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Full text of "The history and topography of the counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland, with Furness and Cartmel, in Lancashire, comprising their ancient and modern history, a general view of their physical character, trade, commerce, manufactures, agricultural condition, statistics, etc., etc"

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In the present Work the object of the Publishers has been to supply to the people of Cmuberlaud 
and "Westmoreland a complete and modern history of the two Counties. The only histories of 
"^ Cumberland and Westmoreland which enjoyed any degi'ee of reputation ai-e those of Nicolson 

and Bmii, and Hutchinson — a reputation by no means undeserved: but they ai-e now old books; 
a long chapter of the manorial liistory has passed over since they were published ; many things 
are changed, and many are changiug; hence the want of a New History of Cumberland and 
- Westmoreland, and the in-esent attempt to supply that want. 

The introductory portion of the Work consists of a General History of the Counties of 
Cumberland and Westmoreland, from the earliest period, by Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., 
one of the most distinguished ai'chaeologists of om- age and coimtry, author of " The Celt, the 
Roman, and the Saxon," and numerous other works. In the composition of this part of the 
volume, Mr. Wright has endeavom-ed to treat tlie History and Antiquities of the two Counties 
in such a manner as to show what light the discoveries of the archaeologist can throw upon 
the condition of this pai't of England, dming centmies which present little more than a blank 
in our ordinary annals. This is fdllowed by an article on the Geology of Cumberland and 
Westmoreland, witli paiiicular reference to the District of the English Lakes, from the pen 
of the Rev. J. G. Gumming, M.A., F.G.S., Professor of Geology in the Queen's College, 
Bii'miugham. From jNIr. Cummiug's repeated suiTeys of these distiicts, and his intimate 
knowledge of their various sti-ata, he has been able to make many interesting additions to this 
department of science, and the publishers have no doubt tliat the Work, with its accompanying 
Geological Map, will contain a more accm-ate account of the Geology of the two Comities than 
any that has as yet issued from the press. The eminent authoress, Harriet Mai-tineau, has also 
contributed an article on the Lake District, which gives an interesting description of the past 
and present state of tliat " Switzerland in Miniatm-e," its folk-lore, customs, and superstitions. 


GS5 319 • • 


The Topogrnpliy embraces ii full account, under tlicir respective Wards, of the City and 
Diocese of Carlisle, and all the baronies, manors, boroughs, towns, ports, parishes, chapelries, 
townships, villages, and hamlets, in the two Counties, clearly showing their boundaries, area, 
rateable value, population, landowners, seats and pedigrees of the families of the nobility and 
gentry, succession of incumbents, nature and value of church livings, tithes and their commutation, 
description of chmxhcs, chapels, and public buildings, endowed and other schools, hospitals, 
charities, benevolent, literary, and scientific institutions, poor-law unions, courts of law, manufactures, 
mai'kets and fairs, and a variety of statistical and other information, extracted from MSS. in tlie 
British Museum, Paiiiamentary documents, and other authentic sources. 

Generally speaking, in tlie manorial history, the Author has taken Nicolson and Burn's accomit 
as the foundation of his own, correcting their statements, and continuing the history, whenever his 
own researches, and the kindness of the literary and official gentlemen of the two Counties have 
enabled him to do so. Many new features have been introduced in the Work, which it is hoped 
is unique of its kind. Attention is also called to its arrangement, which will, in a very great 
desi-ee, facilitate reference, and thus increase its usefulness. 

With all the care which can be given to the subject, it is next to impossible that such a 
^Vork can be without errors ; and tlie fact, that tilings are always changing, will explain why, 
before the book was finished, many things had ceased to be as they were when it began. The 
Publishers have always solicited from their Subscribers, who were constantly on the spot, the 
favour of a correction of such errors; and by the aid thus rendered, with what they themselves 
have been able to collect, they have endeavoured, as far as they could, to supply all such 
deficiencies by a brief Appendix. 

In conclusion, the Publishers beg leave to express their best thanks to the nobility, gentry, 
and clergy, and their numerous subscribers generally, for the mimificient manner in which they 
have patronised the Work, and tlie valuable assistance they have rendered during its preparation. 
The aid, tlius kindly given, has been of the greatest importance, and will, there is little doubt, 
tend to give the Work a standard character, and make it an authority upon everything connected 
with the History, Antiiiuities, and Topography of the two Comities. 

PoNTEi'-KACx, Fchruarij, 1860. 



m Eiiir 



The result of tbo rcsearclies of modern antiquaries and 
ethnologists seems to be that the British islands, wlicn 
they were first known to the Romans, were inhabited by 
numerous tribes, which were by no means all of the 
same race. The question of what may have been the 
original stock can now only be a subject of conjecture 
and speculation, but it is not improbable that it is 
represented by the Celts of Ireland and the northern 
Gael. Tiie most powerful of these tribes, both in re- 
gard to its numbers aud to the extent of its territory, 
was that of tlic Brigantes, who held tlie whole territory 
extending from sea to sea, liaving for its southern limits 
the Mersey and the Humber, and stretching northwards 
to the district now called Northumberland, which was 
held by a tribe called the Ottadcni, and to the lowlands 
of Scotland. Two divisions, apparently, of the stock of 
the Brigiintcs, the Voluutii and the Sistuntii, occupied 
the western part of this extensive territory, the former 
holding the. southern lake district, and a great part of 
modern Lancashire, and the latter the country extend- 
ing from the lake district to the sea coast and the Scot- 
tish border. It is remarkable, tliat the same tribes are 
found under the same names, Brigantes, Voluntii, Ac. 
occupying territories in the opposite island of Ilibornia 
(Ireland) ; and, according to diiTercnt ethiuilogioal 
theories, they had cither come from Ireland into Bri- 
tain, or had gone from Britain into Ireland. From 
what we know of the general current of migration of the 
western races, the latter was probably the case. The 
language of the Brigantes has long disappeared frovn 
Eaglaud, but the same reasons for its early disappearance 

in Ireland never existed, and had the Irish Brigantes 
aud kindred tribes belonged to that branch of the Celtic 
race which is known by the name of Cymric, we can 
hardly doubt that we should have found some traces of it 
in the Celticdialectsof modern Ireland. It appears to mc 
that probability at least is in favour of the Brigantes 
being Gaels and not Cymri. We may probably best 
form a notion of the condition and manners of the 
Brigantes when first visited by the Bomans, by com- 
paring them with those of the kingdoms of the native 
Irish in the middle ages ; and the history of Cartismau- 
dua, the Brigantian queen, presents all the characteris- 
tics of that of Dermod Mac Murrough, king of Leiuster, 
in the twelfth century. 

The dissensions among the chiefs delivered up Ire- 
land an easy conquest to the Anglo-Normans ; the 
same cause established the Roman supremacy over the 
Brigantes, apparently, as far as we know, without any 
serious struggle. A formidable revolt of this powerful 
nation was subsequently suppressed by the two pro- 
prietors, Petilius Cerealis and his successor Julius Fron- 
tinus, and the limits of the Roman power were carried 
to the borders of the Calcdouiansr The north-western 
extremity of the Brigantes, the districts bordering upon 
the Irish sea and the Solway Frith, became now of 
surpassing importmce to the Roman government, as 
being the point more especially exposed to attack from 
the Caledonians and .other northern tribes, as well as 
from Hibernian pirates. This was more especially 
the case when the Emperor Hadrian had raised that 
marvellous wall, of which the remains are still an object 


of admiration to the antiquary, for I cannot suppose 
that anybody, after reading tlic excellent work of Dr. 
Bruce, on " The Roman Wall," can doubt for a mo- 
ment, that that great monument of Roman skill and 
perseverance \Yas the work of Hadrian, and not, as had 
previously been supposed, of Severus. This country 
was soon, therefore, covered with Roman towns, sta- 
tions, and roads. Ptolemy, who is generally considered 
as having published his geographical work about the 
year J 20 of our era, appears not to have known of the 
existence of any town within this district, although he 
names several in the lowlands of Scotland. But, just 
about dOO years after this date, the Itinerary of Anto- 
ninus gives us the names of a number of Roman towns 
and stations situated upon two lines of road. The prin- 
cipal town of this district was certainly Luguvallium, 
or Luguballium, represented by the modem Carlisle, 
which is stated in Richard of Cirencester, perhaps cor- 
rectly, to have been one of the civitates Lalhijwc donala-, 
or cities under the Latian law. Luguballium stood upon 
the wall of Hadrian, and upon the branch of the great 
northern road which here passed the wall in its way 
towards the northern limit of the Roman province. 
According to the Itinerary of Antoninus, this road, 
after leaving Lavatrce, or Bowes, in Yorkshire, pro- 
ceeded to a town or station named Verter;c, which is 
identified with Brough, in Westmoreland. The next 
station on this Une was Brovonacae, at Kirby-Thore, 
near Appleby, in Westmoreland ; which was followed 
by Brocaviuvn, which there seems little reason for 
doubting occupied the site of Brougham, iu the saoie 
county. The road now passed into Cumberland, and 
proceeded to a station or town, named Voreda, the site 
of which is found at a place called Plumpton-Wall, or 
Old Penrith ; and thence to Luguvallium, or Carlisle. 
The other principal northern, or north-westeni, Roman 
road, which passed through the modern county of Lan- 
cashire, by way of Mancunium (JIauchcster), Coecium 
(Ribchester), and Bremetonacie (Overborough), directed 
its course right through the mountainous district of the 
Lakes, having towns or stations at Galacum, which is 
believed to have been situated in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Kendal • Alone, near Ambleside, at the 
head of Windermere ; Galava, at or near Keswick ; and 
Glanoventa, which appears to have been on the sea- 
coast, and has been placed at Ellenborough, but the exact 
site of it is very doubtful. The road we have been fol- 
lowing here joined another road, which appears to have 
run round by the coast to Luguballium. Muncaster, 
or Mulcaster, almost at the southern extremity of the 
coast of Cumberland, the name of which seems to pro- 
claim it a Roman station, appears to have stood on this 

road ; as did Moresby, near ^Vhitchaven, which is iden- 
tified by inscriptions found on the site with the ilorbium 
of the Notitia, a place occupied by the cavalry called 
equitcs cataphractarU. Wo have the remains of other 
stations in Papcastle, near Cockermouth, and near 
Maryport, which may have been respectively the 
Arbeia of the Notitia, which was occupied by a detach- 
ment of Barcarii Tigrisienscn, and the Glanoventa 
of the Itinerary. From the latter place one road pro- 
ceeded along the coast to the termination of the Wall 
of Hadrian at Bomiess, while another turned off in a 
north-easterly direction to the important town and 
citadel which occupied the site of what is now called 
Old Carhsle and is generally believed to be the 
Olenacum of the Notitia, and was continued thence 
to Luguballium. 

It is from the important record just mentioned, the 
Notitia Imperii, composed just before the fall of the 
Roman power in Britain — for it is ascribed to about 
the year '110 — that we obtain a list of the towns and 
stations along Hadrian's Wall, which crossed the island 
at what has been termed the lower isthmus, resting 
one end upon the w-cstern coast at Bowness, and the 
other on tlie Tyno at the well-known spot named from 
it Wallseud.* The eastern portion of this marvellous 
barrier, running over wild and desolate districts, where 
it has been little disturbed by the process of cultiva- 
tion, presents far more imposing remains than the 
western part, and every station and post mentioned in 
the Notitia is identified without any ditfioidty. Im- 
mediately after crossing the border of Cumberland 
from Noi'thumberland, we meet with one of the most 
remarkable and interesting of these ruins of the mural 
towns, at a place now called Birdoswald. Besides con- 
siderable remains of the walls of this place, which still 
remain standing, between thirty and forty inscribed 
stones have been found Vi'ithiu the area, of which no 
less than seventeen commemorate the first cohort of 
the Dacians. As we know from the Notitia that these 
Ducians held the station of Amboglanna on the wall, 
which must have been somewhere in this neighbour- 
hood, we can have no hesitation in identifying that 
sfcition with Birdoswald. After this place, however, it 
becomes very difficult to identify the stations, but 
Castlesteads, or, as it is also called, Cambeek Fort, 
appears to be sufficiently well established as the repre- 
sentative of the Petriaua of the Notitia. Watch-cross, 
near Bleatarn, is supposed to be the site of Aballaba, 

1 Tlic riomim Willi, an Historical and Topographical Description 
of the Barrier of the Lower Isthmus, extending from the Tyne to 
the Solway, deduced fiom numerous personal surveys, by the Key. 
John Collingwood Bruce. 8vo, London, 1803. 


which, was garrisoned by a detachment of Moors. 
There was evideutly another station at Stanwix, and 
another at Burgh-upon-Sands, which, perhaps, repre- 
sent the Congavata and AxeloJunum of the Notitia, 
which were occupied respectively by the second cohort 
of the Lergi and by the first cohort of Spaniards. The 
remains of other stations occur at Drumburgh and at 
Eownoss, but whether cither of these be the Ga- 
brosentum or the Tunnocelum of the Notitia is 
very uncertain. In the immediate neighbourhood of 
the Cumbrian portion of the wall are remains of other 
stations and towns, some of which were evidently 
places of importance. Such are Eewcastle, to the 
north of the wall ; ~\Vhitley Castle, a little to the south 
of it and just within the borders of Northumberland ; 
Old Town ; Brampton ; and Xetherby. Whitley Cas- 
tle and Brampton are supposed to have been the 
Aliona and Bremetenracum of the Notitia, and Neth- 
erby the Castra Exploratorum of the Itinerary of Anto- 
ninus. Others, however, believe that the Aliona and 
Bremetenracum of the Notitia are identical with the 
Alone and Brcmetonaca; of the Itinerary ; and the 
present rector of Bewcastle, Rev. J. JNIaughan, a 
diligent investigator of the antiquities of his neigh- 
bourhood, assuming this, suggests that Bewcastle 
itself is the Galava of Antoninus, and Castletou, in 
Iloxburghshire, the station of Glanoventa.' 

This must be taken as a very imperfect list of the 
Roman towns and stations in the district represented 
by the modern counties of Cumberland and Westmore- 
land. It contains, in fact, only the places which lay 
upon two of the great lines of roads which entered 
into the official itineraries, and the principal mili- 
tary posts existing at the time of the Notitia. This 
last-mentioned record enumerates in this part of the 
island another place, bearing the name of Virosidum, 
which is behaved to have stood on the coast of Cum- 
berland. That curious relic of antiquity known as the 
liudgo Cup, on which were inscribed the names of 

1 A Memoir on the Roman Station auil Runic Cross at Bewcastle. 
By the Rev. .lohn Ataiighau. 8vi>, Carlish', l^.')". Of course this 
suggestion woulil carry the tenth Iter of Antoninus, in which tlicse 
places occiu, quite out of the Une which is usually given to it, and 
identify it with the Roman roaj called the Maiden Way. Mr. 
Mau^han adduces in favour of his suggestion the rather curious 
circumstance that tlio valley in which Bewcastle stands lias till very 
rcocnllj been known by the name of Watyepva, which he supposes 
to be a corruption of Galava. Nothing, however, is more daugen>us 
than to found argumeiils npon similarity of sounds in names like 
these, and 1 hesitate in changuig the direction hitlicrto given to this 
Iter until we have some more decisive evidence on one side or on 
tlie other. Ilorsiey has conjectured, on what grounds I am ([uitc 
ignorant, unless it be because Bewcastle would signifv in Anglo- 
Saxon " tlie bee castle," that that place was cidlod by the Rouiuus 

several stations on this part of the wall, enumerates 
two, Mais and Banna, which are not mentioned else- 
where. Mais has been conjectured, however, to be the 
ilagua of the Notitia (Carvoran), and Horsley believed 
Banna to be Bewcastlc- 

Of the Roman roads which traversed this part of 
Britain, the principal line appears to have been that 
of the second and fifth Iters of Antoninus, which 
formed a branch of the great northern road known to 
the Anglo-Saxons as the Watling-strect, which it left at 
Eburacum (York J, proceeding thence to Carlisle, and 
so on to the stations on the borders of the Caledonians. 
This road is in some parts very distinct, and has been 
found to be no less than twenty-one feet broad. The 
other line of road described by the compiler of the Itin- 
erary, which occupies the tenth Iter, has hitherto been 
considered as proceeding from Lancashire through the 
lake district to the sea, and there can be no doubt 
that a road did run in that direction, and that there 
are remains of stations, as at Kendal, Ambleside, 
and Keswick, which may answer to those in the 
Itinerary, while traces of cross roads are met with 
in all parts of that district. Any person who has 
travelled between Ambleside and Keswick must have 
been struck by the bold appearo.uce, as it is seen at a 
distance, of the Roman road up the steep side of the 
mountain called from it High-street. Another very 
remarkable Roman road left the great road first men- 
tioned in our enumeration, at Brovonaca;, or Kirby 
There, passed Hadrian's Wall at Amboglauna, or 
Birdoswald, and directed its course by the Roman 
stations at Bewcastle and Castletou to the north, and 
received from the Anglo-Saxons the perhaps mythic 
name of the Slaiden Way. The course of this road to the 
north of the wall has been carefully and ably investigated 
by the Rev. John Maughan, of Bewcastle, who commu- 
nicated an excellent survey of it to the Archasological 
Institute.' A Roman road ran, as I have already stated, 

* A Roman altar, found at Birdoswald, was de(Ucated to the god 
Silvanus, by the himters of Banna (deos.incto silvaxo vEXAronES 
IIAN.VE s. 3.) so that Banna probably stood in lliat neighbomhood, 
and Horsley's conjecture may be right. It Is not uidikely that this 
Riidge Cup mentioned above belonged to these sjime ** hunters of 
Banini," perhaps a society or club formed from llie stations of Alois 
( Magna), .\ballaba, Axelodunuin,.\mboglanna,and Bann.t.ibe niunes 
inscribed iu tliis order upon it, of wliieh Banna (if it were liewcastle) 
would be the most advanced station towiu'ds the wild hunting district, 
and Amboglimna ( llirdo.nwald ) the one of these stations nearest to it, 
and of most importiiuce, w here we might expect to liud such ou altar 
erected by them. 

' Printed ui the Archiuological Jouniol, Vol. XI. The meaning of 
tlie name M aiden Way has been the subject of all sorts of conjectures 
among writers who will have it to be a corruption front the Celtic: 
and 1 take the opportunity of dei)reeating the practice which has pre- 
vailed so much of rejeoling the plain meaiiuig of English names in 
order to substitute that oi some far-fetched deiivotiou, from supposed 


along the coast, aud another accompanied the wall across 
the island. Many roads of less importance may be traced 
branching of from dilTerent stations on these larger lines, 
which must have foiTaed a complete net-work over this 
part of the island. 

As might be supposed from this description of the 
bolder monuments of Roman occupation, this district 
has furnished abundance of antiquities of every descrip- 
tion. Tlie roads are, as in other parts, accompanied with 
earthworks of various forms, which have served as 
camps, or as inclosurcs of residences, or for otlier pur- 
poses, mauy of which, without much apparent reason. 
Lave been pronounced to be British. The mountains 
of Cumberland aud Westmoreland are celebrated for the 
number of those monuments of a remote antiquity, which 
have been commonly called Druidical circles, but the real 
origin aud date of which are absolutely unknown. A 
solitary cromlech is also scattered here aud there over 
the hills, and sepulchral tumuli, or barrows, are abundant 
almost everywhere. To return from the monuments of 
uncertain date to those with the history of which we are 
Letter acquainted, the sites of Roman towns aud stations, 
■which in this part of the country are usually distin- 
guished by the name of Birrens, no doubt from the 
Sa.'con iurh, have furnished an e.Ktraordinary quantity 
of sculptures and inscribed stones. Upwards of a hun- 
dred and fifty of the latter arc given by Lysons and 
Horsley as found in Cumberland, to which we might add 
many found since their time, and a considerable number 
have been found in Westmoreland. A large proportion 
of these consist of altars, dedicated either to the known 
gods of ancient Rome, or, more numerously, to local 
deities, generally of the localities, in Germany, Gaul, 
&c., from which the colonists of these towns in Britain 
came. Another very numerous class consists of sepul- 
chral monuments, commemorating sometimes the mili- 
tary—officers aud soldiers — but more frequently their 
wives or children, aud often presenting touching traits 
of domestic affection. Some of these inscribed stones 
are tablets, which have no doubt been jjlaced on the 
walls of temples and other public buildings, declaring 
the reverence of the local authorities aud people for the 

Celtic or oibcr touj^ie, of whicb tbey nrepreteudetl to be eormptions. 
Tbe road of wbich we are now speaking is translated into Latin in 
early Border records by via puellarum, and tbereis a story among tbe 
peasantry of tbe district tbrongb wbich it runs, tbat it was made by 
women carrying tbe stones in tbeir aprons. I have no doubt llmt 
this is tbe degraded representative of some early mythic legend of 
tbe .\nglo-Saxons connected with this road aud with its name. We 
know tliat it was tbe constant practice of the Saxons to give mythic 
names of this kind to monuments of former times, which were extra- 
ordinary by their greatness or by some other characteristic, aud of 
which they did not know tbe origin. We have examples in the names 
of tbe Watling-street aud the Inning-street. 

reigning emperor, or stating how much differeut detach- 
ments of the legionaries or au.\iliaries had contributed 
towards the local public works. Of the altars given 
in Lysons as found in Cumberland, no less than thirty- 
two are dedicated to Jupiter, and a considerable num- 
ber to Mars. Among the local deities, those which occur 
most numerously arc Brlutucadrus and Cocidius, both 
of which arc identified in the inscriptions with the 
Roman Mars; the worship of the former appears to have 
been brought into Cumberland by troops from the east 
established here. Both seem confined to the two coun- 
ties ; and the altare to Cocidius were dedicated severally by 
soldiers of the second, sixth, and twentieth legions, and 
by a cohort of Daciaus, so that the worship of this deity 
also may have been brought from the east. Several 
altars are dedicated to the Sun and to Mithras, which 
also point to the east. Early in the last century, an 
inscription was found in the neighbourhood of Lauercost, 
dedicated NVMrn-E brig — to the nymph of the Brigautes. 
Another altar, dedicated to the nymph of the Brigautes, 
is given by Gale as having been found in Britain ; but as 
these Roman altars are universally dedicated to foreign 
deities, I am inclined to think that the Brigantes here 
intended were one of the tribes of that name on the conti- 
nent, perhaps in Spain, and tbat these altars may have 
been dedicated by Spanish soldiers. Many of these in- 
scribed stones are of considerable historical importance; 
they give the names of emperors or of consuls, whose dates 
are known, as well as of officers commanding in the 
stations or districts, whose dates are less certain, and they 
add names to our list of the pro-pra;tors or governors of 
Britain. The sculpture of the monuments found in 
this part of Britain, though generally rather rude, is 
sometimes, when it appears to have belonged to public 
buildings, of a superior class. It would be in vain 
to attempt here to give any account of the numerous 
other classes of antiquities found upon the Roman sites 
of Cumberland aud Westmoreland. 

Beyond the names of persons commemorated on these 
stones, and the light they and the other monuments of 
antiquity throw upon the condition of the country, the 
history of this district under the Romans is almost a 
blank. As the hostilities in this province for a long 
period were conliued to the northern borders, the troops 
stationed here must have been in a constant state 
of movement and agitation, which increased as the 
attacks of what were now called the Picts of the North, 
and their allies the Gaelic Scots of Ireland, became more 
frequent and more formidable. The original population of 
the country must have beeu greatly diminished, not only 
by the ordinary causes which lead to the diminution of a 
conquered race under such circumstances, but 'because 


the Romans were very unlikely to leave in such a posi- 
tion a conquered race stroni^ enoujjh to rise an J co-operate 
with foreign invaders, ilorcover, we know that the 
process of extermination had commenced as early as 
tho middle of the second century ; for we learn from 
the contemporary writer Pausanius/ that under Anto- 
ninus Pius more than one-half of the trihe of ihe Brigantcs 
was cut off, for an act of turbulent insubordination in 
making war on another British tribe, the Geuuni. To 
these causes also we must add the continual drawintr 
away of the British youth to serve as Roman au.xiliaries 
in foreign countries, while the population of other 
countries, especially from Germany, was as continually 
imported into Britain to recruit the Roman population. 
At the same time the language of the Romans, as in 
Gaul, gradually superseded the Celtic, whatever branch 
of it may have been spoken here, and after four hundred 
years of absolute foreign rule, in the fifth century, the 
whole physiognomy of the population of. our island 
must have been entirely changed. Among the vast 
quantity of anticpiities of every description belonging 
to the Roman period dug ujj in diflereut parts of our 
island, not a letter or a scrap has been found which 
did not bespeak Romans or settlers under the Roman 
name — nothing which we can call British, in the usual 
sense given by antiquaries to that term. 

Writers of the later period of the Roman empire in 
the west state that the nmnicipal towns in BriUiin were 
remarkable for their political turbulence, which is easily 
accounted for by their distance from the imperial court 
and by their insular position. Long before the supre- 
macy which Rome claimed over them had been abandoned, 
they had been in the habit of confederating together and 
electing emperors of their own. When at length 
Honorius, in the year 41(1, advnowledgcd their freedom, 
by addressing letters to them in which he exhorted them 
to provide for their o\vn safety, he only recommended to 
them a task which they had already shown themselves 
capable of performing; for, a very slioit time before, as 
we learn from the historian Zosimus, the cities of Britain 
Lad confederated together and repulsed a fonnidable 
invasion of the Saxons. These cities, in fuct. were the 
military colonies founded by the Roman auxiliaries, who 
formed the solo soldiery, after the legions, wiioso espe- 
cial business it had been to hold the cities in obedience, 
were withdrawn. It appears from tho Xolitia, a work 
which was compiled under the reign of tliis same Hon- 
orius, that of the three legions which had been stationed 
in tlie island during the whole Roman period, the si.xth 
(from York) and the twentieth (from Chester) liad 

1 Pausau. lib. \Ui. c. 13. 

already been taken away, and that the second had been 
removed from Isca (Carleon) to Rutupia; (Richborough), 
where it was no doubt waiting for orders to embark. 
Yet, in this same record, we find the same cohort of 
Daciaus (or nominally Dacians) at Amboglanna, the 
same Moors at Aballaba, Lergi at Congavata, Spaniards 
at Axelodunum, Thracians at Gabrosentum, I\Iorini at 
Glanuibanta, and Nervii at Ahona and Virosidum, and 
the same troops iu occupation of Olenacum, Bremeten- 
racum, and Tunnocelum, as had been settled there at 
the first colonisation of this district by the Romans. I 
have used the word nommally to intimate that these 
different bodies were not necessarily composed at that 
time of people from the countries after which they were 
officially named, because it had long become the custom 
to recruit them from any foreign country, and probably 
mostly from Germany, which was the great source from 
whence the Romans of the lower empire obtained their 
soldiers for the armies in the west. When they had 
once been left to confederate against the foreigner, the 
towns soon began to form rival confederacies among 
themselves, and later traditions, as well as the slight 
allusions of contemporaries, show them to us engaged 
in fierce domestic quan'els, in which one party or the 
other called in the assistance of those very Saxons, 
Picts, and Scots, whom their real interests required 
them to keep far away from their shores. We have no 
means of ascertaining what part the towns of the dis- 
trict, now represented by Cumberland and Westmoreland, 
acted iu these troubles, but it is evident that it was 
exposed to an overwhelming invasion of foreigners, no 
doubt Picts from Scotland and Scots from Ireland, who 
overran the whole country, ruined everywhere the monu- 
ments of Roman civilisation, and overthrew tho altars, 
not, as the book ascribed to Gildas pretends, of the 
Christian churches, but of unmistakable Roman and 
otlier paganism. It is a curious circumstance, that at 
I'lumpton AVall, believed to be the Roman Voreda, five 
altars were fiund in tho year 1813, bearing severally 
figures of Jupiter, Apollo, Mars, Mercury, and Venus, 
to whom they were no doubt to be dedicated ; but they 
were in an unfinished state, as though they had been in 
the process of making at the moment when the decisive 
eruption of the barbarians occurred. Of its destructive 
etTects, every Roman station that has been examined 
affords conclusive evidence. Thus, at the site nearMarj-- 
port which is supposed to have been the Roman Glauo- 
venta, when the Senhouse family, the proprietors of the 
ground, caused it to be excavated in 1700, "they found 
the arch of the gate beat violently down and broken ; and, 
on entering the great street, discovered evident marks 
of the houses having been more than once burnt to the 


ground and rebuilt, an event not unlikely to have hap- 
pened on so exposed a frontier. The streets had been 
paved with broad flag-stones, much worn by use, particu- 
larly the steps into a vaulted room, supposed to have 
been a temple. The houses had been roofed by Scotch 
slates, which, with the pegs that fastened them, lay 
confusedly in the streets. Glass vessels, and even 
mirrors, were found ; and coals had evidently been used 
in the fire-places. Foundations of biiiUliugs were round 
the fort on all sides, and coins and urns in great num- 
bers. These, with the three roads known to have 
pointed towards tlie station, pi"0Te it to have been a large 
and populous town."' 

We know nothing of the condition of this district 
between the period at which these ravages took place 
and the seventh century. There are good reasons for 
believing that, contrary to the received chronology of 
the Anglo-Saxon chronicles, the Angles had established 
themselves in the north of Britjiu before the invasions 
of the Saxons in the south, and they seem very soon to 
have extended their influence across the island to the 
western coast. There is no apparent reason for doubting 
that they found a population there which was at least 
partly Celtic, perhaps foreign, aud which, apparently 
weak in itself, seems to have been usually in alliance 
v\-ith the Britons, as they are termed, of the western 
lowlands of Scotland. Ecgfrid, lung of the Northum- 
brian Angles, must have been master of Cumberland 
and Westmoreland before the year 6S4, when he sent 
a hostile expedition to Ireland. He gave the city of 
Luguballium, or, as it was called during the later 
Roman period, Lugubaha, that is, the king's rights and 
revenues in it, to the church of Liudisfarne. In his 
rash expedition against the Picts in the year 685, when 
Ecgfrid perished in the disastrous battle of Nechtans- 
mere, or Drumnechtan, he left his queen at Lugubalia, 
in a convent of nuns, which had been founded in that 
city, and of which the queen's sister was abbess. It 
was there that she was nsited by St. Cuthbert, who was 
then Bishop of Lindisfarne, and therefore superior lord 
over the city. It is evident, from Bede's account of this 
visit, that the citizens of Lugubalia still knew their 
town only by its old Roman name, and it is more than 
probable that they had continued from the Boman period 
to hold possession of it and defend it successfully against 
the attacks of the invaders, for they led him about it to 
point out to him with pride the beauty of their town walls 
and public buildmgs, especially glorying in a fountain, 
or conduit, of marvellous workmanship, built by the 
ancient Romans. Bede tells us that it was the Angles, 

1 Lysons, Cumberland, p. cxlU. 

his own countrymen, who had corrupted the Roman 
name into Luel, which appears to have been adopted 
also by the Celtic population of the county, who pre- 
fixed the name by which they were accustomed to 
designate the Roman fortresses, caer, or car (itom. the 
Roman castrum), and hence was formed the modem 
name of Caerluel, or Carlisle. ° 

For at least two centuries after this period, we have 
as little exact information relating to the history of this 
portion of the territory of the Brigantes as during the 
several centuries preceding it. Under the Anglo-Saxons, 
however, it had been divided into two parts, perhaps ia 
consequence of their marking two succes.sive advances in 
the tide of conquest, and these were known to the Anglo- 
Saxons by the distinctive appMlatious of Cumbraland, 
and Westmoringa-land, or, as the latter was subsequently 
written, West-mora-land, or West-mera-land. These 
words, which we meet with first in the Anglo-Saxon 
chronicle about the middle of the tenth century, had 
plain and simple meanings in the Anglo-Saxon language, 
the first signifying the land of valleys," the second, 
according as we read it, Westmora, or Westmera, the 
western land of moors or the western land of lakes. It 
is hardly necessary to say that this is the origin of the 
modern names of the two counties. In 875, according 
to the Anglo-Saxon chronicle, the Danish chieftain 
Halfdene established his winter quarters on the banks 
of the river Tyne, and over-ran the Northumbrian 
kintrdom, carrvin" his ravages even into the territories 
of the Picts and of the Strathclyde Britons. In the 
year following, Halfdene distributed the lands of the 
Northumbrians among his own Danish followers, who 
proceeded at once to take possession of them, and, in 
the words of the authority just quoted, "they thence- 
forth continued ploughing and tilling them." It was a 

- The passage of Bede is so curious Ibat it desrrves to be given 
here in tlie origiual language. — Igitur dum EcgfriiUis rex ausu tcnie- 
rario esercilum iu Pielos (Uicerat, .... \ir Domini Cuthbertus 
. . . . venit ad Lugnbaliani civitatem, qnse populis Augloi-um 
domipte liUcl Tocatur, ut alloquerctur nigiuani, qu£E ibidem in 
uiouaslprio siis sororis eventuni belli expectare disposuit Posters 
nutem die dcducentibus euni civibus ut vidcrct moenia civitatis fou- 
tenique iu ea miro quondam Komanorum opere exstructum, repente 
turbatus spiiniu, ut stubat super baculum, etc. Bcdw Vita 8. Cuth- 
bcrli, cap. I'xvii. 

2 Tlie derivation of Westmorelaud can hardly be disputed : and 
that of Cumberland seems equally naturid. Both are correctly de- 
scriptive of the countries to which they apply. Antiquaries have 
supposed, however, that the latter country received its name from its 
early inhabitants, who had been called Ciimbrij which a little imagi- 
nation identified with Ct/mry, although I cannot think that there is 
any reason for believing that the original British jiopulaliou of this 
district were of the Cymric race. I am not aware that the Latin word 
Cumbri, for the inliabitants of Cmnberland, is found at any period 
earlier than that at which it may be merely a Latinized form of the 
Anglo-Saxon name. 


memorable year for its influence on the future fate of 
our country, for, according to the same chronicle, it was 
that in which KoUo established in Normandy the dynasty 
which was to proilucc William the Conqueror. 

The Scottish chroniclers of a later period, anxious to 
estabhsh a supposed claim of the Scottish Icings to 
the border counties, in\-ented apparently, a history 
of it during the period following this Danish conquest, 
no part of which is deserving of any credit, while its 
more prominent incidents are evidently absurd. It is 
pretended that Gregory, a king whose accession to the 
Scottish throne these chroniclers place in 876 — the 
eame in which Ilalfdene completed his conquest — im- 
mediately assisted " the Britons " in driving the Danes 
out of the kingdom of Northumbria ; that the Britons 
subsequently quarrelled with their allies, invaded Scot- 
land, and experienced a disastrous defeat; and that the 
residt of this was that these Britons agreed to a peace, 
by which they ceded Cumberland and Westmoreland to 
the Scots, and, withdrawing entirely from those counties, 
retired into Wales. Gregory, we are told, held an as- 
sembly of Ids nobles at Carlisle about the year 880. 
Cumberland remaining, according to this account, in 
the possession of the Scots, their king, Constautine, in 
910, granted it to I'aigenius, the presumptive heir to 
the throne, and ordered that thenceforward the earldom 
of Cumberland should always be the appanage of the 
heir apparent of Scotland. After the celebrated battle 
of Brunanburgh, King Athelstan took possession of 
Cumberland and Westmoreland, but his successor 
Edmund restored it to the King of Scotland, and it 
was agreed by treaty, that the heir apparent of Scot- 
land should possess Cumberland as before, on condition 
of performing homage for it to the King of England. 
It is added that soon after this the Cumbrians rebelled, 
and a man named Dunmaile for their king, upon 
which, in the year 945, King Edmund led an army 
thither, laid waste and con(iuered the country, and, 
having deprived the two sons of Dunmaile of their eyes, 
restored Cumberland to Iving Malcolm by a new treaty 
of alliance. 

We have more substantial grounds for believing that 
this part of the island remained in the possession of the 
Danes until tin; reign of Edward the Elder, to whom, 
according to tlie Jinglisli chroniclers, it submitted and 
remained subject to the Anglo-Saxon crown under his 
successor Athelstan. In 9.15, the Danes of Cumberland 
appear to have rebelled, and, according to the An'do- 
Saxon chronicle, King Ednuuul, who had conquered 
Northumberland in the preceding year, "ravaged all 
Cuml)erland, and granted it all to Malcolm, king of the 
Scots, on tho condition that he should bo his ally as 

well by sea as by land." But the Danes of the north 
appear to have continued more or less in a state of tur- 
bulent independence during the remainder of the tenth 
century. In 900, as we learn from the Anglo-Saxon 
chronicle, they ravaged Westmoreland under a chief 
named Thored, the son of Gunner. According to another 
historian of good authority, Henry of Huntingdon, the 
Danes, whose chief strength at this time lay in Cumber- 
land, became again troublesome, and provoked King 
Ethelred to such a degree, that he marched into that 
county in great anger, " and ravaged it well-nigh all." 
He seems to have followed the old policy of giving 
Cumberland in the light of what at a later period would 
be caUed a lief, to a Scottish prince, ILdcolm, son of King 
Kenneth, in order that the Scots might have an interest 
in defending the northern frontier against the Danish 
invasions. We are told that this same ilidoolm, after 
he had succeeded to the throne of Scotland, defeated, at 
Burgh-upon-Sands, Uchtred, earl of Northumberland, 
who had invaded Cumberland in combination with the 
Danes, probably from Ireland. During the whole period 
of the Daui.sli kings of England, Cumberland appears 
to have remained more or less as a dependency of Scot- 
land, but after the accession of Edward the Confessor, 
the Anglo-Saxon crown asserted its superior right, and 
Edward gave it, with the other northern counties, in 
1053, to the well-known Siward, earl of Northumberland. 
Tlie Scots, however, had regained possession of Cum- 
berland at the beginning of the reign of William the 
Conqueror, and held it in the year 1070, when a war 
broke out between the two countries, in the sequel of 
which it was conquered from the Scots, and the eaildom 
was given to llanulph do Meschines, the ancestor of the 
carls of Chester. \\'illiam took tho earldom of Cum- 
berland into his own hands in 107:2, and gave Bauulph 
the earldom of Chester in exchange for it. 

The county of Cumberland has preserved a very 
interesting class of monuments of Anglo-Saxon times 
in its ancient crosses, iuscribcd usually in Anglo-Sa.xon 
runes. The earliest of these is preserved in the church- 
yard of Bockermet, two miles from Egremont. It is, 
in its present state, a cyhndrical column, bevelled to a 
square near the top, and on one of the bevels may be 
traced an inscription in runes, liko all these early 
inscriptions, in veree, and commemorating, as it has 
been read and translated by the Rev. Daniel H. Haigh, 
of Erdington,' Tuda, bishop of tho Northumbrians, who 
perislii'd in tho terrible pestilence which ravaged the 
whole island in the year 004. The inscription mentions 

' 111 a pnpor on "The Snxon Cross nt Bewcnstle," publisheil in 
llii< tmnsnclious uf llio Society of Auliqiiarirs of Nevcastlc-upon- 


the pestilence, ami is doubly valuable as iJentifyiiig 
Beckermet a5 the site, hitlierto unknown, of the early 
monastery of PtegnaliBch, where Bede says that Bishop 
Tuda was buried " honourably." A cross of very similar 
character, but without inscription, is preserved iu the 
churchyard of the neighbouring parish of Gosforth. A 
better known monument of this description, of the same 
antiquity, and more important for its size, the object 
of its inscription, and its profuse sculpture, is preserved, 
though much mutilated, at Bewcastle. The Bewcastle 
inscription has been diflferently read and interpreted by 
Mr. Haigh and Jlr. !Maughau ;' according to both, it 
commemorates Alcfrid, king of Northumberland, who 
died, like Tuda, in the year of the great plague, C04. 
Other crosses, of very early character, are found at Jlun- 
castcr, Dearham, RocklitTe, and Irton. In the church of 
Bridekirk, near Cockermouth, there is a Saxon font, 
remarkable for its profuse and rather highly finished 
sculpture, among which we perceive a figure, not ill 
executed, of the sculptor himself at his work. His 
nama is given in a runic inscription, which is read 
without diliiculty as follows : 

Eicnrd he me iwrocte, 

And to dis mertli genir me brocte; 

Wliich may be interpreted, " Richard he me wrought, 
and to this beauty carefully me brought." From the 
language, it is probable that this font belongs to the 
first half of the twelfth century. While on this subject, 
it is but right to state that the most remarkable of all 
the crosses with runic inscriptions yet discovered in this 
island is preserved close upon the limits of Cumberland, 
on the other side of the Scottish border, at Ruth well iu 
Dumfriesshire, and is .said to have formerly stood at a 
place iu that neighbourhood called Priestwoodside, so 
that it may fairly be considered as belonging to this 
class of Cumbrian antiquities. The Ruthwell runic 
inscription has been long known, and has puzzled many 
of the northern antiquaries ; it was first properly ex- 
plained by Mr. Kemble, who found that it consisted of 
fragments of a poem iu the Northumbrian dialect of 
Anglo-Saxon on the Holy Cross, a poem which, curi- 
ously enough, is still preserved in manuscript in the 
West-Saxon dialect. 

There is another class of local antiquities which mark 
the passage of different races over the soil — the names of 
places and the dialect of the modern inhabitants. 
Generally speaking, the first rude inhabitants of a 
country may be supposed to have given distinctive 
names oul}- to the bolder landmarks, such as moun- 

^ A Memoir on the Roman station and Runic cross at Bewcastle, 
by the Rev. Jolm Maugban. 8\o. 1857. 

tains and rivers, and the more striking natural features, 
and such alone are those in England which still bear 
evidence of a Celtic derivation. When the Romans 
settled here they appear to have found nothing which 
answered to their notions of towns, and they, therefore, 
gave their own names to the towns and stations which 
they established here. Some confusion has arisen on 
the subject of the names of the Roman towns in Britain, 
from the circumstance that each was founded by a 
detachment of the troops in the service of Rome, and 
that these, derived often from widely different countries, 
imported hither names of towns or villages in the 
country from which they came, just as the English 
colonists of North America have, at a later period, 
planted there the names of pkces which were familiar 
to them in their ancient homes. Hence we find names 
of places in this island, under the Romans, which recur 
in the ancient geography of Gaul, Spain, and other 
countries. The Teutonic invaders were peoples not 
accustomed to towns, and when they began to settle 
they shared the land among themselves, and seem to 
have accepted as they found them the towns which had 
not been destroyed iu the fury of invasion. The towns 
which thus remained no doubt retained the names by 
which they were known under the Romans, whatever 
may have been the origin of them ; and we still trace 
them in most of the modern names of the same places 
with such modifications as might naturally be expected. 
But the Angle and Saxon settlors, bringing Avith them 
a language of their own, which was entirely difl'ereut 
from that which existed amongst the peasantry who 
jireoeded them, gave names taken from their own 
language to each allotment of land, to the family resi- 
dences they built on them, to the farms and inclosures, 
and to all the miuor objects, while they almost naturally 
took the names of the greater and more striking features 
of the country, such as the mountains and rivers, from 
the older inhabitants. This is exactly the case in the 
English colonies in North America, and was the origin 
of the modern nomenclature of local names in Old 
England also. It seems to be generally agreed by 
those who have most carefully investigated the subject, 
that the number of names taken from the Celtic, found 
in Cumberland and Westmoreland, is comparatively 
small. The Roman towns in these two counties seem 
to have been almost all destroyed in the earlier in- 
vasions, and Carhsle is the only one of them of which 
the name exists, though almost concealed, in that by 
which it is still known. The great mass of the local names 
are here, as in other parts of England, undoubtedly 
Anglo-Saxon. But stiU we trace among them a mixture 
of names, presenting peculiarities of fonn, which are not 


found in the southern parts of England, and which 
seems to indicate the presence of other settlers. Some 
of these we can hardl}' doubt were introduced by the 
Danish invaders. 

These, and some other peculiarities found here and 
in other parts of England, have been made the ground- 
work for theories relating to the influence upon our 
country of the Danish and Scandinavian invasions, 
which I believe are carried very much too far, in conse- 
quence of generalising rashly individual facts which 
have often been misunderstood and exaggerated, and 
upon assumed facts which are really nothing but mis- 
taltes.' The exaggeration of this theory of the influence 
of the Northmen, as far as names and language are con- 
cerned, rests upon one great ground of fallacy, which 
may be explained by an illustration. A few years ago, 
a very talented literary contemporary amused himself 
and his readers by translating some of the host of 
^Moore's melodies into Latin, and Greek, and French, 
and then presenting these as the originals from which 
Jloore copied ; and at least one of our respectable 
journals took the matter seriously, and believed that 
the Irish bard had been convicted of discreditable pla- 
giarism. In this same manner, though not intention- 
ally, the supporters of the Danish theory just alluded 
to translate the Anglo-Sa.xou names into Danish and 
Korse, and then they turn round and compare them, not 
as they should at the least do, with the language of the 
Angles, but with the Saxon of Wessex, which was no 
doubt the least like the Danish, or Norse, of any of the 
Teutonic dialects imported into this kingdom. We are 
to a certain degree acijuainted with the pecidiarities of 
form of the early Northumbrian dialect, but we know 
very little comparatively of its peculiarity in words, 
except that wo have no right for assuming that any 
common words in the Danish, or in the other languages 
of the North, may not have been found in it in its 
corresponding form, and tlio general similarity in the 

1 This theory of tlio exclusive! iiinnence of the Danish invasions 
was first brnnglit 3triliin|,'ly before pnblie altenlion in the work of 
Professor Worsnac, of CopenlinRen, v.hieh wii3 Irnnshiled into 
KnRlish, under the title of "An Account of the Danes and Norwe- 
gians in I'-iifjIand, Scotland, and Ireland," London, ls:i2. I cannot 
hcdp tliinkin}; that there is rather too suong n tincture of national 
partiality in tlie spirit of Professor Worsaae's researches. His prin- 
ciples have liceii taken np with regard to Cumberland and Westmore- 
land, and argued both ingeniously and cleverly, by Mr. Hubert 
Ferguson, in a little Tolnine, entitled '• The Norlhincn in Cumber- 
land and Westmoreland," I'-imo. London and Carlisle, Is.'iil. lint, 
like most stich speculative theories, it is fontuled far ti)o nnich tipou 
sounds and rcsembluuees of words, which are in many cases merely 
apparent, and in some are nothing belter than puns. Tollnd in the 
nauieof the village of Kirkby Thore, a proof of the worship of the god 
Thor there by the Danes, or in that of Woodriggs, the trace of 
** a sacred grove,"' is at least carrying lliis descriptiou of philological 
iuveatigalivu upon very tmsafc grounds. 

languages, though acknowledged as a fact, is over- 
looked as an argument. In this way, a very large pro- 
portion of the names of places heaped together to sup- 
port this theory, have, as is not denied, their repre- 
sentatives in the Anglo-Saxon dialects, and are reallj' 
only Danish and Norse when they are translated into 
those languages. Thus, I see no reason why strand in 
composition should be considered rather to represent the 
Norse strund, than the Anglo-Saxon word which is 
literally identical with it ; or why the Norse bckr should 
be considered as the origin of the word beck, applied to 
a brook in the modern dialects of the north of England, 
rather than the Anglo-Saxon lee. It is a common case 
in the local dialects of the present day, that of two words 
equivalent, or nearly equivalent, one is more commonly 
in use in one locality, and the other word in another, 
just as heck in the north of England holds the place of 
brook in the south ; and this no doubt was similarly the 
case in the Anglo-Saxon diidects of old. For instance, 
to take one of the words which has been most frequently 
ijuoted — it appears that by, or bi/e, was, in Anglo-Saxon, 
used in the same sense as ham, though it is of rare 
occurrence iu the dialects of the south. Now, it is well 
known that, although ham in the terminations of places 
is not uncommon in the northern parts of England, yet 
those ending in by, which are very rare in the south, are 
much more prevalent. We should naturally take this 
as evidence that the Northern Angles were accustomed 
to use by in preference for what the Saxons called a ham. 
But it is tiiken for granted, I think too hastily, that all 
names ending in by arc of Danish origin, and that they 
are marks of the settlement in that locality of the Danes, 
although in perhaps the mnjority of cases the other part 
of the name is clearly Anglo-Saxon.'' 

At the same time there can be little doubt that the 
northern invaders have left traces of their presence in 
this island in some names of places, and nowhere more 
than in Cttmberland and Westmoreland. Tho/elh, the 
fords (in many cases), and the thwailes, seem certainly 
to remind us of the fjeld, the fiord, and the thvet, of 
Norway ; and there are other curious resemblances of 

a It is curions, that of two places the names of which are perfectly 
identical, aiul have been given, no doulit, from similar circumstances, 
the southern one iu Anglo Saxoii. ileora-liy (now Derby), has tlie 
termination assiuned to be Danisli, and the northern one, deorahum 
( nnrhain), has the more usual Anglo-Saxon tenninalion. It is inic 
that Derby was one of the midland tow[is held by the Danes, anil 
that it was also called iu Anglo Saxon, Norlh-weorUiige; but it is by 
no means a solitary instance of an Anglo-Saxon place having pos- 
sessed two names, one of which, and that the one least known in the 
previous period, su|>erseded llio other. Though Derby certainly 
existed before llie Donish invasion, it is honlly known in history, 
lloih words, however, deorn-b;/ and deorahum are slrictly Anglo- 
Saxon iu form. 



names in the northern districts ; but still, it ought only 
to be accepted as a conjecture, that these were derived 
from late Norse settlei-s. The truces of the Danes arc 
more evident in names of places which are formed from 
the proper names of their Danish possessors, but these, 
I think, are in most cases combined with Anglo-Saxon 
adjuncts, which show us how easily the invaders, when 
they established themselves in our island, amalgamated 
with the people they found here. In fact, there was 
this great dilference between the Danish invasions and 
the original Anglo-Saxon invasions, that the Danes were 
not under the necessity of forming fjr themselves new 
towns and villages, or even new fa'-ms, and that they 
found all localities bearing names which they understood, 
and which, therefore, they had no groat reason for 
changing. The small proportion of really foreign words 
in the dialect of the north slions us further, that the 
influence of the language of the invaders at least was 
verv limited. 

The ravages committed in these parts during the long 
and melancholy period marked by the Danish invasions, 
■were more destructive even than those of the age which 
intervened between the Romans and the Saxons. The 
early monasteries and churches had all been destroyed, 
and of some of them we can harJly discover the sites, 
while the population had been reduced to a stiite of 
wild barbarism. Even the city of Carlisle, which had 
escaped the ravages of Picts and Scots, had been 
ntterly ruined by the Danes, probably during the con- 
quest of Northumbria by Halfdene in 875, and it could 
no longer boast, as it did in the seventh century, of its 
beautiful walks and public buildings. It is said to 
have remained in ruins about two hundred years, when 
William Rufus caused it to be rebuilt and fortified, in 
the year 109'2. The few words in which the Anglo- 
Sa.xou chronicler recounts the events of this yeai', give 
us a striking idea of the state from which Cumber- 
land had nut recovered at the close of the eleventli 
century : " This year," we are told, " King William 
went northward to Carlisle with a large army, and he 
repaired the city, and built the castle, and he drove out 
DolQu, who had before governed that country : and, 
having placed a garrison in the castle, he returned to 
the south and sent a great number of English peasantry 
thither, with their wives and cattle, that they might 
settle there and cultivate the land." This Dolfin was 
the son of tile great Cospatric, earl of Northumberland, 
and he had perhaps akeady contributeif towards the 
restoration of Carlisle. During the works of restoration 
in Carlisle Cathedral, in 1S55, an inscriiJtion in Scan- 
dinavian runes was found on a stone in the west wall of 
the south transept, which was easily distinguishable 

from the ordinary mason's marks on the stones around. 
Mr. Maughan, of Bewcastlc, in a pamphlet already 
quoted, has given the following reading and interpreta- 
tion of this inscriiition : Tol/iiin hra'Ua at I'tphma this 
stain — Doltin inscribed this stone in memory of Ulfar. 
Wc learn from some of the old historians, such as Roger 
do Hoveden and Simeon of Durham, that DoUin, the 
son of Cospatric, had a son named, in their Latin, 
UlGus, who was treacherously murdered at York, in 
1004, by Tosti, son of Godwin, earl of Northumberknd. 
As this does not appear to present the characteristics of 
an older grave-stoue used in building, it is conjectured 
that Dolfin may have begun this part of the Cathedral 
of Carlisle. It must not be concealed, however, that a 
very good scholar in northern literature and antiquities. 
Dr. Charlton, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, has given, in 
a paper read before the Society of Antiquaries of this 
town, a very dilTerent reading and interpretation, which 
he considers to have been a satirical allusion to the 
mason's marks, by some one of the masons who perhaps 
despised them. According to Dr. Charlton the inscrip- 
tion is, tolj'ohnar raita tlu^hsi runor a thisi stain — twelve 
idlers cut these marks on these stones. The connection 
of Dolfin with the buildmg of Carlisle Cathedral may 
probably be considered as very doubtful ; though it 
is believed to have been commenced as a conven- 
tional church in the reign of the second William, and 
to have been completed under Henry I. In 1138, 
Athehvold, or Athelwolf, the king's confessor, under 
whose influence the building was completed, was made 
first bishop of Carlisle. At the same time, powerful 
chiefs, who were taught that their worldly errors might 
be atoned for by expending their wealth in religious 
foundations, laboured to rejmir the ruin of two centuries. 
In 1088, Ranulph de Meschines, who held large estates 
in Cumberland, and was intimately connected with the 
town of Carlisle, founded the Benedictine nunnery of 
Wetheral, of which the gate-house is now almost the 
only relic. Immediately afterwards, the king, William 
Rufus, founded another religious house for the same 
order of nuns, at Armathwaite, in the parish of Ainstaple. 
One of Ranulph's sons, William de Meschines, lord of 
Egremont, cleared the site of the ancient house of Bene- 
dictine nuns at St. Bees, which had been founded by St. 
Bega, about the year 050, and bad been entirely ruined by 
the Danes, and raised upon it a monastery of Benedictine 
monks, -which became celebrated for the miracles pre- 
tended to be performed at the shrine of the saint. 
Little beyond the conventual chinch, which is now 
that of the parish, remains of the monastic buildings of 
St. Bees. The Prismonsti'atensian abbey of Sliap, the 
only monastic abbey of any importance in Westmore- 



land, the ruins of which are still seen in a picturesque 
situation on the banks of the Lowther, was founded 
about the year 1119, by Thomas, one of the sous of 
Cospatric. In 1 138, the second Ranulph de Meschines, 
the elder brother of the founder of St. Bees, built the 
abbey of Calder, which is still represented by interesting 
ruins. A Scottish prince, who then held Cumberland in 
fee of the English crown, Henry, the sou of David I., 
founded, in 1130, the Cistercian abbey of Holme-Cul- 
train, which boasted, among its earlier monks, of the 
celebrated magician, Michael Scott. A lord of Gilsland, 
nineteen years later, built the Augustinian priory of 
Lanercost, the church of which still remains a perfect 
and beautiful example of early English architecture. 
During the period at which these monastic establish- 
ment rose, there was also a gi'eat movement in building 
churches for parishes. Mauy of the parish churches 
throughout Cumberland and Westmoreland are still 
entirely or partially Nonnan, and some of them present 
interesting examples of what the continental architects 
call the Romanesque st3'lo of architecture. In Cumber- 
laud, and especially as we approach the Scottish border 
or the coast, these earlier parish churches are so massive 
in their construction that they assume the character of 
small fortresses, and were evidently designed not only 
for religious worship, but for refuge during the inroads 
of the Scots ; and the old chroniclers have recorded 
more than one instance in which the invaders forced 
the churches, and committed the greatest barbarities in 
them. This combination of the church and the strong- 
hold is by no means confined to the earlier period, but 
is found in later buildings, as in the two very remark- 
able churches of Burgh-upon-Sands and Newton- Arlosh, 
the latter of which is kuown to have been built early 
in the fourteenth century. The same activity in church- 
building seems to have continued through the twelfth, 
and far into the thirteenth centuries; and both coun- 
tries present us with some good examples of early 
English, as well as of the Norman style of ecclesias- 
tical architecture. But good examples of decorated 
or perpendicular work are much rarer ; and from the 
thirteenth ccntun,' till the time of the lioforuuUion, 
little appears to have been done to the churches of this 
part of England beyond necessary repairs. 

The Normans liave left the marks of their footsteps 
here in their fortresses no less than in their churches. 
That of Carlisle, built by William Rufus, whoso massive 
keep still remains, may justly take the lead in the 
Norman casUcs of Cumberland. It is a curious cir- 
cumstance that the Normans seem to have experienced 
a similar dilUculty in the pronunciation of the name of 
Carlisle as iu that of Lincoln, which they pronounced 

and wrote Nicole ; and they softened the former name 
to Cardeol or Carduel. It was under this form that the 
composers of the romance-cycle of King Arthur intro- 
duced into their narratives a city which they somewhat 
arbitrarily adopted as a chief residence of their great 
British hero. " At Carduel " says the poetess Marie 
in the Lai de Lanval, " King Arthur, the brave and 
courtly, was dwelling, on account of the Scots and the 
Picts, who were committing great destruction iu the 
country." '■ 

Uuder the influence of these romances, not only the 
neighbourhood of Carlisle, but the whole of the two 
north-western counties, became in a manner classic 
ground. Arthur is represented as passing his days, 
in company with his knights of the round table and the 
ladies of his court, hunting iu the forest of Inglewood, 
and an adventure, which forms the subject of an early 
English poem, is described as having occurred on the 
banks of the Tarn Wadling, a small lake in the parish 
of Hesket, where there are still the remains of a mediaeval 
castle. From this spot, according to the story, Arthur 
proceeded to sup, sleep, and hold his court next day, in 
his hall at Plumpton, the Voreda of the Romans ; another 
instance, out of many, of the way in which the ruins 
of ancient towns and stations became ideutitied with 
mediaeval legend and fable.- On the river Eden, in West- 
moreland, iu the wild district which formed the forest of 
Mallerstang, are seen the ruins of an early castle, which 
bears the name of Pendragon Castle, and which, accord- 
ing to the legend, was built by Uther Pendragon, the 
father of King Arthur, who made it his favourite resi- 
dence. It is said that he wished to strengthen it by 
turning the course of the Eden round its walls, but that 
he was foiled in the attempt, and his supposed failure 
is commemorated in a popular local proverbial rhyme, — 

Let Ullier Pendragon ilo wliat he can, 
The river Eden will run as it ran. 

The local legend points out a spring near the castle as 

1 A Cardueill sejiima li reis, 
.\rius, li prex e li ciirieis, 
I'lir les Ksi'iia e piir les I'is, 
Qui (lestriiiseient nuilt le puis. 
Piiesies de Marie de J'raiice, ed. lioijueforl. vol /., p. 202. 
The reader must not suppose thai this fonn of iha name was 
cnnliued to the roninnees. .Ionian Faiitosnie, tlie Anglo-Nortnan 
metrical chronicler of the Scottish invasion of Cumlierlaud in 1173, 
alwiivs calls this city Cnrdiiil ; and a Latin distich un the <U'ath or 
King David, pr<'scr%cd in llic Chrouiclc of .Melrose, gives a similar 
ordiography: — I'ostipuim caslcllis reguurn munivit ct ariuis. Rex 
CardiiUlir ferlur obisse seuex. 

• The olil Kngli!«h |>oetn of "The Anturs of .\rther at the Tame 
walhelaii," has been prinleil several times, but is given most correctly 
in Robson's Three Kiiglish Metrical Uouiouccs, Uo., \^i^. (Cam- 
dcu SocietT Publication.) 



Uther's favouiitc well, luul trlls liuw the Saxons threw 
poison in it, wIul'U was tlio cause of the Jeiith of tlio 
king ami of a lunidred of his knights. To return to a 
more historic perioJ, one of the earhest of the Xormau 
castles in Cumberhmd, was doubtless that which William 
do llcschines built at Egremont, the head seat of his 
hranch of the family, and of which nothing now remains 
but the gateway-tower. The castle at Bewcastle was 
perhaps also a Norman building, or at least as old as 
the Norman period ; and there are remains of a keep 
apparently of the same period at Graystock. West- 
moreland is much more remarkable for its Norman 
castellated remains than Cumberland, probably because 
during the Norman period it formed virtually the English 
border. The massive Norman keep of Appleby Castlo 
was imagined by some of its possessors to have been 
built by the Eomans, and has been long known by the 
name of C';esar's Tower. There was probably a Norman 
fortress at Kendal, the castle of which has been supposed 
to occupy the site of a Roman fort. The present remains 
belong to a later date. The massive Norman keep of 
Brougham Castle has also been taken by some of the old 
antiquaries for Roman work, — it also stands upon the 
Roman station. Brough, or Burgh-under-Stanemore, on 
the site of the Roman Vertera, has another massive 
Norman keep, which, like that at Appleby, is known by 
the name of Cesar's Tower, and appears also to have 
heen called formerly the Roman Tower. Two reasons, 
perhaps, would lead to the establishment of the eai'lier 
castles in these positions ; first, the Roman ruins 
would probably then furnish abundant materials for the 
builder, and, secondly, they lay along the route in 
the line of the old Roman road, by which the 
Scottish invaders would advance southwardly into 

The strength of these fortresses, indeed, and the 
energy of the Enghsh government under William and 
Lis two sons, seem to have restrained the turbulence of 
the Scots for a while. It is stated by some of the early 
chroniclers, tliat the Scottish kings had accepted a com- 
position from the Conqueror and from his successor for all 
the claims they pretended to the county of Cumberland, 
and it certainly remained in the undisputed possession of 
the English crown until thereign of Stephen. The troubles 
which quicldy gathered round the throne of this monarch 
encouraged the King of Scotland, David I. to make an 
attempt to gain possession of the northern counties, 
■which he invaded in the year 1153, and, under pre- 
tence of acting in the interests of Stephen's rival. Prince 
Henry, who had been educated at his court, made him- 
self master of all the fortresses in Cumberland and 
Northumberland, with the e.\ception of Bamborough. 

It would appear from the accounts of the old chroniclers, 
which differ in some particulars, that Carlisle and New- 
castle-upon-Tyne were taken by surprise, or b}' treacher}'. 
Stephen immediately marched into the north, but his 
expedition ended only in a treaty, by which ho ceded to 
the Scottish king the city of Carlisle and eventually the 
whole of Cumberland. David now established himself 
in that city, with a garrison of "ferocious Scots," as 
Ordericus A'italis calls them, who struck terror into the 
whole of the north country by the barbarous atrocities 
they committed on the inhabitants, without distinction 
of age, or sex, or condition. The papal legate, who was 
then in England, was induced to interfere, and, having 
arrived at Carlisle on the 25th of September, 1138, he 
succeeded in obtaining from the Scots a promise to re- 
lease all their female prisoners, who were to be brought 
to Carlisle before Martinmas for that purpose, and they 
engaged in future to abstain from the violation of 
churches and from the atrocities which had rendered 
their name hateful to the miserable population of the 
northern districts. The year following, David was 
defeated in the celebrated battle of the Standard, and 
fled to Carlisle as a place of safety. The King of Eng- 
land was not David's only rival in his claim upon Cum- 
berland. In ] 142, the two kings of England and 
Scotland being then at peace, lianulph de Meschines, 
earl of Chester, who, like the Scottish monarch, was a 
partisan of Stephen's rival, laid claim to Cumberland as 
the inheritance of his family, in opposition to David's 
son Henry, who had been invested with the principality 
by his father; and the quarrel, we are told, was only 
arranged by an agreement, which must have arisen 
from the interference of Iving Stephen, that Ranulpk 
should have, instead of Cumberland, the honour of 
Lancaster. In the year 1148, David conferred the 
honour of knighthood upon his nephew, afterwards 
Henry II. of England, at Carlisle; and so formidable a 
display of military force was brought together on this 
occasion, that Stephen, in alarm, advanced with an 
army to York. The peace, however, was not broken 
this year; but, in the year following, David, Henrj, 
and Ramdph of Chester, met at Carlisle, and there 
entered into a league against Stephen as usurper of 
the English crown. It is said that Prince Henry, on 
this occasion, swore solemnly to confirm to David and 
his heirs the territories he held in England in the event 
of his own accession to the throne of the latter country. 
Prince Henry of Scotland died at Carlisle in 1152, and 
his father David followed him to the grave in the 
following year. 

Malcolm IV. the successor of David, held possession 
of Cumberland, as well as Northumberland, until after 



the accession of Henry II. but that monarch, instead of 
fulfilling his engagements to Malcolm's father, sum- 
moned him, in 1157, to restore those two counties to 
the EngUsh crown, and j\lalcolm, awed by Henry's 
power and greatness, complied, in return for which, 
Henry confirmed him in the county of Huntingdon. 
Malcolm seems still to have been unwilling to abandon 
his hold upon Cumberland, and the dispute led to a 
meeting between the two kings, at Carlisle, iu the fol- 
lowing year, but, how it was finally adjusted is not 
quite clear, though it is certain that the English crown 
recovered its rights. Malcolm, dying in 1165, was 
succeeded on the throne of Scotland by AVUliam the 
Lion, who was watching eagerly for an excuse to recover 
bis claims to Cumberland, when the opportunity was 
offered by the rebellion of the young King Henry 
against his father, in the year 1173. The account 
given of the Scottish invasion iu this and the follow- 
ing yeai'S, by Jordan Fantosme, a coutempomiy, 
who was present at many of the scenes he describes, 
and has left us a narrative in Anglo-Xormau verse, 
gives us not only a curious picture of the tima, 
but it shows the importance of these great Norman 
fortresses as bulwarks of the crown, if they did not 
give very eflicient protection to tlie population of the 

According to the account of Fantosme, the King of 
Scotland at first entered into the war unwillingly, and 
yielded only to the earnest persuasion of his nobles, and 
to the temptation of regaining Northumberland and 
Cumberland, which the young King Heuiy offered him 
as the price of his alliance. Before he decided, he sent 
a messenger to Henry II. in Normandy, with a formal 
demand of what he called his inheritance in the north 
of Englanil ; and it was only when this demand was in- 
dignantly rejected by the father, that William the Lion 
openly espoused the cause of the son. He then sent to 
the latter for his contingent of Flemings to assist him in 
taking the English castles, for it appears that the Scots 
were very unskilful iu attacking fortresses, and even 
with the assistance of tlieir Flemish allies, who were 
more accustomed to siege operations, their success was 
uot very great. When, soon afterwards King William, 
at the siege of Wark, ordered a perriere, or engine 
for throwing large stones, to bo employed against the 
castle, the first stone that was thrown from it went 
backwards instead of forwai'ds, and struck down one of 

' The metrical nnrrntive of Jonlnii Fantosme lins been preserved 
in twi) iimuuscriins, niul wius priiueil in iinc of tlie volumes of llie 
Surtccs Society, iiiuler Uie titK", " t^'iiroiiicle of the War between the 
English Olid the Scots in 11T3 nud llTi, by Jordan Fantosme," bvo. 

King William's own knights.- At length, the Scottish 
king having assembled a formidable army, crossed the 
border and laid siege to Wark Castle, in Northumber- 
land, but, ftiling in his attempt upon the fortress, he 
abauJoned it, and laid siege to Alnwick, with no better 
success. Greatly mortified at the failure of his first 
siege operations, William yielded to the councils of his 
chiefs, who urged him to march against CarUsle, which 
was well garrisoned and commanded by Robert de 'Vaux- 
" Sir King of Scotland," they said, "of all your claims, 
Carlisle is the most difficult to obtain, and as the young 
king is willing to give you all, we advise you to go and 
conquer that first. If Robert de Vaux refuse to sur- 
render it, you must cause him to be thrown down from 
the ' great ancient tower.'' Lay siege to it, and make 
your whole army swear publicly, that they will not stir 
from it until they have seen the city on fu-e, the master 
wall brokt'ii down with your steel pickaxes, and Robert 
himself hung upon a lofty gallows. Then you will sec 
Robert de Vaux falter ; you will, no doubt, fiud his 
pride fallen, and his resistance will not be very obsti- 
nate."' Nex-t day the Scottish array marched to Carlisle, 
and it had no sooner arrived before the walls, than a 
furious attack was made upon the gates ; but it was 
repulsed with heavy loss to the assailants. Soon after 
this, William the Lion received certain inteUigence 
that an English army, commanded by Richard de Lucy 
and Reginald, earl of Cornwall, was rapidly advancing 
against him, and he immediately raised the siege of 
CarHsle, recrosscd the border, and fell back upon Rox- 
burgh. The precipitancy with which the Scots fled was 
mniecessary. for Richard de Lucy was obliged to abau- 
don the north, and hurry back with his troops to East 
Anglia, to resist the Earl of Leicester and the other 
partizaus of the young King Henry, who had organised 
a formidable insurrection there. 

The winter put a stop to active hostihties on the 
Scottish border, but in the spring, 'U^ilUam the Lion, 
having received a largu reinforcement of Flemings, 
again invaded Northumberland, and attacked the castle 
of Wark, with furious resolution, but its commander, 
Roger d'Estutevillo, had had time to strengthen liis 

- Oez, seijnmra, de la pericre cument cle ola; 
La premiere piire queleunkos Inr geta. 
La piere do la fiiude i pfhine reversa, 
K nn dc lur chevaliers a terre ngraventa, 
Ne fnssent scs anncs e sun eseu qu'il a, 
A nul do sun lignage ne rcvenist-il ja. 

Jordan FanlosmCy p. 5S. 

' De la grant tiir antivc ferei le devaler. — Jordan Fantosme, p. 28. 

Aittive is the Latin anliijna. The application of this epitliel to 
the keep or donjou of CarUsle Castle so early as the reign of Henry 
IL is curious. 



garrison, and the resistance was so great, that the Scots 
were obliged to abandon their enterprise in disgrace. 
At this moment, liowever, the Scottish king was joined 
liy Rjger de Mowbray, and other powerful barons of the 
young king's party, and his forces were thus so much 
increased, that he resolved on a newaltomjit to reduce 
Carlisle. "Away goes King William," to translate the 
language of Fantosme, " Away goes King William, 
with his vast host towards Carlisle, the fair, the strong 
girrisoned city. Lord Roger de Mowbray and his 
chivaliT, and Lord Adam de Porz, join themselves to 
William's border men. The Scottish earls lead the 
hated people, who never had any repugnance to perform 
tiendish actions. They continue their march, without 
any event to interrupt them, until they come in sight 
of Carlisle, fidl of beauty; the sun glitters upon its 
walls and turrets, lie who has a merry banner, gladly 
displays it ; and the trumpets sound in every rank. 
You might hear the tumult of the terrified city. But, 
Lord Robert de Vaux gently c.\horts the citi;?ens not to 
be dismayed or to show any cowardice, for, as he assures 
them, if God keep his life safe and sound, he fears not 
all this bustle, nor the King of Albany. The king, on 
the other hand, summons Roger de Mowbray and Adam 
de Porz to council, with Walter de Berkeley, who was 
also one of his foUowera. ' Now behold, gentle knights, 
much noble display ; you cannot count the white nor 
the red, so numerous arc the banners raised against the 
sun. Go to Robert de Vaux, and say, that I send him 
this message. Let him deliver the castle to me with- 
out a moment's delay ; he wUl have no succour from 
any man living, nor will the Iving of England ever more 
be his defender ; but if he refuse to surrender, you 
may tell him, upon your oaths, that he shall lose his 
head for it, and that his children shall die. I will not 
leave him a single friend or relation whom I will not 
ruin, unless he obey my commandment.' '' The three 
barons proceeded to Carlisle on their mission, and they 
were introduced to Robert do Vaux. " He was clad in 
a hauberk, and was leaning on one of the battlements, 
(a un kernel puiant) and held in his hand a keen sword, 
with a sharp edge, which he handled caressingly." 
Robert, at first, received the king's messengers rather 
rudely, but he soon became more courteous, and lis- 
tened attentively, while they announced to him the 
Scottish king's demand. He replied, that he cared 
nothing for King William's threats, but that, as he 
held the castle for King Henry, and could only in ac- 
cordance with his duty deliver it to him b}' his order, 
he required a truce to give him the time to proceed 
to Normandy and consult with his liege lord. King 
William was angry at this reply, but he neither granted 

the truce required by Robert de Vaux, nor attempted an 
immediate assault upon Carlisle, but, while one part of 
his army apparentl)' began to invest it, he marched 
southwards with the rest, made himself master of the 
Castle of Appleby, which had been left in the charge of 
Gospatric, the son of Orm, without any garrison to 
defend it, and attacked Brongh, after placing in the 
former a garrison under three constables.'' Brough was 
better provided for defence than Appleby, for there were 
no less than six knights in it, with their followers. 
The castle was very soon attacked on aU sides ; and the 
Flemings and the border men made a fierce assault upon 
the garrison, and the first day took from them the out- 
works, which the defenders had soon abandoned, and 
shut themselves up in the tower. Here they might 
have held out for some time, but the Scots applied fire 
to the tower, and they were reduced to the akcrnativo 
of surrendering or being burnt. " But a new knight 
had come to them that day. Now listen to his deeds and 
his great courage. When his companions had ail surren- 
dered, he remauied in the tower, and seized two shields, 
which he hung on the battlements, and held his ground 
there a long time, and threw at the Scots three sharp 
javeUus, with each of which he struck a man dead. 
When these failed him, he takes up shai-p stakes and 
hurled them at the Scots, and overthrew some of them, 
and ever keeps shouting, ' you shall all be vanquished 
soon.' Never by a single vassal was strife better 
maintained. When the fire deprived him of the de- 
fence of the shields, he is not to blame if he then sur- 
rendered." The Castle of Brough was beaten down, 
with " the best part of the tower.''° The loss of Ap- 
pleby and Brough caused great alarm to Robert de 
Vaux, in Carlisle, who sent a messenger in haste to 
Richard de Lucy, to press him anxiously for assistance. 
The entire defeat of the rebels in East Anglia, had left 
King Henry's two ministers, Richard de Lucy and 
llanulph de Glanville, at liberty to provide for the safety 
of the north, and they returned Robert de Vaux an 
encouraging answer. On the very day of its arrival, 
the Scottish king returned to his camp before Carlisle, 
and i-endcred confident by his recent successes, and 
ignorant of the approach of Lucy and Glanville, 

* Qnunt il ot Appelbi, le chastei e la tur ; 
« ♦ * 

E meltent la dedenz lur seijanz marcliis, 
E treis cunestables el chasltl unt asis. 

Jordan Fantosme^ p. 60. 
When he had Appleby, the castle aud the tower; 

■s « • 

And they placed within it their border officers. 
And Ihey have appointed tlu-ee constables in tlie castle. 

^ Ore est Buro abatuz e le niielz de la tur. — Jordan Fanlusmc, p. OS. 



repeatej his summons to the English garrison, but again 
without eftect ; and he proceeded to attempt tlie castlo 
of Prudlioe and Ahiwicli. The defeat and capture of 
William the Lion, before the latter jilace, put an end 
to the war. 

The possession of the northern counties, however, 
still continued to be a subject of dispute between the 
two crowns, and many years passed before it was finally 
adjusted. At the time of the coronation of Hichard I. 
in ) 104, William the Lion tried to obtain Northumber- 
land by purchase, but failed. The demand for the resti- 
tution of Cumberland and Northumberland was formally 
repeated on the accession of King John, who, to gain 
time, evaded the demand, and William never obtained a 
direct re[)ly : but his successor, Alexander IL had no 
sooner ascended the throne, than the war between King 
Joini and his barons offei"ed him an opportunity of 
pressing his demands in a more eU'ective manner. 
William joined the party of the barons, invaded Cum- 
berland in 1^10, sacrilegiously plundered the abbey of 
IlolmeCultram, and laid siege to the city of Carlisle, 
which was delivered up to him by order of the barons 
on the 8th of August in that year, but the castle still held 
for the King of England. Soon afterwards Louis of 
France, whom the barons bad chosen for their king, 
recognized, with their consent, the claims of the Scottish 
crown to the three northern counties, Cumberland, 
Westmoreland, and Northumberland. On the pacifica- 
tion which followed the accession of Henry TIL, Car- 
lisle was surrendered to the English, but it is pretended 
that the dominion of Cumberland was to remain with 
the King of Scotland, It is evident, however, that no 
such agreement with regard to the county was ever 
acted upon, and we find Alexander n., in 1235 and 
again in Vi2~, making pressing demands for the re- 
storation of the three northern counties, which he 
claimed as his inheritance. In the 3-ear last-mentioned, 
u conference on the subject was held at York, in the 
presence of the papal legato, by whose influence chiefly 
the King of Scotland was induced to give np his claim, 
in consideration of a grant of lands in Cumberland or 
Northumberland of the value of two hundred pounds, 
which ho was to hold of the King of England, by tho 
annual payment to the i:oustublo of tho Castle of Car- 
lisle of a falcon. In l.!4a, the manors of Penrith, 
Langwathby, Great Salkeld, Sowerby, and Carlatton, 
were granted to the Scottish kiug in pui-suanco of this 
agreement. Thus ended the Scottish claims to dominion 
ill tho northern counties of England. 

The mas>ivo Norman castle, as wo have seen, contri- 
buted largely towards saving the northern counties from 
coijiiuest during the invasions of William the Lion, who 

lost his time and wa.sted his armies in sitting down 
before a few fortresses, which, fri/m their comparatively 
small size but massive character might be held by a few- 
men against a host. The Norman keep, indeed, which 
real]}' composed the castle, was capable only of containing 
a very small garrison, which might hold out, if provi- 
sioned, any reasonable time until succour arrived. But 
after the commencement of the thirteenth century, a 
new system of warfare began to prevail, which was 
accompanied with new military tactics. The massive 
keep was now exchanged for an extensive fortress, as it 
was to be manned by a far more numerous gamson, 
forming sometimes a little army. These new fortresses 
inclosed an area, sometimes of considerable extent, 
which was usually surrounded with more than one 
circuit of fortifications, consisting of a combination of 
walls and towers. This new style of fortification is 
usually distinguished as the Edwardian castle, because 
it arose and prevailed chiefly during the reigns of the first 
three Edwards. The Edwardian fortress is often an 
addition to, and in a manner a development of an older 
Norman castle ; but the position chosen by the Norman 
was not always that which seemed best to the military 
eye of the Edwardian age, and hence a great number of 
the castles of this period were quite new. Thus, the 
castle of Cockermouth is entirely Edwardian in cha- 
racter, though It is believed to occupy the site of an 
older Norman fortress. Cumberland was much richer 
in Edwardian castles than Westmoreland, which contains 
hardly a single e.>;ample of any importance. Naworth 
Castle, the seat of the earls of Carlisle, which was built 
early in the reign of Edward III., was an example of 
this style of castellatiou, but it lias undergone at dilTereut 
times extensive alterations. Another was Rose Castle, 
tho seat of the bishops of Carlisle, which was built about 
the same period. Penrith, Kirk-Oswald, and Scuk-by, 
may be mentioned as other examples of the Edwardian 
castle of some importance ; and we have smaller examples 
of the castle or castellated mansion, of the Edwiudiau 
and sulisopient periods, at Hoclill'e, Muncaster, Hayes, 
Armathwaite, Daere, Greystoke, llighhead, Askerton, 
&c. The importance which the individual gentleman 
was beginning to assume so early as the thirteenth cen- 
tury caused each to be desirous of hterally making his 
house his castle, especially in districts so unsettled as 
the border counties, and during that and the century 
following tho grants of permission from tho crown to 
private gentlemen of licences to embattle, or castellate, 
their houses are very frequent. 

During a few years the northern counties enjoyed a 
comparative degree of tranquillity, for the peace was 
preserved between the two countries if they had not 



become verj' hearty friends ; but lliey were destined to 
experience a new age of disasters, when the death 
of Alexander III. in 1200, followed by that of bis 
daughter JIargaret, opened a liu'.J to the ambition of 
the liousc of Plantagenet. After the crown of Scotland 
had been adjudged to John Baliol, and ho hiid been 
accepted as king by the Scots, the King of England 
delivered to liim Penrith, Salkeld, and the other manors, 
wliicli had been given to tlie Scottish kings in consi- 
deration of their claims to the border counties, but a 
little later, when Baliol liad offended the King of Eng- 
land, Edward began his hostility by seizing upon these 
manors, which were never restored. In the spring of 
]29C, John Comyn, carl of Buchan, with an army for- 
midable in numbers, but hastily raised and tumultuous, 
invaded Cumberland, ravaged the country barbarously, 
and laid siege to Carlisle on the 98th of JIarch. Having 
been driven from Carlisle in disgrace, the Scots recrossed 
the border, after which they threw themselves upon 
Isortlmmberland, and finally, returning into Cumberland, 
burnt the priory of Lanercost on the 8th of April. 
"Wallace, after his victory at Stirling in the September 
of 1297, again invaded the English border. The coun- 
ties of Northumberlaud and Cumberland were overrun 
during several weeks by these ferocious invaders, who 
laid the country waste with fire and sword, and subjected 
the miserable inhabitants to every description of crudty 
and outrage. Carlisle was summoned, but as the garri- 
son showed no inclination to surrender, the Soots con- 
tinued their march, and ravaged the forest of Inglewood 
and the whole of Allerdalc to Cockermouth. The 
severity of the season compelled them about the middle of 
November to return into Scotland. Towards Christmas, 
Sir Piobert Clifford raised the men of Cumberland, and, 
joining with the garrison of Carlisle, retaliated by 
invading and ravaging the whole of Annandale. The 
success of the Scots lasted but a short time, for the 
victory of Falkirk (July 29, 1208) re-established the 
power of Edward in Scotland, and, after a successful 
campaign, he returned with his army -to Carlisle, and 
held his parliament there in the month of September. 
On his way towards the south, he learnt that the Scots 
were again in arms, and he immediately signed his writs 
summoning his barons to meet him in arms at Carlisle 
on the eve of the day of Pentecost in the following year. 
Various circumstances prevented the English monarch 
from invading Scotland during the year 1299, but in 
the summer of the year following he marched into that 
country by the western border. The rather authoritative 
interference of the pope, however, served as a reason or 
excuse for a truce, and at the end of August, Edward, 
having returned over the border, proceeded to liolm- 

Cultram, and remained there and at Carlisle until the 
Kith of October, lie returned thenco to Dumfries, 
where the truce with the Scots was concluded on the 
<JOth of October, and Edward was at Carlisle again, on 
his way to the south, on the 3rd of November. The 
revolt of the Scots under Bruce in 1305 brought a 
renewal of hostilities. Edward now chose Carlisle as 
the rendezvous of his armies, and he summoned his 
barons to assemble there on Midsummer- day 1306. 
On the 28th of August, the king himself with his 
queen arrived there, and they remained there until the 
10th of September, when they left to pass the remainder 
of the month in Northumberland. Edward was suffer- 
ing under the united effects of age and disease, and he 
moved about on the Scottish border slowly. He was at 
Lanercost at the beginning of October, and remained 
there, with the exception of a short visit to Carlisle, 
until the 20th of T'ebruary, 1007. On the 1st of March 
he removed to lurk Cambock, and on the Ith to Lin- 
stock Castle, where, during six days, he and his queen 
and court were the guests of the Bishop of Carlisle. On 
the 12th, the king met his parliament at Carlisle, 
where, in defiance of his health, he was preparing for 
another expedition against the Scots. The army had 
been ordered to assemble at Carlisle on the 8lh of J uly. 
King Edward, whose mind was far more vigorous than 
his body, left Carlisle on the 28th of June, and, although 
lie had hitherto been obhged to be carried in a litter, 
lie remounted his war-horse; but the effort was too 
much for him, and he was obliged to halt the same day 
at the hamlet of Caldecote, a short distance out of the 
city. Next day he resumed his jouniey, and on the 
5th of July he reached Burgh-on-the-Sands, wliic-li was 
his last halting place. He expired there on the 7th, 
and a commemorative iiillar now marks the spot ou 
which he died. The misgovernmeut of the reign of Ed- 
ward II. exposed the border counties to continual de- 
vastations, and the fury of the Scots appears to have 
been especially directed against Cumberland, on account 
of the confiscation of Penrith and the other manors 
which liad belonged to the Scottish kings. The district 
of Gilfiland was twice overrun by the army of Piobert 
Bruce in 1311, in the second of which invasions the 
Scottish king occupied the Abbey of Lanercost during 
three days. Next year Bruce penetrated to Durham, 
which city was plundered by his followers, and on his 
return ho attacked Carlisle, but was repulsed with con- 
siderable loss by the garrison. He left, but returned 
by a forced march, and attempted to surprise it by 
night. His men were actually mounting the walls, 
when the garrison was aroused by the barking of a dog, 
and the assailants were again defeated with loss. The 



booty carried oiTon this occasion from Xortbumberlaud, 
Westmoreland, and Cumberland, is said to have been 
immense. After the battle of Bannockburu in 1314, 
Bruce's brother Edward and Sir James Douglas, after 
an excursion through Xortbumberlaud and Durham 
into Yorkshire, returned through Cumberland and burnt 
Appleby and Kirkoswald, on their way. At Christmas, 
Gilslaud was ravaged again, and tliis inroad was followed 
by a still more formidable invasion in 1315, directed by 
the Scottish king in person. The chieftain whose terrible 
ravages bad gained him celebrity under the name of the 
Black Douglas bad led the way, and had laid waste the dis- 
trict of Egremont, plundered the monastery of St. Bees, 
and destroyed its manor-houses of Clcator and Stainboru. 
The united forces of the Scots made an attempt upon 
Carlisle, but after attacking it with persevering resolu- 
tion during ten days, they were eventually beaten away 
by the garrison, under its brave commander, Audrew 
de Hercla. Ilercla was subsequently created earl of 
Carlisle as a reward for his seiTices, but he had hardly 
enjoyed bis honours a year, when he Wiis accused of 
treasonable correspondence with the Scots, condemned, 
and executed at Carlisle. In 1317, the Scots again 
laid waste Gilslaud, the neighbourhood of Brough-under- 
Stanemore, and other parts of Cumberland and West- 
moreland. In 132i2, the northern counties were invaded 
by the Scottish king and dreadfully ravaged. Robert 
Bruce burnt Rose Castle, plundered the Abbey of 
Holm-Cultram, and laid waste all the western side of 
Cumberland to Duddon Sands. He then proceeded 
into Lancashire, and on his return encamped during 
five days near Carlijlc. The unsuccessful expedition 
of Edward II. in the same year, was followed by a new 
invasion of Cumberland, in the course of which Robert 
Bruce established his head quarters for several days at 
Beaumont, near Carlisle, from which his soldiers carried 
their ravages far over the surrounding country. In all 
these expeditions the bouses of the inhabitants and every 
thing which was not portable were destroyed, and the 
live stock and all tho population which did not escape, 
or were not slain, were driven away into Scotland. 
The accession of Edward III. brought victory back to 
the standard of England, but did not save the northern 
counties from a repetition of these destructive inroads. 
In the summer whicii followed that event, the court 
moved to York, while the English army assembled at 
Newcastle, and reinforcements were sent to the casllo 
of Carlisle ; yut an army of fourteen thousand Scots, 
commanded by Randolph and Dougliw, swept over 
CumberLind, and wasted the country as far ns the 
county of Durham. The (light of Edward Baliol from 
Scotland in 1332, drew after it a destructive invasion 

of the district of Gilsland, which bad so often before 
been the scene of the ravages of the Scots. In 1337, 
the Scots entered the county of Cumberland by way of 
Arthuret, destroyed about twenty villages in their pro- 
gress eastwai'd, and carried home an immense booty. 
They returned the same year, attacked Carlisle, and 
burnt the suburbs and the hospital of St. Nicholas, as 
well as Rose Castle. In 1312, they made an inroad 
through GUslaud, and advanced as far as Penrith, 
which was burnt. In a similar invasion in 13-15, Carlisle 
and Penrith were burnt. Next year David Bruce in 
person, taking advantage of the absence of Edward HI. 
in France, subjected the English border to a much 
more formidable invasion. He entered Cumberland, 
took Liddel Castle by assault, beheaded the gover- 
nor, and massacred the whole garrison. The Scots 
plundered the monks of Lanercost,and after committing, 
as usual, frightful destruction, marched by way of 
Haworth to Ridpath. These devastations were re- 
venged by tho battle of Neville's Cross and the capture 
of the Scottish king. From this time, the border 
remained for some years free from such visitations, or, 
at least, no inroads occurred of sufficient magnitude to 
have found a place in history ; but thej' were resumed 
after the accession of Richard II. to the throne of Eng- 
land. In the summer of 1 380, the Scots laid waste the 
forest of Inglewood, surprised the town of Penrith, at 
the period of tho great annual fair, when it was of 
course more than usually filled with people, and com- 
mitted a barbarous massacre of the townsmen and 
strangers. They carried back to Scotland a very great 
booty, and a multitude of people as captives, but they 
were accompanied in their return by a pestilence which 
was then raging in the north of England, and which 
is said to have swept away one-third of the population of 
Scotland. On this occasion the invaders also made a 
fierce attack upon Carlisle, and they are said to have 
set fire to one of tho streets by throwing in combustiles 
attached to arrows, but the report of an approaching 
army compelled them to withdraw across tlic border. 
These attacks appear to have been repeated in the 
following years, for we find the abbot of Holm-Cultrani 
paying a large sum of money to the Earl of Douglas in 
13S3 to save his abbey from being burnt. During tlio 
hostilities between tiio two countries in 13i3o, the Scots 
under Douglas, with their French allies, overrun and 
ravaged Cumberland with dreadfiil ferocity, and, after 
laying waste tlio lauds of tho principal border barons, 
made an attack upon Carlisle, but they were again beaten 
off with loss. Encouraged by the weakness of the English 
government, tho Scottish borderers became bolder, and, 
independently of the greater military raids, tlio English 



counties ^vere now exposed to continual iloprcdations. 
In 1387, the Eavl of Fife, with the Earl of Douglas and 
the lord of Galloway, raised an army of thirty thousand 
men, and, by a rapid march, fell suddenly on the rich and 
beautiful district of Cockerraouth, which had not expe- 
rienced such a visitation since the days of Robert Bruce. 
After plundering and ravaging this country during three 
days without opposition, they made another attack upon 
Carlisle, and burnt the suburbs. It is related that on this 
occasion, Lord Douglas's illegitimate son, Sir WilMam 
Douglas, distinguished himself by his extraordinary 
bravery. On a narrow drawbridge in the out-works, he 
is said to have eucountercd three armed citizens, of 
whom he slew one, and compelled the other two to 
yield. It was perhaps on this occasion that the Scottish 
army was attickcd and defeated, and driven across the 
river with the loss of eleven hundred men. The chro- 
nicler, who has recorded this engagement, says that it 
took place a few days before the feast of St. Lawrence. 
Next 3'ear Gilsland was again invaded with great bar- 
barity. It is said that the Scots shut up in some houses 
two hundred decrepid people, women and children, and 
deliberately burnt them. 

The ruin to which these border districts were thus 
exposed during more than a century must have been 
dreadful, and is quite sulEcieut to account for the rarity 
of monuments of the ecclesiastical architecture of th^ 
period between the thirteenth century and the fifteenth, 
which has been remarked especially in Cumberland. 
In most of the churches, which present a diversity of 
styles, the Norman or the early Euglish appears to be 
followed immediately by the perpendicular. Little, too, 
seems to have been left of the older domestic architec- 
ture of the two counties, and most of the old manor 
houses now existing date from the iifteeuth or, more 
generally, from the sixteenth century. We cannot 
doubt, indeed, that everything in the shape of building, 
except massive stone walls, must have been hopelessly 
ruined. We hear little of border raids in the fifteenth 
century, and even the wars of tlie roses seem to have 
affected these remote districts very slightly. A Scottish 
army in the interest of Hemy VI. besieged Carhsle and 
burnt the suburbs in 1401, but this appears as a solitary 
in-ent in history, and any subsequent inroads of a serious 
character occur only in combination with some greater 
political event. In 1522, the regent Duke of Albany 
advanced to Carlisle at the head of a Scottish army, but 
that place was well provided for defence, and he withdrew 
without any further hostilities. During the hostilities 
between the three countries in ] .523, Lord JIaxwell made 
an inroad into Cumberland, defeated a force which at- 
tempted to resist him, and did considerable damage. 

The last struggles of feudalism in the northern rebellions 
of 1536, called popularly the Pilgrimage of Grace, and 
1 509, caused a certain degree of agitation on the border, 
which continued to manifest itself at times during the 
rest of the reign of Ehzabeth, but was finally put an 
end to by the union of the two crowns on the head of 
James I. The last inroad of the Scots happened im- 
mediately after the accession of that monarch to the 
English throne, when a party of two or three hundred 
entered Cumberland and cai-ried their depredations as far 
as Penrith ; but they were attacked and dispersed by a. 
detachment of the garrison of Berwick, sent by the king 
who was in that town on liis way to England. Tho; 
practice of plunder, however, had become so habitual 
among the borderere, that in spite of the severe punish- 
ment with wliich it was visited, it long continued to 
prevail, and even the gallows seems hardly to have 
been looked upon as a disreputable end to tiie unlucky 
stealer of sheep or horse who chanced to fall into the 
hands of the law. A border anecdote has been repeated 
more than once, which relates especially to the parish of 
Bewcastle. We are told that a stranger visiting that 
place was surprised to fiud that the tomb-stones in the 
churchyard commemorated none but females, and he 
made a remark to that effect to the old lady who accom- 
panied him as a guide. " Oh, sir," she replied feeling!}', 
"they're a' buried at that weary Caerl!" In the sequel, 
the astonished itirjuirer learnt that no male inhabitant 
of that district was known to have ended his days other- 
wise than being hanged at Carlisle. 

However, the opening of the fifteenth centuiy brought 
with it a comparative degree of personal security, and 
the landholders began to return to their estates and 
rebuUd their houses. In these, strength for defence 
was an important consideration, and most of them had 
a massive square tower, of three or four storeys, with a 
vaulted chamber on the ground floor. This was the 
retreat of the family in case of an incursion of the Scots. 
The larger houses had yards, strongly walled, in which 
the cattle were shut up at night, or in times of danger. 
Examples of the towers are stiU found attached to some 
of the older country houses in Cumberland. Houses of 
an older date than the sixteenth centur}' are rare in 
Cumberland or Westmoreland, but both counties can 
boast of some interesting examples of the domestic 
architecture of that period. Naworth Castle, which is 
one of the finest examples of the later baronial residences, 
was built chiefly during the reign of Elizabeth, upon the 
remains of an edifice of the fourteenth century. Dacre 
Castle, in Cumberland, is one of the larger examples of 
the tower of which we have been speaking, and is like- 
wise a building originally of the fourteenth century, but 



consitlerably altered in the sixtcentli. Another example 
of the tower occurs at Yauwath Hall, iu Westmorelaud ; 
and others will he found in Cumberland, at Kirk- 
Andrews upon Esk, as well as at Irton Hall, Muu- 
caster, Xcther Hall, and Nelherby. Among the finest 
of the Elizabethan mansions are Drumburgh Castle, 
Dalstoa Hall, and Harby Brow, Hardrigg, Hew- 
thwaite, and Lamplugh Halls, in Cumberland ; 
and Levins, Wharton, and perhaps Clifton Halls, iu 

Local history may be considered as in some degree 
co-existent with feudalism, and ceases to possess any 
general interest at the period when the multiplicity of 
separate independencies were absorbed in the centrali- 
sation of power under which feudalism perished. The 
border counties, as a natural consequence of their 
position, preserved a general interest longer than the 
southern districts, and it was not until some time after 
the union of the two crowns that this interest was 
enthely destroyed. A considerable extent of territory 
lying to the north of the Esk, and extending to a certain 
extent on both sides of the real boundary line of the two 
countries, was known as the debatable ground, because 
it was the subject of conflicting claims between the two 
crowns. This territory was occupied chiefly by the 
rather numerous clan of the Grames, or Grahams, 
\vho3e chief dwelt at Netherby, and who, by their 
depredations, had made themselves equally obnoxious 
to the two crowns. These depredations had been 
carried on with unusual boldness during the later 
years of the reign of Elizabeth, and, as they were not 
checked by the proclamations of her successor, King 
.lames determined to put an end to them in a summary 
manner, by the expulsion of the whole clan. An assess- 
ment was made on the county of Cumberland, in lOOG, 
to defray the expenses of what was termed in those days 
the " transplantation " of this clan, who were embarked 
nt ^Vorkillgton, and sent partly to Ireland and partly 
to the Xclhcrlands. The love of their old country 
seems to have been still powerful with the banished 
Grames, and some of them ventured to return, and a 
proclamation for apprehending them appeared in 1U14. 
Nevertheless, some of the branches of tliis clan had been 
allowed to remain, no doubt on account of their moro 
peaceful behaviour ; and Uichard Graham, of Esk, was 
created a baronet in 1020, and purchased Nelherby and 
the barony of Liddell. Tlie family is at present repre- 
sented by the Right Hon. Sir James Graham. There 
still remained, however, in the debatable ground, a 
multitude of wUd freebooters, who were known by iho 
name of moss-troopers, from the character of the country 
in which they found shelter, and who gave great trouble 

to the legal authorities, and no little occupation, as has 
been already intimated, to the executioner at Carhsle. 
The great opponents of these marauders were the 
Howards of Nawortli, the ancestors of the earls of 
Carlisle ; and the Lord WilUam Howard, who held the 
office of Warder of the Western Marches during the 
reigns of James I. and Charles L, was so continually ui 
the saddle iu pursuit of them that he became popularly 
known by the name of Belted Willie. 

The two counties appear not to have been so much 
agitated as many other parts of the kingdom, during the 
civil wars of the reign of Charles I. Their inhabitants, 
many of whom were old Catholic faraihes, took less part 
iu the new political principles which were then abroad, 
and they joined early iu the association of the northern 
counties to raise forces for the king, who had an army 
there in 1 G44. After the great defeat of Marston Moor, 
July 2, 1044, Prince Paip^rt led the forces he had saved 
from the battle back through Lancashire to join these 
Cumberland and Westmoreland levies. Earlier in the 
year ilontrose had raised a small army m Cumberland, 
with which he crossed the border and took possession 
of Dumfries, but the approach of the Earl of Callander 
compelled him to fall back upon Carlisle, where, according 
to some accounts, he was besieged, but our information 
on this subject is of a very uncertain character. Carlisle 
was subsequently occupied by the royalist troops which 
had formed the garrison of York, and received for its 
governor Sir Thomas Glenham. At some period during 
these events, an attempt was made to raise a force for 
the parliament in Cumberland, but they were easily 
defeated and dispersed. The royalists of these pai'ts 
were now, however, threatened with more serious 
dangers, for the Scottish army, under General Lesley, 
was approaching this part of tho border. Towards the 
end of September, he defeated, near Great Salkeld, a 
detachment of royalists, commanded by Sir Phihp 
Musgravc and Sir Henry Fletcher, and drove them to 
Carlisle, whence ho continued his march to take part in 
the siege of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Newcastle was taken 
by storm in the month of October, after which Lesley 
returned into Cumberland with part of tho Scottish 
forces, and the siege of Carlisle was reguhuly opened. 
The garrison and townsmen held out resolutely during 
several mouths, although reduced to the greatest distress 
by want of provisions, until the king's defeat at Naseby 
deprived them of all hopes of relief, aud they sur- 
rondered, and obtained honourable terms, on tho 2oth 
of Juno, lOI.'. Lord Dig'-y and Sir Marmaduke 
Langdalo made an attempt to revive tho royalist inllii- 
ence in Cumberland, in the folio iviiig October, but they 
were entirely defeated by Su' John Brown, the governor 



of Carlisle Castle, and made their escape, not without 
difficult}-, to the Isle of Man. At the close of the fol- 
lowing year, the Scottish garrison, which had till then 
held possession of Carlisle, was withdrawn and sent 
away, and orders were given for dismantling the castle. 
It was not till two years after this period that new 
events occurred to give importance to the counties of 
Cumberland and Westmoreland. The fu'st sigual of 
these new troubles was the surprise of Carlisle 
by Sir Thomas Glenham and Sir Philip Jlusgrave, at 
the end of the April of 1018; and immediately after- 
wards Sir Marmaduke Laugdale assembled a force of 
upwards of four thousand men, raised chiefly in Cumber- 
land and Westmoreland, upon a heath about five miles 
from that city. Lambert, who thou commanded for the 
parliament in the north, advanced to Penrith in the 
middle of June, and made that place his head quarters, 
while Langdale fell back upon Carlisle, of which Mus- 
grave had been made governor. The castles of Grey- 
stock, Rose, and Scaleby, were taken by the Parliamen- 
tarians on this occasion, and the two former are said to 
have been burnt. 

This movement of the royalists in Cumberland had 
been concerted with the party headed by the Duke of 
Hamilton in Scotland, who had at this moment gained 
the superiority in the Scottish councils, and resolved 
upon taking up arms to liberate the king. The Scottish 
army, which was very ill equipped, numbered at that 
time nearly fifteen thousand men, of whom about four 
thousand were cavalry. A few days afterwards he was 
joined by General Monro, wlio brought a reinforcement 
of two thousand foot and one thousand horse from 
Ireland. The main body of the Scottish army lav 
about Wigton ; and it was further reinforced by the 
forces under Sir Marmaduke Langdale, which now 
amounted to about four thousand foot and ei"ht thou- 
sand horse. Lambert, whose army was quite insuf- 
iicient to contest the ground with so formidable a force 
as this, fdl back from Penrith upon Appleby, where 
the Scots were driven back in an attempt to dis- 
lodge the rarlianientarians. Lambert, however, 
continued his retrograde movement to Bowes, where 
he received some reinforcements from Yorkshire. 
Hamilton had now begun his march towards tlie south, 
leaving Carlisle in charge of a Scottish garrison, under 
the command of Sir William Livingston, whom he 
had appointed its governor in the place of Sir Philip 
Musgrave. The Scottish army remained a month in 
Westmoreland, without performing any exploit worth 
mentioning. The soldiers, who were turbulent and 
nndisciplined, overran the country, plundering and 
committing such barbarous outrages as exasperated the 

inhabitants to the highest degree, until it was so ex- 
hausted that they were compelled to remove out of it by 
the want of provisions. Monro, with his Irish troops, 
was left at Kendal, with orders, in case the main army 
was attacked, to fall back upon Appleby or Carlisle 
according to circumstances, while Hamilton, ruled by 
the advice of the Earl of Callander, directed his march 
through Westmoreland, in the direction of Preston. 

The disasters of Preston and AA'iirrington so com- 
pletely ruined the Scottish army, that about fifteea 
hundred of Hamilton's horse were all who reached 
Monro, to carry him the first intelligence of the misfor- 
tune of the rest. Jlonro had advanced from Kendal to 
Ivirby Lonsdale, where he received intelligence that 
Cromwell was advancing iipon him from Yorkshire, 
and he immediately retreated to Appleby, and sent a 
messenger to convey the information to the Duke of 
Hamilton and bring back his orders, but he soon after- 
wards learnt that Cromwell had taken the road to Pres- 
ton, and then he resumed his quarters at Kirby Lons- 
dale. It appears that the messenger he had sent to 
Hamilton had been intercepted, and the surprise and 
alarm of the Scots at Kirby Lonsdale, on receiving their 
intelligence in this abrupt manner of the capture of 
Hamilton and the loss of his army, may be easily 
imagined. The cavalry refused to remain with them, 
but continued their headlong flight to Scotland, plun- 
dering and committing so many outrages on the wa}', 
that the peasantry, in their exasperation, slew every 
straggler they met with, ifonro, also, began his re- 
treat, but, with the same spirit which actuated his 
followers, he took the eastern road, intending to set 
fire to the coal-pits at Newcastle. The Ilamiltonian 
party, however, had now been overthrown in Scotland, 
and he was met by an order of the committee of estates 
to return without further hostilities, in consequence of 
which he marched direct to the border. 

The royaUsts of Cumberland had been active, and 
seem to have reckoned on recovering the superiority 
during these events. Sir Philip Musgrave, with a por- 
tion of the royalist militia of Cumberland, presented 
himself before Carlisle, where the Scottish governor 
refused to admit him ; while Lieutenant Bird, who held 
Cockermouth Castle for the parliament, was be- 
sieged by about five hundred of the royalist forces of 
Cumberland during more than a month, until he was 
relieved on the 29th of September, by the arrival of 
Colonel Ashton, whom Cromwell had sent from Lan- 
caster to his assistance. Carlisle was delivered by the 
Scots to Cromwell ou the 1st of October, and received 
a strong garrison, consisting chiefly of cavalry, as they 
were designed for the suppression of the moss-troopers. 



The garrison appears to have been increased in subse- 
quent years, as we read of a detachment of a thousand 
men having been sent into Scotland, in the December 
of 1050, and of another detachment of two thousand 
men sent by JNTajor-General Harrison, then governor 
of Carhslc, against a party of Scots, who threatened 
the border in the Juno of the following year. 

ISoth Cumberland and Westmoreland were reduced 
to great distress by the ravages of the Scots during the 
expedition of the Duke of Hamilton. The petitions of 
the inhabitants of the former county, when seeking to 
he eased of the burthen of supporting the garrison of 
Carlisle after the expulsion of the Scots, complained 
that families of the first quality had hardly bread 
enough for their own consumption, with nothing to 
drink but water ; that people died of starvation in the 
public roads ; and that there were in the county of 
Cumberland no less than thirty thousand families who 
had neither seed nor bread corn, and who were entirely 
without money to buy them. The parliament ordered 
a collection to be made for their relief. 

The border counties again enjoyed a long period 
of tranquillity. During the Scottish Jacobite rebellion 
of 171."), another attempt was made to penetrate into 
lingland by the route through Cumberland. Towards 
the end of October, Brigadier Mackintosh with his 
Highlanders had formed a junction at Kelso with the 
English insurgents under General Forster and Lord 
Kenmure; and at the beginning of November they 
crossed the border and took up their quarters at 
Brampton, where Forster opened his commission from 
the Earl of Mar, which appointed him commander-in- 
chief of tlio army in England, and at the same time the 
Pretender was proclaimed. The rebels marched through 
C^umberland and Westmoreland, halting for a while at 
Penrith and Appleby, but meeting with no sympathy 
from the population of the country tliroiigh whii-h they 
passed, and many of the English troops had deserted 
before they reached Kirby Lonsdale. The ill-conducted 
expedition ended speedily by the capture of the rebel 
army at Preston. 

In tho more formidable rebellion of 171.'), these coun- 
ties were chosen ns the lino of march of tho Pretender 
into England. Tho Pretender left Kelso on tho fith 
of Xovembcr; and, after making n demonstration as 
though he would enter Northumberland, in order to 
deceive General Wade, who was at Newcastle, ho 
cros.sod the Esk on the Oth near Longtown, and 
entered Cumberland, passing that niglit at n place 
called Reddings on the road to Carlisle. Having 
assemliled his whole army here on the 10th, he con- 
tinued his inarch. A party of Highland cavalry had 

already shown themselves upon Stanwix bank, but had 
retired after a few shots from the castle. Carlisle had 
been left in a very defenceless condition, its whole 
garrison consisting of a company of invalids under 
the command of Colonel Durand, and the fortifications 
in a ruinous state; but the whole body of the militia 
of Cumberland and AVestraoreland had been drawn 
into the city, and the mayor, Mr. Pattison, talked of 
defending the place with resolution. Accordingly, the 
summons to surrender was received in silent defiance, 
and the rebels, after firing a few shots, marched on the 
11th to Brampton, in consequence of a report that 
General Wade was advancing to the relief of Carhsle. 
Charles Edward Stuart slept on the 'Jth at a Mr. 
MuiTay's, three miles south of Carlisle : on the 10th at 
Black Hall, in St. Mary's parish; and on the 11th at 
Warwick Hall. As no more was heard of Wade, a strong 
division of tho Scottish army resumed the siege of Car- 
lisle on the ]3th, and the town and garrison at first 
made great show of resistance ; but, when preparations 
Nvere made for an assault on the 1 .5th, both the mayor 
and the governor agreed to capitulate ; and the Duke 
of Perth took possession of Carlisle in the name of 
the Pretender, who was next day proclaimed there, the 
mayor and municipal bodies attending with the sword 
and mace carried before them. The rebels took, in the 
castle and city, a great number of cannon, fil'teeu 
cohorn mortars, and an abundance of cannon-balls, 
grenades, small bombs, about a hundred barrels of 
gunpowder, and other military stores. Among the 
arms were many of the Highland broad swords taken 
at Preston in 171."). On the '^Ist and viQuJ, the Scot- 
tish arrav, leaving a garrison of two hundred men in 
Carlisle, marched to Penrith, and thence advanced to 
the soutlnvanl through Lancashire. 

The subsequent fate of this expedition is well known, 
and belongs but partially to our border counties. The 
Pretender reached Penrith on his retreat on the 17th 
of December, during tho night of which day tho Duke 
of Cumberland and JInjor-General Oglethorpe, who were 
in pursuit, slept at Kendal. Next morning, Oglethorpe's 
light horse, accompanied bj- many of the squires and 
farmers of the country armed and mounted, rode early 
in the pursuit, and came in sight of the rear of the 
rebel army, as it was making its way laboriously over 
Clifton moor, but as the Pretender liad sent most of 
his horse to protect tho baggage and artillery, Ogle- 
thorpe did not feel strong enough to attack it, and fell 
back upon Kendal. Lord George Jlurray, who com- 
manded the rear of the Pretender's army, sent forward 
the baggiige, and remained bi'hind to check the pursuit. 
Lea\ing a few men in a farm-house on the road, he 



marched rapiillv through the village of Cliftou, \Yith 
about three hundred foot aud a troop of horse, to take 
possession of Lowther Hall, where he found a servant 
of the Duke of Cumberland, from wliora he learut that 
the duke was advancing with four thousand cavalry and 
some infantry, and that lie intended to estabUsh his head 
quarters at Lowther Hall the same evening. Lord 
George fell back in haste upon the village of Clifton, 
and despatched a messenger to Prince Charles, who 
sent some regiments back to reinforce him. These 
were placed under cover of the hedges and walls in a 
line from the village of Clifton to the house of a Quaker, 
named Savage, at the foot of the moor. One of Savage's 
family, however, made his way through the fields un- 
observed, as tlie night had now set in, and informed 
the Duke of Cumberland of the dispositions of the rebel 
forces. The EngUsh made an attempt to dislodge the 
latter, in spite of the darkness, but they were repulsed 
with some loss. Nevertheless, the rebels made a hasty 
retreat to Penrith, expecting to find their prince there, 
but he had no sooner heard of the sldrmish than he fled 
precipitately to Carlisle. The night was so dark, and 
the mountain roads in that winter season so bad, that 

the rebels, though not pursued, suffered greatly, and 
Chai'les Stuart was obliged to abandon his horee aud 
proceed on foot, and in this condition he reached Carlisle 
next morning, the lUth of December. 

The Duke of Cumberland had slept that night in the 
house of a loyal Quaker, in the outskirts of the village 
of Cliftou, but in the moiTiing he continued the pursuit. 
The rebels remained only one night in Carlisle, aud on 
the 20th, leaving a garrison of three hundred men in 
the castle, continued their retreat, and at night re- 
crossed the river Esk into Scotland. They had quitted 
Carlisle so precipitately, that they were obliged to leavo 
there all their ai-tillery and a great part of their bag- 
gage ; and at the time they were crossing the Esk, the 
Duke of Cumberland was already within eight miles of 
Carlisle, which was formally invested next day. The 
siege operations were delayed by the want of siege 
artillery, which had to be brought from "R'hitehaven : 
but the duke's batteries were in a condition to open fire 
on the 28th, and the Scottish garrison surrendered at 
discretion on the 30th. The suppression of this rebel- 
lion may be considered as closing the history of the 
Scottish border. 

Ck (i5cf)%!) of Ciinil)crl;intr aiib Mtstnmrelaiiii; 



Some few years ago I burst into the studio of a clever 
artist, an intimate friend, and iouud bim occupied in 
putting some finishing touches to a landscape compo- 
sition. The general effect was pleasing enough, and 
the arrangement of light and shade exquisite ; still, 
when asked my opinion upon the production, I was 
obliged to express dissatisfaction. My friend slightly 
coloured. What was it which offended me '.' AVant of 
congruity, I replied; — want of truthfulness to nature. 
Even had you not expressly informed me of the fact, I 
should have been assured that it is no real landscape 
which is here pourtrayed. I then questioned him as 
to his summer rambluigs. Had he ever sketched in 
Kent? Yes, many a time. Had he ever visited 
Wales or Cumberland? Yes, both. Perhaps ho had 
crossed over into the Isle of Man ? Yes ; he had some 
ilanx sketches in his portfolio. And therefore, I con- 
tinued, in composing this picture from your note-book, 
you have placed on one side of your lovely Kentish 
valley, with its hazel copses and hop-clad slopes, the 
towering porphyritic peaks of ScawfcU and Great- 
Gable, and on the other the beautifully rounded out- 
line of Bein-y-Phot or Greebab, the softer clay schists 
of whose surface have been ploughed up by the passage 
over them of ice-floes and icebergs, and then degraded 
during ages of quiet upheaval from the depths of an 
arctic sea. And see, I added, this mass of rock which 
so picturesquely occupies tho foreground, and is prc- 
sumcil to have been detached and to have fallen from 
this frowning porphyritic precipice, is a veritable lump 
of mountain liiiicstoiie, one of the blocks which the 
action of tho boisterous sea which beats on the iron- 
bound coast of old Jlona, has torn down from the 
singular patch of limestone which juts out between 
Port St. Mary and Perwick bay. My friend, with his 

characteristic candour, owned tho correctness of my 
remarks, and acknowledged that, to be a proficient in 
his art, he ought either to paint dii-ect from nature, or, 
if he composed a picture, to become a geologist. 

Perhaps some might be inclined to exclaim, " Cur 
ego amicum offendam in nugis:" i.e., " V.'hy get in a 
passion with such trifles as these ;" or, with the same 
classic author, to affirm that "to poets and painters 
sufficient liberty must be allowed." Granted ; yet our 
old friend Horace is quite as decided as to the necessity 
of uiiit}/ in a poem or a picture ; and that man as much 
offends against true art, truth, and nature itself, who 
paints a granitic peak a-top of a chalk cliff, as he who 
pourtrays " a dolphin in tho woods, or a wild boar in 
the midst of the sea." 

The fact is, that both poets and painters of some 
eminence have been guilty of many (so to speak) 
geological anachronisms. The terms granitic and 
adamantine sound very grand, and help to round a 
line, if they do not always express a truth ; and so, 
also, it is very easy to paint gigantic breakers ilashiug 
against impossible coasts, and from ignorance of the 
effects of the atmosphere on rocks of different texture, 
to display, on the saD\e canvas, such an aggregation of 
scenery as it is not likely, if at all possible, should occur 
on the face of nature. 

Geology, though an infant science, has already added 
immensely to the intellectual enjoyments of the human 
race. The history of no count'y can be considered 
complete without tho chapter of its physical historv- : 
and for a tourist to enter upon a district, guide-book and 
map in hand, but that guide-book or map defective in 
geological description or colouring, is much the same as 
if he should walk into a picture gallery with a catalogue 
of its contents, but that catalogue unnumbered, or the 



numbers so placed as not to corrcspoud with tlie tickets 
attached to each separate painting. 

The following pages are intended to supply to tlie 
present volume such a synopsis of the geology of 
Cumberland and Westmoreland, and more especially 
of the lake distriot, as may help tln' general reader to 
a just appreciation of the varied beauties which belong 
to this locality ; and, whilst gaziug on the lovely retire- 
ment of the vales, and the deep quiet of those azure 
lakes in which majestic mountains glass themselves, to 
enable him to revert- to the period when the mountains 
were being heaved up with volcanic throes from the 
depths of the primeval ocean, or, subscciuently, were 
being degraded by the action of the glacier and the 
avalanche, whilst an arctic sea reached far up into 
the country, changing the valleys into icy fiords, whence 
it bore far away vast spoils of poqihyry, greenstone, and 
granite, and spread them over a sea bottom which 
has since become the plains of Yorkshire, Lancashire, 
Cheshire, and Staffordshire, stranding also a portion on 
the southern coasts of the Isle of Man. 

"SVhen I first became acquainted with Cumberland 
and Westmoreland, I was but a tyro in earth-science. 
It is a fearful country for the young student in geology 
to break ground in. Torn in pieces, and then crumpled 
up in almost every possible contortion — intersected with 
vast djkes of protruded and intruded igneous rocks — - 
starred in every direction with faults, and then scored 
with the ice tracks of a thousand ages ; — how is such a 
country to be unravelled'.' Where must the student 
begin'.' — where can he end'.' 

