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This large volume coDtains three distinct productions, 
all of tbem necessary to. the completioD of Fuller's 
" Church History ; " who, after recordiug in chronological 
order the fonnders, benefactora, and celebrated men of 
the Tarioos Colleges in Oxford, repeatedly directs his 
readers to " the History of the University of Cambridge," 
(the first of these three works,) for the corresponding 
information respecting the foundations, benefactions, and 
eminent persons of the latter University, of which he was 
a distinguished member ; and to his venerable Alma 
Mater, as the reader will perceive, he has proved himself 
to be a dutiful son, rendering her all due honour and 
respect in this promised History, which has been received 
as the accredited guide of every subsequent eicademical 

The second is a brief " History of Waltham Abbey 
in Essex," of which Fuller was the curate in the latter 
years of the Inter-regnum, through the kindness of his 
right honourable fiiend and patron, the earl of Carlisle ; 
to whom he dedicates the small hook, and of whose 
ancestors he has given a delightful description in the 
dedication prefixed to the fourth book of his " Church 
History." This was one of the methods by which Di\ine 
Providence at that time preserved several of the eminent 
episcopal clergy from the common ruin and dispersion of 
their order, and from the rancorous molestation of their 
determined enemies. In the first sentence of " the His- 
tory," he gratefully acknowledges the loving-kindness of 
his Heavenly Father in " having planted " him in such a 
calm retreat ; and expresses a hope, that his endeavours 
to describe it "may prove exemplary to others, who 
dwell in the sight of remarkable monasteries, to do the 
like, and rescue the observablea of their habitations from 
the teeth of time and oblivion," — an exhortation which, 
cert^ly, has not been without efiect, as may be seen 
in the multitude of good local Histories which soon 
afterwards made their appearance. 

The third and most important work is " the Appeal 
of injured Innocence," which occupies more than one 
half of the present large volume ; and ia, in feet, a run- 

ning commeDtary on each of the eleven books of the 
" Church History," — the " History of Cambridge " being 
generally reckoned as the twelfth. On another occasion 
I have declared, what I now repeat, ctaicerniDg it : — 
"Publ^hed ia the year prior to the RestoratioQ, it displ^s 
to better advantage, p«'bapa, t^an any or all of his former 
productions, the multifarious acquiremeirts and wonderful 
intellectual resources of Fuller. Highly as I am reputed 
to venerate his antagonist, Peter Heylin, that staunch and 
sturdy royalist, I feel no heratation in pronouncing Fuller 
the victor in this contest ; not only from the general jost- 
nem of his cause, but also for that which exalts him as 
a man and a. Christian, — his playiiil wit, ingenuous can- 
dour, almost unfailing good-hnmour, and remarkable 
moderation." It embraces almost every topic within the 
range of human disquisition, from the most sublime 
mysteries of the Christian religion and the great anti- 
quity of the Hebrew and Welsh languages, down to " the 
tale of a tub " and oritioisms on Shakspeare's perversion of 
the character of sir John Falstaff. But the value of " the 
Appeal " cannot be too highly estimated when it is known 
to contain the discordant views of two eminent church- 
men, — the one classing himself with the hiffh party, the 
other with the low, — on most momentous events inwhich 
they had themselves been actors, or of which they had 
been thoughtful spectators, and on principles and motives 
the temperate discussion of which will always be interest- 
ing to the sincere lover of truth, but which must be con- 
sidered as of paramount importance to us in these days, 
when many of the same arguments are reproduced and 
brought into fresh collision. Yet it is gratifying to con- 
template the state of amicable concord into which these 
two great masters of attack and defence were Ultimately 
brought, respecting all the great principles which had 
been the subjects of dieir debate, after each of them had 
tendered his own opinion or explanation. On the mat- 
ters of fact which concerned Fiillw as an author,— who 
was then pat on 'his literary trial before the public, to 'be 
declared worthy or unworthy of obtaming general cre- 
dence, — the results are favourable in the extreme; and, 
Huoh as tend fully to establish his reputation with pos- 
terity for a veritable historian, who wrote and published 
his great work, and this large defence of it, in troublous 

times, when the recent political and religious agitations 
bad scarcely 1)een suffered to subside. 

After perusing the iDstances of personal ranity which 
I have given in a note, (p. 396,) the reader will be pre- 
pared to divine the true cause of Heylin's infelicitous 
attack on Fuller in his Examen Historicum. He pos- 
sessed great irritability of deposition ; yet, like most men 
of warm temiTerament, he seems to have been scarcely 
couscioofl of this infirmity, and imdoubtedly wrote the 
following sentence in great sincerity of heart : — " The 
party whom I am to deal with is so much a stranger to me, 
that he is neither henejicio nee injurid nobis ; and there- 
fore no particular respects have moved me to the making 
of these Animadverflions," Fuller's reply to this is 
highly characteristic : — " I am glad to hear this passage 
from the Animadvertor, that I never did him any injury; 
the rather because some of my friends have charged me 
for provoking his penag^nst me. And though I pleaded, 
that neither m thought, word, nor deed, I ever did him 
any wrong, I hardly prevailed with them for belief : and 
now the Animadvertor bath - cleared me, that I n^oer did 
any iiyury unto him." In this sentence will be discerned 
much of that sly w^gery which " peeps out, ever and 
anon," in Fuller's pages. He was himself evidently well 
aware of the existence of some cause of offence on his 
part ; and, notwithstanding his honest declaration to the 
contrary, Heylin has shown, (p. 449,) how much he was 
annoyed by a passage in " the History of Cambridge," 
(p. 117,) in which Fuller mentions the reply of king 
Henry VI. to bishop Wainefleet ; " a speech," says 
Puller, " avouched by wo historian," though in the 
same ijaragraph he asserts it to have been " first printed 
by Brian Twyne, Oxford Antiquary, and afterwards 
related by Ih: Heylin, a member of that University" In 
Miother passage, (Ch. Hist. vol. ii. p. 148,) he had 
described *? St. Equitius, the pretended founder of our 
first English monks," in this s^le : — " But be he who he 
himself or any other pleaseth, (brother, if they will, to 
St. George on horseback,) he was never father of any 
monks in England." This roused the choler of Heylin, 
who prided himself on being the author of the very 
amusing " History of that most famous Samt and Sol- 
dier of Christ Jeaus, St. George of Cappadocia;" and he 

, Cookie 

has given expression to his kindled indignation in no 
measured tenns. (" Appeal," p. 476.) This excitement, 
from similar slight and nnintentional offences, induced him 
to employ low and ahusSve language, a specimen of which 
I give helow in a note,* in which the manly and witty 
answer of Fuller, must confirm the good opinion which all 
well-natured men wiH have formed of his vast superiority 
in the delightful essentials of temper and genius. 

In the " Appeal " it was the author's intention, as 
he announces it, (p. 291,) " to deal more fmrly with 
the Animadvertor " than the latter had dealt with him; 
" and not here and there to pick out parcels, and cut off 
shreds," he says, "where they make most for my advan- 
tage ; hut I have presented the whole cloth of his book," 
&c. He proceeded in this honest course, of fiiUy quot- 
ing his adversary's words and immediately subjoining his 
own reply, till he received ail intimation from Heylin's 
stationer, (as the respectable publisher of those days was 
commonly designated,) that the faithful reprint of the 
entire work would operate to his pecuniary injury. Fuller 
therefore renders this, with other reasons, (" Appeal," 
p. 508,) why he should omit all fiirther redundancies, 

* Dr. Hbtum. — How wise the reat were, I am not Able to say. But 
cerbunly onr ftadior ahowed himBelf " do wiser than Waltham's cal^ who 
ran nine miles to suck a bull and came home athinrt," as the proverb 
s^th. His nmning unto Oxford, lAtch coat him as much in seventeen 
weeks, as he had sprait in Cambriilge in serenteen yesrti, waa but a second 
sally to ihe first knight-^muitiy. 

FuLtKB. — t can patiently comport with the Animadvertor'sjMn,- which 
I behold as so many frogs, that it is pretly and pleanng to see them hop 
and skip abont, having not mnch harm in tliem. Bnt I cannot abide hw 
railing*; which are like to toads, awdling witii Tenom within Uiem. Any one 
nay r^ who is bred bnt in Billingt^te- College : and I am sorry to hear 
such language &om the Animadvertor, a Doctor in Divinity ; seeing ruling 
is as mncli beneath a Doctor, aa agwnat Divinity. 

