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COPniGBT, 1918, BT 




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It was the writer's purpose during the eariy preparatory 
stages of this work to make a detailed acknowledgment to 
the individuals, public Ubraries, bureaus, and corporations 
whose generous assistance has contributed to its success. 
This list has long since become so extensive, however, that 
space forbids individual recognition of the nimierous cour- 
tesies the author has received. He wishes, however, to 
express heartfelt appreciation to the large number of friends 
who by the loan of rare manuscripts, out-of-print books, 
old maps, and photographs, and many other evidences of 
friendly interest have assisted in enhancing the value of 
this book. 

C. J. B. 

Boise, Idaho, August i, 1918. 

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L Geological History i 

II. Prominent Physical Features lo 

III. The Indians of Idaho 17 

IV. How THE United States Acquired an Undisputed 

Title to the Oregon Country 26 

V. The Lewis and Clark Expedition 29 

VI. The Fur-Traders 38 

VII. Western Trails 62 

Vin. The Missionaries and the First Settlers ... 68 

IX. The Mining Era 88 

X. Life in the Early Mining-Camps loi 

XI. Territorial Organization 117 

XII. The Indian Wars 129 

XIII. The Cattle Days 146 

XIV. The Sheep Era 153 

XV. The Coming of the Railroads 161 

XVl. Statehood 168 

XVII. Agricultural Development 174 

XVIII. The Story of Irrigation 184 


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XIX. Noteworthy Recent Events 192 

XX. Material and Educational Progress 201 

Supplement A— A Political-History Sketch ... 213 


Supplement B^A Political-History Sketch ... 220 

IDAHO since statehood, 1890-I918. 

Supplement C — ^Territorial Governors .... 227 
territorial chief justices, 
territorial delegates to congress, 
state governors, 
chiep justices, supreme court, 
united states senators. 


counties and county seats, 
state buildings. 

Index « « • • • 233 

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Chief Joseph . Frotdispiece 

Map of Idaho (colored) Facing page i 


Twin Falls 3 

Looking for Goats in the Sawtooth Mountains 4 

Thousand Springs, Idaho 5 

Canyon of Snake River, South of Lewiston 7 

Topographical Map of Idaho Showing the Oregon and Lo Lo Trails and 

the Mullan Road 8 

The Three Tetons horn Jackson Lake 10 

Stanley Lake, Custer County 11 

Shoshone Falls — ^I 12 

Lake Pend d'Oreille 13 

Shoshone Falls — ^11 14 

Typical Snake River Canyon, Auger Falls ^ . 15 

A Coeur d'Alene Indian Girl 18 

Nez Perce Indian Boy in Tribal Dress 19 

Sacajawea 19 

Nez Perce Indian Village near Kamiah 20 and 21 

A Shoshoni Indian 22 

Map Showing Habitats and Reservations of the Idaho Indian Tribes . . 24 

William Clark 30 

Meriwether Lewis 31 

Sacajawea Statue, City Park, Portland 32 

Lewis and Clark Medals Found in an Indian Grave near Mouth of Potlatch 

River in 1899 34 

M19 Showing Routes of the Lewb and Clark EqseditiaQ . . Facing page 36 


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Site of "KuDyspell House," Idaho's First Trading-Post. Town of Hope . 39 

I'acsimile Autograph of Andrew Henry 40 

Wilson Price Hunt 41 

Doctor John McLoughlin 44 

Interior of Fort Boise 46 

£3cterior of Fort Boise 47 

Map Showing Early Fur-Trading Posts and Missions 49 

Captain B. L. E. Bonneville 51 

Nathaniel J. Wyeth 55 

Henry Hall 56 

Interior of Fort Hall 58 

Exterior of Fort Hall 59 

Portion of the Oregon Trail, Southern Idaho 64 

Oregon Trail Monument 65 

Captain John Mullan 66 

The LoLo Trail 67 

Reverend Jason Lee 70 

Reverend Henry H. Spalding 70 

The House Built by Mr. Spalding m 1837 71 

First Printing-Press m the Pacific Northwest 72 

Translation of the Go^ of Matthew m the Nez Perce 73 

Eliza Spalding Warren 74 

Father Peter J. De Smet 75 

First Coeur d*Alene Mission on the Saint Joe River, 1842 77 

Second Gcur d'Alene Mission on the Coeur d'Alene River . . . . • 78 

Historic "Old Mission" Church Near Cataldo 79 

President Brigham Young 81 

Ruins of Fort Lemhi 82 

Pioneer Monument, Franklin 83 

Right Reverend Daniel S. Tuttle 84 

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Cdonel William Craig S6 

Doctor Robert Newell 87 

Captdn E. D. Pierce &S 

The Modem Village of Elk City 89 

East End of New Warren 90 

New Florence 91 

Salmon City 93 

Map Showing Idaho Comity Bomidary Lines in 1864 Between pages 94 and 95 

Wardner, from Haystack Hill . . . ^ 96 

The Hercules Mill 97 

Map of Idaho Showing Comities, 1884 Facing page 98 

Bunker Hill and Sullivan New Lead Smelter and Refinery, near Kellogg . 99 

The Luna House, Lewiston 102 

The Old Overland Hotel, Boise 103 

A Typical Miner's Cabin 104 

Hill Beachy 108 

Mrs. Statira E. Robinson 109 

The L. P. Brown Hotel, Mount Idaho iii 

The Stage-Coach 113 

A Pack-Train; Cinching 114 

Map of Idaho as Part of the Oregon Country from about 1820 to 1848 . . 118 

Map of Idaho as Part of the Oregon Country from 1848 to 1868 . . . . 119 

William H. Wallace 123 

Sidney Edgerton 125 

Alleck C. Smith 125 

Samuel C. Parks 126 

The First Territorial Capitol Building, Lewiston 126 

Two Historic Cities of Idaho — ^Lewiston in 1872, Boise in 1864 .... 127 

Nez Perce War Scene— -Whitebird Battle-Ground 133 

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Nez Pen» War Scene--Indian BreastworiLS on Rim of Clearwater Canyon . 134 

General O. O. Howard 137 

Mi^ Showing Chief Jo8q>h's Retreat frcnn the Clearwater Battle-Field to 

Bear Paw Mountain 139 

Nez Perce War Scene— Manuel's Ranch 141 

Hereford Cattle Find Ideal Summer Grazing in Oiu: National Forests . . 147 

Cattle Drifting Away from the National Forest at the Close of the Season • 151 

A Sheep-Herder 155 

Sheq> Grazing in the Sawtooth National Forest 157 

The Best Forage Is Found in the High Mountain Parks of Oiu: National 

Forests 158 

Sheep in Long Valley 159 

An Electrically Operated Passenger-Train 163 

A Steam Passenger-Train Entering Scenic Southern Idaho along the Port- 

neuf River 165 

The New State Capitol Building, Boise 169 

William H. Clagett 170 

Administration Builiding, University of Idaho 172 

Wheat-Shipping, American Falls ^ 175 

Harvesting in Idaho 176 

Overflow at the Farmers' Warehouse, Ho 177 

Beet-Sugar Factory, Blackfoot 178 

Jonathan Apples oa a Sin^e Branch 179 

Industrial Map of Idaho 180 

Mi^ of Idaho Showing Irrigation Projects 181 

An Idaho Apple-Orchard 182 

Irrigation— How the Water Is Stored 185 

Irrigation— the Canal Carries the Water to the Arid Tract '' z86 

Irrigation— a Sage-Brush Tract 189 

Irrigation— Turning Water into the Ditches 190 

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Irrigation — the Finished Product, a Sugar-Beet Field 191 

Governor Frank Steunenberg 195 

Idaho Sheep 202 

Open Stand of Yellow Pine 203 

Yellow Pine Ready for the Sawmill 205 

Hauling the Logs to the Sawmill 206 

The Potlatch Lumber Mills 207 

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1. How the Geology of a Country Affects Its History. 
— ^Have you ever considered how the history of a country is 
affected by its surface, rivers, mountain ranges, and soil? 
Of the original thirteen colonies seven were established 
along the banks of the rivers flowing into the Atlantic, the 
Alleghany Mountains forming their far-western boundaries. 
Canals and trade routes have followed the rivers and val- 
leys. Pennsylvania is noted for its rich deposits of coal 
and oil, Michigan for its iron, Nevada for its gold, and 
Idaho for its lead. How different would be the history of 
these States if they had been agricultural plains! The 
Great Lakes were scooped out ages ago by glaciers. How 
changed the story of that region if in their place were only 
the St. Lawrence River from Duluth to the Atlantic ! We 
speak proudly of Idaho as a yoimg State. This is true only 
because the mountains and deserts were such great obstacles 
to the invasion of the immigrant. 

2. How the Surface Features of Idaho Were Formed. 
— ^Idaho has an interesting geological history. The present 
shape and condition of its surface have been caused by the 
f (blowing agencies: fire, ice, running streams, movements 
of the eartib's surface, and wind. ,Fire has formed vast 
areas of lava-covered plains and huge masses of granite 
mountains, the latter once bmied thousands of feet below 
the surface. Ice has been the main element in the forma- 
tion of the beautiful lake country in the northern part of 
the State. Running streams have through the ages grad- 
ually carved out tihe great mountainous area of central 

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Idaho. Slow but enormous movements of the earth's siu*- 
face have resulted in the up-raising of most of the State to 
a high elevation, thus giving the streams the great cutting 
power they possess. The wind has transported millions of 
tons of fine dust for hundreds of miles and has dropped its 
load wherever its velocity was reduced, as in the rolling 
Palouse country in the northern part of the State and over 
thousands of square miles in the Snake River plains and the 
adjoining foot-hills. 

3. The Pre-Cambrian Age.' — ^The present surface fea- 
tures of the world are vastly different from what they were 
ages ago. It is believed that thousands upon thousands of 
years ago Idaho was a part of a very large land mass. The 
greater part of this old land mass existed in eastern Canada, 
but there were several smaller areas in the west, separated 
from one another and from the large mass to the north by 
extensive seas. A portion of Idaho was one of these land 
areas. This is known by the fact that some of the most 
ancient rocks are foxmd in the central part of the State. 
Into the seas that surroxmded these land areas of xmknown 
extent, large rivers poiured masses of sand and mud which 
hardened into sandstones and shales. It must have taken 
millions of years to form these old sedimentary^ rocks, as 
they are in many places over five miles in thickness. They 
were afterward compressed, folded, and altered to their pres- 
ent form, being known as quartzites and slates, and are ex- 
tensively exposed in the Coeiu* d'Alene region, where they 
contain the rich lead, silver, and zinc deposits of that dis- 
trict. From the Coeiu- d'Alene region they extend to the 
northern boundary of the State and into Montana and 
British Colimibia, and many smaller areas are known in the 
central part of the State. Thousands of feet of these rocks 
have been removed by the erosive* action of the streams. 

* Geological name given to the earliest period in the earth's history. 
^ Sedimentary rock is one formed in beds or layers, usually under water. 

• •rs • ,• * ,\^ ^ f , ,. J ^..A^f J -* aI-_ 1 J I A I 

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4. The Paleozoic Age.^ — Following the Pre-Cambrian 
Age, a great interior sea was formed in North America, 
extending from the Rocky Moxmtains to the Alleghanies. 
This was deeper than the one that existed in the Pre-Cam- 
brian Age, as large masses of limestone were formed in it. 


It extended into Idaho as far west as Wood River and as 
far north as the Salmon River, and entirely covered the 
southeastern part of the State, as is evidenced by all the 
moxmtains of that section being formed mainly of the rocks 
deposited in this sea. One of the most important eco- 
nomic resources of the State was formed in these rocks, 
viz., the phosphate beds of the southeastern part, best 
shown around Montpelier, and known to be tihe largest 

^ The Paleozoic Age is the geological period in which the first important fossils 
were found, and followed the Pre-Cambrian Age. 

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area of rich phosphate rock^ in the world. This era was 

called the Paleozoic and the rocks are known by this name. 

5. The Granite Formations. — ^Following this came a 

period of igneous^ activity, and a huge mass of granite in 

a molten condition 
was forced up under 
all the overlying 
rocks in the central 
part of the State. 
The overlying rocks 
have been worn away 
over a great part of 
this granite area, 
and it is now seen 
at the surface from 
about the latitude of 
Moscow to as far 
south as Boisp, ex- 
tending eastward to 
the Bitter Root 
Mountains. The 
Clearwater and Sal- 
monRiver Mountains 
are carved out of this 

In cooling, this 
granite gave off gases 
and heated waters 
rich in precious met- 
als, which were forced 
into cracks and fis- 
sures of the over- 
lying rocks and also the upper part of the granite itself, 
tiius forming the rich veins from which a large part of 
Idaho's gold and other valuable metals have been obtained. 

^ Phosphate rock is used as a fertilizer. 

* Igneous — ^fiery — or period of volcanic activity. 


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The intrusion of this mass of granite evidently elevated 
a large part of the State, but the streams counteracted 
this and wore down to an almost level plain what is now 
the most rugged and inaccessible mountain area in the 
State, viz., the coxmtry extending from Pend d'Oreille Lake 


to the Snake River plains. Remnants of this old plain 
still exist at high elevations, such as Poverty Flat, north 
of Clayton in Custer County. 

6. Rivers and Seas of Lava. — ^During the time this 
old plain was being formed there was another period of . 
intense volcanic activity in the western part of the State 
in the form of flows of dark-colored lava, or basalt. These 
flows came from fissures and covered eastern Washington 
and northwestern Idaho with a sea of lava, levelUng the 
country, damming the streams and changing their courses. 
The celebrated Palouse country and Camas prairie aroimd 
Grangeville are parts of this vast lava-field. 

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7, Courses of Rivers Changed by Lava-Flows. — These 
flows and the earth movements accompanying them, 
dammed the Snake River and caused it to cut out a new 
channel north from Hxmtington, and did the same thing to 
the Salmon and the South Fork of the Clearwater. Each 
of these streams shows an abrupt bend to the north, where 
it was turned by the lava. The damming of the Snake 
formed a large lake which extended from Oregon to the 
Teton Moxmtains in Wyoming. This lake was filled by 
the streams depositing sediment and forming the sand- 
stone and shale rocks aroxmd Boise and Nampa. Also, 
volcanoes contributed flows of lava which were poured out 
over the floor of this lake, many of these extinct lava-cones 
being still existent along the edge of the moxmtains and in 
many parts of the plains. Another factor that finally 
destroyed the lake was the gradual cutting down of the 
Snake River channel. This cutting-down process formed 
the deep canyon of the Snake by Shoshone and Twin Falls, 
which is so different from the broad, flat valley of the 
same river at Idaho Falls and above. This cutting-back 
process is still going on. 

During this time the whole central part of the State 
was being elevated and the old plain which existed there 
was cut into the maze of deep canyons and lofty mountains 
that now exist. One of these canyons, the Salmon, is only 
exceeded in depth and grandeur by the Grand Canyon of 
the Colorado. 

8. Helpful Action of Winds. — ^During this time, and 
later, the winds were active, bringing quantities of fine silt 
into the Palouse coimtry from the more arid plains of the 
Coliunbia, thus forming the deep, rich soil of that part of 
the State. The lava-flows and lake-beds in the Snake 
River plains were also covered by wind-blown soil brought 
evidently from Nevada and Oregon into Idaho. This 
process of soil formation is still going on, as is exemplified 
by the dust-storms in the sxunmer-time, each of which 
contributes its mite. 

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9. Lakes Formed by Glaciers. — The lakes of northern 
Idaho were formed by the ice which came down from the 
north and retreated but a short time ago, geologically; the 
marks of this are evident in the higher momitains all over 
the State. This great northern ice-sheet extended as far 
south as Pend d'Oreille Lake and evidently dammed a 

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I £* i^ M C* 


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large northward-flowing river that occupied a depression 
extending from Coeur d'Alene Lake to seventy miles north 
of the Canadian boundary. The damming of this river 
formed a large lake which extended to Missoula, Mon- 
tana, and caused new outlets to be cut by way of the Spo- 
kane and Pend d'Oreille Rivers. These rivers drained this 
big lake; and Lakes Pend d'Oreille, Coeur d'Alene, and the 
smaller lakes are but remnants of this once immense sheet 
of water that extended from the Arrow Lakes in British 
Colimtibia to Coeiu: d'Alene Lake and from Spokane to 

Payette Lake was formed by the damming of the North 
Fork of the Payette River by a lava-flow from the South. 
Thus was formed a lake extending over the whole of Long 
Valley, which was later drained by the North Fork of the 
Payette River. Payette Lake is a shrunken remnant of 
this old lake. 

10. Many Changes Still in Progress. — The geologic 
history of the State is not yet closed. All the processes 
mentioned are even now at work, with the exception of fire 
and ice. The central part of the State is still being elevated, 
the streams are still cutting down their channels, and the 
winds are still bringing in soils. 

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Noted landmarks during fur-trading and emigration periods. 



11. Idaho a Large State. — ^The area of the State of 
Idaho is 84,313 square miles, lying between the 42d and 
49th parallels of latitude and the iiith and ii6th meridians 
of longitude. It is one of the largest States in the Union. 
Its area is greater than that of all the New England States 
combined with New Jersey, Maryland, and Delaware; nearly 
as large as Pennsylvania and Ohio, or England and Scot- 
land combined. 

12. Its Peculiar Shape. — ^Idaho is over 480 miles in 
length from north to south. Its width, however, varies 
from 48 miles across the "Panhandle" to 310 miles from 
Wyoming to Oregon, across the soiithem part of the Stite. 
As one looks at the map of the State its shape resembles 
that of a rudder of a boat or a side view of a big armchair. 


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Looking at the map from the left, others have commented 
upon its resemblance to the shape of an old shoe. 

13. Mountains Evenrwhere in Sight. — ^The surface of 
Idaho is extremely broken and mountainous. Its altitude 
ranges from about 700 feet above sea-level, at Lewiston, to 
over 12,000 feet at the smnmit of Mt. Hyndman. With the 
exception of the great sage-brush plains across southern 
Idaho and a few prairie stretches here and there, the State 
is covered with ranges of mountains and deep valleys. 
The Bitter Root range of the Rocky Mountains forms the 
northeast boundary. Other ranges of importance in the 
State are the Cabinet, Coeur d'Alene, Sawtooth, Boise, Owy- 
hee, and Bear River Mountains. A number of lofty peaks 
and buttes serve as prominent and pictiuresque landmarks. 
No other physical feature has so affected the history of the 
State as its mountains. Their valleys conserve the snows 
of winter for the much-needed water for irrigation; their 
sides are covered with millions upon millions of feet of the 
finest timber; they are the himter's delight and the tour- 
ist's paradise; behind their rugged walls is hidden a won- 
drous wealth of precious and useful metals. 


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14. The Rivers of Idaho. — One of the most prominent 
features of the geography of Idaho is the Snake River. 
Rising in the region of the Yellowstone Park, it winds be- 
tween mountain ranges, through lava-covered plains and 
along fertile valleys, southerly, westerly, northerly, in such 
a way that with its tributaries it drains nearly the whole 

of the State, un- 
til at Lewiston 
it abruptly 
the Columbia 
on its way to 
the great Pacif- 
ic. No other 
river of its size 
in the world ad- 
mits of such va- 
riety of descrip- 
tion. Starting 
as an ideal 
stream, it soon 
dashes itself to 
foam on obstructions of broken lava. By rapid descent 
it goes over the American Falls, Twin Falls, Shoshone 
Falls, Auger Falls, and Salmon Falls, each a marvel of 
scenic beauty. Then it flows peacefully along for nearly 
twb himdred miles, as if resting for its mad dash through 
the well-nigh impassable canyon of the Seven Devils 
range. Emerging above Lewiston its broad bosom in- 
vites the commerce from the Pacific to find a seaport in 
Idaho. But the chief mission of the Snake is to supply 
water for the irrigation of thousands of acres of our arid 
soil. Because of this it is sometimes known as the Idaho 
Nile. Its rapid descent and many falls offer an unlimited 
amount of power for transportation, manufacturing, and 
domestic purposes. Important tributaries of the Snake are 

These falls are 43 feet higher than Niagara Falls, 

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the Boise, Payette, Bmneau, Weiser, Salmon, and Clear- 
water. Other rivers are the Bear River in the southeast 
and the Kootenai, the Clark Fork, the Saint Joe, and the 
Coeur d'Alene in the north. 

15. A Varied Climate. — ^Few States in the Union 
have such a varied climate as Idaho. There are at least 


lying wholly within the United 
tains can be seen on the left. 

The largest body of fresh water Isring wholly within the United States. The Coeur d'Alene Moun- 

ibea -• • '- 

four causes for this: The State extends through seven 
degrees of latitude, from 42 to 49, or the same distance 
as from Des Moines, Iowa, to the Dominion of Canada. 
Its altitude ranges between wide extremes. Parts of its 
area are covered with vast forests; high mountains and 
deep valleys are characteristic in some sections, while sage- 
brush plains cover others. The rainfall varies from about 
25 inches, in a strip running from north to central Idaho, 
to less than 10 inches in portions of the northeast and 
southwest parts of the State. Along the lower Snake 
Valley the smnmers are warm and the winters mild. In 
the higher altitudes cool siunmers and cold winters prevail. 

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x6. Idaho's Scenery. — ^Because of the scarcity of rail- 
roads and the inaccessibility of many parts of the State, 
the beauties of Idaho scenery are still unknown even to 
many of our own inhabitants. Idaho is noted for the 
grandeur of its mountains, the glory of its forests, and 
the placid beauties of its four largest lakes, Priest, Pend 

Photograph copyright by C. E. Bisbee. 

Note the strata in the basaltic wall of the canyon. 

d'Oreille, Coeur d'Alene, and Bear Lakes. The area of 
Idaho, Boise, and Adams Coimties is about the same as 
that of Switzerland, and the scenery is almost as wonderful. 
The Snake River Canyon in the Seven Devils region is 
second in its impressive beauty only to the Grand Can- 
yon of the Colorado. Payette, Rec^h, Alturas, Stanley, 
Bear, Pettit, and scores of other lakes without name offer 
ideal camping-spots. Bear, deer, and mountain-goats are 
found in many places. The slopes of the mountains aboxmd 
in feathered game, and the streams are alive with trout. 

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Ice-cold and boiling-hot springs mix their waters in the 
same moimtain stream. The Sawtooth range rivals in sub- 
limity the momitains of Switzerland. Farther east and 
south the Snake River Canyon is filled with wonders. 
The Shoshone Falls, with a drop of 210 feet, exceeds in 
height the world's wonder, Niagara. The Twin Falls, a few 
miles above, and the Blue Lakes, below the Shoshone Falls, 
hold the spectator spellbound by their beauty. The rivers 
of lava, the moxmtains of granite, and the craters of extinct 
volcanoes, the Devil's Half Acre, the City of Rocks, the 
Three Tetons, just over the Wyoming line but seen from 
Idaho, the Thousand Springs, the everlasting snows of the 
mountains and the great natiural caves filled with perpetual 
ice — these are a few of the attractive features of Idaho 

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17. Tribes and General Characteristics. — ^The Indian 
tribes that inhabited what is now northern Idaho were the 
Kutenais, Pend d'Oreilles, Coenr d'AIenes, and Nez Perces; 
while those which occupied the present southern Idaho were 
the Shoshoni/ Sheepeaters, Lemhis, and Bannacks. The 
Sahnon River was the dividing-line between the northern 
and southern tribes. 

Most of the Idaho Indians were much finer specimens 
of physical manhood than the Pacific coast tribes, which 
followed such enervating piursuits as paddling in canoes 
and still-fishing. They were more amenable to civilized 
modes of life than were the overbearing and bloodthirsty 
plains tribes that lived east of the Rocky Moimtains. 

In conmion with red men everywhere, they considered 
themselves the superiors of the wMte race. They believed 
that the Indians came first in the order of creation and were 
a "chosen" or favored race. This deep-seated conscious- 
ness of race superiority often f oimd expression in such tribal 
titles as "The People," "The Best People," "The Good 
People," and similar designations. 

18. The Kutenais. — ^The original home of the Kutenai 
tribe was southeastern British Colimtibia and the extreme 
northern portions of Idaho and Montana. They spoke a 
singularly beautiful, musical language, almost devoid of 
harsh, guttiural soimds. Although the Kutenais were a 
relatively small and imimportant tribe, they formed one 
of the fifty-five distinct linguistic families in the United 
States known as Kitimahan. They lived chiefly by himt- 
ing, fishing, and root-gathering, and were imusually moral 
and well behaved. David Thompson, the first white 

^ Portions of the Eastern and Western Shoshoni tribes resided in Idaho. The 
Western Shoshoni in Idaho were generally known as the Snake Indians. (See 
map, page 34.) 


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trader who lived among them, spelled their name both 
Kootenae and Kootenai. Most of the siurviving members 
of this family imder American jurisdiction reside upon the 
Flathead Reservation in Montana. 

19. The Pend d'Oreille Indians,— The Pend d'Oreille 
Indians resided aroimd the lake of that name and along 
the river now designated as the Clark Fork. They were 

first called Kullyspell, but were re- 
named Pend d'dreilles, or "Earbob'' 
Indians, by the French-Canadian 
voyageurs. The Pend d'Oreilles be- 
longed to the Salishan family, and 
were never either a niunerous or 
important tribe. They lived on 
roots and venison, and accompanied 
the Flatheads on their annual buf- 
falo-hunt. The scattered remnants 
of this tribe are at present chiefly 
located at the Colville Reservation 
in Washington and the Flathead 
Reservation in Montana. Although 
the name of the Pend d'Oreille In- 
dians is associated with some of the 

earlier missionary enterprises, the career of this tribe has 

been quite imeventful. 

20. The Cceur d'Alene Indians. — ^The Coeur d'Alene 
Indians occupied the beautiful region around Lake Coeur 
d'Alene. They were of Salishan stock and were an indus- 
trious, self-respecting, and docile tribe. The only time 
they ever shed the blood of white men was when a portion 
of their tribe at the instigation of the war-chief Kamiakan 
took part in the Yakima War of 1858. 

According to the best tradition, it was some French- 
Canadian voyageurs who nicknamed this tribe the "Coeur 
d'Alene,'' or "The Heart of an Awl." About the year 
1810 a party of voyageurs attempted to buy some fine 
skins from these red men at a low price. The Indians, in 


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derision, said the greedy white man was a sharp trader 
and had a heart as small as an awl's point. The voyageurs 
rqx)rted the incident as a good joke on their companions 
and the name stuck to the tribe instead of the traders. 



The feather head-dress indicates his rank. 

By courtesy of Grace R. Hebard, 

By B. L. Zimm. 

There are now about 600 survivors of this tribe on the Cceur 
d'Alene Reservation. It is situated in Benewah Comity, and 
its rich farm-lands were thrown open to settlement in 1906. 
21. The Nez Perces. — ^The Nez Perces were the most 
distinguished representatives of the Shahaptian family. 
In intelligence, physique, and character they rank among 

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the foremost American tribes. They occupied a rich terri- 
tory lying in southeastern Washington, northeastern Ore- 
gon, and western Idaho. The Idaho Nez Perces lived 
chiefly along the valleys of the Clearwater River and its 
tributaries and in the lower Salmon River country. 


Their popular and official name, the "Nez Perces," a 
French-Canadian term for "Pierced Noses," is tradition- 
ally said to have been derived from the fact that in isolated 
cases members of this tribe pierced their npses with a shell 
which was worn for ornament. 

The Nez Perces were skilful horsemen, and one of the 
leading events in the tribal life was their annual buffalo- 
hunting trip into what is now Montana. 

Their favorite foods were the camas root, wild cherries, 
huckleberries, the flesh of the white-tailed deer, buffalo 
meat, and fish. 

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These Indians lived in a historic region, and their in- 
teresting but tragic career is conspicuously identified with 
our exploring, fur-trading, missionary, and Indian-war 
epochs. Their foremost leader, Chief Joseph, rivaled in 
ability the greatest chiefs that the continent has produced. 


With the exception of a few members of Chief Joseph's 
band now on the Colville Reservation in the State of Wash- 
ington the 1,500 survivors of this once splendid tribe are 
stationed on the Fort Lapwai Reservation in north Idaho. 

22. The Shoshonis or Snake Indians. — ^The original 
habitat of the western band of Shoshoni in Idaho was the 
upper Snake River Valley. The entire Shoshoni nation 
overspread portions of Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, 
CaUfomia, as well as southern Idaho, and gave its name to 
the great Shoshonean family, the third largest nimierically 
of the linguistic stocks in the United States. 

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While it is true that certain bands of these Indians, like 
the "Diggers," were peculiarly degraded and impoverished, 
other divisions of this tribe were far from being devoid of 
either viriUty or bravery. For the most part, however, 
this tribe was made up of murderous, thieving bands of 

outlaws, who were a source 
of annoyance to the early 
emigrants and miners. 
The barren nature of much 
of their coimtry compelled 
them to lead a wandering 

This tribe is generally 
known by the offensive 
name of "Snakes." Con- 
trary to what might be 
supposed, this term was 
not originally conferred 
upon them to express con- 
tempt. A very reason- 
able explanation of the 
origin of their peculiar 
nickname relates to their 
sign-language. When 
asked their names by the 
early traders they replied 
by making a peculiar 
snakelike motion with the 
index-finger. These Indians intended to convey the idea 
that they were grass-weavers. The traders, however, in- 
terpreted the sign to mean that they called themselves 
"Snakes." This offensive title not only clung to the tribe 
but has fastened itself upon the Snake River. 

The best-known leader of the Idaho band of western Sho- 
shonis was Chief Nampuh {nampj foot; puh^ bigness), after 
whom the city of Nampa is named. According to a well- 
authenticated tradition, one of his feet was 6 inches wide 


^^K % 

n*~ w 

■■V. 1 

i. 1. 

|V>V I^^^^V ik 

^HP^^N. ^^^^^H 


■I^K^ V 

* -<^^B 



W^ ~^^ 




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and ^L^}4 inches long. This is said to account for his fa- 
miliar title of "Chief Bigfoot/' 

The western Shoshoni Indians are at present concen- 
trated upon the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho and the 
Duck Valley Reservation situated partly in Nevada and 
partly in Idaho. 

23. The Bannacks. — ^The Bannacks, who resided along 
the valley of the Portneuf River in southeastern Idaho, 
were one of the most warlike tribes in the Shoshonean 
family. They were tall, straight, and of athletic build and 
were willing to engage in open combat with the whites. 
Their territory lay across the Oregon and California Trails, 
as well as the route that connected Salt Lake City with the 
Salmon River mines. They infested these highways of 
travel and committed all manner of robberies and miurders 
upon the emigrants. The power of this belligerent tribe, 
however, was crushed forever by General Conner at the 
battle of Battle Creek near the town of Franklin in January, 
1863, when nearly 300 braves were killed. 

The Bannacks derive their name from the Shoshoni 
words "bamp" meaning "hair" and "nack" which sig- 
nifies "a backward motion." The expression "Bampnack," 
later changed into the more harmonious-soimding "Ban- 
nack," refers to the manner in which the tribe wore a 
"tuft of hair" thrown backward from the forehead. The 
word "bannock" is a Scotch word and is often incorrectly 
used to designate this tribe. 

One of the well-known chiefs of the Bannacks was Poca- 
tello, for whom the city of Pocatello was named. 

The Bannacks, whose entire tribal membership now 
nimibers less than 400, reside at the Fort Hall Reservation. 

24. The Sheepeaters. — The Sheepeaters or Tukuarikas, 
so called because they lived in the mountains frequented 
by the wild sheep, occupied ^the coimtry around the Salmon 
River, the upper part of Snake River, and the moimtains 
aroimd Boise Basin. They were an offshoot of the Sho- 
shoni tribe, had been driven and held in the mountain f ast- 

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nesses by other Indians, where they did not advance intel- 
lectually as had their kinsmen, and therefore exhibited 
more of the primitive nature and characteristics of the ab- 
original Indian than any other tribe of the Northwest. 

For years they committed depredations on the settlers, 
retreating to the high moimtains of the Salmon River coun- 
try when hard pressed, imtil they were finally captured and 
almost wiped out of existence. 

The development of the coimtry was retarded for years 
by these Indians, for whose acts none of the other tribes 
could be held responsible. 

The remnant of this tribe, which later became amal- 
gamated with the Lemhis, is now located at the Fort Hall 

25. The Lemhis. — ^The so-called Lemhi Indians never 
formed a distinct tribe. In 1863 certain scattered mem- 
bers of the Shoshoni, Bannack, and Sheepeater tribes 
placed themselves imder the protection of Chief Tendoy, 
a Shoshoni Indian, and were known for many years as 
"Tendoy's Band." In 1875 the Lemhi Reservation in 
Lemhi Coimty was set apart for these Indians. They in- 
termarried and formed a mixed stock, which was later 
known as the Lemhis. They were a well-behaved tribe 
and were imder the singularly able and hmnane leadership 
of Chief Tendoy. In Jime, 1909, the 474 members of this 
tribe were removed to the Fort Hall Reservation. 

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26. The Oregon Country. — Idaho forms a part of the 
territory on the northwest Pacific slope of North America 
which remained imexplored as late as the opening of the 
nineteenth century. This coimtry was little known and 
was for many years claimed by Spain, England, and Russia; 
and by the United States after 1792. For a long time it 
was referred to as the "Coliraibia River coimtry," but 
later, about the year 1820, came to be known as the "Ore- 
gon Coimtry." It comprised all the land between the 
Pacific Ocean and the "Stony" or Rocky Moimtains, and 
north of the 42d degree of latitude; at first as far as 54 de- 
grees and 40 minutes and later to the 49th parallel. 

27. How a Nation Acquires New Territory. — ^It is a 
general agreement among nations that the claims of any 
nation to new territory, not already belonging to a civilized 
people, shall be based upon (i) discovery, (2) exploration, 
and (3) settlement. It took the United States over a half- 
century to establish beyond dispute her right and title to 
the "Oregon Coimtry." It is interesting to note that the 
territory from which have been formed the States of Idaho, 
Oregon, and Washington is the only territory which the 
United States has acquired by right of discovery, explora- 
tion, and settlement. All the rest of our possessions have 
been gained by conquest, treaty, or purchase. 

28. Our Right by Discovery. — Several Spanish and Eng- 
lish seamen had sailed along what is now the western 
coast of the United States from the time of the Spanish 
Commander Ferrelo in 1543 and the English Captain Drake 
in 1579 to the Spanish Commander Heceta in 1775 and the 


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English Captain Cook in 1778. Yet none of them at- 
tempted any exploration or settlement, nor did they navi- 
gate its streams. It was left to Captain Robert Gray, a 
fur-trader from Boston, who just previously had been the 
first navigator to carry the Stars and Stripes aroimd the 
world, to sail across the dangerous bar at the mouth of the 
only great river on the Pacific slope and to call the stream 
the "Colimibia River," in honor of his trading-vessel. This 
was on May 11, 1792. Captain Gray doubtless little real- 
ized the epoch-making nature of his act or the prophetic 
significance of the name which he gave to the river then 
formally discovered, although known to exist and previ- 
ously called the "River of the West." 

29. Our Right by Exploration. — ^In 1800 Spain ceded to 
France the Province of Louisiana, stretching between the 
Mississippi and the Rocky Moimtains, and in December, 
1803, the famous Louisiana Purchase was completed by 
President Jefferson. A few months previous to this, how- 
ever, the President had secured a secret appropriation from 
Congress for the Lewis and Clark expedition to the Pacific* 
During 1804 and 1805 the party imder Lewis and Clark 
explored the Clark Fork, Clearwater, Snake, and Salmon 
River sources in the Rocky Moimtains, and the Colimabia 
itself for 300 miles to where its broad waters sweep into 
the Pacific. This gave the United States our second strong 
claim to the Oregon territory. 

30. Our Right by Settlement. — ^The first settlements 
in the Oregon coimtry were in the form of fur-trading posts. 
Astoria was the first post to be estabHshed upon a per- 
manent location in the Colimabia Basin. It was foimded 
near the mouth of the Colmnbia River on April 12, 1811, 
by the Pacific Fur Company. This company was an 
.Ajnerican corporation, organized with American capital, 
and controlled by John Jacob Astor, of New York City* 
On accoimt of conditions due to rivalries of trade, the resi- 
dent partners of the company were compelled, however, on 
October 16, 1813, to sell their location and goods to the 

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Northwest Company of Montreal, Canada. A few weeks 
later a British war-vessel took formal possession of As- 
toria and the post was renamed Fort Creorge. On Octo- 
ber 6, 1818, Astoria was formally restored to the United 
States in accordance with the terms of the treaty of Ghent, 
which closed the War of 1812, although it was'imder the 
practical control of the Nordiwest Company imtil 182 1 
and the Hudson's Bay Company imtil ^e early forties. 
This early actual possession and trade at Astoria in 181 1 was 
generally admitted in later years by diplomats to have 
given the United States prior rights in the coimtry drained 
by the waters of the Colimabia River. Our claim was 
clinched by missionary settlements in the Willamette 
Valley in 1834 and by the large migrations across the 
plains from Missouri and the East in the years 1842, 1843, 
1844, and 1845. 

31. Our Claims Disputed. — ^Three nations disputed our 
claims to the Colimabia River coimtry. These were Spain, 
Russia, and England. By the treaty of 1819 Spain gave 
up all her claim to territory north of the 42d parallel of 
latitude. By the treaty of 1824 Russia was confined to 
the territory north of 54 degrees and 40 minutes. But 
England's 9laim was not so easily nor so quickly set aside. 
England for a time disputed our rights to the coimtry on 
accoimt of discovery and exploration, but soon after 1820 
relinquished all serious claims to territory south and east 
of the Columbia River. By treaty with England in 1818 
it was agreed that the Colmnbia River country be open to 
joint occupancy by citizens of both countries for a period 
of ten years. This arrangement was renewed in 1827 and 
continued in force imtil the treaty of 1846 established the 
49th parallel as the boimdary-Kne between the United States 
and tiie British possessions. 

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32. A Successful Expedition. — ^Lewis and Clark with 
their exploring party were the first white men to visit 
Idaho of whom we have any authentic record. After the 
purchase of Louisiana it seemed of first importance to the 
far-seeing Jefferson that a path for comiperce be broken 
through the vast imexplored region stretching from the 
Mississippi to the Pacific, and accordingly he appointed his 
private secretary, Captain Meriwether Lewis, to organize 
an expedition for that purpose. Lewis, with his friend 
Captain William Clark as an associate in command, started 
from St. Louis May 14, 1804, to cross the continent, ac- 
companied by about forty picked men. 

Jefferson's instructions to Captain Lewis were com- 
prehensive. He and Captain Clark were expected to 
study the geography of the coimtry through which they 
passed, explore the principal streams, make themselves 
acquainted with the Indians, their possessions and their re- 
lations with other tribes, and note carefully aU plants and 
animals, and to keep complete journals. 

This hazardous expedition, xmique because they fought 
no foe but the hostile forces of nature, occupied two years 
and four months, and was a complete success in every way. 
Lewis and Clark brought back such a detailed knowledge 
of the great Pacific Northwest that the people of the United 
States began for the first time to realize its value and de- 
termined to retain control of it. 

33. The Long: Journey. — ^In their twenty-two-oar keel- 
boat and two smaller mackinaw boats the explorers worked 
their way up the Missouri River imtil the cold weather 
stopped their progress. They wintered at Fort Mandan, 


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on the north bank of the Missouri, near Bismarck, in the 
present McLean County, North Dakota. This was the 
home of the Mandan Indians, with whom they lived on 
friendly terms through the long, severe winter. 

Early in April, 1805, th® 
party, now thirty-two in 
number, embarked in canoes 
and their two mackinaws, 
for the upper Missouri was 
too shallow for their large 
boat, and entered a coun- 
try practically unknown to 
the white man. For months 
they travelled up the river 
through the great plains, 
abounding in game, without 
ever seeing an Indian, imtil 
in August they approached 
the great divide where they 
must abandon the canoes 
and find a way to cross the 
moimtains. They expected 
to meet Indians from whom 
they could obtain horses long before this, and the situation 
was becoming grave when help came through the only 
woman with the expedition. 

34. Sacajawea. — Sacajawea,^ the bird-woman, was a 
beautiful yoimg Indian woman, the wife of Toussaint Cha- 
boneau, who was an interpreter with the explorers. Her 
giiihood days were spent with her tribe in the Lemhi Val- 
ley of Idaho. When a child of eleven years she with an- 
other girl had been stolen from the Shoshonis by the Min- 
netarees, a tribe which lived near the Mandans. At the age 
of fifteen she was sold to Chaboneau, a Canadian-French 
voyageur who lived with the Indians. Sacajawea was the 
romantic figure of the expedition, and next to Jefferson, 

* " Sacaja," means a woman; " wea," a bird. 

