«t hli oUU 
galit-Da. 



chap. n,] 



LDZAN. 



263 



li^tsaoL 



tUian wife, and ñnda out that ehe proves little better than 
a Frenchwoman after alL' 

Tmn£latioDB from the French followed Üñs state of 
things ; and, at last, an attempt was niade to introduce 
formally üito Spaiii a poetical sfBtciu fouiided oti tbe 
critical doctrines prevalent iii Frauee. Its author, Ig- 
Tiauo de Luznn, a geatlcman of Aragoii, waa 
born in lt02 : and, whüe Btiil a chitd, went to 
Italy and received a, learned edncation in the echools of 
Milán, Palcrrao, and Naplca ; rcraaiiiing abroad eighteen 
jCars, and eojojing the societj of sevcral of tbe nioet 
diatingQÍshed Italíau poeta of the time, amoiig' wbom 
were MaJlfei aud Melaatasio, At last, in XT33, he re- 
turned to Spainj a well-bred acbolar, according to the 
ideas of scbolarahip then prevalen! íü Italy, and w'itb 
a BÍTi¿,'ular facility in writing and Bpoaking Fronch and 
ítalian. 

ÍIíb perBonal aíFairs and bis native modcBty kept bioi 
for same time in retirement on the estates of bis family 
íq Aragón. But, iu tbc coiiditiou to wbicb Spanieb lit- 
efHtüfe was tbcn reJüced, a mati of so many accomplish- 
ments cauld liardly faíl, ín any poBÍtiou, to make bis iiidn- 
ence felt. Tbat of Luzan soon became perceptible, be- 
canse be loved to write, and wrote a great deal. In Italy 
and Sicily be had piiblished, not only Italian poctry of lila 
uwn, bat Frenth. Id bis native laxiguage and at borne, 
be natui-ülly went furüier. He translated from Antkcreon, 
Sappho, and Mutíseus ; be fitted drumas of Mafíbi, La 
CbauBBiée, and Metastasio to tbe Spaniab atage ; and be 
wrote a considerable number of sbort poema, and one 
original drama, " Virtue ITonored/' wbicli was privately 
represen ted in S^ragosss. 

Wbatever tie did waa well received, bwt little of it was 
pnbliahed at tbe time, and not raucb baa appeared eínce, 
Eis " Odes on the Conqueat of Oran " were particulaily 



I Piíilli!, sufra. lita, A loi que, de- author, la rs-MlvIng aatíriíaJ wlKleo as lo 

BenieTindn ael CanliEtfr Eupaiial, Afmun h:» kípuhai:, he U colü ; "Thv nniitH Fub- 

■tr l^tTBJigírM. Ríliiisea, p. lis. Xlie Iüb ie aKriiyg Uib bísC. Wrlle, Iben, In t,b« 

nubion contiuuca iDun írr lean tltraugb tlis fAal;lAt>Hl>l£ fllylc, ^ ChnL if, tht Frrnck," 

wh^L? psñed:. In nta, whan & joaag Ciuta de tonkcutiilos, Moiírli^ nS9, 

BLUí, «ha li Id dftUK^r of bcCt^niLiig an p. 9II. 



264 



LUZAfí. 



[PBnidn m. 



admired bj bis fríetids, and, thougli aomewhat cold, niay 
BtíU lie read wiMi plciisure. Tht'se and otíior composi- 
tions made hitn Itnown to the govemmciit at Madrid, and 
proGured füi* him, in IHÍ, tíie uppointmeDt of Secretary 
tq the Spanish Embaasy &t París. Tiiere Le remained 
tbree years, and, iij coneequence of the absence of the 
ambaesador, actcd, for a large part of the time, as the 
only repreaentativB of his country at the French conrt. 
On hi.B ret-urn hoin€j he contiatied to enjoy the confideiice 
of the king ; and wheo he died sudderdy. in 1754, he was 
in great favor, and about to roccive a place of more con- 
setiuecice tbíiii any he ha,d yet held,* 

The circumstances of the country, and those of his own 
education, pueition, and tastes, opencd to Luzan, as a 
crític, a career of almost assured aucceag. Everythíng 
was 80 eiifeebled and degraded, that it coyld offor no ef^ 
feetual resietance to what he might teach. The polítical 
impOrtance of hiñ COuntry amOng the oations of Europa 
had beeu cniehed. Ita moral digaity waa inipaired, Ita 
school of poetry had disappeared. The oíd system of 
thing-B in Spain, eo far as g-eneral culture was concerned, 
had paesed aw&y, no leas thau the Auetrian dynasty, with 
which it had come in ; and no attempt deaerving- the oame 
had yet been made to determine what sbould he the intel- 
lectua! character of the eyetem that ehould follow it. A 
Bmall eíTürt, nnder sucfa circumstaTicea, wonld g-o far 
towards impartiEig a deciaive movement ; and, in literary 
taste and críticienij Luzan was certaitily -wel] fitted to 
give thít gniding impul:ge. He had been educated wilh 
great tíioroughneaa in the pñnciplea of the claseical 
French schoiíl, 3Jid he poseessed all the learning necea- 
Bary to make known and support its peculiar doctrines, 
In 1T28, he had offeied to the Academy at Palermo, of 



' LalHSBUi, Dib. Nuevo, Tam. V, p. 12, 
and frerncu t» tiie üdltiniii or Lus9.q'b Po- 
4lii::l, hy his. aon, JTSB. TTIb. pontrg 1\ttt 
üBime bt»n collucUd and pu!ili«lied, buL 
partloii& uf it are fouud in Sedano, Qnioj^- 
íB.ím^ tte. Tbe -wtav^ ha rectti?(3 ut Lhe- 
opc-'ahLiig vi Ihis Acaút'mj uf FLjie A rlR, In 
1752^ bnd pDbüshed D.L p. SI u' the ^^ Abcr- 



cceaston {Msidria, rollo) i and tho similar 
jmeiua raciCürl by lilm n.1 a ilisirlliiiilou »r 
priícfl by tbc Bame Afiailemy, In 1754, and 
pubitsheri In Hii-ip " Kplncion," lUc, (Hi,- 

ilriíl, foiin, pp. 61-6],;i pvoyi) Tailjer tb« 
(ilgiiUy oí his B'Wiui ijoaíffno ilisn sayiiifng 

Filie. Lnlaiía. glvea a Icig BMQHDl til bll 
u,i3pyb|IglL^ VQÍMt 



1 



CnAr. n.] 



EAULT TREATTSES ON POETRT. 



265 



which htí Wiis a niember, six cntical discussiona pq po- 
etry, written in Italiaa ; so tliat, wlien he returti&d to 
Sjjain, he liad oiily to tiika these papere and work them 
iiito a fürmül treütiee, aaited to wliat he deemed tba 
preesiiig wants ol" tbe couutry, H» did eo ; — and the 
rostilt was his *' Art of Foetry," thu firet ediíion of 
which appeared in 1137. 

The attempt was by no ineaaB a, new one, The riües 
6nd doctrines of the aticients, in mattei-s of taste E„iytrpii- 
aiid rhetorio, had frequently tiefore been an- ^^J^" '■'^^ 
nouüced and defended in Spain, Even Enzina, etry. 
tlie oldest of thoae who regarded Oastíiiaa poetry as an 
art, waa not ígiiorant of Quintilian and Cicero, thongh, in 
his shurt treatíee, whíuh síiowa more good eenee and good 
taate than can be claimed from the age^ ho takes subatan- 
tially tho same view of hie Gubjeut that Don Enrique 
de Villana and the Proveníala had taken before him, — 
couBiilering all poetiy chiefly "with reference to ita me- 
uhanical forma.* Rengifo, a feacher of graiumni and 
rhetgric, ivhoBe "Spanish Art of Poetry" dates from 
1692, confines hiraself alinoat entirely to the atrnctnra of 
the verse and the technical forme kuown both. to the eider 
Castiliau style of eompoeitioD and to the Italian intro- 
dnced by Boscan ; — a curions disCuBsion, in wbicb tbe 
authority of the ancienta is by no meaus forgotten, but 
one wbosB cEiief Valué consists in what it containa relat- 
in^ to the national school and its peculiar measures.* 

Alonso López, commonly called El Pinciano, — tbe 
same persün who wrote tbe diiU epic on Pelayo, — went 
fürther, and in 1596 published hía " Ancieat Poetícal Phi- 
losophy," ia which, under the die^uisO of a frieudly cor- 
reapondeuce, be gives, witb much learning and Bome acute- 
nesa, his owii views of the opinions held by the ancient 
masters on all tbe modea of poetical composition.' Caa- 



i tt la prettxed to thf edhtlnn ol Eaílna'i 
Caikcboncfo, 14*04, ToUn, niid I Biip|K>Be lo 
tlia «Lher eilltltm» ( «Qil 011* olqe tíllH 
<ill»|Hiirs. 

6 " apk Peé'ií^ Kapuñola, bu Autor 
Jgm piM Rbnjpifo," SRiBoiarn!», isoí, +io, 

CUbirgea, hgl n(.t inopr«i-efl, In the eamení 
Ol lino, n37, Bto,, by Juaupli VIoíoh. n 
TOL. III. 1¡ 



ooiktalna ji Dktlamir? oT BlifiDKflf nhlah 
Moritln tha YnaiiBer, In hi* "l>5rcotn <le 
les teüdOKs," OTS», p- i'i,) intuuWei wia 
Al) Iro-p^itA-"^ feoDUTve for ILu pueu of kild 

Htne- 

' " E'llUíi^iililliB Aotl^Q Poéllcn üh4 
IJIOCE'Or Alnn^a Ljp«z PlcirLjLucí, Mídloo 
Cesáreo," SlBilrU, 15(10, Jtn, 




2QQ EABLY TEEATISES ON POETRT. [Period ÜL 

cales íollo-wed híin, in 1616, with a series of dialognea, 
Boniewhat mure familiar than the grave letters of López, 
and reBting more on the doctrines of Horace, whosQ 
epistle to tbe Pisos he afterwjirds publiabed, with a well- 
wrítten Latín comrnentary.* Salas, on the contrary, in 
hie ■' New Idea of Ancient Trag-edy." ivhicli appeared íd 
1633, followetl AiÍKtotle ruthcr tlian any utlicr authority, 
and illuetrated his disCiission — whicb is the ¡iblost in 
Spanish literature on the side it suBtaina — by a translsi. 
tion of the " Trojanae " of Séneca, and an address of the 
thoatre of all ages to its various audiencea,' 

All these worba, however, and three or fonv others rjf 
lesa conseriiience, aBsuiued, so íar aa they attempted to 
laj their füuudatioiis in phíloaophy, to be built on the 
rules Laid down by Arietotle or the Rütnau rhetoriciaua.' 
Id thia they committed a serious error. Anciont rhet' 
cric can he applied, ¡d all its stríctüCSB, lo no iDodem 
poBtry, and least of all to the poetry of Spaia. The 
Bchúol of Lope de Vega, therefore, paSHed over Lhem like 
an irresistible flood, leaTÍng behind it bardly a trace of 
the dikee sud dams that hnd been rai&ed to oppose its 
progresa. But Luzan took a dsflereat ground. His more 
iiiniiediate predeceaaors bad faeeu Uraciau, who defended 
tbe GongoriHHi of the preceding period, and Arílg-a, who, 
in a loiig tteatise " On Spanish Eloquence," written iu 
the bailad measure, bad seemed wilHng to encuuragt; all 
the bad taste that prevailed in the beginning of the eigh- 
teeiith ceutury.'" 



I "Tablna Puítlcsa ilel LImdcíeJo Fran- 
oIboo Cascaleg," 16LS. Ao ííIíCíud al Miu 
ári'l, lT7t), Bva, conCnlne a Lífv of Üi«- 
HUthi-rhj Maj-ansj Sisear. Cmusleg Is pre- 
■uniLilimuí i^noniib tu re-arr^uiüe SiirKio'» 
"■Ara Poellca" Lu whM be regiráa aa b. 
bctti^r ordtn 

9 ''^ Nueva Idi^n de la Tra^^nlla AnCíg^ua,, 
ó IllastroctoQ nitlniB, al libr-D SIn^LiLr dn 
PorÉlDaide Artstllclpa, prjr Tynn Jii^¡ie Kíit. 
ODnt;nle£ Ae Sulu," Miutrid, 16Ü3, it¡¡. 

< Of Lbe truBllBC or Arf^oLe ilo Itnilitn, 
prefli?il lo ¡ilH Eilitliiti nr t-he "Omid" Lll- 
Aautir,^' 1Q16, ncd oí Uie po«m or Cuuvit^ I 
hMieKpaVea(ante,Zi«7r1¡l.C2't. A itnaU 
tnwt, OaJIed " LlhFDde BruilEalnii ÍqíUbiv," 



pQbliBliFd in the nurlii uF Luí» CarrlUo^ 
IGll, anil leTCriil ot Che eplsilee of Chriii- 
tuTulde Meas, IdlB, calght lia iiüiUd ; butJ 
thi- IbsI ara of lililí' cainii^u-^acv, and ÜM| 
tract of Carrillo Is Id very ba-d unte, 

l-Li GractBU haa beeo niitlüeil híi ibla val*- 
ujiíe (p. SJí). Tlie >' Epitome de la Blo- 
i]iit^ncla Eapüiiiola, por D. Frnncbco Jv- 
B(.'|ih Actign, iillm ArUciln," viu licanied 
in 1T25, iiu[3 coiilniíts nbarr tUirtucn ihuu- 
Hmd Hüti ; — a truif Hillduioua liook, but 
of suine oinsequi.'iicf.' lu sUoirlng tbn tuW 
of tha age, cniM-eUlly lu palpll orntorj 
A atlll moro riiliculnos trcsilae, lial o. 
iJinrter iiue, ud LcjrlB and Natur»! PIE 
lalopb;, loUuwed \a i;&&, It wa>«riUeq 



Orat. ü,] 



LTTZASfS POÉTICA. 



26Í 



Luzan took no notíce of either of them. He foUowed 
the poética! systera of Boileau and Lebüssu, tkot, x],eír>ítica 
indeeii, füi'g-etliiig the masters of antiqulty, biit ">' ij"Mn, 
everywhere accommudatiiig- hia doctrines to thcj demanda 
cf modera poetry, as Miiratoii had done just before him, 
and enforcing them by the esample of the French school, 
tlien of more authority thiin auy uther in Etirupe." Hís 
oliject, aa he aflerwarda explained it, was " to hring 
Spanish poetry urider tiie control of thoM precepta whiuh 
are observed amung- polislied natíona ; " and hís worfc íb 
arrang-ed with jüdgmetit tO effect bis purpose, The Erst 
hmib treats of the orígin and nature of poetry, and the 
secofid, of the pleasnrc and advantage poetry brings with 
it. Tlieae two books constitute one half of the workj 
and hivving said in them whatever he thinks it necesSary 
to say of the less important dineions of the art, — Buch 
as lyric poetry, sntire, and pastorals, ■ — he devutes the 
twD remaintng bi^oks- entirely to a diBcuseion of the drama 
and of epic poetry^ — the fornaa in whích Spanish genius 
had lung been mqre ambitioua of excellence than ia any 
other, A stñct method reigiiH through th& whote ; and the 
Btyle, if less rich than is found iii the oider prose-wi-iters, 
and lese bo than the geniue of the languag« demanda, is 
cleaFr simple, and ettectíve, In explaining and defending 
hia ayatera of opinions., Luzan shows judgmont, and a tem- 
pérate philoBOphy ; and his abundant illusti-ationa, drawn 
not only frora the Castiliari, the Prench, the Greek, and 
the Latín, bnt from the Italian and the Portng-iieñe, 
are eelected with escellent taste, and applied skilfiílly 
to stretigthen his general argunient and deaign. Por 
its purpose, a better treatiee could hardly haré been 
produced . 

The eÜect wa9 immediate and great. It seemed to 
oGTer a remedy for the bad taete whlch had accompanied, 



in populu' — I ralüht my ynlrat — teíOl- 
-dlUu, bj blnily, t)oñ.a llarin-ie Campare- 
deulo, xíKl 1i cull^. "Tmludo Philcnophl- 

11 Blsnra imilic (Uíe hf Tham. 1M5, 
8n^ T^. I, ji- 21) ññj9 Lderd boFTDw^ lo 
fr?ely rrom lluratnrl, " DcU» PerTeita Po- 
Hla," IhM tbo Spuiliti treotiíe belpml 



bim (iSr. Whi<«> mBlcrJill; in lüarntAg la 
rsad the Itollao nav, Bnt Lumti ÍUM not 
in &di coplrd from Marutorí 'i'Lh íb^ Dik- 
jusdllHlilB frcvdoD] thii n'ruark ImplLEai 
t1i[»ip;li !he h&* odupted Mamlsrí'B ^Bticrd 
>7!t?iD, wIlJi nbuiiilaiit acbDOHicdEiiient 
■ud cftf:rtacai. 



268 



LOW STATE OF SPANISH CULTDltE. [PamoD IH. 



and iti no smaU dcgreo hastened, thie decline of tTie na- 
tiúnal litcrature fnim tLe time oí GÚTigf>ra. It wns seiiíecl 
on, tliereíure, wilh eageniess, as tlic book that was 
■wantcd ; and whGti to tliíe we add that the literatiire 
of the a¡fG of Louia the Fourteeiith, which it Leld up ub 
tlie riiodL'l íifeniture of Christendom, ví-a-b tlieii regurded 
throug^lioul Europe with .ilmo«t vnniingled n^dmíratioo, 
■WD eliall riot be Burpriscd that the "Poética" of Lu- 
zaa cxercitsed, frum its Sist appearance, a coutrúlUug 
aiithority over opiuioijs at the cuurt oí" Bpaio, aiid over 
tbe few writefs of j-eputation then to he foiind in tlie 
coiiiifcry.''"' 

Somethiug piore, however, than a rcformation in taste 
waa wanted in Spain beíore a Bufficieiit foundiition could 
be laid for advanCúment in el&gant literalure. The Com- 
moQeat forrnB of trnth had beeo bq long escludcd from 
tbe coiintry, that th& Iiüman mitiid there seemed 



Bi^uhciS- to have piued away, and to have becouie dwarfed 
''"^* füf want of its appropriate nourishment. 



AU 



the great Bcieaces, both moral and phjsical, that had 
been for a hundred ycara adyancing with an accelerated 
apeed everywhere else tbroughout Europe, had been una- 
ble to forcé their way through the jealoua gnard wliieh 
ecclesiaetic&l attd political dcBpu'tieini had joined to keep 
for ever watchiiig- the passes of the PyreneeB, Froni the 
days of the CoTiíuneros aiid tbe Keformatioo of Lutherj 
when religious secta begaa to discuss tbe autliority of 
priiiciis and the rigbte of tbe peoplo, and wben the pun- 
ishment of opinión became the settled policy of the Span- 
ish State, everytbing in tho ahape of instmction that was 
Bot approved by the Church was treated aa dangeroue. 
At tho uní vera i ti ea, which from their fünndation had been. 



13 Ttie Cret eJitiiin of ílie "Poíncí."of 
Liuau naa prícted In fuLla it SaragmiH, 
Id 1!3T, wiLb long mA txítuotiWatx} cer- 
tiñcfllcH ot approbiulDa ^ty Ifaram> aoiE 
OB-lllDFn), two yA Lbe author''^ frlctiile- 
Tlie aecnnd edilion, mut^ri^ly InipruvvtL 
by BildicEnnji fnrm Ihe oiniii-iiU-TlpCs of 
Liizan, aftcr lili ¿«alh,, vbb prlnled ut 
MndriiL, in :! tiiDi.,,Svvi, íd IT^fi. Wlieu tba 
Cnt ed ilion atipe>ii«d, it kbs much ¡iraiBed 
In Ibc " DUrEo ú« Va Llteraluí " (Toai. 



Til., 1Í39) ; but, aa (nne of Iba revlewers, 
Jaui de IrÍ3.rte, n)io wialjt the latlvr purti 
t-r Che hrCicle, muli 8. km vicc|iLIiHii tu 
lil» gCTicr^ ci>miTii;Dc),&LloDa, LoEan, wbo 
7?B.H mare AC-[i§tl1ve tkaa he needed tu be, 
repitcd fik R. BDioll bllter Iract, ünder Üyo 
OAiav at Ui]j,'o üe Laaiizn, Pumplono, 
flT40i^ l'íiDOj pp. 144, ivtlb GumbrouB. hod 
jem-ptd □otes by ODliceuB.rFa, Lq wbom tba 
tracl. Ib ded3ca.Wd. 



CiiAP. n.l LOW STATE OF SPANlSIÍ CTJLTUBE. 



269 



eutírcly ecclcsiastícal corporations^ and were iised con- 
Btuíitly to build up eccleeiaetical influoncoB, no eleg:aTit 
leariiiiig was fostercd, and very littlc tolerated, cxcept 
Bii{;li aa funiished meaos to form Bchnlaatíc ChurcEimen 
and faillifiil Catholica ; the physica! and exact scienccB 
were carefuUy excJuded and forbidden, except bo far as 
they coiild be taiight on the anthority of Añatotlc ; and, 
as JovcllanoB eaid l)oldlj in a. memorial qü tbe Bubject to 
Charlee llie FonrlÍ!» " eyen medicine and jurisprndenco 
wyidd Imve been neglected, if the jnstincts of men had 
pci'rnitted them tn forgei. the means hy which life and 
property are prytected." ^* 

The Spanish univerBiticB, íd fact, still taught from the 
eame books tbey had used in the time of Cardinal Xime- 
Dca, aud by the same Toethods. The echolastio negmaed 
philoBophy wiis stiU regarded as the highest ""íeofUw 
form of merely ¡utcilectual culture-. Diego de «loee. 
Torres, ai'terwarda diating'U:iahed foi- bis knowled^e in the 
phyaical eciencea, — a man boro and educated at Sala- 
mftnca in tbe firet half of the century, — aays, tbat, aí'ter 
he had been uve ycars ín oue of tbe schools of the Cni- 
verfiity there, it was by accideat he leatned tbe existeiice 
of the mathematical sciences." And, fifly yeare tater, 
Blanco Whitc declavea, that. like mnst of his countrymen, 
be ubuuld have coinpieted bis studics ín thecijogy at the 
University of Seville witliont bo much as bearing of ele- 
gant hterature, if hu had nyt ch^mced to make the ac- 
quaiiitance of a person who introduoed bim to a partíal 
knowledge of Spauish poetry." 

Tliufi far, therefore, the oíd syatem of thinga waa tri- 
umphant, and the common forras of advaucing tnowledge 



^ Ccaa !lL>-r[nu(^OK, NüiziDrla! Ji¿ JnvellEL- 
JUK, HiLflrlil, 1S14, L2mu, cup. i. p. S'Jl. 

1>\t'ga Se Torrds VíIIütiieI, Madriil, 3TSS, 
Itn ;.^!Lii ii|;Ui'blit^ra[iliyf «r1lti?n la Che 
wyr^í vipits ur tb-e t\aií}^ i- e. a.t)fliut 1743. 
Di' lULya iT It irínlise nn thi; S-iihure, l'j 
Piulrc €Livl>i : " Ct»! i]\x-t Tue la prlmfra 

qtic hiLbia iknuiai ma-tviDilíEiu ca el 
hnuikiSii," CP- 31') 'I^^ leomed Bnj-er toóle 
ad ídUiíusc In tbe mavumsnt l«r celarm. 



and ¡iivpsi«d a limjt memnrlSil U> tbe klng, 
eclltled *' Pul la Libertad &K la Lltf-nittiFa 
KKpanuli," ui-pDilDi; Chv InwaUtG at Lhtln^ 
in ÜiE great ii)il«rs.lllPii of tlie csniinir)'. 
Thla waB In ITOfl'. In 3771 «orne refonn 
wu biiguD, Hnd tD 1T73, iiogvIlhBiiiiiiaiiig 
lhi."sevi¡r;ri.'BÍBtanCiíoriíiecolli'gw,Dhjiiiifei 
we-re effíotpd, irliicll, UoviLvir, tnr a. long 
liiní, were litdif i;lliieilv>^- Bec Lhü Span. 
iiti Translatiob uf (LIn Piatury, Tjud. ly 
p. 3119, 
u jfobUdo'B Latan, 1S22, p- LIS. 



¡NO 



PETJOtf, 



[Pbkiod in. 



werc, to an extraoTÍinary and alraost incrediblc degree, 
kept out of the country. On the other hand, errors, fol- 
líes, and abaurditiea sprang np and abountted, 
iiíte'nf ¡-^1- juBt os euiely aa darkiiess follows the exclnHÍon 
QiMouture. of lijfht. Few persone iu Spaiti iti the begijniing 
of the ei^'hteeuth centurj were so wíll informed as not to 
helisre in astrology, and fewer Btill -doubted the disas^ 
trt>us influence of tomets and eclipses.^^ The syatem. of 
Copemicus was not only discoutag'ed, but forbidden tf> be 
taiíg^ht, on the grniind that it wae contrary to Scnpture. 
Tíie philoaophy of Baei-m, with all tho consequences that 
liad fulhiwcd it, wae üiiknOwii. It was not, perhaps, true, 
that the healing waíRra of knowledge bad been rollod 
backward to theír fountaíu, but no apint of power had 
descended to trouble them, and thcy had iiow been kept 
stagnant til! life waa. no long-er in thcín, and bfe conld 
no longor be siipported by them. It Beemed as íf the 
faculties of tbínking and reasoning, in the better sense 
of these words, were eitber about to te entirely loat in 
Spain, or to be partly preservad only io a few scat- 
tered individúala, who, by the civil and eccIeBÍaatical 
tjmnny that oppressed tliem, would be prevented from 
dilTusing even the imperfoct light that they themselvea 
enjoyed, 

But it could not bo bo. The hnman mind cannot be 
perraanently impTÍsoned ; and it is an obvious proof of 
tiñt consolíng fact, that the intellectual emancipation of 
Spaiii was begun by a man of no extraordioai-y gíStñ, and 
one whose position gave hira no estraordinai-y advantages 
fur the undertaking to which he devot&d bis ufe, — the 
quiet monk, Benito Feyjotí. He waa boru in 
167tíj the ehlest bou of respeclable parents in tho 
nofthweatcru patt of Spain, who, contrary to the opin- 
ione of tbeir time, díd uot think the law of primog'eniturG 
required them to devote their firet-bom wholly to the 
duty of Bustaining the hanora of bis family, and enjoy- 

" In LBM, in the iilltelal l^laLlim or Ihe la ii\ieo at Üiq s¡4e ot jitl «MIUaUj detBUed 

üHiCtiDoaleB at tüe laKtinWA at Philip IV. accOant nt that iDnita.r«h'd ^Adiul derar, 

Üia pT«e4lln|C yenr, v/e buiíe a dcloilcd tmm Iñftí^ hj dleease. MonfciH», H-uDHil 

Ascounl at lh« CunikL of 1904, aa bíTlax a Pellpe IT., Madrid, 110, 1606, IT. 19-SiL 
Vinouucoü tbfet iDciDBrch'i death i buL It 



FeyJiKl. 



obap. n.j 



FETJOÓT 



211 



ing tlie iiicorne of the oatatea he vras to iiiberíl,^"' At 
the age of foiirtcen, his destinatíon to the Chucch waa 
dutcrmiued upou ; but be lovod Btudy of all kíada, a.ud 
a|>plied biniaelf, iiot only to theology, but to tbe phyaical 
sciuiictís aad to medicine, so far as meima were allowed 
hiin in tlie low etate to wliich all intellectual culture 
was Ihün suiík, As early ag 1117, h» establi&hcd liiin- 
aelf in a Bencdictine convent at Oviedo, atid lived tbcre 
ibrty-aeven years in as striut a retiremeiit as his diities 
periiiitled, occujiied oiily with bis studiea, and relyiug 
alnioRí eutirely on the presa as the meaue of enlightcning 
his countrymcn. 

His personiil cbaracter and reaourCCs, in sonie rOspCCtS, 
fiíted tiim well for the great task he had undertakeii. He 
was a sincere Gatbolic, and thferefore felt no diaposition to 
interfeve even witb abuaes that were protected by tbe au- 
tboi'ity of liia Churcb ; a circuinstance witbout wbicb he 
"would certainly bave beeu etopped at tbe very tbresUülíi 
of his enterpriae. Hia mínd wub strong and patient of 
labor ; and. if, on the one haud, his researches wCro re- 
Btrained by tbe embarraas mente, oí" his eccieaiaatical posi- 
tiun, he liad, ou tbe other, obtaíiied, what few Spauinrds 
thcn enjoyad, tJje meaus of knowing miich of wliat had 
been díine in Ita!y, in FranCe, and even ¡n Englanil, for 
tbe advancoment of acience during thü centnry precediag 
that iti wliicb be was educated. Above all, he waa 
huiiest, and Hcnipulously devoted to bis work. But, as 
he advanced, ha was ebotked to flnd bow wide a gu-lf 
Bcparated Iiíb own country from the reat of Europa. 
Truth, he saw, had, on many ímportant Bttbjeots, been 
Bo completely excluded from Spain, tliat ite very exist- 
ence wan bardly suapccted ; and that, wbile Cervantes 
and Lope de Vega, Oalderon and Quevedo, had beeu riot- 
iug- unrcatrainod in tbe worid of imagínation, tbe aolemn 
^rorld of reality — thé woild of moral and physical 
trutb — bad been as much cloaed against ioquiry aa íf 
his couiitrj had been nu [nat-t of civiljiíüd Enrope. 

" PejjndoIftrB, Id hIa '"TeaEro Ccítka," mcmurj, bb a moii uf ¡Dtdl^ttul ÉMom- 
füunt. IV. Dlsc. xir. ^ BE¡, ed. 1T59, pp. pltulimenta and of great Ohñatian, vir- 
ll'i, 413,} a erserfal Irlliulc ti> tle ñithc'r'a luce 




2T2 



FEVJOIÍ. 



[Fertod m. 



At times he aeeniH to have been anxiouB conccrning^ the 
reeult of liie hibórs : but, on the whole, bis cnwríig'H did 
iiut fiúl hlm. He was nut, íutlued, n rnuu of g'enius. He 
1VR& not a man to invent new BystetnB oí' metaphyBÍca or 
philostiphy. But he waa a learned mau, with a cautíoua 
judgment, aomewliat obscured, but Tiot really ímpaii-ed, 
hj religiouB prejurticesj froni whjcüi he cyuld not be 
expected to emancípate himself; he waa a mao -who 
iiuderstood the real ¡mportance of the laboie of Ga.li)eo, 
Bacon, and Newtfjti, of Leibnttií, Pascal, aiid Gussendi ; 
and, w^hat was of vastly more COaSeqiienCe, he was de- 
terniíned that hía own conntrymeo ahonld no loQger 
remain ignorant of the advaocemeut already made by 
tho rest of Chriatejjdoai utider tbe ¡niluence of maater- 
spirits like Iheae. • 

So far as the War of the Succesfiion had served to 
rouse the natíonal chatacter frois ite lethar^y, and to 
direct tho thoughta of Spaniards to what had betín done 
beyond the Pyreneeg, it was favorable to his purpose. 
But in other respecta, as we have seen, it had efTected 
nothíng for the nationat culture, StJll, ■when, iu 1T26, 
í'ejiot' printed a volume of eesayB coaneuted with his 
niaia purpose, he waa able to command pnhlic attention, 
and was encouraged to go on. He caüed it " The 
Tmiro CrUical Theatre ; " and iii ita differcnt dissertar 
' tions, — as scparato as the papers in " The Spec- 

tator," hut longer aad on graver aubjecte, — he boldly 
attacked the dialectics and metaphysics then íanght ev- 
erywhere in Spain ; maiiitained Bacon's eyetem of índue- 
tion in the physícal sciences : ridiculed tho g-eneral opinión 
ín relation to comets, eclipses, and the arts of niagic and 
divination ; laid down mies for historical faith, which 
would exclude raosÉ of tbe earíj tradítions of the conn- 
try ; showed a greater deferenco for woman, and claimed 
for her a higher place ín societj, than the inllucnce of the 
Spaiiiah Chuvch wíÜing-ly permitted her to occupy ; and, 
ín a!l re9|]ecta, catnc forth to his countrymen as une urg^ 
inp tariietítly the advancement of education, the pnrsuit 
of truth and the improvement of social Ufe. Eight Tol- 
umes of tliie atÚTÍng- work were publishcd before 1139, 



Cbkt. U.] 



FETJOtí. 



273 



and tlieii it atoppcd, without any apparent reason. But 
in litó Feyjilo began a similiir aeries df diacuBsiüns, undor 
the líame vi " Leamcii and Inquiring Letttírs," which he 
fimtilied En lífiO, witU tlie fifLh vühime, tíius cIohíii^ up 
the long señes of his truty philunthropical, a,s well as 
philoaophical, lalncirs. 

Üi' course he was asaailed. A workr called tli© " Anti- 
teatro Crítico," appeared early, aod waa soon followed 
by aiioth<Dr, with nearlj the Siime tit]ú, and by üot a few 
ecattered tracts and volumes, dírected againet difTerent 
portions OÍ what he had publifihed. But he was quite 
able to defend hiinself. He wrote with clearness and 
goud iastc in an age wheti the prevailing style wae ob- 
flcure aiid aQecíed ; and, íf bü fell occaBÍoTially iiito Gal- 
lici&nis, from relyíng much oii French writera for hia 
mnterials, hjs tnistakes of thia sort weie rare ; and, in 
general, he prcsented bimself in a Castilian costume 
that WHB reepcct;ib!e and attractive. Ñor was he with- 
out wit, which bis pru-dence taught him to use aparingly, 
ftiid he had alwaya the energy which belt>nge to good 
Benae and practica! wiedünj ; a unión of qualitiea not 
often fouud anywhcre-, and certaiiily of mo&t rare occur- 
ren«e in cloisters like thoae in whicii Fejjoií passed bis 
long life. 

The attacks made on him, therefüre, served e!tie0y to 
draw tü hi8 works the attentian he soHcited, atid in the 
end advauced híe ca\ise. ¡ndtead üf retardiug it. Even 
tbe Inqnisition, to which he waa more than once de- 
noanced, summoued him in vain before ita tribunalB.^* 
Eíb faith coüid uot be qiiestioned, and hia cause waa 
Btrong^r than they werc, Fiftcen editious of Líb priucipaL 
work, large ae it waa, were priiited in half a ceotury. 
The excitement it prodqced went on increasing as long 
aB he lived ; aud when he died, in 1T64, he could Look 



U LtocBnlí, HliL lie Tlnq^ rran. n. p. 
ÍM, It msjr In (letmiN] warlh]! oT dotise, 
thst Ollrer OutiIiiniLh ¡tayí íb uppniprliite 
tribute lu ihe aietlu of Knthi^r F(>jnií, and 
relalM un iifiecilnte i>f liia atiDWlna; tlns 
peaplí ol B. tilla);; l.hTi>it)¡1i trlilDli hu liaip. 
peaed Ui 7IE1BI lime «Lut ibíy o.lvi^cuiE^il a 
cnlracl? wiu, [n irutb, uiily B. natural rasult 
13* 



to I iuiiiin.iinj rrnm ihs Inqulaitlon. (" Tho 
B«," No. IFI,, Oct. 20, 1169, Mlícelkneoiu 
Wiirks, Loiidon, 1813, Bvo, Vol.lV. p. IM.) 
Bul ¡irier fejjnu's fltatli, Itie ÍTiquiallJiíii 
nrüi-raü "Uly B triQlEg eapurijatlDn of t)lB 
"Ttutpo CpiUco," tn ntie pesajige. IiulBi, 
lIW. 



874 



FEYJOÚ. 



[Pebiod m. 



back and seo that he had imparted a movenient to the 
humao mind tii Spaiii, wliic!i, tliou^b it waa far from ru¡B- 
ji!g Spaitish philüsopliy to a level witli ihat c<f Fiaiice and 
Kiigland, liad yp.t giveii it a, right direction, and done 
naore for the intellectual Ufe of bis country than had been 
done Ibr a century." 



1» TfiE "Teatro Crltieo" and "Cuclai 

Hu>y liFuvotieil, ñll lirtTOii aud aiitiiL'>lLini;R 
BtitGEii viiliLinei> Tli« itlltlnii at 17T8 ha» 
p Life o f Fvyjm' |ireDipi1 tu it, urillun 'by 
CiiB][ioinHiisii, tlif- illgelngtLlslieiJ DiliilBt«f 
q( Blsír und»r Cliurleí II I,; ILu »¡UDv 
persoii vlki\ ari Cbo-L]nuii[in.tioii nf Fr]Lükli[], 

PJill^jes^hlciLl &«:lt;ty a.t rbiEadi;l[ibl&, sad 
irh'> wruW Iht: irlsv " Discurso Bubrí la 
KducucioD popula de \''t Ait?BBJiQS 7 bu 
FntiicnUí," 1TT&. Clemcacln. saj^ Crulj'or 
VtrJM, thiM " to blA enligiitebed acil k- 
|[gtim« uliiú la riue che nvenhTOw or rnRiiy 
Tuigur tifiín, iiiul a. great parí ni th4 
prugr«sa In ílvilktiiUan. nuiae by S|)¿la lu 



tba elEblpenUí CEntur;." Note tu Ihin 
qulxuU!,T'FUi. V.,ls:ifi,p.3B. Id h Bulug; 
fiTuDotiiiciHl en hím Bnun aru» liia deatli, 
ve are tuld tlia.t Lb moa uí B ^hvrrrul ani] 
etun Kiif Icmpur ; aud thut, t-esEilv» de- 
cUnini; levenil ■^ocl(«LIBUml |iroiii(itloDi 
flnd di^DÍtií», he reTus-ed tii^ ptnrjEnaK r«^ 
queflt of j'^.'TdlDO.Dd VI, to ISv^- Lo Majlríd, 
líi[iLlilag rl^lillf Utat, tn bis coiiTenE kt 
Orleda^ b<! coull betCer úevoie hlnitlí M 
tlic j^tU bulE of Ma iifü, — Ibt; eullgliutl^ 
In^ hls cciinb'jinen. OrucioD en lu Uní- 
T e-ral d;i4l de ÜTlcdo, ST di; Noviembre, 
1704, A la Immortal Ui:moiía del lluacrii- 
■imn j BerercndiBalinn B. P. 1^. JSeoihí 
O^roaiBiii fcrJod, p«r el S. DncC. ¿.Iod»» 
FnuiGldGb AfdDga, K., Oviedo, iw, Uíi, 



CHAPTER III. 



IKTOI.&BAM0B, OBEDULITT, ÁXD BIQOTST. — BBIGH OF FESDIHAMD 
THE eiXTH. — BIQHS OF IHPSOTBHSNT. — LITBBATITBB. — BJtI.Áf 
DUEÑA. — ItORALEJA. — AOASRHT OF OOOD TABTE. — TXLAZQOBZ. 
— HATANS. — NASAKOB. 



It can hardly be said, that, duríng the forty-siz years 
of the reign of Philip the Fiffch, the intolerance which 
had so loiig blighted the land relaxed ita iron grasp. 
The progresa of knowledge might, indeed, be 
gradually and silently accumulatiiig means to 
resist it, but ite power was still unbroken, and it« activity 
as formidable as ever. Louis the Fourteenth, in whom 
an oíd age of bigotry naturally eaded a life of selfiah 
indulgence, had couneelled his grandson to sustain the 
Inquisition, as one of the means for insuring tranquillity 
to the political government of the country ; and this ad- 
TÍce, not given without a knowledge of the Spanieh char- 
acter, waa, on the whole, acted upon with success, if not 
with entire consiatency. 

