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Full text of "The history and traditions of the land of the Lindsays in Angus and Mearns, with notices of Alyth and Meigle"






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THE LIBRARY 



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OF 



UNIVERSITY 
CALIFORNIA 



LOS ANGELES 




fr-t- 



THE HISTORY AND TRADITIONS 

OF THE 

LAND OF THE LINDSAYS 

IN ANGUS AND MEARNS. 



Edinburgh : Printed by Thomas and Archibald Constable, 

FOR 
DAVID DOUGLAS. 

LONDON HAMILTON, ADAMS, AND CO. 

CAMBRIDGE MACMILLAN AND BOWES. 

GLASGOW . . . ' . . . JAMES MACLEHOSE AND SONS. 



THE 

ana Cratutiong 

OF THE 

LAND OF THE LINDSAYS 

IN ANGUS AND MEARNS 
WITH NOTICES OF ALYTH AND MEIGLE 



BY THE LATE 

ANDEEW JERVISE, F.S.A. SCOT. 

DISTRICT EXAMINER OF REGISTERS ; AUTHOR OF " MEMORIALS OF ANGUS AND MEARNS, 
" EPITAPHS ANT) INSCRIPTIONS," ETC. 



TO WHICH IS ADDED 

AN APPENDIX 

CONTAINING EXTRACTS FROM AN OLD RENTAL-BOOK OP EDZELL AND LETHNOT 

NOTICES OF THE RAVAGES OF THE MARQUIS OF MONTROSE IN 

FORFARSHIRE, AND OTHER INTERESTING DOCUMENTS. 

REWRITTEN AND CORRECTED BY 

JAMES GAMMACK, M.A. 

INCUMBENT, ST. JOHN BAPT. , DHUMLITHIE ; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES, 
SCOTLAND ; AND MEMBF.R OF THE CAMBRIAN ARCH/EOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 



(EMttott 



EDINBURGH: DAVID DOUGLAS 

1882 



DA 



tfje fHemorg of 



THE LATE RIGHT HONOURABLE 

SEilltam Cratoforfc 

TWENTY-FIFTH EARL OF CRAWFORD, EIGHTH EARL OP 
BALCARRES, AND SECOND BARON WIGAN, 

AUTHOR OF THE "LIVES OF THE LINDSAYS" 
AND OTHER VALUABLE WORKS, 

BHjts Seconti ffltoitwn 

IS MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED. 



1C94S01 



EDITOR'S PEEFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

WHEN asked by the trustees of my deceased friend Mr. 
Jervise to carry out his latest arrangements regarding a 
new edition of the Land of the Lindsays, I felt great diffidence 
in entering upon such a work, while at the same time I 
was unwilling, other engagements allowing it, to decline the 
confidence that he had shown by his request. Mr. Jervise 
was regarded as probably the foremost local antiquarian of 
his day, and the book itself had been received as an authority 
upon the district of which it treats. Fortunately Mr. Jer- 
vise had himself made some jottings upon his private copy, 
and these, when closely examined in detail, indicated pretty 
clearly the plan upon which he would have prepared the 
second edition, had he been spared to see it through the 
press. The plan involved a thorough revision of paragraph, 
phrase, and word, as well as a careful verification of date 
and fact on every page. By it I have been guided through- 
out, conserving the form and spirit, but not hesitating to 
alter freely, where I thought the alteration would more 
clearly express his mind, or to correct what I did not doubt 
that he himself would have acknowledged to be erroneous 
or out of taste. The later histories of the district have 



Vlll PREFACE. 

been largely used for illustration and verification, but the 
authorities most relied upon have been charter evidence, 
where accessible, regarding the earlier periods, and family 
histories, where available, for both earlier and later. Where 
I have seen occasion to differ from the author, I have 
usually given my reason by a reference in the notes. I 
cannot be sufficiently grateful to the trustees for their ready 
help and generous confidence in the undertaking, to Messrs. 
J. Valentine and Sons, Dundee, for the use of their photo- 
graphs in preparing the lithographed illustrations, or to the 
numerous gentlemen, clerical and lay, who have lent me every 
possible assistance. To Mr. James Davidson, Solicitor, Kirrie- 
muir, I am specially indebted for his most painstaking and 
judicious revision of the proof-sheets, and willing counsel in 
every difficulty. 

JAMES GAMMACK, M.A. 

THE PARSONAGE, DRUMLITHIE, 
October 1882. 



PREFACE TO THE FIEST EDITION. 

IT may be proper to remark that this volume is the first 
which the author has published a fact that will perhaps account 
for its numerous defects in composition and arrangement. The 
writer has devoted much of his leisure to the study of the 
history and antiquities of his native district has felt the 
greatest pleasure in doing so and has occasionally published 
scraps on the subject in provincial newspapers. These notices 
(which were all very defective) related chiefly to churchyard 
matters, and to descriptions of remarkable antiquarian and 
historical peculiarities. In course of time, these not only 
gained provincial favour, and the good opinion of several 
gentlemen of literary note at a distance, but were proved to be 
so far useful, from the fact, that greater care has been shown 
for antiquarian relics since their publication, and a marked 
improvement has taken place in the mode of keeping many 
of the churchyards and tombstones in the district. 1 The 
present volume owes its origin to the general interest that 
one of these papers created at the time ; and from the kind- 
ness and courtesy of the Hon. Lord Lindsay, who was pleased 
to remark, in reference to the notice referred to, " I wish 
your account of Glenesk had been published in time to have 
enabled me to avail myself of it in the ' Lives.' " 

No apology is necessary, it is presumed, for the title of this 

1 From the favour with which these notices were received, the author was after- 
wards induced to publish them under the title " Epitaphs and Descriptions from 
Burial-Grounds and Old Buildings in the North-East of Scotland, with Notes, 
Biographical, Genealogical, and Antiquarian." Two volumes have been published, 
and the remainder of the MS. Notes and Memoranda have been handed over by 
his trustees to the custody of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Edinburgh 
(Proceedings, iii. p. 237, new series). 



X PREFACE. 

volume. The lands, of which it is intended to preserve the 
History and Traditions, have been purposely selected, and were, 
at one time or other, under the sway of the powerful family of 
Lindsay-Crawford. Glenesk was the birthplace of the first 
Earl ; Finhaven and Edzell were the cherished abodes of the 
family so long as its power survived ; and its various, members 
were proprietors of important portions of the Mearns from a 
remote period. Although these estates have long since passed 
to other hands, and the family is merely represented in its 
fatherland by a collateral branch, it is pleasing to know that 
the ancient title is still enjoyed by a lineal descendant of the 
original stock, whose son and heir-apparent is the impartial 
and elegant biographer of his illustrious progenitors. 

Though traditions of the Lindsays are not so plentiful in the 
district as they were of old, when the hills and dales and 
running brooks were more or less associated with stories of 
their daring and valour, enough remains to show the almost 
unlimited sway which they maintained over the greater portion 
of Angus, and a large part of the Mearns. Like the doings of 
other families of antiquity, those of the Lindsays are mixed 
with the fables of an illiterate age ; and, though few redeeming 
qualities of the race are preserved in tradition, popular story 
ascribes cruel and heartless actions to many of them. Still, 
extravagant as some of these stories are, they have not been 
omitted, any more than those relating to other persons and 
families who fall within the scope of this volume ; and, where 
such can be refuted, either by reference to documentary or other 
substantial authority, the opportunity has not been lost sight of. 

The way in which erroneous ideas have been reiterated 
regarding old families, and the transmission of their properties, 
etc., has led to much confusion, the evils of which are most 
apparent to those who attempt to frame a work of such a 
nature as the present. From the author's desire to correct 
these errors, the book will, perhaps, have more claim to the 
title of a collection of facts regarding the history and antiquities 



PJIEFACE. xi 

of the Land of the Lindsays than to a work of originality and 
merit, and may therefore be less popular in its style than 
most readers would desire ; but this, it is hoped, has been so 
far obviated by the introduction of snatches regarding popular 
superstitions, and a sprinkling of anecdote. Due advantage 
has been taken of the most authentic works that bear on the 
history of the district, for the use of the greater part of which, 
and for a vast deal of valuable information, the writer is 
particularly indebted to the kindness of Patrick Chalmers, 
Esq. of Aldbar. 1 He is also under deep obligation to the 
Hon. Lord Lindsay, 2 not only for many important particulars 
which he has been pleased to communicate regarding his 
family history, but for the great interest he has taken in 
otherwise advancing the work. 

In notices of prehistoric remains the lover of antiquity 
may find the volume rather meagre. This, the writer is sorry 
to remark, has arisen, in a great measure, from the desire 
which most discoverers have of retaining or breaking any 
valuable relics with which they meet. Although a change for 
the better has recently taken place regarding antiquities, still 
the peasantry, into whose hands those treasures are most likely 
to fall, have a sadly mistaken view of their value ; and in the 
vain hope of being enriched by a personal possession, they 
deprive themselves of remuneration altogether. In destroy- 
ing pieces of pottery-ware, metals, and similar articles, they 
tear so many leaves so to speak from the only remaining 
volume of the remote and unlettered past, thus placing 
perhaps for ever the attainment of some important particular 
regarding the history of our forefathers beyond the reach of 
inquiry. The baneful law of treasure-trove has much to 
account for on this score ; but there is reason to believe that 
the evil might be so far modified through an express under- 

1 P. Chalmers, Esq. of Aldbar, died at Rome, June 23, 1854, in his fifty-second 
year. 

2 Afterwards Earl of Crawford and Balcarres. His Lordship succeeded in 1869, 
and died in 1880. 



Xll PREFACE. 

standing between landlords and tenants, and tenants and 
servants. 

The Appendix will be found to contain many interesting 
and hitherto unpublished papers, particularly those illustrative 
of the ravages of the Marquis of Montrose and his soldiers in 
certain parts of Angus. The old Eental-Book of Edzell and 
Lethnot, from which copious extracts have been taken, was 
lately rescued from total destruction in a farm " bothie " in 
Lethnot. Though a mere fragment, the portion preserved is 
important, not only from its showing the value and nature of 
the holdings of the period, but from its handing down the 
names of many families who are still represented in the 
district. 

In thanking his numerous friends and subscribers for their 
kind support, the author feels that some apology is necessary 
for the delay which has occurred in the publication. This has 
arisen from two causes mainly from a protracted indisposi- 
tion with which the writer was seized soon after advertising 
the volume ; and partly from including in it the history of 
the minor Lindsay properties in Angus, and of those in Mearns, 
etc. an object which was not originally contemplated. From 
the latter cause the volume has necessarily swelled far beyond 
the limits at first proposed ; still, the author does not feel him- 
self justified in increasing the price to subscribers, but the few 
remaining copies of the impression will be sold to non-sub- 
scribers at a slight advance. He begs also to express his 
deep obligation to those who took charge of subscription lists, 
and so disinterestedly and successfully exerted themselves in 
getting these filled up, as well as to various Session-Clerks, and 
numerous correspondents, for their kindness in forwarding his 

inquiries. 

ANDEEW JEKVISE. 

BRECHIN, August 1853. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

EDZELL. SECTION I. 

PAGE 

Origin of name Old clergymen Bell of St. Lawrence Ancient use 
of bells Old kirkyard Drummore Hill Castle of Poolbrigs 
Old kirk Episcopal riots Bonnyman, parish teacher Re- 
markable death of a parish minister, .... 1 

EDZELL. SECTION II. 

Burial aisle Lady Lindsay raised from a trance Major Wood Tra- 
ditions of his death and burial Rev. George Low of Birsay 
Kirk and lands of Neudos Story of St. Drostan's well Chapelry 
and castle of Dalbog, ...... 14 

EDZELL. SECTION III. 

Families of Adzell and Abbe Knockquy Hill De Gleneak family De 
Strivelyn or Stirling Marriage of Sir Alexander Lindsay with 
Catherine Stirling Story of Jackie Stirlin' Origin of the name 
and family of Lindsay David, first Earl of Crawford Sir Alexan- 
der Lindsay of Kinneff Sir Walter Lindsay of Edzell Sir David, 
ninth Earl of Crawford The "Wicked Master " His son, . 26 

EDZELL. SECTION IV. 

Sir David Lindsay, Lord Edzell His taste for architecture, etc. His 
son's murder of Lord Spynie "Offeris " for the same Montrose 
in Glenesk Cromwell's soldiers at Edzell John Lindsay of 



XIV CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Canterland's succession to Edzell His son and grandson 
David, the last Lindsay of Edzell The fate of his sisters, 
Margaret and Janet Character and last days of ' ' Edzell " 
Story of a "treasure-seeker," ..... 42 

EDZELL. SECTION V. 

Edzell Castle Its situation General description Age of towers 
Sculpturings Visited by Queen Mary and King James ' ' The 
kitchen of Angus" Baths discovered Flower-garden Dilapi- 
dations of Edzell, and of Auchmull, . . . .60 



CHAPTER II. 

GLENESK. SECTION I. 

Glenesk St. Drostan Neudos Old church of Lochlee Origin of 
parish Its ministers Mr. Ross, as session-clerk Episcopacy 
in the parish Rev. David Rose, ' ' the illegal meeting-house 
keeper" Hliberality of parish ministers Change of views 
Chapel built on the Rowan Rev. Peter Jolly New church at 
Tarfside Free Church at the Birks of Ardoch Memorial 
windows Description of old parish church Ross, the author 
of Helenore His abode, biography, and poetry Present church 
and manse Drowning of the brothers Whyte Benevolence 
of Rev. David Inglis Lines on a stranger, . . .72 



GLENESK. -SECTION II. 

Invermark Castle Later occupants Dilapidation Iron yett Age of 
castle To check the Cateran Unsettled state of the glen A 
refuge for the Bruce Cairns on the Rowan Mines of Glenesk, 92 



GLENESK. SECTION III. 

Traditions of Glenmark "Bonnymune's Cave" Petrifying cave 
Rocking-stones Druidical remains Colmeallie The Circular 
in ecclesiastical architecture Cairn at Fernybank explored 
Archaeological remains Querns at Edzell, . . .100 



CONTENTS. XV 

GLENESK.-SECTION iv. 

PAGE 

View of Glenesk Want of wood Shooting lodge at Invermark 
Depopulation Migration down the glen North Esk and its 
tributaries Romantic sites Droustie Bridges Visited by 
Royalty The Queen's well Sudden floods on the hill streams 
Tarfside Maule's cairn Birks of Ardoch The Modlach St. 
Andrew's Tower Death of Miss Douglas Anecdote of Lord 
Panmure The new road The Burn : its situation, history, and 
improvements Gannochy Bridge, .... 109 



CHAPTEE III. 
NAVAR AND LETHNOT. SECTION I. 

Navar and Lethnot Lethnot a prebend of Brechin Cathedral Ministers 
St. Mary's Well Episcopacy in Navar Rev. John Row, 
parish minister Monumental inscriptions "Dubrach" His 
great age "His Majesty's oldest enemy" "Lady Anne" 
Navar belfry and bell Jonathan Duncan, Governor of Bombay, 125 

NAVAR AND LETHNOT. SECTION II. 

Navar and the lordship of Brechin David, Earl of Huntingdon 
Maison Dieu of Brechin Family de Brechin Family of Maule 
Erskines of Dun Pedigree of the Maules Panmure ennobled 
Purchase of Edzell Lord Panmure Fox Maule The late 
Earl, . . . . . . . .138 

NAVAR AND LETHNOT. SECTION III. 

Aspect of Navar The Wirran Story of the melder-sifter Archaeo- 
logy of Lethnot Dunnyferne "Lady Eagil's chair" Cobb's 
Heugh Streams of the district Superstition anent the white 
adder Superstitions of Lethnot The Cateran, . . .150 



CHAPTEE IV. 

FINHAVEN AND OATHLAW. SECTION I. 

Finhaven Etymologies Church and prebend of Brechin Cathedral 
"The nine maidens " Old church of Finhaven The "kirk of 
Aikenhatt" Ministers of Finhaven Oathlaw took the place 
of Finhaven Burial aisle Later ministers Female rioters do 
penance Rev. Harry Stuart, . . . . .161 



xvi CONTENTS. 

FINHAVEN AND OATHLAW. SECTION II. 

PAGE 

Forest of Plater Ancient Scotch forests Keeper of the forest Ancient 
foresters of Plater Succession in Finhaven Accession of the 
Lindsays Earl Crawford's lodging in Dundee The "Houff "- 
Earls Crawford and Douglas watched by Bishop Kennedy 
The battle of Arbroath Origin of the house of Clova Earl 
David dies Arbroath burned Douglas's conspiracy, and 
death at Stirling Crawford's activity for revenge Battle of 
Brechin Calder and Earl Beardie's cup Assuanley memorial 
cup Site and remains of the battle Crawford's violence, re- 
pentance, and royal pardon, . . . . .169 

FINHAVEN AND OATHLAW. SECTION III. 

Earl David and his rewards for loyalty Raised to the Dukedom of Mon- 
trose His princely splendour Suffered for James in. Power 
curtailed New ducal patent granted In favour with James iv. 
Private sorrows Fell at Flodden The Wicked Master disin- 
herited Sir David Lindsay of Edzell, as ninth Earl of Crawford 
Tenth Earl marries Cardinal Beaton's daughter ' ' The Prodigal 
Earl " Murder of Lord Glamis Education of an Earl and fidelity 
of the ' ' pedagogue " ' ' Comes incarcerates " Earldom passes to 
the Lindsays of Byres Returns to the Crawford Lindsays 
Earl Ludovick's military genius and acts True to the royal 
cause Dies in France Owners of the lands and barony of 
Finhaven In the hands of the Carnegies Song, "He winna 
be guidit by me" Death of Earl of Strathmore at Forfar 
by misadventure Trial and acquittal of Carnegie Greenhill- 
Gardyne of Finavon Lairds of Craigo, . . . .186 

FINHAVEN AND OATHLAW. SECTION IV. 

Finhaven Castle Story of its fall Its situation The harper hung 
"Jock Barefoot" Inner life of old Finhaven Surrounded by 
retainers and allies Markhouse Blairiefeddan Woodwrae 
Balgavies and Sir Walter Lindsay Estate lost, and how pre- 
viously acquired, . . . _ . . . . 203 

FINHAVEN AND OATHLAW. SECTION V. 

Vitrifications on Finhaven Hill Site described Theories of the Vitri- 
fication Camp at Battle-dykes Local names Archaeological 
remains, .... 213 



CONTENTS. XV11 



CHAPTER V. 

FERN SECTION I. 

PAGE 

Etymology and old condition of Fern Early ministers The post- 
Reformation clergy Parish registers The Tytlers, father and 
sons Kirks, past and present Kirkyard and its monuments, . 220 

FERN SECTION II. 

The de MonteaUos of Fern and Both Their other possessions Fern 
passed to the Crawford Lindsays Estate of Deuchar Deuchar 
at the battles of Barry and Harlaw Family and influence traced 
Its decline Fern under the Carnegies Windsor Waterstone 
Commonty of Little Brechin Balmadity, . , . 226 

FERN SECTION III. 

Vayne Fern divided Noranside Greenhills of Fern Carnegies of 
Balinhard Their pedigree and history Of Kinnaird Earls of 
Sou thesk Their loyalty Kinnaird Castle The present Earl, . 236 

FERN. SECTION IV. 

Castle of Vayne Ascribed to Cardinal Beaton A word for the Cardi- 
nal View of the castle Superstitions Kelpie's footmark and 
the "De'il's Hows" The Brownie Brandyden " The Ghaist 
o' Feme-den "The ghost laid, , . . . .249 

FERN. SECTION V. 

Battle of Saughs Date uncertain "The Hawkit Stirk" Bravery of 
Mackintosh Spoil recovered Ledenhendrie in danger, and his 
precautions Winter's monument Archaeology of Fern Primi- 
tive dwellings, ....... 258 



CHAPTER VI. 
CARESTON. SECTION I. 

Careston Origin of nameKeraldus judex Erection of parish 
"Fyne little church" Succession of ministers Churchyard- 
Rev. John Gillies Formation of kirk-session Rev. Dr. Johu 



XV111 CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Gillies of Glasgow Mr. Robert Gillies of Brechin Mr. John 
Gillies, Historiographer-Royal of Scotland Lord Gillies Dr. 
Thomas Gillies, ....... 268 

CARESTON. SECTION II. 

Office of Dempster Dempsters of Careston Of Muiresk Lindsays of 
Careston Of Balnabreich The Carnegies of Careston The 
Stewarts "The Douglas Cause" The Earl of Home, Baron 
Douglas The Skenes of Careston Origin of family Major 
George Skene Captain Skene, " the warlock laird " Mr. John 
Adamson Mitchells of Nether Careston, . . . 279 

CARESTON. SECTION III, 

The "Castle of Fuirdstone" Careston Castle described Ochterlony's 
account Its decorations Thorough repair Traditions of Cares- 
ton Retreat of Montrose from Dundee to Careston Later acts 
of Montrose His execution, ... . 290 



CHAPTEE VII. 
MENMUIR. SECTION I. 

Menmuir Dedicated to St. Aidan Its ministers The Covenant sub- 
scribed Danger from the Cateran Frightened by the Royalists 
Opposed the Prince The church and its surroundings 
Burial-place of the Carnegies of Balnamoon Notice of Adjutant- 
General Sir David Leighton, K.C.B. The Guthries of Menmuir 
and Brechin Tigerton, . . . . , , 299 

MENMUIR. SECTION II. 

Lands of Menmuir Royal residence Kilgery Exploit of Peter de 
Spalding Hermitage of Kilgery chapel Balzeordie The 
Somyrs of Balzeordie Slaughter of Graham of Leuchland 
Connection of the Carnegies in Menmuir Menmuir thanage 
Belonged to different families The Collaces became reduced : 
yet known to literature Leech a connection Carnegies of Bal- 
namoon related to the Arbuthnotts Purchased Balzeordie and 
Balrownie "The rebel laird," not such a sot or Goth, . . 306 



CONTENTS. XIX 

MENMUIR SECTION III. 

PAGE 

Balhall and the family of Glen Balhall passed to the Lindsays 
Patronage of Menmuir passed to Balhall " The Parson of Men- 
muir" Succession in Balhall TheCramonds The Lyells The 
Erskines of Dun Moss of Balhall Death of Lyon of Glamis 
Expiation of perjury Cairns Murder of the shoemaker of 
Tigerton Archaeological remains Stracathro The Caterthuns 
described Origin veiled in mystery, and a field for superstition 
Witchcraft Fairy child, . .... 318 



CHAPTEE VIII. 

at the 

SECTION I. 

IN NORTH-WESTERN PARTS OF FORFARSHIRE AND IN 
EAST OF PERTHSHIRE. 

Miscellaneous properties Brechin Forketacre Brechin and Pitairlie 
Keithock passed to the Edgars Secretary Edgar Bishop 
Edgar Keithock's toast Little Pert Glenqueich held by the 
Lindsays Preceded by the Stuarts, Earls of Buchan Shielhill 
and chapel of St. Colm The water-kelpie Inverquharity and 
early proprietors Ogilvys of Airlie and Inverquharity Baronets 
of Inverquharity Balinscho or Benshie Scrymgeours and 
Ogilvys Lindsays of Balinscho Two chestnut-trees The 
Fletchers Chapel of St. Ninian and burial-place Clova 
Feuds The old Peel Parochial district and chapel Glaslet, 
Rottall, Easter and Wester Lethnot, Gella, Braeminzeon 
Bakie Castle Passed to the Lyons Chapel of Bakie Kirk 
of Airlie Dunkeny Ruthven, Queich, Alyth Corb, Inver- 
queich Murder of Lord Lindsay Haunted Lady Meigle Its 
early proprietorship Its later Church and burial-place, . 334 

SECTION II. 
IN SOUTHERN PARTS OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Kinblethmont First Lord Spynie, his marriage and death Second 
Lord Spynie Represented by Lindsay-Carnegie of Boysack 
Early proprietors of Kinblethmont Inverkeillor Guthrie pro- 



xx CONTENTS. 

PAOR 

prietary and ecclesiastical history Line of the Guthries Bishop 
Guthrie Forfarshire Guthries Guthrie Castle Carbucldo In- 
verarity Its lords Fotheringhams of Powrie Meathie Lour 
Kinnettles Evelick Arbroath connection Kinnell Panbride 
Boethius family Panmure House Monikie, Downie, Dun- 
find Pitairlie Cross of Camus Ethiebeaton, Broughty Castle 
Brichty, . . . . . . .364 

SECTION III. 
IN KINCARDINESHIRE. 

Fasky or Fasque Phesdo Kinneff and its old castles Barras Cater - 
line church and churchyard Dunnottar, its church and castle 
Present church and traditions Fetteresso Uras Lumgair 
Benholm Blackiemuir, Balmakewan, Morphie Canterland, . 392 



APPENDIX, . . . . . . . . 409 

INDEX, . . . . . . . . . . 441 



LIST OF AUTHORS. 



ABERCROMBY (Pat.), Martial Achievements of the Scots Nation. 2 vols. 

Edinb. 1711. 
Acta Auditorum. 

,, Dominorum Concilii (1478-95, and 1466-95), 2 vols. Rec. Comm. 1839. 
Acts of Parliament of Scotland. 1 1 vols. 1814. 
Anderson (James), Black Book of Kincardine. New edition. Aberd. 1879. 

,, (Jos.), Scotland in Early Christian Times. Rhind Lectures, series 
i. and ii. Edinb. 1881. 

,, (William), Scottish Nation. ' 8 vols. Edinb. 1863. 
Angus and Mearns, Memorials of. See Jervise. 
Angus or Forfarshire. See Warden. 
Antiquaries of Scotland, Proceedings of. Old and new series. 1855 

,, Transactions (Archaeologia Scotica). 2 vols. 1792-1818. 

Arnot (H.), Celebrated Criminal Trials in Scotland, 1536-1784. Edinb. 1785. 
Auchinleck Chronicle, MS. 

BALMERINACH, Liber S. Maria? de. Ed. Turnbull. Edinb. 1841. 
Balfour (Alex.), Contemplation and other Poems. Edinb. 1820. 
,, (Sir James), Historical Works. 4 vols. Edinb. 1824-5. 
Barbour (John), Life and Acts of King Robert Bruce. Ed. Pinkerton. 3 vols. 

Lond. 1790. 

Black (D. D.), History of Brechin. Edinb. 1867. 
Blair (Rob.), Autobiography, 1593-1636. Suppl. by Row and Blair. Ed. 

M'Crie. Edinb. 1848. 

Book of the Official of St. Andrews, Abbotsford Club, Edinb., 1845. 
Book of the Universal Kirk of Scotland. Bann. Club. 3 vols. Edinb. 

1839-45. 

Borthwick (Wm.), Remarks on British Antiquities. Edinb. 1776. 
Brechin, Bailie Court Minutes. MS. 
Brunton and Haig, Historical Account of the Senators of the College of 

Justice. Edinb. 1836. 

Buchanan (George), History of Scotland. 2 vols. Edinb. 1766. 
Burke (Sir Bern.), Peerage, Baronage, and Knightage. 42d ed. Lond. 1880. 
Burnet (Bp. Gilb.), History of His Own Time. 6 vols. Oxf. 1823. 
Burton (J. H.), History of Scotland. 7 vols. Edinb. 1876. 
Butler (Alb. ), Lives of the Saints. 2 vols. Lond. 1863. 



LIST OF AUTHORS. 

CALENDAR of Documents relating to Scotland. Pub. Rec. OS. London. Ed. 

by J. Bain, vol. i. A.D. 1108-1272. Edinb. 1881. 
Camden (Wm.), Britannia. Ed. Gough. Lond. 1789. 
Catalogue of the Museum of the Archaeological Institute of Great Britain 

and Ireland, held in Edinburgh 1856. Edinb. 1859. 
Chalmers (Geo.), Caledonia. 3 vols. Lond. 1807-24. 

,, (Pat.), Ancient Sculptured Monuments of the County of Angus. 

Bann. Club. Edinb. 1849. 

Chamberlain Rolls of Scotland. Bann. Club. 3 vols. Edinb. 1817-45. 
Chambers (R.), History of the Rebellion of 1745-6. Edinb. 1847. 

,, (R-)> Popular Rhymes of Scotland, and Poems. Edinb. 1847. 

,, (W. and R.), Edinburgh Journal. 
Crawford Case. 1845. 
Crawford (Geo.), Peerage of Scotland. Edinb. 1716. 

,, (Geo.), Lives of the Officers of the Crown and of the State of Scot- 
land, vol. i. Edinb. 1726. 
Clemens Alexandrinus, Opera. Ed. Dindorf. Oxon. 1869. 

DALRYMPLE (Sir D.) [Lord Hailes], Annals of Scotland, 1057-1370. 3 vols. 

Edinb. '1797. 
Davidson (Rev. Dr. John), Inverurie and the Earldom of the Garioch. 2 vols. 

Edinb. 1878. 
Deuchar Vouchers. MS. 
Don, a Poem. Edinb. 1814. 
Douglas (Francis), General Description of the East Coast of Scotland in 1780. 

Aberd. 1826. 
,, (Sir Rob.), The Baronage of Scotland. Edinb. 1798. 

(Sir Rob.), The Peerage of Scotland. Ed. by J. P. Wood. 2d ed. 
2 vols. Edinb. 1813. 

EDGAR, Scottish House of. Ed. Committee of the Grampian Club. Lond. 

1873. 

Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. Ed. Brewster. 18 vols. Edinb. 1830. 
Edward (Rev. Rob.), Description of Angus in 1678. Trans, by Trail. 

Dund. 1793. (Reprinted in Warden's Angus, ii. p. 234 seq.). 
Exchequer Rolls. 5 vols. Lond. 1835-6. 
Extracta e variis Cronicis Scocie. Abbotsford Club. Edinb. 1842. 

FASTI Ecclesiae Scoticanse. [Scott.] 

Forbes (Bp. A. P.), Kalendars of the Scottish Saints. Edinb. 1872. 

Eraser (Wm.), History of the Carnegies, Earls of Southesk, and of their 

Kindred. 2 vols. Edinb. 1867. 
,, (Rev. W. R.), History of the Parish and Burgh of Laurencekirk. 

Edinb. 1880. 

GILLIES (R. P.), Memoirs of a Literary Veteran. 3 vols. Lond. 1851. 
Gordon (Jas.), History of Scots Affairs, 1637-41. Ed. Robertson and Grub. 

3 vols. Aberd. 1841. 

,, (Wm.), History of the Family of Gordon. 2 vols. Edinb. 1726. 
Grub (George), Ecclesiastical History of Scotland. 4 vols. Edinb. 1861. 
Guthrie(Wm.), History of Scotland. 10 vols. Lond. 1767-8. 



LIST OF AUTHORS. xxiii 

HARDYNG (John), Chronicle in Metre. Ed. Ellis. Lond. 1812. 

Haydn (Jos.), Dictionary of Dates, and Universal Index of Biography. 2 vols. 

Lond. 1870. 
Holinshed (R.), Scottish Chronicle. 2 vols. Arbroath, 1805. 

INQUISITIONUM retornatarum abbreviatio. Inquis. Spec. Inquis. Gen 

Inquis. de Tutela. 3 vols. Lond. 1811. 
Irish Academy (Royal), Proceedings of. Dubl. 1841 
Irving (David), Lives of Scottish Writers. 2 vols. Edinb. 1851. 

JACOBITE Minstrelsy, with Notes. Glasg. 1829. 

Jamieson (John), Scottish Dictionary. Ed Johnstone. 4 vols, Edinb. 

1840-41. 
Jervise (And.), Epitaphs and Inscriptions. 2 vols. Edinb. 1875-79. 

,, Memorials of Angus and Mearns. Edinb. 1861. 

Johnston (Arthur), Musae Aulicse, Parerga, etc. 2 vols. Aberd. 1637. 

KINCARDINESHIRE, Black Book of. See Anderson. 

LAING (Alex.), Wayside Flowers. Edinb. 1850. (4th Ed. 1878.) 
Leech (John), Epigrammata and Poems. Lond. 1620. 
Lindsay (Lord), Lives of the Lindsays. 3 vols. Lond. 1849. 

,, (R., of Pitscottie), Chronicles of Scotland. Ed. Dalzell. 2 vols. 

Edinb. 1814. 
Low (Rev. George), Tour through the Islands of Orkney and Shetland in 

1774. Ed. Jas. Anderson. 2 vols. Edinb. 1879. 
Lunan (Rev. Al.), MS. Diary in Diocesan Library, Brechin. 
Lyon (Rev. C. T.), History of St. Andrews. 2 vols. Edinb. 1843. 

MACLAGAN (Chr.), Hill Forts, Stone Circles, etc., of Ancient Scotland. 

Edinb. 1875. 
Maitland (Wm.), History and Antiquities of Scotland to 1603. 2 vols. Lond. 

1757. 

Marshall (Rev. Wm.), Historic Scenes in Forfarshire. Edinb. 1875. 
Mason (Wm.), Caractacus. 3d Ed. Lond. 1762. 
M'Crie (Th.), Life of John Knox. 2 vols. Edinb. 1831. 
Life of Andrew Melville. Edinb. 1856. 
(Th., jun.), Sketches of Scottish Church History, 1528-1688. Edinb. 

1841. 
Melvill (Jas.), Autobiography and Diary, with Continuation. Ed. Pitcairn. 

Ediub. 1842. 

Miller (D.), Arbroath and its Abbey. Edinb. 1860. 

Mitchell (Dr. Ar.), The Past in the Present. Rhind Lectures. Edinb. 1880. 
Monipennie (John), Abridgment of the Scots Chronicle. Glasgow, 1818. 
Montrose, Original Dukedom of, Case. Lond. 1855. 
Myles (Jas.), Rambles in Forfarshire. Dundee, 1850. 

NAPIER (Mark), Life and Times of the Marquis of Montrose. Edinb. 1810. 
Nisbet (Alex.), System of Heraldry. 2 vols. Edinb. 1804. 



XXIV LIST OF AUTHORS. 

Nisbet (Alex.), Historical and Critical Notes on the Ragman Roll (Herald. 
vol. ii. App. ii. ). 

OCHTERLONY (John), Account of the Shire of Forfar, 1684-5. (Reprinted in 
Spottiswoode Miscellany, p. 317 i>eq., and Warden's Angus, ii. p. 252 scq.). 
Ord, History of the Antiquities of Cleveland. 

PENNANT (Th.), Tours in Scotland, 1769 and 1772. 3 vols. Warn- and 

Chest. 1774-6. 

Peter (D. M'G.), Baronage of Angus and Mearns. Edinb. 1856. 
Pitcairn (Rob.), Criminal Trials in Scotland, 1488-1624. 3 vols. Edinb. 

1833. 

Pratt (Rev. John), Buchan. Aberd. 1870. 

Pulleyn (Wm.), Churchyard Gleanings and Epigrammatic Scraps. Lond. N.u. 
Presbytery of Brechin from 1639 to 1660, Extracts from the Records of. 
Dundee 1876. 

, , of Brechin, Current Registers. Ms. 

RAGMAN Rolls, 1291-6. Bann. Club. Edinb. 1834. 

Rambles in Forfarshire. See Myles. 

Records (Presbytery) of Brechin. MS. 

Register of Ministers, Exhorters, and Readers, and of their Stipends, 1567. 

Maitl. Club. Edinb. 1830. 
,, of Ministers and Readers in the Kirk of Scotland, 1574. Wodrow 

Society. Edinb. 1844. 
,, (Parochial) of Brechin, Dunnottar, Edzell, Lethnot, Lochlee, Men 

muir, Rescobie, and Stracathro. MS. 
,, of Probative Writs of Brechin. MS. 
, , of Services of Heirs in Chancery Office. 

Registrum Episcopatus Aberdonensis. Spald. Club. 2 vols. Edinb. 1845. 
,, Episcopatus Brechinensis. Bann. Club. 2 vols. Aberd. 1856. 
,, de Panmure. 2 vols. Edinb. 1874. 
,, Magni Sigilli Regum Scotorum, 1306-1424. Lond. 1814. 
,, Nigrum de Aberbrothoc. Bann. Club. Edinb. 1856. 
,, Prioratus S. Andree. Bann. Club. Edinb. 1841. 

Vetus de Aberbrothoc. Bann. Club. Edinb. 1848. 
Robertson (Geo.), Agricultural Survey of Kincardineshire. Lond. N.D. 
,, (Wm.), Index of Missing Scottish Charters. Edinb. 1798. 
,, ,, Peerage Cases. Edinb. 1790. 

Rogers (Rev. Ch.), Monuments and Monumental Inscriptions in Scotland. 

2 vols. Lond. 1871. 
,, ,, Rental-Book of the Cistercian Abbey of Con par- Angus. 

2 vols. 1879-80. 
Rolt (Rich.), Life of Right Honble. John Lindsay, Earl of Crawford. Lond. 

1769. 
Ross (Alex.), Helenore, or, The Fortunate Shepherdess. Ed. Longmuir. 

Edinb. 1866. 
Rotuli Scotife in Turri Loud, etc., 1291-1516. Ed. Hardy. 2 vols. Lond. 

1814-19. 

Roy (Wm.), Military Antiquities of the Romans in Britain. Lond. 1793. 
Ruddiman's Magazine. 



LIST OF AUTHORS. XXV 

Rymer(Th.), Fcedera, etc., 1101-1625. 19 vols. Lond. 1704-32. 

SCOTS Magazine. Edinb. 1739. 

Scott (H.), Fasti Ecclesiaj Scoticanze. 3 vols. Edinb. 1866-71. 

Scottish Journal of Topography, Antiquities, Traditions, etc. 2 vols. 

Edinb. 1848. 
Seton (George), Sketch of the History and Imperfect Condition of the 

Parochial Records of Scotland. Edinb. 1854. 
Simpson (Sir J. Y. ), Archaic Sculptures of Cups, etc. , on Stones and Rocks. 

Edinb. 1867. 

Six Old English Chronicles. Ed. Bohn's Ant. Library. Lond. 1875. 
Smith (Dr. Win.) and Prof. Cheetham, Diet. Christ. Antiquities. 2 vols. 

Lond. 1876-80. 
Smith (Dr. Wm. ) and Prof. Wace, Diet. Christ. Biography. Vols. i. ii. 

Lond. 1877-80. 

Southesk Rental- Book, from 1691 to 1710 inclusive, MS. 
Spalding Club Miscellany. 5 vols. Aberd. 1841-52. 
Spottiswoode Club Miscellany. 2 vols. Edinb. 1844-5. 
Statistical (New) Account of Scotland. 15 vols. Edinb. 1845. 

(Old) Account of Scotland. 21 vols. Edinb. 1791-99. 
Struthers (J.), History of Scotland from the Union. 2 vols. Glasg. 1828. 
Stuart (Dr. John), Notices of the Spalding Club, etc. Edinb. 1871. 
,, (Prof. John), Essays on Scottish Antiquities. Aberd. 1846. 
,, (And.), Genealogical History of the Stewarts. Lond. 1798. 

THOMSON (Jajnes), History of Dundee. Dund. 1847. 

Toland (John), A History of the Druids. Ed. Huddleston. Montrose, 1814. 

Tytler (Pat. F.), History of Scotland. 9 vols. 2d Ed. Edinb. 1841-3. 

WALFORD (E.), County Families of the United Kingdom. Lond. 1881. 

Warden (A. J.), Angus or Forfarshire. Vols. i. ii. iii. Dund. 1880-2. 

White (Rev. Henry), Natural History of Selborne. Lond. 1861. 

Wilson (Prof. Daniel), Prehistoric Annals of Scotland. 2 vols. Lond. 1863. 

Windele ( ), Notices of Cork. 

Wodrow (Rob.), History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland. Ed. 

Burns. 4 vols. Glasg. 1829-30. 
Wyntoun (Andrew of), The Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland. Ed. Laing. 

3 vols. Edinb. 1872-9. 

YORK Buildings Company Memorandum-Book, MS. 



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LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 



LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 



CHAPTER I. 



SECTION I. 

My travels are at home ; 

And oft in spots with ruins o'erspread, 
Like Lysons, use the antiquarian spade. 

Origin of name Old clergymen Bell of St. Laurence Ancient use of bells Old 
kirkyard Drummore Hill Castle of Poolbrigs Old kirk Episcopal riots 
Bonnyman, parish teacher Remarkable death of a parish minister. 

THE name of this parish, in old times, had a different ortho- 
graphy from that now in use. At the beginning of the thir- 
. teenth century it was written Adall and Edale in ancient 
charters, and, in the ancient Taxatio (1275), which was rated 
at a slightly subsequent period, it is spelled "Adel." 1 In 
Eolt's Life of John Lindesay, (twentieth) Earl of Crawford, it is 
written " Edgehill," and so pronounced at this day by some old 
people. This is believed by many to be the true etymon, from 
the fact that the great bulk of the arable land lies from the 
edge of the hill southward. 2 In all documents posterior to the 

1 Registrum Vet. Aberbrothoc, pp. 7, 48, 240; Reg. Prior. S. Andr. p. 36. 

2 Perhaps the present spelling arose from z being otten read, if not actually used, 
for y in old writings. But tracing the changes upon the name chronologically, we 
find a curious example of how a vocable grows : Edale (1204-11, 1238) : Adall (1267) ; 
Adel (1275); Addelle, Adzell (1435); Edgall (1495); Edzell (1509) ; Egzell (1528); 
Eggel (1552); Eghill (1571); Adzell (1579); Egle 1(1653); Edgill (1654); Edgell 
(1655); Edzdel (1678) ; Eggel (1686); Egell (1687). 

A 



LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

date of the two first, the orthography differs little from the 
present, and, according to the late venerable minister, the name 
implies "the cleft or dividing of the waters," a rendering 
which may seem to be favoured by the physical aspect of the 
parish, in so far as it is bounded on the south and west by the 
West "Water, and on the east by the North Esk, both of which 
rivers unite at the south-east extremity of the parish, but it is 
otherwise unsatisfactory. 

Etymologies at best are matter of conjecture, and although, 
in many cases, conclusions are arrived at with much apparent 
reason, they are constantly subjects of doubt, arising from the 
obvious fact, that inferences are too often drawn from the 
corrupted forms now in use, instead of from the original and 
more ancient. It is agreed on all hands that modern names 
are far from improvements on the originals, which are ever 
descriptive of the situation, or other physical peculiarities of 
the soil ; and, what is perhaps still more valuable, the names 
often furnish a key to the status and particular nature of the 
holdings and occupations of the tenants in the remote past. 
Near the site of the old castle of Dalbog, for instance, we have 
the " Serjan' Hill," or the place where the old serjeant of the 
barony resided ; while the " temple lands," scattered over 
almost every part of Scotland, do not imply, as popularly be- 
lieved-, that the places were the sites of temples in early times, 
but that the lands were held first under the superiority of the 
old fraternity of Knights Templars, and afterwards under those 
of St. John of Jerusalem, the latter of whom flourished in 
Scotland until the Beformation. In like manner, the " kiln" 
and "sheeling" hills show the places where corn was dried 
and unhusked prior to the introduction of machinery; and 
" the sucken lands " are still well known in some districts 
(though few in comparison to the number of places so called 
in former days), indicating that, even in comparatively late 
times, certain payments in kind were made from them to meal 
and barley millers. 



EDZELL ECCLESIASTICAL POSITION. 3 

It must, therefore, be matter of regret that these important 
aids to ancient history and the manners of our forefathers are 
so generally beyond our reach, and that so little attention has 
been paid to their preservation; for even when found men- 
tioned in family charters and the public records, the exact 
localities of a vast number of them are altogether unknown, 
either through their utter extinction, or from the orthographical 
change which the names have undergone. But looking at the 
oldest forms of the name belonging to the parish of Edzell, we 
can easily resolve it into the Gaelic Ath-dail, " the ford of the 
plain," which topographically seems most appropriate and 
applicable. 

Before the Reformation the Church of Edzell was at- 
tached to the Archiepiscopal see of St. Andrews, and rated at 
twelve marks. It was also one of several dependencies the 
revenues of which were appropriated for the repair of the 
parent cathedral in 1378, after its conflagration in Bishop 
Landel's time. 1 Sir David Broun, the owner and granter of some 
property in Brechin to the cathedral of that city in 1553, was 
the last Eoman Catholic vicar of Edzell ; but, oddly enough, no 
mention is made of the parish in the Register of Ministers for 
1567, although in that of the Headers for 1572, an Andro 
Spens appears to have held the office of " exhorter," with a 
stipend of about thirteen shillings and fourpence sterling. 2 

Like other districts that have never been dignified as the 
seat of a cathedral, abbey, or priory, the ecclesiastical history 
of Edzell is meagre and uninteresting ; but the fragments of a 
sculptured stone found at the churchyard in 1870, and the 
frequency, in former times, of the name Abbe, would point to 
it as a centre of some ecclesiastical importance, though the 
amount is not fully known. Dr. Joseph Eobertson thought it 

1 (A.D. 1378) Lyon, History of St. Andrews, ii. p. 312. 

2 On the 10th of January 1552-3 Sir David Broun (all churchmen being called .Sir 
in those days), vicar of Edzell, granted a charter of Claypots and Cobisland, on the 
west side of the city of Brechin, to the altar of All Saints, within that cathedral. 
(Reg. Kpific. Brech. i. p. 227.) 



4 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

the most probable site of St. Drostan's Monastery. 1 The earliest 
parson of whom any trace exists bore the name of Elwynus, 
and had been, doubtless, a man of consideration in his day, 
since he witnessed the grant of Warnabalde, ancestor of the 
Earls of Glencairn, and his wife, Rechenda, the daughter and 
heiress of Humphrey of Berkeley, when they gifted their 
Mearns estates to the Abbey of Arbroath. 2 Gilbert was parson 
in 1267, and Walter de Lychtoun rector in 1435. David 
Broun and William Clerk were respectively vicar and chaplain 
in 1522, 3 the former probably residing in Brechin, and the 
latter ministering in a chapel within or connected with the 
parish church. From about 1571 there is preserved a traceable 
succession of ministers. 4 

Beyond the instance already mentioned, we are not aware 
that the revenues of the church were ever applied either for 
the support of monasteries or altarages. The church was 
inscribed to St. Laurence the martyr. A well near the church- 
yard bore his name, and there is also a confused tradition 
regarding a bell, called "the bell of St. Laurence." This 
instrument is said to have been specially rung by the Durays 
of Durayhill, who, as will be shown in a subsequent part of 
this volume, were the hereditary doomsters of the lairds of 
Edzell. Although the bell was only brought to light, after a 
long lapse of years, by being accidentally dragged from the 
bottom of the old well of Durayhill in the early part of the 
present century, and placed in the old church, where it lay 
down to the period of its demolition, it has since been lost 
sight of. 

The loss of this, which was, perhaps, the oldest parochial 
relic, is the more to be regretted, since all description proves it 
to have been an instrument of the most primitive manufac- 

1 Reg. de Panmure, i. pp. lii sq. ; Lives, i. pp. 103, 424. , In this and all subse- 
quent reference to the delightful work entitled Lives of the Lindsays, by Lord 
Lindsay, the late Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, it will be merely noticed as Lives. 

3 (A.D. 1238) Reg. Vet. Aberbrothoc, p. 198. 

Crawf. Case, p. 158; Reg. Episc. Br. i. pp. 8, 79, 227 ; ii. p. 301. 

4 Scott, Fasti, vi. pp. 824 sq. 



EDZELL BELLS AND THEIR USES. 5 

ture, suggesting a comparison with some of those described 
and figured in Wilson's Prehistoric Annals of Scotland. 1 It 
was made of common sheet iron, of a quadrangular form, 
about a foot high, correspondingly wide, and narrowing a 
little towards the top. The handle was placed horizontally on 
the side, passed through the bell, and formed the axle of the 
clapper, that was suspended by an 8. The clapper was of 
wrought iron, shaped somewhat like a purring-iron or poker, 
and is said to have been newer than the bell. 

Bells were used by the first Christian settlers, and were 
ever objects of great veneration, being as duly consecrated as 
the church and pastor. St. Columbkill had one on the famous 
island of loua (commonly, but erroneously, written lona) ; 
and St. Ternan had presented to him by Pope Gregory the 
Great a bell that was deposited beside his relics, and held in 
high veneration at the kirk of Banchory-Ternan, where he 
was buried. Prior to the fashion of administering oaths upon 
the Holy Bible, bells were used for the purpose ; and instances 
are on record of people holding them as evidences of right 
and title to landed property. This was the case with the bell 
of St. Meddan of Airlie. It was resigned by its hereditary 
possessor, the Curate, to Sir John Ogilvy, who gifted it to his 
lady, and in virtue of this she had possession of a house and 
toft near the kirk of Lintrathen, the infeftment being com- 
pleted by her being shut up in a house, and then receiving the 
feudal symbols of earth and stone. 2 Bells were also popularly 
believed to work miracles, and, among other wonders, to 
frighten away the devil from the souls of departing Christians. 
But we owe to a truer feeling the origin of the " warning of 
the passing bell " and of its use at funerals a practice which, 
though one of the oldest and most revered observances of the 

1 Vol. ii. c. 9. 

2 (A.D. mi)Spalding Club Miscel. iv. pp. 117-18. On the probable fate 
of this bell, see Jervise, Epit. i. p. 280. When the reservoir for the water-supply to 
Dundee was being constructed, the fragment of a sculptured cross was found at Lin- 
trathen, and this in all probability was part of the cross of St. Meddan. (Jervise, 
ib. i. p. 364.) 



6 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Koman and English Churches, is yet used in some Presby- 
terian districts, and dealt out on the same pecuniary considera- 
tions as in the days of our forefathers. We do not infer, 
however, although the " toll of the dead bell " may still be 
occasionally heard in Edzell and many neighbouring parishes, 
that the inhabitants place any faith in it as a superstitious 
observance ; but most of them simply retain the custom from 
an idea of respect to the worthy people who have gone, or are 
passing away, before them. Indeed, the practice is now so rare, 
that, when attempted to be used, the sexton frequently rings 
" a merry peal," instead of that deep, solemn, and imposing 
knell, which is so well calculated to strike fear and solemn 
thought to the hearts of even careless listeners. 

The old kirkyard of Edzell whither it was customary for 
the sexton, at no distant date, to precede almost all funeral pro- 
cessions, tolling this unharmonious badge has now a far more 
solitary situation than in days of yore. It occupies the same 
site, it is true, by the side of the West Water, but the church 
is removed, the huge castle is roofless and untenanted, and the 
thriving village is fully a mile distant. The abrupt heights of 
Dunlappie, 1 and the isolated hill of Drummore still rise on 
the north-east and south-west, throwing their deep shadows 
athwart the consecrated spot, and giving a strangely solemn 
hue to the whole locality ; and, barring the thoughtful tread of 
the curious pilgrim, or the hasty step of the few who pass 
engrossed in business, the ancient lords of the district and 
" the rude forefathers of the hamlet" alike enjoy an undis- 
turbed and unvaried repose, well befitting the solemnity and 
awfulness of death. But it was different in old times : the 
clack of the busy mill, and the undisguised laugh of innocent 
childhood, reverberated within a few paces of it ; the sweet- 
scented honeysuckle twined around the door of the miller's 
cottage ; and the healthy vegetable was fostered, with all the 
skill and care then known, near the south-west corner of 

1 Dun-leaba, Fort of the (a) bed, (b) monument, or (c) cromlech. 



EDZELL DRUMMORE AND DUNLAPPIE. 7 

Stopbridge, where the foundations of long-since inhabited tene- 
ments, and pieces of mill gear, are frequently found. 

The now cultivated hill of Drummore was of late covered 
with whins and broom, but in former days had also contained 
cottages with smiling gardens ; and, on the southern extremity, 
upon a small isolated and once moated hillock, stood the 
original castle of Edzell. The spot is still called " the castle 
hillock," and old parishioners have been told by their fathers 
that they remembered two arched chambers being erased, and 
a common blue bottle of antique manufacture found in the 
crevices ; it was full of wine or other liquid. 

This castle, according to tradition, was demolished by the 
ancient lords of Dunlappie, who, it is further affirmed, found 
on returning home from the wars of the Crusades, that the 
lords of Edzell had taken forcible possession of their castle ; 
and therefore commencing a desperate reprisal, they demolished 
the castle, and pillaged and burned the lands of their adver- 
saries. Such is the story but it is much more certain that the 
lands of Dunlappie, at the time referred to, were in the hands 
of the family of Abernethy, 1 although, so far as known, no 
trace of their castle of Poolbrigs 2 (for so their residence was 
called) has been discovered. 

It is therefore apparent, since traces of so many old dwell- 
ings have been found, not only on Drummore Hill, but also on 
that of Edzell, and in the still more immediate vicinity of the 
burial-place, that the kirk had then been rather conveniently 
placed for the mass of the people particularly since there 
was a chapel at Dalbog, on the east side of the parish. But 

1 Duncan, the fifth Earl of Fife, and fourth in descent from the murderer of 
Macbeth, excambed Dunlappie, and Balmadethy in Fearn, with Orem, the son of 
Hew of Abernethy, for the lands of Balberny, in Fife, in Malcolm iv.'s time. 
(Douglas 1 Peerage, ii. p. 466.) And Anegus de Dunlopyn was a charter witness, 
1178-80. (Reg. Vet. Aberbr. p. 62.) In the ancient Taxatio Dunlopin was rated at 
four marks (Reg. Prior. S. Andr. p. 36 ; Reg. Vet. Aberbr. p. 239) ; and in 1585 the 
Hepburns of Lufnes held a third of the lands and barony of Dunlappie with the 
alternate presentation to the benefice. (Inquis. Spec., Forfar. No. 15.) 

2 This castle probably stood on the west side of the West Water, opposite the 
oldest castle of Edzell. The name may mean " the Pool of the Lie," or the 
treacherous pool. 



LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

as the feudal importance of the house of Edzell declined, the 
occupation of its numerous retainers, who inhabited those 
dwellings, necessarily ceased, and, several small pendicles being 
thrown together, the bulk of the population naturally sought a 
place more convenient for mutual labour, and more accessible 
to merchants and markets. Thus, the hillside becoming de- 
serted, the plain was peopled, and the village of Slateford 
gradually increased until it assumed its present important and 
burgh-like form. Thither the church was removed in 1818, 
when the old one was pulled down to furnish materials for 
the erection of the new. 

The old kirk and kirkyard were within the same delta as 
the original castle, and, down to a late period, were often of 
difficult and dangerous access. Before the Stop-bridge was 
thrown over the so-called old channel of the West Water, the 
inhabitants of the eastern parts of the parish had to ford the 
den on stepping-stones and ladders, and this mode of transit 
being impracticable when the river was swollen, the session 
records frequently mention that there was no sermon, because 
of " the watters being in spaitt." l Latterly the kirk assumed a 
most comfortless aspect ; the snow and rain found easy access 
through the roof, and the floor being some inches lower than 
the surrounding ground, the area was frequently under water. 

But of this old fane, where so many of the proud lords of 
Edzell and their humble retainers bowed the knee, the aisle 
alone remains. The not inelegant semicircular arch, that 
separated the kirk from the aisle, is built up, the old area is 
used as a place of common sepulture, and, within the last half 
century, the bell has been transferred to the new church, while 
the belfry, being allowed to fall into decay, has disappeared 
before the new roof with its projecting hood. Although an 
object of no great antiquity, the presence of .the bell added 
considerably to the romantic aspect of the place, and having, 
together with a hand-bell, been made from a mould con- 

i Edzell Par. Reg. Nov. 12, 1648, et sq. 



EDZELL OLD KIRK AND MINISTERS. 

structed by an ingenious villager, and cast in the woods of 
Edzell by a band of tinkers, who had made good their quarters 
there, it may be said to possess a more than ordinary local 
interest. It now lies at the new church, but we hope is not, 
like the bell of St. Laurence, to be altogether lost. 1 

The old kirk of Edzell was perhaps among the earliest 
slated of our landward churches ; for, in 1641, we are not only 
informed that a payment in Scotch money was made to " the 
sclaitter for poynting the kirke," but we have a glimpse at the 
extras or overpayments of the time, in the curious item of 
" mair of drink siluer to hys boy, 6d." 2 

Nothing is known of the state of religion here prior to the 
date of the parochial register, which begins on the 3d of 
January 1641, in the time of Mr. Togo ; but there is no reason 
to believe that " the new doctrine" was introduced earlier than 
in other parts of the shire. It might be curious to know, 
though we are not aware if it could be ascertained, whether 
Edzell was among those parishes that were supplied by one 
of the " manie popishe preistis, unabill and of wicked life," 
whose conduct was winked at by the Superintendent Erskine ; 3 
but it is certain that Sir David of Edzell, who succeeded his 
father in 1558, as well as his excellent brother, Lord Menmuir, 
espoused the reformed doctrines, and that they were religiously 
cherished by all their successors. Indeed, so attached, was the 
grandfather of the last laird to the cause of the Covenant, that 
in its support he raised a regiment that was known by his 
own name; 4 and in the Parliament of 1662, the Earl of 
Middleton fined him in the large sum of 3000. Kirk-sessions 
were prohibited from being held in the parish from the time of 
"the blessed restoratioun" until 1662, and on being resumed 

1 The old kirk bell bears : "THE PARISH OP EDZELL - MR. IAMES . 

THOMSON MINH. MADE AT SOLAT FORD BY IOHN EASTON 1726." Oil 

the hand-bell : "EDZELL PARISH IOA EASTON FECIT 1726." The bell on 
the new kirk bears the date of 1819. 
* Old Slot. Acct. Scot. x. p. 112. 

3 Booke of the Universall Kirk of Scotland, p. 25, 

4 Menmuir Par. Reg. Aug. 11, 1050. 



10 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

by order of the Bishop and Presbytery, Mr. Dempster " begood 
the administration of discipline." From that time matters 
moved smoothly on, till the overthrow of Episcopacy at the 
time of the Kevohition. But so strongly were the ecclesiastical 
changes then made felt, that, under the banner of " the last 
laird," the opposition there was carried to perhaps a higher 
pitch than in any neighbouring district. 

It is true that the Earl of Southesk's factor forced the 
adjoining parishioners of Stracathro, under pain of being 
carried to the Pretender's camp at Perth, to meet him " at the 
head of eighty men under arms, with beating drums, and 
flying colours," and to join with him in a day of humiliation 
and prayer " for success to the Pretender's army," 1 but it does 
not appear that so forcible means were employed there against 
the introduction of the Presbyterian minister as at Edzell. 
Both by fair means and foul, David Lindsay, lord of the 
manor, exerted himself to the utmost for the maintenance and 
propagation of his cause; and, although prohibited by the 
Lords of Justiciary from the use of the church, and forbidden 
to preach in the parish, the minister, who was a namesake 
of the laird, and encouraged and protected by him in every 
possible manner, openly taught seditious principles " prayed 
for the popish pretender as King of those realms," and 
" preached in the great hall of Edzell" to assembled multi- 
tudes. In like manner they also managed all parochial 
business as " the Kirk-session of Edzell," relieved the poor of 
the parish, elected a schoolmaster, and, until active measures 
were taken by Government for the minister's removal, they 
successfully maintained their position against all and sundry. 

In this state of matters, on the 26th of August 1714, the 
Presbytery of Brechin ordained the Eev. Mr. Gray as Mr. 
Lindsay's successor. But it could scarcely be supposed that one 
of so bold and impetuous a temperament as the laird would 
quietly submit to have his power thus set aside, and the 

1 Stracathro Par. Reg. Nov. 2, 1715 ; Fraser, Hist. Carnegies, i. p. 179. 



EDZELL MR. GRAY'S ORDINATION. 11 

important adjunct of patron of the parish summarily wrested 
out of his hands. It was, indeed, a fitting opportunity for a 
display of his determined character ; and, although aware that 
ere long he would require to bid the lands of his forefathers 
adieu for ever, he resolved to support his feudal title to them, 
in all its bearings, so long as he held possession. Accordingly, 
on the Sunday after Mr. Gray's ordination, which the Pres- 
bytery found necessary for safety's sake to conduct at Brechin, 
" the doors of the church were shut [against him] by order of 
the laird ;" and, for want of better accommodation, he preached 
his first sermon in the open air. 

For some reason or other not specified perhaps through 
the laird's absence from the parish Mr. Gray had admission 
to the church on the two Sundays following, but on the third 
and fourth thereafter, he and another minister were not only 
excluded, together with their followers, " whom they had 
brought with them from Brechin," but were all " most 
inhumanly and barbarously treated " by the Jacobites. None 
abashed, however, the Presbyterians persevered in maintaining 
their ground, and on the 3d of October the crisis was reached. 
Mr. Gray and his party had no sooner arrived at the church than, 
under the laird's directions, they were violently assaulted by 
a band of men and women, who beat and maltreated them in 
every conceivable way, by cutting their clothes, stabbing and 
beating them with " durks, and stones, and rungs," and forcing 
them to wade to and fro in the adjoining river. 1 It was only 
at that time that Mr. Gray abandoned his post. He then 
claimed protection from the civil authorities, and until the 
following January did not re-appear in the parish. Matters 
being then amicably settled, he resumed his labours in peace, 
and the Episcopalians delivered over to him the " communion 
vessells and vestments," which they had all along retained and 
made use of. During the disturbances of the " forty-five " 
matters were otherwise conducted, for then the kirk-session 

1 See APPENDIX, No. I. 



12 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

were declared to have acted an exemplary part " in the late 
unnatural rebellion ;" and, with the exception of the formation 
of a Free Church congregation which occurred here, as in most 
other parts of the country, in 1843, the parishioners may be 
said, ever since the notorious " rabble" of 1714, to have moved 
on quietly in " the noiseless tenor of their way." 

None of the succeeding clergymen or schoolmasters, so far 
as we are aware, were famous for anything beyond their 
immediate sphere of duties, except that Mr. James Murison, 
who was translated to Kinnell in 1743, became Principal of 
St. Mary's College, St. Andrews. The schoolmasters seem to 
have been good useful men in their time, with the exception 
of one " heartless pedagogue who belonged to the town of 
Cromarty." When scarcely a year in office he was " detected 
privately in the night tyme treacherously stealing of a part 
of our Sessione records wherein was contained baptisms and 
marriges," l and, fearing the worst, he clandestinely departed, 
and was never again seen in the district. But of all his suc- 
cessors, the name of Mr. Bonnyman, who nourished towards 
the close of last century, lives most vividly in the minds of 
the parishioners. 

Though best remembered in the rather unenviable character 
of a miser, to which, if tales are true, he had too legitimate 
a claim, he had also the reputation of being an eminent scholar, 
and, prior to his settlement at Edzell, was tutor in the noble 
family of Kintore. Loath to expend money on fire to cook his 
food, or to warm himself in all but the severest frosts of 
winter, he nightly lurked about the blazing hearths of the 
villagers, went daily from house to house with his " brose cap " 
under his arm, and made choice of the " broo " of the " fattest 
kail pot " to slake his scanty supply of meal ! 2 He was a big 
gruff man, and when in full Sunday habit sported " a three- 



1 Edzell Par. Reg. 1706. 

2 Brose is " a kind of pottage made by pouring water or broth on meal, which is 
stirred in while the liquid is boiling." (Jamieson, Scot. Diet, in voce.) 



EDZELL MR. MILLAR, THE MINISTER. 13 

nookit bus'ness," or sort of cocked hat; but when on his 
brose-making excursions he wore a broad blue bonnet with 
scarlet brim, an old-fashioned drab great-coat thrown loosely 
over his shoulders, and fastened at the neck with a big buckle 
presenting altogether more the appearance of a sturdy beggar 
than the learned instructor of the parish, or the possessor, as 
he was in reality, of some hundreds of pounds. 

As his contemporary David Millar the minister also 
gained a provincial notoriety, it will perhaps excuse our 
noticing him at some length. This arose, however, not cer- 
tainly from the penuriousness of his habits, but from the 
lamentable manner in which he is reported to have closed his 
career. It is admitted by all that his learning was surpassed 
only by his eloquence as a preacher, and by his gentlemanly 
bearing and generosity of heart, for his ear was ever open to 
the tale of distress, and his hand ever ready to afford relief. 
Unlike Mr. Bonnyman, he was an enthusiastic gambler, and 
from his expertness in this respect, as well as having a kindly 
disposition, he was courted by surrounding landlords, and pos- 
sessed more influence than any of his brethren. But, with all 
these accomplishments and many admirable mental qualities, 
the strange infatuation of his nature, and the circumstances 
of his death, teach a sad lesson of human frailty, and its 
certain consequences. He had been fifteen years in the parish, 
when his death occurred in 1788. 

Dining on one occasion at a neighbouring mansion with 
a large party of gentlemen, the game of hazard was, as usual, 
their after-dinner amusement. The stakes being heavy, and 
the minister fortunate, the fairness of his play was questioned, 
and an angry altercation ensuing, one of the losing party, in 
the heat of passion, lifted a candlestick from the table and 
felled the minister to the floor. From the injuries thus 
inflicted, he is said to have almost immediately expired ; but 
the matter being quietly managed, the circumstance never was 
publicly noticed, and all the parties concerned, with a genera- 



U LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

tion or two to boot, have now gone to their reckoning. Still, 
the generous character of the minister, and the sad nature of 
his death, live in the memories of the children of those to 
whom his goodness of heart and other amiable qualities were 
known. 



SECTION II. 

See yonder hallow d fane ! the pious -work 
Of names once famed, now dubious or forgot , 
And buried midst the wreck of things which were ; 
There lie interr'd the more illustrious dead. 

Strange things, the neighbours say, have happen d here : 
Wild shrieks have issued from the hollow tombs : 
Dead men have come again, and walk'd about ; 
And the great bell has toll' d, unrung, untouch'd. 

BLAIR'S "GRAVE." 

Burial aisle Lady Lindsay raised from a trance Major Wood Traditions of his 
death and burial Rev. George Low of Birsay Kirk and lands of Neudos 
Story of St. Drostan's well Chapelry and castle of Dalbog. 

THE place of burial of the barons of Edzell, which was attached 
to the south side of the kirk, is still entire, and formed the 
aisle in old times. It is a plain, unostentatious mausoleum, 
rather at variance with the wealth and power of its noble 
founder, but in good keeping with his solemn and benign cha- 
racter. It was erected about the middle of the sixteenth 
century, by David Lindsay of Edzell, who became the ninth 
Earl of Crawford, and the kirk had, perhaps, been rebuilt and 
slated at the same time. In the south wall there is a recess 
five feet eight inches long, not unlike to that in St. Palladius' 
chapel, Fordoun, but with mouldings slightly more ornate, 
jambs shortened, and arch much flattened. In the east wall 
there is an ambry with pointed top, and simple moulding. 

The roof of the aisle is covered with grey slates, and has 
recently been repaired j 1 and the large window on the south is 
guarded by heavy stanchions of iron, which had probably been 

* In the autumn of 1881 the Editor was intrusted by the Dowager Lady Crawford 
with the work of having a thorough and substantial repair put upon the whole aisle. 
This was completed in the end of January following, and thanks to her Ladyship 
were expressed by the kirk-session of Edzell in a minute of date March 3, 1882. 



EDZELL LINDSAY BURIAL AISLE. 15 

dug from native mines, and smelted in the locality, as, it is 
said, was the fine grated door at Invermark Castle. Earl David 
was buried here at his own request ; so were his first spouse, 
Janet Gray (who predeceased him in 1549), and the most of 
their successors. The aisle is entered by a small door on the 
west, and a flight of steps, hewn of the soft red sandstone of 
the locality, leads to the gloomy chamber. Internally, the 
vault is only nine feet five inches square, and six feet high, 
the floor being evenly paved with slabs laid in a soft white 
clay. The sides and roof are of solid ashlar, constructed with 
great care, and the centre of the groined roof terminates in the 
mortuary semblance of four skulls, cut by a bold chisel. An 
iron ring is fixed in the midst of these for suspending the 
lamp, which was believed to light the souls of the departed 
through the unknown maze to eternal bliss. But of all the 
powerful personages here interred, no memorial exists to per- 
petuate their individual characters, or even their names. It is 
true that a large slab, with a sculpture of the Lindsay and 
Abernethy arms, and a few stray words and letters upon it, 
was thrown from the aisle at the destruction of the old kirk. 
But it now lies broken in several pieces in the grave-yard ; 
and, so far as can be judged from the style of its carving for 
it is much mutilated and effaced it had belonged to about the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. 1 

Only one tradition is known regarding the family of Edzell 
and this vault ; and, as a matter of course, it is fraught with 
much of the romance incident to the dreamings of a remote 
age, but it is also told of other families. Divested, however, of 
its accustomed minuteness, story has failed to preserve the 



1 Besides sculptures of the family arms, 
the stone bears the initials " A. L." on 
the sinister side, and "W. . . ."on the 
dexter. A perpendicular line, which runs 
about two-thirds down the middle, bears 
these words : " .... VMINE TVO 
. LVMEN." The following are the only 
other words and letters decipherable : 



IN VITA ET IN 

CHRISTV8 

. KV . 



HJEC IOANES L 
ER GERMANVS 
ORI8 ERGO POSVI 



16 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

name of the heroine, but it is uniformly affirmed that she was 
the wife of one of the lairds, was buried in a trance, and 
so loaded with rich and valuable jewelry that the sexton's 
avariciousness got excited to the highest pitch. Bent on 
obtaining the treasure at all hazards, he stole under night to 
her lonely sanctuary, and soon succeeded in putting himself in 
possession of the whole, except the massive rings which girded 
her swollen fingers. These he eyed with great admiration, and 
having failed to gain them by ordinary means, he resolved to 
amputate the fingers. A slight movement of the body, and the 
faint exclamation of " Alas ! " staggered his valour the knife 
dropped from his guilty hand he trembled from head to foot, 
and fell senseless on the' cold damp floor, amidst crazy trestles 
and musty bones ! 

Meanwhile, the lady, disentangling herself from her shroud, 
snatched the glimmering taper in one hand, and, raising her 
unexpected deliverer with the other, led him forth from the 
vault. Restored to consciousness, he craved mercy on bended 
knees ; and, although the lady assured him of a handsome 
reward from her husband if he would accompany her to the 
castle, he begged for leave to flee from his native land ; while 
she, with a heart grateful for the restoration of life, kindly 
permitted him to retain his sacrilegious spoil, and the greedy 
sexton was never heard of more ! 

This romantic story will remind the reader of the extra- 
ordinary case of the lady's kinsman, Sir William Lindsay of 
Covington, who, under like circumstances, was laid out for 
dead ; and, if his young great-granddaughter had not observed 
" his beard to wagg," he might also, instead of personally greet- 
ing the assembly of relatives and friends who met to attend his 
funeral, have undergone the same ordeal of premature burial. 1 
It may be worthy of notice, that cases of protracted slumber 
were not confined to the direct members of the great family of 
Lindsay, but were also common to some oi those who walked 

1 Lives, ii. p. 287- 



EDZELL MAJOK WOOD. 17 

in humble life, it being scarcely fifty years since the grave 
closed on a poor female of the same name, called Euphemia, 
or, more familiarly, " Sleepin' Effie Lindsay." This singular 
creature belonged to the parish of Guthrie, but latterly resided 
in Cortachy, and, on various occasions, lay in a state of utter 
unconsciousness for a fortnight or more at a time. These 
soporific attacks were periodical in her case : all attempts to 
arouse her from them were in vain ; and, after lying in that 
morbid condition for the long and almost incredible period 
of six weeks, she at last expired, unconscious, it is believed, 
of her approaching end. 

The ashes of Major James Wood lie within the bounds of 
the same cemetery with those of the great lords of Edzell ; and, 
as his history is intimately associated with the traditions of 
the locality, some notice of him may not be inaptly classed 
under this head. This well-known veteran (a cadet of the old 
house of Balbegno) resided at Invereskandy, and is popularly 
said to have been factor to the penultimate laird of Edzell. 
His old dwelling, latterly converted into a barn, had thick 
walls and small windows, with cut lintels of rather superior 
workmanship ; these may show the consequence of the place 
and the status of its old occupant, but all trace of the building 
has now disappeared. 

The Major is represented as a tall, robust person, equally 
hard of heart and of feature, and, were tradition to receive 
implicit credit, he was destitute of all those qualities that 
render one fellow-creature the cherished friend of another. 
Indeed, the factorship has been characterised as more the pas- 
time, and the horrid scenes of debauchery and seduction really 
the business, of his every-day life. It is needless to say that he 
was famed in the district, and looked upon as little short of a 
demon in human form, so that the fine ford in the immediate 
neighbourhood of his house was only taken advantage of during 
his absence, or in the hours of his repose. One sweet and 
guileless maiden, who unwarily crossed the ford when inviting 

B 



18 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

some friends to her approaching marriage, was pounced upon 
by him in a lone dreary part of the muir, and only after a 
severe struggle, succeeded in extricating herself from his grasp. 
Eunning towards the river, she sprang in her confusion from 
the high banks into a deep pool, and fell a victim to the 
rolling waters. 

Such are some of the tales still told of the Major, who, like 
other mortals, came to his end. Had he done so rashly, or by 
open violence, then local story would have been deprived of a 
favourite subject of conversation and obloquy. The common 
belief in the reputed awfulness of his deathbed, which is now 
proverbial, may be gathered from the following, which is the 
only remembered stanza of a long poem composed on the 
occasion, by an almost unlettered provincial bard, that lived 
towards the close of last century : 

" An' when the Major was a-deein', 
The de'il cam like a corbie fleein' ; 
An' o'er his bed-head he did lour, 
Speerin 's news, ye may be sure ! " 

In truth, it is popularly believed that the Major did not 
die, as implied by the common sense of the term, but was 
suffocated by having a quantity of daich, or dough, stuffed into 
his mouth to check his blasphemous ravings ! He was buried 
near to the south-west corner of the Lindsay vault, under a 
large flag-stone, on which are seen a blank shield and the 
illegible remains of an inscription. 

An incident equally characteristic of the credulity of the 
period is related concerning the translation of his body to the 
grave. While the company rested on their way to the church- 
yard, the coffin suddenly became so heavy that it could not be 
carried farther. In this singular dilemma, the minister had 
courage to crave the aid of Omnipotence, and fervently ex- 
claimed : " Lord ! whoever was at the beginning of this, let 
him be at the end of it," when the coffin turned as marvellously 
light as before it was heavy !" 



EDZELL MAJOR WOOD'S REAL CHARACTER. 19 

Still, though the Major and his evil deeds were hid from 
mortal eyes, the parishioners were so prejudiced against the spot 
where he lay, and even the spokes which bore him thither, 
that none of them would allow their relations to be buried 
in the former, or carried on the latter. Mr. Bonnyman, the 
eccentric schoolmaster already mentioned, is said to have been 
the first to break down this barrier of superstition and credulity, 
by giving strict orders, on his own approaching dissolution, 
that his body should be carried on the rejected bearers, and 
laid in the same grave with that of the Major. Excited by 
curiosity, while Mr. Bonnyman's grave was being made, many 
persons went to view the spot, and some believed that among 
the remains of his once gigantic frame they discovered traces 
of the dough with which he is said to have been hurried out 
of existence ! 

Such are a few of the traditions regarding this dreaded son 
of Mars, which, if but half as true as reported, are enough to 
satisfy the most prurient taste. But doubting the existence of 
so heartless a monster, except in the excitable minds of the 
superstitious, and desiring to find some real trace of his life 
and transactions, we set inquiry on foot in the records within 
our reach, and have found such direct and conclusive proofs 
of his engagements and doings, during a long period of his life, 
as to show that the demoniacal actions imputed to him were 
merely the offspring of imagination, and were most probably 
suggested by the well-known deeds of another and more 
justly notorious Major, the celebrated Weir (who was contem- 
poraneous with Wood), the account of whose " Damnable 
Historic" has been circulated among the peasantry of Scot- 
land ever since its first publication. 

Though the discipline of the Church was lax at the period, 
and pecuniary donations had vast influence with her, it can 
scarcely be believed that, if the character of Wood was fraught 
even with a tithe of the ferocity with which tradition has 
clothed it, he would have either been invested with the respon- 



20 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

sible office of an elder of the parish, or been recognised as a 
witness to the baptism of several children of families of known 
respectability. Nor can it be presumed that the partner of his 
bosom could for a moment have tolerated such doings ; for in 
her to whom, by the way, tradition never so much as once 
alludes we find, from the nature of her gifts to " halie kirke," 
the beau-idfal of a religious and God-fearing woman, while 
the Major's provision for her after his decease, and his mortifi- 
cation to the poor, show a spirit of charity, as well as of con- 
jugal love and affection, equal at least to that of most men. 
These traditions may therefore, as a whole, be safely set down 
among those in which truth and fiction are strangely and un- 
accountably mingled. 1 

The old kirkyard of Edzell also contains the ashes of the 
parents and other near relatives of one who, in the midst of 
many disadvantages, rose to high eminence in the laborious 
study of natural history, and could number among his intimate 
friends the celebrated Sir Joseph Banks, Dr. Solander, and Mr. 
Pennant. This was George Low, afterwards minister of Birsay 
and Harray, the industrious author of Fauna Orcadensis and 
Flora Orcadensis, and translator of Torfseus' History of 
Orkney. He was born in the village of Edzell, in March 1747. 2 
His mother's name was Coupar ; his father, a small crofter, 
held the humble appointment of kirk-officer, and died when 

1 In May and June 1659, Major Wood is a witness cited by the Presbytery of 
Brechin to bear testimony to the good character of Mr. Andrew Straiten, afterwards 
minister of Oathlaw (Br. Presb. Book). It appears from the Parish Register of Ed- 
zell, that on the 15th of January 1684, Major James Wood was elected an elder, and 
on the 5th of January 1685, he was present at the baptism of a son of John Lyndsay 
in Dalbog. In July and August of the same year, his wife presented a mortcloth to 
the church, and a table-cloth for the communion-table ; and on the 6th of October 
1695, ' ' a band was given in by Mr. John Lindsay, factor to the Laird of Edzell, 
for two hundred and fiftie marks, mortified to the poore of Edzell, by Major James 
Wood, only payable after the decease of Margrat Jackson, his relick, by whom it is 
presented, and ane receipt given by the minister and session to the said Margrat 
Jackson, acknowledging hir right to the interest y r of for the forsaid soume, during 
hir lyfetyme, according to the Letter will of the defunct." 

2 Erroneously printed 1746 in many biographies. "1747, March 29; George 
Low, lawfull son of John Low, kirk-officer, and Isabel Coupar his spouse, baptized. " 
(Par. Reg. of Edzell.) 



EDZELL REV. GEORGE LOW. 21 

George was only thirteen years of age, leaving the son and two 
daughters. The daughters were married to respectable villagers 
of Edzell, of the names of Thomson and Lindsay. The latter was 
an ingenious self-taught mechanic, who to his trade of general 
merchant added that of watch and clock maker ; and having 
had his shop robbed on an Edzell market night, the peculiarity 
of the tools with which he wrought led to the discovery of the 
thief, a notorious provincial highwayman, who, for a similar 
crime, was hanged on Balmashanner Hill, at Forfar, in 1785, 
and is said to have been the last person that suffered capital 
punishment by the decree of any Sheriff-depute in Scotland. 

Low began his studies at Aberdeen, and afterwards went 
to St. Andrews. Being taken to Orkney in 1766, by Mr. 
Alison, then minister at Holm, he became tutor to the family 
of Mr. Grahame, a wealthy merchant in Stromness, with whom 
he remained six years. While there, he studied assiduously for 
the ministry, and, his divinity studies being incomplete, he 
received " lessons," as was then usual in such cases, from some 
of the ministers in the Presbytery, in order to prepare him 
for examination previous to licence as a preacher. 

On leaving the family of Mr. Grahame, he went to Shetland, 
where he preached in various parts for two years, and during 
that time he became acquainted with Mr. Pennant, whom he 
accompanied on his tour through Shetland. From his great 
botanical knowledge, he was of much service to Mr. Pennant, 
through whose influence Sir Lawrence Dundas, then patron of 
most of the churches of Orkney and Shetland, presented Mr. 
Low to that of Birsay and Harray, where he was settled on the 
14th of December 1774. Two years afterwards he married 
Helen, daughter of his former benefactor, " the learned Mr. 
Tyrie, of Sandwich," but she died within sixteen months, after 
giving birth to a still-born child. Her husband survived until 
the 13th of March 1795, 1 and dying at Birsay, was buried in 
the church below the pulpit. A correspondent informs us that 

* Presb. Rec. Cairston, 18th March 1795. 



22 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

" he latterly accustomed himself to study in bed, which, on 
many occasions, was more like the dormitory of the dead than 
of the living." 

In addition to the works above noticed, Mr. Low left a 
History of Orkney in manuscript, which fell into the hands of 
Mr. Alison of Holm, who gave it to Dr. Barry, by whom " it was 
laid under heavy obligations in compiling his work ; " and 
although he was indebted to it for the greater part of the 
Appendix, in which he treats of the natural history of Orkney, 
Barry nowhere acknowledges his obligations to Mr. Low, whose 
manuscript is still in existence. 1 

As a preacher, Mr. Low was good, plain, and practical, and 
although he had the misfortune to lose his eyesight five years 
before his death, his blindness, so far from disqualifying him 
for preaching, made his addresses all the more effective. He 
dispensed the sacrament only three times during his incum- 
bency, and intended, a little before his death, to dispense it a 
fourth time. Dissent was unknown in the parish in his day, 
and, although there are now seven or eight different places 
of worship, the standard of religious knowledge and practice is 
said to have been higher then than at any subsequent period. 2 

Besides the old parish church, the district of Edzell contains 
the remains of three other ecclesiastical establishments. These 
are at Dalbog, Colmeallie, and Neudos. The first is mentioned 
in the ancient Taxatio and the printed Eetours ; the second is 
merely referred to as a so-called Druidical circle, and as such 
will be noticed in a subsequent chapter ; while the third was 
a well-known separate parish down to a comparatively recent 
date. Unlike its fellows, Neudos lies in the county of Kin- 

1 Mr. Low's Tour through Orkney and Shetland, in 1774, was published at Kirk- 
wall in 1879, with an introduction by Mr. Joseph Anderson, in which is given an 
account of Mr. Low, and of the fate of his manuscripts, so far as known. 

2 The public are indebted for many of these interesting particulars regarding 
Mr. Low to the kindness of the Rev. Dr. Samuel Traill, who was incumbent of Birsay 
and Harray, and is now Professor of Systematic Theology in the University of 
Aberdeen. Of his informant, the late Mr. George Louttit, parochial schoolmaster, 
Dr. Traill could say that he, when in his eighty -fifth year, "bears a kindly recollec* 
tion of Mr. Low, to whom he was greatly indebted for the education he received." 



EDZELL NEUDOS. 23 

cardine, immediately north-east of the estate of The Burn, and 
part of it anciently belonged to the widespread and wealthy 
regality of Torphichen, the principal preceptory of the Knights 
of St. John of Jerusalem, who were superiors of lands through- 
out all the counties of Scotland, with the exception of Argyll, 
Bute, and Orkney. 

The date of the first grant of lands in the parish of Neudos 
to the Knights is unknown, but the parish was in the diocese 
of St. Andrews, and paid an annual to that cathedral of four 
marks Scots. The thick, closely cemented foundations of the 
church are traceable in the kirkyard, which is still used for 
interments, and the baptismal font, of an octagonal shape, is 
broken in two pieces, which are used as grave-marks. 

In the beginning of the thirteenth century, Bricius was 
" persona de Neudonase," l and in that of the sixteenth, David 
Ogilvy was " rector de Newdosk." 2 The latest notice of Neudos 
as an independent cure occurs in the Register of Ministers for 
1567, when, together with Fordoun and Fettercairn (Fethir- 
kairne), it was superintended by a clergyman named Peter 
Bouncle, who had twenty-two pounds Scots for his labours, 
" with the support of the Priour of St. Androis." The precise 
time of its union with Edzell has not been ascertained, but it 
must be considerably more than two hundred years ago, as 
prior to that time the first notice occurs of the inhabitants 
attending the kirk of Edzell, in this quaint but satisfactory 
record : " Given to Androw, the minister's man, for putting y e 
people of Newdosk over the watter in a coble, 20s." 3 

In a field called " Piper's-shade," nearly a mile east of the 
site of the old kirk, a copious fountain still bears the name of 
" St. Dristan," or St. Drostan, to whom, in all likelihood, the 
kirk had been dedicated. Like most other sacred springs, this 
is said to have wrought many miraculous cures ; and, from the 

1 Misc. Sp. Club, v. p. 213. 2 Reg. JSpisc. Brech. ii. p. 165. 

8 Edzell Par. Reg. Jan. 1662. Scott, Fasti, vi. p. 827, says it was united to 
Edzell before 5th August 1658> and the church was ruinous in 1610. 



24 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

waters proving remedial in all sorts of disease, the Esculapian 
craft felt their occupation so much endangered that a few of 
the hardiest of them went to poison the fountain; but the 
neighbours, hearing of their intention, fell upon them with 
sticks and stones, and killing the whole of them, had their 
carcases buried around the well ! 

The farm adjoining the graveyard is called Kirktou, and on 
the west side of the burn lies " the manse field," within which 
an angular patch of land, of an acre in extent, is known as 
" the glebe," and was perhaps of old the temple lands. It is 
certain that this isolated acre is the only part of the Panmure 
estates that lies in the county of Kincardine, and it is let to 
the farmer of Auchmull and Dooly, who sublets it to the tenant 
of Kirkton, in the midst of whose ground it is situated. At 
some distance to the eastward from the kirk there was a 
sheet of water called " The Cardinal's Pool," and on the farm 
of Bonharry there stood the "Auld Ha'," while one of the 
fields is stiU called the " Dookit Park." 

Though now known as Balfour, 1 the whole district was 
anciently designed " the thanedome of Neudos," or, as more 
recently written, Newdoskis, or Newdosk, holding in part, as 
already seen, of the Knights of St. John. It acquired the name 
of " thanage," or " thanedome," from having been anciently 
under the management of thanes, or king's stewards ; for, 
down to the year 1365, no family is mentioned in a proprietary 
relation to it, though Eonald Cheyne had already a charter for 
the thanedom. But, of that date, King David gave two charters 
with a grant of " all the king's lands in the thanedom of New- 
dosk," 2 to Sir Alexander Lindsay of Crawford, father of the 
first Lindsay designated " of Glenesk." In the beginning of 
the seventeenth century, the Lindsays of Edzell held the office 
of bailie of the temple-lands of Newdosk and regality of 
Torphichen within their bounds. 3 

1 Bal-fuar, " cold town" a not inapt name for the place. 
Robertson, Ind. pp. 33. 37 ; 34. 15 ; 79. 130. 
3 Inquis. Spec., Forfar. Nos. 71, 82. 



EDZELL DALBOG FINELLA. 25 

The Chapelry of Dalbog 1 was on the east side of the parish, 
due west of Neudos, and in the ancient Taxatio " Dulbdok or 
Dulbrothoc" was rated at 10s. The time of the suppression 
of the chapel is unknown, but though no vestige of any 
house remains, the site of the place of worship is still called 
the "chapel kirk shade" by old people ; and at no very distant 
date, a fine well, and hamlet of houses, graced the spot. The 
site adjoins the hillock of Tornacloch, or " the knoll of stones," 
which was probably so named, from being topt in old times by 
a so-called Druidical circle, the last of the stones of which 
were removed only in 1 840. Some of them are placed on a 
gravel mound behind the farm-house, but, on levelling the 
knoll on which they had stood, a small sepulchral chamber was 
discovered, about four feet below the surface. The sides, ends, 
and bottom were built of round ordinary-sized whinstones, 
cemented with clay, and the top composed of large rude flags. 
It was situated on the sunny side of the knoll, within the 
range of the circle, but was so filled with gravel, that although it 
was carefully searched, no relics were found. The building was 
about eighteen inches broad, a foot high, and nearly five feet 
long, and, at the south end, amidst the clammy earth that 
covered the bottom, an indentation was observed resembling 
that which would be caused by the pressure of a human head. 

According to popular story, Conquhare, the famous thane 
of Angus, who was butchered in cold blood by his own grand- 
son, Crathilinthus the son of Finella, had his residence here. 
But, whatever truth may be in the story of his murder and 
Finella's well-known revenge on the person of King Kenneth, 
who had ordered Crathilinthus to be executed, there is no 
reason for believing that the unfortunate Conquhare abode in 
this quarter. He was one of the old Maormors of Angus a 
predecessor of the great Gilchrist and their residence and 

1 Gael. Dail-bog, "the flat or plain of the bog." The "Dulbdok" in the Register 
of St. Andrews, and "Dulbrothoc," in that of Arbroath, are one and the same, and 
supposed to be Dalbog. The name is written " Devilbog," in an infeftment of 1518. 
{Crawford Case, p. 158 ; Reg. Prior. S. Andr. p. 36 ; Reg. Vet. Aberbr. p. 240.) 



26 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

heritage were in another and more southern part of the shire, 
near Dundee ; but, of the existence of a castle at Dalbog, 
there is not the least shadow of doubt, though, perhaps, it 
cannot lay claim to the antiquity popularly assigned to it. 

A building, with very thick walls, lately erased at the east 
end of the farm-house of the Wood of Dalbog, was known by 
the name of " the castle." The " Wicked Master" took forcible 
possession of this stronghold in the time of Earl David of 
Edzell, and from it carried on his predatory raids over the 
district and tenantry of Glenesk and neighbourhood. At an 
earlier period, too, the lands of Dalbog were a part of the terce 
of the Duchess of Montrose, of which Nicholas Fothringham 
of Powry attempted to deprive her. 1 It was in this vicinity, 
also, that Sir David of Edzell had smelting furnaces erected. 
Although all trace of these, and the mineral they were raised 
to purify, together with the castle and mains of Dalbog, are 
now gone, the house at the old mill, with the date 1681 (refer- 
ring to the occupancy of John Lindsay, who was long factor on 
the estates), still bears an air of importance. 



SECTION III. 

He is past, he is gone, like the blast of the wind, 
And has left but the fame of his exploits behind ; 
And now wild is the sorrow and deep is the wail, 
As it sweeps from Glenesk to the far Wauchopdale. 

Bright star of the morning that beamed on the brow 
Of our chief of ten thousand, O where art thou now ? 
The sword of our fathers is cankered with rust, 
And the race of Clan Lindsay is bowed to the dust. 

EARL CRAWFORD'S CORONACH. 

Families of Adzell and Abbe Knocquy Hill De Glenesk family De Strivelyn 
Marriage of Sir Alexander Lindsay with Catherine Stirling Story of Jackie 
Stir lin' Origin of the name and family of Lindsay David, first Earl of Craw- 
ford Sir Alexander Lindsay of Kinneff Sir Walter Lindsay of Edzell Sir 
David, ninth Earl of Crawford The " Wicked Master" His son. 

THE properties of Edzell and Glenesk have been joined 
together, as they are at present, from the earliest record ; and 

1 Ada Dom. Cone. Mar. 14, 1492, sq. 



EDZELL FAMILY " DE GLENESK." 27 

being both known by the common name of GlenesTc, the sur- 
name of " de Glenesk" was not only assumed by the most 
ancient owners of these lands, but also gave title to many 
of their followers, and now perhaps appears under the name 
Glennie. This may be the reason why the former district, 
which ultimately assumed the more important position of the 
two, is so seldom mentioned in comparison with the latter. 

It is not, however, to be inferred, although the ancient 
lords of Glenesk had their name from thence, that the family 
of Adzell also, that survived in the lowland district till past 
the middle of the fifteenth century, were lords of the lands from 
which they assumed their cognomen. It was not an infrequent 
custom for the vassal to take his surname from the lands 
that he held under some great lord, as in the case of Eossy, 
of which the Norman family of Malherbe were lords and 
granted charters to their vassal, Eossy of that ilk. 1 In like 
manner the Adzells who lived at Edzell were dependent on 
the lords of Glenesk at least they were so in the time of the 
Lindsays, and we have not found them mentioned as holding 
of the Crown. In the capacity alluded to, Johannes Adzell 
de eodem is the last of several of the Crawford vassals of 
Eorfarshire, who witness the laird of Dun's confirmation of the 
third part of the lands of Baluely (Balwyllo), which he granted 
to Alexander, the Earl's natural son. 2 The latest, and only 
other notice of them with which we have met, is that of 
Eichard in 1467, 3 on whose resignation the Earl of Crawford 
granted Edzell to his uncle, Sir Walter Lindsay of Beaufort, 
who, as will be shown in a subsequent page, was progenitor 
both of the Lindsays of Edzell and of the present noble house 
of Crawford and Balcarres. 

There was, however, another set of old residenters, who 
bore the odd name of Abbe; one of these, John the son of 
Malise, with consent of his son Morgund, granted to the 

i Reg. Vet. Aberbr. pp. 42, 163 sq. 2 (A.D. 1451) Misc. Sp. Club, iv. pp. 4, 5. 
3 Crawford Case, pp. 149-50. 



28 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Abbots of Arbroath a right to cut and burn charcoal in their 
wood of " Edale," so early as the year 1204. 1 Little is known 
of the Abbes, and some believe that they were merely here- 
ditary lay Abbots. Although the name was not peculiar to 
this district, it seems to have been rare ; and whether assumed 
from the office of Abbot or otherwise, the family were of con- 
siderable importance in their time, for, contemporaneous with 
those of Edzell, a Douenaldus Abbe de Brechin witnessed a 
charter by Bishop Turpin of Brechin in 1178-80, and also 
gifted the davoch of Balligilleground in Bolshan to the 
Arbroath Monastery ; and a Maurice Abbe, who lived in the 
time of Gilchrist, the great Earl of Angus, is designed " de 
Abereloth," or Arbirlot. 2 

There is also good ground for believing that the ancient 
lords de Brechin had an interest in Glenesk, since, on the 
execution and forfeiture of David de Brechin for his connec- 
tion with the conspiracy of William de Soulis against the life 
of The Bruce, the lands of " Knocquy" 3 were among those 
of Brechin's estates that were given by the King to his trusty 
friend Sir David Barclay, the future lord of Brechin, and 
brother-in-law of the forfeited noble. 4 Knocquy, now known 
as Knocknoy, is in the immediate vicinity of Edzell Castle, and 
represented by the large hillock beside the farm-yard of the 
Mains. This had, in all probability, been the moot-hill of 
old, or the site of the baron's court, for, within these fifty years, 
a large rude stone lay at the foot of it, which is said to have 
tumbled from the top, and had doubtless been the " Stannin' 
Stane," that in the early ages was an indispensable object at 
the site of justice. 

But, though the names of the lords de Brechin live in the 

1 Reg. Vet. Aberbr. pp. 48, 49 ; see ib. Pref. pp. xviii, xxv, but a comparison 
of the entries would suggest generally an official title rather than a surname. 

2 Reg. Vet. Aberbr. p. 29 sq. ; Reg. Ep. Brech. i. p. v, and 269 ; Reg. de Pan- 
mure, i. pp. cxlix, clii sq. 

3 In contrast to Drummore, or the " great ridge," west of the castle, this height 
on the east is called Knocquy, or the " grandson's or maiden's hill." 

4 Robertson, Index, p. 18. 79. 



EDZELL ADZELLS, ABBES, STERLINGS. 29 

imperishable page of the historian, those of the Adzells and 
Abbes are now, at least to the general reader, as if they had 
never been known. Even the credulous tongue of tradition is 
mute concerning them ; and if their deeds had ever been 
worthy of being preserved in the measured language of the 
rude minstrel, or their names associated with the hills and 
dales of the land of their adoption sources not to be despised 
in the solution of historical and genealogical difficulties they 
have all been faithless to their charge ; and but for the slender 
records of the grateful monks, the connection of the Abbes 
with the parish, and even their name, would have been lost 
for ever. 

The most ancient proprietors hitherto spoken of in con- 
nection with Glenesk were the family of Stirling ; l and Nisbet 
says that the Johannes de Stryvelin, miles, who swore fealty 
to Edward in 1296, was then lord of Glenesk. There is 
reason to believe, however, that Nisbet had confounded the 
name with that de Glenesk which was the surname borne by 
the then proprietor. 

Traces of the old family de Glenesk are also limited ; but 
such as remain are found in equally authentic muniments as 
those of the Abbes and Adzells, and point to a knightly, and, 
no doubt, warlike race, who inhabited the banks of the North 
Esk, at least a century prior to the clan Lindsay. Nay, not so 
much from the fact of their assuming the surname de Glenesk, 
as from the independent part that they took in the important 
transactions of the times, it may be presumed that they were 
the original landowners, though the period of their first oc- 
cupancy, and the cause of their receiving the lands, are both 
unknown. The first appearance of John de Glenesch, miles, is 
in the trustworthy capacity of witness to a charter to Walter 

1 A family of the name of Stirling were proprietors of Lauriston in the Mearns, 
in 1243, as at that date Alexander de Strivelin gave to the Prior and Canons of St. 
Andrews the Chapel of Laurenston, which was a dependency on the church of 
Ecclesgreig, and also bound himself and heirs to pay yearly a pound of wax, 
according to the market price of Montrose. (Reg. Prior. S. Andr. p. 280.) 



30 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

de Eossy, about 1260 ; l and the same person, or his son, occurs 
in the interesting year 1289, as subscribing the celebrated 
letter of the community of Scotland to Edward, consenting 
to the marriage of his son Prince Henry with our Princess 
Margaret. Seven years later, while the English conqueror 
was carrying his conquest into the very heart of the kingdom, 
and when " the spirit of Scotland had sunk into despondency," 
Sir John de Glenesk passed to Aberdeen on the 15th of July 
1296, and, along with another of the same name, who is desig- 
nated chevalitf, swore fealty to that ambitious monarch. Again, 
in the parliament held at Berwick-on-Tweed on the 28th of 
August of the same year, John de Glennysk, and Morgund de 
Glennesk, took the oaths, with others of the county of Forfar. 2 

These are the only notices that we have seen respecting the 
most ancient lords of Glenesk, and the relationship, if any, 
between Morgund and John is not stated. It is probable, 
however, that Morgund was John's son, and from his bearing 
the same Christian name as was borne by the last recorded of 
the Abbes, the idea of supposing some kindred between the 
families of Abbe and de Glenesk may not be altogether 
visionary. Perhaps, in the absence of better record, it may 
be taken as indicative of the extinction of the Abbes, and 
an alliance with the lords de Glenesk. 

The surname of Stirling, or Striuelyn as it is written in the 
oldest deeds, had, in all probability, a territorial origin, and 
been assumed from the old town of that name. The family is 
ancient and famous. The laird of Keir is reckoned the chief, 
. and supposed to have descent from Walter de Striuelyn, who 
is a witness to Prince Henry's charter of the church of Sprow- 
istoun (Sprouston) to the Abbey of Kelso. It is probable that 
the Stirlings of Glenesk were of this stock, from the similarity 
of their armorial bearings ; and, besides being lords of the 
extensive properties of Glenesk, they possessed large estates in 

1 Reg. Vet. Aberbr. p. 336. See also Reg. de Panmure, ii. p. 141, A.D. 1256, 
where he is a charter witness. * Ragman Rolls, pp. 93, 94, 126. 



EDZELL ACQUISITION BY THE LINDSAYS. 31 

Inverness and Moray, and were occasionally designed de 
Moravia. They are so titled in Bagman Eolls, from which 
it appears that several of the name swore fealty to Edward 
at the same time with de G-lenesk a circumstance which 
perhaps had led Nisbet to commit the error before referred to. 

The date of the death of the last Stirling of Glenesk is 
unknown ; but he left two daughters, who succeeded as co- 
heiresses. One of them, Catherine, became the wife of Sir 
Alexander, third son of Sir David Lindsay of Crawford, about 
the year 1357, and the other married Robert de Atholia, 
grandson of Angus, lord of the Isles. Lindsay succeeded to 
the Forfarshire portion of the Stirling estates, which consisted 
of Edzell, Glenesk, and Lethnot, while the other son-in-law 
inherited the Inverness and Moray portion, and, by a second 
marriage, was ancestor of the ancient house of Struan- 
Robertson, which nourished in considerable pomp until about 
a century ago. 1 

This mode of Lindsay's succession to Glenesk, though 
borne out by substantial evidence, is too much matter of 
fact, and partakes so little of the wonderful, that the insati- 
able craving for romance that characterised the minds of our 
ancestors, is exhibited in relation to it in one of its most 
striking features. Co-heiresses are unknown to tradition, and 
a son and only daughter are the substitutes. They were left 
orphans (it is said), and the former, small of stature and greatly 
deformed in body, was familiarly known as Jackie Stirlin'. 
Although physically defective, he enjoyed good health, and 
was neither impervious to the softer feelings of humanity, nor 
too unseemly for the kindly eyes of women. By one of these, 
the daughter of a neighbouring baron, his offer of marriage 
was accepted. This was altogether contrary to the wishes and 
expectations of both his sister and her lover, the gallant Sir 
Alexander Lindsay. All remonstrance having failed to prevent 
the nuptials, they laid a deep and heartless scheme for his 

i Robertson, Index, p. 61. 16. 



32 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

overthrow. One evening, while taking an airing alone in the 
wooded defile to the north of the castle, " Jackie " was pounced 
upon by a masked assailant, and summarily despatched at a 
place still pointed out. He was buried in the family sepulchre, 
and many old people believe, that amongst the broken bones 
with which the vault in former days was so profusely strewn, 
they have seen the crooked remains of this luckless knight ! 

It was under these circumstances, according to local story, 
that Lindsay married the daughter of Sir John Stirling, and 
fell heir to one of the largest districts in Angus, which, together 
with the importance of his own family connection, made him 
so courted by his brother barons that he had little leisure to 
reflect on the enormity of his crime. It is unquestioned 
fact that his second wife was Marjory Stuart, cousin of Robert, 
Duke of Albany, the marriage having taken place in 1378. 1 
But, as a day of retribution comes sooner or later, his heart 
began latterly to fail, and, according to the custom of the 
period, he determined to atone for the foul deed of his youth 
by large gifts to the church and a pilgrimage to Palestine. 
With a view to his safety, he rebuilt the church of Finhaven, 2 
and gifted it to the cathedral of Brechin, where the Prebendary 
had a stall in the choir, and said mass daily for his safe 
conduct. These precautions, however, were of little avail ; 
the avenging angel pursued him wherever he went, and he 
breathed his last in a distant country in the year 1382, 3 long 
ere he reached Jerusalem, the haven of his penitential sojourn. 

Of the genealogy of the great Scottish family of LINDSAY, 
Wyntown remarks with much caution 

" Off Ingland come the Lyndysay, 
Mare off thame I can nocht say." 4 

Notwithstanding this guarded remark by a well-informed 
historian, later writers have invested the origin of the Lindsays 
with all the romance and improbability with which the early 

1 Crawford Case, p. 148. 2 Lives, i. p. 73. 

3 Exir. e Cron. Scoc. p. 194. 4 Wyntown, Cronykil, ii. p. 321. 



EDZELL ORIGIN OF THE LINDSAYS. 33 

genealogies of other old families abound. These need not 
be dwelt upon, but suffice it to say, that recent investigation 
shows them to have been a branch of the Norman house 
of Limesay, and the first known in England, Eandolph de 
Limesay, to have come over with the Conqueror, to whom 
he was nephew; on the extinction of his male line, the 
head of the Scottish Lindsays was selected to marry one of 
the co-heiresses. The name is not of territorial origin, as popu- 
larly believed, but is assumed from the Norman " lindes- 
eye," or " Limes-eye," both implying " Isle of Limetrees ; " 
and, as shown in the Lives of the Lindsays, it has had from 
earliest record to latest no fewer than eighty-six different 
spellings. 1 

But it was Walter de Lindsay, an Anglo-Norman, and 
witness and juror in the Inquest of Prince David into the 
possessions and rights of the see of Glasgow in 1116, that was 
the earliest of the name in Scotland. He is supposed to have 
settled in Cumbria ; but it is not until the time of his great- 
great-grandson William, who was designed of Ercildun and 
Luffness, and the first of the family that possessed the old 
property of Crawford-Lindsay in Clydesdale, that anything 
positive is known of them as Scottish landowners. As one of 
the great magnates of the kingdom, he was a hostage for the 
redemption of William the Lion after his capture by Henry II. 
of England, High Justiciary of Lothian, and otherwise bore 
a prominent part in the leading transactions of the period. 
From this Walter, Sir Alexander (who married Catherine 
Stirling, the heiress of Glenesk, and was the third son of Sir 
David Lindsay of Crawford) was the tenth in lineal descent. 
By the heiress of Glenesk, Lindsay had Sir David his suc- 
cessor, and Sir' Alexander of Kinneff. The former succeeded 
his father when only sixteen years of age ; and on the death of 
his uncle, Sir James de Lindsay of Crawford, in 1397 without 
male issue, he became chief of the family, and heir to their 

1 Lives, i. pp. 2 sq., and p. 413. 
C 



34 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

extensive inheritances in Clydesdale and other places. He 
married the Princess Elizabeth, daughter of Robert n., had his 
estates augmented by his royal father-in-law, who bestowed 
on him the barony of Strathnairn in Inverness-shire, and on 
the 21st of April 1398 "was created Earl of Crawford, by 
solemn belting and investiture, in the parliament held at 
Perth that year the Earldom of Crawford being the third 
created since the extinction of the Celtic dynasty, that of 
Douglas having been the second, and Moray the first." l 

It is not our intention to dwell upon the valiant actions 
that characterised the life of this nobleman his overthrow 
of Lord Welles at the famous tournament at London Bridge, 
which took place on the Feast of St. George in 1395, in 
presence of King Eichard and " Good " Queen Anne and 
his dreadful onset with the natural son of the Wolf of Bade- 
noch (his own near relative, through his aunt's marriage with 
Eobert de Atholia) at Glenbrierachan in the Stormont, when 
Ogilvy the Sheriff of Angus, with his uterine brother, Leigh- 
ton of Ulishaven, and many other Angus barons, was slain, 
Sir David Lindsay and Sir Patrick Gray narrowly escaping 
with their lives. 2 These incidents are so beautifully and 
effectively described by his noble kinsman that the reader 
is referred to Lord Lindsay's Lives for the full details, as 
well as for more important notices of the many great achieve- 
ments of the other illustrious members of the family, that 
can only be briefly noticed in the following pages. 

The brother of Sir David, first Earl of Crawford, was that 
" Yhowng Alysawndyr the Lyndyssay," who, along with his 
cousin, Sir Thomas Erskine, and several others, attacked the 
English, under the Duke of Lancaster, near Queensferry in 
the year 1384. Though greatly inferior in numbers, yet by 
surprising them almost immediately on their leaving the ships, 

1 Lives, i. p. 97. 

2 Extract, ex Cron. Scoc., p. 203, calls the place Glenbroch : Ads of Parl. i. 
p. 217. 



EDZELL ALEXANDER LINDSAY OF KINNEFF. 35 

they completely routed the English in the manner thus 
quaintly described by Wyntown : 

" Bot thai, that had his cummyn sene, 
Tuk on thame the flycht bedene, 
And til the se thame sped in hy. 
Bot Schyr Thomas sa hastyly 
Come on, and saw thaim turnyd agayne, 
That a gret part of thame war slayne. 
Sum tane, and sum drownyd ware : 
Few gat till thare schyppis thare. 
Welle fourty hangyd on a rape, 
Swa yharnyd thai for ethchape ; 
Bot ane, that wes in til a bate, 
Sa dowtand wes in that debate, 
The cabill rape he strak in twa, 
And gert them till the grownd than ga, 
And qwhen the find wes owt, men fand 
Bathe men and armowris wndyr sand 
And thai, that than ethchapyd war, 
Til thare schyppis made thaim to fare, 
And pressyd noucht mar for to tak land, 
Qwhill that the Duk wes thare bydand." 1 

Sir Alexander was designed from the lands of Kinneff in 
the Mearns, and had perhaps resided in one of the numerous 
strongholds with which that romantic coast was at one time 
studded. With his brother, the future Earl, he also swelled 
the camp of " the lichtsorne Lindsays," who joined their chief, 
Sir James, at the engagement of Otterburn, against the com- 
bined forces of the Percies and the Mowbrays ; and, although 
their chief unwarily fell into the hands of the enemy, and was 
held prisoner for a time, Sir David of Glenesk and his brother 
returned in safety, and the latter, many years afterwards, fell 
at the battle of Verneuil. 

Prior to his death in 1407, the first Earl gave the lands or 
thanedom of Neudos, together with an annual pension of forty 
marks out of the customs of the burgh of Montrose, 2 to his 
second son David, who also held the baronies of the Aird and 
Strathnairn, in Inverness-shire, which, at a later period, were 

1 Wyntown, Cron. vol. iii. pp. 21-2. 2 Robertson, Index, p. 162. 8. 



36 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

possessed by Walter Lindsay of Beaufort, younger brother of 
Earl Beardie. Beyond all others of his clan, this Sir Walter 
was perhaps the most avaricious, while at the same time he 
lacked nothing of the tyrannical spirit that characterised some 
of his more notorious relatives. Having had the sole manage- 
ment of his nephew, Earl David, from boyhood, he succeeded 
in carrying out his long-cherished desire of changing his 
residence in Inverness for one in his native county, by 
excambing his northern estates with the Earl for the barony 
of Fearn. To Fearn were afterwards added, first, the mill and 
lands of Invereskandy, 1 and next the lands of Edzell and 
Knocknoy ; 2 the former of these were possessed by vassals of 
the names of Annandale and Nuthrie, and the latter, as pre- 
viously mentioned, by the Adzells. The properties of Fasky or 
Fasque, and Balfour lying close to Edzell, were added to these 
by Walter Lindsay, who purchased them from George Lesley, 
Lord Eothes, in the year 1471. 3 

The danger to which Walter was exposed in a quarter so 
remote from the rest of his clansmen was the real or feigned 
plea that incited him to the change of his abode a possible 
state of matters that his own obdurate and aggrandising spirit 
tended little to improve ; but ere he had resided long in Angus 
the true features of his character were prominently displayed. 
Once in possession of the favour and confidence of his illustrious 
nephew, and backed in all by his own mother, the well-known 
Countess Marjory, he was soon an extensive and influential 
landowner; and gaining the ascendency over the person and 
power of his cousin, the chief of the Ogilvys, he found ample 
opportunity for the exercise of his acquisitive talents. The 
Sheriffship of Angus, of which Ogilvy was hereditary holder, 
was on some pretext obtained from him and made the most of 

1 Dye is said to be the old name of the West Water, and is synonymous with the 
Gaelic dubh, "black;" but the full name is evidently Inver-uisgan-dubh, "the 
mouth (or confluence) of the little black water. " 

2 (A.D. 1466-67) Crawford Case, pp. 149 sq. 
8 Crawford Case, p. 150. 



EDZELL WALTER LINDSAY OF BEAUFORT. 37 

by Walter Lindsay, who, in addition to the large possessions 
already noticed, was at the same time lord of Panbride and 
Kinblethmont. Over the former of these his summary exact- 
ments of cattle and horses for unpaid teinds, and the destruc- 
tion of the fishings belonging to one Eamsay, gave rise to some 
discussion, and although he was found to be legally warranted 
in the spoliation of these, yet the matter is little calculated 
to give us a more favourable view of Walter's nature. 1 

It is indeed often difficult to say which party, in those 
days when " might was right," was the real aggressor ; but 
Walter's whole character displays a mind so prone to oppres- 
sion and lording, that one is forced, in the absence of specified 
reasons, to believe that all attacks that were made upon him 
were done to resent some previous injuries. It was, perhaps, 
the remembrance of some serious wrong that caused the 
laird of Drum (who was a match for him both in daring and 
cruelty, seeing that he not only basely mutilated his own 
chaplain, but also murdered the young laird of Philorth), to 
attack him in his castle "vnder the silence of nycht" at the 
head of sixty men " in fere of were with bows and vther 
fensable wapins, on horse and fute." But Walter, who, pro- 
bably from no leniency on Drum's part, appears to have 
received no special amount of damage on this occasion, suc- 
ceeded in having him deprived of the hereditary Sheriffship 
of Aberdeenshire. 2 

Walter Lindsay of Beaufort's reign however drew to a 
close, and in due course he was succeeded by his son, Sir 
David, who was the first of the family to assume the style and 
designation " of Edzell." Like his father, Sir David was also 
known at the bar of the Lords of Council, where, for sundry 
misdemeanours, he was frequently arraigned. Two of these 

1 Ada Auditorum, Nov. 29, 1469, Mar. 3, 1471. 

2 Ibid. Mar. 2, 1471. This laird of Drum's second wife was the daughter 
of a Fife gentleman, named Lindsay, who fled to the north in consequence of 
a slaughter he had committed. (Inf. kindly communicated by A. F. Irvine, Esq. 
of Drum.) 



38 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

offences consisted in his having lifted fourteen "nolt" from 
the " bischop of Aberdeneis tennentis of the Birse " l and 
his withholding a certain sum of money, and " a cop and 
a couer of siluer our gilt, and a salt fut of siluer," that 
Fothringham of Powry " laid in wed " for Sir David to 
Bishop Thomas of Aberdeen. He was prosecuted at the same 
time by his mother, Isabel of Levinston, for the "widow's 
terce," or her share out of the lands of Fasky, of which, there 
is reason to believe, he had attempted to deprive her. 2 

Sir David's only son, Walter, a brave and courageous 
youth, died before his father, having fallen along with his 
kinsman John, the sixth Earl of Crawford, on the fatal field 
of Flodden. This Walter was previously married, and left 
four sons, yet Sir David, with a degree of injustice not alto- 
gether at variance with the doings of his early life, attempted to 
change the succession from them to the sons of his own second 
marriage. James v., however, with that love of justice and 
impartiality that so endeared him to his' subjects, treated 
this attempt at disinheritance with just indignation, and 
declared Walter's eldest son " the rychteous heritour," add- 
ing in reference to the part that his father bore at Flodden 
"we havand in mynd to helpe and favour thame that 
dyd gude service to our maist noble father." Sir David of 
Beaufort and Edzell died an aged man in 1528, and his sons, 
Alexander and David, by his second wife, Elizabeth Spens, 
were respectively lairds of Vayne in Fearn, and Keithock 
near Brechin ; 3 while, in virtue of the decision of Royalty, 
he was succeeded in the estate of Edzell and Glenesk by his 
eldest grandson, who ultimately became the ninth Earl of 
Crawford. 

The elevation of Edzell to the peerage did not arise from 
any failure in the male succession, for the eighth Earl had both 

1 Acta Auditorum, Feb. 17, 1489. 

2 Acta Dom. Condi. July 12, 1480. Fasky was alienated from Edzell in Sir 
David's time, and given by James IV. , in 1510, to the ex-Lord Bothwell, founder 
of the knightly house of Balmain. 3 Lives, i. pp. 438, 445. 



EDZELL THE WICKED MASTER. 39 

a son and grandson ; but it arose from the unnatural conduct 
of the former towards his venerable parent, to whom he acted 
the part of all but an absolute parricide. In possession of the 
fee of the Earldom of Crawford as future Earl, the Master had 
the barony of Glenesk assigned to him, and having all but 
independent sway, he exercised his power with the most un- 
scrupulous cruelty. He seized the castle of Dalbog by force 
scoured the lands of his relatives and neighbours in much the 
same manner as did the Eob Eoy of a later period nay, it was 
even found necessary to cite him before the King as the heart- 
less besieger of his father's castles, as having imprisoned him in 
his own wards at Finhaven for the space of twelve successive 
weeks, and carried him to Brechin, and there confined him for 
fifteen days, during which he pillaged his coffers and seized his 
rents. 

This was the second time the old Earl had to appeal to the 
Crown for protection against his own son ; and as " the Wicked 
Master " (for so he has been emphatically dubbed by tradition) 
pleaded guilty to the charges preferred against him, his life was 
graciously spared, but "he and his posterity were solemnly 
excluded from the succession to the estates and honours of the 
house of Crawford, and were blotted out as if they had never 
existed." l Of the future career of this desperate and unfor- 
tunate person little has been preserved. His sad end, however, 
favours the idea, that though his penitence seemed great at the 
time of his merited deprivation, he had still persisted in his 
reckless and unprincipled conduct, for the ungarnished record 
of his death bears that " he was sticked by a souter of Dundee 
for taking a stoup of drink from him." 2 

This occurred in the year 1542, and his father had pre- 
deceased him, a broken-hearted, disappointed man. It was in 
this peculiar state of matters that David of Edzell unexpectedly 
became heir to the estates and titles of Crawford, which could 
only otherwise have occurred in default of male issue. As 

i (A.D. 1530-31) Lives, i. pp. 184 sq. 2 Ibid. i. p. 197. 



40 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

may be supposed, he entered on these with much opposition. 
David Lindsay, the son of the " Wicked Master," was yet a 
minor, and, the chief of the clan Ogilvy having married his 
aunt, the castle of Finhaven was forcibly seized by them in 
name of the minor whom they had taken under their charge, 
declaring him the rightful heir to the titles and estates. But 
the Eegent, Mary of Guise, being apprised of this, demanded 
the restoration of the castle to Edzell under the pain of treason, 
and the mandate being ultimately complied with, the orphan 
son of the " Wicked Master " was taken from his aunt, and 
reared, for a time at least, under the eye of the worthy old 
Earl, who now resided betwixt his castles of Finhaven, Edzell, 
and Invermark. 

Notwithstanding that he had a numerous family of his 
own, the ninth Earl desired that the titles and honours in due 
course of succession should be restored to the rightful heir, 
whom he still recognised in the son of the " Wicked Master." 
He accordingly applied to Parliament, and having had his 
wishes confirmed by royal consent, he generously adopted him 
as his heir to the titles and estates of the Earldom of Crawford. 
This however was done with a fear, on the part of the Earl, 
that will be better imagined than expressed, when it is known 
that the wayward disposition of the "Wicked Master" had 
already evinced itself in the person of his son. It may have been 
perhaps in the hope of subduing this erratic and violent spirit, 
that Earl David selected him as his successor, to the exclusion 
of his own family ; and, if so, it was a high and holy aim. At 
all events it is certain, that the young Master bound himself 
to resign all claim to the estates and honours, and pay a 
penalty of two thousand pounds, " gif," as the deed bears, he 
" put violent hands on the said Earl to his slaughter, dishonour, 
or down-putting, or commit exorbitant reif or spulzie of his 
landis-tenants, to the maist pairt of the rents thereof." l 

Such a voluntary and disinterested display of kindliness as 

1 Lives, i. pp. 200, and 463-4, where the bond is printed in full. 



EDZELL GENEROSITY OF EARL DAVID. 41 

that exhibited by the Earl towards the son of the " Wicked 
Master" has had few parallels, and to a mind possessed of 
ordinary feeling the act would have been cherished with a 
life-long gratitude. The Master's marriage with Margaret 
Beaton in April, and the circumstances attending the murder 
of her father in the following month, had perhaps impressed 
the Earl with the notion, that the latter awful event might 
tend to soften the asperities of his disposition, and make 
him settle quietly down in life, to become an honourable and 
exemplary citizen of the world. But the ink with which he 
signed the above deed of submission was scarcely dry, when, 
instead of retrieving the evils he had already committed, or 
showing signs of gratitude for the high position that he had 
now attained through the Earl's generosity, the Master joined 
with his old friends the Ogilvys in " the spuilzie " of the 
castle of his venerable benefactor at Finhaven. 1 As already 
hinted, his father's nature had shown itself in him some 
years before, when he harried the lands of Glenesk, but this 
the good Earl had forgiven and forgotten, and was pleased 
to rely on his promises for future obedience. In these, how- 
ever, he was wofully disappointed, and although the young 
Master was declared to have forfeited all claim to the privileges 
conferred upon him, he nevertheless succeeded in 1558, as 
the tenth Earl of Crawford, to all the possessions of his bene- 
factor, excepting those of Edzell, Glenesk, and Fearn : and thus 
for nearly three centuries the Earldom of Crawford passed, 
by a most generous act of self-sacrifice, from the house and 
family of Edzell. 2 

David of Edzell, or the ninth Earl, was twice married 
first to the Dowager Lady Lovat, a daughter of the house of 
Gray, and secondly to Catherine, daughter of Sir John Camp- 
bell of Lorn or Calder, and niece of the second Earl of Argyll. 

1 Misc. Sp. Club, iv. p. 119 (1543-4), for the instrument of discharge. 

2 It was only after 1546 that Gleuesk was fully vested in the Edzell Lindsays. 
(Crawford Case, p. 74.) 



42 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

His first wife died without issue, but his second, who survived 
him for the space of twenty years, had a family of five sons 
and two daughters. These were Sir David, his successor in 
Edzell ; the next, John, afterwards Lord Menmuir, founder 
of the noble and illustrious line of Balcarres ; the third, Sir 
Walter of Balgavies, whose remarkable career and death will 
afterwards be noticed; the fourth, James, the amiable Pro- 
testant rector of Fettercairn, who died while on a mission to 
Geneva, and was celebrated by Andrew Melville in a beautiful 
elegy written to his memory ; and the fifth and last, Eobert, 
proprietor of Balhall, in Menmuir. The daughters, Margaret 
and Elizabeth, were the wives respectively of the Earl of 
Athole, and of Patrick, third Lord Drummond. 1 



SECTION IV. 

NlNiAN. How? know you the towers of Edzell? 
WALDAVE. / 've heard of them. 
NINIAN. Then have you heard a tale, 
Which when he tells the peasant shakes his head, 
And shuns the mouldering and deserted walls. 

' MACDUFF'S CROSS,' BY SIR W. SCOTT. 

Sir David Liudsay, Lord Edzell His taste for architecture, etc. His son's murder 
of Lord Spynie "Offeris" for the same Montrose in Glenesk Cromwell's 
soldiers at Edzell John Lindsay of Canterland's succession to Edzell His son 
and grandson David, the last Lindsay of Edzell The fate of his sisters, Mar- 
garet and Janet Character and last days of " Edzell " Story of a " treasure- 
seeker." 