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who conceived the enterprise and sent them on their mis- 
sion, she who guided them unerringly over the mountains 
like a homing pigeon, deserves to be eulogized with Lewis 
and Clark. Though carrying a pappoose of a few months 
on her back, she assisted 
the men at the oar or tow- 
rope. When food was 
scarce she hunted out the 
wild onion and the stores 
of artichokes hidden in the 
nest of the prairie-mice. 

Near the Three Forks of 
the Missouri Sacajawea 
recognized the scene of her 
early capture, and when, 
near the mountain pass 
leading into Idaho, the ex- 
pedition came on some In- 
dians, she saw that they 
were of her tribe. In fact, 
the first squaw the party 
met was one who had been 
captured at the same time 

as Sacajawea and had later escaped. When the explorers 
met in coimcil with the Shoshonis the bird-woman found with 
delight that their chief, Cameahwait, was her own brother. 
She ran to him, threw her blanket over his head and wept 
for joy. Chief Cameahwait was moved, but he remained 
silent with the stoicism of the Indian. The Shoshonis wil- 
lingly furnished horses and guides to the whites after this 
fortimate coincidence. 

35. Lewis and Clark Enter Idaho. — While Lewis 
brought the baggage up to the Shoshoni village, Clark 
went on past the junction of the Salmon and Lemhi at the 
present site of Salmon City. He gave the stream below 
the jimction the name of Lewis River. He explored the 
Salmon for nearly forty miles, but saw that progress 


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that way was impossible and returned to join Lewis. The 
party then turned northward and crossed the range from 
the waters of the Sahnon to the waters of Clark Fork, now 

known as Bitter Root 
River in Ravalli Coim- 
ty, Montana. Pro- 
ceeding northward, 
they reached the east- 
em end of the Lo Lo 
Trail. Following this 
route westward, they 
entered Idaho through 
the famous LoLoPass. 
This was an imneces- 
sary detour to the 
northward, for the ex- 
plorers could have 
saved both time and 
distance by travelling 
from the Lemhi or Sal- 
mon River to the head- 
waters of the Clear- 
water through the Nez 
Perce Pass. Li later 
years the trail through 
the Nez Perce- Pass 
was more frequently 
used by travellers than 
was the more north- 
em or Lo Lo route 
through the moun- 
36. The Explorers 
Meet the Nez Perces. — On September 13 Lewis and Clark 
again entered Idaho by way of the Lo Lo Trail. They fol- 
lowed the general course of this old Lidian road along the 
backbone that lies between the north and middle branches 

From a photograph by Giford d* Prentiss, Portland, Ore. 

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of the Clearwater. A week later, on September 20, they 
descended upon the modem Wei^pe Prairie. It was upon 
these fertile upland meadows near the modem village of 
Weippe that the explorers met the Nez Perce Indians for 
the first time. 

37. Building the Canoes. — On September 24 the trav- 
ellers followed down the present Jim Ford Creek and two 
days later reached the confluence of the North Fork of thte 
Clearwater with the main stream. The site selected for 
their headquarters while in this vicinity was at "Canoe 
Camp," a pleasant "small bottom" situated on the south 
side of the Clearwater and not far from the modem village 
of Ahsaka. Having decided to complete their outbound 
journey by watet, the party now began tho^ construction of 
five pirogues or long log canoes. Since mahj;^ of the men 
were weak or 111, ih^^yvere glad to adopt the Ihdian meth- 
ods of burning out the log canoes to save themselves hard 

Game was scarce, and what little wolf and panther meat 
they could obtain was eaten with relish. Another horse 
was killed to make a nourishing soup for the invalids. 

When the canoes were ready, the horses to the number of 
38 were branded and intmsted to the Indians, who prom- 
ised to care for them imtil the party returned the next 

38. Chief Twisted-Hair.T— While they were at Canoe 
Camp, Chief Twisted-Hair extended every hospitality to 
them. He gave them provisions and drew for them a 
map showing the relative positions of the Clearwater, the 
Snake, and the Colimibia. For durability he made a map 
of elk-skin, and on it indicated where the different tribes of 
Indians were to be found. In his jpiunal Clark describes 
the chief as being always "cheerful and sincere in his con- 

On October 7 the party embarked on the Clearwater. 
The next day they passed Colter's Creek, now known as 
the Potlatch River. They saw Indians on both banks along 

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the way, and often stopped to barter and obtain provisions. 
Sergeant Patrick Gass, who kept a diary all through the 
trip, wrote under the date of the gth: 

"We have some Frenchmen who prefer dog-flesh to 
fish; and they here got two or three dogs from the Indians." 


In time all the party but Clark came to like dog stew 
and they purchased dogs from the Indians, three and five 
at a time. 

39. A Lewis and Clark Medal Discovered near the 
Mouth of the Potlatch River. — ^For the sake of cultivat- 
ing good will among the tribes through which they passed 
medals were often given to the Indian chiefs by the ex- 
I)edition leaders. In the journals of Lewis and Clark, Gass 
and Ordway mention is made of the fact that some of these 
medals were distributed by the explorers while passing 
through Idaho. In 1899, near the mouth of the Potlatch 
River, one of these Lewis and Clark medals was found in 
an Indian grave. It was one of the beautiful Jefferson me- 

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dallion medals, and had been carefully wrapped in many 
thicknesses of deer or buffalo hide. In the same grave, 
which was doubtless that of a Nez Perce chief, were found 
various articles such as beads, brass and copper ornaments, 
arrow-heads, knives, hatchets, and other curious relics. 
On one side of the medal was a medallion bust of President 
Jefferson and on it was engraved the legend: "Th. Jeffer- 
son, President of the U. S. A.D. 1801." On the opposite 
side were represented such peace-emblems as the clasped 
hands, the pipe and battle-axe crossed, and the simple in- 
scription: "Peace and Friendship." This medal is now in 
possession of the American Museiun of Natmral History, 
New York City. 

40. The Explorers Reach the Junction of the Clear- 
water and the Snake Rivers. — ^After a most ventiu-esome 
voyage in their Uttle flotilla of log canoes the exploring 
party reached the jimction of the Snake and Clearwater 
Rivers on October 10, 1805. They established their camp 
"below the junction on the right side of the river" on a 
site opposite the present city of Clarkson and diagonally 
across from Lewiston. On October 16 the Colmnbia was 
reached, and in early November the expedition leaders 
came in sight of the Pacific. They wintered among the 
Clatsop Indians and started back in the spring. 

41. The Return. — May foimd them again on the Clear- 
water, just east of Lewiston. The Nez Perces were glad 
to see them, and Captain Clark was surprised at being 
presaited with a fine gray mare, for which the donor asked 
only a bottle of eye-water in return. The previous autiunn 
the captains had given medicine which had helped some of 
the Indians, and now they were besieged by patients from 
far and near. Clark was the favorite physician, and at times 
had as many as 50 patients. 

On the loth of May, 1806, Lewis and Clark first saw 
the beautiful Kamiah Valley. They were conducted thither 
by a party of Nez Perces to a council of the principal 
chiefs of the tribe. In the centre of the Indian village was 

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a house 150 feet long, made of sticks, poles, and matting. 
Twenty-four fires were arranged in a straight line through 
the middle. ,This meant that at least 24 faroilies lived there. 

At the council of the chiefs Lewis and Clark told them 
of the great United States, imder whose protection they 
now were, and that the great chief at Washington wished 
them to live at peace with all the other Indian tribes. The 
leaders often wondered what sort of a message it was that 
finally reached the savage mind as they gravely smoked the 
peace-pipe around the coimcil-fire. The speech of the 
leaders, translated into French for Chaboneau, into Minne- 
taree for Sacajawea, whose Shoshoni was forthwith done 
into Nez Perce, reached those who sat waiting by such a 
circuitous route that there was plenty of room for misim- 
derstanding. However, the flags, medals, and beads pre- 
sented also carried their message and the meeting ended 
in a great feast. Afterward the whites were conducted to 
a spot already selected for their camp, which they were 
told was to be theirs while they remained in the valley. 
The site selected for this camp was near the present town 
of Kamiah in the beautiful Kamiah Valley, and was called 
Camp Chopimnish. 

The impatient travellers were compelled to remain here 
over a month, waiting for the snow on the moimtains to 
melt. They had little food, and as they were not accus- 
tomed to living on roots, the Indians hospitably presented 
them with a fat yoimg horse. 

42. The Departure. — ^It was June before they could 
start back over Lo Lo Pass, so long did the snow linger on 
the Bitter Root Mountains. Gathering all their horses, 
which Twisted-Hair had kept for them, they started home- 
ward. As before, they had difficulties in the mountains; 
but when the trail seemed hopelessly lost Sacajawea, like 
a migrating bird, foimd the right pass and they reached 
the headwaters of the Missouri without loss. 

When they reached the home of the Mandan Indians, 
Sacajawea and her husband left the expedition. The 

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Frenchman received five hundred dollars for his services; 
the gentle Sacajawea nothing. This is hard to explain, 
but the service she gave was one that no money could re- 
pay. After leaving the Mandan towns the party missed 
the bird-woman and the dusky little pappoose, who all un- 
consciously had been a gentle, humanizing influence among 
that company of men. When the party neared St. Louis 
they fired a salute and all the village came down to the 
river and welcomed them as if they had returned from the 

The Lewis and Clark expedition stands first and alone 
as our national epic of exploration. It was a success be- 
cause of the oneness of mind of the two leaders, the disci- 
pline and obedience of the men, and the resolute front 
that all presented to the hardships and exposures of the 

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43. The Coming of the Trappers.— For a half-century 
after the Lewis and Clark expedition the onward move- 
ment of events in Idaho is the story of the operations of 
fiu: companies. While there were numerous fiur-trading 
organizations in the field, the most powerful of them all was 
the Hudson's Bay Company, whose Columbian head- 
quarters were at Fort Vancouver in the present State of 

44* The Northwest Company. — To a representative 
of the Northwest Company, whose headquarters were at 
Fort William on Lake Superior, belongs the distinction of 
having built Idaho's first trading-post. On September 10, 
1809, David Thompson, a partner, having entered Idaho 
from the north began to erect substantial log houses near 
the site of the present town of Hope on the northeast shore 
of Lake Pend d'Oreille imder the name of "Kullyspell 
House." This trading-post was in actual use for two 
winters, when it was abandoned for a more favorable lo- 
cation near the present city of Spokane. While David 
Thompson was an Englishman, Americans as well as his 
own countr3maen can well afford to honor his memory, for 
he was an intrepid pathfinder, an accurate surveyor and 
geographer, and an upright man. 

45. Later Activities of the Northwest Company in 
Idaho. — ^The Northwest Company continued to trade with 
oiu: Idaho Indians until 1821, when it was merged into the 
greater Hudson's Bay Company. The "Northwesters,'' as 
they are often called, pushed the fur-trading business in 
Idaho with vigor during the years 1818, 1819, 1820, and 

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1821. With Fort Nez Perce (Fort Walla Walla) as a 
base, they trapped along our rivers and streams and carried 
away a golden harvest of peltries. The manager and chief 
factor during these romantic years was Donald Mackenzie, 


an experienced "bourgeois,"^ of powerful frame, fearless as 
a lion, and a master of Indian wiles and strategy. It is 
to Donald Mackenzie that we are indebted for the naming 
of the Weiser, Payette, Boise, Malade, the Portneuf , as well 
as other well-known Idaho rivers. 

46. The Missouri Fur Company. — It was an Amer- 
ican, Andrew Henry, of the Missouri Fur Company, who 
erected Idaho's second fur-trading post. In the vicinity 
of the present city of St. Anthony in southeastern Idaho, 
in the fall of 1810, Henry built two or three log houses 
which were to serve as temporary quarters for his men and 
goods. These rude structures were afterward known as 
Fort Henry. The fierce Blackfeet Indians of Montana were 

* A French word meaning proprietor or partner in the company; correspond* 
ing to ** bushaway," used by the American trappers. 

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indirectly responsible for the erection of this post. In ^be 
fall of 1809 Henry, in company with a large force of trappers 
and traders, had ascended the Missouri and Yellowstone 
Rivers and had crossed over to the Three Forks of the 
Missouri River. In this choice beaver territory the com- 
pany expected to reap a rich reward. The Bladrfeet, how- 
ever, became so troublesome 
^^ J J y^g^ th^t^ ^^ trading-post there 

0yy^^^ ^"^j^^-^^ was abandoned and Henry 
X with part of the men and 

AUTOGRAPH OF ANDREW HENRY, goods crossed the Continental 

Divide into Idaho. Here they 
trapped and traded with the Shoshoni Indians imtil the 
spring of 181 1, when Henry bade a final farewell to Idaho. 
One of the hired trappers and guides who assisted Henry 
was John Hoback. He remained in the region for a niun- 
ber of years and gave his name to Hoback River, near our 
eastern boundary-line. ) 

47. T^K*^ Pacific FurXlampany. — ^John Jacob Astor was 
an American merchant prince of New York City, whose 
fortune had been made in the fiur-trade. With clear vision, 
early in his career, he saw the possibiUties of the fur-trade 
in the basin of the Colmnbia. Realizing that the ambi- 
tious "Northwesters" of Canada would be'siure to want 
this choice trapping region for themselves, Astor decided to 
enter the field first and estabUsh prior rights. He accord- 
ingly organized the Pacific Fur Company in 1809, and in 
1810 commissioned certain partners to sail aroimd Cape. 
Horn and f oimd Fort Astoria at the mouth of the Coliun- ' 
bia. Another party, with trading-goods, was mobilized at 
St. Louis to proceed overland to the mouth of the Colum- 
bia. It was their duty to note suitable points in the 
interior where trading-posts might be estabUshed. The 
leader selected by Astor for conducting the overland expe- 
dition was a yoimg man under thirty years of age, Wilson 
Price Himt, formerly of St. Louis, but at this time a resi- 
dent of Trenton, New Jersey. 

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48. The Hunt Party Reaches Idaho — ^Hxint with his 
party of sixty-five men left St. Louis in the fall of 1810 
and passed the winter near St. Joseph, Missouri. In April, 
181 1, the Astorians began their celebrated journey. Diu:- 
ing the spring and summer they 

ascended the Missouri River and 
passed through portions of the 
present States of South Dakota, 
Montana, and Wyoming. On Sep- 
tember 16 from the summit of 
Union Pass, Wyoming, the Hunt 
party caught their first glimpse of 
the snowy peaks of the Three 
Tetons, the most noted landmarks 
of the Northwest. The sight of 
the Teton Peaks, once on Idaho 
soil but now in Wyoming, sent a 
thrill of joy through the weary 
travellers. They realized that they 
were nearing the headwaters of one 

of the great branches of the Columbia, whose mouth was 
the cherished goal of their ambitions. 

49. They Sail Down the Snake in Canoes. — ^During 
late September the Astorians crossed the Teton Pass and 
entered that beautiful valley of the Teton River known as 
Pierre's Hole in the present Teton County, Idaho. On 
October 8 they arrived at Fort Henry in the vicinity of 
the modem St. Anthony, and occupied for ten days the 
deserted log cabins built the preceding autumn by ^drew 
Henry. At this point the party made a sad blxmder. 
They decided to abandon their horses and trust to the 
river the rest of the way. The Snake was navigable for 
canoes at this point and the voyagers little realized that, 
in their rude pirogues, they were attempting to float on 
one of the world's most treacherous and turbulent streams. 

50. Disaster at "Caldron Linn." — On October 19 the 
party bade farewell to Fort Henry and in fifteen canoes 

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glided down Snake River. After they had travelled about 
fifty miles the river began to plunge among rocks. On 
October 21 they portaged aroimd Idaho Falls, and on 
October 24 reached American Falls. A sad disaster awaited 
the party on October 28, when one of the canoes struck a 
rock in a rapids near the present site of Milner, Idaho, 
and was capsized. Antoine Clappine, an expert Canadian 
steersman, was thrown into the ragiQg stream and was 
drowned. This bad stretch of Snake River, hemmed in 
for miles by towering cliffs, was designated by the jaded 
Astorians as the "Caldron Linn" and the "Devil's Scuttle 

51. On Foot to Astoria. — ^Travel by canoes was given 
up at this point. The surplus goods were cached, and the 
Astorians, in several detachments, started to make their 
way as best they could to the Columbia. Donald Macken- 
zie, with a small party, succeeded in reaching the Clear- 
water by striking out to the northward and penetrating the 
rough moimtainous region on the east bank of the Snake 
River l)dng between the Weiser and the Clearwater. After 
reaching the Clearwater the Mackenzie party travelled by 
canoes down the Coliraibia and reached Astoria almost a 
month in advance of Himt. This achievement by Mac- 
kenzie is one of the most brilliant pathfinding exploits as- 
sociated with our Western history. 

52. The Hunt and Crooks Parties. — On November 
9 good-sized parties imder Ramsay Crooks and Hunt set 
out for the Columbia. After leaving Caldron Linn, Crooks 
followed along the south side of the Snake River through 
southern Idaho and eastern Oregon. Finally the members 
of his party were brought to a halt by the impassable moim- 
tainous region at the Box Canyon of the Seven Devils 
Moimtains, and were forced to retrace their steps over 
part of the journey they had just travelled. Leaving Cal- 
dron Linn, Hunt had followed the general direction of the 
later "Oregon Trail.'' On November 21 he passed through 
the present South Boise and continued westward through 

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the Boise Valley until he reached the Snake River. He 
then travelled northward on the east or Idaho bank of the 
Snake until, on December 6, his progress was also barred by 
the rough and precipitous character of the mountains in 
the Seven DevUs region. Turning back up the Snake, Himt 
was hailed from the opposite bank by the Crooks party on 
the morning of December 7. The parties continued their 
retrograde southward movement on either bank of the 
Snake until the Weiser was reached by the Hunt party. 
At this point Himt effected a crossing, and the two groups 
were reunited. The exhausted travellers were now guided 
by a Snake Indian up the Burnt River and across Oregon 
to the Colmnbia. A few members remained and wintered 
with the Indians near the present city of Weiser and reached 
the Columbia in the spring of 181 2. 

53. Hunt's Later Career. — ^Himt and his party were 
the first white men to pass over the famous route that 
afterward became the Oregon Trail. He was also the first 
white man to lead an expedition through southern Idaho. 
He was possessed of rare quahties of character and courage, 
but was imfitted by experience for the leadership of a long 
overland expedition. He showed a fine loyalty to his 
chief, John Jacob Astor, from first to last. He later became 
one of the highly respected citizens of St. Louis and was 
appointed postmaster of that city in 1822 by President 
James Monroe. One of his close personal friends and dis- 
tinguished fellow townsmen was General WiUiam Clark, 
the veteran explorer. Himt died in St. Louis in April, 

54. A Trapping Expedition to Idaho. — ^The partners 
of the Pacific Fur Company, during their travels through 
Idaho, had been impressed with the fine beaver streams 
that emptied into the Snake. They accordingly outfitted 
a party to return here in the fall of 1813. The leader of the 
party was one of the partners, an honest Irishman by the 
name of John Reed. Reed erected a cabin near the mouth 
of the Boise, but here, in January, 1814, he and his Uttle 

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party were massacred while trapping along the Boise. 
For some years after this event the Boise River was known 
as Reed's River. 

55. The Hudson's Bay Company. — ^In 1821 the North- 
west Company and the Hudson's Bay Company brought 
an end to the ruinous commercial warfare that had ex- 
isted between them for years and 
united imder the name of the Hud- 
son's Bay Company. In 1824 
Doctor John McLoughlin arrived 
in Oregon to assiraie his duties as 
chief factor or manager of the 
Colimibia District of this great 
fiu: company. For twenty-two 
years, like a monarch, he ruled the 
great game-preserve that lay with- 
in the Colimibia Basin. While 
Doctor McLoughlin governed his 
trapping empire with a hand of 
iron, yet his fine qualities of head 
and heart, his generosity, his hu- 
manity, and his great administra- 
tive ability, have enshrined his memory in the affections 
of the people of the Pacific Northwest. To-day he bears 
the loving title, "Father of Oregon." 

56. Operations of Hudson's Bay Company in Idaho. 
— For over thirty years the Hudson's Bay Company was 
the great monopoly that controlled not only the fur-trade 
but the stock and mercantile business in what are now the 
States of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. Annually, 
until 1836, under a chief trader and a clerk a large trapping- 
party was sent to southern Idaho, where they would re- 
main for nine or ten months. These parties often consisted 
of as many as one hundred men and two himdred horses. 
The trappers depended for food upon game and upon the 
vast herds of buffalo which fed in the valleys of the streams 
both north and south of Snake River. 


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57. The First or Temporary Fort Boise— In 1834 
the Hudson's Bay Company erected Fort Boise, its &ist 
Idaho trading-post. It was built by chief trader Thomas 
McKay on the Reed or Boise River about ten miles from 
its mouth. It was a simple log structiure. In 1838 the site 
was changed to the east bank of the Snake River and a 
short distance north of the mouth of the Boise River. In 
the smnmer of 1836 the Whitman party were guests at this 
little Boise River post. Mrs. Whitman, in her diary, tells 
us that at eleven o'clock on Simday morning, August 21, 
1836, in response to an invitation from his Hudson's Bay 
hosts Reverend H. H. Spalding preached a sermon at the 
fort. This was the second sermon preached within the 
boimdaries of the present Idaho. 

58. The Second or Permanent Fort Boise. — The 
second or permanent Fort Boise had a romantic and inter- 
esting history. The amoimt of the fur business transacted 
at this post was never large. Built for the purpose of draw- 
ing away business from Fort Hall, which had been erected 
earlier in 1834, Fort Boise had been a success, for in 1836 
the Hudson's Bay Company acquired Fort Hall by pur- 
chase and that became their chief Idaho trading-post. 
The later Fort Boise became one of the celebrated stopping- 
points on the old Oregon Trail during the third and f oiulh 
decades of the last century. Here, after the long dusty 
journey over the Snake River plains, the tired and himgry 
emigrants were welcomed and often their scanty stores re- 
plenished. The outside walls were thick and durable and 
made of adobe or clay. Blockhouses were placed at the 
comers so as to protect the sides in case of attack. The 
main entrance opened on Snake River. Within the walls 
were several small buildings one story high and arranged 
aroimd the four sides. They were used as storehouses for 
the peltry and for living quarters. 

Sp. Francis Payettc^The most interesting character 
associated with old Fort Boise dxiring the fascinating fur- 
trading and emigration period was Francis Payette. It 

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was he who gave his name to Payette River and the city of 
Payette, lihe numerous emigrants who were the bene- 
ficiaries of his generous and polite hospitality have expressed 
their gratitude in many a touching tribute. Tliomas J. 


Famham, who visited Fort Boise in 1839, has left us this 
brilliant pen-picture of the courtly Payette: 

60. Famham's Description of Francis Payette. — "Mr. 
Payette . . . received us with every mark of kindness; gave 
our horses to the care of his servants, and introduced us 
immediately to the chairs, table, and edibles of his apart- 
ments. He ... is a merry, fat old gentleman of fifty, who, 
although in the wilderness all the best years of his Ufe, has 
retained that maimer of benevolence in trifles, of seating 
and serving you at table, of directing your attention con- 
tinually to some little matter of interest, so strikingly 
agreeable in that mercurial [French-Canadian] people. 

"The 14th and 15th [of September, 1839] were spent 
very pleasantly with this gentleman. During that time he 
feasted us with excellent bread, and butter made from an 
American cow, obtained from some of the missionaries; 

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with baked, boiled, fried, and broiled salmon — ^and, at my 
request, with some of his adventures in the wilderness. 
On the i6th ... a 'bon jour' having been returned by 
Mons. Payette, with the additional Wnd wish of a 'bon 


voyage' to us over the mountains, we left the old gentle- 
man to his soUtary domain." 

6i. The Last Years of the Hudson's Bay Company in 
Idaho. — ^Although the Treaty of 1846 transferred to the 
United States title to that portion of the Oregon country 
lying south of the 49th parallel, yet the British flag with 
tiie letters H. B. C. (Hudson's Bay Company) woven in its 
folds continued to float over Fort Hall and Fort Boise for 
several years. Upon the breaking out of the Indian wars 
of 1855, these historic Idaho posts were abandoned. It 
was not imtil 1869 that the United States agreed to reim- 
burse the Hudson's Bay Company for her possessory rights 
in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. In its later years the 
company engaged in merchandising with the emigrants, re- 
tired trappers, and the Indians, and in cattle-raising more 
than in gathering furs. 

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62. The Rocky Mountain Fur Company. — In 1822, 
the year after the absorption 6f the Northwest Company 
by the Hudson's Bay Company, the Rocky Moimtain Fur 
Company was organized at St. Louis with American capital. 
The organizers and guiding spirits of this company, during 
the first years of its career, were General William H. Ash- 
ley and Major Andrew Henry, the builder of Fort Henry 
in Idaho. Ashley, next to Thomas H. Benton, became 
Missouri's most influential citizen. It was the Rocky 
Mountain Fur Company that introduced American trappers 
into Idaho about 1823. Among the men associated with 
this St. Louis company who himted and trapped along 
Idaho's fine beaver streams were Jedediah S. Smith, David 
Jackson, William L. Sublette, Milton G. Sublette, James 
P. Beckwourth, Joseph Meek, and Robert NeweU. In 
1826 Smith, Jackson, and W. L. Sublette succeeded Gen- 
eral Ashley in the management of this business. No trad- 
ing-posts were established by this company, the annual 
Rendezvous serving as a substitute. The favorite meeting- 
point for these annual assemblages was the Green River 
Valley in what is now western Wyoming. 

63. The Golden Age of Trapping in Idaho. — The 
golden age of the fur-trade in Idaho was from 1820 to 1830. 
In that decade numerous himters followed the shrub-em- 
bowered streams of Idaho, set their large steel traps, and 
took away their golden harvest of peltries. Many of these 
trappers were imlettered and obscure men who have left 
behind but a scant record of their deeds. Out of the haze 
and confusion of this period only a few names and events 
stand out clearly. 

64. Pierre's Hole. — ^Pierre's Hole, now known as Teton 
Basin, Teton County, Idaho, was a famous meeting-place 
for the trapping fraternity. This beautiful oasis in a moun- 
tain desert was a green valley about thirty miles long and 
from five to fifteen miles wide. It looked somewhat like a 
stretch of prairie land, and had no trees except the cotton- 
woods and willows that flourished upon the banks of the 

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moxintain streams that flowed through it. At its east end 
towered the Three Tetons, those silent sentinels which 
dominate the landscape and can be seen for a distance 
of seventy-five miles. 

6s. The Rendezvous. — ^The Rendezvous was the an- 
nual gathering of the trapping fraternity for the purpose 
of trade and merriment in some green mountain vaUey. 
These unique wilderness assemblages were originated in 
1824 by General Ashley, of the Rocky Mountain Fur 
Company, to serve as substitutes for established forts, such 
as were foimd in the valleys dominated by the Hudson's 
Bay Company. This strange gathering in the wilderness 
was a pecuhar institution that flourished for a Uttle more 
than a decade and then passed away forever with the con- 
ditions that produced it. To the Rendezvous came rep- 
resentatives of the fur companies, free or independent 
hunters from their distant moimtain haimts, and Indians 
from various tribes. After the trafficking and trading busi- 
ness was finished the "mountain-men" went in for carousal 
and dissipation. Men with impassive faces gambled at 
cards; flat^ Uquor-kegs and whiskey-bottles were opened 
and emptied; and scenes of wildest revelry followed. The 
Indians, not to be outdone by the white men, joined in the 
gambling, horse-iUcing, and drunken quarrels. At the 
close of the week the fur-laden pack-animals and their 
owners returned to civilization and the trappers departed 
for their lonely moimtain retreats. 

66. Captain B. L. E. Bonneville. — ^In 1832 Captain 
Bonneville, a soldier in the regular army, procured a leave 
of absence and led an expedition to Idaho. While he came 
as a traveller and itinerant fur-trader, it is now known 
that his mission, a sort of secret one, was also to furnish 
information relative to the Oregon coimtry and the meth- 
ods of the Hudson's Bay Company. 

67. The Most Picturesque Figure in Early Idaho 
History. — ^Despite Bonneville's relatively small fur-trading 

^ Flat kegs made to fit snugly against the side of a pack-animal. 

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achievements, he is easily the most picturesque figure in our 
early history. It must be remembered, too, that he re- 
mamed longer on our soil and wandered over more of our 
territory than did any other character associated with our 
early history. Moreover, we are indebted to Bonneville 
for having, in a sense, inspired 
Washington Irving's historic and 
literary classic, "The Adventures 
of Captain Bonneville." While 
this fascinating volmne has given 
a disproportionate significance to 
BonneviUe's achievements, yet it 
is and will always remain a valu- 
able source- work on the American 

68. Influential Friends.— There 
are few men in American history 
who were blessed with more influ- 
ential friends than was Bonne- 
ville. When he came to this coun- 
try from his birthplace, France, it 
was oiu: Thomas Paine, the noted 

Revolutionary writer and friend of Washington, who se- 
cured his cadetship at West Point. When Lafayette visited 
this country in 1825, he selected yoxmg Bonneville to act 
as aide in his tour of the United States. He took such a 
liking to the genial and courteous Bonneville that the 
young cadet received an invitation to live in the beautiful 
Lafayette home in France. When Bonneville returned to 
the United States -a few years later he was assigned to 
various Western military posts. It was while performing 
frontier duties that he decided to become a wilderness- 
breaker and try his hand at the fur-trade. When he re- 
turned from his Western expedition, he was a frequent 
guest at the coxmtry home of John Jacob Astor. Here he 
entertained Astor and Washington Irving with the story 
of his Western exploits. Irving proved himself a true 


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friend when he munortalized Bonneville by writing the 
chaxming volume on the latter's Western adventures. 
As a fitting climax to the benefactions he had already 
received from distinguished friends, President Andrew 
Jackson, through his powerful personal and poUtical influ- 
ence, succeeded in having him reinstated in the army, 
after he had wilfully overstayed his leave of absence. 

69. Bonneville Across the Plains, 1832-1835. — With 
no men and 20 wagons drawn by oxen and mules Bonne- 
ville started from Independence, Missouri, May i, 1832. 
He reached Pierre's Hole, Idaho, in Sept«nber of that 
year. To Bonneville belongs the distinction of having 
been the first Western traveller to take^ wagons as far as 
Green River in western Wyoming. He was a pronounced 
success as an expedition manager, and reached Idaho with- 
out a single accident. 

. 70. Bonneville in Lemhi County. — ^Bonneville passed 
the autimm and early winter of 1832 at his temporary post 
situated at the moutib of Carmen Creek, a few miles north 
of the modem Salmon City. Nmnerous bands of friendly 
Indians soon visited the camp and destroyed the game and 
pasturage in the vicinity. Finding a new location neces- 
sary, the Bonneville party, in December, followed along the 
upper course of the Lemhi River, passed through the "nar- 
row gorge" on Timber Creek, and estabUshed a second 
camp in the picturesque Swan Basin — "a perfect himter's 
Elysimn — blocked up among cliffs and precipices."^ Here 
on Christmas Day Bonneville and his men were served an 
elaborate feast of bitter roots, venison, elk-meat, and moim- 
tain-mutton by the Nez Perce chief, Kowsoter. 

71. A Muskrat-Hunt — The next .spring Bonneville, 
while on his way to the Wood River coimtry, decided to 
hunt muskrats in the Big Lost River Valley. This valley was 
then known as the CJodin River Valley. Its swamps were 
full of queer-looking muskrat houses. Bonneville was anx- 
ious to make a record as a himter, so he thought this was 

» Irving's " Bonneville," chap. XIV. 

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his opportunity. He offered an extra high price for every 
muskrat captured by his men. The ambitions of the 
trappers were fired and everything was starting out splen- 
didly when the whole undertaking was brought to an 
abrupt close. One of Bonneville's hunters rushed into his 
camp with the news that some rival trappers were in the 
valley. It was Milton Sublette, of the Rocky Moimtain 
Fur Company, with a band of experienced trappers. They 
were also on their way to the Wood River country, where 
beaver were known to be plentifxil. The presence of unex- 
pected rivals took *the life out of Bonneville's big spring 
project. The next month was spent by Sublette and 
Bonneville in tr5dng to outhunt and outwit each other in 
the Wood River coimtry. Since Bonneville was an un- 
trained man in the trapping business, it is safe to conclude 
that he was badly beaten by Sublette's expert mountaineers. 

72. Bonneville in Bear Lake County. — ^In the autumn 
of 1833 we find Bonneville pitching his camp on the outlet 
of Bear Lake, near the present city of Montpelier. This 
body of water was then known as Little Lake, to distin- 
guish it from Great Salt £akeilyiiig it. A few days 
later Bonneville -visited 'Soda Springs- in* Bannock Coimty. 
This celebrated' ruriosity Was .the*^ Jmown as Beer Spring. 
Bonneville described the ^kter.Wife 'aferMving the taste of 
beer. He could not persuade the Indians to taste it. 

73. Bonneville on the I^ortneuf. — ^The open, grassy plain 
near the mouth of the Portneuf River was a favorite 
meeting-place for Bonneville's men and he selected this 
site for his second winter camp. It was located about ten 
miles northwest of the site of the town of Bancroft in 
the present Bannock County. Clear springs of water 
abounded here, and grass grew in abimdance in the open 
plain. It was near the future Oregon Trail, and only a 
few miles away was the site of Fort Hall, the converging 
point of nmnerous trails. In this favored region the Bonne- 
ville party passed their second winter in Idaho. While the 
Bannack Indians were not so civilized or intelligent as were 

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the Nez Perces in the Lemhi country, yet Bonneville man- 
aged to secure their good-will through his tactful methods 
"of dealing with them. 

74. Bonneville's Achievements. — ^Bonneville left Idaho 
in the spring of 1835. While he failed to make money in 
the fur business, yet his Westem enterprise produced some 
far-reaching resxilts. He managed his men so well that 
during his three years' stay in the mountains not a man 
under his personal control lost his life. He greatly extended 
the geographical knowledge of his time by drawing two 
valuable maps of the far Westem country. By fiunoshing 
Irving with the materials for his charming volimie, "The 
Adventures of Captain Bonneville," he aroused the interest 
of a whole nation in the great romantic West. 

75. Bonneville's Later Life. — ^After leaving Idaho Cap- 
tain Bonneville won many distinctions. He fought with 
gallantry in the Seminole and Mexican Wars. Although 
his sympathies were with the South, he remained loyal to 
the Union during the Civil War. He died in 1878, at a 
ripe old age, at Fort Smith, Arkansas. His grave may be 
seen to-day in BeUefonteine Ceanet^ry, §t. Irouis, Missouri. 
It shoxild be an object erf interest to every Idaho citizen, 
for it marks the resiting-place of the Cai>tain Courteous 
who was Idaho's' fiirSt' soldier Of fortune. ' * 

76. Nathaniel J. Wyeth.— The name of Nathaniel J. 
Wyeth is an honored one in Idaho history. He was not 
only the founder of historic Old Fort Hall, but was a clear- 
headed business man and possessed plenty of pluck, ini- 
tiative, and practical sense. Moreover, he was a fine, 
loyal, patriotic American citizen. He was one of the really 
great Americans associated with the fur-trade in the Co- 
Imnbia Basin. 

77* Wyeth from Distinguished New England Ances- 
try. — Captain Wyeth grew to manhood in the classic en- 
vironment of Harvard University in the famous old town 
of Cambridge, Massachusetts. The families of both his 
father and mother were old and honored ones in New Eng- 

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land. On his mother's side he was related to John 
Hancock, signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
and through the Wyeth family he was related to George 
Wythe of Virginia, another signer of that famous doc- 
ument. His father, Jacob Wyeth, built Fresh Pond Hotel 
in the vicinity of Harvard College 
and made a good-sized fortune. 
In the early years of the last 
century this hotel was a favorite 
resort for Harvard students and 
young people of Cambridge. It 
was here that Nathaniel J. Wyeth 
was bom in 1802. The girlhood 
home of his mother, Elizabeth 
Jarvis, was situated near Cam- 
bridge Common, on the old road to 
Lexington. New England tradi- 
tion has it that "the two Misses 
Jarvis looked out of the windows of 
their home to see two British sol- 
diers drink at their well on their 

way to Concord." Part of this Jarvis estate was bought 
by Harvard College for an athletic field and is now used 
for tennis-courts. In 1832, although only thirty years of 
age, Wyeth was successfully managing a prosperous ice 
business in his native city. It was the spirit of adventure, 
coupled with the hope of riches through the fur and sal- 
mon trade, that sent this young Cambridge merchant to 
the far West. 

78. Wyeth's First Expedition.— Captain Wyeth's first 
overland expedition from Boston passed through Idaho in 
the summer of 1832, and reached Fort Vancouver in the 
autumn of that year. Here, near the mouth of the Co- 
liunbia, Wyeth waited for his supply-ship. The Stdtana. It 
never arrived, however, as it had suffered shipwreck while 
on the way around Cape Horn. In February, 1833, he was 
compelled to return home, after having made the first con- 

Copyright by Harper fir Bros. 


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tinuous journey on record from Boston to the mouth of the 

79. Wyeth Returns to Idaho. — In 1834 Captain 
Wyeth returned to Idaho. This time he brought out a 
stock of goods to fill an order which had been placed the 
previous year by Smith, Jackson, and William Sublette, of 
the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. Just as Wyeth ar- 
rived, however, control was passing to the three partners, 
Fitzpatrick, Bridger, and Milton Sublette. These new 
owners refused to honor the contract, so Wyeth found him- 
self in the Western mountains with a large outfit of mer- 
chandise on his hands. 

80. Wyeth Builds Fort Hall. — In order to protect and 
keep his goods imtil he could make other arrangements 

to dispose of them he built 
Fort Hall, in the summer 
of 1834. He erected this 
post on the left bank of 
the Snake River, nine 
miles above the mouth of 
the Portneuf, northwest 
of the present city of Po- 
catello. He named the 
Fort in honor of Henry 
Hall, senior member of 
the Boston firm that fi- 
nanced his expedition. 

81. The Appearance of 
Fort Hall Under Ameri- 
can Control. — Old Fort 
Hall at the time of its 
erection by Wyeth was a 
crude but substantial log structure. The outer log wall, 
or stockade, was eighty feet square and consisted of cot- 
tonwood-trees set on end. This surrounding wall, or stock- 
ade, was about fiifteen feet high. At the opposite angles 
were two bastions about eight feet square. In these were 
port-holes large enough for gims only. The quarters for 

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After whom old Fort Hall was named. 


the men within the stockade were simple structures made 
of hewed logs covered with mud brick. Square holes in 
the roofs of the interior buildings served as windows. In 
the summer of 1836 there was a little garden-patch near 
the fort in which grew turnips, peas, and onions. 

82. Fort Hall under Hudson's Bay Control. — About 

1838, shortly after the Hudson's Bay Company assmned 
control of the fort, the structure was enlarged and strong 
adobe walls were substituted for the original cottonwood 
logs. It was the custom of . the company to keep these 
outer walls well whitewashed. It was doubtless these white 
walls glistening in the sunshine that caused a hungry, dust- 
covered wayfarer to exclaim one bright September day in\ 

1839, as he caught his first glimpse of this long-looked-for 
post: "An hour along the sands and wild wormwood; an 
hour along the banks of the Saptin (the Snake) ; and before 
us rose the white battlements of Fort Hall !" In 1849 the 
fort is described as being built of clay or adobe. Its main 
entrance faced in the direction of the Portneuf and its rear 
walls extended back toward the banks of Snake River. 
There was a blockhouse at one of the angles. The main 
building within the fort was occupied by the chief trader, 
and the smaller ones were used as storehouses or quarters 
for the company's employees. In 1852 a pioneer notes in 
his journal that over a hundred army wagons were stand- 
ing around the fort, which was then in a dilapidated con- 
dition. In 1855 the post was abandoned by the Hudson's 
Bay Company. It was used for a time as military quarters 
for our government troops during the Civil War. In the 
year 1869 Great Britain and the United States reached an 
agreement by which the latter coimtry was to reimburse 
''in gold coin" the Hudson's Bay Company for its posses- 
sory rights in Fort Hall, as well as its other holdings in the 
Oregon country, and the history of Idaho's famous old 
Tabard Inn was at an end. 

83. Idaho's First Flag-Raising at Old Fort Hall.— 
It is to Wyeth's sturdy Americanism that we are indebted 
for Idaho's first flag-raising celebration. The erection (rf 

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Fort Hall, which was begun in mid- July, 1834, was com- 
pleted on August 4. At sunrise on August 6, out in the 
"Great American Desert,'' Wyeth and his little company 
conducted Idaho's first patriotic exercises, when an Amer- 
ican flag was floated over the fort. Since the party did 


not have with them any manufactured banner, a "home- 
made" flag was used for the occasion. It was made of un- 
bleached sheeting, strips of red flannel, and some blue 
patches which represented the stars. 