No wonder, then, that at the end of three months, 
though many a rock had yielded to the more energetic 
blows of my youthful hammer, and my packages were 
considerably heavier on my exodus from the country 
than at my advent to it, I had not advanced far into a 
knowledge of the structure of the mountain masses, and 
of their relation to the rocks of other regions I was in 
almost total ignorance. At that time, the great sub- 
divisions of the oldest strata of the globe — the inner 
garments, as it were, which wrap about the giant limbs 
of Mother Earth, had scarcely been made out ; and the 
terms Cumbrian, Cambrian, Silurian, Devonian, were 
only beginning to find a place in the vocabulary of 
geologists. The patient, untiring labours of an humble 
individual, Mr. Otley, who must ever be regarded as the 
father of Cumberland and Westmoreland geology, had 
indeed worked out the chief problems of relative age of 
the different deposits, and had traced out almost accu- 
rately the boundai-ies of each : but the subject of 
ynetamorpJdsm {i.e., change of form or structure of 
rocks) had hardly been touched upon, and the diluvial 

theory of the trausjiort of bouldcre, and of Ihe gravel and 
sands of the later tertiaries, reigned supreme. 

The orderly mind of the venerable father of English 
geology, William Smith, accustomed to trace out that 
beautiful sequence of the strata of the secondary period, 
which in no quarter of the globe is better developed than in 
the south and cast of England, started back at the confusion 
of this area of volcanic action ; and the maps which he 
and his talented son-in-law. Professor Phillips, had 
accomplished, could only at the time place the rocks of 
the lake country under the one great nomenclature of 
the clay-slate and grauwacke-slate system. It was 
reserved to Professor Sedgwick, applying a mind power- 
ful in itself, but trained to closer reasoning by the studies 
of that university of which he has long bceu so bright an 
ornament, to bring forth order out of chaos, and after 
many a footsore ramble amongst the mountains and glens 
of his almost native district, to lay before the Geological 
Society of London the result of years of investigation, in 
a scries of papers which must ever form the ground-work 
of any geological description of this area. 

Whatever future research may do in determining, by 
means of larger suites of fossils, the actual equivalents 
of the rocks of the lake district and surrounding country, 
when placed alongside those of Wales and other paleozoic 
and hypozoic districts, whatever may be the nomencla- 
ture which futuie geologists may find it most convenient 
to adopt in reference to these vast groups of strata — 
whether the name Cambrian, as first bestowed upon 
them by Professor Sedgwick, be retained, and whether 
it be regarded as corresponding with a portion of the 
lower Silurian of Sir Roderio Murchisou, stdl it is verj' 
unlikely that any material alteration can take place in 
the classification which Professor Sedgwick has made 
of the rooks of these counties, or in the outline which 
he has traced of the different areas which they occupy. 
The tribute which that eminent geologist Professor 
Phillips has given to the work of Professor Sedgwick 
is most just when he says, " From his judgment it is 
seldom' safe to differ." In later years I have several 
times gone over this locality, again and again making 
various traverses, chietly with the view of tracing the 
direction of the currents of the boulderclay and post- 
tertiary period, and the map which Professor Sedgwick 
has deposited in the library of the Geological Society of 
London, has certainly been my most faithful guide 
in following up to their true situs, or origin, the several 
drifted materials. 

An old writer, in speaking of the Isle of Man, has 
described it as " ane parke in y^ sea, impaled with 
rocks." Such might, in former ages, have served for 
the description too of the English lake district. The 



plains wliich encircle it on every siilc (in which we may 
include the fragment of the drift fringing its western 
margin) formed the bed of a sea, out of which uprose 
the pinnacles of slate, porphyry, syenite, and granite, 
in the midst of which repose those exquisite waters 
which have given a character and celebrity to this 
portion of England. 

In endeavouring to give to the general reader a notion 
of the structure of the area of Cumberland and West- 
moreland, and of the causes which have led to its present 
appearance, I shall only presume that he possesses a very 
small quantity of geological knowledge, and can excuse 
my using very simple terms and illustrations. It is 
necessary that he should be aware that the rocks of which 
the crust of the globe on which we live is composed may 
be divided first of all into two great classes, viz., if/ncous, 
or those which have been forced up from below by the 
action of fire, and aqueous (or perhaps, rather, as we 
should call them, sedimentarijj, i.e., those which have 
been deposited from above after having been mecha- 
nically suspended in, or rolled along by, water. To the 
former class, in modem times, belongs the lava poured 
forth from volcanoes ; and to the latter class belong the 
mud, sand, and gravel which settle down either in fresh 
water lakes or at the bottom of the sea. Both the 
above classes have in some places undergone a change 
in their original constitution, and, from some causes 
which I will not now discuBS, have assumed a crystalline, 
or semi-crystalline appearance. They have hence been 
called mctamorphic, i.e., altered rocks. 

In the district of Cumberland and Westmoreland, a7id 
particularly in the midst of the lakes, wo meet with the 
most perfect examples of these dillbrcnt classes of rock, 
and I proceed to give a short account of the origin of 
each, and the localities whon^ they may best be studied. 
I will not speculate upon what may have been the 
original condition of our globe, but presume that we 
have come to that chapter in its history when the 
physical operations going on upon its surface .were 
similar in kind, though, perhaps, not altogether in 
degree, to those which we witness now; — when, as 
now, the earthquake and the volcano ■were upheaving 
and breaking the surface of our earth, and the sea and 
air were at work upon the upheaved surface, pulling it 
down again to one general level. 

The earliest stratified rocks of this district, as far as 
we at present know, are the Skiddaw slates, whose 
general character is dark, glossy, laminated, and argil- 
laceous. Though deposited originally as mud at the 
bottom of the primeval sea, it is only very lately that 
organic remains, that is, fossils, or relics of ancient life, 
have been discovered in them. We arc indebted for 

this discovery to Mr. .John Ruthven, of Kendal, whose 
labours in working out the details of these beds, and of 
the greater part of the strata of this district, are beyond 
all praise. Previous to his discoveries, it had been 
usual to term the Skiddaw slate as hypozoic, i.e., below 
the range of life upon our globe. But I would observe 
here, that even should no organic remains be found in 
any particular rock, it would always be unsafe to say 
that at the period of its formation there was no animal 
life upon the surface of our earth. The sea bottom of 
that locality might at that time have happened to be so 
deep as to lie below the lowest known zone of animal 
life. There are vast areas at the bottom of our present 
oceans which must be regarded almost as marine deserts, 
destitute of a fauna or flora, except of a microscopic 
character. Besides, many strata (as, for instance, the 
lower portion of these Skiddaw slates) have, since their 
deposition in the form of mud, undergone great changes, 
in which such a general derangement of the particles of 
which they were made up has been effected as to obli- 
terate all traces of organised life which may once have 
existed in them. 

These Skiddaw slates may best be studied by making 
a traverse across the country in a south-westward 
direction, beginning from Calbeck FelLs. The scenery 
which passes before the eye in this district is of the 
wildest character, for the strata have been crumpled up 
and tossed about in grand confusion. I have never 
dwelt on a prospect which has gratified me more 
than that which is presented to view on a summer's 
eve, to one looking westwai'd from Lattrigg, towards 
Causey Pike, Grassmoor, and Whiteless. I can only 
compare it to that of a troubled ocean running really 
" mountains high," and ii.xed all on a sudden in a solid 

The boundary of the Skiddaw slate district will be 
found by drawing a curved line first northward, then 
north-westward, from Mell Fell at the foot of UUeswater, 
by llungrisdale, towards Hesketh, then turning westward 
to Isell, thence through Cockermouth south-westward to 
Egremont. From a few miles south of Egreniout, we 
shall find the southern boundary as a rather irregular 
line passing across Ennerdale near the Great Coves, 
over Ilighstile, Ilonister Crag, and the head of New- 
lands, thonco by Wallow Crag near Keswick, by Wanth- 
waite Crag and Wolf Crag, and back again to the south 
side of Moll Fell. 

It should be observed also that we have a great mass 
of the Skiddaw slate brought up, contorted and altered, 
in Black Combe, in the south-western corner of Cumber- 
land, at a point far distant from the proper Skiddaw slate 



Next above the SluJdaw slates, we have a mass of 
green slates and porphyries of vast thickness. It would 
seem that whilst the ordinary aqueous deposits were 
going on at the bottom of the sea of that period, there 
■were constant outbursts of igneous matter from tho 
bowels of the earth. Sometimes the ejected matter 
(ejected, probably, at a gi-eat depth in the ocean, and 
therefore under great pressure) first disturbed, then 
overlaid, the aqueous deposits, forming breccias and 
masses of plutouic rock. Again, these masses wei'c 
degraded and rubbed down into fine mud, and tho 
result deposited either in beds of plutonic silt by 
themselves, or they were mixed with the ordinary 
deposits of the then sea bottom. 

We meet with simitar appearances, though of a differ- 
ent geological age, and belonging to an entirely different 
and later system, in the south of the Isle of Jlau. There 
the ordinary deposits of limestone, of the carboniferous 
period, are distinctly seen mingled with igneous rock ; 
basaltic masses with dykes sometimes rising up through 
the beds of limestone — sometimes overlying them — at 
other times alternating with them, and even mingled in 
such a manner that the ordinary fossils of the cai-bon- 
iferous period are found embedded in masses of trap- 
tuff; and the mixture of volcanic ash and mud with 
calcareous mud is so intimate that it is difficult to 
name some hand specimens of the resulting rock, or to 
say which most predominates in them, the volcanic or 
the calcareous element. 

As in the case of the Skiddaw slates, so in reference 
to these superior green and porphyritic slates, we must 
observe that a change in their constitution has taken 
place since their deposition and consolidation. This 
change may have been effected by long contact 
Tinder great pressure with heated masses of granitic 
rocks; and we may well notice that great masses of 
syenite do actually break out in the midst of them in 
several instances, as, for example, in the vale of St. 
John, near Keswick, and on the southern side of 

As might naturally have been expected, the change, 
or metamorjihism, has most intensely affected the more 
porphyritic portion of this series. Having at a pre- 
vious period been in a fused condition, it more readily 
assumed the crystalline character when again subjected 
to heat. 

It is not surprising that in such a series of rocks, 
deposited under circumstances generally so unfavorable 
to life or to the presei-vation of organic remains, we have 
not met with any fossils. They may, however, yet be 
found embedded as in the Isle of Man, even m volcanic 
products. lu fact, in the upper portion of them we do 

meet with organic remains in a calcareous band, which 
has been named by Professor Sedgwick the Coniston 
limestone, and which, though formerly regarded by him 
as belonging to and forming the base of an upper group 
of strata on the parallel of the Bala limestone of Xorth 
Wales, has ultimately been included in his lower sub- 
division of tho Cambrian strata. In the same subdi- 
vision he includes the group of dark coloured slates and 
clay flagstones lying just above the Coniston limestone 
baud, aud to which he has given the name of Coniston 
calcareous slate, or Brathay flags. The total thickness 
of these beds of limestone slate and flagstones is not less 
than 1 ,800 feet. Their general appearance indicates an 
altered condition of the sea bottom at the time of their 
deposit, and a cessation, for a long period, of those out- 
bursts of igneous matter which had previously been 
disturbing it. Thus, the circumstances were more 
favourable to the development of life, and to tho 
preservation of the remains of tho earlier forms of 
animated being. 

The area of this division of the rocks of the lake 
district lying immediately above the Skiddaw slate, and 
for which we may still retain the name of the green 
roofing slate and porphyry series, though including in 
it also the Coniston limestone, calcareous slate, and 
Brathay flags, maj- be thus defined. 

Its northern boundary will, of course, be the same 
as that of the upper portion- or southern boundary of 
the Skiddaw slate series last considered. Its western 
boundary is an irregular lino (interrupted by the ele- 
vation of Black Combe and the granite of Eskdale), 
beginning near Calder Abbey, and terminating in the 
Duddon estuaiy. Its southern boundary is a curved 
line passing from a little south of Broughton towards 
Coniston-water-head, where it is broken off by a great 
dislocation and carried northward. We may foUow it 
again through Hawkshead Fould, thence by Wray 
across Windermere to Low Wood ; after that it crosses 
the valleys of Troutbeck, Kentmere, and Long Sleddalo 
to Shap Wells, whore it is disturbed by the granite. 

Its eastern boundary will be a hue drawn at the foot 
of the mountain limestone escai-pment from Shap to 
Pooley Bridge. In this area are included the loftiest 
peaks of the lake district, ScawfeU and Helvellyn, and 
some of the grandest scenery, as Wastwater, Borrow- 
dale, Langdale, Grasmere, Ulleswater. 

The Coniston hmestone may be best studied at 
Coniston-water-head, in a quarry by the roadside, thence 
to Ambleside, where a good suite of fossils may be 
collected. A very fair collection from the same lime- 
stone may be also made by the roadside, half-way 
between Lowwood and Ambleside, where a disused 



lirae-ldlu points out the particular locality of the impure 
limestone beds. The Conistou or Brathay flags may 
be well seen in some fine quarries at Brathay, between 
Ambleside and Uawkeshead. 

Above the Couiston flagstone wo have first a series 
of gritty beds (named by Professor Sedgwick the Couis- 
ton grits), and then coarse dark-coloured fissile or 
schistose beds, in the upper portion of which the slaty 
cleavage is but little developed. They may, perhaps, 
be regarded as middle silurian. 

The series of rocks next in the ascending order has 
been divided by Professor Sedgwick into the Irelcth, 
the llotvgitl, and the Kendal group, named from the 
localities where each is best exhibited. The Ireleth 
group consists of quartzose slates, with iuten'ouing 
bauds of impure limestone ; the Howyill or lui'kby 
Moor group has a more arenaceous character in its 
lower portion, and the upper is made up of micaceous 
flags and schists extremely fossililerous. They occupy 
a large area over the greater portion of Low Fumess 
in Lancashire, the whole of the south of Westmore- 
land (excepting the portion covered by the carboniferous 
limestone), as far east as the valley of the Luue, and 
reaching up to the great Pennine fault. They may, 
however, be well considered as one series, or more 
simply subdivided into Ireleth slates, and Hayfell and 
liirkby Moor flags. — [Vide Geological Map.) 

Both the lithological character of these beds, and also 
the included fossils (upper Silurian) indicate that some 
movement was going on contiimously over this district 
during their deposit. The change in species between 
the Conistou limestone and flagstone and the superior 
Couiston grits is so great, as to have led Professor 
Sedgwick to the conclusion that we are here to look for 
tho true termination of the Silurian series, and to 
place all the rocks below the Conistou grit in the scries 
named by him mauy years ago from the locality wlierc 
tliey occur, the Cambrian ; but which seem, from their 
included fossils, to be on the same geological parallel 
Mitii a portion of the Lower Silurian strata of Sir 
lioderick I. ilurchison. 

It is a remarkable fact, that this Cambrian series, as 
defined by Professor Sedgwick, contains seventy-two, 
at least, well-ascertained species of fossils ; and that the 
remaining slate-beds above them in the lake district, 
which are certainly Upper Silurian, contain ninety- 
two species of fossils, whilst out of this large number 
of 105 species in all, not more than ii\o are common 
to the two series. 

If, therefore, there be any good reason for separating 
the palajozoic rocks below tho old red sandstone into the 
two divisions of Upper aud Lower Silurian, or, as some 

have proposed, and as is noted in the table accom- 
panying the Geological Map, into three divisions, — 
Upper, Middle, and Lower Silurian, — the same reason 
seems to hold good for retaining the name Cambrian 
for the lower portion, as first named by Professor Sedg- 
wick from that part of North Wales where beds of tho 
same age and containing similar fossils occur. 

By means of the igneous forces at work beneath the 
earth's crust, a tremendous convulsion took place, 
affecting the whole of this district after the deposit of 
the Kendal or Kirkby Moor group with its superior 
tilestone and before the formation of the old red 

This convulsion elevated the district generally along 
an axis which runs from north-east to south-west 
through Skiddaw Forest and Grassmoor Forest. — {Vide 
Geological Map.) The consequence was that the lower 
rocks were brought up and elevated into ridges in such 
a way that then: general dip was more rapid aud pre- 
cipitous towards the north-west than towards the south- 
east and the general elevation of the district greater on 
the south-east than on the north-west side of the axis of 

We may trace to this circumstance, perhaps, the fact 
that the beds on the north-west side are more sud- 
denly covered up by newer deposits and that the upper 
beds of the slate rocks, where they are seen on the 
south-east side of the lake district (as for instauce 
about Kendal), are less contorted thau on the opposite 
side of the axis of disturbance. 

The disturbance which so greatly aflected the Cum- 
berland and Westmoreland mountains appears to have 
been at the same time general iu the British isles 
occun-ing just before the Devonian or old red sand- 
stone era. In the neighbouring Isle of Man, we have 
a parallel mountain range of the same ago. We meet 
again with evidences of a hke direction of movement 
occurring at the same period in Wales, in Ireland, aud in 
tho south and north of Scotland. Wo miglit well 
inuigiue some vast earthquake wave passing over tho 
British isles, and leaving these indcUbla records of its 
transit in vast mountain piles whoso crests run parallel 
to each other, and the circumstance of these ranges 
being more precipitous ou the north-west than on the 
south-east side is one well worthy of consideration 
and may lead to speculation as to the direction iu 
which the force of translation (so to speaki has acted. 
Such a speculation must not, however, be supposed to 
set aside considerations of tho subsequent etfect of 
denudation aud waste, due, purhaps, to the direction 
of powerful oceanic currents, acting u])on these ranges 
at the period of their elevation aud for ages afterwards. 



We come now to the next great division of the rocks 
of Cumberland and Westmoreland. These are the 
beds of the Old Red Sandstone and Conglomerate, 
belonging to the Devonian series. 

In the ravines and hollows formed by the last named 
"reat disturbance (in which the mountain ranges would 
appear as a series of islands in the ancient ocean) were 
deposited a mass of boulders, pebbles, and sand, after- 
wards consolidated. Beds of such materials are found 
mantling round the older slate rocks in the district of 
Cumberland and Westmoreland, as well as in other 
parts of the British Isles and resting uuconformably 
upon them. And prior to their being deposited, a great 
wear and tear of the older rocks had occurred, jagged 
edges being planed down so that the Old Red Conglo- 
merate often rests on a smooth surface, though uucon- 
formably to the dip of the older beds. 

The beds of Old Red Sandstone and Conglomerate 
are of very varying thickness. The circumstances under 
which they were accumulated will readily account for 
this fact. In the neighbourhood of the lake district, as 
in the Isle of Man, we seem to have before us merely 
the relics of the margin of the Devonian strata, which 
attain such enonnous proportions both in Scotland and 
in the south-west of England, but which are here only 
feebly represented. 

I think one of the most instructive localities for stu- 
dying the Old Red Sandstone is at Shap Abbey. Just 
across the stream eastward, opposite the abbey, is a fine 
escarpment of the Devonian series, capped with the 
Carboniferous Limestone. I have never yet seen a spot 
where the Carboniferous Limestone is unconformable to 
the Old Red Sandstone, though everywhere the conglo- 
merate rests on the upturned and worn edges of Silurian 
schists or tilestones. Such seems to be the case in the 
neighbourhood of the lake district, and the section at 
Shap Abbey exhibits it very finely. The Devonian 
series does not here appear more than thirty feet in 
thickness, resting upon upturned claret-coloured schists ; 
hut at Mell Fell, on the northern side of Ulleswater, the 
Old Red Conglomerate is of enormous thickness. 

Many years ago (in 1848), in a publication embracing 
the geology of the Isle of ilan, I hazarded a conjecture 
that the Old Red Conglomerates were accumulated in 
a sub-arctic climate. I grounded tliis conviction on a 
comparison of this formation with that of the vastly 
more recent Boulder Clay of the post tertiary period, 
which most, if not all the geologists of the present 
day, allow to have been accumulated under such climatal 
conditions. The degraded and smoothed surfaces of 
the rocks under the conglomerate can thus be readily 
accounted for, I have seen nothing since I hazarded 

the expression of that conviction to shake me in it, but 
rather still more to confirm me. 

It was at the time objected against me by the talented 
author of " The Old Red Sandstone " (the late deeplj 
lamented Hugh Miller), that there were found in some 
Devonian beds the remains of plants indicating a sub- 
tropical flora ; but my answer was and is that these 
plants are mostly found in a fragmentary condition, 
indicating that they had been transported from a 
distance, and we know that, through the action of 
the gulf stream, the tropical plants of the West Indies 
are now often found, not only on the north-west shores 
of Scotland, but even farther north. 

After such great disturbances and elevations of moun- 
tain chains occurring just before the Devonian period, 
there must have been a considerable change in the 
character of the climate of these islands, and the ten- 
dency would seem to have been to render them colder 
than at the immediately previous period. 

I have not been able, as I before stated, to discover 
any distinct evidence of convulsion occurring between 
the Old Red Sandstone and the Carboniferous deposits 
next supervening, including the Mountain Limestone 
with the superior Coal measures. But there seems to 
have occurred a quiet subsidence of this area through 
the whole carboniferous period, more intensely developed 
on the north-western side of the lake district, where the 
coal beds attain their greatest thickness. Such changes 
in the relative level of sea and land, if widely extended, 
as was probably the case, would produce also a change 
in climate, and hence it is no objection to the theory of 
the Old Red Conglomerate having been originated in 
a sub-arctic climate, that the immediately supervening 
Carboniferous deposits exhibit the influence of a sub- 
tropical atmosphere and ocean. 

These deposits must have occupied vast ages in their 
formation; and we know that throughout the Tertiary 
period there are strata in close proximity with each 
other, indicating as violent changes in the climatal 
conditions of the area now occupied by the British 

To this circumstance of the subsidence of the area 
of Cumberland and Westmoreland during the Carbo- 
niferous deposits, is owing the fact that in most places 
they buiT up and overlap the Old Red Sandstone, and 
are found resting on the siluriau and Cambrian slates. 
This is more particularly the case along the northern 
and western edges of the lake district, owing to the 
causes which I have before alluded to, viz., the more 
rapid general dip of the beds, and also their greater 
waste and destruction whilst exposed in a shattered 
condition to the action of oceanic agents. 



The Mountain Limestone may have surrounded tbe 
lake district as a fringing coral reef; or, if we suppose 
that the first great distortion of the slates had not very 
greatly raised the area, it may have even overlapped 
the whole, and been subsequently dcuuded in that 
uprising of the country which I now proceed to notice. 

Towards the close of the Carboniferous period, after 
the deposition of the coal beds, and previous to the form- 
ation of the upper New lied Sandstone and probably 
of the Magnesian Limestone and Conglomerate and 
lower New Ited Sandstone strata, the agencies at work 
beneath the crust of the earth raised up the entire lake 
district in a vast ellipsoidal dome, during which it was 
cracked and starred in directions generally at right 
angles to the axis of elevation. 

Tliis axis of elevation lies along a curved line drawn 
through Scawfell (which appears as the point of greatest 
intensity of the elevating forces), from a little to the 
south of the Calder river on the west to Ortou on the 
east, where it is cut across by the great limestone fault 
of the Pennine chain. From this axis the great north 
and south valleys run down at right angles, radiating, 
however, from each extremity like tlie spokes of a wheel. 
The inspection of even a common map of the district 
will illustrate this statement where the lakes them- 
selves rest, and tlie rivers flow in valleys formed in the 
lines of these faults ; but this is more distinctly indi- 
cated in the geological map accompanying this work. 

It is to this gigantic disturbance that we chiefly owe 
the present configuration and main features of this 
portion of the British Isles. It was a disturbance, 
liowever, not limited to this spot, but very general at 
that period, both in Europe and also in America. By 
it not only was the country of the English lakes eleva- 
ted in the manner I have just named, but its previously 
isolated character was altered to that of a peninsula. 
Previous to this event, during the deposit of at least 
a portion of the Carboniferous strata, the sea seems to 
have flowed continuously around the Lake District, a 
ridge was now formed which connected this district 
with the elevated tracts of the great Pennine chain, 
shutting up the channel on the eastern side of the 
Lake Country and forming a deep bay to the north- 
east, now occupied by the vale of Eden. 

In this bay and in the seas which subsequently 
washed the north-west and south of the Lake District, 
were then deposited the beds of the New Pied Sand- 
stone and of the JIagnesian Limestone and Conglo- 
merate, which truly indicate the oiitlino of that portion 
of tho country occupied by the hikes of t.'uiiiberlund, 
Westmoreland, and Lancashire. Not any of these 
beds actually reach uj) to the lakes themselves, and the 

same might be said of the Coal measures and the 
ilountain Limestone in their present position, though 
it is probable, as I have before stated, that they did 
overlap some portion of the lake area prior to its ele- 
vation by the last-named general disturbance, by which 
the valleys and basins were originated in which tbe 
lake waters repose. 

Whether the before-named elevation was sudden, or 
continuous through a long period, we have not any 
distinct evidence. 

It caused faults, traversing the limestone beds, as is 
distinctly seen in the neighboui'hood of Kendal, and 
therefore it must have commenced aftgr their deposi- 
tion. The New Red Sandstone also rests unconfonnably 
in many places on the Carboniferous deposits, and this 
circumstance indicates that some great elevation of the 
area had taken place in the interval between the two. 
But that the whole area of Cumberland and Westmore- 
land has also been further elevated since the dejiosit of 
the New Red Sandstone is shewn by its inclined posi- 
tion in several places, as for example about Furness 
Abbey and in the neighbourhood of St. Bees. 

It is highly probable, though not absolutely certain, 
that very shortly after the deposit of the Coal measures, 
and the Magnesian Limestone and Conglomerates, and 
prior to the formation of the upper New Red Sandstone, 
occurred that remarkable coui-ulsion which first elevated 
the Pennine chain in tlie east of Cumberland and West- 
moreland, and gave the principal features to the eastern 
boundaiy of these two counties. It will be seen, by 
reference to the geological map, that along the eastern 
side of the vale of Eden, a remarkable dislocation of the 
limestone strata has taken place. A magnificent wall 
of carboniferous limestone towers aloft to a height, in 
some places, of more than two thousand five hundred 
feet above the plain of Carlisle and the valley in which 
the Eden flows. Beds of the very same hmestone are 
buried under the Red Sandstone of these plains. On 
the eastern side of this axis of disturbance, the strata 
dip gently towards tho plains of Yorksliire, but on 
the western side of it they are thrown down in a more 
precipitous manner, dipping at angles varying from 
30° to 80°, and in some places are iilaced on end, or 

Along this axis, between Brampton and Brough, the 
lower rocks of tlie Silurian series are, for a distance of 
ten miles, frequently tlnust through, forming conical 
hills, as at Dufton Pike, Knock Piko, Keisley Pike, and 
Murton Pike, overtopping tho lower edge of the Carbon- 
iferous Limestone. A small strip, also, of Old Red 
Conglomerate manifests itself in tljo neighbourhood of 
Hilton. The distortion and confusion of strata along 



this magnificent line of disturbance, is such as to render 
it extremely difficult to trace correctly each rock, and to 
lay it down on a geological map. The tattered and 
zig-zag character of ^Yhat have been termed the edge 
beds, balHos all attempts at correct delineation on a 
reduced scale of the country, though the leading fea- 
tures are sufficiently obvious. The dislocation and 
distortion becomes even more than ordinarily compli- 
cated in those parts where the general direction of the 
line of fault is disturbed, and forms re-entering angles, 
as in the country from Crough towards Ravenstone- 
dale. No doubt this is due in a great measure to the 
influences of other faults which intersect this great 
axis of dislocation, as those of Cross Fell, Kiiby Stephen, 
and LuncJalo. This magnificent dislocation of strata 
is not confined to the eastern side of the vale of Eden, 
but reaches down to the south in an irregular line as 
far as Kirby Lonsdale, near which place it is cut across 
at right angles by the double Craven- fault, which runs 
in a direction thence nearly east-south-east for thirty 
miles to Warfedale. In like manner, the northern 
extremity of this great axis of disturbance, which has 
received the name (not altogether a correct one) of the 
Pennine fault, is cut across at right angles by another 
called the Tynedale fault, which runs eastward, with 
some irregularity, for a distance of fifty miles, to New- 

The course of the Pennine fault from Brampton to 
Brough is south-east by south ; at this latter point it 
turns in a direction south-west by south to near Kirby 
Lonsdale, and its total length from the point where it 
is intersected by the Tynedale iault till it meets the 
double Craven fault is not less than fifty-five miles. 

I have said that the period of the first disturbance 
which dislocated the strata in this direction must pro- 
bably be between the time of the deposit of the Magne- 
sian Limestone and that of the New Picd Conglomerate. 
The evidence for such a supposition is this; It may 
be taken as an almost general rule, well established by 
observation and mathematical calculation, that faults 
in the same district at right angles to each other are 
contemporaneous. Hence we argue that the Tynedale 
fault and the Craven faults were contemporaneous with 
the formation of the Pennine range. In confirmation 
of tliis view we may also observe that in the Tynedale 
fault the strata on the northern side of the disruption 
are thrown down and in the Craven faults those on the 

Now, if we examine closely the Tynedale fault we shall 
find near Newcastle that it has distinctly affected not 
only the Coal Measures but also the lower New Red 
Sandstone and the ilagnesian Limestone. I have be- 

fore stated that the upper New Red Sandstone is in 
some places unconformable to the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone, the Coal, and the Magncsian Limestone ; and if this 
want of conformity could be distinctly traced to the effects 
of that disturbance which originated the Tynedale, Pen- 
nine, and Craven faults, we should be able very appro.t- 
imately to fi.x the date of that remarkable phenomenon. 
At the upper end of the valley of the Edon, we have a 
partial development of beds of the Magnesiau Lime- 
stone and Conglomerate in such a situation in reference 
to the overlying New Red Sandstone, as to lead to the 
suspicion that the want of conformity between them 
might be due to some elevation of the Pennine chain. 

The Carboniferous series of Cumberland and West- 
moreland (more distinctly developed as we cross the 
border of the counties into Yorkshire), consists of the 
mountain limestone strata, the millstone grit, and the 
coal measm'es. The Mountain Limestone may itself 
also be resolved into an upper and lower division. The 
lower limestone consists of dark beds of a very pure 
limestone, full of shells, corals, and crinoidea, and is 
that portion of the series chiefly exhibited in the coun- 
ties of Cumherland and Westmoreland. On the cast side 
of the vale of Eden, under Cross Fell, we find mixed 
up with it some gritty beds, with shale, and poor coal. 
Its total thickness varies from 500 to 800 feet, or even 
more. Tlie upper Limestone strata, or Yoredale rocks, 
of Professor Phillips, consists of limestone, grits, shale, 
chert, and thin seams of coal increasing more and more 
towards the north. Fossils are extremely abundant in 
these beds, brachiopoda and crinoidea being prevalent 
in the limestones, and terrestrial plants in the coal and 
grit. The alternation of beds seems to point to au 
alternate rising and sinking of this area during the 
period of their deposition. They may be well studied 
in the rich mining district of Alston Moor, at Hcsket 
Newmarket, and Cockermouth, near Dalton in Low 
Furness, and further south again about Kirby Lons- 
dale, and, crossing the border, they may be finely 
observed in Dentdale, and under Ingleborough Fell and 

To the Mountain Limestone succeeds the Millstone 
Grit, hardly seen in Cumberland and Westmoreland, 
except in the extreme north-eastern portion of the former 
county, and in a degenerate form in the neighbourhood 
of Cockermouth. Generally speaking it increases in 
thickness towards the south. It may almost be re- 
garded as a lower member of the great Coal formation. 
and it contains a few thin seams of coal. On the 
eastern side of the Pennine range, the millstone griL 
assumes larger proportions, and a remarkably tabular 
mass of it forms the summit of Ingleborough. 



The tme coal formation which next succeeds the 
above is of extreme importance to the prosperity of Cum- 
berland and Westmoreland. la the former alone of 
the two counties it is developed. From near St. Bees 
Head it extends along the coast by Whitehaven and 
Workington to JIaryport, thence its northern boun- 
dary is a curved line following partly the course of tho 
Ellen river, and then bending eastward to near Bleu- 
nerhasset and Rosely Hill, where it suddenly terminates. 
It occupies a breadth inland of about six miles in its 
southern portion, gradually diminishing northwards. 
On its nortliern edge the coalfield is overlaid by the 
New Red Sandstone, under which no doubt it would in 
many places be found, though it might not be at depths 
at present remunerative in the working. It appears 
again over a little space in the north-west of Cumber- 
land, mantling round a nucleus of Mountain Limestone 
in the neighbourhood of Aikton and Little Brampton. 
The total thickness of the coal-bearing strata in the 
neighbourhood of Whitehaven is hardly less than throe 
hundred vards, — being made up of many scams, the 
greater portion unworkable ; but one of them, the main 
band, being ten feet in thickness, and wrought with 
great earnestness. The dip of the beds being seaward, tho 
excavations have been carried under tho bed of the sea. 

Before leaving the consideration of the carboniferous 
strata, a word or two should be said respecting a sin- 
gular igneous mass interpolated in them. The Whin- 
Sill, as it is called, is a great mass of basalt and 
greenstone interstratified with the lower rocks of the 
Yoredale series, and exhibited along the southern and 
western brows of Cross Fell, the great Peimine range, 
along the eastern side of the vale of Eden, passing 
round the northern end along the escarpment of Moun- 
tain Limestone into Teesdalc, and thence stretching 
eastward into Northumberland. Its thickness and 
composition arc variable. In some places, as at Hilton 
Beck, it is not more than twenty-four feet in thickness ; 
at Caldron Snout, on the other hand, it attains a thick- 
ness of more than two hundred and forty feet. It has 
greatly altered the beds underneath it, whilst those above 
it, except at Caldron Snout, are not much changed. 
From tliese circumstances, as well as from the vast 
extent of country in which it is exhibited, with a general 
conformity to the beds of tho carboniferous scries, I 
conclude that it lias been poured out in the carboniferous 
sea, perhaps at two or three intervals, from some great 
vent in the neighbourhood of Caldron Snout. We have 
an analci;.,'ous formation in beds of .npparently the same 
age in tlie soiitli of the Isle of i\lan, which I have 
described in a memoir read before the Geological 
Society of London, in 1848. 

The Manx whin bed (consisting of basalt greatly 
altering the underlying limestone, of trap ash and 
trap breccia), is remarkable for an interposed bod of 
black limestone, containing pecuhar organic remains, 
and in the beds of trap ash we also meet with Mountain 
Limestone fossils. I am not aware that any organic 
remains have yet been discovered in the Whin-Sill of the 
Pennine range, but it is quite possible that they may 
hereafter be found in the more ashy portion, or in that 
which approaches the character of a volcanic breccia. 
Altogether, the phenomena of the Whin-Sill are of a most 
interesting character, and will greatly repay the visit of 
the geologist to the localities where it is developed. It 
has been fully described, together with its accompanying 
whin dykes rising up in the form of basaltic walls, by 
Professor Sedgwick, Mr. Hutton, and Professor Phillips. 

Over the coal measures spreading out far and wide in 
the north of CuraberLmd, from Brough, at the head of 
the vale of Eden, to the shores of the Solway Frith, and 
across the border into Scotland (forming the extensive 
plain of Carlisle), we have a series of beds deposited in 
water to which the name of the New Red Sandstone 
formation has been given. A strip of this same forma- 
tion occupies the low ground to the west of the Cumber- 
land mountains, along the sea shore from St. Bees 
Head to the Duddou river ; it is also spread out in 
Low Fumess, and again on the southern shores of 
Morecambe Bay, whence it reaches through the plains 
of Lancashire and Cheshire, through Staffordshire, 
Warwickshire, the southera parts of Derbyshire, and 
the northern of Leicestershire, and so round through 
Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire to the mouth of the 
Tees. It nowhere occupies a high level. At the 
period of its being formed, the sea washed the sides 
of the mountains surrounding the lake district. Its 
colour on a geological map points out pretty distinctly 
what was the amount of land above the level of the sea 
at the commencement of the secondary period. 

It is made up of three principal divisions, the lowest 
consisting of red marl and red sandstone, the equiva- 
lents of the linthii todtelicgende of the continental geolo- 
gists; tho middle portion is a magnesiau limestone and 
conglomerate, as seen under St. Bees Head, and a mag- 
nesiau breccia, as seen near Brough aud at Steukrith 
Bridge, near Kirby Stephen, at the head of the vale of 
Eden ; the upper consists of red gvpsoous marls aud 
red sandstone, with accumulations of gj'psum, as seen 
in various parts of the plain of Carlisle. Tho two former 
divisions belong ct-rtninh/ to tho Permian strata, as also, 
probably, docs a portion of the latter. It is not unlikely, 
however, that tho discover}- of organic remains, such as 
have been found in Cheshire, may hereafter determine a 



considerable portion of the upper New Hed Sandstone 
of Cumberland and Westmoreland to belong to tlie 
Trias, or lowest beds of the Secondary period. 

A wide gap now occurs in the geological history of 
this portion of England. In other parts of England 
and the world there occurs a vast series of deposits, 
viz., those of the whole of the Secondary period from 
the New Red Sandstone upwards, and the whole of the 
Tertiary up to the boukkr clay, of which there seems 
to be no record whatever here. I would by no means 
have it inferred that I believe that any of these strata 
at any time absolutely covered this district, and were 
afterwards borne away, though such mif/ht have been 
the case. I am rather inclined to believe that this 
portion of the British Isles lay above the sea-lino 
during the whole of this long period, and that no 
marine deposits were then being spread upon it. This 
is, however, a mere matter of geological speculation, 
respecting which anyone may venture to express what- 
ever opinion he pleases. It seems, however, pretty 
certain that at the commencement of the Boulder Clay 
period, which is the ne.xt of which we have any traces 
in the lal;e district, the whole country was in the condi- 
tion of dry land, which sank gradually beneath the 
waves of an icy sea and as gradually rose again. 

The period is one deeply interesting to the geologist 
as the connecting link between the past and present in 
the history of the condition of our globe. It is a period 
geologically recent, though beyond the date of all human 
record ; but it may not necessarily be beyond the period 
of the existence of the human race on the globe. Strange 
enough, though so recent in a geological sense, it is one 
respecting which more doubt and uncertainty exists than 
perhaps any other. One reason is, that this formation, 
for it is truly such (as much so as the Old Red Conglo- 
merate, or any of the older water-moved, sedimentary 
strata), was, till vciy recently, looked upon as a mere 
surface accumulation, such as the Noachian deluge was 
presumed to have left behind. There is, however, no 
scriptural or physical evidence that the flood of Noah 
was of a violent character, but rather the reverse. The 
Bible describes the rivers, for instance, which watered 
the garden of Eden, by names and courses known as 
existing in the days of Moses. The existence of the 
same river courses before and after the Noachian deluge 
is an evidence against any violent cataclysmal action on 
the surface of the earth. The flood of Noah answered 
all the purposes of the Almighty as a judgment on our 
guilty race, and as an everlasting warning. But had it 
been of that violent character which some have assigned j 
to it, in order to account for the transport of vast masses i 
of rock over hundreds of miles, the ark of man's safety 

must itself have been dashed to atoms, without some 
special miracle for its preservation, of which we have 
not even a hint in Holy Writ ; and we should also find 
buried in the debris some relics of the family of man, 
which we do not find. 

It may be well here to notice more particularly the 
various phenomena connected with the Boulder Clay and 
Drift period, as truly represented to us in the Lake Dis- 
trict; — they will, perhaps, help us to an undei-standiiig 
of the agencies at work in this particular locality for a 
vast series of ages. Any person who chooses may go 
and certify himself of the following facts in the valleys 
and mountains of Cumberland and Westmoreland. If 
we examine the sides and bottom of the valleys, more 
especially those which run north-cast and south-west, we 
shall notice — first, that they are scratched, smoothed, 
polished, and grooved in a particular manner ; — that in 
many places are accumulations of both boulders and 
angular fragments of rock. He will notice that not 
only are the boulders and rocky fragments scratched 
and scored ia a remarkable manner, but that, on 
removing a mass of the debris, the solid rock under- 
neath is also carved with lines running parallel with 
the general direction of the valleys. 

Now, such a phenomenon might be accounted for by 
the descent of glaciers from the mountain summits, 
bearing along on their surface the fragments of rock 
torn by the power of frost from the beetUng crags which 
tower aloft in the midst of this region of mountain 
peaks of slate and porphyry ; and, perhaps, we might 
rest satisfied with this solution of the phenomena if we 
study only the valleys of the lake district. But let us 
ascend the sides of the valleys till we come to the sum- 
mits of the ridges by which they are formed, and let us 
mount some of the eminences that seem to bar their 
openings into the more level country. Still the same 
phenomena present themselves to our view. The ridges 
running out on each side of the valleys are scored and 
polished — there are transported blocks of porphyry and 
slate perched upon every ridge and knoll. We may 
here be told that this is merely the extension of the 
glacier action — that the glacier filled up the whole of 
the valley, and obtruded itself over the ridge, and 
crowned every neighbouring summit. Such a suppo- 
sition is not beyond the bounds of possibility, thougli 
Bcarccly jirobablc if viewed in connection with the extent 
of the mountain peaks and snow-fields which are requi- 
site for generating glaciers of such magnitude. 

But there is another phenomenon to be accounted 
for, and that is, that boulders of the rocks of the lake dis- 
trict are found, not only in the valleys and on elevated 
ridges and eminences of the lake district, but carried 



towards the south far over the plains of Lancashire and 
Cheshire, and reaching down into Staffordshire, and 
resting upon the liills of Derbyshire ; and, to the 
south-east, carried across the great Pennine chain, occu- 
pying the plains of Yorkshire as far as Ilolderuess, and 
the cliffs of the east coast of England. It seems diffi- 
cult to allow simple glacier action to have resulted in 
phenomena such as these. 

Some have imagined the phenomena to he due to 
diluvial action, and have stated that great oceanic 
waves dashed over the land iu particular directions, 
carrying away vast fragments of rock over hills and 
valleys, strewing them to a considerable distance, and 
leaving them here and there in vast heaps. 

Others, again, have suggested that not one set, but 
several sets of waves have been generated, at different 
geological epochs, by the upheaval of mountain summits 
displacing vast bodies of water, and causing a drift of 
the disintegrated masses seaward. 

There is no doubt but that the sudden uprising 
of mountain chains would produce powerful waves 
■which could move masses of rock to a certain distance, 
but there is no extraneous and independent evidence of 
such tremendous convulsions having occurred in the 
houlder period. We do not, for instance, as far as I 
am aware, find pleiocene beds tilted up by mountain 
elevations in the neighbourhood of boulder clay de- 
posits, at least not in the British Isles ; nor am I aware 
that ever in the historic period has the elevation of a 
range of country transported to a great distance such 
vast masses of rock and debris as are presented in the 
formation of which I am speaking. 

There are, besides, in the boulder clay itself, very 
clear proofs to my mind, that it was not produced by 
violent catachjamal action. These proofs I have stated 
elsewhere, and this is not the place to go into them. — 
{Vide Quarterly Journal of the Proceedings of the Geo- 
logical Society of London, vol. vii., page V2, itc, 1849. 

I may mention, however, just one powerful argument 
against the diluvial theory; and it is this. Not only 
are the rocks under the boulder-clay grooved, scratched, 
and polished iu certain directions, but also tho rocks 
and boulders in it ; and the boulders are scratched, not 
merely crosswise, but along their length, — proving that 
they must, during this scratching process, have been 
held tiijht in some matrix, and not rolled looselij along 
in water. Now, it is always tho safest plan in geo- 
logical mvestigation, to assume that the surface of our 
globe has always been acted upon by the same or 
ncariy the same agencies as nt present are at work 
in modifying it. All tlie differences in temperature 
and climate, for instance, which from geology >Ye learn 

have existed in past ages at any particular locality, 
we may easily conclude to have originated from a dif- 
ferent arrangement of the sea and land. When we 
find, in the present day, in the southern hemisphere 
icebergs along the west coast of South America, in 
latitudes corresponding with Spain and Southern Italy 
in our northern hemisphere, there is no ditTiculty in 
allowing that with a different configuration of the land 
in the northern hemisphere they may formerly have 
existed iu tho seas surrounding Great Britain, and that 
our mountains may have been clothed with glaciers 
reaching even down to the sea. Let us, therefore, 
assume that this was the case at the close of the 
pleiocene period, and, at the same time, that there was 
first a gradual subsidence, or sinlcing down, of the area 
occupied by the British Isles (such as we know now to 
be going on as respects a portion of Scandinavia), and 
that there was subsequently a gradual rc-elevatiou of 
this area, what then would be the consequence ? The 
mountains clothed in glaciers would constantly be send- 
ing down masses of rock into the valleys, these valleys 
often terminating with the character of the Norwegian 
fiords. At first some of these glaciers might end off 
before they reached the sea, depositing their remains at 
various levels, and scratching and grooving the bottom 
and sides of the valleys in their progress. Some of 
them would reach even into the sea itself, and tliis 
would ultimately (as the laud went down) be the c^e 
with all of them. The extremities of these glaciers, 
with their superincumbent load of scratched rocks, 
would then be torn off, and, by the action of currents, 
drifted out to sea or stranded upon neighbouring shores ; 
along these shores, also, would be formed ice-floes and 
coast-ice, rising and sinking by the action of the tide, 
and oftentimes driven by tho force of the winds high and 
dry upon the land ; there is no difficulty iu accounting 
in this way for all the appearances of scratching and 
grooving which we find on rocks wider the boulder clay 
and in it. We have no ihlBculty iu accounting in this 
way for the transport of blocks (large or small), of pebbles, 
gravel, and sand, from one locality to anotlier, how- 
ever distant. Nor have we any great dilFiculty in 
solving iu this way the most remarkable phenomena of 
all connected with this period, namely, the elevation 
within vciy short distances of immense masses of rocks 
from a lower to a much higher level, without presuming 
upon tho intervention of any violent diluvial action. 
Many years ago I pointed out a very remarkable 
example of this kind of transport in tho Islo of Man. 
Blocks of tho South Barrulo granite are there elevated 
from their parent rock to a height of above 800 feet 
above it, within the distance of two miles. I then pre- 



sumed it possible that, being frozen in coast-iee, they had 
been driven upwards by powerful waves of translation, 
originating in the elevation of some unknown mountain 
chain, or it might be the elevation of Cumberland and 
some portion of Scotland. I do not now say that this 
is impossible, but I think it not very probable. We are 
indebted to that eminent naturalist and antarctic explo- 
rator, Mr. Charles Darwin, for what I believe to be the 
proper solution of this apparent difficulty. It has 
already been partly alluded to. As the land went 
down, the sea retaining, of course, its own general level, 
the blocks of slate, porphyry, or granite, frozen into ice, 
were continually stranded higher and higher, relatively 
with the land. Many were, of course, carried out to 
sea and dropped at lower levels, and some, by this con- 
tinued wear and tear of the stranding, would be ground 
down to powder ; but others, also, would remain and be 
driven upon the sides, or even perched on the top of 
every mountain peak which just jutted up above the 
sea, and when the whole of this area was again elevated, 
whether suddenly or gradually (as I believe), these blocks 
would be left in every position, from the summit of a 
mountain down to its deepest valleys, just as we now find 
them. And in this way we can easily account for the 
spread of the rocks of the lake district not only over the 
plains of Lancashire, Cheshire, Warwickshire, and Staf- 
fordshire, and upon the sides of the Lancashii-e and 
Derbyshire hills, but also their transport over the pass 
of Stanemoor, across the Pennine chain, into the valleys 
and plains of Yorkshire, and far away to the eastern 
shores of England. 

To take, for example, the transport of the boulders of 
Shap granite, so remarkable and distinct in its character 
that it can be recognised in hand specimens : glaciers 
descending from the eastern side of the lake district 
would transport masses of this granite into the vales of the 
Eden and the Lune. During the gradual submergence 
of this area let us suppose a general arctic current from 
the north-west, such as now flows in the same direction 
from Davis Straits, impinging on the shores of Great 
Britain. Its general eouree would be modified by the 
straits through which, in different places, it would have 
to pass, and its direction would be altered at particular 
spots by the altering condition of the coast during sub- 
mergence. The blocks brought down into the vale of 
Eden would first be drifted up higher and higher at the 
southern end of that valley, whilst those in the valley of 
the Lune might remain almost comparatively unmoved. 
At one period of the submergence the elevated land 
connecting the lake district with the Pennine chain 
would be placed under the sea, and the current would flow 
on between the lake country and what is now Yorkshire 

uninterruptedly to the south and south-west. 5Iany 
blocks would be borne in this manner altogether away, 
but some would be driven up on the east shore. Ulti- 
mately tlie submergence would be such as to allow of 
the water of the ocean flowing on to the east and south- 
east through the pass of Stanemoor. When this was tlio 
case, a very powerful current would be gerxcrated through 
this channel, forcing its way from the lake mountains 
(then appearing as a series of islands in an arctic sea), 
du'ectly into the sea covering the area which is now 
Yorksliire and the east of England. In this way blocks 
might then be transported direct from the granite boss 
of Wastdale Crag, near Shap Wells, through the Pennine 
chain, without any intervention of a glacier descending 
into the sea. I myself think this very probable. 

What the climate of the lake district was duruig and 
immediately after its re-elevation, we may not be very 
positive, yet there is good reason for believing that 
it continued of an arctic character, and that the moun- 
tains, when again upraised, were covered with snow and 
glaciers. 1 have noticed in several places accumulations 
in the valleys having greatly the appearance of moraines ; 
for instance, between Crummock-water and Loweswater, 
between Seatoller and Fwoslliwaite, in the vale of St. 
John, at the head of Hawswater, and at the foot of 
Langdale. Xow though as respects the scratching and 
grooving of the rocks at any spot, there is no reason why 
it may not have taken place prior to the submergence of 
the district ; yet, as respects the moraines, I think they 
would aU have been carried away, or gready sjiread out, 
by the force of the waves of the sea during the sinking 
and upiising again of the land, so as to leave no marked 
traces of them. The continued existence of the mo- 
raines (if, indeed, the noticed accumulations be such), 
indicates, therefore, a cold cUmate for some time after 
the lake district began to re-emcrgo from the waters of 
the ocean. During this upheaval there would be con- 
siderable denudation, both of the hard rock, split up by 
the frosts and shattered by the impinging of icebergs, 
but more especially would the materials of the boulder 
clay be liable to a re-sorting and re-distribution ; and 
all these would be spread out far and wide over the sea 
'bottom, in vaiying forms, the larger boulders nearest the 
mountains, the pebbles and coarse gravel farther off, and, 
still ferther, fine mud and sand ; also whilst the more 
arctic climate continued they would all be conveyed 
occasionally to great distances, and dropped on the sea 
bottom far away from the lake district. 

The extent of the submergence of the lalce district is 
an interesting matter of speculation. Assuming the 
truth of the theory of its sinking down quietly in an 
icy sea, unaffected by violent cataclysmal action, the 


extreme heiglit on tbe mountains at which any stranded 
blocks are found will be an evidence that the sea 
reached at least up to that particular point, or rather 
that the land had gone down so far into the icy waters. 
On evidence of this kind I have elsewhere shewn 
(vol. i. " Eduiburgh New Philosophical Journal") the 
probability that the neighbouring Isle of ]Man went 
domi, as respects the present relative level of land and 
sea, at least 1,600 feet at that period. On Moel 
Tryvaen, in North ^Vales, there are deposits of the 
glacial epoch at the height of more than 1,800 feet 
above the present sea line. I set down the submergence 
of the lake district at about the same amount. It must 
evidently have been sufficient to place the pass of Staue- 
moor under water, unless we should choose to affirm 
that the Pennine range has been elevated to its present 
position uneonnectedly with the lake district since the 
glacial period, or that the granite blocks travelled into 
Yorkshire by some method different to that which we 
have supposed. 

Another question remains, namely, what was the 
extent of the re-elevation, — what the amount of the 
re-emcrgcnce immediately after the glacial epoch '.' I 
am not at present aware that the counties of Cumber- 
land and Westmoreland afford any clear evidence ]]er se. 
The raised beaches round about the Solway Firth aud 
Morecambe Bay, and the caves in the neighbourhood of 
St. Bee's, taken in connection with similar phenomena 
occurring on all the coasts of the Irish Sea, have led me 
to the following conclusion. 

Towards the end of the glacial period the whole of 
the area of what is now the Irish Sea was so far elevated 
that the previous sea-bed became dry land. A vast 
treeless plain was formed connecting all the surrounding 
countries, and similar to the barren lands of the present 
day round about Hudson's Bay, in North America. 
Over this plain ranged the Cervits Mcgaceros, or Great 
Irish Elk, whose remains are abundantly found upon it 
iu fresh water marls, occupying basin-shaped depressions. 

After the fonnation of the vast treeless plain the laud 
became stationary for a long period, probably mauj' 
thousand years, during which the sea quietly eat back 
its way into the drift-gravel plain and excavated deep 
caverns in the solid rocks, whenever they formed the 
coast line. These caverns are seen at heights of from 
fifteen to twenty-five feet above the present sea level. 
In this way a separation bi'tween the Isle of Jlan and 
Great Britain and Ireland was again effected. 

A re-union, however, again occurred at a subsequent 
period by a farther elevation of the Irish Sea. A con- 
necting plain was again formed. And that the country 
became covered in many places with wood, and the 

climate had greatly altered in its character and become 
milder, is also evident. Yet this was not the last change. 
A partial subsidence again occurred, which may have 
happened within the human, or historic period. The 
forests were buried under the sea : the remains of them, 
with beds of peat, are found on all our coasts between the 
present high and low water mark, and they even reach 
down some way beyond the low water line. The facts 
I have stated are becoming more and more distinct every- 
day. As to whether the explanatisn of them which I 
have proposed be correct or no, each one wUl form his 
own opinion. 

We are thus brought down fi'om the earliest period 
of the geological history of the counties of Cumber- 
land and Westmoreland to those pages which relate to 
their present physical condition and the agencies 
which are uow at work iu modifying it. To describe 
the present features and scenery of these counties is not 
the object of this notice, as they are gi-aphically given by 
an abler pen in another portign of this work, and there- 
fore I shall make only one or two remarks in reference 
to changes which they are now undergoing. 

The quantity of detritus brought down year after year 
by the mountain rills and rividets is exceedingly small, 
aud Professor Sedgwick has remarked, with his usual 
acumen, that " the erosion of the rivers and torrents, 
however indefinitely continued, could not account for the 
hollows aud inequalities of any one of our mountain 
chains." Yet it is evident from the deltas which 
actually have accumulated where these rivulets enter 
the lakes, that had they bcun [daying their part through 
a very long lapse of ages these lakes must uow have 
been quite filled up, unless there were some agents at 
work to remove the material so collected. The real 
mystery seems to be, why wore not these hollows com- 
jiletely filled with boulders, gravel, sand, and clay 
during the glacial epoch, when glaciers were descending 
into them, or they were buried far below iu the glacial 
sea '? The depth of Wastwater, for example, is iu some 
places forty-five fathoms, so that its bottom is upwards 
of 11 10 feet below the level of the sea. Yet it is not 
formed by the accumulation of detritus at the bottom 
of the valley in which it lies, for the river flowing from 
it is actually cutting its way through the solid rock. (I 
have obsen-ed a similiu- iihononienon in reference to 
Loch Ness, iu Scotland.) I think this circumstance of 
its depth is a proof that it has not, geologically speaking, 
been long elevated above the action of the sea. Wast- 
water is formed (as, indeed, all our English lakes arc 
formed) in a great fault or dislocation of the strata. On 
the soutlieni side the shores are extremely steep, and 
I the depth of the water rapidly increases from the shore. 



Now, at the present time, in the area of the Irish Sea, 
between the coasts of the Isle of Man and Mull of Gal- 
loway, there is a deep chasm existing, so that in one 
place the plumb-line goes down all at once from between 
eighty aud ninety to one hundred and forty and one 
hundred and fifty fathoms. Yet this chasm is kept per- 
petually open, and whilst the sea has been flowing 
over it perhaps thousands of years no accumulation of 
gravel and sand has taken place in this natural cavity. 
Now, in the same milnner in -which this submarine valley 
is kept from being filled up, might the Enghsh aud Scotch 
lakes be kept open at the period in which they were 
submerged below the sea level. If, therefore, we could 
accurately measure the deltas which have been pushed 
forwai'd into them by the actual mountain-streams now 
at work, and determine the exact addition made to these 
deltas year by year (however small), we might approxi- 
mate to the time which has elapsed since the upheaval 
of the surface above the level of the sea. 

In the account above given of the geology of Cumber- 
land and Westmoreland our attention has hitherto been 
almost exclusively given to the sedimentary strata, that 
is to say, to the strata which have been deposited in the 
form of mud, sand, and boulders, by mechanical action 
in the waters of the primaeval ocean. But, as I have 
shewn, these strata have, in many places, been fre- 
quently disturbed or altered in their appearance by the 
intrusion of, or contact with, other rocks of a very dif- 
ferent kind, forced up in a molten or semi-fluid con- 
dition from the bowels of the earth. An account of the 
district would be very incomplete without some notice of 
these so called ijncotts rocks, that is, the granite, syenite, 
porphyries, and trap rocks, which burst through aud over- 
lie the sedimentary rocks, or dislocate and alter them in 
various places. 

The granite seems to claim our first attention, not 
because of the age of its absolute eruption, respecting 
which we can affirm httle positively, but because it has 
generally been regarded as forming the basis of the 
stratified deposits, and exhibits itself as a nucleus 
round which are folded many of our mountain chains. 

There are three remarkable kinds of granite rock pre- 
senting themselves to our notice in the area of the lake 
country, and it has been remarked as a fact well 
■worthy of study, that these varieties break out apparently 
unconnected, and only one is found in each of the three 
groups, into which the slate rocks of this district have 
been divided. In the Skiddaw slate, we have bursting 
out in the valleys of the Caldew, and near Syningill, 
between Saddleback and Skiddaw, a granite, composed of 
dark mica, grey quartz, and Ught coloured felspar. This 
has usually been regarded as the oldest granite in the 

district. It is certainly newer than the Skiddaw slate, 
as it has altered aud elevated it, but there is no distinct 
evidence of its intrusion amongst the porphyries and 
green slates, though it seems associated with that first 
great general disturbance, which we have noticed as 
affecting the lake district along an axis passing through 
this spot. 

By far the largest development of Cumberland granite 
is found ranging from Bootle nearly to Scawfell, on both 
sides of the ilite and the Esk, in the middle division of 
the slate series. It is of varying texture, generally 
reddish, with a deficiency of mica, thus passing into 
syenite, sometimes earthy iu structure, sometimes as- 
suming the spheroidal form of basalt, at others forming 
compact semi-columnar rocks. It appears at Xether 
Wastdale Head to pass into the great mass of fine 
grained red syenite, which runs northwards through the 
mountains of Ennerdale, and which may be well studied 
at Reveling Pike, High Crag, High Stile, and Ked Pike, 
and in the neighbourhood of Flouteru Tarn, aud Scale 

The fine Red Porphyritic Granite, or Wastdale Crags, 
near Shapwells, has before been alluded to. Its pecu- 
liarity consists in the large crystals of red felspar, which 
are interspersed iu a more compact base of grey and red 
felspar, with specks of dark mica and quartz. It has 
pierced and metamorphosed the slates and flags of the 
uppermost division, and has cut oft' the Coniston lime- 
stone at Wastdale Head. It must, therefore, be more 
recent than these rocks, but of its actual age we have 
no clear evidence. 

The vast number of basaltic, porphyritic, and syenitic 
dykes and masses which protrude themselves in the 
greatly disturbed district of the lakes, would occupy too 
much room separately to describe. AVe meet with them 
on the south side of Black Combe, in the bed of the 
Duddon, at Hawskead, in the valley above High Borough 
Bridge, in Wet Sleddale, in Kirk Fell, at Armboth near 
Thirlmere, in the vale of St. John, on Carrock Fell, 
between Tottlebauk Fell and Brown Hall, in the moun- 
tains of Buttemere, westward about Scawfell, aud at 
the head and foot of Wastwater. 

The rod porphyritic rock of St. John's vale, three 
miles from Keswick, with the intersecting dyke from 
Armboth Fell, and the syenite of Carrock Fell, with its 
crystals of hypersthene and intermingled titaniferous 
iron ore, are particularly worthy of study, and will well 
reward the collector of the rocks and minerals of this 

It is not the object of this geological notice to enter 
upon a description of the mines and minerals of 
these counties, they belong rather to the subject of 



mineralogy and political econoni}-. Tlio rich mining 
district of Alston Jfoor is well known, and profit- 
able veins of lead and copper have been opened on 
Coniston Old Man, iu Xewlands, on Carrock Fell, and 
Patterdile. The wad, or black-lead mine of Borrowdale, 
has been long famous, the rich veins of hematite iron 
ore at Dal ton, constitute some of the most valued sources 
of proCtablo export ; and the coal field of Whitehaven 
adds in no small degree to the mineral wealth of Cum- 
berland. To these, we have to add the magnificent 
products of flagstone and slate at Ingleton, Horton, 
Ilowgill, Kendal, Ireleth, Bootle, and Kirkstoue. The 
New lied Sandstone strata also atford vast supplies of 
building materials, a fact which may be well studied 
in the magniflcent quarries in the neighbourhood of 
Carlisle iu the north, and near Furness Abbey in the 
south. ^Vith these must be taken into consideration 
the beds of Gypsum, which are scattered in various 
parts of the great New Ked Sandstone Plain, stretchuig 
northward and westward from the vale of Eden. 

Let us now, before parting with the subject, take a 
rapid review of the Geological History of Cumberland 
and Westmoreland, gathering into small compass the 
facts which have been stated at length in the preceding 

What vast ages lias the mind to hurry through in such 
a review, ages not to be measured by the revolutions of 
our planet about the centre of our solar system, but 
of the sun itself, with that nebulai' cluster of stars of 
which it is but an hisignificaut unit about some vastly 
far-off and unseen centre of stellar gravity. 

The mists of chaos roll away, and there spreads out 
before us a mighty ocean, beneath whose depths are 
being deposited beds of dark blue impalpable mud, des- 
tined hereafter to be e.xliibited in the form of Skiddaw 
Slate. Respecting the denizens of this ocean we know- 
next to nothing, they may have been many or few ; but 
their organisation, at least judging from the scanty 
remains of them hitherto met with, was of the lowest 
type. Ere long the sea bottom is disturbed and ele- 
vated, and masses of molten matter arc poured forth 
over it from volcanic vents. Showers of ashes and 
pumice darken the air, and falling back into the waters 
arc spread out in layers over extensive areas. Again 
and again the convulsive outpourings occui\ Through 
long periods the waves of ocean dash against coasts of 
porphyry and green stone, and wearing them gradually 
away, deposit the spoils in the form of large sheets of 
plutonic mud. A troublous time is it for all organised 
beings whilst these green slates and porphyries of Cum- 
berland and Westmoreland are being elaborated. 

At length there is a period of comparative rest, and 

corals and zoophytes multiply and replenish the waters 
of the deep. The Coniston limestone, though of no 
great thickness, covers a large area, extending beyond 
the lake country; and there is no doubt it must have 
required many an age for its formation. In the same 
period of quiesence must have been deposited also the 
next, superior Coniston flags. 

But the scene shifts again, and we have before us an 
ocean teeming with life, but that life greatly differing 
iu character from that which had previously existed. 
In the Coniston grits, the Ireleth slates, and the Hay- 
fell and Kirby Jfoor flags (which come next in order 
as a lake district gi'oup), we meet with the remains of 
animals of which not sis per cent are of the same 
species as tliose which are found in the Coniston flags 
and all the rocks below. This is an evidence of some 
great change in the character of the sea bottom and the 
climate of the period ; whence originating, can be little 
more than a matter of geological speculation, yet ex- 
tremely interesting, when viewed as points of identifi- 
cation between the Lake District rocks and those of 
North and South Wales. 

After the elaboration of many hundred feet of such 
strata there comes again an epoch of great change. We 
look again upon the scene, and it is one of violent con- 
vulsion by which the whole of the Lake District is 
elevated on an axis, running from north-east to south- 
west, from Skiddaw forest to the mountains of Enner- 
dale. Such a grand convulsion, not restricted to this 
locality', but extending through the British Isles, must 
have greatly altered the contour of the sea and land, 
and with it the character of animal and vegetable life, 
ushering in the Devonian and old Pied Sandstone period. 
With it come strange ichthyic forms, the Pterichthys, 
Cephalaspis, Asterolepis, and Coccosteus. A stormy 
period of straggling elements is this, for first the jagged 
edges of the upturned slates are broken off, and the 
fragments worn down and rolled about iuto the form of 
boulders, which in some places accumulate to the depth 
of many hundred feet. I hold by the hypotiicsis of the 
existence of a somewhat arctic climate, and the preva- 
lence of glacial action on the lake region during some 
portion at least of this period. Yet change is pressing 
on and we are introduced in duo time to the subtropical 
scenes of the carboniferous period, when giant tree 
ferns and lofty palms adorn tho laud, the delicate nau- 
tilus ploughs the sunny surface of the sea and spreads 
forth its sail to the balmy breeze, and the ever active 
coral insect is building up the atol and the coi-al reef. 
Hence are originated the coal-fields of Whitehaven and 
tlie thick deposits of mountain limestone mantling round 
tho Cumberland and Westmoreland mountains. It is 



a period of gradual sinking of the sea bottom, wlaen those 
masses of calcareous rock, destined afterwards to pre- 
sent so elevated and bold a western front along the great 
Pennine range, arc being buried many fathoms below 
the surface of the briny waters which beat agaiiftt the 
insulated peaks of Skiddaw, Helvellyn, Scawfell, and 

Again, the elevatory process succeeds, powerful in 
character as well as extensive in its effects, raising 
aloft the submerged beds and giving an additional lift 
to the altitude of the Lake District, impressing in fact 
upon it the general contour which it is intended ulti- 
mately to possess. Now is formed the ridge of Orton 
scars connecting this district with the Yorkshire range 
and cutting off the flow of the ocean on its eastern 
side. Presently is elevated the great Pennine range, 
and the lofty western escarpment of Cross Fell is 
formed. But the ocean no longer teems with zoophytic 
and coraline life, nor the land with the previously 
abundant tropical vegetation. There seems to be a 
dying out of all pakTozoio forms of life, and the earth 
and ocean must be replenished with a new creation. But 
the ferruginous sea which spreads out the beds of sand 
destined ultimately to form the meadow lands of the 
Vale of Eden and the plains of Carlisle, with those of 
Lancashire, Cheshire, and Staffordshire, seems little 
adapted to sustain as yet the new race. Either the 
marine organisms of the New Pied Sandstone period 
are few and far between, or tlie character of its sand 
beds is unsuited to preserve and transmit to our gaze 
their remains. 

Amidst this uncertainty darkness settles down upon 
the scene, — a long night comes on in which we can, 
from our lake mountains, catch no sight of the wonder- 

ful creations which are going on in other regions. The 
whole of the Secondary period is a blank, and the 
Eocene, Meiocene, and Pleiocene of the Tertiary cannot 
be guessed at. 

Our story huixies on to its end. Dawn at length 
approaches, — a cold icy dawn, — and, as we stand 
shivering on our mountain summit, the howling of 
the wintry tempest, tbe roar of the avalanche, and the 
crash of icebergs, salute the ear. Erratic fragments 
from distant mountains, torn down by the mighty, ever- 
working glacier, go careering by southwards, ploughing 
up the sea bottom in their progress, and scratcliiug and 
graving the far-off shores on which they are stranded, 
and vast boulders of granite are borne away a hundred 
miles and more from the coasts of Cumberland and 

At length day comes on, the ai'ctic -winds have ceased, 
and beneath a genial atmosphere the submerged plains 
again raise their heads above the waters. Upon these 
plains the magnificent megaceros goes bounding far 
away, whilst herds of fat bisons crop the verdant her- 
bage. Such are the scenes of the pleistocene era. 

Further stiU the land becomes covered with dense 
forests as it continues to rise from the bosom of the 
deep. Anon the elevating process ceases, and again 
there is a quiet sinking of a large portion of the 
previously uplifted area. The sea reclaims its own, 
and the forests are overthrown. 

" Piscium et summa genus ha;'rct ulmo, 
Nota quffi sedes fuerat columbis." 

Last upon this varying scene comes man; and the 
reign of the beasts of the field, the fowls of the air, and 
the fishes of the sea, gives way to tliat of him who was 
made to be monarch and lord over all. 

iirto af i\t Jade gistrid 

The Lake District of EuglauJ, — that is, the mountain- 
ous region in which tlie lakes are enclosed, — occupies 
two counties, and extends over a part of a third. The 
highest mountains are on or near the boundary line 
between Cumberland and Westmoreland : but there arc 
some lofty peaks and ridges, and several lakes and tarns 
in the detached portion of Lancashire, which Lies beyond 
Morecambe Bay. The point of junction of the three 
counties is at a spot close by the road on AVryuose, 
where three ancient stones, called the Shire Stones, 
have been from time immemorial so grouped as that 
any person who chose to occupy them with three limbs, 
might boast of being in three counties at once. As 
these stones might easily be passed unnoticed, a more 
conspicuous mark, in the form of a pillar, has been 
recently set up by the public spirit of a resident of 
Ambleside. From this point, tlio boundary of Lanca- 
shire runs along the river Duddon to the sea ; and in 
the otlicr direction, by I^angdalc Tarn and Elterwater 
to the head of Windermere. About half-way down the 
lake, it strikes the eastern shore, and follows the little 
river Wiuster into ilorecanibe Bay, near Medup. The 
highest raountjiin ridges divide Cumberland from West- 
moreland, the boundary line ninning over Bow Fell to 
DuimiaUc liaise, then crossing Ilelvellyn, and passing 
through Glcncoin, to strike the western shore of UUcs- 
water. Between Ulleswatcr and the river Eden, it 
follows the course of the Eamont. Thus, of the 
mountains, Couistou Old Man and Wetherlam are in 
Lancashire ; the Langdale Pikes, the Troutbeck and 
Rydal groups, and Place Fell aro in Westmoreland : 
Skiddaw and Saddleback, the Borrowdale group, Scaw- 
fell, the Pillar. Great (iable, Cirassmoor, and Black 
Combe arc iu Cumberland ; while Wrynoso, Bow i'cU, 

and Holvellyn aro on the boundary lines. Of the 
larger lakes, Coniston, Esthwaite, and part of Win- 
dermere are in Lancashire ; Eydal and Grasmere lakes, 
Haweswater, and a part of Windermere, and of UUes- 
water are in Westmoreland ; whUo Cumberland contains 
Thu'lmei-e, Derwentwater, Basscnthwaite, Buttermere, 
Crummock Water, Loweswater, Enuerdale Lake, 
Wastwater, and part of Ulleswater. If Brothers' Water, 
(in Westmoreland) is included among the lakes, as 
it usually is, though only three-iiuai'ters of a mile in 
length, and half a mile broad, the whole number is 
sixteen ; of which two are in Lancashire, four iu West- 
moreland, and eight in Cumberland ; while two aro 
divided by boundary lines. 

The EngUsli mountain district, like every other, 
presents the likeness of a national citadel, well sur- 
rounded with out-works. The highest peaks are near 
the centre ; and to the highest peaks always belong the 
deepest valleys and most difficult passes. As the 
ridges spread outwards from the centre, they decUne 
in height, their valleys are shallower; all the features 
of the landscape are milder, and the skirts spread out 
in gentle uudulations down to the plain or the sea. 
In the case of our English group, the ridges melt down 
into sea-shore, from the Solway, all round to tlie Lan- 
cashire coast ; that is, for neai-ly two-tliirds of its 
circumference; and the rest subside into the moor- 
lands of Yorl^hire, Durham, and Nortlmmberland. 
Fi-im whatever direction the group is approached, — 
from the dreary sands of the Solway or Morecambo 
Bay, from the green shores of the western sea, or 
from the dark slopes of moorland to the east, the 
likeness to a vast citadel is etjually striking. Here 
did race after race come for refuge, under a scries of 



invasions. The Britons fled hither from the Romans, 
and maintained themselves against the Saxons. Tlie 
Saxons fled hither from the Normans; and here they 
resisted for centuries the amalgamation with their 
conquerors, which had taken place in all the s^hern 
parts of the island. To this day the citadel character 
remains, in a somewhat figurative sense. Ancient 
notions, prejudices, and customs hide, from generation 
to generation, in the interior fastnesses, and even hold 
some of the outworks. Strangers are struck by strong 
local peculiarities as soon as they alight at the railway 
stations, or dip into the shallowest outlying valley ; and 
when they penetrate to the deep, dark lakes, and sleep 
at the foot of solemn precipices, they seem to have 
become the guests of a generation of two centuries ago. 
The dwellings are of grey stone, rough and substantial; 
the walls tvro feet thick, and the floors flagged ; and 
the yawning chimney, with its furniture and space, is 
like nothing more modern than Queen Elizabeth's time. 
The carved chests and high-backed chairs, the heavy 
wooden settles, the linsey-woolsey of the women, and 
the wooden shoes of the children, and the home-spun 
coats of the men, the stone fences, with their antique 
steps ; and above all, the mysterious walls, which strag- 
gle up the mountain sides, apparently useless, and 
certainly ngl_y, — all carry back the imagination through 
many centuries, and give an impression of a sample of 
old England, preserved through all the changes of a 
modern time. 

The straggling walls are so distinctive a feature of 
the region as to require special notice. The stout 
Romans made no difficulty of storming this citadel any 
more than any other which it suited them to take ; and 
they marched right into, or over, the fastnesses of the 
region. We know this by the traces they have left. 
Not only have we still their camp at the head of Win- 
dermere, which involved no great mountain travelling : 
we have vestiges of a wonderful road of theirs along the 
very top of the Troutbeck ridge, — one peak of which is 
called High Street for that reason. The Saxons and 
Normans sat down before the citadel ; but they did not 
take it till the garrison had nearly died out. As the 
Normans pressed on the Saxons, the Saxons entered 
where the Britons had found refuge before ; but this 
was not till long after they had made a lodgment in the 
more fertile and accessible parts of the district. For 
instance, it was in or about .\.d. 915 that the Saxon 
Edmund slew the king of Cumbria, Dumhnail, in 
Dunmaile Raise, where a cairn marks the place of battle. 
The two sons of the slain king were blinded, and their 
territory given to Malcolm of Scotland, to hold in fee. 
This was when the Saxons had long been the reputed 

lords of the land ; and it does not appear that they were 
well settled in the district till long afterwards. The 
straggling walls mark their recession, in their turn, 
before a new race of invaders : a recession so slow and 
partial that the feudal age was nearly over before the 
region was thrown open. There are no ruins of feudal 
castles in the interior ; and such Norman traditions as 
remain hang about the outskirts. The heart of the Lake 
District was, for a long course of years, almost as much 
of an unknown land to knight or abbot as Mauritania 
or far Cathay. 

There were, as we have said, no feudal castles in the 
interior. But there were abbeys in the surrounding 
levels ; and broad lands were given to Norman nobles, 
comprehending nearly the whole circumference. Cart- 
niel Priory and Furacss Abbey occupied the two penin- 
sulas stretching into Morecambe Bay ; Calder Abbey 
lay between the mountains and the sea on the west ; 
St. Bees stood above the surf on that coast ; Lanercost 
Priory on the north ; Wolverdale Monastery and Shap 
.\bbey nearly complete the circuit. In the intciTals 
stood many a strong dwelling, whose park stretched 
inwards towards the mountains, over gentle hill and 
shallow dale. A ring-fence of Norman possessions en- 
closed the mountains ; and the nobles and monks spread 
their flocks and their tillage over the slopes, up to the 
natural defences of the region. Their lands were divided 
into tenements, and the tenements into portions small 
enough to be given to emancipated serfs. By arrange- 
ments among the holders, military aid was so afforded to 
the owner as to permit the greater number of settlers to 
apply themselves to the care of stock and to tillage. As 
shepherds and husbandmen they obtained access to the 
hills, which would have been denied to armed men ; and 
they gradually hutted themselves on the uplands, and 
then enclosed crofts round their dwellings, for the pro- 
tection and sustenance of their flocks, without opposition 
from the mountaineers. The sprouts of the ash and the 
holly were a chief part of the food of cattle in those 
days ; and ihc walling in of the crofts was partly to pre- 
serve the woods, and partly to protect the animals from 
wolves. The feudal proprietors encouraged this gradual 
encroachment by herdsmen and shejAerds ; and the walls 
seem to have crept up wherever wood could grow, in 
days when the whole region was one great forest. The 
forest is gone, and the walls remain, without beauty, and 
without apparent use ; but they answer some purpose, 
even to the mere observer, if they indicate the mode and 
degree in which the last invaders encroached on the last 
resistants who struggled for possession of Old England. 
The distribution of the estates into tenements gave 
rise to the name, as well as to the mode of life of the 



dalesmen. Strangers are surprised to find that it is the 
dwellers on the liills, and not in the valle3's, who are 
the dalesmen of the region. The name is deri\'ed from 
the word deylcn, to distribute. As each tenement was 
divided into four portions, and as each tenement fur- 
nished an armed man to the border, or other wars, on 
demand, three out of four tenants remained in their 
crofts, and industry was spread over the region, through 
all the ravages of feud with the Scots and among baro- 
nial neighbours. The uplands were cut up into portions, 
each of which had its own herd, or ilock, or tillage, 
according as the ground was woodland, or pasture, or 
fit for cultivation ; and the dalesmen were the distributed 
men. The most remarkable change that the district 
has ever undergone was, perhaps, that which succeeded 
the union with Scotland. The border wars at an end, 
there was no further drain of able-bodied men from their 
homes ; and a repose, like nothing else in England, 
settled down upon the Lake District. The men now 
ehared the monotony in which the women had lived. 
For a whole lifetime entire families never were further 
from home than the uc^ct fair or market, or spring or 
autumn sale of household goods : and strong traces of 
this seclusion remain, even to this daj-, in some of the 
most retired vales, — where the women speak with the 
awkwardness which attends an unaccustomed action. It 
is not only that the dialect is unintelligible to strangers, 
but that the mind is so sluggish, the thoughts so unused 
to be dressed in words, that the rustics speak their 
native language as learners speak a foreign one. And 
yet the other great change of modern times has pene- 
tmted this part of the country, like every other. The 
growth of the manufacturing system modifies life in the 
lake district to an e.vtent only exceeded by the border 
wars. The process and the existing state of things are 
perfectly clear and easily described. 

The first breaks in the forest which once covered tho 
whole district — clothing the ridges and filling up the 
valleys — appeared when the husbandmen and herdsmen 
made their clearings, and let in the sunshine over broad 
tracts of the mountain sides. Still, though tho people 
grew their owni flax and hemp, as well as wool, the 
woodlands were preserved with some care, for the sake 
of food and shelter for cattle and sheep. Wordsworth 
was told by old people, in his youth, of a time when tho 
squirrel could go from Wythburn to Keswick (six miles) 
on the tops of the trees, without touching the ground. 
But the consumption of wood went on without any 
attempt to repair it ; and large spaces of rocky ground 
were left bare which had better have been covered ; and 
bogs began to spread, as they usually do whoro the ftUing 
of forests hiis not been accompanied by drainage. The 

wool and llax were still spun at home, and the clothes 
were made up by the itinerant tailors who went from 
homestead to homestead to construct the family suits, 
being paid by board and lodging, and a small gift over. 
As the flocks and cattle suffered more from the snow- 
drifts on the bare uplands, and as the spread of the 
swamps occasioned more and more loss, this afl'air of the 
clothing became more expensive and difficult. The 
dalesmen were unconscious of the process, but they 
were passing through a period of transition which must 
end in making clothing cheap, in partially restoring 
their woods, and in providing for their sons and daugh- 
ters at a distance from home. 

In brief, the coppices of the district are now more 
valuable for bobbins for the manufacturing districts 
than the flax, hemp, and wool of the same area could 
ever be again. According to the news of the South 
Carolina cotton-fields, and the Australian sheep-walks, 
and the mulbeny plantations of Italy and India, is the con- 
dition and prospect of the woodlands of the Lake District. 
Every autumn a group of men may be seen traversing 
the uplands from coppice to coppice : the agent, w^ll 
booted, making his way through bog, brambles, and 
moss, aud sc[ueezing through the underwood, to value 
the trees. A labourer follows with paint-pot and 
brush, to mark the doomed trunks ; and a bargain is 
finally struck with the bobbin-mill owner, on behalf of 
the landowner. In some parts, the woods, within a 
certain limit, are divided into twenty portions, one of 
which is felled every year, — wood of twenty yeai's' 
growth being considered best for the pui-pose ; but the 
order is broken in upon, more or less, according to the 
state of the cotton, wool, and silk markets. 

The domestic changes which have attended the intro- 
duction of this new element have been such as must 
give a new aspect to the whole life of the dalesmen 
in general. Formerly, the wheel was whirring from 
morning till night in every farmhouse ; and there was 
employment for the whole family when everything was 
grown and made at home, and when any surplus, from 
cither field or loom, was sure of a sale. For many 
yeai"s after cotton goods became cheap enough to be 
bought all through the dales, tho packhorse which 
brought them first, and the carrier's waggon which suc- 
ceeded it, took away the old homespun in return for 
tho new calicoes; and there was still work for the 
daughters in tlio domestic manufacture. But, at 
length, spinning-machines grew and multiplied in Lan- 
cashire and Yorkshire till tho demand for bobbins 
brought the coppices of tho lake district into request, 
and changi'd the course of industry. The first effect 
was to lay tho hill sides bai'cr tlian ever ; but, when the 



■wood began to grow again, and llio residents found that 
the demand was likelj' to be a permanent one, they 
began to cherish their woods, and to plant more on soil 
■which would answer no better purpose. This might ho 
all very well — a gain to some people, and no loss to 
any — but there are incidents connected with the change 
which cannot but sadden the observer, while they must 
not be passed over in any faithful account of the district. 
The lads and lasses who used to be busy at home, making 
all the domestic clothing and utensils, — the dairy ves- 
sels, baskets, fishing tackle, etc., — obtaining whatever 
else was wanted from the pedlar who dropped in upon 
them twice a year or so, now find their skill discredited 
by modem improvements, and their fortunes hopeless at 
home. They are scattered through the neighbouring 
towns, or working in the Lancasliu'c and Yorkshire 
mills. The pai-ents, and the one son at home, would 
have, they thought, more produce to sell at market and 
fairs ; but here again they are met by agricultural im- 
provement. Already under disadvantage as to climate 
and soil, they cannot compete with the farmers of more 
advanced agricultural districts. The decline of the 
domestic fortunes is regular and inevitable when it has 
once set in. The laud is mortgaged: the "statesmen" 
(" estatesmen " originally) haunt the fairs and markets, 
losing more and more, and too commonly resorting to 
the old solace on such occasions, and coming home 
drunk. The amount of intemperance among that class, 
both in the villages and tlie dales, is something incredi- 
ble to strangers, and by far the most painful feature of 
the transition stage. As the mortgages grow more 
oppressive, the heu-s sell the lands; — estates which have 
•belonged to the same name for centuries have changed 
hands : and the old names arc found cvei-ywhere among 
the shopboys, domestic servants, and labourers of the 
towns and viUages. The old yeomanry of the district 
have nearly passed away, and strangers have come into 
their place. The spectacle is a sad one, but nobody has 
a right to complain. If the indigenous proprietors could 
not keep up their old ways intelligently, nor adopt new 
ones, they must inevitably give place to a science and an 
activity which can regenerate the woodlands, and fill the 
valleys with grain, and cover the hiU-sides with flocks. 
Amidst the depressed and discouraged class of " states- 
men," some hearty specimens of the old order may here 
and there be found ; but it must strike every traveller in 
the district that the mountaineer farmer is everywhere 
becoming remarkably like the agriculturist of a more 
level region. 

The improved value of the copses acts both as cause 
and effect in creating and sustaining bobbin-mills, of 
•\vhich there are four, not far apai't, in the southern part 

of the district, viz., at Staveley, Troutbeck, Ambleside, 
and Skelwith. But even in that neighbourhood charcoal- 
burning goes on with some activity. In ancient times 
the monks of Furncss Abbey made great profit of their 
ironworks, through the abundance of their woods, after 
those of the eastern counties were e.xhausted. The 
mineral treasures of the north-west of England would 
have availed little without the charcoal and peat of the 
district ; and even the discovery of the Newcastle coal- 
field did not affect the iron works at Furness. The 
oregates (ways) of the Furness peninsula at this day 
testify to the amount of business done. — many roads 
and lanes remaining entirely constructed of the slag and 
refuse of the smelting process. And the huts of the 
charcoal-burners still delight the eye amidst the wood- 
lands of the southern part of the district. The wood- 
cutters remain on a particular spot till their work is 
done ; and they build an abode for the time b)' piling up 
stems of trees, and heaping heather upon them for a 
roof. This is the most picturesque thatch that can bo 
seen; and the structure is so shaggy and wild that it 
might not be known for a dwelling but for the blue 
smoke breathing out from the hole in the roof, or the 
fire before the door, where the pot is boiling. The 
grimy charcoal-burners, or the children at play in the 
red hght, remind the traveller of the forests of Germany ; 
and the life is really not less wild. When the children 
see a stranger sketching, or botanising, or in any ■way 
exploring, they say he is " spying fancies ;" and he is a, 
sort of magician in their eyes. Among the latest speci- 
mens of the old wild race of forest men were the brothers 
Dodgson, whose memoiy has been preseiTed in Cartmcl 
for above a century. We complain of men being too 
much engi'ossed by business in our towns at this day ; 
but these brothers were so intent on their wood-cutting 
that they devoted Sunday to cooking for the whole week. 
They lived chiefly on oatmeal pomdgc, varying the diet 
with dried peas and hard beans. When they were 
growing old, they found the need of some domestic help 
and comfort ; and at last the one relieved his mind to 
the other, saying, " Thou mun out and tait a wife.' 
"Aye," said the brother, "if thear be a hard job, thou 
oUus sets yan tult." lie obeyed, however ; and when 
the old fellows were chopping away — rain or shine — 
at past eighty, thei'e was a wife''s face at the door of the 
hut, and children helping with the faggots. The 
brothers left plenty of money ; but it melted away as 
fast as misers' hoards usually do ; and the name is now 
known only by tradition in Cartmel. 

Much more recently, and more \vithin the verge 
of modem civilisation, another story vas mournfully 
enacted. A young charcoal-burner was about to marry 

suii"\t:y of the lake district. 


a farmer's daughter, when, as he sat on a stoue, watch- 
ing his fire and taking his dinner, a flash of lightning 
struck him dead. Kitty Dawson, bis beloved, went to 
bis but the day after the funeral, in a crazed state, and 
would never leave it again. She passed her days iu 
sitting on that stone, or calling her lover through the 
wood. Though she was never intruded on, there were 
always comforts in the hut, and kind eyes on the watch. 
One winter day, some sportsmen entered the hut to 
leave food there, silencing their dogs, and moving 
quietly. But she could never more bo disturbed, — she 
was lying dead. 

Another cUstiuctive class of the district are much 
like what they were of old, — the slate-quarrymen and 
miners. The quarrymen, who are met with iu the 
very wildest spots, are a hardy and athletic race, who 
can bring down from the top of a crag to the ground, 
from six to twelve hundredweight of slate at once. A 
Joseph Clark, remembered by the existing generation, 
accomplished feats which could hardly be sui-passed by 
the strong men of the border in the middle ages. In 
one day he made seventeen journeys from top to bottom 
of Honister Crag, — that is, seventeen miles of climbing 
and sharp descent, — carrying up, each time, a hurdle 
weighing 801bs., and bringing down each time 040lbs. 
of slate. He once carried double that quantity, each 
time, in three successive journeys. His greatest day's 
work was bringing 11,770 11)3. His abode was three 
miles from the quarry ; but he thought little of the 
addition of a six miles' walk to his daily business. He 
complained of nothing but thirst, and did not appear to 
suffer from toil so stupendous, contiaued through a long 
course of years. Wherever the passenger observes heaps 
of refuse on the mountain side, or near his path, he may 
bo sure of seeing men worth knowing. They may bo 
found standing on ledges iu the recesses of the quaiTy, 
or seen moving in the depths below, looking like pigmies, 
or creeping along tho faco of the crag, several hundred 
feet overhead. In the latter case, there are little cham- 
bers built up in the refuse, to alTord shelter from wind 
and storms. Ranges of these may bo seen, if carefully 
looked for, near the summits of Honister and the adja- 
cent crags ; but it too often happens that a quariTuiau 
is caught by the wind before ho can get to shelter, and 
blown out from the face of tho crag, like a bird from its 
perch. When the slate is closely compacted, and otTers 
a peqiendicular surface, the quaiTymau goes to work jis 
tho shepherds do when they waut to destroy eagles' eggs. 
His comrades let him down by a rope, and he tries for 
a footing to rest on while he drives in his wedges. 
Seen from below, men thus employed look like summer 
fq)idors dangling from tho eaves of a house. There are 

more resources and bettor roads than there used to be ; 
and there is less breakage of men's bones, as well as of 
good slate ; but, between the needless risks they run, 
and the sudden storms they encounter, and the vast 
weights they carry or draw, and tho slipping of the 
foot, and the dizzj-ing of the head by drink, there are 
widows and orphans coming in almost ever)- year from 
the quarries to live in the towns, and subscription lists 
going round oftcuer than from any other local accident, 
except drowning iu the lakes. 

There are other black chasms in the mountain sides. 
There is copper mining and lead mining among the 
fells, besides the ironworks in the Furness peninsula. 
The lead miners have, perhaps, been the least stable 
class ; for their fortunes are precarious. At one time 
the value of the plumbago iu Borrowdale was so little 
known that the shepherds used it freely for marking 
their sheep ; and then, when it was found to be the best 
material for pencils ever known, the proprietors at once 
obtained from thirty to forty shillings a pound for the 
lead of a single " sop," which yielded upwards of twenty- 
eight tons. In those days, houses were built at the 
entrance, where the workmen were obliged to change 
their clothes under inspection, — so strong was the 
temptation to embezzlement. The high wages of such 
prosperous periods have alternated with entire suspen- 
sions of business, when the lead became too poor for 
even blacking stoves, or when it seemed lost altogether; 
and such vicissitudes work mischief on the character of 
the labouring class. The old copper-mines have been 
sufficiently prosperous to oifer a temptation to the open- 
ing of new works ; and the characteristics of the mining 
class are spreading into new vales, and crossing from one 
mountain side to another. The successor of Robert 
Walker, " The Wonderful " (celebrated by Wordsworth), 
complains that the tranquillity of the parish of Seath- 
waite is disturbed by the sinking of a shaft iu tho 
neighbouring hill side, — tho miners drawing people 
away to diversion on Sundays. At Coniston, where the 
great copper-mine of tho region has been worked from 
the earliest recorded times, the people, who sometimes 
receive as wages from the mine no less than X'i.OOO per 
month, are kuowu by their eagerness after open-air sport. 
Thcj' shoot at everything they see flying, and hunt every- 
thing they see running ; so that not ouly did the eagles 
disappear there soouer than anywhere, but tho ravens 
are gone, though the last pair showed every inclination 
to cleave to their crag in Yewdale through all chances 
and changes. Like tho general working class of the 
region, tho miners are quite suflicieutly tlirifty, — 
abundantly fond of gain. While poets and romancers 
have taken for granted that there must be patriarchal 



generosity and rural inuocence among the dalesmen, 
the clergy declare that they find it necessary to preach 
against worlJliuess, instead of exhorting to foresight 
and thrift. While the people appear to have no con- 
ception of personal cleanliness, or civil and orderly in- 
door habits, they keep their houses and furniture clean 
and bright, hoard goodly clothing, and are exceedingly 
fond of high profits. They would prosper better with 
more intelligence and modern knowledge ; but their back- 
wardness in these respects does not prevent their having 
a keen eye for the main chance. Youthful lovers find 
that there are hard fathers in the vales as elsewhere ; 
and the young dalesmen have reason to know that the 
rural heiress can take very good care of herself and her 
fortune. In this matter there is probably little differ- 
ence between the old times and the new, unless it be in 
the broadest liighroad of the summer tourist. 


The changes wrought bj' nature in the features of 
the landscape are perhaps more conspicuous than those 
■which affect the characteristics of the people. The sea 
works roughly in such a recess as Morecambe Bay, 
stirring up the sands very destructively. Several vil- 
lages specified in Domesday Book are so utterly gone 
that no trace of them has remained within the memory 
of man. Others have become isolated at high water, or 
have been wholly engulfed since the beginning of the last 
century. The old village of Aldingham has disappeared 
since that time. The fresh-water forces of the interior 
operate to the same effect, causing occasional ravages as 
terrible as any that the marauding Scots left behind them 
in their old forays. One instance will suffice. In 1700, 
a flood descended the ravine between Grassmoor and 
TVhiteside, on Crumniock AVator, carrying down every- 
thing that it could sweep from the mountain side, and 
from the vale below, and ending with laying bare of all 
soil a piece of arable land which extended between the 
valley and the lake. Full-grown trees were flourishing 
there in a considerable depth of earth when the sun set, 
and at sunrise there was a clean floor of rock. The 
accumulated material smothered ten acres of land. In 
the place of a stone causeway, fortified by an embank- 
ment, apparently as strong as the hills, there was a 
swift-flowing river in a sunken channel. The village of 
Braekenthwaitc, unintentionally built on a rock, was 
safe in the morning ; but it stood perched on a knoll, 
with chasms all about it. The flood and its burden 
poured into the little river Cocker, and so swelled it 
that the plain between the mountains and the sea was 
under water for a considerable time. If such mischief 
could be done iu one night, the perpetual operation of 

impetuous waters cannot be insignificant. Slides are 
frequent, as in all hilly countries subject to rains ; and 
the leaping rocks thus displaced play many tricks. 
Sometimes they lodge in a chasm, and form a bridge ; 
sometimes one bounds into a pool, and forms the basis 
of an islet ; and then, again, it stops short in a meadow, 
and makes a resting-place for the shepherd, or a shelter 
for his lambs. The continuous conve3'ance of silt by the 
streams alters the forms and dimensions of the lakes so 
materially that no one of them looks the same from one 
half century to another. This perpetual deposit alters 
the currents more than any occasional slide of stones 
and gravel. New promontories gradually arise, and the 
sweeps of the bays contract, till reeds fill up the space 
of the marginal waters, and new acres are seen growing 
for the husbandman of a future generation. There is 
scarcely a vale in the whole district which does not 
show green meadows, and especially a " waterhcad," 
which must have been a i)art of the lake not very long 
ago : and in Grasmere the effect of the process is re- 
markably evident. From any of the slopes above the 
north-east of the vale of Grasmere the lake looks a 
mere pond, the small remains of a sheet of water which 
must once have occupied the whole basin, except where 
the knolls made islands, like those of the Windermere 
of our day. While the lakes are thus contracting, and 
hinting of a time when they will become dry laud, new 
pools are opened, and then deepened and expanded 
into a promise of future lakes. A tree falls, or a 
boulder lodges on a well head. In either case the 
waters spread through the soil, and lodge round the 
obstruction, making a swamp, which is constantly 
increased by the fall of more trees, as their roots are 
loosened. The drowned vegetation decays, and sinks, 
and waterplants appear, no one knows how. Fish 
come in time, and their fry, and the seeds and insects, 
which presently abound, bring birds, and birds bring 
men. The waterfowl squabble among the reeds ; and 
the hill echoes send the sound to the sportsman's ear. 
He finds the heron wading in summer, and the 
snipe rocking on the bulrush in autumn ; and divers 
popping on the surface of the pool, and perhaps the 
wild geese encamping for the night. When the waters 
stretch to barriers of rock where they can grow clear 
and deeper, and receive constant accessions from 
the hill ooze and drip, the new tarn is safe. The 
shepherd follows on the track of the sportsman, and 
his flock in time transform the rough ground into 
snard, by manuring and browsing. Kext appears the 
first work of art iu this wilderness. The sheepfold is 
a mere enclosure, formed by piling the stones which 
lie about into high walls, some one of which must afford 



shelter from drifting snow, whicbevcr way the ■wiiul 
brings it. These folds arc usually placed on the lowest 
ground in the hollow, and as near the water as may 
Le. After the fold comes tlio hut, looking much like a 
deserted chalet; and there the cows can be sheltered 
in bad weather while out on the fells, — to say nothing 
of the herdsman. In time, the farmstead rises on the 
slope above the tarn ; the plough drives in among 
the stones ; and the stones congregate in the shape of 
fences. The sounds of the farm-yard scare away the 
wildfowl ; oats take the place of heather ; and the 
draining of the tilled laud once more enlarges the lake. 
The clatter of horses is heard on the stony road ; men 
pass that way, and open new tracks over the ridges. 
The pedlar drops down into the vale with his gay 
commodities, aud his news from the town ; and before 
the dark sycamores at each end of the house have met 
to make a canopy, there are sons and daughters settled 
within call, and a new hamlet (something ending in 
" thwaite," probably), has taken its name and place 
among the hills. 

If sudden changes in the aspect of the scenery 
are caused by slides which lay bare the green up- 
lands or sloping fallows, or by cleavings of the woods, 
or by floods, nature gradually restores the smooth 
and tranquil surface of the landscape. The birds 
and the breezes carry seeds to every ledge, and cast 
them into clefts in the bare precipices, so that the 
birch and mountain-ash show themselves where there 
seems to be no soil nor room for a root to strike. The 
wildest rock-face thus becomes feathered from its base 
to its ridge ; and every autumn fall of leaves and flight 
of seeds helps the process. Wherever the rill, or 
the mere drip from above, deposits soil, grass and 
weeds appear; and they creep up the slopes with visible 
progress from season to season. Exquisite mosses and 
delicate ferns line the recesses kept moist by the spray 
of waterfalls, and clothe the stone fences till they 
become richer in vegetation, and far more grateful to 
the eye than the hedges of the southern counties. By 
this kind of tinting and of drapery, the barreuess of 
new greystone buildings, and the glare of white ones, arc 
presently tempered. So many processes are continually 
going on that tlio newest and rawest fissure of a rent 
mountain, where all is rigid, motionless, and bare, is 
sure to become in course of years filled witli beaulv. 
Theio is motion from waving trees and tidl grass, as 
well as from winds and waters ; and every variety of 
hue, from the gayest wildflowers and mountain berries 
to the sombre greens, greys, and browns of the fir, and 
the rocks and their heather. Some further operations 
are, however, becoming necessary from the liaud of 

man. Inundations are more freijuent and mischievous 
than formerly, and are evidently on the increase. lu 
the neighbourhood of such of the larger lakes as are 
preferred for residence, the levels are oftener laid under 
water than they were twenty years ago ; and there is 
more flooding of houses, and injury to health as well 
as property. Derwentwater and Bassenthwaite Lake 
effect a junction of their contents much too often, to 
the injury of the town of Keswick aud the surrounding 
levels ; and the lowlands round Windermere, and even 
the two valleys of the Rotha and the Brathay at its 
head, are flooded several times in the course of a 
winter, as well as after the July rains. The main 
cause of the evil is the new fashion, excellent in itself, 
of agricultural drainage. Modern improvement, which 
every wise man welcomes, sends down masses of water 
in an hour which it would have taken a week to carry 
off before drainage was thought of. The thing wanted 
is a proper carrying out of the system of drainage, and 
not any going back from what is already done. When 
steamboats were set up on Windermere, a good deal of 
money was spent in deepening the south end of the 
lake, — and this was very well ; but the outlet wants 
enlarging too ; and a weir is, in such a case, not to be 
tolerated. Now that steam-mills are to be had, water 
power must give way to the public health and conve- 
nience ; and every facility must be afforded to the waters 
to flow away as rapidly as they are brought down by the 
drainage-pipes of improved farming. 

One other modern feature of the scenery must be 
pointed out. At regular times, — once a month, for 
the most part, — a tall, old shepherd may be seen, with 
his statf and his dog, traversing the highest central 
ridges, sometimes below and sometimes above the 
clouds. He has business up there, higher than he 
ever led his sheep. He has the charge of the rain- 
guages, some half-dozen of them, set up on various 
heights, and well secured against the gales. Ho goes 
the round of them, and records the results. In his 
youth superstition and fear held possession of the 
places where science has now established a footing ; 
and the old shepherds, to whom, above all men, their 
neighbours looked for goblin stories, can now read off 
tlie registere of nature, and teach the wise, instead of 
amusing the ignorant, by telling what they find on the 
mountain top. The district can show no change more 
suggestive tlum this. 

SURVEY Fno^f THE summits. 

The diameter of the Lake District is only thirty 
miles. It is a sin;,'ular case of the concentration of all 
the attributes of a mountain region within so small a 



compass. Elsewhere, either the proportions arc alto- 
gether larger, or, as ia Scotlaud and many other 
countries, long spaces lie between tho objects of 
interest. The way to obtain a conception of the pro- 
portions and relations of the heights, valleys, and lakes, 
in our own district, is to stand on the ridge called Esk 
Hause, and look abroad on a clear day. 

Esk Hause is a ridge among tho central and loftiest 
peaks, of which the Scawfell Pikes and Bow Fell are the 
conspicuous points. The head-waters of tho Esk and 
Duddon are on this ridge ; and it commands, to singular 
advantage, the primary valleys of the region, — three 
lines of landscape, which, with their accessories, con- 
stitute the Lake District. Looking northwards, Bor- 
rowdale is seen lying immediately below, and extending 
to Derwentwater, beyond which the opening continues 
past the town of Keswick, past SkidJaw, over Bas- 
senthwaite Lake, to the Solway and Scotch mountains. 
This is one line. The next tends to the south-east. It 
begins with Langdale, l\-ing just underneath, passes by 
the opening of the Brathay valley to Windermere, 
and onwards to the dim outline of Ingleborough, in 
Yorkshire. The third line is intermediate, tending 
south-westwards. It follows the course of the Esk 
down Eskdale to the sands; and while Blackcomb 
rises to the left, the glittering sea bounds the view 
beyond. The three lines are rarely seen in equal 
clearness ; for, if the sun favours one, another is 
shadowy or misty ; but by spending a bright summer's 
day on tho ridge, the geography of the district may be 
better understood than it could be by any other method 
of actual obser^-ation, unless it were from a balloon. 
To follow these lines may be the best way of studying 
the mountain area in print, as on the spot. 

From this ridge tho ancient domains of Furuess 
Abbey may be traced. The abbey itself lies south 
and seawards, among the last levels of the peninsula, 
which is hidden by the screen of the great Conistou 
mountain. From the sea to the Shire Stones — not far 
below Esk Hause — the whole territory lying between 
Windermere and the Duddon belonged to the abbey; 
and again, looking northwards, the whole of Borrowdale. 
The hamlet of Grange, at the mouth of Borrowdale, 
owes its name to the barns in which the produce was 
stored, and where monks lived to take care of it. The 
passes are so steep, and the vale is so effectually 
hemmed in by mountains, that it was thought suffi- 
cient to take care of the entrance. So Grange stands 
in the defile where the shoaly Derwent is spanned by 
twin bridges, and the monks were supposed to hold 
the key of Borrowdale. It was this character of a 
recess which gave rise to the old stoiy, which a Borrow- 

dale man hardly likes to hear of even at this day, and 
which makes the name of the cuckoo a signal for a 
faction light at fairs or in wayside inns. Spring was 
60 dehghtful, we are told, to the Borrowdale jieople in 
old times, and the note of the cuckoo so gladsome, that 
the inhabitants set about building a wall, to keep in 
the cuckoo, and make spring last for ever. This wall 
stretched across the entrance, at Grange. Unfor- 
tunately, the cuckoo got away ; but this was because 
tho wall was built one course of stones too low. It is 
simply for want of a top course on the wall that eternal 
spring does not reign in Borrowdale ! Not only is the 
word gouk (cuckoo, and also fooli not to be uttered, but 
the mention of the cuckoo is sure to be followed by a 
knock-down blow from a Borrowd;ile man, if time and 
place allow of it. 

It is not now difficult to drop into the dale from the 
surrounding heights, the most southerly of which are 
the loftiest. From Esk Hause there is a foot-track to 
Sprinkling Tarn, whence a rill flows to feed Sty Head 
Tarn, on the pass between AVastdale and Borrowdale. 
Another way is by the Stake pass from Langdale ; a third 
is by tho steep road from Buttermere ; and a fourth is 
from the direction of Hclvellyu, — a footpath from Leg- 
bcrthwaite and Watendlath, which drops into Borrowdale 
behind Kosthwaite. The twin passes of the Stake and 
Sty Head descend on each side the " tongue " which 
splits this vale, like almost every other, into a fork at its 
higher end. The mountain Glaramara is the "tongue" 
of Borrowdale ; and that part of the recess is still deeply 
secluded, while settlements thicken towards the other 
end. From the top of the Stake Pass to Grange is 
about eight miles ; and within the last si.x there are 
dwellings, — first, mere farmsteads w'ith their appur- 
tenances, and a few miners' cottages ; thou the hamlet 
of Eosthwaite, and finally, Grange. AVithin a few years 
several goodly mansions have risen up from the levels, 
wliich is rather strange, considering the swampy character 
of the low grounds, and the vast fall of rain in that 
mountain basin, amounting to no less than from 120 to 
100 inches by the rain guage at Seathwaite. 

Borrowdale can hardly be more celebrated than it has 
been ever since the scenery of the district began to be 
appreciated ; but it is now so frequented that the local tra- 
ditions of primitive manners sound very strange. For in- 
stance, the great event of an innovator having entered the 
vale, some generations ago, is fixed in the people's minds 
by an anecdote. This new-fangled personage wanted 
some lime, — an article never heard of. He sent an old 
man a long way for the new commodity, with horse and 
sacks, — there being uo carts because there was no road. 
Returning from beyond Keswick, the messenger and 



his horse ■were overtaken by a shower ; ami immediately 
after, the old man was alarmed by seeing liis sacks begin 
to smoke. He got a hatful of water from the river : 
but tho more ho wetted his sacks, the -worse the smoke 
gi-ew. As nothing could be clearer than that the devil 
must be in any fire which was aggravated by water, the 
terrified man tossed his whole load into the river, where 
it hissed so fearfully as to make him glad to be rid of 
it. — Another resident is reported to have suffered more 
than this by introducing an innovation, being rescued at 
last by a bright native wit, such as may often be found 
in tho dullest places. A Borrowdale " statesman " went 
one day to a distant fair or sale, and brought home some- 
thing terribly new, — a pair of stirrups. He jogged 
homo with his feet firmly jammed into his stirrups, — 
so firmly that by the time lie reached his own door ho 
could not get them out. The alarm and lamentation 
were great ; but there was no use in crying over misfor- 
tunes ; so the good man patiently sat his horse in the 
pasture for a day or two — the family bringing him food — 
till the eldest son declared that he had an idea ! The 
horse would suffer by exposure ; and it would be better 
for tho horse, and no worse for his father, that they 
should be in the stable. The idea was applauded ; and 
the farmer had his food brought to him in the stable for 
a few days more. Bj' that time, the second son had an 
idea. It was a pity that the horse should not be useful, 
and, for that matter, the father too ; and it might be 
possible to carry him on his saddle into the house. By 
immense exertion it was done, — the horse being led 
beside the midden-heap, in the yard, while the girths 
were loosened, to soften any unlucky fall. The good- 
man found himself under his own roof again, spinning 
wool in a corner of the kitchen, as he sat astride his 
saddle. There he remained, through the cleverness of 
his second son, till his youngest, a bright youth, in a 
bright hour, came home full of learning from the college 
at St. Bees. After duly considering the case, he, liko 
bis brothers, had an idea. His counsel was, that his 
father should draw his feet out of his clogs. This was 
done, amidst family acclamations ; and the good-man 
was restored to his old way of life. His wife was so 
proud and delighted, that she declared that if she had a 
score of cbildreu she would make scholars of them all. 
The learning of Borrowdale, however, did not all 
come from St. Bees. Philosophy might be native there 
as elsewhere ; and one genius arrived at a conclu- 
sion, on a certain occasion, which could hardly bo 
outshone within the walls of any college. A stranger 
came riding into the vale on a mule, which he left at a 
farmhouse, as ho had an errand up the pass. Neither 
tho fanter nor his neif'hbours hud ever seen such a 

creature before ; and some natural misgivings induced 
them to consult the wise man of the vale. (They 
were sensible enough to keep a Sagum or Medicine- 
man, to supply their deficiencies in ^visdom.) The 
wise man came, contemplated the creature, drew a 
circle round it, and consulted hi? books while his 
charms were burning. At length he announced that 
he had completed his discovery. There were so many 
things that the creature could not be, that there re- 
mained no doubt as to what it mu3t be. It was a 
peacock ! Borrowdale could thenceforth boast of a 
visit from a stranger who came riding on a peacock. 
Tf every valley abounded in anecdotes like Borrowdale, 
there would be no end of describing the district; but it is 
not so. The unique character of that valley as a recess, 
and the deep seclusion of its old inhabitants, made 
Borrowdale remarkable for simphcity and diduess in a 
region where the people in general seemed as primitive 
as possible in the eyes of the few who came from afar 
to see them. 

Borrowdale opens upon Dcnventwatcr, — perhaps 
the best known of tho lakes, though not one of the 
largest, uor perhaps in itself the most beautiful. It is 
about three miles long, and has an average breadth of 
a mile and a half. Its depth is inconsiderable ; and 
hence its singular clearness, and mirror-Hke expanse. 
Its islands, and certain promontories aud passes of the 
surrounding heights, aro connected with the names and 
histories of the RatclifTes, Earls of Derwentwater; and 
tlicy aro believed to have left records on even the sky. 
Tlie aurora borealis is there called " Lord Derwent- 
water's lights," because it was particularly briUiant the 
night after the execution of the Earl, who was " out " 
with the Jacobites in 1715. The cleft in Wallabarrow 
crag, which is called the Lady's Rake, takes its name 
from its being the way of escape of his wretched wife, 
who climbed it in the night, carrying away the family 
jewels, to be used on behalf of her husband. The 
ancient abode of the Ratcliffes was on tlie hill called 
Castle-head, built, according to tradition, within tho 
compass of a Druidical circle : but tho materials were 
removed to Lord's Island, on the lake, where their more 
modern mansion stood. The island of Ramp's Holme 
was theirs also ; and tradition connects with their family 
tho hermit of the seventh century, St. Herbert, the 
dear friend of St. Cuthbert, who inhabited a third 
island, ciJled after him, and died on tho same day with 
his holy brother of Lindisfam. Vicar's island is tho 
fourtli of those which stud the northern end of tlie 
lake, and reduce its apparent extent. Tlie noted float- 
ing island of Derwentwater is a mere mass of decayed 
vegetation, and soil fonned from it, which rises to the 



surface when distended with gasses, and sinlis when 
collapsing by their discharge. 

Derwentwater is surroiunled liy very noble land- 
marks. At one end Scawfell Pike rises above the lofty 
Borrowdale mountains ; and at the other, Skiddaw 
swells from the levels in lonely majesty. Along the 
western side, Cat Bells rises to a height of 1,400 feet, 
with Causey Pike, COO feet higher, just behind it; and 
the fine wooded steeps of Wallabarrow and Falcon Crag 
enclose the eastern shore. It is from this riJgc that 
the Ban'ow fall and that of Lodore descend, from a tarn 
in the upland valley of Watcndlath. The fall of Lodore 
is one of the finest in the district, and unique in its 
character. A steep ravine of vast boulders separates 
the towering rocks of Gowder Crag and Shepherd's 
Crag; and the contents of the tarn in the valley, which 
lies I'jO feet above Derwentwater, come gushing and 
dripping down in a multitude of little streams, or in a 
succession of roaring cascades, according to the season 
or the weather. 

At the north end of the lake lies the town of Kes- 
wick, on the plain which stretches at the base of 
Skiddaw. That plain, as seen from any of the sur- 
rounding heights, and especially from Castlerigg on the 
Toad to Ambleside, presents one of the richest scenes in 
England. Besides the town and environs of Keswick, 
there are villages where the woollen manufacture flou- 
rishes, and many farmsteads, and two conspicuous 
churches, in one of which, the white old-fashioned 
Crosthwaito Church, Southey is buried, and his monu- 
mental statue reposes. The Derwent and the Greta 
wind through the level ; and roads intersect it, losing 
themselves at last in climbing the slopes and penetrating 
the recesses of the hills ; and the fields and woodland 
show every variety of green under the summer sun, 
though they are too apt to be flooded in the winter 
months. The mountains of this group have a peculiar 
character, being bare and pointed ; but every peculiarity 
becomes reduced as the valley opens to the north. 
Basseuthwaite, four miles in length, and one in 
breadth, is the outlying lake in this direction ; and, 
except that Skiddaw towers on its eastern shore, it 
presents no marked features. Lord's Scat and Barf 
are the highest hills on the western side ; and from 
them the fells subside in undulations to the plain. 
The Derwent flows out much enlarged from the northern 
end of Bassenthwaite, and takes its course towards 
Cockermouth. The open vales of Isell and Embleton, 
lying north-west of Bassenthwaite, are the limit of the 
Lake District in that direction. 

The rich vale of Lorton, adjoining Embleton, and tra- 
versed by the high road from Keswick, connects with the 

great Derwenlwatcr valley its dependency, in which lie 
Loweswater, Crummock Water, and Buttermere. In 
describing Borrowdale, mention was made of an open- 
ing towards Buttermere. At the brauchijig of the fork, 
below Glaramara, in Borrowdale, there is a road to the 
west which passes through the farmyard at Scatoller, 
and ascends very steeply to llonister Crag, at the head 
of Buttermere Vale, commanding as wild a scene as can 
be found in the region. The slate quarries of Honister 
Crag, rising to 1700 feet, have been already referred to. 
The waterfall which pours beside them rushes down the 
vale in a channel so winding as to require many bridges 
or coui-ses of stepping stoned, so frequently must the 
road cross it. This stream is the infant Cocker. The 
highest peaks of the region are at hand to the south ; 
but the vale leads on to a group which is only secon- 
dary. The four mountains which cluster round the 
south-western side of Buttermere range from lied Pilie, 
2,750 feet, to the group a few hundred feet lower, 
of High Crag, Hayrick, and High Stile. They pour 
down cataracts in noble force, one of the most conspicu- 
ous cf which is on the side of Butteimere, Sour Milk 
Ghyll by name. It descends from a tarn (Burtness 
Tarn) on Bed Pike. Another appears to close in the 
Vale of Newlands, above Buttermere Haws, tumbling 
down the rocky side of Great Robinson. A much 
greater one is Scale Force, on the neighbouring Crum- 
mock Lake, a full of 100 feet in a chasm of Jlelbreak. 
Tarns abound in these clustered mountains, where the 
clouds congi-egate naturally. The tarns of the district 
are small still-water lakes, lying on high grouud. Those 
which are found in upland vales arc not particularly 
beautiful, their margins being swampy, and their euvi- 
rons not usually striking. But the true mountain tarns 
are veiy fine — deep, dark, and still, with wild heathery 
knolls or perpendicular rocks overshadowing them. 
When their stillness is broken, it is by tumult. Some 
rush of wind lashes the surface into foam, and catches 
up the spray so that it may be seen whirling out like 
smoke from a distance. Such waterfalls as have been 
spoken of, — Lodore, and those of the vales about But- 
termere, — each torrent descending from a tarn, indicate 
the uses of those little high-lying lakes to which the 
district owes so much. But for them there would be 
more both of drought and of flood. They cause a dis- 
tribution of water, which fertihzes without inundating. 
The agricultural drainage ah'eady existing shows some- 
thing of the consequences of bringing down too much at 
once of the produce of the rains ; and but for the tarns, 
the whole bodj' of rainfall would rush from the heights 
in a flood. AVhile the lower brooks are rising and 
swelling the rivers, which immediately e.xpaud the lakes, 



there is no contribution from the heights till the tarns 
overflow. The higher brooks empty themselves into 
the tarns, and by the time they are full, the waters 
below are subsiding. There are no fewer than fifty- 
four in the district, in all varieties, from the reedy pools 
of shallow upland vales, and clear basins with a margin 
of firm turf or clean sand, to the black pits of -water 
which lie under precipices, or in hollows so deep that 
one at least is said to reflect the stars at noon day. 
Where they abound in the Butterracre group, the aspect 
of the mountains is remarkably rude. They show long 
sweeps of orange and grey stones, and red peaks and 
yeUow promontories ; and huge hollows filled with deep 
blue shadow, or breathing out white mists to curl up the 
black precipices. Such is the character of this lofty 
central region, from the topmost peak of Scawfell to the 
Screes above Wastwater. Such is the character of Red 
Pike, as it towers above the lakes of Buttermere and 
Crummock AVater. 