THE early life of Sir David of Edzell is a striking contrast to 
that of his later years. Like the erratic spirits already noticed, 
he displayed much of the hot-headed character of feudal times. 
It is not believed, however, that he ever condescended to harry 
the fold or to extort black-mail either from his vassals or from 
the less powerful of his brother barons ; but his resentment of 
insult offered to either himself or his clan seems, in some 
instances, to have been satisfied only by the blood of the 

i Lives, i. pp. 327-28. 



EDZELL SIR DAVID'S CLANSHIP. 43 

offender. This was pre-eminently the case in regard to the 
slaughter of the laird of Lundie, in which his brother of Balhall, 
and his kinsmen of Balquhadlie and Keithock were concerned, 
and for which they all had a remission in 1583 through 
the good offices and legal advice of Lord Menmuir. This 
affray, which ended so fatally, was not caused by the memory 
of any injury that Lundie had inflicted on Edzell personally, 
but arose from his assisting in the revenge of a real or supposed 
insult that Lundie had offered to his chief, the Earl of Craw- 
ford. It was so also in the quarrel between his cousin of the 
Vayne and the Bishop of the Isles, in which, from the sheer 
love of clanship, Sir David, rightly or wrongly, took a leading 
part, as he did at the destruction of the Earl of Montrose's 
cruives at Morphie. 1 

The aggrieved parties were all men of considerable in- 
fluence, and combined as one to curb the power of their 
haughty rival. Had Edzell been guided entirely by the bent 
of his own wishes, his interference in these matters might 
have proved exceedingly prejudicial, if not wholly disastrous, 
to the interests of his house. Submission, even in its most 
modified form, could be ill brooked by him, and none, save his 
excellent brother Lord Menmuir, dared to suggest the aban- 
donment of his reckless purposes. While residing at the 
Vayne, in the autumn of 1582, this great man and affectionate 
brother apprised Edzell by letter of the danger that was fast 
encircling him ; and although, as already seen, a mere follower, 
and one who had done nothing more than his opponents would 
have done if placed in the same position, Sir David was sup- 
posed, as is often the case in such circumstances, to have been 
a prime mover in each and all of these affrays. " I would request 
you to be better avisit," said Lord Menmuir, in the admirable 
letter alluded to, " and to use counsel of your best friends. Con- 
sider how troublesome is the warld, how easily ony man who is 
stronger nor ye at ane time may do you ane wrang, and how 

1 Lives, i. pp. 339 sq. 



44 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

little justice there is in the country for repairing thereof. 
Therefore, I wald desire you above all things, to travail to live 
in peace and concord with all men, otherways your life and 
pairt of the warld shall be very unpleasant, ever in fear, danger, 
aiid trouble, whereof the maist pairt of them who calls them- 
selves your friends wald be glad." l 

This and a few similar admonitions had the salutary effect 
that Lord Menmuir so much desired ; and, on being once con- 
vinced of the unenviable position that he held in other than the 
eyes of his own clansmen and relatives, it was easy to effect a 
reformation in the mind of one whose failing lay in the resent- 
ment of the insults offered to his friends rather than to himself 
particularly in a mind so expansive and generally well assorted 
as Edzell's. For, with all the asperities that characterised his 
nature, " he had tastes and pursuits," as beautifully said by his 
biographer, "which mingled with his more feudal character- 
istics in strange association ; he was learned and accomplished 
the sword, the pen, and the pruning-hook were equally fami- 
liar to his hand ; he even anticipated the geologist's hammer, 
and had at least a taste for architecture and design." 2 

Examples of his qualifications in these varied acquirements 
still exist in many different forms. Enough has been said to 
prove his expertness as a swordsman ; and his proficiency in 
literature is alluded to in so unmistakeable language by the 
King on presenting him to the vacant office of a Lord of 
Session on his brother's resignation, as to sufficiently guarantee 
the certainty of his acquirements in that respect. His corre- 
spondence regarding the mines of Glenesk, which is fully 
brought under notice in Lord Lindsay's Lives, 3 shows his apti- 
tude in the study of mineralogy ; while the extensive additions 
that he made to the work begun by his father, in the exten- 
sion of his old paternal messuage, is still apparent in the ruins 
of those gigantic and tasteful labours. It was he who "re- 
built the garden-wall at Edzell in a style of architectural 

1 See letter in Lives, i. p. 339 sq. 2 Ibid. i. p. 339. Ibid. i. p. 342 sq. 



EDZELL SIR DAVID AS A LANDLORD. 45 

decoration unparalleled in those days in Scotland, the walls 
presenting the Lindsay fesse-chequee and stars of Glenesk, 
flanked by small brackets for statues alternately with sculp- 
tures in alto-relievo, representing the Theological and Cardinal 
Virtues, the Seven Sciences, the planets, etc., in the allegori- 
cal style and manner of the followers of Niccola and Andrea 
Pisano in the fourteenth century." 1 

Nor were Sir David's energies wholly centred in the deco- 
ration of his own mansion. It was also his aim to advance 
the importance and interests of his tenantry to the utmost of 
his power, and with this view he planned a town at Edzell, 
with cross and market-place. 2 At a later period it was erected 
into a burgh of barony, and thither the tenantry of Edzell, 
Glenesk, and Lethnot, were bound to bring their dairy and 
other marketable produce on the monthly fair-day. Certain 
arrangements were also entered into betwixt Edzell and the 
magistrates of Brechin, by which the stock reared by and 
belonging to the tenantry of Edzell and Glenesk were admitted, 
custom free, to the great Trinity Muir Fair, of which the magis- 
trates of Brechin are superiors. It was perhaps on the occasion 
of this amicable arrangement that the laird of Edzell was ad- 
mitted a freeman of that burgh. 3 Weighing apparatus, stances, 
and other requisites for carrying out the object to its full 
extent, were erected at Edzell at the laird's expense, and the 
market nourished with considerable success long after the body 
of its spirited projector was laid beside his kindred. " Auld 
Eagle's Market," as the August fair is locally called, is perhaps 
the fair that Lord Edzell established, for it is the oldest of any 
now held at Edzell. 

Such were the peaceful and praiseworthy labours that 
occupied the later years of Lord Edzell, by which title he had 

1 Lives, i. p. 346 ; Reg. de Panmure, i. pp. clviii sq. 

2 Lives, i. p. 348. 

3 (July 26, 1580) Minutes of Bailie Court of Brechin, bound up with those of 
the Hammerman Incorporation, and in possession of that body. These are the 
oldest records belonging to the city of Brechin, and date from 2d February 1579. 



46 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

been known from his appointment as a Lord of Session ; and 
being honoured with knighthood in 1581, he was further digni- 
fied in the memorable 1603, when James ascended the throne 
of England, by being chosen a privy councillor. In the enjoy- 
ment of all the blessings that extensive learning and judi- 
ciously exercised power could impart, and in the confidence of 
an enlightened Sovereign, the sun of prosperity seemed to shine 
upon him from all quarters, and he could anticipate nothing 
that would in any way disturb his quiet. Unfortunately 
however, in the midst of this tranquillity, his hopes were 
rudely blighted, and the evening of his life harassed, by 
the occurrence of riot and murder committed by his eldest 
son. 

Much of the daring and reckless character that marked 
the career of his ancestors on both sides unhappily fell to the 
lot of " Young Edzell," and almost the only points recorded 
of him have reference to some lawless transaction. 1 The first 
outbreak in which he was concerned occurred in 1605, when 
he and young Wishart of Pitarrow, with their followers, met 
in the Saltron of Edinburgh, and fought a desperate battle. It 
continued from nine to eleven o'clock in the evening. " Thair 
wer sundrie hurt one both sydes, and ane Guthrie slaine, 
which was Pitarrow's man," and who, continues the quaint 
diarist Birrel, was " ane very prettie young man." 2 For these 
disturbances the participators and, as was the custom of the 
period, their fathers also, had to stand trial, when they were all 
fined, and warded to certain of the State castles. But the 
most unfortunate circumstance of young Edzell's life was his 
inadvertent slaughter of Lord Spynie on the same ill-fated 
street. This affair ever preyed heavily on his mind, and, as in 
the Pitarrow case, was the source of much vexation and annoy- 
ance to his aged father. The circumstances relating to this 
luckless affair are interesting, and may be briefly told. 

1 For young Edzell's matrimonial connection, see below, p. 71. 

2 Pitcairn, Criminal Trials, iii. p. 61. 



EDZELL DEATH OF LOBD SPYNIE. 47 

David, Master of Crawford, and eldest son of the eleventh 
Earl, was, in every respect, a worthy disciple of his turbulent 
clansmen. Like the " Wicked Master" and his son, he scoured 
the country at the head of a band of armed desperadoes, at 
whose hands the life and property of even their own imme- 
diate relatives met with no feeling of regard ; and in one of 
these broils he attacked and slew his kinsman, Sir Walter of 
Balgavies, on the 25th of October 1605. The house of Edzell, 
of which Sir Walter was an immediate relative, determined on 
avenging the murder, and the " young laird," with his brother 
of Canterland, watched an opportunity for effecting that pur- 
pose. Accordingly, the brothers, with several of their clans- 
men, assembled in Edinburgh, and on the evening of the 5th 
of July 1607, attacked the Master on his way up the High 
Street, while accompanied only by his uncle Lord Spynie, and by 
Sir James Douglas of Drumlanrig. It was dark, so that " they 
could not know ane be (from) the other," and, in the rapid 
exchange of shots and sword-strokes, the three friends were all 
wounded, the Master and Lord Spynie so desperately, that 
though the former eventually recovered, " Lord Spynie expired 
of his wounds eleven days afterwards." 1 

Young Edzell fled from justice, and took up his abode in 
the castles of Auchmull, Invermark, and Shanno, all situated 
in Glenesk, and in points so difficult of access, particularly the 
last mentioned, that he contrived to evade his pursuers for a 
considerable time. His father was prohibited from sheltering 
him under heavy penalties, and it was on account of his being 
hunted from Auchmull and Invermark, that he erected the c+*>iu 4 st+n. 
fortalice at Shanno which is known synonymously as the 
" Castle " and " Auldha'," of which some foundations still re- 
main on the hill- side to the west of the farm-house. 2 

Accountable for the misdeeds of his son, Lord Edzell was 

1 Lives, i. p. 386. 

2 The ruins do not indicate a building of more than about twenty feet square, 
and are about four feet thick and nearly the same height. A large old-fashioned 
brander or gridiron was found there about sixty years ago. 



48 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

so greatly harassed by the Earl of Crawford, on account of this 
quarrel and the unfortunate death of Lord Spynie, that he 
found peace neither at home nor abroad. No less than five of 
his servants were "shot with pistols and hurt," and himself 
" not wardit only," as he quaintly observes, " but banishit 
from my virtue." It was under these painful circumstances 
that Lord Edzell found himself compelled to write the King, 
"craving ever to be tryit of the unhappy slaughter of my 
umquhill lord of Spynie;" but it was not until a second 
appeal was made to his Majesty, setting forth the insecure 
state in which his person and property stood with his over- 
bearing chief, that the trial of Edzell and his son of Canter- 
land, "as suspected connivers at the death of Lord Spynie," 
was permitted. The trial was fixed for the 6th of Septem- 
ber 1607, but the accusers failing to appear, the matter lay 
dormant for many years, during which Lord Edzell died, 
and his son was so far restored to favour as to be again 
received into the Church, from which he had been excommuni- 
cated. 1 

The murder of Spynie, however, was not allowed to rest. 
In the year 1616 the matter was agitated anew by Spynie's 
eldest son and heir, who, acting for his sisters and other 
kindred, demanded a compensation for "the said slaughter." 
" Offeris " were accordingly made by Edzell " for himself and 
in name of his followeris " to Lord Spynie, for the purpose of 
" removing of all grudge, haitred, and malice conceavit and 
borne be them against him and his followeris, for the onhappie 
and negligent and accidentarie slaughter " of the late Lord. 

1 Lord Edzell died on the 14th of December 1610 (Lives, i. p. 392), and his first 
wife, a daughter of the Earl of Crawford, and mother of all his family, predeceased 
him in 1579. In 1588, he took as his second wife, Dame Isabella Forbes, daughter 
and heiress of Arthur Forbes of Balfour, and widow of Alex. Innes of Crombie, 
direct male ancestor of the present Duke of Roxburghe. . A shield, bearing the 
Lindsay and Forbes arms impaled, still ornaments the canopy of a door in the 
flower garden at Edzell : " 1-4 gules, a fesse-chequy argent and azure, for Lindsay ; 
2-3, or, a lion rampant, gules, surmounted by a bendlet, sable, for Abernethy ; 
impaling, azure, three bears' heads, couped argent, muzzled gules, for Forbes." 
" S. D. L." on dexter, and " D. I. F." on sinister side of shield, with date " 1604." 



EDZELL AMENDS FOR SLAUGHTER. 49 

As this document of " offeris " is in itself curious, and not only 
shows young EdzelTs innocence in the matter, but the com- 
plete want of intention on the part of both him and his 
accomplices to murder Spynie, it is here given entire, and in 
its original orthography : 

" In the first, I attest the grytt god, quha knawis the secrettis 
of all hairtis that it was never my intentione to hairm that 
Noble man, moire nor I wald have done my awin hairt, Quhom 
at that tym and all tymis preceding I ever lovit and respeckit 
as my Wncle, and wald ever have rather hazsard my lyff, then 
have knawin him in any sik danger. 

" Forder, I shall declair for myself and all thaie quha ar 
alyiff that war present thereat, that We are innocent in thocht, 
word, and dead of that fact, and it is off veritie that the com- 
mitter thairoff died, for that evil dead quhilk fell in his hand, 
wiolentlye, quhom I cold never patientlie behold, efter triall 
and confessione of sik onhappie creueltie, quhilk sail be maid 
manifest and confirmed, be all testimonies requisit, under all 
hiest paynis. 

" Secondlie, for declaratione of my penitencie and the sor- 
rowe of my hairt for that onnaturall and onhappie fact, I offer 
to the said Noble Lord, my Lord of Spynie, and to his twa 
sisteris, the sowme of Ten Thowsand Merks, and forder at 
the discretione of freindis, to be chosin equalie betuixt ws. 

" Thridlie, Becaus the rwinit and rent estait of my Hous 
may permit no forder offer off grytter sowmes, I offer to do sik 
Honour and Homage to the said Noble Lord of Spynie his 
sisteris curators and freindis as thaye shall crawe. 

"D. LYNDESAY." 1 

A contract was therefore entered into, by which Edzell agreed 
to give the heirs of the late Spynie the lands of Garlobank, 2 in 
the parish of Kirriemuir, in addition to the large sum of ten 

1 From a paper in the handwriting of David Lyndesay, from the charter-room at 
Glamis, hitherto impublished, and kindly communicated by the late Earl of Craw- 
ford. 2 Crawford Case, p. 134. 

D 



50 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

thousand marks, mentioned in the " offeris," and the affair was 
finally set at rest in 1617, by the royal grant of a remission for 
the murder, by " letters of Slains," under the Great Seal. 

This unfortunate affair, as already noticed, constantly 
haunted poor Edzell, and the payment of the ten thousand 
marks in the " rwinit and rent estait " of his house, to which he 
so feelingly alludes, had doubtless been a barrier to any exten- 
sive improvements that he might have wished to make on his 
property, if he had ever inclined to follow in the wake of his 
gifted parent. But he lived to an old age, and, besides being 
harassed by heartless kinsmen, had the misfortune to see his 
son and heir-apparent laid in the tomb before him. 1 He him- 
self died in 1648, and was succeeded by his nephew, John 
of Canterland, who had retours of the lordship of Edzell and 
Glenesk in June of that year. 2 

Soon after this John was elected an elder of the church and 
parish of Edzell ; and, as noticed in the first Section, he was a 
staunch supporter of the Covenant. He also held the important 
office of Sheriff of Forfarshire, which, together with his influence 
as a landholder, rendered both himself and the district objects 
of notoriety in those disturbed times. Montrose, having entered 
Angus in his flight before the Parliamentary faction, ' took 
refuge in Glenesk, which he harried and destroyed so much, 
that the house of Edzell, that had partially recovered from the 
extravagances of previous lairds, received a blow from which it 
never rallied. Indeed, the laird found himself so embarrassed, 
that, although the estate was worth ten thousand pounds a year 
in 1 630, yet, in less than twenty years thereafter, he was obliged 
even to petition Parliament " for exemption to contributing to 
the new levies then raised, ' the rebel army,' he says, ' having 
been for a long time encamped and quartered upon the lands 
of Edzell and Glenesk, to the utter ruin and destruction of my 

1 In 1638 he is served heir-male to his son Alexander, feudatory of Edzell, and 
the inventory of the heirship is interesting as being within a few generations of the 
final loss of all. See below, p. 57, note. 

2 Inquis. Spec., Forfar. Nos. 303, 304. 



EDZELL ESTATE ON THE DECLINE. 51 

lands and tenants, the whole corns being burned in the barn- 
yards, and the whole store of cattle and goods killed or driven 
away, whereby the haill lands of Glenesk, 1 were worth of yearly 
revenue nine thousand merks, have ever since been lying waste 
be reason the tenants have not been able to labour the same, 
in so much that the particular amount of my losses which was 
clearly instructit to the Committee of Common Burdens, did 
amount to the sum of fourscore thousand merks or thereby ; 
besides great charges and expenses which I have hitherto been 
forced to sustain for maintaining three several garrisons for a 
longtime to defend my tenants, whereof many, in their 



defence, were most cruelly and barbarously killed, as likewise, 
ever since, a constant guard of forty men for defending my 
lands and tenants from the daily incursions of enemies and 
robbers.' " 2 

This spirited remonstrance had so far an effect that the 
laird was exempted from contributing to the assessment com- 
plained against ; but he neither received any part of a previous 
award of twenty thousand pounds, nor was protected against 
further inroads. For, although the great Montrose had crowned 
his manifold ingenious and daring enterprises by a heroic death 
on the gibbet, there was still much, perhaps even more, cause 
for fear, since those high principles of loyalty that animated 
his conduct were spurned by his successors, and the government 
and army were ruled by the baneful sceptre of selfishness and 
hypocrisy. The establishment of Episcopacy had been insisted 
on without success ; Naseby had been fought and won by 
Cromwell ; the King had been basely sold by his faithless 
countrymen, and died on the scaffold ; the rightful heir to the 
throne had been defeated at Worcester ; and, fearing that the 
ancient symbols of the nation's independence might fall into 
the hands of the invaders, the Eoyalists had the regalia and 

1 Not including Edzell and other property. 

2 Cited in Lives, ii. p. 255-6. See also the Testification from the parishioners 
in 1646, given in Jervise, Epit. \. p. 389. 



52 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

sword of state secretly transferred to the well-defended strong- 
hold of Dunnottar. It was accordingly in the year 1651, when 
the soldiers of the Commonwealth were despatched in search 
of those important symbols, that they made the parish of 
Edzell their rendezvous, and laid the district so completely 
under their ban, that, for the space of three or four weeks, 
the glad tidings of the blessed Gospel were not allowed to be 
heard. 1 Of the circumstances attending their last visit the 
brief but unmistakeable record of the period affords a remark- 
able instance, showing alike the harassing state of the times 
and the abandoned nature of those godless soldiery, who, on 
their arrival one Sunday, went straightway to the church, and, 
in the midst of the sermon, " scattered all y e people to goe and 
provyd corn and strae." 2 

John of Edzell, who, in all those ravages and exactments 
over his lands (for we have already seen that he was heavily 
fined by the Earl of Middleton), beheld with regret the irre- 
mediable ruin of his house, died in 1671, and was succeeded by 
his son David, who (since the third and last Lord Spynie, the 
chief of the Lindsays, had just died without male issue) 
became the head of his important clan. But, unfortunately, 
his disposition was of so extravagant a character, that he 
tended rather to increase than to dispel the cloud that en- 
shrouded the family fortunes. He in turn closed his vain- 
glorious career in 1698, 3 and was succeeded by his still more 
reckless and improvident son David, the last of the Lindsays 
of Edzell 

This laird had two sisters, Margaret and Janet, and their 
mother, only daughter of James Grahame of Monorgund 
brother to the laird of Fintry, died while they were all young. 

i Edeett Par. Reg. Mar. 9, 1662. 2 Ibid. Sept. 25, 1664. 

3 Inguis. Spec., Forfar. No. 553. 1698. " Upon this fyftiend day of Febervarij, 
the Eight Noble Laird of Edzeel died and was buried vpon the fyftaind day of 
March, and the minister [of] Edzeell, Mr. John Balvaird, preached his funerall 
sermon the sam sd day." {Parish Reg.) See APPENDIX No. II., for excerpts from 
the rental-book of this laird. 



EDZELL THE LADY'S LAST VISIT. 53 

The elder daughter married Watson of Aitherny in Fife, and 
had the large dowry of seven thousand marks. 1 The younger 
(the lovelier of the twain, whose melancholy history has formed 
the theme of more poets than one), became a victim to the 
arts of a young Scottish nobleman, who afterwards fell at the 
battle of Almanza, in Spain, in 1707. 2 

The fate of Lady Janet need not be dwelt upon. Indeed, 
beyond this sad incident, and the rather striking tradition, that 
while she lived at Edzell she was followed to the church and 
in all her walks by a pretty white lamb the emblem of 
innocence and purity nothing whatever is preserved of her 
history, at least in the locality; but the last visit of Lady 
Aitherny to the house of her birth and her sires is so beauti- 
fully and touchingly told by Lord Lindsay, and so true to 
current tradition, that we shall give it entire : " Year after 
year passed away, and the castle fell to ruin, the banner 
rotted on the keep the roofs fell in the pleasance became a 
wilderness the summer-house fell to decay the woods grew 
wild and tangled the dogs died about the place, and the name 
of the old proprietors was seldom mentioned, when a lady one 
day arrived at Edzell, as it is still related, in her own coach, 
and drove to the castle. She was tall and beautiful, and 
dressed in deep mourning. ' When she came near the ancient 
burying-place,' says the same faint voice of the past, ' she 
alighted, and went into the chapel, for it was then open, the 
doors had been driven down, the stone figures and carved work 
was all broken, and bones lay scattered about. The poor lady 

1 Crawford Case, p. 201. The marriage of this lady is thus noticed :" The 
Laird of Edernie and his Ladie were laufullie proclaimed att particullar dyets: 
and was maryed vpon the 8th day of Debr. jai vi c , and nyntie two zears." (Edzell 
Par. Register.) 

2 The following is the baptismal entry of this unfortunate lady : " 1684 ; David 
Lindsay off Edzell hade a daughter baptized upon ye 2d off October, named Jannett, 
befor Mr. John Lyndsay in Dallbog Mill, and Alexander Wishart in Scleetford." 
(Par. Register.) See below, APPENDIX III., on the fortune and descendants of Janet 
Lindsay, as detailed in a letter from the late John Kiddell, Esq., Advocate, Edin- 
burgh. Lord Edzell also had a daughter named Jannett, who, according to a 
monument in Inverkeillor churchyard, was married to Gardyne of Lawton in 1603. 



54 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

went in, and sat down amang it a', and wept sore at the ruin 
of the house and the fate of her family, for no one doubted of 
her being one of them, though no one knew who she was or 
where she came from. After a while she came out, and was 
driven in the coach up to the castle; she went through as 
much of it as she could, for stairs had fallen down and roofs 
had fallen in, and in one room in particular she stayed a long 
while, weeping sadly. She said the place was very dear to 
her, though she had now no right to it, and she carried some of 
the earth away with her.' It was Margaret of Edzell, the 
Lady of Aitherny, as ascertained by an independent tradition 
derived from a venerable lady of the house of Aitherny, who 
lived to a great age, and always spoke of her with bitterness as 
' the proud bird out of the eagle's nest ' who had ruined her 
family. ' She came once to my father's house,' said she to my 
informant, ' with two of her children. She was on her way to 
Edzell Castle. It was years since it had passed away from her 
family. My father did all he could to persuade her from so 
waefu' a journey, but go she would ; and one morning she set 
off alone, leaving her children with us, to await her return. 
She was a sair changed woman when she came back, her 
haughty manner was gone, and her proud look turned into 
sadness. She had found everything changed at Edzell since 
she left it, a gay lady, the bride of Aitherny. For the noise 
and merriment of those days, she found silence and sadness, 
for the many going to and fro, solitude and mouldering walls, 
for the plentiful board of her father, his house only, roofless and 
deserted. When she looked out from the windows, it was the 
same gay and smiling landscape, but all within was ruin and 
desolation. She found her way to what had been in former 
days her own room, and there, overcome with the weight of 
sorrow, she sat down and wept for a long time, she felt 
herself the last of all her race, for her only brother was gone, 
no one could tell where. She came back to Gardrum the next 
day, and she just lived to see the ruin of Aitherny, which her 



EDZELL THE LAST LAIRD. 55 

extravagance and folly had brought on, for the Laird was a 
good-natured man and could deny her nothing. They both 
died, leaving their family in penury.' And such was the end 
of the 'proud house of Edzell.' " l 

Like the history of those unfortunate ladies, that of their 
only brother, the last laird, is one of painful melancholy. It is 
true that between the large dowry to Mrs. Watson and other 
liabilities the estate was greatly burdened; still by prudent 
management it might have been soon redeemed, and Edzell 
restored to the independence and influence of his ancestors. 
But having been thwarted in love by his cousin, Jean Maria 
Lindsay, 2 he cared not to set his affections upon another, and 
losing all respect for himself and the dignity of his house, 
he soon effected its overthrow. Down to the time of his 
leaving the parish, however, he was preceded to the kirk on 
Sundays by a guard of strong hardy retainers, armed and 
clothed in the family tartan. 3 Like his father and grandfather, 
David Lindsay also enjoyed an eldership, in which capacity he 
assumed those extraordinary powers, and had recourse to those 
arbitrary measures, that have already been alluded to. Not 
content with designing himself in the ordinary form of a mere 
member of session, when attesting the minutes, he appears in 
the dignified character of " principall and chief elder ;" and, in 
the spirit of true feudalism, the kirk-session is recorded on 
more than one occasion, to have " mett at the hous of Edzell 
as the Laird appointed them" 

Having this important body so thoroughly under his 
command, he had no difficulty in subjecting the people to 
his will ; his power was never questioned for an instant, and, 
considering his opinion as that of the nation, most of his 
tenantry believed that neither sovereign nor parliament could 
rule without his concurrence. Still, though haughty to 

1 Lives, ii. pp. 264-5. 2 jud. ii. p. 259. 

3 The last survivor of that train was the grandfather of the late tenant of 
Meikle Tullo, who, it is said, used to boast of having carried a halbert before the 
laird to church. One of the halberts is in the summer-house at Edzell Castle. 



56 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

strangers and to those who offended him, his heart was full 
of the milk of human kindness, and so warmly attached was 
he to his domestics and vassals, that he often devoted his 
best interests towards the soothing of their misfortunes, and 
the bettering of their condition. The last Jcitchie or " hall-boy," 
who died towards the close of last century at the great age of 
nearly a hundred years, had a vivid recollection of the last 
laird, and although he loved to speak of his many daring 
exploits, he ever bore willing testimony to his warm-hearted- 
ness and generosity. And it is a remarkable coincidence, 
that like the latter days of poor Edzell those of the " kitchie 
boy" were sadly darkened and ended in utter misery. Edzell 
may be said to have died in a common stable, and the other, 
through intemperance and dissipation, closed his patriarchal 
life in the kennel of the village with which he had been 
familiar from childhood ! 

Edzell's opposition to Presbyterianism was his last pro- 
minent act in the district. As a proud-spirited and determined 
baron, he scorned all manner of advice and the aid of his 
kinsmen. Some of these offered to discharge his liabilities on 
the most friendly terms, and to restore him in the course of a 
few years to the full and free possession of the extensive 
domains of his ancestors, but all remonstrance was in vain. 
He had resolved to follow in defence of the luckless house of 
Stuart, and, with the view of raising a company of followers, 
sold his patrimony, which found a ready purchaser in James, 
the fourth Earl of Panmure. 1 He accordingly left the district 
the place of his birth, and the property which his forefathers 
had held for nearly four hundred years. But the tragedy does 
not terminate here : after spending a few years on the small 
property of Newgate in Arbroath, " he removed to Kirkwall in 
the Orkney Islands, where he died in the capacity of an 
hostler at an inn about the middle of last century; or, as 
more definitely stated by Earl James in his Memoirs, in 1744 

1 Reg. de Panmure, i. p. xlviii ; ii. p. 348. 



EDZELL DE JURE LORD DE LYNDESAY. 57 

aged about eighty years a landless outcast, yet unquestionably 
de jure ' Lord de Lyndesay.' " l 

The life of this remarkable man is certainly not without a 
moral ; and any description of his chequered career cannot be 
more appropriately closed than by a brief narration of the ac- 
count of his " flittin'," which is thus given in the simple but 
impressive language of local tradition : " The Laird, like his 
father," as quoted in the Lives of the Lindsays so often referred 
to, "had been a wild and wasteful man, and had been lang 
awa' ; he was deeply engaged with the unsuccessful party of the 
Stuarts, and the rumours of their defeat were still occupying 
the minds of all the country side. One afternoon the poor 
Baron, with a sad and sorrowful countenance and heavy heart, 
and followed by only one of a' his company, both on horseback, 
came to the castle, almost unnoticed by any. Everything was 
silent he ga'ed into his great big house, a solitary man there 
was no wife or child to gi'e him welcome, for he had never 
been married. The castle was almost deserted ; a few old 
servants had been the only inhabitants for many months. 
Neither the Laird nor his faithful follower took any rest that 
night. Lindsay, the broken-hearted ruined man, sat all that 
night in the large hall, sadly occupied destroying papers 
sometimes, reading papers sometimes, sometimes writing, some- 

1 Lives, ii. p. 260. The sale of the property of Edzell and Glenesk was com- 
pleted in the spring of 1715 ; and the purchase-money amounted to the then large 
sum of 192,502 Scots, or nearly 16,042 stg. In the Reg. de Panmure, ii. pp. 
347-50, the Submission and Decreet Arbitral of Ranking and Sale, the Disposition, 
and the Instrument of Sasine on this Disposition are given ; the Sasine contains a 
most valuable and interesting list of the towns, lands, towers, patronages, offices, 
and privileges which belonged to the Lindsays of Edzell. The present rental of the 
Panmure estates in Edzell, Lethnot, and Glenesk, amounts to 11,975, 14s. 8d. stg. 
The laird's feelings regarding the Stuart interest may be inferred from the following 
extract from a letter addressed by him to Colin, Earl of Balcarres, on the 13th of 
May 1712, in which the daring and luckless transaction is hinted at in obscure but 
unmistakeable terms : " I spoke to my Lord Dun [David Erskine of Dun], who told 
me he would write immediately, but thought it better to delay it till he went to 
Edinburgh, and procured a letter from ye Justice Clerk [James Erskine of Grange] 
to his brother, the Earl of Marr, to go along wyth his oun ; he is very frank for ye 
project, and says he will write wyt all concern and care of it." (Crawford Case, 
pp. 201 sq.) 



58 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

times sitting mournfully silent unable to fix his thoughts on 
the present or to contemplate the future. In the course of the 
following day he left the castle in the same manner in which 
he had come ; he saw none of his people or tenants : his one 
attendant only accompanied him : they rode away, taking with 
them as much of what was valuable or useful as they could 
conveniently carry. And, turning round to take a last look of 
the old towers, he drew a last long sigh, and wept. He was 
never seen here again." l 

Although the fact of "Edzell's " embarrassment was generally 
known, and but " ower true a tale," some thought otherwise, 
and gave credence to the local story of a treasure being hid 
about the castle walls; indeed so convinced was a deceased 
worthy of this, that he set out one dark Saturday evening for 
the purpose of seizing the pose, the precise locality of which his 
knowing had placed beyond a doubt. With mattock over his 
shoulder, he issued in haste and solitary majesty from his 
clay-built tenement in the moss of Arnhall, and, with hardy 
step and unquivering lip, bade defiance to all the ghaists that 
hovered around the Chapelton burying-ground, and to the fiery 
spirits that now and then lent their blue or scarlet gleam to 
guide his path over the marshy grounds that he had un- 
avoidably to cross. He stayed not at the heartrending cries 
of mercy that fell upon his ear, as the phantom of the courage- 
ous bride plunged into the river to avert a " fate worse than 
death itself " at the hands of Major Wood ; nor did he listen to 
the loud victorious laugh of the spirit of Linmartin, as it rose 
on the opposite bank of the Esk and grinned across to this 
hapless aspirant to untold wealth. But on he hied along the 
narrow plank that crossed the deep gully at the Snecks, and 
held on, as he thought, to the California of Edzell. 

The round tower on the north side of the building was the 
"gold-seeker's" haven; and a small triangular stone of a 
different colour from the rest, near the extremity of the tower, 

* Lives, ii. p. 264. 



EDZELL SEAECH FOR TREASURE. 59 

was supposed to cover the store of riches. To this elevated 
part he had to worm his way over heaps of mouldered turrets, 
through bat-inhabited chambers, riven and slimy archways, to a 
flight of irregular steps, many of which were so much worn as 
scarcely to afford a footing for a crow. Still, to our hero who 
felt assured of finding the long-hidden treasure these, even 
at the dark hour of midnight, were no obstacles. On the 
contrary, step by step he groped on to the pinnacle of his 
ambition ; and having satisfied himself as to where he should 
direct the blows of his mattock, he commenced operations. 
The rain fell apace and the heavens seemed to frown in wrathful 
indignation upon his unhallowed searches ; while the feathery 
inhabitants of the ruins the wild warning notes from the 
murdered minstrel's pibroch, which echoed from the arch of 
the Piper's Brig and the branches of the neighbouring giant 
trees, all joined in the spirit of nature's discontent. Still, these 
fell as nothing on his ear : sparks of fire followed the successive 
and increasing strokes of the mattock, and his anxiety and joy 
kindled as at last he felt the " keystane " shake under his 
determined aims. Another stroke, and he believed that the 
mine of gold would be disclosed and made wholly his own ; but 
alas ! on the blow being given, down fell the luckless whin or 
ragstone ; so also did a neighbouring part of the wall, carrying 
with it half the rickety stair of the turret; and on the top 
landing, which was the only secure part of the lofty wall, the 
old farmer of the Mains, when he looked from his window on 
the Sunday morning, beheld the sorry " gold-seeker " standing 
drenched with rain, and weeping, as the hero of old, over the 
ruins of his ambition ! 



60 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 



SECTION V. 

A spectre of departed days, 
Yon castle gleams upon the gaze, 
And saddens o'er the scene so fair, 
And tells that ruin hath been there ; 
And wheresoe'er my glance is cast, 
It meets pale footprints of the past ; 
And from these high and hoary -walls, 
All mournftilly, the shadow falls, 
Dark'ning, amidst the garden bowers, 
The farewell of the fading flowers. 
Which seem for gentle hands to sigh, 
That tended them in days gone by. 

J. MALCOLM. 

Edzell Castle Its situation General description Age of towers Sculpturings 
Visited by Queen Mary and King James The kitchen of Angus Baths dis- 
covered Flower-garden Dilapidations of Edzell, and of Auchmull. 

THE castle of Edzell lies in a hollow about a mile west of the 
village, and within a gun-shot of the West Water. In old 
times this river was augmented by a considerable stream 
that flowed through the little den in front of the castle, and 
although this channel is now partly under tillage, perhaps the 
most romantic portion yet remains in the shape of an irre- 
claimable marsh. Towards the northern extremity of this, 
Tinder an arid and almost perpendicular point of Drummore 
hill, was situated the fatal " pit " or draw-well of the ancient 
lords, while its twin-brother the " gallows " stood about a mile 
south-east, in the muir or wood of Edzell. 

Both those feudal appendages are still represented, although 
from natural deposit and the exuberance of brushwood the 
former is barely traceable ; but the site of the latter rises con- 
siderably above the adjacent ground, and forms a prominent 
object in the landscape. The " pit and gallows " were used for 
the punishment of felons in almost all countries from remote 
antiquity, and were not only employed for avenging the mis- 
demeanours of vassals, but for the execution of even princes 
and kings. They appear to have been first used in Scotland in 
Malcolm Canmore's time; for his council ordained "that fre 
baronis sail mak jebbattis and draw wellis for punition of 



EDZELL POWER OF THE BARONS. 61 

criminabyl personis." In old writings they are respectively 
known by the names of f urea and. fossa the former was com- 
monly used for the execution of men, and the latter for the 
drowning of women convicted of theft. 1 

Like a few other great barons, those of Edzell vied with 
Parliament in the possession of an hereditary dempster or 
doomster, whose duty lay in repeating the doom or sentence 
awarded by the judge ; and, from time immemorial, the office 
was held by a family of the name of Duray, who had certain 
emoluments from the proprietor and his tenants. 2 From each 
principal tenant the dempster had two pecks, and from each 
sub-tenant a bassyful, of oatmeal annually, 3 while the laird 
gave him the free grant of eleven acres of fertile land on the 
banks of the North Esk, called Duray Hill, and from that place 
the family designed themselves of that Ilk. To these per- 
quisites, according to tradition, were added the farcical privi- 
leges of fishing in the adjoining and almost waterless burn of 
Whishop, and of hunting on the hill of Wirran with a hawk 
blind of an eye and a hound crippled of a leg ! Besides, as 
they had four pennies Scots for ringing the bell of St. Lawrence 
on high occasions such as at the births and funerals of the 
lords and ladies of Edzell they may be supposed, in addition to 
the office of dempster, to have enjoyed that of master beadle. 4 

Some are of opinion indeed, it is not unfrequently be- 
lieved that the den in which the " pit " lay was the original 
channel of the West Water. It appears to us, however, that i 
the north-west part of the den had been formed by being made 
a quarry ; and perhaps, as already hinted, the remainder of the 
channel had been a natural fosse, and the course towards the 
main stream for the accumulated waters of the marshes on the 
hill of Edzell. For the purpose of forming a pond or moat 
round the original castle (which stood on an isolated mound in 

1 See Dr. Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary, in voce. 

2 Lives, ii. p. 258. 

3 The Bossy, or wooden bowl, for lifting meal from the girnal, is of various 
sizes, but rarely holds more than half a peck. 

4 See APPENDIX No. IV., for some notice of the Durays. 



62 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

the broadest part of the den), it is highly probable that this 
streamlet was dammed up or confined on the southern parts. 
This theory has at least plausibility in its favour ; and, waiving 
the consideration of the many thousands of years that the 
West Water would have taken to form its present rugged 
course, the circumstance that the " castle hillock " has all the 
appearance of having been moated that the level of the den 
at the northern extremity is twenty or thirty feet above that of 
the West Water, and that the remains of a great natural fosse 
or ditch may still be traced running from the hill of Edzell to 
near the top of the den contributes to favour this notion. 

As already mentioned, no trace of the oldest castle exists ; 
but the ruins of its successor, or perhaps rather those now stand- 
ing, are the largest, and, taken as a whole, the most magnificent 
of any in the counties of Angus and Mearns. Even those 
of Dunnottar cannot rival them in grandeur of conception or 
strength of building, although they may do so in point of extent 
and natural position. The donjon, or " Stirling Tower," as it is 
called, is yet an imposing and, so far as relates to the outer wall 
and ground floor, a pretty entire structure. It stands about 
sixty feet high, is the most carefully executed part of the whole 
building, and, for beauty and solidity of workmanship, will 
bear comparison with any of modern times. It is popularly 
believed to have been erected by the old family of Stirling, but 
beyond its bearing their name, no other evidence exists ; and, 
although " mason-marks " are discernible on most of the 
principal stones, it is not supposed that they afford a sufficient 
criterion for fixing its date. 

Down to the great hurricane of llth October 1838, the 
battlements could be reached and walked upon with safety ; 
but on that awful night, when many of the thatched cottages 
in the village and in other parts of the district, were almost 
instantaneously unroofed, the upper part of the stair was so 
much injured that the top cannot now be reached without 
danger. The walls of the Keep are from four to six feet thick, 
and, apart from the regular window lights, are here and there 



EDZELL THE OLD CASTLE RUINS. 63 

perforated by circular and oblong loopholes. A cluster of these 
guard the main entrance at all points, affording a striking proof 
of the sad insecurity of life and property, and of the intestine 
commotions which then rent the nation asunder, retarded the 
progress of the peaceful arts, and destroyed the soothing in- 
fluence of domestic harmony. 

The basement floor of the Tower consists of two damp 
gloomy vaults, to which a faint glimmer of light is admitted 
through small apertures. These are popularly believed to have 
been wards or prisons for holding condemned criminals in days 
of old, but in reality they were merely cellars used for the 
preservation of choice liquors and viands, which, we have the 
best of all authority for knowing, were far from strangers at 
the boards of ancient lords and barons. Apart from the 
entrance-doors in the main lobby, these cellars communicate 
with each other, and also with the dining-room by a narrow 
stair. Their arched roofs form the floor of that room (which 
is the only remaining floor in the Keep), and, occupying nearly 
the whole length and breadth of the tower, it had indeed been 
a spacious apartment, quite commensurate with the reputed 
power and influence of its owners, while the elevated roof and 
large windows may be considered as anticipations of our 
recently improved household ventilation. Seats of polished 
freestone are raised on the inside of the windows that over- 
looked the flower-garden and the fine old castle green, where, 
in the hey-day of the family of Edzell 

" The deer and the roe bounded lightly together." 

The old castle is not presumed to have been of much greater 
extent than as now indicated by the Stirling Tower ; but of 
this, as of its date, no positive evidence has been obtained. The 
new part, or the long range of building that stretches from the 
Keep northward, was the work of David of Edzell before his 
succession as ninth Earl of Crawford. Though comparatively 
recent, it is the most ruinous part of the whole, and, with the 
exception of a solitary base stone of the entrance-door of the 



64 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

great hall (where the Episcopalians met in the last laird's 
time), no trace of the ornamental part of this section of the 
castle is supposed to exist ; but from the beauty of this frag- 
ment which consists of two pilasters and a fine cable orna- 
ment on the inner margin, all beautifully proportioned some 
idea may be had of the former elegance of the place, and the 
advanced state of native sculpture. At the same time, some- 
thing of the internal decoration of the great hall may be seen 
in the eight panels of oak, about 10 inches by 18 in size, and 
delicately carved, that were found about 1855 in a carpenter's 
shop at Edzell, 1 and which Lord Panmure at once had fitted up 
for exhibition and preservation in the lodge at Edzell Castle. 2 

Although niches for three various coats armorial are still 
over the front of the outer entrance, the sculptures are all gone, 
except the one, bearing the impaled arms of the ninth Earl 
and those of his lady of Lorn, that was found some years 
ago built into the old wall of the garden. It ought to have 
been mentioned before, that during the widowhood of that 
amiable lady, and while her family were all young, the castle 
of Edzell was honoured with the presence of the unfortunate 
Queen Mary. This occurred on the 25th of August 1562, 
while her Majesty was on her well-known northern expedi- 
tion to "quell the Huntly rebellion, on returning from which, 
accompanied by Lords Murray, Maitland, and Lindsay (the 
last of whom afterwards forced her to resign the crown at 
Lochleven), she held a council here, and remained for the 
night ; from that time the room in which she slept was called 
the Queen's Chamber. Her son, King James, also paid a visit 
to "Egaill" when returning from the north in 1580. 3 

The outer walls of the castle, however, so far as they had 
been completed, are still pretty entire, but the inner are ruinous, 
as are also most of the vaults, which had been carried round 
the whole fabric ; and, instead of the rooms being strewed with 
rushes or decorated with tapestry and oak carvings, as in the 

1 By our author, Mr. Jervise. 

2 Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot. ii. pp. 63, 70. Misc. Sp. Club, ii. p. 53. 



EDZELL SITUATION AND AMENITIES. 65 

olden time, the acrid nettle and other indigenous weeds luxu- 
riate now on the floors and crumbling walls, and the screech- 
owl and raven nestle in the crevices. The outer court was 
equally spacious as the castle, measuring, as may yet be traced 
from the foundations of the walls, about one hundred feet by 
seventy. Ochterlony, writing from personal observation (about 
1682), says that "it was so large and levell, that of old when 
they used that sport, they used to play at the football there, and 
there are still four great growing trees which were the dobts." 1 
But, as is the case with most of the monuments of its social 
and domestic grandeur, the " dobts " too have all disappeared, 
and, together with the chapel and great kitchen, fell, as did 
that portion in which the Queen's Chamber was situated, with 
much else that is now only known to tradition, at the reckless 
hands of despoiling utilitarians. As some rubbish, however, 
was being removed from a field beside the castle in 1855, the 
ruins of the bath-rooms were found at the south-west corner 
of the flower-garden. They show a late and superior style of 
workmanship, and probably belong to the time of David Lind- 
say of Edzell, the ninth Earl of Crawford. In plan they must 
have been very complete, but bath-rooms and well had been 
wholly lost, except for a faint tradition in the district, till they 
were accidentally discovered. According to the original design, 
the exterior of the building had corresponded to that of the 
summer-house at the south-east corner of the garden. 2 

From the magnificent style in which cookery was conducted 
at Edzell, and the liberality of its owners to the poor, it was 
familiarly known by the enviable title of "the kitchen of 
Angus." Oxen were roasted whole, and everything conducted 
in a correspondingly sumptuous style; and daily, after the 
family had dined, the poor of the parish congregated in the 
court-yard, and taking their seats on the stone benches (which 

1 Spottiswoode Miscellany, i. p. 336. 

2 Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot. ii. pp. 226-9 ; Reg. de Panmure, i. p. clxi ; Brechin \ 
Advertiser, June 12, 1855. 

E 



66 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

still remain on both sides of the outer entrance passage), they 
received their dole of beef and beer from the fair hands of the 
lady or daughters of " the proud house of Edzell." 

Such is one of the pleasing among the many painful tradi- 
tions that still live regarding this truly great race, whose 
character, if taken into account with the chivalric period 
in which they flourished, and their all but princely power 
and influence, presents, as a whole, some of the holiest and 
happiest traits of human kindness. He who could exercise 
but a tithe of forbearance in the unlettered past, overlook 
a single inadvertent insult to his lordly dignity, or treat 
his menials with condescension and affability, exhibited a 
degree of wisdom and charity that, even in our own enlight- 
ened age, would add laurels to the brow of many of the nobly 
born and the religiously educated; and, even in the last 
laird, who was proverbial for extravagance and haughtiness 
of disposition, traits of those admirable qualities were happily 
to be found. 

It is however in the embellishments of what is usually 
known as the flower-garden that the classical taste of the 
family, and the proficiency to which native sculpture had then 
attained, are most apparent. It contains nearly half a Scotch 
acre, and is now laid out in a permanent sward and a gravelled 
walk, with the carved stones that have been accidentally 
met with set neatly round along the walls. Here, on 2d October 
1856, Lord Panmure was entertained by his tenantry of the 
northern district to dinner, and about two hundred made the 
welkin ring again, as in former days when the Lindsays were 
prosperous and powerful. 1 The magnificent wall, the fine 
sculpture with which it is profusely decorated, 2 and the viri- 
darium, or summer-house, with beautiful turrets and ceiling 

1 The space occupied by the castle, including the flower and kitchen gardens, is 
fully two acres Scotch. The kitchen-garden also contained some fine old fruit-trees, 
and had for some years been partly ploughed. These fruit-trees, together with goose- 
berry and other bushes, were removed by order of Lord Panmure in 1853-4, and 
the whole space laid out in grass, with a neat walk running through it. 

2 For detail of these, see APPENDIX No. V. 



EDZELL DECAY OF THE FAMILY. 67 

of hewn freestone, together with the old part of the house of the ' 
Mains (which bore the date 1602), were, as already shown, the 
work of the later years of Lord Edzell, with whom, it may be 
said, the true mental energy and superior taste of the main 
line of this great house failed. But it certainly was not so 
with that of Balcarres : as the paternal house degenerated, the 
fraternal branch advanced, until by the achievements of many 
successive members, both in the senate and on the battle-field, 
it has now attained to that ancient dignity from which it was 
so long and wrongfully excluded ; and many of its members 
have been, and some of them still are, as famous in the quiet 
instructive walks of literature and science, as the majority of 
their old representatives were in the exciting arenas of chivalry 
and warfare. 

While the forfeited estates of Panmure were possessed by the 
York Buildings Company, the venerable house and plantation 
of Edzell received the first great dilapidating blow. 1 In 1 746 the 
Argyll Highlanders, who were then sent to purge the country 
of Jacobites, took up their quarters there, and contributed 
greatly, by all manner of extravagance and outrage, to pollute 
its time-honoured walls, and despoil it of its princely grandeur. 

1 The York Buildings Company was first a private speculation, but incorporated 
by Koyal Charter in 1690, for the purpose of raising water from the Thames to York 
Buildings to supply the inhabitants of London. Its objects were extended in 1719, 
and 1,200,000 were raised as a joint-stock subscription for the purchase of the 
forfeited and other estates, and for granting annuities and life assurances. These 
speculations proved unfortunate ; and, instead of having the free rental of 14,000, 
on which annuities were secured by infeftment, the Parliamentary inquiry of 1733 
showed that the receipts were only 10,500. The Company was therefore declared 
insolvent, and from 1732 the forfeited estates were held by trustees for behoof of 
annuitants ; and being exposed for sale at Edinburgh, on the 20th of February 1764, 
most of the lands were purchased by the disinherited families. Among these were the 
estates of Panmure, which were sold to the last Earl for the gross sum of 49,157, 
18s. 4d. sterling. Of this sum 6,245, 13s. 4d. were paid for the lordships of Brechin 
and Navar, and 11,951, 8s. 9d. for Glenesk, Edzell, and Lethnot. The present 
yearly rental of the three estates last named is 11,975, 14s. 8d. The Company 
purchased the Panmure estates from Government in 1719 for 52,324, 15s. 8d. 
sterling. (See Registrum de Panmure, ii. pp. 347 sq.) On 2d November 1728 the said 
Company set in tack and lease the estates of Panmure, and those of Pitcairn, South- 
esk, and Mar, to Sir Archibald Grant of Monimusk, Bart., and Mr. Alexander 
Garden of Troup. (MS. Inventory of the Estates of Panmure, Southesk, Marischa.ll, 
etc., A.D. 1729, p. 2.) 



68 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Common report says that those soldiers were brought thither 
at the solicitations of the minister of Glenesk, who was a stern 
enemy to Episcopacy. It may have 'been so, but it is more 
probable that they had been despatched to check an old Jaco- 
bite of the name of David Terrier, who was ever and anon per- 
forming some daring exploit in the district. This bold individual 
mustered upwards of three hundred men in the rebel cause 
from Glenesk and Glenprosen alone, and taking up his abode at 
the mouth of the former pass, carried off horses and arms with 
impunity from the country betwixt it and Brechin. 1 His 
influence was so great that he had become captain in Lord 
Ogilvy's regiment, and deputy-governor of Brechin. He also 
took part in many of the engagements between the royal troops 
and the rebels. After Culloden he returned to Glenesk, but 
eventually escaped, and not being included in the Amnesty 
Act, is believed to have died in Spain. 

When Terrier was oppressing the country, Major de Voisel 
was at the head of the Argyll Highlanders. These were about 
equal in number to Terrier's followers, and through Voisel's 
superior leadership and training, the soldiers soon succeeded in 
checking the ravages of their opponents. 2 But it is painful to 
know, that even during the most rigid stage of feudalism, the 
inhabitants of those parts never experienced so much tyranny 
and oppression not to speak of the utter laxity of all sorts of 
moral rectitude as were then exhibited towards them, under 
the guise of royal authority, by those legalised marauders. As 
the common attendant upon a selfish general and a reckless 
army, infamy and crime fell for a time as a blight upon the 
land. The Episcopal churches were burned indiscriminately, 

1 Struthers, Hist, of Scot, from the Union, ii. p. 359. 

2 In June 1876 the- copy of an order by Mr. John Garden, factor of Glenesk, but 
then residing in Brechin, for the inhabitants of Edzell and lordship of Navar, who 
were well affected to the Government, to have their arms in readiness to repel " these 
rebellious villains" the Jacobites, was presented to the Society of Antiquaries. 
(Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot. xi. pp. 540, 542.) Mr. Garden signed the call at the ordina- 
tion of both Mr. Blair in 1729, and Mr. Scott in 1734 : he may possibly have been a 
near relative of the laird of Troup. See below, p. 87, note. 



EDZELL DILAPIDATIONS AT THE CASTLE. 69 

and, in some cases, the flames were prolonged by the scanty 
furniture of the worthy pastor and his faithful adherents, while 
the wives and daughters of the inhabitants became the hapless 
victims of the base and vitiated habits of their persecutors. 

Although much of the fine carved oak-work of the castle 
was burned or otherwise destroyed at that time, the roof and 
the gilded vane on the tower were entire for a considerable 
period after the din and noise of the soldiers had passed away ; 
but all were ultimately, in 1764, brought to the hammer and 
sold for behoof of the Company's creditors. Most of the oaken 
rafters were purchased by Dundee manufacturers, who had 
them converted into lays for weavers' looms ; and ere long, by 
the sales for the payment of debts and by wholesale pillaging, 
every vestige of human comfort and affluence disappeared. 
$bt only the vaults, but the dining and drawing rooms, became 
dens of thieves and robbers, and a common rendezvous and 
protection to traffickers in all sorts of illicit goods. Even the 
iron stanchions of the windows were forcibly wrested from their 
sockets, and carried off by the blacksmiths of the district. It 
is said that one of these, a muscular fugitive of the " forty -five," 
lifted the immense grated door off its hinges, but, being unable 
to transport it further than the so-called old water track at one 
attempt, he hid it amongst the brushwood, when an envious 
brother Vulcan tumbled it into a deep pool, where it is believed 
to be still lying. 

Such was the barbarous manner in which the castle of 
Edzell was denuded of its ancient grandeur. The fine 
approach of majestic trees, that stretched southward from the 
castle to the old church, forming a beautiful arboreal vault, 
and indeed the whole mass of growing timber that had 
doubtless been more valuable for decorative than useful pur- 
poses was brought under the axe at nearly the same time ; 
and by a series of wanton acts, rather than by anything that 
the iron tooth of Time could have effected, this once magnificent 
place, the cherished abode of a long race of the most potent 



70 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

barons of the kingdom, was reduced to its present lowly, and 
it may be said, inglorious position. 

" "Tis now the raven's bleak abode : 
'Tis now the apartment of the toad ; 
And there the fox securely feeds ; 
And there the pois'nous adder breeds, 
Concealed in ruins, moss, and weeds ; 
While, ever and anon, there falls 
Huge heaps of hoary moulder'd walls." 

Nor did a better fate await the castle of Auchmull, but its 
destruction is not to be ascribed to the same party as that of 
Edzell. So far indeed from its being so, the York Buildings 
Company declared that the tenant should " have no concern 
with the stone house, commonly called the Castle of Auchmull, 
except in so far as he shall damage it by his use or neglect of 
it," in which case he was bound to repair all injury to the same 
as if it had been a part of the mill or farm-steading. 1 It was 
occupied by the farmer down to 1772-3, about which time he 
found it so inconvenient, that he offered to bear the cost of a 
new house, provided the proprietor would allow him the wood, 
iron, and other materials of the castle with which to erect it. 
This was unfortunately acceded to, and the famous refuge of 
the murderer of Lord Spynie was soon unroofed, and otherwise 
destroyed. But the work of destruction, once begun, did not 
terminate here, having its limit only in the complete anni- 
hilation of the stronghold. For although, after the building of 
the farm-house originally stipulated for, a goodly fabric in the 
form of a square tower, similar to that of Invermark, graced 
the banks of the romantic rivulet where it stood ; yet that too 
was demolished for the purpose of building fences and filling 
drains. Thus all that now exists is only a small part of the 
foundations, and the comparatively entire and interesting- 
carving of the Lindsay and Wishart arms, with the initials and 
date, "D. L. : M. W., 1601." These refer to " young Edzell," 
and his wife Margaret Wishart, daughter of the laird of Pit- 

1 Tack Mr. Francis Grant to David Lindsay, 17th Feb. 1756, in possession of 
his descendant, the present tenant. 



EDZELL CASTLE OF AUCHMULL. 



71 



arrow, to whom he was married sometime before November 
1597, and who died in 1646, having survived her unfortunate 
husband for the space of three years. 1 So late as 1854, a gold 
finger-ring, with a blue precious stone, was found in the digging 
of a garden at Auchmull. It is said to have been given to a 
Martha Gall, his paramour, by the last Lindsay of Edzell ; and 
on its recovery, after being lost, it was purchased by the late 
Lord Panmure. Truly, it may be said, that " heartless man," 
together with 

" [Old] Time, hath done his work of ill 

On statues, fount, and hall ; 
Ruin'd, and lone, they year by year, 
Fragment by fragment, fall." 

1 Crawford Case, pp. 181, 187. This stone had been built into the wall of a neigh- 
bouring cottage, and was found in the summer of 1854, when the cottage was 
demolished. It is now placed within the flower garden at Edzell Castle. 




Sculptured Stone at EdzelL 



CHAPTER II. 



SECTION I. 

The little churchyard by the lonely lake, 
All shaded round by heath-clad mountains hoar ; 

With ruined fane in which the pious met, 
And raised the supplicating prayer of yore. 

There sleeps the Poet who tuned his magic lyre 
And sung the curious freaks of days gone by ; 

There, too, lie those who tilled the lazy soil, 
And held the cots that now in ruins lie. 

Glenesk St. Drostan Neudos Old church of Lochlee Origin of parish Its 
ministers Mr. Ross as session-clerk Episcopacy in the parish Rev. David 
Rose, the illegal meeting-house keeper Illiberality of parish ministers Change 
of views Chapel built on the Rowan Rev. Peter Jolly New churches at 
Tarfside Free church at the Birks of Ardoch Memorial windows Description 
of old parish church Ross the author of Helenore His abode, biography, and 
poetry Present church and manse Drowning of the brothers Whyte Bene- 
volence of Rev. David Inglis Lines on a stranger. 

THOUGH the church of Glenesk, or Lochlee, 1 as this fine pas- 
toral district is indiscriminately termed, is one of the oldest 
established in the county, little is known of its history beyond 
the name of its founder, and the period of his settlement. St. 
Drostan, a saint of the blood royal of Scotland, was Abbot of 
Donegall in Ireland and Holywood in Wigtonshire. On return- 
ing from the sister country in the sixth century, he took up 
his abode in Glenesk, and proclaimed the glad tidings of salva- 
tion there, during the remainder of his long life. He flourished 
about the year 600, and his feast is held on the llth of July. 2 

1 Gleann-uisge, "the glen of water." Loch-le, "the smooth lake." 

2 The saint has a double tradition : the Breviary of Aberdeen counts him a con- 
temporary of St. Columba in the sixth century, while the Scotch annalists place him 
in the eighth and ninth. His feast is unfixed, but perhaps most frequently on July 
11 and December 14. (Dr. Wm. Smith and Prof. Wace, Diet. Christ. Biog., i. p. 907.) 



GLENESK TRACES OF ST. DROSTAN. 73 

Though St. Drostan's relics, like those of most of the saints, 
survived his decease for many ages, and may perhaps survive 
and work miracles in some obscure corner to this day, it is not 
to be supposed that the church, of which the ruins still remain, 
though said to be of unknown antiquity, was the theatre of his 
ministry. The little wooden cell in which he dwelt, and every 
fragment of the rude cross that he raised, have long since passed 
away, even their exact sites having become unknown. And this 
is no great wonder, for it is only remarkable that St. Drostan's 
name should at all exist in the district, as it will be perceived 
that it is more than a thousand years since his fervent prayers 
resounded in this glen, and since the mournful train of grateful 
converts and holy brethren bore his relics across the hills, and 
had them deposited in a stone chest, that was prepared for 
them at the church of Aberdour in Aberdeenshire, of which 
he was patron. 1 

From the site of the present manse of Glenesk being called 
"Droustie," and an adjoining fountain "Droustie's Well," it 
may be inferred that these are corruptions of the name of 
St. Drostan, and point out the sites of his residence and 
church. " Droustie's Meadow " is also the name of a piece 
of ground near the Parsonage at Tarfside, and these, with 
St. Drostan's well at Neudos, are the only places in the district 
bearing similar designations. But it seems probable that the 
district of Cairncross, lying between the Tarf and Turret, 
formed more or less of the monastic lands of St. Drostan's 
foundation, and followed the usual course of such lands by 
falling into the hands of lay abbots, and then becoming 
wholly alienated and secularised. 2 Though now annexed to 
Edzell, the parish of Neudos was, from early times, a separate 
cure, and, so far as known, had never any connection with 
Glenesk. In fact the situation of the old kirk of Neudos, and 
more particularly that of the well (both of which lie consider- 

1 Collections on Aberdeenshire, p. 442; Butler, Lives nfthe Saints, July 11. 

2 Reg. de Panmure, i. p. cliii. 



74 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

ably east of the glen) favour this idea ; arid, as previously 
hinted, the presence of the fountain is only to be taken as 
implying that the church was dedicated to St. Drostan, while 
Droustie in Glenesk may be considered as having been the 
principal place of his residence and ministry. 1 

The old kirk of Lochlee, which stands at the lower end of 
the Loch, is also sometimes called the " kirk of Droustie ; " 
and a deep pool in the river Lee, immediately south of the 
farm-house of Kirkton, now used principally for sheep-washing, 
has, time out of memory, borne the significant appellation of the 
" Monks' Pool," so termed, it is said, because the monks had 
right to fish in it for salmon during the flesh-proscribed season 
of Lent. Fine large fish are taken out of it to the present 
day. 

From the time of St. Drostan, down to the year 1723, when 
the district was erected into an independent parish, little is 
known of its ecclesiastical history ; before that date, the most 
we know is that in 1384 it was merely a chaplainry of the 
adjoining parish of Lethnot, 2 and Sir Andrew Joly is designed 
"curate of Lochlie" in 1558. 3 About the time of the 
Eeformation, a Mr. Hay was appointed reader with the scanty 
salary of twenty-four merks a year, or about twenty-six 
shillings and ninepence sterling, for which he prayed and 
read portions of Scripture to the people in the absence of the 
minister, while the latter preached there only once every three 
weeks, " weather permitting." In a district so large (for the 
parish embraces an area of more than a hundred square miles) 
and so far removed from the residence of the clergyman, the 
office of reader, if we are to suppose that matters stood then 
as they did at a later period, had been onerous in the extreme. 
But an augmentation extending to 100 merks Scots, six bolls 
of oatmeal, two crofts of land adjoining the church with pasture 

1 The late Dr. Joseph Robertson, Register House, Edinburgh, has given reasons 
for thinking that St. Drostan's monastery was at Edzell. See above, page 4, and 
Lives, i. pp. 103, n., 424, App. No. x. 

2 Reg. Episc. Brech., i. p. 22. 3 Crawford Case, pp. 174-187. 



GLENESK SUCCESSION OF MINISTERS. 75 

for a horse and cow and twenty sheep, 1 was afterwards in 1659 
made to the reader's salary by the laird of Edzell items that 
the teacher of Glenesk still enjoys (but now in part converted 
into a money payment, and the croft lands locally changed), as 
a partial recompence for his secluded abode and comparatively 
small attendance of pupils. 

By decreet of 1717, the gross amount of the minister's 
stipend was one thousand merks Scots, with fifty pounds Scots 
for communion elements; but in 1723, when the parish was 
erected, and Navar annexed to Lethnot in its stead, an addi- 
tional nine hundred merks Scots, with other fifty pounds Scots, 
were given, together with a large arable and pasture glebe, and 
commodious manse. 2 

Erected into a separate parish in 1723, the first clergyman 
was Mr. Eobert Ker, who removed from Lethnot, and, as there 
was no manse until the year 1 750, he and his successors occupied 
a part of the castle of Invermark down to that time, along with 
Mr. Garden, factor of the York Buildings Company, and his 
family. Mr. Garden died there in 1745, as his wife had in 
1738, and was buried at Lochlee. Mr. Ker, who demitted the 
charge in 1728, was succeeded by the Eev. David Blair in 1729, 
who remained only four years, when he was translated to the first 
charge of the parish of Brechin, and there, in 1760, he estab- 
lished a Sunday-evening school, that is said to have been the 
first opened in Scotland. Mr. Blair's successor, the Rev. John 
Scott, as will be immediately shown, bore a prominent part in 
the Episcopal persecutions that followed the great political 
movements of the rebellion of 1745. Betwixt his death in 
1749 and Mr. Inglis's appointment in 1806, the cure was filled 
by the Rev. Messrs. Ross and Pirie, the latter of whom wrote 
the first (or Old) Statistical Account of the parish. 

Registers of the various parochial incidents were com- 

1 Settlement by John Lindsay of Edzell, Aug. 22, 1669 Copy of, in the school- 
master's possession. The grant was originally made by David Lindsay of Edzell, 
under his settlement dated 6th March 1639. (Crawford Case, p. 187.) 

- Old Statistical Account, v. pp. 365-6. 



76 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

menced in 1730, and, while in the keeping of the painstaking 
and ingenuous Mr. Alexander Eoss (who was settled as teacher 
herein 1732), they are most interesting and ample regarding 
all matters touched upon. The inestimable value of baptismal 
and other registrations was so apparent to him, and the pains 
that he took to ascertain particulars so assiduous, as to be 
worthy the imitation of many of his brethren of the present 
day ; while the manner in which he deplores the little regard 
that was paid to his efforts in these respects by those whom 
they were most calculated to benefit, shows the simplicity of 
his character and the superiority of his mind, in one of its 
most benign and disinterested aspects. " I designed," he 
writes, evidently in a tone of unmingled regret, " to have kept 
a regular accompt of the baptisms in this parish during my 
incumbency as Session-Clerk and Precentor; but no man, 
whether attending kirk or meeting-house (i.e. Episcopal 
chapel), ever once desired me to do that office for him, or ever 
gave me the dues for enrolling their children, except David 
Christison in Auchrony, that paid me for recording his eldest 
son, John ; and even the few that are recorded were done by 
informing myself of their names and the time of their baptism 
the best way I could, so that I hope the world will excuse me 
when the register is found deficient as to this particular." 1 

When erected into a separate parish, most of the inhabitants 
here, as in Edzell and Lethnot, were either Episcopalians or 
Roman Catholics, but mainly the former; and owing to the favour 
with which Episcopacy has always been received in the dis- 
trict, it has flourished here, so far as the fluctuations of the 
population would allow, ever since the Reformation in Scotland. 
Perhaps as a matter of course, Jacobitism ran high during the 
rebellion ; but the Hanoverian interest also had at the same 
time its friends. The thanksgiving for " the late victory obtained 

1 Lochlee Par. Reg. Sept. 21, 1745. A study of the Sketch of the History and 
Imperfect Condition of the Parochial Records of Births, Marriages, and Deaths in 
Scotland, by George Seton, Esq., Advocate (Edin. 1854), will best show the value of 
Mr. Ross's design. 



GLENESK EPISCOPACY. 77 

at Culloden against the rebels " was religiously observed in the 
parish church; and, when the elders and kirk-session were 
examined by the committee appointed for investigating these 
matters, it was found that they " had behaved themselves very 
well during the unnatural rebellion," and that they were well 
affected to the reigning king and government. 

The first Episcopal clergyman of whom any record exists 
was David Eose, father of the late Eight Honourable George 
Eose, that figured so prominently in political controversy 
during the latter part of the last century and the beginning of 
the present. Little is known of Mr. Eose or his family ; his 
wife's name was also Eose, and both are supposed to have 
been natives of the parish of Birse. Preaching on alternate 
Sundays at Glenesk and Lethnot, and in various neighbouring 
districts during the week, he was equally remarkable for his 
zeal in the cause of Episcopacy, and for the forbearance and 
judgment that he displayed in one of the most trying and 
critical periods of his Church's history. Mr. Eose was settled 
in the district of Glenesk and Lethnot in the year 1723; and 
in 1728 he gifted to the chapel a hand-bell, which, although 
now rarely rung at kirk or burial, is worthily preserved at the 
Parsonage. 1 His principal residence was at Woodside in the 
Dunlappie part of the parish of Stracathro, where his distin- 
guished sou, George, was born on the 17th January 1744. 2 
Mr. Eose died on the 31st day of October 1758, aged sixty- 
three, and was buried within the parish church of Lethnot. 3 
His widow, Margaret Eose, spent her latter years in Montrose, 
and dying in 1785, aged eighty, was buried beside her husband. 

In the parochial records, Mr. Eose is always spoken of in 
the derogatory capacity of "the illegal meeting-house keeper;" 

1 This bell bears : " MR. DAVID ROSE GIFT TO GLENESK, 1728." 

2 In all biographies, Rose is erroneously stated to have been born at Brechin, 
and on the llth of June. The baptismal register of Stracathro says : "George, 
lawful son to Mr. David Rose, Episcopal minister in Woodside, was born on 17th 
and baptized on 18th January 1744." 

8 "To grave room in the kirk, to Mr. Da. Rose, 2." (Lethnot Parish Reg., 
Dec. 18, 1758.) 



78 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 



but from the success that attended his laborious and exem- 
plary ministry, his contemporary, Mr. Scott, of the parish 
church, seems to have felt his cause so endangered that he tried 
in every possible manner to render Mr. Rose and his doctrine 
obnoxious. He demanded the " marriage pledges " of Episco- 
palians, but never returned them, except to such as apostatised 
and became members of his own church. He also got the credit 
of informing against the rebel laird of Balnamoon, who long 
skulked among the fastnesses of Glenesk after the defeat of his 
party at Culloden, as well as of having been the means of 
causing Mr. Eose to be apprehended and put on board a frigate 
that was lying off Montrose, and in which he was some time 
confined as a prisoner. He is further said to have been instru- 
mental in bringing the Argyll Highlanders to the district, and 
in having the first attempt made to prohibit the wearing of the 
Highland garb. 1 These, however, were Government orders, and 
are thus perhaps wrongfully ascribed to him; but it is cer- 
tain that soon after these occurrences, Mr. Scott came suddenly 
by his death, for, when he was passing near the ruins of the 
Episcopal chapel on the Rowan (which had been burned to the 
ground by the army), he was thrown from his horse and killed 
on the spot on January 23d, 1749. 2 

This fatal accident, perhaps from the peculiar place of its 
occurrence, was viewed by the Jacobite party in the light of 
retributive justice, and, notwithstanding that Mr. Rose was 
long obliged to preach to his adherents at the Faulds of 
Milton and in the open air after the burning of his chapel, 
the cause of Episcopacy was rather increased than diminished. 
But death interrupted Mr. Rose's labours, and several years 
elapsed before the appointment of a successor. With the 

1 " 1748. Dec. 24 ; This day read an order prohibiting the wearing that part of 
the highland dress called the plaid, filibeg, or little, kilt, after the 25th curt." 
" 1749, July 30 ; This day read from the Latron an order from the Sherriff of Forfar 
discharging every part of the highland dress from being worn after the 1st of August 
next." (Lochlee Par. Reg.) 

2 " Mr. John Scott, minr. here, died suddenly, near Tarfside, on his way to the 
presbyterie in Brechine." (Lochlee Par. Reg. Jan. 24, 1749.) 



GLENESK EPISCOPACY. 79 

decease of Mr. Eose, the parochial clergyman, who seems to 
have had as intolerant a spirit as his predecessor, expected the 
Episcopal cause also to die away; but, instead of that, the 
feeling of antagonism went from bad to worse, and, the Episco- 
palians, having little faith to place in the ministry of those from 
whom they had experienced so much unmitigated oppression, 
rather inclined to cherish the Eoman Catholic belief, which 
appeared to some of them, under the circumstances, as the least 
of two evils. Accordingly, a " popish priest " was invited from 
Deeside, and he planted his chapel almost at the very door of 
the parish church. 1 This decided movement on the part of the 
Episcopalians was probably hastened by the tyranny of the 
parish minister, who tried to lord it over the people and 
strengthen his own congregation in many extraordinary ways, 
one of which was his absolute refusal to allow the marriage 
banns of a worthy couple to be proclaimed, and that for no 
other reason than that the woman was " a papist," and would 
not apostatise and become a member of his church. 2 

Ultimately, however, another Episcopal clergyman came 
to the district, and soon succeeded, by persuasive words and 
winning manners, to effect that peace which his Presbyterian 
neighbour had failed to accomplish by intolerant enmity. A 
humble chapel was in a short time raised, Phcenix-like, from 
the ashes of its predecessor. It was in it that Mr. Brown, 
father of the learned President of the Linnean Society in 
London, conducted worship during the three years of his 
residence in Glenesk, and there also the services continued to 
be performed by his successors, Mr. Davidson and Mr. Jolly ; 
the last named was the first resident Episcopal minister in 
Glenesk from the time of the Revolution. Thenceforward 
matters rolled on smoothly ; and when the Eev. David Inglis 
was inducted to the parish church, the banner of toleration was 
freely unfurled. Instead of the bickerings and heartburnings 
that marked the times of his illiberal predecessors, he and 

^Lochlec Par. Reg. July 16, 1760. 2 Ibid. September 17 and 23, 1759. 



SO LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Mr. Jolly met as brethren, resolved everything for the best 
where the affairs of individual members of their congregations 
were concerned and exchanged visits on the most friendly and 
conciliatory terms, living here below as they hoped to live 
hereafter. It will show the strength of Episcopacy in the glen 
at that period, to remark that we read in the Eev. Alexander 
Lunan's diary, how Bishop Eait confirmed about seventy 
persons in the chapel on the Eowan on 16th August 1745, 
as on the preceding day he had confirmed about twenty-five 
in Mr. Eose's dwelling-house at Woodside of Dunlappie. 1 

Thus the aspect of Christianity may be said to have been 
totally changed in the district, and two years after Mr. Inglis' 
settlement, the Episcopalians, who had long found the comfort- 
less state of the chapel on the Eowan to be most inconvenient 
and indecorous, set on foot a subscription for erecting a new 
edifice. This desire had hitherto been frustrated by the opposi- 
tion of contemporary parish ministers. But an appeal to the 
public was now made for the purpose, and, being descriptive of 
the state of the old church, and of the peculiar manner of its 
erection (not to speak of the document's bearing the full stamp 
of the characteristic simplicity of the worthy pastor who issued 
it), it is here printed in full : " In appealing to the benevolence 
of the public for aid to rebuild the chapel in Glenesk," writes 
Mr. Jolly, " it may not be improper to remark that the walls of 
' the present one, which is upwards of seventy feet by fourteen 
feet, were built by the hands of the congregation, in the course 
of one week, nearly fifty years ago. Of consequence, it cannot be 
supposed that a house so hastily built can be now comfortable ; 
indeed, it is so much the reverse, that the congregation are 
obliged literally to stand amongst the snow that finds its way 
at times through the wall during the time of public worship ; 
besides, the roof does not now defend from rain : it's of heath, 
and has lasted about thirty years." 2 

1 See Mr. Lunan's Diary, MS. preserved in the Diocesan Library, Brecliin. 

2 Kindly communicated by the late Rev. Alex. Simpson, Mr. Jolly's successor in 
the charge. 



GLENESK EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 81 

Issued in October 1809, this "appeal" had the desired 
effect. In the course of the following year another chapel 
was erected, but at the foot of the hill. The neat parsonage 
was built during the next season, and towards it the late 
Eight Honourable Mr. George Eose contributed the handsome 
sum of fifty pounds. Matters now progressed to the best of 
Mr. Jolly's wishes ; the fortnightly meeting at Lethnot was 
abolished, the Episcopalians of that district and of Fearn, 
with many from the parishes of Clova and Birse, making 
the chapel of Glenesk their regular place of worship; and, 
after the long period of fifty-seven years' service, their pastor 
was gathered to his fathers in 1845, 1 aged eighty -two years, 
leaving the congregation in a most flourishing state. Within 
the last fifty years the population of the glen has rapidly 
diminished, and the recent census proves that the decrease 
is still going on. The parish church is now on the western 
verge of the inhabited district, and, to be useful to the people, 
must in course of time be moved eastward. The same in- 
fluences have also told upon the Episcopal congregation at 
Tarfside, and in the course of his incumbency of thirty-three 
years, as successor of Mr. Jolly, the Eev. Alexander Simpson 
saw his congregation leaving the homes of their fathers for 
town-life and distant lands. He passed to his rest in the 
spring of 1871, and was laid in the parish churchyard. The 
Eev. William Presslie entered upon the charge of a sadly 
diminished flock, which, from the scanty population, can 
scarcely increase. As a memorial, however, of his friend and 
kinsman, the late Eight Eeverend Alexander Penrose Forbes, 
D.C.L., Bishop of Brechin, who died in Dundee, October 8, 1875, 
Lord Forbes built a neat and very handsome church near the 
site of the former one, upon a feu given by the Earl of Dalhousie, 
and had it formally consecrated by Bishop Jermyn of Brechin 
on September 9, 1880. 

1 Mr. Jolly died in Brechin, having removed from Tarfside to the house of his 
son-in-law, Bishop Moir. 

F 



82 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Such is a brief view of the history and progress of Epis- 
copacy in Glenesk. The circumstances attending the founda- 
tion of the parish have already been alluded to, and nothing 
of further note is recorded in connection with it from that 
time to the present, except at the memorable Disruption 
of 1843, when, as in other parishes, a number of the mem- 
bers seceded and joined the Free Church. A church and 
manse were built at the Birks of Ardoch in 1857, and to 
the memory of the late Fox Maule-Eamsay, eleventh Earl of 
Dalhousie, by whose kindness and liberality the buildings 
were in great measure erected, a stained glass window was 
in the spring of 1881 placed in the church, along with another 
to the memory of the late Rev. Dr. Guthrie, who was a 
frequent worshipper and preacher there during the last twenty 
years of his life. 

The old parish kirk is situated at the north-east corner of 
the Loch, and was thatched with heath down to the year 1784^ 
when it was covered with grey slates. The walls are thick 
and strongly built, and a loft graced the east or oriel end, 
which had a special entrance from the graveyard. Although 
said to be of " unknown antiquity," it is not likely that these 
walls are older than, if so old as, the days of the Marquis of 
Montrose, for all history agrees that, while he and his soldiers 
took refuge in Glenesk in 1645, they burned the church to 
the ground. In all probability, these are the remains of the 
building that was erected after that event. 

There is nothing in the design of the old kirk to recommend 
it to notice, and no trace of Gothic mouldings, if any had ever 
existed ; but its peculiar situation gives it a picturesqueness 
beyond most other churches. It lies so close to the Loch of 
Lee that in stormy weather the ruins and graveyard are washed 
by its waters, and covered by the foaming spray ; while, with 
the exception of a few ash-trees that break the sad, but in this 
case not unpleasant monotony of desolation and solitude, the 



GLENESK ROSS THE SCHOOLMASTER. 83 

neighbourhood, like the whole expanse of the glen northward, 
is solely decorated by 

" The desert mountains and lone sky." 

But, apart from its romantic situation, to the lover of Scot- 
tish poetry the " auld kirkyard of Lochlee " must ever be dear, 
as containing the ashes of Eoss, the accomplished author of 
Helenore, or the Fortunate Shepherdess, and as having in its 
immediate vicinity the place where he spent the greater part 
of his valuable and unostentatious life. The humble head-stone 
that he placed at the grave of his wife, Jean Catanach, faces 
the pilgrim as he enters the hallowed spot ; and there, too, the 
body of her eminent husband, who taught the " noisy mansion " 
of the parish for the long period of fifty-two years, was laid on 
the 26th of May 1784, at the ripe age of eighty-five. 1 He 
died at Buskhead, in the house of his second daughter, where 
he resided after the death of his wife, whom he survived for the 
space of five years. During this time he had the tombstone 
raised to her memory, with these lines engraved upon it : 

" What 's mortal here Death in his right would have it ; 
The spiritual part returns to God that gave it ; 
While both at parting did their hopes retain 
That they in glory would unite again, 
To reap the harvest of their Faith and Love, 
And join the song of the Redeem'd above." 

Near his own resting-place, beside the gate of the old 
churchyard, a handsome monument is erected to the memory 
of the poet who has so kindly sung of the life of bygone days 
in the glen. The funds for its erection were obtained by public 
subscription, but at first, by some sad error of judgment, it was 
placed in the new churchyard. This mistake, however, was 
rectified by Lord Panmure in the autumn of 1856, during his 
sojourn at Invermark Lodge ; the stone was removed to its 
present position, and forms a fitting tribute to Eoss's genius and 
worth, though the reason for giving upon it a name to his 

1 " 26th May 1784 ; Mr. Alexander Ross, Schoolmaster at Lochlee, was hurried. " 
(Lochlee Par. Reg.) 



84 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

poem which he never gave, it may be difficult to understand. 
The inscription upon it is : 

ERECTED 
TO THE MEMORY 
OF 

ALEXANDER ROSS, A.M., 

SCHOOLMASTER OF LOCHLEE, 
AUTHOR OF "LINDY AND NORY: OR 

THE FORTUNATE SHEPHERDESS," 

AND OTHER POEMS IN THE SCOTTISH DIALECT. 

BORN, APRIL 1699. 

DIED, MAY 1784. 

HOW FINELY NATURE AYE HE PAINTIT, 

O' SENSE IN RHYME HE NE*ER WAS STENTIT, 

AN* TO THE HEART HE ALWAYS SENT IT 

" Wl' MIGHT AN* MAIN ;" 
AN NO AE LINE HE E*ER INVENTIT 

NEED ANE OFFEN' ! 

The place of the poet's residence is still represented by the 
rude walls of his cottage and school-house, which are preserved, 
or at least allowed to remain, with a commendable reverence 
for genius and worth. They are a narrow park-breadth north 
of the kirkyard ; and in their present roofless condition have 
more the appearance of " sheep bughts " than of once inhabited 
tenements. The little west window, from which an excellent 
view of the loch and its rugged scenery had been obtained, is 
now built up ; but the narrow door by which he passed and 
repassed times out of number, and the hearth of the east or 
school-room end, where he sat so many dreary winters hearing 
the lessons of his youthful charge, are still in existence, 
as is also the garden plot behind the house, which, though 
now uncultivated, still bears a fertile aspect, and had been 
small, like the bard's own residence. 

Still, though his accommodation was limited and his abode 
dreary (there being thirty days in winter that the neighbouring 
mountains kept the sun from enlivening his dwelling), he has 
certainly achieved an imperishable fame in Scottish literature. 
He also reared a large family, and his daughter, Helen, was 



GLENESK ROSS AS THE POET. 85 

mother of the late Eev. Mr. Thomson of Lintrathen, who wrote 
the best biography of his grandfather, and published the best 
edition of Helenore at Dundee, in 1812. 1 Apart from the 
romantic description of the rural life and manners of the early 
part of last century, with which that poem abounds, and which 
are familiar to all lovers of national poetry, Mr. Thomson's life 
of the author, though less generally known, also preserves 
some of the still later peculiarities of " the leal and ae-fauld 
herding life," particularly as relates to Lochlee, in a manner 
little short of that given in the poem. Contemporary with 
Koss the poet there was also the Eev. Alexander Eoss. 
minister of the parish from 1749 to 1773. The fame of 
the poet had spread considerably, and several people made 
pilgrimages to see him. Among these there is said to have 
been a gentleman who mistook the manse for the school-house, 
and introduced himself to the owner, but the minister frankly 
observed " It 11 be the schoolmaister ye 're wantin' I 'm only 
the minister ! " 

As the biography of Eoss is familiar to most readers, and 
little can be added to that written by his grandson, supple- 
mented by that of Dr. Longmuir, we shall simply remark that 
he was born in the parish of Kincardine O'Neil, in Aberdeen- 
shire, and was nearly seventy years of age before he made his 
appearance in public as an author. Besides his long poem of 
" Helenore," he wrote the popular songs of " The rock an' the 
wee pickle tow," " To the beggin' we will go," " Woo'd and 
married an' a'," and many others, all of which are remarkable 
for their natural humour, force of language, and the striking 
pictures they convey of the manners and customs of the past : 
on this account they are frequently quoted by Dr. Jamieson, 

1 These entries from the Lochlee register may be interesting : "1734, Sept. 9 ; 
Mr. Alexander Ross, schoolmaster here, had a daughter baptized by Mr. John Scott, 
minister here [named] Helen." And on 28th October 1753, " George Thomson, school- 
master in Glenmuick, and Helen Ross, eldest daughter to Mr. Alexander Ross, school 
master here, proclaimed in order to marriage 1 ; " and on 8th November following, 
they were "married in the church of Lochlee by William M'Kenzie, min*. of Glen- 
muick." The latest edition of Helenore is by Dr. John Longmuir, 1866. 



86 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

in illustration of many obscure terms in our Scotch language. 
As these poems have long been a valuable part of the classics 
of the Scottish peasantry, and are nearly as familiar, to those 
at least between the Tay and the Spey, as are the works of 
Burns, none of them require to be quoted here ; but a tran- 
script of the mortuary poetry, from some of the old gravestones 
at Lochlee, reputed to be of Ross's composition, may not be 
unacceptable. The first of these was erected in 1751, to the 
memory of a youth who perished among some heather that 
accidentally took fire around him ; and the conclusions drawn 
from that melancholy circumstance are certainly as quaint in 
conception as in expression : 

" From what befalls us here below, 
Let none from thence conclude, 
Our lot shall aftertime be so 
The young man's life was good. 
Yet, heavenly wisdom thought it fit, 
In its all-sovereign way, 
The flames to kill him to permit, 
And so to close his day." 

The next was written on Mr. Charles Garden of Bellas- 
treen, in Aboyne, a relative of the family of Garden of Troup, 
who were tacksmen or factors for the Panmure, Southesk, and 
Marischall portions of the forfeited estates. 1 This gentleman, 
who was taken prisoner at Sheriffmuir in 1715, and appears to 
have been everything that could be wished, died at the patri- 
archal age of ninety in 1760, and the epitaph is decidedly the 
best specimen of the author's powers in this way that we 
have seen : 

" Entomb'd here lies what 's mortal of the man, 
Who fill'd with honour Life's extended span ; 
Of stature handsome, front erect and fair, 
Of dauntless brow, yet mild and debonair. 
The camp engaged his youth, and would his age, 
Had cares domestic not recall'd his stage, 
By claim of blood, to represent a line, 
That but for him was ready to decline. 

1 "1760, Nov. 29 ; From Mi's. Margt. Garden in Invermark, for the use of the 
mortcloth to Bellastreen, her father, 18s. 6d. " (Lochlee Par. Records.) 



GLENESK EPITAPHS BY ROSS. 87 

He was the Husband, Father, Neighbour, Friend, 

And all their special properties sustain' d. 

Of pmdent conduct, and of morals sound, 

And who, at last, with length of days was crown'd." 

Another, which is ascribed to Eoss, and bears the same 
date as Mr. Garden's, is so unworthy of his mind, and so unlike 
his style of composition, that we forbear giving it, being con- 
vinced that it is the work of some worthless rhymster. The 
two epitaphs now cited, with that written on the ,tomb 
of his wife, and one printed in his grandson's edition of his 
poem, are, so far as we know, the amount of Eoss's work in 
that line, though we cannot help thinking that Garden's 
epitaph savours more of Dr. Beattie's manner than of Eoss's. 
Be that as it may, we have also in this lonely churchyard, 
engraved upon a stone of date 1801, this couplet from the 
Earl of Orford's quaint epitaph on the tomb of Theodore, the 
unfortunate King of Corsica : 

" The Grave, great Teacher, to one level brings, 
Heroes and Beggars, Galley slaves and Kings." l 

Although the period of the erection of the old church 
is matter of uncertainty, the age of the bell is well authen- 
ticated, for, towards the close of the year 1752, the parochial 
records state " that there never was a bell upon the church 
of Lochlee, but an old hand-bell without a tongue," and 
the session accordingly resolved to purchase one at the least 
possible expense. A collection was made throughout the 
parish for that purpose ; but as it fell short of the required 
amount, " some of the old ash timber that was growing about 
the church," and " an old stithy " or smith's anvil, that 
belonged to the poor of the parish, with the tongueless bell 

1 Pulleyn's Churchyard Gleanings, p. 43. The oldest monument in Lochlee is 
a mural tablet with Latin motto, also said to be the composition of Ross, and as 
such printed at p. lii of the Dundee edition of his poem. The inscription is con- 
siderably effaced, and the stone was erected some years before the oldest above 
quoted, by the Rev. Robert Garden of St. Fergus, in memory of his parents, John 
Garden of Midstrath, in the parish of Birse, and Catherine Farquharson, both of 
whom died at Invermark, the former in the year 1745, and the latter in 1735 
(or 1738). 



88 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

to boot, were sold for the purpose of purchasing the present 
bell, which at the erection of the new kirk in 1803 was 
translated thither. 

The present church and manse were both erected in the 
same year, and the late Rev. Mr. Inglis's mother, who died in 
1808, was the first interred in the new burial-place. Since 
then, with the exception of old residenters who still have 
a natural desire to be laid beside their kindred, the new kirk- 
yard has become the common place of sepulture. 

But some of the tablets in this graveyard bear more than 
an ordinary interest, arising from the painful circumstances 
that attended the death of those to whom they are erected. 
One marks the grave of a youth from Aberdeen who perished 
among the snow in 1810 ; and another records the melancholy 
death of two brothers who fell over the wild precipice of 
Gripdyke in Glenmark, while collecting their father's sheep. 
This last occurrence is told on their tombstone in elegant Latin, 
which was written under the direction of their brother, the 
late Rev. John Whyte, minister of Lethnot, by whom the 
following observations and accompanying translation were 
kindly communicated : 

" I have little to remark regarding the sad accident," says 
Mr. Whyte, who died at the manse of Lethnot on 1st of August 
1853. "The two brothers had, but a few days before, left 
their usual residence in Glenbervie, for the purpose of assisting 
in collecting and assorting the flock of sheep intended for sale 
at the ensuing Cullew Market, 1 purposing to return after 
accomplishing that object. The fatal spot has from time im- 
memorial been known under the name of the Gripdyke, from 
the circumstance of a dyke, or wall, having in former times 
been reared there, with a view to prevent the flocks of Highland 
black cattle, then customarily grazed in the glen during the 
summer and autumnal months, from coming down upon the 
inland pastures and cultivated lands. The place where they 

1 Cullew Fair is held in the parish of Cortachy, in the middle of October. 



GLENESK THE BROTHERS WHYTE. 89 

intended to cross the Mark is so narrow that almost any person 
might easily effect the leap ; but the rocks are sloping on the 
opposite side, and when wet with the spray of the swollen stream 
are extremely slippery, and demand some care and dexterity 
on the part of the pedestrian. The shepherds were quite in 
the habit of crossing there, and Archibald, being agile and good 
at leaping, could have had no difficulty in clearing the dis- 
tance; but.it is said that, from over-confidence perhaps, he 
made the effort carelessly, with his hands in his pockets ; and 
thus losing his equilibrium, he fell back into the rapid torrent, 
and was speedily carried over the fall into the gulf below 
a black boiling abyss, or pot, where the chafed waters wheel in 
circling eddies round the sides of their rocky barriers. The 
distance from the spot where he fell in to the edge of the 
precipice is so short, that David, had he reflected, could have 
had no hope of saving his life ; but, the impulse of affection 
disdaining cold calculation, he flung himself into the foaming 
stream, and shared the fate of his beloved brother!" The 
following is the translation of the epitaph : 

" In memory of DAVID WHYTE, aged 27 years, and of his younger brother, 
ARCHIBALD WHYTE, aged 18. 

" As the two brothers were proceeding to leap across at a spot where 
the Mark, contracted by craggy rocks on either side into a narrow and rapid 
torrent, anon pours headlong over a high precipice into a deep eddying 
abyss, when the elder, having already crossed with facility, perceived that 
his brother had fallen into the impetuous stream, urged by the impulse of 
holy affection and by the vain hope of saving his life, rushed in heedlessly 
after him, and both lamentably perished together, on the 27th of October 
1820, in the glen (or valley) of Mark, parish of Lochlee, and county of 
Forfar. 

"To commemorate the premature death, as well as the illustrious ex- 
ample of mutual affection, the talents, the piety, and other excellent endow- 
ments which adorned the hapless brothers alas ! so suddenly snatched 
away from their weeping relatives ! this monument was erected by their 
bereaved and disconsolate father, JAMES WHYTE." 

The ashes of the late Mr. Inglis, already referred to, also 
repose here, marked by a tablet and suitable inscription. To 
a benign and conciliatory disposition he added those of charity 



90 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

and benevolence ; and, when the wanderings of the disciples of 
Edie Ochiltree were rather encouraged than prohibited, his house 
was a welcome resting-place " to all the vagrant train," being 
situated at the south side of the great Highland pass by Mount 
Keen to Deeside. 1 Perhaps no minister ever approached closer 
than the late Mr. Inglis to the beautiful description that 
Goldsmith has left of his father in The Deserted Village ; and, 
although he enjoyed, in reality, more than "forty pounds a 
year," it is questionable, when his many charities are taken 
into account, whether he had much more to defray the ex- 
penses of a large family. But like the village preacher in 
that inimitable poem 

" Remote from towns he ran his godly race, 
Nor e'er had changed, nor wished to change, his place. 
Unpractised he to fawn, or seek for power, 
By doctrines fashioned to the varying hour : 
Far other aims his heart had learned to prize, 
More skilled to raise the wretched than to rise." 

Nor was it alone the homeless wanderer, or " ruined spend- 
thrift," that had his claims so often and so liberally allowed 
by the good man, whose kindness was so great that his manse 
has been likened more to an inn than to a private residence 
but there the stranger, whether in search of health or pleasure, 
also found a ready and comfortable asylum. An amusing story 
is told of a gentleman who came over the hill one day on 
horseback, when several pleasure parties were in the Glen. 
Their vehicles were, as usual, ensconced around the manse, and 
the minister was amusing himself alone in the garden. Believ- 
ing it to be a lona fide inn, and Mr. Inglis the landlord, the 
traveller leapt from his nag, and called on his reverence to 
stable it up ! No sooner said than done ; Mr. Inglis, who was 
as fond of a joke as he was generous of heart, led the animal 
to the stable ; and the rider having seen his horse " all right," 
entered the house and called for a dram. The minister, still 
acting as " mine host," brought " the glass and big-bellied 

1 See below, p. 94, note. 



GLENESK HIGHLAND HOSPITALITY. 91 

bottle," and good-humouredly supplied the demand ; nor was 
it until the hour of his departure, when the bill was asked for, 
that the stranger discovered his mistake, and then his surprise 
may be better conceived than expressed ! Many similar traits 
are told of the hospitality of Mr. Inglis, but he died in January 
1837, and, in the emphatic language of many of his parishioners, 
" the Glen has never been like the same place since." 

Mr. Inglis's tomb also records the death of a youth who 
resided with him for some time, after having spent a few of his 
earlier years in the Royal Navy. He was a son of the late 
General Hart of Doe-castle, Kilderry, county Donegal, and 
died in 1836, at the early age of twenty-five. His brother and 
sister made a journey to visit him in Glenesk, but while resting 
at the Gannochy Bridge on their way thither, they accidentally 
received the melancholy intelligence of his death. On that sad 
visit to Scotland, his brother wrote the subjoined verses, and 
the first of them is engraved on the tomb. Since then, the 
affectionate friend that wrote the monody has also been gathered 
to his fathers; and, excepting the kindly recollection that many 
of the mountaineers have of the person here lamented, little, 
if anything, is known of the family in the district : 

" Far from his Father's home he rests, 

Cut off in early bloom ; 
Trusting to God, and his behests, 
He sank into the Tomb. 

Rest thee, my Brother, death is sweet, 

When hope to us may be, 
That friends on earth, in Heaven meet, 

For blest eternity. 

Thy earth to mother earth is gone, 

Rest then, my Brother dear ; 
Thy soul to blest abodes is flown, 

And left us weeping here. 

Farewell ! farewell ! ye mountains wild, 

Which compass him around ; 
Farewell, each spot on which he smiled ; 

Farewell, yon streamlet's sound ! " 



92 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 



SECTION II. 

The high wa's o' Lord Lindsay's tower 

Are sadly ruin'd an' lane ; 
An' the birks that twined his lady's bower 

For ever too are gane. 
But, though his power has left tkae glens, 

An' it her lords dwell there, 
The Lindsays' warlike deeds an' name 

Will live for evermair. 

OLD BALLAD. 

Invermark Castle Later occupants Dilapidation Iron yett Age of castle To 
check the cateran Unsettled state of the glen A refuge for the Bruce 
Cairns on the Rowan Mines of Glenesk. 

DOWN to about the beginning of the present century, the fine 
baronial remain of Invermark Castle was in much the same 
state of preservation as during the palmy days of the Lindsays, 
being entered by a huge dra\vbridge, one end of which rested 
on the door-sill of the first floor of the castle, and the other on 
the top of a strong isolated erection of freestone that stood about 
twelve feet south of the front of the tower. This was 
ascended on the east and west by a flight of steps, and the 
bridge being moved by machinery, the house was rendered 
inaccessible, or otherwise, at the will of the occupant. 

At the time alluded to, it was surrounded by the old 
offices, which were tenanted by shepherds, while the main 
building was occupied by two maiden ladies, daughters of the 
last of the Gardens mentioned above. 1 It had been repaired 
and put into a habitable state soon after 1729, when it was 
valued at three hundred and sixty-five pounds, and the neces- 
sary repairs to be done " in all haste to prevent its going to 
ruin " were estimated at upwards of one hundred and ninety 
pounds. As before said, it was jointly occupied thereafter 
by Mr. Garden and the parish minister until a manse was 

1 See above, p. 75. 



GLENESK IN VERM ARK CASTLE. 93 

erected, after which time, the former and his heirs were the 
sole tenants ; but when the present church and manse were 
reared in- 1803, the offices were torn down and the tower 
completely gutted to assist in their erection. 

The foundations of some of the outhouses are yet traceable ; 
and, however much the dilapidations of 1803 must be deplored, 
the main tower, though roofless and otherwise spoiled, is still 
a massive and imposing square structure of four stories in 
height. It stands on a rising ground on the banks of the Lee, 
distant from any tree or other protective feature, and, with 
the exception of the lintels of the door and windows, it is 
wholly built of rough native granite, having the monotony of 
its architecture relieved by a few well-proportioned windows 
of various sizes, together with a circular doorway, and a small 
turret, which projects from the south-east corner. It is now 
enclosed by a low dyke which the late Lord Panmure caused 
to be built for its protection, and its tall grey walls are 
streaked with the green ivy that the same nobleman took 
care to have planted round the base. 

The heavy door of grated iron, remarkable for strength and 
simplicity of workmanship, still graces the entrance, which is 
now reached by a flight of crazy stones. This gate is of the 
same construction as that of Inverquharity (which Alexander 
Ogilvy had special licence from James II. or in. to erect about 
the middle of the fifteenth century), and, together with the 
remaining iron-work, is said to have been dug from the mines 
in the neighbourhood, and smelted at a place on the farm of 
Tarfside, known by the name of Bonny Katie, where Lord 
Edzell had a smelting furnace. The only floor in the building 
is that formed by the roof of the vault ; and the hearth of the 
drawing-room, and some of the lesser fireplaces, with pieces 
of joists projecting here and there from the walls, are the only 
traces of old furnishings. The damp, comfortless dungeon 
below, enlivened only by a faint glimmer of light which peers 
through a few of those loop-holes common to the baronial 



94 LAND OP THE LINDSAYS. 

houses of the period, is reached by a shattered stair, but 
presents nothing worthy of note. 

The tower derives its name from its proximity to the 
mouth of the river Mark, to which, by existing traces of an 
old water track, it had once been closer ; and as there are still 
the remains of a fosse on the west side of the hillock on 
which the castle stands, it is probable that it had once been 
moated. 

The real era of its erection is as much a matter of doubt 
as is that of the Stirling Tower of Edzell, and nothing can be 
gathered from the style of its architecture that tends in any 
way to unravel the mystery. Some suppose it to have been 
built in the sixteenth century, and the late minister fixes the 
year 1526 as the most probable date, but cites no authority. 
Perhaps, however, this was the very building in which the ninth 
Earl of Crawford died in 1558 : it certainly, at a later period"; 
was one of the resorts of his unfortunate grandson, when skulk- 
ing from the pursuit of justice for his inadvertent slaughter of 
Lord Spynie. It is also probable that its site had been that of 
previous strongholds, as the position commands the important 
pass by Mount Keen to Deeside. 1 Although unsuitable for 
wheeled conveyances, this pass and narrow glen formed a 
pretty safe and convenient route for the pillaging cateran, 
who, as is well known, subsisted by the adoption of 

" The good old rule, the simple plan 
That they should take who have the power, 
And they should keep who can." 

Although the garrison of Invermark had greatly tended to 
dimmish the number of these desperate invasions, it does not 
appear to have been altogether effectual, as is attested both 
by record and tradition. In one of those inroads the cateran 

1 " The cheiffe passages from the river Tay to the river Dee through the 
mountans, also from Aberdeine to the heade of Dee, are elewin. . . . The nynthe is 
Mounthe Keine, wich layes from Innermarkie to Canakyle, on Deeside, and con- 
taines ten myles of monthe." (Sir James Balf out's MS., 1630-57, Adv. Lib.; Coll. 
Aberd. and Ban/, p. 77.) 



GLENESK. THE CATERAN AT WORK. 95 

is said to have carried off in triumph about one-half of the 
cattle and sheep in the glen ; and, in attempting to regain 
them, no fewer than five of the Glenesk men fell in the 
struggle, while about a dozen were taken prisoners and carried 
to the distant home of the reaver, from whose power they were 
only restored to their friends on the payment of heavy 
ransoms. 

The lawless outrages of the son of the " Wicked Master " 
and of the Marquis of Montrose in these glens, and the evils 
arising therefrom, have already been noticed. And it may be 
observed that although the inhabitants, according to two 
credible writers of the seventeenth century, 1 were a set of 
"weill armed pretty men," who mustered so strongly, and 
fought so bravely, when the cateran came upon them, that 
"they seldom suffered any prey to goe out of their bounds 
unrecovered " this does not appear to have been always the 
case, for when the Laird of Edzell mortified a grant to the 
reader or schoolmaster in 1659, he bound himself "that if it 
shall come to pass that ther be a general vastation of the said 
paroche of Loghlie be Hielanders or otherwise, that then, and 
in that case," the Laird and his heirs shall be " obligst to pay 
to the said reader the whole stipend year or yeares as the sam 
vastatione sail endure." 2 

Some of these disasters were recorded in rhyme, but all 
recollection of the verses has long since died away, and the 
following was written by a modern poet on hearing one of 
these traditions related : 

" Mountbattock, how dark is the cloud on thy brow, 
How grateful its gloom to the valley below ; 



1 Edward's Description of Angus in 1678, and Ochterlony's Acct., c. 1682. 
"The Angusians," says Edward, "especially those who inhabit the Grampians, are, 
even at this day (1678), fond of going abroad armed ; insomuch that they seldom go 
out without the ornament, or rather burden, of a bow, quiver, shield, sword, or pistol ; 
and they always have with them a kind of hook to knock down or catch wild beasts 
or birds, as occasion may offer." 

2 Document, quoted ut sup. p. 75. 



96 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

For the hand of the reaver has smitten so sore, 
The days of our mourning will never be o'er. 
He came in the night he has taken and slain 
The wale of our flocks, and the flower of our men ; 
The maidens, the widows, and orphans deplore, 
And the hollow wind murmurs Lochaber no more. 

The fold now is silent, the shieling is still, 

No herd in the valley, no flock on the hill ; 

No gay singing maiden a-milking the cows, 

No blithe whistling shepherd a-bughting the ewes. 

The sward of Gleneffock is shining in red ; 

The down of the thistle with crimson is dyed ; 

The bloom of the heather is steeping in gore, 

And the wild bee is humming Lochaber no more !" 1 

But, according to the best historians, this district was 
associated with other and more creditable transactions than 
the forays of Montrose and the cateran. During the wars of the 
Scottish Independence, while Bruce was retiring southward 
with his army, after the capture of the castle of Inverness and 
other northern fortresses, his progress was intercepted here 
by Comyn, Earl of Buchan, on the 25th of December 1307. 
Tytler takes no notice of this circumstance, beyond the fact 
of Comyn's being aided in his rising by the king's nephew, 
Sir David de Brechin, and Sir John Mowbray ; but Buchanan 
says that " when Bruce was come to the forest through which 
the river Esk falls down into the plains of Merns, Comyn over- 
took him at a place called Glenesk. Bruce, perceiving that 
the narrowness of the passages was advantageous to his men, 
being few in number, stood ready to fight, expecting his enemy. 
Comyn drew out his army at length, imagining that Bruce 
would be astonished at the sight of such a multitude; but 
seeing that he stirred not from the place, and being also 
conscious of the weakness of his own men, he durst not draw 
them forth into a place of greater disadvantage." Comyn, 
accordingly, found it advisable to sue for a truce, which was 
granted to him on the faith of his retiring from the contest 
and becoming an obedient subject ; others however affirm, that 

1 Laing, Wayside Flowers, p. 52, second edition. 



GLENESK REMAINS ON THE ROWAN. 97 

on the approach of Bruce, Buchan's troops immediately 
fled. 1 

These warriors are locally said to have fought a bloody battle 
here, and the artificial-looking cairns that lie scattered along 
the south-east side of the Eowan are called the graves of the 
slain, while the name of that hill is said to have had its origin 
in the adventure of that day, when, as the local tradition runs, 
the King rallied his forces by calling out Row-in ! 2 In the 
midst of these cairns, by the side of the old road across the 
hill, a large whinstone, with the rudely incised figure of a 
cross, is pointed out, as that on which Bruce planted his 
standard, and another stone, among the birks at Ardoch, 
bearing a few oblique lines, as that on which he sharpened his 
sword after the engagement ! 

It is not improbable that the stone bearing a cross upon it 
had been in Lochlee long before even the days of Bruce. It was 
perhaps connected with St. Drostan's religious establishment, 
for " Droustie's Meadow " is at no great distance from the 
spot, and as the stone has been removed from another part of 
the hill and placed in its present position within the memory 
of old inhabitants, it may have been brought originally from 
the " Meadow," or perhaps from the more distant site of the 
supposed primitive church at Droustie. About the time, how- 
ever, of Bruce and Comyn's alleged meeting here, the former was 
so seriously indisposed that his life was despaired of, and on 
all occasions he was avoiding battle. Instead, indeed, of being 
able to mount a prancing charger, he was so weak that his 
soldiers had to carry him on a litter, and he continued in that 
state down to the battle of Barra$ near Old Meldrum (which 
was fought on the 22d of May in the following year), when he 
defeated Buchan with great slaughter, and harried his posses- 

* Dalrymple, Annals of Scot. ii. p. 26 ; Tytler, Hist, of Scot. i. p. 232 ; 
Buchanan, Hist. Scot. i. p. 225 ; Holinshed, Chronicle, i. p. 433. 

2 i.e. "Fall in." The Rowan is probably "the red-coloured hill," most of the 
others being grey with gneissic fragments and boulders. On remains found upon 
the Rowan, and speculations about St. Drostan, see Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot. ii. p. 66. 

G 



98 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

sions. Thus every circumstance combines to show that Bruce 
never fought here; and although elf-shot or flint arrow-heads 
and other remains of early warfare have occasionally been found 
buried in these cairns, they may have belonged to heroes of 
earlier times than those of Bruce, and to conflicts unrecorded. 
Next to these historical incidents, those relating to the 
" minerals of gold, silver, brass, and tin," which were first dis- 
covered in the time of Sir David Lindsay, are the most remark- 
able. Both Sir David and his brother, Lord Menmuir, were 
anxious to ascertain the extent of these mineral treasures, and 
entered so eagerly upon the work, that miners were brought 
from Germany and other places with the view of working them. 
Smelting-houses were erected in various parts of the district, 
and the work was carried on with much spirit by a German 
of the pugilistic name of Fechtenburg, whom Lord Menmuir 
strongly recommended to his brother as being " perfyt in 
kenning of ground and discovering of metals." 1 This hap- 
pened in 1593-4, and it would appear that the work had been 
remunerative, for on the 12th of October 1602, Sir David let to 
Hans Ziegler and his companions " all and sundry the mines 
of gold, silver, quicksilver, copper, tin, and lead, and all other 
minerals (except iron and marmor) within all the bounds of 
the barony of Edzell and Glenesk " for the space of twenty- 
five years, for which they were " thankfully to pay and deliver 
the fifth part of all and sundry the saide metals of gold, silver, 
etc., whilk the said Hans and his partners shall happen to dig, 
hoik, work, and win out of the said mines." 2 From that period 
down to the close of the seventeenth century the mines were 
steadily wrought with at least partial success, some portions 
being found after the lead was extracted, and the metal 
properly refined, to yield a sixty-fourth part of silver. 3 

1 Lives, i. p. 343, where Lord Menmuir's letter is printed in full. 

2 Ibid. p. 345. 

3 Mr. Edward, in his Description of Angus in 1678, says : "The great-grand- 
father of the present proprietor of Edzell [that is, Sir David Lindsay, who was knighted, 
1581] discovered a mine of iron at the wood of Dalbog, and built a smelting-house 



GLENESK HISTORY OF THE MINES. 99 

These mines however, though their fame had become so great 
that they were noticed in Camden's Britannia and in most 
topographical books of the period, appear to have fallen into 
disuse during the time of the last Lindsay of Edzell, and were 
not again wrought until 1728, when the South Sea Company 
tried to find silver in the mine at Craig Soales ; but the over- 
seer of the work being bribed, as the common tradition runs, 
the speculation was abandoned as unremunerative, and neither 
gold, silver, nor mineral of any other sort, save lime, has 
since been tried for. According to some accounts, silver is 
also to be found near the castle of Invermark ; and the still 
more precious metal of gold is said to abound in the Tarf, 
particularly at Gracie's Linn (a place so called from a person 
of the name of Gracie having been drowned there), where it is 
reported to have been so plentiful at one time, that a lucky lad, 
in passing the ford, gathered and filled his pockets with it ! Iron 
also, according to the same popular tradition, was found at the 
same place and at Dalbog, and a vein of copper in an old 
quarry at Dalbrack, yet, with all these temptations, and in 
the recent rage for gold-digging, even some of the inhabitants 
of Glenesk have shown a preference for the distant mines of 
Australia, and it is not now likely that without the revival 
of some such " bubble " as that of the South Sea Company, 
the mines of Glenesk will ever again be wrought. 

for preparing the metal. This gentleman's grandson [John of Edzell] found some 
lead ore, near Innermark, which he refined. The son of this latter [David, the 
penultimate laird] found a very rich mine of lead on the banks of the Mark, about a 
mile up the valley from the castle of Innermark. In a mountain of hard rock, 
where eighteen miners are digging deeper every day, they have come to a large vein 
of ore, which, when the lead is extracted and properly refined, yields a sixty-fourth 
part of silver. This vein seems to be inexhaustible." The mine last alluded to is 
that of Craig Bristach, or "the rock of fissures." In Ochterlony's time also there 
was " ane excellent lead inyne in Glenesk, belonging to the Laird of Edzell." (Spot- 
tiswoode Miscell. i. p. 320 ; Lives, i. p. 345, n.) The lead is yet quite visible, and 
is contained in a vertical seam of quartz from eighteen inches to two feet in thick- 
ness, and runs into compact gneiss rock. 



100 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 



SECTION III. 

The mouldering cell, 
Where erst the sons of Superstition trod, 
Tottering upon the verdant meadows, tell 
We better know, but less adore our God, 

CHATTERTON. 

Traditions of Glenmark " Bonnymune's Cave " Petrifying cave Rocking-stones 
Druidical remains Colmeallie The circular in ecclesiastical architecture 
Cairn at Fernybank explored Archaeological remains Querns at Edzell. 

THE historical and traditionary characteristics of the beautiful 
valley of Glenmark, though few, are not unworthy of notice. 
One of these belongs to the history of the unfortunate young 
Edzell, to whom we have so often had occasion to allude, and 
who, while lurking among the fastnesses in this quarter, was 
unwarily surprised one day by his heartless relative, the Earl 
of Crawford, and a band of followers. Being unarmed, he 
bounded from his pursuers with the speed of a roe, and making 
a desperate leap over a wild rocky chasm of the Mark, landed 
safe on the opposite side and got within his castle, long before 
his enemies could make up with him ; some of them, in their 
eagerness to catch him, are said to have missed their footing, 
and been dashed to pieces over the precipice. Ever since the 
time of this adventure, the place has been known by the name 
of " Eagil's Loup." 

This glen was as serviceable to some of the proscribed 
Jacobite leaders of the " forty-five " as it was to young Edzell. 
Near the foot of Curmaud Hill, a large natural cavity, with a 
small opening, is still known as " Bonnymune's Cave," and 
there the rebel laird of that name long contrived to evade his 
pursuers. The neighbouring farmer and many of the inhabi- 
tants not only knew that Balnarnoon resided there, but made 
him their welcome guest on all safe occasions, and, notwith- 
standing heavy bribes and the vigilance of spies, the place of 
his resort was never divulged. 



GLENESK CAVES AND TRADITIONS. 101 

The parish clergyman of that date however, who, we have 
seen, was the avowed enemy of Episcopacy, was useful to the 
reigning powers even in the doubtful capacity of a public 
informer, and through his information, it is said, the enemy 
were put on the scent of this famous fugitive. One cold rainy 
day, just after Balnamoon had gone to the farm-house to warm 
himself, and while he was sitting by the wide chimney of the 
kitchen, a party of soldiers entered the house in search of him. 
The farmer, after telling them that he had not seen the laird 
for some time urged them to partake of his hospitality, and 
at the same time gruffly ordered Balnamoon, who was in the 
guise of a hireling and frightened to move from the spot, to 
go and clean the byres, and give place to the strangers. The 
hint was sufficient : Balnamoon moved from the kitchen as he 
best could, and betaking himself to his cave was once more 
beyond their reach. After leaving Glenesk, however, he was 
in course of time arrested, but being set at liberty in conse- 
quence of " a misnomer," he retired to his family seat, and, as 
long as he lived, showed his gratitude to the worthy and ready- 
witted farmer of Glenmark, by making him his familiar guest 
on all occasions when he came to the low country. 

" Johnny Kidd's Hole," in the same glen, is mainly remark- 
able as a natural curiosity, and is so exactly described by the 
Eev. Mr. Edward of Murroes, 1 that, although nearly two hundred 
years have since elapsed, the description is yet good, and may 
be safely adopted. " In the valley of the Mark," he writes, 
" four miles west from Innermarkie, there is a cave with a 
roof of stone, from the chinks of which there drops some water, 
which petrifies into a substance resembling crystal, of the form 
of diamonds, with three, four, and six sides." It is not known 
why this hole received the homely name it now bears, some 
say it arose from being the resort of a freebooter, and others, of 
a shepherd, who bore the name. 

1 Edward, Description of the County of Angus, 1678, now scarce, reprinted in 
Warden, Angus, ii. pp. 234 sq. 



102 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

In the same vicinity, and within a comparatively recent 
date, the rocking-stone of Gilfumman was an entire and in- 
teresting object. There is no trace of any so-called Druidical 
temple in this glen ; but being near Droustie, the rocking-stone 
may have had some effect, in those days when Christianity was 
seen through an indistinct and narrow haze, of inducing St. 
Drostan to settle in Glenesk. The stone was well known in 
the neighbourhood, and long considered to be an infallible dis- 
closer of future events ; but some mischievous idlers having 
removed it from its magic pivot, it now lies, a large unheeded 
block, at the foot of the mountains. 

Of all so-called Druidical remains the rocking-stones are 
by far the most wonderful. They are found in sequestered 
dells, and in the beds of rivers, but mostly on the tops or sides 
of hills, and are so exactly poised about three or four feet from 
the ground, on one, two, or three lesser stones, that a touch 
with the finger, or a breath of wind, sets them in motion. Such 
were the celebrated rocks of Gygonia and Harpassa, mentioned 
by Pliny and Ptolemy, both of which could be made to vibrate 
with the stalk of an asphodel, but could not be moved from 
their position by the combined force of many individuals. "No 
evidences of ancient skill or of primitive superstitious rites," 
says the learned Dr. Daniel Wilson, " are more calculated to 
awaken our astonishment and admiration of their singular 
constructors. There is so strange a mixture of extreme rude- 
ness and great mechanical skill in these memorials of the remote 
past, that they excite greater wonder and awe in the thoughtful 
mind than even the imposing masses enclosing the sacred area 
of Stonehenge or the circle of Stennis." 1 

Specimens of those ancient memorials are found in almost 
every known country, and uniformly bear names indicative of 
their singular property. In Phcenicia they are called Bcety-lia, 
"the moving or animated stones," and are attributed to the 
special fabrication of Ouranos, or Heaven. In Ireland, where 

1 Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, i. p. 169. 



GLENESK ROCKING-STONES. 103 

there lately were eight of them, they are called clock- chriothir, or 
" trembling stones ; " * while in England, and some parts of 
Scotland, they are denominated logan-stones, to which the Scot- 
tish word " shogin " (the act of shaking backward and for- 
ward) seems to be a synonym. Some good specimens used to 
be in various parts of Scotland, as at Kells, Beith, Kirkmichael, 
and Dron, but few are left in situ, and fewer are movable. 
Until the year 1843, the county of Angus possessed two excel- 
lent examples in addition to that of Gilfumnian. These were 
in the parish of Kirriemuir, on the small estate of Billhead, 
and, as may be supposed, they were the common resort of 
plodding antiquarians, and of all lovers of national curiosities, 
while the inhabitants of the district looked upon them with 
all the veneration and wonder that the remains of a remote 
age involuntarily inspire; but, unfortunately, those time- 
honoured monoliths are now no more, having been blown to 
pieces Toy gunpowder, at the late period above noticed, and 
employed in building dikes and drains? 

There are many conjectures as to the use of these monu- 
ments, but the general belief is, that they were used for pur- 
poses of ordeal, and Toland remarks that the priests made the 
people believe that they alone could move them, and that only 
by a miracle. Thus they condemned or acquitted the accused, 
and often brought criminals to confess what in no other way 
could be extorted from them. 3 Mason, in his excellent tragedy 

1 Windele, Notices of Cork, p. 271. 

2 These stones are thus described in the New Stat. Account of Forfarshire (p. 176): 
" One of them is a block of whinstone, nearly oval, and is three feet three inches in 
height, nine feet in length, and four feet ten inches in breadth. The other, of Lin- 
trathen porphyry, is two feet in height, eight feet in length, and five feet in breadth." 
Though the Druids may have used the rocking-stones for religious purposes, it is not 
at all likely that they were connected with their erection. The stones are now 
generally regarded as natural phenomena outside the range of archaeological inquiry. 
That at Beith is reported to have been a mass of common trap, upwards of eleven 
tons in weight. 

3 Huddleston's edit, and Scots Magazine, September 1805. Toland, who was 
born about 1670, and died in 1722, is principally known as a deistical writer ; but his 
History of the Druids, which was written in a series of letters to Lord Moleswortb, 
and considered the best authority on the subject that has hitherto appeared, is 
now believed to have been vastly overrated as an authority. It was first published 



104 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

of Caractacus, where many of the prominent rites of Druidism 
are beautifully detailed, remarks, in reference to the supposed 
power of the rocking stone 

" It moves obsequious to the gentlest touch 
Of him whose breast is pure ; but to a traitor, 
Though e'en a giant's prowess nerved his arm, 
It stands as fixed as Snowdon." 

But the most tangible prehistoric remains in Glenesk are 
the " Stannin' Stanes," or, as they are more frequently termed, 
the Druidical circles of Colmeallie. Stonehenge in Wiltshire is 
known to be the most magnificent of those ancient monuments in 
Great Britain, there being no fewer than ninety-seven enormous 
stones ranged in circles, covering an area of nearly a hundred 
acres. All such relics have long been indiscriminately called 
temples, or places of heathen worship ; but from human re- 
mains being found within many of them, modern antiquarians 
suppose that they were rather used as primitive places of 
sepulture an idea which the finding of stone cists within the 
now obsolete circles at Dalbog and at Balrownie tends greatly to 
strengthen. 1 Still it is probable that such places may have 
been used for both purposes ; and this appears the more likely 
from the fact, that in the early ages cemeteries gave rise to 
temples in other countries, for St. Clement observes that the 
tombs of the Athenians were the origin of all their churches, 
and that the first place of worship in the Acropolis of Athens 
was the sepulchre of Cecrops. 2 

in 1726, and the best edition is that by Huddleston, 1814. Robert Huddleston, the 
learned editor of this edition, was a native of the parish of Closeburn, Dumfries- 
shire, and educated first at the Wallacehall seminary there, and subsequently at the 
University of Edinburgh, where he took the degree of A.M. He was some time 
employed as a teacher at Kirkmichael, and was appointed parochial schoolmaster 
of Lunan, in Forfarshire, on the 27th of August 1789. He was an industrious 
writer on antiquities, a contributor to the Scots Magazine, and died on the 27th of 
February 1821, aged fifty-three, leaving a widow and large family. 

1 New Statistical Account of Forfarshire, par. STRACATHRO. Different parties 
contend for them as temples for worship, places for political assemblages, courts of 
law, or places of sepulture ; opinion seems gravitating to the last of these theories. 