84. Importance of Fort Hall. — ^Fort Hall was one of 
the most important points on the Oregon Trail during the 
emigration period. Situated in a pleasant bottom-land 
northeast of the confluence of the Snake and Portneuf , it 
offered a hospitable resting-place to many a travel-stained 
pioneer. Here the emigrant made preparations for the last 
stage of his journey. In the early days of the trail, wagons 
were left here and pack-horses were substituted. Later on, 
however, as the trail became better known, wagons were 
taken clear through to the mouth of the Columbia. 

85. Wyeth Sells Fort- Hall.— The building of a sub- 
stantial fort in the Snake Country disturbed the-Hudspn's 

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Bay officers; so later in the same year they erected a rival 
post near the mouth of the Boise. Wyeth soon found that 
it was useless for single individuals to try to compete with 
this huge, experienced, and wealthy corporation. To save: 
himself from total loss he sold Fort Hall and all its appur^ 


tenances to this company in 1836. No other American at- 
tempted to dispute the commercial sway of the Hudson 
Bay Company in the valleys of the Snake imtil after Ore- 
gon came imder American control in 1846. 

86. Later Life of Wyeth. — ^After Wyeth returned from 
the moimtains in 1836 he re-entered the ice business in 
his native dty. He built up a large export trade, and in- 
vented many new appliances, which are used even to the 
present day. Wyeth's two trading ventures in the far 
West evidently satisfied his fondness for adventure, for 
he passed the remainder of his life in Cambridge and left 
behind him an honored name when he died, in 1856. 

Wyeth is one of the pluckiest heroes that the fur-trade 
produced. Temporary defeat only spurred him on to greater 
effort. In one of his letters James Russell Lowell pays this 
merited tribute to his fellow townsman Wye 



JigifTzed by 


remember his starting sixty years ago, and knew him well 
in after years. A born leader of men, he was fitly called 
Captain Nathaniel Wyeth as long as he Uved." Amer- 
icans will always honor his memory for his gallant attempt 
"to rear the American flag in the lost domains of Astoria." 
Wyeth's grave may be seen to-day in Mount Auburn Ceme- 
tery, Cambridge, Massachusetts. On the gravestone is 
carved this simple but appropriate inscription: "He Be- 
lieved in Himself." 

87. John C. Fremont. — ^John C. Fremont was one of 
the noted explorers to pass through Idaho. Unlike some 
of his predecessors, he came neither in search of furs nor 
riches, but as an expert surveyor and map-maker, working 
under the direction of the national government. On ac- 
count of the ever-expanding Western migration and the 
fresh interest in the "Oregon Question," the federal gov- 
ernment decided to send out exploring-parties to discover 
the best routes to travel across the plains and mountains 
of the far West. Fremont was selected to lead three of 
these journeys of exploration. It was while he was con- 
ducting the second of these official expeditions, in 1843, 
that he passed through Idaho. 

88. Fremont Through Idaho, 1843.— When Fremont, 
in company with his friend and guide, Kit Carson, explored 
southern Idaho he followed the 1843 migration over the 
Oregon Trail and kept an accurate record of all the inter- 
esting things he saw. These observations were later pub- 
Kshed in a book called "Fremont's Journal." One of the 
most entertaining passages in this journal describes his 
visit at Fort Boise one fine October day in 1843. Francis 
Payette, the hospitable clerk of the Hudson's Bay Company, 
was in charge of the fort. He proved himself to be a most 
gracious host. He escorted the exploring-party into his 
well-stocked dairy and presented them with a supply of 
fresh butter. While Fremont is not wanting in gratitude 
to his courteous host, he reminds us that the Fort Boise 
butter was "by no means equal to that of Fort Hall — 
probably from some accidental cause." ^ j 

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89. Fremont's Achievement. — While Fremont's pet 
title, "The Pathfinder," is an exaggeration, yet he was a 
benefactor to the West. He made the course of our West- 
em trails plain to coimtless emigrants. He helped remove 
the delusion from the minds of Eastern people that our 
West was a vast desert. His records became immensely 
popular and were widely circxilated. Parkman, iii Ins 
"Oregon Trail," tells us that in 1846 he found the men at 
Fort Laramie, Wyoming, using the pages of Fremont's 
journal to make firecrackers for a Fourth-of-Jxily celebra- 

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90. The Making of a Trail.— When Wilson Price 
Hunt passed through the Boise Valley over the future 
Oregon Trail while on his way to Astoria, in 181 1, he did 
not lay out a new road. He used well-worn Indian paths 
which, in turn, followed the game trails of the buffalo and 
deer. The animals took the path they did because it was 
the shortest route between water-holes, and the men fol- 
lowed it for that reason and because they could live on the 
game. AU of the early pioneer paths were Indian trails, 
and to-day many of our great railroads follow in the steps 
of the redskin and hunter, for here are the easiest grades 
over the mountains. The great war-trail of the Iroquois, 
the valley of the Mohawk River, and west to Niagara 
Falls, is now followed by the New York Central Railroad. 
So in our coimtry the Oregon Short Line follows very nearly 
the old Oregon Trail, lie hills that echoed to the soimd 
of the war-whoop now give back the shriek of the iron 
horse. This is the course of civilization: first, the wild 
beast, then the himter, followed by the settler with his 
wagon, and last the locomotive. 

91. Noted Trails. — It is these famous trails that made 
the growth of our coimtry possible, and around them are 
gathered most of our frontier stories. In the East the most 
famous of these paths is the Old Wilderness Trail, also 
known as Boone's Trail, and around it are centred the 
stirring stories of Daniel Boone's adventures. Next to 
the Oregon Trail, the greatest of the Western paths was the 
Santa Fe Trail. It led from Kansas City to the town of 
Santa Fe, in what is now New Mexico. A trader named 
BeckneU was the first to open it and heiwas followed by 
Jedediah Smith, who, after years of exploration and adven- 

62 Jigitized by Google 


ture, lost his life on this path. This Santa Fe Trail was, 
however, from first to last a traders', not a settlers', road. 
The caravans carried to the Mexicans manufactured goods 
and brought back to the States silver, cc^per, hides, and 
other raw products. From Santa Fe there were two paths 
to the coast — the Gila Trail, which ended at San Diego, 
and the Old Spanish Trail that ran to Los Angeles. These 
roads were, however, merely continuations of the Santa Fe 
Trail a]Qd were xised for the same purpose at first, though 
later on they were used for settling Lower California. An- 
other of these highways was the California Trail, which 
originally branched off from the Oregon Trail at the Raft 
River Crossing in what is now Cassia County, and followed 
a southwesterly course through the Sierras to Sacramento. 
During the California gold excitement in the early fifties a 
shorter route or cut-off was estabhshed which left the Oregon 
Trail at the modem station of Alexander in Bannock Coimty 
and joined the old trail near the future site of the town of 
Sublett in Cassia County. The California Trail was much 
used in the settling of northern California. 

92. The Oregon Trail.— The Oregon Trail was un- 
questionably the most important of these Western roads. 
For one reason, it was the longest. From Independence, 
Kansas, to Oregon City, on the Willamette River in Ore- 
gon, is 2,020 miles, and these were the terminals of the 
Oregon Trail, while the Santa Fe Trail was only 775 miles 
in length. It was also more diflficult and more dangerous. 
It crossed three moimtain ranges and went through the 
territory of no less than ten Indian tribes. The chief 
reason for the importance of the Oregon Trail lay not in 
its length nor difficulty but in the use to which the road 
was put. The Santa Fe Trail was only a traders' route 
from first to last, but the Oregon Trail, also a traders' path 
at first, became the great road over which thousands of 
immigrants poured into the Oregon country. It was due 
to these settiers that the whole of the vast Northwest be- 
came American. They built homes, worked farms, and 

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established a government under the American flag; they 
outniunbered tibe Hudson's Bay Company fur-traders and 
made American possession of the Oregon territory a living 
fact. For this reason alone is the Oregon Trail the most 


important of the Western roads, or indeed of any Amer- 
ican pioneer path, except possibly the Wilderness Road into 

93. The Oregon Trail in Idaho. — ^The Oregon Trail en- 
tered Idaho near the present town of Border, Wyoming. 
After passing through the Bear River Valley its course lay 
in a northwesterly direction toward Fort Hall. From this 
point the trail followed along the south side of the Snake 
River until it came to the Island Ford near the modem 
Glenns Ferry. The road then left the Snake and struck 
out across tie plains to the northwestward, passing near 
the sites of the future towns of Mountain Home and May- 
field, until it reached the Boise River. Its course now 

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stretched westward along the south side of the Boise River. 
After passing through the present South Boise it crossed 
the Boise River at the canyon north of Caldwell. From 
here the. trail passed through the site of what is now the 
town of Notus and followed down the Boise River until it 

crossed the Snake a second time 

at the ford near old Fort Boise, 
the historic Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany post. 

g4« Travel over the Oregon 
Trail. — It was a long, hard trip 
from Kansas City to Fort Van- 
couver in those days. Practically 
the only method of travel was in 
a heavy covered springless wagon 
drawn usually by two or more 
span of oxen. This carried the 
women of the family and the house- 
hold belongings, while the men rode 
alongside to guard against Indians 
and to provide fresh meat for the 
table. The trip was too dangerous 
to be made by a single family, so they woxild band together 
in great wagon-trains for mutual protection. Some of these 
bands were huge. As these people were settlers, not gold- 
seekers nor traders, they took with them not only their furni- 
ture but also cattle. In 1843, in the first great emigrant 
train, there were nearly 1,000 men, women, and children and 
large droves of cattle. In these organized emigration-parties 
everything was done systematically. At night, in case of an 
Indian raid, a great corral woxild be formed by lashing the 
tongue of one wagon to the rear of the one ahead. The 
stock belonging to the train was "night-herded" and driven 
into the corral in the morning. The camp-fires were made 
on the outside of the corral. They would all start on sig- 
nal in the morning, and each wagon would lead in turn. 
If a wagon was not ready to start at the appointed time it 


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would lose its place and fall to the rear. The death-toll 
was very heavy; thousaads were swept away by the cholera 
and by exposure. The larger emigrant trains were not 
troubled much by the Indians. They confined their at- 
tacks to the smaJler parties. Many thousands of graves 

marked the route of the trail, but 
more thousands lived to reach 

95. The Mullan Road. — The 
Oregon Trail was the first great 
wagon-road through Idaho. An- 
other famous highway in the State 
was the United States military 
road that ran from Fort Benton at 
the falls of the Missouri in Mon- 
taaa to Fort Walla Walla, Wash- 
ington, crossing Idaho at the Coeur 
d'Alene River. It was laid out by 
Captain John Mxillan, and is al- 
ways known by his name. The road 
was 624 miles long and was designed to connect the end of 
navigation on the Missouri River with navigation on the 
Colmnbia. Actual work started on it in 1859, and over 
three years' time and $230,000 were required to finish it. 
One himdred and twenty-four miles were cut through dense 
forest and 30 miles blasted through rock and dirt. It was 
a great undertaking and was weU done. As was expected, 
the Mxillan Road furnished a route for emigration between 
the headwaters of the Cdlimabia and the Missouri Rivers, 
and materially contributed to the development of the north 
Idaho mining regions in the sixties, and again in the eighties. 
96. The Lo Lo Trail. — One of the primitive Indian 
paths of Idaho was the historic Lo Lo Trail. From time 
immemorial this trail has been the regular avenue of travel 
across the Bitter Root Mountains for the Indians. It was 
over this ancient road that Lewis and Clark travelled in 
1805 and 1806, and it was across this trail that Chief Joseph 


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fled from General Howard in 1877. Few trails in the United 
States have a longer history, and few have a more beauti- 
ful setting. 

Starting in the Bitter Root Valley on the Montana 
side, the path climbs 
the Bitter Root Moun- 
tains and going through 
the Lo Lo Pass it de- 
scends to the divide be- 
tween the Lochsa and 
North Forks of the 
Clearwater River, It 
follows this ridge prac- 
tically the whole way 
until it comes down to 
the Weippe meadows 
in Idaho, where it ends 
as a single trail. The 
view from the trail is 
wonderful. On either 
side one looks out over 
a sea of giant pines, 
with here and there a 
lonely butte thrusting 
its bare shoulders above 
the forest. The trail 
winds along a high, nar- 
row "backbone" from 
which may be seen nu- • 

merous mountain streams which resemble narrow silver 
threads. There are no traces of himianity nor any signs 
of life save the wild animals of the forest. Begim as an 
Indian trail, it is still as primitive now as when the Nez 
Perces used it; and in all probability it, imlike the other 
trails, will remain a wild forest path xmfrequented except 
by the lover of the picturesque. 

THE LO LO trad:.. 

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97. The Missionary Follows the Explorer and the 
Fur-Trader. — ^There is a general plan of development that 
is usually followed in the opening of new countries. First 
come the explorers and fur-traders,^ who seek out and use 
the resources of the coimtry; and they in turn are followed 
by the missionaries. This was true of the great "Oregon 
Country," of which Idaho formed a part. Following the 
years of exploration and the development of the fur-trade, 
there began the period of religious work among the Indians. 

98- The Trapper Brings the First Tidings of Chris- 
tianity to the Oregon Country. — ^It was the fur-trader 
and the trapper who brought the first tidings of Christian- 
ity to the Indians of Idaho and the Oregon coimtry. While 
as a class the trapping fraternity was not religious, yet cer- 
tain individual trappers were striking exceptions in this 
respect. David Thompson, the first white man to live • 
among the Flathead and Kutenai tribes, did not permit 
the hardships of wilderness life to interfere with his private 
devotions and Bible readings. The American trader, 
Jedediah S. Smith, was equally familiar with his Bible and 
rifle, and is said to have invoked divine blessing before his 
meals. Soon after the building of Fort Vancouver, in 1825, 
Doctor John McLoughlin began to hold religious services 
for his servants and for Indians who came there as visitors. 
The clerks and traders at other forts also gave religious in- 
struction to their children. The voyageurs and Iroquois 
trappers from Canada intermarried and lived among the 
Flatheads and other tribes. Many of them had a yivid 

^ While the fur-trader is not always first in eveiy oew country, he was first in 
the Oregon country and in many new regions. 


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recollection of the quaint religious ceremony observed by 
all brigades before leaving Montreal for the West, when it 
was their custom to stop at the ancient chapel of St. Ann's 
and to receive the final blessing of the priests there before 
facing the perils of the long journey. Li this way the In- 
dians came to hear of forms of worship other than their 

99. The First Indian Deputation to St. Lotiis. — It was 
an immemorial custom of the Nez Perce and Flathead In- 
dians to make annual pilgrimages into what is now west- 
em Montana and eastern Idaho to hunt the buflfalo. Dur- 
ing the fur-trading era different bands of Indians from these 
tribes regularly attended the annual rendezvous of the fur- 
traders and trappers near Green River in the present west- 
em Wyoming. In 1831 a few friendly and docile Indians 
from these unusually religious-minded tribes arranged to 
visit St. Louis with one of the returning traders. The 
avowed purpose of this trip was to see the "Black Robes" 
and other religious teachers there. When the presence of 
these Indians in St. Louis became known to General 
William Clark, then superintendent of Indian affairs for 

,all the tribes in the Missouri River country, he immediately 
reported their arrival to the Jesuit fathers and also to th^ 
Methodists, who were at the time holding an annual con- 
ference in the city. 

Two of the Indians died at St. Louis during the winter, 
and were buried near the Catholic cathedral; the others 
started toward home the following spring, but only one 
lived to reach his tribe. This visitation aroused the in- 
terest of both Protestants and Catholics and originated the 
missionary enterprises west of the Rpcky Moimtains. 

100. The First Religious Service in Idaho. — Prior to 
1834 there is no record of any formal religious service in 
what is now Oregon, Washington, or Idaho except the re- 
ligious observances at the various trading-posts and camps 
of the Northwest and Hudson's Bay Companies. The 
first sermon preached in the vast interior region west of 

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the Rocky Mountains was delivered by Jason Lee, a mis- 
sionary of the Methodist Episcopal church, at Fort Hall 

on Sunday afternoon, July 26, 
1834. It was in response to an 
invitation from Captain Wyeth, 
who was then buildmg Fort Hall, 
that this historic religious service 
was conducted. The text selected 
for his sermon was taken from 
Paul's message to the Corinthians: 
"Whether, therefore, ye eat or 
drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all 
to the glory of God." After the 
service the company proceeded to 
enjoy a series of horse-races be- 
tween the Indians and half-breeds 
present. On July 30 the missionary 
party resimied their journey to< Fort Vancouver, and were 
persuaded to imdertake their work in the Willamette Valley 
instead of the Flathead coimtry. 
loi. Spalding and Whitman. — 
The first missionaries directly con- 
nected with Idaho were Reverend 
Henry Spalding and his wife, sent 
out by the American Board of 
Commissioners of Foreign Missions 
of Boston. They came over the 
plains with Doctor and Mrs. Mar- 
cus Whitman, whose tragic fate at 
the hands of the Cayuse Indians 
on November 29, 1847, is so well 
known. Whitman College, located 
at Walla Walla, Washington, is a 
memorial to these martyrs, while a 
marble slab marks their grave near the scene of the massacre* 
102. First White Woman Through Idaho. — ^Mrs. Spal- 
ding and Mrs. Whitman were the first white women to 

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make the long, haxd trip across the country, and they 
showed the highest degree of courage and endurance. This 
party brought a wagon nearly to Fort Hall in southern 
Idaho. When the road became seemingly impassable, 


Doctor Whitman removed from the wagon two of its 
wheels, making it into a cart, and succeeded in getting 
this as far as old Fort Boise, where it was left. 

103. The Lapwai Missions. — The Whitmans settled 
near the present town of Walla Walla and the Spaldings 
went to Lapwai Creek, situated about twelve miles above 
the present site of Lewiston, the two mission stations being 
no miles apart. Here the Spaldings built a house of logs 
and opened a school for the Indians, which was attended 
by men, women, and children. In addition to the Bible 
lessons and the reUgious services the Indians were taught 
valuable lessons in industry and a civilized mode of Ufe. 

104. Mrs. Spalding Teaches Indian Women. — Mrs. 
Spalding instructed the women how to card, weave, spin, 

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knit, and sew. At first there was Kttle need of what could 
be termed housekeeping, for the Nez Perces at that time 
lived together in bands, imder the control of a chief, rather 
than as families.,^ Great numbers would occupy a single 
long house or tent, with a row of fires down the middle. 
Instead of speaking of the niunber of rooms these Indians 
would refer to a house as having so many fires. \ 

105. Indians Learn Farming. — Mr. Spalding gave the 
Indians their first lessons in farming, for prior to his ar- 
rival among them in November, 
1836, they had not engaged in 
any agricultural pursuits and" had 
been living upon native berries, 
roots, fish, and wild game. Soon 
after Jiis arrival at Lapwai Mr. 
Spalding procured some small 
apple-trees at Fort Vancouver and 
began the planting of orchards 
among the Nez Perces. Some of 
these old apple-trees may still be 
seen. When the mission was 
closed in 1847, due to the men- 
acing attitude of the Cayuse In- 
dians, who had perpetrated the 
Whitman massacre in November 
of that year, this zealous mission- 
ary had already erected a small 

church-building, which served also as a school, a grist-mill, 
a printing-office, a blacksmith's shop, and a few small dwell- 
ing-houses. Herds of cattle and horses, and a few hogs 
evidenced the first faint beginnings of stock-raising in Idaho 
outside of the Hudson's Bay Company posts. Peas, as 
well as other vegetables, had been grown in the Uttle garden- 
patches near the mission. 

106. First Printing-Press in the Northwest. — One May 
day in 1839 an article of unusual interest was received at 
the Lapwai mission. It was a small "Ramage writing, 
c,op)dng, and seal press, number 14," that had been pre- 

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sented to the Oregon mission by a native church in Hono- 
lulu- After a long ocean voyage this useful machine reached 
Oregon. It was packed on horseback from Fort Walla 
Walla to Lapwai, and set up on May i6. 

It was the first print- 
ing-press in the Pacific 
Northwest, and at Lap- 
wai were printed the 
first books in the Ore- 
gon coimtry. Among the 
books and pamphlets 
that were printed on this 
press by Mr. Spalding 
and his assistants were a 
primer, a hymn-book, a 
code of laws for the Nez 
Perces, and a translation 
of the Gospel of Mat- 

A short time before 
the Whitman massacre, 
November 29, 1847, ^s 
historic press was moved 
to the Dalles. From 
there it was soon sent to 
Hillsboro, Oregon, where 
it came into the posses- 
sion of Reverend J. S. 
Griffin, a brother-in-law of the Reverend H. H. Spalding. 
In 1875 it was presented by Mr. Griffin to the State of 
Oregon and deposited in the State Historical rooms at 
Salem. Destined to make one more short journey, this 
pioneer press was in 1900 removed to the rooms of the 
Oregon Historical Society at Portland, where it may be 
seen to-day. 

This treasured reUc should recall to the minds of our 
citizens a long train of events associated with the pictur- 
esque and romantic story of "Old Oregon." 

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tHh^ ^ftaHit^p^UhirV'iju kipdm imwfjT bih^h- 

nt^ wuh i^Jt«4Jk»mi*mt, 

4C Kfpnin Intani IrriunA *hitiniiLiBnJb Kuai- 
ulfn Mk ■|fa'bllt»lijrnli Wttln kunjl a^jkklimht 
[hiuit ^otu Kiitb li^ltutiDlb kmiinNkhwst^ 

AT l*miimi itn lftiil4!«A^1iTi ^tk M.pAsoyar 
9fcl]fi.i, fr*k ifitiiifntiii* lCtii4 tAk AfmkAriuka 'i 
imi>t viln Kiuti illhp«LlbiWat iitJciitumh f 


HAtUlH^^IH wiaynv wti nirf Inm- 
nvAiliiipiiki npifi^giuiii^ KAiiuiptini #*- 

t Kni\ki KApom Kiiu* Lm^ *piy!j44tiu, wtt 
rNiii (v|iiuhipfiAiturtiicu]r"< K* k*sli KjEwnjifi^ 
piU bEktttaidfa ipDp]fiyi,hkin wAirfipa kuiitit^i. 
w#H bkllpi tmiufltntiJipa-baikttiih tlt^kftfJ*. 

h Kiitt tuiiii 4fty44]n&ilkii w«t a>«( rnipt 

One of the books printed at the Lapwai Mission. 



107. Idaho's First White Child.— In the small log 
house built by Mr. Spalding shortly after his arrival at 
Lapwai, on November 15, 1837, was bom Idaho's first white 
child, Eliza Spalding. To her belongs the distinction of 
having been the second white child bom in the Pacific 

Northwest and the first who grew 
to years of maturity. Eliza Spal- 
ding, now Mrs. A. J. Warren, has 
spent most of her life in the States 
of Oregon and Washington, but at 
present (1918) resides at Cataldo, 

108. The Lapwai Mission Re- 
opened. — In 1871, in accordance 
with the provision of President 
Grant's so-called "Peace Policy" 
with reference to American In- 
dian tribes, the Lapwai Mission 
was reopened by Reverend Mr. 
During the long interval of over 
twenty-three years which had elapsed since the Whitman 
massacre Mr. Spalding had made his home first in the Wil- 
lamette Valley and later in the Walla Walla coimtry. His 
second period of residence among the Nez Perces was des- 
tined to be brief, however, for he died August 3, 1874. 
To-day, near the confluence of the Lapwai Creek and the 
Clearwater River, in a little grove of locust-trees, near the 
spot where Idaho's first mission was established, are the 
graves of Reverend Henry H. Spalding and the devoted 
and efficient companion of those early years, Eliza Hart 

109. The Catholic Missions. — ^The next missionaries to 
enter the futiure Idaho were representatives of the Jesuit 
order of the Catholic Church. Between the years 1812 and 
1820 a small band of Iroquois Indians from eastern Canada 
had penetrated the country of the Flathead Indians situ- 

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Idaho's fint white'cliild. 



ated in what is now western Montana. They were Catholics 
and their presence aroused an interest in their faith among 
the Flatheads, Between 183 1 and 1839 four deputations 
were sent to St. Louis by these Flatheads, requesting that the 
CathoKc missionaries be sent among them. It was in response 
to these appeals that the CathoHc 
Church at St. Louis authorized the 
estabhshment of CathoKc missions 
in the Oregon coimtry in 1840. 

no. Father Peter J. De Smet. 
— ^The mi3sionary selected to evan- 
gelize the Flatheads and other 
Rocky Mountain tribes was Father 
Peter J. De Smet. A native of 
Belgium and connected with St. 
Louis University since 1829, he was 
destined during the period lying 
between 1840 and 1863 to make 
five journeys to the Oregon coun- 
try. After 1850 Father De Smet 

became an international figure on accoimt of his writings 
and his extraordinary ability as a pacificator of hostile 
Indian tribes. At the urgent request of the government 
Father De Smet journeyed to Oregon in 1858 to pacify 
the hostile Yakimas. In 1863 he made his last visit 
to this region. His important missionary labors in the 
Pacific Northwest were accomplished, however, in that 
charming decade lying between 1840 and 1850, when the 
spirit of adventure and romance still brooded over the 
Empire of the Red Man. 

III. Father De Smet's Visits to Southern Idaho. — 
Father De Smet visited southeastern Idaho during the 
sunmiers of 1840 and 1841. In July, 1840, while making 
his first missionary journey to tiie Flathead coimtry, he 
conducted reUgious services in the beautiful Teton Basin, 
in Teton County, then known as Pierre's Hole. In this 
valley, so famous in the annals of the fur-trade, he preached 


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to 1, 600 Flatheads and Pend d'Oreilles. These Indians had 
made the long journey to the southern Idaho country to 
escort the "Black Robe" to their northern homes. 

In 1 841, accompanied by Fathers Nicholas Point and 
Gregory Mengarini, Father De Smet made his second and 
last journey through southern Idaho. A lively incident 
of this expedition was the visit of the missionary to Old 
Fort Hall. While scarcely seven years had passed since 
the erection of this post by Wyeth, yet it had already as- 
simied the dual r61e of trading-post and hostelry. In a 
letter written at the fort under date of August 16, 1841, 
Father De Smet pays a tribute of appreciation to his host, 
Francis Ermatinger, the chief trader in charge at the fort 
who was himself an Episcopalian' This generous official 
of the Hudson's Bay Company made Father De Smet an 
tonored guest at his table, sold him supplies at one third 
of the usual cost, and donated outright numerous articles 
in the way of provisions and equipment. 

112. Father De Smet in North Idaho.— As north Idaho 
lay directly between Father De Smet's missionary field in 
Montana and the scenes of his visits to the modem States 
of Oregon and Washington, he had occasion to cross and 
recross our future "Panhandle" many times. His favorite 
routes followed the river and along the south shore of Lake 
Coeur d'Alene or skirted the northern end of Lake Pend 

113. Father De Smet's Activities Among North Idaho 
Tribes.— While Father De Smet's North Idaho travels 
lay within the country of the Pend d'Oreille and Coeur 
d'Alene Indians, yet he succeeded in evangelizing large 
nimibers of Kutenais and Nez Perces who often sent dele- 
gations to meet him. While returning to Montana from 
St. Paul's Mission in the Willamette Valley in the summer 
of 1842 he visited the Coeur d'Alenes. Their appeals for a 
resident missionary were so insistent that Father De Smet 
decided to send "Black Robes" to them during the following 

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114. The Establishment of the First Coeur d'Alene 
Mission. — Father Nicholas Point and Brother Charles 
Huet were the missionaries detailed by Father De Smet 
to establish a permanent mission among the Coeur d'Alenes, 
The site selected for the first mission chapel was on the 


north bank of the Saint Joe River, about one mile from 
the southern end of Lake Coeur d'Alene. The location, a 
beautiful one in the summer and autumn, was inundated 
by the river floods every spring; so in 1846 the mission 
was moved to the vicinity of the present town of Cataldo 
on the Coeur d'Alene River. 

IIS. The Secdnd or "Old" Mission on the Cceur 
d'Alene River (1846). — In 1847, the year following the 
arrival of the missionaries in their new home, they began 
the erection of the famous "Old Mission" Church. While 
services were held in the new structure as early as 1848, the 
details of its construction were not completed until the 
year 1868. 

It was designed by Father Anthony Ravalli, and was 90 
feet long, 35 feet wide, and 30 feet high. A portico, sup- 

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ported by six massive wooden pillars, added to the attrac- 
tiveness of the historic edifice. An interesting feature asso- 
ciated with the construction of the chiurch was the fact that 
wooden pins were substituted for nails and no metal what- 
ever was used in the walls of the structure. 


This "Old Mission" Church was Idaho's first Catholic 
house of worship. Thanks to the faithfid workmanship 
of the fathers, brothers, and Indians who reared its his- 
toric walls, it still continues in an almost perfect state of 

116. A Romantic History. — ^In 1853, Isaac I. Stephens 
the great Territorial governor of Washington, shared the 
hospitality of the Sacred Heart Mission and has recorded 
a tribute to the architectural beauty of its church. A few 
years later, in 1858, that "blood and iron'' warrior, Colonel 
George Wright, journeyed to this scene and held solemn 
conclave with the Coeur d'Alenes. In the same year, 
Captain John Mullan, intent on building the wagon- 
Toad which bears his name, was an honored guest at 
the mission, and called it "a St. Bernard in the Coeur 

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d'Alene Mountains." From November, 1858, mitfl Feb- 
ruary, 1859, it sheltered its foimder, Father Peter J. De 

During the eventful history of "Old Mission" its lights 
have gleamed a welcome to the red man, the explorer, the 


engineer, the soldier, the packer, the hunter, and the pros- 
pector. Its walls have echoed to the fiery oratory of Indian 
chief, the solemn chant of sacred music, the sounds of joy- 
ous revelry, and in recent years, the rifle-crack of labor 

117. The De Smet Mission. — In 1877 the mission was 
removed from its picturesque home on the banks of the 
Coeur d'Alene River to the fertile Hangman Valley in the 
present Benewah Coimty. Here the Jesuits have continued 
their labors to the present day. The mission post-office is 
located at the village of De Smet. This little town, so ap- 
propriately named, perpetuates the fame of the beloved 
pacificator, the talented writer, and the " Great Black Robe,'* 

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ivho, indiflferent to ecclesiastical honors, ministered "beside 
the death-bed of a race." 

ii8. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints 
in Idaho. — ^The next religious organization which exerted a 
marked influence on Idaho, was the Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-Day Saints. On June 15, 1855, while Idaho was 
still part of the Oregon Territory, a Uttle colony of 28 
"Mormon" missionaries settled in the Lemhi Valley in 
•eastern Idaho and established a mission on a ^te about 
two miles north of the present Uttle town of T«idoy. The 
long 379-mile journey from Utah was accomphshed in a 
month of dangerous travel over jagged rocks, parched sage- 
Thrush wastes, and wide, turbulent rivers. 

119. Fort Lemhi: Southern Idaho's First Temporary 
Settlement. — ^The Fort Lemhi Mission, named in honor of 
a Nephite King mentioned in the Book of Mormon, was 
the first temporary settlement in southern Idaho. 

Soon after their arrival, the industrious missionaries com- 
pleted the erection of a stockade, and began the transforma- 
tion of the little mountain valley into an agricultural settle- 
ment. In the spring of 1856, the mission was strengthened 
by the arrival of another small company of settlers from 

120. The Grasshoppers Destroy Crops (1856). — ^There 
wras every indication that the unremitting labors of the 
settlers would be rewarded by an abimdant harvest. 
Swarms of grasshoppers, however, visited the valley during 
the summer and devoured the crops. So complete had 
been the ravages of these insects that in the following autiman 
the mission found it necessary to send to Salt Lake City for 
fresh supplies of seed, grain, and other provisions. 

121. A Visit from Brigham Young (1857). — ^In May, 
1857, President Brigham Young paid a five-day visit to the 
little Idaho colony. He was impressed with the fertility 
of the picturesque valley. A spirit of peace, industry, and 
happiness was everywhere manifest. On Sunday, May 10, 
1857, religious services were held at the mission, and the colo- 

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r , 


nists listened to an address by President Young, In the 
afternoon of the same Sunday, Snagg, the head diief of the 
Bannacks, made a formal call upon the little assemblage 
at the mission. An old record describing the visit informs 
us that this Indian chief "came 
into the Fort, and had a smoke 
and a long and very friendly talk.'' 

122. A Prosperous Year at the 
Mission (1857). — Fine crops of 
wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, and 
vegetables were grown during the 
summer of 1857. A "home-made " 
plow fashioned by the skilled 
hands of these pioneer "Mormons " 
was performing a useful service. 
A blacksmith's shop and a grist- 
mill were in operation. The set- 
tlement was in a flourishing con- 
dition, and its ultimate success 

seemed assured, when an event occurred which brought 
the Lemhi missionary enterprise to an abrupt ending. 

123. Fort Lemhi Abandoned (1858). — On February 25, 
1858, a band of Bannack and Shoshoni Indians swooped 
down upon a herd of cattle which were grazing on some low 
hills near the fort, and attempted to steal them. 

An alarm was soon sounded and a small party of men 
set out to rescue the stock. They soon foimd, however, 
that they were being surroimded by a force of about 150 
red men. A hurried retreat within the walls of the fort, 
doubtless prevented the massacre of the entire settlement. 
As it was, the Indians succeeded in kiUing two of the set- 
tlers, and in woimding five others. A few weeks later the 
missionaries were officially recalled, and the fort was aban- 
doned on March 28, 1858. 

124. The Mud Walls of Fort Lemhi. — ^Fort Lemhi was 
16 rods square and was enclosed by mud, or adobe, walls. 
The walls were 9 feet high, 4 feet thick at the base, and 

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about 2 feet thick at the top. The method of construction 
followed by the resourceful men who built these walls is 
most mteresting. A frame-work of planks which corres- 
ponded with the shape of the walls was first erected. Into 
these plank frames was put the native clay mixed with 


waterl This wet clay, when allowed to dry, formed a kind 
of mud cement, which proved to be most durable. Portions 
of these walls, now worn down to a height of s or 6 feet, still 
guard thtf^ enclosure within the old fort. To-day these 
venerable landmarks, which are slowly yielding to the 
assaults of time and weather, mutely remind the sightseer 
of a brave expedition made into the solitudes of Idaho over 
a half -century ago. 

125. Idaho's First Permanent Settlement. — On April 
14, i860, a little party of Mormon home-seekers, founded 
the town of Franklin, which enjoys the prestige of being 
Idaho's first permanent settlement. Tins little frontier 
village, almost a thousand miles removed from railroad 
• and steamboat facilities, was named in honor of Franklin 
D. Richards, a distinguished Utah pioneer. These path- 
finders beUeved that their new home lay within the boimd- 

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aries of Utah. The Utah-Idaho boundary-line survey of 
1872, however, revealed the fact that Franklin was situated 
in southern Idaho instead of northern Utah. 

126. Franklin Pioneers Establish Idaho's First Irri- 
gation System. — ^As early as the third decade of the last 
century, Reverend H. H. Spal- 
ding had dug small irrigating- 
ditdies at the Lapwai Mission. 
In the sxunmer of 1836 a small 
garden was imder cultivation 
at Old Fort Hall. Twenty 
years later some simple irrigat- 
ing was practised on a small 
scale by the Mormon mission- 
aries in the Lemhi Valley. It 
remained, however, for the lit- 
tle Franklin colony to lay the 
foundation for Idaho's first ir- 
rigation system. During the 
year i860, an irrigation canal 
3>^ miles in length admitted 
the waters of Maple Creek to 
their little ten-acre farm tracts. 

127. Idaho's First School 
for White Children.— The first 
school conducted for white chil- 
dren within the present bound- 
aries of Idaho, was opened at 
Franklin during the fall of 

i860. The xmique honor of having taught this first school 
belongs to Miss Hannah Cornish, a daughter of one of the 
original founders of the settlement. The little schoolhouse 
in which these pioneer pupils received instruction, was made 
of logs and was erected in the centre of the town site, which 
was in the form of a rectangle, 90 rods long and 60 rods wide. 

128. Work of Protestant Churches. — With the dis- 
covery of gold and the great niunber of people who flocked 

* ^*1 


1 j« 






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into this region in search of wealth, came still another 
phase of religious development. The Roman Catholic 
fathers extended their work into the mining-camps. Re- 
presentatives of the various Protestant denominations came 
also, and as the population increased and communities be- 
came permanent, church-buildings were erected and the 
present era of religious advancement was begun. Among 

these pioneer Protestant workers, 
the man who stands out pre-emi- 
nently is Daniel S. Tuttle, of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, who 
was elected Missionary Bishop of 
Montana, Utah, and Idaho, in Oc- 
tober of 1866. 

129. Bishop Tuttle and Rever- 
end Mr. Fackler. — ^Bishop Tuttle 
first came to Idaho a year later, 
reaching Boise on October 12, with, 
as he wrote, "broken neck, bruised 
head, aching bones, and disturbed 
ten^^er," due to the long stage-ride 
through the sage-brush plains from 
Salt Lake City. Idaho was the 
only one of the three Territories where church work had 
been begun prior to his arrival. In 1864, Reverend St. 
Michael Fackler had come to Boise City from Oregon. 
Remaining two years, he was able to build a frame church 
on the comer of Bannock and Seventh Streets. In 1867, 
he started for New York by way of the Isthmus of Panama. 
Cholera broke out on shipboard, and Mr. Fackler devoted 
himself to the sick and suffering. Before he reached his 
destination, he, too, succumbed to the disease, dying at 
Key West. St. Michael's Cathedral in Boise is so called 
not alone for the Saint whose name it bears, but also in 
memory of this good man. 

130. Bishop Tuttle Revered by Pioneers. — ^For nine- 
teen years Bishop Tuttle was missionary bishop of Idaho, 


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and none of the early preachers was more generally loved 
and revered than he. He was a man of splendid phy- 
sique and had those qualities of mind and heart which en- 
abled him to adapt his work to the needs of the new and 
chaotic commimities which he served. In his "Remi- 
niscences of a Missionary Bishop," he half-humorously 
quotes some of the newspaper comments of that time. 
The following, which appeared in the Portland Oregonian 
was given as the remarks of a stage-driver made to a pas- 
senger who had just met the bishop: 

" The boys all love him. He is as quiet and modest as he 
is learned and scholarly. He can have my overcoat any 
night the snow flies." f 

131. Menaced by Indians. — ^Year after year, travelling 
by stage and horseback, he visited the different communities, 
most of them isolated mining-camps, holding services where- 
ever rooms could be secured, marrying, baptizing, and bury- 
ing. The collections were often generous, and it was not 
unusual to find little bags of gold-dust instead of coins or 
greenbacks. He traversed a region infested with hostile 
Indians, and while he was never accosted, he had some nar- 
row escapes. Two men who had escaped from the Indians 
the day Sergeant and Mrs. Denoilles were killed while on 
their way from Owyhee Coimty to Boise, joined the stage 
on which Bishop Tuttle was riding the day after the tragedy, 
and gave an account of the massacre. The murder of the 
Denoilles led to a determined fight by the whites against the 
Indians and put an end to Indian atrocities in that section, 
until the year 1878. 

132. Golden Jubilee in 1916. — ^Bishop Tuttle has served 
in his official capacity longer than any other American now 
living, and by virtue of this long service has been for a 
number of years, presiding bishop of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in the United States, his authority extending to 
Alaska, the Philippines, the Hawaiian Islands, and over for- 
eign missions. In October, 1916, the Golden Jubilee of his 
election as bishop was celebrated at St. Louis, where he resides. 

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133. Colonel William Craig. — ^Idaho's first permanent 
white settler was Colonel William Craig. Bom in Green- 
briar County, Virginia, in 1807, he cast his lot with the Rocky 
Moimtain trappers in the sximmer of 1829. During the 
romantic fur-trading third decade of the last century, he, 

with his intimate associates, Rob- 
ert Newell and Joseph Meek, led 
the wild, free life of the fur-hunter. 
Shortly after the arrival of Rev- 
erend H. H. Spalding at Lapwai 
(1836), Colonel Craig selected a 
home near the mission on Lapwai 
Creek. The records show that he 
established a permanent residence 
in Idaho in the fall of 1846. In 
harmony with the provisions of the 
Oregon Donation Act of 1850, he 
and his Nez Perce wife, Isabel, 
claimed and patented 640 acres of 
land at Lapwai. During the win- 
ter of 1855-1856 he rendered distinguished aid to Governor 
I. I. Stevens while the latter was negotiating a series of 
Indian treaties. So conspicuous was his leadership among 
the Nez Perces that he was given a place on Governor 
Stevens's staff with the title of lieutenant-colonel. 