When l>r. Turner, a physiinan sufficiently known, gave the lie (at the 
eart of Pembroke's table) tn (be earl of Carliarvon : " I will t^e tiie lie 
^m you.;** replied the eaii, "but I will never taike phydc from you." 
If such rtuling be consent with the Doctor's Divinity, this once I will 
take Ihe calf, but never learn Divinity from him. 

Two things comfort me under his reviling. FinA. Tint no worse man 
tJtan David himself cmnplained, that he became "a pbotebb to his 
enemies," Psalm Ixix. 2. Secondly. Though a ea^ be a contemptible 
creature, pasung for the emblem, not (with the dove) of simplicity, but of 
plain silliness ; yet is it a clean one, and accepted of God for sacrifice, Heb. 
ix. 19. Whereas the snarling dog (though a creature of far more cunning 
and Mgacity) was so odious and unclean, that by a pecnliar law it was pro- 
vided, that the price of a dog should not be brought iftto the house of Gfld. 
Deut. xxlii. 18. — " Appeal of injured Innocence," p. 019. r ., 

f'wlueh lAight well be spared, as containing' do puogcDt 
matter agmnst " any of nis facts or positions. But since 
this necessity no longer exists, I have rendered the 
present edition much niore yalnahle, by inserting in it 
TH£ WHOLE OF Hbtlih's ANiHADVEitsioNs, contained in 
that Tery scarce book the general title of which is 
Examen Historicum ; thus the reader may obt^, at one 
view, a sight of the occasionally powerful reasonings of 
these two great oracles on aSair^ ecclesiastical. 

For the principles on wluch I undertook the super- 
intendence of this edition of Fulleb's works, as well as 
for a more ample list of words which have been slightly 
altered, and of those which hare become their substi- 
tutes, I refer the reader to my preface to his " Church 
History." Of those piinciples, and of that excellent 
WMrk itself, the ChrHtian portion of the public have 
shown their approbation by the purchase of a large 
impresdon. A new edition of it is now in progress 
through tiie press, and it shall he my caret to render it 
still more deserving of general patronage. 

In conibrmity with my practice in the " Church 
History" I now sulgoin a list of suol^ words as I have 
changed for otbeis, their cognates in meaning imd 
derivation : — 

Altarjit into ftbaotbed ; mcorewtdt accrued ; ndwutaneet, advowsons ; 
Aaglutif Anglicized ; Aralne, Arabia ; Avthtntiyue, authentic. 

BamdeMr, Baudeleer; baronrU, barony; belfive, balfiy; ^m, been; 
h^ia, bodice ; ions-jlrt, bonfire ; btf up, biio; up ; BritannU, Britannia ; 
broai, broken ; bji lite, belike. 

Caieud teajr, causeway; cAoeipKM, champdgn; amphmenU, eompli- 
raenta ; ponnf&tM^ consultative ; eo^rotltr, comptroller ; eouht^ cowla ; 
eomntert, compteis ; eoiuen, coien ; credttth, creaketh ; orv«, crew. 

Deeaipt, decdt ; thiatory, dilatory ; dUpeiiled, deepened ; dur^, dirty. 

Empaire, imptdr; emperene, emprwe; enAmmoid, enhanced; er m k ioat, 
heimitical ; trroHl, omnt ; tWQ' of bread, asaay ; atrid, oelrich ; 
tmhOor, escheator. 

FeacibU, feasible ; ferrif, ferry J forrain, foreign ; frgr, fray. 

Chg«, gange ; ffmtUt, genteel ; ffiptoiu, gypeeova; 6Mhiti, Qotldc. 

ffarTaptd,iuaaBaei i kvpital, hoepitftble ; ht{fta,)\af! ; Awf^f^, bungriljr. 

Jle, aide. Jmtt, jest ; JtierU, Jewry. Zmnca, lancea ; Im/iiottt, luscious. 

Marith, inarsli ; minstre, minster ; owe, more. JVis, not ; nibble, nipple. 

Picit and choie, picked and chosen ; portnwtvre, portraiture ; priced, 
prised ; prixing, pncing ; proUng, prowling ; publique, public ; pmtillos, 
punctilios ; putnit, puisne. 

AeAncnwfi, redonndeth ; rHrmee, retrench ; ran, rear ; rivoUt, iiTulet ; 
ToHtidUd up, rounded up.; rythme, rhyme. 

&«I«A)n, skeleton; inM^sitfld; nfAence.unoe; (InriJii^, danUng ; ^poatf 
a 3 . - ■ [■ 

I,,, . , Cookie 

q;>oke ; KonAr-iAorar, Btandard-bearer ; i<()^e, stowage ; ifnsj^toi^ BtntlUn ; 
lute, suit ; mroiuni, bwood ; QMonfMWHf, Bynonymes. 

Thorou), throogh ; througUy, thoroaghly ; toh, toll ; trt»»tl, trestle. 

Vn$luitened, muhoken ; tmealiuAU, in^nable ; tuereri, ueorers. 

Vicaridgt, vicarage ; viee-foimt, Tiscoont ; virye, rai^. 

Wait, wick ; vAtti at, whereas ; tMlti, wkUe ; toradUd, wrestled. 

The following is a brief list of Bimilar words from 
Hbtlin's Examen Hutoricum : — 

AeeoatpM, acooimt«d. Btd-roU, liead-rol]. Oanaett, eanocke; end 
night-cap, crewel. Endtitlk, inditeth; aooeheoit, eacntcbeon. Failtn, 
&ilures, Chtkuh, Gothic, Huitheri, nsheiB. /n te r wm, intanat Saunt- 
Urit, cemetei?. Whm at, whereas. 

I DOW subjoin a coUecdon of the principal words, 
which, for various reasons, I have retained, though they 
are seldom employed in modem writing : — 

Acctutamablj, adequatkni, addltory, amortize, amothm, ^tprored on, 
asaelfeth, (affiliates itself,) Bssoiled. Be-iebuseed, bodge. Camate, catch* 
ingnesei, cheverel expresBicm^ chiefest, co-evitj, commeuda, (commendation,) 
composure, (comporition,) consulatory, (consular,) contrariant, contem- 
pered, couvented, coparcenary, courtlike, (conrtlj,) conrtabip, fcoarUi- 
nesa). Derived into, defalk, dflstations, dispsrateueae. Engran^ (aggran- 
dize,) errat^ (errata,) to estate^ equivale. Faiced. Give a gird, (cast a 
neer,) grinded. Hang-byes, hollow (to shout). Informative, inhold, 
(witUicdd,) inacolped, inscnlption, innnded, (inundated). Joculary. 
Lannder, (laondiew,) le^r-bwks, (ledgers,) louring, loveday. Hagni- 
aecanl, manageiy, manc^ Uezentism. Now-of-days. Fartage, penetrals, 
(the bowels,) preceesor, preposed, (set over,) proprietaries, (proprietors,) 
postlinme. lUttactions, remised, (remitted,) robustlons. Seplemfluoua, 
rigneth, (asdgneth,) BiniBt«rity, sleighting, smatch, (taste,) sopited, epick- 
and-qwn new, staple, (firm,) suppletory. Tentations, titnled, (styled,) 
trounced (punished). Unshakened, un-universitied. Vestiaiy (reatry). 

Four words of the same class from Heylin are here 
subjoined : — 

Datable, (debatable,) infeodations, inbeietrices, (female heirs,) tendiy. 

To some of the words here enumerated, and to a few 
others, I have subjoined short notes, principally etymo- 
logical : Such as, fw, p. 71 ; dovhty, 98 ; iDare-trask, 
107; cousens, 117; aaendancy,2ZZ; drifi,280; abhomi- 
nal libels, 517; at-one, 578; and betine, 612. . A few 
larger notes will also be found ; as that on Heylin's pride 
of ancestry, p. 3dG; Fuller's excellent memory, 4i4T ; Dr. 
Cheynel, 495 ; on Fuller's name, 532 ; Jeteel and Case, 
576 ; William Prynne, 582 ; Dr. Cosin, 660, 669 ; and 
Brook and Lake, 684. 