Buttermere is a small lake, — only a mile and a 
quarter in length, and little more than half a mile in 
breadth. Crummock Water is the same average breadth, 
and three miles long. The two lakes are separated by a 
naiTOw meadow, a mile across, subject to inundation, but 
divided into fields and clumped with trees, — a platform 
rescued from the waters to afford a noble view of a circle 
of mountains. Opposite to Melbreak, the swelling 
masses of Whiteless, Grassmoor, and Whiteside guard 
the lake, — the kst mountains in this direction. The 
land subsides in undulations towards the Vale of Lorton, 
the boundary spoken of before as that into which the 
highlands melt to the north. One small lake, Lowes- 
water, lies beyond Crummock Water, to the north-west. 
It is only a mile long, and half as broad ; and its 
northern end opens upon the wild moor which lies be- 
tween the mountains and the sea. 

Wo must return to tlie head of Denventwater, to 
notice the two isolated mountains there, Skiddaw and 
Saddleback. Skiddaw is the fourth English mountain 
for height, being 3,022 feet above the sea, and 2,011 
above Derwcntwater. It is separated from Saddle- 
back by the Glcndera.ten'a, which rushes down to fall 
into the Greta. Blencathra, as Saddleback was called 
of old, is 2,787 feet in height. It is distinguished liy 
tlic noble view from its summit, preferred by many to 
that from Skiddaw; and by the depth and darkness of its 
tarns. In one of these, Scales Tarn, it is that the stars 
arc said to he visible at noonday; and another, Bow- 
scalo Tarn, is that which is believed by the country 
people to be inliabited by a pair of undying fish, — the 
immortal (ish celcliratcd by Wordsworth in his " Song 
at tlie Feast of Brougham Castle." Many legends, 

and much superstition hang about this neighbour- 
hood. Druidical circles seem to have left traces or 
traditions in many spots, and a well preserved one 
remains at the foot of Saddleback. Its forty-eight stones 
form an oval ; and on the eastern side, within the line, 
there is a small recess foi-med by ten stones, making an 
oblong square. According to the tradition which is re- 
lated in regard to this, as to various other druidical 
circles, the last human sacrifice was attempted there, 
and in this way: — The priests in an ancient time 
settled among the mountains, where there were stones 
suitable for their temples; whereas the rest of the people 
went down to the level grounds, and settled ip a clearing 
of the forest, beside a river. A fever soon made havoc 
among them ; and the oracle demanded a sacrifice to 
appease the divine wrath. The lot fell on a girl who 
was betrothed ; and on the day of sacrifice she was con- 
ducted, with the usual ceremonies, to the temple, on 
the western side of which a little hut of wickerwork, 
like a beehive, was set up. When she was presented 
to the assembled people, crowned with oak, and with 
mistletoe in her hand, her wretched lover saw her from 
a distance. Ho resolved to brave divine vengeance 
rather than contribute a twig to her pile, as everj- spec- 
t;itor was religiously bound to do. He saw her enter 
the hut : he saw the multitude pass before it, each 
casting his branch against the walls : and he saw the 
priest heap up the dried wood and leaves against the 
door, while the arch-priest was procuring fire from two 
sticks. He saw the pile blaze, and, at the same mo- 
ment, a miracle : — Every mountain round gave forth a 
torrent, and all the floods rushed towards the temple as 
to a centre, and made an island of the little hut, ex- 
tinguishing the fire, and then flowing back to their 
sources. The maiden camo forth safe, — not a hair 
singed, nor a leaf of her garland withered. The arch- 
priest, sldlled in interpreting thunder, seems to have 
understood also the " voice of many waters," for he pro- 
claimed that the god had forbidden human sacrifice 
henceforth for ever. Even now the druid stones are not 
like others in the eyes of the couutry people. Shy as 
they are iu speaking about them, they really believe that 
nobody can count the druid stones correctly, and tliat a 
treasure is buried under the largest. Its weight, eight 
tons, prevents a search on the part of any curious indi- 
vidual ; and it is to be hoped that no body of men will 
be found barbarous enough to overthrow the stone. 

In ascending Saddleback by the stream from Scales 
Tarn, a scene of natural magic is traversed, — so like a 
mu-aclo that some superstition on tlio part of the countn* 
folk may bo excused. There is no doubt whatever as to 
the facts of the appearances on Souter Fell, — those 



appearances being spread over a course of years, an<.l 
attested, not only by the inhabitants of all the dwellings 
\nthin view of the mountain, but by twenty-six wit- 
nesses, selected for the pui-pose. The facts were re- 
lated in the Lonsdale Magazine, and other records of 
the time ; and, instead of being overtlirown by inquiry, 
they were confirmed by disclosures of a similar pheno- 
menon seen in Leicestershire in 1707, and on Helvellyn, 
on the eve of the battle of ilarston lloor. 

Souter Fell, it must be premised, is full of precipices 
-which render any march of troops impossible in any 
part of ,it ; and the north and west sides present a sheer 
perpendicular of 900 feet. On midsummer eve, 1 735, 
a farm-servant of a Mr. Lancaster, livuig half a mile 
from the mountain, saw the eastern side of the summit 
covered with troops, which pursued their onward tramp 
for an hour. They came, in distinct bodies, from au 
eminence in the north end, and disappeared in a niche 
in the summit. The man was ridiculed and reviled 
when he told what he had seen, as original observers 
are wont to be when they have anything new to tell. 
He had to bear it for two years before he had a com- 
panion in his disgrace. His employer, Mr. Lancaster, 
then observed, on midsummer eve, some men following 
their horses on the same part of the fell, as if they were 
returning from a hunt. He thought nothing of this ; 
but, looking up ten minutes afterwards, he saw the 
men mounted, and followed by a countless multitude of 
soldiers, live abreast, coming and disappearing as before. 
The entire household now watched the spectacle till 
darkness covered the summit. The family declared 
that the forces were mancEuvred, and each company 
commanded, by a mounted officer, who galloped iu 
various directions. As the light faded, the troops 
seemed to intermingle ; the officers rode at imequal 
paces ; and then it was too dark to see more. All the 
Laucasters were now insulted as then- servant had been 
before ; but they too were justiiied in course of time. 
On the approach of midsummer eve, 1745, they selected 
and invited twenty-six persons whose testimony ought 
to be received with respect ; and the company saw all 
that had been seen before, and more. There were car- 
riages now among the troops ; and everybody knew that 
no carriages ever had been, or could be, on the summit 
of Souter Fell. The multitude was beyond imagina- 
tion, for the troops occupied a space of half a mile, and 
marched quickly till night hid them. The figures were 
so distinct that people went up, the next morning, to 
look for the hoof-marks of the horses ; and they were 
scared at the fresh and untrodden appeai-ance of the 
grass and heather. The story was attested on oath 
before a magistrate at the time ; and the whole country- 

side was, in consequence, appalled about the issue of the 
rebellion then going forward. It came out that on that 
evening some of the rebel forces were exercising on the 
western coast of Scotland. Unless we knew in what 
part, we can have nothing to say to the prevalent con- 
clusion that the movements of that force had been re- 
flected " by some transparent vapour, similar to the 
fata morgana," — the theory offered by the Lonsdale 
Magazine. Some other facts came out, — at least as 
much to the purpose : that ilr. Wren, of Wilton Hall, 
and a farm-servant, had had a little private experience 
of their own in the summer of 1743, when one evening 
they saw on the mountain a man and a dog pursuing 
some horses along a place so steep that a horse could 
scarcely, by any possibility, make good his footing. 
Their speed was prodigious ; and they disappeared so 
instantaneously at the southern e.xtremity that Mr. 
Wren and his servant went up next morning to find the 
body of the man who must have been killed. No trace 
of man, dog, or horse could be found ; and the pair 
kept their vision to themselves till encouraged to speak 
by what happened two years afterwards. They were 
insulted just as much, after all, as if they had not had 
the Lancasters and their twenty-six friends for fellow- 

Our first survey from Esk Hause has thus compre- 
hended (somewhat figuratively) the chief mountains — 
Skiddaw, Saddleback, Grassmoor, Red Pike, and Lord's 
Seat; to which we may add several mountains of infe- 
rior rank, and the remarkable peak of Houister Crag. 
Of the chief lakes, we have noticed Derwentwater 
and Bassenthwaite ; Buttermere, Crummock Water, 
and Loweswater. Of waterfalls, Lodore and Barrow 
Falls ; Sour Milk Gbyll, on Buttermere, and Scale 
Force. Of rivers, the Derwent, the Greta, and the 
Cocker. Of tirns, more than would be remembered if 


The second great opening lies south-eastwards from 
Esk Hause ; but we must take it in its whole extent, 
beginning northwards at the vale of St. John at 
the foot of Saddleback. Pursuing it from this end, we 
find the lake of Thirlmere, (formerly Leatheswater^ 
occupying the valley at the foot of Helvellyn, which 
thrusts its great bulk between this lake and UUeswater 
to the east. UUeswater lies among the last of the north- 
eastern mountains of the district ; and it is only about 
its head that any considerable peaks are assembled. At 
the foot of the lake, which is ten miles long, the heights 
have sunk into hills; and the hiUs presently subside 
into the open country stretching towards Penrith. A 



few more riJgcs interpose between Ullcswater and the 
railway and open moors to the east, the last of those 
ridges being the Shap Fells. They enclose the shallow 
vales of Mardale, Swindale, Wotsleddale, Longsleddale, 
and Kentraere ; the only lake of any note being Hawes- 
water in Mardale, — a miniature of Wastwater, which 
remains to be described hereafter. Parlss and noble- 
men's seats abound outside this corner of the mountain 
district ; Brougham Castle and Hall being in the neigh- 
bourhood of Penrith, and the terrace of Lowther Castle 
overlooking the basins of both Ulleswater and Hawes- 
water. Grey stoke Park lies north of Ulleswater, and 
Gowbarrow Park stretches down to the margin of the 
lake. In that park is the ravine vfhich contains the 
exquisite waterfall, Ara Force ; and from its woods and 
slopes, graced with deer, the walk of four miles along 
the lake to Patterdale at its head, is one of the loveliest 
the region affords. On the opposite side of the lake, 
Place Fell rises abruptly from the water; while about 
the head there are groups of mountains looking like 
promontories in their projection into the landscape, and 
throwing up from their midst the great summits of St. 
Sunday's Crag, Herring Pike, Stridding Edge, and, 
finally Helvellyn, — the next to the Scawfell Pikes, and 
only 105 feet lower than tho highest. The height 
of Helvellyn is 3,055 feet; and from its summit the 
tract we are now considering is commanded in all its 
features. On the one hand below lies Thirlmere, and 
on the other Ulleswater, while Windermere, Couiston, 
and Esthwaite lakes stretch away to the south and 
the peninsula beyond them till the land line melts into 
the sea. Immediately below, at various heights, some 
of the deepest tai'iis of the district lie all around, — the 
chief being Red Tarn, Keppel Cove Tarn, and Grise- 
dale Tarn in the pass from Patterdale to Grasmere, at 
the junction of three mountains, — Ilelvcliyn, Seat- 
sandal and Fairfield. The two roads between which 
Helvellyn occupies the chief space run southwards tiU 
they meet at Ambleside. The Patterdale road, which 
runs from UUcswater to Windermere, ascends the Kirk- 
stone pass, — the most considerable pass for carriage 
transit in the district, being 1200 feet above the sea 
level. At llic foot of the ascent lies Brothers' Water, 
tho smallest of tho lakes, except Rydal. It is three- 
quarters of a mile, and Rydal lialf a mUc in length, and 
the one is half, and tho other one-third of a mile 
in breadth. Ilayswator, a tarn beloved of anglers, 
and overhung by High-street, is high up among tho 
hills to the left. The hamlet of Ilartsop lies in tho 
level, wlicro Brothers' Water spreads out among tho 
meadows, and the rough track mounts to tho tarn 
above. Tho heights which enclose the pass are those 

of Scandale to the west, and of Coldfield to the east. 
Near the top stands the fragment of rock which is 
supposed to have given its name to the pass, as it 
strongly resembles, from some points of view, a minia- 
ture church. The summit of the pass is occupied by 
the " Highest Inhabited House in England," a wayside 
public-house, so designated by the ordnance surveyors, 
whose testimony is exhibited in an inscription over the 
porch. From this point, two roads diverge — the one 
descending immediately upon Ambleside, and the other 
(the eastern one), passing through Troutbeck before it 
strikes the margin of Windermere. Troutbeck has no 
lake, but only the stream indicated by its title, and it 
is chiefly remarkable for the primitive character of its 
inhabitants and their abodes. To pass through it is 
like going back two centuries for a morning walk. On. 
the other side of this narrow, scooped-out valley, the 
subsiding ridges give access to shallower vales, by which 
the mountain district melts down towards the east. 

The descent of above three miles from the top of 
Kirkstoue pass to Ambleside is steep. In the Jlarket- 
place the road joins that which has run on a lower level 
from the foot of Helvellyn. 

Thirlmere lies high, — five hundred feet above the 
sea level. It is two miles and three-quarters in length, 
and in some parts so narrowed by promontories, as 
hardly to afford any fair average of breadth. It is 
called, however, half a mile broad. At one point, 
where promontories and shoals unite, it is crossed by 
a bridge, or a causeway, supported by little bridges. A 
rough road on the western side, seldom visited by any 
but angling or sketching strangers, presents the finest 
views of the lake, as well as of the massy Helvel]3Ti 
which overhangs its opposite side. This is a haunted 
lake. A large black dog swims across it at night as 
often as the bells of a visionary house on the liill side 
are set ringing, and lights appear in the windows. A 
table is said to be spread in that ghostly dweUing by 
unseen hands, and mortal cars have heard the clatter of 
tho plates and dishes. A murdered bride comes up from 
the bottom of the lake at intervals, to keep her wedding 
feast. There is a house at Armboth which really has 
something rcnuirkable about it. Two or three miles off, 
on a bright moonlight night, the glittering windows are 
reflected in tlio lake : and, if a slight fog gives a tiugo 
of redness to the reflection, the appearance is that of an 
illuminated mansion ; whereas the real house is a very 
lumible one, placed in a nook, and overshadowed by a 
bill, so that it is hardly noticeable by daylight. 

I'^rom Thirlmero the road passes througli the liamlet 
of Wythburn, from whoso little inn travellers begin tlio 
ascent of Helvellyn. It then descends Duumail Raise, 


where, as bas been related, tbe kst king of Cumbria was 
defeated and slain in a. d. 945. The boundary line be- 
tween Cumberland and Westmoreland is marked by the 
stream which rises on the east of the road, whence it is 
carried over the summit of Helvell3-n to Ulleswater. The 
descent from Dunmail Raise is upon Grasmere, follow- 
ing the course of the Rotha, which, rising in the Raise, 
runs through the lakes of Grasmere and Rydal, and falls 
into 'Windermere at its head, Grasmere is rather more 
than a mile in length, and rather less than a mile in 
breadth. It forms a small part of an area, level for the 
most part, but diversified by knolls, rocky or wooded, 
which were once, no doubt, islands, like the one which 
now remains in the lake, and the two which adorn its 
neighbour mere at Rydal. The whole is enclosed in a 
basin of hills, more steep than lofty, but singularly 
inviting to the clouds. The amount of rain which falls 
at Grasmere is a serious drawback upon residence there, 
though for beauty it is by many considered incompara- 
ble. In the old-fashioned church of the village is a 
monumental medallion of Wordsworth, with an inscrip- 
tion perhaps somewhat too boastful for a sacred place ; 
and in the churchyard are the graves of himself and 
his deceased children. Hai-tley Coleridge lies buried 
near his old friend. 

From the high peaks behind Grasmere, there are 
several roads through the region we are now consider- 
ing: viz., from the head of Langdale to the limits of 
the Lake District. The mail-road which we have been 
following proceeds southwards past Eydal lake, on the 
margin of which stands Hartley Coleridge's dwelling ; 
past the foot of Rydal Mount, so sacred to the admirers 
of Wordsworth ; past Rydal Park, where the charms of 
ancient forest and modern park are united ; through the 
valley of the Rotha, sheltered to the north by Fairfield, 
forming a great cul-de-sac, and sending down Rydal 
Beck, to make waterfalls in the park ; through the little 
post town of Ambleside, a mile from the head of Win- 
dermere, along the margin of AYiudermere, and finally 
to the railway station, just above Bowness, midway down 
the lake. The road ceasing to be a mail route, con- 
tinues along the lake to Newby Bridge, at its foot ; and 
then the mountains and lakes being left behind, it runs 
down into the Fumess peninsula, passing through the 
brisk little town of Ulverston, and the smaller town of 
Dalston, to Furness Abbey and the sea. This is the 
easternmost of the roads which traverses the region 
under notice. After Fairfield, the head of which is 
2,950 feet above the sea level, it does not skut any con- 
siderable mountain, unless Wansfell be so regarded. 
It rises to the height of 1,590 feet, on the eastern 
shore of Windei-mere. The hill called Loughrigg, 

which forms the central dividing ridge between the 
valleys of the Rotha and Brathay, of Rydal, Grasmere, 
and Langdale, is only 1,108 feet high. Interposing 
between the lofty peaks in the centre of tlie district 
and Windermere, it is the first token of subsidence 
towaids the south. Beneath its shelter, in the valley 
of the Rotha, stfuuls Fox IIow, the residence in which 
Dr. Arnold, of Rugby, passed his holiday seasons, and 
where he hoped to spend his latter years. In the same 
valley, and just above Ambleside, is the Stock Ghyll 
waterfall, — not a very mighty "force," but remarkably 
beautiful. Along this route, dwellings ai-e multiplied 
so that, from the railway station to beyond Grasmere, 
there is little intermission of mansions, villas, lirrms, 
and cottages, with lands pertaining to them. Bowness 
and Ambleside trade in touiists, and are busy and 
thriving places ; and Rydal and Grasmere see new 
houses rising every yeai\ The case is different with 
the other roads ti'aversing the same portion of the 

The Langdale Pikes, which command everything to 
the south of them, rise to the height of 2,-100 (Harri- 
son Stickle), and 2,300 (Pikes' Stickle), and supply 
several streams from their tarns. Following the course 
of those tarns, there is one path down into the secluded 
Easedale, lying behind Grasmere, and another into 
Langdale, near the fissure in which the famous Dun- 
geon Ghyll Force pours its thundering flood. From 
Langdale, there are several passes into other vales ; — 
the Stake pass, leading over into Borrowdale, as we 
have already seen ; Piosset Ghyll pass, leading to our 
lofty stand point, Esk Ilause, and the Wall End ascent, 
leading out of Langdale to the neighbouring vale, 
which is the scene of a considerable portion of " the 
E.\cursion" of Wordsworth. Blea Tarn in that little 
vale is the mere by which the Solitary dwelt. Lang- 
dale is remarkable for the regularity with which its 
opposite heights advance and recede, so as to divide 
the vale into areas, sometimes winding, and sometimes 
circular, and nowhere spreading out into a level which 
will admit a lake. A small stream winds through it, 
and the spurs of the mountains are occupied by dwell- 
ings above the margin of the winter inundations; 
the frequency of which is denoted by the paving of the 
roads and paths. This vale, as seen from High Close, 
a point of view above Langdale chapel, is one of the 
most striking in the district. Bow Fell and the Pikes 
close it in gradually to the north-west; the fissure of 
Dungeon Ghyll is clearly discernible, and the falUng 
foam of the beck from Stickle Tam ; thence the vole is 
traced by the attenuating spurs of the hUls, and at the 
outlet, there are the prodigious Thrang Slate Quai-ries 



and the powder mills at Laiigilalo chapel. Opposite 
is the chain of pools called Elter Water, and theuce 
the valley widens, till it discloses Windermere, and the 
boundary of Yorkshire hills beyond. 

It is a primitive region, this through which lay the 
pack-horse route to Whitehaven, before even the car- 
rier's cart was introduced. That road is still visible, 
winding from Fell foot up the mountain side towards 
the Shire Stones, before mentioned. Whitehaven is 
now reached by railway along the coast; but here, in the 
heart of the mountains, the pedlar stiU plies his trade, 
tramping over the piasses and along the vales, and 
dropping into every rural dwelling, however secluded. 
The little chapel is itself a relic of an older time — a 
good specimen of the order of chapels which is dis- 
ajipearing. The place is homely ; and the people are 
literal and familiar be3-ond behef in their understand- 
ing of religious matters. In this very chapel, not 
many years ago, the clergyman, Rev. Mr. Frazer, 
was preaching from the text " Behold, I come quickly." 
He had not proceeded far in his sermon when the 
rotten old pulpit fell, enveloping in rubbish an elderly 
darac who sat just under it. As soon as he could 
collect himself, the pastor congratulated the good 
woman on her escape ; but she was in no mood for 
sympathy, and replied, tartly, " If I'd been kilt, I'd 
been rcet sarrat (rightly served), for you'd threatened 
ye'd be comin' doon sune." 

Ivoughrigg now rises ou the left hand. At its foot 
on the other side, Grasmere and Rydal lakes are lying; 
while on this side a quiet little valley spreads out, to 
receive the waters of the Brathay, a little river which 
rises in Elterwater, and runs into Windermere after a 
junction with the Botha. There is a pretty modern 
church in the Brathay valley, on a knoll which com- 
mands a fine view of the central mountains. 

The various routes have thus far joined so as to 
make one along the course of ^^'inllermero. There is 
still another belonging to the same opening, which 
takes a parallel course by Couistou and its lake. 
Leaving Langdalo by the Wall l^nd issue, it passes 
througii tlio \'ale of Wordsworth's Solitary, and de- 
scends into the valley, and down upon the tarn of Little 
Langdalo, and to the settlement of Fell foot, whoso 
name speaks for itself Through a wild region of slato 
quarries, and under the shelter of Wetherlam, it leads 
to the bright beautiful openings at the head of Coniston, 
whore stands the last high mountain, and spreads the 
last long lake iu this direction. Couistou Old ^Inn is 
the fifteenth in rank of tho mountains of the district, 
its height being -ifi^'i. The lake is si.\ miles long, 
and averages half a mile iu breadth. At its foot tho 

hills become undulating moorland, and the moorland 
turns into red soil towards Ulverston, and into sand 
before it reaches the sea. 

The views from the Old ilan (as the highest point 
of the mountain is called, — the usual cairn on the 
summit of each mountain being called " the man ") 
are considered finer than any in the district except 
those from Scawfell and Helvellyn, — if indeed those of 
the latter be an exception. After the tracks leading to 
the copper-mine are left behind, precipices sprin" to a 
great height, casting their shadows into the black tarns 
at their base; and the most grotesque crags, infested with 
foxes, are piled up with singular wilduess. The edge 
of the rock at the summit overhangs Low Water Tarn 
at a height of 600 feet, while the tarn itself is 2,000 
feet above the sea level. The " Old Man " erected here 
by tho country people, and removed by the Ordnance 
surveyors, who substituted an inferior one, contained a 
chamber of refuge, most welcome to shepherds and 
travellers in case of sudden storms. From that pin- 
nacle, the Isle of Man is conspicuous in good weather ; 
while in other directions may be seen Ingleborough in 
Yorkshire, Lancaster, and even Snowdon. Instead of 
the chains of lakes seen from the central peaks, there is 
here a fine stretch of sea ; and when the estuaries are 
full, the coast is a beautiful spectacle. The shores of 
AVindermero and Coniston, wooded, and thickly in- 
habited, form a gay scene nearer at hand. There is no 
view more thoroughly distinctive of the district than 
that which is commanded from the heights on the 
opposite (the eastern) shore of Coniston lake, near the 
head. Nowhere else perhaps is the grouping of the 
mountain peaks, and the indication of their recesses, so 
striking ; and, as to the foreground, the overlapping of 
the slopes, the green undulations, tho glittering water- 
fall on the mountain side, the diversiiied woods, the 
bright dwellings, scattered among the knolls, and tho 
clear lake, with its boat-houses and moving skill's, 
convey the strongest impression of fertility, prosperity, 
and comfort, nestling in the bosom of tho rarest beauty. 
At tho extremity of this region lies Furness Abbey, 
of which it is necessaiy to speak in this place only as a 
ruin. Its situation is beautiful, as the position of 
religious houses usually is. It stands in a wooded gleu, 
with a stream llowing beside its walls. It must once 
have nearly filled the glen, in the days when its beacon- 
iire was visible all over Low Furuess, and drew all eyes 
in case of dibturbauco or expected invasion. The 
remains indicate the space of sixty-five acres which its 
boundary-wall enclosed, and on which may still bo 
recognised the mill, the granary, the fish-ponds, tho 
oveus and kilns, and other olficcs. Tho walls are of 



red stone of the peninsula, faded by time to tbe palest 
pink hue. Ferns and mosses fringe its ledges, and tall 
grasses grow round its fallen stones. The scent of 
■\-iolet3 is sweet within the nave in dewy spring morn- 
ings, and the secret stau'cases ia the walls, and the 
chapter-house, where so much mystery ouce kept guard, 
are laid open to the free air and sky. The Abbey was 
founded in A.D. 1127 ; it flourished for four centuries, 
during which its abbots were absolute rulers over a 
broad territory. It was humbled to the dust at the 
time of the Reformation, so that its last abbot was 
glad to accept, as a life annuity, the proceeds of the 
rectory of Daltou, valued at .€33. 6s. 8d. of the money 
of that time; and now, in the nineteenth century, it 
stands crumbling in its exposure to the elements ; the 
dwelling of its abbots, after being a farm house, has 
become a hotel : and the railway passes through the 
glen, cutting its way through the wood, hkc the hurri- 
cane cleaving a path through the American forest. 


We have now surveyed the northern, eastern, and 
southern portion of the Lake District. The western is 
perhaps the finest and most interesting, from its charac- 
teristic features and its close connexion with the gi-oup 
of central peaks. Scawfell itself overhangs its principal 
lake, — Wastwater. This portion lies within the Cum- 
berland boundary, and extends from the central peaks 
to the sea, and from the mountains above Crummock 
Water to the Duddon. 

The summit of Scawfell Pike is visible from EskHause. 
It is 3,100 feet in height; but three more lie below 
it, and with it compose the mountain called Scawfell. 
One of these, Great End, faces Borrowdale. Another, 
Lingmell, affords the best ascent on the Wastwater 
side. The two Pikes are about three quarters of a mile 
apart at their summits, being separated by the great 
chasm called Micklcdore. The ordnance sm-veyors 
have set up a staff on a cairn on the highest peak, 
which cannot be henceforth mistaken by any traveller. 
Herdsmen and sheplierds never want to go there in the 
war of their vocation ; for there is not a blade of grass 
there, nor any vegetation, except moss. Blocks and in- 
clined planes of slate rock, cushioned here and there 
with moss, compose the peak. It is difficult of access 
and dangerous vrithout a guide, from the abundance of 
its chasms and precipices ; but tbe view from the 
highest English mountain, the centre of its highlands, 
may well tempt the lover of fine sceneiy. On the one 
hand cluster the heights already described. Ou the 
other are Great Gable, 2,923 feet above the sea ; the 
Pillar, 2,893; Hay Cocks, Steeple, Pied Pike, and 

High Stile, above Crummock Water. From the re- 
markable alluN-ion at the base of Scawfell, Wastdale 
Head, there is a striking route to Ennerdale Lake, a 
lake less visited than most, and less beautiful than 
many, but yet presenting fine features ia the rocky 
heights amidst which it lies. It is two miles and a half 
long, and half a mile broad ; and it is so wild, in the 
character of its shores, and in its position among the 
mountains, as to have caused more terrors and disasters 
to strangers than any other spot in the district. At 
cveiy house from \Vastdale Head to Ennerdale Bridge, 
stories may be heard of adventures and escapes of pe- 
destrians and horsemen in Mosedale, and the passes of 
Blacksail, and Scai'f Gap. A young man attempting 
this route some years ago, struck into the deep ravine 
between Great Gable and Kirk Fell; and when he came 
out at night upon a sheet of water, was confounded to 
find it the same he had left in the morning. He had 
walked completely round Kirk Fell. Three young ladies 
passed the night on the mountain, once upon a time, 
from having got bewildered in this intricate region. 
At first their story was disbelieved ; but one had 
dropped her pocket book, and another had seen a dead 
sheep in a particular spot; and these incidents being 
veiifiod, the adventure of tbe Kendal ladies remains 
one of the wonders of the dales. 

Blake Fell, a wild, high lying moor, separates Enner- 
dale from Crummock Water. These moorlands, tree- 
less, except where farmhouses or sheepfolds lie in the 
hollows and arc sheltered by sycamores ; and all grassy 
and undulating, with a descent towards the coast, are 
an interesting feature on the western skirts of the Lake 
District. They are too exposed and dreary for somo 
tastes ; but they have an imposing character of their 
own for those who are not afraid of the risks to be en- 
countered among them ; — risks of sultrj' heats, of 
biting cold, and of sweeping storms. From them the 
grouped mountains may be best studied for their forms 
and light and shade. From them the passing storms 
may be best seen hastening out to sea, and veiling and 
unveiling the Isle of Man. From them may be best 
seen the wonderful spectacle of lakes and vales lying far 
below in yellow sunshine and blue shadows, while the 
spectator is enveloped in gloom and tempest. From 
them too, may the coast be best surveyed, with its little 
ports and fishing villages lying at the mouth of each 
river, and stretching out on sandy promontories, washed 
by the surf which is noiseless so far off. The railway 
may be traced, emerging from woodland or enclosures, 
and showing its cobweb constniction against the yellow 
sands, threading the towns and villages, as it were, 
upon its slender string. The smoke of Workington, at 



the mouth of the Derwent, is visible from Blake Fell ; 
and Whitehaven with its shipping, near the blulVs of St. 
Bees. From Cold Fell, crossed from Eunerdale to the 
south, several Uttlc towns are seen lying in the green 
hollows, or through vistas between grassy slopes. 
Among these is Egremont (" The Mount of Sorrow" in 
the original Norman). It was at the gate of Egi'cmont 
Castle that the honi was hung in crusading days, of 
which Norman tradition afforded Wordsworth so pretty 
a talc to tell. The ruins of the castle stand on an 
eminence on the seaward side of the little town, which 
has nothing else of romantic interest to show. 

Wastwater lies, as has been said, at the base of Scaw- 
ftll. It is the most solemn and imposing of all the 
lakes — three miles long, half a mile wide, and in 
some parts reaching a depth of 270 feet, a depth 
considerably exceeding that of any part of either 
Windermere or Ulloswater. It is usually grey and 
shadowy, being bordered on its south-east side by the 
Screes. The lines of this singular range are almost 
unbroken in all directions. For two-thirds of their 
height there is a prodigious slope, — a sweep of slaty 
debris rushing down sheer into the lake, without afford- 
ing any trace of a jiath for man or brute. When the 
summer tempest or winter gale shakes the crags above, 
down comes a slide, sending np dust from the shore, 
and spray from the water. The upper third of the 
height consists of crags, bare of vegetation, except 
where ferns line the watcrdrips, and grass grows out of 
the crevices. Here the grey masses are relieved by 
red soil, and streaked with the colours found where iron 
is present. The great fissure called Hawlghyll, and 
other crevices, breathe out vapours which may be almost 
alw.iys seen ascending, or floating along the craggy 
rampart. The opposite shore is cheerful and com- 
paratively open. It sends several bright streams into 
the lake, and affords a charming succession of pro- 
montories and little bays, above which winds a 
practicable road to the marvellous recess of Wastdale 
Head. From a dist.ance, the hollow in which the lake 
is hid is seen to lie between the bases of I\Iiddle Fell, 
Yewbarrow, Great Gable, all the Scawfell ridges, and 
the Screes. When the head of tho lake is reached, a 
tuni of the road discloses the finest " water head" in 
the district. As among the Alps, so here, the loveliest 
low-lying spots are the levels which have been won from 
tho lakes by the hand of nature in tho course of cen- 
turies : and hero the finest instance is at Wastdale 
Head. It is so shut in that exit from it appears to be 
impossible, except by tho lake. Tho mountains come 
down with a sheer sweep to the green and perfect level, 
which is divided into little fields, and graced by a farm- 

house here and there, and a little chapel, containing 
eight pews. This nook has a chapel and school, and no 
public-house ; and if the people are not wiser, or more 
cleanly than those of other places, they are more sober. 
There is more than one exception to the reproach of 
dirt; and in one dwelling, at least, life may be as com- 
fortable as it must be picturesque iu this, the very 
heart of the district. 

Besides the lake, the modes of egress are by the 
Wastdale road, just described ; by the ascent of Scaw- 
fell, by Mosedale, leading out between Yewbarrow and 
Kirk Fell : and by the Styhead pass, into Borrowdule, 
the road to which is seen from below, slanting up the 
precipitous front of the gable to the height of 1,000 
feet. This is all ; and nowhere can the seclusion 
of human dwellings appear more complete ; for no- 
where else in the district is a dalehead overhung by 
such lofty mountains. 

In descending from this nucleus of summits to the 
more open regions, the Irt is seen making its way to 
the sea ; and next to the Irt, the Mite ; and next to 
the Mite, the Esk, which descends, as has been seen, 
from the watershed at Esk Hause, where the Daddon 
also rises. The town of Ravenglass stands on the bay 
formed by the estuaries of the Irt, Mite, and Esk, and 
it may be seen from the heights above Eskdalc, which 
is the chief feature of tho last opening proposed for 
survey from Esk Hause. The high road which crosses 
these Viiles, in their whole series from the Duddon to 
the Calder, commands charming views of the heights 
above, the richly diversified coast below, and the valleys 
which widen from the one to the other. On the Calder, 
and a few miles from Wastwater, lie the ruins of Calder 
Abbey, — a small but very beautiful ruin of a Cistercian 
monastery, founded in a.d. 113-4, and partaking in tlic 
fortunes of its neighbour abbeys. It is charmingly 
situated in low ground, with wooded hills closing it in ; 
and it is most carefully preserved. Another great 
object of interest among these vales is Stanley Ghyll 
Force, in Eskdnle, — usually pronounced tlie linest 
waterfall in tho district. If the fall is not the finest, 
its glen certainly is; — a ravine whose sides are 
feathered with wood from base to ridge. Two crags 
part to give passage to the waters, which have not to 
be sought in a hollow, as at Ara Force (which otherwise 
this fall most resembles), but are seen from a distance 
through an avenue of wooded heights. 

Above this ravine tho high moorland of Birker Fell 
extends from Eskdalo to tlie valley of the Duddon. 
llero tho lark may bo heard ; and it is an infrequent 
pleasure to hear tho lark in a mountaiu region. Tho 
narrow vales arc an unsafe abode for small birds, wliile 



the rocks afford a harbourage for birds of pre\\ The 
eagles are said, though with some doubt, to have dis- 
appeared ; very few ravens, if any, remain ; but ha\Yl4S 
abound; and those wlio would heiu' the lark must go out 
to such places as Birker Moor. Here the centwl peaks 
sink out of view, being lost entirely on the verge of 
the Duddou valley. The deepest part of the vale, and 
that in which lie the stepping stones celebrated by 
AVordsworth, is hidden below the skirts of this moor. 
It rushes among broken rocks, and is overhung with 
scattered masses of woodland ; but it widens and 
slackens as it flows, till it spreads over the level sands 
of its estuary. In this vale, which comprehends 
Seathwaito higher up, and Ulpha lower down the 
stream, the boundiug heights are sometimes a green 
and smooth pasturage, and elsewhere a rough brown 
heather, broken up by occasional rocks, and new 
lilantatious, or remnants of the old forest. Grey stone 
cottages are scattered about, and more substantial farm- 
steads, where the massive sycamore overhangs the roof, 
and the light birch casts its quivering shadows on the 
field plots. Tliis is the Seathwaite (there are several), 
where Eobert AValker, named " the Wonderful," spent 
the si.xty-six years of his ministry. The story of 
the good man's vast charities and astonishing course of 
life is told at length in the notes to Wordsworth's 
Duddou Sonnets ; and there is probably no lover of 
poetry in the kingdom who is unacquainted with the 
facts. The little church is much like what it was when 
he taught the children of the parish there, and sat 
spinning beside the altar, to keep himself warm by 
exercise, — sending the children in detachments to his 
household fire. The turf seat round the old yew is 
there, and the old men rest on it stUl, after theu" walk 
over hill and dale. The little sun-dial is there, — the 
whitened post which tells the time in summer to 
neighbours who have no clocks. The neat white 
cottage is there, with its frontage of evergi-eens and 
roses, where Robert Walker lived, and which is still 
the parsonage. Here, in 1802, he died, after having 
been curate of Seathwaite for sixty -six years, and an 
example to all country pastors for all time. The man- 
ners of his day were those of a preceding century; and 
strong traces are found of their pecuUarities wherever 
an old-fashioned pastor and flock keep themselves 
secluded in their own vale. Odd sprinklings of learning 
are found here, as over the border, where Englishmen 
would hardly look for them; and there seems to be 
hardly any medium between scholarship and absolute 
ignorance of books and what they teach. It was in 

Ulpha, in this vale, that Gunson the innkeeper lived, 
to whom some travelling students sent a note in Latin, 
requesting to have their bill. Gunson immediately sent 
in the bill in Greek, which was too much for the young 
men, who were humbled to ask for it in English. It 
was here that the farmer lived who rebuked his " heigh- 
larned" wife for declaring, in a trying time, that she did 
not fear poverty, but could be content with food and 
raiment. " Thoofule," said the husband : "thoodusn't 
think thoo'st to hev mair than other folk. Tse content 
wi' meeat and claes." It is in these vales that the 
people retain the primitive custom of doing on Sunday 
any farm-work to which the weather — so precarious 
among the hUls — is favourable, with the sanction, as in 
Switzerland, of " the priest," as the curate is called. It 
was in the chapel at Ulpha that " the bUnd priest" 
officiated, a few years since, who was not only on the 
most familiar terms with his people, but apt to jest from 
the pulpit, like the pastors of the Pieformation, and of 
many a century before. When the bell rang rather 
early, one Sunday morning, calling the people unex- 
pectedly from tending their stock, farmer T was 

out after some cow, pig, or sheep, and was the last to 
enter the church. As he came " thunuerin' down the 
aisle," the priest inquired " Wha's comiu' now ?" and, 

being informed by the clerk that it was John T , 

ho inquired further, " a-foot or a-horseback ?" The old 
characteristics are, as has been seen, dying out : but it 
is in these comparatively untrodden vales, lying off from 
the high road, that they will linger longest. 

Yet the railway spans the estuary of the Duddou, 
within view from a point not much lower down than 
this old Ulpha Kirk. A wild and pleasant mountain 
track leads from the vale over Walna Scar to Conistou. 
The high road runs south to Broughton, where, four 
miles from the bridge at Ulpha Kirk, the head of the 
Furness peninsula is reached. 

Such is the Lake District of England, seen from end 
to end, across and around, in and out. It contains 
within its small compass a wonderful aggregation of 
beauties, by which the northern counties are distin- 
guished, and must continue to be so, from all others 
south of the border. Englishmen who have never 
visited Switzerland or the Tyrol have missed what cer- 
tainly is unequalled in the way of natural scenery : but 
next to those transcendent displays of the charms of 
earth, water, and sky, there is perhaps no region which 
combines so many features of grandeur and beauty as 
the Lake District of Cumberland and Westmoreland. 

^sa%ttoit of Cumterkii^. 


CuMBF.KLAND is a maritime, lake, and border county, 
extending from hi'' 11' to 55' 12' north latitude, and 
from 2° 17' to 3^ 37' west longitude. It is of au irregu- 
lar oblong form, bounded on the north by Scotland 
and the Solway Frith, on the west by the Irish Sea, 
on the south by Lauoashiro and Westmoreland, and 
on the cast by Durham and Northumberland. Its 
length from Ravenglass to Spadeadam Waste is 64 
miles, its greatest breadth 31 miles, average breadth 
Hi miles, and circuit about 215 miles, 75 of which are 
coast. The ai'ea of the county is 1,505 square miles, 
or 1,001,273 statute acres, of which about 300,000 
are mountain and lake. The population in 1801 
was 117,230; in 1811, 133,005; in 1821, 150,121; 
in 1831, 109,202; ia 1841, 178,038; and in 1851, 
195,492 ; showing an increase of 06 per cent in the 
number of inliabitants during the last fift}' years; 
of this number 90,244 were moles, and 99,248 females. 
There were, in 1851, 36,763 inhabited houses, 1,545 
uninhabited, and 239 in process of erection ; the num- 
ber of pei-sons to a square milo was 125, of inhabited 
Iiouses 23 ; the number of persons to a house wius 5-3, 
of acres to a jicrsou 51, and of acres to a house 272. 

Cumberland was formerly divided into live wards 
(divisions similar to tho hundreds of the midland and 
southern counties), viz. :— Cumberland, Allerdale-below- 
DiTwont, ."Vllerdiilo-above-Derwout, liCath, and Eskdalc; 
but, in 1833, a new ward, that of Dcrwent, embracing 
portions of tlic two Allerdales, was formed for magisterial 
purposes, and for taxes, in 1843. At tho quarter ses- 
sions held at Carlisle, October 20th, 1857, tho ward of 

Allcrdale- above -Derwent was still further curtailed, 
and a new division formed from it, viz. : — the Eootlo 
Division.' This new arrangement, which came into 
operation on the 1st January, 1858, does not extend 
to police purposes. For the election of members of 
parliament the old arrangement of wards is still fol- 
lowed, Cumberland, Eskdale, and Leath wards formiuT 
the eastern division, and the two Allerdales the western. 
Cumberland contains one city, Carlisle ; the parliamen- 
tary boroughs of Cockermouth and 'W'hitehaveu ; and 
the market towns of Alston, Aspatria, Bootle, Bramp- 
ton, Egremont, Harrington, Heskct Xewmarket, Ireby, 
Keswick, Ivirkoswald, Lougtown, Maryport, Penrith, 
Ravenglass, Wigton, and Workington. 

For ecclesiastical purposes the county is comprehended 
in the province of York, and the diocese of Carlisle, 
with the exception of the parishes of Alston and Over 
Denton, which belong to the diocese of Durliara. Tho 
ward of Allordale-above-Derwent, formerly in the dio- 
cese of Chester, was, under the pro^•isions of and 7 
William IV., c. 77, and of an order in council dated 
10th August, 1847, annexed to the see of Carlisle, on 
the demise of Bishop Percy, in 1850. According to tlio 
Census of Religious Worship, taken in 1851, it appears 
that there were at that period 389 places of worship, of 
which 101 belonged to tho Church of England, 130 to 
tho Wesleyan Methodists, 24 to tho Independents, 17 
to the Scottish Presbyterians, 9 to the Baptists, S 

1 This new <livision cnibrnocs tlic purislios of Rootle, Corner, 
MuucastiT, WabiTtlmniti'. Wliiolitiiii, ami Wliiibci k ; and llie lowii- 
shipa of Birker ami Ausiliwaitc, Milloiu, and I'lpha, in tlie pari.Hb of 
Milloui, luul the towualiips of Eskdale, and Wasdale, io (lie parish 
of Si. 13ec3. 



to the Catholics, and 34 to the smaller bodies. The 
number of sittings provided by the Church of England 
•was 58,088 ; by the AVesleyan Methodists, 26,489 ; 
by the Independents, 7,247 ; by the Scottish Pres- 
byterians, 6,070; by the Catholics, 2,877; by the 
Baptists, 2,296 ; and by others, 0,707, making a total 
of 110,374 sittings. 

Cumberland is included in the Northern Circuit, and 
the assizes are held at Carlisle twice a year. The Mid- 
summer and Christmas quarter sessions are held at the 
same place, and the Easter and Michaelmas at Cooker- 
mouth. County courts are held at Alston, Carlisle, 
Cockermouth, Keswick, Penrith, Whitehaven, and Wig- 

The county returns four members 40 the imperial 
parhament, two' for the eastern and two for the western 
division. Carlisle sends two members, the borough of 
Cockermouth two, and Whitehaven one. Under the 
provisions of the Poor Law Amendment Act, Cumber- 
land was apportioned into the following nine unions, 
viz.: — Alston, Penrith, Brampton, Longtown, Car- 
lisle, Wigton, Cockermouth, Whitehaven, and Bootlc ; 
the statistics, &c., of which will be found in the notices 
of the parishes and townships in which the workhouses 
are situated. 

Cumberland is said to have given the title of earl to 
Eandulph de Meschines, but we have nothing upon 
which we can depend as authentic to confirm this. In 
1525, Henry, Lord Cliiford, was created Earl of Cum- 
berland, and the dignity continued in his family till 
the demise of Henry of the fifth earl, in 1643. It was 
revived the following year, in favour of Prince Rupert, 
but only to become extinct on his death, in 1GS2. 
Prince George of Denmark was the next who bore the 
title, which he enjoyed from 1089 till his decease, in 
1708, when the title of earl was discontinued. In 
1723, Prince William Augustus, son of George II., was 
created Duke of Cumberland, but dying without issue, 
in 1765, the dukedom remained in abeyance for two 
years, when it was given to Prince Henry Frederick, 
brother of George III., who also died childless, in 1790. 
In 1799, Ernest Augustus, fifth son of George III., 
was creared Duke of Cumberland, and held the dignity 
till his demise, in 1851, when the title descended to 
his son, the present King of Hanover, and Duke of 


The surface of this county is considerably diversi- 
fied, the east and south-west being very mountainous, 
rugged, and uneven, while the north and north-west 
parts aie low and flat, or gently undulating. Hills, 

valleys, and ridges of elevated ground occupy the centre. 
The mountainous district in the south-west is the 
most interesting to the traveller, for here are situated 
Saddleback, Skiddaw, and Helvellyn, and the lakes of 
Ulleswater, Thirlmere, Derwentwater, and Bassenth- 
waite, whose beautiful and romantic scenery annually 
attracts tourists from every part of the kingdom, from 
the Continent, and even from America. Several of the 
other districts, though not mountainous, are hilly, and 
present an endless variety of laudscajie. Some of the 
valleys are traversed by rivers, and afford, perhaps, a 
greater variety of delightful scenery than any other 

The mountains of Cumberland arc exceedingly 
numerous, and many of them immense in elevation and 
singular in structure. They enter into the composition 
of almost every view, and either by their sublime heights, 
their romantic forms, the dignified grandeur of their 
aspects, the immensity of rocks composing them, or the 
imposing, wild, and awful majesty of their appearance, 
are peculiarly calculated to excite our interest and 
admiration. Two distinct ranges run, the one towards 
the north, to which belongs the Cross Fell ridge ; the 
other and most gigantic towards the south, of which the 
highest summit, Skiddaw, is 3,022 feet above the level 
of the sea. Besides this noted peak, the most striking 
of the loftier mountains, which are termed fells, and are 
familiar to tourists, are ScawfeU, Saddleback, Helvel- 
lyn, Bow Fell, Grasmere Fell, Wrynose, High Pike, 
Pillar, &c., the scenery of which, in general, is abrupt 
and bold. Between these grander heights are many 
hills of various degrees of elevation ; some of them cut 
through by clear and rapid torrents ; others based in 
richly wooded, highly cultivated valleys, fertilised by 
quiet brooks and rivers ; others tUpping their precipitous 
and craggy sides down into the beautiful and celebrated 
lakes, the pictui'esque and varied beauties of which 
have so often been described in " stately prose and 
melodious verse." The following are the names and 
altitudes of the principal mountains, and the districts 
in which they are situated : — 


Sitaation. Altitude in Feet 

ScawfeU (high point) 












Cross Fell 









Grasmere Fell 



High Pike 

Eesket Newmarket 


Black Combe 

Duddon Mouth 


Dent HiU 





The principal rivers of CumberlauJ are the Eden, 
Esli, Derwent, Duddon, and Eamont, with tlieir numer- 
ous tributary streams. 

The Eden rises on the borders of Westmoreland, 
on the side of Hugh's Seat, one of the mountains of 
the Pennine Chain, and passing Ivirkby Stephen and 
Appleby, sliortly afterwards ijuits the county for Cum- 
berland. Its course in Westmoreland is about thirty 
miles, no part of which is navigable. It has numerous 
affluents, among which may be named the Beelah, or 
Belay, the Helbeok, the Troutbeek, and the Crowdundale 
on the right bank, and the Leath and the Eamont on 
the left bank. The Eden enters Cumberland on the 
south, and runs to the east of Penrith, passing Kirk- 
oswald, Armathwiiite, Corby, Warwick Bridge, and 
Cai'lisle, receiving in its course the Crogliu and the 
Irthiug on its right bank, and the Petteril and the 
Caldew on its left, and discharges itself into the Solway 
Frith, near RocklitTe, where it forms a fine estuary. 
The scenery along the coast of this river in Cumberland, 
which is about thirty-llvo miles, is very varied and 
beautiful; the banks being adorned by the mansions 
and pleasure-grounds of Skirwitb Abbey, Eden Hall, 
Nunnery, Armathwaite, Low House, Corby Castle, 
Warwick Hall, and Riokerby. 

The Esk, which gives name to Eskdale Ward, is 
formed by the junction of the Black and White Esk, the 
former of which rising near Eitrick Pen, in Dumfries- 
shire, runs past Eskdale I\Iuir to Kingpool, to join the 
White Esk from the same part — thence it goes through 
some fine scenery in Eskdale, by West Kirk, Longholni, 
" Canuobie Loa," across the border to Nethcrb}', ilowiug 
through a beautiful valley, in a south-west direction to 
Longtown, and after receiving the waters of the 
Liddell and the Lino falls into the Solway Frith, near 
Rocklitfe Marsh. Its course in Cumberland is about 
ten miles. 

Tho Derwent has its source in Sparkling Tarn, 
among the mountainous crags at the head of Borrowdale, 
and having poured its foaming waters over various 
precipices, passes through Styhead Tarn, and forms the 
lake of Derwcntwater at Keswijk, where il is joined by 
the Greta. It then pursues its course through an 
extensive tract of meadow land to Bassenthwaito Water, 
from which it emerges at Ousebridge. Again coulined 
in a rocky cliannel, it takes a westerly direction, and 
flows rapidly through a narrow vale to Cockermouth, 
where it is joined by tho waters of tho Cocker, and then 
pursues its course through a more open country to the 
sea at Workington. The scenery along the whole ex- 
tent of this river is exceedingly varied and interesting. 

It is, perhaps, the most limpid and colourless stream in 

The Duddon, Green teUs us, in his own picturesque 
style, " is a fine river, and its feeders flow precipitously 
in their descent to the valley. It rises on the Three 
County Stones on Wrynose, from which place to its 
junction with the Irish sea, it separates the counties of 

Cumberland and Lancashire At Goldrill 

Crag it brightens into agitation, and, after various 
changes, becomes at Wallowbarrow Crag one scene of 
rude commotion, forming in its course a succession, not 
of high, but finely formed waterfalls. But these furious 
waters, suddenly slumbering, become entranced, dis- 
playing little signs of life along the pleasant plains of 
Donnerdale. At Ulpha Bridge suspended animation is 
again succeeded by the clamorous war of stones and 
waters, which assaU the ear of the traveller all the way 
to Duddon Bridge. From that place to the sea it 
passes on in an uninterrupted and harmonious calm- 
ness." The sea flows nearly nine miles up its channel, 
and its estuary contains about 13,000 acres of laud at 
low water. 

The Eamont takes its rise in the lake of UUeswater, 
which is supplied by several smaller streams. From tho 
most northern portion of the lake, the Eamont flows in a 
north-westerly direction along tho Cumberland border 
to the point where the Eden leaves Westmoreland and 
falls into that river. This is a remarkably clear and 
limpid stream and is much resorted to by anglers. 

We subjoin the other rivers in alphabetical order. 

The Bleng has its source near Ponsonby Foil, and 
after passing ncai" Gosforth, falls into the Irt between 
Nether Wasdale and Sauton, after a course of about sLx 

The Calder rises not far from Ennerdale Water, and, 
taking a south-westerly direction, flows by Calder ^\bbey, 
between Ponsonby and Stella Park, falling into the sea 
at Caldcr-foot, after a course of about eight miles. 

Tho Caldew, which is called near its source Cald-beck 
and Caldew-beck, rises on Caldbeck FeU, in the vicinity 
of Skiddaw, and runs twenty-five miles, in a northerly 
direction to the river Eden at Carlisle, passing in its 
course Hesket Newmarket, Sebergliam, aud Dalston. 

The Cocker issues from Buttermcre lake, and passes 
through Crummock Water, to tho north of which a 
pretty largo stream connects it with Loweswatcr. It 
afterwards passes uortliward, a little more to the east, 
intersects tho vale of Lortou, and flowing onwards to 
Cockermoutli, joins tho Derwent; its course from 
Crummock Water to Cockei-mouth being about si.x miles. 

The CrogUn rises at Hofleuside Beacon, on Thack- 
thorn Fell. It then takes a wcst-south-westerly 



direction, aud contributing to the beautiful scenery at 
TsTunnery, where it forms several cascades, after a 
course of twelve miles falls into the Eden. 

The Ellen or Elne rises from Caldbeck Fells, and 
passing by Uldale, Ircby, Bolton, Torpenhow, Whitehall, 
Harley Brow, Blennerhassct, Aspatria, Hay ton Castle, 
Outerhy, AUerby, Dearham, Ellenborough, and Nether- 
hall, enters the sea at Maryport, after a course of about 
eighteen miles. 

The Ehen or Enn flows out of Ennerdale Water, 
passes by Ennerdale Chapel, Cleator, Egremont, and 
St. Bride, aud after a course of about eleven miles from 
the lake, falls into the sea at Eun-foot. 

The Esk, in Allerdale-above-Derwent Ward, is formed 
by the junction of some small streams which rise 
near Bow Fell. It then runs through the valley of 
Eskdale, and passing by Muncaster and Waberthwaite, 
falls into the sea at Ravenglass. Its course is about 
tliirteen miles. 

The Gelt rises in Croglin Fell, and passing through 
Geltsdale, and near Castle Carrock, falls into the 
Irthiug, near Corby. Near to where the river is crossed 
by the bridge ou the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway 
there is some very beautiful scenery. 

The Greta is formed by the junction of St. John's 
Beck from Thirlmere, aud the Glenderamakin from 
Mungrisdale, by way of Threlkeld ; and after receiving 
the Glenderaterra from between Skiddaw and Saddle- 
back, it passes Keswick and joins the Derwent, soon 
after that river issues from Derwentwater. When the 
rains are heavy, the Greta often rises so suddenly as to 
cause the Derwent to flow back to the lake, which is 
speedily filled from all quarters. 

The Irt, issuing from Wastwater, passes by Nether 
Wasdale, Santon.Irton, between Drigg and Carlton, and 
falls into the sea in the neighbourhood of Eaveuglass, 
after a course of about eight miles. 

The Irthing has its source in Spadeadam Moss, on 
the borders of Northumberland, and runs about thirtv 
miles south-cast past Naworth Castle and Lauercost 
Abbey to the river Eden at Warwick Bridge, receiving 
in its course the Kingwater, near Walton, and the Gelt, 
below Irthington. Some very fine scenery adorns the 
banks of this river. 

The Kershope is a small stream, which for a course 
of about six miles from Dove Crag to its junction with 
the Liddell forms the boundary between Cumberland 
and Scotland. 

The Kingwater rises near Side Common, and after a 
course of about ten miles falls into the Lthins. 

The Line is formed by the junction of two streams 
rising near Christenburgh Crags, called Black Line and 

White Lino, which unite about ten miles from their 
source, and alterwards pass Shank Castle, Brackeuhill, 
Erklinton, and Westlinton, and fall intw the Esk, not 
far from its junction with the sea. The course of the 
Line, after the confluence of the two streams, is about 
twelve miles. 

The Liddell rises in Scotland, and for about eight 
miles forms the boundary between that country and 
Cumberland, falling ultimately into the Esk. 

The Lowther has its source at the foot of Shap 
Fells, in the middle of Westmoreland; and flowing at 
first north-east, and gradually afterwards due north, 
passes Shap Abbey, about two miles beyond which it 
receives the waters of a small stream from Haweswater, 
and passing by Lowther Castle, finally joins the Eamont, 
near Brougham Castle, at a point about two miles 
south-east of Penrith. 

The Mite has a course of about seven miles. It rises 
in Burn-moor Tarn, and runs through Miterdale, falling 
into the sea at Ravenglass. 

The Neut rises in the south-eastern extremity of the 
parish of Alston, and falls into the South Tyne, near 
the town of Alston, after a course of about sk miles. 

The Petteril is formed by the union of several small 
streams, which flow from Greystoke Park, Skelton, and 
Hutton, and proceeding northwards falls into the Eden 
in the neighbourhood of Carlisle. Near Penrith this 
river is 430, and near Upperby 70 feet above the 
level of the sea — its average fall per mile is twenty- 
four feet. 

The Sark runs between Cumberland and Scotland 
for about six miles, near Solway Moss, and empties 
itself into the Solway Frith. 

The South Tyne has its source in a swamp or bog 
ground about seven miles east by south from the summit 
of Cross Fell, aud a httle below Alston enters Northum- 

The Tees rises in the same swamp, about a mUe 
from the source of the South Tyne, and for nearly four 
miles forms the boundary between Cumberland and 

The Wampool has its source in Brocklebank Fells, 
at Dockwray joins the Wiza, which rises near Rosley, 
and runs by Westward, Old Carhsle, and Wigton. 
After the junction of the two streams, the Wampool 
passes by Gamblesby, and falls into the seajabout half 
a mile west of Kirkbride, its course being about 
twelve miles. 

The Waver has its origin in Brocldebauk aud Cald- 
beck Fells, and flows by Waverton, Dundraw, and 
Abbey Holme, faUiug into the sea about half a mUe 
from the latter place, after a course of twelve mUes. 



The larger rivers abound with salmon, trout, brand- 
ling, and various kinds of lish, and the smaller streams 
with trout and eels. 


The principal lakes of the county are Ulleswater, 
between Cumberland and Westmoreland ; Thirlmere, 
at the entrance of the Valo of St. John ; Dcrweutwater 
and Bassenthwaite, connected by a stream in the Vale of 
Keswick; Buttermere, in the north-east of Borrowdale, 
and to the north a little, Crummock Water and Lowes- 
water; the three last mentioned connected by the Cocker, 
which running northwardly through the fine vale of 
Lorton, falls into the Derweut at Cockermouth. Besides 
these, and Overwater,AVastwater,Osmerdale, and Devock- 
water, there are several smaller lakes, called tarns — 
Burn-moor Tarn, at the head of Mitcrdale ; Tarn Wad- 
ling, near High Hcsket ; Talkin Tarn, in the parish of 
llaytou ; Martin Tarn, in that of Wigtou ; itc. All 
the lakes are well stocked with fish, particularly with 
trout, pike, and perch. Ulleswater, Ennerdale, Crum- 
mock, and Buttermere contain char. Tarn Wadliug is 
said to produce some of the finest carp in the kingdom. 
The following is a tabular view of the principal Cum- 
berland lakes : — 


Market Towns. 







Height in 

feet above 

the level of 

the sea. 

Ulleswater ... 












Uerwentwater . 






Crummock ... 






Wastwater ... 

Raven kIuss ■.. 

















liuUtrmere ... 






Loweswatcf ... 






There arc several picturesque waterfalls, of which 
the following arc the principal, with their respective 
situations and height iu feet : — Scale Force, near But- 
teriULro, lOl) ; Barrow Cascade, two miles from Keswick, 
I'-il; Lowdoro Cascade, near Keswick, 100; Soiu'Milk 
Force, near Buttermere, 90; Airey Force, Gowbarrow 
Park, 80 ; Nunnery Cascade, Croglin, 60. 

In addition to the tarns, cascades, itc, just enume- 
rated, this county possesses the following natural 
curiosities ; — The Bowder Stone, in Borrowdale ; the 
grand and varied echoes of Ulleswater; saline springs 
at Crostliwaito, Drigg, Gilcnix, Stanger, &c. ; sulphur 
springs at Aikton ; sulphureous springs at Biglauds 

and Bewcastle ; sulphureous and chalybeate at Mekner- 
by ; chalybeate at Bewcastle, Brampton, Great Salkeld, 
and Iron Gill, in Sebergham ; Gilsland Spa, near 
Lanercost, whose waters are similar to those of Har- 
rogate, iu Yorkshire ; medicinal waters at Holywell, at 
Lanercost, and Kirkland, in Wigton ; a mineral spring 
at PiOcklilTe, the water of which tints paper a beautiful 
gold colour ; and a petrifS'ing spring at Sebergham.' 


Cumberland is crossed from south to north, and from 
east to west, by two important roads ; one of which, 
from south to north, is a principal road from London to 
Edinburgh and Glasgow. It enters the county near 
Penrith, and passing by Plumpton Wall, Plumpton 
Street, High and Low Hesket, and Carleton, reaches 
Carlisle ; from which place it proceeds through Stanwix, 
Blackford, Westlinton, and Arthuret, to Longtown, 
about four mUes beyond which it quits the county for 
Scotland, previously giving oif a branch three miles 
north of CarHsle to Glasgow, by Gretna. The road from 
east to west extends from Newcastle, by Nether Denton 
and Brampton, to Carlisle, where it crosses the great 
north road. It then proceeds by two branches, the one 
through Old Carlisle, joined by the Wigton road, and 
the other past Bassenthwaite Water to Cockermouth, 
and thence to Whitehaven .and the Irish Sea. There 
is also a cross road from Penrith through Keswick, 
where it meets another from Kendal to Cockermouth, 
and from Penrith to Hexham, etc., joined to which, at 
Alston Moor, another road crosses the south-western 
extremity of Northumberland to Brampton, and thence 
to Longtown. Many other roads radiate from and in- 
tereomimmicate with these, which arc the principal 
roads in the county. From " The Abstract of the 
General Statements of the Pieceipts and Expenditure 
on account of the highways of the parishes, townships, 
etc., iu the several counties of England and Wales, for 
the 3-enr ending ODth Jlarch, 1853," which was pre- 
sented to parliament July 10th, 1857, we learn the 
following particulars relative to the highways of this 
county: — Number of returns, HoO. Balance, 'iSth 
March, 1851: in hand, £2,1 U 12s. 4d.; overspent, 
.C31't 15s. 4d. Receipts: from rates or assessments, 
£13,758 lis. lOd. ; team labour performed in lieu of 
rates, £191 4s. 2d.; other work performed iu lieu of 
rates, .CM Ms.; turnpike trusts, £22 lis. 5d. ; other 

1 A more dctailcil account of tho various mountains, lakes, tarns, 
..^., will he fomiil in tlie article on the Lake District, by Horrict 
.M iirlinrun, at |>a;c :Vs ; ns also in llic accounts of llie various piui^hes, 
iScc, iu nliicli tliey arc siliuled. 



receipts, £881 3s. Od.; total, i;U,948 5s. Sd. Expen- 
diture: manual labour, £7,286 3s. 6d. ; team labour, 
£1,050 Ts. 4d.; materials, £2,852 7s. 8d.; tradesmen's 
bills, £809 93. 9d.; salaries, £600 10s. lid.; team 
labour performed in lieu of rates, £191 4s. 2d,; other 
\York performed in lieu of rates, £94 14s.; turnpike 
trusts, £121 5s. lid. ; other payments, £961 Gs. 4d. ; 
total, £14,873 15s. 7d. Balance, 25th March, 1855 : 
in hand, £2,304 IGs. Id.; overspent, £490 9s. 6d. 

An abstract of the general statements of the income 
and expenditure of the several turnpike trusts in Eng- 
land and Wales, from January 1st to December 31st, 
1854, was laid before parliament in November, 1856. 
From this document it appears that the income derived 
from the fourteen turnpike trusts in Cumberland was 
as follows: — Parish composition, in lieu of statute duty, 
£285 lis. lid.: fines, £0 18s. 9d.; incidental receipts, 
£315 4s.; total, £13,786 Gs.6d.— Expenditure: manual 
labour, £4,899 5s,; team labour and carriage of ma- 
terials, £1,850 6s. Od.; materials for surface repairs, 
£728 lls.8d. ; land purchased, £11 15s.; damage done 
in obtaining materials, £20 8s. 8d.; tradesmen's bills, 
£242 ISs.Sd.; treasurers' salaries, £166 Is. lid.; clerks' 
ditto, £201 14s. 6d.; surveyors' ditto, £762 Is.; law 
charges, £400 4s. 8d.; interest of debt, £1,790 2s. 8d.; 
improvements, £602 9s. lOd. ; debts paid off, £400; in- 
cidental expenses, £308 lis. lid.; total, £12,450 12s. 
Debts: bonded or mortgage, I'9 1,499 133. 5d., at 2 per 
cent.; floating, £20; unpaid interest, £742 7s. Gd.; 
balance due to treasurers, 31st of December, 1854, 
£612 8s. 9d.; total, £92,824 9s. 8d. — Arrears of 
Income: arrears of tolls for current year, £78 3 5s.; 
arrears of parish composition for current year, 
£187 23. lOd.; arrears of fonner years, £7 18s. 9d.; 
balance in treasurers' bands, 31st of December, 1854, 
£2,800 8s. 3d.; total assets, £3,074 4s. lOd. * 

There are two hundred and forty-eiglit bridges 
throughout the county of Cumberland, a list of which 
we subjoin, with their situations, and the waters which 
they cross : — 

Names of Bridges. 

Abbey Lanercost 

Abbey Mill, or Naworth 







Armathwaite Little 



Beck Gnmge 


What water across. Parishes where situate. 


Naworth, or Cumcatch 

Airey, or Dockwray 

Melo Beck 

Anthom Beck 

Aiiistable Beck 
Kir beck 

Blackford Beck 

Abbey Lanercost and 


Grey stoke 


Aiustable and Hesket 

St. John's and St. Brid- 
11 ay ton 
KirkUntoQ and Stamwix 

Names of Bridges. 





Blong, Far or Low 

IJIeng, High 


IV.Iton Gate 

Boot, Distington 

Boot, Eskdalc 







Brougham Castle 

Broiigh Hill 
Broiighton Beck 

6 urn si do 

Bustabeck, Little 

Calder Bridge 
Calleywath, or Hutton 

Calthwaite, Little 
Carwinley, nigh 

Carwinley, Low 


Chapel Bridge 
Cleator, East 
Cleator, West 

Cocker Bridge 
Croglin. High 
Dacre, High 
Dacre, Low 
Dale Raven 


Derwent, Cockermouth 
Dodd, or Longwathby 


Dnuu leaning 


Egremont, High 

ERTemont, Low 




Evening Hill 




Friar TTaingate 
Garrigill Gate 

Gattle, High 
Gattle, Old 
Gattle, Low 
Gattle, Smalmstown 
Celt, High, or Castle 

Gelt, Low, New 
Gelt, Low, Old 
Gelt, Middle 

^Vhat water across. Parishes where situate. 




Crura mock 







Uistington Beck 









Brough Hill Beck 
Dovcnby Beck 


Burthwaite Beck 


Calley, or Dacre Beck 

Calthwaite Beck 
Cam beck 
Naworth Beck 
Carwinley Bum 

Carwinley Bum 



Keekle, Part of, in time 

of flood 

CoUiergate Beck 
Croglin Water 
Crosby Beck 
Crossgill Bum 
Calley, or Dacre Beck 
Calley, or Dacre Beck 
Calley, or Dacre Beck 
Dale Rareu 




Down-in-the Dale Beck 

Highberry Beck 







Ellergill Beck 




Part of Hallbum 




Caldbeck, Littlebeck 




St. Bridget's and HaUd 


Hesket and TTuttoo 

Wigton and Bolton 


Grey stoke 

Goa forth 





St, Bets 

St. Cuthbcrt's 





Adilingham and Long- 


IVnrith; half of bridge 
in Westmoreland 



Gilcrux and Crosscan- 


Basse nth waite 

Castlo Sowerby and 

Castlo Sowerby 

St.Bridgetand Ponsonby 


Hesket and Lazonby 



B ramp tun 

St. Mary 

St. Mary and Stanwix 

Arthuret and Kirk- 

Arthuret and Kirk- 

Sebergham and West- 




Ex tra-parocllial 

Arlccdon and Lamplugh 
Thnrtiby and Westward 
Croglin and Kirkoswald 
Wigton and Bromfield 

Addiugham and Kirk- 

Addingham and Long- 

St. Bocs (in Wastdalc 


Aikton and Thursby 

Penrith; half of bridge 
in Westmorland 



Egremont and St. John's 



St. Bees 




St. Bees (in Nether Wast- 

Abbey Lanercost 






No water orwater course Kirkandrews 




Castle Carrockand Hay- 
Branpton and Ilayton 
Brampton and Haytou 



Names of Bridges. 

dinger Foot 







"What water across. 

GUdersdale Bam 

Glencofoe Beck 

Glincer Bum 

Old Petteril 






IlarringtoD.orBockstonc Harrington Beck 
IlazleriKR Dale Kaven 

Ueskct Newmarket Caldew 

IIighl«rry Beck 

Ilighberry Beck 











Iluttoo Uall 


Iruby, Low 








Keekle, High 


Keeklf, lA>w 

















DisUngton Beck 

Leasfliow, or Leases 






Little .Salkcld 

Melmerby Beck 



Lorton, High 


Lorton, Low 




LongtowD, Little 

Longtown Littlebeck 




Lowbouses Bum 




LowQthwaite Beck 


Lowrow Beck 

MarWeflat Marblebeck 

Marji>ort Ellen 
]tlHttenUIe,orDockirrfly Dock\rniv Beck 

M<-vkliri Mt-cklin Beck 

Melmerby, High Mtlmerbr Heck 

Milmerby, Low Molmeiby Beck 

Micklclhwaito Whampool 

Mill Caldbeck 

Mill Waver 

MUlrlgy Crowdundalo Beck 

MoorhoufiC Mill 
Mountain Beck 



Muncantcr Milt 










North Itovbcck 








Ten to u 

Mountaia Beck 







Crowdundalo Beck 



Cumcatch Beck 

Qldgill Common Beck 


Croglin Water 



Not known 


Pealgill Burn 



Parishes where situate. 

Alston ; half of bridg 
in Northumberland 

GreyBtoke; half ofbridgo 
in Westmoreland 


Grey stoke 


Gos forth 


Greystokeand Caldbeck 

St. Cuthbcrt'a 



Castle Sowerby and 

Scalcby and Irthingtnn 

Castle Sowerby and Dal- 




Aikton :ind Eirkbride 





Wigton and Westward 

Arlecdonaud Distington 



Abbey Lancrcost 




Arlccdon and Lamplngh 

Lazonby and Kirkos- 




Wigtoa and Bromfield 


Edendalland Longwath- 



Artburet and Kirkan- 




Greystoke and Caldbeck 

Kirklaiid; half of bridge 
in Westmoreland 

Abbey Lanercost and 







Thursby and Wigton 



Kirkland; half in West- 

Thursby and Wigton 

Drigg and Carleton 

Greystoke and Caldbeck 

Abbey Lanercost and 

Muncaster, half in Mil- 


Greystoke ^ 




St. Heea (in Wastdale) 

Kirklar.d; half in Wut>t- 

St. CuUibert's 

Irtfain<;tnn and Ilayton 
' Brampton 



Alnstablo and Kirkos- 


8t. BecB (in Wastdale) 




Not known 

Kirkandrews ; half In 

Names of Biidges. 


Plumpton Foot 
Plurapton, High 
Plumpton Street 

Poorhouse, or Kirkgate 






Kaven, High 

Red Dial 

Roberts gate 



Sandy Beck 
Sandy syke 
Sauton Bridge 

Scale Uill 
Scarrow Hill 

Skirwith, Little 
6kirwith Mill 










Threapland Gill 


Trough House 



Walk Mill 

Walk Mill 





Wavrr Bridge, 

W hah on so 

Wisa, Low 

AVTiat water across. Parishes where sitnate. 

or Low 







Townend Beck 

No regular water 


Dovenby Beck 





Hushgill Burn 

Sandraw Beck 
Sandy Beck 


Part of Sark Millracc 


Scarrow Hill Beck 

Dovenby Beck 


Ray gill Beck 


Briggill Beck 

Skirwith, Little Beck 

Brit^gle Beck 

Soursteps Beck 



Sunnygill Beck 


Threapland Water 




Dale Kaven 

Walk Water 



Caldbeck, Utile Beck 








Wheygill Burn 








Ilesket and Lazonby 


Ilesket and Lazonby 

Dacre ; half in West- 




"Wctheral and Warwick 


Stapleton / 

Kirkoswald and Hen- 



St. Bridget's and Haila 

Castle Sowerby and St. 

Castle Sowerby 

Sebergham and West- 

A rlecdon 


Brampton and Irtbington 

Castie Sowerby and Skel- 





Kirkandrews; half in 



Abbey Lanercost and 








Kirkland and Long- 


St. Bridget's 

Castle Sowerby and 

St. John's and H^le 



Melmerby and Ousby 

St.Bees(in NetherWast- 

Abbey Lanercost and 
Denton; half in North- 

Greystoke and Cros- 


St. Bees (in Eskdale) 

Basse nth waite 



Kirklinton and Arthniet 

St. Bees (in Eskdale) 


Castle Sowerby 



Wigton i 

G rev stoke 




It would bo superfluous on our part td make any 
remarks on the great benefits that have been couforreil 
upon the counties of Cumbcrknd and Westmoreland 
hy the introduction and general use of railways. 




extension of commerce — cheap and facile transit for 
agricultural, mineral, and other produce — improve- 
ments in harbours — the increase in the manufacture of 
iron, &c., are some of the results of the formation of 
railways in this district; and sufficiently testify by 
their favourable influence on the social condition of 
the population, the great benefits already procured for 
these two counties. The railways at present existing 
in the counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland are 
the following : — a portion of the Caledonian, the 
Carlisle and Silloth Bay, the Cockermouth and Work- 
ington, the Kendal and Windermere, the greater 
portion of the Lancaster and Carlisle, the Maryport 
and Carlisle, a portion of the Newcastle and Carlisle, 
the Port Carlisle, a portion of the Ulverstone and 
Lancaster, the Whitehaven, Cleator, and Egremont, 
the greater portion of the Whitehaven and Furness, 
and the Whitehaven Junction. 

The Caledonian was incorporated Ly the 8 and 9 Vic. 
cap. 102, for a line from Carlisle to a junction with the 
Scottish Central at Castlecary, with branches diverging 
therefrom at Cairstairs, to Edinburgh and Glasgow. 
From Carlisle, the line proceeds across the Calder by a 
viaduct, and thence over the river Eden by another 
viaduct, after which, it passes by King Moor and Rock- 
liffe station, and crosses the Esk by a viaduct of seven 
arches, thence passing over the Glasgow road and 
along the Guards' embankment, formed through a deep 
moss which absorbed thousands of tons of earth before the 
foundation was sufficiently solid to bear a train, it shortly 
afterwards crosses the Sark, and quits Cumberland. 

The Carlisle and Silloth Bay Couipany was incorpo- 
rated July 16th, 1855, to make a railway from the Port 
Carlisle line at Drumburgh to the boat lighthouse in 
Silloth Bay, and a dock and a jetty at the latter place. 
The first sod of the railway was cut at Drumburgh, on 
the 31st of August, 1855, the works were at once 
commenced, and the line opened on the 28th of 
August, 1856. The line is identical with that to 
Port Carlisle for eight miles and a half, two-thirds of 
the length of the latter. The Silloth line commences 
strictly at Drumburgh. At the village of Kirkbride 
there is a station for the convenience of the locality. 
Three miles further west, not far from where the 
Wampool and the Waver enter Morecambe Bay, the 
line passes within a short distance of Long Newton, 
or Newton Arlosh, and a little past Abbey Holme, where 
there is a station, passes through the heaviest cutting in 
its whole extent, viz., Kingside Hill, and shortly after- 
■wai'ds arrives at Silloth. 

The Cockermouth and Workington Company was 
incorporated in July, 1845, by the 8 and 9 Vict. cap. 

120. The line is from Cockermouth to Workington 
Harbour, where it joins the Whitehaven line. Its 
length is eight and a half miles ; and it was opened 
throughout 28th April, 1847. After leaving Working- 
ton, the stations are Workington Bridge, Camerton, 
Broughton Cross, Brigham, and Cockermouth, where 
the line at present terminates. 

The Kendal and Windermere Company was incorpo- 
rated by 8 and 9 Vic. cap. 32, (1845), for a line from 
the Lancaster and Carlisle llailway at Oxenholme to 
Birthwaite, near Windermere Lake, ten and a quai-ter 
miles. The line was opened on the 21st of April, 1847. 
The stations on the line after leaving Oxenholme, are 
Burnside, Staveley, and Windermere. 

The Lancaster and CarUsle Company was incorpo- 
rated by 7 and 8 Vic, cap. 37, (1844), for a single line, 
in the first instance, until the Act authorising the 
Caledonian was passed, when it was made a double 
line, continuing the Lancaster and Preston to Carlisle, 
and there forming a juuetion with the Caledonian. 
Cost, J£22,000 per mile. Length, seventy miles. The 
joint station at Carlisle was built at a cost of £1 64,500, 
of which the Caledonian contributed j£63,367. By an 
arrangement wiih the Glasgow and South Western, and 
Maryport and Carlisle, they have become joint tenants 
of that station. This line enters Westmoreland from 
Lancashire, and passing the Burton and Holme station 
soon reaches ^Milnthorpe, whence it crosses the canal at 
the tunnel, and pursues its course through a fine and 
well-wooded country to the village of Sedgwick, where 
the magnitude of the Sedgwick embankment is seen to 
advantage. Its course is now by Natland to O.xenholme, 
previous to which the Burton turnpike road is crossed, 
about two miles south of Kendal ; and after passing an 
embankment, and through some heavy rock cutting, 
Oxenholme station is reached, where the line is joined 
by the Kendal and Windermere Railway, which afTords 
an easy and delightful means of access to the Lake 
District. A fine view of the town of Kendal is 
enjoyed at this station ; whilst far beyond rise the 
mountains of the west, the giants of the Lake District. 
From Oxenholme, the line proceeds upon embankments 
and througli cuttings, with occasional views of Kendal 
and its ruined castle; and soon after passing the Birk- 
land cutting, skirts the base of the lofty Benson Knot, 
one of the highest hills in the neighbourhood, and 
passing thence through heavy rock cuttings and across 
an embankment, reaches Docker Gill viaduct, one of 
the most beautiful structures on the line. A mile from 
this splendid piece of work Gi-a_ygrigg summit is reached, 
where a heavy cutting of hard material, called samel, is 
passed through ; and another mile onward is the Low 



Gill embaukmcnt, one of the highest in England. 
After passing Low Gill station, the lino skirts the 
DiUicar hills, and soon afterwards passes through the 
great DiUicar cut, and is then earned over the Borrow 
Water, near its junction with the Lune, upon a neat 
viaduct. Piorrow Bridge, a romantic spot, celebrated 
for trout fishing, the scenery about which is the most 
beautiful along the whole line, is ue.xt passed, and the 
traveller seems to be completely hemmed in on all sides 
by stupendous hills. The village of Borrow Bridge 
appears on the right, at a short distance from the line, 
which, passing through the Borrow Bridge cutting, 
reaches the Lune embankment, 9") feet deep, formed 
through tlio old bed of the river, which has been diverted 
from its course, through a tunnel excavated in the solid 
rock, 50 feet from the top, and made nearly parallel to 
the ravine. Proceeding onwards, the Lune excava- 
tions, Loup's Fell cutting, the Birbecic embankment, 
and the Birbeck viaduct, are passed, shortly after- 
wards the foot of the great incline — a plain of eight 
miles — rising 1 in 73, is reached. Proceeding from 
Tebay station, Shap Wells is reached, the line passing 
through the Fells, over which Prince Charles Edward 
and his army marched in 1745 ; and, leaving the Shap 
summit, a cutting through limestone rock is entered, 
and before it approaches Shap village the line runs 
through a circle of large boulder stones, said to be the 
inner circle of an ancient Druidical temple. From 
Shap the line proceeds on the cast side of the town of 
Shap, along a heavy cutting, and passing thence under 
a skew bridge along the flat portion of the route, called 
Shap Mines, and, following the valley of the stream, it 
again runs under the turnpike road, and thence passes 
Thrimby, through a thick plantation. Here the cha- 
racter of the scenery is considerably altered, the bare, 
rugged, and sterile mountains being succeeded by 
fertile pastures and picturesijue prospects. The Kendal 
turnpike road is crossed, for the last time, by a skew 
bridge at Clifton, near the entrance to Lowther Park 
and Castle, the seat of the Earl of Lonsdale. The 
scenery between Shaj) and Clifton is very attractive — 
Cross Fell, Saddleback, Skiddaw, and the other hills in 
the Lake District appearing to great advantage. From 
Clifton station the lino proceeds along the Lowther 
embankment, and about 50 miles from Lancaster and 
20 from Carlisle crosses the river Lowther on a magni- 
ficent viaduct, 101) feet above the stream ; its arches, 
sLx in number, are of GO feet span each. A mile and a 
half beyond, the line crosses the Eaniont, on a viaduct 
of great beauty, consisting of five semi-circular arches. 
Leaving the county of Westmonlaud ut this point, the 
line enters Cumberland, and shortly afterwards passes 

through a large cutting, and then, running nearly level to 
the town of Penrith, reaches the station adjoining the 
ruins of the ancient castle. From Penrith the country 
is flat and uninteresting. The line enters the valley 
of the Petteril, through which it pursues almost a direct 
course to Carlisle, past the following stations : — Plump- 
ton, Calthwaite, Southwaite, and Wreay. 

The Maryport and Carlisle was incorporated by 
Act 1 Vic. cap. Ill (1837), — 28 miles. It was opened, 
Maryport to Aspatria, loth July, 1840; Carlisle to 
Wigton, in May, 1844; and completed 10th May, 1845. 
The Act of 1855 (17 and 18 Vic. cap. 79, June 26th) 
provides that new capital, for doubling the line and 
other improvements, may be raised to the extent of 
£77,712 10s. in £12 10s. shares, making a total of 
£420,000, with borrowing powers to the extent of 
£135,000. Leaving Maijport, and passing Dearham 
Station, the line reaches Bull Gill, and 3+ mUes further 
comes to Aspatria, pleasantly situated on the river 
Ellen ; it shortly afterwards arrives at Brayton. After 
crossing the Waver it reaches Leegate, 3:^ miles beyond 
which is Wigton, and passing Curthwaite and Dalston 
stations, anives at Carlisle. 

The Newcastle and Carlisle was incorporated on the 
22nd of May, 1829, as a line between these two towns, 
crossing from the east to the west coast of England; 
also a branch-lino of 12 miles to Alston, and one to 
Swalwell. Total length, 78J miles now open. A short 
extension from Alston to Nenthead is in abeyance. This 
line enters Cumberland near Piose Hill station, and 
passing Low Pvow and Milton, in the neighbourhood of 
Brampton, crosses the ravine of the Gelt by a skew 
bridge of three arches, and arrives at How Mill station, 
close to which is llayton Church, and in the distance 
may be seen the white turrets of Edmond Castle and 
Castle Carrock Church. The next station is Wetberal, 
where the Eden is crossed by a magnificent bridge, con- 
sisting of five semicircular arches, each of 80 feet sjjau, 
and raised to an elevation of 99* feet above the summer 
level of the stream, with a parapet of 4 J feet in height. 
The entire length of the bridge is 024 feet. The situa- 
tion of this viaduct is perhaps unrivalled. Looking from 
it towards the south the spectator has a full view of both 
sides of the river and their noble woods, the grounds of 
Corby, and the ancient church of Wctlural ; and turning 
in the opposite direction, he is charmed with the e.xten- 
eive prospect before him, embracing as it does every 
variety of rural beauty, and toriniiiating in the distant 
mountains of Scotland. Leaving Wethcral, the hue 
passes by Scotby and arrives at Carlisle. 

The Port Carlisle F>ailway was incorporated .\ugust 
4th, 1853, by the act 17 Vic. cap. 119, for converting tlie 



canal between Carlisle and Port Carlisle into a railway. 
It was opened for goods on IMay 22ud, 1854, and on tlic 
•32nd of the following June for passengers. Quitting 
Carlisle, the line passes Xirkandrews and Burgh 
stations, from the latter of which it proceeds by Dnini- 
burgh and Glasson to Port Carlisle, a total distance of 
11 J miles. 

The Ulverstonc and Lancaster was incorporated by 
Act 14 and 15 Vic. cap. 103, 24th July, 1851, for a 
railway from the Fumess at Ulverstone, to a junction 
■with the Lancaster and Carlisle at Carnforth, seven 
miles north of Lancaster, thus completing a direct line 
from Whitehaven and the west coast of Cumberland to 
the south of England. 

The Whitehaven, Cleator, and Egremont Company j 
was incorporated by the ITth and 18th Vic. cap. C4, I 
June 16th, 1854. The share capital amounts to 
.-£75,000, with borrowing powers to the extent of one- 
third of that amount. The line, including the Egre- 
mont branch, is about seven miles in length from the 
point at which it joins the Whitehaven and Fumess 
Junction Kailway. It was opened for the conveyance of 
passengers on June 1st, 1857, having previously, for 
about eighteen months, been in use for mineral traflic. 

The Whitehaven and Fumess Company was incor- 
porated aist of July, 1845, by the 8 and 9 Vic. cap. 100, 
for a railway from W'hitehaven to a junction with the 
Fumess, near Dalton ; and subsequently extended to a 
junction at Whitehaven, with the Whitehaven Junction, 
and fixing the junction with the Furness at Foxfield, 
near Broughton: total length, 35 miles. On leaving 
Broughton, and crossing the Duddou by a wooden 
bridge, the line enters Cumberland, and then proceeds 
along the coast by Green Pioad, Under Hill, Holborn 
Hill, Silecroft, Bootle, Eskmeals, Eavenglass, Drigg, 
Seascales, Sellafield, Braystones, Nethertown, St. Bees, 
and Corkicle stations, to Whitehaven. 

The Whitehaven Junction was incorporated on the 
30th of June, 1844, for a railway from the Maryport 
Junction (Mai-yport and Carlisle), to Workington Junc- 
tion (Cockermouth and Workington), to Whitehaven 
(Whitehaven and Furness). Length, 12 miles. On 
quitting Whitehaven, Farton is the first station 
reached, whence the line proceeds by Harrington, 
W^orkington, and Flimby, to JIaryport. 

In addition to these the following lines ai'c projccteil : 
The Carlisle and Hawick, the Lancaster and Cai'lisle 
and Ingleton, and the Eden Valley. 


The climate, as might be readily inferred from the 
great e.^teut of coast, and the numerous and lofty 

mountains, is various, the elevated portions of the 
county being cold and piercing, while tlie lower parts 
are mild and temperate. The whole county, however, 
is exposed to wet and variable weather, particularly in 
the autumn, yet it is very salubrious, and remarkable 
for the longevity of its inhabitants. Lysons has a list 
of 144 persons of not less than 100 years of age who 
were buried between the years 16C3 and 1814. The 
greatest ages are, Robert Brown, aged 1 10, buried at 
Arthuret, in 1060; Pilchard Green, 114, at Dacre, iu 
1680; Thomas Fearon, 112, Bridekirk, in 1701 ; Jane 
Hodgson, 114, Harrington, in 1717; Thomas Dicken- 
son, 112, Bootle, 1745; Mary Singleton, 110, Dear- 
ham ; Rev. George Braithwaite, 1 10, Carlisle, in 1753 : 
Mark Noble, 113, Corney, in 1768 ; and James Bell, 
113, Penrith, 1772. John Taylor, who died in J 772, 
aged 135, was noticed in a communication of Bishop 
Lytletton's to the Society of Antiquaries. The obi- 
tuary of the Gentleman's Magazine also records Ann 
Wilson, 110, Alston, 1765; John Noble, 114, Comey, 
1772; and John Maxwell, 132, Keswick Lake. The 
annual mean quantity of rain at Carlisle is about thirty 
inches : at Wigton, thirty-four inches : at AVhitehaven, 
fifty inches ; and at Keswick, sixty-eight inches. April, 
on an average, is the driest month in the year ; the wet 
months are July, August, September, and October, in 
each of which about twice as much rain falls as in 
April; and about one-third less rain falls in the first 
six months of the j-ear than in the last six mouths. 

The soil of this county varies considerably, often 
differing much in the same parish, and sometimes even 
in the same field. The mountainous districts are bleak 
and ban-en, the prevailing soils being mossy, or dry 
gravel covered with heath, and they are chiefly used as 
sheep pastures and pi-eserves for moor-game. Some 
good land of dry brown loam is found in the valleys and 
on tlie sides of the smaller mountains ; and on the 
margins of the rivers there is much valuable ground, 
consisting of a rich brown loam. On the coast, the soil 
is a light sand, or gravel. The lowland countr)', 
extending from Carlisle in every direction for about 
thirty miles, is fertile, though a considerable portion of 
it is cold wet loam, and black peat earth : this land has 
been much improved by draining, which is now carried 
on to a great extent, and with the best results. There 
is a good deal of fertile clayey loam, in the neighbour- 
hood of Wigton ; while sand and light loam prevail near 
Brampton, and likewise near Penrith. In the west of 
the county, there is some wet soil on a clay bottom, and 
also some hazel mould. The subsoil, in many places, 
is a wet sterile clay. In consequence of the cultivation 
of extensive commons and waste lands, the aspect of 



this county has been completely changed. Within the 
last sixty years more than 250,000 acres have been 
enclosed. Many of the commons, which previously 
afforded only a scanty pasturage to a few half-starved 
sheep and cattle, are now covered with fertile cornfields 
and profitable herbage, and have hawthorn fences, good 
roads, and commodious farm buildings. 

'■ The agriculture of the county," says a recent writer, 
'•has improved considerably of late yeai-s, and great 
quantities of com, and other kinds of produce, are now 
exported. Cattle, sheep, poultiy, grain, potatoes, 
butter, bacon, Ac, are the principal exports, and are 
shipped from Whitehaven, Port Carlisle, Workington, 
and Maryport. The knd being generally divided into 
small farms, the dairies ai-e necessarily on a small scale, 
but their produce is excellent, and commands a high 
price ill the mai-ket. Many of the farms do not exceed 
100 acres, and somo are not more than 40 or 50 acres. 
They are generally let on short leases. Many persons, 
provuicially called statesmen, occupy theu- own land, 
wliich, in some instances, have been possessed by the 
same family for centuries in an unbroken Una of 
descent, and this circumstance gives them an air of 
independence which forms a peculiar trait in their 
character. In some places, a small part of the land 
lies in open town fields, which cannot have the benefit 
of the common improvement Lu husbandry. lu other 
places, there are certain common lands that are annually 
stocked with horses and cattle, on a fixed day, by the 
owners or occupiers. These lands arc always in grass. 
In the high and mountainous districts the chief object 
of attention, on the part of the farmers, is then- sheep 
stock, though, of late years, a large portion of the high 
lying land has been brought into cultivation. In some 
of these places the climate is cold, the com backward, 
and the harvest late. The valleys and low ground are 
cultivated chiefly for grain, and produce excellent crops 
of wheat, barley, and oats ; these are alternated with 
turnips and potatoes, or fallow. Some of the lands 
that are well supphed with water, arc kept as meadows 
or pastures for dairii's, and for rearing and fattening 
cattle. Candlemas is the usual time for entering upon 
farms, and the rents are paid half-yeai'ly, in equal por- 
tions, at Lammas and Candlemas. The modern farm- 
houses have a handsome appearance, being generally 
built of stone, and roofed with blue slate. The old 
farm buildings and cottages have clay or mud walls, 
and are thatched with straw. There is a great variety 
of cattle and sheep. A peculiar breed of sheep, called 
Herdwicks, from their being farmed out to herds at 
a yearly sura, is met with on the mountains, at the 
head of the Duddon and Esk rivers. The ewes and 

wethers, and many of the tups, are polled ; their faces 
and legs speckled, and the wool short and coarse. 
They are hvely and hardy Httle animals. The tups 
are in great request, to improve the hardiness of other 
flocks. There are several agricultural societies and cattle 
shows in the county, which give a stimulus to agricul- 
ture, and encourage improvements in the breed of live 
stock, by distributiug rewards and premiums. At Car- 
hsle, Whitehaven, and Penrith, are horticultural and 
floral societies, vvliich are well supported, and are of 
service in exciting attention to the cultivation of fruits 
and flowers." 


The division of England into counties, as well as 
into hundreds and tythings, is ascribed to Alfred, but 
there is evidence that some counties bore their names, 
and had those divisions, 150 years earlier. The govern- 
ment of counties is vested in several oflicers, the chief 
of whom is the lord heutentant, whose ofiice was insti- 
tuted in England in the third year of the reign of 
Edward VI., 1549. This officer is regarded as the 
chief magistrate of the county, and his appointment, 
which is vested in the crown, is very rarely bestowed 
upon any but a supporter of the government for the 
time being. The office is held during pleasure. The 
duty of the lord lieutenant is to organise and superin- 
tend the discipline of the militia of his county, the 
command of which is vested in him. He is empowered 
to select, from amongst the principal gentlemen of the 
county, deputy lieutenants, who ai-e to oflicer that force, 
and in his absence to be his representatives. He may, 
therefore; in the event of war or civil commotion, be 
regai'ded as responsible for the defence of the county, 
and, as a necessary consequence of that, he is the solo 
disposer of the patronage of the militia. The lord 
lieutenant is also generally cusios rotidorwn, or keeper 
of the rolls and records of the county. The following 
have held this high and important office for Cumber- 
land:— 1089, Sir John Lowther, Burt, (afterwards 
Viscount Lonsdale); Charles, Eai-1 of Egremont ; J715, 
Henry Lowther, third Viscount Lonsdale. The office 
has since remained in the Lowther family, and is now 
held by the present Eai-1 of Lonsdale. ' 

The next officer in dignity and authority is the sheriff, 
upon whom the civil administration has long devolved. 
Ho receives the charge of the county under letters 
patent, direct from the monarch ; though in ancient 
times ho was appointed by the freeholders of the 
county. The office is held for one year, formerly it was 

' Sec account of Uic Lowther foniUf at a subsequent page. 



held for a much longer period. In his judicial capacity, 
the sheriff presides at the county court, and by him all 
county meetings are summoned ; the election of the 
county members, and of the coroners, is conducted by 
him, and he makes a return of those duly elected. Ho 
is unable, however, to try any criminal offence, and can- 
not act as an ordinary justice of the peace during his 
term of office. As a keeper of the Queen's peace ho is 
strictly the first man in the county, and superior to 
every noble within the shire. In tho preservation of 
the peace he is armed with ample powers, and for his 
assistance he may command all the people of the county 
to attend him; these form the j'osse comitatiis. In his 
ministerial capacity he executes all writs and other 
processes directed to him from the courts ; he summons 
and returns the juries for all trials, and is responsible 
for the due execution of the judgment of the courts, 
civil or criminal, — from the exaction of a farthing 
damages to the execution of capital punishment. As 
the king's bailiff, the rights of the crown are iu his 
especial custody : he must seize all lands devolving on 
the crown by attainder or escheat, levy all fines, take 
charge of all waifs or strays, etc. The following are the 
high sheriffs of Cumberland from 1155 to the present 

Heney II. 
1155. Hildred de Carlisle. 
115G. liichard do Lucy. 
1157. Robert Fitz-Trojte,forin 

1173. Adam, son of tlie said 

Robert, for 2 years. 
1175. RobertdeVaux,forlOyrs. 
1185. Hugh de Morewick, for i 


1190. Ti'iUiani Fitz Adeline, for 

I) years. 
1100. Robert de Tatersball. 


1200. William de Stuterille, for 

4| years. 

Robert, Lord Courtnoy, 

for IJ years. 

1206. Roger de Lacy, for 5 years. 

1210. Robert de Veteripont. 

1211. Hugh, Lord de Neville, 

for i years. 
1215. Eobert, Lord de Roos. 
12 le. Robert de Vaux. 

Henry III. 
1217. Robert de Veteripont, for 

5 years. 
1222. Walter Jlauclerk, bishop 

of Carlisle, for 10 years. 
1233. Thomas de JIulton, for i 

1237. William de Dacre, for 12 

1210. John deBaliol, for 7years. 
1256. William de Fortibus, for 

5 years. 
1261. Robert de lluncaster. 

1262. Eustachius de Baliol, for 

4 years. 

1266. Roger de Leybome, for 2 

12ns. William de Dacre. 
12UU. Eanulph ile Dacre, for 3 

Edward I. 
1273. Chauncey, bishop 

of CarUsle; for 2 years. 
1275. Robert de Hampton, for 

3 years. 
1277. John de Swynburn. 
1270. Gilbert de Culwen, for 4 

1293. Robert de Bras, for 3 yrs. 
1286. Michael de Hercla,for 12 

1208. William de Mulcastre, for 

5 years. 

1 303. John de Lucy, for 2 years. 
1305. William de ilulcastre, for 

2 years. 

Edward II. 
1308. Andrew de Hercia, for 15 


1323. Anthony, Lord Lucy. 

1324. Henry de lloulton. 

1326. Robert de Eruyn. 

Edward III. 

1327. reterdeTilliol,for3 years. 
1330. Ranulph de Dacre, for 6 


1336. Richard de Denton. 

1337. Anthony de Lucy,for7yrs. 
1313. Hugh de Moresby, for 2 

1345. Thomas deLncy,for5 yrs. 

1350. Richard de Denton, for 2 

1355. HiiglHleLouthre,for3yrs. 
1350. William de Thirlkeld. 
1357. Itobertde Tylliol,for2yrs. 

1353. William de Lancaster, for 

2 years. 
1361. Robertdo Tylliol,for2yrs. 
1363. Christopher de Jloresby, 

for 4 years. 
1367. William de Windesor, for 

2 years. 
1360. AdamdeParving,for3yrs. 

1372. John de Denton. 

1373. Robert de IMowbray. 

1374. John de Derwentwatcr. 

1375. John de Denton. 

1376. John do Denventwater. 

1377. John le Bruyn. 

RiniARD II. 

1378. John de Derwentwatcr. 
1370. William de Stapleton. 

1380. Gilbert Curwen. 

1381. John de Derwentwatcr. 
13S2. Amand Monceaux. 
1383. Robert Parving. 

1354. Amand Jlonceaux. 
1385. John Thirlewall. 
1380. Amand Monceaux. 

1387. John Thirlewall. 

1388. Peter Tylliol. 
1380. John Ireby. 

1300. Richard Redman. 

1301. Christoplier Moresby. 

1302. John Ireby. 

1303. Thomas Musgra^e. 

1304. Richard Redman. 

1305. Peter Tylliol. 
1300. John Ireby. 
1307. Richard Redman. 
1 30'^. William Curwen. 
1390. Richard Redman. 

Henry IV. 
1100. William Legh. 

1401. William Lowther. 

1402. Richard Redman. 

1403. William Osmunderlv. 

1404. Peter Tylliol, for 2 years. 
1400. Richard Skelton. 

1107. William Lowther. 

1108. Robert Lowther, for 2 yrs. 

1410. John de la More. 

1411. Robert Rotington. 

Henry V. 

1413. Richard Redman. 

1414. Isaac Harrington. 

1415. William Stapleton. 
1410. Christopher Curwen. 

1417. John Lancaster. 

1418. William Osraunderley. 
1410. Robeil Lowther. 

1420. John Lamplugh. 

1421. William Stapleton. 

1422. Nicholas Radcliffe. 

Henry VI. 

1423. William Legh. 

1424. Christopher Culwen. 

1425. Christopher Moresby. 
1420. Nicholas Radcliffe. 

1427. John Pennington. 

1428. Christopher Culwen. 
1420. Christopher Moresby. 

1430. Thomas de la More. 

1431. John Pennington. 

1432. John Skelton. 

1433. John Lamplugh. 







Christopher Culwen. 
John Pennington. 
John Bronghton. 
Henry Fenwick. 
Christopher Curwen. 
Christopher Jloresby. 
Hugh Lowther. 
John Skelton. 
William Stapleton. 
Thomas Beauchamp. 
Thomas de la More. 
Christopher Curwen. 
John Skelton. 
John Broughton. 
Thomas de la Jlorc. 
Thomas Crackenlhorp. 
Thomas Curwen. 
John Skelton. 
Robert Vaux. 
Thomas de la More. 
• • * 

John Ilodleston. 
Hugh Lowther. 
Thomas Curwen. 
Richard Salkeld. 
Henry Fenwick. 

Edward IV. 

Richard Salkeld. 

Robert Vaux, for 2 years. 

John Hodleston. 

Thomas Lamplugh. 

Richard Salkeld. 

Robert Vaux. 

John Hodleston, for 2 

William Legh. 

Christopher Sloresby. 

William Parr. 

John Hodleston. 

William Legh, for 2 years. 

Richard, Duke of Glou- 
cester, for 5 years. 

Richard III. 
Richard Salkeld. 
John Crackonthorp. 

Henry VII. 
Christopher Moresby. 

Christopher IMoresby. 
Thomas Beauchamp. 

1401. ... 

1492. John Mnsgrave. 

1493. ... 
1404. Edward Redman. 
1495. Richard Salkeld. 

1406. Christopher Moresby. 

1407. Thomas Beauchamp. 

1408. Christopher Dacre, for 7 

1505. Hn'gh Hutton. 
1500. Christopher Dacre. 

1507. John Hodleston. 

1508. John Radclyffe. 

Henry VIIL 

1510. Thomas Curwen. 

1511. John Pennington. 

1512. John Skelton. 

1513. John Crackenlhorp. 
1511. Edwai'd Mnsgrave. 

1515. .John Radclyffe. 

1516. John Lowther. 

1517. Thomas Curwen. 

1518. Gawen Eglesfield. 
1510. John Radclifle. 
3520. Edward Musgrave. 



1521. ... 

1522. Christopher Dacre. 
152:J. ... 

1524. John Ra<lcljffi\ 

1525. Cliristopher C'urwon. 
1528. Christoiilier Dacre. 
1527. John Radclyffe. 
ISas. Kdwaril Musgrave. 
1520. William I'eiinington. 
15;iO. Tlionias Wharton. 
10;)1. Rifliard Irton. 

1532. Christoptier Dacre. 
153.'). William Musgrave. 

1534. Cliristophpr Ciirwen. 

1535. Cuthbert Hutton. 
1530. Thomas Wharton. 
1537. Thomas Curwen. 

1533. Joiin Damplugh. 
153!). John Thwaytes. 

1540. Thomas Wharton. 

1541. Thomas Dalston. 

1542. AVilliain Musgrave. 

1543. John Lowtlier. 

1544. Thomas Sallteld. 

1545. Edward .\glionby. 
154G. Thomas Sandford. 

Edward VI. 
1547. Thomas Wharton. 
154S. John Legh. 
1540. Jolui I,amplug!i. 

1550. John Lowilier. 

1551. Ricliard Eglesfield. 

1552. William Pennington. 


1553. Thomas Lcgh. 

1554. Kiohiird Musgrave. 

1555. Thomas Sandford. 
1550. Robert Larapliigh. 
1557. John Legh. 

1559. William IVnuington. 

1500. Thomas Dacro. 

1501. Thomas Lamplugli. 

1502. Hugh Ayscough. 

1503. William Musgrave. 

1504. Anthony Hodleston. 

1505. Christopher Dacre. 
1500, William Pennington. 

1507. Richard Lowther. 

1508. John Dalston. 

1500. Culhberl .Alusgravo. 

1570. Simon Musgrave. 

1571. Henry Curwen. 

1572. George Lamplngh. 

1573. Jolin Lamplugh. 

1574. William Musgrave. 

1575. .\nlhony Hodleston. 
1570. Richard Salkeld. 
1577. Henry Tolson. 
157y. John Dalston. 
157)1. George Salkeld. 

1580. Francis Lamplugh. 

1581. John Lamplugh. 
15Sv;. Henry Curwen. 
1583. Christopher Dacre. 
15t*4. Wilfrid Lawson. 
1585. John Dalston. 
1580. John Jlidleton. 

1587. Ceorgo Salkeld. 

1588. John Dalston. 
15H1). Riohiad Lowther. 
15011. Ili'iiry Curwen. 

1501. Christopher Pickering. 

1502. ,lohn Southaik. 

1503. William Musgrave. 

1504. Gormd Lowther. 

1505. John Dalston. 
1500. Lancelot Salkeld. 
1507. Christopher Dalston. 
159H. Wilfrid Lawson. 
1500. Thomas Salkeld. 
1000. Joseph Pennington. 
1(101. Nicholas Curwen. 

1002. WiUiam Orfour. 

James I. 

1003. Edmund Dudley. 

1004. William Hutton. 
1(!05. John Dalston. 

lOOfi. Christopher Pickering. 

1007. Wilfrid Lawson. 

1008. Christopher Pickering. 
1000. Henry Blencowe. 

1010. William Hutton. 

1011. Josepli Pennington. 

1012. Christopher Pickering. 

1013. Wilfrid Lawson. 

1014. Thomas Lamplugh. 

1015. Edward Musgrave. 
ICIC. Richard Fletcher. 

1017. William Musgrave. 

1018. William Hodleston. 
1010. George Dalston. 

1020. Henry Curwen. 

1021. John Lamplugh. 

1022. Henry Fcntherstonehnugh. 

1023. ■ • Dudley. 

1024. Richard Sandford. 

CnAui.ES I. 
Richai'd Fletcher. 
Henry Blencowe. 
Peter Senhouse. 
Christopher Dalston. 
William Layton. 
William Musgrave. 
Christopher Richmond. 
Leonard Dykes. 
John Skelton. 
William (Jrfeur. 
Rich.ird IJarwise. 
Wilfrid Lawson. 
Patiicias Curwen. 
Timothy Dacre. 

Timotliy reathcrstonehangh 


Christopher Lowther, Brt. 
Henry I'letcher, Bart. 















f Thomas Lamplngh. 
I Wilfrid Lawson. 
. William llriscoe. 
f William Briscoe. 
(Henry Tolson. 
. Jolm Barwys. 

. John Barwys. 
. Charles Howard. 
, William Briscoe. 
. .lohn Barwys. 
nvilliam Halton. 
\ Wilfrid Lawson. 
. Wilfrid Lanson, for 1 

. George Fletcher, Bart. 
. WiUiam Pennington. 

, William Pi^nnington. 
. Daniel I'K-ming. 
. John Lowlher. 
. Francis Salkeld. 

.lohn Lamplugh. 

Thomas Davvsoo. 

1000. William Dalston. 

1007. Richard Tolson. 

1008. William Layton. 
liJOO. Miles Pennington. 
1070. Thomas Curwen. 
1671. Anthony Bouche. 

1072. Richard Patrickson. 

1073. Bernard Kurkbride, for 2 

1075. William Orfeur, for 2 

1077. William Blennerhasset, 

for 2 years. 
1070. Wilfrid Lawson. 

1080. George Fletcher, Barf. 

1081. Leonard Dykes, for 2 jrs. 
1683. Edward Hassel. 

1084. Andrew Hodleston. 

James II. 

1085. Richard Musgrave, Bart. 
1080. William Pennington, Bart. 

1087. John Dalston, Bart. 

1088. Henry Curwen. 

William and Maey. 
1080. Edward Stanley. 

1000. Wilfrid Lawson. 

1001. Richard Lamplugh. 

1002. Christopher Richmond. 
1603. Joseph Hodleston. 
1004. Henry Broughton. 

William III. 
1095. John Ballendyne. 
1000. John Ponsonby. 
1007. John Latus. 
1098. Timothy Featlierstonehaugh 
1000. Thomas Dawes. 

1700. Robert Carleton. 

1701. Thomas Lamplugh. 


1702. Richard Crackenthorpe. 

1703. John Dalston. 

1704. John Senhouse. 

1705. John Briscoe. 
1700. Christopher Curwen. 
1707. Robert Pennington. 
170S. Richard Lamplugh. 
1700. Richard Hutton. 

1710. William Ballentine. 

1711. Robert Blacklock. 

1712. John Fisher. 

1713. Charles Dalston. 

1714. Thomas PattinsoD. 

Geokge I. 

1715. Humphrey Senhouse. 
1710. Thomas Broughton. 

1717. Henry Blencowe. 

1718. Robert Lamplugh. 
1710. John Ponsonby. 

1720. Thomas Fletcher. 

1721. John Stanley. 

1722. Joshua Laitlies. 

1723. Peter Brougham. 

1724. Joseph Dacro Appleby. 

1725. John Fletcher. 
1720. Thomas I.ulwick. 

1727. John Ballentine. 

Oeouge II. 

1728. Edward Hassel. 
1720. Guslavus Thompson. 

1730. Eldred Curwen. 

1731. Richard Musgrave, Bart. 

1732. l-'.dward Stanley. 

1733. Henry .\glionby. 

1734. John Bonn. 

1 735. Fletcher Pdrfys. 

1730. John Dalston. 

1737. Wilham Hicks. 

1738. John Gaskarth. 

1730. Joseph Dacre Appleby. 

1740. Richard Cook. 

1741. Montague Farrer. 

1742. Henry Fletcher. 

1743. Humphrey Senhouse. 

1744. Jerome Tulhe. 

1745. Joshua Lucock. 
1740. Christopher Pattinson. 

1747. Thomas Whitfield. 

1748. Walter Lutwick. 
1740. Henry Richmond. 

Jolm Ponsonby. 

1750. Richard Hylton. 

1751. George Irton. 

1752. George Dalston. 

1753. Henry Curwen. 

1754. William Fleming. 

1755. Timothy FeatberStonehaugh 
1750. Wilfrid Lawson, Bart. 

1757. John Stephenson. 

1758. John Senhouse. 

1759. James Spedding. 
John Gale. 

17C0. William Dalston. 

George III. 

1701. John Langton. 

1702. John Richardson. 

1703. Henry Aghonby. 

1704. Henry Ellison. 

1705. Samuel Irton. 
17C0. John Christian. 
1767. Thomas Lutwick. 
1708. Gilfrid Lawson. 

1760. John Robinson. 

1770. Michael le Fleming. 

1771. John Spedding. 

1772. William Hicks. 

1773. John Dixon. 

1774. George E. Stanley. 

1775. Anthony Benn. 
1770. Roger Williamson. 

1777. Robert Waters. 

1778. John Briscoe. 
1770. William Hasell. 

1780. Christopher .\glionby. 

1781. Thomas Storey. 

1782. William Dacre. 

1783. John Orl'eur Yates. 

1784. John Christian. 

1785. Edward Knubley. 
1780. William Wilson. 

1787. Thomas Whelpdale. 

1788. Frederick F. Vane. 
1780. Thomas Denton. 

1700. William Browne. 

1701. Edward L. Irton. 

1792. Edward HasseU. 

1793. Thomas Pattinson. 

1794. William II. Milbourne. 

1795. James Graham, Bart. 
1790. Jamestiraham, of Barock 


1707. Hugh Parkin. 

1798. Sir Richard Hodgson. 

1700. John Hamilton. 

1800. Sir .lohn C. JIusgrave. 

1801. Sir Wilfrid Lawson, Bart. 
ISO'2. Edward Hasscll. 

180.1. Robert Warwick. 

1804. John dc Whelpdale. 

1805. C. S. Fealherstonchaugb. 
1800. J. B. D. Dykes. 

1807. J. Toralinson. 
1308. Thomas Irvin. 



1809. Miles Ponsonby. 

1810. Sir Henry Fletcher. 

1811. John Losh. 
ISl-i. Thomas Hortley. 

1813. Sir Wastel Brisco. 

1814. T. Benson. 

1815. W. Tonsonhy Johnson. 

1816. Wlliam Brown. 

1817. Sir Philip lIusgrave,Brt. 

1818. Milham Hartlev. 

1819. Thomas Salteld. 

Geokge IV. 

1820. Wilfrid Lawson. 

1821. John Marshall. 

1822. William Crackenthorpe. 
182:t. Kdward Stanley. 

1824. Thomas Henry Graham. 

1825. Matthew Atkinson. 
182C. Humphrey Senhouse. 

1827. William James. 

1828. Thomas Parker. 

1829. Edward W. Hassell. 

WrLLIAM r\'. 

1830. C. Parker. 

1831. J. Taylor. 

1832. Henry Howard. 

1833. Henrj- Curwen. 

1834. Henry Howard. 

1835. Kichard Ferguson. 

1836. Thomas Irwin. 


1837. Sir F. F. Vane, Bart. 

1838. John Dixon. 
l-^oi). Thomas Hartley. 

1840. Sir George Musgrave. 

1841. J. K Walker. 

1842. F. L. B. Dykes. 

1843. Robert Hodgson. 

1844. George Harrison. 
18-15. T. Featherstonuhangh. 
1840. Joseph P. Senhouse. 

1847. G. ^\^. Hartley. 

1848. H. D. Maclean. 

1849. A. F. Hudleston. 

1850. Thomas Salkeld. 

1851. G. Head Head. 

1852. G. H. Oliphant. 

1853. F. B. Atkinson. 

1854. T. A. Hoskins. 

1855. T. S. Spedding. 

1856. Sir E. H. Vane, Bart. 

1857. Chas.Featherstonehaugh. 

1858. Anthony Benn Steward. 

Besides the lord -lieutenant and sheriff, the county 
possesses the followiug officers: — an under-sheriff, 
appointed by the sheriff; justices of the peace, all 
appointed by the crown ; a county treasurer, and a 
clerk of the peace, generally an attorney, who is ap- 
pointed by the custos rotulorum : the county coroners 
are elected by the freeholders, as the knights of the 
shire were formerly. 

The revenue of the county is chiefly derived from 
rates which are struck by the justices of the peace in 
quarter sessions. The rates, which were formerly col- 
lected by the liigh constables — or constables of wards — 
are directed under 7 and 8 Vic, c. 03, to be collected 
by the Boards of Guardians, and to be paid by them 
to the county treasurer. The county expenditure is 
chielly incurred in maintaining bridges, gaols, poUce, 
prisoners, lunatic asylums, and the various county 
officers ; some of whom are paid, although the majority 
of the officers are honorary, and are discharged gratui- 

For the year ending April 7th, 1857, the receipts, 
including a balance of £483 83. 8d., amounted to 
£10,343 3s. lOd. From four successive rates amount- 
ing to 2id. in the pound, £0,800 lis. 4d. was raised, 
£2,541 2s. 6d. was received from the lords of the 
treasury for the expense of criminal prosecutions, 
£318 17s. 3d. for the maintenance of prisoners, and 
£121 13s. for the conveyance of prisoners to depots for 
convicts. Fines produced £111 5s. lid., and the 
marking of weights and measures £7 19s. 8d. 
£115 9s. 5d. was received from the governor of the 
goal, for mats, &c., and £14 8s. for the subsistence of 

deserters and revenue prisoners. Rents brought in 
£190 17s. 3d. 

The expenditure was as follows : — Gaol of Carlisle, 
£2,490 15s. 3d.; conveyance of convicts to depots, 
£115 5s. Cd. ; court-house, £88 lis. 8d.; the various 
lock-ups in the county, £881 13s. 8d. ; conveying 
prisoners to gaol, £109 3s. 5d. ; criminal prosecutions, 
£1,741 5s. 2d.; bastai-dy returns, £6 10s. Od. ; clerk 
of the peace, £434 5s. lOd. ; coroners, £380 2s. 6d. ; 
county surveyor, £1,590 4s. lid.; repayment for 
bridges, £150 2s. Gd. ; crier of court of quarter ses- 
sions, £4 ; bailiffs, £40 17s. 6d. ; high constables, 
£100; treasurer of county, £110; queen's prison, 
£15; weights and measures, £19 2s.; lunacy, 
£320 19s. 8d. ; printmg and advei'tising, £10 9s.; 
returns of fines to clerk of the peace, £9 12s. ; miUtia, 
£27 14s. Od. ; interest account, £317 17s. Od. ; 
intended lunatic asylum, £190 17s. Od. ; incidental 
expenses, £30 Os. 4d. ; and balance due county, 
£],]49 lis. 7d. 


The constabulary for the counties of Cumberland and 
Westmoreland was established at the January Quarter 
Sessions, 1857, under the provisions of the acts 2 and 
3, 3 and 4, and 19 and 20, Vict. For police purposes 
the two counties are united, and are under one chief 
constable, being the only counties in England that are 
so. On the election of the chief constable, eighty-two 
candidates offeVed themselves, including officers of the 
urmy and navy, civil officers, and private gentlemen. 
J. Dunne, Esq., was unanimously elected, and subse- 
quently appointed by the secretary of state. He at 
once entered upon his duties. The head quarters of 
the force were fixed at Carlisle, where a house was 
taken for the purpose, in which the business of the 
constabulary is transacted. Shortly after his appoint- 
ment, the chief constable visited all the principal and 
most important points of the two counties, for the 
purpose of organising the force as speedily as possible. 
The authorised numbers were soon enrolled, put into 
working order, and located throughout the two coimties 
upon the basis laid down by the courts of Quarter 
Sessions. In every instance where it was in the power 
of the chief constable to fix the station of any officer, 
he was guided as far as possible by the elements of 
rating and population, so as to endeavour to give to 
each district the proportion of police it actually paid 
for, paying at the same time due regard to any other 
peculiar wants and requirements which were found to 
exist in the neighbourhood selected, with the view of 
placing the constable in the position where he might be 



of most use to the public generally. With regard to the 
divisional police forces which previously existed, all the 
officers who, upon examination, were found qualified, 
were re-appointed. The force has been recently in- 
spected by the inspector-general of constabulary, under 
the provisions of the constabulary act, who highly 
approved of its state, and in consequence of his report 
of its efficiency and disciphnc, government pays one- 
fourth of the cost. 