During the winter of 1858-1859 he was postmaster at 
Walla Walla, where he resided temporarily. He was the 
first Indian agent at Lapwai, and was influential politically 
during the early years of the Territory. He died and was 
buried at Lapwai in 1869. "But for his liberaUty he would 
have been rich, but he has given away enough to make 
several fortunes." 

134. Robert Newell. — ^From the muster-roll of the trap- 
pers engaged in the fur-trade, by process of the survival of 
the fittest, there remained in old Oregon a group of per- 
manent settlers known as "Moimtain-Men." The most 
influential member of this Uttle company of pathfinders was 

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"Doctor" Robert Newell, who spent twenty years of his 
life in Idaho. He was bom in Ohio in 1807. In 1829 he 
departed for the Rocky Mountains in company with the 
Smith- Jackson-Sublette party of trappers, where he re- 
mained until 1840. During these adventurous years 
Doctor Newell formed a lasting 
friendship for Colonel Craig and 
Joseph Meek, with whom he shared 
the perils of frontier life. In 1840 
he organized at Fort Hall the 
small party that drove the first 
wagons over the Oregon Trail 
across Idaho and eastern Oregon 
to Fort Walla Walla on the Co- 
limibia River. Abandoning his 
trapping career in December, 1840, 
he settled ne^ the historic little 
town of Champoeg in the Willa- 
mette Valley, where he was active 
in commercial and political life 
during the succeeding twenty years. Ruined financially 
by the flood of 1861-1862, he joined the army of gold- 
seekers then thronging to the mines of north Idaho. He 
served a brief term as Indian agent at Lapwai, and rendered 
effective assistance to his government in completing treaty 
relations with the Nez Perces. At the time of his death, in 
1869, he was a respected citizen of Lewiston. Like Colonel 
Craig, his beloved friend and mountain comrade. Doctor 
Newell possessed the virtues of the finest type of pioneer: a 
quiet courage, an open-handed generosity, unusual vigor of 
body and mind, a high regard for truth, a jovial and com- 
panionable temperament, and the capacity to form enduring 


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135. Idaho's Gold Discoveries Part of a Great Move- 
ment. — ^During the decade which followed Marshall's spec- 
tacular discovery of gold in the California mill-race in 1848, 
restless bands of prospectors had ever been on the lookout 
for traces of the precious metal. Disregardf ul of boimdary- 
lines and imawed by obstacles, these argonauts pushed 
southward into Arizona and New Mexico, eastward into 
Nevada, and northward into the Pacific Northwest and 
even British Columbia. . It was this irresistible invasion of 
new placer-fields by men whose imagination^had been fired 
by the hope of sudden wealth that led to the discovery of 
gold in Idaho in the year i860. 

136. Captain E. D. Pierce Discovers Gold on the 
Clearwater. — ^In the summer of i860 Captain E. D. Pierce, 

a miner who had prospected in ^ 
California and British Colimibia, 
made his epoch-making discovery 
of gold on Canal Gulch of Oro 
Fino Creek, a tributary of the 
Clearwater. Although the first 
pan of dirt mined by a member of 
^ J ^^^^ his little prospecting-party yielded 

K ^^^^BL ^. only about three cents worth of 

gold, yet this discovery inaugu- 
rated the mining era which was 
destined to bring Idaho Territory 
into political existence less than 
three years later. Captain Pierce 
returned to Walla Walla in the 

Discoverer of gold in Idaho. 


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autumn and organized a small party which proceeded to 
Canal Gulch in November (i860). During die winter of 
1 860-1 86 1, the men were at work staking off claims, whip- 
sawing lumber for sluice-boxes, and sinking prospect holes. 
When spring arrived it was found that 41 of these claims 


had yielded 27 cents to the pan. In March, one of the 
prospectors returned to civilization with $800 worth of 
gold-dust to sell. By a curious coincidence these same 
spring months of 1861, which marked the tragic epoch of 
civil war for the nation, ushered in a golden era for the 
future Idaho. During those trying years of sectional con- 
flict, through a strange irony of events, the Secessionist as 
well as Union man helped dig the gold from Idaho's trea- 
sure-fields which vastly increased the national credit and 
enabled the federal government to maintain its integrity. 

137* Significance of the Clearwater Discoveries. — ^As 
soon as bags of gold-dust from the Oro Fino mines began 
to reach Portland, there was a stampede to the new gold- 
fields. From the California mines, which already began to 

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show signs of exhaustion, came a rush of miners overland 
to the Clearwater coimtry. In April, 1861, 300 miners 
were in the new diggings and a month later the number had 
increased to a thousand. As the spring advanced, the ex- 


citement increased and all available steamers from Victoria 
and San Francisco were chartered for the purpose of hurry- 
ing the gold-crusaders toward the new Eldorado. 

Pierce City, named in- honor of Captain Pierce, and the 
neighboring camp of Oro Fino, sprang into existence almost 
overnight. In Jtme, 1861, Lewiston, christened in honor of 
Meriwether Lewis, was founded at the confluence of the 
Snake and the Clearwater. From its busy boat-landing 
there soon departed pack-trains laden with goods for the 
newly discovered camps. 

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X38. Discovery of Salmon River Mining District (i86z- 
z862). — ^It was the belief of many of the prospectors that 
the mines at Pierce City and Oro Fino were but the out- 
skirts of some rich central deposit. Parties of prospectors 
scoured the coimtry to the southward and in the summer of 

The modem village is situated near the site of the placer-camp of "Old" Flocence. 

1861 located rich diggings in the gulches and creeks of the 
Elk City district, situated on the South Fork of the Clear- 
water. North of the Salmon and southwest of Elk City lay 
the astonishingly rich placer-camp of Florence which was 
discovered in the autimm of 1861. In August, 1862, a few 
miles south of the Salmon, James Warren discovered the 
more permanent but superficially less productive Warren^s 

139. The Astonishing Richness of the Florence Camp. 
— ^The Florence placers were doubtless the most picturesque 
as well as superficially the richest of all the famous Idaho 
camps. The town of Florence was situated near the centre 

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of a basin which resembled a gigantic inverted saucer. 
This basin or flat was surrounded by a high, forbidding 
chain of snow-capped mountains. One observer who viewed 
the camp from a distance at twilight thought he could see 
a thousand camp-fires burning. The sight reminded him 
of an army in camp, "dispersed over six or eight square 
miles of gravel." 

On accoimt of its high altitude Florence was visited by 
severe frost almost every night during the sxunmer of 1862. 
On July 3 of that year a blinding snow-storm, which lasted 
nearly all day, raged over the newly reared camp. 
! In the richness of its surface gravels it rivalled the most 
famous California placers in their palmiest days. The 
yield from a pdn of dirt was often measured in terms of 
dollars instead of cents. One pan of gravel from Baboon 
Gulch yielded $500. Out of this same gulch it is said that 
$6,600 was taken in one day. In the spring of 1862 gold-dust 
was weighed by the pound. Peter Bablaine, nicknamed 
*' Baboon," who gave his name to one of the magic gulches 
of this camp, left the diggings, in the spring of 1862, the 
proud owner of 75 pounds of "dust.'^ 

140. Significance of the Salmon River Discoyeries.^r— 
The Salmon River discoveries proved that the gold-fields 
of the future Idaho were extensive as well as rich. Con- 
sequently, the throng of prospectors which had later en- 
tered Idaho mainly from California and the Pacific North- 
west, now began to pour into the Salmon River coimtry 
from both east and west. Upon this far-famed mining- 
tiistrict there now converged streams of prospectors from 
Missouri, Minnesota, ** Pike's Peak," as well as from Cali- 
fornia and the modem Inland Empire. 

In the smnmer of 1862 some eastern prospecting parties 
toimd for the Salmon River mines, were diverted from their 
course and made important gold discoveries in the present 
western Montana. It was the golden gravel-bars of these 
Salmon mines that not only laid secure foimdations for 
Idaho, but stimulated the peopling of Montana as well. 

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< 2 

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141. Grimes's Boise Basin Discovery (1862). — ^In the 
late sxmimer of 1862 a little band of prospectors under the 
leadership of George Grimes and Moses Splawn discovered 
gold in the Boise Basin. The members of this httle party, 
however, had scarcely reached the scene of their momen- 
tous discovery before they were attacked by hostile Indians 
and Grimes was killed. Moses Splawn has left us a touching 
pen-picture of this first burial-service performed over a 
white man in the Boise Basin: 

"When we reached the top [of the hill] it seemed as if 
20 guns were fired in our faces. Grimes fell just as we 
reached the top. The last and only words he said were: 
*Mose, don't let them scalp me.' Thus perished a brave 
and honorable man at a time when he stood ready to reap 
his reward. . . . We carried Grimes to a prospect hole 
and buried him amid deep silence. He was our comrade 
and we had endured dangers together and we knew not 
whose turn would come next." 

The party retreated to Walla Walla, where they enUsted 
more prospectors. In October the reinforced party reached 
the Basin and resumed their search for gold. 

Z42. Boise Basin One of the Nation's Richest Placer- 
Camps. — ^The Boise Basin rivalled in richness the most 
famous Califomia placers. Its undefiled pine-forests fur- 
nished an abimdance of lumber for rockers, sluice-boxes, 
and buildings; while its nimierous streams provided the 
indispensable water-supply. By the spring of 1863 the usual 
mad rush was on. Placerville, Centerville, Hog'em 
(Pioneer), and Bannock, later known as Idaho City, sprang 
into a sudden and busy existence. By 1864, over 16,000 
people had poiu-ed into the Basin. Idaho City became the 
metropolis of the Basin and for a time the most populous 
city in the Territory. 

143. The Boise Basin a Permanent Community. — 
In all Idaho there was no mining district more fortimate 
in its location than was the Basin. Near it stretched the 
beautiful and fertile Payette and Boise Valleys which were 

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Due to the limited knowledge possessed by our legislators of 
the topography of Idaho Territory in 1864, the descriptions of 
the county boundaries found in the statutes of our First Terri- 
torial Legislature are in a few instances vague or inaccurate. 
The accompanying map is based on the most reliable data 
available at the present time. The following are some of the 
discrepancies which appear in the statutes defining our first 
Territorial county boundary *lines: 

A Conflict Betwee/i Oneida and Ogalala Counties. — The north 
and east boundary of Oneida County is described: "Where the 
1 1 2th meridian intersects the summit of the Rocky Mountains, 
thence in an easterly and southerly direction to the Colorado 
boundary, etc." Thus the eastern boundary of Oneida goes 
diagonally across the present State of Wyoming, intersecting the 
northern boundary of Colorado a little east of the 107 th merid- 
ian of longitude.* The west boundary of Ogalala County is 
given as the io8th meridian. Since the west boundary (108th 
meridian) of Ogalala lies west of the east boundary (the Rocky 
Mountains) of Oneida, there is an overlapping of the boundary- 
lines of those counties. 

Deer Lodge County. — The eastern boundary is given as the 
ti2th meridian south of its intersection with the summit of the 
Rocky Mountains. Since the 112th meridian is /j to 30 miles 
east of the nearest point of the summit of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, as is shown on the map, the point nearest to the summit 
of the Rocky Mountains is used. 

Jefferson County. — The same discrepancy as indicated for 

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^EV. I "{jTAH 



Deer Lodge County reappears in the western boundary -line of 
Jefferson County. 

The Southeast Boundary of Boise County. — The southeast 
boundary of Boise County is described as running from the point 
where Grimes Creek (now known as Moore's Creek) enters the 
Boise River, south to a point on the Snake River opposite the 
mouth of Goose Creek. The latter point is doubtless farther 
east than it was supposed to be in 1864. 

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in due time filled with permanent settlers. Only a few 
miles away on the Oregon Trail was Boise City, the 
future capital, with its important military post. To the 
Basin also came niunerous families from Missouri who 
had left their homes to escape conditions imposed by the 
Civil War, then raging in the East. Near the Basin also 
were several fine quartz-mining fields which were destined 
to make an insistent call for capital and for abiding popula- 
tions. Moreover, the valleys adjacent to the Basin coun- 
try were blessed with a singularly mild and attractive 
climate, which was a powerful factor in giving the region 
an air of permanency and stability. 

144. Michael Jordan's Owyhee Discovery. — ^In May, 
1863, in what is now Owyhee Coimty, a party of miners led 
by Michael Jordan prospected the Uttle stream later known 
as Jordan Creek, and foimd gold in paying quantities. 
When the news reached the Boise Basin and other camps, 
2,500 men rushed off distractedly for the new diggings. 
This latest stampede was dubbed by a California news- 
paper as a "special forty-eight hour insanity for Owy- 

145. The Owyhee Quartz-Mines Attract Outside Capi- 
tal. — ^In July, 1863, some silver and quartz ledges were un- 
covered. Other rich quartz discoveries followed, which at- 
tracted the attention of the nation to this remote Idaho 
camp. The Owyhee mineral district soon showed indispu- 
table evidences of permanency and began to attract heavy 
investments of outside capital. Only a few y^ars after the 
original discovery the output of this famous district ran 
far into the millions and its rich and picturesquely named 
mines could be niunbered by the score. 

146. Early Owyhee Camps. — ^The first camp estab- 
lished in the future Owyhee Coimty was Boonville, which 
was laid out in the siunmer of 1863. Later the name of 
this settlement was changed to Dewey in honor of Colonel 
W. H. Dewey, a pioneer mining-man of this district. A 
Uttle later Ruby City sprang into existence, but was soon 

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In the Cceur d'Alene mining dbtrict. 

absorbed by SUver City, which became the county seat of 
Owyhee County in 1866. 

147. Mining Development in Lemhi and Custer Coun- 
ties. — ^In 1866 a party of Montana prospectors discovered 
rich placer-diggings in what shortly afterward became 
Lemhi County. Five thousand miners soon rushed to this 

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district In 1868, about 12 miles from Salmon City, a 
gold-bearing quartz-ledge was foimd. Soon other valuable 
placer and quartz claims were located. 

While the mineral district embraced within the present 
Lemhi Coimty was rich, there were np bonanzas imcovered^ 


such as characterized the discoveries at Florence the Boise 
Basin, or Owyhee. In 1867 Salmon City was laid out by 
the future United States Senator Shoup and some associ- 
ates. It became the coimty seat of Lemhi Coimty and an 
important supply-centre for the adjacent mining-camps. 

Between 1870 and 1880, important quartz-fields were 
discovered in what is now Custer County. In that remote 
region girded by the towering Sawtooth Mountains on the 
west, nature had with a lavish hand distributed her precious 
ore-beds. Near Bonanza, in 1875, was located the famous 
Charles Dickens mine. With a small hand-mortar, its for- 
tunate owners were able to crush out in one day $1,000 
worth of gold. Among the important mining-towns estab- 
lished in this district was Bonanza, which was founded in 
1879. ChaUis, the future county-seat, was laid out the fol- 
lowing year. 

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148. The Wood River District (1879).— During the 
late sixties and early seventies the menacing attitude of the 
Indians of southern Idaho greatly retarded mining develop- 
ment in the Wood River coimtry. In the summer of 1879, 
soon after the successful termination of the Bannack War, 
some prospectors discovered rich quartz-ledges in this dis- 
trict. The ore was a valuable galena and carried abimdant 

' quantities of lead and silver. This once inhospitable region, 

( the abode of prowling savages, was almost overnight 

dotted with camps and mining-claims. In May, 1883, a 

branch of the Oregon Short Line reached Hailey and in 

the following year was extended northward to Ketcjium. 

The arrival of railroad facilities greatly accelerated the 
prosperity of these already flourishkig camps. Prominent 
capitalists, among them Jay Gould, came here and gathered 
a golden harvest from Idaho's newest treasure-house. In 
1881 Hailey was made the seat of government for this 
mineral district and became a social, political, and financial 
centre. It was named in honor of John Hailey, the historian 
and pioneer transportation man of Idaho, who owned the 
land on which the town was built. 

149. The Stampede to the Coeur d'Alenes (1884). — 
One of the wildest stampedes in the history of mining was 
the rush to the Coeur d'Alenes in the early months of 1884. 
Into a coimtry without trails or roads, save the old Mullan 
Military Road, covered with a dense growth of cedar and 
fir, in the dead of winter, through deep snow, hurried thou- 
sands of excited gold-hunters. Once again did Idaho's 
gulches, creeks, and ravines prove treasure-laden, for some 
of the lucky argonauts succeeded in finding good-sized quan- 
tities of the precious ^'pay-dirt.'' 

150. The Discovery of the Great Lead-Silver Belt. — 
These first placer finds, however, were but the prelude to the 
great mining drama that was soon to be enacted in this 
region. On a tributary of the South Fork of the Coeur 
d'Alene River, in the latter part of the year 1884, the first 
quartz "strike" was made in the famous lead-silver belt of 

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to I 


1 1 

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this district. At Wardner, in the following year (1885), the 
marvellously rich Bunker Hill and Sullivan mine was located. 
This mine has been an astonishingly heavy and steady pro- 
ducing property and, through its association with the 
problems of the relation of capital and labor, has connected 
Idaho in a large way with the outside world. In July, 1901, 
near the town of Burke, occurred the discovery of the great 
Hercules mine, "The Wonder of the Camp." The Hercxdes 
is as famous for its steady productivity as for the quality of 
its output. To-day it is producing the finest ore in the 
Coeur d'Alenes. 

151. The World's Leading Lead-Silver District.— The 
lead-silver district of the Coeur d'Alenes is the richest in 
the world. So great has been the total product of these 
mines that Idaho now leads all the other States in its out- 
put of lead. It is highly fitting that historic Shoshone 
Coxmty, which witnessed Idaho's first mining stampede, 
should also have been the scene of her last great discovery. 

Among the flourishing towns which serve as supply- 
points for this mineral district are Wallace, Mullan, Wardner, 
Kellogg, and Burke. Pierce City, Idaho's pioneer placer- 
camp, was the county seat of "old" Shoshone Coxmty until 
1885, when the honor passed to Murray. In 1898 the 
county seat was transferred from Murray to Wallace, the 
largest city in the district. 

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152. Placer-Mining. — ^Placer-mining was the first method 
used in removing the yellow metal from Idaho's creek- 
beds and gulches. Along those golden streams the precious 
'Must" was sometimes foxmd in little flakes called "colors"; 
again, the particles would be as large as grains of wheat; 
while occasionally a shining lump or "nugget" of gold would 
be imcovered. In order to exploit the riches of those first 
placer-fields, the prospector needed almost no capital and 
only a few simple tools. In one day, he could often take 
from those "diggings" $70 to $100 worth of treasure. 

Quartz-Mining. Soon after the discovery of the placer- 
mines, gold and other precious metals were found in rocks 
and ledges, which were often deeply buried under the 
earth's surface. The removal of the ore from these ledges 
or "lodes" is called quartz-mining. The successful treat- 
ment of the ore required the use of expensive machinery 
and the investment of large amoimts of capital. The Uttle 
towns or "camps" that followed in the wake of the quartz 
discoveries were usually more permanent than those which 
flourished in the placer-fields. While the history of those 
early quartz communities aboimds in events of bold adven- 
ture and stirring romance, yet the story of the bearded men 
who first invaded those beautiful silent valleys of Idaho and 
tore them to pieces in their mad search for placer-gold 
doubtless forms the most thrilling and picturesque chapter 
in our annals. 

153. The Prospector's Tools. — ^The first tools used by 
the prospector were the pick, shovel, and pan. The latter 
receptacle was made out of sheet-iron or tin, and in appear- 
ance resembled a bread-pan. In fact, the miner often 

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utilized his gold-pan for bread-making purposes. " Pan- 
ning '* gold was a short and easy process. The prospector 
first partially filled his pan with "pay-dirt." He then added 
some water and began shaking the pan with a certain whirl- 
ing motion calculated to separate the gold from the earth. 


The heavier pieces of gold soon settled in the bottom of the 
pan. After removing or "sluicing off" the loose earth and 
water, the lucky miner could readily tell by the aid of his 
gold-scales how great had been his yield in "dust" 

The "rocker" was the next gold-washing machine to come 
into general use. It bore a close resemblance to a baby's 
cradle or " rocker " with the foot-board knocked out. Where 
the slats of the cradle might have been there was nailed a 
piece of sheet-iron pimched full of holes. This rocker was 
placed by the side of the stream. One man would throw 
dirt on the perforated sheet while his partner would pour 
water and rapidly rock the machine. The heavy gold par- 
ticles fell through the holes and were caught behind cleats 
which were fastened along the bottom of the rocker. The 

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coarser earth was separated from the gold and flushed away 
by the water. 

A more effective placer-mining device than the rocker 
was the sluice or sluice-box. This was a long, slender 
trough, 10 or 12 feet in length and about a foot square at 


the ends. A number of the sluice-boxes were usually built 
at a time and placed end to end or in "strings." After the 
earth was dumped into these sluice-boxes a strong current 
of water from a ditch was nm through them. As happened 
in the case of the rocker, the pieces of gold gravitated to 
the bottom of the troughs where they were retained by a 
series of wooden cleats or "riffles." 

Hydraulic mining was merely a modification of sluice- 
mining methods. Instead of attacking the gold-laden hill- 
sides with pick and shovel, the miner turned against them 
powerful streams of water shot through nozzles. Soon 
great holes were torn in these hillsides, which caused them 
to crumble. The loose dirt was then run through a " string " 
of sluice-boxes. 

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154. The Miner's Cabin. — ^The typical miner's cabin 
was a small, rude structure and was made out of the timber 
which grew so plentifully near the camps. A striking fea- 
ture of the miner's furnishings were the bunks. These 
were built against one end of the cabin, and were placed 

one above the other. The 
vacant space beneath the 
lower bunk was often util- 
ized as; a storage-point for 
provisions. The mattresses 
often consisted of fir-boughs 
covered with several pairs 
of blankets. A dry-goods 
box, nailed to the wall, 
served as a cupboard, and 
was filled with cooking uten- 
sils or "traps." Near the 
fire-place stood a crudely- 
made table, on which were 
cluttered books, papers, and 
numerous small articles. A 
few cheap pictures and 
prints usually looked down 
from these log walls. In 
the cabin of a Union man, a visitor would be quite sure to 
find pictures of Abraham Lincoln, his cabinet, generals, and 
the like. If, however, the owner happened to be a South- 
em sympathizer, as was often the case, especially in the 
"Basin," pictures of Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee 
would be almost as certain to decorate his walls. 

155. The Miner's Food. — ^The staple foods upon which 
the miner depended were bread, bacon, beans, and coffee. 
Soon after the establishment of camps in the mining-dis- 
tricts, herds of cattle were often driven in on foot, and beef 
became one of the most plentiful and, of course, one of the 
cheapest articles of food. On accoimt of the lack of a 
vegetable diet, miners frequently suffered from the scurvy. 


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In order to avoid this dreaded disease, Oro Fino miners, 
during the winter of 1860-1861, brought potatoes on their 
backs through 15 and 20 miles of snow. Mr. W. A. Goulder, 
in his "Reminiscences of a Pioneer" tells us that "imcooked 
potatoes sUced up and soaked in vinegar were far from afford- 
ing an appetizing dish, but it proved a sovereign remedy for 
the scurvy." As early as April, 1863, only eight months 
after gold was discovered in the basin, vegetables were 
grown in the Payette Valley. So great was the demand for 
these garden products in the neighboring camps that green 
onions sold at $1 a dozen. Cucumbers and ears of green 
com were eagerly bought at the fancy price of $2 a dozen. 

156. The Miner's Dress. — ^The miner's dress was dis- 
tinctive and picturesque. His broad-brimmed, slouched 
felt hat often covered a shaggy growth of imcut hair. His 
heavy flannel shirt was a conspicuous feature of his clothing. 
This was usually gray or blue, and was worn open at the 
bosom. A large bandanna handkerchief, tied in careless 
fashion around the neck, partially covered the open rent in 
the shirt-front. His pantaloons "v^ere tucked into high, 
heavy, hob-nailed boots and were belted in at the waist. 
The six-shooter which generally himg from his belt bore 
silent, but emphatic, witness to the law of self-protection 
which held sway in the earUest camps. 

157. Miners Were Young and Vigorous. — ^The throngs 
of miners who poured into Idaho's first placer-camps were 
composed of young men. While it is true that among those 
gold-himters there were many California "Forty-Niners" 
who were beginning to mature, yet a gray-haired man was an 
exception in the camps. In addition to representing the 
vigorous yoimg manhood of the nation, these argonauts 
were a singularly courageous and adventurous body of men. 
The environment they foimd in this new Eldorado was most 
healthful. In the day-time they worked in a clear, electric 
air; at night they were lulled to sleep under moimtain- 
pines. Nearly all of the deaths in these early camps were 
the result of shooting-affrays or violence; almost none were 

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from sickness. Infectious diseases were practically unheard 
of. The most common maladies, and those dreaded by the 
miners, were rhetunatism, pneumonia, and scurvy. 

158. The Placer-Miner Worked Hard. — The placer- 
miner^s occupation did not consist of one continuous roimd 
of adventure and hilarity. Many of his labors were pe- 
culiarly heavy and exhausting. Hauling and shovelling wet 
earth hoiu* after hour, whipsawing liunber, digging ditches, 
or building sluice-boxes and flimies were at best burdensome 
tasks. But it was the feverish haste in which the work was 
prosecuted that intensified the exhausting natiu-e of this in- 
dustry. Since the flow of the moxmtain streams frequently 
furnished the water-supply for only a few months in the 
year, the miner toiled almost day and night. As an old 
record puts it: "During the nm of water, men worked days 
and nights, Sxmdays and all. " The same amoxmt of energy 
expended upon less exciting forms of employment would 
have been considered intolerable drudgery. But the ele- 
ment of chance in this fascinating pursuit beguiled those 
laborious hours. In the very earth in which the miner dug, 
perhaps there lay hidden the golden "pocket" and the glitter- 
ing nuggets which might in one brief day convert him into a 
financial king. 

159. Recreations. — ^The principal mining-camp recrea- 
tions were gambling, drinking, dancing, and theatricals. 
Gambling was the master passion. The brilliantly lighted 
saloon, with its enticing music, its social cheer, and its babel 
of strange voices proved a magnet for the mining com- 
mimity. Many a California miner was reminded of the 
days of "Forty-Nine" when he heard the familiar cry: 
"Make your game, gentlemen, make yoiu* game — ^all down 
— ^no more — game's made." Drinking was common, and 
getting dnmk was a minor transgression. Whiskey was the 
favorite drink and was taken straight and at a gulp. While 
many yoxmg men resisted, or were not overcome by the 
temptations offered at those gaming-tables and bars, yet it 
is true that gambling and drink were the means of blighting 

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many a promising career. Dancing was a favorite diversion. 
At intervals, theatrical troupes visited the larger camps. 
Their performances, though generally crude and of tiie 
blood-and-thxmder type, were greeted by packed houses. 
Billiards furnished an innocent form of pastime. Many 
yoimg men of quiet tastes spent their evenings in reading, 
in serious discussions, and in recalling "back home'' experi- 
ences. At some store groups often met in friendly converse, 
and discussed the all-absorbing topic of mining. Among 
the favorite out-of-door sports were foot-racing and horse- 
racing. Associated with the religious life of the commimi- 
ties were such recreations as church sociables, entertain- 
ments, and festivals. A pioneer newspaper informs us that 
one of these early churches "was filled with the youth and 
age of both sexes, and that $200 of Christmas gifts" hxmg 
from a bespangled Christmas tree. 

160. Friendships. — ^The pioneer miner was a genuine 
friend. If he struck a rich "prospect," he staked off claims 
for his friends. If a comrade needed money, his friend 
" staked " him. If a " pal " were sick, his friends nursed him ; 
if he died, those same friends gave him a decent burial. If 
a man were imfairly attacked, his friend would protect 
him, if necessary, at the sacrifice of his own life. A partner 
was affectionately called "pard," and the bond of friend- 
ship between cabin associates was something sacred. A 
striking illustration of the enduring nature of those pioneer 
friendships was the avenging of the murder of Lloyd Ma- 
gruder, a prominent Lewiston packer, by his friend Hill 
Beachy. While returning from the Montana mines in 
October, 1863, Magruder was brutally murdered by a gang 
of desperadoes. Hill Beachy, the proprietor of the Lxma 
House at Lewiston, was his friend. At a great sacrifice of 
time and money, Beachy followed the outlaws to San Fran- 
cisco, and had them brought back to Lewiston, where they 
were hanged. 

161. Mining-Camp Humor. — ^The early miners were a 
race of jokers. Their hiunor was sometimes grim, sometimes 

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irreverent, but always picturesque and rollicking. It was in 
evidence when they christened claims, nicknamed comrades, 
or characterized tiie happenings of the day. Newly dis- 
covered mines bore such expressive titles as "Lucky Boy," 
'' Snowshoe,'' " Big Fish," or " Whiskey Gulch." Associates 

were given such descriptive nick- 
names as "Club-Foot George," 
^1^^ "Three-Fmgered Smith," "Snap- 

^^^^^k ping Andy," and "Rattlesnake 

^1 ^^ Jack." Credit was referred to as 

^K ^^^^B " jawbone." Certain brands of liq- 

^H|^V-^B uor were labelled "gum- ticklers" 

^i^^^l^P and "lightning flashes." A hang- 

^J^^^^H^ ing was known as a "mid-air 

^^H^^^H^^^ dance." Instead of informing his 
^^^^^^^^^^H "pard" that dangerous criminals 
^^^^^^^^^^^1 ought to be executed, the miner 

^ ^B would be likely to remind him that 

"if a man ain't good enough to 
live here, he ain't good enough to 
Uve anywhere." If one of these 
miners thought that an election to 
the legislature would turn the head of a conceited candidate, 
he might irreverently remark that "if that chap is elected to 
the legislature God A'mighty's overcoat wouldn't make a 
vest pattern for him." 

i62. Religious Life in the Camps. — ^Early mining-camp 
conditions were imfavorable for Sabbath observance and 
church attendance. On Sxmday the miner generally went 
to town to sharpen his pick, get his mail, make necessary 
purchases for the week, meet his fellows, and perhaps at- 
tend a miners' meeting. On that day all places of business 
were open, and dancing-houses, saloons, and gambling re- 
sorts reaped their heaviest profits. 

Despite this imusual environment, the miners were nota- 
bly active in erecting churches and in donating generous 
smns of money for their maintenance. Catholic priests 

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From " Vigiiante Days and Ways" by 
Jf. P. Langford. A . C. McClurg 6* Co., 
publishers. Used by permission, 




and Protestant ministers have both testified to the hearty 
welcome and generous support which were accorded them. 
Fathers Toussaint MespH6 and A. Z. Poulin arrived in the 
Basin in the summer of 1863, and were celebrating mass in 
four churches before the close of that year. In 1864 a 
Methodist church was under construction at Idaho City. As 
early as 1866 Silver City was the proud possessor of a Union 
Church. In the fall of 1867 Bishop Daniel S. Tuttle, of the 
Episcopal Church, began his notable ministry in Idaho, and 
conducted services in both the Basin and Owyhee districts. 

163. Intellectual Interests. — ^The young men who fol- 
lowed the first rush to the Idaho gold-fields were exception- 
ally bright and resourceful. Many of them had been well 
trained in the schools; all of them had been educated through 
the awakening experiences and contacts incident to their 
new environment. Although far removed from colleges, 
libraries, and lecture-halls, they 
managed to retain an interest in 
cultural subjects and eagerly read 
whatever scraps of literature or 
printed matter their cabins hap- 
pened to afford. Many a learned 
discussion on history, religion, phi- 
losophy, or the classics was waged 
aroxmd the camp-fires. 

A demand for schools was cre- 
ated through the early arrival of 
famiUes in the larger camps. As 
early as the fall of 1864 Mrs. Statira 
E. Robinson was teaching a public 
school of six pupils at Florence. 
On December 23 of that year (1864) 
the yoimg Territory could boast of 

a superintendent of public instruction in the person of 
J. R. Chittenden, of Silver City. In 1865, according to his 
first ofiicial report, there were three schoolhouses and 1,239 
children of school age in the Territory. 


She taught a public school at Florence 
in the fall of 1864. 

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164. Politics. — ^The same half-decade which marked the 
begimiings of the gold-mining period in Idaho also em- 
braced the tragic years of dvil war for the nation. 

Although in February, 1864, Idaho's first Territorial Leg- 
islature adopted strong anti-slavery resolutions, yet Southern 
sympathizers were in evidence in all the camps. Secession 
sentiment was especially strong in the Boise Basin on account 
of the inrush of pro-slavery immigrants from Missouri and 
other border States during the closing years of the war. 
The violent political prejudices that prevailed are reflected 
in the newspaper writings of those days. Republicans or 
Union Democrats often branded the followers of Jefferson 
Davis as "Secesh men" and "domestic traitors." The pro- 
slavery men, not to be outdone, sometimes called the sup- 
porters of the federal government "Abe Lincoln Hirelings" 
or "Black Abolitionists." The Missoiui immigrants were 
occasionally described as "The Left Wing of Price's Army," 
One of these early partisan accoimts refers to those immi- 
grants as "the fl^uikers of broken armies" and "an intoler- 
able horde." 

There were, of course, some personal collisions and 
deeds of violence, but most of the miners were law-abiding 
and industrious. These roughly dressed men took an 
exceptionally keen and intelligent interest in public affairs 
and, in order to keep themselves well informed, paid exorbi- 
tant prices for newspapers. Many a learned mining-camp 
discussion belied its rude environment; and many a public 
address delivered in those moxmtain gulches would have 
done honor to any deliberative assembly. 

165. Military Protection for the Miners. — ^The Idaho 
Indians whose lands had been invaded by those first armies 
of gold-hxmters were threatening and vindictive. The red 
man realized fxill well that the Uttle prospecting-party was 
often followed by a stampede, and that mining-camps and 
settlements were the precursors of his ultimate banidunent 
and extinction. 

In i860 and 1861 the Clearwater miners trespassed upon 

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the lands of the Nez Perces and aroused the resentment of 
this iinusually peaceful tribe. Fearing trouble, the govern- 
ment erected Fort Lapwai upon Lapwai Creds^ m the fall 
of 1862. This small post was situated about twelve miles 
from Lewiston and was the scene of several important con- 
ferences with the Nez Perces. 
In order to extend military protection to the miners in 


southern Idaho, the government began the construction of 
Fort Boise in July, 1863. It was situated upon a gentle 
plateau and overlooked the site of the future Boise City, 
It was built by a company of Oregon cavalry xmder the direc- 
tion of Major Pinckney Lugenbeel. The situation of this 
post was strategic as well as beautiful, for near it con- 
verged the Oregon Trail and the newly made miner's trail 
that connected the Boise Basin and the Owyhee districts. 

166. Communication with the Outside World. — Letters 
and newspapers were the two chief agencies which con- 
nected the early Idaho mining communities with the out- 

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side world. The first letters and newspapers were brought 
to the miners by pony express riders. Through a rough 
country, devoid of roads and bridges, these brave riders 
brought to the remote camps "letters from the dear ones in 
the distant homes." One of those pioneer express riders of 
north Idaho was the future poet and writer, Joaquin Miller. 
Miller's partner, Ike Mossman, is said to have won a $500 
bet by riding his pony from Walla Walla to Oro Fino, a 
distance of 184 miles, in twenty hours and ten minutes. 

California newspapers were the first to which the miners 
had access. In their eagerness for news, these isolated men 
paid as high as $2.50 for a single newspaper. On August 
2, 1862, The Golden Age^ of Lewiston, the first newspaper 
published within the present boundaries of Idaho, issued 
its initial nimiber. The first nimiber of the Boise NewSy of 
Idaho City, appeared on September 29, 1863. The Idaho 
Statesman began its long and eventful career on July 26, 
1864. On September 17 of the following year the Owyhee 
Avalanche J of Silver City, was foxmded. 

The telegraph did not reach the larger towns of Idaho 
until 1874 and 1875. As early as 1866, however, a telegraph- 
line connecting Virginia City, Montana and Salt Lake City, 
Utah, was constructed through eastern Idaho. The Deseret 
Telegraph Company established communication between 
Salt Lake City and Franklin, in the present Franklin 
County, on December 18, 1869. Silver City was first to 
receive world news "by lightning" on August 31, 1874, 
when the Nevada and Northern Telegraph Company com- 
pleted a line from Winnemucca, Nevada, to that city. An 
extension of this line reached Boise, September 17, 1875. 

167. Transportation. — ^Many of the first gold-himters, 
in their eagerness to reach the mines "hit the trail'' on foot. 
These pedestrians formed what was jokingly called the 
*^Foot and Walker's Transportation Line." As early as 
the spring of 1863, a saddle-train was in operation between 
the heads of navigation on the Colmnbia River and the Boise 
Basin mines. This unique agency for carrying passengers 

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consisted usually of about twenty horses or mules. Sixteen 
of the animals were oufitted with riding-saddles and were 
used for passenger transportation; while the other foiu: ani- 
mals carried baggage and provisions. 
, Diuing the following spring (1864) wagon-roads were 


built between Umatilla and Wallula and the Boise Basin. 
Stage-lines now took the place of the saddle-train as the 
chief instrument of passenger traflEic. The stage-coaches 
were usually drawn by from foiu: to six horses, and carried 
passengers, express, "fast" freight, mail, and light baggage. 
Until the arrival of the railroads, staging was a most ro- 
mantic, as well as important, phase of the transportation 
industry. John Hailey was the most prominent figure 
associated with the staging business in Idaho. 
The first supplies to the mining-camps were transported 

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by pack-trains. Heavy loads of merchandise were placed 
upon the backs of horses or mules and "packed" to the 
mines. This method of delivering freight was, of course, 
slow and expensive. The work was heavy and only men of 

brawn and en- 
durance were 
equal to the 
task of swing- 
ing those heavy 
packs upon the 
animars back. 
The ability to 
fasten a load of 
goods seciurely 
upon a pack-an- 
imal involved a 
mastery of the 
famous dia- 
"cinch knot," 
and was considered a skilful accomplishment. 

After the opening of "toll" roads, the pack-animal was 
replaced by the freight-wagon. These heavily laden, slow- 
moving vehicles hauled great quantities of the "wares of 
civilization" to the early mining commtmities and greatly 
reduced freight charges. The freight-wagon was usually 
hauled by several teams of horses, oxen, or mules. The 
rough, weather-beaten men who drove these animals became 
artists at "cracking" their long whips. The "freighters" 
who drove the mule wagons were usually known as "mule- 
skinners," while the ox-team drivers were given the inelegant 
but expressive title of "bull-whackers." 

i68. Self-Govemment: The Mining-Camp. — ^Following 
a stampede, a group of miners often foxmd themselves in 
some far-away gulch without government, laws, coiu-ts, 
or oflScers. In order to protect their mining-claims, and 
preserve order, they found it necessary to unite themselves 

From'^VigUanteDaysandWays," by^-P'Lansfard, A.C.McClurg 
& Co., publishers. Used by permissum, 

A pack-train: cinching. 

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into a simple, democratic organization known as the min- 
ingrcamp. After adopting a body of rules and regulations 
for the guidance of the camp, the miners usually elected a 
judge, a recorder, and a sheriff. Disputes arising over 
mining-claims and criminal cases were sometimes attended 
to by the judge, and again by the miners' meeting, which 
was generally held on Sunday. The miners' meeting 
was a genuine little democracy and closely resembled the 
famous New England town meeting. While important 
powers were often delegated to the judge and other officials, 
the miners' meeting was always the final source of power. 

The mining-camp was a singularly interesting political 
institution, and will stand as an abiding memorial to the 
ability of those early miners to rear an orderly structiu-e of 
self-government in a region beyond the pale of law and 
buried in the depths of moxmtain soUtudes. 

169. The Struggle for Order: The Vigilantes. — Our 
gold-fields had scarcely become known to the world before 
bands of desperadoes who had made crime a profession in 
Calif omia and Nevada, came flocking to the newest Idaho 
camps. Their chief business was robbing stages, stealing 
horses and cattle, and murdering miners. So well organized 
were these roughs that if a judge, jury, or miners' meeting 
attempted to punish one of their nmnber, other members of 
the "gang" could be coxmted upon to wreak a brutal ven- 
geance upon the men who presmned to bring the ruffian to 
justice. Finally these outlaws became so nimaerous and 
powerful in some of the camps that the miners foxmd it 
necessary to form themselves into Vigilance Committees. 
The peculiar feature of the Vigilante procedure was that it 
first tried the criminal in secret, and arrested him after- 
ward. The punishment that followed conviction was swift, 
sure, and generally terrible. Since there were no jails, these 
convicted outlaws usually left the camp "at the end of a 
rope." The mysteriousness and severity of the Vigilante 
tribunals overawed the most desperate criminals, and they 
usually began to conduct themselves decently or fled to dis- 

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tricts where the strange sign of the Vigilantes was not in 
evidence. As soon as local and Territorial laws became 
effective, the career of these "popular tribunals''^ ^^, of 
coarse, at an end. 