2 This is scarcely what St. Clement Alex, means in his Protrepticus (or Colior- 
tatio), c. 3, ss. 44, 45, which is the passage referred to above, and where, in arguing 
with the heathen, he says their heathen temples are but tombs, euphemistically called 



GLENESK STONE-CIRCLES, COLMEALLIE. 105 

A want of uniformity in the size and construction of these 
circles is also urged against the idea of their having been 
temples; but this scarcely seems conclusive evidence, for 
apart from the obvious fact that churches had been constructed 
in early times, as they are at present, to suit the tastes and 
number of the population, Socrates of Constantinople, the 
continuator of Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History, shows that the 
primitive Christians were less fastidious in the rearing of their 
churches than is sometimes supposed, for he says that the altar 
of even the great church of Antioch was placed, not in the 
east end of the fane, as was then usual, but in the west. 1 

That these circles have, in some instances, been places of 
worship is so far favoured by the name, and the associations 
of that now under our notice. Colmeallie seems to be a corrup- 
tion of the Gaelic Kil-meallie, which means " the kirk or cell on 
a small eminence," an idea corroborated by " the kirk shank," 
" the kirk hill," and " the kirk burn " names that the hill on 
the north, the site of the stones, and the neighbouring rivulet 
still bear ; but no sepulchral remains, such as those that were 
found at Dalbog and Balrownie, have ever, so far as we have 
learned, been found within the Colmeallie circles. In the hollow 
ground, however, on the east side of them, a circular patch of 
from four to six yards in breadth was accidentally discovered 
a few years ago in the middle of a gravel hillock, containing a 
quantity of black earth to the depth of about four feet. This 
deposit was artificial, and, being found useful in improving the 
thin soil on the farm, the tenant had the whole of it carried 
away for top-dressing. Near the bottom of the pit some char- 
coal was found ; but there was no trace of human bones, either 
calcined or otherwise, or of any sort of building. 

temples ; he then illustrates this by showing instances where their temples were first 
tombs, and by alluding also to a story in Herodotus iv. 34. At the same time, 
Christian churches and cemeteries were associated at a very early date. (See next 
note.) 

1 Eccl. Hist. lib. v. c. 22. On the Orientation of churches see Dr. Wm. Smith 
and Archd. Cheetham, Diet. Christ. Ant. ii. p. 1526, and on the relations of churches 
to cemeteries see ib. i. pp. 329 sq., 365 sq. 



106 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

The circles of Colrneallie are of the common concentric 
kind; the outer encloses an area of forty-five by thirty-six 
feet, and consists in all of from fifteen to twenty stones, includ- 
ing three large slabs in the centre, which are supposed to have 
formed the altar. Some of tne boulders are of great size and 
weight, and, with the exception of three, are all prostrated or 
mutilated. Those standing are each pretty nearly five feet four 
inches above ground ; one of them is three feet nine inches broad, 
another two feet three inches, and the third about one foot eight 
inches. In thickness they are respectively thirteen, fourteen, 
and twenty inches. The largest lies on the ground, and is nine 
feet five inches long by seven feet five inches broad. Others 
of nearly equal dimensions with the erect stones are built into 
the adjoining dike, and one of them is so high and strong as 
to form the centre-support or pillar of a cart-shed. Although 
these circles are erroneously described in the New Statistical 
Account as being almost complete, many old people remember 
their being much more entire than they are now : but the late 
tenant was one of too many who saw no use in going a little 
distance for building materials when he could get them at his 
door, however revered or valuable, and, as his Gothicism was 
either unknown to, or unheeded by, his landlord, one stone 
after another, as circumstances required, disappeared in whole, 
or was blown to pieces. 

About the year 1830, while the tenant of Fernybank was 
levelling a hillock in the haugh between the farm-house and the 
Powpot Bridge (about two miles north-west of Colrneallie), he 
removed a number of stones varying in length and breadth from 
eighteen to twenty-four inches. They were ranged singly, and 
stood upright in a circle at short distances from each other, en- 
closing an area of about twelve feet in diameter. On the knoll 
being trenched down, the encircled part (unlike the rest of the 
haugh, which was of a gravelly soil) was found to be composed 
of fine black earth; but on several cart-loads being removed, 
operations were obstructed by a mass of stones that occupied 



GLENESK ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS. 107 

much the same space aiid form as the layer of earth. Curiosity 
prompted the farmer to continue his labours further, but after 
digging to the depth of three or four feet, and finding stones only, 
he abandoned the work in despair, without having discovered 
anything worthy of notice. Since that time, however, several 
pieces of old warlike instruments, both in the shape of flint 
arrow-heads and stone hatchets, have been found in the same 
haugh, and so late as 1851 a spear-head made of iron, and 
about fifteen inches long, was also discovered ; it was much 
corroded, but had part of the wooden hilt in it. 1 Had this cairn 
been thoroughly searched (it being of a construction similar 
to that of Balrownie, which will be noticed in a subsequent 
Chapter), it is probable that some traces of sepulture might have 
been found in it. It is however worthy of notice whether 
as relating to the use of the circles at Colmeallie, or to other 
circumstances that a passage across the river, near the site 
of this hillock, is called " the Kilford," or Kirkford, while " the 
Kilford Pool " is in the same vicinity. 

A hillock close to Fernybank, on the south-east side of 
the Modlach Hill, is still known as " the Coort-hill," which is 
perhaps an abbreviated form of the meaning of the large hill 
of Modlagh, or " the law, or hill, of the court of justice," and 
may have been so named from the baron's court having as- 
sembled there. A little to the northward, near the present 
mill-dam of Aucheen, a stone coffin was found nearly sixty 
years ago. It was about four feet long, and composed of rude 
slabs at the top, sides, and ends, but contained no tangible 
trace of human remains. A bronze celt, ornamented with the 
herring-bone pattern, was got in the summer of 1849 in the 
well at Colmeallie ; and some years ago, in the kiln hillock of 
Dalforth, in the same vicinity, at the depth of three or four 
feet in the gravel, human remains were discovered, with the 
skull and thigh-bones pretty entire, but there was no trace of 
stone or other coffin. The thigh-bones were carried off by 

1 Now in Antiquarian Museum, Edinburgh. 



108 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

some of the over-curious, and the skull, to which some hair 
adhered, was long preserved in the locality. 

Elfshot, or flint arrow-heads, are found in great plenty 
throughout the whole district, particularly in the neighbour- 
hood of the " Monks' Pool ; " but stone hatchets or " thunder- 
bolts," as they are popularly termed, are rare. Still, during 
the summer of 1852, apart from some that were found in 
Fernybank haugh, a fine specimen of these was turned up in 
the East Ward field on Mains of Edzell. It is formed of a 
tough bluish-grey stone, has not been much used, is rather 
thicker than usual, about six inches long, and coated with 
a whitish substance not unlike pure size- colour. An earthen- 
ware pot was also found on this farm some years ago, con- 
taining an immense quantity of coins, principally of silver and 
copper, and wholly belonging to the mints of Mary and James. 

Fragments of querns, or handmills, have been got in many 
! parts of Edzell and Glenesk, but those found on the farm of 
Mains of Edzell are the finest, and perhaps the largest. No 
fewer than nine of these curious relics were preserved by the 
date Mr. Wyllie, the tenant of Mains j 1 some of them were in 
the best and most advanced state of manufacture, while others 
were of the rudest and most primitive sort. These were prin- 
cipally gathered on the hill of Drummore (which has already 
been alluded to as presenting evidence of having been peopled 
in old times), and vary in size from about seventeen to twenty 
inches in diameter. One of them, which was of native granite, 
had been at least two feet in diameter when in its original state, 
for although broken, it was about two feet by nineteen inches. 
With few exceptions they were pretty entire when found, and 
almost all contained, not only the hole for inserting the pin by 
which the stone was moved round, but also that into which the 
corn was dropped. The last-mentioned specimen was perhaps 
peculiar in this respect, that the centre hole bore evidence, 
on the under side, of having been protected by a piece of 

1 Some are still preserved by Mrs. Wyllie in Brechin. 



GLENESK TOPOGRAPHICAL FEATURES. 109 

wood or iron with four tongues. It need scarcely be said that 
querns are considered the most ancient of all domestic pieces 
of furniture, and were made of stone even in the time of the 
Patriarchs. Dr. Wilson is of opinion that in Scotland, prior 
to the introduction of stone for grinding corn, the mill had 
been fashioned of oak, 1 but no example of this sort, so far as 
we are aware, has ever been found in our district. 



SECTION IV. 

7 stood in a romantic pass, 

Near which swept many streams ; 
The ancient mountains pale and far 

Lay like a land of dreams, 

C. SWAIN. 

View of Glenesk Want of wood Shooting lodge at Glenmark Depopulation 
Migration down the Glen Esk and its tributaries Romantic sites Droustie 
Bridges Visited by Royalty The Queen's well Sudden floods on the hill 
streams Tarfside Maule's cairn Birks of Ardoch The Modlach St. 
Andrew's Tower Death of Miss Douglas Anecdote of Lord Pannmre The 
new road The Burn : its situation, history, and improvements Gannochy 
Bridge. 

Now that the leading features of the ancient history of Glenesk 
and Edzell have been shown, a brief epitome of some of the 
topographical peculiarities of the North Esk, from its source 
to the Gannochy Bridge, may not be unacceptable, since that 
river runs through the whole length of these parishes. 

Notwithstanding that considerably more than a century 
and a half has elapsed since the great family of Lindsay ceased 
to own these important districts, their name, we need scarcely 
repeat, is yet familiarly associated with both ; and although 
the physical aspect of the land has perhaps undergone greater 
change within the last hundred years than it did during the 
whole half thousand that it was under the Lindsay sway, there 
is no reason to believe that the course of the river has been 

1 Prehistoric Annals, i. pp. 200, 212 sq. ; Mitchell, The Past in the Present, 
pp. 83 sq. 



110 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

materially altered even since those days when the most ancient 
lords and ladies of Glenesk and Edzell chased the red deer 
and the roe along its banks. 

Nothing is more striking in the general aspect of Glenesk 
than the scantiness of woods. With the exception of several 
patches of the native birch, and a few strips of cultivated firs, 
the whole Glen, from the plantations of The Burn northward, 
may be said to owe its entire beauty to the high heath-clad 
mountains that tower on all sides as far as the eye can reach. 
Towards the close of the seventeenth century, however, the 
scene was much more inviting than it is now, for then the 
forest was large, and the Glen abounded with " great plentie of 
wood." * Nay, even a century later, the hills around the 
venerable tower of Invermark were covered with oaks and 
pines, and the castle had fine approaches shaded by stately 
beeches, while, on the south-east side of the hill of Drum, 2 
there is apparent evidence that the land was once under the 
plough, and possessed by various retainers ; but the ridge-marks 
are now scarcely visible, and, barring the occasional presence 
of the shepherd, and the flocks that luxuriate over an ample 
pasturage, all signs of a living human industry are fled. 

But it is pleasing to know that these wilds again occasion- 
ally present something of the stirring and lively aspect that 
they bore in the palmy days of the Lindsays, a spacious 

1 Ochterlony's Account, c. 1682. 

8 A gamekeeper has long resided on this hill. The exact elevation of his house 
above the sea has not been ascertained, but the late Rev. Mr. Muir of St. Vigeans (who 
made a barometrical survey of some of the neighbouring hills) kindly informed the 
author that the site of Invermark Castle is about 1000 feet above the sea, and that he 
guessed the gamekeeper's house to be about 250 feet higher thus making it one of 
the highest inhabited places in Scotland, since the mining village of Leadhills in 
Lanarkshire, which is not more than 1300 feet high, is said by all writers to be the 
highest inhabited of any place in the kingdom. He also remarks that "the most 
striking features of Glenesk are the clear instances of glaciers once pervading that 
valley. From the Loch to Edzell moraines occur continually one at Invermark 
two miles long, and the terminal one at The Burn, adjacent to the Dooly Tower, are 
very conspicuous all exhibiting marks of a much colder climate than the present." 
By the Ordnance Survey the summit of Craigmaskeldie, is 2224 feet high above 
sea level ; that of the Wolf Craig, 2343 ; Monawee, 2276 ; Cairn Caidloch, 2117 ; 
Braid Cairn, 2907 ; and Mount-Keen, 3077. 



GLENESK GLENMARK, GLENLEE. Ill 

shooting-lodge, built of native rock, having been erected by a 
late worthy representative of the noble house of Panmure, 
whose ancestors (exclusive of the long interregnum that 
followed the luckless forfeiture of last century) have been 
lords of Glenesk and Edzell for more than a century. The 
shooting-lodge, built in 1853 from plans provided by the late 
Mr. David Bryce, is in the picturesque style of English cottage 
architecture, with a fancy tower on the east front ; arid, while 
in harmony with the huge piles of surrounding cliffs, it also 
forms a pleasing contrast to the towering ruin of Invermark 
Castle, near to which, but on a higher level, it is erected. The 
whole of the north-western part of the Glen is also thrown 
into a deer-forest, which joins the extensive preserves of Her 
Majesty (with the forests of Glenmuick intervening) and of the 
Earl of Airlie on the north and west, and those of the Marquis 
of Huntly on the north-east, thereby forming one of the finest 
and most extensive sporting fields in Great Britain. 

As a matter of course, these alterations have very materially 
depopulated the Glen, and the number of its inhabitants, 
within the present century, has decreased with great rapidity. 
Glenlee and the Bridge of Lee, for instance, which, together 
with Gleneffock, were so valuable in old times as to form a 
part of the terce of the Duchess of Montrose, 1 are now places 
of apparent insignificance, and almost wholly used for the 
pasture of sheep. At a much later period than that referred to, 
however, more than ten families lived on each of these places 
for one that has done so for many years past, as is yet to be 
seen by the ruins of cottages, and by the traces of many fertile 
patches 

" where once the garden smiled, 
And still, where many a garden flower grows wild." 

The old hamlet of Glenlee is now scarcely traceable, even 
in scattered ruins. The last of its inhabitants (who was 
known by the familiar name of Johnnie Gordon) died during 

i Ada Dom. Cancil. Mar. 1, 1489. 



112 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

the summer of 1852, and, although he had resided little more 
than half a century in Glenesk, he remembered Glenlee being 
the largest clachan in the parish. It was on the decline of the 
population in this or the upper part of the Glen, that the 
parish church was removed to its present site ; and now, 
although only about eighty years have elapsed, the population 
has been so reduced in the district of Invermark, that the church 
is more inconveniently situated for most of the people than it 
was of old, when it stood more than a mile to the westward. 
The school has already followed the population to Tarfside. 

But, notwithstanding that the face of nature has been so 
materially changed here, both as regards agriculture generally 
and the position of the population though the place which 
knew a long race of humble retainers now knows them no 
more, and many of the farms that lay along the banks of the 
river are so completely incorporated with others that their names 
are only traceable in the national records, or the rent-rolls and 
title-deeds of their noble owner, still, as previously said, the 
course of the North Esk, so far as known, has undergone little 
change. This, the most considerable river of Angus and 
Mearns, is exclusively a stream of the former county, both by 
birth and affiliation, so to speak, till it enters the woods at The 
Burn, from which point, with a slight exception, it forms the 
boundary betwixt those shires. 

It rises among the mountains of Lochlee, and the Unich 
and the Lee are its original sources. The former rises seven 
or eight miles south-west of the Loch, and the latter from four 
to five miles north-west. These two unite under the most 
northerly ridge of the majestic mountain of Craigmaskeldie, and 
are known from thence, for a distance of nearly four miles, by 
the common name of The Lee. 

The Unich, as its name perhaps implies, has a hurried 
bustling motion, and the most of its course, from the Falls 
northward, is wild and rocky. The Falls are from forty to 
fifty feet in height, and form a grand Highland cataract ; but, 



GLENESK CURIOSITIES OF GLENLEE. 113 

as in other parts of the Glen, there are no trees near them, and 
the situation is so secluded and hemmed in by mountains 
that the locality seems, as it were, the extreme of Creation's 
matchless architecture. 

The track of the Lee has a more friendly aspect than that 
of the Unich, and, as the stream tumbles from the north-east 
shoulder of the Eagle Craig into the green valley, it presents 
many pretty cascades. A little below the junction of these 
rivers, and on the south side, about four hundred feet above 
their channel, the great basin-shaped cavity, called Carlochy, is 
scooped from the heart of Craigmaskeldie, and forms a natural 
curiosity of some interest, particularly to anglers, from its 
abounding with a scarce sort of trout called char, similar 
to those which are found in the lake of Windermere in 
Westmoreland, and in Walton's time were supposed to be 
peculiar to the latter place. The waters sleep, as it were, in the 
bosom of Craigmaskeldie, in much the same way as do those in 
the much more famous Lochnagar. Although the grandeur of 
Carlochy has been unsung, and the cliffs are less elevated than 
those of Lochnagar, it is very far from being destitute of romantic 
associations. Here, if the curious traveller has courage to 
encounter the glistening adder, and patience to scramble over 
huge lumps of rock, he may stumble on the narrow entrance 
to a dark recess called Gryp's Chamber, where a notorious 
reaver of that name is said to have dwelt for many years, 
issuing at night, and carrying on a system of indiscriminate 
plunder. It is a long dark cavern, with a large stone in the 
centre, which the infatuated occupant had probably used as a 
table. Another ill-fated spot bears the name of the Bride's 
Bed, so called, it is understood, because a young and blooming 
bride lost her life there in crossing the hills from Clova 
whether by unfair or accidental means has not been recorded ; 

"But still, at the darksome hour of night 

When lurid phantoms fly, 
A hapless bride in weeds of white 
Illumes the lake and sky ! " 
II 



114 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Passing Inchgrundle, the Loch, the old kirk, and the 
Monks' Pool, we reach the point, a little below the new parish 
church, where the waters of Mark and Branny falling into 
the Lee form the head of the NORTH ESK, by which name 
the stream is henceforth known for the whole length of its 
course. 

The river Mark has its principal source in the black hill 
of that name, and is by far the finest specimen of a mountain 
torrent within the parish. It traverses a distance of ten or 
twelve miles through a singularly romantic valley, which, in 
many places, has a terrific wildness scarcely surpassable; in 
others it abounds in flat and undulating swards of the richest 
grass. About the time that the district was erected into an 
independent parish, the bridge near the old castle (and it is 
yet a substantial and rather picturesque fabric), " was built on 
general contributions, chiefly by the parishioners." l Droustie, 
the supposed site of St. Drostan's ministry, now occupied by 
the minister's house, has a quiet and very comfortable appear- 
ance ; but once upon a time indeed down to the erection of 
the present manse it was the busy, and, to the weary traveller 
betwixt Glenesk and Deeside, the welcome scene of an alehouse, 
which not only furnished the necessary food and rest for the 
traveller, but occasionally also some business for the parochial 
courts, as, in more cases than one, instances are recorded of 
several members of both sexes having been admonished and 
fined by the minister for dipping too deep in the nut-brown 
ale. 2 Whether the celebrated bard of The, Minstrel had 



1 Inscription on bridge, now almost effaced. The contract drawn up by Mr. Ross, 
schoolmaster, and still preserved at the Manse, is a most business-like document. 
It is duly signed before witnesses "att Droustie," on 14th April 1755, and pro- 
ceeds as " minuted, contracted, and agreed upon, betwixt the parties following, viz. : 
John Montgomery, mason in Pitcainlich, on the one part, and Mr. Alexander Ross, 
Minister of the Gospel at Lochlee ; Mr. David Rose, in Woodside of Dunlappie ; 
Alexander Mill, in Glenmark ; Peter Farquharson, in Auchronie ; James Jollie, in 
Mill of Aucheen ; and Robert Donaldson, in Droustie," for the contract price of 
34, but allowing reconsideration of the terms, if the contractor can prove that he 
has been " yet a real loser thereby." 

* Lochlee Par. Reg. April 18, 1766, etc. 



GLENESK ROYAL VISIT AND QUEENS WELL. 115 

ever partaken of the good things of the place cannot be 
affirmed ; but in his poetical address to his old friend Eoss, 
after complimenting him on the superiority of his poem of 
Helenore, Beattie takes occasion to speak of this inn in the 
following manner : 

" But ilka Mearns and Angus bairn 
Thy tales and sangs by heart shall learn ; 
And chiels shall come f rae yont the Cairn- 

o'-Mount, right voustie, 
If Ross will be so kind as share in 

Their pint at Drousty ! " 

In 1861, this romantic glen received a visit from royalty, 
when Her Majesty the Queen and the late Prince Consort 
were met on Mount Keen by the Earl of Dalhousie, and con- 
ducted through the glen to its eastern extremity at Fettercairn, 
where, incognito, they spent the night, and next day returned 
to Balmoral. In commemoration of their visit, the Earl after- 
wards erected a granite monument upon the well at Glenmark, 
where the royal party had luncheon, and from which they 
drank. It bears the inscription : 

HER MAJESTY QUEEN VICTORIA, 

AND HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE CONSORT, 
VISITED THIS WELL, AND DRANK OF ITS REFRESHING WATERS, 

ON THE 20TH SEPTEMBER 1861 

THE YEAR OF HER MAJESTY'S GREAT SORROW. 

The basin of the well bears the following legend in raised 
letters : 

REST, TRAVELLER, ON THIS LONELY GREEN, 
AND DRINK AND PRAY FOR SCOTLAND'S QUEEN. 

The water of Effock, which tumbles down a beautiful glen 
on the south side of the river, about a mile below the head of 
the North Esk, is the only tributary of that stream until it 
receives the copious waters of the Tarf ; St. Fillan's well is 
beside the burn of Gleneffock. The Tarf, second only to the 
Mark, is one of the largest affluents in the Glen, and, rising 
from the hill of Cat, skirts the Kowan on the east, and is 



116 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

augmented in its descent by the burn of Tennet, along whose 
course we enter upon a good pass to Charleton of Aboyne. 1 
From the rapidity with which it rises in flood, the Tarf is 
perhaps the most dangerous stream in the parish; and it 
is popularly believed that the frequency of the floods has 
swept away much, if not all, of the precious metal, for which 
it is said to have been at one time so famous. During the 
great spate of 1829 it rose so high that the stone bridge, 
which (according to the Parish Eegister) was erected for the 
purpose of allowing the poor " to pass and repass in quest of 
their living," and for people " coming and going to and from 
the church," was neither capacious enough to allow the water 
free exit, nor sufficiently strong to withstand its pressure, but 
it bent and fell in twain, as if it had been a frail wooden 
fabric. Prior to the yielding of the bridge, the lower floor of 
the Parsonage, and the fields in the neighbourhood, were 
inundated to a considerable depth, and here, as in other quar- 
ters, the damage done to property was very great. 2 

At Tarfside, now the only hamlet in the parish, stand the 
Episcopal church and Parsonage, which are remarkable for 
their neat and tidy appearance, on the west side of the stream. 
The Parsonage is surrounded by thriving belts of fir; the 
nicely-kept garden contains many choice and valuable speci- 
mens of floral riches, and the place seems altogether a paradise 
of peace and comfort. A school near the 6ast end of the bridge 
was established here by the Society for the Propagation of 
Christian Knowledge so early as the year 1760, and in course 
of time others were commenced in connection with the Epis- 
copal Church and the Free. But all are now represented by 
the one handsome Board school and school-house. The inn 
has disappeared, but the tradesmen still ply their crafts, 
though in a diminished degree, and the post-office finds its 

1 The " Eghte passage from the river Tay to Deeside across the mountains, " is 
Mounthe Gammell [i.e. Gennat], wich lyes from Glenesk to Glentanner, on Dee syde, 
and conteins sex myles of mounthe." (Sir J. Balfour's MS., quoted ut sup. p. 94.) 

2 For the bridges in Glenesk, see Jervise, Epit. i. p. 131. 



GLENESK TARFSIDE, MISS DOUGLAS. 117 

location in the grocer's shop, which is also the haven of the 
weekly carrier to and from Brechin. 

Apart from the new school, the most considerable building 
is that of the Mason Lodge, a house of two stories, in the under 
flat of which the Society's school used to be taught. This 
branch of the ancient fraternity of Freemasons is known as St. 
Andrew's Lodge, and was constituted in due masonic style by 
a deputation from St. James's Lodge, Brechin, with the late 
Lord Panmure at their head, on the 22d of June 1821. In 
honour of its institution, a square tower of about twenty feet in 
height was erected on the top of Modlach Hill, to which the 
brethren walk in a body on the annual feast of their patron 
saint. On the Eowan, visible at a great distance up and down 
the glen, Maule's Cairn was erected in 1866 by Fox Maule, 
Earl of Dalhousie, K.T., G.C.B., to the memory of himself and 
his wife, with his brothers and sisters, whose names are all 
inscribed upon a slab in the chambered base of the monument. 
Thus the Eowan and the Modlach command the whole glen, 
with their well-defined landmarks for sunshine or storm. 

A little to the eastward of Tarfside, the beautiful range of 
indigenous wood, called the Birks of Ardoch, forms a pleasing 
contrast to the general bareness of the scene. Among a few 
neat cottages is found the attractive Retreat, or summer resi- 
dence erected by the late Eear-Admiral J. E. Wemyss, who died 
at Wemyss Castle, Fifeshire, on 3d April 1 854. From this point 
to Millden the road becomes pretty steep, particularly as it 
approaches the latter place ; but within these fifty years it was 
still more so, for instead of winding along the south side of the 
Modlach, as it now does, it led directly over its top, as it did over 
that of the Eowan, and on both of these hills many unfortunate 
travellers lost their lives in snow-storms. It was mainly with 
the laudable view of lessening the number of these calamities 
that the Masonic body erected " St. Andrew's Tower," and had 
recesses formed in its base, where benighted or storm-bound 
travellers could rest in comparative safety. Yet the knowledge 



118 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

of such a shelter, and an attempt to gain it, soon after the 
erection of the tower, was connected with one of the most 
melancholy of the many sad occurrences of which the Glen 
has too often been the scene. 

The incident referred to, which happened on the 27th and 
28th of January 1827, was this: The late Eev. Mr. Jolly, 
accompanied by Miss Catherine Douglas, a daughter of the 
laird of Brigton, went, on Saturday the 27th, to celebrate a 
wedding at Mill of Aucheen, distant four or five miles from 
Tarfside. It was a fine placid day when the minister and his 
companion left the Parsonage for the house of joy and merri- 
ment, and danger seemed far distant. After the ceremony was 
performed, however, the sky suddenly assumed a threatening 
aspect, and the minister and Miss Douglas took their departure 
homewards. As they proceeded, the snow, which had been 
only a partial drift before, soon fell so thick and fast that their 
path became covered, and the unfortunate pair got bewildered. 
Sometimes they fancied that they heard the merry strains of 
the violin in the house that they had long before left ; at other 
times that they could descry faint gleams of light peering from 
some lonely cottage window ; and, in their anxiety to grasp at 
the least shadow of hope, they wandered on 

" From hill to dale, till more and more astray ; " 

and the lady, being quite fatigued at last, and benumbed with 
cold, fell senseless on the snow, and ere long became 

" a stiffen'd corse ! 
Stretch'd out, and bleaching in the northern blast." 

She expired in the arms of her venerable friend, who continued 
to feel her pulse until it ceased to beat, at 6 A.M. on the 28th ; 
and, when discovered by the people who had gone in search of 
them, Mr. Jolly was so enfeebled by cold and exhaustion that 
he could not possibly have survived much longer. 

The long dreary hill of the Modlach is skirted on the south- 
east by the water of Turret, which has its source in the springs 



GLENESK AUCHMULL BRIDGE AND ROAD. 119 

of Mount Battock, or " the hill of groves." This stream has 
also much of the rugged characteristic of the rivers before 
noticed, and is the boundary line of the parishes of Lochlee 
and Edzell. On the east, or Edzell side of the Turret, between 
the bridge and the Esk, the plain comfortable shooting-lodge of 
Millden, built by the late Lord Panmure, stands on a rising 
ground, surrounded by some thriving trees. 1 Here his Lordship 
delighted to spend the summers of his later years and con- 
verse with his tenantry, as he did of yore when he wandered 
in disguise through his princely possessions. Of those wan- 
derings many humorous stories are told, but a single incident 
may suffice. One cold rainy evening, habited as a gaberlunzie, 
he entered a lonely cottage and begged for quarters. Having 
a homely welcome from the tenant, a lone old woman, who sat 
spinning at a crazy wheel, he seated himself by the side of her 
ill-furnished ingle, and soon made himself acquainted with her 
circumstances, which he found to be very far from luxurious. 
He then began to grumble about the " weeness of the fire," at 
which the good dame, aware of the old proverb, that " beggars 
shouldna be choosers," was a little surprised, and assured her 
guest that she had no more fuel in the house. On this he 
grew wroth, and seizing the spinning-wheel, exclaimed, "I'll 
soon make fire ; " then, in spite of all her exertions and entrea- 
ties, he stuffed "the rock an' wee pickle tow" into the flame, 
and, heaping the body and limbs of the wheel over all, 
spread a degree of light and warmth throughout the cottage to 
which it had been a stranger for many a long year. The poor 
woman, as may be supposed, was in great distraction at the 
loss of her "bread-winner;" but when her guest had warmed 
himself to his heart's content, and become tired of listening to 
her vociferations, he succeeded in turning her scolding into 
praise, and the bounties of her mischievous guest were ever 
after the theme of her grateful heart. 

1 Fernybank shooting lodge was erected in 1861 by Colonel David Guthrie. 
Carlogie, then Provost of Brechin. 



120 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

The so-called Druidical remains of Colmeallie have already 
been described, as well as the historical associations of the 
castle of Auchmull. It may, however, be observed, that 
though the foundations of this fortalice are barely traceable, 
the situation of the whitewashed farm-house, the rugged 
channel of the stream, the fertile garden stretching towards the 
burn, the bridge and valley below, have much picturesque- 
ness and beauty. Before the erection of the present bridge 
across the burn of Auchmull, the Glenesk road lay near the 
North Esk indeed, it almost skirted its banks at this part, 
and much skirmishing passed between the laird of The Burn 
and the people in the Glen before the old track was changed ; 
part of it went through what are now The Burn policies. 

Mr. Shand, at that time the proprietor, attempted to effect 
his purpose without consulting the people of Glenesk, who, of 
course, were deeply interested in the matter ; and, by way of 
retaliation, they no sooner saw one week's work completed than 
they went under night and destroyed it, so that before he could 
make progress with his improvement, he had to agree to defray 
the greater part of the expenses of the new road and bridge, 
to which he had previously refused to contribute. 1 Nearly 
opposite to the burn of Auchmull, but almost hidden from the 
view of the traveller on the north side of the river, are the bridge 
and burn of Moorau, 2 the vicinity of which is perhaps the most 
romantic part of the course of the North Esk, not even except- 
ing the locality of the Gannochy Bridge. Nothing can surpass 
the grandeur of the rocks at this place, which, apart from the 
surrounding birks of Carneskcom, are shaded by a cluster of 
other trees of great effulgence and beauty; while a roofless 
cot-house, near the end of the bridge, long greatly enriched the 

1 The bridge bears this inscription : " 1820 ; Built by the Honourable WILLIAM 
MAULE of Panmure, M.P., and JOHN SHAND of The Burn, Esq. Mr. SHAND having 
contributed to this Bridge and Road one hundred guineas, as a mark of his Friend- 
ship for his Neighbours in the Waterside and Glenesk. Q. D. B. ; J. A. ^Edif." 

2 From the Mooran a supply of water was taken to Brechin in 1874 at a cost of 
about 18,000, the ceremony of letting on the water being performed by the late 
Earl of Dalhousie. 



GLENESK THE BURN, LORD A. GORDON. 121 

landscape, and unconsciously suggested the presence of some 
" auld Mause," 

" that for sma' price 

Can cast her cantrips an' gie sage advice, 
Can overcast the night, an' cloud the moon, 
An' inak' the deils obedient to her croon ! " 

Within a mile and a half of Auchmull, the North Esk 
enters the woods of The Burn, and thence forms in general the 
boundary betwixt the counties of Angus and Mearns. It has 
hitherto traversed solely the property of Lord Dalhousie, and, 
as it now divides these shires, so does it the possessions of that 
nobleman on the west from those of Colonel M'Inroy on the 
east, and sweeps along a course of several miles, that, for extent 
of rugged wildness and silvan beauty, surpasses anything betwixt 
it and the famous Hall of Ossian. It would be idle to attempt 
a description of "the dread magnificence" of the scene; but 
we cannot help observing, that of all points of the river, apart 
from the above, none is perhaps more strikingly romantic than 
its entrance into the woods a little above the Dooly Tower, and 
just below the burn of Mooran. Here the stream is confined 
into a very narrow space by a great mass of clay-slate, to 
which the ceaseless action of the water has imparted so fan- 
tastic and picturesque forms that the rocks seem to grow, as it 
were, out of the channel in a flat-sided, conical form, with 
sharp sword-like points, rising from thirty to forty feet above 
the river, and in snow or frosty weather they present quite 
the appearance of so many icebergs in miniature. One of the 
cliffs, on the west side, is enriched by a fine vein of jasper, 
stretching down the whole depth of the cliff, and varying from 
about one to twelve inches in breadth. 1 

The North Esk is believed to have overflowed the lands of 
The Burn in ancient times, and evidences yet remain, both in 

1 For a lengthened and minute description of the geological varieties of the channel 
of the North Esk, etc. , see Colonel Imrie's paper, with Plate showing the geological 
formations to the top of Mount Battock, in the Transactions of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh, vi. pp. 3 sq. 



122 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

the quality of the soil and in the appearance of the neighbour- 
ing lands, to prove the truth of this. Down to about the year 
1780, when Lord Adam Gordon bought The Burn, the now 
beautifully ornamented and wooded banks of the North Esk, 
together with the lands, were almost destitute of trees or 
shrubs, and of all sort of cultivation. No sooner, however, had 
Lord Adam acquired possession, than the work of improve- 
ment began to manifest itself the barren heath was broken up, 
and means employed to render it available for the production 
of crops and forest trees. A spacious mansion-house was reared 
in 1791, and excellent gardens and extensive plantations laid 
out. Even the hill and banks on the opposite side (the pro- 
perty of Lord Panmure) were made available by Lord Adam for 
beautifying purposes, and these he covered with plantations to 
the extent of about ninety acres, from which he could never 
reap the slightest pecuniary advantage. It has indeed been 
well said that " there is perhaps not another instance of such 
a disinterested disposition to ornament a country as this by 
Lord Adam Gordon," who, in less than a score of years, 
" created a desert into an Arcadian grove I" 1 

The road by the Gannochy Bridge divides the properties 
of The Burn and Arnhall, both of which, under the designation 
of the latter, formed a barony belonging to the noble house of 
Southesk down to a comparatively recent date. Some memen- 
toes of the occupancy of that family are yet visible on a sculp- 
tured stone at the Chapelton of Arnhall, and in some parts 
of the old mansion-house. 2 It was from the grandfather of 

1 Robertson, Agricultural Survey of Kincardineshire. 

2 These relics of the Southesk family consist of a stone, built into the wall of a 
cottage at Chapelton, bearing an erroneous sculpture of the family arms,as the spread 
eagle, instead of being single, is double headed. These initials and dates, which refer 
to the second and fifth Earls, are also upon it "ANNO 1668 E . I : E I S 
1704 ; " and, within the house of Arnhall, but now plastered over, is the date 1669, as is 
also 1709 over the front door. In 1691,this barony consisted of the following farms : 
Mayns, Milne Eye of Disclune, and Milne Lands, Inch,* Chapeltoune and Hill of 

* The tenant of Inch of Arnhall, whose surname was Pressock (see Old Rental-Book), was 
bound in the lease of his farm to render a certain quantity of ropes made from the roots of 
treesdug from the north moss of Arnhall. {Inf. from the late W.R. Valentine, farmer, Bogmulr, 
who had seen the old tack of Inch, and was a descendant of Pressock.) 



GLENESK GANNOCHY BRIDGE. 123 

the present Earl of Southesk, in 1783 and 1796, that Lord 
Adam Gordon and Mr. Brodie purchased The Burn and Arn- 
hall. On the death of the former gentleman in 1801, the 
latter added The Burn lands to Arnhall, and continued the im- 
provement which had been so ably begun by his predecessor. 
Since then, both estates have been under one proprietor, and 
Mr. Brodie was succeeded by his only child, the Duchess of 
Gordon, who disposed of her patrimony in 1814 to Mr. Shand, 
a West India merchant, from whose trustees the estates were 
purchased by Colonel M'Inroy, now Convener of Kincardine- 
shire. 

The vicinity of the Gannochy Bridge (on the Edzell side of 
which a shooting lodge was erected in 1853) has long been an 
object of admiration to the lovers of sublime and romantic 
scenery. The picturesque view from it both up and down 
the river, particularly after heavy rains, can scarcely be over- 
rated ; and here the language of Thomson is peculiarly appli- 
cable 

" Nor can the tortured wave here find repose : 
But, raging still amid the shaggy rocks, 
Now flashes o'er the scattered fragments, now 
Aslant the hollowed channel rapid darts ; 
And falling fast from gradual slope to slope, 
With wild infracted course, and lessen'd roar, 
It gains wafer bed, and steals, at last, 
Along the mazes of the quiet vale." 

The bridge was originally built in the year 1732, at the sole 
expense of James Black, then tenant of the adjoining farm of 
"Wood of Edzell, who also left fifty merks in the hands of the 
kirk-session of Fettercairn for " supporting and upholding the 
bridge," of which he is said to have built the parapets with his 
own hands. 1 It was then only half its present width, and 

Dillydyes, Bogge-side, Moss-end, Dean-Strath, Steill-Strath, Tillytogles, Burne, 
Satyre, and Wood-myres. The number of tenants on these was nearly seventy ; 
and the gross rental amounted to 185 bolls 2 firlots 2 pecks and 3 lippies bear; 
296 bolls 3 pecks meal ; 906, Os. 8d. Scots ; 74| capons, 65 hens, and 440 poultry. 
(Southesk Rental-Book, 1691 to 1710 inclusive, in possession of Earl of Southesk.) 
1 Old Stat. Ace. Scot. iv. p. 18 ; infra, p. 130. 



124 



LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 



remained so down to 1795, when it was widened, as it now 
stands, by Lord Pamnure and Lord Adam Gordon. The tradi- 
tional origin of this bridge, as preserved by Black's relatives, 
is nearly as romantic as the site of the bridge itself. This 
worthy man, who had no family, was understood to be wealthy, 
and, as his neighbours had often experienced ' the incon- 
venience of round-about roads, and the dangerous fords of the 
North Esk, and were aware at the same time of his " weak 
side" and heavy purse, they adopted the following wily 
scheme that induced the farmer to confer this great and last- 
ing boon on the district. During the winter of 1731, when 
several lives were lost in the river, the spirit of one of those 
unfortunate individuals is said to have called upon him on 
three successive nights, and implored him to erect the bridge, and 
save further loss of life. Unable to find peace of mind, or to 
withstand the injunction of his nocturnal visitor, Black yielded 
to this request, and had the bridge erected at the very spot 
that the spirit pointed out ! 




IRON GATE AT INVERMARK CASTLE. 



CHAPTER III. 



SECTION I. 

Lone Navar s church-deserted tombs. 

Beneath those rugged elms, that yew-tree's shade, 

Where heaves the turf in many a mouldering heap, 

Each in his narrow cell for ever laid, 
The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep. 

GRAY'S 'ELEGY.' 

Navar and Letbnot Lethnot a prebend of Brechin Cathedral Ministers St. Mary's 
Well Episcopacy in Navar Rev. John Bow, parish minister Monumental 
inscriptions " Dubrach " His great age "His Majesty's oldest enemy" 
" Lady Anne " Navar belfry and bell Jonathan Duncan, Governor of Bombay. 

As shown in the preceding Chapter, the districts of Lethnot and 
Glenesk were served of old by one clergyman, who preached 
twice at the former place for every once that he did so at the 
latter ; but in 1723, when Glenesk or Lochlee was erected into 
a separate charge, the parish of Navar was joined with Lethnot 
in its stead. The road by which the minister went to Glenesk 
by the Clash of Wirran still bears the name of the Priest's Road, 
and is the nearest, though the most steep and lonely, way from 
Brechin to Lochlee. 

Navar was only divided from Lethnot by the West Water, 
and the churches lay within a mile of each other. Both were 
attached to the bishopric of Brechin, and, for some time after 
the Reformation, were under the superintendence of one minis- 
ter, who had also Edzell, Lochlee, and Dunlappie, for in the 
year 1574 James Foullartoun had a stipend from the first two 
of some twenty-six pounds Scots, while each had its own 
reader, with salaries of twenty pounds apiece. 1 

1 The etymology of LETHNOT seems doubtful, and " Lethnoth" is the spelling in 
the ancient Taxatio ; but some suppose that Levenach was the original name, and 



126 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

The church of Lethnot, rated in the ancient Taxatio at 
twenty pounds, was erected into a prebend of the cathedral of 
Brechin in 1384, by Sir David Lindsay of Glenesk, 1 afterwards 
first Earl of Crawford, and large mortifications were made out of 
some of the lands such as from Drumcairn and Finnoch 2 
both to the parent cathedral and to the monastery of the Grey- 
friars in Dundee, not only by the first Earl and the Countess 
Marjory, but also by " a rycht noble and mychtie prince David, 
Duk of Montrose, and Erie of Craufurde," who endowed a 
religious service from these lands, for the safety of his own soul 
and those of his progenitors and successors, as also for that of 
his benefactor, the unfortunate James in. For all of these a 
daily mass was to be said, and requiem sung, at the altar of Our 
Lady, by the whole convent, which was to be " opinly callit 
the Duk's mess of Montross." 3 Drumcairn lies adjacent to the 
kirk of Lethnot, and its rental, with that of Clochie and Mill 
of Lethnot, was enjoyed by Lord Menmuir, as lay parson of 
the parish, during a part of the subsequent century. 

The first Prebendary of Lethnot was William de Inverpeffer. 
He was succeeded by John de Angus, and persons bearing the 
names of Adam de Inrepeffre, and Eue de Anegos, both of the 
shire of Forfar, swore fealty to Edward in 1296, 4 and to these 
families both Prebendaries may have been related. 6 William 
Wrycht succeeded Angus in the kirk of Lethnot, and on his 
decease, in the year 1410, the second Earl of Crawford pre- 
sented his " beloved cousin," Andrew de Ogilvy, clerk of the 
diocese of Dunkeld, 6 and son of Sir Alexander de Ogilvy, 
Sheriff of Forfar. In 1435, the then Prebendary David de 

then the meaning would be "the elm-field." The Brit. Neth-var (and " Netheuer " 
is the oldest spelling of NAVAB) may mean " whirling streams," and is not inappli- 
cable to the motion of the burns which run through the district, but this etymology 
is very doubtful. 

1 Reg. Episc. Brech. i. p. 21. 

2 Drum-cairn, "the ridge of cairn." Fionach, "the white field." 

8 Crawford Case, p. 45 ; and Original Dukedom of Montrose Case, p. 15. 

4 Ragman Rolls, p. 126. 

8 From Reg. de Aberbrothoc, p. 165, it appears that Walkelyn, the king's brewer, 
was the first of the Inverpeffer family. He had a grant of the lauds of Inverpeffer, 
near Arbroath, from William the Lion, about A.D. 1200, and assumed his surname 
from that property. 6 Reg. Ep. Br. i. pp. 29, 71 sq. 



LETHNOT CHURCH AND MINISTRY. 127 

Ogilvy (who was of the same family as Andrew) was charged 
with the non-payment of an annual from Lethnot to the cathe- 
dral of Brechin ; and, from the fact that the debt was found to 
have been partly paid to Bishop Patrick (in so far as in his 
time a strong white horse, 1 with the use of a horse and cart, was 
given to carry stones to the building of the campanile or belfry of 
the church of Brechin in 1354-84), when Sir Henry de Lichton 
was the renter of the church (i.e. of the teinds), pretty sub- 
stantial proof is afforded regarding the time of the erection of 
the steeple or spire of that cathedral. But the parsons of 
Lethnot were not always messengers of peace, as John Lindsay, 
son of Lindsay of Barras, and minister at Lethnot, was engaged 
in the tumult in Edinburgh which ended in Lord Spynie's 
death, and was outlawed with the others in 1607. 2 From Mr. 
Lindsay, the present minister (Mr. F. Cruickshank, A.M.) is 
the eleventh in succession. 3 

It is unknown to what particular saint the church of Navar 
was dedicated, but the Blessed Virgin was patron of Lethnot, 
and, during the incumbency of the late Mr. Symers, several 
votive offerings, consisting of pieces of silver money, were 
found in the fountain near the church, which still bears the 
name of St. Mary's Well ; and the old baptismal font a plain 
circular stone basin has been rescued for some years past from 
the ignoble purposes to which it had come to be applied, and 
now stands in front of the church. 

Here, as in Glenesk, Episcopacy was held in great esteem, 
and the chapel, which stood at the Clochie, was also burned to 
the ground in 1746. It is preserved in tradition, that the 
soldiers forced the farmer, who was a keen Jacobite, to carry 
burning peats from his own hearth, and straw from his own 
barn, and that standing with drawn swords over him, they made 
him set fire to his own humble meeting-house. 4 This failed, 

1 Reg. Ep. Br. i. p. 74 : " unum magnum equum album." 

2 Lives, i p. 386. * Scott, Fasti, vi. pp. 832, 852. 

4 Tradition further adds that the women of Ba'field, on hearing what was proposed, 
ran to save their books from the building, but the soldiers ungallantly prevented an 
old woman from rescuing her favourite stool, which was thrown back to the flames ! 



128 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

however, to have the desired effect, for though the nest was 
destroyed, the rooks still lingered around their native haunts, 
and profited as much by the exhortation of their pastor in 
the open fields, as they had done before in their quiet church. 
At a later date (as before noticed), the remains of Mr. Eose, in 
whose lifetime those unseemly transactions occurred, were 
peacefully laid within the walls of the parish church of Lethnot, 
distant only a short way from this luckless scene of his labours. 
It was perhaps from the reverence in which Episcopacy was 
held here that the prayer of the Navarians to be exempted from 
compliance with the terms of the Disarming Act of 1 748 was 
refused ; for although they insisted that they were out guarding 
the district against the rebels, their swords and guns were 
seized by the Government. The same cause may have retarded 
the formation of a kirk-session, as it was not until the late 
period of 1749 (a lapse of nearly thirty years from the dis- 
junction of Lethnot and Lochlee, and the union of the former 
with Navar) that a parochial court was formed. 

The church of Lethnot has always stood in the same place, 
and the foundation of the present edifice was laid on the 5th of 
July 1827, "in due masonic order" (as related by a contem- 
porary newspaper), " in presence of a number of the brethren of 
the mystic tie and surrounding tenantry." The dates of some 
of the early repairs of former buildings, if not the time of their 
erection, are preserved by two stones which form the base of the 
belfry, and bear respectively, "1672 N," and " 17 J E . 42." 
The first date refers to the incumbency of a Mr. Eobert Noray, 
of whom, beyond the name, little is known in the district, 
except that he had been Eector of the Grammar School in 
Brechin; 1 but the memory of Mr. John Bow, to whom the latter 
belongs, is still gratefully remembered. He was schoolmaster 
of Lethnot, was subsequently appointed to the church of Navar, 
and, on the removal of the minister of Lethnot to Lochlee in 
1723, he succeeded to the charge of the united parishes of 
Navar and Lethnot, the duties of which, in a time of great 

i Scott, Fasti, vl p. 832. 



LETHXOT REV. JOHN ROW. 129 

trial and danger, he performed with all the assiduity and 
disinterestedness of a faithful minister, looking as carefully 
after the temporal as the spiritual interests of his flock 
travelling constantly through his parish, teaching the younger 
cattle-herds the rudimentary parts of education, as there was no 
public school in the parish, and instructing the older in Bible 
knowledge and moral rectitude. At his death he left many 
important benefactions to the parish, such as a mortification of 
ten pounds for the support of the bridge of Lethnot, which 
was erected in 1 725, mainly at his urgent application, extending 
even to threats of resignation. 1 As was the custom of the time, 
he was buried within the church, and a tablet there, bearing 
the following inscription, commemorates his " good works : " 

" 1747. Here lies what was mortal of the late Reverend Mr. JOHN 
Row, minister of the Gospel in the united parishes of Navar and Lethuot, 
who discharged the sacred office with unwearied diligence in the first of 
these parishes alone for 5 years, and afterwards in both together for 22 
years, and whose labours, through the blessing of God, produced such 
effects as convinced all who observed them that he had neither run unsent, 
nor spent his strength in vain. He died upon the 24 day of Dec r 1745, 
while the Nation was distracted with civil wars, but had the pleasure to see 
his People adhering to their religion and liberties, while many others had 
joined those who wanted to overturn both ; and soon after Affairs had taken 
such a turn as he had foretold, both in public and private, the disturbers of 
our peace being dispersed by y e glorious Duke of Cumberland. His spouse, 
ELIZABETH YOUNG, who had lived 43 years married with him, died upon 
the 8 day of Sept r 1746, and was interred beside him." 

The above monument to Mr. Eow, and another erected by 
his successor in the parish, Rev. William Davidson, in memory 
of two of his sons, are within the church, while a very sub- 
stantial and elegant monument stands in the churchyard to the 
memory of the Eev. Al. Symers, who died in 1842. The only 
mottoes in the graveyard worthy of particular notice are the 
two that follow. One of them is interesting as being on the 
gravestone of the philanthropic founder of the Gannochy Bridge; 
and the other (apart from the painful occurrence it cominemo- 

1 See the history of the bridge, being a paper read by the parish minister to the 
Presbytery, in Montrose Standard, 7th October 1879. 



130 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

rates) is valuable as the composition of Dr. Beattie, author of 
" The Minstrel." Both these tombs are of the chest form. The 
monument to Mr. Black presents various implements of hus- 
bandry, and a boldly executed figure of the sower in the 
parable that of the reaper, which was on it and visible till 
lately, having been lost or broken. This tomb is superior to 
any contemporary erection in the district, and shows the good 
influence which the pieces of sculpture in Edzell garden had 
produced on the minds of the thoughtful : 

" This stone was erected by James Black, tenant in Wood in the parish 
of Edzell in memory of his spouse JANNET WALLIS, who died the 6 of June 
1745 aged 65 years, and sd James Black was of age 68 years. 
Ah, Sin ! Hence momentary Life, Hence Breath, 
Sighs for ye silent grave and pants for Death ; 
What means ye warning of y e passing Bell ? 
A soul just gone to Paradise or Hell. 
To darkness tends y e broad but slippry way 
O, frightful gloom, deny'd each cheering Ray ; 
While, such as walk in paths divinely bright, 
Shall shine within y e Courts of endless light. 

JAMES BLACK, Born at Mill of Lethnot, dy'd Oct 24, 1750, at Wood of 
Dalbog. Chiefly built the Bridge of Gannochie, and doted for the support 
of it 50 merks Scots : Besides 1000 merks for other Bridges and pious uses : 
viz. 500 merks for a Schooling at Tillibardin : and 300 merks toward build- 
ing a Bridge at Balrownie, with 200 merks to the poor of Fettercairn. 
No Bridge on Earth can be a Pass for Heav'n 
To generous deeds Let yet due Praise be given. 
Memento 1746 mori." l 

The melancholy occurrence, lamented in the following 
epitaph, took place before there was a bridge at Stonyf ord. 2 The 
water being greatly swollen at the time, and the two brothers 
having but one horse between them, they mounted together, 
with the view of crossing the river, but being unacquainted 
with the ford, both unfortunately fell victims to the flood : 

"To this grave is committed all that the grave can claim of two 
Brothers, DAVID and JOHN LEITCH, who, on the 7th Oct. 1753, 3 both 
unfortunately perished in the West Water, aged 23 and 21 years. Erected 

1 This stone, which in course of time had suffered from neglect, was afterwards 
repaired by the late Mr. Wyllie, at Mains of Edzell, who was a maternal descen- 
dant of Mr. Black. 2 Bridge erected in 1 787. 

s Jervise, JEpit. I p. 295, has the year 1757; the inscription itself is now illegible. 



LETHNOT THE KING'S OLDEST ENEMY. 131 

by their disconsolate father, John Leitch, tenant, Bonnington, to the 
memory of these amiable youths, whose early virtues promised uncommon 
comfort to his declining years, and singular emolument to Society. 

thou, whose reverential footsteps tread, 

These lone dominions of the silent Dead, 

On this sad stone a pious look bestow, 

Nor uninstructed read this tale of woe ; 

And while the sigh of sorrow heaves thy breast, 

Let each rebellious murmur be suppress'd. 

Heaven's hidden ways to trace for Thee how vain ! 

Heaven's just decrees how impious to arraign ! 

Pure from the stains of a polluted age, 

In early bloom of life they left this stage ; 

Not doomed in lingering woe to waste their breath, 

One moment snatched them from the power of death ; 

They lived united, and united dy'd ; 

Happy the Friends whom Death can not divide." 

Here, also, but unmarked by any stone, lie the remains of 
Mary Gumming and Ann Grant, the wife and daughter of the 
once locally popular rebel veteran, Peter Grant, or Dubrach, as 
he was generally termed, from his having rented a small farm 
of that name in Braemar. He is buried in the cemetery of 
Invercauld, near the Castleton, and the following inscription, 
cut on a large flag of granite, is found at his grave : 

" ifc Erected to the memory of PETER GRANT, some time farmer in 
Dubrach, who died at Auchendryne, the llth of Feb. 1824, aged 110 years. 
His wife, MARY GUMMING, died at Westside, parish of Lethnot, in Forfar- 
ehire, on the 4th Feby. 1811, aged 65 years, and lies interred in the church- 
yard of Lethnot." 

Although the name of Mary Gumming is now scarcely re- 
membered in Lethnot, many reminiscences are recorded of the 
life of her husband, Dulrach. He was a staunch supporter of 
" the Stuart race," fought in their cause as a serjeant-major at 
Culloden, where he was taken prisoner and carried to Carlisle, 
but succeeded in making his escape by scaling the walls. He 
returned to his native mountains of Braemar in 1746, and, 
pursuing his original trade of a tailor, made the cap in which 
his future wife was christened, and was present at her baptism ! 
Prior to, and long after his arrival in Navar, where he and 
a son rented a small farm, he was comparatively an unknown 



132 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

" citizen of the world ; " but a pleasing incident occurred 
which added much to the comfort of his later years. 

In the summer of 1820, while two gentlemen from London 
were rambling in Lethnot, they chanced to meet with Dubrach, 
who was then in the 106th year of his age. Astonished to see 
one who had lived to such an age still enjoying good health and 
strength, they got into conversation with him, and were invited 
to enter his cottage, where he told them " some o' Ids queerest 
stories," as he was wont to express himself, and waxed eloquent 
in detailing the romantic incidents that befell him in "the 
forty-five." The days of his youth seemed to return, and his 
eye beamed with delight, when, to illustrate the mode of 
Highland warfare, he put several boys through the broadsword 
exercise ! Interested in the patriarch, one of the gentlemen 
waited on the parish minister, and suggested that something 
might be done for the comfort of Grant, were his history laid 
before the King. The suggestion was cordially received a 
petition, containing an epitome of his history, was immediately 
drawn up and signed by Grant himself, as "His Majesty's 
oldest enemy," and by the parish minister and elders. On the 
petition being presented to George iv., he was graciously pleased 
to command that a pension of a guinea a week should be given 
to Grant during the remainder of his life, and to his daughter, 
should she survive him, the King remarking, in reference to 
Dubrach's great age, " that there was no time to lose in the 
matter." l But, as was to be expected, the gift did not in the 
least abate Grant's Jacobite ardour, and to the latest hour of 
his life he expressed his partiality for the luckless Stuarts, and 
his willingness, if he had youth upon his side, and had his aid 
been required, to " fecht Culloden ower agen ! " 

Dubrach latterly left Navar and went to his native district, 
where he died in little more than a year, when, in terms of 

l From later inquiries this good work appears to have been carried out by Mr. 
Thomas Davis of London, brother-in-law of Mr. George Smart, Montrose. Dubrach's 
portrait was painted for the King's collection of pictures at Carleton House by the 
late Mr. Colvin Smith, and engravings of this are still to be met with. 



XAVAR CHURCH AND BELL-HOUSE. 133 

His Majesty's grant, his daughter Annie (who was then above 
sixty, and solely dependent on the hospitality of her neigh- 
bours in Navar, where she still dwelt) succeeded to her 
father's pension. About this time, also, the late Lord Panmure 
(then the Hon. William Maule) had a neat cottage built for 
her near the bridge of Lethnot, where she died in 1840. 
Among the many curious stories that are told of her, one 
is so highly characteristic of "Hieland pride," that we 
cannot forbear repeating it. Though she had lived entirely 
on the charity of her fellow-parishioners previous to the 
above lucky circumstance, Lady Anne, as she now termed 
herself, was ever after at a loss to find companions suitable 
to her station ! " There 's naebody," she said on her removal 
to the new cottage, " but the minister's folk near me that 's 
worth mindin' ; an' although it be sair against my wull, I 
doubt I '11 hae to mak' them a kind o' cronies ! " l 

The site of the kirk of Navar is about a mile due west from 
that of Lethnot, on the sunny side of the hill, in the corner of 
an arable field, surrounded by a substantial stone wall and 
row of ash-trees. The outlines of the church, which was pulled 
down before 1729, are barely traceable, but at the highest part 
of the enclosure there is a square erection, about twenty feet 
high, built of solid freestone, to which a slab of Turin pave- 
ment is fixed, bearing the following inscription : 

" Ann Wyllie in Westside omitted 

"This bell-house was built in the year 1773, at the expense of the 
following persons and their interest 

Mr. Alex. Gold Tenant in Argeith 
James Cobb in Ledbreakie 
Francis Stewart in Nathrow 
James Molison in Craigendowy* 
Ja. Lighten in Drumcairn 
John Molison in Oldtown 
Alexr. Jolly in Witton 
Will. Speid in Blarno* 
Thos. Gordon in Lightney* 

1 Jervise, Epit. i. p. 219. 



134 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Da. Wyllie in Tilliearblet* 
Jon. & Andr. Cobbs in Tilliebirnie 
George Cobb in Achfearcy 
John Cobb in Room. 1 

The bell occupied the upper third of the belfry, and, as was 
then a common custom throughout Scotland, not yet alto- 
gether abolished, the beadle had a pair of shoes annually for 
ringing it on Sundays, fast-days, and at funerals. 2 Towards 
the middle of the seventeenth century, however, when Mr. 
John Fyfe came to the church of ISTavar, there was no bell 
in either parish, and many of the inhabitants pleaded the want 
of it as an excuse, not only for their non-attendance at church, 
but for the committal of many more heinous and sacrilegious 
offences. It is told, that one Sunday morning while Mr. Fyfe 
was preparing for church, he heard the dull grating sound of 
a barley-mill busy at work, and, hastening to the spot to 
inquire the cause of so extraordinary a breach of the holy 
commandment, the miller pleaded his ignorance of its being the 
Lord's day. 3 The minister, determined to prevent the recurrence 
of so untoward a circumstance, immediately procured a bell at 
his own cost, and gave it, as shown by the following legend, 
for the exclusive use of the parishioners of Navar : 

"SOLI DEO GLORIA C OVDEROGGE FECIT ROTTERDAM 1655. 

M . lo. Fifus ' pastor Navarensis dono dedit." 

The first part of this inscription is in raised characters, and 
has been cast with the bell, but the other is rudely cut with 
a punch or chisel, perhaps by the parish blacksmith. Prior 
to the erection of the belfry, the bell was hung on the trunk 
of an old tree in the corner of the graveyard, and produced a 
fatal accident at one time, through the unfortunate handling of 
a ploughman. He was ringing it as usual at the interment 
of an old parishioner, when the tongue or clapper, starting from 
its axle, fell on the head of a boy who was standing near, 

1 Descendants of those marked thus * still occupy the same farms. In 1853 there 
were seven, now four, but at Tilliearblet the name is changed by marriage, Mrs. 
Binny being a daughter of the late Mr. Wyllie. 

2 The payment mentioned yearly in the parish register is 1, 4s. Scots. 
8 See A ct. Parl. v. p. 473 Act against mill going on Sunday in 1641. 



NAVAR THE BELL AND ITS FORTUNES. 135 

and killed him on the spot. This, as a matter of course, was 
considered an ominous circumstance, and, so far as the fate 
of the bell was concerned, it proved so. 

Besides gifting a bell to Navar, Mr. John Fyfe, minister 
of the parish, also mortified the sum of a thousand merks 
Scots, or about 55, lls. l|d. sterling, "for the maintenance 
of ane student at the Theologic Colledge of St. Andrews ; and 
whensoever that occasion could not be hade of a student 
standing in need y r of," he appointed the " said annuel rent 
to be employed for helping sum poor men's children to be 
educat at the gramer schoole of Brechin ; and in speciall, that 
if any freinds and relationes stood in need y r of, these to be 
preferred before any vther." x 

The first person whom we have found taking advantage 
of this excellent mortification was the Eev. Eobert Noray of 
Lethnot, who, on showing "his mean condition and inabilitie 
to educat his two sones at school and colledge," had a grant 
of the liferent of the money by consent of the bishop and 
ministers. 2 This occurred in 1663, and his example was 
followed for a long time by many others ; but by some over- 
sight, the grant fell into desuetude, till revived a few 
years ago. Its annual value is now 2, 15s. 7d. 

When the church of Lethnot was rebuilt, Lord Panmure 
in the year 1827 proposed that, as there was but an indifferent 
bell at Lethnot, that of Navar should be removed to the new 
church, but the Navarians, unwilling to part with this esteemed 
relic, took it from the belfry and hid it so securely that it 
could not be found. Convinced that some of the parishioners 
knew of it, his Lordship watched an opportunity to find it out ; 
and, as the suspected leader in the movement required a renewal 
of the lease of his farm some years afterwards, his Lordship 
refused to accede to his request until the bell was produced, 

1 For extract of the original deed of Fyfe's Mortification, as entered in the record 
of the Commissary Depute, Feb. 16th, 1659, see Brechin Advertiser, Oct. llth, 1853. 
The deed was executed on May 12th, 1658, and recorded in the Books of Presbytery 
of Brechin, July 17th, 1706 (vol. vi. f. 5, 6). See also Black, Brechin, p. 279. 

2 Presb. Rec. of Brech. vl fol. 9. 



136 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

or a satisfactory account of it given. The farmer long resisted 
compliance with the request; and, but for a friendly hint 
from Mr. D. D. Black, the town- clerk of Brechin, who advised 
him to give it up in some quaint manner, the farmer would have 
been thrust from his holding, and the bell, perhaps, entirely lost 
sight of. But, instead of this, on the re-appearance of the 
instrument, Lord Panmure in 1838 not only instructed Mr. 
Black to renew the farmer's lease on favourable terms, but also 
desired him to procure another bell for the kirk of Lethnot. 

This interesting parochial relic was sent from Navar to the 
church of Arbirlot, but by what right beyond his Lordship's 
will it is difficult to see. There, however, it was cracked some 
years ago, and it now lies in the Arbroath Museum. It is 
not perhaps too much to hope that it may yet be recast and 
restored to its legitimate abode ; for, although deprived of the 
kirk, the Navarians tenaciously adhere to the use of the old 
place of sepulture, and the belfry is still a strong substantial 
erection. The headstones here are few, the oldest bears the 
recent date of 1771 ; and although the mottoes are of no general 
interest, it may be worthy of notice, that the late Jonathan 
Duncan, who was long Governor of the Presidency of Bombay, 
drew his first breath, and spent his earliest years, within a few 
paces of this enclosure. 

Born in 1756 on the farm of Blairno, 1 which his parents 
rented prior to their removal to the Wards near Montrose 
(at the schools of which town he was educated), he joined a 
maternal uncle in India, when only eighteen years of age, and 
began life as a writer in the Bengal establishment. From his 
aptitude in the knowledge of the languages, the laws, and the 
manners of the East, he was appointed, at the early age of thirty, 
to the government of the Province of Benares, where he exercised 
the confidence reposed in him during a period of unprecedented 
difficulty with a success which has been rarely surpassed. 

1 "1756, May 16 ; James Duncan and Jean Meiky, tenants in Blairno, had a son 
baptized named Jonathan." (Lethnot Par. Reg.) 



NAVAR GOVERNOR JON. DUNCAN. 137 

" Among the many blessings which flowed from his admini- 
stration at Benares," says Sir James Mackintosh, who was 
judge at Bombay at the time of Duncan's death, and from 
whose official record of his career we glean these particulars, 1 
" the reform which he effected in the barbarous and cruel prac- 
tice of female infanticide among the chieftains of the Eastern 
part of the Company's possessions in that province, as it is 
peculiarly illustrative of the humanity of his disposition, is the 
more worthy of particular commemoration, since he ever con- 
templated the success that attended his laudable efforts in the 
accomplishment of so beneficent an object as one of the happiest 
incidents of his life ; and with equal ardour and solicitude has 
he been engaged in prevailing on the chieftains of Kattywur 
and of Cutch to renounce that inhuman custom, the existence 
of which in these provinces had recently become known to the 
Government." 

Mr. Duncan was removed from the government of Benares 
to that of Bombay and its dependencies in December 1795. 
In that stil^more elevated position he dispensed justice with 
marked success and benevolence, with the unequivocal approval 
of the British Legislature, the Court of Directors, and the inha- 
bitants in general, down to the time of his death. This occurred 
on the llth of August 1811, when he had only attained his 
fifty-eighth year. He was buried at the public expense, in the 
cathedral of Bombay, with all the pomp and honour becoming 
his high position, and a magnificent monument was erected to 
his memory. On this, however, the place of his birth is stated 
as being at Wardhouse, near Montrose an error that may 
have arisen from his having purchased that property, on which 
he spent his boyhood, and where, perhaps, he contemplated 
spending his later years. 

1 Bombay Courier, Aug. 17, 1811. Kindly communicated, with other informa- 
tion, by the late Dr. James Burnes, K.H., Ph. Gen. at Bombay. In Contemplation 
and other Poems, by Alexander Balfour, there is an elegy to the memory of Governor 
Duncan. 



138 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 



SECTION II. 

In truth they were as bold a race 
As ever mounted steed, 

Navar and the lordship of Brechin David Earl of Huntingdon Maison-Dieu of 
Brechin Family de Brechin Family of Maule Erskines of Dun Pedigree of 
the Maules Panmure ennobled Purchase of Edzell Lord Panmure Fox 
Maule The late Earl. 

IT has been shown in a previous chapter that the property or 
parish of Lethnot came to the Lindsay family at the same 
time, and in the same manner, as their great Glenesk estate, 
namely, through the marriage of Sir Alexander with the co- 
heiress of Sir John Stirling ; but the district of Navar, from 
earliest record, has been conjoined with the lordship of Brechin. 
In addition to other payments made from Navar to the church, 
Walter Stuart, Earl of Athole, who married the only child and 
heiress of Barclay, Lord of Brechin, gave an annual of forty 
pounds to that cathedral from his lands of Cortachy, " and 
failing thereof, through war, poverty, or other cause," the sum 
was to be paid from the lands of the lordship of Brechin, of 
which Navar formed a part. 1 

Before entering upon a notice of the various persons who 
have borne the ancient title of Lord of Brechin and Navar, it 
may be observed, that subsequent to the time of the Reforma- 
tion, Nathro (which has long formed a part of the estate of 
Careston), and the neighbouring lands of Tilliquhillie, were 
held by a family of the name of Douglas (cadets of the ancient 
house of Tilwhilly in Kincardineshire), 2 while, at a subsequent 
period, Nathro belonged to the second Earl of Panmure, and 
afterwards to a Charles Eobertson, sometime tenant in Trusto. 3 
Easter and Wester Tillyarblet were long possessed by descen- 
dants of Erskine of Dun, but since the purchase a few years 

1 Reg. Episc. Brech. i. p. 47. 2 Reg. de Panmure, ii. p. 328 (1649). 

* Inquis. Spec. Forfar., Nos. 295 (1647), 385 (1662), 546 (1697), etc. 



NAVAR LORDS OF NAVAR AND BRECHIN. 139 

ago of Easter Tillyarblet, both now belong to the Earl of 
Dalhousie, while to the estate of Careston belong Nathro 
and the grazing farm of Tillybirnie, which was described by 
Ochterlony as being "well accommodate in grass parks and 
meadows." With these exceptions, the whole district of Navar 
has been owned by the family of Panmure since the year 1634, 
and the only two heritors of the united parish in the present 
day are Lord Dalhousie and Mr. Adams on. 

As regards the ancient Lords of Brechin and Navar, the 
first was David, Earl of Huntingdon and the Garioch, founder 
of the church of the Virgin Mary at Dundee, and brother to 
William the Lion. Earl David had a natural son, Henry, to 
whom he gave this lordship, and from the district of Brechin 
he assumed his surname. Sir William de Brechin, the son of 
this Henry, founded the Domus Dei or Maison-Dieu of that 
city in 1264, and was one of the most illustrious barons in the 
time of Alexander in., having been one of the guardians of 
Scotland in the English interest during the minority of that 
king. 1 His only child, David, who married a sister of the 
Bruce, swore fealty to Edward in 1296, and supported the 
English with great ardour until 1308, when the Scots gained 
the battle of Old Meldrum. 2 On this he fled to his castle at 
Brechin, but being besieged by the Earl of Athole, he joined 
Bruce's standard, and ever after espoused his cause. His son 
was the fourth and last of the male line of the ancient family 
de Brechin, and was also one of the great barons who signed at 
Arbroath the celebrated letter to the Pope in 1320, asserting 
the independence of Scotland ; but, being privy to the conspi- 
racy of William de Soulis, he and some of the other traitors 
were executed, and had their lands forfeited. 

Sir David Barclay, who, throughout the whole war of the 
Independence, continued Bruce's unflinching supporter, married 

1 Tytler, Hist, of Scot. i. p. 12 ; Reg. Episc. Brech. i. p. 4 (1267) ; Reg. de 
Panmure, ii. p. 205. 

2 Called indifferently the battle of Barrafc, Old Meldrum, and Inverurie, Barrafe, 
where the battle took place, lying between the other two. 



14Q LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Margaret de Brechin, the only sister of the forfeited noble ; and 
now that the male line of the family was for ever swept away, 
Bruce conferred the lordship of Brechin and Xavar on her 
husband, in recompence for his many services ; but this brave 
knight was unfortunately slain at Aberdeen, in 1350, by John 
de St. Michael of Mundurnah. 1 By Margaret de Brechin (the 
niece of Bruce), Barclay left an only son and daughter, the 
latter married Sir Kobert Fleming of Biggar, and her only sur- 
viving child, Marion, became the wife of William Maule of 
Panmure. The last-mentioned David Barclay served in the 
Prussian wars, for which he had a safe-conduct from Edward in. 
to pass through England. Dying sometime after the year 
1364, he left an only daughter, Margaret, who was married to 
Walter, second son of Eobert n., by Euphemia Eoss. Walter, 
in right of his wife, assumed the estates and titles of Brechin, 
but having participated in the murder of his nephew, James I., 
he was executed as a traitor in 1437, in a still more igno- 
minious and revolting manner than his predecessor, de Brechin, 
his torture being protracted over three days. 2 

Athole's wife having predeceased him, he was allowed, 
simply by the courtesy of the kingdom of Scotland, to retain 
her lands during the remainder of his life ; so that, although 
his own estates were forfeited at the time of his execution, the 
lordship of Brechin should of right have passed to Sir Thomas 
Maule of Panmure as nearest heir to the Countess of Athole, 
by descent from Marion Fleming of Biggar ; but, under pretence 
of forfeiture, it was annexed to the Crown by Act of Parlia- 
ment in 1438, and was afterwards granted, in liferent or in fee, 
to various persons. This Sir Thomas died between 1442 and 
1450; and, although admitted judicially to be heir to the 
Countess of Athole, justice was not done to him and his 
successors, who found " Chancellour Crightoun and the King's 
Councill partys too hard for them to deall with. However, 

1 Balfour, Annals, i. p. 113. 

2 For his connection with Brechin and neighbouring parishes, see Reg. Episc. 
Brech. i. and ii. pass. 



NAVAR LORDS OF NAVAR AND BRECHIN. 141 

Sir Thomas's heirs got Leuchlands, Hatherwick, Claleck, Jack- 
ston, and Stadockinore, which were formerly parts of the estate 
of Brichine." 

The question of Maule's right of succession is said to have 
been raised from time to time, and a judgment in favour of the 
family to have been obtained in the reign of Queen Mary ; but 
it was not until after the death of the seventh Earl of Mar, in 
1634, that Patrick Maule by purchase acquired the lordship of 
Brechin, which, with the title, ought to have descended to him 
by inheritance. 

Among others, Janet, or Jane, Countess of the eighth and 
unfortunate Earl of Douglas, whom James slew in Stirling 
Castle, had in 1472-3 "the liferent of the king's lands of Pet- 
pullock, etc., with the Lordship of Brechin and Navar in full 
satisfaction of her terce." 1 This lady, however, held these 
lands only for a short time, as, in the same year, King James is 
recorded to have given a liferent lease of them to David, 
fourth Earl of Crawford, afterwards Duke of Montrose. 2 The 
power of the barons as superior to the established law at this 
date is well exemplified in this case ; for, although these lands 
were gifted to the Duke of Koss in 1480, Crawford maintained 
a right over them until the year 1488, when, on the complaint 
of the King, " the Lordis decretis and deliveris that the said 
David, Erie of Crawfurd, dois wrang in the occupatioune and 
manuring of the said landis of the lordschipis of Brechin and 
Neware." He was accordingly ordered " to devoid and rede " 
them to James Duke of Eoss, second son of James in., 8 but 
whether he did so immediately does not appear. From these 
lands the Duke of Eoss assumed his secondary title of Lord 
of Brechin and Navar. 

The Duke of Eoss was ultimately Archbishop of St. 
Andrews, and died in 1504, at the early age of twenty-eight, 
when the lordship of Brechin and Navar again fell into the 

1 Douglas, Peerage, p. 431. 2 Lives, i. p. 153. 

8 Ada Dom. And. p. 123. 



142 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

King's hands, at whose disposal it perhaps remained until 1527, 
when it was given to Thomas Erskine of Haltoun, a cadet of the 
family of Dun, and uncle to the Superintendent. 1 He had a 
charter of the lands of Kincraig in the previous year, and was 
Secretary to James v. from that time until March 1543. He 
was knighted, and soon thereafter appointed a Lord of Session ; 
he was afterwards sent as an ambassador to France to conclude 
the treaty of the intended marriage between the King and 
Mary of Bourbon an alliance which was never completed. 
In 1541, he had a royal grant of the office of Constable of the 
burgh of Montrose, which he afterwards conveyed to his 
nephew of Dun, whose descendants held the appointment until 
the abolition of heritable jurisdictions in 1748. On 20th June 
1545, Sir Thomas Erskine, as superior, confirmed a charter of the 
lands of Arrat, Lychtonhill, Pettyndreiche, and Nathrow, 2 which 
was granted by John Erskine of Dun to Eobert his second son, 
and in 1550-1 he excambed the lordship of Brechin and 
Navar with John, fourth Lord Erskine, for the lands of Pit- 
todrie and Balhagardy in Aberdeenshire. 3 

In 1620, John the seventh Earl of Mar, tutor of Prince 
Henry, had influence enough to get such parts as he possessed of 
Brechin and Navar erected into a part of the lordship of Mar ; 
but, as before stated, on his death Brechin and Navar fell to 
Sir Patrick Maule of Panmure by purchase in 1634; and, on 
being elevated to the peerage in 1646, Maule was dignified by 
the title of Earl Panmure, Lord Brechin and Navar. 

Waiving the unfounded assertions of Boethius and others, 
that the first of the Maules, who settled in Scotland, came from 
Hungary with the queen of Malcolm Canmore, and afterwards 
received charters of the lands of Panmure from Edgar in the 
early part of his reign we shall limit our brief notice of the 
family to the indisputable evidence afforded by records. 

1 Misc. Spalding Club, ii. pp. Ixxiii sq., 177 sq. 
* Dun Charters ; Misc. Spalding Club, iv. p. 46. 

3 On the Erskines of Pittodrie as related to the Erskines in Forfarshire, see Misc. 
Spalding Club, ii. pp. Ixxiii sq. ; Davidson, Inverurie, ii. p. 473. 



NAVAR MAULES OF PANMURE. 143 

Suffice it to say, that they are of the Maules of the lordship 
of Maule, 1 in the Duchy of Normandy, and bear quite the same 
arms. One of these, Ansold Sire de Maule, and Rectrude his 
wife, are recorded as benefactors to the Priory of St. Martin- 
in-the-Fields at Paris, about the year 1015, and nine genera- 
tions are traced from them, chiefly through gifts to the Church. 

Guarin de Maule, who came to England with the Conqueror 
in 1066, is the first recorded of the name in Britain. He 
settled in Yorkshire, and had a son Eobert, who came to Scot- 
land with David I., from whom he had various grants of land 
in the Lothians. This Eobert had a son William, who, for his 
bravery at the battle of the Standard in 1138, obtained the 
lands of Easter Fowlis in Perthshire, and left three daughters, 
one of whom married Eoger de Mortimer ; and from a daughter 
of a successor of Eoger the late Lord Gray was descended, 
and thus inherited the lands and barony of Fowlis. 2 

The direct ancestor of the present Maule of Panmure was 
Sir Peter de Maule (grand-nephew or great-grand-nephew to 
William of Fowlis), who, about 1224, married the heiress of Sir 
William de Valoniis, Lord of Panmure, and Great Chamberlain 
of Scotland. This was the time and manner in which the 
Maules became proprietors of Panmure, Benvie, Balruthrie, 
and other estates of the family de Valoniis, who had a gift 
of these possessions from William the Lion. 8 This Sir Peter 
Maule died in 1254, leaving two sons. The second was the 
brave governor, Sir Thomas, who defended the castle of 
Brechin against Edward in 1303, in which noble action he 
was unfortunately killed by a stone thrown from the enemy's 
engine.* But it must not be inferred from this fact, as is 

1 This lordship was, at a later date, erected into a Marquisate, and, in the 
fifteenth century, the titles and estates were carried by an heiress into the family of 
the Marquises of Morainvilliers. See Reg. de Panmure, i. Pref. , and ii. pass. 

2 Reg. de Panmure, ii. p. 77 sq. : Anderson, Scot. Nat. ii. pp. 370 sq. 
8 Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot. ii. pp. 442 sq. 

* The war wolf, or engine, employed at the sieges of Brechin and Stirling by 
Edward I. in 1303, discharged stones of two and three hundredweight (Brewster, 
Edin. Encyc., art. ARMS, i. p. 471.) 



144 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

popularly too often done, that the family of Maule were lords 
of Brechin, or had any interest in it at that time, the titles and 
estates being then in the family de Brechin, from which family, 
however, they are lineally descended, and of which the late 
Marquis of Dalhousie was the true heir of line, though the title 
and estates have passed to the younger branch of his family. 

As the genealogy of the Maules of Panmure is sufficiently 
traced in the principal heraldic books, and especially in the 
magnificent Registrum de Panmure?- it will be superfluous to 
go into the history of those who flourished betwixt the time 
of Sir Peter Maule's death in 1254 and the ennobling of Sir 
Patrick in 1646. 2 It is enough to say that most of them were 
actively engaged in the important transactions of the periods in 
which they lived, and that Sir Patrick's elevation to the peerage 
in 1646 arose from his attachment to the person of Charles I., 
whom he followed in all his enterprises, and waited upon 
personally, until prohibited by order of Cromwell, who after- 
wards imposed the enormous fine of 12,500 on him and his son 
Henry, though only 5000 of it were exacted. Earl Patrick's 
fidelity to the King has been questioned by modern historians, 
who are inclined to think, from the fact that he made extracts 
from Charles's private correspondence, and forwarded them 
to the leaders of the Covenant in Scotland, that he had been 
guilty of a breach of trust. 3 It is most probable, however, from 
the King's well-known double-dealing in these matters, that the 
Earl had not only acted with the connivance, but perhaps at 
the instigation, of his master : for, though opposed to Arch- 
bishop Laud, he was a strong Episcopalian in the time of King 

1 The original Registrum de Panmure is a MS. belonging to the family of Panmure, 
and written by the Hon. Harry Maule of Kelly, who died in June 1734. It was 
printed for private distribution, in two handsome quarto volumes, with plates, and 
editor's preface by the late Dr. John Stuart, in 1874, at the sole expense of the late 
Right Honourable Fox Maule Ramsay, eleventh Earl of Dalhousie and second Baron 
Panmure. His Lordship died when the printing had hardly been completed. 

2 See the pedigree drawn out in detail in Registrum de Panmitre, i and ii. , with 
the charters, etc., in full; Warden, Angus, L 379 sq. ; Burke, Peerage, etc., 1881, 
pp. 330 sq. 

3 Gordon, Scots A/airs; Lord Hailes's Collections, etc. 



NAVAR MAULES OF PANMURE. 145 

James, and there is reason to believe that he continued so all 
his life. Indeed, James was so " fully satisfied of Mr. Maule s 
affection in that Way, and of his unblemished Integrity in the 
Protestant Religion [that he] gave his Eoyal Consent and 
Approbation to the Transaction which passed between him 
and the Marquis of Hamilton, by which he purchased the 
Abbacy of Arbroath, which was erected to him with the Right 
of Patronage of the Churches of Arbroath" (and thirty-two 
others), " all formerly belonging to the dissolved Monastery 
of Arbroath, which, besides the old Patronages of his own 
Family, made him among the greatest Patrons of any in 
Scotland." 1 

Earl Patrick died in 1661, and had four successors in 
the Earldom his son, grandson, and two great-grandsons. 
All made considerable figure during the civil commotions 
of their respective days ; and James, the fourth Earl, who 
added the properties of Edzell and Glenesk to his patrimonial 
estate in 1714, forfeited these and the rest of the property in 
the year thereafter, for his adherence to the house of Stuart. 

The rental of the Panmure estates, including Belhelvie in 
Aberdeenshire, amounted at that time to the large sum of 
3168, 9s. 6d. (little more than a tenth of their present value), 
besides services, making them the most valuable of all the 
confiscated lordships of 1716. They were purchased by the 
York Buildings Company for the sum of 60,400, but after 
the Countess of Panmure and her brother-in-law, Mr. Harry 
Maule of Kellie, who, but for the attainder, would have been 
fifth Earl of Panmure, had obtained long leases of Panmure 
and Brechin, the whole of the Maule estates, except Belhelvie, 
were bought back to the family by William, son of Mr. Harry 
Maule, and nephew of Earl James, for 49,157, 18s. 4d. 
William Maule, after a distinguished military career in the Low 

1 Crawford, Peerage, p. 397. The patronage of all these churches, with the 
superiority of Benvie and Balruthrie, were forfeited by the attainder of 1716, and 
that of the kirk of Monifieth was the only one in the gift of the family at the passing 
of the Patronage Act in 1874. 

K 



146 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Countries, and twenty-seven years' service as Member of Par- 
liament for Forfarshire, was created a Peer of Ireland in 1743 
by the title of Earl Pan mure and Viscount Maule of White- 
church. Though the peerage was granted with remainder to 
the heirs-male of his own body and those of his brother John, 
the title became extinct at his death, and the estates passed 
into the female line. 1 Earl Panmure died unmarried on the 
4th January 1782. 

His surviving sister, Lady Jean Maule, was married to 
George, Lord Ramsay, eldest son of William Eamsay, the sixth 
Earl of Dalhousie. He predeceased his father, but left two 
sons, Charles and George, who became respectively the seventh 
and eighth Earls of Dalhousie. As William Earl Panmure, 
in 1779, had executed a deed of entail upon the estates of 
Panmure, the destination in which included George, the eighth 
Earl of Dalhousie, in liferent, and William, his second son, 
in fee, they vested in the latter, being then in the sixteenth 
year of his age, on the death of his father in 1787, and he 
accordingly assumed the name and arms of Maule of Panmure. 
This settlement of the estates had been challenged on some 
points by Lieutenant Thomas Maule, heir-male of the Irish 
branch (which issued from Thomas Maule of Pitlevie and 
Ardownie, uncle of the first Earl of Panmure), but by the 
decision of the Lords of Council and Session in 1782, he failed, 
with some trifling exceptions, to establish his claim, and the 
Hon. William Maule succeeded, as above mentioned, without 
legal question or difficulty five years afterwards. 

William Maule represented Forfarshire in Parliament from 
1796 to 1831, when he was created a British Peer by the title 
of Baron Panmure of Brechin and Navar. A lasting memorial 
was raised during his lifetime, when, in 1839, his Lord- 
ship's numerous tenantry subscribed and erected the Panmure 
Testimonial upon the Downie Hill in Monikie. It commands 
a magnificent view, and unceasingly witnesses to the great 

1 Reg. de Panmure, i. p. Ix sq., ii. pp. 356 sq. 



NAVAR LORD PANMTJRE. 147 

principle in human life, " Live, and let live," which was his 
Lordship's favourite sentiment used as a toast. 

Although the late Lord Panmure never shone as a public 
orator, he is uniformly represented, by those who knew him 
during his Parliamentary life, as having been a gentleman of 
shrewd and discerning parts, who not only could discuss the 
politics of the day in private circles with ability and judgment, 
but possessed a more than ordinary share of active business 
habits. Still, it is not on his political acquirements that his 
fame is to rest; but as the liberal landlord the munificent 
supporter of the public institutions of Forfarshire the friend 
of the poor and the encourager of genius he will be known 
to posterity. It was he who first lent a helping hand to the 
widow and family of the immortal Burns, to whom he gave fifty 
pounds a year, until the eldest son was able to provide for his 
mother. He also contributed a handsome annuity to the widow 
of the Hon. Charles James Fox, his great exemplar in politics. 
Neil Gow, and other men of genius, who are long since num- 
bered with their fathers, shared largely of his bounty; and 
several artists, afterwards in Edinburgh and London, owed 
their early success almost entirely to him, as did many persons 
who became conspicuous in our civil and military services at 
home and abroad, with others who may still be flourishing in 
the wide world of commerce and letters. 1 

His Lordship died on the 13th of April 1852, in the eighty- 
second year of his age, and was buried at Brechin, where a 
granite obelisk was erected at his grave by " The People." He 
was in the eighteenth generation from the first Sir Peter Maule 
of Panmure and his wife, Christian de Valoniis, who lived in the 
beginning of the thirteenth century. He is believed to have 
been longer in possession of the property than any of his pre- 
decessors, having held it no less than sixty-four years. By his 
second wife, who survived him, he had no issue ; but by the 

1 For a detail of the late Lord Panmure's numerous charities, see the local news- 
papers published at the time of his death. 



148 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

first, who died in 1821, he had a family of three sons and 
seven daughters. Of the latter, four outlived their father, and 
the Hon. Lady Christian Maule is the only member of the 
whole family now remaining. 

Of the sons, the youngest, the Hon. William Maule, married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Binny of Fern and Maulesden, 
in Forfarshire, and died in 1859, leaving a family of daughters, 
his only two sons having predeceased him. The second, the 
Hon. Lauderdale Maule, joined the army, and rose to the 
rank of colonel. When acting as Assistant Adjutant-General 
in the Crimean War, he was cut off by cholera in camp, near 
Varna, on August 1st, 1854, to the deep regret of Lord Eaglan, 
who was Commander-in-Chief, and his brother officers. To his 
memory a handsome monument in Carrara marble was erected 
in the church of Panbride, by his friend, the late Prince Demidoff, 
and his name is inscribed, with those of the other members of 
the family, in the monumental tpwer on the Eowan in Glenesk. 

The Hon. Fox Maule, eldest son of Lord Panmure, succeeded 
his father in the titles and estates in 1852. In early life he 
retired from the army, and married the Hon. Lady Montague, 
daughter of George, second Lord Abercroinby. Her Lady- 
ship died without issue in 1853. Fox Maule commenced 
his long Parliamentary career by being elected to represent 
the county of Perth in 1835, and, with the exception of 
three years (1838-41), when he was member for the Elgin 
Burghs, he continued to represent Perth, borough or county, up 
to the time of his father's death, when he succeeded to the 
Peerage. On the death of his cousin, James Andrew, first 
and only Marquis of Dalhousie, in 1860, when the Marquisate 
lapsed through the failure of heirs-male, his Lordship became 
the eleventh Earl of Dalhousie, and in the following year 
resumed the family name of Eamsay in addition to that of 
Maule. He was long a member of the Privy Council, and 
held the important offices of Vice-President of the Board of 
Trade, Under-Secretary for the Home Department, Secretary 



NAVAR EARLS OF DALHOUSIE. U9 

of State War Department, and, for a short time, President of 
the Board of Control. As Secretary-at-War, from 1855 to 
1858, when the Crimean War and the Indian Mutiny engaged 
all his energies, the name of Lord Panmure was much before 
the public ; but as Lord-Lieutenant of Forfarshire and a liberal 
landlord, he was better known upon his wide estates. Dying 
at Brechin Castle, the place of his birth, on July 16, 1874, at 
the ripe age of seventy-three, he was buried in the family 
vault at Panbride, and mourned by many who had experienced 
his kindness. Leaving no issue, he was the last Baron Panmure, 
but was succeeded by his cousin, the Hon. George Eamsay, 
C.B., second son of the Hon. John Eamsay, fourth son of the 
eighth Earl of Dalhousie, as the twelfth Earl. Earl George, 
born at Kelly House, April 26, 1805, entered the Royal Navy 
at the age of fourteen, and, after his full share of service in 
all parts of the world, was appointed Admiral in 1875. In 
the same year he was elevated to the Peerage of the United 
Kingdom under the title of Baron Eamsay of Glenmark. 
During his short tenure of the family estates in Forfarshire, 
he proved a liberal landlord, like his predecessors. He died 
at Dalhousie Castle, in Mid-Lothian, on July 20, 1880, and was 
laid in the family burial-vault at Cockpen. He was succeeded 
by his eldest son, the Hon. John William Eamsay, as thirteenth 
Earl of Dalhousie. The present Earl married the Hon. Lady 
Ida Louise Bennet, youngest daughter of Charles, sixth Earl of 
Tankerville, and has issue. He was Member of Parliament 
for Liverpool during a very short period when, in 1880, his 
father's death removed him to the House of Lords, and in 
December 1881, on the death of the Earl of Airlie, his Lord- 
ship was placed on the roll of the Knights of the Thistle, and 
duly invested by Her Majesty with the insignia of the Order. 



150 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 



SECTION III. 

A deeper import 

Lurks in the legend told my infant years 
Than lies upon that truth we live to learn. 

SCHILLER. 

Aspect of Navar The Wirran -Story of the melder-sifter Archaeology of Lethnot 
Dunnyferne " Lady Eagil's Chair" Cobb's Heugh Streams of the district- 
Superstition anent the white adder Superstitions of Lethnot The Cateran. 

ALTHOUGH Navar and Lethnot are less favoured than Glenesk 
on the score of extent and the imposing features of lofty 
and rugged mountains, the general aspect of the whole is 
equally highland, and when traversed in a fine summer day, 
or viewed from the old British fort of Caterthun, it has a 
singularly sweet and inviting aspect. This is peculiarly the 
case when seen from the latter position, which embraces an 
extended view of four or five miles. But, like Glenesk, the 
district is singularly destitute of trees ; for, with the exception 
of the plantation on Nathro, and a patch of firs at Balfield, 
there is little wood, either indigenous or cultivated. The old 
churchyard of Navar, on the sunny side of Blairno Hill, shaded 
by a few meagre ash-trees the half moon- shaped bridge 
of Lethnot the Board School, school-house, and other tidy 
cottages the kirk and manse the hamlet of Balfield, where 
the laborious matron fits her charge for the domestic duties of 
after-life, and the parish wright and blacksmith drive their 
useful trades are the main objects which enliven the natural 
barrenness of the prospect. 

The hill of Wirran 1 bounds the northern parts of the 
parish. It is about six miles long and 2082 feet high, com- 
manding a fine view of the hills of Fifeshire and intervening 
objects. In the dark ages of credulity and superstition it was 
often used as the burial-place of suicides, and on the ridge or 

1 Gael. Fuaran, "& spring," hence "the hill of springs." 



LETHNOT SUPERSTITIONS. 151 

sky-line of the hill numerous grave-shaped hillocks point 
out the resting-places of those luckless beings. At no dis- 
tant date, when a suicide was found on one of the farms in 
the neighbourhood, the farmer, rather than allow the body to 
be conveyed in at the barn-door, had an aperture made in the 
front wall for that purpose : and, " although the hole was built 
up ower an' ower again," says our informant, "the biggin' 
wudna bide, but aye fell out !" 

A kettle filled with silver is said to lie in the Craig of 
Stonyford, on the south-west side of Wirran, and of this the sun, 
when in full lustre, occasionally displays the 'bow and precious 
contents to the view of the credulous. Many attempts have 
been made to secure the treasure, but the " seekers " have all 
been unsuccessful. If the legend be correct, they have little 
cause for regret, for, as it will be with the finder of the kettle 
of gold which is said to be secreted in the well on the hill of 
Caterthun, so he also that finds this kettle of silver on the 
Wirran is to be instantly removed from this sublunary sphere, 
have constant labour until the world ends, and perpetual 
wailing thereafter ! 

The mill of Glascorry lies still farther to the west of the 
hill, and is famous in local story as the scene of a poor " melder- 
sifter's" toil on the day of her narrow escape from a wolf. The 
tradition may thus be briefly told : While the system of 
thirlage was in its zenith, and no better plan thought of, a 
servant-girl was one day sent to this mill to sift a melder, or 
grinding of corn. The melder being large, she had a long and 
hard day's work, and was so overpowered by fatigue, that on 
her way home she lay down on a bank to rest herself, and 
fell asleep. She rested soundly until daybreak, when, to her 
surprise and horror, she found a huge shaggy wolf lying on 
part of her garment; but, with great presence of mind, she 
succeeded in quietly extricating herself, and stealthily fled 
home. On relating her adventure, the alarmed neighbourhood 
went in pursuit of the wolf, whose life had been long sought 



152 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

after because of the havoc he had made among the flocks in all 
parts of the glen. He had left the place where the girl saw 
him, and the part of her apparel which she had left, and 
on which he had wreaked his vengeance, was found torn to 
shreds ; but chase being given, he was discovered on the West 
Shank of Wirran, and almost instantaneously shot by, it is 
said, Robert-son of Nathro. This was the last wolf seen in 
the district provincial story says in Scotland ; and, whether 
in imitation of the usual love-story, or from fact, it is also 
told that the young laird of Nathro led the poor melder-sifter 
to the hymeneal altar ! 

The antiquarian objects of Lethnot, and indeed of the 
united parish, are few and unimportant, and the whole district 
is equally meagre in traditions regarding the Lindsays and 
other old proprietors. In the vicinity of Craigendowie, how- 
ever, among the mass of artificial-looking cairns (which are 
said to be the graves of warriors), there was a small circle, com- 
posed of a quantity of stones about the same size, and ranged 
in the same manner, as those at Fernybank, already described. 
Unlike the latter, this circle was never thoroughly explored, 
even at the time of its removal more than forty years ago, 
and if as old as prehistoric times, it cannot now be said 
in how far it may have been a place of sepulture. 1 Craigen- 
dowie has, perhaps, its true etymon in the Gaelic Craigan- 
dubh, or " the black rock," for the craig is an immense black 
rock close by the river-side ; but, according to a truer etymo- 
logy, as well as popular story, it implies the " rock of the funeral 
cairn," or perhaps the "craig of battle or mischief;" and, if 
any reliance can be placed on the tales regarding the malicious 
actions of the kelpie in the dark pool beside it, or in the story 
of warriors having fallen in the neighbourhood, the latter 
rendering may not be altogether inapt ! 

Some fifty years ago, a good specimen of concentric 
circles stood on the farm of Newbigging, about half-a-mile 

1 There are still circles on the farms of Braco and Blairno. 



LETHNOT ANTIQUITIES, TALES. 153 

north of the house, on an elevated part of the mountain ; but, 
of the twenty or thirty large stones that enclosed an area of 
from fifty to sixty feet in diameter, only one remains, the rest 
having been carried away for various utilitarian purposes. 
This boulder, which is about eight feet high, is sometimes 
called the Druidical, but more commonly the " Stannin' Stane 
of Newbiggin'," and many flint arrow-heads have been found 
in its vicinity. When demolished, the middle of the area of 
the inner circle was found to be filled with small stones to the 
depth of about three feet, under which lay a quantity of black 
clammy earth, mixed with pieces of charcoal, while a track 
about two feet broad, composed of loose red sandstone, laid to 
the depth of a few inches, ran directly through the clammy earth 
and pebbles, from side to side of the outer circle. The site of 
these circles is about a mile north of the channel of the West 
Water, which is the nearest bed of the old red sandstone. 

At a short distance from this stone are the foundations of 
a square building called the castle of Dennyferne. Traces of 
human dwellings have from time to time been turned up in its 
vicinity, and evidences of ancient tillage are quite distinct in 
numerous ridge-marks. It is said to have been a residence of 
the Lindsays, and the surrounding cottages to have been occu- 
pied by their retainers. 

In a place called the Taberan Loan, a large stone, from its 
peculiar shape, and the tradition that the ladies of Edzell used 
to rest on it when accompanying their lords on fishing expedi- 
tions, is known as " Lady Eagil's Chair." It is destitute of all 
other traditionary associations ; but Cobb's Heugh, a romantic 
part of the West Water (mainly formed by the track of the 
Burn of Margie), is not so uninteresting in this respect, being 
associated with a story regarding an ancestor of Black, the 
founder of the Gannochy Bridge. This family long tenanted 
the Mill of Lethnot, and the occupant of the period was a 
strong athletic person, fully as austere and turbulent in 
temperament as he was powerful in body. He and the laird 



154 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

of Edzell are said to have quarrelled about the rent of the 
farm, which Black was dilatory in paying, and the laird be- 
came so annoyed, that he determined to rid himself of his 
tenant in the most summary manner. He was accordingly 
summoned on some pretence to Edzell Castle one winter's night, 
and the laird having previously arranged with a person of the 
name of Cobb to waylay and attack him at a dangerous part of 
the road, Black was pounced upon on returning home. A des- 
perate struggle ensued betwixt him and his antagonist, and after 
much parrying, Black proved victorious, and threw Cobb over 
the cliff into a deep pool, where his body was found some days 
after. From this incident the place has been associated with 
the names of both parties, the high cliff being known as Cobb's 
Heugh, and the pool as Black's Pot. The fate of Black is not 
recorded : perhaps he henceforth lived a life of peace with his 
laird and all the world, as his descendants held the same 
farm for several generations after the time referred to. 

Although the springs of Wirran contribute largely to the 
augmentation of the West Water by many affluents, its parent 
stream is the Water of Saughs. This issues from the Staney 
Loch, on the confines of the parish of Clova, within a mile or 
two of Loch Wharral, and traverses a rugged and romantic bed, 
that winds round by the Muckle Cairn, White Hill, and Black 
Shank, and is famous as the scene of the battle between the 
men of Fern and the Cateran, which will be noticed in a 
subsequent Chapter. Saughs has a number of tributaries, but 
the burn of Duskintry or Dunscarney is the largest, and is an 
important landmark or boundary, being the march for the glen 
pasture of the Water of Saughs ; from this burn westward the 
parish ministers and tenants of Lethnot, Lochlee, and Edzell 
have a common right to pasture a certain number of black cattle. 1 
At the union of Saughs with Duskintry, the river becomes 
known southward by the common name of the West Water. 

1 Decreet-Arbitral, recorded in the Register of Probative Writs of Brechin, 
17th Oct. 1843. 



LETHNOT VIRTUES OF THE WHITE ADDER. 155 

From Waterhead downwards this river is augmented by 
the burns of Calletar and Nathro, Differan and Paphry, all 
on the Navar side, and remarkable for the rugged eddying 
nature of their channels. None of these burns are worthy of 
notice, except the Calletar, and that entirely for certain super- 
stitions connected with it, 1 which arose in most part from its 
having long been the site of an adder stone. This stone is 
described as being of a greyish colour, pure as marble, with a 
hole in the centre as large as would freely admit a man's arm ; 
through and through this hole the white adder is said to have 
sported in fine sunny days, followed by a long train of his 
glistening family or subjects ! Adder stones are well known 
to all " charmers " as a sure preventive against the ill that 
follows the exercise of supernatural agency, and as a never- 
failing curative for bewitched persons and cattle ; while the 
antiquary and collector of curious relics prize them merely as a 
species of water-worn perforated stones, and find some addi- 
tional interest in them from their resemblance to the stone of 
Odin, in the Orkneys, 2 which was held in so high esteem 
that a promise made beside it, whether of matrimony or in 
any common business transaction, was considered as binding 
on the parties promising as if they had given their oath. 

Nor was the white adder less an object of superstition in 
old times than the perforated stone. Such an animal is said to 
have been rare ; and as his qualities fell little short of those 
anticipated from the discovery of the philosopher's stone, his 
acquisition repaid tenfold any labour, expense, or trouble that 
the lucky possessor had undergone in catching him his great 

1 Leadbeakie, a farm situated on the banks of Nathro burn, has so secluded a 
position, that it has given rise to a rhythmical saying 

" Nae wonder though the maidens o' Leadbeakie are dun, 
For three months o 1 the year they never hae the sun." 

2 "Kelpie's Needle," in the river Dee, near Dee Castle, is an example of this ' 
singular sort of memorial. It is about four feet above the ordinary rise of the river, 
and corresponds in appearance with the description given of the "Odin Stone." It is 
named from the resemblance which the perforation bears to the eye of a needle, and 
from a popular superstition, that the river fiend takes shelter behind it during floods, 
eyeing his drowning victims through the orifice ! 



15G LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

and unique property being the conferring of no less a power 
than laibhse, or the second-sight ! 

The wonderful gift of seeing into the sealed volume of 
futurity was supposed to be innate in some persons, but for 
others the " broo " or broth of the white adder had the same 
magical effect on the partaker as if he had been born heir to the 
gift. This was the manner in which Brochdarg, the celebrated 
prophet of the North, was endowed with the marvellous power 
of diving into the hidden future, as well as of knowing the 
persons who "cast ill" on their neighbours. Going to the 
Continent in youth as the servant of a second Sidrophel, 
he one day got a white adder from his master to boil, and 
was admonished, on the pain of his life's forfeit, not to* let 
a drop of the " broo " touch his tongue. On scalding his 
fingers, however, he inadvertently thrust them into his mouth 
as a soothing balm, when he instantly beheld the awful 
future stretched out before him. Fearing the wrath of his 
master, he fled from his service, and taking up his abode 
among his native mountains in Aberdeenshire, was con- 
sulted by all the bewitched and love-sick swains and maidens 
far and near, and died an old wealthy carle more than a 
century ago. 

Another party in the same district, who lived within these 
seventy years, obtained the second-sight by the same means 
of tasting the " broo " of a white adder. This person was 
much sought after, and on one occasion visited a farm in 
Lethnot, where many cattle had died in a singularly unac- 
countable manner. In proceeding to cure them, his practice 
was to get a white basin full of spring water, and taking a 
round ball, which he carried about with him, pure and clear 
as polished steel, he dipped it three times into the basin in the 
name of the Trinity. He was thus wont to discover the like- 
ness of the Evil One or his allies, in whom, in this case, the 
astonished farmer recognised the physiognomy of one of his 
own cottar women ! This witch was remembered thirty years 



LETHNOT STORY OF THE BLACK CAT. 157 

ago by some old residenters, and one respectable person could 
assure his hearers that she was as thorough a witch as ever 
slept, for he himself, for calling her " a witch " one day, while 
driving one of his father's carts, had a cart full of lime upset 
three several times within the short space of a mile, and in 
sight of the woman's residence ! 

But it would seem, if tradition can be relied upon, that about 
the beginning of last century (during the incumbency, as is 
said, of the Rev. Mr. Thomson l ), man's great adversary had 
enjoyed a kind of respite from his thousand years' captivity, 
and taken up his abode in the quiet glen of the West Water. 
It were idle to relate a tithe of the stories told of his per- 
ambulations, and the various shapes in which he appeared to 
the minister, and to many of his less educated neighbours ; but 
an instance or two will sufficiently show the credulity only 
too common both then and afterwards. 

One of these stories is based on a quarrel that took place 
between the tenant of Mill of Lethnot and his fellow-parishioner 
the farmer of Witton. The miller had long a craving to be 
revenged on his neighbour, and on learning one evening that 
the farmer was from home, and would not return until a late 
hour, he went away to meet him. Before departing on his 
vengeful expedition, however, his excited appearance, and the 
unusually late hour, so alarmed his wife, that she tried every 
means to dissuade him from his journey, and all protestation 
having failed, she inquired, as a last resort, and in a piteous 
tone, who was to bear her company during his absence. To 
this he answered gruffly, and in a frantic manner " The devil 
if he likes!" and immediately went away. So, sure enough, 
in the course of an hour or two, his Satanic majesty rose from 
the middle of the earthen floor of the chamber where the dis- 
consolate woman sat, and presented himself to her astonished 

1 Minister of Lethnot from 1685 to 1716. The distance of time makes the matter 
the more doubtful, and another tradition brings it down to the time and person of 
Air. Row. See below, p. 159, n. Probably political and religious feeling had not a 
little to do with this and suchlike stories. 



158 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

gaze ! Whether he attempted to do her any injury is not 
related ; but as she had presence of mind to put her son, a 
mere boy, out at a back window for the minister, his reverence 
and the boy, with some of the neighbours, set out for the 
house. When within a short distance of it, Mr. Thomson, 
supposing that he felt the odour of " brimstane smeik," was so 
impressed with the belief of the bonafide presence of Beelzebub, 
that he retraced his steps to the manse, arrayed himself in his 
black gown and linen bands, and, taking the Bible in his hand, 
went boldly forth to vanquish the master fiend ! On entering 
the ill-fated chamber, he charged the intruder with the sword 
of the Spirit, when, in the midst of a volume of smoke, and 
with a hideous yell, the Evil One shrank aghast, and passed 
from view in much the same mysterious way as he had 
appeared. An indentation in the earthen floor of the farm- 
house was long pointed out as having been caused by the 
descent of Satan on this occasion ! 

Tradition is silent regarding the miller's adventure, and 
perhaps the story is merely another version of that of Cobb's 
Heugh. But to add the appearance of truth to the tale, it is 
further said that the sanctity of the manse had no effect in 
deterring man's prowling and tormenting foe. Even there, 
Mr. Thomson was annoyed out of all patience : if he sat 
down of an evening to write or read, his book or paper soon 
became a darkened and unseemly mass, and the candle burnt 
so faintly before him that he could barely see from one end 
of his little chamber to the other ; indeed, so bent was his 
enemy on doing him some injury, that his last interview with 
him was attended with most lamentable consequences. It 
was on a dark winter evening the storm howled with fury, 
and the fall of snow had been so great, that large wreaths 
were blown against the manse and church. The minister, 
as usual, was sitting by the fire reading or writing, when a 
tremendous gust of wind suddenly shook the house from top 
to bottom a peculiar sound was heard in the chimney and, 



LETHNOT THE FARMER AND THE CATER ANS. 159 

amidst much din and confusion, his tormentor ' entered his 
room in the shape of a large black cat ! How he found his 
way none could exactly affirm the minister did not see him 
enter, and distinguished nothing save his long hairy fangs, 
which suddenly extinguished the candle ! Eunning in pursuit, 
however, he saw him clear the steep and narrow stair that 
led to the lower flat of the house, and falling from head to 
foot of it himself, Mr. Thomson was so much injured from 
bruises and fright that he never fully recovered ! 1 

The facts of such pitiful displays of ignorance and credulity 
as those now told, though absurd in themselves, ought not to be 
entirely overlooked when delineating the history of a district 
or a people. They formed at one time a great and prominent 
part of the beliefs of the old inhabitants, and were as intimately 
associated with their habits of thought and action as were 
their domestic customs ; thus they show as vividly the ruling 
passions, and throw as much light on the society of the period, 
as do the prehistoric remains, and the curious tenures by 
which old charters tell us that landed property was held. 

But apart from these superstitions, the district had also to 
do with those times 

" When tooining faulds, or scouring o' a glen, 
Was ever deemed the deed o' pretty men." 

An ancestor of the present tenant of Craigendowie (whose 
forefathers have farmed the same place upwards of two cen- 
turies) was reported to be worth money ; and the Cateran, 
believing that the money was stored up in the house, paid the 

1 Although currently ascribed to Mr. Thomson, these stories are scarcely in accord- 
ance with his real character (supra, p. 157 n.), and the true version of the story is given 
in APPENDIX No. VI. , as put together by the present minister, Mr. Cruickshank. 
Mr. T. was the last Episcopal minister of Lethnot, and being a determined 
supporter of the rebellion, was deposed, by order of Government, for praying 
" for the heads and patriots of the Kebel Army, and that God might cover their 
heads in the day of battell." He also prayed "for his Noble Patron the Earle of 
Panmure, that the Lord might preserve him now when he was exposed to Danger," 
and thanked God for " King James the Eight's safe Landing into these his native 
bounds," and that "the Army appearing against Marr's Army might be defeat," 
etc. (Records of the Presbytery of Brechin, March 7, 1716.) Mr. Thomson married 
Anna Lindsay of the house of EdzelL (Deer eet- Arbitral, Nov. 22d, 1714.) 



160 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

family a visit on one occasion about midnight. Being refused 
admittance they deliberately cut a large tree that grew near 
the house, and, using it as a battering-ram, soon succeeded in 
bursting open the door, and walked boldly through the house. 
They had previously emptied the mill of meal and corn, and 
laded the farmer's own horses with it ; then, despatching them 
and some of his cows along the mountain track, they next 
insisted on having his money. This he peremptorily refused, 
when, with a view to enforce compliance, they set his bare feet 
over a blazing fire, and, finding this stratagem as unsuccessful 
as threats, they seized his wife, and rode off with her at full 
speed. As the farmer made no resistance, and the gudewife 
perhaps proved a drag on their progress, they dismissed her at 
Stonyford, when she returned to Craigendowie with much less 
injury than had befallen the feet of her inflexible partner ! 
The tombstone of this worthy " gudewife " is still in the burial- 
place at Navar, and the motto may interest the reader. It 
runs thus : 

" A pearl precious here doth lie, 

As signifies her name : 

Still shining to posterity 

By her deserved fame. 

Death battered down those walls of clay 

To let her soul go free, 
And soar aloft to praise for aye 

The Triune Deity. 

Sleep thou, frail dust, within thy closest urn, 

Till the morning of the Resurrection dawn, 
When thou shalt wake, the heaven and earth shall burn, 

And be rejoined to thy immortal pawn." * 

1 Jervise, Epit. ii. pp. 296 sq. ; Rogers, Scott. Mon. and Tombst. ii. p. 242. 



CHAPTER IV. 

(Dathlato. 



SECTION I. 

Here they lie had realms and lands, 
Who now want strength to stir their hands. 

BEAUMONT. 

Finhaven Etymologies Church a prebend of Brechin Cathedral The nine 
maidens Old church of Finhaven The "kirk of A ikenhatt" Ministers of 
Finhaven Oathlaw took the place of Finhaven Burial aisle Later ministers 
Female rioters do penance Rev. Harry Stuart. 

THE districts of Finhaven or Finavon and Oathlaw are, for the 
most part, divided from each other by the burn of Lenmo. 1 
The kirk of Finhaven stood on the south-east corner of a 
rising ground, about a mile east of the castle, near the junction 
of the Lemno and South Esk, and was frequently called the 
" kirk of Aikenhatt," but the site is suggestive of the origin 
of the name of Aberlemno, though that parish, in its present 
boundaries, has no connection with the Lemno. This name, 
Aikenhatt, is probably derived from the Gaelic, and may 
signify " the place of prayer or supplication ; " while Finhaven, 
according to the oldest spelling, " Fothnevyn," may have its 
origin in the same language, since Fodha-fainn (the Gaelic dh 
and English th being synonymous) signifies a place lying 
" under a hill or height." The topographical position and 
aspect, both of the church and district, accord with these 
renderings ; for the old kirk stood immediately under the 

1 Lemno (vulg. pron. Lemla) is perhaps from the Gael. Leum-na, " the small 
limping or leaping stream," which may correspond with the bounding peculiarity of 
its motion. Levenach, however, is an old spelling, as it also is of Lethnot. The 
point where the Lemno falls into the Esk frequently changes, as it is now doing. 

L 



162 LA.ND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

highest part of the hill, and the greater part of the arable land 
of Finhaven proper lies along the foot of it, though in strict- 
ness of speech some is found on the other side of the Lemno, 
and some beyond the Esk altogether. But a simple and more 
natural signification of Finhaven, is " the white river," as 
suggested in Lord Lindsay's Lives of the Lindsays}- 

There has been a kirk at Finhaven from the earlist record, 
as we find it being rebuilt and erected into a Prebend of the 
Cathedral of Breqhin, by Sir Alexander Lindsay of Glenesk, in 
1380; but the saint to whom it was dedicated is matter of 
doubt. In the ancient Taxatio it was rated at five merks, 2 and 
there was a chaplainry of St. Leonard's belonging to it in 
1587. 3 A fountain called " Nine-well" is situated on the hill 
above the old kirk, and some believe this to be a corruption of 
the name of St. Ninian, who was a favourite over all Scotland ; 
but, as the Nine " virgin dochters of S. Donewalde who lived 
as in a hermitage in the Glen of Ogilvy at Glamis" were 
canonised as the " Nine Maidens," perhaps the fountain and 
kirk had been inscribed to them. Like most of the primitive 
saints, they were remarkable for industry and humility, and 
are said to have laboured the ground with their own hands, 
and to have eaten only once a day, " and then but barley bread 
and water." Their father died while they were in the Glen of 
Ogilvy ; on this they retired to Abernethy, the Pictish capital, 
where they had an oratory and some lands assigned them, 
and were visited in their retirement by Eugenius vn. of Scot- 
land, who made them large presents. Their feast is on the 
1 5th of June ; and, dying at Abernethy in the early part of the 
eighth century, they were buried at the foot of a large oak, 
which was much frequented by pilgrims till the Reformation. 4 

The walls of the old kirkyard of Finhaven were in existence 
within the present century, as were also a number of tomb- 

1 Lives, i. p. 108. 

2 " By vjU- viij/. & iiij d mo. anno payable to the minister of the paroche of ffin- 
evine, be vertew off ane antient gift dated the 20th of Febry. 1299," presented and 
approved by the Commissioners of Exchequer, anno 1659. (Burgh Papers of Forfar.) 

3 Reg. Episc. Brech. ii. p. 36. 4 Coll. on Aberdeenshire, i. pp. 595-6. 



FINHAVEN OLD CHURCH. 



163 



stones. The site of the old church is now railed in, and frag- 
ments of tombstones are lying on it. In 1849, when the 
farmer trenched the graveyard, the floor of the church was 
laid open, and two ancient monuments were found at a con- 





siderable depth. The floor, like those of the cathedral of Kirk- 
wall, and the Church of the IJoly Trinity at Edinburgh, 1 was 
paved with plain square glazed tiles, of the three primary 
colours of red, blue, and yellow, each of them being about six 

1 Wilson's Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, ii. p. 459. 



164 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

inches square, and an inch thick. They were placed in the 
common diamond form, and had doubtless been the flooring of 
the church, which was erected in 1380. One of the monu- 
ments is about three feet high, and bears the incised figures of 
a cross and dagger, resembling those on a stone at the church 
of Kingoldrum. 1 The other measures five-and-a-half feet by 
three, with the rudely incised effigy of a robed ecclesiastic. 
His hands are in a devotional attitude, and these words are 
engraved round the side of the stone " fjic facet f)onarabilfs 
bit ting rcdjetfc' - br = * = -. btcaribs tie finftebgn qbi obiit 
z fcie." Here the inscription abruptly terminates, but the 
vicar was probably a Bruce, as may be inferred from the 
shield on the monument, and a James Brouss was prebendary 
of Lethnot in 1476. 

The time of the erection of the last kirk of Finhaven or 
Aikenhatt is unknown, but the plan included a nave and aisle. 
The aisle was on the north, and had likely been used as the 
burial-place of the clergy, or of collateral members of the Lindsay 
family, for both the monuments alluded to were found within 
its limits. The manse or rectory, of which traces are occasion- 
ally found when the field of Aikenhatt is being tilled, stood a 
little to the south of the kirk ; and the first known rector was 
Dominus Johannes de Monte Alto, brother to Richard the lord 
of Fern. As " rector ecclesise de Fothynevyn," he witnesses 
his brother's resignation of Brichty, in favour of Sir Alexander 
Lindsay of Glenesk, 2 on the 20th of December 1379, and, in 
all probability he had been rector at the time of the rebuild- 
ing of the church and the founding of the prebend. In 1435, 
John Knycht, canon of Brechin, was rector of Finhaven, and 
thirty years later we find that venerable man, Mr. John Lok, 
master in theology and arts, and rector of the parish church of 
Finhaven, protesting with all legal solemnity for the rights of 
himself and his church. 3 

1 See Plate xx. of Mr. Chalmers, Sculptured Monuments of A ngus, etc. 
z Fraser, Hist. Cameyies of Southesk, ii. pp. 492-3. 
3 Reg. Episc. Brech. i. p. 196 ; ii. pp. 49, 104. 



F1NHAVEN MINISTRY IN PARISH. 165 

From that time, until the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, the holders of the prebend are unknown; but at the 
latter period, the living was held by Henry White, who was also 
Dean of Brechin, and in 1532, when the College of Justice was 
established by King James, he was " ane of the first that wes 
chosin " to fill the onerous duties of a Lord of Session. He 
had been an active supporter of James IV., and was far ad- 
vanced in life at the time of his appointment, for within six 
years after his installation, the King, because " he is of age, and 
subdite to infirmities," and had " done leill and trow seruice to 
our fader of gude mynde " and to " ws in our tyme," relieved 
him from his duties, and desired that he should "joiss all 
priuilege in persoune and gudis and pencioune " as the rest of 
the council " for tyftyme, sic like as he war dayly present as of 
before." 1 The revenues of a toft and tenement of land, adjoin- 
ing to the city of Brechin, were given to the chaplain of the 
altar of St. Catherine, for saying mass annually for the soul of 
Henry Quhit, to be celebrated on the Lord's day after the Feast 
of All Saints, with lighted tapers, etc. The officiating priest 
alone was to receive the proceeds of the endowment. 2 

The next parson of Finhaven, with whom we have met, was 
David Lindsay of Pitcairlie (1541-76), who appears soon after 
the Eeformation as holding both this cure and that of Inver- 
arity. He was a relative of the family of Lindsay-Crawford 
(in whom the patronage of both these churches was long 
vested), and not only having an ample stipend, but being also 
tacksman of the teinds of these parishes, he bound himself to 
supply a reader at each place. From this period we have 
found no mention of Finhaven as a separate parish, nor, as 
already stated, are we aware of the time of its suppression, or 
of the removal of the church to Oathlaw. 

It is supposed that Oathlaw, which is perhaps a corruption 
of the Gaelic Audi-law, or the " field of cairns," was a chaplainry 

1 Haig and Brunton, Acct. of the Senators of the Coll. of Justice, p. 12 ; Reg. 
Epis. Brech. ii. pp. 161, 192, 278. Reg. Episc. Brech. ii. p. 192. 



166 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

of the church of Finhaven. It does not appear in that or in 
any other character, however, in the old Taxatio ; but since 
a well in the neighbourhood bears the name of " St. Mary," it is 
probable that a kirk or chapel, dedicated to the Virgin, had 
been there in old times. In the absence of better authority, it 
may perhaps not be amiss to date the transference of the kirk 
of Finhaven to Oathlaw at about the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, since the oldest tombstone in the graveyard, 
which belongs to a family of the name of " Fode " or Faddie, 
bears the date of " 25 Maii 1616." There is no doubt of Oath- 
law being the only church in the parish in 1635 ; for at that 
time, when Lord Kinnoul was retoured in the barony of Fin- 
haven, it was " cum advocatione ecclesiee de Phinheavin, vocatce 
Ouathlaw" 1 There is no village or hamlet in the parish, but it 
is probable that the church had been removed to its present site 
to suit the convenience of the bulk of the parishioners ; for the 
old place of worship was so inconveniently situated that it lay 
close to the north-west boundary of Aberlemno parish. The 
old bell bore the common laudatory motto " SOLI DEO GLORIA," 
and the date and initials "1618- I. M.," but to what pastor 
these referred, all inquiry has been fruitless, and the bell itself 
has long been estranged from the parish, having been carried 
to the schoolhouse of Careston, where it is said to have been 
long used (though cracked) for assembling the scholars ; it is 
now gone, like so many other and similar relics of the past. 

The family burial aisle of Finhaven stood on the east side of 
the Oathlaw church, which was pulled down in 1815 to make 
way for the present commodious building. As Earl Henry of 
Crawford is the ooly person of the title that is recorded to have 
been buried at Finhaven, perhaps the aisle was erected at, or 
soon after, the time of his death, which occurred in 1622 ; 2 but 
the only direct notice of an interment within it is that of the 
first lady of Carnegie, the murderer of the Earl of Strathmore. 3 

1 Inquis. Spec. Forfar. No. 230. * Unless he was buried at Aikenhatt. 

3 Fraser, Hist. Carnegies of Southesk, ii. p. 425 ; infra, p. 200. 



FINHAVEN CHANGE TO OATHLAW. 167 

She was daughter of Sir William Bennet of Grubbet, and, re- 
garding her burial, the Parish Eegister bears, that " the ladie of 
Finhaven dyed on Sabbath morning, the 20th August 1738, 
and was buried on Friday thereafter in the Isle." 

But the aisle is now gone, and no monumental traces, 
either of the Lindsays or of the Carnegies, are visible in the 
graveyard. The gravestones are not numerous, and present few 
peculiar or generally interesting mottoes, excepting that raised 
by the late Mr. Eaiker (writer of the first Statistical Account 
of the parish), who, in lamenting the death of his wife, thus 
transforms the pointed language which "rare Ben Jonson" 
uses in his famous monody on the death of the Countess of 
Pembroke 

" Before Mankind a better Wife shall see, 
Time, Death, shall strike a Dart at thee." 