At ñrst, indeed, the personal dispositions of the kíng 
in relation to this mighty engine of state eeemed some- 
what unsettled. When it was proposed ■ to him to celé- 
brate an auío de fé, as a part of the pag^ant suitable to 
the coraing io of a new dynasty, the young monarch, fresh 
from the elegance of the court of Versailles, refused to 
sanction its barbarities by his presence. Bvea later he 
encouraged Macanaz, a person high in office, to publisb 
a work in defence of the crown against the overgrown 
pretensions of the Ohurch, and at one time he went so far 



2TS 



INTOLKRASOE AND TQE IKQL"ISITJON. [rEEiUPO IIL 



as to entertilin a project fur euspending the Huly ODice, 
or enppreBsing it ¡iltog'Pthpr.^ 

But these clispositicms were tcanaiocit, The Spaninli 
prieethooil early ohtaincd nontrol of the bing's iiiim!. 
DigniiT or When, during the War of the Siicceesion, Ins po- 
^"ip ''- sitíon liad bocome very precariouB. he issucd — 
iil order to gain strougth ¡n tlie heaxts of the peopLu — -a 
docree favoring the doctrine uf the ImuiECulate Concep- 
tion, always bo important ¡n thcir eyes, ; and, agaiu, when 
Ferreras, iii his painKtukin^ üietory of the cnuntry, vea- 
tured to docibt the geniiineriess of the miracle on which. 
rests the peciilinr saTictity of the Churcli of Our Lady of 
the PiUar, the Kiiig compellfii him to cancel the passage, 
and sent his edint to the ofFendpd Ohurch to be recordod 
as an exp!;ttirm. The deatli of the qneen. m ITli. which 
plunged híni into a deep raelancholy, fiírthor contntuted 
to give power to the clergy who siirrounded him ; and, a 
year afterwards, when the Inquiaition took Erm ground 
again&t Macaníiz and the royal prerogative, the king 
yielded, and Macíinuz ñed to France. And fiíially, when, 
ír IVZi, aften- a few montlia of abdication, Philip rcsumed 
the leina of government, which he should nover Lave 
laid düwn, no siaall part of the increased energy with 
which he fulfilled the higb duties of h]ñ place was inBpiíed 
by ttie inflnence of the Churoh. Ab he grcw older, he 
grew more bigoted ; and jn hís laet yeara, when the 
accurtiulated power placed in his hands by the deetrnc- 
tion of the few remaining^ privileges of Aragón and Gata- 
lonia had made him a more absolute monarch than ever 
before aat on the Spanisb throne, he seemed to rejoice, as 
inuch as any of his prcdecessors, ín deToting the whole 
of hi8 prerogativee to advance tbe ínterest& of the pñest- 
faood.' 



I LlnrtDlf, HIil. de l'lEquIdJIEoc, T^m. 
IV., lalS, pii. 2fi, 13. The "Píipcl" or 
Muviiuii ta on ihe lodexaF tti»InqulB.!tloa, 

1 ■-' Lngubru DtuequlM. de La, UnlT^rsI' 
■Uid de Alcnlji, ea., i Hoh Flielipe V.," Ma- 
■Irld, I74T, itn, p. 33. Ttie pioua orator, 
Ifr. f ruDCÍaco Teejfla, d^clafes^ ChaL FblMp 
gslaed the Aeclalve vl':lat¡ or AimauBs. ¡a. 



yaar aflemsids (lT<)t) in con»er¡vtnet of 
Ihe dpcree la tní'íu oí the InnDuciüato 
CaticK[iiiou. The Lit was so doubt a, 
bappy our. Frocn IQIT, nlien thii d ogn», 

— tbat lli« MaÚDunii -naa, by diTiuc grsM, 
boro wHIieiit Iha Ifainaiiitiií i)risiiiiil Hin 

— WB3 cou.nlffi.Bnved h¡i u V&psÁ bnll, It 
vsB ftll-i»evBl«iit witli LhiSpBtii4tiCb»teb, 
vbere in bot IL Drlfiakted, Mabndr omU 



Ghap. II[.] 



TITE INQUISITION. 



277 



Biit, IVom first to la&t, there was no real relaxation is 
the intnlíírance of ihe Ohurcli. Tlie fires ot tlie Itiqui- 
sitioii hftd bumt as if Püilip the Second were on tÍJ9 
thfone, At least une au/o de Je was celebrated aiinuíilly 
in each of the seventeen tribunal» ¡oto wfíich the couBtry 
•WB.S divHcd ; so tliat the entire nuraber of theae 
atrofiüUB popular exhibüions of bigotry during '"" 
tlie roign of Philip the Fifth exceeded Beveu hundred and 
eiglity. HciW many persone were burot alive in them ia 
not exactly known ; but ít ia believed that there were 
more than a thousand, and that at least twelve timea 
that humber were, in diflereot wayfl, Biilijected to piiblic 
puiiÍBhniedta and dísgrace. Judaism, which had pene- 
tnited anew into Spuiíi, Irom the period of the conquest 
of Portugal, was the great crime, to be hmited down 
with a!l the íiigenuity of pereecution ; and Hndoubtcdly 
alt that could be found of the Hcbrew nation or faith 
wae now for the second time extirpated, as nearly ae it 
is possiUe to extírpate what conscicnce refnscB to give 
up, and fear aud hatred bave bo mauy ways to hidc. But 
sume men of letters — lifce Belando, who wrotc a civil 
hÍB!.ory of part of the reign of Phitíp tlio Fifth, whicfi he 
dcdicated to that monarchj and which bore on its pag-ea 



obtaiB K dígrEe at tbe üaiferntles who iIílI 
nol «nktDUtf avaír bis betlef ia it, and 
evHT] ¡D this PjLÍTiÜQif AcBdemj fonnied bj 
Mlirlllo aC ScTÜle BdmÍ!.Btagi n-RS graated 
oblir nnd^r a sLmtljkr coadltlDD. (Ford^B 
H&udliook, IM3, Vul. I. pp. 2es-:¡aí. 
Clíhd EErii]iid«E, Celful siilin! Ib t^^ruela 
S«irlllR.Da, ISmu,. Coilfa, 1306, p. 141.) It 
pethiLnltfd iDDltiüd icto the char&cter of Lbe 
vjiole puoplv.. I Tticatimber Lho-t, ir auQ 
peasaut mut aTiüthi-'r, or eiLtErt^J un-aLher'a 
catln^ü, vhpa 1 whb m Spaln, In lílB, be 
would somJ^ b; waj or eulutatiiip, "AVB 
Uarla i-urlHafisa," u> líbicli the me ad- 
dresied mude ango'ír, "Kia pecada con- 
oeblilA.^^ Ohaj|>efl lEI, iiaed cvi?TLlau3 fít 
Borae tu haré the Immacalpi-L'- C-ait^^ptioQ 
laaili? an nrtlcle i>t untv^fwa) FaHb, ^Ut 
f^\^ ; — \i\ií tra4^e'S of ll itn fuujid na all 
Blriv'B In tlic lltonituií i^f 9tiii,ln, nfiú, ra 
duiiM< rhllip V. wat irell djItIii':!! wbsa lie 
oEtu |t m a a«uQs at galnlDg popu- 
larity. 



Ai (o the paí'ísp'» in Perreras, Tnm. L 
and Tom. H-, thcy drew a lons itar til 
¡i3jap]¡\.vtí ahet IhEm, but Ab Ib»( Phtllp 
ende^ Ihe laatur — Deua ex mu;bliiA — 
hf bis rojal autticirit;, to Ihe Eraat sotia- 
FactloD or the Clinrcli, Bte " Antl-IlefenaB 
de Luis ite 3al[i3&r j ContinTiíLrloii tía |b 
Criáis íerrerica," Zaroii^oza, J73Q, Iti^^ pPr 
4, scjq., |ia4 aiuLhey'a ptiilijpiilar Will, 
4to, Val. T. p. 402, ñute. 

ín Jiiei, PJiiiip V. «eema W hwe fcwo 

CBiefiil te neiwiiHnailBW h.lni&alf (o Ihci 

8j>aulii1i liftbiif m\¡) tuH» fr^im tbt tíme 
b« wH ijb bis Jinm^-y co re«lTe bli 
CTflwns^tur from Bnywmc It wm íipa- 
eii4liy rcpiirto'l to Mndrtd, th»l h» wenl to 
Mwa* «.Dd "Ve9|>ef9 lii hHd weuihcr, ana 
tha-i ija ma liií llKk- v^-an utienilpii « 
bulI-HigUb, ReLaelDn de lo EnlnulA i]e1 
Ri.-y N. S. en Bujiiaii, oí„ Hudrid, iio, 
37 ilG Eiicni, ITOl. 

3« «liú Ta|>la^ HULorli, Vsm. IV. p. 33. 
Ban Fbulipc, Comen larJio, Llb. XIV. 



Í78 



FliltDINAHD TKE SIXTH. 



{l'BtUOD Itt. 



a\1 the reg-iüar pemiissionR to be prinlcd * — were pun- 
ÍBhíid witljout the prulence of being guilty of heresy or 
uobelief ; and raany more disappeaired from sociefy, who, 
like Mticanaz, were knowtt to entortain political opinioiiB 
oíFeüsive to the Cburch or the goíemmect, but of whom 
notliing clBe was briown that could reaileí thcm obnox- 
ious to censure. On the whole, therefore, down to the 
death of Philip the Fifth, the oíd allianee betweea the 
governttifint of the state and the power of the Chnrch. — 
an allianee eupporled by the general ¡teaent of the people 
— rauBt etill be assumed to have continued unbroken, and 
its Buthoríty miist atill be felt to haré bc^n Bufficieiit tO 
coeiitml all freedom of diacuBsion, and eflectiially to check 
and eileuce such jutellectual activity as it deemed d^m- 
geruua.* 

In the reign of Perdinand tho Sixth, wincEi lastcd thir- 
teen yeara, and ended in lTñ9, there ia evidently an ím- 
provemtíit in this etate of thinga. The seeds 
'bowii in the time of liin fatber, if le6S cared for 
and cultivated than thoy ehoiild have becn, wcro begin^ 
ning- to germtnate and disencumber themselTea írom the 
cold and hard Boil into whíoh they had been cast. For- 



FerilRBDdTi. 



* The Htatarj nf NicolJ* Jcsnt de Be~ 
lojkdü VA^ prlTited, la Ütres v(íU,¡ TitUa, hV' 
iiW[«Q 17>1H iiril 17Á+ But, I UilJik, ll waB 
only ITie 1b>l írjlumí!, whidí 1r,vn3itil chí 
erenlB from 1713 iv 1133, ^faat vaa ordeired 
til 1w (Icntrcij'vil, aniI rjtn uor hucilty b« 
ruitQil. IL waa puMiaheiI JaiDC 20, 1744-, 
■.ikI íuppreased SejiL 6 of tlie ssinf ytMr. 

* Llurente, ülil., Tum. II. [ip. 420. U4, 
TüEc. IV. p. 31. The itma ni lAaxv\Atí Ate 
oot «u prectiie lU thej ouglií Ui im, bul 
aLLjtblu);' np|in)iLL:!b[[3^ his rtsulm Lh ur 
piriBL ti^arñil Jm]iDrt- fn u pun^ibBmt, lian~- 
ever, prínied lia 1^17, {jib íi^ ileclar^H Lii Kla 
Jilltublojfniíjhjf p. ttügj li« a«§erl3 ttiat, 
ÍKtvineií la^O iLDd iilA^ ÜieTü peiiahed !a 
Iho Hrea at Lhe InqLdaktiiiD ti.1\eeD liuEulrtd 

tbíiusuuiL nlnQ ^uTkilrtMl aduI nioetj-^ehgliL 
mure were !ulil«!ted ta úpgriulinir punlBli- 
ID?nls, IDUklnil ft gruncl toLiJ oí rourteen 
thokiüitDd Uiri* liHmli'L'd und sixLy-four 
TtPtim*, uf WlliCii 'lie üfíeeiL iiuiidrKd Jiüil 
MMiily-sIght bamt «Iítp niust #tl havo 
palah«4 btnwiítii IWO wd 17^1, nban, u 



iré ihall NelDl1ieae]ttchspCn,lho 1a«tTlib 
titn nos imincilaltd. I pmgmis Uii' nlQcIxl 
'' KE'lariuoeB " hjÍ Auíob faílil In (Jniiiiidji, 
Dec, íl, 1720, aitd Nuií. M. 1T21, IjivuIt. 
Idj;: BÍnítj--C'¡ghL citUfB, TiLnrlf-sLx uf nhich 
iFi'K Juvrs.iir stluE^ ^ ^^ BUcb ; som« or 
irtiDia it«x» banit hIívv, vhile mme had 
Ib-tlr dcad boaüi dan "P ud^ buTnt, nnd 
tl-i- resC nuru cuniLi.'innerl lo pt^riivLUBl Im- 
lirisunnieDC und VHJioui Iseesr pnnisb- 
iai.'ata ; — u, EMálogaü ot horrun glroD 
villi an air iiT ibo ULost JiLillclul i^mutnna 
bul] Ruiliohly, a» Lf ttn mercy e.ad irUdoin 
wtre sJtkB unqueftíunJilile. 

la a book called tlie "Hlelory of th« 
Jewg of Spatn amd PnrtD^I/' bj E. H. 
LliKlii, (London, ISJÍI, Sti], p. 296,} ik tha 
(oIlowlQg strotig BlítPiíieiiL, whi«h I csuoot 
gttlosoj, ftltliough II surpriaeí. ra-ii rery 
miitrb z ^* the bloodj' n^cords ot Ehi'- In- 
i^Ulftlt-I^D Blale not a aliii^le icnLu^L^ ciF th« 
33clirGW pecple aicLíug JrrewTenLlJ lu Ihe 
CHllialio iTQiEhip." If lliia lu trun, tbs 
Jecr? 1kI]iív«1 bettcr, or at LeosE oiüiw 
d49(!rBeUy, Ihnn Üit PtolesUtata dld. 



osAT. nt.1 



Fl^RDINAKD THE STXTH. 



'iT9 



eign intercoiirse, espectaíly that with France, brought in 
uew ideaa. Perreras, the carerul, but dull, aiiiiolist of hia 
countiy'a hístoiy ; Joan de Triarte, the active head of- 
tlie Royal Library ; Bayer, Lis learoed succeesor ; Miij- 
ana, who bad a, passion for coUectiü^ atid edititig liooks ', 
and, &bore all, the wiBe and niodeí^t Father Feyjoó, b.id 
tiot labored in vain, and still Burvived to see the resalta of 
their toils.' 

T>ie Charch íteelf began slowly to acknowled^ the 
irresistible power of adTancÍQg ínteEligence. amd the la- 
quisition, withont acknowledging it. felt its influcuce. 
Not more thau ten persoDs were burut idive in tbe time 
of Ferdinand the Sixth, and these were obscure relapscd 
Jewa;- — mea who&c fate ie as heavy n rpproach to tbo 
Irjquisitioii as if thej had been more intellígent and dis' 
tinguished, biit tbe exampLe of whose punishment did uut 
strike a terror such as that of the djnng Pioteatante nnd 
patriots of Aragón had once done. The persecutious of 
the Holy Office, in fact, not only grew lesa frequent and 
cruel, bufc became more Iban ever subeerviciit to the pol¡(^ 
icol authority of the country, and were now ehiufly exer- 
cised in rdation to Freeinasonry, whích was kiiown nt 
this period in Spaín for the first timo, and citused inuch 
nneasiiieea to the guvernment. lí«t the policy tif the 
átate, duríiig the reign tif Ferdinand the Sixth, was ¡ii the 
maiii pe.iceful and healing;. Efforta, not withoiit mici'OMa, 
were tnade to collect inateríalB for a history of tlio couii- 
try frora the earliest times. Spatiiards were rtciit ftltruiid 
to be educated at the public expense, and foroigtiürB wei'o 
enconraged to establieh themaetvee in Spain, imd tn ilifi 
fuBB the knowledg-e they had acquired in their own moro 
favorod hornea. Everything, iu sbort, indiuated a spílít 



> JüAti de F«nwAi, the «ni; odb gí thit 

aambit Wbil hm ílilt alrcady heen Euf- 
fldíQtly ñoUCBíl, irse- bom jn 1963, uid 
dkn] In llSb. Bit ■' niítflrla >)« Esuuñn" 
ras fine tinbli^hed betwecii tlOO nml 17311, 
in 10 Túlil,, -ita I B dull boirk, aud diiu El:i4vb 
ros EUncb B.a9nilpd Jit Ihe LTriir, hiiL wlilrh 
la boiurnt jiDd trust vanhy. Ho wni& iu 
OTDCHt dffi^nder of the jirelciLi^Dni nt 
Pbillp T. tu thB DroirD, HUd wt-ols two ahurl 



troett tú iMlAhí Ibfita ; — on^ «nllUn'l 
*-' DMnbiiiüii Oalolite.," and tlia iithsri 
■'Dj'umyaíibpúlllka.''' Uut, excvpl <Iivn 
6Uii n tew ftlher «Hiiliiiua and iiuiltlmj 
jHiQipliloW ol IIU1* vttlnu, hí prliibiit unlli- 
lii(¡ but Ji!b niAtfiry. EloiJlP 1" ■I"»" '1» 
FiirriTjLi, Di'miinilt' la Kiiiil At'nd<'liiln.i-D., 
hfotmdf Ib. (Jmtilfllon dn- la mlírrn, ivir 1>, 
bliu AuluiUo Nautra y Yortit, MMürld^ 
1T3B, íto. 



280 



LESS raiOLEBANCE. 



[P£BIOD UL 



of chanffe, if ¡t did iiot g¡\'C prooT qí mtich absoluta 
prng^rcas.' 

The direction oí the literature of tbe country, towever, 
líti™ in ^^^ ''''<* aame ít had taken frora tlie begínning 
^'rl^líi "^ '■^"^ cejitury. Sli^ht, but unsatisfactory, at- 
nunavi. tempte eontinued to be made to adhere to tlie 
forma of the eider time; — Buch attempta as are to be 
Been in a long narrativo pocni by the Coeint Süldueña on 
Ihe (iubJGct ol' Pelayo, and two vory poor ¡mitationa of the 
"Pura Todoü " of Moutalvati, oue of wtiich was by Mo- 
raleja, atid the other by Ortia. But the amomit of what 
waB undertaken in this way was very Bmail, and the im- 
pulse was conatantly dímíuishitig ; for the Frcnch echool 
eiijtiyed now all the favor that was given to any foria af 
elegaiit literature.'' 

In this respect, a fashíoiiable aociety, called the Acad' 
emy of Good Taate^ and connected with the court of Ma- 
drid, exercieed eome influence, It datos from 1749 to 
1751, and was intended, pprhape, to rescmble 
a«] Baca thoee French cofe/ies, which began io tho reiga 
Quito. ^f Lm^¡g jijg Thirteenth, at the Hotel de liam- 
bouUlQt, and were long so ímpoi'tant both ín the litsrary 



1 NoÜnla (tul Tlsse c)«Eiimdb heob» d-e 
Orden dol Rej, por L. J. Vclangara, M.h- 
dríd, nSS. 4ta, piaaim, Llon^itr, Tom. 
IV, p. 51. Tapia, Tum, IV. 11.73. 

■' " El Pülajo, Piieiii& de D. Alonso de 
&i>1Í8 ITeIcIi lIv Canluiui Bmli-iRues de las 
Tnrilliin, Cfliidf ile SuMuentii" se., (Mu* 
drid. 1751, iln¡) (wrlTe caiiUis lo «clave 
atniíEUS, wrilWn ¡a Uie miuit arf-ctfld B-tjle. 
— Jcissph Mj^rnkl», ■" Kl Butretetildo, Se- 
Biiniln Partí " (Mnulrld, 1741, 4li>> ¡ n con- 
Hiiuatioü DJ [ha -' EuCrotcnido " ul SaDclií's 
TfJrtnleí, cnniHlnIng tlia anuuHnuut» ot n 
HCKlctj-nffricnda ftir tourdayB, — enlreme- 
ííi. siurii'B, odda Hiid enila of p-wtry, aetn)- 
□amLi!»1ca1ciilnHüiLa,eÉc,. a atratige and ab- 
mrd mixture. Ba.i;rLH. (HtjrtB de Mwlrid, 
Toia. IlL [I. 81] liBs B llfe of i]i« BUbhnr. 
The " Noches Alejrres "' jf Isidro Fr. Ortii 
Oallarda de VlUaro^l, (Bs-lajnHnca, ITB3, 
átCy) ta a abortcr boak, and iiearlj sM In 
c-crae. butti un* ircirllilfsa. 

I hñve a lireat muny bmajlsld^s BTid 
other cihlbEtloDS or llie pupulsr ¡aate and 
helEDgB boltroCD 11(Kt aad líSOrnciBüg 



tlie reat, wbove tw«nlf on Ui-b Bconwbo nf 
fenllnaud VI. In 1746, NuÜLÍag of CbA 

awL cnu wíII be irorae. Tli-ej rlchly da- 
serve tbe censuK cairt on them by Melen- 
des Vnliles, wbo, Iti a BiH-ecfa delIrFred 
uten he wai attorncj-Beiieral, proposed 
to Biippres» BU«b publlcotlariii by Iaw slt» 
ítthiT, and tu revive, InetcBd ot thoD, hy 
mcina nf the Atjuiemy nr ulÍJfT ijnvcni- 
meatal machi iiei)-, a balUfl-apI rit and 
b&llHjla like ihoae cT iJic ai^Ll^euili and 
eEvendfciilli fenturíea. The piirprjae waa- 
laudalik, hiil tbo mcsDa mure |>íei.k»l tlian 
irise or adequate. Tbe people 'ivíEj nlTTaya 
bave Bur^b a papular literatare aa aulta 
UiEiU taalc aod ciilturf, and the same Bort 
ot JitcoTia and roTaancfn viUffurrx were- 
prLated id Bpiüii Ld tbc: raiddit uf the Dhle» 
BeeiiLh ceatiirj tbat were prliiled then 
irben l^elenden rebiiWed tbem^ Aud half & 
ccnLory earller. Bul- B-a BcTiool ot JtaaUf 
shikuld he beid re8.pBtksllile for Chcif flnU 
Deas or their eE[rB.VFkj^iiiicea- 3ee Dli-' 
eursoB ForeuBeB, di* MeloiifleK Vald^aj 
IS'Zl. pp. 13), ai¡i]. 



Ciukr. m.] 



VELAZQUEZ. 



2SI 



and poliliciíl hÍRtory of Franíie. Tlie CountesB of Lemoe, 
at whúse hcnise it met, wae íts foHiidpr, and it gradually 
ranked atnoiig its niomberB eevora] of tbe mure ciilti- 
vatcd nobiiity, and moat of tlio IcaJíng; men of Ictltra, 
Biich aB Lu?,ai], Montiano, who was its secretarj-, lilas 
Nasarre, and Vclazqiiez, each of whom waa kriown, 
oitliiír at tliat time or bood afterwardti, hy ]jíb publialicd 
worka.' 

Except Luzan. of wfiom we bave airead^ Bpokcn, Ye- 
laKqiicz waa tbe moat dístinguialied of theJr number. 
He was descended from an ald aiid noble family, 
in tlie tíoiith of Spain, and waa born in 11212 : ^ ""^ 
but, frcim his paeition in society, Le pabsed moat of 
his life at coLirt. Tliere he beeame involved in tlie polit- 
ical truublcB of tbe reiy:n of Gbailes tbe Third, in cones' 
qnence of which he Buflered a long iiupriaonment from 
IIGO ty 1772, and died of apoplexy tbe same year lie wa& 
releaaed. 

Velazqnez was a man of talcnt and indnstiy, ratber 
tban R man of geniua. He was a niember nut only of the 
principal Spanisti academiCB, but of the Frcncb Academy 
of Inacripíiona and Bellea Lettres, and wrote several 
works of learning- rclating t.o the literature and antüplities 
of bia Cduntry. Tbe only one of them now much valued 
was puliJishcd in 1754, undcr the titíe of " Sources of Oas- 
tilian Poetry/' iif wbich it Íb, in fact, a hiatQry, comin^ 
down to his own times, Or Jiear to them. It is a, sligbt 
work, confiieed in ite aiTangement, and too ehoit to de- 
velop ita subjcct satis factoi'íly ; biit it is written in a 
plain Btyle, aiid occaaionaüy sbwwe acutencss iii its criti- 
ci&m of iiidívídnal autbors. Its chief fault is, tbat it is 
devoted to the French echool and ia an atíerapt to carry 
out, by mcana of an historical disCuRííion, the- doctrines 
laid down neai-ly twenty years before by Luzan, in hia 
theory üf poetical compositiün.' 



* Iiuiui, Arte PoíClüa, fd, ItiD, Topn. T. a Clermnu tritnBbtlnii nT II lii 1T39, with. 

pp, irix-, etc. coplia-? and T;iluEL]jk' nol'^í, nhEch more 

B |jUÍ3 Jrra^pph. Veliiaq^iipEf ^^ Qrlfr^neB do ll-iáu dunililü?, onL anly thu lliic «iT Lile orí^t* 

In PcK'sla Caatclliins.," M4B.pi, nal, ita, nal work, huí Lia HTitlh. The Lile af V'fc 

pp. \J&. J. A- PI-^V, f)i" wnea Profeenur laiqnei, whu B&a Murqiilis iiF YaldeBam, 

Bl QUItiuevi), HtKl úiti 1(t 17ít9, jiulilialiGil Ibuugll Ke do» not BCBerull/ ulluila lo bit 




2S2 



MAYANS Y SISCAR. 



[Prriod IIL 






Mayana, a Valencian geiitlemen of learning, and an- 
othcr of thíise wlio had a considerable iiiüuetice 
011 Spíuiisík [itcrature at this pcriud, fullowed a 
similar coiirae iu his " Retórica," whích appoarcd ín 
nóT. aud 18 foundtíc! ralhcr on the philoaophioal iipin- 
iona of the Román rhctoiidanfl thati on t)ie moditication 
oí tliuae (ipitiioiis by BoUcau and his followers. It íb a 
long ¡ind very ciimbrous workj Ichb fltted to tho wanís of 
tlie limus Ihan that of Luzao, and evcn more oppoaed to 
tlic oíd OaBtiliari spirit, wíiich suljinitted fio un-willingly to 
nilep of any sort. But it m a etoi-ehoase of uuriuus ex- 
traets fmm authors belonging to the best period uf Span- 
ÍRh líttírature, alinoat alwaya selected with good judí^- 
rzient, if iiot always akilfullj applied to the inattcr uuder 
discusBion." 

To llieRe works of Muyang, TelazqueZj and Luzan 
should be added the Preface by Naeavre to the plajs of 
Cervantes, in 1149, where an attempt is made to tidíe the 
authnrity of hÍ8 great ñame fi-om tlie gchool that prevailcd' 
in liÍ8 tírae, by Bhowing; that these HijBiicceBaí'ul efibrts of 
the autlior of " Don Quísote " were only Cítñcaturea ridl- 
cuÜTi^ Lope de Vega-, not draraatic compoeitiotie intendod 
íbr eerions success iu tlie extiaTap;aTit career which Lope's 
versatile geniua had oponed to his coiitempoi-arioa. But 
tbis attempt wj.n¡ a failure, and waa onty one of a long 
Beriea of efforte made to diacoiinteTiance the oíd theatre, 
that must be uoticed hereai'ter." 



titia ia h]3 üiiHUilíd warkB, ií t4 1k ftAiaa in 

Bemiwrcy Ounrlnos. HÍI)., Tola. VI.ji. ISB. 
H ílrcgorla Ms^ann y Biaetir, irhi' nn>lo 
ojiil ediLrd a ^rcnt iaa.uy bikciha In Ln.tia 
&rgH SpadíaIi^ vob bortk ¡d lti9Q, odJ dicd 
Id mí III» llíe aiiii a. lltit n{ lila nacki. 
mís lje miiic »Lil rrurn tho unllcfl ncimanb 
of SlmeDo, Totdi II. p. SSli unil íuií*t, 
Tdic. II. p. 38. In b'it " actorloa" he han 
heüu -reís lingiiiy Id taliliis uhiilco liIM trom 
Üie oíd CüDcliiDvnii] Ocotriklo:!. 



II TltflK WSfl n MTBM snswer rnaae at 
once lo Bina Naaarre, by Dou Jraeph CíJ- 
ríllo, cntifed '^Sin BJHua ImpDBiiAIlBt" 
4U>, irSQ, pp, 35 1 bíaiiei which, his PYií- 
qce WBH Bttjicked by Bsn T. ZabíiluW, io 
lila "DlBcnrBo CíiLeó," (W., <4U>, HW, 
pp. asa,) which ¡A a gsncral, luose duranca 
or Ld|ib nuil hi» Sthool- BLt Qeitti<ir WU 
neoded. The tliBefJ oí .Naisam "M tM 
ábaaiá to nJn adborecita. 



OHAPTER IT. 



StOW rROGSEBS OP CÜLTUJÍE. — CUARLES TtlS THinn AND iiri 
POUCt. — IBL*. — ms FRCA.K OBBÜSD. — HI8 CICEBO. — H18 0JL 

Bi[.4ll. B.FFORTS TÜ HEBTORB TUJt OLÍ) BCUOOL OF PWBTIIT, — 

IIVEKTJ. SEIIANO ^SAHCHBZ. — SARUIEMTO. — EF>~QnTS TO IN- 
TRODUCE VME FREKCH H^UHOQL. — MORATIN THE ELDEII AMD HÍS 

GLUn. CXnAHALaní, TSIAKTE, BAUAHISQO^ AK&OYAI., MOIÍTEKOOJf, 

6ALAB, MgkAS, SÚKOÍfA. 



Tbe reig^n of Ferdiimnd the Sisth, which had "been 
'marked with littte poKtical energy during ita continuance, 
was aaddeued, at ita cloae, by the deatíi of the monarch 
fi'OTTt grief at the losa of hia queen. Büt it ha4 not beeo 
witlifnit beneficia! iiiflufinces on the coüntry. A 
wise ecoiiomy had been iutroduced, for the first k^ •a 
time since tlie dincovery of America^ into tho '™^*''"- 
adiuiíiistratioD of the state ; the abueed powers of tho 
Church had been diminÍBhed by aconcordai with the Pope; 
the progresa of knowledg'& Lad been furthere'd ; aud Fa- 
thei* Feyjotíj vigOTOUS, thoug'li oíd, was edil permitted, if 
DOt «ncourítged, to go on with his great t^ek, and Créate 
a Bchool that should reat on the bcoad principies of phi- 
loBophy recognized jn Eng-land »nd in Fraiice. 

We ranst not, however, be mieled by aiicli general state- 
ments. Spain, notwithst^ndiDg halt a century of advance- 
ment, was atill deplorably behiad the other countries of 
Western Europe iu that intellectual Cultivation, without 
which no nation in modera ti mea can be prospero us, 
fitroiig, or hoiiored. "'Diere is not," saya the MarquÍ3 
Qf Eneeñada, in a report made as minister of átate to the 
king, — "there íb not a professorship cif'public law, of 
experimental Bcience, of anatumy, or of botany, iu tha 



ss^ 



OHARLi:S THE THIBD. 



i[Pbthod til 



ClDUilei, m. 



kÍTiíí"dom, We liave no esact geogirapliíca] mapa of the 
Country or ita proWnccs, nor atiybcidy wlio can make 
them ; ao tliat we depend on the vísry ímperfect mnpB we 
receive f'rom Fratice and Holland, and are shnmcfutly 
ignorant of liie true relatiuns and distanccs of oyr own 
towns." ' 

ünder these círcumstancoB, the accesBion of a prinLiQ 
tike Charles the Third was eminently fortnnate 
for the country. He waa a maD of energ'y and 
diBcernTneiit, a Spaiiiard by birth and cliaracter, but oue 
whom pylitical coniiectioTie had placed early on the tlirone 
of Naplea, whercj during a reign of twenty-four yeara, 
he had done muuh to restore the dignity of a decayed 
monarcliy, and had learned much of the condition of 
Europe outeide of the Fyrenees. When, therefore, the 
death of liis half-brother called híra to the throne of Bpain, 
lie cam? witli u. kind and degree of experience íu airitíra 
wbich fi.tted bira well for hia diatiea in ihe more importaiit 
and more nnfortunate kingiloni, whíifee destiniea ho was 
to control for aboTO a quarter of a century. Dappily, he 
seems to have c-omprehended )m positiun ft-om tbe first, 
and to bave understood ttiat he waa called to a great 
work of retbvni and legeneration, where bis cEtief coE»teet 
was to be with ecclesiatítical abuBOB. 

In some respetíta he was succesefuU Hia miniatera, 
lUida, FloridarBlanca, Arauda, and Campouianes, were 
men of abitity. By their suggestiona and a6«istance, hs 
abridged the Papal power ao far, that no rescript or edict 
from Home Could have forcé iu Spam wiíhout the es- 



I Ti,p¡B, HlitoTJa, Tom. TV. a. 1i. 

UriTiif cf tíís beHL materljLla frir ihs dlnlc 
oí rullurü in &]mJD, úurlng tbe rei^ uf 
Charir!» ITI-, Q.rv lo be Iciiiiiil In Llie ■' llllili- 
Gl«ca i1« \m MpjoroH i^itcriLnrefí ciel Rcj- 
□jula de Curlofi ni., ptjr Jui^n Seirtpcrp y 
«IiutIddí," Srndríd, 1T4S-8ÍI, B tnni., Sto. 
TTfn'n Lhc aiiLhor pul^ll^liL-íl ¡c^ h-e wflH. 
alJiul. llilrif-nvi! yenra oíd, hitvlrg tieen 
bnm ii] 1TS4 ( biit fií wBi iifU.Tw iinis itiiiuli 
inorv ilirfCin^'uInhen] as a po1il[cEkI irrtlfr, 
by liis " O'liierVftffIonea sifhrc Im CoTIOH," 
(1510,; hie "lliSWriaj!^ lue Cortea," (ISli.) 
unil ¡itler Inti'TB af Llu' sume !f.\aá. Iiiei 
Sa¡ ac^DDR'kdB'Ed irorlc trui u freQ creni- 



litinc, rrom Sliiral'jri, rf un esiaf, wltli 

aili1lllnn«, irhlc!!! bi! priiiCi^rl hC Marlriil, Id 
17S2, iik lllirio, »itb Ihe tilLe^ "Eobis «1 
Biieu (ÍLltitfi^'^ íeA wbich he acbampaniud 
by an -Drifetanl tract, ^^^bre el BtiVD CíUflU- 
scluol de loB EetiaüjlEBí en la. LitETutura," 
— thv limt l'tiD^ afL^mnnlB prellscd^ WíUi 
Blr?raliraB, tn bis ''' BiliHDlcoa." He vsa 
D dJllj^eiiLa.Dd ns^íiiil wrlt-er^ and died^ I be- 
Ijuve, En 13'24r Jl tímiLW vi>LuiDe, ^onEn.iaLEig' 
nnd«0 uC hiE life la tbe tlniE ntion U n|>- 
l>MiKd, i>ruti«ljl7 dtTÍTcd fnm cifiltrlAlt, 
furalalied by faimseír, waa priiiteiL bt Ua- 
drid, Vy AmaritL, íd. ISSlj 13tao. 



Ohap. IV-] 



OHABLES THE Tmitl>. 



285 



pressod asaprit of the throne ; he reatraitied the Inqumi- 
tioii Aym exercieiiig any authortty wfiatever, except in 
casps oí' obsthmte heresy or apoatasy ; he forbade thft 
Coiidemiiatiü» of any book, till it& author. or thoBe iiiter^ 
eated in it, had had an opptirtunity to be beard in ita 
defence : aiid, fiually, deerniug tiae Jesuits tbe most active 
opponents of tho reíorma he endeavored to üitroducej bo, 
in oiie day, espelled their wliole liody from hie domiti- 
iona all over the world, breaking- iip their Bchools, and 
coi]fi(5catiiig their great revenues.* At the same time, he 
cansod iniproved plana oí' study to be sng-gested ; he 
made arrangements for popular educatiun, euch as wero 
before unknown iii Spain ; and he raised the tone of 
iiJstryctioD, and the modea of teadiing in th& few higher 
iiJBtitutiüna over whi-ch he could lawfutly exttínd his con- 
trol. 

But many ahuaes were beyond his reach. When he 
appealed to the Universitieg, urg-iiig tbera to 8iiitóirfi.he 
change their anuicnt habite, and tcach the trntha D"홫íu*s. 
of tbe physical and exact Hcieucea, Salamanca aiiBwc^ned, 
in líílj " Newtou teaches iiothítig that would make a 
good ]og¡cÍan or metaphyeiciaTi, and Gassendi and Des- 
cartes do íiot agiee so well with revealed truth as Aris- 
totle does." And tbe othei üniversíties sbowod littló 
more of the spirÜt of advancement. 

Witb tlie Inqiiisitlúu his success was far from beíng 
complete. Híb autboritj waa reaisted, as far ae ji,^ inq„| 
resistance was possible ; bnt the progress of ■'^'"''■ 
iiiitelligeiice made all higotry every ycar Iosb active 
and formidable; and, wbether it be ari hunor to his 
rcign, OÍ" whether it be a. disgrace, it ib to be recorded, 
that the laat person who perished at the stalie in Spain, 
hy ecclesiaBtieal authority, was aii «nfortunate woman, 
burnt at Seville in 1Í81 for a compact with the Devil." 

Üuder the influence of a apirit like that of Charles 
the Third, durin^ a reign protracted to twenty-nioe 

í I.líirenW, n¡3t. cíe ITaqüislllan, Tutu. Tuin. TV. c. IB. Llórente, Tom^ IV. p. 310. 

IT. I^[lbiaIlu'9 LeLiBrt, ISai, Ajipeailli to The M»rqnia de I*Q(;lt, in hla " Voyai^ 

Lettt^n IIl. anii VIC. d'EspagDü,"- {s. I. 17BS, 12iao, p, 46.) saya 

■ Sempere y Úuarlnua., Blliliol., Tom. Itie pool irniaan bumt al SeiHIo ni 

IV., ArC i'JiUMi Ot EH-adioi. Tn-pia, "Jniuie el belLe." 



BEFOBMS ATTEMPTED. 



[Pkkiod ra. 



, yeare, there was a new attd considerable advanceraent 
ProirreBs uf '"^ whiitcvür tends to makc lite dcsirable, oí 
mseounti?. which the country on nll sides gave token. 
The popiilation, which Lad fled or dícid away^ Beemcd to 
Bpriiig Lip arresh iii places that oppLessiou had made dea- 
ert, atirt having rcgairied Bomethiug' undcr the first of ihe 
Bourbons, it utiw, under tlie tbird, recovered in part tlie 
Dumbera it had Inet in the days of the Houee of Austria, 
by wars alí over the worlcl, by emigration, by the perse- 
cution of the Jews and íhe expulsión of the MoriecüS, by 
bad logialatiou, and by the crnel spirit üf rcligious intol- 
erance. The reveuues in the eame period were increased 
threefold, without adáing to the burdens of the people i 
and the country Beemcd to be brought from a state of 
absoluta liaiikrqptcy to one of comparative ea&e and 
profipoiity. ]t waB certain, therefnre, that Spain was 
not falling to ruin, as it had beén in tbe time of Charles 
the Secón d.' 

But all iiitcUectiml cultivation ib bIow of growth, and 
all intellectual reform etill elower. The life and health 
ínfuscd into the country were, no doubÉ, felt in every part 
of its phyfiical eyatem, reviving and renewíng tiie powera 
that had been bo long waeted away, and that at une 
poned had seemed iiear to epeedy dissolutiou. But it 
was obvioiía, that much time tanst etill elapse before 
Buch healthful circuí ationa could reaeh the iiational cul' 
turo j^encrally, aud a still longcr time before they could 
revive that elegant literature, which is the bright, coo- 
Bumniate flower of all true civilizatioti. Yet light wafl 
beginning to be aeen. Xt was a dawu, if it wae uothing 
more. 

The first stñlting- elTect produced by this movement in 
tho reigna of Fcrdinand the Sixth and Charles the Third 

waa one quite in sympathy with the spirit of the 
(Etat cn natíon, t-hen resjatíng the cccleBÍasíical abuses 

that had so \oag oppressed it. It wafl an attack 



** iHpEn, Tum. IV., pp. 124. etc. Whon iLcimRl.ed tiu! tiiTeiJ millloRs snú A ~bAlíj¡ 

the l^mpECorCliiu-lcB V.cntne to th-eUimnc, h ninnrtrouB rdlliiR aff, ir no Con líder tbe 

Bpaia ODUnlEiI ten nnd a faulí mlllioDa or ad.vnni:eiii«Dt of Itie rcgi or Eiimpe dOi^lCiC 

BOUld ; bt tbe Lime uF Cbc ptuce of ülreclit., tlie aiimi: perioJ. 



ChAf. IV.] 



PADRE ISLA. 