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170. Idaho Has Witnessed Frequent Boundary-Line 
Alterations. — ^A description of Idaho's shifting boundary- 
lines forms an interesting but somewhat complicated story. 
During the twenty years that lay between 1848 and 1868, 
not less than five different territorial limits were established 
for the region which embraced oiu* futiure State. Idaho 
assumed her present peculiar triangular shape in 1868, 
although since that date nimaerous efforts have been made to 
rearrange her boundary-lines. 

171. Idaho a Part of the Oregon Country. — ^From the 
beginning of the last century imtil about 1820, Idaho was 
included in that vague region known as the "Coliunbia 
River country.'' During most of the next quarter of a 
century, or imtil 1846, its usual designation was "The Ore- 
gon Coimtry." This consisted of what may briefly, but, of 
course, rather roughly, be described as the present States 
of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, western Montana, western 
Wyoming, and a large portion of the present British Colum- 

172. Idaho Part of Oregon Territory (1848-1852), — 
In 1846 the modem British Columbia region was cut away 
from the "Oregon Country" in accordance with the terms 
of the treaty with England, which fixed oiu* northern 
boundary at the forty-ninth parallel. In 1848 Oregon Terri- 
tory was established by Congress. The magnificent area 
comprised within this "Old Oregon" will be appreciated 
when we consider that its limits stretched eastward to the 
crest of the Rocky Moimtains in Wyoming and Montana. 

173. Idaho in Oregon and Washington Territories. — 
The year 1853 witnessed another territorial readjustment. 
In that year Oregon Territory was divided into two almost 

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equal parts, the northern part forming Washington Terri- 
tory. That section of Idaho lying south of the forty-sixth 
parallel and the Columbia River, or the northern boimdary- 


By treaty of 1846, the parallel of 49® was continued from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific 
Ocean and mariLed the northern boundary of the United States. 

line of the future State of Oregon, continued under the 
jurisdiction of Oregon Territory, while the area north of this 
line became Washington Territory. 

174. Idaho in Washington Territory (1859-1863). — 
Oregon was admitted to Statehood in 1859, when her area 
was reduced to its present size. Washington Territory now 
assumed a position of "geographical grandeur," her con- 
trol, which was, of course, largely nominal, extending over 

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all of the "Old Oregon" of 1848, except the region cov&ced 
by the present State of Oregon. 

175. Gold Discoveries Cause Organization of Idaho 
Territory. — ^The establishment of Idaho Territory, in 1863, 
was the direct result of the spectacular gold discoveries in 
the Clearwater, Salmon, Boise Basin, Owyhee, Bannock, 
and Virginia City districts, then in eastern Washington 
Territory, but now in Idaho and Montana. Olympia, the 
far-off capital of Washington Territory, isolated as it was 
from these new communities by towering moimtain ranges 
and senuhostile Indian tribes, could not hope to provide 
these yoxmg settlements with the protection of law and 
government. It was to remedy this condition that Idaho 
Territory was cut away from Washington Territory and 
organized in 1863. 

176. The Organic Act. — The fimdamental law that 
governs a Territory is called the Organic Act. It is enacted 
by Congress and serves as a constitution or basic law for 
the Territory. Idaho's Organic Act is a well-written in- 
strument and consists of seventeen short sections. It was 
approved by President Lincohi on March 3, 1863. In 
harmony with its provisions, the President, with the advice 
of the Senate, was to appoint a governor, a secretary, three 
supreme court justices, an attorney, and a marshal. The 
Organic Act also created a Territorial Legislature which was 
to consist of a Coxmcil of seven members and House of 
Representatives of thirteen members. The important duty, 
however, of electing a Territorial delegate to the national 
House of Representatives was to devolve upon the people 
of the Territory. The members of the legislature were to be 
chosen by popular vote. 

177. Idaho Territory Created: A Large Domain. — 
The new Territory created by the Organic Act of March 3, 
1863, was a princely domain covering over 325,000 square 
miles. It was a huge rectangle and had been carved out of 
Washington, Dakota, and Nebraska Territories. When one 
realizes that it encompassed the area now approximately 

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covered by Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, any one of 
which is a large State, some idea of its magnitude can be 
gained. It overspread large portions of "Old Oregon" and 
Louisiana Territory and exceeded in area the present State 
of Texas by over 60,000 square miles. . 

178. The Meaning of the Name Idaho. — The name 
Idaho is a contraction of the Shoshoni word "Ee-dah-how" 
which, freely translated, means "Ciem of the Mountains." 
The syllable "Ee" means "coming down"; the syllable 
"dah" signifies either "sim" or "moimtain," both of which 
objects are eternal to the Indian mind. The syllable "how " 
denotes strong or sudden feeling and has the significance of 
the exclamation-mark in English. Hence, a Uteral transla- 
tion of "Ee-dah-how" is "Behold, the sim coming down 
the moimtain." 

When "Ee-dah-how" was exclaimed in the Indian camp 
it meant a summons to arise and begin the labors of the day. 
The nearest English equivalent is the expression, "It is 
simup," especially when that exclamation is uttered for the 
purpose of arousing the family to assiune the labors of the 
day. It was in this sense proclaimed at early dawn in the 
Shoshoni camp. 

The figurative or poetic translation of the phrase is "The 
Gem of the Moimtains." From his teepee, through the clear, 
exhilarating morning air, the Shoshoni Indian beheld a 
lustrous rim of light shining from the moimtain top. This 
radiant moimtain crown or diadem was likened to a gem 
glittering from a snowy peak. In this way "Ee-dah-how" 
came to have attributed to it the popular and beautiful 
signification, " Moimtain Gem " or " Gem of the Mountains." 
So it is the poetic, rather than the literal, translation of 
"Ee-dah-how" that has enshrined itself in the affections 
of Idahoans and, despite the findings of etymologists, will 

179. Earliest Application of the Name Idaho. — The 
name "Idaho" was first applied to a locaUty in 1859 when 
Idaho Springs, Colorado's first permanent settlement, was 


founded. It was the Comanche Indians, a tribe of the 
same family and who spoke ahnost the same language as did 
our Idaho Shoshoni, who introduced the word "Ee-dah- 
how" to the "Fifty-Niners" of Colorado. In the fall of 
i860, the name "Idaho" was given to a steamboat launched 
at Victoria, British Columbia, by one of the owners whose 
former home had been at Idaho Springs, Colorado. In the 
same year a Coliunbia River boat was named "Idaho." 
It was so christened by Colonel J. S. Ruckel, a stockholder 
in the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, who had heard 
frequent mention of this name through a Colorado friend. 
In 1862 the Washington Legislature bestowed the name 
"Idaho" upon a coimty which later came to be the largest 
one in our Territory and State. When the bill creating 
Idaho Territory was before Congress, United States Senator 
Henry Wilson, of Massachusetts, who later became Vice- 
President, •insisted on the name "Idaho" in preference to 
all others. Senator Wilson's position was wannly indorsed 
by Senator B. F. Harding of Oregon, who said: "^ Idaho,' 
in Engli^, signifies ^ Gem of the Moimtains,' " thereby giv- 
ing wide publicity to this poetic interpretation of the Sho- 
shoni phrase. To Joaquin Miller, an express rider in north 
Idaho in the early mining days, doubtless belongs the honor 
of having been the first person to write the exclamation, 
"Ee-dah-how" in its present form, I-d-a-h-o. 

180. Our First Territorial Governor.— To William H. 
Wallace, a lawyer of Pierce County, Washington Territory, 
belongs the dual honor of having been Idaho's first Terri- 
torial governor and first congressional delegate. From 1861 
to 1863 he served as delegate to Congress from Washington 
Territory, and had just completed his term as such when 
he received his conmiission as Territorial governor of Idaho. 

Governor Wallace, after a long 7,000-mile journey from 
Washington, D. C, by way of the Isthmus of Panama, 
reached Lewiston early in July, 1863. On July 23, he ap- 
pointed John M. Bacon, Territorial auditor. On September 
22 (1863) he issued a call for the first general election, which 

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Idaho's fint Taritorlal governor. 

was held on the following October 31. At this election the 
twenty members of the first Territorial Legislature and a 
delegate to Congress were chosen. Wallace himself be- 
came the Repubhcan candidate for congressional delegate, 
and, after a lively contest, was 
declared elected over the Demo- 
cratic nominee, John M. Cannady, 
of Idaho City. 

Governor Wallace was an imcle 
of Lew Wallace, the well-known 
general and author of "Ben Hur." 
He was an intimate personal friend 
of President Lincoln, who had 
planned to reappoint him gov- 
. emor of Idaho Territory. On 
Monday, April 10, 1865, President 
Lincoln invited Delegate and Mrs. 
Wallace to attend tiie Ford The- 
•atre with him on the following 
Friday evening, the fateful eve- 
ning destined to mark the tragic event of Lincoln's assassina- 
tion. Governor Wallace was one of the pall-bearers at the 
funeral of the martyred President. The grave of our first 
Territorial governor may be seen to-day in the old pioneer 
cemetery, near Steilacoom, Washington, where he died in 
1879, at the age of sixty-eight years. . 

181. The First Inaugfural Ceremonies. — ^It fell to the 
lot of William B. Daniels, of Yamhill Coimty, Oregon, to 
deliver Idaho's first inaugural address on December 9, 1863. 
President Lincoln had appointed Daniels Territorial secre- 
tary. Upon Delegate-Elect Wallace's resignation as gover- 
nor. Secretary Daniels became acting governor in accordance 
with the provisions of the Organic Act. Prior to coming to 
Idaho, Daniels had been actively identified with the Re- 
publican party in Oregon. The inaugural ceremonies were 
held at two o'clock in the afternoon of December 9, 1863, 
in the hall of the House of Representatives at Lewiston. A 

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joint committee, composed of William C. Rheem and Doctor 
Ephraim Smith of the Coimcil, and C. P. Bodfish and Alonzo 
Leland of the House of Representatives were elected to wait 
upon the governor and escort him to the Hall of Representa- 
tives. That none of the formalities of this solemn occasion 
was overlooked is vouched for by these words from the 
ofl&cial records: "The approach of his Excellency, the 
governor, was annoimced at the door; whereupon a pas- 
sage was cleared by the sergeant-at-arms, and the governor 
of the Territory, escorted by the conmiittee, came into the 
Hall of Representatives." 

182. Idaho's First Inaugural Address. — The inaugural 
address of Acting Governor Daniels is one of our best 
written state papers. It shows not only an insight into 
the problems confronting the yoimg Territory, but it reveals 
a grasp of the burning national issues of that day. This 
patriotic excerpt illustrates Daniels's eloquent style: " Shall 
Idaho, the largest of the Territories, take her stand in sym- 
pathy with a cause [slavery] so vile, and cloud the morning 
of her existence with the darkness of treason? No, let her, 
as her name indicates, sit among the moimtains, a gem of 
the brightest lustre, radiant with imconditional loyalty, 
attracting by Jier glorious light the gaze and admiration of 

183. Idaho's First Territorial Legislature. — The 
twenty men who composed Idaho's first Legislative Assem- 
bly enacted laws for the immense area now approximately 
occupied by the States of Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho. 
These pioneer legislators convened at the temporary capital 
situated at the Uttle frontier town of Lewiston, then less 
than three years old. 

The first legislative session, which occupied sixty busy 
days, lasted from December 7, 1863, imtil February 4, 1864. 
Despite the fact that those first lawmakers of Idaho were 
without codes, precedents or previous session laws they 
succeeded in enacting a body of useful, if not momentous, 
laws, of which a future generation may be proud^ 

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i8i4. Idaho's First Territorial Supreme Court. — On 
March lo, 1863, President Lincoln appointed Sidney Edger- 
ton chief justice and Samuel C. Parks and Alleck C. Smith 
associate justices, of Idaho's first 
supreme court. Judge Smith was 
assigned to the first district, com- 
prising the Territorial capital, 
then at Lewiston; Judge Parks 
was given the populous Boise 
Basin district; Judge Edgerton, 
although chief justice, was award- 
ed the third district, which em- 
braced the wild region lying east 
of the Rocky Moimtains, 

Chief Justice Edgerton became 
the first governor of Montana 
Territory, upon the creation of 
that commonwealth in 1864. 

Judge Parks was the presiding 
judge in the famous Magruder trial held at Lewiston in 
January, 1864, which was the first case tried in the Idaho 

courts. He also administered the 
oath of ofl&ce to Idaho's first legis- 
lature and assisted that body in 
preparing its first code of laws. 

185. The Removal of the 
Capital. — Soon after his arrival 
in Idaho, in the summer of 1863, 
Governor Wallace designated 
Lewiston as the temporary capi- 
tal of the new Territory. It was 
here that the first and second ses- 
sions of our Territorial Legisla- 
ture were held. On December 7, 
1864, however, by virtue of an 
ALLECK c. SMITH, euactmcut by the second Terri- 

^^^SSSSiSSS?'"*^ torial Legislature, the capital was 


First Territorial supreme court chief 

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First Territorial supreme court 
associate justice. 

removed from Lewiston to Boise 
City, a village which had been 
founded in July of the previous 

The removal of the seat of gov- 
ernment from northern to south- 
em Idaho brought about a series 
of agitations for the annexation of 
the "Panhandle" to the adjacent 
Territory of Washington and, at 
times, to Montana. With the es- 
tablishment, however, of better 
communication between the north 
and south, and such unifying agen- 
cies as our State University at 
Moscow, a conmiunity of interest was later created which 
has practically obliterated the feeling of sectional xmf riendli- 
ness which was orig- 
inally engendered by 
the Capital Removal 
Act of 1864. 

i86. Montana and 
Wyoming Cut Away 
from Idaho Terri- 
tory. — On May 22, 
1864, Montana Terri- 
tory was cut away 
from Idaho Territory. 
At the same time 
nearly all of the re- 
gion now comprised 
within the present 
State of Wyoming 
was also taken away 
from Idaho Territory 
and reattached to 
Dakota Territory. 


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Lewiston in 187 a. 

Boise in 1864. 

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From 1864 to 1868 the strip of territory now occupjring 
the extreme western portion of Wyommg and the southern 
half of the Yellow Stone National Park belonged to Idaho. 
During this same interval, the extreme southwestern comer 
of the present Wyoming was temporarily joined to Utah 
Territory. When Wyoming became a Territory, in 1868, 
Idaho assmned the peculiar triangular shape with which we 
are familiar at the present time. 

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i9r. General Conditions. — Idaho, like other States, 
had her era of Indian wars. During the emigration and 
early mining periods there were nmnerous murderous and 
thieving raids perpetrated by lawless bands of roving In- 
dians. Dining the decade between 1870 and 1880, the 
Territory experienced the excitement of three Indian wars. 
While it is true that many outrages committed by these 
outlaw bands were often prompted by no other motive than 
the desire to commit crime, yet some of those hostile out- 
breaks were the red man's expression of bitter resentment 
over the enforced surrender of what he considered his God- 
given inheritance of stream, lake, camas-meadow, and himt- 

188. War with the Northern Indians. — It had been the 
boast of the Coeiu: d'Alenes and the Spokanes that they 
had never shed the blood of a white man. In the early 
spring of 1858, however, because of white men passing 
through the coimtry, there was some restlessness among 
the northern tribes. Colonel E. J. Steptoe, who was in 
conmiand at Fort Walla Walla, Washington, set out with 
a command of 159 men to examine into the affairs in the 
neighborhood of the Hudson's Bay Company's post at 
Fort Colville and to investigate the miurder of two miners 
by a party of Palouse Indians. This was a feeble band of 
Indians and Steptoe considered his command large enough 
to overawe them. However, after crossing the Snake River, 
he foimd himself facing a force of fully 1,200 savages, hide- 
ous in their war-paint. They were from the Coeur d'Alene, 
Palouse, Spokane, and Yakima tribes. He saw that it 
would be impossible to go on in the face of this hostile force 


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and started to withdraw, but the Indians opened fire on the 
rear-guard, and the fight began and continued through the 
day. A series of charges and counter-charges was kept 
up with loss to both sides. Darkness foimd Steptoe's men 
exhausted, with their ammunition ahnost gone and the 
niunber of woimded increasing. A consultation of the offi- 
cers was held and they decided to retreat during the night, 
if possible, as another day's fighting would imdoubtedly 
result in the destruction of the entire force. Accordingly 
they left their supplies and two howitzers and stole away 
dining the jiight. They rode imtil ten the next morning, 
when they came to the Snake River. Some friendly Nez 
Perces helped them to cross. 

The attack caused great excitement throughout the 
West because war by these tribes, which had always been 
peaceable, seemed to indicate a general Indian uprising. 

189. Battle of Four Lakes. — ^Active preparations were 
begun to put a large force in the field to pimish the In- 
dians. Colonel George Wright was sent to take charge of 
the expedition. He left Fort Walla Walla in August, 1858, 
crossed the Snake River, and after a march of nearly icx> 
miles over a forbidding coimtry, dining which they were 
twice attacked, came upon a large body of Indians who 
were awaiting his attack. The hostile Coeur d'Alenes, 
Spokanes, and Palouses, were stationed on a high hill and 
in an adjoining wood near Foiu: Lakes, about 16 miles 
southwest of the present city of Spokane. The troops 
drove them from these positions out into the open plain 
where the cavalry put them to rout. Seventeen of the In- 
dians were killed and many woimded, but the troops suffered 
no loss. The Indians fled and Colonel Wright continued 
the pursuit until he arrived at the Coeur d'Alene Mission 
in September. During this march, in order to prevent 
further depredations on the part of the Spokanes, he 
rounded up aU of their horses, drove them out on the plains 
about 20 miles east from where Spokane now stands and 
slaughtered the entire herd to the number of 800. Until 

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very recently a large mound of whitened bones marked this 
spot. The Spokanes were helpless without their horses and 
were compelled to surrender. 

190. Colonel Wright at Coeur d'Alene Mission. — Col- 
onel Wright assembled some 400 of the Coeur d'Alenes at 
their mission on the Coeur d'Alene River and imposed his 
own terms, which were that they should give up the meii 
who began the attack on Steptoe, restore aU property 
taken from the whites, permit white men to go through 
their coimtry imharmed, and give a chief and four men, 
with their families, as tostages. The Indians stood in 
such great fear of Wright that they accepted the terms 
without a murmur. 

Colonel Wright next moved toward the Palouse coimtry 
on the southwest. He imposed the same terms on the 
Palouses and hanged several of their number who were 
proved guilty of the murder of some miners. In addition 
he warned them that if they made it necessary for him to 
come into their coimtry again he would annihilate them. 

191. Wright a Successful Indian-Fighter. — Colonel 
Wright returned to Fort Walla Walla after a most success- 
ful Indian campaign. Without the loss of a man he had 
defeated the Indians, who sustained heavy losses, con- 
fiscated their horses and cattle, executed eleven murderers, 
captured large stores of supplies, and made the savages re- 
store those they had taken from Steptoe. 

The Indians were so completely cowed that the govern- 
ment took this opportunity to throw the country open for 
settlement and remove the Indians to reservations. 

192. Battle of Battle Creek. — ^The first permanent set- 
tlement in Idaho was made at Franklin, Franklin County, 
by a small band of pioneers who emigrated from Utah in 
the spring of i860. "It is cheaper to feed the Indians than 
to fight them," was an oft-repeated axiom of Brigham 
Yoimg, and it was only by adhering to this policy that the 
little colony could exist and grow. The settlers maintained 
a food-bin for the Bannack Indians to draw upon, to which 

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they all contributed, as these savages so far outnumbered 
them that they could demand what they wanted with 
impimity. In addition they stole cattle and chickens from 
the pioneers and became so exacting tod insolent that 
many were cpmpelled to leave their outlying cabins and 
seek shelter in the fort at Franklin. 

Large bands of Bannacks had collected near the mouth 
of Battle Creek about 12 miles northwest of Franklin, and 
in late December, 1862, several of their number attacked a 
company of miners who were coming down from Leesburg, a 
miniijg-camp on the Salmon River. They shot one man 
and woui^dai 'Several. The survivors hid in the brush and 
went to RichnSond, Utah, imder cover of night to report the 
attack. The authorities sent out some men to get the dead 
body and the horses. This they succeeded in doing, al- 
though they w^re also attacked by the Indians. 

A message was sent to Salt Lake for troops and Colonel 
P. E. Connor with 200 men responded. It was none too 
soon, for only the day before the soldiers arrived in Franklin, 
the Indians ha4 visited the town, seciured 24 bushels of flour, 
and threatened the whites with their tomahawks while they 
performed a war-dance aroimd the bishop^s home. 

When Connor and his men reached the Indian camp they 
foimd'it well fortified and almost inaccessible, being in a 
deep ra\nbe, with rifle-pits imder a steep bank. 

After three imsuccessful charges, when 14 men were killed 
and many wounded, Connor divided his men into three 
parties* Ono- di\ision went aroimd to come up the creek, 
another came doBTi the creek from the north and he, him- 
self, led the attack from the front. The savages were sur- 
prised and nearly 300 were killed in a few hoiurs. The 
battle of Battle Creek, or Bear River, as it sometimes is 
called (January 29, 1863) shattered the power of the Ban- 
nack tribej and put an end to Indian depredations in that 

193. The Nez Perce War.— The Nez Perce Indians had 
always been friendly toward the whites. The land they 

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' i 
claimed was between the Bitter Root and the Blue Mout^ 

tains, with the Salmon River on the south and the Nortk 

Palouse on the north. It was they who befriended Lewi$ 

and Clark and welcomed the missionaries early in th^ 


In time the white man began to settle on the Indianif 


land. He fenced in the water and cultivated the valleys, 
so that it was with difficulty that the Indians could fiiid^; '•■. 
forage for their ponies. The Indian chief called "Oldd 
Joseph" by the whites, to distinguish him from his son,;- -; 
appealed to the Indian superintendent to have the intruders!^ / -- 
removed. As there were no steam-cars in those days, and ;i^^,, 
the superintendent had thousands of miles to look after| »^V^ 
some time elapsed before he arrived on the Wallowa River 7^^^| 
where "Old Joseph" and his tribe had their home. Mean- ^ 
"while more white settlers had arrived. ^ t , 

Thus matters went on for several years, but the settler^ I 
did not move. Instead, others moved in and the cattlemen 

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began to herd their stock in the Wallowa Valley, and the- 
Indian ponies starved for want of forage. 

By 1855 the situation in the Northwest was alarming. 
Chief Kamiakan of the Yakima nation, angry at the repeat- 
edly broken promises of the government agents to clear their 
lands of "squatters," tried to form a confederacy among all 


the Northwest tribes to make war on the whites. It failed 
principally because the Nez Perces refused to enter it, but 
the Yakima War alone cost the whites many valuable lives. 
ig4. Treaty of 1855. — ^In 1855 all the Indian tribes of 
the Northwest, except those of the extreme Pacific coast, 
were assembled at Walla Walla by General Isaac I. Stevens 
to elBfect a treaty and arrange for the purchase of the Indian 
lands. "Old Joseph" attended as did also Chief Lawyer 
of the Kooskia Nez Perces. They signed the treaty con- 
senting to the sale of the Indian lands to the whites, although. 
Lawyer was not directly concerned as his land was not 
wanted by the settlers. 

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195. Treaty af 1863.— The Wallowa Valley in north- 
eastern Oregon was later the bone of contention, and the 
Wallowa Indians would never entertain the idea of selling 
any land. Soon after the gold discoveries in the early six- 
ties, white men began to settle in the Wallowa Valley. 
The government decided to let them remain and induced 
the Nez Perces to sell their land. A treaty was made in 
1863, which took the Wallowa Valley away from Old Joseph. 
The old chief, however, refused to be boimd by this new 
agreement and declined to give up his lands. 

In 1873 President Grant issued an executive order giving 
back the ceded lands to the Indians, but two years later 
revoked this order and made the Wallowa reserve a part of 
the public domain. 

196. Death of "Old Joseph.'*— "Old Joseph" died in 
1872 and his son, Joseph, became chief. Before his death 
the old chief warned his son never to give up the Wallowa 
nor to accept help of any kind from the government. 

197. Immediate Causes of the War. — ^In 1877 the In- 
dian Bureau at Washington decided to force the Wal- 
lowa band of Nez Perces to go on the Lapwai Reservation in 
Idaho. This order was sent to Agent Monteith at Lapwai 
and to General Howard at Portland. They called a general 
solemn coimcil of the non-treaty bands at Lapwai in May, 
1877, and told them that they must come on the reserva- 
tion. This coimcil, which lasted three days, was an excit- 
ing one. On the third day Too-hul-hul-suit, the holy 
chief, or "tu-at,^' defiantly declared that he would not go 
on the reservation. For this he was arrested and placed in 
the guard-house by General Howard. The Indians, al- 
ready in a disgruntled state of mind, were highly incensed 
over the arrest of their religious leader. Joseph and White- 
bird were successful, for the time, in restraining the Indians 
from any violent outbreak, and agreed to go on the reserva- 
tion within thirty days. 

198. Battle of Whitebird Canyon. — On June 14, 1877, 
the final day set for the period in which the Wallowas must 

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on the Lapwai Reservation, some Indians from the 
»n-treaty bands began a horrible series of murders and 
trages on men, women, and children in the lower Salmon 
jver coimtry. In response to urgent appeals for pro- 
tion, General Howard sent Captain Perry with two 
airy companies to the scene of the disorders. On the 
- ^^ .m|ming erf Jime 17, Captain Perry ^s force and a small 
- imteer company from Mt. Idaho entered Whitebird 
yon at whose head the Indians were encamped. Four 
mfles from the entrance of the canyon, Perry's troops heard 
th< war-cry and were attacked by nearly the entire hostile 
for:e of over 300 Indian warriors. The hostiles assaulted 
Perry's men simultaneously from the front and from both 
sides of the canyon and succeeded in spUtting the troops 
intdi two detachments — one under Theller and Pamell^ 
and one under Perry. Pamell's Uttle company was forced 
into ^ a side ravine and nearly wiped out. Lieutenant 
TheMer and 18 brave comrades were caught in the trap 
and'jplled. Perry retreated by the main canyon. 

Afj:er running the gaimtlet of a withering fire from the 
infuttated savages, the two broken detachments finally 
succeeded in effecting a jimction on the mesa near the en- 
tram* to the canyon. The last act of Whitebird before he 
retired with the braves into the canyon was most defiant. 
Shouting derision at the soldiers, he diook at them a bimch 
of sqilps which were tied to a pole. 

The battle of the Whitebird Canyon was the first scene in 
the picturesque war drama that gripped the attention of the 
country from June to October, 1877. I^ tl^s opening en- 
counter the honors of battle went to Joseph's warriors. 

199. The Battle of the Clearwater.— On Jime 22 Gen- 
eral Howard took charge of the campaign in person, 
and ii?[ early July had managed to assemble a force of be- 
tween ,500 and 600 troops. After a search for the Indians 
in thei region near the mouth of Salmon River and in the 
vicinity of Craig Mountain, he finally located . Joseph's 
braves in a wild forest southeast of Kamiah. The two days* 

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battle which was fought here (July 11-12) was s^alized by 
the fiercest kind of fighting. It was a real test, too, of the 
strength of the two opposing forces since Josq)h's entire 
band was massed against the united army of General How- 
ard. Joseph had with him at this battle about 300 hostiles, 
while Howard was able * 

to muster about 100 
more effective soldiers. 
The first day's battle 
was indecisive. How- 
ard's men suffered, how- 
ever, from the acciu-ate 
marksmanship of the 
Indian sharpshooters 
whose fire was astonish- 
ingly fatal. On the 
second day, Howard 
decided to captiu-e the 
Indian position by a 
charge. The Indians, 
who were protected in 
the rear by the Clear- 
water and in front by 
the walls of a mesa 
which stretched out 
before them, held their 
ground with an obstinacy that was surprising. Many of 
them refused to be dislodged by Howard's storming tactics 
and died in their rifle-pits. The Indians were overwhelmed 
by this assault, however, and fled across the Clearwater. So 
precipitate was the retreat that meat was foimd cooking in 
many of the teqpees which were left standing. Th^ were 
soon seen retreating over the distant hills toward Kisimiah 
and the Lo Lo Trail. 

200. Joseph's Retreat over the Lo Lo Trail. — Cli July 
17, Joseph began his sensational retreat over the Lo Lo 
Trail. Hampered with 'women, children, old men, as! well 

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Commanding Department of the East, x888. 


as with his camp equipage and stock, he worked his way 
swiftly over that rugged mountain path. Onward he pushed 
his Uttle band over high moimtains, deep canyons, raging 
torrents, and through tangled imderbrush imtil he crossed 
the famous Lo Lo Pass into Montana. Realizing that they 
had plenty of fresh mounts, the Indians had shown no 
mercy for their ponies. The wounds of these am'mals often 
stained the trail with blood, and their dead bodies were 
frequently foxmd by their pursuers. On July 28, only 
eleven days after they had begun their flight from Idaho, 
the Nez Perces were nearing, without mishap, the Montana 
end of the Lo Lo Trail. 

After the battle of the Clearwater, General Howard 
halted for a few days in the Kamiah coimtry in order to 
provide security to the settlers in his rear. On July 27 he 
began his memorable 1,300 mile pursuit after his elusive 

Realizing that Joseph had by this time a start of fully 
150 miles. General Howard telegraphed General W. T. Sher- 
man, who wa^ then in Montana, to send an intercepting 
force to capture Joseph. 

201. Joseph's Long Flight from the Lo Lo Valley to 
Bear Paw Mountain. — ^Joseph passed through the Lo Lo 
Canyon undisturbed. Turning southward through the 
beautiful Bitter Root Valley, he made a treaty of forbear- 
ance with the white settlers, an act unprecedented in Indian 
warfare. Surprised by Gibbon's brave but smaller, army at 
Big Hole River, he shook himself loose from his pursuers 
and passed through the Lemhi Valley, Camas Meadows, and 
Lake Henry regions in southeastern Idaho. By a night 
attack at Camas Meadows Joseph succeeded in stamped- 
ing and capturing General Howard's mule herd. The Nez 
Perces then proceeded eastward into Wyoming through the 
Yellowstone Park attacking and striking terror to the hearts 
of toiuists whom they happened to meet on the way. By 
making a feint southward through Wyoming, Joseph suc- 
ceeded in decoying Colonel Sturgis from his blociade of the 

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*' bottle-neck" pass at Heart Mountain and struck north- 
ward through Montana for Canada and freedom. On 
September 13, at Canyon Creek, Stiu-gis failed again to 
stop Joseph, who now seemed to have a clear field north- 
ward. On September 17, Colonel Nelson A. Miles, who was 
stationed near the mouth of Tongue River in eastern Mon- 
tana, received an order from General Howard to intercept 
the Indians. On the following day he began the march 
which resulted in the capture of Chief Joseph at Bear Paw 
Moimtain on October 4, 1877. 

202. Chief Joseph's Surrender. — ^Joseph^s siurender was 
dramatic. He rode from his camp accompanied by a little 
group of warriors, who walked by his side. His hands 
were clasped on the pommel of his saddle; his rifle lay across 
his knees, and his head was bowed down. 

He rode slowly up the hill to where General Howard and 
Colonel Miles were waiting. With graceful dignity he 
swtmg himself from his saddle and offered his rifle to Gen- 
eral Howard. The latter magnanimously motioned him to 
Colonel Miles who received the token of submission. 

203. Joseph's Speech at the Surrender. — ^Joseph's little 
speech at the siurender is a masterpiece of pathetic and 
pictiu-esque oratory. Said he: "Tell General Howard I 
know his heart. What he told me before — ^I have it in 
my heart. I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed. 
Looking-Glass is dead. Too-hul-hul-suit is dead. The old 
mem are all dead. It is the young men, now, who say 
^yes' or *no' [that is, vote in coimcil]. He who led on the 
yoimg men [Joseph's brother, OUicut] is dead. It is cold, 
and we have no blankets. The Uttle children are freezing 
to death. My people — some of them — ^have nm away to 
the hills, and have no blankets, no food. No one knows 
where they are — perhaps freezing to death. I want to 
have time to look for my children, and to see how many of 
them I can find; maybe I shall find them among the dead. 
Hear me, my chiefs; my heart is sick and sad. From where 
the sim now stands, I will fight no more forever !" 

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204* Chief Joseph's Genius. — Chief Joseph's miUtary 
genius won the respect and admiration of his opponents, 
for whom he was too clever. General Howard says that 
few commanders with good troops could have recovered 
from such a fearful sxirprise as Joseph did when he was 
attacked unexpectedly by Gibbon in Montana. After the 
battle he rallied the Indians, recaptured his large herd of 
ponies, and retreated in good order before Howard's men 
could come up to aid Gibbon. 

At Camas Meadows, Idaho, he surprised Howard's camp 
by a night march, captured over a himdred pack-animals, 
and made a successful escape. 

He had a natural genius that, under favorable circiun- 
stances, would undoubtedly have enrolled him among the 
great military leaders of the world. 

20$. Last Days of Chief Joseph. — ^When Joseph sur- 
rendered Colonel Miles promised him that he and his war- 
riors would be returned to the reservation at Lapwai, but 
at the request of Carl Schurz, secretary of the interior, the 
' War Department ordered the Indians to Fort Leavenworth 
and from there to Indian Territory. Secretary Schurz 
feared fiu-ther hostilities if the Indians were returned to 
the scene of their depredations. The climate did not agree 
writh the Nez Perces and they longed for their old home in 
the Northwest. After several times petitioning the govern- 
ment, Joseph and the poor remnant of his band were trans- 
ferred to the Colville Reservation near Spokane, Washing- 
ton, where he Uved quietly for twenty-five years. 

In 1897 he visited Washington, D. C, and went on to 
New York as the guest of "Buffalo Bill." Here he took 
part in the Grant celebration and again met Colonel Miles, 
now a general, who had always had a great liking for Joseph, 
wrhom he called the "Napoleon of the Indians." Joseph 
again visited Washington on Indian matters in 1903 and 
was entertained by President Roosevelt at the White House 
and at General Miles's home. 

He visited the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904, 

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where he was one of the greatest attractions at the Indian 
Congress. He returned to the Fort Cplville Reservation in 
July and on the following September 21 passed peacefully 
away while sitting before his camp-fire. 

At Nespelim, Washington, in 1905, a monument of white 
marble was erected by the Washington State Historical 
Society to perpetuate the memory of Chief Joseph, the only 
Indian who, when in personal charge of his warriors, observed 
the laws of civilized warfare and respected the woimded, the 
women, and the children. 

206. The Bannack War of 1878.— After the Bannacks 
were assigned by the government to the Fort Hall Reserva- 
tion, they still kept up their old habits of wandering over the 
coimtry. They used the reservation as a sort of meeting- 
place where they drew their annuities and ate government 
rations, but they felt most at home when roaming along 
the Snake River or among the settlements in the Boise 

Every simmier they went in hundreds to Camas Prairie 
where they erected their tents and remained for several 
weeks, the men hunting and the women digging the camas- 
root which they ground into meal. This root was an im- 
portant article of food to the moimtain tribes and the Ban- 
nacks became greatly incensed when the cattle and swine 
destroyed the camas. Camas Prairie was theirs, the In- 
dians said, as they had never ceded it to the government, 
and the whites must leave. 

The Indians were still excited over the Nez Perce War, 
and this, added to their growing dissatisfaction at the in- 
vasion of their lands, put them into such an ugly humor that 
they were^ ready to take the war-path. 

207. BufTalo Horn. — ^The Bannacks chose Buffalo Horn 
as their leader. This clever yoimg brave had succeeded 
Pocatello as chief of the Bannacks and had grown up in the 
vicinity of Portneuf Canyon. He had served as scout under 
General Howard in the Nez Perce War in the Yellowstone 
Park region, and had rendered notable assistance to Chief 

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Joseph's pursuers at the battle of Canyon Creek m Mon- 
tana. He had also, had scouting experience under General 
Mfles and General Custer in their Montana wars. But 
while still in the service of General Howard, he had be- 
trayed at times an ugly disposition and had, on more than 
one occasion, evinced a desire to take the war-path. His 
native shrewdness, coupled with his valuable mihtary ex- 
perience, would have made him a formidable leader, had he 
not been killed in the early stages of the war. 

208. Defeat of the Bannacks. — ^When word came to the 
Indians that Colonel Bernard with his cavahy was hurry- 
ing from Fort Boise toward Camas Prahie, many of them 
decided that their affairs at the reservation needed their at- 
tention and hurried back there, but Buffalo Horn with a 
small band of warriors chose war and started westward 
across the Snake River, killing settlers and destroying their 
property. They were met near South Mountain, a mining- 
camp, a few miles south of Silver City, in Owyhee Coimty, 
by a company of volimteers. While the whites were unable 
to win a decisive battle, they did succeed in killing Buffalo 
Horn. This made a great difference in the situation, as the 
Indians had no leader to fill his place. They pressed on 
into Oregon, hoping to form a formidable alliance with the 
Pahutes, UmatiUas, Yakimas, and other Columbia River 
tribes. General Howard, of the regular army, and several 
volunteer companies, however, promptly took the field 
against the Indians, and before the siunmer of 1878 was 
over succeeded in defeating and completely disorganizing 
them. Although this war was of brief duration, the loss of 
property was heavy and many a peaceful settler met a 
horrible death at the hands of the bloodthirsty redskins. 

209. The Sheepeaters* War.— The Sheepeaters, or Tu- 
kuarikas, hid along the Salmon River Mountains and, choos- 
ing their time, raided the remote settlements and murdered 
many settlers in the spring of 1879. They numbered only 
about 100 warriors but became a serious menace. Many a 
prospector lost his life by being surprised, early in the mom- 
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ing> by a band of these renegades. They burned property, 
stole horses and cattle, and escaped into the mountains 
where they felt safe from pursuit. 

210. Plan of Attack. — ^Acting imder orders from General 
Howard at Vancouver, three different commands headed 
by Captain Bernard and Lieutenants Catley and Farrow 
respectively, slowly and cautiously forced their way through 
the wild Salmon River country like hunters in search of 
game. And never had himter more wily game. Bernard 
said: "They go from point to point much faster than we 
can, even if we knew where to go." 

The Indians surprised Catley's command, defeated them, 
and captured their pack-train and supplies, so that they were 
forced to give up their part of the campaign. More troops 
were sent out, but it was Lieutenant Farrow who flanked 
the Indian position and forced the entire band of about 60 
to surrender.^ After sixty-two days of marching over the 
snow-covered mountains and plains, he turned them over 
to General Howard at Vancouver. This was the last of 
the Indian wars in Idaho. 

* Lieutenant Farrow defeated the Tukuarikas on Loon Cieek, near its junc- 
tion with the middle fork of the Sahnon River, on August 20, 1879. He forced 
these Indians to surrender in the Seven Devils region on the following Septem- 
ber I. 

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211. How the Cattle Came to the Northwest- — ^At one 
time coimtless buffalo roamed over the Western prairies. 
We are told of a single herd of these animals which covered 
an area 70 by 30 miles. Buffalo flesh and skin furnished 
the Indians with food, clothing, and other necessaries of 
life. In the course of time, however, the buffalo which were 
being wantonly slaughtered by the white men were almost 
exterminated, and it having been learned that the grasses 
and pure water of the north would fatten cattle better than 
the southern range and better cattle-markets were to be 
foimd in the north, great herds of cattle were driven by 
the cowboys from Mexico and southern Texas northward. 
Texas cattle reached Illinois as early as 1857, and in 1867 
and 1868 were making their way into Utah, Nevada, Wy- 
oming, Idaho, and the neighboring territory. 

212. The Open Range.— These great herds of cattle were 
at first driven over the country without hindrance ex- 
cept for the opposition of hostile Indians which the cow- 
boys frequently had to meet and overcome. There were 
no fences, no settlements to any extent, and no laws to in- 
terfere with their freedom of movement. The whole in- 
terior portion of our coimtry was a free and open range. 
But conditions have greatly changed for the cattlemen. 
The days of "free grass," as the open range was called, are 
rapidly passing. Farmers in increasing numbers have taken 
up and fenced their ranches, irrigation projects are opening 
up for cultivating great stretches of new land, and the Fed- 
eral and State authorities are regulating the use and leasing 
of the public domain. Moreover, in more recent years the 

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cattlemen have been forced to compete with the sheepmen 
for the use of the grazing-lands. 

213. The Cowboy. — ^The cowboy of the early cattle days 
will soon have passed entirely from view, but we should 
not forget the debt we owe to this fearless athlete of the 
West. He may still be seen in a number of the Western 
States and may be recognized by his broad-brimmed felt 
hat, his red bandanna, his " chaps ^' and spiu-s and high- 
heeled boots. He has always been dependent upon his 
horse, whose superior strength and speed have made the 
cowboy the master of his herds. In the South, his horse 
was often called a "bronco" frojn the Spanish word mean- 
ing " wild." On the ranges of . I(feho, it was frequently called 
a " cayuse." In former days, it was as wild as the cattle and 
had no other food or shelter than that afforded by nature. 
The cowboy was accustomed to hardships and his life on the 
open plains was wild and free. 