Mr. Baiker, who was upwards of sixty years minister of the 
parish, survived his wife five years, and, according to his 
epitaph, he possessed the good qualities of being " a singular 
and zealous servant of his Divine Master, and attentive to his 
own concerns." The stone also bears these lines : 

" Rests before this stone the mortal clay 
Of THOMAS RAIKER, till that awful day 
When Christ shall send his angel through the skies, 
And to the dead proclaim, ' Ye sleepers, Rise ! ' 
Then may the Saviour to this servant say, 
Enjoy a crown thro' an eternal day." * 

Mr. Eaiker dying in 1803 was succeeded by Messrs. Little- 
john, Cromar, and Stuart, the late incumbent ; and his pre- 
decessors, so far as ascertained, were Messrs. Kynnimonth, 
Hepburne, Elliot, Allan, Ouchterlony, Straiten, Grub, Ander- 
son, and Martin. The present incumbent is the Eev. Alex- 
ander Eitchie, who was appointed to the parish on the death of 
Mr. Stuart in 1880. It was not, however, until the time of 

1 This motto was written by the late Rev. Mr. Buist of Tannadice, who, in 
speaking of Mr. Raiker's being attentive to his own concerns, perhaps had the fact 
in view that Mr. R. saved 5000 off his stipend, which only amounted to 70 
a year ! ( Verbally communicated to Mr. Jervise by a friend in the district.) 



168 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Mr. Anderson that the Parochial Register, in which the minis- 
ter soon held a conspicuous place himself, was begun ; for, not- 
withstanding that the laird of that period had the credit of being 
a rebel, the minister seems to have supported the Crown, and to 
have been almost killed for his loyalty by a band of Jacobite 
women belonging to the parish. Whether they were incited or 
not by the laird, as the rioters were at Edzell, is unknown ; 
but five of them fearlessly attacked Mr. Anderson one Sunday, 
" pulled him out of the pulpit in a violent manner, and forced 
him to leave off worship and to go out of the church, which he 
was not allowed to enter again till the rebellion was over." 

The matter was investigated by the minister of Fern and 
his elder, the famous Ledenhendrie, as a committee of the Pres- 
bytery, and the rebellious females having pleaded guilty, were 
all ordered to compear before the congregation, " covered with 
white sheets, beginning their compearance at the church door, 
and to continue there till the third bell be rung, and worship 
begun and prayer ended, and thereafter to come into the church 
and to stand before the pulpit where they attacked the minis- 
ter, and pulled him out of 'the pulpit." 1 This appears to have 
had the effect of cooling the political zeal of the people, for during 
the subsequent outbreak of "the forty-five," nothing in either 
tradition or record is said of the disloyalty of the parishioners. 

The late Rev. Harry Stuart, who died on the 18th March 
1880, was presented to the charge, in 1836, by George, Earl of 
Aboyne, and is best known for his work on behalf of the agri- 
cultural labourers, in which he had the honour of securing the 
interest of the late Prince Consort, through the publication 
(1853) of his Agricultural Labourers; as tliey were, are, and 
should le in their Social Condition. His subsequent audience 
with His Royal Highness at Balmoral resulted in the formation 
of the " Association for Improving the Agricultural Labourers' 
Dwellings," and Mr. Stuart was appointed secretary, his chief 
aim being generally to improve the prevalent bothy system. 

1 Oathlaw Par. Reg. 1716. 



FINHAVEN ANCIENT FORESTS. 169 



SECTION II. 

A race renown 'd of old, 
Whose war-cry oft has waked the battle-swell. 

SCOTT'S ' DON RODERICK.' 

Forest of Plater Ancient Scotch forests Keeper of the forest Ancient foresters of 
Plater Succession in Finhaven Accession of the Lindsays Earl Crawford's 
lodging in Dundee The " Houff " Earls Crawford and Douglas watched by 
Bishop Kennedy The battle of Arbroath Origin of the house of Clova Earl 
David dies Arbroath burned Douglas's conspiracy, and death at Stirling 
Crawford's activity for revenge Battle of Brechin Calder and Earl Beardie's 
cup Assuanlie memorial cup Site and remains of the battle Crawford's 
violence, repentance, and royal pardon. 

IF the value or consequence of ancient lands can be judged of 
from the noble birth of their possessors, or from the part which 
their owners have enacted in the affairs of the kingdom, those 
of Finhaven had been of marked consideration, as all its old 
proprietors were not only men of warlike and intrepid charac- 
ter, but of the highest family connection and political influence. 
Before noticing the proprietary history of Finhaven, it may 
be observed that a great part of it was occupied by the forest 
of Plater, one of the extensive primitive woods that partially 
survived the hatchet and spade of a long line of destructive 
invaders. 1 Apart from the havoc made by the common enemy, 
these immense tracts of natural wood, which mostly consisted 
of oaks, were also greatly reduced by the extent and number of 
grants or gifts of timber that Eoyalty made from them in old 
times by way of payment and favour, both for warlike services 
and for the necessities of religious houses. The Prior and 
Canons of Eestennet, for example, had power from Robert the 

1 These lands were all within the barony and forest of Plater, viz. : 
Inquis. Spec. Forfar. 

No. 130 Sandyfoord and Boigwilk, and Kilhill (1621). 

172 Ballinscho, Woodhead, and Banisdaillfaulds (1628). 

240 Bow (1638). 

310 Sheilhill (1649). 

342 Cairn and Sherifbank (1655). 

363 Westdobies and Whitewall (1(356). 

416 Quilks (1665). 



170 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Bruce to cut wood there at all convenient seasons j 1 and, while 
Edward held the temporary sway of the kingdom, he directed 
the keeper of the forest of Selkirk to deliver, amongst other 
articles of its produce, no less than sixty oaks to the Bishop of 
Glasgow. 2 By such means, and subsequently through agricul- 
tural improvements, the most of those great forests have been 
dilapidated. The only other known royal forests in Forfarshire, 
besides Plater, were those of Kingenny in Monifieth ; Kilgery 
in Menmuir; a part of that of Alyth; and Drymie in Ees- 
cobie, where a royal castle once stood, in which Donald Bane 
is said to have died. 3 Monrommon, of which the Tullochs were 
made hereditary keepers by Robert I., was also a royal forest, 4 
and several others are supposed to have lain along the Sidlaws. 
The precise extent of any of these forests is not now ascer- 
tainable ; but it is certain that the forest of Plater extended 
from the south side of the hill of Finhaven to the hill of 
Kirriemuir 5 a distance of at least seven miles as the crow 
flies ; and tradition says that it was so dense that the wild-cat 
could leap the whole distance from tree to tree. It perhaps 
stretched eastward as far as the river Noran, for the lands that 
lie betwixt that stream and Finhaven are called Mark-house, 
which, according to the Northern dialects, may mean " the castle 
iu the forest." The name of Plater is of doubtful origin, and 
is sometimes written Platone and Platon; and it may be 
noticed that the Prior and Canons of Eestennet, in the time of 
Alexander in. (long prior to the date of Bruce's grant) had a 
right to a tenth of the hay grown in the meadows of this 
forest. 6 Four oxeugates, or about fifty-two acres, of arable 
land were also given out of it by David 11. to Murdoch del 

1 (A.D. 1317) Robertson, Index, p. 4. 43. 

2 (A.D. 1291) Rotidi Scotice, vol. L 

3 On these royal forests, see Warden, Angus, i. pp. 161 sq. ; and for the Forest 
Laws of Scotland, see Acts Part. i. pp. 323 sq. 

4 Original charter in possession of P. Chalmers, Esq. of Aldbar ; for the charter 
evidence as to this moor, see Fraser, Hist. Carnegies of Southesk, i. pp. liii sq. 

5 This fact is ascertained from Robertson, Index, p. 81. 161, and Inquis. Spec. 
Forfar. Nos. 130, 172, 240, 310, 342, 363, 416. 

6 Chalmers, Caledonia, i. p. 791. 



FINHAVEN FORESTERS OF PLATER. 171 

Rhyud, for a redclendo or payment to the Crown of a pair of 
white gloves and two pennies of silver annually ; * and as this 
land is described as next adjoining Casse, or Carse, which lies 
on the south side of Finhaven Hill, it not only shows that 
hill to have formed part of the forest of Plater, but also proves 
that amidst those great plantations and at that early date, 
agricultural enterprise was not wholly unknown. 

Like that of other royal forests, the keepership of Plater was 
an appointment of much importance, being held, as we shall 
shortly see, prior even to the time of the Lindsays, by some of 
the most illustrious nobles of the kingdom ; and it is worthy of 
remark, that the ruins of what was called the Forester's House, 
or sometimes "Lindsay's Hall," were traceable about the 
middle of the muir so late as the beginning of this century. 

The first Forester of Plater of whom any record exists was 
William Comyn, the brave Earl of Buchan, who slew Gillescope 
and his sons for the murder of Thomas of Thiiistane, and whose 
son, Alexander, about 1250, mortified an annual of two silver 
marks, or nearly two shillings and threepence sterling, out of 
the lands of Fothnewyn to the monastery of Arbroath. 2 It is 
unknown whether the Earl held the lands before that date, and 
it does not appear whether he was proprietor at the time of his 
death, which happened in 1288-9. 3 The next person associ- 
ated with it is " Philip the Forester," 4 through whose bold- 
ness Bruce gained admission to the castle of Forfar in 1308, 
while it was strongly garrisoned by the English. 5 This cap- 
ture was effected by Philip making an escalade under night, 
when he succeeded in letting down the bridges, and thus made 
a passage for the Scots, who put most of the inmates to the 

1 (A.D. 1366) Robertson, Index, p. 81. 161. It is said that during the guardian- 
ship of the kingdom by Sir Andrew Murray, he and the Earls of Fife and March 
abode here for a short period during the winter of 1336-7, and passing from 
this to the neighbourhood of Panmure, they routed Lord Montfort, and slew about 
4000 of his followers. (Abercromby, Martial Achievements, ii. p. 70, and Guthrie, 
Hist. Scot. ii. p. 395.) 

2 Reg. Vet. Aberbrothoc, p. 266. * Dalrymple, Annals, i. p. 203. 
* Harbour, Bruce, ii. pp. 38, 39. e Tytler, Hist, of Scot. i. p. 234. 



172 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

sword, while others, in trying to escape, were drowned in the 
loch that surrounded the castle. 

It was, perhaps, on the death of Philip that Bruce gave a 
grant of Finhaven and the adjoining lands of Carsegownie to 
his natural son, Sir Robert, 1 who was slain at the battle of 
Dupplin in 1332 ; but in little more than two years from the 
date of Sir Eobert's entry, these estates were again in other 
hands, having been granted to one Hew Polayne, 2 but on his 
doings and the history of his family all record is silent. 

William, the famous Earl of Eoss, is the next proprietor, 
and, for some cause now unknown, a forced resignation of the 
church and lands was obtained from him ; but receiving them 
back in 1369, 3 he made a free-will resignation during the 
following year, not only of Finhaven, but of the rest of his 
property, and was followed in the former by Sir David de 
Anandia, who again resigned his right in 1375. It was at 
that period, after the lands and Forestership of Finhaven had 
passed through the hands of those various proprietors, that 
they fell to the family of Lindsay, and, under charter of that 
date, granted at Scone by King Robert II., Sir Alexander 
Lindsay of Glenesk had the patronage of the church, together 
with the office of Keeper of the forest of Plater. 4 

The surname of Polayne, or Paulin, has not occurred to us 
in our reading as connected with the shire before the time 
above noticed ; but the Annands were a serviceable and worthy 
race, and of considerable local standing even before the days 
of Bruce, for a William de Anaund occurs among the Forfar- 
shire barons, who swore fealty to Edward at Berwick in 1296. 5 
Perhaps the Sir David de Annand who clave the steel-clad 
English knight and his horse through on the streets of Edin- 
burgh with one fell blow of his ponderous battle-axe, 6 was the 

i (A.D. 1322) Robertson, Index, p. 18. 82. 2 (A.D. 1324) 76/d. p. 23. 

3 Reg. Mag. Sigill. p. 65, No. 215 ; Robertson, Index, pp. 52. 9 ; 86. 215. 
* Reg. Mag. Sigill. p. 138, No. 63 ; Robertson, Index, pp. 120. 63 ; 129. 31. 
6 Ragman Rolls, p. 126. 
(A.D. 1335) Tytler, Hist, of Scot. ii. p. 42 ; Extracta e Cron. Scot. p. 168. 



FINHAVEN EARL'S "LODGING ".IN DUNDEE. 173 

son of this William, and the immediate progenitor of Sir David 
of Einhaven. It is certain, however, that, whether of the same 
stock or not, a family of the same name held the lands of 
North Melgund, in the adjoining parish of Aberlemno, down to 
about 1542, when the heiress, Janet Annand, sold the estate 
to Cardinal Beaton, who built the castle, the picturesque ruins 
of which still remain. 1 

Whether the Earl of Buchan's grant to the monks of 
Arbroath was confirmed by subsequent proprietors does not 
appear; but in 1380, immediately before Sir Alexander Lind- 
say went on his pilgrimage to Jerusalem, he rebuilt the church, 
as before mentioned, and assembled his family and friends to 
witness its consecration by Stephen, bishop of the diocese of 
Brechin, when he erected it into a prebend of that cathedral, 
where the rector had a stall in the choir, and said Mass for 
the safe-conduct of the noble donor. 

It is unknown whether Sir Alexander Lindsay, or any of 
his predecessors in Einhaven, had a castle or residence there. 
No notice of such occurs until after the ennobling of his son, 
Sir David, who is supposed to have built the first castle ; but, 
so long as the great Glenesk branch of the family existed, this 
was their principal country residence; and here, or in their 
palace at Dundee, the " Tiger " Earl and his son the original 
Duke of Montrose, and most of the other Earls of the Glenesk 
line of Crawford, first saw the light. 

The town residence, or " Lodging," of the Earls of Crawford 
was situated in the Nethergate of Dundee, and was so exten- 
sive that it stretched from the street south to the river Tay, and 
being entered by a massive gateway, on which there was a 
battlement bearing the legend " afcto 3LottJ 3Lt'nti0ng, <55arl of 
(KtatofotV had altogether a princely appearance. 2 It is pro- 
bable that the property on which this palace stood was owned 
by the first Earl's uncle, " the good Sir James," as he founded a 
convent in Dundee for the ransom of Christian captives from 

1 Ada Auditorum, p. 60. 2 Lives, L p. 110. 



174 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Turkish slavery. This foundation ultimately assumed the 
character of a hospital ; and its revenues, originally " princely 
magnificent," were enlarged by a gift of the church of Kettins, 
near Coupar- Angus, from Eobert in. 

The attachment of the Earls of Crawford to Dundee as a 
residence, and as the place of their burial, may have arisen 
either from Sir James Lindsay's favour for it, from the interest 
which that Earl had in the great customs or revenues of the 
burgh, or from the first Earl, on his return from the overthrow 
of Lord Welles at the famous tournament at London Bridge, 
building a church and tower on the rock of St. Nicholas. This 
rock is said to have been the site of the church that was 
founded by the Earl of Huntingdon, in fulfilment of a vow that 
he made, while his life was endangered in the crazy prow, 
which landed him here on his return from the holy wars ; but 
all trace of that foundation, which was destroyed by Edward I. 
in 1295, and of Crawford's church and tower, are gone, and the 
rock itself is only represented by a mere fragment. This, how- 
ever, was not the place of the Crawford sepulture ; it was 
within the church of the Greyfriars, which stood in the Houff, 
or old burial-place ; and, from the time of the first Earl of 
Crawford, down to the demolition of their family tombs by the 
fanatics of the sixteenth century, it was the last resting-place 
of most of the Lords and Ladies of that house, including the 
renowned Earl Beardie, and his son the first Duke of Montrose. 
But, from the period of the sacrilegious breaking down of the 
fine stone effigies, archways, and columns, and the scattering 
of the bones of their ancestors, their place of interment came 
to be within the fine church of St. Mary in the same town. 
This edifice was completely destroyed by the conflagration of 
1841, 1 and no trace either of the Lindsay residence or burial is 
now to be found within the bounds of this important and 
prosperous town. 

1 Vide Thomson, History cf Dundee, for an account of this burning (p. 308), and 
for some notice of the ecclesiastical and other antiquities of Dundee. 



FINHAVEN DOUGLAS LEAGUE. 175 

The principal incidents in the life of Earl David, the 
founder of the church and " Lodging " at Dundee, have already 
been alluded to ; it need only therefore be observed, that after 
enacting those chivalrous feats for which he is famous in story, 
and mortifying large sums to various churches, he closed his 
life in peace within his princely residence of Finhaven, in the 
month of February 1407, at the early age of forty-one; and 
was buried in the family vault at Dundee, beside his royal 
spouse, Princess Elizabeth, daughter of Eobert II. 

Little is recorded of his successor beyond the fact of his 
being a negotiator in the affairs of the sister kingdom, a 
commissioner for the release of James L, and one of the hos- 
tages for his ransom in 1423, at which time his annual 
revenue was reckoned at a thousand merks, or estimated at 
a present value of nearly seven thousand pounds sterling; 
the incomes of Lord Erskine and of the Earls of Moray and 
Crawford were equal. 1 By his wife, the daughter and heiress 
of Dunbar of Cockburn, he left a son, whose career, and that 
of his successor in the Earldom, were perhaps the most re- 
markable of any of the representatives of the noble house to 
which they belonged. 

Succeeding his father in 1438, Crawford associated himself 
with the Earl of Douglas in the well-known league that set 
itself to dominate even the royal authority, and was also the 
means of ousting Chancellor Crichton and Sir Alexander Living- 
stone. Although the selfishness of the purposes of Crawford 
and Douglas were apparent to most of their fellow-barons, none 
dared to oppose them, even in the lawless course of plunder and 
bloodshed which characterised their doings. Bishop Kennedy 
of St. Andrews, however, watched the whole proceedings with a 
penetration, honesty, and patience worthy of a patriot and man 
of genius ; and using his influence on behalf of the injured 
Chancellor, soon incurred thereby the displeasure of Crawford 
and his followers. The Earl, at the head of a band of reckless 

1 Rymer, Fcedera, x. p. 307. 



176 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

vassals and kinsmen harried his lands, and burned his granges, 
and, being deaf to all remonstrance, was at last excommuni- 
cated " with mitre and staff, bell, book, and candle, for a year." 1 
This he treated with contempt ; but as his biographer says, 
u the sacrilege met with its reward, and within a twelvemonth." 
This was in the bloody fight that occurred at Arbroath on 
Sunday, the 23d 2 of January 1445-6, soon after the time 
when, in place of the Master of Crawford, whose extravagance 
had rendered a change necessary, Alexander Ogilvy of Inver- 
quharity was chosen by the chapter of the convent to act as chief 
Justiciar, or judge in civil affairs throughout their regality. 

Crawford determined upon retaining his influential office, 
and the Ogilvys, equally bent on asserting their right, deter- 
mined to settle the contest by arms ; and " there can be little 
doubt," says Mr. Tytler, " that the Ogilvys must have sunk 
under this threatened attack, but that accident gave them 
a powerful ally in Sir Alexander Seton of Gordon, afterwards 
Earl of Huutly, who, as he returned from court, happened to 
lodge for the night at Ogilvy's castle, at the very time when 
this baron was mustering his forces against the meditated 
assault of Crawford. Seton, although in no way personally 
interested in the quarrel, found himself, it is said, compelled 
to assist the Ogilvys, by a rude but ancient custom, which 
bound the guest to take common part with his host in all 

1 Lives, i. p. 127. 

2 The exact date of this battle is most difficult to fix. The " 13th January 
1445-6 " has latterly received general acceptance, but it is based on a miscalculation. 
Lord Lindsay (Lives, i. p. 129, cf. Reg. Episc. Aberd. ii. p. 200) misplaces the "four 
days " when the body was lying under excommunication, and does not notice that the 
13th January of that year was iwt a Sunday. The Regist. Episc. Aberd. i. p. 264, 
ii. pp. 2, 200, 210, gives January 15, 16, and 17 forthe obit. The Auchirdeck Chronicle, 
p. 38, is probably the most to be depended upon, and names a day which was a 
Sunday in that month and year : " The yer of God 1445 [i.e. 1445-6] the xxiii day 
of Januar, the Erll of Huntlie and the Ogilbies with him on the ta part, and the Erll 
of Craufurd on the tother part, met at the yettis of Arbroth on ane Sonday laite and 
faucht . . . and the Erll of Craufurd himself was hurt in the field, and deit within 
viij dayis." Extracta ex Cron. Scoc., pp. 241-2, places the battle on January 20, 
1447, which would not be Sunday but Saturday, while January 20, 1448, would be a 
Friday. Douglas, Peerage, i. p. 576, has 13th January 1445-6, but says that Ogilvy 
was of " Inverarity." 



FINHAVEN- BATTLE OF ARBROATH. 177 

dangers which might occur so long as the food eaten under his 
roof remained in his stomach. With the small train of 
attendants and friends who accompanied him, he joined the 
forces of Inverquharity, and proceeding to the town of Arbroath 
found the opposite party drawn up in great strength outside 
the gates. The families thus opposed to each other in mortal 
defiance could number among their adherents many of the 
bravest and most opulent gentlemen in the county, and the 
two armies exhibited an imposing appearance of armed knights, 
barbed horses, and embroidered banners. As the combatants, 
however, approached for the fight, the Earl of Crawford, who 
had received information of the intended contest, and was 
anxious to avert it, suddenly appeared on the field, and gallop- 
ing up between the two lines, was mortally wounded by a 
soldier, who was enraged at his interference, and ignorant 
of his rank. 1 This event naturally increased the bitterness of 
hostility, and the Lindsays, who were assisted by a large 
party of the vassals of Douglas, and infuriated at the loss of 
their chief, attacked the Ogilvys with a desperation which 
soon broke their ranks, and reduced them to irreclaimable 
disorder. Such, however, was the gallantry of their resistance, 
that they were almost entirely cut to pieces, and five hundred 
men, including many noble barons of Forfarshire, were left 
dead upon the field. Seton himself had nearly paid with his 
life the penalty of his adherence to the rude usages of the 
times ; and John Forbes of Pitsligo, one of his followers, was 
slain. Nor was the loss which the Ogilvys sustained in the 
field their worst misfortune, for Lindsay, with his characteristic 
ferocity, and protected by the authority of Douglas, let loose 
his army upon their estates. Thus the flames of their castles, 
the slaughter of their vassals, the plunder of their property, 
and the captivity of their wives and children, taught the 
remotest adherents of the Justiciary of Arbroath how terrible 
was the vengeance they had provoked." 2 

i Balfour, Annals, i. p. 174. 2 Tytler, Hist, of Scot. iv. p. 49 sq. 

M 



178 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

It is also worthy of remark, that from the part borne by a 
younger brother of the unfortunate Inverquharity in this 
matter, the present house of Clova is said by some to have 
had its origin. This arose from the fact of Thomas Ogilvy 
having not only deserted his clan on the occasion, and fought 
on the Lindsay side, but from his having taken part at a later 
date in the destruction of the castle of his birth. For this he 
had a grant of the lands of Clova from Crawford, who was 
then possessor of them, and thus founded the Clova branch 
of the Ogilvy s, who continued, for many generations, in a 
direct line from the first Thomas. 

Earl David died at Finhaven " after a week of lingering 
torture," and the sentence of excommunication, that had been 
previously laid upon him by Bishop Kennedy of St. Andrews 
for ravaging his lands and burning his granges, never having 
been removed, " no man durst earth him " until it was with- 
drawn by order of the Bishop who pronounced it. The laird 
of Inverquharity was taken prisoner and carried to the castle 
of his antagonist, and died there of his wounds ; or, according 
to tradition, he was smothered with a down pillow by his own 
sister, the Countess of Crawford, out of revenge for the loss of 
her husband. 1 It is, perhaps, in reference to this foul transac- 
tion, and to the unpopularity of the Ogilvys at the time, that 
the following couplet refers 

" Ugly you lived, and Ugly you die, 
And now in an Ugly place you lie." 2 

The Lindsay party burned the Conventual church of Ar- 

1 Lives, i. p. 130 ; Extr. ex Cron. Sco. p. 242. 

2 Ugly, or Ogly, which means frightful or abominable, is a well-known pun on 
the noble surname of Ogilvy. The unfortunate baron of Inverquharity is said to 
have been buried in the aisle, on the south side of the kirk of Kinnell, the Lords 
Ogilvy of Airlie having held the lands of Balishan (or "the town of the fairy 
mount," as the descriptive Gaelic etymon Balchien implies) in that parish, from the 
Abbey of Arbroath as Bailies thereof. The walls of the aisle were long adorned by 
the reputed boot and spur of the luckless knight, but the former rotted away, while 
the latter, which is of great size, and has a rowel as big as a crown piece and toothed 
like a saw, is still carefully preserved in the kirk, and is perhaps the largest spur 
ever seen in the locality. This tradition is given in a slightly modified form in the 
Old Stat. Acct. ii. pp. 493-4. 



FINHAVEN DOUGLAS' LEAGUE. 179 

breath before they left the town, and tradition points out a 
patch of ground to the north of the Abbey as " the yettis of 
Arbrothe," or the place where the battle began ; while the 
tumuli in the neighbourhood are supposed to mark the graves 
of those who fell on the occasion. The meltfe was not wholly 
confined to this point, however, for a detachment of the Ogilvys 
fleeing in the direction of Leys, in the parish of Inverkeillor, 
were surprised there by the Lindsays, and the affray was re- 
sumed with great vigour on both sides. The remembrance of 
this battle was long preserved in song ; but only this couplet, 
which evidently refers to the latter part of the engagement, is 
now known : 

" At the Loan o' the Leys the play began, 
An' the Lindsays o'er the Ogilvys ran." 

On succeeding to the Earldom, the extravagant Justiciary 
was ever after known as " The Tiger," and " Earl Beardie," because 
of the ferocity of his temper and the exuberance of his beard. 

The league betwixt Douglas and Eoss being still in force, 
it was religiously adhered to by all parties ; and as the King 
found that he had unwarily given Douglas too much power, he 
took the opportunity of his short absence at the Court of Rome 
to deprive him of his office of Lieutenant-General of the king- 
dom, to burn his castle, and otherwise to waste his lands. 
Being apprised of these matters, Douglas hastened from Italy, 
and he and his friends not only determined on resisting all the 
King's attempts to suppress their influence, but entered into a 
conspiracy with the English rebels for overthrowing him, and 
usurping the government. Aware of these proceedings, and 
determined, if possible, to bring them to a close, the King 
invited Douglas to supper at Stirling Castle on the evening of 
the 22d of February 1451-2, 1 whither he went on the faith of 
a safe-conduct under the Great Seal. His Majesty led Douglas 
to a side apartment after supper, and remonstrating with him 

1 If it took place on Shrove Tuesday (Extract, ex Cron. Scoc. p. 242) in 1452, this 
is the only admissible date, and it accords with Ascension Day (Balvour, Annals, 
i. p. 181), May 18th, following, for the battle of Brechin. 



180 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

on his lawless intrigue, urged him to break the covenant 
that he had made with Crawford and Ross. Though unarmed, 
and in the midst of his foes, Douglas determinedly refused to 
comply with James's desire, and the King, exclaiming with an 
oath, " By heaven, if you will not break the league, I shall !" 
struck him in the breast with a dagger. 1 On this, Sir Patrick 
Gray, and several others who were secreted near the fatal 
chamber, rushed on the unfortunate Earl, and finishing the 
cold-blooded act of royalty, threw the carcase out at the window 
into the palace garden ; from that time the aperture has been 
called " The Douglas Window." This murder was the signal 
for open rebellion on the part of Douglas's adherents. His 
brothers, stung with horror and indignation, proclaimed the King 
a liar and traitor at the very gates of his palace, had the Earl's 
safe-conduct dragged ignominiously at the tail of ahorse through 
the streets of Stirling, and afterwards set the town on fire. 

Meanwhile, Crawford was far from being idle. No sooner 
had the news of Douglas's murder reached him, than he sum- 
moned his kinsmen and vassals throughout Angus. The King, 
on the other hand, learning the precarious state of matters, and 
desirous to cut off all communication betwixt the armies of 
Douglas and Crawford, commanded Huntly to march south- 
ward, while he himself led a powerful army to the north for 
the purpose of joining him. Crawford, on the other hand, 
equally anxious to check the progress of the new Lieutenant- 
General, marshalled a great body of vassals and kinsmen, and, 
when barely ten miles from his own castle, met his antagonist 
full in the face 

"Just as he reached the fatal plain, 

Where Baliol lost his sway, 2 
Lord Huntly and the royal train 
Appear'd in full array." 

Although greatly outnumbered by his opponents, Crawford 

1 Pitscottie, Chron. i. pp. 100 sq. ; Auchirdeck Chronicle, p. 47. 

2 This alludes to Baliol's penance, which took place in the kirkyard of Stracathro, 
on the 7th of July 1296. He resigned the crown at Brechin Castle on the 10th of 
the same month. On the time and place, see Tytler, Hist. Scot. i. Note F. 



FINHAVEN BATTLE OF BRECHIN. 181 

was undaunted, and the contest began on both sides with the 
utmost determination. The skill and valour displayed by the 
rebels were so great, that for long the issue was doubtful, and 
might have terminated favourably for Crawford, had he not 
imprudently refused to comply with some demands made by 
Collace of Balnamoon on the battle-field. 1 Collace, who com- 
manded three hundred of the most efficient and best equipped 
of the rebel forces, immediately threw his whole weight into 
the balance of royalty, and ere long decided the contest in a 
way which, according to all historians, could not otherwise 
have been accomplished. The fate of the rebels \vas now 
sealed a breach had been made in their ranks ; and, unable 
to withstand the deadly shocks that they were every moment 
receiving from their antagonists, they fled in dismay. Earl 
Beardie lost his brother, Sir John of Brechin, the laird of 
Pitcairlie, and several other clansmen and followers ; and he 
himself, fleeing from the scene of action, reached Finhaven 
Castle, and calling for a cup of wine, gave utterance to the 
extraordinary exclamation, that rather than have lost the day 
" he wud be content to hing seven years in hell by the breers 
(eyelashes) o' the e'e." 

Like the Ogilvy followers at the battle of Arbroath, those 
of the Lindsays on this occasion were mostly habited in green- 
coloured uniform, and to that circumstance Beardie is said to 
have attributed the loss of this field, as the Ogilvys did of 
Arbroath. From the time of these respective engagements, 

1 A curious coincidence is told respecting Huntly on the morning of the battle, 
which singularly contrasts with the story of Beardie and Collace. The victorious 
Earl, it will be remembered, was himself a Seton by birth, and only succeeded to the 
estates and titles of Huntly on marrying Elizabeth Gordon, the heiress (Davidson, 
Inverurie, i. pp. 101, 112). In appointing the officers in command on the morning 
of the battle of Brechin, he placed his second son, of Gycht, at the head of the 
Gordon clan, but the laird of Pitlurg, as chief of the Gordons, claimed the leader- 
ship. Huntly refused his request. Pitlurg, drawing himself aside, and taking his 
black bonnet off his head, waved it aloft, exclaiming, "A" that's come o' me, follow 
me !" whn the whole clan deserted Huntly, and rallied round Pitlurg. The Earl 
immediately submitted, and good-humouredly said, " Gentlemen, you have overcome 
me I yield it to you ! Pitlurg, command the Gordons ! And now that you have got 
the better of me, let me see that you beat Crawford ! " (Old Slat. A cct. xi. p. 293. ) 



182 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

both families conceived a great dislike to that colour, and the 
Lindsays considered it so very ominous, that they vowed hence- 
forth that A Lindsay with green 
Should never be seen." 

In the heat of the pursuit after Earl Beardie and his 
followers, one of the royalists got so entangled in the train 
of the fugitive, that he could not possibly extricate himself, 
and seeing his danger, followed as one of the party to Einhaven. 
This courageous person was a son of Donald, thane of Cawdor, 
who, according to another account, had stolen in disguise to 
the camp of Earl Beardie as a spy. All agree, however, that 

" A silver cup he from the table bore ;" 

and that before the battle of Brechin he had shown such a 
want of bravery that he was branded as a coward. But on the 
field and in the pursuit he gave full proof of his valour, and 
now, having reached the very stronghold of the enemy, he 
was resolved to wipe off all shade of stain from his scutcheon 
by performing that daring exploit which history has ascribed 
to him. While the Earl was refreshing himself with a cup 
of generous wine, and his followers were seeking rest from their 
flight, the whole party was aroused by an alarm of the advance 
of Huntly along the valley of the Esk, and thus in the bustle 
and confusion that ensued, Calder succeeded in carrying off 
Lord Crawford's silver drinking-cup. This, on his return, he 
presented to his chief, as an evidence of his courage in bearding, 
as it were, the "Tiger" in his den, and he is said to have re- 
ceived, as a reward of his bravery, either an augmentation to 
his patrimony of Assuanley, or favours of a similar sort. 1 

This celebrated cup measures, exclusive of the figure 
at the top, 2 about fifteen inches in height, holds a Scotch pint 

1 " Assuanlee was granted to the Calders twelve years before the battle of Brechin. " 
(Lives, i. p. 138, .) Huntly had also received Badenoch before the battle, as the 
charter is dated 28th April 1451. (Misc. Spald. Club, iv. p. xxvii. ) 

2 The figure on the top is the crest of Gordon of Cobairdy. The woodcut given 
in the former edition, and in the Catalogue of the Museum of the Archaeological 
Institute held in Kdinlurjh, 1856, is after a sketch by C. Elphinstone Dalrymple, Esq. 



FINHAVEN ASSUANLEY CUP. 183 

and two gills. In 1853 it was in possession of Mrs. Alexander 
Gordon, only surviving child of the late Sir Ernest Gordon of 
Park and Cobairdy, and the history of its acquirement by Sir 
Ernest's father is equally curious as the romantic manner in 
which it is said to have been originally come by : " Some years 
after the ' forty-five/ a party of gentlemen, who were Jacobites, 
and all more or less under the ban of Government, ventured to 
hold a meeting at a small hostelry in Morayshire, between 
Elgin and Torres. In the course of the scderunt, one of their 
number, Gordon of Cobairdy, got up to mend the fire, and in 
doing so saw at the bottom of the peat-bunker, or box for hold- 
ing the peats, something which seemed to glitter. He pulled 
the object out, and found that it was a large and handsome old 
cup, but perfectly flattened. On inquiry, it turned out that 
this was the celebrated Cup of Assuanley, which had been 
pledged to the landlord of the inn by the laird, a drinking 
spendthrift, in security for a debt. Cobairdy, who was a man 
of considerable taste, and a collector of rarities, never lost sight 
of the cup, but, when opportunity offered, got it into his own 
possession, though he and his family had to pay more than one 
sum of money which had been raised by Assuanley on the 
security of his little-cared-for heirloom. Having passed into 
Cobairdy's possession, it was completely restored to shape. 
There are no arms upon it, though one account says that the 
arms of the Earl of Crawford were upon it ; but there is this 
inscription in the centre of the' lid: ' Titubantem firmavit 
Huntleus Breichin, Mail 20 (or 28) 1453,' but in characters 
apparently of the seventeenth century." 1 

i Lives, L p. 138. The later history of the Assuanley Cup is interesting. At her 
death, Mrs. Gordon bequeathed the cup to her cousin, Charles E. Dalrymple, Esq. 
of Kinellar, Aberdeenshire, who soon found, however, from some documents which 
had belonged to Mrs. Gordon, and which he embodied in a paper read before the 
Society of Antiquaries, Scotland, and printed in their Proceedings (ii. pp. 180-4), that 
this was only a memorial cup, for the making (or purchase) of which George, Duke of 
Gordon, in 1704, gave two hundred merks to George Calder of Assuanley, in memory 
of the incident at Finhaven. It is, in fact, a very good specimen of Nuremberg work 
of the early part of the seventeenth century, and thus probably a hundred and seventy 
years later than was for some time imagined, though William Gordon, in his History of 



184 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

The battle of Brechin was fought at the Haercairn, about 
two miles north-east of the city, on the 18th of May 1452. 1 
The battle-field lies on the confines of the parishes of Brechin 
and Stracathro, and, although a place perhaps of chance selec- 
tion, was well adapted for the purpose. Including the flats 
of Leightonhill on the south, and those of Pert and Dun on 
the east, it could not embrace much less than a square of 
three or four miles, was in full view of the steeples and 
mysterious Round Tower of Brechin, and, according to tradi- 
tion, the same ground had been used as a battle-field at an 
earlier date. 

On the highest point of the rising ground on the north 
side of the battle-field, there lies a large rude oblong stone 
indiscriminately called " Huntly's," and " Earl Beardie's Stone," 
on which, it is said, one or other of these chiefs planted his 
banner. The whole of this rising ground is known by the 
name of " Huntly Hill ; " it is so called, doubtless, in honour 
of the victorious general, and it commands one of the finest 
views of the lands of Edzell, and of the mountains of Glenesk 
land Lethnot. Crawford's chagrin is not, therefore, to be 
wondered at, for although the lands on which the battle was 
fought were under the superiority of the Bishop of Brechin, 
Crawford was virtually lord of the whole ; and, wherever he 
turned his eyes on the battle-field, the lands of his numerous 
vassals and kinsmen were always before him. 

Still, much as Crawford felt the defeat, it was far from 
restraining his vengeful arm, which was dealing destruction 
on all sides ; for he and his rebellious followers burned Walter 
Carnegie's castle of Kinnaird, 2 and ravaged the lands of the 

the Family of Gordon (L p. 70), had given the true account of its acquisition. On being 
exhibited at the meeting of the Archaeological Society of London, held in Edinburgh 
in 1856, the cup passed into the hands of the Duke of Hamilton for the collection in 
Hamilton Palace, and the relative papers accompanied it as vouchers. It was subse- 
quently lent for exhibition in the South Kensington Museum, but again returned to 
the Palace ; it is now preserved with the ducal plate. (Inf. from James Auldjo 
Jamieson, Esq., W.S., Edinburgh.) 

1 Supr. p. 179, note. 

2 Crawford, Peerage, p. 446; Fraser, Hist. Carnegies, p. 17. 



FINHAVEN CRAWFORD PARDONED. 185 

traitor Collace, with those of the other Angus barons who had 
borne arms against him. He was henceforth a denounced, 
and virtually a landless outcast " his lands, life, and goods " 
were confiscated his armorial bearings " scraipit out of the 
Book of Arms for ever," and the important Lordship of 
Brechin, with the hereditary office of Sheriff of Aberdeen, was 
given to Huntly. 

His accomplices, the Earls of Douglas, Moray, and Ormond, 
were carrying on like depredations in their own districts, 
and although they were all summoned before the Parliament 
at Edinburgh for their murderous and pillaging transactions, 
the summons was treated so contemptuously that the King 
despatched an army to bring them under submission. Douglas, 
who lacked the determination of purpose, which was the 
leading characteristic of most of his ancestors, was soon 
subdued ; and, on succeeding thus far, the King made a 
journey northward in person, accompanied by Bishop Kennedy, 
the Earl of Huntly, and other advisers, for the purpose of 
quelling Crawford. The determined spirit that Crawford had 
shown in the matter incited the King so much against him 
that he vowed not only to disinherit him, but to make the 
highest stone of his castle the lowest ! On being informed 
of Douglas's submission, however, Crawford, finding himself 
deserted by many, and not knowing whom to trust, wisely 
relinquished the contest, and submitting himself to the royal 
clemency, was restored to his estates and titles, and henceforth 
became an attached and steady supporter of the monarchy. 

The place where this remarkable scene occurred lies about 
a mile west of the castle, has ever since borne the name of 
Eevel Green, and the stone which the King threw from the 
battlements was long fixed to the foot of the Keep by an 
iron chain. It is also related, that on the occasion of Beardie's 
submission, which he made in company with his fellow-rebels 
of Angus, he made so long and submissive a speech, that 
in the quaint language of the chronicler, " they held up their 



186 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

hands to the King maist dolorously, crying ' Mercy ! ' while 
[till] their sobbing and sighing cuttit the words that almaist 
their prayers could not be understood ; through the whilk there 
raise sic ruth and pity amang the company, that nane almaist 
could contain themselves from tears." l The substance of Earl 
Beardie's long speech on this occasion is thus briefly summed 
up in an unpublished local rhyme : 

" But now his pride a humbling figure shows, 
And pale, and sad, in sackcloth forth he goes ; 
Bends on his knees, and with repentant eyes, 
For James's smile, the Tiger Earl cries 
Recounts the time his first of title threw 
Lord Welles down, in Richard's kingly view ! 
Talk'd of the royal blood that filled his veins, 
And begg'd in tears his lost and wide domains ! 
Soon were they gi'en, and soon the royal host 
Join'd Crawford's banquet drank to Crawford's toaat! 

But James, still mindful of the vow he made, 
(When Crawford's power the rebel force array'd;) 
That his own hand the loftiest stone would throw 
Of proud Finavon to the earth below ; 
And, bounding nimbly to the highest tower, 
Where Beardie wont to pass his leisure hour 
Down to the lawn a crazy stone he threw, 
And, smiling, cried ' Behold, my promise true ! ' " 

Providence, however, permitted Earl Beardie to survive the 
restitution of his house only for a short time, for in six months 
thereafter " he tuik the hot fever, and died in the year of God 
ane thousand, four hundreth, fifty-four years, and wes buried 
with great triumph in the Grey Friars of Dundee, in his fore- 
bears' [ancestors'] sepulchre." 2 

1 Pitscottie, Chronicles, i. pp. 105 sq. ; Lives, i. p. 141 sq. A curious account 
of the battle of Brechin will also be found in a pamphlet entitled Don, a Poem, 
first printed in 1655, pp. 49 sq. 2 Lives, i. p. 143. 



FINHAVEN EARL DAVID LINDSAY. 187 



SECTION III. 

They rose to power, to wealth, to fame; 
They gained a proud, a deathless name,- 
First in the field first in the state 
But, ah I the giddy tide of fate 
Refiow'd, and swept them from their throne, 
And thus they 'came Misfortunes own I 

' Twixt truce and war, such sudden change 
Was not infrequent, nor held strange. 

Earl David and his rewards for loyalty Raised to the Dukedom of Montrose His 
princely splendour Suffered for James TII. Power curtailed New ducal 
patent granted In favour with James IV. Private sorrows Fell at Flodden 
The Wicked Master disinherited Sir David Lindsay of Edzell as ninth Earl 
of Crawford Tenth Earl marries Cardinal Beaton's daughter "The Prodigal 
Earl" Murder of Lord Glamis Education of an Earl and fidelity of the 
"pedagogue" "Comes incarceraius" Earldom passes to the Lindsays of 
Byres Returns to the Crawford Lindsays Earl Ludovick's military genius and 
acts True to the royal cause Dies in France Owners of the lands and barony 
of Finhaven In the bands of the Carnegies Song, "He winna be guidit by 
me" Death of Earl of Strathmore at Forfar by misadventure Trial and 
acquittal of Carnegie The Earls of Southesk. 

EARL BEARDIE left two sons, David and Alexander the first 
succeeded as fifth Earl of Crawford, and the latter was the first 
designed Lindsay of Auchtermonzie, which he inherited through 
his mother. Earl David being a minor at the decease of his 
father, was brought up, as before mentioned, under the guar- 
dianship of his uncle, Walter of Beaufort; arid when only 
eighteen years of age (it being customary to marry young in 
those days), he formed a matrimonial alliance with Eliza- 
beth, daughter of the noble house of Hamilton. During the 
minority of James III., while the Boyd faction was in power, 
Crawford was among the earliest to denounce their tyranny 
towards the King, and to take active steps for his release. In 
consequence of that, various royal favours were conferred upon 
him such as the Keepership of the castle of Berwick for 
three years the liferent of the important Lordship of Brechin 
and Navar the Sheriffship of Angus, with the possession of 



188 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

the stronghold of Broughty at the mouth of the Tay, and 
the post of High Admiral of Scotland. These were well 
merited by the Earl, for he ever continued the steady and 
unflinching supporter of his King ; and, when the sceptre was 
attempted to be wrested from the King's hand by his own son 
and ambitious accomplices, Crawford raised a regiment of six 
thousand horsemen, which, together with other two thousand 
that his influence secured from his kinsman, Lord Lindsay 
of the Byres, greatly contributed to rout the insurrectionists 
at the rising at Blackness. For this signal service he was 
raised to the dignity of a Duke on the 18th of May 1488, 
" to be entitled and designated, in perpetual future times, 
Duke, hereditaiy of Montrose, and was the first instance of 
the rank of Duke having been conferred upon a Scottish 
subject not of the royal family." This title was assumed from 
the burgh of Montrose, which, with its castle, customs, and 
fisheries, and the Lordship of Kinclevin in Perthshire, were 
erected and incorporated into a regality to be called the Duchy 
of Montrose, and were held on the tenure of the Duke 
rendering therefrom a red rose yearly, on the feast of St. 
John the Baptist. 1 

The newly-made Duke lived in princely splendour hav- 
ing his squires, armour-bearers, chamberlains, chaplains, and 
a herald (the privileged appendage of royalty) yet he was 
not so intoxicated by his high position as to be unmindful 

1 From this time the Duke charged his paternal coat of arms with a red rose in 
chief, the cognisance of the royal burgh of Montrose. In contradistinction to the 
Lindsay, or original Dukedom of Montrose, the title of the noble family of Graham 
(the present Duke) is assumed from " Aid Monros " in the parish of Maryton, which 
the Grahams had originally from Robert I., and from which they long designed 
themselves. The patent of the Original Dukedom of Montrose is printed in full in 
Lives, L p. 454, and the pleas on which the Earl of Crawford and Balcarres (the 
heir-male of the Duke) founded his Claim to the Dukedom, .were (1.) That the 
original patent of 18th May 1488 still exists, and was in no wise affected by the 
Act Rescissory of October of that year ; ('2. ) That the Duke was never attainted ; and 
(3.) That the second patent of 19th September 1489 was a grant de novo in terms of 
the original one. (Orig. Dukedom of Montrose Case, pp. 56 sq.) But it was 
decided by a committee of the House of Lords, on 5th August 1853, that the patent 
of 1489, or grant de novo of the Dukedom of Montrose, was only a grant for life to 
David, fifth Earl of Crawford. 



FINHAVEN DUKE OF MONTROSE. 189 

of the interests of his King and country. With as great 
alacrity as before, he raised and commanded a large force of 
horse and foot at the battle of Sauchieburn, where he was 
wounded and taken prisoner, and where the King was treacher- 
ously killed in a miller's barn by a pretended priest, while 
lying there wounded by a fall from his horse. 1 The forfeiture 
of estates and titles with which the followers of James in. 
were visited, was very partial in the case of the Duke of Mon- 
trose ; for, unlike the others, he had no part in the intrigue 
with the Court of England, and in consequence had his power 
only curtailed by the loss of the hereditary sheriffship of 
Eorfarshire and the castle of Broughty, which were given to 
Lord Gray ; it may be questioned how far his title of Duke 
was affected by the general Eescissory Act of 17th October 
1488, but a new patent or charter of the Dukedom of Montrose 
de now was issued to " David Earl of Crawford and Lord 
Lindsay," for life, on the 19th of September 1489. 

Erom the time of the King's luckless death, the Duke 
took little part in the affairs of the nation. He became how- 
ever nearly as great a favourite with James iv. as he had been 
with his father, and is mentioned in the most respectful and 
honourable manner by him in the grant de now of his title. 2 
He closed his splendid career in peace and honour at his castle 
of Einhaven in 1495, and was succeeded by his second son 
John. 

Though blessed with earthly honour and power greatly be- 
yond any of his predecessors or compeers, the Duke's domestic 
peace was far from undisturbed. His two sons were reck- 
less, unprincipled, and sworn enemies to each other, so that 
the elder fell by the sword of the younger in a broil that 
happened betwixt them in 1489>, 3 a circumstance that will 

1 See Lindsay of Pitscottie's interesting account of the King's murder. It is 
quoted in Lives, i. pp. 160-63, as from the best and unpublished MS. in possession 
of Captain Wemyss of Wemyss Castle. 

2 Orig. Dukedom of Montrose Case, p. 6. 

3 Ibid. p. 31. 



190 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

be more particularly noticed in a subsequent Chapter. 1 This 
painful matter, after lying dormant for the long period of 
more than twenty years, was revived by some of Earl John's 
enemies, when a re-issue of letters was made " to search the 
Earl of Crawford for the slaughter of Alexander, Master of 
Crawford, his brother," and, as neither the Earl nor any of his 
accomplices attended the " Justice ayre " to which they were 
summoned, they were all denounced rebels. In the course of 
three months, however, while leading an important division 
of native horsemen at the bloody field of Flodden, as one of 
" Two Earls of an antique race," 

Crawford and his valiant kinsman, young Walter of Edzell, 
and many other friends, fell in the rash enterprise of their 
Sovereign, and thus, by his sudden death, all proceedings 
were closed against him. 

His uncle and successor, Sir Alexander of Auchtermonzie 
only lived till 1517, when he was succeeded by his son David, 
who, unfortunately, was placed in much the same position as 
his uncle the Duke of Montrose, by his peace of mind being also 
broken by the prodigality of his only son. The enormity of this 
person's misdeeds, as before seen, gained for him the remarkable 
sobriquet of the " Wicked " or " Evil Master," and was also 
the means of excluding him and his issue from all participa- 
tion in the titles and estates of Crawford, except by the 
special generosity of David, the ninth Earl. 

Under these sad circumstances, as already more fully 
narrated, 2 the titles and estates of Crawford passed to Sir 
David Lindsay of Edzell as the ninth Earl, who subsequently, 
through the most disinterested and praiseworthy motives, had 
them restored to David, the disinherited son of the " Wicked 
Master," who accordingly succeeded, and married a daughter 
of Cardinal Beaton. 3 The marriage was celebrated in the 

1 " Apr. 24, 1506. A respit is given to John Erie of Craufurd to pass in pil- 
grimage to St. John of Ameas, or other partis beyond sey." (Pitcairn, Crim. Trials, 
i. p. 106.) 8 Supr. p. 40. 

3 Her mother was Marion Ogilvy, daughter of the first Lord Ogilvy of Airlie. 



FINHAVEN PARENTAL NEGLECT. 191 

castle of Einhaven in April 1546 (just a mouth before the 
Cardinal's assassination), and her dowry, which amounted to 
the large sum of four thousand marks, is said to have heen the 
largest bestowed on any bride down to that time. The Earl, 
after following a far from commendable course of life 1 (in 
which his ingratitude to his benefactor, Edzell, is among the 
most glaring and heartless of his actions), died in 1574, and 
was succeeded by his eldest son, David, the eleventh Earl, 
" ane princely man, but a sad spendthrift." 

In this Earl, the impetuosity and recklessness of his 
ancestors were revived with more than ordinary force. Besides 
being singularly selfish and proud, he was so utterly destitute 
of conjugal and parental affection, that, although his first 
wife, a daughter of Lord Drummond, brought him the enor- 
mous " tocher " of ten thousand marks, he wrongfully im- 
pugned her character, returned her to her family in disgrace, 
and even denied his own offspring the necessaries of food and 
raiment. Being accessory to the murder of Lord Glamis at 
Stirling, if not the actual perpetrator, he was committed to 
prison and arraigned, but for lack of proof, was set free ; 2 and 
it is curious to notice, that notwithstanding the wildness 
of his life, "as he returned through Angus, the inhabitants 
congratulated him on his freedom." By way of reprisal for 
that murder, which occurred on the 17th of March 1577-8, 
the tutor of Glamis, at an after period, killed " the Earl of 
Crawford's man," and had to pay a great fine by way of 
manbot, or blood-money. 

Earl David, with his relative Sir Walter Lindsay of Bal- 
gavies, and other Popish friends, bore so conspicuous a part in 
the Spanish faction of 1588, that he engaged to assist the 
King of Spain to make himself master of Scotland. For this, 

She resided latterly at Melgund Castle, which was built by the Cardinal. He acquired 
the estate in 1542, and his initials and arms are carved on the lintel of one of the 
windows ; as are those of Marion on the corbel of the stair in the west tower, and 
over the west window with the Ogilvy lions. 

1 Mwc. Sp. Club, ii. pp. 37, 38. 2 Pitcairn, Grim. Trials, i. pp. 79, 85. 



192 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

he was tried with the Earls of Huntly, Errol, and Bothwell, 
and being found guilty of conspiracy, was laid in prison ; but 
a general amnesty being granted to all state prisoners on the 
marriage of the King with Anne of Denmark, Crawford was 
set at liberty with the rest, and died soon after. 1 

Little was to be hoped from Earl David's successor, since 
the welfare of neither his body nor his soul was matter of any 
concern to his father ; for, while he was attending College at 
St. Andrews, his " pedagogue " informs the amiable Lord 
Menmuir that it is "three years since the Master gat any 
clothing, saif one stand (suit) at the King's beand in our town. 
I have supplyit thir defects as my poverty and credit could 
serve, there is no hope of redress, but either to steal of the 
town, or sell our insight (furniture), or get some extraordinar 
help, gif it were possible. Haifing therefore used your Lord- 
ship's mediation, [I] thought guid to crave your counsel in tins 
straitness as it were betwix shame and despair. The Master, 
beand now become ane man in stature and knowledge, takes 
this heavily, but patiently, because he is, with this strait 
handling, in small accompts with his marrows, yet, praisit be 
God! above all his equals in learning. We have usit," he 
adds, "since your Lordship's beand in St. Andrews, all 
possible moyen, in all reverence (as we ought) and humility," 
in dealing with the Earl, " but little or nothing mendit." 2 

Having lost his mother, and being so little cared for 
by his father, if this Earl had been other than reckless, it 
might well have been deemed a marvel. But his later conduct 
entirely conformed to his boyhood's training. Even while 
appearing to extirpate crime, he had in reality the resentment 
of private animosity and the gratification of a vicious appetite 
only in view. He joined a band of unprincipled clansmen, who 

1 It is worthy of notice that he is the only one of his long and noble line of 
ancestors of whom any trace exists about the old castle of Finhaven. This is a 
broken stone slab which was picked from the ruins of the castle, and built into the 
wall of an adjoining house. It bears a shield, charged with the initials and date 
" E. D. L. 1593," with the ring, or coronula, of the coronet overtopping the whole. 

2 Lives, ii. p. 50. 



FINHAVEN THE PRODIGAL EARL. 193 

harried the lands and slew the nearest of their kin. It was 
he that murdered his uncle of Balgavies, persecuted Sir 
David of Edzell, sought the life of Sir David's unfortunate son, 
and, to crown his other wild transactions, tried to complete the 
ruin of his own family by breaking down the estates. 

A succession of desperate and improvident proceedings, 
however, were happily found good ground for apprehending 
him ; and, by the intervention of his own relations, he was 
imprisoned in the Castle of Edinburgh, where he closed his 
miserable life in 1621. From this circumstance, he is designed 
" The Prodigal," and " Comes Incarceratus," Dying without 
male issue, he was succeeded by his grand-uncle, Sir Henry 
of Kinfauns and Careston. He left an only child, however, 
Lady Jean, " an orphan destitute and uncared for, and fated 
to still deeper debasement, having run away with a common 
'jockey with the horn' or public herald, and lived latterly 
by mendicancy ' a sturdy beggar,' though mindful still of the 
sphere from which she had fallen, and ' bitterly ashamed.' 
Shortly after the Eestoration, Charles n. granted her a pension 
of one hundred a year, ' in consideration of her eminent birth 
and necessitous condition,' and this probably secured her com- 
fort during the evening of her days." * 

On succeeding to the Crawford estates, Earl Henry sold 
Kinfauns and Charteris Hall (which he had acquired through 
marriage), with the view, it is said, of paying off the debts 
incurred on his estates ; but his design never appears to have 
been put in execution. Like his enlightened contemporary, 
Sir David of Edzell, he had a special taste for architectural 
embellishment, and the part that remains of the castle of 
Careston, which he erected, is an admirable specimen. 

Sir Henry enjoyed the Earldom only two years, dying in 
1623, and leaving three sons, George, Alexander, and Ludovick 
all of whom succeeded as respectively fourteenth, fifteenth, 
and sixteenth Earls of Crawford. On the death of Earl Ludovick 

1 Lives, ii. p. 51. 

N 



194 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

about 1652, the titles passed by a new patent obtained in 1642 
(through the influence of John Lindsay of the Byres, and to 
the exclusion of the preferable branches of Spynie, Edzell, and 
Balcarres), to the Byres family, of which there were the seven- 
teenth, eighteenth, nineteenth, twentieth, twenty-first, and 
twenty-second Earls. 1 On the death of the last of these in 
1808, the title devolved on Alexander, sixth Earl of Balcarres, 
as twenty-third Earl of Crawford, whose son James became 
twenty-fourth Earl, head and representative of the Lindsays 
of Crawford and Glenesk, and the nearest heir-male to the 
original Duke of Montrose. The late Alexander, twenty-fifth 
Earl of Crawford and eighth Earl of Balcarres, was distinguished 
for his literary tastes and productions, and was a liberal patron 
of men of letters. His early years he devoted to foreign travel 
and study of art. His Letters on Egypt, Edotn, and the Holy 
Land, and his History of Christian Art, are valuable con- 
tributions to literature, while they are fitting memorials of his 
Lordship's taste and learning ; but the Lives of the Lindsays 
form the best-known fruits of his study, and are a model of 
careful inquiry into the many lines and lives connected with 
the author's ancestry. The Earl entered Parliament in 1869 
as second Baron Wigan, on the death of his father, who in 
1826 had obtained the patent for that Baronage in the peerage 
of the United Kingdom, but he never took a prominent place 
in public affairs. In 1846 he married his cousin, Margaret, 
eldest daughter of Lieutenant-General James Lindsay of Bal- 
carres, by whom he had six daughters and an only son, James 
Ludovic, who succeeded to the titles and estates at his father's 
death at Florence, 13th December 1880. The body of the 
deceased Earl was brought from Italy and placed in the 
mortuary below the chapel at Dunecht. 2 

1 Lives, ii. pp. 61 sq. 

2 Early in the following December, it was discovered that the body had been 
removed, to all appearance, some months before, but by whom or for what reason 
remains unknown. On being recovered in July 1882, it was taken to the family 
vault at Haigh Hall, Wigan. 



FINHAVEN EARLS GEORGE AND LUDOVICK. 195 

But of all these the family of Earl Henry alone falls within 
our range, being the last Earl of Crawford who held lands in 
Angus. 1 Like many of his relations, Earl George (the eldest 
son of Earl Henry) joined in the thirty years' war in Germany. 
He rose to the rank of Colonel, but was killed in cold blood 
in 1633, by a lieutenant of his own regiment, who, although 
acquitted by the German Council of War, was arrested by Major- 
General Leslie, the Governor of Stettin, who had him immedi- 
ately " shot at a post." Leaving no male issue, the succession 
opened to his second brother, also a Colonel, and he having 
unfortunately become insane, or " frantic," died in close con- 
finement in 1639, 2 and was succeeded by his third and youngest 
brother, Ludovick the steady friend of Charles I., and com- 
panion in arms of the great Marquis of Montrose, to whom 
Ludovick, in bravery and generalship, was all but equal. 

Being matter of history, however, a simple enumeration of 
only the principal adventures of Earl Ludovick's life will be 
noticed here the reader being in this case, as in so many 
others, referred to the interesting notice of him in the Lives. 
It was in the Spanish wars, where he rose to the rank of 
Colonel, that he first showed that genius for military tactics 
which distinguished him through life, and on succeeding 
to the Earldom, he joined the cause of his own unfortunate 

1 By way of connecting the genealogy of the family of Lindsay-Crawford, it may 
be here observed, that so far from John Lindsay of the Byres having legitimate claim 
to the Earldom of Crawford, he was descended from a younger brother of Sir 
Alexander of Glenesk, the latter of whose direct male descendants were all repre- 
sented at the time of the Byres succession by the houses of Spynie, Edzell, and 
Balcarres. When the Byres branch failed on the death of George, the twenty-second 
Earl of Crawford, in 1808, his estates, being destined to heirs-female, fell to his 
sister, Lady Mary Lindsay, on whose death in 1834, the fourth Earl of Glasgow 
(in right of his descent from Margaret, daughter of Earl Patrick of the Byres) 
succeeded to the estates as eldest heir-of-line to Lady Mary. The ancient title of 
the Earldom of Crawford was then claimed by the sixth Earl of Balcarres (the 
representative of the disinherited line), and was awarded to his son on the llth of 
August 1848, he being, in consequence, the twenty-fourth Earl of Crawford, and the 
PREMIER EARL on the Union Boll. For a full account of the interesting houses of 
Balcarres, the Byres, and other branches of the Lindsays, the first of which, as we 
have seen, was founded by Lord Menmuir, brother to Sir David of Edzell, the reader 
is referred to the Lives of the Lindsays, so often alluded to. 

2 Lives, ii. pp. 52 sq. 



196 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

King, and was his staunch supporter throughout the whole 
of his difficulties. It is believed that " the incident," as it 
is called in history, was the joint concoction of him and the 
Marquis of Montrose ; in this it was proposed to seize Lords 
Hamilton, Lanark, and Argyll, and place them on board a 
ship in Leith harbour, then to take Edinburgh Castle and 
set free Montrose, who was a prisoner there at the time. The 
plot was however discovered, and Crawford arrested ; and 
it was only through the influence of John of the Byres, when 
Ludovick consented to change the succession to the Earldom 
in his favour, that he obtained his release. This very question- 
able transaction was completed on the 15th of January 1642 ; 
and in the subsequent August, the Earl joined the royal 
standard at Nottingham, with a large troop of cavalry that 
he had raised for the King's service. He fought at Edgehill 
in October thereafter, as also at Lansdown in July 1643, and 
defeated General Waller, while the latter was on his way 
to Oxford. He was also at Newbury and Eeading, and cutting 
his way out of Poole, where he was betrayed, he invaded 
Sussex, and took the castle of Arundel, but soon after had 
to flee from Alton near Farnham before his old opponent 
Waller. 

Although the royal cause was generally unsuccessful, Craw- 
ford's individual exertions were not so. Yet, being defeated, 
in common with his fellow-royalists, at Marston Moor, on the 
2d of July 1644, the excommunication which had been passed 
upon him by the Estates in the previous April was followed 
by the forfeiture of his title in favour of Lord Lindsay of the 
Byres by the illegal Parliament of that period ; and, to crown 
his disappointment, while bravely defending Newcastle in 
October thereafter, he was taken prisoner, and with much 
indignity carried to Edinburgh Castle. There he remained 
until the decisive battle of Kilsyth on the 15th August, when 
he and other prisoners were released by their leader Montrose, 
just in time to witness their total defeat at Philiphaugh. 



FTNHAVEN CLOSE OF THE OLD LINE OF EARLS. 197 

From that period till the 31st of July 1646, when their 
army was dissolved at Eattray, near Blairgowrie, Earl Ludovick 
and his horsemen were frequently quartered in Angus, and 
committed many serious ravages in the county. Escaping 
to the Continent, he entered his old service in Spain, was 
at Badajoz in June 1649, and two years later took an active 
part in the tumult of the Eronde at Paris. All subsequent 
trace of him is lost, and " where he ended his career when 
or how there is no authentic evidence; he is said to have 
died in France in 1652, and this is very probable, seeing that 
Cardinal de Eetz, in mentioning his Scottish allies in that year, 
makes no mention of their gallant commander ; but nothing 
is certain except the fact that he was dead, and without issue, 
in 1663 the last of the old and original line of the Earls of 
Crawford." 1 George, third Lord Spynie, was duly served heir- 
male on November 8, 1666. 2 

Such are a few of the leading characteristics of the lives 
of the great Earls of Crawford, of the old Glenesk line. Their 
fall, it will be seen, was mainly owing to the misdoings of the 
" Prodigal Earl," who had laid the axe so effectually to the 
root of the noble tree which he so unworthily represented, 
that only three years after his incarceration, his uncle, Earl 
Henry, was compelled to mortgage the lands to a large amount ; 
this was done, however, with power of redemption to the 
granters on payment of the sums advanced. 3 In 1625, three 
years after Earl Henry's death, these bonds were uplifted by 
Lord Spynie (who had been fortunate in the German wars), and 
in addition to this he gave a sum of fourteen thousand marks 
to Earl George for the castle, and the " heretabil richt of y e 
landis and baronie of Phinhewin," of all which he had pos- 
session in the month of April 1630. 4 But he only held them 
for the short space of five years, when they passed for ever 
from the hands of the Lindsays, being granted by Spynie to 

1 Lives, ii. p. 79. 2 Inquis, Spec. Forfar. No. 424. 

* Crawford Case, p. 85. 4 Ibid. p. 68. 



198 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

his brother-in-law, the second Earl of Kinnoul. 1 He, again, 
was followed by the Earl of Northesk, who disponed them 
in favour of his second son, the Honourable James Carnegie, 
on the 22dof May 1672. 

Having thus traced the interesting history of the Lordship 
of Finhaven and its owners, from the earliest period to the 
decline of the ancient family of Lindsay, we shall now take 
a view of it from the succession of Carnegie, down to the 
present time, which will embrace altogether a period of a 
little over two hundred years. 

The wife of the first designed Carnegie of Einhaven was 
Anna Lundin, second daughter of Eobert Maitland, brother- 
german to John, the great Duke of Lauderdale, by his wife 
Dame Margaret Lundin of the ancient family of that Ilk. 2 
Carnegie was infeft in the property on June 6th, 1672, and 
sat in the Parliament of 1703, but, unlike his nephew of 
Northesk, was a strong opponent of the Union ; by substitu- 
tion for deceased members he had also been in Parliament in 
1685-6, and 1702. He had a family of two sons and two 
daughters ; one of the latter was married to Lyon of Auchter- 
house, a cadet of the noble family of Strathmore, and the other 
to her cousin, Alexander Blair Carnegie of Kinfauns. Of the 
elder son, Charles, we only know that he was so palsied 
as to be incapable of business, and died unmarried in 1712. 
The younger, who succeeded his father in 1707, had, with 
consent of his brother, charters of the barony of Einhaven 
in 1710, and bore a conspicuous, though far from commendable, 
part in the stirring movements of " the fifteen." 

He was at one time an ardent supporter of the Stuarts, 
and though admitted as a confidant in their cause, he subse- 
quently sided with the Hanoverians, and thus gained so un- 
enviable a notoriety that his conduct was made the theme of 
several depreciatory Jacobite ditties. In one of the ballads of 
Sheriffmuir he is represented as " the best flyer " from the field 

1 Inquis. Spec. Forfar. No. 200. 2 Fraser, Hist. Cam. of Southcsk, ii. p. 425. 



FINHAVEN CARNEGIES SUCCEED. 199 

of battle, and is impeached in the song which follows as having 
been bought over by the Government. The third verse refers 
to the ejection of the Eev. Mr. Grub, the last Episcopalian 
minister of Oathlaw ; and, since it is recorded that Mr. Grub 
was " never admitted to the parish by any Church judicatory," 
it is probable, from the pointed allusion in the ballad to Car- 
negie's being guilty of simony, that Grub had been originally 
of Carnegie's choice, though the laird supported the subsequent 
induction of Mr. Anderson, a Royalist, and thereby had most 
probably obtained some direct or indirect pecuniary favour. 
The song is quaintly entitled 

f^e fohma be ttftu't ig Jfflk 

heavens, he 's ill to be guidifc, 
His colleagues and he are dividit, 
Wi' the Court of Hanover he 's sidit 

He winna be guidit by me. 
They ca'd him their joy and their darling, 
Till he took their penny of arling ; 
But he '11 prove as false as Macfarlane 

He winna be guidit by me. 

He was brought south by a merling, 
Got a hundred and fifty pounds sterling, 
Which will make him bestow the auld carlin 

He winna be guidit by me. 
He 's anger'd his goodson and Fintry, 
By selling his king and his country, 
And put a deep stain on the gentry 

He '11 never be guidit by me. 

He 's joined the rebellious club, too, 

That endeavours our peace to disturb, too ; 

He 's cheated poor Mr. John Grub, too, 

And he 's guilty of simony. 
He broke his promise before, too, 
To Fintry, Auchterhouse, and Strathmore, too ; 
God send him a heavy glengore, too, 

For that is the death he will die. 

But the circumstance by which Carnegie is best known is 
the murder of the Earl of Strathmore. This unfortunate affair 



200 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

arose, as will be seen by a perusal of the trial, 1 from the taunts 
and gibes that he received from John Lyon of Brigton regard- 
ing his treachery in the cause of the Chevalier. The circum- 
stances attending this murder are briefly these : On Thursday, 
the 9th of May 1728, several county gentlemen assembled at 
Forfar to attend the funeral of a daughter of Patrick Carnegie 
of Lour. After dinner the company, according to the custom 
of the times, adjourned to an inn, where they regaled them- 
selves until the dusk of the evening. Among these were 
Charles, the sixth Earl of Strathmore, his kinsman of Brigton, 
and Carnegie of Finhaven. Being all intoxicated, Brigton first 
insulted Carnegie by his talk within doors, and on coming to 
the street, thrust him into the common kennel. Enraged at 
these proceedings, Carnegie, on recovering himself, ran up to 
his companions, and made a thrust at Brigton with a drawn 
sword. By misadventure, however, it passed through the body 
of Strathmore, who was attempting to reconcile the parties, 
and the Earl died on the following Saturday from the effects 
of the wound. 

Arraigned before the High Court of Justiciary "for the 
crime of wilful and premeditate murder," Carnegie secured the 
services of Dundas of Arniston, the future Lord President; 
and, notwithstanding the able pleading for the Crown by the 
celebrated Duncan Forbes, who was then Lord Advocate, 
Dundas succeeded in obtaining a verdict of not guilty for his 
client. This case is further remarkable as being the first in 
Scotland in which the power of a jury was established accord- 
ing to ancient practice, which was then questioned, of returning 
a general verdict of the guilt or innocence of the accused, and 
not merely of determining whether the facts in the indictment 
were proved or not. 

In early life Carnegie married Margaret, daughter of Sir 
William Bennet of Grubbet, by whom he had two daughters. 
Of these, the one was married to Sir John Ogilvy of luver- 

1 See the trial, as given in Arnot, Criminal Trials, pp. 178-191. 



FINHAVEN LATE PROPRIETORS. 201 

quharity, Bart., and the other first to Foulis of Woodhall, and 
secondly to Charles Lewis, both daughters having issue. His 
first wife died in 1738. He subsequently married Violet 
Nasmyth, by whom he had his son and heir, and a daughter 
Barbara, who was married to Sir Alexander Douglas of Glen- 
bervie, son of the compiler of the Scottish Peerage and Baron- 
age, and Physician to his Majesty's Forces in Scotland. 

Carnegie died in 1765, and, with the exception of his son, 
who died without issue at Lisbon twelve years afterwards, he 
was the last of his race in Finhaven. The succession then de- 
volved on his daughter, Lady Douglas, who, to meet the demands 
of her brother's creditors, had the lands sold in 1 779. They were 
purchased by the fourth Earl of Aboyne, by whose frugality 
and industry the ruined estate of his ancestors was restored to 
its old importance; and in 1781 he resigned Finhaven in favour 
of his son by his second wife, the Honourable George Douglas 
Gordon Hallyburton, who sat long in Parliament for Forfar- 
shire. Hallyburton sold Finhaven in the year 1804 to James 
Ford, an extensive manufacturer in Montrose. Ford's circum- 
stances having become embarrassed, he went abroad and fol- 
lowed the laborious calling of a teacher. The estate being 
exposed for sale in 1817, it was bought by the late Marquis of 
Huntly, then Lord Aboyne, at the price of 65,000, being an 
advance of no less than 26,000 over the purchase-money paid 
for it by his father in 1779. 

Like the affairs of his predecessor, those of the Marquis 
also became embarrassed, and in the year 1843 Finhaven was 
purchased from his trustees for 75,000 by the trustees of the 
late Thomas Gardyne of Middleton, in terms of whose testa- 
mentary deed it was held by his maternal nephew, James 
Carnegie, W.S. The latter was second son of Thomas, the 
fourth laird of Craigo, was designed of Finhaven and Noranside, 
and, on the failure of male issue, was succeeded by his cousin, 
David Greenhill of Fern and Craignathro, each assuming the 
name Gardyne on obtaining the estate. On his accession in 



202 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

1864, Mr. David Greenhill Gardyne erected the fine baronial 
residence of Finhaven Castle, in the vicinity of the ruins of the 
old Finhaven, but did not long survive its completion, having 
died in 1867. His only son, the present Colonel Charles 
Greenhill Gardyne, then succeeded to the property. 

Thomas Gardyne was the last male descendant of the 
ancient family of Gardyne of that Ilk, who were proprietors 
in Angus from a remote period, and one of whom married 
Lady Janet, daughter of Sir David Lindsay of Edzell. Mr. 
Carnegie Gardyne, the ante-penultimate proprietor, was a 
lineal descendant, in the fourth generation, of David Carnegie, 
minister of Farnell and Dean of Brechin, by Helen, daughter 
of Bishop Lindsay of Edinburgh. The Dean purchased the 
estate of Craigo, and was the first of that race, which is repre- 
sented in the female line by Sir George Macpherson Grant, 
Bart., of Ballindalloch and Invereshie. On the death of 
Thomas Carnegie of Craigo, in 1856, this property passed to 
his cousin, Thomas Macpherson Grant, youngest son of the 
late Sir George Macpherson Grant, Bart.; but he died at 
Chiswick, Middlesex, on 23d September 1881, at the age of 
sixty-six. As descended from Hercules, sixth son of Sir 
Robert Carnegie of Kinnaird, and uncle of the first Earls of 
Southesk and Northesk, on the one hand, 1 and from the 
daughter of Bishop Lindsay on the other, the late laird of 
Finhaven was not only related to the old Carnegies of that 
place, but (Bishop Lindsay being a cadet of the house of 
Edzell) was also connected with the more ancient and powerful 
lords of the district the Earls of Crawford. 2 

1 Fraser, Hist. Carnegies of Southesk, ii. p. 436. 

2 The facts regarding the transmission of the lands of Finhaven from 1672 were 
obligingly gleaned from the title-deeds, and communicated by the late proprietor, 
Mr. James Carnegie, W.S. See APPENDIX No. VII. 



FINHAVEN THE OLD CASTLE. 203 



SECTION IV. 

Those stately towers, those heights sublime. 
That mocked the gnawing tooth of time, 
How fair and firm they once did seem. 
How fleeting thou, inconstant stream ! 
Yet time has spared thy changeful tide. 
Though ruin wait on all beside. 

PERCY. 

Finhaven Castle Story of its fall Its situation The harper hung Jock Barefoot- 
Inner life of old Finhaven Surrounded by retainers and allies Markhouse 
Blairiefeddan Woodwrae Balgavies and Sir Walter Lindsay Estate lost, and 
how previously acquired. 

LIKE the other castles of the Lindsays in Forfarshire, that of 
Finhaven is a total ruin, and little idea can now be formed of 
either the style of its architecture or its original extent. In 
its palmiest days it was a much larger place than Edzell ; for 
thick and continuous foundations of houses are yet found two 
and three hundred yards to the west and south of the castle ; 
but there are no remains of sculpture like that at Edzell or 
Careston. Indeed, with the exception of the turret on the 
north-east corner, and a few lintels near the centre of the 
building which present some simple but not inelegant mould- 
ings no trace of ornamental masonry is now to be seen. 

The only initials and date, as already noticed, are those 
which refer to the eleventh Earl, the father of " the Prodigal," 
who had perhaps in some way added to or altered the castle. 
"We are not aware that any drawing was made of it when 
entire, or that any description of it exists before that by Mr. 
Ochterlony, who calls it (circa 1682) "a great old house; but 
now by the industrie of the present laird [the first Carnegie] is 
made a most excellent house ; fine roomes and good furniture, 
good yards, excellent planting, and enclosures, and avenues." 1 
It fell to ruin during the time of the last Carnegie, and the 
circumstances attending its dilapidation, though seemingly 
vague, are uniformly attested as fact. 

1 Spottisw. Misc. i. p. 332. 



204 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Unlike the stories of the old proprietors of Edzell, Mel- 
gund, and Vayne, who are all said to have departed mysteri- 
ously one dark evening after supper, leaving the empty dishes 
on the table, and the lamps in full blaze the castle of Fin- 
haven itself, instead of the people, was the first to give way, 
and that while the sun was at his height. One fine summer 
day, when Carnegie was from home, his lady had the table 
spread with the choicest viands awaiting his arrival, and, 
accompanied by her lap-dog, she went along the avenue to meet 
him ; but, just as the laird approached the gate, the walls of 
that part of the house where the table was spread bent in 
twain, and falling to the ground, threw everything into utter 
ruin. The event was long supposed to be unaccountable, and, 
as a matter of course, was attributed to supernatural causes ; 
but, on the rubbish being cleared away, the catastrophe was 
found to have arisen from a ground-slip. The lady made 
almost a miraculous escape, and it is said that no lives were 
lost, save that of her favourite dog, which was attracted to the 
spot by the noise, and buried among the ruins. 

For military purposes, the position of the castle had been 
chosen with no little skill, being situated in the valley of 
Strathmore, at the point where that magnificent strath begins 
to expand, and thus it had guarded the passes of the Highlands 
through the valleys of the Isla, the Prosen, and the Esk. 
The site of the castle, however, presents no striking peculiar- 
ity. It stands on a rising ground at the junction of the Esk 
and Lemno, and in old times had been protected on the east 
and west by water, as it is at present on the north. From this 
moat, which rises only twenty feet above the Lemno, the 
remains of the castle, embracing five stories (including the 
cellar or vault), have a mean elevation of eighty-six feet. 
The north wall is still entire, but the east one is rent through 
the line of windows from top to bottom of the building, and 
on the occurrence of some furious storm, the south-east corner 
will inevitably fall to the ground, whether the latter part of 



FINHAVEN THE RUINS. 205 

the prophecy of the famous Knight of Erceldon, to whom the 
following couplet is attributed, be fulfilled or not : 

" When Finhaven Castle rins to sand, 
The warld's end is near at hand !" 

The north wall is still a substantial and beautiful piece of 
masonry, stands as perpendicular as at the period of its erec- 
tion, and its apparent strength may have given rise to the 
above rhyme. A vault or ward occupies the whole length and 
breadth of the ground floor of the Keep, to which, like those 
of Edzell and Invermark, the light is admitted by a few loop- 
holes ; and the old oaken door, filled with large broad-headed 
nails, is yet entire. The turret, or gunner's room (as the 
peasantry call it), forms a fine termination to the tall unbroken 
character of the north-east corner ; and two strong projecting 
iron hooks, near the top of the south-east wall, are said to have 
been used by Earl Beardie for suspending refractory vassals ! 

These spikes are the only pieces of iron-work now remaining, 
and, as the legend runs, Beardie hanged at least one unfortunate 
minstrel upon them, and that for predicting the murder of Earl 
Douglas at Stirling, and his own defeat at Brechin. In his wan- 
derings, this harper had got within the private demesne of Fin- 
haven, and, in discoursing his mournful tale to the winds, was 
overheard by Lady Crawford, who was walking along the banks 
of the Lemno. Being attracted by his extraordinary rehearsal, 
she led him into the presence of Beardie, who, on having foretold 
to him the murder of Douglas by the King, and his own defeat, 
rose in great wrath, and, according to the ballad, exclaimed 

" ' No more of thy tale I will hear: 
But high on Finhaven thy grey head and lyre 
Shall bleach on the point of the spear ! ' 

The Laclie craved pity ; but nane wad he gie 

The poor aged minstrel must die ; 
An' Crawford's ain hand placed the grey head and lyre 

On the spikes o' the turret sae high." 

The famous Horse Chestnut, or " Earl Beardie's Tree," as 
it was commonly termed, is said to have been employed by 



206 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

that notorious personage in a manner similar to that of the 
iron hooks. It grew in the court-yard of the castle, and was 
one of the largest trees ever known in the kingdom ; so remark- 
able was it alike for the beauty of its grain and for its great 
size, that tables and chairs, and even snuff-boxes, were made of 
the wood of it ; and such was the demand, that, with the ex- 
ception of a very small portion still perhaps lying at the castle, 
none of the tree now remains. This was the " covin-tree " 
under which the Earls met their visitors, and drank the "stirrup- 
cup." It was in full bearing down to 1740, when the severe 
frosts of that year killed it ; it withstood the blasts of other 
twenty winters, and was then levelled to the ground. 1 Its age 
is unknown, but tradition affirms that it grew from a chestnut 
dropped by a Roman soldier. On a messenger or gillie being 
sent one day from Carestou to the castle of Finhaven, he cut a 
walking-stick from it, and Earl Beardie was so enraged at the 
liberty taken that he had the offender hanged upon a branch 
of it ! It has long been a popular belief that the ghost of this 
luckless person still wanders betwixt Finhaven and Careston 
as the guardian of benighted travellers, by some of whom he 
is minutely described as a lad of about sixteen years of age, 
without bonnet or shoes, and is known as Jock Barefoot ! His 
freaks are curious and inoffensive, always ending at a certain 
burn on the road, where he vanishes from view in a blaze of fire ! 
As if to confirm the story of Beardie still living in the secret 
chamber of Glamis, where he is doomed to play cards until 
the day of judgment, it is an old prophetic saying, that 

" Earl Beardie ne'er will dee 
Nor puir Jock Barefoot be set free, 
As lang 's there grows a chestnut tree ! " 

It was in the dungeons of Finhaven, as more fully noticed 
before, that the "Wicked Master" confined his father, the 

1 The circumference of this tree near the ground was forty-two feet eight ; that of 
the top, thirty-five feet nine ; and one of the largest branches, twenty -three feet. 
(Pennant, Second Tour, 1772, p. 165.) See APPENDIX No. VIII., containing also an 
inventory of furniture at old Finhaven. 



FINHAVEN FAMILY LIFE AND COUNCIL. 207 

eighth Earl, for the space of thirteen weeks ; and from Fin- 
haven, this once magnificent residence, most of the family 
charters were dated, in presence of " a council " the Earls 
Crawford, Douglas, and a few other great chiefs, having, like 
monarchy, privy councils for deliberating over the affairs of 
their extensive domains. Among the councillors of Crawford 
were the heads of some of the most ancient and honourable 
families of Angus such as Ogilvy of Clova, Fothringham of 
Powrie, Durham of Grange, Gardyne of that Ilk, Balbirnie of 
Inverichty, and the ancient family of Lour of that Ilk. These, 
with Lindsay of the Halch of Tannadyce the hereditary con- 
stable of Einhaven Castle, and Auchenleck of that Ilk the 
hereditary armour-bearer, a canon of the cathedral of Brechin 
as chamberlain, and the clergymen of various parishes as the 
chaplains and clerks composed the councils of the Earls of 
Crawford for several successive generations. " Of these con- 
sisted the society of the castle, with the Earl and his immediate 
family any guests that might be resident with him the 
ladies attendant upon his wife and daughters the pages, of 
noble or gentle birth, trained up in the castle under his eye as 
aspirants for chivalry and his own domestic officers, most of 
them gentlemen of quality. 

" The inner life of the family, especially at Finhaven, was 
of a uniform but enjoyable character ; martial exercises, the 
chase, and the baronial banquet, enlivened by the songs of the 
minstrel and the quips of the jester, occupied the day ; and 
the evening was whiled away in ' the playing of the chess, at 
the tables, in reading of romans, in singing and piping, in 
harping, and in other honest solaces of great pleasance and dis- 
port,' the ladies mingling in the scene throughout, whether 
in the sports and festivities of the morning, or the pastimes of 
the evening though a portion of the day was always spent 
in their ' bowers,' with their attendant maidens, spinning or 
weaving tapestry. Occasionally indeed a higher responsibility 
devolved upon them, during the absence of the Earl, whether 



208 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

in attendance on the Parliament, or in warfare public or 
private, his wife became the chatelaine, or keeper of his castle, 
with full authority to rule his vassals, guide his affairs, and 
defend his stronghold if attacked at disadvantage during his 
absence." 1 

It was perhaps with the view of guarding against the sur- 
prises here alluded to that some of the trustiest of their vassals 
were located in the immediate neighbourhood of the castle. 
The nearest resident of those retainers were the Lindsays of the 
Haugh of Tannadyce, or Barnyards, who, at least from the time 
of the second Earl down to the middle of the sixteenth century, 
when David Lindsay died, had sasine " de terris de Hauch, 
cum custodia et officio constabularii castri et manerii nostri 
de Fynnewyne," and were designed constables of Finhaven. 
From this family, which failed in Patrick Lindsay in 1692, were 
descended the Lindsays of Little Coull, and those of Glenquiech. 
The castle of Barnzaird (as it is termed in Monipennie's 
Briefe Description of Scotland) stood about two miles, in a 
straight line, north of the castle of Finhaven, and towards the 
close of last century was represented by two archways in the 
Haugh, a little north-west of the present farm-house, which 
was built out of its ruins. Little is known of the family, 
but in 1571, "David Lindesay of Berneyardis" and "Jonet 
Ogilvie, his spouse," were indicted before the court, for the 
slaughter of John Fentoune; the result however is not recorded. 2 
As constables of the castle of Finhaven, the Lindsays of the 
Haugh witnessed many of the charters of their chief, and 
" Philip Lindissay de la Halche " was one of Crawford's coun- 
cil, by whose avisement he renewed the marches and bounds of 
the lands of the family of Auchenleck of that Ilk, and was 
also present at the perambulation of the marches of Ochter- 
lony in 1459. 3 

The lands of Markhouse, which adjoin those of Finhaven 

1 Lives, L pp. 112-13. 

2 Pitcairn, Crim. Trials, i. p. 28. On these cadet families, see Lives, i. p. 430 ; 
ii. pp. 281 sq. 3 Lives, i. p. 430. 



FINHAVEN MARKHOUSE. 209 

on the east, are supposed to have been a portion of the forest 
of Plater, and had most likely been held under the superiority 
of Lyon of Glamis, who ultimately had a grant of the thane- 
dom of Tannadice, in which parish Markhouse is situated. At 
what time the Lindsays acquired Markhouse we are not aware, 
but on the 13th of October 1683, Alexander Arbuthnott, 
younger of Findourie, appears as attorney for his father, 
Eobert Arbuthnott of Findourie, and demands sasine for his 
said father in the lands of Markhouse, under precept of dare 
constat from Patrick, Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, 
which lands he held of said Earl, subject to redemption by his 
Lordship. 1 "Johannes Lindsay de Markhous," who witnesses 
a resignation of the barony of Finhaven by Earl David of 
Crawford to his eldest son, on the 24th of December 1563, is 
the first proprietor of these lands that we have met with; 
and the same person, or perhaps his son " John Lindsay of 
M'khous, notarpublic," appears in a paper in the Southesk 
charter-chest, of date 1595. 2 

The site of the old house or castle of Markhouse is still 
pointed out near the south-east side of the estate; and, 
although nothing tangible exists, either in tradition or record, 
regarding the Lindsays of Markhouse individually, the lands 
had once on a time been the scene of some important events, 
since traces of ancient sepulture have been gathered from 
various parts of them. At a place called the Haercairn, in the 
Howmuir wood (about a mile north-east of the present mansion- 
house gate), and at Haerland Faulds, several rude stone coffins 
and urns, containing human bones, were found some fifty years 
ago. The urns at Haerland Faulds contained pieces of charred 
bones, and although the coffins were of about the ordinary 
length, carefully built of rude slabs, and the bottoms laid with 
baked clay, no trace of bones was found apart from those 
in the urns. At the Haercairn, again, there were no urns, the 

1 A rbuthnott Papers. 

* Southesk Papers. For the present proprietorship of Marcus see below, p. 316. 





210 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

remains being confined to the coffins, which were of the same 
construction as those at the Haerland Faulds. These places 
are barely three miles east of the camp of Battledykes. The 
graves are popularly ascribed to the time when the Danes 
were defeated at Aberleinno ; and, as one of the coffins at the 
Haercairn was rather longer than its fellows, the peasantry 
identified it as that of one of the Deuchars of Fern, who is 
said to have been killed at this place by the Northmen. This 
person was of gigantic stature, and, according to story, had six 
fingers on each hand and as many toes on each foot ! 

Along with the Lindsays of Barnyards and Markhouse on 
the north side of the Esk, those of Blairiefeddan, Woodwrae, 
Balgavies, and Pitscandlie resided on the south. The Blairie- 
feddan family existed from the time of John Lindsay, who 
was a party to the slaughter of Sir John Ogilvy of Inver- 
quharity about 1535-9, till near the middle of the seventeenth 
century. But they do not appear to have shone very promin- 
ently in any transaction; neither did their neighbours and 
relations of Pitscandlie, who were proprietors of that and neigh- 
bouring lands down to the first quarter of last century. 1 The 
burial-place of both these families was at Eescobie, and a 
monument belonging to the former is built into the outer wall 
of that church. 2 

The first recorded Lindsay of Woodwrae, or Woodwrayth 
(which was previously held by a family of the name of 
Wellem or Volume, whose name is found in the parish in the 
last century 3 ), was Sir John, a son of the tenth Earl of Craw- 
ford. He was also proprietor of Balinscho, and his " castle " 
of Woodwrae, within a mile of that of Finhaven, stood a little 
to the north-east of the present farm-house. It was removed 

1 John Lindsay of Pitscandly, an elder. (Par. Reg. of Rescobie, Feb. 2, 1718; 
Lives, I p. 442, ii. p. 282 ; Retmvrs Spec. Forfar. Nos. 172, 356.) 

2 See APPENDIX No. VIL 

1636, July 19 ; "Gevin to Alexr. Wellom, sometyme of Woodwrae, 12s." 
(Brechin Sess. Records.) 1638, June 26 ; To ditto, 27s. (Ibid.) Elisabeth Volum, 
1732. (Jervise, Epit. i. p. 374.) Pitcairn (Crim. Trials, iil p. 347*) has on an 
assize in 1549, " Alexander Wallein [Vallene or Vallance] of Woodwra." 



FINHAVEN WOODWRAE, BALGAVIES. 211 

about sixty years ago ; and, with the exception of the old dove- 
cot, nothing of an independent feudal character is now trace- 
able on the property. In clearing out the foundations of this 
"castle," about the year 1819, two sculptured stones were 
found about six feet in height, bearing carvings similar to those 
at Aberlemno ; one of these was carried away to decorate the 
grounds of the late Sir Walter Scott, Bart., at Abbotsford, and 
the other, which was allowed to be about the farm, has been 
altogether lost sight of. The "grave hill," a little to the south- 
east of the site of the castle, is a curious prehistoric remain, 
similar to those of Fernybank and Colmeallie in Glenesk, 
being composed of a ring of rude stones, about a foot in size, 
surrounding a pit of black earth, from which pieces of old war- 
like weapons and burned bones and charcoal have been gathered. 1 
But, of all the Lindsays of the district, few, perhaps, took 
a more prominent lead in the affairs of the times, or have a 
more remarkable history, than Sir Walter of Balgavies. He 
was third son of David of Edzell, the ninth Earl of Crawford, 
and commenced life as a steady friend and supporter of the 
young King. He was appointed a gentleman of the bedcham- 
ber, defended James vi. against the enmity that he incurred 
through adopting the Earls of Lennox and Arran as his coun- 
cillors, and was one " of ane voluntary band of young gentle- 
men who hes subscrivit ane band to serve the king the time of 
his weirs (wars) upon their awin expenses." 2 He soon, how- 
ever, changed his tactics, and becoming a convert to Eomanism, 
was one of the most zealous and daring confessors of his time, 
having, with the aid of an English Jesuit, whom he kept in 
his castle of Balgavies, confirmed the Earls of Huntly, Errol, 
and Angus in " the faith." It is probable that the treasonable 
correspondence with the Court of Spain was concocted within 
his castle, and partly carried out a circumstance that long 

1 On the antiquities of Pitscandly, Woodwrae, and Aberlemno, see Proc. Soc. 
Ant. Scot. ii. pp. 190 sq., in a paper written by Mr. Jervise: Anderson, Scotland in 
Early Christian Times, 2d Ser., passim. 

2 Lives, L p. 336. 



212 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

embittered the reign of James, and induced him to undertake 
his subjugating journey to the north in 1593, during which he 
wreaked his vengeance on Sir Walter, by almost wholly razing 
his residence to the foundation. 

This castle, which had been moated, was never rebuilt, and 
the ruins of two of the vaults still top a hillock in the corner 
of a field. With the exception of a mutilated sculpture of the 
family arms in the manse garden at Aberlemno, bearing the 
initial " B," and motto, " BUM SPIRO SPERO," these ruins are the 
only traces in the district of this adventurous baron or his 
descendants. The armorial tablet may have graced their 
burial-place, which had probably been at that church. 

Like others of his noble relatives, Sir Walter fell by the 
hand of one of his own kinsmen, the young and erratic Master 
of Crawford, in 1605 1 a circumstance, as has already been 
shown, that was the root of a series of unhappy consequences 
to the house of Edzell. It may be noticed that Sir Walter's 
landed interest was not confined to the lands of Balgavies, or 
even to the barony, in which were included the Hilton of 
Guthrie, Langlands, and Innerdovat, but embraced Little 
Markhouse, the Haughs, Cunningair, and other parts of Fin- 
haven, and also Carlungie and Balhungie, in the barony of 
Downie, as well as the barony of Inverarity and the patronage 
of the church. 2 In all these he was succeeded by his son David, 
who died in 1615, from whose son and successor, Walter, the 
lands passed to other hands in 1630, and from that period the 
Lindsays entirely ceased to have any connection with Balgavies. 3 

It is likely that Sir Walter acquired Balgavies about 1571, 
as in that year he had a charter from his father of the adjoin- 
ing property of Kemphill, in the parish of Guthrie a property, 
by the way, which is not to be confounded with the Kemp or 
Camp Castle, that tradition speaks of as being on the neigh- 

1 Pitcairn, Grim. Trials, iiL p. 248, for the royal remission granted to David Earl 
of Crawford, in June 1613. 

2 Inquis. Spec. Forfar. Nos. 20 (1601\ 49 (1606), etc. 

3 For its subsequent proprietorship, see Warden, A ngus, ii. pp. 310 sq. 



FINHAVEN B ALGA VIES. 213 

bouring hill of Turin, and reported to have come to the Lind- 
says by their taking forcible possession of it from the owner, 
who bore the name of Kemp. 1 This story at best is confused 
and improbable, and may have arisen from the fact of Sir 
Walter having been possessor of Balgavies and Kemphill at 
the same time. Perhaps, however, although all record has 
been lost, both Balgavies and Kemphill had been places of 
consideration in old times, and may have had something to do 
with the disastrous engagement that occurred here betwixt the 
Picts and Scots, or during the invasion of the Danes at a later 
period. At least, the Gaelic origin of the names would imply 
something of this sort, for Balgaise means " the town of bravery 
and valour," and the name of Kemp may be associated with 
that of a northern deity, remarkable for gigantic stature, and 
for prowess and valour. 



SECTION V. 

Time like an arrow flies, with rapid course, 
And states, and empires, 'neath it roll away ! 
But thou, rare treasure, long hast stood its test, 
To please the curious of a modern age. 

ANON. " 

Vitrifications on Finhaven Hill Site described --Theories of the vitrification Camp 
at Battle-dykes Local names Archaeological remains. 

SUCH were the Lindsays of Finhaven and those who dwelt in 
the more immediate vicinity of the castle ; but of the families 
in other and more distant parts of the shire we shall speak in 
treating of their several estates, and will close this chapter 
by a brief notice of the prehistoric features of the district of 
Finhaven, which are the only points that now remain to be 
noticed. 

These consist of the so-called "vitrified fort," the well- 
known Roman Camp of Battle-dykes, and traces of ancient se- 
pulture. Of all these, the vitrified fort (or site as it is now more 

1 Sew Stat. Acct., Forfarshire, p. 607. 



214 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

generally termed by archaeologists), situated on the highest part 
of the range known as Finhaven Hills, and nearly equidistant 
from Brechin and Forfar by the old road, is the most remark- 
able. The hill on which the site is found is five hundred and 
seventy-three feet above the level of the South Esk at the 
castle of Finhaven, 1 or seven hundred feet above sea-level, and 
embraces an extensive view of the country on all sides, being 
well adapted for defensive purposes, or for signals, or for Beil 
fires. It also commands a view of Greencairn near Fetter- 
cairn, the hill of Garvock in the Mearns, and that of Denoon 
in Glamis parish on all of which traces of vitrification have 
been observed. 

The site of Finhaven is a parallelogram, and the southern 
wall stands within a hundred feet of the perpendicular side of 
the hill. 2 The mean length from the middle part of the east 
to that of the west dike (including the space occupied by the 
well, which is from seventy to eighty feet across), is from three 
hundred and seventy to three hundred and eighty feet, and about 
one hundred and twelve feet at greatest width. The well (which 
was once supposed to be the mouth of a volcano, and from 
which the vitrified appearances were said to have originated), 
together with an entrance, is at the south-west corner, and 
the whole is surrounded by a wall varying in height from 
three to ten feet, and not more than twenty feet wide at most. 

Unlike the area of the circle of Caterthun, that of Finhaven 
is very unequal, and seems to have been roughly divided into 
three compartments. The most westerly part is exclusively 

1 Given in both Stat. Accounts as five hundred yards above the river. For the 
exact measurement of this hill, and the height of the castle walls, Mr. Jervise was 
indebted to Mr. G. Stuart, parochial schoolmaster of Oathlaw, who kindly made the 
measurements for him by the theodolite. 

a To prevent all misunderstanding, the reader is requested to bear in mind that 
this description of the vitrified site is solely referable to its present appearance, as no 
idea can now be formed of its original state. This is owing to the fact that thousands 
of cart-loads of stones were quarried out of it, and driven away for making roads and 
filling drains, etc. , and the whole structure might have been cleared off but for the 
laudable interference of the late lairds of Aldbar. It was also quarried towards the 
close of last century for pozzuolana, which is said to have been obtained in good 
quality. For a late account of the fort, see Warden, Angus, L pp. 43 sq. 



FINHAVEN VITRIFICATIONS. 215 

occupied by the well ; x while the eastern third slopes suddenly 
to the depth of six or eight feet, and leaves the middle, or largest 
third, the highest part of the whole. About fifty feet east- 
ward, running parallel with the northern dike of this site, there 
is another artificial-looking work scooped from the side of the 
mountain. This is divided into two compartments by a low 
dike ; and, like its fellow, has also a hollow on the west side, 
having much the appearance of the mouth of a well. The 
mean breadth of this work from east to west is nearly one 
hundred and forty feet ; but, whether it be natural or artificial, 
no traces of vitrification are visible, and its extent from south to 
north cannot now be defined. The space between the vitrified 
site and this eastern work is the highest peak of the hill, and, 
though now planted, appears to have been artificially levelled. 
Some attribute the origin of vitrified sites to the Picts, but 
examples of them are found throughout all Scotland. So far 
as yet known, however, they are peculiar to North Britain, and 
may have formed a curious feature in the domestic or warlike 
economy of the ancient inhabitants. They were first brought 
under notice in the year 1777 by Mr. Williams, the mineral 
surveyor and engineer of the forfeited estates of Scotland, who 
published a book on the subject, and at once pronounced them 
" vitrified forts," and threw out this theory as to their probable 
construction : " After the walls were raised to a proper height, 
and the interstices filled with sand or gravel, great quantities 
of wood or bog turf, mixed with brushwood, were piled within 
and without the fort, and over the top of the walls. Upon 
these combustibles being set on fire, the intense heat would 
soon produce that vitreous effect upon the trap-rock now to be 
noticed in the ruins of those erections, and the stones would 
not only be firmly cemented, but have all the appearance of a 
solid mass." 

1 There is now no water in this well, the shaft having been filled with stones by a 
former tenant of Bogardo, several of whose sheep were drowned in it. It is said to 
have been constructed something like a spiral stair, and was popularly believed to 
have a subterraneous passage to the old kirk of Finhaven. 



216 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Since Mr. Williams's time, speculations regarding the origin 
of these remarkable works have been plentiful, but an epitome 
of the various theories may suffice. Mr. Anderson of Monksmill 
supposes that the stones had been piled together, and then 
cemented by means of pouring a vitrified matter upon the 
wall. Lord Woodhouselee attributes the vitrified appearance, 
not to the mode of rearing the sites by the assistance of fire, but 
to their having been destroyed by it. But the idea to which 
most credit is attached is that of Sir George Mackenzie, who 
concludes that the vitreous effects had arisen from the frequent 
lighting of beacon-fires upon the same spot ; and argues that 
vitrification is only traceable upon the tops of insulated and con- 
nected chains of mountains, where these remains have all more 
the appearance of an accidental than an intentional effect. 1 

This latter remark is peculiarly applicable to the site of 
Finhaven, where the vitreous traces are all partial, there being 
sometimes patches to the extent of one, two, three, and even six 
feet, where no traces of fire are visible; and though rarely found 
at the lower part of the wall, vitrification is evident through- 
out many parts of the heart of it, but particularly on the top 
and sides, to the depth of twelve inches or more. Nor are these 
confined to the walls or boundary dikes only, but extend to 
the area of the work, which presents throughout the same 
partial effects of vitrification. Charred and uncharred pieces 
of wood are said to have been found in many parts of the wall, 
a fact still proved by the peculiar appearance of the cavities in 
the scoriae, where pieces of wood have fallen out by accident 
or otherwise. In one piece lately found, there was discovered, 
firmly encased, the grinder of an animal which may have been 
slain, either as a sacrifice to Beil, or to satisfy the appetites of 
the old inhabitants. 

The Hill of Finhaven is of the conglomerate, or plum- 
pudding species of rock, which is the most fusible of any ; but 
the vitrified walls, though mostly composed of that, contain 

1 Archtzologia Scoticdf, vol. iv. 



FINHAVEN SPECULATIONS ON VITRIFYING. 217 

many traces of freestone and others not common to the dis- 
trict ; and, as observed by Dr. Jamieson, the stones appear, in 
some instances, to have been laid in regular courses, and banded 
together. The Eev. Mr. White of Selborne l was among the 
first to notice that heat caused sand to flux, and thereby fur- 
nished a key to the various theories regarding the causes of 
vitrification on mountains. But the most elaborate notices on 
the fusible nature of stone, and of the probable origin of these 
sites, is by Dr. Wilson, 2 who is inclined to agree with Sir George 
Mackenzie in believing the vitreous effects to have been caused 
by the frequent lighting of beacon-fires on the same spot. 

The value of inquiring into the origin of these remark- 
able structures is, obviously, from the light that the discovery 
of their formation and use would throw on the ancient arts 
and manners of our forefathers. As yet, however, these are as 
mysterious as ever to archaeologists, though the inexhaustible 
treasury of popular tradition asserts that this " fort " is merely 
the ruins of the original castle of Finhaven, which never reached 
beyond the foundations, because of a demoniacal power overturn- 
ing under night what was erected during day ! A nocturnal watch 
was accordingly set to detect the destroyer; but the watch- 
men were almost frightened to death, when, about midnight, a 
fiendish voice exclaimed, from amid the din of tumbling walls 

" Found-even down into the bog, 
Where 'twill neither shake nor shog ! " 

The hint was taken operations were instantly stopped on the 
hill and commenced in the valley, and the foundations left to 
puzzle the curious. The couplet (double-headed as such things 
generally are) is also said to have conferred the distinctive 
name of Findaven on the district ! 

The boundary of the Eoman Camp at Battle-dykes is not 
now traceable, but it was so in the time of Maitland, 3 and for 

1 Natural Hist, of Selborne, Letter rv. J Prehistoric Annals, ii. pp. 92 sq. 

3 William Maitland, author of a History and Antiquities of Scotland, and other 
works, was the first to discover Roman traces north of the Tay. He was horn at 
Brechin in 1693, and died at Montrose in 1757, leaving a fortune of 10,000. 



218 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

long after. It measured two thousand nine hundred and 
seventy feet, by one thousand eight hundred and fifty ; and it 
is worthy of remark that, apart from the Camp of Eae-dykes 
at Fetteresso in the Mearns (where General Eoy supposes the 
Battle of the Grampians to have been fought), that of Battle- 
dykes is not only the largest in the district, but nearly two- 
thirds greater than that of Ardoch in Perthshire. It is believed 
that this camp was employed by Agricola in the year 81, and 
was connected with those of Ardoch and Grassy-walls by a 
Eoman road that passed through the south-eastern part of 
Forfarshire, and from thence to Eae-dykes, by the camps of 
Keithock, near Brechin, and Fordoun in the Mearns. In cor- 
roboration of this, when General Eoy made his survey of the 
Eoman camps throughout Scotland, he says, in reference to 
that of Battle-dykes : " It appears to me to be one of the 
most entire of the kind hitherto discovered ; at the same time 
that the similarity of its figure and dimensions prove indis- 
putably that it held the same army formerly encamped at 
Ardoch and Grassy-walls." l 

It may also be remarked that the names of some places in 
the district of Finhaven are curious. The King's Palace, the 
King's Seat, and the King's Bourne, for instance, are all on the 
farm of Battle -dykes, within the limits of the Eoman camp, 
and perhaps refer to the time when the lands were in the 
hands of royalty. At the King's Palace, six clay urns were 
found about fifty years ago, but nothing is known of the style 
of their manufacture. About six hundred cart-loads of stones 
were taken away from the last-mentioned place for building 
purposes, and it is supposed that nearly as many more are 

1 In reference to the Camp of Rae-dykes, General Roy says, " In this neighbour- 
hood we are to look for the scene of the celebrated battle [Mons Grampius] ; for the 
nature of the country seems to point out that the Caledonians would take post on 
the Grampian Mountains towards their eastern extremity, where the plain becomes 
narrow, from the near approach of that lofty range to the sea, " (Military Antiquities, 
pp. 85, 86, 87. ) On the supposed line of the Roman camps and roads to the north, 
see Warden, Angus, i. pp. 57 sq. ; but the site of the battle of Mons Grampius must 
remain as a matter for speculation. Dr. Skene (Celt. Scot. i. pp. 52 sq.) places it 
near the Isla below Blairgowrie. 



FINHAVEN BATTLE-DYKES. 219 

there still ; and, as stones are comparatively scarce on the 
adjoining ground, it is probable that those which composed the 
" palace " had been gathered from these parts. 

Stone coffins, with human remains, have been found through- 
out the whole district. Three of these were exhumed some 
years ago in the hillock adjoining the dove-cot, and were all 
composed of rude stone flags, about four feet and a half long, 
with the heads lying towards the east, while one of them con- 
tained the additional and interesting relic of a large iron spur, 
but this, unfortunately, was carried off by the workmen and 
lost. But the most important of these discoveries was that of 
a solitary coffin, found near the Gallow path-road, in the 
neighbourhood of St. Mary's Well in Oathlaw, in which, along 
with human remains, there was a large gold ring or chain, 
which, from its position in the coffin, is supposed to have 
been the necklace of the person interred. 1 Although our 
inquiry has been fruitless regarding the custodier of this ring, 
it is said to be still in the district, and, being described as a 
thin twisted hoop, is perhaps of a construction and age similar 
to the Largo and Eannoch Armillse. 2 

1 Information from the late Mr. George Stuart, parochial schoolmaster. 

2 See Wilson, Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, i. pp. 467, 469 ; ii. p. 250. 




FINHAVEN CASTLK. 



CHAPTER V. 
Jnrn. 

SECTION I. 

The kirk an' kirkyard on the hillock sae green, 
Where friends an' gude neebors on Sundays convene. 

The district is further remarkable as the birthplace of men of genius. 

Etymology and old condition of Fern Early ministers The post-Reformation 
clergy Parish registers The Tytlers, father and sons Kirks, past and pre- 
sent Kirkyard, and its monuments. 

THE church of Fern belonged to the provostry of Tain, 1 and 
was situated within the diocese of Dunkeld; but history is 
silent as to the name of its donor and the period of its gift. 
A piece of land, consisting of about five Scotch acres, a 
little east of the kirk, is called "Dunkeld riggs," some- 
times abbreviated into Dun's riggs. No fountain in the 
immediate vicinity of the kirk bears the name of any saint ; 
but at Wellford, about a mile to the south-west, there is a 
spring called St. Innen. This is probably a corruption of the 
name of St. Ninian, the apostle of vthe Picts, to whom the kirk 
may have been inscribed, for no field or knoll near Wellford 
bears any name that would lead one to suppose that a chapel 
had ever stood there, though within the last century there 
were two or three large rude boulders near it, called Druidical 
stones. The name of Fern is probably derived from the 
abundance of Alder, that had grown there, 2 fearn being the 
Gaelic name of that tree. 

William Eattray, third son of Sir Adam Eattray of Craig- 

1 MS. Rental of Assumption. Mait. Club. 
~ But see New Stat. Acct., Forfarshire, p. 518. 



FERN EARLY HISTORY. 221 

hall, was rector of the parish church of Fern in 1357, 1 and 
John Gray in 1394. 2 Towards the close of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, the cure was held by a Thomas Hamilton, who had his 
stipend so irregularly paid by the tacksmen of the teinds that 
he raised an action against them before the Lords of Council, 
who were pleased to ratify his claim. As the names of the 
renters of the teinds, and the amount paid from certain of the 
lands are given in detail, the facts may be quoted for the 
purpose of showing the amount of these at the early period 
referred to. John of Fothringham was charged " xii merkis 
and thre wedderis" for Auchinlochy and the third part of 
Bochquharne ; John of Ferae, " iv merkis, or ellis half a chalder 
of vitale," for the Mill of Feme ; and David Lindesay, and 
Paule of Fentoune (? of Ogil), " viii merkis, ii wedderis, and a 
Scottis bow, the price of the bow x s., for the teyndis of 
Duchre." 3 Patrick Muir is said to have been parson in 1584, 
and Alexander Noray, rector, had died before 1613. 4 

The parishes of Fern, Menmuir, and Kinnell were under 
the charge of one minister after the Eeformation, and for the 
serving of all three he had little more than eleven pounds 
sterling. The minister of the period was James Melville (fifth 
brother of the celebrated Andrew), whose father was laird of 
the small estate of Baldovie near Montrose, and had in all 
nine sons, of whom Andrew was the youngest. 6 Thomas 
Schevand, the contemporary reader of Fern with Mr. Melville, 
had a yearly salary of about thirty-three shillings sterling ; but, 
at a subsequent period (the exact date of which is unknown), 
the reader's stipend was augmented by a " Lady Lindsay " to 

1 Douglas, Baronage, p. 275. - Reg, Nigr. Aberbr. p. 42. 

3 Ada D&m. Concil. Oct. 25, 1488. 

* Reg. Episc. Brech. ii. pp. 228, 237, 240. 

5 This eminent reformer was one of nine brothers, who are all said to have 
followed the ministry. This, however, is a mistake. Besides Richard and Andrew, 
the other sons were Thomas, "secretar deput of Scotland;" Walter, burgess and 
bailie of Montrose ; Roger, burgess of Dundee ; James, minister, first at Fern, and 
then at Arbroath ; John, the contemporary reader at Maryton with his brother 
Richard, who was minister there ; and Robert and David, who were both " crafts- 
men." See James Melville, Diary, pp. 38-9 ; Th. M'Crie, Life of Andrew Melville. 



222 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

the extent of eight bolls of meal, which was converted, about 
the beginning of this century, into a money payment; and, 
not unmindful of the poor, the same charitable person also 
mortified an annual of two and a half bolls of meal to them. 

Little is known of Andrew Leitch, the two Nories, and 
George Symmer. James Cramond was minister in Ochter- 
lony's time. He died in 1690, and on the 29th of December 
1698 Mr. George Wemyss was settled in the parish. 1 About 
the time of the rebellion, Mr. Wemyss yielded for a short 
space to a Mr. James Watson, who took part with the Earl of 
Southesk in " the fifteen," and was deposed " for praying for 
the Pretender under the name of King James the Eighth," and 
for keeping "the fast and thanksgiving appointed by the 
rebels." His coadjutor, the schoolmaster, joined in the same 
cause, and was also deposed. The old part of the present 
manse was erected in Mr. Watson's time, and a stone dated 
1702 and initialed "E.I.S." (Earl James of Southesk), is still 
in the wall. Mr. George Wemyss, who was a determined 
friend to the Hanoverian family, ultimately regained his place, 
and was followed by his son, who, being translated to Errol, 
in Perthshire, in 1744, was succeeded by Mr. George Tytler, a 
native of Aberdeenshire. Mr. Gillanders was minister for six- 
teen years up to 1802, and his successor, Mr. David Harris, 
held the incumbency for nearly sixty-five years thereafter. 
Messrs. Wilson and Waddell each did so for a short period, and 
the present minister, the Rev. John Ferguson, was appointed 
in 1 874. It may be remarked, that although little attention 
had been paid for long to the parochial registrations there, 2 it 
appears from a curious dispute which occurred between Mr. 
Tytler and John Dildarg (the schoolmaster then and for some 
years after), that at and before the year 1778, these were better 
attended to, since the keeping of them was one of the reasons 
that induced Mr. Tytler to employ Dildarg. 

1 Presbytery Record, vol. iii. fol. 6. 

2 " The minister of Fame rebuked for not having a session or book to insert 
minutes of transactions." (Presby. Book, June 14, 1649.) 



EERN THE TYTLERS. 223 

These registers, however, throw little light on the history 
of either Mr. Tytler or his predecessors ; still, as the father of 
James and Dr. Henry William, both of whom were famous in 
literature, Mr. Tytler's name has a more than ordinary interest. 
He died on July 29th, 1785, in the seventy-ninth year of his 
age, and the fifty-third of his ministry. But, it may be 
inferred, from the curious dispute which arose betwixt him 
and Dildarg about " the unlawfulness of blood-eating," that, 
although men of learning and genius, both sons inherited much 
of the eccentricity of their father. 1 The eldest, James, com- 
piled the greater part of the second edition of the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, and wrote many other works of acknowledged 
merit; but, being an unsuccessful rival of Montgolfier and 
Lunardi, he is best known by the sobriquet of Balloon Tytler. 
In addition to his scientific writings, he was author of the 
well-known Scottish songs of " The Bonnie Bruiket Lassie," 
" Loch Erroch-side," " I canna come ilka day to woo," and 
several others. He married young, and being ill-requited for 
his literary labours, his life was a continued struggle with 
poverty. Naturally liberal in politics, and fond of novelty, he 
joined in the reforming movement of the times, and made him- 
self so conspicuous by his pen and otherwise, that but for the 
prompt interference of his friends, who sent him to America, he 
might have had a fate like that of Baird and Hardie. Tytler 
died in the town of Salem, New England, in 1805, where he 
had conducted a newspaper from the time of his arrival there. 2 

His brother, who is famous as the first Scotchman that 
published a translation of the Greek classics, was bred a 
surgeon, and married a sister of the historian Gillies. He 
began life as a practitioner in Brechin, but finding little 
encouragement there, he went to India, and on his return 
published some original poems, among which was a " Voyage 



1 See APPENDIX No. IX. for an epitome of the dispute alluded to. 

2 For many interesting particulars of. the chequered life of this extraordinary 
person, see a biographical notice of him published at Edinburgh in 1822. 



224 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

from the Cape of Good Hope," and died at Edinburgh in 1808. 
But he was known as an author long before the publication of 
these poems, for, while Tytler was labouring under severe 
mental distress (and not after his death, as several biographers 
state), Dr. John Gillies, his brother-in-law, superintended 
Callimachus through the press, and the book appeared in 
1793, with a preface by the Earl of Buchan, in which that 
vain-glorious nobleman compares himself to Sir Philip Sidney, 
" in whom," he says, " every compatriot of extraordinary merit 
found a friend without hire, and a common rendezvous of 
worth " ! 

Happily the cloud which hung over Tytler's mind was 
only temporary, and about four years after the publication of 
Callimachus, he issued Pcedotrophia, or the Art of Nursing and 
Rearing Children, from the Latin of Scevole de St. Marthe, 
but enriched with valuable medical and historical notes. In 
the poetical dedication of this book (which extends over thirty- 
five pages), he thus feelingly alludes to the Earl of Buchan's 
kindness to him during his illness, and to his own pre-eminent 
position as the first Scottish translator of a Greek poet : 

' ' With health, with ease, with sacred friendship blest, 
The friendship of a virtuous heart, and good, 
More dear to mine than treasures of the proud, 
Let me attempt the heights desired before, 
Unlock now ancient, now the modern lore, 
And happy that the first ofScotian swains 
1 taught a Grecian poet English strains, 
Still court the Nine, secure of lasting praise, 
If BUCHAN favour and approve my lays." 

Apart from the interesting fact of the Manse of Fern 
being the birthplace of those two eminent men, the vicinity 
has other attractions, in so far as the kirk is beautifully situated 
on an isolated hillock in the middle of a romantic den, which, 
although now rendered lovely by the taste of the past and 
present ministers of the parish, was an uncultivated wild at 
the beginning of this century, shaded only by brushwood, 
among which the hazel and the arn, or alder, predominated. 



FERN CHURCH AND BELL. 225 

The latter still abounds throughout the district, particularly on 
the banks of the Noran; and it is probable, as before said, 
that the name of the parish may have been thus assumed. 

The old church stood more in the middle of the graveyard 
than the present edifice, which was built in 1806; and, as if 
to support the story of Cardinal Beaton's connection with the 
castle of Vayne (which will be fully noticed in a subsequent 
section), it has long been reported that he not only presented 
the bell to the church, but that it bore his name and the year 
of his birth ; and having had two bells made in Holland at the 
same time, he gifted the other to the church of Aberlemno, in 
which parish his castle of Melgund was situated ! So far from 
these stories being credible, the date on the Fern bell, it will be 
seen, is only twelve years later than Beaton's birth, and refers 
merely to the time of its being cast, at which period the barony 
was in the hands of the Lindsays of Edzell, as vassals of the 
Earls of Crawford. The following is the legend on the bell : 

"1C BEN GEGOTEN INT IAEK MCCCCCVI." l 

The gravestones in the churchyard are numerous, and, 
although some of them bear " uncouth rhymes and shapeless 
sculpture," few are so peculiarly interesting as to warrant 
their being specially referred to. The following, however, which 
appears on a stone erected to the memory of a farmer who 
died within the last forty years, may be cited as an example 
of the way in which worldly employments and Scripture ideas 
are laid hold of by mortuary rhymesters : 

" Death daily walks his active round, 

On Time's uncertain stage ; 
He breaks up every fallow ground 
Spares neither sex nor age." 

The best monument is a granite slab over the grave of the 
late Thomas Binny, proprietor of Fern, who died on the 5th 

1 i.e. " I was cast in the year 1506." Nothing is known of an older bell at 
Aberlemno than the present, though there had doubtless been one. That now in use 
bears : "THE BELL OF ABERLEMNO BOBERTVS MAXWELL ME FECIT 
EDB. 1728." 

P 



226 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

of March 1845. The burial-places of the families of Gall, 
sometime proprietors of the small estate of Auchnacree, and 
of Deuchar of that Ilk, are also marked by respectable free- 
stone memorials, one recording the decease of the penultimate 
laird and lady of the latter name, who died respectively in the 
years 1802 and 1823. But of the graves of the families of de 
Montealto and Lindsay the ancient superiors of the district 
no trace is visible. 



SECTION II. 

Though in their day a violent band 
As ever waved the deadly brand ; 
And good to kirk as well as king. 
They 're now a lost, forgotten thing. 

The de Montealtos of Fern and Both Their other possessions Fern passed to the 
Crawford Lindsays Estate of Deuchar Deuchar at the battles of Barry and 
Harlaw Family and influence traced Its decline Fern under the Carnegies 
Windsor Waterstone Commonty of Little Brechin Balmadity. 

No record of any proprietor of the barony of Fern is 
known before the time of William the Lion, by whom it was 
gifted to a family bearing the surname of de Montealto, now 
metamorphosed into that of Mowed a name by no means 
uncommon in Angus at the present time, though not in a 
proprietary relation. Mention of the family first occurs during 
the reign of David I., when Eobert de Montealto witnesses 
several of that king's charters ; but they were first settled in 
the south, and assumed their surname from a place in Flint- 
shire. 1 William de Montealto, knight, gave an annual of a 
stone of wax and four shillings to the monks of Cupar from 
his lordship of Fern, and is a witness to the perambulation 
of the marches of the Abbey lands of Arbroath and those of 
Kinblethmont : this took place in 1219. 2 

1 Chalmers, Caledonia, i. p. 531. Mohaut, Mouhaut, Muhaut, Muhauth, and 
Montealt are the same, and occur frequently in the ancient Scotch charters, etc. 
from the thirteenth century. 

2 Reg. Vet. Aberbrothoc, p. 162; Reg. Cup. Alb. p. xvii. 



FERN FAMILY DE MONTEALTO. 227 

Besides the lordship of Fern, the Montealtos were pro- 
prietors of Both, in the parish of Carmyllie, and Abbot 
Adam of Arbroath became bound to William de Montealto, 
the son of Michael, to support a chaplain at the chapel of St. 
Laurence of Both, l or, in other words, became patron of that 
church, which was afterwards given by William Maule of Pan- 
mure to the cathedral of Brechin. 2 Michael de Montealto was 
one of the Justiciaries of Scotland proper in 1242, 3 and his son 
Bernard and Abbot William of Balmerino were among the 
many persons of distinction who were drowned on returning 
from the court of Norway in 1281, after witnessing the cele- 
bration of the nuptials of Margaret, daughter of Alexander HI., 
with King Eric 4 a catastrophe that gave rise to the fine old 
ballad of " Sir Patrick Spens," which concludes thus 

" Half owre, half owre to Aberdour, 

It's fifty fathoms deep, 
And there lies gude Sir Patrick Spens, 
Wi' the Scots lords at his feet." 

Eobert de Montealto was sheriff of Forfarshire in 1262, 5 
and a witness to the foundation charter of the Domus Dei, or 
Maisondieu Hospital of Brechin in 1267. 6 William de Monte- 
alto, perhaps the son of Robert, was present at the famous 
convention held within the monastery of Arbroath on the 
6th of April 1320, and subscribed the spirited remonstrance 
to Pope John xxii., asserting the independence of Scotland. 
And it may have been the same William de Muhaut that 
subscribed the letter to King Edward in 1289, regarding the 
marriage of our Princess Margaret with his son. 7 In 1322 
William de Montealto of Kinblethmont gave a charter of the 

1 Reg. Vet. Aberbr. p. 189 (A.D. 1250) ; on Both, see Reg. de Panmure, i. p. rxi, 
ii. pp. 173, 363 sq. ; Reg. Episc. Brech. i. p. 14. 

