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1609 — 1664. 


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Historical Pr-r-'-^^nnt. 

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the Year 1858, by 

John Rombtn Brodhbad, 

In the Clerk^s Office of the District Ck>urt of the United States for the Southern 
District of New York. 


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There are four marked periods in the history of the State of 
New York. The first, opening with its discovery by the Datoh 
in 1609, and closing with its seizure by the English in 1664, com- 
prises also the early history of New Jersey, Delaware, and Penn- 
sylvania, and, to some extent, that of Massachusetts, Rhode Isl- 
and, and Connecticut. The second begins with the ascendency 
of the English in 1664, and ends with the cession of Canada to 
England in 1763, by which all the Northern colonies in America 
became subject to the British crown. The third reaches from the 
treaty of Paris in 1763, to the inauguration of Washington as 
President of the United States in 1789. The fourth embraces 
the annals of the state from the organization of the Federal gov- 

This volume contains a history of the first of these periods. In 
that period many of the political, religious, and social elements 
of New York had their origin. It offers varied themes which in- 
vite attention ; the savage grandeur of nature ; the early adven- 
ture of discovery and settlement ; the struggle with barbarism, 
and the subjugation of a rude soil ; the contrast and blending of 
European with American life ; the transfer of old institutions ; the 

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intermingling of races; the progress of commerce ; the establish- 
ment of churches and schools ; the triumph of freedom of con- 
science over bigotry; the development of principles of self-govern- 
ment within, and the action of encroachment and conquest from 

The preparation of this book has not been without much care 
and labor. Many of its materials are now employed for the first 
time ; the numerous references to others show the extended re- 
sources which, under the recent impulse to American historical 
investigation, have been brought within reach. It is submitted 
to the judgment of the public in partial execution of a purpose 
contemplated for many years ; with a desire to aid in the vindi- 
cation of truth ; and with a full consciousness of the importance 
of the subject and of the fidelity due to tfie fit performance of the 

John Romeyn Brodhead. 

New York, November ^ 1858. 


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Columbus' Discovery, and Papal Donation of the New World to Spain, page 1 ; Cabot 
and Verazzano, 2 ; Cartier and Roberval, 3 ; Frohisher, 4 ; Gilbert and Raleigh, 
5 ; Virginia, 6, 6 ; Gosnold at Cape Cod, 7 ; Pring on Coast of Maine, 8 ; Wey- 
mouth's Voyage, 9 ; Virginia Charter, 10 ; Jamestown founded, 12 ; Sagadahoc 
Colony, 13-15 ; New Charter for Virginia, 15 ; Pont Grav^ and Champlain in 
Canada, 16 ; De Monts and Poutrincourt at Port Royal and Saint Croix, 16, 17 ; 
Quebec founded, 18 ; Lake Champlain discovered, 18 ; Dutch maritime Enter- 
prises, 19-22 ; Dutch East India Company, 23 ; West India Company proposed, 
24 ; Hudson in Holland, 24 ; Hudson sails from Amsterdam in the Half Moon, 
25 ; At Penobscot, 26 ; At Cape Cod, 26 ; At the Capes of the Chesapeake, 26 ; 
In Delaware Bay, 26 ; Anchors in Sandy Hook Bay, 27 ; Death of John Cohnan, 
28 ; Hudson ascends the " River of the Mountains," 28-^1 ; Descends the River, 
32, 33 ; At Hoboken, 34 ; Arrives at Dartmouth, 34 ; Reports to the Dutch East 
India Company, 34, 35 ; The River of the Mountains in 1609, 35-37. 



The Dutch an independent Nation when Hudson made Discoveries in their Service, 
38-42 ; Hudson's Voyage to the North, and Death, 42, 43 ; The Half Moon returns 
to Amsterdam, 43 ; Another Ship sent to Manhattan, 44 ; Christiaensen's and 
Block's Voyages, 45, 46 ; Other Ships sent, 47 ; Yacht built at Manhattan, 48 ; 
Virginia Affairs, 49 ; Lord Delawarr, 60 ; Never in Delaware Bay, 51 ; Argall on 
the Coast of Maine, 52 ; His alleged Visit to Manhattan, 54 ; Fort Nassau built 
on Castle Island, 55 ; Block explores Long Island Sound in the Yacht " Restless," 
55 ; Discovers the Housatonic and Connecticut, 56 ; Block Island, 57 ; Rhode 
Island, 58 ; Pye Bay and Boston Harbor, 58 ; Returns to HoMand, 59 ; Amster- 
dam Trading Company formed, 60 ; Deputies sent to the Hague, 61 ; New Neth- 
erland Charter of the 11th of October, 1614, 62; Its Provisions, and the Views 
of the States General, 63, 64 ; Block in the Arctic Ocean, 65. 


1616— 16S0. 

New Netherland Company, 66 ; Death of Christiaensen, 66, 67 ; Champlain discov- 
ers Lake Huron and Lake Ontario, 68 ; At Onondaga Lake, 69 ; Onondaga Fort 


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attacked, 69-71 ; Indian Tribes along the Oahctotatea, or North River, 7S-77 , 
Hendricksen explores the Soath or Delaware River, 78, 79 ; Returns to Holland, 
79 ; New Charter for Soath River i^lied for and refused, 80 ; Fort Nassau de- 
stroyed, 80 ; New Post on the Tawasentha, 81 ; The Konoahioni, or Iroquois, 82- 
87; Treaty of the Tawasentha, 88 ; Expiration of the New Netheriand Charter, 
89 ; Its Renewal refused, 90 ; Smith in New England, 91 ; Dermer passes through 
Long Island Sound to Virginia, 92 ; Dermer at Manhattan, 98 ; Patent for New 
England, 94-96 ; Progress of Dutch Explorations, 97. 



Prosperity of Holland, 98 ; The Reformation in the Netherlands, 99 ; First Preach- 
ing of "the Reformed,'' 100 ; Establishment of the Reformed Religion, 101 ; Tol- 
eration of other Religions, 102 ; Calvinism of the Dutch Clergy, 103 ; The Gom- 
anst and Armenian Controversy, 104, 106 ; The Remonstrants, 106 ; Maurice 
and Bameveldt, 107, 108 ; The Synod of Dordrecht, 109, 110 ; Death of Bame- 
veldt, 111; The Church of England, 112; The Puritans, 118, 114; Puritans 
emigrate to Holland, 116; The Reformed Dutch Church, and the Church of 
England, 116-119; The Puritans dissatisfied in Holland, 120; Wish to emi- 
grate to America, 121 ; Their Patent from the Virginia Company, 122 ; Their 
Condition in Holland, 123; They propose to go to New Netheriand, 124 ; Memo- 
rial to the Dutch Government, 126 ; Its Prayer reftised by the States General, 
126 ; The Puritans leave Leyden, 127 ; Sail from Plymouth, 128 ; Their Desti- 
nation, 129 ; The Mayflower at Cape Cod, 130 ; Compact on board the Mayflower, 
181, 132; The Landing of the Pilgrims, 138. 



The Dutch West India Company incorporated, 134 ; Its Powers and Duties, 136, 
136 ; Its Organisation delayed, 137 ; Private Ships sent to New Netheriand, 137,, 
188 ; Parliament jealous of ^e New England Patent, 139 ; Plymouth Company 
complains of the Dutdi, 140 ; James claims New Netheriand, and sends Instruc- 
tions to Carieton at the Hague, 141 ; Carleton's Memorial to the States General, 
142 ; Dutch and English Titles considered, 143, 144 ; Dutch Traders in Long Isl- 
and Sound, 146 ; Walloons in Holland, 146, 147 ; The West India Company or- 
ganized, 148 ; Takes Possession of New Netheriand as a Province, 149 ; First 
permanent agricultural Colonization, 160 ; Fort Orange built, 161 ; Fort Wilhel- 
mus, 162 ; Fort Nassau, on the South River, 163 ; Walloons at the Waal-bogt, 
154 ; C. J. May first Director of New Netheriand, 164 ; Ship of D. P. de Vries 
seized at Hoom, 166 ; Dutch Ship arrested at Plymouth, 166 ; Publications of 
Waesenaar, De Laet, and Purchas, 167 ; More Colonists sent to New Nether- 
iand, 168 ; Cattle at Nutten Island and Manhattan, 169 ; William Verhulst suc- 
ceeds May as Director, 169 ; Death of Maurice, 160 ; Of James I., 161 ; Treaty of 
Southampton, 161 ; Peter Minuit appoiated Director General of New Nether- 
iand, 162. 


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Prcmmia] GoTernment under Minuit, 163 ; Purchase of Manhattan Island, 164 ; 
Fort Amsterdam begun, 166 ; Murder of an Indian near the Koick, 166 ; Descrip- 
tion of Manhattan, 167 ; Aflbirs at Fort Orange, 168 ; Krieckebeeck and Baient- 
sen, 169 ; Cokmists remoTed from Fort Orange and the South River to Manhat- 
tan, 170; The Puritans at New Plymouth annoyed at the commercial Superior- 
ity of the Dutch, 171 ; Long Island, or Sewan-hacky, the chief Manufactory of 
Wampum, 172 ; Correspondence between New Nefberland and New Plymouth, 
173-175 ; Isaac de Rasieres sent as Ambassador, 176 ; At New Plymouth, 177 ; 
Deseribes the Puritan Settlement, 178, 179; Mutual Trade, 180; The En^h 
Objections to the Dutdi Title, 181 ; Minuit asks for Siridiers from Holland, 181 ; 
(Varies I. &Tors the Dutch West India Con^Muiy, 182 ; Revenue of New Neth- 
erland, 182 ; Population of Manhattan, 183 ; Heyn captures the Spanish Silver 
Fleet, 184; In&tuating Effidct iqxm the West India Company, 185 ; CostofNew 
Netholand, 186 ; Charter for Patroons proposed, 187 ; Pro^press of the Cotoniza- 
tkm of New England, 188; Royal Charter for Massachusetts Bay, 189; Church 
oiianlzed at Salem, and rdigions Intolerance established, 190. 

The Golden Fleece, 191 ; Dutch Towns, and the feudal System in Holland, 191J^ 
198 ; Charter for Patroons in New Netheiland, 1^^197 ; Its Effects, 198 ; Char- 
ter published, 199 ; Oodyn and Blommaert purchase on the South River, 200 ; 
Van Rensselaer buys on the North River, and begins to colonize Rensselaers- 
wyck, 201 ; Pauw purchases Pavonia and Staten Island, 202 ; Jealousies among 
the Directors at Amsterdam, 2^3 ; Patroonships shared, 2((4 ; Heyes sent to the 
South River, 206 ; Colony established at Swaanendael, 206 ; No Dutch Colonies 
on the Connecticut, 907 ; Winthrop founds Boston, 208 ; Extent of the New En- 
gland Settlements, 209; Connecticut Sachem at Boston, and l^nslow, of New 
Y Pljrmouth, visits the Connecticut, 210 ; Lord Warwick's Grant of Connecticut, 
211 ; Great Ship *<New Netheiland'* built at Manhattan, 212; Minuit recalled^ 
213 ; His Ship arrested at Plymouth, and Negotiation in consequence with the 
British Government, 214-216 ; Ship released, 217 ; Difficulties between the Di- 
rectors of the West India Company and tiie Patroons, 2l8 ; Destruction of Swaan- 
endael by the Savages, 219 ; De Vries sails for the South River, visits the Ruins, 
and makes a Peace, 219-221. 



Wouter van Twiner appointed Director General in Place of Minuit, 222 ; Arrires 
at Manhattan, 928 ; First Clergymali, Schoolmaster, and provincial Officers, 223 ; 
m Revenue and Expenditures, 224 ; De Vries at Fort Nassau, 225 ; Visits Govem- 
«r Harvey m Virginia, 226 ; Pleasant Intercourse opened, 227 ; De Vries at Man- 
hattan, 228 ; English Ship sails up to Fort Orange, 229 ; Forced to return, 229 ; 

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vi COiSTiiN i o. 

Van Twiner's vexatioos Conduct, 231 ; Corssen's Purchase on the Schuylkill, 
232 ; Affairs on the Connecticut, 233 ; The West India Company purchases Lands 
of the Savages there, 234 ; Commissary Van Curler completes Fort Good Hope, 
235 ; Van Twiller*s Conduct toward De Vries on his Return to Holland^ 286 ; 
Virginia Ship and New Plyn^outh Pinnace at Manhattan, 237; Massachusetts 
refuses to join New Plymouth in occupying Connectieut, 238 ; John Oldham's 
overland Journey, 239 ; Winthrop claims Connecticut, and Van Twiller replies, 
239, 240 ; New Plymouth Expedition to the Connecticut, 240 ; Dutch Protest 
against the Settlers at Windsor, 241 ; Treaty between Massachusetts and the 
Pequods, 242 ; Affairs at Manhattan, 243 ; Pavonia, Fort Nassau, Fort Orange, 
and Rensselaerswyck, 244 ; Van Twiller and Domine Bogardus, 246 ; English 
Complaints against the West India Company, and their Answer, 245, 246; 
Lubbertus van Dincklagen appointed Schout of New Netherland, 247 ; Difiicul- 
ties between the Patroons and the Directors, 247, 248; Surrender of Swaanen- 
dael to the Con^)any, 249 ; Claybome's Explorations, 250 ; Motives for the Em- 
igration of Roman Catholics from England, 261 ; Lord Baltimore's Patent for 
Maryland, 252; Saint Mary's founded, 263; Harvey deposed and sent to En- 
gland, 264 ; Fort Nassau seized by a Virginian Party, 254 ; Retaken by the 
Dutch, and the English Prisoners sent back to Virginia, 256 ; Emigration from 
Massachusetts to Connecticut, 256 ; English Plantation Board, 257; Its Jealousy 
of the New England Colonists, 258 ; Long Island conveyed to Lord Stirling, 259 ; 
The New England Patent surrendered, and the younger Winthrop appointed 
Governor of Connecticut, 259, 260 ; The Dutch Arms torn down at the Kievit's 
Hook, 260 ; Lion Gardiner at Saybrook, 261 ; William Pynchon at Springfield, * 
261 ; True European Title to Long Island and Connecticut, 262 ; Domestic Af- 
fairs at Manhattan and Pavonia, 263, 264 ; Lands taken up on Staten Island and 
Long Island, 265 ; Van Dincklagen sent back to Holland, 266 ; Beverwyck and 
Rensselaerswyck, 266, 267; Van Twiner's private Purchases, 267; Bronck's 
Purchase in West Chester, 268 ; Quotenis, in Narragansett Bay, and Dutchman's 
Island at the Pequod River, 268 ; Traffic with New England, 269 ; The Pequod 
War, 269-272 ; Complaints in Holland agamst Van Twiller and Bogardus, 273 ; 
William Kieft appointed Director General in Place of Van Twiller, 274. 



Arrival of Kieft at Manhattan, ^75 ; Condition of Afiairs there, 2^6 ; New Regula- 
tions, 277; Domine Bogardus retained, 278; Rensselaerswyck, Pavonia, and 
Long Island, 279 ; Jansen Commissary on the South River, 279 ; Swedish West 
India Company, 280 ; Minuit sails from Sweden, and anchors at Jamestown, 281 ; 
Arrives in the South River, and purchases Land, 282 ; Kieft protests against 
him, 283 ; Minuit builds Fort Christina, 284 ; Swedish Ship seized in Holland, 
284 ; The States General inquire into the Condition of New Netherland, 2I5 ; 
New Articles proposed by the Company. ?46 ; By the Patroons, 2I7 ; Proclama- 
tion of freer Trade, 2fc; Its Effects, 188, 289; De Vries, Kuyter, and Melyn, 
289 ; Strangers attracted from New England and Virginia, 290 ; Captain John ^ 
Underbill, 291 ; Obligations and Privileges of foreign Settlers in New Netherland, 
2ll ; Grants of Land near Coney Island, Breuckelen, and Deutel Bay, 292 ; Do- 

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mestic Administration, 2&2 ; Tribute propoeed to be exacted from the Savages, 
2w ; New Hayen, Stratford, Greenwich, and Hartford, 294 ; Aggressions of the 
Hartford People, 296 ; The Dutch purchase West Chester Lands, 296 ; James 
Farrett, Lord Stirling's Agent for Long Idand, 297 ; Lion Gardiner at Gardiner's 
Island, 298 ; English Intruders at Schout*s Bay dislodged, 299 ; Southampton 
and Southold settled, 300 ; De Tries goes up to Fort Orange, 301, 302 ; Affairs 
at Beverwyck and Rensselaerswyck, 303-305 ; The Cohooes, 306 ; De Vries* 
Opinion of the North River, 307; Difficulties with the Savages, 307-309; The 
Dutch ordered to arm, 309 ; Expedition against the Raritans, 310 ; The Tappans 
refuse to pay Tribute, 310 ; New Charter for Patroons, Sn ; The Reformed 
Dutch Church established in New Netherland, BIZ ; Vriesendael, Hackinsack, 
f , and Staten Island, 313 ; Provincial Currency regulated, and Fairs established, 
314 ; The Raritans attack Staten Island, 315 ; Smits murdered at Deutel Bay, 
316; The "Twelve Men'' appointed, ^7; Kieft urges War, 318; The Twelve 
Men oppose and avert Hostilities, 819 ; Swedes on the Soutii River, 319 ; De 
Bogaerdt, Powdson, and HoUaendare, 320 ; Death of Minuit, 321 ; Lamberton 
and Cogswell's Expedition from New Haven to the Varken's Kill and the Schuyl- 
kill, 321, 322; Vexatious Conduct of the Hartford People, 322; Delegates sent 
to England from Massachusetts and Connecticut, 323 ; Hugh Peters commission- 
ed to treat with the West India Company, 324 ; Sir WUliam Boswell's Advice to 
crowd out the Dutch, 324. 



The Twelve Men again convoked, 3^5 ; They demand Refcmns, 326, 327 ; Kieft's 
Concessions, dfe ; Dissolves the Board of Twelve Men, 3sb ; Expedition against 
the Weckquaeageeks, and Treaty at the Bronx River, 330 ; Greenwich submits to 
the Dutch, 331 ; Roger Williians founds Rhode Island, 332 ; Emigrations from 
Massachusetts to New Netherland, 333 ; Doughty's Patent for Mespath, 333 ; 
Throgmorton atVredeland, 334; Anne Hutchinson at "Anjtie's Hoeck," 33 »; 
Strangers at Manhattan, 335 ; City Hotel for Travellers, ;335 ; New Church at 
Manhattan, 336, 337 ; George Baxter s^pointed En^h Secretary, 337 ; New 
Haven Settlements on the South River broken up, 338 ; The Hsutford People 
and the Dutch, 339 ; Threats in England against the Dutch, 340 ; Beginning of 
the Civil War in England, 341 ; Van der Donck, Schout Fiscal of Rensselaers- 
wyck, 341 ; Domine Megapolensis, 342 ; Church at Beverwyck, 343 ; The Jes- 
uits in Canada, 344 ; Father Jogues enured by the' Mohawks, 345 ; Benevolent 
Efforts of Van Curier, 346 ; Van Voorst murdered by an Indian at Hackinsack, 
347 ; The Savages offer an Atonement, 348 ; Kieft demands the Murderer, 348 ; 
The Mohawks attack the River Indians, 349 ; Public Opinion at Manhattan, 349 ; 
Kieft resolves on War, 350 ; Warned in vain against his Rashness, 351 ; Mas- 
sacres at Pavonia and Corlaer's Hook, 352 ; The Long Island Indians attacked, 
353 ; The Savages aroused to Vengeance, 354 ; Vriesendael invested, 355 ; Pop- 
ular Indignation against Kieft, and Proclamation of a Day of fhsting, 856 ; Prop- 
osition to depose Kieft, 356 ; Adriaensen and the Director, 357 ; De Vries and 
Olfertsen at Rockaway, 358 ; Treaty with the Savages, 359 ; The Indians stfll 
discontented, 360. 


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viii OMrrENTs. 


1648— leu. 

The United Colonies of New England, 861 ; Kieft addresses tiie Commissioners, 
362 ; Their Reply, 863 ; Murder of Miantonomoh, 864 ; The North River Sav- 
ages attack a Dutch Boat, 864 ; The Commonalty couToked, 864 ; ** Eight Men" 
chosen, 866 ; Warlike Measures authorized, 866 ; English enrolled, ahd Under- 
bill taken into the Dutch Service, 866 ; Annie's Hook and Vredeland destroyed, 
866; Lady Moody's Settlement at Gravesend attacked, 867; Settlers driven 
away from Mespath, 867 ; Haddnsack attacked, and Pavonia surprised, 868 ; 
Alarm^at Manhattan, 869 ; The Eight Men again convoked, 870; Application to 
New Haven for Aid, and its Result, 870 ; De Vries* parting Prophecy, 371 ; Let- 
ter of the Eight Men to the West India Company, 371 ; To ^e States General, 

' 373 ; Father JoJ^ues at Manhattan, 878 ; Describes its Condition, 874 ; Sails for 
Europe, 874 ; Church at Beverwyck, 874 ; Missionary seal of Megapolensis, 875 ; 
Mercantfle Policy of Patroon of Rensselaerswydt, 876 ; Tan der Donck's Con- 
duct, 877 ; Attempts to form a Settlement at Katskill, and is prevented, 878 ; 
John Printz appointed Governor of New Sweden, 878 ; Arrives at Port Clnristina, 
and builds Fort New Gottenburg, 879 ; De Tries at the South River, 866 ; Plow- 
den*s Claim to New Albion disregarded by Printz and Kieft, 881 ; Lamberton ar- 
rested by Printz, 882 ; Exploring Expedition from Boston to the South River, 
888 ; Failure of the Boston Enterprises, 884 ; The Dutch and the Swedes oppose 
the English on the South River, 886 ; Expeditions sent to Staten Island unf 
Greenwich, 886 ; Captain Patrick murdered, 387 ; Expedition against the Weck- 
quaesgeeks, 387 ; Stamford People settle at Heemstede, 887 ; Patent for Heem- 
stede, 888 ; Hostility of the Indians, and Expedition sent to Heemstede, 389 ; 
Atrocities at Manhattan, 389 ; Soldiers supplied from private Ship at Manhattan, 
390 ; Undeihill's Expedition to Stamford, 390, 891 ; Thanksgivmg at Manhattan, 
391 ; Peace with West Chester and Long Island Tribes, 392 ; Fence built at 
Manhattan, 392 ; Hostility of the River Tribes, 398 ; Bankruptcy of the West 
India Company, 393 ; The Eight Men oppose an Excise, 393 ; Kieft's ari>itrary 
Imposition, 394 ; Excise enforced, and the Brewers refose to pay, 395 ; The Peo- 
ple side with the Brewers, 896 ; Kieft*s Misconduct, 396 ; Expedition to the North, 
397; Memorial of the Eight Men to the West India Company, 398-400 ; Staple 
Right claimed for Itensselaer's Stein, 400 ; Koom and Loockermans, 401 ; Room 
summoned to Manhattan, fined, and protests, 401 ; Father Bressani captured by 
the Mohawks, and ransomed by the Dutch, 402 ; Aflhirs of New Netherland con- 
sidered in Holland, 403 ; Provisional Appointment of Tan Dincklagen to succeed 
Kieft, 404; Report of the Company*s Bureau of Accounts, 404-406. 

End of the Indian War, 407 ; Treaty at Fort Orange, 408 ; General Treaty at Fort 
Amsterdam, 409 ; Condition of New Netherland, 410 ; Lands purchased on Long 
Island, 410; Settlement of Tlissingen, or Flushing, 410; Douj^ty at Mespath, 
411 ; Lady Moody's Patent for Gravesande, or Gravesend, 411 ; Mineral Discov- 
eries near Fort Orange and among the Raritans, 412 ; Arendt Corssen sent to 

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HdDand, and kmt on the Way, 41S, 413 ; Action of the West India Company re- 
specting New Netfaeiland, 41^; Peter Stnyresant— His early life, 413; Ap- 
pointed Direotor in Flao^ of Kieit, and Van Dinddagen Vioe Director, 414 ; In- 
structions for tlie Prorincial Council, 4n, 416 ; New Arrangements, and Stny- 
vesanf 8 D^artnre postponed, 410 ; Kieft denies theilUf^t of Appeal to Holland, 
417 ; Deaonnocd by the People, and reproved by Bogardns, 417 ; Qnarrel be- 
tween the Birocter and the Domine, 418 ; Restoration of Anne Hutchinson's 
Grand-daughter, 419 ; Van Curler and Van der Dondc, 419 ; Death of Kiliaen 
Van Rensselaer, and Appointment of Van Slechtenhorst as Director of Rensse- 
laerswyck, 439 ; Van der Donck's Patent for Colendonck or Yonkers, 421 ; Van 
Slydc's Patent for KatddO, 421 ; Breuckelen incorporated, 432 ; Father Jogues 
. visits Andiataroct^, and names it " Lao du Saint Saerement,*' 432 ; Murder of 
Jogues fay Ae Mohawks, 438 ; Hudde Commissary on the South River, 424 ; 
Negotiates with Printi, 436 ; Purchases the Site of Philadelphia, 426 ; Discfmrt- 
eous Conduct of Prints, 437; New Haven Trading-post on the Paugussett, 428 ; 
Kieft pnvtests, and negotiates with Eaton, 428 ; With the Cmnmissioners, 429, 
480 ; In st inetiwM of flie West India Company, 431 ; Stoyvesant commissioned as 
Director^ and sworn, 482 ; Sails f)rom the Texel, 488 ; Arrives at Manhattan, 433. 



Death of Frederick Henry the Stadtholder, 434 ; Treaty of Munster, and General 
Peace of Westphalia, 435 ; The Hoose of Burgundy, 436 ; Great Charter of Hol- 
land, 4J7 ; Charies V. and Philip II., 437, 438 ; The Reformation in Friesland 
and Holland, 438 ; Action of the Spanish Government, 439 ; Alliance of the No- 
bles, and Origin of the '* Gueux," 440 ; Iconoclasts, 441 ; Alva in the Nether- 
lands, 441 ; Council of Blood, and Execution of Egmont and Hoom, 441 ; Qap- 
ture of the Brielle, 442 ; The People refuse to pay Alva's Taxes, 442 ; Haerlem 
and Alckmaer besieged, 442 ; Defense of Leyden, and Foundation of its Univers- 
ity, 443', Pacification of Ghent, 444; The Union of Utrecht, 446 ; Dutch Decla^ ^ 
ration of Independence, 446 ; The Dutch a sel^goveming People, 447 ; Their re- 
publican System of Administration, 448 ; The States General, 449 ; Council of 
State, Chamber of Accounts, Stadtholder, and Admiralty, 450 ; The Province of 
Holland, 451 ; Industrial and democratic Spirit of the Dutch, 452 ; Municipal 
Governments of Holland, 453 ; Effects of the Dutch System, 454 ; Doctrine of 
State Rights, 455 ; Social and political Results, 455, 456 ; Prosperity of the 
Dutch, 456 ; Extensive Commerce, 457 ; Free Trade ; Universal Toleration, 458 ; 
Foreigners attracted ; Freedom of the Dutch Press, 459 ; Illustrious Men and , 
Artists of the Netherlands, 460 ; Party Spirit ; the Hoeks and Kabbeljaus, 461 ; 
Economy and Frugality ; Hospitality and Benevolence, 462 ; Establishment ot i 
free Schools, 462 ; Influence of Women, 463 ; Honesty of the Dutch, 463 ; Thoir^ 
Firmness and Patriotism, 464. ^ 



Commencement of Stuyvesant's Administration, 465 ; Organization of his Coiiii^ 
cil, 466 ; Pc^ice and Revenue Regulations, 466, 467 ; Church in Fort Amster- \ 


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dam, 467; Dmnine Backems succeeds Bogardns, 468 ; Conqdaints against Kielt, 
468 ; Dismissed by Stuyresant, 469 ; Kuyter and Melyn accused by Kieft, 470 ; 
Conyicted and sentenced, 471 ; Right of Appeal again denied, 478 ; Shipwieck 
of the Princess, and Death of Kieft, Bogardns, and others, 473 ; Escape of Kuy- 
ter and Melyn, 478 ; Stuyvesant's Concessions to the People, 49(l; The <*Nine 
Men," m ; Their Duties and Oath q€ Office, 4'/6 ; Their Action on Stuyresant's 
first Communication, 476 ; Forrester, Lady Stirling's Agent, arrested and ban- 
ished, 477 ; Correspondence with New England, 478 ; Stuyresant seises a Ship 
at New Haven, 479 ; Eaton's Retaliation, 480 ; Stuyresant's Vindication, 481 ; 
Insults of the Swedes on the South River, 48S ; The Savages invite the Dutch 
to build on the Schuylkill, 483 ; Fort Beversrede, 488 ; The Swedes reproved by 
the Savages, 488 ; Campanius returns to Sweden, 484 ; Plowden again at Man- 
hattan, 484 ; Van Dincklagea and La Montague at the South River, 486 ; Vexa- 
tious Conduct of the Swedes at Passayunk, and Protests of the Dutdi, 486 ; Mu 
nicipal Afiairs at Manhattan, or New Amsterdam, 487 ; Recmnmendations of the 
Nine Men ; Residence required ; Scotch Merchants, or Peddlers ; '' Kermis," or 
Fair, 4^ ; Contraband Trade in Fire-arms, 490 ; Van Slechtenhorst at Rensse- 
laerswydt, 491 ; Stuyvesant visits Fort Orange, 491 ; Soldiers sent there, 492 ; 
Van Slechtenhorst summoned to Fort Amsterdam, 493 ; Megapolensis and Back- 
ems, 494 ; Popular Discontent at New Amsterdam, ^96 ; Delegation to Holland 
proposed by the Nine Men, 496 ; Correspondence with New England, 496 ; Stuy- 
vesant's Explanations of the Dutch territorial Rights, 4§7. 



Death of Charles L, 498 ; Threatened Rupture between England and the Nether- 
lands, 499 ; Death of Winthrop, and Correspondence with New England, 499 ; 
The Dutch and other Foreigners foibidden to trade with the New England Sav- 
ages, 600 ; Stuyvesant and the Nine Men, 501 ; Proceedings against Van der 
Donck, 502 ; Case of Kuyter and Melyn, 508 ; Memorial of the Nine Men to the 
States General, 504 ; Burgher Government demanded ;'^llemaiks and Observa- 
tions of the Nine Men, 506 ; Vertoogh, or Remonstrance of New Netherland, 
506 ; Delegates sent to Holland, 507 ; Domine Backems succeeded by Megapo- . 
lensis, 508; Van Tienhoven sent to Holland as Stuyvesant's Representative, 
509 ; KatskiU, Claverack, and Weckquaesgeek, 510 ; Lands purchased on the 
South River, 510, 511 ; The popular Delegates at the Hague, 511 ; Publication 
of the Vertoogh, 512 ; Letter of the West India Company's Chamber at Amster- 
^ dam, 512 ; Measures to promote Emigration, 518 ; Provisional Order for the 
Government of New Netherland, 514 ; Opposed by the Amsterdam Chamber, 
515 ; Domine Grasmeer, 516 ; Municipal Affairs of New Amsterdam, 517 ; Stuy- 
vesant's Opposition to Reforms, 517; The Director visits Hartford, 518 ; Provis- 
ional Treaty arranged, 519, 520 ; Dissatisfaction of the Commonalty at New Am- 
sterdam, 521 ; Aflkira at Rensselaerswydc, 522 ; Van der Donck and Van Tien- 
hoven in Holland, 528 ; Return of Van Tienhoven, 524 ; Melyn on Staten Island, 
525 ; Van Dincklagen and Van Schelluyne oppressed, 526 ; Gravesend and Heem- 
stede support Stuyvesant, 526, 527 ; Expedition from New Haven to the South 
River defeated, 527; Van Slechtenhorst arrested at New Amsterdam, 628; 

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Stuyresant visits the South River, 629 ; Fort Nassau demolished, and Fort Cas- 
imir hoilt, 529 ; Dyckman appointed Conunissary at Fort Orange in Place of Lab- 
batie, 530 ; Proposed Exploration of the Katskill Mountains, 531. 



Fiscal Van Dyck superseded, and Van Tienhoven promoted, 632 ; Troubles at Bev- 
erwyck, 533 ; Stuyvesant again at Fort Orange, 684 ; Annexation of Beverwyck 
to Fort Orange, 535 ; John Bs^ist van Rensselaer Director, and Gerrit Swart 
Schout of Rensselaerswyck, 536 ; Settlement at Atkarkarton, or Esopus, 536 ; 
Middelburg or Newtown, and Midwout or Flatbush, on Long Island, 536 ; Van 
Werckhoven's Purchases on Long Island and New Jersey, 587 ; Domine Dris- 
ius, 637 ; Domine Schaats, 588 ; Opposition of the Amsterdam Chamberwto the 
Provisional Order. Ad ; Burgher Government conceded to Manhattan, 540 ; In- 
structions for Schout of New Amsterdam, 541 ; The States Genersd recall Stii^- 
vesant, 541 ; His Recall revoked, 542 ; Proposed Union between England and 
the Netherlands, 542 ; English Act of Navigation, 548 ; Failure of proposed 
Treaty, 544 ; Naval War between the Dutch and English, 545 ; Precautions of 
the States General and the Amsterdam Chamber, 546 ; Maritime Superiority of 
Manhattan predicted, 647 ; Its Condition and Population, 548 ; Organization of 
the municq)al Government of the City of New Amsterdam, ffU, 9i9 ; Critical 
Condition of the Province ; Preparations for Defense, 549 ; First City Debt, 660 ; 
State of Feeling in New England ; Charges against the Dutch, 660, 661 ; Agents 
sent to New Netherland, and Preparations for War, 662 ; Conduct of the New 
En^^and Agents, and Propositions of the Dutch, 668 ; Stu3nresant's Reply to the 
Commissioners, 664 ; Substance of the Charges against him, 666 ; Underhill's 
seditious Conduct on Long Island, 656 ; Is banished, and goes to Rhode Island, 
666 ; Massachusetts at, Variance with the Commissioners, 657 ; Prevents a War 
with New England, 658 ; Fort Good Hope seized by Underbill, 568 ; Stuyvesant 
sends an Embassy to Virginia, 659 ; Disagrees with the City Authorities of New 
Amsterdam, 660; Return of Van der Donck; His ** Description of New Nether- 
land," 561 ; De Sille appointed Counselor, and Van Ruyven Provincial Secretary, 
661 ; Domine Drisius sent on an Embassy to Virginia, 662 ; Afihirs of Rensse- 
laerswyck, 662 ; The Mohawks and the French, 563 ; Father Poncet restored, 
664 ; Temper of the New England Governments, 564, 565 ; Piracies on Long 
Island Sound, 665 ; Libelous Pamphlet published in London, 666 ; The Bound- 
ary Question in Holland, 567 ; Stuyvesant surrenders the Excise to the City, 5d8 ; 
Disaffection among the En^h on Long Island, 568 ; Meeting of Delegates at 
New Amsterdam, 569 ; " Landtdag" or Convention called, 570 ; It meets at New 
Amsterdam^ 571 ; Remonstrance of the Convention, 571 ; Its Character, 572 ; 
Stuyvesant's Reply, 573 ; Rejoinder of the Convention, 574 ; The Convention 
dissolved, 575 ; liCtter of Burgomasters and Schepens of New Amsterdam to the 
West India Company, 675 ; Letter from Gravesend, 576 ; Affairs on the South 
River, 676 ; Departure of Prinlz, 577 ; John Rising appointed Deputy Govemoi 
of New Sweden, 677. 


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New Amsterdam Afiairs, 578 ; Precaotionaiy Measures, 679 ; Breuckelen, Amers- 
foort, and Midwout incorporated, 680 ; Church at Midwoat or Flatbush, and Dom- 
ine Polhemus called, 681 ; Illiberal Treatment of Lutherans at New Amsterdam, 
582 ; Cromwell^s Expedition against New Netherland, 582 ; Sequestration of 
Fort Good Hope by Connecticut, 583 ; New Amsterdam put in a State of Defense, 
684 ; Warlike Preparations in New England, 685 ; Treaty of Peace between En- 
gland and Holland, and Countermand of hostile Orders, 586 ; Thanksgiving in 
New Netherland, 687 ; Letters of the Company to Stn3nresant and to the City 
Authorities, 587 ; Grant of a City HaU and Seal to New Amsterdam, 588 ; Kuy- 
ter murdered, and Van Tienhoven continued as City Schout, 588 ; Ferry at Man- 
hattan regulated, 589 ; War Tax laid ; Excise resumed by Stuyresant, 590 ; 

^Troubles at Beverwyck, 591 ; Father Le Moyne discorers the Salt Spiings at 
Onondaga, 592 ; Rising at the South River, 593 ; Captures Fort Casimir, and 
names it Fort Trinity, 598; Swedish Ship seized at Manhattan, 594; English 
Settlements at West Chester and Oyster Bay, 595 ; Stuyresant visits Lady 
Moody at Gravesend, 596 ; Delivers Seal and Coat of Arms to Burgomasters at 
New Amsterdam, 596 ; Sails for the West Indies, 597 ; Baxter, Hubbard, and 
Grover at Gravesend, 597 ; Protest against the Settlers at West Chester, 598 ; 
De Dedier appointed Commissary at Fort Orange in Hace of Dyckman, 599 ; 
Afiairs at Gravesend, 599 ; The Boundary Question in Hofland, 600 ; Stu3nre8ant 
ordered to recover Fort Casimir, 601 ; Letter of West India Company to Burgo- 
masters of New Amsterdam, 602 ; Stuyvesant returns from the West Indies, 
608 ; Expedition to the South River, 604 ; Capitulation of the Swedes, 606 ; Es- 
tablishment of the Dutch Power on the South River, 606 ; Indian Invasion oi 
New Amsterdam, 607 ; Hoboken, Pavonia, and Staten* Island laid waste ; Eso- 
pus deserted, 607 ; Measures ibr Defense ; Ransom of Prisoners, 608 ; Jacquet 
appointed Vice Director on the South River, 609 ; Assistance asked from Hol- 
land, and Precautions against the Savages proposed, 610 ; Stuyvesant prohibits 
New Year and May Day Sports, 61 1 ; Father Le Moyne at Beverwyck, 61 1 ; New 
Alliance between tiie Dutch and the Mohawks, 611 ; Chaumonot and Dablon ; 
Jesuit Chs^l at Onondaga, 612. 

Proclamation to form Villages, 613 ; Stu3nresant and the Municipal Government of 
New Amsterdam, 6(3 ; Religious Afiairs in New Netherland, 614-616 ; Procla- 
mation against unauthorized Conventicles, 617 ; Disapproved by the West India 
Company, 617 ; Expedition sent to West Chester, 618 ; Oostdorp or West Ches- 
ter, and Rustdorp or Jamaica incorporated, 619 ; Baxter escapes to New En- 
gland, 620 ; Swedish Ship seized at the South River, 620 ; Ratification of the Hart- 
ford Treaty by the States General, 621 ; Complaints of the Swedish Government, 
622 ; Van Tienhoven dismissed from public Service, 622 ; Survey and Population 
of New Amsterdam, 623 ; Troubles at Beverwyck about the Excise, 623 ; Van 
Rensselaer fined and ordered to give Bonds, 624 ; New Church at Beverwyclv, 624, 

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O0WTBNT8. xiii 

626; LA}IUfi^k9g^e9W(omtedymJ)i3netM 

6S6; Umgalieflwtoiy Corregpondence with New Kngtond, 6>6 ; LoUieraiw at New 
Amsterdam, and Saptiata at Fhunhing, 696 ; Affiika at Ooatdorp, 697 ; Great and 
8maUBQistarIMi^ortabliBhedatNewAiii8terdam,6A,6#»; The West India 
Cooiiaiqr eonYesFs Fort Caaimir and the adjaeent Territory to the City of Am- 
ateidam, 690 ; Ooloigr of New Amatel; Abioha appcnnted Diieator, 630, 681 ; 
Tranafiur of ?ort Caaimtr, and OrganlzalaQn of Colony of New Anwtel, 689 ; Fort 
Ohriatina named Altona, and Jacquet ancceeded by Hudde, 688 ; Domine Welioft 
and Chnrch at New Amatei, 188 ; Oromwell'a Letter to the Engliah on Long 
Island, 684 ; Lotheran Clei^gyman at JS&w Amsterdam, 686 ; The People eaUed 
Qnakers^ 686 ; Penal Laws of Magsachnsetts, 686 ; LibeiaUt^ of Rhode lalaod, 
636 ; Quakers at New Amsterdam, 686 ; Prodamation agsin«t Qnaken, 087 ; 
Remonstrance of Flushing, 637 ; Its Charter modified, 688 ; Peiaecution of Quak- 
ers, 688, 689 ; Nomination of Magistrates allowed to New Amsterdam, olo ; For- 
eigners ; Municipal Affidrs ; Latin School, 640, 6^1 ; New Haerlem and Staten 
Island, 64l ; Bergen and Gamoenepa, or Communipa, 642 ; The West India Com- 
pany enjoins religious Moderation, 642, 643 ; Jesuit Mission at Onondaga ; Saint 
Mary's of Genentaha, 644 ; Le Moyne at New Amsterdam, 646 ; Commeroe be- 
tween New Netherland and Canada, 646 ; Abandonment of the French Settle- 
ment at Onondaga, 646 ; Outrages of the Indians at Esc^ms, 647 ; Stuyresant's 
Conference with the Esopus SaYages, 648 ; Village laid out at Esc^us, 640 ; Jer- 
emias Van Rensselaer Director of Rensselaerswyck, 649 ; Mohawks at Fort Or- 
ange, 660 ; Dirck Smit Commandant at Esojms, 661 ; Stuyresant visits Altona, 
651 ; Willem Beeckman aj^winted Vice I>irector on the Soutii River, 662 ; Af- 
fairs at New Amstel, 653 ; Death of CromweQ, and DownfeU of the Pnteotor- 
ate, 663. 

Territorial Claims of Massadmsetts, 664; Ea^iktting Party reAised a Passage 19 
the North Rh»r, 666; The West India Conqtany aUows New Netheiland a For- 
eign Trade, m ; Curtius Latin Sohoofanaster at New Amsterdam, 666; JJSbei- 
ality in Rd^lgion ei\)oiBed» 666 ; Hermanns Blom called to Eaopus, 667; Fresh 
Troubles with the Savages, 668 ; Delagation from Beverwyok to tbe Mohamto 
at Cau^mawaga, 669 ; EzpeditiQRfnMn New Amsterdam to Esopas, 660 ; ABbin 
at New Amstel, 661 ; Copper Mine at Minaisinck, 662 ; Beeekoaan porehases 
near Cape Hinlopen, 668 ; Designs of the Maryland Goverameat, 068 ; Utie at 
New Amstel, 664 ; Conference with the Dutch OBtoers, 666 ; Heermaa's and 
Waldron's Embassy to Maryland, 666 ; Negotiations with Governor Feadall, 
667-669 ; Death of Domine Welius and of Director Ahichs, 670 ; Sduthampton, 
Easthampton, Huntington, and Setauket, oa Long Island, 671 ; Letter of Com- 
missioners to Stuyvesant in &vor of the Maaaachnsetts daim, 672 ; Stuyvesant's 
Reply, 678; His I^patohes to the Compai^, 674; Tboneman Sehout of New 
Amsterdam; Second Survey isfthe City, 674; New Haerlem inooipoFSted, 674; 
Treaty with the Loag Islaiid s^d othev IndinM, 675 ; War agaiMt the Esofus 
Savages, 676 ; Stuyvesant refuoes to ouganiae a Coaxt at Esopos, 677; Opposes 
the Emi^oyment of the Mohawks» 677 ; Confineane and Trea^ witk tiie Esopus 
Indians, 678 ; "< Bosch-loopeis*' at Fort Orange, 679 ; 8tayvesant's Coolbreiice 

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with the Senecas, 679 ; Domine Blom settled at EsopuB, 680 ; Domme Selyns at 
Breuckelen and the Director's Bouwery, 680, 681 ; Lutherans at Ber^wyck, 
681 ; Hinoyosea succeeds Ahrichs at New Amstel, 688 ; Treaty between New 
Netherland and Virginia, 683 ; Sir Henry Moody's Embassy to Manhattan, 683 ; 
Berkeley's Correq^ndence with Stuyvesant, 684 ; Restoration of Charles 11., 
684 ; Lord Baltimore and the West India Company, 686 ; The Company's Me- 
morial to the States General, 686 ; English Council for Foreign Plantations, 686. 

English Jealousy of the Dutch, 687 ; Liberal Conditions offered by the West India 
Company to English Emigrants to New Netherland, 688 ; Stuy vesant again per- 
secutes Quakers, 689 ; Charter of Wiltwyck, or Wildwyck, at Esopus ; Roelof 
Swartwout Schout, 690 ; Purchase of " Schonowe," or Schenectady Flats, 691 ; 
Bergen incorporated ; Tiehnan Tan Vleeck Schout, 691, 692 ; Staten Island ; 
Domine Drisius preaches there in French, 692 ; New Utrecht and Boswyck, or 
Sushwick, incorporated, 693 ; The " Five Dutch Towns," 693 ; Affairs at New 
Amsterdam ; a Mint contemplated ; Curtius succeeded by Luyck ; Reputation of 
the Latin Scho<^, 694 ; Salt-works on Coney Island, 694 ; Connecticut petitions 
the King for a Charter, 696 ; Winthrop sails from New Amsterdam, 696 ; Pro- 
posed Puritan Settlement in New Netherland ; Stujrvesant's Concessions, 696 ; 
Calvert on the South River, 697 ; Mennomsts propose to colonize the Horekill, 
096 ; Singular Articles of Association, 698, 699 ; Plockhoy, their Leader, 699 ; 
Beeckman and Hinoyossa, 699 ; Sir George Downing, the British Ambassador at 
the Hague, 700 ; Lord Bdtimore's and Lord Stirling's Claims, 701 ; Convention 
between the United Provinces and Great Britain, 701 ; Berkeley and Winthrop 
in London ; Royal Charter for Connecticut, 702 ; Encroaching Claims of the Con- 
necticut Court, 703 ; West Chester and Long Island Towns annexed, 703 ; Le 
Moyne again among the Iroquois, 704 ; The Mohawks on the Kennebeck, 704 ; 
Governor Breedon's Complaints, and Stuyvesant's Interposition, 704; Tracy 
Vioeroy of Canada, 706 ; Progress of Quakerism on Long Island, 706 ; Banish- 
ment of Bowne, 706 ; The West India Company ei^ins Toleration, and Perse- 
cution ceases, 707 ; Temis ofibred to Puritans desiring to settle themselves on 
the Raritan, 708 ; C<nmeeticut enforces its Claims of Jurisdiction, 709 ; Earth- 
quake, 709 ; SmaU-poz at Beverwyck, and non-intercourse Regulations of Con- 
necticut, 710 ; New Village at Escpus ; " Ronduit" on the Kifl, 710 ; Wiltwyck 
surprised by the Savages, 711 ; Expedition sent from New Amsterdam, 712 ; In- 
vasion of the Esopus Country, and Destruction of Indian Forts on the Shawan- 
gunk Kill, 712, 718 ; Party sent to the Sager's Kill, 718, 714 ; Tlie South River 
ceded to the City of Amsterdam, 714-716 ; Calvert at New Amstel and Altona, 
717 ; Hinoyossa and Beeckman, 717 ; Stuyvesant visits Boston, and negotiates 
with the CoBomissioners, 718 ; Dificulties on Long Isktnd, 719 ; Dutch Commis- 
sioners sent to Hartford, 720 ; Unsatisfiu^tory Negotiation, 721 ; Act of Connecti- 
OQt req)ecting the West Chester and Long Island Towns, 722 ; Convention called 
at New Aiinterdam, 722 ; Remonstrance to the West India Company, 723 ; Names 
of Eagliflb Villages on Long Island changed, 728 ; Stuyvesant surrenders them 
and West Chester to Connecticut, 723 ; Enghsh Party on the Raritan ; Purchase 
of the Nevoamek Lands, 724 ; Baxter and Soott in London, 726 ; Scott on Long 

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Island, 726 ; Combmation of Eni^ish Villages ; Soott chosen President, 726 ; Cod 
dltional Arrangement at Jamaica, 727 ; Agreement between Stuyresant and Scott, 
728 ; General Provincial Assembly at New Amsterdam, 729 ; Charter of the West 
India Company explained and confirmed by the States General, 730 ; Letters to 
the Towns, 730 ; ArriYal of Huguenots, 730 ; Treaty of Peace with the Esopus 
Savages, 731 ; Beeckman Commissary at Esopus, 732 ; Settlement at Schaen- 
hechstede, or Schenectady, 732 ; The Mohawks and the Abenaqois, 732 ; Ravages 
of the Mahicans, and Alarm at Fort Orange, 733 ; Winthrop's Proceedings on 
Long Island, 734 ; Stuyresant still hopeful, 734 ; Royal Patent to the Duke of 
York and Albany, 736 ; Royal Commissioners, 736 ; Colonel Richard Nicolls dis- 
patched with a Squadron to surprise New Netherland, 736 ; Grant of New Jersey, 
736 ; Preparations to defend New Amsterdam, 786 ; Stuyvesant goes to Fort Or- 
ange, 737 ; Royal Commissioners at Boston, 737 ; Squadron anchors in Nyack 
Bay, 738; Manhattan summoned to surrender, 739 ; Stuyresant tears Nicolls's 
Letter, 739 ; Ships anchor before Fort Amsterdam, 740 ; Condition of the City, 
741 ; Capitulation agreed to, 742 ; Surrender of New Amsterdam, 742 ; Nicolls pro- 
claimed Governor ; his opinion of the City called "New York," 743 ; Surrender 
of Fort Orange ; named Fort Albany, 744 ; Reduction of the South River, 744 ; 
New York, Albania, and Yorkshire named, 746 ; Review ; Character and Influ- 
ence of the Founders of New York, 746-780. 


Note A Page 751 

NoteB 752 

Note C 763 

NoteD 763 

NoteE 754 

NoteF 755 

NoteG 766 

NoteH 766 

Note 1 767 

NoteK 768 

NoteL 768 

NoteM 759 

NoteN 760 

NoteO 760 

NoteP 760 

Note Q 761 

NoteR 761 

Vote S 762 

GxNEBAL Index 765 


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In Ae beginmng of ike seventeenth century, moment- chap.i. 
(ma events, which had been agitating Europe, led the way : 

to the pemmnent od(mization of the northern regions of ^•^ 
Ammca. Thb art of printing had gradually difiused tiie 
learning of the dbiater tiirough the marts of commerce ; 
a venerable but abused faith no longer shackled emanci- 
pated mind ; a recent inductive philosophy was teaching 
mankind to seek tiie fruits of careful experiment ; and an 
irrepressiUe spirit of adventure, growing with the prog- 
ress of knowledge, prompted enterprise in the New World 
which the genius of Columbus had given to the Old. 

The immortal Genoese, who, in those late years fore- 1492. 
told at Rome, had verified the sublime prophecy of Sene- 
ca, and made the ocean reveal the long-mysterious earth 
beyond the furthest Thule, had worked out his grand dem- 
onstration in the service of Spain. By her tiie splendid 
prixe was claimed. But Portugal, having afaready ex- 
plored the Azores, boldly asserted a superior right The 
question was referred to the Pope ; and Alexander the p«p«i ^ 

*, .i.i-M. 1 11111 tloooftlie 

Sixth decided that the sovereigns of Spain should hold, Newworid 
as a gift in perpetuity, all the heathen lands found or 1493. 
to be discovered to the west of a meridian, one hundred ^thiuy. 
leagues westward of the Azores. The apostolic decree did 



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ciup. L not satisfy Portugal ; and it was agreed that the line of 
'partition should be advanced two hundred and seventy 
leagues further to the west. Still, nearly all the New 
World remained actually included in the papal donation 
to Spain.* 

But the Pontiff's sweeping grant was not universally 
respected. Leaving Spain and Portugal to push their con* 
B^iiaii quests in the rich and sultry regions of the south, England 
.and France commenced an early rivalry in exploring the 
rugged and picturesque territories of llie north. Disre- 
garding the edict of the Vatican, almost simultaneously 
they began their grand career of transatlantic enterprise, 
ctbot. While the Cabots, under commissions of Henry the Sev- 
enth, after discovering Newfoundland, sailed along the 
1497-8. continent, from Labrador to the parallel of Gibraltar, and, 
1517. in a succeeding reign, perhaps entered the Arctic Seas 
westward of G-reenland,the fishermen of Normandy visit- 
1504. ed Cape Breton, and made rude charts of the great gulf 
1506. within ; and Verazzano, under a commission of Francis 
veraxuno. ^^ Fiygt, coastiug uorthward fipom the Carolinas, explored, 
1524. with his boat, the "most beautiful" Bay of New York,t 
and anchored awhile in the " very excellent harbor" of 
Newport. But, though plans of colonization were sug- 
gested in England and France, permanent occupation was 

* Hazard*! Hittorieal CaUeettoDS, 1., 8-6 ; Cbaliiien*a PoUtieal Annala, 10 ; Herrera, 
L, % 10; Irrinc'a Colambaa, 1., 185-200; Preacott'i FeitL and laab., li., 116, 174, 181 ; 
Thorne, in Hakluyt'a " Divera Voyagea,'* &c., 4»-47, reprinted by Uie Haklnyt Society 
of London, 1850. 

t VaraxKano thoa deacrlbea the Narrowa, and the Bay of New Tork : ** After proeeed- 
iBf one hundred leagnea, we Ibond a Tery pleaaant situation among aome ateqi billa, 
throng which a Tery large river, deep at ita month, Ibreed ita way to the aea. From the 
•ea to the estoary of the river, any ship heavily laden might paas, with the help of the 
tide, which riaea eight ftet. But as we were riding at anchor in a good berth, we would 
not venture mp in our veaael, without a knowledge of the mouth ; therefore we took tiM 
boat, and enuning the river, we found the country on ita banka well peopled, the inhab> 
itanta not differing BBOch (Vom the othera, being dresaed out with the foathera ofbirda of 
variooa colore. They came toward us with evident delight, raising loud shouu of admi- 
ration, and ahowing us where we could most securely land with our boat. We passed 
up this river about halfa league, when we found it formed a moat hetaUifid lake^ three 
leaguea in circuit, upon which they were rowing thirty or more of their email boala, fttm 
one ahore to the other, filled with mnltit9dea who came to aee ua. All of a audden, aa la 
wont to happen to navigators, a violent contrary wind blew in (hm the aea, and ftxoed ua 
to return to our ahip, greatly regretting to leave thia region, which aeemed so commodious 
and deilghtftil, and which we auppoeed must also contain great riches, aa the hiUa ahowed 
many indicationa of minerala.*'— Letter to King Francis L, of July 8, 1594, tranalatsd by 
Mr. CogsweU, In N. Y. H. 8. CoU., i. (seoond series), 45, 46. 

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t]«)Iayod. Not a solitary emigrant established his home CBAr. t. 
along all tho indented line of ooast,* 

Jacques Cartier, an experienced mariDer of Saint Male, oanierm 
followiog, a few years after Verazzano's adventurous voy- 
age, discovered the mouth of the ^' Great River of Can a- 153*^, 
da." The next year, returning with three well- fitted ves- 
sels, C artier passed v\restward of Newfoundland on the 
festival of Saint LawVfihce, andj in honor of the martyr, 1535. 
gave his name to the noble gulf which atretehed beyond. *** ^^*<**^ 
Parsuing his way up the great river, and holding friendly 
intercourse with the Hurons and Algonquina along itti 
banks, the enterprising explorer visited the island of 
Hochelagn, the fertile hill on which, he named ** Mont a ociofrw. 
Real." After wintering his ships in the little river juat 
north of the present city of Quebec, C artier solemnly erect- 1536* 
od a cross, and, claiming the surrounding regions as the *^* 
rightful [x>ssessions of his sovereign king, Franois I., set 
sail once more for Saint Malo. 

Cartier*s reports on his return to France, though they 
did not arouse a general spirit of enterprise among his 
countrymen, stimulated Francois do la Roque, lord of Ro- Robervii, 
brirval, a nobleman of Pieardy, to obtain from the king a 1540* 
patent as viceroy over the newly- discovered French tar* ^^-^^^^n^- 
rttories on the Baiot Lawrence. With Robervai was as- 
sociated Cartier, as captain and pilot- in-chief. Return- iftoetntwr. 
ing to the Baint Lawrence, Cartier built a rude fort, not 
far from the site of Quebec, and thus gave to his country 
the prc-emiDenoe of having erected the first European post 1541, 

* tlusA]; L. 9, Ift; ChaJmcT!*, 4, ', 8 ; Ilnlmes** AtintlHt i-t I3-M ; nancroft, i., 8^17, 
T*, tS; Bt4dlQ''t "Memoir ol Calxitj** C. RDtuneou'R " ViiyogcB to An^erica ^** HaMuy^i 
** tllvt?ra Vo], Ai;e>,^* In ISCM^ CorterenJi, a Porttii^acsOp vlaitexl Ntiwfoundlnnil tiFid LAbrn- 
(ler,>m hla foyvgEs pro^mxi na prKCtlcal roaului, Venuiano'^ letter to King Francli 
t.f of Jdlf 8, 15(34, (TiTlng an account of hi» dJaroTcriBii, in tho rartifst wlKiim] dedPTlption 
'Umrm ciumi, of tlir Adainie txiimi af ttie rtiltdd Sutc5. Tranflrlationn of ttint tetter afe l)i 
W. V. ir. S- Collpctiofin, I., 4S-flCI [Cram Rstnunioh and in *. (Mreond Kriofljt 3iM5T tttom tbe 
UnSt^tbeet^mn MSS J . 1 1( th« HaMuy t Soelel y 'A r cpr 111 t of " HakI ii}t*ff Di vers Voy a^c*," 
^km maataiK'n nf Verastatio'* Lcttor (n-om RhiduhIo^ ib Becotnpaiiled by n ^'Simil? of ttm 
rw WBfi «lu€!b Mkhii?t LocIe, or LanJon. mneL^ and etmltcaLtMl to Sir PItillp Sydneyp la 
ISA TbiB rr»p> ii npEH!S).ni, wmt i!uifRirnetH purtly fVoin "an old ttxrrJJiMit mapiw,^ 
wtMEll Vernf^ano ti^/nflctf bad fivcn to King Henry V[|t., and wtijch. vthr^n Uukluyt pub- 
TMeA ^Iv wafk rtn 1583^ wns *' yet in the ciratodjo of Moater Loeke." Tim nurw by 
wlbdktlM N«w World tH now unwonbily known „ wns not, at tbe llnw of VerusaDo's 
vfl9«|i^ uppliMt to the Nortbent ContLnvnt ; U nil fivenla, Y#ra7,uno il«« DM use Mm 
a" ID bii letter. 

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csAP. I. in llie northern territory of America. Bat divided aatiior- 

"~~ity frustrated the discordant enterprise; and, for a long 
* generation, no further American disooveries were prose- 
cuted by the subjects of France.* 

Frobtehcr'8 Forty years aft« Cartier first ascended ihe Saint Law- 
rence, Martin Frobisher, " one of the boldest men who ever 
ventured upon the ocean," encouraged by the favor of Eliz- 
abeth to search for a northwest pftM^ to China, made his 
1576. way to a group of islands off tiie coast of Labrador. A 
few stones brought back to London, from the desolate 
abode of the Esquimaux, were supposed to contain gold; 

1577-8. and new expeditions were sent to ihe imaginary Dorado. 

But Frobisher'fi voyages were all unsuccessful. While 

credulous avarice was signally disappointed, the coasts of 

Northi Am^ica remained unexjdored by the English.! 

With more definite purpose, and with sounder views, 

patent! ' ^^ Humphrey Gilbert, a knight of Devonshire, obtained 
1578. a royal patent, authorizing him to discover and occupy 

iijune. jmy remote, heathen, and barbarous lands, "not actually 
possessed of any Christian prince or people." Gilbert's 
purpose was to begin that actual occupation of American 
territory which England had entirely n^lected during the 
eighty years that followed the voyage of Cabot. The pat- 
ent gave Gilbert abundant powers ; but various obstacles 
postponed the execution of his design.! Meanwhile, Eliz- 
abefli was stoutly denying the exclusive pretensions of 
1580. Spain to the New World, in virtue of first visitation, and 
of the Pope's donation, and was distinctly affirming the 

^sdSi^ principle that discovery and prescription, unless aocom- 

SUnrine. pauicd by possession, are of no avail.i Thus the Queen 

* Hakluyt, iit, 950-997 ; Hazard, i., 10-91 ; Chalmers, 81, 89 ; Bancroft, i., 19-94. 

t Hakluyt, Ui., 99-33, 47-199 ; Purebas, t., 811 ; Bancroft, i., 81-86 ; RundaU'a Narra- 
tives, Ac, 9-84, publiabed by the Haklnyt Society, 1849. 

t Hazard, i., 94-38 ; Bancroft, i., 88, 89. 

^ " Pr«terea illam non intelligere, cur soi et alionm Principum subditi ab Indiis {hv- 
hibeantor, quae Hiapanici Juria ease persuadere aibi non poaset ex Pontillcia Romani do- 
natione, in quo prsrogatiyam in ejuaroodi cauaais agnorit nuilam, nedum auctoritatem ut 
Prindpea obligueC, qui nuilam ei obedientiam debent ; ant Hiapanum novo illo orbe quaai 
v^eudarety et poaseaaione inrestiret. Nee alio quc^iam jure quam quod Hlapani hlnc illinc 
appulerint, eaaulaa poauerint, flumen ant Promontorinm denominarerint, qua proprietatem 
acquirere non poatunt. Ut hec rei aliens donatio que ex Jure nihUi eat, et iraag inaria hec 
proprietaa obatare non debeat, quo minua ceteri Principea commereia in illia regionibua 
exerceant, et coloniaa ubi Hiapani non inc<dunt. Jure gentium nequaquam violato, dedn- 

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Tin^ xnGUffi IN vmamiA. 5 

o! Baghuid, Miiiie eke relosed to reeognize the dotible cxiup. i. 
S^Mnidi title by exploration and investitare, at the saoie ^-^^ 
time virtaally rencmiioed any English daim founded sole* l^^W. 
ly upon Cabot's voyage. 

After a few year's delay, Gilbert, aided by the resoarees 
of his half-brc^r, Sir Walter Raleigh, equipped an ex-cutortat 
pedition, and sailed direotly to Newfoundland, where, toi land. 
the first time, he set up tiie arms of England and pro- 158S. 
claimed the queen. On his return voyage, the intrepid *^'*'**^ 
adventurer perished at sea. But tiie English right to the g sepcemb. 
island '^ first seen" by Cabot, was now formally published 
to the world " by the voice of a herald."* 

The untimely fete of his kinsman did not dishearten 
Raleigh, who readily procured from Elizabeth, whose fe- ^Jf^^it. 
vorite he had become, a new patent to discover and occu*- 
py any remote, heathen, and barbarous lands, <'not act- 1584. 
oally possessed of any Christian prinoe, nor inhabited by ***'"^' 
Christian people." Up to this time the English had lim- 
ited their views to the bleak regions near the fisheries at 
the mouth of the Saint Lawrenae. Raleigh's enterprise 
was now directed to a more genial climate. Two vessels 
were soon dispatched toward Florida, under the oom-sTApru. 
mand of Philip Amidas and Arthur Barlow. Sailing by 
the circuitous route of the Canaries and the West Indies, 
they safely reached the island of Wocockon, at the Ocra- 
coke inlet, in North Carolina, where they took formal pos- is Joiy. 
session of the oounlTy in behalf of their sovereign. On 
their retnm to England, the adventurers made such glow- 
ing reports of tiie regions they had visited, that Elizabeth 
gave to the wilderness the name of Virginia, to oommem- J[]^^ 
orate its occupation in the reign of a maiden queen.t 

But the time for permanent English settlements beyond ck>iomu- 
the Atlantic had not yet fully come. The colonists whom tempuMi, 
Raleigh sent to the island of Roanoke in 1585, under 1585. 

ant, fmm prsserlpclo tliie poMMsioM band ▼tleat^^—Ounden, Renmi Ang. ac Hfb. Reg. 
flUs. AbbsIm, laeO, edit. Heorne, 1717, p. 380 

* " B ec hm em iUam [Hewftmndlaiid} AngHoi Jnrie eeee, Tooe prwoe n le pvMieMset'* 
—Onttm, Annalee EUs., 1MS> P- 403 ; HeUnyt, i., 071MW0, tit, 14t-166 ; Porehas, ilL, 
008 ; Bmard, I., SS ; Bancroft, i., 90, 01. 

t Bastfd. L, S»-« ; BiJdayt, Ui., 940-951 ; Bancroft, 1., 99-05; ClialaMni» 4, 0. 


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Chap, l Grenville and Lane, returned the next year, dispirited, to 

England. A seoond expedition, dispatched in 1587, un- 

' der John White, to found ^^ the borough of Raleigh, in 

Virginia," stopped short of the unexplored Chesapeake, 

whither it was bound, and onoe more ocoupied Roanoke. 

1590. In 1590, the unfortunate emigrants had wholly disappear- 
ed ; and, with their extinotion, all immediate attempts to 
establish an English oolony in Virginia were abandoned.* 
Its name alone survived. After impoverishing himself in 
unsuccessful efforts to add an ef&ctive American planta^ 
tion to his native kingdom, the magnanimous patriot was 

1603. consigned, under an unjust judgment, to a lingering im« 
prisonment in the Tower of London ; to be followed, after 

1618. the lapse of fifteen years, by a still more iniquitous exe- 
SJJ?*****' oution. Yet, returning justice has fully vindicated Ra- 
leigh's fame ; and nearly two centuries after his death, 

1792. the State of North Carolina gratefully named its capital 
after that extraordinary man, '^ who united in liimself as 
many kinds of glory as were ever combined in an indi- 

The reign of Elizabeth did not terminate before anoth- 
er step had been taken in the path of American adventure. 
Shakspeare's liberaUminded patron, the Earl of South- 
ampton, << having well weighed the greatness and good- 
ness of the cause," contributed largely to fit out a vessel 
^JJjw** under the command of Captain Bartholomew Gosnold and 
Captain Bartholomew Gilbert, to discover a '' convenient 
place for a new colony" to be sent to North America. 

1602. Early in 1602, Gosnold sailed from Falmouth in a Dart- 
MBUreh. jjj^u^ bwk, named the Concord, '< holding a course for 
the north part of Virginia." Rejecting the usual circui- 
tous route by the Canaries and the West Indies, Gosnold, 
after being driven by an unfavorable wind ^' as far south- 
ward as the Azores," boldly steered his small vessel di- 

* Hasard, i., Sfr-i5 : Haklayt, iU., S51-S6&, S8(^405 ; Chalmers, 514, 515 ; Baneroft, 1., 
95-106. The attention of Europe waa attractady in 1580, to the charactwriatics of the North 
American aaTagea, by the beantiftil plates with which Theodoras de Bry, of Franktet, 
fflastrated hla coUoetioos of" Voyagea." These were engrayed tttm the aketchea mads, 
wider Raleigh'a direeiion, by the draughtsman Wythe, who Sfeoompanied Lane in 1565. 

t Bancroft, L, 111. 

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reotly across the Atlantic, by whidi he made the voyage chap. i. 
'^ shorter than heretofore by five hundred leagues."* In ^^^ 
seven weeks the Concord safely made the land, about the 14 ^ ' 
latitude of 43^, in the neighborhood of Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire. Here the adventurers were visited by several 
Indians in a French-built shallop, with '^ mast and sail, 
iron grapples, and kettles of copper." From tiieir explana- 
tions, it appeared that some French vessels from the Basque 
Provinces '< had fished and traded at this place." But 
seeing no good harbor, Gosnold stood again to sea south- 
wardly, and soon '' found himself imbayed with a mighty 
headland." Here he went ashore in his shallop, while hia 
men, during the six hours he was absent, caught so many 
*^ excellent codfish, that they were compelled to throw 
numbers of them overboard again." Naming this head- 
land '' Cape Cod" — a designation which it has ever since c y cod 
retained — Grosnold coasted to the southward as fieur as theandnaoM^ 
mouth of Buzzard's Bay, where he prepared to plant a 
colony on the westernmost island, which was called '< Eliz- ss May. 
abeth," in honor of the queen. Three weeks were spent 
in building a house, where G-osnold proposed to remain 
during the winter, with eleven of his men, and mean- 
while send the Concord home, in charge of Gilbert, '' for 
new and better preparations." But his men, filled with 
<<a covetous conceit of the unlooked-for merchandise" 
which had rewarded their traffic with the Indians, '< would 
not by any means be treated with to tariy behind the 
ship;" and Gosnold returned to England, after an absence 
of five months, with the most favorable reports of '< thess Juiy. 
benefit of a plantation in those parts."t 

Elizabeth's timid successor now sat on the throne of 1603. 
Great Britain. At the time of James's accession, Spain ac«*^' 
was the only European nation that possessed any fixed ^^' 
tettlements in all the northern continent to which Colum- 

• flBitk*! Hist oTVlTflDta, i., 106. 

t ** Blalory of Travail into Virginia Britannia,'' bj William Stradiey, 15S-158 ; Por- 
fltaa, iv., 1M7 : Smith'a HIM. of Viifinia, 1., 105-108. Straebey** imarMling work has 
jMtb>>apttbliali6d (1850) tor the flrat time, Jhantho original MS. til the BrttirtiMawiWB, 


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GtoAF. I. bus had led the way, more than a oentury before. South 
"ifirw of the Saint Lawrence, not a foot of American territory 
' had yet been permanently occupied by England or Prance. 
Bat the time was now near at hand when these rival na- 
tions were to commence a long-enduring struggle for ul- 
timate dominion over vast regions far across the sea. Ra- 
leigh's enterprises, and G-osnold's successful voyfige, had 
given a strong impulse to the national spirit of Great 
Britain ; for Uie development of which the anticipated 
termination of hostilities with Spain, in consequence of 
James's accession to the throne, was soon to offer the most 
&vorable opportunities. The south of England already 
felt the pressure of a redundant population ; and English 
adventurers foresaw that they would no longer be allow- 
ed to despoil, at pleasure, their enemies' rich West India 
possessions. Enterprise must soon pursue more honest 
paths, and commerce and colonization must supplant pi- 
racy and rapine. The thoughts of the intelligent were 
naturally turned toward the North American Continent, 
where, between Mexico and Florida and the mouth of the 
Saint Lawrence, not a solitary European family was yet 
established. Among the foremost of these intelligent men, 
and the one to whom '' England is more indebted for its 
American possessions than to any man of that age,"* was 
wgMd^the distinguished historian of maritime enterprise, Richard 
UAorun. Hakluyt, a prebendary of Saint Au^stine's at Bristol, and 
afterward of Saint Peter^s at Westminster. Influenced by 
his enlightened zeal, some Bristol merchants fitted out two 
small vessels, manned with experienced crews, several of 
whom had accompanied Gosnold the year before ; and, a 
10 April, few days after the death of the queen, dispatched them 
f^J^ from Milford Haven, under the command of Martin Pring, 
to explore the northern coasts of Virginia. Falling in with 
the land near Penobscot Bay, Pring coasted southerly along 
the mouths of the Eennebeck, Saco, and Piscataqua, un- 
til he reached the waters of Massachusetts Bay. After 
iOvi^twr. an absence of six months, he returned to England, with 

* RolMrtMm, ix. 


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a valuable cargo of sassafras, and a biroh bark canoe, as a chaf. i. 
specimen of Ae ingenuity of the native savages.* 

Pring's voyage stimulated afresh the awakened enter- 
prise of England. James had, meanwhile, signalized his 
aooession to the British throne by declaring himself fttP«j« wim 
peace " with all the princes of Christendom," and by re- afjuM. 
calling all letters of marque and reprisal against Ihe Span- 
iards.! This step was followed the next year by a fcnrmal 
treaty witii Spain, which by degrees re]Nressed the preda- 1604. 
lory expeditions that English mariners had so long carried ^''^ 
en against the American possessions of their recent foes. 
The ncNTthem voyage across the Atlantic was now divested 
of its terrors, and experience had abundantly demonstrated 
its advantages over the more circuitous route by the West 
Indies. The liberal Earl of Southampton, ^^ concurrent 
ibe second time in a new survey and dispatch," in concert wey- 
with his brothw-in-law. Lord Arundel, of Wardour, fitted ▼oyaite" 
out a ship, in which Captain Greorge Weymouth was dis- 
patched from the Downs to visit the coast of Maine. In 1605. 
six weeks Weymouth found himself near the shoals of Nan- ** ***"^ 
tucket ; whence, running northward about fifty leagues, ig nay. 
he landed upon an island between the Penobscot and the 
Kennebeck, which he named Saint G^OTge. Pursuing 
'' his search sixty miles up the most excellent and bene- 
ficial river of Sac€uiehoc," which he found " capable of 
shipping for traffic of the greatest burden," Weymouth 
set up a cross, and took possession in the name of the king. 
After four months absence, Weymouth returned to En-isjniy 
gland, bringing with him five native savages, whom he 
had decoyed on board his ship. Three of these were im- 
mediately '^seized upon" by Sir Ferdinando G-orges, the 
governor of Plymouth, who afterward declared that " this 
accident must be acknowledged the means, under G-od, 
of putting on foot and giving life to all our plantations."^ 

• fmduM, tr., 1654^ t Ryner, F«dara, xtL, Sit. 

t Sir F. Gorges, ** Brief NarraUon,** Ac, in Maae. Hist CoU., xxtI., 90, 51 ; zzrUi., 
lIMfT ; StnOmj, 199 ; PorehM^ !▼., 1090 ; Smitk, i., 100 ; Prlnoe, 100. Sone <^ow U»< 
torian* bare anppoaed that Weymouth ascended the Penobacot. Bat Strachey*a antlMir^ 
tty ■ wwa a to ba eoosloaiTe la Orror of the Safadahoe or Keanebaak. 


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CHAf. L Upon Weymouth^s retura to England, " his goodly re- 
"~~ port joining with Captain Q-osnold's," and being oonfirm- 
AnewViiwOd by the accounts given by the native Indians he had 
£?^A^ brought over, kindled the ambition of "many firm and 
**• hearty" British adventurers to oolonize domains in the New 

World. Next to Richard Hakluyt, the most prominent 
among these master spirits of an enterprising age were Sir 
John Popham, the chief justice of England, and Sir Fer- 
dinando Gorges, the governor of Plymouth. Raleigh was 
now lying attainted in the Tower, and his Virginia patent 
had been forfeited. But isince the grant of Raleigh's pat- 
ent, extensive discoveries had been made far to the north- 
ward ; and within the limits of these new discoveries it 
was proposed that English emigrants should now be set- 
tled, simultaneously with a renewed attempt to colonize 
Virginia. To accomplish these purposes, a royal charter 
was thought necessary ; and all questions of rivalry, it was 
supposed, could best be avoided by combining both objects 
in the same instrument. The moment seemed favorable, 
and was improved. The world was aroused. A mighty 
intellectual revolution was just beginning ; the era of suc- 
cessful American colonization had come. About the very 
time that Bacon was putting forth his noble treatise on the 
" Advancement of Learning," some of the most influential 
men of England, including Hakluyt the historian, Popham, 
Ae chief justice. Gorges, Somers, Gates, and Smith, went 
to the king, and besought him to encourage an undertak- 
ing whereby " God might be abundantly made known, his 
name enlarged and honored, a notable nation made fortu- 
nate," and themselves famous.* 

Obeying England's sublime destiny, to '' make new na- 
tions" — 

" Wherever the hright stm of heaven shall shiiie— **t 

1606. James I. readily granted a new and ample charter for the 

cJtnw colonization of " that part of America commonly called 

g^ ^y Virginia, and other parts and territories in America eiiher 

appertaining unto us, or which are not now actually pos- 

* Strachey, 101 ; Gorges, " Brief Narration,** 63. t Cnuuner in Henry vm., Aet T. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


sessed by any Christian prince or people," between the chaf. l 
thirty-fourth and the forty-fifth degrees of latitude. The 
grant included all the North American coast from Gape 
Fear to Nova Scotia. Two separate companies were 
named as grantees of the patent To the first of these, 
composed of Grates, Somers, Hakluyt, and Wingfield, with 
their associated adventurers residing at London, was grant- cS^fJ^^ 
ed the privilege of occupying and governing a space of one 
hundred miles along the coast, in any pcui of the country 
between the thirty-fourth and the forty-first degrees. The 
second company, whose leading members, Hanham, Gil- 
bert, Parker, and George Popham, with their associates, 
lived in and near Plymouth and Bristol, the chief com- Piymovth 
mercial towns in the west of England — ^for Liverpool was 
then only an inconsiderable village, and the northern coun* 
ties almost entirely pastoral — ^was invested with similar 
privileges for any part of the territory between the thirty- 
eighth and the forty-fifth degrees of latitude. Thus the 
whole of the region between the thirty-eighth and the for- 
ty-first degrees — ^from the sea-coast of Maryland to Mon- 
tauk Point — ^was, by the terms of James's patent, nomin- 
ally open to colonization by either company. Yet, to pre- 
vent collision, the charter expressly provided that the col- 
oay which should be planted last should not approach its 
boundary within one hundred miles of that of the prior 
establishment.^ But at the time the patent was sealed, 
no Ei^Ush navigator had searched the Americcm coast 
further south than Buzzard's Bay, nor further north than 
Roanoke. The almost unknown intermediate region was 
entirely unoccupied by Europeans ; the Chesapeake itself 
was yet unexplored, nor had its Capes been discovered or 

The summer passed away in preparations, on the part of 
the patentees of the Southern or London Company, to or-^^ 
ganize an expedition to Virginia ; and, on the part of ihe JJJJiJJj^^ 
pedantic king, in drawing up a code of laws for the colony, viiitoi*. 

* 8m charter at tongth in Hasard, 1., 61-56; Chalmera, IS ; Bancroll, L, IIT-ISI. 
t De Bry : Haklnyt, UL, S55 ; Smith, i., 151 ; C. Robinaon^a ** Voyagea to Amerioa,** 
48S, 484. Cabot*a and Veraziano^a diaearariaa have aliwdy been oonaidered. 


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CHAP. I. Late in the winter, a little squadnm of three ships sailed 

"~~from England, under the oommand of Christopher New- 

19 Dec. * P^^ J ^^^y following the dd roundabout route by the Can- 

1607. aries and West Indies, it arrived safely, the next spring 

96 April, ^^jj^ j^Q Chesapeake Bay. The headlands at the mouth 

of this bay were immediately named Cape Henry and Cape 

Charles, in honor of the two sons of King James. A few 

days afterward, the colony of Virginia — ^the " Old Domin- 

jljjjl^'^ ion" of the United States — ^was founded at Jamestown ; 

13 May. and^ duriug the two following years, Captain John Smith, 

'^ the adventurer of rare genius and imdying fame," un- 
remittingly exerted the most strenuous efforts to sustain, 
amid constant discouragements, an enterprise which, but 
for his sagacity isind devotion, must soon have utterly and 
disgracefully failed.* 
^^*y- The simultaneous attempt of CJiief-justice Popham, Sir 
^'JJJ^yj. Ferdinando Grorges, and other members of the Plymouth 
nebeck. qj Northcm Company, to establish a colony upon the Sag- 
adahoc or Kennebeck, which Weymouth had visited in 
1605, was unsuccessful. Soon after the charter was seal- 
ed. Gorges and some others of the Plymouth Company 
1606. sent out a ship under the command of Captain Henry 
19 August, challons, to make further discoveries on tiie coast of 
Maine. But instead of taking the northern course, accord- 
chauons, ing to his orders, Challons sailed by way of the West In- 
and PrinJir- dics, whcrc he was captured by a Spanish fleet cmd ceurried 
into Spain. Meanwhile, Chief-justice Popham had dis- 
patched another ship, under the ccmimcmd of Captains 
Thomas Hanham and Martin Pring, to join Challons on 
the coast of Maine. Failing to meet him there, Hanham 
and Pring carefully explored the shores and harbors, and 
brought home with them the most accurate descriptions 
of the country. " Upon whose relations," says the mani- 
festo of the Plymouth Company, " afterward the lord chief 
justice and we all waxed so confident of the business, that 
the year following, every man of any worth, formerly in- 
terested in it, was willing to join in the charge for the 

,L,lM»lft]; BtMNft»i., 118-190. 


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sending oTer a oo]iq)6tent number of people to lay tibe chap. i. 
^[romid of a lu^)eful plantation."* 

Under such auspices, a fly-boat, called the " Gift of ^otibam 
God," commanded by George Popham, the brother of theSiSST 
diief justice, and a ship called the " Mary and John," com- ^**yinomh. 
manded by Raleigh* Gilbert, a nephew of Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh, sailed from Plymoutii in the summer of 1607, with si litoy. 
one hundred and twenty persons, to found a colony on the 
Kennebeck. Both the commanders were patentees of the 
new (diaarter, and they now carried home with them two 
of the native savages whom Weymouth had taken to En- 

The adventurers arrived oflf Penobscot Bay early in Au-7 Angiw. 
gust. Thence running westward, they anchored, a fewitfAngmt. 
days afterward, at the mouth of the Sagadahoc. Popham ^ sag«d» 
and Gilb^ then manned their boats and '^sailed up into 
tile river near forty leagues," to find a fit place for their 
settlement On the return of the explcxring party, <' they i8 August. 
all went ashore, and made choice of a place for their plant- 
ation at the mouth or entry of the river, on the west side." 
The next day, Richard Seymour, theit chaplain, preached lOAugoM. 
them a sermon ; after which tiie commission of George 
P<^ham, their president, and their colonial laws, were read. 
The next two mcmtiis were diligently employed in build- 
ing a fort and store-house ; while Gilbert, with twenty-two 
of his men, explc^red the adjacent coasts, between the Pe- 
nobscot and Gasco Bay. Before long, the ship was sent 
home, in charge of Captain Davies, with news of their prog- 
ress, and with letters to Chief-justice Popham, asking for 
a 8U{^ly of necessaries to be sent to them betimes the next 

After ihe departure of Davies, the remaining colonists 
finished their intrenched fort, which they named '^ Saint 
George," and armed it with twelve pieces of ordnance. 

* Mms. Hist. Coil, zix., 3, Prasident and Coancil'i "Brief ReUtkm,** 1023; PurcfaaB, 
tr., 1897 ; Prinee, 118 ; StneH^jr, lOS, 168. 

t StradMy, 164 ; F. Ooigos, Brief NamtlOB, Mass. Hist. ColL, xxvi. 

t Straditfy, 165-170 ; Gorget, Brief NwrratlOD, M. Aocording to Gorgee and Purcbas, 
both the TeoMls aaOed tor England on the 15th of December, 1607, learlng forty-flre per- 
Mos only in the colony. Prince, 117. 


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Chap. I. Fifty houses, besides a church and store-house, were also 

constructed within the intrenchments ; "and the carpen- 

Pi^^^ters framed a pretty pinnace of about some thirty tons, 

gJJJ^, which they called the Virginia ; the chief shipwright be- 

uilitS ^ "^ ^^^ Dig^y> of London." Q-ilbert, meanwhile, endeav- 

^^*'~- ored to explore more fully the neighboring coasts ; but the 

winter proved so very severe, that " no boat could stir upon 

any business." To add to their distress, their store-house 

took fire, and their provisions in part were burned. Early 

1608. in the new year, their president, G-eorge Popham, died. 

5FM>. Jq i\^Q mean time, the colonists on the Eennebeck had not 

been forgotten by their principals at home. In the course 

of the next summer, Davies returned from England with a 

ship " laden full of victuals, arms, instruments, and tools." 

On his arrival, he foimd that, notwithstanding the death 

of the president, the colony had prospered ; " all things in 

good forwardness," large quantities of fiirs obtained, a good 

store of sarsaparilla gathered, and " the new pinnace all 

finished." The " Virginia," of Sagadahoc, was thus the 

first vessel built by Europeans within the limits of the 

original United States. 

1607. But with welcome supplies, the mournful intelligence 
i£^^ now reached the colony, tiiat its liberal patron, Chief-jus- 
2J^"^^ tice Popham, had died just after the first ships left En- 
**^*'**°** gland ;* and Gilbert also learned that, by the decease of 

his brother, he had become heir to a fair estate which re- 

1608. quired his presence in England. As Popham, their pres- 
ident, was dead, and Gilbert was about to leave them; as 
no mines, 'Hhe main intended benefit to uphold the charge 
of this plantation," had been discovered ; and especially, 
as they feared that all the other winters would prove like 
the firsts "the company by no means would stay any lon- 
ger in the country." They therefore " all embarked in this 

* Sir John Popham died oo the 10th of Jane, 1007. He wns a *< hnge, beary, ogly 
nan," and in his yoonger days had aotnally been a highwayman. In 1599 ho was made 
Chief JoaUoe of England, and in 1603 presided at the trial of Sir Walter Ralei^ whon 
be sentenced to death. Lord CampbeU, in his biography of Popham, entirely omits any 
reference to his esrly xeal in the canse of American dlsoorery and ooloniaation, which— 
88 much as any other inddent In his lil^-gtres Ivstre to his tens.~CaflBpbeU»s Litres «r 
tiM Chief Jnstioes, 1., »6. 

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new-arrived ship, -and in the new pinnaoe, tiie Virginia, chap. i. 
and set sail for England." Thus ended the Northern En- 
glish oolony upon the Sagadahoo. On the return of the 
fitultoring emigrants to England, their disappointed prin-S|^^ny 
oipals, vexed with their pusillanimity, desisted for << a long 
time after" from any further attempts at American oolo- 1608 
nization ; though a few vessels were still annually employ- 1514 
ed in the prosperous fisheries, and in trafficking with the 
Indians on the coast of Maine.* 

The year after the failure of the Plymouth Company's g;SJ»^ 
oolony at the Kennebeck, the London Company obtained ^'i^qq 
a more ample charter from the king, by which the affairs » May. 
of Virginia were placed upon a much better footing. The 
new grant essentially modified the first charter of 1606. 
" The treasurer and company of adventurers and planters 
of the city of London for the first colony in Virginia" were 
made a corporate body, to which the political powers, be- 
fore reserved to the king, were now transferred. An abso- 
lute title was also vested in the company to all the terri- 
tory extending two hundred miles north from Point Com- 
fort, and the same distance to the south, and stretohing 
from the Atlantic westward to the South Sea.t Thud, 
while the limits of Virginia were expanded westwardly, 
across the continent, to the Pacific, they were curtailed one 
degree of latitude on the north. Their first charter of 
1606 gave the Virginia Company the right to plant colo- 
nies as far north as the for^-first degree. The second 
charter of 1609 fixed their northern boundary at two hund- 
red miles north of Point Comfort, or about the fortieth par- 
allel of latitude. The Plymouth Company continued to 
enjoy a nominal existence for eleven years longer, under 
their first charter ; but, though Smith and Gorges several 
times during that period endeavored to form new settle- 
ments, not a single English colony was permanently plant- 
ed north of Virginia, until 1620. 

Meanwhile, France had continued to look across the At- 1 

* Stndwy, 170, 180 ; PnrcIiM, It., 18S8 ; GorgM, N. E., 19 ; Utm. Hist. CoO., xix., 4 ; 
BaMwid, Sfr-M. t SUth's Virg., App. U. ; Chalmen, 39 ; Haxard» 1., SS-Tt. 


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cbap. l la&tio. Nearly eighty years after Verazzano liad reported 

"to Francis I. iie deep river he had found opening into ** a 

most beautiful lake,"* within the headlands forming the 
" Narrows," in New York harbor, and nearly seventy years 
after Cartier had first adoended the Saint Lawrenoe, a oom- 

1602. f^^y of merchants was organized at Rouen, to develop the 
resources of Canada. An expedition was soon fitted out, 
under the command of ihe Sieur du Pont Q-rav6, a wealthy 
merchant of Saint Male, who had already made several 
voyages to Tadoussac, at the mouth of the deep and gloomy 

MdChMtt? Saguenay. By command of the king, Pont Grrav6 was 

^JSl. accompanied by Samuel de Ghamplain, of Saint Onge, a 

captain in the French navy, who had just before retum- 

1603. ed firom the West Indies. Early m 1603, Pont Grav^ and 
Ghamplain roa<^ed Tadoussac, where leaving their ships 
to trade with the natives for peltries, they pudied boldly 
up the Saint Lawrence in a small skiff with five sailors, 
following the track of Cartier as &r as the Sault de Saint 
Louis at Montreal.t On their return to France, they found 

8 Noremb. that Hcmy lY. had granted to the Huguenot Sieur de 
Honts, <Hie of his gentlemen of the bedchamber, who had 
DeMontoj^ rendered him great services during the wars, a patent for 
amry TV. planting a permanent colony in America, between the for- 
tieth and the f(»rty-sixth degrees of north latitude.! The 
king aooa after granted to De Monts and his associates a 
monthly of the fiir trade in Acadia €md the Gtdf of Saint 

1604. ^ ^® ^ing of the next year, a new expedition was 
7 March, accordingly organized and dispatched firom Dieppe. Pi- 
loted by Ghamplain, and accompanied by the Sieur de 
Poutsrincourt, De Monts safely reached the shores of Aca- 

pmitrin- dia. The beautiful harbor <rf Port Royal, now Annapolis, 
tiementat plcasiug the tastc of Poutrincourt, he obtained permission 
to establish himself there. De Monts, however, by Gham- 
SJony^* plain's advice, selecting for his own colony the island of 
g{^ Saint Groix, in the river which now divides Maine from 

* ** BeUiMimo Lago ;** aee Terauano's Letter, in N. Y. H. S. CoH., L (leeond Mriat), 
p. M, qoMed, tmU, p. S. t Voyages de Champlaiii, p. 40 (edit. 163S). 

t dtasBptain, 49 ; Hasard, i., 45. 4 Leaearbot, i. ; Ctaaimera, 83. 

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New BrnnawidCf built a ivt, and paased tlie winteor there; cbat. l 
•Ad thus, " at a time wh^a th«re existed no English «ub."^^ 
jeots in America^ the first pennanent settlement was made -'-^^^^* 
in Canada daring the year 1604."* 

But the situation of Saint Cn^ proving inocmvenient, 1605. 
Pe Mmts, the next spring, transferred his diminished ool- ^^i^"^' 
mj to Port Royal ; and, sailing along the coasts of Maine JJj;{;^J|^^ 
and Massachusetts, oontranporaneously with Weymouth, ^^ 
he claimed for France the sovereignty of the country as 
far as Cape Malebarre. The following autumn he return- 
ad to Europe, leaving his colony in charge of Pont Grrave, 
as his lieutenant, who, with Champlain and Champdore, 
reeeived instaruotioais to ex{dore the adjacent territory more 
aeourately, and trade among the hostile savages.t On his 
arrival in France, De Moots entered into a new engage- 
ment with Poutrincourt, who, accompanied by Marc Les- 
carfaot the historian,! returned to Port Boyal with welcome 1606. 
supplies, just as the dispirited colonists were about embark- 
ing for home. The Frendi cabins remained at Acadia ; 
and under judicious muiagement the colcmy prospered, 
uiitil it wae surprised and broken up by Sfunuel Argall 
with a Virginian force, in 1613. Meanwhile, Henry IV., 
urged by the complaints of the French traders and fisher- 
laen, who were dq^ved of their accustomed {Hivileges on 
the coast, revoked the noonopoly which he had conferred^^ 
on De Monts, to whom, however, he granted a small in- J5^J"*»' 
demnity for his loss. But the king soon afterward ratified 1607. 
and confirmed, by his letters patent, the quiet possession 
of Pcwt Royal to Pout3rincourt.4 

After four years absence, Champlain returned tochampiain 
France, filled with the ambition of founding a French ool- Canada. 
eny upon the River Saint Lawrence. Moved by Cham^ 
plaints eaiTiest representations, De Monts succeeded in ob- 1608. 
taining from the king a new commissicm to plant a settle- 

*CMnHn,«t; Clniiiitaiii,«0. t CtemiililB, M^M ; LMMibot. 

t iMMitM^ wbo palOlahMl, in 18M, Ida *«Hlfllelre de la RoareOe Pmie^» la d^^ 
by CtaBliTaix a.» Vv U«) aa ''in a^iwat da Paria, TO aaiev «■ac9^'el Jvdiclaaz, «B li^^ 
fHait M aaaai eayaMa d*«caMfr ina oakmte, que d^a «erife ntfatotoa.** 

« Ckaniiialm M. 



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Chap. I. ment in Canada, and a monopoly of the for trade for cme 
"~~year.* Two ships were promptiiy equipped at Honfleur, 
IS April. ^^^ dispatched, under the command of Ohamplain, to the 
Saint Lawrence. On the 3d of June, the expedition an- 
chored at Tadoussac. After a short delay, Champlain as- 
cended the great river, examining, as he went along, the 
shores on both sides, for the most appropriate spot on which 
Qneb6o to cstabUsh the future capital of New France. Finding 
3 July. none '< more commodious or better situated than the point 
of Q,uebec, so called by the savages," the rude founda- 
tions of a town were laid, near the spot where Cartier 
had passed the winter about three quarters of a century be- 
fore.t For five dreary months the secluded colonists en- 
dured the inhospitable climate, and saw the^face of nature 
all around continually covered with a deep snow. A bright 
spring again opened the streams ; and in the following 
summer, Champlain, accompanied by two of his country- 
men, boldly ascending the River Richelieu or Saurel with 
a war-party of Hurons and Algonquins on an expedition 
2609. ftgcLinst tiie Iroquois, gave victory to his allies by his Eu- 
»jjjy- ropean fire-arms, and discovered tiie beautiful lake on our 
of Lake northcastem fix)ntier, which will ever commemorate lus 

* -iminpifiini 

illustrious name.t 
The Dutch While England and France were liius quietly appropri- 
compeutora atiug, by royal charters, nearly all the northern territory 
Engiwi of the New World, a firesh competitor in American discov- 


* Champlain, 114. t IMd., 118-194. 

t Champlain (edit. Paris, 1039), page 149, states that on the night of July 99, 1009, his 
party, wliile passing up the lake in their canoes, disoovend their Iroqoois enemies, ^at 
the point of a cape which runs oat into the lake ttam the west side." The enemy barri- 
caded themselves with trees on this cape ; and the next morning, Champlain, advancing 
at the liead of the inTaders, killed two oT the Iroquois cliiefii with a dlschairge of his arque- 
buse, and put their frightened' followers to flight. He adds (p. 152), that " the place where 
this attack was made is in A»ty-three degrees and some minutes of latttnde, and I naned 
it the Lake of Champlain.'' On the map which accompanies liis work, Champlain marks 
the place " where ine Iroquois were defeated,'* as a pnnnontory a little to the northeast of 
*' a small lake by which one goes to the Iroquois, after having passed that of Champtain." 
These particulan seem to identity Tiopnderoga, in Essex county, as the spot where the 
flrst encounter took iriaoe, between the white man and the red man, on the soil of New 
York. Champlain dtsOnetly states that he " afterward" saw the ** waterihll" or outlet of 
''another lake, which is three or fbur leagues long." This lake, now known as Lake 
Qsorge, was flrst named " Saint Sacrement," by the Jesuit Father Jogues, in 1040. Trans- 
lated extracts of Champlain's work have Just been published in iii. Doc Hist. N. T., 1-9. 
See also Tates and Monlton's History of New York, L, 177-181. 

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ery suddenly appeared, to divide with them the magnifi- citap. i. 
oent prize. The red flag of England waved over Virginia, 
and ttie white banner of Franoe floated over Canada, as the 
triooloar of a new nation was first nnexpeotedly displayed 
in the unknown intermediate region.* 

A generation of men had lived to see a powerfdl repub- 1579. 
lie result jfirom the confederation at Utrecht of the North- ^IrSowT* 
em Provinces of the Netiierlands against the bigotry and JiSJ^f*" 
despotism of Spain. These provinces, whose whole popu- 
lation scarcely exceeded two millions of souls, aninfiated 
by a spirit which Sir Philip Sydney said to Q,ueen Eliz- 
abeth, ^^ is the spirit of G-od, and is invincible," after a 
long and desperate conflict against a powerful adversary, 
finally triumphed over their vindictive oppressor, and com- 1609. 
pelled him to acknowledge their independence and sever- • ^^^ 

The "Union of Utrecht," Originally a league which 
bound the provinces together for mutual defense and pro- 
tection, became the Constitution of a Confederated Repub- Their re- 
lic. This Constitution, though complex and not entirely Smsum- 
popular, was nevertheless a decided and memorable step 
in human progress ; and it enabled the Dutch to establish 
and nmintain a system of universal toleration, which, while 
contributing materially to the fireedom of their own coun- 
try, made it an inviting asylum for the oppressed of other 

Providence early indicated to that singular country her Maritime 
destiny. While fiNreign despotic power inflamed the pa- Houand. 
triotism of her peq)le, and forced them to struggle for civ- 
il and religious fireedom, the natural disadvantages of 
her geographical position stimulated their enterprise, and 

* TiM natkwal endgn of the United Prorinoes was adopted about the year 1588, at tlio 
■■miarinn of William L, prince of Naasaa and Orange. It was composed of tbe princess 
ertora, orange, wliite, and blue, arranged in three eqnal horizontal stripes. After the 
teCh of WilUam n. (1650), a red stripe was snbstitQted fbr the orange ; and the Dutch 
SMigB, at the p rese n t day, remains what it was, as thos modified, two oentnrles ago.— 
J. C de Jei^e, ^Khrer den Oovsprong der Nedeiiandsehe Vlag,» 1831, 20-68. 

1 1 sbaU inrariably use the term " Dutch,** in iu legitimate English sense, as referring 
SKfliasbnty to tlia inhsbitanu of the Seven United Prorinoes of the Nethertands and their 
jerimtiatB. A btunder is flreqoently eommitted in applying the name ** Doteh,'' instead 
sftlMir pnpsr denomlnatkoa ** GenBaas,** to the people of Germany hi general. 


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cukr. I. taught them oontiimal lessons of perseveranee. A ^aat 
morass, protruding into the sea, and ift^med by the aooa- 
* mulations which the Rhine ocmtinually brings down from 
the foot of the Alps, the Low Countries are cMily saved from 
the encroaching ocean by the eeasdiess and irrepressiUe 
energy of their inhabitants. But the very ooeaa, which 
^ the untiring industry of the Dutdi drives back from their 
narrow shores, was destined to be their widest scene cf 
triumph, and their qpen avenue to wealtL A few fidier- 
men^s huts at the mouth of the Amatol, at a period when 
the cities of Fknders had attained edblnrity, soon beeame 
the *< Venice of the North;" the sea, subdued by skillfal 
toil, flowed quietly Hurough her splendid canals, and 
brought treasures from the ends of the aajrth to tiie very 
doors of her cosmopolitan burghers ; and crowded streets, 
and rich warehouses, and stately palaces, and magnificent 
churches, usurped the fincient abode of the stork and the 
heron. Well might Fenelon describe the Tyre of his day 
as the '^ queen of all the seas.'^ 

Energetic, undaunted, and persevering at home, tiie 
Dutch could not fail to pudi their enterprising commerce 
The way of into cvcry zone. The very legend on Iheir earliest ooin- 
«*iii^tiie age predicted, in hdy words borrowed from the Vulgate, 
the maritime destiny of that peq>le, whose ^< way is in the 
sea," and whose '^ paths are in many waters."t Accus- 
tomed from childhood to play fearlessly with the waves, 
the natives of Holland and Zealand were foremost in ad- 
venture ; and the capital of the merchants of Amsterdam 
and Middleburg found abundant employment for the hardy 
crews which their own cities readily furnished. Even 
while its political existence was yet uncertain, the upstart 
republic " grasped the whole conunerce of the world as its 

* " Cette crude ville eeiobto nager M-desfiw dee eaax, et Aire la relne de toot la laar. 
Lee mardiande y abordeiU da tootes lee iMtfUea da mmde, et eea lubiuota soot eox-mteaee 
lee pine ftmeux marchande qoMl y ait daaa I'nniveffa. Qoaad om eotre dana eette riUe oa 
eroit d'abord que ce n'eet point one Tille qoi appa rt ienne A un people partteaUer, nafti 
qn*ene eet la ville coBMnane de tone lee peopleeiet le eentre de leor eoiiiiMroe.'*->TM^ 
maqne, Ut. ill. 

t In 1589, tbe mint of Zealand iaeaed a penny, elainped with the efllgy of a e eep tei -ed 
king riding a eea-horae over the wavee, and aantmnded by the wofde " In aMil Tla taa, 
et eemits taa in winia moUia." See BiMt>a'*JiedallNiMHMorie,**lS; VaBLooa,i.,9a 

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portion, and thus supplied itself witii resources for a strug* cmap. i. 
gle which was longer and more de^rate than that of 
Greece with Pebia.'^ ^^^• 

While Charles V. was yet their sovereign, Ihe Dutch ap- 
pear to haw become familiar with part of the New World, e^t ▼"y- 
which the Pontiff had granted, as a perpetual donation, to 
the kings of Spain. But the Bevdution, which followed 
the accession of Philip IL, interrupted for awhile the dis- 
tant y6 jages of the insurgent Batavians.t The same sum- 
mer that the United Provinces declared their independence 
of Spain, Thomas Buts, an En^dsh captain, who had five 
times visited the Spanish American islands, proposed to 1581. 
the states of Holland to conduct an expedition to i^e West *® ^^"" 
Indies. But though the projected adventure seems to have 
been viewed with fav(Nr, no results are recorded. All the 
while, commerce flourished at home ; and in spite of edicts, 
the Dutch maintained the command of the nearer seas. 1585. 
One thousand new vessels w^e annually built in Holland. 
Prom the Cape de Verd Islands to the White Sea, a profit- hoba mm- 
aUe coasting trade was carried on ; out of the Vlie alone tSe^ucn. 
sailed nearly six hundred ships, in one year, to bring com 1587. 
from the Baltic Before long^ William Usselincx, a native 
of Antwerp, who had spent many years in Castile, Portu- 
gal, and the Azores, suggested the advantage of an assooi- 1591. 
ation for trading to the West Indies. The views of Usse^ 
lincx were listened to with respect, but his counsels were 
not immediately foUoweA Yet they were not without 
their effect. A few years afterward, Q-errit Bicker Peters- 
zoon, of Amsterdam, and Jan Comeliszoon Leyen, of Enck- ^®y^ ^ 
huysen, under the patronage of the States of Holland, indies- 
organized separate companies for the West India trade. 1597. 
Their enterprise was the forerunner of eventual success.1 

Meanwhile, the Dutch, sharing largely in the carrying 
trade of Europe, had sought distant regions for a more lu- 
crative traffic. . In 1594, Cornelius Houtman, the son of a 

* Heeren. t Sir John Carr' on the C<Hnnierce of the Dutch. 

t Van Meleron, ziU., 960, 901 ; zIt^ S8S, 9M ; zix^ 410 ; Wagmaar, Aawt, I., 407, 408, 
410 ; Vad.Btflt., Ix., 158, IM ; Dsrlea'a HoUand, h., 181, 189, 900, 901 ; If oUkark (Berg Van 
DoMen), Bydragen tot de Geaeoiedenia onzer Koloniiatie ia Noord Aoiailka, A., 9-7. 

Digitized by VnOOQ IC 

First Toy- 
ages to 
East In- 


chap.l brewer of Ooada, retaming from Lisbon, where he had 
"T~~ spent the previous year, brought back tempting aooounts 
of the gorgeous products of the East, whidi he had seen 
crowding the quays of the Tagus. His glowing descrip- 
tions provoked emulation ; and nine merchants of Am- 
sterdam, forming an association, equipped a flotilla of fdur 
ships, equally fitted for war and for trade, of which Hout- 
jj°^; man undertook the command. Following the track of the 
Portuguese, he doubled the Cape of Qtxxi Hope, and in two 
1596. years returned to Amsterdam with rich cargoes of Eastern 
products.* And thus began the marvelous Indian com- 
merce of the Dutch. The edicts of Philip could not ex- 
dude the independent Nethorlanders from the free navi- 
gation of the seas. Thenceforth they determined to vindi- 
cate, by force of arms, tiieir right to participate freely in 
that commerce which despotic selfishness was vainly at- 
tempting to monopolize. The privateers of the Batavian 
Provinces were every where victorious; and the ware- 
1598. houses of their owners were soon filled with the choicest 
Sj!Sf2i.^productions of the Indies, and ornamented with the ensigns 
iS^E^Stl^ of the conquered galleons of Spain. And while the cir- 
cuitous voyage round the Cape of Qtxxi Hope thus gave 
ample returns, mercantile enterprise sought shorter ave- 
nues to the East. Under the influence of the vigorous 
Balthazar Moucheron, of Middleburg, expeditions were dis- 
* 1594. patched from Zealand and Holland to explore a more direct 
Bxpadi- passage to China, and Cathay or Japan, by way of Nova 
poul^aS!? Zembla and the Polar Seas. Again, and a third time, un- 
1595-6. successful attempts were repeated ; and the daring enter- 
prise, in which Barentsen, Comelissen, and Heemskerk en- 
dured almost unparalleled trials, and won a renown as last- 
ing as that of Willoughby or Davis, was at length aban- 
doned in despair.! 
1600. The woaltii of the East, which soon began to pour into 
Holland, naturally produced competition among the partic- 
ipants in the open traffic. Influenced by the representa- 

* Richene dt la HoUande, L, 35 ; Van MaCaren, xxUt, fiOS. 

t VaiiMat«raii,XTUl.,S71,S76i six., 404, 419 ; LnnteaalMeA, 7, 6 ; Da:vtai, it, SM- 
1M,SS8; MoUkark, A^ 18, 10. 

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tioDB of the merohants, who feared in an unrestrained rival- ciup. i. 
ry a diminution of their individual profits, and looking also 
to the political advantages which the republic itself might 
gain in its conflict with Spain, the States G-eneral now re- 
solved that the various adventurers engaged in copojneroe 
with the East united in one corporate body. A 
charter was accordingly granted in the spring of 1602, by 1602. 
which those merchants were incorporated for a period of ***•"***• 
twenty-one years, under the name c^ the ''East India The Dmch 

Rsflt India 

Company," with a capital of 6,600,000 of livres, the ex- compuy. 
elusive privilege of trading in the Eastern Seas beyond 
the Cape of Good Hope on the one side and the Straits of 
Magellan on the other, and large powers for conquest, col- 
onization, and govenmient within those limits.* 

While this powerful commercial monopoly was covering 1607. 
the Eastern Ocean with its fleets, and returning to its share- • 
holders, in a single year, three fourths of their invested cap- 
ital,! men's minds had been earnestly considering whether 
the Western World might not also ofier a tempting field 
for Dutch mercantile enterprise. William Usselincx, who 
had already suggested an association to trade in the W^^t Aw^in- 
Indies, was again among the most zealous to urge the im- nypro- 
mediate establishment of a company in the Netherlands, 
modeled after the one which had proved so successful in 
the East. He r^resented his project as an additional 
means of humbling tiieir arrogant enemy on the very seas 
from which Philip was endeavoring to shut out the com- 
merce of the republic ; and besides the mercantile advant- 
ages which would result from securing the traffic with 
those affluent regions, he pressed the higher motive of the 
conversion of their heathen inhabitants to the Christian 
faith. The proposals which Usselincx circulated won gen- 
eral assent ; and, aided by the influence of Plancius, Lin- 
schoten, and other leading scholars and merchants of Hol- 
land and Zealand, an application was made to the States 

* Van Meteran, zxiv., 51S. Cape Hom was not known to Boropeana at tbia period. 
Schonten, wbo named it after his native city, " Hoorn,'* in North Holland, llrst aailed 
roand tbe Cape in 1010. 

t In the year 1000, tlie Bast India Company divided 75 per oent. Moottoo, IM. 


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Chap, l Q-enend lor the inoOTporatian of a '' West India Company,'^ 
——"to trade exclusively, for thirty^ix yeara, to ihe ooast of 
' AMoa, finsn the trq>ic8 to the Ci^pe of Grood Hope, and to 
J^iJfJj;^;. America, fix)m the Siaraits of Magellan to Newfoundland. \ 
poned. -Q^i jj^Q Dutch govemment was now engaged in negotia- 
tions for a peace with Spain, which Girotius and Bame- 
veldt feared the proposed charter might prejudice ; and the 
truce, which was finally concluded in 1609, suspended for 
several years any definite action on the subject.* 
Henry ^ Moauwhile, a shorter passage to China and Cathay, ty 
voytM way of the Northern Seas, continued to be a favorite the- 
doBtoUM cry in England, as well as in Holland and Denmark. A 
company of wealthy and enei^etic men in London, not d is- 
couraged by the ill-luck of all previous efforts, determin.ed 
to attempt agedn, in 1607, ike enterprise in which so many 
others had fjGiiled. Contributing the necessary means for 
an expedition, they intrusted the command to a skillful 
and experienced mariner, Henry Hudson, a native of En- 
gland, and a firiend of the famous Captain John Smil^, who 
had just before sailed with the first colony for Virginia, 
and whom, in boldness, energy, and perseverance Hudson 
strongly resembled. But the expedition was unsucoess- 

1608. ful, as was also a second voyage in the following year, and 
the London Company suspended further efforts.t 

Not disheartened by his two failures, Hudson now re- 

1609. solved to go to Holland, in the hope of meeting there encour- 
mtoHoi- agement to attempt again the ventures(Hne enterprise he 
^^ was so ambitious to adiieve. He was not disappointed. 

His proposition to the East India Company, though opposed 

by the Zecdand department, where Balthazar Houcheron's 

long experience in former firuitless voyages influenced his 

colleagues, found favor with the more liberal Amsterdam 

The Dutch dii^ctors. By their orders, a yacht, or Vlie-boat, called 

pinyftoatthe " Half Mook," belonging to the company, of forty 

Moon. lasts or eighty tons burden,} was equipped for the vqy« 

• VanMftereB,fi«7,fiS8,M3,S56,«01,<Mtt; OraUiu^TU; BtnUTOglio, L, S7 ; Bucroft, 
IL, SdB, S6S ; Moilkerk, A., 10-17 ; PsTios, iL, 404, 405. 
t Pnrdiai, iii., 507 ; N. T. H. 8. CoU., L, 01-102 ; Yates and Monlton, U, lOB-aOO. 
t **8Up book** Ibuid, ia 1841, in Uie AroliiTio of tlw old Eaot India Conptny at An* 

■ * Vt- '* 

*>v-V*- X V 

i^* ^^u ; • V '. >^ w . ^ .v^4h\ ]j. 


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ige, and manned by a orew of twenty sailors, partly Dutch cbap. l 
and partly English. The oommand was intrusted to Hud- "717^" 
son ; a Dutoh " under-schipper" or mate was appointed ; 
and instruotions were given to explore a passage to China 
by the nortiieast or northwest.* 

The Half Moon left Amsterdam on tiie fourth of April, 
1609, and on ihe sixth took her departure from the Texel. « v^ 
Doubling the Cape of Norway cm the fifth of May, Hudson "**^^ 
found the sea so full of ioe, that he was obliged to aban* 
don his purpose of penelrating eastward of Nova Zembla. 
Some of his motley crew, who had been used only to the 
East India service, oould ill endure the severity of the cold, 
and now began to murmur. Upon this, Hudson proposed 
to them two alternatives. The first was to sail directly 
to America, in about latitude 40^, where, according to the 
ktters and charts which Smith had sent him from Yir- 
ginia, he would find a sea affording a passage to the East 
round the English colony. The other proposition was to 
penetrate westward, through Davis's Straits ; and this be- 
ing generally approved, Hudson sailed toward the island 
of Faro, where he arrived on the last of May, and remain- 3i May. 
ed a day to water. Thence he stretched westward across 
the Atlantic ; but failing to see the islands which Frobish- 
or's ships had visited in 1578, he shaped his course for 
Newfoundland. After a stormy and perilous voyEige, in 
which he lost his foremcust overboard, Hudson arrived, ear- 
ly in July, on the Banks, where he was becalmed long 
enough to catch more cod than his ^' small store of salt" 
oould cure. He then stood farther to the west, and run- 

■tordam. A " Vlie-boat^ ia so called firam its being bailt expressly fin* the dilBcnlt nsri* 
gBtfcm of the Vlie and the Texel. It is a very flwt-saillng vessel, with two masts, and 
wnally of abeut one hundred tons burden. The name, as well as the model of thiaDvtah 
eraft, was soon adopted In other countries. The French called it " Flibot ;" the English, 
** Fly-boat ;" and the Spaniards^ ** TVSbtMe.** Some of our writers have, imibrtimatdy, al- 
tered the historical Qi|gie of the V RAlf Moon** to the AmctAil name of the " Cresoent.** 
Hndson^B vessel was Really calleH by her owners " de Halve-Maan," and not " de Was- 
ssads-Maan,** of whtofa latter phrase only la ** Crescent" the proper English eqnlvalent. 

* Van Meteren, xxxi., 674 ; N. Y. H. S. CoU^ iL (second series), 36ft-37e ; LambrecbU 
sen, 9, 10, and in N.Y. H. S. Coll., i. (second series), 84, 85 ; Mullkerk, 18, 19. Robert 
Joet, of LimehoQse, England, who wfote the Journal printed by Purchas, acted aa Hud- 
sM's own elerk, but not as ^nder-schtop^ of the Half Blbon. Van Meteren expressly 
says that Um offieer was « NedMiiaBdsr. 


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Chap. I. ning along the coast of Nova Sootia, arrived at Penobeoot 
Bay, where he remained a week, cutting a new foremast 
18 July. * *^^ mending his tattered rigging* While there, he was 
Pmwib2« visited by two French-built shallops full of Indians, some 
^*- of whom even " spake some words of French," and pro- 
posed to traffic. But Hudson, suspicious of his visitors, 
kept a vigilant watch ; while a part of his ship's compa- 
ny seized one of the shallops, with which they landed, and 
wantonly despoiled the cabins of the friendly natives. 
Fearing that the lawless conduct of his turbulent crew 
«e July might provoke retaliation, Hudson set sail the next day to 
the soutiiward, and kept at sea for a week, until he made 
3 AofoA. the land again, and sent his shallop in to sound the shore. 
The next morning he anchored at the northern end of a 
headland, where his boat's crew landed, and found the na- 
tives rejoicing to see them. Supposing it to be an un- 
known island, Hudson named the region New Holland, 
in honor of his patrons' fatherland. But after trying in 
vain to find an opening to the westward, he put about, and 
AiCmw passing the southern headland, which he now perceived 
was the one which Grosnold had discovered in 1602 and 
named ^^ Cape Cod," he stood off to sea again toward the 
18 August. In a fortnight Hudson arrived off the mouth of the Ches- 
apeake Bay, which he recognized as ^< the entrance into 
At the the King's River in Virginia, where our Englishmen are." 
c«^of the g^^ ^^ temptation to meet his friend Smith, who, disgust- 
'**^®' ed with the distractions in the colony at Jamestown, and 
maimed by accidental wounds, was preparing to return to 
England, did not divert Hudson from the great object of 
his voyage. Contenting himself with a few soundings, he 
stood again to sea, and passing northward along the coast 
28 August, of Maryland, he ran into a " great bay with rivers" — aft- 
SISJ??™ erward called the " South River," and " New Port May" 
iw«^ by the Dutch, and " Delaware" by the English— where 
^^* the Half Moon anchored.* 

* Van der Donck, p . 7, adds, and "took the first possession.** This bay and riTer tte 
Dnteh called the South RiTer, to distinguish It from the North or Hudson RiTer; aadalso 

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Finding the navigation so diffioolt, that '^ ha that will chap. l 
thoroughly discover this great bay must have a small pin- ' 
naoe that must draw but four or five feet water, to sound 
before him," Hudson stood out to sea again, and, running 
northward several days along a low sandy coast, with 
" broken islands," arrived, on the evening of the second of s sept. 
September, in sight of the '^ high hills" of Navesinck, then, 
as now, '< a very good land to fall in with, and a pleasant 
land to see." The next morning he sailed onward until s s«pt 
he came to " three great rivers," the most northerly of 
which he attempted to enter, but was prevented by tie 
" very shoal bar before it."* So, sending his boat before 
him to sound the way, he went in past Sandy Hook, and 
on the evening of the third of September, 1609, anchored Anciwn in 
the Half Moon in the bay, where the waters were alive Hook Bay. 
with fish.t 

For a week Hudson lingered in the lower bay, admiring Hodaoo m 
the " goodly oaks" which garnished the neighboring shores, .eyT "* 
and holding frequent intercourse with the native savages 
of Monmouth, in New Jersey. The Half Moon was visit- 
ed in return by the wondering Indians, who flocked on 
board the strange vessel, clothed with mantles of feath- 
ers and robes of fur, and adorned with rude copper neck- 
laces. Meanwhile, a boat's crew was sent to sound theosepc 
river, which opened to the northward. Passing through 
the Narrows, tiiey found a noble harbor, with " very good 
riding for ships." A little further on, they came to " the 
Kills," between Staten Island and Bergen Neck, " a narrow 
river to the westward, between two islands." The lands 

New Port May, aftor CorneUs Jseobsen May, of Hoorn. Many of our writtra assert that 
Lord Delawarr tooched at this bay, on his way to Virginia in 1010. Bnt this is an error. 
On that oeeaslon Lord Delawarr sailed by way of the West Indies, and approached Vir- 
flnla ttom the soothward. Indeed, there is no evidence that Lord Delawarr ever saw His 
waters which now bear his name, as will be shown in a note (D) in the Appendix. 

* Two of these were, no donbt, the Raritan and the Narrows ; and the third one, to the 
northward, with the shoal bar befbre it, probably Rockaway Inlet. 

t " So we weighed and went in, and rode in five (hthoms oote ground, and saw many 
salmons, and nnillets, and rays very great. The height is ffarty degrees thirty rainutes.'* 
This statement in Jnet's Journal agrees, very nearly, with the actual latitude of Sandy 
Hook, which is Ibrty degrees twenty-eight ndnntes. Doctor Mitehlll, in N. T. H. S. CoU., t, 
41, however doobta the correetness of the aeeoants in the Journal respectinf the abond* 
ance of salmon in the North River when llrst visited by Hudson, though he admits that 
that fish has been taken there. 


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CHAP. I. on both sides were ^^ aa pleasant with grass, and flowers, 
"7~~ and goodly trees, as erer they had seen, and very sweet 
^^^* smells eame from them." Six miles np this rirer they 
saw ** an open Be€^" now known as Newark Bay. In ti» 
evening, as the boat was retoming to the ship, the explore 
ing party was set upon by two canoes full of savages ; and 
Death of one of the English sailors, John Colman, was killed by an 
£1?.^" arrow shot in his throat. The next day Hudson buried, 
7 Sept. upon the adjacent beach, the comrade who had shared tii^ 
dangers of his polar adventnres, to become the first En* 
ropean victim of an Indian weapon in the placid waters he 
had now reached. To commemorate the event, Sandy 
9 Sept. Hook was named " Colman's Point.*' The ship was soon 
visited by canoes fall of native warriors ; but Hudson, sue* 
pecting their good faith, took two of the savages and " put 
red coats upon them," while the rest were not suffered to 
The Half Cautiously souuding her way through the lower bay, 
SXSKT-tJi© Half Moon at length "went into the river" past the 
nllept. Narrows, and anchored near the mouth of the Kills in " a 
very good harbor for aU winds." The native savages came 
at once on board, " making show of love ;" but Hudson, 
remoDfibering Colman's fate, "duret not tarust them." The 
jssept. next morning twenty-eight canoes, "made of single hol- 
lowed trees," and crowded with men, women, and chil- 
dren, visited the yacht. But none were suffered to come 
on board, though their oysters and beans were gladly pur- 
chased. In the afternoon the Half Moon ran six miles 
farther up ; and the crew were enraptured by the loveli- 
ness of the surrounding country. " It is as beautiful a 
land as one can tread upon," said Hudson, " and abounds 
in all kinds of excellent ship timber."* 
Hudson be- ^® ^* ^^ Europeans, Hudson now began to explore 
SiSd^^T" *^® great river which stretched before him to the north. 
North Riv- opening, as he hoped, the way to the Eastern Seas. Slow- 
13 Sept. 'y drifting upward with the flood-tide, he anchored over 
night just above Yonkers, in sight of " a high point of 

* '*!■ aoo schoonen landt ale men met Toeten betreden madL**— Hodeon't Report, 
quoted by De Laet, cap. x. 

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kod, wliich showed oat'' five leagaee off to the ncNrth.* gh^. i. 
The next day, a soatbeast wind carrying him rapidly up ^^^ 
Tappan and Havecstraw Bays, and beyond the ^ strcdt" 14 ^^^ ' 
between Stony and Yerplanok's Points, Hudson sailed on- 
ward Hirough the majestic pass guarded by the frowning 
Donderb^g, and at nightfall anchored his yadit near 
West Point, in the midst of the sublimest scenery of the 
^^ Hatteawan"t Mountains. 