Beside these, I have inserted two notes of consider- 
able length. The first occurs in pp. 241-252, and details 
the incunabula and subsequent pre-eminence of mathe- 

matical studies in the University of Cambridge, with 
brief aUosions to some collateral topics. The second 
will be found in pp. 673-683 ; and exhibits the ecclesi- 
astical pecalatioQB of Dr. Coraelius Bui^eas during the 
Inter-regnum, and their infelicitous termination. With- 
out that introduction, the reader will perceive, Fuller's 
letter to him would have been utterly unintelligible. In 
every case, I have shown a decent respect- to my readers, 
as well as to the character of my author, by appending 
to my own notes the brief signature of " Edit." 

The difficulties encountered by an author who passed 
through the press, in the unsettled times of the Com- 
monwealth, such large productions as the "Church 
History " and its accompaniments, cannot be adequately 
conceived by any of those who have been nursed, amidst 
learned leisure, in flie lap of peace and plenty. In the 
dedication of the fifth book of his " Church History " to 
the earl .of Middlesex, Fuller very eloquently laments the 
dispersion of his own valuable library, and blesses Divine 
Providence for having secured to him the uncontrolled 
use of the noble earl's large collection. In another 
passage in " the Appeal," (p. 317,) he says : — " For the 
firet five years, during our actual civil wars, I had little 
list or leisure to write ; fearing to be made a History, 
and shifting daily for my safety. All that time I could 
not live to study, who did only study to live. So soon as 
God's goodness gave me a fixed habitation, I composed 
my Land of Canaan, or Pisgah Sight" The man who 
was called to endure these and similar inconveniences in 
the prosecution of his literary labours, must have pos- 
sessed an indomitable spirit aaA an ardent love of 
learning: and his compositions, published under such 
great disadvantages, must not be measured by the 
standard of ordinary productions. While bis " Church 
History " was in the press, he appears to have resided 
chiefly at Waltham Abbey, and to have been somewhat 
irregular in his vints to Town for the purpose of super- 
intending its publication. In reference to this subject, 
he replies on one occasion to Heylin ; — " I have con- 
cealed nothing herein of moment, — the blank being 
insignificant, and the mere mist^e of the printer. 
Before bis time, he was about to begin a new section and 
dedication, as appears by the to in the text" (" Appeal," 


p. 585.) On another occasioo, this ia hia form of plisad" 
ing : — " Here I will tnily acquaint the reader with the 
state of this matter. The posting press, which, vriih the 
time and tide, will stay for no man, nustaking my copy 
complete, and not attendbg my coouDg to London that 
morning from Wallham. clapt it up imperfect. I must 
therefore, deservedly, take idl th« blame and shame 
thereof on myself, and here in £Us sheet do public 
penance for the same, promising amendment to the fidl, 
God willing, in the next edition." (Idem, p. 341.) His 
explanation relates to his " report of the proceedings in 
the Isle of Wight, between lua majesty and thq Long- 
Parliament divines ; " of which report at least one entire 
page must have been thus carelessly omitted. His 
explanation also furoisbes a reason why I have met with 
numerous discrepancies between the two copies of hia 
" Church History " and of the " History of Cambridge " 
which are in my possesion, though only one edition of 
them was printed. These variations, amounting to more 
than thirty, are all to be accounted for by this circum- 
stance of Fuller's arrival in London irom his country- 
residence, when only part of the impression of each sheet 
had been worked-off; and, his quick eye catching the 
sight of some glaring error, be haa instantly stopped 
the press and had the proper word or phrase inserted 
in the remaning copies of the book. But while I 
urge this plea ostensibly in fayour of my author, it serves 
virtually to bespeak the indulgence of ^e reader towards 
the etMtor; who, (with humility be it spoken,) beside 
possessing a tolerably accurate knowledge of the English 
language, and a degree of familiarity (through hia pre- 
vious course of reading) with Fuller's humour and the 
peculiar phraseology in which it is usually clothed, and 
sometimes obscnred, ought, in the discharge of his 
assumed functions, to have in constant exercise not only 
all the coolness and consideration which he can com- 
mand, but also much critical vigilance.* 

* The fbUowing pasHge.from p«ge 17^ of the "Hlstoiyof the Utiirer- 

aity of Cambridge," affords a ^r ^leeiineD of tbe great ooiiad«ratioii and 

Tigilonce neceBoary to be kept Id perpetual requi^tion, with r^ard to the 

recondite wit and original phraseology of my author : — 

" 19. Magniteecmt Newfy. 

" Dr. Thomas Nevyle, tlie eighth Master of this CoU^e, aoswerins: his 
anagram 'most heavenly,' and practuing his own alluaive motto, Nt vile 

upwards of two years have elapsed since the first four 
sheets of Has volume passed throogh the press ; and. 
other four were in a state of readiness, when I saw die 
announcement of a new edition of " the History of 
the University of Cambridge," from the University press. 
Having stnne knowledge of ^e proposed editor, tSie late 

wiit, being, by the rules of the philosopher hinuelf, to be aocount^d 
|i(>nXmrowin)r, 'as of great peiformaBces,' for the generel good," &c. 

Thb short sealence coapHses two anagTams, Ooe is on the aanume 
oidy, Naefy becoming Hkvytl by meana of a nngle transposition ; the w, 
accordii^ to ancient oa^e, being resolTed into vr. The other is on both 
the Christian and snr-nsme ; most keaeenfy contaiiiing all the letters needfol 
fbr Tbomu Nkttlx. A third, Ne vile wMf, is so obrious as not to be mis- 
nnderetood. But, beidde these, Fnlla- has invented aa appropriate word 
to suit his purpose, Butipiitecant ("cutting out or contriring great mat- 
ters") being eridently intended to correspond with N« tils velit, 
** Devise not any mean thing," and both nused to their hi^est pitch by 
their oompletioa in /tcytAos-onniT, (the exact notation of the word in the 
felio edition,) " as of great perTonnances." The whole sentiment will he, 
in brief; "Thomas Nevyle did not only ['»«ofyJ 'recently' devise great 
things, hot he has likewise perlbrmed them." But some difSculty exists 
in the Greek epithet which u employed ; and, on the firat view of it, I was 
perenaded that Fuller had originally written iroorrqt as the latter part of 
this eomponnd word. It would then most significantly have expressed the 
meaning which he has himself attached to i^ " as of great performances." 
On reflecting, however, that some tyro or other might entertain the suppo- 
ntJon, bora the use of the Greek term, that Nevyle was represented as 
Itaving been "a great poet," (a veiy common dpiificaljon of the sune 
word,} Fnller probably altered it to the form in which it stands in his folio 
edition. This entire paragiaph, therefore, alter much thought, I suffered to 
remmn ; malting only the alight addition of an iota to the antepenultimate 
of the Greek word, (according to the rather unclasdcal method of Uieword- 
inakeis m«dim tt M/tflMc Qrmeitatit,) to designate its immediate derivation 
from fuytdumwia, — a connexion evidently pointed out by the old historian's 
verbiage, and designed to be preserved. 

After pemsing this passage, had I ventured to alter the title of it 
into Ma^fieent Netyle, and metamorphoeed the proper Greek word int« 
lw/ayowptiei)t, — whatever good opinion might have been previously enter- 
tained of my harrnkss pteteneions lo learning and judgment, — I should at 
once have forfeited every claim to public confidence and favour, by such a 
glaring instance of utter recklessneA and palpable ignorance. For, setting 
oMde the oonsideiation of^rtber topics, luyaXojrptnijs itself would convey, t« 
the mind of a competent Greek sohtdar, a viery different idea from that 
which is communicated by the derivative from Trotcu which Fuller has 
here ^ven ; the former word usually designating an eastern or passive 
display of grandeur, proper to the station of the person that exhibits it ; 
the tatter, an active, energetic coarse of splendid deeds, such as was intended 
hy Fuller himaelf, no contemptible critic, when he gave this as the plaia 
English of it, — "being himself to be accounted as of great pftformancet." 

Instuices of this description might be furnished in abundance, through- 
out the three productions which are here presented to the public. 