214. The Round*up.— The cattle on the ranges were 
scattered over large tracts of open land and those belonging 
to a number of diflferent.owners would naturally be mingled 
together. There were two occasions in the year when the 
owners of cattle in. a particular section checked up and 
claimed what belonged to them. One of these was known as 
the calf round-up, which took place in. the spring, generally 
about the middle of May. At this time, all the cattle of 
the section were driven together by cowboys who repre- 
sented all the owners of cattle on the range. Then the 
cows, with their calves, were separated or "cut out" from 
the rest of the herd and the calves were roped and branded 
with the same brand as their mothers. Any calf which was 
not following its mother was called a maverick, but generally 
a maverick was a yearling which had been overlooked and 
not branded at the previous spring round-up. The owner 
of the mavericks could not be known and different customs 
prevailed as to the disposition of them. Sometimes they 
were sold at auction and the proceeds were divided among 
all the cattlemen of the district. Dishonest men would 

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put their own brands on mavericks which they foxind. In 
the calf round-up, an account was kept of all the calves and 
the way in which they were branded, so that the different 
cattlemen were able to tell what their increase had been. 
Later in the season, in July or August, there was another 
roimd-up, when the cattle were again gathered together for 
the purpose of selecting the fatted and matured animals 
for diipment to the markets. 

215. Branding the Cattle. — ^In the beginning of the cat- 
tle industry in the South, the stockmen foimd it neces- 
sary to have some special mark to put upon their cattle in 
order that they might always know their own animals. The 
result was that they adopted the method of branding 
with a hot iron, which burned into the hide of the ani- 
mals the brand or mark of the owner. Some of the sim- 
plest brands were the square, the circle, the bar, and the 
parallel lines, but at the present time there are himdreds of 
different kinds. Another way in which cattle were marked 
was by cutting or slitting the ear of the calves in some 
particular manner. These methods were effective in dis- 
tinguishing the cattle of one owner from those of another, 
but it has always been possible for dishonest persons and 
cattle thieves to change or disfigure the brands. Of course 
this could be more easily done with some brands than with 
others. For instance, without diflSculty an F could be 
changed to an E, or a U to an O. In all Western States, 
the stealing of cattle or the altering of brands has been con- 
sidered a serious crime, and laws have been passed requiring 
the owners of brands to register them with certain public 
officers in order that it may be known who the owners are, 
and to protect them more fully. 

216. The Idaho Branding Laws. — ^The Idaho laws pro- 
vide that every stock-grower in the State must use one 
and only one brand for his cattle, and one and only one 
brand for his horses and mules, and that the brand must be 
put in a conspicuous place on the animal. Stock-growers 
are also required to use one and only one brand for sheep^ 

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although they may also have an ear-mark or an ear-tag, 
or both, in addition to the brand on their sheep. A stock- 
grower desiring to use any brand, ear-mark or ear-tag on 
stock must make and sign a certificate setting forth a fac- 
simile or description of the same and have this certificate 
recorded by the State veterinarian. The person thus hav- 
ing a brand, ear-mark, or ear-tag recorded, becomes the 
legal owner of it, and in all lawsuits where the title or right 
to possession of stock is involved, the presumption is that 
an animal belongs to the person who owns the brand, ear- 
mark, or ear-tag found on it, provided the same has been 
duly recorded. 

217. Conditions in Idaho. — ^The cattlemen foimd the con- 
ditions in Idaho decidedly favorable for their industry. The 
climate, water-supply, and grass were of such a character 
that the cattle business became a thriving one and a great 
source of wealth to the cattle-owners and the State. In 
the sections of Idaho where there are open plains the grasses 
grow m abundance from early in the spring until the dry 
and hot months of summer. Then the cattle move to the 
higher hillsides where the more frequent rain and springs 
cause a larger amount of pasture. As we have seen, cattie 
began to come into the State before 1870, and the business 
increased imtil it might be said to have reached its height 
between the years 1880 and 1888. Since that time, although 
the cattle business has not held the prominent place that it 
formerly held, it has nevertheless remained one of the most 
important industries of the State. 

The coimties most prominently identified with the cattle 
industry are Idaho, Valley, Owyhee, Cassia, Bannock, 
Camas, Blaine, Butte, Custer, and Lemhi. At this time 
the cattle business is conducted along somewhat different 
lines from those formerly followed. More importance is 
attached to the grade and quaUty of the stock and they 
receive much more care and attention. In the winter-time 
the cattle are fed in protected valleys. The old days of 
the roimd-up have gone. More and more the stockmen 

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are becoming dependent on the farmers, and are, in fact, 
becoming farmers themselves. 

218. Grazing in the National Forests. — The stock- 
men of Idaho at the present time depend chiefly upon two 
sources for their range privileges, the federal government 
and the State government. There still remains a certain 


amoimt of unoccupied United States government land 
which may be used as free range for stock. This land is 
generally without timber and there are no regulations in 
force as to its use. It constitutes, however, but a small 
part of the range-land of the State. In the 19 national 
forests now in Idaho there is a net area of 17,785,333 acres 
of forest-lands. These are under the control of the Forest 
Service of the United States Department of Agriculture and 
consist of large tracts of land located in m^imtainous and 

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timbered districts. The national forests contain the best 
grazing-land in the State, and permits for grazing stock on 
them are obtained through the Forest Service. Tlie owners 
of cattle are required to pay 35 cents to 50 cents a head 
for cattle, while sheepmen pay from 5^ to 15 cents a head 
for sheep for grazing privileges. The charge made varies 
according to tiie length of time for which the permit is 
granted. The amoimt charged is exceedingly small, being 
only enough to cover the expenses of supervision. At this 
time, all of the available grazing privileges in the national 
forests in Idaho are in use, would, of course, be im- 
possible to obtain new permits or privileges. 

219. Grazing on State Lands. — ^The State of Idaho 
owns about 3,000,000 acres of land. This is included chiefly 
in the i6th and 36th sections of each township, which 
were given to the State by the federal government for the 
support of the common schools, when the State was admitted 
to the Union. Of this land, 1,764,457 acres were leased in 
1916 for grazing purposes^ most of this being in the low, roll- 
ing foot-hills. Instead of charging stockmen according to 
the niraiber of cattle or sheep which are to graze on the lands, 
the State charges 7^ cents an acre for a lease of the land 
for the entire year. This amoimts to $48 a section. Some- 
times when the tract is small, as, for instance, only 40 acres, 
a charge of 10 or even 15 cents is made. But whfle the cost 
of seeming the use of State lands is greater than that charged 
by the Forest Service, it is, nevertheless, very small con- 
sidering the advantages received by the stockmen. All the 
most desirable grazing-land owned by the State is leased. 

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220. The Beginning of the Sheep Industry. — ^The same 
favorable conditions which in the beginning brought the 
cattle in great numbers to Idaho^ later caused the moim- 
tains to be covered with sheep. The unsurpassed range 
foimd in the State was the greatest inducement offered to 
both cattlemen and sheepmen. The dry climate also proved 
to be ideal for sheep-raising and the range-sheep became the 
healthiest live stock in the State, only a very small percent- 
age of sheep being lost by disease. Not only has Idaho be- 
become one of the greatest wool-producing States, but it 
has long been noted for its mutton. Although the early 
settlers brought with them sheep as well as cattle, the cattle- 
raising industry developed more rapidly at first than the 
sheep industry. In more recent years, however, conditions 
have been reversed and to-day the sheep industry represents 
a greater investment of capital and larger profits than the 
cattle business. Most of the sheep are f oimd in the southern 
part of the State. 

221. The Ranges Vary with the Seasons. — The sheep 
have to be wintered and supplied with hay for about three 
months in the year, beginning with the middle of December 
and ending about the middle of March. Then they move 
to the pubUc domain and the leased State lands, where they 
graze on a short grass which grows on the sage-brush land 
and which is an exceptionally early feed. Here they re- 
main imtil the first part of Jime, when they move into the 
national forests in the higher and more moimtainous dis- 
tricts, often climbing to the height of 8,000 and 9,000 feet, 
following the snow-line upward as the snow melts. They 


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travel a great deal, and in a season may pass through several 
counties over a distance of hundreds of miles. Toward the 
middle of October, they start on their downward journey. 
During the fall months some of the sheep are fed on the 
State lands and the pubUc domain, but most of them graze 
on pastures leased from farmers. Theser animals subsist 
during the winter months on hay suppUed from ranches. 

222. The Camp-Tender. — ^In the winter-time the sheep 
are generally found in bands of from 2,000 to 2,500; in the 
summer months the bands consist of from 1,000 to 1,250 
ewes and their lambs. The men who take care of the sheep 
are the camp-tenders and sheep-herders, one camp-tender 
being able to care for from 2 to 4 bands of sheep belonging 
to the same owner. It is the camp-tender's duty to see that 
the camps are supplied with provisions for the herders, and 
that the sheep are provided with salt, a band of sheep wit^ 
their lambs in the summer-time needing from 150 to 200 
pounds of salt every ten days. It is also his business to move 
the camp and provisions from one location to another when 
it becomes necessary to find new feeding-groimds. He is 
also charged with the responsibility of finding any sheep 
that may have been lost by the herders. 

223. The Sheep-Herder and His Dog. — ^Each band of 
sheep has a herder who is aided in his constant duties of 
caring for the sheep by one or two faithful dogs, who prove 
not only useful assistants for him, but companions in his 
lonely hours. The herder must always be vigilant to see 
that the sheep are not lost or injured. Even at night, when 
the ringing of the sheep-bells or the bark of the dog sounds 
an alarm, he must be ready to go out to investigate the 
cause of the trouble. Nearly all the sheep-dogs are Scotch 
coUies, which are animals of unusual intelligence. They 
are always on the watch and are quick in carrying out the 
directions of the herder to turn the leaders of the sheep 
in some new direction, or to perform other services equally 
useful. As a rule, however, the dogs are sent after the 
sheep only in case of an emergency, as the sudden rush or 

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Stampede caused by fear of the dogs is harmful to the 
sheep and also causes the range to become trampled and 
injured. Ordinarily, the herder himself is able to turn the 
sheep by a whistle or a call. The dogs protect the lambs 
and sheep from wild animals, especially at night, the coyote 


being the enemy by which the sheep are most frequently 

224. Shearing the Sheep. — ^In former times the shear- 
ing of the sheep was done by hand, and the men who per- 
formed this work acquired great skill in it. Hand-shearing 
is still practised to some extent, but most of the shearing 
is now done by machinery. A gasoline-engine will run 
from 5 to 30 shearing-machines. These useful instruments 
are fashioned much like hair-clippers. Ten experienced 
men will shear 1,500 to 2,000 sheep in a day with these 
machines. When sheep are thus shorn, the wool is cUpped 
more closely than if the work had been done by hand, and. 

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of course, more wool is obtained. However, a disadvantage 
of having the sheep so closely shorn is that there is a littie 
more risk of their suffering from unexpected storms or cold 

Shearing is started about the middle of March and con- 
tinues until about the ist of Jime. While the amount of 
wool obtained will depend on the breed of the sheep and 
their condition, the average amount of wool received from 
each sheep is between 7 and 8 poimds. When the wool 
has been clipped, it is hauled to the nearest shipping-point, 
from which it is sent to the storehouse or the great mills 
of the East. Shipments are sometimes made to St, Louis 
and Chicago, but most frequently, the wool iis sent to 
Boston and Philadelphia — ^Boston being the principal wool- 
market in the coimtry. 

vPhe shejarers are frequently professional workers who 
start shearing in California and Arizona in February and 
gradually work north through Nevada 'and Idaho, reach- 
ing Idaho about the middle of April to the ist of May, 
wh^n the heavy shearing begins. After the shearing has 
been feiished in Idaho, these men make their way into 
Montana and farther north into the British possessions, 
some of them ccmtinuing their journey to Axistralia, -where 
shearing-time is October. Since the entry of this country in- 
to the world war the shearers have been paid as high as 
from 12 to 15 cents a head for shearing. 

225. Sheep Brands. — ^The owner's brand on sheep is 
not burned into the hide as is done in the case of cattle, 
but is made by a branding-liquid which leaves a mark on 
the wool similar to that which wotild be made by paint. 
This brand is placed on the back of the sheep and is gener- 
ally black, red, or green, although other colors may be used. 
It does not seriously injure the wool. In addition to the 
brand, it is customary for the owner to have an ear-mark 
on each of his sheep, which is made by cutting or punching 
a small piece out of the ear. While it would be an easy 
matter to obliterate the brand on the back of the animal* 

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it would be more difl&ctilt to change the ear-mark without 
detection. Many sheep-owners are now using a small 
nose-brand which is burned into the skin. 

When the lambs are from three weeks to a month old, 
their tails are cut off and they are ear-marked and branded 


the same as their mothers, each band being given a dis- 
tmctive brand to enable the owner to distinguish between 
the sheep belonging to his different bands. For instance, 
the color of the branding-liquid might be changed or the 
brand put on a different part of the back. 

226. The Two-Mile Limit Law. — Since 1875 there has 
been in Idaho a statute known as the Two-Mile Limit 
Law. This provides that it is unlawful for any person own- 
ing or having charge of sheep to herd them or permit them 
to be herded on the lands or possessory claims of others. 
It also prohibits herding sheep or permitting them to graze 
within two miles of a dwelling-house. The owner of it may 
sue the owner of the sheep for any damages he has sus- 
tained. Of course, this law does not prevent the owner of 

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sheep from simply driving them from one place to another, 
although they happen to pass within two miles of the home 
of a settler. Even if the sheep shotild occasionally eat grass 
as they travelled along or while they stopped for a needed 
rest, they would not be considered to be grazing, within the 


meaning of the law. This law was passed to protect the 
ranchers from the injury that might result to them if sheep 
were permitted to graze too near their homes and the sur- 
roimding pasturelands. 

227. Conflicts Between Cattlemen and Sheepmen. — ^As 
settlers in increasing numbers began to occupy the land 
formerly used for grazing purposes and the sheep became 
more numerous, it was natural that conflicting claims to 
the range should be made by the cattlemen and sheepmen. 
At times the sheepmen encroached upon portions of the 
range which had been selected by the cattlemen and fre- 
quently this order of things was reversed and the cattlemen 
insisted upon using the range claimed by the sheepmen. 
The result was that in some sections of the State bitter- 
ness grew up between these different stockmen, who at 
times attempted to take the law into their own hands and 

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to protect the rights which they claimed, by threats and 
violence. This condition reached a climax when two sheep- 
herders were killed in the early part of 1896. 

228. The " Diamondfield Jack" Tragedy* — At that 
time, Cassia County was one of the most important range 
sections of the State for both cattle and sheep. The cattle- 
men had claimed that the sheepmen were trespassing on 
the range which belonged to them and much unfriendly 
feeliag had been aroused. On February 16, 1896, two sheep- 
herders wer« discovered dead in their wagon, at a point on 
the; range known as Shoshone Basin, in Cassia Coimty. 
Both victims had evidently been shot a niunber of days 
before. Their emaciated sheep-dogs were foimd tied to the 
wagon and their sheep were scattered about on the range. 
Jack Davis, who was commonly known as "Diamondfield 
Jack,^' was suspected and put on trial for the murder. He 
was in the employ of a large cattle company and had been 
riding the range looking after the interests of his employ- 
ers. The State cotild not produce any witness who had 
actually seen the shots fired, but it was shown that at the 
tipe Jack Davis had been in the vicinity where the murder 
wias committed and that he had made a number of threats 
to k^ sheepmen. These and other facts and circumstances 
were sufficient to cause the jury to convict him of murder, 
for which he was sentenced to be hanged. This sentence, 
however, was not carried out, but the defendant was, in- 
steaid, sent to the penitentiary and later pardoned. The 
ca?e aroused intense feeling among the stockmen of the 
State, the cattlemen favoring the acquittal of the accused 
mai^, while the sheepmen desired his conviction. 

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229/ Outlook Not Promising. — ^Idaho did not oflfer a 
promising field for raikoad investments during the first 
decade of our Territorial history. At that time the popu- 
lation of the Territory was made up almost entirely of 
adventurous spirits who had been attracted to Idaho's 
rich mineral fields. There were some ranchers, but their 
habitations were far apart and their efforts at agricul- 
tiu*e were of a feeble and desultory character. Most of the 
State was regarded as a desert, hopelessly unfit for perma- 
nent occupancy by white men. The magnificent resources 
and possibilities of the futiu-e State were then practically 

230. Idaho's First Railroad. — ^The first railroad con- 
structed in Idaho was known as the Utah and Northern, 
On November i, 1877, it crossed the State-line from Utah, 
passing northward through Pocatello, Blackfoot, and Idaho 
Falls and connected Ogden, Utah, with Helena, Montana, 
It was a narrow-gauge railroad, being only three feet in 
width as compared with the modem standard gauge of 
four feet, eight and one-half inches. The track consisted 
of rails which weighed thirty-five pounds to the yard, while 
modem railroads to-day use no rails in their main lines 
weighing less than ninety pounds to the yard. 

231. Why the Transcontinental Roads Came. — ^There 
were a niraiber of causes which brought about the build- 
ing of the first transcontinental railroads through Idaho. 
One was the desire to reach the settlements on the north 
Pacific coast, and if this were to be done, it was necessary to 
cross the State. Such roads were also considered necessary 


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from a military standpoint and were regarded as a meems 
for developing trade with the Orient. Moreover, the fish- 
eries, timber, and agricultural resources of Oregon and 
Washington would be made more accessible by the construc- 
tion of such roads. The name of the first transcontinental 
railroad to enter southern Idaho, the Oregon Short Line, 
indicates clearly the purpose of its builders. Those who 
constructed it believed that it would afford them the short- 
est line to and through Oregon. In a general way, it fol- 
lowed the old Oregon Trail across the southern part of the 

232. The Oregon Short Line. — ^Location-maps for the 
Oregon Short Line proper were filed in 1879. After many 
difficulties, the track reached the Idaho line from Granger, 
Wyoming, on Jime 16, 1882. The construction-crews con- 
tinued to work their way westward imtil Huntington, Ore- 
gon, was reached in 1884. Here the line was to be con- 
nected with the Oregon Railway and Navigation Company, 
now known as the Oregon- Washington Railroad and Navi- 
gation Company, which was then being built. On January 
I, 1885, the first through passenger-train from Omaha to 
Portland passed through the State. The advent of this ser- 
vice was greeted with boisterous enthusiasm by the people 
along the route, and the occasion was one of general re- 

233. Later History.— ^After the Oregon Short Line had 
been completed, it was foimd that its revenues were inade- 
quate to meet the expenses of its operation. This was due 
to the fact that it passed through a territory which was 
sparsely settled and produced little that could be handled 
by the railroad. Finally the road became bankrupt and 
passed into the hands of receivers. But in 1897 a reor- 
ganization was effected, and E. H. Harriman, one of the 
great figures in railroad history, secured control of the 
Union Pacific, of which the Short Line is a branch, and 
of the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company. A 
period of activity began at once and a poUcy of btdlding 

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branch lines into undeveloped territory was inaugiu-ated. 
The first branch lines were constructed to Hailey (1883), 
to Ketchxun (1884), and to Boise (1887). The most im- 
portant of the newer branches are the Twin Falls Branch 
and the Yellowstone Branch connecting Idaho Falls with the 








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^^^^^^^^^^^^^^Li ^Hl 

r- ,■■ - . 

'■'^ ■ |i| 




entrance to Yellowstone Park. In 1916 the total mileage 
of the Oregon Short Line in Idaho was 1,561.78, which has 
an assessed value of $52,726,595. 

234. The Northern Pacific. — Three great transconti- 
nental railroads pass through the northern part of Idaho, 
called the Panhandle. The Northern Pacific was the first 
of those to be built. It was constructed from west to east 
across the State, a distance of approximately 87 miles, 
having been built between the years 1880 and 1882. This 
section of the road formed the connecting-link which united 
the Great Lakes at Duluth, Minnesota, with Puget Sound 
at Tacoma, Washington. The immediate cause for the con- 

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struction of the road was a demand in the East and abroad 
for the abundant timber from the forests of western 
Washington and the sahnon and fruit from that region. 
These industries to-day remain the leading sources of 
revenue from freight shipments. 

235. Branch Lines. — ^A nxmiber of important branch 
lines have been constructed, from time to time, to handle the 
varied and valuable products of northern Idaho. One of 
these, the Palouse and Lewiston Branch, was built to trans- 
port the enormous wheat and barley crops of the Palouse, 
Potlatch, Camas, and Nez Perce prairies, and the white 
and yellow pine, fir, cedar, and tamarack of Clearwater 
and Potlatch districts. Other branch lines are the Clear- 
water Short Line, the Camas Prairie High Line to Grange- 
ville, the Fort Sherman Branch to Coeur d^Alene City and 
Lake. The Genesee Branch from Pulhnan, Washington, 
to Genesee, Idaho, was made necessary on accoimt of the 
great tonnage in wheat, horses, hogs, and cattle; and the 
Missoula Branch from Missoula, Montana, to Wallace, 
Idaho, was built to convey the lead, silver, gold, copper, and 
zinc ores from the Coeur d'Alene mining district to the 
smelters and refineries of the east. This branch also sup- 
plies this great mining district with provisions, machinery, 
and travelling facilities. 

236. The Great Northern.— The next road to be built 
across the Panhandle of the State was the Great Northern, 
which is the farthest north in its location. This railroad, 
which was constructed in 1892 was the result of the faith 
and genius of James J. Hill, the great railroad man of St. 
Paul. People laughed at what they considered the folly 
of attempting to construct a railroad across the continent 
farther north than the Northern Pacific. They thought 
that the territory through which such a road would pass 
would not be productive, but Hill had the vision to see that 
this same territory would some day be capable of supporting 
thousands of farms, and he lived to see it become a great 
wheat section. 

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237. The Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul. — I^q last 
of the transcontinental roads to be built in the north was 
the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul. Its main line was 
surveyed across the northern part of the State, south of the 
Northern Pacific, in the autumn of 1906 and the winter 
of 1906-1907. Part of it was constructed through Shoshone 
Coimty along the Saint Joe River, through a territory which 
had never seen a wheeled vehicle, and only a few prospectors. 
The main line in Idaho, 98 miles in length, involved an ex- 
penditure of about $11,000,000, 40 miles costing about 
$170,000 per mile. In May, 1910, the main line from Mis- 
souri River to Puget Soimd was opened for through freight 
and local passenger business. The first of the present all- 
steel passenger-trains between Chicago and Puget Soimd 
was run on May 25, 1911. In 1915 a portion of this road 
through Idaho was electrified. The long freight and pas- 
senger trains, operated by electricity, without smoke, cin- 
ders, or fumes, constitute an interesting feature of modem 
railroad development. 

23& Transportation Between the North and South. — 
From the earliest days of Idaho's history the problem of 
transportation between the northern and southern parts of 
the State has been a difficult one. Four great railroad 
systems cross Idaho from east to west, but, up to the 
present time, there is no railroad running through the State 
from north to south. If, for instance, a student living at 
Boise wishes to attend the State University at Moscow, it is 
necessary for him to travel in a roimdabout way through 
portions of Oregon and Washington. Even our legislators, 
coming from the north to the capital, have to leave their 
own State and journey in this way, at great expense to the 
people, because of the extra mileage which has to be allowed 

239. The Proposed North and South Railroad. — ^For 
the ptirpose of finding a remedy for this condition of affairs, 
the legislature in 1915, by a joint resolution, requested the 
governor to appoint a commission to investigate the matter 

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and to determine which would be the best route for a north 
and south raihroad. The public utilities commissioners, act- 
ing as such a commission, have since reported that such a 
road could be built without meeting serious obstacles and 
recommended, as most desirable, a line from New Meadows, 
the present northern terminal of the Pacific and Idaho 
Northern Railroad, to Lewiston by way of the Salmon and 
Snake Rivers. Such a road would not only materially 
shorten the distance which it is now necessary to travel in 
going between northern and southern points, but would 
greatly assist in the development of the rich resources of 
central Idaho. It would also serve to bring the people of 
the north and south into closer touch and sympathy. 

240. What the Railroads Have Done.— The immediate 
effect of railroad-building in Idaho was the development of 
the territory along agricultural and mining lines and a great 
increase of immigration. 'From a population of 14,999 ^ 
1870 the State grew to a poptdation of 325,594 in 1910. 
By far the greater part of this gain occurred during the period 
between 1890 and 1910, the population leaping from 88,548 
in the year first named to the figures already given in 1910. 
During this period railroad-building was most active. Sit- 
uated as it is, far from water transportation, it would have 
been impossible for Idaho to make real progress without 
the railroad. The product of her mines, her forests, and 
her fields must necessarily move to distant markets, the 
home consumption even at this time being limited. 

In 1916 the total mileage of Idaho's steam and electric 
railroads was 2,937 miles, having an appraised value of 
$83,878,073. The railroads of Idaho have prospered with 
the people, the conmiunity of interest between them being 
generally recognized. 

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241. Territory and State.— A Territorial government is 
not democratic in spirit. It imposes its authority without 
the consent of the governed. It is in conflict with the prin- 
ciple that "taxation without representation is tyranny." 
During the twenty-seven years of Territorial rule the people 
of Idaho were not, for instance, permitted to vote for the 
President of the United States, who, with the approval of 
the Senate, appointed their chief judicial and executive 
oflBcers. Nor did their delegate to Congress have a vote in 
that powerful body which could annul any enactment of 
the Territorial Legislature. ^ 

While some of the officials who were appointed from 
outside the Territory to administer the affairs of the Terri- 
tory were notably able and upright men, yet others were 
unfamiliar with or indifferent to the needs of the people and 
merited the imcomplimentary title of "carpetbag rulers." 

It was to remedy these imdesirable conditions and to 
substitute a system of local self-government for alien rule 
that active steps were taken to procure Statehood for Idaho 
in the year 1889. 

242. Governor Issues Call for Constitutional Conven- 
tion. — One of the last official acts of Territorial Governor 
Edward A. Stevenson (1885-1889) was to issue a call for 
a constitutional convention. On April 2, 1889, by formal 
proclamation, he recommended that the people of the Terri- 
tory on the first Monday in June (1889) elect seventy-two 
delegates to a constitutional convention to meet at Boise 
City on the following July 4. On May 11, 1889, Governor 
George L. Shoup indorsed the action of his predecessor by 
issuing a supplementary proclamation setting forth at greater 


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length the reasons why Idaho should have a State govern- 

243. The Constitutional Convention.— A futiure genera- 
tion can well be proud of the body of delegates^ who framed 


Idaho's Organic Law. It is doubtful if a more distinguished 
group of men have ever been assembled in Idaho during the 
history of our commonwealth. A glance at the roster of 

*The delegates who framed Idaho*s State constitution were: John S. Gray, 
Ada County; A. B. Moss, Ada County; Edgar Wilson, Ada County; John Lemp, 
Ada County; W. C. Maxey, Ada County; Chas. A. Clark, Ada County; I. N. 
Costin, Ada County; P. J. Pefley, Ada County; Frank Steunenberg, Ada County; 
Jas. H. Beatty, Alturas County; A. J. Pinkham, Alturas County; O. R. Batten, 
Alturas County; L. Vineyard, Alturas County; P. McMahon, Alturas County; 
J. W. Ballentine, Alturas County; J. L. Underwood, Bear Lake County; W. H. 
Savidge, Bingham County; F. W. Beane, Bingham County; H. B. Kinport, Bing- 
ham County; J. T. Morgan, Bingham County; H. O. Harkness, Bingham County; 
Ralph Anderson, Bingham County; Sam F. Taylor, Bingham County; Fred Camp- 
bell, Boise County; George Ainslie, Boise County; John H. Meyer, Boise Coxmty; 

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those delegates reveals the name of a former delegate to 
Congress from Idaho as well as a former delegate to Congress 
from an adjoining Territory; a congressman from an East- 
em State; a former chief justice of the Territorial supreme 

court; also the names of former 
members of the Territorial Legis- 
latxire. In that body there were 
men who were later destined to 
honor their State as United States 
senators, governors, congressmen, 
judges, and as leaders in profes- 
sional and business life. 

William H. Clagett of Osborne, 
Shoshone Coimty, was by accla- 
mation elected president of the 
convention. Prior to coming to 
Idaho he had been delegate to 
Congress from Montana. While 
serving in that capacity he had 
procured the passage of the act 
which established the YeUowstone National Park. 

244. The New Constitution, — On August 6, 1889, after 
a session lasting thirty-four days, the constitution was 
framed and signed by the delegates. 

H. S. Hampton, Cassia County; J. W. Lamereaux, Cassia County; O. J. Salisbury, 
Custer County; A. J. Pierce, Custer County; A. J. Crook, Custer County; Jas. M. 
Shoup, Custer County; F. P. Cavanah, Elmore County; A. M. Sinnott, Elmore 
County; Homer Stull, Elmore County; Henry Melder, Kootenai County; Albert 
Hagan, Kootenai County; W. A. Hendiyx, Kootenai County; Willis Sweet, Latah 
Coxmty; W. J. McConnell, Latah County; J. W. Brigham, Latah County; W. D. 
Robbins, Latah County; H. B. Blake, Latah County; A. S. Chaney, Latah County; 
N. I. Andrews, Lemhi County; Thos. Payeatt, Lemhi County; John Hagan, Lemhi 
County; J. M. Howe, Lemhi County; Jas. W. Reid, Nez Perce County; J. W. Poe, 
Nez Perce County; J. S. Whitton, Logan County; Henry Armstrong, Logan County; 
W. C. B. Allen, Logan County; S. J. Pritchard, Owyhee County; C. M. Hays, 
Owyhee County; J. L Crutcher, Owyhee County; W. B. Heybum, Shoshone 
Coxmty; W. H. Clagett, Shoshone County; Wm. H. Hammel, Shoshone County; 
S. S. Glldden, Shoshone County; W. W. Woods, Shoshone County; A. B. Bevan, 
Shoshone County; A. E. Mayhew, Shoshone County; G. W. King, Shoshone 
County; Sol Hasbrouck, Washington County; E. S. Jewell, Washington Coxmty; 
Frank Harris, Washington County; A. F. Parker, Idaho County. 


President Idaho State constitutional 

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In its main outlines, our constitution was modelled after 
those of older States. When viewed in the light of the 
period in which it was written, it was rather progressive in 
tone. Its several articles and clauses are ably and skilfully 
drawn and couched in clear language. It is briefer and less 
burdened with details than are several of the more recently 
framed constitutions of other States. Up to 1918 24 
amendments had been added to this doaunent. 

245. The Constitution Adopted. — On November 5, 
1889, the constitution was ratified by an overwhelming 
majority. The final coimt showed that 12,398 votes had 
been cast in favor of the adoption measure, and only 1,775 
votes against it.^ 

246. Idaho Admitted to the Union. — ^The Statehood Ad- 
mission Bill passed the National House of Representatives 
on April 3, 1890, and the Senate the following July i. Late 
in the afternoon of July 3, the engrossed bill was presented to 
President Harrison. Territorial Deleg^ite Fred T. Dubois 
was present and handed the President the pen which en- 
rolled Idaho as the forty-third State in the Union. 

247. The First State Governor. — On July 3, 1890, in 
accordance with a provision in the Admission Act, Terri- 
torial Governor Shoup became the chief executive of the 
newly admitted commonwealth. At the special election 
held October i, 1890, he was continued in the governorship 
and to him belongs the distinction of having been the last 
Territorial and the first State governor of Idaho. 

248. First United States Senators. — Associated with 
the First Legislature, which convened December 8, 1890, are 
some of the most sensational political incidents in our his- 
tory. On December 18, 1890, the legislature elected Gov- 
ernor Shoup and William J. McConnell to fill the va- 
cancies then existing in the United States Senate. The 
members of the legislature knew that the terms of one of 
the two senators-elect would expire on March 4, 1891, al- 

^ The population of Idaho in 1870 was 14,999; ^ 1880, 32,611; in 1890, 88,548; 
in 1900, 161,772; and in 1910, 325,594. 

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most two years prior to the next legislative session (January, 
1893). They accordingly proceeded on the same day that 
Mr. Shoup and Mr. McConnell were chosen (December 18) 
to elect Fred T. Dubois to fill the six-year term which 
would begin March 4, 1891. Claiming that there was "at 


The Soldiers' Monument was erected in honor of the company contributed by the University 
to the Spanish-American War. 

least grave doubt" as to the validity of Mr. Dubois's elec- 
tion on February 11, 1891, the friends of WiUiam H. Clagett 
elected him in Mr. Dubois's stead for the long senatorial 
term (1891-1897). A few weeks later, however, by a vote 
<^f 55 to 5, the United States Senate voted to seat Mr. 
Dubois. Idaho's First Legislature is said to have the imique 
distinction of having been the only one in our nation's his- 
tory which at one session elected four, and seated three, 
United States senators. 

249. The State Flower. — ^In 1893, a committee of Boise 
women, known as the Columbian Committee, was organized 
to assist Captain James M. Wells, the Idaho commissioner 
at the World's Exposition at Chicago, in furnishing the 
Idaho building. It was this committee which originally 

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selected the syringa as Idaho's State flower. This flower 
has four white petals and a yellow centre, and flourishes in 
the mountainous regions of our State. While the syringa 
has never been given an official status through legislative 
action, yet by common consent, Idahoans have for a quarter 
of a century conferred upon it the affectionate title " State 
Flower" — a distinction it will, doubtless, permanently pos- 

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250. The Farmer Follows the Miner. — ^Between the 
years 1842 and i860, thousands of unmigrants travelled 
across the State over the Oregon Trail, but the character of 
the land over which they passed did not tempt them to 
cease their journey westward and settle in Idaho. The 
lure of the coimtry still farther toward the sunset carried 
them into Oregon and to the Pacific. But with the dis- 
covery of gold on the Clearwater River in i860 and in the 
Boise Basin in 1862, miners came to hunt for the precious 
metals and to make their homes in the State. With the 
miners came the need of providing them with food and it 
was because of this necessity that little tracts of land were 
first cultivated in the northern and southwestern portions 
of the State. 

In southeastern Idaho, agriculture was first started by 
colonists sent out by the Church of Je^us Christ of 
Latter-Day Saints, the first permanent settlement being 
established at Franklin, in the present Franklin Coimty, in 
i860. It was also through the southeasterly coimties of 
Idaho that miners in the early days travelled northward 
from Utah to the rich mining districts of Montana. This 
immigration resulted in the early settlement of that section 
of our territory. 

251. Varied Conditions. — ^Idaho is so large that the cli- 
mate and other conditions which affect agriculture vary 
greatly in different parts of the State. For instance, the 
altitude ranges from 700 feet near Lewiston to more than 
12,000 feet in the Sawtooth Mountains. A farm on the 
northern boimdary-line is nearly 500 miles farther north 
than one on the State's southern border. The annual rain- 
fall varies from an average of 8 inches in part of the southern 

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section of the State to 40 inches in the Bitter Root Moun- 

252. A Rich SoiL — ^A large proportion of the agricul- 
tural land of the State is composed of volcanic-ash soil. 
This is very rich in mineral plant-food elements, as volcanic 








.. * 



From a Olograph by Ley. 


American FaUs is the greatest wheat-shipping point in Idaho, and one of the greatest in the 
intermountain countiy. 

rock is a composition of a variety of different minerals. The 
soil is exceedingly well supplied with phosphorus and potash. 
The element most lacking in the raw land is nitrogen which, 
however, can be readily supplied by the decomposition of 
vegetable matter. A good method for maintaining the sup- 
ply of nitrogen in the soil is to cultivate and occasionally 
plough under a crop of clover, alfalfa, or other leguminous or 
podded plants. It is necessary for the soil to be fed on such 
crops and to receive the mineral elements which they con- 
tain, when it has become exhausted by improper methods of 

Owing to the f ertihty of the soil and the favorable climatic 
conditions, Idaho has gradually developed from a mining 

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and cattle-raising State to one in which the chief industry 
is agriculture. The possibilities of further development 
along this line seem almost boundless. 

^3- Types of Farming:.— There are three kinds of farm- 
ing employed in the State: humid, irrigation, and dry. 
Humid farming is carried on where the rainfall, without 

Prom a photograph by Ley. 


having to be conserved in any way, furnishes sufficient 
moisture for raising crops. Such farming is possible wher- 
ever the average rainfall is 18 inches or more. In northern 
Idaho humid farming is the method used, as this section 
of the State has a plentiful supply of rain. A large portion 
of northern Idaho is covered with timber. As the timber is 
being removed, rich farm-lands are left, which are being 
highly cultivated. 

Irrigation farming is used where the rainfall is too slight 
to raise crops and water is brought to irrigate the land from 
reservoirs and streams. This method of farming is followed 
in the Snake River Valley and other portions of southern 
Idaho, and its story is told in another chapter. 

254. Dry Farming. — ^Dry farming is made possible by 
the cultivation of the soil in such manner that it conserves 

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the moisture which it receives. It is practised in portions 
of southern Idaho where the rainfall is light. The most 
important dry-farming counties are Fremont, Jefferson, 
Madison, Bonneville, Bingham, and Power. Where dry 
farming is carried on, the farmer generally ploughs deeply 
one-half of his 
land in the fall 

and leaves it 
rough imtilafter 
the spring rains. 
After receiving 
the winter and 
spring moisture 
this land is 
worked over and 
the surface is 
thoroughly cul- 
tivated. This 
causes the land 
to be covered 

be called a blanket of dust, which prevents a rapid rise 
and evaporation of the moisture from the surface. The 
following fall the seed is planted in the soil in which has 
thus been conserved much of a year's moisture, and this 
crop will receive the benefit of the moisture of the next 
winter and spring. At the time of seeding the first haK of 
his land, the farmer ploughs the other half in order that it, 
too, may receive its moisture of a year before being seeded. 
In this way, a crop is produced on each half every second 
year. The size of the crop depends upon the thoroughness 
with which the land is cultivated and the amoimt of moisture 
thereby conserved. 

255. Cereals. — ^The principal cereals grown in Idaho are 
wheat, oats, barley, and com: The most valuable crop is 
wheat, which is grown chiefly in Latah, Nez Perce, Lewis, 
and Idaho Counties in the north, and on the irrigated and 

Three hundred thousand bushels of barley. 

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dry farms of southeastern Idaho. In 191 5 there were about 
700,000 acres of wheat grown in the State, and the average 
number of bushels per acre was 28; while the average niun- 
ber of bushels per acre in the United States was 16.9. 
The State produces large quantities of oats and barley. 

In 1915 the av- 
erage number of 
bushels of oats 
produced to the 
acre in Idaho 
was 47, while 
the average 
number ofbudi- 
els for the Uni- 
ted States was 
37. Our aver- 
age production 
per acre of bar- 
ley was 40>^ 
bushels, while the average for the United States was $2. 

Com is almost always grown on humid and irrigated farms. 
The Snake River Valley is the chief com area of the State. 
In 191 5 the average number of bushels per acre of com pro- 
duced in Idaho was 35, while the average for the United 
States was 28. 

256. Hay. — ^The hay-crop of Idaho is exceptionally large 
and the amount of hay produced per acre is greater than that 
of any other State except Arizona. The average yield for 
the ten years from igo6 to 191 5 was 2.86 tons per acre, 
while the average yield in the United States for the same 
period was 1.41 tons. Hay is grown on over 725,000 acres 
of land in this State. The largest crop is that of aKalfa, 
which is raised chiefly in southern Idaho by means of irri- 
gation and which yields from three to four cuttings a year. 
Clover, mixed grasses consisting of clover, timothy, and 
orchard-grass, and natural meadow or wind grasses grow 
in abundance. 

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257. Potatoes.— Potatoes thrive in the higher altitudes, 
where the nights are cool, and in a sandy-loam soil. Excep- 
tionally favorable conditions for potato-growing are found 
in sections of southeastern Idaho, of which Idaho Falls and 
Twin Falls are the centres. Thousands of car-loads of pota- 
toes are shipped f roni Ida- 
ho every year, principally 
from the Idaho Falls and 
Twin Falls sections. For 
the ten years from 1906 to 
191 5 the average yield of 
potatoes in Idaho was 161 
bushels per acre, while the 
average yield per acre in 
the United States was 97^^ 
bushels. The only State 
which exceeded the aver- 
age production of Idaho 
was Maine. 