The nesxi morning was misty until the sun arose, and isa^t. 
the grandeur of tiie overhanging highlands was again re- 
vealed. A fair south wind sprung up as the weather be- 
came clear ; and while the Half Hocm was getting und^ 
way, the two savages who had been detained captives on 
hoard at Sandy Hook, watching their opportunity, leaped 
out of a port-hole and swam asbcHre, scornfully deriding 
the Cffcw as the yacht sailed onward. A l»right autumnal 
day succeeded the misty m<»ming. Running sixty miles 
up along the varied shcures which lined the de^ channel, 
And delighted every mcHuent with the ever-changing scen- 
ery, and Uie magnificent virgin forests which clothed the 
river banks with their gorgeous autumnal hues, Hudson 
arrived, toward evening, opposite the loftier ^ mountains tiw hut 
which lie firom the river's side,"$ and anchored the Half catakui. 
Moon near Gatskill landing, where he found a '^ very lov- 
ing people and v^ dd men." 

The friendly natives flocked <m board the yacht, as she i« s«pi. 
remained lazily at anchor the next morning, and brought 
the crew '^ ears of Indian com, and pumpkins, and tobac- 
co," which were leadily bought ^^ for trifles." In the aft- 

* Tke North Bivar MUppen afltrwud BHMd Uiia wdMoMvi^ tandnark, jut imIIi 
tt Nyack, tn Roekland ooanty, ** Vtrdrietig Hook,^ or ToUoua Pimt. U is about oeren 
fcaadrod iwt higit» aad o>tai— d to naiao U t m m U w— gontially eo toof to aigK of the 
Mow-nUtog sloops of fomwr days. Tbe nama, Ibnksrty ao exproaatva, ia atlU ntainad ; 
ttMmf h our flitting modarn eoOTeyanoes hardly allow it now to tire tbe eye. 

t Tbe Indian nana ftr the HI|hlaiMls,aaaofdiiig to 8paiaTd,aadMoelto«,i., p. aia. 

t The ** Kaataberga,** or Cataldll Moontaina, the moat elevated range along the rtrer, 
are about eight nSea inland fronti the weat bank, and extend nunh w aid from baek of 
the town efSangertlea, in Utotareounty, to the town of Dwhan, in Greene eountj. Aa- 
oording to Captain Partridge'e meaanreoient, In 1818, '* Roond Top," the highest point in 
the chain, ia S8M ftet above tide water; <<Hlgh Feak,** tha nett to aMtade, la tliB ibet. 
««Pine Orchard,'* the fhrnona aonnner reaort of touriata, ia a lerel tract of abont aevso 
aerea, on the edge ofa predplee about ttl4 fbet abore tha rtTer, of which It commanda n 
t Tiew te alzty milaa. 


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lands at 

Chap. I. ernoon, Hudson went six miles further up the river, and 
'anchored over night near the marshes which divide the 
channel, opposite the flourishing city which now bears his 

17 Sept. name. Early the next morning he set sail again, and 

slowly working his way through the shoaling channel and 
among the << small islands" which embarrassed navigation, 
anchored, toward evening, about eighteen miles further 
up, between Schodac and Castleton. 

18 Sept. Here the Half Moon remained at anchor all the next 
uadwm day. In the afternoon, Hudson went ashore ''with an old 

savage, a governor of the country, who carried him to his 
house and made him good cheer." The visit is graphic- 
ally described in the original Journal preserved by De 
Laet. "I sailed to the shore," says Hudson, " in one of 
their canoes, with an old man who was the chief of a tribe 
consisting of forty men and seventeen women. These I 
saw there, in a house well constructed of oak bark, and cir- 
cular in shape, so that it had the appearance of being b^iilt 
with an arched roof. It contained a great quantity of 
maize or Indian com, and beans of the last year's growth ; 
and there lay near the house, for the purpose of drying, 
enough to load three ships, besides what was growing in 
the fields. On our coming into the house, two mats were 
spread out to sit upon, and some food was immediately 
served in veil-made red wooden bowls. Two men were 
also dispatched at once, with bows and arrows, in quest of 
game, who soon brought in a pair of pigeons which they 
had shot. They likewise killed a fat dog, and skinned it 
in great haste, with shells which they had got out of the 
water. They supposed that I would remain with them 
for the night ; but I returned, after a short time, on board 
the ship. The land is the finest for cultivation that I ever 
in my life set foot upon, and it also abounds in trees of ev- 
ery description. These natives are a very good people ; 
for when tiiey saw that I would not remain, they supposed 
that I was afraid of their bows ; and, taking their arrows, 
they broke them in pieces and threw them into the fire."* 

* Jnet, in hi* aeooant of Um Toyage, aayt that the peraon who went ashore with dM 

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With the early flood-tide on the following morning, the ckaf. i. 
Half Moon " ran higher up, two leagues atove the shoals," '^TZZZ' 
and anchored in deep water, near the site of the present ,9 ^^ ' 
city of Albany. The people of the country came flocking jKSJT 
on board, and brought grapes and pumpkins, and beaver ^^^' 
and otter skins, which were purchased for beads, knives, 
and hatchets. Here the yacht lingered several days. The 
carpenter went ashore, and made a new foreyard ; while 21 sepi. 
Hudson and his mate, << determined to try some of the 
chief men of the country, whether they had any treachery 
in them," took them down into the Half Moon's cabin, and 
^^ gave them so much wine and agim viice that tiiey were 
all merry." An old Indian, stupefied with drink, remain- 
ed on board to the amazement of his simple countrymen, 
who '^ could not tell how to take it." The traditions of RereioB 
the aborigines yet preserve the memory of this first revel,* 
which was followed, the next day, by another visit fircan 
the reassured savages, one of whose chiefs, addressing Hud- 
son, ^'made an oration, and showed him all the country 
round about." 

Ev^y thing now seemed to indicate that the Half Moon Bnd orow 
had reached the heed of ship navigation. The downward voyage, 
current was firesh and clear, the shoaling channel was nar- 
row and obstructed ; yet Hudson, unwilling, perhaps, to 
abandon his long-cherished hope, dispatched the mate, with » sopc 
a boat's crew, to sound the river higher up. After going 
" eight or nine leagues" further — probably to some dis- 
tance above Waterford — and finding ^^ but seven feet wa> 

*'old nrage," was Um " master's mate," or onier acUpperf wbo, aceording to Van Mete- 
reo, was a Dutchman. On the other hand, De Laet eipresaly states that it was nadaon 
Umseir, and he quotes, flrom Hudson's own Journal, the passage which I have inserted 
in the text. The place where Hudson landed is stated by De Laet to have been in latl- 
t«de 4S^ 18^. This would seen to fix the scene of the erent at about fire or six raliss 
abofve the present city oTHndsoo, which is in 48° 14'. But latitudes were not as accurately 
determined in those days as they are now ; and a oaref\il computation of the distances run 
by\lie Half Moon, as recorded in Just's log-book, shows that on the 18th of September, 
when the landing occurred, she must have been " up six leagues higher" than Hudson, or 
In the neighborhood of Schodae and Castleton. 

* ** It is Tory remarlcaMe that, among the Iroquois or Six Nations, there ia a tradltloB, 
still Tory distinctly preserred, of a scene of intoxication whieh occurred with a company 
of the natlTes when the first ship arrived.'*— Rer. Dr. Millei^ Discourse, In N. T. H. 8. 
CoQ., t, p. 16 ; Heekewelder, In Moulton*s N. Y., L, p. d61-t54 ^ ii., N. Y. H. S. Coll., L, 
71-7S. See Note A, Appendix. 


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CH4P. 1. tor, ftiid inoonstant soundings," <he ezploriBg party return- 
'ed late at night, and reported that th^y had ^^ fcnnd it to 
be at an end for idiipping to go in«"* 
HndMMi ra- Hudson now reluctantly prepared to return. His aeoent 
the riTOT. of the rirer had occupied eleven days ; his descent con- 
93 sepc snmed as many more. Bidding adieu to liie friendly say* 
ages among whom he had tarried so pleasantly, and slow- 
ly descending the difficult channel for nine or ten leagues, 
M s«pi. he ran aground again, tiie next aftemocm, on the ^' bank 
of ooze in the middle of tiie river," opposite liie present city 
of Hudson. Hero ha remained wind-bound for two days, 
which wore occupied in wooding the vessel, and in visit- 
to sopc. ing the neighboring shores. While the yadit was lying at 
anchor, two canoes full of savages came \xp the river six 
miles from Catskill, where the crew had ^ first found lov- 
ing pec^e" on their upward voyage. In one of these ca- 
noes was the old man v^ had reveled on board the Half 
ICoon ^' at the other jdaoe," and who had fidlowed by land 
the yacht's progress down Ihe river. H^ now brought 
" another old man with him," who gave " stropes of beads" 
to Hudson, and '< showed him all the country thereabout, 
as though it were at his command." The visitors were 
kindly entertained ; and as they departed, made signs that 
the Europeaas, who were now within two leagues of their 
dwelling-place, '^ riiould ccmie down to them." 

But the persuasions of the friendly old chief were of no 
r Sept. avail. Weighing anchor the next day with a feur ncnrth 
wind, Hudson ran down the river eighteen miles, past the 
wigwams of the " loving people" at Catskill, who were 
" very sorrowful" for his departure, and toward evening 
anchored in deep water near Red Hook, where part of the 
M Sept. crew went on shcnre to &aii. The next two days were con^ 
sumed in slowly working down to the " lower end of the 
long reach" below Pokeepsie, where the yadit was ag&in 
visited by friendly Indians ; and then proceeding onward, 

* De Laet, in cap. tU., elatat tliat Hndaon explored Hie riTer ''to neariy iSP of neob 
taSMDde, wlMre tt beeane eo narrow and of to little depth, tbat be ftmnd it n e c eea ar y to 
ncom.'* An Albany is in 43^ KT, the boat maat, therelbre, hnre fone abtre that ylaea 
** eight ornine leafoeO" Airther— the diatance giren In Jiiet*a JonraaL 

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Htidson anohored in the evening under fhe nortiiem edge cmat. i. 
of the Highlands. Here he lay wind-bonnd ftir a day, in ^^^ 
a rery good roadstead, admiring the magnific^it mount- 30 3^ ' 
ains, i^iiich looked to him '' as if wme metal or mineral 
were in them." 

Early the next morning a fair wind sprung up, and the 1 < 
Half Moon, sailing rapidly through the winding Highlands, 
anchored, at noon, near Stony Point. Here some of Hie 
^^ people of the mountains" came on board, wondering at 
the '< ship and weapons." The same afternoon, a thievish 
native, detected in pilfering some articles through the cab- 
in windows, was shot without mercy by the mate ; and i 
the stolen things were promptly recovered from the canoes stony 
of the frightened savages, who lost another life in their 
flight. This was the first Indian blood shed by Europeans 
on the North River. Afker this sanguinary atonement had 
been exacted, the yacht drc^ped down two leagues frurther, 
through EEaverstraw Bay to Teller's Pointy near the moutii 
of the Croton. 

The next day, a brisk northwest wind carried the Half s odobw. 
Moon seven leagues frurther down, through Tappan Sea to 
the head of Manhattan Island, where one of the captive 
Indians, who had escaped from the yacht in the Highlands, 
on the upward voyage, came off from the shore with many 
other savages. But Hudson, "perceiving their intent," 
would suffer none of them to enter tiie vessel. Two ca- The luir 

noes ftdl of warriors then came under the stem, and shot ««»*•« aw 
a flight of arrows into the yacht. A few muskets weretn<ton- 
discharged in retaliation, and two or three of the assail- 
ants were killed. Some hundred Indians then assembled 
at the point near Fort Washingtcm, to attack Ihe Half 
Moon as she drifted slowly by ; but a falcon-shot killed 
two of them, " whereupon the rest fled into the woods." 
Again the assailants manned another canoe, and again the 
attack was repulsed by a falcon shot, which destroyed Iheir 
frail bark ; and so the savages "went their way," mourn- 
ing the loss of nine of their warriors. The yacht Ihen " got Hndwn tn- 
down two leagues beyond that place," and anchored over^i^m 



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CBAP. L night ^^on the other side of the river," in the bay near Ho- 
'boken. Hard by his andiorage, and upon ''that side of 
the river that is oalled Jlfanna-Aa^a," Hudson noticed that 
" there was a olifF that looked of the color of a white 
green."* Here he lay wind-bound the next day, and ** saw 
4 oecobtr. uo people to troublc" him. The following morning, just 
one month after his arrival at Sandy Hook, Hudson weigh- 
ed his anchor for the last time, and coming out of the 
" great mouth of the great river" into which he " had run 
saus flrom SO far," he set all sail, and steered off again into the main 
ifook. sea.t 

The Half Moon's company now held a council, and were 
of various minds. They were in want of stores, and were 
not on good terms with each other, " which, if they had 
been, they would have accomplished more." The Dutch 
mate wished to vrinter at Newfoundland, and then explore 
the northwest passage through Davis's Straits. But Hud- 
son, fearing his mutinous crew, who had lately begun to 
"threaten him savagely," opposed this proposition, and 
suggested their immediate return to Holland. At last they 
The Half all agreed to winter in Ireland. So they sailed eastward 
rt^S' for a month, without seeing any land by the way, and on 
DMtroaatiL ^^ geveuth of November, 1609, arrived safely at Dart- 
mouth, in Devonshire. 
HadMD Thence Hudson immediately sent over an account of 
^totbe his voyage to the Dutch East India Company, at Amster- 
'. ' dam, proposing to renew the search for the northwest pas- 
sage in Ihe following spring, after refitting the Half Moon 
in England, and superseding several of the most turbulent 
of her crew. But contrary winds prevented his report 
from reaching Amsterdam for some time. When at length 
the East India directors heard of Hudson's arrival at Dart- 
mouth, they instructed him to return with his vessel to 
HoUand as soon as possible. As he was about complying 

* The mineralofiflt may spend an agreeable day in Tisltinf thia dUr, near the <* Blyiian 
Fields'* at Hotraken. Hudson supposed it to be a copper or silrer mine. 

t See Juet's Journal of Hudson's third royage, in Purdias, and in i. N. T. H. S. Coll., 
1, 1(»-146 : and De Laet, in second series of same ooUections, i.» S«^16. An interesting 
analysis of the Half Moon's Toyage up and down the riTer, is in Yates and Moulton's His- 
tory of New Tofk, toI. i., p. 901-871. 

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with these orders early in the following year, he was ar- chap. i. 
bitrarily forbidden to leave his native country by the En- Ti 
glish authorities, who were jealous of the advantages j^^^' 
which the Dutch had gained by reason of Hudson's dis- 
coveries while in their service ; and the Half Moon was 
detained for several months, quietly at anchor in Dart- 
mouth harbor.* 

The American territory, which had thus been discover- The dbujh 
ed by the agents of the Dutch East India Company, though *» Nojth 
included within James's first Virginia patent of 1606, was 
actually unoccupied, and unpossessed " by any Christian 
prince or people." In the south, John Smith's exploring 
parties were visiting the upper waters of the Ghesapecdce, 
and far off in the north the arquebuses of Samuel Cham- 
plain were dealing death to the aborigines on the *' Lake 
of the Iroquois," when, with extraordinary coincidence, 
Henry Hudson was about piloting the first European ves- 1609. 
sel through the unknown ** River of the Mountains" which 
flowed between. No stranger but Yerazzano seems to have 
passed the " Narrows" before thosfe wondering mariners 
who navigated the Half Moon of Amsterdam up that ma- 
jestic stream, to which the assent of the world has given 
the name of its illustrious explorer.! All above was new 
and undiscovered. The lethargy of uncivilized nature 
reigned throughout the undisturbed solitude. The wild 
game sprung firom their familiar retreats, startled by the 

* N. T. H. S. GoU. (MCODd aeriee), ii., 170. *' Et comme Hndson «tait prtt de partir 
avec la nayire et aea gens, pour alter fUre rapport de son Toyage, U (Xlt arrets en Angle- 
terro, et re^nt commandement de ne point partir, mais qu'il devait fktre aerrice A aa pa- 
trie ; ce <ia'on commanda anaai anx autrea Anglaia qoi ^taient an vaiaaean. Ce <ine i^n- 
aieura tronverent (brt Strange, de ce qu'on ne peimettait pas au patron d'aller (kire 
compte, et de fUre npport de aon voyage et de qa*il arait lUt, i tea raalOva, qol I'ayaiant 
enToy^ en ce Toyage ; poisqne eela ae ftiaait ponr le bien oonmran de tovtea aortea de 
naTigations. Cod se fit en Janrler. 1610. On eetlmalt que lea Anglaia le voolaient en- 
▼oyer arec qadqoea navires, vera Virginia, poor rediercber ptna avant la anadite Riviere." 
«-Van Meteren, xxxi., 674, 675, edit 1618. Emanuel Van Meteren, tbe antbor of tbia ex- 
e^ent History of the Netherlanda, was for many years Dutch oonsol in Enj^and, and 
died in London, at the age ofaerenty-aeTen, on the 18th of April, 161S. 

t It is atated, indeed, in tlie " Ri^Knrt and Advice** preaented by the Chamber of Ac- 
eoimta of the West India Company, on the 15th of December, 1644, that New Natberland, 
" atretching from the Sooth River, aitnated in thirty-ei^t and a half degreea, to Cape Blal- 
ebarre, in the latitude of forty-one and a half degrees, was first visited by the inhabitanta 
of thia country, in the year 1598, and especially by those of the Greenland Company, bat 
without malOng fixed habitatioiia, and only as a reAife in the wtater.**— HoUaad Docq- 
menta, ii., 968. Thia atatement* however, needs eonftrmatlon. See Appendix, note A. 


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csAP. I. unusual echoes whioh rdled through the ancient forests, 
as the roar of the first f)utch cannon hoomed over the si- 
* lent waters, and the first Dutch trumpets blew the inspir- 
ing national airs of the distant Fatherland. The simple 
Indians, roaming unquestioned through their native woods, 
which no sounding axe had yet begun to level, and pad- 
dling their rude canoes along the base of the towering hills 
which lined the unexplored river's side, paused in solemn 
amazement, as they beheld their strange visitor approach- 
ing firom afar, and marveled whence the apparition came.* 
Thus the triumphant flag of Holland was the harbinger 
of civilization along the banks of the great river of New 
York. The original purpose of the Half Moon's voyage 
had failed of accomplishment ; but why need Hudson re- 
pine ? He had not, indeed, discovered for his employers 
the long-sought passage to the Eeistem Seas ; but he had 
led the way to the foundation of a mighty state.t The at- 
tractive region to which accident had conducted the Am- 
sterdam yacht, soon became a colony of the Netherlands, 
where, for half a century, the sons and daughters of Hol- 
land established themselves securely under the ensign of 
the republic; transplanted the doctrines of a Reformed 
faith ; and obeyed the jurisprudence which had governed 
their ancestors. In the progress of events, a superior pow- 
er took unjust possession of the land ; and nearly two hund- 
red years have rolled by since the change came to pass. 
Yet the hereditary attributes of its earliest settlers have 
always happily influenced the destinies of its blended com- 
munity ; and many of the noblest characteristics of its Ba- 
tavian pioneers have descended to the present day, unim- 
paired by the long ascendency of the red cross of Saint 
Q-eorge, and only more brightly developed by the inter- 
mingling of the various races which soon chose its invitixig 
territory for their home. 

The picturesque shores, along which Hudson lingered 
with enthusiastic delight — and the magnificence of which 

* See Appendix, note B. 

t TiM popolation ofUie Stale of New York, in 1850, was 3,097,358 ; about equal to that 
oftbe United States when the Deflnithre Treaty ofPeaee was signed in 1783. 

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drew from him the bold ealogimn, '^ it is as beautiful a chap. i. 
land as the foot of man can tread upon" — ^have become the "TI7T" 
favorite seat of elegance and refinement, and have witness- ^^' 
ed the resistless rise of '' empire and of arts." The silent 
iver o^^e Mountains is now the highway of a bound- 
tram^ and bears upon its bosom the teeming wealth 
lidR grand ar^cial channels, connecting it with the 
iterranean seas of a broad continent, bring down to its 
tides, from coasts of vast extent and illimitable resources. 
\ Swift steamers now crowd those waters, where Fulton's 
native genius first 

^bj flame oompelled the angry sea, 

To Yapor rarefied, his bark to drive 

In triumph prond, through the loud sounding surge ;" 

while the yet more '' rapid car" rushes incessantly along 
the iron road which science, obeying the call of enterprise, w^- -vv^-^^ ^^ 
has stretched along the river's bank. The rights and in- CU^ft^i v^oa-^v. 
terests of i&illions are now secured by equal laws, (»rdain- 
ed by freely chosen agents, and enforced by the common 
consent. And while, at the head of tide- water, the political 
affiurs of the pommonwealth are watched and administer^ 
ed, and the pec^le declare their sovereign will, the ocean- 
washed island of Manhattan, at the river's mouth, is the 
oosmc^litan emporium of an eagw commerce which whit- 
ens every sea. 


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Chap. n. At the time of Hudson's grand discovery, the United 
.j^j^^^ Netherlands had just taken the rank of an independent 
»n^*^^^ nation. For more than forty years tibey had maintained 
H^diJ?^ an unequal strife against the bigotry and despotism of 
JJJJjj^^ Spain. The confederation of the Provinces, in 1579, had 
toSf' **^" heen followed, in 1581, by the noblest political act which 
the world had then ever witnessed — ^the declaration of their 
national independence. Queen Elizabeth, who fiad warm- 
ly espoused the cause of the revolted provinces the year be- 
fore the Union of Utrecht, formally opened diplomatic re- 
lations with the States General in 1585, and even sent 
troops to their succor, under the command of her favorite, 
the Earl of Leicester. In 1604, James I. not only re- 
ceived ambassadors from the states, but, in conjunction 
with Henry IV. of France, agreed to use his best efforts to 
procure the recognition of their independence by Spain. 
A large number of the people of England, at the same time, 
were warmly in favor of an alliance with the Netherlands. 
The naturally unambitious character of the Dutch and the 
convenience of their country for trading, rendered them 
safe and profitable allies ; while the difficulty of securing 
the English coast firom their attacks, and the English mer- 
chant vessels from their privateers, would have rendered 
them equally mischievous and formidable enemies. Yet 
James himself, though he agreed to permit contingents of 
troops to be raised within his kingdom for their defense, 
heartily disliked the Dutch; and the more so, because he 
found that the English soldiers who served in the Nether- 

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lands, returned home filled with notions of popular rights chap. n. 
and civil liberty which they had imbibed in itie repnb- ^^^ 
Uoan provinces.* But Providence had determined that 
the soldiery of England were to learn in HoUand, during; 
the reign of James, lessons in human freedom and govern- 
ment, which were soon afterward to receive a stem appli- 
cation in the reign of James's unfortunate son. 

Three years more of varied war, in which the success- 
es of Spinola's armies on land were splendidly overbalanced 
by the victories of the Dutch fleets at sea, and the King 
of Spain, wearied with an apparently interminable contest, 
which had baffled all his calculations, and nearly drained 
his treasury, sent ambassadors to the Hague early in 1607, 
to open negotiations for a peace with the Netherlands. 
But the Dutch were not yet unanimous for a cessatioif of 
hostilities. Since their triumphs over the Spaniards, they 
had begun to imbibe a spirit of ambition and conquest 
alien to their former sober national character ; and, from 
being patient traders and brave defenders of their country 

J' ast invasion, they had become adventurous and victo- w 
I aggressors. Perceiving these changes in the habits 
e people, and fearing still greater and more inconven- 
ient modifications, Ba^jfeveldt, the Advocate of Holland, 
and many Aher patriotic stateiAen, ardently wished for 
peace. But the clergy, wno mistrusted the bigotry of Phil- 
ip, deemed an equitable treaty with Spain impracticable ; 
and tlf) stadtholder. Prince Maurice of Nassau, naturally 
opposed the termination of a war in which he was gaining 
both laurels and emolument as general-in-chief. A large 
party sided with Maurtce, urging that war was more safe 
and advantageous for the provinces than peace, which 
would, at any rate, throw out of employment vast num- 
bers of people ; and many of the merchants feared that 
with the end of hostilities the trade and commerce, -^^ch 
had been transferred to Amsterdam, would return to more 
oommodiously-situated Antwerp. Fortunately the coun- 
sels of peace prevailed, and the negotiations which were 

* DttTies, il., 384, 385. 



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cujLf. II. opened by the Spaniah ambassadors, requesting a temporal 
' ry truce, received udexpected emphasis from Heemdkerk's 
splendid victory over D^Avila, before Q-ibraltar, on the 
twenty.fifth of April, 1607. But Philip, though he agreed 
to acknowledge the sovereignty and independence of the 
provinces, refused to grant them, by treaty, a freedom of 
trade to India ; while the states, on the other hand, were 
determined, at all hazards, to insist upon their right to a 
commerce in which they employed upward of one hund- 
red and fifty ships and eight thousand men, and the an- 
nual returns of which were estimated at forty-three mill- 
ions of guilders. With the acknowledgment of their po- 
litical independence, they claimed the recognition of the 
consequence of independence — ^the free navigation of the 
seas. Upon this tender point, the progress of the negotia- 
tions was arrested.* 

At length, after two years of discussion and vicissitude, 
the conferences which had kept Europe in suspense re- 
9 April, suited in the signing, at the Town Hall at Antwerp, on 
% the ninth of April, 1609, of a truce for a term of tw^e 
years, instead of a definitive peace. The fulfillment d^Bb 
treaty was guaranteed by England and France ; the UnSraP 
Netherlands were declared to Be ''4|de countries, provinces, 
and states," upon whichf hilip and the archd||kes had no 
claim ; mutual freedom of trad^ between the contracting . 
pajrties was established ; and, by a secret article, the King 
of Spain engaged to offer no interruption to the coiynerce 
of the Dutch with India. The truce, after being ratified 
by the archdukes at Brussels, and by the States General, 
who were specially convened at Bergen-op-Zoom, was pub- 
is April, licly proclaimed at Antwerp and the other chief towns of 
Flanders, amid demonstrations of universal joy, the ring- 
ing of bells, and salvos of artillery. The great bell at Ant- 
werp, which had not sounded for nmny years, was rung by 
twenty-four men, and its glad peal was heard twelve miles 
oif, at Ordam and Lillo. The priests chaunted ^' Te Deum 

* Groans, XV., 710 ; Van Metaren, xxrlii., 606 ; xxix., OSO-030; Watson's PhiUp IL, 
UL, S17, Ml ; Davies, il., 40&-4f7. 

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Laudamos ;" the inhabttants of the towns {NKHnenaded ciup. u. 
outside of the walls, like newly-Uberated prisoners; and ^^^ 
boat-loads of passengers came throngh the oanak, from ^^^^- 
Zealand and Holland, to visit friends whom they had not 
seen for a long generation. But the now martial people 
of the Northern United Provinoes tempered tlieir triumph 
by a reoollection of the sufferings which they and their 
fathers had undergone. The States General proclaimed a 
solemn fast; and the day was religiously celebrated in all 6 May. 
the churches of the United Netherlands by hearty prayers 
'' that the Provinces might be maintained and preserved in 
a firm union, amity, and correspondence, under a properly 
authorized government,"* 

By foreign nations, the publication of the truce was re- 
ceived with astonishment and admiration. They could 
scarcely persuade themselves that the haughty Spaniard 
could ever be forced to acknowledge the independ^ce and 
sovereignty of his rebel subjects, and tacitly allow them a 
free trade to India. But no sooner had the ratifications 
of the treaty been exchanged, than the powers of Europe 
and Asia formed new estimates of the resources of the 
Dutch, and of the wisdom and energy of their counsels, 
and immediately began to vie with each other in courting 
their alliance and invoking their support Soon after the 
signature of the treaty, the States General sent the Sieur 
de Schoonewalle on an embassy to England. The king 
received him at once ^^as ambassador of a free country is juiy. 
and state," and immediately commissioned his Master of 
Requests, Sir Ralph Winwood, to reside in Holland as his 
ordinary ambassador. Thenceforward, the Dutch were 
universally esteemed "as a free and independent people. 
Having gained immortal honor by the magnanimity which 
they had displayed during the continuance of the war, 
they were now considered as having obtained the reward 

* Corps Dip., T., 9^108 ; GrotinS) xYiii., 819 ; Van Meteren, xxx., 058. The prodama- 
tion by gorernment authority, in this state, of days of fluting and days of thanksgiving, 
was a cnstom derived Ihmi Holland. Frequent instances in which the directora of New 
Netherland imitated the pious example of the Fatherland, will be finmd in the Ibllowing 


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CHAP. u. which their virtue merited, and were every where respeot- 
■"" od and admired. Their ministers at foreign courts were 
now received with the same distinction as those of other 
sovereign powers."* It is a somewhat singular coinci- 
dence, that the treaty was signed just three days after 
Hudson had sailed from the Texel on his voyage of dis- 
covery. So far, therefore, as England, France, and Spain 
were concerned, the nationality and sovereignty of the 
United Provinces were recognized with sufficient distinct- 
ness at the period of Hudson's voyage ; and the Dutch were 
certainly, from that time forward, abundantly competent 
to take and enjoy any rights derived from discovery under 
the law of nations.t 
ifudsont Hudson himself never revisited the pleasant lands he 

iMst voyage. it , •. hi mt <■ i 

loihc had discovered and extolled. The hardy marmer, still 

north, in . i • i 114.1 % 

EnjEiish intent on solving the problem of the northern passage to 
China, and prevented by the jealousy of English authority 
from leaving his native country to engage again in enter- 
prises for the benefit of foreigners, re-entered the service 
of his early London patrons, and sailed from the Thames 
in " The Discovery," on his last and fatal voyage to the 
1610. north, in the spring of 1610. Passing Iceland, where he 

17 April, saw the famous Hecla " cast out much fire," he doubled 
the southern Cape of Greenland, and penetrated through 
Davis's Straits into the vast and gloomy waters beyond. 
While Hudson's recent companions in the Half Moon were, 
under another chief, renewing a happy intercourse with 
the native savages along the River of the Mountains, the 
intrepid navigator himself was buffeting with arctic tem- 
pests, in fruitless efforts to explore the "labyrinth without 

* Van Metcren, xxxi., 662; Watson, Ui., 278; Darles, U., 427-439. 

t Chalmers, Pol. Ann., 568, intimates doubts on this subject. But this biased annal- 
ist, though a standard authority on many points, must be read wUh great caution in all 
that he writes with reference to the early history of New York. His strong English prej- 
udices constantly led him into serious misstatements in regard to the discoveries of other 
nations. The shores <^ New Jersey and New York had certainly not been ** often ex- 
plored" before Hudson's Toyage. Cabot can not strictly and fluriy be said to have " ex- 
plored'' a coast which be seems to have seen only occasionally. And what is the erl- 
dence that he took " formal possession" of any part south of Newfoundland ? Of Euro- 
peans, Yerazzano alone, who merely looked into the beautiftil harbor of New York, was 
really the predecessor of Hudson. Holmes, i., 135, 136, foOows Clmlmers, and repeats 
his errors. 

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^d" in which he had become involved. At length, after chap. n. 
spending a dreary winter of suffering and privation on the ^^^^ 
frozen coast, he was basely abandoned by his mutinous 
crew on midsummer's day, 1611, in a forlorn shallop, in 1611. 
the midst of fields of ice, to perish miserably in that sullen Hadmn's 
and inhospitable Bay, the undying name of which perpet- 
uates the memory of his inflexible daring.* 

The Half Moon having, as we have seen, been detained The Hair 
eight months in England, did not reach Amsterdam until tans to 
the summer of 1610, and the directors of the East India dam. 
Company, indisposed to continue efforts in a quarter which j/ju,y 
did not seem to promise the coveted passage to Cathay, 
and which was not strictly within the limits of their char- 
ter, took no farther steps to make available the discoveries 
which their yacht had effected.! 

But, meanwhile, if the glowing account of the country Dutch en- 
he had visited, which Hudson sent from England to his died. 
Dutch patrons, corroborated by his companions in discov- 
ery, on the Half Moon's return to Amsterdam, did not at 
once induce active efforts to transfer to those pleasant re- 
gions permanent colonies from the over-populated Father- 
land, it did not fail to stimulate commercial adventure in 
a quarter which promised to yield large returns. 

Toward the end of the sixteenth century, in the midst 
of their war with Spain, the Dutch had opened a prosper- Their rur 
ous commerce at Archangel ; and, in 1604, they had ob- rwa7. 
tained from the Czar concessions of such a liberal charac- 
ter as to attract to that port from sixty to eighty Holland 
ships every year. From Archangel, their traders had in- 
tercourse with Novogorod and the great inland towns, and 
carried on a large traflic in the furs of ancient Muscovy. 
The wise simplicity of the first Russian tariff laid a duty 
of five per cent, on all imported goods, and allowed an 

• N. Y. H. S. Con., i., 146-188. 

t The rabaequent career of the Half Moon may, perhaps, interest the enrioos. The 
small " ship book,** before referred to, ^hich I (bund, in 1841, in the company's ardilres 
at Amsterdam, besides recording tlie retom of the yacht on the 15th of Jaly, 1610, states 
that on the Sd of May, 1611, she sailed, in company with other vessels, to the East Indies, 
under the command of Laurens Reael ; and that on the 6th of March, 1615, she waa 
** wrecked and lost^ on the island of Mauritius. 


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Chap, il equivalent amount to be exported duty free. Whoever ex- 
ported more than he imported, paid a duty of five per cent 
* on tiie diiferenoe * 

A new temptation was unexpectedly offered to the ex- 
panding oommeroe of Holland. Vast regions in North 
America, which Hudson had seen abounding in beaver 
and other valuable frurs, and where native hunters, unre- 
strained by arbitrary regulations of excise, furnished ready 
and exhaustless cargoes, were now open to Dutch mercan- 
tile enterprise. The tempting opportunity was not neg- 
Another lectcd. Another vessel was immediately fitted out, and 
Manhattan, dispatchcd from the Texel in the summer of 1610, to the 
great River of the Mountains, with a cargo of goods suit- 
able for traffic with the Indians. The new adventure was 
undertaken at the private risk of some merchants of Am- 
sterdam,t who, perhaps, as directors of the East India 
Company, had read Hudson's report to his Dutch employ- 
15 July. ers. The Half Moon had now just returned to Amster- 
dam after her long detention in England. A part of h^ 
old crew manned the new vessel, the command of which 
was probably intrusted to Hudson's Dutch mate, who had 
opposed his early return ;t and the experienced mariners 
soon revisited the savages oa the great river, whom tbey 
Tradiuon had left) the autumn before. Tradition relates, that wh^n 
Hgf n- the Europeans arrived again among the red men, '* they 
her voyage, were much rejoiccd at seeing each other."i 

Meanwhile, the occupation of Virginia by the English 

had become well known in Holland, and the States Gren- 

eral, through Caron, their ambassador at London, had even 

Overtures made ovcrturcs to the British government *^for joining 

Dutch to with them in that colony." A proposition had also been 

respecting made to uuitc the East India trade of the two countries. 

But the statesmen of England would not favor either of 

* RieheMe de la HoUande, i., 51 ; MeCollagh'a Induatrtal Hlftory, U., 196. 

t De Laet, book UL, cap. vlL ; Albany Racorda, xxhr., 1«7. It U acarody a o oe — tr y to 
add, that the statementa in Smith'a ffiatory of New York, 1., 9, 3, respecting Hudaon 
having "sold the eountry, or rather hia right, to the Doloh,*' dtc, are otterly Ihbolima. 

t MuUkerk, A., 10. 

i Hoi. Doe., i., Sll ; Heckewelder, in U. N. Y. H. 8. CoU., i., p. 7S ; and in Yates and 
Mottlton, i., p. 354. See also Appendix, note C. 

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the Dutch projects. They feared, they said, "that in case chap, n 
of joining, if it he upon equal terms, the art and industry 
of their people will wfear out ours."* lolU. 

The liieory of a northern passage to China hy way of Tha Dmch 
Nova Zembla had continued, in the mean time, to bewttotoex- 

warmly supported by many learned men in Holland, nonharn 
Among these was Pet^ Plancius, of Amsterdam, who, like cuina. 
his contemporary Hakluyt, was distinguished no less as 
a clergyman than as a promoter of maritime enterprise. 
Plancius insisted that Heemskerk had fetiled in 1596, be- 
cause he attempted to go through the Straits of Weygat, 
instead of keeping to the north of the island. In compli- 
ance with Plancius's opinion, the States General, early in 
1611, directed that two ressels, the "Little Fox" and the 1611. 
" Little Crane," should be furnished with passports for voy- ** ^^* 
ages to discover a northern passage to China. But the ice 
arrested the vessels long before they could reach the 80th 
degree of latitude, to which they were ordered to proceed.t 

About the same time, Hendrick Christiaensen, of Cleef, christiaen- 
or Cleves, near Nymegen, returning to Holland from a voy- T^aU to 
age to the West Indiesj found himself in the neighborhood 
of the newly-discovered river, which the Dutch had already 
begun to call the " Mauritius," in honor of their stadthold- 
er. Prince Maurice, of Nassau. But deterred by the fear 
of lodng his heavily-laden vessel, and remembering that a 
ship from Monichendam, in North Holland, had been cast 
away on that coast, Christiaensen did not venture into the 
river at that time, reserving Hie enterprise for a friture oc- 
casion. On his arrival in Holland, Christiaensen, in com- ciuriatiaeQ 
pany with another " worthy" meuriner, Adriaen Block, ac- Block's 
cordingly chartered a ship, "with the schipper Ryser, and «ge. ^*'^ 

* Wi]iwood*a Mamorial, ilL, ttf ; Extract of a latter ftom Mr. John More to Sir Ralph 
Wmwood (EngUah nIn^n^aado^ at the Hague), dated Londoa, 15tb December, 1010. ** So 
aoon aa the Hector (now ready to hoiat aail) ahall be act Ibrth of this haren towarda Vir- 
finia. Sir Thomaa Gates wlU hasten to the Hagne, where he will eonftr with the Statea 
about the orertore that Sir Noel Caron hath made (br Joining with na in that colony. Sir 
Noel hath alao made a motion to join their East India trade with oora ; bat we fbar that 
in caae of joining, If It be npon equal terma, the art and indnatry of their people wiU 
wear oat oora.** 

t Hoi. Doc, i., 19 ; Van Materen, xzxU., 715 { Darlea, «., tM, 74S ; Neg . de Jeaanin, 


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Chap. h. aooomplished his voyage thither, bringing back with him 
two sons of the chiefs there."* 

The reports which the comrades made on their return 
to Holland, and the personal presence of the two young 
savages, named " Orson and Valentine," whom they had 
brought over as specimens of the inhabitants of the New 
World, added a firesh impulse to the awakened enterprise 
Pubuc ai- of the Dutch merchants. Public attention in the Nether- 
uouand lands soon became alive to the importance of the newly- 
discovered regions in North America. A memorial upon 
the subject was presented to the Provincial States of 4Iol- 
7 sepu land and West Friesland by " several merchants and in- 
habitants of the United Provinces ;" and it was judged of 
sufficient consequence to be formally communicated to 
the cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Hoom, and Enck- 
1612. The experience which Christiaensen and Block had now 
gained, naturaUy recommended them for further employ- 
ment. Three influential and enterprising merchants of 
Ships aent Amsterdam, Hans Hongers, Paulus Pelgrom, and Lam- 
sterdam to brccht vau Tweenhuvsen— of whom Honirers was a di- 
under rcctor m the Bast India Company — soon determmed to 
sen and avail thcmselvcs of the favorable opportunity thus offered 
to their enterprise. Equipping two vessels, "the Fortune" 
and " the Tiger," they intrusted the respective conmiands 
to Christiaensen and to Block, and dispatched them to the 
island of Manhattan, to renew and continue their traffic 
with the savages along the Mauritius River. 

Other merchants in North Holland soon joined in the 
other ahipa trade. The " Little Fox," under the charge of Captain 
"•"' °^'* John De Witt, and the " Nightingale," under Captain Thys 
1618. Volckertsen, were fitted out by the Witsons and other prom- 
inent merchants of Amsterdam ; while the owners of the 

♦ WaneDaar*a " HistoriM^he Verhael," *c., Ylii., 85 ; MuUkerk, A, SI. Wassenaar^s 
work has hitherto been unknown to oar historians. In 1848, 1 was fortonate enough to 
procure a copy in London, flrom which a short " Memoir of the Early Coloniution of New 
Netherlands* was prepared and puUished in N. Y. H. S. ColL (second series), ii., 855. A 
translation of some extracu from Wasoenaar has just appeared in Doc. Hist. N. Y., iii., 
i7-48. The precise date of Christiaensen's first Toyage is not glTen. 

t Hoi. Doc, i., 14 ; Wassenaar, ix., 44. 

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slrip " Fortane," of Hoom— the city which was soon to give chap, il 
its immortal name to the southern Cape of America — dis- 
patched their vessel, in charge of Captain Comelis Jacob- 
sen May, to participate in the enterprise of their metropol- 
itan firiends, on. the Mauritius River.* 

The admirable commercial position of Manhattan Isl- commer- 
and soon indicated it, by common consent, as the proper uieeT^' 
point whence the iurs collected in the interior could bepercewed. 
most readily shipped to HoUand. To secure the largest 
advantages from the Indian laraffic, it was, nevertheless, 
perceived that inland depots would become indispensable. 
Thus, cargoes of furs could be collected during the winter, 
so as to be ready for shipment when the vessels had been 
refitted, after their arrival out in the spring. Manhattan 
Island, at this time, was in a state of nature ; herbage was condition 
wild and luxuriant ; but no cattle browsed in its fertile uul 
valleys, and the native deer had been almost exterminated 
by the Indians. The careful kindness of the Dutch mer- 
chants endeavored to remedy, as well as possible, the 
want of domestic animals for the use of their solitary trad- 
ers ; and Hendrick Christiaensen, by his ship-owners' di- 
rection, took along with him, in one of his voyages, a few 
goats and rabbits to multiply at Manhattan. But these 
animals — ^the first sent from HoUand to New York — ^were 
soon poisoned by the wild verdure, to which they were un- 

Up to this time, the Dutch traders had pursued their The Dutch 
lucrative traffic in peltry, without question or interruption, ^nted 
No European vessels but theirs had yet visited the regions Nortb or 
around the Mauritius River. Their ships returned to Hoi- Riw. *** 
land freighted with large cargoes of valuable furs, which 

*Bol.Doe.,i.,39; Mnilkerk,A,»4. The *« UtUe Fox" was probably tbe tame T«Mel 
which had been aent to Nora Zembla In 1011. 

t Waaaenaar, Ix., 44. It aeema fhNn Wasaenaar's aceoont, that the native apeciea of 
daga, in New Netheriand, waa qnite amall ; ttx when Lambraeht Tan Tweenhnyaen, one 
of the ownera of Chriatiaenaen and Block'a abipa, gare one of these eaptaina a " large dog^ 
to take OQt with him, the Indians, coming on board the ahip, wwe very much aflraid of 
the animal, and called him ^* the aaehem of the dogs," beoanae he waa one of the largest 
they had erer seen. The tranaiation in Doe. Hist. N. T., iii., 40, ia inaccurate. Van 
lireenhnysen gSTe the dog to his schipper ; he waa not a ** achipper** himself, bat a 
<• reader," or ship-owner, and ha does not appear erer to hare viaited Manhattan 


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Chap. n. yielded enarmoas profits to their owners. From Manhat- 
tan, small trading shallops were dispatohed into the neigh- 
• boring creeks and bays of " Soheyichbi," or New Jersey, 
and up the Hauritins River, as £eu* as the head of naviga- 
tion. The Dutch had been the first, and, hitherto, the only 
Europeans to visit the Indian tribes in these regions, witih 
all of whom they had continued to maintain a friendly and 
cordial intercourse. But while the Holland merchants pro- 
moted new explorations, they do not appear, as yet, to have 
directed the construction of permanent defenses ; although 
it has been said that, ^^ before the year 1614," one or two 
small forts were built on the river fox the protection of the 
growing peltry trade.* 
Loss of By accident, Adria^i Block's ship, the Tiger, was bum- 
su^tad ed at Manhattan, while he was preparing to return to Hol- 
a yacht at land. Undismayed by his misforttmc, the perscvering mar- 
iner set about building a small yacht, out of the admirable 
ship timber with which the island abounded. This work 
occupied Block during the winter of 1613, and imtil the 
spring of 1614. To accommodate himself and hb com- 
Firat cab- pauious duriug their cheerless solitude, a few huts were 
tile laian^ now first crectcd near the southern point of Manhattan 
Island ; and, in the absence of all succor from Holland, the 
friendly natives supplied the Dutch, through a dreary win- 
ter, " with food and all kinds of necessaries."! 

* In a memorial to tlie States Genend, dated 95th of October, 1684, tlie West India Com- 
pany say, that "nndsr the ehief command of your Hi«h Mightinesses, befbre the year 
1614, there were one or two little forts built there, and prorided with garrisons fbr the 
protection of the trade."— Hoi. Doc, ii., 1S8. De Laet, howerer, who wrote in 1694— ten 
years beibre the ooapany*B memorial— distinctly states that one small ft«t was bnilt " in 
the year 1614," npon an island in the upper part of the river. In another place he says it 
was bant in 1615.— De Last, book lii., cap. TiL, ix. For Tarioos reasons, which will be 
exhibited Anther on, I think there was only one ftnt boflt ; that it was on ** Castle Island,** 
near Albany « and that it was erected in 1614. 

t De Laet, book iii., cap. x. ; De Vries, 181 ; ** Breeden Raedt aen de Vereeinghde N»- 
dertandsehe Piorintien,'* Ac., p. 14, 15. This latter rery rare tract (fbr the use of which 
I am ind^ited to the kindness of Mr. Campbell, the deputy librarian at the Hague) is now 
Ibr the first ttane quoted in our history. The statement in the Breeden Raedt, of the In- 
dians themsetres, is that ** when our people (the Dutoh) had lost a certain ship thsre,and 
were buflding another new ship, they (the ssTages) assisted our people with fbod snd all 
kinds of necessaries, and prorided (br them, through two umtenf until the ship was fln- 
tshed." De Laet, in his later editions of 1633 and 1640 (book iii., cap. TiL), says, that to 
carry on trade with the natives, ** our people remained there during winter." Dt Vriss, 
p. 161, repeats the same statement. The aoeonnt In the Breeden Raedt, that Bloefc built 
his yacht dvfMg- f*« «D«iler, seems thus to be fWy eonflrmsd. Thsc fte t ssss I was hrilt 

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The in&nt ocixmy of Yirginia had, meanwhile, suffered ohap. n. 
strange vioissitades. Under the second charter of King ^^^ 
James, which passed the great seal early in 1609, Thomas y,,^}^^^. 
Lord Delawarr was appointed governor for life; Sir Thomas ^^^^ 
Gates, lieutenant goy^mor ; Sir G-eorge Somers, admiral ; 
and Christopher Newport, vice-admiral. An expedition, 
consisting of nine vessels, was equipped and dispatched for 
Virginia, with five hundred emigrants, a few days before 
the charter was actually sealed. Lord Delawarr himself is luy. 
did not leave England with ihe expedition ; but he dele- 
gated the command, in the interim, to Gates, S<»ners, and 

When near the end of their voyage, a hurricane sepa- 
rated the ship in which the three commissioners had em- 
barked fix>m the rest of the squadron, and wrecked it oa shipwreck 
B0rmuda.t The remnant of the fleet reached Yirginia to- Sa. 
ward the end of the summer ; and to avoid anarchy, John 11 AngMt. 
Smith, who had now been two years in the colony, assumed 
the chief command, in the absence of the newly-commis- 
sioned officers, whose fate was yet unknown. But the new 
colonists consisted of ^' many unruly gallants, packed hither 
by their firiends to escape ill destinies.'^ Against every pos- 
siUe discouragement, Smith resolutely maintained his au- 
thority, and his influence introduced sometiiing like order 
among the unruly emigrants. At length, an accidental ex- 
plosion of gunpowder, which mangled his person, disabled 
him from duty, and obliged him to return home for surgical 
aid. Disgusted at the opposition he had met with in the { 

colony, which owed him so much, the '^ Father of Yirginia" sodu^ 
delegated his authority to George Percy, and embarked for o<nober. 
England, a few weeks after Hudson had set sail for Eu- 
rope with the news of his grand discovery.^ 

Li the mean time. Gates and his companions, who had 
been cast away on Bermuda, had subsisted upon the nat- 

dnliif Um winter of IMS, and was (Iniilied and lued In tbe fpriag of 1014, ieei^ 
tain flrom Hoi. Doc., 1., 47, 58. 

*Smltl^l.,S33; Purehaa, It., 17S9. 

t Stracbey'a aooonnt of this shipwreck In Pnrchas, It., 1734, is supposed by Malone to 
be the fbondatioii of Shak^eare's " Tenpest.!' This opinion, howerer, has reeeotty bean 
eontrorerted. t Smith, 1., SS9 ; 11., l€t. 



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0H4r. n. ural prodoote a£^mt fcrtile island, liie InxmianM of wliioh 

^^•ifemaid won ftom Walkr ito «mtoUe« p«..gyr«, 

CMMvaaUt <*Heav6a8trt had left tiiis spot ofearthuiMism'd, 

'^Bf^ Ta show how bXL thiage w«w eroBted fin*." 

^''^**' Dajjag the anttunn and winter, witii admirable per«o««r^ 
anoethejeonstrnofod two small pnuiaoes outoftbewrectk 
of tlifiir old ship and the eedara wlii<^ tliay felled on the 
island. After a nine months' sojonm in their delightibl 
abode, thej embarked in these vesBels, in Ihe spring crt 
1610. 1610, and in a few days arrrred safely at Jamestown, 
" ^'^' Bat isfitead of a haj^y weloome, they met a soene ^f mis* 
Ti»«*atwpv- ery, and famine, and death. The four hundred and ninety 
iAirginia. persons whom Smith had left in the oolony, had, in six 
monthsi, through Yioe and starratioii^ dwindled down to 
sixty. In tiieir extremity of distress, they edi now determ- 
ined to desert Virginia, and seek safety and food among 
the English fishermen at Newfoundland. Embarking in 
«iaiM. fomr pinnaoes, the oobnists bade adieu to Jamestown. 
<^ None droj^ped a tear, for none had enjoyed a day of hap« 
Arrivaior But unoxpeoted relief was at hand. After nearly a 
wwr. ' year's delay in England, Lord Dolawacr embarked at 
Oowes on the first of April, 1610, and set sail for Yirgima 
widi three vessels kden witii supplies. The squadron fol- 
lowed the old roote, by the roundabqpt way of Teroeiraand 
Giiatiosa; and, early in June, LordDelawarr first made the 
land ^^ to the southwaid of the Chesapeake Bay." Running 
« jiML in toward ihe diore, he anohcHred over night at Cape Hen- 

7 jMM. ry? where he landed and set iqp a cross. The next morn- 

ing he sailed up the Chesapeake to Point Comfort, ^diere 
ha heard the sorrowful tale of << the starving time." At 
that very moment, the pinnaoes oonveying ibs remnant of 
the dispirited oolony VTere slovdy falling down the James 
Biver vritii the tide. The governor instantly dispatched a 
boat with letters to Grates announcing his anivaL The 

8 Joat. next day, the pinnaoes were met desoending the river; and 

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6hilet immediately potting abovt, relanded his men the oair. n. 
same nigkt at Jamestown. ' 

Lord Delawanr wjon anmred before ike town with hisj^jjljl;' 
■hip; and, after a sermon by the chaplain, ecanm^noed the 
task of regenerating the ookmy. A ooiuhhIwes sworn in; 
^^the evils of &ction were healed by the unity of the ad- 
minis^tkMi^ and ihe dignity and virtues of the governor;" 
and the rejoimng colonists now began to attend to their 
itotioB with energy and good-will. To supply pressing 10 jvw. 
wimt, Sir George Somers was promptly diq[>atohed withsonenwd 
Sunuel Argall, '< a young sea-captain cf coarse passions ^^dto 
and arbitrary temper,'' in two pinnaces, to procure 6A and 
turtle at Bermuda.* 

After being a montli at sea, Ihe pinnaces parted com* 
panyinafog; and Argall^ despairing of rejoinmg his com- srjaiy. 
rade, made the best of his way back to Virginia. Palling 
in with Gape Cod, he sailed to tiie soathward, and in a 19 August, 
week found himself again within twelve leagues of the 
riunre. Early the next morning, he andiored '< in a very S7 Aogwt. 
great bay," where he found " a groat stcwre cf pec^e which s^gjj*" 
were very kind." The same evening, Argall sailed for the "^^ 
Chesapeake, after naming the soutiiem point of the bay in 
which he had anchored, <^ Cape La Warre." This Cape 
is now known ae Cape Henlopen. The bay itself, whidi 
Hudson, in the Half Moon, had discovered just one year 
before, was soon commonly called by the English << Dela- 
warr's Bay," in honor of the Q-ovemor of Virginia ; but, 
notwithstanding received statements, there is no evid^iceLordDeia. 
that Lord Delawarr himself ever saw tiie waters which th^S^ 
now bear his name.t 

Prosperity at length began to smile <m Vii'ginia. But 
Lord Delavrarr, finding his health sinking under the cares 
of his office and the effects of Ihe climate, sailed for En-38Mareb. 
gland in the spring of 1611 ; and Gtttes having previously ntans to 
returned to hondonjt the administration of the colonial gov- 

* Lord Ddttwarr's letter of Tth of Joly, 1010, In MS. Htri. Brit MiMwiin, 700Q, M. SB, 
prInlaA bj the Haldoyt Soeiety ; PwcIim, tf^ 17M ; Bancroft, L, 141. 

t Argnll's Joomal, in Porchu, iv^ 1709 ; Strtehoy** Virginia Britannia, 43 ; Pe Vriea, 
MO, IM. See Afpendlz, nete D. t Winwood** Menwritt, W., SM. 

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ctur. u. emn^ent was oonunitted, during his absence, to Ciqptain 

Q-eorge Percy. Soon after Delawarr's departure, Sir Thqm- 

* as Dale, '^ a worthy and experienced soldier in the Low 

Countries," to whom, at the request of the Prince of "Wales, 

so January, the States Greneral had just granted a three years' leave 
of absence from their service to go to Virginia,* arrived at 

» May. Jamestown, and assumed the government. Finding that 
the colony needed more assistance, he wrote at once to 
England. Lord Delawarr, on his return home, confirmed 
Dale's accounts ; and, with unusual promptness, ihe coun- 
cil at London dispatched six ships to Virginia, with three 
hundred new emigrants and large supplies. 

Adminia- Sir Thomas Gates, who, like Dale, had served in the 

Gates. Netherlands, and, in 1608, had been allowed by the States 
General to resign the commission he held in Holland, ^^ to 
take command in the country of Virginia, and to colonize 
the same,"t was now sent out with the new expedition, 
invested with full authority as lieutenant governor, and 

Aofuat. arrived safely at Jamestown in August. . Under his care- 
ful administration, the English settlements on the Chesa- 
peake rapidly prospered, and soon c^)peared to be firmly 
1613. established. In the smnmer of 1613, Captain Argall, who 
had been sworn by Lord Delawarr one of the colonial 
council, while on a fishing voyage trom Virginia to Nova 

Argall on Scotia, was Overtaken by a storm, and driven ashore on the 

the ooaat of j f 

Maine. ooast of Maine. Here he learned frcmi the Indians that 
some French colonists had just arrived at the island of 
Mount Desert, a little to the eastwiurd of the Penobscot. 
On this island, the Jesuit missionaries in the company, aft* 
er giving thanks to the Most High, had erected a cross, and 
celebrated a solenm mass. The island itself they had 
Hiiipiratip. named '^ Saint Sauveur.'' Ascertaining the weakness of 
S^T*'***^ the French, Argall hastened to their quiet retreat, and soon 
Franeh ovcrpowercd them by his superior force. De Thet, one of 
ariea. ' the Jcsuit fathers, was killed by a musket-ball ; several 
others were wounded ; " the cross round which the faith- 
ful had gathered was thrown down;" and Argall returned 

* Hoi. Doc., i., «. t Ibid., i., 5. See al«> amU, page 45, sola. 

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to Virginia with eighteen prisoners, and the plunder of a chaf. ii. 
peaoefdl colony, which the pious zeal of Madame de 
Gnercheville had sent to America to convert the savages 
to Christianity. 

Gates no sooner i^eceived the report of this piratical ad- ^***^ 
venture of hb subordinate, than, by the advice of his coun- mSjw tnd 

•^ Noir* BCD' 

cil, he determined to undertake a new enterprise agamstiia. 
the French in Acadia, and destroy all their settlements 
south of the forty-sixth degree of latitude. Three armed 
vessels were immediately dispatched, under the command 
of Argall ; who, returning to the scene of his former out- 
rage at Mount Desert, set up the arms of the King of En- 
gland, in place of the broken cross of the Jesuits. Argall 
next visited St. Croix, and destroyed the reitmants of De 
Monts' former settlement. Thence he sailed to Port Roy- 
al. Meeting no resistance there, Argall loaded his ships 
with the spoil of the ruined town; and having thus effect-9 not. 
ed all his purposes, he returned to Virginia about the mid- 
dle of November.* 

The pretext under whidi Areall had been dispatched to Pretexts ror 

His niratif^ 

gather inglorious laurels on the coasts of Acadia, was thcaipr 
alleged encroachment of the French settlers there upon the 
territory comprehended within Jameses sweeping grant, 
in 1606, to the London and Plymouth adventurers. Gates 
naturally leaned toward the most grasping interpretation 
of an instrument in which he was named first among the 
original grantees of an enormous monopoly. But James's 
patent, nevertheless, distinctly excepted from its purview 
all lands '' possessed by any other Christian prince or peo- 
ple ;" and the French had unquestionably been in quiet 
possession of the neighborhood of Acadia two years before 
the first English charter passed the great seal. By hb 
second charter of 1609, James had also expressly restrict- 
ed the Virginia Company's northern boundary to a line 
two hundred miles north of Point Comfort, or about the 
fortieth parallel of latitude. The predatory proceedings 
of Q-ates and Argall were, therefore, entirely unwarranta- 

• ChamiilAiD, 10M09; Lfetibat; Bucraft, i.,tf4& 


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S4 HisremT op the otatb op new york. 

cbap. sl ble ; and tiiey were piompity reflented hj the court of 

Franoe. As soon as intelligence of the outrage reached 

coniptoints E'^UTopc, flic French amba88ad(»r at Ii<HMlon made a formal 

F^cham- complaint to the English government. The privy council 

jJ^JI^^ immediately demanded explanations firom the Virginia 

1614, Company ; who excused themselves by stating in reply, 

ttjuiBirjr.^j^^ they had received no information from Virginia "of 

any such misdemeanc^s."* 

1613. On his return voyage from Acadia to Virginia, late m 
Norember. NovembcT, Ajgall is Said to have " landed at Manhatas 
A^jjFwi^*. Isle, in Hudson's River," where, finding "four houses 
jjManhai- fcuilt, and a pretended Dutch governor," he forced the HoU 

landers to submit themselves to the King of England and 
to the government of Virginia. But this favorite story is 
v^ suspicious; it is inconsistent with authentic state 
papers ; it has been deliberately pronounced to be " a pure 
fiction ;" and it certainly needs to be sustained by better 
authority than any that has yet been produced, before it 
can be received as an historical truth.! 

1614. In the s{»ring of 1614, explorations began to be vigor- 
5JjSi*Jl^ously prosecuted around Manhattan, by the several trading 

vessels which had been dispatched from Holland. De Witt, 
sailing up the Mauritius River, in the ^'^Little Fox," gave 
his name to one of the islands near Red Hook. May, in 
the " Fortune," coasting eastward, beyond the Visscher's 
Hook, or Montauk Point, visited a large " white and clay- 
ey" island, around which Gx»snold had sailed twelve years 
before. This island, the Indian name of which was Ca- 
packe, Uie Dutch for awhile called " the Texel;" but it is 
now known as Martiia's Vineyard.^ 

By this time, it was perceived that, to secure the larg- 
est return from the peltry trade, a &ctor should reside per- 
manently on the Mauritius River, among the Maquaas, 
or Mohawks, and Uie Mahicans, at the he£ul of tide-water. 

* Champtein, U9 ; Lcmd. Doe., I., 1, S ; N. Y. Colonial MuiiueripCs, UL, 1, t. 

t See Appendix, note £. 

i De Laet, book iii., eap. Tiii. On ViB8clier*a and Van der Donek'e maps of New NeCh< 
aiUuid, tbera is an island in tbe North RiTer, marked " Jan de Witt's Bylant,** juat noaii 
of Magdalen Island. Jan de Witt*s Island is the small one Jnst south of Upper Red Hook 
landing, or TiToU ; Hggdalen lalnd Is the laiger cne next below. 

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Hendriok Chriatiaetuuiix^ who, after his fiist Qxperimoit in c^u*. a 
oampany with Adriaen Blooky is stated to ha^e made "ten 
voyages" to Manhattan, aoooidingly constrncted a trading chUMOMi^- 
heme on " Castle Island," at the west side of the riyer, ^lV^^!!^ 
little below the present city of Albany. This building, ^^"^ 
vdiich was meant to 0(HnUne the double purposes of a"**^**""*^ 
warehouse and a military defense for the resident Dutoh 
traders, was thirty*six feet long, by twenty*six feet wide, 
ittolosed by a stockade fifty-eight feet square, and the 
whole surrounded by a raoat eighteen feet in width. To 
compliment the fBimily of the stadtholder, the little post 
^ was immediately named '< Fort Nassau." It was armed 
with two large guns, and eleyen swivels or patereros, and 
garriscmed by ten or twelve men. " Hendriok Cbristiaen- 
sen first commanded liere ;" and, in his absence, Jaoob 
Belkens, formerly a clerk in the counting-house of an Am- 
sterdam merchant.* 

It has been confidently afltened that the year after the Nomn at 
erection of Fort Nassau, at Oastle Island, a redoubt was 
also thrown up and fortified " on an elevated spot," near 
the southern point of Manhattan Island. But the assertion 
does not appear to be confirmed by sufficient authoiity.t 

Adriaen Block had, meanwhile, completed the building siock eom- 
of his yacht, which he appropriately named the Onrw^/, ya^'<UM 
ot " Restless." With this small vessel, about sixteen tons 
in burden, and the first ever constructed by Europeans at 
Manhattan,^ Block proceeded to explore the bays and riv- 
ers to the eastward, into which the larger ships of the Dutch 

* FifuratiTe Map, fhmi the archires at the Hafoo ; Doe. Hiat. N. Y., 1U.,S7, 38 ; Waaae- 
naar, tL, 144 ; iriiL, 85; Da Laet, book iiL, cai>. ix. ; De Vrte% US; Hoi. Doc, fk^ 110; 
Alb. Reo., xxli., 817 ; xxlr., 167 ; SmttVa Hist. N. T., L, SS. Caatie laland waa the flrat 
below Albany, and, aAer 1630, was known a> Van Renaaelaer'a, or Patroon'a laland. 
The rapid p rogreaa of imprtnremeat has, howerer, now nearly oUiterated ita ftmnar inaa- 
lar eharaoter, and " annexed" it to the thriTing capital oToor atata. 

t See Appendix, note F. 

t The ** B ea U eaa " waa fbrty-ftwr and a half feat long, eleven and a half feet wide, and 
of about eight laata or aixteen tone borden.— Da Laot, book Ul., eq). x. ; Hoi. Doe., i., 5S. 
Mr. Cooper, in hia Naral Hiatory (i., p. 41), apeaka of Block*a yacht aa **the flrat decked 
▼eaael bnUt within the old United Statea." Bat the honor of praeedence in Ameriean na- 
val ardkiteetnre auiat, Ihirly, be yielded to Popham's nnfliftimate colony on the Kaona- 
beek. The '^Virginia, of Sagadidioe,'' waa the flrat Saropean-boUt veaael wlthla the 
original Thjiteen Statea If MaincbeeottaJdered aapart of Maaaaehaaatta. Tha««Baal- 
Uaa, of Manhattan,** waa the pioneer craft of New Tcik 


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Coat. n. traders had not yet ventured. Sailing boldly iimyngh the 
then dangerons strait of " the Hell-gate,"* into " the G-reat 
j5,ii, * Bay," or Long Island Sound, he carefully *' explored all the 
n^^ plaoes thereabout," as far as Cape Cod. Coasting along 
iSiMd "* the northern shore, inhabited by ihe Siwanoos, Block gave 
^""*** the name of " Ajchipelagos" to the group of islands oppo- 
Di«cover» site NwTwalk. At the present town of Stratford, he visit- 

the Hoosa- *■ 

ionic ed the " River of Roodenberg," or Red Hills, now known 
as the Housatonic, which he described as about " a bow- 
shot wide," and in the neighborhood of which dwelt the 
indolent tribe of Quiripey Indians. Passing eastward 
along the bay at the head of which New Havwi now 
stands, and which, on account of the red sandstone hills 
in its neighborhood, the Dutch also soon called the "Roo- 
Ej^MM^denberg," Block came to the mouth of a large river run- 
lieut River, nuig up northerly into the land. At its entrance into the 
Sound it was " very shallow ;" and Block, observing that 
there were but few inhabitants near its mouth, ascended 
Uie river to the rapids, at the head of navigation. Near 
Wethersfield, he found the numerous Indian tribe of Se- 
quins. At the latitude of 41^ 48' — ^between Hartford and 
Windsor — he came to a fortified village of the Nawaas 
tribe, who were then governed by their Sagamore Mora- 
hieck. Here he heard of " another nation of savages, who 
are called Horikans," dwelling " within the land," proba- 
bly near the lakes west of the upper part of the river, 
and who navigated the waters "in canoes made of bark." 
From the circumstance that a strong downward current 
was perceived at a short distance above its mouth, Block 
immediately named this beautiful stream the " Versch," 

* " Our people (the Dutch) call tUa I^femi o$, or the Helle-fat,** aaya the accurate De 
Laet. According to Block'a account, as stated by De Laet, the Dutch likewiae oriflnally 
called the whole of what waa soon more fluniliarly known aa the " East River,** by the 
name of the ** Hell-gate River ;" and the currents from that river and from the North Riv- 
er are described as "meeting one another near Nutten (Governor's) Island." A braneh 
of the Scheldt, near Hulst, in Zealand, is called the "Hellegat," after which Blodi proba- 
bly named the whiripool through which he was the first known European pilot. Mod- 
em sqneamiahneas has endeavored to improve this expressive hi torioal appdlation into 
** Hurl-gate." But while modem science has overcome the nautical terrors of old Hell- 
gate, it is to be hoped that a vicious modem conceit will not prevail to rob us of one oftha 
Ibw remaining memorial names of early New York. 

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<nr Fresh Water River. By the native savages it was oall- cuap. 11 
ed the ** Connitteoook," or Quonehtacut ; and the aborig- 
ioal appellation survives to the present day, in the name 
of the river and the state of Connecticnt* 

Continuing bis course eastward from the mouth of the Block di»- 
Gonnectiout, Block came to the <' River of the Siccana- iwni 
moe," afterward called by the EDglish the Pequod or 
Thames River, where he found the powerful tribe of Pe- 
quatoos or Pequods, who were " the enemies of the "Wapa- 
noos," in possession of the country. From there, stretch- 
ing "over across the Sound," he visited the "Visacher's 
Hoeck," 01 " Cape de Baye," now known as Montauk 
Point, which he discovered to be the eastern extremity of 
" Sewan-hacky," or Long Island, " on which a nation of 
savages, who are called If atouwacks, have their abode." 
A little to the northeast of Montauk Point, he next visited visiui 
a large island, to which the Dutch immediately gave the and.** 
name of " Block's Island," in honor of their countryman.! 

Thence, following the track of Yerazzano, Block ran 
across to Nassau, or Narragansett Bay, which he thorough- 
ly explored. The western entrance was named " Sloup 
Bay," and the eastern " Anchor Bay ;" while " an island 

* Do LMt, TUi. ; HoL Doe., tU., 73 ; VeriMel tin BeVttnlnek, 007 ; Winthrop, i.» 9L 
Trumbull, in hia History of Connecticut (I., p. 31), afflmw that **none of the ancient ad- 
▼ontivera, 'who discovered the great continent of North Amerioa, or New England, made 
any discovery of this river. It doea not appear that it was known to any civiUsed nation 
until some years after the settlement of the English and Dutch at Plymouth and New 
NeCherland." Tet Huhbard (Maas. ColL, xv., 18, 170) disUncay states that the Dutoh 
first discovered it ; and if Trumbull had consulted the accurate details of De Laet, he 
would have fbund the dearest evidence that Block explored not only the river, but the 
whols coast of Conneetieut, in 1014, or six years beibre the first Puritan English colonists 
landed at Plymouth Rock. Bancroft, il., S73, following Hubbard, says that " the discov- 
ery of Conneetieut River is undoubtedly due to the Dutch.'* b would have been safe to 
have added that Block was ** its first European navigator." 

t b has been usual to consider Kock as the first discoverer of the island which still 
bears his name. But while we thus honor the mBiuaaj of the sxploier of Long Island 
Sound, we should not forget to do Justice to his predecessor Veraaxano, who, in 1534, after 
saUing along the Atlantic coast of Long Island (which he took to be the main land), for 
fifty leagues eastward ft-om Sandy Hook, ** diseoveted an island of a triangular firna, 
about ten leagues fnm the main land, in sixe about equal to the island of Rhodes." This 
Island, which was undoubtedly Bloek Island, Veraxxano named ** Claudia," In honor of 
the mother of King Francis I. It is so Isid down in Lock's map of 1583.— Hakluyt So- 
ciety's •* Divers Voyages," 55, 04 ; N. Y. H. S. CoU., 1., 58 ; t. (second series), 40, 49. The 
editor of Hakluyt, however, though he seems unable to reconcile Veraxzano's aooount 
with the supposition that ** Claudia" was Martha's Vinsyard, does not sppear to have 
thought of Block Island. 


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Chap. u. of a redd^i appearance'' was observed lying wiiliin. This 
waa soon known by the Dutch as " Roode" or Red Island, 
ExpiorJ' ^^ which is derived the name of the present State of 
l^iiMttSiV Rl^^® Island. Along the western shore of tiie bay dwelt 
J3i5^ the tribe of Wapanoos, whom Block described as " strong 
of limb and of moderate size," but somewhat shy, ^' since 
they are not accustomed to trade with strangera." Ban- 
ning out of the Narragansett, he stood across the mouth 
of Buzzard's Bay to the southward of the Elizabeth U- 
ands, formerly visited by G-osnold, and sailed by the lai^ 
" white and clayey" island, cconmonly called " Texel" by 
tiie Dutch, and " Capacke" by others, and which is now 
known as Martha's Vineyard. South of the Texel, Block 
viaits Mar- observed another small island, which he immediately 
ytrd^ ^ named '' Hendrick Christiaensen's Island," in conq>liment 
to his early comrade. This island, which Q-osnold had 
discovered, and named Martha's Vineyard, is now called 
" No Man's Land ;" while, with a happier fate. Block Isl- 
and, retaining to this day the name which the Dutch first 
gave it, preserves the memcnry of the hardy pioneer of 
Long Island Sound. 

Sailing onward through the " Zuyder Zee,." to die north 
of the island of "Vlieland," or Nantucket, Block passed 
near the " Vlacke Hoeck," or Cape Malebarre, and ran 
along the shore of Cape Cod, until he reached its northern 
Block paas- point, wWoh he named "Cape Beveohier." Thence he 
cJ^ coasted along the " Fuyck," or " Wyck Bay," or " Staten 
Bay" — ^which names the Dutch gave to the waters now 
known as Cape Cod Bay — and explored the shore of Mas- 
sachusetts as for north as " Fye Bay, as it is called by some 
of our navigators, in latitude 42° 30', to which the limits 
of New Netherland extend." This Pye Bay is now known 
visito Boo- as Nahant Bay, just north of Boston harbor, and, at the 
and Na- time Block first visited it, " a numerous people" dwelt 
there, who were *^ extremely well-looking, but timid and 
shy of Christians," so that it required " some address to 
approach them."* 

* De LMt, book Ui., cap. tIU.; anie, p. M; ii. N. T. H. S. CoU., i., SOS-997. It U 

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On his return from Fye Bay to Cape Cod, Blook fell in chap. 11 
witii the ship of Hendriok Christiaensen, which seems, 
meanwhile, to have been Beat around from Manhattan to gio^ 
the northward. Leaving there his yaoht, the Restless, *^J2JJJ^ 
whieh had already done suoh good service, in charge of ^S^JSraB 
C<Nmelis Hendrioksen, to make further explorations on the '^ "**•*"**• 
ooast, Block embarked in his old companion's ship, the For- 
tune, and returned with her to Holland, to report &e dis- 
ooveries which he and his fellow-navigators had made in 
the New Wwld * 

In the mean time, the States General, anxious to enoour- 
age the foreign oommeroe of Holland, had granted, early srjtButry. 
in 1614, a liberal charter to an assooiattion of merchants. The 
for prosecuting the whale fishery in the neighborhood of company^* 
Nova Zembla, and the exploration of a new pessaiTe tobythe 

SUitoa Con- 

China. Of this association, which was named " the North- erai. 
em Company," Lambreoht van Tweenhuysen, one of the 
owners of Block's ship, was an cariginal director; and 
among his subsequent associates were Samuel Godyn, 
NicholiMs Jaoobsen Haringoarspel, and Thyme'n Jaoobsen 
Hinlopen, whose names have also become historical in our 

The importanoe of a similar concession of privileges in 
favor of the merchants, at whose expense new avenues of 
trade were now being explored in the neighbcorhood of Man- 
hattan, was soon perceived; and the States of HdlandaoMarcb. 
were petitioned to recommend the general government to 
pass an ordinance which should assure to all enterprising 
adventurers a monc^ly, for a limited time, of the trade 

desr that Bloek Milled beyond Cape Cod to Pye Bay, m he ^aa i»M diatanee fltxn tte 
Uiardbyhiaobaerradoiia. See alto the "Fifaratire Map,*' or chart, ftnind in the anhiTea 
at the Hagne (no donbt the one to which De Laet refera on page 8M), upon which Plym- 
oath harbor la marked aa'^Cme Bay," and Beaton harbor aa '*Fox Haven," while 
Salem Bay ia called ** Count Hendrick's Bay" (Appendix, note G). The same designa- 
tkma are retained upon Vlaacher'a and Montanna'a mape, which alM lay down " Pye Bay** 
aa Bear Nahant. The latitude of Nahaat la 49P W, which eorreaponda pseciaely with 
that of ** Pye Bay," aa given by De Laet. 

* De Laet, book iU., cap. x. ; Hoi. Doc, 1., 9S-M. De Laet, after atating Block'a ex- 
ptoration of the neighborkood of Cape Cod, in the Beatleaa, adda, '* whence he returned 
home with the ahip of Hendrick Chriatiaenaen, and left the yacht there on the ooaat Ibr 
fhrtlMir uae." The tranalation in N. T. H. S. CoU. (eecond aeriea), t, 301, ia inexaei. 
Muilkeik, A, 93, anggetta that Coneaa Handriekaea waa awn oTHeodriek Chriatiaensen. 

t GrootPlaeaatbeok,L,«70; WaManaar, vU^ M ; vML, M ; Ix., 1S4. 


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Chap. II. with the landfi they might discover. The States G-eneral 

aooordingly passed the desired ordinance, declaring it to 

27 March* ^ " honorablc, useful, and prc^table," that Hie people of 

General the Netherlands should be encouraged to adventure them* 


lor the en- sclvcs In discoveriug unknown counlries ; and, for the pur- 
mem of pose of making: the inducement " free and common to ev- 

ncw die- * " 

roveries. ery one of the inhabitants," granting and conceding Ihat 
" whosoever shall from this time forward discover any new 
passages, havens, lands, or places, shall have the exclusive 
right of navigating to the same for four voyages." The 
ordinance also required that reports of such discoveries 
should be made to the States Greneral witiiin fourteen days 
after the return of the exploring vessels, in order that the 
promised specific tradmg privileges should be f(»rmally pass- 
ed, in each case, to the adventurers ap^aring to be enti- 
tled to them ; and that if simultaneous discoveries should 
be made by different parties, the promised monopoly should 
be enjoyed by them in common.* 

September. Upou Block's arrival at Amsterdam with ihe details of 
the Dutch explorations on the coast of America, the mer- 
chants of North Holland, whose enterprise had been re- 
warded by such interesting results, hastened to appropriate 
to themselves the advantageous trade c^ned to them there, 
and to exclude all other rivalry. Uniting themselves into 

Ameterdam a compauy, they took the necessary st^s to obtain the 

compaSy spccial privileges which were promised in the Greneral Or- 
dinance of the 27th of March. A skillful draughtsman 
was employed to construct an elaborately finished ^' Fig- 
urative Map" of their transatlantic discoveries, which was 
{probably prepsured under Block's iirmiediate supervision, 
and from the data that he furnished.t The associates 
then deputed some of their number to go to the Hague, 
and lay before the States Greneral an account of their dis- 
coveries in America, and to obtain the desired special and 
exclusive license to trade to those regions. 

October. The dcputics, probably accompanied by Block, accord- 

• Hoi. Doe., i., 15, 10 ; Oroot Flaeaatbook, L, 56S. 
t See Appendix, note O, Ibr a deseription oTtUs map. 

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in^j prooeeded to the oapital. Unlike other Dutoh cit^ chap. n. 
ies, the Hague owed its importanee, not to eommeroe or 
manofaotores, but to having eariy been made the seat of Deputies' 
govemment of the United Provinces, and to the constant gjjjjg '*^" 
presence of the officers of istate and the foreign ministers 
ao(»redit6d to tiie republic. For four centuries the abode 
of the counts of Holland, it derives its name firom the 
^< Haeg" or hedge encircling the magnificent park which 
formed their ancient hunting* ground, and the majestic 
trees in which, at this day, attract the admiration of En- 
rope. On an artificial island in the centre of that beauti- 
ful town — ^its long facade bordering the quiet lake which 
fronts the Yyverberg*— stands a straggling pile of build- 
ings, of irregular forms and of various eras, surrounding a 
vast quadrangle, quaintly paved with small yellow bricks, 
and inclosing a lofty and venerable hall, the rival of West- 
minster, formerly hung round with trophies of the victo- 
rious confederacy, and in which were held the solemn and 
extraordinary meetings of the States Q-eneral. Spacious 
galleries and corridors, now consecrated to the preservation 
of the archives of the Netherlands, stretch over long ar- 
cades and gilded apartments, the faded magnificence of 
which yet attests the former splendor of the republic, when 
her calm statesmen sat there in the days of her pomp and 
power. This is the " Binnenhof," or inner court — ^the an- Tha Bin- 
cient palace of the counts of Holland. Here the States '^^ 
General constantly held their ordinary meetings, in a su- 
perbly-decorated apartment facing the old Gothic Hall ; 
theii clerk or '^ greffier" occupying a small, meagerly-fiir- 
nished adjoining closet, where ambassadors were frequent- 
ly received, and the weightiest afiairs of state transacted. 

Hither came the deputies of the Amsterdam Company interview 
to tell their story of adventure and discovery, and to ask states oen- 
the reward promised to ihext successful enterprise. Around 
the oval council-table sat twelve " high, mighty lords" of 
tiie States General. One of the assembly was John van 
Olden Bameveldt, the Advocate of Holland. Spreading 
upon the council-board the '^ Figurative Hap" of their 


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ciiAP.n. transatlantio discaveries, the petitioiierft related to tbib 
statesmen of Holland the adTentores of their agents in 
the New World ; and, detailing the " heavy exp^ises and 
damages" they had suffered during the current year 
^< from the loss of ships and other great risks," they asfced 
a special and exdusiye tioense to trade to the i^egions 
which they had explored. The assembled statesmen list- 
ened to the nsmrative with interest and favor. Dutch ccmi- 
mercial enterprise had now achieved the exploration of 
unknown and extensive regions in North America, whidi 
might soon become of great political importance to the re- 
public. These regicms were sparsely inhabited by various 
roving tribes of aboriginal savages, who had already shown 
kindness to the Hollanders. No Europeans but the Dutch 
ia^ers were in possession of any part of the territory. 
Why should not the Amsterdam Company now receive 
their promised charter? The States G-eneral promptly 
complied with the prayer of their countrymen ; and the 
11 October, greffier, Cornelius Aerssen, at once drew up the minute of 
«ian?^ a special trading license or charter, the original of whidh 
S^bySw^y^ records, in almost illegible characters, the first ap- 
smesGen- p^^rancc of thc term " New Netheriand" in the annals of 
the world. The formal instrument, bearing date the 11th 
of October, 1614, was immediately afterward duly sealed 
and attested ; and thus the government of the United 
Provinces, by its solemn act, officially designated the un- 
occupied regions of America lying between Virginia and 
Canada by a name which they continued to bear for half 
a century, until, in the fullness of time, right gave way to 
power, and the Dutch colony of New Netherland became 
the English province of New York.* 

* HoUind DoeunwBts, i., 4S, 47. • This ■peoial ohartor was brao^ to Uflit by Uh m- 
MurehM made in the archives at the Hague, in 1841, by direction of the goremnient of 
this state. De Laet, however, wtio wrote in 1634, reltara to it in diapter vii., in gtneial 
tenna, and without glring ita exact date, aa granting an "exclnaiTe prlviiefe^ of navi- 
gating to and trading at New Netheriand. Yet Chalmsra, in the teeth of De Laet'a atate* 
nanis, aaaerta, that when Uie Dotch Weat India OomiMny was flnaUy eatabllaiMd in MSU 
" neither any plantation nor the name of New Netherland at that time had any exial- 
eiiBe.'*-^Pol. An., 560. Buthe whole of the llrat part of thia Uaaed aathor^ ehaplerra> 
latingto Now York, aa haa already been intimated, ahoonda in groaa m iarapTOa a ntnio aa , 
acme of which have been too eagerly adopted by American writer*. 

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The speeial cbaitar thus grantad by the States G^enerfl ckaf. ii. 
loansed the memorialistB ^' exolaflively^ to vimt and navi- 
gate to tiie aforesakl newly-difloovered lands lying in Aineri^ 
aa, between New France and Virginia, the 8ea^x)aats where- ^J^^^ 
of extBoad firom ihe fortieth to the forty-fifth degree of lati-''''*^* 
tude, now named New NErmBRLAiin (as is to be seen on 
the Figurative Map prepared by them), for four Toyages 
wiiUn tiie period of three years, oommencing on the first 
day of January, 1615, next ensuing, or sooner ;" and it ex** 
pnssly interdicted all other persons, directly or indireotly, 
from sailing o«t of the United Profinces to those newly- 
diseovered regions, and from frequenting the same within 
tlM three years reserved, under pain of confiscation of ves- 
sels and cargoes, and a fine of fifty thousand Netherland 
ducats to ike benefit of the grantees of the charter.* 

At the time the Dutdi government perfected the Newviewaor 
Netherland charter, the discovery and possession of Canada oetMni la 
and Acadia by the French was not<»ious ; and the patentSe^. 
vriiich James I. had granted to the London and Plymouth ^' 
Oompanies had likewise, for eight years, been known to 
the world. British colonists bad already partially ooco- 
pied Virginia, the titie of England to which the Dutch 
never questioned. The States General themselves had 
officially recognized it, in permitting Gates and Dale to 
leave tiieir service to go ihither, and in making overtures 
to yAa with England in that colony. Upon the Figura- 
tive Map of New Netherland, referred to in the charter of 
1614, New France was represented as extending northr 
ward of tiie forty^fiftii degree, and Virginia southward of 
the fortieth degree. The Dutch discovncies were defined 

* The charter sete Ibrth the ntmee of the grantees, aod of their Teaeels and eapcaina, at 
Ml0wa: •<GeiTttJaeobMiiWUMii,fbfiiMrh«rgonaalerorttaeeltyorAiMt«xIam; JoBM 
WItaen, and Staioo M oniaen, ownera of the ship the 'Little Fm,' Captain Jan de Witt ; 
Bana Hongert, Panlna Pelgrom, and Lambreeht van Tweenhnyaen, ownera of the two 
aUpa nanMd the * 7^(f«f' and the *Wfrtm9t* whoae eaptaina are Adriaea Bk»ok and Bei- 
dridc Chriatiaenaen ; Amoodt van Lybergen, Weaael Schenck, Hana Claeaaen, and Barent 
Swaetaeo, owmn of the ahip naaied the *Nig1itmgaky* whoae eaptain ia Thy VolelMfl- 
aas, narvhanta of the atamNM city of Awaterdam; and Pieter Clenentaen Brouwer, Jan 
Cleinentaen Kiea, and Cornelia Volckertaen, BMrohanta of the dty of Hoorn, ownera of 
tka aUp naond llw * Jtiftaii/ whaaa eaptata la ConMtta Jaeobaen May.**— HoL Doe^ U, 
47. See alao Addieaa befbre N. Y. Hiatorlcal Sodety, 1644, Appendix, p. AS ; and O'Cal- 
l^han^ Nir Wathartand, ^ n. 


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ciAP. u. in that oharter, as lying between New Franoe and Yir- 
ginia, and the sea-ooasts of New Netherknd were dedaied 
'^ to extend finom the fortieth to the forty-fifth degree of lat- 

itude. This intermediate region, which. Block and his 
comrades had described as inhabited only by aboriginal 
savage tribes, was yet ^^ unoccupied by any Christian 
prince or state.'' The Plymouth Company, by the pat- 
ent of 1606, were merely authorized to begin a colony at 
any convenient place between the thirty-eighth and forty- 
fifth degrees of latitude ; were prcmiiaed all the land ex- 
tending along the sea-coast, fifty miles on each side of 
<' the first seat of their [dantation," and one hundred miles 
into the interior ; and were assured that they should not 
be molested by any British subjects. After the return of 
their dispirited colonists finom the Sagadahoc, in 1608, that 
company had seemed to relinquish any farther attem];ri» 
to settle emigrants within the limits assigned to them by 
the patent ; under which, in fiu^t, no subsequent English 
colonization ever took place. Though British fishing ves- 
sds continued to resort to that neighborhood, the country 
N«w En- itself was esteemed as '' a cold, barren, mountainous, rocky 
iMfliedft^ desart," and was declared to be '^ not habitable" by En- 
glishmen.* In the same summer that Block was explor- 
ing Long Island Sound and the regions to the north and 
east, Smith was visiting the bays and coasts of Maine and 
Massachusetts ; and the Crown Prince of Great Britain was 
ccmfirming the name of ^' New England," which Smith 
had given to the territories north of Cape Cod, about the 
very time that the States G-eneral were passing their first 
charter of trading privileges to the " Directors of New 
Netherland." But New England, though it had a nom- 
inal existence, was yet uncolcmized in any part Its re- 
cent name had not even reached the ears of the Butch 
statesmen at the Hague. They mi^t justly have ocm- 
New Neth- sidered the territory which they now formally named 
^^"JSJii "New Netherland" as a ^^ vacuum domiciliumy^^ fnxAy 
nm'^opeii GpNi to Dutoh enterprise and ocoupaticm. In granting 

to Um 

DQ'ch. • Huard,!., 50-58 : S«iltli,G«ii. Hlat^iL, 174; Mm*. Hii«.CQlL,ZZTL,S«w 

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the diarter of 1614, the States General certainly exer- chaf. n. 

oised a distinct act of sovereignty over that territory by 

giving it the name of New Netherland. But while they •*'^^^- 
specifically defined the boundaries of their grant as in- 
cluding the regions " between New France and Virginia," 
they only assured to the associated merchants, whose en- 
terprise had been rewarded by important discoveries, a 
monopoly of the trade of that coimtry against the compe- 
tition of other Dutch subjects, without for the present as- 
serting the right to exclude the rest of the world. 

After the procurement of the New Netherland charter, 
Block's connection with American discovery ceased. Van 
Tweenhuysen, who had been one of the joint owners of 
'' the Tiger," was anxious to secure the services of his en- 
terprising captain for the newly-organized " Northern Ccnn- 
pany," and ofiered him the ccmimand of some vessels to be 
employed in the whale-fishery near Spitzbergen. Block 
accepted his patron's proposition, and sailed for the Arctic noek «iii 
Ocean early in 1615.* He does not appear to have ever tic < 
revisited the scenes of his successful adventures on the 
coasts of America. Of all the early followers of Hudson 
in the exploration of New Netherland, ihe honored names 
of only two are now commemorated by Block Island and 
Cape May ; yet the anncdist of commercial New York will 
ever gratefully record the " Restless" as the pioneer ves* 
sel launched by white men upon her waters, and as her 
first ship-builder, Adriaen Block. 

* WaiMDMr, TUi., 95. 



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Chap. in. Thb Holland m^rohants, who had obtained from the 

States General the exclusive right of trading for three 

The New 7^^^ ^ New Nothorland, though united together in one 
gj^«»'i company to secure the grant of their charter, were not 
strictly a corporation, but rather << participants" in a spe- 
cific, limited, and temporary monopoly, which they were 
to enjoy in common. No Dutch vessels might visit the 
coasts of America, between Bamegat and Nova Scotia, 
except those belonging to the grantees of the charter, who 
resided at Amsterdam and Hoorn, in North Holland. But 
these grantees were intrusted with no political powers fot 
Ae government of New Netherland. The objects they 
had chiefly in view were traffic and discovery ; and to pro- 
mote these objects the States G-eneral had sealed their 
(diarter. Agricultural colonization was not their present 
purpose ; and their few men in garrison at Castle Island 
were rather armed traders, holding formal possession of an 
unoccupied territory, than emigrants to subdue a wilder- 
Murder or Not long after Christiaensen had completed Fort Nas- 
christiaen- sau, the first murdcr recorded after Hudson's voyage oc- 
**"* ourred in New Netherland. The two young savages, Or- 
son and Vfidentine, who had been carried to Holland, were 
soon afterward safely restored to their native country. 
They were described as " very stupid, yet adepts enough 
in knavery." Of the two, Orson seems to have been the 
most mischievous: "an exceedingly malignant wretch, 
who was the cause of Hendrick Ghristiaensen's death," is 

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Waawaaart qaaint reoovd. No motiTe is amgned for tiie Otup. m. 
mvadeTy whioh, however, the Hollanders speedily avenged ; 
and the treachNrons Orson ^' was repaid with a hnllet as ^^^^' 
his reward."* 

Meanwhile, Jacob Eelkens oontinaed actively employed gBn<M^_ 
m proaeonting a qoiet traffic with the Mohawk and Mahi*^»in<^ 
can Indians about Castle Island, and in collecting valu- 
able cargoes of fturs, which, from time to time, were sent 
in shallops down the river to Manhattan, for shipment te 
Holland. Scouting parties were, at the same time, oon^ 
stantiy engaged in exploring all the neighboring country, 
and in becoming better acquainted with Ihe savage tribes 
T^oh surrounded them; with all of whom it was the 0(m«> 
stant policy of the TkxUAi to coltivate the most friendly 
relations. N^ 

While the sober smrit of commercial Hc41and was thus THiitaiA ^ 

' on LakM 

quietly searching out new avenues for trade along ^^^i'g^ 
coasts of Long Island Sound, and on the bordfflis of the<iH^ 
Mauritius River, the more impetuous spirit of chivalrous 
France was intrepidly exploring the waters of Lake Onta- 
rio, and invading the territories of the <' Konoshioni," or 
Iroquois,t near the valley of Onondaga. After discovering 
the lovely inland waters which perpetuate his name, Cham* 
[dain thrice revisited France ; and having engaged some 
wealthy merchants of Saint Male, Bouen, and Rochelle> 1614. 
te form an associaticHi for the cobniiation of Canada, he 
obtained, through the influence of the viceroy. Prince de 
Conde, a ratification of the contract by the king. Setting 
sail from Honfleur early in the spring of 1615, he soon 1615. 
reached Tadoussac, accompanied by four Recollet mission^ * ^^' 
aries, Yrbo were the first ministers of Christianity settled 
in Canada.1 On his arrival at Montreal, Champlain found 

* WasMnur, Tltt., 85 ; tx., 44 ; Doc. HUt, N. T., Ui., 88, 41. 

tThePiTeOonlMentoaNattoiMorNewTorttliidUai. ^'LenottdlBoqvaivaMiiv*- 
ment Pran(oi«, ec a AtA tatnA da tenne ffiro, on Jliero, que ^gaUinfmMt; et par laqoel 
aaa wnngm flaiaaeiic toaa kon diaeoara, aomme laa Latina lUaoiant antreMa, par lent 
dim; ec de KotUt qui aat on erl, tantAc de trtsteaae, loraiia'oii le prononoe en tralnant, eC 
tantAt de joie, loraqn'on le prononee (daa eooit. Lenr nom propre eat Agomumtiommj qid 
mot diia Fai$mn 4t Ca»amm.**"-ChartaTolx, t., p. »71. AaeordtngtACllirtcmaadSohael' 
eraft, tbair name waa Kennnettonl, «r g owa rtri a n l. 

t Champliia, 1S1-M8. Jia«li MJnlwiriii, ai W€ Iwv* aaatt (anCt, p. OS), wata aM- 


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Cbat. m. the HuroQs and their allies preparing for an expedition 
' againtst their ancient enemies, the Iroquois. Anxious to 

reoonnoitre the hostile territory, and also to secure the 
friendship of the Canadian savages, the gallant FrenchmaD 
resolved to acoorapany their warriors. After visiting the 
tribes at the head- waters of the Ottawa, and discovering 
Lake Huron, which, because of its <' great extent," he 
named ^^ La Mer Douce," Champlain, attended by an arm- 
ed party of ten Frenchmen, accc^ingly set out toward 
isapt the south, with his Indian allies. Enraptured with the 
*'very beautiful and pleasant country" tlirough which 
they passed, and amusing themselves with fishing and 
hunting, as they descended the chain of '^ Shallow Lakes,'' 
which discharge their waters through the River Trent, the 
expedition reached the banks of Lake Ontario.* 
w Oitatar. Crossing the end of the lake '^ at the outlet of the great 
River Saint Lawrence," and passing by many beautiful 
islands on the way, the invaders followed the eastern shore 
of Ontario, for fourteen leagues, toward their enemy's couup 
try. In the vicinity of the present village of Henderson, 
in the county of Jefferson, the party landed, and the sav- 
ages hid all their canoes in the woods near the bank of 

the lake. After proceeding about four leagues, over a 
sandy tract, Champlain remarked ^< a very agreeable and 
beautiful country, traversed by several small streams and 
two little rivers which empty into the lake." These riv- 
ers were the Big and Little Sandy Creeks, and the ''beau- 
tiful country" was the northern edge of the present coun- 
ty of Oswego. Leaving the shores of the lake, the in- 
vaders continued their route inland to the southward, for 
twenty-five or thirty leagues. For four days they pressed 
onward, meeting no foes, and crossing in their way a num- 
ber of rivulets, and a river forming the outlet of Oneida 
Lake; which Champlain described as "twenty-five or thir- 
ty leagues in circuit, in which there are beautiful islands, 

IM in Maine and Nora Scotia aeToral yean betoe thia ; bM ChamplaiB now flnl imv^ 
Aneed the RecoUet, or Praneiacan Auhera, into Canada. 
* *'ULaade8Ento«lMHiorona,»Cliaii|plain»SM; fioiiehatt0*8 Brttlah Anerlen,i.,8A. 

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and where our Iroqnois enemies catoh their fish, which tire ouv.m. 
very abundant." Here the Canadians captured eleven Ir* ^^^- 
oquois, who had come about four leagues from their (ortgocttibm. 
to fish in the Oneida Lake. Among the prisoners were 
four squaws. Preparations were immediately made fiir 
the usual savage tortures ; but Champlain humanely pn>> 
testing against the cruelty of his allies, as '^ not the act 
of a warrior," succeeded in saving the lives of the womeo, 
though the men all suffered death. 

In the afternoon of the next day the expedition arrived Tueir*- 
before the fortified village of the Iroquois, on the northern at onwi i- 
bank of the Onondaga Lake, near the site of the present ml 
town of Liverpool.* The village was inclosed by four 
rows of paliseuies, made of large pieces of timber closely 
interlaced. The stockade was thirty feet high, with gal« 
leries running around like a parapet, which were garnish- 
ed with double pieces of wood, arquebuse-proof ; and the 
fortification stood close by a ** pond where water was nev- 
er wanting." 

Some skirmishing took place as soon as the invaders 
reached the Onondaga Fort ; though their first design was 
not to discover themselves until the next morning. But ^ 
the impatience of the savages overcame their prudence. 
They were anxious to see the effect of the fire-arms of their 
French allies ; and Champlain, advancing with his little de- 
tachment against the Onondagas, quickly *' showed them 
what they had never seen or heard before." As soon as 
the Iroquois heard the reports of the arquebuses, and felt 
the balls ^^listling about their ears, they nimbly took ref- 
uge within their fort, carrying with them their killed and 
wounded. The assailing party then fell back upon their 
main body, wilii five or six wounded ; one of whom died. 

* **TtU8 IroqnoiB ton wm on tbe Bhoro of Onondaga Lake ; and it is higUy protMMa 
that it was on the ground subsequently occupied by Sieur Dupuis^ in IM5, and also bj 
Coant Frontenac in his expedition against the Onondagas, in IdM, and by Colonel Vaa 
Schaicli in 1770.*'-- Clarices Hist, of Onondaga, 1., 250. The spot is marlied on Chan^ 
plain*a Map Tery distinctly. Every geographical detail in Champlain*s worit seems to 
eonAnn the opinion of dark and Marshall that the lake must have been the Ooondaga; 
and thai it could not have been the Canandaigua, as aasumed in a note on page 10, ilL 
Doe. Hist., N.T. 


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mujt.m. Contrary to Chamfdaia's advioe, tkud invadars now t^ 
'TTrr'ti^aiod a eaazum's shot from the fort. This proToked hia 
7^ oameat remonstranoes ; and hia genina soon suggested a 
plan of attadc, borrowed from the ancient modes of war- 
Sure. A movable tower, in which fbnr Frendb marksmen 
could be placed, was to be constnicted^ safl&oiently high 
lo command the palisades ; and while ihe besieged Iro- 
qpiois were thus securely picked off, the stockade itself was 
to be set on fire. The plan was promptly approyed of by 
the Canadians, who commenced Ihe work the next day, 
and labored with sudi diligence that the tower was com- 
pleted in four hours. They then wished to wait for a re- 
inforcement oi five hundred men which they expected; 
but Ghamplain, judging that delay in most cases is prej- 
udicial, pressed them to attack the fort at once, 
t oetoiier. The iuvaders, yielding to his arguments, followed his 
advice. The tower was carried, by two hundred men, to 
within a pike's lengtii from ihe stockade; and four arque- 
busiers, well protected from arrows and stones, began to fire 
on Ihe invested Iroquois. The besieged savages at first 
answered wil^ warm discharges of arrows ; but the fotal 
balls of the Frendi marksmen soon drove them fixHn their 
galleries. Champlain now directed the Hurons to set fire 
to the stockade. But instead of obeying, they began to 
shout at the enemy, and discharge ineffec^ve flights of ar- 
rows into the fort. Ignorant of discipline, and impati^it 
of oontrdi, each savage did as he liked. At length they 
lit a fire, tm the wrong side of the fort, eontrary to the 
wind, ao tiiat it produced no effect. The besiegers then 
began to pile wood against the palisades, though in such 
small quantity that it did little good. The noise now be** 
came overpowering. Champlain attempted to warn the 
savages against the results of their bad judgment ; but the 
great confrision prevented him from being heard. Per- 
ceiving that he was only << splitting his head by drying 
out," he directed the remainder of his French party to fire 
npon the besieged. Many of ihe Iroquois were killed; but, 
observing the disorder of their assailants, they poured wa- 

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ter from the gatten in snoh abnndanoe, that erery spark qkap. m. 
of fire was soon extingnished. Meanwhile they discharged 
inoessant flights of anows, which fell upon tiie besiegers 
like haiL The combat lasted about four hours. Two of 
Ihe Huron chiefs and fifteen warriors were wounded, tim cana- 
Ohamplain himself was twice sererely injured by arrows; < 
and the repulsed besiegers retreated to their encampment. ' 

Here ihey remained inactive seyeral days. No argu- 
ments of Champlain could induce the Hurons to renew 
the attack until their expected re-enlbrcement of five huiid^ 
red men should arrive firom Canada. A few skirmishes 
occurred ; but whenever the Iroquois saw the French ar- 
quebusiers approaching, they promptly retreated witiiin 
their fort. At length the invaders, tired of vraiting for 
their re^enforcements, broke up the siege, contrary to Cham- 1« ootobw 
plain's earnest remonstrance, and began their retreal The 
gallant Frenchman, himself disabled by his wounds from 
walking, was }daced in a frame of wicker-vrork, and car- 
ried for several days on the backs of the savages. The 
Iroquois pursued their enemies fcnr hidf a league, but Uka 
retreat was conducted in such good order that the invaders 
sufiered no loss. 

In a few days the party reached the spot where they so oeiobw 
bad hidden their canoes on the shore of Lake Ontario, and 
were overjoyed to find that they had not been discovered 
a^d destroyed by the Iroquois. Champlain was now anx- 
ious to return to Montreal by way of the Saint Lawrence, lumar 
over the upper vraters of which no European had yetuoa?*^ 
passed. But his savage allies refused to furnish him with^^***^ 
a prcnoised guide and canoe ; and he was obliged to ao- 
o(»npany them home, an unvnlling guest, and pass a 
dreo^ winter in the Huron country. The foUo¥ring 
spring Champlain set out on his return, and, after forty 1616. 
days travel, reached the French settlements toward the*****^ 
end of June. His countrymen received him with joy, as jvm. 
one risen from the grave ; for the savages had long belbre 
reported him dead.* 

*Vo]raCMdeChnB|il«tii,MO-a0e:1>aB.mti.N.T.»iil.,lO.IT. 8m alw n talMWl- 


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011^. la Thus the French were ihe first Europeans wlio visited 
"^Tr7"two of the magnificent lakes which partiallj boand ihB 
territories of New York. Abnost contemporaneously with 
Hndson's exploration of the great River of the Mountains, 
Ghamplain had discovered those beautiful waters on our 
northeastern firontier which now bear his brilliant name. 
Six years later, the adventurous Frenchman, again the first 
of Europeans, was coasting along the southern shore of 
Lake Ontario, and penetrating the valley of Onondaga. 
But the progress of French discovery was the progress of 
French arms. The exploring voyages of Hudson and his 
followers were visits of peaceful agents of commercial Hol- 
land in search of new avenues for trade, and intent chief- 
ly on its rewards. No predatory movements marked their 
onward way. Enterprising and patriotic, they were dis- 
creet and humane. If blood was early shed, it was shed 
in retaliation, or to repel attack. But the expeditions of 
Champlain were incursions of bold adventurers from gal- 
lant France, seeking trophies of victory in the unknown 
territories of the Iroquois. The placid waters of Lakes 
Champlain and Onondaga were alike stained by unoffend- 
ing native blood ; and the roar of the few French arque- 
buses which first echoed through the frtmtier forests of New 
Netherland, but preluded the advance, in after years, of 
serried battalions over northern New York, bearing to bat-^^ 
tie and conquest the triumphant lilies of the Bourbon. ^ 
AkerigiiMi The valley of the '^ Cahohatatea,"* or Mauritius River, 
cteNor^at the time Hudson first ascended its waters, was inhab- 

Slvir. • 

ited, chiefly, by two aboriginal races of Algonquin lineage, 
afterward known amcmg the English colonists by the ge- 
neric names of Mohegans and Mincees. The Dutch gen- 
erally called the Mohegans, Mahicans ; and the Mincees, 

inc pftper on tbis rabjtet, by O. H. Marshall, of Boffldo, tn N. Y. H. S. Pxocoedings for 
1840, p. 00-103 ; and Clark*a Onondaga, i., 251-356. 

* The Iroquola naoM of the North or Hudson RItot, upon the anthority oC Mr. John 
Bleeeker, of Albany, "the ancient Indian interpreter, now (1810) in the 70th year of hit 
ace.** See letter of Dr. Mitchill to Dr. Miller, dated Albany, 3d March, 1810, in N. Y. H. 
8. CoU., i., p. 43. See alao Schoolcraft, in N. Y. H. S. Proe., 1844, p. 04. The Mahicans 
called it the " Shatemuc ;" while the Delawares and other southern tribes, according to 
Hsskswsldar, namsd It tba " Mahican-itlok,'* or plaee oT the Mahicans. 

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SaDhBcans. These two tribes were sabdivided into nu- ciup.iil 
meroos minor bands, each of wUoh had a distinctive name. 
The tribes on the east side^ of the river were generally 
Mohegans; those on the west side^Mincees. They were 
hereditary enemies ; and across the waters which formed 
die natural boondary between them, war-parties frequent- 
ly passed, on expeditions of conquest and retribution. But 
however much the tribes of River Indians were at va* 
riance among themselves, they were sympathetic in their 
enmity against the powerM Iroquois, or the Five Gonfed* 
erated Nations, whose hunting-grounds extended over the 
magnificent regions, as yet unexplored by the Dutch, west- 
ward and northward from Fort Nassau.* 

Long Island, or ^^ Sewan-hacky," was occupied by the Lone u. 
savage tribe of " Metowacks," which was subdivided intodian*. 
various clans, each having a separate appellation, and 
whose lodges extended from "the Visscher's Hook," or 
Montauk Point, to ^^Ihpetcmga,'' or "the high sandy 
banks," now known as Brooklyn Heights. Staten Island, 
on the opposite side of the bay, was inhabited by the Mon- 
atons, who named it Monacknong, or Eghquaous.t In- 
land, to the west, lived the Raritans and the Hackin-NewjV' 
sacks ; while the regions in the vicinity of the well-known <u«m. 
"Highlands," south of Sandy Hook, were inhabited by a 
band or sub-tribe called the Nevesincks, or Navisinks, 
whose name denotes their intermediate position between 
the Atlantic and the Raritan Bay.$ To the south and 
west, oovering the centre of New Jersey, were the Aqua- 
machukes and the Stankekans ; while the valley of the 
Delaware, northward from the Schuylkill, was inhabit- 
ed by various tribes of the Lenape race, who were col- 
leotively known to the Dutoh as " the Minquas," and by 
their hereditary northern foes, the Iroquois, were named 
" Ogehage."* 

The " Island of the Manhattans" was so called " after Maatat- 

« Sehoolermft, In N. T. H. S. Proo., 1844, 60-01. 

t Alb. Rar., tUI., 101 : Smith's N. Y., I., SSI ; CUnton, In N. T. U. S. CoU., U., 41 ; 
TftompMo's L. I., 1.. 87-Oft; Sclwolermfl, 07, 06 ; mnU, p. 57 ; pott, p. 17). 
I Schooleraft, 10ft, 106. « FiforatiT* Map, ae* AppMdU, bocm O and L 


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chuF. UL the ancient name of the tribe of savages among whom the 

Butoh first settled thwoMelves."* This tribe, whioh inhab- 

' ited the eastern shore, was always <' very obstinate and un- 

friendly'^ toward the Hollanders. On the west side of the 

suibikans. bay, and of the river above Bergen Point, lived the Sanhi* 
kans, who were ^^the deadly enemies of the Manhattans, 
and a muoh better people."t North of the Sanhikans, on 
the broad bay between the Palisadoes and Yerdrietig Hook, 

Tappuit. dwelt the tribe of Tappans,! whose wigwams extended 
back from Nyack toward the hilly regions of Rockland and 
Orange counties. This unexplored territory, the early im- 
perfect maps of New Netherland transmitted to Hdland, 
erroneously represented as an ^^ eflfen veldt," or a level, 
open country. 

The eastern bank of the river, north of Manhattan, and 
the valley of the Nepera or Saw-mill Creek, was possessed 

WMk- by the tribe of Weckquaesgeeks. The region above, as £Eur 

Smu. as the Oroton, or Kitchawan, was inhabited by another 

sint-sings. band called the Sint-Sings, whose chief village was named 
Ossin-Sing, or " the Place of Stones ;" and the fieunous mar- 
ble quarries now worked near *' Sing-Sing," while they 
commemorate the name, vindicate the judgment of the ab- 

The Highlands above were occupied by a band called 

pwbami. the Fachami, beyond whom dwelt the Waoranacks. Nortti 
of these, and in what is now the county of Dutchess, lived 

wtppin- the tribe of Wappingers, whose name is still presetved in 
that of the picturesque stream which empties into the riT- 
er near New Hamburg. Their chief locality was the vat 
ley of the Fishkill, or " Matteawan" Creek, the aboriginal 
name of which, according to the popular traditions of the 
country, signified ^^ good furs," for which the stream was 
anciently celebrated. But modem etymology more accu- 

* Alb. Reo., XTlU., 348 ; N. Y. H. S. CoU., iU., 375 ; O'CalL, i., 48. The Dutch them- 
MtTM mamed At Idaad after the Indian tribe of *< Manhattana." Heckewelder*» tradi- 
tionary aeeoont that the name of the island was derired ttom the " general intoxication" 
which is said to have occurred there, is eensidered in note A, Appendix. 

t De Last, book ill., eap. ix. ; FiguratiTe Map. 

t According to Heekewelder, the name tfTvppaA is derired Arom *'Tuphanne," a Dei- 
•wue word, slgniiyinc " eold stream.'*— Mo«]lon*8 N. Y., p. 3S7. k Schooteraft, 101. 

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rately deriving the term from ^^ metal," a magioian <ir Cbur. nt 
medicine man, and "wian," a skin, it would seem tiiat 
the neigh,lK»ring Indians esteemed the peltries of the Fish- 
kill as <^ charmed" by Ibe incantations of the aboriginal 
enchanters who dwelt along its banks ; and the beautiful 
scenery in which these ancient priests of the wild men of 
the Highlands dwelt is thus invested with new poetical 
associations. A few miles north of the <' Wahamanessing," 
or Waj^inger's Creek, was a sheltered inlet at the mouth 
of the Fallkill, affording a safe harbor for canoes navigat- 
ing the << Long Reacdi," between Follepel's Island and 
Crom Elbow * The aboriginal designaticm of this inlet 
was Ap(^eepsing, << a i^ace of shelter from storms ;" and 
the memory of this once famous harbor for the canoes of 
tiie river tribes is perpetuated in the name of the flourish- 
ing city of Fokeepsie. Still fortiier north, near Red Hook pokeepne. 
landing, lived another clan of the Wappingers. Here tnt- 
dition aaserts a great battte was fought between the river 
Indians and the Iroquois confisderates ; and the bones of 
the slain were said to be yet visible, when the Dutch first 
settled themselveis on the spot. The wigwams of the Wap- 
pingers and their sub-tribes extended eastward to the 
range of the Tachkanic, or Taconick Mountains, which 
separate the valley of the North Biver firom that of tiie 

On the west side of the river, northward bom Verdrie- 
tig Hook and the Kumochenack, or Haverstraw Bay, the 
tribes were remarkably mixed and subdivided. Farts of 
the present county of Rockland, and nearly the whole of 
the county of Orange, were inhabited by the Waronawan- wironaw. 
kcmgs, whose hunting-grounds extended along the Shaw- 
angunk mountain range.l Further north, and occupying 

* PoU«pel'« IrtAsd te the oMe ia llie nUdfi* oTtbe riTer, Jwl norOi of tbe HigUaads. 
Iti name ie derived traat its tuppDeed roMinblanoe to the oonTez side of a ladle, which in 
Dtteh ia " PoUepel." The abnqit bend in the rtrer, betweea Pokeepeie and Hyde Paik, 
fbnneriy called '* Krom EUeboof," or crooked elbow, ia now known aa Crom Elbow. 

t Scfaooleraft, lOl-Utt. 

t Theae BMrnntaina are aaid to have obtained flialr naoM ftomthe predoarinaUag while 
•r gray color of their rocks ; the word " Shawan-gnnk^ behig explained by the Indiana 
ortheeoantrytomean"whiteiocka.>'— SeeMathw'aGeetogyorN.T^SM. i ih o o lcw a , 


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CHAP.m. the present counties of Ulster and Greene, were tiie Min* 

- qua clans of Minnisincks, Nantiookes, Minoees, and Dela^ 

Kj^nj. * wares. These clans had pressed onward from the upper 

valley of the Delaware, which the Dutch expressively 
named " the Land of Baca,"* and, following the course of 
the Nevesinck River and the valley of the " Great Esopus 
Creek," had at length reached the tides of the North River. 
BeopM In- They were generally known among the Dutch as the Eso- 
pus Indians. The doubtful etymology of this name is 
l^raced to " Seepus," a river ; and the Esopus Creek, hav- 
ing long been celebrated as the aboriginal channel of com* 
munication with the upper waters of the Delaware, it was 
probably called " the Seepus," or river, by way of emi- 
nence.t The word was soon modified into " Sopus," or 
Esopus, in which form it has ever since been in use. At 
an early period, the Dutch are said to have erected a ^^Ron* 
duit," or small fort, near the mouth of the creek, whichi 
from this circumstance, obtained its present name, the 
" Rondout." Part of the adjoining region was afterward 
named " Wiltwyck," or Indian village ; but the familiar 
term Esopus continued in popular use long after the pres- 
ent legal designation of Kingsrton was adopted.l 

The name of the Minnisinck tribe was derived from the 
islapd, or " Minnis," in the upper waters of the Delaware, 
where the self-denying missionary Brainerd afterward en- 
dured so many trials. Their wigwams, with those of the 
other clans of Esopus Indians, extended over the area of 
the present counties of Ulster and Greene, along the banks 
of the river, and through the valley of the Catskill,^ to 
Coxackie, or Kuxakee. This word, in their dialect, sig- 
nified " the place of the cut banks," where the current| 
deflected against the western shore, had gradually worn 
away the land. Beyond the Minnisincks and Esopus In- 
dians, the west side of the river, near Castle Island, was 

however (p. 108), Memt to deriTe dieir name (h>m their poeition to the south, or '* Shaw* 
•nong" of the Catakille. * VlMeher*e and Van der Donck*a Mapa. 

t Schoolcraft, 106. t llol. Doe., xi., 80 ; see Appendix, note H. 

^ Thia ItiU or creek, and the m^eatlc nxMintain chain inland, were ao named ftom tha 
•aiamoant or panther, which fonnerty abounded, and ia now freqvently found, in this wiM 
and pietweaqne region.— Schoolcraft, 109, 110 

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inhabited by the fierce Maquaas, or Mohawks, whose hunt- ciup. m. 
ing-grounds extended northward to the " Lake of the Ir- ^ 
oquois," or Lake Champlain, westward through the val-.j^K^* 
ley of the Mohawk, and southward to the sources of the ***''^* 

Above the Wappingers, on the east side of the river, the 
lodges of the Mahicans, or Mohegans, extended northward TiwM»hi. 
and eastward from Roelof Jansen's Kill, and occupied the 
whole area of the present countieis of Columbia and Rens- 
selaer. The ancient seat of their council-fire was near 
Schodac ; and opposite to the present city of Albany, they 
had early fortified a village against the dreaded attacks 
of their hereditary enemies, the Mohawks.* Beyond the 
Mahicans dwelt the tribe of Horikans, whose hunting- Thej 
grounds appear to have extended from the waters of the 
Connecticut, across the G-reen Mountains, to the borders 
of that beautiful lake which might now well bear their 
sonorous name.t 

From the time that Hudson first passed the Mahicannw] 
villages at Schodac and Castleton, and Block visited thQtmmwSL 
upper waters of the Connecticut, a friendly intercourse had diana. 
been maintained between the Dutch and the native tribes 
on the east side of the North River. With the fierce Mo- 
hawks on the west side, upon whose territory they had built " 
Fort Nassau, they were careful to keep on the best terms; 
and from them the Dutch learned that the Canadian French 
were in the habit of coming in boats from Quebec, to trade 
m the upper part of their territories, adjoining the Lake of 
the Iroquois, or Lake Champlain.l But the inland tribes, 
toward the south and west, had as yet been unvisited by 
Europeans ; though Champlain had just carried death and 

* Wuaensar, x\\., 38 ; Doc. Hist. N. T., iii., 43. 

t De Laet, Till., anU^ p. 56 ; Vls»dier*8 Map ; Van der Donek's Map ; Map in Montanus. 
Thia chanuinf lake— the Como of America— and which the French, in 1040, firal called 
** Saini Sacrement,** because ihey Tiaited ii on the ftNtiral oT Corpus Chrisii, was named 
07 General (afterward Sir William) Johnson, in September, 1755, **Lahb Gbokob. not 
•a^ m koncr of Um majaty^ but to aacertcoM kia undoub t e d domvnan Acre." — London 
Ducnmenu, xxxii., 100. The reaaooa which, in 1755, prompted the Britiah general to giT* 
c mew name to the lake, should certainly not prevail at the present day ; nor shoold they 
prerent the rerlTal of the aboriginal term anggeated by our own Cooper, *' Hokixaii.* 

t De Laet, U. ; Parchment Ma|«. See also nota O, Appendix. 


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CHAP.m. the terror of the Frenoh armg to the Iroqaoia oastle at 

Anxious to explore the unknown regions, of which ooly 
a vagae idea had been gathered from the imperfect expla* 
nations of the Mohawks, three traders in the service of the 
New Netherland Company seem to have adventurously set 
BzpiOTiiig out from Fcnrt Nassau, on an expedition '^ into the interior, 
Krt Ni». and downward, along the New River, to the Ogehage," at 
the Hinquas, << the ^aemies of the northern tribes.'^*" The 
route of the party is not accurately defined ; but they, p^- 
haps, followed the trail of the Esopus Indians to the sources 
of the Delaware, the waters of wluch they descended to 
the Schuylkill. At this point of their progress, they ap« 
pear to have been taken prisoners by the Hinquas ; and 
the news reaching the Dutch on the Mauritius River, ar- 
rangements were promptly made to ransi^ti the captives, 
as well as undertaJce a more thorough examination of the 
country where they were detained. 
itoT^ Accordingly, the yacht << Restless," which Block, on his 
«aqpiorMtiM return to Holland, had left in charge of Comelis H^idrick> 
sen, was dispatched from Manhattan southward, along the 
coast of New Jersey, to explore the " New River" from 
its mouth to its upper waters. The voyage was entirely 
successltd. Sailing into the bay which Hudson had first 
discovered seven years before, Hendricks^i explored the 
adjoining coasts, and discovered << three rivers, situated be* 
tween the thirty-eighth and fortieth degrees of latitude."t 
The fertile land v^as full of majestic fcarest trees, '< which 
in some places were covered with grape-vines ;" and tur- 
keys, partridges, harts, and hinds abounded along the pleas- 
ant shores. The climate of the country, which was ^^ the 
same as that of Holland," delighted the crew of the Rest- 
less, as they trafficked with the natives for seal-skins and 
saUes. Proceeding up the channel of the main river, be- 
yond the confluence of the Schuylkill, Hendricksen opened 

* Bol. Doe^ 1., M ; Ptper ICap. See A]»pendlx, note I. 

t Theee *'tkree riTen* were probebly tbe Ddamoe ItMU; tbe Selraylldll, and p6ilii|lft 
the HoHfcfll, or Bnwdkffl Creek, in the State of Delswarei npcm Which Lewlaton nam 

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a friendly interoourae with the Minqoas who inhahited its ckLk*. m. 
banks ; and ransomed from these savages his three cap- 
tive ooontrymen, giving in exchange for them " kettles, •^^'*"^- 
beads, and other merohandise."* 

To Cornelis Hendricksen unquestionably belongs thegmdriek. 
honor of having been the first to explore the bay and river explorer or 
which now unjustly bear the name of Lord Delawarr. The 1 

light draught of the Restless enabled her to penetrate very 
easily where Hudson did not venture to pilot the Half Moon, 
and where Argall made no explorations.t Hendricksen 
•eems to have coasted up along the western shore of the 
bay, and to have been the first European navigatcnr who 
set his foot on the soil of Delaware and Pennsylvania. He 
probably ransomed the Dutch captives near the very spot 
where Philadelphia was founded, just sixty-six years aft- 1682. 
erward.t The river above now received the name of the 
" New," or " South River," to distinguish it from the Mau- sootn rit- 
ritius, which soon became better known as the North Riv- "' 
er. Before long, the southern cape of the bay was named 
<^ Cape Cornelius," after its ''first disooverer ;" and anoth- cu« cor- 
er point, about twelve miles to llie southward, was called ^ 
Cape Hinlopen, {Hrobably aftw Thymen Jaoobeen Hink>>c«peHiB- 
pen, of Amsterdam, and also Cape Inloqpeni because it 
seemed to vanish on being a{^roaohed.i 

On the return of llie Restless to Manhattan, Hendrick-Htndrkk. 
sen proceeded to Holland, to assist his employers in ob- u> Houand. 
taining a separate exclusive charter to trade to the newly- 
explored territory, which extended two degrees south of 
&ke limits assigned to New Netherland in the grant of Oc- 
tober, 1614. The associated merchants dispatched him 
immediately to the Hague, acccnnpanied by an Amster- 
dam notary, to report his discoveries to the States Q-eneral, 
and procure for them the desired special trading privilege. 
Taking with him a manuscript map, he explained, orally, is AngM. 