, Goo^^lc 

Rev. M. Frickett, A. M., through a common fnend, I 
leamt from him that the " additiooal notes," which that 
lameoted gentleman intended to write in elucidation of 
Fuller, would be cast in a mould strictly local and anti- 
quarian. In order to distinguish the edition with which 
I had been entrusted from its announced competitor, and 
to impart a greater degree of interest to some of ite pages, 
I thought the only method lefr for me, and perhaps the 
best I could have devised, was that of delineating the 
more modem intellectuality of Cambridge. I there- 
fore determined to write copious biographical notices of 
the most eminent members of each College who hare 
flourished since the days of Fuller, and to append them, 
in alphabetical order, to the end of those sections in 
which their Colleges are severally described. To deli- 
neate the living members who have shed deserved renown 
on this celebrated seat of learning, formed no part of my 
vast desigD. For 

"Who can apeak 
The numerous wortiiies of the maiden reign "! " 

In carrying out this plan, I was occupied at intervals 
during eighteen months ; and I employed upon it the 
same fearlessness and frankness- which have always 
marked the expression of my opinions. But I soon dis- 
covered, that these records, though individually brief, and 
sufficiently graphic to designate each man of celebrity, 
increased in quantity, till at length my yet imperfect col- 
lection of sketches amounted to such a mass as greatly 
exceeded the limits which I had prescribed to myself I 
was on this account induced to abandon the undertaking ; 
but 1 look forward with hope to a more advanced period 
in my life, when my judgment shall have become more 
matured, and my prepossessions, if not so strong, may at 
least not be so strongly expressed ; and when, if still 
favoured by Heaven with the possession of vigorous facul- 
ties, I may be inclined to finish a series of original lite- 
rary sketches concerning those learned Cambridge-men 
who have rendered themselves famous at any time during 
the last two centuries. This paragraph will, I trust, be 
favourably received as a needful apology for the delay 
which has occurred in the publication of the present 


, Cookie 



SECTION I. A. D. 1066-1265. 

Tbb low condition of Cambridge at the ConquMt — Cambridge Cutla 
bnilt by king William — Henrj- Beauclerk bred in Cambridge; proba- 
bl7 a benefactor to tbe Univergity — Miichievoua Monl^mery— 
Picot'e foundation in St. Oilei'g parish — The injurious original of 
impropriatiotia — Cambridge firit made a corporation — The original 
of Midmmmer Fair — The Srst coming of Jewa to Cambridge — Cam- 
bridge reitored to learning by the abbot of Crowland. A grun of 
•e«d aoon grown a tree. The time of thia author's writing — An appa- 
icnt injury offered to Cambridge. She ia vindicated from inch ai 
traduce' ber— Pain Pererel founds Barnwell Priory — Alphred of 
Beverley, student in Cambridge — Unwonder me this wonder— Tho 
first earl of Cambridge — Dand king of Scots, earl of CambridgB-— 
ObserrationB collected from this grant— Nigellus's foundation in 
Cambridge. Roger of Hereford, student in Cambridge — A merciless 
fire. Oxford deserted, and partly removed to Cambridge — John of 
St. Omer's, a poet, bred in Cambridge. Joceline Brakeland, a bista> 
rian therein — The University in a sad conation ; which still continu' 
eth — Eels sent from Cambridge to Oxford. A gaol made of a Jew's 
house. Privileges confirmed to Cambridge — Paris students invited 
over into England — Counterfeit scholars do much mischief. Tho 
sheriff commanded to soppresa these malignant*— The unconscion* 
•bleness of the tcwnsmen regulsted by the king's letters — The origin 
nal of tazers — The ill effects of toumsments ; forbidden within five 
miles of Csmbridge. Mothsrs of misrule. A sad chance — Foul work 
in Lent— The first founding of Peter-Honse — Brawls and bickerings 
betwijtt southern and northern scholars. The northern men worsted. 
The matter referred to the judges itinerant ; remitted to the former 
commissioners — Northampton University begun, and dissolved — Mr. 
Brian Twyue justly condemned, for injecting csuseless suspicions — 
His needless cavil confuted — Quick eyes to find a fanlt where none is. 
Answer this dilemma. The Tower Records clear the cavil — A need- 
Imi qnettioa declined. Why Oxford more prejudiced than Cambridge 
by Northampton Univendty. Pages l-— 39. 

SECTION n. A.D. 1266— 134*. 

tht king's intentions to fortify Cambridge. Ditch made ; walls meant. 
Cambridge plundered on the king's departure— Necton, first Car. 

, Google 


melita doctor in divinity. Why CumelitM Rt first would not com- 
mcnca. Necton fint breaki the ice, and others follow in hi* tnck— 
Oxford's Bntiqoary justly taxed. Petrus Blvsensis to be bsliered 
before Brian Twyne — TMmMaeab M^ forbidden — Prince Edward 
orderetb an a|freement between tbe scholars and townsmen — No 
University as yet in Scotland and Ireland— Cambrid^ receives all 
coontriee— A composition benr^ft the University of CuobridffB and 
the arcbdeacon of Ely — Observations ; Uoiversity equivocal. Tba 
offifeers thereof— Qnery : wbat mfcsilt by " Magii$er QtMttriaf" — 
The biabop accused of pmwoption bereio — Some over-harsb in 
their censures. Moderation is liest — The ancient Hostels in Cam- 
bridge— Ions less than Hostels— Two hundred Hslls said to be in 
Oxford. Magnitnde mipplies 'miUlitbflff— The benefit and use of 
Hostels. A catalogue <k learned Cambridge Hostellers — Ancient 
feHgions botises In Cam'bridge-^ Frequent contests betwirt Prihra and 
UniverBify<;men— Allkt driesmed Friars, writers^Tbe first endowing of 
PAar-Vduse. Zoafs may grow great in tlnio— A genernl rule about our 
Catalbgue of Benefactors— Cmitela no* nowt— Repetition df bishops, 
'Wby Uecessuy— A coritmandliblB custoth Of this Colleg»-^Tfae eldest 
"EnKliiih-endoWed College. Bkception to tbe etmtrary answered. 
The truth nnpAtially stated— Threo pheCs fbr the Prtreana' devo* 
tiOns. [Succession of Chaneellars. BraWl hetwirt University-men 
and Trian. Bull of pope John XXl. to the University}— A liece*- 
MUry caution. St*ditm atd tniitwsilw tha same in effect— AfacUe 
mistake- Hlcbael-House founded by Hefveus Stanton— University 
Hall built by Richard Bkdsw. Rebuilt (after it was burnt) by 
Gliiabeth cOnntesB of Clare.'and named Clare Hall— Richard III. a 
(seeming) Benefhclor to Clare Hall. This Hall long chapel-less. 
Solere ths same With Clare HsU- The HaU lately re-edified—Klog 
Eilward fdilbdetb Kiug's ^all— Three eminences of (his HalL Tern- 
pora UMifiMtKr. Ths liappineA 61 this Vail— FHvilegaa granted by 
Idng Edward III. to the Umrentty — A German marqnen made earl 
'»f Cambridge, A. D. 1340 i and a Belgian «afl, A.D. 1349— Mary da 
Saint Paul founds Pembroke Hsll, and Denny Abbey— Two remark- 
able pieces of pUte. An invidiotis el^^^ 6{ ttds Hall. Robert de 
Thorp Lord Chancellor— A Greek and grateful sebolar. Beoebctor* 
lalonng'th^ link. Pageis 30— G^. 

SECnOHJ m. A.D. 1344—1396. 