258. Sugar- Beets. — Sug- 
ar-beets are produced on a 
large scale in Idaho. They 
require much simshine and 
moisture, and are gener- 
ally grown on irrigated land. In 1915 there were 35,068 
acres devoted to ttie raising of sugar-beets in the south- 
eastern part of the State. Beet-sugar factories are located 
at Sugar City, Idaho Falls, Paul, Blackfoot, Burley, Twin 
Falls, and Shelley. The sugar content of Idaho beets is 
higher than that of beets grown in any other State except 
California. Idaho is the fifth largest beet-sugar producing 
State in the Union, and its annual (191 7) product was 
valued at $8,000,000. 

259. Fruit-Growing. — ^All fruits of the north temper- 
ate zone are grown in Idaho and have a deep color and 
rich flavor. The chief fruits shipped from the State are 
apples, prunes, and peaches. More apples are produced 


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than any other fruit, but the production of the Italian prune 
has proved more valuable to the fruit-grower. The prune- 
trees bear fruit when four years old, and the crop increases 
in quantity each year until the tree is twenty years of age, 
when it has reached its full growth. The tree continues 
productive, however, for many years after it has reached 
maturity. Idaho prunes are especially suitable for ship- 
ping. In its annual output of fresh prunes, Idaho now 
leads all the other States of the Union. 
The apple-trees generally start to bear at six or seven. 


years of age, and also reach their maturity at about the age 
of twenty years. The leading commercial varieties of apples 
grown in Idaho are the Jonathan, Rome Beauty, Winesap, 
DeUcious, Arkansas Black, Gano, Ben Davis, Grimes 
Golden, the Wealthy, and the White Winter Pearmain. 

The peach-tree bears in the fourth year after planting, 
and at the end of ten years will begin to deteriorate. 

In the Lewiston district, sweet ^herries, peaches, apples, 
and grapes are successfully grown, while Kendrick, JuBetta, 
and Moscow are now the centres for the prune industry in 

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northern Idaho. In the southern part of the State the chief 
shipments of fruits are made from the Boise and Payette 
Valleys and the Twin Falls sections. There are more 
ItaUan primes annually shipped out of Idaho in a green 
state than from all the other States of the Union combined. 

260. The Bee Industry. — ^The bee industry flourishes 
chiefly in the irrigated districts of the State, where alfalfa 
and sweet clover are most plentiful. Most of the honey is 
very light in color and mild in flavor. A swarm or colony 
of bees, which usually consists of from 30,000 to 35,000 will 
produce on an' average from 30 to 50 poimds of honey in a 
year, although the production is sometimes as much as 100 
poimds. There is a great demand for Idaho honey and it is 
shipped to the East by the car-load. It is estimated that in 
191 5 $175,000 worth of honey was shipped from the State. 
TTie mild winters of southern Idaho are favorable to the bee 
industry as on the warmer days the bees are able to leave 
the hive. This they generally do when the temperature in 
the hive reaches 57° Fahrenheit. In Idaho, the large pro- 
portion of days in which the sim shines means much to the 
industry, as the bees do not leave the hives to work in the 
rainy weather. The three-banded ItaUan bees are most 
common in Idaho, deriving their name from the three golden 
bands on the abdomen. 

261. Poultry and Rggs. — ^The poultry and egg industry 
has been gradually increasing in Idaho. This is chiefly 
due to the absence of extreme heat or cold in many por- 
tions of the State. The Payette and Boise Valleys and the 
Lewiston district are the sections in which the output is 
largest. Greater attention has recently been given to the 
industry and has resulted in the production of more and 
better chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys. The most 
common varieties of chickens are the Plymouth Rocks, 
Wyandottes, Leghorns, Rhode Island Reds, Orpingtons, and 
Anconas. Turkeys are of the Bronze and Bourbon Red 
varieties. Poultrymen in Idaho, as elsewhere, have learned 
that it is more profitable to raise only pure-bred poultry. 

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262. Irrigation Necessary.— The larger portion of Ida- 
ho's farm-lands requires irrigation. Most of the land in 
the southern and eastern portions of the State is farmed by- 
means of irrigation. In the northern part of the State 
very little of it is cultivated in this way. 

263. Conditions Requiring: Irrigation. — ^Where the an- 
nual precipitation of moisture in average years exceeds 15 
inches in depth, crops are often grown without irrigation. 
The precipitation of moisture includes not only rain, but the 
water from snow as well. Where the precipitation is less 
than 15 inches, and in some cases where it is more than that 
amount, irrigation is required. In the lower altitudes, where 
the smnmers are long and hot, more water is needed for 
crop production than in higher altitudes having cooler 
weather and a shorter season. Different kinds of crop and 
soil also require var)dng amoimts of water. 

In the States of tihe Middle West, such as Iowa, there is 
a rainfall during the summer months of about 4 inches in 
depth each month. 

The Idaho farmer, in applying water for irrigation, puts 
from 4 to 8 inches of water in depth on the land at each 
irrigation, and occasionally even more than this. He 
usually irrigates his grain crops from two to four or 
more times, depending upon conditions of the soil and 

264. Early Irrigation. — ^Prior to i860, there was no 
irrigation practised within the present boimdaries of Idaho, 


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except the few simple irrigation enterprises that had been 
conducted at the Lapwai Mission in the late thirties, and 
at the Lemhi Mission between the years 1855-1858. 

After i860 the gold-miners who made the first settlements 
were followed by people who commenced the business of 


farming and stock-raising for the purpose of furnishing 
supplies to the mining-camps. For this purpose they 
settled along the smaller streams as close to the mining- 
camps as was convenient. In this way farming settle- 
ments were established in the vicinity of the city of 
Lewiston, and in the Boise, Payette, and Weiser Valleys. 
After a time the mines became less productive imd those 
engaged in farming often gave their attention largely to 

About the year 1880 it became known that the Oregon 
Short Line Railroad would be built through southern Idaho 
and this led many people to settle upon the lands in the 

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river valleys in that section of the State, in order to gain the 
'advantages which would come from the building of the road* 
The activity in the settlement of farming-lands in Idaho, 
which continues even imtil the present time, commenced in 
southern Idaho about 1880 with the coming of the rail- 


road, and afterward extended through other sections of the 

265. Early Ditches. — ^The first ditches were built by 
individual settlers and were usually of small size. Later, 
a few neighbors joined together and built ditches which 
were owned in common, but it soon came about that the 
places where it was easy to build ditches were all taken up, 
so that niuch money was needed for the building of new 

266. Corporations Build Ditches. — Corporations were 
organized to build the canals in such cases. These corpora- 
tions did not own the land, but simply constructed the 
ditches, charging the settlers, in some cases, a certain 

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amount for a water-right and collecting also a yearly sum 
for keeping the canals in repair. This method proved im- 
popular and so in the year 1895 a law was passed by the 
legislature providing that districts might be organized^ 
much the same as school districts, and that these districts 
might buy canal systems and enlarge them or build new' 
works. Many of the old canals were purchased in this way 
by the districts. These districts were made up of the land 
occupied by the users of the water and so by this method 
the farmers, through the agency of the district, owned the 
canal and water-supply which tiiey used — something which 
they very much desired to do. 

267. Irrigation District. — ^Irrigation districts could not 
well be formed on unsettled lands. To remedy this, in 1894, 
Congress passed a law known as the Carey Act, named 
for Senator Carey, of Wyoming, who introduced it, giving 
to each of the States in the arid region 1,000,000 acres 
of land, provided the State would in some way cause 
the necessary dams, reservoirs, and canals to be built to 
irrigate the lands. This law at first was not well drawn 
and two amendments were afterward adopted, the last in 

268. Carey Act Development. — ^The State adopted the 
plan fixed by the Carey Act law and provided that persons 
who wished to build irrigation works should make an appli- 
cation for that piupose to the State Board of Land Com- 
missioners. This board was given supervision of the works 
to be built. If the plan was approved by the State board 
and afterward by the secretary of the interior, to whom 
iinder the law it must be submitted, a contract was then made 
between the State and the persons making the proposal to 
build the works. These persons were given a lien or claim 
on the land in order to repay them for the cost of the works. 
When the works are built they belong to the settlers who paid 
the liens. 

The irrigation development under the Carey Act after 
the year 1902 was very great. Idaho has a greater num- 

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ber of important Carey Act projects^ than any other State 
in the Union. 

269. The Reclamation Act — ^Money in large quanti- 
ties is required to build extensive canal systems, so in 1902 
Congress, for the purpose of aiding the development in the 
West, passed a law known as the Reclamation Act, provid- 
ing that the United States would advance' the money for 
the building of irrigation systems to reclaim arid lands. A 
large portion of these lands were usually government lands. 
The money so advanced by the government did not bear in- 
terest, but was to be repaid by payments made during a 
term of years. 

The three federal reclamation projects in Idaho are the 
Boise project, the Minidoka project, and the King Hill 
project. The Boise project, of which the Arrowrock Dam 
is so notable a feature, was begun in 191 1 and completed 
in 1915. During 1917 this project was prepared to supply 
water to an area covering 223,866 acres. The cost of tiiis 
huge imdertaking was $12,000,000. 

*The following tabulation shows the nineteen approved Carey Act projects 
in Idaho financed by private interests (191 8): 

Approved Cuty Act Projects 

American Falls Canal and Power Co 

Big Lost River Irrigation Co 

Blaine County Irrigation Co 

Emmett Irrigation District 

High Line Pumping Co 

Houston Ditch Co 

Idaho Irrigation Co 

King Hill Irrigation and Power Co.* 

King Hill Extension Irrigation Co.* 

Keating Carey Land Co 

MarvsvUle Canal and Improvement Co 

Owsley Carey Land and Irrigation Co 

Portneuf-Marsh Valley Irrigation Co 

Pratt Irrigation Co 

Snake River Irrigation Co 

Twin Falls Land and Water Co 

Twin Falls North Side Land and Water Co.. . 

Twin Falls Oakley Land and Water Co 

Twin Falls Sahnon River Land and Water Co, 

Acreage in 

Acres Sold 

Acres Open 
to Entry 
























































* System now owned by United States Reclamation Service. 

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The secretary of the interior authorized the construction 
of the Minidoka project in 1904. The first water delivery 
was made over this tract by the Reclamation Service in 1907. 
The project embraces 120,000 acres of irrigable land and 


was erected at a cost of about $6,000,000. It is the second 
largest individual federal project in the United States. 

The King Hill project is relatively small and originally 
consisted of two Carey Act projects. It was taken over 
by the United States Reclamation Service in 191 7. 

270. Kinds of Dams. — One of the highest dams in the 
world, the Arrowrock Dam, 351 feet high, on the Boise 
project, was built imder the provisions of the Reclamation 
Act. The Minidoka dam was likewise built in this way. 

Dams are of various types of construction and are built 
of different kinds of material. Some are of solid concrete 
or masonry, such as the Arrowrock and Salmon River Dams* 
Others are of earth, such as the Oakley Dam, and others are 
of rock and earth combined, such as the Milner and Mini- 
doka Dams. There are in southern Idaho, more great dams 

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of diflferent types than there are anywhere else in the world 
in the same area. 

The valley of the Nile is often spoken of as a remarkable 
example of what irrigation will do. This valley is from 3 to 


10 miles wide and, outside of the Delta of the Nile, is about 
350 miles long, or as long approximately, as from Weiser, in 
Washington Coimty, to Idaho' Falls, in Bonneville County, 
measured along the course of the Snake River. The great 
Assuan Dam on the Nile is 6,400 feet long and 130 feet high 
at its highest point. The Arrowrock, Salmon River, and 
Oakley Dams are all higher than this. 

271. The Use of Water. — The important feature about 
the. use of water in Idaho and other Western States in the 
arid region is that the water belongs to the person who first 
takes and uses it. The right is given to take out of streams 
and use as much water as may be necessary to irrigate the 
land. In the Eastern States, no such right exists. In those 
States the water must remain in the river except for such 
ordinary uses as are made of it. Many thousands of acres 

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Still remain to be reclaimed by means of the building of 
canals. The works hereafter to be built must of necessity be 
of great size and high cost, since in most instances they will 
call for the building of expensive reservoirs and long lines of 


canals. It is necessary to have accurate knowledge with re- 
gard to the water-supply in streams, in order to properly 
plan further development. This information is obtained by 
stream measurements or gaugings. The work is sometimes 
conducted by the United States Geological Survey in con* 
nection with the State. 

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272. Idaho at the World's Columbian Exposition 
(1893). — ^Although scarcely three years old, the State of 
TdaJio was effectively represented at the Columbian Exposi- 
tion held at Chicago, in 1893. Legislative appropriations 
aggregating $50,000 made possible a notable display of the 
mineral, timber, and agricultural resources of the newly 
created State. The Idaho Building, a three-story log struc- 
ture, modelled after a Swiss chalet, was one of the most ar- 
tistic buildings on the Exposition groimds. 

273. The Carey Act (1894). — ^In 1894 Senator Joseph 
M. Carey, of Wyoming, gave his name to a piece of federal 
legislation which vitally influenced the future development 
of southern and eastern Idaho. In accordance with the 
provisions of this act. Congress agreed to donate a million 
acres of land to Idaho and other arid Western States, on 
condition that these States would, in turn, cause the land to 
be irrigated and reclaimed. Each State was authorized 
to make contracts with corporations or persons for the 
reclamation of these lands by the construction of irrigation 
works. As fast as the State could show the United States 
Government that the works had been built, the govern- 
ment would issue patents to the State, and the State, in turn, 
would convey the land to the settlers. The original law 
provided that the land must be reclaimed within ten years 
after the act was passed. This limitation prevented the 
imdertaking of large irrigation works. Investors also 
feared that they would not have sufficient seciuity for the 
money which they would have to spend. 

274. Carey Act Amendments. — ^To protect the persons 
advancing money for the construction work, Congress, in 

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1896, passed an additional act, providing that the State 
would permit a lien or claim to be created against the land 
for the expenses incurred in reclaiming it and also for 
reasonable interest. In this way the companies which ad- 
vanced the money were protected and encoxiraged to increase 
their investments. 

In 1901 the law was again amended so as to provide that 
there diould be a ten-year period allowed in which to re- 
claim the land, from the time the works of each project 
were started, instead of from the time the Carey Act was 
passed. This change proved beneficial and for the first 
time the Carey Act became an effective law imder which 
irrigation projects might be carried out. The building of 
important works imder this law commenced in 1903, that 
being the year in which work was started in what is generally 
known as the Twin Falls coimtry. Since that time, the 
development under the Carey Act has been extensive in 
the southern and eastern portions of the State. 

275. Woman Suffrage for Idaho (1896). — ^Idaho was 
the foiurth American commonwealth to adopt woman suf- 
frage. On January 21, 1895, the Third Legislature passed 
a joint resolution which permitted the electors of the State 
to vote on a woman suffrage amendment to the constitu- 
tion. At the next general election (November 3, 1896) the 
amendment was overwhelmingly indorsed by the voters of 
the State. The final count showed that 12,126 votes had 
been cast in favor of the measxire, while only 6,282 ballots 
had been registered against it. The State Board of Can- 
vassers, however, refused to declare the amendment carried 
on the ground that 12,126 votes did not represent a majority 
of the total votes cast at the election (29,697). A few weeks 
later (December 11, 1896) the supreme coxirt imanimously 
held that a majority of the votes cast on the amendment 
measure was sufficient to secure its adoption. 

276. The Spanish- American War (1898). — On April 25; 
1898, following our declaration of war against Spain, Presi- 
dent McKinley issued his memorable call for 125,000 volxm- 

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teers. Governor Stexinenberg issued a similar proclamation 
and in less than three weeks the First Idaho Regiment of 
Infantry Volimteers was organized and mustered into the 
Federal service at Camp Stevenson at Boise. On May 19, 
the Idaho troops departed for the Philippine Islands and 
reached Manila Bay on the following July 31 (1898). 

During February, 1899, the Idaho volimteers rendered 
brave and efficient assistance to their government in sup- 
pressing the Filipino Insurrection. 

Among the hard-fought engagements in which they par- 
ticipated were the battles of Santa Ana (February 4-5); 
Caloocan (February lo-ii); and Guadalupe (February 16, 
17, and 18). 

At the battle of Santa Ana, General Edward McConville 
of Lewiston, gallantly met his death "on the advancing 
crest of battle." A short time before he expired (February 
S, 1899) a message from President McKinley was read to 
the stricken soldier, informing him that he had been ad- 
vanced to the honorary rank of brigadier-general. As Gen- 
eral McConville was borne away from the bloody field of 
Santa Ana, he said to his comrades: "The Idaho boys are 
covering themselves with glory." 

277. Industrial Disturbances (1892 and 1899).— Idaho, 
like other mining States, has had her share of industrial 
troubles. The first outbreak occiuxed in the Coeur d'Alene 
mining district, in 1892. Trouble over wages led to a strike. 
New men were brought in. This gave rise to acts of vio- 
lence. A mill was blown up and federal troops had to be 
called in to restore order. From then until 1899 there were 
various acts of lawlessness in the Coeur d'Alene district. 
Men were killed on little or no provocation and the towns 
were terrorized. The climax came in the destruction of 
the Bunker Hill and Sullivan Mill by d3mamite, in 1899. 
Governor Steimenberg was forced to call for federal troops. 
Several himdred miners were arrested and confined for a 
time in a stockade which at one time had been used for 
cattle. The prisoners called this the "bull pen." Paul 

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Corcoran, a leader, was tried and sentenced to prison for 
a term of years. Order was finally restored, but feeling 
ran high and many threats were uttered against the gover- 

278. Assassination of Governor Steunenberg (1905).— 
Six years afterward, when (Jovemor Steunenberg was en- 
tering his home at Caldwell, on the evening of December 
30, 1905, a bomb which had 
been fastened to his gate was 
exploded and caused his death. 
Harry Orchard was arrested for 
this crime and confessed that 
he had placed the bomb which 
killed the former governor. 
His confession also implicated 
Charles H. Moyer, the presi- 
dent of the Western Federa- 
tion of Miners, William D. 
Haywood, secretary and trea- 
siurer, and George A. Pettibone, 
a member of the executive 
committee, under instructions 
from all of whom Orchard 
claimed he had been acting. 
Orchard also freely confessed 

that he had committed a munber of other serious crimes. 
Haywood, and Pettibone were separately tried for the mur- 
der (Jiay, 1907, to January, 1908). At these trials, Orchard 
acted as chief witness for the State. Both trials, however, 
resulted in the acquittal of the defendants and soon after, 
ward the State dropped the prosecution against Moyer. 
Later, Orchard himself entered a plea of guilty to the charge 
of murder and was sentenced to be hanged, but this sentence 
was afterward changed to life imprisonment and he is still 
confined in the penitentiary. 

The assassination of Governor Steimenberg sent a wave 
of grief and indignation over the entire State. The confes- 


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sion of Orchard and the trials of Haywood and Pettibone 
attracted the attention of the nation^ and newspaper men 
from all parts of the comitry attended and reported the 

279. The Reclamation Act (1902). — ^The Reclamation 
Act, which has also been called the National Irrigation Law, 
was passed by Congress in 1902. The object of the law 
was to have the United States CJovemment assist in re- 
claiming the arid lands of the Western States. For this 
piupose, it was provided that the moneys received from the 
sales of public lands in certain States, together with the 
surplus fees and commissions of the registers and receivers 
of the land-offices, should constitute a "reclamation fund." 
This fund was to be used to construct and maintain irriga- 
tion works for the storage and distribution of water. The 
secretary of the interior was authorized to make examina- 
tions and surveys of lands and to construct the irrigation 

280. How Title Is Secured.— Entrymen upon lands irri- 
gated under the provisions of this law, in addition to com- 
plying with the homestead laws, must have reclaimed and 
cidtivated, for two years at least, one-half of the irrigable 
area of the land they have taken, before they can receive 
their title. Even when the property has been conveyed to 
the entryman, it is subject to the lien or claim of the govern- 
ment for the expense incurred in getting the water on the 
land. Homesteads taken up under this law are commonly 
known as reclamation homesteads. 

281. The Prohibition Movement. — In 1909, a statute 
known as the Local Option Law, was passed by the legis- 
lature of the State. Tliis law provides that 40 per cent of 
the qualified voters of any county might petition the coimty 
commissioners of their coimty to call an election for the 
special purpose of deciding whether the sale of intoxicating 
liquors should thereafter be prohibited in the county. 
When such a petition was filed and an election called, if a 
majority of the votes cast were in favor of the petition, or 

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**dry," the county became a prohibition district and the 
sale of liquor as a beverage in it was prohibited 

382. State Prohibition Law (19x5). — ^What is known 
as the State- Wide Prohibition Law was passed by the 
legislature in 191 5. By this law, the whole JState was con- 
stituted a prohibition district, and after the law became 
effective, the manufacture, disposal, transportation, and 
possession of intoxicating liquors anywhere in the State 
became unlawfxil and was prohibited. The law went into 
effect on January i, 1916. At that time, twenty-six of the 
thirty-seven coimties of the State were already "dry,** either 
under the provisions of the local-option law or because of 
other dromistances. In 1915 the legislature also passed 
a joint resolution proposing that the State constitution 
should itself be so amended as to prohibit the manufac- 
ture, sale, and tranq)ortation for sale of intoxicating liquon^ 
as a beverage in Idaho. This amendment was voted upon 
by the people at the general election held on November 7, 
1916, and was ratified by an overwhelming majority. 

283. Idaho Troops on the Mexican Frontier (1916). — 
On Jime 18, 1916, in response to telegraphic orders from 
the Secretary of War, the Idaho National Guard imits were 
mobilized at Camp John T. Morrison, Boise, for duty on 
the Mexican frontier. In conformity with the provisions 
of the recently enacted National Defense Act (June 2, 1916), 
the different organizations were mustered into the JFederal 
service on the following July 3, 5, and 6. On July 7 the 
regiment entrained for No^es, Arizona, and arrived at 
that point five days later. After five months of dis- 
tinguished service on the Mexican border, the Second Idaho 
Regiment received orders (December 8) to return to the 
State, and on January 27, 191 7, was formally mustered 
out of the Federal service. 

The physical condition of the young men who constituted 
the Second Idaho Infantry was excellent. In deportment 
and drill, they were accorded praise by the higher military 
authorities. Moreover, the "Second Idaho" bears the 

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proud distinction of being the first National Guard organiza- 
tion in the United States to have every oflScer and man 
belonging to it sworn in under the new oath required by 
the National Defense Act. 

384. Idaho's Part in the World War (191 7).— On 
April 6, 191 7, Idaho, together with her sister States, en- 
tered the World War. In harmony with the terms of the 
National Selective Service Act (May 18), 41,606 young 
men from Idaho between the ages of twenty-one and thirty, 
inclusive, registered on National Registration Day Qune 5).^ 
On August 5 the Second Idaho Regiment of Infantry was 
drafted into the national service. On September 5, the 
first increment of Idaho's Selective Service men entrained 
for Camp Lewis, near American Lake, Washington. The 
first and second battalions of the Second Idaho Regiment 
departed from Boise barracks for Camp Greene, Char- 
lotte, North Carolina, on September 24, and a month later 
were followed by the third battalion (October 22). 

These three battalions were shortly afterward merged 
into the United States National Guard Army. Although 
the "Second Idaho'' thereby lost its identity, its eflScient 
record will continue as a source of pride to the people of 

On March i, 1918, Idaho lost her first son in the war, 
when Captain Stewart W, Hoover, of Blackfoot, was killed 
in action. On Jime 5, 1918, in compUance with the pro- 
visions of the Second National Registration Act (May 16, 
1918), 2,786 young men who had reached the age of twenty- 
one years since Jime 5, 191 7, registered under the Selective 
Service regulations. On July 22, 1918, the nmnber of Idaho 
men who had entered the service, reached the total of 
12,590. Of this number, 5,060 were volunteers. More- 
over, a large nmnber of young men had entered the navy 
as marines or as members of other branches of the naval 

Idaho has given enthusiastic support to the Liberty 

^ The total number of registrants for the nation was 9,586,508. 

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Loan, Red Cross, and Thrift and War Savings Stamp 
drives, having in every instance exceeded its assigned 
quotas. Religious organizations, such as the Young Men's 
Qiristian Association, the Ejiights of Columbus, the Sal- 
vation Army, the Yoimg Women's Christian Association, 
as well as various fraternal orders, have been efl&cient 
factors in promoting the success of war activities. Effec- 
tive patriotic service has also been rendered by the State, 
county, and local Councils of Defense, the Food and Fuel 
Administrators, the Liberty Loan, Thrift and War Savings 
Stamp committees, the Four-Mnute Men, and similar 

The University of Idaho has for many years conducted 
miUtary training for her students under the command of 
a United States army officer. In the Spanish-American 
War, this institution furnished a company of soldiers which 
distinguished itself by bravery in action. At the outbreak 
of the present war large niunbers of her students and alumni 
went directly into the army or into officers' training-camps. 
In September, 1918, there were over 300 stars on her ser- 

At the imiversity, from Jime 15 to August 15 (1918), 
a first imit of 160 men, including 10 carpenters, 10 black- 
smiths, 20 general mechanics, and 40 radiotdegraphers 
were given technical military training. From August 15 
to October 15 a second imit of 200 men received similar 

During this same period, at the Idaho Technical Institute, 
20 young men were trained in general mechanics, 40 in auto 
mechanics, and 40 in radiotelegraphy. The young men 
who enrolled in these coiu^es at both institutions were 
members of the Selective Service or United States National 

Idaho's contribution in such indispensable food-supplies 
as wheat, meat, sugar, and potatoes has been large. In 

^To Sqstember x, 1918, the people of Idaho had contributed in loans and gifts 
lor the support of war activities more than $30,400,000. 

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the production of wool for war material, Idaho has been 
one of the leading States of the Union. For aeroplane con- 
struction the State has furnished white and Western soft 
pine. A large percentage of the output of the Coeur d'Alene 
lead-mines, which are the most extensive producers of lead 
in the world, was recently taken over by the national 

A noteworthy war distinction was won by Madison 
County in the spring of 1918. To this county belongs the 
honor of being the first loo-per-cent Thrift and War Sav- 
ings Stamp county in the United States.^ 

* A loo-per-cent county is one in which every pupil in every room in every school 
in the county is an owner of a Thrift or War Savings Stamp. 

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285. Idaho Has Vast Resources.— Idaho is a State of 
varied and almost boundless resources. Its great mineral 
wealth, for years the leading source of revenue, is now (1918) 
surpassed by the princely incomes from its farms. 

From the days when Father De Smet (1841) marvelled 
at our "noble trees — through which the sun's rays never 
penetrate,'' our extensive and, in many instances, almost 
impenetrable forests have been a source of wonder to the 
traveller. Not less significant is the huge and almost, as 
yet, undeveloped richness of the water-power fiunished by 
our moimtain streams. 

Moreover, oiu: Americanized population, sifted and 
strengthened by nmnerous migrations across a continent, 
has become the possessor of an exceptionally fertile soil and 
an equable, healthful climate. 

It can with the soberest truth be said that Idaho in future 
years is destined to provide sustenance for millions of people. 

286. Mineral Wealth. — ^The chief mineral products of 
Idaho are lead, zinc, silver, copper, and gold. The value 
of the output of these metals in Idaho in 191 7 reached the 
enormous total of $56,292,210. 

Since i860, the year which ushered in the mining era for 
the future Idaho, the endless stream of mineral wealth that 
has flowed from her treasure-fields has, according to official 
estimates, enriched the world by over $800,000,000.^ 

To the Coeur d'Alene mining district in Shoshone County, 
Idaho, belongs the unique distinction of being the richest 
lead-silver district in the world. 

^ 191 7 Annual Report of State Mine Inspector Robert N. BelL 

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During the year 191 7, Idaho shared with Missouri the 
honor of leading all the States in the Union in the produc- 
tion of lead. 

287. Stock-Raising. — No State in the Union produces 
better animals than Idaho. Its great stretches of fine 

Awarded fint prize at the Chicago International live Stock Show in 19x7. 

grazing-lands, its plentiful supply of pure mountain water, 
together with the abundant grains and grasses used for 
fe^, make it an ideal State for stock-raising. The large 
ranges of the early days are, however, rapidly being occupied 
by settlers, and, in time, the great herds of beef-cattle will 
be supplanted by the domestic animals of the farms. Dairy- 
cattle and dairy-products are greatly increasing. In 191 5 
there were 379,000 range-cattle and 120,000 milch-cows in 
the State. 

Idaho ranks as the fourth State in the Union in sheep- 
raising, the number of sheep produced within her borders 
being exceeded only by those in Wyoming, Montana, and 
New Mexico, In 1915 there were more than 3,000,000 

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sheep in Idaho with a value of over $14,000,000 and in 
the same year 15,000,000 pounds of Idaho wool were mar- 
keted. The sheep winter in the protected valleys and in the 
spring start into the higher coimtry and the moimtains, 
where excellent grazing is found. 

The raising of horses has become a valuable industry 
and several important markets have been established from 
which horses and mules are shipped to all parts of the world. 
The largest horse and mule market in the State is situated 
at Caldwell. 

As the farms are being developed, hog-raising is becoming 
a more important industry. In 1915, there were in Idaho 
328,000 swine with a total value in excess of $3,000,000. 

288. The Lumber Industry. — ^Lumber is the leading 
manufacturing industry in Idaho and provides employment 
for thousands of men. In 191 7 there were one hundred and 
thirty-five (135) sawmills and eleven (11) shingle-mills in 
operation in tie State. The largest of these mills is the 
famous Potlatch Lumber Mill at Potlatch, Latah County. 
It is one of the four largest sawmills in the world. If the 
boards 6 inches wide and i inch thick which this giant plant 
can cut in one day were placed end to end, they would reach 
133 miles, or nearly the distance by rail between Lewiston, 
Idaho, and Spokane, Washington. Among the other large 
mills in the State are the Boise-Payette Lmnber Company's 
plants near Boise and Emmett. 

The value of Idaho's lumber product in 191 7 was esti- 
mated at $16,456,500. 

289. National Forest. — Of the one himdred and fifty- 
seven (157) national forests in the United States, nineteen 
(19) are situated in the State of Idaho. Over one-third 
(37 per cent) of the entire area of Idaho is covered with 
forests. The total stand of timber in our State, when mea- 
sured in terms of board feet, is officially estimated at 98,000,- 
000,000 feet. During 1916 an enormous quantity of lum- 
ber, approximately 846,000,000 board feet, was cut within 
the borders of oxir State. 

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Of the entire timber holdings within Idaho, 58.1 per cent 
is owned by the Federal government ; 30.75 per cent by pri- 
vate interests; 10.7 per cent by the State, and .45 per cent 
is in the Indian reservations. 

Some idea of the magnificent forage advantages afforded 
by the national forests may be gained from the fact that 


during the year ending June 30, 1917, 1,672,218 sheep, 
180,148 cattle, and 14,321 horses were grazed within these 

Prior to the creation of the forest reserves (1891) and the 
national forests (1905) title to many thousands of acres of 
the choicest timbered areas passed to private ownership. 
It is these privately owned forest lands that are suppl3dng 
the larger portion of our present lumber product. The 
timber holdings of the national government are situated 
in the remote and more inaccessible mountain regions. 
These are destined in the future to furnish the raw material 
for our lumber industry. The principal trees of Idaho in 
their order of commercial importance are the white pine, 

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Western or "yellow'' pine, spruce, cedar, white fir, larch, 
and red fir. 

290. Water-Power. — Thanks to its great waterfalls and 
swift mountain streams, Idaho to-day ranks as the fifth 
State in the nation in the richness of its water-power re- 




f '*%mi 

u ^'x^- i4.r - — ^"^^M " 

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1 ^ 

One of the four largest sawmills. 

sources. In point of developed water-power, Idaho ranks 
fourth among Western States (152,360 horse-power). It 
is surpassed only by California (1,061,494 horse-power), 
Washington (746,840 horse-power), and Montana (357,084 

The largest power companies operating and owning plants 
in Idaho at the present time are the Idaho Power Com- 
pany, Boise; the Utah Power and Light Company, Salt 
Lake City, Utah; and the Washington Water Power Com- 
pany, Spokane, Washington. 

To-day this mysterious, silent power is lighting and heat- 

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ing buildings^ cooking food, moving urban and interurban 
cars, operating the machinery in mines and factories, and 
running the giant piunps of irrigation-plants. 

291. The Public-School System. — A radical change 
was made in the administration of the public-school system 
of Idaho in 1913. The legislature passed a law which pro- 
vided, in effect, that the entire system from the primary 
grades to the State University was thereafter to be controlled 
by a single board of education. The importance of the 
change can hardly be overestimated. Instead of six 
separate boards which had before that year controlled the 
schools and State educational institutions, there was 
created one new board which was given all the powers previ- 
ously exercised by the six boards. The legal name of this 
board is the State Board of Education and Board of Regents 
of the University of Idaho. It consists of five appointed 
members and the State superintendent of public instruc- 
tion, who is a member by virtue of her oflSce. The governor 
appoints one member each year for a term of five years. 
The law requires that the members of the Board of Educa- 
tion shall be appointed solely because of their ability and 
without reference to locaUty, party afi^ation, or religion. 
The board appoints the commissioner of education, who is 
its chief executive ofl&cer and as such directs the educa- 
tional work of the State. 

Besides the elementary and high schools, the Idaho public- 
school system includes the following State institutions: the 
University of Idaho, located at Moscow; the Lewiston State 
Normal; the Albion State Normal; the Idaho Technical 
Institute, located at Pocatello; the Idaho Industrial Train- 
ing School, located at St. Anthony, and the State School for 
the Deaf and Blind, located at CJooduig. 

292. Free Libraries. — ^In 1903 the State Library Com- 
mission was established by legislative enactment. It con- 
sists of the attorney-general, secretary of state. State super- 
intendent of public instruction, and the president of the 
State University. This commission has the management 

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of the travelling library of the State, and through its secre- 
tary gives encouragement and personal assistance to any 
community trying to establish a reading-room for the free 
use of its people. Struggling hbraries are also helped. 
Cases of books are sent from the capital to all parts of the 
State, so that even the most remote mountain hamlets and 
newest settlements on sage-brush land may have the best 
books merely for the asking. The distinctive feature of this 
important branch of the educational work of the State is 
that the books are distributed free of cost tp the communi- 
ties to which they are sent. There are now over 250 trav- 
elling library-cases in circulation. 

Within the State are pubUc mimicipal libraries with at- 
tractive buildings, and nearly every town in the State has 
a free reading-room with books which form the nucleus of 
a future Ubrary. 

293, Transportation. — ^The history of transportation 
in Idaho is a story of progress. Within the half-century 
lying between 1863 and 1913 the saddle-train and stage-coach 
were replaced by the passenger-train and the automobile. 
In this same period the pack-train and freight-wagon were 
superseded by the freight-car and the auto-truck. 

To-day Idaho, once interlaced with winding Indian trails^ 
is spanned by foiu: transcontinental railroads and inter- 
sected by twenty steam and electric lines. 

However, our greatest transportation era lies before us. 
In 191 7 the State appropriated $1,000,000 for the con- 
struction of a system of State highways. Those great arter- 
ies of commimication will connect the rural product with its 
city market, establish a community of interest between re- 
mote and topographically divided sections, and will add to 
the pleasure of our guests from other States as well as en- 
hance the recreational life of our own people. 

294. Afterword : A Heritage of Patriotism and Ameri- 
canism. — On the afternoon of August 12, 1805, the Lewis 
and Clark party made their historic entry into Idaho. 
Foiu: members of that expedition, Meriwether Lewis, John 

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Shield, George Drewyer, and Hugh McNeal were the first 
white men to. step on Idaho soil. One of the imperishable 
incidents associated with that event is the fact that the 
party crossed our future boundary-line holding aloft the 
Stars and Stripes. The entry of our national flag into 
Idaho was simultaneous with our first recorded event. 

On another August day, in 1834, Nathaniel J. Wyeth, a 
gallant son of New England, completed the erection of 
Old Fort Hall. To fittingly commemorate this event, 
Wyeth's patriotic Uttle company caused Old Glory to flutter 
to the breezes of the "Great American Desert." Thus 
Idaho, twenty-nine years before she began her poUtical 
existence as a Territory, held her first flag-raising celebra- 

During the succeeding twenty years thousands of in- 
trepid miners from our Eastern States journeyed over the 
Oregon Trail to Oregon. Emigrant-train followed emi- 
grant-train into that distant region, and assisted in winning 
the future States of Idaho, Washington, and Oregon for the 
American flag. Those emigrants who Kved to reach Ore- 
gon and the thousands of nameless heroes and heroines 
whose graves marked the route of the Old Oregon Trail 
helped weave three stars on our country's flag. 

In the summer of i860 Captain E. D. Pierce discovered 
gold on a tributary of the Clearwater River, and ushered in 
the mining era for the future Idaho. From West and East 
thousands of gold-seekers soon thronged into our lonely 
gulches. These stalwart young Americans found them- 
selves in a land, beyond the pale of government, laws, and 
courts. In remote mountain valleys they immediately 
reared that orderly structure of self-government known as 
the mining-camp. As a pure democracy it rivalled the New 
England town meeting. The mining-camp must ever 
stand as a memorial to the sturdy Americanism of Idaho's 
earliest citizenry. 

"Last scene of all" came the battle that was fought and 
won by American men and women on our lonely sage-brush 

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tracts. Idaho history records no braver deeds than those 
performed by the unsung heroes and heroines who trans- 
formed barren desert claims into productive ranches and 
hewed out American homes for their children. 

The story of Idaho is a story of pathfinders and of pio- 
neers who have followed the ever-receding westward frontier. 
It is a story of hardships endured and of battles fought 
and won. But, best of all, the explorer, the emigrant, the 
miner and homesteader have bequeathed to present and 
future generations the priceless heritage of patriotism and 

Let us hope that in the conquests of peace and war that 
front the sons and daughters of Idaho during the future 
years they will prove worthy of their inheritance. 

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295- William H. Wallace (1863)-— William H. Wallace, 
a lawyer of Pierce Coxmty, Washington Territory, was 
Idaho's first Territorial governor. He was appointed 
March 10, 1863, by President Lincoln, a close personal and 
political friend. After issuing an election proclamation and 
choosing Lewiston as the point where the First Territorial 
Legislature should meet, he resigned the governorship to 
become Territorial delegate to Congress, to which position 
he had been elected October 31, 1863, on the Republican 
ticket. As political sentiment in the Territory soon came 
to be overwhelmingly Democratic, due to a large immigra- 
tion to the mining-camps from Missouri and other Southern 
States, Idaho was not represented in Congress by a Re- 
publican during the succeeding twenty years. Upon Gover- 
nor Wallace's resignation William B. Daniels, of Yamhill 
County, Oregon, became acting governor. He delivered 
the first message to Idaho's First Territorial Legislature, 
which assembled at I^ewiston, December 7, 1863. 

296. Caleb Lyon (1864-1866). — ^Idaho's second gover- 
nor, Caleb Lyon "of Lyonsdale," as he always designated 
himself, is the most erratic and picturesque figure in our 
Territorial annals. He was a direct descendant of General 
Montcalm, of Quebec fame, was highly educated, and had 
had a sensational political career in New York State and 
California before receiving his appointment to the governor- 
ship of Idaho by President Lincoln. He delivered messages 
before the Second Territorial Legislature held at Lewiston 
and the Third Legislature which convened at Boise City. 

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In the fall of 1864 Idaho sent E. D. Holbrook, a young 
Democratic lawyer from Idaho City, to Congress. He was 
in his early twenties and was the yoxmgest delegate that 
ever represented the Territory in Washington. Inasmuch 
as the delegate was the only representative a Territory had 
in the national Congress, the office carried with it much more 
relative influence than does the position of congressman from 
a State. Accordingly, in Territorial days the delegateship 
was the position most usually sought after by aspiring poli- 
ticians. The most noteworthy event of Lyon's administra- 
tion was the removal of the Territorial archives from Lewis- 
ton to Boise in 1865. 

297, David W. Ballard (i866-i87o),— President An- 
drew Johnson appointed Idaho's third Territorial governor. 
His choice was David W. Ballard, a physician from Yamhill 
County, Oregon. He deUvered messages before both the 
Fourth and Fifth Territorial Legislatures. During his 
administration the great placer-mining industry, which had 
reached its high tide of prosperity about 1866, gradually de- 
clined. In 1868, when Wyoming Territory was organized, 
the Federal carving-knife cut off a portion of southeastern 
Idaho. In 1870 President Grant made several unsuccessful 
efforts to provide a successor to Governor Ballard. The 
President's first choice was Doctor Samuel Bard, a news- 
paper man from Atlanta, Georgia, who declined the honor. 
President Grant's next choice was General Gilman Mars- 
ton, a distinguished citizen of New Hampshire. General 
Marston was under the impression that the position paid 
$25,000 per year. His declination of the gubernatorial 
honor was prompt when he learned that the salary was only 
$2,500 per anniun. Idaho City, which had been the Ter- 
ritorial metropolis since 1863, furnished still another con- 
gressional delegate in J. K. Shafer, a prominent Democratic 
lawyer of the "Basin," who represented Idaho in Congress 
from 1869 to 1871. 