• Sol. Doe., I., 50. t S6eairti,]Mcw*7aa<U,aBdJMHNiidiz,MleD. 

t SanMMl Hax«rd*v Aninto •rPMBsylvuiia, 879, 504. 

« De Last, book iU., emp. tx. ; 11., N. T. H. 8. ColL, I., 301, n5 ; WtMeii«r,U., IM^ 
«nte, p. 50 ; Me aloo YleeciiCT** aiid Moatairaa^ Hapo* Tbo name of Hlnlopeii Mem to 
tare been im applied to FdM Cave, JoiilMVtli of EabobolkBqr; bat it has aiSM bean 
tranafemd to the origiMi Capo CanMlliii. 8m Dw Bim^ alHBt ; liwriat, M^ tt« «i 


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cmap. m. to their High Mightinesses the situation and nature of the 
"77"" newly-explored region^. The States General, however, 
requiring a formal report in writing, Hendricksen submit- 
9 Ancoat. ted, the next day, a short statement of his proceedings on 
the South River, and asked, on behalf of his employers, a 
special charter for trading there.* 
\«w ehuw But the Dutch government hesitated to comply with the 
South Riv. application of the Amsterdam merchants for new special 
privileges. Their original trading charter of October, 1614, 
which specifically defined New Netherland as '^ situated 
between New France and Virginia," had yet a year and a 
half to run. The grantees of that charter now desired a 
similar monopoly for the territory between the thirty-eighth 
and fortieth degrees. But this region seemed to be with- 
in the acknowledged limits of Virginia, according to the 
boundaries which, the States Greneral had themselves as- 
signed to New Netherland. If, under these circumstances, 
they were now to pass the new special charter for which 
their subjects had applied, it might give rise to difficulties 
with James, which, in the present condition of public af- 
fairs, would be extremely embarrassing. The J$tates Gren- 
eral, accordingly, after two more deliberations upon the 
t Hof subject, softened their adverse decision by adopting the 
mild form of an indefinite postponement.! 

The Amsterdam " Directors of New Netherland," find- 
ing that the States General were unwilling to counten- 
ance their project of seeming enc^roachment upon Virginia, 
now confined their attention more particularly to the re- 
gions drained by the North River. Fort Nassau, which 
Ghristiaensen had originally built on Castle Island in 1614, 
Fort nm- having been several times overflowed by the waters from 
^roya*. the upper country, was almost swept away by a freshet 

* Hoi. Doe.* Im 53, 99. See also Appendix, note 1. 

t Hot. Doc., 1., 03, 04. The year 1610 will ever be memorable In the annuls of tte 
worid, as that In which William Comelis Schouten, a merchant orHoorn, in North Hol- 
land, firat sailed around the southern prorooMtory sf America, which, in honor of Ms na> 
tlTo city, he named ** Cape Iloom.** Before Sohooien's voyage, the only known passage 
to the Padfle was through the Straits of Magellan. Sohout«n also discovered the Straits 
of Le Maire, which he so called aAer Jacob le Maire, of Anuterdam, one of his partneML 
fitaten Land was thus named, in honor of the Suies of Holland. Few, probably, of those 
who nowadays talk of** the Horn,!* know the origin of the name 


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on l^e breaking up of the ioe, in the spring of lOl?.*" The oxap. m. 
oompany's traders were, therefore, obliged to abandon it, 
and seek a more secure position on the west bank of the 
river, at tiie mouth of the <* Tawasentha," or Norman's 
KiU.t The new situation was well chosen. The portage 
path of the Mohawks, coming firom the west, terminated 
about i^iTo miles above, at Skanektad6, << beyond the pine 
plains," or " beyond the q)enings," on the North River— 
the site of the {wresent city of Albany.^ It was impcnrtant 
to keep the trading-house of the company as near as pos- 
sible to the eastern termination of this great Indian thor- 
oughfare ; and, on the commanding eminence whidi the 
Mohawks called Tawass-gunshee, overlooking the river a* JJfJ^i. 
the mouth of the Tawasentha, a new fortified post was ''•••ntha. 
erected by EeUtens. Here, tradition alleges, was soon aft- 
erward concluded, with the chiefs of the Five Confederated 
Nations of North American Indians, the first formal treaty 
of alliance between the red man and the Hollander ; and 
which, after its renewal by Kieft in 1645, was observed 
witii general respect, until the surrender of Fort Orange 
to the English. A new league of friendship was then eur 1664. 
tered into between Colonel Cartwright and tiie sachems of ** ^^ 
the Iroquois, which continued without violation <m either 
side until the commencement of the Revolutionary war.4 
At the time of the treaty of the Tawasentha, the fairest 
regions of North America were inhabited by " the Romans 
of the Western "World."!! Around the elevated table-lands 

* WasMiiaar, rLy 144. Stayreeant, In writing to the General Court ofMaflnehusetls 
on aotli April, 1060, tays that ftom the amali fort which the Dutch originally built there, 
" an island near Fort Orange yet bears the name of Castle Island, €md the mtmununit qf 
tehich can yet be shown ; which amall fort was tiiree years qfUrward serionaly injured by 
high water and ice, so that at length it decayed entirely."— Alb. Ree., xxiv., 167. 

t Moulton, 346. The original and beaatiAilly-expremiye Mohawk name of this stxean 
was " Tawasentha,'" meaning the placs qf the rnany dead. It was an ancient Mohawk 
village, and the borial-plaoe of many of the tribe.— Schoolcraft and G. F. Yates. The 
Dutch appellative of the " Norman's Kiir is said to have been derived troai Andries 
Bradt, a native of Denmark, and therefore snrnamed " the Norman," who settled himaelf 
there in 1630.--O'CaU., i., 78, 433, 434. 

t Schoolcraft, in I^roc.N. Y. H. S., 1844, p. 91,111 ; L. H. Morgan's "League of the In»- 
qooto," 415. 

« Golden, L, 34 ; De Witt Clinton's Address, in N. Y»H. S. CoU., ii., 68 ; Smith's Hi«. 
N. Y., i., S3; Mottlton, 346 ; Schoolcraft, 91 ; O'Call., I., 78; Lond. Doc, i.,.186; N.T. 
Col. MSS., iii., 67, 68 ; post, p. 744. > Volney, 476 ; CliatOB, U. 



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Our. in. whence flow waterts which disoharge thdmselves through 
— TJ — Ihe HudBon, the Delaware, the Susquehaona, and the Saint 
Lawrence into the Atlantic, and through the Alleghany, 
the Ohio, and the Miasissippi into the Gulf of Mexico^ 
were then clustered five nations of warlike savages, whose 
forefiBithers, expelled from Canada hy the Adirondacs, in 
early days, had penetrated into the centre of New York. 
There they multiplied ; were subdivided into tribes or na- 
tions ; and then formed themselves into a Federal Re{Hib- 
The iio- lie of independent cantons. Of the precise period of this 
nSra^. confederation history has no record. But modem research 
into conflicting tradition places the event about the year 
1539 ; forty-seven years after Columbus's first voyage ; 
four years after Cartier ascended the Saint Lawrence to 
Ho(^elaga ; and seventy years before Hudson discovered 
the North River.* 

The Lroquois, or Five Nations, preserving their several 

specific names of Mohawks, Oneidas^ Onondagas, Cayugas, 

ajid Senecas, when they formed their confederation, todc 

ihe name of " KoNosHi<»n,"t the " cabin makers," or " peo- 

fle of the long house." That long house reached firom 

the banks of the Norlh River to the shores of Lake Erie. 

The eastern door of the sky-canopied abode of the L^uois 

was guarded by the Kayingehagas, or Maquaas or Mo- 

Triditionai hawks ]t the western door by the Senecas. Poetical tra- 

^!u^ dition, recorded by one of their own people,^ deduces their 

"*"*** origin, like that of the Athenian " Autochthones," firom 

the <^ earth itself." In remote ages, they had been confined 

* 8initb*8 Hlat. N. T., I., M ; Sehooleraft** Notes on the Iroquois, 118 ; dait'e Onon- 
daga, i., 10 ; L. H. Morgan's " League of the Iroqaots,** 5-8. G. F. Yates thinks that the 
period of the Iroquois eonflsderaey was still more remote. 

t Clinton's Address ; SchoolcralVs Notes. The eommon Frendi orthography of this 
t«rm is ** Aqoinoshioni,** or Agonnotutotmij which, aeoording to CharleYolx, i., S7], sig- 
tttOed Fnaeurt de Oakmuut; see anU^ p. 07, note. In their own language, the Five Na- 
tkms also ealled tbeoMelTes ** HotinnoBchiendi'*— that Is, La Cahtmme AckeoU; Relation, 
105S-4, p. 64. Morgan, p. 51, however, says that the Iroqnois, after their league, called 
tlMnselTes ** IToHle-fio-MiMice,'' which signilles **■ the people of the long house.** 

X " We commonly call them Maquaas, but they call tbemselTes Kagingduiga}* Letter 
sT Domine Megapolensis to the Classis of Amsterdam, S8th September, 1058 ; Moulton, 
388. Morgan, p. 53, writes the word *' Ga-ns-ga-ha-ga,** meaning " the possessor of the 
Hill.* According to M. de Joncaire, the deriee of the Mohawks, in 17M, was a st««el and 
flat. Faris Doe., Till., 167 ; Doe. Hist. N. T., i., tt ; Ibid., Ui., Mt, where the name it 
given as Q m i n g tk ngt . I Cusiek. 

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littder a mouditaiB, near the &U0 of the ^^ Osh^wah-kee," cbap. m. 

m Osvregp River, whenoe they were released by Thabo^ 

BrjtAiMic, " tiie Holder of thue Heavens." Bidding them go ^®^''- 
foth toward the east, he guided them to the valley of Ihe 
Mohawk. Foltowing its stream, they reaehed the Oaho- 
halaie%or North Biver, which some o( them descended to 
die sea. Thettoe, retracing their path, toward the west, 
tiiey ov^iaaied, as they passed along, the tribes (tf Mo- 
hawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayngas, Seneoas, and Tus- 
eaioras.* But the Tnsearoras, wandering 4o the south, 
eroned the Allegkanies, and fixed their home on the hanks 
of tha Cautaao, or Neuse Biver, in North Cardina ; where 
Thaionhyjagon, leaving them tb hunt and prosp^, re- 
timed wffthward, to direct the ccmfed^ration of the re- 
maining Five Nations.t Such is ooe of the bold fetblee 
by which the traditions of the Kcmoshioni assert their 
aboriginal existenee. 

The several tribes or eantoifes were ind^ndent. As tim Mver. 
they grew in numbers and in valor, they began to quaiTehndqMm!? 
among themselves; and, living in perpetual fear, they^'* 
built fortresses for defense, or else continually shifted their 
villages. Finding that they were gradually wasting away, 
the wise men of the Oncmdagas proposed that the kindred 
tribes should no longer war against each other, but diould 
unite in a conmion lei^e for offense and defense against 
all other nations. The advice was adopted, and eadi Iro- 
quois tribe or canton deputed representatives to a general 
oooneiL By these plenipotentiaries the Confederation of 
the Five Nations was organized on the shores of the On- 
oodaga Lake, where the great central council-fire was 
originally kindled, and for centuries permanently remain- 
ed. When the league was formed, Atotarho, the dreaded 

* In tlM Seneca dialect, the mam of the Toecaiorva was Dutgrnouek-^m, ''the ahlit- 
wwiftM people ^ that of the Senecae» I f m mi m tmH mo, or "the great hOl peepie ,•*» i»m ot 
ike Oajn^B"** O tttm gw e k en o , or "the peepie at the^maeky land;" that ofthe OnendaffM, 
fti—inifi mi, or * * people on the bUla ;" and that of the Oneldaa, Owapo t d to -ona, or ** te 
psBpla of the fraailo atone.**— Morfan, M, M. The name of the Mohnwka haa already 

t Magapelenaie> In Hund, U Mft t Sehoekraft^a Noiee, 0»-10»; Glayk'a Oooni^p, 
i^ Sl-aO, 97-43 ; Morgan, 7. 


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chap.ui. ohief of the Onondagas, was anxiously sought by the Ho- 

"77~"hawk embassy, which was specially deputed for the pur- 
pose. Atotarho was found sitting in a swamp, oaLmly 
sonoking a pipe, and rendered invulnerable by living ser- 
pents which hissed around his body. Approaching the 
chief in awe, the embassy invested him with a broad belt 
of wampum, and solemnly placed him at tihe head of their 
leagne. The dignity which popular veneratkm thus ^)oi»- 
taneously conferred on their great sachem always remani- 

Atotarho. ed iu the Onondaga tribe ; and the name of "Atotarho," 
after his death, became the distinctive hereditary titie of 
the most illustrious chief of the Iroquois Confederation.* 

Character The Confederation of the Five Iroquois Nations was sim- 

andpowera i- -.., 

of^^grandply a league for common defense, not a perfect pohtieal 
union.t The general council of sachems, elected accord- 
ing to the laws of each n^ition, exercised only a delegated 
power, and expressed only the popular will of their con- 
stituents. What these senatorial sachems in tike grand 
council deliberately pronounced to be proper, the venera- 
tion of the constituent cantons supported and maintained. 
Thus, besides the union of the Netherland Provinces, ike 
league of the Iroquois nations was early set before the 
American colonies as an example for their consideration. 
Gorcrn- Each nation or canton was a sovereign republic, divided 
•cverai na- mto claus ; and each contmueu, notwithstandmg the con- 
federation, to be governed by its own political chiefe or 
sachems. The original clans, or families, into which each 
tribe was subdivided, were eight in number, and were dis- 
tinguished from each other by different and peculiar de- 
vices or " Totems." The most important of these were 
the Tortoise, the Bear, and the Wolf. These totems, or 
family symbols, denoting original consanguinity, were 

* Schooloraft, 91 ; Morgan, «7, 68, caUa Wm *' T6-<kHla-bo.»» 

t " The term ' Five Nations/ used by Golden, and In popular uae daring Uie earlier pe- 
riod of the colony, eeased to be appropriate after ttwTuacarora rarolt in North Carolina, aad 
the revBion of thia tribe with the parent stock anbaeqaent to 1719. From that period they 
were called the * Six Natlona,' and continued to aoqoire Increased reputation aa a oeoM- 
eracy under thia name, until the termination of the American ReYolation in I7SI, and the 
tight or the Mohawka and Cayngaa to Canada."— Schoolcraft, 40 ; Morgan. 94, 44 ; Ban- 
croft, lU., 245, 321, 392. 

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universally respeoted. The wandering savage appealed 
to his totem, and was entitled to the hospitality of Ihe 
wigwam whioh bore the oorresponding emblem. The dd- 
est, most sensible, best-speaking, and most warlike men 
of the tribe were generally ohosen to be its chiefs or sa^ SMbemt. 
chems. '< These commonly resolve, and the young and 
warlike men ceurry into execution ; but if the common 
people do not approve of the resolution, it is lefi; entirely 
to the judgment of the mob. The chiefe are generally 
the poorest among them ; for instead of their receiving 
from the common people, as among Christians, they are 
obliged to give to them." The war chiefs derived their 
authority from their approved courage. Military service Miuury 
was demanded (Hily by custcxn and opinion. But the 
penalty of a coward's name kept the ranks of the Iroquois 
war-parties always full. All able-bodied mailes above the 
age of fourteen were judged capable of taking the field ; 
and no title was more honorable than that of warrior. To 
join in the war-dance was to enlist for an expedition. 
Elaoh warrior furnished his own arms and provisions, and 
no cumbersome baggage impeded the rapid march of an 
Iroquois army.* 

Oratory distinguished the Five Nations as much as Eloquence 
bravery and political vnsdom. In all democracies, elo-iroqaSs/ 
quence is one of the surest ro6uls to popular favcnr and pub- 
lic honors. Among the Iroquois, oratory was as sedulous- 
ly cultivated as at Athens or Rome. Their children were 
taken to the council-fires, where they listened to the words 
of the wise men as they talked of peace and war. The 
sublime scenery in which they lived constantly suggested 
rich images ; and while the criticism of their sages re- 
strained the luxuriance of youthful rhetoric to the stand- 
ard of approved taste, their eloquence became a model 
vrhich other Indian nations were proud to imitate. Thus 
peculiar and extraordinary by great attainments in gov- 
ernment, in negotiation, in oratory, and in war, ^< the su* 

* Parte Doe., 1., 153 ;Megapotoiiite, in HMWd,L,tt5, 080; Sehoolcraft,lS8,130; Itai^ 
gMh 01-108 ; CUrk, i., S1-S4. 


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Obatv ul pmot qualities of tiie Ifoqnob may be ascribed as irel! tb 
the 8uperi(»rity of their origin, as to the advantages of po- 
sitic^y the maxims of polioy, and the principles of educa- 
tion which distinguished Ihem from the other red inhab- 
itants of this Western World.''* 
The fiCo- Of all the confederated nations, <iie Mohawks were the 
•nyitient. bravcst and the fiercest. No hunter warriors tm the Norfb 
American continent ever filled a higher measure of heiro- 
ism and military renown. Their very name was a syno- 
nym for bkxxLt From their propinquity to the Dutch set- 
tlements, and their superior martial exploits, the name of 
this nation was frequently applied, by way of eminence, 
to the whole Iroquois confederaticm ; among all the nations 
of whidi the Mohawks were held in tile highest venera- 
tion. Standing at the eastern door of the '^ Long House," 
the Mohawk warriors were the chief agents in (hurrying 
to the sea the conquests of the Iroquois. Far across the 
hills of Massadmsetts, and through the valley of the Con- 
necticut, the dreaded name of Mohawk enfOTced an abso- 
lute submission ; and their annual envoys collected tribute 
and dictated laws with all the arbitrary authority of Ro- 
man proconsuls. From their ancient fortresses, war par- 
ties of the Iroquois continually went forth to victory ; and 
the tribes on both banks of the North River quailed before 

* De Witt CUnton's Address, In N. Y. H. S. CoU., U., 79. " Begret has been expnssed 
tbat some one of the sonoroos and appropriate Indian names of the West had not been 
ohosea to desifnate the state. The eolooiau were b« little regarded of qnestions of this 
kind. Both the Dutch in 1609, and the English in 1664, came with precisely the same 
fbree of national prepossesstoa— the first in (hvor of Amsterdam, and the second in tkror 
of Nsw York— both connected wUh the belittling atUectire *^fiowJ* * * * * Ix would b» 
wen, Indeed, if their descendants in America had been a little more alive to the inflaenec 
of this trait. Those who lote the land and cherish lU nationalities, would at least haTe 
been spared * * the oontinned repetition of foreign, petty, or rulgar names. * * * while 
sQch names as Saratoga and Ticonderoga, Niagara and Ontario, Iosco and Owasco, are 
nSTsr thought of.'*— Sohooleraft, to N. Y. H. S. Proo., 1644, p. 9S. 

t " The word * Mohawk* itself is not a term of Mohawk origin, but one imposed upon 
them, as It is beUeved, by the Mohegan or Mahican race, which inhabited the borders of 
the sea. Among this race the Dutch and English landed ; and they would natursliy 
adopt the term most In vogue (br so celebrated a tribe. The Dutch, indeed, modified it to 
*J ia fi Mn i,' a modilloalion -whldi helps us to decipher its probable origin in MmtquOt a 
bear. * * * The Mohawk sachems, who presented their condolence at Albany in IMO, on 
the taUmg of Schenectady, said, ' We are all of the race of the bear— and a bear, you 
know, never yields while one drop of blood is left. We must all be bears.' ''—Schoolcraft's 
NetMfTl. dark,!., SI, says, ttiat the Mohawks fhmislked the *'Te>,'' or war 
captain of the league. But this has been denied by Morgan. 

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their lormidable {oe. .Long before Earope«i diaooYery, cb^f. hi. 
the qQestiozL of dATage sapromaoy had been settled on the 
waters of the Cahohatatea. ^^ ' ' 

Such were the famous Indian nations among which the Emoin or 
Datoh first established themselves on the upper waters of quota. 
the North Rxtot. Under the inflnenoe of tiwt spirit of ag- 
gression, and tiiirst for aggraiuliaement which the ocm- 
soim^ess of power excites, the Iroquois confederates soon 
reduced the neighboring tribes into yassalage; and exact* 
ed a universal tribute, firom the Abenaquis on the Bay of 
Pundy, to the Miamis on the Ohio. The weaker nations 
trembled when they heard the awful name of the Konosh* 
ionL Their war-cry sounded over the great lakes, and was 
heard in the Chesapeake Bay. They quenched the fires 
of the Bries, and exterminated the SuBquehannas. The 
Lenapees, the Metowacks, and the Manhattans were sub- 
jogated. The terror of the Iroquois went wherever their 
war-oanoes were paddled ; and the streams which flowed 
from the summit lands around their grand counoil*fire at 
Onondaga, were the channels which conducted their war- 
riors to triumphant expeditions anM>ng the neighboring 
tribes. Their invincible arms humbled every native foe, 
and their national pride grew with every conquest.* 

But when the progress of the French along the Saint Fim bum. 
Lawrence had introduced the knowledge of European <^uBpi«in 
weapons among the Hurons and Algonquins of Canadai 
the war-parties of the far-ccmqu^ing Iroquois suffered se- 
verely in Iheir encounters with enemies who were aided 

• Smitta>h N. T., i., 51-68 ; Bancroft, 1., 1)4 ; li., 416 ; flL, 945 ; Schoolcnft'a KoCm, Si « 
MMrgaa, »-17. I e«i nol fortgo the pLaunn of extracting a ftw lines deMrivdrs of tta 
■opramacy of the Irdquois, fVom Mr. StreU'a metrical romance, *' Frontenac." 
** The fierce Adirondacs bad fled from their wrftth. 

The Harana been swept from their merciless path ; 

Around, the Ottawas, like leaves had been strown, 

And the Lake of the Eries strack silent and lonsb 

The Lenape, lords ones of valley and hill, 

Made women, bent low at their conqnerort' win. 

By the flur Misaissippi the lUini shrank. 

When the trail of the Tohtoisb was seen on the bank ; 

On the hills of New England the t*eqaod tnmed pale. 

When the howl of the Wolp swelled at nif^t on the gale ; 

And the Cherokee shook In his green sndling bowers, 

WhsB the fboc or the Bbai stao^sd his saipsC of flvwan." 


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Chap. ui. by the military skill of Champfadn. The lesson whidi he 
had first taught to the Mohawks in 1609, had heea re- 
peated to the Onondagas in 1615. His unenring arque* 
' buse had struck down the ohiefs who were thou^t invul- 

nerable in their arrow-proof native armor ; and the terri* 
fied confederates had twice fled before their unusual foe.* 
Anxious, to wipe off the disgrace of unexpected defeat, 
the Iroquois sought the alliance of those whose friendship 
might, perhaps, enable them to recover their ancient su* 
Tj»«y^ periority ; and the treaty of the Tawasentha was soon 
wntba. concluded between the chiefe of the aborigines and the 
representatives of the Amsterdam merchants, in all the 
solemn forms of Indian diplonmcy. Besides the Iroquois, 
the Mahicans, the Mincees, the Minnisincks, and the Len* 
ni-Lenapees w^e represented at this grand council, which 
the Mohawks, who were the prime movers of the treaty, 
invited the other tribes to attend. Under the supervise 
ion of the Dutch, a general peace and alliance was nego* 
tiated ; and the supremacy of the Five Confederated Na* 
tions was affirmed and acknowledged by the other tribes. 
The plenipotentiaries of the Iroquois were five chiefai, 
each representing his nation, and each bearing a hered* 
itary name, which, nearly a century before, had distin- 
guished the delegates who formed the grand confedera- 
tion. The belt of peace was held fast at one end by the 
Iroquois, and at the other by the Dutch ; while in the mid- 
dle it rested on the shoulders of the subjugated Mahicans, 
Mincees, and Lenni-Lenapees, as a nation of women. The 
calumet was smoked, and the tomahawk was buried in 
the earth, over which the Dutch declared they would erect 
a church, so that none should dig it up again without de- 
stroying the building and incurring their resentment.t 
coii»e- Thus the fectoars of the Amsterdam Company gained 

tCetHMty. for the Hollanders the lasting friendship of the Iroquois. 
Their traders fearlessly visited the wigwams of the red 
men ; and in exchange for the peltries of New Netherland, 

* Voyages de ChampUin, 151, 103, 268. 

t Blooltoa, 846; Seluwlcnft, 91 ; Heekewelder, Morgan. 


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the Dutdi, at first anxious to limit their payments to dui- chap.iu. 
fels and toys, before many years began to supply their In- 
dian allies with weapons which had oonquered a peace 
with Spain^* To both parties the treaty was advanta- 
geous. The tranquil monopoly of the fur trade filled the 
oofiers of the Amsterdam adventurers ; while the posses- 
nixm of Eur<^)ean fire-curms eventually enabled the confed- 
erated nations to reassert and maintain their former su- 
par^nacy over the neighboring savage tribes. But the in- 
troduction of these weapons was, in the end, fatal to the 
peace of the firontier. The Indian warrior soon became 
more expert with the firelock than the European who 
manufactured it. For more than a century, the confed- 
erated nations were alternately courted as allies and 
dreaded as enemies by the rived statesmen of England 
and France ; and no sooner did the news of the battle of 
Bunker Hill reach Londcm, than Lord Dartmouth com- 
municated the king's orders to Colonel G-uy Johnson, the 177d. 
Supmntendent of Indian Afiairs in New York, to "lose**"'"*^" 
no time in Aking such steps as may induce them to take 
up the hatchet against his majesty's rebellious subjects in 
America, and to engage them in his majesty's service."t 

On the first of January, 1618, the exclusive charter of 1618. 
the Directors of New Netherland expired by its own lim- N^h^Hand 
itation. Year by year the value of the returns from the pSSf' **' 
North River had been increasing ; and the hope of larger 
gains incited the factors of the company to push their ex- 
plorations further into the interior. Besides visiting, and, 
perhaps, establishing a post among the Esopus Indians, 
Dutch traders had partially explored the rich and extens- 
ive vale of Talpahockin, drained by the upper channels 
of the Delaware ; and it has been asserted that a settle- 
ment was now commenced on the shores of the river op* 
posite to Manhattan, at Bergen, in Scheyichbi, or New 

* This, bowever, was not tlie case notU after 1630. In 1620, it would seem that the Mo- 
iMwfcs liad only bows and arrows, and other native tmplenients, and did not yet poMSas 
the flre-arms of Europe.— Wassenaar, xii., 38 ; Doc. Hist. N. T., iii., 48. 

t Letter of Lord Dartmonth to Colond Gay Johnson, dated S4th Jnly, 1779, in London 
Documenta, xlv., ail ; W. W. CampbeU, in N. T. H. 8. Proc., 1845, AppandlXt M7. 


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90 HlSTOltY OF THE STATE OP NEW TORK. Jersey.* But l^ongh ike Daixh, xmqaestioaMj had (i 
jtiBt title to New Netherland by first diBOovery and anV 
' sequent possession, no systematic agricultnral colonization 
of tiie ootintry had yet been undertaken. The scattered 
agents of the Amsterdam Company 8<ili looked merely to 
peacefiil traffic, and the cultivation of tiK>se friendly rela- 
tions which had been covenanted with their savage allies 
on the banks of the Tawasentha. 

Upon the expiration of Iheir special charter, the mer* 
<^ants who had formed the United New Netherland Com- 
pany appHed to the government at the Hague for a renew- 
al of their privileges, the value of which they found wa« 
daily increasing. But the States General, who were now 
contemplating the grant of a comprehensive diarter finr a 
4 October. Wost India Company, avoided a compliance with the pe- 
refiased by titiou. This circumstancc, however, did not cause even a 

Um States 

General, temporary abandonment of New Netherland, nor weaken 
the tiiie of tiie Dutch to their Americem discoveries; 
though it may have delayed, for a short time, the devel- 
opment of the various Resources of the territory. The 
government still continued to encourage trade and com- 
merce on the North River. A few days after a renewal 
of the first New NetherlaJid charter had been refused, 
Hendrick Eelkens, and other participants in the late ccnn- 

October, pauy, petitioned to be allowed to send Iheir ship, " the 
ScAeldt," on a voyage to Manhattan, without any preju- 
dice to or from their former associates; and the States 
(General promptly complied with their prayer.t 

Smith in Up to Ihis period the Dutch were the only Europeans 

cund. who had any accurate knowledge of the regions about the 
North and South Rivers, and of the coasts of Connecticut, 
Rhode Island, and Long Island. English fishing vessels 
had, however, continued to resort to the coasts of Maine ; 
and notwithstanding the failure of Popham's enterprise at 
the Sagadahoc in 1608, the active perseverance of Gorges 
had kept alive the drooping spirits of the old Plymouth 
1614. Company. Early in the spring of 1614, John Smith, dis- 

3 March. ^ 

• HooltoD, 847. t Hot Doe. i., 0]» Ml 

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gnsted with his nndeserred treatment in Yiiginia, set Bajiy o«ap.iii. 
with two Bhips^ for the r^oos allotted in James's <^^^<^'^'T77T~ 
of 1606 to the Plymouth or Northern Company. In an ^^^*' 
dpea boat, with ei^t men, he explored the ooasts from 
Penobsoot to Cape Cod, while the rest of his oompany re- 
mained emfdoyed in firiiing. Returning to Englemd in 
July, Smith left one of his ships behind, in charge of isjoiy. 
Dwmas Hunt, to eomplete a oargo. Bat Hunt, perfid- 
ioaily entraining twenty-seven of the natives on board 
his vessel, carried them to Malaga, and Bcld them as 
slaves to the Spaniards. Hunt's baseness naturally eX" 
oited against his oountrymen the enmity of the savages. 
A ship whidi had been dispatched by G-orges and Lord 
Southampton, under the command of Captain Hobson, to 
settle a plantation, arriving soon after Hunt's departure, 
was attacked by the natives, and was forced to return to 
England, with Hobson and several of his crew wounded. 

On his return home after a profitable voyage, SmilhNewSn- 
presented a map of the coasts of Maine and Massachusetto nuMdby 
to Prince Charles, who, in the warmth of his admiration, chartM. 
bestowed upon the adjoining oounlry the name proposed 
by ihe enterprising explorer — " New Ehgland." By a to- 
mariuible coincidence, &nitii was exhibiting his map, and 
exfdaining his adventures to the son of King James, in 
Loodon, ahnost at the very moment that Block was ex- u October. 
hibiting the << Figurative Map" of New Netherland, andli^kMn- 
detailing the discoveries of the Dutch to the States Gen- 1?'%^.^ 
era! at the Hague. Thus the names of " New Nether- ^^' 
land" and << New England" took their places, contempo- 
raneously, in History. 

The Plymouth Company, moved by Smith's represenia- 16ir). 
tioos, now attempted to plant again a small colony on the gilTd^r^' 
ooast of recently-named New England. But the enter- SJinlSS] 
prise resulted in another disappointment. Smith, while 
on his way to America, was captured at sea by a French 
squadron, and detained a prisoner on board the admiral's 
ship. Escaping in an open boat, he recfcohed Rochelle ; 
whence, returning to London, he published, the next year, 


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chap.ui. hia << Desoription of New England." Not cMsoonraged by 

repeated faUuies and difficulties, he then spent aeyetal 

' months in vending copies of his book and map, and in 

1617. constant efforts to excite the merchants and noblemen in 
the west of England to new culventares in America. 
Plans of colonization on a large scale were soon formed ; 
Smith was appointed admiral for life ; and the Plymouth 

1618. Company applied to the king for a new oharter, similar to 
the one which had proved so advantageous to Virginia. 
But, for two years, the proposition was strenuously and 
successfully opposed, not only by the Virginia Company, 
which desired to retain a monopoly of commerce, but also 
by private traders, who pressed the importance of pre- 
serving the freedom of the North American fisheries. 
Meanwhile New England remained uncolonized.* 

X619. An English vessel was now to sail, for the first time, 
^nner»8 through Loug Island Sound, and to visit the coasts which 
Block had thoroughly explored five years before. In the 
summer of 1619, Captain Thomas Dermer, ^'employed 
by Sir Ferdinando Gorges and others, for discovery and 
other designs in these parts," after dispatching to En- 
86 May. glaud, from the Island of Monhegan, near the Kennebeck, 
a vessel laden with fish and furs, set out on a voyage to 
Virgini€^ in a small, open pinnace, of about five tons bur 
Jane. dcu, <' determining, with Grod's help, to search the coast 
along." In rounding Cape Cod, he ^< was unawares taken 
prisoner" by the Indians, from whom he ransomed him- 
self by giving several hatchets. After passing Martha's 
Vineyard, Dermer " discovered land about thirty leagues 
in length, heretofore taken for main,t" where he feared lie 
would be embayed ; but, by the help of an Indian pilot, 
he reached the sea again at Sandy Hook, ^< through many 
crooked and straight passages." Near Throg's Neck, " a 
multitude of Indians let fly" at Dermer from the bank ; 
but he came off victorious. In passing through Hell-gate, 

* " A Brief Relation," Ac, in Mass. Hirt. Coll., xix., 5-11 ; Gorges, "Brief Narration,'^ 
in tame, xxvi., 56-60 ; SmHh, ii., 174-S18 ; Bancroft, i., 90»-871. 

t Long Island, whicti Block, in 1614, had ascertained to be insular, and }iad laid down 
as sucb on tlie '* Fignratiye Mai^' presented to the States General In that year. 

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^^ a most dimgerons cataract among small rocky islands," chap. m. 
lie lost his anchor by the strength of the corrent, which 
harried him on throagh the East Riv^ with snoh swift- 
ness, that, without stopping at Manhattan, he passed, '^ in 
a shcNrt space," into the lower hay, which gave him '< light 
of the sea." Prom Sandy^Hook, Dermer coasted safely to 7 sept. 
Gape Chartes, and the James Riv^ ; whence he sent an ac- 
count of his adv^tures to his friend Purchas at London.* sr Due. 
. Having finished his business in Virginia, ^^ where he was 
kindly welcomed and well refreshed,^' Dermer put to sea 
again, early the next spring, ^' resolving to accomplish, in 1620 
his journey back to New England, what in his last dis- 
covery he had omitted. In his passage, he met with cer- 
tain Hollanders, who had a trade in Hudson's River some 
years before that time, with whom he had a conference 
about the state of that coast, and their proceedings with 
those people, whose answer gave him good content." This 
" ccmference" was held, no doubt, with the Dutch traders 
who were th^i settled at Manhattan Island. Availing 
himself of the ixdotmatiaa which he thus obtained, Der- 
n^r *' betodL himself to the following of his business, dis- 
covering many goodly rivers, and exceeding pleasant and 
firuit&d coasts and islands, for the space of eighty leagues 
from east to west ; for so that coast doth range along," 
fifom the North River to Cape Cod. But, before he left 
Manhattan, Dermer tbok care to warn the Dutch, whom 
he found there in quiet possession, not to continue their 
occupation of what he claimed as English territory. Meet- 
ing, says Gorges, with ^' some Hollanders that were settled 
in a place we call Hudson's River, in trade with the na- 
tives," Dermer " forbade them the place, as being by his 
majesty appointed to us." The Dutch traders, however^ 
replied that ^^ they understood no such thing, nor found 
any of our nation there ; so that they hoped they had not 

* Denner's letter of 97th Deeember, 1619, in Pnrehae, It., 1778, 9, tnd In il., N. Y. H. 
S. Con., L, p. 39t ; Morton's Memorial, 50 ; Prince, 154 ; Hotmee, i.. 190. 

* 8lBltl^ 11., tl9; "▲ Brief Relation," Ac., in MaM. HM. Coll., zlx., 11 ; Oorgea, 
•*BriefNamtion,'>tnMaa«.Htat.Con.,zinrl.,7S;1)eUet,bookUl.,e«|i.tT. Itfle«ns 


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ciuv.oL On reaohing New En^aiHi, Dermer transmitted to 
Gorges ^^a journal of hie prooeediag, with tbe deecriptien 
sojum!^' of the coast all along as he passed.'^ Upon the receipt 
of this joomal, and tiie previoos letter to Porohas, the 
Dermer an- Plymouth Gouotpony soom, most unjostly, to haim con- 
£* E^ ydi ^^^^'^ DenoBt as the original disoovermr of Long Island 
as uie flrtt Soond and of the adjacent coaeta. Bat thoo^ Dermer 
^soond ^^99^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ En^ishman that ever sailed 
through the Sound, he had been preceded, several years, by 
Block and his Dutch associates ; with the details cmd re- 
sults of whose earlier enterprise he was made fully ac- 
quainted, in the ^^confneooe about the state of that coasts 
which he had with those Hollanders, whom, on his retiv' 
from Virginia, he found <^ settled" at Manhattan. 

The first account of his adventurous voyage to Virginia, 
which Dermer had sent to Purcdias, from his winter quar- 
ters on the James Biver, seems to have quickened the ef- 
Patent for forts of Gorges and his associates to obtain from tihe king 
firad. ^' the new privileges for which they had so long pined. 
Constant appeals were addressed to the court for a new 
patent-*-^^ such as had been given to Virginia." The old 
8 Mtreii. Flyiuouth advcnturcrs petitioned tbe king tiiat liie terri- 
tory might be called New England, ^^ as by the Prince his 
Highness it hath been named," and asked that its {nrqiosed 
bomkbries should be settled ^^ from forty to forty-five de- 
grees of nordiorly latitude, and so from sea to sea thjrough 
tiie main, as tbe coast lyetii."t 

At length, after two years entreaty, the king yi^ed, and 

» jaiy. the sdiicitc^ general was directed by the Privy Council to 

prepare a patent for the limite '^ between the degrees of 

dkmr dm tb* Dutch, wtam Denner oonArred widi a^d ** fbttede tlM plaev," w«r« tfcOM 
** wtUed" at Manhattan, thoagh they do not appear, as yet, to have built any flirt there. 
. Denner sayt nothing about ascending the rtrer, while he speaks distlnetly of his explera- 
II^M eighty lei4«M eastward ftom the Nordi Elver io Cape God. It likewise appears to 
me very prob^le that Dermer's account was the only foundation flir " Beauchamp Plantag- 
enet's** ftbulous story of ArgaU's visit ; see Appendix, Note E. 

* Morton's Memorial, 56-M ; Gorges, " Brief Narration,^ in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll., uvL, 
•I; Prince, 157. Holnes, i., 158, misled by Prince, ernNMOOsly asserts that Dermar was 
** the first person" who ascertained LoBf Island to be an Island. Bancroft, in a n«ls, IL, 
ffl, eorresis Belknap's similar emr. 
t IxmdoB Doe., i.» e ; N. Y. CoL MS8., itf., 3 ; Mass. Hist. CoU., xia., 11, U 

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THE MBW metAH& PATSNT OF If 20. 95 

kfitf and forty-eighf ^ The original charter of 1606 had ciup. lu. 
fixed the north^ni boundary of British territory in America 
at the parallel of £D(rty*five degrees ; and to that line the 
prayer of tiie petitmiers had be^i limited. Now, the £n- 
glidb government boldly instructed their law officer to in* 
dude in the new patent all Ihat part of Canada compre- 
hended between die fi»rty-fifth and the forty*eighth de- 
grees. While the details of the proposed instrument were 
yet nndei advisement, Grorges and his associates probably 
received Dormer's second journal. By this they were in-3ojan«. 
Ibnned that the Hollanders were fitirly ^' settled in a place" 
which the English called ^' Hudfion^ River, in trade with 
the natives ;" and that, upon those Hollanders being for- 
bidden the place as British territory, they had answered 
that '* ihey understood no such thing," nor had they feund 
any English nibjeots there. In truth, since the return of 
the Sagadahoc colonists, no English subjects had perma- 
nently occupied any part of what was called New England. 
On the other hand, it waa certain that the Dutch were 
actually in qui^ possession of the region ^^ between New 
France and Virginia," and that they had been so for at 
least six years after the building of their fort at Castle 
Uand in 1614, and the grant of the New Netherland 
charter by the States Q-eneral. The ^plicants for the 
New England patent deprecated any further delay. The 
tedious forms of English official law were at length com- 
pleted ; and a royal charter, which included three degrees 
of latitude mor^ than had been originally comprehended 
in the patent of 1606, or been petitioned for by the Plym- 
outh adventurers, was finally engrossed. Late in the au- ^ Nov 
tunm, the important instrument duly passed the great 
seal, by which Ihe Duke of Lenox, the Marquises of Buck- 
ing^bam aiid Hamilton, the Earls of Arundel, Southamp- 
ton, and Warwick, Sir Ferdinando Gorges, Sir Francis 
Piqpham, and their associates and successors, forty in all, 
were incorporated by the kingi as '' the council estaUished 

* londmi Doc, U, 6; N.T. Cd. IfSS., Ui., 4; Itexard, h, W; Mkn. Hlift. CoSiBtNa» 


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Chap. HI. at Plyitiouth, in the ootuity of Devon, for l^e planting, 
ruling, and governing of Nefw England in Amerioa." 

The political powers granted to the new eoq>oratioii 
were immense. Emigrants who might beo<Hne inhabit- 
ants of New England were to be subject to the plenary 
authority of the Plymouth council. By tiie terms of the 
patent, the corporation was invested widi the absolute 
propriety and exclusive jurisdiction of the territories 
thenceforth to be known as " New England in America," 
extending from forty to forty-eight degrees of ncnrtherly 
latitude, <<and in length, by all the breadth aforesaid, 
throughout the main land, from sea to sea." It was dis- 
tinctly alleged, in the preliminary recitals of the instru- 
ment, that the king had " been certainly given to under- 
stand" that Hiere were "no other the subjects of apy 
ChristiEin king or state, by any authority from their sever* 
elgns, lords, or princes, actucdly in possession" of any of 
the lands or precincts " between the degrees of forty and 
forty-eight," whereby any right or title might accrue to 
them ; and this bold allegation was made a leading induce- 
ment to the patent. Yet the French occupation of Cana- 
da, as far south as the forty-fifth degree of latitude, was 
notorious to the world ; and Gtnrges and his associates, 
before their patent was sealed, must have received from 
Dermer the clearest evidence that the Dutch were " set- 
tled" in actual and quiet possession of New Netherlands 
The conveying clause, however — as if friture embcmrass- 
, ment was anticipated — expressly provided that the premi- 
ses intended to be granted "be not actually possessed 
or inhabited by any other Christian prince or estate," nor 
be within the bounds of Virginia.* 

Thus the weak-minded King of England attempted to 

affirm a dishonest dominion over nearly all the American 

The Dutch territory north of Virginia. Meanwhile, the Dutch re- 

Spiore* *** mained in possession of their original discoveries, and con- 

otfM<r*^^**' tinued to explore New Netherland. Comelis Jacobsen 

Slay, who had been among the first to visit the neighbor- 

* S«e the patent at length, in Hazard, i., 103->1 18 ; and in Tnunboll's ConneeticiK, t,ftl4 

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hood of Montank Point, in the '' Fortune/' oame out again chap. ui. 
in a new vessel, the " Blyde Boodschap," or Glad Tidings. 
On this voyage he seems to have directed his attention Mgy^jj the 
ohiedy to the coasts and rivers southward of Manhattan. ^^ ^*^ 
Besides examining the regions which Hendricksen had ex- 
plored four years before, Hay also visited the Chesapeake, 
and ascended Hie James River as hi^ as Jamestown.* 
The bay at Hie mouth of the South River was soon called 
by the Dutch " New Port May ;" and the point at the 
southern extremity of New Jersey still retains the nan^ of 
<^ Cape May." Returning to Holland in the summer of copeifar- 
1620, May reported that he had discovered ^'certain new, 
populous, and firuitful lands" on the South River. The 
owners of the Glad Tidings accordingly applied to thewAugaat. 
States General for a special charter in their &vor. At the 
same time, Hendrick Eelkens and his partners presented 
an opposing petition, alleging their prior discovery of the * 
regions which May had only recently visited, and praying 
that the exclusive right to trade there might be granted to 
them. Upon this, the States General called both parties 
into their presence, and directed them to meet together and spedai 
arrange their differences. These differences, however, ap- toato. ^ 
peared to be irreconcilable. After nearly three months' o Nor. 
faivestigation, a ccnnmittee of the States General reported 
that they had vainly attempted to adjust the c(»iflicting 
olaima ; and their High Mightinesses peremptorily refused 
the prayers of both memorials.f But tiie importance of the 
regions around Manhattan was now becoming more fully 
appreciated at the Hague. In less than seven months firom 
the rejection of May's ship-owners' petition, the long-pend- company 
ing question of a grand commercial organization was final- hj the 
ly settled; and an ample charter gave the West India «rai. ^' 
OcHupany almost unlimited powers to colonize, govern, and 1621. 
defend New Netiierland. ™*** 

•n«LMC,zitt.,p.M. tHi)l.Doc.,l.,lO4-]06; WaMMmar,lz.,l$l. 



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Crap. IT. The United Netherlands now ranked among the fore- 
~~~ most nations of the world. They had signalized the com- 
gjj^ mencement of their newly-reoognized sovereignty by es- 
puhuc. tabUshing diplomatio relations with most of the neighbor- 
ing courts of Europe ; and distant powers had begun to 
1610. seek their alliance. The King of Morocco early sent am- 
• bassadors to the states, and negotiated a liberal treaty ; 
1612. while the sultan opened to the Dutch the commerce of the 
Levant, which before had been monopolized by England 
and France. With Wurtemburg and Brandenburg a mu- 
tual freedom of trade was soon adjusted ; and, in a me- 
morial to King James, Raleigh bore eloquent testimony to 
the large policy of the early tariffs of the Netherlands, de- 
claring that ^^ the low duties of these wise states draw all 
traffic to them, and the great liberty allowed to strangers 
makes a continual mart." As sagacious as he was patri- 
otic. Olden Bameveldt had consolidated the independence 
1616. of his country by procuring from the weakness of James 
the restitution of the Brielle, YUssingen, and Rammekens, 
which had been pledged to Elizabeth as a security for the 
repayment of her advances to the United Provinces. The 
surrender of these " cautionary towns" — a measure which 
excited murmurs and discontent in England, and aston- 
ishment in other nations — gave intense satisfaction to the 
people of the Netherlands, and added a new impulse to the 
commercial prosperity which seven years of peace had es- 
tablished and confirmed. The flag of the republic floated 
on every sea — ^from Japan to Manhattan, from Nova Zem- 

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bla to Cape Hoom — her ports Were crowded with richly- chap. iv. 
laden shipping ; her warehouses were filled with the costly 
products of the East ; and the markets, which formerly 
knew only the furs of Muscovy, had already become famil- 
iar with the peltry of New Netherland.* 

But while Europe was watching with jealous interest 
the triumphant progress of the United Provinces, a cause 
was secretly at work within, which threatened more evil 
to the nation than all tiie might of foreign foes. During 
the greater part of the war with Spain, religious differences adigtooB 
had, more or less, prevailed in the Netherlands. When the «ioDt!^ 
truce was finally signed, men's minds, relieved firom the 
absorbing consideration of martial affairs, were soon eager- 
ly engaged in fierce debates on articles of &ith ; and the 
tiieological controversy waxed as bitter in spirit as the po- 
litical contest which had just been settled. 

Early in the fifth century. Saint Augustine opened thepeiaciaii- 
famous controversy upon the '^ heresies'' which the En- 
glish monk Pelagius had just broached. Augustine main- 
tained the doctrines of original sin, and the predestination 
of the elect to salvation. Pelagius denied them. The 
Churches of the East generally supported Pelagius ; those 
of the West, Augustine. Luther, a disciple of Augustine, 
affirmed the doctrines of the patron of his order ; and Cal- 
vin, following the great Father of the Reformation, with caiTiniim. 
severe logic carried them out to their extreme conse- 
quences. Besides their distinctions in doctrine, the two 
Reformeirs differed also in their views respecting church 
government and the ceremonies of worship; the some- 
what conservative opinions of the leader of the G-erman 
Protestants, upon these points, contrasting strongly with 
the more thorough system of the G-enevese theologian. 

Wessel GJ-ansevoort and Rudolf Agricola, of Groningen, Theiuftir. 
had fidready begun to teach evangelical faith. WhenSouand. 
the writings of Luther were printed in Friesland, and 1518. 
circulated in Holland, Erasmus, though at heart not op- 
posed to many of the views of the German Reformer, 

* Van Meteren, xzzL, OM; zzzlL,0M, 707; DaTies, U.,440, 4M; MeCuIlaffh, it, 951 


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Chap. IV. thooght that the oaiise of truth would be better promoted 
by less violent prooeediogs. Inteqxxsing betwewi the fok- 
' lowers of Luther and the adherents of the Pope, Erasmus 
drew ^ppn himself, for a time, the ill will of both parties. 
The mild impartiality of Adrian IL, however, saw and ad- 
mitted the neeessity of oorreoting the abases in tiie Church ; 
1532. and the Rotterdam scholar was invited to Rome to assist 
the Pontiff with hi9 advice. But Erasmus, remaining in 
Holland, devoted his admirable talents to the cause of Re- 
form in his own land. The seeds of truth, ^wdiioh had 
germinated there, could not be rooted jout by all the efforts 
of the in(][uisitor8 of Charles Y. and Philip II. The suc- 
cessive edicts of the kings of Spain but planted more deep- 
ly in the hearts of the people the emancipating principles 
of the Reformation. Persecution but confirmed their be- 
lief, and invigorated their zeal. The old nobility and tiie 
beneficed prelates, dreading a change which might dam- 
age their secular interests, generally adhered to the Pope ; 
The Re- but the popular movement carried along with it the infe- 
Datch nor clergy. Mind acted on miiid, and prescription yielded 
^^ ' to the irresistible impulse. A Confession of Faitii, modeled 
after that of the Calvinistic Church of France, was adopted, 
1561. in 1561, by the Protestants of the Netherlands, who thence- 
forward went by the name of " the RsFORMEn."* 
Pint The first public meeting and preaching of the Reformed 

orthe Re- lu Holland took place in a field near the city of Hoom, on 
^66. ^® fourteenth of July, 1566. The rumcnr of this bold step 
soon spread over the province, and Protestants at Haerlem, 
Leyden, and otiier towns, followed the example of tiieir 
brethren at Hoom. Ministers were presentiy settled in 
the chief cities ; and the Reformed doctrine was openly 
preached in the grand cathedrals which tiie Vandal fervor 
The of Iconoclasts had despoiled. The Psalms were translated 
tnineiated. iuto Low Dutch, and suug by great congregations. Thus, 
by degrees, the minds of the people were folly prepared tat 
1573. the important step which tiie states took, in tiie year 1573, 

* Brandt's History of tbe Reftmnotioii, ii., 64, 64 ; r., S54 ; Dtviee, L, 354-356, 446 ; 

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of expelling the Roman Caiholies from the cbuiohes. Yet gsap. iv. 
diis measure waa oairied with gre&i diffiouttjr, and after 
much opposition ; and it was justified only by the oonsid- 
orations of pressing political neoesaity, and of the .danger 
of trusting too much, during the war wi& Spain, to ec- 
clesiastics who had sworn allegianoe to the Pope, and who 
remained firm in that allegianoe. The RefcHrmed religion, Eocabush- 
as taught in Geneva and elsewhere, was pubKcly estab- SSfor^ed ^ 
lished in Hollaml about the close of the year. At &e 
same time, and notwithstanding the acts of scTerity which 
liiey felt themselves compelled to use agaiiffit ike Papists, 
the people were of opinion ^' not only that - all religions 
ought to be tolerated, but that all restraint in matters of 
religion was as detestable as the Inquisition itself.''* 

Two years after Ihe letmous Union of Utrecht, in 1579, 
the Prince of Orange, on accepting the office of stadthold- 1581. 
er, which was formally ccmfirmed to him by the States of ^^^^' 
Holland, proclainied that he would ^' maintain and promote 
the Reformed religion, and no other f^ but ^' that he should 
not su£kr any man to be called to account, molested, or 
injured, for his fstitii and conscience." In a few days, the 
noble manifesto of the States Q-eneral announced to thesojoiy. 
world that the Dutdi had openly rejected Philip as their 
king, and that the p6q)le of tiie Netherlands were absolved 
fircHn all allegiance to tiieir former sovereign. This obliged 
the stadtholder to issue a proclamation prohibiting the pub- so Dee. 
lie exercise of the Romish religion ; nevertheless, the same 
instrument declared that it was not intended ^' to impose Freedom or 
any burden, or make inquisition into any man's con-^rooiaimetL 
science." While Calvinism was thus established as the 
national religion of Holland, the followers of all other modes 
of faith were freely allowed to conduct their worship in 
private houses, which were frequency as spacious as the 
churches themselves. Under this system, there was, in 
fEust, an entire liberty in the use of diverse services. Hooft, 
the burgomaster of Amsterdam, in a public address to his 1598. 
colleagues, declared that magistrates should not " pretend ^^"'* 

* Brandt, ▼!., 318 ; x., M9, 550 ; Darlee, i., 59^-580, 641. 


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ciup. IV. to build up living temples to the Lord by foroe, and by 
external arms ;" for, in their oonflict with Spain, the Dutoh 
had openly maintained that ^< no prinoes nor magistrates 
had any authority over the oonseienoes of their subjects 
in matters of religion."* 

Thus religious freedom was, from the first, reoognized 
as a universal right, and aooompanied the spread of the 
Toieratum Reformation in Holland. If Germany nursed the infiGLnoy 
religions, of the Protostaut faith, the Netherlands developed its true 
proportions, and defended its maturer growth. While the 
Duteh, with dauntless courage, were breasting the power 
of Spain, Hiey habitually extended to every sect the same 
liberty in matters of belief which ihey had claimed of 
Philip as their own right. Though Calvinism was their 
established religion, Calvinism was not their exclusive re- 
ligion. Battling against a foreign bigot, it was only nat- 
ural that the people of the Netherlands should generally 
have repudiated bigotry at home. And this policy pro- 
duced the happiest effects. Occasional instances of sect- 
arian excess were not, indeed, wanting. Yet, by degrees, 
Papists learned to think that Lutherans and Calvinists 
might be in the way of salvation ; Protestants fcnrbore to 
call the Pope anti-Christ, and Romanists idolaters ; the 
Calvinist and the Lutheran emulated each other in large 
Christian charity ; and the Jew, stopping his wandering 
steps and forgetting his exdusiveness, rested in Holland, 
Holland an a fkithful and patriotic citizen. The Low Countries soon 
^^^^' became an asylum for frigitives from persecution in other 
^^^^ lands ; and the Dutch won the honorable distinction of 
European reproach for their system of universal religious 
toleration. Amsterdam was called ^'a common harbor of 
all opinions, of all heresies." Holland was stigmatized as 
'' a cage for unclean birds." The Netherlands became 
notorious among the bigots of Christendom tot such com« 
prehensive liberality in conscience and opinion, that it was 
observed that ^* all strange religions flock thither." In- 

* Brandt, xUi., 07^-077 ; XTi., 835-834 ; Van Meteren, x., 909 ; BentirogUo, U., S ; Da- 
nes, ii., 65, 141. 

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deed, to sneh an unlimited extent was charity displayed chap. nr. 
towiml all methods of religious belief, that a liberal-mind- 
ed English statesman, ccmtrasting the narrow sectarianism 
of his own land with the enlarged Catholic spirit of Hol- 
land, could not help declaring that '^ the uniyersal Church 
is only there."* 

This magnanimous system of toleration remained axxm- 
stant and remarkable characteristic of the people of the 
Netherlands, except upon one memorable occasion, when 
the Dutch forgot, for a space, tiieir cherished maxim. Yet, 
while religions differences grew warm among the Protest- 
ants of Holland, neither G-omarists nor Arminians, in their 
bitterest strife, thought of shutting the gates of the Low 
Countries against the persecuted of other lands ; and the 
consequences of that feimous theological controversy gave 
all parties among the Butch so terrible a warning, that 
the suggestions of bigotry ever afterward remained un- 
heeded. " It is certain," says De Witt, " that freedom of 
religion having always been greater in Holland than any 
where else, it hath brought in many inhabitants, and 
driven out but few."t 

From the first, the majority of the ministers qf the Re- caiTinimi 
formed Dutdx Church were Calvinistic. At the earliest Dutch ciar 
synod which the clergy of Holland and Zealand held in 
1574, at Dordrecht, upon their own call, and without the 
approbation of the States of Holland, it was agreed that 
the Heidelberg Catechism should be taught in all the 
churches, and that all the ministers should subscribe the 
Netherland Confession of Faith, and promise obedience to 
the Classes. The preaching of free will was soon consid- 
ered to be heresy ; it nearly produced a schism at Utrecht, 1593 

* DaTlei, lii., 883; Bishop Hall, rl., 180; 687116*8 DiaiaasiTe; Owen FeltlMm. An- 
drew Marrell, iu his " Character of Holland," has theee quaint linee : 

'* Henoe Amsterdam, Toik, Christian,' Pafan, Jew, 
Stai^e of sects and mint of schism grew ; 
That bank of oonscienoe, where not one so strange 
Opinion, bnt finds credit and exchange ; 
In vain for Catlu^cs omselTee we bear— 
The nnlYersal Ctraroh is only there.'* 


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CH^.nr. which was healed only by the zealous exeitioDs of Uyten- 

"7TT~bogart and Junius.* 

tL Gomk- When Jacobus Arminius was reoonunended for ihe Pro- 

Armi^ans. fessorsUp of Thedogy at Leyden, made yacant by the 
death of Junius, in 1602, his appointment was opposed by 
Franciscus G-omarus, who filled another theological chair, 
and who hesitated to receive as a colleague a person whose 
orthodoxy was doubted. The scrufdes of GtMuartB were, 
however, overcome ; and the next year Arminitis, upon 
promising to teach nothing but the ^^ received doctrine" 
of the Church, became ^fessor. At first his pnblio 
preaching was xmexceptionaUe ; but in private, he at* 
tacked some of the prominent points of tiie established 
1604. creed. At length, in the spring of 1604, he openly and 
boldly set forth, doctrines at variance with those of Calvin 
respecting election and predestination. This aroused the 
warm opposition of his colleague Gt)maTUs, who published 
a thesis in which the distinctive tenets of Calvinism were 
vehemently urged. The strife between the professors soon 
led to exasperating disputes between their pupils, who, as 
it offcen happens, surpassed their teachers in zeal and an- 
imosity, as much as they fell short of them in knowledge. 
The feud extended as the Arminian sentim^ts spread. 
The ministers of the churches took ihe one side or the 
other ; and the controversy, which at first was carried on, 
in Latin, within the walls of the university, by degrees 
reached the ears of the people in furious vernacular from 
the pulpits.t 

* Brandt, xi., 5M ; xir., 713 ; xr., 786 ; Acta Synodi Dord. Tho ftmn of ecclMiastical 
gOfTemment established by the Refbnned Church of the Netheriands resembled, in some 
respeets, that of a representatiTe republic. The spiritual and temporal aflSUrs of eaeli 
congregation were managed by its permanent minister, and by elders and deacons, elect- 
ed fbr limited terms of serrice, by the members of the chnrch. The minister, elders, and 
deacons formed the ** Consistory" or goYeming council of each congregation. A " Clas- 
sis** was OHnposed of all the ministers, and of an elder delegated from each consistory 
within a cortain district. It -had large original and appellate Jurisdiction ; it exainined 
and ordained candidates in thexAc^ ; and, generally, decided In cases (rf* discipline. Su- 
perior in authority were the " Synods," which were composed of ministers and elders de- 
puted by the sereral classes within psotleular bounds, llie supreme power of the Chnrch 
was Tested in a <* Genersl Synod," consisting of derieal and lay delegates flrom the several 
dasses oomposing the particular synsds. This system, substantially, preralls in the Re- 
Ibnned Protestant Dutch Church in North America. 

t Hist. Synod. Dord., translated by Dr. Scott, 9»-106, edit. Philad., 1841. The cbarge 


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Anoiber dispute aaski^ befiire long, irespeoting the Hei- ciup.tT. 
delberg Cateohism and the Cosifeasion of Faith, which 
had been adopted by the synod held at Dordrecht in 1674. •'^"^• 
The Gomariste regarded these as unalterable formnlaries 
of bdief ; the Anninians demanded their revision. Things 
so(m came to snch a pass that the States of Holland in- 
t^ered, and c^pointed a conferttioe between the rival 
{NTofessorst to be held at the Hagoe^ before their Supreme 1608. 
Gonncil, assisted by fonr ministers. The meekness of 
Arminins gained him an advantage in debate over the 
sterner Gomams, who injured iiis oaose by violent de- 
nnnoiation. Upon the report of the oonncil, Bomev^ddt 
recommended mutual forbearance to the disputants, prom- 
ising that their differ^Eioes should be reconciled by a na- 
tional S3rnod. Little good, however, followed the confer- 
ence. The elassis of Alckmaer soon afterward resolved, 
that all the ministers within its jurisdiction should sign a 
declaration that the Catechism and Confession of Faith 
agreed, in every particular, with the word of God ; and 
five ministers, who refused to subscribe, were forthwith 
suspended. The censured ministers appealed to the 
States of Holland, who required ihe dassis to report its 
proceedings to them, and meanwhile to vacate its sen- 
tence of suspension. But the Synod of North Holland 
confirmed the action of its subordinate dassis, and disre- 
garded the reiterated injunctions of the states.* 

Thus the dispute finally assumed a political aspect, inediqmte 
The Arminians, acknowledging the right of the civil pow- pouucai. 
er to decide points of religious doctrine, invoked its pro- 
of tu^ttritaMeneM bas been made so oooatantly againat Ckmiania and bla ftienda, tliat It 
is only Jnstice to tbem to inaert an extract fkom a poathnmooa tractate of Armiatiia liini* 
sdf, tat the oomnranication of wbich I am indebted to the Rev. Dr. Forsyth, of Princeton, 
k ahowa that the aynod'a Mendly uv ertiir e a wen peremptorily rejected by Aiminina. 
'* On the 90th of Jone^ 1(K)5, there came to me, at Leyden, three depotiea of the Synod of 
Sooth Holland, and declared, in preoence of two depmiea ttom the Synod of North 
Holland, that the Leyden stndenta, in their examinationa for bcensoie belbre aereral 
of the classes, were obserred to give new answers upon aome qoestions, contrary to 
the doctrtaes of the Qutfch, and whldi answers the students deelared they had learned 
from me. They therefore asked me to meet them in a friendly conference, in order to un- 
derstand what there was in It, and how the thing could be remedied. Hereupon I gave 
them for answer, that I regarded such an expedient as unflt.^— Verdaringhe Jacobi Ar- 
BlBii,p. S. Leyden, 1610. 

« Brandt, xvii., 07-00 ; Hist. Syn. Dord , 107-138 ; Davles, IL, 49»-4a0. 


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Chap. IV. teotion and support. The Gt>marist8 insisted tiliat eocle- 
"7T~"siastical authority belonged, solely and exclusively, to the 
' consistories, the classes, and the synods of the Church. 
The municipal governments generally, and yery naturally, 
sided with the Arminians, who had thus adroitly iSattered 
them; but the G-omarists, who formed a large majority 
among the clergy and the people, retained the almost en- 
tire control of the judicatories of the Church. Other 
classes followed the example of that of Alckmaer, and re- 
quired all their ministers to subscribe to the Catechism 
and Confession. And now, the truce with Spain having 
exempted the nation from the dangers of war, those minds 
which had been chiefly occupied by the great contest for 
civil and religious liberty were soon engaged in a vehe- 
ment conflict on abstruse points of metaphysical theology. 
Every where the pulpits echoed denunciations against the 

1609. Arminians, which even the death of their amiable leader 
w October, ^j j^^^ abate. To relieve themselves from misrepresenta^ 

1610. tions of their &ith, the Arminians, the next year, present- 
ed a formal remonstrance to the States of Holland and 
West Friesland, setting forth the five prominent points of 
doctrine in which they diffiwred from the Reformed Church, 

The Re- and whioh soon obtained for theni the name that, down 

mon- - ^7 

itrants. to the present day, has distinguished them in Holland^ 
" the Remonstrants."* 

The chair of Divinity at Leyden, made vacant by the 
death of Arminius, was soon proposed to be filled by the 
appointment of the lecu^ed Conrad Yorstius, who, having 
been suspected of Socinianism, was even more obnoxious 
Interta^- than his predecessor. The pedantic King of England, to 
King whom the candidate for the professorship had given great 
oflense by the publication of a theological treatise, could 
not resist the temptation to meddle as a polemic. He in- 

1611. structed his ambassador, Winwood, to press the States 
Greneral for the banishment of Yorstius ; and even hinted, 
in a letter to their High Mightinesses, that the << arch her- 

* Brandl, zrlii., 03 ; six., 130; Hist. Syn. Dord., 189-154 ; DaTiet, tL, 461-481 ; Ifo- 

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etio" deserved a crown of martyrdom. The king's perti- okap.iv. 
nacious d^aands were warmly opposed by Bameveldt, 
bat strongly supported by Prince Manriee, ike stadthoider, 
who thus conciliated the good-will of James. The States, 
unwilling to oifeiid their powerful English ally, consented 
that Yorstius should retire ; and Simon Episcopius was 
appointed in his place.^ 

The leading statesmen of the ^Netherlands could not 
avoid taking part in the religious dispute which, by this 
time, had begun to distract all ranks of their countrymen. 
Bameveldt and G-rotius, desiring to curb the ambition of sarnereidt 
the stadtholder by the influence of the towns, naturally Sqs side 
sided with the Remonstrants, whose views were generally nemon- 
favored by the municipal governments. But the clergy, 
excluded from political office, had generally been in active 
opposition to the civil authorities 'f and haA always been 
zealous partisans of the stadtholders. Maurice, remem- 
bering tlus, and knowing that a large majority of the 
ministers of the Reformed Church were hostile to the 
tenets of Arminius, naturally sided with the Gomarists. 

From the period of the truce with Spain, the prince had prinM 
borne ill will against Bameveldt, whose influence in theud Bame- 
governments of most of the towns was enough of itself to^**** 
arouse the jealousy of a less ambitious politician. Soon 
after the stadtholder's splendid victory over the Spanish 
forces at Nieuport, some of ihe wisest patriots of Holland, 
among whom were Bameveldt and Qrotius, began to en- 
tertain suspicions that Maurice would, endeavor to use his 
popularity with the army as a means of enabling him to 
grasp more political power than would be consistent with 
the liberties of his country. When proposals were soon 
afterward made for an accommodation with Spain, the ad- 
vocate, vnth many other enlightened Dutch statesmen, be- 
came as active promoters of a peace as, not long before, 
they had been ardent supporters of the war. The martial 
successes of the Butch had begun to modify their sober 

* Wlnwood'8 Memorial, ili.. 317, 340 ; Hist. Syn. Dord., lft»-182 ; Dtvias, tt., 403-467 ; 
Netl*8 PoritaiM, L, 909, Hoipen^ editton. 


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CHiip.iv. national habits, and honest patriotism feared a oontino- 
ance of the t^npting strife. The burdens of a war-tax 
* had beoome almost insupportable, and industry was crip- 
pled, while gallantry alone was rewarded. But, above all, 
it was ajqurehended that a well*organized army, flushed 
with ocmtinual yict(»ries, and led by so ambitious a general 
as Maurioe, might soon read to the Dutch Republic the 
lessons ^^ch prsBtorian cohorts had read to Rome. Bar- 
neveldt and his friends, therefore, eagerly desired a peace, 
and the truce of 1609 was signed. As stadtholder, Mau- 
rice was the commander of the miUtary force of the re- 
public ; an end of hostilities would, he foresaw, deprive 
him of a large share of his authority and influence ; he, 
therefore, opposed the truce. Finding himself thwarted 
an every side by Bameveldt, he did not disguise his hatred 
of the patriotic advocate ; who, in turn, could not OMiceal 
his suspicions that the prince desired to prolong the wur 
frc»n motives of private interest and personal ambition. 
Hence arose a mutual antipathy, which soon deepened, on 
the side of the stadtholder, into a sentiment of intense an^ 
imosity against Bameveldt, and which the eacfn&os of its 
hated object at length could scarcely appease.^ 

Swayed by such feelings of jealousy and hatred, it was 
only natural that the prince should take a side, in the great 
religious controversy which was distracting the country^ 
opposite to that upheld by those statesmen who had thwart- 
ed his political views. Other reasons besides his sympathy 
with the established clergy, and his inveterate personal 
1616. detestation of the advocate, induced Maurice to espouse 
•SSrSSth ^^ zeal the cause of the Gt)marists, or Gontra-Remon- 
1^2^ strants ; which, from the time of the stadtholder's open 
accession, daily gained ground. Sir Dudley Oarieton, who 
had succeeded Winwood as English ambassador at the 
Hague, also used the influence of his high position very 
unscrupulously against the Remonstrants, and took every 
occasion to strengthen the prejudices which had already 
seriously afiected the political standing of Bameveldt. 

* Grattau, is. , 571 ; ST., 71« ; Drriee, U., 866, 40ft, 407, 409, 471. 

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One of Carleton's motives for 1^ conduct was, no doubt, cbap. iv. 
the chagrin of his sovereign for his weakness in yielding 
to the advocate's diplomatic skill in the negotiation for th^ 
sorrender of the cautionary towns. The nobles, the states, 
and the municipal governments, which sided with the ad- 
vocate, were libeled without stint ; Bameveldt himself was 
vindictively attacked ; and the King of England again in- contimied 
flamed the mischief by his officious personal intermed- enee of 
dling. Aware that the question of a national synod hadJanSs. 
now well-nigh replaced the other points in dispute, James, 
in March, 1617) wrote a long letter to the States Greneral, 1617. 
in which he strongly urged the measure as the most ef- 
fectual means of establishing the Reformed faith — the 
(^ only solid cement" of a good ^nderstanding between the 
two countries. The arguments of the king were warmly 
supported by his ambassador ; a national synod was ap- 
pointed to be held at Dordrecht ; and Maurice, now be- 
come Prince of Orange by the death of his elder brother 
Philip, made a tour through the towns of the Netherlands 
to gain their unanimous consent to the m^easure.* 

The Sjrnod of Dordrecht assembled on the thirteenth of 
November, 1618. It sat for more than seven months, at a 1618. 
cost to the republic of a million of guilders. Foreign^DS^** 
Churdies were invited to commission delegates to the syn- ****^ 
od, and they all complied with the request. The Churches 
of the Palatinate, Hesse, Switzerland, Bremen, and Emb- 
den, and the King of Great foitain, as the head of the En- 
glish and Scotch establishments, were all represented. The 
Reformed Church of France appointed delegates; but they 
were forbidden by Louis XIII. to go to D<»rdreoht, and the 
jdaoes appropriated for them were left vacant during the 
sessions of the synod. The head of the Church of En- 
gland was represented by George Carletcm, bislu^ of Llan- 
daff; Joseph Hall, dean of Worcester ; Samuel Ward, arch- 
deacon of Taunton; and John Davenant, professor of The- 
ology at Cambridge ; while Walter Balcancall was dele- 
gated by the king in tiie name of the Church of Scotiand. 

* Cvl0Uai's Lectwi, 87, 86, 183 ; HiM. SyB. Dovd., 16»-tt9 ; Dcftoe, IL, 487-4B0L 


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ctuT. TV, After one hundred and fifty-four sessions— in the course of 
which the Heidelberg Catechism and the Confession of 
' Faith were fiilly approved and ratified, and the Remon- 
strants pronounced innovators, disturbers of the Church 
and nation, obstinate and rebellious, leaders of faction, 
teachers of fiBilse doctrine, and schismatics— -the business 
of this famous Assembly was closed on the ninth of May, 
1619. 1619 ; and Bogerman, its president, dismissed the foreign 
*^* members with the startling declaration that " its marvel- 
ous labors had made Hell tremble."* 
The syn- That the proceedings of the Synod of Dort against the 
eei^ Arminians were inexorably severe, ought not to be, and 
can not be denied. They formed a singular and memo- 
rable exception to the characteristic system of toleration 
which so nobly distinguished Holland among the nations 
of the eeurth. It would be difficult to repeat similar pro- 
ceedings at the present day. At the same time, it must be 
candidly admitted that the synod exercised upon the Re- 
monstrants only tiiat ecclesiastical discipline which any 
Church may lawfully exercise upon those under its juris- 
diction, who reject or depart firom its standards of doctrine. 
The Synod of Dort, in its supreme function, constitution- 
ally declared that the RemcHistrants, who formed a very 
smedl minority among the clergy, and whose followers 
were scarcely one in thirty among the body of the people, 
should not teach &lse doctrine and heresy within the pale 
of the National Church, and under its apparent sanction. 
It was in their claimed diaaracter of members of the es- 
tablished Reformed Dutch Church, that the Remonstrants 
received the censures of that Church. If they could not 
approve of its standards of religion, and could not teach 
in conformity to them, they should have resigned their liv- 
ings and professorships, and have preached and taught else- 
where. Though the Dutch had a national religion, they 
had no Statute of Uniformity. Had the Remonstrants hon- 
estly and openly separated themselves fi^m the Established 
Church, whose doctrine they could not maintain, they 

* Brandt, zU.* 6U, ** Een recbt wondeitaarlyek w«rck *t welck do heUe doet berea.** 

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would undoubtedly have found, readily and at once, the chaf. ty. 
same toleration which other sects enjoyed in Holland, and "7171" 
which, after they had been judicially pronounced schismat- 
ics, they did enjoy, and do notoriously enjc^, to this day. 

The fette of Bajmeveldt was soon sealed. He had been 
arbitrarily arrested, by order of the Prince of Orange, in 
August, 1618, as he was entering the Assembly of the Pro- 
vincial States of Holland. The arrest of their own advo- 
cate drew from the states an earnest remonstrance against 
such an open invasion of their privileges. But remon- 
strance was unavailing. The stadtholder was determined 
to gratify to the utmost his personal jealousy and revenge ; 
and Bameveldt was illegally detained three months in 
prison, to insure the appointment of an adverse tribunal. 
After forty-eight interrogatories, the advocate was con- 
demned to death, upon a series of political charges, the 
only capital one of which, and the one which before his 
trial his enemies had most vehemently urged — ^that he had 
treasonably corresponded with Spain — ^was entirely aban- 
doned. On tiie morning of the thirteenth of May, 1619, is May. 
in the seventy-second year of his age, Bameveldt was be- saneTeidt 
headed on a scaffold erected in the hollow square in front 
of the great hall of the States G-eneral. As he walked 
calmly to his place of execution, and looked around upon 
the buildings which had witnessed his triumphs as a 
statesman, the contrast of his unworthy doom with the 
glorious recollections of his career, wrung from him the 
memorable exclamation, " Oh Q-od ! what, then, is man !"* 
Popular tradition, though its truth is doubted, to this day 
asserts that the insatiate vengeance of Maurice demanded 
a sight of the blood of his venerable victim ; and the vis- 
itor at the Hague is still shown a little window in one of 
the turrets, overlooking the quadrangle of the Binnenhof, 
fit)m which the prince is said to have witnessed the exe- 
cution of one of the truest patriots and most upright states- 
men that ever fell a sacrifice to tiie violence of party rage, 
or the unscrupulousness of political ambition. 

* DaTiM, it, 400-015 ; Van der Kamp'a "Maorloe," It., ll^-llO, S17 ; Orattan, 941-«. 


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ojum. nr. In the luidst of tbe religions and political differences 
' which were thus distracting all classes in the Netherlands, 
a number of English Puritans, weary of hierarohal op- 
pression, and smarting under the vulgar insults of their 
bigoted king, resolved to emigrate to Holland, 

At the command of Henry YHI., who, for apposing Lu- 

1521. ther, had received from Leo X. the title of ^^ Defender of 
the Faith," the English clergy had been obliged to abjure 

1534. the supremacy of the Pope. Yet the Anglican Church, 
under Henry, though forced to substitute the sujuremacy 
of the King for tiiat of the Pontiif, retained, to a great ex- 
tent, the peculiar doctrines and the g(»rgeous ceremonial 
of Rome. As the Reformation advanced, further chaises 

1548. became necessary ; and, \mdes Edward YI., Cranmar ar- 

1552. ranged the terms of a compnmuse, which produced the 

^2^^ present GhUrch of England. Like all compn^nises, the 

England, new cstabUidmittit rejected extremes. A hierarchal con< 

stitution was retained, £md those beautiful collects, which 

had ^^ soothed the grie& of forty generations of Christians," 

were transla^^ed into the English tongue ; while Articles 

1562. of Religion were adc^ted, and afterward twice deliber- 

1571. ately revised and ratified, in which the most zealous Cal- 
vinist might find his own doctrines affirmed. Thus the 
Established Church of England took a middle position be- 
tween the immutable Church of Rome and the Reformed 
Churches of the C<mtinent. 

But when the English version of the Bible was {urinted, 

1539. and began to be generally read by the people, there were 
numbers of persons who thought that the founders of the 
Anglican Church had not gone fax enough in tiieir re- 
forms. Those persona, regarding the Holy Scriptures with 
the veneiration due to a divinely-inspired book, looked 
upon them as alone furnishing a complete manual in the- 
ciogyj in mcnrals, and in political science. Relying, per- 
haps too confidentiy, upon their own interpretations, they 
judged that, by the staildaid of those Scriptures, the En- 
glish Church was not a pure Church ; and that, in retain- 
ing prelacy, ceremcHiies, and other ^' remains of anti-Christ '' 

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die was atten^pting to aerve botti Ood and BaaL They okat. nr. 
found no wairant in the Bible for weaniig the sorplioe ; ^^^ 
they thought that the Book of Obiranon Prayer saiisred ^^^^• 
too much of the Hiaeal and the Breriary ; and they in* 
aisted that the interests of a pure religion demanded the 
extremest simplicity in all its external services. Hence 
they obtained the namte of << PuarrANs." The term event- 1564. 
nally designated all those '^ who endeavoffed, in their de-^^*'^ 
votions, to accompany the minister wkh a pure heart, and 
who were remarkably holy in their conversations."* 

Betnming to England,, after the accessicHi of EUzabeth, viewi or 
from their exile cm the Continent, where they had em-uuw. 
braced the most rigid views of Calvin, the Puritan leaders 
seemed to believe tiiat the Reformation woold not be com- 
plete unless every thing that might cruggest a single reo- 
oUection of Romanism should be discarded. They reject- 
ed, as unscriptoral, the daims of tile bifihops to eeelesi- 
astical superiority. They abhcorred priestly .garments as 
badges of popery. They denounced the Prayer Book and 
<' other pi^ish and anti-Chriatian /rtuff" df the English 
establishment. They felt themselves called upon to re- 
form the Reformatimi in England, and destroy all ^^rdks 
of the Man of Sin." Forms and ceremonies, by degrees, 
became as important, in their eyes, as creeds and <foe- 
trines. Things indiiferent became things essential They 
seemed to think that a sour austerity on earth would win 
for them, more certainly, an eternal inheritance in heaven. 
They ajqpeared to ftincy thwnselves God's special and pe- 
culiar people, and more holy than their neighbors. They 
seemed to prefiur the Old Testament and the argmtmita^ 
tive Epistles of Paul, to the Gospels and the nulder Epis- 
ties of John. In the end, many of them conceived that 
the same polity which Gknl had ordained for Israel before 
the coming of the Messiah, should govern both Church and 
State under the Christian dispensation. More than most 
sectarians, they were sincere and vehement in their belief, 

* Neal'«Paritanii,L,PnftM,z,Haipera^od.i Lfiifard,BaiBdnr'«ad.,TL,SI9,9«8,aM{ 
▼IL, 81-33, 103-106, 897-300, 360; tUL, 70 ; MmoMday, L, 40^46; Bn«roll, t, S7»-a6ii 



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objlp. iv. and severe and inflexible in their practice. More than 
~~~mo8t enthusiasts, they were intrepid and persevering in 
• their fervid zeal. With intense earnestness, they labored 
to subject political power to the supreme control of an as- 
cetic religion. Confident that they elcme were right, they 
acted out their part with consistent energy. In a country 
which was not distinguished for toleration, they claimed 
for themselves immunities which, afterward, they seemed 
unwilling to yield to others. Eventually they grasped the 
authority for which they longed, and retorted upon their 
adversaries the wrongs of their old oppressors. Yet the 
controversy which the Puritans commenced was only " the 
wind by which truth is winnowed." Their spirit of in- 
quiry and dissent added a significant impulse to the grand 
cause of civil liberty. Their earnestness may have carried 
them beyond just limits ; but their very fanaticism was 
decreed to be one of the instruments of Providence in work- 
ing out great good to man. And though we may not all 
applaud their singularities or justify their intolerance, we 
should not withhold our respect for the sincere fervor with 
which they advocated their system, the unfaltering con- 
stancy with which they endured persecution, and the firm 
will and «i;em resolution with which they maintained 
tiieir principles.* 
1582. Before long, the Puritans, who seem to have embodied 
2^«^ ratiier the Saxon than the Norman type of the English 
the^Q^iiOharacter, began to separate themselves openly from tiie 
orEngund. Qhurch, whose government and ritual they condemned, 
but whose doctrines they could not wholly disavow. They 
refused to conform to the statutes of the realm ; and the 
law was severely enforced. Penalties which the Puritans 
had advocated against the Roman Catholics were exacted 
from themselves. Brown, the leader of the Separatists, 

* ThoM who desire deUUed iDftmnation reepectlDg the Puritans, may eonsult Neal't 
History ; Macaulay's Enay on Milton, in the Edinburgh Reyiew, No. 84, ftn- Augnst, 
18S5 ; Home, r., 87^tt ; lingazd, yUi., 7% 139-308 ; ix., 31, 170, 351 ; Macaolay's Bnglud, 
L, 48-03, 74-«S, 160-100 ; Bancroft, i., S74-30G, 400-409 ; Hildreth, i., 153-150 ; Toang>a 
"Chronides ofthe Pilgrims,^ and "Chronicles ofMassachaaetto;" Winthrop; Morton; 
Htf)bard ; The Massachusetts Historical CoUeotions ; The North American Review ; Colt's 
" Pnrttanism ;" and HaU*s ** Puritans and their Principles.'* 

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Teoanted his ofHiiions ; and the baoksliding apostate was chap. iv. 
again reoeiyed into the bosom of the Established Church. — TT" 
Nevertheless, most of the Non-conformists earnestly main- ^^^' 
iained their gromid. Opposition became one of their car- 
dinal maxims. Persecution soon followed non-conformity. 
But persecution in England odIj oonfiimed the fiedth and venetm- 
brightened the zeal of the Puritans, as persecuticm in the*'^ 
Netherlands had oonfiimed the fBiith and brightened the 
2eal of the Reformed. 

The accession of James increased the severities of the 1603. 
hierarchy ; and the Puritans, obstinate in their opposition 
to the rigorous law, began to look for an asylum in other 
lands. They had long heard that in Holland there was 
^^ freedom of religion for all men ;" and thither some of 
them determined to fly. Early in 1608, a number of these 1608. 
self-exiled Non-conformists, under Jdm Robinson, their ^' flBSj? 
minister, and William Brewster, their ruling elder, left the 
fens of Lincolnshire, and arrived at Amsterdam. In Hol- 
land they found <^many goodly and fortified cities, strongly 
walled, and guarded whh troops of armed men. Also, they 
heard a strange and uncouth language, and beheld the 
diffiarent manners and customs of the people, with their , 

strange feshions and attires; all so fieur differing from that 
of their plain country villages, wherein they were bred and 
bom, and had so long lived, as it seemed they were come 
into a new world." The next year, they removed to the 1609. 
" &ir and beautiM city" of Leyden, and organized their 
congregation under the ministry of Robinson. Here they 
throve apace, and at length ^^ came to raise a competent 
and conifortable Ihdng." The Dutch allowed them full 
tderation, and diowed them good-will and hospitality cm 
every hand ; and the emigrants repaid this kindness by the 
most decorous observance of the municipal law.* 

* Bmlftird, In Yoong*! ** ChitmlclM of the Pngrims," 10-90. The treatment of the 
Piritaae in Holland haa been mlarepreaented by writera with Engllah prejndloea. Their 
eoDdiiloii waa, onqneatlonably, neeeaattona— <br they were Ihgitivea ; and their Urea were 
toflaome— fbr their Dntoh boata were themaelTea eminently indoatriooa. But, by their 
own ahowinf, the Pnrttana had "good and eoorteona entreaty" in Holland, and **IiTed 
there many yeara with freedom and good content.'*— Maaa. ffiat. CoU., iU., M ; ii., N. T 
H. 8. CoU. L, Ml. 


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CBAP.rr. The Puritan refogees in HoUmid found that their doo- 
trinal opinions agreed, essentially, mth those held by a 
Bym^j ^^ ^^ oontroUing majority of the Datoh clergy and 
]^^£^ people. Robinson himself (xwld not re£rain from taking a 
^J^ part in the controversy which was then raging between 
the Cromarists and the Remonstrants. He published sev- 
eral polemical dissertations; and even disputed in publioi 
at Leyden, with such ability, zeal, and " good respect,^ 
that he soon ^^ began to be terrible to the Aiminians*' as 
a champion of Calvinistie (Mrthodoxy.* The intolerance of 
the English hierarchy, and not the heterodoxy of the En* 
glish Articles of Religion, had indiiced &e Puritans to de- 
sert their native kmd. Their o(qposition was not so muoh 
to the doctrines of the Andean establishment, as to the 
eeremooials of her worship, and the aristo(»ratio exclusive- 
ness of her domineering prelacy. In Holland they found 
an Established Church, whose canons of bdief agreed, es» 
sentially, with those of the Church of England ; whose 
chief difference regarded tiie details of ecclesiastical gov- 
emment.t As earnest and as venerable in her renuncna- 
tion of Rome, the Reformed Dutch Chur<^ in her Litur- 
gy and her Articles of Religion, also rivaled h&r English 
contemporary in the drthodoxy of her faith and the stabil- 
ity of her forms. The most eminent pillars of the English 
establishment with Christian candor affirmed, that, in for- 
eign Reformed countries, those Churches whidi did not 
recognize a Prelacy ^ lost nothing of the true ess^iee of 
a Church."t When English jHcelates and English chureh- 

* BradltaBd, ia Yoong^ ChnmielM, 41. 

t *' Whatever doabts may be raised aa to the Calrlnism of Cranmer and Ridley, there 
ooa sorely be no room ftv any aa to the ohtefk oftlM AagUeaM Chvcli nndar XUu^wOl" 
*' The works (tf Calvin and Bnmnger became text-books in the English universities." 
Toward the end of the reign of James I., Calvinism gradually became onpopnlar at eomt. 
In the reign of Chailea I., Land's influence beoams so great that "to preach in ftnror oC 
Calvinism, though commonly reputed to be the doctrine of the Church, incurred punish- 
ment in any rank. Davenant, bishop of Salisbury, one of the divines sent to Oort, and 
feckened anM»g the principal theologians of that age, was reprimanded, on his knees, be- 
fbre the Privy Council Ibr this offense. But in James's reign, the University of Oxfbrd 
was decidedly Calvinistie ; and I suppose it continued so in the next reign, so fhr as the 
imiversity's opinions could be manifested."— Hallam, Const. Hist., cap. vii., and note. 

t Bishop Hall, x., 340; Bishop Davenant's "Adhortatio ad flratemam Communionem 
inter Evangelicas Ecolesias restaurandam,'* 1640. 

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men went to Holland, they oonfonned, without somple, to chat.iv. 
her estaJblishfid religion. At the oommand of James, a 
bishop, a dean, an arohdeaoon, and a professor of Theolo-^j^' 
gy in the Ghmch of En^and, attended, as we have seen, g^ 
a Synod at Dort, <^of doctors not episoopally ordained, sat^^^'"'^ 
with those doctors, preaohed to them, and voted with them 
on the gravest questions of theology,"* And so highly 
was that <^ honorable, grave, and reverend" Assembly es* 
teaned, that the Dean of Worcester, afier his elevation to 
the bishopric of Norwich, constancy wore thp golden med- 
al which the States General presented to the foreign dele- 
gates attending the Synod. Not only did ike head of ihe 
English Church, and the most enlightened English theo- 
logians under James, thus distinctly recognize the validity 
of the ordination of tiie ReCormed clergy abroad, but they 
readily admitted them to livings in the Church of En- 
gland, without re-ordination by a bishop.! 

In truth, the priesthood of the Netherlands was ordain- ita flvm of 
ed by the imposition of as holy hands as was the priest-n^T^ 
hood of England, and it traced as unbroken a line of de- 
scent from the Aposties. But -&e BefiNrmation in the 
Netheriands was essentially a spontaneous movnnent of 
the people. The political droumstances of tiie country 
Miooaraged the spread of tiie new doctrines. Yet there 
was not an entire unanimity. Among the laity, the no- 
bles remained, generally, attached to the Papal Church ; 
the advocates of the Reformed religion were, chiefly, the 
infericHr gentry, the merchants, the artisans. In the body 
of the {nriesthood the same difference occurred. The rich- 
ly-beneficed prelates adhered to the Pontiff; the more 
pc^ular clergy revolted. Not so in England. There the 
movement began at the throne ; and prelate and priest, with 
significant accord, obsequiously repudiated the supremacy 
of the Pope, and submissively acknowledged the suprema- 

* MaetnUy, i., 70 ; Hallam, Conat. Hist., tU., note. *< I shall take leare oftlila ▼ener- 
aUe bo47 witli tbia futhor nMBik, that King Jamaa aeBdiaf orer diTiaaa to jolii tUa 
Aaaeaibty waa aa open adknowtodsnent of the Taildltj ofocdlsation by BMra prMibytera; 
here being a biahop of the Chnreh of Bngland aitting aa a prirate membar In a aynad af 
dtriaea, of whleh a men praabytar waa the praaUent.''— I^Teirfe Pnritaiia, 1., 969. 

t Biahop Hall, L, n ; Xn Ml ; LiBfard, lin 147. 


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Ciup.iv. 07 of the King. The religion of the sovereign was estab- 
lished as the religion of the kingdom ; but the hierarchy, 
' under royal protection, continued, none the less than of 
old, to grow aristocratic, courtly, supercilious, and des- 
potic. In the Dutch provinoes, however, the plebeian 
priesthood, deserted by the patrician prelacy, was re- 
strained to the G-alilean platform of apostolic equality.* 
Reimbuouk Thc Episcopacy of the Reformed Dutch Church, foUow- 
«y. ing the popular impulse, naturally resumed a republican 

£;>rm; and each minister of that Church claims to be, 
and, by its canons, he is, the << bishop" or <^ overseer" of 
his own congregation, in subordination, alone, to the 
classes and synods of his peers.t Before the Reforma- 
tion, the fEuthfiil of Amsterdam had daily gathered around 
the four-and-thirty splendid altars which decorated the 
old cathedral church of Saint Nicholas. There the faith- 
fal worship now ; but those altars have all disappeared. 
The bishop's throne no longer stands within the venerable 
choir. The only thrones which remain to the republicsm 
bishops of the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church are 
thrones ^^ not made with hands." But the monuments 
of the Admirals of Holland remain ; and the magnificent 
brazen gates; and the wonderful windows of painted 
glass ; and the organ continues to roll its notes through Hie 
ancient aisles of Saint Nicholas at Amsterdam, as deep- 
toned as through the arches of Saint Peter at Westminster. 
The Democratic element, which the controlling influ- 
ence of national circumstances, in spite of the individual 
leanings of many of the clergy, had thus, from l^e first, 
infdsed into the government of the Reformed Church of 
the Netherlands, was its chief characteristic distinction 
firom the Church of England.^ But in almost every oth- 

* '* As for the ministera of God's word, they hsye equally the same power and authori- 
ty wheresoerer they are, as they are aU ministers of Christ, the only onlTersal Bishop, 
and the only head of the Church."— Article XXXI. of the Confession of Faith of the Syn* 

t ** The pastors are in Seriptnre ealled SCnosrds of Ood md Bitkop$t that is, orerseen 
•Ad watchmen, fin* they hare the orersigfat of the boose orGod.**— Litm^y of the R. D. C. : 
Fonn of Ordination. 

t "There is witness enoogfa of this in the late Synod ofDort When the Bishop of 
XJandaff had, in « speech of his, touched upon spiseopal forsmaisiit, and showed that 

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er respect, there was a remarkable and sympafhetio simi- ciup. iv. 
larity. Both adhered to Liturgies; both used liie clerical 
gown ; both preserved the Creeds of the AposUes, of Nice, gympauiy 
and of Saint Athanasius. Christmas, Easter, Ascension, ^^^"ch 
and Whitsunday were high holidays, alike in the Dutch ^jf "' 
and the English Churches. Their Articles of Religion ^"*^*^- 
were nearly identical. Their almost only difference was 
prelacy ; for prelacy won no popular favor in tolerant but 
republican Hdland. And to ike present day, tiie same 
essential harmony in doctrine and in Liturgy continues to 
assimilate these two equally venerable Churches. Trans- 
planted to the New World, tiie ^^ Reformed Protestant 
Dutch Church" and the ''Protestant Episc(^ Church" 
have both preserved their time-honored forms of worship, 
and their almost coincident Articles of Religion. Social 
circumstances alvmyv bound them closely together ; and 
they now differ in scarcely any important point, save the 
original disagreement respecting prelatic superiority.* 

The refugee Puritans at Leyden, finding the Estab- conuaiuy 
lished Church of Holland orthodox in its fBiith, and thetana. 
government of the Netherlands tolerant in its policy, 
seemed to have secured, without effort, a hafqpy home. 
It is not surprising that they should have entered into a 
cordial ccNnmunion; and that Robinson himself should 
have declared '^ before Gtod and men, that we agree so 
entirery with the Reformed Dutch Churches in the matter 

the want tbareor gaTe oppoitimltiea to thoae diTistona whicti were then on fbot In the 
Netherianda, Bogermannna, the prealdent of that AaaemUy, atood up, and. In a good al» 
lowanoe oTwhat had been apoken, aaid, ^DomkUf not mom tuimu ad^/tUcMf* ' Alaa, nqr 
Lmd, we are not ao happy.' "— Biahop Hall, x., 151. * 

* The Reftyrmed Dotch Ctniroh waa the Mother Chnreh of thia atate ; and a apirtt of 
tiberal eoorteay early prevaUed between Ita mlniatera and thoae of the Epiaoopal Church. 
The Rererend Mr. Veaey, the flrat Rector of Trinity church, in the city of New York, waa 
Indaeted into ofllee in Deoember, 1007, in the Dnteh ehwch in Garden Street. On that 
oecaaion, two Dutch clergymen, the Reverend Mr. Selyns, the paator of the church, and 
'he Rererend Mr. Nuoella, of lEing8ton,aaaiatod in the aerrloea. Mr. Veaey aAerward ef> 
Mated fbr aome time in the Garden Street church, altomately with the Dutoh dergymeni 
utU the building of Trinity church waa completed. When the Ifiddle Dutch church 
araa deaecrated by the Brltiah, during the Revolutionary war, the vaatry of Trinity ehnreh 
-taaaed the (bUowing Reaolution, In 1770 : " It being repreaented that the old Dutch ehnreh 
a now used aa a hoapital fbr hla m^featy'a troops, thia eorporatioD, impraaaed with a 
gratelU remaoUn^noe of the ibnner kindneaa of the menibera of that andant church, do 
oAr them the uae of Saint George'a church to that congregation, fbr celebrating Divina 
worahip.'* Tha aourtaoM oflbr waa frankly aeeaptad. 


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csAP.iv. of religicHif HkKk we are ready to eubsoribe to all and ev« 

fiiy one oC iSie Aitiofes of FaiHi of those ahuroheB, as they 

^^^^' are contained in tiie HaniMmy of Coofessioas (tf FaitiL"* 

The Pari. Bot there wore elements 3B Pimtaaism wbidli wei8 not 

tefiedin fovorabie to oonteiitmeDt. Its inflexible self-wiU sor- 
paased ordinary pertinaoity ; its notions of religion and of 
goven a nent were, perhaps, b^ond example dogmatioal. 
Its own waa tike only standard of pnqpriety. Rath^ than 
obey the law of tiieir own land, the Paritaas had endured 
its penalties. Beginning with qqpositien, th^ ended with 
authority. Pemeoutioa made them impoartant in En* 
gland ; and perseoution, in the end, rievated its snbjeots 
to tiie seatB of their judges. In their asylum in HoUand^ 
the refugees enjoyed full titration ; yet ihey were, eom- 
paratively, unimportant and obsoure. There they w^re 
treated with perhiqps rather more consideration than were 
some odh^ seots ; fnr their Calvinism aoooorded with tiiat 
of the established Dutch Ghuroh. Still, even that Church, 
though tJiey themselves had pronounced her fidtii to be 
thoroughly orthodox, came to be regarded by thetn aa 
scarcely a pure Church; for Ab used a Liturgy, and dung 
to the memory of holy days, tjie obeervance of whidi. the 
Puritans denounced as idohttrous. Sunday, too, was less 
austerely observed in Holland than they thoogfat it should 
have been. And, indeed, tlie Butch delegates to the Syi^ 
od of Dort had themselves lamented this evil. The Pur 
ritans, therefore, attempted to bring the Hollanders ^< to 
reform the neglect of observation of the Lord's day as a 
Sabbath," and other things '< funiss among tiiem.'^ But it 
could baldly have been expected that censcnious, though 
well-meaning foreigners, themselves enjojring full tolera- 
tion, should have had much encouragement in their self- 
imposed undertaking to modify the cheerful national hab- 
its of the warm-hearted people by whom they Imd been 
courteously sheltered. Few proselytes were made. The 
self-exiled Puritans began to grow '< restless" and uneasy 
in their unmolested home. Time was thinning their num- 

• Robtafon't Apology, •; Tong, 4M>, 186, not* ; Nod,i.,M4. 

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ben, end fern oame from Engkad to Btreagthen them, ciup.iv. 
The langaage of the Dutch was not their mother tongae. 
Fugitives from their native kingdom, Aej still cheriahed -'^^^ ' * 
dlegianee to the crown of G^reat Britain. Finn in their 
En^ish natioimlity, they feared that a long sojonm in 
Holland woold wear away their homogeneoumess. Many 
ci ihi6ak had married Dutch wives, and, in a few genera- 
tkniB, their postmty would beoome Dutch. Their youth 
were already enlisting as soldiers and sailors in the Dutch 
s^rfioe. Besides, they were moved by '^ a great hope and 
inward zeal" to advance the kingdom of Christ in the ^re- 
mote parts of the world." They ecosidered, said Winalow, 
^^ how hard the ooontry was where we lived ; how many 
spent their estate in it, and were foroed to return for En^ 
gland ; how grievous to live from under liie protection of 
the State of England; how like we were to lose our Ian* 
guage and our name of English ; how little good we did, 
or were likely to do, to the Dotdi in reforming the Bab- 
bath ; how unable there to give such eduoation to our 
children as we ourselves had reoeived."* 

Notwithstanding they were enjoying ^^ much peace and Tbe Pori- 
liberty"t in Holland, these considerations had great weight MiTelto 
with the Puritans, and made them dissatisfied with theirs 
abode. The results of European discovery in America 
having now become geaierally known, they determined to 
seek anoth^ home in the New World. At first, tiiey 
thought of going to Gxdana, the fabulous wealth of which 
had been eloquently described by Raleigh. But upon ma- 
turer consideration, their desire was ^'to live in a distinct 
body by themselves, under the general government of Vir- 
ginia," as near neighbors of ^^ the Engliah which were 
there planted," but entirely independent of tiie cdimy at 
Jamestown, which, under Argall's rapacious administra* 
tion, was fieist fiEdling into disrepute. They were led to 
hope that tiie king would grant them, there, ^< finee liber- 
ty, and freedom of religion." John Carver and Robert 

* Bradftnrd, in Tonng, 45-48 ; Window, 881 ; Morton't Mcmoriid, 18-91 ; Nm1*8 Fori- 
ttniyiMSOO. . t WIMloW, nt flap. 


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Chap. IV. Cushmaii Were aooordin^y sent to London ^^ to 6(dioit 
this matter." They found the Virginia Company " very 
Negotia-* desirous to have them go thither," and willing to grant 
lS55o*S. ^^^ an ample patent. But as to their suit with the 
king, ^< it proved a harder pieoe of work than they took it 
for." James, anxious Plough to enlarge the dominions 
of England, consented to ^^ connive at them, and not mo- 
lest them, provided they carried themselves peaceably." 
But he refuped to tolerate liberty of religion " by his pub- 
lic authority under his seal ;" and Carver and Cushman 
returned to Leyden, to report that all efforts to overcome 
the scruples of the king had been vain. 

The report of their messengers damped for a time the 
ardor of the Puritans, and ^^ caused some distraction." 
But further reflection led them to set a higher value on.tiie 
king's informal promise of connivance. A royal charter 
of religious freedom need not be considered so essential, 
for << though they had a seal as brocd as the house-floor, it 
would not serve the turn, for there would be means enough 
1619. found to recall or reverse it." So Robert Cushman and 
Pcbnitry. "^jji^i^j^ BrcvTstcr wcro sent on another mission to Lon- 
d(m, to make €urremgements with the Virginia Company, 
and procure as good conditions as they could. But dis- 
sensions in the company hindered the agents' proceedings. 
PatwtflromAt length, "a large patent" was granted them, under the 
la Com- company's seal, to settle themselves in the ^< northern parts 
of Virginia," southward of the fortieth parallel of latitude. 
By the advice of some friends, tiiis patent was not taken 
in the name of any of their own company, but in that of 
Mr. John Wincob, ^^a religious gentieman, then belonging 
to the Countess of Lincoln, who intended to go with them." 
Wincob, however, never went. But the pat^it having 
been sent over to the Puritans at Leyden, ^' for them to 
view and consider," in connection wiih the propositions for 
their emigration made by Thomas Weston and others of 
London, they were '^ requested to fit and prepare them- 
selves with all speed."* 

* Bndftrd, in Touif , »-7«i Windofw, S8II, 383; Prinoa, 158. 

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Meanwhile, Ohe Furilans, disooaraged at the yarions dif- gmj^. vr. 
ficnlties which had embarrassed their negotiations in £n- 
gland, had been entertaining serious thoughts of emigra- cooditioB 
ting to America nnder the auspices of the United Provinces. 2,U"i/°* 
Their Holland hosts had treated ihem, from the first, with °****^ 
constant kindness. '^ Although it was low with many of 
tiiem, yet their word would be taken among the Dutch 
when they wanted money, because they had found by ex- 
perience how careful they were to keep their word, and 
saw them so painful and diligent in their callings, that 
they strove to get their cust(»n and to employ them above 
others in their work, tar tiieir honesty and diligence.^ Nor 
did the state become << weary of Ihem," or think of driving 
them out. It was " their own free choice and motion*' 
which led them to seek a new home; and when Ihe magis- 
trates of Leyden heard of their purpose, they bore spontane- 
ous testimony to the good conduct of their guests. '' These 
English, "said they, <<have lived among us now this twelve 
years, and yet we never had any suit or accusation come 
against any of tiiem."* 

It is not surprising that the Puritans, thus treated with Their par- 
good- will, toleration, and hospitality in the Fatherland, wNew*^ 
should have purposed to emigrate to New Netherland, if land. 
they could obtain sufiicient encouragement from the Dutch 
government. Bameveldt was now dead, and one great 
obstacle in the way of the formation of a general Dutch 
West India Company was removed. But various ques- 
tions of detail embarrassed the States G-eneral, and pro- 
tracted the settiement of the question. The Amsterdam 
Trading Company, whose special charter had expired two 
years before, in the mean time continued to send their 
ships thither, and other merchants had begun to participate 
in the trade. Colonization, however, had been postponed, 
until the proposed powerful monopoly should be able to 

* BrtdA>rd, 88, SO ; Morton's Memorial, 91. Mr. GoOrge Snomer, In Mass. Hist. CoU., 
xxiz., 4S-03, tabors to prore— what was clearly tlie ease— that the condition of the Part- 
tans at Leyden "was one of poverty and ohsenrity.** But his attempt to exhibit the natch 
as wanting in hospitality and good-will, is not sastalned by evidence, end is eontnuUot- 
ory to the testimony of the Puritans themselTes. 8«« sste, p. 115» note. 


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ciuF. nr. undertake it with saooeas. In Hub oonjnnotiire, Rolimacai 
began to soond the Amsterdam merohants respecting the 
.pjp^ inunediate £>rmati(»i of a colony on tiie Nortii River. Be- 
^PJ^ing " well versed in the Dutch language," he rq>resonted 
^^j^to them that he was himself £i.voiably inclined to go and 
"*"**• settle in New Netherlands and that over firar hundred fam- 
ilies would go with him, not (mly from Leyden, but also 
bom England, provided ihey could be ascnued tiiai the 
government of the United Provinces would protect and de- 
fend them there from the assaults of other powers. They 
desired to go to New Netherland, said Robinson, ^'to plant 
there the true and pure Christian religion, to conv^ tiie 
savages of those countries to the true kno¥rledge and un- 
derstanding of the Christian &itih, and, through the grace 
of the Lord, and to the glory of the Netherlands govern^ 
ment, to colonize and establish a new empire there, under 
the carder and command" of the Prince of Orange, and the 
High Mighty Lords States General.* 

The Amsterdam Company gladly listened to these over- 
tures. They saw at once that so many families going in 
^^u^ a body to New Netherland could hardly fail to form a 
^Seo^ suocessfrd colony ; and, accordingly, they made ^< large 
l^'^^^offi^rs" to the Puritans, promising to transport them free 
of cost to the North River, and to fnmidi every &mily 
with cattie.t The political part of the questicm, however, 
tiie Dutch merchants could not decide. They were ready 
to expend their capital in ccmveying the emigrants to New 
Netherland, and in supplying them with necessaries ; but 
they had no authority to promise that the Dutch govern- 
ment would affi>rd to tiie colonists that special protection, 
after their arrival there, which Robinson required for his 
followers as an indispensable condition. They, tfaerefoiie, 
determined to apply directiy to the general government 
at the Hague. 

The Prince of Orange was now at tiie zenith of his 

* UtOMad Dtaaatmm, i., M( N. Y. tout* 1>otnmnft», IMft, No. Ill, p^w 19, M; 
AddnMtwftnN.T. H.8.,1844,AppMdU,p.64; 0H>dL,L,84. 
t Bndftnd, In Touf, 4S; WIimIow, S85. 

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power. To himy as stadtholder, the Amstflrdam mer* ciur. nr. 
obftnta aooofdiagly presented a memorial, setting forth ^^^ 
their first diseovery of, and oontinuoos trade to, NeWj/^; ' 
Netbwland, " situated between New France and Virginia, ^S?*"* 
in the latitude of firwn forty to Irarty-five degrees," and de- SSSinf '' 
tailing the overtures whioh the <^ En^h preaoher at Ley- 
den" had made to them to ocdonize that country with his 
Puritan followers, << prorided that^ by the authority and 
under the protection of your Princely Excellency and the 
High Mighty Ixsrds States General, they may be defend- 
ed and presenred there firom the attacks of other powers." 
The memorialists expressed Hieir apprehension that the 
King of Ghreat Britain would colonize New Neth^land 
widi English subjects, and '^ with .violence render fruit- 
less the discoveries and possession" of the Dutch in that 
country, and probably surprise their ships then trading 
there. They, thearefcHre, prayed that << the aforementioned 
preacher and four hundred fomilies may be taken under 
the protection of the United Provinces, ai^ that two ships 
of war may be s^it to secure, provisionally, the said lands 
to this government, since such lands may be of great im- 
portance whenever the West India Company shall be <«- 

The stadtholder expressed no opfaiion upon this maaoo-viewtor 
rial; he merely referred it to the States General Butoenend. 
the Twelve Years' truce with Spain had now nearly ex- 
pired ; and the statesmen of the Netherlands were med- 
itating too large and ambitious designs to aUow them to 
listen with favor to the petition of ^le Amsterdam Com- 
pany. They had now in view the establishment of a 
grand commercial mcNOopoly, whose concentrated capital 
and eneigy should not only direct the colonization of the 
Dutch discoveries in America, but should also assist the 
states in crushing the power of their hereditary enemy. 
To that company, when it should be organized, would 
properly belong the ec«isideration of all the details con- 

* HoOand DoeoiMnts, L, 05^. The Mily New Englaiid dutmielen do mC atanlkai 
Chie application to ttie Dutch govemment, and its Ate, though they apeak of the "large 
oArs" which were made to the Paritana in Holland. 


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chap.iv. neoted with emigration. Besides, the memorial whidi 
"~~~ placed Robinson's views before the States G-eneral, 
views of' l>ro^ht officially to their knowledge — ^what, indeedi by 
oeiimi?' ^^ time, had perhaps become notorious — ^that James was 
disposed to colonize the northern regions of America with 
English subjects ; it also positively alleged, that he in- 
tended to dispossess the Butch of their foothold in New 
Netherlands If such were really the king's intention, it 
would be folly for the States G-eneral to assist his design 
by aiding in the transportation thitixer of emigrants, whose 
liege services might soon be demanded by royal proclama- 
tion. The limits of New Netherland, as at first defined 
by the States G-eneral, extended from the fortieth to the 
forty-fifth parallel of latitude, from Virginia to Canada. 
There were unoccupied lands enough in Virginia, south 
of the fortieth degree, where the Furitcms might settle 
themselves in peace and good neighborhood, between 
Jamestown and Manhattan, and thus preserve wi&out 
inconvenience their national identity. But for them to 
occupy, under the express authority and with the formal 
protection of tixe Dutch government, any portion of New 
Netherland, might give rise to embarrassing international 
questions. And when that region should be colonized, it 
would be better that Butch subjects, of undoubted loyal- 
ty, should themselves first plant there the laws and the 
venerated customs of the Fatherland. 
Theap^i- Such wcrc probably some of the arguments which 
tbePari- Weighed with the States General in their consideration 

ftMed. of the memorial of the 12th of February, 1620. The sub- 
so Feb. "^ 

loMarcb. ject was scvcral times before them during the two follow- 

10 April. 

ing months ; and, finally, after repeated deliberations and 
consultations with the Board of Admiralty and the stadt- 

11 April, holder, they resolved peremptorily to reject the prayer of 

the memorialists.* 

Thus the hopes of the Puritans were again disappointed. 
New ne^ Refuscd the solicited assistance of their government, the 
Bngiaiid. Amsterdam merchants, who had made the << large offers," 

* Hoi. Doe., L, H 100-108. 


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were not in a position to carry out by themselves the CHAP.r^. 

ocmditions demanded by Robinson, the zeal of whose fol- 

lowers to leave Hieir home at Leyden was by this time ^^^^' 
qoickened by a growing feeling of apprehension. Throngh- 
out Holland there was now <' nothing bat beating of drums 
and preparing for war." Fearful that << the Spaniard might 
prove as cruel as the savages of America,"* the Puritans ' 

GDoe more turned their thoughts to England. About 
this time, they were informed, *'by Mr. Weston and oth- 
ers," that James had determined to grant a large patent 
'^ for the more northerly parts of America, distinct from 
the Virginia patent, and wholly excluded from their gov- 
ernment, and to be called by cmother name, to wit, NeW 
England."! The proposed patent, however, was still in 
its preliminary stages ; but Weston and his associates in 
London urged the Puritans to go to New England, in hope 
of ^^ present profit to be made by fishing on that coast." 
Embarrassments still hindered. Some of the London cap- 
italists were vexed that they " went not to Guiana ;" oth- 
ers would do nothing " unless they went to Virginia ;" 
while many, << who were most relied on, refused to ad- 
venture if tiiey went thither." Jn the midst of these dif- 
ficulties, " they of Leyden were driven to great straits ;" 
and Hie New England patent ^^ not being folly settled," 
Aey determined '' to adventure with that patent they had" 
from the Virginia Company.t 

But the means provided by their London friends wereThePnri. 
not sufiicient to convey them all at once. The congrega- L^dm!^* 
tion was, therefore, divided into two parts. The greater 
number and the least robust were to remain at Leyden 
with Robinson; the younger and abler-bodied were to 
emigrate, as pioneers, under Brewster. After a solemn 
fast and a stirring discourse from Robinson, tiie selected 
emigrants were accompanied to Delft-Haven, two miles aijoiy. 

, in Tonng, ftl. 

t Hobbard, in Toong, 80. The royal warrant to the sOlieitor general is dated 93d Jaly» 
lOO; tiie patent Itself did not pees the great aeal nntU 3d November, 1690.— Lond. Doe., 
i.,8; N.T. Col. If 88., ill., 4; ICaaa. Hiat. CoU., zxri., 64 ; Haurd, 1., 99, lOS. 

I Hritbud, in T«mc 81. 


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chjup. IV. below Rotterdam, by << the bretibiren that staid at Ley- 
den." Embarking in the " speedwell," a small vessel <rf 
sixty tons, they passed over to Southampton. Th«e they 
found, '^ lying ready with all the rest of their oon^Mtny,'' 
a larger ship, the ^< Mayflower," of one hundred and eighty 
tons, whioh had oome round directly from Loiidon. T1»d 
sAQcust. two vessels, filled with passengers, soon set sail in oom^ 
Thepu. pany. But the leaky Speedwell belied her name; and 
S^Ss^- the expedition put back into FlymoutL Dismissing here 
"'''**** her battered conscnrt, which returned to London with Ou^- 
6 Sept man and a part of the company, the Mayflower recom- 
From menced her Icmely voyage across the Atlantic, crowded 
with one hundred emigrants, who, in tears and sadness, 
had left ^^ that goodly and pleasant city which had been 
their resting-place near twelve years. But they knew 
they were Pilgrims, and looked not much on those things, 
but lifted up their eyes to heaven, their dearest country, 
and quieted their spirits."* 
Patentfrom The patent with which the Pilgrims sailed for America 
pompii^rwas, as we have seen, the one which they had obtained 
wMeh thty from the Virginia Company. It authorized them to aettie 
themselves in the northerly parts of Virginia, which ex- 
tended to the fortieth degree of latitude. North of that 
parallel, their grant would have availed them nothing. 
This they knew when they set sail ; and they were also 
aware that the projected New England patent was yet un- 
der the advisement of the law officers of the British crown. 
With the proposed grantees of that patent they had not 
negotiated. After the government of tiie United Provinces 
had refused the prayer of the memorial, which had been 
presented in their behalf, they did not seem to have felt 
sufficientiy encouraged to settie tiiemselves, under Dutch 
auth(»rity, in New Netherland. Having by that memorial 
recognized and admitted the Dutch titie to the territory, 
"situated between New France and Virginia," they would 
very justly have been considered as intruders, if tiiey had 

* Bradford, in Toug, 77, W^; Wiiudow, 881, 300 ; Morton's Memorial, 91-48; Neal*a 

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deliberately undertaken to establisk an independent foreign chap. iv. 
colony there, without the patronage of the States General, 
which they had solicited. But the ge<^raphy of the Amer- 
ican coast, between Cape God and the Chesapeake, was, 
at that time, accurately known only by the Dutch, and by 
Dermer, whose accounts had not yet been made public. 
The intention of the Pilgrims, accordingly, s^ems to haveTbeirdM- 
been to sail, by the northern passage, directly to Manhat- 
tan, where they could gain lie exact information which 
they needed respecting the precise position of their future 
home. And so they left Europe, " on a voyage," as they 
themselves described it in their famous compact on board 
the Mayflower, <^ to plant the first colony in the northern 
parts of Virginia," beyond the limits of New England, on 
the shores of Delaware or Maryland, and outside the then 
claimed southern frontier of New Netherland.* 

Historians have reiterated a tale that the Mayflower 
was taken to Cape Cod through the treachery of Jones, her 
master. The story was first broached by Nathaniel Mor- Morton's 
ton, secretary of the New Plymouth colony, who, in his bSSS^ 
" Memorial," alleging " late and certain intelligence," 
charges " some of the Dutch" with having "firaudulently 
hired the said Jones * * * to disappoint" the Pilgrims in 
their intention to go " to Hudson's Eiver." Mcwrton was 
not a passenger by the Mayflower in 1620. He came to 
New Plymouth in 1623, when he was a boy only eleven 
years old. He did not publish his " Memorial" until 1669, 
nearly half a century after the alleged <'plot," when most 
of the passengers in the Mayflower were dead, and when 
the coveted territory of New Netherland had been for five 
years subjected to British rule. If the secretary's " intel- 
ligence" had been early, instead of "late," it might, per- 
haps, have been called " certain." The Mayflower does 
not appear ever to have been in Holland ; nor do Jones, 
her master, nor Coppin, her mate and pilot, seem to have 
had any communication with the Dutch. But Coppin had 
certainly been on the coast of New England at least once 

* Bradlbrd, in Yoang, 191 ; Morton*8 M€BM»rial, 37 ; Baaoralt, L, 809. 


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ciup. TV. before ;* and in navigating the Mayflower by the nor&era 
passage, toward Cape Cod, he only jGoUowed his former tTaok, 
and adhered to the usual English praotk^e since Goanold^s 
time. Neither Bradford nor Winslow, in their eontem* 
porary histories, questicm the fidelity of the miurter or the 
pilot of the ship, both of whom seem to have been English- 
men, in the interest of their L(»idon employers ; and the si^ 
lenoe of Bradford and Winslow onght to be oonclosive on s 
point "vdiich, if true, must unquestionably have had a ooii- 
spieuous place in every faithfol acoount of the <^ old odiony.'' 
No allusion is made to the story in the early correspondenoe 
betwe^i New Netherland and N«w Plymouth in 1^7. 
Dudley, in his letter to Lady Lincoln in 1631, is silent. 
If the tale had been true, the Dutch would assuredly have 
been taunted with it in 1633, and afterward, when the New 
Plymouth colonists quarreled with them about the title to 

The story the vallcy of the Connecticut. In short, Morton's Parliiian 

ny." " calumny" seems to be a sheer &lsehood, too eagerly re- 
peated by more recent writers. After a boisterous voyage 
of more than two months, and << long beating at sea," say» 

jJttoT. Bradford, "iiiey fell in with the land called Cape Cod ; 
tiue which being made, and certainly known to be it, they 
were not a little joyful." A consultation wtus held, and 
the ship was tacked to the southward, ^^to find some place 
about Hudson's River, according to their first intenti(«s.'^ 

10 Nov. But they soon fell among the '^peribus shoals and break- 
ers" of Cape Malebarre, which ^nbarrass the navigator 
to this day ; and they bore up again for Cape Cod. Neither 
Dutch intrigue nor a bribed pilot had brought the May- 
jBower there— it was the Providence of Gtxi.t 

Pinding that Aey were now far beyond " the nortiiem 

* "Bradfonl and Winrtow^s Jonnud, in Tonng , 148, 159. *' Robert Coppin, onr pUoc, 
made relation of a great navigable river and good tiarbor on tlie ottier beadland of the bay, 
ilment ri^ oiver against Ca|»e Cod, being in a right Hne not mneh above eight taagnea 
diatant, in which he had been onoe.** Tonng auppoaea the " other headland" to be Ma- 
noRiet Point, and the " great navigable river" to be the North River, in Seitoate. 

t Mforum'a ICeaMrlal, 84 ; Bradlbrd, in Tonng, 100-lOS, 117 ; De LaM, lit, eap. iv^ p. 
80 : Dudley, in Yoang*a Mass., 308 ; Holmee'a Annals, 1., 161 ; Moolton, 359-357. Gra 
tattne, in his History of the United States (Am. ed.), L, IM ; tt., Kl, IflS, records and em- 
bellishes the story. See, however. Dr. Young's admirable remarka at the ** Old Colony" 
(beUval at Bosloa, DeseortMr, 1644, in N. T. H. 8. Free., 1814, App., p. 108. 

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parts of Virginia," and that, oonseqnently, tiieir patent ghap. iv. 
firom the Virginia Company, under which they had left 
Holland, expecting <^ to become a body politic," was '< meule 
void and asekfls,"* the emigrants, the day be£Dre they 
came to harbor, '^ observing some not well affeoted to unity 
and concord," and '' some appearance of faoti^m" among 
thek company, signed an agreement, combining them- compMt at 
selves tc^cyther into ^^ a civil body politic," for their *^ bet- 
tear ordering and preservation." This instniment, which n not 
the pressure of disaffecting circumstances made suddenly 
expedient, has, by degrees, become magnified into '^ the 
birth of popular constitutional liberty," and the exclusive 
elaim k now distinctly set up that '^ in the cabin of the 
Mayflower humanity recovered its rights."! 