2 Robertson, Index, p. 51. 42. 3 Chalmers, Ceiled. I p. 532. 
* Tytler, Hist, of Scot. i. p. 48. e Warden, Angus, ii. p. 226. 

6 Reg. Episc. Brech. i. p. 7 ; Reg. de Panmure, ii. p. 207. 

7 Acts of Part. i. p. 85. Robert and Michael de Montealto are charter witnesses 
in 1246, and Laurence in 1272 (Fraser, Hist. Carnegies of Southesk, ii. pp. 478, 480), 
probably the same Laurence being rector of the church of Kinnettles in 1264 and 
1265 (Reg. Ep. Brech. i. p. 7 ; Reg. Vet. Aberbr. p. 269). 



228 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

lands of Brechin to Sir Gilbert de Haya of Errol : l and on the 
resignation of John de Haya, Dominus de Tulybothevyle, de 
Montealto had charters of the lands of Brichty, in the parish of 
Murroes, which were given by Eichard de Montealto in the 
year 1379 to Sir Alexander Lindsay of Glenesk. 2 This Eichard 
was chancellor of the cathedral of Brechin ; and in the same 
year resigned the barony of Inverlunan in favour of Alexander 
Stuart, the king's son by Marion de Cardny a resignation that 
took place at Dundee, from the customs of which burgh, de 
Montealto at the same period had a pension of twenty pounds. 3 

Two years prior to this date, however, Eichard had resigned 
all claim to the barony of Tern in favour of his son, William, 
whose charters of it were confirmed at the Abbey of Cupar, by 
Eobert II. ; 4 and, as before noticed, a younger son was rector of 
the kirk of Finhaven in the lifetime of Sir Alexander Lindsay 
of Glenesk, and a witness to the charter of Brichty. Eichard 
was alive in 1383, as his surname (changed for the first time 
into the modern form of Movat or Mowat) recurs in connec- 
tion with the barony of Lunan. 5 John is the last of the 
Mowats whom we have found connected with Fern ; he had 
charters of Syanford (now Shandford) from Eobert in., 6 'but 
from this period, until about 1450, there is a hiatus in the 
proprietary history of Fern that we are unable fully to supply. 7 

The surname of this once powerful family is now generally 
unknown in the district ; but it is curious to observe that a 
place on the hill of Bruff Shank is still called " Mowat's Seat," 
or " Mowat's Cairn ; " and, although popularly associated with 
the deeds of a Cateran of the name of Mowat, there is good 
reason to conclude that it more probably has reference to the 
ancient lords of the district, and is the only positive evidence 
of their name now in the parish. 

1 Eobertson, Index, p. 18. 66. 

2 Fraser, Hist. Camegies of Southesk, ii. pp. 492, 537. 

3 Robertson, Index, pp. 122, 123. * Reg. Mag. Sig. p. 149. 108. 
8 Robertson, Index, p. 124. 15. 6 Ibid. p. 139. 5. 

? Sir William de Monte Alto was of Fern in 1410. Reg. Mag. Sig. p. 246. 8. 



FERN HISTORY OF BARONY. 229 

Perhaps the barony of Fern had been resigned to Lindsay 
of Glenesk at the same time as Brichty, and to his descendants 
Shandford may have fallen on the death of John Mowat. Be 
that as it may, these lands were in possession of the Earls of 
Crawford some time before 1450; for in that year, Walter of 
Beaufort obtained them from his nephew, the fifth Earl and 
afterwards Duke of Montrose, in exchange for his patrimony of 
Strathnairn in Inverness-shire, which the first Earl had acquired 
by marriage with Elizabeth, daughter of Robert II., and yet, 
in the same year, John Crawmond de Fern was a charter 
witness. 1 

From the period of Montealto's resignation of Fern, it 
was held under the superiority of the Earls of Crawford, 
although, at the time of Walter of Beaufort's succession, and 
that of his son, Sir David, it formed part of the Edzell barony, 
and, along with Vayne, was given to Alexander, Sir David's 
second son by his second wife. The wife of Alexander Lind- 
say of the Yayne was named Elizabeth Bethune, as appears 
from charters of the land of Skyne (Scryne) and Vayne, dated 
respectively 31st August 1547 and 1st April 1550. Perhaps 
Elizabeth was a daughter of Cardinal Beaton, and sister to 
Margaret Beaton, who was married to the son of the " wicked 
master " of Crawford. By the descendants of Alexander the 
lesser estates of Balquhadlie and Balquharn were subsequently 
held ; and it may be remarked that the Lindsays of both 
these places were concerned with their cousin, Sir David of 
Edzell, in the slaughter of Campbell of Lundy. North of the 
church, on the hill of Drummore, the place is still pointed out 
where a Lady Lindsay (perhaps the Countess of the ninth 
Earl of Crawford) met her tenants and collected her rents, and 
some earthen benches adjoining are said to be those on which 
the tenantry sat on these occasions. 

The estate of Deuchar was also under the superiority of the 
lords of Fern, as was in fact the whole parish ; and from earliest 

1 Reg. Episc. Brech. i. p. 146. 



230 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

record, this small property was occupied by a family who 
designed themselves " of that Ilk " down to the late period of 
1819, when their male representative, who had for some time 
been insolvent, sold the lands, and left this country for the 
colonies. Although the property was small, the Deuchars were 
considered the oldest family in the shire ; and tradition says 
that the first of them had a gift of Deuchar so early as the com- 
mencement of the eleventh century, for killing a wild boar at 
the pass across the Koran, now known as Coortford or Coort- 
hill Bridge. But the popular idea of the lands having passed 
uninterruptedly from father to son down to the latest date has 
no foundation, for the family papers show in many instances 
that the grandfather was succeeded by his grandchild, and 
the uncle by his nephew. Yet it was perhaps from the above 
romantic story of the manner in which the lands were originally 
come by that the Deuchars assumed the sword and boar's head 
as their family bearings. 

This origin of the Deuchars is quite in accordance with 
that related of the Hays and the Keiths and many other old 
families. But, as the story is referable to a period anterior to 
the date of our national records, it is probable, if documentary 
evidence could be brought to bear on the point, that the killing 
of the wild boar at Coortford would have as little foundation 
in fact as the vanquishing of the Danes by the Hays and 
the gift of Errol for their trouble all of which has been 
proven, by recent investigation, to be based on mere fancy, 
notwithstanding that the coat-armorial of Hay, as that of 
Detichar, bears the salient points of the tradition. 1 

It is also said that a Deuchar of that Ilk was companion in 
arms with Keith at the battle of Barry in 1010 ; 2 and, although 

1 The first of the Hays came from Normandy with William the Conqueror, and a 
descendant, William de Haya, was the first of the family who had Errol, of which he 
had charters betwixt 1178 and 1188 160 years, at least, subsequent to the time 
ascribed by tradition. Douglas, Peerage, i pp. 544 sq. See some curious material 
on this subject in Pratt, Bucfian, Note M, p. 372. But it is alway open to argument 
that the bearings armorial gave birth to the legend in some or all of these cases. 

2 Ut supra, p. 210. 



FERN DEUCHARS OF THAT ILK. 231 

a person of gigantic form, and endowed with almost super- 
human strength (having had six fingers on each hand, and as 
many toes on each foot !) he fell by the sword of the Northmen, 
of whom he had gone in pursuit. Another representative of the 
family named William (who married a daughter of " the stal- 
wart laird of Lawriestoun ") was among the minor barons who 
fell at Harlaw in 1410. But unlike his father-in-law, neither 
his name nor his fate has been preserved in general history; 
though family tradition records that, when his attendant found 
him on the battle-field, his hand was so firmly clasped in his 
sword-hilt that it could not be wrested from it, and, " knowing 
that the sword was an old relic in the family and in high esteem, 
the servant cut the hand off by the wrist, and brought all home 
with him," as the too true evidence of his master's fate, and 
the unmistakeable signs of his valour. 

The sword was preserved in the family until, it is said, a 
feud broke out between an old laird of Ogil and a descendant 
of the hero of Harlaw, when the latter brought the " family 
relic " to his service ; but, instead of his thereby achieving the 
victory he anticipated, he was overpowered, and Ogil, taking 
the weapon from Deuchar, had it shortened some inches to suit 
his own diminutive stature! After a lapse of many years, 
this sword was restored to the Deuchars on certain payments 
and conditions, and the present weapon is reputed to be the 
same that "cut off the boar's head" at Coortford, and com- 
mitted so great slaughter at Harlaw. Apart from these 
stories, however, the following inscription, cut upon it in 
comparatively modern characters, imparts the additional par- 
ticular of its having been employed in the wars of the 
Independence : 

"I9a Be&q&figte fjts sfoertje. 
&t Bannodtfmtn - serbeti tfje 33rbs . 
f . qbfjilfc - tfje . Enfllis . fjato na 



1 This sword is now in possession of Miss Lucinda Marshall Deuchar, Edinburgh, 
daughter of the late Alexander Deuchar, seal engraver, along with the family papers 



232 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Such are the traditions relative to the old family of 
Deuchar. 1 Their private genealogy traces their origin from a 
second son of Gilchrist, the great Earl of Angus; but no 
documentary proof of their existence can be had till the year 
1369, when Sir Alexander Lindsay of Glenesk granted a charter 
of the lands to William de Deuhqwhyr of that Ilk, as heir to 
his father. It is therefore evident that the Deuchars were 
vassals of the Lindsays at that period ; and, in all probability, 
they had also been the same under the Montealtos, from whom 
the feudal superiority had most likely passed with the owner- 
ship of the barony of Fern in 1379. In further corroboration 
of this, it is said that the Deuchars paid an annual of a pair of 
white gloves to the Lindsays ; and this was by no means a 
singular reddendo for lands in old times, for, as one of many 
instances, it may be remarked that Eobert de Camera, ancestor 
of Chalmers of Aldbar, held the lands of Balnacraig, in Aber- 
deenshire, in the early part of the same century, on precisely 
the same terms, under his superior, Andrew de Garrioch. 2 

If the appearance of old families as assizers, and witnesses 
to charters, be any criterion to judge of their influence or status 
in society, one is forced to the conclusion (from the rare occur- 
rence of the Deuchars in these capacities) that they had always 

and numerous relics which belonged to her father, and her uncles, Commander 
Patrick Deuchar, R.N., and Major David Deuchar, 1st Eoyals. The sword belonged 
to David, the first seal engraver, who gave it to his son Alexander. The quotation 
in the text above is given from a paper forming one of the " Deuchar Vouchers." 
From these and other sources we have gleaned the following various spellings of 
the name, which may interest the curious : 



Dequhar. 


Deughar. 


Dewchare. 


Dowchar. 


Deuchair. 


Deugher. 


Dewquhar. 


Dowgar. 


Deuchar. 


Deuhqwhyr. 


Docher. 


Duchar. 


Deuchars. 


Deuquhair. 


Docker. 


Duchir. 


Deucharys. 


Deuquhar. 


Doker. 


Puchre. 


Deucher. 


Deuquhare. 


Doucher. 


Ductor. 


Deuchor. 


Deuquhyre. 


Doughar. 


Duquhar. 


Deuchquhyr. 


Dewchar. 


Douquhar. 


Duquhare. 



1 The following are other places in Scotland bearing similar names, viz. : 
Dewchrasyde in Cuningham ; Duchrays in Dumfries ; Deuchar in Ettrick ; Duchray 
in Stirlingshire ; Over and Nether Duchries in Banff : and Deuchries in Glen Tanar, 
Aberdeenshire. The etymology of the name is very doubtful. 

2 Nisbet, Heraldry, ii. p. 123. 



FERN DEUCHARS OF THAT ILK. 233 

been of inconsiderable, though respectable, standing. We have 
not met with them at all in the latter relation, that is, as wit- 
nesses ; and the only instances in which they appear in the 
former are " Patrik Duchir of that Ilk," who, as one of several 
county gentlemen, is charged with giving a wrong decision in 
reference to the property of Ogilvy of Owres ; x and a " Robert 
of Duchir," but as to whether he was a member of the same race 
or not we are uncertain, was similarly charged at an earlier date 
in reference to the property of Scrimgeour of Lillok in Dun- 
dee. 2 It may also be noticed that about this time " James of 
Duchir," a residenter in Dundee, was found guilty of denying 
his own handwriting, that appeared at an obligation he made 
in favour of a foreigner. For this he was punished in a style 
exceedingly characteristic of the times, being ordered to be 
taken by the magistrates on the market day " to the market 
corse of the said burgh in the heiest tyme of the market quhen 
maist multitude of folk ar present, and gar ane officiar stryke 
him throw the hand that wrate the said write, in exemple of 
punitione of sic lyke crynie in tyme to cum." 3 Still, this 
severe form of punishment did not prevent James from re- 
appearing before justice, for in two years thereafter he was 
cited as a debtor of fifty shillings to a brother burgess. 4 

These are the principal notices of the Deuchars that have 
come under our observation. It has been already shown that 
they were merely vassals of the Crawford Lindsays, and, from 
a deed of 1642, it also appears that the estate was a feudal 
holding under the Earls of Southesk; 5 from at least 1691 
to 1710, they paid an annual of nearly fifteen shillings 
and ninepence sterling to the Carnegies as superiors. 6 At a 
later period, as part of the forfeited estates of Southesk, the 
lands of Deuchar were held under the trustees of the York 
Buildings Company, and in the beginning of the present 

1 Acta Auditorum, June 4, 1478. 

a Ibid. July 6, 1476. a Ibid. July 5, 1476. 

4 Ibid. Mar. 17, 1478. 8 Deuchar Vouchers, quoted ut sup. p. 232. 

6 Old Rental- Book of Southesk, quoted ut sup. p. 122. 



234 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

century, of the proprietor of Noranside for a small money 
payment, if asked. 1 

After the barony of Fern fell to the Southesk family, 
various of the Deuchars migrated to the parishes of Farnell 
and Kinnell, where they held considerable farms, and where, 
it is believed, some of their descendants live at the present 
time. Deuchar, the first seal engraver of that name that was 
in Edinburgh, was of the Balishan or Bolshan branch, and 
born on that farm in 1743. His direct heir-male is Patrick 
Deuchar, merchant in Liverpool, who contests with the heir- 
male of the late John, brother of that George who sold the 
property, the title to represent the " Deuchar of that Ilk." 2 

The estate of Deuchar consists of little more than two 
hundred acres arable land; but, according to tradition, the 
family had an interest in the lands of Windsor, which are 
the most easterly rising ground in the parish, and of these 
they are said to have had every fourth fur or ridge. We 
have seen no evidence for this; and perhaps the story of 
their being portiouers of Windsor is confounded by tradition 
with the fact of their having once possessed the fourth part of 
Waterstone. 3 Both these farms were under the superiority of 
Fern, and the seventh Earl of Crawford is specially men- 
tioned as proprietor of Wyndesour ; while, between the years 
1165 and 1189, Walter de Windesour is witness to Walter de 
Berkeley's charter of the lands of Newton, near Inverkeillor. 4 
Although there is no positive evidence of any family having 
assumed a surname from this Windsor, it is probable that 
Walter had done so, and been a vassal of the de Montealtos. 

AVaterstone, or Waterstown (a farm now divided between 
the parishes of Fern and Careston, but wholly a part of the 
former parish 5 until the erection of the latter into a separate 
parochial district) was anciently an independent property, and 

1 Deuchar Vouchers. 2 See Appendix No. X. 

3 Inquis. Spec., Forfar. No. 11. 91. 4 Reg. Vet. Aberbrothoc, p. 329. 

8 Reg. Episc. Brech. ii. p. 312, giving its disjunction from Brechin, and annexation 
to Fern. 



FERN WATERSTONE. 235 

gave name to a family who designed themselves " of that Ilk," 
and who, in all probability, had also been vassals of the Lind- 
says and older lords of Fern. Alike with the name of 
Deuchar, records are wanting to show the time when that of 
Waterstone was assumed ; but it is probable that the lands had 
been so called from Walter, the uncle and tutor of Dempster, 
one of the heirs-portioners of the lordship of Menmuir. The 
earliest known charter of Waterstone belongs to the regency of 
the Duke of Albany ; but the family had enjoyed the estate 
from at least the year 1359, as at that date mention is made of 
a David de Walterystoun, who had eight marks out of the 
farms in the thanedom of Tannadice, 1 a confirmation of which 
grant, and the half lands of Walterstoune to David, son and heir 
of John de Walterystoun, also constitutes the charter of the 
Duke of Albany. That cb.ar.ter was granted at Falkland in 
1407 ; and in 1450, David Walterstoun of that Ilk was one of 
an assize chosen to perambulate the marches of Brechin and 
Balzeordie, 2 and Hew of Walterstoun perhaps a son of David 
was one of the referees in the case of the Owres property 
already mentioned. 

The last time we have met with the name is in 1535, when 
David, portioner of the lands of Waterstoun, with Dempster of 
Careston, Deuchar of that Ilk, Fenton of Ogil, and other 
adjoining proprietors, were charged by the Bishop and Chapter 
of Brechin with having " riwen out, telit, and sawyn ane part 
thereof, and biggit housis upon ane uther parte " of the com- 
monty of that city, which had been used by them and the 
citizens as a common peat moss, " past memory of man." In 
this process the defenders were found in fault, and Lord Gray, 
then Sheriff of the county, declared " the whole muir to be a 
commonty to the said reverend father (the Bishop), Dean, 
Chapter, and citizens of Brechin." 3 This commonty was of great 
extent, and well worth claiming, having extended over a large 

1 Ckamb. Rolls, i. p. 343. 

2 Reg. Episc. Brech. i. p. 141, ii. p. 79. 3 Ibid. ii. pp. 186-9. 



236 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

part of the parishes of Brechin, Menmuir, Careston, and Fern 
its extreme boundary on the east being the Gallows Hill of 
Keithock, and that on the west the Gallows, or Law of Fern 
being an average length of not less than eight miles, and in 
breadth nearly one and a half. It is on this commonty that 
Little Brechin is situated, and the whole of it is held under the 
city of Brechin as superiors for payment of certain feu- duties. 

But, of all the lands in Fern, or, indeed, in any other part 
of the district comprised in this volume, notices of those of 
Balmadity are the earliest found. In ancient times, this small 
property belonged to the great Macduffs of Fife, and so early 
as the reign of Malcolm iv., Duncan Earl of Fife excambed 
"Balmadethy and Dunloppie," with Orera, the son of Hugh 
of Abernethy, for the lands of Balbernie in Fife. 1 In 1362, 
it was granted by the heiress, Margaret Abernethy, Coun- 
tess of Angus, to William de Fassingtoun and Margaret his 
spouse, but of him or his name, nothing is known beyond 
the fact that a William de Fasington, of the county of 
Edinburgh, swore fealty to Edward I. in 1296. 2 Little is 
known of the subsequent history of this estate, but it has 
formed a portion of the barony of Fern for many centuries. 



SECTION III. 

The brave Carnegie, wha but he 
The Piper o Dundee. 

JACOBITE BALLAD. 

Vayne Fern divided Noranside Greenhills of Fern Carnegies of Balinhard 
Their pedigree and history Of Kinnaird Earls of Southesk Their loyalty 
Kinnaird Castle The present Earl. 

As already shown, the family of Lindsay were designed 
" of Vayne " till near the middle of the seventeenth century, 
but were succeeded in the barony of Fern by Carnegie of 

1 Douglas, Peerage, il p. 466. 2 Ragman Roll, p. 134. 



FERN NORANSIDE. 237 

Southesk between 1593 and 1 5 95. 1 Falling under the attainder 
of 1716, this property was part of the forfeited estates of 
Southesk, which were repurchased by Sir James Carnegie of 
Southesk and Pittarrow, by whose trustees again, in 1766, the 
lands were sold to John Mill of Philpot Lane, London, for 
11,340, 5s. Od. He was succeeded by his son, also John, who, 
after building the mansion-house of Noranside, and otherwise 
improving the property, alienated all but the Noranside part, 
which, however, was afterwards sold by a descendant of Mill 
to the trustees of the late Thomas Gardyne of Middle- 
ton ; and, in virtue of Gardyne's testamentary deed, it was 
possessed by his nephew, the late James Carnegie of Fin- 
haven. It now belongs to trustees for behoof of the widow 
and family of the late proprietor, Eobert Thomas, Esq. of 
Noransjde, Drummore, and Kincarrathie, who died on the 
20th of February 1881. 

The portion sold by John Mill during his lifetime passed 
into the possession of the Hon. William Maule, third son of 
Lord Panmure, to whom it came by marriage with the daughter 
of Thomas Binuy of Maulesden, who purchased the barony 
in 1836 from the trustees of Alexander Greenhill, whose father 
had acquired the property from Mill in 1 79 7. 2 Fern was bought 
from the trustees of Mrs. Binny-Maule, and now belongs to 
James Fletcher, Esq. of Letham- Grange and Fern, who has 
also estates in Ross-shire. 

Of the families of Mill and Greenhill little is known. 
Eobert, the first of the former, was provost of Montrose, and, 
amassing a respectable fortune by trade, bought the lands of 
Balwyllo in the parish of Dun, sometime before the beginning 
of last century, 3 and those of Balhall in Menmuir soon there- 
after. 4 He was father of the first Mill of Fern, who was also 
laird of Old Montrose. In 1786, while a mere youth, Mill of 

* Deuchar Vouchers, quoted ut sup. p. 232. 

a Inventory of the Title Deeds of Fern, kindly communicated by the late Hon. 
William Maule. 

Douglas, Baronage, p. 34. 4 Tide-Deeds of Balhall. 



238 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Noranside married an Irish lady of the name of Ivy, widow of 
the Hon. George Falconer, fifth son of David, Lord Halkerton. 
This turned out an unhappy union, and Mill dying without 
issue in 1822, the Noranside part of Fern devolved on Major 
James Mill, a hero of Waterloo, by whom it was sold as above. 

Charles Greenhill, who bought the greater part of the barony 
of Fern from Mill, belonged to the neighbourhood of Glamis. 
He was of humble parentage, was bred to the law, and, besides 
being factor to the Southesk family for upwards of forty years, 
was much employed as trustee on bankrupt estates. He 
married a sister of the late Thomas Gardyne of Middleton, by 
whom he had a family of sons and daughters, of the former of 
whom, David Greenhill of Craignathro, of the East India Com- 
pany's Civil Service, became heir of entail to his cousin, James 
Carnegie, in the estates of Finhaven and Noranside. The 
genealogy of the ancient honourable proprietors of the barony 
of Fern has already been traced. 1 It now only remains to 
give a brief outline of the noble house of Southesk, whose 
family and fortunes were linked with these lands for upwards 
of a century and a half. 

The Lindsays were succeeded in the barony of Fern by 
the Carnegies towards the close of the sixteenth century. The 
surname of this noble family was originally de Balirihard, a 
territorial designation assumed from a small property in the 
parish of Arbirlot, near Arbroath. Martin of Clermont says 
that the first of them was cupbearer to Malcolm Canmore, 
and a later was constable of the castle of Kincardine in 
William the Lion's time, and got the lands of Fesdow and 
Pitnemoone for his service, 2 but there is no known evidence 
for these statements. About the year 1230, Gocelynus de 
Balindard, whose name suggests a Norman or otherwise 
foreign origin, witnesses several deeds betwixt the Abbeys of 

* Ut sup. p. 142, etc. 

2 Transcript of Martin de Clermont's MS. , by Macfarlane, in Advocates' Library, 
Edinburgh, in which is contained this fabulous account of the origin of the family of 
Carnegie. The original MS. is in the Register House, Edinburgh. 



FERN FAMILY DE BALINHARD. 239 

Arbroath and Balmerino. 1 In all probability lie was father to 
John de Balinhard, the first certainly recorded ancestor of the 
Carnegies of Southesk. His connection, however, with the 
Arbirlot de Balinhards must remain doubtful, though names, 
dates, and localities are in favour of its existence. 

John de Balinhard, who died about 1275, was succeeded 
by his son, Christian, whose grandson, John, about 1350, 
parted with the family estate of Balinhard, which lay in the 
middle of the lordship of Panmure, and by exchange or other- 
wise acquired from Sir Walter Maule the lands of Carnegie in 
the parish of Carmylie in the same neighbourhood. 2 From 
these lands the progenitors of the Carnegies of Kinnaird 
assumed their surname and title of " Carnegie of that Ilk." 

Duthac de Carnegie, presumed to have been second son 
of John de Carnegie, first " of that Ilk," was the first of Kin- 
naird, having in 1401 purchased a part of these lands from 
Eichard Ayre. 3 Eight years afterwards he acquired from 
Mariota de Kinnaird 4 the other half of the lands and " town " 
of Kinnaird. Mariota is understood to have been one of three 
co-heiresses, and to have been married to Duthac de Carnegie, 
who received her portion of the estate. The other two co- 
heiresses are said to have been married respectively to David 
Panter of Newmanswalls and William Cramond of Aldbar. 
Since these persons are named along with Duthac as " lairds 
of Kinnaird" in a law-process of 1410, they seem to have had 
interests in the estate, which were probably acquired by mar- 

1 Reg. Vet. Aberbr. p. 197; Reg. Prior. S. And. p. 271 ; Lib. de Balm. pp. 9 sq. 

2 A copy of the charter is in the British Museum, and runs thus : " David [n.] : 
Dei gratia, etc. Sciatis nos approbasse et hac presenti carta confirmasse donacionem 
illam et concessionem quam quondam Walterus de Maule fecit et concessit Joanni 
filio et heredi quondam Joannis filii Christini, filii Joannis de Balnehard de terra de 
Carryneggii cum pertinenciis in Baronia de Panmure infra Vicecomitatum de Forfar 
tenenda et habenda eidem Joanni de Carinnegi filio, heredi predicti quondam Joannis 
filii Joannis et heredibus suis in feodo," etc. (Fraser, Hist. Carnegies of Southesk, 
i p. 1 ; Reg. de Panmure, L p. 215. ) 

3 Crawford, Peerage, p. 446. The surname of Air subsisted in the parish of 
Farnell until the late period of 1851, when the last of the name (an unmarried 
female) died at an advanced age. 

4 Vide Charter under the Great Seal, dated 21st February 1409. 



240 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

riage, but no evidence on the subject exists, nor is further 
mention made of their connection with Kinnaird, which must 
have been of a temporary nature. 1 

Duthac de Carnegie, however, did not enjoy his newly- 
obtained estate for any length of time, as, when the unfortu- 
nate dispute arose betwixt Donald of the Isles and Begent 
Albany regarding the succession to the Earldom of Eoss, 
Duthac joined in that dreadful enterprise, and was left dead 
on the field. Walter, his only son, fought against Earl Beardie 
at the battle of Brechin, 18th May 1452, and for this he had 
his castle burnt down by the Lindsays, wherein, says Craw- 
ford, "all his writs and evidents were miserably consumed." 2 
In consequence of this outrage Walter made complaint to 
James n. that "... his mansione wes brvnt and his charteris 
. . . war thair throw analijt and distroyit," and he accordingly 
obtained a royal letter for an " inquisitione of knavlage " into 
the circumstances. Thus he endeavoured to supply, to some 
extent, the loss of his family papers. 3 

David, Earl of Crawford, afterwards Duke of Montrose, 
gave John, the son of this Walter (whom he styles his cousin), 
a liferent out of the lands of Glenesk. He, dying in 1505, 
was succeeded by his son, also John, who fell, with his king 

1 The barony of Kinnaird was held by the ancient tenure of keeping the King's ale- 
cellar whenever the Court should have residence in Forfarshire, and the seal of John 
Carnegie of Kinnaird, Bailie-Depute of the Abbey of Arbroath, is appended to a 
sasine given by him in his character of Bailie pro hac vice of the lands of Balishan 
in favour of Lord Ogilvy of Airly, who was the chief Bailie of the Abbey. The 
sasine is dated 13th of October 1489. The seal bears an eagle displayed standing on 
a butt or tun. There appears to be a mullet in the sinister chief for difference, but 
the bearing of the ale-tun must have had reference to the tenure of the barony of 
Kinnaird, and not to the name of Carnegie. Sir Robert Carnegie, who died in 1565, 
bore the heraldic charge of a covered cup, or, on the eagle's breast, which may have 
been substituted for the ale-tun, or sign of territorial office, either in consequence of 
the bearing of the cup being derived from the tenure by which some other lands than 
those of Kinnaird were held, or from the family having been royal cupbearers an 
office which some authors assign to them, though on insufficient evidence. In that 
noble heraldic manuscript, " The Buke and Register of Armes, done by Sir David 
Lindesay, Knight, alias Lion King of Armes," A.D. 1542, the arms of "Carnegye of 
Kinnarde " are thus pictorially blazoned : Arg. An eagle, displayed, Az. ; armed, 
beaked, and membered, Gu. ; on its breast an antique covered cup, Or. 

2 Peerage, p. 446. 

3 Fraser, Hist. Carnegies of Southesk, i. pp. 17 sq. 



FERX SIR ROBERT CARNEGIE. 241 

and many kinsmen, at Flodden. It was not, however, till the 
time of Sir Eobert, the fourth in descent from Duthac, that the 
family rose to importance. 1 Sir Eobert adopted the law as a 
profession. In 1547 he was appointed a Senator of the College 
of Justice, and in subsequent years he was largely employed 
in important national transactions, being on several occasions 
ambassador to France and England. He was a Privy Coun- 
cillor under Chatelherault, the Queen Dowager, and Queen 
Mary, and at various times held high offices of trust. Sir 
Eobert rebuilt the house of Kinnaird, and greatly enlarged the 
family estate, adding to it Panbride, Ethie, Idvie, Auchquhan- 
den, Fithie, Balnamoon, and other lands in Angus, as also in 
Aberdeen, Fife, and the Lothians. He died in 1565, and by 
Margaret, daughter of Guthrie of Lunan, left a family of eight 
sons and eight daughters. The eldest of the former, Sir John, 
who succeeded his father, was so much the confidant of the 
unfortunate Queen Mary, that in 1570 she wrote to him a 
letter, still preserved at Kinnaird, craving his " advice and 
answere . . . after good advisement and deliberacioun," how 
to act in her difficulties. 

Sir John died without male issue, and was succeeded by 
his next brother, David, previously styled " of Colluthie " in 
consequence of his marriage with Elizabeth Eamsay, heiress 
of Colluthie and Leuchars. He married, secondly, Eupheme, 
daughter of Sir John Wemyss of that Ilk, by whom he had 
four sons David, ancestor of the Earls of Southesk; John, 
ancestor of the Earls of Northesk; Alexander, of Balnamoon; 
and Eobert, of Dunnichen. 

On the death of David Carnegie in 1598, he was succeeded 

1 This Sir Robert had a natural son, John (Reg. Mag. Sigill. lib. 35, ch. 330), 
who bought the lands of Carnegie, and was designated John Carnegie of that Ilk, in 
1581 (lib. 36, ch. 404, wherein Catherine Fothringham is mentioned as his spouse). 
Macfarlane's MS. Notes on Geo. Crawford's Peerage of Scotland, This John Car- 
negie acquired the lands from Sir James Carnegie of that Ilk , who was head of the 
family in 1500 ; and Sir David of Kinnaird, the first of Leuchars, bought the same 
lands from Sir Robert's natural son or grandson. They passed to the Panmure family 
by excambion. (Eraser, Hist. Carnegies of Southesk, i. pp. xxii sq. ; 45 sq.) 

Q 



242 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

by David, the eldest of the brothers. Sir David Carnegie 
inherited the talents of his father and grandfather for public 
business, and, like them, passed a long and active life in the 
service of his country. He held many high offices in the 
State, and was so particularly beloved by the king, that he 
visited him twice at Kinnaird, in 1602 and in 1617, on which 
occasions his Majesty amused himself by hunting in the 
adjoining forest of Monrommon; and for the convenience of 
" leading his Majesty's provision " while he resided at Kinnaird, 
the bridge over the Pow, betwixt Kinnaird and Old Montrose, 
was first erected. 1 Charles I. and n. were also at Kinnaird. 2 
The Chevalier, too, passed some nights there while on his 
perilous enterprise, and remains of his bed-curtains are still 
preserved in the house. 

Sir David was raised to the Peerage, by the title of Lord 
Carnegie of Kinnaird, in 1616, the year before King James's 
second visit to Kiimaird; and in 1633 he received the higher 
honour of Earl of Southesk from Charles I., with remainder 
to his heirs-male for ever. 3 He was Sheriff of Forfarshire, 
and under Cromwell's Act of Grace and Pardon, was fined 
in the large sum of three thousand pounds. His excellencies 
are thus summed up in Arthur Johnston's Musce Aulicce : 

" Nee numero clauduntur opes, nee limite rura, 
Carnegi, servat mens tamen alta modum." 

His wife was the Lady Helen, only daughter of Sir David 
Lindsay of Edzell ; and a beautifully embroidered silk velvet 

1 Black, Hist, of Brechin, p. 72. 

* Ochterlony, c. 1682 (Spot. Misc. i. p. 341). When it was fully determined that 
Charles n. should come to Scotland in 1650, the Parliament ordained that he 
"should come from Aberdeen to Dunottar; from thence to Kinnaird, the Earl of 
Southesk's house ; thence to Dundee; and thence to his own house at Falkland." 
Balfour, Annals, iv. p. 19. 

3 His second brother, John, was created Lord Lour in 1639, and Earl of Ethie in 
1647 ; but by letters-patent dated 25th October 1666, this title was changed to Earl of 
Northesk, Lord Rosehill and Eglismauldy. The other two brothers were Sir Robert 
of Dunnichen and Sir Alexander of Balnamoon and Careston. Portraits of these 
four brothers, by Jamesone of Aberdeen, are among the magnificent collection of British 
and foreign paintings at Kinnaird. 



FERN LANDS OF KINNAIRD. 243 

cloth at Kinnaird Castle is of her handiwork, bearing the 
Carnegie arms impaled with those of Lindsay. Earl David 
died in 1658, leaving four sons and six daughters. The eldest 
son, David, Lord Carnegie, died in his father's lifetime without 
male issue ; the second, James, succeeded to the Earldom, and by 
deed of gift under the Privy Seal, dated 17th November 1641, 
was constituted keeper for life of the houses, yards, and lands 
within the precincts and walls of the Abbey of Arbroath, with 
a right after his death (which took place in 1669) to his heirs- 
male for the space of three nineteen years. 1 The third, Sir John, 
had charters of Craig and Ulishaven in 1618, and in the follow- 
ing year received also the barony of Fern ; he left one son, who 
died, without male issue, about 1663. The fourth son, Alexander, 
from whom the present Earl directly descends, was the first of 
Pitarrow. His eldest son and successor, David, was created 
Baronet of Nova Scotia in 1663. All the daughters married 
peers, the husband of the youngest, Magdalene, being the cele- 
brated James, first Marquis of Montrose, 2 who, when on his 
way a prisoner to Edinburgh, shortly before his execution, took 
farewell of his two sons at Kinnaird, his Marchioness having 
predeceased him. 

The lands of Kinnaird were originally in the parish of 
Brechin, but the people found it more convenient to attend 
divine service in the chapel of Cuikstoun than in the parish 
church or cathedral in Brechin. In place of this chapel, then 
becoming ruinous, David Carnegie, at the time of his death, in 
1598, was building the kirk of Kinnaird at a short distance 
from the former, and his successor, Sir David, in 1606, had the 
Kinnaird division of Farnell made a separate parish. This 

1 Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot. xL pp. 539 sq. 

a During his minority, Montrose was under Earl David's guardianship. His 
portrait by Jamesone, signed and dated 1629, is in the dining-room at Kinnaird. It 
is a curious coincidence that two cousins, bearing the same Christian name, should 
have been so closely related to the two greatest warriors of their time Lady Mag- 
dalene Carnegie, youngest daughter of the first Earl of Northesk, having been the 
mother of Graham, the hero of Killiecrankie. See Fraser, Carneyifs of Southesk, 
ii. p. 357. 



244 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

was suppressed, however, and the greater part united to Far- 
nell, in 1787. 1 

The first Earl was succeeded, as before said, by his second 
son, James, who, from his swarthy complexion, is known in 
the family genealogy as "the black Earl." He waited long 
on Charles n. while an exile in Holland, was a commissioner 
at the English Parliament of 1652, and present at Cromwell's 
proclamation at Edinburgh in 1657. He was one of the best 
swordsmen of his time, killed the Master of Gray in a duel near 
London in the memorable year 1660, and died a privy coun- 
cillor nine years afterwards. Educated at Padua in Italy, he 
had the credit of being a magician, and, according to an absurd 
tradition, is said not only to have given his shadow to the 
devil, but to have departed to him bodily, having been lost 
with his coach and four, one stormy night, in the Starney- 

1 " Parish of Kynnard, in the Diocese of St. Andrews, and Regality of Rescobie." 
(Charter of Mid. Drums, etc.) The Kinnaird church of the first Earl's time was 
erected in the park in front of the castle, where its foundations and several tomb- 
stones are yet visible. One of the stones (dated 16-0) presents this quaint couplet : 

" Hve (we) doe not this for no wther end, 
Bwt that owr birial may be kend." 

The Farnell division, where the present church is situated, was in former times 
the property of the Bishops of Brechin, who resided there down to the period of the 
Reformation. A considerable part of the castle of Farnell is still entire. 

Duncan de Ferneval (one of the perambulators of the Arbroath and Kinblethmont 
marches in 1219, and witness to Malcome, Earl of Angus, in 1225) had probably been 
a vassal of the bishop. Edward i. stopped here on Friday, the 6th of July 1296, 
when on his subjugating expedition through the kingdom. The lands of Farnell were 
alienated from the see of Brechin by Alexander Campbell, bishop of that diocese^ 
who, in 1566, transferred them to Archibald, fifth Earl of Argyll. In 1578 they were 
sold to James, Lord Ogilvy of Airlie, and in 1623 they were purchased from him by 
David, Master of Carnegie, the eldest son of Earl David. On his death, in 1633, they 
became part of the Southesk estates, and the whole parish, with the exception of the 
glebe and the parochial buildings, is now the property of the Earl of Southesk. 

The church, of Gothic style, was built during the minority of the late Baronet, 
and is beautifully situated on a rising ground on the side of the Pow. Perhaps the 
district is named from the abundance of ami, or alder trees, in this water-course, 
since Fem-'n-akl, or alt, in Gaelic means "the stream of arns." The kirk was, 
perhaps, dedicated to Saint Rumon or Rumold, as a knoll, about a mile north of the 
church, is called Rume's Cross; but the editor of the Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot, ii p. 199, 
suggests Rune or Runic Cross. A fine sculptured stone bearing an ornamental cross 
and other carving (figured in Plate xxi. of Chalmers's Sculptured Monuments of 
Angus'), was, in 1849, found in the churchyard, and presented to the Montrose Museum 
by the Earl of Southesk. The bell on thechurch bears : " IOHANXKS BVRGERHYYS 

ME FECIT ANNO 1662." 



FERN KIXNATRD CASTLE. 245 

Bucket Well, which lay In the Deil's Den, immediately south 
of the family burial vault. These foolish stories, suggested by 
the grimness of his aspect and the scene and nature of his 
studies, may be classed with many similar products of the 
fanatical party spirit of the times. 

The Black Earl was succeeded by his only son, Eobert, for 
some time captain of a company of the famous Scots Guards 
of Louis xiv. His wife was the beautiful Lady Anne Hamilton 
(daughter of the second Duke), whose conduct in connection 
with the Court of the "Merry Monarch" forms the subject of 
a scandalous story in the Memoirs of the, Count de Grammont, 
and has obtained some currency, though disproved by the 
testimony of Bishop Burnet, a friend or acquaintance of the 
persons chiefly concerned. 1 It was in this Earl's time that 
the Castle of Vayne underwent those important repairs to be 
noticed hereafter, and also that Ochterlony described Kinnaird 
as being "without competition the fynest place, taking alto- 
gether, in the shyre; a great house, excellent gardens, parks 
with fallow-deer, orchards, hay meadows, wherein are extra- 
ordinare quantities of hay, very much planting, ane excellent 
breed of horse, cattle, and sheep, extraordinare good land." 2 

1 Burnet, Hist, of his Own Time, i. pp. 385, 396. 

2 The castle was mostly rebuilt about the beginning of this century, and is still 
one of the finest in the shire, whether as regards its imposing exterior or internal 
decorations. The "fallow-deer," which number about 400, are of the same breed as 
were those in Guynd's time ; but the deer-park of that period, which has never been 
ploughed, is now the cow-park, and the present deer-park, which lies in front of the 
castle, was partly made in 1 821 , when the walls were built round it. It was greatly 
improved and enlarged in 1853 and following years, and its extent was more 
than doubled. Many of the trees at Kinnaird are of great size and beauty, and to 
those fond of such matters, it may be briefly mentioned that some of the beech-trees 
girthed in 1853 upwards of 14 feet ; ash, from 18 to Hi f. ; elm, 13 to 11 f. ; oak, 
13 to 9 f. ; a silver-fir, upwards of 11 f. ; lime, from 18 to 9 f. ; sycamore, from 
17 to 10 f. ; horse-chestnut, 11 f. ; Scots fir, about 8 f. 5 in. ; thorn, 7 f. ; gean, from 
upwards of 9 to 8 f. 3 in. ; birch, nearly 7 f. These measurements were taken at 
heights varying from 3 to 4 feet from the ground. 

In the years 1854-1860 the castle was enlarged and remodelled by the present 
EarL It now resembles an ancient French chateau, with many lofty steep-roofed 
towers and turrets, long stone balconies, and balustraded terrace walls. The park, 
of which the deer-park occupies three-fourths, comprises between 1300 and 1400 
acres, enclosed by a high wall where not bounded by the river Southesk. 

Most of the trees referred to are still existing, though some have perished, and 



246 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Earl Eobert, whose disposition is said to have been so 
austere, that even on his death-bed no one durst disobey 
him, was succeeded by his son Charles. He was a man of 
great taste, and devoted much of his time to planting and 
beautifying his estate. He probably planted the fine old 
trees which shadow the avenue to the vault in the park, 
where he is buried. On either side of the entrance to this 
enclosure are the family arms, with quaint inscriptions under- 
neath, one of which informs the reader that Earl Charles's 
widow, the Lady Mary Maitland, of the house of Lauder- 
dale, "put up thir coats, and built this gate, in the year 
1704." 1 

Earl James, who figured so conspicuously in the unfortunate 
transactions of " the fifteen," for which his lands were forfeited, 
was the only son of Earl Charles. He was at the battle of 
Sheriffmuir; and, in the enumeration of the heroes of that 

others have suffered through storms and natural decay. Even the ancient trees have 
made progress during the thirty years since their last measurement, the finest 
among them, an ash, traditionally known as " Old Adam," having added two feet to 
his girth, which reaches 20 feet at 4 feet from the ground, though his top began to 
decay in 1870, and has become ruinous. The largest tree of each kind now (1881) 
girths as follows at 3 or 4 feet from the ground : Ash, 20 f. ; lime, 18 f. ; sycamore, 
17 f. ; beech, 15 f. ; silver-fir, 15 f. (was 11 f. in 1850) ; oak, 14 f. ; elm, 14 f. ; 
horse-chestnut, 12^ f. ; gean, 10 f. These ancient specimens vary in age from 170 to 
300 or 400 years, but most of the trees round Kinnaird were planted by Sir David 
about 1780-1800. The largest of this younger growth are the beeches, girthing 
from 8 f. to 10 f. or 12 f. ; the oaks, limes, etc., are somewhat less. One Spanish 
chestnut measures 12 f. in fair girth, having increased 3J feet since 1850. The pre- 
sent Earl has also planted largely iu the park and pleasure-grounds. 

1 In 1691, during the time of Earl Charles of Southesk, the barony of Fern (apart 
from the estates of Deuchar and Auchnacree,* which were held under the superiority 
of the lord of Fern) consisted of the following farms : Mayns, Ballmaditie, Easter 
Balquhadlie, Wester Balquhadlie, Brucetoun, Shan-foord, New-milne, Old-milne, 
Wak-milne, Balquharn and Cornablews, Fermertown, Kirk-den, Boggie, Reid-foord, 
Dubbytown and Court-foord, Cathro-seat, Waterstown, Milne of Waterstown, Easter 
Hiltown, Windsour, Ladinhendry, Auchlochie, and Trustee. The number of tenants 
in these farms was fifty-two, and the gross rental amounted to 388 bolls, 1 firlot, 
3 pecks, and lippie, bear ; 565 bolls, firlot, 2 pecks, and 1 lippie, meal ; 1538, Is. 
money Scots; 18 capons, 30 poultry, and 5 swine. (Old Rental-Book of Southesk, 
quoted ut sup. p. 122. ) 

* In 1691 et sub., the proprietor of Auchnacree paid an annual feu-duty of '20 Scots to 
the Earls of Southesk. This is the only fact worthy of notice which has been ascertained 
regarding this property, although it is said that there are titles of it by the Earls of Crawford 
and Southesk for upwards of three hundred years. 



FERN SOUTHESK ATTAINTED. 247 

field, he is termed "Brave gen'rous Southesk," and was the 
hero of the fine Jacobite ballad of " The Piper o' Dundee." l 
After the defeat of his party, he escaped to France, where he 
died in 1730 : and his only son, a mere boy, having predeceased 
him, the representation of the family devolved on the Pitarrow 
branch, as descendants of the fourth son of the first Earl. The 
Southesk estates were the third largest of those forfeited, were 
scattered over no fewer than seven counties, and estimated at 
the annual rent of 3271, 10s., besides services ; but the value 
of property in Scotland has increased so much since then, that 
these, and most other estates, are worth seven or eight times 
the rental here stated. 

The entire estate was purchased by the York Buildings 
Company, in 1716, for 51,549, 7s. 4d. On the insolvency 
of that Company, a large portion of the property was re- 
purchased by Sir James for 36,870, 14s. 2d. Long prior to 
this, however, he had procured an assignation to a lease of 
Kinnaird, and making it his residence, he improved the 
lands to a great extent, without any positive idea of their 
ever becoming his own ; and it was mainly by his enterprise 
that the general sale of the forfeited estates of Scotland was 
effected. Sir James was member of Parliament for Kincardine- 
shire from 1741 till his death. In early life he served in the 
Flemish wars, and was also present at the battle of Culloden. 
In 1752 he married Christian, daughter of David Doig of 
Cookston, by his wife Magdalene, heiress of an ancient Forfar- 
shire family Symmers of Balzeordie. Lady Carnegie survived 
her husband for the long period of fifty-five years, dying in 
1820, at the age of ninety-one. Sir James died in 1765. He 
was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir David, for many years 
member of Parliament for the county of Forfar. Soon after 
attaining his majority, Sir David purchased the baronies of 
Arnhall in Kincardineshire, and Leuchars in Fife, part of the 

1 In Jacobite Minstrelsy, p. 118, Carnegie of Finhaven is erroneously said to be 
the subject of this popular ballad. 



248 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

forfeited Southesk estates, but afterwards sold them with other 
lands, and in 1791 bought from Sir James Stirling, Lord 
Provost of Edinburgh, for 32,000, the fine estate of Old Mon- 
trose, adjoining Kinuaird. 1 

By his wife Agnes, daughter of Andrew Elliot of Green- 
wells, Lieutenant-Governor of New York, a brother of Sir 
Gilbert Elliot of Minto, Sir David, who died in 1805, left two 
sons and ten daughters, and was survived for fifty-five years 
by Lady Carnegie, who died at Leamington in June 1860 at 
the age of ninety-six years. The eldest son, Sir James, elected 
member for the Montrose burghs in 1830, was married t6 
Charlotte, daughter of the Kev. Daniel Lysons of Hempsted 
Court in Gloucestershire, who predeceased him, leaving three 
sons and two daughters. 

On the death of Sir James in 1849, his eldest son, James 
present Earl of Southesk, succeeded to the baronetcy and 
estates. In the same year he was appointed Lord- Lieutenant 
of Kincardineshire, but resigned the office in 1856, on his dis- 
posal of the estate of Strachan in that county, which had been 
purchased by his father some thirty years before. In 1855, by 
the reversal of the Act of Attainder, he was restored, with 
original precedence, to the forfeited Scottish titles, as Earl of 
Southesk and Lord Carnegie of Kinnaird and Leuchars. 
Further, in 1869, he was created a peer of the United King- 
dom, with the title of Lord Balinhard of Farnell, and was also 
made a Knight of the Order of the Thistle. 

Lord Southesk, who was born in 1827, received his educa- 
tion at Sandhurst, and obtained his commission there, serving 
for a short time in the 92d Highlanders, and for three years in 
the Grenadier Guards. He married, first, the Lady Catherine 
Noel, daughter of the first Earl of Gainsborough, who died in 

1 This was the ancient patrimony and messuage of the noble family of Graham, 
from which they were designed " Dominns de Aid Munros," so early as 1360. It 
was probably also the birthplace of "the Great Marquis," whose portrait, in his 
wedding-dress, is at Kinnaird Castle. On the old family of Graham, see Warden, 
Angus, i. 1 sq. ; Fraser, Hist. Carnegies of Southesk, il pp. li, et al. 



FERN CARDINAL BEATON. 249 

1855, leaving three daughters and one son, Charles, Lord 
Carnegie, born in 1854. The Earl married, secondly, in 1860, 
the Lady Susan Murray, daughter of the sixth Earl of Dun- 
more. Of this marriage there is issue three sons and four 
daughters. 

In consequence of his direct descent from Sir David, created 
first Lord Carnegie and first Earl of Southesk, the present 
Earl of Southesk is chief of the family of Carnegie. 



SECTION IV. 

His castle stood in a lonely glen, 

By the side of a rocky stream ; 
An there full many a deed was done 

Whilk nae ane dared to name. 

All is lot gaistis, and elrischefantasyis, 
Of brownyis and of bogillis full this buke. 

GAWIN DOUGLAS. 

Castle of Vayne Ascribed to Cardinal Beaton A word for the Cardinal View 
of the castle Superstitions Kelpie's footmark and "the De'il's Hows" The 
Brownie Brandyden " The Ghaist o' Feme-den" The ghost laid. 

POPULAR tradition ascribes the erection of the castle of Vayne, 
or the old manor-house of Fern, to Cardinal Beaton, whither 
he is said to have resorted " for less consistent purposes than 
the fulfilment of his vow of celibacy," and a deep black pool in 
the river Noran, near the castle, is called Tammy's Pot, from a 
story that one of his sons, whom he had by a Lady Vayne, fell 
over the precipice and was drowned in it. Such is the tale ; 
but, as shown in tracing the history of the transmission of the 
barony of Fern, Beaton never had any proprietary interest in 
the parish ; and if he had ever resided there, nothing exists in 
any way to prove that particular, although tradition seeks 
further to corroborate the story, by asserting that when he and 
his suite appeared at a certain point of the road, on their way 
to the church on Sundays, it was the signal for ringing the bell ! 
The whole story, like that of his gifting the bell to the church, 



250 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

is a mere fable, 'and framed, no doubt, from the peculiarly 
secluded situation of the castle ; for at no distant date, most of 
the obscure retreats and fortalices in Angus were said to have 
been tenanted by him and his paramours, and almost every- 
thing bad and disreputable was ascribed to him. 

It may be remarked, however, that many of Beaton's en- 
gagements show him to have had a spirit of an opposite 
tendency to that popularly assigned to him, for while the real 
and supposed faults of his life are descanted upon by partial 
writers in anything but a godly spirit, not a single redeeming 
quality of his whole history is ever brought to bear against them. 
It is an indisputable truth, however, that we are indebted to 
him for the preservation of some of the most valuable remains 
of our monastic literature which he fortunately plucked from 
the flames kindled by infuriated zealots ; and, perhaps, it is not 
too much to presume that when the collections of old family 
charters that are now being made by impartial antiquarians 
are completed, the character of Cardinal Beaton may appear in 
a more favourable light than hitherto ; particularly since so 
much light has been thrown by these investigations on the 
private characters of Knox and Erskine of Dun. 1 Nay, it is 
probable, despite the coarse assertions of party historians, that 
Beaton was allied to Mariota Ogilvy (the mother of all his 
children), " by that sort of morganatic marriage frequent among 
churchmen of that period." 2 

The castle of Vayne stands on the north bank of the Noran, 
at the most rocky and precipitous part of the stream ; between 
it and the stream there is a natural terrace- walk along the top 
of the rocks, where the lords and ladies of other days could 
muse unseen amidst a mass of wild and imposing scenery. The 
castle was originally three stories high, with a circular tower 

1 Tytler, Hist, of Scot. 2d edit, vii. pp. 21 and 355; Spalding Club Mis- 
cellany, iv. ; Booke of the Univ. Kirk of Scot. pp. 25 sq. ; T. M'Crie, Jun., 
Sketches Scott. Ch. Hist. pass. ; T. M'Crie, Life of John Knox, pass. 

1 Archaeologia, xxxiv. p. 35. See the estimate of his life and character by Dr. 
Grub, Ecd. Hist. Scot. i. pp. 27-8. 



FEKN CASTLE OF VAYNE. 251 

or staircase in the south-west corner, and is built of the soft 
red sandstone of the district. The workmanship has been very 
indifferent ; still, although a total ruin, the only part present- 
ing the original height being the gable-wall on the east, its 
former extent can without difficulty be traced. In the time 
of Earl Robert of Southesk, the castle was greatly improved ; 
and, immediately subsequent to these alterations, Ochterlony 
described it as "a very good house, called the Waird, well 
planted, good yards, the house presently repaired by him [the 
Earl of Southesk], and well furnished within; it hath ane 
excellent fine large great park called the Waird." 

Many of Earl Robert's repairs, which had been made with 
stone superior to that employed in the original building, are 
yet visible about the place, and the door and window lintels 
bore Horatian and other maxims. Three of these are still 
preserved in the walls of the adjoining farm-steading. One is 
more elegant than the rest ; it bears an Earl's coronet, and 
other sculpture in high relief, and the initials in monogram of 
Earl Robert (R. E. S.), together with the following legend, which 
may have had reference to the merry disposition of his 
spouse : 

" DI8CE MEO EXEMPLO FORMOSIS POSSE CARERE." 

The second stone, now over the garden door, runs thus : 

" VS PLACITIS ABSTINVISSE BONIS 

NNO DOM. 1678 ;" 

and the third presents this quaint observation : 

" NON SIMALE NVNC ET 

SIC ERAT 
ANNO DOM. 1678. " l 

Like most of our old uninhabited castles, that of Vayne fell 
a victim to the barbarism of despoiling utilitarians, a part of 
it having been blown down with gunpowder by a tenant- 
farmer, and the stones used for building dikes and similar 
purposes. An arched cellar or vault forms the ground-floor 

1 " Non, si male nunc, et olim sic erit." Horace, Odes, ii. 10. 



252 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

of the east wing, and is the only roofed part of the building ; 
underneath there is said to be a deep dungeon into which the 
family, before taking their final departure, threw all their 
treasure of money and plate ! This chamber has often been 
sought for, and only one person is believed to have found 
it ; but when about to descend in search of the valuables, he 
was forcibly thrust from the entrance by an uncouth monster 
in the shape of a horned ox, that departed in a blaze of fire 
through a big hole in the wall (still pointed out !) and, before 
the terrified treasure-seeker could recover himself, the chasm, 
which he had wrought so hard to discover, was closed for ever 
to his view ! 

The doings of Satan at this place are proverbial, and the 
umbrageous rocky ravine through which the Noran tumbles its 
pellucid waters is the very place that imagination would picture 
as his abode, and there, in all conceivable shapes, he reigned 
of old, and perhaps reigns still; for, according to provincial 
rhyme, this locality was his favourite place of residence 

" There's the Brownie o' Ba'quharn, 

An' the Ghaist o' Brandieden ; 
But of a' the places i' the parish, 
The deil burns up the Vayne !" 

A little east of the castle, close by the side of the Noran, a 
large sandstone has lain from time immemorial, bearing a deep 
indentation resembling the hoof of a colossal horse with the 
impress of one of the caulkers of the heel. This has been 
fashioned by the falling out of a large pebble imbedded in the 
stone, though at first glance it looks like an artificial work. It 
is popularly called the Kelpies Footmark, and was believed to 
have been occasioned by his step while bounding among the 
rocks. Some of the largest of these he not only amused him- 
self by overturning when the water was swollen, but, as if 
conscious of his own unbridled power, he boldly seated himself 
on others, and called lustily for help, in the feigned voice of a 
drowning person, that so he might lure his victim to the river ! 



FERN THE BROWNIE. 253 

The people of Waterstone were at one time much annoyed 
in this way, because there was a certain amount of danger, it is 
said, from the deceptive nature of the adjoining ford, which is 
much deeper than is indicated by the clearness of the water ; 
and, with a view also to deceive the neighbours, when any real 
case of drowning occurred, Kelpie ever and anon called out 

" A' the men o' Waterstone ! Come here ! come here ! " 

Almost opposite Vayne Castle, on the lands of Markhouse, 
there is a spot of ground called " the De'il's Hows," where the 
notorious personage from which the place is named has made 
some wonderful manifestations of his presence, in even later 
times than those of our grandfathers. From this place, which 
is a small hollow in the middle of a moor, large lumps of earth 
have been thrown to a great distance without any visible cause. 1 
The stone bearing Kelpie's footmark is of the conglomerate 
sort, and the earth of the Deil's How, at a little depth, is a 
stratum of a yellowish colour, mixed with small stones, con- 
taining in themselves no sulphur, but being merely a composite 
of argillaceous earth and iron, the calcined substance of which 
makes a good red ochre. 

But of all the spirits of this locality, the Brownie and the 
Ghaist are by far the most popular, and are considered by some 
as one and the same. In other quarters, however, the Brownie 
was an independent and entirely different being, and but for 
the wonderful ghost stories connected with Fern, he might also 
have figured in the same way there. From the similarity of 
his disposition to the Lares Familiares of the ancients, some 
believe that he was descended from them. Brownies have existed 
in all countries and ages not only under the blue skies of 
Greece and Italy, but under the dark wintry clouds of Scandinavia ; 
and, as the name of the " fairies " originated from the clearness 
of their habit, and their aerial abode, that of the Brownies was 
assumed from their swarthy complexion, and their partiality 

1 Old Stat. Account, xix. p. 875. 



254 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

for remote chambers of ruined houses and secluded banks of 
rivers. 

Their habits were the same over the whole globe, except 
that the Shetland Brownie assumed " all the covetousness of 
the most interested hireling," instead of performing ungrudg- 
ingly the laborious and self-imposed services which charac- 
terised his fellows in other quarters. 1 These particulars, and 
their aversion to the receipt of remuneration, are described in 
the following exquisite lines of Mr. Erskine's Supplemental 
Stanzas to Collins's Ode on the Highland Superstitions : 

" Hail, from thy wanderings long, my much-loved sprite ! 

Thou friend, thou lover of the lowly, hail ! 
Tell, in what realms thou sport'st thy merry night, 

Trail'st the long mop, or whirl' st the mimic flail. 
Where dost thou deck the much-disorder'd hall, 

While the tired damsel in Elysium sleeps, 
With early voice to drowsy workmen call, 

Or lull the dame while mirth his vigils keeps ? 
'Twas thus in Caledonia's homes, 'tis said, 

Thou pliedst the kindly task in years of yore : 
At last, in luckless hour, some erring maid 

Spread in thy nightly cell of viands store : 
Ne'er was thy form beheld among their mountains more." 

At no distant date almost every farmer in Shetland pos- 
sessed one of those mysterious beings, but from their opposite 
conduct there, they were considered rather in the light of evil 
spirits ; and it is a singular fact, that in all localities famous as 
their haunts the same stories are told of their services to the 
gudewife of the farm-houses where they took up their abode, 
and the same reasons are assigned for their disappearance. 
This is peculiarly the case with the Brownie of Bodsbeck in 
Ettrick Forest, and with those of Fern, and of Claypots near 
Dundee. In all those instances the Tweed, the Noran, and the 
Dichty waters were forded when at their highest, and the sage 
femme landed safely at the door of the sick wife ! 

Such were the leading characteristics of Brownies in general. 

1 Jamieson, Scottish Die?., in voce. 



FERN GHAIST )' FERNE-DEN. 255 

But that of Fern, in addition to those serviceable qualities, 
was connected with, and had his origin in, a scene of cruelty 
and bloodshed, not uncharacteristic of the age to which tradi- 
tion ascribes it, and, as before hinted, stamps the Brownie and 
the Ghaist of Fern as one and the same. 1 In Brandyden (the 
great hollow betwixt the kirk and Noranside), there were, 
within these eighty years, the foundations of a house, said to 
have been an old fortalice of the lords of Fern perhaps be- 
longing to the de Montealtos ; of the site of the most ancient 
house of Fern no conjecture can be formed, but, in all proba- 
bility, as was the custom of feudal times, it had been nearer 
the church than the present castle, which lies about a mile to 
the south, is. The situation of Brandyden is equally secluded 
as that of Vayne, and, according to tradition, the occupant was 
a sort of Bluebeard, who also punished his vassals with the 
utmost impunity. 

One of these had offended him so grievously that, although 
an influential person, he was doomed to die the death of a 
traitor, but being thrown into a dungeon to await his execution, 
he fortunately breathed his last before the hour arrived. His 
body was buried in a secluded spot between the castle and 
Balquharn. But from that luckless day, the laird's peace was 
broken ; no servant would stay with him the doors and win- 
dows of his house flew open of their own accord, not only in 
the stormy nights of winter, but in the quietest nights of 
summer hideous yells reverberated throughout the dwelling, 
and the laird, falling into a state of despondency, died suddenly 
and mysteriously ! This had no effect, however, in stopping 
the wanderings of the vassal's spirit ; so far from that, it was 
the means of inciting him to usefulness, it being only after the 
laird's death that he assumed the character of a menial, and 
performed that piece of service to the gudewife of the farm- 
house, for which he is best known in the district. Although, 

1 The Qhaisfs Stane, or the piece of rock to which that worthy was chained, still 
lies in the burn in the vicinity of the kirk ! 



256 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

ns already seen, this occurrence was far from unique, it was 
wedded to verse by some local bard, in the following rude 
effusion of 



There lived a farmer in the North 

(I canna tell you when), 
But just he had a famous farm 

Nae far frae Ferne-den, 
I doubtna, sirs, ye a' ha'e heard, 

Baith women -folks an' men, 
About a muckle, fearfu' Ghaist 
The Ghaist o' Ferne-den ! 

The muckle Ghaist, the fearfu' Ghaist, 

The Ghaist o' Ferne-den ; 
He wad ha'e wrought as muckle wark 
As four-an'-twenty men ! 

Gin there was ony strae to thrash, 

Or ony byres to clean, 
He never thocht it muckle fash 

0' workin' late at e'en ! 
Although the nicht was ne'er sae dark, 

He scuddit through the glen, 
An' ran an errand in a crack 

The Ghaist o' Ferne-den ! 

Ae nicht the mistress o' the house 

Fell sick au' like to dee, 
" O ! for a canny wily wife ! " 

Wi' micht an' main cried she ! 
The nicht was dark, an' no' a spark 

Wad venture through the glen, 
For fear that they would meet the Ghaist 

The Ghaist o' Ferne-den ! 

But Ghaistie stood ahint the door, 

An' hearin' a' the strife, 
He saw though they had men a score, 

They soon wad tyne the wife ! 
Aff to the stable then he goes, 

An' saddles the auld mare, 
An' through the splash an' slash he ran 

As fast as ony hare ! 



FERN THE GHAIST o' FERNE-DEN. 257 

He chappit at the Mammy's door . 

Says he " Mak haste an' rise ; 
Put on your claise an' come wi' me, 

An' tak ye nae surprise ! " 
" Where am I gaun ?" quo' the mid-wife. 

" Nae far, but through the glen 
Ye' re wantit to a farmer's wife, 

No' far frae Ferne-den." 

He 's ta'en the Mammy by the hand, 

An' set her on the pad, 
Got on afore her an' set aff 

As though they baith were mad ! 
They climb 'd the braes they lap the burns 

An' through the glush did plash : 
They never minded stock nor stane, 

Nor ony kind o' trash ! 

As they were near their journey's end, 

An' scuddin' through the glen : 
" Oh !" says the Mammy to the Ghaist, 

" Are we come near the Den ? 
For, oh ! I 'm fear'd we meet the Ghaist ! " 

' ' Tush, weesht, ye fool ! " quo' he ; 
' ' For waur than ye ha'e i' your arms, 

This nicht ye winna see ! " 

When they cam' to the farmer's door 

He set the Mammy doon : 
" I 've left the house but ae half hour 

I am a clever loon ! 
But step ye in an' mind the wife, 

An' see that a' gae richt, 
An' I will tak ye hame again 

At twal o'clock at nicht !" 

" What maks yer feet sae braid ?" quo' she, 

" What maks yer e'en sae sair? " 
Said he " I 've wander'd mony a road 

Without a horse or mare ! 
But gin they speir, Wha brought you here ? 

'Cause they were scarce o' men ; 
Just tell them that ye rade ahint 

The Ghaist o' Ferne-den ! " l 

1 For this ballad, Mr. Jervise was indebted to the late Rev. Mr. Harris of Fern, 
who had it from the late Rev. Dr. Lyon of Glamis about 1812-13. 

R 



258 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Long after this timeous service to the gudewife, Brownie 
continued his monotonous wanderings as a ghost, to the fear 
and dread of the bad, but to the willing assistance of the 
honest and industrious, who were ever thankful of his visits. 
Tradition, with its accustomed minuteness, points out the 
gudewife of Farmerton as the person in whose welfare he felt 
so interested, and a male child as the issue. This youth 
ultimately became remarkable for courage, of which the fol- 
lowing may be taken as an instance. Although many stalwart 
persons had ere now encountered the murdered vassal in his 
nocturnal wanderings, none had sufficient courage to " speak," 
and give him rest. But after Farmerton's son had reached man- 
hood, he was returning home one dark night, and accidentally 
met this spirit; determined to know the cause of his wanderings, 

' ' About himsel' wi' hazel staff, 

He made ane roundlie score ; 
And said, ' My lad, in name o' Gude, 
What doe you wander for ? ' " 

On this the ghaist disclosed his woeful tale, confessed the 
offences of his life, and making a summary exit from the 
presence of his interrogator, was never again seen ! Some 
however say that he was never heard of from the time he 
landed the " mammy wife," whose impertinent remarks regard- 
ing the peculiarities of his form are supposed to have caused 
his departure ! 



SECTION V. 

Calm was the morn, and close the mist 

Hung o'er St. Arnolds Seat, 
As Ferna's sons gaed out to Saughs, 

M'Gregor there to meet. 

RAID o' FEARN. 

Battle of Saughs Date uncertain " The Hawkit Stirk "Bravery of Macintosh- 
Spoil recovered Ledenhendrie in danger, and his precautions Winter's monu- 
ment Archaeology of Fern Primitive dwellings. 

THE most important historical tradition of Fern is that which 
relates to the Eaid, or Battle, of Saughs. This transaction be- 



FERN THE BATTLE OF SAUGHS. 259 

longs to " those days when might was right," and is connected 
with Fern only thus far, that the parishioners were the actors ; 
for " the battle-field " lies within the confines of the parish of 
Lethnot, near the head of the Water of Saughs. Although 
little more than a century has elapsed since " the cold red 
earth " closed over some of the principal heroes, the accounts 
of the transaction are as various, and the year in which it 
occurred as uncertain, as though it had belonged to prehistoric 
times furnishing another convincing proof of the value of 
registering all incidents that in any way affect the civil or 
religious history of a district. One writer says that the affray 
took place " about the middle of the seventeenth century." 
Others fix the years 1703, 1708, 1709, and 1711 as the dates, 
but all on mere hearsay ; and the accounts of the details of the 
action are as various as the dates. Still, as little can be added 
with accuracy to that before the public, this notice will be 
mainly framed from these sources ; for it would be worse than 
absurd to arrogate, in the absence of documentary evidence, 
anything more authentic than that which was gleaned from 
the living chronicles of the last generation. 

It may be remarked, however, that as tradition is uniform 
in stating the age of John Macintosh, the leader of the Fern 
men (who was the son of a farmer in the parish), as well as 
that of all his followers, as being about twenty at the time, the 
period of the engagement, instead of being fixed at any of these 
dates, ought, according to the age of James Winter (who was 
another of the actors), to be placed somewhere about the year 
1 680, as he was born in 1660. If Winter's age was an exception 
to that of the rest of his compeers (and from the great execu- 
tion that he is said to have done with his Andrea Ferrara, 1 
there is reason to believe that he was older), the fixing of the 
date somewhere betwixt the years 1690 and 1700, when 
Winter was in the prime of life, may approach nearer the real 

1 This sword is a genuine Andrea Ferrara, and is three feet and a half long, in- 
cluding the hilt. It was at one time in the possession of the late Mr. James Dickson 
of the Stamp and Tax Office, Kirriemuir, who had it from Winter's grand-nephew. 



260 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

period than any of the above. This notion is strengthened by 
the fact, that young Macintosh succeeded his father in the 
farm of Ledenhendrie in the year 1699, 1 and all story agrees 
that his father was farmer at the time of the engagement. 

The Eaid of Saughs is attributed to a comparatively trivial 
matter belonging to a previous year, when, through the intre- 
pidity of young Macintosh, the cattle of the farmer of the 
Dubb of Fern were rescued from a party of three freebooters. 
Perhaps from a determination to revenge this insult, a gang of 
thirteen Cateran, headed by the Hawkit StirJc? made a summary 
descent on the district during the following spring. They 
stole in unperceived on the evening of a Sunday, and conduct- 
ing their predatory labours during the silence of night, not 
only succeeded in clearing the stalls of horses and cattle before 
the domestics were astir, but were far over the mountains 
with their booty. 

Infuriated by previous incursions, and by the heavy loss 
which the parish sustained on this particular occasion, the 
inhabitants were assembled on Monday morning, among the 
tombs of their fathers, by the ringing of the kirk bell. As 
they were anxious to regain their stolen property, the day was 
spent in discussing the question as to what was the proper 
course for doing so ; but, fearing the superior strength of their 
antagonists, many of them lost heart at the manifest risks to 
be incurred, so that the pursuit would have been wholly 

1 Southesk Rental-Book, quoted ut sup. p. 122. 

2 The name of the Hawkit Stirk was given to this Cateran chief, from a supposi- 
tion that he was the same person as was laid down, when an infant, at the farm- 
house door of Muir Pearsie, in the parish of Kingoldrum, and from the gudewife 
desiring her husband to rise from bed about midnight to see the cause of the bleating 
cries which she heard ; but having a, pet caZ/that was in the habit of prowling about 
under night, her husband lay still, insisting that the noise was merely the croon o' 
the hawkit stirk I Hearing a continuation of the same piteous moan, the gudewife 
herself rose and found a male child, of a few weeks old, lying on the sill of the door, 
carefully rolled in flannel and other warm coverings, and, taking it under her charge, 
brought it up as one of her own family. Nothing of the foundling or his parents was 
ever positively known ; but when about sixteen years of age, he departed clandes- 
tinely from Muir Pearsie, and from the resemblance of the leader of this band to 
him, they are said to have been one and the same individual. His name is variously 
given as M'Gregor and Cameron. 



FERN PURSUIT OF THE CATERAN. 261 

abandoned and the reavers allowed to go with impunity, had not 
young Macintosh felt so enraged at the cowardice of his fellow- 
parishioners, that he sprang to an eminence apart from them 
and called out at the top of his voice " Let those who wish to 
chase the Cateran follow me ! " Eighteen young men left the 
multitude and rallied round him, and after making some hasty 
preparations for their perilous enterprise, they went off in 
search of the reavers, with the brave Macintosh as their 
leader. The journey was long and arduous; but being well 
acquainted with the mountain tracks, and following the trodden 
path of their enemy through bogs and fens, they succeeded 
about daybreak in discovering the thieves, who were crowded 
round a blazing fire, cooking a young cow for breakfast. 

The place was a perfect wilderness a boundless expanse 
of moss and moor intersected by natural cairns of rocks and 
the rugged channels of rivulets, without the remotest sign of 
shelter. By wary steps, the Fern men succeeded in reaching 
within a hundred yards of the freebooters, who thought that a 
few sharp and aimless shots would frighten them away. This 
they were the more convinced of, as one of the party, throwing 
his " lang gun " from him, tied from the contest ; but the main 
body remaining firm, the leader of the bandits stept forward 
and ironically requested to know which of them was the 
leader. Macintosh boldly acknowledged the honour ; and the 
Cateran's doubts being set at rest on that particular, it was 
mutually agreed to determine the matter by single combat. 
The chief, smiling, no doubt, at the idea of Macintosh's bold- 
ness, pictured the misery and death that were likely to follow 
a pitched engagement; and playfully cutting two or three 
buttons from the breast of the young farmer's coat with the 
blade of his sword telling him at same time that he could as 
easily deprive him of life as take away those trifling append- 
ages he urged the propriety of the pursuers retiring in peace. 

Matters remained in this undecided state for some time; 
but, either wilfully or accidentally, some of the Cateran fired, 



262 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

and the ball taking effect, killed one of the Fern men. This 
was the signal for a general onset : the chief and Macintosh 
closed in desperate combat, as also did the others. The power- 
ful hand of the Cateran, though resisted with wonderful tact by 
his weaker opponent, would soon have prevailed over Macin- 
tosh, had not assistance come from James Winter, who ran to 
his aid. He, stealing behind the chief, hamstrung him unawares, 
and brought him to the ground, when, like brave Witherington 
of Chevy Chase, and fair Lilliard of Ancrum, 

" His legs (being) smitten off, 
He fought upon his stumps ! " 

Fully aware of the defenceless state in which he lay, the 
wounded chieftain made several desperate aims at Macintosh 
(for by this time Winter had been re-assailed) ; but all attempts 
to mow Macintosh down having failed, and the Cateran's 
sword breaking on a stone, he solicited, as a dying request, 
that Macintosh would bid him farewell. This was frankly 
assented to, and while the Cateran grasped his unsuspecting 
victim with one hand, he secretly drew a dagger from his side 
with the other, and this he would have plunged into the youth's 
heart if Macintosh had not been apprised of his danger by some 
of his followers. On perceiving this he hastily relinquished his 
hold, and thrusting his sword into the breast of the wily chief, 
finished the work that had been so tragically begun by Winter. 

Seeing their chief overpowered, and several of their clans- 
men wounded and dead, the surviving Cateran fled in dismay. 
None are supposed to have escaped ; one of them, named 
Donald Young, was so severely wounded, that though able to 
flee a short distance, he ultimately fell and expired at a hill 
east of " the battle-field," which has ever since been called 
"Donald Young's Shank." Only one of the pursuers was 
killed, but several were more or less wounded. All the dead 
were buried where they fell; and about seventy years ago, 
when the banks of the Saughs were broken by a flood, some of 
their bones were exposed to view. 



FERN PLOTS AGAINST LEDENHENDRIE. 263 

The cattle and other spoils were collected together by the 
victors, who proceeded slowly on their homeward march. 
Meanwhile the less valiant part of the parishioners, reflecting 
upon the risk that the gallant band had hazarded, assembled 
in considerable numbers, and proceeded to their assistance, 
but they were barely beyond the bounds of their own parish 
when they beheld their friends and the lowing herd returning 
home. 

The boldness of Macintosh and Winter was the talk of 
surrounding districts ; and as the former, being the leader, was 
the one above all others on whom the friends of the vanquished 
would wreak their vengeance, his landlord, the Earl of South- 
esk, is said to have been so pleased with his achievements, that 
he erected a strongly fortified dwelling for him, and made him 
Captain of the parish, an office long held by Ogilvy, tenant of 
Trusto, 1 who, upon this occasion, had declined to follow the 
Cateran. 

These precautions of the Earl were not unnecessary ; for 
Ledenhendrie was frequently assaulted by his old enemies, 
and might have fallen under their attacks but for the security 
of his dwelling. It is related, that on spending an hour one 
evening with Ogilvy, who ever bore him hatred, the latter thrice 
called at the top of his voice, " Gude-nicht, Ledenhendrie ! " 
when parting with him at the door of Trusto. Macintosh, 
suspecting no harm, proceeded leisurely homeward, but on 
reaching a solitary part of the road he discovered the diabolical 
meaning of Trusto's parting salutation, and, ere he had time to 
bethink himself, was surprised by a party who lay in wait for 
him. He was wholly unarmed, and accompanied only by a 
favourite dog ; but, luckily, the night was dark, and being well 
acquainted with the route, he contrived by his agile step to 
gain the crevice of a rock in the den of Trusto, into which he 

1 David Ogilvy tenanted Trusto from at least 1691 to 1709. His name is not 
in the rent-roll of 1710. He was perhaps followed by Patrick Lyon of Ogil, who 
tenanted Trusto in 1729. (Inv. of York Build. Coy 'a Estates, belonging to Lord 
Panmure, pp. 198, 313.) 



264 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

and his dog got safely ensconced. As if instinctively aware 
of his master's jeopardy (although the pursuers were so near 
that Ledenhendrie could distinctly hear their conversation), his 
faithful companion remained, as he did himself, in breathless 
silence until daybreak, when both reached home. This niche 
has ever since been known as " Ledenhendrie's Chair." 

Trusto's perfidy was not lost on the subsequent conduct 
of Ledenhendrie's life, while it tended greatly to increase his 
uneasiness of mind ; for from that night to the day of his 
death he went to neither kirk nor fair without defensive wea- 
pons. Even in church, he no sooner entered his pew (which 
was so placed as to command the door, and evade any assault 
from the windows) than he laid his unsheathed sword and 
loaded pistols on the desk before him; but it is not known that 
he ever had a fair opportunity of calling these into use, 
although several clandestine attempts were made on his life 
more, it is believed, by Trusto's emissaries than by those of 
the reavers. 

As was to be expected, Macintosh and Winter were bosom 
friends ever after, and, in the true spirit of attached clans- 
men, they agreed that whoever died first, the survivor should 
conduct the funeral, and have it attended with the bagpipes 
and other warlike accompaniments, in the true spirit of the 
times. Winter was the first to pass away, and Ledenhendrie 
religiously performed the last duties, taking care to have the 
coronach, or dirge, played over his grave. A handsome monu- 
ment, of the old table fashion, was soon thereafter raised to 
his memory, bearing the sculpture of a sword and buckler on a 
shield, with this inscription, now much effaced : 

"I. W. 1732. This stone was erected by Alexander "Winter, tennent 
in the Doaf [? Doal] in memory of JAMES WINTER, his father's brother, 
who died on Peathaugh, in the parish of Glenisla, the 3d January 1732, 
aged 72. 

Here lyes James Vinter, who died in Peathaugh, 
Who fought most valointly at y e Water of Saughs, 
Along w*- Ledenhendry, who did command y e day 
They Vanquis the Enemy and made them runn away." 



FERN HIGHLAND FUNERAL. 265 

This tombstone is yet entire, near the south-east corner of 
the kirk of Cortachy, but the inscription, though it had been 
revised and rudely deepened, has since become all but ob- 
literated. His friend Ledenhendrie appears to have outlived 
him but a few years, as in 1739 his son's widow held the farm, 
and in 1742 one John Bruce had it on "a prorogation of John 
Macintosh his tack," 1 but the exact time and place of his 
decease are not ascertained. He was buried within the church 
of Fern, but no memorial points out the spot of his repose. 
So far from this, his reputed targe that hung on the church 
wall near his grave was cast forth at the rebuilding of the 
present edifice, and trodden under foot, his fortified residence 
erased, and the very stone that bore his initials, " I. M." with 
the date " 1708," was thrown aside and lost. 

The want of a monument to Ledenhendrie is the more to be 
regretted, because a similar notice as that over Winter would 
not only have told of the gratitude and respect which the cir- 
cumstances demanded, but would also have settled the era of 
the engagement, as all agree that he was not less than eighteen 
or above nineteen years of age at the time. As it is, the 
whole affair appears to have much the air of romance, and is 
so destitute of authentic details, that the humble tomb of 
Winter is the only genuine record of it that is known to be in 
existence. 2 

The district of Fern, so far as known, has little to boast of 
in the way of prehistoric traces, though a few warlike remains, 
and the old names of places, would favour the supposition of 
the parish having been the scene of some unrecorded engage- 
ments. The discovery of stone coffins and urns in various 
parts, particularly at a place called Drumcuthlaw; and the 
existence of large rude stones at Haerpithaugh (" the boundary 

1 York Buildings Co. Mem. Book, MS. p. 455. 

8 Accounts of " the Battle of Saughs " have been written by the Rev. Mr. Harris, 
entitled Ledenhendrie; and by the late Mr. Alex. Laing, Stracathro, in a ballad 
called The Raid o/Fearn. Some anonymous articles have also been printed about 
it in Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, the Montrose Review, etc. 



266 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

haugh of the pit or grave "), having much the appearance of 
boundary or march stones, would imply something of this 
sort. It is certain that nothing has been found on the Law of 
Windsor, or Fern (as the conspicuous knoll on the farm of 
Hilton is indiscriminately called), within the last half-century, 
that in any way relates to prehistoric times, though the 
appearance of the place seems not only to indicate an artificial 
origin, but has much of the peculiarity of the conical-shaped 
barrow, a rare species of ancient sepulchral tumulus, which, 
according to Catullus, appertains to females. 1 

Primitive dwellings are said to have been found in different 
parts of the parish ; and, according to the writer of the New 
Statistical Account, consist of a circle of moderately sized 
stones, enclosing an area of from nine to twenty feet and 
upwards, with the exterior packed by earth and stones to the 
breadth of three or four feet, and the interior, or floor, laid with 
clay or mortar, mixed sometimes with stones. Traces of the 
action of fire were found at the middle of these enclosures, and 
on some of the largest stones. The fragment of a quern was 
dug from one, and .a stone cofim found in the vicinity of 
another, while in 1851 an old grave dug out of the solid sand- 
stone, and containing the remains of a human body, with a 
small earthen vessel and brass pin, was found near the manse. 2 

These primitive dwellings are believed to have been the 
abode of the aborigines of Caledonia, and some of them were 
found in the upper parts of Lethnot near Waterhead, but 
differing from those of Fern in so far as they were scooped 
out of the mountain side, and the entrance levelled to the 
adjacent ground. These, however, are popularly believed to 
have been made by shepherds as shelters from the storm. 
Perhaps they were so, but it is worthy of notice, that they are 
of the same form as the so-called " primitive dwellings " in dis- 
tant parts of Scotland, and are found singly and in clusters, 

1 Fosbroke, Encyc. of Antiquities, p. 544. 

New Stat. Acct. Forfar. pp. 313-4 ; Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot. iii. p. 81. 



FERN ITS ARCHEOLOGY. 267 

like the lone shepherd's cot, and the Highland clachan or 
village. They are most plentiful in tracts of spongy moss and 
arid heath, and in solitudes where the plough has never pene- 
trated ; but as ages have elapsed since they were the scene of 
busy life, the richness of the soil has so greatly fostered vege- 
tation, that their sites can only be discovered with great 
difficulty, and, if it were not for their floors, hard-crusted by 
burning, they could scarcely be distinguished from bothies or 
illicit distilleries, or, as already mentioned, from shepherds' 
sheltering-places. 



CHAPTER VI. 
, .or 

SECTION I. 

Sir Alexander Carnegy built a very fyne little church, and a fyne minister's 
manse, upon his own expenses, and doted a stipend, and gave a glebe thereto, out of his 
own estate. OCHTERLONY. 

Blest be the man that spares these stones, 
And curst be he that moves my bones. 

ON SHAKESPEARE'S TOMB AT STRATFORD. 

Careston Origin of name " Keraldus judex" Erection of parish " Fyne little 
church " Succession of ministers Churchyard Rev. John Gillies Formation 
of kirk-session Rev. Dr. John Gillies of Glasgow Mr. Robert Gillies of 
Brechin Dr. John Gillies, Historiographer-Royal of Scotland Lord Gillies 
Dr. Thomas Gillies. 

THERE are various theories as to the origin of the name of 
Caraldstone, or Careston. In the Old Statistical Account it 
is derived from the Ossianic hero Carril, who is said to have 
been killed in the neighbourhood, and to have had a monument 
erected to him, which, towards the close of last century, was 
represented by three large rude stones. These stood on a 
hillock about a mile south-east of the church, near the farm- 
house of Nether Careston, but their site is now barely traceable, 
though the story of the fall of Carril (who, under the name of 
Carald, has been metamorphosed into the leader of a band of 
Danish fugitives) still lingers in the neighbourhood. 1 It is 
also said that Careston was known at one time by the name of 
Fuirdstone. This is assumed from a decreet of valuation of 
the teinds in 1 758, in which the expression occurs, of " the lands 
and barony of Caraldstone, formerly called Fuirdstone, with the 

1 Old Stat. Acct. ii. p. 483 ; New Stat. Acct. Forfar. p. 518. 



CARESTON ITS EARLY HISTORY. 269 

tower, fortalice, manor-place," etc. But, according to Lord 
Spynie's charter of the lands in 1606, this passage admits of a 
more likely interpretation, and merely signifies that a part of 
the lands of Careston was so called. 1 

In the Preface to the old Hegistrum de Aberbrothoc, atten- 
tion is directed to a different and more probable source than 
either of those mentioned, for the etymology of the name 
of the parish : " A person of the name of Bricius occurs in 
very early charters as ' judex' of Angus, probably holding his 
office under the great Earls. In 1219, Adam was 'judex' of 
the Earls' court. Some years later he became ' judex ' of the 
King's court, and his brother Keraldus succeeded to his office 
in the court of the Earl; for in the year 1227, we find the 
brothers acting together, and styled respectively 'judex ' of 
Angus, and 'judex' of our Lord the King. The dwelling of 
Keraldus received the name of ' Keraldiston,' afterwards 
Caraldstoun ; and the office of ' judex ' becoming hereditary 
and taking its Scotch form of ' Dempster,' gave name to the 
family who for many generations held the lands of Caraldstoun 
and performed the office of Dempster to the Parliaments of 
Scotland." 2 

The parish of Careston is of recent origin, having, down to 
a late period, formed a part of that of Brechin. The site of the 
kirk is said to have been a place of family interment from a 
remote age ; and, although the endowment was given and con- 
nrmed by Eoyal Charter in 1631, and a church was built in 
1636, the Act for erecting the district into a separate parish 
was not obtained until the year 1641, when, on Sir Alexander 
Carnegy of Balnamoon (who was sole heritor, holding under 
the superiority of Maule of Panmure, as proprietor of the 
Lordship of Brechin and Navar), " takand christeanlie to his 
consideration the ignorance of his tennentis, and seriowslie 
pondering with him selff, fynding the case, cause, and occasion 

1 Orig. Dukedom of Montrose Case, p. 218 ; so also Inquis. Spec. Forfar. No. 187, 
A.D. 1629. * Reg. Vet. Aberbr. pp. ixvi, 94, et aL ; Acts Parl. ii. pp. 76 (1455). 



270 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

thereof to proceid frome the distance of thair dwelling to thair 
paroche kirk of Brechine, . . . and that be consent of the 
ministers of Brechine, it was thought expedient that the said 
lands of Carrestoun et Pitforkie should be disjoynted from the 
said paroche of Brechine, and erected into ane severe!! and 
distinct paroche be it selff." l 

The erection of the parish was opposed by Sir Patrick 
Maule, the minister of Navar, and the Commissioner of 
Brechin, in name of that burgh and parish ; still, the General 
Assembly " appoints and ordanes the inhabitants of the said 
lands, with the pertinents, to repair to the Newe kirk, built be 
the said Sir Alexander vpon the saids lands of Carrestoun, as 
thair paroche kirk in all tynie thairefter, for divine service, re- 
ceaveing of the sacraments, and to vse the kirkyard thereof for 
buriell of thair dead." Carnegy reserved the patronage of the 
kirk to himself, and the stipend, paid out of the teind sheaves 
of Careston, Pitforkie, and Balnabreich, amounted to forty-five 
bolls two firlots victual, two parts meal, and third part bear, 
and forty-five pounds Scots money, " as the samene are and 
hes been in vse to pay yeirlie to the late pretendit Bishope of 
Brechine." 2 

The "fyne little church," as Ochterlony calls it, of 1636, is 
still a substantial plain building, with an aisle on the north 
side. The aisle has a special entrance from the west, and 
used to contain the pew of the laird's family and domestics. 
The burial vault, which is below the aisle, is entered by a 
flight of steps, but the approach is covered up by the flags in 
the floor. In 1870 the church and aisle received a new roof, 
and the inside seating was rearranged. The pulpit now occu- 
pies the east end, instead of the south side. The proprietor's 
seat, with its baldachino, stands in the west end, and the 

1 Reg. Episc. Brech. ii. p. 311 ; Acts Parl., A.D. 1641,v. p. 568 ; Fraser, Carnegies 
ofSouthesk, L p. Ixxxviii sq. It may be worthy of note that a stone bearing the Car- 
negie and Blair arms, with initials, etc., similar to that at Menmuir, was found at 
Careston Church, and is there preserved, being built into the wall (infra pp. 304. 315). 

* Acts of Parl. v. p. 568, Ratification of Mortification, Nov. 2, 1641. 



CARESTON PARISH MINISTERS. 271 

aisle is partitioned off for a vestry. In this there is preserved 
a plain hand-bell about ten inches high, with a flat hammered 
loop for a handle, and having cut upon the side above the 
rim, AF1756CF. On the apex of the north gable wall 
there is the date 1636. In the churchyard there lies the 
upper part of the bowl of a small octagonal sandstone font. 

It is probable that Mr. David Campbell, 1 who married a 
daughter of Carnegy of Cookston, was the first minister of 
Careston after its formation into a parish. Mr. Campbell was 
soon translated to Menmuir, and was succeeded by Mr. John 
Ramsay in 1649, whose successor was perhaps Mr. Thomas 
Skinner, master of the Grammar School of Brechin, who was 
inducted to the charge in 1663. Mr. Skinner was translated 
to Dailly in 1666, and in December of that year he was suc- 
ceeded in Careston by Mr. Gilbert Skein, master of the Gram- 
mar School of Montrose. In June 1679, Mr. William Carnegie 
was admitted minister, and, being translated to Hoddam in 
October 1681, he was succeeded by Mr. John Murray in 
March following. 2 This gentleman, and his assistant, Mr. 
Alexander Lindsay, were among the " Jacobite intruders " who 
caused their brethren so much annoyance on the overthrow of 
Episcopacy, and from that time till the induction of Mr. Gillies 
in 1716 the parish was without a settled minister. Mr. Gillies' 
successor, William Morrice, demitted the charge in 1772, and 
Andrew Gray was ordained there in the following spring. To 
his pen we owe the first statistical account of the parish (1792), 
which is very carefully written, while to that of a later minister 
we owe the second account (1842). This latter, David Lyell, 
was presented in 1800, married the Hon. Catherine, youngest 
daughter of John, seventh Viscount Arbuthnott, and died 1853. 
The present minister, the Rev. W. L. Baxter, A.M., appointed 
in 1862, is the third since Mr. Lyell's death. 3 

1 " April 4, 1643 ; This day Mr. Dauid Campbell, minister of Carralstoun, was 
contractit with Mara* Carnegy in this paroch ; caur for them both Alex' Carnegy of 
Cuikstoune." (Br. Sess. Rec.) 

2 Presby. Record of Brechin. 3 Scott, Fasti, vi. pp. 818 sq., 851. 



272 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

As Careston is the least among the parishes in Forfarshire, 
both as regards size and population, and the fifth least in the 
kingdom, the kirk and graveyard are correspondingly small. 
Still, the tombstones were once numerous, and manifested as 
much regard for the memory of departed relatives as is often 
shown in more extensive localities; but when George Skene was 
proprietor, he had the whole of them thrown from the graveyard, 
and, in course of time, they were for the most part broken 
to pieces, or used for drain-covers ! The few now remaining 
were taken from the common heap, and set up in their present 
position after his death. One of these (erected in 1755), as if 
anticipating Skene's sacrilegious doings, bears this unambiguous 
request, which will remind the reader of the lines on the tomb- 
stone of Shakespeare, quoted at the head of this Chapter : 

" This stone doth hold these corps of mine, 
While I ly buried here ; 
None shal molest nor wrong this stone, 
Except my friends that near. 
My flesh and bones lyes in Earth's womb, 
Wntill Judgment do appear, 
And then I shall be raised again 
To meet my Saviour dear." 

The discarded tombstones were supplanted by small slabs, 
that were built into the walls of the graveyard, at certain dis- 
tances from each other, and on these the names of the various 
farms in the parish were carved. The late Eev. Mr. Lyell 
said that these were executed by the laird himself, and polished 
by his son David, who was a druggist by occupation. Perhaps 
the most generally interesting memorial now left is the fol- 
lowing simple record of the Eeverend John Gillies, who was 
the first minister of the parish after the final departure from 
Episcopacy: 

" In memory of Mr. JOHN GILLIES, who was ordained minister of Car- 
raldston Sept. 1716, and departed this life the 1st March 1753, aged 72 
years. Six of his children are likewise buried here, of which five died in 
infancy, and one, viz 4 . THOMAS, in March 1736, aged 13 years. His spouse, 



CARESTON FAMILY OF GILLIES. 273 

Mary Watson, survives him, as also five of his children, viz*. John, minister 
in Glasgow ; Robert, merchant in Brechin ; and Mary, Isobel, and Janet 
Gillies." (Ps. 37 ; Phil. 1. 31 ; Col. 3. 4.) 

Mr. Gillies was a native of the west country, and the first 
of his race, for seven generations (as he told an old parishioner), 
who forsook the needle and the bodkin. He was a licentiate 
of the Presbytery of Wigtown, within whose bounds he taught 
a school for some time ; J and on the removal of the parochial 
teacher of Fern, in 1716, "for his accession to the late re- 
bellion," Mr. Gillies succeeded him on the recommendation 
of Professor Hamilton of Edinburgh, having shown himself 
acceptable to "the heritors of his parish who are not fled 
from the Eebellion." 2 He taught the school of Fern only 
about six months, when, on the people of Careston promising 
to " be passive," and refusing to have any hand in calling a 
minister, though they had been without one for seven or eight 
years, the Presbytery elected Mr. Gillies to that charge on the 
29th of August, and ordained him on the 18th of the following 
month. 

He had been inducted for many years, however, before the 
parish could boast of either a kirk-session or a school-house ; 
for the church served the double purpose of kirk and school 
down to the year 1738, and the parochial affairs were managed 
by the minister and a committee of the Presbytery till 1733, 
when elders and office-bearers were chosen for the first time. 
The election had, perhaps, been hastened by the refusal of Lord 
Menzies to pay the Lady of Balnamoon's mortification to the 
poor unless a kirk-session was chosen to receive the money. 
This mortification was made so far back as 1704, and became 
payable from the lands on Mrs. Carnegy's death ; but Stewart 
of Grandtully, Carnegy's successor in the property, refused to 
do so until compelled by law. 

The want of a session had perhaps arisen from the strong 
feeling in favour of the proscribed faith, which long lingered in 

i Presbytery Rec. of Brechin, May 30, 1716. 2 Ibid. 

S 



274 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

the district; for although Mr. Gillies was admitted to the 
parish church without any disturbance, an Episcopal meeting 
was regularly held at Whiteside long after the date of his 
induction. It is pleasing to observe, however, that while Mr. 
Gillies and his colleagues were liberal to their own party such 
as, the ill-starred " relict of the late Mr. Buchan, minister of 
St. Kilda," an old veteran recommended by the Assembly, 
who had spent his time in the army, from the Eestoration to 
the Peace of Utrecht a poor stranger who had been reduced 
to frailty and want, and " suffered much from his good affec- 
tion to the Church and State," they were also mindful of their 
opponents, the Episcopal clergymen and Highland gentlemen, 
several of whom had their claims allowed from the poor's box, 
as had also " Hugh Douglas, son to the late Earl of Morton," 
who had a " recommend from one as having lost much at sea." 1 
All these entries exhibit, in simple but expressive language, 
the sad distress into which the persecutions of the times had 
thrown, not only the Episcopal clergy of the period, but many 
others whose feelings could ill brook the sad reverses that 
forced them to crave charity from the hands of strangers. 

The above-mentioned tombstone to the memory of Mr. 
Gillies has greater claim to our notice, and is more generally 
interesting, than may at first sight appear. Though known 
for little individually, further than discharging the duties of 
his office with acceptance to his parishioners during a time of 
great difficulty, Mr. Gillies is remarkable as the father of a 
race who have become popular in the higher walks of literature 
and other dignified studies. A brief notice of some of these 
men may not be unacceptable to the reader. 

It will be seen that the inscription records the birth of 
eleven children, of whom only two sons and three daughters 
grew up; and the initials and date "I G: M W 1716," 

1 Careston Parish Reg. 1720-21-23, etc. This Hugh Douglas may have been a 
natural son, or, more probably, an impostor, there being no legitimate son of Morton 
so named at the time referred to, or for several generations before. The twelfth, or 
" late Earl," died unmarried in 1715. 



CARESTON REV. DR. JOHN GILLIES, SEN. AND JUN. 275 

rudely cut on the outside of the minister's pew, was perhaps an 
essay at carving by the hand of his eldest son John, the future 
Doctor of Divinity. This eminent divine, who wrote the Life 
of George Whitfield, Historical Collections of the Success of the 
Gospel, and other works, was born two years before the time of 
his father's settlement in Angus, and was probably a native of 
Galloway. He was ordained to the South Parish of Glasgow in 
1742, where he continued for the long period of fifty-four years, 
and had a numerous family, one of whom was minister of 
Paisley. His only child by his second wife was married to 
the Hon. General Leslie, third son of the Earl of Leven. 

But it is to the family of his brother Eobert, merchant in 
Brechin, and for a time proprietor of Little Keithock, with the 
mill-lands adjoining, that the name of Gillies chiefly owes its 
celebrity. His wife was Margaret Smith, the daughter of a 
merchant of the same city, and by her he had a large family 
of sons and daughters. John, the eldest, was the well-known 
historian of Greece, and author of many other works. On 
completing the rudimentary part of his education at Brechin, 
John went to Glasgow, and resided with his uncle during the 
University session. He spent his summers at home, " study- 
ing in his father's garret," and was but rarely seen either by 
his own family or others, save in the evenings, when he took 
an airing in the neighbouring fields. This extensive applica- 
tion had its reward ; and before reaching his twentieth year, 
he attained such proficiency in the Greek language, that he 
was appointed teacher of the University class during Professor 
Moore's last illness, and would have succeeded to that chair on 
Moore's death had he not preferred a journey to the Continent, 
whither he went as guardian to the sons of the Earl of Hope- 
toun. The Earl, being much pleased with Mr. Gillies' conduct 
towards his sons, placed him beyond the remotest prospect of 
pecuniary want by settling a handsome annuity upon him for 
life, and he thenceforward prosecuted his studies in ease and 
comparative affluence, devoting himself entirely to literary 



276 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

pursuits. The most popular of his many works is the History 
of Ancient Greece. On the death of Dr. Kobertson he was 
appointed Historiographer-Eoyal for Scotland, and died in 
1836, at the advanced age of ninety. 

Though his pursuits were of a classical and historical 
character, he had a clear perception of the ludicrous, and 
entertained his friends with couplets descriptive of the pecu- 
liarities of the more singular characters of his native town. 
These, unfortunately, have been lost, with the exception of 
that undernoted. The party epitaphised was a maternal rela- 
tive of the Doctor's, and alive when the couplet was written. 
He was bred a shoemaker, but preferred the more exhilarating 
avocation of a courier, and other out-of-door exercises, to his 
immediate calling a circumstance that gave rise to the epitaph 
referred to, which runs thus : 

" Here lies John Smith, shoemaker by trade, 
Who wore more shoes than ever he made." 

Dr. Gillies' youngest brother, Adam, was called to the bar 
in 1787, appointed Sheriff of Kincardineshire in 1806, and, 
though a Whig, was raised to the bench in 1811, during the 
Administration of the unfortunate Mr. Perceval. He had a 
grave, austere demeanour, was a judge of high authority, of 
few words, and terse argumentation ; and, unlike his learned 
predecessors, who loved to use the broad Scotch dialect, he 
affected an ignorance of it, and assumed the English ac- 
centuations. While on circuit on one occasion, a case came 
before him, in which some of the witnesses examined were 
natives of Brechin. In course of giving evidence, one of them, 
an old man who had known Gillies from his infancy, happened 
to give the name of the article hat the sharp provincial ac- 
centuation of Mt. His Lordship immediately interrogated 
the deponent "What do you mean by a Mt, sir?" "I 
thocht," said the unabashed witness, "that yer honour had 
been lang eneuch aboot Brechin to ken what a Mt was !" 

Mr. Gillies was counsel for some of the political martyrs of 



CARESTON LORD GILLIES. 277 

the early part of this century, and by the distinguished and 
able manner in which he conducted the defence, he established 
that reputation for talent which eventually led to his promo- 
tion to the bench. He held office till within a few weeks of 
his death, which occurred towards the end of the year 1842, 
at Leamington, whither he had gone for the benefit of his 
health. His body was conveyed to Edinburgh, and interred 
in the Greyfriars Churchyard. 

Though by no means a lover of the place of his nativity, 
which perhaps arose from the misfortunes that attended an 
elder brother, he was the untiring benefactor of his less opulent 
relatives, and left a respectable annuity to his nephew, Robert 
Pearse Gillies, of literary celebrity. 

His brother Colin was the most enterprising provincial 
flour and corn dealer of his time, and, in his hey-day, had 
perhaps more influence than any individual trader of Angus 
or the Mearns ever enjoyed. Throughout both of these counties 
he had extensive spinning, bleaching, and weaving factories, 
and farmed a large extent of land, besides being proprietor of 
Murlingden, near Brechin, and of house property to a great 
amount in most of the towns of the two counties. He was 
also projector of the porter brewery at Brechin, in itself 
a lucrative concern, and he contributed the valuable statistics 
of the linen trade of Forfarshire to Sir John Sinclair's 
great work. For several years he was also chief magis- 
trate of his native city. Matters, however, were suddenly 
reversed, and his failure, which occurred in the year 1811, 
sank the north-eastern districts of Forfarshire and the adjoining 
parts of Kincardineshire into a state of ruin, that was not 
recovered from for many a day. Under the judicious manage- 
ment of Mr. Greenhill of Fern, who was the principal creditor, 
Mr. Gillies' estate yielded a little more than half payment, which 
was beyond all anticipation; and although Lord Gillies was 
personally involved to a large amount, he felt so sensible of 
the value of Mr. Greenhill's services, and the loss he sustained 



278 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

beyond other creditors, that he pledged himself to remunerate 
him to some extent if ever he had it in his power. On the 
death of Mrs. Hay Mudie of Newton and Pitforthy, many 
years afterwards, Lord Gillies was left a handsome legacy by 
that lady. An opportunity was' thus afforded of fulfilling his 
promise, and, with a nobleness of heart, and honour worthy of 
all praise, he forwarded a thousand pounds, with the request 
for Mr. Greenhill's kind acceptance of it. 

Thomas, who was bred a surgeon, and went to India, was the 
father of Robert Pearse Gillies, now so well known in literature. 
He amassed a large fortune abroad, and, on returning to his 
native country, purchased the estate, and built the mansion- 
house of Balmakewan in Kincardineshire, a property which 
his son sold on coming of age. Dr. Thomas Gillies was a man 
of great benevolence, but of singularly eccentric habits, and in 
honour of his son, or perhaps of Colonel Pearse (an intimate 
acquaintance in the Indian army), he named a part of Brechin, 
where he held considerable property, " Pearse Street," by which 
name it is still known. 

While residing in his town-house in Brechin one winter, 
a band of strolling players located themselves in the Mason 
Lodge, which was immediately opposite his residence, and 
thither he went one evening to while away the time. On 
entering the theatre, he placed himself so close to the stage 
that the master of the ceremonies was forced to ask him to 
retire to a little distance. This was insisted upon without 
success ; and after much altercation, the Doctor, raising him- 
self on tip-toe, gruffly inquired of his antagonist, " Don't you 
know who / am, sir? I'm Doctor Gillies from Bengal!" 
" Though you were Doctor Faustus from the devil," rejoined 
the humble representative of Thespis, giving him a shove to 
the front seats, " you shan't stand there !" Of his eminent son 
little can be added to the interesting and unvarnished state- 
ment which he gives of his own chequered and unfortunate 
career. He was born at Brechin in 1789, called to the Scotch 



CARESTON DR. THOMAS GILLIES. 279 

bar in 1812, and subsequently adopted literature as a profes- 
sion. His later history is told by himself in his curious work 
entitled Memoirs of a Literary Veteran. 

Thus, it will be seen, " the mantle " has descended on the 
Gillies family to an almost unprecedented extent. Another 
brother, William, who was engaged with Colin in porter- 
brewing, was father of the Misses Mary and Margaret Gillies of 
London, of whom the one was known as a successful miniature- 
painter, and the other as a contributor to the periodical press. 
Of the daughters, one married Henry William Tytler, translator 
of Callimachus, and another was mother of the late Colvin Smith, 
portrait-painter in Edinburgh, whose father (a cousin of his 
mother) was some time a merchant and bailie in Brechin, and 
long held the office of postmaster. Still, strange to say, notwith- 
standing the former opulence and importance of the Gillies 
family, the very surname is now almost unknown in the 
district. 



SECTION II. 

Of known renown, and Chieftains of their name. 

DON, A POEM. 

Office of Dempster Dempster of Careston of Muiresk Lindsays of Careston of 
Balnabreich The Carnegies of Careston The Stewarts "The Douglas 
Cause " The Earl of Home, Baron Douglas The Skenes of Careston Origin of 
family Major George Skene Captain Skene, the warlock laird Mr. John 
Adamson Mitchells of Nether Careston. 

THE surname of " Dempster," as before mentioned, originated 
from the office of " judex," or Dempster to the Parliament and 
shire ; but it is uncertain at what period it was first assumed. 
Haldan de Emester, or Demester, of the county of Perth, swore 
fealty to Edward in 1296, 1 and this is the earliest instance of 
the surname with which we have met. It was assumed by the 
lairds of Careston (in its present form) before 1360, when they 
and the Collaces became portioners of Menmuir. 2 In 1370, 

1 Ragman Rolls, p. 128. 2 Reg. Mag. Sig. p. 43, no. 118. 



280 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

David Dempster of Careston was a perambulator of marches 
near Arbroath, and bound himself to the Abbot of that 
Monastery, of which he was justiciary, to provide a qualified 
deputy. 1 On the resignation of this office by his grandson, it 
was conferred on the Earl of Crawford, whose extravagance 
prompted the convent to dispense with him, and appoint 
Ogilvy of Inverquharity a circumstance that gave rise to the 
battle between the Ogilvys and Lindsays at Arbroath, already 
noticed. 2 

The office of heritable Dempster to the Parliaments was 
confirmed to Andrew Dempster of Careston by Eobert n. in 
1379, 3 and from the irregularity with which the fees attached 
thereto were paid, a glimpse is afforded of the sources from 
which the payments were derived. Thus an action was raised 
before the Lords Auditors by David Dempster, who claimed 
" (tene pundis) amerciament of fee ilk parliament," and the like 
sum, it is presumed, " of ilk Justice Are " held in Forfarshire, 
and " amerciament zerely of the extrect of the Sheref s Court 
of the sammyn," which the " lordis Auditoris thinkis that he 
suld be pait efter the forme of his infeftment, maid be King 
Eobert vnder the gret sele schawin et producit." 4 

The father of the last-mentioned David was the first of the 
name that possessed the lands of Pitforthy, Ardo, Bothers (now 
Cairnbank), and Adecat, near Brechin. These were anciently 
church lands, and formed part of those alienated from the 
Cathedral of Brechin by peculating officials ; but James ill., 
in his determination to restore the Church's property, had 
Dempster cited before the Lords of Council in 1464, as the 
wrongous possessor of these lands, and he was ordered to 
reconvey them all to the Church. To this he agreed in 1468, 
in the humiliating posture of bended knee, and having his 
hands closed within those of the Bishop. 5 

1 Reg. Nigr. Aberbr. pp. 31, 111 2 ui supra, p. 176. 

3 Douglas, Baronage, p. 531. 4 ^cta Auditorum, July 18, 1476, p. 53. 

8 Reg. Episc. Brech. ii. pp. 106, 109. 



CARESTON DEMPSTER AND HIS NEIGHBOURS. 281 

Although thus penitent, and reinstated in part, if not in 
the whole of these lands, Dempster seems to have had little 
love for either the church or the Bishop, for soon afterwards, 
in 1467, he was again summoned by "the Eeverend Fader," 
for the " spoliacioune of iiij xx nolt " from the lands of Ardo, 
and a horse from those of Pitforthy, over which it would 
appear (from the fact that a deliverance was given against 
Dempster with costs), the Bishop had retained the privilege 
of grazing. 

Ever and anon this lording spirit was manifesting itself 
in Dempster's character, either through the oppression of the 
widow or by other heartless outrages ; and he and his brother, 
joining in the mischievous and daring enterprises of the pro- 
fligate sons of the Duke of Montrose, were of that sacrilegious 
party which carried off "twa monkis," and some horses, belonging 
to the Abbey of Cupar; and for this "hurting of the priuilege and 
fredome of hali kirk," they were both ordered to place themselves 
in ward in the respective castles of Dumbarton and Berwick. 
Perhaps the aid which Dempster of Careston and his brother 
afforded the young Crawfords in their lawlessness and rapine 
induced their father to thrust Dempster out of the farms 
of Gleneffock and Pettintoscall, of which he was liferenter, 
and to take forcible possession of a number of his oxen and 
cows. But, so far was the Duke from succeeding in this, that 
his adversary was ordained to " broek and joise the tak all 
the dayis of his life," without vexation or trouble. 1 

Emboldened with success, Dempster next directed his 
energies to the annoyance of the Duke and the summary 
ejection of his tenantry, and, among other misdeeds, he turned 
John Guthrie out of " the tak and mailing of the landis of 
Petpowoks," in the lordship of Brechin. In this the Dempsters 
were found at fault, and ordered to reinstate Guthrie in 
his possession, seeing that he produced a tack signed by the 
Duke. 2 

1 Acta Dom. ConcUii, Ap. 22, 1479, p. 29. 2 Ibid. Dec. 9, 1494. 



282 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

This polemical laird, who was fifth in descent from the 
David first named, added largely to his possessions in the north, 
having had charters of the lordship of Muiresk and other 
parts from James III. in 1481, from which period the family 
were promiscuously designed of Auchterless and Muiresk. 1 
He was succeeded by his son William, who is the last designed 
"of Caroldstoun," of which he had charters in 1529, as also 
of the lands and mill of Pitmois, in the regality of Kirriemuir. 2 
He died soon thereafter, and although he was the last of the 
name specially designed of Careston, the family had an interest 
in the locality down to a much later period ; for among the 
charters belonging to the city of Brechin, David Dempster, 
" fiar of Peathill," appears as a witness under date 1597. 3 

We are not aware of the precise time when the barony 
of Careston fell to the Lindsays, but it is certain that Sir 
Henry Lindsay of Kinfauns, afterwards thirteenth Earl of 
Crawford, was in possession before the close of the sixteenth 
century, since on the 17th of January 1600, Janet Forrester, 
with consent of her son, granted an annual of forty-five merks 
out of a part of the lands of Balnabreithe to Henry Lindsay de 
Carraldstoun, and his heirs. 4 Only eight years thereafter, Sir 
Henry resigned Careston, Nether Careston, and Balnabreich, 
and the barony and lordship of Kinfauns, in favour of his 
eldest son Sir John, Knight of the Bath, as fiar, but under 
his father's liferent. 5 Sir John predeceased his father about 
1615, and leaving no male issue, the property reverted to Sir 
Henry in 1618, who obtained a bond of reversion over Careston 
and Finhaven from William Forbes of Craigievar. 6 In 1629, 

1 Douglas, Baronage, p. 532. 2 Ibid. 

3 Reg. Episc. Brech. ii. pp. 230, 285, 291. Thomas Dempster, the celebrated author 
of Hintoria Ecclesiastica Qentis Scotorum, etc., was of the Muiresk family, and 
commonly, but erroneously, said to have been born at Brechin. The real place of 
his birth was the mansion-house of Cliftbog, in Aberdeenshire. He was the twenty- 
fourth of twenty-nine children, that his mother, a daughter of Lesly of Balquhain, 
bore to his father. (Irving, Lives of Scottish Writers, i. p. 347.) Dempster of 
Dunichen and Skibo is also said to be descended from a younger son of Muiresk. 
(Jervise, Epitaphs, i. pp. 108-9.) * Crawford Case, p. 82. 

8 Crawford Case, p. 84. o jbid. p. 84. 



CARESTON OWNERS OF THE ESTATE. 283 

Earl George, as heir to his brother Sir John Lindsay, had, 
along with the lands of Careston, the office of adjudicator in 
the Parliaments of Scotland, and justiciary in the courts of 
Forfarshire j 1 but in 1630, these, and the lands of Shielhill, in 
the parish of Kirriemuir, and Easter Balnabreich, were sold 
by him to John Eamsay, 2 who had been laird of the western 
part of the last-named property for some time before. Lord 
Spynie relieved Craigievar's bond at that period, and thus 
became proprietor of Careston and Finhaven at about the same 
time. 

Long before this, however, in 1595, Sir Alexander Carnegie, 
brother to the first Earl of Southesk, and afterwards proprietor 
of Balnamoon, had a charter of half the lands of Balnabreich ; 3 
and being a lawyer of eminence, is said to have received 
the barony of Careston in lieu of the expenses of a lawsuit, 
which he is represented to have carried on in behalf of the 
Lindsays. 4 

Sir John Stewart of Grandtully and Murthly, succeeded 
the Carnegies in Careston by purchase, in 1707. His arms, 
with the date 1714, still decorate the front of the castle ; and 
during the proprietorship of that family much of the stone 
carving was added to the house. The Stewarts were de- 
scended, through a daughter of Lord Bute, from a son of Alex- 
ander, the Lord High Steward of Scotland in the time of 
Alexander n. and ill. ; his eldest brother, the seventh Lord 
High Steward, was the illustrious personage from whom 
" the Royal Stewart " deduce their descent. Grandtully was 
acquired in the reign of James I. The first baronet was a 
Senator of the College of Justice, and, by the marriage of his 
grandson with Lady Jane Douglas, only daughter of the pen- 

1 Inquis. Spec. Forfar. No. 187. When the Earl of Ethie was served heir of 
conquest to his immediate younger brother, Robert Carnegie of Dunnichen, in the 
lands and barony of Careston, he had also " the office of dempster of Parliaments, 
Justice-courts, and Circuit- courts, of the Sherefdom of Forfar." (Ibid. No. 371, 
A.D. 1658.) 

2 Crawford Case, p. 91 ; see Inquis. Spec. Forfar. Nos. 431, 432. 

3 Douglas, Peerage, ii. p. 514. 4 New Stat. Acct. Forfar. p. 529. 



284 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

ultimate Marquis of Douglas, and thirteenth Earl of Angus, 
the famous " Douglas Cause" arose, whereby her son, Archibald, 
succeeded to the large estates of the Duke of Douglas the 
Marquisate of Douglas having merged into the Dukedom of 
Hamilton. He was created a British Peer by the title of 
Baron Douglas of Douglas in 1790, was long Lord-Lieutenant 
of Forfarshire, and died in 1827. His two brothers succeeded, 
and on the death of his half-brother, the Eev. James Douglas, 
the fourth and last Baron Douglas of that creation, in 1857, the 
title became extinct, and the estates devolved upon the Lady 
Montagu, eldest daughter of the first Baron Douglas, and widow 
of the second and last Lord Montagu. Two years after, on the 
death of Lady Montagu, the estates passed to her eldest 
daughter, Lady Lucy Elizabeth, wife of Cospatrick Alexander, 
eleventh Earl of Home. His Lordship had his titles augmented 
by the addition of Baron Douglas of Douglas in 1875, arid by 
this title had his place as a Peer of the United Kingdom. The 
Countess of Home died in 1877, and his Lordship w r as found 
with life extinct on the lawn at The Hirsel in Berwickshire 
in 1881. He was succeeded in titles and estates by his eldest 
son, Charles Alexander Douglas, twelfth Earl of Home. 

Careston again changed hands in 1721, and became, by 
purchase, the property of Major George Skene, a cadet of the 
old family of that Ilk. This family enjoyed the estate of 
Skene from father to son in nearly uninterrupted succession 
for more than 600 years, down to the late period of 1827, when 
the last direct male descendant died. The first who bore the 
surname is said to have been a younger son of Donald of the 
Isles, who, according to tradition, saved Malcolm n. from being 
torn to pieces by an enraged wolf, that chased him from the 
forest of Kilblein in Mar to the Burn of Broadtach, now 
within the boundary of the town of Aberdeen. At this point 
the wolf came up with the king, and was just about to spring 
upon him, when the gallant youth, " wrapping his plaid about 
his left arm, and, rushing in betwixt the king and the wolf, 



CARESTON SKENES OF THAT ILK. 285 

thrust his left arm into the wolfs mouth, and drawing his 
skene which in the Gaelic language signifies a dirk or knife 
struck it to the wolfs heart, and then cut off its head and pre- 
sented it to King Malcolm." x For this meritorious service he 
had a large grant of land in Aberdeenshire, including the parish 
of Skene, and took his surname from the dirk or knife. This in- 
strument, it is said, is still preserved among the family relics. 

This tradition, though strengthened, as are those of other 
ancient families, by armorial insignia, is as incredible as it is 
romantic. The first genuine notice of the race occurs in the 
time of the disputed monarchy, during which, in 1290, 
"Johannes Skene" was an arbitrator between Bruce and 
Baliol; and in 1296, the same person and "Patrik de Skene" 
(probably a son, for they were both of Aberdeenshire), were 
among the barons who swore fealty to Edward. 2 So far from 
the whole property of Skene having continued in the family 
from the time of Malcolm, it appears, from a roll of missing 
charters by Eobert I., that he gave " Alexander Frazer of Cluny 
the lands of Cardnye, with the fishing of the Loch of Skene," 3 
which had, doubtless, formed part of the estate. At all events, 
" the great loch of Skene " is a portion of the traditionary 
grant of Malcolm. This charter of the fishing to Frazer is 
undated, but was given sometime before 1318, as in that year 
the same patriotic prince made a grant to Eobert de Skene, for 
his service and homage, of " omnes et singulas terras de Skene 
et locum ejusdem." Hence it seems evident that this was the 
period that the family had their charter of the lands and loch 
of Skene, and the first time, so far as known, that they received 
a royal acknowledgment of their services ; although from the 
designation de Skene, they must either have been vassals, or 
portioners of the lordship, prior to the year 1290. 4 

The first of the race, who figured in the subsequent achieve- 

1 Douglas, Baronage, p. 555 : Nisbet, Heraldry, i. p. 324. 

2 Ragman Rolls, p. 154 : Nisbet, Heraldry, App. in. p. 44. 

3 Robertson, Index, p. 16. 24. 4 Douglas, Baronage, p. 556. 



28G LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

merits of the kingdom, was Adam de Skene, who married a 
daughter of Keith Marischal. He raised a force against the 
invasion of Donald of the Isles, and fell at Harlaw. The 
heads of the family shared the same fate at the subsequent 
battles of Flodden and Pinkie. James Skene, who succeeded 
his father in 1634, was a staunch loyalist, and, like others of 
his exiled countrymen, served in the Ten Years' War under 
Gustavus Adolphus. His second son joined the Covenanters, 
was taken prisoner at Eutherglen, and executed in the Grass- 
market of Edinburgh, on the 1st of December 16S0. 1 

It was Major George Skene, grandson of the last-mentioned 
James, an officer of distinction during the wars of Queen Anne, 
who purchased the estate of Careston from the Grandtully 
family in 1721, entailed it in the following year, and died in 
1724. He had two daughters ; one of them married the laird 
of Skene, her own cousin-german, the other Sir John Forbes 
of Foveran. Both being married at the same time, it is said 
that their father willed that his estate of Careston should pass 
to the daughter who bore the first son. 2 Mrs. Skene was the 
fortunate party, and her eldest son, George, consequently suc- 
ceeded to Careston. On the death of his father he became 
chief of the ancient family of Skene of that Ilk, being the 
twenty-first in succession from Kobert Skene of 1318. He 
married a daughter of Forbes of Alford, had five sons and two 
daughters, and, as all the former died without issue, the succes- 
sion devolved on their eldest sister, who married Alexander, 
third Earl of Fife. She was mother of James, the fourth Earl, 
and of the late General Sir Alexander Duff, whose eldest son 
became proprietor of Careston, and afterwards succeeded to the 
Earldom of Fife. 

The eldest son of Miss Forbes of Alford was bred a lawyer, 
but having a desire for military service, entered the army, and 
rose to the rank of captain. He was long quartered in 
Ireland, and, in allusion to the English interpretation of his 

1 Douglas, Baronage, p. 559. 2 New Stat. Acct. Forfar. p. 530. 



CARESTON LAST OF THE SKENES. 287 

name, was familiarly known there as Captain Knife : he left 
the service on the death of his father. Taking part with the 
late Lord Panmure in the reforming movements of the period, 
he held a conspicuous place in that momentous crisis, and was 
one of the party whom Napoleon, soon after his elevation to 
the First Consulship, arrested for openly drinking to his over- 
throw at a public banquet in Paris. The fines which were 
imposed on Skene and Maule, and the bribes they paid for 
their escape, were so heavy, that, though both had large 
incomes, and were long-lived, they were, to some extent at 
least, embarrassed in consequence all their days. 

Captain Skene died unmarried, and was succeeded by his 
youngest surviving brother, Alexander, who, with another 
brother, was deaf and dumb. With the view of enabling these 
to employ their time usefully, they were both apprenticed in 
early life to a Mr. Eobb, watchmaker, Montrose, a person of 
provincial eminence in his line. 