28T 



yalJicr Islii. 



on tbe style of popular prcaching, which, orig^nally cor- 
rupteJ hy Paraviciiin, llie disdiigiiiftlieil folíower of Gún- 
gofa, luid beeii cuiiataiitiy fülling lower aud luwer, uiitil, 
at litst it Beemed to ¡lavc reaclied the lowest point of deg- 
radutíon aiid vul^arity. Tbe assailatit was Fa- 
ther Isla, wlio wus liorn ili 1103 iind died in 1T81, 
at Bologiia, whertí, bfing' a JesuH. he Lad beeii sent as an 
exile, oti tbe general expulsión, of bis Order from Spiíin.^ 
IltB earlíest publielied work, or ratber one to wbicb be 
cotjtiibuted, is the " Triumph of Youth," priuted íti 
1727, to give tbe Tiation au accouut of a festival, celü- 
brated that year during eleven days at Salamanca, iii 
honor of two vcry youtbful aaints wbn bad been Jesuits, 
and who had juat been canonized by iJenedict the Thir- 
teenth ; a gay tract, full of poema, farces, aiid accounta 
of tbe maakiiigs and b«ll-figbts to which the occasion bad 
given rtse, and coming as uear aa posaíble to open Butire 
of tbe whole matter, but yet with great adi-oittieaB avoid' 
iiig it." 

In a work eomewbaÉ eimilar, he afterwarda went fiíT- 
thcr. It was adeBcription of the proclamatioa made in 
1Í46, iit Pamplona, on the acccBaiuu of Ferdi- 
oand th>e Sixth, wbicb was atteuded witb Bucb Gminiede 
extra-vagaiit and idle cereraoiiiea, tbat, beiiig re- '^''*"''''' 
quired to give «omu account uf them to tbe public, he 
coiild not iTfrain from indulglnf^ iu bis love of ndicule. 
Biit he did it witb a satire so delicate and so crafty, that 
tboHO who were ha snbjects failed at tiret to apprebetid 
btB real purpOse. Ou the Contrary, the Conricll oC tbe 
proud capital of Navarre thanked hiña for the honor he 
had done them ; the Bí&hop and Archbiahop compli- 
mented him for it ; severa] persona wbom he had par- 
ticularly noticed sent him preaents ; and, when the irouy 
began to be suspected, it beoame & subject of public con- 
troversy, as in the case of De Foe'a " Shortest Way with 



6 Tilla de J. F. ile rglí, por J. I. Ja • Jutl-uíhií Triunfiíiilc, SsluinatiCB, 1T87, 

Salo*, Mudrid, 181)3, 12iiin ; íaá Llie Llfu 4la. Thit iilhur niitbiir iif üiLj «qnlb «M 

by Mi>ulau (irüñitül U -Úte vntf giyiú ao- Falhvr Loaoiilii. LelU-r ot bia lo hli 

iMli-oLig from lili «oTbH contened In ttie aiUdr, daled. 31 Ont., ITBl- 

filbllDlf^^n de Jinlar^ ^piñoles^ Tam. « 

XT., IBiÜ. 



ZS8 



ISI 



FERTon HL 



Hli Ser- 
muus. 



thu Disserilcre," wliellieT the praise bestowed were injest 
or irt eariic'st ; — Isla uU the tiuie defoTiding hímaelf wilh. 
adrnira.bl« iugenuity and wit, as if he were pereonally 
aggñevud at tiie iinfitvorable conetructiou put upon his 
cotapliiuenta, The discussiou euded with his r&trcat or 
csilc from Paoiplona.^ 

He was, Iiowever, stt this period yf híe life occupied 
with more Berioua duties, and eoon found among^ thom a 
highel" mark fur hia wit. From the age of twen- 
ty-füuc he liad been a Buccesefuf preacher, and 
contñincd eucfi nntiJ be waa cruelly expelled frütn his 
owii cciantry. Biit he perceived how littte worthy of ¡ts 
great subjeCta was the prevalout style of Spiínieb pulpit 
oratory, — how niuch it wiia deg-raded by bad taste, by 
tricka üf cotnposition, by coticeite atid puua, ana even by 
a lf)W buffoonery, ín which the vulgíir mt»nks, eeiit to 
prcai'h 171 the churchee or in the public streete and 
sq a aires, indulged them&elves merely to win applaiiBe 
from eqiially vulgar audiences, and increaae the contri- 
butions tbey &olicited by arts bo dÍBCreditable. It ía súá 
that íit first Father Tala was swept away by the cinrent of 
liis timce, which rau with esti-aordioacy forcé, and tbat be 
wrote, in Borne degreej aa otherB did. But he soon recog- 
uized hi8 laistake, and his numerous published sermona, 
writtt'ii betweon 1Í29 and 1*164, are generaily ujarked 
with a piirity and directness of síyle which Eiad lotig been 
uiikuown, and which, though wantíng the ricbness and 
fervor of the eshortatioos of Luis de Leon and Luis de 
Granada, would uot have diahonored the Spanísh pnlpit 
even in ita better days,* 

Isla, however, was not satiafied with merely aetting a 
good esaraple. Ho determiued to make a direct attacfc* 
Hi9 íray '^'^^ ^^^ abuBG itself. í"or this purpuse, he wrote 
OeniBdtu. ^iiat he called " The History of the Famoua 
Preaclier, Friar Geiund ; " a satirical romance, in which 
he desciihca the life of one of these popular oratora, from 



1" Ttía Qnijiile de NjivHtri, 2ji «1., Jíu- líQS-sS, O tuto,, iva. Vulgnr preaching 

drti, ITiii, ata. Semauario Ptntoreaoo, in Itie s-iputils iras cununiin at carly as 

1940, p. 130. logo, whtín Msdntne a'Auliiiiy wnx In 

> Tld&delBlo, J3. SfrmaiKB, Madrid, SpaJn. Vayase, ^3- 1^^. ^oi"' ^1' P- lU^- 



C^r, rv.] 



VATiHt ISLA. 



289 



hÍB birth ín an obscure villag'e, through liis eflucatíon íd a 
íashiojiablc coiivent, and (jís aJv^ntiirtís asj a iiiissionary 
about the country ; the fiction endiog abruptly with hia 
preparation to deliver a course of sermona iii a city that 
seema iriteudcd to rcpreaent Madrid. It ia wrítten 
tliroii^huut with great spirit ; and not only are the 
national miitinera and cbaracter everywhere present, but 
ia the GpisodeB aüd iu the occaeional Bkctdios lela has 
g^ven of conventual and reügious lífe iu hia time, there ia 
au air of rcality wliich leaves no doubt that C3je author 
drew freely on the rüsouiTes of hia persoual experieuce, 
Ite plan reeeniblee slightly that cif " Don Quíxote," but 
its esecution reminda us oftener of Rabelaia and tiis dia- 
cursive and redimdant reflections, though of Rabelaia 
without hÍ9 coaraeneas. It ia aerioija, as becomes the 
Spanish character, and conceals nndíi- ite gravity a, spirit 
of aarcasm, which, in othGr countriea, Beema inconeitítent 
with tlie idea of dig"niiy, but which in Spain has been 
more than once liappily united with tt, and made more 
effGctive hy the «nion. 

The sltetcheB of character and apecimeiiB of faahionable 
pulpit nralcuy give" iu the " Friar Gíerurid " are the beKt 
parte of it, and are agreeable illustmtioiis for tlje literary 
histoiy of the Gightecnth centuiy. Of the prfiacher whom 
the Friar toofc for his model we have the ftillowíng care- 
fuUy drawn portrait : — 

" lie was in the fuU perfectíou of bis etrength, just 
about three-and-thirty ycara obl ; tall, robust, and stoiit; 
hÍ8 limha welt set and weíl proportioned ; manly in g'ait, 
inclining to corpnknce, with an erect carriage of hia 
head, ajjd the circle of hair ronnd híe tonaure studiously 
and exactly combed and shaven. Hia clerical dress waá 
always ntat, and foll round his p&i'sou in auiple aud regu- 
lar fülds. His ehoes fitted him with the greateat nicety, 
aud, abuve all, iija S'ilken cap was adorned with much 
cürio'ue embroídcry and a fanciful tassel, — the worfc of 
oertain female devotees who were dying: with adniiration 
of their fiívoritc prcachcr. Tn ahort, he had a vcry youth- 
ful, galhvnt Cook ; aud, adding to thie a clear, rich voice, 
a slight, faahionable liap, a peculiar grace in telling a 

YOL. III. 13 " B 



230 



fADBE ISLA. 



[Pebidd hl 



Btorjj a talent at rnimicry, ftn easy actioa, a taking man- 
ner^ a higli-Boundiug" stjle, and not w littEe eflrnuterj, — 
never forg'ettiiig to apriiikle jcBts, proTerbEi, and homcly 
phrases along hÍ8 fiiseoiiracB witb u Jiioet agreeable «pt- 
nesB, — he woii gnldcn opinions in his public discfnirsea, 
and carried everything beíbre hiin in tlie drawing-rouuiB 
he frequeiited." ' 

Tbe Btjle of eloqnence üí' tliis vulgar ecclestafitíoal fop, 
a Bpccimen of which foUows, is no Icaa faitlifiiUy and 
cliaracteristically given ; and was taken, bb Father Isla 
ÍQtímates was his cuíj^tütn, from a discourae that had reaUy 
been preached.-" 

" It was well known, that he ahvays began Ma ser- 
mons wíth some proverb, bodig jeat, eome pot-house wit- 
tícism, or Bome atrange fragment, ■which, takeii from ita 
proper connectious and relatione, would seein, at firet 
blusli, to bs an inconsc quenco, a blasphemy, or an im- 
piety ; uutil at last, havint; kept ]iíb audience waitiog' a 
moment ia woudcr, he liníshed the clauae^ or carne fiut 
wtth an explauatioii which reduced tlie whole to a sort of 
miserable trifling-. ThuB, prenching one day on the mye- 
terj of the Trinity, he begao hia sermón by aajing, ' I 
fleiiy that G-tid esleta a Unity in easence and a Trinity in 
peruon,' and then stopped ghort for aa instatit, Thy hear- 
ers, oí' courae, lookod round on one aiiotliGr, scandalized^ 
or, at leaat, woudering wliat would be the eiid of this he- 
retical LlaHphemj. At length, when the preacher thongFit 
ho had faiily caiight theni, he weut on, ' ThuB Baya tho 
Ebionite, the Marcionite, ihe Arian, the Maíiichean, the 
Socinian ; but 1 prove it agaÍHSt them all from the Scrip- 
turesr the CouucíIh, and the Fatliere.' 

" In another sermón, which was on the Incarnation, 
he begao by cryíng out, ' Your health, cavaüers I ' and, as 
the audience buest into a broad laugli at tbe free manner 



» "tliiioriii.lalFi^íinisoPrirflüajloT, Frar which a, ic lact, Ihit of u rrlmd, wliowai 

OtmníJIo de CBjnpftípfl," MfujriS, ISia, n patlah pricsl at Villaüarel», wliiipe Fa- 

4 um,, ISmo, lom. 1, p. 3DT. lu the Sul ehtr [«la, wbo mentltmn blm •anva iu bia 

«IlUoiV, sa iVíll UB ia Beveral other ftlllióu!, lotiur», wmta hia Prinr Geruna. 

It iB BLid a be vrilCeo b? FranciBcii Uibnu lo Curtan l^iunLlisrea, IJW, Iddl, VL 

d« B&liuar, u nume wlilt:b bal stuerallr f. SIQ. 
bMD anppueeri to be n ftecidtiaB one ; hut 



CSAP. IV.] 



PADBE ISLA. 



291 



ín whicb "he had said it, he went oti : ' This ia no jol[iiig 
matter, howi?vcr ; for it was fnr yoiir heiilth aud fur mine, 
aiid for thatof all men, tlisit Christ descended from lieaven 
and became incarnate iw tUe Virgin Marv. It Í8 an arti- 
cle of faith, and I prove it thus : " Pi'opter nos, homi- 
Des, et nostram saliilera d&acendit de ccelo et iticarnatus 
est," ' — whercat thcy all remained in delightcil aston- 
íBhmeTit, and siich » murjnyi- of applauso ran round tbe 
ctiurch, Ihat it wanted little of bfcaking ouÉ into opea 
acdamation," " 

The firsí vohirae of the " Friar Gerund " was published 
iu 1758, somewhat sooner thao the atilhor irtteiided ; — 
tTiofie wbo were Ín the Recret getting posBeasion of the 
edition and selJing eight hundred copies in the course of 
twenty-foni' litnirs.'^ Such an extraordioHTy populai'ityj 
however, proved anything but a benefit, The priestSj 
and especially the preaching- friare, asaailed it ftiim all 
quartefa, as the most formidablG attack yet matie íq 
Spain on thcir peculiar craft. The consequence waa, 
that, thoug'h the king and the court expresscd theír de- 
light in its Batiré, the li-cense to pnblieh it further waa 
■wjthdrawn, its author ivas BumcDoned beibro (he InqniBÍ- 
tion, and his book waa condemned in 1760. But lula was 
too stroiig iii public favor and iu tbe respect of the Jesu- 
its to be personally pufíished. and the Friar Gerund was 
tíio tcue and too widely scattcrod to be raore thau nomi- 
naíly suppreased/' 

The secand vulnme tlid ñot fare so well. After the 
cenBnre passed on the firet, it could not, of course, be ti- 
ceseed, and so reiuained for a lotig; tinie in manaacript, a 
forbidden book. In fact, it has been said to have fixet 
appeared in England, and iu the Eno;liah languagc, Ín 



11 Vinj Gemnaio, Toro, I. p, 309. 
If CartaB Pnmilinrcsj Tom. II. p, ITO, 
|3 Vldn dtf lata, ]i. 63. LkircnCt.', Ulxt., 
'Ttnn. U. p, 450. Curias FamilLuizB [Ib 
Illa, Tom. II. pp. IBSfeLa, BniiTom. in, 
p. SlSi Tbtm are eeveral «muding Iclifrn 
mboat Frnf Gerundio \u Uic Hil'cojiiI vilumt! 
fftf ChA- C'arlají P.^ml I iiLrefl, rknd much ñh- 
cüaUm about it Id the ínumh Fnlaoac of 
the edi^Dii oT ISIS, tbe tniiulBitlaD 
(Iddex, 179D) mit oa]f Carbode tbe wurk 



ilatlf, but reriinda Bnj'bod}' ta i)nblÍB.h 
naylblne for or againat tt. The njipre- 
h^ikaliin ihati It woulil be füTbícliWn VAS 
Id gienL, iliot Ibe prlce of «iiiilM Of lile 
Ünl iraliiDit becaBit< ei^tiraVfhiCftab t^& □■>' 
rnent U was iiublJíbEtl. Odí' WIW bnu^llt 
fur tiíeiily-llre Lunis d'ar, íQd an Cflunl 
BUTti wn9 refuiind for aiipntbtr. KaTinjiaQ 
LltUrkirü [b^ Nlcole» BrícalreJ, ITI'l, 
Tura. III. p. SIS. 



2S2 



PADRK ISLA. 



[Peeiod IIL 



I» 



1112, (Jirough thc agoncy of Buretti, to whoin the manu- 
Btrript Iiail beeii Bent after ita autlinr hinl beeii esíletl to 
Italy. Biit nii eJition of t!ie wli'jle wurk in í^piínisb soon 
appeíued at Bayonne, fnllowed hy other editíoiiH in other 
pliiceB ; and, though it waa never liueneed at home till 
1813, — and then fjiily to be forbídden. anew tlie next 
yeur, on tiie return of Ferdinand tlie Seventh, — Btill lew 
books liave bí-eti better known all OTer Spaín, to thc more 
intelligout classea of the Spanitali people, than Friüi" Ge- 
rund, fiom the day of ita first publk-ation to the present 
time. Wliat ia of more consequence, it wae, from thu 
first, SLicceBBfiil in ita main pui'pose. Tho sobriquei of 
Friur ílurund was g^iveri at once tü those wlio indiilged tn 
the vtilgiir stylc of preaching it was intcndeá to dia- 
cíjunteiiantí'í, aud ftny oue who wae admitted to defierve 
the appellaliün could no longer colkct an audience, ex- 
cept sucli as was gathered frum the populace oí the pubHc 
aq nares." 

In conaequence of the aUrm and anjíteties tbat accom- 

paniod his Bndden and "violent expnleion from 
■iJíi^h' SpaÍD, in 1T6T, Fathiír Isla sutrered Oii the road to 
mejentiiía, Oorunna, where he embarlíed, an attiick of paraJ- 
yeia, whicb mude \ñn healtb nncertain for the remaining 
feurttica years of his life^ one of whicli spent in Corsi- 
ca, and several jri Bolognü and ila nejghborUood, were ren- 
dered miserable by the troubles iucident to a etate of war, 
or by personal perseciitiong and poverty. Btül, after hla 
death, it waa fontid that in tReae ead yeara, duririg some 
of which he subsigt&J On the kindaeSs of charitable 
fticnda, he liad uot been idle. Among bis papera waa a 
poem in aixteeti cantos, contaiuing about twelre thonsand 
linea íu octave Btanzaa. Ilia called "Cicero," and claima 
to be a Ufe of the g-reat Román orator, Eut it is no euch 

thing. It Í8 a Batiré on the vices and folliea 
he author's own time, begun in Spain, but 



CleiílMQ. 



I* Wric, Bi'bilQt'hPW, bit- ¡tía, Wiclaad, pricl " Kn Cntnií&iLae, "k t-asiA. it IcM taere- 

TeuuíhB Mwknr, 1713, Toin. Itl. ii, 1B8. -derM da ¥tAj Qi^rufldlD, kñ'i it 1770." It 

Bli^üPí ProiiohiilA [iif p4'lli.UEi([ thr TrcwDs- \b, o! -Bniiriii!, wbolly n-lthoul the ocaa»- 

W^m, LAUdún, lira, S Um., Bl-ú. I bikie, wdl vJIli TüI. I., t7&S. 

luirsTcr, k eeps oT ¥4L IL, vltfa Ui« iu- 



Cbap. IV.] 



P.4ÜRE ISl-V- 



293 



chieñy written during his esíle in Italy ; and tíiong'li it 
cyntairiB üccasional sketches uí au imag-tnary lile of Cice- 
m'» mollier, tliey are very incoiiBitlerallep and as for 
Cicero liírn!it.'lf, tliv poem leayee him iu bia eradle, oalj 
eiglitoen moiitlis oíd. 

One of the sqbjects of its gatire ¡b the Urge ciass óf 
Spíuiish Tiarrative poema, of which, and especiolly of 
tiiosG devoted to tho Hvgb of the Kaints, it niu.y be re- 
gaided as a sort of parody : but tta maiii purpoBS ia to 
riiticule the livcs of Inodern fine ladies, and tlié modos of 
eai'ly cducalioD then prevalent. The whole, however, Í8 
ming-led with itiappropriate discnseiong aboiit Italy. po- 
etry, and a conntry liSe, and hiirdly lena inappropriute 
sátiro of profcfBsed muEicianB, theatres, and poets wlio 
praíae oriti auothei' ; ¡d short, with whatever occurred to 
Father isWs wayward humor as he waa writitig. Fiom 
internal evidence, it seenie to have beeti ruad, from time 
tú time as it was written, to a Bociety of fnends, — proba- 
bly Bome of the oumerous exilea who, like hímíielf, fiad 
resorted to Bolognn, and Bubsisted there on the misera- 
ble putañee the Spauish g-overninent promised thcia, but 
ofteti failed to pay. For such a purpose it was not ill 
adapted by its clear, flowing style, atid Qccasioually Ly 
its piingeiit satire : but ita ciimbroiis. I^ngt!) and eudlcss 
digressiuTis, often trilliní; bolh iii nia-tter aud manner, 
reiider it quite unfit for piiblication. It was, however, 
ollcred to the publie censor, aiad permission to print it 
was refused, ihongh for reasona bo frívoloua, that it 
seems certain the real objectioa was oot to the poeis, but 
to the autlior." 

Otijers of Father Islít's works were more fortiinate. Six 
Tolumea üf hie serinoQg were collected and piibliahed, and 
síx volum+ís of his letlers, chieáy üddresscd to his síster 
aod her husband, and written in a very affectionate and 



1' The autríp-apli manmerlpl oT " El 
Cwwnin/' nmlLy wrilteil üüI lu 213 fuJSo 
pBi^es^ jIchuIjIp cijIuiDru, "Itli- th? {pirren?-- 
tiims «f tht! QiLllKir bnd üie f^mujn» a( Lt\e 
reisiJT, ifl In Lhe IfoBtoD AtlieutiiBi. Jt 

oí f ^?r Jjl» i líj UíE gpinjioi) n( tbe ¡!en- 



Bur, thuL tbe porm onirbl not to be |jnb- 
llpljsd ; and b; aa a-nvní [D Üint apinioii ; 
— Ilie lusl iwu- IteinR atinnyairiaí. TbeM 
CU-rJonn aDd. rHlaahtii mBiiü^rlpU wee« 
pnwunMl In Uulrjil bjr E. WeiInD, bi|., 
aiul prfíüutal b; Iiim tu ihü LibrsJj uf 



204 



PADItE ISLA AND LE SAGE. 



[Pekiod in. 



gixy apirit, and in a very natural and attractive Btyle. 
Tí> tlicsej at JiU'ereiit tímea, werÉ adiled a fcw minor 
workB of a triñing cljaracter, aud ontr or two tliat ara 
religiuus.''* 

But what most fmrprised the world waa his translatioa 

,of "Gil Blas," printed at Madrid in l^Sf, claimíng the 

Würk, ott whích the farae of Le Snge miiat always princi- 

pally rest, ae " stolen froin the Bpanishj and 

13.1/1 Qfdu mjw/' 111 tlie woi'da of Fathcr leíale tiÜG-pufje, 

'■ " restored to its country aud native langUage by 

a Spaiiiard, who doea aot choose to have bis natiíin triücd 
with." " The esternal grounde for thía extraordmary 
charge are slight. Tlie lirat suggfiBtion occiirs in 1752,. 
*iid ¡B mmia by Vyitaire, who, in hia "Age of Loiiis the 
Fiiurteesuth," declares the Gil Blaa *' to be eatirely taken 
írum Bepiíieí's ' Marcos de Obregon.' " This charge, aa 
we have seen, ía iiot trae, and we have reason to believo 
that it waa the rosiilt of peraunal iH-wi!l on the part of 
Voltaire, who had himself heen attacked lo the G-il Btaa, 



" ThE WDtVb allllllEtl to BT-f, — " Kl 

MFr[jurlí>0i'ticriU,"[MiiilHi4, 17BÍ, l».nio,) 
fceine rxtracls frnin accnmils clnlmed la 
huye been irrllkni Uj F«thiT Isli fnr tliul: 
Jnurtuil, In nS8, of thií Euruiitaii cvmtí of 
Ule jeiir, huí rotci-'rhiinlr lii» ( — " (Jai-tB.» 
da Juan de In. Giisiii»," (Hndrld. 17B4, 
Iflmii.) JL nutlrlciil votk un ITil.^ follica oT 
S^ianl^h mritulnt í^"CnrtEiis Fu mi liaren," 
irvlttE'iibutiirc«iLl744 ikQil 17tll, publlnh»! 
1786- 85, iUm In a secoDil eilitlmD, MailHd, 
HMO, 8 l.iin. ]-2qiu í --" CnLecdun di: Pn- 
pelcB CriÜCTu-ApuloEtlieiiií," [5138, i Wm. 
IBmn,) In iletttice uf Fi'yjori ; — '"-Ber- 
ninnini,'' MiwIrtJ, 1792. S Inm. Sva ; — 
" Rebujen," tic , (Miulrld, 170(1, 18mo,) n 
coUectloi! oT mliCLlInnirs, cnmíl of wldcb 
»re prnhpihl^ piit hy Fílhcc TiiIa ; — " Lúa 
^IdeaDQs Crjticis," in dt-funce of Frijir 
flíraníi ; — enJ viirt™.lí p>t|*rs iw Lhn Sí- 
nianiirin Braflllr, rum. XVI., XS,, nnil 
XXXIV., huí! lii íhi- (iiiy|ili?[ni?iitTiry vul- 
nnit: of tlie " Vniy fl-^iiiriliii." A. fo-fin, 
entitled "Suerii. IVjIltliHj," (JlwJrid, 113.3, 
ISino,; or Llif MCPBSiod of Charlea lül , li 
bíhii fulsi^lj uttriliuuiíl 1(1 lilui ; und so nre 
" Canrií !itrfiaj.iliií i!i-J PnrriKín," a aau™ 
whírhi fft ri'Qilnils odl- BuiíKitlinfB. of tha 
•< Cicurnn.'' 

Ot hii tniUBlHllDDi It !■ banllf qoeitM M 



BjKSlí, excepL of [faaC of Ihe Gil BiaB. [t 
msiy Ije Ilol1.^1, Iiowctlt, Ihat he piihlLahed Iti 
SpuDÜfli Flechier'fi ^* TliecKloalud Uis Greot," 
in 17I1I, Aaá Huon aflenvuril& Duchciuie^A 
abrldiínient nf Itifi Hídla-ry of Spníii H — 
lnith iin'i'wií'l hy tifm enrlliT, ani1 llii- liut 
luHg a faroriLe In the Spucinh scliuo-la na * 
Icitt-liijok, not raeri'ly trum tlie oierituTlhe 
orí )^ uní., balfrom líljL'dJailloIriiisnililiUaaa, 
aoil rn>iii a, BUtomac.v in versr' vblcli lia 
prcE.Hi.'d Id Üie nccouiit of ¡"ach pcrlud, and 
whlcb tht chiliireu l<arn«ci hj henrU 

II " Aventuras dn Gil BU» de Sintlllanti, 
toluiiliu ,1 EsiNiñii, ailn|itiu1nii un Fruncís 
pnt Mutis. Lo Gxne, reatltulilsi d lu Futría 
f B su Lcnquu uatLvH, por un Fspanal 
ifIdad, que no «ufre que le bnrlvu ds aii 
NjLclim," Miulrid, ITHT, 8 toai. Sva, sod 
oítiMí íliios. Thougli in ^r^at pnsrrtlj him- 
Brlf, Tjiln pave aiiy irroñt that mt.f^bl ocmifl 
frinn lita wrslim of Itie Qll Bina imuiUl a 
pnrr ^|iELn¡sb knlptit. 

Dim Aubinln Pu l]cblait?h, 1 whlmüliul 
but LL-BTned Catnian, ]irep]ireil n traoBlat^OD 
nt Oi| biHS, wUll II PPí^flIíe ífl provH he naga 
||S«i|l)|0l'. ftntl, M h« Myi, urnouncol ít 

f»r |HiiiijcFii|nn i ^ul I mpiioBi! II usa nevar 

pHtItP!!, &'5 hií aWBIHífi " OpUMUl-iP Ora- 
iHJiU'rii-SHIiricvB," LoDlní, e. a. Tud. IL 
pp. 312. 313, 



ClTAF, IV.] 



FADBE ISLA AND LE SAGE. 



29^ 



and who had, in eome way or other, heard tbat Le Saga 
was indobtcd to Espinel. Afterwarda, similar declara- 
tioiís are niadc io two ur three books of do authoiity, and 
eapeciiilly in a Biogi'ijpliicat Dictionary priated at Amster- 
ditm in 1711. But this ia alL 

Eoused by such stigjgestionB, Iiowcvrf, Father Isla 
amuaed bimaelf witii niaktng a translatiun of Gil ciniíns of 
Blas, atlding to ít a long and not euccesflful con- *^g^'*f ^ 
tinuatiou," and declaring, without ceremotiy or origín. 
prüof, tliat it waa tlie worfe of an Andalnsiaii advócate, 
wiio gOrve bis maouscrípt to Le Sag^e, when Le Süge waa 
in Spain, either as a accretary of thc French enibassy, or as 
a fricnd of tbe French amba&sador. But all tbia s.cetnH to 
be without any fouudation, for the manuacript has ncver 
beei) produced ; tlie advócate has nevec biíeii named ; and 
Le Sage waa never in Bpain. Still, tbe Spanisb claim 
has not been abandoned, On the coutrary, Llórente, ia 
two ing^niouB and Itjarned works on the subject, one iu 
Frencli and tho Other in Spaniaíi, but both printed in 
1822, reasserts it, witb great eai'nestneBs, reetitig bia 
proofs on internal evidencíj aud insisting^ thítt Gü B];is is 
certaiiily oí' Spaniah urigin, and tbat it íb' probably tbe 
i.vork, not indeed of Father Islams Andalusian advócate, 
but of Solía, tbe bistoriari; — a auj^gcslion for whicb 
Llórente produces no better reason, iban that Tioliody else 
of tbo pei'iod to wbicb lie aasigns tbe Gil Blas was able, 
in bis judgTuent, to wiite such a romance.^' 



U TbU Pontlnmitiuii.IiuwBvec, WH-a trnn!- 
latiíd ÍTom the IlaliHD of thv Csnnit Oiqllii 
Moatl, A HiilngnMí;, whn eUuiI im i;4T. flU<] 
v&oac Olí ü]bs wbs pu'blisJiGd, 1 lu^llitvi^, At 

l^on of QIl BlaLB, lh?sa Jin^fiiy fiv^i^ {b&'H 
tilia i>f UduLÍ, AppcareJ, ía 2 Ujoq,, gvj>, nt 
Madrid, In 1791, «ntlUíil " Üeni'UlOgiS lia 
GU BIbk, C^utínTiBcia^ da 1^ TLd4L dC VatC 
fnmiiao 9ujtU>, par £11 iHi*^ J^O AlP^lvlia 
Bliit dif E.irin.*' Jis nnUíur usa Pii], Ber- 
UHrdti Míirin d^ fiilgii'lft. n pt-rfiflll Ifhíl, A 
litLk «artlrr, luul tiiLtialiilC'l buch rmic tbu 
Frenuh. (&.'in|)cro, lilblíntír», Totn, VI, 
p. aai.) lülj líork, Iwi, Iha AUthor d*- 
clan-i! U tic A trcinelHtbii, buiI, tlkú laliiv 
■•'t frirth oQ hia- lilte-piisv ttii^LK iras "re- 
§Uiíii la the languags m rhlch. tt wat 



origiually srItLen." ftut tbe wbiAe ii a 
wnrtldeíi bH^lloii, t1tli!-pa)f« iuid all, thoagii 
tíiK attsinpt tD mBkH uul tm Sil Blnd ■ 
clear ELTid soble j^QealEjgp aa thH aidu of 
hla mothermuBt be admUl^d to be a trul^ 
KpnQLih fanoj. ^See l^ibraH III. y IV.) 
The BE^ry U unbiuahed. 

II' Vallaire, CEi)¥re9, »1- Baaumiiitc1i>ila, 
Tom. XJC. p. 19$. l^Euge, díuvree, Parle, 
]S19, Sto, Tum- J, p. JíJUls., wderaVfJ- 
(itits i4 SBJil W üaw bíín nitn.c!k-iMl by I» 
Snge, lii 0118 CF tlia druiB4ia i beyiilL-B wblcL. 
It l« GupiHaod l<e Sikge ri^lLculiíd blm iiuil<^r 
thü rmín? í>rTrLatiii^ro, ic Qll VIh?, IJ,b, x, 
£. 6. £uL fhe moBt íinpartaiLt auiI i^urloui 
ílisciisBiDii cunc^ralng lih« nHUiaratiip (if 
Qil Ulas ÍB the nn« ILiit V6S fUTrivI oii. 



PÁDEE ISLA AKD LE SAGE. 



[pBitioD in. 



But there i's & rcady Einswer to all eucli mcrely conjec- 
tural criticism. ha Sage procecded, as an autlior iii ro- 
mautic fiction, just as he haá lIohb wIiüd lie wrote for the 
publíc theatre ; and the results at which Ije anivod tu both 
casCH are remarkably similar. In the drania, he be^íiü 
wilL translatiouB and imitutions írom thi? Spaiiish, such as 
hÍ3 " Point of Honor," Tivliich ia talccn frora Roxas, and 
liia " Dqu Cesar ürsiiio," which íb from Calderón ; but 
afterwarda, wheii he hetter understuod hia own talent and 
liad acquired coülitlence from eucceBe, he carne out "ffith 
hia " Turcaret/' a whoUj original comedy, which far 
BU^P^sed <i" ts ha.d before atteicpted, and tthowed how 
miich he had heen wasting hís strength as an iraitator. 
Jast so ho üid iu rcimance-wdtíng. He tugan wilh trans- 
latíng the " Don Quixotc " of AyeKaneda, atid reinodel- 
ling- and eol^rging the "Diablo Cojqek> " of GucTara, 
But the "Gil Blas/' tlie greatest of all his worlís of 
prose üction, ia the rñaultof his conürmed atrengUi ; and, 
in ita chat'acteñfltic mente, Í8 aa niuch hia owti as the 
"Turcaret." 

Ou this point, the internal cvidence is as deciaive aa 
the exterual. ■ The froquent errors of this remarkable 
romance in Spanish g«ography and hietory show that it 
CouUt hardly have been the worfc of a Spaniard, and 
certainly not of a Spaniard bü well iuforined aa Siílís ; ita 
prívate auecdütes of socioty in the reigus of Lonís the 
Foiirteenth and Louia the Fifteenth prove it to have been 
almost neceseacily wrítten by a rrenchman ^ while, at the 



K?uTChlt(>Bi> iLiul Aotunio le Ulonate, the 
aulhur [jf the Hi«triry tií Iht IiiqnlBitiuii. 
It hcgiiii irltl] II intiiiiiir, hy tht Hr^t, rtsui 
ta thi! líriíuch Acndcmy, (L918,] amil an 
(!i3itl(!iinrfljimib»,(Pnr¡9, ia20,y [uBi,,ai>n,) 
tu barli n-^lch he niBlnUilna Li) Sagü lo be 
tlic (ni? nutlirit of iliat rumiucs, T19 nmli 
Lli:rente repUerl liy n (lonnlvp meniolr, ad- 
Jlrtuspd U' tur Frptirli AfiulPiny, iiTid liy 
hfí " Otiw rvRlIi iiN» sur Gil Bbi»," (Paria, 
1Í23, 8ni,3 lililí Illa *' ÚhHPivífkiDíB sobra 
Gil Sha" (Mudritl, K22, VJor-'i')] tffii 
•mirtú nM wsMlly nlfki', lniE MiitisliULtlally 
Bo, and i'i[|ually iDaintalTili:íi tliait Sil Bina 
II Spanlih in ils orifcia, UDd probably tbe 
wrilc of SfliB, tha hlBtQTiaa, wliii, iks Llu- 



a|KLD¡aii, sDCiiiüit ■!£) tiníhttlvr d« Solii' 
nLiinBii," tLe miHmiMriiit "f whffili oomiBg 

inLa t]|e pMBeaslijü i>( Lí! Biiiftt, lis Brat 

ptuiifleiíii Trata u i)ip mntLTíiila for hia 

OJI Illiia, Kllieh kt Vi^Httlfi in 171B-3fi, 

and iliBii gave ITin wdrtil tbe rBtnuSiHlW U 
tliB>'Baeln.-iler du Sulatnanqnii?,'' Id 1138. 
Th¡E thenry Df LlnrEiue 'a esplaillWl, WIIU 
more s-kill thün I9 sljoví) [ri i» orifinml 
fnunlTig, tiy ifti? late acüytnpllBhEd achnlac, 
Mr. A- H. EvL-reti, in Un artiíle Which llrat 
BiTi'areii. I11 thí NotIIi AmpTlEan RevteiF, 
Ii,r Oatoíicr, 3827, ífhBn ila aii[hi>r wa» 
JlÍQiial(.'r itf IhS UiiIIj'J SlíilcB in Epniíiv and. 
aftc^Tcrls la h¡3 pIl'MuqI "-Crítical and 
31¡scelliiiicim9 Esaa^e," publisbed in. Ba». 
tdJi, ISIA, ISsao. 



OhAp. IV.] 



PADRE ISLA AND LE 5AI3E. 



237 



same time, the freerlom wjth wbich, as we go on, we fitid 
that evei'3'tliiiig Spanish ¡a pluiiJered, — - iiuw a tale tukea 
fcom " jUarcos de Obregon," now an."ii)tri^m3 or a atory 
frora a play of Meíidozaj of Rosas, or of Figuerna, — ■ 
piMiits directly to Le Sage's oíd habits, and to bii^ prac- 
tísed Bkill in turniíig^ to account everything that he 
deeiiied Gtted to hie purpose. The reisult ia, that he ha?, 
hy thc forcG oí bh geiiias, prodiiced a work üf great bril- 
limicy ; iti whicli, fi'oni hís kuown fariiiliarity with Spanish 
littiratiire aud liis ujiscrupuloua uae of it, he has preeerved 
the national chai'actei' witli Buch fidelity, thut » Sp.'iüiiird 
¡e almost always unwillÍDg; to believe that the Gil Blas, 
especially now Ibat he has it in thc apirited ifuot unilbrm- 
ly puré Oastilian versión of Father lata, could have been 
written ly aiiybody but one of his own coiiiitryTDen.™ 

The chief talcnt of Fathcr Isla, however, was in satire, 
and the great aervice he pertbrmed for hiü country was 
that of driving fVom its respectable churches the low and 
vulgar Blylc of preaching with which ihey had long been 
infeeted ; — a work whícti the "Friar Geruiid" achieved 
almgst as ctmipletely as the " Dod Quísote " did that of 
destroying the insaoe passion for booka of chivalry which 
prevaUed iu the aeventeentb ceatury. 



« "Le Polnl a'H™near" 5sfroia"-No 
huy Amigo pnra Amigo," 7hkti it íh« 
Qrst plnj ¡D the CorntHl Ing rl'll 11»IC>S, 1680 ¡ 
— -aud ^^JJoa CifBJir rraici^^ íb trtiüi "' l't<rT 
celu. t]u.& nt&l3a,'* Ln Culderoli, Ct^iúGiliM, 
]TB3, Turo. TU, Tlic crrors of 011 Blai ill 
Bpanish ifEMipraphy eud Iilít^r; are Cúti- 
BUirttl^ pvfEiteü nut hy Llórenme as blcad^ra 
irf Li^ Bikge Id Üit cnreleaa uae of !lii5 urigl- 
|]a] i whilc, OD ths í><ln?r hand^ Fr. cío 
He ufcti &EFHU poÍDts out Its Hlluainns to 
Patlsiiui Buíiiily iii Ihc time nf Le Sbsc. 
But (if tilB Trae uae oí ñpanah ñctioaa, 
nlilch lie ttKik un juiina co raníial, ilie 
priJOf is Abundant. I liH-ve Blreadj do- 
títeil, when gpenklng of Esplni:!, {anle, 
pp. 106-1US,) linirinucti Le Su.pc; Loot fru m 
^*]^Hrndj» dr^ Übrtgan i *' but^ ^oaEdefl this, 
tho advenlufe» of Don Kafael lüilh the 
fitigcteur úv niu/adoR in Oil Bine Cl-'l>' ^■ 
o. I) ir« laikrn from " Lub Riil|"icíi™ ¡M 
Mentir'" uf Msiiilou (Feíilx ChuI^-IIudd, 
3990, p. 2M}i — Iba Blury nf Uii:^ MurUi)ra 
de Vengüaní» ln OLÍ Hlaa (I>lli. IV c. i) i» 



Trom the play of KoxsB, " Catarse por 
VeiigsrsBi". — ttie story of Auriira do 
auimtin 3n QM Ulaa (Lib TV. c. b anil a) ti 
rrtni "Tiidu ea *-nrwlcs Amor," by Dtago 
de Cíniulia j Viguutua,', — snd au on. Be« 
TlecK^B ^(ffTfPÍP Ln Iiíh lrnuel¿t¡uD|Or 3lDF- 
coa df Otiregcia {ISUT} ; AilülCu de Cuatro'! 
poediíka lie CaliKioii y l'\iífioB de Le Sage 
(CndLi, IMS, lílDia, a eiirlauj liiile pam- 
]i!llet} í and ibe fuurcli bD«k al thc «un^ 
síaOiar'i "Cfndit Duque de OUtbki" 
(CsiLiti, 184C, Sru}. la liia "Bachcli-er ds 
fiaUmaiigilv," hí Sage gi>« ene atep fOT- 
tliirr. Ou i.bii b¡ile-iiiii;K or tbii nautee, 
ftiHt iirínCvil thrc^ T^'nra oEUr tbs lut 

Toldme iif Gil B\M ftli|>«AfGd, he Baya ex- 
preealj, thBf'it ia traa^lUcd froiQ B Bpaii- 
Ish manUBerliit," heiiI y« thí aWiy a' 
Diiña Cinblí itc la C^IYcCH, la Iba Hit] 
tniirtb aud fifiy-flltli clmpterí, ¡± üiltcn 
Fninii Moreí.i's " Dmdon oiQ el DeBden )," 
A piJiy IU Hell knowri ae any Iu BpoDÍeb 
lili^mmn: i^so boVl «nii carHleso "aa hG 
in hls titeriicy iBTOOQieB, 



296 



fONTHOVEOSI 



PKENCH SCHOOL. [Prriod Ifl. 



HuetU. 