Th« 'two Oanbridge gnDda united— Coi^nu CMritH, or Bettet College 
bnilt. tiettry duke 6t Idncstter the honorary founder. Blow's 
mistake, with the groilnd 'thereof— The auperstitiods procession on 
Oorpm-ChHtti dayendeth in'a feast at Bene't College. The canopy 
teiinondy Bred — The townsmen Quarrel for thetr dinner r are cast by 
the king's commissioners— Duchess of Norfolk builds their but- 
tresses—The benefsction of Matthew Parlnr — A great favourer of 
Norfolk-men— Dr. Sowde and Dr. Copeot. The College arnu why 
altered. Where I hsd my mstmctione of this College — A bank and 
a Isnk of charity. William Sateman foundeth Trinity Hall. The 
Masters' Catalogue Inight he amended — A pioue design. A bitter 
retort — A dispenntton for increase of commona. The exceeding 


dtaipneM of all eommoditiot—Ciiuei of dearnesB. Not fall, nor 
(SMtiDir— ConveoMnt di«t DMdfol for jtadenU— GonvUIe-HaU founded, 
ArehUgbop Ufford a. comoionai therain. This Hall Innsplanted — 
Two noble Studenta. Fi^irick'i Hoatd given to thia Hall— f apal 
indnlgencea. Marten, Benefactora, tec. of GodtUIb Hall. The earl 
of .Cambridge — A cooteit about cbooaing of Cbancelloi^-Ducorda 
betwiit J>aii)inic3ns and Carmelites. The Domioican chargeth. 
The .Carmelite receiveth the charge, and con qntreth— Chancer a 
Cambridge atndent — A rebellioue riot of the townsmen of CambridgS' 
University monamenta inartyred — The townamen called to a legal 
Bceonnt. Their pitiful plea— Privilegea confeired on the Univeraity. 
Foealia prized by the Chancellor — An order that no acfaolar is to be 
admitted under eighteen yean of age. The Franciacana oppose this 
Older. The isane uncertain. [Beneficed men licenied by the pope as 
Non-reaidcnts] — A parliament kept at Cambridge — Canterbury mis- 
printed for Cambridge in the atatute-book- The eicellBot statutes of 
Cambridge parliament against wandering Scholars — A strange miracle. 
Not like those in the Scripture, A strange plague in Cambridge. 
The like after t*a« at Oxford— John Bromiard, a tierce anti-Wicklivist. 
Both Jwit by toma. Statute against fugitive Friars — The first person 
of honour Chancellor of Cambridge. Cambridge's Chancellor no 
longer confirmed by Ely's bitbop. Pages 68-89. 

SECTION. IV. A.D. UQO— 1436. 

The large privilege of Cambridge for printiog, much improved therein — ■ 
The (.l^iversity viail«d by the archbishop of Canterbury. The arch- 
biahop'a mandate to the Chancellor. Another to every College, A 
mistake ip the printed date — The occasion of thia visitation. The 
archUahop comes in pomp to Cambridge. All the scholars appear 
before him. The Chancellor first eiaminad. Several cheats in Cam- 
bridge, with their donors — Several Colleges visited by the archbishop's 
Commiavioners. Why Trinity Hall first visited. The plea of the 
gnardian thereof; summoning none to appear ont of the Provipce of 
Canterbury. An obaervation — Clare HaU visited, and Corpus Chrisli 
College, and the White Canons — A day of non-term with the miters. 
Rad^und nuns visited. ^Their visitation ended — Query, about 
amissions of the Commissioners. Hostels why not visited. Reforms' 
tion remitted to tite archbiehop'a leisure— Query : what now became 
of Cambridge's ancient essmptions i A probable conjecture— Oxford 
Argentine chaQengeih all Cambridge. An account of hie achieve* 
ments, (after prose,) now in verae— The Chancellor sent to Rome— 
The original of Viee-Chancelk>rs. Tbomae Markant'a excellent book, 
lost and found, lost and found, lost — Difference betwiit the Univer- 
sity and Londoners. The origioal of Sturbridge-fsir. Sale of the 
privilegea thereof seasonably prevented — A beneficial grant to Dm- 
veraity-tnen, refused by their own folly; but, on aeeond thoughts, 
accepted— Difierences betwixt the bishop of Ely and the University, 
recutted by the pope to the prior of Barnwell. The pope giveth his 
•entente for Cambridge's exemption — A constant tenure of princely 
earh — The University's money embeisled. Never restored to the 
sanwd^refl. Vehement suspicion of corruption. Pages 90— 104. _ 

*•" .. C.oogic 


SECTION V. A. D. 1*36-1505. 

CuDbridge fenfl endeavonred to b« drabed. All la vain. Atgamenta pr9 
and COM fen-drainiDg — Since effected (o admiration. Labor inprobiu 
onutia vkteil. Cambridge why jealous herein: never pleased. Deep 
philosophy. A real refutation. Carabridfte air bettered— King Honrjr 
foundeth a small College, end William Bingham another. Both 
united and enlarged into King's College. The admirable chapel~— 
A catalogue of King's College Worthies — Why so few have been 
Benefactor! to this House. The instrumental advancers of so worthy 
a work. Dr. Sommerset said to be ungratefully used by Cambridga 
— King Edward IV. a malefactor to this College — An old debt well 
paid. The arms of King's College — A strange speech (pretended) of 
king Henry VI. ; considering then Cambridge equal with Oxford in 
nnmber of Colleges — The speech avouched by no historian. A 
memorable tradition, and a necessary conclusion — The original of 
the Schools in Cambridge. The old Schools a mean structure. The 
several founders of the modern Schools — Cambridge library aug- 
menled with many precious books — Queen's College founded by 
queen Margaret. "The inscription on the first stone. Queen Eliiabeth 
fioisbed what queen Margaret began — Some truth in much talk. 
Give what it thine own. Two coals for one body. A benefactor- 
general to learning. An ingenious and useful design— Erasmus, ■ 
Student in Queen's College — The founding of Catherine Hall— Pro- 
perly a pretty Hall — The foundation of Jesoa College. The inconti- 
pence of Saint Radegnnd's nuns. John Major's testimony hereof — 
The character of bishop Alcock. Jesus College the bishop of Ely's 
House — First Chancellor for life — Enamus studieth in Queen's Col- 
lege t was first Greek- then Divinity-professor. No mercenary writers 
in Cambridge. Cambridge within few years mach improved in 
learning — Erasmus's judgment of Cambridge and Oxford. A second, 
. a third, verdict of the same. His character of Cambridge townsmen. 
Pages 105—133. 

SECTION VI. A.D. 1505— 1635. 

King Henry cornea to Cambridge— The building of St. Mary's— The 
foundation of Christ's College. The fair endowments thereof. A 
lady of pity — John Major, a Student in Christ's College — John 
Leland, Fellow therein — Reformation of augmentation — The worthies 
of this College — Caution general- The death of the lady Margaret 
The carefulness of her executors- The site of St. John's College. 
Crowded with Students — A rape offered on the Muses — An infant 
rebellion, seasonably crushed — A rake-hell to be chosen before \ 
dunce. The first [and] second reasons. An ingenuous Master well 
met with an ingenuous Fellow. Well spoken, well taken — Confess, 
and be forgiven — Peter de Valence excommunicated. Many years 
after, he confesseth his fault — Monks' turned into BuckiDgham Col- 
lege — A pair of learned writers — The untimely death of the duke of 
Buckingham— Crook's character — A catalogue of Cambridge Orators. 


• — Bilncf'i acmplfl ia coDteienco — Two oppoiite putiea, tor and 
■ffainat aupentitioii — Latimir converted hj Bilney. [Cranmer ejected 
from his fellomlup for being married.] Crook, out-bought, departeth 
. to. Oxford — Tbe privilege of the Unirenity — Latimer's aermon of 
. card^^A antpeeted (if not a falae) report— [Cranmer retirei to Wal- 
ibam on aceonnt of the plague. Of which Mr. Stafford die*] Mr. 
Stafford poiaibly, Margaret I^ofenor — Bennet, a martyr of Cambridge 
— A donghtj pair of efaallengera, well worsted for their paine. Thej 
return with ahame. The report qoalified. A caoselesa jeer. More 
iDodeaty a^uei not less learning— [The UniTeraity'a renoaeiatioa of 
the pope's aupremacy] — ^The coarse, of the Scholars' studies altered 
for the better — Tbe Lord Cromwell chosen Chancellor, in the place 
of bishop Fisher. The great good he did the Univeraitf — Craiford'i 
character — The first general visitation of Cambridge, Jurt H»gio. 
Tlie injunction* to the Univeraity of Dr. Legh, Gbancellor, Crom- 
weU'a surrogate— King Henry's injunctiona to the University of Cam< 
bridge — The submisaioa of tbe Maater and FeUowa of Oonrille Hall 
to tbe bing'a injnnctions — University records delivered ,to the lord 
Cromwell-^No more doctors of Canon Lawj which ia annezed to 
Civil Page* 133— isr. 

SECTION VII. A.D. 1S36— 1559. 