On succeeding to the estates, the last Skene of Skene 
removed to the ancestral dwelling in Aberdeenshire, where he 
died in 1827. His nephew James, the fourth Earl of Fife, and 
grand-nephew, James the fifth Earl, succeeded to the properties, 
and, after several ineffective attempts to dispose of Careston, 
the entail at last was' removed, with the aid of the Eutherfurd 
Act, and the estate was sold to the present proprietor, Mr. John 
Adamson, late manufacturer, Blairgowrie, for 196,000, the 
transaction of sale being completed in 1873. 

None of the family, however, was so popular in Forfar- 
shire as the father of these youths the eldest son of Miss 
Skene and of his wild drunken adventures and natural 
eccentricities many singular anecdotes are preserved. Con- 
temporary with " the rebel laird " of Balnamoon, and resident 
within a short distance, he is said to have found in him a 
frequent companion, and the stories of their carousals are so 
mixed up with each other that they are practically inseparable. 
Though reputed to be a man of greater learning, and perhaps 



LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. . 

of more extensive general knowledge, Skene is said to have been 
much more of the bacchanal than Carnegie. He had travelled a 
good deal on the Continent, and being naturally of a musical 
turn, was believed by the vulgar, not only to have the power 
of making his favourite instrument, the bagpipe, play in the 
castle while he strolled among the fields, but, like the Black 
Earl of Southesk, it was also understood that 

" He learn'd the art that none may name 
In Padua, beyond the sea." 

The story of " there being nae wale o' wigs," when the laird 
fell from his Eosinante into the South Esk at Blaikiemill ford, 
and his drunken servant placed a wet fagot on his head 
instead of his wig ! of his falling over his horse's ears into a 
burn, and crying to his man, " Is that a man fa'en i' the 
water, Harry ? I thocht I heard a plash ! " of his being set 
past in his carriage, in the shed, and forgot for hours and a 
host of kindred anecdotes, are printed in almost all jest-books, 
and need not be repeated. They are, however, generally 
understood in the locality to have occurred between Skene 
and his man Harry Walker ; but the first story belongs pro- 
perly to the contemporary laird of Balnamoon, who falls to be 
noticed in the next Chapter. 

Such were the proprietors of Careston from earliest record 
to the present time ; and, as a family called Mitchell occupied 
until recently the farm of Nether Careston, which their progeni- 
tors had held from at least the time of Earl Henry of Craw- 
ford (the last tenant having among his papers leases to his 
forefathers by Earl Henry, until they were lately handed over to 
the Earl of Fife), some notice of them, as still preserved in the 
district, may not be inaptly given under this head. Having 
always been energetic, they were foremost in all sorts of agricul- 
tural improvement, and, among other advances, were the first in 
the north-eastern district of the county to erect a thrashing-mill, 
and adopt the use of fanners. As a matter of course, they had 
much to contend with in so doing, because the wonderful 



CARESTON MITCHELLS OF CAKESTON. 289 

power of the latter machine in separating the grain from the 
chaff was attributed to supernatural agency, and called the 
Devil's Wind I It is said that the prejudice was so strong 
against their use, that Mitchell and his family were compelled 
to work them personally, and scarcely a housewife would allow 
a particle of the meal, that was made from the corn that passed 
through them, to enter her house. Still, the farmer persevered, 
and the advantage of the fanners became so apparent, that 
even during his own lifetime no meal could be found that had 
not undergone the process of being chaffed by the heretical 
wind. This same farmer was also the greatest cultivator of 
flax while the bounty was given, having had in one year no 
less than a hundred acres under that crop. 1 

Nor was it alone in their farming operations that this 
family were ahead of their neighbours ; for, while other tenants 
had merely the glow of the fire, and splinters of wood to aid 
them in their domestic duties in the evenings, and only the 
cold earthen floor under their feet, these had white tallow 
candles for enlivening the gloom, and the floor of the ben, or 
inner apartment of their house, was laid with green turf, or 
strewn with rushes gathered from the banks of the Koran. 
This, it is said, was deemed so extravagant by the laird at the 
time, that he threatened to turn Mitchell out of his holding if 
he persisted in their use ; but, the farmer being incorrigible, the 
threat went for nothing, and he continued to augment the 
comfort of his house by steady steps. He was followed in 
Nether Careston by successive descendants down to 1870, when 
Mr. George Mitchell left for the colonies. 

1 Information from Mr. Thomas Ross, Manchester. 



290 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 



SECTION III. 

Forsaken stood the hall, 

Worms ate the floors, the tap' 'stry fled the wall : 
No fire tlie kitcheris cheerless grate displayed, 
No cheerful light the long-closed sash conveyed. 

CRABBE. 

O, the name of gallant Grahame 
Alderne, Kihythe, and Tibber, owned its fame, 
Tummell's rude pass can of its terrors tell. 

SCOTT. 

The " Castle of Fuirdstone " Careston Castle described Ochterlony's account Its 
decorations Thorough repair Traditions of Careston Retreat of Montrose 
from Dundee to Careston Later acts of Montrose His execution. 

IT has been shown that a portion of the estate of Careston was 
known by the name of Fuirdstone, and could boast in old 
times of a tower or fortalice so called. This stronghold is 
mentioned by Monipennie in 1 6 1 2, as the castle or tower of 
" Bannabreich." J The ruins of a large house, called " the 
castle of Fuirdstone," were erased from a field west of the 
farmhouse of Balnabreich, about the beginning of this century, 
and, to this day, the plough turns up ruins of old buildings 
near the same place. The name had, doubtless, originated 
from the more than ordinary number of fords that are at this 
part of the river, for that adjoining the site of the old castle is 
only one of several that lie within a short distance of each 
other. 2 Perhaps, as the Gaelic Bal-na-breith implies "the 
town of judgment, or sentence," 3 this may have been the place 
where Keraldus, or other early barons, dispensed feudal justice. 
The necessary adjunct, the Law, or cairn, stood on an adjoining 
field, called the Law-shade, which lies nearly due south of the 

1 John Guthrie of Balnabreich appears as witness to a mortification by Sir Thomas 
Maule of Panmure in 1509 (Reg. de Panmure, ii. p. 279), and the same, or another John, 
is witness to an inquest and service in the mill and lands of Camistown on behalf of 
Sir Thomas, grandson of the preceding, in 1560 (Ib. ii. p. 310). James Guthrie is 
portioner of Balnabreich in 1589 (Reg. Ep. Brech. ii. p. 227), and in 1595 resigns 
Wester Balnabreich in favour of Alexander Carnegie (of Balnamoon), youngest sou 
of David Carnegie of Colluthie, " cum turre fortalicio hortis," etc. (Ib. ii. p. 370). 

8 New Stat. Acct. Forfar. p. 518. Or "the speckled town." 



CAKESTON THE CASTLE. 291 

site of the reputed monument of Carril. Many rude coffins and 
urns were found on reducing this cairn. 

It is not probable that Fuirdstone Tower (as popularly 
believed) was the original castle of Careston, for, as previously 
mentioned, there was a residence here, and the district had 
probably its name from being the abode of Keraldus ; while, 
as shown by Monipennie, Fuirdstone and Careston were con- 
temporary houses. 

The present castle of Careston has been added to and 
ornamented by various lairds. The latest erected, or back part, 
with its turrets and battlements, particularly when seen from 
the Fern road, has the most castellated appearance of the 
whole fabric, and the best view of the front is obtained from the 
Angus Hill, on the opposite side of the Esk. The front con- 
sists of a main part of three stories, and two gable wings of 
four, which project about twenty feet from the centre or old 
part, and are connected together by a lead-covered corridor of 
one story, giving the whole a solid massive effect. A fine cable 
moulding runs along the top of the wall, and round many of 
the window lintels, of the old part of the house. 

The centre, as before said, is the oldest portion of the castle, 
and, including the general appearance of the place, is thus 
described by Ochterlony : " A great and most delicat house, 
well built, brave lights, and of a most excellent contrivance, 
without debait the best gentleman's house in the shyre ; extra- 
ordinaire much planting, delicate yards and gardens with stone 
walls, ane excellent avenue with ane range of ash-trees on 
every syde, ane excellent arbour, for length and breadth, none 
in the countrey lyke it. The house built by Sir Harry Lind- 
say of Kinfaines, after [wards] earl of Crawfourd." 1 

Though two centuries have nearly elapsed since Guynd 
gave this expressive account of the castle of Careston, yet had 
the house not been long tenantless and uncared for had the 
the excellent avenue, that extended from the river at Gateside 

* Spottisw, Misc. i. p. 334. 



292 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

to the front of the castle, not been destroyed, and large trees in 
other parts cut down had the arbour not been allowed to fall 
into disrepair, and much of the elaborate sculpture not been 
carried off to decorate a distant mansion then Careston, even 
at the present day, might have worthily borne the appellation 
of being the best gentleman's place in the shire, for its internal 
carvings, though allowed for a time to run fast to ruin, are still 
among the richest of their kind in the district. 

But it was left untenanted for a number of years, and little 
care was bestowed upon house or grounds, until Mr. Steven- 
son rented it from Lord Fife and restored it. During the period 
of its desolation the finest garden ornament, which consisted 
of a magnificently carved vase of fruits and flowers, went to 
pieces in the hands of the workmen who were employed to 
take it down. And yet all trace of the ancient refinement, for 
which this place was once so remarkable, is not completely 
gone, for the inhabitants of the Mains still receive water from 
the gaping mouth of a well-sculptured dolphin, and other taste- 
ful carvings grace the well in the outer court of the castle and 
the now waterless pond in the middle of the kitchen garden. 

But it is by the internal decorations of Careston that the 
genius of the sculptor and the taste of the erector are to be 
fully estimated. These consist mostly in heraldic bearings, 
with which, and a good deal of grotesque ornament, the land- 
ing of the old staircase and five of the bedrooms are profusely 
decorated ; and, from the Carnegie arms holding a chief place 
in the staircase, this armorial group had probably been set up 
by Sir Alexander. 1 In the dining and drawing rooms, allegori- 
cal representations predominate. The fireplace of the former 
is flanked by male and female satyrs, and the mantelpiece is 
embellished with the Airlie arms and motto, guarded on either 
side by two naked figures holding urns, from each of which a 

1 Besides the armorial bearings of Carnegie, which are in the centre, this cluster 
also comprises those of the families of Wemyss of that Ilk ; Blair of Balthyock ; 
HaUyburton of Pitcur ; Foulis of Colington ; Earl of Gowrie ; Earl of Haddington ; 
and Earl of Airlie. 



CARESTON ORNAMENTS IN THE CASTLE. 293 

serpent, emblematical of life, issues in twisting folds, and the 
two unite at the top. 

The mantelpiece of the old drawing-room bears a fine 
sculpturing of the Koyal Arms of Scotland, surrounded by 
military trophies, consisting of banners, shields, and lances, 
with two nude human figures riding on lamas. These are 
flanked on either side by a man and woman, nearly life-size, 
also naked, holding in their hands cornucopias that are beauti- 
fully festooned, and united in the middle by ' a Pan's head. 
Immediately under the Eoyal Arms, a plain tablet bears the 
following incentive motto, in allusion, perhaps, to the valour- 
ous character and high position of the first Earl of Crawford, 
and his marriage with the daughter of King Eobert the 

Second : 

"THIS HONORIS SINGE 
AND FIGVRIT TROPHE BOB 
SVLD PVSE ASPYRING SPRE 
ITIS AND MARTIAL MYND 
TO THRVST YAIR FORTVNE 
FWRTH & IN HIR SCORNE 
BELEIVE IN FAITHE 
OVR FAIT GOD HES ASSINGD." 

Three of the bedrooms contain respectively the Gowrie, 
Haddington, and Balthyock arms, and the first of these has 
robed and mailed figures on either side. Another bedroom 
contains, instead of armorial insignia, a vigorous carving of a 
Highlander playing on the bagpipes ; while a fifth presents the 
figures of two peasants dressed in short tunics, each bearing a 
flail, with sheaves of corn, rakes, and forks beside them. 

Such is a brief account of the history of the castle of Cares- 
ton, and to its sculptures there could have been added, until 
the year 1843, the armorial bearings of the Carnegies : but in 
that year these scaled off and fell to pieces, 1 and thus it need 
scarcely be said that both externally and internally evidences 

1 These are said to have been thus impaled : " Ermine, three bars, gules, each 
charged with a round buckle, or," with the mottoes, "DRED GOD," and "BE IT 



294 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

of dilapidation long met the eye at all corners. It is true that 
the fine walk which leads from the castle to the church has 
still much of the beauty it had of old ; but the grove, from the 
north gate by Waterston, which was guarded on both sides by 
spreading trees, whose branches united like the roof of a 
vaulted chamber, is now a coarse and uninviting thoroughfare ; 
and though some of the large trees in the neighbourhood of the 
castle, especially the handsome yews which are said to have 
been planted while the lands were in possession of the Grand- 
tully family, are pleasing accessories to the old baronial man- 
sion, yet the great bulk of the extensive woods has disappeared, 
and the swamp is rapidly threatening to usurp the lawn. 

The principal traditions of Careston are those concerning 
Jock Barefoot, already noticed, and a White Lady, who was 
wont to perambulate the district when the woods were dense. 
But these need not be dwelt upon, as so much space has been 
taken up in the notice of similar superstitions belonging to 
other quarters ; and of prehistoric traces and historical peculi- 
arities, the district, unfortunately, is extremely meagre. 1 The 
first of these, so far as known to us, have already been noticed ; 
and perhaps the greatest historical event connected with the 
district of Careston was the lodgment of the Marquis of Mon- 
trose and his followers in front of the castle, on the 5th of 
April 1645, after the storming of the town of Dundee. As this 
was the only rest which the Eoyalists enjoyed after their cele- 
brated retreat before General Baillie and the Covenanting 
army, a brief retrospect of that dexterous achievement may 
not be inaptly given under the present head. 

As the cause of the wars of Montrose, and his many won- 
derful exploits, are familiar to all readers, we shall confine 
our notice to an epitome of this " retreat," which is charac- 
terised on all hands as the most dexterous specimen of general- 

1 Some writers say that ad Esicam, the pass of the Romans in A.D. 81, was at the 
junction of the Noran and South Esk, in the parish of Careston ; but it is generally 
supposed to have been at Montrose, or some place thereabout. 



CARESTON WARS OF MONTROSE. 295 

ship which the warlike annals of almost any country can pro- 
duce. After the total defeat of the Earl of Argyll at Inver- 
lochy, on the 2d of February 1645, Moutrose had his forces 
strengthened by a vast number of the Highland chiefs and 
their followers, whose inclination to support the royal cause 
had been hitherto thwarted by the power of Argyll. Thus 
reinforced, Montrose marched southward in triumph, and after 
firing several towns, villages, and estates, whose proprietors, 
or inhabitants, refused compliance with his demands (among 
which were those of Dunottar, Cowie, Ury, and Drumlithie), 
he pitched his camp at the village of Fettercairn, where he 
stopped a few days to refresh his army. During this stay his 
soldiers laid waste the neighbouring lands, and killed the aged 
father of the future Earl of Middleton and Clermont, as he sat 
in his chair in the castle of Caldhame. 1 

While at Eettercairn, Montrose's soldiers met with their first 
check after leaving Inverlochy, a detachment of Urrey's troops, 
who were sent as scouts from the main camp of the Covenanters, 
which was then stationed at Brechin, having fallen upon them 
by a surprise at the woods of Haulkerton. The Covenanters 
were soon repulsed, however, and leaving Fettercairn, Montrose 
crossed the North Esk and West Water, and passed along the 
braes of Menmuir and Fern, with the intention of crossing the 
Tay at Dunkeld ; but observing Baillie's army lingering on his 
flank, he halted two days on the north side of the Isla, while 
Baillie lay on the south. As Baillie declined to fight, both 
armies continued their southward march; and when. Montrose 
was informed that his antagonist had gone to intercept his 
progress at the main fords of the Forth, he determined to 
retrace his steps. 

Aware of the unprotected state of the North, he immediately 
fell back on the town of Dundee, which, from its wealth and 
population, afforded considerable inducements ; and, about 
nightfall on the 3d of April, having previously despatched 

1 Douglas, Peerage, ii. p. 231. 



296 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

his baggage and weakest soldiers to Brechin, he inarched at the 
head of a hundred and sixty horse and about seven hundred 
chosen musketeers, and reached Dundee early next forenoon. 

He encamped on the Law, and despatched a trumpeter to 
offer terms to the Magistrates ; but instead of returning with 
an answer, the messenger was cast into prison. This formed 
good grounds for Montrose wreaking his vengeance on the town, 
especially as he had no favour for it, because the inhabitants 
had refused to lodge his forces after the victory of Tipper- 
muir. His army was accordingly directed to storm the town 
at three different places, and a fearful scene of bloodshed, 
drunkenness, and debauchery ensued. The doors of the churches, 
chapels, and wine-cellars were torn from their hinges, and the 
town fired in two places that part called the Bonnet Hill being 
nearly consumed. But for the alarm and cry that the enemy 
was at hand, the sack might have ended in the complete 
destruction of the town and shipping. 

Instead of going to protect the fords of the Forth, as was 
rumoured, the Covenanters had only gone to Perth ; and intel- 
ligence of Montrose's movement being speedily conveyed to 
them, they were close at his heels before he well knew his 
danger, indeed, the last of his army was only retreating from 
Dundee by the east, when the Covenanters were entering by 
the west. 

There was no time to lose ; and this being a case of ut- 
most emergency, Montrose asked advice of his staff. Some 
advised that the horse should ride off, and leave the foot to 
their own shifts ; others, that they should stand firm, and meet 
Baillie face to face. Montrose rejected both propositions the 
one as unfair, the other as imprudent, and resolved on a 
march towards the hills by a circuitous route, Collecting the 
whole of his army of foot and horse, he marshalled the weakest 
and most inebriated of his men in the centre, and had the 
flanks and rear guarded by the horse and strongest musketeers. 
Thus he departed towards Arbroath, a distance of seventeen 



CARESTON RETREAT OF MONTROSE. 297 

miles, and this he reached about midnight, notwithstanding 
that they had had much skirmishing with a detachment of 
the Covenanters, who only gave up the pursuit when evening 
closed upon them. 

Montrose's army had now marched about fifty miles, had 
been engaged in the dreadful work of storming Dundee, and 
had had no sleep for two successive nights ! Yet he could not 
remain at Arbroath, with the fear of the ocean on one side, 
into which the superior force of the Covenanters could easily 
have driven them, and with their principal detachment on the 
other side at Brechin, from which they could as easily have 
crushed them. Instead, therefore, of allowing his men to rest, 
or holding further to the north by the coast road, he cut 
directly through Forfarshire in a north-westerly line, and 
crossing the South Esk at Careston, landed there in the grey 
of the morning. 

This was now the 5th of April. From about sunset on the 
3d, the army had been on constant march and duty of the 
most arduous and fatiguing character, without a moment's 
repose. Montrose was well acquainted with the roads of his 
native county, and knew that, besides having the Grampians 
at his back, he had a relative by affinity, though opposite in 
politics, in Sir Alexander Carnegie, the proprietor of Careston ; 
he therefore led his troops thither, and instantly on their 
arrival they squatted themselves on the lawn before the castle. 

Meanwhile, General Baillie, who was quartered at Forfar, 
had little dreamt of Montrose's dexterous movements, and 
concluding that, between his own army and Urrey's, he had 
his enemy simply for the cutting up, was so greatly mortified 
to find Montrose had marched round about him, that he set 
off with all speed in pursuit. On hearing of his approach, 
Montrose, ever mindful of his family motto, N'oubliez, had 
his men again on the move : this, however, was not so easily 
carried out as on former occasions, for nature was so completely 
exhausted that the sentinels had to prick many of the soldiers 



298 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

with their swords before they would awaken. The fastnesses 
of Glenesk (where they had been quartered on previous 
occasions) were again their rendezvous ; thither they retreated 
with all speed, and once more bade defiance to the superior 
force of their pursuers. 

So ended " the celebrated retreat of the Marquis of Mon- 
trose," which was followed by the succession of marvellous 
victories down to his defeat at Philiphaugh, on the 13th of 
September following. The rest of his history is well known : 
fleeing to the Continent, he reappeared, for the first time 
thereafter, in arms for Charles II., and was defeated at Inver- 
carron, on the northern border of Ross-shire, by Colonel 
Strachan, in March 1650. Afraid of detection, he threw his 
military cloak, and the star and ribbon which he so much 
cherished as the approving gift of his late Sovereign, to the 
winds; he exchanged his warlike habit with a peasant whom he 
met in the fields, and, seeking shelter from his enemies, he was 
betrayed by M'Leod of Assynt, one of his old followers, for the 
reward of four hundred bolls of meal ! l He was taken to 
Edinburgh in the mean habit in which he was found hanged 
on a gibbet in the Grassmarket, with a copy of Bishop Wishart's 
Memoirs of his exploits hung around his neck and his body, 
when quartered, was sent to grace the gates of the principal 
towns in Scotland ! So died Montrose, at the early age of 
thirty-eight the most accomplished general, and devoted 
Royalist of his own, or perhaps of any age a sacrifice to 
public clamour and private hatred. 2 

1 Arnot, Criminal Trials, p. 234. 

a John Hill Burton, Hist. Scot. vii. ; Napier, Life and Times of Montrose. 



CHAPTER VII. 
Jftenmuir. 

SECTION I. 

The family tomb, to wAose devouring mouth. 
Descended sire and son, age after age, 
In long unbroken hereditary line. 

POLLOK'S ' COURSE OF TIME.' 

Menmuir Dedicated to St. Aidan Its ministers The Covenant subscribed Danger 
from the Cateran Frightened by the Royalists Opposed the Prince The 
church and its surroundings Burial-place of the Carnegies of Balnamoon 
Notice of Adjutant-General Sir David Leighton, K.C.B. The Guthries of 
Menmuir and Brechin Tigerton. 

THE church of Menmuir was in the diocese of Dunkeld, and 
dedicated to St. Aidan, Bishop of Lindisfarne, whose feast 
is held on the 31st of August. A fountain near the church, 
now nearly lost by drainage, long preserved his name in the 
metamorphosed form of St. Iten, and was believed to be useful 
for effecting cures on such as were afflicted with asthma and 
cutaneous diseases. 

The church has a prominent position in the upland part of 
the parish, and in old times was surrounded by a marsh, hence 
in Moine-more, which in Gaelic implies " a great moss," the 
name of the district is supposed to have originated. 

Ninian de Spot, who is designed presbyter of the prebend 
of Menmuir in 1454, is the first clergyman we have found men- 
tioned in connection with the parish; and in 1502 Mr. Walter 
Leslie was parson. He was perhaps a native of the city of 
Aberdeen, as he showed so much favour for the church of St. 
Nicholas of that town, as to ask and receive a licence to " big 



300 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

and found ane alter of Sanctis Mongow " there. 1 Towards the 
middle of the same century, " Eobert Schaw, clerk, then in his 
eighteenth year, suffering the defect of birth as soluta genitus" 
had a dispensation granted by the Pope, as successor to James 
Hamilton in the canonry of Menmuir, with the condition that 
" he do not celebrate the service of the altar along with his 
father, nor succeed him in his benefices " 2 his father being 
also a canon of the parent church of Dunkeld ; and also from 
its being an old law in the Church, that ecclesiastical benefices 
should not be hereditary that a son should not succeed a 
father in them. 

According to the Eegister of Ministers in 1567, Mr. James 
Melville was minister of the parish soon after the Eeformation, 
and, as already mentioned, had also charge of Fern and Kinnell. 

Mr. Andro Elder, the contemporary reader of Menmuir, had 
" the thyrd of the vicarage," extending to about fifteen shillings 
and fourpence sterling. Mr. George Hallyburton, minister of 
Menmuir, was removed to Perth in 1644, and nominated 
Bishop of Dunkeld on 18th January 1662, by letters-patent. 

It is only when we approach the interesting era of the 
Covenant that much is known of the state of religion in Men- 
muir, and from the distinct records which exist regarding it at 
that period, the Covenant appears to have been so highly 
esteemed, that on the 6th of May 1638, the " Confession of 
Faith and Covenant with our God [was] openlie read, subscryvit 
and sworne unto ~be the, haille congrcgatioune" It is in this 
stirring movement that the first record of the family of 
Carnegie occurs in connection with the history of the parish, 
Sir Alexander having been elected in the following September 
to represent the kirk-session in the General Assembly at 

1 On 9th September 1502, Mr. Walter Leslie, parson of Menmuir, had full power 
and licence granted him, by the magistrates and council of Aberdeen, ' ' to big and 
found ane alter of Sanctis Mongow, and Tovine in the triangall of thar eist end of 
thar queir for his fundatioun to be made at the samyn, in honour of the blissit 
trinitie, the blissit Virgin moder Mary, Sanctis Nicholace, and specialie of the 
saidis Sanctis," etc. (Spald. Miscel. v. p. 34.) 

2 (A.D. 1550) Book of the Officialof St. Andrews, Pref. p. xxix. 



MENMUIR POLITICAL TROUBLES. 301 

Glasgow, on the 21st November 1638, and again at Aberdeen, 
28th July 1640. 

From that period, and indeed throughout the whole course 
of the civil wars, the parish, from its proximity to the 
Grampians, was often the rendezvous of the army ; and, like 
the people of Edzell at a later time, the inhabitants were 
oftener than once surprised on Sundays, while at their devo- 
tions, by the presence of the soldiers. An idea of the sadly 
unsettled state of affairs may be had from the following 
notices in the Parochial Register, which is among the most 
complete and interesting of any in the district. 

Soon after the renewal of the Covenant, and on the 23d of 
March 1644, it is recorded that there was "no conventioim 
becaus of y e troubles ; " and on the 1 3th of the following 
February, " no conventioun again until y e 1 7 of August, 
becaus y e enemie was still in y e fields, so that the minister 
durst not be seen in y e parish." But on the 1 7th of August 
matters bore even a more formidable aspect than before ; and 
just two days after Kilsyth had been won through the skilful- 
ness of the Marquis of Montrose, it is recorded " that upon y e 
intelligence of the approach of y e enemie, the people fled out 
of y e kirk in the midst of the sermon." On the 1 7th of No- 
vember 1645, after the total defeat of the Royalists, and while 
they were skirmishing here and there before their final break- 
ing up, the presence of the sixteenth Earl of Crawford and his 
army in the parish on a Sunday, spread terror over the whole 
district, and is thus mentioned by the session-clerk, in the true 
dignity of a friend of the Parliament : " No preaching, 
because ane partie of the enemies' horse, coming throw the 
shyre, under LudowicJc Lindsay, were in the parish." 

After this visit of Earl Ludovick, however, matters 
assumed a comparatively tranquil aspect : the " declaration 
against the traiterous band wer read" in April 1646 ; and on 
17th December 1648, the Covenant was again read in presence 
of the Congregation, and " subscrived by the minister, and all 



302 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

whilk could subscrive." Two years later, 1 after Montrose's 
unsuccessful attempt to restore Charles IL, the thanksgiving 
was held "for the victorie in the north," or the decisive 
battle of Invercarron, in Ross-shire, where the champion of 
royalty was defeated by Colonel Strachan, taken prisoner, 
and afterwards hanged at Edinburgh. A few months later, 2 
the minister " was appoynted by the Presbytery to attend the 
Lord of Egill's regiment for a month," the latter, like his 
noble relative of Balcarres, being a staunch supporter of the 
Covenant. Towards the close of the same year two fasts were 
kept, the one " for the sinnes of the King's famillie," and the 
other " for taking the rebels ; " 3 as was also a fast, ten years 
later, for " the King's happy restauratioune." Some of these 
scenes occurred during the ministry of Mr. David Campbell, 
who was a supporter of the Parliament, for the time being, and 
the feeling in the parish at the time of his death is well 
exemplified in the reception which Mr. M'Henrie received 
from the parishioners in 1699, when he preached the kirk 
vacant on the death of Mr. Campbell, for he declares that on 
that occasion he " was violently opposed by severall women 
with clubs in their hands, so that he could not have access " to 
the church. 4 

During the rebellious movements of the early part of the 
following century, when the Chevalier de St. George attempted 
to establish his right to the throne, the faith that had been 
bought by the price of so much blood was suspended in 
the parish for a short time, the minister being " obliged to 
retere," and the church and pulpit taken summary possession 
of by " curats and rebellious intruders ; " but on the happy 
conclusion of hostilities the ejected pastor resumed his labours, 
and the schoolmaster and several farmers, who had aided 

1 Parish Reg. May 20, 1650. 

2 Ibid. Aug. 11, 1650. 3 ibid. Dec. 22, 1650. 

4 The King's advocate was apprised of "the said ryot," and issued "counsell 
letters against the robbers."- (Brechin Presby. Record, iii. fol. 35-45, 9th July 
1699.) 



MENMUIR CHURCH AND CHURCHYARD. 303 

and abetted the treasonable doings of the times, were rebuked 
for countenancing those " who prayed for a popish Pretender, 
and for success to the rebels against our protestant soveraign 
King George." x 

The kirk, which was the scene of those unseemly but 
interesting historical events, stood on the site of the present 
commodious edifice, and seems to have been replaced by 
another in 1767, 2 when George Ogilvy was the minister. This 
lasted to 1842, and was in much the same style of building 
as the existing church at Careston, with an aisle on the north 
side, and lofts in the north, east, and west ends. The Collace 
burial-aisle stood detached near the east end of the church, 
but was demolished when the present building was erected; 
and " a skull was found with a band, or fillet, of silver lace 
around it, with stripes of the same covering from the fillet 
to the crown of the head. The silver is supposed to have been 
the remains of a skull-cap, and appeared to have been plaited 
with hair. In the progress of decay, it had come to adhere 
closely to the bone." 3 Two fragments of stones one a rudely 
incised cross, the other a cross in low relief were got in the 
Collace burial-place in 1861. 

There is no monument, however, belonging to either the 
Collaces, the Lindsays of Balhall, the Symerses of Balzeordie, 
or the Livingstons of Balrownie, all of whom were long pro- 
prietors in the parish ; but the following quaint lines on John 
Symers of Balzeordie, were written by a local Latin poet of the 
name of Leech, who will soon after be noticed : 

" Joannis Simmer (quod cestatem Angtice sonat) A Balyordie, tumulus. 

Regnat hyems, restas fnerat ; miracula non sunt, 
si bruma, iam subeunte, perit." * 



The burial-place of the Carnegies of Balnamoon is attached 
to the north side of the church, and enclosed by a parapet and 
railing, which in 1872 took the place of the previous high wall 

i Parish Reg. Feb. 18, and April 18, 1716. * Old Stat. Ace. v. 150. 

3 Chalmers, Sculptured Monuments of Angus, p. 13. * Epigrammata, p. 59. 



304 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

with massive moulding. Built into the church wall, there is a 
beautiful sculpture of the armorial bearings of the first laird of 
the name, Sir Alexander, impaled with those of his lady, Dame 
Giles, eldest daughter of Alexander Blair of Balthyock, with 
the date 1639, and their respective initials, " S. A. C. : D. G. B." 
As Sir Alexander survived long after this period, the date, 
perhaps, refers to the time .of his lady's death and the erection 
of the aisle. 

Though no monument marks the graves of the Carnegies 
(except a marble recently raised to the memory of three of the 
late laird's family, and a granite lona cross to his own by his 
surviving daughters), the graveyard contains an abundance of 
mortuary memorials, but few possess any general interest. 
Perhaps the most remarkable (taking into account the humble 
position in life from which the erector rose to eminence) is 
that erected by " Colonel David Leighton, C.B., Adjutant- 
General at the Presidency of Bombay, in memory of his 
parents, Thomas Leighton and Ann Fairweather." After the 
erection of this monument in 1825, the Colonel was pro- 
moted to the rank of Lieuteuant-General ; and, for his 
meritorious services in India, where he was esteemed for the 
justice and impartiality of his conduct, and for his military 
attainments, he was made K.C.B. in 1837. His ancestors can 
be traced in the Parish Eegister back to the year 1698, when 
his direct progenitors, "David Leighton and Jean Mathers, 
were married." Sir David, however, was not a native of Men- 
muir, but of Brechiu, having with his three sisters been born 
in Market Street, where his father erected a house, and David 
first saw the light in 1774. Owing to feeble health, his father 
removed to a pendicle on the farm of Cookstone, and for a 
time carried on the work of a wheelwright ; in the same clay- 
built cottage, long since removed, the widow remained with 
her family. 

In early youth, Sir David was a banker's clerk in Montrose, 
but, having a taste for military service, he obtained, through 



MENMTJIR SIR DAVID LEIGHTON, K.C.B. 305 

the influence of his uncle (father of the late Mr. Leighton of 
Bearhill), a cadetship in the East India Company's Service, on 
20th January 1795, and rose step by step till he attained the 
highest position. When he died at Cheltenham, on 1st June 
1860, at the advanced age of eighty-five years, he had received 
the honour of knighthood, and was senior officer on the Bombay 
establishment. He had seen a long period of active service in 
India, and for many years had held the office and discharged the 
duties of Adjutant-General to the Bombay army with firm- 
ness, impartiality, and general satisfaction. 

The following epitaph, though not remarkable for either 
sublimity of thought or orthographical accuracy, is worthy of 
transcription, as pointing out the burial-place of a family sur- 
named Guthrie, 1 whose members bore a chief and active part in 
the management of the municipal affairs of the city of Brechin 
for upwards of a century. They long continued to be the 
most considerable traders of that city, and the late Dr. Alexan- 
der Guthrie, sometime Provost, and the late Kev. Dr. Thomas 
Guthrie of Edinburgh, famous as the advocate of Ragged Schools, 
were sons of one who had also been chief magistrate. The 
principal farms of Menmuir were once tenanted wholly by 
Guthries, and the small estate of Burnside was owned by one of 
them ; but the name (save in the female line) is now almost 
unknown in the parish. The tablet, from which these lines 
are copied, was erected in 1795, and is profusely decorated 
with mortuary emblems : 

" All passengers as you go by, 
And chance to view this stoue, 
To mind you of Mortality, 
Behold the scull and bone : 
Likewise the darte, that wounds the hart, 
And syath that cuts the Threed 
Of life, and coffin for to hold, 
The bodie when its dead." 

1 The father of the first Guthries in Menmuir was tenant of Balbirnie Mill, near 
Brechin, and is represented as residing with his son in Menmuir, Sept. 21, 1731. 
Mem. Book of York Buildings Co., MS., p. 332, the property of the Earl of Dalhousie 

U 



306 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

At Tigerton, the only hamlet in the parish, the Episco- 
palians had a meeting-house down to a late date, in which the 
service was conducted at first by a resident minister, as was 
done by Dean Somerville, and then by the minister of the 
Brechin chapel. Though not so extensive as in old times, this 
village is still the home of the wright, blacksmith, shoemaker, 
and grocer ; and is remarkable in story as the spot on which 
the Earl of Crawford and his merciless followers rested, when 
wreaking their vengeance over the lands of Collace of Balna- 
moon, through whose treachery Crawford supposed he had lost 
the battle of Brechiu ; and, from the fact that the Earl bore the 
singular sobriquet of the " Tiger," the name of Tigertown is 
said to have been conferred upon this particular place. 



SECTION II. 

Of the antient lordis and ladies gaye, 

Quha livit in their landis full manie a daye, 

Thoch I doe wryte, little guid I can say. 

OLD POEM. 

Lands of Menmuir Eoyal residence Kilgery Exploit of Peter de Spalding 
Hermitage of Kilgery chapel Balzeordie Somyrs of Balzeordie Slaughter 
of Graham of Leuchland Connection of the Carnegies in Menmuir Menmuir 
thanage belonged to different families The Collaces became reduced yet 
known to literature Leech a connection Carnegies of Balnamoon related to the 
Arbuthnotts Purchased Balzeordie and Balrownie "The rebel laird" not 
such a sot or Goth. 

DOWN to about the middle of the fourteenth century the lands 
of Menmuir were in possession of the Crown, under the super- 
intendence of thanes, and the rents were drawn by the sheriffs ; 
during that period the poverty of the inhabitants and the value 
of the rents are well authenticated. David de Betun, sheriff of 
Eorfar in 1290, claims deduction in his accounts for that year, 
for Ixvi Ib. xiij s. iiij d., rent of the land of Menmoryth, " which 
could in no way be recovered on account of the poverty of the 
husbandmen of the said land, as the chamberlain and whole 
country witnesseth," and this rent was increased by fifty marks 



MENMUIR FOREST OF KILGERY. 307 

yearly, to the oppression of the said husbandmen, by Sir Hugh 
de Abirnethy, knight, 1 who had perhaps been thane or cham- 
berlain of Menmuir. In 1359, the rents of assize of this parish 
are charged in the sheriffs account at 1 3s. 4d. for three years, 
or one-third of a mark yearly ; and, in 1390, they had increased 
to half a mark. 

Though no ruins have been found here in the memory of the 
present generation, a royal residence, which is supposed to have 
stood on the rising ground south-east of the kirk, once orna- 
mented the now comparatively bleak landscape. It probably 
occupied, with its garden and other necessary buildings, what 
has long been known as the Hatton park, and was in full pomp 
during the time of Alexander in., for, in the Chamberlain Rolls 
of that period, Eda Montealto, sheriff of the county, takes credit 
for the payment of one mark, or thirteen shillings and fourpence 
sterling, to the King's gardener at Menmoreth. 2 The time of 
its destruction is unknown ; but it may have been occupied 
down to the time of Bruce, as it was in his reign that the lands 
were first apportioned to deserving subjects. It was perhaps 
the valuable sport which the Forest of Kilgery afforded that 
led royalty to have a seat there. This forest, of which, as of 
the King's residence, all remains are lost, had covered the hills 
of Caterthun and Lundie, and the adjoining valley ; but the 
Garry, or Geary burn, which rises in the bog of Lundie, is now 
the only trace of the name. In a line with the Geary burn, 
stretching from the West Water on the north, to Chapelton on 
the south, are the remains of an earthen dike, from six to ten 
feet high, and about twelve feet broad at the base. Tradition 
says that it stretched from hill to sea ; but it is probable, since 
the estate of Dunlappie was a separate property long before 
any notice of the Forest of Kilgery occurs, that this dike had 
been the march betwixt the forest and Dunlappie. 8 

i Chamberlain Rolls, vol. i. p. 79. 2 Ibid. A.D. 1263. 

8 The etymology of Kilgery is unknown, and may refer to a dedication to some 
saint, or to the forest covering Lundie Hill and neighbouring plain. For more 
details of the archaeological remains in this district see a paper by Mr. Jervise in 



308 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

The name of Kilgerre* occurs in the earliest-known charters 
of Menmuir. The first of these is dated on the 1st of May 1319, 
and the circumstances under which the grant was made, how- 
ever beneficial to the interests of the kingdom, were far from 
creditable to the holder. The facts are these : Peter de 
Spalding, a burgess of the town of Berwick, whose wife was a 
Scotchwoman, became so disgusted with the tyranny of the 
English, who had possessed the castle and town for the 
space of twenty years, that he resolved, in hopes that the 
government of the Scots would be more lenient, to deliver 
Berwick by stratagem into the hands of Bruce. Accordingly, 
on the night of the 2d of April 1318, when it was Spalding's 
turn to take part in the watch rounds, he assisted the Scots in 
an escalade, and they succeeded in taking that important 
position. 1 

Spalding's life was no longer safe on the Border, and, with 
a view to being more secure in the inland part of the kingdom, 
he excambed certain tenements in the town of Berwick with 
Bruce, for which, in 1319, as above stated, he had a royal 
charter of the lands of Ballourthy and Petmathy (Balzeordie 
and Pitniudie), with the office of Keeper of the Forest of 
Kilgery, and right to half the foggage. This occurred in the year 
after the taking of Berwick, and the name of Spalding does not 
recur in any future historical transaction. His end, however, 
was only such as was to be expected ; for although he evaded 
the sword of his own countrymen, he fell by that of the Scots. 
His betrayal of Berwick, and summary death, are thus narrated 
by the old chronicler : 

" The castell then of Berwyke and the towne, 
Kynge Robert gatte, after stronge and greate defence, 

Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot. ii. pp. 461 sq. It is traditionally said that the oaken rafters 
of the old kirk of Brechin were taken from Lundie hog, a portion of the Forest of 
Kilgery, and various pits in the neighbourhood, called sauters, are said to be those 
in which the wood was salted. 

1 Hailes, Annals, ii. p. 88 ; Fraser, Hist. Camegies of Southesk, ii. p. 482 ; 
Tytler, History of Scotland, i. p. 303. But Radulphus de Spalding is witness to a 
charter on Mill of Caterline in 1225 (Reg. Vet. Aberbr. p. 90). 



MEXMUIR SPALDING, HERMITAGE OF KILGERY. 309 

By treaty with [peace Spaldyng] and treason, 
The Wednesdye before Easter's reuerence, 
When that traitour, without long suspence, 
Betrayed the towne, and into Scotland went : 
By Scottes slain, as to a traytour appent." l 

The place of Spalding's murder is not stated, but it was 
probably in the vicinity of Menmuir, though no cairn in the 
parish bears the significant name of Spalding. In the adjoin- 
ing parish of Fern, however, there are places called Spalding's 
Stables, and Spalding's Loan, on the road betwixt Shandford 
and Balquharn, and on the Bruff Shank hill, both of which are 
popularly believed to have originated from the capture of the 
spoils of a Caterau so named ; these, most probably, have 
reference in some way to Spalding, if not to the place of his 
murder. 2 

In 1445, a royal charter was given to John Smyth, citizen 
of Brechin, upon the hermitage of the chapel of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary of the forest of Kilgerre (Kilgery), 3 with its croft, 
green, and pertinents, which Hugo Cuminche (or Gumming) 
the hermit had formally resigned into the King's hand by his 
procurator William of Nudry. But we find the same hermit 
resigning his hermitage to the King nine years afterwards, and 
a royal charter being granted, as before, to Alexander of Fowlar- 
tone in the spring of 1455. While yet again in 1461 John 
Smith sold the same to William Somyr of Balzeordie, for one 
mark of yearly rent out of a tenement in Brechin. 4 This 
Somyr or Sy miner is so designated in 1450, 5 and thus his 

1 Hardyng, Chronicle, p. 308. See also Barbour, Bruce, B. 17, vol. iii. 

2 On the south-west corner of the Menrns Hill, adjoining Limdie, "the Scotsman's 
cairn " is still visible, 

3 Reg. Ep. Brech. ii. p. 382. This old chaplainry stood in a field near the farm- 
house of Chapelton of Dunlappie. The stones of the chapel were taken to build the 
farm-steading, and a fine spring, about a hundred and fifty yards south-east of the 
site of the chapel, still bears the name of Ladywell, in honour of the Virgin. It 
must be borne in mind, that this was quite a separate establishment from the ad- 
joining kirk of Dunlappie, which stood on the margin of the West Water, and where 
the unenclosed churchyard shows only its even surface of green turf. On the 
hermitage of Kilgery, see Fraser, Hist. Carnegies of Southesk, i. p. xvii. 

4 Fraser, Hist. Carnegies of Southesk, ii. pp. 518 sq. 
8 Reg. Ep. Brech. i. p. 141 ; ii. p. 79. 



310 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

descendants continued to be considered " chief of the name " 
till about the middle of last century, when the male branch 
failed, and the estate was annexed, by purchase, to that of 
Balnamoon. 

In 1470, half of Balzeordie was held of Sir James Ogilvy of 
Findlater, who, on the 27th of November of that year granted 
precept of sasine for infefting George, son of William Somyr, 
as heir to his father deceased, in the above half. Besides the 
portion here noticed, the Somyrs also acquired the western half 
of Balzeordie, Chapeltoun, and the foggage of Kilgery; the 
lands of Brako and East Cruok, with the mill of the same ; the 
Hermitage of Kilgery, and the cemetery belonging thereto ; the 
Chymmess lands of Kirktoun of Menmuir ; the fourth parts of 
the lands of Balfour, Balconwell, Pitmudy, and the Brewlands 
of Menmuir. 1 

George, son of the first-named William, was next proprietor, 
and died previous to 16th December 1494, as at that time his 
widow, Cristiane Guthrie, pursued Dempster of Careston " for 
the wrangws vptaking and withhalding fra hir of the teynd 
schaiffis" of Balrownie, and for similar injuries and outrages 
committed over her property of Burnetoune of Balzeordie. 2 

Neither history nor tradition preserves much regarding the 
family of Somyrs of Balzeordie ; but from casual notices of 
them, they appear to have borne conspicuous parts in some 
transactions of local importance. In the year 1478, George 
Somyr, along with Luvall of Ballumbie and several other 
county gentlemen, was chosen by the Sheriff-depute of Forfar 
" to inquire and knaw vppone the landis and gudis pertaining 
to Walter Ogilvy of Owres." 3 In 1580 the laird of Balzeordie, 
also George, was Chancellor of Assize when Lord Oliphant was 
tried for the slaughter of Stewart of Schuttingleis ; 4 and it 
may be remarked that Robert, the son of the laird of the 

1 Fraser, Hist. Carnegies of SoutJiesk, ii. pp. 458 sq., giving an account of the 
Symmers or Somyrs of Balzeordie from 1450. 
a Acta Auditor. Dec. 16, 1494. 
Ibid. June 4, 1478. * Pitcairn, Crim. Trials, i. pt. ii. p. 90. 



MENMUIE, SOMYBS OF BALZEORDIE. 311 

period, was beheaded by "the Maiden" in 1618, at the cross of 
Edinburgh, for the slaughter of the son of Grahame of Leuch- 
land, which was committed " vpon the Hauche of Insche near 
the Mekill-mylne of Brechin, be stroking him throw the body 
with ane rapper-suord," on the 29th of April 1616. 1 The next 
mention of the family is, happily, in a more peaceful cause, 
since, on the occasion of Sir Alexander Carnegie's absence from 
the celebrated Glasgow Assembly of 1638, one of them was 
appointed to represent his native kirk-session; 2 and, in 1662, 
his successor was fined in the sum of six hundred pounds, by 
the Earl of Middleton, for his opposition to the introduction of 
Episcopacy. 3 From that period until 1715, when the Presby- 
tery and Parish Records teem with the indiscreet amours of 
Magdalene Campbell, the widow of George Somyr, and the 
son of the Eev. Sylvester Lyon of Kirriemuir, nothing is 
recorded of the family. As previously mentioned, the male 
line failed before the middle of last century in the person of 
Colin, whose sister married David Doig, sometime a merchant 
and chief magistrate of Brechin. 4 He sold the property to 
Carnegie of Balnamoon, and was father of Christian Doig, the 
wife of Sir James Carnegie of Pitarrow, who, on the extinction 
of the direct male line of the noble house of Southesk in 1730, 
became the representative and head of that ancient family. 

We have already seen that Menmuir was anciently super- 
intended by thanes, who acted as stewards or factors to the 
King. This probably continued down to 1360, as, on the 8th 
of October of that year, a charter of the lands of Menmuir was 

1 Pitcairn, Grim. Trials, iii. p. 437. 2 Session Records. 

a Wodrow, Hist, of the Church of Scot. i. p. 276. 

* It is said that while Balzeordie belonged to Mr. Doig, a person of the name of 
Donaldson "put away with himself." As was customary at the time, he was to be 
buried between two lairds' lands, and, without being coffined, was set on a pony by 
the people of the parish, with the view of being taken to the appointed spot. But 
on the company going through a den on Balzeordie, the body fell from the pony, and 
the people, believing the accident to arise from some supernatural cause, all ran 
away, with the exception of Donaldson's wife and brother. Mr. Doig, hearing of 
the matter, ordered out all his tenants to the funeral, and had the suicide buried on 
the spot where he fell, and the place has ever since been called "Donaldson's Den." 



312 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

granted at Kinnell Castle by David n. to Audrew Dempster of 
Auchterless and Careston, and to Findlay, the son of William, 
and John de Cullas. It would appear from this that Dempster 
and the Collaces were portioners of Menmuir, and in this 
charter they confirm a grant, originally made in 1347, to the 
canons of the Priory of " Rostynot," of four pounds, by way of 
the tenth penny, to which charter, among other notables, 
" David de Grahame do minus de Aldmonros" appears as a 
witness. 1 Such were the first Collaces of Balnamoon or Men- 
muir, whose name was of territorial origin, and had perhaps 
been assumed from the estate or parish of Collace, in Perth- 
shire. 

The possessions of this family seem to have been mostly 
confined to Menmuir, and the traitor of the battle of Brechin 
and his son were the most conspicuous of their race. The 
former has already been fully referred to ; and, in regard to the 
latter, it appears that on the 17th of May 1488 Thomas de 
Collace had a grant of half the foggage, with the vert and 
venison of the forest of Kilgery, for his faithful services at 
Blackness, when the life of James in. was threatened by the 
rebellious faction that held sway over his misguided son. 2 
Apart from these two historical incidents, little else is known 
of the family beyond the frequent skirmishes that occurred 
betwixt them and the inhabitants of Brechin. In 1450, when 
a perambulation of the boundaries of the lands of Balnamoon 
and the Common Muir, or those belonging to the cathedral of 
that city, was made, John of Collace of Balnamoon, wroth at 
the portion assigned to him, pulled down the cross and uplifted 



1 Reg. Mag. Sig. p. 43, No. 118 ; Robertson, Index, p. 78. 118. In 1391, Walter 
Stuart, Earl of Athole and Caithness, who succeeded to the title and estates of 
Brechin on marrying Margaret Barclay, the heiress, had six shillings and eightpence 
annually from Menmuir, as superior of the lands. (Rob. Index, p. 158. 43.) 

2 Dukedom of Montrose Case, p. 40] . "Lord Fife has the Collace charter in 1488 
of half the vert and venison of Kilgerry, and therefore it may be supposed that that 
right went to Careston at the same time. The charter of the Somyr half went to 
Southesk, probably through the Doig marriage." (Note from the late P. Chalmers, 
JSsq. of Aldbar.) 



MENMUIH COLLAGE OF BALNAMOON. 313 

the march-stones, which the bishop had placed between these 
properties by order of an assize of county gentlemen. 1 These 
skirmishes were of long duration, and more than a century 
after the above date, Eobert Collace, and fifty-two of his 
tenants and servants, found caution to " underly the law " for 
convocating about a hundred persons " bodin in feir of war," 
and coming " vnder sylence of nycht to the Burrow Eudis of 
the citie of Brechin," where they "frechit and focht certane 
inhabitants thereof for thair slauchteris, and destroyit the 
turris [torrs or turfs for fuel] beand upon the said muir." 2 It 
was by way of reprisal, perhaps, that Harry Hepburn, and 
eighty-seven other citizens of Brechin, made an incursion on 
the lands of Balnamoon a few months after, and summarily 
attacked three persons of the surname of Downy, servants to 
Collace, whose houses they " keist down," and " cuttit and 
destroyit thair plewis and harrowis, and schamefullie hocht 
and slew thair gudis and scheip to gret quantitie." 3 It was a 
daughter of the above Eobert Collace who married James Eollo 
of Duncrub, and was maternal ancestor of the noble family of 
Eollo. A still more remote ancestor of this family, Sir David 
Eollo, had a proprietary interest in Ballichie and Menmuir in 
the time of James n., 4 and in 1519 David Eollok witnessed 
the retour of Eobert Maule of Panmure as heir to Sir Thomas, 
his father. 5 

Latterly, the family fortunes of the Collaces became so 
greatly reduced, that in 1632, John, the grandson of the pre- 
vious laird, and the last known male descendant of the family 
of Balnamoon, was first returned as heir, 6 and then he sold the 
lands to Irving of Brucklaw, 7 from whom they soon afterwards 
passed to Sir Alexander Carnegie, brother-german to the first 
Earls of Southesk and Northesk, and thus the family of Collace 
ceased to have territorial connection with the parish. A stone 

1 Reg. Episc. Brech. i. pp. 127 sq. ; ii. p. 80. 

2 Pitcairu, Grim. Trials, i. pt. i. p. 431. 3 Ibid. 

* Crawford Peerage, pp. 422, 423. Reg. de Pan. i. p. 292. 

u Inquis. Spec. Forfar. No. 210. 7 Ibid. No. 234. 



314 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

built into the present mansion-house of Balnamoon, bearing 
the initials and date, "I. C. 1584," is the only visible trace of 
them now on these lands ; nay, their very surname, unlike that 
of most old barons, is almost unknown, and unassociated with 
any prominent action, barring the instances of John's treachery 
at Brechin and Thomas's services at Blackness ; and the only 
mention of the name in the Parish Eegister is in the slightly 
humiliating notice, that "Patrick Collace was admitted beddell" ! 
The family, however, were not altogether devoid of a literary 
taste. William Collace, who is presumed to have been of the 
Balnamoon branch, was Professor of Latin in St. Andrews, and 
preceptor of the ' illustrious James Melville; and one of the 
daughters was mother of John Leech, a writer of Latin poems, 
under the Latinised cognomen of Johannes Leochseus. He 
spent his early years under the roof of his maternal ancestors, 
and according to the title of one of his poems, he would seem 
to have been a native of Montrose, and educated at the 
Grammar School there, under David Lindsay, afterwards 
Bishop of Brechin. Leech is supposed to have graduated at 
Aberdeen in 1614, but nothing certain is known of his father. 
A burgess family in Montrose bore the same name, and he is 
believed to have been descended from them. He went abroad 
for three years, and on leaving Balnamoon in May 1617, wrote 
the lines of which the following are a translation : 

" COLLIS ! serene in years, of fair renown, 
Whose manly virtues Mars and Themis crown ; 
And thou, my home ! three hundred years thy date, 
Firm hast thou stood, though oft the sport of fate. 
Here first a grandsire's, mother's care I knew ; 
In thy fair field from infancy I grew. 
Farewell ! dear to the Poet's memory ye shall be, 
And thy remembrance fondly dwell on me. 
If the bright laurel wreath reward my lays, 
To you be due the merit and the praise." 1 

The first Carnegie of Balnamoon and Careston, as before 

1 Leech, Poems, p. 61. This excellent translation is by a young lady (Miss 
Spankie, cousin to the late P. Chalmers, Esq. of Aldbar). 



MENMUIR CARNEGIES OF BALNAMOOX. 315 

noticed, was Sir Alexander, brother-german of the first Earls 
of Southesk and North esk, and of Sir Robert of Dunichen. He 
married Giles, daughter of Blair of Balthyock, who died in or 
before the year 1639, leaving two sons, David and John. The 
former predeceased his father, and on Sir Alexander's death in 
1658, Sir John succeeded his father and elder brother in these 
estates, but had to sell Careston to Sir John Stewart of Grand- 
tully. He was twice married, and was followed by his only 
son by the first marriage, James, who had retours of the lands 
in November 1662. He married first his cousin, Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Alexander Carnegie of Pitarrow, and next, 
after a long widowhood, Jean Fothringham of the house of 
Powrie, and was succeeded in 1700 by his son James, eldest 
son of the first marriage. Dying in the spring of 1704, he was 
succeeded by his brother Alexander, who sold the mains of 
Balnamoon and others to Stewart of Grandtully in 1707. 1 
His wife was a daughter of Graham of Fintry, and was mother 
of James Carnegie, who figured so conspicuously in the rebellion 
of 1745. James married Margaret Arbuthnott in 1734, by 
whom the fine estate of Findowrie was brought to the Balna- 
moon family, in virtue of which they assume the additional 
patronymic of "Arbuthnott." 2 This gentleman also added by 
purchase the lands of Balzeordie 3 and Balrownie to his paternal 
estate, and dying in 1791, was succeeded by his eldest son, 
who died unmarried in 1810, when his nephew, James Carnegie 
Knox, son of the proprietor of Keithock and Markhouse, came 
to the property. By his wife, Mary Anne, daughter of David 
Hunter of Blackness, who predeceased him on Nov. 12, 1854, 

1 See APPENDIX No. XL, for a curious letter to this laird from Sir David Car- 
uegie of Pitarrow. 

2 The first Arbuthnott of Findowrie was Robert, son of Arbuthnott of that Ilk, 
who died in l/>79. The laird of the period was fined 2400 by the Earl of Middleton 
for his opposition to Episcopacy. They were also proprietors of Markhouse, Cald- 
hanie, etc. See APPENDIX No. XII. 

3 The small farm of Piperton, at the extreme south-east of the parish, belonged to 
the barony of Balzeordie. According to tradition, the progenitors of a family sur- 
named Bean, who till lately were tenants in Piperton, had been there for several 
centuries. 



316 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

James Carnegie-Arbuthnot had a family of four sons and five 
daughters, and dying in 1871 at the age of eighty years, was 
buried at Menmuir. He is now survived by three daughters, of 
whom two are married and have issue ; the eldest is unmarried 
and resides at Balnamoon. Markhouse or Marcus now belongs 
to the family of Swinburne of Pontop Hall, county Durham, 1 
the late proprietor being Lieutenant-Colonel Swinburne of 
Marcus and Noranbank, who died 28th November 1881 at the 
age of fifty-one years, leaving two daughters. 

Of all these Carnegies, the most conspicuous was he who 
married the heiress of Findowrie, and who, with a company of 
vassals, bore a prominent part at the battles of Preston, Falkirk, 
and Culloden. He was governor of Forfarshire on behalf of the 
Prince, and the person in whose name the "Hazard" sloop of war 
was captured at Montrose by Captain James Erskine (brother 
of Lord Dun), and Ferrier, the notorious rebel leader of Angus. 
Carnegie, being hunted by the Royalists from his own house, 
found shelter for some time in the guise of a hireling among 
his own tenants, and ultimately took refuge among the moun- 
tains of Glenesk, where the place of his retreat is still known 
as "Bonnymune's Cave," and from being of kindred politics 
with most of the inhabitants, he long lurked there in safety. 2 

Although " the rebel laird " was remarkable for humour 
and conviviality, which were then fashionable, it is not to be 
concluded that he was either the sottish old bachelor described 
in the Story-teller of Last Century, 3 or the illiterate Goth 
who is said to have cut the fine old books of his ancestors to 
fit the crazy wooden shelves. 4 It has been shown that he not 
only was married and left a family, but that he also, to a con- 
siderable extent, augmented his patrimony by purchase. And 
although it cannot be said on any authentic grounds that he 
was the author of the popular old song of " Low down in the 

1 Fraser, Hist. Carnegies of Southesk, ii. p. 431. 

2 Ut sup. pp. 78, 100. 

8 Chambers's Edin. Journal, New Series, No. 30. 

4 R. P. Gillies, Memoirs of a Literary Veteran, i. p. 23. 



MENMUIR LIBELS ON THE "REBEL LAIRD." 317 

broom " (which is generally ascribed to him), the intelligence 
which was requisite to fulfil the important and trustworthy 
office, which he held during "the forty-five," ill agrees with 
the sottish and illiterate character that the above writers would 
give him. 

By way of authenticating the story of Mr. Carnegie's sawing 
his books, and parting with the original edition of Shakespeare 
as a work of which he knew nothing, also of the valuable 
library lying as lumber in a damp room at the house of Bal- 
namoon, Mr. Gillies speaks as from personal intimacy with the 
laird, and knowledge of the library. These assertions, how- 
ever, must appear rather problematical, when it is known that, 
apart from the presumption to the contrary above noticed, 
Mr. Gillies was barely one and a half years old at the time of 
Mr. Carnegie's death the former being born on the 9th No- 
vember 1789, and the latter dying sometime previous to Whit- 
sunday 1791. While, so far from the fine old tomes, which he 
says were so shamefully mutilated by the laird, being at the 
house of Balnamoon, they came to the family by Miss Arbuth- 
nott, and were never at Balnamoon at all, being preserved in a 
substantial building at Findowrie, about two miles distant, and 
" were all delivered in good order and unmutilated," shortly 
before 1810, to the late Alexander Gibson Hunter of Blackness, 
then a partner in the firm of Constable, the great publishers 
in Edinburgh. 1 

1 If Mr. Gillies and the "Story-teller" have confounded " the rebel laird " with 
his son and successor, who died a bachelor (and perhaps they have done so), he was 
remarkable beyond most men of his age for quiet, sober, and exemplary conduct ; 
and the following satisfactory note from the late laird will show the care which he 
took of the books in question. " I am a witness myself," writes Mr. Carnegie 
Arbuthnott, " that the books were never here [at Balnamoon] at all. I remember 
them at Findowrie, in a small building separate from the house, at the foot of the 
garden, where I have seen them repeatedly in the time of my uncle, who succeeded 
his father, and have assisted in dusting and keeping them in order down to the time 
of the late Alexander Gibson Hunter of Blackness, to whom they were all delivered 
in good order, and unmutilated." 



318 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 



SECTION III. 

Alas for routhe t what thouche his mynde -were goode, 
His corage manly, yet ther he shed his bloode. 

PERCY'S BALLADS. 

Although the age and use of this mysterious -work 
Have baffled Wisdoms self, provincial lore unravels all. 

ANON. 

Balhall and the family of Glen Balhall passed to the Lindsays Patronage of Men- 
muir belonged to Balhall The Parson of Menmuir Succession in Balhall The 
Cramonds The Lyells The Erskines of Dun Moss of Balhall Death of Lyon 
of Glainis Expiation of perjury Cairns Murder of the shoemaker of Tiger- 
ton Archaeological remains Stracathro The Caterthuns described Origin 
veiled in mystery and a field for superstition Witchcraft Fairy child. 

LITTLE is known regarding the proprietary history of Balhall 
until shortly before the year 1440. At, and for some time 
previous to that period, it was possessed by Sir John Glen of 
Inchmartin, in the barony of Longforgan, which the family 
de Inchmartin held from an early date. The first of those who 
figured conspicuously was John, one of the ten barons selected 
to make the peace of Scotland with Edward I. in 1305; and, 
on the first appointment of sheriffs in that year, he was chosen 
for the county of Perth. 1 In the following year, his son Sir 
David, who had been one of the original followers of (Bruce, 
was hanged, with several other patriots, by order of Edward. 
His successor perhaps a son had a charter from Bruce of the 
lands of his sires; and about 1376, Sir Allan de Erskyne of 
Wemyss succeeded to the estates on marrying the heiress. Sir 
Allan died in 1401, leaving an only daughter, who married Sir 
John Glen, and the estate of Inchmartin devolved on that 
knight. He also left co-heiresses, one of whom married Sir 
Walter de Ogilvy, who succeeded to the half of Inchmartin, 
and other properties belonging to Glen, of which " Balhalwell " 
(Balhall) formed a part. 2 

1 Dalrymple, Annals, i. p. 314. 

2 Crawford, Peerage, p. 143. His descendant, Sir Patrick of Inchmartin, 
married the eldest daughter of James, second Lord Ogilvy of Deskford : and, in 



MENMUIR PROPRIETORS OF BALHALL. 319 

It is not improbable, since Menmuir was wholly at the royal 
disposal in Bruce's time, that Balhall had formed part of the 
grant which he made, or rather renewed, to the successor of 
his unfortunate friend Inchmartin. Subsequent, however, to 
Ogilvy's succession, the name of Sir John Wemyss of Wemyss 
occurs in a proprietary relation with Balhall, 1 but whether 
through pecuniary advances or otherwise, it does not appear. 
It has perhaps only reference to the half of it, however, for in 
1527 Sir Alexander Ogilvy of Deskford had a charter of half 
these lands, and another for the fourth part of Menmuir, which 
were erected into a free barony, called the barony of Ogilvy. 2 
But in 1555 the Ogilvy s sold Balhall, and other parts of Men- 
muir, to David Lindsay of Edzell, the ninth Earl of Crawford. 

The patronage of the church of Menmuir had long gone 
with the lands of Balhall ; and John, second son of the said 
ninth Earl, was lay parson at one and the same time of Men- 
muir, Lethnot, and Lochlee, 3 and assumed his judicial title of 
Lord Menmuir from the first place. But, apart from certain 
ecclesiastical emoluments which he drew during life from this 
and neighbouring parts, he had no heritable or other claim on 
Menmuir, his youngest brother Robert having succeeded to 
Balhall and the other Lindsay temporalities about 1572, when 
he also gave his mother a discharge of his " bairnes pairt of 
guid," in return for certain moneys advanced to him by her. 4 
This Eobert was one of several of his name, who had a remis- 
sion for the slaughter of the laird of Lundie in 1583, and barring 
this incident nothing particular is known of him. He died 
in 1598, leaving a son John, who survived for the short space 
of four years, when his sister Katherine, who married Robertson 
of Dalkbane, was served heir-portioner to her father and brother 



virtue of the new patent obtained by the first Earl of Findlater in 1641, he suc- 
ceeded, on the death of his father-in-law, to the estates and titles of Findlater and 
Deskford. 

1 Douglas, Peerage, ii. p. 618. 2 Crawford, Peerage, p. 143. 

8 Crawford Case, p. 218. For an account of Lord Menmuir, see Proc. Soc. Ant. 
Scot. xi. pp. 419-21. 4 Ibid. 



320 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

in 1603. Immediately on the back of this, or rather a few 
months before the date of the retour, she and her husband 
resigned Balhall and the patronage of the kirk to Sir David of 
Edzell. 1 This is the last mention of the family that we have 
found as landowners in Menmuir; and, some time before 1623, 
Balhall had passed to the Cramonds, for a sculptured stone 
bearing that date, and the initials " H C : A G." with the 
Cramond and Gardyne arms impaled, js built into a wall at 
the farm offices of Balhall. 

In 1646, Hercules Cramond (perhaps a descendant of the 
old lairds of Aldbar and Melgund) is designed younger of 
Balhall ; 2 and being the last name with which we have met 
up to about 1682, when the estate and advowson of the kirk 
were in the hands of Patrick Lyell (who was followed by 
his son William of Dysart and Bonington), it is probable that 
Lyell had succeeded Cramond. In Lyell's time the estate was 
greatly enlarged out of the Common Muir of Brechin, and this 
portion is still held in feu from the magistrates of that city ; 
but during Patrick's time the family fell into pecuniary diffi- 
culties, and the property passed in 1721 to Mill of Balwyllo, 
who in the course of a year resold it to David Erskine of Dun. 

Some notice has already been given of the Mills ; 3 of the 
families of Cramond and Lyell we have gleaned little. Suffice 
it to say that the Cramonds of Angus were of the same stock 
as those of Lothian, and were proprietors of Aldbar in the 
time of Edward I. the laird (Laurence de Cramound) having 
sworn fealty to that king in 1296. 4 The Lyells of Balhall 
were related to Thomas Lyell of Dysart near Montrose, who 
married Jean Maria Lindsay, of whom the late venerable 
minister of Careston was a great-grandson. 

The Erskines, however, have a more distinct lineage than 

1 Inquis. Spec. Forfar. No. 33. Inventory of Balhall Title-Deeds, communicated 
by Messrs. Speid & Will, writers, Brechiu. 

2 Menmuir Parish Records. 3 Ut sup. p. 237. 

* Ragman Rolls, p. 162 ; Nisbet, Heraldry, i. p. 354. The Cramonds owned 
Aldbar down to about 1570. See Warden, Angus, ii. pp. 297 sq. 



MENMUIR EKSK1NES OF BALHALL. 321 

their immediate predecessors in Balhall, the first proprietor of 
the name being the Hon. David Erskine, or Lord Dun, who fell 
heir to the paternal estate, and became chief of the family, on 
the death of his eldest brother. Their remote progenitor in 
Dun was John, grandson of Sir Robert of that Ilk in Renfrew- 
shire, who was Chamberlain of Scotland, and whom Barbour 
and other writers extol for his fidelity to Robert u. John was 
alive in 1419, and had a charter of Dun from his father in 
1393. 1 The grandfather, Sir Robert, was the main instrument, 
according to Wyntoun, in bringing the Stewarts to the throne : 

" Schere Roberte Stewarte wes made King, 
Specialy throw the grete helpyng 
Off gild Scher Roberte of Erskyne." 

Lord Dun, or the first Erskine of Balhall, was admitted 
advocate in 1696, and, after serving forty- three years as a judge, 
resigned office in 1753. He retired to his residence of Dun, 
and employed his leisure in writing a small volume of moral 
and political Advices, which he published in 1754, the year 
before his death. He married a daughter of Riddell of Hain- 
ing, by whom he had a son and daughter, and resigned his 
estate of Balhall in fee to his son in the year 1732. That son 
succeeded to Dun and Balhall on his father's death in 1755, 
and died in 1787. He had two sous, John and David, and the 
last-mentioned predeceased his father without issue. The 
former had a son and two daughters. The son, William John, 
was killed in Ireland in the attack on the rebels at Kilcullen 
Bridge, in 1798 ; 2 and his father, John, the last male descendant 

1 Wyntoun, Cron. iii. p. 8 ; see Misc. Spald. Club, iv. pp. Ixix sq. 

- " The story of Mr. or Captain Erskine's death was always the theme of conversa- 
tion among the men of a cavalry regiment on passing the scene of it, which they used 
frequently to do, on the line of march between Naas and Carlow. As I have heard 
it told, a body of rebels was strongly posted in a churchyard on rising ground, and 
surrounded by a strong stone-and-lime wall. General Francis Dundas ordered 
Captain Erskine to dislodge them, but the dragoons could not get their horses to 
leap the wall. After ineffectual attempts, and being galled by the enemy's fire, 
Captain Erskine reported to the General that it was useless to attempt the duty with 
cavalry. ' Are you afraid, sir ?' asked the General. ' No ! I am not afraid ! ' replied 
the other, and turning his horse round, he rode over the wall, and was immediately 

X 



322 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

of the Erskines of Dun, survived till 1812, 1 when he was suc- 
ceeded by his eldest daughter Alice, who died unmarried in 
1824. The younger daughter, Margaret, married the Earl of 
Cassillis, afterwards Marquis of Ailsa; and her second son, the 
Hon. John Kennedy Erskine, succeeded to the estate of Dun 
in right of his mother and aunt. He died in 1831, and left by 
his wife, Lady Augusta Fitzclarence, daughter of William iv., 
two daughters and one son, Captain William Henry Kennedy - 
Erskine. He married Catherine, daughter of William Jones, 
Esq. of Henlys, Carmarthenshire, and in 1870 was succeeded 
in Dun by his only son, Augustus John William Henry, the 
present proprietor. The Marquis died 8th September 1846, 
aged seventy-six, and the Marchioness two years later. 

Balhall continued in the Dun family until the time of the 
last-mentioned John, who sold the property and the patron- 
age of the church of Menmuir to Alexander Erskine, grand- 
nephew of Lord Dun, by his Lordship's youngest brother 
Alexander, a merchant in Montrose. He became heir-male 
and chief of the Erskines of Dun, 2 and died 17th November 
1855 at the ripe age of eighty-one years, proprietor of Balhall, 
Forfarshire, and Longhaven, Aberdeenshire. The property 
belongs now to his two daughters, Mrs. Ellis and Mrs. West. 

The moss of Balhall, which is now partly under the plough 
and partly under wood, was a great marsh in old times, stretch- 
ing from Lochty on the east to Bedford on the west, a dis- 
tance of several miles. It was in this place, in the year 1382, 
that Sir James, then chief of the Lindsays of Crawford, and 
High Justiciary of Scotland, accidentally, or designedly, met 
Sir John Lyon, the founder of the noble house of Strathmore, 
when they engaged in single combat ; and being one of the 



killed. It was always added that the General, who was no favourite, never forgave 
himself for this sacrifice of a promising officer." (Kindly communicated by the late 
P. Chalmers, Esq. ofAldbar.) 

1 "May 15, 1812; John Erskine, Esq. of Dun, died; interred in the family 
vault on the 18th. Aged 69." (Dun Par. Reg. of Burials.) 

Family Tree., kindly communicated by the late A, Erskine, Esq. of Balhall. 



MENMUIR QUARREL OF LINDSAY AND LYON. 323 

most accomplished horsemen and expert swordsmen of his 
time, Lindsay proved the victor and slew Lyon. 1 The origin of 
the quarrel is now unknown ; but it is believed to have arisen 
from jealousy on the part of Lindsay, by whom Lyon had been 
recommended to the notice of his Majesty. Lindsay, in fact, 
beheld in his own late secretary the greatest favourite of the 
court of Eobert n., and one through whose influence he had 
been denied several favours. From being Secretary to the 
King, Lyon had become Great Chamberlain, had been employed 
in various important negotiations at home and abroad, and in 
addition to the original dowry of Glamis, which he had by his 
royal consort, his estate had been augmented by the gift of 
various other possessions. Thus favoured by royalty, Lyon 
perhaps treated his former benefactor somewhat cavalierly; 
for it is certain that Lindsay was impelled by the feeling of 
having sustained some real or imaginary insult, which he 
determined to resent, and which terminated, as above seen, 
in the slaughter of the laird of Glamis. Lyon's body was 
buried at Scone among the ancient kings, and his son, then a 
boy of thirteen years of age, was educated under his Majesty's 
especial care. Lindsay " fled into voluntary exile ; " still, it is 
curious to know that he always held the office of High Justi- 
ciary, and on making a penitential pilgrimage to the shrine of 
St. Thomas a Becket at Canterbury, was recalled and pardoned. 2 
It was also on the lands of Balhall, but on the northern 
confines of the property, that an unfortunate retainer of the 
name of Beattie expiated the crime of perjury in true feudalic 
manner. There is no record of the time when this affair 
occurred, or even of the proprietors of the land the Ogilvys or 
the Lindsays or later ; but the tradition has countenance from 
the fact of a barrow and patch of ground, that still exist, being 
known by the names of Seattle's Cairn and the Mis-sivorn Rig. 
It is said that the circumstance arose from two lairds quarrel- 
ling about the marches of their lands in this quarter, and when 

i Extructa e Cron. Scot. p. 19-1. a Lives, i. p. 72. 



324 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

witnesses were brought to specify the boundary, the evi- 
dence of one of them went to prove that the laird of Balhall 
had no right to the portion to which he laid claim. Infuri- 
ated at this declaration, and convinced in his own mind that 
the witness had perjured himself, the laird of Balhall drew a 
dagger from his belt, and slew the man on the spot. On the 
body being examined, the fact of the perjury was discovered, 
as it was found that, to save his conscience, the cunning 
witness had filled his shoes with earth brought from the land 
of the laird in whose favour he was enlisted, and on whose 
property he swore he stood at the time he gave his oath ! 

A story is also told of a rather superstitious old woman, who 
kept as a charm a bronze sword that had been found by her 
husband in the Moss of Balhall. Every night she slept with 
it under her pillow, but before depositing it there she was 
careful to draw the figure 8 upon the floor with the point of 
the blade, in order to ward off the evil spirits ! 

This Seattle's Cairn, however, was not the only one that 
the people of Menmuir raised to commemorate unprincipled 
acts of villainy. Upwards of a hundred years ago Donald 
M'Arthur, the shoemaker at Tigerton, when about to get 
married, went to Brechin a few days before the wedding to 
make some purchases. While in town, he unfortunately 
quarrelled with several parties who were well known for their 
proud resentful spirit, and in this case more than ordinarily 
anxious to have their itch for secret revenge gratified, though 
in the most cowardly manner possible. Knowing the secluded 
path by which the bridegroom had to return home, they went 
and concealed themselves in the dense and extensive wood 
of Findowrie, which then bounded the road. It was dark by 
the time Donald reached the wood, and nothing, save the wind 
rustling among the trees, broke the silence of night. On coming 
to the fatal spot he was furiously attacked and almost killed 
by those who lay in wait for him ; but, before they had finished 
their diabolical business, they heard the sound of footsteps, and, 



MENMUIR TALES AND ANCIENT REMAINS. 325 

fearing detection, simultaneously pounced on the passenger, 
whom they at once recognised as a provincial highwayman 
in every way a fit accomplice in their dreadful enterprise. On 
receipt of a paltry sum of money he completed the murder of 
poor Donald, and swore a secrecy which he held inviolate until 
about to suffer the extreme penalty of the law for another crime. 
By that time all the murderers, save one (who was raving mad, 
and at the point of death), had gone to give an account of their 
transactions to the Judge of all the earth. In commemora- 
tion of this bloodthirsty act, a cairn of stones was raised on 
the spot where the body of the bridegroom was found, and a 
solitary bush of weebo or ragwort long grew from the middle of 
it. As few travellers passed the road without contributing a 
stone to Donald's Cairn, as it was called, it ultimately assumed 
a great size, but it was removed several years ago to make way 
for agricultural improvements. The bride, according to popular 
story, but contrary to fact (for she was afterwards married and 
had a family), 1 died of grief soon after the murder of her lover ; 
and the peasantry were often alarmed by mingled cries of dis- 
tress from the weird of the unfortunate shoemaker, while the 
faiiy form of his betrothed hovered nightly around the cairn, so 
long as any stones remained ! 

The cluster of so-called barrows near the church of Men- 
muir are commonly attributed to the Picts and Danes ; and 
the sculptured stones bearing equestrian and other figures, 2 
which were found in the foundation of the old church, are 
also ascribed to the genius of the latter people. These ideas 
may have originated in the vague notion that pervades the 
district, of the Danes having fought a battle there. These 
barrows have an artificial appearance, but that, perhaps, is the 
amount of the matter, and we are not aware that they have 

1 Her name was Rachel Sim, and her husband was a blacksmith called Gleig, near 
Kincraig, in the parish of Brechin. 

3 Chalmers, Sculptured Monuimnts of Angus, Plate xvii. figs. 2 and 3. On the 
general question of such sculpturings, see Anderson, Scotland in Early Christian 
Times, ii. pp. 49 sq. 



326 LA.ND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

ever been opened, or that any warlike or domestic remains 
relating to prehistoric times have been found in their vicinity. 
It is true, that on disinterring a stone coffin a few years ago in 
the Cotton Muir, at a short distance from these barrows, a flint 
spear-head was found in it as large as a man's hand. This 
relic was, perhaps, peculiar, not only from its great size, but 
also from its having a hole in the end, in which a piece of the 
wooden handle was firmly fixed. The workmen, anxious to 
discover the kind of stuff of which it was made, broke it into 
several pieces and thus destroyed it. A thin bronze hatchet 
was also found near the same spot. 

There is no record of any engagement having occurred at 
this particular place ; but the facts now mentioned, together 
with the finding of numerous stone cists, containing urns, in 
the adjoining mosses of Findowrie and neighbourhood, tend to 
corroborate the tradition. These places are in the vicinity of 
a large rude stone called the Killievair Stone ; and, according 
to the provincial couplet 

" 'Tween the Blawart Lap and Killievair Stanes, 
There lie mony bluidy banes." 1 

The Blawart Lap lies about a mile due north of the Killievair 
Stone, on the farm of Longhaugh ; and, as all historians agree 
that Angus, Earl of Moray, and four thousand followers were 
slain, when the Earl's forces were routed by David I. in 1130, 
in the contiguous parish of Stracathro, 2 it is probable that the 

1 Black, Hist. Brech. p. 14. 

2 Dalrymple, Annals, i. p. 76. " Strathcatherach " is the oldest spelling of 
Stracathro ; and, according to the Gaelic, Strath-cath-rath may mean " the plain of 
the circular mounds," but it is doubtful. Sepulchral remains are found in great 
quantity throughout the whole flat ground of the parish ; and on opening the Re or 
Rye Hillock, near the church, some years ago, a carefully-constructed stone coffin 
was found on the top about 2 feet below the surface. It contained human remains, 
and the figure of a Jish, which the peasantry say was "made of gold, and about 
a finger length." This interesting relic, which was carried off by the workmen 
and lost, had, perhaps, been part of the armorial ensigns of the persons interred ; 
and, as the Earl of Moray was killed here, this may have been the place of his 
burial. King's Ford, or " ad Tinam," the reputed passage of the Romans across the 
North Esk, in A.D. 81, is in this neighbourhood (Six Old Eng. Chron. p. 490). 
Tytler says that Kenneth ill. also came by his death here ; and tradition affirms that 
three Danish chiefs, or sea-kings, were buried at the north-east corner of the kirk. 



MENMUm ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRACES. 327 

melee had extended as far west as " 'tween the Blawart Lap and 
Killievair Stanes," and the sepulchral traces which have been 
found in this quarter may belong to that engagement. 

It is worthy of notice that the most important of these 
traces were found about thirty years ago in the vicinity of the 
Blawart Lap. Of these the discoverer gives this account : 
" While engaged improving a piece of waste land," he writes, 
" including a grassy mound, called by the old people in the 
district, the Gallows or Law of Balrownie (where, it is said, 
the lairds dispensed feudal justice), it was found, on excavating 
this mound, that it had been originally raised as a monument 
and place of burial. A dike, or circle of rough stones, 
apparently gathered from the adjacent muir, was arranged 
round the bottom. This circle was one hundred and twenty 
feet in circumference. Within, it was filled with earth, brought 
from the banks of Cruik Water (distant about one hundred 
yards), and raised about six feet above the surrounding surface. 
It contained a stone coffin, constructed with two long pave- 
ment-like stones on each side, and a half round one at the 
head the whole covered by a heavy slab of whinstone. From 
the inroads of vermin and insects, the coffin was completely 
filled with mould, mixed with small particles of bones, and none 
of them could be distinguished from each other, excepting a 
small portion of the skull. The head was placed exactly in 
the centre of the mound, and the body laid due south." 

Old people remember .when three or four stones stood on 
the same spot, but no record exists of the circle having been 
complete, though there is reason to believe that it had once 
been so. The remaining stone is about four feet above ground, 
upwards of eight feet in circumference, and tops a knoll north- 
west of the farm-house of Barrel well, in the parish of Brechin. 

It was also here that Baliol did penance to Edward in 1296. The church anciently 
belonged to the Chapter and Cathedral of Brechin, and St. Braid's Well is in a 
field adjoining the church, to whom (as St. Rule) the kirk had likely been dedi- 
cated. (See Jervise, Kpit. ii. pp. 236-45, and Campbell, Lect. on Brechin District, 
pp. 16-7, 30-1.) 



328 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

A stone coffin with an urn inside, was found adjacent to it, 
about the beginning of this century. 

The most remarkable antiquarian features of Menmuir, 
however, are the mountain forts of White and Brown Cater- 
thun. These hills are of the same class as Duneval and 
Dunjardel, in Inverness and Nairn shires ; but that of White 
Caterthun is accounted the most remarkable of any in the 
kingdom. Huddleston calls White Caterthun a Druidical 
erection ; but other writers, on perhaps better grounds, suppose 
both ramparts to have a native origin, coeval with British posts, 
and to have been raised for the protection and retreat of the 
wives and children of the ancient inhabitants, during the 
repeated invasions of their country ; and, instead of assuming 
the name to signify " Camptown " or " City Fort," according 
to Pennant, they derive it from the likelier source of Cader- 
dun, a hill-fort. 1 

The rampart and intrenchments of the Brown or Black 
Caterthuu are nearly circular, and entirely composed of earth 
hence its distinctive name. It occupies a lower site and 
less space than its fellow, from which it lies about a mile 
eastward, commanding an extensive view of the eastern 
and southern portions of the valley of Strathmore ; while White 
Caterthun, whose height is nine hundred and seventy-six 
feet above the sea, commands the western parts of the Strath, 
and a great part of its southern and northern boundaries. 
The former has been formed by the levelling down of the top 
of the mountain, which, in a physical aspect, is altogether 
different from its fellow ; for, while stones abound on all parts 
of the White Caterthun, comparatively few are to be found on 
the Brown so that whether the stones had been carried from 
the latter to erect the former, or whether, by scooping out the 
trenches, White Caterthun had afforded materials for its own 
rearing or whether, as fixed by tradition, the stones were 
brought from the West Water, or from the still more distant 

1 Chalmers, Caled. i. p. 89 ; and Prof. Stuart, Essays, p. 87. 



MENMUIR THE CATERTHUNS. 329 

hill of Wirran (to which provincial geologists say the stones of 
this fort are peculiar) is all a matter of uncertainty. But, 
about twenty years ago, a large boulder was discovered at the 
north-west corner of the White Caterthun, and upon the two 
large fragments a series of cup-markings is distinctly traceable ; 
but there is nothing to elucidate their meaning or the special 
use to which the boulder had been applied; 1 one of the 
fragments is rolled a considerable distance down the hill. 

Caterthun has been frequently engraved and described, 
particularly in Eoy's Military Antiquities? and is agreed on all 
hands to have been singularly well constructed for purposes 
of security and defence. The fort was not, however, as some 
descriptions of it would lead the stranger to believe, an erection 
which had been held together by mortar or other cement, but 
was composed entirely of loose stones. These have fallen from 
their original position, and the breadth of the wall, in its present 
state, is presumed to measure about a hundred feet at the base, 
and between twenty and thirty feet at the top. It rises little 
more than five feet above the inner area, which is of an oval 
form, measuring about five hundred and thirty-four feet in 
length, by two hundred in breadth. The well is within eighty 
feet of the south-west corner, and although much filled up, is 
still represented by a pit of about eight feet in depth, and 
forty feet in diameter at the top. Beyond, and surrounding 
the whole citadel, there is a succession of strong ramparts and 
ditches, mainly composed of earth, and stretching far down 
the hill. Although now much filled up, these trenches 
vary in depth from eighteen to twenty-four inches, and the 
whole structure, as has been frequently remarked, is one of 
the most extensive and elaborate ancient citadels in Great 
Britain. It may be observed that, although the dikes and 
intrenchments of Brown Caterthun are quite in the same 
style and condition as those of White Caterthun, there is no 

1 The stone is figured by Miss Maclagau, Hill Forts, etc., Plate xi. 

2 Plates 47, 48. 



330 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

appearance of any well upon it except on the south-west slope 
of the hill, near the Geary Burn. 

Like that of the vitrified site of Finhaven, the real history 
of Caterthun is veiled in mystery ; but, perhaps, since the place 
has never been properly investigated, something may yet be 
found among its ruins to throw light on the manners of its 
possessors, or the purposes of its erection. Tt was visited by 
an anonymous writer upwards of a century ago, who speaks 
of having found stones upon it with hieroglyphic characters, 
bits of broken statues, and old coins ; but as none of these have 
been seen or heard of, save through the columns of a con- 
temporary magazine, 1 the assertion is generally questioned. 
The late Mr. D. D. Black, author of the History of Brcchin, 
cut through a portion of the wall some years ago, but found 
only a few remains of charred wood and burned bones. 2 

But, as may be expected, though the learned of every age 
have failed to satisfy themselves regarding the use or gathering 
together of these stones, local tradition at once solves the 
mystery, and says that the place was merely the abode of 
fairies, that a brawny witch carried the whole one morning 
from the channel of the West Water to the summit of the hill, 
and would have increased the quantity (there is no saying 
to what extent), but for the ominous circumstance of her apron- 
string breaking, while carrying one of the largest ! This stone 
was allowed to lie where it fell, and is pointed out to this day 
on the north-east slope of the mountain ! This tradition, it 
may be remarked, however outre, is curious from its analogy 
to that concerning the castles of Mulgrave and Pickering in 
Yorkshire, the extensive causeways of which are said to have 
been paved by genii named Wada and his wife Bell, the latter, 
like the amazonian builder of Caterthun, having carried the 
stones from a great distance in her apron! But the same 

1 Rudditnaris Mag., August 31, 1775. 

- On hill forts like the Caterthuns and Finhaven, see Prof. Daniel Wilson's 
Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, ii. pp. 85 sq. 



MENMUIR SUPERSTITIONS. 331 

story is to be met with in many different places, and with only 
the slightest variation. 

Perhaps the fabled occupancy of Caterthun by fairies had 
the effect of preserving a superstitious credulity, both in Men- 
muir and Lethnot, for a longer period than in the neighbouring 
districts. We have already seen its effects in the latter place ; 
and it is a notorious fact, that at no distant period demonology 
and witchcraft survived in Menmuir with much of its original 
vigour. Nay, apart from tradition, it is recorded that in the 
memorable 1649, when a vast number of native Scots are 
said to have been burnt for witchcraft, the clergyman was 
prevented from preaching the Word of Clod to his parishioners 
upon the 2d and 23d of December, because he had to attend 
" the committee appoynted by the provincial assemblie for tJw 
tryal of witclies and charmers." What the pastor of Menmuir 
and others began, their brethren of Tannadice and Cortachy 
appear to have finished, for both were absent from their 
parochial duties on certain Sundays, because of having to 
attend the burning of " ane witche " ! Such cases, however, 
were far from rare ; even Knox, one of the most enlightened 
men of his time, not only attended the execution of these 
martyrs to popular ignorance and superstition, but actually 
on one occasion preached ; for Melvill says that the first 
execution he ever beheld was that of " a witche in St. Androis, 
against the whilk Mr. Knox delt from the pulpit, sche being 
set upe at a pillar before him ! " * 

But the barbarous doings of old times are not so much to 
be wondered at, when some of the " living chronicles," even in 
the district under notice, remember of burning peats being 
dropped through the infant's first shift, to counteract the power 
of diabolical agency 2 of the husband's unmentionables being 
laid at the feet of the labouring wife, and the fairy club placed 
athwart the door-sill, to prevent her being carried away by 

1 Diary, p. 58. 

a Ross describes this superstitious process iu his Ifdenore. 



332 LAND OF THE LINDSAY >. 

those tiny elves. Nor, even at this day, has the " deid licht " 
perhaps entirely ceased to flutter, and throw its ominous gleams 
across the marshy patches of the East and West Lucks-o'- 
Pagan! 

Threescore years have not much more than passed away 
>iuce a humble couple, who resided at Tigerton, were blessed 
with a son. At his birth, and for some time after, the boy 
throve as do other healthy children; but his constitution 
underwent a sudden change, and the thriving infant became 
decrepit and rickety. This marvellous reverse occupied the 
attention of the gossips, and various causes were alleged, 
among others, that the boy or his mother was bewitched, or, 
that the rickety child was a substitute for the healthy one, 
whom the/airies had carried away by stealth to their invisible 
chambers about the hill of Caterthun ' The learned in such 
matters were anxious to find the truth of these ideas by experi- 
ment If the boy was really of fairy origin, he would, on being 
placed over a blaze of whins, fly to his native region if an heir 
of mortality, he would withstand the fire, and receive, at worst, 
& slight burn, or scaum ! 

As the Tigerton Hecate was well aware that it would revolt 
the feelings of the parents to have their infant subjected to such 
an ordeal, she watched her opportunity when the mother had left 
her ailing child in charge of a neighbour on leaving home for 
a day, and she prevailed on the temporary nurse to allow her 
to test the boy's human or supernatural being. The experiment 
was of the highest possible interest. Harvey was not more 
anxious to discover the circulation of tie blood than were those 
hags to show the truth of their irrational surmises. A favoured 
few were collected to witness the result, and the scene took 
place in the ben end of a low thatched cottage. The door was 
carefully secured, the small window covered up, and the 
ceremony conducted by whisperings, so that no other human 
being should witness their unhallowed actions. A bundle 
of whins was lighted, and stripping the poor child to the skin, 



MENMUIR UNHALLOWED OEDEAL. 333 

they placed him upon the tongs, and held him over the flame ! 
He screamed and struggled, as older people would do in like 
circumstances ; but, as he never attempted to fly out of the chimney, 
he was declared by the cruel hags, in council assembled, to be 
merely a human creature after all !! 



CHAPTER VII. 
<|ftisalkttemtjs ICnirb* ot the 



His lands, I ween, stretch' d far an' wide 
frae hi el and hill to ocean's side. 

BALLAD. 

Now that the history of the Parishes over which the great family 
of Lindsay of Glenesk once held almost supreme sway has been given, 
that of their minor estates in other parts of Angus, and of those 
which they owned on the confines of Perthshire, and in Kincardine- 
shire, will have our attention. The notices of these must be neces- 
sarily brief, in consequence of the volume having already reached 
beyond the limits originally proposed. Our observations will there- 
fore be mainly confined to such facts and traditions as are preserved 
regarding the Lindsays, and to some of the less generally known 
historical incidents of the various districts. For the furtherance of 
our plan, this, the concluding Chapter, will be divided into three 
Sections the first of these will embrace such of the Lindsay pro- 
perties as lay in the Highland or North-western parts of Angus, 
and on the East of Perthshire ; the second, the southern portions, 
or those that were on the south of the Valley of Strathmore 
in Angus ; and the third, such of their lands as lay in the Mearns. 



SECTION I. 

LINDSAY PROPERTIES IN THE NORTH-WESTERN PARTS OF 
ANGUS, AND ON THE EAST OF PERTHSHIRE. 

Miscellaneous properties Brechin Forket acre Brechin and Pitairlie Keithock 
passed to the Edgars Secretary Edgar Bishop Edgar Keithock's toast 
Little Pert Glenquiech held by the Lindsays Preceded by the Stuarts, Earls 
ofBuchan Shielhill and chapel of St. Colm The water-kelpie Inverquharity 
and early proprietors Ogilvys of Airlie and Inverquharity Baronets of Inver- 
quharity Balinscho or Benshie Scrymgeours and Ogilvys Lindsays of 



LINDSAYS OF KEITHOCK. 335 

Balinscho Two chestnut-trees -The Fletchers Chapel of St. Ninian and 
burial-place Clova Feuds The old Peel Parochial district and chapel 
Glaslet, Rottall, Easter and Wester Lethnot, Gella, Braeminzeon Bakie 
Castle Passed to the Lyons Chapel of Bakie Kirk of Airlie Dunkeny 
Ruthven, Queich, Alyth Corb, Inverqueich Murder of Lord Lindsay 
Haunted lady Meigle Its early proprietorship Its later Church and burial- 
place. 



Bredjfn, lUttfjock, anfc Slittle 

THE Lindsay interest in the district of Brechin is of old 
date, and has been of a varied and important nature. From 
the time of the first settlement of the family in Forfarshire, 
they showed great favour for the Cathedral of Brechin. Sir 
Alexander of Glenesk, as before shown, erected the kirk of 
Finhaven into a prebend of that church ; arid his son, the first 
Earl of Crawford, endowed a chaplainry in its chapel of St. 
Beternan (probably St. Ethernan or Eddran), 1 to the revenues 
of which his descendant, the Duke of Montrose, also added 
considerably shortly before his death. It was during the time 
of the Duke, however, when the Lindsays attained the meridian 
of their power, that they had most interest there, a circum- 
stance which arose from the Duke having the liferent of the 
lordship of Brechin and Navar from the King, in acknowledg- 
ment of his services at the rising at Blackness. 

But the earliest notice of them as landowners in Brechin 
occurs in 1508, when Kichard Lindsay owned the house and 
land called the Forket Acre, the rent of which, witli other pro- 
perties, was mortified to the Cathedral by James iv. 2 This 
place is described in the charter of resignation of 1511 as lying 
on the west side of the city, and is still known to some old 
people as part of the property called the Bank of Brechin, near 
the south-west part of the Latch Eoad, on the north side. It 
was resigned at the above date, as " le Forket Aker," by Alex- 
ander Lindsay, " communi fabre in Brechin," to David Lyon of 
Kinnell. 3 This Alexander Lindsay was one of a long line of 

1 Lives, i. p. 103. See Smith and Wace, Did. Ch. Biog. ii. p. 232. 
* Ef(j. Ep. Brech. ii. pp. 19, 159 ; Black, Hist. Brech. p. 32. 
3 Fraser, Hist, Canifyies of Southenk, i. p. xv ; ii. p. 527. 



336 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

hereditary blacksmiths of the same name, who, for the making 
and mending of ploughs and sheep-shears, had certain annual 
payments in meal and wool from various farms in the lordship, 
and the pasture of two cows and a horse at Haughmuir. 1 It is 
probable that they continued to enjoy the office of common 
blacksmith down to at least the year 1616, at which period the 
name occurs for the last time in the minute-book of the Ham- 
mermen, 2 in the council of which craft one or other of them 
acted from the earliest date, as they had done in the municipal 
courts of the burgh. Perhaps the Brechin Lindsays failed 
through females, for in 1672 the " co-heiresses of John Lindsay, 
residenter in Brechin," 3 had annuities furth of the lands of 
Craighead of Finhaven. 

Sir John, the uncle of Earl Beardie, and one of his unfor- 
tunate kinsmen who fell at the battle of Brechin, was designed 
of Brechin and Pitairlie ; 4 but whether he had a residence in 
the city, or why he is so entitled, is unknown to us. It is true 
that the Earls of Crawford are traditionally said to have had a 
residence in Brechin, and an old large three-story house on the 
north side of the Nether Wynd Street (near the Cathedral) is 
pointed out as the spot. A well on the property has borne 
from time immemorial the name of Eeardie's Well, and the 
rental of this tenement is said to have been given by him to 
the Cathedral, for saying mass for the soul of his mother. It 
is probable, however, that if the family did not reside there, it 
had been the site of their granary, or the place where their 
vassals or tenants deposited their meal, of which, and other 
payments in kind, ancient rentals were mostly composed. 

It was in the early part of the sixteenth century that David, 

1 The farms which were bound to pay these dues were Balnabrech, Kindrokat 
[Kintrockat], Petpollokis, Pittendrech, Hauch de Brechin [Haughmuir], Buthirgille 
[Burghill], Pettintoschall ["The Haugh of Pantaskall, at the west end of Balbirnie 
miln." (Paper in the. Southesk charter-chest, regarding the water for driving the 
mill of Balbirnie and the new mitt of Pantaskall, A.D. 1574)], Balbirny, and the 
mill thereof, Kincragie, and Leuchlandi. (Inquis. Spec. Forfar. No. 594, Suppl., ii. ; 
Misc. Sp. Club, v. p. 291 ; Fraser, Hist. Carnegies of Southesk, ii. p. 527, App.) 

- Quoted nt sup. p. 45. 3 Inquis. Spec. Forfar. No. 456. 

4 Pitairlie, in Monikie, is uniformly called Pitcairlie in the Lives, 



LINDSAYS AND EDGARS OF KEITHOCK. 337 

third son of Sir David of Edzell, became proprietor of the lands 
of Keithock, north of the town ; these were partly under the 
superiority of the Bishop of Brechin, and partly under that of 
the Knights of St. John. From that period, David and his 
descendants were designed of Keithock, down to 1617, when 
the succession passed to a female, who disposed of the pro- 
perty, but she and her descendants long thereafter retained 
that of Cairn in Tannadice. 1 

Little is recorded of either the public or private transactions 
of the Lindsays of Keithock. The last laird in his father's life- 
time was a partisan in the famous melee that occurred between 
young Edzell and Wishart of Pitarrow in 1606; and it is probable, 
from the name of Carnegie of Kinnaird being connected with 
the lands in a proprietary relation in 1593, 2 that the general 
embarrassment, which the Lindsays were then labouring under, 
had extended to Keithock, and, like their chief and others of the 
clan, they had been forced to mortgage their property. 

In 1617 we find John Oudnay "de Keithik" one of the 
jurors appointed to inquire into the extent of the lordship 
of Brechin and Navar. 3 It is therefore probable, that after 
Keithock had passed through these various hands, it came to 
those of a younger son of the old family of Edgar of Wadderlie, 
who are the next proprietors with whom we have met. David 
Edgar of Keithock, who bought the property in 1679 from his 
cousin Thomas (the father of John of Poland), 4 had a large 
family, among whom were John and James, who bore pro- 
minent parts during the rebellion of 1715 and afterwards. The 
former died a prisoner in Stirling Castle, and the latter, escaping 
to Italy, became the well-known private secretary of the 
Chevalier, and died at Eome in September 1764, where "he was 
buried by a Protestant clergyman, according to the rites of the 
Church of England." He was a person of great worth, and, as 
appears not only by the letters of the Chevalier and his son 

i Inquis. Spec. Forfar. No. 342 (A.D. 1655). 2 Douglas, Peerage, ii. p. 513. 

(Mar. 7)Inq. Valorum, No. 10. 4 Nisbet, Heraldry, i. p. 281. 

Y 



338 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Prince Charles, but by those of the fugitive nobles, was one in 
whom all had the most implicit confidence. His fidelity to the 
cause of his exiled master was unimpeachable, as the follow- 
ing anecdote told by his great-grand-niece amply illustrates : 
"Some considerable time after the 'fifteen,' the British 
Government had reason to believe that another attempt was to 
be made for the exiled family. Sir Eobert Walpole directed 
his spies to learn who was in King James's confidence, and what 
were the character and circumstances of the individual. He 
was told that the King's private secretary was the younger son 
of a Scotch laird of small fortune ; that he was of a generous, 
hospitable turn, fond of entertaining his countrymen when at 
Eome; and that he had but a small salary. This was just 
what Sir Robert wanted, and he wrote to Edgar offering a 
handsome sum if he would betray the intentions of his master. 
Edgar put the letter into the fire, and returned no answer. 
Several other epistles bearing advanced offers met the same 
fate. Sir Robert, thinking he had not yet come up to the 
secretary's price, then wrote (and this time without making 
any conditions) that he had placed ten thousand pounds in the 
bank of Venice in the name of Mr. Edgar. The secretary then 
consulted his master, and, after a brief interval, returned for 
answer that he had received Sir Robert's letter. He thanked 
him for the ten thousand pounds, which he had lost no time in 
drawing from the bank, and had just laid it at the feet of his 
royal master, who had the best title to gold that came, as this 
had done, from England." l 

Secretary Edgar's eldest brother, Alexander, succeeded to 
the estate of Keithock. A younger brother, Henry, was the 
third and last Bishop of Fife, and for thirty-six years pastor of 
the Episcopal church in Arbroath, where he died (as intimated 
by his tombstone in the Abbey burial-ground) on the 22d of 
August 1768, in the seventy-first year of his age. 2 

1 Quoted by Mr. R. Chambers, Hist, of Rebellion 1745-46, p. 419. 

2 The following is his baptismal entry in the Brechin Records : " April 2, 1698 ; 



LINDSAYS OF LITTLE PERT. 339 

Alexander, the penultimate laird of Keithock, died about 
1768, and was succeeded by his son John, who, like his 
uncles, was a staunch supporter of the Stewarts, and joined their 
cause at the age of nineteen. He fled to France on the final 
defeat of the Stewarts at Culloden, and served under LordOgilvy, 
until the passing of tlie Act of Indemnity in 1756 allowed him 
to return to Scotland. He married Catherine, daughter of Mr. 
Ogilvy, minister of Tannadice, and, down to his last breath, 
when quaffing the goblet of wine or ale, indulged in the rather 
equivocal toast of drinking "To the King o'er the water!" 
Keithock being greatly mortgaged at the time of John's succes- 
sion, it was sold in 1790 (two years after his death); and, 
although the family has passed from the district of Brechin, 
numerous descendants survive in America and in various parts 
of Great Britain. 1 

Though Little Pert was one of the earliest acquired of the 
Lindsay properties in Angus, little of any importance is known 
concerning it beyond the fact that it was gifted by Sir Alex- 
ander Lindsay to the Abbey of Cupar so early as 1308. 2 It is 
said to have been held in later times by the Erskines of Dun, 
one of whom (the Superintendent, it is believed) erected the 
Upper North Water Bridge at his own expense. 3 An almost 
effaced sculpture of the Erskine arms is yet visible upon it ; 
and it is worthy of remark that when the Covenanters were 
being conveyed to their prison at Dunnottar, they were placed 

David Edgar of Keythick, husband to Elizabeth Guthrie, had a son baptised, named 
Hendrie. Witnesses, Hendrie Maull of Kellie, Hendrie Graham of Menorgan, Hcn- 
drie Guthrie." The entry in the Keithock Family Bible, now in the possession of 
Miss Watson (having a fuller entry, but counting by a different style), is : " Henry 
Edgar was born on Friday the 8th, and christened on Monday the llth Aprile 1698. 
His godfathers," etc. See also Scott. House Edgar, p. 26, and infra, APPENDIX 
No. XIII. 

1 Both author and editor are indebted for much of this information to Miss Watson, 
Pitt Street, Edinburgh (daughter of the late Bishop Watson of Dnnkeld, and great- 
granddaughter of Alexander Edgar of Keithock). See Scott. House of Edgar, 
passim. 2 Lives, i. p. 42. 

3 James Mill, author of the History of British India, etc., was born on the 6th 
of April 1773, in a cottage which stood a short distance south of the Forfar end of 
the North Water Bridge. He died at London on the 23d of June 1836, and was 
buried in Kensington Cemetery. 



340 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

for the night in the middle of this bridge, which was guarded 
at both ends by the soldiers, to prevent their escaping. 1 

These estates, so far as the writer is aware, constitute the 
sum of the detached Lindsay properties in the eastern parts of 
Angus those of Woodwrae, Balgavies, Markhouse, and Barn- 
yards, having been already noticed. 2 The first of those parts 
that lie on the north-west of the shire are the lands of 



cf) antj 

The first designed Lindsay of these places was James, son 
of the first Lindsay of Little Goull, one of whose descendants, 
Robert, succeeded the eldest brother of his grandfather in 
Barnyards on 19th September 1692. The Lindsays continued 
in Glenquiech till about the middle of last century, and failed 
in the Rev. David Lindsay, Episcopal minister of St. Andrews. 
They were all staunch Jacobites, and the last landed proprietors 
of their name in Angus. Robert, who was served heir to his 
father in 1 664, 3 "expected to the day of his death the happy hour 
to arrive when the Prince should ascend his father's throne, and 
gave himself much uneasiness about matters of Court etiquette, 
fearing lest, during the interval which had elapsed, his manners 
might have become rusty, and he should not cut a good figure 
when presented to his Sovereign after the restoration ! " When 
he died, his son insisted on his being buried openly with the 
proscribed Episcopal service, and when the timorous clergyman 
declined to officiate, the young man said, " Fear nothing, I am 
resolved it shall be so ; I will stand over you with my drawn 
sword, and we shall see who dare molest you ! " This youth 
was the father of the venerable clergyman of St. Andrews, 
whose reverential appearance struck Dr. Johnson so forcibly 
when in Scotland, that he stopped and inquired of a person 
who he was " Only a poor Episcopal clergyman," replied his 

i Wodrow, Hist. iv. p. 323. 2 Ut sup. pp. 208 sq. 

3 Inquis. Gen. No. 4783. In May 1876 a stoneware jar or bottle full of coins, 
belonging to the reigns of Charles n. and William III., was discovered at Glenquiech. 
Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot. xi. p. 550, 



LINDSAYS OF GLENQUTECH AND MEMUS. 341 

(tor the moment) oblivious cicerone. " Sir ! " replied Johnson, 
" I honour him ! " 1 

The predecessors of the Lindsays in Glenquiech and 
Memus 2 were the Stuarts, Earls of Buchan, 3 who acquired 
most of their Forfarshire lands, and the Sheriffship of that 
county, by marriage with the heiress of Ogilvy of Auchter- 
house, about 1491 a circumstance which doubtless had given 
rise to the popular notion of this locality being the scene of the 
tragedy commemorated in the ballad of " Sir James the Eose." 
Here, as at Auchterhouse, an old thorn-tree was long pointed 
out as the spot where the " furious Grahame " and the " brave 
Eose " fell in deadly combat, and where the " fair Matilda," with 

" The sword, yet warm from his left side, 

With frantic hand she drew : 
' I come, Sir James the Eose,' she cried, 
' I come to follow you ]'"* 



This property, which lies in the parish of Tannadice, 5 was 
also owned by Lindsays at an early date. In ancient docu- 
ments it is called " Murtletyre," " Murlettre," and " Murethlyn." 
According to the Great Seal Eegister, Sir John Lindsay of 
Thuirstown acquired this property from John Wallays of Eick- 
arton in the Mearns, in the year 1329. It was held under 
the superiority of the Crown, and Lindsay's charters being 

1 Lives, ii. p. 282. 

2 These properties lie in the parish of Tannadice. It was anciently a thanedom, 
and John de Logy and his heirs had a gift of the reversion of it and Glamis in 1363, 
for the reddendo of a red falcon for the first, and a sparrow-hawk for the second, to 
be delivered yearly at the Feast of Pentecost. (Reg. Mag. Sigitt. lib. i. 32, No. 76.) 
Glamis was afterwards given to Sir John Lyon in dowry with his wife, Princess Jane, 
daughter of Robert II., Mar. 8, 1371-2. Tannadice fell to the same family at a sub- 
sequent date. On the sculptured stones at Glamis, see Stuart, Sculp. Stones Scot. 
i. pp. 25-6, and plates ; Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot. ii. pp. 247-8 ; Jervise, Epit. i. pp. 180 sq. 

Inquis. Spec. Forfar. No. 106, Apr. 21, A.D. 1619. 

4 Glenquiech and part of Memus are now the property of J. A. Sinclair Maclagau, 
Esq., while the remainder of the estate of Memus belongs to John Ogilvy, Esq. of 
Inshewan. 

6 In a bounding charter of the Fern property (1535), among the Caraldstone 
papers, the hill of St. Arnold's Seat, in this parish, is named "St. Eiinan's 
Seit" (St. Adamnan). 



342 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

among those that were destroyed by the burning of the 
monastery of Fail, he had these renewed according to the fol- 
lowing finding of the Assize: "At a sheriffs-court of the 
King's tenants of Forfarshire, held at Perth on the 21st July, 
in the thirty-first of David n. (1360), it was found by an assise 
that the writs which Sir John Lindsay, Knight, had of the lands 
of Murethlyn, in the sheriffdom of Forfar, were totally burned 
in the sudden fire of the monastery of Fale : and that the said 
Sir John held these lands of the King in capite for the service 
of one bowman in the King's army, and three suits yearly at the 
Court of the Sheriff of Forfar : and that, in that finding, the 
King renewed his charters." 1 

Murthill was resigned by Sir John Lindsay in 1370, 2 when 
he was succeeded by John Wallays of Eickarton, who held it 
for only a few years. It then passed into the hands of Mal- 
colme de Eamsay of Auchterhouse, who gave charters of " Mor- 
thyll " and the tenement of Kinalty to Hew Lyell in the time 
of Eobert n., 3 and in this family Murthill continued till at least 
Guynd's time, about 1682. 4 



in the immediate neighbourhood, was also Lindsay property 
from an early date down to 1629, when it was sold by George, 
Earl of Crawford, to John Eamsay of Balnabreich, near Cares- 
ton. 5 The castle stood upon the top of a romantic rock that 
overhangs the Esk, on the north side of the river, and one of 
the proprietors is said to have married a daughter of Deuchar 
of that Ilk. Part of the castle forms the walls of the cottages 
which now occupy its place. These are about three feet thick, 
the door and window lintels are of old hewn ashlar, and one of 
them bears the date 1686. A chapel is also said to have been 
here in old times ; and a fountain, at a little distance, is known 

1 Bibl. Hurl. 4628, MSS. Brit. Mus. 

2 Robertson, Index, p. 91. 267. 3 Ibid. pp. 53. 30 ; 118. 17. 
4 Spot. Misc. i. 325. * Crawford Case, p. 91. 



LINDSAYS OF SHIELHILL. 343 

by the name of St. Colm, to whom the chapel may have been 
inscribed. The estate of Shielhill is now held in liferent by 
Miss Sophia Georgianna Lyell, daughter of the late Charles 
Lyell, Esq. of Kinnordy. 

In exact correspondence with the old rhythmical saying, 
and a little north-west of Shielhill, 

" The Waters o' Prosen, Esk, an' Carity, 
Meet at the birken bush o' Inverquharity," * 

rolling their united waters to the ocean, through a rugged and 
romantic channel, fringed on all sides by clustering and umbra- 
geous trees of various kinds and sizes. The bridge of Shielhill 
(dated 1769-1770) is famous as the place where the celebrated 
Scottish lexicographer, the late Dr. Jamieson (whose wife was 
a daughter of Mr. Watson of Shielhill), laid the scene of his 
admirable ballad of the " Water Kelpie," in which he thus takes 
advantage of the story of Kelpie bringing the stones to build 
the bridge, and also lays hold of the bold sculpture of the head 
of a Gorgon, which forms the base of a sun-dial : 

" Yon bonny brig quhan folk walcl big, 

To gar my stream look braw ; 
A sair-toil'd wicht was I benicht ; 

I did mair than them aw. 
An' weel thai kent quhat help I lent, 

For thai yon image fram't, 
A boon the pond, whilk I defend ; 

An' it thai kelpie nam't." 

JEnbetqufjarttg, 

which adjoins the lands of Shielhill, was anciently under the 
superiority of the Earls of Angus ; and Margaret, Countess of 
Angus, related by marriage to Sir Alexander Lindsay of 
Glenesk, gave him charters on Inverquharity in the reign 
of David n.; 2 and about 1390, the first Earl of Crawford 
resigned the Newton in favour of a John Dolas. 3 Inver- 

1 Erroneously printed Inverarily in Chatnbers's Popular Rhymes. 

2 Robertson, Index, p. 65. 14. :( Ibid. p. 148. 29. 



344 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

quharity proper, however, seems to have been alienated from the 
Lindsays to a John Allardis sometime before 1405 ; for in that 
year Allardis resigned the lands in favour of Sir Walter Ogilvy 
of Carcary, 1 who was then Lord High Treasurer of the king- 
dom. On the 3d of June 1420, Sir Walter conveyed the lands 
to his brother Sir John, who, in consequence, became founder 
of the house of Inverquharity , but from the respective seniority 
of Walter of Lintrathen (founder of the house of Airlie), and 
that of this Sir John being doubtful, 2 both of these families, with 
some degree of plausibility, can lay claim to the chieftainship 
of their clan. The real progenitor of the Ogilvys of Airlie and 
Inverquharity was Gilbert, younger son of Gilibrede, Earl of 
Angus, who obtained charters from William the Lion "ter- 
rarum de Pourin, Ogilvin, et Kyneithin." He assumed his 
surname from the lands of Ogilvy, in the parish of Glamis, and 
is witness to a charter of donation by his brother Gilchrist, 
Earl of Angus, of the church of Monyfode (Monifieth) to the 
Abbey of Arbroath, 1207. 3 The traditionary account of the 
origin of the Ogilvys is this : Earl Gilchrist was married to a 
sister of William the Lion, by whom he had three sons. Their 
mother's fidelity had long been suspected, and on returning 
home from the chase one day, and finding her with her para- 
mour, they raised their daggers, and despatched them both on 
the spot. On learning the circumstance, the King declared 
vengeance against all the Gilchrists, and seized their lands. 
They fled to the forests for safety, and remained among them 
several years. One day his Majesty was out hunting, and 
getting detached from his party, was set upon by banditti. 
The proscribed Gilchrists, who were lurking near by, ran to 
his rescue, and on learning their name he restored them to 

1 Robertson, Index, p. 143. 91. 

2 Lives, i. p. 133. Sir Walter Ogilvy acquired Lintrathen by marriage with 
Isabella, daughter and heiress of Sir Allan Durward. (Douglas, Peerage, pp. 49, 288. ) 
He married, secondly, the heiress of Sir John Glen of Inchmartin, and thus came by 
that property. (Spald. Club Miscell. iv.) He died in 1440 ; but during his lifetime 
(1426) the patronage of the church of Lunderthin (Lintrathen) belonged to the Earls 
of Crawford.- (Crawford, Case, p. 43.) Reg. Vet.de Aberbrothoc, p. 29. 



OGILVYS OF INVERQUHAK1TY. 345 

their old possessions, and added that of the Glen of Ogilvy 
in Glamis, where he had been beset and rescued, but on 
the reservation of their assuming any other name than that 
of Gilchrist (though, in truth, Gilchrist never was the surname 
of the Earls of Angus). In honour of the place where they 
saved their monarch's life, they took the name of OGILVY, 
which has been so long and so worthily borne by their de- 
scendants. 

The third baron of Inverquharity, as before mentioned, was 
appointed Justiciary of the Abbey of Arbroath in the room 
of Earl Beardie, and being wounded at the battle of Arbroath, 
was taken prisoner to Finhaven, where he is said to have been 
smothered by his sister, the Countess of Crawford. His brother 
Thomas sided with the Lindsays on that occasion, and in con- 
sequence had a gift from " Earl Beardie " of Clova, Wateresk, 
and Cortachy. The eighth baron was created a baronet of 
Nova Scotia, 29th September 1626, and as holding this title 
Sir John, the present Baronet, is ninth in the succession. 

But although the title and family have descended in a long 
uninterrupted line, their ancient patrimony was wholly alien- 
ated many years ago by the grandfather of the present Baronet, 
who had succeeded to Baldovan through his wife, Charlotte 
Tulliedelph ; and the castle, which is yet one of the finest and 
most entire baronial buildings in the shire, stands 

" now forhow't, 
And left the howlat's prey." 

It is in much the same style of architecture as Auchenleck, 
and perhaps belongs to the fifteenth century. Its strong ashlar 
masonry and heavily grated narrow windows convey the idea 
of a calm and passive resistance, while there is a noticeable 
absence of those deeply splayed shot-holes which are so gener- 
ally found to cover and defend the approaches to the chief 
entrance of such castles. The heavy door of grated iron, which 
is similar to that of Invermark, is in fine preservation ; and, 
whatever difficulty may arise regarding the age of the building, 



346 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

the time of the erection of the gate is satisfactorily accounted 
for by the following royal " Licence." 1 It runs thus : " EEX 
Licence be the King to Al. Ogilvy of Inercarity to fortifie his 
house & put ane Iron yet therin. JAMES be the grace of God 
Kinge of Scottis To all and sindry oure liegies & subdits 
to qwhais knawlage thir oure Llez (letters) sail cum gretinge 
Wit yhe vs to haue gevin ande grauntit full fredome facultez 
and spele licence to our loued familiare sqwier Alex of Ogilby 
of Innerquharady for to fortifie his house and to strenth it with 
ane Irne yhet Quharfor we straitly bid and commaunds that 
naman take on hande to make him impediment stoppinge na 
distroublace in the makinge raising hynginge and vpsettinge 
of the saide yhet in his said house vndir all payne and charge 
at eftir may folow Gevin vndir oure signet at Streviline the 
xxv day of September ande of oure Eegne the sevint yhere." 2 



, or 

The earliest proprietor of Balinscho of whom we have any 
record was Scrymzeour, a bailie of Dundee, and one of the 
Dudhope family, who owned both Balinscho and Glasswell 
during the sixteenth century. He was either father or brother 
of Henry Scrymzeour, the grammarian and professor at Geneva, 
who died about 1572. 4 

It is probable that the Ogilvys succeeded Scrymzeour, as 
about 1595, by way of revenge, perhaps, for Inverquharity's 
slaughter of Lindsay of Blairiefeddan, Sir John Lindsay of 

1 For the use of this curious document the author was obliged to the courtesy of 
the present Baronet. 

2 September 25, 1444, or 1467, the seventh year respectively of the reigns of 
James II. and in., during which Alexander Ogilvy, second Baron of Inverquharity, 
survived. See APPENDIX No. XIV., and supra, p. 93. 

3 The following list of variations is given :" Balenscho, Balensho, Balenshoe, 
Balinscho, Balinsho, Balinshoe, Ballinscho, Ballinsho, Ballinshoe, Benshie." 

4 His sister Margaret married John Young, father of Sir Peter Young of Easter 
Seatoun, the joint tutor with Buchanan of James vi. Another sister, Isabella, 
married Richard Melville of Baldovie, and was the mother of Master James Melville. 
(Papers on the Young Family, collected by the late P. Chalmers, Esq. of Aldbar.) 
Thomas Scrymgeour of Wester Ballinschoe was served heir to his uncle, a burgess of 
Dundee, in 1647. (Inquis. Gen. No. 3358 ; Nisbet, Heraldry, i. p. 283.) 



LINDSAYS OF BALINSCHO. 347 

Woodwrae is said to have killed Ogilvy of Baliuscho, and thus 
forcibly possessed himself of the lands. 1 So far as known, this 
circumstance is only recorded in the family muniments of 
Crawford, there being no mention of it among the criminal 
trials, or in any private diary of the period, a fact, however, 
which is not much to be wondered at, since so very few of 
these cases have come down to us. 

Sir John Lindsay was a son of the tenth Earl of Crawford, 
and, before acquiring Balinscho, was designed indifferently of 
Woodwrae, in the parish of Aberlemno, and of Woodhead, 
near Balinscho. 2 He had, perhaps, been twice married, as, 
according to the family genealogy, 3 his wife was Catherine, 
eldest daughter of Lord Menmuir ; and, according to a second 
authority, she was Margaret Keith, daughter of Lord Altrie, 4 
to whom the sculpture of the Keith arms, and the remaining 
initial "M" on the unbroken side of the stone now built into 
the dike near Baliuscho Castle, may refer. 

Sir John had three sons, all of whom, with their chief, the 
Earl of Crawford, Lord Spynie, and other clansmen, left their 
native country in the hope of retrieving their decayed fortunes, 
and joined the cause of Gustavus Adolphus. The eldest son 
of Balinscho was dangerously wounded at the siege of Stral- 
sund, and ultimately rose to the rank of colonel ; being with 
Tilly at the storming of Brandenburg, he was mortally 
wounded there, and died at the early age of twenty-eight. 
The second son, who was also a colonel, fell in Bavaria soon 
after. The third, and youngest, was a youth of great bravery, 
and while an ensign, and a mere boy, " lost a great part of his 
shoulder-blade by a cannon bullet," in covering the retreat of 
Gustavus from Wolgast, in Pomerania, in 1628: he was after- 
wards captain in Gustavus's Life Eegiment rose to the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel was wounded and left for dead on the 



i Lives, i. p. 314. 2 Inquis. Spec. Forfar. No. 172, A.D. 1628. 

3 Crawford Case, p. 125. 

* SpaUling Club. Mincell. iv. p. Ixxvi ; Douglas, Peerage, \. p. 380. 



348 LAND OP THE LINDSAYS. 

field of Liitzen in 1632, but recovering, died at Hamburg 
seven years afterwards, leaving his property to his friends 
and kinsmen, and "a legacy of four hundred rix-dollars for 
his funeral." 1 

Such were the brave brothers of Balinscho. Like the 
castles of their more powerful ancestors in other parts of the 
country, theirs, too, is a roofless ruin. A circular tower, and 
other buildings, stood at the north-east corner down to a late 
date; and the ruins of the more modern house, which was 
built by Fletcher (the reputed successor of the Lindsays), 
stands near by. Many fine old trees surround the Lindsay 
castle ; and the orchard, which occupies an acre and a half on 
the south side, still enclosed, contains, among many other fruit- 
trees, two of the largest walnuts that are perhaps to be found 
in the kingdom. At four feet from the ground the most 
easterly measures fifteen feet four inches in girth, and the 
other, to the west, measures only a foot less, but has greater 
wealth of foliage, which extends eighty feet from tip to tip of 
the branches, east and west. 