But, mGanwbite, otlior attempte were makiog in dDigí 
directiotia to revive tlie literature of the cüuntry ; Bome 
Ly reatoi-ing a taste' fot the oíd natiúnal poetry, some by 
attemptíng to accommodate evKrything to the French 
d(n;trÍ!iss of the üg& oí Louia the Foarteenth, and some 
by (in i!l-defincd, aniE oftect perliapa ariconscious, strug-g:le 
ty uiiite the two opiíiions, and to form a school *hose 
character ehould be unlike that of either, and yet iu ad- 
vaiice of both. 

In the direction uf the earlíer Dational poetry little waa 
done by original eflbrts, but something was attcmptcd in 
other way&. Huerta, a fierce, but incousistent, 
adí-erBary of the French innovations, printed, 
m 1TT8, a volumo of poema almost entirely in the oíd 
mauner ; but it vvas too much marked with the bad ta&te 
of tlic preceding ceiitury to enjoy eren a tcmporary buc- 
cess, and ita author, therefore, cuuld boaat of no foIEowep 
of any uote io a path whícb was con&tantly less and leas 
tTodden." 

Oq, the other hand, more was done with eSect to recall 
tho memory of the oíd mastera themnelves. Lo- 
pea do Sedaño, between 1768 and lííS, pob- 
lishcit hiB " Spanish PaniaBSUs," in ninc volumea ; a work 
wiiich, though ilL dig'ested and not alwaye showing gqqd 
taste in'its selections and criticl ama, ¡B Btill a rícb míoa 
of the poetry of the country in íts best days, and con- 
taina important raateriala for the hÍHtory of Spanish litera- 
ture froin the periüd of Boscan and GarCilaSSO ^ 
Sánchez went further back, and in 1779 oflered 



BcilHno- 



Bauebez. 



51 " Poaaíaa ríe Don Vlcante <iiLreia de la 
^uerCn," lliidrlil, 17TS, ISaLO, hdiI a. 

elfuU E^alm to QQtlci?^ nilb fb>E ^^Ijnitj- 
piion^^' n [ih<>rl. herirle paem, Urat ]iiibl iahGd 
sejiaratv]^ In XJ^^, iu 4[.a^ bi^t VBry FeelHe 
tt^l «ammoTí place. ^^ La PtrrJHnnehia,''' 
^ DI QCk-hi^rülc; un thií Inre» and quarrels uT 
gaofir; dngB, bf FrucciMV] S'ivUi UdIIiih, 
(Jliidrid, nñb, 12iDo,} \» Ino piyit lo da 

«TTE DDlice, tÜDIlflh It H AQ nKcmpl H 

glv<i er«al«r'CUmncrtDtli««iLrli«rDiitii}iuU. 
Vine, — Clit; rf.dand¡ilat, 

" J. J. L-ípía di fteda-nn's "-PwttBM 
XíFltíiql" (UtLdrid, BuD«tiil, lieS-7S, 



dual of critíclim booq slter It appVAr«d. 
The ciDb oí Üie eliEer Maruliu — la IM 

miüced lQiincdÍ3.tely — wsH inucb dlmaCii- 
npd wUU it ^Qbraa F-^eCaoisfi da S. V. 
Moraün, Loudri'B^ \^'2^, l^ti, p. sxc.)^ — 

Yrurie In 1773 primea a dtí.|<>g\w on It, 
" f*(i\\úe loa <laD tu >«maa," MI vi ■«- 
scriiy [Obrai, ISOB, Iwo, "VIO i— Md In 
na& Seíaim repIh'A, under (tí Dume flí 
Junn María *'liiiVLTiiy EsUva de Rflna», 
In foui vclumes, 12nia, j>al>llalied &t H¿- 
lagA, luid CAlliüt Ota " CúliKiulM de Bt- 
pioa." 



Chap, !V-] 



MOHATDr THE ELDER. 



Bumlen ta- 



to Lis couTitrymen, for tí*e firet time, tíie greatcr legend- 
ary treaaurea of thcir hnroic agoB, beginníng with the 
nyble ola poem yf Üie CiJ, but ijuliappily lefaving incom' 
píete a tasfc for which he had proved hitnself so well fitted 
by hiti learning and zeal, if Dot bj bis acuteness,"* 
And finnlly. Sarmiento, a frietid of Feyjoój and 
oae of hÍ9 ablest piiblic deiendors, uudertoOk an elabórate 
history of Spaniah poetiy, which contaitis itnportant dis- 
cusaions relatiug to ttie period embraced by the ¡uqiiines 
of Sfinchoz, but which was broken off by the death of it9 
venerable autbor in IT'72, and L-emained unpublishcd till 
three yeara later.''* These three works, though they 
excited too little attention. at first, wsre still works of 
iniportance, and bave Bcrved as the foiindation for a bet- 
ter átate of tbings since. 

Tíie dotstrinea of the Freneh Bchool, aomewhat modi- 
fied, perhaps, by the reproductioQ of the eider Spivnieii 
litemtnre. but Blili eubstantiaJly uiichauged, found follow- 
ers mnre nnmerons and active. *During tbe reign of 
Charlea the Thfrd, Moratin the eider, a gentleman of an 
i.»ld Píscayan faoiily, wbo was born in 1737, and Montiaihe 
died iii 1780, snaceeded, in a great degree. to the '^'''"' 
iüherita.nce of Luaan's opíniqns, and devoted himeelf to 
the rcfdiTO of tho taste of his countrymen. He was the 
fnoiid of Montiano, who had himself endeavored'to intro- 
duce clasfiica! tragedy upon the Spanish atage, and who 
had, pmbably, some shate in forming the Htei-ary cliarac- 
ter of the young poet. Bnt the conrt, as usual, waa an 
eleroent in the movement, Moratin was received with 
llattering rega.rd liy the Diike of MedinarSidoniaj. tho 
hüad of the great honsG of the ííttzmana ; by the Dulce of 
Oastuia, loag ambasBador in Fraace ; by Aranda, the wiBe 



" T. A. BiDíliel ¡hora 1733, i'\iñ ITíS) 
poliJlilieU ItlE "t'aeeini KatatVite-iiú BLglo 
XS."4tM!L-lriil. Inlteía.. Bvo,nje-9U, 
Init prliitetl Teyy llitlu riñe, 

M Marilri SarmleniOs " Mnoorias tara 

Ib BittUirlH f\ii Is Pik'kíii 7 PoelAB Eepa- 
ñolcs," Miiíriil, Í7T6. 4lij. He waa boro in 
160Sf aEud vrole a Krcat deal, huí put^ 
Ilahed lltHe. HIa derence ot hin miister. 



"Teikt» Critl«a í" aqd Bcice of hi« trni^M 
Afii to ba fcuní] tn \hv BH^noBnBrio Erudita, 
Tü». V., VI., XIX., ttntlXX. HlB "E¡B- 
Lurift lie ll> Poesía," prioted M IhC Itrsl 
Valutas oí hia "Worta, which ■tít:rt nol 
ftlTÉbt^r CDTitiDued, ib Lbe more VAliialile 
beca.nae, malcLrLp^ hlfr luquiriea rjuSU? inde- 
pendencia (ir Snnolm, he otccQ cumia to 
Ihe uuas reeiiIlB. 



se« 



HORATJN THE ELDEE. 



[Fekud m. 



minister of state, wlio rarely foria^ot the cauee of íntel- 
lectual culturo ; and by tlie ItifaTíte Tioa Gabriel de Bour- 
bon, the accotnpliahed translator of Sallust ; and each of 
tliesc pCTBOuB was thuB able, tbruugh MoratÍD, to excrcis^ 
au ititíueiice oTi the state of letters \n Spain." 

Illa fií'st public eübrt of any coascquence, except a 
drama that wiH be notieed hertBafter, waa hia " Poeta," 
"wbich appeared ia 1764. It consista eotirely of bis own 
flhorter poems, üvá ia among' tlie maiiy proofa how Bmall 
waa tbe iiiterest then felt io literatnre, eince, tboug-b the 
■wbolc cüllectioii íilla ouly a huüdred aud aisty page&, it 
■was louijd espedient to piibüeh it in ten Hiiccesswe tium- 
bera-, in order to give it a fair opportunity to be circu- 
lated and read.^* Tbis was foLlowed, the next year, by 
the " Diana," a short didactio priera, in sis boüks, on tbe 
Ohasc, aud subsequently by a narrative poem on the De- 
Btruction of hia 8hipa by Cortés, to wbich if we add a 
ToUime pnlilíshed by tbe picty of bis son ia 1821, and 
containing, with a modest and beautiful lífe of ílieir au- 
thor, a colloction of poems, most of which bad not befúre 
beeri publísbed, we shall have all of the eider Moratin 
that can now interest us. , 

Its vahíe ia not great ; and yet portiona of it are not 
likely to be eoou fyrgotten. Tbe " Epic Canto," aa he 
oallB it, on the hold adventure of Cortea in burniíig bis 



M Whelhtr the Tnfunta Him Oahrli'l cnn 
&lr]j clalm thv Huthurthlp of tbe noten 
tn tbe tmiislntloii or Sailusl, ai tvhich a 
miLgiiilIceiiC eüIClQCi wna prinlvil bj Ibarní, 
in miln, LiL lITS, \s uitcertaln ; n>r ha vas 
nnly tireolj years ola trhien It apptdaMd, 
und he hnrt fur lita tulor Ibu li-arniid Pires 
Eayer. HuL tie Kia a prince of yírioni 
«tegcini. aGi:nm[i1lflliniiCal8. huú dmiilüil llt- 
emcy Cnslss, sa thac lila ileulli, tn 1TS8, 
wus n intgli)rtan« lo Spsln, Liiavliy ieil 
thn:iiigh tbe nil^ el bla elitei btnther, 
whlch l)<>B&ti l he ya me ¡n^r, 

^ There WFr? gres^l, E.ajmb'^P^ of p<»etlca| 

pampiiiEiB, In limo, piiblisJial iD Madrid 
duf Ing tbt rúl)(u oF Ctmrl'ra m., — □eaj-lj' 

Ail ITúrlbleíl*. I üavé fortí or fifíy Buch, 
ibEladlDg mr'iSt or tbe nork» of Moratin 
OlO eia«r, ICV^i-al bj Grc;j:orla ShIsb, eto. ; 
Imt üue oí Lhtm — "El futo do loe Hao- 



Ij'B, ]fur nonn Miriü -Tnfielli 'ic Ccípcdea " 
(tTS'S, Fp. 14} — Lb a aatlre on the rest, 
Eettlug (urtb tluit ApnLlo had M^m n pU|,^a 
af mtft — AenceiidaritH of thti IiifietiIH9 vnuv 
of llcdro^ — to put tbi>TiL all ii^- Murmin 
Hie JoailgBT, Blí", "■ b-Ia. " DL-rrota da loa 
PtflMlteB," fl7*9, pp- <6 - iO) makfs ülm- 
Kirmítry *ith Itipno pij^fniíoi, ks be calla 
Uiem, vblvb wera chi*By mliat wu dotioml- 
TlsVf " OcCMlinol Pijíiwa," A cKnlary 

aarlíer ¡til th"íífl irlflee wo-nid have coma 
out Id qaMiíi i bul ihe mh^iíp ii^tniínre ot 
the eottntry wm slimiilt nuil 4.w^iA to 
His piitn.? prpjportlouB. Inileed, ín tSeflrai 
bDl[ Qf üie rlghKenlh centur? w^Q tlw"9 
peer, Blarred littls tjBfts iri.'re tata, Wtiila 
ia tlie; rcigQ of Charlea IV. tiif.y irrailunll^ 
aiTclied tei tn smail volumos ía dnadeGÜDO 
or octavo. 



GKA.P. TV.] 



FOKDA DE SAM SBBASTtAS. 



301 



ships, ia tlic noLleat poem of ita class prüduced in Spai!i 
(luring the eighteenlli cetitury, unJ gíves rnoie plensure 
than Tíiont of the bistorícal epics th¡it preceded it ia siích 
large numbers.'^ Sorae of hie aliorter pi&ccs, líke his baí- 
lads üíi Müoriah subjects, anci an odc to si champioa in tbe 
buU-lifíhtB, — whielí Jloratio. coiistaiitíy freqnented, and 
oí which he printod a pleaeant histórica! sketch, — are 
fiill of Bpirit, Atl he wiote, indeed, ís marked hy purity 
aud esaclneae of languag-e and hamiouy of vereification ; 
Btiüxving that, tbough, aa we are tüld, he poseessed to aa 
estraordinai'y degree the power of an improvisator, he 
yet composed Carefully and finisbed with patience. But 
his chief Bucceas waa aa a puhlic teacher ; laboring faiíh- 
fnlly in the chaü- of the Imperial Oollege, where he took 
the place of hía friend Ayala, and rebuking the bad 
tast^ of his timee by (he atrength úf hís own modeBt 
example.^ 

MoratÍD waa aa amiablie man, and gathered the men of 
lettera of the Spanish capital in a friendly circle about 
hiiü. Tiaey mct in one of the bett«r clasa of xhociiihat 
taveríis, — the Fonda de San Sebastian, —where tin.-Fi™iB 
they maiiitained a chib-room that was ulwaja bustiao. 
open and ready to receive tbem. Ayala, the tragic writ- 



^ Thfl " NavcB (ifl Cortia," as yublished 
bj Ule jnangei MaiiLEln tu IJ'tIfi, (l^mo, 
pp. e;j ttta hía Tu1igt''s ianíh, it U be 
pnfvrrid in Üte onf h« pablisbed at Sat- 
ci;lann. la 18S1, !□ irtiicli tK iniid>) ulmtiges, 
vbiDlL da Diit add to its mr^rit, »□•] CAunut 
bt JueciHiM]. It iriu nriiteD for u pjite 
oltered kf the Spiítilíh Ataidem);, In ITJl, 
— the Btat ot Ihr Itind cver (nffrttii bj that 
bodj. PraD Crp^onod^ Bnlne vrott, aloo, 
üD tbe fiam»^ Dccnalon and fiiLbj?i:rtf but dil 
uiit sf iLfl in h^B tssn; fnT thf citmprtitLiD. 
(Pm-aiiis, 17BTt Tnni, I. pp. 3B8, 2Ba, ele.) 
Tiiti pilw lii iiQcjtinn «Tía obUiínud bj Ihin 
Ju(4frM^ria Vaca de IBaziaoja, nhose poem, 
\a oixty QcUi.v-e etdi.nkuv&^ wika pijhlishíNl 
tvLthíJUtb Aair^ nni raUÜeti; "LasNurea 
dt Cartea deatraldiuB, C'anLrt Preoiiadn,*' ce., 
Modirídf ÜQ^ pp. 21h Ncttlicr blfl poein, 
hiiTever, nnr tbat of Snliui, !> to be com- 
ptrnil to the one b/ Miiratln, whielí wm, 
do doubL, pudilílied by hl« son to show 
buw truly It deicriied tlie homr it yet 
ü.Utd lo obtaSiL 



» BeíldL'S tlie pneto? nnl4^il In ItiJ? tíJtt, 
1 llt^v^, by Mamila tbe pbl«r, un Qiii¡ OQ 
Htei>llPt"r «ti notar nnírcj and pirdiin by 
Clmrle*ltl.,in pea, nnd the ■' XglDgm 
VqUiscci y tí aiiEiLlez,'^ prifil^ nn oc|!||A|-9r3 
gf tiu-lr porlnLliB. beiog plnoed in ihe 
Ka¡A':a¡s¡ <" IITO > iKiih □! Ultls cvtiHE' 
queocB, but Qot, I. teU-e^E!, notíced eba- 
whrra. lili " 01)rBS l'^Btutnsa " we» 
ptlotad at Barcelona, la 1S21, 414., a»d 
fütH'lated Al Lundñti, lh]SS6, I3tnu. Mo- 
FatlD''a " Carln 8sb(« Las Firütoa deT^ro»," 
CM.'idl'ld, 1177, IZrao,) WhlRb la a tWíht 
prosB tfnCC, ¡i lDt«iidi!d la ptaye hMali- 
cillr that lli<> amaeeaiEnt o( buIMlgbtJDg 
la 3|>&riE.ih In íta tirifln nnd clianKler i -^ 
n piiliit ctiiieernine wbleh IhiiBQ «rlio ha»* 
muí the Chrnnldei n( Miinliiiier aml llia 
Cid un llave I.IUledfiabL M nratiii hail ths 
p.>«*r of inipri>vlsii[ln8 wUli Krent eBseL 
ühtBs, Íñ2i, pp. iixlv. -mil. Mott »r 
his vork:* ate collecLeil in the H^coikd vo1> 
uini: ai tlio BlbUt-Uctt de Jiutureg ]!«pa 
ñolH, ]«4e. 



302 



CADAHALSO. 



[t'ejHOD TIL 



er : Cerda, the Ul,erary antiqtiarian ; Rios, who wrote the 
analyBÍB of " Don Qnijcote " pretised to tlie maguificent 
cdition üi' the Ácademy ; Ortega, the hcitanist and sohol' 
ar ; Pízai, tlie Professor of Arabíc Literatiire ; Cadahalso, 
tho poet atid eesajiñt : Muñoz, the Iiistoríai] of the New 
World; Yriarte, the fabulisí ; Conti, the Italian translator 
of a cellection of Spanish poetry;^ SignoreSli, the aiithor 
of the j^encrat history of thcatrís ; and Otbei'S, — were 
niumbfira ol" thia plcasant asBociation, and resorted con- 
tiniially to its cheerfiií saioori. 

Uow truly Spanush wtis the tone of their intercourse 
may ha g-athererj frOdi the faCt, that they had but one liíW 
to govern all thcir proceedingB. and thiit was, never to 
speiik on any subject sxcppE the ThcatrCj BulL-Fighta, 
Lüve, and Puetry. But in ererything they uudcrtooi: 
they were muoh in earnest. They tcüJ their woi'ks to 
each oíher l'or mutiial, friendly crititisfh, and discneeed 
freely whatever waB wñtten at the time, and whatever 
they thong-ht wouM tepd to revive the decayed spirit of 
their country. They read, too, and cxamined the Ijtera- 
ture of other natione ; and if the-ir teodencies were more 
towai'dB tlie school of Boileau and the great mastcrg of 
Itaíy tbari might have hyen anticipated from the spirit of 
their aBaouiation, it shonld be borne En mínd, that two of 
their niost active moinhers were ItaliaH men of letters, 
that the eourt had recejitly come frum Napfes, and that 
the spirit of the timea mncU Javoi-ed -íchatever was Freuch, 
and espeoially the Fi-ench theatre.*" 

Among the moBt rntereeting- membera of this agreeablg 
Bocíety waa José de Cadahalso, a gentleman descended 
from one of the oíd mountain faniílieB of the 
North oí' Spain, but boru at Cádiz in 1T41. HÍ3 
edncation waa conducted from early youth in París, but 
before be was twenty years oíd he had visited Italy, Ger- 
many, England^ and Portugal, and obtained a knowledge 



Csdafi^BO. 



» Tlie -wm-k of QLovanbittist» Oonli, fu troducllan ou tlie earlier poetry of 3pala, 

four Tfilumes, iirintfd ac Muiiriil, 1732- a mi each ¡nmm ía fulliiWeí by s onianiHIl- 

ITÜO, ij a ccIJcLtiun af BjiiinlgTi pridn», tarj ; — eYP-rjtliiriR hcIcK niten 1q hotll 

lüJUDat exLtlriL'ty ¡n the EEnlEan. niAniii^r, he- laDjcoa^Sr Tt hua rerj lilCle viL3ue, 
tinliiiis niiii anrcllBsiu, am] eniling wlth M S. F. Mura-tln, Ohraa PActnmas, 1S21, 

Ihe Argeasulna. It í» precedeü hy arj íc- (ip. nlr. -niL 



Chas-. IV.] 



CADAHALSO, 



353 



of the lang'iiage and literature of each, and espeoiaüy 
of England, auflicíetit tn emancípate him frum niany 
uatiouat prejudicea, and make tim more uacfiíl to the 
cause of letters at hotne tlian he would otherwise havQ 
been. 

Oq his return to Spain he todk the milítarj^ drcss of 
Sautiafío, and entered ILe army. Thore he rose vapidljj 
lili he reached the rank of cplouel ; but, in alL the difíer- 
eiit places to which \úa owu choíce or the service of 
híS re^imetit canied Itim, — Saragossa, MailnJ, Alcalá 
de Henares, acd Salamanca, — he eought occaBiona to 
continué his earlicr pursuits, and succeedíd in coniier:ting 
himaelf with the leailíng spirits of the time, auch aa 
Moratic, I^leaiaB, Triarte, th© wiao Jovellanos, aijd the 
young and proniising Melendcz Valdi5s, But his career, 
tliougli siicceasful, was ahort. He periahed at the «iege 
üf Gibraltar, Btruck bj o. bomb, oq tho 2íth of Fehrnary, 
1782, and the governor of the besieged fortress joinod 
in the general soitüw over the grave of an honorable 
enemy who ha4 been distinguished alike in letterB and in 
arms.'* 

In l'r'r2 Cadahalao published bis " Eruditos á la Vio- 
leta," or FaehionablG Learning, to whieh, ftom íts coiisid- 
erabl(! succcea, be added a supplement the same year. 
The original work ie a pleaearit satire on the superücial 
BcholarRhip of hia times, andÍBthrown into the form of 
directions liow to teach the whole circle of human tnowl- 
edge in a conree of Icctures that ehall jnst fill the seven 
days of the week ; the supplement giving a few further 
illuatrationa of the same eubject, and some of the resulta 
of Biich teachiíjgs on tbe uohappy scholars who bsd been 
ita victíms. TIúb, with a voüume of poems printed the 
n&xt year, and containing several careful tmnslatione from 
the ancientB, a few eatiiical trines after the aiannor of 
QaeTédo, and a goad many AnaCreontic ^otiga and talea 



« Senipír*, Blblintíijii, ToH, IT. p. 21- *liieli meaiii ■■' cottagí ■" et "ehKTty." 

PortiiiBtpue, Tiim.. II. p. 493. Hii untrif, Bolli thcm- woTiils, huwcvpri aro reparrlíí 

J bcUcTc, WH9 nrlg^I-anlly ipcit Cadaho ; lu une nnri Ihn h»dc, in the Brnt t-JLtinn 

but na lliut Ib n rtcogniíí^i wnrií, míacilng nf the Diclloiiarr iií the Asiuli^mjri ha 

"•ciflulil," it Ib soflencd In the recent Ma- lliBl pcrlmia tmt mncli tó gainíd hy tliB 

drid BÜiCliiUB of Illa Wurlia into Ciidahalia, chnnge. 



904 



YfilABTE. 



[PflIIOD VX, 



in the manner of Villeg'BSi are all of Iiíb works that wera 
pulilistied dun'íig' hia liletime. 

Biit nlter big dealh tliere was foiinti among his papera a 
colleístioii nf lettcrs, prctending to have been wriíteri by a 
person connected with an embadsy to Spain frora Moroo- 
Cf), and addressed tO his friende at home, They bplong; to 
tbo lürge famiiy of works of fiction, begiin by Marana's 
^' Turkiab &t)y," and are coiKtnoiily set down íls imita- 
tiiíits of li[(íiitesquieu'& " Persian Letters," but, in fact, 
show a ncarer relationship with Goldsraith's " Citizen of 
tlie AVorld." The whole wort, howevor, is more occu- 
pied with iiterary iliacuesions and temporary satire, than 
eilher of tliuee just referred to ; aiid therefore. though it 
Í8 written in a puré and agreeable style, with wib aud good 
Bünse, it has beeii far fruin obtaiidiig a place, like thcirs, 
in the g-eueral regard of thn world. Sttll, likii the rest of 
!iis postliuínuus works, whicíh (.■oinprise a ísw more com- 
positions ín proac satire and a few more poema, the beat 
of which are in the nld ahort verses always 89 popular in 
Spaion " Tlie Mooriah Letters" of Cadahalso have been 
often reprinted, and probably are üot deetiaed to be for- 
gotten.** 

Anotlier member of the socJety ftmnded by Moratin, 
and one of the most prominent of them, was Thomas 
de Triarte, a gentleraan who was born oii the 
island of Teneriffe in 1750, but received that 
part of his ■edncation which decided the course of his life 
at Madrid, ander the auspices of his únele, Don Juan de 
Triarte, tlie leamed head of the King's library. The 
yomig man was known aa a dramatic writer, aud aa a 
traneiator of Prench plays for the royal theatrea, from 
the age DÍ eíghteen ; ajid frojii the age of twenty-ono, 
■when he pñnted Bome good Latín verses on the birth of 



Tri*rw. 



«* HU"Erudltos i U Vklela," and bli 

|JOClry, ^'■OtTflia de m! Juveptiid,'* yfcee 
priintcl «.t Hailrld, 1TT2 and llia, 4tu, 
luiiler Ihe Haaiimeil nune ot Jourpli Xas- 
qnDi. Án i'lit.iti'n iT tiU Worki', with an. 
picellnnl Life lij NavnrpflP, spjienreil at 
Madrid, in lAlS^ lii 3 tuca,, l'Zmo, anid has 
beflD rFprtDled ninru Cbau nace iUiee. Por 
ll!i> coDteiQpaiiiry npLnlia ot Cailatmlia, 



ase Sempere, he. cit. Tlietitle " EradiliM 
4j la Violtta''* hÉñ same times Ironbled 
foreijEDers ; — buL fherc ia no düubt ahmib 
Ita meBQlQR -. *' Eiob retSinr.'treH de la Lltf- 
nitiira y Tos Erudltiia á Ia Violeta^ dos 
uitmtirís qiia&! stnonlmcH,^^ ec, saya il 
sjitirioü tr^Lct entitled '•^ ^1ÍH Vnj^ttiUfl., o 
Ina Ferla&dB Sladdd," 1181, ISmc, p- 3!t. 



Chap. IV.] YRTARTE. 805 

the Infante, afterwarcis Charles the Fourth, he wa8 dis- 
tingiiiehed at coiirt for hie accompliahments "both in an- 
cient and modero literature. Soon añer this period he 
received a place under the government ; and, though his 
employmentB, both in the OflSce of Foreign Aflairs and 
in that of -the Department of War, were ofran intellectual 
nature, still his time was mnch occupied by thera, and 
his oppoi-tunitieB for the indulgence of a poética! taste 
were rauch diminished. BesidcB this, he had rivalries 
and troublea with Sedaño, Melendez, Fomer, and some 
others of his contemporánea, and was summoned before 
the Inquisition in 1Í86, as one tainted with the new 
French philosophy. The result of all these triáis and 
interruptione was, that when, after his death, which oc- 
curred in 1191, his works were collected and published, 
more than half of the eight sraall volumes through which 
they were spread was found to consist of- translations 
and personal controversies ; the translations made with 
skill, and the quarrels managed with spirit and wit, 
but neither of them important enough to be now remem- 
bered. 

His original poetry ia better. It is marked by purity 
of style, i-egularity, and elegance, but not by power or 
elevation. The best of what.is merely miscellaneous is 
to be found in eleven Epistles, with one of which, ad- 
dressed to his friend Cadahalso, he dedicates to him a 
translation of Horace's " Art of Poetry." But in two 
departments, where his natural taste led him to labor 
with a decided preference, he apparently made more 
eflfort than in any other, and had greater success, 

The first of these was didactic poetry. His poem " On 
Mnsic" — a subject which he chose from his considera- 
ble proficiency in that art — appcared in 1780, and was 
soon favorably known, not only at home, but in Italy and 
Franco. It consista of five books, in' which he discusses 
with philosophical precisión the elementa of music ; mu- 
sical expression of different kjnda, but especially mertial 
aiid sacred ; the music of the theatre ; that of society ; 
and that of man in solitude. The poem is written in 
the free, national silva, irregular, but flowing, and no 

X 



806 



YílIAETE. 



(Peeiod IIL 



want of ekill is phown in üb management. But, as a 
wliüJtí, ít haa too Htile richnesa and vigor lo g^ve life to 
the cold furiiiB of íiiatructíou iii ■which it is Lbroughoiit 
rif2;(>rntjHly Ciist.™ 

The other depsrtment, in which Triarle was more 
Bucct'Bfilul, was' that of fablea. Ilere he, in Bonie degree, 
striiok oiit a tiew path ; for lie not otily i^ivenífld aU hÍ8 
íictionSj whicli no other fabuUnt- in modern times had done, 
bnt rcstricloci thoni all, in their moral purpuse, to tlie cor- 
rectiou of the faiilts and follies of mun oi" learning, — an 
ajiplication which had not befure been tbo'nght of. Their 
whole niimber, íncliiiling a ft;w tbat are posUniinonB, íb 
ne:irly eig^hty, above BÍity of whích appeared in. 1782. 
They are wrítten mlh great care, in no lesa than forty 
difTei-eut tneaenres, and show an extraordinary degree of 
ingeniñty in adapting tiie attribiies and iiistincte of ani- 
mals to the íriBtrnction, not of mankind at larg'C, aa had 
ulwaya been done before, but to that of a Beparats and 
Bniall claas, belween \rhom and the iuferior creatimí the 
ivsfjjiblanet; ifl rarely ob\'ious. The tasík wae certainly a 
difBL'nlt nnp. Pcrhups, on tliie account, thcy are too nar- 
rativc in Iheir stiructure, and fail soniGwhat in the living; 
Bpirit which dÍBtinguiíihes JEnop and La Fontame, the 
gre:itf5t mastcrs nf Apologue and Fable, Bnt theii' influ- 
eiice was ao mnch needed in the age of bad writing when 
tbey appipuied, a-ud tlipy are besides so graceful in their 
■vereification, tliat they wore not onlj received with great 
iavor at first, but have aever lost it siuce. Their authur'B 
füputation , in fact, now rests on them almost cxclu- 
aively," 



»> Aa a aori of counterriari to the potm 

OD Moslc, by Yrlnrtih, hiáy llU iai:1it¡aii«il 
OQí of lili mcríL puhllíhcS acoii ftfwi"- 
waria by Díin Diígn Ant-fhin Rcjuh ilft 
Sllvfi,"La lUtituru, Pni-inn nid.'.stitd ea 
TriiS Ciiniuii," cs.>i{nviik, ITBO, Bvii,¡ tLe 

ÍErft L^utiEo ^kH;tiij( on 1>tf¡|rn^ tht Btci'ud un 
CííUipnaitioTí, nnil th^ thirrl pn Coturini^, 
'Wilb Tiólt^a Mili] B clpn:iio^ol BjinnlHh artilla. 
Hi^ *iis a íjFntk'niJín of ^Jdrclu^ wha iii- 
duEfCcri liioisolf üi pcttirj' uncí paínEinK* ss 
an vmiiiteUT, tiLi[ irlküat ai^riouH nccu pictirjiíB 
Wrrc, likethom-or VrlnrtL-, in the Otfice of 
IftPdigu ABdJTBi tLt Madriü, Ue ditd in 



1796, Seuiien v GuaHnAíi (Blbltottca, 

Tum. y, pp. 1-6) glTM Hlj AMM'Un.t i>r liia 
íetr and QnilDflDHaiiC n<jrk'9, H»i CtAIk 

BennUiKts (Dtccif liarlo, T"in. l\. p. loi) 
tiiiS a ílitiH nfClix- nf U\í tife ; liut a iKttvir 
■MÍE! íqii^ be l'iunii lii gtirlliig, Vul. Eli, pp. 
1112-1174. 

"•' Ubf^ití'TIbociiia d? Yrlnrtv, íladrld, 
ISOfi. 8 t-nat,, JSmri. VIllHnimv^ Itom^ 
liuB, L.itidrLii, 1335, ím, T-iid, I. |,. 27. 
8pDi|>rri^. lliblloleco, Tdld. VI. í. 190. 
LliirtikUr, Hlsíaln', Tiiid . 11 . p. 440. Flniriha 
trun^lalrd qc pornntirEkfL'd & e^iu^I lúAHy Crf 
iba Isbleí uí Vcinrte ín. bb>i! DuIlBctiDli lu 



Cbap. rv.i 



SAMA^^EGO. 



301 



SaiDiuilefit. 



Triarte, however, had a rival, who sharcd tliese honora 
witli Uim, and iri sonie respíícta oLtained thera 
oven earlier. Tliis was Su-miitiiego, a Biecayan 
geiilleman of raiik and fortune, who was bom ín 1745, 
and died iu 1801 ; baving düvotcd hÍ8 life, in thc nioat dís- 
iiiteceated luauner, to the weliiire of his native proviace. 
Tle was oiio of tln; earliest and moat active membere of 
tile íirst of those societies Bometim«s caliod " Fciends of 
tlio Cauntry," and süinetimeB " Socicties fnr Puhlíc Im- 
proveinent," wliich b&gan in the reign uf (JUarles tlie 
■Third, and soon spread through Spaiii, exeTciaiiig au 
impürtaiit iiiflueiice oa the ediiCütifin and puJblic eConomy 
nf the kiiigdf)Bi|, and laboring" to mise tlie arts of ufe 
fri,Mn Itit dL'gradod couditioii iuto which thcj ]i,id falleii 
during thelatLer period üf the domiuiun of tbe House of 
A(islria, 

The Biscayan Society, founded in 1765, devnted iteelf 
miicb to the odiiCatiou of thc poople : and, to favor this 
great cause, Samutiiego undertouk to write fablea Biiited 
to the Capacity of the children tawg-bt in the Socicty's 
seminary. How earty be began to prepare them is not 
known ; bqt in tbe first portiun, published in 1781, and 
tbercfore one year beftire those of Yriarte appearcd, ha 
Bpmaks of Ynaite as his model, and leavcg no dodbt tbat 
the fabbis of that pocfc had been seen by him. The sec- 
ond pu.rt nf Samaníego'a collection was pnbUshed in 1784, 
wben that of bis rival had bcen admired by the publíc 
long enougb to change tlie relationa of the two authore, 
and bring" iip a quarrol of pampldots betweeii tbeiu, littla 
crcditable to eíttier. Both parta, taken together, contaín 
a huudred and lifty-seveii fables, tlie laat uioctceii of 



publiKhed C179S}v in IIie V-íeíace Cu n-hicb. 
lii? l*p^¿aka ^r hioi la ^' un Edpii^iiol iiociiaá 

■i|UL Ja'^i faUmi úivñ Apní^swii lea piua 

It shnuid be nOCed bné, ^rhapS, that 

Fiibltv huvG imA Itt^li^ Enceras m Spain. 
'Tht; fRl>leii tit iMdyiil veré traatlaixil And 
publÍBlial In 1Í9S and 1647. (aurmiciiUi, 
pp. 333-340; P<mccr, Xrad., Tum. IL 



gip. isa -160,) ttnd tb6 Fnhiea oF Saop 
wtrc tninslaLed by LVdru BJmríD AbríH, aod 
publiqlicd iiL 1&Í5 &Dd lEtlT' (L'ltjnrjia, 
Bp'.'dmtn, VibS, p. 113.] Uut acttliiR Ihfto 
nfldc^ 1 muemlrer noLliIu^i <>l oo íaüch toa- 
b^qiteiim HB a Fi^v fulili» scAttr?n;d ' Eq thc 
ArgeiiBülufi, eü;.. acd tliv ^^ FuÍJidurLo" 
(ValíDcIü, 161*5 "f ftebnilijín M.-y, a kin». 
aniv or tba ntell-kuoirn [ir^rito-r, irhlch la 
nimcixt ecii'infly tninBlnl<!d írom Ftimilriu. 
XÜDf D-a, Tuin> 1- p- 204. 



308 



SAJIANUIGO. 



[Fbbíúd ITL 



which and a few otlicrq are oiiginal, wttile tlie rest are 
taltcii, partly from -ífiaop, PliBüclniB, anri tlio Oriental fab- 
alistB, but L'kipUy froni La, Fontniíio and Gi\y. They buq- 
Cñodcd at cnce. Tlit children leariied. them by heart:, and 
tho ttíacliers of the cbüdren íoüiid iu tlioni subjecte fur 
pleasant readiiig- antl refloction. They were, no doubt, 
Icfiíe carefiiHy written t!ian tlie fablea of Yriarte, lesB 
oiigiiial and leas esactly aclaptcd to thcir purfioae : but 
tliey wcve more free-Ueai-ted, more natural, and adapted 
tu a larger cbiss of readcrs : in aliort, there íb a more 
easy po&tical genitis about thcm, and therefore, eveti if ■ 
they caunot claím a bigher Dierit than those oí' Yriarie, 
they havo takcJi a- strong'er bold oti the tiitliotial regard." 
The best of them are tho almrtest and simplcst, líke the 
followifig, entilled " Tbe StrnpulouB Gats," wbicb waa 
well Huitcd to tho time when ít apppared, aud'cau harilly 
be aniÍBS at any uther. 



Th'o cflls, olifl Tortoiac-liack and Katc, 
Onwi from ita spit a cflprní ote. 
It wos a giddy lliíng, he suro, 
Aiid onc ilipy coul-d not hSde ov cure. 
They Ik kcd iheruselves. howevcf, clenü, 
Acid llien eut down liuliind u scrutn, 
Anil tulkfd ¡I oTür. Quití precise, 
"tbvj tnok ciich olhrr'a hcst advice, 
WhwhiT tí> PRt the spic or no '! 
. " And rlid they ent it'í " " Sir, I Itow, 
Tlteif did ñor J They were honesc tfíiugs, 
Wha had a congoí^iic^, and ínew hqw it EtingB," ^ 

Samauk'go was not tbe only person wbo, without bs' 
longing to the socícty of Moratín and hia fríenda, co- 
operated with them iu their effürtñ to encourage a tetter 
tone En the literature of thcir conntry. Among those 
who, froin a eimilftr imputae, but with íqsb buc- 
cesB, toük tho same dtrectiun, werp Arrayal, 



ArroyoL 



i?n Vena 'Oaatt^niin pctru tí [Tac dfl llta,\ 
íii:iti\itiil\D TufrCJCLfrnda*,'^ Niievfik York, 
Ib^i l^mn- TberB? ia a. Lift^r Lhe nutli^ir^ 
hy Níivarn:»*, in Uis fnurlL í-tilunn;- ij 
C¿Li¡nt-^nn'a ^* Ouk^cciiru/^ unil n rtpiy to h\B 
HtLoick DD Vriorte In (ha elxth vulmaB oí 



YrEnrte'B WatliB. Far an UfeoUQt bF Ibe 
" patriülíb SocittiM," Bte SrinTiüTe, BiblU> 
[eia, Tura. V. p, 136. si»l Tiud, VI. ]>. I. 

W PurttlI. I^li. II. Fiíl). a, Hr ^Wei, 
Hiau, nn exiiaiiiltd veníuu o( ÜiB anme 
riblc; tiut the ihorieat ia idiigIi tbe b«^ 



Chai-. IV.] 



VARIOIIS AUTHOES. 



sog 



who, in nsi, piiblislietl ^ collection o paems, wliich he 
caHa Odes, btit whícli are oftener epigrams : and MiMiten- 
goD, a Je^uit, Tvho, after tbe expulBÍoii uí Lia 
Oriíer frora Spain, heg^m, in lT8ti, wítli his """"^'^ 
"Eueebid," a work od educatioa, partly in iniitatiotí of 
the " TélémaqHO," and theii went un rapidly witii a proso 
epíc called "líújrígo," a Tqluine of Odes, aiid sevend 
*ot!icr worfea, written with littlo talcnt, and showitig' by 
their ínaccuracipB of style that theil autlior had Leen iin 
esile in Ituly tiU hia motíier tongue had beoomo Blrango 
to him. To tliese slionld be aJded Gregono de 
Salua, a qaiet eccleEiaslic, wüo wr*ite odea, 
faMaíí, and otTier trifles, that wcre Bcvenil times printcd 
afler ItíD; Ignacio de Meraa, a conrtier of tlic 
woTBt days of Charlea tlie Pourtli, wíiosQ worth- 
lesa dramas and TDiHcellaneous poetry appcnred in IT&S; 
and tlie Cloimt de ííoroña, a soldier attd áiplu- 
matíst, wlio, beBÍdea a dull epic on tliü eepara- 
tion of the Arabian empire in Spain from that of the East, 
printed in 1199-1800, two volumes of verse bo liglit, 
that tliBy procurad for him sometinics the title uf tho 
Spanisb Durat.*^ But all these writors only ahowed a 



Salu. 



Namñ*. 



■T i. Tvn •Torda Hli-aald be ndded, on eacfa 
<>r tbriK liut flvc uutbira. 