A combination against Dr. Metcalfe. Great desert* aoon forgotten. 
Guilt haunted with jostjce— Cambridge recorda re-delivered unto 
theaa, Qoery. Whether tbe popee' bulla were in specie restored — 
Gardiner made Chancellor. Contention about pronouncing of Oreelc. 
The champions for tbe new mode. An inartificial argument — The 
lord Andley builds Maudlin College. The arms tfaereof— An ill. 
neighbour to a studious College. A monarch Maater — A good 
proffer. Was it wisely refused i — Charitable Mr. Pelmer. Iieanung 
mna low — Trinity College founded by king Henry Vlll. — A dutiful 
daughter — MagnUecaal Newly — Eminent men in all profesaioDS, with 
many more living — King's Profeseors founded. Catalogues of them 
very imperfect — The lord Protector made Chancellor. The inso- 
leocies of the townsmen. Ascham's letters procure friends to the 
University — A proffer of the Protector's, to unite Clare and Trinity 
HaU; blasted by biebop Gardiner — An extraordinary act before the 
king's commiasioner*— Northumberland made Chancellor — Bucer 
and Fagiua called to Cambritlge, made Frofeaiora there. The death 
of Pagin*. TremelUua, Hebrew Professor in Cambridge — Henry and 
Charles Brandon die of tbe aweating-ticlmess — Several dates of 
Bncer'a death — A loud lie of a lewd Jesuit — Queen Mary secretly 
passeth into Sofiolk — Dr. Sandys preachelh before the duke of 
Northumberland. Tbe duke's retrograde motion. Read, and won< 
der at human uncertainty. The hard usage of Dr. Sandys — Masters 
placed and displaced — Dr. Caiue foundeth Caius College ; giveth it 
good land, and good building, good atatnles, a new name, and hiero- 
glypbical arms. No violent Papist — A numerous nursery of eminent 
phyaicians— Cardinal Pole Chancellor both of Cambridge and Oxford. 
His viaiution of Cambridge— Cambridge visited by queen Eliiabeth'e 
commissioners. Pages i68— IfU. 



SECTION VIII. A.b. 1564— 1618. 

Queen feliiabetb comei to Cambridge. Her oration to tie Unirenitf. 
Noblemen made Masten of Arts — The firat cauie of Mr. Cartwright'e 
diaeontentinent. The eame diiavowed hj hie followers — The factiooa 
in Trini'tr College. Whitgtft and Cartirrig^t clash in the Schoola — 
Whitgiff'B eommeoclng Doctor. Whitgift munmona' Cartwright, vbo 
gives in a list of his opiDions— 0r. Baker, Proroet of King's College, 
flies for religion. Roger Goade chosen in his place. [^Number of 
Students in the Unireraitj] — Rent-corn £rst reserved to Colleges, hj 
the procurement of Sir T. Smith. Great profit thereby — A conteit 
betwixt Dr. Baro and Mr. Chaddcrton— Emmanuel College founded 
hj Sir Walter Mildmay, who caiueieatl; fell into the queen's displea- 
■ure. His answer to queen Eliiabeih — Dr. Holdsworth refuseth a 
bishopric. A good meditation of ■ dying laint. Two grand bene- 
factors. The living omitted— The last Viee-Chancellor then, hot 
Fellow of the House— An unfaithful Register- Barrett summoneE) 
before the consistbry. His solemn recantation — The sickness and 
death of Dr. Y^itaker. His lad and solemn funeral. OveraU suc- 
ceeds him in the Professor's place — Dr. Daro quits his Professor's 
place. Different judgments about his departure — The first founda- 
tion of Sidney- Sussex College. The spite of Jiubx Expurgatoriut. 
The CoUege-monmain haw procured — A little babe (thank Uod and 
good nuriGB !} well batteted — Sir Francis Clark deservedly accounted 
8 by-founder. To whom sir John Brereton not much inferior. A 
chapel added after some years. A child's prayer for his mother — 
Club-law acted in Clare'Holl. Complained of by the townsmen to 
the council- table. How declined — Kobert earl of Essei nude Chan- 
cellor. Sir Robert Cecil chosen Chancellor — King James's matchless 
entertunment at Hinchinbrook ; where the Doctors of Cambridge 
wait on his rosjesty — The death of Mr. Perkins — Recusants' pre- 
sentations given to the Universities. The statute, bow frequently 
frustrated by Recusants. Burgesses granted the Univeruties — ^The 
death and high epitaph of Dr. Playfere^Maater Amese troubled' 
about his sermon in St. Mary's, against all playing at cards and dice. 
He leaveth the College— Mr. Sympton's sermon and recantation— The 
first and last knight mayor of Cambridge. Pages 195 — 224. 

SECTION IX. A. D. 1618-1643. 

Henry Howard bhtncetlor of Cambridge. Sometimts ft bit*. His 
learned book— The death of Dr. Butler— The marqueas of Hamilton 
mtde earl of Cambridge. Mr. Preston prosecuted by the commit- 
sary; and how eseeping. The lord Mainard foundath a Lagic- 
Prdfessor. The Rcbolan" number^A tough canVata for Trinity, 
lecture. Dr. Preaton carries it clear. King James's lut coming to 
Cambridge — ^The death of Mr. AndraW DoVnea. Mr. Greigbton 
chosen hie auGcessor. The duke of BuCklhjhaiii rfected Chancellor. 
The earl of Holland made ChaDcellur — The lord Brooke founded 
an History-Profeasor. Dr. Doritlaua accuMd — Country penniy. 


Cbnbpdgn plVrtji- Th* caiidle<|uit mth tbe tOTiuvieil. The phgvs 
in Gainbridge. Good coombL King CBift^et uul. qnewi, Mary come 
to Cunbridge— Mutar Adam* founds an Arabic ProfcMorabip. A 
amait paaaige in a nimon. Mr- Bernard givet diitaate with bia 
preaduog. Coarented in the High CommiatioD, refnaetb to recant, 
aad diell»«-<WMll Hecfftfl in dHpel^T-CoUvv-platfl w^t t* tb» 
lwai(. Tl» ip^ fgifOMtai, and. v^f «d' T*"** PMt(t» i^^iMoed 
in ths Tower, and tbe Vice-chancellor in Elr-Houae— The Headi 
ienj tbe parliament money. Tbe death of Dr. Ward— l^e oath of 
diacorerr tendered, and refbaed. Hr. Aab disayowethanr anch oath 
— Tbq CoTen^t generally tenderedj, and refnied — Offence takea at 
biebop Brownrigg'B aermon. ^ctmant of Maatera, PeDowa, and 
Scholar* from Qneen'a College. What became of ao many ejected 
FeDovs. Tbe Chapltuna' plea for tbemielTee.^Oreat alteration in 
Heada of Honeei — The aad eflfecta of war. Townamen tax Scbolara— 
Moderate men*a judgment i^t. Aodrew'a Church repaired— Tbe 
•nthor'B juit apology. A witty homonymone anawer. A prayer — 
Addiiwnn) note hf the Editor, on *hti iftro^iictWff <tf M^tlwmMci 
iBV> tbe UdWarvtr. Pi«xa ^{i-r^lLS?, 



Tb« antbor'a deaign— Waltham, why ao named. The eituation thereof. 
EintMd froM bad air. Pliat founded by IVw^. Fall* UA to the 
crown. Bectowed PU earl fi! arpld--<The nodel of the modem church. 
Mortality triumphant — A dean and canoni founded at Wallham. 
Seventeen maaora confirmed (9 them by the CoofcMor— Harold 
crowned, killed, and boried at Waltham. Deforming Reformera. 
Pkgea est—ug. 



Wakbnn amoam is k aad (andition. The indaatrv qf Robert PpH^, laat 
abbot of Wallkan— Qoaan Uaui) give* Wiuthwn Monk* a pull: 
q«aen AMiaia, tiM ^tfcai- King Suphao'* faonnty-i-Kipg Henry 
dinalve* tke deu and canona at Waltham. Auguetioianp lubiti- 
tated in ihor room. Rome-hmd 19 Waltham- Fita-Aucber aettled 
at Copt-HalL Hugh Neville a bonntiful benefactor— [ King Henry 
in. beetowa a market and a fair.] Waltham market— Broila betwixt 
the abbot and tbe townimen about commons. The atnrdineaa of 
tbe townamen. Tbe moat guilty first accuse. Tbe abbot cornea off 
conqueror— lOie aoit betwixt the abbot of Waliharo aitd the h>rd of 
Cheathnnt A like not the same. The suit detennioed. Aeceaiiona 

, Cookie 


to lengthen ibe cauH—Oheatliuiit Nuonerf foonded. Copt-Bdl 
paaaed to king Henrf Vltl. Pigea 25<»— S66. 