In order that the arrangements of the chief con- 
stable may be duly carried out, the two counties have 
been divided into eight districts, — six in Cumberland 
and two in Westmoreland, the former of which are co- 
extensive with tlie various wards as they existed in 

1857. In Westmoreland the East and West wards form 
one division, and Kendal and Ivirby Lonsdale wards the 
other. Each division comprises several stations or 
detachments, which arc subdivided into beats, so 
arranged as to connect the different divisions and 
detachments. The distribution of the force at present, 

1858, is as follows : — 

CoMBEUi.AND. — Allerdale - above - Dericent Ward. — 
One superintendent, one inspector, two sergeants, and 
twelve constables, at Whitehaven; one inspector and two 
constables at Worldngton ; one sergeant at Beetle ; one 
sergeant and one constable at Egremont ; with con- 
stables at Arlecdon, Cleator, Cleator Moor, Dissington, 
Gosfortb, Ilill-in-Millom, Hanington, Ileusingham, 
Ravcnglass, and Saint Bees. 

Allerdale-helmv-Berwmt Ward. — One superintendent, 
one sergeant, and one constable at Wigton ; with con- 
stables at Abbey Holme, Aspatria, Allonby, Caldbeck, 
Ireby, and Kirkbride. 

Derweiit Ward. — One superintendent, one sergeant, 
and two constables, at Cockennouth ; one inspector 
and one constable at Keswick ; one inspector and 
three constables at Marj-port;' with constables at 
Bassenthwaite, Dearhara, Great Clifton, and Grcy- 

Cumberland Ward. — One superintendent, one in- 
spector, and two constables at CarUsle ; with con- 
stables at Burgh, Dolston, Kingstown, Stanwix, and 

Eskdale Ward. — One superintendent, one sergeant, 
and one constable at Brampton ; one sergeant and one 
constable at Longtown ; with constables at Castle 
Carrock, Kinkcrry Ilill, Smitlifield, and Walton. 

Lcath Ward. — One superintendent, one inspector, 
and three constables at Penrith ; one sergeant and one 
constable at Alston ; with constables at Armathwaite, 

> One of these is maintained out of local rates, Under local acts of 
Iiarliomout and for special duties. 

Castle Sowerby, Greystoke, Hesket, Kirkoswald, Lang- 
wathby, and Watermillocks. 

Westmoreland. — E(ist and West Wards. — One 
superintendent, and one constable at Appleby ; one 
inspector at Shap ; one sergeant at Kirby Stephen, 
and constables at Askham, Brough, Morland, Orton, 
Patterdale, and Temple Sowerby. 

Kendal and Kirby Lonsdale Wards. — One superin- 
tendent at Kendal ; one inspector and one constable at 
Ivirby Lonsdale ; with constables at Ambleside, Ben- 
thwaite Green, Bowness, Burton Holme, Milnthorpe, 
Old Town and Staveley. 

The constables are not posted permanently at any 
station, but moved from one place to another, at the 
discretion of the chief constable, who, by the act of 
parliament, has the general disposition and government 
of the force ; this power the chief constable may also 
delegate to the superintendents. Police stations, 
combining accommodation for the constabulary, with 
lock-up cells for prisoners under temporary confine- 
ment, have been provided or are in course of erection 
in different places in the two counties. 

The proportion of square miles to each police officer 
is about 91, and iisually comprise several villages and 
townships, aU of which he is expected to pay attention 
to, both by night and by day, according to a system of 
patrolling regulated by the chief constable, tested by 
conference points. A diary of the duty performed is 
entered daily by each constable in his journal, copies 
of which are transmitted weekly to the chief constable's 
office through the superintendents. 

The duties of the police in the rural districts differ 
much from the routine in largo towns, being of a more 
comprehensive nature ; and each constable, not being 
so immediately under the eye of a superior, is left more 
to his own discretion, and greater responsibiUty attaches 
to him. Hence the necessity of strict discipline, and 
the difficulty of always attaining the requisite degree of 
efficiency in a dispersed force. The county constabu- 
lary, besides the ordinary duties of parochial and special 
constables, in serving summonses, the apprehension of 
ofl'enders, warning coroners and summoning jurors, 
conveying prisoners to gaol, and acting as peace officers 
generally, have undertaken the inspection of weights 
and measures, as also that of low lodging houses, and, 
in some districts, act as assistmt relieving officers, for 
casual vagrants, and inspectors of nuisances. They 
have likewise the charge of lockups, and the custody of 
prisoners temporarily confined in them. Tlie combina- 
tion of several of these offices is in pursuance of the 
recommendations of the parliamentary commissioners, 
and effects considerable saving to the county. 



The following table shows the number, grade, and 
pay of the force in 1858 : — 





Chief Constable £450 per annum, includioK allow- 

nnce for travelling e,xpcn8(;s, 
Westmoreland paying one-fourth. 

Chief Clerk ' £7S per annum, Westmoreland pay- 

1 ing one-fourth. 

Superintendent ' flTi* peran. )_out of which they are 

Superintendents £1 '>0 do. ) to &ud &, keep a horse. 



Constables — 1st class, . 
Constables— 2nd class 
Constables— 3rd class. . 

2Gs. per week. 
2.18. do. 
20s. do. 
ISs. do. 
17s. do. 

Total, exclusive of one Constable at Maryport, paid for by the 
Trustees, under act 3rd aud -tth Victoria, cap. 88, sec. 19. 






Constables — 1st Class . . 
Constables— 2nd Class . . 



£150 per annum ) out of which they are 
£IIH. 4s. 4d. do./ totiuditkeepahorce 
23s. per week. 
20s. do. 
18s. do. 

The following sclieme of progressive pay has been 
prepared by the cliief constable and approved of by the 
justices : — 


To increase on present pay for good 
service after 




3 years. 7 years. 





-1 J; 

Per S-g 
Annum, pu ^ 



Superintendents . . . . 
Inspectors & Sergeants 
Constables . . . . 


2 ' 




j; s. d. 
6 4 

2 12 


£ s. d. 
10 8 fl 
S 4 

A Merit Class to consist of 20 men at 2ls. per week, to bo 

promoted for any cxtraordinaiy vigilance, zeal, and energy 
displayed in the discharge of their duties, and for cxemphiry 
good conduct and respectability, each of uUym should be dis- 
tinguished by au honoraiy badge. 

The total cost of the force is as follows : — Cumber- 
land, £5,] 10 7s. less £1,277 lis. Od. allowed by 
goverurucnt ; net cost, £3,832 13s. 3d. Westmoreland, 
total cost £1,521 Is. less £380 5s. 3d. government 
allowance ; net cost, £1,140 15s. 9d. 

In accordance with the regulations of the secretary 
of state each superintendent, inspector, sergeant, and 
constable, receives annually a complete suit of police 
clothing with great coat and extra trousers in alternate 
year, together with Qs. Gd. per month in lieu of boots. A 
cape aud a stock with clasp are supplied when required. 
In addition to the above each officer is supplied with a 
truncheon, handcuffs, lantern, journal, and instruction 

book, together with a small knapsack, to contain a 
change of linen when employed away from home on 
special duty. An allowance of Is. per month is also 
made to those members of the force who use lanterns, 
to supply themselves with oil and cotton. These arti- 
cles of clothing, &c., are inspected monthly, and each 
man is held responsible for keeping them in good 
order. The uniform is dark blue, the superintendents 
being distinguished by a frock coat with black buttons 
and embroidery. 

Under the provisions of the constabulary acts, a 
superannuation fund has been established, for old and 
deserving officers. This fund is supported by certain 
fines or portions of fines, in cases where the pohce are 
the informants, and those inflicted on members of the 
force for misconduct, together with a deduction of 2j 
per cent from the pay of each member of the force. 


This county has sent members to parliament since 
the reign of Edward I. The following are the names 
of the members as far as we have been able to discover 
from that period to the present time. 

Edward I. 
1290. Walter de Jlulcoslre, Uubert de Jlulton. 

William de Boyville. 
100.5. Robert de Haverington, Uubert de Multon. 
1207. Robert de AVitteriu-:, William de Bovville. 
l.SOO. Richard de Sloyter, Robert de Wittering. 
1301. John de Wiggeton, Robert de Tilliol. 
IWi. Robert de Joneby, Nicholas de Apresby. 
I!i0(i. John de Lucy, William de Bampton. 
l;itJ7. John de Denton, William de Langrigg. 

1307. William le Brun, Alexander de Bastenthwaite. 
130S. William le Briin, Alexander de Bastenthwaite. 
l:)09. William de Mulcastre, Alexander de Bastenthwaite. 

1310. Kobert de Leyburne, Walter do Bampton. 

1311. William dc Mulcastre, Henry de Jlulton. 
Robert de Leyburne, Walter de Bamptou. 

1310. Andrew de Hercla, Alan de Grinesdale. 

13ri. John de Wiggeton, Robert de Leybm'ne. 

1314. Robert de Tilhol, Henry de Multon. 

131.0. Alexander de Bastenthwaite, Walter de Kirkbride. 

1310. Robert le Erun, John de Skelton. 

1318. Robert de Leyburne, Alexander de Bastenthwaite. 

John de Boyville, Adam de Skelton. 
13'33. Hugh de Louthre, John de Orrelon. 
1324. Richard de Denton, John de Skelton. 
132.5. Robert de Mulcaster, Robert Paynwick. 
132C. Robert le Brun, John de Orreton. 

Edwakd III. 
1327. Robert lo Brun, John de Orreton. 

John de Orreton, Robert Parving. 

Peter Tilliol, Robert Parving. 
1338. Peter Tilliol, John de Skelton. 

Robert de Eglestield, Richard de Salkeld. 

Peter Tilliol, Robert Parving. 

1330. Peter Tilliol, John de Orreton. 
John de Orreton, Thomas Hardegill. 

1331. Richard de Denton, Robert Parving. 
1333. Richard de Denton, John de Haverington. 

Richard de Denton, Robert Parving. 
Peter de Tilliol, Richard de Denton. 


1333. Peter de Tilliol, Richard de Denton. 
Richard de Denton, .Icdin de HavcringtOD. 

1334. Hugli de Morieeby, William F.n^lisli. 
Richard de Denton, John de llaverington. 

1335. Peter de 'I'illiol, Richard de Denton. 
1337. Peter de Tilliol, Richard de Denton. 

1337. Richard de Denton, Hu^h de Morieeby. 
John do Orrelon, Thomas de Skelton. 

1338. Thomas de Hardegill, Richard de Bury. 
John de Boyville, Adam de Skelton. 

1339. Peter de Tilliol, John de Haverington. 
John de Orreton, John de Haverington. 

1310. Alexander de Bastenthwaite, Robert le Brun. 

Peter de Tilliol, John de Orreton. 

John de Orreton, John de Haverington. 
1341. Peter do Tilliol, Hugh de Loiitlire. 

1343. Richard de Denton, John de Orreton. 

1344. Hugh de Louthrc, Henry de Malton. 
1.347. I'eter de Tilliol, John de OiTeton. 
1318. John de Orreton, Tlioraas de Hardegill. 
1.341). Peter de Tilliol, John de Orrelon. 
1300. Richard de Denton, .fohn de Orreton. 
133i. Richard de Denton, Robert de Tilliol. 

Henry de Malton. 

1353. Richard de Denton. 

1354. Thomas de Rokeby, Thomas de Hardegill. 

1355. Richard de Denton, John de Orreton. 
1357. John de Orreton, Robert de Tilliol. 

Robert de Tilliol, .\dani Parving. 
1360. Jirhn de Orreton, Christopher de Morieeby. 

Henry de Malton, Robert de Tilliol. 
1362. Robert Tilliol, William English. 
1.363. William English, Christopher Moricebv. 

1364. Richard de Tilliol, William Englisli. 

1365. Christopher Morieeby, William Stapilton. 
136S. Joseph de I'ykering, John de Denton. 
130!). William English, Richard Mowbray. 

1371. Robert Curwenne, William de Stapilton. 
(Jilbert de Cnrwennc. 

1372. Robert Mowbray, John do Denton. 

1373. Gilbert de Curwen, Adam Parving. 
Gilbert de Cniwen, John de Camberton. 

1376. Gilbert de Curwen, William Stapilton. 

1377. John de Denton, Amand Jlonceaux. 

Riciiinu II. 

1377. Robert Mowhrny, Richard del Sandes. 

1378. I'eter de Tilliol, Clement de Skelton. 

John de Derwentwater, Thomas de Wliitrigg. 
1371). Richard de Mowbray, William de Curwen. 
1380. Peter de Tilliol, William de Hutton. 
1881. Gilbert dc Curwen, John de Denton. 

Richard de Salkeld, John do la More. 

1382. Clement dc Skelton, Thomas Bowet. 
Clement de Skelton, 'J'homas do Dalston. 

1383. Thomas Blenkinsop, Amand Monceaux. 
John de Kirkby, John de Brougham. 

1384. Thomas de I.amplongb, John de Ircby. 

1385. Peter de Tilliol, Kichard de Deaulieu. 

1386. Amund de Jlonceaux, John de Thirlwall. 

1387. John de Derwentwater, J"bn de Irehy. 

1388. Robert do Midcastre, Amand de Jlonceaill. 
1380. William ilo Threlkeld, Amand i\Ioneeaux. 

1390. ■William Stapilton, Th..mns del Sandes. 

1391. Peter do Tilliol, John de l.onthre. 
1.302. Geoffrey Tilliol, John dc Lotitbre. 
1303. Clement de Skelton, Itobert de Loullire. 
131)4. William Stapilton, Thomas del Sandes. 
1396. John do Ireby, Clement de Skellon. 
1307. Peter Tilliol, William do Osmunderlowe. 

Henry V. 

1413. Peter Tilliol, William de Beaulieu. 

1414. Robert Louthre, WiUiam de Leigh. 
Christopher de Curwen, John de Eglesfield. 

1417. Peter Tdliol, Robert de Louthre. 
141H. Peter Tilliol, Thomas de la More. 
1419. Peter 1 iUiol, Nicholas Randolf. 

Henry VI. 

1422. Peter Tilliol, John Skelton. 

1423. Christopher Curwen, William de Leigh. 

1424. Peter Tilliol, Christopher Curwen. 
1125. Peter Tilliol, Hugh de Louthre. 

1427. Christopher Curwen, Nicholas Radcliffe. 

1428. Thomas Parr, Thomas de la Jlore. 

1429. Thomas Parr, Thomas de la More. 

1430. Christopher Curwen, Hugh de Louthre. 
1434. Thomas Curwen, William Dykes. 
1436. William Stapilton, John Brougham. 
1441. Ra. de Dacre. Thomas Curwen. 

144(5. Jolin Pennington, William Martindale. 

1448. Thomas Curwen, Hugh Lowther. 

1449. John Skelton, Richard Bellingbam. 

1400. Thomas de la iMore, Thomas Crackenthorpe. 
1404. Thomas Colt, Thomas de la More. 
1459. Thomas Curwen, WiUiam Leigh. 

Edward IV. 
1467. John Huddleston, Richard Salkeld. 
1472. John Parr, Richard Salkeld. 
1477. William Pair, James Moresby. 

• • « • « 1 

Edward VI. 
1547. Thomas Wharton, Knt.; Richard Musgrave. 
1552. Richard Musgrave, Henry Cui'wen. 

1503. Thomas Wharton, Knt.; Thomas Dacre, juu., Knt. 
1554. John Leigh, Robert Penruddock. 

Robert Whitley, Richard Minshoo. 
1554. Thomas Dacre, Robert Penruddock. 
1505. Thomas Threlkeld, Henry Methueu. 
1556. Leonard Dacre, John Dalston. 


1558. Leonard Dacre, Henry Curwen. 
1562. Leonard Dacre, Henry Curwen. 

1570. Henry Percy, Knt.; Simon JIusgravc, Knt. 

1571. Simon Musgrave, Knt.; Edward Scroope. 
1584. Thomas Scroope, Thomas Bowes. 

1085. Robert Bowes, Henry Leigh. 

1588. Thomas Scroope, Knt.; Robert Bowes. 

1592. Nicholas Curwen, Wilfrid l.awson. 

1096. John Pennington, Knt.; Christopher Pickering, Knt. 

ICOI). William Huddleston, Gerard Lowther. 

James I. 
1603. Wilfrid Lawson, Edward Musgrave. 
1614. Wilfrid Lawson (?), George Dalston, Knt. 
1620. George Dalston, Knt.; Henry Curwen, Km. 
1623. George Dalston, Knt.; Ferdinand Huddleston. 

Charles I. 
1625. George Dalston, Knt.; Patrick Curwen. 
1625. George Dalston, Knt.: Patrick Curwen. 
1027. George Dalston, Knt.; Patrick Curwen. 
1639. George Dalston, Knt.; Patrick Curwen. 
1010. George Dalston, Knt.; Patrick Curncn. 
William Eraoyn, Richard Tulson. 

1653. Robert Fenwick. 

1054. Charles Howard, William Rriscoe. 

1055. Charles Howard, William Briscoe. 
1057. Charles Howard, William Briscoe. 
10S9. Sir Wilfrid Lawson, Col. William Briscoe. 

■ The rolls of Parliament for this poriod arc not available. 



Chables II. 
1060. Charles, Lord How«rJ; Wilfrkl Lawson. 
ICCl. I'litrick Ciirnen, Bart. ; George Fletcher, Bart. 
John Lowtlier, lliclmrJ Lamplu^h. 

1679. John LowiUer, Bart. ; EiohaiJ Lamplugh. 
Edward, Lord Morpeth ; John Low ther, Bart. 

1680. George Fletcher, Bart.; John Lowther, Bart. 

James II. 
1CS5. Kichard, Viscount Preston ; John Lowther, Bart. 

Wn,tiAH AND Mary. 
1689. George Fletcher, Bart. ; John Lowther, Bart, 
1C90. George Fletcher, Bart. ; John Lowther, Bart. 


1G95. George Fletcher, Bart.; John Lowther, Bart. 
1697. George Fletcher, Bart. ; John Lowther, Bart. 
1701. Edward Hassul, Kut.; George Fletcher. 

170'2. Kichard Jliisgrave, Gilfrid Lawson. 
170'). George Fletcher, Richard Musgrave. 
1707. James Lowther, Gilfrid Lawson. 
1714. James Lowther, Gilfrid Lawson. 

Geokge I. 
1714. James Lowther, Gilfrid Lawson. 
1721. Christopher Musgrave, Bart. ; Gilfrid Lawson. 

1727. James Lowther, Bart. ; Gilfrid Lawson. 
1734. James Lowther, Bart.; Joseph Pennington, Bart. 
1741. James Lowther, Bart.; Joseph Pennington, Bart. 
1747. James Lowther, Bnrt. ; John Pennington, Bart. 
1754. .Tames Lowther, Bart. ; John Pennington, Bart. 

William I,owther, Bart., on Sir James' death. 

■\Viliiam Fleming, Bart., on Sir WiUiam Lowther's death. 

Geokge III. 
James Lowther, Bart. ; John Pennington, Bart. 
Wilfrid Lawson, Bart., on Sh- James making his election 

for Westmoreland. 
Sir James Lowther re-elected on Sir Wilfrid's death. 
Henry Curwen, Henry Fletcher. 
Sir James Lowther, Bart. ; Henry Fletcher. 
Sir James Lowther, Bart.; Henry Fletcher. 
Sir Henry Fletcher, Bart. ; William Lowther. 
Sir Henry Fletcher, Bart.; Humphrey Senhoase. 
Sir Henry Fletcher, Bart. ; John Lowther. 
Sir Henry Fletcher, Bart. ; John Lowther. 
John Lowther, Viscount .^loi-peth. 
John Lowther, Viscount ^Morpeth. 
John Lowthei-, Viscount Morpetli. 

George IV. 
]820. Sir John Lowther, Eart. ; J. C. Curwen. 
1820. Sir John Lowther, Bart.; J. G. Curwen (died 1820); Sir 
J. E. G. Graham, Bart. 

William TV. 
ISntl. Sir John Lowther, Bart. ; Sir J. R. G. Graham, Bart. 
1S31. Sir J. E. G. Graham, Bart.; William Blamire. 

Two additional representatives were given to Cum- 
berland by the Reform Act of 1832, when the county 
was formed into two divisions. The eastern division 
comprises Cumberland, Eskdale, and Leath wards, and 
the western the two AUerdales, as they existed previous 
to the change made in 1833. The city of Carlisle is 
the place of election for the eastern division, and the 
polling places are Wigton, Alston, Brampton, Long- 
town, Hesket Newmarket, lurkoswald, Dalston, and 
Penrith. The place of election for the western division 
is Cockermouth, at which, and at Bootle, Aspatria, 
Egremont, and Keswick, are polling places. The 



number of electors is, — eastern division, .5,352 ; western 
division, 4,1-11. The following have represented the 
county since the Reform Act : — 

EtsTEBN mnsioN. 
1832-35. Kt. Hon. Sir J. U. G. Graham, Bart.; Wm. Blamire. 
1H35-37. Rt. Hon. Sir J. E. G. Graham, Bart.; Wm. Blamire. 
(Mr. Blamire accepted the Chiltern Hundreds in Septemhcr, 
183C, when William James was elected.) 


1832-35. Edward Stanley, Viscount Lowther. (The latter 
accepted the Chiltern Hundreds in March, 1833, 
when Samuel Irton was elected.) 

1835-37. Edward Stanley, Samuel Irton. 


eastern Dr\'ISION. 

1837-41. William James, F. Aglionhy (died July, 1810), Hon. 

C. W. G. Howard. 
1841.47. Hon. C. W. G. Howard, William James. 
1847-52. Hon. C. W. G. Howard, WiUiam Marshall. 
1852-56. Hon. C. \V. G. Howard, William Marshall. 
1857. Hon. C. W. G. Howard, WilUam Marshall. 

WESTERN r>msioN. 
1837-41. Edward Stanley, Samuel Irton. 
1841-47. Edward Stanley, Samuel Irton. 
1847-52. Edward Stanley, Henry Lowther. 
1852-50. Henry Lowther, Samuel Irton. 
1857. Henry Lowther, General Wyndham. 


First iu importance, as in utility, the working of coal 
and the coal trade claim precedence iu a notice of the 
mercantile affairs of the county of Cumberland. "In a 
country like England," says Ansted, " deprived of any 
large quantity of wood by the advance of civilisation, 
where should we obtain means for enduring the 
inclemency of the weather, or enjoying any comforts 
at our homes, if it were not for large supplies of coal? 
But we must look further. Where would be our manu- 
factures '? where would be our iron, — the staple of all 
manufactures, — if there were not abundant and cheap 
supplies of valuable fuel where the ores of these metals 
occur '? Without coal could this country have advanced 
beyond its condition many centuries ago ? Could there 
have been education ? Could there have been printed 
books available for the multitude ? Could there have 
been food and raiment for ourselves? Or could science 
have advanced ? Must not England have remained iu 
the background, its inhabitants unable to exercise that 
intellectual activity which tliey have exerted in placing 
their country in advance of the whole world ? Without 
coal there would have been no extensive use of steam, 
even if the vast power of that agent had been dis- 
covered. Without steam and iron, where should we 
now be iu the advance of civilisation over the world '.' 
Coal is indeed the indispensable food of all industry. 
It is a primary material, by whose aid we engender 
force, and obtain power sufficient for any purpose that 
has yet been imagined." 



The coal-bearing strata of Cumberland will be foimd 
described at page 3 1 . Coal is worked to a great extent 
at Whitehaven, Workington, and in the vicinity of 
Mar)'port, whence it is exported in considerable quan- 
tities. It is also found in the eastern part of the 
county, whence the chief supply for Carlisle, Brampton, 
Penrith, and the neighbouring country is obtained. 
The following is a list of the collieries of the county 
in 1850, with their situation and owners' names : — 

Name of Colliery. 



Aspntria Aspati-ia Jolin Harris. 

Bolton Wigloii Addison & Co. 

Brongliton Moor Maryport Fletcher, Ross, & Co. 

Camerton Worlsington.. . 

Cl'?ator Moor Whitehuveu. . . 

Oliftou Workington 


Croasbarrow and another., Workington. . , 
Cros.sbarrow .... .... Workington 

Thornbury & Co. 
. Barker & Co. 
I. and W. Fletcher. 
Oen. Wyndhani. 
Messrs Fletcher. 
• Golighiley. 

Crossby Maryport W. JIulcaster & Co 

Cruiuinock Nevf Colliery . 

Dean Moor 


Dovenby .... ... 




Grey youthen Workingtoi 

Gilcrux Maryport 

Do Addison &, Co. 

Do Gen. Wyndhani. 

Do Messrs. Walker. 

Do Steel & Co. 

Do Harris & Son. 

Do Wilson &Son. 

Do Mulcaster & Co. 

Jcilm Harris & Son. 

Steel & Co. 

Harrington Harrington .... J. Curwen. 

Priest Croft Wigton — Drewry. 

Keay Pit Whitehaven . . Earl of Lonsdale. 

Seatiin Maryj)ort Messrs. Wilson & Co. 

Seaton Maryport Nicholson & Co. 

Tlireaplliwaite Whitehaven . . Clentor Company. 

Weary Hall Wigton Addison Sc Co. 

Whitehaven Collieries .... Whitehaviu . . Kml of Lonsdale. 
Workington Workiugton . . J . Ciinven. 

These 28 collieries produced, in 1S5G, 913,891i tons 
of coal, which were disposed of as follow: — 225,43.'5 
tons were shipped at Maryport, 118,230 at Workington, 
10,020 at Harrington, and 211,347i at Whitehaven, 
making a total shipped of 505,947i tons. The coal 
sent by railway for land sale amounted to 64,310 tons, 
64,()"^>< ton« were used at iron-furnaces, 3,500 for col- 
liery and iron-mine consumption, and 215, .lOO for local 
consumption in the principal towns and manufactories, 
making a grand tofcal of 913,8011 tons as above. The 
quantity of coal, coke, and antiiracite shipped at the 
ports of the county, and sent coastways to the other 
ports of the United Ivingdom, in 1850, was as follows, 
in tons: — Wiiilchuven, coals, 207,947; anthracite, 
775, Workington, coals, 129,275 ; coke, 5 ; anthra- 
cite, 130. Maryport, coals, 291,008; coke, 2,877; 
anthracite, 1,521, The quantity of coal exported to 
foreign countries during the same year was — White- 
haven, 3,943 tons; Workiugton, 1,514 tons; and 
Marjport, 4,075 tons!' 

■ The total coal produce of the United Kinffdom in 1850, was 
00,645,|.'iO tons, sliowing an increase of 2,I9i,:!.><(l Ions over the cool 
produce of tlic previous yeor; luid, at the average price of coal at 
the pit's mouth, gives u money valuacqnal to i,'H),UtJ3,.StJJ, 

Alston is the principal scat of the lead mines, which 
are almost exclusively the property of Greenwich Hos- 
pital, having been granted to that institution by Act of 
Parliament, on the attainder of the unfortunate Earl 
of Derwentwater, in 1710. We subjoin a list of the 
various lead-miues of the county, with their produce of 
lead-ore, lead, and silver, in 1856. 

Mines leased to 
tlxe Governor and 

Alston Moor. 

Names of Mines. 

Lead-ore.l Lead. I Silver. 

- Long Cleugb 

j Raiupgill 

Ci\pel Cleugb 


Cars and llatiguig bUaw 


Middle CleugU 

lientyfield, S Vein .... 

Sm;ili Cleui;h 

Tyne liMttooi 


CoffiRT Dyke Heads ... 


'^ Priorsdale 

, lintylld., li. End, Son Vn, 
( lilack Svke 

Leased to various 
parties, bat be- 

Iont;ing to G reeu- 
wich Uobpital. 


TrxE Head 



uf Kcawick. 


Brigai Bam 

Biownley Hill 

,Cnrrs West of Neat . 

Jclargill Burn 

:Clargill Head 

[Cow Gap 

Crag Green, North Vein 

Crossgill Head ' 

Dowpot Svkc 

Uouke Burn, East Kad 
Douke Bum, West Lnd 




Gallygill Bents 


tiuttergiU, East End. . . 


lludgill Burn 

Lee House Well 

Low Bircliy Bank 

.Middle Syke 


Natti-ass, Middle Vein 
Natti-ass, North Veia 
Nentsbury, North Vein 
NentabUry Paature. . . 

I'ark G rovo 

I'eat Stack Hill 

Uodderup Fell 


Tbonigill Slit 

ThonigiU, East End . . 
'riluriigill. West End. . 
Weilgill, Cross Vein. . 

Windy Brow 

Sundry small mines . . 


ClargiU Head 


East Crossfell 

Lady Vein 

I'atlcr Syke 

South CrossfoU 

Stow Cratg 

Tees Side and .Metal Band 
Smitter^jill Head 
li'Oiglilellgdl ... 




Force Crag 






798 2 

284 13 

179 1.^ 

168 I 

313 II 

74 13 
1 9:1 16 

75 18 
248 12 

47 7 

40 2 
2A 1 

7 1 

76 9 
49 10 

41 G 
S2 IG 


■iO IS 

6 .'. 

.1 5 

44 :i 

4 4 

7.5 15 

22 17 

9 3 

7 12 

9 9 

228 4 

12 9 

a i 

33 10 
2 16 
7 11 

2 10 

6 4 

,.^31 12 












9 19 



















7.311 S 


1,779 9 




.M 10 



3 II 

2 1 

3 7 
3 12 

30 l.', 

3 U 


3 9 

4 II 
fi 10 

IG4 10 
7 15 
3 9 

1 K-i 
6 12 

I 10 

4 9 

1,144 10 

!.■> 12 
3 II 

2 4 

3 15 





II 6 


13*1 I 



















Silver and copper aro found in some of the mines iu ■ 
tho same veius as the lead-ore: the table which we 


have just given from the Mining Piccords shows the 
quantity of silver produced. The quantity of copper 
sold by private contract, of which returns have 
been obtained from the mines, was as follows : — 
Coniston mine, 3,659 tons, 8 cwts., 3 qrs., valued at 
£27,801 14s. 7d. ; Greenbourue mine, 204 tons; 
Koughton Gill, 45 tons, 1 cwt. ; Driggith, 8 tons ; 
Alston Moor, 13 cwt., 2 qrs. 

In no part of the world has the pvoduction of iron 
advanced with more rapid stops than in the north of 
England, nor is there perhaps a limited district where 
the ores and their resulting irons are more varied iu 
chai'acter. The ores of iron raised in the northern 
counties belong, geologically speaking, to three different 
formations, viz., the Carboniferous Limestone, the Coal 
j\Ieasures, and the Lias, the former of which alone 
demands our attention. The principal mass of the 
Carboniferous or Mountain Limestone of the iron-pro- 
ducing disti'ict under consideration, emerges from be- 
neath the Coal Measures of Durham and Northum- 
berland on the east, and is bounded by a steep declivity 
overlooking the vale of Eden on the west. It reaches 
a culminating point in the long mountain ridge of 
Cross Fell, and forms the vast tract of moorland which 
near Alston extends for some twenty-five miles in 
width, and in the high desolate region adjoining the 
Scottish border stretches almost from sea to sea. After 
an interval of some miles towards the west, the same 
formation rises again from beneath the New Eed Sand- 
stone of Penrith, and the Coal Measui-es of Workington 
and Whitehaven, and lapping as a narrow belt round 
the older slaty rocks of the Lake district, almost 
entirely encircles this the most beautiful region of 
England. The structure of the central high land 
first mentioned, iu which are situated the towns of 
Alston, Hexham, and Haltwhistle, differs materially 
from the contemporaneous formation which occurs far- 
ther south in England and Wales, and which consists 
principally of uninterrupted beds of limestone to a 
vast thickness. In the north the actual limestone plays 
but a subordinate part, and alternates with strata of 
gritstone and shale, locally termed " hazle " and 
" plate." Certain ores of iron are interstratified with 
these beds ; nodules of clay ironstone, the argillaceous 
carbonate, are met with in some of the bands of shale, 
the mode of aggregation being analogous to that of the 
similar ores of the Coal Measures. At liareshaw, near 
BeUingham, towards the source of the North Tync, 
four furnaces were erected some years ago, to smelt the 
clay ironstones which were obtained from the series of 
" sills " or beds intervening between the so-called 
" great limestone " of the Alston district, and the 

" second" or " little limestone " which lies about sixty 
feet above it. They produced excellent iron, but the 
expensive cartage of the ore, and the absence of rail- 
way or canal communication, were fatal for the time to 
the success of the establishment. 

Masses of brown iron-ore (the hydrous sesquioxide 
of iron) appear in some instances to form regular layers, 
although their presence is probably in close relation to 
the veins of metallic minerals which iu great numbers 
intersect the rocks in and around Alston Moor. 

It is not until farther and systematic workings shall 
have been followed out, that the true nature and extent 
of these apparent strata can be determined. 

The majority of the mineral veins or lodes of the 
Alston district, celebrated for their productiveness of 
lead-ore, range nearly from east to west, intersecting 
the whole of the above-mentioned beds, but yielding 
their riches far more abundantly in certain strata than 
in others. Some of these lead veins, in a part of their 
course, are charged with brown iron-ore instead of the 
usual veinstone of fluor spar and quartz and its con- 
comitant lead- ore. Thus the rich lode of Roderup Fell 
where it crosses the valley of the Tyne, above Alston, 
and is known as the Craig Green or Bracken Syko 
vein, is seen in the so-called " scar " limestone, as a 
vein of brown iron-ore from 10 to '20 feet in width. 
Hitherto, however, from the remote position of the 
district, these repositories of an ore so well calculated 
to produce a good quality of iron have been very little 

Since the late extension of a branch railway to the 
town of Alston, certain of the lodes, apparently pro- 
ducing nothing but this kind of ore, have been exten- 
sively wrought. Thus the Manor House vein has been 
opened very near the railway station, for the Shotley 
Bridge Company, and hundreds of tons have been 
raised from a very small area at the extremely low cost 
of Is. 7d. per ton.-:' The vein is about 11 feet wide 
striking east and west, with a northerly dip, and throw- 
ing down the measures on its north wall about 12 feet. 
Its productiveness is increased by tongues or " flats " 
which penetrate to the distance of a few feet between 
the layers of the scar limestone which it here inter- 

The hematite (red iron-ore, sesquioxide of iron) of 
^^'hitehaven, occurs in the carboniferous hmestoue near 
the outcrop or surface edge of the slaty rocks upon 

* It is worthy of note, that here, as in so many other localities, 
our forefathers had availed themselves of the occurrence of a rich 
ore to work it for their small charcoal furnaces ; on the late opening 
of these works, remains of ancient galleries and a horse shoe were 
found, although the existence of old workings was not betrayed by 
any surface appearances. 



which that fonuation rests. The greater part of the 
excavations from which it is extracted are subterraneous, 
and so extensive is often the mass of iron-ore iu which 
the worlungs arc carried, that it is difQcult in such 
situations to obtain a clear idea of the nature of this 
important deposit. But at a place called Todholes, 
near Cleator, an open work has for some time been in 
operation, which throws great light on the subject. A 
slight anticlinal axis has brought the iron-ore to within 
a small distance of the surface ; and the superficial 
covering of fifteen to twenty feet in thickness, which 
contains very numerous angular fragments of gray 
limestone in its lower portion, being removed, the red 
iron-ore is worked as a quarry. The floor of the deposit 
is a white and red mottled shale, almost of the nature 
of a fire-clay, and is evidently a bed belonging to the 
limestone series ; bore-holes have been sunk in it to a 
depth of thirty or forty feet without meeting with any 
other material. The surface of this shale is very 
uneven on a large scale, although the actual planes are 
smooth, and frequent sudden depressions or ridges 
throw it up or down for a few feet, disturbances which 
appear to be regularly followed by the superimposed 
hematite. Between the shale and the iron-ore there 
lies, very generally, a band of conglomerate, from three 
to eight inches thick, of small pebbles of white quartz. 
The magnificent bed of hematite which then follows, 
varies from fifteen to upwards of 30 feet in thickness, 
and is for the most part a dense mass of red ore sub- 
divided by irregular and nearly vertical joints. Small 
cavities rarely occur, adjacent to which the ore assumes 
those botrv'oidal forms commonly termed " kidney ore," 
so well known in mineralogical cabinets, and which 
exhibit this mineral in a high state of purity. In such 
parts of the mass rock crystals occur, and calcareous 
spar and arragonito appear to be the substances which 
were last crystallised in the hollows. AVith a general 
parallelism to the floor of the deposit, two, and some- 
times three bands of greenish black shale, from one 
to eight inches thick, are distinctly interstratified 
with the iron-ore ; and the presence of these partings, 
with the overlying roof of impure limestone which 
makes its appearance on the dip, leaves on the mind 
iilraost a conviction that the hematite occurs as a true 

And yet it is difilcult to remain satisfied with the 
view of the regular contemporaneity of the ore with 
the limestone strata. In other mines of the district 
the presence of a definite and nearly vortical boundary 
along one side of the workings is more nearly akin to 
the phenomena of a vein, and it is very possible that a 
systematic examination of the whole group of localities 

might lead to the assigning of a later date for the intro- 
duction of the iron-ore into chasms and hollows which 
had been formed in the already consolidated beds, and 
thus bring the nature of the repositories of Whitehaven 
into coincidence with the more clearly-marked ores of 

There seems occasionally to be a second bed, in a 
somewhat higher position, which rests upon a limestone 
floor ; but hitherto so small an area has supplied the 
requirements of a single mine that the physical struc- 
ture of the district is veiy imperfectly understood, both 
as regards the extent of these unrivalled deposits and 
their exact position among the members of the moun- 
tain limestone. 

A shaft which has recently been sunk at High House 
near Cleator, through a greater depth of cover than 
usual, yields the following section : — 

Ft. in. 

Bark Shale 106 

Coarse Grit, called " Jlillstono " Grit . 3G 

Shales 30 

" Whirlstone " Ja 

Shales Dl 

Eed Limestone 7 

Shale 18 

Hematite pierced to depth of . . 32 

328 8 
When the ore is worked as a mine, galleries are 
driven out from the shaft fourteen or fifteen feet in 
height, forming " rooms " with substantial pillars left 
between them ; and after a certain area has thus beeu 
prepared, the pillars are " robbed," the roof falls, and 
the surface of the land commonly gives way. The 
depressions which ensue and often become pools of 
water, with the crushing action on the neighbouring 
worliings, render the last stages of the operation some- 
what insecure, and necessitate special caution. 

A small proportion onlj' of the ores of the White- 
haven district is smelted on the spot. The coal of the 
neighbouring field is ill suited for smelting purposes ; 
and the admirable coke of the Newcastle district has to 
bear so expensive a carriage, that but one ironwork, 
that of the Whitehaven Ilematite Iron Company, has, 
for sonic time past, been in action. This establish- 
ment, situated near Cleator, is placed close upon the 
edge of the coalfield, and possesses three blast fur- 
naces, smelting no other ore than that of the district, 
which the company purchases from its neighbours. 
Hot blast is employed, and a certain quantity of shale 
lias to be added to the usuid materials, in order to 
suiijily in conjunction with limestone tlie requisites for 
a slag. 

The quantity of iron-ore produced in the county 
during l^ud, was 207,256 tons, of which 2&9,1G7 


tons were hematite from the Whitehaven district ; and 
8,089 hematite and hydrated oxide from Alston Moor. 
Of the 930,167 tons raised in the neighbourhood of 
WTiitehaven, 152,873 were shipped at Whitehaven, 
65,675 were sent away by rail, and 39,617 tons used 
at the ironworks in the district. The destmations of 
the ore were as follow : — Wales, 12-1,030 tons ; Staf- 
fordshire, 20,768 tons ; Scotland, 15,806 tons ; New- 
castle, Middlesbro', &c., 51, •470 tons; and to Franco, 
817 tons. 

The following are the hematite iron mines near 
Whitehaven, with their proprietors : — 

Agnes Mines 
Berks Mine 
Bigrigg Moor 
Bigrigg . 
Ditto . 
Cleator Moor 
Cleator (sundry mines) 
Goosegreeu . 
Hesket Pit 

High House Mine 
Knockmurton Cop 
Low Ling . 
Todholes . 

Tulk and Ley. 

James Henry Attwood smd Son. 

S. and J. Lindow. 

Anthony Hill. 

Wilsons, Peile, & Co. 

Anthony Hill. 

Whitehaven Hematite Iron Compy. 

Anthony Hill. 

Fisher, Dees, Fletcher, & Musgrove 

D. and .J. H. Robinson, Richard Bar 

ker, and Thornton. 
S. W. Smith and Company. 
Thomas Carmichael. 
Enrl of Lonsdale & Gen. Wyndham. 

, Fisher, Dees, Fletcher, & Musgrove 

John Stirling. 
. Henry Attwood and Son. 

Tulk and Ley. 

The following were the blast furnaces in 1856 : — 

Names of Works. Owners. 


in blast 

Cleator Moor Whitehaven Hematite Iron Co. 



Duddon Harrison, Ainslie, and Co. 


Seatoui S. W. Smith and Co. 


Harrington C. H. Plevins. 


The total produce of pig-iron from tlie hematite ore 
furnaces of Lancashire and Cumberland, was 25,530 

Millom produced 2,208 tons of iron pyrites, which 
sold for £1,100, and contained 47 per cent of sulphur. 
From the Alston Moor mines 443 tons, 16 cwts. of 
barytes (carbonate) were obtained ; and 378 tons, 5 cwts. 
of zinc (blende and calamine), valued at £1,405 9s. 

The plumbago of Borrowdale has long been famous 
for its fine quality. It is found in detached pieces 
called according to the size sops or bellies, so that the 
supply is very irregular, the miners being frequently 
engaged for a long period iu seeking for the graphyte. 
Some years since a very large quantity of plumbago 

1 Works not completed. 

was obtained from Borrowdale ; this has been stored by 
the 2>roprietors, and sold in small parcels from time to 
time. The mine has not been worked for several 
years: it was examined by some skilled miners since 
the cessation of the work, and their opinions were not 
such as would lead us to believe that any large quantit}' 
of black-lead would be discovered by any extension of 
the workings. 

Cobalt has been found in small quautilies at New- 
lands, and antimony at Bassenthwaite. Lapis Calami- 
nans, small quantities of IManguncse, Galena, and spar 
of various kinds and diflferent colours and forms are 
found in several places. Slate of a pale blue colour, 
and of the finest quality, is abundant in the county, 
particularly in the neighbourhood of TJUeswater and 
Keswick. Limestone is very abundant in many parts 
of Cumberland ; and in some places it is burnt in large 
quantities for exportation, particularly to the west of 
Scotland. The quantity produced at Alston, in 1850, 
was 2,411 tons, 11 cwts. 

The principal ports of Cumberland are Whitehaven, 
Workington, Mar^-port, and Harrington. Skinburuess 
appears to have been at one time a haven of some 
importance, and was the rendezvous of the English 
fleet which Edward III. employed against Scotland. 
SiUoth, on the bay of the same name, is a rising port, 
which at present engages a large amount of public 
attention, and for which a prosperous future is con 
fidently anticipated. 

Cumberland appears to have possessed manufactures 
from a very early period, for we learn from a charter of 
William de Fortibus that there were fulling mills at 
Cockermouth and Dearham iu the reign of Henry III. 
A manufactory of fustian was established at Carlisle in 
1600, and one of broad cloth at Cockermouth about 
the same period. About thirty years afterwards we 
find iron-forges at Millom, and fulling-mills at Bassen- 
thwaite, where woollen cloths were dressed called Skid- 
daw greys. From the beginning of the 18th century 
the manufactures of the county have gone on increasing, 
and now afford employment to several thousands of the 
population. The cotton trade is located principally 
at Carlisle ; the manufacture of coarse linen, sail- 
cloth, &c., at Whitehaven and other places; paper 
on the rivers ; woollens at Keswick ; earthenware, 
iron, copperas, &c., in different localities, and at White- 
haven, Maryport, and W^orkington, are several ship- 
building yards, where every kind of manufactory 
connected with shipping is carried on. There were 
formerly considerable saltworks at Bransted, near 
Whitehaven, Netherhall, and Workington, but they 
have long been discontinued. 




Cumberlaud produces a great variety of plants, many 
of which, whose habitat is among the mountains, arc 
of rare occurrence in other parts of the kingdom. A 
list of them is annexed : — 

Aar campestri, Mirehouse Woodg. 
Adonis autumnalis, near Bromtield. 
Agrimonin Kupatnria, Lamplugh churchyard. A. Eupatoria, 

var. odopata^ Lorton. 
AgrostU vulijaru, var. pumila, common on liigh elevations. 
Alchemilla alpinn, liorrowjale Uoiise, Helvellyn, Scawfell, 

Skiddatv, Screes. 
Aiisma nataiif, Derweiitwater. A. planiago, Keswicli. A. r«- 

niinculoides, Eskraeals. 
Allium arenarium, banks of the Derwent. A. ursimcm, Salter 

Hall. A. vineate, Bearpot, near Workington. 
Allosurus crispus,W'iii~ti.]a\e, I'onsonby, Lampltigh: everywhere 

in the Luke district. 
Anagallis ccrutea, Hensingham tollhar. A. tendla, Scroggs, 

Loughrigj:;, near the Inn, Patterdale. 
Anchusa sempcrvirens, Gosforth, Sandwith. 
Andromeda polifulia, Moss near Bromfield, Moresby, Drnm- 

Antliemis mnriUma. Couldcrton. 
Anthriscvs vulc/aris, Workington Bridge. 
AnthijIUs ruhicraria, llaryport railway. 
Apari/ia aulumnalit, Ennerdale. 
Apium graveolens, Workington Maish. 
Aquilegia vitlijaris, shore of Bassenthwaite Lake, Dovenby. 
Arabis hiapida, on the shores. A. hirsntn, Shouldthwaitf, 

Moota. A. pttrea, Screes. A. stricta, Lamplugh Hall, 

Pardshaw Hull. 
Arbutus uvaiirsi, Grassmoor, Crummock, Bootle Fell, Bracken- 

Arenaria peploide!, Seaton, Flimby. A. srrpyllifolia, ParJ- 

shaw Hall, Cockermouth. A. verna, Helvellyn. 
Armeria maritinue, Helvellyn. 
Arummacultttiim, Wood Hall, Branthwaite. 
Arundo arennria, Sea-shore, Coulderton. A. calamagrostis, 

River Derwent. A. phragviiUs, River Derwent. 
Asarum Enrnpceum, near Keswick. 
Aspcniln odorata, I.owdore Fall. 
Atpidium angutiire, \\'\\\c\\am. A. dilatatum, Keswick. A.lo- 

iatiivi, Flimby, Walla Crag, Caldbock. A.oreopteris, Pou- 

sonby Fell, Ulpha. A. spinulosum, Keswick, ito. 
AipUnium Adiantmn niffrum, common. A. allerni folium, said 

to be found in the Lake District. A. marinum, rocks near 

Whitehaven, St. Bees Heads. A.rutuntururia, common. 

A. septeiitriontile, Borrowdale, Screes, near Lorton. 

A. Trichomanes, Carleton, Ac. A. viride, Castlerigg Fell, 

river Irthing, edge of Scout Scarr, Ashness, Ghyll, 

Cross Fell. 
Alter Iripniium, Kskholme, Holborn Hill. 
AUii/riumovatum, Roth., near Keswick. • 

Atriplfx Inciniata, St Bees and Harrington shores. A.palula, 

Workington north sliore. 
Atropa llrllndoiiua, onco plentiful round F.gremont CasUc, but 

now only retained in a few gardens there. 
£<i(Io(a nirini, Workington. 
Jh'luta albn, var. pendulosu, round Derwentwater. 
Bidcm cfrnua, Braithwaitc, Cloffocks. D. tripartica, Keswick 

Cass, Bootle. 
SUchnum boreale, common. 

Botrychium Lunaria, not rare on dry pastures. 

Brassica Monensis, Flimby and St. Bees shore. 

Cakile maritima, Seaton shore. 

Callilriclie pedunculata, Ennerdale. C. verna, Whinlatter. 

Culltrapalustris, var. radicaiis, margins of lakes. 

Cametina saliva, Workington Mill Field. 

Campanula gtomerata, foot of UUeswater, Hardendale. C. 
tatifulia, common in hedges. 

Cardamine amara, Moorside Woods, Bearpot. C. hirsuta, ele- 
vated situations on Whillimoor. C. pratensis, common, 
sometimes double. 

Carduus acanthoides, Carlisle Castle. 

Carex ampuUacea, Cocker side. C. arenaria, Harrington shore. 
C. dioica, plentiful at Wythburn Head, Orgill. C. externa, 
Marron side. C./iViyormw, Workington. C._/Z«i-a, Hard- 
knot. C. limosa, var. irrigua, Gilsland. f".'. pallcscens, 
Sellafield. C. pulicaria, Hunday. C. rigida, Helvel- 
lyn, Skiddaw, Scawfell. C. rlparia, Stubbin Mire. C. 
stricta, Bullgill Bridge. C. vesiciria, Braithwaite. C. 
vutpina, Yeorton Hall. 

Carlina vulgaris, Ennerdale. 

Calabrosa acquatica, Coulderton shore — scarce — perhaps extinct. 

Centanrea Scahiosa, Eaglcsfield. 

Cerastium Alpimim, rocks above Red Tarn, Helvellyn. C. 
tetrandum, Cockermouth. 

Chara nspersa, Harrns Moor. C flexilis, 'V^^lillimoor. 

Chelidonium majux, Kirkland, St. Bees, 

Chicranlhusfnictinilosus, walls of Scaleby Castle. 

ChceropluiUum sylvcstre, Gillfoot and Whicham. 

Chrysosplenium alternifolium, Portinscale Bridge. C oppositi- 
folium, common in wet woods. 

Cicuta viiosa, Keswick, Walton, Irthington. 

Circoaa alpina, margins of UUeswater and Derwent Lakes, 
Ashness Ghyll, Barrowside. C. luteiiana, Keswick. 

Cladiutn mariscus, Cunswick Tarn. 

Ctinopodiun vulgare, Mockerin, Papcastle. 

Cnicus acaulis, Barrowside, Hardknot. C. lietcrophyllus, 
Armboth, Watendlath. 

Cnidium Silaus, Seaton, Schoose Farm. 

Cochlearia anglica, Workington shore. C. grcrnlandica, var, 
alpina, rills on Helvellyn. C. officinalis; Coulderton 
Sliore, Fleswick Bay. 

Comarum palustrc, common in meadow ditches. 

Convolvulus arvensi.", i'lly. toll-bar. C, soldanella, on the shore 
at I'arton, Maryport, Ravenglass, Coulderton, and Har- 

Corydalis solida. Vale of Newlands. 

Cotyledon umbilicus, Ehonside, Gosforth. 

Crambe 7naritima, near St. Bees, below Ravenglass and Bootle, 
Coulderton shore. 

Crepis tectorum. Woodcock Nook, near Egremont 

Critlimuvi viaritimum, St. Bees rocks. 

Uynoglossum officinale, Flimby. 

Cystopteris liungustita, Helvellyn. C. dentala, Naddle. C. 
fragilis, Whinlatter. 

Cystea dentala, Naddale, Braithwaite, Whillimoor. C. fragilis, 
St. Bees Moor. 

Pancus cnrota, Ravenglass. 

Drosera anglica, Helvellyn. D. longifolia, Ullock Jfoss, near 
Gilpin Bridge, Borrowdale. D. rotundifolia, common in 

Eleocharis acicularit, Egremont. E. ftuitans, Cogra Sfoss, in 
Lamplugh. E.cirtpilosus, Murton Moss. E.miilticaulii, 
Ennerdale Lake. E. pnlustrit, Lowcswatcr Lake. E, 
paucijlorus, Murton Moss. 



Empetrum niriTum, Cross Foil, SkUlJaw, moors and 1)053. 
Epilobiitm alpinum, Keswick ami Gowbarrow Park. E. alsini- 

folium, Whinlatter. E. Idrsutum, river Eden and its 

Epipactis lalifniiu, Dean Scales, Uridge Foot, Cockermouth 

Road. E. paltistris, near Ciinswick Tarn. 
Equiseltim arvense, common. E.fliivialilc, Flimby, Salter Hall, 

Parton rocks. E. pulustrc, Cold Fell. E. sylfiiticum, 

Watendlath, &c. E. rariegatum, Gilsland, in the Irthin<?. 
Erioplwrum anguiti/olium, Gnlder Ghjlls and Edge Tam. E. 

poli/stachion, Brigliam Moss. E. vaginatum, common in 

Erodium cicutarhtm, Gosforth. E. nmritimum, St. Bees. 

Eryngium maritimum, common along the sea shore. 

Erythrtea cenlaurium, Bootle, Distington, and a pure white 

variety in Loweswater. 
Euonymus Europau^, Lowdore Woods. 
Eiiplwrhia exigtia. Bridge Foot. E. helioscopia, Gosforth. E. 

paralia, Haverigg and Harrington shores. E. pephis, 

Egremont, Bootle station. E. portlandica, Braystones, 

Drigg shores. 
Fedia denuita, Frisington. F. olitoria, Moresby Hall. 
Fesluca viviparn, on the mountains. 
Galeolidnlon Jntenm, Crosedale. 
Galiopsis versicolor, near Carlisle. 
Galium borealf, margins of lakes, Helvellyn, river Irthing. G. 

cruciatum, Lamplugh, &c. G. Mollugo, Crofton Hall, 

Pardshaw, ite. G. palustre, Brackenthwaite, Lowdore. 

G. saxalile, St. John's Vale. G. Verum, Tallentire, 

Lamplugh, Lowdore. 
Genista anglica, Drigg, Bootle. G. scoparin, Bridekirk. G. 

tinctoria, Seaton, Tallentire, Arlecdon. 
Genliana Amnrelln, Tallentire Hill. G. campestris, Tallentire 

Hill, Workington Warren. G. pneximonanOie, between 

Maryport and Flimby. G. vema, till recently on Egre- 

mont Green. 
Geranium colnmbinum. Fell Foot, Newby Bridge, Cockermouth. 

G. lucidum, Lowdore Bridge. G. phoeum, Kirkland. 

G. pratense, Lamplugh. G. piisillum, Etlerby Scar. O. 

pyrcndiaim. Dale Head, Thirlmere. G. liobertianum, 

St. John's Vale. G. rotundifolium, Yeorton Hall. G. 

sanguineum, rabbit warren, between Workington and 

Maryport, St. Bees shores. G. sylvaticum, St. John's 

Vale, Keswick. 
Glaux maritima, P.avenglass, St. Bees. 
Glaucium hdaim, Flimby, Coulderton, Bootle shores. 
Gnaplmlium dininwi, Penrith Fell, Kirkland, Helvellyn, Screes. 

G. G<d'icvm, Drigg, Gosforth. G. germanicum, Drigg. 

G. miinmitm, Fieldhead in Eskdale. G. rectum, base of 

Helvellyn. G.uHginnsum, Arlecdon. 
Ghchoma hedcraccn, Barrow Side. 
Grammi'is ceterach, Sandwith, Jlosser, Gosforth, A-c. 
Gymnadenia cnnopsea, Wanthwaite, St. John's Jloota. 
Habcnaria alhida, Watendlath. H. bifolia, margin of Derwent- 

water, Wythbnm Head, Watendlath. H. chlorantha, 

abundant in moist situations. H. viridis, Watendlath. 
HeUebnrux viridis, Duddon Woods, Plumland. 
Hesperis mulronalis. Dale Head, Thirlmere. 
nieracium ulpinmn, Helvellyn, at Grisedale Tam. //. auran- 

tiacmn, near Keswick. II. suhaudnm, Ennerdale, in side 

woods. II. umbellntum, Kirkland How. 
Hippuris vulgaris. Dub Mill. 

Hordeum murinum, Flimby. H. maritintim, Coulderton. 
JIumulus Liipuhis, hedges near Keswick and Grasmere, Egre- 

Sydrocotele vulgaris, in bogs near lakes. 

Uymenophyllum Tunhridgensi, Screes, Ponsonhy Hall. B. 
Wihoiii, Lowdore Fall, Nook, Scale Force, Walton Craj, 
Haweswater, Dungeon Ghyll, Ponsonby. 

Hyoscyamm niger, Cockermouth, Flimby, Han-ington. 

Ili/pericum calycinum, Irton. II. clodes, Birker Hfoor, Aitcha 
Moss, Ullock Moss. II. Inrsutum, Camerton, Clifton. 
U. humifusum, Lowdore Fall. H. perforatum, Kcsivick 
woods. //. pulchrum, Casllehead woods. II. quadran- 
gulum, Clifton. 

Iberis nudicauli.'<, near the Hards, Abbey Holme. 

Impaliens noU-mitangere, Stock Ghyll Force, Scale Hill. 

Imperatoria Oslruthium, Gilsland woods. 

Inula Ilclcnium, Jlosser. I. dysenierica, St. Bees Heads. 

Isoetes lacustus, in most of the lakes. 

Jasioiie montnna, common. 

Juncus canosus, Millom Mai-sh. J. fdiformis, margins of Der- 
wentwater and Grummock. J. triglumis, rocks above 
Red Tarn, Fairfield, Loweswater, Helvellyn. J. uliyi- 
nosus, Workington. 

Latlinea squannaria, wood near Wigton, Winder Scar, Cuns- 
wick wood. 

Lemna minor, ponds in Whillimoor. 

Leonurus Cardiaca, Workington Row. 

Lepidium Smilliii, margin of Derweutwater ; near Bray ton Hall ; 
Abbey Holme. 

Listeria cordnta, Castlerigg Fell, Melbreak. L. nidus-avis, 
Flimby wood. Wood Hall. L. ovata, common. 

Lilhospermum arvense, Stanger. L. maritimum, Bootle shore 
and Workington. L. officinale, Mosser and Westward 
Parks. L. purpuro, citruleum, Castle Carrock. 

Littorclla laeustris, margin of Derwentwater, Wythburn. 

Lobellia dortmnnna, plentiful in the lakes. 

Lonicera caprifolium, Lorton Hall. L. Xylosteum, Workington 

Lotus major, road sides. 

Luzula campestris, common on bare heaths. L. campestris, 
var. congesta, Ullock Moss. L. congesta, common on 
bare heaths. L. Fosteri, Lowdore, woods between tho 
mountains and the sea. L. pilosa, common in woods. 
L. sylvatica, banks of the Marron. 

Lychnis alpina, Brackenthwaite. 

Lycopodium alpiiimn, on all tho mountains. Sty Head, Ac. 
L. atmotimim, said to be found on Langdale Pikes, 
near Bow Fell. L. clavatum, on all the mountiuns. L. 
inundtitutn, Shoulthwaite, Wastdale, in a bay half way 
between Keswick and Wythburn. L. Se:aginoidcs, 
Lycopodium Selago, Hardknot, Helvellyn. 

Lycopus arvensis, St. Bees. L, europwus, Ribton Hall. 

Lysimachia nemorum, Castlehead wood and Lamplugh. L. 
Ihysiflora, Keswick. L. vulgaris, Keswick, Ennerdale, 

Lythrum hyssopifoliuvi, said to grow at the south end of Der- 
wentwater. L. silicaria, Ennerdale, Newlands ; Becker- 

ilalva Moschata. Cockermouth Road. 

Matritaria chnmomilla, Sylcroft. 

ileconopsis Camhrica, near Ambleside, Naddale. 

Melampyrum pratense, common in old woods. 

Mentha gentilis, Dalston. M. piperita, M. hirmia, near Sykes 
in Naddale, in ditch sides, il/. rotimdifoUa, Lowdore. 

Meum. athamanticum. Fell F.nd in Ennerdale, Docker Garths, 
Kendal, near Keswick. 

Myosotis cii:spilosa,'B-a\\e.n Fell; Helvellyn. iil.palustris,var. 
strigulosa, river Derwent, near Keswick. 31. repens, Vale 
of Newlands, Skiddaw, Helvellyn, Wastdale. 

ilyriea gale, in most bogs. 



Myriophylliim spicatUTn, Naddale. 

Narcissus Psuedo-NarcUsiis, DiidJon Woods. 

Neottia Nidus-avis, Cunswick Wood, Wallow Wood, Kendal, 

foot of Skiddaw. 
Nuphar lutea, in most of the lakes, Mockering Tarn, Wor- 

manby Lough. 
Nymphie alba, in all the large lakes, Jlockering Tarn. 
Ophioglossum vulgatum, rather common. 
Ophrys cordata, Kirkland. 0. mucifera, Barrowfield Wood. 
Orchis albida, Little Broughton. O. lifolla, Whillimoor. 0. 
la'.ifoUa, Watendlath, Bon-owdale. O. mascula, common, 
Dovenby. O. pyramidalis, Watendlath, common. O. 
ustulata, Blindcrake. 0. viridis, Jlurton Moss. 
Omithopus perpusillus, Irton Church, St. Bees Moor. 
Orohus sylvaticus, Gaiublesby and Ousby. 
Otmunda regalis, Millom, Irton, Egremont, UUock Moss, 

Oxyria reniformis, Wastdale Head, Helvellyn, Ashness Ghyll. 
Parietaria officinalis, Torpenhow Church. 
Paris quadri/olia, woods in Lamphigh. 
Pamassia pahistris, meadows and bogs. 

Peplis portula, Ilarras Moor, Kinniside Long Moor, Calder Gills. 
Phragmites communis, in most of the lakes. 
Pinguicula vulgaris, common in bogs. 
Pimpinella diaica, Tallentire Hill. 
Pisum maritimum, Harrington rocks. 

Plantago Coronopus, sliore at B'limby, Ravenglass, &e. P. mari- 
tima, Jloota, Fhraby, Gillerthwaite. P. major, Arlccdon. 
P. niedia, Arlecdon and Egremont. 
Polygonum amphibium, Uearham. P. ariculare, Lowdore 
Woods. P. Bistorta, in meadows. P. convolvulus, Bas- 
senthwaite. P. Ilydropiper, Lowdore. P. viviparum, 
Polypodium calceareum, Kendal Fells. P. dryopteris, common 
in the Lake District, Logberthwaite, Dean. P. pliegop- 
teris, Kskdale, Ulpha, Braithwaito. P.vulgare, common. 
Potentilla fructicosa. Screes. 

Poterium languisorba. Scout Scar, Knipe Sear, Shap Fells. 
PrenanUs jnuralis, Borrowdalo, Ulpha. 

Primula elatior, Seaton, Lamplugh. P. farinosa, Aspatria, 
West Newton, Wanthwaite Mill,Caldbeck. P. veris, (red 
variety), Egremont CUnks. 
Pteris crispa, Borrowdale. 
Pulmonaria maritima, on sea-coast near Allonby, Kavcnglass, 

Maryport, ic. 
Pyrethrum Parlhenium, Nether Hall. 

Pyrola media, Kirklinton Moors. P. minor, Dunmallet, near 
Ulleswaler. P. rotundifolia, Walla Crag. P. sccunda, 
Helvellyn, near Keswick. 
Pynu aria, Scout Scar. 
Radiola millegrana, Swinside. It. millegrana, var. maritima, 

Jianunculus aqxiatalis, Thirlmere, Derwcnt River, St. Bees Moor. 
li. auricomus, Pardshaw. R. circinatui, Ulleswater. 
H. Flammula, common in cold soils. 7?. Jiuitans, Der- 
wentwator. II. hedrraccus, Lamplugh Hall, Pardshaw. 
li. hirtuta, Drigg, Workington Marsh. P. Leonard- 
mandi, common. Jt. Lingua, Naddlo Beck, Cardew, 
Wastdale, Kskdale. 
Ile$eda Lutcola, Elimby, Eaglcsfield, Workington. 
Rhamnus Jrangula, Cockshot and Ullock, Keswick. 
Rhinanthus crista-galli, var. majus, Cliapcl Bank, St Helens. 
Rhodiola rosea, Helvellyn, Screes, Ennerdalo Coves, Pillar Fell. 
Sibe$ aroimlaria, limestone rocks at Sunderland. 7?. nigrum, 
banks of the Dorwent. S. rubrum, bonks of the DorwenU 


Rosa arvensis, Whillimoor. R. canina, Loweswater. R. cinna- 
mornia, Howxay, Keswick. R. gracilis, Whinlatter. R. 
Hibemica, Brackenthwaite. R. rubella, Thirlwall. R. 
Sabini, Derwent Bay. R. spinosissima, plentiful on the 
coast at Seascale, .Src. R. tomeiUosa, Lamplugh. J?. 
villosa, Gilsland. 
RotbolUa incurcata. Skate Dubs, Workington. 
Rubus ccesius, Tallentire. R. corylifulius, Arlecdon. R. Cha- 
micmorus, Crossfell, Styx Moss. R. fructicosus, very 
common. R. glaiidulosus, Pardshaw. R. idarus, com- 
mon. R. rliamnifolius, Ulpha, Lowca, Flimby. R. 
saxatilis, Cockshot Wood, Gilsland. R. suberectui, 
Moorside Hall. 
Rumex digymis, Screes, slate quarries near Buttermere. 
Ruppia maritima, Cloffocks. 
Sagittaria sagiltifolia, Braystones Tarn. 
Salicomia hcrbacea, Ravenglass, Workington. S. proeumhetts, 

Workington Nortli Shore. 
Salix herbacea, Scawfell, HelvelljTi, Skiddaw, Saddleback. S. 

reticulata, about Alston, Greystoke, Abbey Holme. 
Salsola fructicosa, Ravenglass. S. kali, Coulderton. 
Sambucus Ebulus, Brackenthwaite, Scalelands. 
Samolus Valerandi, Coulderton Shore. 
Sanguisorba officinalis, meadows near Kendal and Keswick. 
Sanicula europica, Wytliop Woods. 
Saponaria officinalis, Derwent Side, near Workington. 
Satyrium albidum, mountain pastures above Borrowdale. 
Saussuria alpina, Stridding Edge, Helvellyn. 
Saxifraga aizoides, wet situations on mountains, Earrowside, 
Grassmoor. 8. granulata, Hai-rington Church. .5. hyp- 
noides, wet situations on mountains, Armboth Fell, 
Shoulthwaite. S. nivalis, rocks above Red Tarn, Hel- 
vellyn, Legberthwaitc Gills. S. oppositifolia, Stridding 
Edge, Great End, Screes, Borrowdale. S. stcllaris, 
Helvellyn, Iron Crag, ifce. S. tridactylitcs, old walls at 
Dacre, Moota, Wliicham. 
Scleranthus ammus, St. Bees, Knockmurton, Eskdale. 
Scirpus lacustris, Loweswater. S. maritmus, Workington. S, 
setaceous, Ennerdale. S. sylvalicux, banks of the Marron. 
Scolopcndrium vulgare, common in dark ravines. S. var, 

crispum, Catgill Hall. S. var- multifidum, Dearham. 
Scuttillaria galericulata. Dub Beck, Braithwaite Beck. S. minor 
margin of Crummock and Wast Water Lakes, Ladstocks 
in Thornthwaite. 
Sedum acre, St. John's. S. album, Braystones. S. Anglicum 
foot of Helvellyn, Castle Head, Beckcote. S. sexan- 
gulare, Huiulay. S. Teliphium, Lowdore Road, Castle- 
lioad, Millom. S. villosum, Mosedale. 
Soubiera coronopus, Seaton. 

Senecio saracenicns, Salkeld, near Moresby, Sebergham, 
Howray, near Keswick. S. tenui/olius, Little Broughton. 
Scrratula Alpina, Helvellyn. 
Serralulii tinctoria, Embleton, Lorton. 
Sibthorpia Jiuropa'n, Gowbarrow Park, &c. 
Silenc acaulis. Groat End, Helvellyn, near Grisedale Tarn, 
Borrowdale. S. injluta, Clifton, Deanscales, .tc. S. 
maritima, I'.skmeals, Brackenthwaite, Grange. S. nutans. 
Dean, Moorland Close. 
Sisleriacftrula, Knipe Scar, Orton Scar, Scout Scar, Winder Scar. 
Sisymbrium mnncnse, on tho shores. 

Slum angusti/olium, Drigg Hawes. S. inundatum, Lowes- 
water Ijiko. S. nm/i/onim, Gill, near St. Bees. S.repens, 
Naddale. S. vcrtititlhtum, Naddale. 
Solanum Itulcamara, St. John's 'Vole, Setmiirtby, 
Solidago I'irjaurca, ScalcUill. 



Sparganium nalans, Shoulthwaite Moss. S. ramosum, Fortin- 

scale, NaJilale. S. simplex, Harras Moor. 
Spergula nodosa, Lilly Hall. 

Spina sniicifolia. Pool Bridge, Hawkshead ; lane ur. Bnttcrmere. 
Stachxjs annua, Lingbank, ia Gosforth. 

Statics Armeria, Scawfell and sea shores. S. Limonium, sen- 
shore near Bootle, &o. S. reticulata, Whitehaven. S. 
spathnla, St. Bees Heads. 
Stellaria nemorum, Biirdoswald; Moorside Hall, 
Straliottes aloidcs, Ennerdole Lake. 
Subularia acqimtica, Ennerdalc Lake. 
Tamus communis, Millom, Eskdale. 
Taxus baccata, very large trees in Horrowdale. 
Teesdalia nudicaulis, St. John's, Raven Crag, Thief Gill, in Dean. 
Thalictrum Alpinum, Helvellyn, Great End Crag, Scawfell, 
Fairfield, Issell. T.Jlcnum, margin of the River Durwent 
at Howray. T. majus, Derwent Lake shores, foot of 
Thirlmere, Lowdore, Screes, side of Ennerdale. T. minus, 
Great End, Derwent Lake, side woods in Ennerdale. 
Thymus Acinos, Low Lingbank, Nethertown. T. Calaminta, 

Calva Hall. 
Torilis nodosa, Bewaldeth. 
Tragopoffon porrifolius, 'VVorkington. T. pratcnsis, Bransty, 

S choose. 
Trientalis Europaa, Keswick and Bewcastle. 
Tri/olimn arvcnse, YXimby. T.Jiliforme, Gosforth. T, oJHcinule, 
Workington Station, Etterby Scar. T. ornithopodioides, 
Workington Warren. T. procumbens, Drigg. T. striatum, 
St. Bees. 
Triglochin maritimum, Cloffocks. T. palustre, common at the 

edges of bogs. 
Triticum juncmn, Braystones. 
Trollius curopmis, margins of lakes, Arlocdon Churchyard, 

Ivirklaud, Aspatria, near Whitehaven. 
Turritis glabra, Stainburn. 

Ti/pha latlfolia, Naddle, Crofton, Chapel Sucken, Brayton. 
Z'lex nnnu, Gosforth, Lamplugh Fells, Whinlatter, Wastdalc. 

U. nanus, var. major, Bab. Great Robinson. 
Vrtica urcns, Distington, Ullock. 

Utricularia minor. Cooper, Abbey Holme, neai' Ennerdale water ; 
ditches on west side of Derwentwater, Shoulthwaite Moss, 
Eskmeals. U. vulgaris. Derwentwater. 
Vaccinium Mijrtillis, common on woods and on mountains. V. 
oxycoccus, common in bogs. V. vitis ida:a, summit of 
Skiddaw, Iron Crag, Swinside Fell, Helvellyn, Scawfell, 
Great Gable, &c. V. uliginosum, near Gamelsby in 
Aikton, Wardren JIoss, Moorside Parks. 
Valeriana divica, in bogs, near Bampton, Shap, Pooley Bridge 

Kendal, &c. 
Veronir.a Anagaltis, St. Bees and Ellen. V. hederifolia, Dis- 
tington, \Vorkington. V. montana, Walla Crag. V. 
scutcllata, Ullock Moss. 
Vicia angustifolia, Stainburn, Santon. V. sglvatica, Clifton 

Woods, Barton. 
Viola hirtii, BaiTowfield Wood. V. lutea, Skiddaw, Brigham. 

V. patustris, Spital Wood. 
Zostera marina, Bootle shore. 

In the compilation of tliis short list of the rarer 
Cumberland plants, we have derirecl the greatest 

assistance from the article on botany in Harriet !Mar- 
,tincau's admirable Guide to the Lakes. 


From an early period, it has been usual, in tho 
counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland, as well as 
elsewhere, for pious or charitable persons to settle or 
demise money, property, rent-charges, and other pro- 
ceeds, for the pui'pose of supporting the poor, endowing 
schools, providiug clothing, Ac, in paiticular districts 
or localities, or for extending and improving the means 
already in existence for carrying out these objects. 
Many of the charities remain in operation to tho 
present day ; some of them improved by tho kindred 
spirits of their managers, others allowed to dwindle into 
insignificance, some appropriated by the cupidity of 
individuals, and some of them lost in a manner that 
cannot now be traced. For the preservation and good 
management of the immense amount of property in- 
volved in these endowments, an act was passed, 58 
Geo. III., cap. 91, "for appointing commissioners to 
inquire concerning charities in England, for the educa- 
tion of the poor;" and another, 59 Geo. III., cap. 81, 
to amend the previous act, " and to extend the powers 
thereof to other charities in England and Wales." 
Both these acts were continued by others, 5 Geo. IV., 
cap. 58, and 1 Geo. IV., cap. 57. In pursuance of their 
provisions, commissioners were appomted, whose labours 
were continued during a scries of years, and whose 
voluminous reports tended materially to elucidate this 
hitherto little known subject. So important was this 
inquiry considered, that another act, 5 and WiUiam 
IV., was passed, " for appointing commissioners to 
continue the inquiries concerning charities in England 
and Wales, until the 1st day of March, 18;17." In 
that year, the concluding report appeared. In common 
with the charities of other counties, cities, and towns 
of England and Wales, those of Cumberland and A\'est- 
moreland were carefully investigated and the results 
placed on record. From this authentic source of infor- 
mation, it is intended to collect the^materials for an 
account of each of tho parochial and other charities in 
the two counties, with a statement of such changes, 
modifications, and additional particulars as have oc- 
curred since the date of the commissioners' reports, so 
far as they can be procured. These accounts will be 
arranged with their respective localities. 

CEinhrlauir Wiux)i, 

Cumberland Ward, whicli comprises tbc city of Carlisle, and is the most fertile division of the county, is 
bounded on the north hy Eskdale Ward, on the north-west by the Solway Frith, on the south-west by Allerdale- 
below-Uerwent Ward, and on the south-east by Leath Ward. It is of an irregular oblong form, extending about 
twenty miles from east to west, and about eight miles from north to south, and is watered by the rivers Eden, 
Petteril, Caldew, Wampool, and Waver, with their numerous tributary streams. The scenery of the first-named river 
is very picturesque, and is much admired ; on the Petteril and Caldew there are several mills and manufactories. 
The railways passing through the ward are the Newcastle and Carlisle, the JMaryport and Carlisle, the Lancaster and 
Carlisle, the Caledonian, the Port Carlisle, and the Carlisle and Silloth. Cumberland Ward comprises seventeea 
parishes, — Beaumont, Bowness, Burgh -on -Sands, Crosby -on -Eden, Christ Church, Dalston, Grinsdale, Kirk 
Andrews-on-Eden, Kirkbampton, Orton, Piocklitie, St. Cuthbert, St. Mary, Stanwix, Uppcrby, Warwick, and 
Weathcral ; one chapelry, Wreay ; and two extra-parochial places, Eaglesfield Abbey and Kingmoor. ^ 


Carlisle, an episcopal city, a parliamentary and muni- 
cipal borough, and the capital of the county of Cum- 
berland, is situated in 51' 03' north latitude, and 2^ 
55' west longitude. It is 301 miles north-west by 
north from London by road, and 300 miles by the 
Xorth-Westeru and the Lancaster and Carlisle railways. 
The city is seated upon an eminence, surrounded by a 
fertile plain of rich meadows, and is nearly encom- 
passed by three streams, the largest of which, the 
Eden, passing Carlisle on the north side, receives the 
other two — the Petteril on the east and the Caldew 
on the west of the city. From the neighbourhood of 
Stanwk, on the other side of the Eden, Carlisle is 
seen to great advantage, while the southern approach 
is also beautiful and picturesque. The eye commands 
an extensive prospect towards the north and east, and 
in the middle rises the city, overtopped by the massive 
towers of the castle on the west; the cathedral still 
higher in the centre ; and in the cast arise the em- 
battled towers of the court houses. The atmosphere 
is dry and pure, and the soil chiefly sand and clay, 
while the proximity of the city to an inlet of the sea, 
and its due distance from the mountains on all sides 
render the temperature moderate and temperate. 

The city, the parliamentary and municipal boundaries 
of which are co-extensive, consists of tho townships of 
Botcbergate, English-street, Scotch-street, Fisher-street, 

Castle-street, Abbey-street, Rickergate, and Eaglesfield 
Abbey, with part of Caldewgate township. Its popula- 
tion in 1801 was 9,531, in 1811, 11,045; in 1831, 
11,531; in 1831, 19,009; in 1841, 21,878; and in 
1S51, 90,310, of whom 12,077 were males, and 13,033 
females. The number of inliabitcd houses, at the same 
period, was ^3,950 ; of uninhabited, 119; and there 
were 38 in course of erection. The following table 
gives the population of the ditferent townships in the 
city from the latest parliamentary returns : — 


Abbey-street 837 

Botcbergate 1,019 

Cnlciewgate l,yOO 

Castle-street 1,075 

Eagleslield Abbey — 
Euglisb-street ... 2,331 

Fisber-strcet 294 

Sc.itcb-street 1,181 

Rickergate HOI 

Militarj' iu barcks. — 

The history of Lugubalia or Carlisle during the 
Roman period is as much involved in obscurity as that 
of the other portions of the county, though there is 
little doubt that it was a place of some importance, 

s Tliat part of Calilewgate townsliip within the city of Carlisle, 
cuniprisoil, iu IV>1, 7,405 iiibabilants. 

> No return was made for Eaglesfield Abbey prior to 1341. 




















































1 Cbiiat Churcb, and Uppcrby parishes, have been formed under Lord Blaudford's act (ISDG) fronc the former parish of St. Cuthbert. 



and contained its temples, and palaces, and public edi- 
fices, like the other cities and stations of the empire. 
It appears to have been one of the Civltates Latii jure 
donata, or cities under the Latian law, of which there 
were only ten in Britain, and as such enjoyed peculiar 
exemptions and privileges. The Scots seem to have 
looked upon it with no friendly eye, even at this early 
period, for we learn from two of their own writers, 
Fordun and Boethius, that it was captured and burnt 
by them, during the absence of the imperial legions, 
in the reign of Nero. It must, therefore, have been 
subsequent to this event, and most probably in the 
time of Agricola, that it was fortified as a strong frontier 
town. The defences constructed at this period appear to 
have been, like all the other works of the Romans, of 
great strength and durabihty, for despite the many at- 
tacks which were made upon the city at ditTorent times, 
and the numerous repairs which these attacks rendered 
necessary, much Roman masonry remained till a com- 
paratively recent period, as we learn from Leland and 
others.' During the time that Britain was held by the 
Romans, Cumberland was tolerably secure from the at- 
tacks of the Picts and Scots, but no sooner were the 
protecting legions withdrawn than these wild sons of 
the north overran the country, and Carhsle, from its 
situation, being almost the first object of attack, was 
laid in ruins, and its inhabitants put to the sword. 
From the departure of the Romans, we hear no more 
of Lugubalia till the seventh century, at which time 
the Angles possessed the northern parts of England, 
and acknowledged Ecgfrid for their king. This mon- 
arch visited the city, gave orders for its re-edification, 
caused a wall to be erected for its defence, and founded, 
as is generally behaved, a coDege of secular priests to 
attend to the spiritual wants of the inhabitants. It 
is to the Angles that the change of the name of 
the city from Lugubalia to Carhsle is ascribed by 
the early chroniclers and historians. In the year 
COS, St. Cuthbcrt arrived, and was gladly received 
by the people, who took him to sec the fortifica- 
tions and other remains of antiquity which their city 

' " In (liggyng to make new building yn the towne often tymes hath 
bene, iiml now a late, found diverse fundations of the old cite, as 
pavimcutes of streates, old ai'ches of dores, coyne, stones squared, 
paynted pottes, money hid yn pottes so old and muldid that when yt 
was strongly touchid yt went almost to mowlder; as yn M . . gialbys 
bowse yn dyggyng for the squaryng .... his gardin and crcbai-d, 
the which ston . . . eth much sowth. The hole site of the towne is 
sore chaungid. For wher as the streets where and gieat ediiices now 
be vacant and garden plottes. In the felds about Cair luel j-n plow- 
yng hath be found diverse cornelines and other stonys well entayled 
for scales, and other places of Cumberland in plowynge hath be fownd 
brickes conteyninge the prints of antique workes." — Lelund's Ilin. 
vol. vii, p. 84. 

possessed.' Lugubalia, with the surrounding country 
for fifteen miles, was subsequently granted to the see of 
Lindisfarne, to which it remained attached till the 
reign of Henry I. On the invasion of Cumberland 
by the Danes, under Halfdene, in 875, Carlisle, as it 
was now called, is said to have been destroyed ; but 
if the statement of some of the Scotch historians 
be correct, that Gregory, King of Scotland, held an 
assembly of his nobles here in 880, this destruction 
must liave been only a partial one, and one that 
could be soon repaired. But certain it is that some- 
time about this period, the city fell into the hands of 
the Northmen, by whom it was laid in ruins. It con- 
tinued in this state for about two centuries, during 
which time there was " never an inhabitant to be seen, 
but some few straggling Irish, who lodged themselves 
among the ruins. There was no face nor appearance of 
a city, but the very foundations were so buried in the 
earth, that it is said largo oaks grew upon them, so that 
it looked more hke a forest than a place of civil govern- 
ment, and this is not only attested by our own histo- 
rians, but also made out by some discoveries that have 
been late made of large unhewn oak trees buried ten or 
twelve yards in the ground." 

Matthew, of Westminster, is the only writer who 
speaks of the restoration of Carhsle previous to the 
reign of William Rufus. lie tells us that Ranulph de 
Meschines, as soon as he had received Cumberland 
from the Conqueror, at once began to rebuild the 
city ; and further informs us, that the Conqueror him- 
self, on his return from Scotland, in 1072, gave orders 
for fortifying Carlisle. If we are to place any reliance 
on this information, it is manifest that the work of 
restoration must have proceeded slowly, and made 
but little progress till the reign of the second Norman 
liiug ; for the same writer, in common with the other 
historians of the period, attributes the restoration of 
Cai'lislc and the rebuilding of the castle to Wilham 
Rufus, who visited the city and placed a garrison there 
in 1092. The same monarch subsequently sent a 
number of labourers from the south of England to 
settle in and around Carlisle, to reclaim the neighbour- 
ing lands and to bring them into cultivation, and Sir 
Francis Palgrave considers it not unlikely that these 
colonists were the people who were ejected from their 
homes by Rufus, when the New Forest was in course of 
formation. These extensive operations, there is little 
doubt, occupied many years, and must have been far 
from finished when Tyrrell 's arrow laid the Red King low, 
and Henry T. ascended the English throne ; for in 1122, 

' See page 6. 
' Dr. Todd's MS. account of the City of Cnilisle. 



or twelve years after Lis accession, Henry being at 
Carlisle, disbursed money towards their completion. 
From this fact it would appear tbat the premature 
death of William II. interfered with the carrying out of 
the plans devised for the restoration of Carlisle, and it is 
not at all improbable that the castle and the city walls 
were finished by David, King of Scotland, who, during 
several years possessed the city, and occasionally resided 

From the important position held by Carlisle as a 
strong frontier town, it was frei]uently besieged during 
the many wars between the English and the Scotch, and 
sufifcred greatly in consequence. In 1135, it fell into 
the possession of David of Scotland, who captured it 
either by surprise or treachery, and spent the three 
following ycai's in adduig to the strength of its fortifica- 
tions, which according to Forduu, wore completed in 
1138. In the same year was fought the Battle of the 
Standard, when the Scottisli monarch was completely 
defeated, and obliged to retreat to Carlisle, where he 
remained for three days in the greatest auxiety regard- 
ing the fate of his son, whom he had left contending 
valiantly with the enemy. The prince, however, es- 
caped, and shortly afterwards joined his father at 
Carlisle. In the following September, Da«d was 
visited at Carlisle by the Cardinal Alberic, who had 
landed iu England, as papal legate. The Cardinal had 
passed through the tract of country which had been the 

' Dr. Toild ill llje work just quoted, says, " I hare a manuscript 
account of the county of Cumberland, collected by an industrious 
persou (Mr. Denton, of Cardew) about two hundred years ago, 
which Rives a particular account and relation of this matter, and more 
full than I can lind in any other historian. This author says, that 
the people which King Williiun translated hither were Flemings, and 
that ihey anil the Irish and English had their several quarters assigned 
them at tlie building of rin' city, after this sort : First, in llie street called 
Abbey street (from the Abbey, whose foundations were tliere laid), 
our founder pla<'ed the Irish families who hud lived before in little 
huts amongst the 'rubbish, called therefrom in old writings, Vicus 
llyberentium, the Irish street: Secondly, in tlic street called Castle 
street, Vicus Castri, because the Castle was built at the west end of 
it, were placed the Flemings or Normans, wherefore it is sometimes 
called Vicus Francorum, or corruptly Fennell street: Thirdly, in 
Bichardgate, Vicus Hichardi, so called because it leads towards 
Itiehardby; and in Botchardgate, Vicus Botchardi, and in tlie otlier 
principal {daces of the city near to the maiket place and the church, 
were placed the best and principal citizens, natural Englishmen: in 
the suburbs on the west side towards Coldcoats, or Caldewcouts, or 
cottages, towards Dolston, in Shaddcniugale, dwelt the remnant of 
the Flemings, whereupon the street was called Vicus Flandrenlium. 
In the lowest part of the city, towards the north-west, stooil the Fish 
Shambles, which made Uie street he colled Vicus Piscatonmi, Fisher 
street ; in the south east of this were the Flesh bhunibles, or Butchers' 
Row, Vicus Carnilieiuni ; in the mitldle and centre of the tow-n was 
the market kept. And on the west part was built, on a large piece 
of ground which is near the fourth part of the city, the Church and 
Abbey fur religious worship. .\nd it was well provided by Wallerus. 
a devout person, who was superior of the works, after he hod liiuahed 
the wall and caallc, lo udtc care that the houss of God should be well 

scene of Scottish depredation, and was so affected with 
the horrors that he had witnessed, that on his knees he 
begged of the lung to consent to a peace. David was 
inexorable, but out of respect to the petitioner, he 
granted a truce for two months ; promised that all the 
females that bad been consigned to slavery in Scotland 
should be conducted to Carlisle, and liberated on the 
feast of St. ilartin ; and gave his word that in future 
wars the churches should be respected, and protection 
should be extended to the weak and unresisting. In 
the year 1149, David conferred the honour of knighthood 
upon his nephew (afterwards Henry U. of England), at 
Carlisle, and a year later, the same king, prince Henry 
of England, and Tiauulph, earl of Chester, met here, 
and entered into a league, binding themselves to 
to make common cause against Stephen, who, at that 
time had possession of the English crown. The con- 
temporary writers inform us that on this occasion prince 
Henry solemnly promised, that on his accession, he 
would confirm to David and his heirs the lands in 
England claimed by that monarch. Prince Henry of 
Scotland died at Carlisle, in 1152, where his father 
David also expired, on the 24th of May, iu the following 
year. At this period the city was of sufficient impor- 
tance to have a mint, which seems to have been supphed 
with silver from mines in the county. 

Henry succeeded to the throne of England in 1154, 
when Malcolm of Scotland, the son and successor of 

built and furnished, to engage thereby the favour of heaven for the 
good of tills new society, — for all Clmsiians agree that if God be not 
well served in a city, it may be strong but it cannot be safe, — ' nisi 
Doniinus custodierit civitatem, frustra vigilat qui euslodit earn.' 
Then William II., out of his princely care and bounty, built tlie walls 
of this ruinated city of Corlisle, built and fortified the castle, laid 
the foundations of the churili and abbey, and placed a great lumiber 
of inhabitants in all parts of the city ; but before he could bring liis 
designs to perfection, the fabric of his own body foiled, and he was 
called out of this world by on unexpected deoih, wherefore, the 
linishing and completing whot he had so well begun, and so far 
advanced, was left to the royal care of his successor, Henry I., a wise 
and pious jirince. No sooner hod King Henry got the crown upon his 
head, hut he hod it in his heart to advance tile good state of tlie new 
garrison here on the borders ; lUid if oilier business woulil not have 
permiiled him to consider its condition, yet the frequent alarms the 
Scots g.ive hhn in these parts would have advertised him how neces- 
sory it was to keep a number of men to defend these iiorlhcm coim- 
ties from their insolence. Hereupon, in the bcginuiugof his reign, 
ho removed the Flemings oinl Dutch which hod been placed here, as 
was said, into the Isle of Anglesea, and sent in their room regiments 
of families of English out of Keul, Esses, and Middlesex, to inhabit 
the cilv, and to defend it too, under the command of Ranuljdi de 
Meschines, sister's son to Hugo Lupus, Earl of Chester. What 
expenses were needful lo linish tlic walls and the church, were sup- 
plied out of the King's e\chcipier and put into the hands of Wallerus, 
the supervisor of tlie works, who was a person of greol worlli and 
abilities, who came out i»f Normandy with ihe Conqueror, served him 
ond his son in great oflices, and when he had portly at his own 
charge, as well as (he king's, built and endowed a nicaastcr}' her«, 
he took upon him the habit of an Austin monk iu iW' 



David, applied to tbe English mouarch for the fulfil- 
ment of his promise regarding the land, itc, iu England, 
claimed by the Scottish kings ; Henry, however, disre- 
garding the oath made to David, refused to comply, and 
kept them in his own hands. In 1158 the two monarehs 
met at Carlisle, but separated without adjusting theu" 
differences, though much time was spent in negotiations 
for that purpose ; " and," says Dr. Todd, " the Iviug of 
Scotland did not receive the honour of knighthood, 
■which he had expected." From this time the city 
remained in the possession of Henry, who, according 
to Hutchinson, granted a charter to the citizens, iu 
which he allowed them to take timber for building 
from the royal forest of Carlisle. Not long after this, 
in 1173, hostilities continuing between the two king- 
doms, William the Lion, the successor of Malcolm, 
invaded Cumberland, and laid siege to Cai'lisle, which 
was well aud ably defended by Robert de Vaux, but 
learning that an EugUsh army was on its march to 
relieve the city, he drew off his soldiers and returned 
to his own country. He came back, however, in the 
following year, and invested Carlisle with an army of 
80,000 men. The garrison made a determined resis- 
tance, and the siege lasted several months, during 
which tbe greatest privations were endured by all 
within the city. Being reduced to the last extremity, 
the brave garrison was on the point of surrendering, 
when the capture of the Scottish king at Alnwick put 
an end to the war, and brought the siege to a con- 
clusion." In IISO, Henry H., accompanied by a large 
army, visited Carlisle, where he was met by William 
the Lion and his brother David, the two kings being 
then on friendly terms. During the reigtt of this 
monarch a considerable portion of the city was burnt 
by the Scots, and in addition to the loss of property 
sustained by the citizens, the charters aud other docu- 
ments by which they held their various liberties and 
immunities were completely destroyed. In 1103 they 
paid ten marks for the restoration of their rights aud 
privileges. King John visited Carlisle in February, 
1201, and stayed iu the city for three daj-s, and again in 
February, 1206, when he remained for a similar period. 
In August, 120?, we find that he was hero for one day. 
Four years afterwards, in 1212, we fiud him again in the 
old border city, where he arrived on the 23rd of June, and 
staid till the 2Gth, when he departed for Hexham, which 
he reached on the same day, and proceeded thence to 
Durham.- In 1216 Carlisle was besieged and taken by 
the Scots under Alexander, but the castle still held out 

1 See page 13 for an account of the siege by Fantosme, a con- 
temporary writer. 

» Rot. Lit. Patentium, vol. I, part 1. 

for John. The Scottish king repaired and strengthened 
the fortifications, but was not able to retain possession of 
the city long, for iu the following year, on the pacification 
which followed the accession of Henry III., it was surren- 
dered to Walter Gray, archbishop of York, for the King 
of England. On this occasion the canons of the cathe- 
dral are said to have been banished by Gualo, the papal 
legate, for having, through fear of death, sung mass for 
the Scottish king while under sentence of excommu- 

From this time we hear no more of Carlisle till 1233, 
in which yeai-, according to the Lanercost chronicler, 
two convents were founded, one for the Dominican 
friais, and the other for the Franciscan. In 1283, the 
citizens were summoned by Edward I. to send two 
representatives to parhameut. Nine years later, 1292, 
a fire broke out, which is said to have consumed many 
houses in the city, with the greater portion of the abbey 
buildings, and greatly damaged the cathedral. This 
conflagration appears to have been the work of an in- 
cendiary, who, from motives of resentment, set fire to 
his father's house, and was subsequently executed for 
the crime. During the progress of the fire, two thieves, 
one of whom had taken sanctuary iu the cathedral 
church, and the other in that of the Franciscan friars, 
effected their escape, for which the citizens were con- 
demned to pay a fine of XTG into the exchequer; the 
fine was, however, remitted by the king, on condition 
that the citizens should acknowledge that they were re- 
sponsible for the safe custody of felons flying for sanc- 
tuary to the churches withiu the city. In 1296, the 
earls of Buchanan and Slontcith, with other Scottish 
nobles, besieged Carlisle, when the garrison made such an 
energetic resistance, that after three days the assailants 
were glad to retire. During this siege the women took 
an active part in the defence of the city, aud caused the 
enemy considerable annoyance, by pouring boihng water 
and casting heavy stones from the walls upon the be- 
siegers, " which so abated their courage aud fury, that 
they thought best quietly to retreat, aud leave the coun- 
try to judge that Carlisle women had more courage and 
valour than the Scottish soldiers.''^ In the following 
year, Wallace, at the head of his array, summoned the 
city to surrender, but the garrison being well prepared 
to repel any attack, refused to comply, and the Scottish 
leader withdrew his troops, without commencing hos- 

Edwai-d I., after his victory at Falkirk, iu 1298, 
came with his army to Carlisle, and is said to have held 
a parliament there on the 5 th of September. Two 
years later we find him again here, on his route to 

e Dr. Todd's MS. 



Scotland, wlieii he was attended by his army and the 
flower of the EngHsh nobility. But the mediation of tho 
Pope brought about a truce between Edward and the Scot- 
tish monarch, the former of whom, after having passed 
the border, returned to Holme Cultram, and continued 
there and at Carlisle till the 10th of October. He sub- 
sequently went to Dumfries, whore tho truce was con- 
cluded, on tho 30th of the same month, and arrived at 
Carlisle again, on his way to the south, on the 3rd of 
November. The revolt of Bruce, in 1305, recom- 
menced war between tho two countries. Tho king of 
England appointed Carlisle as the place of rendezvous 
for his array, which was summoned to assemble at 
midsummer, 1 300. I'jdward, with his queen and court, 
arrived on the 2Sth of August, and remained till the 
10th of September, when ho made a short excursion 
into Northumberland, returning to Carlisle in October. 
His health being in a declining state, from the united 
effects of disease and advancing years, ho moved slowly 
about the Scottish border, and passed a great portion 
of his time at Lanorcost priory, making, however, in 
the mean time a short excursion to Carlisle. In Janu- 
ary, 1307, a parliament met here. On the first of 
the following JIarch the king removed to Kirk Cam- 
beck, and on the Ith, accompanied by the queen and 
court, paid a visit to the Bishop of Carlisle, at Lmstock 
Castle, where he remained for six days, enjoying tho 
hospitality of the prelate, returning to Carlisle to meet 
his parliament on the 12th. This parliament consisted 
of Edward, Prince of Wales, the legate of the Holy See, 
the Archbishop of York, nineteen bishops, several 
mitred abbots, tho officers of state, and a large number 
(if tho most powerful barons of the kingdom. During 
its sittings an e.^communication was fulminated against 
llobert Bruce, by Peter of Spain, the papal legate, 
assisted by the other bishops, with all tho ceremonies 
usual on such occasions.' Tlie army having assembled 
at tho timo and place appointed, Edward celebrated his birth-day, in tho ancient city, and on the 2f>th of 
June, set out on his march towards Scotland. The 
exertion of sitting on hoi-seback, however, proved too 
much for tho aged monarch, he having heretofore been 
carried in a litter, and he was obliged to halt at Cald- 
cote, in the neighbourhood of Carlisle. On the foUowin" 
day, believing himself better, he resumed his journey, 
and proceeding by slow marches, on the Sth of July 
reached Burgh-onSands, where ho expired two days 
afterwards. A messenger was immediately despatched 
to convey tho tidings to prince Edward, who arrived at 
Carlisle on tho next day, and was at once acknowledged 

' The papal bull antliorising this, is dated May the 18lh, 1308 ; it 
13 groonded ou the murder of Comyn, in n cliurib. 

king by the assembled prelates and nobles. He then 
proceeded to Burgh, to assist at the obsequies which 
were performed for the repose of the late monarch's 
soul, and shortly afterwards, abandoning the war with 
the Scots, returned to the south, passing through Car- 
lisle in September. 

In 131-1, Robert Bruce invaded England by Carlisle, 
and wasted all the country as far as York.' In the fol- 
lowing year, he again entered Cumberland, and on the 
29nd of July appeared before Carlisle, which he at once 
invested, little expecting the determined resistance 
which he met with from the garrison and its brave 
commander, Andrew de Hercla. " On every day of the 
siege," says the Chronicle of Lanercost, " an attack was 
made on some one of the three gates of the city, and 
sometimes all three together; but not with impunity, 
for daits, arrows, and stones, as well then as at other 
times, were cast down upon them from the walls in so 
great an abundance, that they questioned among them- 
selves whether the stones did not increase and mul- 
tiply within the walls. But on the fifth day of the 
siege, they erected an engine for carting stones near the 
church of the Holy Trinity, where the king had placed 
himself, and continually threw great stones towards the 
Caldcw-gate, and at the wall, but did no injury, or but 
little to those within, except that they killed one man. 
There were indeed within the city, seven or eight simi- 
lar engines with other warlike instruments, called 
springaldes, for throwing long darts ; and slings in 
sticks, for casting stones, which greatly terrified and 
annoyed those who were without the city. In the 
meanwhile the Scots erected a great berefray, in the 
manner df a tower, the height of which considerably 
exceeded that of the walls ; which, being observed, the 
carpenters of the city erected a wooden tower, which 
exceeded the height of the other, upon one of the towers 
of the wall towards which that engine must have come, 
if it had approached tho waU : but it never drew near 
to the wall, for when it was drawn upon wheels over 
moist and claj'ey ground, there it stuck, by reason of 
its weight, nor could it be drawn any further, or occa- 
sion any inconvenience. But tlie Scots applied many 
long ladders, which they had brought with them, for the 
purpose of ascending tho wall in the same manner in 
different places, and a sow for undermining the wall of 
the city, if they found it practicable ; but neither the 
sow nor the ladders availed anything. They also made 
bundles of straw and grass in great abundance, to fill 
up the moat without tho wall, on the cast side, in order 
to pass over it dry ; they also made long wooden bridges 

• The Chronicle of Englimd, by John Capgrave, London, 1858, p. 181. 



running on wheels, that being drawn forcibly and rapidly 
with cords, they might be carried across the ditch ; but 
neither would the bundles, during the whole stay of tlie 
Scots there, fill up the moat, nor those bridges pass the 
ditch, but fell by their weight to the bottom. On the 
ninth day of the siege, ^Yhon all the engines were ready, 
they made a general assault on all the gates of the 
town, and attacked valiantly throughout the whole 
circuit of the walls, and the citizens defended them- 
selves as valiantly; and in like manner ou the following 
days. Moreover the Scots employed a stratagem similar 
to that by which they took the castle of Edinburgh : 
they caused the greater part of their army to make an 
assault on the eastern part of the city, against the place 
of the Friars Minors, that they might draw thither the 
party within ; but the Lord James Douglas, a valiant 
and wary soldier, with certain of the more bold and alert 
of the army, posted themselves on the western side, over 
against the place of the Canons and Preaching Friars, 
where, ou account of the height [of the walls] and diffi- 
culty, an attack was not apprehended, and there erected 
long ladders, which they ascended, and they had archers 
in great numbers, who discharged their arrows thickly, 
lest any one should raise his head above the wall ; but, 
blessed be the Lord, they found such a resistance there 
that they were thrown to the ground with their ladders, 
and there, and elsewhere about the walls, some were 
taken, some slain, and others wounded. Yet no English- 
man was killed during the whole siege, except one man 
struck with an aiTow, and the one above-mentioned, but 
a few were wounded. Thereupon, on the eleventh day, 
that is to say, on the feast of St. Peter ad Yincula 
(August 1st), the Scots, cither because they heard of the 
approach of the Enghsh to raise the siege, or because 
they despaired of making any further progress, early in 
the morning returned into their own land, in confusion, 
leaving behind them all their warlike engines above 
mentioned. Certain English pursuing them, took John 
de Moray, who, in the before mentioned battle at Stri- 
veUan, had for his share twenty-three Enghsh luiights, 
besides esquires and others of lower rank, and received 
a great sum for their ransom. They took also with the 
aforesaid John, the Lord Robert ]3ardolf, a man cer- 
tainly of the very worst disposition towards the English, 
and brought them both to the castle of Carlisle." This 
extract from the chronicle will give an insight into the 
manner in which sieges were carried on in those days. 

In 132'^, Andrew de Hercla, governor of Carlisle, 
having vanquished the Duke of Lancaster and his 
adherents at Boroughbridge, was rewarded for his ser- 
vices by the earldom of Carlisle and the wardenship of 
the Western Marches. The same vear, Edward 11. 

assembled a numerous army for the invasion of Scot- 
land, infoi'raation of which coming to the ear of Bruce, 
he entered England near Carlisle, and burnt Rose 
Castle, plundered the Abbey of Holme Cultram, and 
laying waste the sun-ounding country, proceeded through 
Copeland as far as Preston, carrying destruction whither- 
soever he went. He returned with great booty, and 
encamped in the neighbourhood of Carlisle for five days, 
during which time the Scottish troops were constantly 
engaged in plundering. "Whereupon," says Nicholson 
and Burn, "Andrew de Hercla, concluding that King 
Edward neither knew how to govern nor defend his 
kingdom, and fearing that he would in the end lose it, 
did, ou the 3rd of January, privately repair to King 
Fiobert, at Loehmaben, and there they mutually agreed 
to assist and succour each other with all their might. 
And it was further agreed, that if the king of England 
should within one year approve thereof, that then King 
Robert should cause one monastery to be built in Scot- 
land, and endowed with 500 marks of yearly revenue 
for ever, to pray for the souls of all those that had 
perished in the wars between England and Scotland ; 
and should pay 4000 marks of silver to the king of 
England within ten years : and that the king of Eng- 
land should have the prince of Scotland and marry him 
to a relation. The earl returning to CarUsle, sum- 
moned all the chief of the county, as well clergy as 
laity, and there, more out of fear than love, they aU 
swore that they would keep and defend the said con- 
vention with their whole power. And all the common 
people were much pleased therewith, hoping they might 
now live peaceably at home. But an account of all 
these proceedings being carried to King Edward, he 
was greatly surprised and troubled at it ; and publicly 
proclaiming the earl a traitor, sent to Anthony Lord 
Lucy to apprehend him, promising that he and his 
assistants should be well rewarded. Whereupon the 
Lord Lucy, having his squires and other men properly 
dispersed here and there upon various pretended causes, 
on the morrow of St. Matthias the Apostle (February 
25 th), he and they entered the castle of Carlisle, where 
the earl was, as upon common business. With Lord 
Lucy were three stout and daring knights, Sir Hugh de 
Lowther, Sir Richard de Denton, and Sir Hugh de 
Moriceby, with four squires, all well armed. And as 
they entered the castle they carefully left a guard at 
every gate. The Lord Lucy, with his three knights, 
went through the great hall to the place where the earl 
was sitting, and thus accosted him, — 'Sir, you must 
either surrender or defend yourself instantly.' Upon 
which he submitted. Then some of his servants calling 
out treason, the keeper of the inner gate would have 



shut it upon the knights thut had entered, but Sir 
Richard de Denton killed him with his own hand, and 
this was the only person that was slain in the wliole 
affair. But all that were in the castle surrendered 
themselves and it to Lord Lucy. Rut some of the 
family repaired with all speed to High-head Castle, to 
acquaint his brother John therewith, \Yho immediately 
fled into Scotlatid, and with him Sir William Blount 
and many others. A special message being despatched ' 
to King Edward at York, to acquaint him with all that 
was done, and to know his pleasure ; the earl, in the 
meantime, apprehending what would be the consequence, 
confessed himself to several monks, who gave him abso- 
lution, and assured him of eternal happiness. On the 
feast of St. Chad (March 2nd), six days after the seizing 
of the said earl, an armed force, with Sir Jeffrey de 
Scrope, chief justiciar, arrived at Carlisle, who, the next 
day, tried and sentenced the siiid earl to be degraded, 
hanged, and quartered. After the pronouncing which 
sentence, the earl said, ' You have disposed of my body 
at your pleasure, but my soul I give to God.' And 
then, with an unchangeable countenance and uplifted 
hands and eyes, he was carried to the gallows and 
executed, having first fully explained the intention of 
the treaty." ' 

J Histor)' of Cumberland find Westmoreland, vol. ii, pp. 2^0, 231. 
The jiulgment was in auhslimce as follows: — Whereas our lord the 
king, on iiceount of the loyalty which he thovight he had obser^*cd 
in you, Andrew de Herein, made you earl of Carlisle, and with his 
own hand girded you with the sword, and gave you n fee of the 
county, with entitle-, to\7ns, lands, and tenements, to support the 
estate of nn earl ; and yet you have traitorously, falsely, and mali- 
ciously gone to Robert Uniro to maintain him in opposition to the 
will of tlie king, lliis court duih award that you shall be degraded, 
and lose the title of earl fur yourself aiul your heirs for ever ; and 
that you shall be ungirded of your sword, and that your spurs of 
gold shall be struck off from your heels. And whereas you, Andrew, 
the liegeman of our lord the king, contrary to your homage, faith, 
and allegiance, have traitorously gone to Robert Hruce, the mortal 
enemy of our lord the king,&e., this court doth award llial for the same 
treason you shall be drawn, hanged, and beheaded : that your heart, 
bowels, and entrails, from which these traitorous thoughts proceeded, 
shall be plucked out and burnt to ashes, and the ashes be scat- 
tered in the wind; and that your body shall lie divided into four 
quarters and sent to Newcastle, Carlisle, York, and Shrewsbury, and 
your head shall be placed on London Bridge for an example, that 
others may Icani not to commit such treasons against tlieir liege- 
lord.— /ij/ni. ilOiP, Pari, n'rils, ii. app. 202. 

The following arcount of this affair is given by Capgrave: — " In 
this same yere Andrew Hcrcle, whecli took Thomas of Lancastir, 
and broulo biin to the kyng, and whom the kyng had rewarded 
gretely, and mad erl of C'arlyle, ros ageyn the Spenseres. And 
itbanne he say it myte not availe, lliic were so wallid with the kyngis 
grace, he rebelled openly, and drew to tlic Srottis, and favoured her 
p»n ageyn the kyng. Theime was there a nobil knyle in that cunlre, 
cleped Sir Anihony Lucy. lie, supposing to .stand the better in the 
kyngis grace, sodeynly fel upon this tyrant at Karlhil, took him, put 
him ill yrunnes, and brout him to London to the kyng, and tliere 
was lie scliaincfully deposed of allc worchip, aud deed as a Ire- 
tourc."— C/irunic/* <)/ England, p. 191. 


As some reward for his services in arresting Hercla, 
Lord Lucy appears to have been appointed governor of 
Carlisle, for we find that in 1.327 the lords Urford and 
Mowbray were sent to that city with a reinforcement 
to the governor, Anthony Lord Lucy. He does not, 
however, seem to have held that important post for any 
lengthened period; for, in 1332, when Edward Baliol 
sought protection here after his unsuccessful attempt 
to obtain the Scottish crown, he was entertained by 
Lord Dacre, who appears to have been governor at that 

In 1334, Edward Baliol and the earls of Warwick 
and O.xford were sent to Carlisle by Edward lET., who 
was then in Scotland, with instructions to defend Cum- 
berland against the Scots. Shortly after their arrival 
in the city, their force having received several additions, 
they made an incursion into Scotland under the leader- 
ship of Baliol, and then returned to Carlisle. On the 
11th of July in the following year, another expedition, 
headed by the king in person, marched from Carlisle 
against the Scots, who three years later retaliated by 
making an irruption into Cumberland aud attacking 
Carlisle, but being unable to make any impression upon 
the city, they burnt the suburbs, and the hospital of 
St. Nicholas, as well as Rose Castle. Li 1345, how- 
ever, they were more successful, and the city itself was 
given to the flames. From this date we find no further 
notice of CarHsle till 1356, in which year Bishop Wel- 
ton granted an indulgence of forty days, upon the usual 
conditions, to all those who should contribute to the 
repairs of the bridge over the Eden to the north of the 
city. On the demise of Edward III., in 1377, 
Richard II. succeeded to the English throne ; and in 
the third year of his reign " the Scots," says Dr. Todd, 
" invaded Cumberland and Westmoreland, killing aU 
they met, and miserably laying waste the whole country. 
They passed by the city of Carlisle, going through the 
forest of Inglewood, where they seized four thousand 
head of cattle and sent them to Scotland, with a small 
party to secure them. They came to Peiu'itli on the 
market-day, and killed many of the people, putting the 
rest to flight, and spoiling the town of all goods which 
they were able to carry away. In their return they 
designed to have made an attack upon Carlisle, but 
finding it well manned aud provided, they durst not 
attempt it, which some of the cliief archers perceiving, 
made a sally upon them, and by their bows and arrows 
killed many of them. The Earl of Northumberland 
would have pursued them, but the king would not suffer 
him, though he had lost a thousand marks by the rapine 
and fury of the invaders. About two years after, as 
soou as they had eaten their stolen provisions, the Scots 



again invade Cumberland, bum part of Penrith, lay 
•siege to Carlisle, and throw fire into it, which consumes 
to ashes one whole street ; and tliey had in all proba- 
bility taken the city, but that they were frightened 
away in a miraculous manner, as is reported, which 
was thus : — When they had put the citizens to great 
consternation, and were ready to make an assault, there 
appeared a woman to them, and told them that the king 
of England with a puissant army was coming upon 
them. They, looking about, saw the English banner, 
and a vast array advancing towards them, as they sup- 
posed, whereupon tliey left their ladders and engines at 
the walls, and took to their heels for security, never 
looking behind them till they came into tbeii' own 
country. This woman was then supposed to be the 
Blessed Virgin, the patroness of the city, who had upon 
these occasions often appeared to the citizens and 
inhabitants, as Henry Knighton is of opinion ; and 
such religious esteem has been had towards the Blessed 
Virgin, that her impress with our Saviour in her arms, 
is the public seal of the Corporation to this day." In 
1385, the same enemy, in conjunction with some French 
auxiliaries, invaded Cumberland, when another fniitless 
attempt was made upon Carlisle ; and in 1 387 the city 
was again attacked by the Soots under the Earls of 
Douglas and Fife, but with a similar result. " In 
1391," says the writer just quoted, " this city was 
burnt by misfortune, whereupon the king (Richard II.) 
moved with compassion, gave to the citizens i£40 fee 
farm-rent, and a mill for four years, to repair in part 
the damages which they had sustained. After the poor 
and unfortunate city was burnt and laid in ashes so 
many times by the fury of the Scots and by casualty, 
as has been seen, it was able to recover itself from many 
desolations; and even at this day the scars of those 
dreadful wounds arc yet apparent, for the town is so 
tliin and empty of inhabitants that it looks like a 
country village well walled about rather tlian a city 
■which can boast of so many royal favours and immuni- 
ties bestowed upon it ; and these devastations which it 
has suffered, are not only attested by our historians, 
but also demonstratively evident now-a-days by the 
several pavements which are discovered in digging 
wells, one above another, which are nothing but the 
ancient streets, buried in vast heaps of rubbish, at the 
several conflagrations that the town has suifered." 

During the civil wars between the houses of York 
and Lancaster, the city is said to have been " miserably 
harrassed," but we have no recorded particulars of that 
period with the exception of an act of parliament passed 
in 1161, in which it is stated that " Carlisle had suffered 
greatly in the late civil wars when besieged by the 

King's enemies, Margaret (the late Queen), Edward 
(late Prince of Wales), and Henry Duke of Exeter, 
when they burnt the suburbs and the city gates.'' In 
consideration of what the citizens had suffered on this 
occasion, Edward IV. remitted one half of their fee-form 
rent of £80, and granted to them the lordship of the 
royal fisheries at Carlisle. By another act passed in 
the twenty -second year of the reign of the same monarch, 
it was enacted that no English goods were to be sold 
to the Scots at any other places than Carlisle and 
Berwick-upon-Tweed, under pain of forfeiture. 

For the next forty years we hear no more of the 
ancient city. In 1522, however, the Duke of Albany, 
at that time regent of Scotland, entered Cumberland at 
the head of a large army, and advanced towai'ds Car- 
lisle ; but finding the city well prepared to sustain a 
lengthened siege, he withdrew his forces without at- 
tempting anything of importance. In 1537 broke out 
the Northern Rebellion, or, as it is more generally 
called, the POgrimagc of Grace, which soon spread over 
tlie northern counties ; and we are informed that 8,000 
men, under Musgrave, Tilby, and others, attacked 
Carlisle without effect, being repulsed by the gar- 
rison and citizens. The Duke of Norfolk, who com- 
manded the royal forces sent agamst the insurgents, 
intercepted them on their retreat from Carlisle. All 
the leaders, with the exception of Musgrave, were cap- 
tured, and seventy-four officers expiated with their blood 
their too ardent attachment to the faith and practices 
of the old religion, — being hung on the walls of the 
city. The same year Cuthbert Tunstal, bishop of 
Durham, and the Bishop of Orkney, met at Carlisle, as 
commissioners for arranging a treaty of peace between 
England and Scotland. 

Nothing farther transpires relating to Carlisle till 
1568, when Elizabeth occupied the English throne, 
and Mary of Scotland makes her appearance here as a 
prisoner. She landed at Workington on Sunday, IMay 
16th, whence she proceeded to Cockermouth, and then, 
imder the escort of Mr. Lowther and a number of the 
gentlemen of the county, she was conducted to Carhsle 
and lodged in the castle. She was followed to the city 
by the Earl of Northumberland, who was desirous of 
getting possession of her person, but the vigilant watch 
kept over Mary by Mr. Lowther prevented the accom- 
plishment of the earl's designs. When Ehzabeth was 
informed of the Scottish queen's arrival at Carlisle, she 
sent instructions to Mr. Lowther that Mary should be 
treated with the greatest respect, and commanded Lady 
Scrope, and other ladies, to repair to Carlisle and 
attend upon her. In order that Mary's conduct might 
be strictly watched and properly reported, Elizabeth 



ordered Lord Serope aud Sir Francis Knolles to pro- 
ceed to Carlisle for that purpose. 