No class of persons in the world has, perhaps, on the 
(me hand, been loaded with more extravagant eulogy, and, 
on the other, been covered with more undeserved ridicule 
than the English Puritans, and their descendants in Amer- 
ica. An incessant repetition of stereotyped panegyric may, 
indeed, be excused on those periodi<»Ll occasiims when a 
large posterity is accustomed to commemorate, with filial 
pride, the many worthy attributes of a devout, active, 
acute, independent, and resolute ancestry. The honest 
reputation of that renowned ancestry no candid mind can 
d^reciate ; and the real services which the Furitcms ren- 
dered to the cause of civil liberty it is grateful to ap- 
plaud. But there is danger lest zeal should outrun knowl- 

* It may caute miflapprebtntloii to aay that the paa«en««r» In the Mayflower left Eoropo 
'*wiliioatsiqrQMl%lehartOTfram^oonK>MUl>ody.» Tba only mwon why tbalr " laige 
patent'* from the Virginia Company, with which they adventured, " waa never made nae 
or,** as staled by Bradfbrd, was, beeanse lliey settled tliefluetves~«oiitra>y to thair intea- 
tkm when they sailed-«<mt of the bounds of Virginia. Ssreral years afterward, they ob- 
tained a charter from the New England Coancil, within the limits of whose patent they 
iMift wsldeatany sstablisbsd their plantatisik 

t BradAvd and Winslow, in Yoong, 95, 120, 131 ; Morton's Memorial, 28, 37 ; Bancroft, 
i., S06-310. Young, in a note to his " Chronides of the PUgrtas,** p. 1», acys, ** Hers, 
fir the first time In the world's history, the philosophical fiction of a social compact was 
realized in practice. And yet it seems to me that a great deal more has been discerned in 
this dseoment than the sipien contemplated. It is evident that when tliey left Hottaad* 
they expected * to become a body politic, using among themselves dvil government, and 
to choose their own mlers from among themselves.' Their purpose in drawing* np and 
signing this esmpact, was stanply, as they state, to restrain osrtcin of tbelv mmiber whs 
had maniflBsted an unruly and Ihettous disposition. This was the whole philostqihy of the 
instrmnent, whsievar may slnea hsre keen dlseovsisd and dsinosd ftan tt.** 


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Chap. IV. edge, and lest ideal piotores, drawn by self-adtdatory rhet- 
one, should gradually come to be received as faithAil por- 
traits of reality. And while naught should be set down 
in malice, no temptation to flatter self-conceit, nor anxiety 
to demonstrate hypotheses ; no reluctance to oppose the 
most eloquent ability, nor fear of provoking cherished prej- 
udice which unwelcome candor may offend, should ever 
warp those, who assume the responsible task of reccnrding 
the annals of their race, from the duty of dearly exposing 
historical truth. 
sxunpie of Howcvcr ample may have been the true scope of their 
rvpubiic. compact on board of the Mayflower at Cape Cod, it can 
not be denied, and it ought not to be concealed, that tiie 
Pilgrims, before they left their asylum in Holland, had 
seen, in her tolerant government, an early and illustrious 
assertion of the rights and the power of the people, and a 
noble protest against oppression and tjnranny. While the 
fugitive Puritans, unmolested at Leyden, observed the 
popular principle of majorities triumphant, even in severe 
ecclesiastical decisions, they found that sublimest element 
of all in civil liberty — freedom of ocmscience — ^more fully 
realized in the United Netherlands than in any other 
country in the world. The same immunities which the 
Dutch had won from Spain were freely granted to the 
non-conforming refugees from England. In the Batavian 
Republic, too, they saw the happy working of that Federal 
system which afterward bound together the American col- 
onies. And, in the Constitution of self-governing Holland, 
those refagees had before them the practical example of a 
representative administration, imperfect, indeed, but nev- 
ertheless a marvel of the age ; founded on large principles 
of popular liberty ; maintaining those principles with splen- 
did success ; and deserving the lasting gratitude of man- 
kind kr it& earnest, consistent, and magnanimous vindi- 
cation of the rights of humanity. All this was observed 
in the United Provinces, at a period when James I. was 
king of Great Britain, Louis XIII. king of Prance, and 
Philip in. king of Spain. Such lessons could not possi- 

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bly have been lost upon the Pilgrims ; to their value they chaf.iv. 
had themselves borne testimony, in soliciting encourage- 
ment to emigrate to New Netherland " under the order 
and command" of the Prince of Orange and the States 
General ; and when they are found affirming, in New En- 
gland, some of substantially the same principles as those 
which they had seen operative in the Dutch republic, and 
which at that time were developed no where else, it can 
not be just to monopolize for tliem the glory of having 
originated " popular constitutional liberty."* 

Several weeks were spent by the emigrants in examin- 
ing the concave shores behind Gape God. At last, a mareiuMUnf at 
advantageous harbor than any they had seen was found omh. 
on the west side of the bay ; and an exploring party land- " 
ed at New Plymouth, on the spot which Block and Smith 
had visited several years before, and marked on their maps, 
and which Dermer, just five months previously, though 
without their knowledge, had indicated as a fitting place 
for " the first plantation."t In a few days the Mayflower |4 d«. 
was brought up from the Gape, and the 

" band of exiles moored their bai^ 

On the wild New England shore." 

Thus the Puritan pilgrims left their home at Leyden, 
and sought the New World under the banner of Saint 
Greorge ; and thus they came to plant on the bleak bor- 
ders of eastern New England the institutions which it had 
once been their purpose to cultivate, under the protecting 
flag of Holland, in the genial regions of New Netherland. 

* This ■obJ«eC will be ftirtlMr eoiurtdered In lalweqiwiit ehapten. 
t Morum'a Memortali 50, 57. 


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Chap. v. The proJ6ot (cx a general Dntoh West India Oompany, 
whiok Usselinox had so early and zealously, yet unsac- 
J^ • oeesftdly, urged upon the attention ^of the statesmen of 
JJJJ^** Holland, at lei^h obtained its aooomplishment. It was 
I^JI'n****' the age of great monopc^es and grasping charters. The 
East India Company had, since 1602, pursued a prosper- 
ous career; and its fiiiooess had provoked emulation. The 
Twelve Years' truce with Spain had expired in the spring 
of 1621 ; and the United Provinces were warned to pre- 
pare &r a renewed slxnggle with their mighty enemy. 
The obstacles vrhioh had hindered the consummation of 
Usselincx's views were not only now cleared away, but 
opposition was succeeded by encouragement; and the 
long-pending charter was hurried to completion, within 
three months after the termination of the Spanish truce. 
sjuiM^ On the third of June, 1621, the States General passed 

a formal patent und^ their great seal, declaring that the 
welfiBLre and hairiness of the United Netherlands depend- 
ed mainly upon their foreign l^ade and navigation, and that 
those great interests could be properly encouraged in dis- 
tant regions only by the combined and united action of a 
general incorporated company. For these and other rea- 
sons, they accordingly ordained that, for the term of twen- 
ty-four years from the first of July, 1621, none of the in- 
habitants of the United Provinces should be permitted to 
sail thence to the coasts of Africa, between &e tropic of 
Cancer and the Cape of Grood Hope, nor to the coasts of 
America or the West Indies, between Newfoundland* and 

Extant or 


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the StraitB of Hagdlan, exeept in the smne or by the con* chap. v. 
sent of the West India Company, npcm pain of fcsrftitait 
of diips and oargoee. At the same time, it was provided -^^^' 
ihat snoh parties as had, before the granting of Ihe oharw 
ter, be^i engaged in oommeroe with those ooontries, 
^^ might oontinne their trade for the sale of iheir goods," 
and make Iheir homeward voyages. 

The West India Company was invested with enormons Poiitieai 

p o wert of 

powers. In tiie name of the 8tatea General, k might make tbecompa- 
oontraots and aUianoes with the prinoee and natiipes of the 
countries comprehended within the limits of its charter ; 
build forts ; appoint and discharge governors, sokLiecs, and 
public officers; administer justice; and promote tzade. 
It was bound to ^^ advance Ihe peo{ding of those fruitful 
and unsettled parts, and do all that the servine of those 
c untries, and the profit and increase of trade diall re- 
quire." It was obliged to oommnnicate to ihe States Gen- 
eral, from time to time, all the treaties and alliances it 
might make, and also detailed statements of its forts and 
settlements. All governors in chief^ and the instruotmis 
proposed to be given to them, ware to be first approved of 
by the States General, who would then issue formal com- 
missions ; and all superior officers wwe held to take oaths 
of allegiance to their High Hightinesses^ and also to the 

llie government of the company was vested in five sep- chambers. 
arate diambers of managers ; one at Amsterdam, managr 
ing four ninth parts ; one at Hiddleburg, in Zealand, two 
ninth parts ; one at Dordrecht, on the Maeze, one nin& 
part ; one in North Holland, one ninth part ; and one in 
Friesland and Groningen, one ninlh part. General exec- 
utive povirers for all purposes---except that, in case of a dec- 
laration of war, the approbation of tiie States General was 
to be asked— -were intrusted to a board of NniBTBBif dele- couefe or 
gates. Of these, eight were to come firom the Chamber at 
Amsterdam, four from Zealand, two from the Maeae, two 
from North Holland, and two from Friesland and Gron- 
ingen ; while one delegate was to represent the States G«n- 

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ciup. V. eral, for the purpose of '^helping to direct the affairs of the 
company to tiie best advantage in the aforesaid meeting." 
intoTMt of '^^ States ftfflieral likewise promised to " defend this com- 
oeiSS!" P*°y against every person, in free navigation and traffic, 
and assist them with a million of guilders ;" and also, in 
case of war, to '^give them for their assistance" sixteen 
ships of war of three hundred tons burden, and four yachts 
of eighty tons, all fully equipped. These vessels, however, 
were to be manned cmd supported by the company, which 
was also obliged to provide and maintain an equal num- 
bw. The whole fleet was to be under the command of an 
admiral appointed by the States G-eneraL All the inhab- 
itants of the Netherlands, '^ and also of other countries," 
might become stockholders of the company during the 
year 1621 ; after which time no new members were to be 

Thus the Dutch government, leaving to the East India 
Company the consolidation of a magnificent empire in Asia, 
gave to a new mercantile corpcuration almost boundless 
powers to subdue, colonize, and govern the unoccupied re- 
New Neui-gions of Africa and America. New Netherland, though 
daded ' not specifically named in Hie charter, was clearly compre- 
chirter. ^ bended within its purview ; and though the Dutch gov- 
ernment did not formally guarantee any absolute title to 
the territory, it nevertheless expressly bound the compa- 
ny to promote the colonization of those ^' fruitful and un- 
settled parts." The charters of Henry for the colonization 
of Canada, and the patents of James for the settlement of 
Virginia and New England, were no more favorable to co- 
lonial freedom than was the grant of the States Greneral to 
Powmandthe Wcst India Company. While that corporation might 
tiMeompa- couqucr provinccs, and form alliances with native princes, 
at its own risk, it was bound to submit the instructions of 
its governors to the approval of the states ; and the para- 
mount authority and appellate jurisdiction of the central 
government at home was affirmed and maintained by the 

* See charter at length in the Groot Placaatbook, i., 560 ; De Laet's Jaerlyck Verhad ; 
Hasaid, i., 191 ; 0*C8U., L, SM. 

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oath of allegiance to the States Q-eneral, which was re- chap. v. 
quired from all superior officers of the company. 

/The leading objects of the incorporation of this annedL,,,^^^ 
c(Mumercial mcmopoly were, nevertheless, " the profit and^^'*** 
increase of trade," and the humbling of the power of 
^pain emd Portugal in Africa and America* How suc- 
cessfully Hiese purposes were accomplished, the annals of 
the Netherlands proudly telL Yet triumph eventually 
led to «disast^ ; and the intoxication of brilliant success 
was followed, before long, by the mortification of over- 
whelming bankruptcy. And it was an evil day for New 
Netherland, when the States General committed to the 
guardianship of a close and grasping mercantile corpora- 
tion, the ultimate fortunes of their embryo province in 

Various impediments, however, delayed for two years organiia. 
the final organization of the West India Company. The d! w. 1. 
original diarter was twice amplified in some points of de- ^^^""'*"^ 
tail; and the managers having adopted articles of internal 
regulation, which were formally approved by the States 
General on the twenty-first of June, 1623, closed their 1623. 
books of subscription, and prepared with energy to prose- *^ ^**^* 
cute their designs.* 

In the mean time, the merchants, who had lately formed Private 
the United New Netherland Ajssociation, continued to send to Kw " 
separate trading ventures to the North and South Rivers, land "' 
Hendrick Eelkens, Adriaen Jansen Engel, and Hans Joris 
Houten of Amsterdam, who, the year before, had so stren- 
uously opposed the grant of any exclusive privileges to 
May's ship-owners, obtained from the States General a 
special license to send their vessel, the "White Dove," to 1621. 
" New Virginia," under the command of Captain Joris ^* ^p'* 
Houten. The next week, Dirck Volokertsen, Doctor Ve- 
rus. Doctor Carbasius, and others, of Hoom, in North Hol- 
land, some of whom were the owners of May's first ship, 
the Fortune, obtained a similar permission to send a ves- 34 sept. 
sel to trade " in the Virginias." A few days afterward, 

* Do Uet, Jaeriyck Verfaael ; Haxard, 1., 14Q, 174, 181 : O^CaU., L, 408, 411. 


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cmxp. v. upon the petition of ^^ CSaes Jacobsen Haringoarspel, oonn- 

selor and fonner schepen of Amsterdam, Peter Plancius,* 

minister of the word of Grod, Lambreoht van Tweenhuy- 
sen, Hans Glaessen and Company, trading to eertain lands, 
ooasts, and rivers discovered by tiiem, lying between Vir- 
ginia and New France, in the latitude of from forty to 
forty-five degrees, named New Netherland, and also to 
the adjacent lands and a great river, lying in Ihe iatitode 
of from thirty-eight to forty degrees," tiie 8tates G^en^^l 
38SeiH. authorized them to dvsphtck two ships, to trade on the 
North and South Rivers.t These special licenses wei»e 
granted under the proviso in i3ae dmrter of tJie West In- 
dia Compcuiy. But in order to prevent any interference 
with its privileges, tlie grantees of Hiese special licenses 
were required to complete their voyages, and have all 
tiaeir vessels back in flG^and, by the first day of July, 1622. 
Brttiflb Mt- Meanwhile, the King of England, notwithstanding the 
England, actual posscssiou of Canada by ihe French, and New Neth- 
erland by the Dutdi^ had, as we have seen, asserted a 
claim of sovereipity over the regions lying between Vir- 
1620. ginia and Newfoundland. The New England patent, by 
which James granted to the council at Plymoutli an ab- 
solute property in all the American territory extending 
from the fortieth to the forty-eightii degree of latitude, and 
bom the Atdantio to the Pacific, passed ihe great seal about 
a week before ihe Mayflower, with the first Puritan emi- 
grants, arrived at Cape Cod. The monopoly <K)nferred by 
the charter was immense. " "Without the leave of the 
Council of Plymouth, not a ship might sail into a harbor 

* Planchit was m eminent Calrinlstlc clergyman of Amsterdam, and a menrt>er of Hie 
flunooB Synod of Dort, wbere be waa chosen one of the rerisers of the new translation of 
the Bible. (Brandt, xxxlii., 53.) He was no less distinguished as a geographer ; and, as 
has been stated (ante, p. 28, 49), was an earnest promote of Dotoh maritime enteriniae. 
Flancios constructed the charts by which the first Holland ships sailed to the East Indtos ; 
he also counseled the expeditions to discover a new passage to China by way of Nora 
Zembla. In 1608 and 1600, Joanaln, the French ambassador at the Hague, wishing ts ta- 
duoe his king to embark in the East India trade, (Veqnently consulted Plancins, ^* tron 
whom be procured the most light.** (Wagenaar, Hist. Amst., iK., S19.) Witsen, one of 
the original grantees of the New Netherland charter of 1014, wlioae coat of arms is patnt- 
ed in a window in the old church of Saint Nicholas at Amsterdam, was no doubt an 
Inttanate ftiend of his liberal*minded pastor, whom we now And asiiooiated with Van 
Tweenbuysen and others, in sending an expedition to the North and South Hirers. 
Planchis died on the SMkofMay, l«tt. t Hoi. Dee., i., 10»-11S. 


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from NowfouidlaiKl to lite latitode of Philadelphia; not a chap. t. 

riun might he puarchased in the interior ; not a fish might '. — 

be oaoght on Ihe ooast; not an emigrant might i^ead iHie *'^'^^* 
soil." The only qoalifioation which, even nominally, lim- 
ited the enormous grant, was the proviso which excepted 
any territories '< actually posseesed or inhabited by any 
other Ghricitian j^rince or state.'' But the grant was so 
sweeping and exdxisive, that its very extent impaired its 
¥ahie, by awakening the jecdousy of ParlicLment. The 
next sjmng, aft^ the patent was sealed, the House of Com- ts aphi. 
mons turned its attention to the ^^ grievance ;" and Sir Ed- 
ward (kke, from the diair of the House, informed Grorges 
of the complaints *^ in respect of mapy particulars therein 
contained, contrary to the laws and privileges of the sub- 
jects, as also that it was a monopoly, and the colcnr of 
planting a colony put upon it for particular ends and pri- 
vate gain." Before its dissolution, the House presented 
liie patent as " the first" of " the public grievances of the 
kingdom ;" and the Frendb ambassador protested cigainst 
it, ms unwarrantably induding Canada within its assigned 

The king, however, determined to roaintcdn the monop- S8 8«pc 
oly which he had granted ; and, at the solicitation of the tnotn to 
Pl3rmouth Company, the Privy Council directed the mayors rtraiied. 
of Bristol, and other sea-pon; towns in the south and weM; 
of the kingdom, to prohibit all perscms from attempting to 
trade to New England <^ contrary to his majesty's said 
grant."t Domestic interferenoe being thus prevented, the 
watchful jealousy of the grantees of the charter was awak- 
ened to the movements of the Dutch in New Netherland. 
The intelligence communicated by Denner of what he \mi 
observed while at Manhattan, was now confirmed by the 
news which came from Amsterdam, of the equipment and October, 
dispatch of several private ships to New Netherland, in an- 
ticipation of the more definite arrangements of the West 

* ?«n. D«ib., 1«0-1, 960, 118, no ; CommoiM' loonMl, 1., 001, Ml, «4»-600 ; Ctatfmera, 
SS, too, IM ; GorgM, Brief NcmtioB, in Mms. BiBt CeB., xxH., «6, 71, 7S ; Banerafl, i., 
«7S, 3S7 ; Orahane'iHIM. V. 8., i., 100; tt., 101, 101, Am. ed. ; OInliMra'e Revolt of die 
ColoBiee, i., 35, 96 . t London Dtte., L, 13; H . T. CoL M8S., itt., f . 


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chxp. v. India C!ompany. Notwithstanding the fnoviao in their pat> 
ent, the Plymouth Company resolved to lose no time in 
vindicating their olaim of English title agcdnst the Hd- 
landers, who, they alleged, '^ as interiopers, fell into the 
middle between"* Virginia and New England. 
compiaintA Avarioo and self-interest "rarely right" adjust the " wap 
Dntchoo. vering balance;" and the ethics of oorporations are pro> 
New Ncui- verbially convenient and pliable. The policy of the Plym- 
outh Company was, from the first, grasping and arrogant 
Finding the king on their side, they determined to main- 
tain the exclusive privileges which they had won from the 
crown. A formal complaint was, therefore, presented by 
the Earl of Arundel, Sir Ferdinando Grorges, Sir Samuel 
Argall, the superseded governor of Virginia, and Captain 
John Mason, against the " Dutch intruders" into New 
Netherland. Three days before the dissolution of Parlia- 
ment, James accordingly directed the lords of his council 
to instruct Sir Dudley Carleton, the British ambassador 
at the Hague, to bring the subject to the special notice of 
LetMrof the States Greneral. The council at once addressed a dis* 
cm!?eu to patch to Carlotou, in which the English government, for 
LmbsMi. the first time, distinctly asserted the unlawfulness of the 
Hague. Dutch occupation of New Netherland. " Whereas," said 
15 Dec. their lordships, ^' his majesty's subjects have many years 
since taken possession of the vAiole precinct, and inhabited 
some parts of the north of Virginia (by us cedled New En- 
gland), of all which countries his majesty hath, in like man* 
ner, some years since, by patent, granted the quiet and frdl 
possession unto particular persons ; nevertheless, we under- 
stand that, the year past,t the Hollanders have entered upon 
some part thereof, and have left a colony, and given new 
names to the several ports appertaining to that part of the 
country, and are now in readiness to send for their supply 

* Letter of Captain John Mason, in Lond. Doc, i., 47, and In N. T. Col. MSS., iii., 
16, 17 ; Gorges, in iii. Mass. Hist. ColL, Ti., 7S. 

t Tliis allegation certainly does not support Plantagenet*s story of Argall's visit to Man> 
battan in 1613. If Aigall bad actually been tbereUiat year, and fimnd" a pretended Dmoh 
gorenior,'^ Ac, ^tc, he woold hardly bsro Joined in a representation to the king, in th« 
aotomn of 16S1, which alleged that the Hollanders had settled tbenselTss thers only ** the 
year past," that 1% in IMO; see Appendiz, Note E. 

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six or eight ^ps ; whereof his majesty being advertised, cbap. v. 
we have received his royal oommandment to signify his" 
pleasure that yon should represent these things to the 
States General in his majesty's name {who^jure prinuB 
occupationiSy hath good and sufficient title to those parts), 
and require of them that as well those ships as their further 
prosecution of that plantation may be presentiy stayed/'* 

But the Plymouth Company, in their overreaching zeal, Piutcious. 
betrayed the Privy Council into serious errors in this im- English 

•^ •' claim. 

portant state paper. After the fiEiilure of the Sagadahoc 
colony, we have seen that no English subjects inhabited 
any part of the deserted territory north of Virginia, until 
the arrival of the Mayflower at Cape Cod. The interme- 
diate region, between that Cape and the Chesapeake, was 
unexplored by the English, and was almost unknown to 
them, until Dermer sailed through Long Island Sound in 
1619. Yet, in contradiction to Dormer's statements, that 
the Dutch were quietly '< settied" at Manhattan in the 
spring of 1620, and that they had ^^ had a trade in Hud- 
son's River some years before that time," the Plymouth 
Company induced the Privy Council of England to affirm, 
at the close of 1621, that the Hollanders had <^ entered" 
into occupation there only " the year past." 

Carleton, on the receipt of the Privy Council's dispatch, 1622. 
proceeded to make inquiries on the subject, before he^*""^" 
brought it to the notice of the States G-eneral. All hcRMuitof 
learned was, that about four or five years previously, twoinqnirietin 
'< particular companies of Amsterdam merchants" Imd be- 
gun a trade to America, between the fortieth and forty- 
fifth degrees of north latitude, to which regions they had, 
" after their manner," given the names of New Nether- 
land, North and South Sea, Texel, Ylieland, and the like, 
and had ever since continued to send there vessels of six- 
ty or eighty tons burden, at most, to fetch furs, which 
was " all their trade." For this purpose, they had kept 
^^ factors there, continually resident," to trade with the 
savages. But Carleton could not learn that any colony 

* London Doc, L, 17, 47.i N. T. Col. M S8., iU., 6^ 16, 17 ; Habbud, SM. 


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Chap. V. had fts y^t been {danted there by the Dutch, or Was << so 
"7~~niuoh as intended."* 

carteton*! Fortified with this partial infiHrmation, the ambassadoi 
^th ^ asked an audience of the States G-eneral, and presented a 
sujesG6n-,^^jj memorial, in which he claimed that the "tran- 
^ ^®^' quil and {denary possession'' of the whole country north 
of Virginia was vested, by patent, " in several private per- 
sons," subjects of the Kmg of England, whose title, << by 
right of first occupation," he boldly affirmed was ^^ not to 
be contradicted." And, in the name of the king, he per- 
emptorily demanded that the States General should not 
only arrest the Aips already equipped for v(^ages to ike 
Dutch plantation, but should also expressly prc^bit any 
further {nrosecution of the enterprise.! 
9 Feb. When Carleton's memorial was read in the meeting of 

the States G-eneral, the deputies from die Province of Hd- 
land, professing to be igoorant of the circumstances, re- 
quested that it might be referred to them. But no repcnrt 
16 Mardi. camc from tiie Holland delegation. A mon& afterward, 
die ambassador having asked definite action, the States 
Q-eneral directed Burgomaster Pauw, one of their mem- 
bers, to write to the ** participants in the trade to New 
Netherland" for information. Carleton continuing to press 
37Aprti. the States for a decisive answer, they resolved that in- 
quiries should be made <^ for what had been jMrinted at 
Amsterdam on this subject." Here the whole question 
seems to have ended. The States General, engrossed 
with waiiike preparations against Spain, knew little about 
New Netherland ; which, besides, was now placed under 
Result or the cxclusive jurisdiction of the West India Company. It 
interfer- docs uot appear that any answer was ever returned to the 
British government, either through Carleton, or through 
Caron, the Dutch ambassad(»r at London. Captain John 
1632. Hason, it is true, in writing to Secretary Coke, t^i year» 
^^^^ afterward, asserted that Caron had disclaimed, on the 
part of the States General, ^^ any such act that was done 

* London Doc, t, 10; N. T. Col. MSB., UL, 7. 
t LoDdoa Doe., i, il ; N. T. Gal. 1188., ill., 0. 

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by tiwir people with thek authoiity.'^ Bttt nothing to c&ap. v. 
tibat e£Eect has been found after recent diligent searches, 
both in the Archives at the Hague and in the State Pap^ 
Office at London.'**' 

With respect to the claim of sovereignty over NewFutuuyor 
Netherlands which James directed his ambassador to as-eiaim. 
sert so boldly, it is remarkable that the Parliament of En« 1621. 
gfatnd^ somewhat earlier in the same year, insisted that 
'' oooapanoy confers a good title by the law of nations and 
Nature ;"t and upon this principle the right of Spain, un- 
der the gift of Pope Alexander VI. was again denied, be- 
eaase, if admitted, it would have defeated tiie EngliA 
title to Virginia and Bermuda. In this the Parliament 
only reaffirmed the position taken 1^ Queen Elizabeth in 
1580, when she refused to recognize the Spcmish claim, 
and insisted that '^ presoriptitm without possession is of no 
avaiL"t Under this rule, thus formally confirmed, it is 
dear that the <' prescription" of England, by reason of Ca* 
bot's voyage, was entirely annulled, so far ae regards those 
parts of North America which were not actually possessed 
er oocc^ied by English subjects. 

The Blritish ri^t to Virginia and Bermuda was, nev-LawoTBa- 
ertheless, readily admitted by other European nations ; im^k« 
among which it had become the established law, that oc- udp 
oupation is the '^ primary mode of acquiring a title to 
unowned territory .'*i This law was recognized and acted 
upon by Prance with respect to Canada, and by Holland 
with respect to New Netherland. The title of England 
to Virginia was never questioned by the Dutch; tiieir 
government had distinctly admitted it in 1608 and 1610.11 
In the original trading charter granted by the States Gen- 
eral in 1614, the regions which the Dutch had first ex- 
plored, and named New Netherland, were unambiguously 

* Hoi. Doc, 1., 117, 110 : Lend. Doc., i., 31, 47 ; N. Y. Col. MSB., Ui., 11, 16 ; OorsM, 
la Mam. Hial. CoD., xxri., 73 ; Address before N. Y. H. 8., 1844, p. Sft, 96. 

t Chalmere, 6 ; Pari. DelMtaa, 1630-1, p. S50. tAnit,p.4. 

^ Orotiufl, U., 9. ^ PriniQi acquirendi moduB qui Juris gentinm • Romanit didtor, eat 
OTBiprtff eoram qam iralllas aont.'* Cbalmara, 6, bowerer, states tbs law to be, "tiat 
the ooontries which each should eaplort shaU be deemed the absolate property of the di^ 
eorarer.** II Hoi. Doe., i., 5, 6, 35, 38 ; Wlnwood's Mem., iii^ 330 


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cnap. v. declared to be between Virginia on the souHi and Canada 
on the nortL The actual occupation of the coasts of 
Maine by the English as early as 1607 — though it was 
. soon discontinued for several years — gave England a suf- 
ficient title to that quarter ; and the Hollanders never at- 
tempted to interfere with the British claim to the territo- 
ry north of Cape Cod. But with respect to the regions 
between that Cape and Virginia, which they had them- 
selves so thoroughly explored before any other Europeans, 
The Dutch the Dutch iusbtcd upon the validity of their own rights. 
N«theriuHi When the Amsterdam Company built their Fort Nassau 
***"* **** on the North River in 1614, it is quite certain that there had 
bjeen no English "occupancy" of any portion of New Neth- 
erland south of Cape Cod, so as to confer a title according 
to the opinions of Q^ueen Elizabeth and of Parliament. The 
English, in fact, until Dormer's voyage, were entirely ig- 
norant even of the geography of that part of the coast. 
Holland vessels alone had explored it ; Hollanders alone 
had occupied it. By British law, and by the law of na- 
tions, the Dutch title to New Netherland was complete. 
The New England patent of King James, so &r as it in- 
terfered with the rights of the Dutch, might, therefore, 
according to the judgment of Queen Elizabeth, and of the 
Parliament of Grreat Britain itself, be at least as fairly de- 
rided, as was the Pontiff's earlier grant to the Spaniards. 
1622. The Plymouth Company, however, if they did not suc- 
SJ?ilJ35itCeed in obtaining from the States General a renunciation 
tSSSSTto of the right of the Dutch to New Netherland, had influence 
gilnA^^' enough to procure from King James a further measure of 
protection against the acts of British subjects. Complaints 
were made to the crown that " sundrie interlopers" into 
New England had committed "intolerable abuses," inter- 
fered with " some of the planters there," " ruined whole 
woods," traded promiscuously with the savages, supplied 
them with fire-arms, and overthrown the trade and com- 
merce, which were " the principal hopes for the advance- 
ment of that plantation, next unto the commodities that 
t3 oetober. ooast affords for fishing." An order in council was prompt- 

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ly made for the issuing of a royal {m>clamation against ir- ciuf. v. 
regnlar traders to New England. A few days afterward, 
the king acoordingly proclaimed and commanded that /^^' 
none of his subjects whatsoever^ ^'not adventurers, inhab* 
iters, or planters in New England^ presume from h^ice- 
fixrdi to frequent those coasts, to trade or traffic with those 
people, or to intermeddle in the woods or freehold of any 
of ^e planters or inhabitants," except by the license of 
the Plymouth Company, or acccnrding to the orders of the 
Privy CounciL* 

Meanwhile, the Amsterdam ships had beeh quietly pur- spedai 
suing their voyages to New Netherland, under the special New Neth. 
hoenses of the Dutoh government ; and aoate of them de- 
layed their return to Hdland so long, that their owners 
were obliged to ask of the Stetes General an extension of 18 Jwm. 
the time limited for their arrival home.t The trade in P«itrytra<ie 

of the 

peltry was industriously prosecuted, not only on the North notch in 
and South Rivers, but on the <^ Fresh" or Connecticut Riv- •«« Bity. 
er; and Ihitoh shallops constantly visited the shores of 
Long Island Sound, and trafficked vntii the native Indian 
tribes as frir east as Narragansett and Buzzard's Bays. 
Their frivorito resort was Manomet, at the head of Buz- 
zard's Bay, and within about twenty miles of the recent 
Puritan settlement at New Plymouth.^ But the pioneers 
of New England, occupied witii the pressing cares of tibeir 
infant colony, were not yet prepared to interfere with the 
lucrative trade which their more ancient neighbors in New 
Netherland were now carrying on, almost at their very 
doors. With the native tribes the Dutoh generally culti- Reiatioiis 
vated the most amicable relations. The treaty made on<ii«w. 
the banks of the Tawasentha continued to be faithfrilly 
observed with the Mohawks, the Hahicans, and the North 
River Indians, who wexe the immediate neighbors and al- 
lies of the Dutoh. At Esopus, a large traffic was main- 
tained with boats and shallops. But the more distent 
laribes were treated with less consideration. Jacob Eel- 

* Load. Doo., f., SS; N. Y. Col. MSB., iii., 11 ; Rymer Federa, ztU., 410; Mortoi't 
MeoMrial, 96 ; Prinee's Annals, 918. t Hoi. Doc., L, 190. . t Prinee, 908. 



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ciup. V. kens, who had remained in snperintendenoe of the tnM 
'near Casde Island, made frequent visits to the eastern 
ooasts and rivers of New Netherland ; and in the somm^ 
of 1622, having ascended the Connectioat to traffic with 
tiie Seqoins, near the present town of Wethersfield, he 
treaoh^xmsly imfnrisoned their diief on board his yaoht, 
and would not release him until a ransom of one hundred 
and forty fethoms of wampum had been exacted. This 
outrage naturally alienated ihe eastern Indians ; and the 
Sequin chief, refused to have any more dealings with Hie 
treacherous Eelkens, who was soon afterward discharged 
by his offended fifuperiors from the post he had dishonored.* 

. The Fatherland was now preparing to send permanent 

emigrants to subdue the wilderness of New Netherlands 
Early in this year, while Garleton was engaged in obtain* 
ing the preliminary information which he desired before 
presenting his memorial to the States General, he had 
Hmmuj. been appUed to by some families of Walloons, settled at 
Amsterdam, for permission to emigrate to Virginia and 
establish a colony, to be governed by magistrates of thw 
own election.t These Walloons, whose name was de- 
rived from their original " Waalsche," or French exlatu)- 
tion,l had passed through the fire of persecution. They 
inhabited ttie Southern Beljgic Provinces of Hainault, Na- 
mur, Luxemburg, Limburg, and part of the ancient Bish* 
oprio of Liege ; and spoke the old French language. When 
the northern provinces of the Netherlands formed their po- 
litical unfon at Utrecht in 1579, the southern provinces^ 
which were generally attached to the Roman Church, de- 
olined joining the Confederaticm. Many of their inhabit- 
ants, nevertheless, professed the principles of the Reforma- 
Hoa. Against these Protestant Walloons the Spanish gov- 
emment exercised the most rigid measures of inquisitorial 
vengeance; and tiie subjects of an unrelenting persecution 

ir, zii., so ; Doc. Hiflt. N. 7., iU., 45 ; De VrtM, 118. 

t Lond. Doc. i., 94 ; N. Y. Col. MSS., iU.. 9, 10. 

t " Bordering on France, and speaking the French langnage, they were termed OaOoU, 
wirieh waa changed, in Low Dutch, into WaaUdUf and in Bngllah into ITaZfeofi.**— Rot. 
Dr. De Witt, in N. T. H. 8. Proc., 1848, p. 75. 

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emigfttted by thoogaHcb iid» Holland^ where they Jmew our. t. 
ttiat streageni of every race and oreed were sore of am 
asylum and a weloome. Carrying with ihem a knowlt ^^^^ 
edge ci the arts, in which they were gveat profieieiKta, 
tiiey were distingaished in tiieir new home &t tbeyfar taai^ 
M and persevering indcurtry. To the Walloons the Dutidi 
were prdbaUy indebted lor much of the repute whiidi they 
gained as a nation in many branohes of manufaetarea.*^ 
Finding in Holland a &ee scope for Ihe enjoyment of thw 
religions apjpions, the Walloons soon introduced the pab* 
he use of thdr chnrdi service, whioh^ to this day, bears 
vntness to the characteristic toleration and liberality of 
flie Fatherland. By degrees, the fame of the New World whdom 
reached the ears of the artisans of Amsterdam; andsomeoeaMtofB 

to l^ginuiu 

of the Belgian refugees applied to Carleton for formal ^n^ 
oooragement to emigrate to Virginia. The ambesaadori 
having no powers to make arrangements with them, oom« 
municated their application to the king, by whom it was 
ordered to be refsn^ to the Virginia C<»npany. But the 
conditions which the ccnnpany offered did not ajqiear toArenocaA- 
have been 8atis£Bict(»ry to the Walloons ; and the abortive 
negotiation ended.t Thus Virginia bst the advantage of 
having an ingenious, brave, and industrious race added to 
her, periiaps, too homogeneous population. 

What Virginia lost New Nelherland gained. Cosmo- 
politan Amsterdam was to impress its character up(m cos* 
xDopolitan Manhattan. In liie New World, a metropolis 
soon arose, giving a home to emigrants from all climes 
and of all races ; and where the lavish gifts of beneficent 
nature are enjoyed in o(»nmon by the multi£Burious, enter- 
prising, and prosperous inhabitants who crowd its busy 
streets. The city which Amsterdam cnriginated can n^ver 
forget the magnanimous policy and liberal example of its 
sagacious founder. 

The Provincial States of Holland, ascertaining that sev- The states 
eral families of Walloons had applied to Carleton for per- tkym um 
mission to emigrate to Virginia, thought that " they should m Apnt 

MeCuIlagh, ii., 967. t I^mdoB Doe., W ttt; N. T. CoL MSS., ilU la 


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ohap. y. nttiieir be seotured for the West India Company f^ and the 

'subject was referred to tiie directors of that corporation, 

to consider '^ what could be therein done for their service.'' 

tiApru. The directors promptly reported that the emigration of 

these Walloons would be 'Wery advantageous'' to the 

oompany ; and that immediate measures should be taken 

to secure them, and to give them employment^ until the 

ccHnpany should be formally organized, and be able to 

send them out as cdcmists. The views of the directcmi 

were aj^roved by the Provincial States, and the attention 

of the magistracy of Amsterdam was officially directed to 

the subjeet.* 

1623. At length, after two years of preliminary prq)aration, 

FiniS^or- the West India Company obtained the assent of the States 

SrS^^^ Q^neral to its articles of internal government, in June, 

India Com- jggg^ and bcgau to prosecute witii energy the objects of 

its incorporation. The same month, three pioneer ships, 

tile Oraxkge Tree, the Eagle, and the Love, were dispatdied 

to the West Indies, ^' to maintain the course of traffic, and 

in the hope of recdizing their first retums."t 

New Netii- The colonizatiou of New Netherlands however, became 


■nade a the first carc of the oompany. That somewhat indefinite 

proviii06. *^ 

territory was formally erected into a Province, and '^him- 
ored" by the States G-eneral with a grant of the armorial 
distinction of a count.! As soon as the stock of tiie com- 
pany was secured, and the several boards of directors were 
^^jjfjj^ chosen, the College of the XI£. assigned the particular 
SuJ^m"*" 'ii^wJ^g©"^'^* of the afiairs of the province to the Chambw 
Cbambar. at Amsterdam. Among the prominent members of tiiat 
chamber were Jonas Witsen,i one of the grantees of the 
original trading charter of 1614, Hendrick Hamel, Samud 
GtKiyn, Samuel Blommaert, John de Laet, the historian, 
Kiliaen van Rensselaer, Michael Pauw, and Peter Evert- 

* Hoi. Doe., 1., 118 ; Has. Hoi. and West FriMland ; Mnilkerk, Bydragen, B. 11. 

t De Laet, iaeriyek Veriuel ; Hasard, I., 174-176 ; Waamiaar, t., 91. 

t Hoi. Doc, ir., 39. The Prorineial aeal of New Netberland wat a ahield beaiing a 
beaver, proper, sormoanted by a count's coronet, and encircled by the words '* SlgUlam 
NoTi Belgii." 

« Jonas Witsen died at Amsterdam In October, 18M: Garret Jaoobaen Wllsen died tm 
Janiary ofthe same year.— Wassenaar, z., 110. 

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sen Hulffc, whoae names are identified with the first Bo- chap. v. 
ropean possession of the five states of New York, New"~~" 
Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Conneotiout.* loSd. 

Aware of the jealousy of the English government, tke Tbe wen 
West India Company did not delay arrangements to 8e»p«iyt«kM 
cure their title to New Netherland by more extended act- Stn^ 
nal occupation. " By virtue of their charter," and before i«nd- " 
their fined organization, they <^took possession of the coun* 
try" in the year 1622 ;t and trading vessels w0re pronipt- 
ly sent out, bearing instructions to the officers at Manhat- 
tan, and on the North Riv^. The voyages of the Ikitch 
^ps, at this time, generally occupied about seven or eight 
weeks. On clearing the channel, they laid their course cirenftoiu 
for the Canary Islands ; whence they stretched across the tb?^^ 
Atlantic toward Guiana and the Carribees, and then ran ^' 
obliquely toward the northwest, between the Bahamas and 
the Bermudas, until they made the coasts of Yirginia.t 
By steering this circuitous southern course, they avoided 
the severe gales of the North Atlantic, and had the oppcnr* 
tunity of refitting, when it was necessary. But their voy- 
ages were sometimes protracted by the temptation to lin- 
ger at anchor ; and the yacht Hackarel, which sailed firom 
the Texel in June, consumed so mudi time among tb^isjuM. 
Carribee Islands in unsuccessful fishing, that she did not 
arrive at Manhattan until the middle of December, which is dm. 
was " somewhat late," remarks the quaint chronider.i 

The situation of the redoubt on the Tawasentha proving a new Am 
inconvenient, arrangements were now made to build, pnon'uie 
the west bank of the river, a few miles further mnrth, aer. 
larger and more permanent fortification, <^with four an- 
gles," and to be named ^^Fort Orange," in honor of tbe 
stadtholder. At the same time, preparations were made 
for the permanent occupation of the genial valley of the 
South River ; and by order of the Amsterdam Chamber, 

* MoQlton, 309 ; De Laet, Jaeriyck Vertaael. t Hoi. Doe., ii., 870. 

I Wacwnaar, rU, 144. Guiana was flreqaently called by the Dutch " de Wilde CoBta,'* 
and the Carribeea " de Wilde Eylanden."— De Vriea, Voyage*, p. ISO, 137 ; Otto Keyoai 
Kaitxer EntwnrlT, Ac. 

k WaflMnaar, tU., U ; De Laet, App., 8 ; Doc. Hist. N. T., Ui., 80. 


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Chap. V. 0MI0 of tli6 tvadecs 6om Manhattan selected a position on 
"TTTr" to east bank, at a spot which the natives called ** Te- 
AtMm kwwAo.^ It was near the present town of G-lonoester, in 
iuvJi?So ^^ Jersey, at the mouth of the Timmer Kill, or Thnber 
''*^'***^ Chreek, then called " Sassaokon*.'' Here, among the reitl- 
tMdti of tiie once formidable Lenni-Lenape tribes, a feW 
Dutch traders {nrojected the first European fort on the 
fllulr6B of the Delaware.* 
1623. The spring of the year 16S3 was the era of the first per- 
£i!l^£t^.manent agricultural colonization of New Netherland, un- 
^^^ der Ae authority of the West India Company. Anxious 
Net^. to commence their colony with willing and active emi- 
*"** grimts, the Amsterdam Chamber equipped the " New Neth- 
erland,'' a ship of two hundred and sixty tons burden, and 
embarked on board of it a company of thirty femiilies. The 
greater part of these colonists were Walloons, who, dis- 
lippointed in Iheir first application to Carleton, now emi- 
grated to America under the auspices of tiie West India 
Company. The superintendence of the expedition was 
comeiis intrusted to the experienced Comelis Jacobsen May, of 

May and Hoom, who was to remain in New Netherland as the First 
riB miMrin. Dircotor of thc colony ; while Adriaen Joris, of Thienpoint, 
podMoD. Went out as secoiKl m command.t 

The New Netherland sailed firom the Texel in the be- 

u»T€h. ginning of March; and, shaping her course by the Canary 

Islands and the coast of G-uiana, arrived safely, in the be- 

iiy. ginning of May, at the North River. At the mouth of the 

anhSfia Hver, a French vessel was found lying at anchor, whose 

uioe^ Oi^frtain wished to set up the arms of the King of France, 

and take possession in the name of lus sovereign. But 

"ihe HcJlanders," faithful to the States General and to the 

^ Directors of the West India Company, whose designs Ihey 

were unwilling to see firustrated, " would not let him dd 

it.*' The yacht Mackarel having just then returned fipom 

up the North River, where she had been trading with tiie 

• WaaMnatr, tU., 11, 19 ; Doc. Hist V. T., Ui., 85, 36 ; Moolton, 906-368; BCieUe'f 
BiBiliiiMencM, 8 ; S. Hazard*! Annala ofPennaylTania, 13 ; Appendix, Note K. 

t Waaaonaar, tU., U ; xii., 38 ; Doe. Hiat. N. 7., iii., 85, 43 ; Hd. Doe., 11., 368 ; m 
Baa., iztT., IVf. 

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Indians, was armed at once with a coui^ of pieoes of oan- okat. ▼. 
Bon, and under her convoy the Frenchman was forced to 
aea. Unwilling to be baUted in his pertinacious loyalty, J^^^ig 
the French captain immediately sailed to the South Eiv- ^^J**^ 
er, and attempted the same experiment; ^^but he was 
foiled in a similar manner by the settlers there."* 

This a&ir having been satisfiELctorily accomplished, tm wm 
eight men were left at Hanhattan ^' to take possession" pwiytawi 
for the West India Company. Several families, togetiieror 
with a number of sailors and men, were also detailed for 
service and colonization on the South River, and to the 
eastward of Manhattan. The New Netherland then went 
tqp the North River to Castle Island. When she had pro- nIkiii^ 
oeeded '< as far as Sopus, which is half way," her draft of ^' 
water was found to be a serious impediment The ship 
was, therefore, lightened '^ with some boats that were left 
there by the Butch, that had been there the year before, a 
trading with the Indians upon their own accounts, and 
gone back again to Holland." By this means, they at 
length '' brought the vessel up."t 

On the west shore of the river, just above Castle Island, 
'' a fort with four angles, named Orange," which had been Fott or- 
projected the {nrevious year, was immediately ^'thrown 
up and completed." The colonists forthwith '^put the 
spade in the earth," and began farming operations so vig- 
orously, that, before the yacht Mackarel returned to Hol- 
land, their com '^ was nearly as high as a man, so that 
they were getting along bravely." About eighteen fami- 
lies settled themselves at Fort Orange, under Adriaen Jo- 
ris, who " staid with them all winter," after sending his 

- wT».o««u^, Tii., 11 ; Doc Hilt. N. Y., Ui., 85. 

t DeposiUoQs of CateUna Trteo, in DMd Book, tU., and In N. T. Col. M88., zzxr. ; Doc 
Ok. N. Yn Ui-> 4»^1. Tbeaa iepoatoioof wen made in 1685 and 1088) in wlklch latter 
year Um deponent was eig liiy*three yeaca old. Trico atates that abe was born In Paria, 
and llMt alie came oat to New Netlierland In tbe year 1633, in tlM "ahip called tbe UnUy 
(Beadragt 7), whereof waa commander Arien ioriai belonginf to the Weet India Company, 
helBf the firat ahip that came here Ibr the aaid company." There ia a aU(ht diaerepaney 
between Trled>a teotimoay and Waaaenaar'a account, which acatea the name of the ahip 
« the <* New Netherland." Waaeeaaar^t account waa contemporaneooa, and it ia eoa- 
irmed by Hoi. Doc, 11., 370 ; on the other hand, the depoeiUona of Trico were awom to 
when ahe waa etftaiy-three yeara old, and they deacribe evenia which hapvaned aixty-llTe 
yaara balbra, whan aha waa only alfhteen yeaia of a<c 


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Chap. y. ship hoHie to Holland in charge of his son. As soon as 

"~r~the colonists had built themsdves "some huts of bark^ 
New am- c^found the fort, the Hahikanders, or River Indians, the 

twS^ Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and 
SffJ."* the Senecas, with the Mahawawa or Ottawawa Indians, 
"came and made covenants of friendship" with Joris, 
"bringing him great presents of beaver or other peltry, 
and desired that they might come and have a constant 
free trade with them, which was concluded upcm." For 
several years afterward, the Indians " were all as quiet as 
lambs, and came and traded with all the freedom imag* 
jjoobjBej^ Eelkens, whose base conduct the year before, in im- 
prisoning the Sequin chief on board his yacht, had pro- 
duced general disgust, was no longer employed by the 
Dukid van Company ; and Daniel van Krieckebeeck was installed as 
*"***■ Deputy Commissary at Fort Orange. The new command 

Port^-" er, whose name, " for brevity's sake,'' the colonists soon 

"**' contracted into "Beeck," became very popular among 

them, and executed his functions so satisfactcHily, " that 

he was thanked." The management of the far trade 

along the river, and in the neighborhood of MemhattaUi 

PetorBap was intrustcd, after Eelkens's supersedure, to Peter Ba- 

p«rtmend- reutseu, who, for several years, performed his duties to the 

^^ mutual satisfaction of the Indians and of the company.t 

After the construction of Fort Orange, the colonists 

" also placed upon tiie Prince's Island, formerly cedled the 

Murderer's Island, a fort, which was named by them 

p»rt*n¥u- < Wilhelmus ;' open (plat) in front, with a curtain in the 

rear, and garrisoned by sixteen men for the defense of the 

river below."* 

* WaMenaar, Tii., 11 ; Trico'i Depoaitioa, in N. T. Col. MSB., xxxr. ; Doe. HIat. N. T., 
ill., 35, 51. Waasenaar aays that Fort Orange waa bnilt on the ialand. In this he is in* 
aecorate. Fort Nasaau, which was swept away and abandoned in 1017, was on Castle 
Ialand. ** Fort Orange was hoilt on the allurion ground now occnpied by the bnsineaB 
part of the city of Albany. The site was that on which stands the building lately known 
as the * Fort Orange Hotel/ Ibmierly the manidon of the late Simeon De Witt."— D. D. 
Barnard's Addresa befbre the Albany Institote, 18M. The Fort Orange Hotel waa de- 
8tro]red in the great lire ori847. 

t Waasenaar, Tii., U ; zU., 88, S9 ; De Vriea, 113 ; Doc. Hist. N. T., iU., 36, 44, 45. 

1 1 limit the text to the exact words of Wasaenaar, Tii., 11 (and transtated in Doe. Hist. 

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The pertinaoions attempt which the French captain, caAr.v. 
who had been convoyed out of the waters of Manhattan, -tcno 
made to set np the arms of France on the South River, 
tiiough it had been promptly thwarted by the Dutch trad- 
ers whom he found there, showed the necessity of a per- 
manent post to protect the rights of the Dutch. May, 
whose previous voyages to that region had made him well 
acquainted with the country; now hastened to construct a 
log-fort, on the point at the mouth of the ^' Timmer Kill," 
which had been previously selected. This post, like the Port Na^- 
first Dutch establishment on Castle Island, was named the sooui 


" Fort Nassau," in compliment to the family of the Prince 
of Orange. About three weeks after the arrival of the 
New Netherland at Manhattan, four couples, who had been Jom. 
married at sea, on their voyage from Holland, together with 
eight seamen, were sent in a yachf to the South River, nm Euro- 
"by order of the Dutch governor," to settle themselves SS set?" 

1 nil 1 i. 1 . 1 tied then. 

there. The new home of the pioneers was on the east, or 
Jersey shore, near G-loucester, about four miles below the 
present city of Philadelphia.* 

A few of the New Netherland's passengers, consisting of 
" two families and six men," it is said, were sent, directly 
the ship arrived at Manhattan, to the Fresh or Connecticut May. 
River, to commence the actual occupation of that part of or coonee. 
the Dutch province. A small fort, or trading post, theoeea|^b7 
^^ G-ood Hope," is said to have been also now projected and 
begun ; but it was not finished until 1633, ten years affc- 

Another portion of the colonists, who came out in the wauoou 
New Netherland, consisting chiefly of Walloons, soon set- Long u? 
tied themselves at a '^bogt," or small bay, on the west wma^bogt- 

N. T., iii., p. 35), without adding any afnggestions of my own as to the poaition of Fort 
*' Willielmaa.'* The anbjeet, howerer, ia conaidered in note K, in the Appendix. 

* Waaaenaar, Tif., 11 ; Vertoogh Van N. N., in Hoi. Doe., i^., 71-407, and in U., N. T. 
H. 8. CoU., it., 979, 980 ; Hoi. Doe., 11., 370 ; Till., 73 ; De Yriea, 109 ; i., N. T. H. 8. CoU., 
Ul., 375; Depoaltlona, in Ui., Doc. Hiat. N. T., 40, 50, 51 ; Monlton, 960; Ferrla, 10; 
O^CaU., 1., 100 ; Mnlfbrd'a N. J., 40 ; 8. HaaanPa Ann. Penn., 19, 13 ; Appendix, note K. 

t DepoaiUon of CateUna Trieo, in N. T. Col. MS8., xxxv., and in iii.. Doe. Hiat. N. T., 
p. 50 ; Vertoogh van N. N., in HoL Doc., iv., 71-907, and in U., N. Y. H. 8. CoU., ii., 970, 
977. Trloo aaya, thai " aa aoon aa they came to llannataaa, now called New York, they 
aent two femiUea and alx man to Haribrd RlTar." 


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OttAF. v. shore of JLong Island, nearly oj^xwite to ^^ Neditonk," or 
Corker's Hook, on Manhattan. This settlement, which 
wafl just norih of " Marechkawieck," or Brooklyn^* hetate 
long beoame familiarly known as the ^' Waal-bogt," or 
Walloon's Cove. The cokmists throve apaoe. Other em- 
igrants followed the first adventurers from Holland ; and 
here, in the month of June, 1625, Sarah Rapeije was horn 
— ^the first ascertained ofispring of £urq)ean pare^tage in 
the province of New Netherland. These early oolonistB 
are not to be c(»ifounded with the Waldenses, who subse- 
quently emigrated from Amsterdam. The descendants of 
tihie Walloons socoi spread themselves over the country in 
the vicinity of the Waal-bogt ; and the names of many of 
the most respectable families on Long Island to this day 
attest their French and Belgian origin.! 
CjXjiuy, Cornelis Jacobsen May was now formally installed in 
rector of his officc as the First Director of New Netherland, under 

New N«th- , .^ , -rr^ -r , . ^ TX. -I .... • 

«rtand the Dutch West India Company. His admmistration, 
1624. however, lasted only one yeeur. In Holland, it was hoped 
that the colony, so prosperously begun, would, with proper 
management, go on thriftily. Whoever was placed as 
commander over the colcuusts, should exercise his autibor- 
ity '^as their father, and not as their executioner ; leading 
May** ad- ihem with a gentle hand. For he who governs them as a 
tioo. friend and associate, will be beloved by them ; but he who 
shall rule ihem as a superior, will overthrow and bring to 
naught every thing, yea, will stir up against him the 
neighboring provinces, to which the impatient will fly. 
'Tis better to govern by love and friendship than by force." 
During May's brief directorship. Fort Orange was com- 
pleted (HI the North River, and Fort Nassau on the SouHi 
River. The ftir trade was more systematically prosecuted ; 

* Tbe name oftUa beaotlAil and proiperoaa oity ia a oorrnptkm of ito original Batch 
appellation, " Breucltelon,'' whidi waa derived (torn Uiat oftlie pretty viUage about aiglit- 
een mika (Vom Amalerdanii on tbe road to Utrecht. The Wailoona, aa hat been atatad 
(dale, p. 146), derived their name fWm their " Waaiache,** or French origin. In the prag- 
reaa of yeara, their old <* Waal-bogt'' has become Engliahed into the preaeat ** Walla- 

t Beaaoa'a Memoir, M ; Moniton, S70, 371 ; Alb. Ree., xL, »S ; Dr. Do Witt, in N. Y. 
H. S. Proc., 1844, p. 55, and 1848, p. 75 ; Holgate>8 Ameriean Genealogy. 

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aod the West India Company were scxm gladdened with ciur. t. 
the fiEivarable intelligenoe which leaohed them from their 
in&nt colony. On his return to Amsterdam, Joris repcnrt' j ^^^^' 

ad that ^^ all was in good condition" in New Netherlands 
whore the colonists were ^^ getting bravely along/' and col* 
titating friendly relations witii the savages. All trade now 
tnnring to the exclusive benefit of the West India Com- 
pany, the cargo of valuable liirs which Joris brought back 
to Holland, as a first year's remittance firom New Nether* 
land, on its public sale at Amsterdam, added over twenty* 
eight thousand guilders to their treasury.* 

Meanwhile, the attention of the direotcnrs of that corpo- waMiadiA 
ration had been drawn to a supposed infiringement, under wMta^ 
their own eyes, of their dose monopoly. David Pietersbn at hootb. 
4e Yries, an enterprising mariner of Hoom, having made 
several voyages to the Mediterranean and the banks of 
Nevtrfoundland, procured a commission firom the King 
of Franoe, and, in partnership with some Rochelle mw- 
chants, bought a small vessel, for the purpose of going 
to the fisheries, ^' and to the coast of Canada, to trade in 
peltries." The directors of the West India Company, learn* 
ing the circumstance, sent a committee to Hoom, and 
seized the ship, which was lying there ready to saiL DeMiunb. 
Vries protested that the end of hb proposed voyage was 
beyond the limite of the company's cheurter ; but he pro- 
tested in vain. The jealousy of the directors was aroused; 
they were determined to prevent any vessels but their own 
firom sailing out of Holland to the coasts of North Amer- 
ioa« De Yries, however, was not disheartened. He ap- 
pealed to the States G-eneral, and laid before them liis 
commission firom the King of France, countersigned by 
Admiral Mcmtmorency. The government at the Hague6Apm. 
promptly interfered. A letter was addressed to the Col- oeaan d ta- 
lege of XIX., warning them not to engage, in the begin- 
ning of their career, in needless disputes with neighboring 
European powers, especially with tiie French; and advis- 

* W««eiiur,TiL,ll;TiiL,85; Doe. HM. N. T., UL, 8e» 97; BoL Doo.^ IL, 368 ; Dt 
LiM, App., 89; BodwUas, in Doc Hict. N. T., It., 131, 138. 


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Chap. t. ing them to arrange the affair amicably with De Yries, whose 
proposed voyage was to Canada, and beyond the bounds of 
Devrtai't ^® company's charter. The directors, after great delay, 
r^eST relactantly fireed the vessel from arrest, enjoining De Yries 
^^ not to go within their limits." But the voyage was en- 
tirely frustrated by their vexatious proceedings ; and De 
Yries, in the end, sold his ship to the Dordrecht Chamber. 
The jealous directors refused to make any compensation 
for tibe losses De Yries had suffered, who declared to them 
that he had tmdertaken his enterprise only with the patri- 
otic design <^to make our Netherlands nation acquainted 
wiih those regions ; since our trade subsists by the sea."* 
1625. English jealousy, which had slumbered for three years 
^'•l^^ since Carleton's first application to the States G-^ieral to 
to nSJ/^^ restrain the Hollanders from trading to New Netherlands 
il!^^. was now again aroused. Information was COTomunicated 
fS^. to the Privy Council that a Dutch ship, the " Orange Tree" 
^^ of Amsterdam, had arrived at Plymouth, on a voyage "to 
a place in America which is compreh^ided in a grant 
made by His Majesty, upon just consideration, to divers 
of his subjects." The Lords of the Council, tirwefcnre, 
immediately directed Grorges and the authorities at Plym* 
outh to arrest the ship, and send the captain, " wiih. his 
commission and the plat which he hath," up to London. 
No other result, however, than the detention of the Orange 
Tree, appears to have followed tiie action of the Privy 
Council. James I. was drawing near the end of his days; 
and though, personally, he was never cordially disposed 
toward the Dutch, the foreign relations of England had 
lately become so critically situated, that he had found it 
1624. expedient to form an alliance with the States G-eneral.t 
16 June. Under these circumstances, he wisely judged it impolitic 

* Hoi. Doc., 1., 136, 129, IS3 ; VoyagM of D. P. de Tries, 41, 4S. I quote ftom tbe oris- 
InalworkofDe VrieSypQbUshedatAlckinaer in 1855. Thie rery rare book, in its eoni> 
plete fbnn, has never befbre been consulted by any of our writers, who, relying npon tlie 
wretched version from the Da Slxnitidre MS8. at Philadeiphia (pabUsbed in U. N. Y. H. 
S. Coll., i., SSO-373), have been betrayed into grave errors, which it will be my dnty to 
notice and correct A MthM translation of De Tries, by Mr. H. C. Mniphy, wm soon \m 
published by the New York Historical Society. 

t Lond. Doc., i., M ; N. Y. Col. MSS., iU., 12 ; Wassenaar, v., 91 ; Coipa. Dip., v., % 
456 ; Clarendon State Papers, 1., 41 ; Aitxema, i., 091. 

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to offend, in any way, the powerful commeroial company obaf. v. 
which it was his evident interest to conciliate. 

Early in the year 1626, the attention of the inhabit- ^^^^^ 
ants of the United Provinces was attracted to the publica- ff^^^^' 
tion, at Leyden, of a black-letter folio History of the " New]^^/* 
World, or Description of the West Indies," by John de Laet, 
<me of the most influential directors of the West India 
Company. This work, which was dedicated to the States 
G-eneral, was composed from '' various manuscript jcmmals 
of different captains and pilots," whose names occur in the 
course of the descriptions ; and from this circumstance its 
historical authority is nearly equal to that of an original 
record. Among others, Hudson's own private journal is 
largely quoted from. This journal was probably handed 
to De Laet by the Amsterdam directors of the East India 
Company, to whom it had been transmitted from En- 
gland. It is a very reijfiarkable . coincidence, that au- 
thentic extracts of Hudson's own report of his adventures 
should thus have appeared in HoUimd, in the same year 
that Purchas was publishing at London, in his << Pil- Pnnhu*! 
grims," the formal log-book in which Juet, the mate of ini^<ioii- 
the Half Moon, recorded the discovery of New Nether- 
land. Besides Hudson's private journal, De Laet appears 
to have had in his possession the original reports of Block, 
Christiaensen, and May. Until the recent reference to the 
earlier ^^ Historical Relation" of Wassenaar — ^which con- wbsm- 
tains a general statement of interesting events in Europe "Uisto- 
and America from 1621 to 1632 — ^the work of De Laethid^^^pub-' 
was thought to contain the first published account of the Amster- 
Dutch province. Its authority is deservedly very high ; 
and had English and American writers consulted its ac- 
curate pages, less injustice would, perhafis, have been done 
to the Hollanders who explored the coasts of New Nether- 
land, and piloted their adventurous yachts along the 
shores of its bays and streams, years before a British ves- 
sel ascended the North or South Rivers, or passed through 
Long Island Sound.* 

^Tliere are four edUkmt of DeLMt's"N«w World." Tlit flnt wm pobUited by tte 


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oiur.T. l%a d^wmty of New Netherland fbr oultivatioii and 
'production being now fieivorably known to the pablio, the 
West India Company determined to jMxweoate vigorously 
the work of ooknization. The ya<^t Mackarel was again 
dispatched to ICuihattan, with a cargo of ^^ necessaries" 
S5 April, for the use of the colonists abready there. But when only 
S7 April, two days out from the Texel, the vessel was captured in 
a fag by some of the enemy's privateers, and carried a piiase 
into Dunkirk.* This mischance, however, was soon re- 
Hoifttendi paired. Peter Evertsen Hulft, one of the directors of the 
toNeJf*^ Amsterdam Chamber, prcwnptly undertook to convey to the 
«iiii« own colony, at lus own risk, such necessary articles as might 
be provided. Two ships, each of two hundred and ei^iiy 
tons burden, were acccnrdingly fitted out in the same 
ApifL spring, and loaded with (xie hundred and tiuree head of 
cattle, among which were stallions and mares, buUs and 
cows, for breeding, as well as swine and Aeep. The an- 
imals w^re carefully provided for (m Clipboard, aknost aa 
well as on shore. ^' Each beast," says the exact Wasse- 
naar, ^^ had its own s^arate stall," arranged upon a floor- 
ing of sand, three feet deep, which was laid upon a dedk 
specially constructed in the vessel. Under this deck eadi 
ship carried three hundred tuns of fresh water, for the um 
of tiie cattle. Hay and straw were provided in abundance 
for the voyage ; and all kinds of seeds, and }dows and 
other farming implements, were sent on board for the use 
of Ihe colony. Hulft also added a third ship to the ex- 
pedition, ''that there should be no failure" in carrying oat 
the enterprise he had undertaken. Along with these three 
AyjkJht ^ vessels went a fast-sailing yacht ot " fluyt," fitted oat by 
the oooip*- the directors of the company on their ovm account. These 
vessels carried out six entire families, besides severd free 

Btaerien oTLeydm, In Doieh, ia lOK ; tbe aeoond, also In Dntcli, re^iM^ md eotaag^di 
in 1630 ; the third, in Latin, in 1633 ; and the fourth, in French, in 1640. Translations 
orextracta fram the third book of Da Laet hvra been pahlMtad In tba aaoond aertea of N. 
T. R. S. CoUacUona, 1., S89-316 ; ii.» 173. ^e Laot alao wrote a «* Hiatory of the Weat 
India Company, *> which was publiahed by the ElxeTiera in 1644 ; bnt it haa not been trans- 
lated. WhUeIwaainHoUandinl841,eflbruwereniadetoaaoaitaiathafluaofI>aIiaa(^ 
papera, and procore the original documenta flrom which he wrote. Bat In Tain. 
* WMaaMBr,ii.,S7;iL.,ir.T.H.8. 0alL,U.,l61. 

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emigrants (" yrje persoonen'^) ; so that forty-five new set- chap. v. 
tiers were thus added to 4lie population of New Nether- 
land. " This colony has a great scope, lying close by the ^"*^* 
track of the Spaniards from the West Indies," said the sa- 
gacious merchants of Amsterdam, as the little squadron 
sailed gayly into the Zuyder SJee.* 

The voyage was entirely successful; only two of iiieJniy. 
beasts died at sea. On their arrival, they were first land- the royage. 
ed at " Nutten," or Gteverncwr's Island ; but that spot fur- landed on 
nishing no sufficient pasture, they were taken, a day or and. 
two afterward, by shallops and barges, to Manhattan. Transfer- 
There they eventually throve very well on the rich grass, hattan. 
*^ as beautiful and long as one could wish," which abound- 
ed in the valleys. But, being at first allowed to run 
wild, about twenty in all died, from eating some poison- 
ous herbage, which covered the fallow soil with its rank 
luxuriance. In the same summer and autumn, the Am- joiy. 
sterdam directors were gladdened by the arrival of two ves- ^ 
sels firom New Neljierland, "loaded mostly with peltries," 
and bringing news of the " great contentment" of the ad- 

Strengthened by this last arrival, the growing colony wuuam 
now numbered over two hundred souls ; and Comelis Ja- gaccee£ 
oobsen May, who had administered its simple government on?D?n^ 
during the year 1624, was succeeded by William Verhulst, Jfether-*'^ 
as the second Director of New Netheriand. Verhulst's ad- 
ministration, like that of his predecessor, lasted, however, 
only one year ; at the end of which, he returned to Hoi- 1626. 
land. He seems to have visited the South River in per- n*^*^^ 
son, to examine into the state of affairs there ; and his 
name was for a long time commemorated by " Verhulsten verimisten 
Island," near the bend of tKe Delaware at Trenton. Upon the*i«n2o 
this island, which is described as being " near tiie falls of 
fliat river, and near Hie west side thereof," the West India 

* Wmenaar, is., 40 ; idl., 37 ; Doc. Hlat. N. Y., iii., 38, 89, 43. 

i Wuwnnar, ix., ISS ; x., 89 ; xii., 87 ; Doc. Hist. N. T., iil., 41, 4S ; Benson, 94. De 
Laec, etp. ix., says (hsi the Dutch originally gare what is now known as ''Gorernor^ 
Island,** opposite the Battety, in N«w York harbor, the name of *< Nntten Island, I 


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Chap. V. Company e8tal>lish6d a trading house, '^ where Ihere were 
~ three or four fiimiliefl of Walloons." These families, how- 
miiTOM ®^®'> ^^ ^^^ remain very long in their lonely frontier 
Sr home* 

Death of The year 1625 was marked by two important publio 
JriJJ^ events in Europe, which incidentally influenced the affairs 
saA^. of New I^etherland. After thirty years of active military 
service, Maurice, Prince of Orange, the " Fabius of the 
Netherlands," died at the Hague. Equal to the most cel- 
ebrated captains of any age or nation, Maurice i^eared to 
&r less advantage in his political capacity, as the stadt- 
holder of the United Provinces. Many a deed of glory il- 
lustrates his splendid military career ; but the eye of pos- 
terity will never cease to look with reproach upon that 
darkest spot which blots his checkered escutcheon — ^the 
bTST^ blood of Olden Bameveldt. Upon the death of Maurice, 
^J^»^^ the States G-eneral conferred the vacant offices of captain 
Henry, and admiral general on his brother, Frederick Henry, who 
succeeded him as Prince of Orange, and who was also, 
soon afterward, created Stadtholder by a majority of the 
provinces. The new prince, who far excelled his brother 
in prudence, moderation, and capacity for government, 
entered upon the administration of affaij^ under circum- 
stances which, though discouraging, gave promise of 
brighter days. Religious hostilities were soon restrained 
to the precincts of the consistories ; and the voice of pa- 
triotism, which for awhile had been stifled by the clamor 
of polemical discussion and the vehemence of party strife, 

« WasMnaar, xil., S7, 88; xvi., 18; xriii., 04; Doe. Hist N. Y., iii., 42, 48, 47, 48 
Van der Donok*8 Map of N. N. ; D«po6iUon of Peter Laorenaen, in Deed Book, tU., ana 
in Doe. Hiat. N. T., ill., 50. Lattrensen'a deposition was made befbre Governor Dongan. 
on tbe 34th of Mareb, 1685. He says that " he eame into this Provinee a senrant to thi" 
West India Company, in the year 1628 ; and in the year 1080 (1631 ?), by order of tbe 
West India Company, he, with seven more, were sent in a sloop with hoy saile to Dela 
ware, where the oompany had a trading house, with ten or twelve servants belonginf 
to it, whieh the deponent himself did see there settled. And he Airther saith, that at 
his retom flrom Delaware River, the said vessel stopped at tbe Horekill, where the depo 
nent did also see a settlement of a briek boose, belonging to the West India Company 
And the deponent ftirther saith, that upon an island near the Ihlls of that river, and near 
the west side thereof, the said company, some three or foor years afbre, had a tradlnf 
house, where there were three or fbor flunilies of Walloons. The place of their settlenMok 
he saw ; and that they had been seated there, he vna informed by some of the said Wal- 
loons themselves, when they trere retomed ttam thenoe.'*-^. Thomas* W. Jenej, p. 14. 

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oiM>e more aroofled men of all sects and all opinions to crap. v. 

unite in defense of their Fatherland.* •" 

The death of James I., which hBuppenei about a month yfj|^^' 
befinre that of Maurice, led the goyemment at the Hague Sil^i^ 
and the diiectcNTs of the West India Company to hope that^' 
the hostilities, which had just broken out between En- 
gland and Spain, would be vigorously {nroseouted by 
Charles I., and would assist the military (^rations of the Aeoenioa 
republic against the common enemy. They were not dis- 1. 
appointed. In revenge for the failure of the Prince of 
Wales's intended marriage with the In&nta, James had 
been hurried into a war vrith his former ally. Still for* 
ther to humble her, he had, in 1624, entered into a de- 
fensive alliance, for two years, with the Dutch ; and had 
agreed to allow the States General to levy six thousand 
men within his kingdom, and at his cost, upon conditioi) 
that their expenses should be repaid at tiie conclusion of 
a peace between the United Provinces and Spain. With- 
in six months afber his accession, Charles I. took a still 
more decided step. He concluded, at Southampton, ft;^rf«p^ 
treaty with the States Greneral, by which he entered into souu&am^ 
an offensive and defensive alliance with the Dutch, to con- t^^the 
tinue as long as the King of Spain should prosecute his a^Dmeii. 
designs " against ihe liberty and rights of the United Prov- 
inces,*' and occupy the Palatinate with his troops.. The 
allies bound themselves to equip fleets for the purpose of 
destroying the Spanish commerce in the East and West 
Indies ; and the treaty expressly stipulated that the ports 
of the two countries should be reciprocally open to the war 
and merchant vessels of both parties.t The king, how- 
ever, accompanied his ratification of the Treaty of South- 
ampton with a protest that it should not prevent his de- 
manding proper satisfaction for the injuries which the 
Dutch were alleged to have done the English at Amboy- 
na, the year before. A few weeks afterward, Charles dis- n October, 
patched the Duke of Buckingham and the Earl of Hol- 

* DtTies, IL, 557, SM. 

t Corpfl. Dip., ▼., S, 456, 478 ; Clarendon State Papers, i., 41, ftS ; Aitxena, i., Ml, ItM , 
Load. Doc, i., M ; HoL Doe., Iz., 99S ; N. T. Col. MS8., iiL, IS. 



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CBAP. V. land as ambassadors extraordinary to the States G-eneral, 
charged with instructions to negotiate a still closer alli- 
ance ; to " remember" the States Q-eneral **^that tiie only 
foundation and principal cement of tiieir estate being their 
unity, they must by all means conserve that;" and to as- 
sure them of the king's sincere desire to interpose, " by 
way of mediation, in all differences within their state," 
and continue in ^' every office and duty of a good neighbor, 
firiend, and ally."* 

These circumstances favorably affected the rising for- 
tunes of New Netherland. G-reat Britain and the United 
Provinces were now allies. The West India Company, 
presuming that the same causes that had induced Charles 
to open his ports to their vessels, and postpone retaliation 
for the alleged barbarities at Amboyna, would prevent his 
interfering with their design to found a stable colony in 
Peter Min- America, immediately commissioned Peter Minuit, of We- 
MedB ver- scl, to succced William Yerhulst, in the chief command in 
Director Ncw Nethcrlaud, as its Director G-eneral. Minuit left Am- 
New Neth- stcrdam, accordingly, toward the end of December, in tiie 
1» Dw. ship " Sea-Mew," Captain Adriaen Joris. The ship sailed 
1626. firom the Texel on the ninth of January, 1626, and arrived 
l^VMst at Manhattan on the fourth of the following May.t 


* Rymer Federa, zrUi., 77, MO. 

t Wagwiiur,ziL,SO; ztL,13; De Laet, App., 4 ; Doc. HiM. N. T^ iiL» 40, 47. 


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The College of Nineteen of the West India Company, chap.vl 
immediately on its organization, intrusted, as we have 
seen, to the Amsterdam Chamber the particular manage- pro^ciai 
ment of its North American Province. Sworn to thegJJ^ 
double allegiance which the charter required. Director JJjJJ^^^' 
Peter Minuit, on his arrival at Manhattan, commenced MinuS*' 
an administration which was to be a faithful reflection of * **'y- 
the peculiar commercial policy of his immediate princi- 
pals. Their will, as expressed in instructions, or de- 
clared in ordinances, was to be the supreme law of New 
Netherland : in cases not thus specifically provided for, 
the civil law, and the statutes, edicts, and customs of the 
Fatherland were to be paramount.* 

To assist the director, a council was appointed, which councu. 
was invested with all local, legislative, judicial, and ex- 
ecutive powers, subject to the supervision and appellate 
jurisdiction of the Chamber at Amsterdam. Criminal 
justice was administered by the council to the extent of 
fine and imprisonment, but not to the taking away of life. 
If any person was capitally convicted, " he must be sent, 
with his sentence, to Holland."! Next in authority to 
the director and council was the chief commissary or 
" Koopman," who was the book-keeper of the company's 
affairs, and also acted as Secretary of the Province. Sub- 
ordinate to these was the ^' Schout,"! whose responsible schoat 

« Momton, S09. t WsMenaar, xU., 88 ; Doe. Htet. N. T., iU., 4S. 

X Aeoordlnf to Grotliis, tbis tenn is an abbreTlatloii of** Solrald-reeliler," a Judge of 
erimes.— OroCioa, Inleydinge, 1S7 ; Dsriaa, 1., 77. 


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Chap. VI. offioo Combined the double daties of Public Procurator 
and Sheriff. He was not a member of the council, but 
• their executive officer; and, besides his other ordinary 
functions, he was specially charged with the due inspec- 
tion and enforcement of the revenue regulations of the 
Colonial Custom-house. During Minuit's direction of af- 
fairs, his council consisted of Peter Byvelt, Jacob Elbert- 
sen Wissinck, Jan Janssen Brouwer, Simon Dircksen Pos, 
and Reynert Harmenssen. The schout, or sheriff, was 

ProTinciai Jau Lampo, of Cantelberg. Isaac de Rasieres was book- 

****'***^* keeper and provincial secretary for about two years, and 
was then succeeded by Jan van Remund. 

Minuit's administration began vigorously. Up to this 
period, the Dutch had possessed Manhattan Island only 
by right of first discovery and occupation. It was now 
determined to superadd a higher title, by purchase from 

!;uroiian*rthe aborifidnes. As soon as Minuit was installed in his 

Manhattan ^ 

tho^abortT g^^®^^^'^®^** ^® opened negotiations with the savages ; and 
inea. a mutually satisfactory treaty was promptly concluded, by 
which the entire island of Manhattan, then estimated to 
contain about twenty-two thousand acres of land, was 
ceded by the native proprietors, to the Dutch West India 
Company, "for the value of sixty guilders,'' or about 
twenty-four dollars of our present currency.* This event, 
one of the most interesting in our colonial annals, as well 
deserves commemoration, as the famous treaty, immortal- 
ized by painters, poets, and historians, which William 
1682. Penn concluded, fifty-six years afterward, under tiie great 
elm-tree, with the Indians at Shackamaxon. 

A short time after Minuit sailed, another ship^ the 

"Arms of Amsterdam,'^ was dispatched from Holland, 

having on board Isaac de Rasieres, a prot£g6 of Samuel 

Blommaert, one of flie leading directors of the West India 

1626. Company. De Rasieres reached New Netherland in July, 

^^^y- and immediately entered on his duties as ^'opper koop- 

* HoL Doc, i., IM; Mr. S. Lawnaoe^a Baport to tl» Sonata oftba Slato oTN. ¥., Id 
Fabniary, 1844, No. 48, p. 4, 6 ; Mr. O. F01aom*a Raport lo tba Saoata, Ml May» 1645^ 
No. Ill, p. 6, 6. 

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many" or chief commissary, and secretary of the proyinoe gba». vi. 
iind^ Director Minuit* As yet, no anang^nents had \f^^ 
been mad6 for a regular clergyman ; but his place was, ^^* 
to a certain ext^it, suj^lied by two ^'Krank-besoec^ens," 
or ^^ consolers of the sick," Sebastian Jansen Krbl and Jan comibrten 
Huyd^, whose particular duty it was to read to the peo- 
ple, on Sundays, '^ some texts oat of the Scriptures, to* 
gether with the Creeds."t FranpcHs Mokmaeck^ was also 
employed in building a horse-mill, with a spcu^ious room 
above to serve for a large congregation ; and a tower was 
to be added, in which the Spanish bells captured at Porto 
Rico, the year before, by the West India Company's fleet, 
were intended to be hung.l 

The island of Manhattan having now become, by pur- 
chase, the private property of the West India Company, 
no time was lost in providing for its pe^anent security. 
A large fort, ^< with four angles," and to be faced with Fort oom- 
solid stone, was staked out by the engineer, Kryn Fred- Manhatun 
eryoke, on the southern pomt of the island.^ ^'This 
point," suggested De Rasieres, ^^ might, with little trouUe, 
be made a small island, by cutting through Blommaert's 
valley, so as to afford a haven, winter and summer, for 
sloops and ships." Its commanding position was well ap- commnd. 
predated ; and its future destiny prophesied. <^ It ought, ti<m ottht 
from its nature, to be a Royal Fort, so that it could bepredatML 
apfHToached by land only on one side ; as it is a triangle 
bounded by the two rivers. Three angles are indicated 
by nature. The most northern is opposite to, and com- 
mands within the range of a cannon shot, the Great Man- 

* De Raflterm'B Letter, In U. N. T. H. S. CoU., U., 349. 

i In the Cbvrch of Holland, tt la the doty of the ** Krudc-beaoeekera,*' or ** Zleken- 
trooatara,'' to Yiait and pray with the akk. See alao litnvgy ofthe R. D. Ch«rch,i«rtTi. 
The tranalation of Waaaenaar, in Doc. Hiat. N. T., iil., 42, erroneooaly rendera " met de 
feloten,* **UMtk Ou comment.** The "GelooT really ideana "the Creed;" which the 
*' ▼oorleezera,'* or derka, in the churches in Holland, to thia day, lead from the ** Doop- 
hn^Je,** or baptiatery, nnder the polpit. Until a recent period, thia coatom waa kept up 
in the Reftnned Dutch ehnrehea in thia country. 

t Waraenaar, xii., 38 ; Doc. Hiat. N. Y., iU., 43, 43. 

^ Waaaenaar, xii., 38 ; XTi., 13 ; Hoi. Doc., iL, 370. Moolton, 907, afflnna, that the Ibrt 
'* waa a mere block-honae, anrrounded with red-oedar paliaadaa.** IIm otrcomatanoe that» 
in 1790 and 1701, aereral cedar paliaadea were dug «p under tiie raiaa af the eld flirt, aeena 
to bo the only aothority fl>r thia atatement. 


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Chap, vl rititifl RiY6r and the land. The sonthemmost, oa the wa- 

*7~r"ter level, commands the channel between Nutten Island 
and the fort, together with the Hell-gate ; the third point, 
opposite to Bl<Hnmaert's valley, commands the low land. 
The middle, which ought to be left as a landmark, is the 
height of a hillock above the surrounding land, and should 
always serve as a Battery y which might command the 
three points, if tlie streets should be arranged according- 

HooMwat ly."* The " Comptoir," or counting-house of the compa« 
' ny, was kept in a stone building, thatched with reeds. 
Some thirty other " ordinary houses," constructed chiefly 
of the bark of trees, were clustered along the east side of 
the river, " which runs nearly north and south." Each 
colonist had his own house. The director and the koop« 
man and secretary lived together. As soon, however, as 
the fort should be built, it was intended that all the set- 
tlers should betake themselves within its walls, so as to 
be secure from any sudden attack of the savages.t 

The ibrt In advauoc of its completion, the post was named << Fort 

•*port Am- Amsterdam." J While it was in progress of building, an 
event occurred which, though its criminal authors may 
have escaped detection and punishment, was destined to 
cause much of the misery which afterward visited .the 
province. A Weckquaesgeek Indian, with his nephew, 
" a small boy," and another savage, came down from the 
abode of their tribe in West Chester, bringing with them 
some beaver-skins to barter with the Dutoh at the fort. 
The beaten trail of the savages, coming from the north and 
east to Manhattan, was along the shore of the East River, 
from which, just north of what is now called " Kip's Bay," 
it diverged to the westward, and passed near the swampy 
ground forming the " Kolok," or pond of fresh water, until 
Murder of recently known as the '^ Collect." When the Indian trad- 
anaeegeek iug-party reached this pond, they were met by three farm- 
the Koiek. servauts, in the employ of Commander Minuit, who robbed 

* De lUsierefe Letter, in ii. N. T. H. S. CoD., ti., 345, S46. 
t WuMiiaar, xU., S8; ztL, IS; Doo. WttL N. Y., UL, 4S, 47. 
X Wasaenaar, zrt, IS. 

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PETER mNUrr, IMRECTOR general. 107 

the Weokquaesgeek of his peltries, and then murdered oiap. vi. 
him. The atrocious deed seems to have remained for a~~" 


long time unknown to the Dutch au&orities ; and its act- 
ual perpetrators probably escaped punishment. But the 
young savage, who witnessed his uncle's murder, vowed 
that, when he grew up, " he would revenge himself on the 
Dutch." And, in after years, the duty which Indian jus- 
tice inexorably imposed was awfully executed.* 

Such were tiie << rude beginnings" of Manhattan. Its 
first settlers brought with them the characteristics of their 
Fatherland. ^^ They were as busy and industrious as in 
Holland." One traded with the natives, southward and 
northward ; another built houses ; a third cultivated the 
land. Bach farmer had his homestead upon the compa- 
ny's land, and was also furnished with cows, the milk of 
which was his own profit.t " The island of the Manha- 
tas," wrote De Rasieres to his patron Btommaert, '' is full DMeHpuon 
of trees, and, in the middle, rocky. On the north side, tan by De' 
there is good land in two places, where two farmers, each 
with four horses, would have enough to do, without much 
clearing or grubbing at first. The grass is good in the 
forests and valleys ; but when made into hay, it is not so 
nutritious for the cattle as the hay in Holland, in conse- 
quence of its wild state ; yet it annually improves by cul- 
tivation. On the east side there rises a large level field, 
of about one hundred and sixty acres, through which runs 
a very fine firesh stream ;| so that that land can be plow- 
ed without much clearing. It appears to be good. The 
six farms, four of which lie along the River Hell-gate, 
stretching to the south side of the island, have at least 
one hundred and twenty acres ready to be sown with 

* De Vrioe'i Voyages, 164 ; Journal ran N. N., Hoi. Doc., ill., 105 ; t., 314. The " Verwh 
Water,*' or tVeth WaUty mentioned by De Vriea as tbe scene of tills morder, was the large 
pond fbrmerly about midway between Broadway and Chatham Street, known as **liet 
Kolck,'' or " the Pond.** From this Kolck a stream, over which there was a bridge, near 
the corner of Chatham and Rooserelt Streets, flowed into the Bast Rirer. The ** Kolck" 
was afterward An^cixed into ** Collect ;** and Judge Benson afBrms that, as H coUecUd 
the waters from the adjacent high grounds, <* an etymologist not long since chose to Im- 
agine the true original name to hare been an English one.**— Menoir, *c., p. 8S. 

t Wsssenaar, xii., 38 ; Doc. Hist. N. T., Hi., U. 

% The Kolck. 


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cuAr VI. winter aeed, whiidiy at tke most, may have been plowed 

——eight times."* 

jji^i^ While every thing was thos thriving at Manhattan, the 

oJI^. settlers at Fort Orange, who, independently of ten <xt 
twdve sailors in the oompany's service, forming the gar- 
rison, now numbered eight families, were qoietly pursa- 
ing their farming operations, and maintaining tiie most 
friendly relations with the neighboring savages. This was 
the most northern point at whioh the Hollanders had trad* 
ed ; and Oommissary Krieokebeeok, who had now been 
for three years in command of the poet, had hitherto giv* 
en general satisfootion, both to the cofonists and the na- 
tives. The superintendence of the for trade, hovirever, aft- 
er Eelkens's supersedure, was oonducted by Peter Barent- 
sen, who, from time to time, went up the river, and along 
the coasts to the eastward, visiting all ihe neighboring wa- 
ters in hia shallqfMi, and bringing back large cargoes to 
Manhattan. Barentsen soon became very popular among 
the various savage tribes to the north and east, from the 
M(diawks and Mahicans to the Wapeooos around Nanra- 
gansett Bay, and '^ traded with them for peltries in great 
Mendship." The chief of the Sequins, inhabiting the val- 
ley of the Connecticut, and '< to whom all the clans of the 
north coast were tributary," whom Eelkens had treadi- 
etously imprisoned on board his yacht in 1622, for a long 
ti(ne would have no intercourse with the Dutdi. Barent- 
sen at l^igth succeeded in making a treaty with the chief; 
who, however, " would trust no one but him."t 

An event now occurred whioh affected very materially 
the prosperity of the settlement at Fort Onmge. The 
stockaded village of the Mahicans was situated on the east 
side of the river, nearly opposite the Dutch fort ; and a 
constant intercourse was kq)t up between the two parties. 
Since the Treaty at Tawasentha, the Mohawks and Ma- 
hicans had lived in harmony ¥rith each other, and with 

*BtBMiw*«Letter,tatt.N.T.H.8.0olL,ii.,945. TliBBttWor'<Hfllhgite,**wlMl 
if now eoaflaed to tlM wliMpool bmt HaUeU^o Cove, ivm, n Iim teen itatod <mli,p.O<K 
noU), qipUed by Uio Dmch to tlie Baat Blrcr ginflraUy. 

t WtMontar, xiL, M; Doe. Hiit N. T., lU., 46. 

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the Dutok settlens wlio had contiiiued to observe a etriot caur, vi. 
neutrality. Peaoe, however, was now intenrapted ; and a 
war party of the Mahioans orossing the river, asked the command- 
Dutch o(»tnmander to join them, with six of his men, on a^^^^ 
hostile expedition against the Mohawks. Krieckebeec^iS^^,, 
inconsiderately assenting, accompanied them a few miles 
into the interior firom Fcnrt Orai^, where they met the 
Hdiawks, ^'who fell upon them ao vigorously with a dis- 
charge of arrows," that the whcJe parly was put to flight, 
and many of them killed. Among the slain were Eriecke- is auan. 
beeok and three of his men, one of whom, Tymen Bou- 
wensen, '' was eaten by the savages after he had been well 
roasted." The bodies of the commander and his other 
two men were buried side by side. Three of the pcurty, 
two of whom were Portuguese, and one a Hollander from 
Hoom, escaped. One of the Portuguese was hit in the 
back by an arrow as he was swimming for his life.*" A 
leg cmd an arm of the slain were carried home by the vic- 
torious Mohawks, to be distributed among their wigwams, 
'' as a proof that they had overcome ikevt adversaries." 

A few days after this occurrence, Peter Barentsen ar- 
rived at Fort Orcmge in his leading diallop. The Mo- 
hawks immediately justified their conduct. " We have 
done nothing," said the red men, <^ against the whites — 
why did they m^dle with us ? Had it been otherwise, 
this would not have happened from us."t 

As there was now no commander at Fort Orange, Di- Barentwn 
rector Minuit ordered Barentsen to take charge of the post. tohu'Inace 
After a short time, having succeeded in {dacing aflairs 
there once more upon a good footing with the Mohawks, 
he was relieved by Sebastian Jansen Krol, one of the '^ con- succeeded 
solers of the sick" at Manhattan ; who, for several years, 
continued in command of 'Fort Orange, as the company's 
commissary and " vice-director." Soon afterward, Bartot- 23 sept. 
sen embarked for Holland, in the ^^ Arms of Amsterdam," retnrnt to 
Captain Adriaen Joris, in charge of a very valuable cargo 

* The Mohawks do not appear to hare been, as yeC, prorided wtth flre-anni. 
t Waaienaar,xli.,88; Doc mat. N. T., Ui., 43, 44. 


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Crap. ti. of foTs and sUp timb^ ; and brought to the Amsterdam 
■ Chamber the interesting intelligence of the purchase of 
Mcmhattan Island, and of the diligence and prosperity of 
the colonists tiiere, << whose wives had hotme them chil- 

The tragical result of Erieokebeeck's inconsiderate eon- 
duct interrupted for a time the progress of colonization at 
Fort Orange. Minuit, distrustful of the safety of the set- 

coionirts tiers there, who were so far off from the succor of their 

'*""^<^ I- 11 • 1 i. .1- 

from Fort countrymen, now directed me eight famines to remove, 

Manhattan, duriug thc couTsc of the year, down the river to Manhat- 
tan. A geurrison of sixteen men only, " without any wom- 
en," was left at Fort Orange, under the command of Ktol, 
who was assisted by Dirck Gomelissen Duyster, as under 

verhnurten At the samc time, the Wallocms at " Verhulsten Island," 

laland and 

Fort Nas- on the South River, seem to have returned from their lone- 

sau desCTt- 

^by the ly post, to Manhattan and Long Island. Fort Nassau was 
also evacuated by its small garrison, which was transfer- 
red to Manhattan; and, for ihe sake of economy, a single 
yacht only was employed in trading in that region. At 
this early period, the intermediate regions between Man- 
hattan and the South River were very little known to tlie 
colonists. The Indian tribes of New Jersey were in a state 
of constant enmity, and the inland passage ^^was seldom 
made." When the Dutch had occasion to send letters 
overland, they were dispatched " across the bay," and car- 
ried forward from tribe to tribe, by different runners, un- 
less '^ one among them might happen to be cm friendly 
terms, and might venture to go there." The chief motive 
for these arrangements was to concentrate as many house- 
holders as possible at the chief colony on Manhattan, where 
the natives were "becoming more and more accustomed 
to the presence of foreigners."! 
The Pari- The Puritau Pilgrims had, meanwhile, been quietly set- 
piymouth. tied for five years at New Plymouth. During this period, 

* Hoi. Doc , L, 155 ; Waaaenaar, xU., 89. 

t Waaaenaar, xii., 38 ; xri., 13 ; Doc. Hiit N. T., Ui., 50 ; De Raaierea'a Letter, In U., 
N. T. H. S CoU , U., 344, 345; anU, page 100, note. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


their attentkm had been chiefly confined to the domestic ckat. \i. 
concerns of their ccdony ; and ao little were they, at first, 
aware of the geograjdiy of the country directiy around 
them,, that, raying upcm the vague reports of the Indians^ 
they supposed New England to be an island.* With Mas- 
sasoit, the saohem of the Wapanoos, or Wampanoags, 
around Narragansett Bay, they had early concluded a 
treaty of friendship. In the spring of 1623, intelligence 1623. 
reached New Plymouth that a Dutch ship had been driven ^"^ 
ashore by siaress of weather in Narragansett Bay, near the 
residence of Massasoit, who was, at the same time, re- 
ported to be dangerously ill. Governor Bradford accord- 
ingly determined to send ^^ some acceptable persons" to 
visit the sachem, as well as ^^ to have some conference with 
the Dutch, not knowing when we should have so fit an 
opportunity." Edward Winslow, who had formerly been 
in Holland, and understood, ^^ in some measure, the Dutch 
tongue," was therefore selected lor the service. But the 
Dutch ship had, meanwhile, got afloat, and sailed away 
about two o'clock of the day that Winslow reached the 
Narragansett Bay; ^^so that, in that respect," his journey 
" was firustrate."t 

From their priority in discovery and their commercial commor. 
superiority, the Dutch had hitherto enioyed decided ad-riorityor 

. ii -r.-! . Ai . 11 1 4, , . the Dutch 

vantages over the FugrimS. Almost all the fur trede m at Manhat- 
the neighborhood of Narragansett and Buzzard's Bays was 
monopolized by the enterprising schippers from Manhat- 
tan. This the Pilgrims felt, and grieved ; and one of 
Bradford's chief motives in hurrying Winslow off* to Mas- 
sasoit's country, was to endeavor to dissuade the Dutch 
from interfering with a trade in which they so greatly 
overmatched the Plymouth colonists. These enterprising 
rivals of the Puritans supplied the Indian tribes with the 
various fabrics imported from Holland, and obtained in 
return the furs, com, and venison of the savages. When 
a circulating medium was required, the Indians, reject- 
ing the coins of Europe, with which they were unac- 

* Winslow, in Toong, S71. t lUd., 318, 817. 


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cuAT. VI quainted, sabstttated their own abodginal money, wfaioh 

r"tiiey oalled Sewan. Of this there were two kinds; Warn' 

sewanor ?**^> ^' white beads, made of the st^m of the periwinkle, 
wampum, qj^^ Suckauhock, or blaok beads, made of a part of the 
inside of the clam-shell. The black beads were the gold 
of the Indians— K)f doable the value of the white ; bat 
either were of more esteem with the red men than the 
coinage of Europe. The ascertained value of Sewan, or, 
as it was usually called by the English, Wampum, ren- 
dered it the most convenient medium of trade, not only 
itflTaiue between the Europeatn and the savage, but between ihe 
various tribes of Indians themselves. It was not <Mily 
their money, but their jewelry. Universal in its use 
and unquestioned in its value, it cnmam^ited their per- 
sons, distinguished the rich from the poor, paid ransoms, 
satisfied tribute, sealed ccmtracts, atoned for injuries. In 
the form of a belt, it entered largely into the ceremcmial 
of Indian diplomacy ; and it recorded the various public 
Long lai- transactions of the tribes.* The chief manufEicturers of 
A., m, .b» »u««.y ,e„ U., I»di.» or W M^. 
or " Sewan-hacky ;" and the jnimitive colonial mint which 
the Dutch at Manhattan thus early possessed, almost at 
their very doors, gave them an immense advantage in 
their trade with the neighboring savages.t Of this they 
had not failed to avail themselves. Their sloc^ contin- 
ually visited the Narragansett, and penetrated the adja* 
cent rivers. From ihe Indians with whom they traded, 
the New Netharland settlers had often heard of the Pil- 
grims nestled at New Plymouth ; but, hitherto, they had 
not met. 

The native courtesy of the Dutch colonists now prompt- 

* Moolton, S76, 377 ; Mm*. Hist. CoU., L, 19S ; UL, S31. 

t ** Sewmn-hacky," the name frequently applied by the Dotch to Long bland, was eom- 
peonded fhm *< Sewan,** and tkei>elaware word " tmeky,** or **luiekinf," "the Und.**— 
MoQiton, 34S. ** The Mohawks, the Peqnods, and other powerAil tribes, made Arequnt 
wars upon the Long Island Indians, and compelled them to pay trihote in this almost iiia> 
Teraal article of trade and commeroe. The immense quantity thst was nanoflwtured m- 
ooonu for the Act that, in the most extensire shell-banks left by the Indians, it is rare to 
flad s whole sheO, an harlng been brsken in the pw c i sss oTmaking wa mpum . And It Is 
not unlikely that many of the largest heaps of shells still existing are the remains of a 
I mannlbrtory.**— Thompson's Long Island, i., 87 ; mtt, p. ST3. 

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PE'raR MiNurr. direotor generax. 173 

ed them to open a friendly oorrespondenoe -vnth the for- 
mer guests of tiieir Fatherland. De Rasieres, the secre- 
tary of New Netherland, by Director Minuit's order, aCgM^^h/ 
cordingly drew up a letter, dated at « Manhattas, in Fort^„^"^r^. 
Amsl^erdam," which, with a counterpart in French, "writ- JXwIih 
ten in a very fair hand," was dispatched to Bradford, the^S,^^' 
Governor of New Plymouth. This was the first commu- 
nication between the Pilgrims and their Dutch neighbors, 
" of whom," said Bradford, " we had heard much by the 
^latives, but never could hear from them or meet with 
them, before Ihey themselves thus wrote to us, and after 
sought us out." The New Netherland authorities con- 
gratulated the Governor of New Plymouth on the pros- 
perous conditicm of his people ; proffered good-will and 
reciprocity ; alluded to the propinquity and long-contin- 
ued friendship of their native countries; and inviting 
friendly commercial relations, offered to acccxnmodate 
their English neighbors with any commodities or mer- 
chandise they might want.* 

The Governor of New Plymouth at once answered ihe Bradibrd 
•friendly overture from Manhattan; and, unwilling to be^jMarch. 
outdone in courtesy, translated his reply into the Dutch 
language. Deprecating the ^' over high titles" which Ba- 
tavian politeness required, and whidi Puritan usage re- 
jected, Bradford recifHrocated the friendly greetings of his 
neighbors in New Netherland, and congratulated them 
upon the recent alliance of their native countries against 
their '^ common enemy the Spaniards." This of itself . 
was enough to unite the two colonies together ^^ in love 
and good neighborhood ;" " yet," he added, "are many of 
us frurther tied by Ihe good and courteous entreaty which 
we have found in your country, having lived there many 
years with freedom and good content, as many of our 
friends do to this day ; for which we are bound to be 
thankful, and our children after us, and shall never f(»rget 
the same." The Plymouth colony being, for this year, 

« Morton's MMUorial, 133; Priaoe; Bndted't Letter Book, in Mmm, Hlat. CdL, UL, 
51 ; and U., N. T. H. S. CoU., i., 355, 360. 


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Chap. VI. "fully supplied "witii all neoessAries," Bradford suggested 
that, at some future occasion, they might, perhaps, have 
' dealings with their Holland neighbors, if their " rates be 
reasonable." At the same time, his English loyalty 
prompted him to question the right of the Dutch "to trade 
or plant" within the limits of New England, " y^ch ex- 
tend to forty degrees." Yet the Plymouth colonists, de- 
sirous to continue " good neighborhood and correspond- 
ence" with the Dutch, would not " go about to molest or 
Asks the troublc" them in any thing, if only they would " forbear 
fortear** to trade with the natives in this Bay and River of Narra- 
Narragan- gausctt and Sowamcs, which is, as it were, at our doors."* 
The claim of English supremacy over New Netherland, 
which the Q-ovemor of the New Plymouth colony thus set 
up, could not be admitted by the authorities at Fort Am- 
May. sterdam. A few weeks afterward. Director Minuit ac- 
cordingly dispatched a letter to Bradford, which, though 
expressed in very friendly terms, firmly maintained the 
Minuit " right and liberty" of the Dutch to trade with the Nar- 

maintains ° iiiji*. 

the right or ragansetts, as they had done, for many years, without 
question or interruption. "As the English claim author- 
ity under the King of England, so we," said Minuit, " de- 
rive ours from tiie States of Holland, and will defend it."t 
Bradford Thinking that this correspondence of the Plymouth col- 
jMtofthe onists with the Dutch would give their enemies at home 
ence to En- "occasiou to raisc slanders and frame accusations" against 
them, Bradford took care to send copies of De Rasieres's 
" first letter, with our answer thereto, and their reply to 
a Jane, the Same," to the Council of New England. He wrote, at 
the same time, another letter to Sir Ferdinando Gorges, 
and intrusted his dispatches to the care of Isaac Allerton, 
who was now sent out a second time to London, as agent 

* Bradford's Letter Book ; Moolton, 379 ; ii. N. T. H. S. CoU., i., 960, 361. 

t iL,N.T.H. S. CoU.,i.,80». Bradford, tn hia Letter Book, does not gire the eeoond 
letter fh«i the Dutch in Aill, nor eren their third letter, of the 7th of Angnat, by the handa 
of Jan Jaoobaen. The tenor of the two ia, howerer, gathered flrom Bradford'a reply to 
both, of the 14th (94th) Angnst The second Dutch letter nnut hare been written about 
May, for Bradford, along with hi* letter to the CoonoU of New England, of 15th (SSth) 
Jnne, aent c^les " of their flrat lettera, of oor answer, and of their reply,** to which he 
adds, he had ** aa y«t no opportontty to glre answer.**— Mass. Hist. CoU., ill., 56 ; U., N. 

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for the colony. In his letters to England, Bradford stated chat. vi. 
that the Dutoh, " for strength of men and fortifioation, far 
exceed us, and all in this land." ^^ They have used trad- 
ing here," he added, ^^this six or seven and twenty years, 
but have begun to plant of later time ; and now have re- 
duced their iarade to some order, and confined it only to 
their company, which heretofore was spoiled by their sea- 
man and interlq)ers, as ours is, this year, most notorious- 
ly." And, besides spoiling their trade, tiie Dutch still con- 
tinued ^< to truck pieces, powder, and shot," with the In- 
dians, '< which will be the overthrow of all, if it be not 
looked into."* 

Meanwhile, no answer was returned to the last commu- 
nication from Fort Amsterdam. Minuit, after waiting 
three months longer, accordingly dispatched Jan Jacob-TAocost. 
sen, of Wiringen, the captain of the ship ^' Three Kings," sends a 
which then happened to be in port, as a special messen-^S^prSt' 
ger, with another letter, reiterating the most friendly sen- £»ift>rd. 
timents, and inviting the English to send an authorized 
agent to Manhattan, to confer ^^ by word of mouth touch- 
ing our mutual commerce and trading;" or, if that should 
be inconvenient, offering ^< to depute one" themselves. At 
the same time, in token of their good-will, the Dutch au- 
thorities sent ' * a rundlet of sugar and two Holland cheeses," 
as a present to the governor of New Plymoul^. . 

The Dutch messenger was kindly received, and hand- 
somely entertained by Bradford ; and, a few days after- 
ward, brought back to the authorities at Fort Amsterdam f} August, 
the reply of the Puritans to their two last letters. Ac- 
knowlec^ing their acceptable presents, and reciprocating 
their expressions of friendship, Bradford requested that the tim Pmi. 
Dutch would delegate a commissioner to New Plymouth, Dotehto 
and excused himself from sending one to Manhattan, be-^to 
cause ^' one of our boats is abroad, and we have much bus- omb. 
iness at home." With friendly zeal, he added a warning 
to his neighbors against '< those of Virginia, or the fishing 
ships which come to New England," which might make 

* Bndlbrd's Letter Book, Hwm, Hist CoU., Ui, 46, 49, M, 97. 


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Chap. VI. prize of them^ f ^ as they surpiiaed a colony of the French 
^ not many years since, which was seated within these 
hounds." And against the Dutch claim of rights, by rea- 
son of their early and long-continued trade, and the charter 
from their government, Bradford, pleading prior English 
title, under Elizabeth's grant -of Virginia, and James's 
sweeping patents, suggested that the States G-eneral 
should come to some ^'agreement with the king's majesty 
and state of England hereabout, before any inconvenience 
befall ; {or howsoever you may be assured for ourselves, 
yet we shoi^dd be sorry to hear you should sustain harm 
from any of our nation."* 

Minuit, on receiving the report of the '^ kind and friend- 
ly entertainment" with which Bradford had treated his 
messenger, determined to send a formal embassy to New 
Plymouth, conformably to the governor's request. Isaac de 
uue de Rasieres, the Secretary of the Province, and second in rank 
dispatched to the Director, was selected as the first ambassador of New 

on ftn ein~ 

bmytothe Nethetlaud. He was ^< a man of fair and genteel behav- 
ior," and well fitted for a mission, which was of as much 
relative importance, in the inrimitive days of the Dutch 
and English colonies, as the more stately embassies of Eu- 
rope. Freighting the " barque Nassau" with a few arti- 
cles for traffic, and manning her with a retinue of soldiers 

September, and trumpcters, De Rasieres set out from Manhattan, late 
in September ; and, smiling through Hell<^ate, and along 
the shores of Connecticut and Rhode Island, arrived, early 
the next month, off '^ Frenchman's Point,t at a small riv- 
er, where those of Patuxet (New Plymouth) have a house 
made of hewn oak planks, called Aptuxet ; where they 
keep two men winter and summer, in order to maintain 

AvTiveeat the trade and possession.''^ This was Manomet, near an 

oiTboi. Indian village, at the head of Buzzard's Bay — the site of 

^' the present village of Monumet, in the town of Sandwi<A.* 

Hither the Dutch and Frendi had << both used to come" 

to traffic with the natives. It was about eight miles from 

I Letter Book, IfMi. Hiot CoU., til., 5S; iL, N. T. H. 8. CoO., i., Ml, SIS. 
t Morton's Memorial, 61. t De Raatorea'e Letter, iL, N. T. H. 8 CoU., ii., tSO. 

« IL, N. Y. H. 8. Coll., i., 166. 

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Cape Cod Bay, into which flowed a creek, affording a ready c«ap. vi. 
chmniiel of conunimicatioa across the peninsula * ** For i 

greater convenience of trade," says Bradford, ** to discharge 
our engagements J and maintain ourselves, we build a small I 

pinnace at Manomet, a place on the sea, twenty milea toManomei. 
the south; to which, by another creek on this aide, wemurr* ° ■ 

transport Ofur goods by water vrithin four or five miles^ 
and then carry them overland to the vessel. We thereby 
avoid compassing Cape Cod, with those dangerous shoals, ! 

and make our voyage to the southward with far less time 
and hazard. For tJie safety of our vessel and goods, we 
there atao build a house, and keep some servants, who plant 
csom, rear swine, and are always ready to go out with the j 

bark, which takes good effect, and turns to advantage. "t 
The Butch trumpets awoke unusual echoes, as they 
sialnted tiie advanced poi^t of the English colony. De Ra- 
sieres at onoe dispat^^hed a courier with a letter to Brad- i ociubcr 
ford, announcing his arrival on the part of the director and 
council of New Nether land, to have a friendly conference 
" by word of mouth of things together," and to assure him j 

of the *^goc*d-wiH and favor" of the Dntch West India 
Company* Specifying the articles which composed the 
Nassau's cargo, he requested Bradfonl to furnish hini with 
the easiest conveyance to New Plymouth. " John Jaeob- 
ien aforesaid hath told me," wrote the Dut-ch envoy, **that 
he came to you overland in six hours ; but I have not gone 
so far thi^ three or four years, wherefore I fear my feet 
will fail me." Bradford promptly complied, and sent a 
boat to the head of the Manonscnssett Creek. A short 
portage of five miles divided its waters from those of theDt^Rn^ 
Hanomet River. Crossing this portage, De Rasieres, with re^chn 
** the chief of his company," embarked in the English boat, (wmi 

* WiDftl&w^n rdalitmi. In VanDjir'if Ctiitjn^clf^, 900. Prince, Q06 ^wrlttJif la ITSO), snjn^ 
'' tt& crf«lc nttis out caattTJI]^ mto Capts Cod Day'i at Scriis-sett Uatbdi' ; and (JiJtt rivor rubi 
tmt WHicf Ijr latD MonmnrL Buy, T\w {|isf:«iiC4; overlajK)^ from buy to buy, 1a bui nii milpi. 
TVi crmk uid n^er nearly mKt in ^ low ^mnndl ; «fid ibi^ is the ylnfx tbniigh wjiioti 
llinv ham botin a ial^ oTioiAltini *. rAiial tlib^ Cony years^ wbieb wcnUd be n T»«t ftdYsjitaiB 
t»^ UUie coantriC9i, by a«Tln£ the long pnd danff(^TOtlB f]avlg:ii,UDn roand the Cape^ bj^ 
Itraigll thfB flboulA ndjoLfimij:." 

t Btudftifdi iQ Frtnce^ S'ti ; Old Colony B«:nrd9 ; Bmik QiOxn OtdAV^ yoL Ui~t p, &L 
Sttfl ■In Mr. W. s. Rnweil^ *'PU£nm MeoioiialA," p. lOa^lM. 


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osAT. YL whioh awaited him at the head ei tiie oreek; a2id soon 
reached New Pljrmoath, ^< honorably attended witti the 
• noise of trampetoM."^ 
Deiu- Here Bradford entertained the Dntoh ambassador sev- 

New piym. oral days. The friendly oolonists of two allied European 
nations now met, lor tiie first time, in the solitude of 
America. That first meeting, too, was ^the joyful meet- 
ing of kindred as weH as friends ; for the wives and diil- 
dred of some of the Pilgrims had also their birUi-plaoe in 

The English ookmists' form of govemment ; tiieir an- 

tions. nual elections ; their abolition of primogeniture, with only 
a small diiference in favor of the eldest scm, as an ^^ ao- 
knpwledgment for his seniority of birth ;" tiieir stringent 
laws on the subject of morality, which they even enfinroed 
am<mg the neighboring Indian tribes ; the example whidi 
they set to tiiose savages, of << better ordinances and a bet- 
ter life," were noted with interest by the envoy of New 
Netherland. ^^ Thoy have better means of living tiian 
ourselves," wrote De Rasieres, ^< because they have the 
-fish so abundant before their doors;" but then ^'tiieir 
farms are not so good as ours, because tiiey are more 
stony." With these fish tiiey manured their barren soil, 
udiich otherwise would produce no maize. Quaintly, but 
graphically, the representative of Manhattan described 1^ 
DMehbM rival settlement ^'New Plymouth lies on the slope of a 
ment. hill, stretchiug east toward the sea-coast, with a broad 
street about a cannon-shot of eight hundred [paces ?] long 
leading dovm the hill, and with [another street] crossing 
in the middle, nortiliward to the rivulet and soutiiiward to 
the land. The houses are constructed of hewn planks, 
with gardens also inclosed behind and at the sides wiQi 
hewn timber ; so that their houses and court-yards are ar- 
ranged in very good OTder, with a stockade against a sud- 
den attack. At the ends of the streets are tiiree wooden 
gates. In the centre, on the cross street, stands the govern- 
or's house ; before which is a square inclosure, upon which 

* BndUlitd,io PriiMM,M8; tt^N.T. H. 8.0oU.,U9M. 

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jEiHir Bwivels are nuMintedy so aa to flank akmg the irtreetB. 0B4f.¥i. 
Upon the hiU they have a large 8qua3f6 house with a flat Kxrf, "^^ 
made of thick sawn plank, stayed with oak heams; upon ^^^^* 
the top of which they have six cannon, whioh shoot iron 
balls of four and five pounds weight, and oommand the sisr- 
rounding country. The lower part they use for their churdi, 
where they preach on Sundays and the usual holidays. 
They assemble by beat of drum, each with his musket or 
firelock, in front of the captain's door. They have their 
cloaks on, and place themselves in order, three abreast, and 
are led by a sergecmt, yrithout beat of drum. Behind ocones 
the governor in a long robe. Beside him, on &e tight hand, 
comes the preacher, with his cloak on ; and on the left hand 
the captain, with his side-arms and his cloak on, and witii 
a small cane in his hand. And so they march in good or- 
de^, and each sets his arms down near Imn. Thus they 
are constantly on their guard night and day."* 

Having '< demeaned himself to his own credit" andneRa. 

that of his government, De RaoiereB pledged to the Plym- turns to 
outh colonists ^'assistance against the Freeneh^ if need 
were," and returned to his bark at Manomet, accompa- 
nied by an escort of the Puritans. And now they readily Tbe Pan. 
purchased 9ome of his wares, especially the Sewan oTdSm^ 
Wampum, "which was the beginning of a profitable KSSh. ^ 
trade." The Dutch naturally desired to retain the con- 
trol of the wampum traffic in the Narragansett, because 
" the seeking after Sewan" by the Puritans, said De Ra- 
sieres, '^ is prejudicial to us, inasnmch as they would, by 
ao doing, discover the trade in furs, which, if they were 
to find out, it would be a great trouble for us to main- 
tain ; for they already dare to threaten that, if we will 
not leave off dealing with that peq[>le, they will be obliged 
to use other means." The chief supply of this universal- 
ly current Indian coin came, as we hate seen, from Long 

* D« RaaiorM'8 Letter, 85], Mi. The aeeonu^ afDe Rasiine^ aoMVOt is < 
hy Morton in bis Memorial, p. 82. Mr. W. 8. Rusaeil, in hia " Pilgrim Menorialai" p. 
18, aaya that Leyden StraeC at Plyraootli waa orfglnrtly named Ftraf Street, and after- 
ward Great and Broad Street ; and that U reoeiTed ita poeaent naaae in 18S3, in grateftil 
memory of the kindneaa and hoapitaUly allows to the POfrtaaa intef thair eleit«B years' 
reaftdoBee in Leyden. 


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CH&r.Ti. Island ; and De Rasieres now sold a large quantity to the 

English, " telling us," says Bradford, " how vendible it is 

at their Fort Orange, and persuading us we shall find it 
so at Kennebeok." Nor were the Puritans disappointed. 
As soon as the neighboring Indians learned that tiie Plym- 
outh oobnists had a supply of wampum, a great demand 
sprung up, which, for a long time, yielded them large 
profits. ^< The Massachusetts and others in these parts 
had scarce any, it being made and kept among the Pe- 
quots and Narragansetts, who grew rich and potent by it; 
whereas the rest, who use it not, are poor and beggarly."* 
Matuai Thus, whcu tiic wholc tonnage of New England con- 

liahedat sisted of '' a bass-boat, shallop, and pinnace," a mutually 
advantagepus trcuie sprung up between the neighboring 
European colonists. " After which beginning," says Brad- 
ford, ^^they often send to the same place, and we trade 
together divers years, sell much tobacco for linens and 
stuffs, &o., which proves a great benefit to us, till the 
Virginians find out their colony."t 
' Oct. On his return to Manhattan, De Rasieres carried with 
wJiJSto bini a letter firom Bradford to Minuit, in which, saving al- 
ur^ui?**ways their allegiance to the King of Great Britain, he 
SS?th!ir pledged the Pilgrims to the performance of all good offices 
New*Netii. toward the Dutch colonists in New Netherland. "We 
*'^**"^* acknowledge ourselves tied," wrote the Puritan governor, 
" in a strict obligation unto your country and state, for 
the good entertainment and fi*ee liberty which we had, 
and our brethren and countrymen yet there, have and do 
enjoy, under our most honorable Lords the States." With 
respect to the question of trade and supplies, he expressed 
his regret that it had not been " propounded at the begin- 
ning of the year," before Allerton had gone as agent to 
England and Holland, until whose return a positive de- 
termination must be postponed. But, in the mean time, 
he reiterated the desire of the Puritans that the Dutch 
should " clear tlie title" of their planting " in these parts 

* Bndftrd^s Letter Book, 304 ; Prince, 948, S40 : De Rasieree'e Letter, 350. 
t Bradflml, nt rap., 304 ; Prince, 348. 

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whieh Hifi Majesty hatii, by patent, granted to divers his ohap.yl 
nohles and subjects of quality ; lest it be a bone of divi- 
skm in these stirring evil times, whioh Gkxl forbid. We per- 
snade ourselves, that now may be easily and seasonably 
dcme, which will be harder and with more difficulty ob- 
tained hereafter, and perhaps not without blows.'"*^ 

Thus earnestly did Bradford maintain the English title to spirit or 
New Netherland, and urge the Dutch to << clear" Iheir own. claim. 
A royal charter, of doubtful validity, was l^e alleged apol- 
ogy for calling in question those territcarial ri^ts whidi, 
while in Holland, the Puritans had themselves distinct- 
ly admitted, when, in 1620, they solicited the States Gen- 
eral '^ to protect and defend them" in their proposed set- 
tlement within the Dutch Province. But now they found 
it convenient to insist upon the paramount authority of 
a patent which had been denounced from the speaker's 
chair by the highest legal authority, as a monopoly, con- 
taining << many particulars contrary to the laws and priv- 
ileges of the subjects,"! and which was not sealed until 
nearly a year after the application to the States G-eneral, 
by which they had virtually affirmed the Dutch title to 
the fullest extent. 

Und^ these circumstances, the director and council at Minnit 
Port Amsterdam felt obliged to call the attention of thenouandito 
West India Company, as soon as possible, to the somewhat dtora. 
threatening aspect which the subject had assumed. ^^ The 
last ship from New Netherland brings tidings," repcnrted i6 Nov. 
the College of XIX. to the States General, in November, 
" that our settlers there were menaced by the English at 
New Plymouth, who (notwithstanding the people of this 
land had some years ago commended themselves to those 
very English in all good correspondence and friendship) 
now wish to hunt Ihem out, or disturb them in their quiet 
possession and infismt colony. They, therefore, ask the as- 
sistance of forty soldiers for their defense."^ 

But if Bradford was pertinacious in urging the parch- 

• Bndibrd, m snp^ aOft. t Sir Bdwvd Cok« ; aee M<e, ^ 110. 

t Hoi. Doc, 1., IM, 100; CCalL, 1., 100. 


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oiAr. VL ment olainm of Bngland, King Charles himself was, ap^ 
~~"p«reiitiy, more oonsiderate. A month before De Rasieres 
^aft ^^*^ New Plymoutii, an order in connoil, formally re- 
cLriM I. oiting the terms of the treaty signed at Southampton in 
D^^.L 1625, declared that the ships of tiie West India (Tompany 
should have free access to and egress from all En^ish 
ports ; and commanded all English officers to treat the of- 
ficers of the company " with that respect and courtesy as 
is fitting to be used toward the subjects of a state with 
whom his majesty is in firm and ancient amity."* Con- 
tenting themselves with the liberal provisions of an order, 
whidi, by throwing open to them all the English ports, 
and protecting their vessels from seizure by British cruis- 
ers, virtually recognized their trade to New Netherland, 
the West India Company seemed to think it unnecessary 
to take any immediate steps to settle the question of title. 
1632. A hw years later, when the question was distinctly pre- 
sented, they vindicated their title with ability and success. 
At present, the quiet advancement of their colony in New 
Netiierland, and the regular prosecution of trade, was the 
company's poticy. The value of that trade had doubled 
during the four years succeeding the first permanent col- 
onizaticm under May. In 1624, tiie exports from Amster- 
dam, in two ships, were worth upward of twenty-five 
thousand guilders, and the returns from New Netherland, 
inemsinf tweuty-seveu thousand guilders. In 1627, the value of 
nTcmt the goods vrhick the Amsterdam Chamber exported, in four 
Neciier.*^ ships, had risen to fifty-six thousand guilders, and that of 
the peltries received from New Netherland had increased 
to the same sum.t 
1628. The prosperity of the growing colony steadily increased. 
19 Avgwc. In the autumn of the next year. Director Minuit dispatch- 
ed from Manhattan two ships, the "Arms of Amsterdam,*' 
Captain Adriaen Joris, and ihe " Three Kings,'' Captain 
Jan Jacobsen, of Weiringen, with cargoes of ship timber 
and fiirs for the West India Company, the aggregate 

* Load. Doe., i., SO ; Hoi. Doe., U., 908 ; N. T. Col. HSS., IU.» It, IS. 
t De Ltot, Jaeriyek VerliAel, Appendix, p. M, 99. 

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value of which exceeded sitiy-one tboosaod guilders.* ciur. vi 
Strengthened by the addition of the settlers who had fa- ^^^ 
merly resided near Fort Orange, and by the garrison of the -^^^^' 
deserted Fort Nassau, on the South Eiyer, the colony at 
Manhattan now numbered two hundred and seventy souls, Poratatk» 
including men, women, and children. Fearless of the In- um. 
dians, with whom they now lived in happy peace, these 
families all continued to reside outside the walls of Fort Fort Am- 
Amsterdam, which was now conq>leted, with four bastions, compiated. 
and a facing of stone. 