A lea«e of WUthuikAbbej ffiveo to lir Anthooj Denny. John Denny, 
the great soldier in I^ance. Edmond Dennj, haion of the Eieheqoer 
— Anthony Denny's high commendations. Hit epitaph made by tlio 
l<»d Howard. Hi* iMue by Dune Joan hia wife. Pngw 366—268. 


Anno 1613, the thirty.fourtlt of Henry VIU.— tS43, the thirty-fifth of 
Henry VIH.— 1544, the thirty-iizth of Henry VIH.— 1S46, the thirty- 
nghth of Henry VHl. Pages 368—271. 

Anno 1G49, the third of Edward VI.— 1551, the fifth of Edward VI. 
Pages 271, 372. 


Anno 1554, Marveprimo — 1556, Marue terHo. Fagea 273—375. 


Anno 1658, EUiabetha pHmo— 1563, EUiabttha quvito — 1663, EUzabah* 
Mtxto — High time to knock off. Jamee earl of Carlisle present owner 
of Waltham — Nicholas the moat eminent abbot of Waltham. John 
de Waltham. Roger Waltham a learned writer — Hugh Nevillo 
buried in Wolthain ; and also Robert Poesellew — A heap of difficnlties 
cast together. Queries on queries — King Charlet's lost coming to 
Waltham. Conditionally gronteth the repairing of the church ; bat 
it miscarrieth. Pagea 275-280. 






1 uat it ia impoaubls for tbe pea of taj historiuu, writing in (m odt*) a 
divided age, to pleaie ill putiei, and how euy it is to cavil at any 
antlior. Pages 381—285. 

Why tlie aathor detired and hoped never to come under the pen of the 
Animadnrtor in a controvenial difference. Pages 385— Ssj'. 

That, after seriont debate, the aathor found himself necesMtated to make 
this" Appeal "in his own jnat vindication. Paget 287j 288. 



Taken from his title-page, and word " endeavonred." Pagee 388, 28S. 


That manf, etpeciollj memory-miatakes, and pen-slips. must be espectod 
in a great volnme. Page 290. 



That in entire storiee of impregnHble trath, it is facile for one to cavil with 
soma coloar at diinumbered paaaagei therein. Page 291. 



That favour, of coorie, is indulged to tbe firtt (as least perfect) edition 
of books. Pages 293, 293. 



"niat it i« no shame for any man to confess, (when convinced thereof,) and 
amend, an error in his judgment. Pages 293—295. 

, Goo^^lc 




That prelil midakeB, in defianco of sK care, tUI escape in the beaU 
coirecud book. Pagea 2S5, 396. 



That an antbor, chai^g hie margin with hit anthor, ie therabj himeslf 
diichvge^ Pagee S9e, 397. 

That many of the Animadvertor's notee en atdj additional, not oppoeite, 
to what I hare written ; aud that all things omitted in an hiitory 
an BQt debele. Page* 9»7, 3S». 


That the author deaigned unto himself no party-pleating in writiog bii 

Chnrch-Hittorr. Pagea 3(W, SOO. 

What good the Animadrertor might, but wonld not, do ; and what 

good, by Ood'i goodneaa, be beraa hath done onto the aathor. 

Pagea 300, 301. 

That the author ia nnjnetly charged by the Animadrertor for being agna- 

able to the times ; and how far forA nuh agieeableneae i* conaitUnt 

with Chrittian prudence. Pages 301 — 306. 


Heylin'a AnimadvenioM on the fbUewing tOfHca, uid Fuller'a Answer to 
them:— "The Holy State." Preface to the "Church-Hiatory." Tulea, 
dedicatory-epistles, and intermediate inacriptionB, heraldry, blasona c^ 
arms, and deacenta of noble families — Battle-abbey roll — Hereditary 
chamberlain of England. Richard Flantagenet — Poetry, old popiah 
legends, and merry tales. Eicuraions about the antiquity of Cambridge. 
Too much of civil history, and too little of ecdeaiaatieah Omitaion of 
some eynoda and conToeations, of popish heterodoxiea and aupersli- 
tiona, and of the defeneet made by Bancroft, Bilsoa, &e.— The will 
of Henry VIII. and the coronation of Charlet I. Murdering of king*. 
Consent of the people. The Church deprived of her authority. 
Wickliffe. Preabyterianum. TieMy M the lale of Wight. Conaecre- 
tion of clwTcbes and chapaU. Bemoval of archi-episcopal sea fron 
London to Canterbury. Cure of the kii^'s-enl. Errata. Pagea 

BOOK I.— NuMBWis 1— as. 

Condition of the Britons hefore the introduction of Christianity. Their . 
gods. Diana. DeriTation of London. The Druids— The Rmnaa 
conqueat— MetaphruUa. Filler, vf HanHerwnith. M^iMlw St. 

, Cookie 


PU«r< or Jowpb of AriiMtlMi, f^aui itM goapel in Bnglud. 
GUMonbuy-ltufni— Kittff LuciM asd pep* BlMfttHrku. FUmeoa 
Md •reb-fliffleit*. Geeflrer af MoninvMb, Muen iT^ MMMtrio 
JayjiaMa — Ampbibdiu. Dtrivatiaa ol I^ickfield. Ctm. in Dorset- 
rihiK. CenaUatina Chtonit. The Dm« wonbica. PagM 353~3S3. 

BOOK Il.'-KtfMBfeRi 39—99. 
Conversion of tlie Suodb. Their idoli/tVaden, Thiir, &c. — Augnatine the 
reputed apoetle of the Eogtith. TrantfEr of tbe arcTii-episcopal aee 
from Londoo to Canterbuiy. Bapttem in tbe river Swale, in York- 
ahira. Croaa in Baptiim — Derivation of the ttalian, Spanish, and 
Frencli languages. The Hebreiv and the Welsh original languages — 
DiBerence between "catholic" and "Roman catholic." — Crekelade 
and LtohUde. Derivation of Dnrham, and of Tyburn. Alba. Cim- 
briea Cheraonesna — boctora and chancellors, recent dignitaries— 
Cambridgtab ire-men to lead tbe van in all battlea. Edward the 
Confeator. Origin of the Common Law— Cure of the king's evil. 
Form of tbe lervies, with tl« collect— Title of Hudld to the crown of 
EDgland. Normtui Ouiquest. Page* Ssi-^lS. 

BOOK ni.— NcHbiis «0— ?0. 

Power of die canon-law after the Norman Gonqoest— Snhmisaion of tbe 
clergj to Henry Vllt. Their petition, and tbe answer to it. Christian 
antiquity of St. David'a— St. Stephen's chapel, Weitminater. Geoffrey 
Plantagenet. King John's unchristian embassage to the king of 
lUoTOcco — The of the bishops of Rochester, of lancoln, 
and of Baogor—RoyallHts— Magna Cbarta, bud the prosperity of 
tbcce kings who were strict in their observance of its stipulations— 
Banishment of the Jews out of France and England— Hugh Spencer 
earl of Wncbester, and earl o! Gloucester— The lord Chancellor most 
comraonly a bishop — Institution of the Order of the Garter. Knights, 
chancellor, and register of tbe order. The knigbte' habiliments. 
Canons of Wittdsor^Pedigne of the Montague fkmily. Psges 
417— 4U. 

BOOK IV.— Ndhbhbs 79—100. 