On the 29th of Ma)', Sir Francis wrote to Elizabeth, 
giving her an account of the first interview which he 
and Lord Serope, the lord deputy, had with the captive 
queen. In this letter he describes Mary's great dis- 
satisfaction at not being admitted into the presence of 
Elizabeth, and recommends to the lattor's consideration 
■whether it would not be more honourable in the sight 
of foreign princes, and of her own subjects, to suffer 
the Queen of Scotland to return to her own country, if 
she thought proper. Alluding to the possibility of her 
being still longer detained a prisoner, he remarks, 
" She cannot be kept so rigorously as a prysener with 
your hyghness honor (in myn opynyon) but that with 
devyces of towels or toys at her chamber wj'ndow or 
elsewhere in the nyght, a bodye of her agylyty and 
spyryte may escape beyng so near the border." It 
having been resolved to detain Mary as a prisoner, 
Sir Francis was appointed her keeper, an office which 
he by no means relished, though he appears to have 
fulfilled the disagreeable task imposed upon him with 
the utmost fidelity. In a letter dated June the loth, he 
recommends Naworth Castle as a much more secure 
place for her residence than Carlisle. He also, in the 
same letter, assures Elizabeth that every precaution 
should be taken for Mary's safe custody, though he 
seems to think that escape was possible, considering 
the small number of guards he had at his disposal, 
and that appearance of liberty which it was deemed 
advisable to allow her. We gather from the same 
letter that it was to keep up this semblance of liberty 
that the Scottish queen was allowed to attend service 
at the cathedral church, ^^'ith respect to air and 
€.\ercise shi; does not appear to have had much indul- 
gence, as wo learn from the letter just mentioned, in 
which Sir Francis says, " Yesterday hyr grace went 
owte at a posterne to walke on a playinge green toward 
Skotlaiul, and we, with 21 halberders of Master Head's 
band, with divers gentlemen and other servants waited 
ou hyr. Where about twenty of her retinue played 
at footeball bcforo hyr the space of two bowers very 
Htronglye, nymbyley, and skyllfidlye, without any fowle 
play oH'cred, the stualness of theyr balls occasyouyng 
theyr fayre playe. And bcforo yestordayo since our 
comyng she went but twysc out of the towne, once to 
the lyke playo at footeball in the same place, and once 
roode cute a hunting the hare, she gallopyng so fast 
upon every occasyon, and hyr hoolc retinue being so 
well horsyd, that we upon e.xperyenco thereolT, dowblyng 
tliat upon a set cowrso some of her frendes owte of 
Skotlaud myghto invade aud assaulte us upon the 

sodayne to reskue and take hyr from us, we mean here- 
after yff any sotche rydyng pastymes be reqwyred that 
waye, so motche to feare the indangeryng of her per- 
son by some sodayue invasyon of her enemyes, that she 
must hold us excused in that behalfe." 

Elizabeth, it appears, was most anxious to learn what 
kind of person the Scottish queen was, for in reply to 
some inquiries concerning Mary, Sir Francis observes, 
" This Ladie and Prynces is a notable woman, she 
seemeth to regard no ceremonious honour beside the 
acknowledgyng of hyr estate royallc, she shoethc a 
disposition to speak motche, to be bold, to be pleasant, 
and to be very famelyare ; she shoethe a great desyre 
to be avenged of hyr enemyes : she shoethe a rediness 
to expose hyrself to all perylls in lioopc of victorie ; she 
delythethe motche to hear of hardiness and valeancye, 
commendyng by name all approved hardye men of hyr 
countrye, althoe they be hjT enemyes, and she con- 
cealeth no cowardness." With regard to her attendants, 
and how they were disposed, Su: Francis tells us, that 
she had about thirty or forty servants, including gen- 
tlemen servers aud waiters, carvers and cupbearers ; but 
not more than three or four of these had lodgings in 
the castle. The lords Claude and Skading, and young 
Mr. Maxwell, with several other gentlemen aud then: 
servants, lay in the city at theur own expense, and 
waited upon the queen when opportunity offered. Lord 
Herries, who had gone to London to try and obtain for 
Mary an interview with Elizabeth, shortly after this 
returned to Carlisle, his efforts having proved unavail- 
ing. An order subsequently arrived for her removal to 
the south, which Mary resisted as long as she could, but 
was ultimately obliged to comply with, and after a resi- 
dence of two months in Carlisle, the Scottish queen left 
the ancient city, which she was destined to behold no 
more. She was removed on the i:ith of July to Lowther, 
whence she was taken to Bolton Castle in Yorkshire. 

Fears being entertained for the safety of Carlisle 
during the rebeUion of the Earis of Nurthumberiand 
and Westmoreland, in 156!), Lord Serope, warden of the 
western marches, occupied the city, but this precaution 
was needless, as the forces of the earls did not advance 
beyond Naworth, where they dispersed. In 1590, 
William Armstrong, or " lunmout Willie," a noted 
borderer, was taken prisoner on the marches, and car- 
ried to Carlisle, although it was a day of truce upon the 
borders. When the knowledge of Willie's capture came 
to the ears of Lord Buccleugh, who at that time bad 
chai-ge of Liddesdale, he at once applied to Lord Serope, 
the English warden of the western marches for the bor- 
derer's release, but his application being refused, he 
at once formed the resolution of rescuing his countiyman. 



Coming to Carlisle during the night with a party of 
200 men, he made a breach in the city wall sufficient 
to admit a few men, who, by breaking open a postern 
gate soon let in the remainder, and before the gariisou 
was prepared for resistance, Armstrong, whose place of 
confinement was previously known, was released and 
carried off in triumph. The boldness of the Scots in 
thus surprising an English fortress is said to have 
highly incensed Queen Elizabeth, and to have en- 
dangered the peace of the two kingdoms. When 
Buccleugh was afterwards presented to the English 
sovereign, tradition tells us that, in a peremptory way, 
she demanded how he dared to undertake an euteqmse 
so desperate; and the undaunted chieftain's answer 
was, " What is it that a man dares not do ? " A reply 
■which so struck the queen that she exclaimed, " With 
ten thousand such men our brother of Scotland might 
shake the firmest throne of Europe." 

According to Ridpath, commissioners appointed to 
settle the disturbances upon the borders met at Carlisle 
in 159G. They were empowered to hear and redress 
all wrongs committed siuce the last sitting of the com- 
missioners, which took place at Berwick-upon-Tweed 
upwai-ds of nine years previously. This arduous under- 
taking found them employment for several months, 
during which time the raids of the borderers were as 
frequent as ever. The Bishop of Durham was the 
principal commissioner on the part of England, and the 
Bishop of Dunkeld on the part of Scotland. Carlisle 
suffered severely from the plague in 1598, when 1,196 
persons, or about a third of the entire population, are 
said to have died. The sick poor were not neglected 
on the occasion, upwards of £300 being collected for 
their relief. On the 19th of August of the same year, 
Christopher Robinson, a Roman Catholic priest, suffered 
death at Carlisle, with all the revolting details usual in 
cases of high treason, for having celebrated the rites of 
his religion, and performed the duties of his profession. 
He was a native of Woodside, and having studied at 
Douay aud Rheims, was ordained and sent upon the 
English mission in 1592. During his imprisonment 
before execution. Bishop Robinson, who at that period 
held the see of Carlisle, had a conference with him, 
but failed in his attempt to make him abandon his 
relioion. In 1600 an act of parliament was passed 
for the rebuilding of the two bridges over the Eden at 
the expense of the county, as they were both at that 
time in a very decayed state. 

On the accession of James VI. of Scotland to the 
English throne on the demise of Queen Elizabeth, the 
border inroads may be said to have ceased, as only one 
occurred after that event, and in 1003 the garrison of 

Carlisle was reduced. In 1G71 James I. visited the 
city, and was gladly received by the citizens, who by 
their mayor aud recorder presented him with an ad- 
dress, a gold cup valued at i:30, and a purse containing 
forty jacobuses. His majesty graciously received the 
address, and not less graciously tho cup and purse, 
lie subsequently visited the Cathedral, and having 
attended a feast given in honour of the royal visit, 
departed on the 7th of August, after a stay of three 

Scotland being in rather a disturbed state in 1639, a 
garrison of DOO soldiers was placed in Carlisle, but 
the Earl of Stafford, not deeming this number suf- 
ficient, in a letter dated May 30th, advised its being 
increased to 1500. In June of the following year, 
rumours being prevalent that a Scottish army was 
about to enter Cumberland, orders were issued to pre- 
pare the various beacons, so that they might be avail- 
able on the shortest notice : strict watch was also to bo 
kept on the threatened part of the county ; and the 
governor of Carlisle, Sir Nicholas Byron, who was 
appointed the same year, received authority to pro- 
claim martial law, should he think such a measure 
requisite. In 1 041, in pursuance of the provisions of 
a treaty made with the Scots, the garrison of Carlisle 
was disbanded, and the Parliament gave orders that 
the arms and ammunition should be cai'efuUy laid up 
till again wanted. Shortly after this date the civil 
wars commenced, and early in 1644 Montrose raised 
a small army in Cumberland. Having advanced as 
far as Dumfries, and taken possession of it, he was 
compelled by the Earl of Callander to fall back on 
Carlisle, which place, according to some accounts, was 
besieged by the latter. If this be correct, the siege 
must have been of short duration, as it is hardly men- 
tioned by any of the contemporary writers. In June 
of the same year, the royahst troops, under the com- 
mand of Sir Thomas Glenham, took possession of 
Carlisle, which, in the following October, was invested 
by General Lesley and a detachment of the Scottish 
army. Sir Thomas Glenham defended the city with 
the greatest courage, industry, and patience, being well 
supported by his devoted soldiers ; and it was only after 
a siege of nine months, during which the garrison and 
inhabitants were compelled to subsist on the flesh of 
horses, dogs, aud other animals, and when all hope was 
lost by the disastrous result of the battle of Naseby, 
that Carlisle capitulated. It was surrendered on the 
most honourable terms to Lesley on the 25th of June, 
1645, and was immediately occupied by Scottish troops, 
who continued in possession till the December of the 
following year. For three years after tliis siege we- 



learn nothing of Carlisle; but ia April, 1648, mention 
of it is again made as being captured by Sir Pliilip 
Musgrave and Sir Thomas Gleuham, who in July gave 
it up to the Duke of Hamilton, who placed in it a 
Scotch garrison, and appointed Sir William Livingstone 
governor. Shortly afterwards, when Sir Philip Mus- 
grave, with a portion of the royalist militia of Cumber- 
land, presented himself before the city, the governor 
refused to admit him. Carlisle was surrendered to 
Cromwell on the 1st of the following October, pursuant 
to treaty made some time before, between the Marquis 
of Argylc and General Monro, and at once received a 
Strong garrison, which, consisting chiefly of cavalry, 
proved of the greatest service in repressing the tur- 
bulence of the mosstroopers during the three years in 
which its efficiency was maintained. After the resto- 
ration of Charles II. to the throne of his ancestors. Sir 
Philip Musgrave, whose devotion to the royal cause was 
conspicuous on every occasion, was appointed gover- 
nor of Carlisle, and from this period the ancient city 
appears to have enjoyed comparative tranquillity, dis- 
turbed only on one occasion when the last effort was 
made to replace the Stuarts on the English throne. 

We come now to the memorable year 1745, at which 
time the population of Carlisle did not exceed 4000 
persons, almost the whole of whom dwelt within the 
■walls of the city, — the present suburbs, with the e.xcep- 
tion of a few cottages outside the gates, having no 
existence. The old castle and walls, the connecting links 
which united the Carlisle of that period to the dim ages 
of the past, and the more recent ones of Scottish warfare, 
were still standing ; and with the presence of a company 
of invalided soldiers, under the command of a governor 
who rarely, if ever, saw his troops ; and the closing of 
the gates at the boom of the evening gun, still reminded 
the citizens that they dwelt iu what was termed a gar- 
rison town. The princifial people in the city were the 
members of the ecclesiastical body, the dean and chap- 
ter, and the members of the corporation, between whom 
not the best understanding appears to have existed. In 
short, Carlisle, in 171.j, iu regard to its condition to 
sustain a siege, differed from the Carlisle of border 
history as widely as it is possible to conceive, — its im- 
portance as a frontier town liaving disappeared after 
the union of England and Scotland ; nor was there any 
reason that would justify the authorities in its being 
maintained as one. The thought of an invasion from 
Scotland no one for a moment entertained ; and hence 
the astonishment and consternation felt by the entire 
kingdom, when the news of the irruption of tho High- 
landers spread over the country. 

The appearance of a party of fifty or sixty Iliglilaud 

cavalry on Stanwi.x bank, immediately opposite to Car- 
lisle, on the afternoon of Saturday, November the 9th, 
warned the citizens that they were about to be attacked, 
and caused them to man the wall as best they could. 
The fear of injuring the country people, who were 
thronging the road on their return from market, and 
among whom the Highland party had mixed them- 
selves, prevented the garrison from opening fire, and 
thus allowed the city to be reconnoitred iu safety ; but 
when the country people had retired, a few shots were 
fired from the ten-gun battery of the castle, and the 
Highlanders at once retreated. Having been rein- 
forced, in tho afternoon, by the arrival of part of the 
Peebles division, with the artillery, the prince, with a 
portion of the army, marched down the right bank of 
the Eden, which he crossed at Peatwath, near Piockliffc, 
and proceeded the same night to Moorhouse. On the 
following day considerable reinforcements arrived, and 
the city was formally and completely invested, — one 
body, under the Duke of Perth, approaching by Stanwix ; 
another, under the Marquis of Tullibardine, by Shad- 
dongate ; and a third, commanded by the prince in 
person, by Black Hall fields and St. Nicholas. The 
fire from the castle and citadel obliged the assailants to 
retire, and the prince slept that night at Black Hall. 
The following day, Jlonday, the besiegers, much to the 
relief of the citizens, marched to Brampton, which they 
judged more favourable for repelling an attack which 
they thought IMarshal Wade was about to make upon 
them ; but as no more was heard of the marshal, and 
a few days were lost in waiting for his coming, on the 
afternoon of the 13th the Highlanders returned and 
resumed the siege, the trenches before the city being 
opened the same evening. For the defence of Carlisle 
at this time, the garrison consisted of the Cumberland 
and Westmoreland regiments of militia, two companies 
of invalids, numbering about eighty men, and a few 
volunteers, the whole being under the command of 
Colonel Durand, a brave and skilful officer, wlio was 
resolved to defend the plaed to the last, and there is 
no doubt that he would have kept his resolution had he 
been sufficiently supported by those from whom he had 
every right to expect assistance. 

On the morning of tho Ittli, Colonel Durand received 
a message from the officers of the militia regiments, iu 
which they acquainted him that having been lately 
e.xtremcly fatigued with duty, in expectation of relief 
from his majesty's forces, and it appearing that no such 
relief was now likely to be had, and not being able to do 
duty or hold out any longer, they were determined to 
capitulate. On receipt of this the commandant went at 
once to the ofiicers, and eudeavourcd, by eveiy means 



in his power, to induce them to change their resolution, 
but his efforts were fruitless. The townspeople shortly 
afterwards joined the militia officers, upon which Colonel 
Durand, Captain Gilpin, and the officers of the invalids, 
after protesting against the proposed capitulation, retired, 
with the two companies of invalids, into the castle, which 
they were resolved to defend to the last. On the morn- 
iu" of Friday, the 15th, the besiegers had pushed their 
trenches withiu eighty yards of the wall, and it appears 
intended to assault the place, and try to take it by esca- 
lade, but before anything could be effected, a white flag 
was huug out, and an offer made to treat for the surren- 
dering of the city. This proposal came from the officers 
of the militia and the inhabitants, and referred to the 
city aloue, — not embracing the castle. An express 
was at once despatched to the prince at Brampton, 
whose reply was that the castle must be surrendered 
at the same time with the city, or the proposition 
would not be entertained. In the afternoon these 
conditions were accepted on the following terms : — 
" That the town and castle, with the artilleiy and 
magazines, should be delivered up ; that the men 
should lay down their arms iu the market-place, after 
which they should have passes to go where they 
pleased, on taking oath not to carry arms against the 
House of Stuart for a twelvemonth ; that the city of 
Carlisle should retain all its privileges : that they should 
deliver up all arms, &c., and also the horses of such as 
had appeared in arms against the prince ; and that all 
deserters, particularly the soldiers that had enlisted with 
the Highlanders after the late battle at Preston Pans, 
and had fled to Carlisle, should be delivered up." 
These things being agreed to, the Duke of Perth imme- 
diately entered the city and took possession, and the 
next day proclaimed King James, attended by the mayor 
and corporation in their robes of office. The prince 
received the mayor and corporation at Brampton, where 
they presented him with the keys of the city ; and on 
Monday, the 1 Sth, the Pretender made his entry into 

The capture of the ancient city was in every respect 
a fortunate circumstance for the prince, for, in addition 
to its moral effect, it put him in possession of a number 
of cannon and a largo quantity of ammunition, besides 
mihtarv stores of various kinds ; and, what was of still 
greater importance, furnished a basis for securing his 
further advance into England, afifording a safe medium 
for keeping open his communication with Scotland, and 
a secure poiut upon which to retreat in case of a re- 
verse of fortune. The terms of the capitulation were 
honourably fulfilled, and the Highlanders appear to 
have refrained from plunder or violence. Captain John 

Hamilton was made governor of the castle, and a gar- 
rison of 100 men placed under his command ; and Sir 
John Arbuthnot, an officer in the service of the King 
of France, received the governorship of the city. These 
appointments being made, Prince Charles Edward, on 
the 22nd of November, marched out of Carlisle, at the 
head of his troops, and proceeded towards the south. 

It would be foreign to our purpose to follow the 
footsteps of the prince anil his brave followers, suffice 
it to say that after having reached Derby, it was thought 
advisable to return to Scotland as quickly as possible. 
When the news of this retrograde movement reached 
Carlisle, Governor Hamilton began to prepare for the 
worst, by seizing on the markets, fixing prices on all 
commodities, laying iu supplies, and taking everj- pre- 
caution to ensure the safety of the city, which he fully 
apprehended would have to resist the attacks of the 
king's troops. On the 19th of December, the retreating 
Highlanders entered Carlisle, and two days afterwards 
set out for Scotland, leaving a garrison in the castle, 
consisting of the Manchester Regiment, 120 strong, 
with 270 Scotch troops, and a few others, including 
four French officers. The same day, the Duke of Cum- 
berland, with his entire army, marched from Penrith, 
and on his arrival before Carlisle, proceeded at once to 
invest the city, fixing his head-quarters at Black Hall, 
as Prince Charles had done previously. 

The governor of the city. Colonel Francis Townley, 
in conjunction with Hamilton, the governor of the 
castle, resolved to do all in his power to retain Carlisle 
for the house of Stuart, or perish in the attempt. But 
his efforts were unavailing. The Duke of Cumberland, 
having received some cannon from Whitehaven, and 
being reinforced by the arrival of some Dutch troops, 
opened fire on the 2«th of December, and on the .'50th, 
two breaches having been made iu the walls, Hamilton 
proposed to surrender on being allowed the privilege 
of prisoners of war. To this proposition the duke's 
answer was that they must suiTender at discretion ; 
and the only terms he would grant was that the gar- 
rison should not be put to the sword, but referred to 
the king's pleasure. On these hard conditions the 
garrison was obhged to give up the city, which was 
immediately occupied by 1,100 infantry and 120 
cavalry, under the command of Brigadier Blight. The 
garrison, amounting to 390 officers and men, were 
made prisoners, and, after laying down their arms in 
the market place, were conveyed for security to the 
cathedral, where a strong guard was placed over them. 
On the 31st the duke entered Carlisle, and at once 
ordered the mayor and town-clerk to be arrested and 
sent to London ; but they being able to vindicate their 



conduct, were subsequeully restored to liberty. Several 
other gentlemen were also taken into custody, who 
did not fare so well. The duke took up his quarters 
in Jlr. Highmore's house, where the prince also had 
lodged, but in a few days he returned to London, 
having given the command of the army to General 
Hawley, whom he instnicted to follow the fugitives into 
Scotland. General Sir Charles Howard was appointed 
governor of Carlisle, whore a considerable garrison was 
left, and on his arrival there early in January his 
first care was to get the prisoners removed to Chester 
and Lancaster. "On the 10th of January," says Mr. 
Mounsey, " these unfortunate men left Carlisle. The 
officere were placed on horseback, their legs tied under 
the bellies of their horses, their arms pinioned so as 
to afford them barely the power of holding the bridle, 
each horse was tied to the tail of the one before it. 
The privates were on foot — each man's arms tied — 
the whole marching two abreast, fastened to a rope 
hanging between them. The governor, Hamilton, 
went first, his hoi-se led by a dragoon with a drawn 
sword ; then followed the officers, and dragoons in 
the rear. The foot were preceded by two dragoons, 
one of whom held the rope to which the prisoners 
were attached; the whole were followed by a body of 
dragoons." ' 

Governor Hamilton, Colonel Townley, and many of 
the officers of Prince Charles's anny, were conveyed to 
London, where they were tried, convicted, and suffered 
death, the heads of some of them being placed upon 
Temple l?ar, and those of others being sent to Carlisle, 
and placed over the gates there. In the latter end of 
July, a number of the prisoners were brought back to 
Carhsle, where the commission for their trial was 
opened on the I -ith of August. The total number to 
be tried amounted to 383. It having been found that 
it would be ne.\t to impossible for the judges and juries 
to try this largo number, it was, therefore, arranged 
that, with a few exceptions, the prisoners should have 
tlie option of drawing lots for selection of one out of 
every twenty to stand trial, the nineteen remaining to 
submit to transportation. These terms were accepted 
by several, and in this manner the number to be tried 
was reduced to 127, against whom bills of indictment 
were found by the grand jury. On the '.Ith of September 
the prisoners were arraigned, and of the large number 
just mentioned, very few were acquitted. Eighty-si.\ 
were sentoncod to dtath, of whom thirty-one were exe- 
cuted, two died in prison, and the remainder, with the 
exception of a few who received their jmrdon, were 
transported. At the conclusion of the assizes the 

1 Authentic account of the occupation of Carlisle in 1715, p. 175. 

judges ordered the release of those who had been 
arrested by order of the Duke of Cumberland. 

" On Saturday, the 18th October," sa3's the authority 
above quoted, '• Thomas Coppock, JIajor Macdonald, 
Kinlock Moidart, Francis Buchanan, Brand, Hender- 
son, Roper, Cameron, and Macnaughton, were taken 
from Carlisle to Gallows Hill to suffer the execution of 
their sentence. . . . Coppock is said to have read 
a sermon to the rest, and when finished to have flung 

it to the crowd, but the sheriff sei;!ed it 

After the bodies had hung a few minutes they were cut 
down, ripped open, the bowels burnt, and the heads 
severed from their bodies. The remains of Coppock 
and two others were buried on the spot ; the bodies of 
the rest were interred iu the churchyard at Carhsle. 
The heads of Major Macdonald and Kinloch Moidart 
■were placed on the Scotch-gate, where they remained 
many years. A Highland regiment, in after times, 
passing through Carlisle, is said to have been halted on 
the Sands, without the gate, in order to avoid marching 
under those revolting mementos."' On the 21st of 
October six more suffered death at Brampton, and three 
days later five others were executed at Penrith. On 
the 10th of November, Sir Archibald Primrose and two 
others suffered the extreme penalty of the law at Gal- 
lows Hill. Such was the closing scene of the rebellion 
of 1745, as far as Carlisle was concerned, but for some 
years afterwards a gairison was maintained there, and 
" watch and ward " duly and regularly kept. The nu- 
merous prisoners who had escaped the fate of their 
companions in arms were detained in captivity till late 
iu the spring of 1747, when they were sent off to the 
various seaports for transportation. From this period 
the historical proceedings of Carlisle settled down into 
mere annals, possessing little interest to engage the 

From the recital of deeds of war and violence, let 
us turn now to the records of peaceful industry, and 
see what progress the city of Carlisle has made since 
the energies of its inhabitants have been directed to 
such pursuits. The situation of the city affords every 
facility for the encouragement of manufactures, though 
we do not find any mention made of them previous to 
the year 17 17. the year of the deportation of the pri- 
soners of Prince Charles's army, except that of a manu- 
factory of fustiaus, which was established here about 
the period of the Restoration. In 1717 some Ham- 
burgh merchants commenced the manufacture of wol- 
leus in the city, but alter a few years, on the death 
of tlie leading partner, the concern was mismanaged, 
and soon ceased to exist. A few years afterwards an 

* .\uthcnlic account, pp. 203, 2G1. 



establishment for niakiug coarse linens, and a new 
■n-oolleu manufactory were commenced, but with the like 
unsuccessful results. Shortly after this a public brewery 
is first mentioned. The cotton trade was subscqueutly 
introduced, and with the best results ; the number of 
hands reciuired for this branch of trade and the linen 
manufacture, which vras equally successful, adding con- 
siderably to the population of the city and neighbour- 
hood. Nor did the good effect produced end here. 
Many of the old houses were taken down and rebuilt 
in a superior style, the means of access to the city 
much improved, and gi'eater facilities for traffic given 
to every one. In 1758 several hundred French pri- 
soners were brought to Carlisle on parole, and by their 
expenditure in the city added considerably to its trade. 
We are also told that they introduced a more expensive 
style of living amongst the inhabitants. According to 
Jefferson, there were at this time only four private car- 
riages in the city ; and he gives the names of their 
owners : he adds that " about this period chaises were 
first kept at the inns." In 1701 calico printing was 
introduced by a Newcastle company, Scott, Laird, & Co. 
Cotton-spinning soon followed, and has continued to 
extend to our own days, affording emjiloymeut to great 
numbers of the inhabitants. Iron and brass founding, 
and other branches of industry, were subsequently 
commenced. Power-looms have been recently intro- 
duced on a large scale. There are numerous cotton- 
mills ; and one belonging to the I\Iessrs. Dixon, by 
its extent, rivals some of the largest in Lancashire. 
The woollen manufacture is again " looking up," two 
lai-ge factories havuig lately been established. Carlisle 
is likewise noted for its extensive biscuit manufactories. 
One firm has obtained the royal appointment, and 
exports its goods to all parts of the world. Steady 
increase in material prosperity has been the charac- 
teristic of the city for a lengthened period ; and 
the last ten years have witnessed great and impor- 
tant changes for the better in the old border city, — 
changes and improvements which are well described 
in the subjoined extract from the "CarUsle Examiner" 
of Tuesday, August 11th, 1857, and which, without 
further preface, we present to the reader : — 

" There are few towns in England that have made 
more rapid strides in social and material advancement 
than Carlisle. In a single decade the face of the town 
has been almost entirely- changed. Ten years ago green 
pastures basked in the sunshine and waved in the wind 
where now a city's population has taken up its abode, 
or pursues its ceaseless industry. Streets of houses, of 
massive form, with all the conveniences that modern 
art can suggest — with little gardens decked in the 

lovely hues of summer — have sprung up as residences 
for the merchant, the manufacturer, and the tradesman. 
Streets of houses, too, have been erected for the work- 
ing man, in lieu of dingy alloys, creaking garrets, and 
fever-stricken yards. The clerk, the mechanic, and 
even the labourer, has had his dwelling improved, and 
now enjoys the freshness of the fields and the recreation 
derived from the cultivation of his little plot of garden 

" Ten years ago, this very summer, was begun one 
of the grandest works of which Carlisle can boast. 
Then was formed that deep basin on the top of Gallows 
Hill -which has since continued to pour its cleansing 
streams of water, received from a source a mile distant, 
into the heart of our city, and thence pursuing its di- 
rected course to the farthest extremity. Before the lapse 
of many months the same city will have raised a stately 
monument to the memory of the man who, amongst 
other important public works, took the foremost part 
in providing for his fellow-townsmen one of the greatest 
benefits to a community — an abundant supply of water. 
But that supply, ample as it then was to rueet all the 
wants of the town, became insufficient for the increased 
demand ; and only during last spring, exactly ten years 
after the water works company commenced their ope- 
rations, it was found necessai-y to lay down pipes of 
enlarged diameter to carry a more dense body of water 
through the streets. 

" Ten years ago another great boon was conferred 
upon the city by the establishment of the gas works. 
Previous to that time the town was indifferently lighted 
by a private company carrying on business at the head 
of Brown's Row — on the ground now spanned by the 
railway arch at the south end of the Citadel Station. 
To say nothing of the reduction that was made in the 
rates charged upon consumers of gas, the facilities 
offered by the corporation, when the old company broke 
up and the new works were built under their direction, 
the benefits to private consumers and to the town 
especially, were most important. Since then the town 
has been well lighted on the ^^ aole ; shopkeepers can 
afford to place flaming lights in their windows, and 
nearly the whole of tlie cottage property that has since 
been built is provided with gas. The dim light of a 
halfpenny candle is superseded by a flame that illumines 
the whole house, and at a much cheaper rate. The 
gas works themselves possess all the modern improve- 
ments for the manufacture of this indispensable 
element — certainly one of the most useful and impor- 
tant which the civilisation of the nineteenth century 
has produced. Originally provided with two large 
tanks, the town was well supplied with gas; but, as in 



the instance of the water works, these were in time 
found to be insufficient to meet the growing con- 
sumption, and two or three years ago, it was found 
necessary to lay down another gasometer capable of 
holding double the (]uantity of each of the others. 
But in addition to the benefit accruing from the forma- 
tion of the gas works by the Corporation, their erection 
gave an impetus to the building trade in their imme- 
diate locality, and laid the foundation of one of the 
greatest improvements that has yet taken place in the 
city. This is the Nelson Bridge. Previous to the 
establishment of the gas house, the only means of 
communication between the east and west sides of the 
town — that is, between Botchergate, Enghsh-street, 
Scotch-street and Castle-street, and Caldewgate, was 
over the old bridge that spanned the Caldew. This 
route is to a great extent still adopted by the inhabitants 
residing in the last-named streets, and to them, therefore, 
the opening of a new road was not of much importance. 
But to the residents of Botchei'gate, and the extensive 
population that surround it, the inconvenience attending 
so circuitous a journey was very great. The opening 
out anew and direct road from Botchergate to Caldewgate 
was a desideratum the want of which had been long 
felt, and was at length obtained by the erection of the 
Nelson Bridge. The road once formed, houses rapidly 
sprung into existence, and the new town on the western 
bank of the Caldew may be said to owe its origin to the 
huilding of the bridge. This, however, was not all 
that the gas works produced Three streets now radiate 
from the tall chimney that was called into being, where 
before there was nothing but the green fields and a 
dank reservoir to supply the gaol with water. At the 
end of one of these is the celebrated and extensive 
marble works of the Messrs. Nelson; opposite stands 
the equally well-known iiattery of the IMessrs. Carrick, 
which formerly stood on the other side of the dam 
course; in another of the streets may be heard the 
constant whir of the steam saw as it divides the lui^o 
tree or the slim plank in one of the largest saw mills 
in the country; and on the other side of the same 
street is another of those wonderful biscuit manufac- 
tories the fame of whose productions has been wafted 
across the sea to the ends of the earth. Two thoron"li- 


fares diverge from the west end of Nelson Bridge. 
One leads to the little colony founded by the Cumberland 
Land Society on the Denton llolmo property, and to 
the extensive and celebrated beetling works of ^Icssi-s. 
Ferguson Brothers; while it also furnishes a con- 
venient route to the Cemetery. The other road is along 
Charlotte-street, at the end of which it is intersected by 
Wilboumc-street, and the old road to the Holme Head. 


Junction-street, opened out by the Messrs. Dixon, gives 
a direct communication with the Dalston road and 
Caldewgate. In this locality several manufactories 
have been erected. During the period mentioned 
Messrs. Dixon have laid alongside their great factory 
a commodious building in which several hundred power- 
looms give work to a large number of our population. 
Within a few yards from the place Messrs. Joseph 
Kohinson and Co. have built a large flour mill and 
biscuit manufactory ; and close adjoining is another 
tall chimney and a power-loom shed belonging to Messrs. 
John Ferguson and Co. In the immediate vicinity 
the enterprising firm of Messrs. Nelson have erected 
works of the most novel character — being no other 
than a manufactory where, by means of steam and the 
proximity of a railway, thousands of perforated bricks 
are daily finished and transported to their destination. 

" Ten years ago, or a little more, two railways and a 
canal had their termini at Carlisle. The one railroad 
carried our citizens and their merchandise to the banks 
of coally Tyne; the other had only recently opened a 
direct route to Maryport and the west. The canal 
brought the bales of cotton for our manufacturers from 
Liverpool, our timber from Quebec and the Baltic, and 
transported the coals that came along the Newcastle line 
to Scotland and Ireland. Then was opened out one of 
the most prosperous railways in the kingdom, — the 
Lancaster and Carlisle — an " impracticable " scheme in 
its day, but its success has since bcHed the prophecy — 
and there rolled along it the traffic of the south. 
Next came another gigantic undertaking — the Cale- 
donian Railway, which forded the Esk and gave a 
direct communication to the heart of Scotland. A 
direct line was then laid down from London to 
Edinburgh and Glasgow ; into which ran the traffic of 
the north-west part of the island. The Glasgow and 
South-Western Railway next opened up another exten- 
sive district, and brought traffic to Carlisle, which 
thus found itself the centre of a net-work of railways. 
With the railways came improvements — one of the 
first of which was the clearing away of extensive 
blocks of old property. The Citadel Station reared its 
beautiful form amid the surrounding waste, and is now 
the radius of four lines of railway, and one of the 
most attractive features in the town. The canal has 
now bceu converted into a railway, and a new line 
diverges from it to tho Sohvay. 

" But to talto five years from our decade, and wliat 
do wo find '? What has been pulled down and what 
built up ? Some of tho finest streets of houses have 
risen into shape and form since then ; a first-class 
hotel stands on the site of a carrier's warehouse ; 



gentlemen's handsome villas overlook thcEJeufrom over- 
hanging banks ; manufactories have been enlarged or 
rebuilt, and one of the most extensive locomotive 
building premises iu the Idugdom is now in course of 
erection at St. Nicholas, by the Lancaster and Carlisle 
Railway Company ; chapels have been extended and 
repaired ; handsome shops greet the eye at almost 
every step ; one of the finest ecclesiastical structures 
in the country has been restored, if not to its original 
dimensions, at least to its pristine beauty ; schools 
have been erected, and the benevolence of a single 
gentlemen has sufficed to provide a home for the out- 
casts and wanderers amongst our juvenile population; 
the voluntary exertions of our citizens and neighbours 
will ere long result iu the providing of a suitable Dis- 
pensary for the relief of the sick poor ; the clay will 
this year be moulded for the bricks to be used in the 
erection of an asylum for the most helpless of God's 
creatui'es ; and already has been laid down an extensive 
system of sewerage, which daily sweeps away, in its 
underground coiu-se, the filth of thirty thousand people. 
" Over and above these multifarious works, which 
religfon, philanthropy, or the requirements of commerce 
have called forth for the comfort and accommodation, 
the protection and occupation of the living, the last 
■want of man here below has also been provided for. 
The grave has been closed that used to spread the seeds 
of disease among our popidation, and has been re-opened 
on a sunny hill far away from the din and bustle of the 
to^vn. At Spital ]\Ioor, a mile and a half from the 
centre of the city, stands the Cemetery, which public 
decency demanded for the repose of the dead, as well 
as for the protection of the living. To this place hun- 
dreds of our citizens — some bound by the tenderest 
ties and others led by admiration of the lovely land- 
scape that is unfolded to the view — take their summer 
evening ramble, rendered more pleasant and refreshing 
by the presence of rustic seats which the Burial Board 
have provided in different parts of the ground, and 
more easy of access by tlie footpath which has recently 
been made. Here are the gi-aves of the imforgotten 
dead — for they are all new, and imfurrowed with age. 
It is a temple of Nature, but the footprints of Art are 
already traceable. It has none of that soft melancholy 
■which lingers about older cemeteries — it is not shaded 
by trees, nor are its walks embowered by the majestic 
ivy or the enduring yew ; but its broad expanse is 
turned to the open sky, and the graves arc visited by 
the gentle sunshine and the refreshing shower. The 
•warble of birds is not heard in the overhanging boughs ; 
but the lark carols in the clear atmosphere above. 
There is not the mournful urn, or the storied monu- 

ment, or the sculptured bust, that arrest the eye in 
other burial-grounds ; but there is hardly a grave where 
a shrub or a llowcr is not planted to note that the hand 
of affection has been there. Simple headstones there 
ai'e too — differing in design, but having a sameness in 
the general effect, from their uniform size ; and there 
are four which may more appropriately be called monu- 
ments. One is a tapering pedestal surmounted by a 
cross, around which a wreath of evergreens is twined, 
to the memory of a loved chUd. Another, and the 
only one which has been erected some time, is dedi- 
cated to a man of genius — whose bones rest not there, 
but whose memory lives in his works, — the late Peter 
Nicholson ; a third is a square pillar, with pointed 
summit, bearing the name and age of a worthy country 
gentleman, — the late Mr. John Dalton, of Cummers- 
dale ; and the fourth, a newly-erected sti'ucture of filial 
affection, is one of the neatest little monuments in tliis 
locality. It is of Gothic style, and has a ■well-pro- 
portioned base, ^vith a slender piUar and a cross. The 
monument is in a prominent position — being at one 
corner of the Roman Cathohc ground — and has a 
striking effect. Of the two chapels and the curator's 
lodge it is sufficient to mention their general neat ap- 
pearance ; the continued absence of a chapel for the 
Roman Catholics ; and take our departure from the 
place where 

' Nature provide.s for all one common grave, 
The last retreat of the distressed and brave." 

Such is a resume of the chief improvements that 
have been effected within the boundaries of our ancient 
city during a period of only ten years." 


Twelve centuries have well nigh elapsed since St. 
Cuthbert, quitting his beloved Lindisfarne, visited Car- 
lisle, and founded there a centre of Christian worship 
and teaching. Previous, however, to his time, the city 
possessed religious institutions, and there is little doubt 
that as soon as Christianity was planted in this part of 
the country, which was about the year 400, there was a 
church erected in Carlisle ; tradition informs us that 
the site of this early church is that now occupied by 
the cathedral. During the Danish invasions, the 
religious edifices of our Saxon forefathers were com- 
pletely destroyed, and lay in ruins for four centuries ; 
nor were they restored till Saxon and Dane were alike 
brought under the yoke of the Norman conquerors of 

The foundation of Carlisle cathedral is generally 
ascribed to Rufus, the second Norman king ; but his 



premature death prevented him from completing the 
structure, a work reserved for his brother Henry I., 
who dedicated it to the Blessed Virgin in 1101, and 
attached to it a college of secular priests. Thirty 
years later Henry founded the bishopric ; and, with 
the authority of the Pope, changed the secular priests 
into a college of regular monks of the order of St. 
Augustine. " We have vciy little means of knowhig," 
says the present Bishop of London, " what was the 
extent of the .buildings of the old Norman establish- 
ment. As to the form of the church, we can make a 
tolerably good conjecture. It was built of a white 
stone, now grey with age. Its nave, with arches such 
as we find in St. Mary's parish church, and windows 
such as are in the corner between the transept and the 
nave, must have extended into the site of Mr. Gipp's 
house, nearly the whole way to Paternoster-row. The 
north transept, now entirely gone, must have a good 
deal resembled the south transept now standing ; and 
the choir probably was very short, not reaching so far 
as the present robing-room of the minor canons, that 
is, about the length of the present stalls. The con- 
ventual buildings would of course be on the south side, 
though what they were it is impossible to conjecture ; 
for, as far as I am informed, not a shigle vestige of 
them now remains, — cloisters, chapter-house, fratery, 
and prior's residence having been almost all rebuilt, it 
would appear, from the very foundation, in the fol- 
lowing age."' 

In the reign of Henry III. it was thought expedient 
to rebuild and enlarge the choir. The style of archi- 
tecture visible in the walls of the north and south 
aisles, with their windows and arcades, shows them to 
have been erected about the year 1250 ; and from the 
same data we may infer the erection of St. Catherine's 
Chapel, as well as the arch and pUlar leading into the 
north transept, and the window over the door in tin' 
south transept, to have taken place at the same period. 
How far the work of enlargement proceeded wo have 
no means of knowing ; but a tire which broke out in 
1202, and is said to have consumed many houses in 
the citv, and greatly damaged the cathedral, no doubt 
interfered materially with the rebuilding of the church, 
and prevented for some time the completion of the 
works. During the reign of Edward I. the new north 
transept wus finished, and the choir raised to tlie height 
of the triforium : the east end also was probably carried 
up to the same height. The four small windows at the 
eastern end of the aisles are also specimens of the style of 
architecture prevalent at this period. 

1 An Historical Sketch or Carlisle Callieilral. By tlie Rev. A. C. 
Tait, D.C.L., Dctui of Carlisle. London and Carlisle, 1858. 

From the time of the first Edward we hear no more 
of the cathedral of Carlisle till the episcopacy of Bishop 
Kirby, who, to secure a fund by means of which the 
rebuilding of the church might be proceeded with, ap- 
propriated for a time for this purpose the revenues of 
the churches of Sowerby and Addingham. But it was 
not till 1332 that the work prospered. Bishop Welton 
and his successor. Bishop Appleby, made every exer- 
tion to have the church finished, granting indulgences 
of forty days, upon the usual conditions, to those who 
should render aid ; and we are told that the king, the 
principal families of the neighbourhood, and the public 
treasury of Carlisle, contributed to the work. To this 
period belong the fine east window, with its nine lights; 
the graceful triforium ; the beautiful carving' of the great 
arches, with their rich tracery of leaves and flowers, and 
the decorated windows of the clerestory ; all of which 
mark the most beautiful period of Gothic architecture. 
In l-lOl Bishop Strickland commenced the rebuilding 
of the central tower, a structure not at all in harmony 
with tlic splendour of the choir ; and shortly afterwards 
some alterations were made iu the north transept. 

Little more was done to the building till near the 
beginning of the sixteenth century, when Thpmas 
Gondibour was elected prior, who at once set about 
ornamenting the details of the building, and restoring 
whatever was decayed. The beautiful tabernacle work 
of the stalls is usuiilly ascribed to him, but by some 
they are considered to be older. The grotesque paint- 
ings, at the back of the stalls, appear to have been 
executed under his direction ; and the screens of St. 
Catherine's chapel, and others of similar workmanship, 
which once enclosed the centre of the choir from tho 
stalls to the high altar, are said to have been erected 
by him. Dr. Tait says, " He probably inserted two very 
indillVroutly executed Perpendicular windows, one on 
the north, the other on the south side of the choir, for 
the purpose of admitting light to the part of the build- 
ing iu which the high altar, wc may suppose at that 
time stood. . . . And now we have come to the 
last prior, who was not unwilling, at tho bidding of 
Henry VIH. to become the first reformed dean. His 
initials, L. S., Lancelot Salkeld, you see on tho screen, 
close below the pulpit to the north side, a somewhat 
remarkable piece of workmanship, speaking, when ex- 
amined minutely, of the waning taste iu architectural 

From this time there is little to relate concemiug 
the cathedral, and wo may say it nil in a few words. 
It suffered severely from the zeal of the first 
reformers, who thought they were doing a service wheu 
they were destroying the monuments which the pie^ 



of their ancestors had raised, and which for so many 
centuries had adorned the length and breadth of the 
land. Carlisle cathedral shared the fate of other 
churches ; the monumental brasses were torn from 
the tombs, the stained glass of its windows destroyed, 
and the ornaments and images completely demolished. 
But the most serious blow was inilicted upon it by the 
orders of Cromwell during the Parliamentary wars. 
The damage done ou this occasion can never be re- 
paired. In contempt of the articles of capitulation, 
which stipulated that " no church should be defaced," 
more than two-thirds of the nave of the cathedral were 
pulled down, and the stones carried away to erect 
guardhouses, in different parts of the cit}% for the more 
effectual suppression of any feelings of attachment to 
royalty which might be supposed to linger in the 
breasts of the citizens. In 17-l.j the cathedral served 
as a prison to the imfortunate adherents of Prince 
Charles, and was much injured during the time they 
were detained there. The building having fallen into 
a very decayed state, it was found necessary to have it 
repaired, and this was done by the dean and chapter 
in 170-1. On this occasion a new groined ceiling in 
plaster was put up, hiding completely the fine old 
timber roof; the fine screens which filled the spaces 
between the piers of the choir were removed, and 
others of much inferior workmanship placed in their 
stead. In the year 1852 the dean and chapter made 
an arrangement with the Cathedral Commissioners, by 
which they agreed to convey to the latter the estates 
of the chapter, and to receive a certain fixed income, 
with a suitable provision for the support of the esta- 
blishment and the maintenance of the fabric of the 
cathedral. The Commissioners having caused a survey 
to be made by Mr. Christian, their architect, on his 
report determined to expend the sum of £15,000 upon 
the necessary repairs and improvements, including the 
purchase of the leasehold interests in two houses, the 
property of the dean and chapter, which had long been 
condemned by public opinion, as they concealed from 
view the matchless east window, and now stood in the 
way of the projected new entrance to the cathedral. 
In the autumn of 1853 the work of restoration was 
begun. The repair of the tower was the first work of 
the architect, and this was followed by the raising of 
the roof of what is left of the nave to its original height. 

In its perfect state the cathedral of Carlisle must 
have presented a noble and imposing appearance, but 
the wars of the Commonwealth swept away its glories, 
and what is now remaining gives us only an imperfect 
notion of what the structure was previous to the time of 

Cromwell. The church is at present nearly surrounded 
by lofty lime trees, and being situated on the most ele- 
vated site in the city, is seen from a great distance on 
every side. It is, like the great majority of cathedral 
churches, a cruciform structure, consisting of nave, 
transepts, choir, aisles, and central tower, and its origi- 
nal length was about 330 feet. 

The nave formerly e-^tended 135 feet from the inter- 
section of the transept, but 39 are all that now remain, 
the other 00 feet being destroyed during the civil wars. 
The original nave seems to have consisted of eight 
bays, si-x: of which have been destroyed ; the remaining 
two are in the Norman style, of a simple and massive 
character. The exterior of the nave is somewhat en- 
riched, the windows having small detached shafts inser- 
ted at their sides for the springing of the arches, which 
have the zig-zag, billet, and other usual ornaments of 
this style. The interior of the nave is massive in its 
character. The main arches are circular, with plain 
architraves springing from immense piers, whose height 
is only fourteen feet, while their circumference is more 
than seventeen. Some of the capitals have the chevron 
and bell ornament, but others of them are plain. The 
fragment of tlie nave still standing has been galleried 
and pewed, and now serves as the parish church of St. 
jMary ; the space formerly occupied by the remainder 
has been converted into a burial ground. 

The transepts, which are without aisles, are 111 feet 
long by 28 broad, and consist of three stories. The south 
transept is in the same style as the nave, and is entered 
from the abbey by a richly decorated doorway, the capi- 
tals and arch mouldings of which are profusely decorated 
with foliage and figures, carved in the most beautiful 
manner ; a gable rises over it, terminating in a cross ; 
and on each side it is supported by strong buttresses, 
canopied and decorated with finely carved crockets. In 
this transept, on the eastern side, is a chapel dedicated 
to St. Catherine, but now used as a vestry for the 
choristers. This chapel was founded at an early period 
by John de Capella, a wealthy citizen, and endowed by 
him with certain rents, lands, and burgage houses. In 
the year 1300, a portion of its revenues being fraudu- 
lently retained, Bisliop Appleby commanded the chaplain 
of St. Mary's and St. Cuthbert's to give public notice 
that the offenders were required to make restitution 
within ten days, on pain of excommunication. Its 
revenues, according to the King's Book, were valued at 
M3 2s. 8d. per annum. In this chapel is a large altar- 
tomb, ornamented on the sides with large quatrefoils, 
and supporting a figure of Bishop Barrow beneath a 
rich canopy, who, in his will, dated in 1429, bequeathed 
some plate to the cathedral, and £20 to a priest to sing 



masses in this chapel for the repose of his soul. The 
monument is well executed, and iu a tolerable state of 
preservation. On the western side of the south transept, 
about a foot from the ground, there is a Scandinavian 
Eunic inscription, which was discovered iu 1853, soon 
after the recent restorations. The runes are of a 
slender character, and some are not over well defined. 
The Rev. Mr. Maughan, of Bewcastle, has suggested 
that tho inscription might perhaps be read thus, — 
" Dolfiu [raised] this stone in sorrow for the soul of 
his son." Dr. Charlton is of opinion that the inscrip- 
tion is not sepulchral, but a simple whim of a workman, 
the siguification being, " Tolfiu made these marks on 
this stone." There is but one other Danish inscription 
known to exist in England — one recently discovered iu 
London ; and as this in Carlisle is in great danger of 
being effaced and lost, it has been suggested that some 
means be taken for its protection and preservation. 
The screens here are ancient, and contain some curious 
tracery, with the initials of Prior Gondibour. In the 
south transept is a monument, erected by subscription, 
to the memory of Ilobert Anderson, the "Cumberland 
Bard," a native of this city, and of humble birth. His 
songs in the Cumberland dialect are truthful as well 
as amusing dehneations of rustic life as it still e.\ist3 
in this county. In the Norman part of the transept 
are two wells, from the presence of which it has been 
inferred that the cathedral served in times of pressing 
danger as a place of refuge as well as of devotion. The 
north transept, in its restored state, presents a fine exam- 
ple of the Early English style. The heavy Perpendicular 
tracery of the large window of this transept has been 
removed, and its place supplied by a very fine one of 
geometrical tracery, and with the best effect. Over this 
the newly-erected gable is piurccd with a circular window 
of tho same style, which has been fitted with stained 
glass, the gift of Mr. Scott, of Carlisle. In this transept 
is tho altar-tomb of Prior Simon Senhouse, and iu tho 
west side of the same transept is a monumental win- 
dow, erected by subscription, to the memory of the 
late chancellor of the diocese, the llcv. Walter Fletcher. 
This window contains a full-length portrait of the 
deceased in the attitude of prayer. 

The choir, which is elegantly furnished for the cathe- 
dral service, is DW feet in length, 7^ feet in height, and 
< '-i feet wide, inclusive of the aisles. It consists of eight 
bays, those at the several extremities being narrower 
than tho rest, and the most easterly serving as a passage 
behind the comnuuiion table. The altar formerly stood 
two arches from the eastern i nd, and, for the purpose 
of throwing additional light upon it, had the narrow 
lancet-shaped windows in the corresponding division 

of tlie aisle displaced, on either side, by one large Per- 
pendicular window ; it was removed one pier nearer to 
the east end in the middle of the last century. The 
general style of this part of tho edifice is Early English ; 
at its junction with the transept the flat mouldings of 
the arches indicate an early period of that style, but 
towards the cast it becomes more advanced, and the last 
division, with the whole of the eastern end, is in the 
Decorated style. " The east front," says Hickman, 
" contains one of the finest, if not the finest. Decorated 
window in the kingdom. Tt is considerably decayed ; 
but its elegance of composition and delicacy of arrange- 
ment, the harmony of its parts and the easy flow of its 
lines, rank it even higher than the celebrated west 
window of York Cathedral, which it also exceeds in the 
number of divisions." This window fills up the whole 
space between two uncommonly bold buttresses, which 
rise to the ridge of the roof, where they are terminated 
with fine crocketed pinnacles ; they have niches with 
enriched canopies, which have recently been fiUed with 
statues. The whole of the accessories, including the 
shafts, mouldings, and buttresses, are very chaste and 
beautiful. The aisles at the east end have each a fine 
small window of two lights, with rich tracery, deep 
mouldings, and clustered shafts. The south aisle has 
a low parapet supported by a range of brackets, and is 
flanked by two bold buttresses, which are crowned with 
fine pinnacles. The north aisle differs from the south, 
having its parapet carried higher, and partially enriched ; 
its buttresses have no pinnacles, and do not reach to the 
parapet, but they are panuelled and have enriched 
canopies. At the north angle is a small octagonal 

The tower has an embattled parapet, with a small 
turret at its north-east angle, and previous to tho 
Ivestoration had a leaden spire. This is the latest 
portion of the building, and appears to have been 
erected about three hundred years later than the nave. 
Between two small windows in the second floor is a 
niche containing an angel bearing a shield, as a pedestal 
for a statue, but there is nothing to show that it was 
ever occupied. The tower was thoroughly repaired 
during the recent restorations. Its height to the top of 
the vane is about 130 feet. 

The interior appearance of the choir is very beautiful, 
and seldom if ever fails to excite the admiration of tho 
beholder. The heavy screens which formerly stood 
betwixt its clustered pillars have been taken away, and 
the visitor has an uuiuterrua^ view of the entire 
structure, e.xhibiting a lengf^Bed array of massive 
columns, with their high overhanging roof " stretching 
iu aisles majeslicid," termiualing in the glorious eastern 



•window, with its slender mullions and delicate flowing 
tracery. It is in very truth — 

"A dim and mighty minster of old time ! 
A temple shadowy with remembrances 
Of the majestic iiasll'' 

The main arches of the choir are equilaterally pointed, 
and have a deep architrave consisting of various mould- 
iugs, enriched with the dog-tooth ornament, and finished 
with a dripstone, whose extremities arc supported by a 
variety of heads. These arches spring from fine 
clustered piers of eight shafts, whose capitals are orna- 
mented with foliage and grotesque figures, illustrative 
of domestic and agricultural pursuits, such as sowing, 
reaping, grape gathering, and the like. At the base of 
the piers on the south side, the foundations of the 
original Norman piers of the old choir may yet be 
traced. The arches of the clerestory have a pierced 
parapet ornamented with quatrefoils. Its windows, in 
each compartment, consist of three pointed arches, the 
centre one being earned higher than the other two ; 
they are Early English windows, but are filled with 
tracery of the succeeding style, which nearly corre- 
sponds in eveiy alternate group. The two Decorated 
inndows of the clerestory in the most easterly bay of 
the choir are very curious, especially that on the north 
side, the arch of which, instead of being pointed, is 
elliptical, and its tracery is continued half way down 
the uprights. The Early Enghsh windows of the aisles 
are strangely diversified in their stylo, form, and 
arrangement ; and not less so in the manner in which 
their workmanship is e.'cecuted. The form which pre- 
vails in the north aisle is tliat of four long lancet arches 
of equal height, with rich mouldings. Of these the 
two middle ones have been pierced for windows. They 
have detached shafts, with bands and capitals between 
them, and the space between their heads is occu- 
pied by a quatrefoil panel. But there are singular 
variations from this form, and there are also some 
Decorated and Perpendicular insertions. Under these 
windows, against the wall, on both sides of the church, 
is a range of elegant small arches, with cinquefoil 
heads, and a series of deep and rich mouldings running 
round the cinquefoil, and springing from shafts which 
are generally detached, but towards the east end they 
form an integral part of the wall. Two crowned heads 
occur in the south-east corner of the building. 

The lath and plaster ceiling of the choir of 1764 
has been taken down, and the ancient and unique 
wagon-shaped ceiling, inth its azure and gold decora- 
tions is once more displayed. A manuscript of the 
arms which originally were carved on the bosses is 

preserved in the Heralds' College ; among them occur 
those of the ancient families of Percy, Warren, Mon- 
tagu, Slortimcr, Clifford, Greystokc, Beauchamp, Dacre, 
IMusgrave, Fitz Hugh, Neville, Vaux, Curwcn, Lam- 
plugb, and Lowther, all of whom, there is little doubt, 
were benefactors of the cathedral. Under the great 
east window, a little to the south, is an ancient piscina, 
which was long built up, hut has recently been restored. 
The stalls in the choir are composed of fine tabernacle 
work, supplied by Bishop Strickland, about the j-ear 
1401. They are oniamented with numerous niches, 
formerly filled with small statues, surmounted by cano- 
pies terminated with enriched pinnacles. The images 
were removed about 1649. The scats of the stalls are 
so constructed as to turn up, when they form small 
shelving seats called misereres, and exhibit knots of 
very curious carving, in a groat variety of grotesque 
designs. The door by which the choir is entered from 
the north aisle, is a fine, and the only remaining, ex- 
ample of the original screens of the choir. The upper 
part of it is filled with rich tracery, and on the lower 
panels are exhibited several profiles and other carved 
work skilfidly executed. This screen bears the initials 
of Lancelot Salkeld, the last prior and first dean of 
Carlisle. The bishop's throne is a much more recent 
production ; it is formed of oak, and though not splendid, 
is in keeping with the wainscotted screens which run 
round the more easterly part of the choir, and which 
were erected from a design furnished by Lord Camelford, 
nephew to Bishop Lyttleton, who formerly held the 
see. The whole design and appearance of the choir 
may be pronounced elegant ; but that which contributes 
most to this effect is the great east window before 
alluded to. This beautiful structure, allowed to be the 
finest iu the kingdom, consists of an equilateral pointed 
arch, divided by slender mullions into nine lights ; the 
upper portion being filled with delicate flowing tracery, 
remarkable for its elegance and graceful arrangement. 
This traceiy is filled with stained glass ; but owing to 
its great elevation and the smaUness of the figures, the 
subject depicted cannot be distinctly seen from below. 
It is thus described by Mr. Purday : — " The subject is 
the favourite one for such situations — the Last Resur- 
rection and Judgment. In the uppermost compartment 
is a sitting figure of our Saviour surrounded by angels 
bearing the crown of thorns and other emblems of the 
Passion. Lower down are angels sounding trumpets, 
while on every side the dead are seen pushing aside 
the sculptured gravestone and rising from the tomb. 
Among them may be distinguished popes, kings, bishops, 
priests, &c. Two central compartments are occupied by 
the procession of the redeemed to the New Jerusalem. 



The towers and gates of the city appear to the right 
guarded by angels ; and the river of life flows under its 
walls. In the lowest central compartment is a repre- 
sentition of the punishment of the lost." It is under- 
stood that there is in the hands of the dean and chapter 
a fund, raised by subscription, sufDcient to substitute 
stained glass of the richest character for the present 
plain gla/ing of the lower part of tliis splendid window, 
and the whole of the large window in the northern 
transept. When these improvements have been effected, 
the venerable cathedral church of Carhsle will bear a 
comparison with many of the more highly favoured 
minsters of England, and may be looked up to with no 
small feelings of pride by the natives of the ancient 
border city. A powerful organ has been placed over 
the north entrance to the choir, and has added mate- 
rially to the solemnity and impressiveness of the daily 

Among the ancient tombs in the choir and aisles of 
tlie cathedral, are two placed in low recesses in the wall 
of the north aisle, the arches of which are ornamented 
with very peculiar mouldings, in the form of the ragged 
staff. These are supposed to be the tombs of Bishop 
Wclton, who died in 13G'2, and his successor. Bishop 
Appleby, who died in i;!95. Under the next window, 
in a low arched recess, is a slab, supporting the figure 
of a bishop, now much decayed. This is said to be the 
monument of Bishop Strickland, who died in 1419. 
Speaking of this tomb, the Messrs. Lysons say, " The 
sides of the slab supporting the effigies are ornamented 
with foliage, lilie that of Bishop Kilkenny, in Ely 
Cathedral. It is much more ancient than 1419, and 
from the style of it, was probably designed for some 
bishop who died before the middle of the thirteenth 
century." This tomb, with the two just mentioned, 
having been opened, and the foliage removed, since 
1808, the period at which Lysons visited Carlisle, it is 
impossible now to .judge from its style of the accuracy 
of the deduction then made, but if it be correct, the tomb 
in question may probably be that of Bishop Halton, who 
died in lo'^l, and is said to have been buried in the 
north aisle of the cathedral. About half-way up the 
Tiorth aisle is the last restiug place of Archdeacon Taley ; 
a small brass plate let into the stone, and a small maj-blc 
slab upon the wall, bearing his name, and the date of 
his decease, are all that mark the jilace of his inter- 
ment. In the south aisle, near the vestry, in an arched 
recess, is the tomb of Sir John Skelton, Knight. In 
the middle of the choir, between the pews, tiiere is a line 
example? of the monumcntid brasses so much in use 
diu-ing the fourteenth century. It mai-ks tlie last rest- 
ing place of Bishop Bell, who, after presiding over the 

see for eighteen years, resumed the monastic habit, and 
died in the year 1490. The monument consists of a 
large slab of blue marble, on which is the representation 
in brass of a bishop, in his pontifical vestments, with a 
book in his right hand, and a crosier in his left. This 
tomb has been well preserved, but since the removal of 
the litany desk, which formerly stood at its head, it has 
been much worn, in consequence of persons walking 
over it, ami, unless some means be taken for its preser- 
vation, the inscription upon it will soon become ille- 
gible.' A small monumental brass plate, in memory of 
Bishop Henry Robinson, is preserved. He was a native 
of tliis city, and died of the plague in 1601. It is a 
finely engraved copy from the original plate in the 
chapel of Queen's CoUege, Oxford, and was presented 
to this cathedral by his brother. It is finely engraved ; 
the bishop is represented in his episcopal robes, kneel- 
ing, with one baud supporting a crosier, the other holds 
a lighted candle, and a cord, to which three dogs are 
attached, who appear guarding sheepfolds from the 
attack of wolves. Below the candle is a group of 
figures, bearing irajilemeuts of agriculture and peaceful 
industry ; near their feet is a wolf playing with a lamb, 
and various warlike instruments scattered and broken. 
Each part is illustrated with appropriate Greek and 
Latin sentences. At the bottom of the plate is a Latin 
inscription, to this effect. " To Henry Eobinsou, of 
Carlisle, D.D., a most careful provost of Queen's 
College, Oxon, and afterwards a most watchful bishop 
of this church for eighteen years, who, on the 13th 
calend of July, in the year from the delivery of the 
Virgin, 1016, and of his age, 04, devoutly resigned his 
spirit unto the Lord. Bernard Robinson, his brother and 
heir, set up this memorial as a testimony of his love.°" 
This plate was discovered in fciking down the hangings 
and ornaments of the high altar, in tlie middle of the 
last century ; it is now fi.xed in the wall of the north 
aisle of the choir. In the choir towai'ds the altar, is a 
flat stone, inscribed to the memory of the munificent 
Bishop Smith, who died in 1702 ; at the head of the 
stone is a shield charged with his armorial bearings, and 
followed by a Latin inscription. Against a pillar, be- 
hind the pulpit, is a beautiful monument, to the memory 
of Bishop Law — above the tablet is the figure of Ilehgiou 
resting upon the mitre, and supported by the cross. 
Bishops Ralph dc Irton. who died in IS'.lvi: John dc 
Kirkby, who tUcd in l:io-i ; John Best, who died in 
1570; John iley. who died in 1597, and Richaid 

> All I'ligrnving of this tomb will he foimd iii Ilutckiiiaon's Cuni- 
bcrlancl, iinil iu Cough's SepiUcbral Monumenls. 

s Tliis plaie is engraved iu Jefferson's " History of Carlisle," p. ISO. 



Senhouse, who died in 1626, were all buried in the 
cathedral, but their tombs cannot now be identified. 
There are in the transepts and other parts interesting 
monuments or tablets to the memory of the following : 
Bishop Iteming, who died in 1717 ; his son, Archdea- 
con Fleming, who died in 174'2 ; Thomas Wilson, D.D., 
fourteen years dean of the cathedral, who died in 177S; 
Sir J. D. A. (lilpin, Knt., inspector of hospitals and an 
alderman of this city, who died in 1834, and Hugh 
James, M.D., who died in lf^l7. 

On the screens behind the stalls of the choir arc a 
number of curious paintings, of great age, and rude 
execution, said to be the gift of Prior Gondibour. They 
occupy the spaces between several of the arches. Three 
of them are the legends of the saints, Anthony, Cuth- 
bert, and Augustine ; as related by the early chroniclers. 
A fourth is intended to represent the twelve apostles. 
The rhymes describing the different stages of the 
life of each saint as pictured below, are as rude as the 
paintings, and are said to have been written by Prior 
Senhouse. These paintings were long concealed by a 
covering of whitewash, which was removed by Dean 

Among the relics of antiquity yet remaining in the 
cathedral, the most remarkable is the cornu oburncum, 
or ivory horn, which is said to have been given to the 
priory in the twelfth century, instead of a written docu- 
ment, as evidence of certain grants made by Henry I. 
It was originally mounted with some precious metal, 
the whole of which has now disappeared. There are 
also two copes, used in the cathedral before the Re- 
formation. One of these is of embroidered silk, with a 
broad border of needlework, in which arc representations 
of several saints of the church ; the other is of crimson 
velvet, richly wrought with gold, and having a gold 
border. These copes are in a decayed state, and have 
been deprived of some of the ornaments with which 
they were formerly enriched. 

In addition to St. Catherine's Chapel above alluded 
to, the cathedral comprised two chantries, those of St. 
Fioch and St. Cross, the former of which was founded 
in the year 1422, by Bishop ^Yhelpdale, who, at his 
death, left the sum of £200 for the purpose of founding 
and endowing a chantry for the celebration of masses 
for the repose of the souls of Sir Thomas Skellory, Knt., 
and Mr. John Glaston, two of his intimate friends, who 
•were buried in the cathedral. Nicolson and Burn con- 
sider it probable that this was the chantry of St. Roch ; 
itsrcvenues wore valued at £3 14s. per annum. There 
was another chantry, that of St. Cross, but we possess 
no record of the date at which, or the person by whom 
it was founded. It was granted by Edward YI., with 

all messuages, lands, tenements, profits, and heredita- 
ments belonging thereto, valued at £3 lOs. per annum, 
to Henry Tanner and Thomas Bucher. 


On the foundation of the see, in 1133, Athelwald, a 
Saxon, and prior of St. jMary's, was appointed the first 
bishop. He appears to have been also prior of St. 
Oswald's, at Nostell, in Yorkshire, and the king's con- 
fessor ; and in 1136 his name occurs as a witness to a 
charter of King Stephen. The churches of Wetheral, 
Warwick, and other places, having been granted to 
the abbey of St. Mary, at York, Athelwald confirmed 
this grant, stipulating, however, that the abbot and 
convent should take care that the cure of souls in those 
places should not be neglected, but that a decent main- 
tenance should be allowed to the clergymen whom they 
were bound to provide. This prelate died in 115.'). 

Bernard, the second bishop, was consecrated in 1157, 
and in 1169 officiated at the dedication of the church 
of St^ Mary Magdalen, at Lanercost. He died in 1186, 
and the see remained vacant for thirty-two years. We 
find, however, that King John granted it in 1200 to 
the Archbishop of Sclavonia, who was succeeded in the 
following year by Alexander do Lacy ; but the next 
regular bishop was 

Hugh de Bcllo Loco, abbot of Batelc, in Sussex, who 
was elevated to the see in 1218. Two years later his 
name occurs as making grants to the abbey of St. 
Mary, at Y'ork, and to the monks of Wetheral. This 
prelate appears to have stood high in the estimation of 
his sovereign, Henry HI., who requested the Pope 
to restore the rectories of Penrith, Newcastle, Cor- 
bridge, and Wliittingham, to the see of Carlisle. He 
also appears as one of the sureties of Henry HI. 
for the due performance of engagements which that 
monarch had entered into with the King of Scotland. 
This bishop died at the abbey of La Ferte, in Bur- 
gundy, and was succeeded by 

Walter JIalclerk, who was consecrated in 122."), and 
received the temporalities of the bishopric on the 26th 
of October in the same year. In 1230 Henry III. 
granted the manor of Dalston to Walter and his suc- 
cessors, bishops of Carlisle. Two years later the same 
king, by charter, made this prelate treasurer of his 
exchequer , an office which the bishop retained but 
a short time, though he had been appointed for life. 
In 1234 he was instrumental in effecting the contract 
entered into between the king and the daughter of the 
Earl of Winchester, and subsequently we find his 
name as a witness to the great charter. In 1239 he 
was appointed catechist to Prince Edward, and in 1243 



was joined in commission with the Archbishop of York 
and William de Cantclupe as lords-justices of the realm 
in the king's absence. He held the office of sheriff of 
Cumberland for the space of ten years. In 12-10 he 
resigned his see, and became a Dominican friar at 
O.\ford, where he died in 1218. 

Silvester de Everdon, archdeacon of Chester, was 
consecrated bishop of Carlisle in 1210, ou the resig- 
nation of Walter IMalclerk, and in the following j'ear 
conlirmcd the grants of his predecessors to the abbey 
of St. Mary, at York. He was afterwards made Lord 
High Ciiancellor. In ISij:? Bishop de Everdon sup- 
ported the Archbishop of Canterbury and others in 
their opposition to the king, who wished to encroach 
upon the liberties and privileges of the church. Two 
yoare afterwards the bisliop died in consequence of a 
fall from his horse, his successor being 

Thomas Vipout, or de Veteripont, of the family of 
the carls of Westmoreland, who was consecrated in 
] 255. This bishop only held the see for a year, dying 
in 1250. 

Kobert de Cheverel, or de Chauncy, called by Leland 
the Queen's chaplain, was the next occupant of the 
see, to which he was elevated in 12.')8. He appears to 
have been for some time engaged in an unhappy con- 
troversy with the sheriff of Cumberland, although he 
himself filled the office for two years. On his demise, 
in 1278, William de Rotherfeld, dean of York, was 
nominated, but he refused the proffered elevation, and 
the prior and convent elected 

Rodolph, or Ralph de Ireton, prior of Gisborne, who 
was consecrated in 1280. This bishop, who was of a 
Cumberland family, was a firm defender of all ecclesias- 
tical rights, nor could ho be deterred from upholding 
those rights and privileges by any person, however high 
his rank or station. In 1281 he maintained a suit 
against Sir Michaol do Hercia, by which he recovered 
the manor and church of Dalston. He also sti-ovc to 
obtain the tithes of newly-cultivated lands within Ingle- 
wood Forest, which he hfld to have been granted to the 
church of Carlisle, by Henry I. " who enfeoffed the 
eamo per quoddam cornu eburneum." This suit was 
decided against the bishop, and the tithes were adjudged 
to the king, Ivlward [., who subsequently granted them 
to the prior and convent. Bishop de Ireton was called 
upon to take part in the various events which occurred in 
the country during the tinio he held the sco of Carlisle. 
Ho was joined in commission with the Bishop of Caitli- 
ness, to collect tenths within the kingdom of Scotland ; 
and in 1291 was a confidential commissioner to the 
l''.nglish monarch for adjusting tlic claims to the Scot- 
tish crown. Ho was also one of the plenipotcutiarios 

empowered to contract Prince Edward in marriage with 
(jueeu Margaret of Scotland. Ho died at Linstock, 
March the 1st, 1293, and was succeeded by 

John de Halton, canon of Carlisle, who was elected 
on the 9th of the following May. The powers granted 
to his predecessor seem to have been continued to Bishop 
de Halton, who took an active part in Scottish affairs. 
He was present when Baliol was adjudged the rightful 
claimant for the Scottish throne, in 1292, and five 
years afterwards witnessed Robert Bruce swear fealty to 
Edward at Carhsle. In 1302 Bishop Halton was ap- 
pointed governor of the castle of Carlisle, and had the 
custody of the Scottish prisoners and hostages. Three 
years afterwards his name occurs as one of the peti- 
tioners for the canonisation of Thomas de Cantelupe, 
bishop of Hereford ; and in li?07 we find him enter- 
taining the English monarch and his retinue for six 
days at Linstock Castle. Next year he was summoned 
to attend the coronation of Edward II. lu 131 4 he was 
summoned to a parliament at Westminster, but not being 
able to answer the summons, in consequence of Car- 
lisle Castle being blockaded by the Scots under Edward 
Bruce, he was obliged to request the rectors of Leving- 
tou and Brough-undcr-Stanemore, to appear for him, 
and to excuse his personal attendance on account of the 
position in which he was placed, and the troubles in 
which his diocese was involved. This prelate died in 
November, 1324, and William Ayremyn, canon of 
York was elected, but the pope appointed. 

John de Rosse, canon of Hereford, who, in 1330, 
was summoned to appear before the papal delegate, the 
prior of Durham, to answer charges preferred against 
him by the prior and convent of Carlisle, for interfering 
with their peaceable enjoyment of several churches 
appropriated to them, as likewise for his seizure of their 
rents, which he disposed of as he thought fit. This 
bishop subsequently excommunicated the prior for neg- 
lecting to pay some tenths that were in his hands. He 
died at Rose, in 1332. 

John de Ivirkeby, prior of St. ]\Iary's, Carlisle, and 
the next bishop, was invested with the tempoi-alities of 
his diocese by the king, on the 8th of May, 1332. 
This prelate, says Hutchinson, " came to his episcopacy 
in a most unhappy era, both in regard to the public 
troubles and agitations in the state, and the litigious 
and unhappy disposition of the clergy. He was con- 
tinually subject to alarms from tlie Scots, in conse- 
quence of tlio king of Engknd's unfortunate expedi- 
tious and unsuccessful arms; and, added to this, ho had 
gained the hatred and contempt of that people before 
his advancement to the see : so that, it is said, his 
ordinations were held in very distant parts of the 



kingdom, and he was frequently out of this diocese ; and to 
render his life still more distressful, he was involved in 

innumerable suits with his clergj-." Passing through 
Penrith, in the spring of 11)37, he was attacked by a 
band of ruffians, and several of his retinue were severely 
wounded. In the same year ho was not able to raise 
the tenths, in consequence of most of his clergy having 
fled from the Scots, and was obliged to certify to the 
barons of the exchequer to that effect. In October 
the Scots burnt Rose, aud devastated the surrounding 
country. In 13-11 he received .£-200 from the receiver 
of the royal funds, to pay the men whom he had in bis 
service for the safe keeping of the western marches. 
Two years later he was appointed one of the commis- 
sioners to treat with others from Scotland, to settle and 
preserve peace and commerce, aud in the following 
yeai' was required to assist Edward Baliol, king of 
Scotland, who had been appointed by Edward III. 
captain-general of all his forces in the north. In 1348 
he received instructions to convey the Princess Joan to 
her husband, she having been betrothed to Alphousus, 
king of Castile. He died in 1353, when John de Horn- 
castle, prior of Carlisle, was elected, but he was set 
aside by the pope, and the see given to 

Gilbert de Wilton, in 1353. Shortly after bis eleva- 
tion. Bishop de Wilton assembled the clergy of his dio- 
cese, for the pui-pose of obtaining a subsidy, which was 
at once granted, and amounted to 900 marks. He was 
one of the commissioners appointed by the king to treat 
for the ransom of Bang David of Scotland, and for the 
establishment of peace between the two nations. In 
1359 he was joint warden of the western marches with 
Thomas de Lucy ; and subsequently, as one of the com- 
missioners, took part in the treaties which acknow- 
ledged Da\dd as king of Scotland, aud renouuced the 
claims of the English mouarchs to the sovcreiguty of 
that country. As we leai'n from his registers, this 
bishop took great interest in the repair of public bridges, 
and the erection and adornment of churches and 
monasteries. After a life of great usefulness, he died 
in 1362. 

Thomas de Appleby, canon of Carlisle, was the next 
occupant of the see, being consecrated at Avignon, on 
the 18th of June, 1304. In 1305, he, amongst other 
prelates, took an oath in the king's presence, at West- 
minster, " to keep and observe inviolably all the articles 
of peace lately concluded and agreed upon by his majesty 
and the French king." Two years afterwards, he re- 
ceived a joint commission with Roger de Clifford, An- 
thony de Lucy, and Pialph de Daci-e, for the wai'denship 
of the western marches. In 1309, in obedience to 
the king's writ, the bishop ordered the rural dean of 

Cumberland to summon all the abbots, priors, and other 
rehgious and ecclesiastical persons, to array all the men 
capable of bearing arms, between the ages of si.'iteen and 
sixty, apprehensions being entertained of a French in- 
vasion; and in the same year he was again appointed 
to the wardenship of the western marches, in conjunc- 
tion with Roger de Clifford, Thomas de Musgrave, and 
others. In 1373 Bishop de Appleby, with the Bishop 
of Durham, Edward Mortimer, Earl of March, aud 
other noblemen, were appointed to hear and detennine 
all complaints and causes of action upon the borders; 
and they were required to see satisfaction made for in- 
juries done by any of the Idng's subjects. In 1384, 
during the reign of Richard II. the Bishop of Carlisle, 
the Bishop of Durham, the Earl of Northumberland, 
the Lord of Raby, and the Sub-dean of York, were ap- 
pointed special commissioners and ambassadors, to treat 
with the King of Scotland, for a truce between the two 
kingdoms, and for the adjusting of all differences on 
the borders. Eight years after this, the bishop was again 
appointed a commissioner, to see executed " that part 
of a late treaty of peace, concluded with the French 
king, which related to the kingdom of Scotland." This 
prelate died in 1395, and William Stricldaud was 
chosen to succeed him, but was set aside by the pope in 
favour of 

Robert Reade, who was translated from the see of 
Waterford and Lismoro, in Ireland, in 1370, and ob- 
tained the royal warrant for all the mesne profits of 
the see, from the demise of Bishop de Appleby. He 
was translated to Chichester in the course of the same 
year, and was succeeded by 

Thomas Merkes, who was invested with the tem- 
poralities of his see by Richard IL, and received a 
provision from the pope in 1397. From the will of 
the unfortunate Richard we leani that Bishop Merkes 
was one of the five prelates whom that monarch num- 
bered amongst his executors, and to whom he bequeathed 
a gold ring of the value of £20. It is a remarkable fact 
that the Bishop of Carlisle is the only bishop who is 
recorded to have taken letters of protection from Richard, 
and placed himself under an obligation to personally 
attend the king towards the coast of Ireland. On the 
removal of Richard, Bishop Merkes remained faithful 
to the fallen monarch, and in the first parliament coura- 
geously showed his attachment by speaking in favour 
of the deposed king. For this he was accused of high 
treason in January, 1400, and was soon after deprived 
of his see, and committed a prisoner to the Tower. On 
the 23rd of the follo\ring June, the bishop was placed 
in the custody of the Abbot of Westminster, in whose 
community he had formerly been a monk, and on 



November 28tli received the king's pardon, and was 
set at liberty. In consequence of his "notable poverty," 
he was allowed to receive from the pope, who had con- 
ferred upon him the title of Bishop of Samothrace, 
ecclesiastical benefices to the value of dOO marks, which 
the king increased to 300. Ho held the vicarage of 
Sturminstcr, in Dorsetshire, and, in 1404, the Abbot 
of Westminster bestowed upon him the rectory of 
Todenham, in Gloucestershire. It is probable he 
died iu the latter place about the cud of the year 

William Strickland was the next prelate appointed 
to the see of Carlisle. He was elected iu 1:J99, conse- 
crated at Cawood by the Archbishop of York, August 
24th, 1400, and received the temporalities of his see 
on the 15th of the following November. Bishop Strick- 
land was a devoted adherent of Henry IV., from whom 
he received a commission to arrest all those persons 
in the diocese of Carlisle " who should assert that 
Richard II. was still alive, aud abiding in the parts of 
Scotland." In 1400, the Bishop of Carlisle was one of 
the prelates that signed and sealed the act of succes- 
sion, by which the crowns of England and France were 
entailed upon the lung's four sous. The erection of the 
tower and belfry of the cathedral is ascribed to this pre- 
late, as is also the tabcniacle work in the choir, aud the 
covering of the spire on the tower with lead. He 
built the tower at Kose Castle, called Strickland's tower, 
and constructed a watercourse from tho river Petteril 
through the town of Penrith. A chantry in tho church 
of St. Andrew, in the same town, is likewise of his foun- 
dation. He died on the 30th of August, 1419, after 
an tj)iscopacy of twenty years, and was buried in his 
catiicdral. His successor was 

Roger Whelpdale, provost of Queen's College, Oxford, 
who was consecrated by the Bishop of London in 14'20, 
and had restitution of the temporalities on the 12th of 
March, in the following year. This prelate, who was a 
native of the county, having been bom at or near Grey- 
stoke, did not long enjoy his elevation to the episcopate, 
for ho died in London on tho 4lh of February, 1422, 
and by his will ordered his body to be interred in St. 
Paul's Church, in that city, leaving £200 for the foun- 
dation aud endowment of a chantry in his cathedral of 
Carlisle. Bishop Whelpdale was a learned man, and 
well vcreed in the literature of tho period in which he 
lived. His works are a book with tho title Df invocate 
Deo, and somo on logic and mathematics. 

William Barrow, bishop of Bangor, was tho next occu- 
pant of the see of Carlisle, to which ho was translated 
on tho death of Bishop Whelpdale, and received tho 
temporalities on Januarv the lUth, 1423. In 1429 his 

name occurs among the bishops who protested against 
Cardinal Beaufort appearing at Windsor, on Saint 
George's day, as prelate of the order of the garter, in 
right of his bishopric of Winchester. In the July fol- 
lowing he bore a joint commission with the earls of 
Northumberland and Salisbury, on behalf of the King of 
England, for the truce concluded with Scotland, at 
Hawden Stank. He died at Rose Castle, the seat of 
the bishops of Carlisle, on September 4th, 1429, and 
was buried iu the chapel of St. Catherine iu his cathe- 
dral church. His successor was 

Marmaduke Lumley, ai-chdeacon of Northumberland, 
who was raised to the see iu 1430, aud received resti- 
tution of the temporalities on April the loth, 1431. 
In 1433 he was licensed to attend the Council of Basil, 
the eighteenth general council, aud two years later was 
appointed one of the commissioners to treat with the 
Scots. During the episcopacy of Bishop Lumley, the 
diocese suffered so severely from tho ravages of the 
Scots, that the bishop could not obtain wherewithal to 
support the dignity of his office, aud iu order to enable 
him to do this, an application was made to the throne, 
in consequence of which a royal grant was issued in 
June, 1441, by which the churches of Caldbeck and 
Rothbury were annexed to the see for ever. These 
appropriations, however, did not take place, aud the two 
churches arc to this day rectorial. Bishop Lumley, 
who was of the noble family of Lumley, in the county 
of Durham, filled the offices of lord treasurer, lord 
chaucellor, and chancellor of Cambridge University. 
Ho was translated to Lincoln in 1449, when 

Nicholas Close, archdeacon of Colchester, aud one of 
the king's chaplains, was appointed bishop, receiving 
restitution of the temporalities on the 14th of Slarch 
in tho following year. In 1451, he, with the Bishop of 
Durham and others, was commissioned to superintend 
" the conservators of the tnice and wardens of the 
marches, and to punish their negligence and irregulari- 
ties." Iu 1452 he was one of a commission appointed 
to receive the homage of James, earl of Douglas, and all 
other Scottish noblemen who should apply for that i>ur- 
pose. These are all the notices of this prelate that 
occur during the time that ho fdled the see of Carlisle. 
He was translated to Lichlicld and Coventry iu 1432, 
and was succeeded by 

William Percy, a son of the F.arl of Northumberland, 
and a inobondary of York, Lincoln, aud Sidisbury, who 
was invested with the temporalities of his bishopric on 
tho 24th of October. 1452, and. though ho hold tho 
see for ten years, nothing is on record respecting him, 
except that ho was chancellor of Cambridge. Ho died 
in 1462. 



John Kingscotes, archdeacon of Gloucester, was 
elected by the chapter bishop of Carlisle on the de- 
mise of Bishop Percy, but he only held the see one year, 
dying on the 10th December, 1013, when 

Richard Scrope, rector of Feu-Ditton, Cambridge- 
shire, succeeded to the vacant mitre. Nothing what- 
ever is recorded of this prelate, except the dates of his 
elevation and decease ; the latter event occurring on the 
ICth of May, 1408 ; his successor was 

Edward Story, chancellor of Cambridge, who being 
elected by the chapter and approved of by the pope, had 
restitution of the temporalities on September 1st, 1408. 
Three years later we find his name among those 
of the prelates and chief of the nobility who took an 
oath of fealty to Edward V., then Prince of Wales ; and 
shortly afterwards, he, with the Bishop of Durham, the 
earl of Northumberland, and others, was appointed a 
commissioner to treat with those of Scotland at Alnwick, 
and the year following at Newcastle ; and in 1473 at either 
of these places or any other place. In 1474 he again 
appears as a commissioner in the treaty of marriage be- 
tween the Prince of Scotland and the Princess Cicely, 
daughter of Edward IV. Three yeai's later he was 
translated to Chichester, where he died in 1503. 

llichai'd Bell, prior of Dm'ham, was the next prelate, 
being elevated to the see in 1478, shortly after the 
translation of Bishop Story. While prior of Durham, 
he was several times in the commissions of Edward IV., 
on treaty with the king of Scots. All that we learn of 
him during his episcopacy is, that he built the tower at 
Eosc Castle, which still bears his name. He died in 
1490, and was interred in the middle of the choir of his 
cathedral, where a monumental brass still recalls his 
memory, and requests a prayer for the repose of his 
soul. His successor, 

William Sever, abbot of St. Mary's, at York, was 
shoitly afterwards elected, and received restitution of the 
temporalities of his see on the 1 1th of December, in the 
same year, when he also received a license to hold his 
abbacy in comincndam, and was included in a commis- 
sion with the Bishop of Durham and others, to treat 
about the marriage of the king's daughter, Margaret, 
with James IV. of Scotland. The following year his 
name occurs as one of the royal plenipotentiaries in a 
general treaty between the English and Scottish mon- 
archs. In 1409 Bishop Severs services were again 
brought into requisition, and he was appointed one of 
the conservators of the truce, which had just been 
agreed upon between the kings of England and Scot- 
land. Three years later he was translated to Durham, and 

PiOger Leybourn, archdeacon and chancellor of Dur- 
ham appointed his successor. This prelate was conse- 

crated on the 1st of September, 1 503, and received resti- 
tution of the temporalities on the 15 th of the following 
October. He was a native of Westmoreland, and was 
educated at Cambridge, where he became master of 
Pembroke Hall. Little is known of him, and even the 
year of his demise is uncertain. His will, in which he 
expresses a wish to be buried in St. James's Hospital, 
near Charing Cross, London, bears date July 17th, 
1507 ; but, whether he died in that year or the follow- 
ing one we have no means of ascertaining. 

John Penny, bishop of Bangor, was translated to the 
see of Carlisle by a papal rescript, bearing date, Rome, 
September 21st, 1508; and on the 23rd of the fol- 
lowing January he made his promise of canonical obe- 
dience to his metropoHtan, the Archbishop of York. He 
held the see for twelve years, dying in 1520, and the 
following, year 

John Kite, archbishop of Armagh, in Ireland, was 
translated to the vacant bishopric, when he relinquished 
the primacy of Ireland, but was appointed archbishop 
of Thebes, in Greece. Cardinal Wulsey and he 
appear to have been intimate friends ; and it is to the 
influence of the former that Bishop Kite is said to owe 
the alterations in his preferments. Jefferson informs us 
that the fees of the translation of this prelate, " with 
the commeudams for Carlisle and his other benefices, 
amounted to 1890 ducats. But the cardinal success- 
fully pleaded for the remission of '270 ducats." Bishop 
Kite, in 15'34, was appointed by Henry VIII. as one of 
his commissioners to meet those of the King of Scot- 
land, concerning a cessation of hostilities ; and two 
years later, he, in conjunction with Ralph, Earl of 
Westmoreland, and others, was named as a plenipoten- 
tiary to conclude a treaty of peace with the Scottish 
monarch. In 1529 a document having been signed by 
several of the English bishops, approving of the reason- 
ableness of the scruples of Henry VIII. in the matter 
of his marriage with Catharine of Arragon, and advising 
that the case should be laid before the Holy See for 
speedy settlement. Bishop Kite's name appears among 
the subscribers. In the following year he was one of 
the four bishops, who, with Cardinal Wolsey, Arch- 
bishop Warham, and the majority of the English nobility, 
addressed Pope Clement VII., on the question of the 
king's divorce. In 1536 his name again occurs in the 
history of the period. He ajipears to have been much 
attached to the old religion, and zealously assisted his 
metropolitan, the Archbishop of York, in opposing the 
innovations proposed by Cranmer, in the convocation of 
the clergy. During his occupation of the see he made 
several additions to the episcopal residence at Rose, 
and otherwise improved it. He died in London, on the 



19th of June, 1537, aud wns buried iu Stepney Church. 
He was succeeded the same year by 

Eobert Aldrich, provost of Eton College, and canon 
of Wmdsor. Tliis prelate, who was a native of Burn- 
ham, in Buckinghamshire, received his early education 
at Eton, and in 1507 became scholar of King's College, 
Cambridge, where he took the degree of M.A. In 
1529 he became B.D. at Oxford, and was subsequently 
advanced to the dignity of D.D. Among his contem- 
poraries ho appears to have been eminent as an orator 
and poet; and, in conjunction with Cranmer and others, 
wrote the work commonly called the " Bishop's Book." 
lie performed the duties of chaplain and almoner to 
Lady Jane Seymour, queen of Henry VIII. and mother 
of Edward VI. Although he held this office, Bishop 
Aldrich was, nevertheless, a firm supporter of the tenets 
of the old religion, aud, in 1510, was consulted by the 
king on the teaching of the church with respect to the 
seven sacraments. When Cranmer strove to propagate 
the new doctrines, he mot with the most determined 
opposition from the Bishop of Carlisle, who clung to the 
ancient faith iu its entirety during the whole of his life. 
He died in 1555, and 

Owen Oglethorpe, dean of "Windsor, was appointed 
his successor, in October, 1356 ; but the papal confir- 
mation did not arrive until the 28th of the following 
January. Tiiis prelate was born at Newton Kymc, near 
Tadcaster, in Yorkshire, and becoming a member of 
Magdalen College, 0.\ford, was made proctor of that 
univcreity iu 1531. Four years afterwards, having 
attained the degree of B.D., he was chosen president 
of his college, and was elected vice-chancellor iu 1S51. 
He was shortly afterwards appointed first canon and 
then dean of Windsor, and in the first year of the rcigu 
of l,.>U(en Mary became secretary of the Order of the 
Garter. In 155 1 a public disputation on the mass was 
held at Oxford, at which Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer 
stated their opinions, and were opposed by several 
membei-s of the ancient faith, among whom Bishop 
Oglethorpe stands conspicuous. Two years after this 
lie was raised to the sec of Carlisle, as above stated. 
When Queen Elizabeth ascended the throne, in 155S, 
she at once proceeded to reintroduce Protestantism, and 
to put down the religion which (Jueen Mary had restored. 
One of the first indications of this change was her com- 
mand to the Bishop of Carlisle not to elevate at mass 
the consecrated host ; a command with which the bisliop 
refused compliance, adding, at the same time, " My life 
is the queen's, but my conscience is my own." Sus- 
pecting the queen's intentions from this prohibition, the 
English bishops publicly declared that they could not, 
iu conscience, adniiuister tho coronation oath, and 

refused, therefore, to assist at the forthcoming ceremony. 
This announcement greatly embarrassed the court ; but 
at length Bishop Oglethorpe was induced to separate 
himself from his colleagues, and the coronation was per- 
formed. The services of the Bishop of Carhsle were, 
however, soon forgotten ; for refusing, iu common with 
the other members of the English episcopacy, with the 
exception of the Bishop of Llandaff, to take the oath of 
supremacy, he was deprived of his see in 1559, when it 
was offered to Bernard Gilpin, rector of Houghton-le- 
Spring, in the county of Durham, but by him dechned. 
John Best, prebendary of Wells, and the first Protes- 
tant bishop, was consecrated on the 2nd of March, 1500. 
He was a native of Yorkshire, and received his education 
at Oxford, but embracing the principles of the Pieformers, 
was obliged to live retired during tho reign of Mary. 
In 1504 he received a commission from Elizabeth, by 
which he was empowered to arm himself and his depen- 
dents ; a measure deemed necessary in consequence of 
the unsettled and turbulent state of the diocese. Nothing 
further is recorded of this prelate, whom Fuller speaks 
of as "a grave and learned divine." He died on tho 
22nd of May, 1570, and was buried in Carlisle Cathe- 
dral. His successor was 

Richard Barnes, who came to the see in the same 
year. This prelate was born at Warrington, iu Lanca- 
shire, and entering Brazennose College, Oxford, received 
there his degree of M.A. iu 1556. He became B.D. 
at Cambridge, and, iu 1501, was made chancellor and 
prebendary of York, and subsequently styled Bishop of 
Nottingham. Wheu raised to the see of Carlisle he was 
allowed to retain in commcudam his stall and dignities 
at York, for one year after his consecration. In 1577 
he was traiisLitcd to Durham, and 

John Mey, prebendary of Ely, was appointed to the 
vacant bishopric, having previously been master of 
Catherine Hall, Cambridge, and vice-chancellor of tl)at 
university, for which he appears to have procured a new 
body of statutes. He held the see of Cailisle for twenty 
years, and fell a victim to the plague in 1597, being 
buried in his cathedral church on tlie evening of tho 
same day on which he died. 

Henry Robinson, provost of Queen's College, Oxford, 
was the next bishop. He was a native of Carlisle, 
where ho was born in tho j-ear 1550. At an early ago 
ho entered the University of Oxford, and nuiking great 
proficiency iu his studies, soon became a fellow, attain- 
ing a high character as a preacher. In his twentieth 
year, liaving just taken his master's degree, he was 
chosen principal of Edmund Hall, aud in 15s l was 
unanimously elected provost of Queen's College, an 
office which he held for eighteen years, during which 



time the college eiijoj-eJ a high degree of prosperity, 
lie was also chaplaia to Archbiiliop GrinJall. Ou the 
27th of May, 1598, he was chosen to fill the see of 
Carlisle, was consecrated on the U3rd of the following 
July, and iu the ne.xt year named one of the royal com- 
missioners for ecclesiastical causes. From the records 
of the exchequer we learn that, in 1G13 Bishop Robin- 
son filed a bill in that court against George Denton, of 
Cardew Hall, who had refused all suit to his lordship's 
court, and having obUuued a decree in his favour, se- 
cured thereby the rights and privileges of the see of 
Carlisle. This prelate died, it is supposed, of the 
plague, at Rose Castle, on the 10th of June, 1010, and 
was interred the same night in his cathedral church, 
where a mortuary brass, ou the wall of the north aisle 
of the choir, still perpetuates his memory. Bishop 
Robinson's character as a scholar stood high amongst 
his contemporaries. He took part in the conferences 
held at Hampton Court, and is said to have been held 
in great estimation by Queen Elizabeth. His succes- 
sor was 

Robert Snowdon, prebendary of Southwell, who was 
consecrated on November 2 1th, 1010, iu York Minster, 
by Archbishop JIattbews. He only held the see for a 
little more than four years, dying in London, iu May, 
1C21. Of the incidents of his episcopate we have no- 
thing recorded. In the following September, 

Richard ]\Iilbourne, bishop of St. David's, was trans- 
lated to Carlisle, which he held till 1021, when he died, 
leaving a bequest for the endowment of a school and the 
foundation of an hospital. This prelate was bom at 
Utterbauk, in Gilsland. Previous to liis promotion to 
the see of St. David's, he had been respectively vicar of 
Sevenoaks, in Kent, and dean of Rochester. 

Richard Senhouse, dean of Gloucester, the next 
bishop, was of an old Cumbrian family, the Senhouses 
of Nether Hall, ou whom he reflected the greatest credit 
by his talents aud abilities. Having entered as a stu- 
dent iu Trinity College, Cambridge, he shortly after- 
wards removed to St. John's, where he gained a fellow- 
ship, and took his degree of D.D., in 1022. He served 
as chaplain to the Earl of Bedford, Prince Charles, and 
subsequently to James I., the latter of whom gave him 
the deaueiy of Gloucester. He had the reputation 
of a great preacher, aud was styled the " Cambridge 
Chrysostom." He was killed by a fall from his horse, 
on the 0th of May, 1020, and was interred in Carlisle 
Cathedral. The Dean of Carlisle, 

Francis AVbite, was his successor, being consecrated 
bishop CD the 3rd of the following December. He how- 
ever, only continued at Carhsle till the 0th of February, 
1028, when he was translated to Norwich, aud 

Barnabas Potter, provost of Queen's College, Oxford, 
appointed bishop. He was consecrated iu London, on 
the 15th of March, 1628. Tbis prelate was bom at 
Kendal, or, as Atkinson says, in Winster Chapelry, in 
1577, of poor but respectable parents. He was educa- 
ted at Queen's College, O.xford, where he took the degree 
of D.D. in 1015, and the following ^-ear was elected pro- 
vost, an office which he held for about ten years. He 
was chaplain to tbe Prince of Wales, afterwai'ds Cbarles 
I., by whom he was much esteemed. Bishop Potter 
died at his lodgings in Co vent Garden, in January, 
1012, the fourteenth year of his episcopate, and was 
buried in St. Paul's Church, Covent Garden, where the 
monument erected to his memory, with the sacred 
edifice, was destroyed by fire in 1795. 

James Usher, archbishop of Armagh, was the next 
occupant of the see. " This great advocate of what 
has been invidiously termed ' moderate episcopacy,' 
was born iu Dublin, on the llh of January, 1580, 
and he became one of the earliest students of Trinity 
College, in that city. He early distinguished himself 
in the Roman Catholic controversy, and gaining thus 
the favour of James I., he was, iu 1020, appointed to 
the see of Meath, whence he was, 4vc years later, 
translated to Armagh, the primatial see of all Ireland. 
He came to England in 104O, and the rebelhon in the 
next year preventing his return to Ireland, bo repaired 
to the king at Oxford, and as a means of subsistence 
was allowed to hold the see of Carlisle in commendam. 
He was greatly esteemed by the king, and was expressly 
summoned to assist him with his advice at the Treaty of 
Newport. Archbishop Usher produced many laborious 
w^orks, written amid trouble and danger, aud his learning 
and virtues commanded the respect of many who were 
the avowed enemies of his order. Thus he was allowed 
to hold the professorship of Lincoln's Inn after the 
bishop's lands had been sold, and Cromwell listened 
to Ills earnest remonstrances in favour of the despoiled 
clergy, who owed some alleviation of their sufferings to 
him. Usher fouud a home in the house of the countess 
dowager of Peterborough for several years, and ho died 
under her roof at Reigate, March 21, 1050. His 
remains were honoured with a public funeral, to the 
cost of which Cromwell contributed £200 by letter of 
privy seal, April 2nd, 1630." ' Ou the death of Arch- 
bishop Usher, the see was vacant four years. Ou the 
Restoration of Charles II., iu 1600 

Richard Sterne, master of Jesus' College, Cambridge, 
was nominated to Carlisle. He was a native of Not- 
tinghamshire, and educated at the college just named, 

I Aunala of England, vol. iii. p. 8, London, 1857. 



and while there took his degree of D.D. Being do- 
mestic chaplain to Archbishop Laud, he attended him 
on the scaffold at his execution, and was subsequently 
imprisoned, with some other heads of houses in the 
universities, on a charge made by Cromwell, that they 
had conveyed their college plate to Charles I. at York." 
He was then deprived of his mastership, and obliged to 
retire into private life till the restoration of the regal 
power, when he was promoted to this see. During his 
episcopate he erected a chapel at Eose Castle, which, 
however, was taken down shortly afterwards. He was 
translated to York, in 1664, and was succeeded by 

Edward Eainbow, dean of Peterborough. Bishop 
Eainbow was a native of Bilton, in Lincolnshire, and 
entered Coi-pus Christi College, O.xford, in 1023, being 
then in his fifteenth year. He remained there for two 
years, after which he proceeded to ilagdalene College, 
Cambridge, where he became tutor to several noble 
pupils, and obtained a fellowship. In lG-1'2 he was 
appointed master of ^lagdalene, and four years after- 
wards received the degree of D.D. In IGuO Dr. Rain- 
bow was requested to sign a protestation against Charles 
II., then in course of signature, but having refused he 
was deprived of his office, which he did not regain 
tOl the Picstoration. In 1062 he was nominated vice- 
chancellor of his university, and two years later he was 
promoted to Carlisle. This prelate made considerable 
additions to the episcopal residence at Rose, rebuilt the 
chapel erected by his predecessor, and carried out many 
other improvements. He died at Rose Castle, March 

- Of liis snfferings at ibis period we have the following acconnt in 
a letter i)f liis, written from his prison in Jily House, October the 9th, 
1048: — "This is now the fourleenlh luouth of my iniprisonnient; 
nineteen wetks in the Tower, thirteen weeks in the Lord Petre's 
lionse, ten duys in the ships, and seven weeks here in Ely House. 
'J'he very fees and rents of tliese several prisons have amounted to 
above i'lOO, besides diet and all other charges, whieh have been 
various and excessive, as in prisons is usual. For the better enabling 
me to tnnintain myself in prison and my family at home, they have 
seized U|)on all njy means that they can lay their hands on. . . . 
And all this while I have never been so much as spoken withal, or 
called either to give or receive an acconnt why I am here. Nor is 
anything laid to my charge (not so much as the genend crime of 
ray being a malignant), no, not in tile warrant for my connnitmcnt. 
What hath been wanting in human justice, hatli been, I praise God, 
supplied by divine mercy. Health of body, and patience, and cheer- 
fulness of mind, 1 have not wanted, no, not on shipboard, where we 
lay, the first night, without anything under or over us but tlic bare 
decks and the clothes on our backs; and after we had some of us 
got beds, were nttt oble, when it rained, to lie dry in them, and when 
it was fair weather, were sweltered with heat, anil stifled with our 
own breaths, there being of us in that one small Ipswich coal-ship 
(so low bnill, too, thot we could not walk or stand upright in il,) 
within one or two of three score ; whereof six knights, and eight 
doctors of divinity, and divera gentlemen of very good worth, that 
would have been sorry to have seen their servants, nay, their dogs, 
no belter accommodated. Yet among all that company, I do not 
remember that I saw one sad or dejected countenance all the while; 
£0 strong is Cjod, when we ore weakest." 

20th, 1684, and was buried at Dalston. The next 
bishop was 

Thomas Smith, dean of Carlisle. This prelate was 
born at Whichall, in the parish of Asby, Westmore- 
land, on the 21st of December, 1614. He was edu- 
cated at Appleby School, and iti the sixteenth year of 
his age was admitted into Queen's College, O.xford, 
where his early proficiency in his studies " gained him 
a singular repute in the university." After he had 
taken the degree of il.A. he obtained a fellowship, and 
soon became eminent as a tutor, most of the gentlemen 
of the college being committed to his care. When 
Charles I. resided at Oxford he was one of those who 
were appointed to preach before his majesty, at Clirist 
Church, aud before the parliament at St. Mary's. In 
consequence of the events which soon after occurred 
he removed to the north, where he remained till the 
Restoration, after which he took his degree of D.D., 
and became chaplain to Charles II. He was appointed 
to a prebend in Carlisle Cathedral in Xovember, ] 660, 
and a few months later received one of the "golden" 
prebends of Durham. He became dean of Carlisle in 
1671, on the promotion of Dean Carleton to the see of 
Bristol ; and while holding this oSice he restored the 
deanerj' at his own expense, bestowed a communion 
service to the cathedral, endowed the Grammar School, 
made additions to the capitular library, and proved him- 
self in every way a public benefactor. Xor were his good 
deeds confined to Carlisle, for Dalston, Penrith, Ap- 
pleby, Asby, and other places experienced his bountj'. 
On the death of Bishop Rainbow, in 1084, Dr. Smith 
succeeded to tlie see, which he held for eight years, and 
died at Rose Castle on the 19th of April, 1702. He 
was buried in Carlisle Cathedral, where there is an 
inscription to his memory. 

William Nicholson, archdeacon and prebendary of 
Carhsle, was the next occupant of the see. He was 
bom at Orton, about the year 1655, and, iu 1670, was 
entered at Queen's College, Cambridge. In 1678, and the 
early part of the following year, he visited Germany 
and Frtuicc, and on his return home was admitted a 
fellow of his college, having previously taken the degree 
of M.A. He received a prebend in Cailislo Cathedral 
and tho vicarage of Torpenhow from Bishop Rainbow, 
iu 1681, and next year was made archdeacon. In 
17112, on tho demise of Bishop Smith, he was elected 
bishop, and was consecrated at Lambetli on the llUi 
of June iu the same year. The first four years of his 
episcopate were spent by Bishop Nicholson in inspect- 
ing the various churches, parsonage houses, glebe-lands, 
lie. in his diocese. In 1715 ho was appointed lord 
high almoner by George I., aud three years later was 



translated to Londonderry, vhich. see he held till Feb- 
ruary, 1720, when he was made archbishop of Cashel, 
but he died on the 14th of that month, and was buried 
at Londouderr}-. This celebrated man was well versed 
in the several departments of human knowledge, but 
particularly in that of history, which he appears to have 
cultivated with the greatest assiduity and success, and to 
his industry and learning the historians of this county 
are particularly indebted. In 1078, when at Leipsic, 
he translated into Latin Hook's Essay on the Motion 
of the Farth from the Sun's Parallax, which was sub- 
sequently printed. Two years later he published an 
account of Denmark, Poland, Norway, and Iceland, iu 
the first volume of the EugUsh Atlas, of which he 
afterwards published the second and third volumes, 
containing Germany. These were followed, in 1085, 
by a letter to the master of University College, on the 
Fiunic inscription at Bewcastle, which was published 
in the philosophical transactions. No. 178, and also a 
letter to Sir William DugJale, concerning the font at 
Brideldrk. In 1000 appeared the first part of his 
English Historical Library, the second part was pub- 
lished the following year, and the third in 1090. After 
an interval of three years he published a similar work 
for Scotland, and in 17'2J: one for Ireland. Between 
the iiublication of the two latter works, he produced, in 
1705, his Border Laws, with an appendix of charters 
and records. Besides these works, he wrote, in 1715, 
an essay to be inserted in Chamberlain's book, contain- 
ing the Lord's Prayer in one hundred languages ; and 
in 1719 the preface to the third edition of Wilkin's 
Leges Anglo-Saxonica;. The bishop published several 
sermons, and left to the capitular library at Carlisle his 
MS. collections for a history of the counties of Cumber- 
laud and AVestmoreland and the diocese of Carlisle. 
In 1809 John Nichols, F.S.A. published in two octavo 
volumes, Letters on Various Subjects, Literary, Political, 
and Ecclesiastical, to and from William Nicolson, D.D. 
Samuel Bradford, prebendary of Westminster, suc- 
ceeded Bishop Nicolson, iu the see of Carlisle, when 
the latter was translated to Londonderry. This pre- 
late was a native of London, received his education 
at Beunet College, Cambridge, and having been ad- 
mitted to orders, became chaplain to Bishop Compton, 
and tutor to the children of Archbishop Tillotsou. 
He subsequently became rector of St. Mary-le-Bow, 
London, prebend of Westminster, master of Bennet 
College, and ultimately dean of the most honourable 
order of the Bath. After holding the see of Carlisle 
for five years he was translated to Rochester; and d3'ing 
in 1731, was interred in the north aisle of Westminster 
Abbey. His successor was 

John Waugh, dean of Gloucester, a native of Appleby 
in Westmoreland, where he was bom in 1600. He 
received his early education at Appleby School, and sub- 
sequently entered Queen's College, Oxford, where ho 
obtained a fellowship. He was rector of St. Peter's, 
Cornhill, London, in 1708; ten years later prebendary 
of Lincoln; two years afterwards dean of Gloucester; 
and in 1793 bishop of Carlisle. For eleven yeai*s he 
governed the diocese with great zeal and ability, and 
with the greatest credit to himself. He died in West- 
minster, in 1734, and was buried in St. Peter's, Cornhill. 

Sir George Fleming, Bart., the next bishop, was the 
son of Sir Daniel Fleming, Knt., of Eydal Hall, West- 
uiorelaud, where the future bishop was born, in 1007. 
He seems to have had his school education at Appleby, 
whence he was transferred to Edmund Hall, Oxford, 
which he entered in 1088, and having received his 
degree in arts, became domestic chaplain to Bishop 
Smith of Carlisle, by whom he was collated to the 
vicarage of Aspatria, and in 1700 to a prebendal stall 
iu tlie cathedral. The favour shown to Mr. Fleming 
by Bishop Smith was continued by that prelate's suc- 
cessor Bishop Nicolson, who, in 1705, promoted the 
subject of this notice to the archdeacour}'. He became 
dean in 1727, and was raised to the see of Carlisle, in 
1734. He enjoyed his elevation for thirteen years, and 
died at Rose Castle on July 2nd, 1747, in the eighty- 
first year of his age. He was interred in his cathedral 
church where a marble monument perpetuates his 
memory. His successor was 

Richard Osbaldiston, dean of York, who was descended 
from a good family at Hunmaudby, in Yorkshire, and 
received his education at Cambridge. He held this 
see from 1747 till 1702, when he was translated to 
London, which see he held for two years, dying iu 

Charles Lyttleton, dean of Exeter, his successor, was 
the third son of Sir Thomas Lyttleton, Bart., of Hagley 
Hall, in Worcestershire, at which place he was born in 
1714. Having received his early education at Eton, 
he entered University College, Oxford, and on the 
completion of his studies became a member of the 
Jliddle Temple. He w^as in due course called to the 
bar, but not finding legal studies congenial to his dis- 
position, he returned to Oxford, and subsequently took 
orders. He was appointed to the rectory of Alve, iu 
his native county, in 1743, and in 1747 became chap- 
lain-in-ordinary to George II. The following year he 
was made dean of Exeter, and in 1763 received the 
bishopric of Carlisle, which he held for six years. He 
died in London on December 22nd, 1768, and was 
interred with his ancestors at Hagley. Bishop Lyttleton 



was a zealous antiquarian, and was for some time pre- 
sident of the Antiquarian Society, to which he gave 
a considerable number of books and manuscripts. 

Edmund Law, the next bishop, was a native of Lan- 
cashire, being born at Cartniel in that county in 1703. 
lie received his early education at Cartmel and Kendal, 
and afterwards entered St. John's College, Cambridge, 
from which ho removed to Christ's College, where he 
obtained a fellowship. In 1737 he was presented by 
the university to the living of Greystoke, and in 1743 
was appointed archdeacon of Carlisle by Bishop Flem- 
ing ; and as the archdeaconry has the rectoiy of Salkeld 
annexed to it, he went to reside there iu 1746. In 
1754 he took the degree of D.D., and two years after- 
wards he was elected master of Peter House, upon which 
ho resigned his office of ai-chdeacon. About 1700 he 
received the appointment of head librarian of the uni- 
versity. He subsequently became archdeacon of Staf- 
fordshire, prebendary of Lichfield, and in 1707 received 
a prcbcndal stall iu Durham Cathedral. He was elected 
bishop of Carlisle iu the following year, and held the 
sec till 1787, when he died at Kose Castle on the 14th 
of August, in his eighty-fourth year. He was buried 
iu his cathedral. During his residence in Christ's Col- 
lege he published a translation of Archbishop King's 
" Essay on the Origin of Evil," with notes, and pre- 
pared for the press an edition of Stephen's "Thesaurus." 
He also formed 'au acquaintance with several literary 
celebrities, among others the learned Dr. Jortin, Dr. 
Taylor, the editor of Lysias and Demosthenes, and 
Dr. Waterton, the master of Magdalene College. In 
1734 or 1735 ho published an " Inquiry into the 
Ideas of Space, Time," &c. ; and while resident at 
Salkeld his " Considerations on the Theory of Reli- 
gion." About 1777 he edited Locke's works, which he 
published in three volumes quarto, with a- preface and 
life of the author. Bishop Law devoted a great portion 
of his time to metaphysical studies, and is said to have 
held the writings of Locke in the highest esteem. 
" Ho was distinguished by a mild and tranquil dis- 
position, and the ami;nity of his manners endeared him 
to all who kn(>w him. His countenance always wore 
the sumo kind and composed aspect, truly indicating 
tho eahnnoss and benignity of his temper." Ho was 
succeeded in the see of Carlisle by 

John Douglas, canon residentiary of St. Paul's, who 
was born at Piltenwecn, in I'ife-hire, and in 1730 was 
entered a commoner at St. JIary's Hall, O.-cford, from 
which ho removed, in 1738, to Baliol College. Having 
been appointed chaplain to the 3rd Foot Guards, he 
went to the continent with his regiment, and was 
present at the Battle of Fontcnoy. He subsequently 

became tutor to Lord Pulteney, with whom he travelled 
for some time, and, in recognition of his services, was 
rewarded by the Earl of Bath with considerable church 
preferment. Ho was consecrated bishop of Carlisle in 
1 787, having previously held the dignities of canon and 
dean of Windsor. In 1791 he was translated to Salis- 
bury, and died the 18th May, 1807. Bishop Douglas 
held the office of chancellor of the most noble order of 
the garter, was a fellow of tho Royal Society, a vice- 
president of the Antiquarian Society, and a trustee of 
the British Museum. The ne.xt bishop was 

The Hon. Edward Yenables Vernon, who was ap- 
pointed on tho translation of Bishop Douglas, at which 
time he was canon of Christ Church, Cxford. This 
prelate, the second son of George, Lord Vernon, was 
born on the loth of October, 1757, educated at West- 
minster School, and afterwards removed to Christ 
Church, Oxford. He subsequently became Fellow of 
All Souls' College, chaplain to the king, prebeudaiy of 
Gloucester, and canon of Christ Church. Iu 1791 he 
was appointed to the bishopric of Carlisle, and upon 
inheriting the Harcourt estates, assumed the surname 
of Harcourt. In 1808, Bishop Harcourt was translated 
to York, and the see was oflered to Dr. Thomas Zouch, 
prebendary of Durham, who declined to accept it, in 
consequence of his advanced age and retired habits. 

Samuel Goodenough was elected bishop on the 26th 
of January, 1808, and held the see till his death on the 
14th of August, 1827. Bishop Goodenough was edu- 
cated at Christ Chui'ch, Oxford, when he took the degree 
of L.L.D. in 1772. He was appointed dean of Ro- 
chester in 1802, and six years later wa.s promoted to 
Carlisle, as above stated. His lordship was a vice- 
president of the Royal and Linnean Societies, and one 
of the council of the first named learned body. Bishop 
Goodenough was the author of some papers, which were 
printed in the tr.insactious of the Linnean Society, aud 
also of some sermons. 

Tho Hon. Hugh Percy, bishop of Rochester, was 
translated to Carlisle in September, 182;*. This prelate, 
tho third son of Algernon, first earl of Beverley, was 
born on the 29tli of January, 1784. Ho entered the 
Univei-sity of Cambridge as a member of Trinity Col- 
lego, and graduated i\I.A. iu 1805, but subsequently 
placed his name on the boards of St. John's College. 
Having married a daughter of Archbishop Manners 
Sutton, ho was by him collated, in the year 1809, to 
the rectories of Bishopbounie and Ivychurch. He sub- 
sequently became, iu 1811, chancellor and prebendary 
of Salisbury ; in 1810, a prebendary of Canterbury, and 
of St. Paul's; in 1822, archdeacon of Canterbury; and 
iu 1S25, dean of that cathedral chui-ch. He wiis cou- 



secrated bishop of Rochester in Juue, 18'27, and trans- 
lated to Carlisle as above, retaiuiug the chancellorship 
of Salisbury and the valuable living of Finsbury, during 
his episcopacy. Dr. Percy died at Rose Castle in Feb- 
ruaiy, 1850, aged 72 years, and was succeeded by 
The Hon. H. Montague Villiers, the present bishopi 


When the see was founded by Henry I. in 1 133, it 
was made suffragan to York, and its jurisdiction com- 
prised the greater part of the two counties of Cumber- 
land and Westmoreland, wliicli were taken from the 
diocese of Durham, to which they bad up to Uiat time 
belonged. From its establishment till 1856, this 
diocese was the smallest in England, the whole of it 
being comprised in one archdeaconry, containing only 
137 benefices ; but on the demise of Bishop Percy, on 
the 5th of February, in the year just named, it was, 
under the provisions of and 7 AYilliam IV. c. 77, and 
of an order in council made in August, 1847, greatly 
enlarged by the creation of the new archdeaconiy of 
Westmoreland, abstracted from the diocese of Chester, 
with a view to the equalising of the two sees, and by 
which arrangement upwards of 1'20 benefices, comprising 
an area of 00'2,676 acres, were added to the former. 
The diocese of Carlisle now comprises the whole of the 
counties of Cumberland aud Westmoreland (excepting 
the parish of Alston, which is within the bishopric of 
Durham), and Furness and Cartmel (Lonsdale North of 
the Sands), in the county of Lancaster. It is divided 
into two archdeaconries — the archdeacomy of Carlisle, 
comprising the deaneries of Carlisle, Allerdalc, Cum- 
berland, and Westmoreland: and the archdeaconry of 
Westmoreland, containing the deaneries of Copeland, 
Furness and Cartmel, Kendal, and Kirkby Lonsdale. 
The see of Carlisle has given to the state one lord 
chancellor, two lord treasurers, and three chancellors 
to the University of Cambridge. We subjoin a list of 
the ai-chdeaconries, deaneries, and parishes which at 
present (1858) form the diocese. ' 



AUballows, P.C. 
Aspatria, V. 
Bassenthwaite, P.C. 
Bolton, R. 
Bridekirk, E. 
Brougliton. Great, P.C. 
Bromfidil, V. 

AUonby, P.C. 
Caldbeck, R. 
CamertoD, P.C. 

Crosscanonbv, P.C. 

Maryporf, P.C. 
Crostliwaite, V. 

Borrowdale, P.C. 

Newlands, I'.C. 

St John, Kesnick, P.C. 

St. Jolin-in-the-Vale, P.C. 

Tliornthwaite, P.C. 

Wythbum, P.C. 
Dearham, V. 
Flimby, P.C. 

fiilcrux, V. 

Holme Cultram, P.C. 

St. Culhbert, P.C. 

St. Paul, P.C. 

Ireby, P.C. 
Isel, V. 
Kirkbride, R. 
I'lumbland, R. 
Torpenhow, V. 
Uldale, R. 
AVestward, P.C. 
Wigton, V. 