At Fort Orange there were now "no families;" they^JJJ^ 
had all been brought down to Manhattan. That poet it-«nf«- 
self was occupied by only twenty-five or twenty-six trad- 
ers, under the vice-director, Sebastian Jansen Krol, who 
had succeeded to the command two years before, when 
Barentsen returned to Holland. In the spring of 1628, 
hostilities broke out between the Mahicans, near Fort Or- 
ange, and the Mohawks ; but the latter killed and cap- The mo- 
tuied most of the Mahicans, and expelled the remnant, driTa um 
who settled themselves toward the norUi, near the "Freeh," ottu> um 
or Coimecticut River, where they began to cultivate the«»^ 
ground ; " and thus there was now an end of war in that 

By order of the West India Company, " all those who 
were at the South River," at Yerhulsten Island, and Fort 
Nassau, were likewise removed to Manhattan. A small Tnde on 
vessel only was retained there, to keep up the fur trade. Rt^. 
That trade, however, was less profitable than the traffic on 
the North River. The factors found that the inland sav- 
ages, who came down to tide-water, would not barter the 
" lion skins wi1& which they were cbthed^" because th^ 
were " much warmer than other fiors." 

The colonists at Manhattan subsisted chiefly by their 
farming, the deficiency in their crc^ being made up by 
supplies from the West India Company. Their winter piMperur 
com had turned out very well ; while the summer grain, ni^^ 
being prematurely ripened by the excessive heats, was ^ 

* WaMenatr, zri., 19 ; DtLttt, iff., S9. 

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Chap, yl vory meagre. But the cattle and beasts, which had been 
sent from Holland three years before, had thriven ; and ev- 
^^^* ery thing wore an air of progress and improvement.* 

Narai 0110- While the ships which brought these flattering accounts 

tbe Dotch. from Manhattan were yet at sea, an event occurred which 
materially influenced the fortunes of the growing colony. 
The renewal of hostilities with Spain had enabled the 
Dutch to gain the most brilliant successes at sea, and 
bring ruin and dishonor upon their enemy. Swift min- 
isters of retributive justice, the fleets of the West India 
Company swept the ocean, and wrested from the Span- 
iard the rich spoil he had wrung from the unoflending 
princes of Mexico and Peru. In 1627, Peter Petersen 
Heyn, a native of Delft-Haven, who, by reason of his 
courage and abilities, had been raised from a low station 
to ihe rank of admiral, distinguished himself in the con- 

20 Miy. quest of Saint Salvador, and the destruction of twenty-six 
ships of the enemy. Heyn now received orders to inter- 
cept and capture the Spanish " Silver Fleet," on its an- 

6 Sept. nual return fix>m the West Indies. Sailing to Cuba, he 
fell in with ten of their galleons off Havanna, and cap- 
tured them in a few hours. The next day the remainder 
of the fleet was perceived about three leagues off". Chase 
was made at once ; but the Spaniards, carrying a press 
of sail, took refuge in the Bay of Matanzas, where nearly 

Hejn cap- all ran aground. Heyn instantly following them in, took 
nine more prizes ; and brought all the captured vessels, 
except two, safely to Holland. The booty was immense. 
Including nearly one hundred and forty thousand pounds 
of pure silver, it was valued at twelve millions of guilders, t 
The enthusiasm of the people was unbounded on Heyn's 
triumphant return. He was introduced into the Assem- 
bly of the States Greneral, and received the public thanks 
of the nation. As modest as he was brave, he asked for 
nothing of the enormous treasure he had won. Soon aft- 
erward, the vacant office of Lieutenant Admiral was forced 

* Wassenair, XTi., 13 ; Doc Hiat. N. T., Ui., 47, 48. 
t De Laet, 147; Altzema, i., 790. 



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upon him in spite of his humble protestations that it chap. vi. 
was too high a dignity for one of his mean birth and 
unpolished manners.* The next year, Heyn dying glo-^j,,^ * 
riously on the deck of his diip, which he had boldly laid 
between two Dunkirk pirates, his body was interred in 
princely state, near that of William of Orange, in the old 
mausolean church at Delft, where his grateful government 
erected a meignificent marble monument to his memory.t 
Successful war thus poured infatuating wealth into 
the treasury of the West India Company. In one year 
they divided fifty per cent. In two years they had cap- 
tured one hundred and four prizes.t What Barneveldt 
had feared soon came to pass. To the lust of lucre was 
now added the pride of conquest. The nation shared the 
glory, while the company secured the spoil of the war. infetaaung 
It is not surprising, therefore, that when the negotiation, ^^^ 
which the King of Spain opened, in 1629, to renew the late p«ny- 
truce, became public, it should have met with general and 
determined opposition. The West India Company, covet- 
ous of gain, presented a strong remonstrance to the States ss October. 
G-eneral against the proposition, and warmly urged the 
advantages of a longer war ; the clergy, suspicious of 
Philip's sincerity, opposed the truce, as detrimental both 
to Church and State ; and a large majority of the people 
themselves, encouraged by the late naval successes, were 
disposed to continue a contest, now become not only glori- 
ous, but profitable. The opposition to the proposed treaty 
became so universal and so strong, that the negotiations 
were necessarily abandoned. The West India Company, 
continuing ^^ a prince-like, instead of a merchant-like war," 
soon added Brazil to their possessions ; and the maritime 1630. 
supOTiority of Holland no longer remained a problem.* 

* Aitxama, 1., 790. 

t Tlw States General, on the occasion of Heyn'a death, sent a meaaage of condolenoe to 
Ida mother, an honest peasant, who, notwithstanding her son'a elevation, had been con- 
tent to remain in her original station. When she reoeiTed the message, ahe replied, '* Ay, 
I thooght what would be the end of him. He was always a Tagabond— ^at I did my best 
to correct him. He has got no more than he deaerved.'*— C^reaier, Tableau dea Pror. 
Unlea, Ti., 40 ; Dariea, iU, 571-478, 057. 

t Wagenaar, Vad. HisC, ix., 70 ; Monlton, 868. 

« Hoi. Doc., i., 101, 107 ; De Wlu ; Aitxema, 1., 000, 900. 


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Chap. VI. Yot Oke pieservotioii of the Datoh territories in Ameii* 
oa. was enormously expensive ; and thus far, the oolonisti 
cif ^ who were settled in New Netherlands had been " not a 
^ZiH"^' profit, but a loss to tlie company." The pellary trade, how- 
erer, continued to be '^r^ht advantageous;" but it could 
^< at the utmost return, one year with another, only fifty 
thousand guilders."* Duly appreciating the importance 
of the island of Manhattan as a permanent commercial 
emporium, the company had purchased it for their own 
private {property, and had concentrated in its neighborhood 
nearly Ihe whole European population of the province. To 
a ccmtemporary English observer, the Dutch cobny ap- 
peared '^to subsist in a comfortable manner, and to prom- 
ise fairly both to the state and undertakers." The ^ause 
of its prosperity was evident. The emigrants under the 
West India Company, ^< though they be not many, are 
well chosen, and known to be useful and serviceable ; and 
they second them with seasonable and fit supplies, cdierish- 
ing them as carefully as their own families."! The trad- 
ing post at Fort Orange was garrisoned by military Actors 
alone. On the South River, a single vessel, with a small 
crew, sufficed to keep up the trade and possession of the 
Dutch. Still, notwidistanding their apparent prospmty, 
the families clustered round Fort Amsterdam hardly sup- 
ported themselves; and the annual returns firom New 
Netherland did not satisfy Ihe directors of a victorious 
company, flushed with the easy spoil of Spanish fleets. 
Plans for This statc of things they desired to improve ; and plans 
Mtion. ' for the systematic and extended colonization of the whole 
province were earnestly considered. 

De Rasieres, who had fidlen into disgrace with Minuit, 
had now returned to Holland. Though deprived of " his 
things and notes," he still was able, firom recollection, to 
draw up a statement of affairs in New Netherland, for his 
patron, Samuel Blommaert, one of the leading directors of 

* Hoi. Doe., i., 166 ; LainbraektMB, M, t5. 

t ** The Planter's Plea," London, 1630. This intorestinf panpUet, die aothortUp of 
whieb ia aacribed to the Rev. John White, of Doroheater, England, waa printed aoan ailar 
the aaillng of Winthrop*8 fleet, 8th of Jvoe, 1630 —Yoonf, Chroa. Maaa., 16. 

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Ae Amsterdam Chamber. Affc^ mtioh deliberation, it chap. vi. 
was determined that the manifold resources of its large 
territory ooiild be beat developed by the establishment of ^^ ^^^ ' 
distinct and independent Colonies, at various points on the [^niJl^j^,". 
North and South Rivens. The^^e colonies w^erc to be, in ''^*^''"**^ 
some re-speots, analogous to the lordships and seigneuries 
of Europe, yet all in general subordination to the West In- 
dia Company ; and it was thought that their succeas could 
be better secured by private enterprise, than by the com- 
pany itself, v^hose attention was now almost entirely en- 
grossed by the affairs of the Spanish war. The fostering 
of its own colony on tho island of Manhattan, and the ad- 
vancement of the fur trade, of which it proposed to retain 
the monopoly, were quite sufficient to occupy all the time 
and capital which the Amsterdam Chamber could at pres- 
ent devote to the aubject. 

With the view of inducing private oapitalists to engage charter or 
in the proposed plan, the College of XIX. accord ingly pre-Lp«t™i 
pared the draft of a charter conferring certain special priv-^'" 
ilegea upon such members of the company as should, at 
their ovnx expense and risk, plant colonies in any part of 
New Netherland, excepting the island of Manhattan. More i6'3H. 
than a year was spent in considering the details ; and in '"* - 
the summer of 1629, the plan, as revised and amended, in 1629. 
thirty-one articles, was finally adopted by the CoUc^e of Ad^Swi. 
K1X-, and was approved and confirmed by the States Gen- 
eral. In the following autumn, their High Mightinesses 
established several articles for the government of the Dutch 3 a o.noftw. 
transatlantic possessions, and published a decree, author- 
ising the different Chambers of the West India Company 
to appoint a council of nine persons ^ to whom the general rpmmiHSH^ 
direction of colonial affairs should be assigned.* 

While the West India Company was thus maturing its 
selfish commercial scheme for the introduction of the feud- 
al arvstem into its American province, English emigrants cobniM- 
were gradually occupying the territory on the north and Engiwd 

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Chap. VI. east of New Nefherland. Straggling plantations, some of 
them but single fiamiliea, were already settled on portions 
of the coast between New Plymouth and Piscataqua. A 
few persons began a plantation on Massachusetts Bay, 
1626. near what is now Quincy, which they called Mount "Wol- 
Moant laston. The settlement soon afterward fell under the con- 
or "Merrj* trol of Thomas Morton, who changed its name to " Merry 
Mount ;" sold powder and shot to the savages ; harbored 
runaways ; and, jetting up a May-pole, brocu^hed a cask of 
wine and held a high carousal. But the New Plymouth 
1628. people, at the solicitation of " the chief of the straggling 
plantations," at length interfered by force ; and Morton 
was taken prisoner and sent back to England.* 
Example of In the mcau time, the Puritans in England had grown 
otu?pr^™'more and more uneasy under the restraints of English 
tan emigra- law, and the intoler£mce of the English hierarchy ; and 
the example of the New Plymouth colonists had inspired 
their brethren at home with the desire of emigrating across 
the Atlantic. It was a favorable moment to execute the 
design. The leading members of the council for New En- 
gland, unable or unwilling to undertake the colonization 
of the country which had been granted to them by James 
I., were limiting their ambition to the sale, of subordinate 
Grant of patents. At the instigation of John White, a Puritan cler- 
MMswhu- gyman of Dorchester, Sir Henry Rosewell, John Endicott, 

nctts Bay 

obtained and scvcral other persons of distinction in that neighbor- 
.ounciiof hood, obtained from the New England corporation the 
^iand. grant of a belt of land on Massachusetts Bay, extending 
from three miles south of the River Charles to three miles 
north of the River Merrimack, and stretching from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific. Other associates from London and 
its vicinity — ^Winthrop, Dudley, Johnson, Pynchon, Eaton, 
Saltonstall, and Bellingham — soon afterward became joint- 
ly interested in the enterprise. In the autumn of the same 
year, about sixty emigrants, under the guidance of Endi- 
14 Sept. cott, were dispatched to Naumkeair, or Salem, where they 

Endicottat ' , , , ^i ^ \ n i i. -*t 

Salem, wcrc welcomcd by R'oger Conant, who, expelled from New 

* Bradfbrd, In Prince, 331, S40, S44, S50, 258 ; Morton's Memorial, 135-141. 

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Plymouth, had settled himself there, two years before, 
This was the first English emigration to Massachusetts 
Bay. The "Old Colony," at New Plymouth, had preceded, ^^^' 
by about eight years, Endicott's settlement at Salem.* 

Early in the following spring, a royal charter passed the 1629. 
great seal, incorporating ** the governor and company of A *'"^- 
the Massachusetts Bay in New England ;" confirming to jjj^J»>^**a»- 
them the Plymouth Company's grant to Bosewell and his ^y- 
associates ; and superadding powers of government. The 
territory conveyed, included all that portion of New Neth- 
erland lying north of Esopus and south of the Mohawk Riv- 
er ; but it was expressly provided that, with respect to such 
parts or parcels as had, before the third day of November, 
1620, been " actually possessed or inhabited by any other sxeepung 
Christian prince or state," the grant should be "utterly***""*' 
void." Nothing was said in the charter about any par- 
ticular religion : there was no suggestion that the new 
colony was to be exclusively Puritan. Nevertheless, it 
was declared and granted, that the colonists themselves 
" shall have and enjoy all liberties and immunities" of Brit- 
ish subjects ; and no laws or ordinances were to be mcuie 
or executed, by the corporation or its officers, " contrary 
or repugnant to the laws and statutes" of the realm.! 

About two hundred firesh emigrants, sent out at the ex- 
pense of the corporation, joined the settlement at Salem 29 jnne. 
in the course of the summer. The whole population of 
Massachusetts Bay now numbered about three hundred ; setue- 
one third of whom soon afterward planted themselves a^i!^!nd 
little south of Salem, at Cherton, or Charlestown. Under S^"*** 

* Chalmen, 136 ; Toong't Ch. Mass., 13, 30 ; Bancroft, i., 340, 341 : HUdnCh, L, 176, 

t Original Cbarter in the State House at Boston ; copies are in Ancient Charters, in 
Hotchinson, and in Hazard ; Chalmers, 137. The excepting clause in the patent is as fid- 
lows : ** ProTided always, that if the said lands, Ac, were, at the time of the granting of 
the said former letters patent, dated the third day of NoTember, in the eighteenth year of 
oar said dear (hther's reign afbresaid (1630), aetnally po ss e s s e d or inhabited by any other 
Christian prince or state, or were within the boonds, limits, or territories of that sonthem 
colony (of Virginia), that then this present grant shall not extend to any soch parts or 
parcels thereof, so ft»rmerly inhabited, or lying within the boonds of the sonthern planta- 
tion as aforesaid ; but, as to those parte or pafoels so possesse d or inhabited by snch 
Christian prince or state, or being within the boonds afi>resaid, shall be atterly void ; 
these presente or any thing therein contained to the contrary notwtthstanding.''— Haz- 
ard, i., 844. 


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Chap. Yi. Endicott's influenoe, a ohuroh was immediately orgaiuaed 
at Salem, by the signature of a oovenant by thirty persons 
6 AugiuL ^^* ^f ^^ *^^ hundred who formed the settlement. The 
polity of the eoclesiastio colony rejected the Anglican Lit> 
urgy, and even denied its use to those who were ^' sincere 
in their affection for the good of the plantation." This 
innovation displeased several of the colonists, who, headed 
by John and Samuel Brown, both members of Endiootf s 
council, demanded the enj<^ment of the right of all BnU 
ish subjects, to worship G-od according to the ritual of the 
Reiigioas Establbhcd Church. But Endicott, '^ whose self-will ¥ras 
UubUflhed inflamed by fpmatioism," instantly forbade them the re* 
IntSSt ligious liberty they desired. The wrongs whi^ the hie- 
rarchy had inflicted upon the Puritans in the Old Wcnrld, 
were now retorted upon powerless Episcopalian emigrants 
in the wilderness of the New. The Browns were arrested 
as <^ fiEU)tiou3 and evil-conditioned," and immediately s^t 
back to England, because they adhered to an ^^ immunity" 
which the charts had granted and declared. But they 
found that '< the blessings of the jNromiaed land were to be 
kept for Puritanic dissenters." Thus early was freedom 
of conscience bamshed from Massachusetts, by her oolo* 
nists themselves; for it was, indeed, '^ an age of much lees 
charity than zeaL"* 

* Yonng'f Ch. M&m., 07, 89, 196, 987-893 ; NeaPs PurltaM, 1., 999, iMO ; Neal<» N. B., 
t, lil-144; HntobiMMk, L, 18; Budroft, t, 948-MO, HttdreCk, t, 169, 191; Ghateop** 
R«Tolt ofUw ColonlBV, i., 41-0. 


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Whbn Philip of Burgundy, as sovereign of the Nether- chap, vil 
lands, instituted the Order of the Golden Fleece, he gave 
to it the expressive motto " Pretium non vile laborum."*^^^; 
The legend was m<Mre signifioant than Philip imagined. *" "•^ 
Industry had at last received heraldic honors ; and ike 
ieoc«npense of labor could never be ignoble, while knight- 
hood wore upon its glittering collar the emblem of that 
valued object which Argonautic enterprise had sought 
and found in Colchis. 

The self-relying spirit of the Dutch had already conse- Jjj^^^ 
orated, in the heart of the nation, the sentiment that labor ^i»- 
is honorable. In Holland, human industry and human 
skill early won their most splendid triumphs. The whole 
land was a monument of victorious toil. A great portion 
of its marshy surftice lying below the levd of the ocean, 
required to be defended, by artificial means, against the 
irruption of the tides. And every moment was a moment 
c{ peril. The dikes, which had been built by hardy in- 
dustry, could be maintained only by ceaseless vigilance. 
A breach in an embankment might flood a territory which 
years of incessant labor could scarcely drain. But the in- 
domitable spirit of the nation was equi^ to any emergency. 
That all-pervading spirit was still further developed by 
the system of local association, which the genius of a self- 
relying people introduced. Hollan<i was rather an aggre- rim or uie 
gate of towns, than a state in whidi, as in other nations, SS^ 
the towns we^re of less relative importanoe. The greater 

« nvntf, U «0; MeCHI^I^ tt., 107, IM. 


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Chap. VII. part of its land was originally held by feudal lords, who 
were bound to protect and defend their tenants and re- 
' tainers, in return for their allegiance and assistance. But 
while there were lords and vassals in Holland, there were 
No serib in no scrfs.* By degrees, industry sought companionship, 
and busy hamlets clustered behind the rising dikes. These 
hamlets gradually expanded into towns ; and the hum of 
the active loom was never intermitted. The towns soon 
grew rich and powerful ; concessions of. franchises were 
successively extorted from the necessities of feudalism; 
and while the accumulating wealth of manufacturers and 
merchants contributed increasing quotas to the expenses 
of the construction and maintenance of the dikes, the ter- 
ritorial nobles avoided raising questions of their waning 
Burgbar authority. On the other hand, the thrifty burghers, from 
Semi?' the time they first surrounded their towns with perma- 
nent walls, insisted upon the principle of self-assessment; 
for they felt that, '' alHiough the same tribute and tax, 
laid by consent, or by imposing, be all one to the purse, 
yet it worketh diversely upon the oourage,"t In every 
vicissitude of affairs, the Dutch burghers, therefore, clung 
to their essential principle of self-taxation, which soon be- 
came an immunity, by usage and prescription ; and the 
territorial lord found that he must yield to the progressive 
spirit of popular freedom many of the attributes of feudal- 
ism, which, in other lands, were jealously maintained. 
The rettdai Thus the industrial ideas of the Dutch people and the 
M.rdified. growmg mfluence of me Dutch tovms curtailed the au- 
• thority of the feudal chief. Those ideas and that influence 
naturally modified the rigorous form of the ancient ten- 
ures of land. The noble owner of the soil, from being the 
predatory head of an armed band of dependents, soon be- 
came the careful landlord, drawing his revenue bom as- 
certained rent. Living in the hum of industry, he could 
not help unconsciously imbibing some of the thrift and 
prudence of the laborious classes which surrounded him. 
Constant intercourse, in the relations of business and in the 

*OroCiti«. tLlifdBM»ii<ni*"nietnMOreatii0MorKingdoaM.'' 

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meetings of the Provincial and G-eneral States, at length cnup. vu. 
broke down many of the rusting barriers which had sep- ^^.^^ 
arated the castle and the coronet from the counter and the 
loom. Gradually, the nobles began to unitate the mod- 
esty of the traders and working people in garb and in hab- 
it ; and frugality and industry became as universal and 
as honorable among the Dutch landlords, as they were al- 
ways the characteristic attributes of the operatives in the 
towns, and of the subordinate tenants pn estates. The re- 
wards of labor had lessened the distance between the lord i 
and the peasant; and the rights of the humblest man im 
Holland could not fail to be respected, when; by the cease- 
less toil of man alone, the lands of Holland were preserved 
from the invasion of the sea. Common interests assimi- 
late humanity ; and distinctions in rank must necessarily 
become less marked, when all must work or drown.* 

Still, the lord of the manor continued to exercise a lim- 
ited jurisdiction within his own dcxnain. The inhabitants 
of Holland are described by Grotius as being early di- 
vided into the three classes of nobles, well-bfflm men, and 
common people ; but without any mention of serfs as hav- 
ing ever existed.t When ocNOipared with the social condi- 
tion of the people of the towns, that of the rural popula- < 
tion was, perhaps, less secure and happy, and was less fit-i 
ted to develope the self-relying spirit of the nation. Yet, 
if the landlord attempted oppression, the tenant had but 
to fly to the next town, where he would be sure to find 
abundant employment, shelter, and protection. Accus- 
tomed to bear arms for the common defense, the peasants 
of Holland had learned to use them for their own. Dutch 
feudalism was thus shorn of many attributes which ren- 
dered it repulsive in other lands. Though ihe rustic ten- 
antry certainly enjoyed much less political influence than 
the inhabitants of the towns, they still possessed a large Fmiar 
measure of popular freedom. They were happy and con-kma aISS^ 
tented, in tilling their lands, and in freely worshiping their 

• OQiedanUni, i., 96 ; RaT. Dr. Betlnine ; McCnUtgh^ IL, 177. 
t GfOltat,lBl«yding»,i., M; Dwrtos, 1., 10ft» MM. 



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ciTAF. TH. God aoo^rding to tbeir oonsoienoes. No religioas pefse^ 
oution drove them from tiiat Fatherland which they loved 
to veneration. They needed stnmg indnoements, before 
iJiey would oonsent to emigrate to Hie New World. 
Charter of The Charter of " Privileges and Exemptions/^ by whioh 
leges and an armed oommercial monopoly proposed to effect the per* 
lions" for manent agricultural colonization of New Netherland, while 
New Neih- it naturally embodied the peculiar policy of its mercemtile 
projectors, encouraged the transfer, across the Atlantic, af 
the modified feudalism of the Fatherland. Reserving to 
Manhatutt themsclves the island of Manhattan, which the company 
urn.*" declared it was tiieir intention to people first, they desig- 
nated it as the emporium of their trade, and required that 
all fruits and wares " that arise on the North River, and 
lands lying thereabouts," should be first brought there. 
To private persons, disposed to settle themselves in any 
other part of New Netherland, the company offered the ab- 
solute property of as much land as the emigrants might be 
able " properly to improve." They were also to have " free 
liberty of hunting and fowling," according to the regula- 
tions of the Provincial director and council. Exploration 
was specially encouraged. Whoever should " discover any 
shares, bays, or other fit places for erecting fisheries, or 
the making of salt ponds," was promised an absolute and 
exclusive property in such discoveries. 

But it was obvious that the rural tenantiy of Holland 
did not possess the requisite means to sustain the expenses 
of emigration ; and the associated directcars thought that 
the permanent agricultural settlement of their American 
province could be best accomplished by the organization 
of separate subordinate "colonies," or manors, under large 
proprietaries. To tempt tiie ambition of such capitalists, 
peculiar privileges were offered to them. These privi- 
leges, nevertheless, were careftiUy confined to members of 
the "West India Compcuiy. The charter provided that any 
such member as should, within four years^ plant a eolooy 
of fifty adults, in any part of New Netherland, except the 
reserved island of Haiidiattan, should be acknowledged as 

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% ^^ Patroon," or feudal ctdef of the territory he migiit chap. vif. 
dii» colonize. The lands selected for each ociony might ^^ 
extend sixteen miles in length, if confined to one side of a pat^g..' 
nayigable river ; or ei^t miles on each side, if both hanks 
were occupied ; but they might run as far into the conn- 
try " as the situation of tiie occupiers will permit.'* If a , 
proportionate number of additional emigrants should be 
settled, the limits df the colonies might be proportionally 
enlarged. Each pairoon was prcmiised a fiill title by in- 
heritance, with venia testandi, or the right to dispose of 
his estate by will. He was to have '^ the chief command 
and lower jurisdictions," and the exclusive privilege of fish- 
ing, fowling, and grinding, within his own domain. In 
case any patroon '< should in time prosper so much as to 
found one or more cities," he was to have ^' power and au- 
thority to establish officers and magistrates there." The 
patroons were to furnish their colonies witii " proper in- 
structions, in order that they may be ruled and governed 
conformably to the rule of government made or to be made 
by the Assembly of the IIX." From all judgments in tiie 
manorial courts of the patroons, for upward of fifty guild- 
ers, an Qf^peal might lie to the director and council in New 
Netherland. For the space of ten years, the colonists un- coionitt* 
der the patroons were to be entirely free from " customs, pJ^JS! 
taxes, excise, imposts, or any other contributions." But 
none of these colonists, " either man or woman, son or 
daughter, man-servant or maid-servant," could be allowed 
to leave tiie service of their patroons during the period for 
which they might be bound to remain, except by the writ- 
ten consent of such patroon ; and the company pledged it- 
self to do every thing in its power to apprehend and de- 
liver up every such colonist "as shall leave the service of 
his patiroon and enter into the service of another, or shall, 
conti^ry to his contract, leave his service." 

The patroons themselves might trade all along the coast PHTUege* 
firom Florida to NewfoundlaiKl, provided the cargoes {nro- troonsf*' 
cured were brought to Manhattan ; whence they might be 
sent to Holland, after paying a duty of five per cent %o 


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Chap. VII. tile oompany. The patroons were also promised the firee- 

dom of trade and traffic " all aloiifi: the coast of New Netii- 

1630 ^^ 

The Veitry ©^'^^^'^ ^^^ placcs (iircumjaoent," in every kind of mer- 

^^j^j ohandise, " except beavers, otters, minks, and all sorts of 
ui« compa- peltry," which trade the company reserved to itself. The 
far trade, however, was permitted to the patroons, " at 
such places where the company have no factories," upon 
condition that all peltries thus procured should be brought 
to Manhattan, and delivered to the director for shipment 
to Holland. Freedom of the fisheries was^lso promised : 
with the fish they caught, the patroons might trade to It- 
aly and other neutral countries, paying to the company a 
duty of three guilders for every ton. 
Raciprocai All thc colonists, whether independent or under patroons, 
•S^ri?. were positively forbidden " to make any woolen, linen, or 
**"*"■ cotton cloth, or weave any other stufis there, on pain of 
being banished, and as perjurers to be arbitrarily pun- 
ished." On the other hand, the company promised to pro- 
tect and defend all the colonists, whether free or in serv- 
ice, '< against all outlandish and inlandish wars and pow- 
ers." The company likewise agreed " to finish the fort 
on the island of the Hanhattes, and put it in a posture of 
defense, without delay." The company farther promised 
to supply the colonists with " as many blacks as they con- 
veniently could ;" but they were not to be bound to do this 
" for a longer time than they should think proper." The 
charter ako distinctly provided, that " whoever shall settle 
any colony out of the limits of the Manhattes Island, shall 
be obliged to satisfy the Indians for the land they shall 
settle upon," The patroons and colonists were likewise 
enjoined to make prompt provision for the support of ^^ a 
Minister and Schoolmaster, that thus the service of God 
and zeal for religion may not grow cool, and be neglected 
among them ; and that they do, for the first, procure a 
Comforter of the Sick there." Each separate colony 
might appoint a deputy, to confer upon its affairs with the 
director and council of New Netherland ; and every col 
ony was q>ecially required to make an annual and exact 

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leport of its sitaation, to the anthorities at Manhattan, for cbaf. to. 
transmission to the oompany at Amsterdam.* -tftsin 

Such were tlie chief features of the West India 0<xn- 
pany's famous charter of '^Freedoms and Exemptions" finr 
the agricultural colonization of its American province. Tiweharter 
But the spirit of that charter was adverse to the true in- Me to um 
t^rests of the province, and its effects were blighting and "^ 
unhappy. It encouraged the transfer to New Netherland 
of some of the most objectionable elements in the modified 
feudalism of the Fatherland. It offered the most attract* 
ive inducements to the ambition of stockholders of the 
oompany, in the peculiar privileges which were to be en- 
joyed by the patroons of separate colonies ; and it sought 
to allure colonists to emigrate under such patroons, by 
promising, to them alone, a ten years' exemption firom tax- 
ation. While it conferred enormous specific powers on 
these patroons, it oareftdly recognized tlie universal com- 
mercial monopoly of the oompany ; and it aimed at main- 
taining an unquestioned political su^nremacy, by requiring 
annual reports of the condition of each subordinate colony 
to be made to the director and council at Manhattan. It 
prohibited colonial manufactures under penalty of banish- 
ment, and restrained colonial conmierce by the threat of 
confiscation. It pledged the company to a qualified sup- 
port of the slave trade. 

Yet, notwithstanding all the blemishes by which the Redeemiof 
selfishness of monopoly defaced the charter, it still had 
many redeeming features. It solemnly recognized the 
rights of the aboriginal red man, and secured him satis- 
&otion for his land. It invited the emigration of inde- 
pendent flEurmers, by promising to every one a homestead. 
It provided for the good government of the subordinate 
colonies, and for the right of appeal fram the manorial 
courts. It promised protection and defense to all the col- 
onists ; and it encouraged religion and learning, by enjoin- 
ing the support of churches and schools. 

* See Charter of ** Privileges and Exemptions** at length, in Wassenaar, JiTill., 94 ; 
, S80 ; CCan., i^ lit ; U^ N. Y. H. 8. CoUeetkms, i., S70. 


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ckap. vn. The mtiDduoticHi of the feudal system into New Netfi^ 
~~"erland, was the most onfortuiiate result of the charter 4rf 
Feudaiin^ ex^nptioiLi. In the Fatherland, the industrial spirit of a 
intoNe^ sdf-relying and lib^ty-loving people had shcnm feudalism 
^t^' of many of its worst attributes ; and, practically, there 
was, perhaps, now, more popular freedom in Holland, ihBM 
in England, or in any other country in tiie Old World. 
But there is always danger in delegating political pow- 
ers ; and the danger mcreases the further tibe exercise of 
those powers is removed from the fountain of sujnreme au- 
thority. Feudalism, which in Holland was made to bow 
before the spirit of a people long accustomed to self-gov- 
ernment, had less restraint in the distant Province, which 
was itself wholly under the arbitrary rule of a conmiercial 
corporatioD. The free ^irit of the Netherlander went with 
him, indeed, to his new home across the sea. But his po- 
litical freedom was less secure there, than in the Father- 
land. It was only by degrees, and after constant struggles 
against an oppressive colonial government, that the people 
of New Netherland worked their way to some of those 
franchises which their countrymen were enjoying at home. 
The colonists under the patrocms were subjected to the 
double pressure of feudal exaction and mercantile mo- 
SSTSSSb 'I^^^ it was, that the agricultural colonization of New 
^S^'SSw Netherland was begun under circumstances, in many re- 
JJJJ^* spects, less favorable to the development of true popular 
^Md.^*^ liberty, than was the colonization of New England. The 
feudal system of Europe was never introduced into the 
Puritan colcmies ; nor were their magistrates the agents 
of close commercial monopolies in the mother country. 
The first settiements in New England were unembarrassed 
by the difficulties which paralyzed the prosperity of New 
Netherland. The Puritan emigrants to America had a 
clear field and a fair start. No political incubus oppressed 
them. They claimed to form their own governments ; and, 
to a great extent, they did form them. Every advantage 
was on their side ; and it was less the friult of circum- 

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stance iiian of will, if the grand priiu^iples of Denioeratio omr, vu. 
liberty did not, at once, receive a noble illustration at 
their hands. If religious intolerance smothered p(q[Hilar ^-^^^^ 
freedom in the Puritan colonies, it was not because the 
Council of Plymouth forced an involuntary policy upon 
their inhabitants. If eivil liberty was hampered and re- 
strained, it was not because the people of New England, 
like the people of New Netherland, were constantly 
oUiged to wring reluctant concessions of popular rights 
from grudging superiors at home. 

The privileges which the charter offered to P&^^foons ph^im 
were peculiarly attractive to the aristocratic sentiment •ttnetiTe 
which grew with the acquisition of wealth in Republican !>«<*"»•'- 

Holland. Almost all the land outside of the walls of the 
towns was already the property of old and noble families, 
who were loth to part with any portion of their hereditary 
estates. It was, therefore, no easy matter hr a Dutdi 
merchant, who had grown rich, to become a Butch land* 
lord. Though much of the prejudice which had separated 
die ancient noble from the wealthy burgher of the Father* 
land was worn away, ihere still remained a great gulf be- 
tween them. But now, boundless estates might easily be 
secured on the magnificent rivers of New Netherland, and 
the yearnings of successful tradesmen be readily gratified. 
From the middle rank of enterprising men who had reared 
Dutch commerce and trade upon the basis of Dutch liber- 
ty and industry, was now to be formed a specially-privi- 
leged class, in a new and growing world. The Holland 
i^reholder might now become the colonial patroon. The 
lord of tiie Amsterdam counting-house might now become 
the lord of the New Netherland manor. 

The charter of Freedoms and Exemptions, which had chanw 
been adopted by the College of XIX. in the summer of 
1629, was printed, in a pamphlet form, early the follow- March. 
ing year, and circulated throughout the United Provinces. 
By this means, the attention of stockholders in the com- 
pany, who might be desirous to become patroons, as well 
as of persons of all classes who might be disposed to emi- 

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ciup. Tu. grate from the Fatherland, was invited to the temperate 
climate, fertile soil, varied resonrees, and advantageons 
' oommercial situation of New Netherland.^ 

While the details of the diarter were yet under adviae* 
PMTOon. ment in the meetings of the company, several directors of 
I by the Amsterdam Chsunber, who had been appointed '^ corn- 

dam dirao- missaries of New Netherland,"t hastened to appropriate 
to themselves the extensive privileges which they knew 
would soon be publicly guaranteed to colonial proprieta- 
ries. The most prompt in action were Samuel Godyn and 
Samuel Blommaert ; the latter of whom had befriended 
Isaac de Rasieres, the late secretar}^ of tiie Province. In- 
fluenced, perhaps, by his representations, Grodyn and Blom- 
maert dispatched two persons to the South River, ''to ex- 
amine into the situation of those quarters," and purchase 

1629. a trad of land from the savages. At the first meeting of 
If jmom, ^^ Amsterdam Chamber after the adoption of the charter, 

Godyn notified his associate directors that, in quality of 
palaroon, he had undertaken '' to occupy the Bay of the 
South River," and that he had '' advised the director, Pe- 
ter Minuit, and charged him to register the same thero."t 
The agents in New Netherland faithfully executed the 
Godyn and orders of their principals in Holland. A Ixact of*land on 


purchaseon " the south comer of the Bay of South River," extending 

Rwer. northward about thirty-two miles " from Cape Hinlc^n 

to the mouth of the said river," and inland about two miles 

in breadth, was actually purchased from the native In- 

I June, dians, for Godyn and Blommaert, a few days before the 

adoption of the charter in Holland. The formal patent 

1630. for the territory thus secured, was attested in the summer 
of the following year, by the director and council, at Man- 
hattan.^ It was the first European title, by purohase 
from the aborigines, wiHiin the limits of the present State 

* WtMsnaar, xtUI., 04 ; LambroditMn, 29 ; MoolUm, 380 ; it, N. T. H. S. Con., i., MO. 

t De Vries, 162. t Hawrd't Ann. Pcnn., 82 ; O'Ctll., 1., 470. 

^ H<d. Doc., i., 170 ; 0*CaU., i., 122. The original patent to Godyn and Blommaert— 
wUfih I foond in the West India Honee, at Amsterdam, in 1641— is now deposited in the 
Secretary's Office at Albany. It has the only signatures, known to exist, of Mlnoit and his 

16 July. 

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of Delaware ; and it bears date two years before the char- chaf. vu. 
ter of Maryland, granted to Lord Baltimore by Charles I. "TTTI" 
Another director of the Amsterdam Chamber, Kiliaengju^g^^ 
van Rensselaer, " who was accustomed to polish (rafinee« ^y!^' 
ren) pearls and diamonds,"* had his attention meanwhile J^.^ 
directed to the regions adjacent to Fort Orange, on the 
North River ; where Sebastian Jansen Krol had now been 
stationed for four years, as undemlirector and commissa- 
ry of the West India Company. At Van Rensselaer's re- 
quest, Krol purchased for him, from the Indian proprietors, SApru. 
a tract of land on the west side of the river, extending 
northward from Beeren Islandt to Smack's Island, and 
" stretching two days' journey into the interior." In the 
mean time, vigorous preparations for colonization had been sends out 
made ; and several emigrants, well provided with imple- iL^Sa- ^ 
ments and cattle, were sent out from Holland, early in the**"^^*^ 
spring, under the supervision of Wolfert Grerritsen, as " op- 
per-bouwmeester," or overseer of farms. The C)olonists am- si Mven. 
barked at the Texel, in the ship " Eendragt," or Unity, 
Captain John Brouwer. In a few weeks they arrived at 
Manhattan ; whence they proceeded at once to Fort Or- m May. 
ange, and commenced the actual settlement of the '^ colo- 
nic of Rensselaerswyck." Krol's first purchase, however, 
did not comprehend the lands in the immediate vicinity of 
Port Orange. A few weeks after the arrival of the first 
colonists, the patroon's special agent, Gillis Hossett, in sail- 
ing up the river, came to the place where several men were 
busy in cutting timber for a new ship which Minuit was 
building at Manhattan. Meeting there several Indian sa- Additional 
chems, Hossett secured for Van Rensselaer the cession of chase^on 
their lands ^^ on the west side of the North River, south and^ 
and north of the Fort Orange," and extending nearly toriTw.** 
the '^Monemins Castle," on a small island now called ' ^^' 
Haver Island, at the confluence of the Mohawk. The land 
on the east side of the North River, extending northward- 

* Da Vriea, p. 168. 

t ** Baal's Island, aince callad Banen lalaad, abom twalva milea aouUi of AUMtay."— 


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Chap. vn. ly fix>m Castle Island to tfaa Moliawk, was the priTvte {nop* 
"^r7~"erty of the sachem Nawanemitt. Prom him, Van Renn* 
' selaer's agents also purohased the territory '^ called 86m- 
esseeck, lying on the east side of the aforesaid river, op* 
posite the Fort Orange, ad well above as below, and ftom 
Poetanock, the mill creek, northwards to Negagonoe, being 
sAugast. about twelve miles large measure.'^ These purdiases were 
13 August, confirmed a few days afterward, by formal patents, signed 
Extent or by ihe director and council at Manhattan.* Thus a large 
oTRenMcd- portiou of thc prcscnt counties of Albany and Rensselaer 
aerewyc . j^^^j^yj^^ ^^j^^ private property of a shrewd member of the 
Amsterdam Chamber. Fort Orange itself, ¥rith the land 
immediately round its walls, was all that now remained, 
in that neighborhood, under the exclusive jurisdiction of 
the West India Company. 
Michael Au iuvitiug regiou near Manhattan was still unajqpro* 
ch^%' priated. Another director of the Amsterdam Chamb^, 
sttteniai- Michael Pauw, of Achtienhoven, near Utrecht, finding 
that Van Rensselaer had already monopolized the lands 
in the neighborhood of Port Orange, hastened to secure 
18 July, for himself, the tract called " Hobokan-Hacking, lying op- 
posite the Island Manhatas," and bounded on the east by 
the North River, and on the south by Ahasimus.t A few 
days afterward, Pauw also procured firom its Indian own- 
ers the cession of the whole of Staten Island, "on the west 
shore of HamePs Hooffcden,"t now ccdled the Narrows. 
The purchase of Staten Island was succeeded, in the fd- 
M Nov. lowing autumn, by the still more advantageous investiture 
of "Ahasimus" and "Aressiok," extending "along the 
River Mauritius and Island Manhatas on the east side, 
and the Islemd Hobokan-Hacking on the north side, and 
surrounded by marshes, serving sufficiently for distinct 
boundaries." The spot was a favorite resort fw the In- 
dians, who were in the habit of conveying their peltries 

♦Hol.Doc.,1., 181; Alb.Rec.,l.,199; O.G.,4-9«; Deed Book, tIL ; Doc. Htat. N. Y, 
ii., 40 ; Rensselaerewyck MSS. ; O'CaU., i., ISS-ISS, 310, 480 ; Moolton, 403. 
t Modern usage has oonrerted ** AhasiimiB** into *' Horaimns." 
* TlieM **HooAden,'' or he«nt]ida, were m named aHer Hondrick Hamel, one of the 
memben oTthe Amsterdam Chamber ; see anUf p. 14S. 

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pirrER MiNurr, duiector general. 203 

that point, directly aerau ihe river to Fort Amster- cjult. tii. 
dam. This desirable pnrchase indudad tiie whole neigh- ^^^ 
horiiood of " Paulus' Hook," or Jersey City ; and the sa- *^*^^' 
gaoions Pauw, Latinizing his patronymio, gave the name 
of " Pavonia" to his embryo colony.* 

Thus the most important points on the North and South tim best 
Rtrers of New Netiierland were caught up by astute New Netb 

ertand mo- 

HMmagers of the Amsterdam Chamber. But in all mo-nopoii«4 
Bopolies there is a selfishness which repels the disinterest- 1 
ed. What lure could the company now hold out to inde- 
pendent emigrants ? Rich directors, forestalling humbler 
OGonpetition, had made prize of the most valuable regions ; 
and, the company's rigorous protectire impolicy prohibit- 
ing all colonial commerce and manufactures, individual 
enterprise had little inducement to emigrate to a new 
country against such heavy odds. Where was ihe good 
genius of the liberal republic, when trade and commerce 
wcNre unworthy shackles in the American province, which 
Holland merchants claimed to govern? For engrossing 
cupidity now reigned triumphant in the councils of the 
Amsterdam Chamber, and the fortunes of New Netherland 
awaited the issue of the experiment it proposed. 

The several patnxHiships, however, had been acquired J 
by the adroitness of a few directors who " helped them- ^incumTwn 
selves by the cunning tricks of merchants;" and it was**"*- 
soon foimd necessary to conciliate the good-will and co- 
operation of those less wary associates who had been an- 
ticipated by their prompt proceedings. 

When the news of the purchases reached Holland, jeal- 
ousy of the fortunate patroons was very naturally express- 
ed by their colleagues. Dissatisfaction was also felt among 

* Alb. Ree, O. O., 7-30 ; De Vriea, IM ; Moidtoa, 40S, 403 ; O'Ctll., i., 136. Tbe ptt- 
eal to Michael Paaw for States Island, whieb waa attested by Ifimitt and hla eooneil, on 
tie IStli July, 1631, reeitea, that tb» Inhabitants, owners, and heirs of the land ** called by 
OS (the Dnteh) the Ststen bland, on the west shore of Hamel's Hooftden,** appeared before 
the dtreotor and eouneil of New Netherland, and declared that, " in eonsideratton ofoer- 
tain raroels of goods,*' they had sold the island to Michael Panw, in whoss behslTBfinnit 
and his eooncil accepted the eonreyance. This patent seems to hare been the Arse Indian 
convsyanes of the island ; and it would scarcely hare been sifned by Mlnoit, if the island 
had alrsady been bon^ by hioo, in 1686, for the West India Cooapany, as afflrmed by 
O'Callaghan, L, p. 104. The statements in Hot Doe^ Tii., 70, and in BeTsminok, 606^ 
seem to be too ragne to warrant that assertion. 


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craf. viLthe shareholders of the oompany, that individaal direotim 
had grasped too muoh territory ; and Pauw's purchase of 
Favonia was especially unpopular, as it included the im- 
portant spot where the Indians had been accustomed to 
assemble for trsuie, and whence they crossed directly over 
to Manhattan * 

To appease the dissatisfied, as well as to secure more 

The iM- ample capital and more general interest, the original pa^ 

divided, troons werc obliged to receive other members of the oom- 
pany into copartnership with themselves. This was nec- 
1631. essary, in order to insure the confirmation of the patents 

•jaaauy. j^^ ^^ patroouships by the College of XIX. But even 
this arrangement did not entirely allay dissatisfaction, nor 
relieve the charter itself from criticism and attack.t 
1630. Accordingly, Van Rensselaer divided his estate about 

I October, p^^ Orange into a common stock of five shares. Two of 

these shares he retained in his own hands, together with 

•Suli the title and honors of original patroon ; one share was al- 
lotted to the historian John de Laet, another to Samuel 
G-odyn, and the fifth to Samuel Blommaert ; all of whom 
were directors of the Amsterdam Chamber. "With Blcun- 
maert were also associated Adam Bissels and Toussaint 
Moussart. By their articles of association, the six partners 
became co-directors of the " colonie" of Rensselaerswyck ; 
the particular management of which, however, was in- 
trusted to a board, in which Van Rensselaer controlled 
two votes, and all the other partners two.t 
Godyn and Grodyu and Blommaert also shared with other partners 
aieoihare the benefits of their purchase on the South River. It hap- 
pened opportunely, that David Pietersen de Vries, the en- 

* De Vries, 163 ; Moalton. 404. t Hoi. Doe., ii., 100-103 ; Moulton, 404. 

t Hoi. Doc., v., 298 ; Ti.,903 ; Alb. Rec., tUI., 79 ; Renss. MSS. ; De Vries. lOS ; CCaU., 
i., 137 ; D. D. Barnard's Sketch, 100. On the ancient map of the colony,in the poss e s 
skm of Mr. Van Rensselaer, at Albany, " BkNunaerf • Burg" is laid down at the month 
of ** Blommaert's Kill," now known as Patroon's Creek. " De Laet*s Mand** was the 
original name crf'wbat ta now known as Van Rensselaer*! Island, opposite Albany ; and 
" De Laet's Barg" answers to the present Greenbush. " Oodyn's Islands'* are laid down 
a short distance below, on the east shore. Mr. Barnard intimates that the articles ofes- 
partnership of the 10th of October, 1090, did not refer to Rensselaerswyck ; but besldss tbt 
prasnmptiTe cTidenee of the names on the old map, there ia clear proof of the pa mwahip 
in the Docnments and Records, quoted shore. In 100ft, howsrer, the estate was npmh 
1 flrom the heirs of the original partners. 

their pur- 

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terprifliDg mariner of Hoorn, who, in 1&24, had attempted ohap. yu. 
to invade the West India Company's monopoly, had just 
ratomed from a three years' voyage to the East Indies, ^^^' 
where he had served as supercargo. His good conduct 
gained him many friends ; and Grodyn, with whom he had 
cid acquaintance, meeting him about two months after his aucua. 
return, asked whether he would like to go to New Neth- 
erland, as "under patroon" and commander? De Vriee 
assented, upon condition that he should be made a patroon 
upon an equality with the rest. A partnership was ac- le October 
oordingly formed between Qtxiyn and Blommaert, and vriei m^u 
Van Rensselaer, De Laet, and De Vries himself. Four***"***"' 
other directors of the West India Company — ^Van Ceulen, 
Hamel, Van Haringhoeok, and Van Sittorigh— were soon 
afterward admitted as additional partners ; and the ship 
" Walvis," OT Whale, of eighteen guns, and a yacht, were 
immediately equipped to prosecute their enterprise. Oo- 
dyn having been informed that whales abounded at the 
mouth of the South Bay, thought that a profitable fishery 
might be carried on there, " and thereby that beautifrd 
country be cultivated." So, besides a number of emi- 
grants and a large stock of cattle, to begin a colony on 
the South River, the vessels carried out whaling equip- 
ments. In the middle of December, the expedition sailed is Dee. 
frran the Texel, with instructions to land some of their pas- sent to tue 
sengers at the island of Tortugas, which Grodyn and his er under 
partners had contracted with sixty Frenchmen to hold forHeyeo. 
them as a colony, under the States General and the West 
India Company. The command of the vessels was intrust- 
ed to Pieter Heyes, of Edam, in North Holland; De Vries 
himself remaining at Amsterdam.* 

The expedition was unlucky from the start. A week 90 Dee 

• lIooltoD, and aU the writers who follow him, relying on the intccnnte tnnelatkm 
efthe Dn Shnitiire MSS., erroneonaly repieaent De .Vriee as accompanying, In person, 
ciM int expeditioB to the Sonth Rirer, in Deeember, 1680. The original work, whieh 
I firBow, shows that the first expedition sailed from Holland under the oommand of Pieter 
Osyss. On the return ofHeyes, in September, 16S],De Vries consented to go out to New 
Wttherianil in person, as ** patroon and commander of the ▼easels.'* He aecordlngly left 
Om TmsI, Ibr the first time, on the 94th of May, 1689 ; and being detayed two months at 
ftitsmsath, and fiMir more in the West Indies, he did not rsaeh the Sooth RiTer ontU Ds- 
twatir, 1639.— De Vriett^s Voyages, p. 05-101 ; Alb. Rsc, x»rt, 87, »ipo$i, p. 919. 


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CHAP. vu. after it sailed, Hie partners at Amsterdam reoeived iatot 
iigence that, through the carelessness of the large sh^ 
* the yacht had been captared by a Dunkirk priyateer. 
The Walvis, however, pursued her course ; and, after viB- 
iting Tortugas, which was found in possession of the Span* 
iards, conveyed her passengers to the Soutii River, where 
1631. abe arrived early the next spring. Running along the 
^p^'*' west shore of Hie bay, a few miles within Cape Cornelius, 
Heyes came to the Horekill, ^' a fine navigable stream," 
filled with islands, abounding in good oysters, and bor- 
dered by land of " exuberant fertility." Upon the beak 
of this beautiful creek, whidi afibrded a roadstead une- 
qualed in the whole bay for safety and convenience, ^ a 
brick house," to serve as a fort as well as a residence, was 
soon erected and inclosed with palisades. Grillis HoaseCt, 
who had acted as Van Rensselaer's agent in the purchases 
Colony M- around Fort Orange the previous summer, was placed in 
swaanen- charge of the settlement, which was now formdly named 
^' Swaanendael ;" and the Dutch title, by discovery^ pur- 
chase, and occupation, was solemnly asserted by the erec- 
tion of a pillar, surmounted by a piece of tin, on wbioh 
were emblazoned the arms of Holland. Thus, upon the 
soil of Delaware, near the present town of Lewiston, a 
Dutch colony of about thirty souls was first planted in tfao 
q^ring of 1631. The voyage of Heyes was ^' the (^radUog 
of a state."* 
PMS&weof -^^^ establishing the colony at Swaamndael, HejM 
ctpe May. crosscd over to the Jersey shore, and, in behalf of Godyo 
and Blommaert, purchased firom ten Indian chiefs, ^tli6 

* D« Vrles, 95, IM ; Korto Verlnrt rm N. N. ; Vertoogb iran N. N., in Hoi. Dor., tr., 
71, and in ii., N. Y. H. S. Coll., ii., tei ; MoulUMi, 406 ; Baacroft, U., 981 ; Ferrife^ tl, tt; 
Hazard, Ann. Penn., 25. Wassenaar, before referred to (ante^ p. 183), states, that in the 
jMT 10S8, tlie West India Comptny ** remored all tloM who were on the Soatta Rfever.*' 
Peter Lanrensen, however, in hiH deposition, made in 1685 (quoted on/e, p. 160, note), 
sa^a, that in the year 1630, ha went to the Delaware, ** where the company had stradfnf 
ba«ne, ujM <m or Iwete «arMRte Mtm^^ 10 if, tolkvcA like 4^ 

mttied." Ob hiaretom to Maiihatta,LaRireneen stopped at the Horekill, where to* Mr 
atao sea a settlemeat of a briok haaae, belonging to the West India Company.** This, 
howeiper„ moat hsTcr boo« io the year MSI. ifthere wervanyDvldh tradenatVoitliw- 
saa hi 1630 and 1631, it to oartain thaft ihare were none there in 16». De 'VHosj wto 
aailod ■» tbkhar on tin flth af January, I633i» »and «* the Port Niawm, whwo mum tfmiam 
tenUlea mider tJio WaaH«<hr C o B i p Miy h<t #iwbH," fai the poweailatt of flto awn gm 

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P£T£» Mmurr, director general. 207 

rightfttt owners, propnetodra, and inhabitants," a tract of chap, vii 
land, extending from Cape May twelve miles northward 
along the shore of the bay, and twelve miles inland. The 
bay itself Heyes now named " Grodyn's Bay," in oompli* 
ment to his chief patrcm. A few weeks afterward, he vis- a June. 
ited Manhattan, in company with Hossett, and caused a 
fi»rmal record of the new purchase to be attested by Minuit 
and his council.* 

Returning to Holland in the following autunm, Heyes September. 
reported his proceedings to the patroons. But though atii%^iioi^ 
colony had been founded at Swaanendael, the whale-fish- ^ 
ery had proved a failure. Heyes excused his ill luck, be- 
eaose '<he had arrived too late in the year." But his 
owners attributed their losing voyage to the incapacity of 
their captain, who had been accustomed only to three or 
four months' absences firom home at Greenland, and who 
^dared not to sail alone through the West Indies in a 
ship of eighteen guns."t 

It is somewhat extraordinary that, in all the appropria- no Dutch 
tions of territory for patroonships, the valley of the Fresh SSbitobMi mi 
River should have been neglected. Up to this period, thcoMMJan' 
Dutch were the only Europecms who, since Adriaen Block's ^^*'" 
first discovery, had visited that region. As early as the 
year 1623, the West India Company's agents seem to have 
taken actual possession of the river, and to have projected 
a fort. But it appears to have been their policy to pre- 
vent the establishment of independent colonies there; and 
comiplaints were afterward made respecting their '< injuri- 
oua" conduct, in opposing the settlement of any Dutch 
£Eunilies upon that river.t. 

English colonization had, meanwhile, been gaining 1630. 
ground on the north and east of New Netherland. In the SSgwiSlJ 
summer of 1630, John Winthrop, the newly-chosen gov- SJfn?i n^w 
emi»r, arrived in Massachusetts Bay, with a fleet of fifteen aJtSIS oT 

* Alb. Rec, 27-30 ; G. O., S9 ; ValaitiiM>s Muniat of th* N. Y. ComoB CooneB ir ^^°^"^' 
1690, p. 541. This purehase is staled by Moolton (401), and by 0*CaIlaghan (i., 125), wbo 
Mhrnsbim, to hare been made in 1630; butHaxard, inliivAmialsorPuui., 97, oomcia 
Ui6 error. t Da Vriea, 95. 

t Vartoofh van N. N., ia Hoi. ]laa;^iP., 71, and ia U., N. Y. H. S. CoU., U.,876, 277, 
280;flKe,p. 153. 


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Chap. VII. ships, and more than a thousand emigrants. Wintiirop, 

who had the charter in his custody, at fi^rt settled him- 

self, with his immediate followers, at Charlestown. But 

this position not pleasing them, they soon afterward took 

possession of the opposite peninsula, of which the Indian 

Boston name was " Shawmut." At first it was called " Tri- 

7 Sept. ' mountain," on account of its three contiguous hills ; but 

it soon received the name of Boston, after the town in 

Lincolnshire, from which some of the principal emigrants 

Other had come. Other parties settled themselves at Dor- 
towns Mt- 1 TkT /^ 

*>«»• Chester, Watertown, and Newtown, now known as Cam- 
bridge. In imitation of the example of Plymouth and 
Salem, the new settlements established among themselves 
distinct churches, which admitted their own members and 
1631. chose their own officers. The next year, a form of gov- 
*' ^*^' emment was established in Massachusetts, upon the the- 
ocratic basis that none should be admitted to the freedom 
of the body politic, ''but such as are members of some of 
the churches within the limits of this jurisdiction." It 
was not easy, however, to obtain the privilege of church 
membership. Of the whole adult population, not a fourth 
part were members. Three fourths of the people were 
oorern. thus practically disfranchised. As among themselves, the 
MasMushn- minority of church members seemed thoroughly imbued 
Ufiooaoii- with a spirit of equality ; ** but toward those not of the 
Church, they exhibited all the arrogance of a spiritual ar- 
istocracy, claiming to rule by Divine right." The elect- 
ive franchise, jealously withheld from the people, vras as 
jealously confined to the members of the churches ; and 
the civil polity, which Massachusetts thus deliberately 
adopted, was an oligarchy of select religious votaries.* 
NeW nym- Thc population of New Pljrmouth had, by this time, in- 
*^**' creased to nearly. three hundred; and, through the agency 
1630. of Lord Warwick and Sir Perdinando Gorges, the colony 
H iM- had obtained a new and ample patent from the council for 
New England. This instrument defined their boundaries 

* Ancient Charters, 117 ; Bftneroft, i., 30O ; HUdreth, i., 190 ; Story's MiMdlwiiei, M- 
^ Tlie restriction oftheftwieliiae to elnireliiiMinb«rswu not repeated nntUlMii 

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as Qxtonding from the Cohassett River on the nordi, to the Chap. vit 

Narragansett River on the south, and inland, westwardly, 

to " the utmost limits of Pokenakut, alias Sowamset."* l^w. 

The complaints which Bradford had sent to England 
against the traffic of the Dutch and other strangers with 
the Indians, had already attracted the attention of Grorges 
and Mason. ^Similar complaints from Endicott induced 
the general court of Massachusetts to petition the Privy 
Council to reform " so fiireat and insufferable abuses." The 24 Nov. 
result was a royal proclamation, '^forbidding the disorder- lamatkm 
ly trading with the savages in New England." No per- inreguiar 
sons, except those authorized by the council for New En- New En- 
gland, were to frequent those coasts, or trade with the na- 
tives, or intermeddle with the English planters or inhab- 
itants, or teach the Indians the use of fire-arms, under pain 
of the king's high displeasure, and the penalties expressed 
in the proclamation (^ King James, in 1622.t 

Thus frir^ the New England colonies had not encroach- 
ed upon the territories claimed by the Dutch. The Mas- Extent or 
sachusetts patent included, indeed, within its sweeping sngiud 
grant of land as far west as the Pacific, a portion of thenLnt^. 
northern regions of New Netherland. But the infant set- 
tlements at Salem, and near Boston, were confined to the 
sea-coasts north of New Plymouth; and the Hollanders 
had already tacitly admitted the jurisdiction of the " Old 
Colony" to extend as &r south and west as Narragansett 
Bay. All the coasts and inland regions, however, from 
that bay, as far south as Cape Hinlopen, and as far north 
as Canada, were claimed by the Dutch as rightfully be- 
longing to New Netherland. During the pleasant inter- 
course which was opened with New Plymouth in 1627, 
the Hollanders, seeing that the Puritans were there seated 
" in barren quarter," with friendly purpose told them of a The Dnteh 
river, " called by them the Fresh River, but is now knowniSiriuwiof 
by the name of Conighticute River, which they often com- neeticut* 
mended to them for a fine place both for plantation and ^' 

* CbaliiMn, 97 ; Prince, 100-196; Haurd, !.« 398; HHdraU^ 1., 174- 
t Tounf, Oil. Ifaatn M ; Rymer Federa, xix., 210; Hasard, I., tU. 


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210 HISTORY OF •nnS state of hew YORK. 

Chap, vil trade, and wiahed them to make use of it" But tin lianda 
of the New Plymouth ooloQiste " being full otherwise, tiwy 
iDou. Yqj^ ^ paas."* In thus inviting the Bngiish to fettle them- 
selves within the territory of New NetfaiwlaiM^ Minuit 
eouM have had no intenti<m to surrender any of the diar- 
tered rights of the West India Oompany, or to raise a doubt 
resqpecting their title, which he had so stoutly maintained 
in his correspondenoe with BradfiDrd. If the New Plym- 
outh people had aooepted Minuit's proposition, they could 
have settled themselves on the Ocnneotiout only in due 
allegiance to the States General, and in subordination to 
the Company's authorities at Manhattan. 

The fame ot the <^ pleasant meadows" on the Fresh Riv* 
er soon reached the young hamlets on the Massachusetts 

1631. Bay. In the first spring after his arrival, Winthrop was 
i^nee- visitcd by one of the Mahican sachems upon the ^' River 
^"^ita Q^uonehtacut," who extolled the firuitfulness of his coun- 
^^^*^' try, and urged the English to cc^ne and plant tii^nselves 

there. But Winthrop, though he Ideated the sachem kind- 
ly, would send none of his people to explore the country, 
which " W€t8 not above five days' journey" fix>m Boston. 
The intentions of the sachem were soon unveiled. He was 
at war with the Pequods, and desired a European settle* 
ment as a defense against hia powerfiil eliemies.t At New 
Plymouth the suggestion was better appreciated. The sa* 
chem's story confirmed the accounts which they had be- 
fore received from the Dutch ; and Edward Winslow, vis* 

1632. iting that regi(»i in 1632, verified these favorable reports 
^Bita^Sto by his own observation, and even ^^ pitched upon a place 
Sl!"'*^*" for a house."* But the people of New Plymoufli, know- 
ing tiiat the Connecticut valley was beyond tlie bounds of 
tlieir patent, took no itnmediate measures to plant a set- 
tiement tiiere. 

While the colonial authorities of New Netiierland and 
New England were thus all postponing actual occupation, 
a questionable English titie to tiie territory was diitaiiied 

* Bradibrd, MS. in Hnteb., U., App., 416 ; Prince, 434. 

t Savage's Wiatferop, 1., dS. 

t Motton*t IfeiiL, App., S9ft; HMb., i^ M8; TraniMl, 1., M, 


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by ofther parties. SattonstaU, who had a<)oompaiiMd Win-caAP. m, 
tbn^ to Masflcushusetts, returning to Ei^land in the spring 
of 1631, carried home with him tiie glowing aooonnts,/^/ 
which he had heard of the fruitfulness of the Conneeticat 
TtUeT. Through his exertions, the Earl of Warwick was The Eari of 

.1111 1/^ -ri Warwick»» 

induoed, early the next year, to grant and confirm to Lord g^*^ 
Say and Seal, Lord Broc4c, Saltonstall himself, and others, cm- 
all tiie territory extending forty leagues to tile southwest ,g M^lch! 
of the Narragansett Ri^er, and by the same breadth 
^^throo^ut the main lands there, from the W^tem 
Ocean to the South Sea." The territcnry thus conveyed 
is alleged to have been granted to Lord Warwick, by the 
oonnoil for New England, in 1630 ; and Warwick's sub- 
sequent ccmveyance has been considered by American his- 
torians as the original English charter for Connecticut. 
But no evidence of the gr^t to Lord Warwick has ever 
been produced : if such a grant was really made, it does 
not appear to have been confirmed by the king. Thus 
stood tiie question of right and title between the Dutdi 
West India Company, by virtue of Block's first discovery 
and of th^ charter, and the En^h proprietaries of Con* 
aeotieiit, by virtue of Lord Warwick's conveyance. But 
no steps were tak^i by these proprietaries to coloni2?e ^&^^,]|^*^ 
territory, until several years after the end of Minuit'sj^^^ 
government of New Netiierland; tiiough the commence- <>"»»**<«• 
meni of his successor's administration was destined to wit- 
ness the first disagreement between rival Dutch and En- 
^ish settlers on tiie banks of the Fresh Biv^.* 

The attention of BirectcHr Minuit had been, meanwhile, Asun at 
ddefly cimfined to the prosecution of the ftur-trade for the 
benefit of the West India Company, and to tiie domestic 
affiuiB of the chief colony at Manhattan. No subordinate 

* Tbe date of Lord Warwick's oonT«yanoe to Lord Say and Seal, andhia aaaoeiatea, has 
keen erroneooaly stated to belBtlie year len. Its sccoal date, aeeording to tlio new style, 
waa 1633. Tbe "severUk year" of Cliaries L, in which it is attested, was from the S7tli of 
lisvsk, 1631, to As S7tk orMareh, 1631 SaReiMlaB was not in England on the 1901 of 
MsMlk, Idl. WlHt fWpsrts to be a eopy of Lord Warwldi:*s <* charter^ Is tn the Secre- 
«ry^sils9at]Ia«tiird,ft«mwMehwasiAenttoeopylnTirmnlmH,iMAiT^^^ lical 

tfHd PsngM sysak of a pMVMQS crane iran tbe oonaeil of Rew England to Lortf War- 
mikv wMah wm e oiii inw d k^y the king. Bof CUlneM (p. 9M) shows that (her? M no 


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Chap. vu. patarooiis ever exercised any jurifldioticm over tlie reserved 

.^^ island : the West India Ccnnpany alone was the territoarial 

proprietary. After De Rasieres " fell into disgrace" with 

Minuit, his place as provincial se<»retary and keeper of the 

company's pay-books, was filled by Jan van Remund, who 

continued to hold these offices for several years. In 1629 

inDorts and 1630, the imports from Amsterdam arose to the value 

ports. of one hundred and thirteen thousand guilders ; while the 

exports from Manhattan exceeded one hundred and thirty 

thousand guilders, showing a considerable balance in favor 

of the company. Its admirable commercial situation in- 

Bariy pro- dicatcd its futuTC rcuown ; and its ships, which now oar- 

•hip boud- ry the fame of its naval architects to the ends of the earth, 

even at that early day had begun to attract the attentkm 

and excite the envy of England. In the year 1631, the 

oreatahip " Ncw Ncthcrland," a ship variously estimated at from 

Neuier- " 600 tunucs, or thereabouts," to eisrht hundred tons, was 

Und*' built ' ° ' 

MManhat. built at Manhattan, and dispatdied to Holland.* This 
ship was not only by far the largest that had ever been 
built in America, but it was probably <me of the greatest 
merchant vessels at that time in the vforld. It was not 
until nearly two centuries afterward that the ship-v^ights 
of Manhattan again began to build trading vessels whi<di 
rivaled the mammoth proportions of the pioneer ship '^ New 
Port Or- At Fort Orange, Vice-director Krol continued to super- 
*"'** intend tiie frir-trade of the company, which was annually 
growing more important. The subdued Mahicans had 
three years before been expelled from the valley of the 
N<Mth River ; and the victorious Mohawks were glad to 
cultivate the most friendly relaticms vrtth the Dutch set- 
tlers, by whom they now began to be supplied vntii the 
fire-arms of Holland. 

While the new patroons were vigorously commencing 

«LetterorifuomSdApril»163S,Lond.Doo.,i.,47; N.T.Gol.MSS.,iiL»17. DeVries, 
p. M, ipetkc of the "New Nethertand'* as "tbe fiMt ahip that was bailt in New Nel^ 
ertand.*' DeLaet,App., p. 4, describes her as offovr hundred laata, or eight hundred Com 
burden, and as eanylnf thirty puis. TbeboUdinf orthisship,"atanezeesslTeo«liaj,** 
was afterward sererely eritieised, by Van der Donck, as a part of the " bod man 
or Ite We« India Company.— Vertoof^ Tan N. N., in IL, N. T. fl. S. CoU., iL» I 

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agrionltoral oolonization on the North and South RiyerS) chap, vil 
they dotennined, under a liberal oonstrnction of the ohax- 
ter of Freedoms and Exemptions, to participate in the re- Tuep*. * 
served traffic with the Indians. Pleading that the Amster- S^J^LST" 
dam Chamber " had no factories" at certain points, the pa- J^.*^ 
troons assumed that they had the right to engage in the 
peltry trade, which the company had certainly intended to 
retain in its own hahds. But the directors, already jealous The diroei- 
of their colleagues, who had secured such ample estates, j^^ ^<r^ 
could not quietly permit their darling monopoly to be thus J^^^^J;^,^ 
invaded. Articles were soon prepared, limiting and re- 
straining the privileges of the patroons, i^ respect of the 
fur trade, to an extent which excited their bitter com- 
plcdnts ; the charter of Freedoms and Exemptions itself 
was attacked, and ^' drawn into dispute ;" and feeling ran 
so strongly against all who were supposed to favor the 
pretensions of the new colonial proprietaries, that Minuit, 
with whose knowledge and approbation these large appro- 
priations of territory had been secured, was recalled from Minuit n- 
his directorship. But no successor was immediately ap- 
pointed, and the post of director remained vacant for more 
tiian a year. Lampo, the schout at Manhattan, was, bow- 
ever, superseded at once by the appointment of Conrad 
Notelman, who sailed for New Netherland late in the 
summer, in the ship Eendragt, bearing with him Hinuit's August. 
letters of recall.* 

Upon the arrival of Notelman, Director Minuit resigned 
his government into the hands of the council, at the head 
of which was Van Remund, who had acted as secretary 
of the province since the departure of De Rasieres, Em- 
barking on board the Eendragt, with several families of Minuii re- 
colonists who Were anxious to return to Holland, the re- Houand. 
called director and superseded schout set sail fit)m New « ?^' 
Netherland early in the spring of 1632. 

The Eendragt reached the channel in safoty, but stress his Hhipiir- 
of weather drove her into Plymouth. Her arrival there pijmoatiL 
was no sooner known, than the watdiful jealousy of Cap- 

* JUL Doe., i., 185 ; U., 109, 103 ; Renw MSS. ; 0*CtiL, i., 130, 431. 


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tl4 marroftY of the state of new tork. 

oiup. vn. tain Maaon oaused her to be attached, at the anit of the 
oovmcil of New En^and, on a oharge of illegally trading 
s Aprti. ' ^^^^ ^o king's dominions. Minuit instantly oommnni- 
oated the oircnmstanoeB of the ship's arrest to the West 
India C<Hnpany, and to Joaohimi and Brasser, the Botch 
ambassadors at London. The court was, at that moment, 
8^ru. at Newmarket Hastening thither, the ambassadors ob- 
g^ tained an immediate aodi^ioe, and presented to the king 
i»Mndora. an earnest r^nonstranoe against the proceedings of the 
Plymouth authorities. The ship, they said, had come 
from New Netherland, where the Dutch had peaceably 
traded for many years, and had established a colony on an 
island purchased from the savages, in the River Manhat* 
tans, '^ now called the Mauritius." There the colonists lived 
^ surrounded on all sides by the native inhabitants of the 
land." Hitherto, their ships had been used to enter and 
depart from the English ports without hinderance ; but 
now, a vessel coming from those parts had been seized for 
an alleged trespass within his majesty's jurisdiction. Un- 
der these circumstances, they hoped tile king would order 
the Eendragt's immediate discharge.* 
Rap^of The king replied, that the G-ovemor of Plymouth had 
^ already informed him of the arrest ; and that, some years 
ago, upon the complaint of his father, James I., the States 
G^enei^ ^^ had interdicted their subjects from trading in 
those regions." He could not, at tiie moment, say what 
was the exact situation of the affair, but would inform 
himself more particularly. The ambassadors persisted in 
urging a provisional release of tibe ship. The king, how« 
ever, declined complying with their request, '< as long as 
he was not quite sure what his rights were." 
lOApru. Returning to London, the ambassadors detailed their 
fodations. proceedings to the States General, and asked to be fhr« 
nished with documentary evidence in support of the right 
of the Butch to New Netherland, which they thought 
would << undoubtedly be most sharply disputed by the En* 
glish."t Several interviews were also hekl with the lead- 

* Hot. Doe.,!., 167, MS. tmd.,lW. 

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ing in^ml>6D» of the privy oonnoil. But Mason took oare cuArw vu. 
to write a strcmg letter to Sir Jrfm Coke, the Seoretaryof 
State, oomplaitting of the Hollanders, who, he affirmed, / ^^' 
** as interlc^rs," had fallen ^' into the middle," between 
Virginia and New England. Notwithstanding the alleged 
disolaimer by Garon, in 1622, the Dutoh had fortified MaMn'« 
themselves, in two several places, on the ''River of Mana- Joim(>>ke. 
hata," and had built ships there, '' whereof one was sent 
into Holland of six hundred tonnes, or thereabouts." And 
though warned by the English at New Plymouth ^'to for- 
bear trade," and to make no settlements within the terri- 
tories of the King of En^and, the Butch had persisted, 
and had made '' sundry good returns" into Holland, whioh, 
during the last year, had amounted to '' fifteen thousand 
beaver skins, besides other commodities."* Mason's un- 
scrupulous letter effected its purpose. English jealousy 
was thoroughly aroused^ and the Privy Council were deaf 
to the representaticuis of tiie Butch ambassadcMrs. 

In the mean time, the West India Company had trans- 5 May. 
mitted to the States G-eneral a jEbrmal deduction of their ti- tim weac 
tie to !tf ew Netherland. The discovery of the North River ^^*mS^ 
by the Butch in 1609 ; the return of " some of their people" titi*. **" ' 
there in 1610; the grant of tiie special trading charter of 
1614 ; tlie maintenance of a fort and garrison there, until 
the charter of the West India Company in 1621, which 
included that country ; the &ilure of the English to occu- 
py the regions between Virginia and New Plymouth; and 
the provisions in James's patent of 1606, by which the re- 
gion between the thirty-ninth and the forty-first degrees 
of latitude was left qpen to the Butch, were the main 
points on which they relied. The company alleged their 
entire ignorance of tiie demand made by the British gov- 
ernment, in 1621, and of its results. They urged that the 
ambassadors at London should press for the release of their 
vessel, on the ftirtiier ground that the American Indians, 

* Lond. Doc., i., 47. Mason ttootly nuOntalns tbat Caroa, In the name of the Statee, 
disEYowed the Dutch " intrnalon'* into New Netherland. Bm nothing to thia efltet ap- 
pears la any of Caron's letters that I saw In the State Paper eOcs. See mti$t p. 14t, 14S. 


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Chap. vn. being free, might trade with whomsoever they pleased. 

The yi"g of England might, indeed, grant exoluBive jwriv. 

^^^* ileges to his own subjects, and so might the States Q-en- 
eral to theirs. But it was unjust for any power to at- 
tempt to exclude all the rest of the world from regions 
which their own subjects had never occupied } and still 
more so, for England to claim sovereignty over territories 
of which the Dutch had obtained the title, by treaty and 
honest purchase from the native owners. The States Gen* 
eral must maintain their own sovereignty, the freedom of 
the seas, and the validity of Hie treaties which the Hol- 
landers had made with the unsubjugated tribes of North 
ft May. This able vindication of the Butch title was immediate- 

ly sent by the States G^ieral to their ambassadors at Lon- 
don, with fresh instructions to press for the release of the 
ship, and an intimation that the right of the West India 
Company to trade to New Netherland should be main- 

But English nationality was now thoroughly aroused. 
n May. In a few days, the Dutch ambassadors received the formal 
Answer or auswcr of the British ministry to their memorial. The 
forant- roamiug savages of America were not ^' bona fide possessors'' 
"*" ' of the land, so that they could alienate it ; and if they were, 
it could not be proved '^ that all the savages had contracted 
with the purchasers ;" these were the technical objections 
to the Dutch titie by purchase. The titie of the English 
was asserted to be by ^' first discovery, occupation, and pos- 
session," and by charters and patents from tiieir sovereigns. 
Such patents the States G-eneral had never passed to their 
own subjects, as was proved when Carleton, the English 
ambassador, made his remonstrance in 1621. If the Dutch 
now settied in America would ^^ submit themselves as sub- 
jects to his majesty's government," they might remain in 
New Netherland ; otherwise, his majesty's interests would 
not allow them to '< usurp and encroach upon a colony of 

* HM. Doe., 1., 909. tIbid.,Sia. 


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PETER Mmurr, wrector general. 217 

saoh importanoe, and whioh he has strong motives to oher* chaf. vii. 
ish and maintain in its integrity."* 

Thus the British ministry boldly denied the Dntdi title 
to New Netherland, and claimed it as English territory. 
Their strenuous assertion of superior British right was 
probably the last important American State Paper prepared 
by Sir John Coke,t whom Lord Clarendon describes as *'a 
man of a very narrow education, and a narrower nature." 
Unwilling, at that moment, to embarrass his foreign rela- 
tions, already suflSciently complicated, Charles I. content- 
ed himself with a bold claim of sovereignty over New 
Netherland, and did not appear anxious to press the ques- 
tion of title to a settlement. In a few days, the confident 
note of the British ministry was followed by an act of sr May. 

•^ '' Tbe ship 

grace; and the Lord Treasurer, quietly yielding to thewiewed. 
reiterated demand of the Dutch ambassadors, released the 
Eendragt firom arrest, '^ saving any prejudice to His Maj- 
esty's rights.''^ 

Notwithstanding the abuses which had induced Minuit's Minutt's 
recall, his administration of the government of New Neth- tnuon or 
erland was, upon the whole, prosperous and successful, erund. 
Honest purchase had secured Manhattan Island to the 
West India Company ; industry had flourished euround the 
walls of Fort Amsterdam ; the western shore of Long Isl- 
and had become studded with the cottages of its early 
Walloon settlers ; a pleasant intercourse had been opened 
with the English colonists at New Plymouth; jfiriendly 
relations had been generally maintained with the Indian 
tribes; the colonization of Rensselaerswyck and Swaanen- 
dael had been commenced ; and the trade and conmierce 
of the province had largely increased. During the six 
years of Minuit's directorship, the exports from New Neth- 
erland were trebled. The value of the commodities sent 

* Hoi. Doc., i., 330. The correftpondence on this subject may be found at length in the 
Address before the N. T. H. S., in 1844, p. 97-^1, and In 0*CaU^ i., 18M30. 

t Abont a month after this dispatch— on the 15th of June— Mr. (afterward Sir Francis) 
Windebanke was appointed Secretary of State, through the interest of Bishop Land. Sir 
John Coke continued to be one of the secretaries for a few years longer ; but the concerns 
of the American colonies seem to hKfe been managed, aftsr this time, chiefly by Winde- 
baake. t Hoi. Doc., i., 944. 