Fletcher, who married the youngest daughter of young 
Ogilvy of Airlie, fell at Inverlochy during the civil wars, and 
was perhaps the first of his name in Balinscho. Though not 
of old standing in Scotland, 2 the Fletchers were among the 
most ancient and reputable of the English barons, those of 
Salton and Inverpeffer (of whom Balinscho was a younger 
brother), 3 being direct descendants of Sir Bernard Fletcher of 
the county of York, where the family subsisted for many ages. 
Sir George Fletcher and his brother James held Restennet, and 
many other lands throughout Forfarshire, about and subsequent 
to the middle of the seventeenth century, and were patrons of 
the church of Forfar, which, together with the teinds, were 

1 Lives, ii. pp. 52-56. 

2 Inquis. Spec. Forfar. No. 370, September 7, 1658 Robert Fletcher of Balin- 
shoe has retours as heir of Robert Fletcher of Balinshoe. Again, No. 388, May 1, 
1662, Robert Fletcher of Balinshoe is retoured as heir to his father Robert perhaps 
three generations of Roberts. 3 Douglas, Baronaye, p. 281 . 



PROPRIETORS OF BALINSCHO. 349 

purchased from them by the magistrates of that burgh about 
the year 1669. 1 They were both of the Balinscho family, and 
it was the penultimate Fletcher of Balinscho who added the 
estate of Lindertis to his original patrimony, and rose to the 
rank of major in the Indian army. He was succeeded by his 
brother, who, in conjunction with the late Lord Panmure, 
enacted those youthful vagaries for which he is so well known 
in the district, and remembered as " the daft laird." His death 
was a remarkable one. Foolishly plunging himself into debt, 
he was immured in the jail at Liverpool, and while signing 
over all claim to his landed property, he is said to have thanked 
God that he was no longer a proprietor ! It is said that he 
died in prison, and never shaved his beard from the time he 
entered it. The estates were afterwards sold to Wedderburn, 
of the family of Balindean, who parted with them in the course 
of two or three years to Gilbert Laing-Meason, brother of 
Malcolm Laing, the historian of Scotland. The Balinscho 
portion now belongs to the Earl of Strathmore, and the Lin- 
dertis part to Sir Thomas Munro, son of the late eminent 
Governor of Madras. 

Balinscho was anciently an independent ecclesiastical 
district. The church or chapel, which was dedicated to St. 
Ninian, stood on the west side of the turnpike road, and is still 
marked by the old family burial enclosure of the Fletchers. 
This, too, had perhaps been the last resting-place of the Lind- 
says of Balinscho ; but no monument, of either them, their 
predecessors, or successors, ornaments the walls. The " Stannin' 
Stane o' Benshie," which stood for unknown ages, and was the 
theme of inquiry and speculation to local antiquarians, as well 
as the dread of the credulous, was demolished by gunpowder 
about half-a-century ago, and the spot is now covered by 
luxuriant crops of corn. This rude monument of antiquity 
is supposed to have been about twenty tons in weight ; and at 
a considerable depth below it, a large clay urn, measuring 

i Old Stat. Acct. vi. p. 613. 



350 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

about three feet in height, and of corresponding circumference, 
was found containing a quantity of human bones and ashes. 
Like its rude protector, however, the urn was broken to pieces ; 
and, beyond the mere fact of its discovery, nothing authentic, 
as to either the style of its manufacture, or the precise nature 
or state of its contents, is preserved. 



The earliest proprietary notice of this picturesque and inter- 
esting glen (which the discoveries of the late ingenious Messrs. 
Don and Gardner have rendered famous for botanical investiga- 
tion) occurs during the reign of Bruce, who gave charters of 
Clova and other lands to his nephew Donald, the twelfth Earl 
of Mar, in the year 1327. 1 Mar gave a John Johnston an 
annual out of these lands soon after, and they continued in the 
hands of the Mar family till Countess Isabella (the wife of the 
Wolf of Badenoch) resigned them in favour of Sir David 
Lindsay of Glenesk, the newly-created Earl of Crawford, in the 
year 1398. 2 In 1445-46, when Thomas Ogilvy, a younger 
brother of the Laird of Inverquharity, joined the Lindsays 
against his own clan at the battle of Arbroath, " Earl Beardie " 
gave Clova over to him, reserving the superiority to his own 
family. It continued in this way till at least the years 1513-14; 
for at that date the seventh Earl of Crawford was infeft in the 
barony of Clova, as heir to his nephew, the previous Earl, 3 and 
George, Lord Spynie, succeeded his father in the half of the 
same lands and barony so late as 1646. 4 

The conduct of young Inverquharity at Arbroath was, as 
might be expected, the signal for family hostility and revenge. 
A series of desperate feuds was speedily commenced betwixt 
the houses of Clova and Inverquharity, and the former being 
backed by the Lindsays, was always successful ; but, an 

1 Douglas, Peerage, ii. p. 200. 2 Robertson, Index, p. 142. 84. 

3 Dukedom of Montrose Case, p. 222. 4 Inquis. Spec. Forfarshire, No. 290. 



FEUD BETWEEN CLOVA AND INVERQUHARITY. 351 

arrangement being made in the time of the fourth baron of 
Inverquharity, these hostilities were brought to an end. This 
agreement was made in the true spirit of feudalism, by written 
indenture " at the Water-side of Prossyn," on the 26th of 
March 1524, in presence of various kinsmen and other" wit- 
nesses, whereby the lairds of Inverquharity and Clova, under 
heavy pains and penalties, " remit the rancour of their hearts 
to others (each other), and shall live in concord and perfite 
charity, and sic-like efter the said sentence be given, as guid 
Christian men and tender friends should do, under the pain of 
eternal damnation of their souls, because that is the precept 
et law of God." l In strict fulfilment of the conditions of the 
" Indenture," the laird of Clova, now weaned over to the side of 
his kinsmen, conspired against the noble-hearted Edzell, on 
his advancement to the peerage, when the Earldom was can- 
celled in the person of the "Wicked Master," joined the 
Ogilvys in besieging the Castle of Finhaven, harried Craw- 
ford's lands, and otherwise tried to prevent his succession a 
proceeding which, as already seen, was only prohibited by the 
peremptory mandate of royalty. 

The band had thus the desired effect, and the descendants 
of Thomas Ogilvy, the family traitor of 1445, continued lords 
of Clova and Cortachy till towards the close of the sixteenth 
century, when the former was given to Sir David, third son of 
the first Earl of Airly, who like his older brother that fell at 
Inverlochy, bore a prominent part in the great civil commo- 
tions of his time. He erected a mansion at the Milton of 
Clova, several of the hewn stones of which were built into 
the walls of adjoining cottages, and the initials and date 
" D 1684 I G '," on one of the stones referred to him 
and his wife Jean Guthrie. 

The boundary of the old garden is yet traceable, but the 
foundations of the house are completely erased. It is not so, 
however, with those of the previous Castle or Peel, for it is still 

1 Lives, i. pp. 447 sq., where the Indenture is printed nearly iu full. 



352 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

a prominent object on the west side of Benread (a comparatively 
smooth or tame mountain, as the name implies), north of the 
Milton. The Peel commands an extensive and delightful view of 
the Glen, and consists of a fragment about twenty feet in height, 
with walls fully four feet thick. It is traditionally attributed 
to the time of the Lindsays, and the occupant, says the same 
authority, having rendered himself obnoxious to his brother 
barons, a party marched against him under night and set his 
castle on fire. Amidst the confusion and smoke attendant on 
the burning, the luckless baron fled to the adjoining mountain 
and took shelter, first under a large piece of rock, still called the 
" Laird's Stane," and afterwards in the Hole of Weems, a well- 
known cave in the face of a hill near Braedownie. Others 
ascribe the destruction of the Peel to the soldiers of Cromwell 
and Montrose ; but perhaps the real cause and time were in 
1591, when, " vnder silence of night," five hundred " brokin 
men and sornaris houndit oute be the Erll of Ergyle and his 
freindis," entered Glen Clova in September, " invadit the in- 
habitants, and murthourit " and slew " three or foure innocent 
men and women and reft and took away ane grit pray of guidis." 1 
It is also worthy of note, that when Charles II. duped his keepers 
at Perth in 1650, he rode to Clova, in the hope of meeting 
Lord Ogilvy and some of his other friends ; but " finding very 
few to attend upon him, and very bad entertainment," he 
returned to his captivity on the following day. 2 This circum- 
tance is known in history as " The Start," but whether the King 
passed the night in the mansion of David Ogilvy at Milton, or 
where, is now unknown. 

Clova, honoured by Her Majesty and the Prince Consort 
with a visit in 1861, only a short time before the lamented 
death of his Eoyal Highness, was long an independent 
parochial district, but was united to the parish of Cortachy in 
1608, on condition that the minister should receive the teinds 

1 Pitcairn, Criin. Trials, i. pp. 263-4. 

2 Row, Autobiog. of R. Blair, p. 243. 



CLOVA VISITED BY HER MAJESTY. 353 

of both, and preach on two Sundays at Cortachy, and on the 
third at Clova. From that period the parochial matters of both 
districts have been managed conjointly ; and the records, which 
begin in the year 1659, show some glimpses of the curious 
local customs of the age, such, for example, as when parties 
went to church on the first Sunday after marriage, they were 
accompanied by the inspiring strains of the Highland bagpipes; 1 
and, in 1662, there was no sermon at Cortachy because of the 
minister being in Clova, at " the executione of Margaret Adam- 
son, who was burnt there for ane witch." 2 

Clova was anciently dependent on the Abbey of Arbroath, 
and was a pendicle of Glamis, by the clergymen of which 
parish, after the Eeformation, it was occasionally served, but 
more frequently by a reader, who had fifty marks yearly, for 
his services there and at Cortachy. The teinds belonged to 
the first Marquis of Hamilton, as Commendator of the Abbey 
of Arbroath, and subsequently to the Earls of Panmure, down 
to their forfeiture in 1716 the laird of Clova being tacksman 
of the whole vicarage, which amounted to forty pounds Scots. 
Clova was erected into a parish quoad sacra in 1860, and a 
few years previously a new church was also built, which occu- 
pies, with the churchyard, a pleasant site on a knoll by the 
river-side, and the oldest of the few monuments is dated 1787. 
A chapel is said to have stood at a place called Lethnot, about 
half-way between the kirks of Cortachy and Clova ; but, be- 
yond the common tradition, that when the workmen were 
employed in building it, such part as was erected during the 
day was constantly thrown down under night by some dia- 
bolical agency, nothing whatever is known of it. The old 
church of Cortachy was of unknown age, but the style of a 
freestone ambry would point to about the end of the fifteenth 
century. The present church was built in 1828-9, by David, 
seventh Earl of Airlie, on the site of its predecessor. 

1 "The minister and elders discharge that barbarous custome, of bringing a piper 
along to the kirk with married persons." (Cortachy Par. Reg. Nov. 20, 1659.) 

2 Ibid. June 8, 1662. 

Z 



354 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Glasslet, in this district, was Lindsay property till about 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. The small estates of 
Rottal, Easter and Wester Lethnot, Gella, and Braeminzeon, 
were also in the same family, down to at least the year 1717, 
about which period, or soon thereafter, they became by pur- 
chase a part of the extensive properties of the Earl of Airlie. 
Although in the middle of the parish of Cortachy proper, these 
lands were always considered a part of Clova, and there is 
reason to believe that it was from these Lethnots, and not from 
that adjoining Edzell, that David Lindsay, who married Mar- 
garet, co-heiress of Lord Fenton of Baikie, was designed so early 
as 1458. As Lindsays of these places are accounted for in the 
family history, down to at least 1666, 1 it is probable that the 
lairds of the eighteenth century were descended of these. 
Indeed, so convinced were the descendants of the Lindsays of 
Rottal, Gella, and the Lethnots, of their being the nearest heirs 
to the Glenesk branch of the family, that steps were taken by 
some of them, on the death of Lady Mary Lindsay, to lay claim 
to the titles of the old Earls of Crawford. 2 



Cfje (SDagtle of Batfcu 

was situated in the parish of Airlie, 3 within little more than an 
hour's ride of Clova, and stood on a rising ground near the west 
end of a large moss. It was moated in old times, reached by a 
drawbridge, and part of the ruins and causeway were visible 
towards the close of. last century. 4 David Lindsay, the son of 

1 Lives, i. p. 440. 

2 Andrew Lindsay was heir to his father Alexander, in the lands and town of 
Fichell, with the teind-sheaves, and the fourth part of the town and lands of Rottal, 
with the teind-sheaves all in the barony of Cortachy. (Inq. Spec. Forf., Aug. 18, 
1657, No. 362.) 

3 The kirk of Airlie was dedicated to St. Meddan (vulg. Meaden). A spring in 
the neighbourhood, and a small hamlet, bear his name. A finely sculptured ambry, 
and a figure in mailed armour, are built into the kirk wall. See Proc. Soc. Ant. 
Scot. v. p. 346, for a paper by Mr. Jervise on the antiquities and history of Airlie, 
Baikie, etc. 

* Old Stat. Ace. xi. p. 211. 



CASTLE AND CHAPEL OF BAIKIE. 355 

Margaret Fenton, and bailiff of the Earls of Crawford for 
several years, was designed "of Lethnot and Baikie," and charged 
as an accomplice with the Earl's son and heir-apparent in the 
sacrilegious outrage on " twa monkis " belonging to the Abbey 
of Cupar. He is the last-designed Lindsay of Baikie, and it is 
likely that the estate had passed from the family in the time 
of his successor, for the third Lord Glands had charters of it 
in 1489. 1 After the execution of the unfortunate Countess of 
Strathmore for the alleged crime of witchcraft, 2 the accounts 
of the Lord High Treasurer show that a payment of forty 
pounds was made for the "reipar of the Glammys and Baky," 8 
so that it is probable, since the King lived a good deal at 
Glamis during the proscription of the Lyons, that some of his 
court may have resided at Baikie. 

The old chapel of Baikie, which was dedicated to St. John, 4 
stood in the Kirk-shade near Lindertis; and in 1362, William 
de Fenton enriched it with a gift of the adjoining lands of 
Lunros. 6 This family, whose name is only preserved in the 
district by a rising ground called " Fenton-hill," continued in 
considerable repute till about the middle of the fifteenth 
century, when they failed in co-heiresses, who were married 
respectively to David Lindsay, and to William, second son of 
David de Halket of Pitfirran. 6 



Uunkenng, 

in the adjoining parish of Eassie, is worthy of notice, mainly 
from the fact of its having been owned by Bishop David 

1 Douglas, Peerage, ii. p. 563. On the estate and families of Bakie or Baikie, 
see Warden, Angus, ii. pp. 330 sq. 

a Pitcairn (Crim. Trials, i. pp. 187* sq., 244*, 327*) gives a full account of this 
sad incident. Two daughters of Lady Glamis received from the King's bounty, and 
were probably committed to the monastery at North Berwick. Ibid. i. p. 291*. 

3 Pitcairn, Crim. Trials, i. p. 290*. 

* Inquis. Spec. Forfar., A.r>. 1695, No. 536. 

6 Reg. Mag. Sig. p. 25, No. 30. It is now called Linross. 

8 Douglas, Baronage, p. 284. 



356 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Lindsay, a son of Edzell. This celebrated prelate was first 
teacher of the Grammar School of Montrose, afterwards 
minister of Dundee, and on the translation of Bishop Lamb 
from Brechin to Galloway in 1619, was raised to that See. 
He was a man of great learning, an eloquent orator, author of 
several important works, and was translated to the See of 
Edinburgh in 1634. Bishop Lindsay was the preacher on that 
forenoon, when, on the Dean's attempting to read the new 
service in the High Church, on the 23d of July 1637, Jenny 
Geddes is said to have thrown her stool at his head, exclaim- 
ing "De'il colick ye! will ye say mass at my lug?" 1 The 
Bishop was excommunicated by the Glasgow Assembly of the 
following year, and, withdrawing into England, died sometime 
betwixt that and the year 1640, as, of that date, his son John 
was served heir to him in the estate of Dunkenny. 2 This son 
only survived till 1643, when his sisters succeeded as heirs- 
portioners: one of them, Helen, married David Carnegie, 
minister of Farnell and Dean of Brechin, the founder of the 
present family of Craigo. 3 The Lindsays were followed in 
Dunkenny, sometime before 1661, by Peter Blair; 4 and, in 
Ochterlony's day, it was possessed by John Lammie, ancestor 
of the present proprietor, one of whose name, also John 
"Lamby," was designed therefrom in 1542, 5 and a George 
Lammie in 1628-9. 6 

1 A mutilated tombstone, within the old kirk of Eassie, bears sculptures of the 
Lambie and Forbes arms, the initials and date, " D. L. : 1603 : C. F," and these words, 
"... loannes Amme qvondamde Dvnkennie qvi obiit 26 die mensis 
Septembar . . ." Bishop Lindsay was perhaps the first of his name "of Dunkeny," 
and most probably acquired the estate soon after the date on this tablet. The John 
here named may have been the last of the original stock of the Lambies of Dunkenny, 
the L'Amys now in possession being merely akin to the old family in name. 

2 Lives, i. p. 435. 

8 Ut sup. p. 202, and APPENDIX No. VII. ; Fraser, Hist. Carnegies of Southesk, 
ii. p. 438; Inq. Spec. Forfar. No. 269. 4 Acts of Part. vii. p. 95. 

6 Spald. Club Miscett. iv. p. 237. 8 Reg. Episc. Brech. ii. p. 244. 



BUTHVEN, QUEICH, AND ALYTH. 357 



3&utf)&ett, uet'cfj, anfo 
are conterminous districts; the first lies in Angus, and the 
others in Perthshire. They were among the earliest acquired 
of the northern estates of the Crawford family, Alexander de 
Lindsay having, so early as the time of David n., 1 received a 
grant of the lands of Eothven, and Balwyndoloch from Thomas, 
Earl of Mar. Sir Alexander Lindsay of Glenesk succeeded 
to these in 1369, 2 and they continued in the Crawford family 
until about 1510, when Alexander Crichton, of the noble house 
of Dumfries, became proprietor by purchase. 

It is commonly said that the parish of Euthven originally 
formed a portion of Alyth, and was erected into a separate cure 
by an Earl of Crawford for the accommodation of his vassals, 
several of them having been killed in a conflict with the Eollos 
of Ballach, while on their way to the church of Alyth. 3 So far, 
however, from this being the fact, there was a kirk at Euthven 
at least a century and a half before the Lindsays had anything 
to do with the district; for so early as the year 1180, Eobert 
de Lundres, natural son of William the Lion, gave the patron- 
age and tithes of the church of Euthven to the monastery of 
Arbroath. 4 All subsequent history of the church is lost till 
the sixteenth century, when we find Walter Lindsay, David 
Cumyng, and Thomas Maxwell the vicars. 5 The church was 
perhaps dedicated to St. Monan, as a field near the kirk bears 
the name of Symonades : there a fair was long held, and so 
called. Some years ago a weem was discovered at Euthven, and 
on one of the roof-stones there were a number of cup-markings, 
of which some are plain and some surrounded with circles. 
These markings are a puzzle to the archaeologist, and in this 
case from their position must be older than the weem. 6 

* Robertson, Index, p. 44. 54 ; Reg. Mag. Sig. p. 30, no. 57. 
2 Douglas, Peerage, i. p. 374. 3 New Stat. Acct., Forfar. p. 419. 

4 Reg. Nig. de Aberbrothoc, p. 41, A.D. 1125. 
Scott, Fasti, vi. p. 758. 

8 See Prof. J. Y. Simpson, Ancient Sculplurings, in Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot. vi. 
Appendix. 



358 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

The kirk of Alyth was inscribed to St. Moloch, and its 
chapel was dedicated to St. Ninian. 1 

The Lindsays had two castles in this locality one at Corb, 
on the north-west of the Forest of Alyth, and another at 
Queich, near the kirk of Euthven. Ruins of both are still 
visible, and the site of the latter is, perhaps, the most 
romantic and picturesque of the many old Lindsay castles in 
the district. It stands on a rocky delta, formed by the river 
Isla and the Burn of Alyth, on the south side of that parish. 
The rock is quite perpendicular, from forty to fifty feet high, 
and in old times, when surrounded by vast tracts of forest and 
almost secluded from view, had been an appropriate scene for 
enacting those dark tragedies that tradition ascribes to it. 
The only part remaining is a portion of the east wall, which 
stands on the verge of the precipice. It is fully five feet thick, 
and covered with ivy ; it is little more than thirty feet high, and 
about the same length. The rest of the building has been 
demolished and carried away for rearing the adjoining farm- 
house and offices, throughout the whole of which carved door 
and window lintels are profusely scattered. It is said that a 
subterraneous passage communicated between the castle of 
Queich and the celebrated fort of Barryhill, which is about two 
miles to the northward, and traditionally said to have been the 
prison of Guinevra, the faithless Queen of Prince Arthur. 2 

The first mention of the castle of Inverqueich occurs in 
Edward the First's time, it being there that he rested on the 
2d of July, when on his subjugating expedition in 1296. It is 
known in that Prince's itinerary as " Entrekoyt chastel," 3 and 
had then been entire, though it was a ruin when Eobert n. 
granted it to his nephew James de Lindsay in 1374. 4 At the 

1 New Stat. Acct. Perthsh. p. 1119. The feasts of these saints are St. Madoc, 
Jan. 31 ; St. Monan, Mar. 1 ; St. Moloc, June 25 ; and St. Ninian, Sept. 16. See 
Bishop Forbes, Kalendars of Scott. Saints, pass. 

2 This ancient fortress is described in Old Stat. Acct. i. p. 508, and vi. p. 405 n.; 
and in Chalmers, Caledonia, i. pp. 90-91; more recently in Proc. Soc. Ant. Kcot. 
ii. pp. 75 sq. 3 Ragman Rolls, p. 178. 

* Reg. Mag. Sig. pp. 137, no. 55 ; 141, no. 75 ; 158, no. 24. 



INVERQUEICH AND CORE. 359 

latter date it is called " the king's castle of Inu'cuyth," and was 
held, till then, by John de Welhame (Volume ?) and John de 
Balcasky ; and the Forest of Alyth being a royal sporting field 
in old times, the castles of Inverqueich and Corb had probably 
been used as hunting seats by the Scottish kings. A person 
of the surname of Menzies (perhaps a descendant of the old 
family of Durrisdeer in Nithsdale) was Eoyal Forester in the 
first year of David the Second's reign ; a and, during the subse- 
quent reign of Eobert, John de Eoos held the office of Justiciary 
of the Forests of Alyth and Cluny. 2 

It was about this time that the Forest, and indeed almost 
all the parish of Alyth, with the exception of the property of 
Bamff (which was granted by Alexander II, in 1232, to Nessus 
de Eamsay his physician, 3 and ancestor of the present Baronet), 
fell to the Lindsays, and from the rents of the Forest, and other 
parts adjoining, the dowager Countesses of Crawford received 
part of their terce, as verified by a process raised for the same 
by Countess Margaret against her own sons. 4 Little is known 
regarding either the history or traditions of the castle of Corb, 
but those of Inverqueich are strangely interwoven with the 
history of the Crawfords, especially as the Master, or heir- 
apparent to the Earldom, seems to have received it for his 
residence. It was so in the time of the Duke of Montrose, 
whose eldest son long possessed it. This was the desperate 
person who renewed the family feuds with the house of Glamis, 
took part against his father in his struggle for James ill., 
and also became the leader of a band of lawless followers, 
who ravaged the lands alike of friends and foes. In one of 
these rambles he came in contact with his younger brother 
John, who was as unprincipled as himself, and joining in 



1 Robertson, Index, p. 39. 51. 

2 Edward stopped several days in Cluny Castle, and went from thence to In- 
verqueich. (Ragman Rolls, p. 134.) Cluny was the birthplace of the Admirable 
Crichton. It is now the property of the Earl of Airlie, and is still a picturesque 
ruin on an island in the loch ; it has been uninhabited since the end of last century. 

* Douglas, Baronage, p. 551. * Ada Dom. Condi. Mar. 1, 1439. 



360 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

single combat, the younger fatally stabbed the elder. He was 
removed to the castle of Inverqueich, and is said to have died 
there from his wounds ; or, as more popularly believed, and 
indeed recorded at the period, " he was smored in his bed 
at Innerquich, and, as was thought, not without knowledge of 
his wife." 1 

This painful occurrence, not unparalleled in the family annals, 
took place in the autumn of 1489, 2 and the widowed lady was 
Janet Gordon, of the Huntly family, granddaughter of James I. 
Soon after the death of her husband, she married Patrick Gray, 
son and heir-apparent of the lord of that name, who had suc- 
ceeded to the influential offices of Sheriff of Angus and Keeper 
of Broughty Castle, of which the Duke of Montrose was 
deprived by the parliament of James IV., for his services 
to the late King at Sauchieburn. Although Janet Gordon 
had no family by Lord Lindsay, she tried to assert her right to 
the castle of Inverqueich, and persisted in collecting the 
" fermes, proffitis, and dewities," of several lands in the vicinity, 
notwithstanding that the Duke had resigned them by charter 
to Adam Crichtoun of Kippendavie. 3 These circumstances 
gave rise to much discussion, and during the time of the 
dispute, the house of Inverqueich was ordered to be " frely 
deliverit in keping to Johne Erskin of Dovne," who held it for 
some time on behalf of the Crown. 4 

But, according to tradition, the murder of Lord Lindsay 
was not altogether unavenged. Though differing in the mode 
of telling, the story of the locality is linked with the fate and 
mysterious conduct of the so-called Countess Janet, and the 
sufferings of her penitent spirit ; for, although she had two 
other husbands, and survived both, her soul sought the hoary 
mansion of Inverqueich, where her nightly lamentations and 
sorrowful wailings prevailed for ages. Here the shadowy forms 
of her and her lord, perched on the narrow cliff between the 

i Lives, i. p. 171 n. a Ibid. i. p. 169. 

3 Acta Dmn. Feby. 4, 1492, p. 271 : June 27, 1494, p. 341. 
* Ibid. March 9, 1491, p. 227. 



PENANCE OF LADY LINDSAY. 361 

river and the castle, met the eyes of the credulous at all hours of 
the night, and there, on bended knee, and clad in snowy weeds, 
the guilty suppliant craved forgiveness. Tired of her supplica- 
tions at Inverqueich, Lord Lindsay is said to have doomed her 
latterly to live out her penance to the end of time in the 
bosom of Craig Liach, or the Eagle's Eock, in the water of 
Ericht, in the lovely glen of Craighall, near Blairgowrie, 
where ruins still exist called Lady Lindsay's Castle. Here, 
though the unfortunate lady has a circumscribed abode, she 
is not allowed to sleep or idle away her time, being doomed to 
spin a long unbroken thread sufficiently long to reach from 
the remotest parts of her rocky habitation up to the heavens : 
and by this, when accomplished, she is to be permitted to 
mount to her place of rest, and enjoy for ever the society of 
her injured lord ! 

Such are the traditions of this singular event. But Inver- 
queich Castle was inhabited at a much later period than the 
time to which this dark story is referable, and, strangely enough, 
by a person of equal recklessness and daring perhaps of much 
less heart than the unfortunate son of Montrose. This was 
the son of the "Wicked Master," the husband of Cardinal 
Beaton's daughter, and the persecutor of his greatest bene- 
factor, Sir David of Edzell, the ninth Earl. The circumstances 
attendant on his and his father's unhappy career are already 
noticed and need not be repeated, 1 suffice it to say, that in 
his time, and caused by his extravagance and imprudence, the 
interesting properties of Euthven and Alyth passed from the 
family of Lindsay, and since then have frequently changed 
hands. The estate of Euthven now belongs to Colonel Thomas 
Wedderburn-Ogilvy, while Alyth, including Inverqueich, is the 
property of the Earl of Airlie. 

1 Ut supra, pp. 38 sq. 



362 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 



The interesting district of Meigle was acquired by the first 
Earl of Crawford, who had a charter of the whole barony on 
the resignation of William de Megill, in the time of Eobert ill., 1 
and when he founded the choirs of Our Lady of Victory and of 
St. George at Dundee, he gave an annual of twelve marks out 
of the lands of Balmyle and Aberbothrie, 2 in that barony, but 
Aberbothrie and the castle-stead of Inverqueich, together with 
certain lands in Alyth, had already been owned by James de 
Lindsay. 3 Meigle was also a part of the lordship of Crawford, 
which the scapegrace, Lord Lindsay, overran and uplifted the 
rents from in the time of his father, who was compelled to 
crave Parliament to protect him in the circumstances. The 
Council granted the Duke's prayer, and laid the turbulent 
offender under heavy pains and penalties, ordaining that he 
should restore the stolen property, and remedy the evils which 
the lands of " Megill and Eothuen " had sustained through his 
interference. 4 It is also worthy of notice, that shortly before 
the death of the Duke, he mortified certain lands to the church 
of Meigle in honour of his benefactor James ill. 6 

The earliest recorded lords of Meigle were the family 
already noticed, who assumed their surname from the land. 
They perhaps had failed in William, and it is probable that 
they acquired the lands from William the Lion ; for in his 
time Simon de Meigle gifted the advocation of the kirk, and 
an adjoining chapel, to the Prior and Canons of St. Andrews. 6 
Roger de Miggel, a descendant of Simon, along with some other 
Perthshire barons, swore fealty to Edward in 1296. 7 Michael 
de Migell, probably in the reign of Alexander in., had bestowed 
on the Abbey of Cupar the marsh of Meigle. 8 Margaret, 

1 Robertson, Index, p. 142. 83. a Thomson, History of Dundee, p. 286. 

3 Robertson, Index, pp. 120. 55 ; 121. 75 ; 192. 24. 

4 A eta Auditorum, Feby. 19, 1487. f Lives, i. p. 155. 
Lyon, History of St. Andrews, ii. p. 305. 

7 Ragman Rolls, p. 128. 8 Reg. Abb. Cupar. I pp. 343, 344. 



MEIGLE LANDS AND CHURCH. 363 

daughter of John de Rattry, of that Ilk and Craighall, was 
married to " John de Megill, of that Ilk." She and her heirs 
by him -were infeft in the lands of Logie and Meigle in virtue 
of a deed confirmed by charter under the Great Seal by 
Robert IL, dated 23d January 1383. 1 

The kirk was inscribed to St. Peter, and the chapel to 
St. Mary the Virgin. The former was probably rebuilt about 
the beginning of the seventeenth century, and, after being con- 
siderably altered and enlarged in the course of years, was 
accidentally burned down in the spring of 1869, when the 
present church took its place on the same site, but many of 
the monuments in and about the church were hopelessly 
damaged and lost. The chapel, lying to the west of Meigle, 
is now used as the burial-place of the Kinlochs of Kinloch, 
having been restored in the Romanesque style of architecture 
in 1861. Kinloch, called Aberbothrie up to the end of the 
seventeenth century, now belongs to Sir John Kinloch, Bart., 
whose father, the late Sir George Kinloch, added to it the estate 
of Meigle in 1871 by purchase from the Earl of Strathmore. 
Sir George received the baronetcy in 1873. In the Kinloch 
Chapel are laid the remains of George Kinloch of Kinloch, 
grandfather of the present Baronet, who was outlawed in 
1819, but took his seat in the first reformed Parliament as 
member for Dundee in 1832, and, dying in the following year, 
the well-known bronze statue in front of the Albert Institute, 
Dundee, was erected to his memory by public subscription in 
1872. Kirkhill (now Belmont, where the late Lord Privy Seal 
Mackenzie erected a fine mansion) was a residence of the 
Bishops of Dunkeld, of whom two Robert Nicolson, once 
parson of Meigle, and William Lindsay, second son of James 
Lindsay of Dowhill 2 are buried at the kirk. When the 
Knights Templars were in pomp, they had considerable interest 
here, the lands on which the kirk and kirkyard are situated, 
and others in the neighbourhood, being still known as Temple 

1 Douglas, Baronage, p. 275. * Lives, p. ii. 284. 



364 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

lands ; and some writers suppose that the so-called Guinevra 
monuments are those of certain Knights who died here after 
returning from the Crusades. 1 



SECTION II. 

MISCELLANEOUS LINDSAY PROPERTIES IN THE SOUTHERN 
PARTS OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Kinblethmont First Lord Spynie, his marriage and death Second Lord Spynie 
Represented by Lindsay-Carnegies of Boysack Early proprietors of Kinbleth- 
mont Inverkeillor Guthrie proprietary and ecclesiastical history Line of the 
Guthries Bishop Guthrie Forfarshire Guthries Guthrie Castle Carbuddo 
Inverarity Its lords Fotheringhams of Pourie Meathie Lour Kinnettles 
Evelick Arbroath connection Kinnell Panbride Boethins family Panmure 
House Monikie, Dowiiie, Dunfind Pitaiiiie Cross of Camus Ethiebeaton, 
Broughty Castle Brichty. 

ItinbUtfjmont 

THE founder of the Kinblethmont branch of the family of 
Lindsay (who are now the only remaining proprietors in 
Forfarshire lineally descended of the great Earls of Crawford) 
was Alexander, youngest son of the tenth Earl, by his wife 
Margaret Beaton. He inherited much of the active habits of 
his ancestors, but had more of a conciliatory disposition than 
most of them. James vi. esteemed him so much, that he chose 
him Vice-Chancellor, and, on his marriage with Princess Anne 
of Denmark, also selected him, and his relative Mr. David 
Lindsay, minister of Leith, along with Chancellor Maitland, 
to accompany him to Denmark on his matrimonial expedition. 
At this important period the royal exchequer was so 
inadequate to meet the necessary demands upon it, that the 

1 New Stat. Acct. of Alyth. These remarkable stones are figured and described 
in Chalmers, Sculptured Monuments of Angus, etc., and Stuart, Sculptured Stones 
of Scotland, vol. i. See also Jervise, Epit. ii. pp. 287 sq., and Proc. Soc. Ant. 
Scot. ii. pp. 242 sq., Warden, Angus, i. pp. 34 sq., for a full account, while Dr. 
Joseph Anderson (Scotland in Early Christian Times, pass., 2d Ser.) argues for the 
Christian interpretation of such symbols. 



KINBLETHMONT AND LORD SPYNIE. 365 

Vice-Chancellor advanced the large sum of ten thousand gold 
crowns towards defraying the expenses of the King's journey ; 
but while in Germany he became so seriously indisposed that 
he was unable to proceed farther. During the stay of the 
Court at Kroneburg, however, the King, desirous to alleviate, 
as far as possible, Lindsay's disappointment in not being able 
to accompany him the whole way, sent him the following 
familiar notification of the honour he had in store for him : 

" Sandie, 

"Quhill (till) youre goode happe furneis me sum bettir 
occasion to recompence youre honest and faithfull seruice, 
utterid be youre diligent and cairfull attendance upon me, 
speciallie at this tyme, lett this assure you, in the inviolabill 
worde of youre awin Prince and maister, that quhen Godd 
randeris me in Skotlande, I sail irreuocablie, and with consent 
of Parliament, 1 erect you the temporalitie of Murraye in a 
temporall lordshipp, with all honouris thairto apparteining : 
and lett this serue for cure of youre present disease. From the 
Castell of Croneburg, quhaire we are drinking and dryuing 
our in the auld maner. J. K." 2 

As soon as the King set foot within his palace of Holy- 
rood, he fulfilled his promise to Lindsay, gave him a grant of 
the temporalities of the See of Moray in lieu of his ten thousand 
crowns, and conferred the title of Lord Spynie on him and his 
heirs. But, with the exception of the patronage of about 
fifty livings, in various parts of Elgin, Nairn, and Inver- 
ness shires, which the Lindsays long retained, the King re-pur- 
chased the rental of these lands in 1605, and restored them to 
the Church. 3 The proprietary interest of the family in that 
district was limited in the end to the advowson of the kirk of 
New Spynie, which was bought by the proprietor of Kinbleth- 
mont from the late Duke of Gordon. 

1 Obtained accordingly. Ada Part. iii. p. 650. 

2 Li'ixs, i. p. 319. s See Inq. Spec. Forfar. No. 130. 



366 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Lord Spynie married Jean Lyon, eldest daughter of that 
John, eighth Lord Glamis, who was accidentally killed in 
Stirling by the Earl of Crawford's man in 1578. She had 
been previously married to the Master of Morton, and to 
Archibald, the eighth Earl of Angus. Her alliance with Spynie 
is said to have been mainly effected through his Majesty's 
intervention, regarding which, while in Denmark, and at a 
later date than the above letter, he reiterated his promise, 
and thus jocularly wrote to Lindsay, in allusion to the lady's 
double widowhood and considerable fortune : " Sandie : We 
are going on here in the auld way, and very merry. 1 11 not 
forget you when I come hame you shall be a Lord. But 
mind Jean Lyon, for her auld tout will make you a new horn." 1 
Lindsay and "Jean Lyon" were accordingly married. She 
bore him two sons, the youngest of whom died in childhood ; 
and, unfortunately, only a few years thereafter Lord Spynie 
came suddenly by his death in the riot which occurred betwixt 
young Edzell and the Master of Crawford, on the High Street 
of Edinburgh, on the 5th of July 1607. 2 

The friendship that subsisted betwixt the King and Spynie 
became much abated towards the close of Lindsay's life, as the 
latter had joined in the Popish and other treasonable move- 
ments of the period. He was also engaged in a tulzie with the 
Ogilvy family, when " Eeid John " and " Black Sandie " 
Ogilvy were charged with " bering, wering, and schuting of 
hagbutis and pistolettis, and for hurting of Alexander, Lord 
Spynie." 8 To counterbalance this charge, and in the true spirit 
of the times, Spynie and a number of his kinsmen were charged 
only a few days thereafter, as " art and part of slaucteris " of 
two of the Ogilvy clan, when Spynie maintained that he and 
his followers were summarily attacked by them on the " hei- 
way beside the place of Leyis, as they were rydand in sober and 

1 Lives, i. p. 323. See Pitcairn, Grim. Trials, ii. pp. 529 sq., iii. pp. 61 sq., for 
the official inquiries and illustrative documents regarding Spynie's death. 
a Warden, Angus, ii. pp. 30 sq., for the Lords of Spynie. 
8 (July 26, 1600)- Pitcairn, Crim. Trials, ii. pp. 130 sq. 



LINDSAY- CARNEGIE OF SPYNIE AND BOYSACK. 367 

quyet maner furth of his duelling place of Kinbrakmonth 
[Kinblethmont] to the place of Gairdyn," when they " hurt and 
deidlei woundit the said nobill lord in the heid, and left him 
lyand for deid," and shot one of his servants. 1 Ogilvy and 
Spynie were both fined in large sums for those crimes, and 
warded to certain parts of the South, to abide his Majesty's 
pleasure. 2 

Lord Spynie's son and successor was an active officer in the 
service of Gustavus Adolphus, and amassed such an amount of 
wealth, that he uplifted the mortgages that were over Finhaven 
and Careston, and even purchased the tombs of his ancestors 
in Dundee from his cousin, the Earl of Crawford. 3 He left two 
sons, in both of whom the male succession failed, and it then 
devolved on their eldest sister, Margaret, who was married to 
William Fullarton of Fullarton, near Meigle. Their only son, 
John, married in 1711 Margaret, daughter of Carnegie of Boy- 
sack near Arbroath, and was grandfather of Colonel William 
Fullarton of Spynie, who married his own cousin, Miss Car- 
negie, heiress of Boysack. Their son, both in right of his 
mother, and according to the deed of entail, assumed the name 
and title of Lindsay-Carnegie of Spynie and Boysack ; and by 
his wife, who was descended of the old family of Strachan of 
Thornton, he had a family of five sons and three daughters. 
James, his eldest son and heir, died while distinguishing him- 
self in his professional duty on the shores of North America 
in 1814; and their second son, William, who was the next 
proprietor, was for many years Convener of the Freeholders 
of Forfarshire. He was heir of line and representative of the 
Lords of Spynie, served honourably as an officer of artillery in 
the West Indies and Portugal, and married a daughter of the 
Earl of Northesk. He had a numerous family, and lived in 
widowhood for twenty years, dying in 1860. He was suc- 
ceeded, owing to the death of the elder brothers, by his fifth 

1 Pitcairn, Grim. Trials, ii. p. 136. 2 Ibid. ii. p. 146. 

3 fnq. Spec. Forfar. Nos. 130, 290. 



368 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

son, Henry Alexander Fullarton Lindsay-Carnegie, who has 
married Agnes, eldest daughter of James Rait, Esq. of An- 
niston. 

The eldest son, James, already mentioned, was a brave 
and active officer as remarkable for the amiability of his 
disposition as for his spirit and gallantry, and preferred the 
hazardous service of his country to the peaceable possession of 
a fine estate. He served as Lieutenant with his relative, 
Admiral Lord Northesk, at the memorable engagement of 
Trafalgar, and was in other severe actions with honour. He 
rose to the rank of Commander in the Navy, and when relieved 
of duty by being thus promoted, his thirst for active service 
induced him to serve as volunteer. In this capacity he went 
with Admiral Griffith in his expedition to the Penobscot river, 
where he contracted a fatal marsh-fever from long exposure in 
the boats. 

In the public despatch, forwarded by Admiral Griffith, 
regarding the transaction at Penobscot, he says that he was 
" most particularly indebted to the active and zealous exertions 
of Lieutenant Carnegie, who was a volunteer on this occasion." 
Nor, in those sent by Colonel John after the engagement at 
Hamden, is his brave and disinterested conduct less honour- 
ably mentioned. " Captain Carnegie of the Eoyal Navy," he 
writes, " who most handsomely volunteered his services with 
this expedition, was in action with the troops at Hamden ; 
and I feel most particularly indebted to him for his exertions, 
and the assistance he afforded me on this occasion." 

It is not to be inferred, however, that Lord Spynie was the 
first Lindsay proprietor of Kinblethmont, it being, in part at 
least, in the hands of "Walter Lindsay of Beaufort, 1 and of the 
Earls of Crawford so early as the middle of the fifteenth 
century, and was owned by them down to the time of the 
eleventh Earl, who gave his brother, the first Lord Spynie, 
charters of the Mains on the 19th of June 1589. In 1634, the 

' Reg, Ep. Brech. i. pp. 141, 164-5 ; ii. p. 79. 



KINBLETHMONT AND CHAPEL. 369 

Earls of Kinnoul and Kinghorn, and the second Lord Spynie, 
as joint proprietors, conveyed the lands and Temple lands of 
Kinblethmont to Sir John Carnegie of Ethie in liferent, and 
to his son David in fee, from whom, as seen above, the lands 
of Boysack have descended by marriage to the present pro- 
prietor of Kinblethmout. 1 

The name of Kinblethmont is said to be derived from a 
popular belief that William the Lion had a hunting-seat there 
called " King's blythe mount," 2 but its true etymon is, perhaps, 
in the Gaelic Kin-Uaih-mont, or "the head of the flowery 
mount." This, at least, is quite descriptive of the site of the 
place, and corresponds with the oldest orthography KynUath- 
mund. Richard de Melville, of the Glenbervie family, is the 
most ancient proprietor of Kinblethmont with whom we 
have met. He gave the monks of Arbroath certain parts of 
it, and the patronage of the chapel, which was dedicated 
to St. Lawrence the martyr. 3 It stood near the Temple 
lands, is known as Qhytefield Chapel, and used as the family 
burial-place ; but " no storied urn or animated bust " per- 
petuates the memory of any of the Lindsays that are buried 
within it. 

About a century subsequent to Melville's grant, Welandus 
de Seynclau is designed "Dominus de Kynblatmund," 4 but 
to what family he belonged has not been ascertained. He was 
probably followed by a branch of the old family of Montealto 
of Fearn, who had considerable property in the southern, as 
well as in the northern, parts of the shire ; and as Eichard 
de Montealto occurs in connection, both with this lordship 
and with Fern in 1378, 6 the reference is probably to one 
and the same person ; and Sir Alexander Lindsay of Glenesk 
had possibly succeeded him in both estates. Guthries were 

1 MS. note from the late J. M. Lindsay, Esq., Director of Chancery. 

2 Old Stat. Acct. iii. p. 285. 

s (A.D. 1189) .Re?. Vet. Aberbrothoc, p. 99. 

Ibid. p. 274. 

6 Reg. Mag. Siy. pp. 149. 108 ; 150. 115 ; ul supra, p. 228. 

2 A 



370 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

designed of Kinblethmont from, at least, the year 1470, 1 till 
1594. 2 They were of the family of Colliston, and sold Kin- 
blethmont to Master Peter Young (afterwards Sir Peter), 
about 1582, who held the lands for some time thereafter 
perhaps under the superiority of the Crown. 3 



utfjrte antj 

The early history of the lands of Guthrie is obscure : they 
were probably Crown property when William the Lion granted 
the church and its patronage to the Abbey of Arbroath. 4 The 
next notice of them is in the Chamberlain Eolls in 1359, when 
the Sheriff of Forfar returns that there is nothing to be charged 
against him out of the ward of Baldowry, or out of the propart 
of the lands of Sir Henry de Eamesay, within the barony of 

1 Acta Auditorum, p. 68 ; Reg. dePanmure, ii.jpp. 282, 300 ; Reg. Nigr. Aberbr. 
p. xxxiv. 

2 Thomas Guthrie de Kinblethmont witnesses the excambion of Cookston for 
Ardovie, betwixt Sir R. Carnegie of Kinnaird, and George Speid, ancestor of the 
present laird of Ardovie. (Ardovie Charters.) Sir Robert succeeded his father John 
Carnegie in Kinnaird in 1513. But in 1675 we find four daughters of Robert Guthrie 
of Kinblethmont served as heirs-portioners in certain payments from Arbroath. 
(Inquis. Spec. Forfar., No. 461.) 

3 The lands of Bandoch, west of the kirk of Inverkeillor, were also Lindsay pro- 
perty so late as 1666 (Douglas, Peerage, i. pp . 92, 139), and had probably been 
obtained from Lord Innermeath, a previous proprietor. {Reg. Mag. Sig.) The 
church of Inverkeillor, in the diocese of St. Andrews, was gifted to the Abbey of 
Arbroath about 1178, by de Berkeley of Redcastle, and dedicated to St. Macconnoc 
(Reg. Vet. Aberbrothoc, p. 38) ; the donor on this occasion was that Walter de 
Berkeley, who was chamberlain of the King of the Scots, and after being given as 
pledge for the due compliance with the conditions of the convention of Falaise in 
1174, was in the following year ransomed for twenty marks. (Calend. Doc. Scot. 
i. pp. 19, 20 ; Excheq. Rolls of Scot. ii. App. p. cxix.) The old church or chapel 
of Athyn was dedicated to St. Murdoch, and now stands in ruins, with its ancient 
cemetery unused, near the Redhead, east of Ethie Castle ; it was given to the same 
Abbey by William the Lion (Reg. Vet. Aberbrothoc, p. 4), and is now united to Inver- 
keillor. John Fordyce, John Melmaker, and Archibald Fullarton were vicars of 
Athyn during part of the fifteenth century. (Reg. Nig. Aberbr. pp. 115, 321.) The 
church of Inverkeillor is an old fabric often renewed, and the sides of the windows 
are covered with long scriptural quotations in Greek and Hebrew. As recently 
restored it is a very favourable specimen of Presbyterian architecture. (See 
APPENDIX No. XV.) The burial aisle of the Earls of Northesk is attached to the 
east end of the kirk ; Gardyne of Lawton and Middleton (ut sup. pp. 201, 237), and 
Rait of Anniston, also bury here. (Jervise, Epit. i. pp. 321 sq.) 

4 Reg. Nig. Aberbrothoc, p. 128 ; Reg. Episc. Brech. ii. pp. 258 sq., A.D. 1178-98. 



GUTHRIE FAMILY AND PARISH. 371 

Gutherie, because they (the wardships of these lands) were 
sold by Thomas, Earl of Mar, the Lord Chamberlain, as appears 
by his letters-patent charging himself with fifty-three shillings 
and fourpence sterling for the propart of Gutherie. 1 From this 
it appears that Sir Henry Ramsay was then a portioner of the 
barony of Guthrie : how he came to be so there is nothing to 
show. In 1398, the Earl of Crawford had a confirmation 
charter of the barony of Guthrie; in 1450, Walter Carnegy of 
Guthrie is one of an inquest to inquire into the marches of 
the Bishop's Common of Brechin. But in 1440, a George 
Guthrie, who designates himself of that Ilk, grants to Sir 
John Ogilvy of Lintrathen his half of the lands of Eroly 
(Airlie) which he holds of Sir John as superior of these. 2 
David Guthrie, who was an esquire to the Earl of Crawford, 
and who seems to have combined in his person a sort of mix- 
ture of soldier, churchman, and lawyer (for all which he was 
knighted in England by the English King), purchased the 
barony of Guthrie from the Earl of Crawford about 1465. 3 
He also purchased the patronage and church of Guthrie from 
the Abbey of Arbroath, and erected it into a collegiate church 
with a provost and three canons, to which number his son added 
five canons. The church of Guthrie, dedicated to St. Mary, 
was an ancient prebend of the Cathedral of Brechin, 4 and its 
history is much complicated by these transactions with the 
Abbey and the collegiate church. The first prebendaries we 
have notice of are Thomas de Luchris or Lathress in 1372, 
Johannes Mowet in 1410, Willelmus Hawik in 1434, and 
Jacobus Dekysoun in 1474, while Andreas Schull appears as 
vicar in 1450. 6 The surname of Guthrie does not appear in 

1 Chamb. Rolls, i. p. 344. 

2 Airly Charter*; Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot. v. pp. 346 sq. 

Mr. Harry Maule of Kelly writes: "Sir David Guthrie of that Ilk [was] 
designed first Captain of the King's Guard, afterwards Comptroller, then Register, 
and afterwards Lord Treasurer, and last of all Justice-General, as is to be seen in 
the charters of King James the Third in the Public Records." (Information by the 
late P. Chalmers, Esq. of Aldbar.) 

* Reg. Episc. Brech. i. p. 19. e Ibid. i. pp. 20, et al. 



372 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

the first volume of the Register of Arbroath, although the 
Abbey was so closely connected with the lands. 

Sir David, son of that Alexander Guthrie who bought the 
estate of Kincaldrum in 1442, is said to have been brother to 
Abbot Eichard of Arbroath, and, as eldest son, succeeded to 
Kincaldrum, which he owned in 1463; 1 and from that estate 
Guthries were designed down to 1674-76. 2 This knight is the 
first laird of Guthrie of his name who appears as a witness to 
Crown charters, and, so far as known, was the most illustrious 
of his family, having, at various periods, filled the important 
offices of Lord Eegister and Lord High Treasurer, and died 
Lord Chief-Justice of Scotland. He was also a depute -of the 
Sheriff of Forfarshire, and armour-bearer to James in. 

Sir David was succeeded by his son Alexander, who was 
Sheriff of Forfar, 3 and fell at Flodden, along with his eldest 
son and three brothers-in-law. His grandson, also Alexander, 
was killed in a feud with the Gardens of Legiston, in October 
1587, and of that murder Garden had a remission under the 
Great Seal. 4 Garden was, perhaps, thus leniently dealt with 
from the fact that William Guthrie of Eavensbie, son of this 
unfortunate laird, had murdered both Garden of that Ilk and 
Garden of Tulloes on the highway betwixt Brechin and Dundee 
in 1578, 5 and the assault on old Guthrie may have been com- 
mitted by Garden out of revenge for the death of his relatives. 
It is certain, however, that James, the son of the laird of 
Guthrie who fell by Legiston, shared the fate of his father in 
June 1599, 6 being murdered by the hands of several of his 
own near relations. In 1617 John Guthrie, who was accused 
of double adultery, and of having laid aside " the name of laird," 
became a victim to the arbitrary and inhuman laws or will of 
King James VI. (himself one of the most impure of princes), 

1 Crawford, Officers of State, p. 361. 

2 Genealogical MS. belonging to Lord Panmure. [The Bowers possessed Kincal- 
drum in 1678. (Edward, Descrip. of Angus.)] 3 Acta And. p. 95. 

4 Pitcairn, Crim. Trials, i. pt. 2, p. 372 ; ii. p. 103. 

8 Ibid. ii. p. 528 ; iii. pp. 77, 80. Ibid. ii. p. 101. 



GUTHRIE FAMILIES. 373 

and was accordingly executed at the Cross of Edinburgh. 
Arnot well said, that "it is a fortunate maxim in our juris- 
prudence that statute laws prescribe." 1 

There was also a James Guthrie " laird " about this time, 
but whether he was father of James Guthrie, the famous 
martyr, who was executed in the Grassmarket of Edinburgh 
in 1661, is not so certain. 

Owing to the difficulties into which the family were thrown 
about that period, James's brother perhaps Patrick (at least 
there was a Patrick Guthrie, who designed himself in 1655, as 
" sometime of that Ilk"), 2 sold the estates to Mr. John Guthrie, 
Bishop of Moray, and on this the original stock and line of 
" Guthrie of that Ilk " practically ceased to have connection 
with the lands that bore their name, the Bishop being but 
remotely related to the family of that Ilk. 3 We have been 
unable to ascertain the exact date of the Bishop's purchase ; 
but he received infeftment on December 29th, 1636, and in 
1640 (on being deprived of his living, and forced out of his 
official residence of Spynie Castle), he retired " to his own 
estate of Guthrie, in the county of Angus," where "he died 
during the course of the grand rebellion." 4 From the diary 
of his brother James, the minister of Arbirlot, and ancestor 
of the Craigie and Taybank Guthries, we learn that the Bishop 
died in Guthrie on Tuesday 38th August 1649, and was buried 
in "y e He of y e kirk of Guthrie," beside Nicolas Wood his 
wife. Bishop Guthrie's daughter married her cousin, Guthrie 
of Gaigie, and thus became maternal ancestor of the present 
laird of Guthrie and Gaigie, John Douglas Maude Guthrie, 
who succeeded his father in 1877. About the end of the 
seventeenth century, Ochterlony gives a pleasant account of 
the parish: "The most part of the parish belongs to the 
Laird of Guthrie of that Ilk [sic], a very ancient gentle - 

1 Arnot, Gel. Grim. Trials, p. 312. 

- Services of Heirs in Chancery Office, vi. p. 90. 

a For an account of Bishop Guthrie and his family, see Jervise, Epit. ii. p. 149. 

4 Keith, Catal. of Scotch Bishojts, p. 152. 



374 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

man, and chief of his name : his house is well planted, good 
yards and orchards, good land, well grassed, and lyes pleasantly 
on the head of the water of Lounane in Strathbegg." 1 But, 
although the direct descendants of Sir David have now passed 
from the position of landowners, the present family claims 
collateral descent through the Gaigie line, and the surname is 
still plentiful throughout Angus. 2 At no distant date the fol- 
lowing provincial couplet was applicable to four Forfarshire 
freeholders of the surname of Guthrie, who possessed the 
various properties here named : 

" Guthrie of Guthrie, 

And Guthrie of Gaigie, 
Guthrie of Taybank, 

And Guthrie of Craigie." 3 

The old part of the castle of Guthrie (which was perhaps 
built about 1468, when Sir David Guthrie obtained warrant 
under the Great Seal to erect a stronghold there), 4 is a place of 
great strength, with a square tower sixty feet high and walls 
nearly ten feet thick, and to this the late laird added a spire 
and other castellated embellishments. The gateway is a Gothic 
erection of considerable elegance, being composed of a graceful 

1 Spottisw. Misc. i. p. 346. 

2 Mr. Harry Maule of Kelly writes : "This family of Guthrie [of that Ilk] ended 
in the time of King Charles the First, and the Barony of Guthrie [was] sold to John 
Guthrie, Bishop of Murray, who left it to his daughter, whose posterity does now 
(1733) enjoy it," and it is still (1882) with her descendants. This Bishop Guthrie was 
of the Guthries of Colliston, in which family there was a Nova Scotia baronetcy, 
which seems to have become soon extinct. (Information to Mr. Jervise by the late 
P. Chalmers, Esq. of Aldbar : see Reg. de Panmure, ii. p. 244.) 

3 Guthries were lairds of Pitforthy, near Brechin, before and subsequent to 1620. 
They may have been related to the family of that Ilk. The famous William Guthrie, 
minister of Fenwick, author of the Christian's Saving Interest, was a son of Pitforthy ; 
and William Guthrie, the historian of a later date, was a member of the same family. 
The traditionary origin of the family name of Guthrie is well known : One of the 
kings of Scotland being driven on Bervie Brow, a rock on the Kincardineshire coast, 
found a solitary fisherwoman on the shore, and being hungry, he asked her to gut 
twafish for him ! " I '11 gut three /" said the loyal dame. "Well," replied the king, 
"Gut-three for ever shalt thou be !" Dr. Jamieson (Scot. Diet. pref. p. xi) gives 
Guthrie as a Pictish name, and shows its affinity to some Icelandic and Danish names. 

4 See the Guthrie Family Genealogy prepared by Mr. George Constable of 
Wallace Craigie (Scott's " Monkbarns " in the Antiquary) ; it is summarised by Mr. 
Jervise in his Epitaphs, ii. pp. 148 eq., and traces the name to a territorial origin. 



GUTHRIE CHURCH AND BELL. 375 

arch, flanked with towers, and bearing a fine sculpture of the 
family arms. This was erected by the late Arbroath and Forfar 
Eailway Company, and the present Caledonian line of railway 
traffic passes over the archway. 

A new church was built in 1826, during the ministry of the 
Rev. John Bruce, but the one for which Sir David Guthrie and 
his son showed so much favour stood on the same site as the 
present, and the family burial vault is the south transept or 
aisle. The Guthrie arms surmount the gateway of the church- 
yard, with these initials and date, " G : B G : 1 637." Other 
fragments bear " 1629," " G. 1747," and " M H G." Some of 
the mottoes in the graveyard are curious; but the following, 
from a stone raised by Robert Spence to " his forefathers " in 
1774, is the most singular: 

" Beside this stone lyes many Spences, 
Who in their life did no offences ; 
And where they liv'd, if that ye speir, 
In Guthrie 's ground four hundred year." 1 

At Guthrie Castle there is carefully preserved the well- 
known Guthrie Bell, with its highly decorated shrine. The 
bell, four-sided like other ancient Scotch relics of the kind, and 
considerably worn or broken, is enclosed in an elaborately 
wrought case or shrine, whose ornamentation would point to 
the thirteenth or fourteenth century, but no record remains as 
to when or how either bell or shrine came to Guthrie Castle. 
They probably, however, formed part of the furniture or trea- 
sures of the ancient collegiate church. 

Like the church of Guthrie, that of Carbuddo, or the south- 
ern division of the parish, was in the diocese of Brechin, and 
was at first a chapelry belonging to the church of Guthrie ; but 
the time of its suppression is unknown, and the graveyard 

1 See Jervise, Epitaphs, ii. 144 sq. The following, from a stone to the same 
family at Aberlemno, is dated 1756 : 

" Here lyes an honest old race, 
Who in Ballgavies land had a place 
Of residence, as may be seen, 
Full years three hundred and eighteen." 



376 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

alone remains. 1 The family of Guthrie had but little property 
in Carbuddo, their ownership being probably limited to the 
ad vocation of the kirk, six acres of land adjoining it, and 
pasture for six cows, " with their falloues." 2 The oldest known 
superiors were the Earls of Angus, from whom, in all likeli- 
hood, it had passed to the Earls of Crawford, for the Lindsays 
were lords of Carbuddo also from at least about the middle of 
the fifteenth century, down to the early part of the following, 
when the great bulk of it became the property of Sir Thomas 
Erskiue of Brechin. In 1543 Sir Thomas resigned it in favour 
of his nephew, Superintendent Erskine of Dun, 3 in the hands 
of whose descendants it continued till 1833, when, on the death 
of Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Erskine, the last of the male line, 
the property passed to his nephew, George Ogilvie, who died 
in 1848, leaving the estate in the hands of trustees, to be equally 
divided in fee-simple at the end of fifty years, between his two 
grand-nephews or their heirs, 

Enfoeraritg atrti fKatf)ie=3L0ut. 

It will, however, be perceived, that although the Earls of 
Crawford had a long and important interest in Guthrie, there 
was no separate house founded in the district by any collateral 
or immediate branch of the family. It was so also in the parish 
of Inverarity, though the Kirktown and Hilltown, with other 
lands in the district, were in their possession from the year 
1395, and out of them the first Earl gave twelve marks for 
the endowment of a chaplain in the parish church of Dundee. 4 
Though Alexander Burnet of Leys was in possession of the 
village of Inverarity in 1500, 5 Sir David of Edzell was lord of 
the properties which his ancestors held in the parish, and also 

1 " Crebyauch " is the oldest orthography of Carbuddo ; the Gaelic Cri-baith 
means " clay and birk wood," both of which are plentiful, not only in the neighbour- 
hood of the kirk, but throughout the district. But more probable meanings would 
be "the rocky land of the churl," and "the rough or stony field." 

2 Inquis. Spec. Forfar. No. 5, A.D. 1550. 3 Spalding Club Miscett. iv. p. 44. 
4 Robertson, Index, p. 161. 5. 5 Douglas, Baronage, p. 41. 



INVERARITY, FOTHRINGHAM, AND LOUR. 377 

patron of the kirk, as was Sir Walter of Balgavies, and then 
his son, so late as 1606. 

But of the ancient lords of Inverarity there is now no trace, 
in either ruined castle or legendary tale, nay, even the Kirk- 
town or village of the days of the Lindsays has disappeared, 
having been supplanted by the mansion-house of Fothringham, 
which was so named from the present family, and erected on 
the site of the old Kirktown. 1 An archway or door of the old 
kirk was remaining at a late date, and the burial-ground is 
represented by a mound planted with shrubs, opposite the 
west windows of Fothringham House. The rivulets Airity 
(anciently AritTi) and Denburn unite here, and from this cir- 
cumstance the parish was named. To the original parish of 
Inverarity, the adjoining district of Meathie-Lour was added 
about two hundred years ago. Both were in the diocese of 
St. Andrews, and, after the Eeformation, were served by one 
and the same minister ; 2 and the kirk of Meathie was " ruinous 
and decayed " even in Ochterlony of the Guynd's time. 

The etymology of Meathie- Lour is doubtful, and is written 
" Mathi-Lur " in the ancient Taxatio. The oldest proprietors 

1 The modern surname of Fothringham is a corruption of the ancient Fothring- 
hay, and assumed its present form from the resemblance of ay to m in old writings. 
Henry de Fodringhay swore fealty to Edward in 1296 ; but they were a family of 
good standing long before then, being witnesses to some important charters, and 
bearing arms (ermine, three bars) in the time of William the Lion. Their first 
known estates were in Tweeddale, and their first Forfarshire property was Baluny, in 
the parish of Kettins, of which Thomas, the son of Henry, had charters in 1378. 
(Nisbet, On Rag. Roll, p. 33. ) Powrie was acquired during the subsequent century. 
(Reg. Ep. Brech. i. pp. 114, 141, et al.; Reg. Nig. Aberbr. p. 146, et al. ; Douglas, 
Baronage, pass.) Through the marriage of the late laird with the heiress of Scrym- 
geour of Tealing, this ancient family became allied with the Dudhope race, whose 
remote progenitor, Sir Alexander Carron, saved the life of Alexander i., when 
attacked by rebels in his castle at Invergowrie in 1107. Nisbet (Her. i. p. 288) says 
he is the first knight read of in history, and had his name changed to Scrimgeour, 
i.e. "a sharp fighter," for his bravery on the above occasion. The family were 
hereditary standard-bearers of Scotland, and bore a conspicuous part in old times in 
all the notable transactions of the kingdom. (See Jervise, Epitaphs, i. pp. 121-2.) 
The late proprietor, Thomas Frederick Scrimsoure-Fotheringham, married the Hon. 
Lady Charlotte Carnegie, sister of the Earl of Southesk, and died in 1864, leaving a 
son and daughter. The former, Walter Thomas James Scrymsoure-Fotheringham, 
succeeded also to Tealing, on the death of his grandmother, in 1875. 

2 Register of Ministers, 1567 ; Spot. Misc. i. p. 323. 



378 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

of Lour that we have found are a Henricus de Neuith, knight, 
who, for failure of service, resigned the property into the hands 
of Alexander in. ; and next, Hugh of Abirnithy, who received 
a charter in 1264, in the lands which had shortly before come 
into the King's hand from the foresaid Henricus. 1 

This Sir Hugh was Chamberlain of Menmuir about 1290 ; 
and the male line of this old family failing in co-heiresses, 
their extensive possessions passed by marriage to the several 
families of Lindsay, Stewart, and Lesly. Lesly's wife was 
heiress of the Lour portion, of which Norman de Lesly had 
charters in 1390. 2 In the year 1466, a family there bore the 
name of Lur of that Ilk, and doubtless had been of considerable 
influence in their time, as they were councillors of the Earls 
of Crawford ; 3 they had also been vassals of theirs, for the 
lands and teinds were in possession of the Duke of Montrose 
in the year 1492. 4 It is probable that about this period the 
lands of Lour had more than one proprietor, as in 1464 the 
Earl of Eothes held the barony of Lour, and granted it by 
charter to Guthrie of Kincaldrum, and soon after that which 
is now Little Lour belonged to a family called Kynnynmonth. 

It is certain that the greater part of the estate was owned 
in the early part of the seventeenth century by the Carnegies, 
as, on being elevated to the peerage in 1639, Sir John Carnegie 
of Ethie assumed the title of Lord Lour. The lands were 
afterwards given by the second Earl of Northesk to Patrick, 
his third son, from whom the present Carnegies of Lour and 
Turin are descended. 5 



Although the estate of Kinnettles was much later in falling 
into the hands of the Lindsays than those of Guthrie and 

1 Fraser, Hist. Carnegies of Southesk, ii. p. 479, for the charter. 

2 Robertson, Index, p. 127. 3 Lives, i. p. 117. 
4 Acta Dom. Condi. Jan. 15, 1492. 

8 Fraser, Hist. Cam. of Southesk, ii. pp. 426-7. In Jervise, Epit. ii. pp. 301 sq., 
there is a supplementary account of this district, and the families belonging to it. 

6 The kirk of Kinnettles was in the diocese of St. Andrews, and is rated in the 
ancient Taxatio at 18 merks ; the rector in 1265 was Laurence de Montealto. The 



KINNETTLES AND EVELICK. 379 

Inverarity (a branch of the family having settled here only 
about the year 1511), they flourished in considerable repute 
for nearly a century and a half. Robert, a cadet of the 
knightly house of Evelick, descended from a younger brother of 
the third Earl of Crawford, was the first Lindsay of Kinnettles. 
Marjory Lindsay, the wife of the minister of Eescobie (men- 
tioned on the tombstone at that church) 1 was perhaps a daughter 
of the last Lindsay of Kinnettles, and aunt to Dr. Thomas 
Lindsay of Armagh. This eminent divine, however, was born 
in England, whither his father went in early life, and became 
rector of Blandford in Dorsetshire. He was the friend and 
contemporary of Dean Swift, rose to the important position of 
Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of all Ireland, 2 and, dying 
in 1713, was the last male descendant of the Lindsays of 
Kinnettles. 

Still, although on the death of the Archbishop, all trace of 
the male descendants of the house of Kinnettles, as well as 
of Evelick, passed away, collateral descendants of the latter 
branch not only survive in Perthshire, but also in Forfarshire, 
two daughters having been united in marriage to influential 
barons of the latter county. These were Elizabeth and Mar- 
garet Lindsay, daughters of Sir Alexander of Evelick, and sisters 
of the unfortunate youth who was slaughtered in cold blood by 
his step-brother, James Douglas, in the year 1682. 3 The former 
of these ladies was married to John Ochterlony, of the ancient 
family of that Ilk, author of the interesting and valuable 

name of the parish is misprinted " Kynathes " in Ragman Rolls (p. 164), from 
which it appears that Nicol de Merton, the parson of the period, swore fealty to 
Edward I. Kinnettles, Inverarity, and Meathie, were served by one clergyman, a 
Mr. James Fothringham, in 1567, who had a stipend of 100 Scots (8, 6s. 8d. stg.). 
Mr. Alexander Tayler, the minister (1670-85), was a poet of considerable imagination, 
and, when going to Edinburgh with several of his brethren, for the purpose of taking 
the oaths required by the Test Act, he encountered so great a storm that he felt 
constrained to write a long poem upon it ; but his most ambitious work is Memoires 
of Ikon the Great, third of that name, present King of Poland (1685). Colonel 
William Patterson, who rose from humble birth to the dignified office of Lieutenant- 
Governor of New South Wales, was born at Kinnettles in 1755. He died in 1810. 

1 See APPENDIX No. VII. 

Lives, i. p. 439 ; ii. p. 283. 3 Scott. Jour. i. p. 280. 



380 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Account of the Shyre of Forfar, so frequently quoted in this 
volume ; l the latter was first the wife of Arbuthnott of Fin- 
dowrie, 2 and afterwards that of Pierson of Balmadies, to whom 
she bore seven sons. From these ladies, both maternally and 
paternally, the late Mr. Pierson of the Guynd was the fourth 
generation in descent. 

It may not therefore be improper to give a brief outline of 
the house of Evelick, since it has given sons and daughters to 
other families of provincial note and importance, and is itself 
still represented, though not in the direct male line. 

Descended from a younger brother of Sir Walter the first 
of Edzell, Alexander Lindsay of Evelick (father of the ladies 
of Ochterlony and Balmadies) was created a baronet in 16G6. 
Besides the son who came by his death in the painful manner 
already noticed, he had his successor, Sir Alexander, whose son, 
also Alexander, married Amelia, sister of the celebrated Lord 
Mansfield, and by her he had three sons and two daughters. 
All the sons rose to eminence in the service of their country, as 
did the families of both daughters : Sir David, the eldest, was a 
General ; the second, William, an officer of repute, died in the 
East Indies ; and the youngest, John, for his gallantry during 
the attack on the Havannah, etc., was created a Knight of the 
Bath, rose to the rank of Eear- Admiral of the Eed, and, dying 
in 1788, was buried in Westminster Abbey. General Sir 
David Lindsay left two sons and two daughters : the eldest 
son was ambassador at Venice, and predeceased his father ; the 
youngest, who succeeded to the title and estates in 1762, was 
a signal-officer at the battle of St, Vincent, and commander of 
the " Daphne ;" he lost his life at Demerara by the upsetting of 
a boat in 1799. He was the last direct male descendant, and 
baronet of Evelick. 

The succession then devolved on General Sir David's 
eldest daughter, Charlotte Amelia (wife of the Eight Honour- 

1 Printed in the Spottisivoode Miscellany, i. pp. 317 sq. : and in Warden, Angus, 
ii. pp. 233 sq. On the Piersons and Ochterlonies, see Jervise, Epit. i. pp. 159 sq., 
384-5. - See APPENDIX No. VII. 



EVELICK AND ARBROATH. 381 

able Thomas Steele), and the estates of Evelick passed to her 
son, a Colonel in the Guards, who married a daughter of the 
Duke of Manchester, by whom he had the late proprietor, 
Major-General Thomas Steele of the Coldstream Guards, and 
other children. The present proprietor is Sir Thomas Montague 
Steele, K.C.B., his eldest son. The sisters of General Sir 
David of Evelick were respectively married to Allan Eamsay, 
the distinguished portrait-painter and son of the poet, and to 
Alexander Murray, afterwards Lord Henderland. The eldest 
was mother of General John Eamsay, and several daughters, 
but all these died without issue. The General's estate was 
inherited by his cousin, the late William Murray of Hender- 
land ; and he and his brother, John Archibald Murray (Lord 
Murray), were the nearest representatives, through a female, 
of the old houses of Evelick and Kinnettles. 



j, Blacfelafo, antj 
The cause of the battle of Arbroath, which was fought 
between the Lindsays and Ogilvys in 1445-6, and the fatal 
result of it to the latter clan, have already been fully noticed ; l 
and, if it were not that the proprietary interest of the Lindsays 
of Edzell survived longer at Arbroath than in any other part 
of Forfarshire, the extent of their holding would barely warrant 
our taking notice of these. Their wealth in this quarter con- 
sisted mainly in dwelling-houses, and other burghal and arable 
lands. Among these were Lady-Bank and its chapel (which 
were erased about a century ago to make way for the old 
harbour) ; the croft of Darngate, or the postern gate, at the 
south-east corner of the monastery; the Grinter, or granary 
croft, situated at the north corner of the burial-ground, where 
the corn and meal belonging to the Abbey were kept ; and St. 
Ninian's Heuch, among the famous cliffs and caves, east of the 
harbour. 2 Though small, these properties gave Edzell an influ- 

1 Ut supra, pp. 175 seq. 

2 For an interesting account of the Abbey, and of the fine scenery of the Cliffs 
and Caves, see Miller, Arbroath and its Abbey ; Hay, Hist, of Arbroath. 



382 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

ence in the town of Arbroath, and, as before noticed, were the 
last portions of the family inheritance that David, the last laird, 
parted with, it not being until the year 1725 l (ten years after 
the sale of Edzell), that these were disposed of. Since then, as 
above noticed, Lady-Bank and its chapel have been swept away ; 
and the other properties have passed through various hands. 

Nor, from the small portion which the Lindsays owned in 
Kinnell, will our space admit of detailing the historical peculi- 
arities of that interesting parish; suffice it to say, that the 
farm of Blacklaw near Braikie, of which the seventh Earl of 
Crawford was possessed in 1535-6, 2 was their only property. 3 
But the more extensive lordship, or barony of Panbride, which 
Sir Walter Lindsay of Edzell held for forty years from 1463, 
has greater claims to our attention. 4 

The church was in the diocese of Brechin, dedicated to St. 
Bride or Bridget, and gifted to the Abbey of Arbroath by 
William the Lion. The first recorded proprietors of this barony 
were a Norman family, named Morham, who also had a gift 
of it from King William. 5 They had, perhaps, survived as pro- 
prietors of the district until the year 1309, when Eobert the 
Bruce gave a grant of it to his brother-in-law, Sir Alexander 
Frazer. 6 He fell at Dupplin in 1332, and from that period, 
until 1341, when David II. returned from France, and, it is 
said, gave the barony to the ancestors of Boethius, the his- 
torian, we know nothing of its proprietors. 

The origin of Boethius' family, as given by himself, is suffi- 
ciently romantic, and not much to be credited ; but it is certain, 
whether his ancestors came to Panbride at the above date 

1 Crawford Case, p. 203. 2 Douglas, Peerage, i. p. 378. 

3 Kinnell kirk was in the diocese of St. Andrews, and, with its chapel, which 
stood at Balishan or Bolshan, is rated at 20 merks. The kirk had perhaps been 
dedicated to St. Madoc, as a fountain near the church bears the familiar name of 
Maidie's Well. Ut sup. p. 178 n. a . 

4 For the connection of the Maules with Panbride, see Jervise, Epit. ii. pp. 310 sq. 
8 Chalmers, Caledonia, i. p. 591 ; Reg. Vet. Aberbr. pp. 19 sq. The surname of 

Morham survived in the district till within these few years. A tombstone, belong- 
ing to a "David Moram," dated 1656, is in the adjoining kirkyard of Monikie (see 
Jervise, Epit. i. p. 110). e Robertson, Index, p. 1. 



BOETHIUS' FAMILY AND PANBRIDE. 383 

. or not, that a family named Boyis or Boyce was only one 
of several that were designed therefrom in the subsequent 
century, and that a person of the name of Eamsay married 
the heiress of Boyce. This occurred in 1495, but Forbes 
of Brux, three years before this, had given a charter upon 
a fourth part of the Seatoun of Panbride to Alexander 
Boyes; and in 1560 Alexander Boys, portioner of Panbryde, 
was one of the assize to determine an application for service. 1 
In the interval, this barony appears to have been divided 
among different parties, and to have frequently changed hands, 
for contemporary with the Boyces were the Earl of Huntly, 2 
Sir Walter Lindsay of Edzell, and the Bamsays. Crichton of 
Sanquhar was possessor of the barony in 1507, 3 Scrimgeour of 
Dundee in 151 1, 4 and Carnegie of Southesk from 1552 5 down 
to the period of the forfeiture. 6 On the sale of the forfeited 
estates in 1763-4, the barony of Panbride, with others, was 
purchased with the Southesk estates by Sir James Carnegie of 
Kinnaird, but soon after re-sold to William, Earl of Panmure, 
and the Maules have been sole proprietors of the parish ever 
since. Their family burial aisle is at the church, and their 
principal messuage, Panmure House, which Ochterlony, near 
the close of the seventeenth century, enthusiastically describes 
as " new built, and, as is thought by many, except Halyruid- 
house, the best house in the kingdome of Scotland, with deli- 
cate gardens, with high stone walls, extraordinaire much plant- 
ing, young and old : many great parks about the new and old 

1 Reg. de Panmure, ii. p. 308 ; Reg. Nig. Aberbr. p. 341. 

2 (A.D. 1449-50) Douglas, Peerage, i. p. 643. 

s Ibid. i. p. 449. * Ibid. i. p. 465. B Ibid. ii. p. 512. 

6 In 1691, when the barony of Panbride was in the hands of the Earls of Southesk, 
it consisted of the teinds of Balmachie, and the following farms : Kirktoune, Barne- 
zeards, Bowdens-Acre, Mill and Milne Lands, Fisherland, on which there was a 
boat. There were seventeen tenants who paid a gross rental of 18 bolls 2 firlots 
1 peck and 1 lippie wheat ; 108 bolls 2 lippies bear ; 61 bolls 2 tirlots meal ; 
195, 10s. lOd. Scots money ; 74 capons ; 112 hens ; 68 chickens. "The other half 
of Panbride, life-rented be Mr. James Martin," embraced eight tenants and one boat, 
and the gross rental of this half amounted to 20 bolls 1 firlot 2 pecks wheat ; 
149 bolls 2 flrlots bear ; 40 bolls, 3 firlots meal ; 65, 6s. 8d. Scots money ; 60 capons ; 
144 hens ; and 104 chickens. (Southesk Rental-Book, quoted ut sup. p. 122.) 



384 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

house : brave hay meadows, well ditched and hedged : and, in 
a word, is a most excellent, sweet, and delicate place." l This 
house was founded in 1666 by George, second Earl of Panmure, 
and continued to be built and embellished by his successors. 
It has since been remodelled in an elegant and extensive 
manner, and is one of the finest houses in the county. 

During the occupancy of Panbride by Sir Walter Lindsay 
of Edzell, who was joint Sheriff of the southern parts of Angus 
with Monorgund of that Ilk, Archibald Eamsay " of Panbride " 
was, as already stated, greatly harassed by them for the non- 
payment of certain teinds, in lieu of which his lands and 
fishings were destroyed. The lands of Scryne, which passed 
through the de Valoniis and Maule families, were also pos- 
sessed by Walter Lindsay, a descendant of Evelick, in 1 5 1 6. 2 



ie, JSafotw, SStmfitrtr, Bcfrmirftnt, antj $t'tatrl. 

Next to the lands of Little Pert, near Montrose, 8 the thane- 
dom or barony of Downie was the earliest acquired of the 
Lindsay possessions in Forfarshire. As was customary in early 
times, a family assumed their surname from this place, and one 
of them, Duncan de Dunny, appears as a perambulator of the 
boundaries between the lands of Tulloch (Tulloes) and Conon, 
in 1254 ; 4 and to this family or place the surname of Downie 
or Downey, which is still common in Forfarshire, may owe its 
origin. The family of de Dunny had probably been vassals of 
some lord of greater influence than themselves perhaps of the 
lords of Abernethy ; for, excepting this Duncan, we have met 
with no other person named de Dunny. When the male line of 
the Abernethies failed, the Lindsays succeeded to this property 
through the marriage of Sir David of Crawford with one of the 
three co-heiresses. 5 

1 Spottisivood Misc. i. p. 346. 2 Lives, i. p. 447. 

3 Ut sup. p. 339. * Reg. Vet. Aberbrothoc, p. 325. 

8 Lives, i. p. 48. In consequence of this alliance, the first Earl of Crawford 
quartered his paternal arms with those of Aberuethy, which is said to have been one 



DOWNIE, DUNFIND, DOWNIEKEN. 385 

Sir Alexander, the first Lindsay of Glenesk, was the third 
son of Sir David Lindsay of Crawford, to whom, sometime 
before 1331, this thanedom was resigned, as at that date he 
mortified a small sum from thence to the Canons of the Priory 
of Eestennet ; * and, at a later period, his son, the Earl of 
Crawford, gave an annual of twelve marks from the same lands 
to the altar of Our Lady at Dundee, for the purpose of having 
mass celebrated for the souls of his predecessors, and his own 
prospectively. Through some cause now unknown, the name 
of the Earl of Sutherland occurs in connection with Downie in 
1371 ; but, in the course of two years, it was again in possession 
of Lindsay of Glenesk, who not only succeeded to the lands, 
but, according to the charter, 2 to the bondagia, or services 
exigible from bondi or husbandmen. He was also owner of the 
nativi or serfs of the district, and of the seqiwle or their children, 
who, at the period alluded to, were as much the born slaves of 
the proprietors of Caledonia, and as much subject to be trafficked 
among as were the negroes in America. It is needless to 
observe that in these old Scottish customs, so analogous to 
those of all uncivilised states, the same innate wants and 
common practices of nations are as striking as is the affinity 
in style of their warlike and domestic implements. 

The thanedom of Downie included the lands of Dunfind and 
Downieken, which, when coupled with those of Pitairlie and 
Auchenleck, comprehended nearly the whole of the extensive 
parish of Monikie, and at all of these places there were towers 
or fortalices. No trace of the castle of Dunfind 3 is now visible; 
that of Downieken was in existence when Monipennie wrote, 
about the beginning of the seventeenth century ; and the foun- 

of the earliest instances of quartering arms in Scotland. (Borthwick, Remarks on 
British Antiquities, p. 75 ; Nisbet, Heraldry, i. p. 64.) 

1 Lives, i. p. 114. 

2 For similar grants, see Robertson, Index, pp. 81. 162 ; 85. 201 ; 134. 4. 

8 Dunfind (vulg. Denfind) is popularly believed to signify the Fiend's Den ; and 
the "briggant" who was burnt at Dundee in 1440, for having "ane execrable 
faschion to tak all young men and children and eat them" (as told by Pitscottie, 
Hist. Scot. i. p. 164), is said to have lived here "with his wayfls and bairnis." 

2 B 



386 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

dations of Downie Castle are yet to be seen on a mound at Old 
Downie. A mutilated stone, bearing the Lindsay chequey and 
Abernethy lion, is at the farm-house of Carlungie, and is said to 
have been taken from the castle of Downie. Of the castle of Pit- 
airlie a stone, bearing the initials and date, " A L : I C 1631," 
is built into a wall at the farm offices. These refer to Alex- 
ander Lindsay and his wife. He died sometime before 1655 ; 
for on the 29th of March of that year his son Alexander was 
retoured his heir in the lands of Pitairlie and Guildie, and part 
of the Muir of Downie ; as also in the Earl of Crawford's lodg- 
ing, the Craig of St. Nicolas, and fortalice, the advocation of 
certain chaplainries in the churches of Dundee, and an annual 
of 100 merks "furth of the late king's greate customes" of the 
same burgh. 1 

Part of the castle of Monikie stood till lately, but, like 
Pitairlie, only one stone of it is now traceable, bearing, 
" D L : B E 1587," which show the Lindsays to have occu- 
pied Monikie at a later period than is popularly assigned to 
them. 2 The subterraneous vaults or cellars of the castle are 
said still to exist ; and the farmer, who pulled down the walls, 
only began to thrive at that time, having, it is said, come on a 
secret store of gold and silver which the Lindsays concealed in 
the walls before they took their hasty departure ! 

The castle of Auchenleck, or Affleck, is still a fine ruin, of a 
similar construction, and perhaps age, to that of Inverquharity. 
This property was also under the superiority of the Lindsays, 

1 Inquis. Spec. Forf. No. 343. 

2 The kirk of Monikie, in the diocese of Brechin, was early given by William the 
Lion to the Monastery of Arbroath, and is rated in the ancient Taxatio at forty 
pounds. No fountain near the church bears the name of any saint, but Kane's Well 
(? St. Keyna) adjoins the site of the old chapel of Ardeastie. Three sculptured stones 
were dug from this place some time ago : two of these bear ">J< 1 H -S." and a 
human heart pierced by three nails, etc. ; the other, " M A E." with a human 
heart pierced by a sword and three nails, etc. The finest of these was found in course 
of agricultural improvements by the tenant, the late Mr. Fullerton, in the spring of 
1852. The Earls of Panmure resided at one time at Ardeastie, and the last Lord Pan- 
mure was born there. A door lintel in one of the cottages bears, "C I C P : 1688 " 
(Countess Jean Campbell of Panmure). "D -I A -1625," is on another stone 
surmounted by a fleur-de-lis. 



AUCHENLECK, PITAIRLIE, AND CARLUNGIE. 387 

the Earl of Crawford having renewed the marches of Auchen- 
leck in 1459. 1 The family, who designed themselves of that 
Ilk, were hereditary armour-hearers to the Crawfords. 2 

The Lindsays of all these places, however, are supposed to 
have been descended from Sir John of Pitaiiiie, who fell at 
the battle of Brechin in 1452. The family subsisted in Pit- 
airlie till 1639 ; and David, who designed himself of that place, 
was minister of Finhaven and Inverarity in 1576. 3 In his son 
the representation of the family of Pitairlie had perhaps ended, 
and passed to the Lindsays of Cairn in Tannadice, who sur- 
vived down to the early part of last century. Carlungie and 
Balhungie were owned by Lindsay of Balgavies down to at 
least 1606 ; but the barony of Dunfind became the property of 
Durham of Grange in 1544. 4 The thanedoin of Downie, and 
the lands of Monikie and Pitairlie, passed at various periods 
to the family of Panmure, who are still proprietors of them. 5 

The antiquarian features of this district are interesting, 
and have often been described ; but of these the cross of Camus, 
and the story of the battle of Barry, are the most prominent. 
It is uniformly said that the Danes, who landed on this shore 

1 Ut sup. p. 208. 

2 The predecessors of the Auchenlecks in this property had perhaps been a family 
surnamed Napier, for in 1296 "Matheu le Naper, de Aghelek," of the county of 
Forfar, swore fealty to Edward I. (Nisbet, Heraldry, i. p. 60.) 

3 Reg. of Ministers, and ut sup. p. 207. 

4 Douglas, Baronage, p. 473. The Durhams of Grange, now represented by 
those of Largo in Fifeshire, were a family of considerable importance in old times, 
having had a gift of Grange in the parish of Monifieth, from Robert I. They were 
also councillors of the Earls of Crawford ; and their burial-place was at the church of 
Monifieth. A superb monument, bearing fine sculptures of the armorials of the 
families to whom they were allied, was erected there by the cashier to James vi. It 
was demolished long ago, and the stones built into various parts of the church ; 
one of these bears "HIC SITVS SEPVLCHRUM HOC SIBI POSTERISQVE 

8VIS EXTRVENDVM CVRAVIT VIR CLARV8 PIV8 AC . PROBV8 DVRHAMK 
DE PITCARR AROENTARIV8 QVONDAM R IAO VI 8EMPITERN.fi MEMORISE 
CVrVS MAIORES EADEM VJEC WOMEN ET ARMA OERENTES HAC IN 
PAROCHINA REGNO HO B I* 1 8E8E DKIN POSVERVNT VBI EXINDE 

HVC VSQVE CLARVERVNT." (Jervise, Epitaphs, L pp. 109-10.) 

6 Reg. de Panmure, ii. pp. 189 sq., et al. John, Masterof Crawford in 1494, sold 
and gave sasine of the lands of Cambiston and Carlungie to Thomas Maule of Pan- 
mure, who fell at Flodden (ib. ii. pp. 257 sq.) ; but there is another sale and charter 
of the lands and mill of Cambiston in 1526 from David Earl of Crawford to Robert 
Maule of Panmure and Isobell Mercer his wife (ib. ii. p. 301). 



388 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

in 1010, were repulsed by the Scots with so great slaughter, 
that the adjoining burn of Lochty ran with human blood for 
the space of three days I 1 According to tradition most of the 
great barons of the kingdom were engaged in this affray, 
and among them the Hays of Errol, the Keiths of Dunnottar, 
and the Hassas of Glenbervie in the Mearns. Two brothers of 
the last-named family are recorded to have fallen in the en- 
gagement, and being the last male descendants of a race of 
landowners, who (as inscribed on a curious monument in Glen- 
bervie burial vault) flourished in that parish from A.D. 730, 
their only sister Helen became sole heiress, and marrying 
Oliphard, the hereditary Sheriff of the Mearns, was maternal 
progenitor of the noble family of Arbuthnott. 

The Hays and Keiths are commonly said to have gained 
their laurels at Barry, and the death of the Danish chief, 
popularly named Camus, is attributed to the hand of the latter 
baron, who is said to have killed him in single combat, at or 
near the place where the Cross now stands, 2 It has already 
been seen that the story of the rise of the Hays is entirely 
fanciful. So also is that of the Keiths ; originally Normans, 
their remote progenitor was Hervei, the son of Warin, who 
came thither with David L, from whom he had charters of the 
lands of Keith in East Lothian, and by this circumstance 
alone he and his descendants assumed their surname. 3 With 
regard to their possessions in the Mearns, it may be added, 
that it was only when Sir William Keith married the daughter 
and heiress of Sir John Frazer of Cowie that the family ac- 
quired property there. 4 

1 " Lochty, Lochty, is reed, reed, reed, 

For it has run three days with bleed ! " (Provincial Rhyme.) 

For the archaeological remains of Monikie sec Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot. ii. pp. 447-8, 
and for the battle at Barry see Warden, Angus, ii. pp. 244, 276, 402. 

2 The cross of Camus was removed from the position it had occupied from time 
immemorial about six feet due south, being now in the middle of the new carriage 
drive between the Panmure Testimonial and Panmure House. It was removed in 
1853, in presence of Lord Panmure and his brothers. 

3 Douglas, Peerage, ii. p. 184 sq. ; Chalmers, Caled. i. p. 518. 

4 Crawford, Peerage, p. 319 ; Douglas, Peerage, L p. 188 ; Nisbet, Her. ii. App. i. 



CAMUSTON AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS. 389 

But although the stories of the rise of these old families 
are groundless, and no satisfactory origin can be ascribed to 
the Cross of Camus, there is every evidence of the neighbour- 
hood having been the scene of at least one, if not a series, of 
dreadful conflicts, whether arising from the invasion of the 
Danes or some intestine quarrel. Sepulchral tumuli are 
scattered over the district stone coffins are found in clusters 
throughout the farm of Carlungie, and skulls and other parts 
of human skeletons are frequently turned up by the plough. 

But, it would appear, although the story of Camus's murder 
is generally considered fabulous, that the Cross had been 
raised as a sepulchral monument to some person ; for, on the 
ground being investigated by Sir Patrick Maule, in presence of 
several county gentlemen, about the year 1620, a skeleton in 
good preservation, of large dimensions, and wanting only a 
small part of the skull, was found buried below the stone. 1 
When the Cross was removed, an urn and a gold bracelet were 
found beneath or near it. Camuston, the name of the place 
where the Cross stands, is the name of many other places 
throughout Scotland, and t( Cambestowne " is the old, and 
sometimes even present, orthography of the place in question. 
It had probably been the residence of the old lairds of Downie, 
as " the word seems to be the same as Chemmyss and Kames, 
and means the chief residence of a proprietor; but is to be 
distinguished from Kaim, the crest of a hill." 2 

1 Keith is said to have carried off a part of the skull with his sabre, and so killed 
the chief! 

2 See Chalmers, Sculptured Monuments of Angus (p. 13), in which Camus Cross 
is figured, and everything correctly given that is worthy of being preserved regarding 
it. The well-known " Panmure Testimonial " a column of 105 feet in height, 
which the tenantry of Panmure erected to commemorate the liberality of the late 
Lord Panmure has a prominent position on Downie Hills, a short distance west of 
Camus Cross. It commands the view of five or six counties ; but, contrary to most 
descriptions, contains neither a bust of Lord Panmure, nor any inscription setting 
forth the object of its erection. Ut sup. p. 146. 



390 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

(Etfjtebeaton, Btougfjlg Castle, attfc ISrtcfjtg. 

The property of Ethiebeatoii, 1 which lies in the parish of 
Monifieth, and within two miles of the barony of Downie, also 
came to the Lindsays at an early date, having been given by 
Thomas, Earl of Angus, to Sir David of Crawford, about the 
year 1349, 2 but over which the Angus family held the supe- 
riority, as in the forfeiture of Archibald, sixth Earl of Angus, 
in 1528 Crawford protested that the said forfeiture should "be 
na hurt nor preiudice to him anent his landis qlkis he haldis 
of the said Erie of Angus, that is to say the landis and barony 
of Affebeton," 3 etc. His son of Glenesk succeeded, and through 
him it passed to the Earls of Crawford, who continued to 
hold it from that period till the close of the sixteenth century, 4 
with the exception of a short time about 1580, 5 when Bruce 
of Earlshill had connection with it, perhaps through pecuniary 
loans. 

The Gallow Law, or hill, where the lords of the district 
are locally believed to have executed offenders in feudal 
times, is still a prominent object on the estate ; and, like many 
other mounds of the same sort, had most probably been the 
site of the baron's court. It is also a popular notion, that this 
property belonged at one time to Cardinal Beaton, and so 
acquired the distinguishing appellation of Beaton. So far 
from this is the fact, however, that it was so called more than 
two hundred years before the Cardinal's birth, and his name 
does not occur in connection with it at any time. 

It is true that an early lay proprietor, if not the first, bore 
the famous surname of Beaton. He was Sheriff of Forfarshire 
in 1290, and, swearing fealty to Edward in 1296, held so 
steadfastly by his oath, that Kobert the Bruce confiscated his 

1 Commonly pronounced Effiebeaton. 

2 The first Earl of Angus in the Stewart line of succession was Sir John Stewart of 
Bonkyl, who died in 1331 ; the second, Thomas, second Earl, died 1361. Sir David 
Lindsay of Crawford succeeded soon after 1304, and probably died before 1357. 
See Douglas, Peerage, i. pp. 65, 372-3. 3 Acts Part. ii. p. 329. 

4 Lives, i. p. 447. 5 Douglas, Baronage, p. 511. 



BROUGHTY FERRY AND BRICHTY. 391 

lands, and gave them to Alexander Senniscall, 1 from whom 
they passed to the Earls of Angus. In Senniscall's two 
charters, the name is variously spelled " Archibetoun," and 
"Achykilbichan." 2 

The Lindsay connection with the stronghold of Broughty, 
at the mouth of the Tay, was of short duration ; it was only 
granted by James in. to the Duke of Montrose at the time he 
was made Sheriff of Angus, and it was again taken from him, 
along with his Sheriffship, by James iv. It was then given to 
Lord Gray, who sided with that prince against his unfortunate 
father at Blackness, and at the still more fatal rencounter of 
Sauchieburn. 3 The origin of the name of Broughty is variously 
accounted for, but Portincraig (though now confined to the 
opposite headland in Fifeshire) was the oldest name of it, as 
appears from a description of the boundaries of certain lands 
and fishings, bequeathed by Gillebrede, Earl of Angus, for the 
founding of a hospital at this place. 4 After the forfeiture of 
Umphraville, the grandson of Countess Maud, the estates of 
the Earls of Angus were given by Bruce to William de Lind- 
say, then High Chamberlain ; but neither his name, nor that 
of any of his family, with the exception of the Duke of 
Montrose above noticed, appears otherwise in connection with 
Broughty. 

The Lindsays, however, were old proprietors of the lands 
and mill of Brichty, in the adjoining parish of Murroes, and this 
has often been confounded with their ownership of Broughty 
Castle. The lands of Brichty, from our earliest notice of them, 
belonged to John de Hay of Tillybothwell, who resigned them 
to the de Montealtos of Fern, from one of whom, Eichard, 
Chancellor of the Cathedral of Brechin, they were acquired by 



1 (A.D. 1309) Robertson, Index, p. 1. 

2 There was once an old chapel near by. 

3 The noble family of Gray were proprietors down to the time that Patrick Lord 
Gray resigned Broughty Castle and conterminous lands in favour of Fothringham of 
Powrie, ancestor of the present proprietor of Powrie. ( Ut sup. p. 189.) 

4 Reg. Vet. de Aberbrothoc, p. 37. 



392 LAND OP THE LINDSAYS. 

Sir Alexander Lindsay of Glenesk, in 1379, 1 They continued 
long in the family, and Euphemia, sister of the first Earl of 
Crawford, had a liferent from Wester Brichty given in 141 2 ; 2 
and again in 1449, Alexander Lindsay, Earl of Crawford, gave 
a charter of the lands of Wester Brichty to Fothringham of 
Powrie. 3 The Lindsays were perhaps followed in the rest of 
this property by the Arbuthnotts, as Hugh, the son of Eobert 
Arbuthnott of that Ilk, who married the heiress of Balma- 
kewan, was designed " of Brychtie," 4 about the middle of the 
fifteenth century. 



SECTION III. 

THE LINDSAY PROPERTIES IN MEARNS, OR KINCARDINESHIRE. 

Fasky or Fasqne Phesdo Kinneff and its old castles Barras Caterline church 
and churchyard Dunnottar, its church and castle Present church and tradi- 
tions Fetteresso Uras Lumgair Beuholm Blackiemuir, Balmakewan, 
Morphie Canterland. 

COMPARED with the possessions of the Lindsays in Angus, those 
in Kincardineshire were limited, both as regards their extent 
and the time they were in the hands of the family. Still, 
many of these estates were of great importance, on account of 
both their value and their local position ; and some of them 
were owned by the Lindsays at a remote date, while their 
historical associations (though not immediately connected with 
the name of Lindsay) are interesting to all lovers of national 
history. The most prominent of these transactions such as 
the defence of Dunnottar, and the concealing of the regalia in 
the kirk of Kinneff are well known by the writings of many 
popular authors. These particulars will not therefore be 
repeated ; but our observations will be confined to such points 
only as relate to the possession of these lands by the Lindsays, 

1 Information from the late Earl of Crawford and Balcarres. 

' 2 Robertson, Index, p. 166. 16. 

3 Crawford Case, p. 48 ; Jervise, EpU. i. p. 125. 

* Nisbet, Heraldry, ii. App. p. 89. 



FASQUE AND PHESDO. 393 

and to a few of the less generally understood facts regarding 
their old proprietary history. The district of Neudos, though 
situated in the Mearns, being part of the parish of Edzell, 
necessarily fell under that head, where it has been noticed j 1 
we shall therefore commence with the neighbouring lands of 



or JFasque, antj 

The former of these estates lies in the parish of Fettercairn, 
and the latter in Fordoun. The Wittons, now part of the estate 
of The Burn (to which they were added by the late Lord 
Adam Gordon), and the fine property of Fasky, or as now 
more generally called Fasque, were portions of the lordship of 
Edzell from an old date. We are not aware when the first 
of these was acquired ; but that of Fasky, including Balfour, 
was purchased by Sir Walter of Beaufort, in 147 1, 2 from 
George, Lord Lesly of Kothes ; and, perhaps, as The Wittons 
lie contiguous, they had come to the family at the same 
time. The Easter and Wester town of Balfour, and the lands 
of Milndeulie (Dooly) are mentioned as Edzell property in 
the Eetours of 1699, when the last laird succeeded his 
father; but Fasky was alienated from Edzell about 1510, and 
given by James IV. to Sir John Ramsay, the ex-Lord Bothwell, 
in lieu of his south-country estates, of which he was deprived 
for his adherence to the cause of James in. Ramsay had the 
lands of Balmain at the same time, and his descendants were 
proprietors, and designed baronets therefrom, till 1806, when 
the family in the direct line failed in the sixth baronet. 3 The 
fine property and mansion-house of Fasque were purchased 
in the year 1829 by Sir John Gladstone, father of the present 

i Ut sup. p. 22. a Crawford Case, p. 150. 

3 He was succeeded in tlie baronetcy by his kinsman, the heir-at-law, Sir Thomas 
Ramsay, at whose death in 1830 the title became extinct ; and in the estates by his 
nephew, Alexander Burnet of the house of Leys, who assumed the name of Ramsay, 
and was created a baronet of the United Kingdom in 1806. He was followed by his 
son, who died in 1852, and whose grandson now enjoys the title and remaining 
portion of the family estates : the latter succeeded his father as fourth baronet 
of Balmain in 1875. 



394 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

baronet, and also of the present Premier, the Eight Honour- 
able William Ewart Gladstone. 

At a later date, Sir John Gladstone bought the lands of 
Phesdo, Auchcairnie, and Pitnamoon ; but with the last of 
these, which belonged to the Earls of Eoss, the Lindsays never had 
any connection. All these lands lie in the immediate vicinity 
of the old Palace of Kincardine ; and soon after Bruce ascended 
the throne, he gave six acres of arable land in the tenement of 
Auchcairnie, "adjacent to our manor of Kincardine," 1 to his 
faithful follower, Sir Alexander Frazer of Cowie and Kinnell. 
Phesdo, or as anciently written Fas-dauche (" the arable land, 
or davoch, in the forest "), lies close to the Palace, and, about 
the same time as Frazer acquired the acres alluded to, Bruce 
gave the temporalities of Phesdo to the Abbey of Arbroath. 2 
Alexander, a descendant of John Lindsay, who acquired the 
adjoining estate of Broadland about the middle of the fifteenth 
century, is the first of the name, and, indeed, the first lay 
proprietor of any name, with whom we have met in connection 
with Phesdo. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Falconer of 
Haulkerton, 3 and owned Phesdo and Auchcairnie ; the former 
of these, and perhaps both, were held by his family down to 
about the beginning of the seventeenth century. The old 
manor-house of Phesdo stood on a rising ground adjoining the 
Auchcairnie lands, and commanded a fine prospect of the 
Howe of the Mearns, but all trace of it is now gone. 

No record, or even tradition, of the Lindsays lives in this 
district ; but the following incident (which is preserved in the 
family) regarding their confiscation of the property, is neither 
devoid of interest, nor, it may be presumed, wanting on the 
score of authenticity. The last Lindsay of Phesdo "and 
another gentleman being out sporting near Montrose, the 
one with his greyhound, the other with his hawk, the 

1 Crawford, Officers of State, p. 274. See APPENDIX No. XVI. for a brief 
notice of this Palace. 

2 Robertson, Index, p. 29. 23. 

3 Douglas, Peerage, ii. p. 55. 



PHESDO PROPERTY. 395 

greyhound of the one killed the hawk of the other, ' which 
presently,' says the Kev. William Lindsay, his great- 
grandson, 'occasioning a fray among the servants, it ran 
through the whole clan on both sides, which used to be 
pretty numerous on suchlike occasions. A bailie, which 
is a magistrate of good authority in Scotland, rushing too 
hastily in, to appease it, had his arm cut off by John Lind- 
say, who was in the heat of the quarrel, for which he took 
the advantage of law and confiscated his estate.' " x The 
representative of the Phesdo family was Captain Ignace 
Lindsay, who fought in all the wars of Poland from 1791 to 
1830, and was resident in France, an exile, in 1849. Accord- 
ing to this veteran's account, his great-grandfather was the 
first emigrant from Scotland to America, and the rank of 
nobility was secured to his descendants in Poland, by the Diet 
of 1764. 2 

It is probable that Phesdo, after its confiscation from Lind- 
say, came into the possession of the Keiths, for about 1612, 
Robert Stuart of Inchbreck is said to have married a daughter 
of Sir Alexander Keith of Phesdo? The Keiths had probably 
been followed by Archibald, second son of Sir Alexander Fal- 
coner of Haulkerton, ancestor of the unfortunate Sir John, who, 
on being charged with malversation in his office of Warden of 
the Mint, committed felo de se at his residence of Phesdo in 
1 68 2. 4 His son, James, was a lawyer of great eminence " one 
of the privy council of King William and Queen Anne, and one 
of the first treaters for an Union." 6 He died in 1705, at the 
age of fifty-seven ; and, in an elegy on his death, it is said 

" that he came almost, 
Astrea-like, for to enlight dark dayes 
Of vices all, with his clear ahyning rayes." 



i Lives, ii. p. 280. 8 Ibid. ii. p. 281. 

8 Prof. Stuart, Antiq. Essays, p. 13. 

4 Brunton and Haig, Acct. of Senators, Coll. of Justice, p. 445. 

5 Epitaph in Old Greyfriars, Edinburgh. 



396 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Lord Phesdo's last surviving son died in 1764, and his estates 
passed to the Honourable Captain George Falconer, fifth son of 
the fifth Lord Haulkerton, who was long in the Eoyal Navy. 
He died Commander of the " Invincible " man-of-war, in 1780, 
and his widow became the wife of John Mill of Fern. 1 



Itfntuff, anfo Bartag. 

The parish of Kinneff (the old church of which is famous 
as the place where the Eegalia of Scotland were concealed 
during the civil broils of the seventeenth century) contributed 
largely at one time towards the maintenance of the house of 
Crawford. David de Lindsay, lord of Kinneffe (and perhaps 
of Neudos) was witness in 1410, along with Alexander y e 
Lindsay Earl of Crawford, and Sir William y e Lindsay lord of 
Eossie. 2 The brave " young Alysawnder the Lyndyssay," 
youngest son of Sir Alexander of Glenesk, was designed of 
Kinneff, and, as before mentioned, bore arms at the battle of 
Otterburne, routed the Duke of Lancaster near Queensferry, 
and died on the field of Verneuil in 1424. 3 The castle of 
Herbertsheil, of which no remains are now traceable, is said 
to have been tenanted by Lindsays, and may have been the 
residence of the hero of Verneuil. Besides this castle, however, 
there were several others in the parish ; 4 but of all these a 
mere fragment of Whistleberry alone remains. Besides Her- 
bertsheil, the Fishertown, and other lands in Kinneff, the 
Lindsays were also possessed of Barras before the beginning of 
the seventeenth century, and had perhaps been followed therein 
by Douglas, a cadet of the noble house of Angus; for in 1640, 
it was sold by Sir John Douglas to his brother-in-law, George 

i Ut sup. p. 237. 2 Reg. Ep. Brech. i. p. 32. 

3 Ut sup. pp. 33 sq., etc. 

4 See Old Stat. Account, vi. pp. 197 sq., which is more than ordinarily in- 
teresting in historical points. Though bearing the minister's name, it was framed 
by the schoolmaster, Mr. Niddrie, who came to the parish about 1750. 



KINNEFF AND BARRAS. 397 

Ogilvy of Lumgair, the future defender of Dunnottar and 
preserver of the Eegalia. 1 

Kinneff was originally granted by William the Lion to a 
Norman lord named John de Montfort, 2 who was a considerable 
benefactor to the Abbey of Arbroath ; and a relation perhaps 
a brother was parson of Kinneff, and witnesses one of John's 
grants from his lands of Glaskeler (? Glaslaw), in the same neigh- 
bourhood, in 121 1-1 4, 3 while a " Eobertus de Monteforti" was 
rector of Kinneff, and a witness in 1300. The Montforts, who 
were first settled in the Lothians, survived in the Mearns till 
about the middle of the fourteenth century, as in 1361 Chris- 
tian, the relict of "John de Monteforti," gave the lands of Kinneff, 
Slains, Eausyde, and Eicarton, to a person bearing the rather odd 
name of Simon de Schaklok. 4 This charter was granted at Mon- 
trose by David II., but whether Schaklok was followed by John 
Dolas is matter of doubt. It is certain, however, that in 1398, 
the first Earl of Crawford had, at least, the Kinneff portion 
from Dolas ; and, although the Earl granted a wadset of that to 
Gilbert Graham of Morphie, it continued under the superiority 
of the Lindsays down to the time of Andrew Gray's succession 
in 1446. 5 Two years after, we find Eobert Bisset of Kinneff, 

1 There are several interesting monuments within the church of Kinneff one to 
the memory of Governor Sir George Ogilvy of Barras and his Lady, and another of 
old date to Mr. and Mrs. Granger, who aided Mrs. Ogilvy in preserving the Regalia. 
The oldest, however, belongs to Graham of Largie and Morphie, who died in 1597. 
Another is to the memory of a family surnained Honeyman, who were ministers of the 
parish for four generations, from 1663 to 1781. The first of these was brother to that 
Andrew, Bishop of Orkney, who received the shot of the fanatic Mitchell in his arm, 
when he was accompanying Archbishop Sharpe, for whom it was intended, to his 
carriage at the head of Blackfriars' Wynd, Edinburgh, in July 1668. (See Jervise, 
Epit. i. pp. 169 sq.) The following "reff," from the kirk of Kinneff, is worth noting : 
In Ada Dom. Concilii, Nov. 12, 1495, Alexander Stratoun of the Knox (of Benholm) 
had a remission, " for art et part of the reff of ane horse out of Lovnane, et for the 
reff of ane chalisse out of the kirk of Kynne/, et for the stouthe reff of certane gudis 
pertening to the King et the merchandis of Edinburghe of the bark et schippis, 
quhilk brek beside Kynneff, et for arte [et parte of the said action] is alanerly," etc. 

2 Chalmers, Caled. i. p. 591. 

Reg. Vet. Aberbrothoc, p. 46; Reg. Prior. 8. And. p. 120. 

4 Rey. Mag. Sig. p. 56. 172 ; cf. Robertson, Index, p. 55. 4. A Walter Shakloc 
in 1329 grants a charter over a third part of Inieney to Henricus de Rossy. Reg. 
Vet. Aberbr. p. 339, -confirmed by King Robert. 76. p. 340.) 

8 Robertson, Index, p. 83. 172. 



398 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

and in 1491 Walter Byssate, taking part in assizes in the Mearns 
with other gentlemen of the neighbourhood. The Barras por- 
tion of Kinneff had perhaps come to the Lindsays from Sir 
Alexander Auchenleck of that Ilk, to whom that property was 
resigned by the co-heiresses of Melville of Glenbervie towards 
the beginning of the fifteenth century. 1 In the end of the seven- 
teenth century Master Eobert Eait (probably an ecclesiastic) was 
served heir to his next younger brother in the estate of Barras. 2 
The name of Kinneff is said to have arisen from one of the 
kings Kenneth having had a hunting-seat in the parish, and 
the kirk is sometimes called the " church of Saint Kenneth." 3 
The remains of an old house near the kirk were known, 
towards the end of last century, as St. Arnty, or St. Arnold's 
Kill, and previous to the Reformation the church of Bervie was 
a pendicle of Kinneff. Kinneff was in the diocese of St. 
Andrews, but the kirks of Katerin (Caterline) and Kingornie 
were in that of Brechin. Both were gifted to the Abbey of 
Arbroath towards the end of the twelfth century the former by 
William the Lion, and the latter by Bishop Turpin of Brechin. 4 
The church of Caterline has disappeared, but the grave- 
yard is still used as a place of interment ; and the ambry of 
the old kirk, with the fragment of a stone bearing the rudely 
incised figures of a cross and sword, are preserved in the sub- 
stantial wall which encloses the burial-place. The oldest tomb- 
stone (unfortunately without date, much mutilated, and bearing : 

" TVMVLVS METELLANE LIVINGSTONE SPONSE QVONDAM 

ROBERTI DOVGLASII") is remarkable as belonging to the 
parents of the adventurous Lady of Governor Sir George 
Ogilvy, through whose well-known and ingenious scheme the 
ancient symbols of Scottish royalty were so effectively pre- 
served from the grasp of Cromwell. 

1 Acta Dom. Condi. Jan. 21, 1422. 

2 Inquis. Gen. Scot. No. 6546 ; cf. Inquis. de Tutela, Nos. 519, 520. 
Wodrow, Biog. Coll. i. p. 234 

4 Reg. Vet. Aberbrothoc, p. 5 ; Reg. Nigr. Aberbr. pp. 118, 204, 459 ; Reg. Ejiisc. 
Brech. i. pp. 112 sq. ; ii. pp. 256 sq. 



CATERLINE, DUNNOTTAR, URAS, AND LUMGAIR. 399 

Both Kingornie and Caterline are places of some note. 
The " chapel well " is still to be seen in the neighbourhood of 
the former, and the church is said to have been originally 
founded by David li., in gratitude for being landed there in 
safety with his consort Johanna in May 134 1. 1 About the time 
of the Eevolution, the small property of Kingornie belonged to 
the father of the celebrated Dr. Arbuthnott, who, on being 
ejected from his living at the parish church of Arbuthnott, took 
up his abode on his paternal estate, and there his illustrious 
son spent his earliest years ; but there is now no trace of 
the old kirk, and its name does not occur in the Register of 
Ministers for 1567. The earliest proprietors of Caterline were 
the Fitz-Bernards, ancestors of the Sibbalds of Kair ; one of the 
latter, about the year 1206, gave the green cove of the Eath, and 
mill of Caterline, to the monks of Arbroath, 2 and another was 
rector of Benholm and holder of the barony of Mondynes in 
1625. 3 The site of the Eath, or fort, is still known as "Eath 
field," and situated near a small inlet of the sea, called Breidin's 
Bay. 4 An Episcopal church, with parsonage, school, and school- 
house, was built at Caterline in 1848, under the dedication of 
St. Philip, and the first clergyman, Eev. James Stevenson, a 
native of Brechin, rests in the churchyard, having died in 1868. 

Uunnottar, Eras, anti 3Lnmjjair. 

The interesting property of Dunnottar, with which and its 
castle the name and actions of the ancient family of Keith- 
Marischal were very closely connected for nearly four 
centuries, fell into the hands of Sir William Lindsay of the 
Byres, as the dowry of his wife, Christiana, daughter of Sir 

1 Dalrymple, Annals, ii. p. 228. There was a kirk here in Alexander m.'s 
time. It is returned in the ancient Taxatio at 20s. 

s Reg. Vet. Aberbrothoc, p. 44, etc. 3 Reg. Epis. Brech. ii. 243. 

4 The kirk of Caterline was perhaps dedicated to one of the SS. Katherine. There 
was a chapel at Barras dedicated to St. John. A portion of Barras was held under 
the superiority of the Knights of St. John. A hill still bears the name of "St. Johii," 
and the '"Temple lands" are also pointed out to this day. (Tnq. Spec. Kincard. 
No. 110.) 



400 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

William Keith, by Margaret Eraser, the heiress of the thane- 
dom of Cowie and other possessions. Lindsay's occupancy of 
Dunnottar was short ; for, between the years 1382 and 1397, 1 he 
exchanged it with his father-in-law for the lands of Struthers, 
in Fife. From the brevity of their ownership, no traditions 
of the Lindsays exist here or at Uras, of which and Lumgair it 
will be shortly seen that they were lords at an early period. 

During the ownership of Lindsay, and down to the year 
1390, there was no castle at Dunnottar such as was raised at a 
later date, yet in 1336 it must have been a fortified place, when 
Sir Andrew Moray, the Regent, took the fortalices of Kinclavin, 
Dunnottar, Kinneff, and Laurieston after the departure of the 
English king, and levelled them to the ground. 2 Present tradi- 
tion points to an aperture in the existing Keep, by which 
Wallace is said to have entered and massacred a party of the 
English, who had fled to the rock for safety ; but the building 
on the rock at that time had probably comprised little more 
than the church, within which the invaders had taken refuge. 
The parson of Dunnottar, Walter de Keryngton, swore fealty to 
Edward at Berwick-on-Tweed in 1296. 3 In the old Taxatio 
" the church of Dunotyr, with the chapel," was rated at twelve 
marks. 4 The storming of the kirk by Wallace, which occurred 
about 1297, is thus described by Blind Harry : 

" Ye Byschop yan began tretty to ma, 
Yair lyffs to get out off the land to ga. 
Bot yai war rad, and durst not weyll affy : 
Wallace in fyr gert set all haistely, 
Brynt up the kyrk and all that was yarin, 
Atour the rock the laiff ran with gret dyn ; 
Sum hang on craggs richt dulfully to de ; 
Sum lap, sum fell, sum flotyret in the sea, 
Na Sothroune on lyff was lewyt it yat hauld, 
And yaim within yai brynt in powder cauld." 

The kirk was rebuilt, but again burned down by Edward III., 
the rock being then occupied by the Scots. In 1351, Matthew 

1 Liises, i. pp. 52, 412. 

2 Extract, e Cron. Scoc. p. 171. 3 Flagman Rolls, p. 169. 
Reg. Prior. S. Andr. p. 37 ; Reg. Vet. Aberbr. p. 240. 



DUNNOTTAE, CHURCH AND CASTLE. 401 

was rector of the church. 1 About that period, and for some 
time previously, the " craig " of Dunnottar, as the rock was then 
termed, belonged in property to the Earl of Sutherland, who 
had it and other lands in the Mearns, in dowry with his wife, 
Lady Marjory, sister of David II. 2 He owned Dunnottar at the 
time of Edward's siege, and fell at the battle of Halidon in 
1333, 3 while commanding the van of the army. 

The Earls of Sutherland were succeeded in Dunnottar by 
Matthew de Gloucester of whom or his family we have been 
unable to learn anything beyond the fact that, through, dis- 
loyalty, he latterly forfeited the Uras part of his property. 
Long prior to this, however, in 1341, Gloucester resigned Dun- 
nottar into the hands of Thomas Eait, who, about this time, 
became a large proprietor in the Mearns a fact that proves 
the family to have been settled in the district at least half a 
century before the time ascribed to them by Nisbet. That 
famous genealogist says that the name of Eait was originally 
brought to the district in Eobert m.'s time, by a fugitive knight, 
who killed the Thane of Calder, and fled for protection to 
Keith-Marischal ; and that his son marrying the heiress of Hall- 
green, his descendants subsisted there down to the close of the 
seventeenth century. 4 

It was not, therefore, until the resignation of Eait, which 
occurred during the second half of the fourteenth century, that 
the Keiths had connection with Dunnottar. Sir William Keith, 
father-in-law of Sir William Lindsay, married Margaret Eraser, 
daughter of the Thane of Cowie, and thus became a Kincar- 
dineshire baron ; and until about 1394, when he erected a castle 
beside the chapel, on the craig, or rock, of Dunnottar, he is 

1 Reg, Nigr. Aberbr. p. 25. 2 Robertson, Index, p. 49. 

3 Chalmers, Caledonia, i. p. 627. 

4 The same industrious and generally exact author says that the family of Rait 
came from the country of Rhetia in Germany, from which they assumed their name, 
and had their first possessions in Caledonia, in the county of Nairn, from Malcolm iv. 
(Heraldry, i. p. 123.) Several of the name swore fealty to Edward in 1296, and 
some of them migrated into Forfarshire, where they were small proprietors and 
clergymen during the seventeenth century. Major Rait, C.B., of Anniston, near 
Inverkeillor, is supposed to be the representative of the Hallgreen branch. 

2c 



402 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

supposed to have resided at Cowie, in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood, where the possible site of a castle is pointed out on 
a cliff by the sea-side. 1 

The summary manner in which Keith thus invaded conse- 
crated ground threatened his total overthrow, as he was excom- 
municated by the Bishop of St. Andrews for it, and only restored 
by the Pope's Bull on making various penitential grants, and 
erecting another place of worship. This church was built on 
the site of the present one, which, though now inconveniently 
situated for the town of Stonehaven, stands on a delightful 
mound on the right bank of the Carron, and is reached through 
an avenue of fine old trees. It was dedicated to St. Bridget, 
and in the graveyard containing the ashes of the famous founder 
of the Marischal College of Aberdeen, and many of his noble 
relatives, there is also a plain but interesting monument to the 
memory of the martyrs of the Covenant, a hundred and sixty 
or seventy of whom were confined in a narrow damp cell of 
the castle, called since then the " Whigs' Vault." 2 

It was in the year 1390, soon after the forfeiture of Matthew 
de Gloucester, that Sir Alexander de Lindsay of Kinneff, 
younger son of Catherine Stirling of Glenesk, came into posses- 
sion of the lands of Uras, Lumgair, and others in the neighbour- 
hood. 3 The first of these, which passed from Duncan de Walays 
of Barras, and Matthew de Eychles, portion ers of the same, was 
subsequently resigned by Lindsay to Oliphant of Aberdagie, 
and Ogilvy of Auchterhouse, so that it was only at the close of 

1 The church of " Fethiressach " and chapel, or the kirk of Cowie, were in the 
diocese of St. Andrews, and are rated at twenty marks in the ancient Taxatio. The 
church was inscribed to St. Caran, and the chapel to the Virgin Mary. The latter was 
given to Marischal College, Aberdeen, by Earl George, founder of that University, 
and the ruins, which stand on a cliff by the sea-side, are exceedingly picturesque. 
The old kirk of Fetteresso is also a ruin. In Spottiswoode Miscellany, i. pp. 287-94, 
the reader will find some Latin verses, by a hitherto unknown poet of the name 
of Andrew Stephens, or Stephenson, who was schoolmaster at Fetteresso. The 
poems are ia praise of Bishop Forbes of Edinburgh, dedicated to Archbishop Spottis- 
woode, and dated Fetteresso, April 16, 1634. 

2 Anderson, Black Book of Kincardine, pp. 7 sq. See a popular Guide to Dun- 
not tar Castle, etc., by the Rev. Mr. Longmuir, pp. 60 sq. 

* Robertson, Index, pp. 87, 94, 96, 124, 125, 130, 131, 144. 