Aikton, R. 
Arthiiret, R. 
]'.ewonstlo, R. 
liowness, R. 
Brampton, V. 
Burgh by Sands, V. 
Carhsle, St. Mary, P.C. 
Holy Trinity, P.C. 
St. Cutl.bert, P.C. 
Christchurch, P.C. 
Upperby, P.C. 
Wrcay, P.C. 
Castlecarrook, R. 
■ Crosby on-Eden, V. 
Cumrew, P.C. 
Cumwhitton, P.C. 
Dalston, \. 

High Head, P.C. 
Denton Nether, R. 
Denton Over, P.C. 
Farlam, P.C. 
Grinsdale, P.C. 
Hayton, P.C. 
Hesket in the Forest, P.C. 

Armathwnite, P.C. 
Irthington, V. 
Kirkandrews upon-Eden, R. 

w. Beaumont, R. 
Kirkandrews-upon-Esk, R. 
Kirkbampton, R. 
Kirklinton, R. 
Lanercost, P.C. 

Gilsland, P.C. 
Nichol Forest, P.C. 
Orton, R. 
Rockliffe, P.C. 
Scaleby, R. 
Sebergham, P.C. 
Stanwix, V. 

St. John, HonghtOD, P.C. 
Stapleton, R. 
Thursby, V. 
Walton, P.C. 

Wethcral P.C. w. Wanvick.P.C. 
St. Paul, Holm Edeu, P.C. 
Scotby, P.C. 

deanehy of cumberlasd. 

Addingbam, V. 
Ainstable, V. 


Castlesowcrby, V. 

Raughtou Head, P.C 
Croglin, R. 
Dacre, V. 
Edenhall, V., wiili 

wathby, C. 
Greystoke, R. 

Matterdale, P.C. 

Mungrisdalo, P.C. 

Threlkeld, 1'. C. 

Water MiUoch, P.C. 
Huttou-in-the-Forest, R 
Kirkland, V. 

Culgaith, P.C. 
Kirkoswald, V. 
Lazonby, V. 

Plumpton, I'.C. 
Jlelmcrby, R. 
Newton ]leigny, P.C. 
Ouseby, R. 
Penrith, V. 

Christ's Church, P.C. 
Renwick, P.C. 
Salkeld, Great, R. 
Skelton, B. 


Appleby, St. LanTence, V. 

St. Michael, V. 

Murton, P.C. 
Ashy, R. 
Askham, V. 
Bampton, Y. 
Barton, V. 

Martindale, P.C. 

Patterdale, P.C. 
Brough under Stanemore, V. 

Stanemore, P.C. 
Brougham, R. 
Clibum, R. ' 
CUfton, R. 
Crosby Garret, R. 
Crosby Ravensworth, V. 
Dufton, R. 
Kirkby Stephen, V. 

Moilerstang, P.C. 

Soulbv, P.C. 
Kirkby Thore, R. 

Milbum, P. C. 

Temple Sowerby, 
Lowther, R. 
Slarton, Long. E. 
norland, V. 

Bolton, P.C. 

Thrimby, P.C. 
Blusgrave, Great, R. 
Newbiggin, R. 
Ormside, R. 
Orton, V. 

Ravenstonedale, P.C. 
Shap, V. 

Mardale, P.C. 

Swindale, P.C. 
Warcop, V. 



1 In this list E, means Rectory, Y. Vicarage, and P. C. Perpetual 

Dendron, P.C. 
Cartmel Fell, P.C. 
Field Broughton. P.C. 
Flookburgb, P.C. 
Lindale, P.C. 
Slaveley, P.C. 

Colton, P.C. 

Finsthwaite, P.C. 

Haverthwaite, P.C. 

Rusland. P.C. 
Dalton in Furness, V. 

Kirby, P.C. 

Raniside, P.C. 

Walney, P.C. 
Hawkshead, V. 



HawksheaJ — Dissiugton, E. 

Brathay, P.C. Drigg, P.C. 

Sattertliwaite, P.C. Egremont, R. 
Kirkby Irelelh, V. St. John's, C. 

lii'oughton ill Furuess, I'.C. Goslbrtli, 11. 

Seatliwaite, I'.C. Harrington, R. 

Woodland, I'.G. Haile.P.C. 

PenningtoD, V. Irton, P.C. 

Ulvcrstone, P.O. Lamplugli, E. 

Blawitb, P.C. Millom, Holy Trinity, V. 

Conistone, P.C. Tliwaites, P.C. 

Egton and Newland, P.C. Ulplia, P.C. 

Holy Trinity, P.C. Moresby, R. 

Lowick, P.C. Muncaster, P.C. 

Tor\er, P.C. Ponsonby, P.C. 

Urswick, V. Wabertbwaite, K. 

Uordsea, P.C. Whicbam, R. 

Grange, P.C. Whilbeck, P.C. 

Whitehaven. See Bees, St, 

oEAjiiatT 01 KuiKBY LOS3j>ALE. Workiugton, R. 

Kirkbv Lonsdale, V. ^::/°''°^',F-^- 

Barbon, P.C. C'^fto'". ^■^■ 
Castcrton, P.C. 
Firbauk, P.C. deasery or kehdal. 

Hutlon Roof, P.C. Beetham, V. 

Killington, P.C. Wilherslack, P.C. 

Mansergh, P.C. Burton in Kendal, V. 

Middkton, P.C. Holme, P.C. 

Preston Patrick, P.C. 
DEX-NEEY OF COPKI.A.VD. Grassmere, R. 

Arlecdon, P.C. Ambleside, P.C. 

Beckermet, St Bridget, P.C. Langdale, P.C. 

St. John's, P.C. Eydal, P.O. 

Oalder Bridge, P.C. ' Heversham, V. 

Bees, St., P.C. Crossthwoite, P.C. 

Ennerdalc, P.C. Crosscrayke, P.C. 

Eskdale, P.C. Lcvens, P.C. 

Hcnsingham, P.C. Milnthorpe, P.C. 

Loweswater, P.C. Kendal, V. 

Mount Pleasant, P.C. St. George, P.C. 

Nether Wasdalc, P.C. St. Thomas, P.C. 

St James, Whitehaven, P.C. Bumeside, P.C. 

St Nicholas, ditto, P.C. Crook, P.C. 

Trinity, ditto, P.C. Grayrigg, P.C. 

Wasdale Head, I'.C. Helsington, P.C. 

Bootle, E. Hugil, or Ings, P.C. 

Brigham, V. Kentmerc, P.C. 

Buttennere, P.C. Long Sleddale, P.C. 

Cockcrmnulli, P.C. Natland, P.C. 

Embleton, P.C. New Hutton, P.C. 

Lorton, P.C. Selside, P.C. 

Mosser, P.C. Staveley, P.C. 

Setnnirthy, P.C. Under Barrow, P.C. 

Wytliop, P.C. AVinster, P.C. 

Clealor, P.C. Windermere, R. 

Comey, E. Birtliwaitc, I'.C. 

Dean, E. 'J'routbeek, P.C. 

The patronage of the bishop consi.sts of the right of 
preseutatioii to the archdeaconries of the diocese, the 
four cauonries in the cathedral, and the following 
thirty-eight benefices: — 

Alllmllows, P.O., Cumberland £%0 

Appleby, St Michael, V., Westmoreland . . . 175 

Applelhwaite, P.C, Westmoreland IW 

Asby West, C. (Line), Lincoln 64 

Asputrin, v., Cumberland 24!) 

Bromlleld, v., Cumberland 270 

Caldbcck, R., Cumberliuul 4;t(i 

Chellasloii, V. (Licit.), Derby 80 

Clibiirii, R., Westmoreland ]S8 

Chflon, R., Westmoreland l.'iO 

Crosby ou-Kden, v., Cumberland 1)0 

Crosthwoitc, V., Cumberland 4;!0 

Dalston, V., Cumberland 283 

Denton Nether, R., Cumberiand i'19G 

Gilcrux, v., Cumberluud HIO 

Homcastlc, V. CLi'dc), Lincoln (Jl2 

Lazonby, V., Cumberland 551 

Mai'eham, R. (Line), Lincoln 355 

Mareham-on-the-Hill, P.O. (Line), Lincoln. . . 80 

Melbourne, V. (Lich.), Derby 170 

Morseby, R. (Line), Lincoln 140 

Mount Pleasant, P.C, Cumberland, alternately with 

Crown IflO 

Musgrave, R., Westmoreland 149 

Newburn, Y. (Durh.j, Northumberland . . . 230 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, V. (DurU.), Northumberland . 474 

Newton Eeiguey, P.C, Cumberland 80 

Ormside, R., Westmoreland ICR 

Oushy, R., Cumberland 35:! 

Penrith, V., Cumberiand 200 

Eotliburv, R. (,D»r/».), Northumberland. . . . 1106 

Salkeld,E., Cumberiand 345 

Scaleby, R., Cumberland 107 

Stanwix, V., Cumberland 264 

ToyntoD, High, P.C. (Line), Lincoln. ... 80 

Torpeuhow, V., Cumberland 305 

Waikworth, V. (Durh.), Xortliumberland . . . 523 

Wigton, Y., Cumberland ' . . . 150 

Woodeuderby, P.C. (Line), Lincoln .... 5U 


The first foundation of the Priorj of St. Mary is in- 
volved in obscurity, but it is generally supposed to have 
been founded in the reign of Eufus, when the city was 
rebuilt, and its various ediiices restored. Little pro- 
gress, however, was made during the lifetime of the Red 
king, and it was reserved for the first Henry to finish 
the work and attach to it a community of secular priests, 
over whom he placed the Sa.xon Athelwald, as prior. 
This was in 1101. Some years afterwards, in 1129, 
Henry's sou. Prince Henry, was lost with many of his 
companions in the ill-fated Wliite Ship, and all tra- 
ditions agree that it was to the sorrow felt by the English 
monarch on that occasion that we owe the foundation 
of the bishopric of Carlisle. " Twenty years before," 
says the present Bishop of London, " the king liad gone 
on with A\'illiain Rufus' work, and had, as we have seen, 
founded here a college of secular priests. Ho had com- 
pleted the Xoi-man cliurch, with its nave, transepts, and 
a choir much smaller than the present structure, and 
iu proportion to the nave ; he had endowed it with the 
titlies of the churches in the forest of Inglewood, and 
now, by the advice of Prior Athelwald, he determined 
to do a greater work for this northern district. He 
founded the bishopric, and changed his secular priests 
into monks. This design, however, took some time to 
be matured, and probably was not fully accomplished 
till 1133, within a few yeais of Henry's death ",' when 
Athelwald became the first bisliop of Carlisle. 

llis successor in tlie government of the priory was 
AV alter, who, previous to his embracing the religious 
life, had been a soldier, and had followed the fortunes 

1 .\n Historical Sketch of Carlisle Cathedral p. M. 



of the Conqueror from Noruiaiuly. As a reward for bis 
valorous conduct the guarJiauship of Carlisle ^vas 
entrusted to his care, and during bis term of offico 
the vralls and fortifications of the city were restored. 
Extensive grants of lands and manors in the neigh- 
bourhood seem to have been bestowed upon him ; and 
amongst other possessions ho held the lordship over 
Stanwix and St. Cuthbert's. He subsequently joined 
the community of St. Mary's, and when Athclwald was 
raised to the episcopate, became the second prior. Walter 
enriched the priory with the lands and other possessions 
which his stout arm had won, and was long looked up 
to by the brotherhood as their greatest benefactor. 
The property given to the convent by this prior con- 
sisted of the manors of linstock, Rickerby, Crosby, 
Little Crosby, Walby, Bruuskcw, Carleton, Little 
Carleton, and the Wood ; also the churches of St. 
Cuthbert, in Carlisle, and St. Michael, Sanwix.' 

Prior John succeeded Walter, and governed the 
commmiity in Bishop Bernard's time. He is stated 
to have granted Waitcroft and Flimby to the lord of 

Bartholomew occurs as fourth prior. His name is 
found as a witness to several old charters ; and he and 
the community confirmed the appropriation of the 
church of Orton, in Westmoreland, to the priory of 

Ralph is the next prior on record, and during his 
government the abbey of Holme Culti-am, received from 
the prior and convent of Carli.slo, tho appropriation of 
the church of Burgh-upon-Sands. 

We know no more than the names of the next six 
priors, they were respectively, Robert de MorviUe, 
Adam de Felton, Alan, John de Ilalton (who was raised 
to the see in 1292), John de Kendal, and Robert. 

Adam de Warthwic succeeded Prior Robert. Hutch- 
inson says that " he was in contention with the bishop, 
and in 1300, at his visitiition, articles were exhibited 
against him. Warthwic being old and infirm, resigned 
in 1304, with a pension of twenty marks arising out of 
Langwathby tithes." 

Wilham de Hautwyssel was the next prior, but he 
only held the oflSce for four years, when he resigned, 
and was succeeded by 

Robert de Helperton, who governed the convent for 
about seventeen years. 

Symon de Hautwyssel, WiUiam de Hastworth, 1325 ; 
John de Kirby, and GaUrid were the successors of 
Robert de Helperton. 

John de Homcastle, 1352, was the next prior. 
During the period of liis government Bishop Welton 
1 Jefferson's Carlisle, p. lis. 

made inquiries concerning the appropriate churches 
belonging to the convent, and certified them accord- 
ingly. The convent underwent four episcopal visita- 
tions during the time Prior Homcastle held office. In 
consequence of his age and infirmities he resigned in 
1370, his successor being 

Richard de Ridal, who, having leave of absence for 
a time, Jlartin de Brampton was appointed to the 
guardianship of the convent. 

John de Penrith was his successor, and resigned in 

William dc Dalstou, the next prior, refused to take 
the oath of canonical obedience to the bishop, who 
thereupon excommunicated him, but the prior appealed 
to the king, who issued a writ to stop further proceed- 
ings. The difficulty was shortly afterwards amicably 
arranged, and the prior, being preferred, at once 
resigned his priory, and was succeeded by 

Robert de Edcnhall, who was elected in 1386. 

Thomas de Hcton, of an ancient Cumberland family, 
was his successor, and was followed by 

Thomas Elye, who built New Layth's Grange, near 

Thomas Barnaby became prior in 1433; after whom 

Thomas de Haithwaite was elected. 

Thomas Gondibour was the next prior. He improved 
the priory building, to which he made considerable 
additions, and in many ways proved a great benefactor 
to the community. 

Simon Senhouse succeeded Prior Gondibour in 1507, 
and carried on the works commenced by his predeces- 
sor. He repaired and beautified the square tower 
within the precincts of the priory, besides ornamenting 
other portions of the building. He was succeeded by 

Christopher Slee, who erected the gatehouse at the 
western entrance to the priory, on which the request, 
" Orate pro anima Christopher Slee, prioris, qui primus 
hoc opus fieri iucepit, A. D. 1528," is inscribed. — 
Growing old and infinn, Prior Slee resigned his office 
in 1532, and retired upon a pension of £'25 per annum. 

Lancelot Salkeld, the next and last prior, lived at 
the period of the suppression of the rehgious houses, 
and, on the 9th of January, 1540, surrendered the 
priory to the commissioners of Henry VIII., who, two 
years afterwards, founded, in its stead, an estabhsh- 
ment consisting of a dean, four prebendaries, eight 
minor canons, a sub-dean, four lay clerks, or singing 
men, a grammar master, six choi'isters, a master of 
choristers, six alms-men, a verger, two sextons, and 
other persons ; granting to them the site of the priory 
and the greater pai-t of its revenues, together with the 
revenues of the dissolved priory of Wetheral. In the 



new foundation the church is called " Tlie Church of 
the lloly and UudiTided Trinity," and Sallield was 
constituted the first dean. Thus ends the history of 
the priory of St. Mary. Tlie revenues were valued hy 
Dugdalo at ill8 3s. 4d, ; by Speed at £181 8s. Id. 
We subjoin the succession of deans, prebendaries, &c., 
from the foundation to the present time : — 


1510. Lancelot Salield, the last prior of St. Jlary's, (lepriveil 

on the accession ot Edward VI. ; restored in the reign 

of Marv, and again ejected by Queen Elizabeth ; died 

in 1500'. 
1M7. Sir Thomas Smith, appointed on SnlUeld's deprivation by 

Edward VI.; ejected by Queen Mary, but restored by 

Elizabeth ; died in 1577. 
1877. Sir John Woolev, M.A. ; died in 1595. 
1590. Christopher Perliins, L.L.D. ; died in 1C2-2. 
]n-J-,>. Francis Wliite, S.T.r. ; electe.l bishop of Carlisle in 1020. 
1626. WiUiam I'utterson, S.T.P. ; became dean of Exeter in 

1030. Thomas Comber, S.T.P. ; deprived by the parliament in 

1642; died in 1053. 
3060. Guy Carlelon, D.D., prebendai-y of Durham; promoted 

to the see of liristol in 1071. 
1071. Thomas Smith, D.D.; elected bishop of Carlisle in 16S4. 
1081. Thomas Musgrave, D.D.,prtbeudary of Cliichester; died 

in 1880. 
1680. William Graham, D.D., prebendary of Durham; became 

dean of Wells iu 1704. 

1701. Francis Atterbury, D.D., chaplain to William and Mary; 

appointed dean of Christ Church in 1711. 
1711. George Smalridge, D.D., prebendary of Lichfield; pro- 
moted to Christ Church, 1713. 
I7l;l. Thomas Gibson, U.D., rector of Greystoke ; died in 1710. 
1716. Thomas TuUie, L.L.D., chancellor of Carlisle; died in 

1727. George Fleming, L.L.D. ; elected bishop of Carlisle in 

1734. Robert Bolton, L.L.D., vicar of St. llary's, Beading, 

Berks ; died in 1703. 
1761. Charles Tarrent, D.D. ; became dean of Peterborough in 

the same year. 
1761. Thomas Wilson, D.D., prebendary of Carlisle ; died in 

1778. , _ 
1778. Thomas Percy, D.D., chaplain to George III; promoted 

to the see of Dromoro in 1782. 
1782. Jeffrey Kkins, D.D., lector of Sedgefield, Durham ; died 

in '1792. 

1702. Isaac Milner, D.D., F.R.S., professor of mathematics, and 

master of Queen's College, Cambridge; died in 1820. 
1880. Eobcrt Hodgson, D.D., F.RS., rector of St. George's, 

Hanoversiiuaro, London. 
1811. John Anthony Cramer, D.D. ; died in 1818. 
1818. Samuel Hinds, D.D. ; promoted to tho see of Kornich 

in 1849. 
18S0. A. C. Tail, D.C.L. ; promoted to the sco of London in 

1856. Fnincis Close, D.D. 


Oerrose do Lowiher, in tho 

reigns of Henr)' II., 1323. 
Uichard I., John, and 1351. 
part of the reign of 
Henry III. 1301. 

1203. Atneric do Theobald, 

rector of Dnlslon, 111."). 

Alexander do Lucy. 1503. 

1230. Kobert. 1521. 

123:t. Peter do Koss. 1548. 

1293. Uichard. 1567. 

1302. P.'tcr dc Insula. 15S8. 

1311. Gilbert do UaltoD. 1S9I). 

Henry de Korliol. 
William de Kendalo. 
Richard do Arthurct. 
William de Rotherby. 
Johu do Appleby. 
• • • 
John de Kirkcby. 
Hugh do Uacre. 
William liowerbank. 
George Neville. 
Ueniy Dellrick. 
Richard Pickington. 

1 702. 










Giles Robinson, D.D. 1743. 

Nicholas Dean. 1750. 

Isaac Singleton. 1777. 

Lewis West. ' 1782. 

John Peachill, B.D. 1805. 

Thomas Jlusgr.ive, MA. 1827. 

William Nicolson, M.A, 1855. 

Joseph Fisher, M..\. 1850. 
George Fleming, M.A. 
William Fleming, M.A. 

Edmund Law, M„4. 

^'enn Eyre, JI.A. 

John Law, D.D. 

William Paley, D.D. 

Charles Anson, M.A. 

Wm. Goodenough, M..4. 

Wilham Jackson, D.D. 

Robert W. Evans, B.D., 
archdeacon, Westmore- 



Adam de Kirbythore. 1311. 
Robert de llelperton and 

William de Gosford. 1335. 
Adam de .\ppleby. 

Thomas de Halton. 1342. 

Abbot of Holme Cultram. 1352. 

John de Horncaslle, John 1355. 

de Applebv, aud Adam 1373. 

de Caldbeck. 1379. 

Wilham, rector of Bow- 1498. 

ness. 1513. 
Richard Pyttes. 

Adam de Appleby. 
Walter de Ullesby. 
Robert de Southayke. 
John de Appleby. 
John de Stoketon. 
Nicholas de Whitby. 
Adam de Caldbeck. 
William de Eowness. 
William del Hal. 
John Whelpdale. 
Nicholas Williamson.' 


H. Deltrick, M.A., L.L.B. 1667. 
Gregory Scott. . 1683. 

Thomas Burton, L.L.B. 1727. 
Thos. Hammond, L.L.B. 1705. 
H. Deltrick, M.A., L.L.B. 1 785. 
H. Deltrick, M.A., L.LJ3. 1795. 
Henry Woodward. 1804. 

Isaac Singleton. 1814. 

Robert Lowther. 1855. 

Henry Marshall, M.A. 

Rowland Nichols, M.A. 
Thomas TuUie, JI.A. 
John Waugh, M..A. 
Richard Burn, L.L.D. 
WiUiam Paley, M.A. 
Joseph Dacre Carlyle. 
Browne Grisdale, D.D. 
Walter Fletcher, M.A. 
Charles J. Burton, M.A. 


William Florens. 
Hugh SeweU, D.D. 
Edmund Bunnic, B.D. 
Richard Snowden. 
Lancelot Dawes. 
Thomas Smith, S.T.P. 
Thomas Canon, B.D. 
William Sill, M.A. 
William Nicolson. 
John Atkinson, M.A. 
Edward Birket, M.A. 
Johu Waugh, M.A. 
J. L. Lusliington, JI..\. 
George Henry Law, M.A, 
William Vausittart. 
Uem-y Percy, JI.A. 


Edward Losh. 
William Parrye, D.D. 
John E. Tremcllin-^. 
Edwin Sandys, D.D. 
Edward Mitchell, L.L.B. 
John Maybray. 
Thomas Tookie, L.L.B. 
John Barnes. 
Thomas Fairfax, S.T.P. 
John Meve, L.l .B. 
William jleye, .M.A. 
Thoina-s Fairfax, juii. 
Frederic Tunstall, M..\. 
Arthur Savage, M..\. 
George Fleming, M.A. 

1727. John Waugh, M.A. 
1765. Robert Wardle, M.A. 
1773. John Law, M..\. 
17 sj. Joseph Hudson, D.D. 
1811. R. P. Goodenough, M.A. 
1S20. Edmd. Goodenough, D.D. 
1815. Henry Gipps, M..\. 


1542. Bernard Kirkbride. 
1501. Gregory Scott, M.A. 

1576. Thomas Biuton, L.L.B. 

1577. Anthony Walkwood, 
l(il2. Bernard" Robinson, D.D. 
1037. Lewis West, M.A. 
1007. John Peachel, B.D. 
1669. Thomas Musgrare, M.A. 
1070. John Ardrev, M.A. 
10S4. Thomas Tullie, 3I..\. 
1710. Thomas Benson, >LA. 
1727. Richard Holme, M.A. 
1738. William Fleming, M..\. 
1743. Thomas Wilson, .M.A. 
1704. Roger Baldwin, M..\. 
1801. Robert Jlarkhani, M.A. 
1837. C. G. V. Hareonrt, M.A. 

rOCRTlI ."(TALI.. 

154'. Richard Brandling. 
1570. Arthur Key. 
1575. Thomas Burton, L.L.O. 
15711. (ieorge Flower, 
15'^2. Edward Hansby. 
1581. Edward Itlayplate. 
1021. John Fletcher, B.D. 

1 In 1570 Bishop Bonios granted a patent to Chancellor Scott, by 
which tlio powers of official and vicor-gcueral « eiv given to tlie chan- 
cellor, and sine] that period the three oiBccs have been united. 



1C32. "V\'illiam Doddinp, JI.A. 1730. Thomas TuUie, L.L.E. 

1(137. Richard Smith, B.l). 1742. Krasmus Head, M.A. 

KU.'i. Henry Sutton, JI.A. 170:1. .TnsephAmiihlctt, L.L.I). 

16fi(). Georjjo liuchanan. i7b>n. William Va.\oy, M.A. 

16Gfi. Henry Marshall, JI.A. 17'J5. AVm. ShecpsbanUs, M.A. 

1GC7. Jeremy Nelson, M.A. 1810. S. J. Goodenough, M.A. . 

1085. Hugh Todd, M.A. 18&H. AVilUam Jackson, D.D. 

The Dean anil Chapter of Carlisle possess the 

patronage of the following twenty-nine benefices : — 

Addingham, V. Cumberlnnd Xa53 

Appleby, Y., AVestraorcland 300 

Bassenthwaite, P.C., Gnniberland .... 150 

Bewcastle, K., Cumberland 

Camerton, P.C., Cumberland 

Carlisle, Clirist Church, I'.C 150 

„ St. Cuthbert, P.C 150 

„ St. Mary's, P.C 7Q 

„ Upperby, I'.C 

„ Wreay, P.C 80 

Castlecarroek, I!., Cumberland 98 

Castlesowerby, V., Cumberland 98 

Corbridge, V. (Dwr.), Northumberland . . . 482 

Crosscnnonby, P.C, Cumberland .... IDO 

Cumrcw, P.C., Cumberlnnd 81 

Cumwhitton, P.C, Cumberland .... 102 

!Kdenhall, V.. Cumberland 178 

Hayton, P.C, Cumberland 123 

Hesket, P.C, Cumberland 150 

Hmton, R., Cumberland. . . . • . 133 

Ireby, P.C, Cumberland 04 

Kirkland, V., Cumberland 221 

Morland, v., Westmoreland 177 

Eockliff, P.C, Cumberland 100 

Sebergham, P.C, Cumberland 139 

Thursby, V., Cumberland 100 

Westward, P.C, Cumberland 120 

Wetheral, with Warwick, P.C, Cumberland . 140 

Whittinghaui, V. {Dur.), Noi-thumherland . . 040 


The figures deaotu the value of the incomes, and the date when each 
di^itary was inducted. 


Hon. and Fa. Eev. H. Montagu Villiers, D.D. . ;£4,500 . . 185C. 


Vei7 Rev. Francis Close, :M.A., 1850. 


C. G. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., 1837. Henry Gipps, M.A., 1845. 
Henry Percy, M.A., 1847. William Jackson, D.D., 1858. 


Carlisle.— Ven. \\m. Jackson, D.D..f 200.. 1855. 
Westmorehmd.—Ven. Robert W. Evans, D.D. .£200. . 1850. 


Worshipful Chai-les James Burton, M.A., 1855. 


William Bell, JI.A. 


William Reos, M.A. (Sacrist), 1819. T. G. Livingston, M.A., 
(Precentor), 1855. F. S. Tireman, M.A., 1855. 

bishop's examining CHAPLAIN. 

T. R. Bilks, M.A. 


Joseph MUner, M.A., 1323. G. G. Mounsey, Esri-, 1818. 


John B. Lee, Esq., London ; and G. G. Mounsey, Esq., Carlisle. 


Mr. Ford. 


C. J. Burton, M.A., 1857. Benjamin Ward, 1357. 


The castle occupies a fine situation on an eminence 
at the north-west extremity of the city, and is popularly 
said to stand upon the site of a Roman fortress. Its 
origin is generally ascribed to AVilliam Ilufus, though 
some writers think, and not without good reason, that 
the Conqueror would not fail to perceive the strong and 
important position occujiied by Carlisle, and would not 
think of leaving it unprotected, or exposed to the 
attacks of the Scots, -^^-ithout some means of defence. 
It is, however, certain that iu the reign of Eufus the 
castle was put into a state of defence, and the fortifica- 
tions were further strengthened by Henry I., in 1122. 
David of Scotland, who obtained possession of Carlisle 
iu 1135, assisted in the completion of the works. From 
the numerous sieges which the castle from time to time 
sustained, its defences became much weakened, and 
when, iu 1217, Archbishop Gray amved at Carlisle, 
to take possession of the fortress for the English crown, 
he found it in a very dilapidated condition. In 1230 
it is again reported as in a decayed state. In 1302 
Bishop Halton, who was governor of the castle, ex- 
pended £275 14s. 7d. in repairing the structure; in 
1341 repairs were again needed. We hear no more of 
the fortifications till 1522, when the castle appears to 
have mounted 43 pieces of cannon. Dm-ing the reign 
of Henry VIII. some additions were made, and the 
whole fortress put into a state of repair. It was at 
this period that the citadel was built, to strengthen 
the defences of the southern j)*"^* of the city. Li 
the reign of Elizabeth, in consequence of a report 
being made of the condition of the fortifications, 
the queen ordered the whole to be repaired, and tho 
castle and citadel to be furnished with guns and 
ammunition. Dunng the period of the Commonwealth, 
the keep was converted into u battery, and other altera- 
tions made in the defences of the place. From this 
time nothing of importance is recorded of tho castle 
till the rising of 1745, when it fell into the hands of 
the Scots, as we have seen at page 94. 

The castle contains two wards, an inner and outer, 
the entrance to the latter being from the south, through 
a tower, v.hich is embattled and defended by a strong 
gate and portcullis In front of this entrance there was 
foiTnerly a drawbridge across the moat which extended 
along that side of the fortress The outer ward is exten- 
sive, and includes a good parade ground for the garrison, 
barracks for fifteen olficers and upwards of 200 men, an 
hospital, and a house for the master gunner. On the 
north-west angle of the wall is a bastion, upon which 
six guns were foiTaerly mounted; five guns were upon 
the battery of the south-west angle, and between these 



is a semi-bastion, wliich contains embrasures for two 
guns. The walls of this ward are embattled, and are 
eighteen feet iu height by nearly nine in thickness. 
The inner ward, which is separated from tlic outer one 
by a rampart, is entered through an arched gateway, 
the passage to which, up to a recent period, was pro- 
tected by a halfraoon battery, and a ditch with a draw- 
bridge, to which the approach was by a covered way; 
a subterranean passage connected this battery and 
the keep. The chapel, ()ueen Mary's Tower, a hall, 
and a barracks, were all in this ward. The hall was 
talcen down in 1827, and a magazine erected upon its 
site ; the chapel has been converted into barracks and 
a mess-room for the officers of the garrison ; the old 
ban-acks was taken down in 1812. Queen Clary's 
Tower was situated at the south-east angle of the cattle, 
and derived its name from having been the place in 
which tlio unfortunate Scottish queen was confined 
during her stay in Carlisle. It was of a much better 
style of architecture than the other buildings ; but, iu 
consequence of its insecure state its demolition was 
deemed advisable iu 1834-5. On the south side of 
this ward the castle^was defended by a battery of eight 
guns, and on the north by a battery armed with nine; 
the total number of guns mounted on the castle, when 
its defences were complete, being thirty. The keep is, 
liowever, the most prominent and most interesting part 
of the castle, and though it has borne the storms of 
seven hundred winters, and sustained many a fierce 
assault and many a lengthened siege, it still stands 
a noble and enduring monument of the architecture 
introduced by the Normau conquerors of England. 
It is nearly square ; its dimensions arc sixty-six feet by 
sixty-one, and its height si.tty-eight feet. The wall 
fronting the city is eight feet in thickness, the others 
are each fifteen feet thick. A well, seventy-eight feet 
in depth, and supposed to be the work of the Itomans, 
is situated within the north wall. The keep comprises 
three stories, exclusive of the ground floor, each of 
which is sixteen feet in height. The dungeons arc 
situated in tlie latter ; the upper rooms ser^'ing as 
military store-rooms or barrack-rooms. 

The following is a list of the governors of Carlisle, 
arranged under the dilTcrent reigns, and iu chronolo- 
gical order as far as has been ascertained ; — 

HrsRT II. .Tobn Bnliol. 
liobert de Vnux, or Vallibus. Kobert Briicc. 

Jqijj. \Villiam de Fortibus. 

William de SlutJvillo. V-a^l'^ce dc IJaliol. 

nobort do Vuux. ""S'jr ''"^ Lejl^umo- 

Hknry III. Edward I. 

Robert de Votoripont. Robert de liamptoD. 

Gilbert de Curwen. 

AVilliam de Boyville. 

Robert Bruce. 

Jlicbael de Herein. 

John Halton. 

Alexander do Bassenthwaito. 

Edwaiu) II. 
John de Castre. 
Andrew de Hercla. 
I'iers de Gaveston. 
Ralph Fitzwilliam. 
John Halton. 

Edward III. 
Ranulph de Dacre. 
p Anthony, Lord Lucy. 
John de Glanton. 
John ICirby. 
Sir Hugh de Moresby. 
Thomas, Lord Lucy. 
Rowland de Yaux. 
Sir Richard de Denton. 
Sir Hugh do Lowther. 


Henry Percy, earl of Northnm- 

Ralph, Lord Neville. 

John, Lord Ross. 

John HaUand, earl of Hun- 

Sir Lewis Clifford, Knt. 

Henky IT. 
Henry, Lord i'ercy. 

Richard, Duke of Gloucester. 

Sir Richard SaUceld, Knt. 

IlENnv VII. 

Sir Richard Sallicld, Knt. XIXI. 
Thomas, Lord Wharton. 
William, Lord Dacre. 

William do Diicre. 
Thumas do .MuUou. 

Rirhard de llolebrok. 
John do Swiuburn. 

Edward VI. 
Williara, Lord Dacre. 
John, Lord Conyers. 

William, Lord Dacre. 

Henry, Lord Scrope. 
■WJUiam, Lord Dacre. 

Charles I. 
Sir Nicholas liyron, Knt. 
Sir Henry Stradhug. 
Sir John Brown. 
Sir William Douglas. 
Sir William Livingston. 
Sir Philip Musgrave. 
Jeremiah Tolhurst. 
Colonel Thomas Fitch. 

Charles II. 
Sir Philip JIusgrave, Bart. 
Sir Christopher Musgrave, Bart. 

James II. 
Francis Howard. 

William III. 
Clinrles Howard, earl of Car- 
Jeremiah Bubb. 

George I. 
Charles Howai-d, earl of Car- 

Georoe II. 
Colonel Durand. 
General John Stanwix. 

GEoitor, III. 
Henry Vane, carl of Darlington. 
Lieut.-gen. Montgomery Agnew. 
Lieut.-gcn. Robert Burne. 

George IV. 
Sir George A. Wood, K.C.B. 

William IV. 
Lieut.-gen. the Hon. J. Ramsay.' 

The ancient walls from wliich the citizens of Carlisle 
so often resisted the attacks of the Scots have well 
nigh disappeared, the only remaining portions being 
nearly all on the west side of the city. They were 
long in a state of great dilapidation, and, in many 
places, had become quite ruinous. This added to the 
fact of their being no longer needed for defence, leave 
to remove them was obtained early in the present 
century. Previous to their removal tliey had long 
served as a promenade for the citizens, and from that 
part of the west wall which yet remains, fine views of 
the distant mountains of the Lake district may be ob- 
tained. Of the portion of the walls still standing, that 
part which extends from the south-west angle of the 
castle to the Gloucester Tower (so called from its 
having been erected by the Duke of Gloucester, after- 
wards Richard III., during his goveraorship) is the 
most perfect. From this spot tho wall extends in a 
southerly direction, and about fifty yards from the 
tower stood the Irish Gate, tlie site of which may be 

1 On the demise of LieuL-geu. Itiunsar, in 1837, tbc tucicut office 
of governor of Carlisle was discoiuiuued-* 



known by tbe narrowness of the road froiu Abbey-street 
to the briJge. From the Irish Gate the wall proceeds 
without interruption until it approaches the gaol, but 
its height has been considerably reduced, and near its 
termination ou the south it is concealed by numerous 
buildings which have been erected against it on the 
outside. This is the west wall, and when complete 
it formed the line of defence between the Irish and 
English Gates, the latter of which was connected with 
the citadel by a short wall. The east wall extended 
from the citadel to East Tower-street, along a hne 
which may be described as froni f()ur to five yards 
distance from the present footpath ou the west side of 
Lowther-street. At the point of junction of the east 
and north walls was a circular tower, called the 
Springold, from which the north wall was carried to 
the Scotch Gate, along East Tower-street, upon a line 
close to its north side. Between the Scotch Gate and 
the castle were three semi-cu'cular and one square 

The gates of the city were semi-circular, with double 
iron-studded doors of great strength, but without any 
architectural features deserving of particular mention, 
and until almost the close of the last century were shut 
every evening at sunset. There were apartments over 
the Scotch Gate, which served for some time as a 
prison for debtors. On this gate, as well as on the 
English Gate, were exposed the heads of the unfor- 
tunate followers of Prince Charles Stuart, where they 
remained for many years ; and Allan Cunningham 
informs us that an old lady of Dumfrics-shiro often 
mentioned to him the horror which she felt when she 
saw several heads upon the Scotch Gate at Carlisle, 
one of which was that of a youth with very long yellow 
hah: Tradition tells us that a lady, young and beauti- 
ful, used to come from a distant part and gaze at the 
head every morniug at sunrise, and every evening at 
sunset — at last the head and lady disappeared. To 
each gate a guard-house was attached, the whole of 
wliich, as well as the main guard in the market-place, 
were built during the wars "of the Commonwealth, by 
the orders of Cromwell, with the materials obtained by 
the destruction of the greater part of the nave of the 
cathedral. The main guard was removed in 1855. 

IS'othing authentic is known respecting the origin of 
the citadel, but it is generally believed to have been 
erected in the reign of Henry VIII., though some 
writers state that it formed part of the ancient fortifi- 
cations of William Piufus, and that Henry repaired and 
strengthened it. These repau-s do not seem to have been 
very substantial ones, for in an account given in the 
reign of Ehzabeth, it is stated that " the great round 

tower at the east side being paved with stone and sand 
upon a lead roof was thereby so overcharged that a 
great part had fallen to the ground ; and that two 
houses called the buttery and tbe boulting house, 
standing within the rampire wall were falling to the 
ground in consequence of their being overcharged with 
earth." The citadel consisted chiefly of two strong 
circular towers, united by a curtain wall facing the south. 
The ward was entered from English-street, and contained 
besides the buttery and the boulting house a largo 
hall, but there was little accommodation for a garrison. 
Previous to the towers being converted to their present 
use, their roofs were covered with soil and served as 
gardens. An act of parliament was obtained in 1807, 
by the provision of which the citadel and walls of 
Carlisle were granted to the justices of the county of 
Cumberland for the purpose of building courts of jus- 
tice for the county; and for tbe carrying out of this 
object the whole of the ancient fortifications, with the 
exception of the eastern bastion, were removed. 


Of the ancient conventual buildings of the Priory of 
St. Mary, as seen iu their original state, we have no 
authentic account ; but it is generally believed by those 
most capable of forming a correct judgment upon the 
subject, that they formed a quadrangle, the east side of 
which abutting upon the south transept of the cathedral, 
extended iu the same direction to the house occupied 
by the late Canon Goodeuough, as is evident from the 
vaulting of its cellars. The ruins of the cloisters were 
visible at tbe commencement of the present centur}'; 
the only portion now remaining is a blocked up doorway 
near the present south entrance to the cathedral. Over 
the cloisters on this side were the chapter house, and 
no doubt dormitories. The refectory, or fratery, formed 
the south side of the cloister quadrangle, which was 
completed by cloisters and dormitories from the west 
end of the refectory to the nave of the cathedral. The 
refectory fortunately escaped the destruction which befel 
the adjoining buildings, and in its original state was a 
noble structure in the Perpendicular style, about eighty 
feet in leugtli by thirty in breadth ; it has lately been 
restored and beautified. The interior originally formed 
the noble and spacious dining h.all of the priory, occu- 
pying nearly the whole area of the building, but it is 
now divided into several apartments, the principal being 
the chapter house, which is fitted up in an elegant 
style. On the wall opposite the windows arc three 
ancient niches, of considerable beauty, with projecting 
semi-hexagonal crenellated canopies, ornamented with 
panels, and osse and ciuque-foil arches; they are sup- 




ported hj large projecting corbels, and appear formerly 
to have held statues. At each end of this apartment 
there is a fine picture, of large dimensions, — one of 
which represents St. John the Baptist preaching in the 
■wilderness, the other the Resurrection ; they were jire- 
sented to the capitular body, about the beginning of the 
present century, by the Earl of Lonsdale. The apart- 
ment at the \yest end of the refectory is fitted up for 
the library of tlic dean and chapter, which, though 
not extensive, contains man}' valuable works, on history, 
divinity, itc, as well as several volumes of MSS. The 
original library appears to have been scattered during 
the civil wars, as the present one was founded by the 
Eev. Arthur Savage, who was a prebendary in 1000. 
It has been enlarged by subsequent contributors, among 
whom Bishop Smith stands foremost, many of the most 
valuable books having been given by him. In the 
apartment at the east end, elevated above the floor by 
three steps, is a stone ambo, or pulpit, from which grace 
was said, or passages of Scripture, or parts of the lives 
of the saints, read to the monks during dinner. The 
basement story consists of a double range of vaulting, 
plainly gi-oined, supported in the middle by short octa- 
gonal piers, from which the groining springs without 
capitals. At the intersection of the groins, there is, in 
one instance, a boss charged with the letters P. T. G., 
the initials of Prior Thomas Gondibour, thus pointing 
out the end of the fifteenth century as the period at 
which the building was erected ; at the south-west angle 
is a circular staircase, conducting to the upper apart- 
ments ; and at the south-east is a small octagonal 
turret. A little to the west of the refectory is a square 
embattled tower, which at present forms part of the 
residence of the dean. It is-not unlikely that this 
tower was formerly fortified, and in times of war used 
by the commmiity as a place of retreat, and it may 
have been the usual residence of the prior. This 
ancient structure was repaired by Prior Scnhouse, 
at tho beginning of the si.Kteenth century, and its 
principal apartment is well worthy of particular 
notice. It is lighted by two oriel windows, in part 
ornamented with stained glass, and the ceiling, which 
is of oak, is carved and painted with armorial and other 
bearings, among whicli the ragged staff and escallop 
shell are conspicuous. It is in a good state of preser- 
vation. Tho buildings connected with tho tower arc 
of more recent date, the greater part of them having 
been erected about tho year 1090 by Bishop Smith. 
Tho deanery was a short time ago improved and enlarged 
by the late dean, the present bishop of London. The 
western gate house was erected in 1528, by Prior Slee, 
ns we learn from an inscription on its inner arch. 


A Convent for the Franciscan, or Grey Friars, was 
founded in Carhsle in 13.53, and occupied a site on the 
east side of English-street, near the south-east comer 
of the city. It was bumt down in a dreadful conflagra- 
tion which took place on the 10th of May, 1292, but 
was subsequently rebuilt, and in 1315, when Carlisle 
was besieged by Bruce, the Chronicle of Lanercost tells 
us that the besiegers " caused tho greater part of their 
army to make an assault on the eastern pai't of the 
city, against the place of the Friars Minors, that they 
might draw thither the party within." From Bishop 
Nicholson's MSS. we learn that Edward III., in 1331, 
honoured the convent with a visit, but we are not 
informed how long he remained. Nothing further is 
known of this house, e.\cept that in some of the gardens 
on its site, many bones have from time to time been dug 
up, and portions of the foundations of buildings have 
sometimes been met with. 

The Dominicans, or Black Friars, were introduced 
into Carlisle in 1233, when a convent was founded for 
them. The information relating to this house is very 
meagre, and Tanner can only inform us that it was 
founded before 1207. It appears that the friars first 
took up their residence without the walls, but Leland 
mentions them as within. During the siege mentioned 
above, some of the besieging army " posted themselves 
on the western side, over against the place of the Canons 
and the Preaching Friars," the latter name being borne 
by the Dominicans, from preaching being the peculiar 
end and object of the order. The site of the convent 
was between the English Gate and St. Cuthbert's 
Church, and the name Blackfriars-street still recalls 
tho locality where the community resided. Every 
vestige of the convent and buildings has long since 
disappeared, but part of the old county gaol is said to 
have been a portion of their convent. Jeflersou says, 
" It is supposed that the buildings and site were granted 
to the Aglionby family, and it was in a garden here 
that Camden saw the Eoman sepulchral inscription, 
which has since been removed to Drawdikes Castle." 

A Nunnery seems to have been founded at Carlisle 
at a very early period, of which the sister of Ecgfrid, 
king of the Northumbrian Angles was au iumate, and 
where she was visited by St. Cuthbcrt." It appeare to 
have been destroyed during the Danish invasions, as 
every record or memorial appertaining to it has perished. 
Another institution of the s.auie kind is said to have 
been founded hero by David, king of Scotland, but we 
jiosscss no further knowledge relating to it. When 
the foundations of the present church of St. Cuthbort 
were being dug, the workmen discovered, below the 
' Sec pngc 6. 



foundation of the churcli, the remains of a buildinrj 
still luore ancient, as also several pieces of broken 
sculpture, amongst which was one representing a nun 
with veil or hood : and from tliis discovery the church 
of St. Cuthbert is supposed by some to occupy the site 
of the nunnery. 

The Hospital of St. Nicholas was situated in the 
suburbs of the city, near the southern extremity of 
Botchergate, and although the period of its establish- 
ment is unknown, it is said to have been of royal foun- 
dation. Bishop Nicholson's MSS. state that it was 
endowed for thirteen lepers, male and female, but the 
Messrs. Lysons inform us it was for twelve poor men 
and a master. A moiety of the tithes of Little Bampton 
was granted to it, before the year 1180, on condition 
that tlie parish of Bampton should always enjoy the 
privilege of appointing two of the almsmen. The hos- 
pital was burnt and totally destroyed during the siege 
of Carlisle by the Earl of Buchan, in 1-^90, but being 
afterwards rebuilt, it again experienced the same fate in 
a subsequent siege. In the year 1477, the hospital of 
St. Nicholas, viith its lands, was granted to the prior 
and convent of Carlisle, and with the other possessions of 
the priory became the property, at the Eeformation, of 
the dean and chapter. Among the payments charged 
on the capitular body by this transfer are £2 Gs. 8d. 
to the chaplain of St. Nicholas' Hospital, and £5 17s. 
to three poor bedesmen there. The buildings connected 
•with this hospital are supposed to have been destroyed 
in the civil wiu's, about the year J 640. 

Carlisle formerly possessed a free chapel dedicated 
to St. Albau, the proto-martyr of Britain, which is sup- 
posed to have been founded by some one of our English 
kings, and to which a burial ground was attached. It 
occupied a site at the head of Scotch-street and Fisher- 
street, and St. Alban's Row still points out the situa- 
tion. The cross which formerly ornamented the eastern 
end of the building is preserved in the Museum of the 
Literary and Philosophical Society, and the bell on the 
Town Hall is supposed to have belonged to this chapel. 
Some remains of the foundations may yet be discovered 
in the cellars of the houses which have been erected on 
its site. In 1350, Bishop Welton having discovered 
that the chapel and bui'ial ground had not been con- 
secrated, forbade, under pain of suspension and excom- 
munication, anyone to eelebrate or attend divine servici; 
in it. It appears to have been afterwai'ds consecrated, 
for it continued till the reign of Edward VI., when it 
shared the fate of similar establishments throughout 
the country, and was then granted by letters patent, 
with several houses belonging to it, to Thomas Dalston 
and William Denton. 


The Catholic Church of Sts. Maiy and Joseph is 
situated at the east end of Chapel-street, facing Albert- 
street. Adjoining is the Keclory, within an enclosure 
of rather more than half an acre of ground, part of 
which was for some years used as a cemetery. This 
church was opened for divine service on Christmas-day, 
1824. It owes its existence to the almost unaided 
exertions of the late venerable incumbent, the llev. 
Joseph Marshall, who was appointed to this mission 
at Christmas, 1800. After conducting its pastoral 
duties with great care and successful zeal for exactly 
half a century, he officiated for the last time on the 
morning of Christmas day, 1850, when he suddenly 
fell at the altar, and was carried in a state of uncon- 
sciousness from the church, lie survived this accident 
four years, when his long and arduoits labours were 
brought to a peaceful close on the 4 th January, 
1854, in the eighty-seventh year of his age, and the 
fifty-fourth of his residence in Carlisle. He was 
justly venerated by his ilock, which he had seen 
increase from the small number of 20 to upwards of 
4000, and was also held in high estimation by all 
classes of his fellow-citizens. The first CathoUc jilaco 
of worship established in Cailisle after the change 
of religion in this countrj-, was at the close of the 
eighteenth century, when a small building in the 
West Walls was provided for that purpose by Mr. 
Falrbairn of the Bush Hotel, and was served 
for a short time by the Eev. Charles Saul. He 
was succeeded by Mr. Marshall, the late venerable 
founder of the present church. It is a spacious build- 
ing, measuring ninety feet in length, by thirty-eight 
in breadth, and has a gallery at the west end which 
will accommodate about two hundred. In its original 
state it was not so large, and without much pretension 
to ecclesiastical style ; but within late years it has 
undergone considerable alterations, which have im- 
proved its general appearance. A handsome Gothic 
porch has been built for the staircase to the gallciT, 
and a rather lofty bell-turret erected on the east gable, 
■with spaces for three bells. The presbytery has been 
enlarged to nearly double its original size, and the 
whole premises are enclosed with a strong wall sur- 
mounted with iron palisading. In the interior of the 
church we perceive that the old ceiling has been 
removed, and the roof thrown open, and the old organ 
replaced by a new and very fine instrument built by 
the late Mr. Bishop, of London. The Ixigh altar, on 

I St. Jfnrj-'s, St. CiUhbert's, Christ Church, and Trinity Church, 
will be found described, with their porishes, Sec, nt a subsequent 
pogc. Vie give here the other churches and chapels of the city. 



wliicli stand six massive brass canJIeslicks of great 
beauty, with its altar-piece of " Christ rising from the 
tomb," executed by Mr. Nutter, a native artist, and 
the two neatly-painted side chapels, (one dedicated to 
the Jilessed Virgin and the other to St. Joseph) which 
are separated from the rest of the church by open 
screen-work, give to the interior a very imposing ap- 
pearance. The present rector of the church is the 
llev. L. Curry, his assistant the Eev. J. Dunderdde. 
The congregation is estimated to be at present about 

The Evangelical Union Church meets for worship 
in the Athenieum, Lowther-street, temporarily, and is 
under the pastoral care of the Kev. John Whitsou 
who commenced his ministerial labours with the form- 
ation of this body in November, 1854. In doctrine 
this church is Armenian, and in government Inde- 
pendent. It has been characterised by steady growth 
since its commencement, and its members anticipate 
being able, before long, to erect for themselves a neat 
and suitable place of worship. 

The Friends' Meeting-house is near the upper part 
of Fisher-street, where it was erected in 1770. The 
Society of Friends have had a meeting-house in Car- 
lisle since the time of (icorge Fox, who was imprisoned 
ill the city in 1053, during the time of the Common- 

The Independent or Congregational chapel in Low- 
ther-street was opened in 184:^. It is built of white 
freestone, from a design by Mr. Nichol of Edinburgh, 
is well fitted up, and will seat 800 persons. There 
are also commodious rooms beneath the c-hapel used for 
instructing the young and other purposes. The Inde- 
pendents had a chapel in Annetwell-street, which was 
occupied until the present one was erected. The first 
Congregational minister of the old chapel was the Rev. 
C. Hill, who was appointed in 1808. He died some 
time before 1814, when the Rev. John Whitridge was 
appointed; he resigned in 1819. In 1820 the Rev. 
Thos. Woodrow became the minister, and resigned in 

1835. He was succeeded by the Rev. Percy Stoutt in 

1836, who resigned in 1837. The next minister was the 
Rev. Robert AVolstenholmc, who continued from 1837 
to 1843, and resigned. These were the ministers of 
the old chapel. The Rev. [H. Wright was the first 
minister in the new chapel : he entered on his duties 
in 1843, and resigned in 1840. The Rev. Thomas 
Hind was minister from 1817 to 1854, and resigned. 
The Rev. AV. A. Wrigley became minister in ]8r)5, 
and resigned in 1858. The Rev. Ninian White is the 
present minister. 

A now Congregational Church has leen estabUshed 

under the ministry of the Rev. AV. A. '\\'rigley, which 
meets in the Mechanics' Hall, Fisher-street, as a tem- 
porary place of woi-ship. The first service was held 
January 10th, 1858. 

The Presbyterian Church (Scotch), Chapel-street, in 
connection with the Established Church of Scotland, 
was erected in 1834, and will accommodate upwards 
of 700 persons. The Rev. David R. Lowson, M.A., is 
the present minister. 

The Presbyterian Church (United), situate in Fisher- 
street, is an elegant structure, capable of accommodating 
about 700 persons. It was erected in 1855-0, at a cost 
of £1,15U, and was opened for public worship on the 
29th of June of the latter year. The style is Transition 
between the Nonnan and Early English. The congre- 
gation was in existence as early as the year 1707, but 
how long before that period cannot be determined, and 
was thus one of the early English Nonconformist 
Churches. At that time they met for worship at a 
place called Blackfriars, under the west wall of the city. 
The names of any of the ministers officiating there are 
not known. In the year 1731 they removed to the 
church they had erected in Fisher-street. Among 
their ministers since that period we find the names of 
Thomas Dickinson, minister in 1733 ; Israel Bennett, 
translated from Brampton, and inducted in Carlisle, in 
1745; Robert Miln, A.M., author of Physico Theolo- 
gical Lectures on the Slate of the World from tlie 
Creation to the Deluge, and other works. He was 
ordained about the year 1708, and died in 1801. His 
successor was Jame Kyle, a licentiate of the Associated 
Synod, but who, when in Carlisle, was not in ministerial 
connection with that synod. He was pastor of the 
congregation from 1800 to 1809, when he met an un- 
timely end by drowning. During the vacancy caused 
by his death the congregation connected themselves as 
a congregation with the Associated Syuod, and on the 
31st of October, 1810, George Hendei-sou, M..\., was 
ordained over them by the Presbytery of Selldik. He 
laboured among them for eight or nine years, and then 
resigned his charge and went to Canada, where it is 
believed he still is. The next minister was Richard 
Hunter, who was ordained on the 3 1st of August, 1819, 
and died on the 22nd of March, 1853. By the union 
of the General Associate Synod and the Associate 
Syuod, in September, 1830, the United Secession 
Church was fonned, and ngaiu by the union of 
the United Secession and Relief Denomination, in 
May, 1847, the United Presbyterian Church was 
formed — a denominulioii adhering to the Westminster 
Confession, and which in all its parts has ever pro- 
tested ugaiust patronage ; and has asserted tho right. 



the privilege anil the duty of the Christiau people to 
elect and support their own ministers. With this 
denomination the congregation in Carlisle came then 
to bo connected. The late pastor, the Rev. Robert S. 
Drummond, M.A., was ordained on the 29th of Septem- 
ber, 1853. During his ministry the congregation 
increased so much that it was found necessary to build 
the present large and commodious church upon the 
site of the old one. Mr. Drummond removed to 
Edinburgh in February, 1858, and was succeeded by 
the Rev. Henry Miller. 

Wesleyan Methodism was introduced into the city of ' 
Carlisle about the year 1707, by ]Mr. 'WiUiam Bell, an 
excise officer, who, at that time, resided at Longtown, 
on the Scottish border, eight miles from Carlisle. The 
Wesleyan Jlethodists having passed through great per- 
secutions in the city and neighbourhood were favoured 
with the presence and services, for the first time, of 
the Rev. John Wesley, on Good Friday, April 13th, 
1770, when he preached in a barn in Abbey-sti'eet. 
In 178-5 the first Wesleyan chapel was built in the 
city, in Fisher-street, and ten years afterwards, being 
found much too small, it received considerable addi- 
tions, and the chapel, as then enlarged, is still standing, 
the underpart of it having been converted into two 
dwelling-houses, and the upper part making the place 
of worship occupied, a few years ago, by a congregation 
of Baptists. A new and elegant chapel was built in 
another part of Fisher-street, capable of containing 
about 1100 persons, in 1817, at a cost of about £2000; 
and from that time to the present, the services con- 
ducted in it have shed a beneficial influence upon a 
considerable portion of the population of the city and 
neighbourhood. There is a large room underneath 
wliich serves as a Sunday school. In 1790 Carlisle 
first became the place of the residence of Wesleyan 
ministers, and has continued so ever since. 

The Wesleyan Free Church, Lowther-street, is a 
neat and graceful structure. The front is in the Early 
English style, and is divided into three parts, a centre 
and two side wings. The chief window is in the front, 
and consist of five lights, glazed with round and stained 
glass. There are two principal entrances, one in each 
wing, and each of the porches is lighted by a two-light 
window above the entrance. At each angle of the 
front there is a buttress crowned with a roof-shaped 
canopy. The front rises in a pyramidal form, having 
towards the top the date 1857, in a circular panel. 
The apex is finished by an elegant cross. The ceiling 
of the interior is supported on two ranges of lofty 
pillars, its central portion curved and ribbed, and the 
sides rather inclined from the horizontal. In the 

centre is an elliptical dome-light of plain and stauied 
glass. The arrangements of the interior are well adapted 
to the requirements of the congregation. The organ 
is a fine instrument by Nicholson, of Newcastle. This 
place of worship formerly belonged to the Wesleyan 
Methodist Association, the Carlisle members of which 
forming a junction with a large body of Wesleyan 
Reformers, constituted themselves the Wesleyan Free 

In addition to these churches and chapels, the Latter 
Day Saints have a meeting house in Barnes' Yard, 
Castle-street ; the New Testament Church meets for 
worship in Porters' School room, West Walls; and 
the Primitive Methodists have a chapel in Cecil-street. 


Foremost among the schools of Carlisle, both for its 
antiquity and usefulness, stands the Grammar School, 
which, as we learn from a register in the library of the 
dean and chapter, was founded by St. Cuthbert, about 
the year 68(5. Like the other ecclesiastical and educa- 
tional estabhshments of the country it sufTered much 
from the ruthless ravages of the Danes, who appear to 
have been, in this country at least, enemies to all 
mental culture. When Rufus began the priory of St. 
Mary, he also gave his attention to this school, making 
it au appendage to the monastic establishment, from 
which the teachers were appointed, and thus it con- 
tinued till the time of Henry VIIT., who, in rofounding 
the cathedral, re-established the school, and endowed it 
with an annual payment of £iO. Bishop Smith, during 
his occupancy of the see of Carlisle, gave £'500 to be 
applied for the benefit of this school, with which sum an 
estate in the parish of Addiugham was purchased, from 
the reut of which the principal part of the income, 
about £1-10 per annum, is at present derived. Dr. 
Thomas, bishop of Rochester, who received his early 
education here, left £1000 stock, the interest of which 
was to be applied for the benefit of two sons of clergy- 
men, educated here, and sent to Queen's College, Oxford. 
For a loug period the school was held in the room over 
the Abbey Gate, but, in 1832, a new and commodious 
school was erected m Eaglesfield Abbey, and, in conse- 
quence of the rapid increase in the population of the 
city, greater accommodation being necessary, large ad- 
ditions have since been made, with great advantage to 
the comfort both of masters and pupils. Among the 
eminent men which this school has produced we may 
mention the names of Bishop Thomas, of Rochester ; 
Bishop CarletoD, of Bristol ; Dr. Tullie; and Professor 

The British or Lancasterian School, Mary-street, 



i cBtnr 

Botcliorgate, is a largo and "TJBinmoJious structure, 
erected by subscription, aided by a grant of £300 from 
government, in 1833, and comprises two large rooms, 
in which about 100 children of both sexes arc educated. 
Previous to the erection of the present building, the 
school business was transacted in a large room in Water- 
gate, which was opened in 1811, when tho Lancas- 
terian school was first founded. Since its commence- 
ment, this school has been eminently successful, and 
lias conferred great benefits upon the population of the 
city. It is supported by subscription, and is managed 
by a committee of the subscribers. 

Tho Central School, for children of tlie Established 
Church, is situated on the West Walls, and is a spacious 
building, erected in 1812, upon ground leased from the 
corporation, at a nominal rent, for a long term of years. 
It is managed by a committee of subscribers. As it 
■was intended to be a school for the training of masters 
for other schools in the diocese, as well as for the instruc- 
tion of children, it receives the name of the the Diocesan 
Central School. 

Christ Church School, Day and Sunday, for boys, 
girls, and infants, is situated in Crown street. It was 
erected by subscription in 18.t9, aided by grants from 
the Committee of Council on Education, and the Na- 
tional Society, at a cost of £1400, inclusive of tho 
master's house, and the purchase of the site, and will 
accommodate nearly 100 children. This school was 
the first in Carlisle built under the minutes of the 
Committee of Council. It is under goveniment inspec- 
tion, and conducted by certificated teachers, assisted by 
pupil teachers. 

The Fawcett School was erected by public subscrip- 
tioa in 1850, as a testimonial of the veneration and 
love of the parishioners of St. Cuthbort's for tlieir pas- 
tor, the Rev. John Lawcett, and to commemorate the 
fiftieth year of his incumbency. As it was erected during 
his lifetime, he was a witness of this gratifying proof 
of public feeling. It stands upon a piece of ground ad- 
joining tho West Walls, granted by the corporation, at 
a small ainnial rent, and embraces a day school for boys, 
girls, and infants, and a Sunday-school for boys and 
girls ; in connection with the Sunday-school there is a 
sick club, and a library for tho toachei-s and scholars. 
The building is of brick with stone dressings, and com- 
prises three schoolrooms, a conuuiltee room, open and 
covered play grounds, and is well supplied with gas and 
water. Tlio cost of erection was £1700, including a 
government grant of £331. Tho schools, wiiich are 
under government inspection, are taught by certificated 
teachers, aided by pupil teachers, and supported by 
voluntary subscriptions and donations. From the an- 

nual report for 1857, we learn the following particulars. 
The treasurer's financial statement showed a balance iu 
his favour of £7 7s. 8d., against £41 4s. od. due to the 
treasurer last year. The attendance, &c., during the 
year was as follows : — 



No. on 



the Books. 


.£ 3. ll. 

Iu the boys' school .... 


7 12 (1 


In the girls' school. . . . 


1 18 11 


In the infants' school.. 


4 It) 3 



In the boys' school .... 


7 6 7 


In the girls' school.. .. 


4 11) 4 


In the infants' school.. 


5 10 6 



In the boys' school.... 


7 11 7 


In the girls' school .... 


4 14 


In the infants' school,. 


6 U 9 



In the boys' school 


7 7 11 


In the girls' scliool .... 


5 13 1 


Inthe infants' school.. 


4 3 10 


The average attendance of boj's, girls, 

and infants dnr 

ng the past 

ye;ir has, therefore, been 

25.T as cooipurcd with 229 last 

year. Tlie 

falling otf in the attendance at the infant school during the last quar- 

ter is chiefly attributable to an nnusual prevalence of measles. 

In the Sunday-school the number of scholars is 220, 
the number of teachers, 35. Evening classes under an 
efficient teacher, have lately been added to the other 
departments of these schools. 

St. Patrick's Catholic Schools, near the Catholic 
Church, with which they arc in connexion, were founded 
in 1823, on a site granted by the Duke of Devonshire. 
They consist of separate schools for boys, girls, and in- 
fants, and have for some years been placed under 
government inspection. The boys' school is under the 
care of a certificated teacher, who is assisted by two 
pupil teachers. A certificated mistress and three pupil ■ 
teachers superintend the girls' and infants' school. 
The total average weekly attendance is about 250. 

Trinity Church School, iu Caldewgate, is a plain 
commodious brick structure, erected in 1832, and at- 
tended by about 100 children. It is partly endowed. 

Besides these schools, there are the Ragged School, 
Caldewgate, built and supported by G. II. Head, Esq , 
and tho Shaddongate Schools, near the extensive works 
of Peter Di.xon and Co., erected and supported by the 
firm for the education of the children of tho workmen iu 
their employment. There are also many private schools, 
as well as some day schools connected with the Dissent- 
ing places of worship, and seveiiil Sunday-schools. 


Besides the religious agency at work iu the various 
churches, chapels, and Sunday-schools, there is in the 
city a number of societies by means of which various 



religious and other praiseworthy objects are greatly 
promoted. We subjoin the names of the different 
societies: — Carlisle Auxiliary of the London Society 
for Promoting Cliristianity amongst the Jews; the 
Carlisle Branch of the Irish Society of Loudon, for 
Promoting the Education and Picligious Instruction of 
the native Irish, established in 1847 ; Cai'lisle Church 
Missionary Association, instituted 1817; Carlisle Ladies' 
Bible Association ; Carhsle Town Missionary and Scrip- 
ture Readers' Society ; Cumberland and Carlisle Auxi- 
liary Bible Society, instituted 1813 ; Society for Pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge ; Northern Sub-division of 
the Evangehcal Alliance ; Peace Society ; llcligious 
Tract Society ; Wesleyan Benevolent Society ; and the 
Wesleyan Missionary Society. In addition to these, 
which arc strictly of a religious character, there are the 
Carlisle Auxiliary of the United Kingdom Alliance, the 
Anti-capital Punishment Society, the Carlisle Tempe- 
rance Society, and the Female Visiting Society for the 
Ilelief of the Aged and Indigent. 


The Cumberland Infirmary stands foremost among 
the charitable institutions of Carlisle. It is situated on 
the western outskirts of the city, and is a handsome 
Grecian building of white stone, with lodge in corre- 
spondence, the grounds of which are nearly six acres in 
extent. The buildiug was completed in the year 1830, 
but owing to disputes with the contractors, which ended 
in a chancery suit, it was not opened for the reception 
of patients until the beginning of the year 18-12. From 
that time untU his death, which took place in 18.jG, the 
late Bishop of Carlisle, Dr. Percy, as president of the 
institution, took an active constant personal interest in 
the management, and it is doubtless in great part owing 
to the known care bestowed at all times upon the expen- 
diture that the accumulated benefactions have reached 
at the present time to £10,000. At the death of the late 
president, the governors, in general meeting assembled, 
with the present bishop. Dr. ViUiers, as his successor 
in the chair, determined on naming the principal ward 
" Bishop Percy's Ward." The building has accommo- 
dation for fifty-two in-patients ; and cases, oftentimes 
the most formidable, are constantly congregated within 
its walls, not only from that part of the kingdom whose 
name it bears, but also from the surrounding counties. 
Carlisle being a manufacturing town, and a centre of 
many railroads, accidents in great numbers are brought 
for treatment. The number of out-patients annually is 
about 2000. A special fund maintains a chaplain, who 
also acts as curate in the parish (Trinity) in which the 
Infirmary is situate. The institution is managed by a 

committee consisting'WTihe principal gentlemen in the 
town and neighbourhood, which meets ever3' Wednes- 
day morning. The medical conduct of the institu- 
tion is confided to a physician, a surgeon, and a 
house surgeon, and his assistant. The receipts for the 
year ending the 27th of July, 1857, amounted to 
i'2,005 7s. d., and the expenditure to £1,780 3s. Cd., 
leaving a balance of £219 3s. 7d. in favour of the 

The following extracts from the statutes and rules 
will no doubt be acceptable to many of our readers : — 

" Bencfactoi's of twenty guineas or upwards, to be 
governors for life. 

" Subscribers of two guineas or upwards annually, to 
be governors during payment. 

" A subscriber of half-a-guinea annually, or a bene- 
factor of five guineas, to be entitled to recommend two 
out-patients annually. 

" Every annual subscriber of one guinea, or bene- 
factor of ten guineas, shall be allowed to recommend 
two out-patients and one in-patient annually. 

" Every annual subscriber of two guineas, or bene- 
factor of twenty guineas, shall be allowed to recommend 
two in-patients and six out-patients within the year ; 
and benefactors and subscribers to a larger amoimt after 
the same ratio. 

" No subscriber or benefactor to have more than cue 
in-patient at a time. 

" No person to be admitted a patient but by recom- 
mendation of a benefactor or subscriber, unless in cases 
of accident or emergency which admit of no delay. 

" In-patients are admitted by the committee ou 
^Vednesdays at 10 o'clock. Accidents and cases of 
emergency are received at all times." 

OFFICEES — 1858. 

Patron. — The Et. Hon. the Earl of Lonsdale. 

Vice patrons. — His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, K.G. ; 
The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Carlisle, K.G. 

President. — The Hon. and Kt. Eev. the Lord Bishop of 

Vice-presidents. — The Rt. Hon. Sir J. E. G. Graham, Bart., 
M.P.; Sir Wilfrid Lawson, Bart. ; Sir George Musgrave, Bart.; 
The Very Rev. the Dean of Carlisle, Rev. William Graham. 

Trustees.— The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Lonsdale; The Rt. 
Hon. Sir J. R. G. Graham, Bart., M.P.; Sir Wilfrid Lawson, 
Bart. ; Sir George Jlusgrave, Bai-t. 

Treasceee. — Thomas Henry Graham, Esq. 

Medicai Officers. — Physician: Dr. Lonsdale. Surgeon. 
Mr. W. B. Page. House Surgeon : J. M. Frodsham, M.D. 

Chaplain. — Rev. F. Steggal. 

Secretart. — Mr. John Reed Donald. 

Matrom. — Mrs. Llewellyn. 



The Carlisle Dispensary was founrled in 1782, under 
the auspices and patronage of the Earl of Arundel and 
Surrey and the clergy and gentry of the city and neigh- 
bourhood, and since that period has been the means 
of affording medical aid to thousands of the indigent 
sick of Cai-lisle and the surrounding district. For some 
years tin; institution carried on its good work amidst 
many difficulties, in a small house up a narrow 
passage in the entrance of the Abbey, but was at 
last compelled to cease from lack^Sof funds, and 
CarUsle was for several years without a dispensary. 
In J800 the medical gentlemen of the city and 
neighbourhood took the mutter into consideration, 
and, having made a representation to the dean and 
chapter, obtained from tliat body the grant of the use 
of the room over the Abbey Gate which had formerly 
been the High School of Carlisle. The dean and 
chapter likewise gave the institution a yearly subscrip- 
tion of ten guineas, and other very liberal subscrip- 
tions having been sent in, the promoters were enabled 
to open the Carlisle Dispensary on the 1 st of February, 
1810. From that time the subscription list has been 
a good one, and the institution has gone on prospe- 
rously and most satisfactorily to our own day. In IbSl 
application was made to the dean and chapter for the 
room at the head of the Abbey Gate, but an offer was 
made by the chapter to allot to the institution a part 
of the Tithe Barn in Head's Lane for that purpose, and 
on the acceptance of that offer, they further subscribed 
a sura of £30 towards the fitting up of the place. 
This done the dispensary was carried on in that build- 
ing till April, 18.58, when it was removed to the new 
edifice in Chapel-street, the foundation stone of which 
was laid by John Waldie, Esq., on September 17th, 
1857. The present building is of Prudhoe stone, 
in the Italian style ; the cost, inclusive of the site, 
was i,*72d IDs. 6d. The ground floor comprises 
patients' waiting room, consulting room, drug room, 
entrance and staircase to the apothecary's house, and 
the requisite offices. The upper floor is occupied by 
the apothecary's apartments and the committee room. 
The design was furnished by John Hodgson, Esq., 
and is very pleasing and effective. 

We subjoin the following extracts from the rules : — 
" An executor paying over a legacy of £100 shall be 
a life governor ; and all donors of ton guineas at one 
time, or who make up their contributions to that amount 
within the year, shall be governors for life, have two 
votes, and power to recommend an unlimited number 
of patients. All subscribers of ten guineas per annum 
aro governors, entitled to recommend an unlimited 
number of patients. A subscriber of one guinea per 

annum, is a governor with two votes, and can have 
two patients coustautly on the books. A subscriber 
of ten shillings is a governor, has one vote, and can 
have one patient constantly on the books. No 
persons are deemed objects of this charity, but such as 
are really necessitous." 

The receipts for the year 1857 were £180 19s. lOd., 
and the expenses £173 Cs. 4d. The number of patients 
who received the benefit of this institution during 
1837 amounted to 3788. Of these there were casual- 
ties cured, 917; patients recommended by subscribers' 
tickets, cured, 2302 ; ditto relieved, 157 ; ditto iiTegular, 
09 ; ditto died, 40 ; ditto no better, 25 ; transferred to 
parish surgeon, 50 ; remaining on the books, 102 : total, 

orriCEits — 1858. 

Peestoent. — The lit. Hon. the Earl of Lonsdale. 

Vice-Peesidekts.— The Et. Hon. Sir J. P.. G. Graham, 
Bart.; P. H. Howard, Esrj. ; W. MarshaU, Esq., il.P.; the 
Dean of Carlisle ; the Mayor of Carlisle. 

Physician ExTEAORDiNAKY. — Thomas Barnes, M.D.F.F..S.E. 

Physicians.— Gustavus Evans, M.D. ; M. J. liae, M.D. 

HoDSE SoROEON. — Mr. George J. Langsford. 

Seceetary AJiD Teeasukee. — Mr. Laver. 

The House of Recovery, or Fever Hospital, was 
founded at Carlisle in 1820, when a building was 
erected in Collier's Lane for the reception of patients. 
But in consequence of the site being required for the 
construction of the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway, the 
institution was removed to Crozier Lodge, near the 
infirmary, which was purchased as a more salubrious 

' We sutijoiu the following coaipamtive statement from ISlC to 
18«, at difl'erent periods, and continued to the present time: — 



OS g 







£ 8. 


£ f. 


£ S. D. 


, , 



245 12 

7 1247 9 







4G0 13 

8I21I 8 

249 4 11 





389 7 


236 8 


1.52 19 1 





387 3 


202 1 


185 2 6 





217 10 


202 1 


15 9 







234 16 10 






213 8 


229 5 


. . 





538 10 


438 10 


94 14 4 

IK 111 




359 13 

10 236 15 


122 18 7 





353 11 

5 1 223 6 

131 8 6 





366 12 

4 1 195 9 


171 2 7 





387 2 

6 230 12 


156 9 9 





330 10 


188 16 


142 8 





313 5 




123 5 5 





278 11 


197 2 

81 9 1 





293 18 


219 18 


73 19 10 

IN", I 




340 19 

9 291 10 


49 9 2 





209 2 

1 1 19G 10 


12 12 





183 11 

6 i 180 15 


2 16 4 





186 19 10 173 6 


13 13 C 



situation. From the report for the year ending De- 
cember, 1S57, we learn that very great and necessary 
improvements have been effected in the house, so as to 
render it more efficient for the purpose to wliich it is 
appHed. The total number of patients admitted into the 
house during the year amounted to 108; 35 of these 
were affected with typhus fever, 1 8 with scarlatina, and 
35 with smallpox; of the 55 typhus fever cases ad- 
mitted, 42 were discharged cured, five died, and 
8 remained under treatment; 15 of the scarlet fever 
patients wero discharged cured, and three died ; 
of the 35 smallpox cases, 33 were discharged cured, 
and two died ; of the 1 7 cases remaiuiug in the 
house at last report, six were labouring under typhus 
fever, two of whom recovered and four died, one of 
scarhitiua was discharged cured, the remaining 10 were 
small pox cases, of which eight recovered and two 
died. The receipts for the year ending November, 
30th, 1857, were £iW 19s. o'd., and the expenditure 
£419 10s. 3id. : balance £9 3s. 5^d.i 

I The following table shows the rnmlier of pntients admitted into 
tlie House of Recovery sLuce its establishment: 

Nov. T, ]san, to Dec. 
Dec. n, Isai.toDec. 
Dec. a, 1S22, to Dee. 
Dec. 1, \H-a, to Dec. 
Dee. 1, 1824, to Dec. 
Dee. .% l.siO, to Dec. 
Dec. 4, 182(5, to Dec. 
Dec. :i, 1827, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, 1H28, to Dec, 
Dee. 1, 1820, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, 1830, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, 1R;11, to Dec. 
Dec. ), 1832, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, 1S33, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, 1834, to Dee. 
Dec. 1, 1835, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, 183ii, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, 1837, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, 1838, to Dec. 
Dee. 1, ls3:i, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, 1810, to Dec. 
Dee. 1, 1''41, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, 1812, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, 1813, to Dec. 
Dee. 1, 1814, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, 184."i, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, 1846, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, 1847, to Dee. 
Dee. 1, 1848, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, 184!), to Dec. 
Dec. 1, ls;-,n, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, Isiil, to Dec. 
Dee. 1, lv.52, to Dee. 
Dec. 1, 18r,R, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, 18.54, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, 18.55, to Dec. 
Dec. 1, ]8,')li, to Dec. 

3, 1821 

2, 1823 


1, 1N24 , 

,5, 1825 

4, 1821! 

3, 1827 


1, 1S20 

1, 1830 


1, 1832 


1, 1^34 

1, 1835 

1, 1830 

1, 1«37 

1, 1n38 

1, 183n 

1. IMO 

1, 1811 

1, 1842 

1, 1843 


1, 184.-. 


1. 1817 


1, 18l!l 

1, 1800 

1, 18.51 

1, 18.52 

1, 18.53 

1, 18.54 



1, 18-57 

No. of 











■ 56 
































• It appears by the report for that year that epidemic typhus prevailed 
at 'Warivicli Bridge during the winter of 1930, and that only 55 of these 1 19 
cases were from Carlisle. 

Officers — 1807-8. 

PiiEsiDENi. — The Et. Hon. the Earl of Lonsdale. 

VicE-PnESiDESTs. — The Hon. and Et. Rev. the Lord Bishop 
of Carlisle; the Et. Hon. Sir J. E. G. Graham, Bart., M.P. ; 
W. N. Hodgson, Esq., M.P. ; the Mayor of Carlisle ; the Very 
Eev. the Dean of Carlisle. 

TnEAsuiiEr.. — Mr. John Norman. 

Committee. — R. Cowen, Esq. ; Mr. H. Dobinson; Eev. 0. G. 
V. Harcouit; G. H. Head, Esq.; W. N. Hodgson, Esq., M.P. ; 
P. H. Hownrt, Esq.; Geo. Mounsey, Esq.; John Xanson, Esq.; 
G. Relph, Esq. ; M^Shiter, Esq. ; 'William Stordy, Esq. ; Mr. 

Seceetaey. — Mr. H. J. Halton. 

Physicians. — Thomas Barnes, M.D., F.E.S.E.; M. J. Eae, 
M.D. ; John Steel, M.D. 

SunoEON-AroTHECAEY. — Jlr. Ellcray Armstrong. 

Inspectoe. — David Little. Matron. — Mrs. Little. 


The Athenoeum, Lowtber-street, was erected in 1840, 
from designs furnished by Messrs. Williams of Liver- 
pool, at a cost of about £0,500, raised iu £5 shares, 
but it has since become the property of G. H. Head, 
Esq., who purchased it for £4,000. This building has 
supplied a want long experienced in Carlisle, which, 
previous to its erection, possessed no room sufficiently 
large for general purposes. The external appearance is 
very striking ; the facade is of white stone from the 
Prudhoe quarries, and is in what may be called the 
Roman style of architecture. The centre part is com- 
posed of four massive pilasters, with Corinthian capitals, 
and windows in the intermediate spaces. The cornices 
are surmounted by an open balustrade, with sunk 
panels, and the angles are ornamented with massive 
pilasters. The interior is divided, on the first floor, 
into entrance hall and staircase, committee room, 
library, niuseum, and lecture room ; second floor, gal- 
lory over the library, with spacious concert room, fitted 
up in an appropriate manner, and well suited for the 
purposes for which it was erected. 

The County Assize Courts are situated at the head 
of English-street, on the site of the ancient citadel, at 
the southern entrance to the city, adjoining the gaol. 
They were erected iu 1810-11, from the design of E. 
Smirke, jun., R.A., pursuant to an act of parliament 
which was passed for the purpose of " enabling his 
majesty to grant the citadel and the walls of the city of 
Carlisle, Ac, to the justices of the peace for the county 
of Cumberland, for building courts of justice for the 
said county, &c." The courts are built in the Gothic 
castellated style, and two projecting corridors, give the 
whole the semblance of a fortified gateway, and recal to 
mind the ancient citadel. They present elegant fronts 




of polished freestone of a reddish colour, and arc sur- 
rounded with cast iron railings. The Crowu Court 
occupies the western tower, and is connected with the 
adjoining gaol by an underground passage, through 
which the prisoners are conveyed to the dock. lu the 
entrance hall is a fine statue of the late Major Aglionby, 
for many years chairman of the Quarter Sessions of 
the county. Over the judge's seat is a fine bust of 
George III. by Rossi, on eauh side of which are statues 
of Justice and Mercy. The eastern tower ou the oppo- 
site side of the street serves as the Nisi Prius Court, 
and, like the Crown Court, is finished and fitted up iu 
a very handsome and appropriate manner. Attached 
to this court are suitable rooms for the grand jury, 
counsel, witnesses, Ac, with the usual offices. In the 
centre of the street, between the two courts, is a fine 
Btatue of the late Earl of Lonsdale. 

The County Gaol and House of Correction stands 
upon the spot formerly occupied by the Dominican 
Convent, near what was, in bygone days, the English 
gate, and is a fine structure, in the Gothic style, con- 
bisting of a centre and two wings, surmounted by an 
embattled parapet. It was completed in 1827, at a 
cost of £ 19,53 1, inclusive of the purchase of some land. 
The interior arrangements consist of a governor's house, 
from which six wings radiate, affording accommodation 
to thirteen classes of prisoners, with separate areas, 
divided by walls and lofty iron rails. The prison con- 
tains room for 150 prisoners, with means of extension 
for a much larger number. The whole is enclosed with 
a wall of red freestone. This edifice was begun from 
the designs of William Nixon, Esq., of Carlisle, but he 
dying during tho progress of the work, the completion 
of the structure was entrusted to C. Hodgson, Esq., 
who aildcd several improvements to the original plan. 
During tho progress of the building several Roman 
and other antiquities were discovered. The office of 
governor or gaoler is at present held by Mr. lledin, 
whoso salary is iSH,") per annum. The chaplain is 
appointed by the magistrates, at a salary of £125 ; he 
is not allowed to cngitge in any parochial duty, and is 
required to perform divine service iu the chapel twice 
and to preach every Sunday, and on Christmas-day 
and Ciood Friday ; to read prayers daily, and to attend 
on prisoners under sentence of death, unless in such 
cases where prisoners, not belonging to the Church of 
England, desire to bo attended by a minister of their 
own religion. The lU.v. John F. Simpson is the pre- 
sent chaplain. A surgeon is appointed by the magi- 
strates, with a yearly salary of £70, and an allowance 
for niedicinn at prime cost, liesides these, the principal 
officers, there arc a matron, a schoolmaster, six turn- 


keys, and other subordinate assistants. For the year 
ending 30th September, 1857, the number of prisoners 
received into the gaol was 470. The number of crimi- 
nals was 89 less, and debtors 29 more, than those 
received in the preceding year. The greatest number 
in custodjf, at any time, was 102; the lowest 59, and 
the daily average 75. The number of County Court 
debtors has much increased of late, being now nearly 
one-fifth of the number received. In the workroom, 
the prisoners manufactured 003 brush mats, 272 Samot 
mats, 072A yards of matting, and 2372 brushes, from 
which a profit was derived of £86 19s. 8Jd. From the 
chaplain's report for the year mentioned above we learn 
that the total number of criminals committed was 375 ; 
and by comparing this number with those of 1855 and 
1856, it appears there is a diminution of 89 in favour of 
this year over the last, and of 48 over the preceding one. 
As suggesting a reason for the unusual increase of 
1856, the chaplain found that while in 1857 the com- 
mittals upon military charges were 6, they amounted in 
1856 to 47, and in 1855 to 16. If the military otTences 
be deducted, and they cannot fairly be reckoned among 
the crimes of the county, the numbers would stand 
thus— 1855, 407; 1850,417; 1857, 369— showing the 
real decrease in the criminal committals. The number 
of debtors continues rapidly on the increase. In 1855 
it was 58, in 1856, 72; and in 1857, 101 ; confirming 
the conjecture — thrown out in a former report — that 
an increase might be anticipated from the introduction 
of the alteration in the County Court Act, by which the 
cost of the conveyance of debtors to gaol, after the first 
commitment, was transferred from the plaintiff's ac- 
count to that of the counties. Tho behaviour of the 
prisoners, with two or three e.xceptions, was satisfactory, 
and their conduct in school and the classes for religious 
instruction met with tho chaplain's entire approbation, 
and the report concluded by his tendering thanks to a few 
magistrates and friends, through whose kind liberality 
a small organ had been procured. Their services iu 
chapel being now conducted with a simplicity and order 
second to none in the kingdom. The surgeon reported 
that the general state of health of the prisoners during 
the year was good. No death occurred, and of the 363 
cases of indisposition, but two were of sufficient im- 
portance to render removiil to the Infirmary requisite. 
A girl of unsound mind was committed to the prison, 
who was afterwards removed to a lunatic asylum. 

Tho Guild Hall, Green Market, is a quaint old 
building, in which tho meetings of the guilds or in- 
corporated companies of tho city arc held. 

The Town Hall is an ancient structure, situated in 
the Market Place, but without architectural pretensions. 



The ground floor consists of shops, held upon a peculiar 
tenure, called cullery tenure, one equal to freehold, and 
this circumstance prevents being effected in the build- 
ing those alterations and improvements which the con- 
venience of the public demands. The hall is entered 
by a double flight of steps. Above the mayor's seat 
are four fine old paintings, three of which are portraits 
of William ami Mary, and Charles, the first Earl of 
Carlisle of the Howard family. In the passage leading 
to the magistrates' office stands liie ancient city chest, 
■which is formed of oak, strengthened by thick ribs of 
iron, and secured by five massive padlocks. The edifice 
is surmounted by a cupola, containing a clock with four 
dials, one of which is illuminated. Previous to the 
erection of the Court Houses, the assizes for Cumber- 
land were held in this building, and it was here that 
the devoted adherents of the Stuarts were arraigned 
after the rebeUion of 1745. 

The Carlisle Library and Newsroom, situated at the 
junction of Enghsh and Devonshire-streets, is a very 
elegant modern sti'ucture of white freestone, exhibiting 
a fine e.-iample of the Decorated style. The south-west 
front consists of a gabled centre, flanked by two wings 
with embattled parapets, and containing a doorway with 
flowered mouldings and an enriched triangular canopy; 
above the door is a large window of four lights, having 
its head filled with good flowing tracery. The elevation 
in Devonshire-street is more extended. It contains in 
the centre a bay window, all the lights of which have 
crocketed canopies; the buttresses are particulai'ly light 
and elegant, aud are crowned with enriched pinnacles. 
In vai-ious parts of the e.xterior there is some good 
carving, and the ornaments discover considerable lu.xu- 
riance of design and shaqiness of execution. On the 
ground floor of the building, which has beneath a range 
of cellarage, is the Newsroom, and other offices. On 
the first floor is the Carlisle Library, having a separate 
entrance from Devonshire-street, which is elegantly fur- 
nished in a style corresponding somewhat to that of the 
building. The structure was completed in 1831, from 
designs by Rickman and Hutchinson, and the cost of 
erection was defrayed by shares of foO each. The 
building is the property of a company. 

The Police Office for the city of Carlisle is on the 
AVest Walls. The police force of the city was established 
in the year 1829, and has been increased from time to 
time as found necessary ; one chief constable, three ser- 
geants, and twenty-five constables at present constitute 
the force, for which the corporation obtained the govern- 
ment grant last year. In addition to their other duties, 
they have charge of the fire engines of the city. We annex 
the cost of the police estabhshment for each of the last 

tenyears— 1848, lOs. fid.; 1849, .CI, 184 4s.; 
1850, £1,180 8s. Jld.; 1851, £1,154 9s. lOd.; 1852, 
£1,167 73. 2d.; 1853, £1,185 7s. 8d.; 1854, £1.294 
Is. 5d.; 1855, £1,325 Is. 9d.; 185C, £1,424 12s. Id.; 
1857, £1,044 14s. 4d. The rateable value of the pro- 
perty in the city in the years 1848 and 1857 was 
respectively £45,493 10s. 2d., and £00,908 7s. 8d. 


The Carlisle Library was established in 1708, but for 
many years after its formation the number of its sup- 
porters was very limited, and consequently its spliere of 
usefulness was much restiicted. In 1804, however, 
measures were adopted by which the institution was 
placed upon a broader basis, and this change bringing 
a greater number of subscribers, the institution began 
to flourish, aud has since continued in a very satisfac- 
tory state. The subscription list includes the names of 
nearly all the leading families of the city and neighbour- 
hood, and even some from the more distant parts of the 
county. The institution possesses about 10,000 volumes 
in the various departments of literature. The govern- 
ment is vested in a committee of thirteen subscribers, 
chosen yearly. The number of members at present is 
80, who pay a subscription of one guinea each per 

The Church of England Religious and Literary Asso- 
ciation, established in the AthensEum, Lowther-street, 
" consists, as its name imports, of members of the Church 
of England, and was designed to provide instruction 
and agreeable recreation for such of the operative and 
industrious classes of that communion as might, without 
such a resource, have become connected with institutions 
in which opinions are tolerated, if not openly encouraged, 
calculated to corrupt and mislead those whose education 
may not have sufficiently prorided them with means to 
counteract the subtle poisons, or the open assaults of 
infidelity." It is well supported by the higher classes 
of the community, aud possesses a good librarj-, con- 
sisting chiefly of donations from persons who feel an in- 
terest in its success. The newsroom is well supphed 
with the metropolitan, provincial, and local newspapers. 
The present number of members is 100. Lectures are 
frequently delivered on subjects of general interest, and 
are usually well attended. 

The Mechanics' Institution, Fisher-street, was first 
founded in 1824, but not meeting with adequate sup- 
port, was closed in 1831. Two years afterwards it was 
re-opened, and has since maintained its place among the 
institutions of Carlisle. It possesses a good reading 
room and newsroom, with a lecture hall, and the 



members have now the privilege of access to a well- 
selcctoJ library of 4074 volumes, which is rapidly in- 
creasing. The number of members is 520. 

The Union Newsroom was opened to the share- 
holders and subscribers in 1831. It occupies the 
ground of the same building as the Carlisle Library, in 
Devonshire-street, and is supported by subscribers, who 
each pay two guineas a year. 

The Young Men's Christian Association, Fisher- 
street, was established in 1850, and is based upon the 
principles of the parent society in Loudon. This insti- 
tution possesses a good reading room and library, and 
is at present in a very flourishing condition. " To young 
men separated from their friends, it offers a comfortable 
and convenient place of resort, where they may enjoy 
Christian communion, and the sympathy and friendship 
of those who, like themselves, are engaged in the battle 
of life." The Bishop of Carlisle is president of the 
association, and the deau is one of its most active sup- 

One of the most interesting and promising features 
connected with the institutions of Carlisle has yet to be 
mentioned. This is the existence of a number of 
reading rooms, libraries, and schools, which are exclu- 
sively under the management of working men. It is a 
fundamental rule of these societies that no man shall 
exert an influence by holding office unless he be one 
dependent upon weekly wages for support. It is also 
a rule, that any member capable of getting and doing 
work, shall be c.\pelled if he leave his contribution for 
a mouth unpaid ; but in the manly spirii; which has 
guided the whole management of these institutions, it 
is aLso a law that any member that is out of work, 
through real inability to obtain it, or to do it, shall be 
entitled to continue in the enjoyment of the privileges 
without payment and without responsibility. 7'here is 
no one wlio lias taken a deeper interest in the progress 
of working men's reading rooms than Dr. EUiot, of this 
city, whom Lord Brougham has well designated the 
" worthy successor of Dr. liirbeck in these good works." 
" In April, 1848," says a writer in Dickens' Household 
Words, " when everyone was daily listening for the 
great tidings which that period of strange excitement 
was continually furnishing — in April, 1848, a few 
poor men, most of them hand-loom weavers, clubbed 
their wits together for the purpose of getting a weekly 
newspaper. Obviously it was found requisite that they 
should also club their pennies. The result was, that 
within tlio first week after tho suggestion had been 
made, fifty persons had come forward as the subscribers 
of a wceldy penny, and a school-room had been lent to 
them, wherein to meet and read their papers. These 

men were all of the same class ; they had originated 
their idea, and they were themselves managing its 
execution. Companions multiplied about them ; there 
was formed quite a prosperous little society of men 
contributing their weekly pennies, and it was resolved, 
therefore, to attempt tho formation of a permanent 
reading room, and a committee was appointed to draw 
up a code of rules. The working men's reading room 
in John-street, Botchergate. became thus one of the 
institutions of Carlisle, and flourished for a few months; 
then news became less interesting, trade also was bad, 
members fell ofif, funds dechued, and the experiment 
would have been abandoned but for the judicious and 
well-timed assistance of Dr. Elliott, and other members 
of the middle class. These aided the efl'orts of the 
working men to help themselves, with advice, and cash, 
and books ; their aid was fairly given, fairly taken, no 
abandonment of independence on the part of the men 
being asked or offered. This is what working men can 
do ; and there is no duke who can be made, by virtue 
of his title, more noble tlian the labourer who thus 
strives in his own behalf. He need not mind the good 
old gentleman who informs him that he ought to touch 
his hat and be respectful to his bolters. The good old 
gentleman who has let the world outrun him, and made 
little effort to keep pace thfirewith, might much more 
properly uncover the head to him. The best minds 
claim him as their kindred, and the help of others ever 
presses upon him who helps himself. Two or three 
men, however poor, if they will have faith in the force 
of a right heart and a stout will may gather to their 
council other poor mechanics like themselves ; and 
there is no town in which, according to its size, one 
or a dozen true mechanics' institutions may not rise 
to occupy the place whieli Dr. Birkbeck's institutes 
were meant to fill, but which they have insensibly 

Tlie following is a list of the working men's reading 
rooms, and the years in which they were established : — 

1810. Dute-street Adult Scliool nnd Rending Room, Shaddon- 

gato. No. of vols. 51!), No. of members 90. 
1317. John-street Working Men's Rending Room, Caldewgnte. 

No. of vols, loot), No. of members 150. 
1S13. Lord-street Working Men"s Reading Room, Botchergate. 

No. of vols. 700, No. of members -'OO. 
1353. Parlinm Reck .\dult School and Rending Room. No. of 

vols. SOU, No. of iiieinbcrs 10. 
1851. Caldewgat<i Adnll Scliool and Reading Room, Brewery 

Row. No. of vols. iOO, Na ol members lOH. 
lb.")!. Trinity niiiUlings Rending Room. No. of vols, 177, No. 

of members ;)0. 
1857. Shaddonsnte Adult School and Reading Room. No. of 

vols. 70, No. of members 10. 

Carlisle possesses two weekly papers and one tri- 



■weekly, the "Carlisle Journal," the " Carli^e Patriot," 
and the " Carlisle Examiner." The " Journal " was 
first published in November, 1798, by Mr. Francis 
Jollie, in whose family it remained for many years. 
It was subsequently purchased by the late Mr. Steel, 
at that time the editor, and it is still published by his 
family. It advocates whig or liberal principles, and 
has an extensive circulation. The '• Patriot" was com- 
menced on the 3rd of June, 1815, by a company of 
proprietors in .C25 shares. It is now, however, private 
property, and is conservative in its political principles. 
The " Examiner" issued its first number in May, 1857, 
and has for its editor and proprietor Mr. Wilks. lu 
politics it is popularly liberal, and " goes for peace, 
retrenchment, and reform." 


In 1435, in consequence of the assizes having been 
removed to other places during the Scottish war, an act 
of parliament was obtained, the provisions of which are 
as follow: — "Whereas, by a statute made in the time of 
King Pilchard II., it was ordained that the justices 
assigned, or to be assigned, to take assizes and deliver 
gaols, shall hold their sessions iu the principal or chief 
town of every county, that is to say, where the shire 
courts of the county heretofore and hereafter shall bo 
holden. Our lord the king, willing the same statute to 
be observed and kept in the county of Cumberland, con- 
sidering that the city of Carlisle is the principal and 
chief town of the said county, and in which the shire 
court of the same county hath been holdeu before this 
time, hath granted and ordained by the authority of the 
same parliament, that the sessions of the justices to 
take assize and to deliver gaols iu the county of Cum- 
berland, be holden in time of peace and truce in the 
said city of Carlisle, and iu none other place within the 
same county, as it hath been used and accustomed of old 
times." The assizes are now held here in spring and 
autumn, each assize being attended by two judges, 
who hold their courts iu the County Court Houses, 
which are described at page 128. 

The midsummer and Christmas quarter sessions for 
the county are held at Carlisle. 

Quarter sessions for the borough of Carlisle are held 
in the Town Hall, on the Monday preceding each 
county sessions, by the mayor and two senior aldermen. 

The borough magistrates also sit at the Town Hall, 
every Monday, Wednesday, and Saturday ; and the 
county magistrates at the Court House, every Wed- 
nesday and Saturday. 

The court of the mayor and bailiffs of the borough 
of Carlisle sits every Monday in the Town Hall, to try 

actions of debt and trover, to the amount of forty 
shillings. It may be adjourned at pleasure, and is 
held quarterly, when, by a concurrent jurisdiction, 
acti(ms of debt, Ac, amounting to upwards of forty 
shillings may be tried and determined. 

A Court Leet and View of Frank Pledge for the city 
of Carlisle was formerly held twice, but now only once 
a year, in October, by the dean and chapter, in their 
manors of Uotchergatc and Caldewgate. 

The County Court of Cumberland for the recovery 
of debts under i'50, is held at Carlisle, and other places 
iu the county. 


There are three banking establishraeuts in Carlisle, 
two of which issue their own notes, viz., the Carlisle 
City and District, and tlie Carlisle and Cumberland 
Banking Con^pauy. The Carlisle Old Bank, J. M. 
Head and Co.'s, is a private bank, and issues Bank of 
England notes. The first banks established in Carlisle 
•were opened about the middle of last century, by Messrs. 
Foster and Son, and a Mr. Wilson, and were found to 
be of considerable service to the trade of the city. 

The Market Place is situated in the centre of the 
city, where English-street, Scotch-street, Castle-street, 
and Fisher- street meet. The Jlarket Cross is a stone 
structure, erected in 16S2, and consists of an Ionic 
column, with a plain shaft and pedestal, rising from 
the centre of a flight of circular steps. It is surmounted 
with a square block of masonry, the sides of which 
serve as sun-dials, and is terminated by a lion bearing 
the arms of the corporation. Above the capital of the 
column is the inscription, " Joseph Reed, ]\Iaior, 1082." 
The market days are Wednesday and Saturday, the 
latter of which is perhaps the best attended market in 
the north of England, large quantities of grain and other 
farm produce being brought from a distance of twenty 
and thirty miles around the city. The shambles con- 
sist of two rows of butchers' shops, extending from 
Scotch-street to Fisher-street, and were erected by the 
corporation, who, in 1 790, purchased and renewed the 
old shambles, which stood in the Market Place. The 
Fish Market occupies the spot upon which formerly 
stood the Main Guard, and is well supplied with various 
kinds of fish. 

Fairs for the hiring of servants and the sale of cattle 
arc held here on the nearest Saturdays to AVhitsuntide 
and Martinmas. Fairs are also held on the 2Gth of 
August, when they continue for fourteen days, and on 
1 9th of September. During the last named fairs, all 
persons arc free from executions issued by the borough 
court. A series of fairs for horses and cattle commences 



on the Saturday after the 10th of October, and con- 
tinues until Christmas. There is an annual show of 
cattle in the large Cattle Market, near the race course, 
when prizes are distributed by the Agricultural Society. 
Eaces are held here annually in July. The race 
course is situated on the Swifts, on the south side of 
the Eden, and possesses a grand stand, erected in 1830. 
Races were first established in Carlisle about tiie middle 
of the last century — the first King's Plate was run for 
in 1703. 


Carlisle possesses railway communication with almost 
every part of Britain, a fact that has much improved its 
position as a commercial and raanuliicturiug town. 
The Newcastle and Carlisle line connects it with the 
German Ocean, and the Carlisle and Silloth with the 
Irish Sea ; the Maryport and Carlisle with West Cum- 
berland, as well as with TTlverston and the peninsula of 
Fumess, and so onward into Lancashire ; while the Cale- 
donian unites it with Edinburgh and Glasgow, and the 
Lancasterand Carlisle with Ijondon and the south. The 
whole of these lines, with the exception of the Newcastle 
and CarUsle, make use of the Citadel Station, a fine struc- 
ture, in the Elizabethan style, erected in 1817-8. The 
Newcastle and Carlisle Station is a mean structure, 
situated on the London Road, about a mile from the 
city, and possesses few, if any, of the requisites of a rail- 
way station. Two schemes are now before parliament 
for connecting Carlisle with Hawick, one by Langholm, 
and the other by Longlown and Cannobie. 

In 1819 an act of parliament was obtained for the 
formation of a Gas and Coke Company, and works were 
shortly afterwards erected at a cost of about ii 10,000, 
raised in shares of JBiiS each. The works were situated 
at the south end of the town, upon a plot of ground 
forming part of the present general railway station. In 
1846, the corporation purchased nearly all the shares, 
at £43 per share, and in the following year erected the 
present gas works, the site of the old being required for 
the railway station. 

The want of pure water was long felt in Carlisle, and 
many schemes were from lime to time propounded to 
obtain an adequate supply. .Vt length, in 1810, a joint 
stock company was formed for the purpose of furnishing 
the city and its environs with the limpid element, from 
the river Eden, and openitions being at once commenced, 
the city is now in a very fair position as far as water is 
concerned. The water is raised from the Eden through 
ft deep bod of gravel, by powerful steam engines, and 
forced into a reservoir on the hill, near the London Iload, 
about a mile from the Market Place, whence it is dis- 
tributed to all parts of the city. 

Carlisle has been put under the operation of the 
Health of Towns Act, and a Board of Health estab- 
lished, through the itistrumentality of which the city 
has been sewered, many nuisances removed, and its 
sanitary condition much improved. 


Carlisle is connected with the surrounding country 
by five bridges, one of which crosses the Eden, three 
the Caldew, and one the Petteril. During the six- 
teenth century, two wooden structures, called Eden and 
Prestbeck bridges, formed the communication between 
Carlisle and Stanwix, but one of them having fallen 
down, and the other being in a state of great dilapida- 
tion, an act of parliament was passed in 1600 for 
rebuilding them at the expense of the county, and in 
their stead two narrow stone bridges were erected. In 
1807 an act of parliament was again obtained for the 
rebuilding of Prestbeck Bridge, and a new structure was 
commenced in 181i2, from designs furnished by Robert 
Smirke, jun., Esq., R.A. It was completed in 1815, 
at a cost of i'70,000, towards which government 
advanced £10,000, in consequence of its being in the 
line of the intended new north road to Port Patrick. 
The bridge consists of five elliptical arches of sixty- 
five feet span each, and is connected with the city 
by an arched causeway. The piers arc founded partly 
ou the solid rock and partly upon piles, ten or twelve 
feet below the surface of the Eden. The material em- 
ployed in the principal portions of the structure is white 
freestone, brought from near Gretna, in Scotland. The 
entire length of the bridge and its approaches is 400 
yards ; its breadth within the parapet, twelve yards ; 
and there is a flagged pavement on each side of the 
carriage way for pedestrians. On the completion of this 
fine structure tlic old bridge was removed. In ISiO 
two bridges were erected over the Caldew, one of three 
arches, and the other of one, for the purpose of facili- 
tating the communication between the city and its 
western suburb. Ten years afterwards a bridge of 
three semicircular arches was built over the Petteril, 
at the southern entrance of the city ; and five years ago, 
another bridge. Nelson Bridge, was erected over the 
Caldew, opening a new and direct road from Botcher- 
gate to Caldewgate. On the south battlement of this 
bridge is the following inscription: — The Nelson Bridge. 
The foundation stone of this bridge was laid June 'ibth, 
A.D. 1852, by Thomas Nelson, Esq., mayor. On the 
north battlement is the following : — The Nelson Bridge. 
This Bridge was built by the following subscribers, and 
completed a.d. 1853. Family of the late John Jlil- 
bourno Dixon, Ferguson Brothers, Peter Dixon and 



Sons, John Ferguson and Company, Joseph Kome, 
Thomas Nelson, Corporation Gas Works Committee. 

We have no positive information relating to the first 
incorporation of the burgesses of Carlisle, or the form of 
the original city government. The citj' has, however, 
receiveil many marks of favour from the different 
monarchs of England, who, in their charters, granted 
to the citizens many privileges and immunities, yiatij 
of these documents are no longer in e>dstence, having 
been lost or destroyed during the various scenes of war 
and tumult of which Carlisle has been the tlieati'e. 
" The fii-st charter granted to Cailisle now named in 
history, was granted in the reign of Henry 11., and was 
burned in a fire which destroyed great part of the city. 
This charter was confirmed by Henry III., in the 35th 
year of his reigu, granting to the citizens freedom from 
toll, passage, pontage, all customs belonging to the king, 
with the privilege of dead-wood for fuel, and timber for 
their houses, in divers places within the forest of Carlisle, 
by the assignment of the king's sergeants and foresters, 
with a free guild for trade and merchandise. Edward I., 
by his charter bearing date the 2Sth June, in the i21st 
year of bis reign, setting forth that Henry III.'s charter 
was also burned, recites the tenor thereof from the en- 
rolment in chancery, and confirms the same verbatim. 
Edwai-d III., by liis charter bearing date the 7th of 
February, in the 2lkh year of his reign, setting forth 
that it having been found upon inquisition taken by his 
trusty and well-beloved Richard de Denton and John de 
Hanington, and returned into the chanceiy, that the 
citizens of the city of Carlisle had from time immemo- 
rial enjoyed the following privileges, grants and confirms 
the same to them accordingly, — viz., return of writs ; a 
market on the Wednesday and Saturday of every week, 
and a fair yearly on the feasts of the Assumption of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, and fifteen days after ; a free 
guild, and election of mayor, baililTs, and two coroners ; 
assize of bread, beer, and wine ; trial of felonies, infang- 
ihief, and all pleas of the crown which belong to the 
oflGice of sheriff and coroner ; goods of felons and fugi- 
tives ; freedom from all fines, amerciaments, and suits 
to the county court and wapentake ; common of pasture 
for all tlicir beasts, at all times of the year, upon the 
Iving's Moor, au J liberty to get turf there ; with freedom 
throughout the whole realm of England from toll, pon- 
tage, passage, lastage, wharfage, carriage, murage, and 
stallage : and that they shall have the place called 
' Battail Holme ' for their markets and fairs ; and 
shall have power to divide and devise their tenements, 
and shall have the citv mill and the kings fishery in 

the water of Eden. Eicbard If. (May 20th). in the 
fifth year of his reign, by his charter recites and con- 
firms aU the same. Edward IV. (December Oth), in 
the first year of his reign, on the petition and repre- 
sentation of the citizens, that the city had sutTered 
greatly in the late ci\'il wars, when besieged by the said 
king's enemies, Margaret, late queen of England, Ed- 
ward, late prince of Wales, and Henry, duke of Exeter, 
by burning the suburbs, and even the very gates of the 
city and the mill, and other devastations, — remits unto 
them £40 yearly of their fee farm rent of iSO, and 
further grants unto them the keeping of the king's 
fisheries of Carlisle, otherwise called the Sheriff's Net, 
otherwise called the Fishery of Frithnet, in the water 
of Eden. Henry VII. (February 11th). in the third 
year of his reigu, recites and confirms their former 
charters ; also Henry VHL, in the first year of his 
reign; Edward VI., in the fii-st year of his reign; 
and Queen Elizabeth, and James I. Charles I. 
(July 21st), in the thirteenth year of his reign, by 
Inspeximus, recites and confirms all the aforesaid grants, 
except the free election of mayor, bailiffs, and coroners : 
and further grants that the mayor and citizens shall be 
one body corporate and poUtic, by the name of Mayor, 
Aldermen, Bailiffs, and Citizens of the city of Carlisle. 
This charter, comprehending all others, was surrendered 
for the use of Charles II., August 7th, 1084, to the Lord 
Chief Justice Jeffries; the surrender not being enrolled, 
was therefore a void surrender. But this charter, with 
many others, was restored, and declared valid and effec- 
tual, by proclamation of James II., on the 17th of 
October, 1088.'" 

The charter of Charles I., under the provisions of 
which the city was governed till the year 1835, enacted, 
" That in all times coming, the mayor and citizens 
shall be one body corporate and politic by the name of 
the Mayor, Aldermen, Bailiffs, and Citizens of Carlisle, 
and shall have a common seal; that one of the alder- 
men shall be mayor; that there shall bo besides the 
mayor, eleven other aldermen, two bailiffs, and two 
coroners; that there shall be within the city twenty- 
four other men, capital citizens, to be of the common 
council and assistants to the mayor, itc." They were 
also empowered to elect a recorder and town-clerk, one 
sword bearer, three sergeants at mace, and other 
officers. The charter also states that the mayor, alder- 
men, bailiffs, and twenty-four capital citizens, or the 
major part of them in Guild Hall assembled, on the 
Monday next after Michaelmas-day, shall have power to 
choose annually one of the aldermen to be mayor for 

■ Jefferson's History of Carlisle, p. 149. 




the eusuing year; and in case of an equal number of 
Totes, the then mayor to have a casting vote. The 
new mayor so chosen must be sworn into office by the 
last mayor, if ho be living, otlierwisc by the aldermen 
or major part of them ; and he must continue in office 
tiU another is chosen and sworn. In like manner the 
two bailiffs and coroners are to be aunually chosen and 
sworn. On the death of an alderman, the mayor and 
surviving aldermen, or the major part of them, are to 
elect another who shall be sworn by the mayor, and 
shall continue for life. The charter then states the 
penalties for refusing to serve any of these offices. 
The twenty-four capital citizens continued in office 
during pleasure. The mayor, recorder, and two senior 
aldermen, were, es-officio, justices of the peace. " And 
finally," continues the charter, " the mayor, aldermen, 
bailiffs, and citizens, shall have such and the like court 
leet and view of frank pledge, and other courts, issues, 
fines, ransoms, penalties, forfeitiu'es, amerciaments, 
waifs, estrays, deodands, goods of felons and fugitives, 
fehdese, and persons put in exegent and outlawed, and 
other emoluments, as former mayors, aldermen, bailiffs, 
and citizens, have enjoyed, by whatever name of incor- 
poration they were called or known." This charter, 
comprehending the spirit of aU previous grants, and 
giving some new privileges to the corporation, was sur- 
rendered in 1684, to Judge Jeffreys, as above stated, 
but was afterwards restored as we have seen. In 1835 
an act was passed for the regulation of municipal corpo- 
rations in England and Wales, and under its provisions 
the old corporation of the city was dissolved, and a new 
body, consisting of ten aldermen and thirty councillors 
established. Tiio style of the corporate body now is 
the Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses oftlie city of Car- 
lisle. The municipal and parliamentary limits of the 
city of Carlisle are co-extensive, and comprise the town- 
ships of Rotchergate, English-street, Scotch-street, 
Fishcr-strect, Castle-street, Abbey-street, Rickergate, 
Eaglesfiold Abbey, and part of Caldewgate township. 
For municipal purposes the city is divided into five 
wards, the citizens or burgesses of each ward electing 
si.x councillor.^, who retain their office for three years, 
but are eligible to be re-elected. The aldermen arc 
elected by tlie councillors, and during their appoint- 
ment, which is sk years, they are mcmbei-s of tlie 
council, but possess no power or authority above the 
councillors. From the towii council, consisting of both 
aldermen and councillors, tlie mayor is chosen annually, 
lie is an unpaid officer, and the business of the town 
council is transacted monthly, at meetings which are 
open to the public. Since the establishment of this 
new body, many improvements have been effected, 

including a more efficient police establishment, and 
the funds of the corporation are now applied for the 
advantage of the citizens generally. The funds of the 
corporation amount to between £2,000 and £3,000 a 
year, derived principally from rents and tolls, but the 
latter, by an arrangement with the railway companies, 
have been almost entirely commuted. The following is 
a list of the charters granted to Carlisle : — 

28th June, 21st Edward I. 
lath May, 9th Edward II. 
I'Jth .Tanuarr, Uth Eiiward III. 

7th February, 2Cth Edward III. 
2Gth Mav, oth Richard IT. 
1 Otii Marc}), Snd Henry I V. 
r2lh May, J 3th Henry VI. 

Oth December, 1st Edward TV'. 
28th January, Ist Richard III. 

11th February, .3rd Henry XTl. 
27th February, 1st Henry VIII. 

Uth December, 1st Edward YI. 
Utli February, 5th Elizabeth. 
21st November, 9th Elizabeth. 

Ist May, 2iid James I. 
2 1st July, 13th Charles I. 

9th April, ICtli Charles II. 

3rd December, 36th Charles II. 


"The following list," says Jefferson, "has been com- 
piled from the audit-book of the corporation, where the 
names incidentally occur. From the circumstance of 
the mayoralty commencing in one year, and terminating 
in the nest, — in some cases, the date given may be the 
year in which the mayor was elected, whilst in others, 
it may be tlis year in which he left office, but the names 
may be relied on as being those of the actual mayors." 

1.375. AVilliam de London. 1035. 

13S2. Adam Blennerhasset. Ifl30. 

1507. Robert Dalton. 1037. 

1598. Richard Bell. l(;3s. 

1599. Edward ARlionbye. 1039. 
ICnO. Henry Baines. ].;4n. 
IGOl. Tlinmas Blennerhasset. VAX. 
1(502. William Earwise. 1(142. 
10O3. Richard Warwick. ICis. 
1604. Henry Baines. 1(!49. 
1(105. Thomas Warwick, juD. 1(150. 
ICOfi. Thomas Browne. 1051. 
10117. Thomas Blennerhasset. 1652. 
1(jOS. Thomas Warwick, sen. 1053. 

1009. John Pattinson. 1054. 

10 10. Thomas Pattinson. 1055. 

1011. Edward AgUonby. 1650. 

1012. Thos. James, alias Shapp.lC57. 

1013. Henry Brougham. 165R. 

1014. Thomas Blennerhasset. 16.59. 

1015. Itichard Dell. 1060. 
1010. Thomas Warwicke. 1001. 

1017. Adam Uobinson. 1602. 

1018. Thomas Pattinson. 1063. 

1019. IMward AgUonby. I(i04. 
1620. Thomas Blennerhasset 1665. 
1G21. Thomas James. 1666. 

1022. Henry Baines. 1067. 

1023. Thomas Blennerhasset. 166S. 

1624. Peter Baynes. 1009. 

1625. George Bavnes. 1670. 

1626. Edward AgUonby. lOTl. 
1027. .Mallliew Cape. ' 1072. 
lOJS. William Uarwise. 1673. 

1629. IVIor Baynes. 1074. 

1630. William Barwiso. 107,5. 

1031. K.Iwnrd Vglionl.y. 1670. 

1032. William Barwise. 1077. 

1033. John Baynes. 

1U34. Adtm Warde. 1078. 

Ambrose N'icholson. 
William Barwise. 

Sir Thomas . 

John .4glionby. 
John Aglionby. 
John Baines. 


F.ichard Barwise. 
Robert Collyer. 
Thomas Crnister. 
Thomas Craister. 
Cuthbert Stndholme. 
Sir Wilfrid Lawson, Knt. 
Thomas Cholmley. 
Thomas Monke. 
Peter Noi-man. 
Sir Peter Lawson, Knt. 
Richard lowry. 
Thomas Sewell. 
Isaac TuUie. 
George Barwick. 
Henrj' Baines. 
Henry Baines. 
John .\ghonby. 
Sir Philip MiisgraTe,Bart. 
John Thouilinson. 
Thomas Stanwix. 
William Wilson. 
Thomas Jackson. 
John Aglionby. 
Sir Georgi- Fletcher, Hart. 
Sir Christ. Musgrave, Bart. 
Itobert Wilson. 
Thomas Stanwix. 
Goorge Barwise. 
William Tallanlirc 
Charles (1st Earl of Car- 

Thomas Warwick. 



1079. Thomas .Tackson. 1763. 
1082. .Toseph KeeJ. 1~B4. 
IGS.'J. K( (LonlMoqieth). 17(i'). 
1«S4. .loliii How. 17(i(l. 
IGnri. Tliomns Wai-wkk. 1T(J7. 
lOsn. Basil Fielding. 17fi8. 
1687. Henry Fletcher. 1709. 
1088. 'Williiim Nicholson. 1770. 

1080. Jiinies Nicolson. 1771. 
1690. Robert Jackson. 1772. 
lOlll. John How. 1773. 
l(i!)_>. Willinm Nicholson, 1775. 
J(IS)t. William Rarwise, 1776. 
Kilir). Jolin How. 1777. 
1097. Thomas Simpson. 1779. 

1698. Robert Jackson. 1780. 

1699. James Nicholson. 1781. 

1700. Charles (3ril Earl of Car- 17X2. 

lisle). 1783. 