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CH4P. vn. home in 16S6 was about forty-six thousand gaiUevs ; in 
~~~' 1632, it had increased to more than one hnndred and for* 
' ly-three thousand goilders. Within the same period, the 
value of the imports from Holland was a little over two 
hundred and thirty-eight thousand guilders, while the 
gross value of the exports from New Netherland exceeded 
four hundred and tiurty-five thousand guilders. The ship 
in which the Director returned to Amsterdam brought to 
the company's warehouse a cargo of five liiousand beaver 
continned Miuuit's rctum to Holland did not quiet the unfortunate 
bHvni^ differences between the West India Company and ih» pa- 
oy u?£ troons. The lu'ge appropriations of territory were not as 
'***^"*' exasperating causes of irritation €is was the pertinacions 
interference of the patroons vnth the frir trade, which the 
company had intended to reserve to itself. -To arrest the 
encroachments of the new manorial lords, who claimed, 
under the charter, the largest freedom of traffic " within 
s Jam. the territories of their patroonships," the company issued a 
proclamation, forbidding all <' private'' persons in New 
Netherland from dealing, in any way, in sewan, peltries, 
or maize. The patroons instantly protested against this 
decided step, and insisted that, according to the charter, 
they were " privileged," and not " private" persons. But 
the company, resolute to maintain its superior monopdy, 
18 Not. 8oon aftcrward dispatched commissaries into ihe different 
nurtfl (br- patroonships, vnth orders to post the proclamation, and to 
trade In oblige all the colonists, under oath, to abstain from any 
interference with the interdicted traffic! 
1631. Meanwhile, the colony which Heyes had established at 
s^^en- Swaanendael had gone on pleasantly, for a time, under 
**■** the superintendence of G-illis Hossett ; and De Vries him- 
self had prepared to visit New Netherland. Heyes's un- 
lucky voyage damped, for awhile, the ardor of his em- 
^^oo ployers; but the vision of a profitable whale-fishery still 
II Fab. * haunted Godyn. Early in the year 1632, a new arrange* 

* D« LMt« ApPm M-M ; Hoi. Doe., i., tlO. 
t Hoi. Doc., IL, 05, 10^114 ; 0*C«U., L, 137. 

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PETER iramTy ratSCTCNEt GBNEItAL. fig 

meiit was made between the part&er-patroons, to eqtdp cmap. vil 
another ship and yadit, with ii4iioh De Vries himself was ^^ 
to go cot to the South River, as '^ patroon and oommand* -^^'^* 
w" and test the experiment in person, daring the next 
winter. The expedition aocordingiy left the Texei toward 
ikb end of May. But just before it sailed, news brought m May. 
by Minuit, from Manhattan, reaohed Amsterdam, that thede>tnietio& 

edony at Swaanendael had been destroyed by the savages, Houand. 
and thirty-two men killed outside of the fort, as ihey were 
working in the fields.* 

In sadness and disappointment De Yries proceeded oudo vrtM 
his way. But misfortune still attended tile enterprise of um s^mii 
tiie South River patroons. An unskillful pilot ran the 
riiip on the sands off Dunkirk ; and the leaky vessel was 
navigated with difficulty to Portsmouth, where she went as May. 
into the ^' King's Dock" to be repaired. After two months' 
delay, De Yries set sail again, in company wi& the '^ great i Aofiut. 
diip New Netherland," whidi had been built at Manhat- 
tan, and was now making her first return voyage &om 
Holland. Running southwardly by Madeira, and linger- 
ing three months among the West India Islands, De Yries 
arrived, early in December, at the South River, and an- 6 Dec 
ohored qS Swaanendael, where he promised himself << roy- 
al work" with the whales, and a ^^ beautiful land" to ctd- 

The next day, a well-armed boat was sent into the kill ^ i>m. 
to open a communication with the savages. Reaching swaanen- 
the spot where their little fort had been, they found the 
house itself destroyed, the palisades almost all burned, and 
the ground around bestrevm with the skulls and bones 
of their murdered countrymen, intermin^ed with the re- 
mains of hi^rses and cattle. The silence of the grave hung 
over the desolate valley. Not a savage was seen lurking 
about the ghastly ruins. G-loomy and sorrowful, De Yries 
returned on board his yacht, and ordered a gun to be fired 
to attract the inland Indians. 

* De Vrlea, 05 ; Depodtion of A. D. Ken, in Deed Book»7U. { and in Doc. HlaC N. T., 
ttL, 40 ;an<i, p. 905, note. 


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CHAP. vn. A smdte was seen, the next morning, near their devasta- 
ted post. Again the boat was sent into the oreek, and two 

7 Dec ' ^1" three savages were observied prowling among the ruins. 

But mutual distrust prevented any intercourse. Fearful 

8 D«c. of the arrows of the Indians, De Yries now took his yacht 

into the oreek, to give a better shelter than the open boat 
af&rded. The savages soon came down to the shore ; but 
none, at first, would venture on board. At last one made 
bcdd to come ; and De Yries, presenting him with a clotii 
dress, sent word to the chief that he wished to make a 
An Indian pcaoc. That night one of the savages remained on board 
•toryoruiethe yacht, and was prevailed on to relate the catastrophe 
orswaan- which had befallen the colony. Pointing out the spot 
where Heyes had set up the pillar bearing the tin {date 
with the arms of Holland, he said, that one of their chiefs, 
not thinking he was doing amiss, had taken down the 
glittering metal, to make it into tobacco pipes. But Hos- 
sett, who was then in charge of the post, made such an 
ado, that the savages, to hush up the affair, slew the chief 
who had done it, ^' and brought a token" of their deed to 
the Butch commander. Hossett told them they had done 
wrong : they should have brought the chief to the post, 
when he would have been simply forbidden to repeat the 
offense. But the mischief was already done. The firiends 
of the slaughtered savage instigated their companions to 
a bloody vengeance on the unsuspecting strangers. A 
party of warriors soon visited the settlement, where they 
found most of the colonists at work in the fields, having 
left one sick man at home, and a large English mastiff 
chained up. Had the dog been loose, *^ they would not 
have dared to approach the house." Hossett, the com- 
mander, stood near the door. Three of the boldest sav- 
ages, under pretense of bartering some beaver skins, en- 
tered the house with him, and, as he was coming down 
stairs firom the garret, where the stores lay, struck him 
dead with an axe. They then killed the sick man-^ and 
going to the place where the dog, " which they feared the 
most," lay chained, they shot him ^'with full five^nd- 

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twenty arrows, before he was dispatched.'' The rest of crap. vn. 
the colonists, who were scattered over the fields at work, TTZZ' 
were then approached under the guise of friendship, and, 
one by one, all were mnrdered. 

Such was the awful narrative which one of the spoilers 
of Swaanendael related to De Vries. The bones of his 
oountrymen marked the spot where the patroon had hoped 
to establish a flourishing cokny. Thus early was the soil 
of Delaware moistened by European blood. The Dutch 
possession was ''sealed with blood, and dearly enough 
bought" But what could now be done ? A barren venge- 
anoe alone could follow retaliation against the roaming 
savages. So a formal peace was ratified the next day, by o !>«». 
presents of duffels, bullets, hatchets, and Nuremburg toys ; ^i'^ *• 
and the astonished red men '' departed in great joy," to 
hunt beavers for the Hollanders, who, instead of exacting 
a cruel retribution, had quietly let pass their inhuman of- 

* De Trim, 95-101 ; Vertoogh Yan N. N., in Hoi. Doe., ir., 71 ; and in U., N. T. H. S. 


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Chap. VIIL Nsw Netherlam) hftd HOW been, for mtxe than a yeaor, 
withoat a director. Thb experiment of intiodnoing a mod* 
New Netb- ^^ foudal Bystem into the provinoe had just be^i oon- 
^tta^ta menced; jeidoosies had ahreadyqfnmng up between the pa^ 
'*'"'°*^- trooDB and the West India Company, and embarrassment 
was evidently in store ; the British government had agaa 
boldly denied the Dntoh title to any part of New Nether^ 
land ; and English oolonists, firm of purpose and zealons 
in faith, were preparing to take aotual possessicm of por- 
tions of the territory, over the whole of whioh their sovw- 
eign claimed an exclusive jurisdiction. In this crisis, the 
administration of the affairs of' the Dutch province should 
^ have been intrusted only to the ablest hands. But when 

did a commercial monopoly ever govern a country wise- 
wouter ly ? The person selected to succeed Peter Minuit as Di- 
ler qvpoint- rcctor General of New Netherland, was Wouter van Twil- 
eeedMin- LER, of Nicuwkerke, one of the clerks in the West India 
Company's warehouse at Amsterdam. He had married a 
niece of Van Rensselaer, and had been employed by the 
patroon in shipping cattle to his colony. These were Van 
Twiller's recommendations; the influence of kinsmen and 
Mends, rather than acknowledged administrative ability, 
secured for him the most important colonial office under 
the West India Company. The new direotor was inexpe- 
rienced, except in the details of trade which he had learn- 
ed in the counting-room. Incompetent, narrow-minded, 
irresolute, and singularly deficient in knowledge of men, 
Van Twiller was rashly intrusted with the command of 

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ft provinoe. Bat intercBt — ^whieh, ra&fft thaa oonaidera- ciup. vin. 
turns of personal fitness, so aStexi oontiols public appoint- 
manto — ^tmimphed over all objeotioas. Embarking in the 
oon^Muiy's ship *' Soutb^rg,'' of twmity guns, with a mili- 
taiy force of ohe hundred and four scddiers, the raw Am* 
tterdam derk set sail to assmne the goyemment of New 

Van Twiller arrived at Manhattan early in the spring, Apru. 
the ship haviog captured, on her voyage, a Spanish oara- ler vrtTw 
vel, the Saint Martin, which was brought safely into port. tan. 
Amcmg the Soutberg's passengers were Jacob van Oou- 
WMihoven, and his brother-in-law, Govert Loookermans, 
both of whom were soon taken into the company's service, 
and afterward roee to distinction in the province. Evw- EYenrdo* 
ardus Bogardus, the first dergyman at Manhattan, and um am^ 
Adam Roelandsen, sdioolmaster, came out from Holland 
at the same time.* 

The new director commenced his administration, assist- 
ed by the expmence of Secretary YanEemund and Sohout 
Notefanan. The council consisted of Jacob Jansen Hesse, Provincial 
Martin Gerritsen, Andries Hudde, and Jacques Bentyn. oaSm"^ 
Gomdis van Tienhoven, of Utrecht, was made the com^ 
pany 's book-keqpear of monthly wages at Fort Amsterdam ; 
and Sebastian Jansen Krol was succeeded in the command 
at Fort Orange by Hans Jorissen Houtea, who had trad- 
ed on the river in 1621. Michael Paulusen was commick commisM- 
sary of PauVs " colonie" at Pavoiiia.t 3». 

In their management of New Netherland, the West In- unwise co. 
dia Company se^m to have looked rather to the immedi- (^"ortfi?'' 
ate profits whk^ they might derive firom its trade, than te company. 
the permanent political interests of the province. Those 
interests would have been best secured by the prompt col- 
onizaticad of the country with firee agrieultnral emigrants, 
bringing along with ihtm the iinlustrious habits apd the 
simple virtues of their Fatheriand. During Ihe first years 

* Oe VrlM, lis ; De La«t, Apt.,S; Bel- Dm., v., 8M, S99; Alb. R«e., i^ 5S, 107 ; li, 
nS ; RmiM. MSS. ; O'CaU., i., 14S ; IL, N. T. H. S. Coll., il., 838, 339. 

t Se VriM,Il«;H«L D<MniinW;«iii.,3S;U.,187. •*Panl]i£» Hook," bow Jmey 
ai7. 4enTod lu name ttcm ttti MWhwi PMlun, Vm iiMMnHMiy it Pcroiria. 


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csAP. vu. of their organization, the company had, indeed, done some* 
thing toward the agricultural settlement of New Nether- 
' land. But their policy was soon changed. Unwisely sur* 
rendering to subordinate patroons the care of subduing and 
cultivating the soil, the company seemed to limit their 
own views to the improvement of their revenue, and the 
jealous maintenance of their trading monopoly. They 
seemed anxious '^ to stock the land with their own serv- 
ants." This was the cardinal error which, for so many 
years, retarded the progress and blighted the prosperity of 
the province. 

Revenne The temptation, indeed, was strong. During the year 

Nether- 1632, the cxports of fiurs from New Netherland had ex- 
ceeded in value one hundred and forty tiiousand guilders. 
This revenue formed, it is true, an inconsiderable item in 
the grand total of ihe company's yearly income. But it 
would probably improve by careful management; and to 
this end the efforts of the Amsterdam Chamber .were chief- 
ly bent. Its mercantile directors viewed New Netherland 
rather commercially than politically, and exhibited them- 
selves as selfish traders, rather than enlightened states- 
men. They authorized large expenditures in building 
forts and mills, and for ^< unnecessary things, which, un- 
der more favorable circumstances, might have been suit- 
able and very proper.'' But in making these expendi- 
tures, they seemed to have had <^ more regard fi»r their 
own interest than for the welfare of the country."* Pow- 
erful and successful as the West India Company had now 
unquestionably become, its directors displayed far less sa- 
gacity in the management of their American province, 
than in the conduct of their naval war.with ^pain. 

chvaeter Yau Twillcr's ducf obiects seem to have been the main* 

of Veil 

Twuier'i teuance and extension of the commercial monopoly of hia 
principals. In many respects he was, perhaps, their £Btith» 
fed representative. He was acquainted with trade ; bat 
he was ignorant of public afTaiip. From the dealing with 

* Joorail mn N. N^ tn Hoi. Doc, Ui.,97; Vertodgk rm N. N., in HoL Dm.,tw^ 71 ; 
end in U., N. T. H. S. Con., U., 188» S9e{ De Lael, Afp., M. 

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wares, and the shipping of oattle, he had been suddenly caip.vnL 
exalted to the oomuMind of men, and the management of "TT^" 
a province. It was caily natural that, from the moment •'•™**" 
he began to administer the government of New Nether- 
land, Van Twiller should have given constant proofs of the 
folly and danger of intrusting to inexperienced and ino(Hn- 
potent hands the interests of a community and the well- 
being of a state. 

In the mean time, De Yries, after concluding a peace DeVriMn 
with the savages at Swaanendael, had endeavored to re- dad. 
trieve his damaged fortunes, by establishing a whale-fish- 
ery on the South River. But provisions soon began touuiiary. 
run short ; and, in hopes of obtaining supplies of beans 
from the savages, he went up the river through the float- 
ing ice, in his yacht, ^^ the Squirrel," as far as Fort Nassau, com up to 
That post, * * where formerly some families of the West India mil *** 
Company had dwelt," was now deserted by the Hollanders. 
Here De Yries found some savages, who urged him to 'gosjaniary. 
up the Timmer Kill, or Timber Creek. But a Sankitan or 
Stankckan Indian warned the Dutch not to venture into the 
creek ; for the savages were only plotting to destroy them, 
as they had a little while before murdered the crew of an 
English shallop, which had gone into ^' Count Ernest's Riv- 
er." The Squirrel's small crew of s^ven men, therefore, 
stood on their guard. At the mouth of the Timmer Kill, c jnmary 
more than forty savages from Mantes, or Red Hook, came 
on board, oifering to barter beaver skins, and playing on 
reeds^ to lull suspicion. But De Yries, observing that 
some of them wore the jackets of the slaughtered English- 
men, ordered them all on shore, declaring that their ^' Ha- 
neto" had revealed their treacherous designs ; and the yacht 
dropped down again to Fort Nassau. Here the chiefs 8 Janotry. 
of nine different tribes came on board ; some of whom 
had worn English jackets at the Timmer Kill. These 
they had now replaced by robes of fur. Sitting down in Tntny 
a circle on the yacht's deck, the chiefs declared that theyT'****** 
had come to make a lasting peace ; and a present of ten 
beaver skins, each accompanied with Indian ceremony, 



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QMjLP.vm. ratified their formal treaty with the Dutdi. After obtain* 
ing a small supply of beans and com, and purchasing scone 

,3 ja^^ beaver skins, De Vries returned to his ship off Swaan- 

isjannary. A fcw days afterward, the yacht again ascended the 

reTisits river. After remaining a fortnight frozen up in '^Yine- 

Mtt. yard Creek," the beautiful banks of which abounded in 
wild grc^e-vines, and shooting multitudes of wild turkeys, 
** weighing from thirty to thirty-six pounds," De Vries at 

3 Feb. length reached Fort Nassau once more. But the Hinquas 
were now at war with tiie Sankitans, and no provisions 
could be obtained. So making the best of her way through 
the floating ice, the yacht rejoined the ship, whose crew 

90 Feb. were overjoyed to meet once more their adventurous com- 
rades. De Vries now resolved to go for supplies to Vir- 
ginia, where he tiiought that com could be more readily 
obtained than at Fort Amsterdam. Supposing that no 
Dutch vessel from New Netherland tad yet gone to the 

5 March. Chesapeake, the patroon was ambitious to be <' the first 

Sails tor ^ 

Virginia. Hollander from this quarter to visit that region.^'t 
sMareh. In thrcc days, De Vries reached Cape Henry. As he 
sailed up the James River, he saw, every wh^re, beautifril 
gardens stocked witii Provence roses, ami apple, and cher- 
ry, and pecur, and peach trees, blossoming around the houses. 
11 March. Arrived at Jamestown, he was welcomed by Sir John Hfur- 
by GoTeni. vey, tii6 govcmor, who came down to the beach, attended 
by a guard of halberdiers and musketeers. ^^Whenoe 
come you ?" was the friendly challenge. <^ From the South 
Bay of New Netherland," the prompt reply. " How fiur 
is that from our Bay ?" demanded the governor. " About 
mnety miles," replied the Dutch patroon. Inviting De 
Vries into his house, and pledging him in a ^^ Venioe glass 
of sack," Harvey produced an English chart, cm which he 
pointed out the South Bay, ^* named by them my Lord 

• De Vries, 101-104. 

t De Vriee, 104-107. May» however, had Tisited Jamestown in 1090 (anU, p. 97} ; and 
it seems, firom an entry in Wlnthrop's jovnal, that in t^e month of April, lon, a Du^ 
ahip anlTed at Boston from Virginia, bringing two thooaand biahels oToom, whieh were 
sold at Aiur and sixpence a bushel.— Winthrop, 1^ 7S. 

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Delaware's Bay." Some years before, explained the gov- chap. Tin. 
emor, Lord Delaware had been driven into this bay by 
fiml weather, but, finding it full of shoals, had supposed * 

it unnavigable ; and therefore they had not looked after it 
since.* " Yet it is our king's land, and not New Neth- Harrey'a 
erland," insisted the loyal knight. De Vries replied, thatSj^*'**^ 
the South River was a beautiful stream, into which no' 
Englishman had been for ten years; and that, several 
years before, the Dutch had built a fort there, which they 
called Fort Nassau. Harvey was surprised w hear that 
he could have had such neighbors without knowing it. 
He had, indeed, heard that the Dutch had a fort upon 
'^Hudson's River, as the English called it;"t and only' ^ 
in the previous September, he had sent a sloop, with sev- 
en or eight men, to Delaware Bay, " to see whether there 
was a river there." But they had not yet returned ; "he 
did not know whether the sea had swallowed them up or 
not." De Vries then told Harvey of the savages he had 
seen in the South River, wearing English jackets, and re- 
lated what he had heard of the tragical fate of the sloop's 
company. " There are lands enough — ^we should be good 
neighbors with each other," said the honest knight ; add- 
ing expressively, "you will have no trouble from us — ^if 
only those of New England do not approach too near you, 
and dwell at a distance from you."t 

Thus a pleasant intercourse was opened between the intercoan« 
Dutch and their English neighbors in Virginia. Harvey's thelSlSb 
genial frankness, on his first interview with De Vries, con- ^ginton*. 
trasts significantly with Bradford's querulous pertinacity 
six years before. The Virpnia governor's warning was 
prophetic. From " those of New England" came encroach- 
ment and annoyance ; until, in the end, the coveted pos- 
sessions of the Dutch in New Netherland were seized by 
an overwhelming British force. The open-hearted cava- 

* See note D, Appendix. ' , 

i This seems to sustain Chalinert's position (p. S90), that by the phrase *< the a4Joininf 
ptentations of the Datcb,"* in aayborne's trading license oflSlh March, 1039 (N. S.),Har- 
ytrf meant the settlements on the North or Hudson Rlrer only. Moolton (p. 41S} aid 
Bancroft (ii., p. 981), however, seem tb soppose that Hanrey referred to De Vries's coloqj 
at Swaanendael. t De Vries, 110. 


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CHAP.TiiLliers of the '^ Old Dominion," though they did not &il to 
"insist upon the paramount English tide to Delaware Bay, 
were always more amiably disposed toward the Holland- 
ers on the North River, than were those austere neighbors 
who soon began to people the valley of the Connectiout^ 
and push their thriving villages west and south. It was 
only natural that the New Netherland Dutoh, on their 
part, should have regarded the inhabitants of Virginia 
with muoh more kindliness than they did the oolonists of 
New Engl^ld.*^ 

leibrdi. After a week's sojourn at Jamestown, De Yries took 

leave of the hospitable Harvey, who, understanding that 

• *^ there were ntf goats at Fort Amsterdam," sent severed on 

board the yacht, as a present to the governor of New Neth- 

DevriM erland. Returning to Swaanendael with a welcome sup- 

oie souui ply of provisions, De Yries found that his ship had, mean- 

wlfordi. while, taken a few whales. But he was now satisfied that 
the fishery could not be prosecuted to advantage; and 
preparations were, therefore, made for a final departure 

14 ApriL firom the South River. Once more Swaanendael was aban- 
doned to its aboriginal lords ; and, for a space, European 
colonization paused in its progress on the banks of the 

Wishing to explore the coast, De Yries embarked in his 

wAprii. yacht ; and after a pleasant voyage of two days, arrived 
• before Fort Amsterdam.! Here was lying at anchor, with 
her prize, the diip Soutberg, in which Yan Twiller Ihid 
just come out firom Holland. De Yries immediately land- 
ing, was welcomed by tiie new director, to whom he re- 
ported his disappointoient in tiie whale-fishery on the 
South River, and intimated his purpose to leave his large 
Bhip at anchor near Sandy Hook, and dispatch his yacht, 
as soon as possible, to trade in New England and Canada.^ 

♦ N. Y. H. S. CoU., i. (N. S.), p. 874. 

t D« Vries, 111-113. The Joarnal speaks of hie Tisitlng "Eyer HaTen," or Efg Har^ 
bor, and of his anchoring in a fog, on the 15th of April, off **Barende>gat,>* or Breakorls 
Inlet, where, in two hours, he took upward of eighty codfish, which were ** better thui 
Chooe of Newfoundland.** Theee names, to this day, eomineinorate, in the Temaeular of 
BoUand, the early exploration of the ooasto of New Jersey by Dutch nsrigators. 

t De Yries, 113. 

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A few day» afterward, the " William," a London vessel, chaf.viil 
arrived at Fort Amsterdam firom New Plymouth, whither" 
she had been dispatched to set up a fishery, and •*80 to,g^^' 
go to trade at Hudson's River."* The supercargo^ or^l'j^ 
" Koopman," on board this vessel was Jacob Eelkens^ ^'^^SiSJI* 
former commisseiry at Fort Orange, whom the West India *''"^'"* ' 
Company had superseded in 1623. After his dismission 
by the Dutch, he went to England, and was engaged by 
some London merchants to manage for them an adventure 
in the peltry trade in New Netherland. Thoroughly in 
the interest of his English employers, Eelkens now wished 
to go up the river, and traffic in the neighborhood of his 
old habitation. But Van Twiller, learning his purpose, 
demanded his commission, which Eelkens refused to pro* 
duce. He was now, he said, in English service; and 
New Netherland itself was British territory, discovered by 
Hudson, an Englishman. This claim of sovereignty was 
promptly repelled by the director and his council. Hud- 
son, they admitted, had discovered the river ; but the dis- 
covery was made in the service, and at the cost, of the 
East India Company at Amsterdam ; and no English col- 
onists had ever been settled in the country. The river it- 
self was named ^' Mauritius River, after our Prince of 

Eelkens, intent to accomplish his object, informed Van n Aptu. 
Twiller, after a few days, that he would go up the river, 
if it cost him his life. The director peremptorily reftised 
his assent, and ordered the Orange flag to be run up at 
Fort Amsterdam, and a salute of three guns to be fired in 
honor of the Prince. Eelkens, on his part, caused the En- 
^ish flag to be displayed on board the William, and a sim- 
ilar salute to be fired in honor of King Charles. Afl»r lin- S»n»;5«o 
gering a week before Fort Amsterdam, and failing to r^^^i^ 
oeive a license, the ship weighed anchor, and boldly sailed 
up to Fort Orange. The " William," of London, was the 
first British vessel that ever ascended the North River. 

Enraged at this audacity. Van Twiller collected all the 

* WlnOirop, 1., 100. 


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Chap. vm. people in the £ort before his door, and, broaohiDg a eask 
of wine, filled a bumper, calling on thoee who loTed the 
^luTwi^ Pr^noe of Orange and himself to imitate him, and " assist 
c^duct!^ in proteoting him from the violenoe whioh the Englishman 
haa oommitted." But the ship was already out of sight, 
sailing up the river ; and the people all began to laugh at 
their pusillanimous director. De Yries, dining with Van 
Twiller the same day, told him Uuntly that he had " own- 
mitted great folly." The Englishman had no oommissicm, 
but only a custom-house clearance to sail to New En- 
gland, and not to New Nethe^land. ^< If it had been my 
case," said the mortified patroon, ^^ I ^uld have helped 
him from the fort to some eight-pound iron beans, and 
Ihave prevented him from going up the river." The En* 
glish <^ are of so haughty a nature, that they think eveiy 
thing belongs to them." '^I should send tiie ship Sout- 
.berg after him, and drive him out of the river."* 
A Dutch The counsels of the energetic East India cs^tain at 
pfttchedto last aroused Van Twiller to action. A few days after- 
ange. ,'v^ard, some soldiers, and ^'a pinnace, a caravel, and a 
hoy," were dispatched to Fort Orange, with a protest 
against the intruders, and an order for their departure. 
In the mean time, Eelkens had pitched a tent about a 
mile below the fort, and, for a fortnight, had been carry- 
ing on a lucrative trade with the Indians, with whose km- 
guage and habits his former residence had made him fa- 
miliar. Houten, the commissary at Fort Orange, had also 
.set up a rival tent beside that of Eelkens, and used every 
jBxertion to hinder his trade. When the little fleet ar<- 
May. rived at the encampment, the intruders were ordered to 
retire. Eelkens still persisting, his tent was struck, and 
his goods reshipped by the Dutch soldiers, who, as th^ 
were thus engaged, " sounded their trumpet in the boat 
m;*wfli.p disgrace of the English." The anchor was weighed at 
broa«ht^ puoc, and the ship, accompanied by the Dutch vessels, was 
MMittttan. taken down to Fort Amsterdam. Here the director re- 
qnired from Eelkens a list of his peltries. This was fnr- 

• D« VriM, US, 114 ; B4iL Docu, ii., 81-8ft. 

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nisbed; Imt Van TwUlet forbade any of the pecqple at Man* cuAt.YUL 
hattan, " on pain of death and loss of all their wages/' to 
sigpi any certificates respecting Eelkens's treatment. Ln- p^«edu^ 
mediately afterward) the ^' William" was convoyed to sea; "^ 
and her supercargo returned to Liondon, entirely foiled in 
his purpose of interfering with the I>atoh fur trade on the 
North River, the annual returns firom which w^re now es* 
tinmted at about sixteen thousand beaver skins.* 

Eelkens's intrusive visit, besides damaging tiie fiir trade 
of the Dutch, did tbem a much more serious injury. The 
friendly relations of the Hollanders with the Indians were HoMiuty or 

for awhile interrupted, and ^^ the injurious seed of discord" towaid^' 
was sown between them. Peace was not fully restored, fou or- 
until many ^^ serious mischiefo" had been effected by the*"*^ 
savages, and the colonists at Port Orange had lost several 
*' men and cattle."t 

Van Twiller soon had another oj^ttunity to enforce the 
trading monopoly of his immediate superiors. Before re- van twh- 
turning with his large ship to Holland, De Yries wished tunu con- 
to send his yacht, the Squirrel, through Hell-gate, '' toward ward De 
the north," to trade along the coasts. The director, how- 
ever, refused his assent, and ordered a lighter alongside, so May. 
to unload the yacht of her ballast ; to which her ovmer 
demurred, and produced his ^< exemptions" as a patroon. 
Van Twiller, however, insisted that ^^ idl princes and po- 
tentates" were accustomed to seardb vessels, and that it 
was his duty to see whether there was any thing on board 
tfie yacht subject to the company's tax. He then ordered 
the guns of Port Amsterdam to be trained on the Squirrel. 
Seeing this, De Yries ran to the angle of the fort, where 
stood the director, with the secretary, and one or two of 
the council. " The land is full of fools," exclaimed the in- 
dignant patro(Hi ; " if you want to shoot, why did you not 
thoot at the Englishman who violated your river against 
your will ?" Upon this, "they let their shooting stand ;" 
and the Squirrel sailed through Hell-gate, followed by a 

* Hoi. Doe^ IL, 51-^ ; CCaU., i., 145, 146. t Hoi. Doe^ ii., IM^ltf. 


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osAP.vm. yacht, whioh Van TwiUer dispatched from Manhattan to 
watch her moyements. 

The accounts which De Vries brought from the South 
River indicated the necessity of prompt m^sures to se- 
cure thefiir trade and possession of liie West India Com- 
pany there, especially as Fort Nassau had now been, for 
some time, deserted by the Dutch. Arendt Corssen was 
accordingly appointed oonmiissary, and was instructed to 
purchase a tract of land on the Schuylkill, which, << for its 
fitness and handsome situation, as well in regard of trade 
as of culture," was held in high estimaticm. The beaver 
trade with the Minquas and the '^ wild Indians" could be 
carried on very briskly at that point, and would ^' amount 
to thousands" annually. In the course of this year, Cors- 

Sm seiivTi. sen succeeded in purchasing, ^' for certain cargoes," from 
" the right owners and Indian chiefs," a tract of land call- 
ed " Armenveruis," lying about and on the Schuylkill. 
The Indian title being thus secured, formal possession of 
Pennsylvania was taken by the Dutch, who erected a 
trading-house there ; and afterward a more considerable 
post, to whioh they gave the name of " Port Beversrede."* 

Aflun on The Dutch, who were the only Europeans that had thus 

ttMtRiTer.&r actually occupied any part of the present territory of 
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware, were 
now to assert, against a pertinacious rival, their right to 
the possession of Connecticut, which, from the time of 
Block's exploration, and long << bejtA^ any English had 
dreamed of going there," they^ad constantly visited, and 
where they had carried on an exclusive and lucrative 
trade. When the remnant of the Mahicans opposite Fort 
1628. Orange, who had been subdued by the Mohawks, were ex- 
pelled from their ancient abode, they settled themselves 
cm the Fresh River, "called Connittecock by the natives," 
under tiie sachem Sequeen, who claimed the aboriginal 
ownership of "the whole river, and the lands thereabouts." 
It was a beautifrd flat country, " subject in the spring to 

* Hoi. Doe. tUI., SS, ft5; Hodde'o Report, In Alb. Ree., xrU., and in U., N. V. H. 8. 
CoU., I., 4tQ, 440 ; CCalL, i., IM ; U., 81, Ml i HMvd, Ann. Penn., SS, 77, 78 ; De Vriea, 
101, 101, 10ft;poe«, p.48t, i». 


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inundations like those of tiie Nile.'^ Bat constant ques- chap.viu. 
tions of jnrisdietion arose between Seqneen and the Pe- 
quods, who, under Meautinay, their ohief, inhabited the 
regions east of the river, as far as the Narragansett coun- 
try. It was, therefore, agreed that their differences should tim Pe- 
be settled by arms, " upon condition that the winner should vSrSiuk^ 
always, for himself and his successors, remain the true 
owner of the Fresh River." After three different battles 
in the open field, Meautinay obtained <' the victory and 
the land ;" and so defeated and humbled Sequeen, that he 
" became subject to the Pequods." With the consent of 
the victors, Sequeen placed himself, and the remnant of his 
tribe, " under the protection of the Netherlanders."* 

F^om that moment, the relations between the Dutch 
and the tribes on the Connecticut became still more inti- 
mate. The for trade was carried on briskly, and to mu- 
tual satisfaction. But the humbled warriors panted to be 
revenged. The pdicy of the Dutch avoided any interfer- 
ence in the quarrel ; and, in hopes of engaging tlie recent- 
ly-arrived English on his side, Wahginnacut, the sachem 
of the expelled Mahicans, made a journey to Boston, as 1631. 
we have seen, " to extol the fertility of his country, and tV ^p^- 
solicit an English plantation as a bulwark against tibe Pe- 
quods." But neither Massachusetts nor New Plymouth 
would then become parties to the Indian strife ; nor were 
any steps taken by the English to plant a settlement ; 
though Edward Winslow visited the river the next year, 1632. ' 
and selected a site for a house. The Dutch remained in 
quiet possession of their valuable trade ; but before the 
recall of Minuit, no purchases of lands had been made, 
nor had any patroonships been erected, under the charter 
of 1629, in any part of the Connecticut valley .t 

While detained in England by the negotiations for the 
release of the Eendragt, the recalled director probably be- 

* Hoi. Doc., TiL, 70-68 ; Beverninck, WI; Wanenaar, xri., 13 ; Benson'i Memoir, 86. 
The meaning of the Indian name " Conntetiooota,** la the " Long RiTer.** Sequeen Is 
■tated to haive been the Sagamore of Pyquang, or WettiOTsfleld, and to ha^e been under 
Sowheag , tlia great aachem at Mattabeaick, or Middletown.—Tnrnibull, 1., 40, 41. 

t Wlnthrop, i., 53 ; Bancroft, 1., 301 ; Hutchinson, L^ 148 ; mUy p. 907, S10. 


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284 HISTORY OF THE STATE OP NEW YORK. aware of Hm grant of ComMoticut, whidk the Bad 
"7~ of Warwick had just sealed. The West India Gampany 
The WMt ^^^ perceived that their title to tiiat part of N^w Neih- 
^^^' erland would be " sharply contested" by the English. It 
iai^oftiM^^^> therefore, thought expedient that, to their existing 
^^g22w."6^*® ^y discovery and exclusive visitation, should be 
added the more definite title, by purdiase from the ab* 
origines. In the course of the following summer, the 
Dutch traders on the Connecticut were accordingly di- 
rected to arrange with the native Indians for the purchase 
of << most all the lands on both sides of the river." This 
was accomplished ; and ^< Hans den Sluyj(, an officer of 
the company^" also purchased, at the e^ame time, tiie 
"Kievit's Hoeck," afterward called Saybrook Pcant, at 
the mouth of the Connecticut, where the arms of the 
States General were ^< affixed to a tree in token of pos- 
1633. One of the most important duties of the new director 
was to secure the West India Company's title to Eastern 
New Netherland ; and Van Twiller, soon afler his arrival 
CMjnOMWr at Manhattan, dispatched Jacob van Curler, one of his 
^1^^ commissaries, with six others, to finish the long-projected 
Ri^er- fort on the Connecticut River, and obtain a formal Indian 
deed for the tracts of land formerly selected. The trading- 
house which had been projected in 1623, and <' had been 
a long time in 6^6," was now commenced on the west 
bank of the river, about the site of the pres^it town of 
6 June. Hartford. In a few days. Van Curler agreed with the 
Sachem Tattoepan, the "owner of the Fresh River of 
New Netherland," for the purchase of the " flat land ex-. 
FmrohaMs tending about three miles down along the river to the 
next little stream, and again upward, a musket-shot over 
tibe kill, being one mile broad to the heights." The pur- 
chase was made " witii the free will and consent of the 
inhabitants there," upon condition that the ceded territo- 
ry, " named Sicajoock," should always be a neutral ground, 

♦ Hoi, Doc., It., 71, 110 ; Vertoogli van N. N., ia U., N. Y. H. S. CoU., iL, p. 27«, «77. 
Tbe Kievit is a bird coaunonly known as tbe ** Pewit.*' In HoUand, its eggn aro oon. 
•idered a great delieacy in tbe spring. 


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where all the tribes might resort for purposes of trade, and CB^p.vm. 
where no wars should ever be waged. With the consent' 
of the Pequod sachem Magaritinne, " chief of Sloup's Bay," 
it was also arranged that Sequeen should thereafter Uve 
with the Dutch. This land " was boijght from the Pe- 
quods as conquerors, with the good- will and assent of Se- 

Thus the Dutch West India Company obtained the In^ 
dian title to the territory on the Connecticut River, of the 
whole of which they " had previously taken possession." 
The purchase was made of the natives, who <' declared 
themselves the rightful owners ;" Lord Waiwick's grantees 
had, as yet, done nothing toward the occupation of the re- 
gions which they claimed ; and the people of New Plym- 
outh had made no attempt to plant a settiement in a re* 
gion which they knew was beyond the limits of their pat- 
ent. Van Curler, the Dutch commissary, soon completed a ^■^-S^T 
redoubt " upon the flat land on the edge of the river, ''''^thgMii"Good 
a creek emptying at the side." The littie post was fortified 
with two small cannon, and named the '* Good Hope."t 

Van Twiller had an early opportunity to acquaint the 
West India Company with his proceedings. De Vries be- inne. 
ing about to sail for Holland, came up from his ship at 
Sandy Hook, to take leave of the director, and receive his 

« HoI-DoCm lx.,187, 180; Hasard, U., 90S, S6a ; N.T.H;8.C<fll.,i.,S71,S7S; CCoU., 
i.y 150, 151 ; Verbael ran Bavernlnck, 007. The Sacbem Tattoepan, of wham Van Cmler 
mde tlM poitliaae, ia aallod, by Winalow, " Tatobom, whoae title to tba rtrer waa by 
conqueat.**— Monon*8 Mem., App., 308. It aeeim Ibat a few yean afterward, wbea tbe 
Peqpioda had been exterminated, Seqnaaaon, the aon of Sequeen, waa induced to make the 
fUlowing declaration before the HartfiNrd aatkoritiea : ** IMO, «d Inly, Saqoeaton tntiflea 
in court Uiat he nerer aold any ground to the Dutch, neither waa at any time conquered 
by the Pequoda, nor paid any tribute to tbem."— J. H. TrumbuH's Colonial Recorda of 
Connecticut, 56. 

t De iriea, 150 ; Hoi. Doc., ii., 368 ; Alb. Ree., XYiii., S80 ; Hazard, U., 368. " In 1810/' 
faya Dr. Holinea, the aniallst, **I went with Mr. PetUna,of Hartited, to aee tborenaina 
of thii Putch fort, which were then diatin^y yiaible on the bank of the Connecticut River, ^ 
not for below the aeat of the WyUya fomily. There were eome decayed pieeea of timber W 
and bricka."— HoUnaa, Am. Ann., i., SIO, note. The point wliere the '* Little River," which 
now runa through Hartford, emptiea into the Connecticut, ia atill known aa " Dutch Point." 
On a map of Hartford in 1640, neenfly prepai«d by W. 8. Porter, ** sorveyor and antiqua- 
rian,'' the meadow on the aouth of the Little River ia alao marked aa " Dntchman'a land.** 
The Fort " Hope" waa built at the northemrooat point of thia south meadow. Mr. J. H. 
TTumbaU, the able oompfler of that exceUeat work, the '* PobUe Racerda of Connectfent,*' 
informa me, that the ruina of the (4d fort have been traced by jAraona now living ; and 
ttat aeveral of the yellow Duleh brteka uaed in tta eonatntetioD are atill preaerred by ras- 
14|9nta in Hartford. 



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Chap. vra. dispatches. But Van Twiller, renewing his ''vexatiouB 
' conduct," objected to ihe sailing of the ship until she had 
Van Twu- ^^^^ visitcd by the officers of Fort Amsterdam. This De 
Si^JSS?* Vries refused to allow. "I am going," said he, "to the 
SJJTiSJ"* Fatherland ; if you wish to prepare letters, you can send 
vSi.^ them after me ; I shall return with my boat." The di* 
rector immediately dispatched a dozen musketeers down to 
the beach, to prevent his departure ; but the patroon or- 
dered his boat's crew to row away at once, in spite of the 
soldiers, who were now " ridiculed with shouts and jeers 
by all the by-standers." Returning to the fort, De Vriea 
reproached Van Twiller for his " buffoonery" in sending 
down a guard, by which he had made himself a lau^iing' 
stock to all the people. He then joined his boat, which 
had been waiting behind Nutten (G-ovemor's) Island, and 
rowed across the river to Pavonia, where he was " well 
entertained" by Michael Paulusen, the commissary. 
Jon*. The next morning De Vries reached his ship ; which 

■wpTiiitwiwas soon afterward visited by a yacht from Fort Amster- 
ft««tJ» dam, bringing the director's letters for Holland, and Re- 
mund and Notelman, the provincial secretary and schout, 
who were welcomed on board. Remund, however, see- 
ing a dozen beaver skins lying on the deck, declared them 
" a prize," because they had not been entered at the fort. 
De Vries told him that he might seize them ; but Notelman, 
the schout, interfered. " Let them lie," said he; "we are 
not now at the fort. If there is any thing wrong, the pa^ 
troon can answer for it in Holland." The secretary, more 
faithftd to his trust, threatened to send the ship Soutberg 
after De Vries ; who, in reply, severely censured the con- 
duct of the company's officers at Manhattan. " They know 
nothing," said the irritated patroon, "but about drinking: 
in the East Indies they would not serve for assistants ; but 
the West India Company sends out at once, as great mas- 
ters of folks, persons who never had any command before ; 
and it must therefore come to naught." With this reproof, 
the discomfited officials returned to Fort Amsterdam.* 

* De VrlM, VoyagM, IIMIO. The journal deMribea Sandy Hook Bay, in IdSS, aa •«• 


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Setting sail for Holland, De Yries met an English ves-ciur.Tin. 
sel just outside of Sandy Hook, ^< running directly upon 
the shoals," and in danger of shipwreok. A gun was fired „ j„„g ' 
to warn the stranger, and a boat was sent to point out the ^ul^ 
channel. The English captain immediately visited De^^"^ 
Vries, who recognized him as an old acquaintance named 
Stone, whom he had met in the West Indies, and afterward 
at Jamestown, the previous spring. Stone was carrying 
a large cargo of cattle from Virginia to New England ;• 
and being in want of water, he was anxious to run up to 
Manhattan. But no one on board knew the channel. AtAnEngua 
Stone's earnest entreaty, De Vries allowed one of his crew virginiaai^ 
to join the English ship, and pilot her up to Fort Amster- MuiiMttu. 
dam.*" The first British yessel that ever ascended the 
North River had been navigated in, a few months before, 
by Eelkens, a discharged officer of the Dutch West India 
Company ; a second English ship now entered the harbor 
of Manhattan with a Dutch pilot furnished by De Vries. 

While Stone was lying at anchor befcMre Port Amster- 
dam, a trading pinnace arrived iGrom New Plymouth; and 
a quarrel soon arose between the Virginia cq)tain and the 
master of the New England craft. Van Twiller, having 
been drinking with Stone, was prevailed upon to allow him 
to seize the pinnace, ''upon pretence that those of Plym- 
outh had reproached them of Virginia." Watching an op- ^'^J' 
portunity when most of the New Plymouth people werep»nn«» 
ashore, Stone boarded the pinnace with some of his men, tbe capuui 
and " set sail to carry her away to Virginia." But Bome«inia»wp. 
of the Dutch, '' who had been at Plymouth and received 
kindness," pursued the marauders, and brought themRMa»<iby 
back. The next day. Van Twiller and Stone entreated 
the master of the pinnace, who was one of the New Plym- 
outh council, " to pass it by." This he promised to do, 
'' by a solemn instrument under hb hand ;" and both the 
English vessels set sail for Massachusetts. Stone, how- 
great bay whare fifty or sixty shipa could easily lie, frotacted flrom tbe sea winda. This 
Sandy Hook atretches out aboot two nilea from the Highlands, with a flat aand beaeh 
•bout eight or nine paoea broad, completely corered with bide plwn-treea, which grow 
wUd thera"— P. 116. * De Trias, 08, 110, 117. 


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Chip. vm. ever, no sooner arrived at Boston, tiian he was arrested at 

the suit of the New Plymonth people, and bound over to 

• appear in the Admirally Court in England- But the re- 

oognizanoe was soon withdrawn ; for Ihe prosecutors found 

that ^* it would turn to their reproach.*** 

On the return of their pinnace from Manhattan, the 
' New Plymouth people learned that the New Netheriand 
authorities had now secured an Indian title, and taken 
formal possession of the valley of the Connecticut. Gov- 
wwtfow emor Winslow and Mr. Bradford, therefore, hastened to 
ford ▼uit' Boston, " to confer about joining in a trade to Connecticut 
^juiy. for beaver and hemp," and "to set up a trading-house 
there, to prevent the Dutch."t But Winthrop again de- 
f olined engaging in the enterprise. It was "doubtful 

whether that place was within our patent or not," thought 
the Massachusetts authorities ; nevertheless, they assigned 
MaBfladm. other reasous for their refusal. " In regard," said Winthrop, 
cunes to " the placc was not fit for plantation, there being three or 
ffymouth 'four thousaud warlike Indians, and the river not to be 
tag Con- gone into but by small pinnaces, having a bar affording 
but six feet at high water, and for that no vessels can 
get in for seven months in the year, partly by reason of 
the ice, and then the violent stream, &c., we thought not 
Jfjuiy. fit to meddle with it." After a week's delay at Boston, 
Winslow and Bradford returned to New Plymouth, with- 
out having been able to engage the co-operatk>n of the Mas- 
sachusetts authorities, but with their "leave to go on."t 
Probable It is probable that the reed motive of Massachusetts in 
S?MuM- thus declining the proposition of the New Plymouth pec- 
pie was an indisposition to interfere with the colonization 
of Connecticut, under the charter which Lord Warwick 
had just granted to Saltonstall and his associates. Not 
long afterward, the authorities at Boston distinctly admit- 
ted that the lower part of the Connecticut valley was " out 

* Winthrop, I., 104 ; Morton's Memorial, 170. 

t Wtattarop, i., 105. Wtaalow, however, In a letter to Wtathrap, written ten yeara aft- 
erward, on the 0th of April, 104S, alleges that "the Dutch came In by way of prevention, 
and stept in between as and onr people," &c.— Morton's Hemorial, App., p. 805. 

i Winthrop, i., 105, and Savage's note, 181 ; Morton's Memorial, ITS ; Hotehinson*t 

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of &e daim of fhe MasBaohueetts patent."* The value 
and importaaoe of theupper part of that valley, which was "T""" 
really ocMnprehended within their patent, was, however, ^"*^" 
soon made known to the G-eneral Court. John Oldham, Joimoid^ 
of Watertown, and three others, in the oourse of the sum- landjtrai^ 
mer, penetrated one hundred and sixty miles through the n^em. 
wilderness, to trade with the native tribes on the upper 
waters of the Conneotiout. The travellers were hospitably 
entertained at all the Indian villages through which they 
passed ; and the sachem whom they visited, near the pres- 
ent town of Springfield, ^'used them kindly, and gave 
them some beaver." Early in the autumn of 1633, the September. 
first British explorers returned to Boston, with glowing 
aooounts of the luxuriant meadows which bordered the riv- 
er, and bringing samples of hemp which '' grows there in 
great abundance, and is much better than the English."! 

Though Winthrop would not join with the New Plym- winturop 
outh authorities in their projected epterprise of opposition v&nTwu- 
to the Dutch, he nevertheless thought it necessary to as-ciainu 
sert, promptly, the superior title of the English to thecnifbrttw 
whole of the Connecticut valley. Accordingly, he dis- 
patched his hoik, the ^' Blessing of the Bay," on a trading 
voyage through Long Island Sound, with a " Commis- ^^^'*°**- 
sion," to signify to the New Netherland government "that 
the King of En^and had granted the river and country 
of Connecticut to his own subjects," and that the Dutch 
should therefore " forbear to build there." On their way, 
the bark's company visited Long Island, where they found 
the Indians had " store of the best wampampeak," and 
" many canoes so great, as one will carry eighty men." 
They also visited "the River of Connecticut, which is 
barred at the entrance, so as tiiey could not find above one 
fathom water." At Manhattan, Winthrop's messengers 
" were very kindly entertained, and had some beaver, and 
other things, for such commodities as they put ofr."t 

After five weeks^ absence, tiie bark returned to Boston, .,1^ oot 

* Wlntltfop, L, 396, App. t Wloihrapi, I, 111 ; Tnunbnn, i., M. 

t Winthrop, i., Ill, US. 


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Chap. vm. with a ^'very ooorteous and rdspeotful" letter ftom Yan 
Twiller to Winthrop. The Director of New Netheriand, in 
33^^* turn, desired the Massachusetts authorities to defer their 
4 October. << pretenco or claim" to Connectiout, until the King of En- 
van Twii. gland and the States General should agree about their Urn- 
andiuiaertsits, SO that the colouists of both nations might live '^as 

the Doteh ' ° 

title. good neighbors in these heathenish countries." << I have," 
added Van Twiller, ^' in the name of tiie Lords, the States 
Greneral, and the authorized West India Company, taken 
possession of the forementioned river, and for testimimy 
thereof have set up an house on the north side of tiie said 
nver, with intent to plant, &c. It is not the intent of the 
States to take the land from the poor natives, as the ICing 
of Spain hath done by the Pope's donation, but rather to 
take it from the said natives at some reasonable and con- 
venient price, which, Grod be praised, we have done hith- 
erto. In this part of ihe world are divers heathen lands 
that are empty of inhabitants, so that of a little part or 
portion thereof, there needs not any question."* 
NewPiym- Notwithstanding the refusal of the Massachusetts au- 
mences a thoritics, the Ncw Plymouth people did not abandon their 
oQtbecon- purpose of encroachmeut on the Connecticut; where th« 
HoUamders were now in quiet possession^ under their three- 
fold right by original discovery, constant visitation, and 
formal purchase from the aboriginal owners. To secure 
a color of adverse title, a tract of land, just above Fort 
Good Hope, was bought of " a company of banished In- 
dians," who had been " driven out from thence by the po- 
tency of the Pequods." A small frame of a house was 
prepared, and stowed in ^^ a great new bark ;" with which 
" a chosen company," und^ the command of Lieutenant 
An expedi- William Holmes, was dispatched to the Connecticut. With 
iwtehedto Holmcs and his party the bark also conveyed the banished 
iMGiieitt! Indians, from whom the land had been purchased. Thb 
rendered it indispensable that ihe Englidi intrudes should 
be provided with <'a present defense" ag[ainst the Pe- 

* Lond. Doc., i., S8; N. T. Col. MSS., iU., 18; Winthrop, i., 113; Trnmbnll, L, 70; 
▲ddreM before N. T. H. 8., lSi4, II ; CCall., I., 158. Holmes, Ann., i., SB, em In ptedag 
mm truMcUon under the yew 16M, instead of 16SS. 


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quods, ^' who were much offended that they brought home chat. vm. 
and restored the right saohem of that plaoe, called Natu- 
wannute."* ^*^" 

The Plymouth adventurers soon reached Fort G-oodi«sept. 
Hope. " When they came up the river," says the quaint piymooui 
Puritan chronicler, ^^ the Dutch demanded what they in- m Mcae' 
tended, and whither they would go ? They answered, up «t wmi** 
the river to trade. Now their order was to go and seat 
above them. They bid them strike and stay, or else they 
would shoot them, and stood by their ordnance ready fit- 
ted. They answered, they had commission from the Gov- 
emor of Plymouth to go up the river to sudi a place, and 
if they did shoot, they must obey their order and proceed ; 
they would not molest them, but would go on. So they 
passed along; and though the Dutch threatened them 
hard, yet they shot not. Coming to their place, they 
clapped up their house quickly, and landed their provi- 
sions, and left the company appointed, and sent the bark 
home, and afterward palisadoed their house about, and for- 
tified themselves better."t Thus was begun tiie first En- 
glish settlement at Windsor, in Connecticut. 

Advised of the intrusion of the resolute <' Plymotheans,'^ Van twu. 
Van Twiller sent to Commissary Van Curler a formal noti- i!w£cSy 
fication, to be delivered to Holmes, protesting against his^'oecoiMr. 
conduct, and commanding him to ^'depart forthwith, with 
all his people and houses," from the lands on the Fresh 
River, continually traded upon by the Dutch, "and at 
present occupied by a fort." But Holmes, who had de- 
fied the ordnance of the Hope, was not to be moved by a 
protest jfirom the Director of New Netherland. " He was 
there," said the New Plymouth lieutenant, " in the name 
of the King of England, whose servant he was, and there 
he would remain."! 

* Bradlbrd, in Batch. MaM., 11., 410; Hazard, ii., S15. Wioalew, in Morton*! Memo- 
rial, App., 900, calls thia aadiem'a name ** Attawanhat," wto bad been expelled by Ta> 
lobum ; and adds, " that this Attawanhm, by the relation of Lieotenant Holmes, if he * 
woold have giren way to it, woold hare ent olTthe Dutch, because they came in by Ta- 

t Bradlbrd, in Hutch., ii.» 417 ; Prince, 435 ; Winthrop, i.» 113 ; TrunbnU, i., 35. 

t Hoi. Doc, ix., 180, 100 ; i^ N. Y. H. S. CoU., i., 971 ; Haaard, U., S02 ; O'Call., i., IM. 


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chaf.viu. Finding his protests disregi^ed, Van Twiller submit- 
ted his perplexities to hk superiors in Holland. But be- 
lx)6&. £^j^ ^^y reply oould reaoh Manhattan, a new embarrass- 
ment oecuired. Captain Stone, on his return from New 
England to Virginia, early the next year, entered the 
I634. mouth of the Connecticut, for the purpose of trading at 
January. ^^ Dutch fort ; and, whilc on his way up the river, was 
Captain treadicrously murdered by the Pequods. The massacre 
dered by " of Stouc and his company was followed, soon afterward, by 
Indian!' the killing of £k>me friendly Indians ; and Commissary Van 
Curler punished the double atrocities by executing the 
War be- "old sachcm, and some other" of th^e assassins. This ex- 
peouoda citcd the Pcquods to open war with the Dutch ; and, in 
Dutch. revenge, the savages now desired to gain the friendship 
« Not. <)f the English. They, therefore, dispatched an embassy to 
tween the Bostou, whcrc a treaty wets negotiated, by which the Pe- 
andMaaaa- quods agreed to surrender the two surviving murderers of 
Stone's party, to " yield up Connecticut" to the English, 
and to give their new allies a large store of wampum and 
beaver. This treaty, though it benefited Massachusetts 
rather than New Plymouth, gave the Windsor colcmists 
fresh courage. Van Twiller, who by this time had re- 

«r. ceived instructions from the West India Company, soon 

The Dutch _ . r */ ^ 

»n«®H*uai- afterward dispatohed " a band of about seventy men, in a 

to dislodge warlike manner, with colors displayed," to dislodge the 

fhmi Wind- New Plymouth men from Windsor. But the intruders 

standing upon their defense, the Dutoh force withdrew 

" without offering any violence.*'* 

1633. While important public questions had thus continued to 

SUSrSf try the inexperienced Van Twiller from the day he landed 

^r'' at Manhattan, the domestic concerns of the province had 

required much of his attention. From the first, he seems 

to have formed an extravagant estimate of the wealth and 

resources of his commercial employers. They had au- 

tiiorized him to make large expenditures at the points 

where their fur trade centered, and where their revenue 

* Da Vriea, 160 ; Wiathiop, i.» ItS, 148, 158, 388 ; Prince, 486 ; Morton's Meowrtal, 170» 
188, 164 ; TramboO, i., 85, 71. 

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officers were stationed. Port Amsterdam, which had 
oome dilapidated, was repaired, and a gaard-house, and a 
barrack for the newly-arrived soldiers, were constructed pi^^^ 
within the ramparts, at a cost of several thousand guilders. *«''»« ^ 

Three expensive wind-mills were also erected ; hut they muis and 
were injiniicioasly placed so near the fort that the ^^^^-SgU^;!* 
ings within its v^dls frequently '< intercepted and turned 
off the south, wind." Several brick and frame houses were 
built for the director and his officers ; and on the compa- 
ny's farm, north of the fort, a dwelling-house, brewery, 
boat-house, and bam. Other smaller houses were built 
for the corporal, the smilh, the cooper, and the midwife ; 
and the goats, which Harvey had sent from Virginia as a 
present to Van Twiller, were accommodated with an ap- 
propriate stable. The loft, in which the people had wot- na 
diiped since 1626, was now replaced by a plain wooden 
building tike a bam, '< situate on the East River," in what 
is now Broad Street, between Pearl and Bridge Streets ; 
and near this '< old church," a dwelling-house and stable 
were erected for the use of ''the Domine."* In the Fa-TiM«*poni- 
tfierland, the title of " Domine" was familiarly given to 
dergymen, and head-masters of Latin schools. The phrase 
crossed the Atlantic with Bogardu^; aUd it has survived 
to ihe present day, among the descendants of the Dutch 
colonists of New Netherland. 

Manhattan was also invested with the prerogative of "stuit 
^ Staple right," one of those peculiar feudal institutions uSiLiiedai 
mjoyed by Dordrecht and olher towns in Holland, in vir- *° * 
tue of which all the merchandise passing tip and down 
the rivers on which they were situated was subject to cer- 
tain impost duties. This right was now to be exercised 
at Manhattan ; and all vessels passing before Fort Am- 
sterdam were to be obliged either to discharge their car- 
goes, or pay the '' recognitions" which the West India Com- 
pany imposed.t 

Besides the costly works which Van Twiller undertook 

• Hazard, 1., 397 . Alb. Rec., I., 85, 86, 88 : x., 355,' Hoi. Doc, 1H., 07 ; fr., ItS , Vm^ 
Bgli Tui N. N.,<88t MS : 0*Call., I., 155 : Moulton ; Beiiaon*8 Memoir, lOS ; De Vries, 163. 
t Meyor'a InttUotlom JadlcMret, Hi., 95 ; 0*C«II., 1., 159 ; Vertoogfa van N. N., M<S 111. 


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Chap. vuL at Manhattan, two houses were ordered to be built at Pa- 
^ vonia ; another in Fort Nassau, on the South River ; and 
Bwidings ** ^^^ Orange, " an elegant large house, with balustrades, 
K^'nwJ*' *^d eight ennall dwellings for the peojde."* All these en- 
^o^. terprises were undertaken on acoount, and at the expense 
•"««• of the oompany. The sound of the hammer was now con- 
stantly heard ; but only at the points where the trade of 
the company was to be protected. No independent &rmenB 
attempted the cultivation of the soil. The agricultural im- 
provement of the country was in the hands of the patroons. 
The colonic of Rensselaerswyck, during the first three 
Coionieof years after its settlement, had grown very gradually. A 
laerawyck. fcw farms ou the rich alluvion yielded large returns. But 
most of the colonists clustered around the walb of the 
1634. compcmy's reserved Fort Orange. From the form of the 
river bank at this place, which wajs supposed to resemble 
a hoop-net, the hamlet soon received the name of the 
ThePoyek. "Fuyck."t This was subsequently changed to "Bevers- 
wyck," by which it was long known. At first, owing, 
perhaps, to the discord between the patroons and the oom- 
pany, its population increased very slowly ; and for sev- 
eral years it was esteemed at Manhattan a place of '' littJa 
consequence.'^ Arendt van Curler, a man of large benev- 
olence and unsullied honor, was the patroon's commissa- 
lui flnt <* ry and secretary ; Wolfert Gerritsen, superintendent of 
prominent fiirms ; and Jacob Albertsen Planck, schont. Roelof Jan- 


sen, Brandt Peelen, Martin Gerritsen, Maryn Adriaensen, 
Gerrit Teunis^en, Comelis Teunissen, Gornelis Maassen van 
Buren, Jan Labbatie, and Jan Jansen Dam, were among 
the most prominent of the pioneer colonists.^ Some of 
these, afterward removing from Rensselaerswyck to Man- 
hattan, became distinguished or notorious in the larger 
field of provincial politics. 

From some unexplained cause, the Raritan savages, 

• Alb. Rec., I., 85. 86 ; CCall., I., 156, 167. 
t Judge Benson's Memoir, ISO ; Renss. MSS. 
t Journal Tan N. N., in HoL Doc., iii., 07 ; Doo. Hift. N. T., ir^ 5. 
4 Renw. MSS. ; CCaU., i., 3S3, 433, 434. Von Gorier was drowned In ]6e7, while oroa«- 
iBf Lake Cbamplain ; Relation, 1667-8, 18 ; N. Y. CoL MSS., Hi., 156. 


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soon after Van Twiner's arrival, attacked several of the cnkr.ym. 
company's traders, and showed other signs of hostility. ■ 
Peaoe, however, was restored in the oourse of the follow- TroSb^* 
ing year ;* but the savages in the neighborhood of Fort ^^^110* 
Amsterdam were never afterward as friendly and cordial »*^mc«- 
toward the Dutch as were the Mc^wks near Fort Orange. 

Van Twiller's conduct in the administration of provin- vm twu- 
cial affairs seems, before long, to have provoked a severe reprimand. 
reprimand from Domine Bogardus, who is said to have ine Bogar- 
written him a letter describing him as "a child of thenione. 
devil," and threatening him with ''such a shake from the 
pulpit, on the following Sunday, as would make him shud- 
der." Whatever causes may have provoked this coarse 
attack, neither the license of a rude and early age, nor the 
habits and temper of Bogardus himself, could justify con- 
duct, which, his enemies afterward charged against him, 
was '' unbecoming a heathen, much less a Christian, let- 
ting alone a preacher of the G-ospel."t 

The affairs of New Netherland had by this time at- comptainti 
tracted the serious attention of the home eovemment. m otum 
Upon the return of the " William" to England, the depo-tamtotut 
sitions of the crew were taken ; and a statement of the t 

case was communicated to Joaehimi and Bras:ler, the i£ 
Dutch ambassadors at London, with a demand of damages * ^^''• 
from the West India Company, and the threat of an appli- 
cation to the British government, in case satisfaction 
should be withheld. The ambassadors immediately trans- 1634. 
mitted the papers to the States G-eneral, with an ii^tima- *^2;j^ 
tion that the disputes which had lately broken out be-gj^^r 
tween the patentees of Virginia and New England were*^ 
instigated by the Spaniards, and '' were not agitated be- 
cause these parties were suffering loss from one another, 
but in order that men might have occasion to quarrel with 
the Dutch about the possession of New Netherland." Upcmitetowdio 
the report of their conrniittee, the States G-eneral referred in«ua (^m- 
the case to the West India Company, with directions " to»%iii. 

* Alb. Bm., 1., 96 ; COaU., f ., 157, 107. 

t Alb. Itoc., U., 828-384 ; 0»Call., L, 167, 86t. 


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iku^'mLinSarm their High MightineBses of the right of the mat 



t5 October. -Aiier araie months dolay, the deputies &om the College 
ttflTwS^ o( the XIX. submitted a memorial to the States G-enwal, 
bdiaoott- denying the olaim of the London merohants for ocHup^k- 
sation, and insisting that the West India Company had 
reason to allege damages against the English trespassers. 
The renegade Eelkens himself was well aware that New 
Netherland had bem discovered at the oost of the East 
India Company, ia 1609, <' befcMre any Christians had been 
there, as was testified by Hudson, who was then employ- 
ed by the said oompany to find out a northwest passage 
to Chini^." Subsequent oooupation, purchases from the 
aborigines, and cc4onization und^ the West India Com- 
pany^ had confirmed this original title by discovery. None 
but <^ some prohibited traders, and especially Jacob Eel* 
keiiS)" had hitherto questioned the company's rights un- 
der their charter. Eelkens's conduct had done them great 
damage, and the <' injurious seed of discord" had been 
sown between the Indians and the Dutch, who had, up to 
that time, lived with each other in good friendship. To 
arrange the present dispute, and prevent future difficulty, 
* the company suggested that the whole question should be 
referred to tiie arbitration of Boswell, the English ambas- 
sador at the Hague, and Joachimi, the Dutch ambassador 
at London, and that their High Mightinesses should take 
prompt measures to establish a boundary line between 
the Dutch and English possessions in North America.! 
MOMw. The States G-eneral, however, though they consented that 
teft ttiiM». the company might ocmfer with Boswell, left the affiEur to 
^' take its own course ;" and ihe question of damages, as 
1638. well as that ofboundaries remained unsettled. Four years 
**'^' afterward, Joachimi wrote from London that the owners 
4^ the William had again complained to him ; but the 
" f 6S3. I^^^*^ govemment took no frirther notice of the subjectt 
M Ml!. Meanwhile, De Yries had returned to Amsterdam, where 

* Hoi. Doc, U., 61-M, 0»-BS. t Hoi. Doe^ 1L» IM ; CCaU., i., IM. 

t HoL Doc^ it, 144, IM. 

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he foand his partners at vaiianoe with the other direotors ckav.vo. 
of the oompany. The chief cause of difficulty was Hhe -^. 

interference of the patroons witli the peltry trade f andvariao«' 
even the few beaver akinsj **not worth speaking of," which {JJ'^JJ^ 
De Vrieis himself had procured in New Netherlands were w^i'^cJ^ 
made the subject of recrimination. Unwilling to be in-fbrpi'*'* 
volved in the quarrek which were defeating the purposes s^^ST^ 
of the Charter of PrivUegea, De Yriea retired from his part- 
nership with the other patroons of SwaanondseL But hia 
return to Amsterdam aoems to have occasioned a beneficial 
change in the provincial adminiiftration, Notelman, the Nonjim«ii 
unfaithful sohout-fiscal, waa promptly superseded ; and 
Lubbertus van DinckUgen, *^an upright man and a doc- Lubbortu** 
tor of laws,'* was dispatched to auoceed him at Manhat-TiV"" np 
tan * In this appointment, the Amsterdam Chamber cx-SITl 
hibited much more wisdom than they had done in select- 
ing Van T wilier to be director. 

The patroons, however, were not so much at variance The («- 
with each other aa with the company ^ whose engrossing tm^'*"''^ 
monopoly of the fur trade they longed to change into spe- df™ri^ 
oLfic monopolies for themselves. The Am^sterdam Cham- \il *^*^^' 
her having determined that the Charter of Privileges wa^j 
legal, opened unsuccessful negotiations with the patroons. ig Dee, 
Both parties, therefore, appealed to the States General, who Botb par* 
appointed a conmiittee of their own body to hear and de^ ^ Jui^'^ 
cide upon these ditfercnces, .The patroons accordingly sub- eS^™*"""' 
mittcd a statement of their grounds of complaint against ^l^^' 
the company, and of their '^ claims and dnmands.'' Thev '' *''^"" 
alleged that they had mvolved themselves in expenses to {j;*"'!^^' *^ 
the amount of one hundred thousand guilders for their '^'^■^ 
three patroonshipa, which now were costing them **at 
least forty-five thousand guilders annually," As the com- 
pany had repeatedly called their privileges in question, the 
damages thus caused should be made gotid. Within the 
limits of the patroonships, there were certam ^' lordships, 
having their own rights and jurisdictionsj" which had 

* Dd Vrl^ lift, jao i H^KB. MSS. ; B^. Doc, il^ 1S7, 1», ITS ; t.^ 817 i Vftrtougb 
Tin N. N., la U., N. Y. H. S. Coll., ii,, a^L 

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Chap. Tin. been ceded to the patroons, along with the ownership of 
the soU; and over the grantees of these pr^ogatiTes the 
' company had no more power than it had '' over the lords 
sachems the sellers.'' The inland for trade within the 
patroonships, it was argaed, was not included in the res- 
ervation of the company's monopoly; and the patroons 
were not bound to pay any recognitions on peltries. 
Wherever the company had no commissaries at the time 
of the granting of the charter, the patroons also claimed 
the right to trade, on payment of the recognition ; and 
they maintained that, without their consent, the company 
could not send commissaries into the patroonships, nor af- 
fix placards, nor oblige the colonists to abstain from the 
fur trade. With respect to the right of appeal in civil 
cases to the Director and Council of New Netherland, it 
'^ should not prejudice, in the least, the higher jurisdic- 
tion and other privileges of the patroons." 

These were the chief points which the patroons thought 
they had commcm cause to urge against the company. 
The destruction of Swaanendael by the Indians, furnished 
a specific ground of complaint on the part of the South 
River proprietaries, who insisted, that as the company had 
promised to aid and defend the colonists in New Nether- 
land firom all inland and foreiga wars, they were ^< bound 
to make good the injuries which befell the patroons, their 
people, cattle, and goods there, and which they still con- 
tinue to suffer."* 
ssiuM. The directors avowed their willingness to submit the 
tbtoompa. question as to the construction of the doubtful pomts in 
the charter to the judgment of the States G-eneral. On 
their part, the patroons reiterated their claims for dam- 
ages, and demanded an immediate decision upon their 
44 joiM. validity. But the States General prudently postponed a de- 
OMierai cisiou, ^^ in order to enable the parties to come to an amioa- 
-*-*— ble settlement;" and here the question ended, so far as the 
formal action of the Dutch government was oonc€med.t 

* Alb. Ree., xliL, 4S, 4S ; HoL Doe., U., 3»-M, M-115 ; O^aU., 1., I9»-I«S ; Moolum, 
4S1, 4tt. t HoL Doe., il., 115, 119, IM. 

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In the mean time, Godyn had died; and the remain- csAr.vm. 
ing patroons of Swaanendael oommenoed legal proceedings 
againat the company for the damages they had sustain^ B^i^or 
in the loss of their colony. The Assembly of the XIX.*^*^^^^ 
finding that those continual diacords were only iojoring 
the intereata of all parties, commissioned some of their di-asAugu«, 
rectors " to treat and transact with all the patroons and 
colonists in New Netherland" for the purchase of all their 
rights and property. An agreement was accordingly made a? not. 
with the South River patroons and the heirs of G-odyn, for 
the purchase of '^ their tw^o colonies, named Swaanendael, 
in New Netherlands' for the sum of fifteen thouiiand six 
hundred guilders. The formal surrender took place early 1636, 
the next year; and the West India Conrjpany again be-surre™d^ 
came the legal proprietary of all the territory on both sides giuiZuq' 
of the Delaware.* c«fiiMiity. 

An unexpected danger now menaced Southern NeWArgairad*. 
Netherland. After his recall from the government of Vir- the D*it* 
ginia, Argall seems to have contemplated the establish- 
ment of a " new plantation,'' to the northward of the En- 
glish settlements on the Chesapeake. It was, perhaps^ to 
aid in this design, that John Pory, who had been one of 
the tools of Argairs rapacious administration, and was 
Colonial Secretary of Virginia under Yeardley, hia suc- 
cessor, ** made a diacovery into the great bay/* and aa* 1620. 
oended the River Patuxent. But Pory'a explorations, ociotiaf. 
which were nearly contemporaneous with the grant of the pianuion. 
New England patent, were confined to the tributary wa- 
ters of the Chesapeake, and to a subsequent journey of 1621. 
sixty miles overland, from Jamestown " to the South Riv- P^^r^*ij' 
er Chowanock," A strange misapprehension has led a 
learned English annalist into the absurd error of confound- 
ing the ** South River Chowanock," upon which Edenton 
now stands, with the ** South River*' of New Netherland, 
which Pory never entered.! 

• '' Popern mLftELDf to Ibe Cotonjr of Zwaaeiidal^" In O'CiQ., Af4».^ 479 ; HuEard^ Ann. 
Pbph , 3*>, 40. 
t Chulmpra, SOQ 1 Pitrclw*, iT., 1714.-7 1 SmlUl, U,, 61-Mj BttA» i., f7S ; Bownlii, L, 

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cxA^.vm. After the aooession of Charles I., ookmiol exploration 

waa pushed with greater diligenoe, because that monaroh 

soteMMiit iJistruoted the governors of Virginia to procure more exact 

M^?° information of the geography of the province. Q-ovemor 

^zTifust. Yeardley, in 1627, and Groyemor Pott, in 1639, success- 

1629. ively commissioned William Ckyhome, their Secretary of 

13 March, g^^^ ^ trade with the Indians, and exploit the regions 

^dSionaf ' north and east of the Chesapeake. A company was soon 

afterward formed in England ; and through the influence 

of Sir William Alexand^, the Secretary of State for Scot- 

1631. land, Charles I., under the privy signet of that kingdom, 
*****^* licensed Claybome and his associates to trade freely "to 

those parts of America for which there is not already a 
patent granted to others for sole trade." To give effect to 
this royal lioense. Sir John Harvey, the new governor of 

1632. Virginia, issued a colonial commission the next year, by 
18 March, ^j^^ Claybomc was authorized to sail and traffic " unto 

any English plantation," and also "unto the adjoining 
plantations of the Dutch, seated upon this territory of 
America." So entirely ignorant was the Virginia govern- 
or of the geography of " Lcard Delaware's Bay," that the 
September, following autumu he dispatched a sloop, with seven or 
tempt of the eight mcn, "to see if ther^ was a river thei^." This was 
eziSore the the first attempt ever made by the English to explore 
the Delaware. Claybome, however, does not appear to 
have entered that river, or to have visited Manhattan. He 
Extent or availed himself of his trading licenses only in the neigh- 
borne's ex- borhood of the Chcsapcake, after exploring the upper war 
^ ^^ ters of which, he limited his ambition to the establishment 
of a post on the Isle of Kent, and another at the mouth of 
the Susquehanna.*" 

Meanwhile, the characteristic intolerance of the Angli- 
can hierarchy was preparing noble materials for the foun- 
dation of a new colony on the banks of the Potomac. The 
Puritan Non-conformists were not the most (^pres^ed ob- 
jects of religious persecution in their native land ; nor was 

*LoDd.Doc.,i.,40»43,45; N. Y. Col. MSS., iU., 14, 15 ; De Vriee, 110, lU ; <mtr,p.S27i 
Chalmer»,S0«,9S7; Bancroft, 1., SS7 ; HUdreth, i., 206 ; Bosman, i., 115, Sa6, S09. 

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the comtancy which led them to the f^hores of Massachu-CHAP^vin. 
aetts without an illustrious parallel. There were other ' ^n„ 
gubjBCts of the King of England whose faith in Christian- 
itj was aa sincere, and whose opposition to the cstabiishcd 
hierarchy was aa conscientious, These were the Boman MotiTM vo 
Catholics, who suflered even creator aeverities than the enngraiiim 

ITS' 1 l--i»1ll ■ f^" ^^ 

FuTitans, and were the victims of a double persecution, ^inad. 
The Church of England struggled against both Raman 
and Puritan diisj^enters ; for the ultimate aim of all the an* 
tago Elista was not toleration, but supremacy. Between 
the Papal and the Anglican hieratchies, Puritanism array- 
ed itself on the side of the Church of England, and con- 
stantly instigated her to new rigors against the sinoere be- 
lievers in the venerable faith of Rome. It was thus that 
oonseientious Papiata had even stronger motives than con- 
scientious Puritans to seek an aisylum in the New World. 
James L was not, however, as bitter against the Roman 
Catholics as were the majority of his subjectai. One of the CAorm^i- 
last acts of his reign was to elevate to the Iruih peerage, of Usiii- 
under the title of Baron of Baltimore, Sir G-eorge Calvert, 1625, 
who J after several years of faithful service as Secretary of 
State, openly avowing his adherence to the Roman faith, 
yielded to the growing cry against Popery, and resigned 
bit! office.* Charles L was^ perhaps, less disposed to show 
lavor to the body of the Roman Catholics than Mb father 
had heen. Yet he was magnanimous enough to appreciate 
and reward individual merit, even in a Papist. Calvert, 
who was an early friend of American colonisation, had ob- 
tained the grant of Avalon, on the coast of Newfoundlandj 
and had endeavored to establish a settlement there. But 
fliat sterile and inhospitable region was unfavorable to sue- 1623. 
Oe^ ; and about the time Bndicott was settling himself 
at Salem, Lord Baltimore visited Virginia, in the hope of 1628- 
finding some unoccupied territory within that provinocj on Jini" ^ 

* 1^ G«dnt9 CiJvon wu >i»iK>liit<Ml SQcroUiT of Swui on %h» 16th of Febnur^, 1A]0, 
iaiJBiigiied. thit efllw en tlio flib of Febni^rv, 16^. JamM L died oil i^ STib ^fMiitl, * 

Ui^and GitTm'i {ner&f^ wu probbbly om oriJIic inM pitenis uf thm nifra. Bir Al 
ImifeltAflon wt0 K^painled by Cliiriei I. SflC^eltjj oTSMto, in ^ii« orC&lTGil, pa Out 


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CHAP.vm. which to plant a colony. Protestant feeling, however, was 

^ too strong in Virginia to allow the unmolested exercise of 

• the Roman faith ; and Baltimore returned to England, to 

solicit a royal charter for the colonization of the uninhab* 

ited regions north of the Potomac. 

The personal regard of Charles I. easily induced his as- 

1632. sent to an ample patent ; but before the legal forms could 

isApru. 1^ completed, Lord Baltimore died. The royal promise, 

however, was faithfully executed ; and, two months after 

his father's death, Cecilius Calvert, baron of Baltimore, 

Royal ehu^ rcccived a charter, granting and confirming to him the ter- 

ryiand. ritorv boundcd by a line due east from the mouth of the 

so June. 

Potomac, across the Chesapeake to the ocean, and thence 
along the coast to " that part of the Bay of Delaware on 
the north, which lieth under the fortieth degree of north 
latitude from the equinoctial, where New England is ter- 
minated ;" thence, westwardly, along the fortieth parallel, 
to the " fountain" of the Potomac, and thence along the 
west bank of the river to its confluence with the Chesa- 
peedce. The territory thus granted was erected into a 
province, the name of which, originally intended to be 
" Crescentia," was, by the king's desire, changed to that 
of Maryland, in honor of his queen, Henrietta Maria of 
France.* The new province comprehended within its 
boundaries, not only the whole of the present States of Ma- 
ryland and Delaware, but all that part of Pennsylvania 
lying south of the fortieth parallel, and east of the merid- 
ian of the source of the Potomac. The proprietary him- 
self was invested with the almost regal jurisdiction of the 
ancient bishops of Durham. 
L«onaLrd About two vcars after the charter was sealed, the foun- 
gins the dations of the colony of Maryland were peaceftiUy laid by 
uonofMa- Leonard Calvert, a half-brotiier of Lord Baltimore. Two 
ships, the Ark and the Dove, conveying nearly two hund- 
red Roman Catholic gentlemen with their indented serv- 
1634. ants, sailed from England by way of the West Indies, and 
** ^^' reached the Chesapeake early in 1634. On one of the 

* Hazard, i., S37 ; Bounan, i.» S71 ; il., 10. 

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gtxeams flowing into the Potomac j Calvert found the In-caipviiL 

dian village of Yoacomoca, which was about being desert- 
ed bv itij inhabitants. Imitating the honeaty of the Dutch 
lit Manhattan, he purchased the possessory rights of the 
aborigines ; and the oolonists at onco entered into occupa- sr Marcb 
tion of their wilderness abode, to which they pioualy gave 
tlie name of *^ Saint Mary's," Compreheussive benevolence saim Mn^ 
Injured the rapid prosperity of the new colony whore re-ed. 
ligious liberty was to be unrestrained. The conscientious 
Non- conformists of England at last found a congenial asy- 
him, under the banner of their country, in the New World ; 
for the Ark and the Dovo had conveyed to the shores of 
the Potomac more liberaUmindod fathers of a state than 
those earlier em i grants who were peopling the coasta of 
Massachusetts Bay,* 

In the mean time, the charter of Maryland had produced jeniousy cr 
alarm and excitement among the colonists of Virginia, who {^33^ 
caused a remonstrance to be presented to the king against 
the dismemberment of their territory. But the Privy Conn- iw«y- 
oil decided to leave Lord Baltimore '* to his patent, and 
the other parties to the course of law.'* Clay born e» how- a July, 
ever, who chose to construe his trading license into a com- 
mission to plant colonies, rcfui^ed to relinquish hi^ pre ten* 
aions to Kent Island, or submit to Calvert's authority. A 
akirmish occurred; and Clay borne, escaping to Virginiaj 1635. 
WHS demanded by the Maryland authorities, as a fugitive cu^'^ 
from juirtice. But the Virginians, looking on the colonists ^"j^J^^ 
of Maryland as intruders within their territory, were dis- 
posed to side with Clay born o. Harvey, however, luiwilU 
ing to do any act in apparent opposition to the royal char- 

* ChfliiMft, W? , Boiman, 11., 2G, 37 ; nancroa^ L^ S4T ; Uildnjlh, L, SOS ; CViaJmertt'a 
lUtialE of (J10 Coidi^iiH, t, Cl. 09. Tha fcflhagJi df ttie Stfla^idacbUHltfl p«a>plo towurd tbe 
IftndjtBd eflloaiJl*, wbn'^dld eat up tniuu. up4;ri3y/^ do Tioi mem to b«ffl been rt-Lflndl^ff or 
WVV ehuflBlUe. A tew montbi all^r t^n N^LtLemeni iti SBini Msry'A (Au^uat, L€34), Co)- 
Mrt ^psieibiid ihft Ddv« to B(»L«n, wlih. (Viendly leLipfj*, ant^ a catfn of qom w cictian(;4 
Af $^ SonjA aftbe crovr wfin accuipil of reviling; iha peopje orMnssachiiiifttiK, as " hoty 
IptUu-en, i^e OH^iiberfl," At. \ and, ** upaa ndiricQ Willi Hi A mlniJiLitii/' Itift ftuifereur^jo 
Via urefltsd Willie (»ii ihon^ in onl^r to ^CMnpell the sinrr^nd^ of ihti ofTcndDrs. Um tHo 
miuwpiiu weru round (o '* Udl mhori,** and ili^^agroe tn t^vair lestiniony i and tho Doro W34 
ft^ftred tQ ctfspArt> witli an injnncimn to line rn&Htffr '^ la bnng no marii miih tli«43ri]«red 
pi^vmm** 10 Muucbmnti,— Winthrop, t, 134^ 130, Hi, 

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364 HISTORY or the state op new YORK. 

CHAP.Yin.ter to Lord Baltimore, in a spirit of oompromise sent Clay- 
bome a prisoner to En^and. This step was viewed by 
ooTeraor ^^ Virginians as a betrayal of their interests ; and Har- 
^SH^lnt^^y ^*8 immediately deposed by the eounoil, and Captain 
•eottoBn-j^jm ^est appointed to act as governor until the king's 
MApriL pleasure should be known.* 

While at Jamestown two years previously, De Vries had 
explained to Harvey the situation of Fort Nassau ; and his 
account, though it did not prevent the hospitable govern- 
or from intimating that tiie Dutch should receive no an- 
noyance from him, provoked ihe covetousness of Clay- 
weM*«de- home's friends. A foothold on tiie Delaware, they now 


Delaware, thought, might perhaps compensate them for the loss of 
posts em. the Chesapeake ; and West eagerly seized the 
opportunity, which his temporary authority afforded, to 
execute the design. A party of fourteen or fifteen En- 
glishmen was accordingly dispatched from Point Comfort, 
Angnat Under the oonunand of G-eorge Holmes, to seize the va- 
Fort Naa- caut Dutch fort. The enterprise was promptly effected ; 
by uotmea for the Wcst India Company had now ^^ nobody in posses- 
oTvSiia-^sion" to oppose the invaders. But Thomas Hall, one of 
Holmes's men, deserting his party, brought prompt intel- 
ligence of the aggression to Fort Amsterdam.! 

Van Twiller now perceived that Fort Nassau must be 
reoccupied by the Dutch, " or they would otherwise lose 
The En- it to the English/' An armed bark, belonging to the 
tored and Company, was therefore promptly dispatched thither with 
Manhattan, a Competent force ; and Holmes and his party were im- 
mediately dislodged, sent on board, and brought as pria* 
cmers to Manhattan. 

Their arrival increased the embarrassment of Van Twil- 

* Haxard, i., »7; BoBuaa, U., SS-35: Banefoft, I., 901 ; HUdrelh, U SIO; Chalmera^ 
Col. Ann., SSI ; Chalinen*a Revolt or the Oolmitoa,i,(tt, 04; DeVriM, 141. After ffia- 
■olTing hia paitnenhip with the Sooth Hirer peuoona, De Vriea aailed a teeond ttma 
ttom the Tezel, on the 10th of Joly, ]<I34, to plant a colony at Golana. Hartng aecom* 
plldied thia, he weM to VirgtBia, and arrited, OB the I7th oTMay, lOSft, at Point CemiflMn 
HereheftNindlyinffatanehor**a /bite ahtp of London, in which waa Sir John Harrey, 
the governor for the King of Bngland. He waa now oent to London by hie eooneil and 
the people, which have made a new goremori which afterward tuned oot rery badly to 
them.*'--Voyagea, p. 141. 

t De Vriea, 14S ; Hoi. Doe., t., SOO ; U., N. T. H. S. CoU., iL, S86 

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ler, who now learned that they had been expecting a re- chap. vm. 

enf(»roement jfrom Virginia. Meanwhile, De Vries had ""I 

visited Manhattan again, in the ship "King David," and, j J^^ 
after three months' delay in repairing his leaky vessel, 
which he had "hauled up on the strand," was about to 
sail for the Chesapeake. His opportune presence extri- 
cated the troubled director from his new dilemma. At 
Van Twiner's earnest entreaty, De Vries delayed his voy-Hoime«tnd 
age for a week; the prisoners were sent on board thewntbSto 
King David with " pack and sack ;" and two days after- 8 sept. 
ward, Holmes and his invading party were relanded at 
Point Comfort. Here a bark was found lyiilg ready to 
sail for the South River, with a force of twenty men on 
board, " to second" the enterprise which Holmes had be- 
gun ; but by the unexpected return of the captured in- 
vaders, " their design was broken up."* Thus ended the 
first actual English aggression on the southern frontier of 
New Netherland ; and the Dutch continued, for several 
years, in undisturbed possession of the South River and 
the Schuylkill. 

The Plymouth people had now been for two years in ProsraM 
possession of Windsor, in spite of Van Twiller's prompt ^anSwi- 
but ineffectual protest, and subsequent pusillanimous mil- *^^ 

itary demonstration. Whatever scruples might, at first, 
have restrained Winthrop and his council firom favoring 
the propositions of Winslow and Bradford in the summer 
of 1633, the example of New Plymouth soon infected Mas- 
sachusetts Bay.t At the Q-eneral Court, Hooker urged em- 1634. 
igration to the Connecticut valley. The want of accom- h^ 
modation for their cattle at Newtown; "the fiiiitfuhiessJS!>r*' 
and oommodiousness of Connecticut, and the danger of m^J|£S^ 
having it possessed by others, Dutch or English;" andttcSu""^ 
" the strong bent of their spirits to remove thither," were 
the arguments he pressed. To these arguments it was 

* De Vrlas, 190, 148, 143. Tbe incident to wklok Wintlmp (L, 197, 106), and Mather, 
In the Sixth Book of hia " Magnalia,** allude, aa having occoired " at the Dutch plantft* 
tlon,** happened to De Vriea*s boat on hla arrlTal at New Netherland, lit of June, 1089.— 
See tranalaUon, In U., N. Y. H. S. COU., ill. 

t Lambreehtaan, 4S ; U., N. T. H. S. CoU., 1., 96 ; Verptant^, in N. A. Rot., tx., 60. 

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Chap. vm. objeotod that, " in point of conscience," the Newtown peo- 
pie ought not to desert their o<Hnmon wealth, and that, in 
point of civil policy, the court " ought not to give ihem 
leave to depart." Their emigration would weaken Mas- 
sachusetts; and ''the removing of a candlestick" would 
be '' a great judgment." Besides, the emigrants would 
be exposed to great peril, both firom the Indians and firom 

LesTtto the Dutch, '' who mede claim to the same river, and had 

t!^!t already built a fort there ;" and the home government in 
England " would not endure they should sit down, with- 
out a patent, in any place which our king lays daihi unto." 
The court was divided in opinion. Three fifths of the dep- 
uties were for granting leave ; but a majority of the mag- 
istrates refused their assent. The two elements in the 
government of the ecclesiastical commonwealth were now 

M squ. iu opposition. Wiih the aid of a sermon firom Cotton, ihe 
patrician magistrates carried their point against the ple- 
beian deputies ; the Newtown people gave up their proj- 
ect ; and, for a time " the fear of their removal to Con- 
necticut was removed."* 

But the question of emigration was soon revived. Two 

6 Not. mouths afterward, ambassadors from the Pequods came to 

whh the Boston, and " set their marks" to a treaty, which yielded 
up '' all their right at Connecticut" to the Massachusetts 
colony. " To whom did that country belong?" was now 
the inquiry. << Like the banks of the Hudson, it had been 
first explored, and even occupied by the Dutch ; but should 
a log-hut and a few straggling soldiers seal a territory 
against other emigrants?" The colonists of Massachu- 
setts did not stop to argue the question of right with the 
authorities of New Netherland, or even wait for the per- 
mission of the English patentees of Connecticut. Nothing 
could long retard the rush of Puritan emigration to the 
" New Hesperia" on the banks of the Fresh River. De- 
tachments of families from Watertown and Roxbury now 
1635. obtaining leave from the General Court, " to remove whith- 

eitoy. Qj j^Qy pleased," provided they continued under the gov- 

* Winthrop, 1., 14&-14S ; HutebiMon, 1., 47 ; Bancroft, i., a05» MS. « 

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enunent of Massaohosetts, joameyed through the wilder- chap.vui. 
ness, and began a settlement at Wethersfield; and "the 
Dorchester men," establishing themselves near the Dutch, Bnugratiin 
and just below the Plymouth trading-house at Windsor, J^^*' 
were promptly reproved, by letters from Governor Bradford, J^®d iS?^' 
for their unrighteous and injurious intrusion.*' Thus AeJl^lSS! 
Plymiouth colcmists on the Connecticut — ^themselves in- 
truders within the territory of New Netherland — soon be- 
gan to quarrel with their Massachusetts brethren for tres- 
passing upon their usurped d(»nain. 

Meanwhile, the jealousy of the High Church party in 
En^and had been aroused against the dissenting colonists 
in America ; and Charles I. constituted William Laud, 1634. 
arohbidiop of Canterbuiy, and eleven other Privy Coun-*®'^'^' 
selors, a special commission " tor the regulation and gov-pi«ntation 
emment of the Plantations." These commissioners weretabusb^in 
invested with full power to make laws for the cdcHiies, "***" 
hear o€»nplaints, inflict punishments, remove and appoint 
gtyTcmors, regulate ecclesiastical affairs, and revoke char- 
ters which were supposed to be hurtful to the royal pre- 

To this arbitrary body Edward Winslow, who went tojniy. 
England in the summer of 1634 as the agent of Newwi?«iow 
Plymouth, presented a petition, complaining that the in*£(mdoii. 
French had annoyed the New England Plantations on the 
east, and that << the Dutch in the west have also made 
entry upon Connecticut River, within the limits of His 
Majesty's letters patents, where they have raised a fiwrt, 
and threaten to exp^l your petitioners thence, who are also 
planted on the same river." Winslow, therefore, asked 
that the commissioners would either procure for the edo- 
nists '< peace with those foreign states, or else give special 
warrant unto your petitioners and the English colonies to 
right and defend themselves against all foreign enemies." 
These propositions, however, did not suit the views of the 

• Wlntlurop, L, 100, IM ; TmmboU, L, 00 ; Baneroft, i., MS, 800; U., S83. 
t Wintiwop, U 14S ; Huwd, i., S44 ; ChidiMn, 156; HmcUmmi, i., 441;. 



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Chap. vnL Plantation Board. Gbrges and Mason were opposed to 
Winslow's petition, because Gh)rge8 h(^ed, through the 
* archbishop's influence, to be sent out as Gtivemor Q-en- 
eral of all the English colonies. Laud, too, was anxious 
to exercise hierarchal power in America, and stop the 
growth of dissent. Winslow was, therefore, severely qucflh 
tioned in the board. He frankly admitted, that ^^ he did 
exercise his gift" in public preaching; and that, as a mag- 
istrate, ^< he had sometimes mcurried some," fnr he consid- 
ered marriage " a civil thing," and had himself been mar^ 
ried in Holland by the magistrates in their State House. 
But, by the statutes of England, such proceedings were 
unlawful ; and ihe archbishop readily made out his case 
in the compliant tribunal over which he exercised a para^ 
mount influence. Winslow was committed to tiie Fleet, 
and '^ lay there seventeen weeks, or thereabouts, before he 
could get to be released."* 

Jealousy of Thus the jcalousy of the home government refused to 
the Puritan colonists any authority to interfere with the 

Dutch possessions on the Connecticut. The people of New 
England were esteemed "men of refractory humors;" and 
complaints constantly resounded of their sects and schisms, 
their hostility to the Established Church, and their larea- 
sonable designs against the royal authority. Emigration 
was therefore restrained ; the lord warden of tiie Cinque 
Ports was directed to stop " promiscuous and discmlerly 
departure out of the realm to America ;" and persons of 
humUe station, who might obtain leave to emigrate, were 
required first to take the oaths of allegiance and suprem- 

Intolerance Laud's watchful intolerance reached even further. 

bishop "While Amsterdam was liberally opening her gates to 

strangers of every race and creed, the Primate of all En- 

1635. glai»d, by order of the king, was requiring all the Reform- 

t jtBoary. ^ Dutch churches, within the province of Canterbury, to 
adopt the English Liturgy.* But the attention of the gov- 

* Wlatkrap, i, 1S7, 171; HatehiiMoii, it, 4H)l 

t HMwd,i,l47; Baneroft,l.,407. t Rymer Fed., xlx., 588 ; IUpin,IL,»3. 

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emmont was chiefly engaged in ohecking the emigration CHAP.vm 
of disaiFected Englishmen to America. A Dntoh ship " of 
four, hundred tons," bound to New Netheriand, was lying 
at Cowes, ready to sail ; and her officers were reported to 

he drawing ^^ as niaiiy of bia laajesty'd subject-^ as they 
can to go with them, by offering thein large conditions*" 
To put a stop to '* so prejudicial a oonrsje,'* the Privy Conn* so umt^h. 
oil diispatched an order to the Earl of Portland-, to restruin mhi^^iw 
British subjects from going in that or any other Dutch gu J ihe *^ 
vessel **to the Hollanders' Plantation in Hudson's River/'* cm* Hiann- 
Three yoara before, a Dutch ship, c<»niing from Manhattan, 
had been arrested at Plymouth for illegally trading withia 
his majesty-a alleged dominions. Now the chief care of 
the Privy Council adeems t-o have been to prevent English 
aubjeots going in Butch vessels to what the British govern- 
ment recognized, in an official state paper, as *^ the Hol- 
landers* Plantation/' 

The New England patent, which James L had granted in 
16M, had by this time become intolerably odious to Par- 
liament, and the council of Plymouth was in disrepute 
with the Hiph Church party. The patentees, according- 
ly, after conveying by deed, to William, earl of Stirling, aa aphi. 
'*part of New England, and an island adjacent, called Aflrron- 
Long Island/* divided the residue of the territory between LnMsu:^ 
Acadia and Yirginia into shares, which they distributed, ^^^' 
in severalty, among themselves; and then, under their r Jnm;. 
common seal, surrendered their worthless charter to theEn^iimT 
king. "Thus was diss<jlved, by voluntary consent, aria-Se^r^dm 
ing from mere debility, the council of Plymouth, so famous 
in the story of New England /'t 

At this crisis, John Winthrop, the soe of the governor 
of Massachusetts, revisiting England, confirmed the ac- 
counts, which had already been sent over, of the value 
and importance of Connecticut Lord Say, and the other 
grantees of Lord Warwick's oonveyanoe in 1632, there- 

* Lond. Dp*., i., &5 j N. Y, Col. MSS., lit, Ifl. 

f Lond. Doc„ i.^ U§ i fi. Y. Col. M^S., iti., 4S * Clislmen, 0$ : Euutl, i,, 2m, MO, 
BQ^ ; Gori^ii^, In hi.. Muss. Hint. ColL, t1., m, S3 j Duncran^ L, 40e ; Cbaliiurri> Reyoh 
onho €<Jlanip«, i , » i ti., N. Y. H. S. ColL, U., 33a, aS3, 

ihc crown. 

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Chap. viu. fore took immediate measures for the oolonization of that 
region. Saltonstall promptly dispatched a bar^ with 
Firatcoi<^ twenty men, which arrived at Boston in mid-summer. 
connwii^^ From there the party proceeded to the Gonnecticat, with 
?u ES^Sh ^^^ intention of settling themselves " between the falls 
if jJST** *^d the Plymouth trucking-house." But Ludlow and the 
Dorchester men defeated Saltonstall's frfans; and their 
selfish conduct soon gave rise to letrge claims for damages.* 
18 July. The younger Winthrop was soon afterward commissioned, 
ihrop com- by Lord Warwick's grantees, as " governor of the River of 
as gorern- Connecticot, with the places adjoining thereunto." Early 
6 October, in tile foUowiug October, he reached Boston, accompanied 
by his father-in-law, Hugh Peters, lately pastor of the En- 
glish church at Rotterdam, and bringing along with him 
" men and ammunition, and two thousand pounds in mon- 
ey, to begin a fortification at the mouth of the river."t 
t4 Not. A fcw wceks after his arrival at Boston, Winthrop dis- 
takM pos- patched a bark of thirty tons, and about twenty men, with 
tiie mouth all ncedful provisions, to take possession of the mouth of 
neciicut. the Connecticut, and erect some buildings.} This was 
the first regular English occupation of the territory com- 
prehended within Lord Warwick's grant. The officers of 
the Dutch West India Company had purchased this land 
from its Indian occupants three years before, and had af- 
fixed the arms of the States General to a tree, in token of 
their possession of the " Kievit's Hook," and of the river 
The Dutch above. Thcse arms the English invaders now oontemptu- 
*>wn. ously tore down, " and engraved a ridiculous face in tiieir 

Van Twiller finding that protests were ineffectual to dis- 
lodge the English intruders fix)m the Fresh River, had, 
meanwhile, applied to the West India Company " for corn- 
August, mission to deal with" them summarily. Winthrop's new 
attempc to party had scarcely reached the mouth of the Connecticut, 
KAgiuh. ^before a sloop, which the director had dispatched firom 

* Letter of SaltonstaU to Winthrop, in Mara. Hist. Coll., xrlU., 49, 43. 
t Winthrop, 1., 161, 100, 170, 172 ; Tranilrall, i., 407 ; Hildreth, i., t». 
t Winthrop, 1., 173, 174. 
« HoL Doc., iT., 110 ; il., N. T. H. S. CoIL, ii., 977 ; mit, 934. 

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Memhattan to secure the possession of the Dutoh, arrived CHiip.viu. 
at the Kievit's Hook. But tiie English immediately got 

'' two picoeij on ahoto, and would not suSer tham to Itmd."* i^^cembe^. 

The Dutch beini^ thus repulsed, the English changed 1636, 
the name of Kievit's Hook to ** Say brook," in compliment f^^j!^^ 
to the lead tn^ English proprietors of Coonecticutj Lord 
8ay and Lord Brook. A fort waa immediately constrno^ 
ed at the pointy under the superintendenoy of Lion Grar-L»mGar. 
dinerj an engineer or master workinan, wlio had served 
under the Prince of Orange in Holland, and who Jiad been 
induced by ,Iohn Davonport and Hugh Peter!*, of TLotter- 
dam, to enter into the service of the English patentees of 
Connecticut* After remaining four yeard in coniTnand of 
the p:»st at Say brook, CTardincr removed hia lanxily to the 1640* 
idland which now beara hU name, at the eastern extrem- 
ity of Long Is*land.t 

Though the Masaachudetta emigrants had originally 
gone to th<3 Connecticut valley under a stipulation to con- 
tinue in allegiance to the General Court, the territory upon 
which they planted themselves waa distinctiy admitted to 
be ** out of the claim of tlie Massachusetts patent." A 
new settlement was, however, socm commenced at a place 1G36- 
which wan actually within the chartered limits of Sf aasa- 
chusetta Bay. Early in 1636, William Pynchon, with wuiiMi 
eight other peraons, emigrated from Roxbury to the upper Ji3ni» 
part of the Connecticut River, and built a trading-houKC (irsprtni- 
at *^ Agawam."' The original Indian name of that place 
was immediately changed to '^ t^pr in gfie Id/* after the town 
in England where Pynchon had formerly lived. This new 
settlement brought the English w^ithin a few miles of the 
Dutch post at Fort Orange. A large peltry trade, divert- 

* WintiiTOp, 1.. I5fl. 175 1 Trumbttll, U *1- 

t Widthn^. Lp ]T4t HA ; HuhbArdt 179 ; Lion GanUnar, !n Mul IfUt. Coit, Jt^cill,, 
]3d ; TnuiiUulU Lhi CL*. UO. D« VrteUf y, U^^ npnink? orOnrdlnor, whoni ba fbuad In cdra* 
tnnnd mt SaybnKikp on the lih of June, tfi^O, bs bnv^lTiET mirtletl a. Dutd). w\(b «t Woar* 
den, tn HoJiand. whero hv Liid '' forrjieriy trefin an efij^kn^r and tNUU^wofkniui/* Tbm 
DuLcti pbrui' " wiTh'bfljWt" or " worfc mflsttf"— so rbmiUoj (o ibi« d*y m New Yorii— 
iirt'lru to Have been i^iilLe uaiuteEhf^blci no tUfl UMiTTi&d cdiUirar VVjritl]rQp.^Savagi}:^K itobp, 
L, p. 174. Sovt-nd tiitcrt'HUtig purtkidu-ei of UaTdiner'M hiniCtuphf (whose baptlAfniU 
nanwf was Litm^ nod noi Uivid, us Tnimbtiil and Savaj^ tUtrm) may Ite found In THonip- 
enii'aLariE hUnA, 1^ ^^^^ ^^f und In Ma«. Ititt. Coll., £iUL, 136. 

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CHAP.vnLed from the Ncsrih River, soon rewcurded the enterprise of 
Pynohon; and ihe good judgment, which origincilly led 
* him to occupy so culvantageous a spot, has since been 
amply vindicated in the prosperity of the flourishing city 
of Springfield.* 
Extent of Thus English progress, step by step, encroached upon 
•eSSemontg. thc territories of the West India Company, until nearly 
the whole valley of the " Fresh River" was wrested from 
its rightful Europeem proprietors. The annals of ccdoni- 
zation " can scarcely show the c(»nmencement of a settle- 
ment so extremely faulty as that of Connecticut." In a 
short time, the *^ Hope," at Hartford, was all the foothold 
which the Dutch had left to them in Eastern New Neth- 
erland. From Sagadahoc to Saybrook, the Anglo-Saxon 
race was now without a European rival ; end the advanc- 
ing tide of its population was soon to roll still nearer to 
Manhattan. It was its destiny ultimately to triumph ; 
and numbers and assurance carried the day against few- 
True Euro- ness and equity. Yet the true European title, by ac- 
i^ w- tual discovery and continuous visitation, to the coasts of 

and and 

connecti- Loug Island Sound and the valley of the Connecticut, was 
clearly and undeniably in the Dutch. As far as there 
was any color of English title to the region souHi of the 
Massachusetts line, that title was vested in the grantees 
of the Earl of Warwick, or, after tiie surrender of the 
Plymouth chcurter, in the crown. The Puritan colonists 
who first settled themselves on the Connecticut, and en- 
deavored to expel the Hollanders firom the territory which 
they had careftilly explored long before it was seen or 
known by the English, did so without a shadow of title 
from the Plymouth Company, under whom they professed 
to claim ; and it was not until two years after the Resto- 
1662. ration of Charles II., that a royal charter gave the people 
of Connecticut the territorial security which they desired 

♦ Chalmers, 287; Hutchinson, I., 93 ; Trumbull, I., «6 ; Young, Ch. Mass., 283 ; Ver- 
toofh Tan N. N., In U., N. Y. H. S. Coll., ii., 278. This post is marked on Vlsscher'i and 
Van d«r DoncVa maps of New Netherland as *' Mr. Finser's handel-hnya." 


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against those whom they denounced ag their ^< noxious ciup.vui. 
neighbors, Ihe Dutch."* ~J — ~ 

If the relations of New Netherland with its colonial neigh- d^^^' 
bors were not satisfactory, the condition of its home affairs jJU^Nih- 
was quite as unpromising. After conveying to Point Com- •'**°^ 
fort the English prisoners captured at Fort Nassau, and as- 
certaining that Virginia was << not a good place lor Holland- 
ers to trade at," De Yries returned to Manhattan in the 
following spring. Reaching Sandy Hook toward evening, 
he piloted the King David safely up to Fort Amsterdam, sMay. 
off which he anchored about two o'clock the next mom- returns to 


ing, without any one on shore bemg aware of his arrival. 
No sentinels were on post ; no challenge hailed the ship. 
At daybreak ihe vessel fired a salute of tiiree guns, and 
the sleepy garrison '^ sprung suddenly out of bed, for they 
were not accustomed to have one come upon them so by 
surprise." De Vries, however, was kindly welcomed by i« May. 
the director ; and his leaky ship was soon hauled into the «hip at the' 
" Smid's Vleye," where she w€w careened and repaired.t vieye." 
A few days afterward. Van Twiller, accompanied by De «5 June. 
Vries and Domine Bogardus, went across the river, oppo-vanvoom, 
site to Fort Amsterdam, on a visit to Pavonia, where Cor- new anpcr- 
nelis van Voorst had just arrived as " head commander" ai Paronit 
for Michael Pauw, the pakoon. Van Voorst had come out 
in a small English bark, and had brought along with him 
some " good Bordeaux wine" from the north of England, 
The director, who was always " glad to taste good wine," 
therefore hastened across the river to greet Pauw's new 
officer. While the party were enjoying themselves, Van 
Twiller and Bogardus had " some words" with the pa- 
troon's commissary, about a murder which had just been 

* Chalmera, 288; Letter cf General Assembly of Conneetient to Lord ^y and Seal, 
7th of June 1661, in TnunbnU, !., 513 ; N. A. Reriew, tUI., 65 ; Lambrechtsen, 43 ; U., N. 
T. H. S. Coll., i., 06 ; post^ p. 605, 70S ; see also note L, Appendix. 

t De Vries's Voyages, 144. This is the first mention of the ** Smid's Vleye,** or Smith's 
Valley, which was the old (luniliar name of the marshy ground between the East River 
and Pearl Street, and Pine and Pnlton Streets. When the " Maagde Padtje," or Maiden 
Lane, was extended beyond Pearl Street throngh this marsh, in Lord BeUoroont's time, 
a market^honse was built at the head of the slip. This was originally called the "Vleye 
Market,** or market in the swamp. The English soon eompted the name into "Fly 
Market,** by which it oontinoed to be known nntU It was taken down a Ibw years ago.— 
See also Jtidge Benson** Memalr, p. 138, and Moolton's " New York in 1073,** p. t3. 

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CHAP.vnLoommitted at Pavonia. But they eventaally parted good 
friends ; and as the director was returning to Fort Am- 
' sterdam, Van Voorst fired a salute in hb honor from a 
swivel which was mounted on a pile in front of his house. 
A spark unfortunately flying on the roof, which was 
thatched with reeds, set it in a blaze, and in half an hour 
the whole building was burned down. 
July. Another characteristic incident happened soon afterward 

lePs arbi- at Manhattan. Some Englishmen, having captured two 
dao. small vessels in the West Indies, took them into the South 
Eiver, where they were found by one of the Dutch trad- 
ing sloops, which immediately brought tliem to Fort Am- 
sterdam. There tlie Englishmen sold their prizes, and 
shipped their goods on board the company's vessel, the 
<< Seven Stars," which was loading for Holland. The 
English captain wished to have his goods sent by the ^p 
of De Vries, who was willing to convey all his men at the 
same time to Europe. But the director would not con- 
sent to this arrangement, as it would interfere with the 
company's mcmopoly, though he compelled De Yries to 
take ten of the Englishmen on board his vessel ; ^^ all which 
trading by force was very unreascxiable." 
8 Augoit. When the ships were nearly ready to sail, the constable 
Me at Fort of Fort Amsterdam gave a parting banquet to his returning 
ciTMabtn- countrymen. A table and benches were arranged under 
a tent on one of ihe angles of tlie fort overlooking the pla- 
cid bay, and a large company invited. When the feast 
was at its height, the trumpeter began to blow ; and some 
words passed, because the koopman of the shop, Hendrick 
* ^^Tram Hudden, and the koopman of tiie cargoes " scolded Corlaer 
««».*' the Trumpeter." As valiant as he was skilled in music, 
Corlaer instantly gave them each ^^a drubbing;" upon 
which they ran home vowing vengeance, and got their 
swords. But they contented themselves with ^^ many fool- 
ish words" at the director's house ; their soldiership evap- 
orated over night ; and in the morning ^^ they feared the 
trumpeter more than they sought him." 

The irregularities in Van Twiller's government^ which 

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De Yries had so often witnessed at Manhattan, did not, chap. vin. 
however, prevent him from appreciating the advantages 
of a well-organized colony in New Netherland. Not dis- ^^ vrie» 
oooraged by his failure at Swaanendael five years before, ^"^"Si 
he now determined to establish a settlement nearer toJ^^J^^ 
Fort Amsterdam, where he supposed it would, at alljJJ^^ 
events, be more seoure from the attacks of the Indians. 
Staten Island, which Pauw had abready appropriated, 
seemed to offer unusual advantages ; and De Vries re- 
quested the director to enter it for. him, as he ^^ wished toiaAncvM. 
return and organize again a colony there." Van Twiller 
readily agreed to do so; and the prospective patroon, after 
wooding and watering his ship up the river, at the " Groote- 
val, which lies three miles beyond Menates Island," im- 15 August, 
mediately set sail for Holland.* 

The colonial officers of New Netherland did not neglect Undsuk- 
the opportunities which they enjoyed of advancing their proTinciai 
own private interests. Jacob van Curler, the former com- 
missary at Fort Good Hope, now purchased from tiie In- 1« June, 
dians a flat of land called " Castateeuw," on Sewan-hacky 
or Long Island, " between the bay of the North River and 
the East River ;" and Thomas Hall, the English deserter, 
was hired to superintend the plantation. At the same 
time, Andries Hudde, one of the provincial council, in 
partnership with Wolfert Gerritsen, purchased the mead- 
ows next west to Van Curler's. A month afterward, Van i« juiy. 
Twiller himself secured the level grounds further to the 
east. These purchases, which were estimated to include 
nearly fifteen thousand acres, seem to have been made 
without the knowledge or approbation of tlie Amsterdam 
Chamber. Flourishing settlements soon arose, which. New Am- 
collectively receiving the name of New Amersfoordt, after S^?^ 
that of the interesting old town in Utrecht, where the il- mS^. 
lustrious Bameveldt was born, were the germ of the pres- 
ent town of Flatlands.t 

About the same time, Roelof Jansen, who had been as- 

• De Vries, 145, I4«. 

t Alb. Ree. G. G., 31-39; U., N. T. H. S. CoQ., il., 338; 0*Cdl., i., 173; TbompMii*! 
LoBf leUuid, IL, 183 ; ValenUiie*! Manntl for 1850, 54S-544. 


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CHAf.vm.sistant superintendent of farms at Rensselaerswyck, ob- 
tained from Van Twiller a grant of thirty -one mcnrgens, or 
Roeiof and sixty-two acros of land, on Manhattan Island, a little to 
^JljMn*. ^^ northwest of Fort Amsterdam. This was the original 
HfFirtAa- conveyance of the very valuable estate north of Warren 
suardtm. gj^ge^^ jn ^^ ^i^y of New York, now in the possession of 

the corporation of Trinity church.* 
Van Dinck- Van Twillcr's irregular cuiministration did not, however, 
dered to re- cscapc the scverc criticism of some of his own subordinates ; 
land. ainong whom Van Dincklagen, the schout-fiscal, did not 
hesitate openly to censure his chief. This conduct was 
looked upon as contumacious ; and Van Dincklagen was 
refused tiie payment of his arrears of salary, and ordered 
utriehLii. to rctum to Holland. Ulrich Lupoid, a Hanoverian, was 
pointS" temporarily appointed in his place. In thus arbitrarily 
art. displacing, perhaps, the most learned and accomplished 

man in the province. Van Twiller relieved himself, indeed, 
from the presence of an honest censor, but he eventually 
secured his own recall. Well might De Vries indignantly 
exclaim, as he observed Van Twiller^s incapacity, that 
^< the company had promoted him from a clerkship to a 
commandership, to act farces" in New Netherland.t 
coionieof The colonic of Rensselaerswyck had mean^^diile pros- 
laerawyck. percd uudcr the careful superintendence of Arendt van 
Curler; and the modest hamlet of" Beverswyck" had ex- 
tended itself around the walls of Fort Orange. The fer- 
tile soil yielded abundant crops to the laborious fkrmers ; 
pike and sturgecm, and other choice fish, abounded in the 
river and creeks ; and deer and wild turkeys overstocked 
the neighboring forests. The emigrants, happy in abun- 
dant prosperity, wrote joyous letters home ; and fresh col- 
onists, in large numbers and of substantial means, came 

* Paige*8 Chancery Reports, iv., 178 ; Benson's Memoir, 110 ; Rensselaerswyck MSS. ; 
0*CaU., i., 143 ; U^ 85, 581. Roeiof Jansen, whose name sarriTes in that of the ** Kmr 
which empties into the North River, between Hudson and Red Hook, died soon aAer this 
grant was passed ; and his widow married Domine Bogardns, about the year 1638. After 
that. Annexe Bogardus's (krro on Manhattan was called the *'.Domlne*s Bouwery.** In 
1647, Annetje was again a widow, and soon afterward returned to BeTerwyek, where 
she died in 1663. 

t Hoi. Doc, il., 167, 160, 171, 173, 177, 17&-181 ; De Vries, Voyage*, IIS ; U., N. Y. B 
S. CoU.,ii.,991. 


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out from Holland in the autumn of 1636. Van Rensse-CHAP.yni. 
laer now desired to enlarge hia extensive domain; and 
the sohipper of his vessel was instruoted to assist the co- 
lonial officers in accomplishing this purpose. The next 
spring they accordingly purchased the tract called << Pap- is xpru. 
sikaen," on the east side of the river, extending sputhward laud par- 
firom Castle Island to Smack's Island, and running a con- the east 
siderable distance into the interior. With this addition, ri^er. 
the ooionie of Rensselaerswyck, around the West India 
Company's northernmost fort, now included a territory, on 
both sides of the Nortli River, comprehending a letrge part 
of the present counties of Albany, R^isselaer, and Co- 

Soon afkerward, Van Twiller purchased firom the In- le June, 
dians, for his private use, the island which they called lerpur- 
^*Pagganck," lying a little south of Fort Amsterdam, ptnck or 
This island, which was then estimated to contain a hund- and. 
red and sixty acres of land, was originally called by the 
Dutch " Nooten," or Nutten Island, " because excellent 
nut-trees grow there." After its purchase by Van Twil- 
ler, it began to be knovni as ^^tiie Grovemor's Island," 
which old fiainiliar name survives to liie present day. 
The next month, the director bought two islands in thewjuiy. 
Hell-gate River, the largest of which, called Tenkenas, islands m 
contained about two hundred acres, and Minnahonnonck, River. 
the smallest, about one hundred and twenty acres. Van 
Twiller was now one of the largest private land-owners in 
New Netherland; and the herds of cattle which soon 
stocked his flourishing farms, gave occasion to shrewd sur- 
mises that the director had not hesitated to enrich him- 
self at the expense of the company's interests.! 

Some grants of land were likewise obtained by unoffi- oeorge 
cial persons. Among these, Joris or Greorge Rapelje, one tains a 
of the original Walloon colonists of Long Island, procured ??iai-bo;cu 

* Renas. MSS. ; O^CaU.. i., 134, S26 ; De Vrlea, 1&3 ; Megapolensla'a Tract on the Mo- 
bawk Indians, in Haxard, 1., 518. Mr. Barnard alllnns that, " about 1037, the patroon of 
this eolonj appeared in person to take charge of his estate and his people ," but there does 
not seem to be anj evidence to support this assertion ; see pottj p. 531. 

t Alb. Ree., G. 6., 41, 46 ; De Lae^ ix. ; O'CaU., i., 174, 183 ; Valentine's Manual (br 
1850, 544, 545. 


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CHAF.vuLthe formal oonfinnation of a tract near the Wi^al-bogt.* 
^ A pleasing tradition asserts, that the Indians had relin- 

lejuue. * quished their title to the Walloons upon the birth of Rap- 
elje's daughter Sarah, in the month of June, 1625, beoause 
she was the first white child bom in New Netherland.t 

Jonas Soon afterward, Jonas Bronok became the owner of the 

Bronek** ' 

wStchJl^" Ranaque tract," on tiie "main land" of West Chester, 
*«'• east of and "over against" what is now known as Haer- 

lem.t ^ 

The eora- About the samc time, the Indian title to the island of 
JSSiThe " Q^uotenis," near the " Roode Islcmd," in Narragansett Bay, 
Qnotenis, was sccurcd for the West India Company, and a trading- 
gansett post was established there, under the superintendence of 
Abraham Pietersen. Not long afterward, Pietersen obtain- 
ed for the company the possession of another island, lying 
near the Pequod, or Thames River, which, for many years 
Dutch- after the settlement of Connecticut by the English, con- 
and. tinned to be known as " tlie Dutchman's Island."^ 

The directors at Amsterdam also succeeded in purchas- 
ing from Micdiael Pauw his territorial rights as patroon, for 
which they paid him twenty-six thousand guilders. By 
Paronia thls arrangement, Pavonia and Staten Island became the 
Island, property of tiie c(»npany ; and tiie annoyance which Pauw's 

independent colony had caused was at length stopped.ll 
For trade Up to this time thc fiir trade had steadily increased ; 
jjejw- and notwithstanding the loss of their sole traffic on the 
Connecticut, the directors received returns from their prov- 
ince, during the year 1635, amounting to nearly one hund- 

* Alb. Rec., 6. 6. ; Valentine'a Manual for 1850, 545, 546. 

t Judge Benaon, in hie Memoir, p. 94, gives the fi>Uowlng extract flrom tbe Cooneil 
Reoords in 1056 : ** Sarah Jorisen, the first-hom Ckrittian daughter m New Nethertand, 
widow of Hans Hansen, bmthened with aeren children, petitions for a grant of a piece of 
meadow, in addition to the twenty morgena (Ibrty acres) granted to her at the Waal-bogt." 
In consideration of her situation and birth, Stuyvesaot and his council assented to her 
petition.— Alb. Rec., zi. (P.), »3; Moolton, 971, note ; ante, p. 154. 

t Benson's Memoir, 07 ; Bolton's West Chester, U., 280, S83, S80, 803 ; O'Call., i., S50 ; 
il., 581. " Bronck's Kill," now known as " Bronx River," derived its name from this Jo- 
nas Bronck. 

(t Hoi. Doe., TlL, 78 ; Verbael van Beveminck, 608 ; Alb. Rec., i., 80 ; xriii., SOI ; CCall., 
i., 174« There is an island now marked on the large official map of Maasachosetts, of 
1844, as " Dntch Island." It is in the channel west of Canonicot, and noith of the Beaver 
TaU Light 

I Hoi. Doc., ▼., 400 ; ii., N. T. H. S. CoU., ii., 138 ; CCalL, i., 190. 

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red and thirty-five thousand guilders* Besides enjoying chap. vui. 
the monopoly in New Netherland, the company had open- 
ed a profitable commerce with New England ; and Dutch traffic 
vessels "brf>ught tobacco and salt from the "West Indies, eJi^iJ^u^ 
and Flandera raares, and oxan, and shoep, from Holland 
to Boston. ** They came from the Texel in five weeks 
three days, and lost not one beast or aheep." All these 
commodities bore high prices in New England, where 
there was now a scarcity of pmvisians. Potatoes, fromjii^h|incc« 
Bermuda, were sold at Boston for two-pence the pound ; iioo"^*' 
a good cow was worth twenty-five or thirty pounds, and a 
pair of oxon readily fetched forty. The cattle in Connec« 
ticut did not thrive. In Yirginia corn roae to twenty shil* 
lingi^ the bushel. The soaroity in New England and Vir- 
ginia affected the pricey of proviisions and the value of [a- 
bor in New Netherland. Before the close of 1637, a 
schepel, or three pecks of rye, was sold for two gnilders, 
or eighty cents ; and a laboring man readiJy earned two 
guilders a day during harveat.t These prices wi^re pTob- 
ably caused, in some degree, by the bloody war which 
was now raging in Connecticut 

For the Puritan colonists of New England had become 1634. 
embroiled with their aboriginal neighbors. The Pequods ul^'rSqaU 
had failed to surrender the murderers of Stonoj according*"' 
to their treaty at Boston ; and had tendered, ineteadj an 
atonement of wampum. But Massachusetts insisted upon 
aven^ng blood with blood. Soon afterward, John Old- 1636. 
ham, the adventurous overland explorer of the Conneoti- oliLm^* 
cut» was assassinated by the Block Island Indians, who""^"*^ 
seem to have become jealous at his trading with the Pe- 
quodsj under their treaty with Massachusetts. The mag- 
iiftrates and ministers immediately assembled at Boston, ss aubum. 
and commissioned John Endioott to proceed, with a force Endicmi-p 
of ninety men, to Blocit Island, of which he was directed 
to take possession, after putting to death all the warriors, 
and making prisoners all the women and children. From 

f An>. Ew.. t, «, U., S/& [ wimhwp. U I»i Iftlp 1», lfi7t l»Ji K»- 

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Chat. viiL Block IsIand he was to go to the Pequods, and demand 
~~~ the murderers of Stone, and a thoosand fathoms of warn- 
* pum as damages : if satisfaotiou were refused, tiie expe> 
diticm was "to obtain it by force." 

Endicott promptly executed his " sanguinary orders." 
Block i8i- The Block Island savsbges fled at the approadi of the En- 
tated. glish invaders ; and Endicott " burned tiieir wigwams, and 
all their matts, and some com, and staved seven canoes^ 
and departed." Thence he went to Saybrook, where he 
was re-enforced by twenty men. In a few days, the expe- 
ThePe- dition sailed fpr the Pequod River. Aft6r burning all the 
wuna dt wigwams, and spoiling the canoes of the Pequods, Endi- 
14 Sept.* cott returned to Boston, having done more than enough to 
exasperate, but nothing to subdue Okd now implacable en- 
emy of the English. 

The fatal consequences of Endicptt's expedition were 

Ezaspen- soou felt by the oolouists on the Connectiout. The Pe- 

Peqnodi. quods, arouscd to vengeance, lurked about tlie new fort 

at Saybrook, and killed several of the garrison. During 

the whcde winter, the post was in a state of siege ; and 

1637. Gardiner, the commandant, going with a small party a 

^ ^*^ little beyond the rcmge of its guns, was surprised by an 

Indian ambush, and forced to seek safety in a rapid re- 

RoTenge treat. Wethersfield, too, felt the bitterness of savage re- 

atlsay. " veugc. Scquceu, aggrieved by the oonduct of the English, 

wetbera- whom he had been tibe means of attracting thither, insti- 

ApriL gated the Pequods, who killed nine of the colonists, and 

carried two maidens away into captivity. 

Apprehension was now felt that the Dutch, <' who, by 

their speeches and supplies out of Holland," had excited 

the suspicions of their New England neighbors, would re- 

sayteook posscss thcmselvcs of Saybrook. Captain J6b.n Underbill 

fo^ was, therefore, promptly sent from Boston to the mouth of 

^^ ^^"^ the Connecticut, with a re-enforcement of twenty men, " to 

keep the fort" But Van Twiller, instead of attempting 

to expel the harassed English from the '< Kievit's Hoeck," 

dispatched a sloop from Manhattan to the Thames River, 

near which the Dutch had now a trading post, with or- 

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ders '^ to redeem the two English maids by what means CMiP.vm. 
soever, though it were with a breach of their peace with 
the Peqnods." Toaohing at Saylnrook, the Dutch vessel tu^ Dutch 
was stopped by the English, who would not allow her tog^ggj^^* 
prooeed until her officers stipulated, by "a note under ^p^*X 
their hands," to make the release of the two Wethersfield^***"**^" 
girls "their chief design." On reaching the Thames Riv- 
er, the Manhattan officers made large offers to the Pequods 
for the ransom of the English captives ; " but nothing 
would be accepted." So the Dutch detained six or seven 
of the Pequods on board of their sloop ; and with them they 
redeemed the two maidens, who were conveyed to Man- 
hattan, and, not long afterward, safely restoted to their 
countrymen at Saybrook. 

An exterminating war against the Pequods was now i May. 
decreed by the colonists of Hartford, Windsor, and Weth- J?8ii unit* 
ersfield ; and Massachusetts and New Plymouth resolved i^M^^hT' 
to assist Connecticut. John Mason, who had been bred a ^•^"**** 
soldier in the Netherlands, wa^ solemnly intrusted with 
the command ; and, after a night spent in prayer, an En- 
glish force of ninety men, accompanied by Uncas, the chief 
of the Mahicans, and sixty of his warriors, embarked in lo May. 
three ves^ls at Hartford, and dropped down to Saybrook, 
where the party was re-enforced by Underhill with his 
twenty men. The expedition soon reached ihe Narragan- » May. 
sett Bay, where the English were further strengthened by ^SSJ^**" 
the chief sachem, Miantonomoh, and two hundred of his seuBay" 
warri(Nrs ; and the combined forces pressed onward to the 
strong-holds of the Pequods, on the Mistic River. At dawn 26 May. 
of day, the assailants, in two divisions, led by Mason and 
Underhill, attacked the fortified village at the summit of 
a commanding eminence. The Pequods, taken by sur- 
prise, fought with the energy of despair ; but their arrows 
and robes of fur availed them little against the mudcets 
and corselets of the New England men, now "bereaved of 
pity, and without compassion." No quarter was given ; The pe- 
no mercy was shown. Six hundred souls, warriors andS«d»- 
women, old m^i and children, perished in the indiscrim- 


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272 msTcaiY of the state op new york. 

ch4». vm. inate carnage. The rising sun shone on the smoking m* 
ins of the devastated village. A band of waniore from the 
seoondPequod fort pnrsned the retreating conquercMB; but 
the. English safely reached their vessels, where they were 
joined by Captain Daniel Patrick, who had just come on 
from Boston with forty men. The victorious expedition 
returning to Saybrook, was welcomed by G-ardiner with 
joyous salvos of artillery. 

June. The fate of the remaining Pequods was now sealed. 

tt«^?iint- Stoughton soon arrived at Saybrook with re-enforcements 

wMtof from Massachusetts; and the flying savages were pur- 

"^ "" ' sued as far westward as "within twenty or thirty noiles 

of the Dutch." At a head of land, near what is now 

ir^jnty. Gruilford, the English beheaded two sachems; "where- 
upon they called the place Sachem's Head." Near what 
is now Fairfield, a remnant of the devoted tribe was huBt- 
ed into "a most hideous swamp," and many warriors per- 
ished. Two hundred old men, women, and children were 
taken prisoners, reduced to bondage, and divided among 
the conquering European troops; and not long afterward, 
some of the wretched captives were exported from Bos- 
ton, and sold as slaves in the West Indies. The scalp of 
Sassacus, the Pequod chief, was sent in, triumph from 
Connecticut to Massachusetts Bay. Scarcely a sannup, 
a warrior, a squaw, or a child of the Pequod name sur- 

Extennin. vivcd. An ab(»riginal nation had been almost extermin- 

''^ ated.* 

The tragedy which was thus awfully accomplished was 
performed, indeed, within the eastern territories of New 
Netherland, but by other actors than the Dutch. The 
victorious warfare of the New England colonists secured 
for them nearly forty years of comparative peace, and their 
courageous vigor has well received the most eloquent ap- 
plause. Yet no habitual veneration of ancestral fame 
should justify the unvaried panegyric of all ancestral 

* Wintlirop, i., 180, 103-S85 ; Moiton*i Memorial, 18ft-105 ; Habbard*t Nvratfre ; CoL 
Ree. CodBm 9 ; Mawm, in Maaa. HiaL CoU., xriU., 131-151 ; G«rdin«r, in M. H. GoiL, xxiii, 
196-lM ; Undertim, in M. H. CoU., xxrl., 4-35 ; Chalmera, 991, 9n ; TnimbnU, i., 89-OS ; 
Bancroft, i., 897-409 ; HUdrath, i., Sl»-S5t. 


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works, or doak from calm rerbw the {oil signifioanoe of caAP.vm. 
Inconvenient truth. The Pequod war, mirighteonsly be- 

giin, ruthlessly achieved, was the first serious attempt of 
tha white race to extiipate the red race from the northern 
refiDna of America. It^ injurious effects did not end with 
the subjugation and enslavement of Ita surviving victbnj. 
Their coveted land was indeed won. But the Beeds of 
enmity wero sown for ages ; and it was not long after 
that the Dutch colonists on the North River were obliged 
to witness as murder ous scenes as did tiie Puritan con- 
querors of Connecticut. 

Meanwhile, Van Dinckjagien, on returning to Holland, 1636. 
had severely reviewed Van Twiller'a government, in a me- vL^J^rl- 
moriai to the States General, which was immediately re-SJj. 
ferred to the Amsterdam Chamber, with an intimation 
that they should make prompt satisfaction to their injured » 
officer, whose salary was now three yean* in arrear. The 
irchont-iiscal's complaints, however, were not confined to compiBtrt* 
the civil authorities of New NetJieriand. Domioe Bogar- l^Twiu 
dus was alt^o censured, and to *^nch an extent that, when ^It^I 
the report of the accusations reached Manhattan, tJie Con- 
sfistory of the Church felt it their duty to take " ecclesias- 
tical proceedings" against Van Dincklagen, which, several 
years afterward, they were obliged to defend before the 
Classic of Amstertlam.* But the answer whieh the di- 
rectors tardily gave to the peremptory order of the State^i 2^ arh,wt 
G-eneral was a virtual denial of justice- It only produced 
a freah memorial from the resolute schout-fiscal, who re- 
newed his complaints against the colonial administration 1637. 
of the company, and invoked the interposition of the home AcuJn'or 
government ao eameit-ly, that their High Mightinesses at "X^tH!^^ 

* HoL Doc.j ii,, 107, IftO ; Corrtearpondencc? of the riMSi* of AmnttTJam, Tiw meqwrtftl 
mA p£ptita whifh Vun Dtncklnifeii pre*&ftr«I, on ibe 3t>th oTAugUBt (n the Stales Gonfral, 
un nut now in iJiP ArchlVfffl at tbe Ha^ut?— at Idasl, 1 was nnatiM to rfnd thom^ nSter s. 
car* ftilsMiTli. Thcywcre prflbubty iifi vcr rptu rn pd hy ITio Aiaslerdnin iHn^ctofB, t* whom 
llwr had iman sum ; uul their Ivm ia «pe<!idlly tn tie ro^riit^l, m tlipy, nn dmiht, tan- 
mi RBd an lni erpsltn r ret lew of Van T wllltr'n ad nilt) ] ? iratlon . TUe C^irmtpondt n ro of t h ^ 
ClBAftie of Am*u?rdflm, which I procarad for the Gottera] Synod of the R. U. rteiirch, con- 
tains WTcral TOfcrffices I* V^^ Dinchlagfln'a cnsa ; anil on the iBth t»f July, tB3S, U ap- 
pears that Bogardui nprlJeil to the Council ofN^w ^etharjuid Fur le*T5 m n^um tD Uol- 
tind ind defend himwlf.— Alb. a«., U.^ 17; pw^, p. fliJ, note. 


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OHAP.vm. length ^^ seriously'' urged the College of the XIX. to grant 
him full redress.* 

It was now apparent, even to the Amsterdam Chamber, 
that a change must be made in the government of New 
vuTwu- Netherland. The constant reiteration of charges against 
their chief provincial officer damaged the reputation of the 
company at home ; and the testimony of De Yries, on his 
return to Holland, probably turned against Van Twiller 
the scale which had been kept wavering through the in- 
fluence of the direc1x)rs with whom he was connected. The 
College of the XIX. resolved to remove him at once, and 
appoint a successor, who, with periiaps more capacity and 
experience, seems to have been quite as unfit to direct the 
destinies of a state, 
wuuim William Kieft was the person selected. An apparently 
Mil ag <u- unfiriendly pen has recorded a few indicative anecdotes of 
his earlier life. He was bom at Amsterdam, where he 
was brought up as a merchant. After doing business 
awhile at Rochelle, he became a bankrupt ; and his por- 
trait, according to the uncompromising rule of those days, 
was affixed to the gallows of that city. Some time after 
his failure, he was sent to ransom some Christians in Tur- 
; key, where, it was alleged, he basely left in bondage sev- 
eral captives, whose friends had placed in his hands large 
sums of money for the purchase of their liberty .t 

To such an agent the West India Company determined 

to intrust the goveriunent of their American Province. 

One of the members of the Amsterdam Chamber, Elias 

2 Sept. de Raedt, was accordingly sent to the Hague, to solicit 

Ki«ft com- firom the States Gteneral a conmiission for Kieft as Van 

an.rB\vorn. Twillor's succcssor. Thc request was [uromptly granted ; 

and the new director, in pres^Sbe of the grave Assembly, 

took his oath of office.) 

* Hd. Doc, U., 171-17S, 177, 17a 

t DeVrifls,147,140i Bnadm lUodt, 10 ; InteniatloiMl Mag . Ibr Dm., 18ftl, p. 007. 

t HoL Doe., iL, 181. 


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Early in the spring of 1638, Wili,iam Kiept, the fifth cniF.ix 
director general of tJie West India Company's North Amer- — ^7"" 
ioan Provinoej arrive*! at Manhattan, aft^r an unuanally ^p ^^^f^' 
protraot^id voyage; the *' Herring," in which he sailed JJ[^'^, 
from Holland, having taken the southerly (jourMo, and Hn- JS^^^i,*;^^ 
gered over winter at the Bermudas, for fear of approach- 
ing the coasts of New Netherlands in the stormy nea^oo, 
with inexperienced pilots.* 

Kieft was an active, *^ inquisitive,*^ rapacious jjerson; in khv* 
almost every respect the opposite of Van Twiller. In the and mimm- 
judgment of his New Eagland contemporaries, he was "a 
more discreet and sober man" than his predecessor. But 
iixe history of his troubled administration dt>es not war- 
rant us iu considering hirn ^'a prudent man" or a good 
chief magistrate,t The official records of New Nether- 
land, which are wanting before, have fortimatcly been 
preserved, in an ahnoat unbroken aeries, from the time of 
Kteft's inauguration ; and they afford authentic and cso- 
piouH materials for the historian.! 

The new director organized hia council so as to keepKi»nu 
the entire control in hia hands. Johannes la Montague, HSS. 
a Huguenot physician, who had emigrated to New Neth- 
erland the year before, was appointed a counselor, with 
one vote at the board, while Kieft reserved two votes to * 
himself. Comehs van Tienhoven, of Utrecht, who had ^rXt^ 
heen for several years the company *a book-keeper of wages. flJlr*™^ 

• Am. R«., t,, m ; De Vtim, lii, | winibtmi. l, m ; ii,, m. 

I am note l{, Apjmidlx. 

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Chap. IX. was HOW made pTOvinoial secretary ; and Ulrich Lnpold, 
whom Van Twiller had appointed m the place of Dinck- 
' lagen, continued for a short time to act as schont-fisoal. 
Kieft's conncil managed all the general affairs of the 
province, and was the supreme court of justice. ^^ It was 
a high crime," said Van der Donck, a few years after- 
ward, ^^ to appeal from their jud^nents."^ This organiza- 
tion, however, was occasionally modified, for " whenever 
any thing extraordinary occurred, the director allowed 
some whom it pleased him— officers of the company for 
the most part — to be summoned in addition; but tkat sel- 
dom happened."* 

condHkNi Pindine that the company's affairs were in a ruinoQs 

Manhattan, oouditiou, tiic director caused a formal statememt of tiieir 
situation to be recorded. Port Amsterdam was dila^nda- 
ted, and ^^ open on every dde," except <^ at the stone pmnt ;" 
all the guns were dismounted ; the house in tiie foit, ibe 
church, the lodge, and the other buildings ^^ required con- 
siderable repair." Even the place where the magazine 
for merchandise once stood could << widi difficulty be dis- 
covered." Almost every vessel, except the yacht " Prinee 
William," and another on the stocks, was in the ^< wont 
condition." Only one of the three wind-mills was in oper- 
ation ; another was out of repair ; the third was burned. 
The five farms of the company were untenanted, and 
tiurown into commons ; and all the cattle with which tjbey 
had been stocked had ^^ been disposed of in other hands." 

Van -^wii- But if Van Twiller failed to administer the afiairs of the 

l.?r'« thrift. . . 4. •! 1 % . » . • 

province satisfactorily, he took care to improve bis private 
estate. A few days after his supersedure, he hired from 
n April. Kieft the company's " farm, number one," at a yearly 
rent of two hundred and fifty guilders, and a sixt^ part 
of all the produce ; and the inv^tory of the late olerk- 
director's prq)erty exhibited such an ample estate, tiitt 
many could not h^ contracting it with tiie sorry odndi- 
tion in which he had left every tlung ebct 

* Alb. lUe., ii., 1, t; V«too|h Tin N. N., in Hal. Doe., tr., 74, and ia 41 ., If. V. H. 8. 
CoU., ii., SM. t Alb. Reo., i., S, 80, 91, 101 ; it, N. T. H. 8. 0<M1., 1^ «l«, 160. 

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Almeies existed in every department of the pia1>lio smv- chaf, jx. 
IcBj which the bustling Kieft attempted to remedy by 
proclamations. It ^aa ordered that no peraon in the com* pfocjtuns- 
paoy^s employ should trade in peltriea, and that no ftira Fu"\^di' 
ijhould he exported without special permiasion, under pen- [f^'JJ'^^' 
ally of loss of wages and eonfiscation of good§. The pla-"^'*^*'^ 
card ft^rbidding clandestine traffic in New Netherland way 
repiiblii^hed ; and death was tlireatened agaiiiwt all who 
should sell iKiwder or guns to the Indiana. After ni^ht- Fflii" rcg- 


fall, all sailors must remain on board their ships ; hours 
were fixed for all persons to commence and leave off wc»rk ; 
subordination and diligence- were enjoined ; and fighting, 
kewdnea^ rebellion, theft, perjury, calumny, and *^all oth- 
er immoralities," solemnly prohibited. No person was to 
retail any liquors, *^ except those who sold wine at a de- 
cent price and in moderate quantities.*' And Thursday 
in each week was appointed as the regular day for the 
sessions of the council as a court of civil aud criminal ju- 
risdiction. Tobacco, which had now become a staple pro- To^ai'-jo in- 
duction of New Netherland, was also subjected to excise ; 
and regulations were published, t>o check the abuses which la ah«u«i. 
injured *'the high name" it had ^^ gained in foreign coun- 
Another proclamation declared, that no attestations orwriiingMe 

be MXHsftit^i; 

Other public writings should be valid before a court in 
New Netherland, unless they were MTfitten by the colonial 
secretary. This arbitrary regulatic^n was soon objected to 
as oppressivcj and as intended to restrain popular rights ; 
but the policy of the measure wa^ aftcr%vard defended by 
Secretary Van Tienhoven. ** Most of the people living in 
New Netherland," isaid the sycophantic official, '* are coon* 
try or se^-faring men, who summon each otJier frequently 
before the court for small matters, while many of them 
can neither read nor write, nor testify intelligibly, nor pro- 
duce ^vritten evidence; and, if some do prtxiuce it, it is 
sometimes written by a sailor or a boor, and is often whol- 
ly indistinct and repugnant U} tlie meaning of those who 

* JUb. Ree., 11., 3-lS, 19, II, IS8 ; U^tsr^m Ann. Pbnn., 49. 

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Chat, ul had it Written or made the si^atement. Gonsequentlyi the 
director and oounoil could not know the truth of matters, 
' 08 was proper, and as justice demanded."* 

If, however, the new director seemed chiefly engrossed 
in reforming the civil administration, he did not neglect 
DomineBo-the cauBC of rcUgion. Bog&rdus, the clergyman at Fcnrt 
uined at Amsterdam, upon learning the charges which Van Dinok- 
•t«rd«n. lagen, after his return to Holland, had laid before the 
Classis of Amsterdam, petitioned Kieft for leave to return 
to the Fatherland and defend himself. But the director 
18 jaiy. and council resolved ^^ to retain the minister here, so that 
the increase of Grod's word may in no manner be prevent- 
ed." The Consistory of the Church, however, tamestly 
defended and justified their conduct in 1636 ; and Kieft 
himself seems to have supported their prayer, that the 
Classis would ^^ be pleajsed to look into their case with 
care, and to decide the same against Lubbertus van Dinck- 
lagen, for the protection of the reputation of their es- 
teemed preacher Domine Everardus Bogardus."t 

In spite of Kieft's proclamations, abuses continued. 
Mvmihri. The population of New Netherland not having yet become 
UMtt^^*' generally agricultural, was too much disposed to a lax 
*" * morality, owing partly to the mixed character of the per- 
sons attracted to Manhattan for purposes of trade, and 
partly to the example which the late directs had himself 
set. Kieft attempted to introduce a mor^ rigid system of 
police ; and firesh proclamations threatened all evil-doers 
with fines and penalties. The people were forbidden to 
PaMports. leave Manhattan without passports ; but, in spite of pla- 
cards, they would go when tiiey pleased. Complaints 
were frequently made, that private parties were enriching 
themselves at the company's expense. All persons were, 
16 Nov. therefore, ordered to restore, without delay, every thing in 
^"' their possession belonging to the company, unless they 
could " prove that they bought it fit)m the former direct- 
or." And criminal prosecutions, and executions for homi- 

* Hoi. Doc., T., 300 ; U., N. T. H. S. CoU., ii., S18, 330. 

t Alb. Ree., U., 17 ; Cor. 01. Amst., 19tti Not., 1041, lot Ap., 104S ; «Kf, p. tTS. 

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oiii And mutijiy, were unhappily too frequent to leave c«4>. ix. 

the new director much repose from the cares of his gov- 

^ - loan, 


Though the colony at Renaaelaerswyck was Bteadily slow pror^ 
prospering, the oppressive trading monopoly of the West ricuiinnt 
India Company retarded the agricultural settlement of 
other parts of New Netherland. A few "free colonists," 
however, from time to time came out from Holland, and 
establiished themselves chiefly in the neighborhood of Man- 
hattan. Pavonia, having now become the property of the r^vouiM^ 
company, Kieft, in the name of the directors^ sold some i M*y. 
land at Paulus' Hookj ea^t of Ahasimus, to Abraham 
Isaaek Planok, who soon e3t4iblishod a flourishing farm 
upon his purchase ; and other tracts in that neighborhood 
were leased, before long, to re.spectable emigrants. Near 
^'Corlaer's Hook," on Manhattan Island, a plantation was 30 Jul y. 
bought by Andries Hudde, the " first commissary of Hoqk. 
wares ;" and La Montagne and others began to make 
permanent improvements. In tlie course of the summer^ 1 Auea«t 
Kieft also secured for the company the Indian title to a 
large tract of land upon Long Island, between the East 
River and the swamps of Mespath, now known as New- Mcapatb, 
town ; and active husbandmen soon began to occupy the liSund.' 
fertile regions adjoining the early lrYaal-bogt,t 

Important eventa had, meanwhile, occurred on thjbAff^inen 
southern frontier of New Netherland. After the miscar-Km*r. 
riage of West's scheme in 1635, and the re-occupation of 
Fort Nassau, the Dutch had retained the tranquil posses- 
sion of the South River, Arendt Corssen, whom Van 
T wilier had appointed commissary there^ was succeeded » 
soon after Kieft's arrival, by Jan Jansen, of Ilpendam, in jud Jmwn 
North Holland ; and Peter Mey was directed to act as as- JJ^nTun. 
aistant commissary at Fort Nas.'^au daring Jansen's ab-^^" 
aence.t Sir John Harvey, having defeated the intrigues 
of his enemies in London, returned to Virginia with a 

* Alb. Bee,, O* 0., »7 i 1., C5 : ik, 33 ; \\l, 410. 

t UoJ, Ekw,, t., 309 ; ii.. W. T. H. S- CoU-t li., 138 ; Alb. il«.^ i., 16, 4* i 0*C«U, J., liO i IL, 
5S1 , Lo MoaiftfTio'B Ikrm, on ManbottATi lain nd^ wa* ejiUed Vrtdffftdael > or " Peac^ftil Vaje.'* 
n Wfta bflTWiM.-n ibn Elgtitl) A^maxiv and UderleDi RLrcr. t HoL Doc., vLlJ., 33. 5 L 

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cmaf. IX. new royal oommisBum a^ govemary in whieh post he re* 
mained until he was succeeded by Sir Frauds Wyatt in 

2 April. * 1639.* Harvey's influence, though weakened by ihe fiu)* 
rad^ivy- ^^'^ which dii^cted his administration, was still suffi- 
^^^' cient to restrain the Virginians firom ftirther invasion ol 

New Netherland ; and Ihe Maryland colonists, under Locd 
Baltimore's tolerant government, were too busily occupied 
in harmonious efforts for peopling the beautiful shoreaof the 
Potomac to think of encroaching Upon the adjoining terri* 
tory of the Hollanders. A firiendly intercourse was all that 
they desired ; and Calvert, under the official seal of the 
1638. province, encouraged trade and commerce ''with the 
12 Feb. ]>atchmen in Hudson's River."t But while English ag. 
gressi(Hi was pausing at the South, fresh annoyance from 
an unexpected source visited Ihe Batavian possessions, 
cokmiai Sweden was now to become the competitor of France, 
swSteK. and England, and Holland for a foothold in North Amer* 
ica. The liberal mind of G-ustavus Adolphus early dis- 
cerned the benefits to his people of colonies and an ex- 
panded commerce ; and William Usselincx, the projeetor 
of the Dutch West India Company, visiting the Baltic, 
1626. quickened ihe zeal of the sagacious sovereign. The plan 
14 June, ^hjoh Usseliucx proposcd was adopted by Grustavus, and 
swediflb confirmed by the Diet Ev^i while the gallant northern 
CMipuiy. monarch was swe^ing Germany with victorious armies, 
his views of American colonization became more enlarged ; 
1632. and at Nuremberg he drew up a recommendation of the 
16 October, undertaking as "the jewel of his kmgdom." But the fe. 

3 Not. tal field of Liitzen soon afterward deprived Sweden of her 

magnanimous sovereign ; and the grand ent^prise he had 
so much at heart was suspended for several years.t 
qmm On the demise of Gnstavus, the crown descended to his 

daughter Christina, a duld of six years of age ; and the 
states intrusted the government, during her minority, to a 
reg^icy, at the head of which was the illustrious states- 
man Axel, count of Oxenstiema. One of the few great 

* HtfT«y'i oommiMioR is in Rynm*9 FM«r», xx., p. S ; Hazud, L, 400; aad W3nitt*8 
iBRyiMr,xx.,4M; HMa>d,l.,477. t Boonuh IL, 999. 

$MqmIIod,4«»-411; Bancroft, 1L,9M( Hnwd*! JLniMls of Pmib., 16-90,80. 


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men of all time, the Swedish chanoellor viewed the oon* chaf. ix. 
aequenoes of American eolonigattinin as ^' favorable to all 
Cluristendom, to Europe, and to the whole world." He 1633. 
therefore published tl^ Nuremberg proolamation, which ^^^^*' 

Uu^iaviia had left uii signed ; and the next year, thu char- 16^4. 
ter which Oxcuatierna propoaed for the Swedbh West In- ^^ ^^ 
dia Compaay, waa confirmed by the deputies of the Ger- 
man oiroles at Fraaofort.* 

It was moro than three years, howerer, before the 
scheme was carried into effect ; and when it waa at Jen^ 
axMiornplished^ it waa by the agency of a former officer of 
the Butch West India Company. After hitj recaU jrom F^^uir mju- 
New Netherlands Minuit^ g^inj^ to Stockholm, oflered toScV" 
the regency the benefit of his colonial experience- The 
oonnsela of the discarded director won the conlidenec of 
the sagacious Oxenatierna; and towaxd the close of 1637, 1637, 
Jjinuit sailed from G-ottenbnrj^j with a commission from 
the infant queen, ** signed by eight of the chief lordi* of 
Sweden," to plant a new colony on the weat side of the 
Delaware Btiy. The selection of this region was proba1:>ly 
owing to Minuit, who^ daring his directorship of Now 
Netherlands had become well aoquaint;ed \inth the situa^^ 
tion of E^waanendael and the neighboring territories on 
the South River^ and who knew that there was now no 
European colony thore. A man-of-war, **the Key of Cal-MEmm 
mar," and a tt^nder, '* the Griffin,'' were fitted out, in which s^Vb^V' 
about fifty emigrants were embEirked, some of whom being^^ 
'^ bandits,*' were to be employed as galley-slaves in erect, 
ing fortifications. The care of the Swedifih government 
added a pious Lutheran clergyman, E-eorus Torkilhis, and 
supplied the expedition with provisions, ammunition, and 
goods for traffic with the nativea^t 

Early in the spring of 1638— u bout the time that Kieft 1638. 
anchored at Manhattan — the Swedish expedition put in at Jf^JJ^^,, .^ 
Jamestown, where It remained about ten day a, *^to refrej^h|)^^*J**^' 
wLtii wood and water,*' The treasurer of Virginia, bam* 

t HoU Etoe^ Till., M i HiWKd, Ann. Pttnii^ 13-17 ; natnr, 73, 1» j AavCLqi, 4aa 

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CHAP. IX. ing that it was ^^ bound for Delaware Bay, whioh is the 
oonfines of Virginia and New England," there " to make 
^^' a plantation," desired to obtain a oopy of Minuit's com- 
mission. This, however, he declined to furnish, '^ except 
he might have free treule for tobacco to carry to Sweden." 
But Grovemor Harvey " excused himself liiereof," as it 
was "contrary to his majesty's instaructions ^" and Minuit, 

AniTM^in pursuing his voyage, reached the Delavtrare Bay early in 

ware Bay. April.* 

pa!?haa«8 Ruumng up as far as the " Minquas' Kill," Minuit pur- 
'^InquSu? ®1^^®^> fo'' " * kettle and other trifles," from the Sachem 
>^i"'' Mattehoom, who had his wigwam there, as much land, 
" included between six trees," as would serve to build a 
house upon and make a plantation. For tiiis land a deed 
was given, ** written in Low Dutch, as no Swede could 
yet interpret the Indian." By this conveyance, the Swedes 
claimed to have obtained all the territory on the west side 
of the river, from Gape Hinlopen to the falls at " Santic« 
kan,^' or Trenton, and as far inland " as they might want."t 
viaiied by The ucws of the Swedes' arrival quickly reached the 
oom Fort Dutch at Fort Nassau, about fifteen miles fruther up the 
river ; and persons were sent down to demand the reasons 
of their coming. But Minuit represented that he was only 
on a voyage to the West Indies, and would leave as soon 
as he had supplied his ships with wood and water. Re- 
visiting the Minquas' Kill soon afterwEird, the Dutch offi- 
cers found that the Swedes ^^ had done more," and had 
abeady made a small garden. They inquired <^ what it 
meant ;" and Minuit again excused himself '< by various 
reasons and subterfriges." In a few days, the real inten- 
tions of the Swedes were made apparent. Minuit dis- 
Mi ^'"* patched his tender, the Griffin, up the river to treule ; but 
SStoo" ^® ^^ stopped at Fort Nassau, and Peter Mey, the as- 
UjrtYertoaistant commissary, going on board, demanded to see her 

* Morpby'a notes on Vertoogh van N. N., in ii., N. T. H. S. CoU., U., 397 ; Loiter 
from Jerome Hawley, Treasurer of Virginia, to Secretary Windebanke, dated 8t1i of May, 
1888, in Lond. Doe., i., 57 ; N. T. Col. MSS., itt., SO ; Hasard, Ann. Penn., 4% 43. 

t Hoi. Doc, TiU., 70; Acrelios, in U., N. T. H. S. CoU., i., 409 ; Hodde's Repott in 
same toL, p. 439. 

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oommiflsion. This the Swedish officer refosed to show, chaf. ix. 

avowiti*^ Uitii u Wiis their inteiHiun tu tr;^uiljlisli a furt im . ^~ 
the rivtir, and that *'his Q^iieen was aB ju>itiJiahle in build- 
ing a fort there as waa the company/' 

As soon as Kieft received intelligence of this new en- Kiea't oni 
croachint^nt, he ordered Commissary Junsen ti3 go to the t*^ rioiiw4 
ilinquaii^ KiU, and in ease he saw Minuit acting to the 
injury of the Butch, ^^ immediately to protest against it 
in proper form." The dir<>ctor'3 lirst dis^patehea home oon-^s Apni. 
vey ed an account of the afiair to the Ajuatordarn Chamber.* 

Notwithstanding the warning from Fort Amsterdam, ^M^y-^^ 
Minuit persisted ; and the New Netherland government, '"''t" ^ 
therefore, mat hira a formal protest, in which the title of M^nufi^ 
the Dutc^h to the whole of the Delaware was distinctly 
asserted. *'I make known/' ^Tote Kiuft^ *' to yon, Peter 
Minuit, who call yourself commander in the service of Her 
Royal Majesty of Sweden, that the whole South River in 
New Netherland has been many years in our possession, 
and has been secured by us with ibrts above and bolow, 
and sealed with our blaod,t which also hajipened during 
your own direction in New Netherland, and Ib, therefore, 
well known to you. But as you do now make a begin- 
ning of a settlement between our furta, and are building 
a fort there to our prejudice and disadvantage, which we 
shall never endure or tolerate, and as we . also are per- 
suaded that it has never been oommanded by Her Swedish 
Majesty to build fortretises on our rivers and coasts, or to 
settle people on the adjoining lands, or to trade in peltries, 
or to undertake any other thin^ to our prejudice ; now, 
therefore, we protest against all the evil consequences of 
such encroachments, and declare that, while we will not 
be answerable for any mishap, blo*>dshed, trouble, and dis- 
asiter which you may hereafter suffer, we are resolved to 
defend our rights in all such ways as we shall deem proper.^t 

Minuit, however, was not deterred by proclamations, 

*' IIol. Doc., tjil.,^, 70 ; nuAFU, A-nn. Fcno-r 41, 47 : Vrrtoafb Tsn N. K., ut aup., ^m. 
t By ttim (itprDBBiloii, Rlflft tucntil Uw mMsacrc of iJie Diitcb Ai SwiuiiendAi'L dmliif 
Hlmui'ii time. 
I Alb. IU«,« 11., r i ADtT3tlii», 400 « 0-Catl., I., 1»1 ; Hdu^'i AAd. FdAd., 44. 

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CMAP.ix. vfbjxb, ^^he did not feel inoMned to answer.^' A 

house and fort were soon erected on tke north bank of the 
Minuit^'r- Minquas' Kill, about two miles from its oonfluenoe with 
d'4?g}I! *^® South River, near the spot where Wilmingt(m now 
stands ; the name of the kill was changed to that of 
'^Christina Creek;" and the establishment was ccdled 
The << Fort Christina," in honor of the young queen. To de- 
buIid^^Fortfine its boundaries, posts were erected, oa which were 
on the Min- carvcd thc royal initials, surmounted by the crown of Swe- 
**"" ' den. Perfectly acquainted with the Indian trade, Minuit 
soon drew ^^all the skins toward him, by his liberal gifts." 
Twenty-four men were placed in garrison at Fort Chris- 
tina, which was well suppHed with merchandise and pro* 
visions ; and the vessels returned to Sweden, about mid- 
July. summer, with the first cargoes from the new colony.* 
Thus the Swedes under Minuit, more fortunate than the 
earlier Dutch colonists under the patroons of Swaanendael, 
became the first permanent European occupants of the 
State of Delaware. 
October. The ucw diicotor'a first dispatches scarcely reached Am- 
Khip seized stcrdam, before a heavily-laden Swedish vessel arriving at 
by the Medemblick, on her return voyage " from the West In- 
company. dics," was scizcd by the Chamber at Enckhuysen, for 
having illegally traded within Ihe company's American 
territory. The Swedish minister at the Hague, learning 
the circumstances, immediately demanded her release 
fiam the States G-eneral. It was not the policy of TLciy 
land to offend a power whose victxnious generals were 
Released humbliug Denmark and Austria^ The fiag of Sweden 
state^Gen- protected the Swedish ship in the ports of the Fatherland, 
as it had already commanded respect in New Netherland ; 

* Hoi. Doc., vili., 50, 51 ; Hazard, Ann. Peni^., 45, 47 ; Holm, 65 ; Aerellut, 17, 307 ; 
Htedde>8 Report, 428 ; Ferris, 4S, 45. Kieft, in writing to the Amsterdam Chamber, on 
the Slat of July, 1638 (HoL Doe., viii., 50), aaym that Minait, after building the (brt on flie 
South RiTer, &c., " is ran daer vertrocken, met zyn twee byhebbende soheepen," Ac 
The Dvteh word ".▼ertrocken'* literally meant *' departed ;** and the phrase seems to im> 
ply that Minoit went back to Sweden with his two ships. But Kieft, who wrote his dis- 
p«tsli OB hearsay, and not fhm persMsl obasnratioo, psrba|M eacpressod himself inaeen- 
ralflly ; for AoreUna, wfaa draw hia narrativa frsn reliaUa aoorooSf diatlBetly states thst 
Minuit, " daring three yeara," protectad Fort Christina, where he died Cin 1641 ?} ; Md 
that « his soeoaaMr VBs FMsr HoUattdan, a native 9w«d0."-41., N. T. H. S. CoU., i., 410 


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tke arrest was promptly removed ; and the lilje rated ves- cwir. ix 
eel sailed onward to the Baltic.* TZr~ 

Iq the mean time, several shareholders of the "West In- -^^ g^^^J, 
dia Company had represented the unsatisfaotory condition ^*"b hltn" 
of their American province to the States General^ who in- [}*rv'^^"^i,, 
structed their deputies to the Ooliege of the XLS. to aid ^^^^' 
in concerting snoh ^^eifeotive order*' as should attract ^^^"^ 
thither proper emigrants from the Fatherland, *^sotJ^at 
this state may not be robbed of tJie aforesaid New Netii- 
etland by the indirect intrignes of aay of the inhabitantsj 
of this country, nor by the intrusions and invasions of th*i 
subjects of foreign princes and powers," The report of the m ApnL 
deputies was a gloomy pioture. The Umita of New Neth- 
erlands according to the special grant in 1614, and the 
charter of the West India Company, were claimed by the 
directors be extending *' from Virginia upward ; to mit, 
from Ci^apoa, along the sea-coast^ to Terra Nova." Of 
these territories, the Dutch were in possession of the North 
Biver ; the English reached to the Fresh River, aud tJieir 
right **■ is that of the strongest." The company could re- 
tain the remaining territory, if it were populated, " From 
the North River men can go into the interior as far as 
they please ;" but colonization was retarded '* becauBe the 
directors can not agree among themselves.^* ** Would it 
not then be expedient," asked the deputies, **to place the 
district of New Netherland at the dispoi^al of the States 
G-eneral?" "We have no such intentiouj" replied the The rta»- 
company, ** unless we can therebv tjain some advantage ;dmt- to mir* 
we hope that it will prove profitable m time, now that pra^inw- 
soma order has been taken about BraziL The chief ap- 
prehension is about the Engli&h ; and we are considering 
the policy of sturendering the Indian irade^ or something 

Thus the directors, while obliged to confess their mis- 
management of the fertile province which had now been 
nearly fifteen years under their control, refused to surren* 
der it to the States General. It would have been happy 

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cuAf. IX. for New Netiieriand if, instead of remaining the depend- 
enoy of a mercantile corporation, it could now have be- 
• come a government colony of the United Provinces. The 
statesmanship of the Hague did not guide the Chamber 
iiusuccew at Amsterdam. From the first the company had sought 
j^eScnt of to people its province wilii its own dependents. This was 
ludia Own. the cardinal error ; for these persons, returning home, took 
^"^* nothing with them, " except a little in their purses, and a 
bad name for the country." The capital which would 
have been more wisely employed in bringing over people 
and importing cattle, was expended at Manhattan ^^in 
building the ship New Netherland at an excessive outlay, 
in erecting three expensive mills, in brick-making, tar- 
burning, ash-burning, salt-making, and like operations." 
Hie Charter of Privileges and exemptions, which offered 
such large inducements to patroons, discouraged individual 
enterprise. Private persons who might wish to emigrate 
" dared not attempt it." Though the company had at 
first sent over some emigrants, it had not persevered ; and 
while foreigners were quietly allowed to encroach upon 
the frontiers of New Netherland, the company had . not 
encouraged the colonization of the Fresh and South Riv- 
ers by its own countrymen. Its mercantile directors 
looked more to their immediate interests, tiian to the wel- 
fare of the province which their bad government threat- 
ened with ruin.* 
Remit of The searching investigation which the government had 
S«tion!~**' instituted convinced the company, however, that effectual 
measures must now be adopted to regenerate New Neth- 
erlemd. After several months' consideration, a draft of 
New "At- ucw "Articlcs and Conditions" was accordingly presented, 
tees ^pro-^y the historian John de Laet, for the approbation df the 

eompfr States General. But it did not meet the exigency. It 
' was pr(dix and theoretical, instead of precise and practical. 
It was a political constitution — which was not the desid- 
eratum — ^instead of a simple plan of emigration, which 
was really wanted. It promised no abrogation of the op- 

* Vartoogh tu N. N., in Hoi. Doo., tr., 71 ; ii., N. T. H. 8. CoU., if., 988, 189. 

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pressive trading monopoly of the oompany, and proposed cbap. ix. 
no effectaal method of colcmization. It was at once dis- 
cardmi by the Statoa General as " totally inadmissiblo*" 

There was another important question to be adjoijted. 
The dUticuIties between the directors and the patroons 
had boea partially arranged by the purehaae of Swaanen- 
dael and Pavonia, Bot the patroons now attempted to 
enlarge their ** privileges," and boldly presented to theTuepi- 
State:^ General a ** new plan," in whieh tliey demanded rowid new 

111 I* privJegEA 

that they should bo allowed to monopolize more territory; 
have longer time to aottle colonists ; be invested with the 
largest feudal powers j be made entirely independent of 
the control of the company with respect to the internal 
government of their colonies ; enjoy free-trade throughout 
and around New K ether land ; have a vote in the coun- 
cil of the director ; be supplied with convicts from Hol- 
land as servile laborers, and with negro slaves ; and, final- 
ly, that all ** private persons" and poor emigrants should 
be forbidden to purchase lands from the Indians^ and 
should be require-il to settle themselves within the colo- 
nies, and under the jurisdiction of tlie great manorial lords. 
The Island of Manhattan, the precLnot of Fort Orange, 
and Swaanendael and Pavonia, should alone remain tin- 
der the oompany^s exclusive authority, 

The patroons' grasping demands of new *^ Privileges 
and Exemptions'* were as offensive to the States General a .riion (if 
as the diffuse clau^ies of the company'a new ** Articles and Gvn^nL 

It Sept. 