KINNEFF, LUMGAIR, AND BAKRAS. 403 

the fifteenth century, that Keith Marischal had any interest in 
Uras ; a and, whether by mortgage or otherwise, during the 
possession of the third Earl Marischal, Patrick Crichton of 
Cranston Eiddell had retours of that barony. But it again 
fell to the Keiths, and was given in wadset in 1672 to the 
father of Eobert Keith, Bishop of Caithness and Orkney, author 
of the Catalogue of the Scottish Bishops and other meritorious 
books. The Bishop was born there on the 7th of February 
1681, and was lineally descended from Alexander, the youngest 
son of the third Earl Marischal. 2 

Besides being an early acquired part of the Lindsay pro- 
perty, Lumgair is further remarkable as the first Kincardine- 
shire estate of the Ogilvys of Ban-as, the first of whom, William, 
second and only surviving son of Ogilvy of Balnagarrow and 
Chapelton (a cadet of the house of Inverquharity), sold his 
patrimony in Angus and had a wadset right of Lumgair from 
Earl Marischal, who was then superior. He married a niece 
of Strachan of Thornton, by whom he had the brave governor 
of Dunnottar Castle. He and his wife were buried at Duimot- 
tar, and the following inscription is on their grave-stone: 
" Heir lyes a famovs and worthy gentillman, William Ogilvy 
of Lumger, and Catherin Straquhan, his spovs, he being 76 
yeirs of age, he departed this lyfe in peace, 3 Jany 1650, and 
shee being 89 yeirs of age, departed hir lyfe the 28 of Febr 
1651." The first of the Falconers is said to have had charters 
of Lonkyir (Lumgair) from David I. ; 3 but the earliest authentic 
notice of that family occurs only in the time of William the 
Lion, when William Auceps, or William the Falconer, granted 
(A.D. 1218-22) certain lands to the kirk of Maringtun or Mary- 
ton. 4 

1 Keg. Mag. Sig. pp. 66, no. 218; 162, no. 4. 

2 Keith, Catalog, p. xx. A farm called Chapelton lies about a mile and a 
half west of Uras ; and from Ragman Rolls (p. 165) it appears that John Vicar de 
Urres swore fealty to Edward in 1296. 8 Chalmers, Caled. i. p. 541. 

4 Reg. Vet. Ab rbr. p. 100 ; A.D. 1218-22 Walter de Lunkyrr witnessed a 
deed of rendition of the lands of Drumsleed by Gregory, Bishop of Brechin. (Reg. 
Kp. Br. ii. p. 272.) 



404 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 



The lands of Benholm were anciently held by a family who 
designed themselves de Benham, from at least the beginning of 
the thirteenth century till towards the close of the fourteenth. 
" Master Thomas de Bennum " was rector of the schools of 
Aberdeen in 1262, and a relative named Hugh became Bishop 
of Aberdeen ten years after. 1 The family of Hew de Benham 
failed in a female, who became the wife of Allan Lundie, 2 a 
cadet of the old family of that name, branches of which settled 
in Fife and Forfarshire during the reigns of Malcolm iv. and 
William I. 3 The kirk was in the diocese of St. Andrews ; and 
during the time of Lundie, the monks of Arbroath had a gift 
of a chalder of victual from these lands. This occurred in 
1398; and towards the middle of the sixteenth century, the 
Lundies ended in Eobert, whose daughter and heiress, Elizabeth, 
was married to Lord Altrie, second son of the fourth Earl 
Marischal. Altrie died before 1606, leaving two daughters, 
who were respectively married to Hay of Delgaty and Erskine 
of Dun. 4 Sir John Lindsay of "Woodwrae and Balinscho held 
part of the estate for several years down to 1587, 5 when he 
resigned his portion of it in favour of Eobert, Lord Altrie, 
whose daughter, Margaret Keith, Erskine's widow, became 
Lindsay's second wife. 6 After the death of Altrie, John Gordon 
possessed Benholm 7 for a few years ; but it again fell to Keith, 
Earl Marischal, and in the year 1633 appears to have been 
divided among the co-heiresses of Alexander Keith of Phesdo 

1 Reg. Vet. Aberbr. 193. Hugh Benham or Benam was Bishop of Aberdeen from 
1272 till 1282, and in the latter of these years he died in Loch Goul " of a sudden 
suffocation, or catarrh, so says Boethius ; yet the Epistolare seems to say that lie 
was slain in an ambuscade, in lacu Goule insidiis occubiit." (Coll. on Aberdeen 
and Banff, p. 162.) 

2 Reg. Mag. Sig. p. 178, no. 3 ; Robertson, Index, p. 125. 3. 

3 Chalmers, Caledonia, i. p. 533. 4 Douglas, Peerage, i. p. 61. 
5 Crawford, Peerage, p. 31. 6 Ut sup. p. 347. 

7 (A.D. 1661) Acts of Part. vii. p. 97. See Pitcairn, Crim. Trials, iii. 562 sq., for 
a curious case of masterful theft or stouthrief from the house of Benholm in October 
1622, on the eve of the death of George, Earl Marischal, who died at Dunnottar in 
April 1623. 



BENHOLM, BALMAKEWAN, AND MORPEJIE. 405 

and Benholm, 1 but the whole position of the property lies at 
that period in much obscurity. About 1656 Mr. James Scott 
of Logic purchased the estate of Brotherton, and then, or soon 
after, one of his sons, Eobert Scott, bought the estate of Ben- 
holm and its castle. The greater part of the parish of Benholm 
now belongs to Hercules Scott, Esq. of Brotherton, but Benholm 
Castle has had a different destination. Falling to Captain 
George Scott of Hedderwick and Benholm through his mother 
Mrs. Isabella (Robertson) Scott, heiress of Benholm, and 
daughter of Eobert Scott of Benholm, the estate of Benholm 
was sold about twenty-five years ago to Mr. Matheson, and 
given in exchange to Lord Cranstoun for his entailed estates 
in Eoss-shire. An equivalent acreage of Benholm being on 
this account entailed, it passed in 1869, on the death of Charles 
Frederick, eleventh and last Baron Cranstoun, to the Baroness 
de Virte, eldest daughter of the late Eoderick Macleod, Esq., 
M.P., of Cadboll, county Cromarty, as heir of entail. The 
entail was subsequently thrown off, and the property thus 
dealt with was sold to Mr. William Smith, Stone of Morphie. 
The unentailed portion passed to Lady Cranstoun, widow of 
the tenth Baron Cranstoun, and her daughter. 2 

Blacfcfenwtr, Baltnafofcran, fStorpfjtc, antj (Eantetlanti, 

are, so far as we are aware, the only other lands of the 
Lindsays in Kincardineshire, and none of these were held by 
the family for any length of time. Blackiemuir, which is of 
limited extent, but could boast at a late date of a bleaching 
and print-field, lies on the banks of the Luther, in the parish 
of Conveth or Laurencekirk, and was acquired by the first 

1 Inquis. Spec. Kincard. No. 189 ; Prof. Stuart, Essays, p. xiii. 

2 The tower or old manor-house of Benholm, which was probably built by Lord 
Altrie, is much in the style of Auchenleck and Inverquharity, about eighty feet 
high, and the walls about five and a half feet thick. The battlement is broad and 
massive, with turrets at each corner, overtopt by a pent-house. In Symson's pre- 
face to Frazer of Coil's Discourse on the Second Sight, the eldest son of the laird of 
Nether Benholm is quoted as an authority to show the existence of taibhsef 



406 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Earl of Crawford in 1390; 1 but the term of its occupancy by 
the family is otherwise unknown. It had been held under the 
superiority of either the Abbot of Arbroath or the Prior of St. 
Andrews, .the greater part of the district having been given to 
the former establishment at an early date, 2 and the lesser 
part gifted to the latter by Eoger de Wyrfaud, who had the 
" territory of Cunveth " from Eechenda, daughter and heiress 
of Wyrfaud de Berkeley 3 hence, perhaps, the origin of the 
name of Conveth, which, according to Skene, means " duty paid 
to an ecclesiastical superior." 4 

The lands of Balmakewan lie in the parish of Mary kirk. 
They were owned by Allan Fawsyde from at least 1329 to 
1371, 5 as about that time, perhaps, they were acquired by a 
family who designed themselves de Balmaquin. This race 
failed in the male line about 1450, when Hugh Arbuthnott, 
second sou of Eobert of that Ilk, married the heiress, and thus 
came to the estate. 6 It probably continued in the Arbuthnott 
family till the time of its acquisition by Lord Menmuir, the 
first Lindsay of Balcarres, who was proprietor of it in 1580. 
Andrew Eaitt was served heir to his father David, Principal 
of King's College, Old Aberdeen, in Over and Nether Bal- 



1 Reg. Mag. Sig. p. 194, no. 2. 

2 The Wisharts of Pitarrow held the lands of Mill of Conveth, Hilton, and Scots- 
town, from Abbot Adam of Arbroath, A.D. 1242. (Reg. Vet. Aberbr. p. 206.) 

s Lyon, Hist, of St. Andrews, ii. pp. 289-90; Reg. Vet. Aberbr. pp. 72, 231, 
279, 285-6. 

,* Laurencekirk, the present name of the parish, was assumed from the kirk of Con- 
veth having been dedicated to St. Laurence. (On the name or word Conveth, see Skene, 
Celt. Scot. iii. p. 232.) The old church stood perhaps about a mile east of the town 
of Laurencekirk, but Rev. W. R. Fraser, in his History of Laurencekirk, pp. 211 sq., 
concludes that the old church occupied the site of the present, and that there is no trace 
of church or churchyard elsewhere except at the chapel Knap on Scotstown. From 
the time of the annual fair it is plain that the dedication was to St. Laurence the 
Martyr, whose feast is August 10. (See Jervise, Epit. i. pp. 288 sq.) The village 
owes its existence to the late Lord Gardenstone, a Lord of Session, who obtained a 
charter for erecting it into a free burgh of barony in 1779. Ruddiman, the gram- 
marian, taught the parish school here for some time ; so at a later date did Ross, 
the author of Helenore, or the Fortunate Shepherdess. Dr. Seattle, author of The 
Minstrel, was born here in 1735. This place was also famous for the manufacture of 
a kind of snuff-box, similar to that of Cumnock in Ayrshire. 

6 Robertson, Index, pp. 37. 9 ; 60. 15. Nisbet, Heraldry, ii. App. p. 89. 



MORPHIE AND CANTERLAND. 407 

makewan, December 17, 1636, 1 and a son of Barclay of John- 
stone was designed of Balmakewan at a later date. 

The lands of Morphie and Canterland, in the parish of St. 
Cyrus, 2 were also in the family for a limited time. The first of 
these was acquired by Sir David Lindsay of Edzell in 1588, 
and is called Morphyfraser, from the fact of its having been 
granted to Frazer of Cowie, the trusty follower and relative 
of Bruce. Margaret Bruce, Frazer's spouse and the King's 
sister, is designed therefrom in 1329, 3 and so, about the same 
period, is Marjory Murray, 4 and the Stewarts of Evandale held 
the lands from about 1460 to 14 93. 5 Sir Thomas Erskine of 
Brechin was proprietor of Morphyfraser at a rather later date ; 
for in 1537 he granted these lands to Forester of Corstorphine, 6 
but in the middle of the same century we find a Eobert Graham 
of Morphy, and soon after a John as heir-apparent, 7 while in 
1599 Eobert Grahame, younger of Morphy, grandson of Sir 
Henry Grahame of Morphy, Knight, marries a daughter of 
David Carnegie of Colluthie. It is probable that from these 
the estates of Morphy passed to the Lindsays, by one of whom 
they were sold to Sir Eobert Graham of Morphy, in 1629. 8 
They were subsequently destined by will to the Barclays of 
Balmakewan, who, by the deed of entail, had to take and 
carry the name and arms of the Grahams of Morphie. The 

1 Inquis. Spec. Forfar. No. 68. 

2 The church of St. Cyrus, or Ecclesgrig (perhaps Gregory's Church), was dedicated 
to St. Cyr or Cyricus, and stood in the old churchyard by the sea-side. The church 
was given to St. Andrews by Bishop Richard (Reg. Prior. S. Andr. p. 138), and the 
chapel, which was inscribed to St. Laurence, and stood at Chapeltown of Laurieston, 
was in the same diocese. (For the church, chapel, and abbey lands, see Reg. Prior. S. 
Andr., pass. ) George Beattie, author of the popular local poem of " John o' Arnha'," 
was a native of the parish, and lies buried in the Nether churchyard, where some 
admirers of his genius have erected a monument to him. Sir Joseph Mutar Straton 
of Kirkside, K.C.B., who died in 1840, aged sixty-three, is also interred in the same 
romantic burial-place. He bore a prominent part in the wars of the Peninsula and at 
Waterloo. (Jervise, Epitaphs, i. p. 36.) 

s Robertson, Index, p. 38. 33. * Ibid. p. 62. 24. 

8 Ada Aud. pp. 8, 179 ; Reg. Nigr. Aberbr. p. 115 ; cf. ibid. p. 138 for a William 
Graham de Morfy in 1464. 

8 Douglas, Peerage, i. p. 600, calling the place Morfy-fressal. 

i Reg. Ep. Brech. ii. pp. 227, 385. 

8 Crawford Case, p. 184 ; Fraser, Hist. Carnegies of Southesk, i. pp. 65 sq. 



408 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

present proprietor is F. Barclay Graliame, eldest surviving son 
of the late Mr. Barron Graliame, who died in 1877. 

The adjoining property of Canterland, in the same parish, 
also belonged to Sir David of Edzell. It was long in the hands 
of a family surnamed Eamsay, who held it under the superiority 
of the Cathedral of Brechin, to which they paid six chalders 
of meal annually. 1 It was afterwards possessed by a col- 
lateral member of the Keiths, 2 and from this family it perhaps 
passed to the Lindsays. John, nephew of the reputed mur- 
derer of Lord Spynie, was the last Lindsay of Canterland ; and 
the laird of Edzell and Glenesk having died in 1648 without 
male issue, he was succeeded in these large estates by John of 
Canterland. This laird was Sheriff of Forfarshire, a friend of 
the Covenant, and otherwise a person of great worth ; but 
despite his anxious endeavour to redeem the fallen state of his 
house, and retrieve the fortunes of his family, the losses that 
he sustained through the quartering of Montrose's soldiers on 
his lands, the heavy fine imposed upon him for his adherence 
to the Covenant, and many other serious inflictions, already 
alluded to, completely baffled his efforts. He died in 1671, a 
much harassed and disappointed person, and had two successors 
in Edzell his son and grandson from the latter of whom the 
family possessions of Edzell and Glenesk passed to the Earl of 
Panmure in 1714 ; and the once powerful race of the Lindsays 
of Glenesk is now represented as landed proprietors in their 
native shire by the family of Kinblethmont alone, who, as before 
seen, are sprung from a sister of the last Lord Spynie. 

1 Ada Aud. p. 34. 2 Douglas, Baronage, p. 443. 



APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX. 



No. I. PAGE 11. 

Extract from Parish Register of Edzell concerning the Jacobite 
Baffle of in*. 

"October 30, 1714. This day Mr. Gray came to preach, but he no 
sooner advanced towards the church than he was interrupted and stopt in 
his passage by a great many persons outhounded and hired by David 
Lyndesay of Edzell to mob and rable him, and those that were with him, 
who did violently beat severals of those who came with Mr. Gray to join in 
divine worship with big staves to the effusion of their blood, and thrust at 
the breasts of others of them with naked knives and durks, and violently 
beat them, and did strik them with stones and rungs, and bruised them to 
that degree that some of them fainted, others lay as dead on the ground for 
some time, and others of them they drove into the West Waiter running by 
the church, which was very deep by reasone of much rain that had fallen 
the night befor and that morning, and forced them to wade and pas hither 
and thither in the said watter until they were almost drouned, and, having 
suffered them to come out of the water, they cut their cloaths and struck 
them severely upon the head, so that they had not there health for many 
moneths thereafter. They also forced Mr. Gray's servent, after having dis- 
persed his hearers, to flee with his horse, so that Mr. Gray himself was 
oblidged to wade through the water with the hazard of his life in his return to 
the pkce of his residence for the time : All this the said rablers did, to the 
great scandale of Religione and prophanation of the Lord's day; and to engage 
them to this day's work the said David Lindesay of Edzell, to his Eternal 
disgrace, gave the rablers mony with ale and brandie to intoxicate them 
that morning befor they came down from the house of Edzell ; and after 
the said rablers (to wit, John Balfour, Frances Low, Thomas Cowie, David 
Findlay, all domestick servants to the said Laird of Edzell ; William 
Buchin in Strouan, John Dury in Duryhill, John Kinninment, piper, James 
Stewart, servant to Thomas Broun in Mains of Edzell, Jannet Buchan and 
Katharine Beatie, als his servitrixes ; Magdalen Shuan, daughter to Robert 
Shuan in Hilsyd of Edzell ; Agnes Mathers, daughter to James Mathers in 
Sleatfoord ; Isabel Mathers, spouse to the forsaid John Kinninmint ; James 
Davidson, taylor in Sleatford ; John Low, younger, maltman there ; William 
Low, merchand there ; James Stewart, cotterman to William Bellie, in Bon- 
hard ; James Smith, servant to David Smith, in Dalfouper), returned to the 
house of Edzell, and had given an account to the said David Lindsay of 



412 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Edzell and some others in company there mett, of their expedition, they 
were much applauded by that company ; which maltreatment the said Mr. 
Gray having laid before the Presbytery of Brechine, they ordered him to 
raise criminal letters against the said David Lindesay and the foresaid 
rablers, and prosecute them befor the Justiciary Court at Edinburgh ; but 
befor the day of comperance, the said Laird of Edzell agreed the whole 
matter with the said Mr. Gray, whereby former differences were com- 
pounded, and the said Mr. Gray entered peaceably to discharge his minis- 
terial functions in the parish of Edzell on the 30 day of January 1715," 
when the Episcopalians delivered over to him the " communion vessells and 
vestments " which they had all along retained and made use of. 1 

List of the " communion vessells and vestments " of the church of 
Edzell, on 19th January 1710, as given over by " the airs " of the deceased 
Eobert Annandale, late church officer, to James Wood and George Will, 
elders, and by them given in " to Eobert Smith, serv* to the Ld. of Edzell, 
to wit : 

Two bigg pewter plates. 

It. two cups. 

It. two napkins. 

It. two table cloaths, the largest of q^ torn and cut by my r [minister ?]. 

It. a mortcloath w* a harden garb [quaere discipline dress ?] 

It. two flaggons pewter. 

It. a little plate. 

It. two keys of the church doors, the on of the Lds. loft, the oy r of the 

middle church door. 

It. two new cups belonging the s d church are in Lethnot. The fors d parts 
delivered as said is to be keept by the s d Eobert Smith, till the Ld's 
return from Glenesk, or another officer be entered. 
It. two bigg Bibles, the on the Lds. the oy r the churches." 



No. II PAGE 52. 

Extracts from Rental-Book of Edzell and Lethnot for 1672 and 1699, 
mostly in the handwriting of David, the penultimate Lindsay of 
% Edzell? 

James Bellie payes yearlie 22 merks, 8 chickens, and 4 poultrie. 
William Estine, 10 lib for poultrie duetie and tind money, &c., and payed 

of me for all fees ; received a rix dollerare in Ion from me June 15, 

'99 : also a boll of meall not compted for. 
George Will 
John Moleson, 8 lib 6s. 8d. and chickens. 

1 These disturbances are given as "the reason why there is such a blank in this 
Regi store." 

2 Mr. Jervise received the original MS. from the late Mr. Leighton, farmer, Drum- 
cairn, had it carefully made up, and sent it to the late Earl of Crawford at Haigh 
Hall, Lancashire. 



APPENDIX II. 413 

John Finlaw, 10 merks, and 6 chickens. 

Alexander Davidsone, 10 lib for duetie, and all oyr things. 

John Low, smith, for his land 20 lib and 6 chickens, 8 lib of srniddie rent. 

George Mathers. 

Isabell Donaldson and Margaret Watt, the first vjs. 4d., the other 1 lib. 

James Christie, in Hillsyde of Ballinoe, 10 lib, and six poutrie. 

David Forsyth, yr., 5 lib and poutrie. 

HOLL OF SCLAITFOORD, possessed be James Hutcheon, 12 bolls of meall, 1 
40 lib of silver duetie, 10 merks of tind money, 12 poutrie, 6 capons. 

[One or more leaves are wanting here, but the following six entries evidently 
refer to feuars of Slateford, now Edzell village.] 

That part possessed be John Lyell, 12 lib, and 6 chickens. 

(Ibid.) John Livingstoune, 22 merks, 4 putrie, and 8 chickens. 

(Ibid.) John McKye, 5 bolls of meal, and 1 boll of bear ; 2 merks of tind 
silver, and 6 putrie. 

(Ibid.) Alexr. Low, 6 bols of meal ; 40s. tind silver, 8 lib for the smiddie, 
8 putrie, for Findly's land, 26 lib vjs. 4d., and 2 lib tind silver, 6 putrie. 

(Ibid.) David Buchane 10 merks, or a hook in harvest, and 6 chickens. 

(Ibid.) Robert Anandail. 

WOOD OF DALBOGG, possessed be John Burnett, payes yearlie 300 merks 

allenerlie, together with 80 lib for the salmond fishing. Nota: This 

room is forhand duetie. 
MILL OF DALBOGG Tho. Donne, 28 bols meal, and 12 bols bear ; 8 lib of 

tind silver, 12 capons, and oblig to uphold the mill, and a swine yearlie. 
MEANS OF DALBOGG Geo. Will, 16 bols meal, and 8 bols bear; 8 lib of 

tind silver, 12 poutrie, and a swine. 
DENHEAD John Burne, 6 bols meall, 2 bols bear ; 5 merks tind silver, 8 

putrie, ane quarter of butter. 
BONSAGARD Walter Lindsay, 8 bols of victual q r of 10 firlots bear, and 5 

bols and a half of meal ; 8 putrie, and 8 pund of butter ; five merks 

tind silver. 

. . . Alexr. Mill, 3 bols of meal, and 1 bol of bear ; 2 merks and a 

half of tind silver, 4 putrie. 
COWIEHILL John Will, 10 bols meal, 5 bols bear ; 10 lib of tind silver, 

and 12 putrie and ane coustom wedder. 
LITL TULLO James Dargyie, 5 bols, 2 firlots of meal, 10 firlots bear ; 5 

merks of tind silver, and 20 merks of silver duetie, and quarter of 

butter, 6 putrie. 

1 The Fiars' prices of Forfarshire are not recorded before the year 1780 ; but the 
following is a statement of the value of various kinds of victual, according to the 



Fiars of Fifeshire : 






1H72. Scots. 


Ster. 


1699. Scots. 


Ster. 


Whytt, per boll 
Bear . . 


5 0=0 8 4 
468 072} 


Wheat 
Bear 


12 0=1 
9 13 4 16 Ij 


Aits and Meall . 


3 13 4 


6 11 


Oats * Meal p.mOU.i 


(Rye 7 13 4 


12 9; 


Peas and Beans 


4 13 4 


079} 


Meal by weight 


868 


13 10. 


Ry . 


400 


068 


Peas and Beans 


10 


16 8 


Malt . . ( 


568 


8 10J 


Malt . 


10 


16 8 



414 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

(Ibid.) The other prt possessed be James Hodden alias Christison, 3 bols 

2 firlots of meal, of bear 6 firlott ; 5 uierk of tind silver, 6 putrie, and 

a quarter of butter. 
MUICKELL TULLO David Walker, 14 bols of meal, 6 bols of bear; 10 lib 

of silver dutie, 10 lib of tind silver, 8 putrie. 1 
MERGTIE Andrew Smart, 120 lib duties, 8 lib tind silver, 12 putrie, 6 

capons, and q r butter. Nota: Tak renewed for 5 years (1674) pays 

8 lib of grassum, and 100 libs of watch money. 
John Christison, shipheird in Mergie, 5 merks money. 
BLAIRHEAD James Lyndesay, 40 lib of dutie, 8 putrie, and of butter 8 lib. 
SHEERSTRIPES COTTER LAND George Will, and James Lyndsay ther, ilk 

on of them 4 lib of money. 
PAROCHINE OF NEWDOSK payes yearly of tind silver 26 lib. Nota: Att 

Wittsunday I [i.e. the laird of Edzell] sett a year's tak to Mr. Thomas 

Smart of the tiuds of this parochine for 600 marks. 

PAROCHINE OF LETHNOTT. 

CLOCHIE possessed by Da : Toshe payes yearlie 20 bols of meal, 5 bols of 

bear ; 6 lib of tind silver, 40 lib of silver dutie, 8 putrie. 
(Ibid.) Androw Smart ther, 20 bols meal, 5 bols bear ; 6 lib of tind silver, 

50 marks of dutie, 8 putrie. 
DRUM CARNE Alexr. Davidsone, 8 scor and ten merks ; 16 putrie, and 

ane quarter of butter. 
(Ibid.) that part possessed be James Smart, 6 bols bear, 3 bols of oats ; 

4 lib of tind silver, and 8 putrie pays a mark of watch money. 
(Ibid.) James Gold, 8 bols bear ; 4 lib of tind silver, 8 poutrie. 
MILL OF LETHNOT James Black, 28 bols meal, and 2 bols of bear ; 12 

capons. The taksman has option to pay 50 merks for 8 of the bols 

of meal. 
TILLIDIVIE John Will, 17 bols meal, 3 bols bear ; 6 bols of tind silver, 

8 putrie. 
ARGEITH, part of George Bellie, 40 merks of dutie, 8 putrie, 2 lib of 

butter. 

(Ibid.) Andrew Dirra, 40 merks, 8 putrie, and a quarter of butter. 
(Ibid.) John Low, 20 merks of dutie, 4 putrie, and 2 lib of butter. 
(Ibid.) Thomas Smart, elder, 20 merks, 8 putrie, 2 lib of butter. 
(Ibid.) Thomas Smart, younger, 20 merks, 8 putrie, and 2 lib of butter. 

1 Mr. Jervise saw, in the hands of the descendants of a family named Low, receipts 
for rent on the farm of Muckle Tullo, dated 1690, et sub. Among these receipts 
he found the following tack (of 1696) iu the handwriting of the penultimate Lindsay 
of Edzell : 

" I david Lyndesay of Edzell Binds and oblidges me my airs exrs and successors 
qthomever, that John Low and James Low in mickl Tullo, shall peacablie possess 
and bruick ther possession ther, for the space of five years nixt to com, they alwayes 
paying ther yearlie duties and mys as formerlie, usd & wontd : in witt. wherof, 
I have subscrived this my obligatione at Edzell, the sixt day of Junn j^vic nyntie- 
six years. D. LYNDESAY. 

" Notta, that within ther taks jlk on of them are to pay a wedder sheep." 



APPENDIX II. 415 

BOGYTOTTNE Alexr. Mertyne, 40 lib of silver dutie, 8 putrie, and half a 

stone of butter. 
OLDTOUNE Robert Gibb, 40 lib of silver dutie, 8 putrie, and half a stone 

of butter. 
WITTOUNE Walter Mitchell, 9 bols and a half of meal, and 4 bols and 

a half of bear ; 7 merks of tind silver, 8 putrie. 
(Ibid.) the other part Andrew Smart, 9 bols and ane half of meall, and 

4 bolls and a half of bear ; 7 marks tind silver, and 8 putrie. 
BROCKLAW David Mertyne, 43 lib of tind silver dutie, 8 putrie, and 4 lib 

of butter. 
(Ibid.) other part Da. Cattnes, eldir, 21 merks 6s. and 8d. ; 4 putrie, and 

1 lib 8 ounce butter. 

Edzell, January the tenth day j m vi c and nynti nyn years. 

BONHARD Isobell Fyfe (reliq to John Donaldson), thirtie bols of meale, 
five bols bear, ten inarkes tind monij ; two bols horse corne, eight 
poutrie fowls, six capones. 

PRIESTOUNE John Carnegie and John Wobster in Mille of Dillappie, 
payed yearlie of old twelve bols of meal, six bols of beare, ten marks 
of tind silver, eight poutrie, six capons, and should have bleitched all 
the Linnin cloath maid in the house. Nota : now set to the above 
named men for sixteen bols of meals, and eightein bols the flFyft year 
of thir tak. 

COATTERTOUNE OF EDZELL ilk Coatter payes yearlie two marks tind 
silver, 4 lib of butter for ilk cow, and twelve chickens Georg Chirs- 
tison, Georg Duncan, Alexander Dirrow, Georg McKeye, James Watt, 
John Croll, William Hall. 

WESTSYD AND ACHRY James Auchinfleck, yor, eighteen bols meal, six 
bols bear, three bols horse corne, three cairtful of straw, tuo spindell 
and ane half of yarne ; ten libs of tind silver, fourtein poutrie, and 
nyne capones. 

SANDIHILLOCK James Presock, 12 bols meale, 6 bols bear, 2 bols of horse 
corne, 2 cairtfull of straw, qch is 48 bottle ten marks of tind silver, 
8 poutrie, 6 capons ; 60 heirs of yarne. 

BURNROOT Alexander Smart, 12 bolls meale, and 6 bols bear ; and for 
a pairt of another tak, 6 bols meal and on bcl bear, 3 bols horse corn, 
3 cairtful of straw ; ten lib of tind money, 8 poutrie, 6 capons ; 60 heirs 
of yarne. 

STRUINE AND INVERESKENDIE, both rooms possessed be John Will- 24 bols 
meal, 12 bols bear, wherof ther is 8 bols converted to 50 marks of 
money, 20 marks of tind money ; 16 poutrie, 6 capons ; 120 heirs of 
yarne ; 3 bols hors corne, 3 cairt full of strae. 

(Ibid.) CORNMILL, WALKMILL, CAMELL, FEICKSTOUNE James Auchin- 
fleck, 51 (bolls) meal, 15 bolls bear ; 40 libs mony dutie, 18 libs 6s. 8d. 
tind silver ; 4 dozen and a half of capones, 4 dozen and a half of 
poutrj, or 20 merk ; 60 heirs of tind yarne. 



416 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

MEROIE Andrew Smart, 120 lib money rent ; 18 poutrie, 2 stones of 
butter, a wedder under the wool ; and 100 lib for ilk 5 years tacks of 
Grassum. Nota : He payes so much more for Title to be cleared by 
his tacks. 

NEWDOSK payes of Viccarradge yearlie, 26 lib. 

PARIOCHIN OF LETHNOT. 

CLOCHIE (Whole) John Lowson, 20 bols of meall, 10s. boll bear ; 73 lib 

6s. 8d. of silver duetie, 12 lib of tind money ; 2 wedders, 16 poutrie. 
DRUMCAIRN David Gibb, 120 lib of silver duetie, 16 poutrie, 4 lib of butter 

2 wedders under the wool. Nota: he payes 100 merks of Grassum foi 

5 years tack. 
(Ibid.) Upper the Minister, 8 bolls of bear, 4 lib of tind money ; 8 poutrie, 

and a wedder. Nota : Ilk undelyvered boll is 10 merks of pryse. 
(Ibid.) the other part James Smart, 6 bols of bear, 3 bolls of oats, 4 lib 

of tind money ; 8 poutrie and ane wedder. Nota : Ilk undelyvered 

boll is 5 lib of pryse ; he payes also cess and watch money. 
MILNE OF LETHNOT James Black, 28 bolls of meall, 2 bolls of bear, 12 

capons. Nota : he is at liberty to pay 33 lib 6s. 8d. for 8 bolls of meall. 
TILLIDIVIE John Archebald, 17 bolls of meall, 3 bolls of bear ; 6 lib of 

tind money, 8 poutrie, and ane wedder. 
ARGTTH David Smart, 26 lib 13s. and 4d. ; 8 poutrie, 4 lib of butter, at 

2 terms and Grassum cess and watch money. Nota : the cess is one 

inerk of each 20, and ye watch money 6s. 
(Ibid.) Androw Dirroc, 26 lib 13s. 4d. ; 8 poutrie, 24s. of tind money at 

2 terms, wt Grassum, cess, and watch money. 
NEWBIGGING AND DRUMFURIES John Smart, 53 lib 6s. 8d. ; 12 poutrie, 

4 lib of butter, his sheep to be cleared by his tack, 2 wedders ; and 

Grassum, cess, and watch money. 
BOGTOONE Alexr. Martin, 40 lib of money ; 8 lib of butter, 8 putrie, and 

ane wedder ; Grassum, cess, and watch money. 
OLDTOUNE David Tosh, 40 lib of money, 8 lib of butter, 8 poutrie, and ane 

wedder ; Grassum, cess, and watch money, 25 lib 8s. 6d. 
WITTOUNE Walter Mitchell, 9 bolls 2 fir. of meall, 4 bolls 2 fir. of bear ; 

4 lib 13s. 4d. of tind money ; 8 poutrie, and a wedder ; cess and watch 

money, of Grassum, 8 lib for 3 years. 
(Ibid.) James Will, 9 bolls 2 fir. of meall, 4 bolls 2 fir. of bear ; 4 lib 13s. 

4d. of tind money ; 8 poutrie, and ane wedder ; 20 merks of Grassum 

for 5 years tack. 
BROCKLAW David Martin, 43 lib of silver duetie ; 8 poutrie, 4 lib of butter, 

ane wedder under the .wooll ; 40 lib for ilk 5 years tack of Grassum. 
(Ibid.) John Durro, 14 lib 6s. 8d., 4 poutrie, and ane pound and half 

butter ; 2 wedders in the 5 years tack, and Grassum, ane years duety 

in the tacks. 



APPENDIX m. 417 



No. III. PAGE 53. 

THE following from the late John Eiddell, Esq., Advocate, who was 
facile princeps in genealogy and peerage law, is interesting and important 
bearing date Nov. 13th, 1853 : 

" Janet Lindsay, sister of the last David Lindsay of Edzell (who sold 
Edzell and fell so low), and the Honourable Colonel James Ramsay (third 
son of William, third Earl of Dalhousie, and immediate younger brother 
of William, afterwards fifth Earl of Dalhousie, who died without issue), 
being young people, and living in the usual free manner of the time at 
Edzell, contracted a mutual attachment, which in an unguarded moment 
led to the seduction of Janet by the Colonel (though perhaps under 
promise of marriage), the issue of which illicit intercourse was a child 
' Beattie ' or ' Betty ' Ramsay. 

" In all probability, at least not unnaturally, a marriage was to have 
sanctioned the union, but the Colonel was hastily called to join his regi- 
ment, that of Macartney in Spain (a known celebrated corps), where he fell 
without lawful issue, at the fatal battle of Almanza, in 1707. 

"Had he left male issue (legitimate), these would have been Earls 
of Dalhousie, he being of the direct line, and their honours limited to heirs- 
male, while the subsequent and present line are more remote cadets, sprung 
from Captain John Ramsay, younger son of William, first Earl of Dalhousie, 
so created in 1633. 

" It can be proved by authentic evidence, that I have seen, that never- 
theless Janet Lindsay did not thereafter live or die in ' obscurity and 
shame,' as inadvertently stated by Mr. Jervise (of course from not being 
aware of the particulars) in his ' History and Traditions of the Land of 
the Lindsays ' [see p. 44 of first edition]. On the contrary, both she and 
her daughter, ' Beattie Ramsay,' continued to live at Edzell, and were 
kindly supported there by the family, Colonel John Lindsay, paternal uncle 
to Janet, even leaving a legacy to Beattie. 

"Janet also eventually married respectably, as would seem, Colonel 
Whitmore, an Englishman (and had issue, tho' I don't know what 
became of them), both of whom are mixed up, and figure in family transac- 
tions when they became embarrassed, together with David, last of Edzell. 

" Beattie would appear to have followed her mother to England, and 
she married there, and left descendants : her heir of line again married an 
English officer, who was in Scotland early in the present century, and con- 
sulted me in respect of his wife's Edzell and Dalhousie descent and supposed 
rights through Beattie Ramsay, which, of course, were worth nothing, 
through the illegitimacy of the latter. 

" Most unfortunately I have not preserved note of the names of these last, 
but the officer in question showed me a fine miniature likeness of Colonel 
Ramsay a handsome man which must have come to his wife as a 
descendant of Janet Lindsay and Beattie Ramsay a kind of heirloom 
de facto. 

2 D 



418 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

" The above I believe to be correct, and is supported both by authentic 
evidence, and by information given me at the time, long ago, by the 
deceased Dr. Carmichael Smythe, 1 the heir of line of the Lyndsays of Edzell, 
through the Watsons of Aitherny, an intelligent and well-educated man, 
and evidently good authority here. He was an eminent Physician. 

J. K. 

"P.8. The Watsons of Aitherny, I need not add, were descended from 
the eldest sister of Janet Margaret Lindsay. 

"Dr. Carmichael Smythe, grandfather (through his son the late Aide- 
de-camp of the King) of the present Sir James Carmichael of Nutwood, 
Bart., rather pathetically mentioned the Edzell contre-temps of Janet 
Lindsay, making every allowance for the error, which I dare say (possibly 
bond fide) the gallant Colonel might have fully rectified had he not been 
so prematurely cut off in the pressing service of his country at Almanza 
so precipitately taking him from the lady." 



No. IV. PAGE 61. 

The Durays of that Ilk, Dempsters to the Lairds of Edzell. 

THE small farm of Durayhill, with several other parts of the parish, 
were church lands belonging to St. Andrews, situated in the regality of 
Kescobie, 2 and the family of Duray, dempsters of the Lairds of Edzell, long 
occupied Durayhill, and designed themselves " of that Ilk." It was then a 
separate farm, but is now held in lease along with the farm of Upper 
Dalfouper. 

The origin of the Durays or dempsters of Edzell is unknown. Their 
name occurs for the first time in the Parochial Register under the 22d of 
December 1644, when " John Dirrow of Dirrowhill was appointed to goe 

to the presbiterie for competent knowledge to go to the Generall 

Assemblie which is to be h olden at Edinburgh, y e 22d Jan. 1645." The 
last time any of them acted along with a Laird of Edzell was at the memor- 
able " rable " of 1714 ; and, in disposing of the lands of Edzell, David 
Lindsay gave Duray right to " a desk in the church, upon the east side of 
the Lindsay's isle." Owing, perhaps, to the prominent lead which Duray 
took in this " rable," the kirk-session were led to challenge his right to the 
pew ; and notwithstanding that he produced a document confirming the 
grant from the last laird's " brother-german," he was found, to have usurped 
the same, and was thereupon turned out of it. 

This dispute occurred in 1734, and the decision was so fatal to the 
family, that they left the district soon after, and there is reason to believe 
that this person was the last of them resident in Edzell. Though the cir- 
cumstance is not recorded, they may have been expelled therefrom by the 
York Buildings Company, who had no desire to harbour those in their 

1 " Claimant then of the Hyndford Peerage, about which he consulted me." 
a Jnquis. Spec. Forfar, No. 304, June 2, 1648. 



APPENDIX IV. V. 419 

lands who were friendly to the exiled Stewarts. This cause of Duray's 
removal is inferred from the fact, that some of their distant relatives believe 
they "left the district and settled about Stonehaven ;" this is so far con- 
firmed by a John Durie being there during the stirring movements of "the 
forty-five." This person was a merchant, and so determined a supporter of 
the Stewarts, that he appeared in the parish church of Dunnottar with a 
guard of armed men, and read some treasonable papers before the congrega- 
tion. 1 

But as to whether this rebel was of the Durays of that Ilk, we have no 
means of ascertaining. It is certain that the old stock is now out of the 
district, but a tombstone in the kirkyard still bears this record of their 
feudatory holding : 

" Here lyes James Duray, son to John Duray of that Ilk, who departed 
this Life, February 13th 1743, aged 36. 

Remember, passenger, as you go by, 

This gravestone under which I ly, 

Read, and remember what I tell, 

That in the Cold Grave thou must duel, 

The worms to be thy company, 

Till the Last Trumpet set you free." 



No. V. PAGE 66. 
List of Sculptures in the Flower Garden of Edzell. 

[THIS garden is about an acre in extent. The walls are of polished ashlar, 
and compartments, representing the fess chequy of the Lindsays, and the 
three stars of the Stirlings of Glenesk, are placed betwixt each of the figures 
under noticed. Engravings of certain parts of the wall are in Mr. Billings's 
Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland, vol. ii.] 

THE EAST WALL 

contains allegorical representations of the following Celestial Deities and 
their respective signs, sculptured on oval panels in low relief, about eighteen 
inches in height. 

SATCRN is represented in Roman costume, with a sword by his side, and a 
scythe in his right hand. He holds a boy up in his left, emblematical 
of his having devoured his own legitimate issue as soon as born, with a 
view that his kingdom might revert to the Titans, from whom it was 
taken, and given to him. He wears a chain round his neck, in allusion 
to his captivity by Titan, from which he was released by his son 
Jupiter. The figure of a goat, perhaps that of Amalthea, by whose 
milk Jupiter is said to have been suckled, is at the feet of Saturn. 



lJunnottar Session Record, Sep. 21, 1746. 



420 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

This figure is represented with a wooden leg, a circumstance which has 
led some to suppose that it represents VULCAN, who, on falling from 
the heavens on the Isle of Lemnos with great violence, broke his 
leg, and was thus rendered lame for life. The sign Tj, and other 
accessories, are those of Saturn. 

JUPITER, 2/ , in Koman costume, but without a beard, has a sword in his 
right hand ; the left rests on a shield, charged with a fine carving of 
Cupid shooting an arrow from a cross-bow, etc. The feet of Jupiter rest 
on two fishes. 

MARS, $, also in Koman costume, bears a battle-axe in his left hand, and an 
oval shield on his right arm, with a dog 1 at his feet. The initials 
"IB" are cut on the blade of the axe. Perhaps they are the initials 
of the sculptor. 

The SUN wears an antique crown and Roman dress. Eight hand rests on 
a shield charged with the Sun, in full splendour. The shield rests on 
the head of a lion. The left hand holds a sceptre. 

VKNUS $ holds a dart over her left shoulder, and a burning heart in her 
right hand. A lamb lies at her feet. 

MERCURY Avith the sign $ and usual accompaniments of winged caduceus 
in his right hand, and helmet and sandals. Two nude figures are 
dancing in the back-ground on the right, and a clothed female on the 
left holds up her right arm with something like a flower in her hand. 

The MOON, or Luna and Diana, as this goddess is variously termed, is 
represented by a female figure holding a lance in her right hand, and 
the characteristic sign of a crescent ( w ) in her left. Her feet rest on 
a fish. This figure is over the entrance door to the summer-house so 
placed, perhaps, from the fact that the ancients supposed her to have 
the care of all houses and doors during night. She was the daughter 
of Jupiter by Latona. 

SOUTH WALL. 

[The Sculptures on this wall represent the Sciences only, with the ex- 
ception of the Theological Virtue " Charity," which was misplaced during 
recent repairs. These carvings are in bold relief, the finest of any in the 
garden, and from the occasional introduction of objects in the distance, 
suggest a comparison with the famous gates of the Baptistry of Florence, 
which brought to Lorenzo Ghiberti so much deserved fame. The Sciences 
are in square panels with circular tops, and each measures about two feet 
by three.] 

" DIALECTICA." A seated female in the act of reasoning. Two frogs at her 
feet, a dove on her head, and a serpent twisted round her right arm. 
There is also a small figure in the back-ground. 

" RHETORICA." A seated female, holds a caduceus in the right hand, and a 
roll in the left, with several volumes at her feet. 



1 Has this dog a wooden leg, or is one of the hind legs hid by the shaft of the 
battle-axe ? 



APPENDIX VT. 421 

" G-EOMETRIA " is represented by a female, with a castellated crown and 
flowing robes. She is describing a globe. A square, compass, and 
books lie at her feet. 

" ARITHMETICA." Female figuring on a slate. Two nude figures in back- 
ground, with staves, carrying burdens on their back. These figures 
are perhaps the most delicately executed pieces in the garden. 

" MUSICA. Female figure (head and neck broken off) playing on a guitar. 
A harp and other musical instruments lie beside her ; and her left foot 
rests on books. 

WEST WALL. 
[The Sculptures on this wall represent the Theological and Cardinal 

Virtues. They are about the same size as the Sciences, but inferior in 

execution.] 

"... E." (Faith), with cup in right hand, wrapt in a massive flowing dress, 

and a serpent at her feet. 
" SPES " Female figure standing erect, with right hand at breast, and left 

outstretched. An anchor and antique spade lie at her feet. 
" CARITAS " (misplaced on south wall) represented in the common manner, 

by a female with a child in each arm, and one at each knee. 
" PRUDEN ..." (Prudence), examining her face in a mirror, with a serpent 

coiled round the left hand. 
" TEMPERANTIA " pours water from a jug into a glass. An antique jar 

stands on each side of the figure. 
"... TITIA " (Justice), with sword, balance and scales. 
" FORTITVDO " pulling down an ornamental column, with the capital of it 

lying at her feet. The hair of this figure is put up in a net. 



No. VI PAGE 159. 

Lethnot and its Traditions. 

THE following account of the circumstances connected with the story 
about the minister and the black cat, may not be so amusing, but it has 
at least the merit of being true : The minister was not Mr. Thomson, who 
was the last Episcopalian minister of the parish, and was deposed by the 
Presbytery of Brechin in 1719 for having taken part in the Mar rebellion, 
and thereby broken the condition on which he had been allowed to retain 
the living, and who was succeeded, not as the legal minister of the parish, 
but as the Episcopal clergyman of the district, by the Kev. David Eose, 
great-grandfather of the distinguished Sir Hugh Rose, now known as Lord 
Strathnairn. The minister, to whom the story relates, was the Rev. John 
Row, the last minister of Navar as a separate pnrish, and the first of the 
united parishes of Navar and Lethnot. He died in 1746, and was buried 
within the kirk of Lethnot, a neat mural tablet with an elegantly composed 
inscription in perfect preservation marking the spot where his body lies. 



422 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

He was a strong-minded, resolute, but thoughtful and sagacious man, who 
had a difficult position to fill during the unsettled times betwixt 1715 and 
1746, and filled it well. He was earnest in promoting education in his 
parish, and strove to discourage as far as possible the superstitious ideas 
and practices which still were strongly prevalent. At that time, and for 
long after, the popular feeling, as is well known, forbade the burial of 
suicides in the kirkyard. In one instance the minister made a strong effort 
to obtain the rites of ordinary sepulture for the body, and succeeded so far 
as to have it buried in the kirkyard after the sun was set, " between the 
sun and the sky," as the old saying is. There was a superstitious belief 
that whoever stepped over a newly-made grave would meet with some great 
misfortune within a short time. Mr. Kow, thinking this a good opportunity 
of teaching his people a practical lesson as to the absurdity of such a belief, 
jumped three times over the grave. Returning immediately thereafter to 
the manse, which then stood close to the present south-west gate of the kirk- 
yard, he went up-stairs to his study, or chamber, as it was the custom to 
call it. It was not yet so dark as to prevent his perceiving that some strange 
animal was in the room. Going outside the door, he called down-stairs to 
his servant-girl to bring a lighted candle and a stick. She brought the 
candle, but, instead of the stick, a long-shafted straw fork. The mysterious 
animal turned out to be a large black cat, which on seeing the light bolted 
out at the open door. The minister, stepping back a pace or two to get the 
chance of a stroke at it with his somewhat unwieldy weapon, came against 
the frail wooden railing, which gave way, and, unable to recover his balance, 
he fell backward into the lobby beneath and broke his neck. This is the 
true story of the black cat of the manse of Lethnot. The writer's informant 
was an old lady who lived till well-nigh ninety years of age, and died in 
Edinburgh only last year, retaining to the last her wonderful bodily vigour 
and full possession of all her mental faculties. She was the daughter of a 
former minister of Lethnot, and in her youth was well acquainted with the 
woman, by that time of course aged, who as the minister's servant-girl held 
the light for him, and whose name was Helen Cobb, known as the last gude- 
wife of the now deserted homestead of Ledbakie. 

Probably the minister's untimely end, occurring under such circumstances, 
had the effect of confirming belief in the old superstitions. It is certain at 
all events that for years after his death, suicides continued to be refused 
the rites of Christian burial. Some time, it is supposed, between 1760 and 
1780, the remains of two such poor unfortunate persons, a man and a woman, 
were taken to the top of Wirran, the highest hill in the parish, and there 
interred. There are people yet alive who can point out their graves. 
(Montrose Standard, 28th October 1881.) 

(Rev. F. Cruickshank, Manse of Lethnot, sends the following, of date 
10th Aug. 1882 : " The stone of the brothers Leitch, covered with turf for 
a year, and yesterday cleaned, is now quite legible. The date we were 
doubtful about is 7th Oct. 1757.") 



APPENDIX VII. 423 

No. VII. PAGES 202, 210, 356, 379. 
Epitaphs, relating to the Lindsays, in various Churchyards in Foi-farshire. 

A MONUMENT of native freestone, to the memory of a family of the name 
of LINDSAY, is built into the south wall of the church of Rescobie. Like the 
fine marble tablets to the same race at Maryton and Lunan, this is upheld 
from an annuity payable by the town of Arbroath, which was especially 
granted for the purpose. The canopy is supported by two pillars, with these 
bearings : " Gules, a fesse chequed arg. and az. ; in chief a mullet ; in base 
waves proper." 

" Monumentum hoc, in memoriam suorum parentum Mr. David Lindsay 
Pastor de Mary-Toune : Extruendum curavit. Juxta hunc lapidem deposits 
sunt reliquiae Dorn : Henrici Lindsay quondam de Blairifedden qui obiit 
anno Dom : . . . aetat. 72. Et uxoris ejus Alison Scrimseur familiar 
Scrimseur de Glasswal quae obiit anno Dom. 1651 aetat. . . . necnon filii 
eorum dom. Davidis Lindsay Pastoris de Rescobie qui obiit anno Dom. 1677 
aetat. 62 & ejusdem duarum conjugum Marjorse Lindsay filiae Lindsay de 
Kinnettles & Beatricis Ogilvy filiae. . . . Ogilvy de Carsbank, quae obiit 
anno Dom. 1716 aetat. suae 89. Ibidem loci quoque sepulti sunt nonnulli 
ejusdem Davidis liberi quorum nomina cceli injuria & prioris cippi vetustate 
perierunt. Hoc monumentum positum fuit anno , & instauratum anno 
1752." 

A superb marble tablet in the church of Maryton bears the Dowhill 
family arms and motto, and a long inscription to " DAVID LYNDESIUS ex 
prisca Lyndesorum familia de Dowhill," who was thirty-three years minister 
of the church of Maryton, and the last Episcopal incumbent. He died on 
the 16th of September 1706, in the sixty-second year of his age. 1 There is 
also a marble tablet within the church of Lunan, analogous in design to that 
at Maryton. It is erected to the memory of Mr. ALEXANDER PEDEY, the 
last Episcopal clergyman of that parish, and his wife MARJORY LINDSAY, 
who may have been a near relative perhaps a sister of the parson at 
Maryton. 

Inscription from a freestone tablet in Farnell churchyard, to the memory 
of Dean CARNEGIE, founder of the family of Craigo, and his wife HELEN, 
daughter of Bishop Lindsay of Edinburgh, who was also the owner of Dun- 
kenny (ut sup. pp. 202, 356) : 

"Sepulchrum M 8tri Davidis Carnegy de Craigo Decani Brichinen : Rec- 
toris hujus Ecclesiae qui primo fuit Ecclesiastes Brichinen annos 2 postea 
hujus ecclesiae pastor fidelissimus annos 36 qui placide ac pie in Domino 
obdormivit anno Dom. 1672 aetatis suae 77. In hac Urna sirnul cum eo 



1 May 1, 1673, Mr. David Lindsay, younger son of Mr. David Lindsay, minister 
of Rescobie, was presented to the -Kirk of Marieton by the Archbishop of St. 
Andrews. (Presb. Jiec. of Brech. voL iii. fol. 57.) 



424 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

recubant prior ejus Uxor Helena Lindesay ac decem eoruni liberi ; placuit 
hie inscribere anagramma a Seipso composituni 

Magistro Davidi Carnegy 

anagramma . 
Grandis Jesu due me gratia 

distichon . 

Dum dego in terris expectans Gaudia cceli 
Me ducat semper tua Gratia Grandis Jesu." 

Tablets bearing the following inscriptions are in Chapelyard, the family 
burial-place of Balmadies. This cemetery is near the Aldbar Railway 
Station, and the door lintel bears " ANNO. MDCLXIX." From that date, 
till 1849, a complete record of the lairds and ladies of Balmadies can be 
gleaned from the tombstones here : 

" Mrs. Margaret Lindsay daughter to Sir Alexander Lindsay of Evelick 
first married to the laird of Findourie and thereafter to James Piersone of 
Balmadies to whom she bore seven sons she died about the 56 year of her 
age on the 11 or 12 of May 1714 and here interred on the 18 a virtuous 
and religious lady Memento mori." 

" Mrs. Elizabeth Arbuthnot sister-german to the present laird of Fin- 
dourie died of a decay about the 18 year of her age a beautiful virtuous 
and religious young lady and was here interred some years before her 
mothers death Memento mori." 1 



No. VIIL PAGE 206. 

Large Tree at Finhaven. 

THE following entry is taken from the Session Book of Oathlaw, as written 
about 1875 : 

" The Parish of Finhaven was at one time celebrated for containing the 
largest tree in Scotland. This was a chestnut that grew beside the old castle 
of Finavon. When it was cut down, the late Mr. Skene of Caraldstone 
caused a table to be made of the wood of the tree, on which an engraved 
plate of brass contained the following inscription and statement of its 
dimensions : ' This Table was made out of the Chestnut Tree which grew at 
Finhaven in Angus-shire, whose dimensions as taken and attested by several 
Justices of the Peace of that County on the 20th April 1745, were as follows, 
although at that time that tree was mostly divested of its bark, being killed 
by the severe frost in 1740. Root end of trunk foot above ground, 42 
ft. 8 in. ; middle of trunk 30 ft. 7 in. ; top of trunk where the branches 

1 There is an account of the expenses of this young lady's funeral among the 
Findowrie Papers. It contains many curious items well worthy of preservation, but 
want of space compels us to omit it. The total cost of the funeral amounted to 
332, 10s. 4d. Scots, or 27, 14s. 2d. 



APPENDIX VIII. 425 

broke out 35 ft. 9 in. ; the biggest branch 23 ft. 9 in. ; the smallest 
do. 13 ft. 2 in. From these measurements the tree would appear to 
have been upwards of 500 years old, or probably planted when the 
castle was built.' The table is now in Aboyne Castle, where I have 
seen it, and have read the Inscription. 

" GEORGE STUART, Session Clerk." 

INVENTORY OF FUENITUKE IN THE CASTLE OF 
FINHAVEN IN 1712. 

The folloiving Inventory of the. Furniture in the Castle of Finhaven, in 
the time of the "false Carnegrj " (ut sup. pp. 198 sq.\ was printed in 
the Dundee Advertiser of June 6, 1851, as from the original in 
possession of the late John Wedderburne, Esq., Auchterhouse. 

Octo. 27, 1712. Ane inventar of ye ffurniture of ye Houss of Phin- 
haven as follows. 

Imp. In ye skool chamber two bedsteads and a bairns table. 

2 It. In ye rid roume a standing bed wt rid hangings, a straw pal- 
liace, a ffether bed, a bolster, three pair of blankets, a pillow, on chamber 
pott of pewter, a chamber box, six rid chairs, a table. 

3 It. In ye pentted roume a bedstead wt green hangings, a straw pal- 
liace, a fether bed, a bolster, two old down pillows, three pair of blankets, 
a green cloath upon the bed, a peuter chamber pott, six green chairs, a table 
and green cloath upon it, the roume hung wt green hannings, a box and 
a pan. 

4 It. In ye gold collured roume a bed hung wt gold coullered hanngins, 
a tuardelie, a straw palliace, a ffether bed, a bolster, tuo pillous, a quilt 
above the ffether bed, four pair of blankets, a silk quilt, tuo learn chamber 
pots, seven gold coullered chairs, a glass, a table and tuo stands, the roume 
hung wt gold coullered hangins, ane jorn chumlow, wt toaings, chuffle, and 
purring jorn. 

5 It. In ye closet a bed wt yellow hangins, a ffether bed, a bolster, a 
pillow, tuo pair of blankets, a yeellow cowring, a carpit chair, a box and 
a pan in ye closet, and hung wl yeallow hangings. 

6 It. In ye great roume a bed, a straw palliace, a ffether bed, a bolster, 
a silk quilt, a lame chamber pott, two pillowes, three pair of blankets, seven 
green chairs, a glass, a table and stands, ye roume hung wt arras, a skreinge 
wt a box and a pan, a quilt above ye ffether bed, a chimlow, toaings, chuffle, 
and purring jorn. 

7 It. Ye closet bed hung wt green hangings, a ffether bed, a bolster, 
a pillow, tuo pair of blankets, a green cloath upon ye bed, a peuter chamber 
pott, a table wt a green cloath, three carpit chairs, ye closet hung wt green, 
and an old arm chair. 

8 It. The busting roume wt a busting bed shewed wt green, wt a 
turdilue, straw palliace, a ffether bed, a quilt above the bed, a bolster, 
tuo doun pillows, three pair of blankits, a holland quilt, a chamber pott 



426 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

of lame, the roume hung wt arras, a glass indented, wt table and stands, 
an olive wood cabinet, wt nyne carpit chairs and ane armed ane, and 
eighteen pictures on ye chirnblow pease, and eleven big ones in ye roume, 
a chimblow, toaings, chuffel, and purring jorn, a pan and chamber box. 

9 It. In ye high dyning roume, the roume hung wt guilded leather, 1 
twelve kean chairs, a cloak, a big table, a little skringe, a broad before 
ye chimblow wt chimblow, toaings, chuffle, and purring jorn, wt a pictur 
on ye wall. 

10 It. In ye drawing room, ye roume hung wt arras, a guilded glass, wt 
fyfteen carpit chairs, six picturs on ye wall, three bottels and tuo picturs 
on ye braise, a chimlow broad, wt a chiinlow, toaings, chuffle. and purring 
jorn. 

11 It. In ye ffyne roume, hung wt arras, a japanned cabinet, table, glass, 
and stands, wt a little japanned dressing glass and dressing box, tuo pouder 
boxes, tuo patch boxes, tuo big brusshes, tuo little brusshes, and a little 
japanned box, a big pictur and tuo lesser on ye walls, seven chairs. 

12 It. In ye closet hung wt blew and whyte hangins, a ffether bed, a 
bolster, a pillow, tuo pair of blankits, a stool, and a pan. 

13 It. In ye nurssrie, Mrs. Annes bed, 2 a caff bed, a ffether bolster, four 
pair of blankits. It. In Peggies 3 bed, a caff bed, a ffether bolster, four 
pair of blankits and a cowring. It. In ye Ladys womans bed a ffether bed 
and bolster and pillow, three pair of blankits. It. In Agnis Ogilvies bed 
a ffether bed, bolster, four pair of blankits, and a couring ; a big press, tuo 
stools, whereof on carpit, and a chair, tuo big chists and a little one, a 
bairns chair and a bairns pan, tuo chamber potts, and a dressing jorn. 

14 It. In ye loa dynning roume hung wt arras hannings, a big table 
and two littel ons, and a by table, tuelve Russia leather chairs, eight picturs 
on ye wall, a chimlow, toaings, chuffel, and purring jorn. 

15 It. In ye Laird and Ladys roume, a bed wt blew shewed hanngins, 
a straw palliace, tuo ffether beds, a boughting blankit, a bolster, tuo 
pillous, four pair of blankits, a holand quilt, a green cloath above ye bed, 
tuo peuter chamber potts, a cabinet and a chest of drawers, tuo tables, 
five chairs, a bairns chair and a kein stooll, ten big picturs, and tuentie 
peaper ons, tuo big glasses and ane littel one, three picturs on ye brease, a 
clock, wt chimlow, toaings, chuffel, and purring jorn, a broad for ye chimlow. 

16 It. In ye kitchen tuo big potts and a littel one of coper, three brass 
pans, tuo sause pans, a couer, tuo girdles, tuo brainders, a droping pan, 
a standirt, five spitts, a scummer, a laidle, a hacking knife, five candlesticks, 

1 A small portion of these hangings was in possession of the late Rev. Harry 
Stuart, Oathlaw. The leather was beautifully embossed with figures and land- 
scapes ; the part remaining shows representations of Ceres, Pan, and other heathen 
deities. Mr. Stuart had also a chest of drawers, which was part of the Finhaven 
furniture. They are called Earl Beardie's Drawers, but are of much later manu- 
facture than his time. 

2 Afterwards Lady Ogilvy of Inverquharity. 

3 i.e. Margaret. She was afterwards the wife of Lyon of Auchterhouse. It 
was on leaving her residence in Forfar that her brother of Finhaven stabbed the 
Earl of Strathmore, and took refuge from justice in her "peat-house." Ut sup. 
p. 200. 



APPENDIX VIII. 427 

tuo gullies, and ane ess gully, a ffrying pan, a pair of toangs, a mortar 
and pistell, a hand bell, two pair of snuffers and nyne pleats, eight asshits, 
ane doussing and ane half of broth trunchers, four dusing of plain trunchers, 
three baisons, and ane pynt stoup, a sowing 1 sidish, a coll riddle and tuo 
backits, a stooll, tuo raxis, a copar kettel. 

17 It. In ye woman house a bed wt a caff bed, ane bolster, ane old chist 
and ane new on, wt ye standirts of a table, a woull baskit. 

18 It. In ye milk house three kirns, six milk cougs, three chessers, 
a big table, a reaming dish and sidish, three washing cuidds and a big on. 

19 It. In ye brew huss three gallon trees, 2 on eighteen gallon tree, seven 
five gallon trees, tuo tuentie pynt rubbers, two guill fatts, a masking fatt, 
and a caldring, a barm stop, a tumill, a skimmer, a toun cog, a wirt dissh, a 
wirt skeel. 

20 It. The roume oposite to John Strachans, a bed, a ffether bed, 
bolster and pillow, tuo pair of blankets and a couring, and a caff bolster at 
ye futt, a table. 

21 It. In ye servants roume a bed wt a' caff bed and ffether bolster and 
tuo pair of blankits ; in ye other a caff bed and caff bolster, and tuo pair of 
blankits, a table and a chair. 

22 It. Ye porters roume, a bed wt tuo pair of blankits and a caff bed 
and a bolster, a table and a chair and a couring. 

23 It. In ye bottle house tuo bufe toubs, tuo butter toubs wt covers. 

24 It. In ye seller tuo hearing trees, wt ane other, a big chist, a souing 
toub. 

25 It. In ye cupboord, delivered as follows tuo silver servers, a silver 
tanker, four silver salts, sheugar box, tuo spise boxes of silver, tuo silver 
cadel cups, two silver brandie disshes, a silver pottanger, tuo silver juggs, 
tuo silver tumblers, tuelve silver hefted knives, eighteen silver fforks, 
forteen silver spoons and a big silver one, thirtie-tuo glasses in ye cup- 
boord, and three learn dishes standing high, tuo glass dicanters, ane oyle 
glass and a vinegar glass, four christall salts, four drinking glasses, tuo learn 
trunchers, a peuter dicauntor, a big queech. 

26 Novr. ye 3th 1712. It. of chopen bottles twentie three doussing and 
three. 

27 Ane particular account of qt linnings my lady hase delivered to Mrs. 
Adam at her entree, Novr. ye 22d, 1712. 

Impr. Off linning sheets forteen pair, and four pair of ffyne sheets. 
It. Of course sheets eighteen pair. 
It. Of pillavers fortie eight. 
It. Of bed sheet tuo. 

It. Of neapons thirteen doussing and seven, whereof 5 doussing and 
seven ffyne. 

It. Of toualls ffyfteen. 
It. Of table cloaths tuelve. 

1 " Sov)ens flummery made of dust of oatmeal remaining among the seeds, 
steeped and soured." -{Jamieson, Scot. Diet., in voce.) 

2 Gantrees, or stand for holding barrels. </&.) 



428 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

It. Three pair of old sheets for mending the rest, qch she is to compt for. 
It. Two cupboard table cloaths. 

In another but incomplete inventory, dated 1st November 1709, the 
first and second entries give a detail, but imperfectly, owing to the manu- 
script being considerably defaced, of wearing apparel, thus : 

ten fyne schirts wt . . course shirts . . seven pair of stockens, 
with . . pair of silk ones and a pair of cotton ones. 

my ladies cloaths, eight fyne shirts, eight course ones, eight hand 
kirchiffs, six aprons and tua tueelirg ones, four busten west coats, six soot 
of night-cloaths, six soot of piners and a combing cloath, three hoods . 



No. IX. PAGE 223. 

Extracts from Petition and Complaint of Mr. George Tytler, Minister of 
Fern, to the Heritors of the Parish, against John Dildarg, School- 
master. January 15, 1778. 

IT appears that John Dildarg was appointed schoolmaster of Fern about 
1763-4. According to Mr. Tytler's complaint, he was so unqualified for 
the office of precentor that " singing psalms was like to wear out of the 
church," and he became so turbulent that no person would " entertain him 
as a lodger." He also intermeddled with the minister's affairs, threatened 
"law processes against him" tried to detract from his character, and 
" weaken his hands in the exercise of his ministry," etc. But the more 
immediate cause of the quarrel beiwixt him and the minister, which will 
be sufficiently shown by the following curious extracts, arose from Dildarg's 
propagating the doctrine of the " unlawfulness of eating blood." " Lifted 
up," as the Complaint bears, " with a conceit of his own knowledge," the 
schoolmaster wrote a discourse on the subject of blood-eating, and tried to 
make proselytes of all under his influence. The Complaint proceeds thus : 

"That he carried the point of blood-eating so far, that he attempted 
not in a private, but in a very public manner, even in the presence of 
minister, elders, and communicants (among which last he thought he had 
formed a party), anent admission to the Lord's Table, to get it enacted that 
none should be received into communion that did not, or would not promise 
to abstain from eating blood, and because his proposal was rejected, he has 
not joined in communion here these four or five years at least ; but that this 
is no real matter of conscience with him, as he pretends, may, without breach 
of charity, be alleged, because he scruples not to join with other congregations, 
particularly with that of Brechin, where, considering the many butchers, 
there will be more blood eaten in a week than in Fern in a twelvemonth. 

" That over and above what is mentioned, that he (Dildarg) began many 
years ago to set up conventicles in private houses, and more publicly in the 
school-house, on Sabbath-days and other days, when he could get a con- 



APPENDIX IX. 429 

veniendum, where he preached and prayed, and expounded the Scriptures ; 
and it was the ordinary way, as I have been credibly informed, to tell them 
' Thus the minister says, but. that is what I say' ! 

* * * * TI^ towards the end of last year my wife sending a 
portion of blood and puddings to a poor cripple old woman in the parish, 
Dildarg, either following or overtaking the servant on the way, and finding 
it was blood, said that my wife or I might as well send some lewd person to 
commit fornication or adultery with her, as send her blood to eat, and in 
the most serious manner exhorted her to throw it out (as he has persuaded 
some in the parish to do), and for this purpose lectured over to her the 17th 
of Leviticus. At the same time also he took occasion to detract from the 
character of a certain gentlewoman, and to magnify a common dame whose 
reputation in this country-side is none of the finest. 

" That upon hearing this, your complainer wrote to Dildarg on a slip of 
paper, whether he had said such things not in expectation of his returning 
me an answer, but to let him understand that I knew what he had said. 

" That he returned me (this) written answer, of date December 13th last 
1777) : ' I am surprised at a line which you sent me, wherein you require 
me to give you an answer thereto. I am, sir, under no obligation to answer 
this line : for, if I have spoken any evil of you or your wife, it was your 
business to prove it. You are no Roman Inquisitor, and therefore you cannot 
oblige me to become my own accuser, and if you had not insinuated that I 
scandalised a woman of quality, I should not have taken the least notice 
of it. Whoever told you this, told you a manifest falsehood. Seeing you 
have, sir, copied after the infallible church in your expiscating questions in 
order to make me my own accuser, I hope you will not be offended at me 
for copying after you. I have two or three questions to propose, and I hope 
you will give a plain and direct answer to them. 1st. Did you say to any 
of the parishioners in the summer or harvest 1776, that I did nail my cat to 
the wall of my house in order that I might show the nature of a sacrifice ? 
If you did, I desire you will inform me who the hellish person was who 
invented such a lie ; for all the devils in hell could not have contrived a 
greater falsehood. 2nd. Did you hear your wife about the same time call 
me a rascal and villain, or words to the same import, to any person ? 3rd. 
If your wife did give me such names, tell me if her character is agreeable to 
the character of a bishop or deacon's wife, 1 Tim. iii. 11. 

" I did aver to Jean Lyal that the eating of blood was as sinful in the 
sight of God as either adultery or fornication, and I affirm the same thing 
again, sir ; for you nor no man shall intimidate me from maintaining the 
truth, and I have as good reason to judge what is truth as you or any other 
man ; and I will oppose every error which I hear broached and propagated, 
be the consequence what will. It is my duty to contend earnestly for the 
faith which was once delivered to the saints, and to oppose every error that 
is subversive of this faith.' " 

At a meeting of Presbytery held on January G, 1779, Mr. Dildarg being 
complained against by Mr. Tytler, was rebuked and admonished by the 
Presbytery, and promised amendment. 



430 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 



No. X. PAGE 234. 

THROUGH the kindness of David Deuchar, Esq., of Morningside, Edin- 
burgh, we axe enabled to give the following notes upon the estate and family 
of Deuchar. 

In the end of last century, David Deuchar, seal engraver and etcher, 
Edinburgh, the first of Morningside, appears to have instituted inquiries 
into the pedigree of the Deuchars ; and again, in the beginning of the pre- 
sent, his son Alexander Deuchar, seal engraver and genealogist, bestowed 
great care in documentary research and personal inquiry on the subject. 
Happily their collections are in great measure preserved, and now for the 
most part belong to Miss Deuchar, 2 Henderson Row, Edinburgh. From 
these it appears that the family came into possession of the estate of 
Deuchar about 1230, and were the Deuchars of that Ilk until the middle 
of the seventeenth century. Prior to 1640 David Deuchar of Deuchar had 
got into difficulties, and had cut down and sold some valuable wood 
upon the property. This failing to relieve him, he sold or otherwise 
resigned part of the estate to David Deuchar in Nether Balgillo, younger 
son of his brother James ; subsequently he made over the remainder of the 
estate to the said David Deuchar his nephew, probably reserving for himself 
a life-annuity therefrom. He died without male issue, but he left a daughter 
or daughters. The last in the line of David Deuchar (in Nether Balgillo) 
that owned the estate of Deuchar, was George Deuchar, his great-great- 
grandson, who disposed of it by public sale in Forfar on 17th March 1819, 
to the late Mr. Marnie, to whose daughters it now belongs. After the sale 
of Deuchar, George for some time held the farm of Pittrichie in Aberdeen- 
shire ; about 1830 he appears to have been Inspector of Cleansing in Dundee ; 
and soon thereafter was land-steward at Errol Park in the Carse of Gowrie. 
Subsequently he emigrated to Australia with his wife and daughters, and 
died there. But before he parted with Deuchar, he was in reduced circum- 
stances, and under trustees. This branch is still represented, in the female 
line, by the family of George Deuchar in the colonies, and by that of his 
brother, John, who settled in Aberdeenshire, and whose eldest son, John, 
with the other members of the family, went to Australia, where they have 
left a numerous progeny. The sons of the second John carry on the male 
representation of this line of the Deuchars. 

The elder branch (according to this view) descended from John Deuchar, 
elder son of the said James Deuchar, and distinguished as the Bashan branch 
(so named from Bashan, Bushen, Beauchamp, Boshen, Bolshan, Balshione, 
Balishan, or at times The Hill, in Kinnell, Forfarshire), is now represented 
by Patrick Deuchar, Esq., merchant, Liverpool, who would thus lineally be 
The Deuchar de eodem. His great-grandfather, Alexander Deuchar, came 
from the farm of Hill of Bolshan or Bashan, above referred to, and was 
lapidary in Edinburgh. His grandfather, David Deuchar, purchased 
Morningside, and entailed it upon his youngest son, and failing heirs-male, 
upon the next in succession in inverse order to primogeniture. His father, 



APPENDIX XI. 431 

the late Alexander Deuchar, well known in Edinburgh as seal engraver 
and genealogist, who died on 12th August 1844, was the eldest son, and 
has still surviving a son and two daughters. It is to be hoped that we may 
soon see published a History of the Family of Deuchar. 



No. XL PAGE 315. 

Letter from Sir David Carnegie, of Pitarrow, Bart., to James Carnegie, 
Esq. of Balnamoon. 

[THE laird of Balnamoon, to whom the following curious letter was 
addressed, was father of the "rebel laird" of 1746. The writer was the 
first Baronet of Pitarrow, father of Margaret Carnegie, wife of the patriotic 
Fletcher of Salton, and mother of Lord Milton, an eminent Scotch lawyer. 
Carnegie's grandson, Sir James, succeeded to the Southesk estates on the 
death of the last Earl in 1729, and from him the present Baronet of Southesk 
is the fourth in succession.] 

" To the much honoured the Laird of Ballnamoon These. 
Sir, 

As I hear that in absence of the Earle of Northeske yow manage all 
sea wrack to the best advantage for him And being certantly informed that 
the Sea has cast in severall casks not only of the best of Brandie, which 
they that have teasted of doe assure me : And which brandy does nowayes 
belong to ye ships seawrackt at Montrose. And also being told thafc 
severall casks of ye best ffrench wyne of the same nature were lykewayes 
cast ashore and seased by you for ye Earles use. Sir my sade sicknes these 
four moneths bygone and yet continuing (having weakened me extremely 
beyond expression) ; my body craves for its support ye best of Liquors 
indispenseable ; I doe earnestly intreat I may have two gallons of the best 
brandie and als much of the best ffrench wyne at ye current pryce ye rest 
of ye best shall be sold at ; This Sir as I know my Lord will be heartely 
satesfied with ; so when with you I plead ye benefite of blood relation It 
saves me the pains of farther persuasives. Only you will friendly consider 
the great need I presently stand in ; for my present subsistance and Life ; 
And qch sir from you will be ye most seasonable kyndnes you can express 
to me ; So your answer by this bearer is expected by 

Sir, 
Your Affectionat humble servant 

D. CARNEGIE. 
"Pittarrow 12 Apryle 1708." 



432 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 



No. XII. PAGE 315. 

Notice of the Family of Arbuthnott of Findowiie. From Notes from 
Findourie Papers, by the late P. Chalmers, Esq. of Aldbar. 

ROBERT ARBDTHNOTT l of that Ilk, third of the name, was the immediate 
progenitor of the family of Findowrie. He succeeded his father James, and 
was thrice married : first to Elizabeth Carnegie, Kinnaird's daughter, by 
whom he had three sons and one daughter ; secondly, to Margaret Pringle 
of Gallowshiels, by whom he had no issue ; and, thirdly, to Helen Clephane, 
daughter of the laird of Carslogie, who bore him four sons and four 
daughters. On the 9th of February 1574, Robert of that Ilk, and his third 
wife, had charters of the lands of Findowrie, in conjunct fee and liferent, 
and to David Arbuthnott, their eldest son, in fee, from Robert Cullaiss of 
Balnamoon, 2 who had sasine of Findowrie on December 3rd, 1558, from 
David Fenton, feudatory of Ogil. 3 Robert Arbuthnott of that Ilk was 
succeeded in Arbuthnott by his son, great-grandson, and great-great-grand- 
son. 4 The last of these was son to James Arbuthnott of Arrat, near 
Brechin, and father of the first Viscount of Arbuthnott. 

In 1616, Robert, the son of David of Findowrie, married Margaret 
Graham, daughter of Sir William Graham of Claverhouse, and widow of 
George Somyr, [younger] of Balzeordie. 5 This laird was an early acquaint- 
ance of the future Marquis of Montrose, who addressed the following 
friendly note to him, many years before he embarked in those perilous 
enterprises for which his name is now so famous : 

" To my loueiiige frende the larde of findoury. 

" Loueing frende I wreatte to you some tyme since to heave keipet ane 
apoyntment but I harde ye wer from home. Wherfor I must intreet you 
now to take the peans to meite me at auld Montrois upon monday about 
thrie houres efternone. In doing whych ye shall obliege me to remaine 

Y r louing frende 

MOINTROIS. 

"At Kinarde, the 17 of Sep 1 ** 1631." 6 

Circumstances, however, cooled Montrose's friendship towards Arbuth- 
nott ; for it appears from the subjoined statement of " Losses " which the 
latter sustained through him and his soldiers, that his lands and tenants 



1 The reader is referred, to Douglas, Peerage, i. p. 80, article ARBUTHNOTT, for 
the ancient history of this family, also ut siip. pp. 315 sq. 

2 Reg. Episc. Brech. ii. p. 285. 3 Tb. ii. p. 280. 

4 In 1597, the Arbuthnotts of Findowrie owned the Mains of Lauristoun, and 
the town and lands of Rosehill, in the Mearns ; Birghill in Aberdeenshire, Wester 
Umzver in Fife, and Brathwich in Forfar. (Findowrie Writs.) 

5 Several carved stones, bearing the initials and arms of this laird and lady, are 
built into the walls of the farm-steading, dated 1638. 

6 The body of this letter and the superscription are written by Montrose's servant 
the signature his own. 



APPENDIX XII. 433 

were not only harried to a large extent, but his private residence was also 
burned and pillaged. 

The son and grandson of the last-mentioned laird were also staunch 
supporters of the Covenant, and fined by the Earl of Middleton in the large 
sum of .2400. And, as appears by a letter from the Earl of Strathmore, 
commander of the Angus regiment, while located in Strathblane, on the 
18th of June 1685, the laird of the period, Robert Arbuthnott, was a person 
of so great consequence, that he was chosen by the Earl to command a 
company of horsemen during that stirring period. 1 

This laird was succeeded in 1698 by his son Alexander, who died before 
the 18th of September 1707, as of that date his son, by a daughter of 
Lindsay of Evelick, was served his heir. On the death of the son 2 of the 
last-mentioned Alexander, the male succession failed, and the estates were 
carried to the family of Balnamoon, through the marriage of the heiress 
with James Carnegy " the rebel laird," in the hands of whose descendants 
(through a female) Findowrie still continues. 



Statement of Losses sustained by the Laird of Findowrie and his Tenants 
through the Marquis of Montrose, in 1646. (From the Findowrie Papers.) 

At Brechine the sextein day of October the year of god I m vj c and 
fourtie sex yearis. In presence of James Guthrie of Pitforthie, John 
Simmer fiear of Brathinsch, David Livingstoune in Dunleppie, James Ross 
in Dalbog, George Straton in Achdovie, and Johne Lyone in Aldbar, as ane 
quorum of the Commissioneris appointit be the Committee of the rnonyis 
and process for the north conforme to the Commissione grantit to them for 
uptakinge of the Losses conteinit in the said Commissione, Of the qlk 
quorum the said David Livingstoune wes electit preses. Compeirit person- 
allie Robert Arbuthnot fier of Findawrie and his fatheris tenantis and ser- 
vandis, and his, and gave in thar particular Losses qlk they suffered be the 
commone enemie be burning out, spuiling and robbing, as wes provin sum 
by Witnesses and sum by oath of pairties, as follows 

Item compeirit Jon Brown in Findawrie and gave in his particular Losses 
quhairupon being Dewlie sworn deponit, qlkis Losses extendis 
to X1469 8 

Item Jon Williamsone in Muriehillock deponit and gave in his 

Losses being dewlie sworne qlk extendis to ... 704 4 

Item David Williamsone in Markcus gave his oath and gave in 

his Losses qlk extends to 368 3 4 

Item James Sym at the myln of Markous gave his aith and gave 

in his Losses qlk extends to 24 

1 A stone built into the wall of the farm-house of Findowrie belongs to this 
laird's time. It bears the following quaint observation: " Hie ARGVS NON 
BRIARI' ESTO MAT 12 1684 R A : E R." 

2 Ap. 22, 1745 d. Alex. Arbuthnot of Findowrie. (Scoff Mag.) 

2 E 



434 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

Item the said David Williamsone compeirit for David 1 William- 
sone his brother being seik and gave in his Losses (qlk be 
his gryt aith he declarit that he knew to be of veritie) qlks 
Losses extends to . . , . . . 32 

Item compeirit Thomas Cothill cotter in Muriehillock and gave 

in his losses and thairupon gave his aith qlk extends to . 32 

Item Martha Aikenheid in Muriehillock gave in hir losses and 

gave hir aith thairupon qlk extends to ' . ; 25 

Item Isobell Findlie thair gave in hir losses and gave hir oath 

yrupon qlk extends to 41 10 

Item Thomas Skair in Litill Markous compeirit and gave in his 

losses and gave his oath yrupon qlk extends to . . 68 19 4 

Item Jon Allane in Findawrie comperit and gave in his losses 

qurupon he gave his oath qlk extends to ... 191 3 4 

Item David Myller thair gave in his losses qlk extends to 22 6 8 

Item Johne Cramond thair compeirit and gave in his losses qlk 

extends to 70 13 4 



Summa Lateris is . - 3059 8 

JHONE LYONE DAVID LEVINGSTOUNE 

T. LINDSAY notar GEORGE STRATON J. GOUTHRIE 

clerk heirto J. Ross JHONE SYMMER 

Followes the Losses susteinit be the said Robert Arbuthnot himself by 
burning of his place of Findowrie, barnes byres office housses and comes 
in his barne and barneyard, and by burning of his Ludging in Brechine 
(victual housses and stabillis) and by destroying of his cornes upon the 
ground, Robbing and Spulzes of his Nolt scheip horss and uther gudis and 
geir comittit be the comone enemie and his complices, as wes judiciallie 
provin concerning the fulrack of the houss be trasdesmen and such as 
wes not provin the said Robert Arbuthnot fiear of Findawrie gave his aith 
thairupon. 

That the Losses above specifiet according to the particularis given be 

them extends to the soume of 3984 8 8 

Item mair he deponit that he had of cunyeit money qlk wes 

taken from him be the said enemie out of his hous . 2000 
Forder we to quhome this Commission wes grantit and 
undersubscryvained Declairis that according to oure 
knowledge and so far as we could have informatione, that 
he lost be the forsaid enemie of Insicht plenishing with 
sum Jewellis and silver wark worth the soume off . . 2000 
Summa Lateris is . .7984 8 8 
Summa totalis 11043 9 4 



1 Kic in orig. 

- An error of 10 is in this summation, and is repeated in the siimma totalis. 



APPENDIX XII. 435 

We undersubscryvand testifie that we haue takin the oathis of the pair- 
ties and witnesses above writtin concerning the particularis of the losses given 
in be the foirsaid persones. 

GEORGE STRATON DAVID LEVINGSTOUNE 
T. LINDSAY notar JHONE LYONE J. GOUTHRIE 

clerk heirto J. Eoss JHONE SYMMER 

The following is the deliverance on the above. 

Aberdene 19 October 1646. 

The Comittee of moneyis and process for the north considering the con- 
ditione of Robert Arbuthnott of Findawrie in the burning and wasting of 
his haill landis within the schrefdome of fforfar done and occasioned by the 
rebells, doe thairfor suspend all payt of maintenance for the saidis landis of 
the said schyre, Whill order be gevine be parliament or thair comitties 
respect 9 for uplifting thairof, Inhibiting and discharging in the mean 
tyme, the collectors of the maintenance within the said schyre frome all 
troubling or molesting of the said Robert Arbuthnott or his tenants 
thairfor 

J. BURGHLY, I.P.D. Com. 



Letter from Mr. J. Rait, Aberluthnot (MaryJevrk) to the laird of Findowrie, 
on supplying a Vacancy in the Church of Menmuir in 1642. 

Richt Honoble Sir 

I heir the kirk of Menmuir is vacand If ye think it expedient my sone 
Mr. Wm. would offer his trevellis ther. He hes an inclination to come 
furth and fears if we get not him setled besyde ws at home he be drawn 
furth to setill in the north pairtes qlk I wold not desyr for inonie causes 
Alwyis S r if ye think it a thing liklie ye may use yor moyen I know ze 
have a straik of all ye parochineris Quhan ye come to ye Mearnis I wold 
wis ze cam yis way and wisit me qn we shall confer at griter lynth 
Committing yow and all yours to ye tuition of God almichtie 
Remenis 

Yor assured cussing to serve yow 
Aberluthnot, Aprilis 1642. MA. J. RAIT. 

In the following Presbyterian Licence to eat flesh on forbidden days 
(which is copied from the Arbuthnott papers), the name of this laird and 
his contemporary of Findowrie occurs : " The Lords of Councell give full 
licence and libertie to Ro*. Vicecownt of Arbuthnott, S r Jo n Carnegy of 
Craig Sir Alex. Carnegie of Balnamone William Rait of Halgrein and 
Robert Arbuthnot of Fyndowrie and such as shal be in cache of yair Com- 
panies To eat and feed vpon flesche during this forbidden tyme of Lentron 
viz. frome the day of to the day of nixt 



436 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

thairefter. And alsua vpon Wednisdayes, Frydayes, and Satterdayes, for 
the space of a yeir after ye dait heirof And that withowt any cryme 
quarrell skaithe or danger to be sustinet be thaim or ony of thame in thair 
persons goods or geir Notwithstanding of quhatsumevir act of parliament 
statute or proclamacion made in the contrare whairanent and all paynes 
therein contenit The saids Lords dispensis simpliciter Given at Ednr. the 
day of Marche 1642 yeares. (Signed) LOUDON CANRIUS. ARGYLL, 
MORTON, EGLINTOUN, SOUTHESK, S r THOMAS HOP, J. CARMICHAEL, 
AL. GIBSONE of Durie, ROBERT INNES of that Ilk." (Misc. Sp. Club, ii. 
p. 115.) 



No. XIII. PAGE 339. 

Epitaph on the Tombstone of Bishop Edgar in the Abbey, Arbroath. 

QUOD inori potuit admodum reverendi Prsesulis Henrici Edgar, filii 
Davidis Edgar de Keithock, sub hoc saxo requiescit ; qui per annos triginta 
sex sacra inunia Aberbrothock fideliter obiit, animam spei beatse immortali- 
tatis plenam restituit Augusti vicesimo secundo, anno JErss Christianas 
millesimo septingentesimo sexagesimo octavo, aetatis vero suse septuagesimo 
primo. 

Dominus dedit, Dominus abstulit, 
Nomen Domini benedictum." 



No. XIV. PAGE 346. 

The Iron Yets or Gates of the Castles of Inverquharity and Invermark. 
(From Willis's Current Notes, London, Aug. 1855.) 

THESE iron-grated yets or gates were formerly used as inner doors to the 
principal entrances of old castles in Scotland ; several of them remain, and 
present perfect representations of their construction and strength. Their 
general application appears to have followed upon the disuse of the port- 
cullis, and they were well adapted as effective safeguards against the invasion 
of the Cateran, or Highland robber, as well as a sure defence against the pre- 
meditated assaults of one baron upon the home and dependants of another. 
All baronial buildings situated near any pass in the Highlands, or usual 
road-way or thoroughfare in the Lowlands, were provided with them, and 
remain an incontestable proof of the general insecurity consequent on the 
lawless state of North Britain till a very recent date. . . . 



APPENDIX XIV. 437 

The lands and castle of Inverquharity were held by the ancestors of the 
present baronet from a period anterior to the year 1405, and were, about 
sixty or seventy years ago, alienated. The castle is now a ruin. The " Irne 
yet," for which the licence was obtained, is still there in its original 
position. These iron gates, hung on strong hinges, and secured by two or 
three bolts, varying in diameter from two to four inches, were not unfre- 
quently aided in their repellative quality by a thick bar of oak, one end of 
which being placed in an aperture in the wall, passed immediately behind 
the gate to an opposite niche chiselled in the stone-work to receive it. At 
many other fortalices in the same district, such gates as here described are 
remaining ; and among them that at Invermark Castle, in the romantic 
valley of Glenesk, aifords a satisfactorily picturesque specimen ; that castle 
having been erected in the sixteenth century, and the " irne yet " or gate 
being a type of the one at Inverquharity, and of all others which I have 
noticed, is represented at the commencement of this paper, and shows the 
same style of gate to have long prevailed. 

I am not aware that gates of this or a similar construction can claim an 
earlier antiquity in Scotland than the reign of James n. or in. On this 
point possibly some of your correspondents can inform me ; but connected 
with the one above engraved, there is a peculiarity which may be briefly 
noticed. Towards the close of the sixteenth century, while the extensive 
lordship of Glenesk was held by the old family of Lindsay of Edzell, Sir 
David Lindsay and his brother Lord Menniuir, founder of the noble house 
of Balcarres, discovered in the glen minerals, including gold, silver, brass, 
and tin, which were leased to a skilful German, and it is stated the gate 
above depicted was the work of a native blacksmith, from iron ore raised 
and smelted in Glenesk ; in fact, the whole of the iron about the castle of 
Invermark, of which the gate is almost the only vestige, is also recorded to 
have been obtained and worked from and upon the same soil. Subse- 
quently, these mineral discoveries were attempted to be continued by the 
York Buildings Company, but their operations failing of success, the works 
were abandoned. 

The tower or castle of Invermark, now roofless and a ruin, appears to owe 
much of its dilapidated condition to neglect, as between the time that the 
estate was sold by the last Lindsay of Edzell to James fourth Earl of 
Panmure, by whom, as a Jacobite, it was forfeited within the year following 
the purchase, and the sale of the lands by the Government to the York 
Buildings Company, the castle is noticed as gradually falling to decay. In 
1729, the Burlawmen, or those appointed to value the lands and houses on 
the forfeited properties of the Stuart adherents, in reference to this edifice, 
made a report, that " the present value of the castle of Innermark, of stone 
and slate roof, is three hundred and sixty-four pounds ; and the reparations 
necessary thereto, is one hundred and ninety pounds, twelve shillings, which 
it must have in all haste to prevent its going to ruin." The repairs sug- 
gested by the report were immediately made, and the factor or manager of 
the Panmure portion of the York Buildings Estates made it his occasional 
residence. Two of his female descendants were its last occupants, they 



438 LAND OF THE LINDSAYS. 

having continued to inhabit the castle till 1803, when the stone-work of 
the offices, and the timber of the interior of the tower, were taken to build 
the adjoining nianse for the use of the parish minister. A. J. 



No. XV. PAGE 370. 

Inverkeillor Church. 

THIS church seems to have been originally, like many of the old Scotch 
churches, a long, narrow aisle standing east and west, with all the lights on 
the south side in preference to the north. A Norman arch in good preser- 
vation still remains in the east gable, and the dimensions of the original 
fabric can easily be traced by the thickness of the walls, but there is 
nothing to indicate the age of the building. The church has been extended 
both in height and in area at various times, without much regard to 
symmetry ; in external appearance it possesses no attraction. Recently it 
has undergone a thorough repair, having had two feet put on the walls ; 
the old roof has been replaced by a modern one of higher pitch, showing 
the main beams and ties in the interior. The pews have also been renewed 
and remodelled. The whole wood-work of the interior is stained in oak 
and varnished. The pulpit, communion-table, and font (the last being the 
gift of Mrs. Lindsay-Carnegie, of Kinblethmont) are neat in design and 
executed in good taste. Interesting monuments, relating to some of the 
local families and of clergymen who have served the cure, are preserved in 
the walls. Of these some are specially quaint in sculptured ornaments, and 
in the composition of the record they bear. One begins with a verse of 
Scripture cut in the original Hebrew characters, another bears an in- 
scription in Greek, while another is peculiar in that its Latin inscription 
is throughout a playing with the word " Durie " the name of the clergy- 
man that it commemorates. The oldest of these monuments is of date 1624, 
and in excellent preservation. The Norman arch above referred to was 
used, previous to the last repair, as the entrance to the burying-ground of 
the Northesk family, several of whose members are interred here. [For 
the above we are indebted to the courtesy of the Rev. James Hay, D.D. 
parish minister.] 



No. XVI. PAGE 394. 

Notice of the Palace of Kincardine. 

THE ruins of the Palace, or Castle, of Kincardine stand on a wooded 
eminence which rises about thirty feet above the level of the adjoining 
lands, at the foot of the Cairn-o'-Mount road. The walls are composed of 



APPENDIX XVI. 439 

chisel-hewn but mostly hammer-dressed stones of a hard and durable sand- 
stone, and no part is more than eight feet high ; the walls had been of great 
strength, being constructed on the same sloping principle as harbours and 
military fortifications. The ground-plan is still traceable, and it appears 
that, independent of the foundations of the strong gateway and tower (which 
project twenty or thirty feet from the main building, and a surrounding 
ditch and defensive outworks), the size of the Palace had been about thirty- 
six yards square, with an inner court filled more or less with buildings. It 
was inhabited on all sides except the north, which is composed merely of a 
wall, in which there seems to have been an entrance of great width leading 
to the court ; but the principal entrance was on the west. There was also 
a door on the east, about five feet broad, and two spacious apartments 
measuring about fourteen by fifty feet, and fourteen by thirty-five feet, are 
on each side of it. Two other apartments on the south are twenty-two by 
sixty, and twenty-two by fourteen feet in size. The front wall, though 
mostly composed of the watch-towers, embraces several variously-sized apart- 
ments. The outer walls vary from eight to ten feet in thickness the inner 
are about three, and some parts of the front so much as twelve feet. 

The time of the foundation of this Palace is unknown. Tradition asserts 
that it was in existence in the time of Kenneth in., and some writers call 
it the scene of his murder. It was certainly of note in William the Lion's 
time, and was the residence of Edward I., both on his going to and returning 
from the North in 1296, and the scroll of Baliol's resignation was prepared 
therein. Perhaps the last charter dated therefrom is one to Thomas Rait, 
by Robert n., in 1383, when he had certain portions of Lumgair from that 
king. 

Kincardine was the seat of the County Courts down to James vi.'s 
time. It was then a place of considerable importance, with a church and 
market. The churchyard is still preserved ; and the fair, which was 
removed to Fettercairn at the transference of the Courts to Stonehaven, 
is known by the name of St. Catherin, to whom the old kirk of Kincardine 
was dedicated. 1 A cross of hewn freestone gifted to Kincardine by the 
Earl of Middleton, bearing his arms and initials, " E : I : M," and date 
" 1670," is still at Fettercairn. It ought to be mentioned, that the pre- 
servation of the ruins of both the Palace and the old kirk is owing to the 
praiseworthy conduct of the late Sir John Stuart Forbes of Fettercairn, 
who, on hearing of stones being taken from the Palace to fill drains, put 
an immediate and effectual stop to the sacrilegious proceeding. 



nij. Spec. Kincnnl. No. 70. 



INDEX. 



ABBE, old name in Edzell, 3, 27, 29, 

30. 

Douenaldus, cle Brechin, 28. 

John, son of Malise, 27. 

Maurice, de Abereloth, 28. 

Morgound, son of John, 27. 

Aberbothrie (now Kinloch) lands, 

362, 363. 

Abercrombie, George, 2d Lord, 148. 
- Hon. Lady Montague (Lady 

Panmure), 148. 
Aberdeen, Bp. Thomas (Spence) of, 

38 ; Sheriffship, 185 ; town of, 284, 

299 ; General Assembly of, 301. 
Aberdour church, burial-place of St. 

Drostan, 73. 
Aberlemno, 161, 211, 212; church 

and bell, 225. 

Abernethies of Downie, 384. 
Abernethy, Hew of, 7 n., 307. 
Margaret, Countess of Angus, 

236. 

Orem, son of Hew, 7 n., 236. 

Abernethy arms, 48 n, 384 n, 386. 

in Strathearn, 162. 

Abirnithy, Sir Hugh of, 378. 
Aboyne, Charles, 4th Earl of, 201. 
Adam, Judex, 269. 

Abbot of Arbroath, 406 n. 

Adamson, John, of Careston, 287. 

Margaret, a witch, 353. 

Adder stone and legends, 155 ; 

white, 156. 
Adecat, 280. 

Adzell family, 27 ; name lost, 29. 
Aikenhatt (Finbaven), kirk of, 161, 

164 ; manse, 164. 
Airity burn, 377. 
Airlie, arms of Earls of, 292 ; church 

of, 354 n. ; family of, 344. 

David, 7th Earl of, 353. 

James, Lord Ogilvy of, 244. 

Aitherny, visit of Lady of, to Edzell, 

53. 



Albany, Duke of, 235, 240. 

Aldbar, 239, 320. 

Alexander i., 377 n. 

in., 227, 307, 362, 378. 

Alford, Forbes of, 286. 

Miss Forbes of, 286. 

Alison, Mr., of Holm, 22. 

Allardis, John, 344. 

Altar of St. Catherine in Brechin 
Cathedral, 165. 

of Our Lady in Dundee, 385. 

Altrie, Lord (Sir Robert Keith of 
Benholm), 347, 404. 

Alyth burn, 358 ; church and chapel 
of, 358; forest of, 170, 358 ; parish 
of, 357 ; property of, 361. 

Anandia (Anaund, Annand), Sir 
David de, 172, 173. 

Janet, of Melgund, 173. 

William de, 172. 

Anderson, Dr. Joseph, 22 n. 

Mr., of Monksmill, 215. 

Eev. Mr., of Oathlaw, 167, 168. 

Angus or Anegus, Eve de, 126. 

John de, 126. 

Angus, Earls of, 376, 390 n. 

Sheriffship of, 187. 

Archibald, 6th Earl of, 390. 

Gilchrist, Earl of, 232, 344. 

Gilibrede, Earl of, 344, 391. 

James, 13th Earl of, 284. 

Malcolm, Earl of, 244. 

Margaret, Countess of, 344. 

Matilda, or Maud, Countess of, 

391. 

Thomas, 2d Earl of, 390. 

(Jmphraville, Earl of, 391. 

Angus Hill, 291. 

Anne, Queen, 286, 395. 

Arbirlot got Navar bell, 136. 

Arbroath, abbacy purchased, 145 ; 
abbey-keeper for life, 243 ; abbey 
and gifts to, 4, 27, 28, 171, 226, 
239, 344, 357, 369, 370, 371, 381, 



442 



INDEX. 



382, 394, 399, 404, 406 ; battle 
of, 175 sq., 280, 345, 350, 381 ; 
cliffs and caves, 381 n. ; Commen- 
dator of the abbey, 353 ; letter 
from barons at, 139, 227 ; marches 
of abbey lands. 280 ; museum, 
136. 

Ardeastie, 386 it. 

Ardo, 280, 281. 

Ardoch, birks of, 97, 117 ; in Perth- 
shire, 218. 

Argyll, Archibald, 5th Earl, 244 n. 
Archibald, 8th Earl and 1st 
Marquis, 196, 295. 

Armilla found, 219. 

Arnhall, barony of, 122 n., 247 ; 
Chapel ton of, 122 ; mansion- 
house of, 122 ; moss of, 58 ; pro- 
perty of, 122, 247. 

Arran, James, 3d Earl of, 211. 

Arrat, 142. 

Arrow-heads, 98, 106, 107. 

Arthur, King, 358. 

Assuanley Cup, 182sq. 

Athole, Walter Stuart, Earl of, 138, 
140, 312. 

Countess of, 140. 

Atholia, Robert de, 31. 

Athyn (Ethie) church, 370 n. 

Auchcairnie, 394. 

Aucheen, 107 ; mill of, 114 n., 118. 

Auchinleck of that Ilk, 207, 208, 387. 

Sir Alexander, 398. 

castle of. 345, 386, 405 w. 

Auchinlochy, 221, 246 . 

Auchmull, 24, 47, 70, 71, 119, 120. 

Auchnacree, 226, 246 n. 

Auchquhanden, 241. 

Auchterhouse, 341. 

Auchterless, Dempsters of, 282, 312. 

Auchtermonzie, 187. 

Auld Ha' at Neudos, 24. 

Ayre, Richard, 239. 

BAD ENOCH, 182w. 

Baikie (Bakie), castle of, 354, 355 ; 

chapel of, 355. 
Baillie, General, 294, 297. 
Balbirnie at Brechin, 336. 

in Fife, 236. 

Balbirnie, proprietor of Inverichty, 

207. 

Balcarres, Colin, Earl of, 57 n. 
Balcasky, John de, 359. 
Baldovan, 345. 
Baldowry, 371. 



Balfour, 24, 310, 393. 

Easter and Wester towns, 393. 

Balgavies, Lindsays of, 210 sq., 340. 
Balhagardy, 142. 

Balhall, 237, 303, 318 sq., 321 sq. ; 
moss of, 322. 

Balhungie, 212, 387. 

Balinhard, Carnegies de, 238 sq. ; of 
Arbirlot, 238, 239; estate ac- 
quired by the Maules, 239. 

Christian de, 239. 

Gocelynus de, 238. 

John de (two), 239. 

Balinscho, 169 n., 210, 346 sq. ; 
chapel of, 349. 

Baliol, John, 285, 326 n. 

Ballichie, 313. 

Balligilleground in Bolshan, 28. 

Ballumbie, 310. 

Balmadethie (Balmaditie), in Fern, 
7 w., 236, 246 n. 

Bahnadie's cemetery, 424. 

Balmain, 393. 
Ramsays of, 393. 

Balmakewan, 278, 406. 

Over and Nether, 406. 

Balmashanner Hill, execution on, 
21. 

Balmerino, Abbot William of, 227. 

Abbey of, 239. 

Balmyle, lands of, 362. 

Balnabreich, 270, 282, 290, 336 n. 
Easter, 232. 

Balnacraig, 232. 

Balnamoon, estate of, 241, 312 sq. ; 
bequest of Lady of, 273 ; library 
of, 317 ; place of family burial, 
303 ; rebel laird of, 78, 100, 287 ; 
his cave, 100, 316 ; his hiding in 
Glenmark, 100, 101. 

Balquhadlie, Lindsays of, 229. 

Easter and Wester, 246 n. 

Balquharn, Lindsays of, 229 ; castle 
of, 255, 309. 

Balrownie bridge, 130 ; circle at, 
104, 107. 

Balruthie, 143. 

Baluny in Kettins, 377 w. 

Balvaird, Mr. John, minister of 
Edzell, 52 n. 

Balwyllo, 27, 237. 

Balwyndoloch, 357. 

Balzeordie, barony of, 315 n. ; lairds 
of, 310 sq., 315. 

Bandooh in Inverkeillor, 370 n. 

Bane, Donald, died, 170. 



INDEX. 



443 



Banks, Sir Joseph, 20. 
Barbour, John, the poet, 321. 
Barclay, Sir David, Lord of Brechin, 

138, 139. 
- David, 140. 

Margaret, 140, 312 n. 

Barclays of Balinakewan, 407. 
Barnsdaillfaulds, 169 n. 
Barnyards of Tannadyce, 208, 340. 
Barras, in Kinneff, 396, 398. 

in Meldrum, battle of, 139. 

Barrelwell, 327. 
Barry, Dr., 22. 

battle of, 230, 387, 388. 

Barryhill fort, 358. 

Battiedykes, camp at, 210, 213, 218. 

Battock, Mount, 95, 118. 

Baxter, Rev. W. L., 271. 

Bean, a family in Piperton, 315 n. 

Beardie's well in Brechin, 336. 

Beaton, Cardinal, 41, 173, 190, 229, 

249 sq., 364, 390; at Melguud 

Castle, 173, 225 ; word in his 

favour, 249. 

Margaret, Countess of Craw- 
ford, 41, 190, 229, 361, 364. 
of Ethiebeaton, Sheriff of For- 

farshire, 390. 
Beattie, Dr., 87, 115, 129, 406 n. 

George, the poet, 407 n. 

a mis-sworn retainer, 323. 

Beattie's Cairn, 323, 324. 
Bell of Lethuot, 136. 

of Lochlee, 87. 

of Navar, 134 sq. 

St. Columba's, 5. 

St. Laurence's, at Edzell, 4, 9. 

St. Meddan's, 5. 

St. Ternan's, 5. 
Bells, form and use, 4, 5. 

passing, 5. 

Belmont at Meigle, 363. 

Benham (Benatn, Bennum), family 

de, 404. 
Hugh, Bp. of Aberdeen, 404. 

Master Thomas de, 404. 

Benholm, castle and lands of, 404, 

405 ; rector of, 399. 

Nether, 405 n. 

Bennet, Sir William, of Grubbet, 

166, 200. 
Benvie, 143. 
Berkeley, Humphrey de, 4. 

Walter de, 234, 370 n. 

Wyrfaud de, 406. 

Bervie, 398. 



Berwick, castle, 187, 281, 308. 

North, 355 n. 

Bethune (Betun), Elizabeth, of Vayne, 

229. 

David de, 306. 

Binny, Mrs., in Tilliearblet, 133 . 
Thomas, of Fern and Maules- 

den, 148, 225, 237. 
Birsay and Harray, parish, 21. 
Bisset, Robert, of Kinneff, 397. 

Walter, 398. 

Black, David Dakers, 135, 136, 330. 
James, in Wood of Edzell, 123 ; 

builds Gannochy Bridge, 109 ; 

monument to, 129, 130. 
Black's Pot, 154. 
Black Shank, 154. 
Blackiemuir, 405. 
Blacklaw in Kinnell, 382. 
Blackness, 312, 335, 391. 
Blacksmiths (Lindsay) of Brechin, 

335, 336. 
Blair, Alexander, of Balthyock, 304. 

Rev. David, 75. 

Dame Giles, 270, 304, 315. 

Peter, of Dunkenny, 356. 

of Balthyock, arms of, 292 ., 

293. 

Blairiefeddan, Lindsays of, 210. 
Blairno, 136. 
Blandford Rectory, 379. 
Blawart Lap, 326, 327. 
Boethius (Boyce, Boyes), family of, 

382. 

Alexander, 383. 

Bogardo, 214. 

Boggie, 246 n. 

Boigwilk, 169. 

Bolshan (Balishan), 178, 234, 240 it. 

Bonnyman, Mr., schoolmaster at 

Edzell, 12 ; his grave, 19. 
Both, 227. 

Bothers (Cairnbank), 280. 
Both well, Francis Stewart, Lord, 192. 
Bouncle, Peter, reader, 23. 
Bow in Plater Forest, 169 n. 
Bowers .of Kincaldrum, 373 . 
Boyd faction, 187. 

Boysack, Lindsay-Camegies of, 367. 
Braedownie, 352. 
Braeminzeon, 354. 
Braid Cairn, 110 H. 
Brako, 310. 
Brandenburg, 347- 
Brandyden, 255. 
Branny, 113. 



444 



INDEX. 



Brechin, David de, 28, 96, 139. 

Henry de, 139. 

Margaret de, 139. 

Walter, Lord of, 140. 

Sir William de, 139. 

Brechin, Bank of, 335 ; battle of, 
179 n., 180 sq., 240, 306, 312, 
387 ; Bishop and Chapter, 184, 
235, 280, 327 n., 337, 408 ; 
" Burrow rudis " of, 313 ; Castle, 
149 ; Cathedral and its endow- 
ments, 3 n., 138, 227, 280, 308 n., 
335, 371, 408; Cathedral tower 
built, 127 ; common muir of, 312, 
320, 371 ; Grammar School of, 
271 ; prebends of, 32, 126, 162, 
335 ; see of, 125, 162, 244 n., 375, 
382, 386, 398 ; town of, 297, 304, 
309. 

and Navar, lordship of, 28, 138 

sq., 141, 143, 185, 187, 235, 269, 
335, 337. 

Breidin's Bay, 399. 

Brichty, 228, 229, 391. 

Wester, 392. 

Bricius, judex of Angus, 269. 

parson of Neudos, 23. 

Bride's Bed, 113. 

Bridge of Balrownie, 130. 

Gannochy, 109, 120, 123, 130. 

Lee, 111, 114 n. 

Lethnot, 129. 

Stonyford, 130. 

Upper North Water, 339. 

Broadland, 394. 

Broadtack, burn of, 284. 

Brochdarg the wizard, 156. 

Brodie, Mr., of The Burn, 122, 123. 

Brotherton, 405. 

Broughty, 391. 

Castle, 188, 360. 

Brouss, James, prebendary of Leth- 
not, 164. 

Brown, Sir David, vicar of Edzell, 
3, 4. 

Brown, Mr., minister of Tarfside, 79. 

Brownie, The, 252 sq. 

of Bodsbeck, 254. 

of Claypots, 254. 

of Fern, 254. 

Bruce, John, in Ledenhendrie, 265. 

Rev. John, in Guthrie, 375. 

Margaret, 407. 

Lady Marjory, 40. 

of Earlshill, 390. 

Princess Elizabeth, 175. 



Bruce, King Robert the. See 
Robert I. 

Sir Robert, of Finhaven, 172. 

Brucetoun, 246 n. 

Bruff Shank, 228, 309. 

Buchan, Alexander, Earl of, 171, 173. 

Henry David Erskine, 12th 

Earl of, 224. 

Mr., minister of St. Kilda, 274. 

William Comyn, Earl of, 171. 

Stuarts, Earls of, 341. 

Buchanan, George, 346 n. 

Buist, Rev. John, of Tannadice, 

167 . 

Burial, premature, at Edzell, 15. 
| Burn, The, 110, 120 sq., 393 ; 

woods of The, 110, 112, 121. 
Burnes, Dr. James, 137. 
Burnet, Alexander, of Levs, 376, 393 u. 

Bp. Gilbert, 242. * 

Burns, widow of Robert, 147. 

Burnside estate, 304. 

Burntown of Balzeordie, 310. 

Bute, Lord, 283. 

Buttergill (Buthirgille, Burgh-hill), 

336 . 
Byres, Lindsays of the, 194 sq. 

CAIRN in Forest of Plater, 169 M. 

in Tannadice, 337, 387. 

Cairnbank (Bothers), 280. 

Cairn Caidloch, llOn. 

Cairncross district, 73. 

Calder, George, of Assuanley, 182, 
183 n. 

Thane of, 401. 

Caldhame, castle of, 294 ; property 
of, 315 n. 

Calletar, 155. 

Cambiston (Camuston), 387 M., 389. 

Campbell, Alexander, Bishop of 
Brechin, 244 n. 

Catherine, Countess of Craw- 
ford, 41. 

David, minister of Careston 

and Menmnir, 271, 302. 

Jean, Countess of Panmure, 

386 n. 

Magdalene, 311. 

of Lundie killed, 229. 

Camus, Cross of, 387, 388, 389. 
Canterland, 408. 
Carald stone, 268. 
Carbuddo, 375, 376. 
Cardinal's Pool at Neudos, 24. 
Cardny, Marion de, 228. 



INDEX. 



445 



Cardnye estate, 285. 

Careston Castle, 193, 290 sq. ; 

church, 269 sq., 303 ; estate, 138, 

279 sq., 312, 315, 367 ; parish, 

236, 268 sq. ; school, 166 ; sculp- 

turings, 292, 293. 

Nether, 268, 282, 288. 

Carlochy, 113. 
Carlungie, 212, 387, 389. 
Carnegie, Sir Alexander, 1st of Balna- 

moon,241, 242 w., 269, 283, 290 n., 

297, 300, 304, 311, 313, 315. 
Sir Alexander, 1st of Pitarrow, 

243, 315. 
Alexander, 5th of Balnamoon, 

315. 

Alexander, of Cuikstoune, 27 1 n. 

Alexander Blair, of Kinfauns, 

198. 
Barbara, Lady Douglas of Glen- 

bervie, 201. 
Charles, 4th Earl of Southesk, 

246. 

Charles, younger of Finhaven, 

198. 

Hon. Charlotte, 377 n. 

Sir David, 1st Earl of South- 
esk, 202, 243, 249, 283, 315. 

Sir David, 1st Bart, of Pit- 
arrow, 243, 431. 

Sir David, 4th Bart, of Pit- 
arrow, 247. 

David, Dean of Brechin, 202, 

356, 423. 

purchased Craigo, 202, 356. 

David, Lord Carnegie, 243, 

244 n. 

David of Colluthie and Kin- 

naird, 241, 243, 290 n., 407. 

David, 1st of Cookston, 271. 

David, of Ethie, 369. 

David, younger of Balnamoon, 

315. 

David, 2d Earl of Northesk, 369. 

Duthac de, 239, 240. 

Elizabeth, wife of Arbuthnott, 

432. 

Hercules, ancestor of the 

families of Cookston and Craigo, 
202. 

James, 2d Earl of Southesk, 

243, 244, 288. 

James, 5th Earl of Southesk, 

246. 

Sir James, 3d Bart, of Pit- 
arrow, 247, 383. 



Carnegie, Sir James, 5th Bart, of 

Pitarrow, 248. 
Sir James, 6th Bart, of Pitarrow 

and 6th Earl of Southesk, 248, 

249. 
James, 1st of Finhaven, 198. 

James, 2d of Finhaven, his 

character, 198 sq. ; kills Strath- 
more, 166, 199; last at Finhaven, 
201, 203. 

Sir James, of that Ilk, 241 ??. 

James, 3d of Balnamoon, 315. 

James, 4th of Balnamoon, 315. 

James, 6th of Balnamoon, 315. 

[Cam. Arb.] 
James, W.S., of Finhaven and 

Noranside, 201, 237, 238. 
Sir John, 1st Earl of Ethie and 

Northesk, 202, 241, 242, 243, 

283 n., 315, 369, 378. 
Sir John, 2d of Balnamoon, 315. 

Sir John, of Craig and Ulis- 

haven (Usan), 243. 

Sir John, 6th of Kinnaird, 



241. 
John, of that Ilk and of Seaton, 

241 n. 

John, 3d of Kinnaird, 240. 

John, 4th of Kinnaird, 241, 

370 n. 

John de, 239. 

Magdalene, Marchioness of 

Montrose, 243. 

Magdalene, of Claverhouse, 

243 n. 

Margaret, of Boysack, 367. 

Margaret, daughter of Pit- 
arrow, and wife of Balnamoon, 
315, 429. 

Mrs., of Balnamoon, 273. 

of Kinnaird, 239 sq. 

of that Ilk, 239. 

Patrick, of Lour, 200, 378. 

Robert, 3d Earl of Southesk, 

245, 251. 
Robert, 1st of Dunnichen, 241, 

242 n., 283 n., 315. 

Sir Robert, 5th of Kinnainl, 

202, 240 n., 241, 370 n. 

Miss Stewart, of Boysack, 367. 



Thomas, of Craigo, 201. 

Walter, of Guthrie, 371. 

Walter, 2d of Kinnaird, 184, 

240. 
William, minister of Careston, 

271. 



446 



INDEX. 



Carnegie-Arbuthnott, James, 6th of 

Balnamoon, the " Rebel Laird," 

315, 316, 431. 

James, 315. 

James Knox, 315. 

Miss, 316. 

Carnegie, arms of, 239 n. ; estate in 

Carmylie, 239 ; of that Ilk, 239. 
Carnegies of Balnamoon, 313 sq. 

of Craigo, 202, 356. 

of Lour, 378. 

of Turin, 378. 

Carneskcorn, 120. 

Carril, 26S, 291. 

Carron stream, 402. 

Carsegownie, 172. 

Cat, hill of, 115. 

Catanach, Jean (Mrs. Ross), 83. 

Cateran, the, 94, 95, 96, 154, 159, 

260 sq., 309. 

Caterline, 308 n., 398, 399. 
Caterthun, 150, 1'51, 214, 307, 328, 

329, 330 sq. 
Cathro-seat, 246 n. 
Cave, Bonnymune's, 100. 

petrifying, in Glenesk, 101. 

Celt, bronze, 107. 

Cemeteries and churches, 104. 

Chalmers (Camera) of Aldbar, 232. 

Patrick, 314 n., 346 n. 

Robert de, 232. 

Chapelton of Dunlappie, 307, 309 ?!., 

310. 

of Uras, 403 . 

Charles i., 144, 242. 

ir., 242, 244, 298, 302, 340 ., 

352 

Prince, 316, 338. 

Charteris Hall, 193. 

Cheltenham, 305. 

Chevalier, The, 242, 302, 337, 338. 

Cheyne, Ronald, 24. 

Christian, David, in Auchrony, 76. 

Churches connected with cemeteries, 

104. 

Claleck, 140. 
Claypots, 3. 
Clemens Alexandrinus quoted and 

explained, 104. 
Clephane, Helen, 432. 
Clerk, William, chaplain of Edzell, 

4. 

Clochie in Lethnot, 126. 
Clova, 350, 351, 353. 
Milton of, 351 ; property of, 

350 sq. 



Clova, Ogilvy of, 178, 207, 345, 

350 sq. 

Cluny Castle, 359 n. 
Cobb, Andrew, in Tillibirnie, 133. 

George, in Acbfearcy, 133. 

James, in Ledbreakie, 133. 

John, in Room, 133. 

John, in Tillibirnie, 133. 

Cobb's Heuch, 153, 154. 

Cobisland, 3 n. 

Cockpen, 149. 

Collace of Balnamoon, 181, 184, 

279, 303, 306, 312 sq. 

John, 313. 

John de (Cullas), 312, 314. 

Patrick, 314. 

Robert, 313. 

Robert (Cuilaiss), 432. 

Thomas de, 312, 314. 

William, professor at St. An- 
drews, 314. 
Collins, " Ode," 254. 
Colmeallie, standing-stones of, 22, 

104-106, 211 ; names of fields, 

105; other remains, 105, 107. 
Comyn, Earl of Buchan, 96, 97. 

Alexander, 171. 

Conon, lands of, 384. 

Constable, George, of Wallace 

Craigie, 374 n. 
Conveth (Laurencekirk), 405, 406 ; 

mill of, 406 n. 

Cookston (Cuikston), 304, 370 n. 
Coortford or Coorthill Bridge, 230, 

231, 246 n. 

Coorthill, on the Modlach, 107. 
Corb Castle, 358. 
Cornablews, 246 n. 
Cortachy, 138, 345, 352, 354 ; kirk, 

265 ; minister of, 331. 
Cotton Muir, 326. 
Coull, Little, 208, 340. 
Coupar, Isabel (Mrs. Low), 20 n. 
Covenanters, 294 sq., 300 sq., 339; 

their memorial at Dunnottar, 

402. 
Cowie, 295, 402. 

thanedom of, 400, 401. 

Craig Scales, 99. 

Craigendowie, 152, 159, 160 ; guid- 

man and guidwife of, 160. 
Craighall, 361. 
Craighead of Finhaven, 336. 
Craigmaskeldie, 110., 112, 113. 
Cramond (Crawmond), Hercules, 320. 
Rev. James, 222. 



IXDEX. 



447 



Cramond, John, de Fern, 229. 

Laurence de, 320. 

William, of Aldbar, 239. 

Craraonds of Aldbar and Melgund, 

320. 
Cranstoun, Charles Frederick, llth 

baron, 405. 

Lord, 405. 

Lady, 405. 

Crathlinthus, son of Finella, 25. 
Crawford, Countess of, 178, 345, 

359. 
Crawford -Lindsays, 33. 

Councillors of, 207, 378. 

Crichton, Admirable, 359 n. 

Alexander, 357. 

Chancellor, 140, 175. 

of Sanquhar, 383. 
Crichtoun, Adam, of Kippendavie, 

360. 
Cross on the Rowan, 97. 

of Camus, 387-389. 

Cruick Water, 327. 

Cruickshank, Rev. F., of Navar and 

Letlmot, 127, 159w. 
Cruok, East, 310. 
Cuikston and chapel, 243. 
Cullew Market, 88. 
Culloden, battle of, 247 ., 316, 

339. 

Cuminche, Hugo, 309. 
Gumming, Mary, 131. 
Cumyng, David, vicar of Ruthven, 

357. 

Cunningair, 212. 
Cupar Abbey, 228, 281, 339, 355, 

362. 
Curmaud Hill, 100. 

DAILLY parish, 271. 

Dalbog, castle of, 2, 7, 25, 26 ; 

chapel of, 22, 24; circle of, 104 ; 

lands of, 26 ; mines of, 26 ; wood 

of, 26. 

Dalbrack, copper found at, 99. 
Dalforth, kiln hillock of, 107. 
Dalhousie Castle, 149 ; peerage, 

(tt>e Maule ; marquisate lapsed, 

148. 
Dalrymple, C. Elphinstone, 182 n., 

183 n. 

Danes, the, 230, 268, 325, 387, 389. 
Darngate, Arbroath, 381. 
David I., 403. 
ir., 170, 312, 342, 357, 359, 

382, 387, 399. 



Davidson, Rev. Alex., in Glenesk, 

79. 

Rev. William, of Lethnot, 129. 

Dean (Den) Strath, 123 n. 
Dean of Edinburgh, 356. 
Deer Forests, 110. 
Deil's Den, 245. 

How, 253. 

Dekysoun, Jacobus, 371. 

Demidoff, Prince, 148. 

Dempster, Andrew, of Auchterless 

and Careston, 312. 

Andrew, of Careston, 280. * 

David (1), of Careston, 280. 

David (2), of Careston, 280 sq. 

David (3), " fiar of Peathill," 

282. 

Findlay, 312. 

Haitian (de Emester), 279. 

Mr., minister of Edzell, 10. 

Thomas, historian, 282 n. 

- Walter (1), 235. 

Walter (2), 280, 310. 

William, last of Careston, 282. 

Dempsters of Careston, 235, 269, 

279 sq. 

of Dunichen and Skibo, 282 n. 

of Menmuir, 279. 

Dempster, office of, 61, 269, 279 sq., 

283. 

official at Edzell, 61. 

Denburn stream, 377. 

Denmark, Princess Anne of, 192. 

Dennyfern, castle of, 153. 

Denoon, 214. 

Deuchar, Alexander, seal engraver, 

231, 429. 
David, seal engraver, etc., 232 ., 

234, 429. 

Major David, 232 n. 

George, last of Deuchar, 234, 

428. 

James of, 233. 

John, 234, 428. 

Miss L. M., 231 . 

Patrick (1), in Liverpool, 234, 

429. 

Patrick (2), of that Ilk, 233. 

Commander Patrick, 232 ;/. 

Robert of, 233. 

William, 231. 

William de, 232. 

Deuchar estate, 229 sq., 246 //., 428; 

etymology doubtful, 232. 
Douchars of Fern, 210 ; of that Ilk, 

226, 230 sq., 235, 429. 



448 



INDEX. 



Devil's wind, 289. 

Dichty, the, 254. 

Dickson, Jaines, Kirriemuir, 259 n. 

Ditferan, burn of, 155. 

Dildarg, John, 222, 429. 

Dillydyes (Dalladies), Chapeltoune