1701. William Nicholson. 1781. 

1702. Thomas Simpson. 1787. 

1703. John How. 1788. 

1704. William Barwise. 1789. 

1705. Nicholas Robinson. 1790. 

1700. Joseph Parker. 1791. 
'707. Thomas Jackson. 1794. 
170H. Thomas CouUhard. 179.'). 

1709. Thomas Brougham. 1796. 

1710. Matthew Pattinson. 1797. 

1711. William Nicholson. 1798. 

1712. John Kow. 1799. 

1713. William Barwick. 1800. 

1714. Nicholas Robinson. 1801. 

1715. Brigadier Thos. Stanwix. 1803. 

1716. Joseph Parker. 1803. 

1717. Thomas Jackson. 1804. 

1718. Matthew Pattinson. 1805. 

1719. Thomas Railton. 1800. 

1720. William Tate. 1807. 

1721. Joseph Jackson. 1808. 

1722. Timothy How. 1810. 
1793. John James. 1811. 
1724. Henrv Hall. 1812. 
172.5. Joliullow. 1813. 
1720. Joseph Parker. 1814. 

1727. Thnraiis Railton. 1815. 

1728. William Tate. 18)0. 

1729. Jos,-ph Jackson. 1817. 

1730. Timuthv How. 1818. 

1731. Henry Hall. 1819. 

1732. Thomas Pattinson. 1820. 

1733. Thomas James. 1821. 

1734. Proctor finbinson. 1822. 

1735. Thomas Railton. 1823. 

1736. John Atkinson. 1834. 

1737. Henrj' Aslionliy. 1825. 

1738. Joseph Backhouse. 18i0. 

1739. Richard CouUhard. 1><2S. 

1740. William Tate. 1829. 

1741. Henry Aelionhv. 1830. 

1742. Thomas iPattinson. 1831. 
17415. Henrv Aglionby. 1832. 

1744. Joseph Backhouse. 1833. 

1745. George Pattinson. 1834. 

1746. James Graham. 1835. 

1747. William Tate. 1830. 
174M. Joseph Backhouse. 1837. 
1750. George Pattinson. 1838. 
1753. George Blamire. 1839. 
1755. Thomas Yeats. 1840. 
1750. Richard Cook. 1841. 

1757. Thomas Coulthard. 1842. 

1758. Joseph Backhouse. 1843. 

1759. Richard Coulthard. 1844. 

1760. George Blamire. 1845. 

1701. Thomas Yeats. 1840. 

1702. Humphrey Senhouse. 1847. 

Thomas Coulthard. 
Pilchard Hodgson. 
John I'avison. 
Richard Hodgson. 
John Pears. 
John Pearson. 
William Hodgson. 
Jeremiah Wherlings. 
Morris Coulthard. 
George Dalton. 
George Harrington. 
Richard Hodgson. 
William Hodgson. 
Jeremiah Wherlings. 
Morris Coulthard. 
George Dalton. 
Joseph Potts. 
Joseph Gill. 
John Senhouse. 
Joseph Gill. 

Sir Josph. Senhouse, Knt. 
Joseph Potts. 
Richard Jackson. 
Jeremiah ^Vherl^ngs. 
Richard Jackson. 
Jeremiah Wherlings. 
Richard Jackson. 
Morris Coulthard. 
R. Hodgson. 
Jeremiah Wherlings. 
Richard Jackson. 
John Richardson. 
Jeremiah Wherlings. 
Richard Jackson. 
John Hodgson. 
Thomas Lowry, D.D. 
Thomas Blamire. 
Sir J. V. A. Gilpin, Knt. 
Richard Jackson. 
Thomas Lowry, D.D. 
Thomas Blamire, M.D. 
Sir J. D. A. Gilpin, Knt. 
George Blamire. 
John Hodgson. 
Thomas Lowry, D.D. 
Thomas Blamire, M.D. 
Sir J. D. A. Gilpin, Knt. 
John Hodgson. 
William Hodgson. 
Thomas Blamire, M.D. 
Sir J. D. A. Gilpin, Knt. 
,Tohn Hodgson. 
William Hodgson. 
Thomas Blamire, M.D. 
John Hodgson. 
Thomas Blamire, M.D. 
William Hodgson. 
William Hodgson. 
John Hodgson. 
John Hodgson. 
Thomas Lowry, D.D. 
John Hodgson. 
AVilliam Hodgson. 
W. N. Hodgson. 
John Hodgson. 
George Gill Mounsey. 
Joseph Ferguson. 
Peter Dixon. 
Thomas C. Heysham. 
John Dixon. 
John Dixon. 
George Gill Mounsey. 
George Dixon. 
Robert Bendle. 
James Steel. 
James Steel. 
George Belph. 

1818. William Stordy. 
1849. George Dixon. 
18 50 Joseph Rome. 

1851. John Hewson. 

1852. Thomas Nelson. 

1853. Peter James Dixon. 

1854. Peter James Dixon. 

1855. Robert Ferguson. 
1850. Robert KUiot. 
1857. George Mounsey. 
1853. John Uowe. 


Intimately connected with the representation of the 
city are the incorporated companies, or guilds, of which 
Carlisle comprises eight, viz., merchants, butchers, 
smiths, tailors, tanners, weavers, skinners, and shoe- 
makers. The privileges of a free burgess are restricted 
to those who belong to one or other of these companies 
or guilds, and consist in a freedom from tolls within 
the city, and the right of voting in the election of 
members of parliament. No one is admitted to these 
guilds but the sons or apprentices of freemen. The 
sons of burgesses are free of all the guilds of which 
their father may be a member, and also of the guild or 
trade to which they have served an apprenticeship. The 
number of freemen having the right of voting for mem- 
bers of parliament was citrtailed by the Reform Act, 
which disfranchised all freemen living beyond the dis- 
tance of si.K miles from the city. They now amount to 
about one-third of the electoral body, or nearly 400. 
The number of electors is 1134. 

The city of Carlisle has sent members to parliament 
since the reign of Edward I. The members were 
elected by the free burgesses, the members of the 
various guilds of the city. On a dispute in the House 
of Commons, in 1711, it was declared that the sons of 
burgesses born after their freedom, and persons serving 
seven years' apprenticeship within the city, have a right 
to be made free. We subjoin a list of the members of 
parliament for the city, from their first summons to the 
present time, as far as we have been able to ascertain. 

Epwakd L 
1294. Robert de Grenesdale, Andrew de Seller. 
1301. Heniy le Spencer, Andrew Serjeant. 
liOl. Robert de Grenesdale, Alan do Grenesdale. 
1305. Alan de Grenesdale. 

Edward 11. 

1307. Andrew Serjeant, Richard de Hubrickley. 

1308. Williatu Fit'z Juting, Robert Grenesdale. 

1310. John de Crostonc, WilUaiii Fitz Henry. 

1311. Alan de Grenesdale, Andrew Fitz Peter. 
Alan de Grenesdale, William de Tailleur. 

1313. Robert Grenesdale, John Winton. 

1314. Robert Grenesdale, Bernard Lecatour. 
1318. Robert Grenesdale, Bernard Poulter. 

Robert Grenesdale, Richard Fitz Ivo. 
l."21. John de Wilton, Thomas de Calston. 

1326. John Fleming, Nicholas le Despencer. 

Edwakd III. 

1327. John Fleming, Robert de Grenesdale. 
Alan de Grenesdale, John de Capella. 

1328. Robert de Grenesdale, Alan dc Grenesdale. 
John de Haverington, Simon de Sandford. 
Robert Grenesdale, John de Harding. 



133i. John Havorington, Simon Sandford. 
l:i:W. John Fleinin;,', Adam Crofton. 
Vt'ii. John de I'ickerinj;, Henry Pepir. 

John riemin'_:, Adam Crofton. 
1335. Thomas Ilardidl, Thomas Friskington. 

John de lOxhnglon, Thomas 'Worllifell. 

1337. Thomas ilo Pardishow, Giles de OnetoD. 
John de Uenioii, Adam Brighton. 

1338. Thomas de Pardishow, Giles de Orreton. 
John de Kxlington, John de Bardgit. 
Piiiliert (irenesdale, William Fitz Ivo. 
Thomas Baron, 'I'iinma^ de Fresington, 

1310. John Fleming, Adam Crofton. 

William Filz Henry, Henry le Spencer. 
1341. Thomas Hard^il, John Fleming. 
1313. John Chni)el, William Chapel. 
1317. Adam Crofton, Bohert Tehay. 
Blls. Adam Crofton, Tlipmas Appleby. 
13.JII. Uobert Tebay, John de llaghton. 
13.j.'). William Artme, Thomas Stanley. 
1357. Thomas .41aynby, William Spencer. 
I3(J(). John de Tliorneton, Alam do Aglionby. 
13(i2. William .\nhuri-tli, William Spencer. 
13(i3. Adam HaMcn, William Spencer. 
1301. William Arthureth, Bichard London. 
13(J.'5. Bi.-hard Orfenr, William Clifton. 
130H. Adam Aglionhy, William de Clitford. 
13()!l. William Arthmet, John de Wavcrton. 

1371. John de Whillawc 

1372. William Hanghton, William Carlisle. 

1373. Thomas Tayleur, Fuchard Denton. 
137(1. Bicliard Denton, John (!«> Bnrgh. 

1377. Itichard Dontun, John de Burgh. 


1378. llobert Carlisle, John Levington. 

1379. Ilohert Carlisle, — Parker. 

1383. William Osmunderlaw, John Skelton. 
1383. Ilichord Loudon, John de Appleby. 

Stephen de Carlisle, Thomas Bolton. 
13S4. Bicliard London, John Blennerhasset. 
13»5. William .Vgiionby, John Gemot. 
138fi. .\dain de Denton, F.obert de Bristow. 
1387. I'.obcrt d? Carlisle, William Aglionby. 
138K. John de Corkeby, Nicholas Leveston. 

13h!). Adam da Kirkbride 

1301. Jidin Monceanx, Robert Bristow. 
13;).;. John P.oddesdale, John do Wek. 
J3!ll. John de Unidiaui, John Moiiceaux. 
13!)n. John Helton, John Brugham. 
13117. liobert Briston-, John Uriston-. 
Hknuy IV. 
13!)!l. John Helton, Bobert Bristowe. 
1401. Thomas Bolton, Uoliert Bristowe. 
140(J. Thomas do Darle, William Mulcastre. 

Hknry V. 

1413. Hohprt de Carlisle, Bnlph Blennerhasset 

1414. Bobert de Carlisle, William de Cardoyll. 

1415. P.obert Lancastro, William Bell. 
1117. Itoberl Carlisle, Willinni Cardoyll. 
14°H. William Alanchestre, John Thompson. 

Henuy VI. 
1432. Boliprt Cardoyll, Bicliard Gray. 
1437. John Helton, William Camberton. 
1421). Thomas Derwent, .\ilnm Havcrington. 
1430. Everard Barwiok, Bobert Clerk. 
1432. Richanl Hrislow, Bichard Bawleke. 

1434. Willinni Northing, Nicholas Thompson. 

1435. r.ii'hard Tlioriibnrgh, Ilowland Wherton. 
143(1. Bobert Mason, Thomas Marescall. 
1441. John HIennerhnsset, William Buckler. 
141(1. Thomas Stnnlaw, George Walton. 

144H. Bobert Carlisle, Richard Alanson. 
1440. Richard t iiatlerley, Thomas Chatterley. 
1150. Richard Alanson, Alun d Malevercr. 
1353. John Skdton, Bowland Vaux. 
1104. John Bcrc, Tliomas Derwent. 




Richard Berverley, Thomas Rukin. 

Edwaiii) IV. 
Henry Denton, Richard George. 
Robert Skelton, John Coldale. 

Heskv VIIL 

1541. William Stapylton. 

Edward VI. 
1547. Edward Aglionby, Thomas Dalston. 
1553. Edward Aglionby, John Dudley. 

1553, John Aglionby, Simon Bristow. 

Robert Whitley, Richard Mynsho. 

Piiii.ip ANn JIary. 

1553. Richard Whitley, Richard llynsho. 

1554. William Middleton, William Warde. 

1555. Richaid Asheton, Robert Dalton. 


1558. Richard Asheton, William Mulcastre. 

1563. Richard Asheton, William Mulcastre. 

1570. Robert Bowes, Chi-istopher Musgrave. 

1571. Thomas Pattinson, Thomas Tallentyre. 
15S4. Edwaid Aglionby, Thomas Blennerhasset. 
1585. Henry Mc. William, Thomas Blennerhasset. 
J58S. Henry Scroope, John Dalston. 

1593. Henry Scroope, Edward Aglionby. 
1590. Henry Scroope, Thomas Stanford. 

1000. Henry Scroope, John Dudley. 

James I. 
1003. Thomas Blennerhasset, William Barwick. 

1014. Henry Fane 

ICaO. Heni-y Fane, George Butler. 
1023. Henry Fane, Edward Aglionby. 

Charles I. 
1C35. Henry Fane, Edward Aglionby. 
Henry Fane, Richard Graham. 
1037. Richard Barwick, Richard Graham. 

1039. William Dalston, Richard Barwick. 

1040. William Dalston, Richard Barwick. 

1055. Col. Thomas Filch. 
1057. Col. George Downing. 
1059. Col. George Downing, Thomas Craister. 
1(500. William Briscoe, Jeremy Tolhurst. 

Charles II. 

1001. Philip Howard, Christopher JIusgrave. 

1079. Philip Howard, Christopher Mnsgrave. 

1080. Edward Lord Morpeth, Christopher Musgrave. 

James II. 
1085. Christopher Musgrave, James Graham. 

William III. 

1089. Christopher Musgrave, Jeremiah Bubb. 

1090. Jeremiah Bubb, Christopher Musgrave. 

William Lowther 

James Lowther 

1C94. William Howard, James Lowther. 
1697. William Howard, Jnines Lowther. 
1099. Philip Howard, James Lowther. 
170(1. Philip Howard, James Lowther. 

1703. Christopher Musgrave, Thomas Staniriz. 
1705. Thomas Stanwix, Jamos Montague. 
1708. Thomas Stanwix, James Montague. 
17 III. Thomas Stanwix, Jomes Monlagiio. 
1713. Christopher .Afusgravo, Thomas Stanwix. 

George I. 
1711. Thomas Stanwix, WiUiam Strickland. 

Henry Aghonby 

1731. James Batcman, llenrj- Aglionby. 

Georoe II. 
1737. Charles Howard, John llyltoii. 
1733. Cburle^ Howard, John lljlton. 



1740. Charles HowarJ, .Tnhn Hylton. 
. .liilin Stanwix. 
1717. Charles Howard, John Stanwix. 
1751. Chai-les Howard, J ohu Stanwix. 

Geokge III. 
17fiO. Raby Vane, Henrj- Curwen. 
1707. Lord J'Mward lientinci, George Musgrave. 
1774. Fletcher Norton, Anthony Storer. 
Walter Stanliope. 

1780. Earl of Surrey, 'Wmiam Lowther. 

1781. Earl of Smrey, Edward Norton. 

1780. J. Christian, on the elevation of the Earl of Surrey to the 

1787. Rowland Stephenson, on E. Norton's demise. 
17!)0. J. C. Curwen, Wilson Bradyll. 
17n(i. J. C. Curwen, Sir F. Fletcher Vane, Bait 
1802. J. C. Curwen, Spencer Stanhope. 
1800. .T. C. Curwen, Spencer Stanhope. 
1807. J. C. Curwen, Spencer Stanliope. 
1812. Sir.T. (irahani. Hart. (Edmond Castle), Henry Fawcclt 

1810. J. C. Curwen, on the deaili of H. Fawcett. 
1818. Sir James Graham, Bart., J. C. Curwen. 

GEoncF. r\'. 

1820. Sir .Tames Graham, Burt., J. C. Curwen. 

1820. William James, on Jlr. Curwen's election for the comity. 

1825. Sir Philip Jlus^'rave, Bart., on the death of Sir James 
Graham, BarU 

1820. Sir P. JIusgrave, Bart., Right Hon. Sir J. K. G. Graham, 

18S7. Col. I.ushington, on Sir P. Jlusgrave's decease. 

1820. Sir William Sco!t, Bart., cu Sir J. R. G. Graham's elec- 
tion for the county. 

Wn,i,iAM IV. 
1830. Col. Lnshington, P. H. Howard. 
18:31. Philio H. Howard, William James. 
1832. Pliilip H. Howard, William James. 

1834. Philip H. Howard, William Marshall. 

1835. Philip H. Howard, William Marshall. 

1837. Philip Henry Howard, William Marshall. 

1811. Philip Henry Howard, William Marshall. 
1817. John Pixon, W. N. Hodsson.i 

181S. I'hilip Henry Howard, W. N. Hodgson, 
l^.^l. Sir James Graliam, Joseph Ferguson. 
1857. Sir James Graham, Vi'. N. Hodgson. 

poor. LAW UNION*. 

Carlisle I'oor Law Union is divided into six sub- 
districts, viz., St. Cutbbert's, comprising the townships 
of Carleton, High Blackwell. Low Blacliwell, Ilarraliy, 
Upperbj-, Brisco, Botcherbj, Botcbergate, Englisli- 
street, and Wreay Cbapehy; St. Mary's, embracing 
Scotch-street, Fisher-street, Castle-strcot, Abbey-street, 
Piiclcergate, and Caldewgate townships, with the extra- 
parochial place called Eaglesficld Abbey; Burgh, 
including the parishes of Beaumont, Giinsdale, Ivirk- 
andrews, and Burgh-on-Sands, with the townships of 
Boustead Hill, Longburgh, and Moorhouse ; Dalston, 
which contains the township of Orton, Baldwiuholme, 
Cummersdale, Dalston, Buchabank, Eaughton and 
Gatesgill, Ivegill, Hawkesdale, and Cumdevock ; Stan- 
wix, comprising the townships of Stanwix, Eickerby, 
Linstock, Tarraby, Houghton, Etterby, Stainton, Cai-go, 

■ Electiou declared void March, 1848. 

Churcli Town Quarter, Castle Town Quarter, and the 
extra-parochial place called Kingmoor: Wethcral, con- 
sisting of Walby, Brunstock, Low Crosby, High Crosby, 
Aglionby, Warwick, Warwick Bridge, Great Corby, 
Wetheral, Coathill with Cumwhinton, and Scotby 
townships. The area of the union is 70,810 statute 
acres. Its population in 1851 was 41, ,157, of whom 
20,138 were males, and 21,419 females. The number 
of inhabited houses at the same period was C92.8, 
of uninhabited 105, and 57 were in course of erec- 

This union possesses three workhouses, viz., St. 
Mary'Sj for the reception of iiifinu paupers ; St. Cutb- 
bert's, for able-bodied paupers; and Caldewgate, for 
children. St. Mary's Workliouse, situated near Irish 
Gate Brow, was erected in 1 785, for the reception of 
tlie paupers of the four townships of St. IMary's parish 
within the city ; it is a large building, with a spacious 
yard attached. St. Cutbbert's Workhouse, on Harraby 
Hill, was built in 1809, at a cost of about £4,000, 
including furniture, &c. It is a large structure, cover- 
ing an area of ground, which was purchased with a 
bequest of £20 aided by parish money. Caldewgate 
Workhouse, on Coal Fell Hill, is a plain brick building, 
erected in 1&Q9, at an expense of £750, and has since 
been enlarged and otherwise much improved. 

The following statement of accounts shows the re- 
ceipts, expenditure, and balances for the year ending 
25th March, 1858. Balance in favour of parishes last 
year, £2,011 3s. 3Jd. ; payments and workhouse rents 
during the year, £14,821 Os. 4d.; balance against 
parishes at the end of this year, £223 3s. Sid. ; total, 
£16,255 7s. 3Jd. Averages, £00,874: number of 
paupers, in-door, 1050; out-door, 6053; balance against 
parishes last year, £40 13s. 4J-d.; in-uiaintenancc, 
£1,299 10s. 2H-; out-relief, £2,419 9s. 3d.; relief to 
irremovable poor, £4,072 7s.: lunatics in asylum, 
£458 Is. 9d.; e.xtra medical fees, £13 10s.; vacci- 
nation fees, £54 12s. 6d.; registration fees, £135 16s. 
Gd.; coimty and police rate, £1,807 8s. Id.; establish- 
ment charges, £1,714 lis. Od.; collectors' salaries, Sec: 
£326 lis. 9d.; total expenditure this year, £18,13;; 
Gs. lljd.; total expenditure for the year ending March, 
1857, £12,243 Us. Hd.; increase £1,032 Os. lOJd.; 
diminution, £142 6s.; balance in favour of parishes, 
£2,940 12s. 4d.; total, £10,225 7s. 3ad. The ave- 
rage weekly number of in-door paupers for the first half 
year was 236, for the second half-year, 237. The 
weekly cost per head was as follows : — first half-year, 
food and necessaries, 2s. 7id-; clothing, 3id.; total, 
2s. lid.; second h.-ilf-year, food and necessaries, 2s. 9Jd.; 
clothing, SJd.; total, oa. 2id. 





In giving au account of the antiquities found in 
Carlisle, it must necessarily prove brief and imperfect, 
from the limited space at our disposal. A parti- 
cular account of all the Roman remains which have 
been found in this city, would alone fill volumes. Car- 
lisle may indeed be said to be Roman in its soil and 
foundation, since no search cau he made beneath the 
surface without turning from its resting place of nearly 
two thousand years some valuable relic of antiquity, the 
cunning workmanship of the imperial masters of the 
world. Many centuries have elapsed since the Romans 
left Carlisle, and during that time the spade and a.\e have 
been continually bringing to light some of the concealed 
proofs of their having had a residence in the city ; and 
yet the store is uue.xhausted ; year after year some fresh 
memorials are continually dug up, and additional relics 
brought to light to be preserved in the cabinets of the 

A labourer who was excavating some ground iu Fisher- 
slreet, in ITf^iJ, met with a large quantity of silver coins, 
within a few feet of the surface. The}" were in a state 
of high preservation, and consisted of those of Vitellius, 
Vespxsiau, Titus, Domitian, Hadrian, Antouinus Pius, 
Commodus, and the Empress i'austiua. 

In the year 1787, ia making a drain in Scotch- 
street, two Roman altars were found, one of which had 
figures in bas-rt.lief, but without any inscription, and was 
much mutilated. The other altar, an account of which 
was sent by Mr. Rooke to the Society of Antiquaries, 
was in better preservation. It has a figure in bas- 
relief, which that gentleman supposed to represent 
Silvauus, or some other rural deity, holding a I'ara in 
his right hand ; but the Messrs. Lysons suppose it to 
Iiave been intended for a goat ; the left hand holds what 
jippears meant for a patera or cup. 

At the latter end of the last century, some workmen 
discovered, near the West Walls, between the citadel 
and the deanery, the top of a stone arch ; and on 
removing some of the stones, they gained an entrance 
into an arched room, thirty feet in length, twelve feet 
in breadth, and fifteen feet liigh in the centre. The 
end was not so lofiy, and rather narrower : it was sup- 
posed to have had communication with other similar 
rooms, the entrance to which was walled up. A circular 
funnel of stone-work rose from otip side of the room to 
the footpath on the walls, where it was covered by a 
largo flat stone. Another funnel, nearly square, ex- 
tended from the middle of the arch towards the city ; 
this was about two feet broad, and three feet high. 
Search was made into it, but it was found to be choked 
up with rubbish. A vase, and the thigh-bone and parts 

of the ribs of a bison, were found iu this cui'ious ca\aty. 
The ribs were about four inches broad. 

Iu 1804, an accidental discovery was made in SeweU's 
Lane, Scotch-street, of a small aperture in the ground, 
having the appearance of a communication with a sub- 
terraneous passage. This e.xcited curiosity, and it was 
found there was a wall beneath, of the depth of twenty- 
seven feet, twenty-four of which were water. The 
earth was removed, and the workmen then found them- 
selves ou the brink of an abyss, whose depth no light 
could render visible, and into which the rubbish fell 
with a hollow reverberation. After this large opening 
was emptied of the water, they found a loose bottom, 
composed of clay, and mixed with the bones and oifal 
of animals, among which was the head of a bullock or 
cow, with the horns as perfect as when slain. Amidst 
this heterogeneous mixture, they brought up two Roman 
sacrificial vases, of beautiful workmauship, with carved 
handles, ornamented with figures in alto-relief. One of 
these vases was very perfect, and measured above eleven 
inches in height, and twenty-one inches in circum- 
ference. They were both very elegant in their form, 
and resembling Etruscan vases. From the number of 
bones found, it was conjectured that this had been a 
place where the Romans had been accustomed to offer 
their sacrifices, and from the style and workmanship 
displayed in the vases, they were attributed to the period 
between the reigus of Xerva and Mai'cus Aurelius. Xo 
inscription, however, was discovered to attach any 
certainty to these conjectures of their probable date. 
This description of vase, generally known by the title 
prafericidum, was appropriated for containing the in- 
cense used iu sacrifice. The two vases are formed of 
metal, appearing to be a composition of brass, era kmd 
of bronze, refined to a degree capable of being exqui- 
sitely WTOUght aud of bearing a high polish. Their tops 
and bottoms have evident marks of having been turned 
and finished in a lathe. The handles contain four dis- 
tinct tiei"s of figures or groups in bas-relief, illustm- 
tive of sacrificial rites. The upper tier represents two 
persons preparing a bullock for sacrifice : the second, a 
bear held for a similai- purpose ; the third, a. priest, 
habited in sacerdotal robes, holding a victim ou au altar: 
and the lower one, the most beautiful of the four tiers, 
represents on one side, a man iu armour, holding a 
knife, and another person presenting a sheep or Iamb 
for slaughter; on the other side is a priest with a knii'o 
or sword. These most curious vases were sold as old 
brass by the labourers who discovered them, for the 
sum of eighteen-pcnce I But they were eventually 
secured from being melted dowu, and purchased by the 



late Mr. Towiilcy, the antiquariiiii. They are now pre- 
served in the iiritish Museum. 

Horsley describes a Roman inscription which he saw 
at Carlisle : — 



C. P. K. F. 

■which he reads, — Lcffio scxta vktrix pia fidclis Gcnio 
Popiili Eomani fecit. Camden speaks of it iu his time 
as being " in the garden of Thomas Middletou," but it 
appears to have been destroyed or removed, and 
Hutchinson says it was unknown what had become 
of it. 

In 1809, some men employed in digging a cellar, 
also in Fisher street, discovered the handle of a Ronian 
vase, made of stone and highly ornamented, with a 
small hand-mill, also of Roman origin. These remains 
of antiquity were found beneath two distinct pavements, 
■which were exposed in excavating the eartli. Pave- 
ment has been frequently discovered at the depth of 
from ten to eighteen feet below the present surface of 
the city ; proving beyond doubt the devastation com- 
mitted by the Picts and the Danes. 

In digging the foundations for the new gaol, many spe- 
cimens of Roman antiquities were found on the site of 
the convent of the Black Friars. At the depth of fifteen 
feet from the surface, a tank was discovered, composed 
of oak frames and boards of very rude workmanship, and 
stuffed all round with a light blue clay rarely to be met 
with in this neighbourhood. They found two pitchers 
in the tank ; and also several fragments of red earthen- 
■ware, bearing ornaments in bas-relief; coins of Vespa- 
sian, Trajan, Autonius Pius, Tacitus, &c. ; various urns 
containing bones; and two sandals, or shoe-soles; these 
were embedded in a stratum of rubbish, of the depth of 
from twelve to twenty-seven feet, which covered the 
natural soil. These antiquities are now in the valuable 
collection of Mr. C. Hodgson. 

On excavating the earth on Stanwix bank, in 1812, 
in a field belonging to the Earl of Lonsdale, preparatory 
to building the bridge over the Eden, the workmen found 
at about four feet from the surface of the gi'ound, the 
capital and part of a pillar of the Tuscan order, which 
was fifteen inches in diameter, and lying horizontally. 
An aqueduct was also discovered, formed of large stones 
laid with cement, and several pieces of hewn stone and 
large bricks. The base of a massive column with 
pedestal were dug up, about five feet below the surface, 
near the same place, in 1815. In the following year, on 
widening and impro\-ing the road at that place, a very 
large quantity of human bones was discovered in a 
vault about eight feet long and four in breadth, which 

was flagged at the bottom, lined with el^y, and covered 
at the top with earth about a foot in dejith. A fragment 
of Roman pottery was found at the time, with this in- 
scription on the rim — s a i; r r, which may probably 
mean, Scvcrus Ai(yustus licsliliitor Romanorum Imiicrii, 
in allusion to the services rendered to the Roman empire 
by Sevcrus, in checking the irruptions of the northern 

In 1899, during the excavations made at Gallow Hill, 
near this city, for the purpose of levelling the turnpike 
road, a considerable number of interesting remains of 
antiquity were found. Gallow Hill is an e.\tremely 
interesting place, not only from its having been the 
place selected for the execution of the rebels of 1745,' 
but also from its being on the line of the great Roman 
road from Lugubalia to Voreda, and from the evidences 
of its being a place of sepulture during the Roman 
period. AVhcn the road was levelled through this hill, 
many Roman urns, lamps, jet rings, lachrymatories, and 
coins, were found, and also the head of a statue, the 
capital of a Corinthian column, and a well executed 
sepulchral stone, in good preservation. This latter 
represents a female, in alto-relievo, three feet long, and 
one foot two inches and a half broad. The stone itself 
is a red freestone, live feet four inches long, two feet 
nine inches and a half in width, and about seven inches 
in thickness. The figure is holding a llowcr in her left 
hand, and underneath is the following inscription, in 
letters an inch and a half in length : — 


ANN'OS xxxxi VLPns ■ 


The following reading has been suggested as coiTcct : — 
Diis Manibus Aitrelui. Aurclia virit annos 41. L'lpius 
Apolinaris coiijiigi carissinne posuit ; or. To the Dii 
manes of Aurelia. .'\urelia lived 41 years. Ulpius 
Apolinaris placed (or consecrated) this to his most dear 
wife. The same year a silver buckle, or fibula, with 
the inscription, "jhestjs na.," — Jesus Kazarcniis, was 
found in a garden in Botchergate. 

In 1830, when the workmen were digging for the 
foundation of the Newsroom and the adjoining houses, 
iu Devonshire street, they found a great quantity of 
Roman antiquities, particularly the remains of a bath ; 
also some portions of the pillars which were supposed 
to have belonged to the convent of Grey Friars. A part 

'GiUlow Hill is commemorated by Sir Walter Scott, in the "Heart 
of Mid Lotbiau," as tbe scene of tbe executions in 17-l(i. Until 
nearly lli»^ end of last century tbe remains of tbe gibbet were to be 
seen ; and at tlie foot of it, tbe asbes of tbe lire used in burning the 
bodies of those who suffered for high treason. 




of a Eoman jug was also found, most singularly orna- 
mented with grotesque faces, which is now preserved 
in the collection of Mr. Christopher Hodgson, of this 

A large nuinlior of curiosities was discovered in 
various parts of Carlisle while the workmen were en- 
gaged in the recent operations connected with the 
sewerage of the city.' 


Biillcij's Chnrit'j. — The sum of fifty shillings is paid 
out of the funds of the coqioration of Carlisle, as Piid- 
ley's Charity, hut the origin of it is unknown. The 
corporation fix upon some day in the month of Septera- 
her yearly, when the sum is distributed by the mayor, 
amongst fifty poor women, who attend at the Town Hall 
to receive it. 

Woodle's Charity. — The sum of forty shillings yearly 
is also paid out of the funds of the corporation, and dis- 
tributed in the month of December, in like manner, 
amongst forty poor women, as Woodle's Charity. The 
origin of this is also unknown. 

Pott's Charity. — Maiy Potts, who died in 181-1 or 
1815, bequeathed to the corporation of Carlisle £30, 
the interest thereof to bo distributed annually at Christ- 
mas, amongst six poor widows of freemen of Carlisle, 
and si.\ spinsters, daughters of deceased freemen, of the 
age of forty years and upwards ; the said widows and 
spinsters to be nominated by the mayor for the time 
being. This legacy, after the payment of the duty 
thereon, was paid to the corporation in 1S15, but they 
agreed to pay the interest of the full sum of C30 out of 
their funds, notwithstanding the deduction above men- 
tioned. One moiety of the interest has been distributed 
annually by the chamberlain to si.x poor widows. 

Tjord Whrirtnn's BUdc Charity. — This city is entitled 
to receive a certain number of bibles from Lord Whar- 
ton's Bible Charity. They are usually sent to the Dean 
of Carlisle, and disposed of by him. 


We subjoin an alphabetical list of those eminent men, 
who, having distinguished themselves in their several 
pursuits, have lent a lustre to the plnco of their birth, 
and have bccomo the pride of their fellow citizens : — 

'On npplying tn Hfr. Cortinoll, city IrcnsuriT, for nn nrcouiit of 
those nnlii)uilip9, lie kindly infnnncd 119 tliat tlioy lind been out of 
his ImmlH fur some time, for tlio purpose of rlnssilicntion, nnd liiul 
not yet been ri'lurned ; lint ho proiniseil tlitit n-s soon as he rercivcd 
them we should henr from liini. We therefore liope 10 be able to 
gire some account of tliem in a subsequent porliou of our work. 

Aglionby, John, n.D., divine and linguist, one of the eminent 
men engnjed in the translation of the New Testament by 
James I., in 1604; horn about 1565; died, 1009. 

Anderson, llohert, poet, the "Cumberland Bard;" died in 
Carlisle in 1S33. 

Bacon, John, author, WTitor of a nnmber of essays tending to 
promote public and patriotic institutions, and, in 178(i, of a 
larger work entitled "Liber Regis, vel Thesaurus Eerum 

BestjWilliaiu Thomas, musician, celebrated organist; bom, 1820. 

Bell, John, engineer, who made several improvements in the art 
of gunnery. 

Bowman, Bobert, mathematician, who, though blind from 
infancy, made considerable progress in the various depart- 
ments of science and literature. 

Carlyle, Joseph Dacre, divine, traveller in the East, Arabic 
scholar, and poet; died, 1804. 

Harrington, llobert, physician, and author of several works on 
chemical subjects. 

Gilpin, Sir Joseph J 'acre .\ppleby, physician, who rendered great 
service to the army, with which he was connected for a 
lengthened period. 

Gilpin Sawrey, E.A., artist, superior painter of animals, and 
engraver ; horn, 1783 ; died, 1807. 

Head, Grey, eminent painter; died, 1800. 

Jefferson, Samuel, historian, &<:. ; died in London a few years ago. 

Morris, Capt. Thomns, song writer and biographer; died, 1732. 

Mulcaster, Richard. i\I.A., divine, poet, hnguist, and master of 
Merchant Tailors' School; died, ICll. 

Stephenson, Joseph, landscape painter; born, 175R; died, 1792. 

Thompson, William, mathematician, about the beginning of the 
present century. 

Strong, Joseph, mechanic, lived in King's Arms-lane. He was 
blind from infancy, yet he made a fine-toned organ and other 
musical instruments, altogether with liis own hands. He 
was also tailor to bis family, and made part of his own furni- 
ture; died, 1803. 

Tullie, Thomas, learned divine and controversialist; horn, 1G20; 
died, 107.') 0. 

Wilkinson, Rev. Joseph, author. 


The principle amusements of the people of Carlisle, 
as well as those of tlic whole country, are wrestling 
and quoits. They know nothing of bowls, football, or 
cricket. The last-named is played mildly by boys of 
the middle and upper classes. 

The best attended ceremony is that of a funeral. At 
one time the bellman went round, to announce that on 
a certain day and hour so-and-so would be buried at 
such a place. This custom still lingers. Perhaps one 
or two hundred persons may accompany the corpse of 
a neighbour to church, most of whom never attend a 
place of worship at other times. Tlicy attacli great 
importance to the churchyard whcro their relatives 
have been buried ; and tiie middle class, and some even 
of the upper, will attend a church chiclly for the reason 
that their departed relatives are interred in the church- 
yard adjoining. It is also a custom for ladies to attend 
the interment, wearing black silk scarfs over their bon- 
nets, with the broad ends banging down, not unlike 
the-head dress of the Swiss peasantry. 

18 ft 




This parish, as at present constituted, consists of English-street township, comprising the principal shops of the 
citr, and numerous lanes and courts closely packed together, with the residences of a few geutrv and professional 
men. The majorily of the inhabitants are hand-loom weavei-s, who are, for the most part, generally in ver}' straitened 
circumstances, in consequence of the variable rate of wages. The area of English-street township is 1,5 12 acres. 
Its population is given at page 83. The parish has been much improved by the sewering and draining of the city. 
Since the passing of Lord Blandford's Act, in 1850, the outlying townships have been severed from the mother 
church, and now form two separate and distinct parishes, formerly ecclesiastical districts, called respectively Christ 
Church and Upperby parishes. The corporation of Carlisle are lords of the manor and lords of the soil within the 
ancient bounds of the city ; lords of the soil meaning of the open places, such as streets, lanes, and squares. 
There are two banks within this parish, Messrs. Head and Co. and the City and District Bank. The county gaol 
post-office, Athenroum, etc. are also in the parish, through which run the Lancaster and Carlisle and the Caledonian 
railways. The rateable value of St. Cuthbert's Within, in 1 S48, was £9,-2i!0 8s. lod.; in ] 85 7, £ 1 1,303 Os. 8d.; that 
of St. Cuthbert's Without, for the same years was respectively £9,1-29 7s., and £15,404 7s. 8d. 

THE cmmcH. 

The church, which is dedicated to St. Cuthbert, is 
situated in Blacldriars-street, on the south side of the 
cathedral. The original church of St. Cuthbert was 
erected at a vei7 early period ; but having been destroyed 
by the Northmen in the ninth century, remained in ruins 
for a considerable time, and was rebuilt shortly after the 
Conquest. It continued till the seventeenth century, 
■when the steeple, being in a very decayed state, was 
taken down, and a large quantity of Anglo-Saxon coins 
discovered. The church was rebuilt at the expense of 
the inhabitants, in 1778. It has no pretensions to 
architectural elegance, but is large and commodious, 
capable of accommodatiag about 1200 persons. The 
tower is low and square, and possesses one bell. The 
church contains a number of mural tablets, and a monu- 
ment inside the communion rails, to the memory of the 
Kev. John Fawcett, who was incumbent of the parish 
for fifty years, and died in 1851, at the advanced age of 
eighty-two. The monument contains a well executed 
bust of the deceased, with an appropriate inscription. 
The living is a perpetual curacy, to which the dean and 
chapter of Carlisle have the right of presentation, the 
lands and tithes of which body have passed into the 
hands of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The gross 
annual income of the living is £155 10s., made up in 
the following manner: — rent of fields, £58; cottages, 
£7 10s.; (iueen Anne's Bounty, £33 18s. lOd.; Eccle- 
siastical Commissioners, £33 ; railway stock, £9 9s. 4d.; 
dean and chapter as impropriators, £5 Gs. 8d.; fees, 
£8; total, £155 10s. lOd. Deductions and allowances 
amount, in round numbers, to £15 ; nett income £140. 
The parish registers extend from 1093 to the present 
time. A tax, now extinct, was laid upon registers of 
burials and baptisms ; thus notified in the parish 

register — " 1783. N.B. By Vertue of an Act of Par- 
liament which commences this day, viz. y^ Second Day 
of October, 1783, a Stamp Duty of Threepence is 
granted to His Majesty for every future Entry in yf 
Register of any Christening, Burial, &c." 

Incujcbexts. — Henry Pjchardson, 1751; D. Carlyle, profes- 
sor of Arabic at Cambridge, 1785 ; John Fawcett, 1600 ; Clement 
Moody, 1851 ; B. A. Marshall, 1853. 

A parsonage of modern style, was erected in 1815, 
at the expense of the congregation of St. Cuthbert's 
Church, as a testimonial of affection to their beloved 
pastor, the Eev. John Fawcett. Over the garden door 
is inscribed on a stone, in Hebrew, " The gift of my 
people. J. F. 1815." 

Connected with this parish is a District Yisiting 
Society, for distributing tracts, giving rehef by bread 
tickets, and reporting the cases of sickness, &c. to the 
incumbent ; as also a Female Visiting Society, for the 
relief of the aged and indigent, founded in 1803, which 
gives a small sum weekly to each pensioner, besides 
supplying blankets to the most necessitous — it is sup- 
ported by voluntary subscriptions. 


Bcv. George HUschell's Gift. — Hy will dated 14tb 
June, 1717, the Rev. George Ritschell bequeathed £500 
to his sister, and directed her to purchase therewith a 
real estate of the yearly value of £20 or thereabouts, 
and pay thereout, amongst other charities, forty shillings 
a year to the minister and churchwardens of Carlisle, to 
be by them distributed to forty poor widows, inhabiting 
within the same city, on the feast day of St. Thomas, to 
every one a shilling. The estate out of which this pay- 
ment is made is called Nunbush, and is situate in the 
parish of Warden, near Hexham, from which place 



twenty shilliiij^s arc annually received by tbe clergj'man 
of St. Cuthbert's, who distributes the same to twenty 
poor widows in the parish. 

Blacldock's Charity. — Thomas Blaeklock, by will, 
about the year I'rii, left to the parish of St. Cuthbert 
f '20, the interest to be distributed every year, at the dis- 
cretion of tho overseers of the poor. " The name of 
Blaeklock,"' say the Charity Commissioners, " was not 
known in this parish, as a benefactor, at tho time of our 
inquiry ; but there was in the church chest an indenture, 
dated 1st March, lT:i6, whereby in consideration of tho 
sum of £20 an acre of ground at a place called Gallow 
Hill, was conveyed to four persons therein named, 
churchwardens and overseei-s of the poor, and trustees 
of tho said parish, to hold to them and their successors 
in trust, for tho use of the poor of the parish of St. 

Cuthbert for ever. It was also understood that this 
piece of land was purchased with some money left to the 
parish. From these circumstances it appears, most 
probable, that this land was purchased with Blacklock's 
legacy." This land was formerly let at i'4 a-year, and 
the rent carried to the churchwarden's account. But a 
workhouse was subse(}ucuty built upon part of the land, 
and the rest was turned into a garden for the use of the 
workhouse, and for some time no rent was allowed for 
it. Since the inquiry of the Charity Commissioners, a 
vestry has been held, at which it was agreed that j£4 
rent should be paid for this acre of laud, of which dS2 
was to be given to poor persons of the city townships 
of the parish, not receiving relief, and the same to 
poor persons in the out-townships yearly, between 
Candlemas and Easter. 


This parish consists of the township of Botchergate, which, until the passing of Lord Blandford's Act in 1850, 
was comprised in St. Cuthbert's parish. For the most part it is densely peopled by the labouring classes, there are, 
however, a few r&spectable houses and shops. It contains three cotton mills, one woollen factory, and three foundries, 
which alTord employment to a large portion of the population, many of whom are engaged on the railways. Botcher- 
gate township contains 8 10 statute acres. For population, see page 8:3. Like the other parts of Carlisle, this 
parish has been improved by sewerage, a good water supply, and the erection of a bettor class of dwellings for the 
poor. The manor of Botchergate, formerly belonging to the prior and convent of Carlisle, and now to the dean and 
chapter, extends over the greater part of the old parish of St. Cuthbert. This township is said by some to owe its 
name to one Botchard, a Fleming, who formerly possessed extensive property here. 


Christ Church is a neat building, in the early 
English stylo, erected from designs furnished by Mr. 
Rickman, and will seat about 1,000 persons. Its 
exterior appearance is handsome, and it possesses a 
neat spire. The amount subscribed towards its erec- 
tion by the parishioners was £2,140, the remainder 
being defrayed by tho Commissioners for building new 
churches. The church contains a mural tablet, to tho 
memory of the late Mr. Rothwell, of the Mains. The 
benefico is a perpetual curacy, in tlic gift of the dean 
and chapter of Carlisle; gi"oss income about £125, 

derived chiefly from pew rents. The church was con- 
secrated in 1831, when the Kev. B. Ward, the first and 
present incumbent was appointed. 

Tho parsonage, a plain brick structure, was erected 
by subscription and a grunt from Queen Ainie's bounty, 
in 1833, on a site given by the dean and chapter, in 
EaglesCeld Abbey. 

There is a District Visiting Society in tliis parish. 

Ilardwick Lodge, the property of tl. H. llead, Esq., 
now the residence of tlio Rev. J. II. Burton, chancellor 
of the diocese : and the Jlaiiis, tlie residence of Jliss 
Rothwell, aie in the palish. 



iNclTstBENTS.— George Braithwaite, ; Robert Simiison, 

1754 ; John Bird, 1783 ; Michael Wheelwright, 1801 ; Samuel 
E. HarUey, 1808; William Eees, 1819. 



Tnis parish comprises the townships of Abbej-strect, Casde-strcet, Fisher street, Scotch-street," Eickergatc, Zyiiddle- 
scough and Braithwaite, Caldewgate, Cummersdale, and Wreay, the latter of which is a chapchy. Caldewgatc and 
Cummersdale form the ecclesiastical district of Holy Trinity. The Tort Carlisle and Silloth railway runs through 
a portion of the parish. The rateable value of St. Mary's Within, in 1848, wasJClLOTl 7s. 9d.: in 1857, 
.£12,037 10s. 2d. That of Kickergate, for the same years, was £5,900 10s. 5d., and £8,054 15s. 5d. respectively. 

The manor of John de Capella, belonging to the dean 
and chapter, extends over a great portion of this parish. 
Hutchinson, quoting from Milbourne's additions to John 
Denton's MS. gives an account of the manor of Cald- 
coats, or Harrington House, afterwards called Coldale 
Hall, which belonged successively to the Canterelle, 
Semen, Coldale, Brisco, Sibson, Dacre, and Foster 
families. The manors of Caldoats, Newbiggin, New 
Laithes, and Botehardgate, which, previous to the sup- 
pression of the religious houses by Henry VIII. be- 
longed to the priory of Carlisle, were granted by that 
monarch to the dean and chapter. The tliree first 
named manors seem to have merged into what is now 
termed the manor of John de Capella. The parish also 
seems to have included the ancient manor of Shaddongate, 
■which was granted by Henry I. to Morvin, whose grand- 
daughter brought it in marriage to Gwercius Flan- 
drensis, and which afterwards became the property of 
the Dentons, from whom the demesne, called Denton's 
Holme is said to derive its name. This property was 
purcliased about the close of the seventeenth century, 
by Mr. Norman, from whom it passed to the DLson 
family. Most of the lands at Shaddongate are now held 
under the manor of liow Dalston, or that of John de 
Cappella. The Soccage manor of Carlisle comprises 
the whole of Scotch-street township, and e.xtends over 
500 acres of land in the neighbourhood. It was 
demised by Queen Elizabeth to Henry, Lord Scrope, 
and next to George Clifford, earl of Cumberland, sub- 
sequently coming into the hands of the Howards, earls 
of Carlisle; but the Duke of Portland liaving succeeded 
in his claim to this manor, as part of the forest of Ingle- 
wood, it was included in the Duke of Devonshire's pur- 
chase in 1787. 


The parish church of St. Mary is within what remains 
of the rained nave of the cathedral, in our notice of 
which it wiU be found described. The benefice is a 
perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the dean and 
chapter, to whom the great tithes are appropriated, and 
is worth about £79 per annum. 

Rev. George RitscheU's Gift. — The parish of St. Mary 
is entitled to twenty shiUings, left by the Rev. George 
Piitschell, to be given annually to twenty poor widows, 
as stated in the account of St. Cuthbert's parish. This 
is received regularly, and distributed as directed. 

Kirk Michelis Gift. — The interest of the sum of 
£10, supposed to be a legacy from a !Mr. Kirk Michell, 
formerly of Carlisle, is annually distributed to poor 
widows of the parish. 


This township, though ecclesiastically in St. Mary's 
parish, is locally situated in Leath Ward, at a distance 
of from nine to ten miles south of Carlisle. It is 
bounded on the north by Dalston, on tlie west by Castle 
Sowerby, on the south by Skelton, and on the east by 
Hesket-in-the-Forest and Sebergham. Its area is 2010 
acres, and rateable value £1,553. The population in 
1801 was 156: in 1811, 167; in 1821, 221; in 1831, 
195 ; in 1841, 181 ; and in 1851, 103; who arc located 
in single houses dispersedly. Agriculture is the chief 
employment, and Penrith is the market usually attended. 
The soil is a strong arable, with a portion of meadow 
land, resting on a strong clay subsoil. The manor of 
Middleseeugh belongs to Sir H. F. Vane, Bart., and 
that of Braithwaite to Lord Brougham. The common • 
was enclosed under the act of 1803 for enclosing the 
forest of Inglewood. The principal landowners are Sir 
H. F. Vane, Bart., Mrs. W'ilson, James Atkinson, Mrs. 
Price, John Pollock, William Pollock, Mrs. Foster, and 
Messrs. A\'akefield. The inhabitants attend the chapel 
at IvcgUl or Highhcad, and marry and bury at Seberg- 
ham, for which privilege they keep in repair a hundred 
yards of road near the church ; they support their own 
poor. Middleseeugh Hall is at present a farmhouse. 
Middleseeugh Forest or Wood is a noted place for fox 

^ Eaijtexfield Abhcy. — Extm-Parochial Place. — This is an extra-parochial place, the returns for which, np to 1811, were included in 
those of St. Mary's pariah. It comprises ten inhabited houses; its population in 1811 was 03, and in 1&51, 09. 




The district attached to the cliurch of Holy Trinity includes the townships of Caldewgate and Cummersdale, 
part of the parish of St. ]\Iary, Cariisle. The soil here is of a heavy clay, partly mixed \Yith gravel, upon a wet 
subsoil, except in the valley of the Eden and Caldew, where it is of a red sandy alluvium. The habits of the 
people arc similar to those of any other manufxcturing district. The Port CarHsle, Silloth, and Newcastle and 
Carlisle railways run through this district, in which are situated the Infirmary and i'ever House. 

black mould incumbent upon a red clay subsoil, gene- 


This township comprises an area of 1,564 acres; its 
population will be found at page 83. It was enclosed 
by act of parUament in 1780. The inhabitants are 
chiefly engaged in the various branches of the cotton 
manufacture. The Roman wall passed through part of 
the township of Caldewgate upon the banks of the Eden. 
The manorial rights are vested in the dean and chap- 
ter. The rateable value of Caldewgate, in 1848, was 
£0-i~0 ICs. 2d.; in 3 857, £12,008 7s. 9d. 


The District Church of Holy Trinity was begun in 
September, 1828, and opened in 1832. It is in the 
Early English style, from a design by Rickman, and 
will seat about 1,000 persons. The cost of erection was 
about i;G,000, towai-ds which the £1,890 was subscribed 
by the parishioners ; the remainder of the required sum 
being furnished by the Commissioners for building 
new churches. There is a handsome painted window 
in the chancel, presented by Mrs. Ann Thwaytes. The 
living, a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the 
dean and chapter, is worth about £100 per annum. 

iMCUHBEiiTS. — Edward Solkeld, 1831; James Tbwaytes, 1639 ; 
James Toskcr, 1S-J5. 

The parsonage is in Eaglesfield Abbey. 


Davison's Charity. — .Tohn Davison, who died De- 
• ccmbcr 2nd, 1774, bequeathed i'OOO, the interest of 
which, after paying a small sum to a person for keeping 
the accounts, was to be distributed amongst eleven or 
twelve poor housekeepei*s, who had not been in receipt 
of parish reUcf The money was invested, in Februar}-, 
1770, in the purclia.=io of £692 8s. stock, in the 3 per 
cent. Consols, and the dividends are divided annually, 
amongst eleven or twelve poQr persons of Caldewgate 


This township contains an area of 1,011 acres, and its 
rateable value is £2,800. lu population in 1801 was 
382; in 1811, 402; in 1821, 512; in 1831, 488: in 
1841, C20; and in 1851, 059. The soil is a light 

rally well drained by tiles, and from its proximity to 
Carlisle m a high state of cultivation. The Carlisle and 
Maryport railway intersects the township. The prin- 
cipal landowners are the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, 
Joseph Ferguson, Esq.; Dr. Barnes; Colonel Sowerbv; 
John Dalton, Esq. ; Gustavus Gall, Esq. ; George 
Thompson, Esq. ; Messrs. John Birket, Thomas .\rm- 
strong, Thomas Dalton, and William Xixou. The tithes 
have been commuted for £27 18s. The Bishop of Car- 
lisle is lord of the manor. 

A large cotton factory (spinning) and flour mill are 
canned on here by Messrs. John Dalton and Sons ; and 
at Holme Head, which is partly in this township, and 
partly in that of Caldewgate, are the extensive dvein" 
and bleaching works of Messrs. Ferguson, Brothers. 
Here are also situated the printworks of Messrs. T. 
and H. Mc.Alpin, Stead, & Co. This place was erected 
in ISOl, by Mr. John Forster, banker, Carlisle, and 
commenced business under the name of Forster, James, 
and Co. (afterwards Forster, James, Wastell, Donald, 
and Co.), under the management of ilr. David Donald. 
The garment prints produced by this firm were in 
great request, and considered second to none at that 
time for good workmanship and fastness of colours. 
The works were continued by the above firm until the 
year 18)7, when they ceased, and for seventeen years 
remained tot;dly unoccupied. At the end of that time 
the place, then iu a most ruinous state, was taken by 
Thomas Mc.Alpin & Co., who put it iu thorough repair, 
and having laid down new machinery, moved by a largo 
and powerful water-wheel, commenced working on the 
31st of August, 1835, since when, up to the present 
time, under the able management of Mr. II. Mc.Alpin, 
the works have been successfully carried on. Some 
years after eonimoncing, the linn underwent a change, 
it is now T. and H. Mc.Vlpin, Stead, & Co. There 
are several distinct branches in the business, each 
presided over by its own foreman ; the number of 
hands altogether employed being about two hundred and 
twenty. The work produced is of the liighest class of 
block chintz furniture printing, and for many years the 
firm has stood unrivalled in this important branch of 



trade. Of the many print works formerly existing in 
Cumberland, this is the only one no\T left. 

The village of Cummersdale is two miles south-west 
of Carlisle. 

Xewby is another village in this townshig, about one 
and a half miles north-west of Cummersdale. Here is 
a school for children of both sexes, erected by subscrip- 
tion in ]8P,3, aided by a grant from the National 

There is also a school at Holme Head, erected in 
18-11, by Messrs. Ferguson Brothers, for the education 
of the children of their workpeople. The average 
attendance is about 70. 

Carlisle Cemetery. — The new cemetery, which has 
been provided as the last resting place of the inhabi- 
tants of the old border city, is situated in this township, 
about a mUe south-east of Carlisle, and comprises an 
area of th irty-fi ve acres, purchased from the Ecclesia.s tical 
Commissioners. It was opened for interment on the 
20th of May, iBoi and the present Bishop of Carlisle, 
Dr. YiUiers, consecrated that portion, sixteen acres, 
allotted to the members of the Established Church, 
on the 23rd of June, 1850. The cemetery is beauti- 
fully situated on elevated ground, which commands an 
extensive view of the Scottish, Northumbrian, and 
Cumbrian mountains. In the foreground appear the 
cathedral and other churches, the grey keep of the 
castle built by Rufus, the ancient priory, and the only 
remaining portion of the wall by which the city was 
formerly surrounded. There are two handsome chapels 
in the Early English style, built of brick, with white 
stone dressings and buttresses. Each chapel is sur- 
mounted by a belfry and cross. The floors of the inte- 
rior are laid with encaustic tUes, by Minton, and have a 
very pleasing effect. The lodge and entrance gateway 
form a neat structure in the same style as the chapels. 
The ground was laid out and the chapels and lodge 
erected from designs furnished by the Messrs. Hay, of 
Liverpool ; Mr. J. Creighton, of Carlisle, was the con- 
tractor. The cost amounted to £14,000. Several 

handsome monuments oniaraent the cemetery. Outside 
the boundary wall, but in the neighbourhood of the 
cemetery, are the remains of some ancient wells, at the 
foot of a gentle eminence, called in the ancient writings 
" Seven Well Bank," and on which tradition reports 
there formerly stood an ancient chapel, the foundation 
of which may still be traced. On the principal re- 
maining well, of a circular form, is an inscription in 
Medioeval Latin, which, divested of its contractions, 
reads as follows : — 

Pargatuni, decUcatumque, Ubeskud, die quinto 
Decembris, Frater, de sub rupo lapidem venerabili 
Sancto Eedx, ore rotundo. 

Venerable Bede, to whom this well seems to be dedi- 
cated, was contemporary with St. Cuthbcrt, to whom, 
as has been seen at page 84, a grant was made of all 
the laud within fifteen miles of Carlisle. The Burial 
Board of Cai'lisle have therefore placed a copy of the 
golden cross woni by the saint, sculptured of a beautiful 
white stone, on the eastern gable of the Church of England 
chapel, and have adopted the device for their common 
seal. It appears also alternated with the sacred mono- 
gram in the diamonds of Hartley's patent glass, with 
which the windows are filled. This interesting relic of 
antiquity was found upon what was considered by many 
to be the saint's body, when bis stone coflBn was opened 
at Durham, in 1827. The following is the statement 
of interments in the cemetery, for the year ending 31st 
December, 1857: — 

of England. 

Dissenters. | 
































Quarter ending 







31st March.. 














:lOili .lime . . 















liOth Sept. . . 




1331 14! 1 




2 11 




3Istl)ec. ... 




133 3i 











498 50 2 




3 43 





This chapeliy, whose mother church is that of St. Mary, Carhsle, is bounded on the north and west by the new 
parish of Upperby, on the south by High Hesket, and on the east by the river Petteril. The inhabitants who reside 
in the small villages or hamlets of "SA'reay and Foulbridge, and some scattered houses, are principally engaged in 
agricultural pursuits ; they attend the Carlisle and Penrith markets. There is a tile manufactoiy carried on by Mr. 
Howe, of Carlisle. The soil here is good and fertile, with a portion of meadow and arable land resting on a clayey, 
and in some parts a sandy subsoil. The Lancaster and Carlisle Railway runs through the chapelry, and there is a 
station close to the village. 



The population of Wreay township in ] 801 was 118 ; 
in 1811, 104 ; in 1821, 130; in 1831, 100 ; in 1841, 
151 : and in 1^51, 149. Its area is 1,088 acres. The 
manorial rights of the township are vested in the Eccle- 
siastical Commissioners. James Losh, Esq., William 
S. Losh, Esq., Miss Losh, Joseph Scott, Esq., William 
Carrick, Esq., John P. Fletcher, Esq., John K. Saul, 
Esq., and ilr. William Thomlinson, are the principal 

The village of Wreay occupies a pleasant situation, 
five miles south by east of Carlisle, at the southern 
extremity of Cumberland Ward. 


The chapel was entirely rebuilt in 1843, at a cost of 
about £1,200 ; the whole of which sum, with the excep- 
tion of a small donation from the patrons of the living, 
and the contributions of a few friends, was defrayed by 
Miss Losh, of Woodside. It is in the Xorraan style, 
consisting of nave and chancel, with turret, crowned by 
a Roman eagle, and containing, in two niches, statues 
of Saints Peter and Paul. The western doorway, which 
is arched, is much admired, being ornamented with 
tlowers of the water lily, <S,c. The interior is very neat, 
and all the windows being of stained glass, the " dim 
religious light," adds much to the impressiveness and 
solenmity of the sacred edifice ; the three in the west 
end are richly executed. The chancel, which is semi- 
circular in form, is very beautiful, and its windows are 
cut to represent antediluvian flowers, llere aie seven 
lamps, apparently lighted, intended to represent the 
seven spirits mentioned in the Book of Pievclations. 
Two eagles in bniss, support the communion table; 
another, richly carved ia wood, serves as a reading desk; 
and numerous figures of angels, birds, itc. ornament 
the interior of the structure. The oaken roof of the 
cliaptl is also beautifully curved, and was furnished 
from the well wooded lawn of Woodside, the seat of 
Miss Losh, whose prolific mind furnished the various 
devices for this splendid little edifice, which is fitted 
up in the style of some of the Italian churches. In 
the adjoining churchyard, there is a beautiful monu- 
ment, by Dunbar, to the nienior)- of the late Miss 
Catherine Losh. It consists of a figure of the deceased 
in white polished marble, and occupies an antique 
Druidical cell, near to which stands a stone cross, 
Wghteon feet liigh, a copy of one in Bowcastle church- 
yard, with a Latin inscription to the memory of the 
lute John Losh, Esq. and his wife. The cemetcrj-, 
at a short distance from the chapel, as also the sexton's 
house, was the gift of Miss Losh. The former contains 
a neat oratory, a copy of one at Perran/.abuloe, Cornwall. 

The chapel ry of Wreay existed at least as early as 
the reign of Edward II., but how much greater its 
antiquity may be, we have no means of ascertaining. 
In 1319, Bishop Halton allowed a chaplain to it, 
to celebrate the divine offices and administer the 
sacraments, on condition that he constantly resided 
within his chapelry. In 1739, the old chapel was con- 
secrated by Bishop Fleming, and the incumbent's salary 
was made into £20 a year, with a house. Wreay had 
no other endowment than the interest of a chapel stock 
of £200, till augmented in 1757, by Queen Anne's 
Bounty. The living, a perpetual curacy, is in the 
patronage of the dean and chapter of Carlisle, and is now 
worth £80 per annum. The tithes were commuted in 
1839, for £30 lis. 7d. 

I.NCU.iiBENis. — Philip Robinson, 1738; David Graham, 
1731; John Parker, 1733; Joseph Parker, 1738; 'Williain 
Gaskin, 1783; John Barnes, 1832; Eichord Jackson, 1835. 

The parsonage is a neat building, in the Elizabethan 
style, erected by the present incumbent, in 1840, on the 
site of the old parsonage, at a cost of £050. 


ScJwol. — John Brown, Esq. of Woodside, by will 
dated 27th March, 17C3, left to certain trustees, £000 
in trust, to pay the interest of £200, part thereof for 
and towards increasing the salary of the schoolmaster 
of Wreay School. A part of the money was laid out 
soon afterwards in the purchase of laud in Wreay, 
amounting to rather more than ten acres. Th£ land is 
now let by the school trustees for the benefit of the 
master. The school-house was built by subscription 
in 1700. In 1830 Miss Losh built a new school, near 
the site of the old one, and endowed it with thirty acres 
of pasture land, which now lets for about £10 a year, 
which sum is applied to the education of poor children 
of the adjoining townships. The master's house erec- 
ted by the same lady, is on the model of one discovered 
among the ruins of Pompeii. The school is now under 
government inspection, supported by the quarter pence 
of the children, and lias an average attendance of CO 
pupils. There is also a girl's school, attended by 
about 20 scholars. The late Miss JMargaret Losh be- 
queathed to each of the above schools £50, which is 
invested in the Xewcastle and Carlisle railway, and 
the interest applied as directed. 

Louthian'i Gift. — Richard Lowthian gave £50 to the 
minister and twelve men of Wreay, to be distributed, or 
othenviso invested, as they should think proper. This 
legacy was received in the year 1780, and is in the 
hands of the family of Losh, by whom the interest is 



regularly paiJ. The amount, CO 5s. is given away at 
Candlemas, to three or four poor persons not receiving 
parochial relief. 

Wreay Working Men's Reading Room was established 

in 1850. It is well supplied with periodicals, and com- 
prises a library of nearly -100 volumes. The members 
pay a subscription of two shillings per annum. 

Foulbridge is a hamlet in the township, about a mile 
south-west of AVrcay. 


This parish is bounded on the north by the river Eden, on the west by Burgh-upon-Sands, on the south by 
Moorhouse, and on the east by Grinsdale. It Las uo dependent townships. The inhabitants are located in the 
village of Beaumont, and in a few scattered houses and farms. Agriculture is their principal employment, and they 
attend the markets at Carlisle. The soil here is rich and fertile. 

Beaumont township comprises an area of 1470 acres, 
and its rateable value is £1,288. The population in 
1801 was 219; in 1811,270; in 1821, in consequence 
of many labourers being employed in this and the ad- 
joining parishes, in the construction of a canal, it was 
323; in 1831, 270; in 1841, 288; and in 1851, 294. 
A portion of the township is intersected by the Carlisle 
and Port Carlisle railway, formerly a canal. The Roman 
wall passed through this parish, and some traces of it, 
as well as of the vallum, are still to be seen. The 
course of the wall was as follows : — It entered the parish 
at Beaumont Beck, near the Eden, and proceeding in a 
direct line to the church, went thence in a westerly 
direction to Burgh-upon-Sands. 

The manor of Beaumont was held in ancient times 
by the Bruns, lords of Bowness, who were also the 
patrons of the living. Previous to 1380 it became, by 
purchase, the property of the Dacre family, and has 
since continued annexed to the barony of Burgh, now 
held by the Earl of Lonsdale, who is therefore lord of 
Beaumont. The principal landowners, in addition to 
the lord of the manor, are, .John Uodgson, Esq.; Rev. 
J. Hodgson ; Robert Faulder, Esq. ; G. H. Oliphant, 
Esq. : AVilliara .Tackson, Esq. ; Mary Wilson : George 
Gill Mounsey, Esq. ; Mllliam Daud, Esq. ; Christopher 
EUiot, Esq.; — Rothwell, Esq.; and Ehzabcth Brown. 

The village of Beaumont occupies a gentle eminence 
on the west bank of the Eden, about four miles north- 
west of Carlisle, and commands beautiful views of that 
city, as well as of the Solway Frith, and the iiTegular 
country about Rockliff. Here are a tile manufactory 
and a com mill. 


The church, which since 1092 has been common to 
the parishes of Beaumont and Kirkandrews, is dedicated 
to St. Mary. It is a plain structure in the Xormau 

style. The chancel arch has at some time been removed, 
otherwise the church is in a fair state of preservation. 
The Earl of Lonsdale is patron of the united livings of 
Beaumont and Kirkandrews-on-Eden. Among those 
who have exercised the right of presentation to Beau- 
mont, we find the name of Robert de la Ferete, lord of 
Beaumont, in 1290 ; in 1300, Sir Richard de Brun, 
Knt., presents; in 1339, Matilda Brun, lady of Beau- 
mont; in 1300, William Beauchamp, rector of Kirk- 
oswald, Thomas de TugUall, vicar of Torpenhow, and 
Robert Pago, chaplain, present; in 1380, Sir Hugh dc 
Dacre ; in 1562, Sir William Dacre, Knt. ; in 1581, the 
Earl of Arundel ; in 1011, .\nne. Countess Dowager of 
Anuidel, and again in 1015; in 1010, Bishop Snowdon. 
The living, a rectory, valued in the King's Book at 
£8 Is. 8d., is worth about £134. The tithes were com- 
muted for £134 2s. 9d., in 1827, by special .act of 
parliament. The parish register commences in 1092. 

Kectors.— Ellas de Tliirlwall, 1290 ; Waller de Arthuret, 1 3:10 ; 
Wm. Bronne, — ; HicharJ Bronne, 1;5;!9; Thomas de So'jrby, 
1305; Adam de Caledbect, — ; Walter de Ormshcved, 18(iC; 
Robert Croft, 1380; Robert Cbapman, 140(1 ; Jobn Thompson,! 
— ; Henry Haslehead, 1502 ; Lancelot Wilson, ir.Sl ; Edward 
Johnston, — ; Thomas Thompson, 1011; John Wilson, 1015; 
Thomas Robinson, KilC ; Thomas Warwick, 1625 ; Andrew 
Smith, 1034; Patricius Hume, 1CC3; Richard Wilson, —; Sir 
John Lowther, 1002; Gabriel Trant, 1703; Thomas Lewthwaite, 
1705; George Bowness, 1762; Richard Burn, sen., — ; Richard 
Bum, 1815 ; William Benn, 1847 ; John Brown, 1802. 

MonkhiU and New Sandsfield are hamlets in this 
parish. The single houses having particular names 
are. Priest Hill; Casson Dyke; Kinney Garth, anciently 
Coney Garth, now a place for cattle to shelter in ; and 
Holmes Mill. 

1 Deprived in the rclgu of Elizabeth for refusing the oath of 




Pattinson's Charily. — Thomas Pattinson left the 
interest of t'oO to the schoolmaster of this parish, 
Kirlxaudrews-upon-EJen, and Griusdale, share and 
sliare aUke, if more than one, for teaching the children 
of those parishes who sliould not receive parish relief.' 
There is no school at Licauniont, but the inhabitants 
subscribed to the buildin" of one at Kirkandrews, the 

master of which receives the interest of ^Mr. Pattin- 
son's bequest. 

Mrs. Hodgaon's School. — The children of parents, 
within the parish of Beaumont, not possessed of a real 
estate of £13 per annum, are entitled to free instruc- 
tion at the school founded by Mrs. Hodgson, at Wig- 
gonby, in Aikton parish; but the distance between 
Beaumont and ^^'iggonby is too far to render this privi- 
lege of much value. 


BowNESS occupies a large headland stretching eastward into the Solway, and extends about six miles in length from 
east to west, and two miles in breadth from north to south. It is bounded on the north by the Solway, on the west 
by the Solway and the river Wampool, on the south by the Wampool and Aikton parish, and on the east by Aikton, 
Kirkbampton, and Burgh-on-Sands. It comprises the townships of Bowness, Anthorn, Drumburgh, and Fingland, 
whose united area is 1791 acres. Carlisle andWigton arc the markets usually attended by the inhabitants. A large 
track of moss-land, containing several hundred acres, called Bowness I'low, situated near the river Wampool, in 
Bowness and Anthorn townships, has been recently drained and reclaimed. 


The population of this township in 1801 was 200 ; 
in 1811, 318; in 1821, in consequence of the presence 
of labourers employed in the construction of a canal, it 
had increased to 471 ; in 1831, it was 388 ; in 1811, 
cat ; and in 18.51, 508. Its rateable value is £2,053 
l.'is. The soil here varies from a good reddish clay or 
marl to a light gravelly soil resting on blue clay. The 
Carlisle and Port Carlisle railway runs through an 
angle of the township. On Bowness Flow there is a 
chemical works, carried on by Mr. David Dick, of 
Burgh-on-Sauds ; and an asphalte manufactory, carried 
on by Mr. John IloUingworth, of Carlisle. 

" Bowness," says CoUingwood Bruce, " is the name 
of the bow-shaped ness, or peninsula, at the extreme 
point of the left bank of the Solway Frith. It is 
slightly elevated above the surrounding counti"}', as is 
plainly seen when it is viewed from a distance. A little 
to the east of the site of the station (lioman), the Solway 
is easily fordable at low water ; but no one in the 
memory of the inhabituits of these parts has forded the 
estuary westward of the town. This circumstance 
would render Bowness a fit place to terminate the bar- 
rier wall. With diflioulty the antiquary may sec some 
slight traces of the walls of the station, its southern 
lines near the church being those which arc most 
apparent. No quarry being within several miles of the 

1 Sec Bowue39 pitriah. 

spot, the wall and station have furnished the materials 
of which the church and most of the habitations of the 
town arc composed. A small altar built up in the 
frout of a barn in the principal street, has an inscription 
importing that it was dedicated to Jupiter, the best and 
greatest, by Sulpicius Secuudiauus, the tribune of the 
cohort for the safety of our lords the emperors Galbus 
aud Volusianus. Bowness may be the Gabroscntum of 
the Notitia; Horsley reckoning Watchcross among the 
stations of the line, conceives it to bo Tunnocelum." 

Bowness appears to have been at a very early period 
parcel of the barony of Burgh, and was given by one 
of its first barons to Gamcl le Brun, or Broyne, as the 
family afterwards spelled the name. The Bruns, or 
Broynes, continued to possess Bowness for several gene- 
rations, and had their seat at Drumburgh, generally sup- 
posed to have been one of the stations on the lloman 
Wall, which ran through this parish, and from its con- 
tiguity to the wastes in this district, the family was 
sometimes called Do la Feritato. Itichard lo Brun, 
and after him Robert le Brun, enjoyed it in the reign 
of Fdward I. In the year 131)7, the first year of the 
reign of Edward II., Richard lo Brun obtained the 
king's license to crencUate " his house at Drombogh, 
in marchia Scolitc ;" and a similar license was given to 
Thomas Dacre, baron of Burgh, as lord paramount. 
Robert le Brun occurs in the reign of Edward HI., and 
Jolni Brun in that of Richard II. The last of this 



ivame and family at Bowness was Richard le Brun, who 
died about the latter part of the fourteenth century, 
and his co-heiresses having married into the Curwen, 
Harrington, and Bowctt families, Bowness appears to 
have been reunited to Burgh Barony, as it still con- 
tinues, being now the property of the Earl of Lons- 
dale, the lord paramount ; besides whom, W. Hodgson, 
Esq.; Mrs. Wood; John, Daniel, and Thomas Lawson ; 
John Topping; Robert Kobiuson ; Pattinson Lawson; 
Mrs. Reed ; John Lawson, seur. ; and John Wills, are 
the principal landowners. 

The village of Bowness is pleasantly situated on a 
rockv promontory, overlooking the Solway Frith, four- 
teen miles west-by-north of Carlisle, and ten miles 
north-by-west of Wigton. 


Bowness church, dedicated to St. ^Michael, is an an- 
cient building, the date of whose erection is unknown, but 
the materials employed are generally said to have been 
brought from the Roman station. The living, a rectory, 
has always been appendant to the manor, and is conse- 
quently in the patronage of the Earl of Lonsdale. The 
benefice is valued in the King's Book at £il los. 1 Id., 
but is now worth about £'450 a year, arising from the 
tithes, commuted for £'.3QG 5s. Od. in 1838 ; 57 acres of 
glebe ; 73 acres of laud on the west common, let for 
^42 a year; and 191 acres of uncultivated laud. The 
parish register commences in 1648. 

Eectoks. — Koald tie Richmond, 1300; Reginald de North- 
burgh,l:307; Walter,— ; William de KirkbyThore, 1342; AVilliam 
de Hall, 13.J4; Thomas de Barton, 13^1 ; William de Bowness, 
1390 ; John Eobinson, — ; William Tallentvre, 1565 ; Arthur 
Caye, 15T-.J; James Taylor, — ; Leonard Lowther, 1580; Bichard 
Sibson, 1597; William Orbel, 1617; Thomas War«-ick, 102!); 
Mr. Watwick, — ; George Troutbeck, lOflO; Henry Aglionby, 
IfiOl; Gerard Lowther, 1C07; Henry Lowther, 1731; Hugh 
Eobinson, 1753 ; James Watson, 17C3; Browne Grisdale, 17t<4; 
Harrison Shaw, 1814 ; William M. Preston, ISiS ; Andrew Hud- 
dleston, 1828; John Jenkins, 1852; John Robinson, 1855. 

The old rectory is about to be rebuilt ; the rector 
resides at present (1858) iu the village. 

The parish school is a stone building, enlarged iu 
1835, with an average attendance of 40 pupils. It is 
under inspection, aud is supported by quarter pence, 
donations from Pattinson's charity (as below), and 
William Hodgson, Esq. 


Pattinsot^'s Chanty. — Thomas Pattinson, by will, 
dated the ICth of March, 1785, gave all his personal 
estate, afterja few specific legacies, in trust, to be put 
out at interest, and the interest of £'1G0, part thereof, 

to be paid annually, on the 1st of May, to the master 
teaching school at the new school-house at Easton, as 
an encoiu'agement for teaching the children of the poor 
inhabitants of Drumburgh Quarter, not receiving alms, 
such children to be chosen by the trustees. And the 
testator declared his will to be, that in case the school- 
liouse should he vacant, or the trustees should not 
approve of the incumbent, in that case the interest of 
the money should accumulate for the benefit of a new 
incumbent. And that the trustees should pay the 
interest of £20 more for supplying fires for the school ; 
aud that the interest of other £100 should be paid 
annually, on the 1st of May, to the schoolmasters 
teaching school iu the quarters of Bowness, Anthorn, 
aud Whitrigge, to he divided equally among them, 
share aud share alike, if more than one ; and the 
interest of £20 towards instructing the poor children of 
the parish of Bowness in singing psalms. He also 
directed that the interest of another £100 should be 
paid annually to the schoolmaster of Burgh, Long- 
burgh, and Moorhouse, in the parish of Burghon- 
Sands, as an encouragement for his or their teaching 
poor children of the parish of Burgh aforesaid, who should 
receive alms of the said parish. Also, the interest of 
another £100 to a schoolmaster of the parish of Orton, 
for teaching children of the parish not receiving relief. 
Also, the interest of another £50 to the schoolmasters 
of the parishes of Beaumont, Kirkandrews-on-Edeu, 
aud Grinsdale, shai'e and share alilce, if more than one, 
for teaching the children of these parishes who should 
not receive relief. Also, the interest of other £50 to 
the schoolmaster teachuig school in the townships of 
Harraby, Cai'lton, aud Brisco, share and share alike, if 
more than one. Also, the interest of other £10ii to the 
schoolmaster of Blackball. The several sums above 
mentioned were invested in the year 1787, by the 
trustees, in the purchase of stock iu the Three-per-cent 
Consols, at 77J, thus producing, for every £100 so laid 
out, £3 17s. yearly, which rate of interest is paid regu- 
larly every year, on the 1st of May, to the different 
parishes entitled to receive the benefit of these dona- 

Trouthcck's Charity. — Robert Troutbeck, by will, 
proved Gth June, 170G, gave to the poor of Bowness 
£50, the interest thereof to be distributed every year 
by a Troutbeck or the minister and churchwardens for 
the )-ear. This sum was laid out in the purchase of 
about three acres of land at Wigton, which produces 
about £13 a year. The rent is distributed about 
Easter, every year, by the minister and church- 
wardens, amongst poor persons not receiving parish 



Port Carlisle, formerly Fisher's Cross, is a village 
witbin the township, situated near the junction of the 
EJen and the Esk with the Solway Erith, twelve miles 
north-west of Carlisle. Less than thirty years ago it 
contained only two houses, Kirkland House, and a 
small inn, called the " Binnacle." Tt has now grown 
to a respectably-sized village, and possesses an hotel, 
inns, and good accommodation for sea bathers, by 
whom the place is much frequented. It is connected 
with Carlisle by a railway, an account of which will be 
found at page fi,") : previous to the construction of the 
railway a canal joined the two places. The Solway 
Frith has been well buoyed and lighted, and a consider- 
able trade is carried on with Uelfast, Liverpool, and other 
ports. The depth of water at the entiance of the port 
is 18 feet inches. There is a private school in the 
village, under the direction of the rector of the parish. 
At Port Carlisle is a mound resembling an ancient 
British Barrow, called b'isher's Cross. About half a 
mile to the westward of it is another, which has been 
somewhat encroached upon by the road that runs along 
the mai'gin of the Solway, and is denominated Knock's 
Cross. The proverb is common throughout Cumber- 
land, " As old as Knock's Cross." In the front of the 
Stcampacket Hotel, Port Carlisle, is built up the frag- 
ment of a small Roman altar, bearing the inscription, 
" Svis ]\lATniiu's." It is one of the numerous instances 
that we meet with along the line of the llomau wall, 
of altars dedicated to the Dea Matres. Between Port 
Carlisle and 13ownoss the site of the Iloraan wall may 
be traced nearly the whole way ; not lud'requeutly the 
foundations of it and its fosse may be discerned. In 
one place some largo stones resembling those used 
in forming the gateways of the mile castles will be 
noticed. ^^ 


Anthorn township contained in 1801, 170 inhabi- 
tants; in LSI I, 10) ; in lSi\, 20.3; in 18:il, 230; in 
1841. 207 ; and in 18.'^, 211. The soil here is chieily 
of a gravelly nature, with a largo tract of moss; lio 
acres are culled " Ancient land," the rest was enclosed 
in 1820. This township forms part of the manor of 
Bowness, of which the E.arl of Lonsdale is lord para- 
mount. The principal landowners are Messrs. John 11. 
Donald, Georgo Donald, John ilesscnger, John Tape, 
Thomas 1!. Topping, John Pattinson, Mre. I?ackhouse, 
and Mrs. Wilson. 

The village of Anthorn is situated on the north bank 
of the estuary of the Wampool, about four miles soutli- 
west of Bowness. 

Cardumock is another village in this towTiship, four 

miles west-south-west of Bowness, on the verge of a 
tongue of land which terminates the parish. 

Longcroft is also a village in this township, three miles 
south by west of Bowness. Here there is a school, a 
small plain building, with an average attendance of 
thirty children. It is under inspection and supported 
by quarter pence. 


The rateable value of this township is £2,314 lOs.Cd. 
Its population in 1801 was 299; in 1811, 299: in 
1821, in consequence of the formation of the canal, it 
had increased to 118 : in 1831 it was 084 ; in 1841, 
470; and iu is.'il, 430. The soil is partly fertile, 
with some mossy barren land. The Port Carlisle, and 
Carlisle and Silloth railways run through this township, 
and have a station at this village. The principal land- 
owners here are the Earl of Lonsdale (lord paramount), 
Mrs. Anna Lawson, Miss T. Lawson, and Messrs. 
William Borridaile, Edward Barnes, Thomas Lawson, 
John Lawson, Faulder Lawson, William Nixon, Chris- 
topher Watson, Thomas Pattinson, John Xorman, John 
Watson, Joseph Pattinson, Jeremiah Sharpe, and Tho- 
man Sanderson. 

Drumlmrgh contains distinct remains of a small sta- 
tionary Human camp. This, if Watch Cross be rejected, 
was the sixteenth station of the wall, and consequently 
the Axelodunum of the Nolitia, which was garrisoned by 
the first cohort of the Spaniards. The camp is on the 
ground of Richard Lawson, Esq. The ramparts are 
well defined, as well as the ditch which surrounds them. 
The whole area is covered with a luxuriant sward, 
and its northern margin is shaded by some thriving ash 
trees. No portion of the wall remains in its vicinity, 
but its present proprietor remembers witnessing the 
removal of the foundation. The northern rampart of 
the station did not come up to the wall, but was removed 
a few yards from it ; probably, the military way luu 
between the station and the w:dl. The stjition at Barr 
Hill, on the Antoninc Wall, is similarly situated. 
South of the station is a well, enclosed by a circular 
wall of Pvoman masonry, it is still in use, though the 
water is drawn up from it by a pump. 

Drumburgh Castle, the ancient scat of the Bruns, lords 
of Bowness, is a fine specimen of the ancient fortified 
manor-house. It is built of Roman stones, and now serves 
as a farmhouse. It appears to iiave been rebuilt iu the 
reign of Henry VI II. by Tiiomas. Lord Dacro. John 
Aglionby, Esq., purchased the demesne of Drumburgh, 
in the year l(i7s, uf Henry, Duke of Norfolk, and, 
according to Deuton, repaired the castle, which was 
then in ruins; some years afterwards he conveyed it to 
Sir John Lowther, in exchange for Nunnery. 



The village of Dniniburf;h occupies a pleasant situa- 
tion, on an eminence, 3 J mile? south-east of Bowness, at 
the junction of the Port Carlisle and Carlisle and Silloth 
lines of railway. Here is a school, erected by subscrip- 
tion and a grant from the National Society, in 1831, at 
a cost of £150. It is under goveniment inspection, and 
is supported by quarter pence and an annual grant of 
£•20 from W. Hodgson. Esq., of liowness. Tlie average 
attendance of children is about 70. In 1849, the Earl 
of Lonsdale gave £10 for the erection of a gallery, ven- 
tilation, Ac, a part of which was given to Bowness 
School. W. Hodgson, Esq., is about to erect a school 
here at his own expense. 

Easton is a hamlet in Drumburgh township, four and 
a half miles east-by-south of Bowness. The school here, 
which receives £0 1 Ss. 8d. a year from Thomas Pattin- 
son's charity, has been closed for some time. 

Glasson is another hamlet in this township, two miles 
south-east of Bowness, where there is a small Primitive 
Methodist chapel, which was erected in 18-14, at a cost 
of about £80. A subterraneous forest was cut through 
in the excavation of the canal, near the banks of the 
Solway Frith, about half a mile north-west of this 
village, and extending into Kirkland. The trees were 
all prostrate, and they had fallen with little deviation, 
in a northerly direction, or a little eastward of it. Some 
short trunks of two or three feet in height were in the 
position of their natural growth ; but. although the trees, 
with the exception of the alburnum and all the branches, 
were perfectly sound, yet the extremity of the trunks, 
whether fallen or standing, were so rugged, that it was 
not discoverable whether the trees had been cut down, 
or had fallen by a violent storm. The level upon which 
the trunks lay was a little below that of high tides, and 
from eight to ten feet above the surface of the ground 
they were embedded in ; which, excepting the super- 
ficial soil, is a soft blue clay, having the appearance of 

marine alluvion Although the precise 

period when the forest fell is not ascertainable, there is 
a positive proof that it must have been long prior to the 
building of the wall, because the foundations of the wall 
passed obliquely over it, and lay three or four feet above 
the level of the trees. Arch. ..El. ii. 117. The forest 
extends over a considerable tract of ground. It is 
probable that it was overthrown by a tempest from the 
south or south-west, at a time when the sea occupied a 
lower level than it does at present. The wood was so 
sound that it was used in common with other oak tim- 
ber in forming the jetties at the outlet of the canal into 
the Solway Frith. 


The area of this township is 1804 acres, and its 
rateable value £1,524 2s. Gd. The number of inhabi- 
tants in 1801 was 136 ; in 1811, 129 ; in 1821, 128; 
in 18:3], 194; in 1841, 187; and in 18D1, 2:50. The 
Carlisle and Silloth railway intersects the township. 
The landowners are Mrs. Hodgson, Messrs. William 
NLxon, Piobert Pattinson, John Hallifax, William and 
James Corry, ^Yilliam Carr, John Story, Nathan llolli- 
day, and William Beaty. Fingland forms part of the 
manor of Bowness. AVhitrigge, in this township, was 
anciently the property of a family to whom it gave 
name, one of whose co-heiresses, carried it by marriage 
to the Skeltons. 

The village of Fingland is five miles south-south-east 
of Bowness. 

The hamlet of Whitrigge is situated on the north 
bank of the Wampool, three miles south-by-east of 

The school is a neat stone building, erected by sub- 
scription and a grant from the School Building Society 
about the year 1844; it is under goverimien^Bbpection, 
supported by quarter pence and private subscriptions, 
and has an average attendance of forty pupils. 


This parish is bounded on the north by the river Eden and BockclilY parish, on the west by Bowness, on the south 
by Orton and Kirkbampton, and on the east by Beaumont. It includes the townships of Burgh-upon-Sands, Lon»- 
burgh, Boustead Hill, anciently Burghstead Hill, and Moorhouse and Thui-stonfield, whose united area is 7,839 
acres. Burgh Mai-sh is a stinted pasture of about 1400 acres of alluvial soil, extending from Old Sandsfield to a 
brook called Fresh Creek in the township of Boustead Hill. 

• Also Burgh-le-Sands, and Bnrgh-by Sands. 




The population of this township in 1801 was 326; 
in ISll, 357; in isCil, 490; in 1831, 457; in 1841. 
512; and in 1851, 541. The inhabitants are princi- 
pally yeomen, who reside in the village of Burgh-upon- 
Sands and a few detached dwellings. They attend the 
Carlislo markets. The soil here is very fertile, cou- 
sisting of good vegetable mould. The township is 
intersected by good public roads, and by the Carlisle 
and Silloth and Port Carlisle railways, a station on 
which is situated at Burgh, and also a depot for coal 
and lime. 

In Ilorsley's day the remains of the ramparts of the 
Roman Wall were to be seen at a place called Oldcastle, 
a little to the east of the parish church. He says, 
" On the west side these remains are most distinct, 
being about six chains in length ; and Severus's Wall 
seems to have formed the north rampart of the station. 
I was assured by the person to whom the field belonged 
that stones were often ploughed up in it, and lime with 
the stones. Ums have also frequently been found here. 
I saw, besides an imperfect inscription, two Roman 
altars lying at a door in the town, but neither sculptures 
nor inscriptions are now visible upon them. 
If, besides all this, we consider the distance from the 
last station at Stanwix, I think it can admit of no doubt 
but there must have been a station here, though most 
of its ramparts are now levelled, the field having been 
in tillage many years. I shall only further add, that it 
was very proper to have a station at each end of the 
marsh, which, if the water flowed as high as some 
beliovo, would make a kind of bay." At present little 
meets the eye of the inquirer to inform him of the spot 
where the station stood, but when the surface of the 
ground is broken, the traces of a Roman city are still 
suflicicutly distinct. The churchyard is filled with 
fragments of red sandstone blocks. At the depth of 
two feet it contains several distinct lines of foundations. 
Kntire lachrymatory vessels, and fragments of unglazed 
jars and ums, and glazed bricks for the pavement of 
baths, have repeatedly been dug up. A small bronze 
figure was recently found. When the canal was cut, 
blocks of stone, blackened by smoke, were dug out 
of the soil to tlie south-ciust of the church. A few in- 
scribed stones have boon found since Ilorsley's day, but 
none of them name the cohort which was stationed in 
the camp. Henco we have no means of knowin<T 
whether Burgh is, as Ilorsley states it to be, the Axelo- 
dunum of the Notitia, or Cougavata, according to the 

'This townsliip romjiri^ies nnrgli Tlond nnd West Eml, formerly 
two .ndoprndcm townships, but owinR li. the difficulty of deUning 
tlio boundaries of eacli, thej an now united. 


opinion of Hodgson. Among the Roman altars which 
have been fouud here there is one inscribed " deo 
BELATVc^.;" another, "deo belatvcadro posvit aeam 
PRO sE ET svis ;" a third, " alatvn . . rpo s. 


Near to Burgh is the site on which the castle of Sir 
Hugh de Morville formerly stood. The adjoining field 
is called " Hang-man-tree," doubtless because the lord 
had his gallows here always ready for use. A neigh- 
bouring enclosure bears a designation not less ominous, 
" Spillblood Holme." 

After the Conqueror had given the county of Cum- 
berland to Ranulph de Meschines, the latter divided the 
same into seven baronies, of which Burgh is one, and 
comprises the parishes of Burgh, Bowness, Aikton, 
Thursby, Orton, lurkbampton, Kirkandrews-on-Eden, 
and Grinsdale. It was given by Ranulph de Meschines 
to his brother-in-law, Robert D'Estrivers, or Trivers, 
who married a sister of the said Ranulph, and received 
from his brother-in-law the ofBce of chief forester of 
Inglewood, which dignity with its liberties and privileges 
continued to be held by the successive lords of Burgh 
until Thomas de Multon of GUsland forfeited the same 
by joining in the insurrection of Simon de Montfort, 
Earl of Leicester, in the reign of Henry III. Ibria, 
the heiress of Robert, married Ranulph Engayne lord 
of Isell, and with her husband gave Harraby, near 
Carlisle, to the prior and convent of that city, which 
gift was confirmed by Hugh de IMorville. Their grand- 
daughter Ada brought this barony in marriage to Simon 
de Morville, son of Hugh de Morville, who in the 
third year of King Stephen (1188) was one of the 
witnesses to the charter of protection then made by 
David king of Scotland to the monks of Tynemouth. 
This Simon de Morville, in 1187, gave fifty marks for 
Engayne's lauds. He had issue by his wife two sons, 
Roger and Richard, the latter of whom in 1069 gave 200 
marks to Henry II for livery' of those lands which he 
claimed with the daughter of William do Lancaster, 
and left issue Helena his daughter and heir married 
to Roland de Galway. Roger do Morville, the eldest 
sou- of Simon, had issue a son and heir, Hugh de 
Morville, who was one of the four knights who, on 
December 29th, 1170, assassinated Thomas ii Becket, 
archbishop of Canterbury, before the altar of St. Bene- 
dict, in his cathedral church,' " which done," saj- 

' The body of tlic orchbishnp wns hastily buried in the crypt on 
the lUst December. There it rfmained nulil the year 1«0, when it 
WHS trftiisferred with solemn pomp to a splendid shrine, which had 
been prepared immedinlely behinil the high altar. St. Thomas was 
canonised by I'opo Alexander III., March llnl, 117); and although 
his shrine was destroyed, and his name erased from the .\nglican 
calendar by Henry VIII., no less than sixty-four churches sliU 
exist in England dedicated to him. 



Nicolson anil Burn," they entered the archbishop's 
stables, and taking his liorscs, rode to Knarcsbui'gh in 
Yorkshire, (a town belonging to this Hugh,) where they 
stayed till all the inhabitants were weary of them. 
Mr. Denton says, the sword that killed Becket was in 
his father's time at Isell, which place belonged to the 
Morvilles as heirs of Engayno ; after that, the said 
sword remained with the house of Arundel." This 
Hugh de Morvillc espoused Helcwiso de Stutovillc, 
■with whom he received the manors of Kirkoswald and 
Lazonby ; and in 1'200 he obtained license to enclose 
the woods in Kirkoswald, as likewise to crenellate his 
manor house and have a fair once every year with a 
weekly market. " He also," say the writers just (juoted, 
"gave the King (John) fifteen marks and three good 
palfreys to enjoy his court, with the liberties of toll, 
theam, infangtheof, fire and water ordeal and all other 
such privileges as belong to the crown, during the 
continuance of Helewise his wife in a regular habit." 
Hugh died without male issue leaving two daughtei-s, 
Ada and .loan, the former of whom was married twice, tho 
fii-st time during her father's life to Richard son of Regi- 
nald de Lucy, lord of Egremont, and afterwards to 
Thomas dc Mnlton. .loan, the younger, was married after 
her father's death, to Richard (ieruon. Upon the division 
of Hugh's estates, in 120-1, between these his daughters 
and co-heirs, Richard de Lucy paid a fine of 900 
marks and five palfreys for the share of Ada his wife, 
and the forestership of Cumberland, as fully as the 
said tenure had been enjoyed by Hugh dc JMorvUle ; 
and Richard Gernon gave 600 marks for liberty to 
marry Joan, with the share belonging to her of the 
land of which her father had died seised. Two daugh- 
ters, Amabil and Lucy, were the fruit of Ada's marriage 
■with Richard de Lucy. To her second husband Tho- 
mas de Multon, she bore a son Thomas de JIulton, 
who became heir to her portion of the Morville estates. 
This Thomas, in 1251, had livery of his lands, for 
which he paid a fine of £-10 ; and the forestership of 
Cumberland also descending to him from his mother, 
he, in 1252, paid for that dignity 400 marks. He 
married Maud, daughter and heir to Hubert de Vaux, 
baron of Gilsland, and in 1233 obtained for himself 
and his wife a charter of free warren in all his demesne 
lands in Cumberland, Yorkshire, Norfolk, and Suffolk ; 
and that " they and their heirs, after the decease of 
Maud de Vaux her mother (then the wife of William 
Everard) should have free warren in aU the demesne 
lands they held in the counties of Somerset and Devon, 
being of the dowTy of the said Maud the mother, and 
of the inheritance of ^laud the daughter."' In 1258 
he was summoned to attend with horse and arms, and 

to march with the other barons of the north into Scot- 
land fdr the purpose of rescuing the King of Scots, who 
was then a minor, and said to be kept in restraint by 
liis own subjects ; and b}' another summons he was 
required to be at Chester on the IVIonday before the feast 
of St. John the Baptist (June 24) to restrain the incur- 
sions of the Welsh. He died in l2flS or 1209, leaving 
a son and heir Thomas do Multon, who performing 
homage came into possession of his lands. This 
Thomas received a considerable accession to his pro- 
perty on the demise of Helwise de Levington, widow 
of Eustace de Baliol, in 1271, when he was found to 
be her heir as to the whole manor of Aiktou, and the 
other moiety of Burgh-on-Sands, Kirkoswald, and La- 
zonby ; all which Eustace de Balinl (having had issue 
by her which lived for some time) held of her inhei'i- 
tance as tenant by the courtesy of England till his 
death, which happened in 1271, when Thomas de 
Multon came into possession. He died in 1293, and 
the estates devolved upon his son and heir Thomas de 
Multon, who at that time was in the twenty-sixth year 
of his age ; but he did not enjoy them long, for ho died 
two yeai-s afterwards, being then seised of the manor 
of Denham in the county of Norfolk, as also of the 
manors of Burgh-upon-Sands and Kirkoswald, also of 
the barony of Gilsland, and lands in Santon, Irton, 
Bolton, and Gosforth, leaving Thomas, his son and 
heir, thirteen years of age, and Isabel his wife sur- 
viving, who had for her dowry the manor of Denham, 
which had been made over to her by transfer of title. 
Thomas de Multon paid £100 for relief, and in 31 
Edward I. (1303) served in tho war with the Scots, and 
again in 130f). The following year he was ordered to 
fit himself with horse and arms, and join John de Lan- 
caster and Ingleram dc Gysnes, in resisting tho incur- 
sions of tho Scots uudcr Robert Bruce. Two years 
later we find him in the Scottish wars, and again in 
1310. In 1316 he obtained for himself and Margaret 
his wife a special charter from Edward II., by which 
he was empowered to hold a market weekly on Wed- 
nesdays, and two fairs every year, one on the eve, da)', 
and morrow after the festival of Our Lady, the other 
on the eve, da_y, and morrow after the festival of Sts. 
Simon and Judc at Ayshall in Somersetshire ; as also 
free warren in all his demesne lauds at Seven Hampton 
in the said county of Somerset, and Pynho in the 
county of Devon. He was summoned to Parliament 
amongst the barons of the realm, from 1297 to 1314 
inclusive, and died afte rthe last-named year, lea'ving 
issue Margaret, married to Ranulph de Dacre, who 
performing fealty to Edward II., his wife making proof 
of her age, came into possession of her estates. Her 



unelc William, the brother of lier father, was, however, 
the heir male, and held the manor of Lazouby during 
his hfe ; but on his death in lUll, the whole of the 
Multon estates beciime centred in her, and by this 
means became the property of the Dacrcs, wliich 
family received a further large addition of fortune by 
marriage with the heiress of Greystoke. The eldest 
branch of the Dacre family terminated in a daughter, 
to whom descended, with some others, the original 
estate at Dacre. The other estates, Greystoko, Gils- 
laud, liurgh, itc, were settled upon " a younger branch 
of the Dacres of the male line, which continued in 
that name for four descents further, and then that 
branch ended in coheirs ; for George lord Dacre, in the 
II th year of Queen Elizabeth (J oGO), dying without male 
issue, was succeeded by his three sisters, one of whom 
dying unmarried, the estate came to the two other 
sisters, Anne the elder, married to Philip earl of Arun- 
del, and Elizabeth the younger, married to the lord 
William Howard, both of them sons of Thomas duke 
of Norfolk. The barony of Burgh, in the partition, 
was allotted to the lady Anne, whose descendant in the 
fourth generation, Henry Howard, Duke of Norfolk. 
sold the same about lliHll, to Sir .Tdhu Lowther, of 
Lowtlier."' The barony is now held by the Earl of 
Lonsdale, the present head of the house of Lowther. 
The customs of the manor of Burgh, as conlirmed 
by a decree of Chancery in 1074, are as follow: — 
Upon every general fine or change of tenant by death, 
tho tenants pay a twentyponny fine, or two years im- 
proved value, at the option of the lord ; and a thirty- 
penny fine, or three years improved value, upon every 
change of tenant by sale or alienation, at the like option. 
Customary courts are occasionally held hero by the 
Earl of Lonsdale. ISIost of the tenements arc now 
enfranchised. An ancient and singular custom of 
holding races on tho death of the lord of the manor is 
still preserved, when a silver prize cup is given by the 
new lord ; the race being restricted to horses bred iu 
the barony. The last of these sports was in 18-1-1, on 
the accession of tlu; present Earl of Lonsdale. Li 
addition to the lord of the manor, the landowners are, 
Mr. George Blaylock, Miss Aglionby, G. H. Oliphant, 
Esq.; ^Ir. Johu Norman, Mrs. MofTatt, Mr. Matthews 
Hodgson, Mrs. J. Hodgson, Mr. John Hodgson. Mr. 
Samuel Blaylock, .Mr. W. Tinnion. Jlr. 1\. Liddell, 
and others. 

The village of Burgh-upon-Sands occupies a fine situa- 
tion live miles wcst-by-north of Carlisle, near and along 

' Nirolson biuI Biima I list. WeBlmorelimd anil CumberlonJ. 
vol. 11., pp. UUi,21ll. Ilulchiiisoii sav3 the cstnle was soKl iu !«•<., 
Willie Messrs. Lyson sUlc ia l«i4. 

the site of the celebrated Roman Wall. In and around 
the village is a large number of boulder stones, some of 
them half a ton in weight. They are of granite, and iu 
some distant age have been torn from the summit of 
Crifiel, the hUl which lends so much beauty to the land- 
scape on the northern side of the Solway. On Burgh 
Marsh, about a mile north of the village, is a monument 
to the memory of Edward I. — "Malleus Scotorum" — 
who died there iu 1307. It was erected by the Earl of 
Lonsdale, in 1803, upon the site of an old one, and 
bears the following inscription : — " omni veneuatione 



LowTHEP,, ANNO sAXUTis MDCcciii." Camden tells us 
that Burgh Marsh, or rather the very estuary of the 
Solway, was the scene of a fight between the Eughsh 
and Scots. 


Burgh Church, dedicated to St. Michael the archangel, 
is very ancient, but having undergone great alterations 
in the course of ages, presents many chflereut styles of 
architecture — the north entrance is Saxon. The tower 
is very strongly fortified, the walls on three sides being 
from six to seven feet thick. The vaulted chamber on 
the ground floor is only ten feet by eight, and the en- 
trance to it from the church is secured by a ponderous 
iron door, si.x feet eight inches in height, with two large 
bolts exactly resembling one remaining at Naworth 
Castle. On the north side of the chamber is a very 
narrow opening, or arrow slit, at the end of the recess 
iu the wall, six feet three inches deep ; and on the west 
side are two such openings, (one of them only throe 
inches wide), with steps leading up to them. At the 
south-west angle is a stone staircase, leading to the 
upper chamber, tho dimensions of which are 10 feet 
9^ inches by 11 feet 7^ inches. On tho east side of 
the room is an opening into tho upper part of the nave 
of the church, and on the south and west sides are 
small narrow windows. This lower was probably built 
iu the reign of Edward I., and there can be no doubt 
that it often served as a place of refuge during tiie bor- 
der wai-s. JIan}' hewn stones appear in diflerent parts 
of the building with the e.vterior surface reticulated, 
evidently taken from tho Roman Wall, or the statioa 
the site of the churchyard and church. Tho church, 
wliich was anciently rectorial, was granted by Sir nu"h 
do Morville. one of tlio lords of Burgh, to the abbey of 
Holme Cultrani, " for tho finding of liglits, wine, and 
other necessaries for the ornament of the church of 
Holme Cultrani, and the service of the altar there." 
This grant was confirmed by Richard de Lucy, first 



husband of Ada, daughter of Hugh do Morville, and 
afterwards by Thomas de Multou, her second husband, 
who granted further to the abbot and convent common 
of pasture in the village of Burgh after the hay and corn 
should be carried off, and two acres of arable land in 
Burgh Marsh, and a fishery in Eden, with two nets for 
every carucate of land which they had in Burgh. Joan 
de Morville, second daughter of Sir Hugh, confirmed 
the said grant, for the health of her soul and of the soul 
of her husband lliehard do Gernon, of her father, Hugli 
de Morville, and all her ancestors and successors. The 
same was likewise confirmed by Pope Innocent IV., 
who granted to the abbot and convent liberty to apply 
the revenues of the said church to the use of their 
own house, for hospitahty and maintenance of the poor, 
reserving a competent portion for a chaplain to officiato 
at Bui-gh. The living is a vicarage, in the patronage of 
thecrown. Itisvaluod intheKing'sBookatJL'u Is.lljd., 
but was certified to the governors of Queen Anne's 
Bount}', at £13 8s., after which, in 1758, it was aug- 
mented by Joseph Liddell and Queen Anne's Bounty, 
with £400, with which land was purchased. In 1843, 
the Ecclesiastical Commissioners granted to it £30, and 
in the same year the tithes were commuted for a yearly 
rent-charge of £23, so that the benefice is now worth 
about £120 per annum. The rectorial tithes, which 
formerly belonged to a number of lay impropriators, 
were redeemed by the landowners in 1829, except that 
portion belonging to Dovenby School, which was also 
purchased by the proprietors of the soil in 1840, for the 
sum of £500, so that the whole is now merged in the 
land. The parish register commences in 1G53. 

Vicars.— Peter, 1231; Hugh de Hayton, 1!?37; John de 

Kerby, 18(JK ; Eudes de Raveustonedale, ; John Lakesson, 

13C9; John de Kane, ; Eichard Garth, 1381; Wilhani 

Nicholson, 1473 ; Thomas Langton, ID35 ; WilUam Blane, l.'JSl ; 

Thomas Story, 1081; Thomas Ismay, 1739; Harrison, 

178C; Robert Walker, 1800; William Mark, 1820; John Lown-, 

The Vicarage is a plain building, adjoining the 


Pattinson's Charity. — Thomas Pattinson, by will, in 
1785, directed that the interest of £100 should be paid 
annually to the schoolmaster of Burgh, Long Burgh, and 
Moorhouse, in this parish, as an encouragement for his 
or their teaching poor children of Burgh, who should 
not receive alms of the parish.' The sum of £3 17s., 
as interest of £100, is paid in equal proportions to two 
schoolmasters, one at Moorhouse, and the other at 
Burgh. The trustees send to each school as many 

' For the particulars of this charity, see Bowness, page 100. 

poor children of the parish as the interest will pay for 
at the usual rate of quarterage. 

Mrs. Hodgson'' 8 School. — The children of parents 
within the parish of Burgh, not possessed of a real 
estate of £12 per annum, are entitled to free instruction 
at the school founded by Mi-s. Hodgson, at Wiggonby, 
in Aiktou parish. ' 

Hodgson's Charity. — Richard Hodgson, who died 
about 130 years ago, left £liiO to the parish of Burgh, 
one moiety of the interest thereof to be distributed 
amongst poor householders of the parish not receiving 
relief, and the other moiety to be applied for the edu- 
cating of poor people's children. The interest of this 
sum, £4, is divided annually, on Easter Monday, as 
directed by the testator. 

Liddle's Charity. — John Liddle, who died in 1804, 
left £50 in trust, for poor people of the parish of Burgh 
not receiving parish relief. The interest of this sum, 
£2, is distributed annually, on Easter Monday, amongst 
poor householders not receiving assistance from the 

Mrs. French, Chelsea, grand-daughter of the Rev. 
Thomas Ismay, has for some years transmitted £3 10s. 
to be distributed according to her direction at the dis- 
cretion of the vicar. 

There are schools for boys, girls, and infants in the 
parish. There is also a subscription library, supported by 
about twenty members, and also a Sunday-school library. 

John Stagg, the author of some poetical pieces in the 
Cumberland dialect, was a native of this place. 

At West End, in this township, is a chemical works, 
about to be removed to Drumburgh Moss, Bowness 
parish, carried on by Mr. David Dick, who manufac- 
tures copperas, acids, sulphate of ammonia, itc. 


Boustead Hill township contained, in 1801, a popu- 
lation of 84 persons; in 1811, 65 ; in 1821, 80; in 
1831, 03 ; in 1841, 74 ; and in 1851, 72. Its rateable 
value is £024 18s. The acreage is included in the 
parish returns. The principal landowners are ^Messrs. 
Samuel Rigg, W. Nixon, W. Morton, John Faulder, 
Thomas Rigg, and John Beattie. 

The village of Boustead Hill is beautifully situated 
on a rising ground overlooking the Solway Frith, and 
on the south side of the Carlisle and Port Carlisle Rail- 
way, two miles west of Burgh. 


The number of inhabitants in this township in 1801 
was 100; in 1811, 111; in 1821, 154; in 1831, 118; 

1 See Wiggonby School. 



in 1841, 1-24; and in 1851, 127. The rateable value 
isi'857 ITs. The Roman Wall ran through part of this 
township. The principal landowners are G. H. Oliphant, 
Esq. ; Messrs. John Hodgson, Piohert Uodgson, and 
Samuel Blaylock ; Miss Ilobson ; and M. Hodgson, Esq. 
The soil here is a rich loam, and partly gravel. Long 
Burgh is intersected bj tlie Port Carlisle Railway. 

The village of Long Burgh is situated one mile west 
of Burgh, south of the Port Carlisle Railway, aud con- 
tains two private schools. 

Dykcsfield, a hamlet in this township, north of Long 
Burgh, was long the seat and property of the family of 
Dykes, who removed thence to Dovenby. It is now 
the residence and property of Matthew Hodgson, Esq. 
On the western side of the hamlet is a common which 
contains several earthen ramparts and temporary camps. 


The population of the township of Moorhouse in 
1801, was 204; in 1811, 135; in 1821, 254 ; in 1831, 
277; in 1841, 203; and in 1851, 343. Moorhouse 
possesses light but good soil, and its rateable value is 
j£l,168 10s. The principal landed proprietors here 
are Major Ewart, ^Messrs. John Ostell, John Galloway, 
William and Thomas Stordy, and Robert Lamonby. 
There arc three corn mills in the township and a 

The village of Moorhouse is pleasantly situated about 
two miles south of Burgh, aud contains several neat 
houses. The school, which is entitled to a moiety of 
Pattinsou's Charity, is in ruins. 

Moorhouse Hall is a neat structure, the property of 
:\Ir. John Galloway, who purchased it of Major Ewart, 
and is now the residence of his son, Mr. J. Galloway. 

The Society of Friends have a meeting house here a 
brick building, erected in 1733, adjacent to which is 
their burial-ground, enclosed by a brick wall, and over 
the entrance to which is a slab bearing the date 1004.' 

Thurstonfield is a hamlet in this township, one mile 
west of Moorhouse, where there is a tannery. 

1 Thomas Stordy, who died in 10X4, and Jonathan Ostell.who died 
in nr,r,, were natives of this parish, and zealous members of the 
Society of Friends. Being liy law entitled to tlie impropriation of 
certain tithes, they demised them to the several owners on whose 
estates they arose. Mr. Stordy suffered many persecutions for his 
attachment to the principles of the society. In 1662, being at 
Carlisle Assizes, he went to see some of his friends then in prison 
in that city, when he was illegally detained by the gaoler, and next 
day brought before the court. As he refused to uike the oath of 
allegiance then tendered to him, he was committed to prison, and 
next day sentence of ;irci«Hni><? passed upon him, which euuiled the 
loss of all his real and personal estates. In consequence of this 
sentence he was kept a close prisoner at Carlisle for ten years, but 
was at length released by the king, in 167i;, and, tlirough the inter- 
cession of the Earl of Carlisle, his real estate was restored to him. 
A few years afterwards he fell a victim to a statute of the ••J:)rd of 
Elizabeth, and, for absenting himself from pubUc worship, was cast 
into prison, where he died iu lUdl. 


This parish comprises the townships of High Crosby, Low Crosby, Brunstock, and Walby, whose united area is 3590 
acres. It is bounded on the north by Scaleby, on the west by Stanwix, on the south by the river Eden, and on the 
east by Irthington. A survey has rocciuly been made for the commutation of tithes, but not completed. It may bo 
worthy of remark that a curious boundary, or double fence, exists on the east sidt> of the parish, adjoining tlio parish 
of Irthington, known by the nanm of the " Baron's Dyke," being a division between the barony of Gilsland and the 
barony of Linstock. The inhabitants, who are engaged entirely in agricultural pursuits, are industrious, cleanly, 
peaceable, and contented. They generally attend the Carlisle markets. The quality of the soil in the parish is 
various. Adjoining the river Eden is a rich dry loam, on a gravelly subsoil ; in other parts there ai-e portions of a 
strong clayey soil, with a portion of moor and meadow. Tlio rateable value of the parish is, at the present 
time, £3,392. The militJiry road between Newcastle and Carlisle intersects the parish, and runs nearly 
parallel with the old Roman Wall, which was on the northern side of the parish. This road was formed and 
completed soon after the rebellion of 1745, for the purpose, according to an old act of parliament, " of keeping a free 
and open communication between the city of Carlisle and the town of Xewcastle-upon-Tync ; and for the passage of 
troops, horses, and carriages at all times in the year." A great part of the labour required in the making of this road 
is supposed to have fallen to the lot of General Wade's army. There are also distinct remains of a Roman road 
running through the middle of this parish, in a direction of nearly cast and west, the same as tho present militarv 
road, and at a short distance from it. Many old coins have been discovered at various times, but none particularlv 
■worthy of notice. This parish possesses no ancient edifices or other objects of antiquarian curiositv, except that a 
grange is saitl to have been erected here after Linstock was given to tho Cliurch of Cadislc, aud that it was called 
Crosby, on account of its belongiiig to the Church. It may be remarked that Linstock Castle, iu the neighbouring 
parish of Stanwix, was formerly the residence of the bishops of Carlisle. 

10 a 



tow CROSBY. 

The population of Low Crosby township in 1801 was 
150 ; in 1811, 101 ; in 18-21, 184 ; in 1831, 204 ; in 
1841, 133; and in 1831, 148. The soil here is a rich 

The manor or baroii}' of Crosby, which has always 
been annexed to Linstock, and wliich includes the whole 
of the parish of Crosby -upon -Eden, is vested in the 
Bishop of Carlisle, to whose predecessors it was assigned 
by Gualo, the papal legate, on a partition of the estates 
of the bishop and priory. The other claimants are the 
Earl of Carlisle ; Jlr. IMaude, of Sellaby, in Yorkshire : 
and the Vicar of Crosby. The Earl of Carlisle's claim 
would exist during the last century, and long before, — 
the vicar's from time immemorial. The other small 
manor, held by !Mr. Mautle, has not been long in his 
possession. Small sums, or lord's rents, are paid an- 
nually to the lords of the manors just named. The 
land in tliis manor is nearly all held by customary 
tenure, except a little of leasehold and freehold. The 
bishop's court was formerly hold in this parish four 
times a year, but recently only once. The court rolls 
e.'ctend through a long period of time. The principal 
landowners in the township are Mrs. Saul ; PJchard 
Carruthei-s, Esq. ; AVilliam Nicholson Hodgson, Esq. : 
and Thomas Phillips, Esq. 

The village of Low Crosby stands upon the gently 
sloping banks of the river Eden, about four miles east- 
north-east of Carlisle. 

THE cnrncn. 
The church, dedicated to St. John, occupies the site 
of the ancient church of Crosby. It was erected iu 
1854, at a cost of £1,800. It is a beautiful and sub- 
stantial structure, in the Gothic style, consisting of 
nave and chancel, with gallery for organ and choir, and 
contains about 200 sittings, the greater part of 
which are free. The living is a vicarage, in the 
patronage of the Bishop of Carlisle, who has been im- 
propriator and patron for a long period. It is valued 
in the King's Book at STt lis. 4d., but is now worth 
upwards of £150 per annum. The vicar receives, under 
commutation, the annual value of the hay and small 
tithes, together with the rental of the glebe. The 
whole tithes, great and small, have lately been com- 
muted for £375. The parish registers commence 
in 1059. 

Vicars. — William de Insula, 1303; John 'Waschip, 1310; 
Thomas de Dalston, 1337; Robei-t Merke, 1353; Roger de 

Ledes, 1307; John de Grandon, ; Thomas de Kirkland, 

13Ci; John Fitxroger, ; Robert CajUes, 1379; EUas, ; 

Simon Gate, 1-J77; Thomas Twentjman, ; Thomas Wil- 
son, 1585; Thomas Shaw, l(;i'J; Thomas Jlilburn, l(;a7 ; 
Richard Welshman, 1035; William Hodgson, 1C30; John 

Theckston, 16G1 ; Philip Flemingr, 1666 ; Bobert Home, 1670 : 

Nathaniel Bowev, 1080; Richmond Fenton, 1713; William 
Gibson, 17,10 ; Henry Shaw, 1758 ; Thomas Lo\vr)', D.D., 1701 ; 
Edward Salkeld, 1832; Joseph Thomlinson, 1838. 

The Parsonage is a plain structure, situate at Iligb 
Crosby, rebuilt upwards of fifty years ago. 


Jaclcson's Charity. — Joseph Jackson, by will proved 
13th November, 1773, bequeathed to the overseers of 
the poor of the parish of Crosby-on-Eden, £40, the 
interest of which was to be given to the poor annually 
iu Easter week, at the discretion of the overseers. The 
interest, amounting to £2, is distributed as directed. 

Patrickson's Charity. — This is another bequest left 
by the late Hiss Patrickson, the interest of which is 
distributed to the poor at Christmas. 

The parish school is a neat stone building in the 
Elizabethan style, erected by subscription in 1844, at 
a cost of £350. It is under government inspection, 
has an average attendance of upwards of 50 scholars, 
and is supported by voluntary subscriptions, with the 
interest of a legacy bequeathed by the late Miss 

Eden Grove, a delightfully-situated villa in this 
township, is the seat of Richard Carmthers, Esq. 
Several houses in this parish take their names from 
the Ptoman wall, viz., Wall Head, AValby, Wall Dub ; 
and fields also bear the names of walls. 