1, " luis Oilne de Lera de Ai-rafal^" Ma- 
driiü, 1134, 12inii. At thu euil are n reír 
wnrtlilma AuacrínutlGit \ij n ladjr, H-tiiMe 
OEunciinriC ^vPD i nod st Ihe b^FT'iiii^iiS 
Jb ü tml^ S¡ia.DlHli ilrSnilluí i>r Ijrrlctl 
pocti;, uoiDPl}', LhnL *.' «IiDaa Tcnirii can 
be pfnppTly pLajeil, aun^, ot dancedV 

3. Pvdrs d« MonUnijun, >' EuscMq,'' 
MaUrtri-, 17BII-ST, 1 UD., &ib, 1\ix tiral 
two volumvG gBve gri-nt oITkqcv by thu 
i^vaix uf all lL.JiiivBLI>iiLia In loake lelIglDiia 
InatruGlioD ^ part oC cduvation ) and, 
Ihinjgh th« rcmaÍDlDg twu DLiuJe up Hir 
Olla duQoignc;, ftaers la r^&íotí to be lima 
tliat IIiliiiitnii);nD inlcnJed' iirlglDiiUr lo 
taHow Vas tTiooty cF the " Kmlle." " El 
AntenoT*' (MnrirW, L7S8, 3 tina., Sim>ÍB a 
pro» prem on iho trailltion oT llie rnuníHnji 
ef Pnilim bjr llia Tpfíjatia. '^ líl RiMlFlgo " 
(Mftdrirl, 1793, S?n) if SiTiQtb'jr pn)«i' 'pK;, 
In uim viilHMij and IWílTe bnoita,- on llio 
"Laat nf «lí Gslha," "EudoiLs," Ha- 
driii, 1783, ?v« 1 HEBlDi ü wurk iii eftac-n- 
Uon ) iiai CD ihe educBtif>D of (rsmen. 



"Odiií," Míuírli!, 17(W, Sm ; reiy pinr. 

Moutt'ugoiB, oí wliuia tJieBti an; ort ntl Iha 
wiirka, itaa Imni jlL Allcanl, In II'IB, and 
n-Aír allve (n IHIG. Un niu ípry younir 
irher] he L-Dli.-T¥d the Chiireh, Aiid llvvil 
Ehii:llF uL NnplcB, wliere he llircn ulT lil* 
«DRlEalaaticHl robci and d^virled liUnaeír lo 
Kcultir occuíialliiiiB. 

3. Ffiiiii:l«i;fi iSregiirio di- Salas, " Oi>1ih;- 
cliin fle ípl^ramfti,'' Pía., 1193, 4tli iNJlLi™, 
Mailrid, iIbY, 3 tom,, 12nio. Hii " Cllwr- 
yatorin Itilítlcn'* (1770, (unlh eüilloii, IS^ill) 
]■ B loQg dull eaUíRUu, ilUllleil IriLu bU 
parta, wiilch hiiB eojojied an uiireiuonnlilo 
{upularitj'. L. í, Mt.railn (Obtaa,, l!t30, 
Tom.lV.pp. ia7anil3ñl)glveaanepLUpli 
for Salaa, wlth a pleuliii; proa? accoui^it oí 
Ma ponaoBl ctutrect^r, niilch ho imll aajB 
wEa muuh Tannt liii*ioHUng ttian lila po- 
tíjy ¡ and Scni]wre (tlihUnteca, Tnin.. T. 
pp. eS, ete.J ^vea a liat of hia irrirks, nll uf 
whlfh, I belliiue, niE in the qollfctioii 
pFlniud Bi MjidrM in ITOT, tit lap, A 
BnuU Vi^lum^, ciitJU']d " Paratiulofl Mq- 
Te■1l^«," i^Lc., (Madrid, 1S03, LZmn,} (racatat- 
tng i>r pro^ ttpo-loyuea, aomeiflLat betLer 



810 



VARI0TI6 AUTHOBS. 



jrKRioD m. 



constantly íncreaBing dtapriaition to fall more and moro 
iiito the feeWer French scliool of llie eigliteentli certury ; 
aod wliile üoiib of them had tho talcnt of the fow active 
BpirJts cüllected at (he Fonda de San Sebastian in Ma- 
dridf Düne certainly exercieed tlie sort of intíueuce whícíh 
was tJiürcised by Mc)ra.tÍD and his friends üver thc poetry 
of llieir time. 



th^D Bn/ChiiiB Df H>1ui thoL pniceded It, la, 
X ^appAflc, Iplf r, ;uuL prubnblf Lhu l&Bt of 

hig Works. 

i. Ignacio dü M«niB, " ObRu Poéticas," 
(MniLi'ld, 1797, 3 tom., l^mn^ conCuía a 

Teñe, uiid iritliíu the mira ; a cam^lí, 
cMl«l"TIie Wurdbf SJiLdrid," in th« uU 
fisurca ilfW, biit bark£<|.i:v uuü dull \ aa 
eplc cante DD "■ Thc {.'onqucst- '>r Minoren," 
In líE^, ti> imítate Mivr&Lla'B "£hi[iB d( 
CortcB ; " B povic "Od llic Dcalh ol Biit- 
l;arD3Ba, in IShlS ¡ " bhA a aimibei lí »<!□- 
neis ucil lides, som« of tlie liut oí irMch 
ihiHili] riLthET btf ealled ballul», Biii sumM 
of (hi'm eatiKfi ;— ilis rh-ok rer; O'^at;», 
E>, Usei'u- rit! Kuruña, irüi>ae famfEy iFaB 
Df PcirtURUtíív orlghi, waa lirnl a íuldivT 
HUd MrvLicl Hl DiB slesE 4>f OHiraltaT, wlmrH 
ta wniM sn t\«ss ^d 'hs dEalli of {¡mla- 
bulitil (Pi«flJM ds NDriiñA, ilEfeitriHl, 1IU9- 
ISIKI, S KiM., 12aici, TulD. II. p. 190). He 
tí.1^: ili. IIlu urfDjr tu be u llcUULutil-KCEiiiral, 
ínJ, HblJE huliliiig thidnink, tiUblinlmd liis 
Odi! ou t)iv PenCí <>r 1796, |TulD. I. \¡ 112,) 
by HbiCli liu iras Urdt publiuly Imoi^naa n 
|imiC, iUkI «Vhk-h, nxin^pl, i^rhajis, a fewíir 
li 1^ AlhortcT Jijkd IJicbltT ijoficg, ¡i Üii; beat 
l¡¡ \¡íi warka. A/Wnrimla lie líufl jwnt bs 
unbaeudur la KouiK, b^ retomed. Iti 



Aetrnil bíl oaauílrf irhHii U wm Invulnl hf 
tlie Freocb, atid woe loada j^vvmuí' alC 
Caaií. He illed In 1S15, (Finl*r, linilio- 
trco, XoDi. n. p. asi,) nud In. ISie )iii 
i!¡ilG, eudtled " (>iimjiiul«," mis iiiiraiihBd 
Bt MBilrIrl, 1q Iwo vuliUDCS, l^ino, cciiiUm- 
liig Dhovv ñrMUQ Ibcuíaud sítsm •■, as dull, 
{it:rbBp9, as aoy ?í ibi eítiiilar pwjn» Ihat 
abiiiiiyl iu Sinaniíílii llt-íraturi', iiul leída 
oBVnciv? U> K'^'Dd laste than inoiil of lti«iD. 
Id 18;», lliuTe tnix-arvl at Farla bis " Po 
esiBS Asiiüticas iJUustaB en Vciso Cailvlla- 
□4," tranalutlfluQ from Ule Arable, I'Brelan, 
and InrliJúh, mad*.', bb ¡ke layB lo itie 
Prerace, to Kive liim pwUcal materialB IüI 
hii c^flc. Qi« " ^utmidiL," I. heroi-uumio 
i>'H!tii, lü dgbt ^tii>>i, üii^ vrlLh iijiraüita, 
Is yvrf tcülvuí. 11 i9 ia bú 1'deisIb^ 
rrinted In llíua. 

FtrhatFB to Vaf,se Hic I sliould add Ihe 
babie -uf tb-e- duh^ Ada db &&□ G« fiíüiíDií) 
vhü belo]i)^d to Ibe CnaUlian ruinlLr oT 
VenJuij^D, and wlioae worSta,. mfter liv^r dinith 
bL QrBUBdat \u 1771| w^re pubiLibi^d iindcr 
bbe titla of " Obraa poctiua di; In MbJlre 
B«r Anu iSe Sau fl^frciiüinii " (Ctmlubti, 
1TT3, 4tu). J]iit tlit^ BrG mtrely poor 
Liiiltaktluos of tbi; diñvTünt ritrma nf reLigiooH 
lerva ai tb« |ii^í«dÍAG i!lilitiiry. 



CHAPTBR V. 

BCaOOI. OF SáLAHÁHC^. — MELSITDEZ TALDÉB. — GONZÁLEZ. — ÍOB- 

KBE. — lOLEBIAS. — CIENFUEOOS. — JOTELI.AMOB. — MDDOZ. 

BSOOIQXJIZ. — HORATIIf TBX TOUKOEE. — QUINTANA. 

BoTH the parties, into which Spanish literature waa 
diyided about the middle of the eighteenth century, erred 
by runoiog into those extremes of opinión which are 
rarely right in anything and never in matters of taste. 
Moratin was wrong in speaking with contempt of euch 
poetry as the fine o!d bailad of " Calaynos," and Huerta 
was equJly wrong when he said, that the " Atbalie'^ of 
Racine might be fit to be represented by boarding-school 
misses, but was fit for nothing else.^ It was natural, 
therefore, that another party, or school, ehonld be formed, 
which should endeavor to avoid the excesses of both its 
predecessors, and unite their menta; one that gchooiof 
should not be insensible to the power and rich- Bbimh»™». 
ness of the oíd writers of the time of the Philips, and 
yet, escaping from their extravagances and bad tasto, 
should mould itsetf in some degree accordíng to the 
severe state of literary opinión then prevailing on the 
Continent. Such a school in fact appeared at Salamanca 
in the latter part of the reign of Charles the Third and 
the beginning of that of Charles the Fourth. 

Its proper founder was Melendez Valdés, who was bom 
in Estremadura, in 1754, and at the age of eighteen was 
sent to study at Salamanca, where, if he did not Meiende» 
pass the larger remaining portion of bis life, he ^»'''*^ 
passed at least its happiest and best years.^ As a versi- 

' S. V. Horatln, Desengaña, p. 34.— at Salamaocs Íd lome depsrtmeDta of f tad; 
EuertA, Teatro Hespañol, Pr^ilogo, p. Iiili. vhlle Meleodei iru therv. But *tUl tbiiigs 
t Considerable Improvement took place remalned In a verjr torpld staU. 



312 



MELE.NDEZ VALDÉS. 



[PüRroD IlL 



fier, he hega.a early, aiid fn a bad school ; wnting at íírst 
in the ujíinuer of Lnljo, who was Btü! rcítct ami aJüiired. 
But he Boon fcll indirectly undcr thc influence of Mura- 
tin aiid his Irieiida at Madrid, wiio were iii evety way 
opposed to the bad taste of Éhefr time. By a fortúnale 
accidout CadahnlHo wtia carried fresii from the raeetinga 
of the club of the Ponda de San Sebastian to Salatiiatica. 
His digceniLti^ ^kiiidneea d€tec3ted nt once tlií? talcnt ítB 
posaestíor had not yet dÍBCOvered. He took Mciendez 
JHto h¡8 houBG ; ehowed hira the merit of the eider litera- 
ture of hia cüuntry, as welt as that of the othe-r cultivated 
TiatUms of Europe ; and devotod himself eo carnestly and 
so afl'ectionately to the development of hia youiig friend'a 
geuius, that it wae afterwards Baid, wEth some truth, that, 
aniong all the woika of Cadahalso, the best waa Melendez. 
At the same peiiúd, too, Melende^i became acquaii)tcd 
\vith Iglesias aTid González ; and throngh the latter was 
pinocd in reUtious of í'ríendship with the commandíiig 
iniyíl of Jovollanos^ who esercieed from the first moment 
of their iutercomee an obvioue aod salutary mfluence 
over him. 

Hia eLtrliest public Bucceas was in 1780, when he üb- 
tained a prize ofl'ered by the Spanish Academy for the 
beet eclogiie^ Triarte, who was Bome years oldcr, and 
had already become favorably known at court and iii the 
capital, wíis hie most formidiible rival. But the poem 
Triarte oflered, which Es on the pleasuree of a eountry 
lifo, as set forth by one disguated with th:ít of the city, 
is Bomewhat ia the formalj declamatory style of the leas 
fortúnate portions uf the oSder Spanieh pastorals ; wbil© 
that of Melendez is -frosh from the fields, and as one of 
the judges said, in the discussiou that fol[owed its read- 
iag, Boeraa absolutely to emell of ttieír wild-flowers. It 
was, indeed, in aweetneas and gentlenese, if not in Origl- 
nality and strength, biicSi a return to the tonea of Gar- 
cilaaso as had not been heard in Spaiti for above a cen- 
tury. Triarte received the aecond honore of the contest, 
but waa not satiafied with »uch a decisión, and made 
known hia feelings by an ill-judg-ed attack upon the buc- 
cessful ectogne of hia rÍTal, The popular favor, however. 



I 



813 

fully Bnstaíned the Academy, and ita vote on that oeca- 
Eiuu has never boen revoised," 

The next year Melendéz carne to Madrid, He waa re- 
ceived with great kindneHa by JorellanoB and his friende ; 
and oblaíneJ new ijonorrs at thc Acadcoij of San Fer- 
naridn, hy an ode " On tlie Glory of ihe Arta," which that 
Aeademy had been Ebunded to foater. But liis preference 
was still for hía oíd poetical hn.untB on the banks of the 
TdrmcH, atid, having" obtaiiied the chair of Professor of 
the niituaiiiticB or PhiloLogy, at Salamaijcai, he gladly 
returned Jliilhetj aüd devoted himaelf to its unosteuta- 
tÍou& duties. 

In nS4, at the Bu^^estion of JovellanciB, he became a 
competitor for the prize oBercd by the city of Madrid for 
a cornedy, and wrote " The Marriage of Camacho.'-' But 
hÍ9 talent wa8 not dramiitic ; and therefore, thoug'h he 
obtained the votca of the judges, he did notj to the great 
djaappointtnent of Iññ patrdP, ubtaiii thoee of tlie publiC 
wheii hJ8 drama waa brought to the test of a free repre- 
eetitation. 

This faibire, however, he retrieved a ycar afterwarda, 
by pubbühmg' a smaU vglnnie of poetry, chiefiy lyric aod 
pastoral. Most of it is in the short, iiaticinal verse, and 
nearly tiU ia laarked witb a great gentleness of Bpirit aiid 
a triily poetical Reiisibility. The AnacrcontioB which H 
coutains remind us of Villegas, but have more philosophy 
,aml more tendernesB than hÍ3. The bailada, for which his 
talent was no lesa híippily fitted^ if thej luck the abrupt 
vigor of the eider times, Lave a gracsj a lightneas, and a 
fíniab which faelong to that moro adyanced period of a 
oation'B poeti-y, wheii the popular lyre has ceaaed to give 
forth ncw and original tonca. But everywhere this little 
Tolume ehowB traeca of au activo fancy aud powere üf 
nice observatiüü, which breafc forth in rich and faithful 
desciiptionH of natural soenery, and in glimpses of what. 



í "Üllfllodin tomill»" — "It Bmelt *ll pd," tth prfBWd by Üíí Aeiia«my, la 
oí <ríli tbyaie" ^nav %ht eimct phraae nr exAntly tba laaie «tj-le irlth ItiiiC [irMElen- 



Ddd Aniariio de T «vírn eatiwiímlng ilie Ec- 
](>^Go[M>slcndH;EVii1ili4, rtrímd. lo la ttic 
text. ThE rival üelojtlKi oí Yriurte, ca 
Uilt'-l " Lii FMeiiiti de Id VlLlu ilcl Cmn- 
viiL, rn. 14 



aei. at tlic tiTL'AR of ITiarrft ', bat tiailer tliB 
lii«uil»Hyiuc ar Ffuuibiúd Aicusttn de Cla- 

TlCtM, 



UELEKDl^Z VALDÉS. 



[Pebios* m. 



ÍB tendevest and traest in tlie tiuman lieart. It was, iu 
fact, a vohime af pwetry more wuitliy of tlie coiiutrj than j 
ai]y that had beeii produced in Spaiii siace the dísappear- fl 
auce of the grcat Itghts of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
CGnturica ; and it WaS receired, in ConsequenCC, with 
general enthiisiaBm, not oaly for jts own sake^ batas tlie 
long-lúoked-for dawn of a brighter day. 

Eut liie BuccesB was not altogother wíaely ueed by 
Melendez. H& had bcen ín the habít for some ycars of 
ependiTig hie vacations at court, where he was a í'avorite 
with many persons of diatinction ; and, now th#t he had 
risen so ^uch íd geniTal conBideratiDii, he employed his 
inííaencc in soliciting for bimseJf a place under the g-ov- 
erriment, — an oíd weakneeB in the Caalilian character, 
which, however disguieed by the loyalty of publiú ser- 
Tice, has brofcen dowu tbe imlepeadeuce and happineae 
of multitudes of liigh-minded men wbo have yielded tú 
it. Meleodez, unfyrtuDatcly, succeédedin his aspiratioDs. 
In IÍ89 he waa niade a judg^ Ín one of the courts of 
Saragossa, and in l^fll was rtiised to a difjnifled po- 
Bition in the Chancery of Valladolid ; thue involviug- 
himeelf more or lese with the poUtical go^eriiment of 
the country, to which, during the admínistration of the 
Prince QÍ the PeacCj every ofScer it employed was in 
fiomc way made Bubsemeot.* 

He did liot, however, neglect hin favorile piirsuits. 
He fnlfi!loid wiLh laithfulneas and abElity tho dutíes of hi^ 
place ; biit poctry waS still bis firat !ove, for wliose Ser- 
vice he rescued mujiy hoors of aecret and fond devotion. 
In 119^, he published a new edition of hÍB Works, more 
than doubling tlieir original amount, and dedicaling them 
to tbe reigiibg favorite, ^ — -the master of all fortiin&s in 
the country he govcnicd bo ill. It was Bncce&eftil. The 
new portions wore a somewhat graver and more philo- 
Bophical air than bis earlicKt lyriuB and pastorala had 
done, aud ahowed more the ínfluence of studies in Englísh 



4 IQ tha PreDuii^ irblcL He1«ndeL wr«M el dlA que dcsé la qulFlud ile mi Cntednt 

Caí bis W^Ck» eÍ£}il»eD m«DCh« fc^ror» bit y tni ünivereiiiad, on he hiUlado por da 

úfal^, he Haj'ai la A Ciloe of £orrai^ and quderasínocucstaBiprcclEjiElQe j' ablmioHBn 

it^HPE aaiiv ti míitaketi -. "Yd, deadc ^ue me lie rlato ciega ^ áeapeñailc.'" p. Iz, 



OíTAí. V.] 



MltESDEZ VALDES, 



315 



and Germán literatiire. But tbis waa not, on the wliole, 
an improvement. lie felt, undoubtedly, that tbc tremeq- 
do«8 revolutions he witnesBed oa all Bidés, m the fall of 
kÍDgdüTiia aiid the coaviilsiotia of society, preseribed to 
poetry subjetits more luíty aiid solemn than he hiid been 
wont to Beek ; aiid hfi madc an efl'ort to rise fo a. requi- 
sitioii 80 severe. Once or twice lie intimates a couaciotia- 
nesB that he was not equal to the undortakiiig^ ; and yet 
his " Ode to Winter," ai3 a season for refleclioo, whích 
Bhows how jTiiich he had read Thomson^ his " Ode to 
Truth," and his " Ode on the Preeence of God in his 
Worksp" are not uiiworthy of their loftj subjects. Sev- 
eral of hie pbiloeophical epiatles, too, are good ; eepe- 
cially those to Javellanos and to the Prince of the Peace. 
But in hÍ3 longev caiuones, where be sometimes ¡raitates 
Petrarch, and in hie epic canto on " The Fa!l of Lucifer," 
wliich was evídently Bugo-ested by Miltoii, he failed,' 
On ílie whole, therefore, the attcmpt to introduce a new 
tone into Spanish poetry, — a tune of morul and, in Bome 
degree, of laetaphysical disciiseion, to whích he was 
nrged by Jovettanoa, — if it did not diniínisb ihe p'erma- 
Bent fame of Melendez, did not add to it, Tbe concise 
euergy and philosophical precisión euch a tone requires 
are, ia fact, foreign frorn the fervent genius of the oíd 
Cafitilian verse, and hardly conBÍ&tent with that Bubmis- 
6ive rebgionB faith which is one of the most importaut 
elementa of the national cbaracter. In this direction, 
therefore, Melendez has been little fiíllowed, 

Ab, büwever, we have intimated, tliia new publicfation 

of Lis woiks was Bücceseful. The Prince of the Peace 

« 

waa fiattored by his share in it ; and Melendez received, 
in consequence, SU iirportant employment about the 
court, whiüh brought hira to Madrid, wheve, hie fríend 



* niisUiít' Uu " CaiJfk de Liuticl " wis 

WTÍLUd fíeeiUM: Ct etii^ IfAi oSütKÚ l>y Lfaa 
SpüDlilh Aiudt:Qi7, íd 17£5, Ío( A jMdU (ttí 
tLaL suftjcct, nblch fjib to -caaBifit af doL 
JDure thñiL ücie hunilreul itctnve fiianiLaB^ I 
doiuitliDuwj but I tiave b pnar atLJfmpt 
with lh« same íMiHf proTcmÍDg tu be thv 
work «r Mantie! Perres Vulderrnbniiu, (Pb- 
kmilit, 1T8B, Í2aKi,'} and to han Uecd 



srrl1t«i) fot lu-cb i prtee, io lII Uie «m- 
illtlúiía oí whicli tbc |>acm oí HtÁenici 

tbut « Fretieh \ióí, MRjieinoiBílie d¥ B"ü- 
nillí, who publishíd at Madnil, in nSfl, 
H ihLraEiKe pudiijIiI-cí <iu Biiuiieb UtCM- 
turc. CüUiplainia bitterl; tbal dd pñte van 
■narled. DiiÜCBS BieQ«jd<JDa», íé,, 4,1a, 



316 



VIELENDEZ VALDÉS. 



[Pkxidd HL 



Jovellanos haTÍng been made a mísigter of state, hÍ3 
pOHJtion bccame, for a moment, most a^eeallc üod 
happjr 1 wbile, fur tbe future^ a long* vista of prefemient 
and famo Beeiiied upening- before him. Bal the rery next 
year, the virtuüUB and wíse man on whom restí?d so 
maii^ hopes, besideB thoee of Meleiidez, fell from power; 
and, accürding to the oíd custom of tbe Spanish mon- 
arcLy, bis politicaJ frieiids were ini-olved in bis ruin, At 
firBt, Melendez waa cxiled io Medina del Campo, acd 
afterw4rd& lo Zumora ; but in 1802 the rigor of bis perse- 
cutioD wafl mili^uiedj and be waa permltted to return to 
Sa^íLmanca, the sccne of bis earliest aod bappieet fanie. 

But he rcturned there a saddened and disappointed 
ma.li ; litHe inclined to poetical studies, and witb little 
of the tranquilüly of spirit necessaiy to piiFBne them anc- 
C?3sfuUj, At the cnd of sii wCaiy yeara carne the revo- 
luticia of AraiijiieK, and he waa a^n free. He bastened 
at once to Madrid. Bul be wae too late. The king was 
alraadj at Bayoniie, and tbe French power was i» tlie 
aacendant in tbe capital, Unfortunately, he attached 
bímsdir to the iiew goveroment of Joseph, aud shared 
first íts disasters atid tbea its fate. Once be was abeo 
lutely led uut to be eUot by the excited populatiou of 
Oviedo, where he had been sent as a commissioner. Ou 
another occasion^ bis houee at Salamanca was sacked, 
and bis precioua library and more preciuus manuscripta 
were deatroyed, by the "very French pavty whoae iotereets 
he eerved. At laat, when all waa loBt, he fled. But, 
before he croased, the froiitier, he knolt down and kissed 
the laat spüt of earth that be could cali Spain ; and then, 
as the Bidaasoa received bis tears, ciied oiit in aoguish, 
tliat "heabould never again tread the bíiíI of his couu- 
trj." EIs prophccy was fuLfilled as a»dly as it was made. 
Four miserablo yeiirs be lived as an eiile in the South of 
France, and theti dicd at Montpellier, on the 24th of May, 
181T, m povertj and euffering-." 

■ Tío dBBtJi «r M«li-iiil«t WM inppsBEd iMT^rt;, bij Ii^tíIbI vm iú iiiucDre tbat 

tr bis ptijaiüixn t" hiHu bri^n oDcsjloned. the Diiku it Frlua Aúd Iba foet Juaa 

(¡y Oír VL-p!tai>|v dU't <« wlileb be waa IJleul-» QüIlRgo witb dUEciilty dlHcnTEtüd 

drlveii, fur whili of muHiia In piirehise futid h\a reraalbn, la 1828, lead e&uaea Uiíiq to 

lacire nubtuiutla! -, uul, Intt, Ibe «une be Tiupecllully LaLereed, Iq oos of tfaa 



y 



Chaf. V.] 



MELENDEZ VALDES. 



sn 



To solace the heavy houra of hi& esiIe, he occMpieá. 
híineelf witli prfpariiig: íhe matGriala for a final pultUca- 
tion of all he- had ^'ritten, embracirig niany new poems 
aiid tníLiiy changes ín those aJreüdy puilíshed ; -^all 
whiuli apptared fu 1320, and have constitutcid the basis 
tíí tho liifforfent oditíoiis of his works t)i3t have been 
givan to the world slnce. Like the previouB col- Higchainc- 
lections, it shciwSj Dot, indeed, a poetical g-euius *^^- 
of the fii'st order, ñor one with very flexible or very vari- 
oua attributea, but certainíy a genius of great sweetness ; 
alwuys wiíjiiuig and gracíful whenever the subject im- 
plies terideniesB, and BometiracB vigrirous aiid imposing- 
whea it dGTnaudB powcr. What Melendcz wrote with 
success was a great advanee iipou tlie poetry of Monti- 
ano, and even npon that of the eider Moi-atin. It waa 
more Castilian, and more fnll of feeling, thati theira. In 
style, too, it was more free, and ií has duiíe much to set- 
tltí the poetical manner that has siiice prcvailed, GaUi- 
ci&ms occasioDally occur that míght have beeu avoided, 
thoiigh many of them have now beconie a part of the 
TBcogriized resmircee of Spariish poetry ; but more often 
Melendez has revi ved cdd and ueglected words and 
phraeGS, which have thus been restorcd to thi^ir place 
in the language, and have increascd ita wcalth. As a 
general reoiark, his verse is not onty flowing-, but well 
Biiited to hia suíijecta ; and whether we consídur what 
he hiiS dfíiie biinscjüj or what influcnce he has exer- 
cised over othei-s, — eapecially w¡ien we read the little 
volume he pablished in the freehü&se of hi3 yoiith, while 
he waa Btill iinknown at court and Btill carelesB of the 
convulsions that were at last to overwbelm him, — tliere 
can be no donbt that he wa& better fitted to form a new 
sclioiil, aiid g-ive 3. guiding irapulHC to the níitioTiat poetry, 
than aiiy writer that had appeared in Spain for above a 
Centai-y."' 

prÍTintpnl cE:iTi<'ttTlpn of Mnntprlllpr, irlth tile birtAiLÍBl, ^hü Gfiñfl AiQ flpIgrOíD an 

niL BpprriijrliU^ nmiiiiment la uark the Mekndm kíÜi tliÉve WoFil^: — 

síiíil, ScmiiriJi.rli Pin lo re*!:», 1139, p|i, Inwreí, lian [ Pniriom pudcl monombut» d™- 

3a]-aa3) a «rlklng »nil narl WuLnry. Lurfj 

But llie o„,ni.m.'t.t, lliu» Uirrtily .:n!Ct.-i1, CminuBij,, .nll hhIU b.홫 .¡m. 

bMM parilj ,.|Tao,..l tliB n.|,n™.-b so |pni„iP.1. C.onmü. M.trítl, ISir. p. lia, 

Ij caal üii Uis cuuütrí liyQunnüdflOrLi-jjai ' Juan Ueleiid-eB Y^dií, " FmsIu," 



313 



DIEGO GONZÁLEZ. 



[Pebioti nL 



Older than Melendezj but sonsewhat ioñueiiced by him 
and hy Cadjiljaleo, wli» had an cffect. on tlie taste of líotli, 
tMíT" Oi-D- ""^^ '^'^^ excellent Father Diego González, a mod- 
»'«- eat Augustinian monk, a part üf whiiee life -waa 

epent in active j-e-ligioug dnties at Salamanca, where he 
became intímate witli the poets of the npw achool l a part 
of it at Seville, whcre he was tíie frieiid of JüvellaiiOfl; 
and a part of it at Ma^iridj where he died in 1794, aboat 
BÍxtj yeaua n!d, siiiceiely lamented hy eonio of the noblest 
Bpirita of IiÍ8 time. As a poet, González adhered more 
tü llie oíd Oastilian echool than Melende» did. Biit liis 
modol waa the best. IIg iinitattíd Luis de León ; and dij 
it witb sitch happy siic-cees, tliat, in some of hís odes and 
In aome of hia vereiona of the Psalms, wc might almoat- 
think we were listening to the eolenin tonca of hi& grcfat 
miLstcr. Híb most popular poiíma, howeTer, wore lig-iit 
aTid guy, sucH as his verses " To a Ferfidi;nis Bat," 
which have heen very ofíen printed ; hia versos "Tu a 
Lady who had biirocd liCr Fírg-cr ; " and similar trilles, 
in which he showed that all the eecret idiomatic graces 
of the oíd Ciistilian were at hití coramand. A didaclio 
poem fin "The Foul' AfjeB of Man," which ho bp;^an, and 
in llic first Ijoük of which there is a fine dedication of 
the whüle to Jovellauoa, waa never fiaished. Indcei!, hia 



Manlrli), 1365,12010 5 ITfil, 3 tom., ISmo i 
IS^, i Uno., li-iat. i Ihf IB-St wlt)) s. LIFe, 
hy QaliLtiiDjL. (tLijbu*tiinei Toin. 11, p. 
fáñ-") Qulülana Enys, Lfínt tbree souTiU^r' 
tblí «ditickiifl of Lhií ñrat Bina.ll T'iloioe, 
prlnlKcil In 1TS5, nppearpd almGsL at Ihe 
IPADit lioii? wíLh tila tni'! oof? ; %a jcrpnt van 
the LT^% nullireük nf liifl popotarjly. The 
Qr»t vr^lUTLLi* rT llenaoEÍllii (.luioio Critico 
4b los Prin^lpui-^fl \^ñHns ESfañu-Left-ile La 
Ultlica Efíi, Pnria, 1840, 2 tara., llmn) 
COCU^lTii} tt- cr^l^?^™ of tul] prK^niB or KIq- 
K'n4?£, 99 iuívi>^F^ tl'J^iC ! flnd. i[ diiBoolt to 
esplnLn Hl TnijTiPü. The jEBjd^meDt Df Mnr^ 
tlnül lll Id BnPfti in Uio notes to hia dWiic- 
tío TJOfin la VvtílJ, i» inu?h miire ra-Ulirul 
aiiHl tnl^^ Mrt|efi<1eE porpect&J hi^ vL-ríe 
wltli gTünt íMf" i íDEueclinea vith Coa cnuíh, 
KH miij- lie Bs'flQ liy oíimpürlng' aiiaia oí ihc 
potmti Bti he ñi4t pul-iiebci tbcuix. Id 17S5, 

vltfa Llieír lae-t reviHinú, iCI UlS CálllOD Di 
llia Works, IS-Sl. 



Bonn iifter the Ocalh of Ueleuilcí, lams 
of hia uccasinnjil (LiscouraeH u|ipc:iird \n 
Ctm ftral three vj>liiraea of Ihe " Cimllrmn- 
gIoo ael Aimncen de l^rutoB Lilvurliu" 
(Uailrlil, ISIB, Itu). lluL ia 1S21, A nirmll 
vQlupüa uf thj^jT, ten in [Linnb*?!*, etiili^ii 
wllll enre, ajiiJ entltlel " DiacUPStiB Foren- 
^?e,^' vna piihllahed st Mnilrlil, Ío Lhe 
Impretlla HueitiillU. Hall ur Uirm nra 
BpeEches incide 1n nfiaarb ablij pEsbllc prrise* 
catJoilí. wh?ti he WBB fiscal ür Cent, or 
Altcrufí-IJeneml, n-ml the ollier nre ara 
Híldri^ewi Piarte ou vntioua popular or 
lll^rary <i5caflíonH. Smne a( Ihem Kn 
VüiT elíijiiem, nrid geteml are uot iniBur- 
thr thí iJIselplo o[ .Tiivt'lliHioí, anrl are 
imlrawl Will" hls itt!-n"r-m9 aml lofly s|ilrlt, 
Thíir Tanlt i» a {¡ilüCBíi B(r, oFwliioh thum 
Ib SomellilfiS In tiis pMtrj, hut more in hl» 
prOflO. H.lí prLFB";, tir>wecor, is B™ULirul j 

n liícte ílikbomie, but oli^n mqviDij. 



Chap. V.] 



FOBNElt 



siy 



l(i>roer. 



poetry, though much known and circulated duríng his 
lifetime, was an object of little interest or care to himBelf, 
and was ccillected with difiiculty after hÍB death, aiid piab- 
lished by his fíiithlul friend, Juan Fernandez.* 

Other poeta, atuong whom were Pomer, IgleaiaSj and 
Cieiifiíeg-OB, were more under the ¡nflueace of the Salor 
manca achool than González waa. Foraer, like 
Mclendez, waa born iu Estremadura, and the two 
young friends ■T7ere educated together at Salamanca. In 
his critica! opinions, — paitly ebown m a gatire " On the 
Faults introduced ínto Oaetiliaii Foetry," which gained 
au academic pi'ize in 1^92, and partly io his controversies 
witli Huerta on the subjeot of the Spaniiíh theatre, — he 
inclinen mnch to the strivter French school. But hia 
poetry ia more íree thau auch opinious would ¡mply ; and 
in hig latter yeargj when Ije lived aa a magistra-te at 
Seville, and stuiiied Herrera^ Ktoja, and tho o1her oíd 
raasters whn wrera oatives of its soil, he attached Jiimaelf 
yet moro decidudly to the natíoaal niariner, and approached 
nearer t-o the serene severity of González. Unhappily, 
hiH life, besideH being mnch crowded with buainess, waa 
short. He died in 1797, only forty-ont; yeare oM; and, ex- 
cept hís prese werka, tlio bcst of wbieh are a weil-writíen 
defeiice of the literary rí:pntalion of liís Cciuntry agaiuat the 
injurióos imputations of foroignera, and a Diacoarse un 
the mode of writing Spiíniah history, he left little to ^ve 
the world proof of the merits he poasessed, or the inlJu- 
ence he really esercised.* 



filDdeUi ISIS, lauo. Bi w&ñ A aatisú or 

Olnd&d Oaarlgo, nnil vas bom in 1733. 
ir bt b&d bMQ a UCU« leH medMt, And n 
llRle lESB conitceted irlHi JaTcllanos A.UÚ 
Helesdo, ve mletxl Imre tuid. a iui>Jcirii 
' Kbaol or &e-vl\\a lu irtii hb of SalBinaní»!. 

* JtlCLIi Puljlo I'oftiír, " Or«eloa Apolo- 
g-útJcft i>[ir la Bíinvia y aU. MrrltQ Lltvrn- 
Tiíi," Miulrid, lim, ISJno. He [irícotoil 
rltli It B gM»l iliíGuürSL: In Frtínch, by 
thl Alil6 Ilfinlmi, ilelli'ercl brfure thC 
AtBdi^ciy of Bvrliii, [Hirtl; nt ttie gujri»»- 
tSiia or Frcdcrlc U^, ua the saum: gulij'-ct. 
Hb crltlc&l DcititrDV«Tii]es lUid dlHcuaiiíaii. 
WBtt «tdeítf tuaíec oaBumed uiimfi, — 



Tútoé Crclal, Tafia, Riutolo, He. Hil 
jioeCrf ia hest fonod in iLd '''Bíbliot^m'^^ 
of MíDcIMl y mveln, (BiirdBciii, 1813, 
4 triD., 6tü,) flud ia th^ foLirth VüliimG ni 
QutnünDa'ii '^ Pótalas &i.'tb'ptj],B ; ^' — aa at- 
tsbipb to pDtkli?]! a callectlca of nll bit 
4>*i>tkí| ^ítvil b; LniB YiLLmBífda hur'ihE 
llli?pppj| aRtír LeBDing the first tülutu^ 
irlikürid, 1SV¿, Svn. In tlis lEdt Itl hll 
Workii, BifOn iu thiB v-oluUe (|>, XMlli.), bj 
FumiM- liinisi;!/, lie doirA not mElItlDD " ÍA 
EbcuíU dr la Aniietnd, 6 t\ FlIOBDÍD Bob- 
inurBdif,'" [printi-d aij. Madrid, In 1730,) in 
tlireo acti, aiiú Iu the nid übuii nutiolul 
TEi-Be aiul anuaanim, ntijcli. is 7et hb, 
(L. f . MoraLla, Ubras, Tom. IV. p. IxxiU. Jl 



8S0 



IGLESIAS. — CrENFUEGOS. 



[Period ni. 



Ig^lcaiiLS. 



IglesiaB, Ihoug'h liis Ufe waa even shorter, was, ín some 
respecta, njóte fortúnate. lie waa born in Sala- 
manca, and ediicatcd thcre unLler the most favor- i 
able auBpiccs. Offetided at the !ow state of moráis in faía 
naíive city, he indnlg-ed liiniBelf at firat in the free fornaia 
of Cae tillan aatire ; — ballade, apologuosj cprgrame, and 
especiiilly the half-simple^ half-maiiciouB le/rilias, in which 
he was eminOntly SnCCeáSful. But, whcn he bccamO a 
pariah prJest, lie thong^ht auch lightneBB mibecoming the 
eíamplc he wished to aet before his ñock. He dtvotedi 
himself, íhereforc, to BEríoua conipoBition ; wrnte serioaa, 
bailada, eclogues, and siltias in the naannei' of Melendez ¡i 
and pnbliahed a didactic poein on thcolug-y; — ail the re- 
Hult of a níDst worthy purposG, and all writton in the pnrñ | 
Btyle which ia one of hig prominent merite ; hut noue of 
it givinfT tokCJi of tlie instinCtive promptinfre of liis ge-| 
níuSj atid iione of it fittcd to increase hÍB flnal reputation. 
Aftcr hia death, which occurred in 1191, when iie waa 
thirty-eight years oldj tbis became at once apparent. Hia ^ 
TPorks were coUected and piiblished ín two volumes ; thefl 
first bcing filled with the gravcr clasa of his poema, and " 
the second with the aatirical. The decisión of the pnblic 
waa instant. His Üg-htei' poems were too fjec, bnt they 
were hctter iraitationg of Quevedo thau had jet beert aeen. 
and became favoritea at once ; the aerioua poems were 
dull, and 60on ceaRed to be read.'* ^ 

Cieiiñicgos, who was ten years yoiing-er than Melendea!,^ 
was more &tnctly bis follower than either of the 
two poete last mcntioned, Eut he had fallen on ^ 
evil times, and bis eareer, ■which promi^ied to be brilliant, fl 
wa& cut Bhort by the troubleB they brougbt npon him. 
In 1T98 he published bis poetical works ; the miscellaae' 



O^EDÍDegae. 



Hnd wag octei, Hccordlng lo Lho "Biugra- 
pliie fnlverBelle," plgítLeeii tlmea. IC ia, 
bowe»er, Türjr íiat and -aull. 

HIs "Oiiiciun" WBS BttackBd bj gome- 
baljf »lii> sl)iiied hiniielf Jni^ ConcbudiD, 
\a Lije ■■* Carla al Autor <Id In OMctfla 
ApulugítiCfL,'' [Marlrtd, 17SJ, Itlmo.) and 
wna dcfviidul ¡Q tha." Antlp^T-flfloia,*'' -M., 
pnrE. C. y., (Madrid, lTB7,lS»5p.>_bl>tlí 

or llitiH iioaB^i)g«iii:« wanj-tWlv ttnl thelr 
tuUbon. 