Conditions" were unsatisfaetiiry. Both the proposed in- 
struments were immediately sent back to the Amsterdam 
Chamber, with directions to reconsider ** the whole busi- 
ness of New Netherland ;" m that such measures might 
be taken by their High Mightinesses, respecting its colo- 
nization, ** as should be found mo^t advisable for the sorv- 
ice of the state and for the benefit of the company."* 

The authoritative injunction of the States General was 
promptly obeyed. The " Privileges" of the patroons were 
reserved for future consideration ; but it was now determ- 

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CHAP. uc. ined ibat the experiment of opening to free oonqpetitiM 
"TT" the internal trade of New Netherland should be at onoe 
^^' attempted. The Amsterdam Chamber acoordingly pnb- 
TheWeM lisbod a notification, that all inhabitants of the United 
pnny*« I^oviooes and of friendly oountries might freely oonvey to 
umf'orc^'e New Netherland, ^^ in tiie company's ships," €my oaUle 
and merchandise they desired, and might '^ receive what- 
ever retoms they or their agents may be able to obtain in 
tiiose quarters therefor." All shipments were to be made 
by the company's oflioers ; a duty of ten per cent, was to 
be paid to the company on all merchandise sent from Hol- 
land, and a duty of fifteen per cent, on all goods expcNrted 
from New Netherland ; and freight was also to be paid 
for Ihe conveyance of goods and cattle. The Director and 
Council of New Netherland were to be instructed to mo- 
commodate every emigrant, " according to his ccmditkm 
and means, with as much land as he and his frtmily can 
properly cultivate." A quit-rent of a tenth of all the prod- 
uce was reserved to the company, vrhich would assure le- 
gal estates of inheritance to the grantees. In subordina- 
tion to the States General, the company and its officers 
were to maintain police and administer justice in New 
Netherland ; and each colonist or trader proceeding thith- 
er was to sign a pledge ^' voluntarily to submit to these 
regulations and to the commands of the company, and al- 
low all questions and differences Ihere arising to be d^ 
oided by the ordinary course of justice established in that 
Efltets of a The more liberal system which tiie company was dius 
JXy!*^**^ compelled to adopt, though it fell short of Ihe emergency, 
was a step in advance, and gave a rapid impulse to Ihe 
prosperity of New Netherland. Private enterprise and in- 
dustry were now unshackled ; and an anxiety to emigrate 
was soon manifested at Amsterdam, which Ihe directon 
wisely encouraged by offering a free passage, and other 
substantial inducements to respectable farmers.t 

* HoL Doe., tt., S90, 370 ; 0*CaU., i., 90I-M3. 

t Hoi. Doc, m., M ; ▼., lW-lff7 ; iL, N. T. ■. S. OdlL, H., SM; O'CaU., i., SM. 


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The pTQolaination was no aooner pablished, than plans os^r. ix 

of oolonization were forniGd by persons of capital and m- 
floenoe. De Vries, who had arranged with Van Twilleir j^ jg^^j ' 
two years before, for lands on Staten Island, now aailed aj^J^^'^iu 
from the Texel with several omigranta, who had agreed jjpjjj^," 
to go out with him and commence a colony. Arriving off '^^' 
Sandy Hook in mid- winter, the master of the ship, want- 
ing a pilot, and observing the ground covered with snow, 
began to talk of retiirning to the West Indies, and wait- 
ing there tin til summer. He had '*old false charts," only, 
with him* But some of the passengers, "who had lived 
several years in New Netherlands' asked Do Vries to pilot 
them in ; for they knew that ho had formerly ** taken his 
own ship in by night" Do Vries assenting, conducted sr dm. 
the vessel safely up to Fort Amsterdam, ^* where there MunauKi 
was great joy, because no aliip was expected there at that 
time of the year," After spending a few days at Kieft's 
house, where he was cordially welcomed, De Vriea sent 1639, 
his people to Staten Island, to build some cabins, and be- iiiiidS'^n" 
gin a "colonie*"* mST"^"^' 

In the course of the following summer, several other 
persons of substantial means came out from Holland, 
bringing along with them emigrants and cattle. Among iflJiin** 
them was Jochem Pietersen Kuyter, of Darmstadt, who [^ im*^ 
had formerly been a commander in the East Indies under w-^r" ar- 
the King of Denmark, Cornells Melyn, of Antwerp, also M>int»»it»B 
came to see the country ; which pleased him so well that 
he sot»n returned to bring liis family out to Manhattan, 
Both Kuyter and Melyn afterward rose to prominence in 
their new hornet 

The liberal policy whioh the West India Company hadsinnger* 
now adopted not only encouraged the emigration of sub- tid^hbor- 
Btantial colonists from the Fatherland, but also attracted a" radt«d t- 

. strangers from Virginia and New England. Conscience *f^n*i- 
bad always been unshackled in Now Netherland ; and 
now Uie internal trade and commerce of the province wore 

♦ made free to all. In Massachusetts, where political fran* 

* De Vrtaa, U«, m, f Hoi. Doc, UL, l« ; Da Vri», IflL ^ 


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ciu». IX. ohises were limited to members of the Church, "many 
"T7IT"nien began to inquire after the southern parts ;^ and it 
was not because the necessaries of life or a healthy oli* 
mate were wanting, that that colony was " disesteemed 
of many." Besides seeking relief in Virginia and the West 
Indies, the dissatisfied began to escape from their "insup- 
portable government,'^ to find more congenial homes in 
New Netherland. From Virginia, too, numbers of persons, 
whose terms of service had expired, were attracted to Man- 
hattan, where they introduced improved modes of culti- 
vating tobacco. Cherry and peach trees, which hitherto 
had been seen only near Jamestown, now began to flour- 
ftojperity ish arouud the walls of Port Amsterdam. Prosperity and 
inofc progress replaced dilapidation and ruin. Instead of " sev- 
en bouweries and two or three plantations," full thirty, 
" as well stocked with cattle as any in Europe," were 
^oon under cultivation. The numerous applications for 
land promised "full one hundred more ;" and there was a 
prospect ihat, in two or three years' time, provisions could 
be furnished for fourteen thousand men.* 
15 January. In view of the increasing demand for homesteads near 
chasea"' Port Amsterdam, Kieft purchased from the chief of the 
Long St tribe living near Manhassett, or Schout's Bay, all the lands 
roavany. from Rockaway eastward to " Sicktew-hacky," or Pire 
Island Bay ; thence northward to Martin Gerritsen's, or 
Cow Bay, and westward along the East River, " to the 
Vlaeok's Kill ;" and thus secured to the West India Com- 
, pany the Indian title to nearly all the territory now form- 
s Aiunst. ing the county of Queens. A few months afterward, the 
KXsick Indian owners of " Kekesick" appeared at Port Amster- 
dam, and ceded to the company all the territory " which 
lies over against the flats of tiie Mand of Manhates," ad- 
joining " the great Kill." This purchase is supposed to 
have included a part of the pesent town of Yonkers, in 
the county of West Chester.t 

* Hoi. Doe., 11., 970, SH ; Ul., 98, M ; Alb. Roe., 1., 100 ; 0*Call., 1., 906, 9SS, 418 ; Wia- 
tfenp, L, 881 ; Da Vriea, 100 ; Doe. Hist. N. T., tVn «. 

t Aib.Ree.,0.0.,50,09: zxiL,8; 0>CaO., 1^ SIO ; IL, 835 ; ThoniMOB'a L. L, t, M ; 
BatUtt** Waat CiMiar, 11., 401 . 

in West 

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Among the prominent mem in New England whose at^ oiu^. a. 
taition waa turned toward New NeAerland, was Captain "TTT^ 
Mm Underbill, c«ie of ike heroes of the Peqnod war, and captain ' 
BOW GK>vemor of Pisoataqua, or Dover. Dissatisfied with JJ{i,}*5o. 
Ids abode, he applied to Kieft for permission to reside with 

a few families under the protecticm of the Dutch, pmvid- JJJ^J. 
ed they might enjoy all ^e privileges of the inhabitants 
of New Netherland. The director and council promptly 8 sq>t. 
granted Underbill's request, upon condition that ** he and 
his adheroEits take the oath of aUegianoe to iheit High 
Mightinesses the States Greneral, and his highness the 
Prince of Orange.'** 

The only obHgaticm required from strang^!*s was an oa^ obiigattoM 
of fidelity and allegiance, similar to that which was im-i^eaortow 
posed upon Dutch colonists. The liberal maxims of the N«w*Neii- 
Palherland in regard to citizenship were adopted and* " 
pvoclaimed in New Netherland. In no one respect were 
foreigners subjected to greater restraints than natives, or 
exeluded from any privilege which HoUanders themselves 
enjoyed. New Amsterdam was to be as much a city of the 
world as was old Amsterdam ; and the pK»vincial records 
duotw how readily the English new-comers bound them« septanOMr. 
selves by oath "to follow the director, or any one of the 
council, wherever they shall lead ; faithfully to give in- 
stant warning of any treason or other detriment to &is 
country that shall come to their knowledge ; and to assist 
to the utmost of their power in defending and protecting 
with tiieir blood and treasure the inhabitants thereof 
against all its enemies."t 

Numerous grcmts of land were soon obtain^ by theorantaor 
adopted citizens of New Netherleuid. Anthony Jansen, J^nera. 
<rf Salee, a respectable French Huguenot,' entered two "''^ 
hundred aoree c^posite Coney Island, and began the aet- 

* Alb. Rae., il., 64. Underidn, bowerer, cN not eoiiie to Now Notberitnd xMB IWI. 
In 1643, aA«r undergoing eccleataatfeal dtoelpline at Booton, bo remorod to Btnmlbrd ; and 
tlM next yoar entorad tbo military aerriee oftbe Dntch.— Soe Wintbrop, i., fTO, S9I, 306, 
»6 ; it., 14, 63, 97 ; and Tboinp«on*i L. I., ii., 353-361. In a letter, dated tbo 18tb oTlViio, 
108, Underbill gireo an aeeonnt of tbe proeeodinga of tbo *• prood Pbartooei^ i 
Un, aomowbot mora eiromnotantial tban Wtaitbrop'a e t ilewe n le. 

t Alb. Roc., U., 68. 


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cmjup. iz. tiiement of Gravesend. Thomas Belcher soon afterward 

took up a tract at " Marechkaweick," in what is now Brooke 

' lyn. And George Hohnes, the leader of the expedition 

iftMov. against Fort Nassau in 1635, who had been oanried b|M>k 
to Virginia, returning to Manhattan, in ocmjunction with 
Thomas Hall, his former companion, obtaii]^ a grant of 

DMtei land, and built a house near << Deutel Bay," a beautiful 
secluded nook on the East River.* 

Kiefi'kdo- While every thing wa% now beginning to wear an air 

minisU- of progress and improvement around Manhattan, the aot- 
ive director employed himself diligently in reforming the 
colonial administration. Discipline was enforced among 
the soldiers, and the company's mechanics and laborers 
obliged to regulate their working hours by the ringing of 
the bell. Jacob van Curler and David Provoost were ap- 
pointed inspectors of the new staple, tobacco. Oloff Ste- 
vensen van Cortlandt, who had come out with Kieft firom 
Holland as a soldier in the service of the company, was 

iMy* promoted to be commisscuy of the shop. A change was 
also made in the office of schout-fiscal, but not by Kieft's 
agency. This important post was now conferred, by the 

conMjta Amsterdam Chamber, upon Comelis van der Huygeas. 

I^^tod ^^^ Dincklagen, whose representations had so materially 
contributed to the changes introduced into the administra- 
ti<Mi of New Netherland, was neither reinstated nor re* 

IS July, ceived into the company's favor. Upon the arrival of 
Van der Huygens at Manhattan, Ulrioh Luptdd, who had 
acted as schout-fiscal for three years, was immediately ap- 
pointed commissary of wares by Kieft, who frequently in* 
vited his fNresence at the colonial council board.t 

* Alb. Rao., 1., 11« ; U., M ; 0*CaIl., i., 908, 911 ; U., 581 ; ThoiiipMn*t L. I., li., 171, 918. 
JknM Bay im Um snudl cot« on the East RiTer abovt two milaa akova Coftoer*! Hodk, 
now known as " Toitle Bay.** The orif inal name, " Deatel," which the English aoon 
eoRVpted to " Tatls,'* aigBfc^f aeotrdinf to Jndfe Beoaon (Memoir, p. 9S), a peg wttk 
which caska were " gedentelt," or lecared. Aa these pegs were abort, bat broad at Hm 
baaa, and aa the bay waa narrow at ita entraoee and wide within, the sapposed raaen- 
Maaoe betweea it and the peg probably aoggeated the name of " Deotal.** 

t Alb. Ree., ii., 57, 61, 88, 09, 139 ; 0>CaU., i., 911, 938 ; Hoi. Doo., 906 ; ii., N. Y. U. 8. 
ColL, ii.^ 900, S37. Van CortUndt left the eooapany^a aerriee in 1848, and afterward be- 
ftae pramiaent In oolonial aflhira. Notioeaorhisdeaoeadaata,wholbnnoneortheiMM 
respectable fkmiUes in the state, may be foand In CCalU, L, 919 ; and In BollOB*a Weal 
IT, i., 51. 


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The emancipation of the internal trade of the province, chav.ul 
however, soon began to produce irregularities ; and a new -^^jq 
proclamation warned all persons, of whatever rank or con- jqj^^ 
dition, against selling guns or ammunition to the Indians. JJJ'JJSJS 
A similar edict prohibited any person from sailing to Fort^JgJJ' . 
Orange, the South River, or Fort Hope, without a permit 
from the director general, and from returning without a 
passport from the company's commissary. But Kieff s in- 
discretion hurried him into the adoption of another meas- 
ure, which produced, before long, the most disastrous re- 
sults. Under the plea that the company was burdened 
with heavy expenses for its fortifications and garrisons in 
New Netherland, the director arbitrarily resolved to " de- 1« sapt. 
mand some tribute" of maize, ftirs, or sewan from the«o»veito 
neighboring Indians, " whom we thus far have defended «t« on tn« 
against their enemies," and threatened, in case of their 
refusal, to employ proper measures " to remove their re- 

Meanwhile, the colonists of New England had been rap- ptoctwo* 
idly narrowing the eastern frontier of New Netherland. crotchment 
The exterminating war against the Pequods had revealed tieot. 
a territory hitherto unknown to the English ; and Stoughton 
and Underbill, returning in triumph to Boston, extolled the 1637. 
beauty of the fertile coasts between Saybrook and Pairfielcl. 
** The place whither God's providence carried us, that is, 
to Quillipeage River, and so beyond to the Dutch," wrote uAmiMt. 
Stoughton to Winthrop, " is abundantly before" Massachu- 
setts Bay. " The Dutch will seize it if the English do not," 
he urged, " and it is too good for any but friends." Just 
then Davenport, the former Non-conformist clergyman at 
Rotterdam, and Eaton and Hopkins, " two merchants of 
London, men of fair estate and of great esteem for religion, 
and wisdom in outward affairs," arrived at Boston, and 
were besought to settle themselves in Massachusetts. But 
they could not be satisfied to << choose such a condition," 1638. 
and determined to remove to the << parts about Q^uilli- 
pieok." Sailing from Boston, the English colonists soonsoictniL 

* Alb. Ree., IL, 46, 47, 65. 


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flff.. ly. readied the place which Block had first named the 

" Roodenberg," or Red Hills. The Dutch title was, how- 

w36. ever, disregarded ; and Davenport, under the shadow of a 

gyito i q)readipg oak, laid the foundations of New Haven. A 

wSrS*. gimple '^ plantation covenant" bound the colonists to be 

18 April. « ordered by the rules which the Scriptures held forth to 

thein;" la^d was purchased from the Indian sachems; 

1639. ^^^ ^ vigorous settlement throve apace. In a year, its 

u ootobtr. population exceeded two hundred ; and Theophilus Eaton 
was chosen governor by electors, whose qualification was 
church membership.^ 

With a boldness fostered by the consciousness of supe- 
rior numbers, English emigrants now aimed at possessing 
" all the land" as far westward as the Hudson River.t 

}w^_^ At the mouth oif the Housatonic, the village of Stratford 
already contained more than fifty houses. Enterprising 

Norwitk. emigrants were also beginning to build at Norwalk and 
Stamford ; and even at Greenwich two houses were al- 

Btfitciuuid ready erected. One of these was occupied by Captain 

iwS. Daniel Patrick, "who had married a Dutch wife from the 
Hague." Patrick, who had been in command of a portion 
of tiie troops sent from Massachusetts during the Pequod 
war, had ample opportunities of observing the country in 
the neighborhood of the Dutch. Becoming dissatisfied 
with Watertown, he resolved to seek a more congenial 
home ; and in company with Robert Feake, who had mar- 
ried the daughter-in-law of Winthrop, he removed to Con- 
necticut, and commenced the settlement of Greenwich.! 

Fort at At the mouth of the Connecticut " a strong fort" was 

now completed by Gardiner, the governor of Saybrook. 

goj^jof Hartford was already a little town, with over one hundred 
houses and a fine church. The Dutch, however, contin- 
ued in possession of the flat lands around " the Hope,** 
where Gysbert op Dyck was now commissary, with a gar- 

* Winthrap, i.,9S8,4M, 40&: Hotob. CoU.,«: TronbnU^L, 00-00, 104; oii^^p. 90. 
Dt Vries, 140, sayi, that on the 0th of Jane, 1030, he anchored over night at New BaTao, 
Where he foand ** about three hundred hoiwee boUC, and a hindawnw ohindL** 

t Mather'i M^y^*"*, L, 0. 

t De Vriee, 151 ; Winthrop, i., 00, 74 ; U., 151 ; TnunbtiH, 1., 118 ; 0*Can., I., 906. n« 
maiden name of Captain Patrioli's wift was Annet^ Tap Beyeren. 

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rison of fourteea or fifteen sddiere. At their first oomiKigy ouk ul 
the English conducted themselves discreetly ; but increas- "TZl — 
ing in numbers, they boldly began to plow up the re-j^^' 
aerred lands around the Dutch redoubt. Op Dyck en-gJJJ^*^ 
deavored to resist; but the English cudgeled some of the ^^®- 
garrison who attempted to stop tiieir proceedings, and 
Haynes, the newly-eleoted governor of Goniieeticut, justir 
fied his countrymen. The Dutch, he said, had been many tfjoM. 
years in poaBe&ision» and had done nothing to improve the 
land, whidi <<was lyii^ idle" around their house. '^ItoiMuute^c 
would be a sin to leave uncultivated so valuable a land, jiistuica. 
which could produce sudi excellent com." Thus the 
Hartford people vindicated their conduct. They '< gave 
out that they were Israelites, and that the Dutch in New 
Netherland, and the English in Virginia, were Egyp- 

The next year witnessed stiU bolder aggression. The 1640. 
right of tile Dutch to any of the land around their little ^^"^ 
fort was openly denied. In vain Commissary Op DyckHSJSbwi. 
pleaded Dutch discovery before English knowledge (rfthe 
river, and Dutdi possession under a title from the Indian 
owners, anterior to En^ish purchase and settlement 
''Show your right," said Hi^ins, who had succeeded ssaioil 
Haynes as governor, '' and we are ready to exhibit ours." 
Evert Duyckingk, one of the garrison, while sowing grain, 
was struck '' a hole in his head with a sticke, soe that the S5 Apru. 
blood ran downe very strcmgly." Ingenuity was taxed to 
devise modes of worrying the Hollcmders ; and to fortify iJie 
English claim of title, Sequasson, the son of the sachem who 
had assented to Van Curler's original purchase, was brought is Joiy. 
into court, to testify '' that he never sold any ground to the 
Dutch, neither was at any time conquered by the Pequods, 
nor paid any tribute to them." Kieft's repeated protests 
brought no alleviation of annoyance ; for no re-enforce- 
ments came from Manhattan to vindicate the rights of tiie 
West India Company. Disgusted with a poet where he 
was so constantly insulted, Op Dyck resigned his office, ss 

-» De Vriea, 140/150, 151 ; antSy p. 801, note. 


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CiiAr. IX. and Jan Hendrioksen Roesen snooeeded him as oommis- 
sary at the Hope.* 

The progress of English enoroachment along the shores 
of the Sound naturally awakened the anxiety of the New 
Netherleuid goyemment. Excepting Bronok and his les- 
sees, there were as yet soaxoely any Dutoh colonists east 
i» April, of tiie Haerlem River. In order to <^ maintain the char- 
ctumSt ter and privileges" of the West India Company, Kieft dis- 
iween Nor- patched Secretary Van Tienhoven, early in the spring of 
the Nofth 1640, wiHi instructions to purchase the " Archipelago," or 
group of islands at the mouth of the Norwalk River, to- 
gether with all the adjoining territory on the main land, 
'^ and to erect thereon the standard and arms of the High 
and Mighty Lords States G-eneral ; to take the savages 
under our protection ; and to prevent effectually any other 
nation encroaching on our limits." These directions were 
executed ; and the "West India Company thus obtained the 
Indian title to all ihe lands between Norwalk and the 
North River, comprehending much of the present county 
of West Chester.! 

Patrick and Feake, who had been quietly settled for 
}} ApriL some time at Petuquapaen, or G-reenwich, now purchased, 
from one of liie neighboring sachems, his title to that re- 
gion. Kiefk, however, who had already secured a formal 
15 October. ocssiiHi from the savages, soon afterward protested against 
PMrtok and Patrick's intrusion, and warned him and his associates 
that they would be ejected, unless they recognized the 
sovereignty of the Dutch. But Patrick, though he inune- 
diately declared that he would do nothing " that should 
be in the least against the rights of the States General," 
continued in adverse possession at Greenwich for two 
years longer, before he formally acknowledged the juris- 
diction of the authorities of New Netherland.t 

* Hoi. Doe., iz., 191-197: Alb. Roe., IL, 104 ; Haxard, ii., f0S, 204 ; N. T. H. 8. CoO., 
i., S7S, 873 ; Col. Rtc Conn., 51, 58 ; ontf, p. 885, note. 

t Alb. Reo., iL, 78, 147 ; De LaeC, tUL ; Hazard, U., 813 ; O'CaU., i., 815 ; BoIttm*« 
WoM Cbertor, t, 180, 883 ; U., 10, 145. 

t Hoi. Doe., ix., 198, 804; Haxard, U., 804, 805; N. T.H. S. CoU., 1., 874, 875 ; O'CalL, 
t, 818, 858 ; TnunboU, 1., 118. 



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Up to this time, the Datoh settlements on Long Island oiuf. ul 
had been oonfined to the neighborhood of the present city "TTTT" 
of Brooklyn. By purchases from the Indicms, the WestEx^ntof 
India Company had already become the proprietary of jJJiSlSn 
Mespath, or Newtown, and of the regions eastward as farSJJjJf"' 
as Cow Bay, and southward to the Atlantic coast. Kieft 
now bought from '''the great chief Penhawitz," the headioM»y. 
of the tribe of Canarsee Indians, who claimed the territo- 
ry forming the- present county of Kings, and a part of the 
town of Jamaica, his hereditary rights to lands on Long 
Island. Thus all the Indian title to that part of the isl- 
and westward of Oyster Bay, comprehending the present 
counties of Kings and Queens, became vested, by pur- 
chase, in the West India Company. The territory east 
of Oyster Bay, now forming the county of Suffolk, how- 
ever, remained in the hands of its aboriginal lords. But 
the Dutch, who were the first Europeans that occupied 
any part of Long Island, always considered it the " crown 
of New Netherland," whence they obtained their supplies 
of wampum ; and the possession whidi they had formaUy 
asserted, by affixing to a tree the arms of the States Geh- 
eral, they were determined to maintain.* 

A new encroachment now threatened this " crown" it- 
self. Under his grant from the council of Plymouth in 
1635, Lord Stirling soon afterward gave a power of attorn- 1637. 
ey to James Farrett, to dispose of any part of his prop- U -^p'"- 
erty upon Long Island or its neighborhood. Farrett ac- James fw. 
cordingly visited New England; and, having selected fortoN^JEn- 
his own private use Shelter Island and Robins' Island, inlorts"^ 
Peconick Bay, extinguished the Indian title by a formal agent, 
purchase.! Previously to Farrett's arrival, however. Lion 
Gardiner, the commandant at Saybrook, had purchased of 1639. 
" the ancient inhabitants" the island near Hontauk Point, nir°pu?**'" 
'' called by the Indians Manchonack ; by the English, the SK^ b^* 
Isle of Wight." This valuable purchase was soon after- "** 

* Alb. R«c., II., 8S ; Thompeon^i L. I., I., 03 ; 0»Call., I., 215 ; 11., N. Y. H. S. Coll., II., f7$. 
t HarUbrd Records, Towns and Lends, i., 5 ; Southampton Ree. ; Thompson's L. L, 
i., 904, 867 ; Wlnthrop, i., 231 ; ante, p. 259. 

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oiup. IX. Wind oonfirmed by Farrett, who^ in tha name of Lord 

"~~ Stirling, granted to Grardiner a^d his betrs tlie fall posies^ 

10 uu^ sion of the idand, and the power << to make, execute, and 

put in practioe such laws for ohurdiL and oivil government 

as are aooording to God, the king's, and the prao^oe of 

the country." Gardiner immediately removed Irom Say* 

brook, and fixed his residenoe on the island, whidi has 

1641. since been kuQwn by his name. The next year his daugh* 

^* ^^ ter Elizabeth was bom at << Gardiner's Island ;" and thu9 

was commenced the first permanent English settlement 

within the present limits of the State of New York,* 

Had Lord Stirling's agent limited his grants to the east- 

j^g^Q em portion of Long Island, no difficulties would probably 

17 April, have occurred with the Dutch. A month after Hie con* 

uioriui firmation of Gardiner's purchase, howev^, Farrett, on be* 

people to half of Lord Stirling, made an agreement with Lieuten* 

Sn^uT *"** Daniel Howe, Edward HoweU, Job Sayre^ and other 

•nd. ijihabitants of Lynn, in Massachusetts, by whiph they 

were authorized to settle themselves upon any lands on 

Long Island that they might purchase firom the native 

Indians. Soon afterward, Farrett visited Manhattan in 

person ; and, in the name of Lord Stirling, boldly laid 

Farrett ar- claim to the wholc of Loug Island. But he was instant- 

rested at ^' 

uwahMtMXL ly ancsted by Kieft, by whom *' his pretension was ikot 
much regarded ; and so he departed without accomplish- 
ing any thing, having influenced only a few simple peo^ 
^•^ ^ The Lynn emigrants arriving at Uanhassett, at the 
jo^^ Ibead of Cow Bay, found the Dutch arms erected upon a 
B^- tree ; and Howe, the leader of the expedition, pulled them 
down. But the Sachem Penhawitss, who had just hehte 
ceded all his rights to the Dutch, promptly informed Kieft 
that some << foreign strollers" had arrived at Schout's Bay, 
where they were felling trees and building houses, and 
^ had even hewn down the arms of their. High Mighti- 

• Thompson's Long Island, i., 305, 306 ; Doc. Hist. N. Y., i., 085. Mr. Thompson girsn 
tis date of the CMflrmaUon as the lOtb of March, 1630 ; but as the Bngliah thea used Ihs 
9U styk, it was actaaUj in 1640, according to oar present svstero of reckoning. 

t Thompson's L. I., i., 326 ; ii., N. Y. H. S. CoU., li., 275. 

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nesses." CoomiMary Van Curler was aexit to asoertain eair. ul 
the faots ; and the sachem's story was found to be true. 
The arms of the States General had been torn down, and 
in their place had been drawn ^'an unhandsome faoe." 

Kieft's ''high displeasure" was instantiy aroused; andHMi^ 
Van Tienhoven, the provincial secretary, was jnoKoptly hoTen moi 
dispatched with the under-schout, a sergeant, and tweoity tue intrad- 
men, to break up the settlement, arrest the trespasaera, 
and brlQg them to Fort Amsterdam. It was a whole day 
before the expedition reached the Schoul/s Bay. When is May. 
Van Tienhoven arrived at the English settlement, he 
found one house already built, another in progress, and 
'' eight men, one woman, and a babe ;" Sot Howe and the 
rest of his party, anticipating the danger which threat^i- 
ed them, had already pudently retired* The trespassers The En- 
stated that they had been authorized to settle themselves Danen 
there by '' a Scotohman named Farrett, the agent of Lord MaoLttan. 
Stirling," who had left for New Haven, after the Dutch 
arms had been thrown down, Sayre and five more of the 
party were immediately arrested and conveyed to Fort 
Amsterdam, where they were examined by the director le May. 
and council. Satisfied that they had been instigated by 
others, Eieft liberated them from arrest, three days after- 19 May. 
ward, upon their signing an agreement to ^' leave the ter- 
ritory of their High Mightinesses." 

Thus ended the attempt to plant an English 'colony 
within the present county of Q,ueens. Kieft immediately Kiaft 
addressed a letter, '^in Latin," to Q-overnor Dudley at Governor 
Boston, complaining of ^< die English usurpations," both r'' ^ 

at Connecticut and on Long Island, and of the insult of- 
fiored to the Dutdi arms at Schout's Bay by the Lynn 
trespassers. Dudley returned an answer, also in Latin, Dudley's 
professing the desire to maintain a neighborly correspond- ^ ^' 
eiice ; and that as to the Connecticut people, '^ they wer« 
not under our government, and iot those at Long Island, 
tiiey went volunterily fifom us."* 

* Al^.]UenU.,8»-«3; Bassrd»U.,91S, 364; Wlntlmp, it. A 7 ; LaeUbri, 44 ; 0*CalL, 
1., Hi; TlioBi9«», tt., M; Wood, 9; Vertoogh ▼« N. N., at rap., 175; Tnunboll, L, 

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csAP.iz. The ejeotion of tiie trespassers from Manhassett led, 
TTTT" however, to the immediate settlement of the town of Soutii- 
setuement ampton, withiB the present county of Suffolk. Finding 
of South- ^^^ ^^ jj^^ Netherland authorities, while they utterly 

derided Lord Stirling's claim, were chiefly anxious to 
maintain their possession of the western extremity of 
Long Island, Farrett now determined to gain a permanent 
foothold at the east, near Lion G-ardiner's settlement. He 
\i "'WW. therefore released to Howe, Sayre, and Howell, and their 
associates, ^^ all patent right of all those lands lying and 
being bounded between Peaconeck and the easternmost 
point of Long Island, with the whole breadth of the said 
island from sea to sea." The consideration stated by Far- 
rett was " barge hire, besides they being drove off by the 
Dutch from the place where they were by me planted," 
and a sum of money, " all amounting unto four hundred 
pounds sterling."''^ Under this release, Howe and his as* 
sociates came to Southampton, and obtained a conveyance 
IS Dee. of the Indian title in the following winter. The new plant- 
ation extended eastward from Canoe Place, on Shinnecock 
Bay, nearly to Sag Harbor, opposite Shelter Island, "com- 
1641. monly known by the name of Mr. Parrett^s Island." The 
^^^' first town meeting was held early the next spring ; and 
regular records were then commenced, which exist in good 
1640. The adjoining town of Southold, on the north side of 
eotonieed Pcconick Bay, was settled nearly at the same time. Its 
jS^e. first colonists were natives of England, who accompanied 
NewW their minister, John Youngs, from Hingham, in Norfolk, 
and first came to New Haven. From there they crossed 
over to "Yennecock," near Grroenport, and secured the 
Indian title to the land. The conveyance was taken in 
the name of New Haven, which for some years exer- 
cised a limited control over the settlement. A church 

110, 131. SaTage, in a note on Winthrop, iL, p. 5, Jnatly remarks tliat Tramlrall'a ae- 
eonnt is '* not Tery satiafactory ;" and adds, " the right appears to me to hate been on th« 
aide of the Dutch.'' 

* Lend. Doc., i., «0, 03 ; N. T. Col. MSS., iii., 81, S3 ; App., note N. 

t Southampton R«c. ; Thompeon's L. I., i., 330-338. In 1044, Sonthampton beeatee 
" aioctated and Joined'' to the jnrisdlotion of Oonneetient.— Col. Rec. Conn., 113, 501. 


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was '< gathered anew ;" and the English oolonists at South- chap. ix. 
old, like their neighbors at Southampton, quietly pursued 
their own way, without any opposition from the govern- ^i October, 
ment at Fort Amsterdam.* 

Though an air of progress and improvement was al- Tardy agri- 
ready manifest in the neighborhood of Manhattan and coioniu- 
Fort Orange, the unadjusted difficulties between the com- Netnar^ 
pany and the patroons hindered the prosperity of the rest 
of New Netherland. Even the plantation wldoh De Vries 
had established at Staten Island languished for want of 
proper colonists, for whom he had depended upon his part- 
ners at Amsterdam ; and finding <^ a beaatifol situation" 
of full sixty acres of natural meadow-land on the river ioFai». 
side, about five miles above Fort Amsterdam, he went 
there to live, partly " for the pleasure of it," and partly as 
there was hay enough for two hundred head of cattle, 
" which was a great article there." Well, however, as 
the patroon was acquainted with the southern and eastern 
coasts of New Netherland, he had never yet gone up the 
North River. His enterprising nature now led him to voyage or 
visit Fort Orange, to "see the country there;" and his to Fort or- 
circumstantial Journal — the only known narrative of any 
Dutch navigator, except those given by De Laet and Pur- 
ohas — ^has left us an interesting record of the North Biver 
in the year 1640. 

Sailing from Fort Amsterdam in his own sloop, De Yries i^ Apru. 
arrived in the evening at " Tapaen," where he found aTappan. 
beautiful valley under the mountains, of about five hund- 
red acres in extent, and through which ran a fine stream, 
offering attractive mill-seats. Delighted with the spot, 
which, moreover, was so near Fort Amsterdam, he pur- 
chased it from the Indians. From Tappan he crossed over 
to Weckquaesgeek,t where he observed the beautiful un- ^^^' 

* TmmbaU, i., 119 ; Thompaon, i., 374, Ml. 

t Van Tienlunren, In 1690, deaeribod thla raglMt, whleb ta now ttie town of Oraen- 
bfBg, In WaM Cheater ooanty, aa a fine land (ta* evltlTation, and wan watered. " It ia 
altnated between two atreama called Sintafnek and Armonck."— Hoi. Doc., t., 134. Bol- 
lon anppooes tbeae atreams to bo, the one which rana through Sing Sing, and the Byraaa 
Riter. Thia region ia eren now remarimblo Ibr tta deddnooa treea, among which ar* 
many of that moat beantlfVil oTaU arergraena, the Ameitean haorfaak. 


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Chap. IX. dulating Gountary full of evergreens, whenoe fhe ship-bnikU 

ers at Manhattan were aocustomed " to proonre green 

^^0- masts." 

« April. While passing Haverstraw, a creek was noticed^ where 

there was a waterfisdl, which ^' made such a noise that it 

conld be heard from the river." At noon the sloop entered 
TiwHifh- the majestic Highlands, "which are prodigiously high 

stony mountains," where the river, at its narcowmost, wsM 

" not over five or six hundred paces wide." About sun- 
Dana-ka- set, reaching the " Dans-kamer," where there was a party 

of riotous savages, who only threatened touble, the sloop^ 

company " stood well on tiieir guard."* 

17 Aprfl. The next day they came to the " Esoopes," where " a 

creek emptied, and the Indians had some deaxed com- 
caiAui. land." In the evening they reached " the Catskill,*^ 
where there was some open land, upon which the Indiana 
were planting eom. Up to this place the river banks were 
" all stony and hilly," and were judged to be " unfit for 

18 April, dwellings." At the " Beeren Island" many Indians were 
and. found fishing, and the beautifal meadows which skirted 

the river's banks were noticed as very " good for cultiva- 
Bimndt tion." Toward evening the sloop arrived at Brandt Peel* 
en^s, or Castle Island, " which lies a little below Port Or- 

ange." Inviting De Yries to his house, Peelen astonished 
his guest by telling him that, for ten successive years, he 
had raised beautiful wheat there vrithout ever smnmer- 
falkiwing the land.t 
ID Apru. While De Vries was enjoying Peelen's hospitality, a sud- 
ftMhec den freshet inxmdated tiie island, "v^diioh was ordinarily 
seven or eight feet above the tides. The flood lasted three 
days, during which the colonists were obliged to des^ 
Iheir houses and betake themselves to the woods, where 

• The "Dana-kamer*' ia a point on tbe west aide of the rirer, above Newborg, wUefc 
atUI retaina the name that the Dutch gave it beltare 1640. It meaos ** Dance Chamber." 

t De Vriea, 151-153. Thia atatemeat ia conflraed by Megapoleoaiat in hia Traet apen 
die Mohawk Indiana, Hasard, i., 519 : and by Von der Donck, in his DeaoripUon of N. N.« 
p. S7 ; U., N. T. H. S. CoU., i., 15», who aaya, " I had the laad adjoining thia aam tern, 
aad hfe^a aem tbe eloTeaih erop, which waa tolerably g9od* TheBaoMofthaaMaiA* 
did thia waa Brandt Peelen, a native or tlw preTiBee of Utnchiy and alllMt tfaa a sehipai 

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tliey *^ pitdied tents and kindled great fires.'^ The waters chat, hl 
even ran into Port Orange. This freshet was jwobably the "TTTT" 
highest that had oeourred on the North River sinoe the 
great flood, vrhich in 1617 swept away the &st Fort 

The experience whioh De Vries had gained as a pa-PwMofa 
troon of Swaanendael did not inoline him to look veryiMrnnrok. 
favorably upon the proprietors of Rensselaerswyck ; who, 
*< being oemmissaries of New Netherland,'^ had taken good 
care of themselves, while ttie "naked fort" Orange was the 
West India Company's sole possession. The patroons had 
all " the farms around, and t^o traffic, and ev«ry peasant 
Was a trader." 

Yet the colonists lived amid nature's richest profusion. Aimnduit 
In the forests, by the water^side, and on the islands, grew prodoctt of 
a rank abundance of nuts and plums ; the hills were cov- * **^' 
ered with thickets of blackberries ; on the flat lands, near 
the rivers, wild pl^rawberries came up so plentifully, that 
the people went there to "lie down and eat them." Vines , 
covered with grapes, " as good and sweet as in Holland," 
elambered over the loffeiest trees. Deer abounded in the 
forests, in harvest-time and autumn, " as fiat as any Hol- 
land deer can be." Enormous wild turkeys, and myriads 
of partridges, pheasants, and pigeons, roosted in the neigh- 
boring woods. Sometimes the turkeys and deer came 
down to the houses and hog-pens of the colonists to feed ; 
and a stag was frequently sold by the Indians for "a loaf 
of bread, or a knife, or even for a tobacco-pipe." The riv- 
er produced the finest fish; and tiiere was a "great plenty 
of sturgeon," which at that time the " Christians did not 
make use of, but the Indians eat them greedily." Flcuc 
and hemp grew spontaneously ; peltries and hides were 
brought in great quantities by the savages, and sold for 
trifles ; " the land was very well provisioned with all the 
necessaries of life." European manufactured goods, cloths, 
woolens, and linens were alone scarce and dear.* 

The oolonie of Rensselaerswyck was the only successful p^pSuSn. 

• De Vries, 158, 153 ; MeKqNiNiitte, ia BmmK, I., 517-«ia 


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ciup. a. patroonahip under Uie charter of 1629 ; and Hie marvel* 
ous orops of com which Peelen raised on his fertile island 
* were for many years the wonder of New Neiherland. Con- 
stant emigration from Holland rapidly increased its popu- 
lation ; and comfortable farm-houses, many of them built 
at the patroon's expense, arose at various points. Bevers- 
'^^' wyck was already a village. Had the colonists contented 
themselves with agriculture, instead of seeking to beccnne 
traders as well, the prosperity of the frontier settlement of 
the province would have been assured, 
joriidie- Arendt van Curler continued to act as the commissary 
^SSmuT of the oolonie and the representative of the patroon. His 
jurisdiction included all the territory on both sides of the 
North River, between Beeren Island and the mouth of the 
Fort Or- Mohawk, except the precinct of Fort Orange. This post, 
which was the property of the West India Company when 
the first purchases in its neighborhood were made by Van 
Rensselaer, was always occupied by a smaU garrison, com- 
manded by officers under the immediate direction of the 
provincial authorities at Manhattan.* 
jndkua According to the Charter of Privileges, the patroon was 
Smp? invested with the '^ chief command and lower jurisdiction" 
within his oolonie. In person, or by deputy, he might ad- 
minister justice, and pronounce and execute sentences for 
all degrees of crime. He had the power of life and death. 
He could decide civil suits. The right of appeal to the 
director and council at Manhattan was, indeed, nominally 
reserved to the colonists ; but the right was virtually an- 
nulled by die obligaticm under which all the colonists upon 
cokmiai jv- the manor were obliged to come, not to appeal from the judg- 
draoerad mcuts of the manorial tribunals. The civil law, the ordi- 
'^^" nances of the Province of Holland and of the United Neth- 
erlands, and the edicts of the West India Ccxnpany, and 
of the director and council at Manhattan, were ihe legal 
code of New Netherland. The same code obtained when 

* Mr. Bamtrd, in hit sketch (p. 197), BiBrms that the Company ** did not own a fboc 
ofland within the ookmy ;" and that <'the vH on which Fort Orange atood waa iadoded 
In the porchaae made by the patroon." These statements, howcTer, do not agree with 
the erldenee in Mr oolOQlal raeavds ; see psfl, p. ttl 

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duly published within the colonie ; and the ooionists, in chap, ix; 
addition, were subjected to such laws and regulations as 
the patroon or his local officers might establish. Theoret- 
ically, the patroon was always present in his court baron. 
Practically, the government of the colony was adminis- 
tered by a court composed of two commissaries and two 
schepens, assisted by the colonial secretary and the schout. 
The laws and customs of the colonie partook largely of the Feadai 
spirit of feudalism. The terms of the leases under which l^norlai " 
the farms were held required a return of all produce ; and tuTna. 
of this produce the patroon bad the pre-emptive right. 
An annual ground-rent was levied on each house erected. 
When property changed hands, the patroon was privileged 
to have the first offer ; and if he declined to purchase, he 
was entitled to a certain proportion of the consideration 
money received. He was the legal heir of all intestates. 
Without his leave, none could fish or hunt within the 
manor. At the patroon's mills alone could the colonists 
grind their corn. 

The greater part of the colonists were farmers and their condition 
servants, who had been sent out firom Holland at the pa- nist*. 
troon's expense. For these farmers lands were set apart, 
houses erected, and stock and agricultural implements pro- 
vided. Besides these substanticd encouragements, small 
advances of money and supplies of clothing were frequent- 
ly fiirnished to the emigrant on his leaving Holland. 
These advances the colonist was to repay after his arrival 
with a large interest. The capital of the patroon was free- 
ly and liberally expended ; and the emigrant began his 
frontier toil with more ample resources and with greater 
facilities than the first tenants of a wilderness generally 
enjoy. Yet the scheme of feudal colonization was not a 
happy one, either for emigrant or patroon. Apart from Results of 
the political evils which it entailed, it necessarily intro; at Reneee- 
duced a system of accounts which encouraged deceit and 
tempted to dishonesty. The payments of the colonists be- 
gan to fall in arrear ; the patroon's revenue suffered ; and 
he felt himself obliged, before long, to instruct his colonial 



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Chap. IX. offioers that there was ^' no latitude to be given to the 
:^ oonscienoes or discretion of the boors, but the law to be 

^^' stringently enforced."* 
Devriea Anxious to soc the interior of the country, De Vries 
cohooes* went tlirough the forests with several Indians to visit the 
Mohawk. The Falls of the Cohooes seemed to him " as 
high as a church ;"t the waters, as they ran over, were 
" as clear as crystal, and as fresh as milk." Within the 
sound of their roar lived " Broer Comelis,"J at that time 
The Mo- the frontier colonist of New Netherland. The Mohawks 
diMs. "" were noticed as a brave people, who had " brought the 
other tribes under contribution." They had enormous ca- 
noes, hollowed out of trees, and easily conveying eighteen 
or twenty men. Their arms were bows and arrows, and 
9tone axes and hammers, until they got guns from the 
Duteh. " But he was a rascal who first sold them, and 
showed their use ; for they said that it was the Devil, and 
did not dare to touch them. There used to be but one In- 
dian who went about with a gun, whom they called Kal- 

14 May. After a six weeks' sojourn, De Vries took leave of the 
returns to commauder at Fort Orange, and sailing rapidly down the 

river, anchored, in the evening, at Esopus, "where a creek 
empties, and there is some corn land where some Indians 

15 May. live."ll Setting sail at dawn of the next day, he observed 

at the Dans-kamer " many Indians a fishing ;" and pass- 
ing onward through the Highlands without any adven- 

* Hoi. Doe., T., 864, 380, ii., N. Y. H. S. CoU., ii., 330, 334 ; Renm. MSS. : 0*CaIl., i , 
320-336, 443 ; Moulton, 391 ; Barnard's Sketch, 118-131. 

t With lera accuracy than De Vriee, Van der Donck several years afterward ** guess* 
ed* these fUls to be one hundred and fifty or two hundred feet high.— Bosch, ran N. N., 
p. 0. Megapolensis (Ha74u-d, i., 519), on the other hand, exactly coincides with De Vries. 
TliMV is a remarkable similarity— almost an identity— in parts of the descriptions by 
these two writers. Megapolensis's tract was written in 1644, and published in 1651. 
As De Vries did not print his Journal until 1655, several years after his return to Holland, 
I think it very probable that he adopted much of Megapolensis's work, in regard to aHUrs 
aft Fort Orange, in preference to his own less polished language. This would aceonnt 
fbr his anachronism about Jogues. 

t This person was otherwise known as Comelis Antonlssen ran Slyck, whose name 
survives in that of an island opposite Schenectady. ^ De Vries, 158. 

I De Vries uses aInKwt the same expressions in n^fbrring to Esopus, on the S7th of 
April, as he passed up the river. On neither occasion does he speak of any redoubt as 
then existing ; nor to the presence, at that or any previous time, of Dutch traders there. 

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tore, he anchored oyer night at Tappan. The next mom- ctKi». ol 
ing, a strong ebb tide and a fresh gale from tibe north- ^^^ 
west carried the sloop, in three hours, safely to Fort Am- j^M^y. ' 
sierdam. In the judgment of De Vries, the mountain- 
bordered stream was " little fitted to be peopled ;" far he 
had seen only ^' here and there a little oom-land, whi<ji 
the Indians had prepared by remoying the stones." Yet 
his mariner's eye observed with admiration that '^the 
tide runs up the whole river to Fort Orange ;" and per- 
haps, even at that early day, there were not wanting those 
who fcMresaw the swelling commerce which now rolls be- 
tween its cultivated banks.* 

Up to this time, the intercourse between the Dutch and Reiauona 

' with the 

the Indians had been, upon the whole, friendly; and withtodians. 
the caning of the fur trade, a large prosperity promised 
to visit New Netherland. But freedom soon ran into 
abuses ; and the temptation of gain led to injurious ex- 
cess. The colonists soon began to neglect agriculture for 
the quicker profits of traffic with the savages. To push 
their trade to the best advantage, the colonists separated 
themselves fit)m each other, and settled their abodes '^far 
in the interior of the country." Presently they begui to 
allure the savages to their houses '' by excessive familiar- 
ity and treating." This soon brought them into contempt RMoif oc 
with the Indians, who, not being always used with im-domo*"'*** 
partiality, naturally became jealous. Some of the sava- 
ges, too, wc^re occasionally employed as domestic servants 
by the Dutch. This unwise conduct only produced evil. 
The Indians frequently stole more than the amount of 
their wages ; and, running away, they acquainted tiieir 
tribes with the habits, mode of life, and exact numerical 
strength of the colonists. The knowledge ihua gained v^as 
used, before long, with frttal effect against the Europeans, 
whose presence now began to inconvenience the aborig- 
ines. For the colonists, in their avidity to procure pel- DUBemties 
tries, neglected their cattle, which, straying away without m^m^ 
herdsmen, injured the unfenced corn-fields of the savages. 

* De Vrim, HS-IOL 


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Crap. IX. Finding this the cause of much complaint, Kieft issued a 
^ proclamati(Hi, requiring all the inhabitants whose land ad- 

joined that of the Indians to inclose their farms, so as to 
9 May. prevent trespasses upon the red men. The evil, how- 
ever, continued ; and the Indians avenged themselves by 
"killing the cattle, and even the horses," of the Dutch.* 
Theiro- The most unhappy result of all was the supplying of 
pii«d with the savaces with new weapons of offense. The Iroquois 
warriors, from the day they first recoiled before the arque- 
buses of Champlain, dreaded the superiority of the Euro- 
peans. At first they considered a gun " the Devil," and 
would not touch it. But the moment they became ac- 
customed to their use, they were eager to possess the fire- 
arms of Europe. No merchandise was so valuable to 
them. For a musket they would willingly give twenty 
beaver skins. For a pound of powder they were glad to 
barter the value of ten or twelve guilders. Knowing the 
impolicy of arming the savages, the West India Company, 
in wise sympathy with the English government, had de- 
clared contraband the trade in fire-arms ; and had even 
forbidden the supply of munitions of war to the New Neth- 
erland Indians, under penalty of death. But the lust of 
large gains quickly overcame prudence. The extraordi- 
nary profits of the traffic early became generally known ; 
and the colonists of Rensselaerswyck and " free traders" 
from Holland soon bartered away to the Mohawks enough 
guns, and powder, and bullets for four hundred warriors. 
In the neighborhood of Manhattan, where a more rigid po- 
lice was maintained, the supply of arms was prevented. 
The river This, howcvcr, ouly excited the hatred of the river tribes 
ifended. against the Dutch ; for the Iroquois, in full consciousness 
of their renovated power, now not only carried open war 
into their enemies' country along the Saint Lawrence and 
the Great Lakes, but, more haughtily than ever, exacted 
the tribute which they claimed from the subjugated tribes 
between the Mohawk and the sea,t 

* Jonmal van N. N., in Hoi. Doc., iil., 97-109 ; Alb. Rec., ii., 61. 
t Joamal of N. N., in Hoi. Doc., UI., 103; Report, in Hoi. Doc, U., 368; 0*C«U., t. 
184, 410 ; De Vriee, 158 ; Doe. Hist. N. T., It., 5, 0, 7, & 

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While the river Indians were brooding over what they chaf. ix 
thought the unjust partiality of the Dutch toward the Ir- 
oquois, a new provocation was cuided to the existing an- The in- * 
noyanoe. Kieft, alleging "express orders" from HoUJjJJJ^ 

ImiJ, nil wisely dettirniiuud tti i.xtici ilu.- LujiiriiRilkm of [^™^^ 
corn, lur^, and warupuni from the aavagei* in the neigh- ^*™''*^ 
horhood of Fort Amst^irdamj which he had reisolvod upon 
the previfjua autumn, The director^* of the Amsterdam 
Chamber afterward positively denied that they had ever 
authorized the measure j or even knew that the contribu- 
tion had been exacted.* But the rnidohief was already 

The river Indians were now totally estranged. *' The Kiefiuitie^ 
HoilanderSj'* said the irritated savages, **ara Jiateriotty — rupinri. 
men of blood : though they may be soniething on the wa- 
ter > they are nothiug on the land : they have no great aa- 
chem or chk'f/' Perceiving the temper of tlie Indians inTiAoDujia 
hia neighborhood, Kieft, in apprehension of a sudden at- ftrnTtiiMft- 
taok, ordered all the residents of Manhattan to provide 10 Mii. 
themselves with arms ; and, at the iiriog of three guns, to 
repair, under theii respcoUve oflicers, "to the place ap- 
pointed,*' properly equipped for service, t 

But without waiting to be attacked, the imprudent di- 
rcKJtor sr>on found an opfwrtunity to become the aggrei^sor. 
It happened that some |>ersonB in the company's service , Th«: jun- 
on their way to the South River, landed at Htaten Island ed'^wSh^w- 
for wood and water; ami, on re-embarking, stole some siaion i^r 
swine belonging t-o De Vries and to the company, which " 
had been left there in charge of a negro. The blame was 
tiuown on the innix^ent Raritan lodians, who lived about 
twenty miles inland* Tha-ie savages were aLjo accused 
of having attacked the yacht Yrede, which had been sent 
among them to trade for furs. No lives were lost, though 
the Indians made off with the trading party's canoc4 

Kieft rashly resolved to punish the alleged offenders 

> Mh, R«e., ti., fi&, ei ; Vfirtooffh ran N N., W9, 300 ; ^mtf, p. 903 , Bol. Doe., t., MU 
i m^ ftpe I U', Bii Journal tbhJS. N., In Uol. Dw,, i^t., IM^ UiKt. Iltar N. V., It., S, 
% nivVrm, 101,103 

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chiAP. IX. whii admonitc^ severity. Van TienhoTen, the provineial 
■~~ secretary, was oommissioned to lead a party of fifty sol- 
16 joir ' ^^ ^^ tw^ity sailors to attack the Indians and destroy 
J^2^^ their eom, unless they should make prompt reparation. 
{^^^ When he reached his destination, Van Tienhoven demand- 
ed satisfiiction ; but his men, knowing the director's tem- 
per, wished to kill and plunder at once. This Van Tien- 
hoven refused to permit ; but at last, vexed with their im- 
portunity, he left Ae party, protesting against tiieir dis- 
obedience. Several of the Indians were killed ; their oropt 
were destroyed ; and '' such tyranny was perpetrated" by 
the company's servants, that there was now little hope of 
regaining the friendship of the savages.* 

Thus was laid the foundation of a bloody war, which, 

before long, desolated New Netherland, whose provincial 

government had now read to the Raritans the lessons 

which, four years befwe, Massadiusetts had read to ibe 

Block Island Indians. Determined to pursue his polky 

of levying contributi<ms on the river tribes, Kieft soon aft- 

90 October. CTward scut sloops up to Tappan ; but tiie savages de- 

uoJf leirted murred against the novel tribute. " They wondered how 

pirns!' ^^the sachem at the fort dared to exact such things fit)m 

them." **He must be a very shabby fellow; he had 

come to Mve in their land when they had not invited him, 

and now came to defnive them of their com for nothing, "t 

Tfce mj. They refused to pay the contribution, because the scddi^rs 

to p*y. in Port Amsterdam were no protection to the savages, who 

should not be called upon for their support ; because they 

had allowed the Dutch to live peaceably in their country, 

and had never demanded recompense ; because when the 

Hollemders, <^ having lost a ship there, had built a new one, 

they had suf^lied them with victuals and all other neoes^ 

saries, and had taken care of them for two winters, until 

the ship was finished," and therefore the Dutch were 

under obligations to them ; because they had paid lull 

price for eyery thing they had purchased, and there was, 

* DeVries^ltfl; Aib. Ree.,L,9BS; iL,09; Hol.Dop.,iiL,166; t.,S14; 0*CaU.»^9t7. 
t De Vrkw, 101. 

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theiefore, no reason why they should supply the Holland- ckap. ix. 
ere now " with maize for nothing ;" and, finally, said the "TITT" 
savages, because, ^' if we have oeded to yon the country 
you are living in, we yet remain masters of what we have 
retained for ourselves."* 

In the mean time, the States Gheneral had instructed i3 March. 
their deputies to the College of the XIX. to aid in recon- pany^a dir 
oiling the differences between the patroons and the com-arrangeti. 
pany, and devise some plan by which the colonization of 
the province might be promoted, and its inhabitants put 
" in the best condition." The company accordingly agreed 
upcm a new charter of '< Freedoms and Exemptions" for 
all patroons, mastere, and private persons, which was sentiQjuiy. 
to ike Hague, and promptly approved 

The new charter amended materially the obnoxious in- New cuar- 
strument of 1629. ^^ All good inhabitants of the Nether- troons. 
lands" were now allowed to select lands and form colo- 
nies, which, however, were to be reduced in size. Instead 
of four Dutch miles, they were limited to one mile along 
the shore of a bay or navigable river, and two miles into 
the country. A free right of way by land and water was 
reserved to all ; and, in case of dispute, the director gen- 
eral of New Netherland was to decide. The feudal j^vi- 
leges of erecting towns and appointing their officen ; the 
high, middle, and lower jurisdicticm ; and the exclusive 
right of hunting, fishing, fowling, and grinding com, were 
continued to the patroons as an estate of inheritance, with 
descent to females as well as males. On every such 
change of ownership, the company W8is to receive a pair 
of iron gauntlets and twenty guilders, within one year. 

Besides the patrocms, another class of proprietors was Heads of 
now established. Whoever should convey to New Neth- 
^and five grown persons besides himself, was to be rec- 
ognized as a '^ master or cdonist;" and could occupy two 
hundred acres of land, with the privilege of hunting and 
fishing. If settlements of such colonists should increase 
in numbers, towns and villages might be formed, to whidi 

I Raedt, 14, 19. 


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CAAT. IX. monioipal governments were promised. The magistrates 
\f\df) ^ ^^ towns were to be selected by the director and 
council, ^^ from a triple nomination of the best qualified in 
the said towns and villages." From these courts, and 
from the courts of the patroons, an appeal might lie to the 
director and council at Manhattan. The company guar- 
anteed protection, in case of war, to all the colonists ; but 
each adult male emigrant was bound to provide himself, 
before he left Holland, with a proper musket, or a hanger 
and side arms. 
commer- The Commercial privileges, which the first charter had 
leges ex- rcstrictcd to the patroons, were now extended to all ^^ free 
colonists," and to all the stockholders in the company. 
Nevertheless, the company adhered to a system of onerous 
imposts, for its own benefit ; and required a duty often per 
cent, on all goods shipped to New Netherland, and of five 
per cent, on all return cargoes, excepting peltries, which 
were to pay ten per cent, to the director at Manhattan be- 
fare they could be exported. All shipments from New 
Netherland were to be landed at the company's ware- 
houses in Holland. The prohibition of manufactures 
within the province was, however, abolished. The com- 
pany renewed its pledge to send over " as many blacks 
as possible ;" and disclaiming any interference with the 
" lugh, middle, and lower jurisdiction" of the patroons, re- 
served to itself supreme and sovereign authority over New 
Netherland, promising to appoint and support competent 
officers " for -the protection of the good, and the punish- 
ment of the wicked." The provincial director and coun- 
cil were to decide all questions respecting the rights of the 
company, and all complaints, whether by foreigners or in- 
habitants of the province ; to act as an Orphan's and Sur* 
The Re- ^^^gatc's Court ; to judge in criminal and religious affairs, 
'^h* *^^ generally to administer law and justice. No other 
j^**J}|;j^_ religion " save that then taught and exeroised by author- 
IwJ J*ihe ^*y» ^^ ^^ Reformed Church in the United Provinces," 
proriDoe. ^^^ ^o be publicly sancticmed in New Netherland, where 

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the oompany bound itself to maintain proper preachers, chap. ix. 
soboohnasters, and comforters of the sick.* 

New Netheriand soon felt a fresh impulse to her pros- prop^Ii if 
perity. De Vries now " took hold" in earnest of his pur- ^^ 
chase, the previous spring, from the Indians at Tappan, 
and began a colonic at his new estate, which he named 
"Vriesendael." It was beautifiilly situated along theJ^J^^^^^ 
river side, sheltered by high hills ; and the fertile valley, ^'^J*'"" 
through which wound a stream, affording handsome mill 
seats, yielded hay enough, spontaneously, for two hund- 
red head of cattle. Buildings were soon erected, and 
Yriesendael became, for several years, the home of its en- 
ergetic owner.t 

Early the next year, another colonic was established, 1641 
" within an hour's wjJk" of Yriesendael, by Myndert Myn- e^^Jc(A- 
d^iisen van der Horst, of Utrecht. The new plantation ex- Hackui- 
tended from " Achter Cul,"1: or Newark Bay, north toward "^"^ 
Tf4;>pan, and included the valley of the Hackinsack River. 
The head-quarters of the settlement were about five or six 
hundred paces from the village of the Hackinsack In4ians, 
where Van der Horst's people immediately commenced the 
erection of a post, to be garrisoned by a few soldiers, t 

Comelis Melyn now returned to New Netheriand, withaoAii«u8t. 
his family and servants, to bec^in a colonic cm Staten Isl- Meiyn on 

•^ ° Staten Isl- 

and, an order for which he had procured in Holland from and. 

the directors of the Amsterdam Chamber. De Vries, who 
was already in possession of a part of that island, felt ag- 
grieved at this interference ; but Kieft, who had himself 
just established a small distillery and a buckskin manu- 
factory there, soon obtained the patroon's consent to Me- 
lyn's establishing a plantation near the Narrows, provided 
" his rights should not be prejudiced." The Staten Island 
Indians soon afterward committing acts of hostility, the 

* Hoi. Doc., ii., 234-2«2 ; CCall., I., 218-222. t De Vries, 162, 180, 182. 

t " Achter Col,'* or " Achter Kol," now caUed " Newark Bay," was so named by the 
D«tch, because it was ** achter,'* or ** behind" the Great Bay of the North River. The pas- 
sage to the Great Bay was known as the " Kil van Col,** from which has been derived the 
present name of ** the Kills.*' The Enf lish soon corrupted the phrase i nto ** Arthur Cull's" 
Bay.— Benson's Memoir, 93. 

« De Vries, 165 ; Hoi. Doe., iii., 09, 135 ; O'CaU., i., S38 1 S. Hazard, Ann. Peon., 51, S6. 


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CHAP. IX. director and OGonoil ordered a small redoubt to be built aa 
one of the headlands ; and the soldiers stationed there were 
13^ ' ordered to make a signal by raising a flag, to warn the 
^^,^5^ ^officers at Fort Amsterdam whenever any vessels arrived 
nw!!^ ^ *k^ lower bay. In the course of the following sum- 
mer, Kiefk issued a formal patent, granting to Melyn the 
privileges of a patroon over all Staten Island, excepting 
De Vrios*8 reserved "bouwerij."* 

Municipal affairs engaged much of the attention of the 

y^Apru^^ bustling director. Fresh regulations were published for 

iSSS*" *^® better observance of Sunday ; and the tapping of beer 

during Divine service, and after ten o'clock at nig^t, was 

ProTindai forbidden. The currency of the province, too, was re- 

carreDcy "^ r ' ' 

reibnned. formed. Hie coins of Europe were seldom seen m New 
Netherland. Payments were almost universally made in 
sewan or wampum ; and for many years the Sunday con- 
tributions in the churches continued to be paid in this na- 
tive currency, of which that of Long Island and Manhat- 
tan was always esteemed the best. Of this " good splen- 
did sewan, usually cedled Manhattan's sewan," four beads 
were reckoned equal to one stiver. By degrees, however, 
inferior wampum, loose and unstrung, began to take the 
place of the better currency ; and even, in the judgment 
of the director, to threaten "the ruin of the country." An 
18 April, order in council, therefore, directed that the loose beads 
wunmim should pass at the rate of six for a stiver. The only rea- 
law. ^ son why ihe " loose sewan" was not entirely prohibited 
was, " because there was no coin in circulation, and the 
laborers, boors, and other common people having no other 
money, would be great losers." To encourage the grow- 
ing tendency toward agricultural pursuits, two annual 
Fai«e«tab- fairs, thc ouc for cattle and the other for hoss, were soon 
55 Sept. afterward established at Manhattan.! 

Had the government of New Netherland been in the 
hands of a " prudent" director, its prosperity would, per- 

* Dtt Vries, 108 ; Alb. Ree., ii., 133 ; CCall., i., 938, 939 ; tt., 699. Da Vriaa*^ ttetaiMat 
Is tlM flrat reeord of the establisluiiMit of a marine telegraph in New York harbor 

t Alb. Rec, U., 110, 118, 134; Van Tienhoven's Korte berieht. In Bd. Doe..T., 369; 
Md In It, N. T. H. 8. ColL, U., 381 

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haps, have now been permanently established. But pro- cbap. iz. 
denoe was not an element in Kieft's charaoter* His l©vy "~J 
of oontribntions had already alienated the savages aromid Romper or 
Manhattan ; and the cruelties inflicted upon the Raritans ||^*^^ 
had aroused a feeling of revenge, which only waited a fit- 
liiig moment for itji display. 

That raoiiient oame. While they cajoled the director The Ran - 
by peaceful messages, the Raritam suddenly attacked De^niy d** 
Vrics^a unprotected plantation on iStaten Island. Four of «>t»j at sm* 

^ . fill Liland, 

Ilia planters were killed, and his dwelling and tobacco Ju"^- 
house burned. Thus the feeble colony was smothered at 
its birth, through Kieft's blind folly in " visiting upon the 
Indians the WTongs which his own people had done.^'* 

Folly breeds fully. The director no sooner heard how 
the Raritanji had avenged their wrongs, than he resolved 
upon their extt^rrninatioa. *' The savages of Raritao daily Kica offt^^ 

rcwardfl fat 

grow bolder" — so began the proclamation, in which K ie ft ti>r offer d- 
oliered a bounty of ten fathoms of wampum for the head^^w'y* 
of every one of that tribe- For each head of the actual 
murderers, twenty fathoms were promised.! 

Incited by the offered bounties, some of the River In-^ 
dians attacked the Raritans. lu the autumn, a chief of ^ ^c^ 
the Tankitekesj or Haverstraw tribe, named Pachara, provoimd. 
*^ who waa great with the governor at the fort," came in 
triumph to Manlmttan, with a dead man^s hand hanging 
on a stick. This he presented to Kieft as the hand of the 
chief who had killed the Dutch on ^taten Island. " I 
have taken revenge for the sake of the Swannekensj" said 
Faoham, *^ for I love them as my best friends.'^j 

Meanwhile, the island of Manlmttan had become the 
scene of a bloody retribution. Revenge never dies in the 
breast of the Indian. It may slumber for years, but it is 
never appeased until the '* just atonement" which Indian 
law demands k fnlly paid. The young Weckquaesgeek 
savage, whose uncle had been murdered near^Hhe Koick,'' 
during tlie building of Fort Amsterdam, was now groAm 

* De VriM. 103 ; Alb. Hec., U., 138 j Wlflitirop, u., jg, t Alb. Rec., ii-t l^, 1*^9. 

t Ue Vriel^ lfl3. The IjiJlant, baili on uia South And Jt^eth mwva^ wen ia Ow habit 
of calling the Dutch ** SwADncikenft.'* v ^ 


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cmjLT. IX. to man's estate, and upon him Indian usage imposed the 
duty of avenging his kinsman's unatoned death. The 
. 'VVeokquaesgeeks were in the constant habit of visiting 
Manhattan ; and their beaten trail passed near the Deutel 
Bay, on the East River, virhere Claes Smits, a harmless 
Dutchman, had built a small house, and was carrying on 
A Dutch- the trade of a wheel- wright. The nephew of the murder- 
dered at ed savagc, coming, to the wheel- Wright's humble dwelling, 
Hay stopped to barter some beaver skins for duffels. While 
the unsuspecting mechanic was stooping over the great 
chest in which he kept his goods, the savage, seizing an 
axe, killed him by a blow on the neck. The murderer 
quickly plundered his victim's lonely abode, and escaped 
with his booty. 
The Week. Kieft promptly sent to Weckquaesgeek to demand satis- 
juMMythe faction. But the murderer replied, that while the fort 
was building, he, emd his uncle, and smother Indian, bring- 
ing some beaver skins to trade, were attacked by some 
Dutchmen, near the '* Fresh Water," who killed his un- 
cle, and stole his peltries. <^ This happened while I was 
a small boy," said the savage, " and I vowed to revenge 
it upon the Dutch when I grew up; I saw no better 
» AngML chance than with this Claes the wheel- wright." The sa- 
chem of the tribe refused to deliver up the criminal ; who, 
he said, had but avenged, after the manner of his race, the 
murder of his kinsman by the Dutch, more than twenty 
years before. Some soldiers were then sent out from the 
fort to arrest the assassin ; but they returned disappointed.* 
Kieft'sanx- The dircctor burned to treat the Weckquaesgeeks as he 
war. had treated the Raritans, and commence open hostilities. 
Yet he feared to exasperate the people, who charged him 
with seeking a war in order to make " a wrong reckoning 
with the company," and who now began to reproach him 
for personal cowardice. It was all very well, they said, 
for him, " who could secure his own life in a good fort, 
out of which he had not slept a single night in all the 

* De Vrie«, 164 ; <mU, p. IM, 99S ; Hoi. Doc., U., S73 ; t., 814 ; Joornal mn N. N., in 
Hoi. Doe., UL, 105 ; Doc. Hiat. N. Y., !▼., 8, 9. 

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years he had heen here." Kieft peroeivmg that he would chap. ix. 
have to bear the whole responsibility of the proposed war, 
reluctantly sought the counsel of the community.* 

All the masters and heads of families at Manhattan and 
its neighborhood were accordingly summoned to meet at to August 
Fort Amsterdam, " to resolve there on something of the 
first necessity."! On the appointed day, Kieft submitted 29 AnguNi. 
tliese questions to the first popular meeting ever held in Finrt mtv i- 
New Netherland. " Is it not just that the murder lately commonui- 
oommitted by a savage upon Claes Smits be avenged and province. 
punished ; and in case the Indians will not surrender the 
murderer at our requisition, is it not just to destroy the 
whole village to which he belongs? In what manner, 
and when ought this to be executed ? By whom can this 
be effected ?" 

The assembly promptly chose " Twehre Select Men" to "Twelve 
consider the propositions submitted by the director. These pointed, 
persons were Jacques Bentyn, Maryn Adriaensen, Jan Jan- 
sen Dam, Hendrick Jansen, David Pietersen de Vries, 
Jacob Stoffelsen, Abram Molenaar, Frederik Lubbertsen, 
Jochem Pietersen (Kuyter), Gerrit Diroksen, George Rap- 
elje, and Abram Planck. Of these first representatives 
of the people of New Netherland, De Vries was chosen 
president. The " Twelve Men" were all Hollanders, or 
emigrants from HoUand.t 

The popular representatives did not delay their answers » August. 
to Kieft's questions. While they agreed that the murder the twcit* 
of Smits should be avenged, they thought that " God and 
the opportunity" ought to be taken into consideration ; 

♦ De Vries, 165. t Alb. Rec, 11.,. 130. 

t Hoi. Doc., v., 397-3S9 ; Alb. Reo., ii., 136, 137 ; ii., N. Y. H. S. CoU., i., SH, 978. De 
Vries, 165, says that Kieft caused the election of the Twelve Men "to aid him in manag- 
ing the afRilrs of the country ;** but Van der Donck, in his " Vertoogh,'' written eight 
years aAerward, afllrms that they " had in Judicial matters neither vote nor advice, but 
were chosen in view of the war, and some other occurrences, to serve as cloaks and cats- 
paws.'*~lL, N. Y. H. S. Coll., ii., 300. Of these ** Twelve Men," Bentyn was one of Van 
Twiller's council ; Adriaensen came out as a colonist to Rensselaerswyck in 1631 ; Dam 
was also a colonist there in 1634 ; Hendrick Jansen was a tailor at Manhattan ; StoflVlsen 
was one of Van Twiller*s commissaries, and had married the widow of Van Voorst, of 
Pavonia ; Lubbertsen was " first boatswain f Pietersen, or as he usually wrote, Kuyter, 
eame out in 1639 ; Rapelje was one of the original Walloon settlers at the Waal-bogt ; 
Planck, or Verplanck, was a fhrmer at Paulus' Hoeck ; of Molenaar and Dircksen the reo* 
ords say little ; of De Vries much. 


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ciLLP. IX. and that the direetcMr should make the necessary prqpara* 
tions, and espeoially procure a sufficient number of coats 
of mail ".for the si^^rs, as well as few the freemen, who 
are willing to pay their share in these expenses." Trade 
and intercourse with the savages should, nevertheless, 
be temporarily maintained, and no hostile measure be at^ 
tempted by any one, " of whatever state or condition," ex- 
cept against the murderer himself, until the hunting sea- 
son. Then it would be proper to said out two parties, 
the one to land near the "Archipelago," or Norwalk Inl- 
ands, and the other at Weckquaesgeek, " to surprise them 
from both sides." As the director was commander of the 
soldiery as well as governor, he " ought to lead the van ;" 
while the community offered their persons "to follow his 
steps and obey his commands." Yet they humanely add- 
ed, " we deem it advisable that the director send fiirther, 
once, twice, yea, for the third time, a shallop, to demand 
the surrender of the murderer in a friendly manner, to 
punish him according to his deserts."** 

De vriea'8 To thcsc official auswors of the Twelve Men De Vries, 


oounseia. who keenly felt his double losses at Swaan^idael and 
Staten Island, added hirf own opinion. The Dutch were 
all scattered about the country, and their cattle running 
wild in the woods. " It would not be advisable to attack 
the Indians until we had more people, like the English, 
who had built towns and villages." Besides, the directors 
of the Amsterdam Chamber were resolutely opposed to 
war; for when applied to for permission to commence 
hostilities against the South River Indians, who had de- 
stroyed Swaanendael, they had replied, " you must keep 
at peace with the savages. But Kieft " did not widi to 

Kiefi urges At length the hunting season came ; and Kieft, impa- 
tient to attack the Weckquaesgeeks, was even more anx- 
ious to secure the concurrence of the Twelve Men. To ac- 

I Not. complish his favorite design, he now asked them, separate- 
ly, for their opinions on the question of immediate hostil- 

* Alb. Rec., ii., 136, 137 ; Hoi. Doc., ▼., 826-329. t De VrlM, 106. 

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ities. Had he oonvened them in a body, he snspeoted, and cmat. tx. 
with reason, that the popular delegates would hardly oon- ' 
tent themselves with answering his queries ; they would 
very probably turn their attentiim to the condition of the 
provincial government. But the impatient director was 
again foiled. The separate opinions of a majority of the The 
Twelve Men were for procrastination. The savages were Men op- 
still too much on their guard : it was better, at all events, mes. 
to await the arrival of the next vessel from the Father- 
land. De Vries, the president, was decidedly opposed to 
hostilities with the Indians under any circumstances.'* 
For a time longer war was averted. 

The Swedes had, meanwhile, continued in quiet pos-The 
session of Fort Christina, on the South River. The first the somh 
year after their settlement they prospered abundantly, and 
did <' about thirty thousand florins' injury" to the trade of 
the Hollanders. During the second vrinter of their resi- 
dence, however, jreceiving no succors from home, they 
were reduced to great extremities, and so much discour* 1640. 
aged, that the next spring they resolved " to break up, and ^^' 
come to Manhattan."! But unexpected relief was at hand. 

The fame of the pleassuit valley of the South River, 
which had now reached Scandinavia, began also to spread 
through the United Provinces ; and several prominent Hol- 
landers, in apparent disregard of the claims of their own 
West India Company, undertook to send out emigrants 
there, under the authority of the Swedish government. A 
letter, signed by Oxenstiema and his colleagues, was ac-24 January 
cordingly obtained by Yon der Horst and others, of Utrecht, iahV^Sn- 
declaring that they were permitted " to establish them- SnV" 
selves on the north side of the South River, and there to froi^HoT 
found a colony ;" and a passport was also issued in favor s*outh Riv. 
of the ship Fredenburg, commanded by Jacob Powelson, 
who was about departing from Holland with colonists for 
New Sweden. Van der Horst, however, upon further con- 
sideration, apparently preferring to avail himself of the 

* Alb. Rec., U., 140, 141 ; ii., N. T. H. S. CoU., L, 978. 

t Hoi. Doc., TlU., 50, flS, 53 ; S Hturi, Abb. Pens., r., 4ft, ftO, 66. 


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Chap. IX. new oharter for patroons, did not aooept the Swedish grant, 

which was, therefore, transferred to Henry Hookhammer. 

Hockbui' ^^ authorized him and his. associates to send out vessels, 
^"^J cattle, and colonists from Holland under the royal protec- 
tion, and to take up as much land on both sides of the 
South River as should be necessary for their purposes, pro- 
vided it be ** at least four to five Grerman miles from Fort 
Christina." The exercise of the Reformed religion of Hol- 
land was guaranteed, and the support of ministers and 
30 January, schoolmasters enjoined. Joost de Bogaerdt was appoint- 
gaerdtcom-ed spccial commaudaut of the new colony, at an annual 

mandant. i- ^ o, •»• i i> n y iin 

salary from the Swedish government of five hundred flor- 
ins, or two hundred rix dollars, " to be remitted to his 
banker in Holland" by the Swedish resident at the Hague.* 

April. Powelson reached the Delaware early in the spring. His 

Swedes en- arrival gladdened the desponding Swedes, who had de- 
termined to abandon Fort Christina the next day. The 
new colonists from Holland were soon settled a few miles 
south of the fort, under the superintendence of De Bo- 
gaerdt. Traffic with the Indians was now prosecuted 
with vigor, and the Dutch West India Company's trade 
on the South River was "entirely ruined." In the follow- 

15 October, iug autumn, Kieft wrote from Manhattan to the Amster- 
dam Chamber, informing them of the " re-enforcement of 
people" which the Swedes had received the previous spring, 
** otherwise it had been arranged for them to come here;" 
but stating his intention to treat them " with every po- 
liteness, although they commenced, with many hostilities, 
forcibly to build, attack our fort, trading, and threatening 
to take our boats."t 

Peter Hd- Thc samc autumu, Peter Hollsendare arrived fix)m Got- 


tenburg, at Fort Christina, as deputy governor of New 
Sweden, bringing a number of fresh colonists and the 
Monnce promised supplies. Mounce Kling, who had formerly act- 
ed as deputy to Minuit, followed soon afterward with two 
vessels. The Swedes now purchased additional lands 

* Swedish Documents, in Haxard'a Re;. orPenn.,iT.,lT7; S. Hazard's Ann. Penn.,51-M. 
t Hoi. Doc, TiU., ftS, M ; 8. Hazard, Ann. Penn., 96, 97 ; AcreUns, 411 ; Ferris, 98-y 

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from the Indians; and, in token of the sovereignty of chap.dl 
their queen, set up "the arms and crown of Sweedland." 
The next year, it is said, that Peter Minuit died at his ^,^1^ of* 
post, and was buried at Fort Christina, which he had*^"**** 
" protected during three years." On his death, HoUaen- 
dare, the deputy governor, succeeded to the command, 
" who, after one year and a half, returned to Sweden, and 
obtained a military post there."* 

The enterprising men of Connecticut were now hoping New h»- 
to obtain a foothold on the Delaware, which, hitherto, had pom a 
been occupied exclusively by the Dutch and the Swedes. oiTthe 
Sometime during the year 1640, Captain Nathaniel Turn- er. 
er, as the agent of New Haven, is said to have made a 
large purchase of lands " on both sides of Delaware Bay 
or River." In the following spring, a " bark or ketch" Lambenoo 
was fitted out at New Haven by George Lamberton, aweii'ser 
principal merchant there, and dispatched to the Delaware, ^ 
under the command of Robert Cogswell. When the ves- 
sel reached Manhattan, Kieft learning her destination, and 
warned by his experience with the Hartford people, in- 
stantly protested against the enterprise ; and notified the 8 Apni. 
New England adventurers not to '^ build nor plant upon MaoCittM. 
the South River, lying within the limits of New Nether- 
land, nor on the lands extending along there," unless they 
would agree to settle themselves under the States Gen- 
eral and the West India Company, and swear Allegiance 
to them. But upon Cogswell's assurance that they did 
not intend to intrude upon any territory over which the 
States General had authority ; and that if they found no 
land free from claims, they would either peaceably return, 
or else settle themselves in allegiance to the Dutch gov- 
ernment, the New Haven bark was allowed to proceed.t ^JSSJSl ^ 

Aided by a reftigee Pequod sachem, the New Haven 
adventurers succeeded in purchasing from the Indians 
" what land they desired" on both sides of the South Riv- 

* Aerelius, in N. Y. H. S. Coll., ii., 410 ; Ferris, 97 ; 0*CftU., !., 36d ; Molfbrd, 83; 8. 
Hauid'a Ann. Penn., 97, 99, 60 ; anUt p. 884, note. 

t Hoi. Doc., ix^ 909; Hazard, U., S13, S09 ; TmmbaU, L, 119; CCall., 1., S31 ; S. 
Hazard, Ann. Penn., 98. 


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ovAT. IX. er. Trading-houses were immediately oommenoed at the 

Varkens' Kill^ near Salem in New Jersey, and also "on 

J^^^'^the Schuylkill," where about twenty English fiamilies set- 
Sm"^ tied themselves. The same summer, the General Court 

Kill and toe ' 

IS^uirart' ^^ New Haven resolved that the plantations in Delaware 
Bay should be ccoisidered "in combination with this 
town ;" and Turner was formally authorized to go there, 
" for his own advantage 6Lnd the public good, in settling 
the affairs thereof."* 
vexiuotts While adventurers from New Haven were thus intrud- 
S?Hart? ing within southern New Netherland, the English colo- 
15 April. ** nists at Hartford were pertinaciously vexing the Dutch, 
and endeavoring, by petty annoyances around Fort Good 
Hope, to drive them out of the valley of the CJonnecticut. 
" Will ye three resist the whole English village ?" cried 
the assailants, as the Holland plowmen sturdily endeav- 
ored to maintain their rights. An appeal to Governor 
Hopkins brought no redress. Upon receiving intelligence 
ojQM. of these new provocations, Kieft ordered a force of fifty 
SSn^men to be dispatched, in two yachts, to Fort Good Hope, 
under the command of La Montague. " But," wrote Win. 
throp, '* it pleased the Lord to disappoint the purpose" of 
the Dutch ; for the Staten Island Indians just Ihen sud- 
denly attacking De Vries's plantation, the New Nether- 
land authorities "were forced to keep their soldiers at 
The Han- homc to defend themselves." The Hartford people, how- 
refer their ever, thought it prudent to lay a statement of their case 
MaeeachB- bcforc the govemmcnt of Massachusetts, " for advice about 
SI June, the difference between them and the Dutch." Belling- 
ham, by direction of the General Court, accordingly "re- 
Repiy. turned answer, without determining of either side, but 
advising to a moderate way, as the yielding some more 
land to the Dutch house— for they had left them but thirty 
acres."! Thus Massadiusetts quietly reproved the cupid- 
ity of Connecticut. 

* 8. Hazard, Ann. Penn , 50 ; Winthnp, it., at, 70 ; Ferris, 60 ; MWfbrd, 71. 
t Hoi; DoCm ix., 199-903 ; Alb. Rm., IL, 1S3 ; Winthrop, U., 33 ; Haxard, a, 904, MS i 
I., N. Y. H. S. CoU., 274, 275. 


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In the mean time, events had oocurred in England ohat. ul 
which were to have a material influence upoa the rival -^^^^ 
Buropean colonies in America. 8ooa after the meeting p,,^^^^ 
of the " Long Parliament," among the members of which {JJJJ^ 
were many zealous friends of New England, the Puritan'***^ 
emigrants were urged to '' send over scxne'' to sdioit £&• 
vers for them in that body, to which the king had now 
left ^' great liberty." At first, the suggestion was declined. 
Bpt the next year, news of the &11 of the Earl of Straf- 1641. 
ford, and of Archbishop Laud, their "great enemy," reach* *^"^ 
ing Massachusetts, the General Court thought fit "to send 
some chosen men into England, to congratulate the hap- 
py success there," and " to be ready to make use of any 
opportunity Qtxl should offer, for the good of the country 
here." The persons chosen for this service were theiMesatM 
"fiery" Hugh Peters, pastor of the diurch in Salem, MaMacho- 
Thomas Welde, pastor of the church in Roxbury, and 
William Hibbins, of Boston. The younger Winthrop also 
accompanied the commissioners, who fNresently sailed forsAifoM. 
England by way of Newfoundland.* 

The Hartford people now determined to arrange, if pes- Hopuiw 
sible, their controversy with the Dutch. Edward Hop- luurubrd. 
kins, who had just been succeeded by John Hajmes as 
governor, being about to visit London, the General Gourtvsepc 
desired him " to arbitrate or issue the difference betwixt 
the Dutch and us, as occasion shall be offered when he is 
in England."t As Peters was well acquainted with some 
of the leading members of the West India Company, it 
was tiiought that advantage might be taken of tiiat cir- 
cumstance to " pacify" the directors, and arrange, if pos- 
sible, the questions in dispute between New Netherland 
and New England^ Winthrop and Haynes, as governors 
of Massachusetts and Connecticut, accordingly signed a 
joint letter authorizing Peters, " if occasion permit him to 
go to the Netherlands, to treat vnth the West India Com- 
pany there concerning a peaceable neighlxNrhood between" 

* Wintbrop, U., S9, M, SI, tS ; ChidiDera*! Rerolt of the Coloniec, 1., 88, M. 

i Col. Ree. Conn., 0& t Wlntiunois U., 3S. 


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ohap. IX. the New En^and and New Netherland oolonists. A se- 
riea of " propositions," the scope of which was to induce 
Moctobe^. ^^ Amsterdam directors to define the limits between the 
SSSSSr Dutch and English territory ; " abstam from molesting*' 
witMhi^ the English on the Connecticut ; and ^' see in the inhab- 
Q^J^yl* itants of New England, who number about forty thousand 
souls, a people who covet peace in their ways, the plant- 
ing pf the Gospel above all things, and not to cause trouble 
or injury in any manner whatever to the company," was 
also sent out to Peters.* 

The New England agents, on reaching London, found 
many warm friends of the Puritan colonies. Among these, 
Dr. L«w- was Dr. Lawrence Wright, of the Charter House, an " hon- 
w!^ of ored friend" of Hopkins.t Wright was also a fiBunailiar 
correspondent of Sir William Boswell, the English minis- 
ter at the Hague ; to whom he immediately sent a memo- 
1642. rial which Hopkins had drawn up, on the subject of the 
rF^^^ English settlements in Connecticut. In a few days, Bos- 
Bojmeu*t well replied to Wright, lamenting that the unsettled state 
wrifbt. q{ English domestic politics had diminished his own in- 
fluence with the Dutch government ; but suggesting that 
the parties in London who had drawn the memorial 
should procure from Parliament, or, " at least, from the 
House of Commons," some declaration, " whereby it may 
appear that they take notice and care of our people and 
plantations in those parts." Formal instructions on the 
subject should also be sent him from the council ; and 
^' persons of quality" should acquaint the Dutch ambassa- 
dor in London with the state of the case. But, above all, 
Boswell urged that, in the mean time, the English in Con- 
necticut should ** not forbear to put forward their planta- 
tions, and crowd on— crowding the Dutch out of those 
places where they have occupied."} 

* Hoi. Doe., Tii., 131 ; ix., SS4, 995 ; 0*CaU., i., 935, 980. At tbMe impen wn n-inm- 
lated flrom the Dutch in the ArchiTes at the Hagne, tbey may not be precisely identical 
with the original English. Bat they show, at all erents, that Winthrop is strangely in- 
aeeurate In stating that, when Peters "undertook to pacify the West India Compaay," 
they ** would not treat with him," **/br toant o/eommtMnonftwn tkote qfHarffbrd.** 

t Winthrop, 1., 990. t TrambuU's Col. Rac Conn., App., p. 565, 506. 

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The spirit of yropular freedom which th<j Dutch colo- Chap. h. 
nist^ brought with thtim to New Netheriaod had already 7 
made itself felt by the primneiat government Under the fj^^^ 
pre^iaure of publio yentimont, Kieft, though intnisted ^'^ithJ^J^^'^^^j^j^ 
almost dictatorial authority, had been compelled to aum-g)^^^^^^ 
mon the people into csouncil, and yield his personal wishes 
to the judgment of their representatives. The war which 
the director was anxious to begin, had been postponed by 
the votes of the Twelve Men. But Kieft did not abandon 
his design; the moment winter had fairly set in, he con* 
voked again the popular delegates. 

The Twelve Men met accordingly. The murderer of stJodoaji 
Smits had not been delivered up ; and the Indians were Twer« 
now on their hunting excursions. It was, therefore, agreed oonToto* 
that an expedition should be prepared at once t4f> attack " 
the Wcckquaesgeeks. The directi>r should head it in per- 
son, and the commissariat of the company should provide 
ammunition and necessary provisions. Such of the expe* 
dition as might be wounded while on service should be 
nuTiicd, and their families maintained at the expense of 
the company, which had promised to ''protect and de- 
fend" all the Gfjionists.* Upon these conditions Hie Twelve Aji™n?iio 
Men assented to the hostile measures which Kieft m urg-pDfl«(Jfl*i»^ 
ently pre&sed. Their assent was* unwillingly given; it a«iiinj« u>« 
was conditional, specific, and limited ; it vva^ obtained qusofr 
only after repeated solicitations had failed t^ procure the 
surrender of an identified murderer ; it had no ultimata 

* noL EkK., *.. 330, 33^ 

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Chap. X. design to extenninate an aboriginal race, that strangers 
might turn the red man's pleasant hunting grounds into 
* fields of waving corn, 
^fotar But the popular representatives were not content to lim- 
^▼» it their action to the registry of a proposed decree of their 
director. The time had now come for the people to take 
the initiative. For many generations, the towns and vil- 
lages of the Fatherland had been accustomed to the gov- 
emment of magistrates elected by their fellow -citizens. 
Domineering arrogance was restrained, and honest ambi- 
tion encouraged, by the system of rotation in office, under 
which the burghers of Holland annually invested new 
candidates with municipal dignities. The self-relying 
men, who had won their country fix^m the sea, and their 
liberties from the relaxing grasp of feudal prerogative, 
knew that they could govern themselves ; and they did 
govern themselves.* 

Why should the system, under which Holland had pros- 
pered and grown great, not be transplanted into New 
Netherland ? It was true, indeed, that the circumstances 
of the Fatherland differed somewhat from those of its prov- 
ince. The supreme government at the Hague had unwise- 
ly committed the management of New Netherland to a 
commercial corporation, whose enormous monopoly, at the 
same time, comprehended interests in comparison with 
which even the affairs of an embryo empire were too often 
esteemed insignificant. But if the Fatherland sometimes 
forgot its transatlantic province, the emigrants from Hol- 
Deatrethe land did uot, in their wilderness home, forget the country 
oTuw Fa- of their birth, nor her local names, her reliffion, her laws, 
and her freedom. When they first emigrated, they volun- 
tarily pledged themselves to submit to the government of 
the West India Company. For many years they did pa- 
tiently submit to that government; and though experi- 

*Alb.Ree.,z.,S91; xtx.,]Sl; '<Ri*ciMtoiMr7lnwrFatb«lftBd,aaidollMrwaU-ff«ri- 
Uted goTenunenU, that aome change takea |riace annoally in the magiatracy, ao that aome 
new onea are appointed, and some are eontlnued to inftirra the newly qypotnced." Bm 
alao Meyer'a '* InaUtutiona Jndioiairea,** iii., 47-70» 10»-185 ; Darlea, i., 76-106; O'CalL, 
1., 803 ; po«l p. 453. 

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enoe had prompted many to long for those franchises chat, x 
which they had enjoyed in Holland, no oppcMrtunity for in- 
troducing any political reforms had yet occurred. ^^' 

The grievance which they felt most oppressively was organiu- 
the organization of the Council of New Netherland. This, ProTinoiai 
in effect, was the director alone: for La Montagne, the chief cri«V 


only nominal counselor, had but one vote, while Kieft re- 
served two votes to himself. It often happened, however, 
that the director found it necessary to have the assistance 
of other persons ; and on these occasions, instead of call- 
ing upon such of the colonists as were the most compe- 
tent and worthy, he invariably chose some of the inferior 
agents of the company ; " common people," who were de- 
pendent immediately upon himself for their daily emolu- 
ments. This naturally excited criticism and distrust; 
and the discontent of the community was now officially 
expressed in a memorial to the director. The Twelve Men 
demanded that the colonial council should be reorganized, si Jaawnr. 
and the number of its members increased, so that there Tw«iTe 
should be at least five ; for, argued the popular represent- mud n- 
atives, ''in the Fatherland the council of even a small 
village consists of five or seven schepens." To save " the 
land from oppression," four persons, elected by the com- 
monalty, should have seats in the colonial council. Two 
of these four counselors should aimually be replaced by 
two others, to be chosen from the Twelve Men selected by 
the people. The company's " common men" should no 
longer have seats in the council. Judicial proceedings 
should be had only before a full board. The militia of the 
province should be mustered annually, and every male, 
capable of bearing arms, should be required to attend with 
a good gun ; the company to frimish each man with half 
a pound of powder for the occasion. Every freeman should 
be allowed to visit vessels arriving from abroad, " as the 
custom is in Holland." All the colonists should enjoy 
the right freely to go to and trade with' the neighbcv- 
ing places belonging to friends and allies, always paying 
the company's duties and imposts. To these demands. 


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Chap. X. oonoeived in an enlarged and liberal spirit, the Twelve 
Men added two others, dictated by a short-sighted impel* 
* icy. As some kinds of cattle imported from Holland had 
fallen in value, in consequence of tlie sale of English stock 
•within New Netherland, they asked that, in fiiture, En- 
glish traders should be allowed to introduce oxen and poul* 
try only, and should be forbidden to sell cows or goats. 
And, to prevent the currency of the province being ex- 
ported, they solicited that its nominal value should be 

KkA^nwrn- Kicft's jcalousy was aroused by the demands of the pop- 
ular delegates ; but he saw the imprudence of refusing 
any concessions. He replied, that he had already written 
to Holland, and expected, by the first ships, " some per- 
sons of quality," and " a complete council." The " com- 
mon men" had been called upon because the council was 
so small ; but the commonalty might now choose four per- 
sons '^ to help in maintaining justice for them." Two of 
these persons should be changed every year ; they should 
be called into council " when need required," and certain 
times in the year should also be appointed for them to as- 
semble together " upon public affairs," and advise upon 
specific propositions — " thus far their authority should ex- 
tend." With respect to the Twelve Men, added the di- 
rector, " I am not aware that they have received from the 
commonalty larger powers than simply to give their ad- 
vice respecting tiie murder of the late Claes Smits." An 
annual muster of the militia should be required ; but as 
the company was bound to provide ammunition only in 
cases of emergency, he could not furnish powder merely 
for practice. The freemen could not be allowed to visit 
vessels arriving from abroad ; it would be contrary to the 
company's instructions, and " would lead to disorder," es- 
pecially as several prizes were soon expected in port. The 
inhabitants might, however, freely trade with neighboring 
friendly colonies, upon condition of paying the company's 
recognitions, and abstaining from trade with the enemy. 
The English should be prohibited, in future, from selling 


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oows and sheep within New Netherland ; and the valne chap. x. 
of the provincial currency should be raised. 

Thus ended the first attempt to ingraft upon New Neth- tih»\^ 
erland the franchises of the Fatherland. The demand of ^^^ 
the commonalty was the spontaneous act of the emigrants JJJ^**^ 
from Holland) who composed the Twelve Select Men of 
the Province. It was prompted by no desire to imitate 
any other form of government than that to which they had 
been accustomed in their Fatherland. 

But Kieft was no friend to popular reform. He had 
secured the assent of the representatives of the people to 
the hostilities which he longed to commence against the 
savages. In return, a reluctant promise of very limited 
concessions had been extorted, which, if he ever intended 
to do it, the event proved he never did frilfill. He there- Kieft di»- 

BOIt^ tlM 

fore determined to save himself from further embarrass- "Tw«hr* 


ment by dissolving the Twelve Hen. A proclamation was is m. 
presently issued, thanking them for their advice in respect 
to the war against the savages, which would be adopted, 
"with God's help and in fitting time;" and forbidding 
the calling of any assemblies or meetings of the people 
without an express order of the director, as they " tend to 
dangerous consequences, and to the great injury both of 
the country and of our authority."* 

The director did not delay the execution of his cherish- mmtOl 
ed design, which the people had now formally sanctioned, rw expedi- 
Early the next month, an expedition of eighty men wasuw wST 
dispatched against the "Weckquaesgeeks, with orders tot^eke. 
punish that tribe with fire and sword. Kieft did not head 
the forces in person, but intrusted the command to Ensign 
Hendrick van Dyck, who had now been about two years 
in garrison service at Fort Amsterdam. A guide, who pro- 
fessed a full knowledge of the country, accompanied the 
expedition, which pressed on vigorously toward the ene- 
my's village. Crossing the Haerlem River, Van Dyck ar- 
rived in the evening at Armenperal,t where he halted his 

* Hoi. Doe., ill., 175-180, 314, S15 : 0*CaU., i^ 944-840 ; Doe. HlM. N. Y., It., 9. 
t This wu the Sprain Ritrer, wliieli rlam baek of Dobbe'e Peiry, tad ( 
Ite Bronx.— BoUon, U., 400, 401. 


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CHAP. X. command. The men were eager to push on before the 
savages should be warned of their coming. But more than 
an hour was lost by delay ; night set in dark and cloud* 
ed ; and the guide missed his way. Van Dyck, in the 
midst of embarrassment, losing his temper, ordered a re- 
treat ; and the expedition, which Kiefb had dispatched to 
lay waste the wigwams of the West Chester savages, re- 
turned to Fort Amsterdam in all the mortification of fail* 

Yet a fortunate result followed. The Indians, alarmed 
at the danger to which the trail of the white men showed 
TrMty them they had been exposed, sent to ask fcnr peace. Van 
Week' ^ Tienhoven, the provincial secretary, was therefore dispatdi- 
« afSix ed to West Chester, and a treaty was made with the Weok- 
quaesgeeks, on the Bronx River, at the house of the pion- 
eer colonist, Jonas Bronck. The Indians bound them- 
selves to surrender the murderer of Smits ; but they nev&t 
fulfilled their promise.* 
Hostue The treaty with the Weckquaesgeeks had scarcely been 

the Con. coucluded before rumors began to spread that the Conneo- 
dimna. ticut savagcs were meditating a bloody vengeance against 
the European colonists. Uncas, the chief of the Mohe- 
gans, who was in high favor with the English for his as- 
sbtance in exterminating the Pequods, sought to discredit 
his rival Miantonomoh, the chief of the Narragansetts ; 
and accused him of combining with the sachems on the 
Connecticut, to destroy the colonists throughout New En^ 
gland. Anxiety and alarm prevailed ; Hartford and New 
Haven concerted measures of defense ; and a ccmstant vig- 
ilance was thought indispensable to the security of the 
English plantations.! 
i-beaetde- Under thcsc circumstances. Captain Patrick and his 
Greenwich fricuds, who had uow bccn established about two years at 
the Dntch. Grccnwich, determined to submit themselves to the gov- 
ernment of New Netherland. They declared that they 

* De Vriet, 104 ; Journal van N. N. ; Hoi. Doc, ili., 107, 146, IM, 871 , Alb. Rm., M., 
90» : ilL, 85 : Doc. Hiat. N. Y., tv., 9. 

t Hoi. Doe., iU., 106, 107 ; Col. Rec Conn., 71, 7S ; Winthrop, U.,78, 79, 80-84 ; 
ban, L, ISl ; Hutehinaon, i., 108, 100; Hubbwd'a Indinn Wan, 48. 

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ooold no longer remain usurpers against the '^lawfdl chat.x. 
rights" of the Dutch, on aooount " both of the strifes of 
the English) the danger c(Hisequent thereon, and these 
treacherous and villainous Indians, of whom we have seen 
sorrowful examples enough." Patrick, therefore, went to 9 Apnt 
Fort Amsterdam, and, fin: himself and his associates at 
G-reenwich, swore allegiance to the States General, the 
West India Company, and the Dutch colonial authorities, 
upon condition of being protected against their enemies 
as much as possible, and of enjoying the same privileges 
'* that all patroons of New Netherland have obtained agree- 
ably to the Freedoms."* 

The Puritan colonists, who, in their new home in Amer- luiigioM 
ica, were exulting over the fall of Laud, had, meanwhile, orMMMt- 
been reading a significant lesscm to the world. In their 
turn, the founders of Massachusetts became persecutors ; 
and, so far from recognizing the grand principle of the 
fireedom of every one's conscience, required the submission 
of all to their peculiar ecclesiastical system. ^' The arm 
of the civil government," says Judge Story, " was constant- 
ly employed in support of the denunciations of the Church ; 
and, without its forms, the Inquisition existed in substance, 
with a full share of its terrors and its violence."! 

A shining mark was soon offered. Among the earliest 
who followed Winthrop to Massachusetts was Rosrer Will- Ranr 
iams, <' a young minister, godly, zealous, having many 
precious parts." Revolving the nature of intolerance, his 
eapacious mind found a sole remedy for it in ^' the sanc- 
ti^ of conscience." " The civil magistrate should restrain 
erime, but never control opinion." The mind of Williams, 
however, was in advemce of the spirit of his neighbors. 
His ideas of ^' intellectual liberty" shocked the religious 
despotism of Massachusetts ; and the General Court sen- 1635. 
tenoed him to depart out of their jurisdiction within six ^^' 
weeks, " all the ministers, save one, approving the sen- J^"* **^ 
tence."t Flying to the South, the exile wandered through 

* B<rf. Doc, Iz., tM ; CCttlL, i.,lS8; Hasard, IL, S14 ; Mie, ^ 9M. "CapUlD*« Isl- 
wd,** on wbtoli ■uods tke Ufhi-taoiiM off Greenwioh, no doabc dorired Us none tttm 
Captain Patrtek. t Smry's Miaoallanlea, M. I Winthrop, i., 171. 


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Chap. X. the foFosts, in mid-winter, for fourteen weeks, until at last 
he found a refuge in the wigwam of the chief of Pokano- 
January.' ^^^ ^he uoxt summer, the father of Rhode Island laid 
Foundt ^^^ foundations of Providence ; desiring, he said, " it might 
JJJJi; be a shelter for persons distressed for conscience."* 

The banishment of Williams was soon followed by oih- 
ABM er persecutions in Massachusetts. Anne Hutchinson, for 
•on. "' maintaining ^^ the paramount authority of private judg- 
ment," was denounced as ^' weakening the hands and 
hearts of the people toward the ministers," and as being 

1637. '' like Roger Williams, or worse." She was, therefore, ex- 
Nmmber. communioatcd, and, with several of her friends, banished, 
"■'*****^ • as "unfit for the society" of their fellow-citizens. The ex- 
iles instinctively followed the footsteps of Williams. His 

1638. influence aided them in obtaining from the chief of the 
M March. Narragausctts the cession of the island of Adquidnecke, 
Rkodaiai. which^ from its "reddish appearance," its early Dutch 
•d. ' discoverers had named the " Roode," or Red Island. A 

1641. form of government, resting on " the principle of intellect- 
*'•'*'** ual liberty," was soon established ; and the first Demo- 
cratic Constitution of Rhode Island nobly ordained that 
" none be accounted a delinquent for doctrine ;" and de- 
clared that " liberty of conscience was perpetuated."! 
PropoMd The same spirit which had driven Williams and Hutch- 
tion?(Svm inson frt)m Massachusetts soon brought to Manhattan " a 
Mtta to number of Englishmen" frt)m Lynn and Ipswich, to " so- 
otend. licit leave to settle" among the Dutch, and to treat with 
the director for a patent for lands on Long Island. Kieft 
readily agreed to grant them all the franchises which the 
ejniw. charter of 1640 allowed. Upon condition of their taking 

UlMralitv — 

oftbe an oath of allegiance to the States General and the West 
Tindaigov- India Company, they were to have the free exercise of re- 
ligion, a magistracy nominated by themselves and approved 
by the director, the right to erect towns, lands free of rent 
for ten ye€u*s, and ^^ an unshackled commerce, in conform- 
ity to the privileges of New Netherland."t 

* Bnullbrd ; Wintlirop, L. 171 ; Baekns, i., 94 ; Baneroft, !.» SM, 807, S7Q. 
t Hut6tiiiwoii,ii.,447; R.L Recoil; BaneroO, i., 386, S9S, 38S : Chalmera, fH ; Mte, 
p. 88. I Alb. Rao., il., 10, 1S3, 189 j 0*CaU., L, SS7. 


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These " very fair terras" delighted the English appli- cha». x. 
cants. The General Court of Massachusetts, however, of- 
fended at the thought of their " strengthening the Dutch, q^^^^, * 
our doubtful neighbors," and at their being willing to re- of*KJ gJS 
ceive from them a title for lands which the king hadJf^SiS? 
granted to Lord Stirling; but, above all, at their " binding ^*"**'"*' 
themselves by an oath of fealty," sought to dissuade them 
from their purpose. The arguments of the court prevail- 
ed, and the discontented colonists '< were convinced, and 
promised to desist."* 

Early the next year, Francis Doughty, a dissenting 1642. 
clergyman, while preaching at Cohasset, was dragged outSSSih'y 
of the assembly for venturing to assert that " Abraham's hiiidrto 
children should have been baptized." Accompanied by*^^"*^ 
Richard Smith, and several other liberal-minded men, 
Doughty came to Manhattan, to secure a happy home. 
He betook himself to the protection of the Dutch, " that 
he might, in conformity with the Dutch Reformation, 
have freedom of conscience, which, contrary to his expec- 
tation, he missed in New England." Kieft received the ss March, 
strangers kindly, and immediately granted to Doughty Mospath, or 
and his associates "an absolute ground-brief" for more 
than thirteen thousand acres of land at Mespath, or New- 
town, on Long Island. The patent guaranteed to them 
the freedom of religion, and all the political franchises 
which had before been offered to the people of Lynn and 
Ipswich, " according to the immunities granted and to be 
granted to the colonists of this province, without any ex- 

In the autumn of the same year, John Throgmorton, John 
whom Hugh Peters had judged "worthy of the same per- ton'JSdwt 
secution that drove Williams to Providence," came to Man- uo^them- 
hattan to solicit a residence under the jurisdiction of the m!g»i 
States General. Kieft readily listened to Throgmorton's « October, 
request; and granted him permission to settle himself, 
" with thirty-five English families," within twelve miles 

• WInthrop, II., 34. 

t VenooRh van N. N., in li., N. Y. H. S. ColL, I!., 901, 383 ; Lechlbrd, 40. 41 ; Alb. Roe. 
O. G., 40 ; O'CaU., L, 4S5 ; Thompoon, L. I., b., 70 1 Riker^ Newtown, 17, 413. 


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CHtf . X. of Fort Amsterdam, ^^ to reside there in peace, and enjoy 
the same privileges as our other subjects, and be favored 
with the free exercise of their religion."* The refugees 
selected for their home the lands on the East River, now 
known as West Chester, which the Dutch appropriately 
vn»deiuid. named '^Yredelsmd," or the ^'Land of Peace;" and the 
next summer, Thn^morton obtained a patent for a por- 
tion of the territory where he and his companions had 
found an asylum.t 
Anne Evcn Rhode Island seemed hardly as desirable an abode 

•on re-"* as New Netherland. Becoming dissatisfied with her first 
New Netb. retreat, and fearing that the implacable vengeance of Mas- 
sachusetts would reach her even there, the widowed Anne 
Hutchinson, in the summer of 1642, removed, with CW- 
lins, her son-in-law — " a young scholar full of zeal" — and 
all her family, beyond New Haven, into the Dutch terri- 
tory, and chose for her residence the point now known as 
Pelham Neck, near New Rochelle, a few miles eastward 
Settlement of Throgmortou's Settlement. The spot was soon called 
Heeok." << Auuie's Hocck ;" and a small stream, which 8q)arates it 
from the town of East Chester, still preserves in its name, 
" Hutchinson's River," the memory of the remarkable 
woman who there found her last home.t 
Motiree to Thcsc large emigrations to New Nethi^land, where five 
emifl^'^ English colonies were soon established, did not fail to at- 
N2J?En" tract the notice of the Puritan authorities. The " unset- 
tled frame of spirit'' of many was attributed to the sudd^i 
fall of land and cattle, and the scarcity of foreign commod- 
ities ; and there was '< much disputation" in Massachusetts 
" about liberty of removing for outward advantages."^ 
There were doubtless some who emigrated merely to en- 
large their estates. But there were many others, whose 
only motive for the change was the religious intolerance 

* Alb. Rec., ii., 185. 

t Alb. Rec. G. G., 08, 173, 174 ; Wlntltrap, i., « ; HntcUiKm, L, 371 ; Be&WD*a Mte> 
olr, 131 ; Bolton's West Chester, U., MS, 146, 153. The point now known as " Thrag^ 
Neck** was oomprehended within this grant, and, no doubt, deriTes its name flron nrof- 

t Winthrop, if., 8, 80, ISO ; Neal, i., 178 ; Hntehlnaon, I., 73, 73; BoUoa, i., Ski, ftli. 

« Winthrop, U., 85, 87 ; Doe. Hist. V. Y^ It., f . 


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ofiheirownooimtrymezi. They left New England to seek, cha^. x. 
in New Netherlands " freedom to worship Grod." 

Besides the numerous strangers whose " insupportable ^ ^ 
goTemment" drove them to seek permanent homes in thejjjj,^^^ 
Dutch Province, there flocked from Virginia and New En- J[„**^^" 
gland many fugitive servants, " who too often carry their JJSSnr " 
passports with them under the soles of their shoes." 
Their conduct at Manhattan was soon found to occasion 
mischief and complaint. Kieft, therefore, issued a proo- is xpHi. 
lamation forbidding the inhabitants to harbor any stran-r4via- 
gers, or give them more than one meal or a single night's 
lodging, without notifying the director, and furnishing him 
with the names of the new-comers.* 

The constant intercourse at this time between New 
England and Virginia brought many transient visitors to 
Manhattan. On their way to and from Long Island Sound 
and Sandy Hook, the coasting vessels always stopped at 
Fort Amsterdam; and the increasing number of his guests 
occasioned great inconvenience to the director, who fre- 
quently could afford them but " slender entertainment." 
Kieft, therefore, built " a fine hotel of stone" at the com- Kieft 
pany's expense, where travellers " might now go and Ju>ne iJnei 
lodge." This hotel, or " Harberg," was conveniently sit- len. 
uated on the river side, a little east of Fort Amsterdam, 
near what is at present known as " Coenties Slip."t 

The old church had now become dilapidated ; and De a new 
Vries, dining with Kieft, told him it was a shame that the po«ed. ^ 
English, when they visited Manhattan, "saw only a mean 
barn in which we preached." " The first thing they built 
in New England, after their dwelling-houses, was a fine 
church; we should do the like," urged De Vries; "we 
have fine oak wood, good mountain stone, and excellent 
lime, which we bum from oyster-shells — much better than 
our lime in Holland." " Who shall oversee the work ?" 
asked Kieft, whose anxiety " to leave a great name after 
him" was the more earnest, as a church was then in 

* Journal van N. N., in Hoi. Doc., iU., 96 ; Doc Htet. N. T., iT., 6 ; Alb. Rec, U., 161. 
t Do Vries, IflS; Winthrop, iL, 96; Monltoa^a Now Onnge, SI. 


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cbap. X. Gontemplation at Rensselaerswyok. '' There are friencb 
"I~ enough of the Reformed religion," answered De Vries, 
who immediately subscribed one hundred guilders, upon 
condition that the director should head the list. Jochem 
Pietersen Kuyter, " a devout professor of the Reformed re- 
ligion," and Jan Jansen Dam, who lived " close by the 
choTdi fort," were immediately appointed, with De Vries and 
• ""^ Kieft, church masters to superintend the building ; toward 

the cost of which the director agreed to advance ^< some 
thousand guilders" on the company's account. For great- 
er security " against all sudden attacks of tiie Indians," 
the church was ordered to be erected within the fort. 
This decision, however, was not satisfactory; for as it 
was to be built chiefly by public subscription, the people 
thought that it should be placed where it would be gen- 
erally convenient. Besides, the fort was small enough 
already, and a church within it would be " a fifth wheel 
to a wagon." It would intercept, too, the southeast wind, 
and prevent the working of the grist-mill hard by. But 
Kieft insisted, and all objections were overruled.* 

It only remained to secure the necessary subscriptions. 
Fortunately, it happened that the daughter of Domiue Bo- 
gardus was married just then; and Kieft thought the wed- 
ding-feast a good opportunity to excite the generosity of 
the guests. So, " after the fourth or fifth round of drink- 
ing," he showed a liberal example himself, and let the 
other wedding guests subscribe what they would toward 
tiie church fund. All the company, with light heads and 
glad hearts, vied with each other in " subscribing richly." 
Some of them, wl^en they went home, "well repented it;" 
but " nothing availed to excuse."t 
Mijr. A contract was made with John and Richard Ogden, of 

Stamford, for the mason-work of a stone church seventy- 
two feet long, fifty wide, and sixteen high, at a cost of 
twenty-five hundred guilders, and a gratuity of one hund- 
red more if the work should be satisfactory. The walls 

* De Vriea, 164 ; Veftoogh Ttn N. N., S93. 

t Vertoogh ran N. N., in ii^ N. T. H. S. Coll., ii., »S. 


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were bqod bnih ; and the roof was raised and cohered by chaf. x. 

English carpenters with oak shingles, which, by exposure — ^ 

to the weather, soon " looked like slate." The honor and cJ^ i^ 
the ownership of the work were both commemorated by a SS^aST 
square stone inserted in the front wall, bearing the am- 
biguoas inscripticm, "Anno Domini, 1642, William Kieft, 
Director G-eneral, hath the Commonalty caused to build 
Ois Temple.'^* 

The Provinckd government before long felt some in- 
oonv^ence from "the large number of Englishmen'' who 
daily came to reside in New Netherland. Though Kieft 
himself was "roughly acquainted with the En^sh lan- 
guage," his subordinate officers were not ; and the En« 
glish strangers knowing the language of the province as 
little as the Dutch did of that of the new-comers, it was 
found necessary to have an official interpreter. One of oeorge' 
flie exiles from New England, Greorge Baxter, was ac-pomtiK. 
oordingly appdinted " English secretary," at an annual sal- tary- 
ary of two hundred and fifty guilders.1' 

The party which Lamberton had sent, the previous AAira on 
summer, frcnn New Haven to the South River, having, in Rirer. 
violation of their pledge, established themselves upon 
Dutch territory, " without any commisskm of a potentate," 
Kieft, on finding how he had been cajoled, determined 
" to drive these English thence in the best manner possi- 
ble." The yadits Real and Saint Martin were therefore » May. 
dispatched to Jansen, the oommissaiy at Fort Nassau, tion^s. 
who was instmoted to visit the intruders, and " compel Stim Man. 
them to depart directly in peace." Their personal prop- 

* Alb. RMn tii., 31 ; HoL Doc, it, ; tt., N. Y. H. S. ColL, i., 383; U., 99B ; O'CaU., i., 
303 : Breeden Raedt, S3. It appears, fVoin the Breeden Raedt, that the church was not 
iadOMd vntU 104S. Wkan the Ibrt was demoUahed in 1700, to nako way fbr tlie Gor* 
emoMat Honae, which waa buQt oo the aite of what ia now the ** Bowling Green,^ the 
atone with the inacrlption waa (band amonf the rubbish. The IbUowing paragraph (hnn 
the **New York Magiaaani* Ibr 1730, mewda the drcttmatanee: "loaa 33. Om Monday 
last, in digging away the fimndation of the fbrt in this city, a aqoare atone waa (bond 
among the mlna of a chapel (which (brmerly atood in the fbrt), with the (bUowing Dnteh 
inaertpdon rni it : « Ao. Do. MDCXLII. W. Kieft Dr. Or. Haaft da OeoMantan deso Tem- 
petdoanBowwoD.'** This alone waa mnovod to the balflry of tlae]lalbnMdD«tQlieta»A 
ia Garden Street, where tt remained until both were deatroyed in the gren Are of Dmtmh 
bar, MM.— U., N. T. H. S. CoU., ii, 3ae{ BaMatt'a Man., lOB ; Doc Wrt. N.T., iiL, 403. 

t Alb. Roe., Um 303. 



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Chap. X. erty was not to be injured ; but the oommissajy was to 
' '' remain master," and, above all, '< medntain the reputa- 
tion of their High Mightinesses, and the noble directors 
of the West India Company." 
The En. Jauson exoouted his orders promptly. The settlement 
Sienta ^"ou the Schuylkill was broken up at once. That on the 
ro ea up. y^^j^j^^j^j^j g^jy^ ^^ Salem Creek, was next yisited, and, with 
the hearty co-operation of the Swedes, who had agreed 
with Kieft " to keep out the English," the .intruders were 
expelled. The trespassers were conveyed to Fort Amster- 
28 August, dam, and from there sent back to New Haven. Lam- 
compeued bcrtou, howcvor, persisting in trading at the South River, 
■t Manhat- was soou afterward arrested at Manhattan, on his* return to 
New Haven, and compelled to give an account of His pd- 
tries, and pay duties on his cargo. The New Haven peo- 
ple protested, and threatened retaliation. But Kieft fiir- 
nished the Dutch who had occasion to visit the <^ Red 
Hills" with passports, in which he boldly avowed his own 
responsibility for all that had happened. The damages 
which the English sustained at the Soutii River were es- 
timated at one thousand pounds ; but though they com- 
plained bitterly, they never obtained redress.* 
DiffleouiM The difficulties between the Dutch earrison at the Hope 

Aft TTaftfenl 

' and the English at Hartford continued unabated. JBve- 
ry vexation that ingenuity could contrive was practiced 
against the Hollanders, who, on the other hand, were 
charged with enticing away and sheltering the servants 
of the English colonists ; with helping prisoners in jail to 
escape; and with purchasing and retaining goods stolen 
i April, from the English. Under these circumstances, Kieft, find- 
bids inter- inff that his protests were of no effect, had recourse to re- 
Hanftyrd. taliatory mcasurcs ; and all trade and commercial mter- 
course with the Hartford people, in the neighborhood of 
the Dutch post, was formally prohibited. t 

* All*. Eec, U., laS, I«4, 177, 185 ; AenUoa ; i., N. Y. H. S. CoU., i., 413 : U., S81 ; 
0>C«Um i.. SM; Haaard, U^ 164, S14; S. Httud, Abb. Pbbb., 61, OB; Fwria, M, 60; 

t Alb. Bacytt., 187, IM; Haswd, tt., S16, 166 ; i., N. T. K t. OolL, S76{ TnuBboU, 

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It was not long before the Hartford authorities felt the cha^. x. 
inoonvenienoe of their position. The General Court, there- 
fore, ordered that the magistrates " shall have liberty to n i2^ 
agitate the business betwixt us and the Dutoh, and, if 
they think meet, to treat with the governor oonceming 
the same."* Under this authority, Whiting, a magistrate, Deiention 
and Hill, a deputy of Hartford, oame to Manhattan, to ar- ror?vMto 
range with the director for the purchase of the West In-ji^.*"*"" 
dia Company's lands around the Hope. Kieft, after ex-ojuiy. 
plaining in detail the antiquity of the Dutch title, offered 
to lease <<the field at Hartford" to the English, for an an- 
nual rent of a tenth part of the produce, as long as they 
should occupy it. The delegates, on their return, sub- The Dutch 
mitted these conditions to the General Court. But noS^T^ 
abatement of annoyance followed. The coveted field was 
again despitefully plowed up by the Hartford people, who 
even prevented " cattle that belonged not to them" fix)m 
being driven toward New Netherland.t 

There was a strong, though not, perhaps, an honorable 
motive for this system of petty annoyance. Hopkins had 
now returned from London, bringing with him BoswelPs 
letter to Wright. The recommendation of the British min- Policy and 
ister at the Hague, " Crowd on— crowd the Dutch out," the Han- 
was now to be the system by which New Netherland was, ^^^ ' 
by degrees, to be dismembered of her territory, and grad- 
ually separated firom Holland. The General Court direct- » sept. 
ed that " a letter be returned to the Dutch, in answer to 
their letter brought by Mr. Whiting ;" and also that let- 
ters should be written to Dudley and Bellingham, the for- 
mer governors of Massachusetts, " concerning what the 
Dutch governor reporteth that they have wrote to him 
about our differences." Dudley, in 1640, had written to 
Kieft in conciliatory terms ; and Bellingham, the next 
year, had advised moderation on both sides ;t but the Hart- 
ford authorities now seemed apprehensive that Massachu- 

* Col. Rec. Conn., 7S. 

t Haurd, U., M5 ; i., N. Y. H. S. Coll., t7« ; Col. Ree. Coon., 7% ; Alb. Roe.,.U., 171, 
|7«; Smith, Hist. N. Y., I, «. 
t Winthrop, ii., 7, S9 ; Col. Rae. Conn., 75, 5M ; ante, p. S09, S9S. 


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349 raSTORY OF the state of new YORK. 