Brunstock township contaiued in 1801, a population 
of 05; in 1811, 03; in 1821, 53; in 1831, 108; 
in 1841, 75 ; and in 1851, 70. The land here is fer- 
tile and good, but rather cold, on a clayey subsoil. 
The principal landowners are Mrs. Saul, R. S. Dixon, 
Esq., and Mr. John Forster. 

The village of Brunstock is about three miles north- 
north-east of Carlisle. Here stands Brunstock House, 
the beautiful seat of Mrs. Saul. It is a fine building 
in the Gothic style, surrounded by excellent grounds, 
and adds very much to the general appearance of the 
landscape. Crosby Lodge is also the property of the 
same lady. 


The population of this township in 1801 was 102 ; 
in 1811, 134; in 1821, J 36; in 1831, 133; in 1841, 
140 ; and in 1851, 162. The soil here is partly rich 
good land, with some poor, on a gi'avelly subsoil. The 
principal landed proprietors are Mrs. Saul, W. N. 
Hodgson, Esq., M.P., and Rev. Joseph Hudson, 
Messrs. John Nicholson, Robert Bell, and Mrs. Wright. 



The village of High Crosby is about half-a-mile east 
of Low Crosby. Here are the Vicarage llouse, Crosby 
Lodge, and Crosby House, the Litter of which was 
erected by the late Rev. Dr. Lowry, vicar of this 
parish, and uow belongs to his graudson, the Rev. 
Joseph Hudson. 

Newby Grauge in this township, the seat of William 
Nicholson Hodgson, Esq., J. P. and M.P., is a handsome 
building in the Elizabethan style. 


The number of inhabitants in 1801 was 30 ; in 
181], 52; in Ls^!l, 40; in 1831, 02; in 1841, 49; 
and in 1851, 33. The landowners are Messrs. John 
•Jameson, John Thompson, and John Dixon, and Mrs. 

Saul and Miss Howard. 

The village of 'Walby is about four miles north-east 
of Carlisle. 


The parish of Dalston extends about six miles in length by three in breadth. It is bounded on the north by portions 
of the parishes of St. ^lary and Upperby, on the west by that of Thursby and Westward, on the south by Sebergham, 
and on the cast by Leath Ward. The soil in general consists of a diy loam, except near the village of Dalston, where 
it is gravelly, and is mostly " laid don-n to grass for pasturage and meadow ;" but all kinds of grain thrive well in 
every part of this extensive parish. A great part of the arable land lies rather low, with a gentle inchuation to the 
river Caldew. Besides this river the parish is watered with the Raugh, Ivegill, and Shalk rivulets, and is remarkable 
for its ancient mansions, foremost amongst which stands Rose Castle, the seat of the bishops of CarUsle for many 
centuries. Dalston parish comprises the townships of Dalston, Buckhowbank, Cumdevock, Hawkesdale, Ivegill, and 
Raughton and Gatesgill, whose united area is 15,073 statute acres. 


The population of this township in 1801 was 701 ; 
in 1811, 914; in l.s21, 955; in 1831, 1109; in 1841, 
1021 ; and in 1851, 1022. Its rateable value is 
1-1783 15s. 9d. The Maryport and Carlisle Railway 
intersects the township. 

The barony of Dalston was given by Ranulph de 
Meschines to a brother of Hubert de Vallibus, of Gils- 
land, named Robert, who thereupon assumed the name 
of Dalston, and it continued in the possession of his 
descendants till King Stephen gave Cumberland to 
David of Scotland, when tho latter gave it to Henry 
Jlorison. It was, however, subsequently seized by 
Henry II. ns an escheat, and remained in the posses- 
sion of the crown till the year 1228, when Henry III. 
gave to Walter, Bishop of Carlisle, and his successore 
in the sec for ever, " the manor of DiJston, with the 
advowson of the church there, with sac and soke, and 
woods and mills, and all other appurtenances ; to hold 
the same disatVorested, with power to assart' and make 
enclosures, and dispose of the wood at their will and 
pleasure, without the view and interruption of his 
foresters, vorderers, regarders, or other oHicers ; and 
that they shall be free from suits, and summonses, and 
pleas of the forest ; and have liberty to hunt and take 
deer and other game witliin the said manor, and no 

' From the olil Frnicli assarter, lo grub up trees. 

other shall have such liberty without their permission ; 
and shall hold the said manor as a forest, as the king 
held the same before the said grant. The said bishop 
and his successors to find one canon regular to say mass 
every day in the Church of St. Mary, Carlisle, for the 
souls of the lung, and of his father, and all his ancestors 
and successors." And, by another charter, the same 
monarch further grants, •' that if they, or any person 
with their permission, shall chase any game within 
their forest of Dalston, and the said game shall fly into 
the king's forest, they may pursue and take the same 
within the king's forest, and return without the moles- 
tation of the king's foresters, or other oflicers." In the 
reign of Edward I. this manor was claimed against the 
bishop, in a writ of right, by Jlichael de Hercla, who 
grounded his pretensions upon his descent from an 
heiress of the elder branch of tho Dalston family, but 
without success. The barony of Dalston comprises the 
parish of Dalston, and the manors of Great Dalston, 
J.,ittle l)alston, Cardew, High Head, and Raughton and 
(latesgill. The north part of tho baixiny, which is in 
tho parish of St. Mary. Carlisle, was assigned to the 
prior, aud now forms tho manor of John de Capella, 
belonging to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, who 
have succeeded to tho manors, S:c., of the dean and 
chapter of Carlisle. The manor of Great Dalston com- 
prises the principal portion of the parish, and is a mixed 
manor, consisting of freehold, copyhold, aud customary 



tenements, with some leaseholders for life. The wife 
of a copyhold or customarj' tenant in this nianor cannot 
be deprived of her dower by the husband selling or sur- 
rendering his estate, unless she join in such surrender. 
On the failure of male issue, the daughters of tenants 
inherit equally as coparcenci-s. The principal land- 
owners here are Mrs. Richardson, Mrs. Cowen, Joseph 
Richardson, itc. 

The village of Dalston is large and populous, occu- 
pying a pleasant situation on the picturesque banks of 
the Caldew, about four miles south-by-west of Carlisle, 
and has a weekly market for flesh on Fridays. An 
ancient cross, raised on several steps, and bearing 
several coats of arms, formerly stood at the east end 
of the village ; it was, however, removed in 1815. 


Dalston Church, dedicated to St. Jlichael, is a neat 
and substantial structure, consisting of nave, chancel, 
and small transept, on the south-east. It contains 
a handsome font by BiUinge, and a fine organ presented 
by George Cowen, Esq., in 1847. In the chancel there 
is a handsome marble monument to the memoiy of the 
late Eev. W. Fletcher, M.A., for thirty-two years chan- 
cellor of the diocese of Carlisle, and vicar of this parish 
for fifty-three years. He died April 1st, 1850, aged 
79. The monument is by Watson of London, a native 
of this place, and contains a fine bust of the deceased. 
There is also a handsome tablet to the memory of the 
late ]Mrs. Salkeld, of Holm Hill. In the churchyard 
there is a monument to the late bishop of Carlisle, 
Dr. Percy, who died in February, 1856, and was buried 
here. The benefice is a vicarage, valued in the King's 
Book at £'8 18s. lid.; but after the Ilestoration, it was 
augmented with corn tithes to the amount of £30 
a year, and with a legacy of £300 left by Bishop 
Smith, which was expended in the purchase of land 
adjoining the Vicarage, so that the living is now worth 
about £300. The great tithes of Dalston are appro- 
priated to the Bishop of Carlisle, who is patron of the 

Rectors.— Americ Theobald, ]203; Egbert rickering, 1204; 
John de Drockenford, 1292. 

Vkaks.— Gilbert de Derington, 130.1 ; John de Carlisle, 1310; 

Henry Hand, ; Richard Asklaby, 1300 ; Roger de Ledes, 

1358; John Middleton, 1309; John del Marsh, 1371; Jolm de 

Alanby, 1378 ; John Mayson, 1378 ; George Bewley, ; 

Mark Edgar, 1570; Thomas Nicholson, 1580; Robert Colher, 

1590; William Griffith, ; Edward Baker, 1012; Richard 

Garth, lOCl ; John Walker, 1003; Thomas Benson, J7U; 
William Nicholson, 1727; John Story, 1731; William Paley, 
archdeacon of Carlisle, 1770; Walter Fletcher, 1793; John 
Woodham Dunn, 1810; R. H. Howard, 1853. 

The Vicarage is a plain but neat building, close by 
the church, and has lately been enlarged and improved. 

The Wcsleyan Association Methodist Chapel is a 
small building, erected in 1851, at a cost of £250. It 
will accommodate about 300 hearers, and is attended by 
local preachers and the Carlisle ministers. There is a 
Sunday-school held in connection with this chapel. 

The Grammar School was erected by subscription in 
1815, and is open to all the children of the parish at a 
low quarterage. This school appears to have been 
founded at an early period, but part of the original en- 
dowment was lost during the civil wars in the reign of 
Chai-les I. From an account entered in a book belong- 
ing to this parish, called the School Book, it appears 
that there was, in l(j()3, tlie sum of £108 15s. Gd., the 
interest of which was applied as the salary to a school- 
master. In the year 1673, the school stock is entered 
as£110 15s. Cd.; and the following additions have sub- 
sequently been made by beneiactions given expressly 
for the increase of that stock : — 1C78, by Bishop 
Rainbow, £10 ; .1084, Mrs. Elizabeth Rainbow (widow 
of the bishop), £5 ; 1685, John Rayson, £2 ; 1094, 
1095, two gifts made by Bishop Smith, £30 ; 1703, 
Madam Rainbow, £10 ; making in the whole, £167 
15s. Cd. About the year 1703 there appears to have 
been paid towards the expenses of recovering part of 
this school stock, which was in the hands of one George 
Denton, £29 15s. Cd., leaving a balance of £138. 
This sum was afterwards reduced by expenses in 
repairing the school-house to £110, which was invested 
in the funds. In 1808 the stock was sold out for 
£120 10s. 4td., and out of that money £10 10s. 45d. 
was expended in enclosing an allotment made to the 
school, and £50 was added to a sum amounting to 
nearly £300, raised by subscription fur the building of 
a new school-house. These expenses reduced the school 
stock to £00, which was placed out at interest. In 
addition to the £30 above mentioned. Bishop Smith, by 
indenture, dated March 22nd, ICflO, gave to this school 
a cottage, and about seven acres of land in Hawkesdale, 
in this parish, and he also built a school-room at his 
own expense. About the year 1800, on the enclosure 
of the common land, in this parish, an allotment of two 
acres was made to the school, in pursuance of a clause 
in the enclosure act, which directed that a parcel of 
ground should be set out for the erection of a school-house 
for the parish and manor of Dalston. In 1847, the 
sum of £200 was left to this school by Mrs. Fletcher 
and Mrs. Hodgson, executrixes of the late Chancellor 
Fletcher, who was the surviving trustee to the will of 
John Tiffin of Brownelson, whereby a sum of money 
•was at his disposal for charitable purposes. 

The National School is held in the old Methodist 
Chapel, erected in 1825, and is under the patronage of 



the vicar, wlio reuts the cbapel for the purpose. It 
will accommodute over 100 scholars, the average atten- 
dance is about 00. 

There is a ^VorldDg Men's Reading-Eoom here, which 
was established in 1848, and numbers about fifty mem- 
bers, who subscribe one penny per week, for which sum 
they have the use of a library containing about 400 
volumes, and a daily and local newspapers. The entire 
management is in the hands of working men. 


Benson's Charity. — Dr. Benson, who died about the 
year 17;i0, bequeathed i'50 to the poor of this jmrish. 
The legacy was received in the following year, and, 
about 1708, it was invested in the funds. In 1808, 
this stock was sold for X'5i 10s., which sum was placed 
out at interest. It amounts now to £05 10s. 4d., 
three-per-cents, which is distributed uinmally by the 
minister and churchwardens amongst poor persons of 
the parish. 

Strowj's Charily. — Mary Strong, who died in 1814, 
left by will to the Rev. 'Walter Fletcher, and his suc- 
cessors, vicars of Dalston, ,{,'100, to be placed out, and 
the interest to be for ever applied to the instruction of 
poor girls of the parish. It has been since increased to 
£171 5s. 3d. The vicar is trustee for this charity. 

There are two other charities, viz. : — Thumlinsou's 
Charity for the poor, £27 133. 5d. three-per-cents ; and 
Tifui's Charity for the poor, £1(H) three-per-cents, — 
the interest of which is distributed at Christmas. 

Hutchinson tells us " there was a hermitage near 
Dalston: the recluse, in 1343, who occupied it, was 
called Hugh do I.ilford ; but where his cell was, or 
when, or by wlioni it was tirst constructed, there is no 
record or tradition to point out." It seems that there 
was a chapel appertaining to it, dedicated to St. 
Wynemius the Bishop, and indulgences were granted 
by Bishop Kirby, about the year 1343, to all such as 
should give any money, books, or vestments for the 
repair, &c., of the chapel. At some distance from the 
parish church, in a deep and romantic part of the vale 
of Caldew, surrounded by rock and hanging woods, there 
is a field called Chapel Flat, which is conmionly sup- 
posed to have been the site of this chapel. 

There was formerly a circle of rude stones, ton yards 
in diameter, near the village, supposed to have been the 
remains of a Druidical temple ; and. at a little distance 
from it, was a tumulus, three yards high and eight in 
diameter. In the rich vale of Dalston there was a largo 
earthen embanknunt, called a bar, or barrow, extending 
from Dalston Hall to Cumdevock, a disUince of three 
miles, raised for the purpose of protection against the 

incursions of the moss troopers. Near this embankment 
several " bar houses " were erected, aud occupied by 
people whose duty it was, on the approach of the 
enemy, to give an alarm by the ringing of bells and 
blowing of trumpets, on the sound of which the inhabi- 
tants drove their cattle, &c., behind for safety. 

The manor of Little Dalston belonged, from an early 
period, to the ancient family of Dalston, descended by 
a younger branch from Robert de Vallibus, to whom 
the barony of Dalston had been granted by Eauulph de 
Meschines. Sir William Dalston, the immediate descen- 
dant, a zealous royalist, was created a baronet in 1040. 
The title and the male lino of the elder branch of this 
ancient family became e.xtinct by the death of Sir 
George, the fifth baronet, in 1765. Four years before 
his death he sold his estate at Dalston to Jlonkhouse 
Davison, Esq., after whose demise it was purchased, in 
the year 1705, by John Sowerby, Esq., and is now the 
property of Colonel Sowerby. 

Dalston Hall, at present a farmhouse, is a very ancient 
castellated structure, but the date of its erection cannot 
be ascertained : the chapel is now used for some of the 
purposes of the farm. Dalston Hall was the head 
quarters of General Lesley during the siege of Carlisle 
in 1044 and 1045. 


This township contained in 1801, 493 inhabitants; 
in 1811, 471 ; in 18^1, 570; in 1831, 008 ; in 1841, 
030; and in 1851, 070. Its rateable value is £0,000 
4s. The manorial rights of that part of the township 
in the manor of Great Dalston, are vested in the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners, and those of the portion 
in Little Dalston manor in Colonel Sowerby. The prin- 
cipal landowners are Thomas Salkeld, Esq., Colonel 
Sowerby, Rev. Mr. Parker, Mr. George Robinson, and 
Mrs. Richardson. 

Here are two corn-mills, one carried on by 3Ir. Bcwley 
of Carhsle, the property of Mrs. Cowen, and the other 
by jMr. Gibson, the property of Colonel Sowerby. There 
are three cotton-mills, two carried on by .T. Cowen and 
Sons, and tlie other by Messrs. Johnson and Dover. 
Tiierc are besides a saw-mill and iron-forge, the pro- 
perty cf ti. Cowen, Esq., and carried on by Mr. John 
Dover; at this forge, which was established in 1750, 
are manufactured agricultural implements of a superior 
description. There is also a llax-mill, carried on by 
Mr. Arthur Parker, who is also a canvas manufacturer. 

Browuclson, two farms iu this township, were for- 
merly given to the priory of Carlisle by Henry Dalston, 
the second of that family who resided at Dalston Hall. 

Unthank and Lingley Close Head are two small 
hamlets iu this township. 



This township, a suburb of Dalstoa village, is partly 
on the east side of the Caldew, and partly on the 
west side. 


The population of Cum Jevock in 180 1 was 283 ; 
in 1811, 31,5 ; in 1821, 333; in 1831, 348 ; in 1841, 
361; and in 1851, 337. The soil here is generally 
good loamy land, and the rateable value is £2,1 9i). The 
principal landowners are the Ilarl of Lonsdale, Mrs. 
ThomUnson, Messrs. Robert Blamire, John Guard- 
house, William Dobinson, T. K. Atkinson, — Dkon, 
John Richardson, John Armstrong, and several small 

The manor of Cardew in tliis township belonged, at 
an early period, to a family who took their name from 
the place. In the reign of Edward I. it became the 
property of John Burdon, who in default of issue from 
his son of the same name, entailed it on .John Denton 
and his wife Ivan, the heiress of Kirkbride and his 
heirs. This John Denton is said to have distinguished 
himself in the service of Edward Baliol, who gave him 
as a crest, a castle burning with a flaming sword in a 
lion's paw, which was afterwards borne by his family, 
for defending a castle in Annandale against Robert 
Bruce. In 1080 George Denton, Esq., sold the manor 
of Cardew to Sir James Lowther, Bart., from whom it 
has descended to the present Earl of Lonsdale. The 
customary tenants of the manor were enfranchised in 
1672, by George Denton, Esq., who reserved only a 
small quit rent and the royalties. 

Cardew Hall, long the seat of the Dcntons, is now a 
farmhouse. Here resided Mr. John Denton, whose 
voluminous MS. History of Cumberland has proved of 
the greatest service to all those who have taken an 
interest in the history and antiquities of this county. 

The village of Cumdevock is about one and a half 
miles south-west of Dalston. 

Cardew Lees is a hamlet in this township, one and a 
half miles north-west of Dalston, and is included in the 
manor of Parton. 

The Gill, another hamlet, is partly in this and 
partly in Hawkesdale township, one mile south-west 
of Dalston, near to which is Thomlinson Lodge, a neat 
building in the Elizabethan style, erected about twenty 
years ago. 

Shalkfoot is also a hamlet in this township, two and 
a half miles west of Dalston. In this hamlet there is 
a school for boys and girls, built by the parishes of 
Westward and Dalston, in 1780. It is a small stone 
building, capable of accommodating about thirty chil- 
dren. The brook, at the foot of which this place 
stands, and which is variously called Shalkbeck, 

Shawkbeck, Chalkbeck, and Chokebeck. nnis into a 
level bog, two miles long, and a quarter of a mile 
broad, formerly consisting of reeds and bulrushes, but 
latterly, by a judicious system of drainage, converted 
into arable and pasture land. The rivulet rises on 
Warnel Fell, and divides this parish from that of West- 
ward, and, joining Loughbeck, they together take the 
name of Wainpool. On its rugged and rocky banks are 
liic Shalk quarries, where tliree different beds of stone 
arc wrought, viz., one of red freestone, of an open grit : 
another of very white freestone, of a close body ; and a 
seam of limestone. The extent of the workings, the 
quality of the stone, and an inscription on one of the 
clifis, clearly prove that the Romans obtained materials 
here for the erection of that part of the wall westward 
from Carlisle. There is, on an overhanging cliff, seven 
or eight yards above the rivulet, the following Roman 
inscription: — 

LEG. n. AVG. . 
MILIIES PE. . . . 

COH. m. coH. nn. 
which has been read, " legionis secundjj adgust.f. 


The cliff formerly rose several yards above the inscrip- 
tion, and was called Tom Smith's leap, from a person 
of that name having thrown himself over the precipice 
to avoid being taken prisoner, and was kiUed on the 
rocks beneath. Christ Church, Carlisle, has been built 
of stone from these quarries. About a quarter of a 
mile south from this place, is a sulphurous spring, 
rising from a bed of grey limestone. The Green Quar- 
ries have yielded large quantities of excellent red slates. 
Lady's Hill Quariy is on the west side of the stream, 
in Westward parish ; and here are extensive old work- 
ings, in which there were once a few stones with Roman 
names upon them. Cunning-garth appears to have 
been a Roman intrenchmcnt, and near the quarries are 
several ancient barrows, one of which bore the name of 
Toddle HUl ; it was forty yards in diameter, and seven 
yards high. Several urns, containing ashes, skulls, 
bones, &c., have been found on this hiU, which has been 
entirely taken away for the reparation of the roads and 
for building purposes. 


The population of Hawkesdale township in 1801 was 
321 ; in 1811, 376 ; in 1821, 330 ; in 1 831, 427 ; in 
1841, 411 : and in 1851, 353. The rateable value is 
£3,437 10s. 8d. The soil here is chiefly loam by the 
river side, on the high ground clayey incumbent on a 
red sandstone. The manorial rights are vested in the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners, who, with Thomas Salkeid, 
Esq. ; Wm. Blamire, Esq. ; J. J. Watts, Esq. ; Messrs. 



Robert Twentyman, and John Bunting, are the prin- 
cipal landowners. The township extends along the west 
side of the Caldew, from one to three miles south of 

Hose Castle, the episcopal palace of the see of Car- 
lisle, is situated in this township, in a pleasant vale 
near the river Caldew, about seven miles south by west 
of Carlisle. From having been repaired at different 
times, according to the prevalent architectural taste, it 
has assumed a somewhat incongruous appearance, when 
conij]arcd with its origiual castellated style. The castle 
presents a fine mass of towers built on the north side 
of the vale, surrounded by hanging gardens that rise. 
terrace above terrace, up to the level lawn upon which 
it stands. It is not certain that this castle occupies 
the site of the ancient baronial mansion of Dalston, 
though there is every probability that it does, and such 
is the generally received opinion. In 1 300, Edward 
I., while prosecuting his claim to the Scottish crown, 
resided for a few days at Rose Castle, and after the 
termination of the siege of Carlaverock, we find him 
here again, when he was jomed by his queen. During 
his residence here, he received a communication from 
the Pope respecting the affairs of Scotland, which seems 
to have been the principal cause of his summoning his 
parliament to meet him at Lincoln, in the following 
I'ebruary. The writs for this parliament are dated 
Apud la liosc, September 2.jth and Stith, l;>00. In 
i:)ii'i, the baronial mansion of Rose, in which the 
bishops of Carlisle now occasionally resided on account 
of the numerous attacks to which Liustock was exposed, 
was burnt by die Scots under Bruce. Some years later 
it again sufl'ored from the same enem}', in consequence 
of which Bishop Kirby, in 1330, obtained a royal 
license to castellalo his manor-house at Rose ; and from 
this time it is known in all documents, itc, as Rose 
Castle. As built by Bishop Kirkby, tlie castle formed 
a ([uadrungle, encompassed by a rampart ajid ditch, and 
such continued to be its form till the seventeenth cen- 
tury, numerous additions, however, having been made 
to it in tho interval, by successive bishops. These 
additions consisted of a tower, built by Bishop Strick- 
land, another by Bishop Bell, and a third by Bishop 
Kyte. " The north side of the quadrangle," says Jeffrr- 
son, "consisted of tlie Const^iblu's Tower, the chapel, 
licU's Tower, a chamber called the council chamber, 
with one chamber under it, denominated Great Para- 
dise, and Stricldiind Tower, eontiiining together sixteen 
looms. On tho east side were situated the gi-eat 
diuiiig-room, kitchen, buttery, with lodging rooms and 
cellars. Tho south side contained a long gallery lead- 
ing to the hall, and a variety of store rooms and 

domestic offices, with two or three little turrets. The 
west side contained Pettenger's Tower,' and Kyte's 
Tower, and various other rooms; the total number of 
apartments appeai-s to have exceeded sixty. The 
stables and coach-house were enclosed within the 
mantle wall or rampart, in the out«r court; this wall 
was defended by a number of turrets placed at intervals 
upon it. In the centre of the inner court or quad- 
rangle, was a fountain, which conveyed water to all the 
offices of the house. No historical events of any 
interest in reference to the castle are recorded between 
the time of Bishop Kirby and the period of the parlia- 
mentary wars, during which few fortresses remained 
unscathed, and Rose being held in 10-i.j, by Mr. 
Lowther, the constable of the casde, with about twenty 
or thirty men, was attacked and taken by a party of 
Colonel Heveringham's regiment, and for some time 
served as a prison for the royalists. la 1048 it was 
again garrisoned by a company of royalists, amounting 
to forty men, and was attacked by a detachment of 
General Lambert's array. The governor, though twice 
summoned, woidd not surrender, being determined to 
hold out as long as possible : but after sustaining an 
assault of two hours, the castle was taken by storm, 
and was afterwards burnt by order of Major Cliolmley, 
who appears to have been in command of the detach- 
ment. A few weeks after this event, the army of tho 
Duke of Hamilton, which had been raised in Scotland 
for the Kings service, was here joined by Sir Marma- 
duke Langdale's forces. The survey of Rose Castle, 
made by order of the parliament in 1049 or IGoO, 
describes it to be in a state of great decay, and values 
the materials for sale at .£425. Mr. Heveringham. 
who possessed a moiety of the manor during Cromwell's 
time, fitted up the office for his own residence. When 
Bishop Rainbow came to the see in 1GG4 no pai-t of 
the house was habitable. He built a few rooms for 
immediate use, and was obliged to rebuild the chapel, 
which had been insutficieudy built by his predecessor. 
Bishop Smith built the tower adjoining the staircase, 
and by him and his immediate successor the house 
was again rendered a comfortable habitation. Bishop 
Lytdeton repaired Strickland Tower, built a new- 
kitchen and odicr offices, and made great improvcmeats 
in the habitable part of the house. Several altonidons 
conducive to comfort and convenience have since been 
made, and tho external and internal appearance of the 
castle much improved. In ancient times every bishop 
of Carlisle wius obliged to leave for his successor a 
certain number of books of divinity and canon law, 

>" There iaalmdilion thnt one Pclleni^r linnged himself in (liis 
tower, hence it3 Dttne." — NicoUon and Bum, 



104 oxen, 16 lieifcrs, and other live stock in proportion." 
The castle, as it appears at present, occupies only tlic 
north and west sides of the (luadrangle, the othor two 
sides not liaviug been restored since their destruction in 
the civil wars. Its present state is owing in a great mea- 
sure to the exertions of the late bishop. Dr. Percy, who 
made everj' effort to restore the castle to a complete 
state, and to render it worthy of its ancient name. 
Notwithstanding the repairs which had taken place 
under his lordship's predecessors, the edifice was in a 
very dilapidated state when Dr. Percy was raised to tlie 
see in 18v!~ ; the floors were rotten, the roofs gave little 
or no protection against the weather, and the exterior 
presented a strange mixture of styles, according to the 
periods at which the several portions were erected or 
restored. The bishop, in 1829, commenced a complete 
renovation of the entire edifice, and under the guidance 
of Messrs. Piickman aud Hutchinson, the castle was com- 
pletely restored in the style that prevailed when Strick- 
land's Tower, the oldest part of the castle remaining, 
was erected. 'With the exception of this tower, together 
■with those of Bishops Bell aud Kyte, and Pettenger's 
tower, which form an inconsiderable part of the buil- 
ding, the castle was entirely renewed. A new range 
of offices was also erected on the western side, to 
supply the place of those which existed previous to the 
wars of the parliament. A new tower, called Percy's 
Tower, was also added to the north-west angle of the 
main building. The ancient gateway and mantle wall 
with its turrets still remain. The entrance door of 
the house, is at the point where the Constable's Tower 
stood, and is secured by a large and curious look, 
presented to the castle by Ann Countess of Pembroke, 
which bears the inscription A. P. 1073. The stair- 
case is an elaborate and extremely elegant structure, 
composed of polished oak, with a private balustrade, 
consisting of cinque foils, charged iu the centre with 
the armorial bearings of the see, and those of the 
bishop alternately. On the staircase is a full length 
portrait of Bishop Smith, and a half-length of Ann 
Countess of Pembroke. 

The chapel, which occupies the north side of the 
house, aud has beneath it the bishop's libraiy and study, 
is 44 feet in length, by 2a in breadth. It is lighted by 
four large windows on the south side, and one at the 
east end, all filled with tracery in the Perpendicular 
style; the carved panels of the stalls were brought from 
Lambeth Palace, where they had been used for a 
similar purpose by Cardinal Pole in the sixteenth 

At the north-east angle of the chapel is a door con- 
ducting to the chaplain's apartment, in Bell's Tower, 

which contains the small library belonging to the see. 
To the east of the chapel was formerly the apartment 
called Great Paradise, covered by a massive curtain wall 
uniting Bell's Tower with Strickland's. The latter is a 
square tower now detached, situated at the north-east 
angle of the house, aud was formerly the keep or 
donjon of the castle; its form is similar to most of the 
border peel -houses, consisting of three apartments; 
of these the lower one is vaulted, and has walls seven 
feet thick; the staircase leading to it commenced at 
the end of a narrow passage, on a level with the first 
floor. The apartments on the first floor, which, from 
its ruinous state, is open to the roof, has, at its south- 
cast gable, a piscina which renders it probable that the 
apartment was used as a chapel. In a closet at the 
same angle of the second floor, which is reached by a 
dilapidated staircase, is a small opening about a foot 
square cut or left in the substance of the wall, running 
down to the dungeon, and supposed to have been used 
cither for conveying food to the prisoners there con- 
fined, or for overhearing their conversation. 

The west side of the building contains the principal 
apartments of the castle. The dining and drawing- 
rooms are spacious and elegant, the two mantle-pieces 
iu each of them contain some fine carving, and the 
oriel windows, looking into the quadrangular court, 
towards the river, command an extensive prospect, and 
on the exterior have a very fine appearance. The older 
portions of the castle are thickly mantled with i\j, and 
on the cornice of the tower erected by Bishop Bell, is 
iust visible, the emblematical device of a bell with the 
initials, R. b. 

Hawkesdale Hall, many years the property and 
residence of the Nicolson family, is now in a very 
dilapidated state. A monument on the outside of the 
chancel of the parish church of Dalston, commem- 
orates several members of this family. 

Holme HiU, many years the residence of the family 
of Holme, passed to George Holme Summer, Esq., 
M.P., and having been since sold, is now the property 
of the Salkelds. 

muits of f aiolicsbak f)all. 
This family claims descent from the old Yorkshire 
house of Le Fleming, of Wath. From an ancient 
pedigree it appears that 

Sib John le Fleming, lord of Wath, on Dearn, co. York, 
who died U Edward 11., left, by Joaa his wife, daughter of 
Waher de Faueonberg, three sons, viz., 

Thomas, of Wath and Dearn, anoestor of the Flemings of 

Wath, whose eventual heiress married Saville, of New HaU. 
Eaineb, of whose descendants we treat. 

Lambert, a Knight Templar, put to death at Paris, with the 
Grand Master, by order of Philip le Bel. 



The second son. 

Eaiser le Fleming, called " Kainer de Watli, Chevalyr," 
was in the Scottish wars in the retinue of Lord Percy. He 
married Ada, daughter and heir of Thomas de Bethune, and 
had, with other issue, a second son, 

Simon de Wiin, who married Alice, daughter and coheir of 
John do Eston, and was father of 

John de WATir, or Wathes, who possessed, jure matris, a 
moiety of Kston, co. Worcester, and considerable landed pro- 
perty in Yorkshire, temp. Edward III. He married Emmn, 
daughter of Sir Hugh Golofre, and was succeeded by his son, 

William Watiies, of Eston, living 1397, who married 
Blanche, danghtpr of William do Wellesbume, and had a son, 

Sm Thomas Wathes, of Eston, who served in the French 
wars, and is frequently mentioned in the Acts of the I'arliament 
of Paris as " Sir Thomas Wathes de Eston," and as " Sir 
Thomas d'Eston, Chevalier Anglaise." He had a grant from 
Henry V. of the seigneury of Langeais, on the Loire, and other 
property in France, the forfeited possessions of the Vicomte de 
Brosse, who had descried the English faction. Sir Thomas 
married Isabeau, diuighter of Bertrand Goyon, seigneur do 
JIatignon, and widow of Amboise, Vicomte do Thouars ; and 
dying 14'-'-t, left a son, 

Simon Wathes, of Eston, 7 Henry VI., 1128. Ho married 
Margery, daughter and heir of Thomas de Stotesbury of Whit- 
lield, CO. Nortliampton, and left a son, 

Siii Richahi) Wattyb, who fought under the banner of York 
at Wnkefiekl, where he fell, or died soon after the conflict, of 
his wounds, leaving by his wife Isabel Stafford, a son and heir, 

Thomas Wativs, who was plaintiff in an aclion-at-law against 
William de Stotesbury, William de Lovett, and others, for the 
recovery of the manor of Whitfield, in the last year of the reign 
of Henry VI., Ulil. By his wife, Alice, heiress to an estate at 
Beby, CO. Leicester, he had issue, 

I. John, heir. 

II. Richard, who liad a son, Hichard, end two daughters, Jfary, 
tile wife of George Gape, nf niuuules, in the co. Northampton, 
and Joan, the wife of Gervas .\stley. 

III. Thomas, the father of John, from whom descended the 
family of Walts, sealed in Norfiilk. 

I. Elizabeth, the wife of Richard Usbome. 
The eldest son, 

John Wattes, of Beby, co. Leicester, married twice. By his 
second wife he had issue John and Francis. By his first wife, 
Magdelaine, daughter and heiress of Thomas Berkeley, of the 
city of Worcester, John Wattes had a son and heir. 

Thomas Wattes, Esq., of Beby, who had a grant, a.d. 15C0, 
of the lands and lordship of Blakeslcy, co. Northampton. By 
his first wife, Anne, daughter and coheir of Sir John Crouch, 
of Crouch, CO. Kent, he had a son and heir William. His 
second wife was Catharine Sulyard, of Essex. Mr. Watts died 
in 10li;i, and was succeeded by his son, 

William Watts, Esq., of Blakesley, who died Ifi June, lOU. 
Ho married Mary, daughter of the famous Lord Chief Justice 
Sir Edward Montagu, Knt. of Boughton, co. Northampton, and 
had issue, i. Edwaud his heir; li. Montagu, barristerat-law; 
and Miu-y, wife of .iVuiliony X'almcr, Esq., of Stoko-Doyley. The 
elder son and heir, 

EiiwARD Waits, Esq., of Blakesley, married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir P.alph Coningaby, Knt., of North Mymms; 
Herts, and had issue, William ; ii. Edward, a royalist, whose 
only daughter and heir, Mary, married Rev. John Pettyfer ; 
III. CoNiNusuv, of whom presently, iv. Ainphilug; v. Ralph; 
I. Mary ; and ii. Elizabeth. The third .son, 

CosiNosDV Watts, early embarked in the royal cause, and 
suffered in consequence, both in person and property. By his 

wife Barbara, daugliter and eventually sole heir of George 
Danet, Esq., of the city of London, he had 

I. Montagu, who died young. 

II. John, who removed into Leicestershire, and purchased a con- 
siderable estate there, which had originally belonged to the 
ancient family of Danet, big mother's bouse, built Danei's 
Hall, and took up liis residence tliere. He held tlie office of 
Receiver-General fur the county, projected and nearly com- 
pleted the water-woiks for supplying the city of Leicester 
Willi spring-water, and was also of cousiderable sen'ice to the 
early manufacturers of Leicester, by lending them money in 
the infancy of the hosiery business. It is said he had the 
honour of handing the first cup of liquor to William 111. on 
his landing in Kngland. He died in 1742, aged 80. Mr. 
Walls married Caiberiue, daughter of — Carter, Esq., of 
Leicester, and niece of Sir Lawrence Carter, one of the 
barons of ilie Court of Exchequer, and had issue, 

John Walls, jun., of Danei's Hull, who was a barrister-at-law, 
autl sunk a considerable furtune in the South Sea scheme. 
He (lied in 17'.i8, aged .')2. He married Klizabeth, daughter 
of Nicholas Mosley, Esq., and niece of Sir Oswald Mosley, 
Cart., of r.olleslon. By this lady (who died in 173U, 
aged 80) Mr. Walls had issue. 
The Rev. William Walts, M.D., who was educated as a 
physician, and practised at Leicester. He subsequently 
entered the church. Dr. Watts was chiefly instrumental 
in the estiililishment of the Leicester Infirmary, of 
which he was one of the governors. He married the 
daughter of George Wlialley, Esq., of Norton, and had 
by her John Mosley Waits, who married Sarali, 
daughter of Samuel Bolton, uf Fair ilUe, near Hen- 
ley on-Thames, and had issue, 
William Moslev, of whom hereafter. 
Alaric .Alexander, the distinguished poet, married 
Zdlah, sister of tile late J. II. Wiffen, Esq., the 
Irauslator of Tasso, and has hud issue .Alaric Wil- 
liam, who died young; Alahic .Vlfred; Francis 
Coleridge, who died young; and Zillah-Emily- 
The elder son, 

William Mosley Watts, of Byfield House, Barnes, 
CO. Surrey, burn 12 September, 1780, married 
Mary, duughter of Thomas I'itler, Esq., of Craw- 
ley, and died 7 October, 1.S40, having had issue, 
William Power, who died Young. 
Frederick Mosley, M..A., of Lincoln College, 

Oxford, in huly orders, born 11 March, ls20. 
Mary, who died in 1832. 
III. Georob, of whom hereafter. 

I. Barbara, wife of George Bentley, Esq., of Monmouth. 
The third, but second surviving son, 

Geokge Watts, a Turkey merchant in the city of Bristol, 
married twice. By his first wifo Mary, daughter of George 
Dennis, Esq., of Bideford, he had a daughter Mary, who mar- 
ried Andrew Nelthorpe, Esq. By his second wife, Miss Aiine 
Harrington, he had 

I. Ch AiiLES, of whom presently. 

II. Montagu, who inhcriicd the greater part of bis father's for- 
tune, whiih he lost by embarking in the South Sea bubble. 
He married Jliss .lane Seymour, and left issue. 

III. William, M..\., in holy orders. 

I. Florence, died young. 

II. Anne, wife of Captain Frazer. 

III. Elizubeth, wife of Sir Samuel Goodyer, Bart. 

The eldest son, 

Chahles Watts, a captain of the Royal Life Guards, offended 
his father, and was disinherited. Ho married Katherine, 
daughter of Rolicrt Scrope, Esq., colonel in the French service, 
and ChevaUer of SL Louis, descended from the Scropes of 
Hameldon, Bucks (by his wife Katherine Middleton, of tho 
family of Stockeld), and dying 1745, left a son, 

The Rev. Wiujam Watts, A.M., rector of Moresby, Cum- 
berland, J. P., who mainly assisted Joseph Nicolson, Esq., in 
his arduous undertaking of compiling tho History of Cumber- 



land. He married Mary, daughter ( by Mary liis wife, daughter 
of BeUingbam Jlauleveror, Esq., of Amclitlo) of John Nicol- 
son, Esq., nnd sister and eventually sole heir of John Nicolson 
of HawkesJale Hall, in Cumherlaml, and groat-uiece of Dr. 
AVilliam Nicolson, bishop of Carlisle, altenvurds of London- 
derry, and I'ventiiuUy archbishop of Cashel, by which lady ho 
left issue a daughter, Warj-, wife of the Eev. William Brisco, 
of Langrigg, co. Cumberland, and a son, 

The Uev. Clement Watts, M..A.., vicar of Holme Cultram, 
CO. Cumberland, J. P.; nianied JIary, daughter of Williaiu 
Benn, Esq., of More Eow, and only sister of Sir John Benu 
Walsh, Bait., of Orraathwaite Hall, by whom (who died 1818) 
he had issue. Tlie eldest son, 

JonH Nicolson Watts succeeded, on the death of his great 
uncle, John Nicolson, Esq., of HawUesdale, to that nnd other 
estates in Cumberland. Mr. Watts went out to India early in 
life, in the Company's civil service, on the Madras establish- 
ment, where he died in 1815, at the early age of :i.5. He mar- 
ried in 1800, Ann I'itt, daughter of James Dodson, Esq., of 
Eeading-hill, Berks, by Sarah his wife, daughter and coheir 
of John Philip Carey, Esq., of Compton, co. Gloucester, and 
by her (who died 17 July, 18'J(p) had issue, 

I. John James, his successor. 

II. Montague, Lieut.-Ccilonel Madras Horse Artillery, born 'i 
March, 180s ; married Jane, daughter of John Bird, Esq., 
Madras Civil Service. 

III. Henry, Lieutenant in the Madras Engineers, born 26 Janu- 
ary, 18 U), died unmarried in India, in Lh.Jh. 

I. Helen Cramer, married 182IJ, Henry Diekuison, Esq., of the 
Madras Civil Sen-ice, and died 211 May, 18:')1. 

II. MaiT Anne, married 1 8.'!0, Heiu'y Briggs, Esq., of the Madras 
Light Cavalry. 

Mr. Watts died June, 1815, and was succeeded by his son, 

John James Watts, Esq., of Hawkesdala Hall, born 15 
March, 1803. 

Anns — Quarterly: 1st and Itli, arg., a fesse, and in chief, two 
cross-crosslets, gii ; 2i!d and 3rd, enu., on a chief, gu., a bezant, 
between two billets, or. 

Crests — 1st, a dexter arm, embowed, in armour, ppr., grasping in 
the gauntlet an aniohisbaena, (or a suake wiUi ti head at each ex- 
tremity), or, langued, gu. ; 2ud, a lozenge, gu., between two wings, 
elevated, or. 

Seat — Hawkesdide Hall. 


The township of Ivegill, or High Head, contained 
in 1801 IIG inhabitants; iiilSll, 109; in 1821, 129; 
hi 18.31, 141; in 1841, 194; and in 1851, 134. The 
rateable value is £1437 Us. The population, whose 
principal employment is agriculture, is very much 
scattered over the the township, and in the small 
village of Ivegill. Carlisle and I'eurith are the 
markets attended. In the immediate neighbourhood 
of the township, thougli not in the township itself, are 
the remains of a Roman camp, but they are not very 
distinct. In a field, near to this place, a few Roman 
coins, one a gold piece, have been discovered. 

The manor of High Head, in this township, belonged 
in the reign of Edward II. to John de Hercla, who 
■was attainted for being concerned in rebellion with liis 
brother, the Earl of Carlisle. In 1;342, William 
L'Angleys, or English, had the king's license to crenel- 
late his mansion at High Head, yet it appears there 

had been a castle there before, belonging to the crown, 
for in the year 1320, Ralph Dacre had a grant of the 
custody of the castle of High Head, for ten years, and 
the ue.\t year the custody was granted for life to 
■\Mlliam L'Angleys, who took possession under that 
grant, whereupon Ralph Dacre, in 1330, petitioned 
parliament to be reinstated for the remainder of his 
term. In 133.S the son of AVilliam above mentioned 
had a license from the bishop to build a chapel here, 
and to have a chapluin to olliciate therein. About the 
year 1550, High Head Castle was purchased of the 
family of llostwold, by John Ricbiuond, Esq., in 
whose posterity it continued till the demise of Chris- 
topher Richmond, Esq., when it became the property 
of two of his daughters. Isabel, the eldest daughter, 
born 1079, married S. Gledliill, Esq., whose descen- 
dants sold their half of the estate to Lord Brougham. 
Margaret, the seventh daughter, born 1089, was married 
to W. Gale, Esq., merchant, of Whitehaven, whose 
descendants took, in 1770, the name of Braddyll. 
Colonel Braddyll, born 1770, is their representative. 
Lord Brougham's family is connected with the Rich- 
mond family, through Elizabeth, second daugliter of the 
Christopher Richmond above mentioned, born in 1080, 
who married Peter Brougham, Esq., of Slielton. Their 
eldest son, Henry Richmond Brougham, Esq. of Scales 
and High Head Castle, was high sheriH' of Cumberland 
in 1749, and died unmarried in that year. This 
family connection accounts for the purchase of the por- 
tion of the estate now in the possession of Lord 
Brougham. The mansion belongs to that nobleman, 
who shares the manorial rights, <i-c., with Colonel 
Braddyll, in addition to whom, Messrs. John Knight, 
Thomas Knight, Isaac, and Christopher WilHamson, 
John Dennison, and Christopher Hudson, are the 
principal landowners. 

High Head Castle, the manor house, is a substantial 
building, but at present unfit for residence, having been 
allowed to go out of repair. It has, however, been some- 
what restored lately, and is now occupied as a farm- 
house. There was formerly a good deal of carved wood- 
work about the building, but this has been removed to 
Brougham Hall. The house occupies a most picturesque 
situation, on a steep rock overlooking the neighbouring 
scenery, backed up by the range of Skiddaw Forest in 
the distance, while the little river Ive winds its way 
immediately beneath, through a rocky channel com- 
pletely overshadowed with timber. 

^rHbbgll ^"amilg. 

John Vactc, of Catterlen, manied Jlabol Musgiave in IfllC, 
and by her had issue, Mabel, who was married to Christopher 
Eichniond, of High Head, to whom she bore two sons and a 



ilttiighter, CiinisTornEn, of whom presently, John, and Mag- 
dalen. Mr. liichmond married 2ndly Magdalen, daughter of 
A. Huddlcston, of Hulton John, and by her had issue. 

CiiRisTopiiKn RlciiMoNn, mnrried tjrsilv Miiud, daiiphtor of Sir 

\V. Lnwscin, liort., of Isell Ilnll, liy whlim he liinl one son anil 

two diutphters. His scroiid wife was Isjiliell, daughter of 

Thomas Reynolds, of London, by wliora he had issue, 

I. Erasmus, bom 1084, died an infant. 

71. Henry, the only son surviving infancy, who bequeathed High 

Head estate to his mother on his death, 1710. 
in. William, who died an infant. 

I. J^nliel, born 1('pT!i, who ninmed S. Gledhill, Esq. 

II. Eli/iibtih, born li;"!!, married Peter Brougham, of Skelton, 
collector of excise, and had issue, 

1. Henry Richmond Brougham, of Scales and High ITend 
Castle, hi?li sheriff of Cumberland, 174(1, wlio died un- 
married, in April, 17-19. 

2. John, who died unmarried. 
M. Afary, who died young. 

in. Sarah, bom 1(581, married G. Simpson, of Thackwood, gent. 

IV. Aime, died young. 

V. Mabel, married Henry Brisco, youngest son of J. Briseo, o^ 
Crolton Hall. 

VI. Susannah, to whom High Head Castle was bequeathed by 
her mother's will, as well as Catterlen in fee. 

VII. Margaret, bom l(l«!), married W. Gale, of Whitehaven, 
merchant, and had issue, 

I. John (iale, of Whitehaycn and of Cleator Hall, who 
married Snrah. danphter and coheir of Christopher 
Wilson, of Bardsey Hal!. Liuirashire, by Margaret, annt 
and heir of Thomas Braddyll, born 17^8, died 1774. 
Mr. tiale had issue, 

Wii.r.iAM Galk, of Conishend Priory, Lancashire, 
baptised '.ilth February, Pof), took the name of 
Braddyll in 177ip, He married in the latter year, 
Jane, daughter of Manillas Gale of Londou, mer- 
chant, and by her had .Iomn Gale HnAnnTi,L, 
Esq.. of ConisIiea<l Priory, born 1 1th November, 
1770, who took the surname of Kichmond before 
that of Braddyll, ami the arms of liichmond and 
Gale quarterly with those of Braddyll, by license, 
Olh October, iHlii. William Gale, i;sq.,'die<l lllh 
Noycmber, IhIk. 

VIII. Mardia. 

The villnge of Ivegill is eight miles south of Carlisle. 

High Head chapel, in the immediate neighbourhood 
of tho castle, and one mile distant from Ivegill, is a 
chapel-of-case to Dalston. It is a plain and somewhat 
mean-looking building, with small bell turret, erected 
in 1830, upon the sito of an older building. The 
interior is better than the exterior. The font is hex- 
agonal, and is the gift of the late Miss Rliimiro, of 
Thackwood Nook. Tho chapel contains a memorial 
window to that lady by O'Connor, — subject, Our Lord 
bearing tho Cross ; two other windows are also by the 
same artist, and tho remaining four arc lilled with tho 
stamped quarries of Jlessrs. James Powell, itc. All are 
the gift of tlio present incumbent. Tho dedication of 
the chnpel is unknown. The townships of Ivegill, Jlid- 
dlesceugh, in the parish of St. Mary's Without, Caj-lisle, 
and Itonfield, in the parish of Hesk.t-in-the-Forest, have 
scats in the chnpel and are united for educational ]iur- 
poses. Tiio living, a perpetual curacy, was only endowed 
with £;tOO, which has been since augmented from (Jueen 
.\uno'8 Bounty, and Parliamentary grants, &c., the whole 
present value is about £91 i;ts. Od. There are no 

tithes. Baptisms only are solemnised in the chapel. 
The register commences in 1705. 

Incoidents,— John Hudson, 1782; Thomas Robinson, 1770; 
Joseph Ashbridge, 1771; James Maws, 1777; Joseph Hudson, 
1784; Samuel Hudson, 170O; Joseph Hudson, 1820^; Hugh 
Elliot, 1840 ; Richard Dugdale, 1843 ; Arthur Emilius Hulton, 

There is a small school at Ivegill, erected in 1835 ; 
for the townships of Ivegill, or High Head, Itonfield, 
and MiJdlesceugh. 


Chapel Stock. — It is stated in a terrier of this 
cbapelry, dated 1777, that there was then the sum of 
£300, called ancient chapel stock. By reference to the 
will of Isabella JMiller, dated 1st May, 1786, it appears 
she directed that those who, after her decease, should 
become possessors of the castle, manor, demesne lauds 
of High Head, should pay yearly, and every year for 
ever, out of the same, the sura of 20s. to such person 
as should be reader and schoolmaster at High Head 
chapel. Provided always that the reader and school- 
master should be nominated and appointed by or 
with the consent of the said possessor or possessors, 
and their successors, and that the school should be 
taught in the parish of Dalston as formerly. The 
interest of the £'300 and the 20s. yearly, is paid to 
the incumbent of the chapelry. 

There is a corn-mill close to High Head Castle, the 
property of Lord Brougham, and carried on by Mr. 
George Eayson. 

There are two bridges in this township: one over 
the Roe, called High Bridge, the other over the Ive, 
immediately below High Head Castle. 

The people here are very general in their invitations 
to funerals, wliich all in tho neighbourhood or laiting 
are expected to attend : and much unnecessary expense 
is consequently often incurred. 


The population of this township in 1801 was 206; 
in 1811, 18.1; in 1821, 294: in 1?31, 330: in 1841, 
318: and in 1851, 302. Its rateable value is £2,320 
68. Id. "Gatesgill and Baughton," say Nicolson and 
Burn, "were at the Conquest all forest ami waste 
groimd, and were lirst enclosed by way of purpresturc 
by one Ugthred, to bo holden of tho king in fee by 
serjenntry for keeping the eyries of hawks for the king, 
which bred in the forest of Inglcwood. Ciateskale, being 
a wbiney place, where the inhabitants of Rnugh- 
ton made scales or shields for their gates (or goats) 

' Joseph Hudson, uou resident. Hugh Elliot, his successor, was 
assistant cunle. 



from thcnco took its name, as Raughion did from the 
beck or river, called Raugh (or llaghe), which signifies 
u rough rapid water. The posterity of Ugthred took 
their surname of the place, and gave the sparhawk 
for their cognizance. It continued in this name and 
family for several generations; till the last of the 
name settledjit upon his wife Margaret (Stapleton), and 
she dying without issue, her brother William Stapleton 
of Eden Ilall succeeded to the inheritance. lu like 

manner the Musgraves succeeded the Staplelons by a 
female heir, and towards the end of tlie fourteenth cen- 
tury settled it upon a younger son, whose chief seat was 
at Hayton, in which house it still continues." 

The principal landowners are the representatives of 
the late George Coweu, Esq., Thomas Salkeld, Esq., 
the executors of the late John Bond, Esq., Lord 
]3roughani, Robert Mouusey, Esq., and William Bond, 


This parish is bounded on the north and east by the 
Kirkaudrcws, and on the south by the parish of St. Mary 

The area of Grinsdale is about 730 acres (890 in 
the Census returns!, and its rateable value £580. Its 
population in 1801 was 86; in 1811, 118; in 1821, 
138; iu 1831, I35.';7in isil, 115 : and in 18,51, 95. 
It is now about 100, inhabiting 23 houses. Their 
occupation is entirely agricultural. The land here is 
well cultivated, and the houses clean and comfortable. 
The village] of Grinsdale is the only collection of 
houses. There are three separate farm-houses situated 
at Millbock, where there is a corn-mill moved by water- 
power ; Comhill and Knockupworth Hall. The quality 
of the soil near the river Eden, comprising about 
one-fourth ^part of the parish, is a deep rich deposit ; 
and iu the highest part near the borders of it, is 
situate thejvillage of Grinsdale, so that the inhabitants 
are near their good land, and yet out of the reach of 
the water, when in the highest flood they are nearly 
surrounded. On going'from the village to the southern 
part of the parish, the land becomes poorer. Pre- 
vious to the year 1808, nearly the whole of this part 
(450 acres) was a wet unproductive common, but it 
was divided and enclosed in that year, and is now 
under good cultivation, and produces most excellent 
crops. The subsoil is of a red gravelly nature, with 
bands of clay ; and the surface varies from good loam 
to blacktop earth towards the south. Carlisle markets, 
held on Wednesdays, Tlmrsdays, and Saturdays, are 
those attended by the inhabitants. 

The Roman wall and vallum ran through this parish. 
The wall as it entered the parish on the east, came a 
little south of the footpath, which now leads from Car- 
lisle to Grinsdale by the river side. Instead of bending 
with the footpath when it reaches the south end of the 
island, it held its direct course, and sought the high 

river Eden and the parish of Stanwix, on the west by 

Carlisle. It possesses no dependent townships. 

ground where the footpath now is between Grinsdale 
and Kirkaudrcws ; and this footpath is the site of the 
wall, except where it passes through the Blcachhousc- 
field, and here it was a little diverted from it a few 
years ago by Mr. Thomas Sibson, who in straightening 
the path, removed the only remaining foundations of 
the wall. It leaves this parish here, and enters Kirk- 
andrews at Sour Milk Bridge. The traces of the 
vallum or ditch are not distinct in this parish. 

The parish of Grinsdale is a manor in the barony of 
Burgh, and gave name to a resident family who lived 
here during the reigns of Henry I., Stejihen, Henry II., 
and John. In the reign of the latter monarch the 
manor came to two daughters of the Grinsdales or 
Greensdales, called Marriott and Margaret. In the 
time of Henry III., when Thomas de Multon was lord 
of Burgh, Thomas de Newton, a descendant of one 
daughter, held a moiety ; and William de la Sore, a 
descendant of the other daughter, held the other 
moiety.' In the reign of Henry IV. the two moieties 
were sold to the Dentons of Cardew, a daughter of 
whom married Sir Thomas Dacre of Lanercost. Iu 
Queen Elizabeth's time the estates of the Dacres were 
forfeited to the crown by the rebellion and attainder of 
Leonard Dacre, whose sisters (Anne and Elizabeth) 
mai-rying the Earl of Arundel and Lord William 

' In 129-5, and again in Wtl, Robert de Gi-insdale represented 
the city of Carlisle in Parliament. This Robert was the son of Gil- 
bert, whose father Robert de Grinsdale, a citizen of Carlisle, and an 
inheritor of lands both at Grinsdale and Parton, was a second 
brother of .\3ketiU de Grinsdale, one of tlie iirst of that family con- 
nected with this manor. The said Robert had a son Atan de Grins- 
dale, who was member for Carhsle in 1300 and 1306, and one of the 
representatives for the connty in 1312. After him was Robert de 
Grinsdale, who represented Carlisle several times in the reigns of 
Edward U. and Edward III. 



Howard, the sons of the Duke of Norfolk procured 
the estates to bo granted to them again by the crown. 
This manor being in the barony of Burgh came thus 
into the hands of Philip, earl of Arundel, who died in 
1595 ; and in 1085 his descendants sold the barony to 
Sir John Lowther for ;£lt,O0O, who in 1090 was 
created Baron Lowther and Viscount Lonsdale. The 
present Earl of Lonsdale is lord of one part of the 
parish, and Joseph Dacre, Esq., of Kirklinton Hall, 
of the other part. The principal landowners are Mr. 
Thomas Sibson, Miss Jane Ilobson, Mr. Sibson Gra- 
ham, Mr. Richard Bum, and Mr. John Graham. 

The village of Grinsdale is two-and-ahalf miles 
north-west of Carlisle. 


The church, dedicated to St. Kentigem, is a small 
but neat building, delightfully situated on the banks of 
the river Eden, and from its quiet and secluded posi- 
tion, its graveyard is a most fitting depository for the 
remains of the dead. It was formerly rectorial, and 
belonged to the lords of the manor of Grinsdale, up to 
the reign of Henry II., when Hugh de I\rorville, lord 
of the barony of Burgh, and Piichard de Newton and 
Robert de la Sore, coparceners in the manor of Grins- 
dale, granted and confirmed the church of Grinsdale, 
with all its rights, to the canons of Lanercost Priory. 
At the dissolution of this priory, the rectory and ad- 
vowson passed to Sir Thomas Dacre by the grant of 
Edward VI. ; and bis descendants have always ap- 
pointed a curate with a salary of forty shillings yearly, 
tliough the church lay iu ruins for many ages. It was 
rebuUt by Joseph Dacre, Esq., at his own expense, in 
1710. The living lias been several times augmented 
by grants from (juccn Anne's bounty office, with which 

lands have been purchased at Dapley Moor, iu the 
parish of Stapleton, and at Mildburnhead, iS-c., in the 
parish of Kirklinton. Its present value is about £115 
per annum. The tithes were paid in kind previous to 
the year 1751, when they were purchased by the land- 
owners of the late Joseph Dacre, Esq., the patron and 
lay impropriator, for the sum of £1,000, passed by fine 
and recovery, Hilary Term, 20 George II. The patron 
is Joseph Dacre, Esq., Temple, London, who appoints 
a perpetual curate, wilh a stipend of £2 annually, to 
maintain his ecclesiastical right, paid by the parish. 
The parish register commences in 1738, and is con- 
tinued till the present time. There is an entry made 
on a small fly-leaf of a pocket-book by the late Mr. 
Thomas Sibson, — "On Sunday, April y'' 19th, 1741, 
service first performed at Grinsdale church by Rev. 
Mr. Stamper, the text was in y^ 122 Psalm and vers y« 
first, viz., ' I was glad when they said unto me, we 
will go into the house of the Lord.' " Grinsdale is not 
mentioned in the King's Book, nor is there any presen- 
tation or other account of it in the bishop's registers. 

Incumbents. — John Stamper, 1738; William Baty, 17C0; 
Thomas Pattinson, 177C; Jonathan 'Wilson, 1829; Henry 
Gough, Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, 1848 ; John Burton 
Norman, 1855. 

There is no parsonage bouse. The present incum- 
bent living at Kirkandrews, about a mile from the 

This parish is entitled to a third of Pattinson's 
charity for the education of poor children. There is 
uo school iu the parish, but the inhabitants subscribed 
towards the erection of that at Kirkandrews-on-Eden, 
the master of which receives the interest of £50. ' 

' See Downess parish, p. IDO ; luij Kirkandrews-on-Eden, p. 172. 


KiXfiMoou is an extra parochial place, nearly encircled by Stanwix parish. It is bounded on the north by 
Rockliffe parish, on the west by Cargo township, on the south by that of Stanwix, and on the east by Houghton. 
Since 1811 it has been included, for church purposes, in Houghton Ecclesiastical District. 

The area of Kingmoor is 1,110 statute acres, and its 
rateable value £1,00 t 2s. Cd. Its population in ISQl, 
was 103; in 1811, 132; in 1821, 162; in 1831, 420; 
in IHll, 112; and in 1851, 502. A light blackish 
-soil, incumbent on a red clay, prevails in the district, 
which is intersected by the Caledonian railway. " King- 
moor," says Hutchinson, " was formerly vested in the 

crown, the citizens, or corporation of Carlisle, having a 
prescriptive right to depasture their cattle, and get 
turves thereon, which right was confirmed to them by 
the charter of Edward IIL, and the subsequent ones 
granted by most of the other kings and queens of Eng- 
land, down to Charles II. In the year 1082 the cor- 
poration leased out a part of this moor for their lives, 



at a small rent ; and so from time to time granted 
other parts thereof in like manner, which leases were 
regularly renewed on the dropping of one or two of the 
lives, on payment of 20s. as a fine for every new life. 
The whole of the moor hath been thus held ever since, 
except Mr. Lamb's, the principal estate, of which the 
corporation granted the fee about fifty years ago. In 
the year 1792, some of the freemen of this corporation 
being disposed to revive the exercise of their rights of 
common pasture and turbary on this moor, au action- | 
at-law was commenced in consequence thereof, which ! 

was argued at the assizes held at Carlisle the j-oar fol- 
lowing, and determined in favour of the occupiers or 
lessees of the corporation." The principal landowners 
at present are George G. Mounsey, Esq., Chai-les J. 
Lamb, Esq., Richard Ferguson, Esq., Mr. C. Arm- 
strong, with some small proprietors. Charles J. Lamb, 
Esq., possesses the manorial rights and privileges. 

The village or hamlet of Ivingmoor is on the high 
road to Scotland, about two miles north of CarUsle. 
The freemen of the city have for a considerable period 
held their guild races here on a small waste. 


This parish is hounded on the north by the river Eden, on the west by Beaumont and Burgh-on-Sands, on 
the south by the parish of Orton, and ou the east by tliat of Grinsdale. It comprises no dependent townships. 

Kirkandrews comprises an area of 1,050 statute 
acres, and its rateable value is £'020. The number 
of its inhabitants in 1801 was 98 ; in 1811, 100 ; in 
1821, 141; in 1831, 107; in 1841, 142; and in 1851, 
131, — living in the village of Kirkandrews, and two 
or three farm-houses in other parts of the parish. 
Hoskett Hill is a small hamlet situated on the side of 
the common. This is a well-cultivated parish ; the 
north-eastern part, lying alongside the river Eden, is a 
fine rich holme, with the drawback of being occasionally 
flooded by the river. The middle part is divided from 
this holme by the eminence which forms the site of the 
Boman wall, and is a stcpp about twenty feet higher 
than the holme. This part contains the village of 
Kirkandrews, with its crofts of strong productive loam 
and clay subsoil. Higher still is the third part, divided 
from the middle part by the eminence called Bracken- 
hill Brow ; this is of a variable quality of soil, from 
the loamy to the blacktop with red roachey subsoil. 
Here is situated the yet unenclosed common ; but the 
division of it under the Enclosure Acts has just been 
completed, and a few years will materially improve this 
part of the county. This common contains about 130 
acres. The remainder of this third part, about 250 
acres, are ancient enclosures, which have been granted 
to the tenements of Kirkandrews from time to time by 
the lords of the manor. The inhabitants are chiefly en- 
gaged in agriculture. There are no mines or minerals. 
The Port Carlisle railway passes through this parish, 
touching the village at the west end, where there is a 
station. Carlisle is distant about three miles, and i.s 
the market town on Wednesdays and Saturdays. 

The Roman Wall and Vallum pass through this 
parish, entering ou the east side at a place called Sour 
llilk Bridge, where they are about 200 paces apart, 
and continue in a westerly direction. The wall, fol- 
lowing the top of an eminence which bounds the holme 
land, passed through where the churchyard now is, on 
the north side of the village, and entered Beaumont 
parish where Beaumont Beck empties itself into the 
river. The ditch, pursuing a similar direction, passed 
on the south side of the village, and entered the parish 
of Beaumont where the same beck crosses the Monkhill 
road, and here it is distant from the site of the wall 
about TiOO paces. On the higher parts, towards the 
south of this parish, there are several traces of Roman 
earthworks. At a place on the common near Janet 
Hill, where the plough has not yet stirred the surface, 
there are three mysterious circular ditches on the high- 
est part of the ground of no great dimensions, being 
respectively five, seven, and nine yards in diameter. 
Here it is said some urns were found about eighty years 
ago. These circular ditches are deep, and their interior 
spaces are a little elevated. Apparently they are very 
ancient, and the purpose for which they were made has 
belonged to a period now long gone by. There are also 
ou this same common most curious traces of what tra- 
dition says was an aqueduct to bring water from the 
river Caldcw down into Beaumont Beck for some pur- 
poses of water-power. It is first seen in this parish on 
the Far Moor, where it winds round the south and east 
side of this brow ; thence it proceeds in a northerly 
direction through Lammonby Close plantation, and 
behind Maxwell Cottage, thence to the southern side of 



the brow on which stands Hoskett Hill ; and stiU pro- 
ceeding in a northerly direction, as it finds its desired 
decline, it enters the parish of Beaumont at a place 
called Cowper Nook, and bending to the east runs in 
that direction to Beaumont Beck : at Cowper Nook, 
where there is some uncultivated ground, the traces are 
very distinct. 

In this parish, Kirksteads deserves the attention of 
the antiquarian. It is situated on the south side of the 
farm-house called Cobble IJall. Here tradition tells us 
a church once stood to serve the parishes of Kirk- 
andrews, Beaumont, Grinsdale, and Orton. Yet we 
cannot llnd, cither from internal evidence, or from any 
ancient documents whatevc-r, that the building which 
once stood here was dedicated to Christian worship. 
Man}' Roman remains have been dug out ; an altar, 
■with many sculptured stones now in the garden of ilrs. 
Norman of Kirkandrews, and illustrated in Bruce's 
iloraan Wall,' many Koman coins, and some beautiful 
specimens of Roman decorations of the vine tracery 
cut in rehef in stone, now in the possession of Mr. 
Norman of Bow, and Mr. Stordy of Thurstonfield. 
Remains of human bones have also been exposed here, 
but still no traces of mediicval architecture. But the 
strongest evidence against this tradition is, that the 
churches in Beaumont and Orton, as well as what 
recently remained of the old church which stood in 
Kirkandrews' churchyard, all bear evidence that they 
Lave been erected during the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries. And previous to that time it is not likely 
that the inhabitants here would be cither so numerous 
or so wenlthy as to maintain a separate church. No 
doubt the human bones that have been dug up, and the 
sculptured stones that have been removed, led our fore- 
fathers, who were not skilled in Roman remains, to 
think that this was the site of some " auld kirk," and 
therefore they named the field " Kirksteads." 

About 300 paces from Kirksteads, in a field called 
Hainings, the property of Mrs. C. Norman, there was 
found, in the summer of 1855, in the northern angle 
of the field, and a very little way beneath the surface 
of the ground, an earthenware vase containing about 
1,100 Roman denarii. The coins were of bronze, and 
principally of the reigns of Constjintine and Diocletian. 

' Tho nitnr hcnra marks of liiiTinif bi.'pn cut ilimn to suit the 
purposes of somi- oomparalively lUoili'rn Imildcr. The focus of the 
altar ia unusually large, the boltliip.xs of its lettering indicating an 
carlj (Ittte. Dr. Uruce reads it as follows: Lfciis Junius Vioto- 


I.ueius Junius Victorinus, and Caius /Klinnus, .\u^'usliil Legates 
of the sixth legiou, victorious, pious, «ud fnithlul, on accouut of 
achisTcmcnts beyond the wall prosperously performed. 

The discoverer of this treasure was a labouring man 
who was hedging at the place, and cutting some fresh 
sods for an adjoining fence. On his spade coming in 
contact with this buried treasure, his wits were sorely 
tried as to how he could conceal them and convert 
them into real money. Often and often he paid a visit 
to this treasured angle, and bnre away some prize every 
time ; but one day he had tilled his pockets too full, 
and some of the coins were found hy his master on the 
barn floor at Cobble Hall, whore they were living. To 
his enquiries the man turned a deaf ear. But 
the master was a " vary canny Scotchman," and 
collected all the coin he could find, and throwing his 
plaid over his shouldere set off to the silversmith's at 
Carlisle to make as good a bargain as he could. When 
he oflered them he wa.s sadly crestfallen to find that the 
silversmith would not buy them, as he had already pur- 
chased at a good pi-ice more than he wanted ; and when 
he learned that they had all come from a place which 
he recognised as his own home, and brought by his 
own servant, he wended his way back again, and dis- 
missed his " fa'se and knavish loon of a servant." 

This parish forms part of the barony of Burgh be- 
longing to the Earl of Lonsdale. T. Denton says that 
it was for a while severed from Burgh, and made parcel 
of the barony of Levington, but afterwards was re- 
anncxed to Burgh. It is now nearly all freehold. The 
landowners are Mrs. Dorothy Norman, JNIrs. Catherine 
Norman, Rev. John Burton Norman, Mr. John Hind, 
Mrs. Ruth Graham, and the Misses Blamire. It is 
enclosed with the exception of 130 acres on the com- 
mon, which has just been divided under the Enclosure 
Acts, and will be enclosed in another year. 

The village of Kirkandrews is situated three miles 
west- north-west of Carlisle. 


The church which formerly stood here was dedicated 
to St. Andrew, from which the parish takes its name. 
No part of it is now in existence, nothing save the 
undulations in the green sward remain to show the site 
where it stood. There are some persons yet living who 
recollect the old chancel arch whicii remained for many 
years after the other portions of the church had been 
removed. It was used to perform the burial service 
under, and from what we can learn it was a Norman 
arch, and the church, in all probability would be in 
that stylo of architecture. BLshop Nicholson, in his 
Itinerary through this diocese iu a.d. 1703, savs. 
"Tho church here at Kirkandrews is quite demolished. 
Tho parishioners bury their dead iu the churchyard, 
and the late rector (Mr. Hume) lyes buried, sub Dio, 
in y" Quire; but tho divine service is at Beaumont, 



atout half a mile off. The parsonage-house is a long ' 
row of low buildings of clay, improved by the late 
incumbent, who also was at about £10 charges in 
walling in an orchard. The glebe is about four acres 
of good land. The value of this and Beaumont (jointly) 
not above £30. I moved the parishioners here to a 
compliance with the men of Beaumont, rather tlian 
run the hazard of being put upon the expence of re- 
pairing their own church; offering, that, towards the 
making all things the more easy to them, the old 
timber in that church should be brought for the 
improvement of the parsonage house here. They 
seemed to like the proposal well; and, I believe wiU 
peaceably comply. They have a tradition that the 
three little neighbouring churches (of this town, Beau- 
mont, and Grinsdale) were built by three sisters, who, 
I must say, were not too generous in subsisting their 
chaplains, I rather think they ha^-e been small oratories 
supplied by y* religious of Carlisle." This parish is 
still united with Beaumont in ecclesiastical matters, and 
the church in the latter place is used by the parishioners 
of Kirkandrews, precisely as if it stood in their own 
parish, contributing towards its repairs, &c. The 
advowson and right of presentation is in the hands of 
the Earl of Lonsdale, to whose family it has belonged 
since 109'^, when George Hume was presented to this 
living and that of Beaumont,^ on the anne.xation of the 
two parishes by Sir John Lowther, Bart. The present 
value of the living, which is a rectory, is £270. The 
great and small tithes of these united parishes were 
abolished by a private act of parliament, dated 14th 
June, 1827, and compensation in lieu thereof was made 
amounting in Kirkandrews to £57 3s. 3d., and in 
Beaumont to £134 2s. 9d. Previous to this time the 

1 The following have exercised the right of presentntion to this 
living :^The Prioress and Convent of Marrig, or Maryke, in York- 
shire, in 13G1; Queen Elizabeth, in 157G; Bishop May, in 1687; 
George Bumney, in 1611; and Sir John Lowther, in 1692. 

living was of very small value. It was augmented in 
1740, by a grant of £200 made by the governors of 
Queen Anne's Bounty, which in the year following was 
laid out in the purchase of two dweUing-houses, and 
out-buildings called Upper Town and seventy acres, part 
of a tenement called Dapley Moor in the parish of 
Stapleton. In 1772, land was purchased near Sedberg 
in Yorkshire with £400 (half of which was given by 
the Countess Dowager Gower,) to the value of £14 
per annum, but now let at £9 per annum. There are 
also about seven acres of good glebe, situate near the 
rectory at Kirkandrews. The paiish register com- 
mences in 1746, and is very imperfect at the commence- 

Eectors. — John Palmer, — ; John de Bampton, 1:361; 
Thomas Watson, — ; Christopher Lowther, 1578 ; William 
Witton, 1.587; George Millikin, 1011; Kichard 'VVilton, — ; 
George Hume, lOOi ; Gabriel Trant, who was schoolmaster at 
Lowther, 1703; Thomas Lewthwaite, 1705'; George Bowness, 
17C2 ; Richard Burn, the elder, 1780 ; Kichard Burn, the 
younger, 1811; William Benn, 1840; John Brown, 1852. 

There is a most excellent parsonage-house adjoining 
the churchyard which commands a beautiful view to 
the east and north over the rich and fertile vale of the 
Eden, whose winding course may be traced to a con- 
siderable distance. The house was erected in 1847 
by the Rev. Mr. Benn, rector, at a cost of £800, bor- 
rowed of the governors of Queen Anne's Bounty. It 
is a plain substantial building of brick, and the interior 
accommodation appears to have been more aimed at 
than any architectural beauty. 

There is a small school, with an endowment of £1 
18s. Cd. from Thomas Pattinson's Charity, for which 
two children are instructed free. It was erected in 
1817, by the contributions of the inhabitants of Kirk- 
andrews, Beaumont, and Grinsdale, and lias an average 
attendance of fifty children. 

1 His descendants are now receiving relief from this parish. 


This parish is bounded on the north by Burgh-upou-Sands, on the west by Aikton and Bowness, on the south 
by Aikton, and on the east by Burgb-upon-Sands and Orton. It comprises the townships of Bampton Great, 
Bampton Little, and Oughterby. The parish was surveyed for the purposes of the tithe commutation, and 
there are maps deposited in the different townships. The population, who are principally employed in agri- 
culture, are located in the villages of Kirkbampton, Little Bampton, and Oughterby, and the hamlets of Flat, 
Longrigg, Ploughlands, and Studholme, and a number of detached farm-houses. The state of the parish as to 
cleanliness and comfort is generally good, and as regards the village of Kirkbampton remarkably so. A con- 
siderable portion of the parish, viz., the lands near the three principal villages, consists of good vegetable 



earths, resting on gravelly clays ; another considerable portion consists of poor soils resting oa cold clays ; and 
there are some mossy lands. The soil varies much and abruptly, hence improvement has been effected of late 
years by draining. The residents here attend the Carlisle and Wigton markets, — chiefly the former. Almost 
all tliB parish is enclosed, but not under any Act of Parliament. The lands not enclosed are nearly all sub- 
divided, and assigned to their several owners. 


The township of Kirkbampton comprises an area of 
],20() acres, and its rateable value is about £1,178. 
The population in IHdl, was 149; in 1811, 175; in 
1821, 193; in 1831, 19'2 ; in 1S41, 193; and in IH.jl, 

The manor of Kirkbampton is within the barony 
of ]?urgh, and seems to have anciently included the 
whole parish. Its first recorded possessor was Hildred 
de Carlisle, who had his seat here in the reign of Henry 
II. After his death, it was divided by his descendants, 
Ilichard and Robert, children of his son Odard. In 
the year l'2i7, Eudo de Carlisle, tenant of Kirkbamp- 
ton, gave four carucates in Oughterby and Little 
Bampton to Walter de Bampton by fine, which by an 
inquisition takin in 1293 was valued to £20 land, and 
to be held of the manor of Burgh. Another part was 
lield in 195'2 by Eli/.abcth Montacuto, Countess of 
Salisbury, as of the inheritance of William Montacute, 
earl of Salisbury ; and in the same year Sir Brian 
Sta[)leton of Bedale in Yorkshire, held it (by purchase, 
as it appears) whose posterity sold it in the reign of 
Henry III. to the Uacres of Lanercost, whose son 
Christopher sold it in severalties to the tenants. In 
l.'jH'i, Thomas Brisby, gentleman, in consideration of 
L'300 conveyed to John Soutliaick, Esq. and Richard 
Tolson, their heirs and assignees, the manor or lordship 
of Little Bampton, which four years later was again 
sold to John Dalston, Esq., who sold it in the following 
year to the respective tenants. Some lands in this 
parish are held by Sir Wastcl Brisco, Bart. ; in respect 
of which courts are held at Orton. 

There seems to have been numerous defensive works 
in this parish, against the predatory incureions of the 
moss-troopers. The remains cf llie most considerable 
of these are situated south of Kirkbampton village, 
on a rising ground commanding an extensive view 
along the shores of the Solway. It consists of a strong 
enclosure covering more than an acre of ground. The 
greatest portion of it appeal's to have been defended 
by a double rampart of earth and a double ditch, the 
other portion, which probaldy was appended to the 
principal work, was surrounded by a single rampart and 
ditch. Tradition says that tho cattle of the district 
were driven to this place for protection, on tho 
appearance of tlic moss-troopors ; and, in consequence, 
•iO a 

the work is commonly ascribed to the time of these free- 
booters. The irregularity of the work favours this 
supposition, but the discovery of a stone, with the 
following Latin inscription on it, in the adjoining 
field, in the year 1843, seems to connect the Romans 
with this locality. 




VES. (Kest defaced.) 

Further examination may probably establish a con- 
nection between this and works of a similar character in 
the neighbourhood ; or, at all events, may show that a 
Hue of defence, consisting of an earthen rampart and a 
ditch, extended from it to a considerable distance, as 
they can be clearly traced in the adjoining field, which 
is called " Foldsteads." Not far from this a notorious 
moss-troojier, caUed Boothill, was killed in a singular 
manner. He was found asleep on the ground, by a 
person of Ivii-kbamptou, called Hody, who, determined 
not to let the opportunity slip of freeing himself and 
neighbours of a formidable enemy, coolly drew the free- 
booter's sword out of its scabbard, and with it severed 
his head from his body. The Scot lies buried in Kirk- 
bampton church-yard, and his grave is covered with a 
stone, on which is engraved a sword. 

No feasts or wakes are at present observed in this 
parish ; formerly, it is said, there was annually a bon- 
fire near Kirkbampton. It is stated to have been on 
the evening of the day before ^Midsummer Day, but it 
was probably in reality on the eve of St. John the 
Baptist's day. The children and young people ran 
through the flames and smoke of the bonfire, singing, 
" awake, awake, for Sin Gal's (St John's) sake." 

The village of Kirkbampton is pleasantly situated 
about six miles west of Carlisle, and seven north-north- 
east of Wigton, and commands beautiful and extensive 
views of the surrounding country. 

TUB cucncn. 
Kirkbampton church, dedicated to St. Peter, is an 
ancient structure, the great arch and doorway of which 
are in tho Saxon stylo : within tho latter there is a 
rudely-sculptured bas-relief, representing two animals, 
and wliat seems to have been designed for an abbot. 
Tho benefice, which is a rectory, valued ia the King's 
Book at JElt 17s. lid., pays a pension of 3s. Id. to 



the Bishop of Carlisle. A moiety of tho rectory was 
given in the roigii of Henry 11. by Adam, son of Kobcrt, 
to the hospital of St. Nicholas at Carlisle, and is now 
held by the dean and chapter. The right of presen- 
tation to the second moiet)', long called the rectory of 
Kirkbamptou (the other moiety having no concern with 
the cure) has been disputed ever since the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth. There were then three claimants, 
Cuthbert Musgrave, Esq., William Brisco, Esq., and 
Christopher Dacre, Esq. In 1710 those famihes joined 
in a presentation. In ITIO, on the death of the Rev. 
Thomas Story, who bad held the incumbency for si.v 
years, and who is said to have buried every one of the 
parishioners who were living at the time of his induc- 
tion. Henry Viscount Lonsdale presented die Rev. 
Michael Burn, who died in 1786, after which the living 
seems to have been vacant for some years, owing to the 
disputes regarding the right of presentation. Ulti- 
mately the Rev. John ^^'heatley was presented by the 
Earl of Lonsdale ; and since that period the advowson 
is understood to he jointly in the Earl of Lonsdale and 
Sir Wastel Brisco, Bart. The living was augmented 
some years ago by £1.52 10s. 4d. from the " Parlia- 
mentary Fund," reduced three-per-cents, now yielding 
a half yearly dividend of £6 15s. 9d., so that the benefice 
is now worth about £100 per annum, including seven 
acres, three roods, twenty ferches of glebe. The tithes 
were commated in 1840 for a yearly rent-charge of 
i£9-l 4s., viz., Kirkbampton township £16 8s. Id.; 
Little Bampton, £67 Ss. 8d. ; and Oughterby. £10 
6s. 3d. A rent-charge of £38 6s. 6d. was awarded in 
lieu of the moiety of the great tithes of Little Bampton, 
which formerly belonged to the dean and chapter of 
Carlisle. This rent-charge was transferred with the 
capitular estates to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, 
who have bought the lease of James Losh, Esq., and 
who are in consequence in full possession thereof. The 
parish register commences in the year 1005. 

EECTons.— Walter de Balyter, ; John de Culgajth, 1235 ; 

John Grainger, 1341; John de Appleby, ; William de 

Appleby, 1.343 ; Thomas dc Bampton, 13r)n ; John de Thornton, 
; Robert de Gayton, 13(!1 ; Kicli.ird Damysell, ; Wil- 
liam de Cressop, 1307 ; Edward Mitchell, ; John Aketon, 

1561 ; Roland Hauxbie, 1580 ; Joseph Lowden, 1598; Cuthbert 

Eoper, 1610; Robert Brown, ; Otho Polewheele, 1C39; 

John Bell, ; Thomas Story, KiiH; Michael Burn, 1740;' 

John Wheatley, 1705 ; Joseph Stordy, 1809; Robert FaUowfield, 
1835 ; Wilham rattinson, M.A., 1845. 

^ In consequence of tile disputes about ihc risht of presentation, 
no rector nppears to have been Appointed from 174il to 179.J, during 
■which period we fjnd the foUowins; curates : — George Rickerby, offi- 
ciating minister from 1786 to 17S9; Thomas Shepherd, curate from 
17S9 to 1808; George Eickcrhy, curate 1808-9. The Kev. John 
Wheatley, when rector, was non-resident. 

There is a neat rectory, but the date of its erection 
is not known. 

There is a parish school here, as also a Sunday 
school, the latter of which is supported by vultuitary 
contributions, and is attended by about fifty children. 

Haverlands House and Bank House (the last name 
is applied to the neighbouring detached houses) arc in 
this township. 

Longrigg is a hamlet in this township about a mile 
west of the village of Kirkbamptou. The lands here 
and in some other parts of the parish are iu the lord- 
ship of the rector. 

Flat is another hamlet one and a half miles south- 
east of the village. 


Little Bampton township contains 1,337 acres, and 
its rateable value is £9'^9. The number of its inhabi- 
tants in 1801 was 190; in 1811, 176; in 1821, 172 ; 
iu 1831, 213 ; in 1841, 212 ; and in 1851, 210. This 
manor formed originally a part of the manor of Kirk- 
bampton ; but in 1227 Eudo de Carlisle gave four 
carucates of land here and in Oughterby to Walter de 
Bampton by fine, which by an inquisition taken in 
1295, were found to be worth £20, and to be held of 
the barony of Burgh. Tliis esfcite appears to have 
passed to the Musgraves of Crookdake, the coheiresses 
of which family enfranchised the lands. We find also, 
that in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Thomas Brisley 
conveyed an estate called the manor of Ijittle Bampton, 
to Messrs. Southaick and Tolson ; tho latter conveyed it 
to John Dalston, Esq., by whom it was sold in severalty 
to the tenants. 

The village of Little Bampton is situ.itcd two-and-a- 
half miles west-south-west of Kirkbampton, and five 
miles north of Wigton. There is a spring on the edge 
of Little Bampton Moss, the waters of which arc col- 
lected in a well, and are used for the dressing of sores, 
being considered to have a healing power. New 
Bampton, Westfield House, Windmill House, and The 
Building are single houses having particular names in 
this township. 

Ploughlands is a hamlet in the township of Little 


The area of this township is 905 acres, and its rate- 
able value £700. In 1801 it contained 117 inhabi- 
tants; in 1811, 107; in 1821, 105 ; in 1831, 118; in 
1841, 131; and in 1851, 116. 

The village of Oughterby is one mile south-west of 
the parish church, and si.x miles north-east of Wigton. 



The Rev. AVilliam Hodson, D.D., fellow, tutor, and 
finally master of St. Peter's College, Cambridge, was 
born here. He died in lS-17. 

Studholme is a hamlet in this township three miles 

west of the village of Kirkbampton, and is separated 
from the rest of the township by the hamlets of Plough- 
lands and Lougrigg and their lands. 


The parish of Ortou is bounded by those of St. ilary, Burgh-on-Sands, Kirkbampton, Kirkandrews, Aikton, 
Thursby, and Dalston. It comprises the townships of Great Orton and Baldwin Holme, whose united area is 
4,277 acres. The soil is chiefly clayey with a mixture of gravel; several attempts have been made to discover 
coal here, but without success. The rateable value of the parish is £!2,580. 

holden of Edward Musgrave, gentleman, as of his 


The population of this township in 1801 was 173 ; 
in 1811, 2U.5 ; in 1821, 208 ; in 1831, 210 ; in 1841, 
204 ; and in 1851, 285. They are principally engaged 
in agriculture, and attend the Wigtoa and Carlisle 

The manor of Orton, held under that of Levington, 
belonged at an early period to a family to whom it gave 
name. The first of the name that is recorded is Simou 
de Orton, who had issue Alan, and received from 
Henry III. a grant of free warren in Orton. He was 
succeeded by John, his son, to whom was granted, in 
1310,' a license for making a park here. John de 
Ortou was succeeded by his son Giles, whose daughter 
and heir Joan was married to Sir Clement de Skelton, 
who by her had four daughters, coheirs, one named 
Agues, married to one of the Leighs of Isell, another 
to a member of the family of Bcllasis, a third to one 
of the RiJleys, and the fourth to a Blennerhassot. The 
manor was thereupon divided into three parts, which 
came into tlie possession of the Leigh, Ridley, and Bleu- 
nerhasset families; and the land was charged with a rent 
of £8 to Bellasis, who sold the same to a Mr. Coldale, 
a merchant in Carlisle, and it afterwards came by 
marriage to a younger branch of the Briscos. Sub- 
sequently John Brisco purcliased Leigh's part of Wil- 
frid Lawson and Maud his wife, and of Thomas Blenner- 
hassot the other portion. Accordingly, iu 1588, it was 
found by an in(iuisitioii that " William Brisco, of 
Crofton, son of the .said John, died seised of the niauor 
of Orton, with 20 messuages, 400 acres of land, 40 acres 
of meadow, 200 acres of common, 100 acres of wood, 
in Orton aforesaid, together with the donation and 
right of patronage of two parts iu throe to be divided 
of the parish church of the aforesaid manor of Orton, 

'Cart Hot. 14 Kdwnr.l 111. .13. Wlicii .liilin dc Orton was called 
upon lo prove his riRlu to free warrtii in 11100, lie ollcgcd tliat lliis 
charter wns ileslrnyid wlien the town of Orion was biiriil Ijy tlio 
Soots. The claiiu was not allowed. tjuo Warranto lloll, M 
Edward I. 

manor of Levington, by two parts of one knight's fee. 
And that the third jiart of the said manor of Orton, late 
the inheritance of Nicholas Ridley, Esq., deceased, and 
all and every the messuages, lands, tenements, and 
hereditaments, to the said third part belonging, were 
holden of the queen in capite by the service of the 
third part of one knight's fee ; aud that the said two 
parts were worth by the year above reprizes £5 Cs. 8d., 
and the said third part £2 13s. 4J." Not long after 
Ridley's portion came into the same family by purchase. 
For in 1023, John Brisco, son of the William above 
mentioned, claimed the entire patronage, which being 
appendant to the manor, was, when it was severed and 
divided into three parts, enjoyed alternately by all the 
three ; but ever since that time it has remained in the 
Brisco family, and is now enjoyed by Sir Wastel Brisco, 
the present lord of the manor, who holds a court here 
annually, and receives about £40 a year as lord's rent. 

The manor of Wiggouby, iu this parish, long ago anni- 
hilated, belonged to the Ortons, and was divided among 
their representatives. The principal landowners iu the 
township are Sir Wastel Brisco, Bart. ; Messrs. George 
Robinson, George Blaylock, William Lowther, John 
Storily, the trustees of the late John ]Mooiv, Thomas 
Wannop, William Nixon, and Thomas Norman. 

The village of Orton is five miles west-by-south of 
Carlisle. L'rom an adjacent enclosure called Parson's 
Thorn, no fewer than fifteen churches may be seen in 
Cumberland, and several iu Scotlnnd, with beautiful 
views of Carlisle, Gretna, and many other places. 
Eroin the many Roman causeways and other foundations 
which have been from time to time dug up near the 
village, it is evident that Ortou was at one time u place 
of some consequence, and most probably a market town. 
At the CNtroniity of a lann that extends 300 yards 
northward of the village, is a large foss or double ditch, 
where an iron chain went across the road, and was 
locked every night, called Barniss Gate, made as a 
defence against the frequent incursions of the Scots or 



Moss Troopers. The entrance from the cast had a 
similar defence, and the whole parish was surrounded 
with a ditch and an embankment, called the Ringfeuce, 
within which was found several years ago, a very curious 
and neat sandal, buried in the peat moss. Tradition 
says, that on one occasion, a trooper, while reconnoi- 
tring near Barrass Gate, was nailed to his saddle by 
an arrow discharged from a great distance by a yeomau 
of the name of Wilson. 


Orton church, an ancient structure, situated near the 

centre of the parish, is dedicated to St. • 

The living, a rectory in the patronage of Sir Wastel 
Brisco, Bart., is valued in the King's Book at £'9. In 
1795 it was valued at £140, and is now worth about 
£370, including seventy acres of glebe land. The tithes 
have been commuted. The parish register commences 
in 1509. 

Rectors. — John, 1303 ; John de Whitrigg, 1337 ; 'William Je 
Artliureth, 1337; Richard de Langworthy, 1371!; Thomas de 
Eaughton, U07; Richard Place, — ; Leonard Lowther, 1578; 
William Mey, 1585; Mr. Burton, 1043; John Rearson, 1005; 
Gaven Noble, — ; Rowland Noble, 1603; David Bell, 1709; 
John Brisco, 1730; William Taylor, 1771; James Brisco, 177? ; 
John Mason, 1825 ; Robert Peiirson, 1845 ; Frederick Paget 
Wilkinson, 1857. 

The parish school is a stone building, situated 
near the church, and has an average attendance of 
forty children. The master receives £3 17s. 6d., the 
interest of £100, left by Thomas Pattinson, in 1785, 
for which eight children are taught at half the usual 
quarterage.' About a mile from Orton is another school, 
built in 1830. New schools are just about being built 
by Sir Wastel Brisco, on a beautiful site, at the south 
entrance to the village. 

Bishop Nicolson was a native of this parish ; an 
outline of his life will be found in the annals of the 
Bishop of Carlisle, page 111. 

Eichard Di.xon was master of Orton school for nearly 
fifty years, and styled himself " Happy Dick," an appel- 
1 See Bowness parish page 160. 

lation which was ever afterwards bestowed upon him by 
the parishioners, most of whom he educated. He died 
in 1811, and his long and faithful life is commemorated 
by tlie following inscription on his tomb : — 

" Seven times seven years he taught this school, 
And canvassed many a tedious rule ; 
Five times seven years, as you may marl:, 
He served here as parish clerk. 
He was a just and upright man, 
As far as we his life could scan, 
And now he rests beneath this clod, 
Till called upon to meet his God." 

Bow is a hamlet iu this townsliip, one and a half miles 
north of the village. 

B.\L15\V1X HOLME. 

The number of inhabitants in this township in 1801 
was 203; in 1811, 217; in 1821, 234; in 1831, 235; 
in ISil, 278; and in 1851, 234. The soil here is 
similar to that of Groat Orton, clayey with a mi.\ture of 
gravel. Baldwin Holme forms part of the manor of 
Orton, and as such its manorial rights and privileges 
are possessed by Sir Wastel Brisco, Bart. The princi- 
pal landowners are Sir Wastel Brisco, Bart. ; Messrs. 
Twentyman, James Hayes, Mrs. Pattison, John Hind, 
Robert Blamire, John Newton, Mrs. Bowes, Joseph 
Railton, Robert Story, Joseph Wood, John Mc. Knight, 
and Arthur Westmoreland. 

The hamlet of Baldwin Holme is one and a half miles 
south-by-east of Great Orton. Baldwin Holme is not 
far from the line of the ancient Roman road from 
Lugubalia, Carlisle, to Olenacum, Old Carlisle. The 
other hamlets are Little Orton, one and a half miles 
north-east ; Orton Rigg, one mile south, and AVood 
Houses, one and a half miles south of the same place. 
Hylton Castle, about two and a half miles south-east of 
Orton, is also in this township. It is an elegant man- 
sion, erected a few years ago by Sir, Wastel Brisco, 
Bart., for his son, Hylton Brisco, Esq., an officer in the 
army. Near to Little Orton is a spring of excellent 
water, never known to run drv. 


RocKLiFFF. parish is bounded on the north by the estuary of the rivers Esk and Line, on the west by the Solway 
Frith, on the south by the river Eden and StaQwi.ic parish, and on the east by Kirklinton parish iu Eskdale Ward. 
The name is derived from the conspicuous red sandstone clifif on which the village stands. It was anciently written 
Routheclive, and sometimes Redeclive. 


The manor of Rockliffe, which was coextensive with 
the parish, was anciently a fee or appendage of the 
Barony of Burgh, though not within the boundary of 
that barony. It was granted by Hugh de Morvill, 

baron of Burgh, in the reign of Henry II., to John de 
Routheclive ; to hold of his Barony of Burgh by render 
of homage, service, and 2s. rent. William de Routhe- 
clive, sou of John, iu the year 1205 sold and conveyed 



the ' Vill of rioutlieclive ' to IlaJulf do Braj-, wlio wivs 
one of the king's maishalls for England. He granted 
the rector}' to John, prior of Saint Wary's, in Carlisle, 
who appropriated the sumo to the Prior}'. Richard do 
Bray, sou of lladulf, had an only child, Matilda, who 
married William de llardreshull. In the 33rd year of 
Henry III., W. do Hardrcshull and Matilda his wifo 
(with the concurrence of John do Ladbrook and Joan 
his wife, which Joan was widow and dowress of Richard 
de Bray) conveyed the manor to John le Fraunceis. To 
hiui succeeded (Jilbert le Fraunceis, who died in 1278, 
leaving a son Richard, aged sixteen years. A dispute 
ensued concerning the wardship of this manor. Tho- 
mas deMulton, baron of Oillesland and Burgh, claimed 
it in virtue of Rocldiffe being held of his barony of 
Burgh. The crown claimed on an assertion that the 
manor was held of the king in capite. A writ of diem 
dausit crtreinwn was issued, and an inquisition found 
that the manor was held of Multon, by payment of 2s. 
rent, and by payment of 13d. cornage to the king's 
exchequer at Carlisle. How this cornage payment arose 
it does not appear. Meantime, Michael dc Herclatook 
possession of the minor, and married him to his 
daughter: in consequence of which the king seized 
Michael's lauds and lined him. The real name of this 
family was Vernoun — Fraunceis, or Francigena being an 
appellation given in consequence of their French origin, 
as Denton says. Thus, in the 18th year of Edward I., 
Richard Venioun surrendered the mauor to the king — 
and in the 22nd Edward I. took a fresh grant of it to 
himself for life, with remainder to his son Richard and 
Alienor his wife, and the heirs of their bodies, remain- 
der to the heirs of Richard in fee. Isabella, daughter 
and heiress, carried it in marriage to Thomas Dauyell, 
who died 13l!(, leaving an infant daughter, Margaret, 
wlio afLerwards married John de Radclill'. In 1308, 
they created an entail of the property on collaterals, 
having then no issue themselves. It was subsequently 
sold by a RudclilY to the Daeres ; and so became re- 
united to the barony of Burgh. The precise date of 
this reunion does not appear, but it certainly was in 
possession of Ranulf Lord Dacre in 1400. Camden 
informs us that here was " a little ca.stle built not long 
since by the Daeres for their own private defence." It 
stood on the cliff, commanding a fine view of the Scot- 
tisli border, and was admirably placed as an outpost for 
the defence of Burgh against the Scots. It was seized 
and garrisoned by Leonard Dacre, on his rebellion in 
1500, and soon afterwards demolished. Nothing remains 
of it save some foundations. On tho partition of the 
Dacre csUtes RocklllVu fell to tlie Countess of Arundel, 
and from her lo the I>uke of Norfolk. The castle and 

demesnes, and most part of the customary tenements, 
were sold, in 1082, by the Duke, to the Rev. Charles 
Usher, a descendant of Archbisliop Usher, who erected 
a mansion on the site of the castle. His granddaughter, 
Madam Usher, in 1745, was there residing, and is said 
to have been visited there by the young Pretender, 
Charles Edward, who, with the Highland elans, crossed 
the river Eden at Rocklill'e, on their march to Carhsle. 
Mrs. Usher devised to AVilliam Strong, Esq., who, in 
1700, enfranchised most of the customary estates, and 
his descendant sold the demesnes and remaining cus- 
tomary tenements to Robert Mounsey, Esq. 

The village of Rockliffe occupies a pleasant situation 
on a long cliff above the Eden, live miles north-north- 
west of Carlisle, and commands a beautiful view of the 
surrounding country. A little below the village, within 
reach of the tide, there is a remarkable mineral spring ; 
there is another in one of the farmyards. 

The parish contains two townships, viz., Rockliffe 
Castletown and Rockliffe Churchtown; but for all prac- 
tical purposes of rating, maintenance of poor, highways, 
&c., they are conjoint. 


The population of this township in 1801 was 296; 
in 1811, 338 ; in 1821, 360 ; in 1831, 422 ; in 1841, 
471 ; and in 1851, 400. Its area is 5,225 statute acres, 
and its rateable value £2,289. The principal landowners 
are, George G. Mounsey, Esq. : Rev. John Hodgson ; 
the Misses Lowry ; Jlrs. Skelton, John Nixon, and 
Robert and WiUiam Edgar. The soil in tho neighbour- 
hood of the Eden is a rich, with a large extent of 
alluvial salt marsh ; in other parts there is arable land 
of a cold clay description, and also of black peat soil. 
The Caledonian railway runs through this township. 

At Castletown is the mansion of ( ieorge Gill Mounsey, 
Esq., beautifully situated on the north bank of the Eden, 
and surrounded with woods, shrubberies, &c. 

^ounscn of C'jstlctolnit. 
The Eev. Robert Mounsey, perpctunl curate of Ravcnstone- 
(lale, CO. Westmoreland (son of Gcorgo .Mounsey, of Ilullondale, 
'Wostmorcliind), married Mary Winter, of Tebay, in tlio same 
cour.ty, and Inid issue, 

Geohqe; liuliri, of London ; Moiy Elizabeth ; and Anne. 
Tho older son, 

Geoiuie Mot'NSKV, Kaq., of Carlisle, married, in 1753, Mar- 
garet, daughter of John Stephenson, of Carlisle, and b; her (who 
died INOT) had issue, 

I. (icorgo Stephenson, majcir I'.. I. Co.'g service, 
n. HoiiEiiT, of whom presently, 
in. .lohn, who diet) ninniirried. 

IV. William, po:jt-cai)tuin It.N. 

V, Thomas. 

VI Ilenrj', of London, died unmarried, 
vn. James, married Amic £warl. 



I. Barbarn, mnnied ti Tliomas Ramshor, of Nnworth. 

II. Jlarv, died unmarried. 

III. Margaret, married to James Duudas. 
IT. Elizabeth, married to John Gray. 

T. Ann, died unmarried. 

TI. Dorothea, married to Christopher Thomhill. 

The second son, 

KoBEBT Mou.vsKY, of Rockliffe Castletown, married aSrd 
November, 178!), Mary, dangliler of Captain Joseph Gill, and 
by her (who died 1811)) had issue, 

I. Georoe Gill, his heir, now of Castletown. 

It. William Henry, lute cuiU. 4lh lugt. liifuutry. 

I. Margaret. 

II. Juliana, married to Joliu Lambert, Esq., of Alnwick. 

III. Mary, died umnnrried. 

IV. Anna, married to 'i'homas Brown, Esq. 
T. Elizabeth. 

Mr. Mounsey died aCth July, 1812, and was succeeded by 

Geokge Gu.l MofxsEY, of KockhfTo Castletown, born 27th 
May, 1797, married (Jth September, l'<a7, to Isabella, daughter 
of John Heysbam, M.D., and by her (who died lllh Jlay, 1618) 
has issue, 

I. EoDERT HEVSH.1M, bom 20ih July, 1828. 

II. George William, born Ikd .\pril, 1H31. 

III. John Giles, bom 22nd .\ugust, I8:!2. 

rv. Augustus Henry, born 27lh .\ugU5t, 1834. 

V. Charles James, born l.'Uli Deeember, 1830. 
I. Elizabeth Mary, died Uth Jmie, 18DG. 

u. Isabella Dorothea. 

Arms — Chequy, or aud gu ; on a chief of the second, three mullets 
of the CrsL 

Crest — A demi-grifSn, with a wreath of oak round the neck, and 
bearing, with three claws, a banner, erect. 

Motto — Semper paratus. 

Redhill, Floristown, Garistown, Cross, Croft End, 
Tod Hills, and Wcthcral, are hamlets scattered over this 
township at various distances from Rockliffe Church. 


This township contains 1,847 acres, and its rateable 
value is £1,001. Its population in 1801 was 222 ; in 
1811, 2.^0; in 1821, 302; in 1S31, 403; in 1841, 
853 ; and in 1851, 535. The soil is rich and loamy 
near the Eden. The Caledonian railway intersects the 
township, and there is a station within half a mile, or 
thereabouts, of the village. 


The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a small but 
neat structure of hewn stone, in the Decorated style, 
erected in 1848 at a cost of £'1,400, raised partly by 
subscription, but chiefly by the liberality of George 
Gill Mounsey, Esq., of Castletown. It consists of 
nave, chancel, north transept, and a handsome spire at 
the south-west comer. The windows are filled witli 
stained glass, of beautiful colours and design. The 
eastern window contains the Crucifi;don, Resurrection, 
and Ascension, while the west one contains figures of 
the Blessed Virgin, St. Peter, and St. Paul. The 
church contains sittings for 170 persons, the whole of 

which arc free and unappropriated. The benefice is 
now a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the dean 
aud chapter of Carlisle, to whom, on the dissolution of 
the priory, the appropriate rectory was granted by Henry 
Till. It is worth about £100 per annum, arising from 
Queen Anne's Bounty and a money payment by the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners, in whom the tithes of 
the parish (commuted for a rent charge of £294) are 
now vested. There is no glebe nor house of residence. 

Ikcohbents. — William Robinson, 1751; Jeremiah Reed, 1780; 
George Topping, 1833. Previously to 1751 it seems not to havo 
been a benefice, but a mere curacy under tlie dean and chapter 
of Carlisle. 

There is no parochial school. A school is maintained 
by Mr. Mounsey capable of accommodating seventy 
scholars ; the average attendance is about sixty. 


Grii'f^on's Gift. — Mr. John Grierson, about a cen- 
tury ago, left the sum of 20s., payable yearly out of his 
lease of the tithes of Rickerby, in the parish of StanwLx, 
to be distributed weekly in bread to poor persons in this 
parish. This payment was reguliu'ly made, and seven 
penny loaves given away every Sunday, until the lapse 
of the lease within a short time past, when it was lost. 

Usher's Gift. — Mrs. Hannah Usher, by her will, 
dated 24th September, 1747, gave to the minister and 
churchwardens of Rockliffe £20, the interest to be dis- 
tributed yearly amongst poor housekeepers. This 
money is in Mr. Mounsey 's hands, aud 20s. are yearly 
distributed according to the bequest. 

Harker is a hamlet in this township, situated at the 
eastern extremity of the parish, three miles norlh-by- 
west of Carlisle. 

Harker Lodge is the seat of Richard Ferguson, Esq. 

;J[trguso:t of ^^arlitr ^.-obgt. 

RlCH.iHD Fep-OVson, grandfather of the present possessor of 
Harker Lodge, left, by Mary his wife, a daughter, Mary, and live 
sons, viz. : 

John, Bichard, Robebt, Joseph, aud George. 
Of these, the third, 

RoBEKT Ferguson, of Carlisle, married 27th December, 1782, 
Anne, daughter of John Wood, of Maryport, and liad issue, 

I. Richard, now of Harker Lodge. 

II. John, died 8th December, 1829. 

III. Joseph, married Maria Isabella, daughter of John Clarke, 
Esq., of Bfbside, co. Northumberland, and has issue, 

John, Robert, Joseph Selby, Richard WilUam, Elizabeth, and 
ilaria Isabella. 

I. Mary. 

II. Sarah, married to George Hem-y Hewit, Esq., of Burgh. 

III. Elizabeth. 

Mr. Ferguson died Ilth November, 1810, and was succeeded by 
his eldest son, 

KiCHAKD Ferousos, Esq., J.P. and D.L., born 20th May, 



17H1; high sheriff in Im.!'); married 25th Jlay, J 809, Margaret, 
third daughter of Captain William Giles. 

Cretl — A (lemi lion, holding in its paw a thistle, ppr. 

Motto — Miirte el arte. 

The Hill, three miles north of Carlisle, is the seat 
of Sir James Robert Grant, Knt., inspector-general of 
army hospitals. 

The principal landowners in this township are George 
Gill Mounsey, Esq.; Sir James Grant ; Richard Fer- 
guson, Esq.; Edmund Graham, Esq.; Rev. M.James; 
Mrs. Twcntymau ; and Mr. J. Donald. 


This parish is bounded on the north and north-west by the parishes of Scaleby, Kirklinton, and Rockliffe ; on the 
south by the river Eden; and on the east by Crosby-upon-Eden and Warwick. It is divided into the towu.ships of 
Cargo, Etterby, Houghton, Linstock, Kickcrby, Stainton, Stanwi.x, and Tarraby. A survey with a map or plan has 
been made for the purpose of tithe commutation, and other parochial purposes ; the plan is deposited in the 
parish church. The inhabitants, who are located in the villages, and in single houses here and there scattered 
over the parish, are generally employed in agriculture, and are industrious and cleanly in their habits, and 
comfortable. The quality of the soil is vnrious, some of it being verj- good, some of middling quality, and a portion 
much inferior, iluch of it rests upon a clay subsoil, and is well adapted for the growth of wheat and other grain ; a 
considerable portion, especially near the river Eden, is a rich loam, naturally dry, a part of which consists of excellent 
permanent pasture ; in other p.irts of the parish the soil is poor, a portion being black soil, resting upon a poor sandy 
or gravelly moorband. The land is generaUy well cultivated and very productive, and along the banks of the Eden, 
and to some distance backward is extremely rich and beautiful, the views from different points being highly 
picturesque and interesting. The Caledonian railway passes through the parish. Carlisle being close at hand, 
the inhabitants attend that market town. 

The Roman Wall and Vallum passed through this parish, entering it on the north-east at Walby, in the 
parish of Crosby-upon-Eden, and running in a south-west direction through the townships of Linstock, Tarraby, 
and Stanwix, where they cross the river Eden. In many places their site, with the ditch, can be distinctly traced : 
the latter passing through the farmyard of Drawdykes, while the former runs along the ridge of high ground to the 
north of the other. A Roman road, or trackway, can be traced running parallel to the Wall, a few hundred yards to 
the south. There was a Roman station at Stanwix. Several Roman monuments have been found, which have been 
described by different antiquaries; amongst others one built in the garden waU of Drawdykes Castle. Another has 
very recently been brought to light in making a doorway between the farmhouse and the castle, where, on removing 
the plaster from the wall, a stone with a Roman inscription was found built into the wall, but no reading of the 
inscription has as yet been given, it having been discovered so very lately. 

of the city reside. "The church and churchyard," says 


This township comprises an ai'ca of 125 acres, and 
its rateable value is £'3,0"25. The number of its inha- 
bitanU in 1*^01 was .337; in 1811, 400; in 1821, 400; 
in 1831, 51.'>; in 1841, 780; and in 1851, 882. 

Stauwi.x is parcel of the manor of the socage of the 
castle of Carlisle, and the lands are all freehold. The 
principal landowners are the Duke of Devonshire, Cap- 
tiin Watts, Richard Ferguson, Esq., and George H. 
Head, Esq. 

The village of Stanwix is delightfully situated on 
the north bank of the Eden, across which there is a 
line stone bridge, connecting it with CarUslc, of which 
it may be considered as forming a largo and populous 
suburb. It contains scvend well-built houses and ter- 
races, where several of the merchants and tradespeople 

Collingwood Bruce, " oecupj' the site of the station 
which guarded the northern bank of the Eden. Recent 
explorations have displayed distinct remains of ancient 
edifices. In pulling down tlie old church, to make way 
for the present structure, a very fine figure of Victory, 
somewhat mutilated, was disclosed, which is now in the 
museum at Xewcistle-upon-Tyne. The name of the 
place indicates that, whilst the dwellings in the vicinity 
were made of clay, as many of them are yet. by reason 
of the plunder of the Roman station, it could boast of 
being a town of stones. The situation is one of great 
beauty. To the east, at a considerable distance, the 
Nine-nicks of Thirlwall rear their rugged peaks ; and 
to the south and south-cast appear the beautiful grounds 
of Rickcrby House, the river Eden permeating a rich 



and well-woodeil countiy, tlie ancient city of Carlisle 
crowned with its venerable cathedral, and the long vista 
of country terminating in the Cumbrian mountains. 
Between the station and the north bank of the Eden, 
the fosse of the Wall is distinctly marked, and a hollow 
line, formed by the excavation of the foundation of the 
Wall itself, shows its track to the water's edge, near to 
the Hyssop Holme Well. We are told by Camden 
'that the Wall passed the river over against the castle, 
where, in the very channel, the remains of it, namely, 
the great stones, appear to this day.' That the Wall 
on the other side of the river clambered up that part of 
the castle bank which projects most boldly forward, 
is rendered probable by the appearance of masonry, 
resembling its foundations, beneath the grassy surface. 
At this point, however, we lose all sight of the great 
structure, until we get beyond the boundaries of the 
famous border city of the west." ' 


The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is a cruciform 
structure, in the Early English style, consisting of 
nave, aisles, transept, chancel ornamented with crosses, 
and fine tower surmounted with pinnacles. It was 
erected by subscription in 18-11, at a cost of £'3,030, 
including about £'300 for an organ, and occupies the 
site of the old parish church, which was huilt on the 
place, and partly out of the ruins of the Roman station 
of Congavata. On the 51st December, 1843, the 
church was partially burnt; and the pews, windows, 
and organ, were completely destroyed. It was insured 
for £000, which, with flDO collected by subscription, 
were expended on its renovation, and in the purchase 
of its present large and splendid organ, built by 
Hill, of London, which is considered one of the 
finest in the north of England. The eastern window 
is filled with stained glass, containing figures of our 
Saviour, St. Michael, and St. John the Evangelist. 
The tower contains a fine clock, with three dials, pre- 
sented by Richard Ferguson, Esq., of Harker Lodge. 
The church will accommodate about 800 pereons. The 
living is a vicarage, valued in the King's Book at £0, 
but now worth about £300 a-year, including £51 Cs. 8d. 
from the bishop and dean and chapter, Easter dues, &c. 
The tithes were commuted in 1840 for a rent-charge of 

1 About three yenrs ago, in cutting the main sewer for the Carlisle 
sewerage worlis, tlie worlimen came upon the foundation of the 
Roman Walt, in the low gromul, between where it crosses to the west 
of Sianwix and the high ground to the west of Carlisle castle, known 
by the name of Davidson's Banks, and in a straight line with the 
foundation of ilie Wall at Stanwix. As this is a considerable dis- 
tance to the north of the castle, this takes away the supposition 
" that the Wall on the other side of the river clambered up that part 
the castle bank which projects most boldly forward." 

£000 a-year. The benefice was formerly a rectory ; but 
being given by Waller, chaplain to Henry I., to the 
prior and convent of Carlisle, was soon afterwards ap- 
propriated thereto; and the corn tithes have been shared 
between the dean and chapter and the bishop, the latter 
of whom appoints the vicar. The parish register com- 
mences in 1650. 

VicAits.— AJam, 1300; Gilbert de Derlyngton, 1.300 ; John He 

Appleby, ; Thomas Hagg, I-IIU; Ricliaid de Caldbeck, 

; Richard de .islacby, 1308 ; Thomas de CiiUerdone, 1359 ; 

William Bjx, lifi5; Thomas Best, 1473; Edward Rothion, 

1477; Thomas Boyet, 1487; Henry Brown, ; Richard 

Phayer, 1577; Mark Edgar, 1579; John Braythwaitc, 1585; 
Thomas Langhorn, ICOi ; John Robinson, 1014; John Jackson, 

; Robert Brown, 1025; Richard Welshman, 1039; George 

Buchanan, 1001; Henry Marshall, 1000; Jeremiah Nelson, 
1007; John Tomlinson, 1070; Hugh Todd, 1085; Nathaniel 
Spooner, 1068 ; George Fleming, 17U3; Thomas Benson, 1705; 
John Waugh, 1727; James Farish, 1705; William Paley, 1793; 
John Farrar, 1795; Joseph Hudson, 1808; Thomas Wilkinson, 

The vicarage house, erected about thirty years ago, 
is pleasantly situated adjoining the churchyard. 

There arc two schools here, one erected in 1846, the 
other iu 1855. There are eight pupil teachers. In 
one school there are about iiOO children in average 
attendance, in the other about 00. 

There is a reading-room in the village, which is sup- 
ported by about 70 members, and possesses a library of 
about 70:) volumes. 

Here is a Reformatory for boys convicted of petty 
theft, which is open to criminals from the counties of 
Cumberland, Westmoreland, Lancashire, and the North 
Riding of Yorkshire. It was established in 1854 by 
George H. Head, Esq., of Eickerby House, by whom it 
is entirely supported. The boys work eight and a half 
hours per day, devote three hours to school, one hour 
to religious instruction, and two and a half hours to 
meals and play. No specific time is allotted for their 
residence here ; the object being the moral and social 
reformation of each boy ; his thorough instruction 
iu the habits of order, cleanliness, and industry, so that 
they may become as it were a portion of himself, and 
thus fit him for returning to society a new being, 
with every rational guarantee of his becoming a useful 
citizen. None but boys who have been iu prison are 
elegible for admission, and they must be recommended 
by the magistrates, or chaplain of the gaol, and other 
persons interested in the reformation of juvenile offen- 
ders. The course of instruction embraces reading, 
writing, arithmetic, geography, and grammar. Mr. 
Head attends regularly and takes part in the instruc- 
tion of the boys. The Reformatory is under the super- 
intendence of Mr. and Mrs. Connell. 




Benson's Charity. — Dr. Bensou, who died about the 
year 1720, bequeathed £50 to the poor of this parish, 
to be disposed of iu the same manner as a similar 
legacy left by him to the parish of Dalston. 

Graham's Charity. — Monkhouse Graham, by will 
dated ,17th June, 1805, directed his executors to pay 
;£100 to the rector of Stanwix, to be placed out by 
him, and the interest thereof to be laid out on every 
24th December, in the purchase of bread, to be dis- 
tributed amongst sober, honest, and industrious poor 
housekeepers, or labouring individuals, without distinc- 
tion of communions, residing within the said parish, in 
such shares as the rector should think proper. In con- 
sequence of the failure of a bank in Carlisle, some 
years ago, the benefactions are now reduced to iilOO, 
the interest of which is distributed in bread at Christ- 

Gowland's Bequest. — There was also another bequest 
made by William Gowland, in 1792, but it was never 

3/iss Patrickson's Charity. — Miss Patrickson, who 
died at Houghton-town-head, January 15th, 1854, be- 
queathed the sum of £100 to the vicar and church- 
wardens of Stanwix for the time being, the interest to 
be applied for the benefit of poor and indigent persons 
resident in the parish. She also bequeathed the further 
sum of £100 to the vicar and churchwardens of Stanwix, 
the interest to be applied for the purposes of the school 
then recently erected there. 

Sou-erby's Charity. — William Sowerby, who died at 
Stanwix in 1855, bequeathed £200, the interest to be 
applied for the benefit of poor persons resident in the 
township of Stanwix ; and also a further sum of £200, 
for the purposes of the school at Stanwix. 


The area of Cargo to\^-nship is 1,196 statute acres, 
and its rateable value £1,075. Its population in 1801, 
was 237; in 1811, 243; in 1821, 274; in 1831, 242;