¡o "VotuítiB d? Daq Jos«r IgleilM dd li 
Cmo," Salsmiincit, 17e», 2 tH>fik., IBmo,'. 
Bígiluaa Edición 1 f.irbWileti hy tlia In-I 
qnlsHIna, Index Bxpirfe-., IflUS, p. 27. , 
ñf bfiEt editian» ax-i lliasi; nf Uarcelnna, ] 
ISan. BUi Píiria, 1B21 i bllt Üinv Are sec-J 
Mili üthírt, iLnd uniimi; llum míe Ie. four 
BinAll tolmoFE, 1840, IIk liiHt corjtiilniriB % 
COhñiLlBi'able nuinber of iioeiuB not bífiHH 
pobJiífieJ, Bome of which, and perh«,pB >1L| 
ñlt Jlnt b; IgleeiuS' 



Cbap- V.] 



CIESFÜEGOS. 



321 



ouB portion consíatiiig of Anacreontícs, odca, ballads, 
episfles, aiid clegies, whTch, wliile they give procf oí 
much real ta,tciit and passion, show Bom&tirnes ati excesB 
of gen timen tul fceling", and Büinetimea a desire to imítate 
the mctaphygical and philoBophical manner Bupposcd to 
be demanded by the spirit of the ag^e. BotL were defects, 
to whielí he had been partly led by the example of his 
fiiend aiid raastcr, Melendez, at whose feet he loag- sat 
in the cluistera of Salamaaca ; and both were aflectar 
tioTis, from which a. character so manlj atid decíded as 
thíLt of CienfuegOB might in time have emanciipated iteelf. 

Bnt the favor with which thia publicatüín waS received 
procnrod for híin the place of editor of the governuient 
g-ftzette, at Madrid ; and when the Frencb occupied that 
ciipititl, in ISOS, lie was foond firiu at his poBt, deteriiiiued 
to do his dnty to his couutty. Murat, wlio had the com- 
mand of tlie inTading furtee, tíndeavored, at first, to 
seduce ot di'ive him into BubniiBsionj but, failing !n this, 
condemned him to death ; a senteuce whivh- — einco Cieu- 
fiíe-goB lefnsed to make the smalleat coneessíon to the 
Frcnchauthoritj' — would infallibly have beea carried into 
GXGCutíon, if his friends had not interfcred, and procnrcd 
a cummiitation of it into transportstion to France. The 
Cihange, however, was hardly a mercy. The sufferinga 
of the jonrney, in which he trauelled as a prisoner, the 
grief be felt at leaving- hie fríends En banda whieh had 
hardly spared hi& own life, aod tlie anticipation of a lotig 
esilc in the midst of his own and his country'e enemieB, 
were too much for Líb patriotiú and geuerous spirit ; and 
he died in July, 1809, at the age of forty-flve, oniy a. few 
daye after he had teached the spot assigned for hia pun- 
ifiliment," 

One other person, already referrod to with honor, must 
now be particularly üoticed, who, if his life belonged to 
the Btate, still wrote poístry with success, and esertised 
over the school formad at Salamanca an inSuence which 



n "OliniB Pottlcna ilc NícobIo ilynreiL 

d« Ck^fatRiia," MailriiJ, ISIB, 2 tfltD.> 

1-itnci. Híh stflÉ it ftntniílÉbliiuil uf, hatb. 

fbr nntlD£Í^m« tiad arih^6iñ6¡ thü l&fll 4l 

11* 



vhlAli t)e.Te bfc-Q mude, thoagh «1tligni,t 
fcgoiujL Uclcuúez. 



JOVEI.LANOS- 



[Period IIL 



JmFltauíQC. 



^longB til tbe íiÍBtory of lettera. Thie pereon wa& Jo- 

vcUanoa, the wise mjigí «trate and mítiister of 
Charlcíi the F'jurth, and the victim of bis roaa- 
ter's unworlhy weaknesB and of the Btill more nnwor- 
thy vengeaoce of tlie reigiiing' lUvorite, He wae bom 
iu Gijotí, ÍB Astnriaa, in iTii, and from hís earlieat 
youth Beems to have shown that love of intellectual 
cultívatíoü, and th^t moral elevatiotí of eharacter, which 
distingnished the whole of the more matare portious of 
}i¡8 Ufe. 

The pDsttiun of his family was such, that all the means 
fiir a carcfnl ediicatiun to be found in Spain were open to 
him ; artd, as ho was oricjínally deetined to the higber 
dignities of the Church, he was scnt to study philoeopbj 
and tlie canon and civil law at OWedo, Avila, Alcalá do 
llenarea, and Madrid. But, just aR he wae about to tafce 
thü irrevocabíe step that would h^ive bound him to an 
ccclesiaBtíc-al lifo, some of hiB frienda, and eapeciaÜy the 
distirüguished stateBman, Juan Ai'iag de Saavedra, who 
waB like a second father to him, interfered, and chang'ed 
Jns defititiation. The consequeiico of tliis intervetitioa 
was, that, in líCí, he was sent as a jndiíiial magistrate to 
Seville, where, by his humane spiíít, and bis diaintCTeeted 
and earnest devotion to the dntiea of a diffieuU and diea- 
greeable plaCCj, be raade bimeelf genorally loved and re- 
spectad; while, at the Hame lime, by his etudyof political 
economy a:]d Ihe foniida+iima of ¡ül just legislation, he 
prepared the way for his own future emijieuce in the 
añ'airs of his conntry. 

But the epirit of Jovellanos was of kindred wEth what- 
ever was noble and elevated. At Seville, he early discor- 
ered the mcrit of Diego Gonnalez, and throug-h him wae 
led into a corresponden ce Tvith Mí'IendeB. One result 
of this is still to be found iu tiie poetical Epistlo of Jo- 
vellaiioa to hís fnends in Salamanca, exhorting them to 
riae to the hiy-liest straine of poctry. Another waa thñ 
establítíhmcnt of a connection between himBelf and Me- 
tpndez, -which, whjle it was important to the yoiing school 
nt Salamanca, lod Jovellanos to give more of his leíaure 
to the elegant literature he had always lovedj but frpm 



ClIAP. V-1 



JOVELLAKOS. 



323 



which tlic Btínous biiaiiiCBS of lile liad, for Bome time, 
mucb sepa,r;iled him. 

Tn coiiscquence oí' an accideatíil coiiversation, he wrote 
at Sevillc ¡lis prose comedj of " The Honorcd 
Criminat," which hiid a remarkable aucceBs ; anJ qALíiiSñ- 
in IT69 he preparad a poetical tragody oii the '^°' 
subject of Pelayo, which was not printed till soreral 
years afterward. Shorter poetícal compositiong, aorae- 
times grave and soraotimes gay, eerved tu divert hia mirid 
in the lüLerTats of scvere labor ; aiid when, after a poriod 
of ten years, he lüft the brilliant capital of AndaluBÍa, I1Í3 
poeticttl Epistle -to itis friends there ahciwa how dcepíy he 
Ibit that h« waa leaving- behiad him the happieat period 
of hiB Ufe. 

Tilia waB in 1118, whei] he was called to Madrid, as 
one of the principal mag-istratea of the capital and court ; 
a píate that Ijrongbt itim agJiin ioto the adminis- j^ tuigia- 
tration of criminal jnatice, Ir-om whicli, during- '™'*- 
his stay at Seville, he had bcen rclicved, Ilis dutie^ 
were distasteful to hia nature, but he fulñlled them faith- 
fiilly, and consüled hiniself by iritercourse with Buch iiiCn 
as Camptimanes and Cabamis, whn devoted theinselvea, aa 
he did, to the great task of raieiiig- thtí COndition of their 
country. Of courae, he had now little leiaure for poetry. 
Büt, beiüg- aceidentalEy employed on affairs of conae- 
qiieuce at the Paular coiiTent, he waa so atruck by the 
sulemn scenery in ■which it stood, and the tranquil livea 
of its rtídu^fí inhaibitante, that his poética! spiot broke 
out afresh in an addrees to Mariano Colon, one of the 
faroi]y of the great discoverer of America, lUid afterwarda 
ita bead ; — a beautiful epistle, full of the severe geiiiua 
of the place thiat inspired it, and of ita author's Jong-iiig 
for a repose hia apirit waa ao wel! fitted to enjoy. 

in 1780, he waa raised to a place in the OonnCÜ of 
Ordera, wbcre he had more Iciaurs', and wns able to give 
his time tü higher objects ; — some of the resulta of which 
are to ha eeen iu his report to the goverumeut oa the 
military and rcligions Ordets of Üuighthood ; in hia aya- 
teai uf iuBti-uclion for the Imptirial üullege of Calaírava ; 
in hia Discüiirse on the Stndy of Eistory, aa a necesaary 



•ÓU 



JOVELLANOS, 



[Pbkíod m. 



part of the wise etudy of jurispriidence ; and ín other 
BÍmilar labora, wliich preved him to be iiicontostably an 
excetlent prose-writer, and the firat philoBopIliciLl statea- 
mao ia tbe kiiigdoia. 

At the same time, howeíer, he amuaed hiraself with 
eleg-aiit Utcrature, and took great solace ia ooUectiiig 
arouüd him the poeta and men of letters whíim he loved.^'' 
In 1785, he wrote several burleaque bailada on tbe quar- 
relfl of Huerta, Yriarte, and Foruer about the theatre ; 
and the next year publisbcd two eatiree in blank veree 
and in the style of Juvenal, rcbuking" the cormpted man- 
ners of bis times, AH of them were received with favor ; 
and the bailada, thoiigh not printed t5!l long aftcrwards, 
were perhaps only the more effective because thej weve 
circulated in mamiBcript, and so became matters of great 
interest. 

Persona who held the tone implied in auch a coiirse of 
public labora iníght be austained at the cotirt of Charlea 
the Third, but were little likely to cnjoy regard at that of 
hia son. In 1190, two years after Charles the Fourth as- 
cended the throne, Count Cabarrus not only fell 
feom power, hüt, was thrown into priaon ; and 
Jovellauüs, who did not he&ítatc to defend him, was sent 
to Asturias in a Gort of honorable esile, that lasted cight 
yeara. But he served his fellüw-meu as gladly in dis- 
grace as he did in power. Hardiy, tberefore, had he 
reached hia nativa city, when he set about mging fur- 
ward all public improveraeiita that ho deemed ueeñil ; 
Jaboriug" in whatever related to the mines and roads, and 
especially in whatever related to ihe general educatíon 
of the people, with the most disinterested zeal. During 
thia period of enforced retirement, he made many reporta 
to tbe governmcnt on different subjects connccted with 
tlie g-eneral welfare, and wrote hia excellent tract " On 
Public Amusenients,''' aftei'wards publisLed by the Acad- 
emy of History, and bis elabórate treatise on Legislatioa 
in ítelation to Agricultmre, which extended his reputation 



I' He waB bIio fond. of paínllng, la- lli? AcadBín)' at 0jin Feraanda at Madrid, 
cbtail Cean Beraiude» nnd Pom ía thcir ia 1T8*. Btlrllag'i. irtiatg af SpoJn, 18-48, 
liMliilrieB, and delLtend a dlmiunc bcbra "VóL HI. p. 138T. 



Chap. V.] 



JOVELLANOB. 



325 



Ihroughout Burope, and has been the Dasis of all that haB 
been wiaely iiiiilertaken iii Spaín oii that difBcult subject 
ever Binco. 

Iii 1Í97, Count CabaiTUB waa rcBtored to the favor of 
Godoy, Priiice of the Peace, and Jovellanoe waa recalled 
to cüurt and rnade Miriitíter of Justice. But his J^rali^¡ftet 
seasDii of favor was short. tfodoy atill hated "feww. 
tTie elevaled viewB of the man to whoin he had rcluc- 
taiitly delegated a stnall portíoü of hia own powcr ; and ia 
1T98, uüder the pretext of devotíng him to hia oíd em- 
ploymetits, be wílb a^ain exi'Ied to the mountame of Aatu- 
rias, wliiuh, like go iriany otiier dÍBtÍDg;uished meo that 
bave epmng fram them, he loved with a fond prejudice 
that he did uot care to diaguise. 

This exile, however, did not aatisfy the Jealoas favotite. 
lü 1801, partly through a muvenient oí the Inquisítion, 
and Btill iitore thrtiugh a política] intrigue. Jo- ^^^^ ^^ 
TellanoB wae suddenly sei^ed in bis bed, and, in *^'-*' 
TÍolütioii both of !aw and decency, carricd, like a conimon 
felón, acrosB tliB wliole king^dom, and embarked at Barce- 
lona for Majorca. There he waa conlined, first in a cun- 
vent and afíerwards in a fortress, with sych rigor, that all 
commnnicatiüu with his frienda and with the affaira of 
tfae world was ntarly cut ofl'; and tliere he- reraained, for 
Boven long years, expused to privations and tríala that 
underraiiied his hcalth and Vjroke down bis constitution. 
At last carne the abdication and faU of hÍ9 weak and un- 
grateful sovereign. " And thcn," saye Southey, ín hia 
" History of tlie Peminenlar War," " next to the punísb- 
ment of Godoy, what all men moat desired waa the relcaae 
of Joveüauos." He was, thereforc, at once brought back, 
and everywhere welcoraed ivitli the aflection and respect 
that he had earned by so many services and through sach 
unjuat Bufferings, 

Hia infirmitiea, bowever, were very oppressiv»' tohim. 
He decliued, therefore, all public employmcnts, oven 
among hSs frienda who adhered to the cause of their 
cüuntry ] he indignantly rejected 1he pmppsal of the 
Prencb invadei'a to become one of the príwcipal raínis- 
ters of stttte in the new order of thiugs tíiey hoped to 



32(1 



JOVELL.VSOS. 



[Pkutob in. 



eetablielí ; and then elowjj and esclly retii'ed, to &eek 
amoiig hÍ8 riative mnuiitaína the rcpcise he oeeded, But 
he waa not penoitted Iqu^ to remaiu tliere. As Booa aa 
tlic fEret centra! Junta wae orgaiiiKeil iit Seville, he waa 
Betit toit to rcpreseot im native province, and gtood f'orth, 
iti íta couneils the leading spirit in the darkcst and most 
disheírtenJiig moments of tlie great Coiitcst of his ciouritry 
for esiBtence. On the dissciluticín oí' that body, 
ünii «lítftr" — which waa diasolved üt his Carnest dosíre, — • 
'"«■■ he again returned hame, broken down with yeara, 

]aboTs, aíid BufTfíriD^s ; trnsting ttftt he should üow be 
peritiitted tü end his daya in peace. 

Jíut no man with influetace sunh as hia Could then have 
peaee in Spain. Lilic others, in those days of revolntion, 
he wa9 asHailed by the fierce epirít of faction, and iti 1811 
replied fcriumphantly to hta accueere in a. defence of what 
muy be considerad his adminiBtratjfin of Spain in the 
two pntcedin^ years, wHtten wilh the pmity, elcgance, 
and gravity of manner whieh marked hÍB beat daysj 
and with a moral fervor even more eloq^nent tban. lie 
had shown before. Ab he approachee the conclusión of 
this personal -vindicíitiün, admirable alike for ite modesty 
flíid its power, he says, with a sorrow he doea not striva 
to coqüeal ; — 

" And now that I am abotit to lay down my pen, I feel 
a aecret trouble at my heact, which wÜl disturb the rest 
of my Hfe. It haa been impussible for me to defend my- 
self without oíTending others ; and I fear, that, for the 
íirat tiuie, I ehall begin to feel I have eoemieB wliom I 
have myflelf made soch. Bufc, wounded in that honor 
which ia my life, and asking iu vain for aii authority that 
■would pratect and reseñe me, I haré bcen compelled to 
attempt my own defence by my own p&n. ; tho only weap- 
on left in my banda, To use it with absolute moderation, 
whcn I was dríven On by an anguish so eíiarp, was a hard 
task. One more dcsíeroua ¡n auch conteets niig^ht, by the 
cunning of his avt, have oftener inflicted -wanods, and re- 
ceived thera more rarely ; but, feeling myaelf to be 
fiercely attaclted, and coming to the coRtest ujiBkílleil 
and alone, I threw my unprotected person into it, and, in 



Chap. V.] 



JOVELLANOS, 



327 



order to iree myself Troin the more iraminent dang-er 
before me, tuolí no thtinght of any tliat míght fullow. 
Indeed, such waa Ihe inipulae by wJiich I was driven on, 
tliat I loBt Bight, at once, of coiiBidei'atioiiB wliich, at an- 
other time, migiit weU have prevailed wítli toe. Venerar 
tion for public aiitlioríty, respect fur ofScial Btation, the 
prívate affectiona of fnendsliip and personal attachraent, 
— eveiything ■wkbiiii me jieldeii to the love of juatice, 
and to the parnest desíre that ti'nth aiid iaiiücence shcmld. 
triumplí over caluuiny and falsehoüd. Aud can I, afLer 
tbis, he pardoned, either hy tlioae who have assailed me, 
or by thtiee who have refaced me their protection ? Surcly 
it mattors little. The time has come in which all dieap- 
probatiou, except that of honorable meo auÚ the frienda 
of justice, muat be indiffcrent to me. For nciw that I 
find myeelf faet appToaching the final limits of human. 
liíé, now that I ara alone and in poverty, withont a home 
or a. shelter, wbat remaiiiH for me to ask, beyond the 
glory and líberty of my country, but leave to díe wilh 
the gúoA ñame 1 have labüred to carn in its service ? " " 

At the moment wben thia oloqnent dcfcncc of himself 
was published, the French, by a sudden induraion, toot 
militaty posBession of bis native city ; and he bniricd for 
safety on board a alight vessel, hardly knowing whither 
hi« courae should be directed. After BuíTering severely 
from a storm of eiglit days' continuance in the 
Bay of Biscay, he disombarked to obtam relief 
at the obñcnre port of Vega. But his etreogth was gone; 
and on the 2Tth of November, within forty-cight bours 
from the tínie of his lauding, he died. lie was nearly 
BÍxty-eight years oíd. 

Jovelíanos left behind him few raen, in any connhy, of 
a greater clevatiou of mind, and fewer still of a purer or 
more iiTeproachable character. Wliatever he did Hianharear 
was for Spain aniJ bis fellow-men, tO whose ser- '*'• 
vice be devoled hiuiself alike in the days of hie happinees 
and í)f Lis suflffií-iiig ; — in bis influence over the Bchool 
of Salamanca., wben he e.\horted theni to raise tbe tone of 



HIa deaÜi. 



^ O, QíBptií de JorelliuiB* a »aa Oniitpatfliitu, (CH)n]ñ&, 1611, tí^ Xom. L fp. 
Ul, Ibb. 




3S8 



[Fekiod IIL 



ttieír poetry, no lesB than iti tlie war-cry of his odes to 
cheer oq his countrymea iti tlicir coniJíct for riatioiial in- 
dependence ; — iu hi8 patient couiiBela for the cauae of 
eJucation, when lie wa& aii exile íii Asturias or a prisoner 
iii ila-jurcn, no Il'bb than in the excrcise of hi3 aiithority 
as a mugiutrato aud a minister of state to Charles tliQ 
Fuiírth, and as the head of the govcrriment at Seville. 
He lived, iiidued, ia times of great trouble, but liis vir- 
tiies werc eqnal to the tríala tha,t were lald upon thcm, 
and wbeii htf died, in a wietcEied attd comfortless ¡nu, he 
had the coíiaolation of believing that Spain would be suo- 
cessfu.1 in the sti'Ujjg'Ie he had assistcd to lead On, and of 
kuowítig, in his own heart, what the Cort&B afterwards 
dtídared to the worid, that he was "a mau well deserv- 
ing of hia country." " 

. Odc historical work of the reiga of Charles the Fourth 
ahould not be foi'gottcn. It was by Juan Bau- 
tista Muñoz, and was UTidertaken by the especial 
order of Charles Ihe Third, who deraaiided of ite autlior a 
complete history ofthe Spanish discoveries and conqncstB 
íd America. Tbis was in HtS. But Muñoz encountered 
many ob&tacics. The membcre of thíj Academy of His- 
tory were uot well diepoeed towards an uridertaking 
■which eeemed to fall wíthin their own juriedictioTí ; and 
when he had finiehed the first portion, thej BTibjected ¡t, 
by the royal permÍBeian, to an examímation, which, from 
its length even more than its rígor, threateued to prevent 
the work from being- prlnted at all. ThÍ6, however, was 



MlEÜCO, 



1* " CtülecElon de Ins OliraB de Biin Oae- 
par MelPhlor fie JcjvkIIhqos," Mudrld, 
ia30»])t3S, 7 tfjm., Kvo. A áecIsirnftltiTy 
ptiisí Batiría on Ihe atute nr Spsic in IhB 
time of Chaj-les IV., piippoKed In har^ 
Wi'ti ddireríd. ¡d the Amptiitlii^nEre al 
Vmlrlil, !□ IW, has 'been attrlbuteil M 
JofcHKUos. It i> eLtitlail " Pan y Toro*," 
or Brrsul nnd ]]iill-[l|;hia. Tríiin the i)1d Ka- 
Bom crs ef " Pftpein *I CircenJeB," ana 
wfls. HupprtBfied i3 saoD rs It w&a pub- 
Mah^, Irat bas often beea prínltiL Hictre. 
AiDODjf Dther diBlincllüQB,. [t eojajed Ibc 
d^ngulor ane cf helng trejiBlaled. nuil pri- 
TRCcIjr printed, In IS'JA, od buaxd b. brUlüli 
in B.n-nf.iriir, títatlüiieil In ilia Mcdílen-a- 
neao. But ít le nat Lbc irork of JuvellunuB, 



t]ioD!;li It haa. almait altriifs. Wtna bli 
-Dame ou tlie tucctuBÍve ecUllnnfl. Jovi^llJi- 
□ riB wa.B fjUDlllar wlth EnglLBti Ht^raFíIre, 
and traaslnted Ihe ñret book of the " P:ira- 
dlse Lostf*^ but uot vtrj Biicx:€ssfu1]j- For 
notlGes cif huD, aee MeciDriaLE titi .JaVGWa^ 
nos, pQT Don A^atin Gea-n Bt-rmuriii», 
Uuilrid, ISU, 12nia ; the Life at Ihe ebd 
bf bis CDlIvcleil WarkB ¡ Lord HEilland'! 
tlfB or Lope da Vejfn, 1S17, Tom. II,, 
wbere is n bíuutifal tribute tu him, wurtlif 
of ilr. Fiis'9 Díiphew ; and LInrenlií, Tdiq. 
H. p. 540, ana Tum. IV. p, 122, wherc ara 
rccurded snina »f üln eliiimttiil |ii;i^ca 
tloiiB. The numa pf JoTíllanOS i» fKae- 
tlinví writtüD Jove IJanf'P ; B-Oil, I iJülleM, 



Ohap. V,] 



ESCOKJÜIZ. 



Blopped by a summary order from tfie king ; and the íirst 
volume, bririy:iiij,^ duwii tlie liiiítyry to the yeiir 1500, waa 
pubHíílicil in líüS. But no athor fullowed it ; and bítics 
tbe death ol" Muñoz, which occurred in n&9, when he 
waa íifty-four years oíd, nu attempt has been macie to 
resume tlie work. It therefore remains just as he then 
left it, — a fraguient, writteii, indeed, in a pliilosupliica] 
spirit and with a severo siniplicitj of style, liut of ^enall 
Talue, because it embraces so inconsiderable a portion of 
the autiject to which it is devoted." 

An epíe attempt of the same period ía of still less ím- 
portance. It ia " México Conqnered," an htrnic pñem 
iii íweiity-Eis boi>kH, and about tweiity-fiye tbousand lincB, 
beg-iriiiiiig- with the dcmaiid of Cortés, at TlasCala, to be 
received in person by Moutozíima, and ending" with the 
fatl of México and tlie capture of (luatitaozin. Its author 
"was Escüiquiz, who, as the tutor of Ferdiuaud, 
Pfince of Atítnrias, and bis advisor in tlie trou- 
blee of tUe Esccrial, of Aranjue», aad of Bwyonne, 
ehowed an honorable character, which at different times 
brought upoo him the vengeance of the Prince of the 
Peace, oí" Charlea tho Foui'th, of Bonaparte, and, at last, 
of Perdinaiid himself, 

The literaiy arabition of Escoiquis*., however, íb of both 
an earlier and alater dato thao thia unhappy interval, wheu 
his uprig'ht epirit waa ao tried by política! perBccutione, 
In 1T97 he piiEdiished a trjinalation of Young'a " Night 
Thoug^btB ; " and while he waB a prieoiier in Fran;;cf, 
from JSOS to 1814, he preparod a Spanish versión of Mil- 
ton'a " Paradise Lost,^' which ehowed, at leaet, with 
wliat pleasure lie ga¡ve Mmeelf up to letters, and what a 



Esi^oiiiuli. 



i> " HistnrlíY í1¿l NiIBVb Munri-n, I.cr Ilun 
tTonD flautlJl* ílurns,'" Mailrlil, 1!!>3, 
■iDiill lülhi. Ciinlrr, Bib., Tdid. II. p. 19L. 
Mi-Dii-irlíu lie U Ai:u>l. d^ 1q Hiatorin, Toia. 
I, II, ixv. TIhj ciilfipy uí l^'tifisa, liy 
MuíiípE, lu. Lhí [lllTil vrilulHi; iirilii! ¡Mumilr? 
o[ ths AüHdtmj, u itEtcinx uf liEn niatury, 
ñad tM~u o-r Llircc LalLti trea^b^o,, ar& all 
IfaaL I kiLiiv 'if U^3 Furba^ exoc|kb ihv FTIs- 
Ittryk A S^rfltj atI-Eu:k wab mniJtv rm ItluMni 
bj DüD VroDtJBca nurn, Bu ü pmu-plLlr^t 



l'rlnled At Moilrld, !ri 179S, batdaUd luna 
Ranie, Auj:. 30, 1191. 11 üOUtikkllia ¿f 
llim chli^flj íüi eoincidlbe DUAIIiilíiliJIr In 
upitiion wllh anberbiun In hia " niatDry of 
Ameriüii," nnd wílll He Puav ill Illa " Rf- 
Fhtrdite E'hllíiaiiphíqaiMi" liill Ihüupli thí 
piimi>h1i;t I» i]i)t lU-Hilttuii, It mrrlj- Lak-es 
nnj posUlon fonnidaljle lo Mañui, aod 
atlll Qifirv i-iirrlj nintululns tLi: pnaltiüni 
i>a wbich it ucnlarL'a. 



33D 



M0BA1 



BolacQ they were tu liim tinder his privations and miafoi^ 
yines. Ilia " Mexicu " waa ñret priiited íu 1T9S. It ia 
cust more carefully ittto au epic form than were the heroic 
píjcum that abouiidcd ia the days oí the Pliilips, and is 
BEiBÍairied more ttian tliey gcnerally were by eucb super- 
natiiial Ohristíim inaohinery as was first caed with effect 
by Tasey. But, líke tliem, it is not wifhout cold, alle- 
giDricaL peraíiuages, who play parte too important in the 
Kctitin ; wliile, 011 the other handj its failhftil Itistory of 
eveiilBj ita unily of desigo, and ita regnUr proportiona, 
are nú stifficieiit compenaation í'oi" its ¡ll-constructed stan- 
ZU8 aiid its cbroiiiclji-ig dulness. THg history of Solis is 
mqch more intcreating nrid poetícal tliaii this ffeaiÍBome 
romaiitic epk, which owes to that hietoriau iiearly all its 
facte." 

Li^aiidru Moratin, eon of the poet who flouríshcd in 
H.irB.t¡Qihí ^^^ reigji uf Charlea the Third, was, in Bome 
ynnngBr. respecta, 4 greatet fluflcrer from the Cimvnl- 
siona of tlie timea in which he lived than Escoiquiz, 
fttid ici a!l renpecta more distinguished in the worid 
oí" lettei'B. Illa principal anccess, however, waa in the 
drainLi, wliere he rnust hereafter be more füllj ooticed, 
Ilere, tlierefure, it ía oüly necesaary to eay, that, in his 
lyric and miscellaneuua poetry, he wa» a fiíllíiwer of his 
fcither, modifying- his manuer ao far, under the influence 
of Cuntí, an Italian niitn of lettera wlio lived loiig' at Ma- 
drid, liíat, in hia shurtcr picCee, the Itatian tersene-ss ig 



17^8, S Loai , Svn. A. GtíLl mLip? DTaliiiptiy 
tíbii fitU'tD^t trn Llie flubJK^t üf Lhu Can- 
quüjil of AIíaJiík^ prL'ccdecL tliiil oí EaooigaSE 
by nhullt fufty Jenrn. Ib ñas by Ptbiiiíiíjioo 
B.I1ÍI la Irfon, a»<] ía entitlcJ " Lu Ilcr- 
□liiKliiL, TriUDÍn» lie lii Pú " (MiiirlJ, IT5S, 
tt(¡) t a jj^hjín makíiiiir nturij" f'jur hiindml 
lagcSi atiil sl!ih.-$n huiidriíij ocLuvé etauíDü. 
Tlio "Sli-SiiJO CiinquLiLiidil." hm ro 
VÍeWHl (iw I lüJtijíCtiJft;, tri.m InU^oal eri- 
deooe, by Souiíiej) in ctie Oritícnl Rétíbw, 
Vul. XX.\[I., lUai, p. ¡l^■■í. H'llh Bpírlleit 
trnnsliiitl'iina, íd hlunH vciw;, uf atTcnil 
piBBug^, anñ H-Knoil ^.b^lnicl ut the whule 
|MKin. Tile DiibÍGB Ib. Dcit flatturhtij^, aor le 
it Icrtre . but U stown miiub ayidpiitljj' 



wiiiL t)i<i fattirinE IcdlMj, iM bc greAt 

resiH-ct triT Ihe " rntiqulaUídorai-" Id oon- 
Bequence of this, n r^ply lo il üpiícured at 
Toledo, Lbrfe yíats nfli-riranlí, cnllllud 
^* ExGTlauinn AmiiEtoHA iCIrij^ldu H f:itrtui 
A.UiílaeluD Ingleses, por Doa tnocencla 
Rtil-nido," (18M, 13iiio, pp. 100,) — a bIíeIiI 
titiffvrmiuiae,. vhicii,. IiuwGver, boldly aog- 
tikEniS tftv |i'P'lr;n«¡Da3 nf ibp Spanteh char* 
ftúldr tlirq>Ll|rbou.t, aarl juaLlQi» thfl ood- 
quGal oT Merica ou llie j^rouiid thdt thQ 
MeiEl^HH ViTb^ bratheoB. The üdricBt part 
of it is, thnla repl; at Tuleflcí, wtLtre Ihv 
ILeview C011E1I Dtver bAve bijoii rauoh 
kiLii^rj at atiy tltnc', HnJ liing aflor It h»ú 
bcen Ei>rBíiHcn iu Kiijjlunil, íIlouUI bnra 
h&ia tbeugljjb dcalr&bEi?, 



Chap. V.J 



MOEATIN THE TOÜNGEE. 



S3l 



quite apparent and g^ves a finíeh to the surface, tlio«g;h 
tlie material beneatb ma^ bo quite Ca^tilíati. Tliis ia 
particnlarly tme of hia odea and aonnets, Bbd of a 
Btrikiiig' Choras of the Spirits of tbe Patriarcha of the 
Oíd Testament awaiting tlie Appeatatice of ttie SaTÚiur ¡ 
a Bolemn cotuposítion, brealliing the fervent sfíirit of 
Luía of Granada. TTis hallads, on the othcr hand, tboHgh 
ñuished with great care, are more national in tlieii tone 
tlian anylhing else he haa left ua. Buí tbe poema that 
pleaee i!s best :iTid intei-eet H8 moet are thoae that show 
bis own teraper and aftections ; sucli a8 Iiis " Epiatle to 
JovGÜarios," and liia " Ode on the Dcatb of Coade," the 
bistüHan. 

Ifi DOTie of his personal relations, how&ver, does Moif^ 
tin, appcar to bhcIi ohvioue a^vantage as in the difiícnlt 
unes ín wbiob he stood at difTcrciit times with the Priiice 
of the Peacc. To tbat proflígate mitiistei he owed, not 
oti]y alt tiiii< mcans for traimng bímeclf as a dramatic wrít- 
er, but the piisitioii in sociely wbicb iiiaured liis succosb f 
and when the day of retribntion carne, and hia patrón, 
fell, aa he dcserved to fall, Moratiii, thoiigh be suíTered iu 
eyery way frotn bis cbaiiged cofidítioii and the pcracun- 
tiou of llie pnomíes of Un? Prince, refused to joSu tbeir 
cry agaíust the cnished favorite. He said truly and no- 
bly, " 1 was neitber hi» friend, ñor his couuBellor, ñor his 
servant ; bnt all that I was I owed to him: and, altbough 
we have now-a-days a coiivenivnt pbüosophy, whiuh 
teachoa ineii to reeeive beiicRtB witbout gratitiido, and, 
■wbeu circutnetances alter, to puy with approacb favors 
asked aud receivcd, I valué my own g-oüd opiniou too 
much to 8D(?k such ¡nfamy," A person wbo ncted nnder 
the impulse uf prineiples. so generoua was not madc for 
ñucceas in the leiffji íjf Ferdinand the Scvcnth. It is not 
remackable, thercfore, that nearly all the latter part of 
Moratin^s lífs waa spent, either voluntarílj or iiivoluiita- 
rily, in foreign counti'ie», and that he di&d at last in the 
dÍKcoi«rorií? and sadíiess of exile.^' 



17 "OliTxg. tia L. V. Mnrntin," Hiulrlil, AcBrleiny of niátaT? an«f hJB ihuUi, Hll 
19311- y L, fimi- Hdla.cftvn, divld'tj Into all, LilV ia In Val. 1-, luid lji« rcitccllftaeoiu 
peEt>urt:il b; lilmaetr, uud pabliebL-d by the poenu are iiu Uit; laat VululUG, Wtte-ro Uw 



532 



['EitTon : 



The last ñf these mift«elÍaiieous writers of tlic rcign of 
Charles the Fourtli thiit ^lould be meiiíitjiied ía 
Quintana, who, Hke Jovellauos, Moratin, and Eb- 
coiquiz, suÜered niuch frocri the vÍQlence of the revolu- 
tions through whielí ihey all paSsed, but, iinlikp thetn, 
Burvived long enough tu enjoy a serene and horiored üld 
age. He waa born at Müdrid on the llth i>f April, in 
nT2, but received the moat eflective part of his lEterury 
education at Salamanca, wíicre ho acfcnowledged the influ- 
eoce of Melenrteí! and Cienfueg^oB. Ilis prüfessiun waB 
tlie law ; and be bogan tlie aeríoua buainess uf Hfe in the , 
capitiil, kiudly encouraged by Jüvenjinog. Bui he pre-J 
ferred letters ; anii a Bmall eocicty of intcllectual fricndai. 
that aaeemWfd evei-y eveniag at his house, aor^n siimulat- 
ed hiM preforeiice into a passEon, In ISÚl he Tentitred 
to print his trag-edy of " The Duke of Viseo," imitatcd 
frorn "The Caatle 'Spectre "■ of Lewia j and En 1805 he 
produced on thc atUg'e his " Pelajo," inCended to royse 
bis couiitfyiuen to resistauce of foreign. oppreasimí, by a 
striking example from theirown history. The foniier had 
littlc auccesB ; but the latter, though writtcn acüording 
to the doctrines of the stíverer aclionl, stnick a churd 
to wliich the heartB of the audieuce g-ladly aiisworeJ. 

Meantime, betweea thes& two ottempts, he publishcd, 
in 1802, 3, amall volume of poctry, almust entirely lyiic, 
taking the same noble and patnotic toLC he liad taken in 
his Guccessful trag'edy, and ahowing' a spint more deep' 
and earneat than "waa to be fonnrl in any of tíie sehoül of 
Salamanca, to which, in his addmsa to Melcndcz, he leaves 
no doubt that he now g^ladly associated himself. In a 
aiaiilar spirit he publiehcdj En ISOI, a single volume con- 
tainiug flve Livea of diatinguished Spanianls, who, like the' 
Cid and the Gieat Gaptain, had auctessfuUy fuught tlifl 
enemies of their coutitry at honie and abroad ; and almoat 
Bt muí tan B o asi y he prepared three Totumea of aeleetions 



Cnall Ut ti" ■Í'IB, An unreiiíiinnbly limilft- Hhefn (h^re iire soma Uiiiigs iiol in tlit 
\íí H\a í\r^í volunie uf lierrcoaLllB'B '^Ju.1- villMe_ 

VÍ9-" U^-ratLij's Wo/bs gmi, alai, b^ fijual 



ÍAP. V,] 



QUINTA 



333 



r 



from \h^. test Spanígh pr>ets, accompaTiyíng tliern with 
critícal noticcs, which, ií more slight tban ruight havc 
b&eti claimed froin one like Quintana, atid lesa generoua 
in the praise Ihey bestow than they ouglit to have be&n, 
are yet iiatiotia.1 in their tcmper, and bettcr than anything 
else of tlieir kiiid iheii to ha found in tlie latifjiiage, BuLli 
show a too willing- imitatiún of the French manner, atiJ 
contain octiasloiiiil GalliciBma ; biit both are writtec in a 
clear and gracefal proae, both wore well re-ceived, as they 
deaerved to be, and both wei^e, long- afterwards, further 
contimied by their accotnpliehed author ; the firet by the 
addilion of íoni important lives, and the last by eítrgcta 
frora the miscellanoous poeta of a later period, and from 
eepcral of tiie eider epics. 

But thongh the taste of Quintana was inclined to the 
literatiJL'c of Frailee, he was a Spaniard at heart, and a 
faithfiil oiie. Even bcfore the Freach invaBÍoii he had so 
carefullj k«?pt hiniself aiyof from the influence and the 
patronagc uf the Prince of the Peacc, that, though bülong- 
ing alitioat atrictly to the samÉi Bchoo of poetry with 
Moratiu, theso two disting'iiiflhed meo lived at Madrid, 
imperfectiy known to cach other, and in fact as hoads of 
difTerecit literary Bocieties, whose intercourse waa not so 
kinJly UB it siiould iiave beeii. Bnt the moraent the rew- 
Intion of 1808 broke outj Quintana sprang tO' the place 
for which he felt himBelf made. He published at nuce hia 
effective " Odea ti> Emancípated Spain ; " he threw out, 
in the jonrnals of the time, whiterer he thought wonld 
excite hia countrymen to resiet their iavadera ; he became 
the Becretary to the CortcB and to the regoncy ; and he 
wrote raany of the powerful proclaraations, manifetitoH, 
and addresaes that distinguished so honorably the ca^ 
leer of the diff«rent adniinistrationa to which he be- 
loHged duriiig- their strtig'p;lc for national iudependeuce. 
In ehort, he devoted all that he poseeseed of taleat or 
fortune to tho aervice of his country in the day of ita 
sorest trial. 