Chap. X. setts had oommitted herself to more liberal views than 

those whioh suited the policy of Gonneotiout 
Purii^ ' The agents in England, in the mean time, had not been 
^^^j^l unsuccessfol. Though Peters failed in his undertaking to 
" pacify" the Dutch West India Company, the New En- 
gland delegates, acting on Boswell's advice, succeeded in 
inducing '^ persons of quality" to communicate with the 
representative of the States Q-eneral at htmdoa. Lotd 
Say, as one of Lord Warwick's original grantees, was 
» July, warmly interested ; and, in the course of the summer, he 
addressed a letter to Joachimi, the Netherlands' ambassa- 
dor, in whioh he strenuously advocated the cause of the 
Connecticut ccdonists, and severely censured the Dutch. 
LordSfty't They, he said, had protested and threatened, and used 
Dutdi am- ^^ lutughty arguments" against the English ; yet, though 
there were only five or six Netherlanders residing on the 
river, ''where there are more than two thousand English," 
no violent proceedings had been taken against the Dutch, 
who, it was asserted, had been treated ''with all civility.'^ 
The Pequod Indians, of whom the Hollanders claimed to 
have purchased a portion of the land, " had no other than a 
usurped title." The " weakness" of the Dutch title was 
inferred, because " the English having addressed sundry 
letters to tiieir governor, William Eiefl;," he had refused 
t6 accept their proposal to refer the settlement of the ques- 
iifm to impartial arbitrators. The D\itch should be or- 
dered to demean themselves peaceably, and be content 
with their own limits, " or to leave the river." ' This last 
suggestion would " tend most to their master's profit," as 
the returns firom their post nev^ had, and never would re- 
pay expenses. " Moreover," added Lord Say, " they live 
there in an ungodly way, in no wise beseeming the G-os- 
pel of Christ. Their residence there will never produce 
any other efiect than expense to their masters and trouble 
Threftts to the Eu^h." Other influential persons in London, 
SSSr moved by the representations of the New England agents, 
openly iJireatened that, before the end of the year, the 
Hollanders should be utterly expelled from the valley of 

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the Connecticut Joaohimi therefore sent Lord Say's oom- chat. x. 
munioation to the States G-eneral; and, in subseqnent""^^ 
dispatches, explained the irritated feeling which existed 3, j^^, ' 
among the friends of the Puritan cdonists, and urged the Jv^^J}^' 
king should be asked to conunand his New England sub- " ^^«»<*«' 
jects not to molest the Dutch, who had possession of New 
Netherland before the English ever came there. "For 
such commands must proceed from his majesty ; and it 
might be taken ill that redress should be sought from the 
House of Parliament, whose orders would probably not be 
received in those far-distant quarters." The Dutch am- 
bassador at London, however, little knew the temper of 
the men of New England. 

Charles set up his standard at Nottingham, and the ss August, 
civil war began. Parliament was supreme at liondon, or um civ?i 
but the king was still sovereign in the rural districts. 
The sympathies of the Puritan colonists in America were 
with the Puritan House of Commons. The States Gen- 
eral promptly referred Joachimi's dispatches to the West S5 October. 
Lidia Company ; but though the ambassador was instruct- 
ed to represent that it need not be apprehended that his 
countrymen in New Netherland could ever "prevail" 
against their stronger neighbors, the threats of the Lon- 
dcm friends of New England were entirely disregarded at 
the Hague.* The distracted kingdom caused no present 
anxiety to foreign powers. 

Interesting events were now occurring at Rensselaers- 1641. 
wyck. Adriaen van der Donck, of Breda, in North Bra-^^*JJ 
bant, a man of intelligence and lecurning, having taken a ^^.g,. 
lease from the patroon of the westerly half of Castle Isl- ^^ 
and, known as " Welysburg," adjoining the fertile ferm ^^^"^^^^ 
of Brandt Peelen, was appointed schout-fiscal of the oolo- 
nie, and arrived at Manhattan in the autumn of 1641. 
As the colonists had shown a disposition " to pass by the 
carpenters and other of the patroon's laborers," and to 
employ whom they pleased. Van der Donck was specially 
instructed to repress this spirit of independence, and pros- is Joiy. 

* IIoL Doe., U., S70-3O7; 0*Ctf., i., 855-»7; iUlniM, ti., 932 ; Linfud, z., Ifit. 

' Digiti 

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cbap. X. eoute fhe offenders before the oolonial coort He was also 
oharged to procure the enactment of " stricter statutes or 
lo4^. Qjf^iii^anoes, and to punish the delinquents by penalties and 
fines, aooording to law."* 

The wai^ of a permanent clergyman, and the need of 
a proper church edifice, had now for some time been 
felt in the oolonie ; and, early the next year, the patrocHi 
took measures to place his colonists in as good a condi- 
tion in these respects as the inhabitants of Manhattan. 
6MardL He therefore made an agreement with the Reverend 
Me^^n. Doctor Johanues Megapolensis, a learned clergyman be- 
cierpna? lougiug to the Classis of Alckmaer, to send him out to 
nio. Rensselaerswyck, " for the edifying improvement of the 
inhabitants and Indians." The patroon bound himself to 
convey the Domine and his family to New Netherland firee 
of expense, provide him with a proper residence, and assure 
him, for six years, an annual salary of one thousand guild- 
ers, with a promise of an addition of two hundred guilders 
annually for the three following years, " should the patroon 
be satisfied with his service." On the other hand, Megapo- 
lensis agreed '^ to befriend and serve the patroon in all things 
wherein he could do so without interfering with or imped- 
ing his duties." As the Classis of Amsterdam was the ec- 
clesiastical superior of all the Dutch colonial clergy, it was 
necessary to obtain its assent to the arrangement ; and 
18 March the Dominc accordingly appeared before the committee 
of that body, '^ ad res exteras," and explained his views 
in wishing to settle himself in New Netherland. A few 
s2Mtrch. days afterward, the classis attested a formal "call" for 
Megapolensis to preach the Gospel and govern thq Church 
at Rensselaerswyck, "in conformity with the Govern- 
ment, Confession, and Catechism of the Netherland 
churches, and the Synodal acts of Dordrecht." The Am- 
sterdam Chamber, however, as the political superior of 
New Netherland, claimed the right of approving this in- 
strument. The patroon, on the other hand, at first de- 
murred to what he thought a curtailment of his feudal 

* RaoM. M88. ; 0*CalL, i., W, »8. 

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rights ; but, after seyeral months' delay, he agreed that chap. x. 
the dirpotors should aflSx their act of approbation, under 
protest that the rights of both parties should remain nn- j^^^^^'p. 
prejudiced. The Amsterdam Chamber accordingly ap-gj^^^^. 
proved the call. Domine Megapolensis was furnished JS?^^***"' 
with a detailed memorandum, respecting the settlement *"'"** 
of the colonists, and the arrangement of the new church 
and parsonage ; a plan for all the buildings was provided ; 
and a small theological library was supplied at the pa- 
troon's expense. The transportation of the colonists to 
Fort Orange was to be arranged under the advice of Kieft, 
to whom the patroon sent a present of a saddle and mili- 
tary equipments, ^^ as the noble director hath heretofore 
had much trouble with my people and goods." A num- 
ber of respectable emii?rants embarked with Mec^apolensis Arrivet t 
and his family m the ship Houttuyn, which, after a pros- 
perous voyage, arrived in August. 

At this period it was not uncommon for ships to lie a The new 
fortnight at Manhattan before intelligence of their arrival «t Renase- 
was received at Rensselaerswyck. Prompt measures, how- 
ever, were taken to convey up the river the new emi- 
grants, who, upon reaching their destination, were reg-11 Auguat. 
istered by Arendt van Curler, the commissary. To con- 
centrate the inhabitants as much as possible, and thus 
avoid danger of their lives from the Indians, " as sorrow- 
ful experience hath demonstrated around Manhattan," the 
patioon required that all the colonists, except the farmers 
and tobacco-planters, should live near each other, so as to 
form a " Kerck-buurte," or church neighborhood. This 
was to be settled near the Beaver's Creek ; where a ferry 
was at once established for the accommodation of the col- 
onists across the river at Q-reenbush. The patroon's di- 
rections were followed, and Van Curler notified all the col- 
onists to " regulate themselves accordingly." 

The church, however, was not built until the following 
year ; but the houses which were to surround it were 
planned ; the dwelling of Maryn Adriaensen, one of the 
colonists who was about to remove to Manhattan, was 


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CHAP. X. bought for a paiaonage ; and the first olergyman at Reaih 
"~~ selaerswyok began to execute the duties of his holy office. 
Jj^p^. The colonists revered and esteemed their fiedthfol monittnr, 
^JJJjJJj whose influence was soon exerted in restraining immoral* 
iftbort. j^i^g^ which the license of a frontier life had hitherto al- 
lowed to pass unrebuked. The counsels of the Domine 
were received with respect by Commissary Van Curler, 
who always asked his opinion upon public affairs before 
he '' concluded to undertake any thing."* 

Soon after the arrival of Domine Megapolensis at Reus- 
selaerswyck, an occasion arose to test the characteristio 
prooMMof benevolence of the Dutch. Champlain had early planned 
in Canada, thc schemc of extending the empire of France over North 
America, by means of religious missions ; and his saga- 
cious conception was zealously seconded by the heroic and 
self-denying ^nissaries of the Church. Just before the 
1635. Father of New France was buried upon the field of his 
noble toils, and a year before Massachusetts made provi- 
sion for what afterward became Harvard University, a mis- 
sionary college was founded at Quebec. A few years aft- 
1641. erward, the festival of the Assumption was solemnly cel- 
i6Aufiwt. ebrated on the island of Montreal, before vast crowds of 
savages and Frenchmen. " There," said Father Le Jeune, 
^^ shall the Mohawk and the feebler Algonquin make their 
home ; the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and a little 
child shall lead them." 

From the time Champlain first penetrated the valley of 
viewaor Onondaga in 1615, the French had seen the advantage of 
possessing a post on the territory of Western New York. 
The settlements of the Dutch were as yet confined to the 
valleys of the Mohawk and of the North River. The 
views of the French in Canada did not, however, conflict 
with those of tiie Hollanders in New Netherland. France 
desired to control the great West ; Holland looked more to 
the possession of the sea-coast. <' Could we but gain the 
mastery," argued the missionaries of Canada, "of the 
shor^ of Ontario, on the side nearest the abode of the Iro- 

* Corr. CteMii AbmK. ; fUxam, M8S.; 0*CaU., L, SSS-SSO, 44&-40L 

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qaciBj we oouki aaoend by the Saint Lawrence witkoat CHAr. x. 
dangw, and pass free beyond Niagara." 

But 1ii6 hereditary enmity between the Iroquois Con- 
federates and the Hnrons and Algonqnins of Canada 
dkwarted the plans of the French missionaries. The nav- 
igation of Lake Ontario was closed against their enter- 
prise ; and a French canoe had never yet been launched 
upon Lake Erie. The Dutch traders at Rensselaerswyck 
had now suf^lied the Lroquois warriors with the fire-arms 
of Europe ; and ihe proud Konoshioni burned to be su- 
preme. Li the autumn of 1641, two Jesuit Fathers, September. 
Charles Raymbault and Isaac Jogues, pushing onward 
from the Huron mission station, coasted, in their birch- 
bark canoe, along tiie Manitoulin Islands, and, stemming 
the swift current of the Saint Mary's, reached the Sault, 4 October. 
idiere they found two thousand Ghippewas assembled, 
expecting their arrival Returning to Quebec, Jogues 
prepared, the next year, to repeat his visit. But as he 1642. 
ascending the Saint Lawrence with an escort of Hu- ctplSt!^oT 

lODSj the party was surprised by a band of Mohawks ly- J^tl. 
ing in ambuscade. A part of the expedition was captur- 
ed ; and Jogues and his fellow-prisoners were conducted 
through the country of the Iroquois to the valley of the w Anpwi. 
Mohawk. Horrible savage cruelties were inflicted upon 
the captives. From village to village their tortures were 
renewed ; but the faithful missionaries, as they ran the 
gauntlet, consoled themselves with visions of heavenly 

Intelligence that Ihree Frenchmen were prisoners among The duicIi 
the Iroquois soon reached Fort Orange ; and, prompted by ange^'at- 
a noble humanity. Commissary Van Curler, in company nSSr 
with Labbatie and Jansen, two of the colonists, went on 
horseback to the Mohawk country to attempt their rescue. 
The Dutch visitors were received with " great joy," and 
the presents which they brought were thankfully accept- 
ed by the warriors at the three castles. Before each cas- 
tle they were obliged to halt a quarter of an hour, until 
the Mohawks had Saluted them ^'with divers musket- 


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Chap. X. shots." Indians were sent out to shoot, and brought them 
in excellent turkeys. On the eve of the Nativity of £he Vir- 
7 Sept. gi^> ^^^ Curler reached the village where Jogues was de- 
^SngYhf taiii^d. Inviting the ohiefe to assemble together, he press- 
Mohawks. ^ them to release the French prisoners, " one of yrham 
was a Jesuit, a very learned scholar." But the Mohawk 
sachems refused. " "We shall show you every friendship 
in our power," said the ohiefe, " but on this subject we 
shall be silent." Days were spent in vain attempts to 
procure the release of the captives : six hundred guilders 
worth of goods, " to which all the colony would contrib- 
ute," were offered as their ransom, and inexorably re- 
fused. In the end. Van Curler " persuaded them so far, 
that they promised not to kill them, and to convey tiiem 
back to their country." As the party set out on their re- 
turn to Fort Orange, the French captives ran after them, 
beseeching the Dutch to rescue them out of the hands of 
the barbarians. An escort of ten or twelve armed savages 
conducted the embassy home, through <^ the most beauti- 
ful lemd on the Mohawk River that eye ever saw." Bat 
the Hollanders had scarcely left, before the " clamorous 
braves" insisted upon blood ; and Ren6 Goupil, a "donn6," 
19 Sept. or novice, who had accompanied Jogues, was struck dead 
with a tomahawk, invoking the name of Jesus as he fell 
Jogues' lii^ The life of the Father was, however, spared. Carving the 
emblem of his faith upon a majestic tree, the devoted Jes- 
uit, during the following winter, held lonely communion 
with his God. For a time he^was unmolested ; but the 
Mohawks at length finding him at prayer, '^ attacked him 
most violently, saying that they hated the cross ; that it 
was a sign unknown to them and their friends, the neigh- 
boring Europeans" at Fort Orange.* 
1643. In the annals of New Netherland, 1643 was, emphat- 
ically, " the year of blood." While New England was 
filled with alarm at the suspicion of a general rising of 

* RelaUon, 164(M1, 50, 211 ; 1047, 56, 111 ; Jogues'e Letters of the 5th and 30th of An- 
goBt, 1643, in U., N. Y. H. S. ColL, iii. ; Tftnner'a ** Soclatas Jera,>* Jto., 510-531 ; Megap., 
in Hazard, i., 523; De Vries, 157 ; Creaziua, 338 ; Charlevoix,!., 234-250; Renaa. MSS., 
O^CalL, i., 463, 464 ; Bancroft, iU., 122-184 ; Warborton'a Conqne«t of Canada, L, 101, 390. 

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the Indians, and benighted trayeilers oonld not halloo in cbap. x. 
the woods without oaosing fear that savages were tor- 
turing their European captives, the neighboring Dutch pj^j^.' 
province partook of the universal panic. Miantonoinoh,^^^* 
" the great sachem of Sloup's Bay," was reported to have JJ'^^*!'* 
come with one hundred men to the neighborhood of Green- jf^^. 
wioh, and to have passed through all the villages of the 
Indians, soliciting tiiem to a general war against the En- 
glish and the Dutch. The wildest stories were circulated 
among the &eside gossips at Manhattan. The outlaying 
Indians were accused of setting fire to the powder of the 
Dutch, whoever they could find it, and of attempting to 
poison and bewitch the director.* Anxiety and terror al- 
ready pervaded the defenseless hamlets around Fort Am- 
sterdam, when an event occurred which precipitated open 
hostilities, aild nearly annihilated the rising hopes of the 
West India Company. 

De Vries, while rambling, gun on shoulder, toward Van 
der Horst's new colony at Hackinsack, which was ^^but 
an hour's walk" firom Yriesendael, met an Indian " who 
was very drunk." Coming up to the patroon, he " stroked 
him over the arms" in token of friendship. '^ You are a 
good chief," said the Indian ; " when we visit you, you 
give us milk to drink, for nothing. But I have just come 
from Hackinsack, ^ere they sold me brandy^, half mixed 
with water, and then stole my beaver-skin coat." The a Dutcb- 
savage vowed a bloody revenge. He would go home forSJ^d^rin 
his bow and arrows, and then shoot ono of the ^' roguish hmmh- 
Swannekens" who had stolen his things. De Vries en- 
deavored to soothe him ; and, on reaching Hackins8U)k, 
warned Van der Horst's people against the danger of treat- 
ing the wild natives as they had the one he had just met. 
Scarcely had he returned to his own house, before some 
of the chiefs of the Hackinsacks and of the Reckawancks, 
in hb neighborhood, came to Vriesendael. The revenge- 
ful savage had kept his vow. Watching his opportunity, 
he had shot one of the Dutch colonists. Garret Jansen van 

* Wlntlirap, ti., 84 ; Hoi. Doe., Ui., 107 ; Doe. Hi*. N. T., iT., 9. 


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cuAP.x. Voorst, as he was quietly thatohing the roof of one of Van 

"TTTT" der Horst's houses. The ohiefis had hastened to week ootm- 

* sel of Be Yries. They dared not go to Fort Arasteniainy 

for fear Kieft would keep them prisoners ; bat they were 

willing to pay two hundred fathoms of wampum to the 

widow of the murdered man, ^^ and that should purchase 

Thc^ their peace."* They offered the full expiation which In- 

biood dian justice demanded— -a blood-atonement of money ; and 

the custom, so uniyersal among the red men of America, 
was in singular accordance with the usage of classio 

At length, persuaded by De Vries, who answered for 
their safe return, the chie& accompanied him to Fort Am- 
sterdam. Explaining to Kieft the unhappy occurrence at 
Hackinsack, they repeated their offer of a ^'just atone- 

Kieft de- ment." The director inexorably demanded the murderer. 

orarderor. Imitating thc example of Massachusetts in the case of 
the Pequods, he would be content with nothing but blood. 
But the chiefs could not bind themselves to surrender the 
criminal. He had gone ^' two days' journey off, among 
the Tankitekes ;'' and, besides, he was the son of a chief 
Again they prqxwed an expiatory offering of wampum to 
i^>pease the widow's grief " Why do you sell brandy to 
our young men ?" said the chiefs. ^^ They are not used 
to it — it makes them crazy. Even your own people, who 
are accustomed to strong liquors, scnnetimes become drunk, 
and fight with knives. Sell no more strong drink to the 
Indians, if you would avoid mischief" With this, they 
took leave of the director, and returned to Yriesendael ; 
and Kieft soon afterward sent a peremptory message to 
Pacham, the crafty chief of the Tankitekes, to surrender 
the refugee.! 

But before Pacham obeyed the mandate, more serious 

* De Vries, IM; Hoi. Doe., iii., 107 ; Breeden Raedt, 16 ; Bancroft, U., 280. 

t *'irakrotberbtoed, 

On Just atonement we remit the deed ; 
A eire the slaughter of his son (brglTes, 
The priee of blood disehaited, the m a fd eier Uves." 

Pops, iUotf, ix. 

X De Vries, IW; Hsl. Doe., UL, 108 ; Doe. Hist. N. ¥., It., 10 ; JUh. Bse., tL, ilS. 


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events oootmred. In the deptii of winter, a party of eighty chaf. x. 
or ninety Mohawk warriors, " each with a musket on his -^.^ 
shoulder," oame down from the neighborhood of Fort Or- pebrau^! 
ange, to coUeot tribute from the Wedcquaesgeeks and^^*);^. 
Tappans. The river tribes quailed before the f<»midabl6 ^\J*l' . 
Iroquois. No resistance was offered by the more numer-^^'' 
ous but subjugated Algonquins ; seventy of whom were 
killed, and many women and children made prisoaiers. 
Half-famished parties j9ed from West Chester to Manhat- The tribu- 
tan, where they were kindly entertained. In their despair, h^ seek 
four or five hundred of the oowerine tributaries flocked to vHesen- 

dad I PavfK 

Vriesendael, to beg assistance and protection. The pa-J{**w. 
troon told them, however, that the Fort Orange Indians 
were ^' friends of the I>utch," who could not interfere in 
their wars. Finding his house full of savages, and only 
five men besides himself to defend it, De Yries went, in a 
canoe, through the floating ice, down to Fort Amster- 
dam, to ask Kieft to assist him with some soldiers. The 
director, however, had none to spare. The next day, si Feb. 
'^ troops of savages," who had come down from Yriesen- 
dael, encamped near the ^^ oyster banks" at Pavonia, 
among the Hackinsaoks, who were ^^fiill a thousand 
strong." Some of them, crossing the river to Manhattan, 
took refuge at " Corker's Bouwery," where a few Bocka- 
way Indians from Long Island, with their chief, Nainde 
Nummerus, had already built their wigwams.*" 

In this conjuncture, public opinion at Manhattan was Pubiicopin. 
divided in regard to the policy to be observed toward theteSun. *"' 
savages. Now that they were fugitives from the dreaded 
Iroquois, and felt grateful for the temporary protection 
which they had received from the Dutch, flie river In- 
dians could easily be won to a sincere friendship, thought 
De Yries and a majority of the community. But there 
were other spirits — active, unquiet, panting for war, who, 
though few, were aided by the influence of Yan Tienhoven, 
the astute provincial secretary. As Kieft was dining, at 
Shrovetide, at the house of Jan Jansen Dam, one of the ts Feb 

* De Vries, 177, 178 ; HoL Doc., u., 379 ; ill., 109 ; Bneden Raedt, 15. 

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Chap. X " Twelve Men," the host, with Adriaensen and Planck, two 
"~~ of his former oolleagnes, assuming to speak in the name of 
Petition tor t*^® oommonalty, presented a petition to the director, urg- 
udl'tb! "^ i^ instant hostilities against the unsuspecting savages. 
^2ISS>d Van Tienhoven, who had drafted the petition, well knew 
^^im^*' the temper of his chief. The Indians, it was argued, had 
not yet made any atonement for their murders, nor had 
the assassins of Smits and Van Voorst been delivered up. 
While innocent blood was unavenged, the national char- 
acter of the Dutch must suffer. God had now delivered 
their enemies into their hands ; " We pray you," ui^ed 
the petitioners, " let us attack them ; to this end we offer 
our persons, and we propose that a party of freemen and 
another of soldiers be dispatched against them at different 
Kieft n- The sanguinary director wcw delighted with the pros- 
wir. pect of war ; and, "in a significant toast," announced the 
approaching hostilities. Just one year before, Kieft had 
dissolved the board of "Twelve Men," and had forbidden 
any public meetings without his express permission. He 
had, moreover, distinctly denied that the Twelve Men had 
any other function than simply to give their advice re- 
specting the murder of Smits. But now that a self-con- 
stituted committee, falsely claiming to represent the Twelve 
Men elected by the commonalty, counseled violence, the 
director rashly resolved to make the savages " wipe their 
chops." They had unanimously refused to pay the con- 
tribution he had imposed ; and, seeing himself deprived 
of this source of revenue, " of which he was very greedy," 
Kieft was charged with now devising other means "to 
satisfy his insatiable avaricious soul."t 

Van Tienhoven and Corporal Hans Steen were, there- 
fore, promptly dispatched to Pavonia to reconnoitre the 
position of the savages. But Domine Bogardus, who was 
94 Feb. invited to the council, warned Elieft against his rashness. 
La Montague begged him to wait for the arrival of the 

* De Vriet, 178 ; Breeden Raedt, 15 ; Hoi. Doc., U., S74 ; Ui., 146, S90 ; 0*Call.« i., i6«. 
419 ; Doe. Hist N. Y., !▼., 10, 11. t De VriM, 178 ; Braoden lUodt, 15 ; mTc, p 339 

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next ship from tiia Fatherland, and predioted that he was chap. x. 
building a bridge over which, before long, " war would T7TI" 
stalk through the whole country." De Vries protested ^j^^^^ \ 
that no warlike steps could be taken without the assent Jj^^ij^** 
of the commonalty; and that the advice Kieft had re-"~^ 
oeived was not that of the Twelve Men, of whom he was 
the president. The destruction of the colcmies at Swaan- 
endael and at Staten Island, and the bootless expedition 
against the Raritans, were held up as warning examples. 
The Dutch colonists in the open country, it was urged, 
were all unprepared, and the Indians would wreak their 
vengeance on the unprotected farmers. It was all in vain. 
Taking De Vries with him into the great hall which hie 
had just completed at the side of his house, Kieft showed 
him " all his soldiers ready reviewed," to pass over the 
river to Pavonia. " Let this work alone," again urged 
De Vries ; " you want to break the Indians' mouths, but 
you vrHl also murder our own people."* 

All remonstrance was idle. The director doggedly re- ah remon. 
plied, " The order has gone forth ; it can not be recalled." tJio.** 
Van Tienhoven had reeonnoitered the position of the sav- 
ages at Pavonia, and his " false report" had confirmed 
Kieft's resolution. Orders were issued to Sergeant Rodolf 
to lead a troop of soldiers to Pavonia, and " drive away 
and destroy" the savages who were " skulking" behind 
the bouwery of Jan Evertsen Bout. A similar commission as Feb. 
directed Adriaensen, with a force of volunteers, to attack 
" a party of savages skulking behind Corlaer's Hoeck," 
and " act with them in every such manner as they shall 
deem proper." " The commonalty solicit," was the false 
pretense by which Kieft endeavored to screen himself from 
any unhappy consequences of his bloody purposes ; which 
his impious orders declared were undertaken " in the fall 
confidence that .Grod will crovm our resolutions with suc- 

* De Vries, 178; Hoi. Doe., U., 161, 174; Ut, 110; ▼., 51, SS; Doe. Hlit. N. Y., ir., 161 
t Alb. Rec., ii., 210, 911 ; Hoi. Doc., Ui., 148, 204 ; v., 333, S84 ; 0*CaU., 1., 967, 968; 
tt., N. T. H. S. CoU., i., 978 ; U., 900. 


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CHAr. X. During the night between tiie twenty-fiftih and twenty- 
'sixth of Februaryy the tragedy which Kieft and his ooad** 
jutors had been meditating, was terribly aooomi^ished. 
Crossing over to Payvmia, Rodolf cautiously led his foree 
of eighty soldiers to the encampment of the refiigee Tap- 
pans, neflur the bouweries of Bout and Wouterssen. About 
midnight, while the savages were quietly sleeping in fan« 
eied security from their Mohawk subjugators, ^e mur- 
derous attack commenced. The noise of muskets min- 
gled with the shrieks of the terrified Indians. Neither age 
nor sex were spared. Warrior and squaw, sachem and 
child, mother and babe, were alike massacred. Dayhreak 
scarcely ended the furious slaughter. Mangled victims, 
seeking safety in the thickets, were driven into the river; 
and parents, rushing to save their children whom the sol- 
diery had thrown into the stream, were driven back into 
the waters, and drowned before the eyes of their unrelent- 

Ma»uioreat ing murderers. Eighty savages perished at Pavonia. ^' I 
sat up that night," said De Vries, " by the kitchen fire at 
the director's. About midnight, hearing loud shrieks, I 
ran up to the Tamparts of the fort Looking toward Pa- 
vonia, I saw nothing but shooting, and heard nothing but 
the shrieks of Indians murdered in their sleep." A few 
minutes afterward, an Indian and a squaw, who lived 
near Yriesendael, and who had escaped from Pavonia in a 
small skiff, came to the kitchen fire, whither De Vries had 
returned with an aching heart. '^ The Fort Orange In- 
dians have fEillen on us," said the terrified savages, << and 
we have come to hide ourselves in the fort." '^ It is no 
time to hide yourselves in the fort — ^no Indians have done 
this deed. It is the work of the Swannekens — ^the Dutch," 
answered the humane De Vries, as he led the undeceived 
fugitives to the gate, <^ where stood no sentinel," and 

Attack on watchcd them until they were hidden in the woods. In 

the savagos *' 

Hook^**^ ' the mean time, Adriaensen and his party had surprised 
the Weckquaesgeek fugitives at Corlaer's Hook, and mur- 
dered forty of them in their sleep. The carnage of that 
awful night equaled in remorseless cruelty the atrocities, 

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m years before, at the fort on the Miatio ; in the iramber cha9. x.^ 
of victims alone were the murderous exploits of the New"~~" 
Netherland Dutch against the North River savages less ^"** 
shocking to humanity, than the mlhless achievements of 
the New England Puritans against the devoted tribe of 
the Fequods. 

Morning at length came, cuid the victorious parties re- 26 Feb. 
turned tp Fort Amsterdam with thirty prisoners and theuM soidim 
heads of several of their victims. The ''Roman achieve- steniain. 
ment" of the conquerors was acknowledged by largesses 
to the soldiery, who were welcomed back by Kieft per- 
sonally, with ''shaking of the hands and congratulations." 
The example of the exulting director was infectious. Even 
women joined in the triumph, and insulted the bloody Ito- 
phies. Cupidity, too, followed the track of carnage. A 
small party of Dutch and English colonists went over to 
Pavonia to pillage the deserted encampment. In vain the 
soldiers left there on guard warned them to return. They 
persisted ; and Dirck Straatmaker and his wife were killed 
by some outlaying Indians, whose wigwams they attempt- 
ed to plunder. The English, " who had one gun amongst 
them," narrowly escaped a similar fate.*" 

The success of the expeditions against the refiigae sav- 
ages at Pavonia and Gorlaer's Hoeck provoked emulation. 
Wolfertsen, and some of his Neighbors at New Amersfoort^ 
signed a petition to the director for permission to attack «7Pdk 
the Mareohkawiecks, who resided between them andwandin- 

dians at- 

Breuckelen. But Kieft, yielding to the advice of Bogar-tacke*. 
dus and others of his council, refused his assent. The 
Mareohkawiecks had never done any thing unfriendly to 
the Dutch, and were " hard to conquer ;" to attack them 
now would only be to add them to the number of already 
exasperated foes ; it would lead to a destructive war, and 
bring ruin on the aggressors. Nevertheless, if these In- 
dians showed signs of hostility, the director authorised 
every colonist to defend himself as best he might. 

* De Vries, 170; Breeden Raed^ 16, 17 ; Alb. Reo., U., 117 ; Hoi. Doc., ii., 875; iU., 
US ; CCaU., Li SOO; Doo. Hift. N. T., k?., 11. 



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ca4F. X. Ki^'s proviso was unfortunate. The red man's oom 
was coveted ; and some movements of the Marechkawieoks 
* were conveniently construed into those signs of hostility 
for whi<di the ambiguous decree had provided. A secret 
foraging expedition was presently set on foot, and two 
wagon-loads of grain were plundered from the unsus- 
pecting savages; who, in vainly endeavoring to protect- 
their property, lost three lives iii the skirmish which fol- 

The saT. It ouly needed this scandalous outrage to fill the meas- 

ages ATOus- 

•dtoTenge- urc of Indian enduranoe. Up to this time, the Long Isl- 
and savages had been among the warmest friends of the 
Dutch. Now they had been attacked and plundered by 
the strangers whom they had welcomed, and to whom they 
had done no wrong. Common cause was at once made 
with the North River Indians, who burned with frenzied 
hate and revenge, when they found that the midnight 
massacres at Pavonia and Manhattan were not the work 
of the Mohawks, but of the Dutch. Prom swamps and 
thickets the mysterious enemy made his sudden onset 
The farmer was murdered in the open field ; women and 
children, granted their lives, were swept off into a long 
captivity; houses and bouweries, haystacks and grain, 
cattle and crops, were all destroyed. From the shores of 
the Raritan to the valley of the Housatonic, not a single 
plantation was safe. Eleven tribes of Indians rose in open 
war; and New Netherland now read the awfrd lesson 
which Connecticut had learned six years before. Such 
of the cdonists as escaped with their lives, fled from their 
desolated homes to seek refuge in Fort Amsterdam. In 

Deqmirof their despair, they tiireatened to return to the Fatherland, 

nists. or remove to Rensselaerswyck, ^^ which experienced no 
trouble." Fearing a general depopulation, Kieft was 

I March, obliged to take all the colonists into the pay of the com- 
pany, to serve as soldiers for two months. At this con- 
juncture, Roger Williams, who, " not having liberty of 
taking ship" in Massachusetts, << was forced to repair unto 

* Hoi. Doc., Itt., 110; ▼., no, nr, SM; Doc HIM. N, T., !▼., 11. 


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tiie Datoh," arriyed at Manhattan, on his way to Europe, ofc^. x. 
"Before we weighed anchor," wrote the liberal-minded -j-^^ 
founder of Rhode Island, eleven years afterward, " mine * 

eyes saw the flames at their towns, and tiie flights and 
hnrries of men, women, and children, the present removal 
of all that could fat HoUand."* 

Even Yriesendael did not escape the general calamity. 
The outhouses, and crops, and cattle on the plantation' 
were destroyed. The terrified colonists escaped into the 
manor house, in whi<di De Yries had prudently construct* 
ed loop-holes for musketry. While all were standing on 
their guard, the same Indian whom the patroon had hu* 
manely conducted out of FcHrt Amsterdam on the night of 
the massacre at Pavcmia, coming up to Ihe besiegers, re* 
kted the ocouirence, and told them that De Yries was "a 
good chief." The grateful savages at once cried out to De 
Yries's people that, if they had not already destroyed the 
cattle, ^ey would not do so now ; they would let the lit- 
tle brewery stand, although they " longed for the copper 
kettle, to make barbs for their arrows." The siege was 
instantly raised, and tiie relenting red men departed. 
Hastening down to Manhattan, De Yries indignantly de- 
manded of Kieft, " Has it not happened just as I said, that 
you were only helping to shed Christian blood ?" " Who 
will now compensate us for our losses ?" But the humil- 
iated director '' gave no answer." He was surprised that 
no Indians had come to the fort. " It is no wonder," re- 
torted De Yries ; " why should they, whom you have 
treated so, come here ?"t 

Kieft now sent a friendly message to tiie Long Island] 
Indians. But the indigntot savages would not listen. th«] 
^^Are you our friends?" cried the Indians from afiBur;« 
*' yon are only corn-thieves ;" and the messengers return- 
ed to Fort Amsterdam, to report tibe taunting words with 
which the red men had rejected the advances of the faith- 
less chief at Manhattan.1 

• BraedM Raedt, 17, 18; Hoi. Doe., U., S7ft; Alb. Roc, U., SIS; Winthrop, U^ «7; 
R. I. H. S. CoU., Ul., IM ; 0*CUL, i., S71, 490 ; BftDcroA, IL, SOI. 
t De Vrioo, 180. t Hoi. Doc^ iU., Ul ; Doc HIM. N. T^ if^ 11. 


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CkAt* x» All this time the obstinatQ director had remained safely 
"Z — r"lritbin the vails of Fort Amsterdam, where £k>oked the 
F^iie ^i^tims of his rashness. It, was hard to bear the wradi 
*j™ ^ of ruined farmers, and diildless men, and widowed wom- 
*™^* en« To divwt the publio clamor, sereral other expeditions 
' were sent out against the Indians, undw the command of 
Afbiaensen. But the marauding force, which was partly 
composed of English colonists, returned without having 
accomplished any thing; while Adriaensen himself, in 
witnessing the destruction of his own bonwery, was made 
W taste the bitter fruits of that war which his own ooun- 
seld had assisted to provoke. The proud heart of the di- 
rector began to fail him at last. In one week, desdatian 
and sorrow had taken the place of gladness and prosperity. 
The colony intrusted to his charge was nearly ruined. It 
was time to humble himself before the Host High, and in- 
voke from Heaven tile mercy which the Christicm had r&- 
4 Mtodi. fosed to the savage. A day of general fasting and prayer 
tionfora w»s proclaimed. ''We continue to suffsr much trouble 

day of fhitr * 

Inf. and loss from the heathen, and many of our inhabitants 

see their lives and property in jeopardy, which is doubt- 

less owing to our sins," was Kieft's contrite ccmfession, as 

he exhorted every one penitentiy to supplicate the mer- 

ey of God, '^ so that his holy name may not, through our 

iniquities, be blasphemed by the heath^i."* 

Thepoopio But while the people humbled themselves before iheir 

SradUdi God, they still hell the director personally responsiUe for 

Houud. aH the consequences of th^ mtoMiores at Pavonia and Oor- 

laer's Hook ; and some of the burghers, and of the fi»r- 

mer board of Twelve Hen, bddly talked of imitating the 

example which Virginia had set, in the case of Harvey, by 

Kiaft's deposing Kieft, and sending him baok to Holland. The 

llSrf^ director, in alarm, endeavored to shift the responsibility 

upon Adriaensen and his coadjutors, who had so wrong- 

ftdly used the name of the commonalty in Hie petition 

* JUb. Rac, li., S14, S15 ; Hoi. Doo^ Ui., Ill : O'CaU., i., 971, S79. Tha coatom of aet- 
tlOff vpuiy by tba aeealar atthorHy, daya 9ir pnblia komtUatioD and imbUa thaBki«tTiiig, 
obCalnadin HoUand, aa wa hava Maa, MM* ttia aaitlanaiit af New NaciiartMHl or N%w 
I ; mU€, p. 41. 

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whioh urged the war. ^' Far wkat kas oopurred," pleaded caav. x 
Kieft, "you must blame the freemen." "You fo^''^de"~~" 
thotte flreemen to meet, on pain of punishment fat dijobfr- 
dienoe," retorted the indignant burghers ; '< how cama it, 
then ?" The convicted direetor was silenced.* 

Finding that Kieft was endeavoring to divert from him- 
self the odium of the slaughter of the Indians and the 
misery of the colonists, Adriaensen, now himself an almost 
ruined man, had no disposition to bear all the bitterness 
of popular reproach. Arming himself with a hanger and AdriaenMn 
pistol, he rushed into the director's room, demanding diraetor. 
"What lies are these you arc reporting of me?" The 
would-be assassin was promptly disarmed and imprisoned; 
but his servant, with another, of his men, armed with guni 
and pistols, hastened to the fort, where one of them, firing 
at the director, was shot down by the sentinel, and his 
head set upon the gallows. The prisoner's comrades now 
crowded around the director's door, demanding their lead* 
er's release. Kieft refused; but agreed to submit the 
qnestion to the commonalty, with liberty to the prisoner's 
friends to select some of their number to assist at the ex* 
amination. This, however, they declined to do, and in*> 
sisted that the prisoner should be discharged upon his pay- 
ing a fine of five hundred guilders, and absenting him^ 
self for three months from Manhattan. The director, wish^ 
ing to show some deference to the commonalty, proposed 
to call in some of the most respectable citizens, to sit with 
his council in deciding the case. But the commonalty, 
unwilling to countenance the abuse which the director 
had deceitfully neglected to amend, refrised; and Kieft^ssicuvh 
finding that " no one would or dared" assbt him, determ* 
ined to send Adriaensen to Holland for triaLt 

* Alb. Rec., m., 109 ; Hoi. Doc., iU.. 149-lM. 

t Alb. Rec., U., 316-310 ; Ui., 94 ; Hoi. Doc., iU., 113 ; Doc, Hist. N. Y., It., ^3 ; 0*CalI^ 
I., S73, 374 ; Wlmtirop, U^ 07. TtM N«w England UatorUras wIm allnde to this mm, *»• 
count for Adriaenwn*t attack on Kloft on tbe ground of his jealoujr orUndertUU. But 
Underbill was not tbon tn ttra aenrice of the Dutch ; nor did be enter It nntil tbe antumn 
of 1041. Adrlaenaen, retaining to New Nertiertand, obtained « pptaat on tbe 1 lib of M^ 
1647, fbr " Awiehaken,** on the west aide of the North River, now known aa Waebaken, 
juat north of Hoboken.— Alb. Rec. G. 0., 491 


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cho. X. Heanwliile, the Long Island Indians had began to re- 
Iwit. ^ring was at hand, and they desired to plant liieir 
4 Mu^' ^*""^ Three delegates from the wigwams of Penhawitz, 
faAandi? ^^ ^' great chief," approadied Fort Amsterdam, bearing 
J2^^ a white flag. "Who will go ta meet them ?" demanded 
P*^* Kieft Ncme were wiUing but De Vries and Jacob Olfert- 
aen. " Our chief has sent us," said the savages, " to know 
why you have killed his people, who have never laid a 
straw in your way, nor done you aught but good ?" 
" Come and speak to our chief on the sea-coast." Set- 
ting out with the Indian messengers, De Yries and Olfert- 
sen, in the evening, came to " Rechqua-akie," or Rocka- 
way, where they found nearly three hundred savages, and 
about thirty wigwams. The chief, " who had but one 
eye," invited them to pass the night in his cabin, and re- 
galed them with oysters and fish. 
5Mareb. At break of day, the envoys from Manhattan were oon- 

De VriM J 1 J 

and oiiiwt- ducted iuto the woods about four hundred yards off, where 
Rooktway. they found sixteen chiefe of Loog Island waiting for their 
coming. Placing the two Europeans in the centre, the 
<^e& seated themselves around in a ring, and their ^^best 
q)eaker" arose, holding in his hand a bundle of small sticks. 
" When you first came to our coasts," slowly began the 
cirator, ^< you sometimes had no food ; we gave you our 
beans and com, and relieved you vnth our oysters and 
fish ; and now, for reccmipense, you murder our people ;" 
and he laid down a little stick. ^^ In the beginning of 
your Toyages, you left your people here vdth their goods ; 
we traded with them while your ships v^ere aWay, and 
ohmshed them as the apple of our eye ; we gave them 
our daughters for companions, who have borne children, 
and many Indians have sprung from the Swannekens ; 
and now you villaioously massacre your own blood." 
The chief laid down another stick ; many more remained 
in his hand ; but De Yries, cutting short the reproachful 
catalogue, invited the chiefs to accompany him to Fort 
Amsterdam, vriiere the director "vrould give them pres- 
ents to make a peace." 


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> The chiefs, ass^iting, ended Hieb oration ; and, pro- okaw. z. 
sentiog De Vries and his odlec^e eadi with ten fathoms "1777" 
of wampum, the party set oat for their oanoes, to shorten ji^J/^* 

the return of the Dutch envoys. While waiting for the ^Sa^**" 
tide to rise, an armed Indian, who. had hoen dispatched by ■**^**^ 
a sadiem twenty miles off, came running to warn the 
chiefs against going to Manhattan. ^^ Are you all crazy, to 
go to the fort,'' said he, "where that scoundrel lives, idio 
has so often murdered your friends ?" But De Tries as- 
sured them that "they would find it otherwise, and come 
home again with large presents." One of the chie£i re- 
plied at once, "Upon your words we will go ; for the In- 
dians have never heard lies from you, as they have from 
other Swaimekens." 

Embarking in a large canoe, the Dutch envoys, accom- 
panied by eighteen Indian delegates, set out from Rook- 
away, and reached Fort Amsterdam about three o'clock 
in the afternoon. A treaty was presently made with the ss Mtich. 
Loi^ Island savages ; and Kieft, giving them some pres- pemce am- 
ents, asked them to bring to the fort the chiefs of the Riv- 
er tribes, " who had lost so many Indians," Ihat he mi^t 
make peace with them also.* 

Some of the Long Island sachems accordingly went to 
Hackinsack and Tappan. But it was several weeks be- 
fore the enraged savages would listen to the counsels of 
the mediators, or put any faith in the director. At last, 
Oritany, the sachem of the Hackinsacks, invested with aPeaoeeor- 
plenipotentiary commission from the neighboring tribes, with the 
appeared at Fort Amsterdam. Kieft " endowed him withdiLu. 
presents ;" and peace was covenanted between the River 
Indians and the Dutch. Mutual injuries were to be "for- 
given and forgotten forever ;" future provocations were re- 

* De Vriet, 183; Alb. Ree., IL, SI4, 215; Doc. ^ist. N. Y., !▼., IS; O'CalL, i., f70. 
WiBthrop, iL, 07, nys that the Indians, " by the mediation of, Mr. WiUlama, who wm 
then there to go in a Dutch ship fbr Eni^and, were pacified, and peace re-eatabliahed be> 
tween the Dutch and them." Bat Winthrop errs in this statement. Wllliaros, in Ills loi- 
ter of the 5th of October, 1654, to the General Court of Massaehnsetts, in which he speaks 
of the war (R. I. H. S. Coll., iii., 155), says nothinf whatever in nupect to his own sfeney 
with the Indians in bringing about the peace. Indeed, he seems to have sailed fbr Eu- 
rope while the war was yet raging. On the other hand, De Vries's own minute snd fldtb- 
ftil Journsi seems to be conclusiTs. 


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gbat.x. xsiprooally to be ayoided; hostile moyements of other tribes, 

not inoliided in the treaty, were to be prevented wHhin 

^^^' the territories of the Haokinsaoks, Tappans, and West 

Chester Indians ; while timely warning was to be given 

to ^^ the Christians" of any brewing mioohief. 

Th« In- Bat Ihe savages went away ^' gmmbling at th^ pres- 

diMontent- euts" — for their young m^i would Ihink them only a tri- 
fling atonement Nor was oonfidenoe Ailly restored. The 
trembling £urmers planted their oom, in peace indeed, but 
in constant dread of the murmuring Indians' sudden war- 
idioop. The director himself distrusted the ominous re- 

18 jQM. poee ; and a new proclamation from Fort Amsterdam pro- 
hibited all tavern-keepers, and other inhabitants of New 
Netherland from selling any liquors to the savages. 

2t July. At midsununer a neighboring chief visited Yriesendael 
in deep despondency. The young Indians were urging 
vrar; for some had lost fathers or mothers, and all were 
mourning over the memory of friends. " The presents 
you have given to atone for their losses are not wcnrlh the 
touch ;" " we can pacify our young men no longer," said 
tiie well-meaning sachem, as he warned De Yries against 
venturing alone into the woods, for fear that some of the 
Indians, who did not know him, mi^t kill their constant 
friend. At the patroon^s entreaty, the chief accompanied 

weiViTtiiihim down to Port Amsterdam. " You are a chief — ^you 

Mbe • should cause ike crazy young Indians who want war again 
with the Swannekens to be killed," said Kiefb, as he treach- 
erously offered the sachem a bounty of two hundred fath- 
oms of wampum. But the indignant red man spumed 
the proffered bribe. " This can not be done by me," he 
replied ; " had you, at first, fully atoned for your mur- 
ders, fiiey would all have been forgotten ; I shall always 
do my best to pacify our people ; but I fear I can not, for 
they are continually crying for vengeance."* And so thf 
boding sachem went his way. 

* Alb. Rec, iL, ttO, SS4 : DeVriM,I8S; 0*Can., i., S77 ; Bueroft, iL, 89S. 


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The "Old Colony'' of Plymouth was founded by emi- chap.xi. 
grants who, as we have seen, had learned valuable les- 
sons in popular constitutional liberty, during a twelve ^he unitid 
years' sojourn in Holland. The example which the union Sew^BS-"^ 
of the Northern Provinces of Uie Netherlands had given to*^*"*** 
Europe in 1679, was now, after more than sixty years' 
experience, to be followed in America. Troubles were 
prevaUing in England ; the Puritan colonies were threat- 
ened with danger ; the savages and the French were both 
to be feared ; and Connecticut alone could not overawe ^ 
and " crowd out" her Dutch neighbors in New Netherland. 
New Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New 
Haven, therefore, determined to form a political league 
for offense and defense. Commissioners from these sev- 
eral colonies assembled at Boston in the spring of 1643 ; 
and, on the nineteenth day of May, agreed upon Articles i9 May. 
of Confederation, by which the " United Colonies op New 
England" became " all as one." 

The administration of the afiairs of the confederacy was 
intrusted to a board, consisting of two commissicmers from 
each colony. They were to assemble annually, ot oftener, 
if necessary. The commissioners were always to be ^^ in 
church fellowship." They were invested with extraordi- 
nary powers for making war and peace ; they had the ex- 
clusive management of Indian affairs ; and they were to 
see that the common expenses of the confederacy were 
justly assessed. The spoils of war, " whether it be in 
lands, goods, or persons," were to be proportionably di« 


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CH4P XL vided among fhe confederates. Specific provision was 
made for the surrender of runaway servants, and of fiigi- 
• tives from justice ; who, upon proper proof, were to be sent 
back to their masters, or to the authorities of the colony 
from which they might have escaped. Neither of the col- 
onies was to engage in a war without the consent of at 
least six of the commissioners. Local '^ peculiar jurisdic- 
tion and government" was carefully reserved to each sep- 
arate colony in the New England confederation, as it had 
been c€urefully reserved, sixty years before, to each sepa- 
rate province of the United Netherlands. The doctrine 
of ^' State Rights" is nearly three centuries old. The 
Union of Utrecht — ^the firet Constitutional Union of Sov- 
ereign and Independent States— -was essentially the model 
for the first Union of American colonies.* 
Kiaftad - As soon as intelligence of the New England confedera- 
oommis- tion reached Manhattan, Kieft, wishing to open a commu- 
80 July.' nioation with the commissioners, dispatched a sloop to 
Boston, with letters in Latin, addressed to <^the Grovemor 
and Senate of the United Provinces of New England." 
Congratulating them on their recent league, the director 
complained of the '^ insufferable wrongs" which the En- 
glish had done to the Dutch on the Connecticut, and of 
the misrepresentations of Lord Say, Peters, and others to 
the States' ambassador at London ; and desired ^< a cate- 
goricfd answer," whether the commissioners would aid cmt 
desert the Hsurtford people, that so the New Netherland 
government " may know their friends from their enemies." 
The commissioners were not in session when the Dutch 
winthrop sloop arrived at Boston. But Grovemor "Winthrop, the pre- 
siding commissioner, after <^ advising with somie of the 
fg August, elders who were at hand, and some of the deputies," re- 
plied in his own name. Referring Kieft to their " chiefest 
authority," fi-om which he *' should receive furtiier answw 
in time convenient," Winthrop expressed his grief at the 
difierences with his brethren of Hartfdrd, which, he suggest- 

* S«e Articles at length, in Hazard, ii., 1-6 ; and in Winthrop, ii., 101 ; Morton's Memo* 
fial,SM; Hutch., i.,n9, ISO; BaiMioft, L, 4S0-4» ; HUikvO, i., I8», S80 ; ^M, p. 44f^ 

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ed, ^^ might be composed by arbiters, either in England or cbav. xl 
Holland, or here." The ocmfederates were bound "to seek "TTTT" 
the good and safety of each other ;" but the difficulty " be- ^^* 
ing only for a small parcel of land, was a matter of so little 
value in this vast continent, as was not worthy to cause a 
hceaoh between two people so nearly related both in pro- 
fession of tilie same Protestant religion and otherwise." . 

When the oommissicmers met, a month afterward, September. 
Connecticut made complaints on her side, and New Ha-^K^^n' 
ven handed in statements of the grievances which their K^St^*^^ 
pec^le had suffered from the Dutch and Swedes on the 
South River. Winthrop was now instructed to communi- 
cate their complaints to Kieft, " requiring answer to the 
particulars, that as we will not wrong others, so we may 
not desert our confederates in any just cause." The pros- ^ seiit. 
ident accordingly wrote to Kieft, recapitulating the in- 
juries which New Haven had suffered on the South Riv- 
er, the charges against Provoost, the Dutch commissary 
at Fort Good Hope, " for sundry unworthy passages," and 
expressing the opinion of the commissioners in favor of 
the *' justice of the cause of Hartford in respect of title of 
the land." This opinion the commissioners ^' could not 
ehange," unless they could see more light than had yet 
appeared to them '^ by the title the Dutch insisted upon."« 
But Kieft, dissatisfied with this reply, again asserted the '1644. 
right of the Dutch to their lands at Hartford, and renew- ^^^^ 
ed his complaints of injuries.* 

In the mean time, the red men were thirsting for blood ; 
and a general war between the Indian and the Eurqiean 
appeared to be at hand. The valley of the Connecticut 1643. 
again became the acene of strife ; and Miantonomoh, bum- ^'con. 
ing to avenge upon Uncas the indignities which he had Su^JTn^ 
suffered at Boston, invaded the Mahicem country, at the aS^.^* 
head of a thousand warriors. But the fate of war threw 
the Narragansett chief into the hands of his rival, who 
transferred his prisoner to the custody of the English at 
Hartford. The commissioners, meeting at Boston, agreed September. 

• Winthnp, U., 130, ISO, 140, 157 1 Hutfd» iL, 11, S15, SM. 


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Chap. XI. that ho Gught to be pat to death ; and Uiioas, reoei^ing 
'~~baek Miantoiumioh firom his English jailer, oonduotckl him 
Murder of ^ ^® borders of the Mahican territory, and exeouted their 
JJil^^*" judgment upon a former ally.* 

The qpirit of war, at the same time, broke out among 
the upper tribes on the North River ; and Paoham, tiie 
subtile chief of the Tankitekes near Haverstraw, visiting 
the Wappingers above tiie Highlands, urged them to a 
7 Aupat. general massacre of the Dutch. A shallop ooming down 
dians at- from Fort Orange with a cargo of four hundred beaver 
trading skius, was attacked and plundered, and oue of the crew 
the North was killed. Two other open boats were presently seized ; 
but, in attacking a fourth, the savages were repulsed, and 
lost six of their warriors. Nine of the Dutch colonists 
were killed, and a woman and two children taken pris- 
oners. Others were slain by the savages, who approached 
tiieir scattered dwellings under the guise of friendship 
Intelligence of the outbreak was quickly borne to Fcnrt 
Amsterdam ; and the news of << fifteen Dutch slain by ihid 
Indians, and much beaver taken," soon reached Boston.! 
September. The appalling crisis compelled Kiefb to summon ihe peo- 
monstbe pie again into council. The commonalty were convoked 

cominonal* i-. i 

ty afain. at Fort Amsterdam, and asked to elect '^ five or six per- 
. sons from among themselves," to consider the propositions 
which Ihe director might submit. The people met ; but 
remembering Kieft's cavalier treatment of the '^ Twelve 
Men" in the previous year, they " considered it vrise" to 
leave the responsibility of selection to the director and 
council, provided the right should be reserved to them- 
selves to reject the persons '' against whom there might 
be any thing to object, and who are not pleasing to 
us." The scruples of the commonalty, however, were 
overcome ; and again imitating the example of the Fa- 

"Ei^ therland, the people elected " Ei^t Men" firom among 
themselves, ** maturely to consider" the propositions of 

* WInthrop, U., 190, and Savafe*! note, on page ISI ; Hazard, II., 7-18 ; Col. Boo. 
Conn., M ; Trumbull, I., 139-134 ; Bancroft, i., 434 ; HUdreth, i., 993, 393. 
t A]b.Rec.,lil.,14S; Hoi. Doe., lU., 114 ; Boo. HIM. N. T., ir., IS ; Winthrop, iL, IM. 

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the director. This second board of popular rej^esentatives c^r. xl 
in New Netfaerland consisted of Joohem Fietersen Knyter, ' 
Jan Jansen Dam, Barent Diroksen, Abraham Fietersen, 
laaac Allert(»i, Tfamnas Hall, G-errit Widfertsen, and Cot* 
nelis Melyn.* 

Two days after their election, the Eight Men met, at is •■(>«. 
Kieft's summons, <*to consider the critical droumstanoesorthtaigtii 
of the country." Before attending to any^btfa^ business, 
they resolved to exclude from Iheir board Jan Jansen Dam, 
one of ihe signers of the letter to Kieft, which was the im- 
mediate cause of the massacres at FaT<mia and Oxrlaer^s 
Ho(^. In vain Dam protested, and charged the director 
with deceit in procuring his signature. The obnoxioos 
r^resentative was inexorably expeUed ; and Jan Everts 
Beai Bout, o£ Pavonia, was selected by the remaining sct- 
en to fill hii vacant seat The Eight Men, having lihus 
purged i3^ix board, resolved that hostilities should be im-wariik» 
mediately renewed against tiie river Indians; but that^^Md. 
peace should be preserved with the Long Island tribes, 
who were to be encouraged to bring in '' some heads of 
the murderers." As large a military foree as the freemen 
could affi)rd to pay, was to be promptly enlisted and 
equii^[)ed. Several ^ good and fitting articles" were also 
(xdfiui^ by the Eight Men, << forbidding all taveming, and 
aU other irregularities." A week's ]Mreaohing was pre- 
smbed instead; but the praiseworthy order ^<vras not 
carried into execution by the offioer."t 

Kieft did not delay the warlike preparations which the 
Eight Men had authc»rized. The colonists and the serv- 
ants of the company were armed and drilled ; and as thcEntudk 
English inhabitants were now threatening to leave Newmmuef 
NeHkerland, they were taken into the public service; the 
commonalty agreeing to provide for one third of their pay. 

* nu. Doe., m., 141, 144 ; O^CaH., I., S84. Knyter and Dam had \ma menben oTtha 
jurfiooM board of Twelre Men ; anU, p. 317. CarneUa Mdyn waa the patroon of Staten 
UUnd. Thomaa Han waa the deaarter (hnn Holmea'a pany on the South Rirer ia 1635. 
laaae ABerton came to New nynKmOi in the Mayflower, and, tbont the year 1638, reanoTed 
to Manhattan, where he eontinoed to hare large tranaactiona aa » merehant.— Alb. Rao., 
i., 70, n ; U;, 4S, 54, 131 ; Sarage'a note to WInthrop, i., S5 ; U., W, SIO. 

t Alb. Ree., IL, 931 ; Hot Doc., Ui., 145, S15 ; ▼., 3» ; CCaU., f., 885, 986. 


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ghaf. XI. Fifty Englishmen were promptly enrolled ; all of whom 

swore to be fiaithful to the States Greneral, the Prinoe of 

» ^pt * Orang^j ^^ West India Company, and ihe director and 
oooncil of New Netherlands and to ^' sacrifioe their lives 
Captain in their and the country's service." The command of this 
uken Into forco was intrustod to Captain John Underhill, one of the 
Mnrtoe. hcrocs in the Feqnod war ; who, having undergone the 
severe discipline of the Boston Church, had established 
himself at Stamford, a little east of Captain Fatarick's set* 
tlement at Greenwich, and now offered to the Dutch the 
benefit of his veteran skill.* 
TbeWeek- But bcforo Kieft could complete his military arrange- 
3SJ^**^ ments, the Weckquaesgeeks dug up the hatchet which 
flatehin- they had buried, eighteen months before, on the shores of 
uoM^ Bronx River. Approaching <' in way of friendly neighbor* 
'**°*^* hood, as they had been accustomed," the widowed Anne 
Hutchinson's blameless retreat at '^Annie's Hoeck," they 
watched their opportunity, and murdered that extraordin- 
ary woman, her daughter, and Collins, her son*in-law, 
and all her family, save one grand-daughter, eight years 
old, whom they carried off into captivity. The houses and 
Throgmor- cattlo werc ruthlcssly destroyed.! From Annie's Hoeck, 
^l^^the devastating party proceeded downward to ^^Yrede- 
land," and attacked Throgmorton's peaceful settlement. 
Such of Throgmorton's and Cornell's families as were at 
home were killed, and the cattle, and bsums, and houses 
were all burned up. A happy accident bringing a boat 
there at tii& very mcmient of the tragedy, some women 

* Alb. Itoe., ii., tSS ; Hoi. Doe., li., 877; iU., ISl ; Doe. HM. N. T., It., 13; CCiD., 
i., 386, 420 ; Winthrop, U., 14, 63, 07. Wintbrop, bowever, erranaonaly reprominla and 
Tnunbnll (1., 130) oopiee the error— that the Dutch people were so oflbnded with Kleft, 
ilMi he "dorat noc tniat hiaweir amiNic Omb, but entertalnad a goard of fifty BngUafc 
about his person.** The people were, no doabt, <^lbnded enough ; and, for that reason, 
it fa not probable that they would have agreed to pay part of the expense of an EngMah 
body-guard for the director. 

t Winthrop, U., 136 ; Gorton's Defonse, in ii., R. I. H. S. ColL, 98, SO ; Alb. Rec, U^ 
819 ; ii., N. T. H. 8. Coll., i., S70 ; Bolton's West Chester, 1., 615. Welde, in his ** Bimh 
Reign, and Ruin of the Antinomians," thus records the destruction of their leader. " The 
Indiana set upon them, and alew her and all her ftmily, her daughter and her daoghtai^ 
huaband, and all their children, save one that escaped (her own husband being dsttd be- 
fore). * * * God's hand is the more apparently seen herein, to pick out this woiAd 
womm, to make her, and those belonging to her, an unheardH>f heary example oT tMr 
emelty abore oihara.** 


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and children fled on board ; and thus the settlement was chap, xl 
saved from ntter extermination. Nevertheless, eighteen ' .« 
victims of the red man's indiscriminating fury lost their •''"*^' 
lives in West Chester.* 

The vengeance which desolated West Chester did not 
spare Long Island. Lady Deborah Moody, who had beeuLadj ^ 
" dealt with" by the Church at Salem for " the error of brave'dl- 
denying baptism to infant^,** having fled fcMr refuge, with June, 
many others " infected with Anabaptism," into New Neth- 
erland, had established herself, by Kiefb's special permis<» 
sion, at 's G-ravensande, or G-ravesend, on Long Island. 
But she had scarcely become settled in herjretreat before 
her plantation was attacked by the savages. A brave de- sepcandMr. 
fense was, nevertheless, made by forty resolute colonists ; 
the fierce besiegers were repulsed ; and G-ravesend escaped 
the fate which overwhelmed all the neighboring settle- 
ments on Long Island.t 

Doughty's settlement at Mespath, or Newtown, did notDonghtj's 
fiire so well. During the first year, he had re-enforced at Mespoui 
himself with several new fietmilies of colonists. More than 
eighty persons were soon settled in Mespath, and an air 
of prosperity prevailed. Doughty himself, who had 
" scarcely means enough of his own to build even a hovel, 
let alone to people a colony at his own expense," was em- 
ployed as minister ; and his associates pr^ared for him a 
farm, upon the profits of which he lived, while he dis- 
charged, in return, the clerical duties of his station. But 
the savages attacking the settlement, the colonists were 
driven firom their lands, ^^ with the loss of some men and 
many cattle, besides almost all their housQs, and what 
other property they had." They afterward returned, and 
remained awhile ; but finding that they consumed more nists seek 
than they could raise, they fled for reftige to Manhattan. MuStfua. 

* Winthrop, iL, 136; Bolton's West Chester, i., 514. 

t Hoi. Doe., lit, 1S5 ; Alb. Rec., xz., 7 ; Wintlirop, IL, IM, 196 ; ThoupMB's L. L,tt., 
I6»-173. Grareoend was not named, as many suppose, after the well-known English 
port .on the Thames ; but Kieft himself gave it the name of the ancient city, 's Graven- 
sande— ** the Coant's Sand**— on the northern banks of the Maas, opposite the Brielle, 
where the Counts of Holland resided beftve they estabUaliod themselves at the Hague 
tit tht yoar ISSO. 

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gmap. XI. Here Doughty ojBk)iated as minister for the Ei^lish real* 
dents ; but they not supporting him, two coUeotions were 
* taken up for his benefit, to which both Dutch and English 
residents contributed.* 

The wur- whoop, which rang through West Chester and 
Long Island, was re-echoed throu^ New Jersey. The 
grumbling Hackinsacks, unappeased by a sufficient atone- 
ment, soon fulfilled their sachem's foreboding words. A 
Hackin- suddcu night attack was made on Van der Horst's colony 
tacked, at ^^Achter Cul." The house was set on fire; and the 

17 Sept. 

small garrison, ''five soldiers, five boys, and one man," 

after a deteriQined resistance, barely escaped in a oaiK>e, 

with nothing but their arms. The plantation was utterly 

The Neve- ruiued. The Nevesincks below the Raritan were arouseid. 


aroQMd. Aert Theunisen, of Hoboken, while trading at the Beere^ 
gat-^now known as Shrewsbury Inlet, just south of 
Sandy Hook — was attacked and killed by the savages. 
The yacht had scarcely returned to Manhattan with the 
tidings, before a nearer calamity appalled the Dutch. 

1 October. Nine Indians, coming to Pavonia witli friendly demon- 
strations, approached the house of Jacob Stoifelsen, which 
was guarded by a detachment of three or four soldiers. 
Stoifelsen, who had married the widow of Van Voorst, 
Pauw's former superintendent, was a favorite with the 
savages, who, making up a '' false errand," succeeded in 
sending him across the river to Fort Amsterdam. As soon 

PftTonu as Stoffelsen was safely out of the way, they a[^roached 
the soldiers under a show of friendship. These, incautious- 
ly laying aside their arms, were all murdered. Not a soul 
escaped alive, except tiie little son of Van Voorst, whom the 
savages carried ofi* a prisoner to Tappan, after burning aU 
the bouweries, and houses, and cattle, and corn at Pavo- 
nia. At Kieft's earnest entreaty, De Vries, the only per- 
son who "durst go among the Indians," went up the river, 
and procured the release of the captive.t 

* BraedMi IUed^ S5; Hoi. Doc, It., 71 ; t., 360 ; IL, N. T. H. S. Coll., U., 301, 331 
t iLlb.IU)C,UL,153; Hoi. Doo., iv., S47 ; ii., N. Y. H. S. CoU., li, 803 ; Beiwoii'a BCea- 
dr, 02 ; De Vries, 188. 


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Thus the war began anew. West Ohester was already cmap. xi. 
laid waste, and Long Island almost "destitnte of inhabit- 
ants and stock" From the Highlands of Nevesinck to y^^^' 
the valley of Tappan, the wbfAe of New Jersey was onoe^^^ 
more in possession of its aboriginal lords. Staten Island^ 
where Melyn had established hiniself, was honrly expect- 
ing an assault. The devastat&ig tide rolled over the isl- 
and of Manhattan itsel£ From its northern extremity to 
the Kolck, there were now no more than five or six bouw- 
eries left; and these ^' wisre threatened by the Indians ev- 
ery night with fire, and by day wil^ the slaughter of both 
people and cattle." No other place remained, where the 
trembling papulation oould find protection/ than ^< around 
and adjoining Fort Amsterdam." There women and chil- 
dren lay " concealed in straw huts," while their husbands 
and &thers mounted guard on the crumbling ramparts 
above. For the fort itself was almost defenseless ; it re- 
sembled ^< rather a mole-hill than a fiMrtress against an 
enemy." The cattle which had escaped destruction were 
huddled within the walls, and were already beginning to 
starve for want of fori^e. It was indispensable to main- 
tain a constant guard at all hours ; for seven allied tribes, 
*' well supplied with muskets, powder, and ball," which 
they had procured from private traders, boldly threatened 
to attack the dilapidated citadel, <^ with all their strength, 
Dow amounting to fifteen hundred men." So confident 
had the enemy become, that their scouting parties con- 
stantly threatened the advanced sentinels of the garnson; 
and Ensign Van Dyok, while relieving guard at one of « October, 
the outposts, was wounded by a musket-ball in his arm. 
All the forces that the Dutch could now muster, besides 
the fifty or sixty soldiers in garrison, and the enrolled En- 
glish, were " about two hundred freemen." With this 
handful of men was New Netherland to be defended 
against the " implacable fiiry" of her savage foe.* 

"Fear coming more over the land," the Eight Men^Egjt 
were again convoked. There were two of the company's eonvoked. 

* Hot Doe., iii., 134-149: Alb. Rw:., iL, »8i Wintltfop, U., IM. 



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Chap. XL shlps at aochoT before the fort, which had just been load* 
ed with provisions for Curapoa. The Eight Men proposed 
' that the cargoes of these ships should be relanded, and a 
part of their crews drafted into the service of the province. 
6 October. They also recommended an application to their English 
meodauons neighbors at the north, for the assistance of one hundred 
Men. * *and fifty men. For the payment of these auxiliaries, the 
director was advised to draw a bill of exchange on the 
West India Company for twenty-five thousand guilders, 
and, as a security for its payment, to mortgage New Neth- 
erland to the English.* 
Rieft re- But Kicft did not ^^ consider expedient" the suggestion 
ftop the to divert supplies from the West Indies ; and while fam- 
SSJIT* ine and an overwhelming enemy were desolating the pre- 
cincts of Fort Amsterdam, the starving population watched 
the departing vessels, as they bore to Cura^oa the wheat 
which they had raised, and for which they were now pin- 
sendeto ing. Thc recommcndaticm to apply to New England for 
mtbr^a- assistance, was, however, promptly adopted ; and Under- 
^* hill and Allerton were dispatched to negotiate with New 
Haven. But their mission utterly failed. Eaton and the 
General Court, after maturely considering Kieft's letter, 
RefteMi of rejected the proposal to assist New Netherland with an 
^ren. auxiliary force. They v^ere prohibited, by their Articles 
of Confederation, from engaging separately in war ; and 
they were not satisfied " that the Dutch war with the In- 
dians was just." Nevertheless, if the Dutch needed com 
and provisions, the court resolved to give them all the as- 
sistance in its power.t 
DeVrtea At this coujuncturc, the suffering province lost one of 
its best citizens. The bouweries where De Vries had at- 
tempted to establish colonies all lay in ashes, and the In- 
dians, whose confidence he had never lost, were " restless, 
and bent on war, or a full satisfaction." The ruined pa- 
troon determined to return to the Fatherland. A Rotter- 
dam Herring-buss, whose master, disappointed in selling 

• Hoi. Doc., lU., 116, 117 ; Doe. Hist. N. T., iv., IS, 14, St. 

t Alb. Rec., ill., 150; TrumboU, i., 139 ; iii.. Matt. Hist. CoO., vli., 944. 

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his cargo of Madeira wine in New England, '^beoanse the chap. xi. 
English there lived soberly," ooming through Hell-gate to ^^^ 
seek a market in Virginia, anchored before Fort Amster- ^s $epi. 
dam. De Vries, accepting the schipper's invitation to pilot 
his vessel to Virginia, called on Kieft to take his leave. For 
the last time the director listened to the voice which had 
so often warned him in vain. " The murders in which you 8 octobw. 
have shed so much innocent blood will yet be avenged 
upon your own head," was De Vries's awftil prophecy, as 
he parted from Kieft, and left Manhattan forever.* 

The Eight Men soon met again. Comelis Melyn, thcMeeuncoi 

patroon of Staten Island, was their president. The utter Men. 
ruin which now menaced the province, and the cold re- 
pulse which his application for aid had met at New Ha- 
ven, if they did not entirely overcome Kieft's jealousy of 
the popular representatives, at least prevented him from 
interfering with their purpose of communicating directly 
with their common superiors in Holland. The people of 
New Netherland had never yet spoken to the authorities 
of the Fatherland. The time had now come when their 
voice was, for the first, to be heard at Amsterdam and at 
the Hague. A letter signed by all the Eight Men, was m October, 
addressed to the College of the XIX. In simple and pa-ietteT^^ 
thetic words the representatives of the commonalty told company, 
their tale of woe. How '* the fire of war" had been kin- 
dled around them, their wives and children slaughtered 
or swept away captives, their cattle destroyed, their es- 
tates wasted. How famine stared them in the face ; for, 
" while the people are ruined, the com and all other prod- 
uce burnt, and little or nothing saved, not a plough can 
be put, this autumn, into the ground." " If any provi- 
sions should be obtained from the English at the East, we 
know not wherewith we poor men shall pay for them." 
^< This is but the beginning of our troubles, especially as 
these Indians kill off our people one after another, which 
they will continue to do, while we are burthened with our 
muskets, our wives, and our little ones."t 

• De Vriee, 18S. t HeL Doe., iii., lS4-14t ; Breeden lUedt, 18. 


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1 Wot. 
LcU«r io 

the Stai«« 

Gii*r- II. To the Estates General the Eight Men addreaaed a still 
more bold remoni^trance ; for they were Bpeaking to the 
statesmen of their Fatherland. ** We are all here^ fioin 
the amalleat to the ^eatestj without counsel or mean^ ; 
wholly powerless*. The enemy meet^ with no resiijtance. 
The garrison oonaistii of but fifty or sixty soldiers, without 
ammanition. Fort Amsterdam, utterly defenseless^ standa 
open tiO the enemy day and night. The company has few 
or no effects here, as the director informs us. Were it not 
for this, there might still have been time to receive aome 
aasBtancfe from the English at the Eastj ere all were lo^t ; 
Twit We, helpleas inhabitants, while we mut^t abandon all 
onr property, are ©xcewJingly poor. The heathens are 
strong in might. They have formed an alliance with sev- 
en other nations ; and are well provided with guns, pow- 
der* and ball, in exchange for beaver^ by the private trad- 
ers, who for a long time have had free course here. The 
rest they take from our brethren whom they murder. In 
short, we suffer the greatest misery* which mast astonish 
a Chri.^ian heart t-o see or hear," 

** We turn then, in a body, to you, High and Mighty 
Lords, acknowledging your High Mightinesses as our sor- 
ai^igns, and as the Fathers of Fatherland. We suppli- 
Oftte, for (rod's sake, and lor the love which their High 
Mightinesses bear toward their poor and desolate subjeots 
here in New Netherlond, that their High Mightinesses 
would take pi^ on us, their poor people, and urge upon^ 
and command the Company — ^to whom we also make 
known our necessities — to forward to us, by the earliest 
opportunity, such assistance as their High Mightinesses 
may deem most proper, in order that we, poor and forlorn 
beings, may not he left all at once a prey* with women 
and children, to these cruel heathen. For, should suita- 
ble assistance not very quickly arrive, according to our 
eocpectationii, we isshall he forced^ in order to preserve the 
lives of those who remain » to remove ourselves Ut the East, 
among the English, who would like nothing better than 
to have possession of this place ; especially on account of 


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^ wrpe riof ooBvemenoe of the sea^soast, baya^ and kunge ciaf. a. 
ri^9«rs) besides tibe great fertility of this soil:— -yea, this ^^^ 
aie&e eould, yearly, provision aiid sizp{>ly with all neoes*- ^^^\ 
saries twenty, twenty-five, as thirty dups from Brazil or 
the Wert Indies."* 

The same Tessd that boro these dispatdies eonvey- 
ed a distingoifilied passenger. Van Curler's benevolent 
visit to ihe Mohawk oastles in the previous aatomn, 
though it failed to prooore the release of the Freodi 
captives, at least prokmged tiie life of Father Jogues. 
Throagh the dreary winter, tiie solitary Jesuit endured Fatiier 

inoiger and oold, and the Utter contempt of the savages, amongtue 
who reviled his holy zeaL Gradually they began to list^i 
to his words, and receive instruction and baptism. His 
liberty was enlai^ed ; and twice he was taken^ wiih Hub 
trading parties of the IroquoB, to the net^boring settie^- 
ments of the Duteh, who welcomed him kindly, and ^4eft 
mo etooe unturned" to effect his deliverance. While at 
Port Orange on one occasion, news came that the French 
had repulsed the Mc^awks at Fort BieheUeu; and the si Mr- 
Dutch commander, fearing that the Jesuit Father would 
be burned in revei^, counseled him to escape. Jogues 
at lengtik consented ; and, evading tiie vigilance of the 
savages, remained in close concealmrait for mx ureeks, E^tpM ai 
during which Domine Megapolensis, who had become his anse. 
attached friend, showed him constant kindness. The 
wrath of the Mohawks at tiie escape of their prisoner 
was at length appeased by presents, to the value of Ihree 
hundred livres, made up by the ookmial autiiorities ; and is Sept. 
Jogues was sent down Ae river to Manhattan, where heiwnaii. ^ 
was hospitably received by the director. 

Here he remained for a month, observing the cafHtal of October. 
Ac Dutch province, now desolated by war. Fort Amster- 
dam was without ditches, and its ramparts of ecurth had conditfcm 
cramUed away; but they '^weie beginning to &oe theDoteneap* 
gates and bastions with stone." On the island of Man- 
hattan, and in its environs, were some four or five hund- 

* U&L Dm., it., m^NS; 0*Calt., i., fl 


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Ck^t. Xl. 



HllJI fOf 

3 Not 

Fort Or* 

ctasrcli fit 

red men '* of different sects and natbnB,'* speaking "eight- 
*6ea different languages." The mechanics who plied their 
trade,«i were ranged under the walk of the fort ; all others 
were exposed to the incursions of the savagea. No re- 
ligion, except the Caiviniajtic, was publicly exercisedj and 
the orders were to admit none but Calvinists; *^but this 
is not observed ; for there are in the colony, besidea the 
Calvinists, Catholics, English Puritans, Lutherans, Ana- 
baptists, here called Mennonists," &c. The heart of the 
missionary was grieved at the sufferings of the Duteh, 
whose losses by the Indians were already estimated at two 
hundred thousand livres. At length the bark, in which 
Kieft gave him a free passage to Europe, was ready to 
sail; and the Jesuit Father, supplied with '* black clothes, 
and all things necessary," gratefully took leave of the Hol- 
landers, who had shown him so much kindness,* 

At this time, the West India Company's reaerved Fort 
Orange was '* a wretched little fort, built of logs, ^"ith 
four or five pieces of cannon of Breteuilj and as many 
swivels." Aiound it was the hamlet of Beverswyck, 
*^ composed of about one hundred persons, who resided ta 
some twenty-five or thirty houses built along the river, an 
each one ft^und it most convenient" These houses were 
built of boards, and thatched ; there was no mason* work, 
except in the chimneys. In the principal house lived the 
patroon*s chief officer ; ** the minister had his apart, in 
which service was performed." A church, however, wa« 
now commenced, under the supervision of Domine Mega- 
polensis, in "the pine grove," a little to tlie west of the 
patroon's trading house, and within range of the gims of 
Fort Orange. A burial-ground was also laid out in the 
roar, on what is now known as *^ Church Street." Thia 
first church in Albany — the humble dimensionii of whiah 
were only thirty-foux feet long and nineteen feet wide — 
was thought sufficient to accommodate the people for sev- 

* Kelttion, l«40-l, SO, Sl] ; 1042-^. SM ; ]«47. A§t Ul-117 ; JogOM't Lett«r« gfttif 5tk 
Wid 30tb «f AujtUMti 1^1^ Gih of Jnnuary, 1541, 3d of Aufrudt 1«40 ; Titiber, &]0^31 ; h., 
n. r. n. S. CdU., Itt ^ rw. Ht<t N< Y., It^ tl-S4 ; ClurleToU, t., SM ^ aniCe, p. 94ft. 


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eral years ; it ooold afterward " serve for the residence of chap. xi. 
the sexton, or for a school." A canopied pulpit, pews for 
the magistracy and the deacons, and nine benches for the 
people, after the fashion of the Fatherland, were soon aft- 
erward ftirnished, at an expense of eighty guilders.* 

The pious services of Domine Megapolensis were not, MiMionary 
however, confined to his own. countrymen. Like his gapoimisto. 
friend. Father Jogues, he applied himself to the difficult 
task of learning the "heavy language" of the 'Mohawks, 
" so as to speak and preach to them fluently." The Dutch 
traders did not themselves understand the idiom of the 
savages ; and even the commissary of the company, who 
had been "connected with them these twenty years," 
could afford Megapolensis no assistance in becoming " an 
Indian grammarian." The red men about Fort Orange 
were soon attracted to hear the preaching of the Gospel. 
And it should be remembered that these earnest and vol- 
untary labors of the first Dutch clergyman on the northern 
frontier of New Netherland, preceded, by several years, the 
earliest attempt of John Eliot, the " morning star of mis- 
sionary enterprise" in New England, to preach to the sav- 
ages in the neighborhood of Boston.t " When we have a 
sermon," wrote Megapolensis, "sometimes ten or twelve of 
them, more or less, will attend, each having in his mouth a 
long tobacco-pipe made by himself, and will stand awhile 
and look, and afterward ask me what I was doing, and 
what I wanted, that I stood there alone, and made so many 
words, and none of the rest might speak ? I tell them 
that I admonished the Christians that they must not steal, 
nor drink, nor commit lewdness and murder ; and that they 
too ought not to do these things ; and that I intend after 
awhile to come and preach to them, in their country and 
castles, when I am acquainted with their language. They 
say, I do well in teaching the Christians ; but immediate- / 

* Jognet*! letter of tbe 8d of Augoet, 1640 ; Doc. Hl«t. N. Y., !▼., 93 ; Rente. MS8. ; 
CCaU., i., 331, 460. This hoinble buUdiog in "tbe pine grove,'' near Cboreh Street, ao- 
MHninodatod the congregation until the year 1666, when a new ehnrch was erected at tte 
interaecUon of Stale and North Market Streets ; pott^ p. 694. 

t wmthrop, 11., 8»7, 303-305 ; Bancroft, U., 71, 04 ; TougHi Oh. Mass., 968, note. 


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rlooe mor- 
oantile pol< 



CHAP. XL ly add. Why do so many Christians do these things ? 

They call us As$preonij that is, olotfa-makers ; or Charts- 

^^^^* toonif that is, iron-woarkers, beoause our people first brought 
oloth and iion among them."^ 

The effects of the war, which was desolating the neigh- 
borhood of Fort Amsterdam, soon began to be felt at Fort 
Orange. The West India Company's mc^azine was no 
longer supplied with merchandise ; and Ihe warehouse of 
the oolcmie of Bensselaerswyek was now the only resource 
of the fur-traders who might obtain licenses from the pa- 

The pa. troon. In this respect, his mercantile policy was exclu- 
sive, and was rigidly enfinrced within the cokmie. Host 
of the colonists, however, were in tiie habit of procuring 
the patroon's licenses ; and, as early as 1640, De Yries ob- 
served tiiat ^< eadi farmer was a trader." Throughout the 
war which was desdating southern New Netherland, the 
colonists at Rensselaerswyck felt littte trouble, and enjoy- 
ed peace, '^ because they continued to sell fire-arms and 
powder to Ihe Indians." This ccmduct was openly re- 
baked by the directors of the West India Company ; and 
it was afterward the subject of complaint on the part of 
the authorities of New England.! 

The colonists readily obtained goods on credit from the 
wardiouse, to which they were obliged to bring their pur- 
chases of frurs. These were shipped to Holland, and sold 
at Amsterdam, under the patroon's supervisicm. His share, 
at first one half^ was before long reduced to a sixth, to- 
other with the recognition of one guilder on each skin of 
the remainder. Under this system, the price of a beaver 
skin, which, before 1642, was six fathoms of wampum, 
soon rose to ten fathoms. It was now thought necessary 
that the colonial authorities should make some regulations 

* "A Shofrt Account ortheMaqoMsIndlaiii^&e^wrttteii in the y«tr 1044. BylAa 
Megapolensis, junior, minister there." This tract was first published in Dutch, at Am- 
sterdam, by Joost Hartgers, in 1651 ; see ante, p. 806, note. It is said to have been a 
fwiUiar letter to hU friends in HoUand, and wMoli MegapoleMis himseir loM Van der 
Donck was '* printed without his ooassQt.** A translation, rsrlsed from tliat in Hasard, 
t, 517^536, wiU be published in U.. N. T. H. S. OolL, Ui. 

t De Vries, 159, 158 ; Hoi. Dm., U., tit ; Report ftod AArlea, la CCtn., I., 490, App. ; 
Wintbrop, U., 84, U7 ; Hautfd, U., 19, 109, 917. 


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respeotiBg this tmde. The oompany's oommissary at Foft oiup. xi. 
Orange, in conjunction with Van Curler, the commissary "17^7" 
of the patroon, accordingly issued a joint proclamation, 
fixing the price of a beaver skin at nine fathoms of white 
wampom, and forbidding all persons, ^^ on pain of confis- 
cation," to ** go into the bush to trade." R was also di-micntrwi. 
rected that ^<no residents should presume to come witiiiu^. 
their boats within the limits of the colonic ;" and a further 
proclamation declared that ^^ no inhabitants of the ooionie 
should presume to buy any goods firom the residents.** 
Van der Donck, " the officer" of Rensselaerswyck, was at 
the same time required to see these regulations strictly 
enforced. ^ 

But the schout-fiscal, afraid of risking his pqmlarity, 
would not enforce the new ordinances. A sloop arriving 
a few days afterward witli some goods, the colonists, in 
spite of the proclamations, purchased what they pleased ; 
and Commissary Van Curler and Domine Megapolensis, 
sendincf for Van der Donck, directed him to search the vu der 
houses of the colonists for secreted fi^oods. But the schoutiuunaw 
^< gossipped, without once making a search." He was not 
disposed to '^ make himself suspected by the colonists, as 
his years as officer were few." Van Curler soon became 
unpopular. Van der Donck fomented the discontent; and 
a protest against the obnoxious commissary was subscribed 
in a circle, " so that it should not be knovm who had first 
signed it." Some of the colonists were for driving him 
out of tiie colony as a rogue ; others wished to take his life.* 

By degrees, however. Van Curler's popularity returned ; 

and Van der Donck, finding his residence becoming dis- vu der 

a&reeable, determined to leave Rensselaerswyck. He»oive«to 
% ^ A 1 n • 11 «> 1 .11 1 *"" • "«^ 

therefore went down the nver to look at KatskiU ; and coioaie. 

made arrangements to return to Holland, and seek for 

partners "to plant a colonic there." But the patroon, 

learning Van der Donck's intention, resolved to forestall 

"his sworn officer," who had " dishonestly designed" to 

purchase the lands " lying under the shadow of his colo- 

* RenM. MSS. ; Van Corier't letter, in CCen., i., MI, 401 


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Chap. XI. nio ;" and determined to enlarge his own domain, so as to 
include all the territory " from Rensselaer's Stein down to 
10 Sept. Katskill." Instructions were, therefore, sent to Van Curler 
to stop the schout's proceedings, and, in case he had al- 
ready acquired a title from the Indians, to constrain him 
to surrender it to the patroon. If he should prove obsti- 
nate, he was to be deprived of his office, which was to be 
conferred, provisionally, upon Nicholas Koom. The strin- 
gent orders of his feudal chief arrested Van der Donok's 
design, and his proposed settlement at Katskill was aban- 

The Swedish government, in the mean time, had taken 
measures to place their colony at the South River on a 
1643. permanent footing. In the summer of 1642, the queen 
isAugost. appointed John Printz, a lieutenant of cavalry, to be 
" Grovernor of New Sweden," which was declared to be 
under the royal protection. The territory was defined as 
extending " from the borders of the sea to Cape Hinlopen, 
in returning southwest toward Godyn's Bay, and thence 
toward the great South River as far as Minqua's Kill, 
where is constructed Fort Christina, and froin thence 
again toward South River, and the whole to a place which 
the savages call Sankikan,t which is at the same time the 
place where are the limits of New Sweden." Of these 
John frontiers, Printz was instructed "to take care;" yet, if 
pointed possiblc, to maintain amity and good neighborhood witii 
forernor. the Dutch at Fort Nassau, "now occupied by about twen- 
ty men," as well as with " those established higher up the 
North River at Manhattan, or New Amsterdam, and like- 
wise with the English, who inhabit Virginia, especifiJly 
because the latter have already b^un to procure for the 
Swedes all sorts of necessary provisions, and at reasonable 
prices, both for cattle and grain." Toward the colonists 
under Joost de Bogaerdt good-will was to be shown. 
Printz might choose his own residence where he should 

* Renss. MSS. ; 0*Call., i., 333, 338. 839, 40S. 

t The M]b at Trenton, in New Jersey, sometiBM* writteii Santickao ; oate, p. t83 ; fU 
N. Y. H. S. CoU., i., 400 ; U., 883. 


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find it most oonvenient ; but he was to pay partioular at- ciup. xl 
tention that the South River "may be shut," or com- ^^^ 
manded by any fortress which he might erect The trade 
in peltries with the Indians was not to be permitted to any 
persons whomsoever^ except to the agents of the Swedish 
Company. Detailed instructions were also given for the 
internal government of the colony ; and Divine service was 
enjoined, " according to the true Confession of Augsburg, 
the Council of Upsal, and the ceremonies of the Swedish 
Church." The Dutch settlers, however, were not to be 
disturbed " with regard to the exercise of the Reformed 
religion." The governor's appointment was for three 
years, at an annual salary of twelve hundred silver dol- 
lars, commencing on the first of January, 1643. The 
Swedish government furnished officers and soldiers, and so AngMi. 
passed an ordinance assigning upward of two millions of 
rix dollars, to be collected annuaUy from the excises on 
tobacco, for the support of the government of New Sweden.* 
Under such auspices, Printz sailed from G-ottenburg late 
in the autumn of 1642, with the ships "Fame" and i not. 
" Stork," and accompanied by the Reverend John Cam- 
panius as chaplain. Early the next year, the expedition 1643. 
reached Fort Christina.! Desiring to control the trade of PriSx ar- 
the river, and be as near as possible to the Dutch at Fort Pon chrit- 
Nassau, Printz chose for his own residence an island on"™^ 
the west shore, then called by the Indians " Tenacong," 
now known as Tinicum, near Chester, about twelve miles 
below Philadelphia. Upon this island a " pretty strong" 
fort, named " New Gottenburg," was promptly construct- Buudingof 
ed of heavy hemlock logs. A mansion called " Printz Gmten*'^ 
Hall" was built for the governor ; orchards were planted; "** 
and the principal colonists took ^up their abode at Tini- 
cum. Toward Fort Christina there were a few scattered 
farms; but between Tinicmn and the Schuylkill there 
were no plantations.^ 

* Hazard's Ren;. Penn., iv. ; Ibid., Ann. Penn., 89-00. t Campanius, 70. 

i Acrelius ; Hadde's Report ; ii., N. T. H. S. Coll., i., 411, 4S9 : Ferria, 63, 63 ; Haa- 
ard^s Ann. Penn., 70. Reorus Torkillua, the dergyman who had aeeompanied Minnit to 
New Sweden in 1638, died at Fort Christina on the 7th of Saptembar, 1643, aoon after tha 
arrival of Printx.— Campaniua. 107, 109. 


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880 HISTORY OP THE STATE OF NEW YORK. Prints now hoped to secure to himself ail the Indiiaii 
~~" trade against the competition of the Dutoh. Still more 
prinSi offectiially to "shut up^ the rivw, m tiie coarse of the fol- 
SJSJS"" lowing crc»nmer he erected anotiier fort " with Ihree an- 
^""^^ ^es," called " Ebingbarg,** upon the east shore of the 
bay near Salem Creek, from which tiie New Haven in- 
truders had jnst befere been expelled. The new fort was 
garriscmed liy twelve men commanded by a lieutenant, 
and was armed with eight iron and brass twelve-pound 
guns. At this {dace all vessels ooming up the river were 
compeltod to lower their colors, and stop, until permission 
to proceed had been obtained from the governor at Tini- 
• cum.* 
DeVriMftt The SwediA garrison had an early qyportunity of dis- 
R#*8r. playing their vigilance. De Vries, on his way from Man- 
hattan to Virginia, put into the South River ; and, as the 
Rotterdam vessel passed by Fort Elsingburg, a gun was 
fired for her to strike her flag. Blanck, her schipper, ask- 
ed De Vries his advice. " If it were my ship, I should 
not strike," was Ihe reply ; " for I am a patroon of New 
Netherland, and tiie Swedes are mere intruders within 
our river." But the schipper, wishing to trade, lowered 
his colors. A boat from the fort immediately visited the 
vessel, which sailed up to Tinieum the same afternoon. 
At Fort New GFottenburg, the Dutch were welcomed by 
the governor, who ^^ was named Captain Printz, a man of 
brave size, who weighed over four hundred pounds." 
Learning that De Vries was the patroon of the first Dutch 
colonic at Swaanendael, Printz pledged him in ^' a great 
romer of Rhine wine ;" and the Dutch vessel continued 
five days at the fort, trading confectionary and Madeira 
wine for beaver skins. After a short visit to Fort Nassau, 
where he found the West India Company's people in gar- 
19 ootober. risou, Dc Vrics accompanied the Swedish governor down 
ihe river to Fort Christina, where there were now several 
houses. Having spent the night with Printz, who '^ treat- 
90 October, ed him well," De Vries bade farewell to his Swedish host, 

* De Vries, IM, 185 ; Htidde's Report, 489 ; Hoi. Doc., viii., 39, 50. 

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for whom ha fiied a partiBg Mlute, m tiio Batoh Teasel cxap. xi. 
sailed onward to Virginia.* . 

KieiVs attention vra» soon afterward drawn to a »ew.p,^^^,; 
and unexpected daim to the ownership of a part of Now ^^w Ju- 
Netherland. An English knight, Sir Edmund Plowden,*"^" 
calling himself Earl Palatine of New Albion, arrived at 
Manhattan from the South River, and boldly affirmed that 
all the land fix»m the west side of the North River to 
Virginia was his, by gift of the King of England. Plow- 
den's claim rested upon a patent issued at Dublin by the 1634. 
Viceroy of Ireland, to whom the knight addressed him- '^ ''*'"^' 
self after Charles I. had refused him a charter under the 
Grreat Seal of England. By his Irish patent, Plowd^i 
was invested with the title and dignity of ^' Earl Palatine" 
of the Province of New Albion, which, under a vague and 
imperfect description, seems to have been meant to include 
most of the territory between Cape May, Sandy Hook, and 
the Delaware River, now forming the State of New Jer- 
sey. Under tiiis w(»rthless diarter, issued by a Viceroy 
of Ireland, who had no authority to grant territorial rights 
in America, Plowden set sail for Delaware Bay; but, 
<< wanting a pilot for that place," he went to Virginia. 
From there he visited the South River. But becoming 
^* very much piqued" with the Swedish governor, John 
Printz, <^on account of some affiront given him, too long 
to relate," he prooeeiled northward to Manhattan. The 1643. 
pretensions of the titular Earl Palatine of New Albion 
were, however, entirely disregarded by Blieft. Plowden, 
nevertheless, warned the director that, '< when an q>por^ 
tunity should offer," he would go to the South River and 
take possession ; while, at the same time, he assured Kieft 
that he '^ did not wish to have any strife with the Duteh." 

* De Vries, Voyages, 184, 1B5. We nratt here Uke leave of the blunt mariner, whose 
original jonma] has been so pleaaant a guide. De Vries was emphatically a man of the 
people ; erer opposing arbitrary power ; biased, perhaps, in some of hia opinions and 
statements ; but flrank, honest, religious, and a sinoere adroeate of the true interests of 
New Netberland. After spending the winter in Virginia, De Vries sailed (br Holland, 
where he arrired in June, 1644. He seems nerer to have rerlsitad Ameriea. His un- 
pretending and simply-written work was published at Alckmaer, in 1066, illustrated by 
a wetl-engrared portrait of the anthor, ttkn in 165S, whm lia was sixty years of age. 
See anUt p. 156, note. 


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cmap. XI. The disappointed Earl Palatine presently returned to Vir- 
ginia ; and though he came to Manhattan several years 
* afterward, and reasserted his claim to New Albion, no 
actual settlement under his insufficient title appears ever 
to have been made within the territory of New Nether- 

If the proceedings of Printz excited the animosity of the 
Dutch at Manhattan, his arbitrary conduct was not less 
P«orge annoyinff to the New Endand Puritans. Lamberton, not- 
jnj««i by withstand mg the wammg he had received the previous 
J«iy. year, persisting in revisiting the Delaware in a New Ha- 
ven pinnace, was induced, by the Swedish governor, to 
land at Fort New G-ottenburg, where he was instantly im- 
prisoned, with two of his men. Printz began to ply one 
of these men with strong drink and liberal promises, to 
influence him " to say, that Greoi^e Lamberton had hired 
the Indians to cut off the Swedes." But the governor 
could not persuade his prisoner to perjure himself; and 
in his vexation, *'he put irons upon him with his own 
hands." According to Winthrop's account, Printz was " a 
man very furious and passionate, cursing and swearing, 
and also reviling the English of New Haven as runa- 
gates,"t &c. 
n s«pt. When Eaton's statement of this transaction reached 
um New Boston, the commissioners of the United Colonies instruct- 


ed their president to write to Printz, '* expressing the par- 
ticulars, and requiring satisfaction" for the " foul injuries" 
offered to Lamberton and the New Haven people on the 
Delaware. A commission was also given to Lamberton, 
"to go treat with the Swedish governor about satisfac- 
tion for those injuries and damages, and to agree with 
him about settling their trade and plantation."^ But 

• IIol. Doc., It., 71 ; il., N. Y. H. S. CoU., ii., 370 ; Alb. Rec., Hi., 234 ; xriiL, 349 ; Hu- 
ard's Sute Papers, i., 160-174 ; S. Hazard's Ann. Penn., 36-38, 108-113 ; Winlhrop, ii, 
33S. The sabjeet of Plowden'a claim to New Albion has been considered in C. KinK*8 
Address, in Proc. N. J. II. S., i., 39-43 ; Pennington's "^ Examination of Beauchamp Plan* 
tagenet's Description of New Albion ;" Mulfbrd's New Jersey, 66-74 ; and la Mr. Mvr- 
phy's very exceUent note to the *' Vertoogh van N. N.**, in ii., N. Y. H. S. CoU., ii., 393-^M. 

t WiBthrop, ii., 130, 140, 141 ; John Thickpenny's Deposition, in New Haven Col. Rec, 
L, 97-99 ; S. Hatard's Ann. Penn., 74-76. t Haxard, ii., 11 ; Winthrop, il., 140. 

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Printz, on hb part, met the charges of the New Haven chap. m. 
people with a positive denial. At the meeting of the Gen- "7777' 
eral Court of Massachusetts in the following spring, theym.,^' 
Swedish governor, to rebut the English version of the case, 
^^ sent copies of divers examinations upon oath taken in 
the cause, with a copy of all the proceeding between them 
and our friends of New Haven from the first ;" and in his 
letters '^ used large expressions of respect" for the English. 
Governor Eaton, on behalf of New Haven, desiring a new 
commission " to go on with their plantation and trade in 
Delaware River and Bay," the court granted it, but "with 
a salvo jure, ^^^ 

The Boston merchants now began to covet a participa- Expiorini 
tion in the fiir trade on the Delaware. It was imagined sent from 
in Massachusetts, that the chief supply of beavers came um soatb 
from a " great lake, supposing it to lie in the northwest 
part" of their patent ; and this lake, which they named 
" Lake Lyconnia," it was now thought should be " dis- 
covered." A well-manned pinnace, laden with provisions March, 
and merchandise, was therefore dispatched from Boston, 
with a commission under the public seal, and letters from 
Winthrop to the Dutch and Swedish governors. The ex- 
ploring party were instructed "to sail up the Delaware 
River so high as they could go ; and then some of the 
company, under the conduct of Mr. William Aspenwall, a 
good artist, and one who had been in those parts, to pass, 
by small skids or canoes, up the river so far as they 

* Wintlirop, il., 157. The commlMionen, in a letter to Stayreeant, of the I<kh of Sep- 
tember, 1650, and again, in their Declaration of Grievances of April, 1653, charge Jansen, 
the Dutch commissary at Fort Nassau, with combining with Prinu in his proceedings 
against Lambertoo, in 1643, and with sitting " as one of the Judges in coart with the 
Swedish governor.*'— Hazard, ii., 164, 814. Trnmbnll repeats the story with some em- 
bellishments, and erroneously refbrs it to the year 1649.— Trumbull, i., 192. But the de- 
position of Thickpenny, quoted above, says not a word about Jensen's complicity ; and 
Winthrop's contemporary account (ii., 140, 141), while it alludes to the Dutch agent's pro- 
ceedings at the Varfcens* Kill, in 1649, xeftrs all the *' firal injuries^ ofibred to Lamberton 
to ** the Swedish governor^ alone. 

t Winthrop, ii., 160, 161. This exploring expedition shows the ignorance of the geog- 
raphy of the interior of New Netberland, which so long prevsUed among the Dutch and 
the English. On Van der Donck's map, which was published in 1656, a lake is laid 
down, somewhere about what is now known as the Delaware Water-gap, through whieh 
the river is represented as flowing. The French, in Canada, knew more about the boaii- 
tUVil lakes of New Netherland thao did either the Doteb or the English. 


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Chap. xi. But the expedition fiedled. Kieft (NroteaAed against ikeit 
^r^AA proceeding, and sent orders to Jansen, at Fort Nassan^ 
Faiianof " ^^^t to let them pass." The pinnaoe arrived at Fort El- 
liSi!'''**"' singburg " on the Lord's day," and the Swedes, firing a 
shot, forced her to anchor lower down. Evemtoally, the 
English vessel was suffered to pass ; but both Printz and 
Jansen forbade the adventurers to trade with the Indians, 
'* and for that end each of them had appointed a pinnaoe 
to wait upon'^ the Boston craft. Her master, however,' 
^^ proved such a drunken sot, and so complied with the 
Dutch and Swedes," that the adventurers, fearing that if 
they should leave their vessel to go up to the lake in a 
small boat, '* he would, in his drunkenness, have betrayed 
their goods to the Butch," gave up their expedition, and 
90 July, returned to Boston. The owners of the pinnace, on their 
arrival home, recovered two hundred pounds damages fxam 
the master, ^' which was too much, though he did deal 
badly with them, for it is very probable they could not 
have proceeded." Yet this verdict did not prevent the 
commissioners of the United Colonies, several years after- 
ward, from disingenuously alleging the conduct of the 
Dutch authorities as the cause of the failure of the expe* 
October. The foUowiug autumu another bark ''was set out from 
Boston, to trade at Delaware." After wintering in the 
bay, she went over to the " Maryland side" in the spring, 
where in three weeks " a good parcel" of five hundred 
Another beaver skins was procured. As the bark was about leav- 
pedition ing, fifteen Indians came aboard, '' as if they would trade 
the MT. again," and suddenly drawing forth ^' hatchets from un- 
der their coats," killed the master and three Others, and 
rifled the vessel of all her goods and sails, taking pris* 
oners a boy and " one Redman," the interpreter, who was 
suspected of having betrayed his countrymen. Printz, 
hearing of the outrage, which seems to have been perpe- 
trated in the neighborhood of De Vries's unfortunate col- 
ony at Swaanendael, procured the delivery of the prison- 

* Wiothrois iL, Ul, 170, 197 ; Hturd, U., 814. 

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era to him at Fort New Gottenburg. From there they caip. n. 

were sent by way of New Haven to Boston, where Red- 

man was tried for his life, and found guilty.* lo44. 

The pertinacious interference of the New England col-TheDatch 
onists with the trade on the Delaware was as grievous an swedw op- 
annoyance to Printz as to Kieft. The Dutch, as the first gush inter. 
explorers and possessors of the South River, unwillingly the soat? 
saw their monopoly invaded by the Swedes ; but when ^*'' 
the English attempted to divide with them the prize, the 
Swedes were found acting in concert with the Dutch to 
repel the new intrusion. In Holland, the question of sov- 
ereignty was suddenly raised by the arrival of two Swed- October, 
ish ships, " The Key of Calmar" and the " Fame," which 
Printz had dispatched home with large cargoes of beaver 
and tobacco. Stress of weather, and perhaps apprehen- Qneauon 

sion, owing to the war which had just broken out between eigS7t*ia 
Sweden and Denmark, induced the masters of these ves- land. 
sels to run into the port of Harlingen, in Friesland. Here 
the ships were seized by order of the West India Compa- e October. 
ny, who, claiming sovereignty over all the regions around 
the South River of New Netherland, exacted the impost 
duties and additional recognitions, to which their chaxter 
entitled them. Against these exactions Speringh, the s October. 
Swedish minister at the Hague, instantly protested to the 
States G-eneral. A long correspondence ensued, which 
resulted in the discharge of the ships, the next summer, 
upon payment of the impost duties alone. The compa- 
ny's additional recognition of eight per cent, was waived ; 
and the question of the right of sovereignty was left un- 

In the mean time, Kieft, disappointed in obtaining as- 1643. 
sistance from his English neighbors, had been forced to 1^^^ 
draw a bill of exchange on the directors of the West India JJ^JJJ. 
Company, in favor of some merchants of Amsterdam, js not. 
Strict discipline was enjoined upon the heterogenepus 
forces whidi were now mustered at Manhattan ; and Van 

* Wlnthrop, ii., 903, 204, 236, 937. 

t HoL Doon tt., 140, 349, 350; iiL, 1, 9, 13; Alb. Rm^ vrlLt 391. 



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CttAY . XL der HnygenSi the sohont-fLsGal, was ocmimanded to exe- 
"TITI^cute hia duties without fear or favor, and to repress, with 
^^* all the force of the province, the irregularities which a 
state of war necessarily produced. The refusal of New 
Haven left New Netfierland to her own resources, and the 
spirit of the people rose with the occasion. It was now 
determined that offensive measures should be taken against 
December, thc savagcs. Couuselor La Montague was accordingly dis- 
Expedition patched to Statcu Island with a force of three companies. 
sStenisi- forty Dutch burghers under Captain Kuyter, thirty-five 
English colonists under Lieutenant Baxter, and several 
regular soldiers under Sergeant Cock. Crossing over from 
Manhattan in the evening, the expedition spent the whole 
night in scouring the island. The Indians kept out of the 
way ; but five or six hundred scheples of corn were se- 
cured, and brought back to Fort Amsterdam.* 

The Connecticut Indians in the vicinity of Stamford 
had now become still more hostile, and Mayano, a fierce 
indiaii bos- chief, who lived a little to the east of G^re^awich, boldly 
u4e?wkh! attacked a party of '^ tiiree Christians,^ whom he aoci- 
dentally met returning home. One of the party was 
killed; but tiie other two overpowered the savage and 
out off his head, whidi Captain Patrick immediately ^nt 
to Fort Amsterdam, with an account of what the colo- 
nists at G-reenwich had already suffered from the chief 
and his tribe. When Patrick and his friends submitted 
themselves to the jurisdiction of New Netiierland, the 
year before, it was upon condition of being ** protected 
against their enemies as much as possible." Good faith 
now required that this condition should be fulfilled ; and 
Ktpetftton Kieft instantly sent the forces which had iust returned 

MAIlt fWw * 

Manhattan from Stateu Islaud, to the assistance of tiie loyal En^ish. 

Bnigish Leaving Manhattan in ihe morning, in three yachts, tiie 
expedition reached Greenwich in the evening. All the 
next night was spent in marching through the country in 
search of the enemy. But none was found; and the 
wearied detachment reached Stamford in no good humor. 

* Alb.Ree.,ft.,«n^i»,ftM;Ui.,lM; Hill. Doe.»iil.>irr; Dot. Y.«1t., 14. 

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One of the Dutch soldiers meeting Patrick at Captain Un« csap. xl 
4erhill's house on Sunday, " in the time of afternoon ex- "TITT" 
eroise — for he seldcnti went to the public assemblies" — jjanoary*. 
charged him with treachery, in causing one hundred and p'jj^f 
twenty men to come from Fort Amsterdam on a iool's er^ nmrdered. 
rand. Patrick resented the nettled soldier's charge with 
^^ ill language," and spit in his face. As he was turning 
to go out, the Dutchman ^^ shot him behind in the head, 
so he fell down dead, and never qpake." The murderer 
was seized, but he escaped from custody.* 

The expedition, however, was not entirely unsuccessfriL 
Four of the Stamford people volunteered to find out the 
retreat of the savages ; and, upon their intelligence, some 
twenty-five picked men of the detachment surprised a 
small Indian village, where they killed eighteen or twenty 
warriors, and took an old man, two women, and several 
children prisoners. To win favor, the captured old man 
offered to lead the Dutch against the Weckquaesgeeks, Expedition 
who were reported to be intrenched in three castles ; and >f eck- 
Baxter and Cock, with a detachment of sixty-five men, gMbT 
were sent to West Chester. The expedition found the 
castles strongly constructed and well adapted for defense, 
built of thick timbers nine feet hi^, bound with heavy 
beams, and pierced with loop-holes. In one of these cas- 
tles, thirty Indians might defend themselves against two 
hundred Europeans. But all the savages were gone, and 
their fOTtresses deserted. Two of Aese were burned by 
the Dutch, who reserved the third as a retreat in case of 
emergency ; and the expedition, after marching some for- 
ty miles farther, killing one or two Indians, and destroy- 
ing all the com and wigwams ihey found, returned to Fort 
Amsterdam with a few W(mien and children as prisoners.t 

The accounts which Underbill had communicated to£n«"S 

from Stam* 

his townsmen at Stamford of the local advantages of New Jj^ SSin. 
Netherland, and the personal knowledge which John Og- Jjjj»«», 
den had gained at Manhattan, had meanwhile induced*''^ 

* Wlalkrop, iL, Ifll ; H«l. Doc^ liL, 118 ; Doc HtsL N. T., tr., 14 ; Mtt, p. HI. 
r Hoi. Doc, Uf., 119» ISO ; Doe. HiM. N. Y., hr., 1ft. 


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Chap. XI. several of them to visit L(»ig Island ; and airangemeats 
"TTTJ^were made, in the autumn of 1643, to secure from the 
Dutch provincial government a grant of lands at Heem- 
stede. This portion of Long Island had been so named 
by the Dutch after the '^ neatest and most important vil- 
lage" on the island of Schouwen, in Zealand. Early in 
1644, Robert Fordham and several others came over with 
their families from Stamford, and established themselves 
at Heemstede, which soon became known as ^^ Mr. Ford- 
is Not. ham's plains." The next autumn, Kieft granted to Ford- 
ham, Ogden, Lawrence, and their associates, a liberal pat- 
ent for ^< the great plains on Long Island, from the East 
River to the South Sea, and from a certain harbor, now 
oommonly called and known by the name of Heemstede 
Bay, and westward as far as Martin G-erritsen's Bay." 
The patentees were authorized << to use and exercise the 
Reformed religion which they profess," to nominate their 
own magistrates for the approval of the director of New 
Netherland, and generally to manage, their own civil af- 
fairs. A quit-rent of a tithe of the produce, to begin ten 
years ^^ from the day the first general peace with the In- 
dians shall be concluded," was reserved to the West India 
HoMiuty or Scarcely had the Stamford emig^nts settled themselves 
dians. at Heemstede, before Penhawitz, the great sachem of the 
Ganarsees in that neighborhood, who had hitherto been es- 
teemed friendly to the Dutch, was suspected of treachery; 
and several of his tribe were charged with secret hostili- 
ties against ^'the Christians." Seven savages were ar- 
rested by Fordham, on a charge of killing two or three 
pigs, ^'though it was afterward discovered that his own 
Englishmen had done it themselves." Fordham, however, 
informed Kieft that he had arrested the savages, and con- 
fined them in a cellar ; but that he ''dared not treat them 
inhumanly, as he could not answer for the consequences 

* ThomiMon*! Lonf IsUuid, U., 4, 5; Denton*! N. Y., p. 0, and Fanmn** noloo; 
CCan., i., 817 ; Maitinet^s BeMhryrinco, iU., 818. John 0gden» ono of the HoeoMledo 
po t e nt ial , wao • ooatnetor fbr bnildinc tlie dmreh in Fort Atnetiundtin, in IMl ; «•!•, p. 

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to his own people." La Montagne was therefore sent chaf. xi. 
against the Canarsees, with a force of one hundred and "~j 
twenty men; Dutch burghers under Kuyter, English b,^J^„ 
auxiliaries under Underhill, and regular soldiers under J^^JJJj^^ 
Cock aftd Van Dyck. The expedition sailed in three 
yachts to Schout's or Cow Bay, where the forces were 
landed without molestation. Marching at once to Heem- 
stede, Underhill killed three of the seven savages whom 
Fordham had confined in the cellar, and took the other 
four prisoners. The forces were then divided into two 
parties. With some fourteen Englishmen, Underhill at- 
tacked the smaller Indian village; while La Montagne, 
vdth the main body of eighty men, advanced against the 
larger settlement at Mespath. Both parties were entirely 
successful. The villages were surprised; one hundred 
and twenty savages were killed ; while the assailants lost 
<Hily one man, and had three wounded. On the return of 
the expedition, two of the savages whom Underhill had 
taken at Heemstede, were conveyed to Fort Amsterdam, 
where the triumph of the victors was disgraced by atro- 
cious cruelties. One of the prisoners, frightfully wounded Atrooitte« 
by the " long knives" with which the director had armed tan oatbe 
the soldiers in place of swords, at last dropped down dead um (bree*. 
as he was dancing the " Kinte-Kaeye," or death-dance of 
his race. The other, after undergoing even more shocking 
mutilation, was taken out of the fort by Kieft's orders, and 
mercifully beheaded on a mill -stone in "the Beavers' 
Path," now Beaver Lane, near the Battery. These bar- 
barities are said to have been witnessed by the director, 
and Counselor La Montagne. Some of the female sav- 
ages who had been taken prisoners in West Chester, stsmd- 
ing at the northwest angle of the fort, saw the bloody spec- 
tacle, and, throwing up their arms, and striking their 
mouths, called out, in their own language, "Shame! 
shame ! "What disgracefril and unspeakable cruelty is this ! 
Such things were never yet seen or heard of among us."* 
The Dutch forces were now in great distress for want 

• Hoi. Doe., UL, 131, 12S ; Doe. Hist N. Y., It., 15, 16 ; Breedea Raeit, 10, M. TMi 


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CHxf. XI. of clothing. At this oonjunoture, a flhip, which the pa- 
""""troon of Benaaelaerswyok had dispatched from Holland 
The Dutck *^® previous autumn, with a cargo of goods for his colony, 
wim^Sf ^ arrived at Manhattan. Necessity pressed ; and Kieft im- 
dothing. mediately called upon Peter Wynkoop, the supeifcargo, to 
furnish fifty pairs of shoes for the soldiers, offering full 
payment " in silver, beavers, or wampum.'* But the su- 
percargo, with more regard for his patroon's mercantile in- 
terests than for the necessities of a suffering soldiery, re- 
suppiyob- fused to comply witii the director's requisition. Kieft 
SnTri^mtT* promptly ordered a forced levy; and enough shoes were 
A^nhattan. taken from the patroon's ship to supply as many soldiers 
as afterward " killed five hundred of the enemy." The 
provoked director then commanded the ship to be thorough- 
ly searched, and a large supply of ammunition and guns, 
6 March, uot includcd in the manifest, being found on board, they 
were declared contraband, and the ship and cargo were 
February. Underbill had, meanwhile, been sent to Stamford to re- 
connoitre the position of the savages. On his return to 
Mareb. Manhattan, he was dispatched, with Ensign Yan Dyck 
expeditkm' and ouc hundred and fifty men, in three yachts, on a new 
ftod. expedition against the Connecticut Indians. Landing at 
Greenwich, the forces marched all the next day through 
the snow, crossing, on their way, steep rocky hills, over 
which the men crawled with difficulty. About midnight, 
the expedition approached the Indian village. The night 
was clear, and tiie fiill moon threw a strong light against 
the mountain, "so that many winters' days were not 

latter authority, ttowarei;, states tbe date oftbeae transactions as April, 1644. In the !•• 
terrogatories proposed to Van Tienhoven, on the 81st of July, 1650, by the oonunittee of tbe 
states General, tbe atrocities perpetrated upon tbe two Heemstede prisoners, and the 
presence and conduct of Kieft and La Montagne on the occasion, were specially inquired 
into.— HoL Doc., y., 31S, 3S0, 321 ; O'CaU., i., 300. Winthrop, ii., 157, speaks of the 
news of Underbill's Long Island ojqMdition reaching Boston in Man^ 1M4. 

* Alb Rec., U., 944, 277 ; Renss. MSS. ; O'CaU., i., 342. Winthrop, li., 157, says that 
this ship was sent " to the flree boors at Fort Orange,*' and had on board " (bur thousand 
weight of powder, and ssYen hundred pieces to trade with the nattres, wUeh the Doieh 
goTemor having notioe of, did seize and confiscate to the use of the oooipany.** SaYage, 
In his note, sosom to have mtsapprelMnded the oharaster of the ship. Ths YesssI was 
actually ** not sent by the oompany, but by some priYste men," as Winthrop had originally 
written H la his Jon«aL 

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brighter." The village oontained three ro¥r8| or streets chat. xi. 
of wigwams, and wias sheltered, in a nook of the mount- ^^^ 
* ain, from the northwest winds. The Dutoh troc^, find- 

ing the Indians on their guard, charged, sword in hand, i^^^. 
apon the fortress. But the savages, emholdened by their ^^'^ 
superior numbers — for the village was crowded with In- 
dians, who had assembled ^' to celebrate one of their fes- 
tivals" — ^made a desperate resistctnce. " Some said that 
there were full seven hundred, among whom were twen- 
ty-five Wappingers." Several bold sallies were attempted, 
but every effort to break the Dutoh line failed. Not a 
savage could sho'w himself outside the palisades without 
being shot down. In an hour, one hundred and eighty 
Indians lay dead on the snow. The anows of the be- 
sieged now beginning to annoy the Dutch, Underbill, 
remembering Mason's experiment at the Mistio, resolved 
to set the village on fire. The horrors of the Pequod 
massacre were renewed. As the wretched victims eup 
deavored to escape, they were shot down cur driven back 
into their burning huts. The carnage was almost com- 
plete.. Upward of five hundred Indians perished by sword 
or by flame : of all who had crowded that devoted village 
at nightfedl, but eight escaped. Fifteen of the Dutch sol- 
diers were wounded. The victors kindled large fires, and 
bivouacked on the crimsoned snow. In the morning, the 
expedition set out on its return, marching '' over that weari- 
some mountain, God affording extraordinary atrength to 
the wounded," and the next afternoon it reached Stam- 
ford, where the soldiers were hospitably entertained by the 
English. Two days afterward, the triumphant forces 
reached Fort Amsterdam ; and Kieft proclaimed a public Thtnkagiv- 
thanksgiving for the brilliant victory which his troops had cTliSSi 

♦ Hoi. Doc., lU., 121-1» ; Doc. Hi«t. N. Y., ir., 10, 17 ; 0»Call., I., 309 ; il., 571 ; Ban-' 
flroft, il^ 903. ** The traditkmaiy aceount of tbe battlo on Strickland's Plain, preaerrgd bgr 
Tnunbnll, i., Ifil, and repeated, but not conflnned, by Wbod, can not be quite accurate ; 
at least, as to time.** Tbe battle happened in 1644, not in 164A, as Trnmbull erroneously 
Mppsees. Winthrop (ii., 157) alleges, that the employmtnt of Uidsrhlll by Kielt was *' a 
plot or the Dutch governor to engage the English in that quarrel with the Indians, which 
we had wholly declined, as doubting the Justice of the eanss.* 


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Chap. XI. Spring had now begun ; and some of the hostile tribes 
which had felt the power of the Dutoh, wishing peace, a{>> 
Peace with P^^ ^ Underbill to interfere in their behalf. In a few 
cSJJ^ days, Mamaranack, the chief of the Croton Indians, and 
winS^^ other chiefs from the Weckqnaesgeeks, and from the tribes 
?ApTii north of Greenwich and Stamford, came to Fort Amster- 
dam, and concluded a peace with the Dutch. They pledged 
themselves not to do any Airther damage to the colonists 
of New Netherland or Iheir property ; to visit Manhattan 
only in canoes as long as the savages on the island should 
continue hostile ; and to deliver up Paoham, the faithless 
chief of the Tankitekes. On the other hand, Kieft prom- 
ised them his friendship ; and, in token of his sincerity, 
15 April, released several of the captured prisoners. The next week, 
Gonwarrowe, the sachem of the Mattinnecooks of Fluidi* 
ing, Cow Bay, and the neighborhood, warned by the les- 
son which the Long Island Indians had received at Heem* 
stede and Mespath, came to Manhattan and solicited a 
peace. The sachem assented to the conditions which Kieft 
imposed ; and upon his promise that none of the neighbor- 
ing tribes should do any harm to the Dutch, or assist their 
enemies, he was dismissed with some presents, and en- 
joined to communicate tiie provisions of the treaty to the 
sachem on " Mr. Fordham's plains."* 

Though the Dutch amis had now humbled a distant 
enemy, and the semblance of a peace had been arranged 
with the West Chester and Long Island savages, the prin- 
cipal enemies of the Dutch, nearer to Manhattan Island, 
remained hostile. The scouting parties of the red men 
prowled unopposed about the vary precincts of Fort Am- 
Fenoe o^ stcidam. For the protection of tiie few cattle which re- 
Mit It ipained to the decimated population, <<a ffood solid fence" 
81 lureh. was ordered to be erected, " from the great bouwery across 
to the plantation of Emanuel," nearly on the site of the 
present Wall Street. All persons who wished their cattle 
to be pastured in security, were warned to appear with 
proper tools and assist in erecting the fence ; those lidio 

* Alb. Reo., ii.» 947, 948 ; 0'CaU.» L, 801. 

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failed to give their aid were to be excluded from the priv- chap. xi. 
ileges of the indosed meadow.* ioaa 

The precaution was necessary. If Kieft had earned Hotuio ' 
the detestation of the Dutch colonists, he was even morej^j^^^ 
hated by the savages, who remembered Van TwiUer'd pa- ^n<*'"»"- 
oific rule, and called for the removal of his violent suc- 
cessor. "Their daily cry every where was 'Wouter