298. Edward J. Curtis (1870).— It fell to the lot of Ed- 
ward J. Curtis, the Territorial secretary and acting governor, 

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to address the Sixth Legislature, which convened in Decem- 
ber, 1870. He served as governor during all or part of the 
years 1870, 1871, 1875, 1883, and 1884. Curtis was a 
native of Massachusetts, and had had extensive political 
experience both in California and in Idaho. He was a 
kindly, obliging gentleman and was affectionately known 
as "Ned" Curtis by the Territorial pioneers. He knew 
the routine work of the governor's office better than did any 
of the non-resident governors and was instnmiental in or- 
ganizing and classifying our first State library. 

During the year 1871 President Grant had his usual diffi- 
culties in selecting a Territorial governor for Idaho. Alex- 
ander H. Conner, a noted lawyer of Indianapolis, Indiana, 
was offered the governorship, but declined to serve. Presi- 
dent Grant fared a Uttle better, however, with his next ap- 
pointee, Thomas M. Bowen, of Colorado. Bowen came 
to Idaho and quahfied for the governorship. The position 
proving unattractive, Bowen left the Territory after serv- 
ing as chief executive only a week. In the fall of 1870 S. 
A. Merritt, another of Idaho City's prominent Democratic 
attorneys, was sent to the national Capitol as delegate. 

299. Thomas W. Bennett (1871-1875). — President 
Grant finally succeeded in finding a governor for Idaho. 
On October 24, 1871, he appointed Thomas W. Bennett, of 
Richmond, Indiana, one of the ablest and most popiilar 
of Idaho's non-resident governors. Governor Bennett had 
served xmder Grant in the Civil War and had been advanced 
for distinguished ability and bravery to the rank of brigadier- 

In 1872 the honor of having a townsman in Congress 
shifted from Idaho City to Boise City, when John Hailey, 
a Democrat and prominent business man of the Territory, 
was elected to Congress. 

Although Governor Bennett was a member of a minority 
party, he was popular throughout the Territory. In the 
fall of 1874 he ran for Congress against S. S. Fenu' a well- 
known Democrat of Mt. Idaho, Idaho Coimty. Both 

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candidates claimed the election, so close was the vote. 
The committee of elections of the House of Representa- 
tives finally decided that Mr. Fenn was elected by a plurality 
of 105 votes. 

The years of (Jovemor Bennett's administration cover 
a period of industrial readjustment and transition. The 
placer-mining industry had steadily declined since about 
1866; capital, so necessary to the development of quartz- 
mining, had not on a large scale come to "far-away" Idaho; ^ 
the demonetization of sUver and the panic of 1873 had 
paralyzed industrial activity; the failure of the Bank of 
California, in 1875, had closed the Owyhee mines; railroads 
had not reached the Territory; irrigation was only in its 
infancy; and the cattle industry, so extensive in the eighties, 
was not then a prominent source of wealth. 

300. David P. Thompson (1875-1876). — David P. 
Thompson, of Oregon City, Oregon, was another of Presi- 
dent Grant's gubernatorial appointees. Governor Thomp- 
son did not have the honor of delivering a Territorial mes- 
sage, as he resigned in July, 1876, several months before 
the Ninth Legislature convened. He was the most pro- 
nounced representative of the "Captain of Industry" 
type of man that the roster of Idaho Territorial governors 
presents. After his return to Oregon he began the build- 
ing of railroads, canals, and mills on an extensive scale 
and was president of a mmiber of banks. In 1879 ^^ was 
elected mayor of Portland, where his family stiU resides 

301. Mason Brayman (1876-1880). — ^Mason Brayman, 
of Ripon, Wisconsin, was the last of the rather long Ust of 
governors selected for Idaho by President Grant. Bray- 
man had had a distinguished record as an officer in the 
Civil War and had been advanced to the rank of major- 
general. He had spent most of his active life in Illinois, 
where he was prominent both in business and in poUtics. 
Governor Brayman arrived in Idaho just in time to take 
an official part in two of the most picturesque and stirring 

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episodes in our history — the Nez Perce (1877) and Bannack 
(1878) Indian Wars. It was during his administration, 
also, that that long-looked-for event, the coming of the 
railroad, became an actuality. In 1877 the Utah and 
Northern Line passed through southeastern Idaho. 

In 1878 the political centre of gravity shifted again to 
Idaho City when Cieorge Ainslie, a prominent Democratic 
lawyer of Boise County, was elected to Congress. He was 
re-elected in 1880. On August 7, 1878, President Hayes 
offered the Territorial governorship to John P. Hoyt, of 
Michigan, who declined the position that he might accept a 
justiceship on the Washington Territorial supreme bench. 

302. John B. Neill (i 880-1 883).— John B. Neill had the 
honor of assuming the governorship at the beginning of 
that prosperous decade that lay between 1880 and 1890. 
He was a native of Ohio and had acted as private secretary 
to President Hayes while the latter was governor of Ohio. 
Before receiving his Idaho appointment Gk)vemor Neill had 
been receiver of the Land Office at Salt Lake City. His 
administration was characterized by two notable industrial 
events-:-the discovery of extensive quartz-mines in the 
Wood River country in 1880 (Hailey) and the completion 
of the Northern Pacific through northern Idaho (1882). 

In the fall of 1882 Idaho went Republican. T. F. Sing- 
hiser was sent to Congress, the first Republican to be elected 
delegate since Wallace in 1863. This political upheaval was 
chiefly due to the fact that Mr. Singhiser advocated the 
annexation of the "Panhandle'^ to Washington Territory. 

303. John N, Irwin (1883). — ^The appointment of John 
N. Irwin as governor of Idaho is an event that reads like 
fiction, but is in reality the soberest history. Gk)vemor 
Irwin was the son of a wealthy Keokuk, Iowa, merchant. 
The powerful Senator Allison, of Iowa, procured his appoint- 
ment as Territorial executive for Idaho. When Irwin ar- 
rived in Idaho he visited the Owyhee and Wood River min- 
ing-camps, where he was treated to such lavish hospitality 
that he returned to Boise in somewhat impaired health. 

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Upon gaining his usual poise he unceremoniously boarded 
a train for his old home in Iowa, and never again returned to 
Idaho. Soon after his return home Irwin received a salary 
warrant for $1,500, which represented compensation for ser- 
vices rendered while Governor of Idaho. Young Irwin, the 
soul of honor, returned the money to the government. 
Some thoughtless derk in the Treasury Department placed 
the money in the government's "conscience fimd," where 
it is on deposit at tiie present time. 

304. William M. Bunn (1884-1885).— William M. Bunn 
was appointed governor of Idaho March 26, 1884, by his 
personal and political friend, President Chester A. Arthur. 
Prior to receiving his Idaho appointment he had been a 
lawyer and editor of Philadelphia. A notable event of 
Bxmn's administration was the stampede to the famous 
Coeur d'Alene mining region (1884). To-day this district 
is known as the richest lead-producing centre in the world. 
On January i, 1885, the first passenger-train passed through 
southern Idaho over the "Short Line." 

The issue of annexing the Idaho Panhandle to Washing- 
ton Territory continued to gain momentmn imtil 1884, when 
the Democrats, not to be outdone by the Republicans, put 
an annexation plank in their platform. John Hailey was 
again nominated for Congress and elected in the autumn of 
1884. He secured the passage of a bill for annexation, 
which did not become a law, through President Cleveland's 
failure to sign it. 

305, E. A. Stevenson (1885-1889).— Edward A. Steven- 
son, Idaho's first and only Democratic Territorial governor, 
received his appointment from President Cleveland, Sep- 
tember 29, 1885. For several years prior to his appoint- 
ment to the Territorial governorship he had been a mining 
man at Idaho City. He was the first governor who was a 
resident of Idaho at the time of his appointment. 

Idaho's first capitol building at Boise City was com- 
pleted in 1885, at a cost of $80,000. The cattle industry, 
which had been steadily growing in importance since the 

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seventies, reached its height about 1888. Since the early- 
nineties the sheep industry has overshadowed the cattle 
business of the "open range" days. 

In the fall of 1886 Fred T. Dubois, of Blackfoot, a former 
United States marshal, was elected to Congress on the 
Republican ticket. Mr. Dubois was re-elected in 1888, 
and was the third Republican delegate to go to Washington 
during the twenty-seven years that comprise the Territorial 

An important enactment of the last Territorial Legislature 
was the establishment of the State University at Moscow 
(January 30, 1889). 

306. George L, Shoup (1889-1890). — George L. Shoup, 
a merchant of Salmon City, Idaho, was Idaho's last Terri- 
torial governor. He had long been identified prominently 
with the Republican party. On April i, 1889, he received 
his appointment from President Harrison, but (Ud not assiune 
the duties of his office xmtil a month later. He became 
governor at a time when the people were deeply interested 
in the coming of Statehood. The story of his administra- 
tion is largely a recital of the various legal and political 
steps which a Territory must take before assxmiing the more 
di^iified r61e of Statehood. 

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307, George L, Shoup (July 3~December 19, 1890). — 

George L. Shoup, Idaho's last Territorial and first State 
governor, qualified as chief executive of the new common- 
wealth July 3, 1890. The RepubUcans elected a full corps 
of State officers at the first special State election held Oc- 
tober I, 1890. 

At the first State election (October i, 1890) Willis Sweet, 
a Moscow attorney, was elected to complete the imexpired 
term of the Fifty-first Congress, which ended March 4, 1891. 
At the same election he was also chosen for the full two 
years' term, beginning on March 4, 1891. 

The most significant enactment of the First Legislature 
was the passage of the AustraUan Ballot Law (1891), which 
aimed to insure a secret ballot and prevent election frauds. 

308. Norman B, Willey (December 19, 1890-1893). — 
In the twenty-seven years of Statehood only one lieutenant- 
governor, Norman B. Willey, has become acting governor. 
By virtue of Mr. Shoup's resignation, December 19, 1890, 
Mr. Willey became governor on that date. Prior to his 
election to the governorship, Mr. Willey had been a mining 
man of Warrens, Idaho Coimty. 

The two events which signalized Governor Willey's ad- 
ministration are: (i) The completion of the Great Northern 
Railroad through the present Bonner Coimty (May 6, 
1892), the third transcontinental line to cross Idaho; and 
(2) the first Coeur d'Alene riots (July 11 to November 19, 

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309, William J. McConnell (1893-1897). — Only four 
of Idaho's eleven chief executives have served two terms. 
The first of the two-term governors was William J. McCon- 
nell, a merchant of Moscow. 

At the general election of 1892 Willis Sweet was again re- 
turned to Congress. In 1894 he was succeeded by Edgar 
Wilson, a Boise attorney. An interesting feature of the 
general election of 1894 was the fact that the Populists 
polled heavier pluralities than did the Democrats. 

The leading candidates for United States Senator in 1895 
were Congressman Sweet and Senator Shoup. The contest 
in the legislature was the most protracted in the history 
of Statehood. On March 7, on the casting of the fifty- 
second ballot, Mr. Shoup was elected to succeed himself 
for the six-year term beginning March 4, 1895. 

The chief events of Governor McConnell's administrations 
were: (i) The establishment of the Lewiston and Albion 
Normal Schools (1893); (2) the enactment of a measure ac- 
cepting from Congress 1,000,000 acres of Carey Act lands 
(1895); (3) the passage of Idaho's first District Irrigation 
Law (189s); and (4) the adoption of the Woman Suffrage 
Amendment (1896). 

310. Frank Steunenberg (1897-1901). — Frank Stexmen- 
berg, Idaho's first "war governor," had been a publisher 
and business man of Caldwell prior to his election to the 
governorship. He was elected chief executive of the State 
in the memorable "free silver" year of 1896. Nominated 
by the Democrats and endorsed by the then powerful 
Silver Republican and Populist parties, he was elected by 
the largest majority that has been accorded to any candi- 
date since Statehood. 

At the same election Captain James Gunn, a Populist, 
was elected to Congress by the Populists and Democrats. 
At the time of his election, he was editing a Populist news- 
paper at Boise. 

On January 26, 1897, Henry Heitfeld, a Populist, was 
elected to the United States Senate by the Fourth Legisla- 

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ture. His election was brought about through his having 
received the united support of the Democratic and Populist 
members of the legislature. Prior to his election, Mr. Heit- 
f eld had been a State senator from Nez Perce Coxmty. 

In 1898 Governor Steimenberg was re-elected governor 
of Idaho by a large plurality. He again had the support of 
the Democrats, Silver Republicans, and Populists. 

At the same election (1898), Edgar Wilson was elected 
Congressman on the Democratic and Free Silver ticket. 

The three notable events of Governor Steunenberg^s 
administrations were: (i) The Spanish-American War 
(1898); (2) the pacification of the Philippine Islands, in 
which Idaho troops took a distinguished part; and (3) the 
outbreak of the second Coeur d'Alene mining trouble (1899), 

311. Frank W. Hunt (1901-1903). — ^Frank W. Hunt 
was elected governor of Idaho November 6, 1900. During 
the American occupation of the Philippine Islands in 1899 
he had been captain of Company "A" of the First Idaho 
Infantry. In the campaign he was elected on the Demo- 
cratic ticket, but had been supported by the Silver Repub- 
ficans and Populists. 

Thomas L. Glenn, a Populist and lawyer of Montpelier, 
Bear Lake County, was the successful "fusionist" candidate 
for representative in Congress. 

On January 15, 1901, Fred T. Dubois was elected by the 
Sixth Legislature to the United States Senate. In the leg- 
islature he had received the almost imited support of the 
Silver RepubUcans, Democrats, and Populists. At the 
Democratic State convention held the previous summer, he 
had been indorsed for the senatorship. Since 1896 when he 
dramatically walked out of the national Republican con- 
vention at St. Louis, after it had endorsed the gold standard, 
Mr. Dubois had been one of the leading Silver Republicans 
of the nation. 

An event that was destined to influence vitally Idaho's 
future industrial development was the enactment by Con- 
gress of the National Reclamation Law (1902). This law 

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and the Carey Act (1894) have contributed more materially 
to the upbuflding of our State than have any other measures 
enacted by the Federal government. 

312. John T. Morrison (1903-1905).— The year 1902 
was characterized by Republican victories in both nation 
and State. John T, Morrison, a lawyer of Caldwell, was 
elected governor on the Republican ticket. At the same 
general election Burton L. French, of Moscow, was chosen 

After a brief but spirited contest in the joint Republican 
caucus of the Seventii Legislature, Judge Weldon B. Hey- 
biun, of Wallace, defeated W. E; Borah, a Boise attorney, 
for the United States senatorship (January 8, 1903). 

The years of Governor Morrison's adininistration mark 
the beginning of the Irrigation Era in Idaho history. In 
1903 work was started on the South Side Twin Falls project, 
the first of the very large Carey Act reclamation enterprises 
undertaken in our State. This huge undertaking, the cost 
of which was in excess of $3,500,000, was destined to re- 
claim over 200,000 acres of arid land. This project was 
promoted By I. B. Perrine, now a resident of Twin Falls, 
and financed by F. H. Buhl, of Sharon, Pennsylvania, 
Peter Kimberley, of Chicago, and S. B. Milner, of Salt 
Lake City, Utah. ^ 

313. Frank R. Gooding: (1905-1909). — On November 
8, 1904, Frank R. (Jooding was elected governor of Idaho 
by the largest pluraUty ever received by any chief executive 
of the State. Prior to his election as governor, he had been 
a wool-grower and business man of Shoshone, Lincoln 

In the fall of 1906 Mr. Gooding was again chosen governor 
and representative French was returned to Congress. 

On January 15, 1907, W. E. Borah succeeded Fred T. 
Dubois in the United States Senate. An unusual feature 
of the election was the fact that Mr. Borah received the vote 
of every Republican member of the Ninth Legislature. 

Six leading events of Governor Gooding's administrations 

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were: (i) The assassination of former Governor Steunen- 
berg (December 30, 1905); (2) the completion of the South 
Side Twin Falls (Carey Act) project (1905) ; (3) the famous 
confession by Harry Orchard, admitting the Steunenberg 
assassination (1906); (4) the Haywood-Moyer-Pettibone 
labor trials (1907); (5) the conunencement of the North 
Side Twin Falls (Carey Act) project (1907); (6) the com- 
pletion of the Minidoka (Federal) project (1907) ; (7) the 
enactment of a law creating the State Historical Society of 
Idaho (1907). 

314. James H. Brady (1909-1911).— James H, Brady, 
a Republican and a capitalist of Pocatello, was Idaho's 
next governor. At the same general election (1908) Thomas 
R. Hamer, a lawyer and business man of St. Anthony, was 
elected to Congress on the Republican ticket. 

On January 12, 1909, the Tenth Legislature re-elected 
William B. Heybum to the United States Senate for the 
six-year term, beginning March 4, 1909. 

Three important events associated with Governor Brady's 
administration were: (i) The enactment of the Direct Pri- 
mary Election Law (1909); (2) the passage of the Local 
Option Law (1909); (3) the completion of the Chicago, 
Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad, the fourth trans-conti- 
nental line to cross Idaho (1910). 

315. James H, Hawley (191 1-1913).— James H. Hawley, 
a Boise attorney, was elected governor of Idaho Novem- 
ber 8, 1910. He was the only Democrat, however, elected 
on the State ticket. The Republicans also secured control 
of both houses of the State Legislature. Mr. Hawley was 
the first Idaho governor to be nominated under the new 
Primary Election Law. He was also the first "pioneer" 
governor since McConnell. At the time of his election, he 
had been a resident of the State for a longer period than 
any governor since Statehood. 

After an absence from Congress for two years, Burton 
L. French was again elected United States representative 
(1910). He was the last congressman to represent the en- 

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dre State, as the Congressional Reapportionment Act of 
191 1 entitled Idaho to two Congressmen-at-large. 

On November 16, 191 2, (Jovemor Hawley appointed 
Judge Kirtland I. Perky to fill the imexpired term of United 
States Senator Heybum, who died October 17, 1912. 
Governor Hawley was the first chief executive in the his- 
tory of Statehood who filled a United States senatorial va- 

Four leading events of Governor Hawley^s administra- 
tion were: (i) The adoption of three constitutional amend- 
ments permitting initiative, referendmn, and recall legisla- 
tion (191 2); (2) the completion of the main portion of the 
new capitol building (1912); (3) the rise of the Progressive 
party (191 2) ; and (4) the convening of the State Legislature 
in extraordinary session (1912), 

316. John M. Haines (1913-1915). — ^John M. Haines, 
a business man of Boise City, was elected governor of Idaho 
November 5, 191 2. In the exciting election of that year a 
heavy vote had been polled by the Republican, Democratic, 
and Progressive parties. 

Two Republicans, Burton L. French and Addison T. 
Smith, were elected to represent the State in the lower 
house of Congress (1912). 

On January 14, 1913, the Twelfth Legislature elected 
W. E. Borah to succeed himself for the six-year term com- 
mencing March 4, i9i3, A few days later former Governor 
James H. Brady was elected to fill Senator Heybum's im- 
expired term. 

Notable pieces of legislation enacted during Governor 
Haines's term of office were: (i) A law providing for a 
State Board of Education (in conformity with a constitu- 
tional amendment adopted in 191 2); (2) an enactment 
creating a Public Utilities Commission (1913); and (3) the 
passage of the Drainage District Law (1913). 

317. Moses Alexander (1915-1918). — Moses Alex- 
ander, Idaho's second "war governor," was elected chief 
executive at the general election November 3, 1914. Be- 

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fore his election to the governorship he had been a merchant 
of Boise. 

Governor Alexander was re-elected for a second term in 

In 1914 Addison T. Smith and Robert M. McCracken, of 
Boise, were elected to Congress on the Republican ticket. 

In the fall of 1916, Burton L. French was again elected to 
Congress to succeed Mr. McCracken. 

Congressman Addison T. Smith was, at the same elec- 
tion, chosen for another two-year term (1916). 

On January 22, 1918, John F. Nugent of Boise was ap- 
pointed United States Senator by Governor Alexander to 
succeed James H. Brady, who died January 13, ^918. 

The chief events which have characterized Governor Alex- 
ander's administrations to date are: (i) the completion of 
the Boise (Federal) project, a notable feature of which is 
Arrowrock Dam (191 5); (2) the passage of a State-wide 
prohibition law (1915); (3) the completion of the Dalles- 
Celilo Canal (191 5); (4) th^ passage of the constitutional 
amendment making prohibition a part of the organic law 
of the State (1916); (5) the mobilization of the Idaho Na- 
tional Guard for duty on the Mexican border (1916); (6) 
the enactment of a law providing $1,000,000 for a system of 
State highways (191 7); (7) the passage of a Workman's 
Compensation Law (191 7) ; (8) and the furnishing of Idaho's 
quota of troops in the world war (191 7, 1918). 

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William H. Wallace 1863 President Abraham Lincoln. 

Caleb Lyon 1 864-1 866 President Abraham Lincoln. 

David W. Ballard. 1866-1870 President U. S. Grant. 

Samuel Bard 1 

Oilman Marston > Resigned without acting. 

Thomas M. Bowen J 

Thomas W. Bennett .1871--1875 President U. S. Grant. 

D. P. Thompson 1875-1876 President U. S. Grant. 

Mason Brayman 1876-1880 President U. S. Grant. 

John P. Hoyt (resigned without acting). 

John B. Neill 1880-1883 President R' B. Hayes. 

John N. Irwin (10 days) 1883-1884 President C. A. Arthur. 

William M. Bunn 1884-1885 President C. A. Arthur. 

Edward A. Stevenson 1 885-1 889 President Grover Cleveland. 

George L. Shoup 1 889-1 890 President Benjamin Harrison. 

Edward J. Curtis was acting governor for many years and delivered the mes- 
sage before the Sixth Session of the Territorial Legidature in 1870. 



Sidney Edgerton^ March 10, 1863. .President Abraham Lincoln. 

Silas Woodson* July 26, 1864. . . .President Abraham Lincoln. 

John R. McBride Feb, 28, 1865. . . .President Abraham Lincoln. 

Thomas J. Bowers July 18, 1868 President Andrew Johnson. 

David Noggle April 9, 1869 President U. S. Grant. 

M. E. HoUister Jan. 14, 1875. • • .President U. S. Grant. 

William G. Thompson* . .Jan. 13, 1879 President R. B. Hayes. 

J. T. Morgan Jime 10, 1879. . . .President R. B. Hayes. 

J. B. Hays Aug. 14, 1885 President Grover Cleveland. 

H. W. Weir Sept. 29, 1888 President Grover Cleveland. 

James H. Beatty May, 1889 President Benjamin Harrison. 

* Nevex held a term of court. ' Never qualified. 


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W. H. Wallace Republican Jan. 4, 1864, to March 4, 1865* 

E. D. Holbrook Democrat March 4, 1865, to March 4j 1867 

E. D. Holbrook Democrat March 4, 1867, to March 4, 1869 

J. K. Shafer Democrat March 4, 1869, to March 5, 187 1 

S. A. Merritt Democrat March 4, 1871, to March 4, 1875 

John Hailey Democrat March 4, 1873, to March 4, 1875 

Stephen S. Fenn Democrat March 4, 1875, to March 4, 1877 

Stephen S. Fenn Democrat March 4, 1877, to March 4, 1879 

George Ainslie Democrat March 4, 1879, to March 4, 1881 

George Ainslie Democrat March 4, 1881, to March 4, 1883 

T. F. Singiser Republican March 4, 1885., to March 4, 1885 

John Hailey Democrat. .... .March 4, 1885, to March 4, 1887 

F. T. Dubois Republican March 4, 1887, to March 4, 1889 

F. T. Dubois Republican March 4, 1889, imtil Statehood 



George L. Shoup Republican 1890 

Norman B. Willey Republican 1890-1893 

William J. McConnell Republican 1893-1897 

Frank Steunenberg Democrat 1897-1901 

Frank W. Hunt Democrat 1901-1903 

John T. Morrison Republican 1903-1905 

Frank R. Gooding Republican 1905-1909 

James H. Brady Republican 1909-191 1 

James H. Hawley Democrat 1911-1913 

John M. Haines Republican 1913-191 5 

Moses Alexander Democrat 1915-1918 



Isaac N. Sullivan 1891-1892 

J. W. Huston 1893-1894 

John T. Morgan 1895-1896 

R. P. Quarles 1897-1898 

Isaac N. Sullivan 1899-1900 

C. O. Stockslager 1901-1902 

James F. Ailshie 1903-1904 

Isaac N. Sullivan 1905-1906 

* Unexpired term. 

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James F. Ailshie 1907-1908 

Isaac N. Sullivan 1909-1910 

George H. Stewart 1911-1912 

James F. Ailshie 1913-1914 

Isaac N. Sullivan 1915-1916 

Alfred Budge 1917-1918 



William J. McConnell 1891 

George L. Shoup 1891-1895 

Fred T. Dubois 1891-1897 

George L. Shoup 1895-1901 

Henry Meitfield 1897-1903. 

Fred T. Dubois 1901-1907 

Weldon B. Heyburn 1903-1909 

William E. Borah 1907-1913 

Weldon B. Heyburn (Deceased Oct. 17, 191 2) 1909-1915 

Kirtland I. Perky (Appointed Nov. 18, 191 2) 1912-1913 

James H. Brady 1913-1915 

William E. Borah 1913-1919 

James H. Brady (Deceased, Jan. 13, 1918) 1915-1918 

John F. Nugent (Appointed Jan. 22, 1918) 1918- 



Willis Sweet 1890-1895 

Edgar Wilson 1895-1897 

James Gunn 1897-1899 

Edgar Wilson 1899-1901 

Thomas L. Glenn 1901-1903 

Burton L. French • 1903-1909 

Thomas R. Hamer 1909-1911 

Burton L. French 1911-1913 

Burton L. French 1913-1915 

Addison T. Smith 1913-1915 

Addison T. Smith 1915-1917 

Robert M. McCracken 1915^1917 

Burton L. French 1917-1919 

Addison T. Smith 1917-1919 

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Shoshone* Wallace January 8, 1861 

Nez Perce* Lewiston December 20, 1861 

Idaho* Grangeville 1862 

Boise* Idaho City 1863 

Owyhee Silver City 1863 

Oneida Malad 1864 

Ada Boise 1864 

Kootenai* Rathdrum 1864 

Lemhi Salmon City 1869 

Bear Lake Paris 1875 

Washington Weiser 1879 

Cassia Albion 1879 

Custer Challis 1881 

Bingham Blackfoot 1885 

Latah* Moscow 1888 

Elmore Mountain Home 1889 

Canyon Caldwell 1891 

Fremont St. Anthony 1893 

Bannock Pocatello 1893 

Lincoln Shoshone 1895 

Blaine. Hailey 1895 

Bonner Sandpoint 1907 

Twin Falls Twin Falls 1907 

Adams Council 1911 

Bonneville Idaho Falls 1911 

Clearwater Orofino 1911 

Lewis Nez Perce 1911 

Franklin Preston 1913 

Gooding Gooding 1913 

Jefferson Rigby 1913 

Madison Rexburg 1913 

Minidoka Rupert 1913 

Power American Falls 1913 

Benewah St. Maries 1915 

Gem Emmett 1915 

^ Created by Washington Territorial Legislature, but reorganized and rebounded 
by Idaho Territorial Legislature. 

* Kootenai was not organized until 1881. 

' Created and organized by Sheriff Act of Congress. Is said to be only county 
in UDitvyi States created and organized by Congressional enactment. 

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Boundary Bonners Ferry 1915 

Teton. . , Driggs 1915 

Butte Arco 1917 

Camas. . . .' Fairfield 1917 

Valley Cascade 1917 

Payette Payette 1917 



State Penitentiary . . . . ; Boise 1872 

Insane Asylum Blackfoot 1885 

State University Moscow 1889 

Normal School Lewiston : 1893 

Normal School Albion 1893 

Soldiers' Home Boise 1900 

Academy of Idaho^ Pocatello 1901 

Industrial School St. Anthony 1903 

Insane Asylum Orofino 1905 

School for Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Gooding 1907 

Children's Home Boise 1908 

Idaho State Sanatorium Nampa 1911 

^ Since 191 5 known and designated as the Idaho Technical Institute. 

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Alexander, Moses, governor, 225; ad- 
ministration of, 226 

Arrowrock Dam, 189 

Astor, John Jacob, 27; organizes Pacific 
Fur Co., 40, 43 

Astoria founded, 27 

Australian Ballot Law, 220 

Ballard, David W., sketch, 214 

Bannack Indians, characteristics, 23; 
wars with, 132, 143-144 

Battle Creek, battle of, 131 

Beachy, Hill, 107; portrait of, 108 

Bee-raising, 183 

Bennett, Thomas W., 215; administra- 
tion of, 216 

Boise City, capital, 125; in 1864 (illus- 
tration), 127 

Boise News, See Newspapers 

Bonanza, 97 

Bonneville, Captain B. L. E., expedition 
of, 50; portrait, 51; friends of, 51; 
in Idaho> 52-55; later life, 54 

Brady, James H., administration of, 
224; election to U. S. Senate, 225; 
death of, 226 

Brayman, Mason, 216; administration 
of, 217 

Buffalo Horn, Bannack chief, 143 

Bunn, William M., administration of, 

** Canoe Camp," 33 

Capital Removal Act, 126 

Carey Act, 187, 192; amendments to, 

192; irrigation projects under, 188 
Carson, Kit, 60 

Cattle, raising of, 146, 202; roimd-up of 

148; branding of, 149 
Chaboneau, Toussaint, 30, 36, 37 
Challis, 97 

Charles Dickens Mine, 97 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, 166 
Chief justices, table of Territorial, 227; 

table of supreme court, 228 
Chittenden, J. R., first superintendent 

of public instruction, 109 
Clark, William, portrait, 30 
Clearwater, battle of, 136 
Coeur d'Alene Indians, 18; war with, 

"Colimibia River Coimtry." See Ore- 
gon Coimtry 
Columbian Exposition, 192 
Constitutional Convention, i68( mem* 

bers of, 169 
Corcoran, Paul, 195 
Cornish, Hannah, 83 
Counties, names of, 230 
County seats, list of, 236 
Craig, William, first settler, 86; p<M> 

trait, 86 
Curtis, Edward J., political career of^ 


Daniels, William B., territorial gover- 
nor, 123; inaugural address, 124 

Davis, Jack, trial of, 160 

De Smet, Peter J., work of, 75; portrait, 
75; in southern Idaho, 75; in north- 
em Idaho, 76 

De Smet Mission, 79 

" Diamondfield Jack." See Jack Davis. 

Dry Farming. See Farming. 


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Edgerton, Sidney, Territorial chief jus- 
tice, 125; portrait, 125 

Fackler, Michael, 84 

Fanning, types of, 176; dry, 176-177 

Florence, 91 

Fort Boise, in , 

Fort Hall, 45, 47; flag raising at, 57; 
importance of, 58; Lee at, 70; De 
Smet at, 76; description of, 56 

Fort Lapwai, 170 

Fort Lemhi, 80-82 

Four Lakes, battle of, 130 

Franklin, first permanent settlement, 82 

Fremont, Jojm C, visits Idaho, 60; 
achievements, 60 

"Fremont's Journal," 60 

Fruit-growing, 179 

Gold, discovery of, 88; importance of, 89 
Gold areas, Clearwater district, 89; 

Salmon River district, 91; Boise 

Basin, 93; Owyhee, 95; Lemhi and 

Custer Coimties, 96 
Government, of mining-camps, 114; 

Territorial, 120, 168 
Governors, first governor, 171; table of 

Territorial governors, 227; table of 

State governors, 228 
Gray, Captain Robert, 27 
Great Northern, 164 

Haines, John M., elected governor, 225 

Hall, Henry, portrait, 56 

Hawley, James H., election of, 224; 
administration of, 225 

Henry, Andrew, 39, 48 

Hercules Mine, 100 

Hoback, John, 40 

Hoover, Captain Stewart W., 198 

Howard, General O. O., portrait, 137; 
campaigns of, 136, 144 

Hudson's Bay Company, 28, 38; buys 
Northwest Company, 44; opera- 
tions of, 44; builds Fort Boise, 45; 

last years in Idaho, 47; buys Fort 

HaU, 58. 
Himt, Frank W., administration of, 222 
Himt, Wilson Price, with Pacific Fur 

Company, 40; reaches Idaho, 41-42; 

later career, 43 
Hyndman, Mt., altitude of, 11 

Idaho, meaning of, 121; first used, 121; 
given to Territory, 122 

"Idaho Nile." See Snake River 

Idaho State, admitted to Union, 171; 
altitude of, 11, 13, 174; area of, 10; 
agricultural products of, 177-179; 
climate of , 1 3 ; Constitution of, framed, 
170; adopted, 171; geological history 
of, 1-9; rainfall in, 13, 174; popula- 
tion of, 167 

Idaho Statesman. See Newspapers 

Idaho Territory, organized, 120; area 
decreased, 126; becomes State, 171 

Indians, 17; wars with, 129; treaties 
with, 134, 135 

Irrigation, 12; early, 83, 184; corpora- 
tions for, 188 

Irwin, John N., Territorial governor, 

Joseph, Chief, 135; retreat of, 137; 

surrender of, 140; genius of, 142; 

later life, 142 
Joseph, "Old," 21, 66, 133, 135 

Kutenai Indians, characteristics of, 17 

Labor disputes, 194 

Lands, grazing, 147; national, 151; 
State, 152; contest for, 166 

Lapwai Mission, established, 71; aban- 
doned, 72; reopened, 74 

Law, Branding, 149; Two-Mile Limit, 
157; State Prohibition, 197; Local 
Option, 196 

Lead. See Silver 

Lee, Jason, 70; portrait, 70 

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Legislature, First State, 171; First 
Territorial, 171; Second Territorial, 


Lemhi Indians, origin of, 25 

Lewis and Clark expedition, 27; object 
of, 29; success of, 29; enters Idaho, 
31; meets Nez Perces, 33; return of, 


Lewis and Clark medals, 34; illustra- 
tion, 34 

Lewiston, 12 

Libraries, 208 

Local Option Law, 196 

Lo Lo Trail, 66; route of, 69 

Lumber industry, 204 

Lyon, Caleb, sketch, 213 

Madison Coimty, 200 

McConnell, William J., administration 
of, 221 

McConville, General Edward, 194 

McKay, Thomas, builds Fort Boise, 45 

McLoughlin, Dr. John, character of, 44; 
portrait of, 44 

Miller, Joaquin, 112, 122 

Miners, home of, 104; food of, 104; 
dress of, 105; character of, 105; diffi- 
culties of, 105; recreations of, 106; 
loyalty of, 107; humor of, 107; reli- 
gious life of, 108; intellectual interests 
of, 109; political life of, no; protec- 
tion for, IXC 

Missionary Movement, beginnings of, 
69; influence of trapper, 68; Indians 
seek teachers, 69; first service in 
Idaho, 70 

Missions, Lapwai, 71; Coeur d'Alene, 
77; "Old Mission," 77-79; De Smet, 
79; Fort Lemhi, 80-82 

Missoiui Fur Co., 39 

!^[ormons, establish Fort Lemhi, 80; 
first permanent settlement, 82; be- 
gin irrigation system, 83; open first 
school, 70 

Morrison, John T., administration of 

Moimtains, iz 
Mullan, John, 66; portrait, 66; visits 

"Old Mission," 78 
Mullan Road, 66, 98 

Nampuh, Chief, 22 

" Napoleon of the Indians." See Chief 

National forests, 204-206 

National Guard, on border, 197; in 
world war, 198 

National Irrigation Law. See Recla- 
mation Act 

Newell, Robert, sketch of, 87; portrait, 


Newspt^rs, 112 

Nez Perces, tribal history, 19; war 
with, 135-140 

Northern Pacific, 163; branch lines, 

Northwest Company, 38; first trading- 
post, 38; later history, 38 

Orchard, Harry, 195 

Oregon Coimtry, boimdaries of, 26; 

U. S. claims to, 26; contest for, 28 
Oregon Short Line, 162-163 
Oregon Territory, established, 117; 

divided, 11 7-1 18 
Oregon Trail, route of, 63; in Idaho, 64; 

travel on, 65 
Organic Act, definition of, 120; Idaho's, 

Owyhee Avalanche, See Newspapers 

Pacific Fur Company, 27, 40; explora- 
tion party of, 41; trapping expedi- 
tion of, 43 

Parks, Samuel C, associate chief jus- 
tice, 125; portrait, 125 

Payette, Francis, at Fort Boise, 45; 
description of, 46 

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Pend d^Ordlle Indians, history of, 18 

Pierce, C^tain E. D., discovers gold, 
88; portrait, 88 

Pierce City, 90, 100 

Pierre's Hole, 48, 52, 75 

Placer-mining, method of, 101-103 

Pocatello, chief of Bannacks, 23 

Point, Father Nicholas, establishes 
mission, 77 

Potlatch Lumber Mills, 204 

Poultry-raising, 183 

Printing-press, first, in Idaho, 73; pre- 
sented to Oregon, 73 

Prohibition, 196; State law, 197 

Quartz-mining, definition of, loi 

l^ailroads. See Transportation 
Reclamation Act, 188, 196 
Reed, John^ 43; massacred, 44 
Registration for national service, 198 
Rendezvous, the, 50 
Representatives, Territorial, 228; State, 

Resources, 201 
Robinson, Mrs. Statira E., teacher, 109; 

portrait, 109 
Rocky Mountain Fur Co., organization, 

48; leaders in, 48; trappers for, 53 
Round-up, the, 148 

Sacajawea, with Lewis and Clark, 30 
Sacred Heart Mission, established, 77; 
history of, 78; illustration, 78; Colo- 
nel Wright at, 131 
Santa Ana, battle of, 194 
Schools, first school, 83; for miners* 

children, 109; public, 208 
Senators, first, 171; table of U. S., 229 
Settlement, first permanent, 82 
Sheep, raising of, 153, 202; herding of, 
154; shearing of, 155; branding of, 
Sheepeaters, Indians, location, 23; 

characteristics, 25; wars with, 144^ 


Sho<dioni Indians, location, 21; char- 
acwjristics, 22 

Shoup, George L., 118, 171; Territorial 
governor, 219; State governor, 210 

Silver-lead belt, discovery of, 98; qual- 
ity of, TOO 

Snake Indians. See Shoshoni 

Snake River, course of, 12; tributaries 

of, 13 
Snake River Canyon, 14, 16 
Soil, 17s; action of winds on, 6 
Spalding, Eliza. See Warren, Eliza 

Spalding, Eliza Hart (Mrs. Henry), 

first woman in Idaho, 70; teaches 

Indians, 71 
Spalding, Henry, first missionary, 70; 

portrait, 70; at Fort Boise, 45; builds 

Lapwai, 71; achievements, 72 
Spanish- American War, contribution to, 

State buildings, 231 
State flower, 172 
Statehood Admission Bill, 171 
Steptoe, Colonel E. J., 129 
Steimenberg, Frank, 194; assassinated, 

195; portrait of, 195; election of, 221; 

administration of, 222 
Stevens, General Isaac I., 134 
Stevenson, E. A., administration of. 

Stock-raising, 146, 153, 202 
Suffrage, Woman, 193 
Sultana, the, 35 
Supreme Court, first Territorial, 125 

Telegraph, first, 112 
The Golden Age. See Newspapers 
Thompson, David, 17, 68 
Thompson, David P., sketch of, 216 
Tradmg-posts, "Kullyspell House,'* 38; 
Fort Heniy, 39; Fort Boise, 45, 58; 

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second Fort Boise, 45; Fort Hall, 

see Fort Hall 
Transportation, early means of, 12, 114; 

railroads, 161; problems of, 168; 

future of, 209 
Tukuarika Indians. See Sheepeaters 
Tuttle, Daniel S., bishop of Idaho, 84; 

portrait, 84; service of, 8$ 
Twisted-Hair, Chief, 33 

Vigilantes, 115 

Wallace, William H., Territorial gover- 
nor, 122; portrait, 123; in Washing- 
ton, 123; makes Lewiston capital, 
125; sketch, 213 

War, World, contribution to, 198 

Warren, Eliza Spalding, birth of, 74; 
portrait of, 74 

Water-power, 207-208 

Water rights, 190 

Whitebird Canyon, battle of, 135 

Whitman, Marcus, missionary, 70 

Willey, Norman B., administration of, 

Wilson, Henry, names Idaho Territory, 

Wright, Colonel George, Indian cam- 
paigns of, 130; success of, 131 

Wyeth, Nathaniel J., 54; ancestry, 54; 
first expedition of, 55; establishes 
Fort Hall, 56; portrait, 56; later life, 
59, 210 

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