But he waa iU rewarded for it. Mnoh of what had 
been done by the representativee of the Spaniííh people in 
the ñame of Ferdinand the Seventh, during his forced 



334 



tjmSTAKA, 



[PraioD nt 



detenííon in France, waa iiiiwelcome to that sboit-BÍg'Lted 
monarcli; and, aa aoon as he returned ti> MaJrid, in 1814, 
a persecutitin was bpg-un of thoae who had mciet con* 
tribiifod to the adüption of theae unwelcome measureH. 
Amonn; Ihe more obnoxious persona was Quintana, who 
was thi'own intt) pñaon in ihñ fortreas df Pamplotia, and 
remained there six .miserable years, interdicted froni tlie 
use of writing-nmtcrials, aiad cut off Trom all intercourse 
■with hts fritfnds. The changea of 1820 UDespectedl^ 
released híai, and raised him for a timo to grcater dfa- 
tiuction tlian lie had eajojed befure. But, three yoars 
latee, aTintlier political revolntion took from him all lúa 
emplojmcnta and influeoce ; and he retíred to Kstreraa-j 
dnra, where he occupied himaelf with letters till ncw 
chaíiges aud the deatli of tbe kiug restorud hira to the oíd 
puldic offices he had fiUed eo well, addiiig to his former 
honors thfit of a peer of the realm. liut from t¡ie daye 
when he tírst attracted puMic regard by his Odes on the 
OcBan, and on Ihe beneficent espediíoQ eent to America 
with tlie grpat charity of Vaccination, lettera wore hie 
c]iQ«en eroployinetit ; — his pride, when he cbeered od bis 
countrymen to resíat oppreseion ; hÍB conaolati on in priaon 
and in exile ; his true$t honor in aa honored oíd age." 
Hia laat dietinction was that of being crowned by his sov- 
ereign, on tho 25th of March, 1855, in preaence of what- 
ever vna most eminent aod moat noble in the kin^dom. 
Twü yeara later, March llth, 1851, be died, and the 
BíLíufí noble crowd marki-d the same revereuce for him, aa] 
they slowly followcd his remaina to their final resting» 
place. He had almost reached his eig-hty-fifth birthday, 
and had been before the public as a poet stxty-iiine yeaie. 



a ''PaasioB ije tí. 3, ftuintana," Ma- 
drid, jsai, 2 lotn,, evo, ThB lyriííil por- 
lioa Iifis bpen crKa ríprinKi itacs IBW, 
rhea a. pauectlun Oí hlia Poema appcAroa 
Bt MMlid, In a ILln bcanCtfal vnlitokc uf 
Diil; ITO iiHgcB, 12EEIÜ. Eac a T«fr Ulftll 
filUiCne, lUntJLiQlnjT -O'uty ele?:-:» paene, ñuS 
enCItlnd "PiKilae de U. Mniiud Joscf 
üultiliuia," (Aliiilrii)^ ISmiiv pp. TI,) nir>- 
pcared an amis as 178H, and ía the dedl- 
oaltan nt Wlikfí in Couat Fbrida ülaaca, 



Que mi Infeolo hn foniudo fu otro demiln) 
and of hlmaelr as hnyíosf alrcmlj laft tiu 
banota Di tttE KaSía lo ílevi>tc hiueelf U 
the íWdy of thí ¡nw. He miiat, tíicrtí»»', 
bívs begon j«uní iadí^il, Win h< vt* onir 
sizteen nhen he thita «iiuhe ni If Ute 
poema he Uibd ]iublla|jcd hail been irritLca 
Bonie jreHra hi^runí, — ^"pii iiírn tiemiHi." 
Ilbi wurka sjrs licst fnuiid \d ílie Ullillolis 
ea, Tam. XIX,, 1Si2 i but noiie ni hli 
CHTÜeat pvciDB are lu Uiut cullcutiüit. 



CHAFTER TIv 



TBSATBB m THE HIQBTKBMTH CrfiNTCBT. — TnANBLATIOPfa PBOM 
THE PHEKDH. ORIOINAl. FI-ATB. — OFETlA§. NATIOMAL THGiTHB. 

— CAaTRO, — ^íiORBE. — IiKITATlOUS OF THE FHEWl'H TftfcaTBE.— 
HflNTIANO, — JHOBATIX THE ELttUB. — CADAHALSO. — SEBASTIikH Y 
J,ATRS- — ^THJC- VEROS- — YKl AHTE. — AYAIA, — HUERTA, — JOVELLA- 

V(ta. AUTOS rORRlIlDKS. — rUBtiC THEATREB ASD THEiR PAR- 

TIEB. — RAUOH DE LA CRITZ, Blil>ANO, COKTK8, CIÜNFCBGOS, ANI> 
OTETE.R8, HDETtTA'H COLLECTIOM OF OLU PLAIH. DlfiCUSSIOSH. 

— TALLADAREB. — ZAVALA. — COMELLA. — KOfiATJff tHE VÜDStifcfi, 

— B'rATB OP IllJS D&AñlA AI TQB ££GINyi]«Q OP TQig KtlTBTBIlIfTH: 
CENTDBr. 



Thé ínost CDuBÍderable literary moremcnt of the eig'h- 
teenth century in Spain, and the one that best markíi the 
poetical cbaracter of the entire period, is tEíat relatiiig to 
the theatre, whicb it was eacneetly attempted urüniam 
to Bubject to the rulea tbeu prevaiiiiig on the f^nth"" 
Freiich etag-c. IntimationB of euch a. design are «oíair. 
fouüd in tho reign of Philip tho Fífth, as aoon as the War 
of the SucceasioQ was cloaed. The Marquia of San Jnaa 
bega7i, in 1113, with & traijflhjtimí of the " Ginna " of 
Comei]le ; — the fir&t tragedy avowetily undur the French 
rules that appcarcd íq the Spanish language at this periüd, 
and oiie Ihat was probably eelected for ihie distincíioD, 
tecause it was well suited to the ccindition of a couiitry 
that had so much reason to soek the clemency of its 
prince m favor of inaiiy d¡&tíng;uished peraoDB, whora the 
civil war had lerl to resist hiB pcnper,^ 3iit it waa never 
repreaeiited, aiid, thoiigh once reprintedi wíib buoo for- 
gütteii. Cañizaree, the last of the eider race of i^raní:),' 



DRAMA IN THE EÍGinEENTH CENTEÍE'r. 



tists that eliüwed auy of the oíd spirít, jielded ffiore 
thaii once lo tlie new edioul oí laste, and reg'arded bis 
" Sacrifice of Iphigenia" — an abaiird play, for wbícli 
the " Ipliigéiiie " of Raciiie is very üttle responsible — a8 
an imitation of the Freticli aclinol* Neíther Ibeae, how- 
ever, nur plays of aii irregular and oFten vwl^ar cast, liko 
tliose written by Diego de Torres, a profcBsor of natural 
pbilosophy, by Lobo, a military ofEccr, and by Salvo, 
a tailor, obtained. any perinanciit favor, or were ablc to 
constitute fcmndatiopa on which to recon&ti'uct a natioDal 
drama. Ae far as anything waa heard on tlie publio 
Btíige wortby of its pretensiohs, it was the works of the 
oíd maatera and of tbelr poor imitators, CañizareB and 
Zarnura,* 
The Spanieh theatre^ in fact, was now at its loweat 
ebb, and wholíy in the hands of tbo populace, 
from whom it had alwaya roceived much of its 
character, and who had- been its faithful frietids in the 
days uf its trial and adversity, Nar could íta preeent 
condítion faírly claim a hígher patronage. AII Spanish. 
playa ai;ted for puSlic atnuBBmont in Madrid were etill 
repi'CBented, as they had been ia the seventeenth century, 
iü open cüurt-yarda, with gaUeriee or corridora that aur- 
TOiinded tbem. To thcee court-yards there was no cover- 



átale. 



1 ne asjs, near t^B cnd, that Mí pur- 
]io4t WBS ^* itn sAiüw botr plA.yH ore wrltteo 
Ilj. [lie Frencíi Btjlc." Plaja ariflinjr frora 
the circiuDftEaDC^^ of tbe times, aaú more- 
JiL llie forma aiid charuct^rror the prroedinK 
century, M'tri: Boiiii^tEiiieii repriȒJiiUd, tiut 
■non foreiiLLon. Of Üiesc, two inH.jr be 
■Dentloiied ns cnrbiiH. Tb« fli-sKa collcil, 
]lk« 9ne af Lupe'B, " Suevioa ha.; ijuu bou 
TL-rdail<»," a.n anQuymouii dniíDjL, bep-iD- 
níug Hilh a, ilraam uf Ch« k'mg ot l'ortugnl, 
s.uil eudiii^ wiLhi ibs itortial (uWlmeDt in 
tbe [^Qptiire úf MoDanjiLii, by Üie forctift üf 
thillp V.,in 1T04. the olher Lb by Kodri- 
go Perü fia L'rriatU, eittiLled '^ücy decre- 
TjLdc en Cielo,*' jincLpcovera ¡Lipacñ af abare 
í\\ yvúív», TrniD tlie AnriLincla-tiüii hy LiDuis 
XIV. Lo Ihe Buliv uf Aiijug, Id. the úríit 
tann-c, Chut Itii! wlll <it L'Iincles II. huil 
niLd? ttDi kíng af g|>ii[u, Aowii lu the 
yifitlory i>f A1iii.iLii>4]h, in 1707^ Vh'bicli ¡B 113 
cutas [rii>[i1|e. Bütti aes uT na pulue, and 



rcprísíDl Ikirlj, I helltrr, tbe lúcHt cr (ta 
tev 1i]nt(ii¡Gsl pluyit pruductd in tlio be- 
ginnlDg or tb« eigbUenth cedtuty, la 

K Accounts ni Uie tbcatre duríng íhía 
Bort oí liilorreRnum, (roin s!K;>al 1790 to 
Btioul. ITQO, are íoudiI !□ SisnorelU (SlurlB 
CrlLl(;a üel Tuatri. NapuU, l^n, Bro. Tom. 
IX. pp. M-23e) 1 L. 7, Uoratln (Obru, 
1330, Tijni'. II. Paite T.,Pr.!lL.i¡o); anfl Riur 
papera by BLanca IVlilto (In VuIb. X, «.nd. 
31, uf the Ndw MüiiLhljr ^EagoalnE, Iioo- 
don, 1624J. Tha CiíQta aui apEniaiig (n 
BlfQcirelll are im|iniiain(, bccause rmm 
ireB tu nS3 be llTud lp Madrlil, (Btoria, 
Tom. IX, p. 189,) Hiiit beliiiigL-J to tte elnli 
of thu Ennila [le San SíbasEliin, n/iiteeí, 
ante, p. 301, stveral o( B-buae mi-mbcr» 
tCKCo drninnUo arller!, and nnu uf the 
sULUiIlug aiL'iJccts fiir wbose dlíciinioBi 
woj IhB Ibuatre. Obraa P.:Bliinifl» de M. 
F. Slurutlri, l-iDrtri-s, 1Í.2S, p. iilv. 



UlTAP VI.] 



THKATBES. 



33Í 



ing Bxcept rn case of a sbowjr, and then the awinng 
stretched over thcm waa so ¡mperfect., lliat, if the rain 
coutimied, and those oi" the spectators who were a-lways 
coiiipelled to Btaciii duritig íhe performance were ttn:) 
mimeroua to fiad shelter uuder the projocling seats of 
the comdora, the exhihition was brokeu «p for the day, 
and the crowd driveií home. Tbere was bardly any pre- 
tence o( Bcencry ; the performance always took place in 
the daytime ; and the price of adruisaion, whicb was 
collected ia Eaoney at the door, did not esceed a few 
farthinga for eacK epectator.* 

The Becond queen of Philip the Fifth, Isabel Farnese, 
who had becn used to the Éiijoyinent of bett&r sceniü 
eshibitlotLB ia Italy, was uot aatísfied witb tbís state 
of thing-s. Finding a aeg-lected tbeatre, in which an 
ItaliaQ company bad Bometimes actcd, shc cauacd ma- 
terial addiüúus to be made to it, and required regular 
operaa to be biought out for ber amus'ein'ent from 1T31. 
The change was an important one. The two oíd cüurt- 
yards took tbo alarm. fírst odg aud tbeu tbe other 
began to erect a new and more commodious structure 
for theatrical entertainmenta ; and as they had been each 
otíier's rivalB for a century and a half in the Bettertii™- 
awkwardneBS of tbeir arrangements, no lesa "™ '^''"'■ 
than ÍQ their claíma for public patronagei ao now tbey 
became rivals in a strugg^le for improvement. Under 
Buch impalees, the new " Tbeatre of tbe Croas" was 
finished in 1Í43, and that of "The Prince " in l'I45. 

But, ín most respecte^ tbere was Uttle changa. True 
to tbe traditiona of their oríg^Oj the new Btructures were 
still called " court-yards," corrales, and their boxea, 
aposentos; — the Cüzuela, or " stewpan/' waa etül fcept 
for tbe woiften, who sat there veiled like nune, but actiug- 
very little as if íhey were auch ; — the Alcalde de Corte, 
or Judge of the Municipality, etill appeared in the pro- 



*' Id Ui« Prefeea to "'!« Satilloilla <!< — U» prlce of ]> dnuns, "s! ea baenii," b 

Eumpa y pHniír Rpy de HoinjEioa," — b atolcJ at twontj-airn dQubloons. I un 

HOitliilKa anil a)>Bu.fi1 pla-y in ihe eider Burprieeil b) fliirl L1iH.t H ««■ bo mncli, 

Duuuitr, «rllitjD b; F^niaailii de Hurc^ansí Sae nnfe, Puriod II. Cliop. XVItL, note, 
j Onngo, a-nd prliil^d a.i Uaúrid. iii 1731, 



33S 



LOW STATE OF THK THEATBES, fPwu&D ETL 



flctMiiuiQ, with hís twci clerks bfhmd him, to keep the 
pcaco or bear record to íta breach ; — demiramia wore a 
hoopod petticoat and high-heeled shoea, and Juliua Csesar 
waa asBaBsinated in a curled perEwig ind velvet court 
coat, wíth a feathered Spanieb bat under bis arm, The 
oíd epirít, therefore, it íb plaia, prevailtd, bowever great 
mig'lit be the improvements made in tbe Oxternal arcatige- 
TQcnttí and architecture of tie theatres. 

One cause of thifl waa the exclusive favor shown to the 
The fiiMí* opera hj two Italian queens, and encouraged hy 
.ti*uipiBii. (.¿g new political relations of Spain with Italj. 
Tbe theatre of the Buen Retiro, where Calderón bad bo 
ofteu trinmphcd, was fitted up with nnwonted magnifi- 
cence, hy Farinelli, the first singer of his time, who bad 
been broaght to the Spanisb court in order to soothe the 
melancholy of FhiUp the FiPth, and who etill continucd 
tbere, enjoying the especial protection of Ferdinand the 
Sixth, Luzan tranalated Metastasio's " Clemency of Ti- 
tuB " for the openiíi^ of tbe new and gorgeoiis ealooa 
in IHÍ ; and both then, arni for a eonsidei-able period 
afterwardaf all tbat the reBonrce& of the court conld 
comniítnd in poetry and music, or in the shO"w and primp 
of theatrical machinery, was lavished on an exotic, wliich 
at laBt failed to taie healthy root in the boíI of the coun- 

try." 
Meantime the national theatre, neglected by the privi- 

vuijnrttyor leg'ed aod higher clasees, waB giveu wp to such 
theauBiora. wríters QB FraDcísco de Castro, an actor who 
eoag:ht thtí applause of the loweat part of bis audience by 
vulgar faro es/ aod Thotnae de Aflorbe, the cbaplain of a 
nunnery at Madrid, whoae " Faolino," aonounced ae "m 



i Ti. T. Montlu, PróloKíi, ut sntp. f nná 
rtflUcer, flrlgco .leí Tvalro, 1S03, Tom. I. 
p. SC4. Berenil atlrmptii veré mmle hHíT" 
wardí In CbJs perind ) oao Id Llie time of 
Charlea III., wbichwa» partlj heljjed on 
bj A tniDBÍB.tTea üf bu Koaay au Ihe Opera 
bj- Ccnn 1 Al|taroltl, — " para. Instruí; oluti," 
íBja Ule Utle-paBe, "de \ae qae i[ul*raa 
Ollstir a] EDeVD Teatro qne flc físi eigtúb!e> 
cldovn eits. Corle," Madrli), iTSf, ISma. 

■• " A-tagriH Cimioa," (Zunigoío, Tom. 
1; ITOO, Tom, n., r02,> and "Cimlco 



FoBUJo," (Madría, 1742,^ aro tliroc «nnlt 
volitmeB rif fniMineMj, by Fraocluotí da 
Osiílro j ilie iMt being publlihed sfter the- 
aiitlira'B dentti. Tliey «ra not enlirely 
wLthDiit wlt, rígarJed ob eitricalure» ; hut 
(h*y are cnarai^, muí, hi gt>neral, worlMes». 
Slmlljir farc«s, idí:(.hI up vILti «quaUy bail 
ifrlenj vejve, TBBy be f-^ijr^ Ib C voluiaa 
^DtKSüd ^^ La En^Qr QolrniLLíla da Apata, 
eo., su Autor Pon AQ|;el Pc.'H'),-rtQa," Toin- 
I. lT4a, bul at whlab, | QilDk, no iseonit' 
T Díame «.ppeared. 



339 



th© Frencli fashion," and almost put in compctiticm wtth 
the Ciuna of Coi-neÍlk, provoked tlie jiist ridicule of Lu- 
zan'j and wliose " Tirtiie conquers Fate/' if no lesa 
estravagant, has tlie merit of being- an attack oa astrol- 
ogy anJ a Lelief in planetary inítiienceB.' With the suc- 
Ce&9 of Biich absurJities, however, scholars and meo of 
tastB aeem tn have gro^vn desperate, Montiatio, a Gastil- 
jan g^ecitlcman, hig^h in office at Court, and a member of 
the Academy of Grood Taete, tbat met at the hooBe of the 
Oounteas of Lcmos, led tb& way in an attacb 
apon them, lie began, in 1750, wiíh. a tragedy him by 
on the Eüroan atory of Virginia, which be iii- ''°'""''' 
tended shoiild be a modd for Spanish seii'ionB theatrical 
compositions, and which he accompanicd with a long and 
■well'written discouree, showing- how far Bermudez, Cueva, 
VíruoB, and a few more of the oíd masters, had been 
■wiiliug to be governed by doctrines similar to hís own, 

The tragedy itself, which comes like a sort of appendix 
to thia diacaasiíin, and seems intended to illua- 
trate and enforce its opinione, ¡a entirely aftcr °^''"- 
the model of the French school, and especially after Ea- 
cine;^all the rules, as they are technically called, 
iücluding that which requires the etage never to be left 
vacant dnring the continnance of an act, being rig'oroualy 
obflerved. But the " Virginia" ia no lees cold Ihaa tt ¡b 
regular, and, like the waters of the Alps, its vCry puríty 
betrayB the frozen región from which it has deBcendcd. 
Its versification, which conaist» of unrhymed iamhics, 
ÍB as fiir as poSBÍble reraoved from the warmth and free- 
dom of thti bailad style in the eider drama ; its whole 
movement is lang-uid ; and the catastrophe, from the fear 
of shockiiig the spectator by a ahow of blood on the 
atage, turofi oat, in fact, to be no catastropbe at ^1. No 



^ Th'HDAs de Annrlje y Corr«gel pnb- 
lIsh&A hla " Virlad Ftace al Destino" tu 
Mivlriri, 1735^ and bis " PíloILuo " in V}40. 
Ep GallB hiíDstlt " Csp^llau del Bual Mo- 
nnteriu dv Ja InCBraacion" on tbe tltle oí 
Ih« ant 'i>l tliei« p-lnjBi íioi ÍQScru Iiro 
■Inari 4ittremeit» oí bis vwd cDmiHiiL- 
tiOD ^tw^CD lu ncM. 1 biiv« roart««n or 



[DcM e( thein secular, — all mtaeratila. 
BeEL'rsl nre ubait, ond inuaclcd far priraie 
|]|t;iRlBalg, uDd fteveroL ara reprlDtB In tige 
Itttli^r parC of Ibc eii^tiUenlli c«lll]rj,ihcpn- 
iDg tbikt i\¡ KTnOaSi'ao «m d°( eDititly 
cxtliiKuishíd, even by Uib' ouenaiB «r the 
Míratíoí. n.a dlaa to ITil- Alíarua jr 



340 



IMITATIOHS OF THE FREN4B STAQE. l?siaoi> UL 



efibrt, it, ¡s believed, waa made to bring it upotí the stage, 
and 118 a priiited pocfiu it produced nv real eüect ob pulilic 
opinión. 

Montiano, however, was not diecouraged. In I "53 he 
publiahfd arwlher critical discoursc and anoüicr tragedy, 
witSi similar mérito and similar delecta, takiiig 
oipiio. foi- its sutiject the reig-n and death of Atliaiilpbo, 

the GqIIí, as they are found in tlie oíd chroníclea. But 
thia, too, líke its predecessor, waa never act&d, aud buth 
are now rarely read.' 

Tlie earlíest comeáy withín the Freach rules tliat ap- 
FreaciL peared aa auch io the Spanish laiiguage was 
«■='»«'■ the traaslatiün uf LachauBSiíe's " Préjugé k la 
Mode" by Luzan, which waa printed in 1151.* It ju- 
dicioualy prcserved the national tuonanies, or imperíect 
rhymea, throughout, aad waa followed, in 1754, by the 
"Athiilie" of Raciue, reodered with much tüste, prioci- 
pally into blank verae, by Llag-uno y Amirola, Secretary 
of the Academj of Hiatory, But the fiíst original Span- 



■ ■• ]>ls?uT6g Mtm ha ConcdlH £si>a- 
ddIm út Don AguUB d« ÜMitlBi» j La- 
rtnúa," M^rlt, 1193, ISnm; Pismno 
Saguad», Htuirjil. I7í3, \.3a¡^, Tb«r irere 
tífloainíed ütta Freuuii b/ HflnDtlly, aud 
BD «.eooimi ot tüHB and ihíir nutbor íb 
giten in LrBaiuR's Wep|(B (B-OfliQ, ITBl, 
Umo, Bond XXII]. p. Dú). Bi)t t]l« b««l 
aoouain of Montibod la tn be (i3uriil \r\ h1l 
^Oracioc Fúnebre, prjr e1 M. K. V- Mrp. 
Fra; Alousa Cuno" (Madrid, IjIJS, 4'lb, 
|>p. 29). He •uta boFU aX VaUudolid !□ 
1497, «e>t «peni. «■ p&rt sf bl« joutb ta 
Majónos nlUí BU uDEjc^, «bo wuü hisli in 
oIBoe Lhere. He TcroL*, ijhiia bB "M 
tweníj jreurs uld, bis "HdIio <13 PlDlh" 
tthkh 'a H. pDl^m In ane ltbjndf^4 I^Dit 
tWtíüLJ «Uainfi, in H purer BEf!e IbBQ WQP 
Ihfln FuDniai:^., but wiüi liicle pov^^i ai^4 Q^ 

31), It wiui first publishud bp b rrl«Dd 
«ICbnat his tnDWledge; — Bf>j!rw3.rd8 by 
falniseír ax BaFUFloiiB, a. n. ISmci, pp. 40. — 
fils en]j)1ayiii«[it duFÍnif Ch« active pajt of 
hit üfB ws» in tti« Dupurtmsnt of Sulu-, 
vs4 »(. tbe áfite ur hlH4L'Btb, ITOB, ]i« vu 

IMreclof ?.I (lie ACSJleinjr of HiíMTy, bufare 

■wbiBh UiB "-'Opaaioi" o' Cao o ■»(. pri)- 
Doimced. Hb wm mgct valiiea (tnd 



mauMied I7 (be- nfn of laU^re ot lilv 
ilia«, tí wbom bq wm a gi-nenMis mend, 

TbB Blory ot Alluiulpbo la fmm tliH 

Corfinlca Gíaerel, mrce 11. r. ü'J. TLa 

"VlrgÍQlB," both íd iu allHrnpt Ui eXhlhlt 
Jlafnno mADue» anü In lU iRncticnl pow- 
er^ BuStín aereptly ffheii coiDparcd wlth 
Alderi'a Ir^ndj' ou Ui« saiae Hubject, But 
Lhe trolb ia, Munliaiio wba u sluvie-b imi- 
taUn ur ttiü FreDcli achoul, -wtl^-b "hs ud- 
miivd «D nacli as M bv aDublo to cumpre- 
liend aail fevl what waa ixnt ju bli hwd 
CucilJOQ. In t.b« "¿probodoii," wbidt 
h« prttlx»3 tQ tlie «diU«D of A,vcllitMd>, 
publLBhPd In 1732, b« ttyt, eampartbg' tbe 
aeeoDd pan uf Pvci Q.ulX'OW, br (bis pK- 
t«iiiil«r, wltb the (nw «ee ty CfPTBDiee,— 
" I ttiteJc Dv nAii 4F Ja<]|i'Hciit wUl t'jve aa 
a[iiv»e in fuvir Qf Ocrvael«4, If be sam- 
psreB llje {wo pKtla tOBCM)"." 

■ " i« n^B QoTitra la ÍI94B ' ' (Mitdiid , 

lEmo, ITSl) BppeSKl wilÜíiHl the naine ur 
the tr»DBlator, ana cwilalllí e moflesl de. 
rer4ee of the Btenjjli niles, ín ibe rurní a( a 
l>GdiGiLÜon la tiie Maivlilfifltu di Sarria. 
Utlllty la toDcti laBiauíl uponi and liía 
LcuDorSillt; o[ tlte ^\&(ít dranu le TLgor- 
G11SI7, bilí NvcTlly, aiUúkcd, 



Chap. vi.] 



MOBATHT TH£ eldeb. 



iflh comedy fonned oti French moclelB was tlie "Pclime- 
tra/' or the Fernale Fribble, bj Mnratío the mqtuid'b- 
eider. It wan priiited iu 1Í62, and was precedeJ p^h™»"»- 
hy a dÍBaertation, in which, while the merits of the 
Hchooía of Lope and Calderón are imperfectly acknowl- 
ed^d, their defects are eíliibited in the strongest relief, 
and the impreBsion leñ, in relatioD to the oíd maaters, íb 
of the most uufavorablo character. 

In the pliiy ¡taBlf, a similar kind of deference is sliown 
to the popular prejudieea and feelings, whic;h adhored 
faithfully tu the otd drama and to the miserable íniitatiuTiB 
of it that contimied to be produccd. It ia divided into 
the three Jor-nadas to which the pubtic had eo loiig beoii 
■wonted, and is wvitteti m the nationat maiiner, Bometimes 
with full rhymee, and sornetimes only with asonanfeii. 
But the compvomiBe was not accepted by those to whom 
it was ofiered. The principal character. Doña Gen^iLÍDia, 
ia feebly drawn ; and, though the Tersification and atyla 
are ¡i.lways eaay, and sornetimes beautiful, the altempt to 
reconcile íhe irregular genius of the eider comedy with 
what ]VIíii'a.tin, on his titto-page, calle " the rigor of art" 
was a failure. A corres ponding^ eübrt which lie made the 
ncst year in tragédy, tiiking the stOry of Lttcretia for his 
aubJGct, and adoptíng even more fully the French conven- 
tions, was not more auccesaful. Neithor of them obtained 
the distinctiou of being publicly re prese nted.'" 

That honor, however, was gained in IT'TO, with mach 
difficiilty, by Moratin'e " Hormesiiida," the first Mímtin» 
original drama, under the canona that govcroed ^''™=^'"'*' 
Coracillc and Racioe, which ever appeared iu a public the- 
atre in Spain. It is fouiided on evente connected with 
the Arab invasión and the achievements of Pelayo, and is 
written, like the "Lucretia," in that irregular verae, 
partly rhymed and pattly nOt, which in Spanish poetrj ia 



" "líJi OrlUcKS Ac Mndria," a íort^r 
Sn^oeM, (Miullrll, 176», IHma, :pp. SQ,) 
rUlii^iiSeB tte atat^^ itf the wur ciii tlii^ tlitutro 
at tlil» time. ]l prupuajioeo Onpe and 

hii Itumt, ivlilla of ddc of btio faaJiiaDbb].Q 



fie dnTiisiya tin Tmncoi y bajlA 
-CuulruLiuiiki UQ CwtUliJr 

¿Hilllngi1)lp<>niik«iatlBg, 

A cu'l4<'tHlL'ba--K-li-ar'l Had spriuf 
la oaDln-diuBcci gají 



312 



MORATIS THE ELDEB.— CABAEALSO. IPeriod Hl. 



called silm, and íb iutendcd to have, more tban any othejr, 
the air oí iinprOvÍHation." 

Tbe partial auccees of thís drama, wliich, notwithBÍand- 
iDg an improbablo plot, deaorved all the favor it received, 
HSsQuiBcian íriduced its author, ¡n 1TT7, to write hi» thirá 
el BuíQii. tragcdy, " Guzman the Tme," dedicating it to 
bis patrón, the Duke of Medina-Sidoma, who was a de- 
Bcendant of that famous nobleman, and who, a lew years 
befyre, had hiraaelf trauelated the "Iphigtíiiie" of Kacine 
into Spanieh. The well-known character of tbe hero, 
who chose rather to have his epJi sacñficed by thfi Mooi-a 
thaii to Burreuder the forttesa of Tarifa, if it ís not 
drawn with the -vig-or of the oíd Castiliíiü chronicleB or 
of the drama of Guevara, íb eshihited, at least, with 
a well-sustained conaistency^ that gives token of more 
poGtical power than anjthiiig elee producen by its aa- 
thor fop the theatrc. But thÍB is its oiily real raerit ; and 
the laüt tragedy of Moratiii was, on the whole, no more 
eucceasful, aod no more deeerviug of eiiccess, thau tbe 
first. 

Cadahalso, the friend whom we havc already noticed 
as much miiler the influence of Moratin, wcnt One step 
furtlierin Iiíb imitatiou ofthe French mastere. Eis "Don 
Sancho García," a reg-utar but fceble tragedy, printeJ 
in 1171 and afterwardfl acted, with partial snccess, ia 
written in lüng Unes and rhymed couplets ; an innovaüon 
wíiich could hardly fail to be accouiited monoto- 
none on a Btago, one of whose chief luxuriea 
had so long been a wild variety of measures. 
Ñor did more favor follow an attempt of Sebastian y La- 
tre to adjqst to the theories of tb& time twg oíd dramas, 
Btill often representííd, — the one hy Rosas atid the other 
by Moreto, — which he forced within the palé of the three 
unities, and for the public representations of one of which, 
Aranda, the raiiiister of state, paid the charges. Like 
tbe aubscqueut attempts of Trigueros to accooimodate 



OlbBr ut- 
lumpu In 
Ul<^ fiíaeh 

jmaiinrr. 



11 The"HormE«iiKlA,"an<leaiKAUJIy lu shida" (lUodHd, 177D, ISmo). FuIike wu 

FrefiíM, wbich wub wrlitca by Monitlii''ii iu¡ idaúttt ur Ihe dlil Bchw1 uf Lop^ uid 

frleod, Bía'naeCDDE, wae iLtu^kíil In a Chldciitii, but dId Dot bera dcfttiii íl witli 

ptimptilet bj Jims Pulikez, ¡cntLiled ■' He- muiih akJll w jaágaQKX. 
Facc>Biotpre la Tragóla, iDtliulEuIa noriut- 



Chap. VL] OTHEE IMITATOES OF THE PBENOH DRAMA. 343 



VnUtlAj. 



fiOTue of Lope de Ve^a's plays to the same system of 
opinioiía, it waa eutirely uuaucceBBfuI. The difleronce 
bctweeo the two different schoola waa ao ^eat, and 
the eEFort to forcé them tog'ether so "violent, that enough 
of the fipírit and gríice of the origináis could not be 
foHud ia theee moderuiaed tmitatioiis to satíafy tho de- 
mands of auy audience tíiat could be colle«ted to liaten 
to tiiem." 

YriartBj better known as a didactic poet and fiíbulist, 
enjoya the distinction of having produced the 
fiíBt regular original comedy that waa publicly 
represented in Spain. He beg;an very youiig, with a play 
which he díd not afterwarda thiuk fit to place amoug hJs 
coUected woi-ka ; andj beside traiiaJatioiis from Voltaire 
and Deetouchea, aud three or four attempte of less coaae- 
quence, he wrote two full-length orig'inal comedies, w^hich 
were better than anythíng previoiislj produced by the 
sehúúl to whicb he beSoug-ed. One of thettt, callcd " The 
Flattered Youth," appearod in 177S, aiid the other, " Tho 
lll'hred Mies," ten years later ; ^ the first being- on the 
subject of a hod Bpoiled by a fooliehly indulgent motherf 
and the sccond on the daughter of a rich man cqnally 



i" Tija idBjs of Horatlo the piflar, whieb 
TUñá b«rore tDovp au\j in lh« punpliL^Mi 
' iiL wiüít lüey were Brat puWlshed, can 
pon ha ftniíid onUeowil iD the Míyml 
voliime iir tlie " PlIiltiJtwa du AuloKl 
J^lapsüiibles.,''^ publlsbeil Ijy Hlv■^4<?a^y^4^ — 
by rUr tbti AUkplt^Bl^ beat-s^Iecl^it, üí\Ú b^t- 
edLLail coUeelLuD of Spcnjíti autllfl-ri tült 
lita yet becE, male, aiiü Oliti bula vrLiiSb 
■Dusb aiis bs h^ped, b^Lh for the troKi'ciiA 
BOd rar the dlfluaiiiDiiISpuíiiall llUifiitun:. — 
CailAli^<i'&"'Ui3nÜMI<tlr)"TiHl&rsbpnDted 
In IVTl, witb Míe DiftMG ii Junb del Vnllc, 
asd !□ 130-1 wjLI:i Ihe IuUQc of iUauUinr, 

aeMoipikuieii tiia lajtt i!iii4: i>; aaoiB ac- 

fbrEunntG prctie Lmllatlíius nr Yauní;'» 

" Slglit ThoQf liifl," ana üther mleceliih 

□Íes, irblEh ía\ütw it ¡ato tlie tíilrü TUlnma 
n[ Uieir aiithQr'fi wr>rk«, IHIS, — Ui((i-«'t 
rífacimtnti iirii priDUnl Id a ecmewliat 
Hhfiny flLjIí^v probikbly óA the erii(^i>ae oí 
the miDJlUe oS atnU, AtadiIs, -uDidieT üii: 
Ütlr ni " SatAjo tdhtii el Tmtri) Espaiiul." 
MniErid, i:i3, «dall fnllu. IaIhU» (Bib. 
Nuera, Tura. V. p. EilS) giVeá Bnme M- 



C3tibi.or ihelr uncbor, wIid üI«iL in 1792, — 
Thv" Aazu.4lo d« Fe»j»a" and th« "Ei- 
tnlla d« Biivilla," ts act to tti« iiiriju nntUoi 
by Trieuffi-s, uern priiti*d botb tíi Madrid 

ftQtl I^dflon, Of tlie [uat jiírsn", CmuIM» 

M, Trifiuerw, it inty be naji-'j, that h« 
e'ijojt'a a trimalerit ri!p4t*i.i-90 tu th* lutwr 
purt nf tlie eigtw*nili eentury, and th» 
Ilís prDifflpfi! w4-rk, "La Ulldn,'^ ib huí 
djLDtoB ür IrKgui&r vtLi'jG, (Sevilla, i:7S4, 
Gtii,> an ft dliutrnuai ÍDumlatliic uf SuvUle 
thaC bnd Just octLirred, waa d^mútlsbcd by 
B Icltcr of ViLTgEif, aai t. 9a,tirlG&l Uiict 
wbiiib fiTuer puLili^bed uDdei the tutscti 
Dt ALtaaiu Varas. I dri nst brisir wlicn 
hvdLcd, bulUia [iDcounC of nDEt cí hla lUe 
BDd many of hija irortí maf be íeuiiil la 
the Biblioteca of Semptrt: ; OkisfLcaí, 
I->iD, VI., orticle 7'riffm:ro¡, wlilchi in a 
Eutlrieal auioiiyiD'ii'Ua tract, eitUlled. "Siu- 
pluracnlD al htImcuId Tr¡^o.Gj:oa e.n Iel l{[b]|i> 
U^ca dv ñrnt^ns y GuarÍDí»^'^ (IIlBilrldf 
1790, p. &'0 ín Boid bj- thi^ autbm', wha 
Trod Frini^r, tü havc li'&cc] wrltten bf Tt1> 
gUíTM tlUMlf ib hia aHD tvinaT. 



Trigoajr. 



BpoíEctI bj the careksBnesa atn3 Tieg-loct of her fatber. 
Both are dívjded into tliriíe acta, and writt'pn iii the im-^ 
perfect rhyrae and short verses always grateful to GastilS 
ian ears ; aitd both are marked by good cbaracter-draw- 
ing and a pleasant, easy maoner, not abcninding in wit 
ñor Beaaibly deficient in it. But, oscept theae playB of 
Triarte and Moratin, and au unfortuuate one by Meleiidez 
Vald¿a in l'T84, — founded üu Camacho's wedding, Jnfl 
" Don Quíxote," atid cootaíníng occaeionally gentle asd 
plcasiug pastoral poctry whicb ilL agrees with th'e rude 
jesting of Sancho, — nothing- that deaerves notice waa 
done for coatedj in the latter patt of the riíigii of Cliadea 
the Thtrd." M 

Tragedy fared atill worae. The "Numantfa Destroyed/'" 
wntteo by Ayala, a man of learning and the rcg' 
ular censor of the puhlic thüatrea of Madrid, waa 
acted in 1TT5. Its subject íb the same with that of'the 
'^Niimantia" by Cervantes ; but the horrors of the s.ie-ge 
it describes are not brought home to the Bympathies or 
the reader by inatancee of individual sufferíug^, as the 
are in the eider dramatist, and therefore produce much 
lesB efiect. As an acting drama, howerer, it ¡b not 
without merit. Its yerBÍfication, which ia, again, an at- 
tcmpt at a compromise with the public hy givíng aiteruate 
asonantes, but attaching tíiem to the long-drawn hnes of 
the French theatre, ia not, indeed, fortúnate ; but the 
Btyle íb otherwise rich and vigoroua, and the tone ele- 
vated. Ferhape its ardent espreseious of patriotic feel' 
ing, and its fierce denunciations of íbreign oppresBion, 
have done aa much to keep it oq the Btag-e as its intrínaio 
poética! ments. 

The " Raquel " of Huerta, printed íd 1778, three yeara; 
after the " ÑuinaTitia," ía not so creditable to the authorj 
and prodncod a Icsb lastiug ímpreasion ou the public. 



fie I 

1 



1' The " Obra» fle Trlírte " CMs^f'^i alwnja bustHntt and D«»er dolnjf any- 

1HC5, B tora., líinr) ciiiitaiti all lila p luye, tbtjiji j — inufía asnillo niiil aijent. lÉ 

exci^iJt lila fiírat oils, nritUtil whüa he waB ttei príntoil in ITÍO, uiiil"? Ihí altulit Qis- 

onlf rlghaf^E^Ti füura oli3, nnrl iialCed *-^ Jlocer guise oí ao uiiagram. Tino FiDureta. ThQ 

•qiU! nDoemcB^^^ or Much Crf anJ Llítla play of Malendi^^ VaLJ^ft \s in Úie »e(9qii4 i 

■Wnwl, th« priiicSpiil fMjpsnimge nt whtch ia tqIuidí of hia Warlts, 1"9J. 
au abtuid. carloUiue or a xuaii, irbo la 



Chap. \T.] 



HUEETA, - JOVELLAMOS'. 



346 



JoVgUbdds. 



The Btory — tfiat of tlie Jeweas of Toledo, whích haa 
been so oftoü treated ljy Spíiuish poeta — ía tüken too 
freely from a. play of Diamante ; and though Huerta has, 
ia some respecta, given thc matcriats he found tliere a 
better arrang-ement, aad a more grave and soiiorouB verai- 
fication, he haa diminished the spirít and naturalnesB of 
tlie actíoii bj constraíuing; it in the Btrictest mauner with- 
jü the hai'd convontiona he prescribed to hiaiself, and has 
reiideríid the whole drama so UDÍnteresting, that, notwith- 
etaiidiüig its considerable repiitatioo at first^ it was soo» 
forg-otten." 

The iirst real succesa of anything íu the French style 
on the Spanish stage, though not in the cla!i<QÍcal forras 
preacrihed by Boileau and Eacine, was obtahied by Jove- 
llano^. Early in life he had ventured a tragedy, entitlcd 
" Fclayo," in the same measnre wíth Ayala's 
" Nuniantía," and on nearly the saiíne Subject 
with the " Hormeainda " of tbe eider Moratiu, But the 
philúsüphicft] Btatesman, tbough he wrote goad lyric 
verse, was not a tragic poet. Hit wae, bowever, sorae- 
thing better ; — he was a really good man, and his philan- 
thropy l&d him, in 1713, to write hie " Honored Culprit," 
& play, iiiteniled to rebuke the cruel and unavailitie eever- 
ity (if an edict a^ainst duelling*, which had beon in forcé 
from 175Í. It is a sentimental comedy in the manner of 
Diderot's " Natural Son ; " and, beeide that it Las the 
honor of heing tbe flrat attempt of the kind on the Span- 
ish stage, it hae that of being- more fortúnate than any of 
ita fluccesaors. The story ou wiiich it is founded ia that 
of a g'eutlemuD, who, after repeatedly refueing a challenge, 
killa, in a aecret diiel, the infamoue huebaiid of the lady 
he aftecwwds marñea ; and, being eubaequently led to 
confeas his crinie in order to eave a fríend, who is arrested 
as the gnilty party, he is condomned to death by a rigor- 



^* Ajal&'S triigi-'ííy fia» been flft€n prUiU 
ed, Sná tQ 1743 Hi^ pLibloshed n ^' Hiatorín 
d4 Gil^rRltar,,^' Fh^^h crkmeB Aown to the 

prípamtlflinB tur llie Bkgi of ihat year. 

The "RuqUíl" is In Uaertü's "Woilif, 
(TuM. I,, I7SS,) vrHh Ma tmDvIndvas <¡l thc 

i¿ TolCuiru. tbe o ritual i^íIIud al tí» 
15» 



Raquel ts an-anymouj, odí viíIjaDt date gr 
plHoe of pabllcriEloa. Títere Lb bj9 Itoll^ 
tm'nstatfaQ of it lo v^^W SJfíaíti^ (Seilogn^ 
17B2,) Liiada b^ bis t>roUie<r Ptidni, Rbo, I 

who preftj«d IP U S hMng dedlcaMoc lo 

m HiiUitír, rblv]i rastel np in slTecci^D 
m wbM It wsDtB to foetrf. 



MOBATIS ATTACKS TSE OLD DRAMA. [rERion Ul. 



I 



ou» judg'o, ivlii) unexpectedly tums out to ha his own 
I'alliür, aiid is eaved froni execution, but oot froio severe 
puiiiahnieiit, onty by the royal clemeacy. 

How many cipportuuities for eceiiee of the most painful 
iuterest such a Story afibrdd, is 01>y¡Oub at tbe ñret glanCe. 
JuvelluDoa haa ucted tliem üikUfulI j, becaues be haa done it 
in the simplest and most dircct manner, with great warmtli 
uf kinJIy feeliug;, and íd a Btyle whose tdiuinatic ptirity ts 
not the ieaat of ite attractions. '■ The HoQored üulprit," 
therefore, waa ftt ooce Bucceseful, aTid wheo woll acted, 
thijugh its poetícaí power íh small. it can hardly be lis- 
tfiied to wil.hoiit tears. It waa firat produced in onG of 
the royal tbeatriís, without the Tinowledge of ite author ; 
then, epreading throug-hout Spain, it was acted at Cádiz 
at the aanie time both in Freach aud Spanish, and, at laat* 
becamo familiar od the stages of Piance and Germany, 
Such wide auccese had loug been imknown to anytbÍQg iii 
Spanish líterature.^* 

But from the time whea the Srst attempt waa made to 
introduce regular playa in tho French maoner upou the 
Cdno-ít fiif SpaiiÍBb Btage, an active conteat had been going h 
ueuiratre. qj^ which, thüugh thc advantage had oHate beea fl 
on the Bitte of the innovatora, did uot seem"' likely to be ' 
Büon deterraincd. In 1763, Moratiu the. eider published 
"what he called " Tbe Truth tüld abont the Spaniaíi 
Stage ; " — three spirited pamphlets, in whicb he ath ^ 
tacked the oíd dvam» gencrulEy^ but above all tbe avíos fl 
sacramentales!, not denying the poetical merit of thoae by 
üalderon, but dcclaring that sucb wild, coarsej and blaa- 
phcraoua exhihitione as they generally were onght not 
to be tolerated ¡n a civilized and religjoua community. 
So far ae the autos were concerned, Moratin was suc- 
ceasful. Thcy were proliibited by a royal edict, Ju&6 



I 



" I hüTC tho elghth fldlllofi of the "Di- 
lltiquiDte Quoraad," 1^03 ; Itill l>rlblGd 
iiltiii'iit lea BQtb<>i''9 tjnút. It irae e<> 
popular Ibat it waa severttl IívU'M patilbbed 
íurrepCIliouflls, ftian cntea talieB la ll-a 
thcatre, hud woB untJQ tUMird Jij-Lo tthd 
Ycrse, tieTura iTnvi^UiLuoa |>ernil[ted Lt {u 
Appeac &nm N!b ana mEmuscrlpt. (9ee 
VdL VU. cf hla WorkB, edlled bj Gaiedo.) 



It ti snmfhíkt íingulhr, tbuL, just about 

pEFire4 [>k Spalu, FcDouilkt piiblishiid In 

dd Beconá Ürdrc," wilTs tSe eiaetly cor- 
regpuiliíltig llUie ^af " L'UoiidcIr CiIUÍML'" 
But thi^rc £b dq n^eemblutce íd thiá p\iAM 
uf the tiiro pieDeH. 



I 



Chap. VI,] 



CONTEST FOR THE TUEATHE. 



34Í 



17, 176-5; and thong-h, oven iii Lhe níneteeath ceiitury, 
it caí] Imrflly be said tíiat they have beeii entirely driven 
out of the villag-efl, where Ihey havo been the delight of 
tho mass of the people frorn a. períod before that of AI- 
¡'oDBo the Wiae, yet ia Madrid aud the larger citiíJB of 
Spain they have ncTcr been hcard aince they were firat 
forbidden." 

But íhÍ8 waa as far as Moratin could prevail. In the 
public eficular theatre, generally, hia poetry and wit pro- 
diiced no eCTect. There, two ríotouB parties in the two 
audiencee of Madrid ^-distinguiahing themeelves by fa- 
Yots worn in tlieir bate and led on by vulgar friara and 
rude raechaniCB, making up in epirit what they wanted iü 
deceucyf and rcadily uniting: tu urge an op&n war ag'aínst 
alí further innovations - — cffecttially prevented any of the 
regular di-amas that were writteii from beíng represented 
in their preeence, uütil ITTO. The oíd rnaatera they 
parLly tolerated ; especiaüy Calderón, Moreto, and tbe 
dramatista of the latter part af the seventeenth century ; 
but the popular favortteB were Ibañez, "Lobera, Vicente 
Guerrero, a play-acturj Julián de Castro, who wrote bal- 



Qncts, s. L limo, p. ñO. Huerta, Eh^db 
Eupanoln Defendida, Madrid, 1788, 12ma, 
p. xlill. H^tv ubiiiiliit4:lr aulas ]Da\atalao& 
tLvir place lu Spain mar ^"^ "^'^ Iram tbe 
fect, Üiíi Tcry fcw are r-urbiilden Íd tbé 
amplr^t luiii^x E^rpurgHlorloB, — that tíí 
lÜHT,<p. tH,)^aDili tLat thoae fert ífe, I 
believe, ail fnrtu^EBe. 

DuriuH the litter yCart üf theif eilat^ 
enes they w>fre nmcb encumhured willk the 
rurcea of ail kínda tbat preralled so bk- 
brava^anÜy on tbe aecDl&r frtagCi 1 \\6-vii 
ft Jinle tract, euLltled '^ Letrua de lae Tuna- 
dltlBí ijue ac GaDtsnkD sn Ui» Siynetci dc1 
Auta &acíaaíenlÁl ZpCi (]i£e un drt tiaml/re 
á Dint que n: prese atanl Ib Cumpaüla ile 
Juui Angdl. el día 29 áf Unjo, 1761." 
Of tliDta "-ToiiBíllíliuit" or dialugucH, eto., 
ta mofllct Uirre ore hcrc to-ar^ whiob vrerc 
UiruaL íd vith Üxs Kntremeaea nad B^y- 
netei j btdlrleB whlcL, there A^re a^p^rale 
Baíjiíi, or hiiMtis^ to reprcsccit Liitf Tri- 
uiDph uT HjLcnbLia and Che Pythian Qamea, 
^-BQme ar^lffifjí/ijaj^ a doii-cc vi HwarTe^ 
cto-, — ail remarcd, one would tbiiil[,u far 



B9 ptia^Lble fm-TD. Üic otipinaJ Edea, oT aa 
AsLto Sacramr'ntal , and mucL d^afiígurio^ 
Vis chuscUr. The rrucetialont ton. vas 
ofteii orowdedi Ln ao unseemly robuntr, 
niÉh monBtrGUB figures aí eap-leB, Iíüd^ 
tía. 6^ Vcybge d''£Bpa|^D€ Ibüe en IT&fi 
[par Ib P-irre KaimcJ, traduEt de l'Ilalioa 
par Litny, Taris, 1T7Ü. Tom. I. pp. 3" - 40, 
4?f whíct eurlDua caticca aiity 1k! found in 
tlie l^spagiie Uü^raire, 17T4, Tom. I. pp. 

iM - ]aa, 

i¡9 Late &B 1S4D, ■ciine>lfatii£' leBctnblIng 
rether a Hj^atery of the corlleet time Iban 
aii " Aub) " GüDÜDued \a be represented tA 
Valeücia. daring- tliB Bbcnrs cd Iba Corpa* 
CbiiatL (Lamaica, Teatro da TaleoDib, 
1840, p, U.) Thlí, r a-uppnsc, is Ute dra- 
mallc cnLcrt&InntCDt wblcli JuIiub van 
MEiiutnIi trltnoDed iu Uie Fi:«st af tJie 
Buirnuneat ut Taicocla In 13I>3. and «hiob 
be aoí ooiy deseribea, but vbleh be prinla 
eotlrr Iti the dlalect af Lb^ euvintry, JuH as 
he liesKl 11. Ste Iiis Allts uad Htuei ana 
Eimnlen, Berlín, BS4, Tom. I. pp. 1-lT, 
BC'il luna. TI, p, 34S, cote, ol ítúaHi»iDTj, 




S48 



aONTEST FOB THE THEATEE. 



[Peeiod m. 



ladfl for tbe street beg-gare aiid dieí in a hospital, aod oth- 
ers of Ehe same clasa ; nU as vulgar as Ihe populaco tbey 
deli^hted." 

After Aranda ceaaed to be mÍEieter, in ITTS^ this state 
of things was eoniewbat modified, without being mate- 
rially improved. Ünder hÍ9 aümiiiiatratíoa, tbe thoatrea 
in tbe ruyal reeidencGa bad been opCned for tragcdy and. 
comedy; ¡ind translatious from tbe French bad been acted 
before the court ín a manner saited to their subjects. 
Tbe two popular tbeatres of tbe capital, also, bad oot es- 
caped bis regard, and onder bis ínfluence tbey bad beea 
provided with better ecenery. From ITSS tbey gave 
represe ntations in the evening.'^ 

Still, everytbing was iu a very low state. A black- 
BDuth was the reigoing- critic to be conaulted by tboae 
who songht a bearing on eiíber stage, and the more rega- 
lar playa, wíiether translationa tbat bad been acted with 
success at court, or tragedles and coraedica of the poets 
already ncticed, made a atrange confusión witb thoae of 
the oíd masters, whicb were atitl sometímefi heard, and 
tbose of tbe Éavorites of the mob, whose works prevailed 
over all others in the theatrical repertories and in tbe 
general regard. But, wliatever mig'ht be prodiiced and 
performed, tbe iotervalB between the actSj and mucb time 
before and after tbe principal piecsj were filled up with. 
tonadillas," seguidillas, ballade, and all the forma of enire- 



1* t tLivs a pwllail tt&cc at Jnllan de 
CbsItu, « atltled " La CiiiD«dl& TriiuiraiiUi, 
PoeiDji Llflpo " (Mitaria, ISmo, pp. 33, no 
yem, buL prLDlEil aliar 1160). It la not 
IjiJcaJ, na Üie aathor, |n hlS gfyOB lipitl- 
rBDCe., salla il, baL lldMUls aod ií io- 
teniied to giVB a larC of ÜIKory of tSe 
SiihuIaIi tbentre. It Ib, bnwever, cot í^ 

A po^fiD. Ai Ibe end Ja b. |üat o? R-búiLC R 
doiaen nthEfr worka by Cq^^rD, ^me dr^ 
maLJiíf BDme Dut, 

U f^omaii de la. Cnif y C^ng, Te^tpa, 
Madrid, HSfi - 91, 10 Win., lama, T^tm. IK. 
p. 3. Ihe vvCDing n:jir«s?iiUil:Í4>[iB, how- 
«7er, brcuicbt witb ihum tb<!ir penüiai 

' ladlH, Ihe itriístfi aaar Cb^ tbGatm be- 
Dane erotrdtd, aai the aiaastt oí tlie oom- 



moo. people, aoms ot wbosD wsDt a£ early 
e^ IV4 tj'cli^k. tu tba alwraoún, Vs B^curo 
placea In the palio, gie^ mciie DQiay nnd. 
rodé (hoE. tbrybad beca in Ch« Inyüm-a. 
Ant.HiiiiaE,"M[)rlr vivíendc «a tuAliSea," 
na, IBini, pp. SI, eK, "Cbtm wiMQrla 
Bulirv ]u&dormBd.<: l-jífcurue SppaoDliNi, 
dirigid! BlL turba dv CrtUoes dnmoUnB 
pii>r el Xiibí Aeamenn«D," aiiMtrid,, IISS, 
p, 19. 

itt Tb^ra y/ets alpo /nnftdtw-, petan ap- 
pftraotly Ip Ibe bnlliuJ Btyle, that ifertí 
p(Lrt.|«i||»rlj Dbnolíiius. to cananrB. I do 
DBt It^ew CSIWIy what thí^ were, bol tbay 
are deicribed by oiu wba (lad orcen bcSird 
Uiem, SE "las letrtlISB lodcatnleB 7 UJ 
TCA E-KccnibleB esm nrnnbro de ronítdal." 
£1 BeliiuilE Litenrío, Uadild, 1711.5, 41», 
p. 13. 



Chap. Vio 



BAMON DE LA CRUZ. 



349 



vifíses, sainefea, and daíicpa, that haJ been cottimon in íhe 
last century or iuveuted iu the preeent one, — an act in a 
serioiía and poetieal play beiiig- aometimes divided, in 
oiilcr to ^ve place to one or aiiother of them, aod gratiíy 
BD audíeiice that aeemed to grow more and more imp*- 
tient of everythiiig escept popular farce.^ 

In this confusión of the oíd and the new, — of wbat 
was atíff, formal, and foreíga with what was nidest and 
most lawless in the national drama at home^ — a single 
writer appeared, who, from the mere force of natural tal- 
ent, fell instinctively into a tone not uiiworthy of the the- 
atre, and yct one that obtained for liim a degree of favor 
long^ denied to persona of more poetieal accora- Kamúa it 
plishmentñ. Thia waa Ramón de la Cruz, a gen^ '* '^"^■ 
tleraan of faoijly aud aa offlcer of tbe guvernnioiit at Ma- 
drid, who waa borii ia l'í31, aud frora l'iG5 to the time of 
hia death, at the end of the century, constantly aaiused 
tbe audieucea of the capital with dramiis, writteu in aiiy 
forra likcly to pteaae at tlie palace, on the ptiblíc etag'ea 
of the city, or in the liouBee of the nobjlity, who, like the 
DuchesB of Ossuna, or Aranda, the minister of state, wero 
able to indnlg'e in euoh a luxury at home. 

In the wholcj he wrote about three hnndred dramatio 
composítiouB, but príuted less than a third of that num- 
ber ; most of those he published being farces dcBigued to 



*> L. í, Moraltu, Obras,. Toiu. II. Partí 
t-, ^ráloga. S(imvl.iiiies, iboiiHli ratel]', 
UiBíH asilltl-iina oT aiffereiLl HOEti wero 
prlnLeij. TIjIb la tbe CBia In Q U^ct ea- 
dileé ''Baylea quje bq la pf oxitOB Ooms- 

flia. La Periaéf ¡ngiaísrra, baylert ea 

el Colieeoilell !^riclpe, QB|lil«n?|ü Ftirr^i 
HilaD^s (ISmo, VISO). Id UiI« tr&4t Ibere 
are two *' Birles " auiil two " TuQdLdílla^/'' 
crhlcb were urldpd to th-a cuBtiaanry " Ed- 
tremeBeB. "^ ODd ^' SiLlaeles,^ molilag^ tu 
■U, BBVSn p?rf>n-rm!kDe?! bt le&sl, b«*ldftl 
Ule " CiDmediB " iVSf'il, whlcb aeeini to mo 
te !.uiTer from alt bat Ui<? IsHt oT ll»!in. 
iDdeed, the; werK Bll eeidcsDlly crondad 
Id only lo ía.tisTf Ctie jMpulace. 

Thcre was ilIlio U Undvuey K HectniP- 
tenzitm eV'iTj'Ching lmel'<'< In » mnt, i>1 
Qiirigliid prv3# and rtnt, wi ue Uld Uiat 
mcb thlngí uv nnSttsKBun "UiípiHir 
■Ttinn -ac anhi.ppF dar-labiiKi vh-o voiks 



ban! nll Uie weet, atid an Sudíb; bojies at 
a plRj to got soma retreatment rat hU 
weariw] üaJj." thvae püraaiii íniltal had 
tbe cantroit oí tbe tbealjv, aiiil, as th« Huma 
trsot BDya ; 

En !a Cnmeilla QDB pialo cujít gK\ño 
Ea THirii el FDebLn t bI PdoU.Il- gh prpeloo 
Qac ccaflD]b? A iiVLC gusta ?v incl^nHilo 
Ti^ubI npreaJii mía ? il nii» va QiíBcluí, 
ClLrlB Ccnfldria pDr rl Aball- Agimiem- 
non, 1?U?, Lamo, pp. 4, 11<, 

Tftií, híwoTer, Is ijTiíy applyiiig the oíd 
gofltrl^B >of Lape de Te^^a la & ¥Gry lov 
líate ai t)|e tbeatre, nlitcb ble preropla 
acd esBjDple BJlke tended to ¡tto^nce. 

A lesa b.TDrEtile acmunl nf the Spanlab 
ttagt íÜDUt 1765 tbeo Uie one I haVf hera 
piveii niny tx^ r^hund Lil t|ie '* TfouvL'all Vo;- 
apc- en t^pn^^ne '^ [bj J- F. de Uuarguiag], 
Parlí, 1T8B, Vol-II. pp. BST-SaS. Bul ho 
reganleú ¡t rnvia Uie Francli polntorviow. 



350 



EAHON DE LA CRUZ. 



[pEhtoii IlL 



produce a merely popular eflect. They fiH ten volumes, 
and are all iii Llie short, natíonal meaHure of tho oíd 
drama, mitig^led occasionaUyj thou^h ratelj, with olher 
forme of verse. Tbey bear, however^ very diflcrent 
Hímucs \ ñome of thetn characteristic, and eome of them 
not. A f&w he calla " Dramatic Capricea ; " apparenUy 
liecaiiBe no mure defiíiite title "woíild be suited to thcir 
undctined character. Some he calla " iáaineles íü bo 
Buujif," and aonie " Burleaque Tragedies-" Othere liave 
no llames, at all, not eveu for tlieir perscnagee, exccpt 
thoae of the actora who repreBented the difíbreut parta, 
"Wkile yot otheiB pafss uiider the oíd deeignalions of loas, 
entrumeMes, aud zarzuelas, though ofteo with a character 
which it wOuld have hcea imposaible for the eaily repre- 
sentations bearing the same namea to aa&iime. Occaaion- 
ally, as in the case of the " Olenaentitia," he tafees paina 
to ol'serve all the rulea of the Freacb drama ; but tliey 
bíE. very uneaeily upun liim, and he seldom submitB to 
them. Híb great merit is alniü&t eutirety confiíied to 
his bhort farcea ; aud therefore, whea Dnrau, to whora 
the Spanish theatre owea so nmcb, undettook to publish 
what was best of the worke of La Cruz, he rejected all 
the test, and, taking Híb materialB both from manuscript 
soiirceB aud Irom what had beeo already publisheü, gives 
os m&rely a hundred aud ten proper " Sainetea.'" 

Thcir subjecta are various, and they are very unequEÜ 
in leagth ; but, amidat all their varíefcies, one priuciple 
gave them a prevailing charader and ineured their suc-* 
ces8. They are founded on the maunerB of the mtddliug 
and lower classee of the city, which they reflect ímnii^y 
aud faithfully, whethcr their materíala are soúg-ht in the 
tertutiüS út evening' parties of persona ¡n a decent Coiidi- 
tioo of life, where the demure Abate and tho autborized 
lover of the mistress of the house conteiid for influence í 
or io the trim walka of the Prado, aud amoug' the loua* 
gera of the Puerta del Sol, where the fashion of the coui 
is joetled by the humore of the people ; or in the ioiítjw] 
pies and the Maramllas, where the luwest claBses, with 
their picturesqiíe dresses »ltd iinchanging- manners, reign 
Bupreme and uacLueBtioned. But, under all circuaiBtancea 



Ch-u. VI.] 



CONTESTS FOE THE TBEATRE. 



361 



and in all BÍtuafioDS, Kiitnon de la Cruz, !□ thls claes of 
hia dramas, is attractive and amuaing^ ; and, tíiüugh there 
ÍB Bcidutn atiy thought of draniatic ekill in Uis crombina- 
tions, and often iio attempt at a cataetrophe, — -though 
hÍ8 style ia anything but correct, and he íb wholly care- 
less cif ñDÍsh in hie veraification, — yet hia faeces so 
abouud ia wit and faithful delineatioDS of character, they 
are eo true to the maniierB they iiitend to repreBcnt, and 
80 entirely n^lional in their tone, that they seera espressly 
made for a pleasant and appropriate accompaniment to 
the longer dramas of Lope and Calderón, in wbose popu- 
lar spií'ít they are most BucceesfuUy writíen.^* 

Meauwbils the presa was not so inactiva aa it had beon. 
Sedaño publiaíied hia " Jael,'^ taken from the atory in 
the book of Judgea ; Lasaala his '■ Iphig^euia ; " VMii.bii 
Trigueros hie " Tradeamen of Madrid;" and d™ji»n»to. 
Cortés his " Atahualpa ;^' the last two having been sno- 
cessful, at the aame f^stivities of ItS^ for which Melen- 
dez compofled his " M arria ge o-f Camacho," and failed. 



H 3h*(n> de Thm BuDm de ta C mz. !□ 
CbaVlWbce, he replles. Ui SlenorílU, vI]Ch, 
IdÚIB 9BTHTIÜI Gha.pl«T DÍ 'tile Dintli book of 
hia " SLoria áei TeaErJ/* mo^ea a rude 
Bllaclc upoD }iuDf i?hitay for HUDdry troa*- 
latlüDfi^ nhlch Ia Crua doea not £«gid U¡ 
hiLwe jtrííítsá. T3kii " CnlpccioD d« EüíditUh 
tuitú im[>n?aüB como ínsitos de Iidi:i H4L- 
mnD de \jl CriUp can un Díhouibo Pr^limiiiar 
ilirDoD, AiruBtin Duran," ele, «aS}irLnt«ilHt 
Uwlrli] In IS43, 2 tnm,, Bvo. A notlce- a( 
ibe lite o[ tiiK autbor Is In Alvuis f Bhv- 
Dí, Illjoí, ele.. Toro. IT. p. 280. He wa» 
□Reo iiUiu!]in], Bí nilglil. be unticlpaced 
trom tbe nBture iir bi* ilrarou ; — mice b; 
J), Ancijrln- Masis. Onllwprjn, in n tr&i^t 
cBlled "Él Clarlto, PaiieL jrjco-ssrio, re- 
ipondleniLo b.1 andJferentB," Madriil, 176», 
Iftraa. 

At abuQt the nme dme ttiot Knoon da 
!■ Crui -MHi iLiniisiiig the loctet; of Madrid. 
viLh ble po|Fulir dT;imELH aud farsee, Juqq 
Ignicin Goniaiteí dül Castillo n-aii «quallj 
■uccca^ral Iq the asme waf at Csilii. H« 
«as > IhoUrlca] prontpicr In tbat clljr, 
irlipre lie waa liurri Iti ITCS, nnd iphere he 
di«d aftbEyHlow-TKfBi lu 1800, ío-lMur t!iAt 
Le waa buriea ni tfie chnrge 01 ibe poridí 
wbere he wír domlcüed. He naa lEtüe 



kJiown bejond tte Hinlla of Andalueia, tiQ 
1^5-^^ 7hen boD Adolfn de Caíitro fiub- 
U'ihed ksL C&dEv a colleeEian of bi3 *' 3aJ- 
neteB,^' auiMUntlng to abüut Üiirtf, In four 
Tolumei, liana ; — ÍDCluding, boHeier^ odb 
Tratjcil}', " N^DIH.," — u Comedia In threB 
BCU, " Lb Madre Hipocrilai" — a poum 
SEittei Itii! Fiencb, oalltnl "1.a Gallada ;" 
— anil Bn " Escvtia Lírica," oa Ibe lutijoct 
of UmiLÍTiBl. lu the varicty of Ihelr tone, 
in ltn:lr raiUjfulneaa to Hie nmlonal man- 
üíra, anil in tlic Jfayetj ni tliclr natirí, tlie 
Sainetea reaejobile th^He of Ia Cni^ ; bul 
they nre n lILtle mtiie cnreriikly lAnlalLed 
■han his, anil sonjewliBt lesa ricli anil 
pLin^ent. Mnny Prench TaudevilLea weie 
trftiifllalcd aDdl o^^ted at>auL tbiB. time, lu 
a tract called ^^ Caria del SacraBlaa dB 
BerlLuchea at Organials de Moatiillc»," 
(lS.inu, Hiihunt date, but prinlcd abaot 
1TH0,J Sipealitii^ of the iDUltItodInaus 
tranaLallarifl of French ifamea tLint had bsEU 
made, the Satlrtst ebjb : "Por In (Hannn. 
Gttan meicladu de Arias, o como le escribe 
diriatlanieimainenle, de Jrlrtet i^pucg 
de liuLit en, breciía las murallas de la Lln 
da AmpblDn " (p. xJI.) i a bsd pon, wiiíi 
«Ter elle ti niaj be. 



352 



CONTESTS FOK THE THEATRE. [Pbriod HL 



Huerta, 



OienfHOgoa, too, a pnet of moro original power tlmn eilher 
of tliem, wrtite his '" Pituco/' wliich üpeiied Tur him ttie 
doors of the Spaniah Academy ; hia '• Iduinen^po," from 
wliich, in ímitulicín of AlJieri, he excluded the paseiou of 
Jove ; iand his " CounteBs of Castilc," and bis " Zor*- 
idíi," talíen from the oíd traditions of his country'B "wara 
and feudB ; oach givíng proof of talent, biit of taleot 
rather lyric than draioatic, and each showíng too ansious 
an adherence to Greek modela, which were particularlj 
unsuitable for the Zoraida, wtiose scene ia laid in the gar- 
dens of the Alhambra.** Bul all of them ^ bo far at 
leaát 38 tUe püblic stage ía concerned — have been loug 
8ÍDCe forgotten. 

On the otber hand. La Huerta, in 1185, pubüshed four- 
teen volumes of the oíd full-length plays, and one volume 
of the oíd "Entremesea:" a work intenided to 
TÍiidícate the natLonal theatre of Spaiu in the 
preccding century, and to place it as high as that of the 
rest of Etirope, or higher. Bqt he was it) fitted for bis 
task. A Belection, desig-ned to iUiiatrate the great mas- 
tere of the Spunieh stage, which, to saj nothing of othePj 
miatakcB, wholly omítted Lope de Vega, bogan with 
cjipitül defect ; and ihis circumstance, togethcr witli the 
aiTo^ant tone of the editor in bis Prefacea, and the cou- 
tradictioii to hia preaent opinions aflbrded by the example 
of bis owD. " Itaquel," ■which ia entirely in the French 
manner, and to his tranalations of the " Electra'^ of 
Sophocles and the " Zajre " of Voltaire, which WGre obvi- 
ously made to deferid the French Bchool, prevented hís 
" Teatro Hespañol-"^ from prodqcing the eflect that migbt 
otherwise have foUowed ite not ill-timed appearaoce. 
Stíll it was a work of consequencej and waB afterwarda 
acknowledg-ed to be Buch by the public.** 



M gbraa íí OlOnfUíKOi. UtíTliJ, 17M, 
atoiii.,l2nio; — tiieoQiy cdictoii pablúhed 
by tirase II. 

ra VIbbdw Garclft ap la HuflM* WM feni 
tn 1134. and dl4;il Ld 1TE7, A tiDtlK or tía 
Ul^, which TTOi T¡al irlthdut lJt(;nir7 ivffld 
iae\a.¡ succvaa, — thouEh mufti dislurlKd 
by « period or ezllu anil disgraw,— is H 
be limai in Uie Btaaaatío Flatortwp, 



(1342, p. 305,) má aome ictiniatiDa at th4i 
Tarioua liteiary «iiucivlS' ia Tbtcli he vue 
eiiR&Etíd viLh blB ccatemiiDrarlcB muy IM 
B««Q ío Cb? c^it ncitc. B¡B geiisml «bsr- 
■KCer is MC 111 iiunmed up In ük toUnvrlDg 

cplUph Qühilb, teid to La?e l>««D «riCUD 
bj YrlüTLe, úiie of kia iitjpaiiuiiti, uMeb. 
Bhúiild be read, rceDlIeittiiig Ihal Bu-agMA* 
iraB fonjciii rur h bMiiiial Fac íhu imuie, — 



353 



TllBcnsatooB. 



The dÍBCnasinnB ]t provofced were of more direct ím- 
portance, and tended to infuse new life íuto tlie tlieatre 
itself. Such diacusaioüB had been liegun* immediately 
after the publication of bis firet trafjedy by Mon- 
tianO, in 1750, — a date wliich mtiy be regarded 
as the dividing point in the history of the Spaiiish etítgo 
during tbc eighteenth century, — and they were now re- 
Bumed with great activity, partly ín conseqnence of tbe 
increasing intereat in the natioTial drama gcnerally, and 
partly in cooseq^ueace of tbe personal tcoipcr of La Hu- 
erta hiiuBelf. One immediate reeult of this Btate of thíngs 
wae a large increase in the niimber oí' playa, of whjch at 
leaet ten times more were writteu in the last balf of tlia 
century than in the first ; aud if there were less inuprove- 
ment in t!ie condition of tbe theatreí than raig-ht havo beeia 
antiCipated from suCh competition, still, as we have seon, 
poeta aud men of genins, like Eamon de la Grnz, were 
stirred by the movement, and far-sighted spínts, like 
Jovellanoa, augnred well for the future.^ 

The great obstacle to the BuccesB of better dramas lay 
in a nnmber of writera, who pandered to the bad taste of 
the low and vulgar audiencea of their time. Among the 



tbe mad-bonje tbflC flgvce so 1ari«l; iu 
ATEliuvEda'E " Síha QuisciK." 

I>? juÍEio wí i mus nodPiuBsnlii eMctMO, 
Aquí tlut'itnpl ^udiLi:-d;4.MiciLniwT^*RD ] 
Di'jji un piii^iln vaiMiiiU^ eiii ifl l^irDUO-, 
V una }4uIq ?atia eu Znagi'XMt 

In jD^tgmcnt, — jfli, — bnt noi tn g»nlud wcik, 

A VH^ijiV pfifll iipnit PsrTLitnilfl Icarcv, 
In SttJijHn. loo, HD cnipty rell. 

Md ««« smunl; iLtUkch«d fvr the «mliiait'ii 
vTt'ip?, s.n<] rorfundiy cLbcriboit-cüBdcga 
<f! hjn TcDtru Uuepikñul, Id ik tract cctitlcd 
» C*nii a D, TlMntB Guríltt de la Huerto, 
M., IMT P, J. D, C, Madrid " (nSJ, ISnio, 
pp. it-ü}, Aaother altudcms;!» IoiidI 
lii Uiv " DLal'iKt IrikDEp[rvtiuLeD e UiiKi- 
borflo," ele, {a. el. ISidd, pp. 30,3 '"tere, 
luniins uitiLT Iblnra. bu is rlrnculed foi the 
BtroDiTf woniít be B4ti]eti.miíd uspb^ like 
" loalTfDlina," " Jiusüiilail," 66,, and fnr 

«iiGlliaB Zaifí iti hia tr».ii«lai¡B:i at thít 

9* Don JjLUDí? OoiDfl attELckcd M'ODtiaDD 



[D a LflUr, vIchQut HaM i¡i iiB-tn? n' pintia 
01" prititer, ind waa aníitired hy Domingo 
Luis diJ Gimi-CUB ir thríe t*iterB, (Maírin, 
176», ISnm,) W whieh srejüioilírl-y Fhub- 
tiiio di' Quevído aiJi'^reti ii SiilHinanía in 
1761, ISmo; — aU Ihe oapaes bíiDgp>i'u- 
ilci]iyiil<!a, Und hll thi; 41e>i!us3lniiB. ninre 

angiT than wiiif. The rnhliíBiiün of iho 
'''T^lltl^l" or I* natrtaexdtiOJ atUI nn>re 
dl9Ciuiii.4b~ He blmri^:ir «iJ(;nl:B (Kacena 
Heatxiñnl^ Dt^téniliita, .M&ilrid, 1709, ] 2mo, 

f. Chii,) oí Lhe " tnormí BúluBro de InAi- 

Lni" ihsi afpeared la Mply lo bta " Pri- 
lí'ío," manj of whlch líHírif proTifibl? otly 
clreulatiM ib iDODuecritil, ftt'tidri.lIngEo ilge 
ULatiian uf tb6 üoi^d, TVhlle «tlicrE, IISlg 
ttinac vr C-vitme Sufniaii, Tiuuí Ceulat (i. e. 
J. f. r*irȒr>, etf,, weee prlnted in 1789, 
aad Lb Hiicrtn replled lo tbsm in hií 
angry "ILeMlnTi CfiUcí" DrUis íttme yew. 
(3cmi»cre. Bib,, Tom. III, p, 88.) THa 
Hbule o( lilla pi^rlod of Spanlib llh'KtIura 
Ib ñWeñ wiüi tbe ituairelíi b1 &«<tano. Fue 
QOr, Huerta, Vrbj-lü^,. aiid LhClf Ideoda asd 



864 



TALLAD ABC5.-ZATAL A. -COUELLA. [Phqod 



TlllM«n«, 



more promíaent aod soccessfu) oí these were Valtad^^s 
and Zjivi^a- Tlie fíriit wrote above a hundred 
dramas on all kiuda ol" aubjecte, tragic and comie, 
prcfixíog to hÍ8 " Emperor Albert " a dLsCúuraC in th^ 
Bpirit of Huerta, to defend the Spaaísh drama from ihH 
attacke of its French neighbors, The ollier, Zavata, 
wrote aboat half as m-iny, some of whícb, like lirs " Vic- 
tims of Love/' are in the sentimental style, while othei 
líke three on the hiatoiy of Charles the Twelfth of Sw< 
den,* are as estravagant as anytliiag ia the worat of tfc 
dr»mat¡&ts he sought tg imítate. Botb uaed the oíd versi- 
ficatiüT], and intended to humor the public taste in íta 
demaude fgr a vulgar and estravagaiit drama; thouj 
occasionally, as in " The Tnumphs of Love and Friea^ 
*hip," lij Zavala, thej wrote in proBe ; and occasionall] 
ae in " The Defence of Yirtne," they ahowed thetnaelve^ 
willing to submit to the rules of the Pretich sta^e. Iq 
fact, they had neither poetical principlea ñor pooticai 
etit, and wrote ooly to amuse a populace more ignorar 
and rude than themselvea. 
■ SoBiewhat bettey than eitber of these laisE, and certaín* 
ly more Bucceasfiil than either wiLh the better 
classes of his contemporarieíi, waa Cornelia. Lifce 
Valladares, bis fertility waa great ; and the eaae witlL 
which be wTote. and the ingenuity with which he íh 
vented new and striking aituations, seemed tu have th? 
aarno charra for his audienoes which they had had for the 
aitdiences of Lope and Calderón. But, unhappily, Cornelia 
had not the geniua of the oíd mastera. His plots ai-e as 
involved, and 8ometime& as interesting-, as thvira ; bu» 
generaüy, they are, to a most extravag'ant degree, wil™ 
and alíBurd, Even wheñ he dcals "with subjecta aa well 
known ae Chriatina of Sweden, Louis the Fourteonth, and 
Fredeiic the Great, he eeeme to have no regard for truth, 
probability, or coneisíency. His veraiBcation. too. ia noH 
fortúnate. In forra it ia, indecd, siich as had always bee^ 
ín&isted on where the popular voice of Castile has borne 



Cami:llL 



I' ¿ lailf whn EBir Chiriea XII. OCted, bIiIb fop. See p, II of Mlle, BnaiUlí, clb 
ujB UiB kiag wte dttBÉBd likd » fhibioa- ante, Chap. V. natal G. 



Ohap. VI.] 



MORATIS THE YOUSGER, 



Sfifi 



HWtty ; bat it lacfcs varietjj aa w^eil as richtiess and 
streugth. StlEl, hia rotniVticflB m dialogue wero found bo 
ínteretitiiig-, and there wae so much of temler and honor- 
able feeling' in the tone of his seotitneiits and thc inci- 
deats of bis plota, that abové a huñdred of his ■wild c!rar 
mas — 8ome of them in proae, but more in verse, gome on 
hiatoi-ical subjects, but many made oqI of lüTe-etoríes of 
his own ínvention — wero received with applauae, aiid 
pToved more profitable to the theatres of Madrid thah 
anything else tLey couLd offer to the multitude oa whom 
they depended fot tlíeir eKiatcrice.™ 

Eüt wliíiü Cornelia wae at the beight of bis reputation, 
a formidable antagonist, both to himself and to the wbole 
clase of writers he represented, appcaied in the jiontintijo 
peranii of Moratin the younger, bou of that poet yu^ser- 
■who firet produced on the Spanish Btage a-n original drama 
written according- to the Preach doctrines. He was born 
íñ 1760. To insTire for the child a Bnbsisteace he íiad 
with difficulty earned foi himaelf, his father placed him as 
flü apprentice to a jeweller, at whose trade tbe young 
man Cüntinued to work tul he was twenty-three yeara 
oíd, — the latter part of thc time in order to support his 
mothpr, who had been !eft a widow. 

But hia natural di^position for poetry waa too Htrong to 
be controlled by the híird circumatances of hix9 situation. 
When aeven yeara oíd he had written verses, and at 
eighteen he obtained the Becond prize offered by the 
Boyal Spaniah Acaderny for a poem to conimeraorate the 
taking of (rranada, — a circiimataíice which aBlonished 
nobody more than it did his own family, for he had writ- 
ten it aecretly, aud pre&eoted it undcr a feígned ñame, 
Another guccqss of the same sort, two yeara later, at- 



" The fop\i]nr\lj at AdUuAb TaUadnreí 
y ñilninajíor, "if Oaspnr 7^vaJa y Zamorn, 
ftnd ui LucUiko Fr»iii:L^cj CnirifllA-t l]l<1 nnt 
last lanff enrrugh t» tume Ihiílr wnrits tu he 
collücteil. But I Uuve aiiiny w'iiaEH-tr p-liijíB 
oí tn-ch oT Uti'-m> Aiiil iiT ntljiT furgolLen 
■uLíborB fiF Itii-i pBrliKl, Hiich an Ltili Miiu- 
nin, Vicente Hmlrisutt át¡ AríIÜBao, JngÉ 
GoDchu, ele, Of CntnElta slotie I huve 
thirtj;, and I >m aiihuiicil ta »iáj bow 



L 



nianr oT tharn I bam inaA for thÉ plíafiM 

thelr laire stórlt-B s*** ">"■ 

OnQ cnuBC oF t1lL' litv ntnie of thi? IhCAti^ 
iTBs, Lhat the jiclrirn had. too iDunh C^alrol 
ovfr the uuChnn. BUter coUt>l;iiilU Of 
ÜÚH ocmir \it ttiv "- JiiK^THila Ciidí;ru^*' » iOrt 
of pur!»lEL-ul pñnttd at Hnilrld Jn 1T90 
(Nii. a, ISma). It WM tlie a\á tniablK K riara 
Wíime. Be.» ante, PerLod II. Clup. XXTI. 
Bac the lun pabilo UDW ctmibraLlBd the aoton. 



356 



MOEAtlS THE VOUNGEB. 



[Pebiod 



tracted more atteistíoii to the pocir yo'irig jewetlet ; nnñ 
at Ifist, iu 1787, by the kind interventioii of Jovellanos, 
be waa made secretary to the Spanish embassy at Paria, 
and accompanied the ambnssador, Coiint Cubarme^ to 
that capital. Ttiero lie tetnaitied two years, and dur- 
ing that time became ivcixuaiated "with Goldoui, aud 
entered into relations with othpr raen of letters that 
det<!rmíned the directiou of bis life aad the cbaractcr of 
"his drama. 

Aftfr hís retum to Madrid, he obtained tbe patronage 
of Dun Manuel Godo^f subsequeótly the all-powerful 
PriiiCo of the PcaCe ; and from this moment his fortune 
Becmed certain. He waa aeut, at the ptiblic chiirgpj to 
etudy the Ihoatres of Germany aiid Englaiid, as well as 
those üf Italy and France í lie had pensiona aud placea 
givGTj him at home ; and, while an honorable oeeupation 
iu tlie departmcnt of Foreign AfTaira, whEch awaited his 
retiirn, insured him a distinguished position in society, 
be had still leisure left for tbut cultivation of letters 
which he prized above all hifl proaperity and all hie 
o