The doctrines of Wckliflb. Fabe Report of hi* raeonciliMion to tbe 
churA of Rolbe. Mare Antony De Dominis — Chaaear'e, Spencer's, 
and Draytim't losAb*— Roger Mortimsr, earl of March— Bisboi* are 
baiODB and peers of tbe realm. Whether the king, the parliament, or 
tbe clergy directed the proeeedittRl of Iba eeehaiattical court in cases 
of heresy. Henry VII. bom at Pembroke. His son broke down ths 
paitilton>wall between England and Wales- Fuller's residence at 
Ualwd while Charlee I. held his court there— Charles V. Auz in 
Omenne. Johannes de Voivgine a good author— Earls of Cambridge 

, Goo^^lc 


— FuUer'i' power of memory. Wickfaim ud WaineflMt KiiiR'a 
CoHege, Cambridge—Richard Neville, earl ot Warwick, coatruted 
with Henry of Bolinghroka, dnke of Laocacter and Hereford — The 
doctrine of murdering depoeed and captive prince*, repudiated by 
Fuller— Sir William Sunley at the battle of Boi worth-field. Pagei 

BOOK v.— NDHBua 101—124. 
Dr. Newlen— Lilly's Grammar enjoined by Henry VIII. to be need in all 
grammar-echooli. The echolarahip of Henry VHI. — Whitehall. Car- 
dinal Wolsey. Chriet-College, Ozford*— Margaret dacheas of Alengoo 
— Woliey holds the archbiehoprlc of York in cometeitdam with the 
rich biehopric of Wincbeeter till hi* death — The puritan party will 
not grant that queen Elizabeth perfected the Reformation — Marriage 
of Henry VIII. with Anne Boleyn— The doetrinee held by Wickliffe, 
the ore of Protestaatiim — Snppreaaion of the itew* in London — Henry 
Fitiroy, natural son of Henry VIII. —The authority of the chnrch, and 
whether ita proceedings are subject to the power of parliaments. 
Statute of premunire. Snbmiseion of the clergy to Henry VIII. 
Subsidy of the clergy to queen Elizabeth— Dr. Pilkington, bishop of 
Durham, and queen Eliubeth. Pages 454—476. 

SOCK VI.— Ndhbbbb 135—134. 
Cistercian monks from Cieteam — St. George of Cappadocia— The Domini- 
cans and the Jesuits, the rigid Lutherans and the Melancbthonians, 
tbe peremptory Calviniats and the Remonstrwits, severally at issue 
with each other on the pointa of predestination, free.wiU, &e. — Abbeyt 
conenmed by lightning — Tbe northern rebellion under Aske and lord 
Darcy, on account of the suppression of tnouaeteries — Foundation 
of lis bishoprics — Comparison between the monks and nuns, tbmst 
out of house and home, and the sequestered protestsnl clergy of the 
English chnrch. The fifth part of each benefice allowed to each of the 
sequestered clergy, but ecarcely ever obtained — Westminster chnrch 
is changed by queen Mary Irom a late-made cathedral to an abbey- 
Statute for the suppression of religious Orders— The Oratorians tfae 
latest of sll the Orders in tbe Romish Chnrch. Pages 476 — 185. 

BOOK VII.— Ndhbibs 13S— 142. 
The injunctions of Edward VI. respecting labouring in the time of barrest, 
on boly days, and Sundays — First edition of the Liturgy — Noncon- 
formists — Stemhold and Hopkins's metrical translation of the Psalme, 
allowed by authority, in most pariah-churcbea thrust out tbe Te Dean, 
Btnedictut, Magn^fieat, and Nunc dimittis — Examples to deter lubjecta 
from marrying the widows of their sovereigns — The origin of king 
Edward's forty-six articles of religion and catechism. Pages 465—491. 

BOOK VIII.— NtiMBBHS 143—160. 

Loyalty of the commons on queen Mary's accession. Statute of succession 

—The convocation commonly reputed a part of parliament— Aristotle's 

opinion respecting the 6ttest age for marriage — Tbe proteatant exiles 

at Frankfort omit some ceremonies in the public service and in the 

, Cookie 


•dminutntion of the aacninenU — Dr. Wright, bisliop of LicfaSeld, 
and Dr. Skinner, biabop of Oxford, both of TViDitf College in Oxford. 
The fiunooi John Selden Ukd William Ghillingworth alio membera 
of that College. Dr. Francia Cheynel— Tlie loii of Calais. Pigea 
491— *96. 

BOOK IX.— NuHBEBB 151—193. 
Non-permicaioo of idolatrf. Some members of tbe Romieb chnrcli idola- 
tera. Idolatry to be Bnppresaed only by a lawfal authority. The 
conduct of tlie citiiena of Oenera, and the proteitaiit* in the Low 
Conntriet, retpeeting the eilirpatioQ of popish images — Aetivily 
of the parliament 1 Eliiabeth — The ipire of St. Paul'i steeple conaamed 
by fire, and repaired by the citiiena of London — Reaaon why arch- 
bishop Crantner'a children were by act of parliament restored in blood 
— Compoaition of the thirty-nine artielea of religion. Chriat's local 
descent into hell maintained by the Engliah church. Concerning the 
power of the church " to decree ritei and ceremonies and authority in 
conlrovereies of the faith," contained in the twentieth article, as 
published in 1563, which clause was retained by archbiahop Laud, 
bnt left out in the puritanic editions of 1671 and 1612 — Enactments 
of 13 Elisabeth respecting the articles — Character of the homilies — 
Origin of the name of puritans — Cofetons conformists — Miuiaterial 
prophesyings patronized by archbishop Orindal : king Jamea'a opinion 
concerning them — Two acts of parliament 33 Elizabeth against the 
papiata and puritana — The court of Marchea — Death of archbishop 
Grindal — Subscription to certain articles enforced — The oath em officio 
and tbe High-Commiasion court censured— Scurrilous pamphlets 
of Throgmorton, Penry, and Fenner — How far an author is sceount* 
able for thoie whom ha quotes— The vileneaa of Hackel— The 
presbyteriEu ordination of Travers, condemned by Heylin, allowed by 
Fullei^-Tbe aabbalariaa controveray. Origin of tbe Lambeth articles 
on predestination, grace, &c. Calrinism imported into England by 
some of tbe English protestant eiilea in the reign of queen Mary. 
Dr. Peter Baro. Dr. Whitalcer — The polemic productions of Bilson, 
Coein, Bancroft, and Hooker. The execution of Copping, Thacker, 
Barrow, Greenwood, and Penry. Imprisonment of Udal, Billot, Ktnd- 
ley, and Bouler. Stillness of the nonconformiats— Abbot Feckenbam'a 
massage to queen Elisabeth, Pages 497—536. 

BOOK X.— NuiiB«HB 194—331. 
Vatsoo'e silly treason. Sir Griffith Markham one of his accomplices. An 
■nqniry concerning the other conapiratora. "Hie millenary petition — 
ffiahop Barlow's publication of the Hamplon-Conrt confereuce. Dr. 
King, bishop of London— Statute to prevent final alienation of chnrch- 
land^Tbe remissness of some prates in promoting the erection 
of Chelsea college — Enumeration of some famoua men of the name 
of Fuller— The earl of Dunbar's mode of becoming posaessed of 
Norbam-caatle — The Genemn notee to the Bible condemned by king 
Jamea, aa partial, untrue, seditions, tee. Specimens of them — Bishop 
Hsrsnet'a sermon at court in 1609, on " Render to Cseaar," &c. — 
Bishop Neile's speech in the house of lords — Selden's book on tithes. 
Its effects rendered nugatory. Answers to it. Copy of Selden'a 

, Goo^^lc 


mbniMioB wai sclaKMrledgmeirt befan <be <HfgVCMinuinon«(nirt 
— OeKt^ptoai of Dr. M«cker« eolketion of Latin ^watUw on the 
dDotiinea ind dticifllkia at the dhweh «t Englaod. He onttt the 6nt 
clauHAf -the tvMiitietii article of Ae chnroh. Hi* book eondemned to 
be bomt— Deacription of the Remoiutraiits. KaA Contn-BemttMtraati 
in the Low Cauatriei— The diacipline of the church of England 
Tirtiullj caademned by the Synod of Dort— Dr. Williami promoted 
to the office of UtrrA CbHtoeUor. Uliii office m foraier tf[«i occuiued 
by .the dignitanea of ■the cburtb— Mkc Antony De Dominie, arch- 
Uthop ef Spahrto. Hia exbmne cupidity. He ia aeducod by the 
Romtih party, and ruined— ^e Spanish nwteh oppoaed by the 
pnntana. Reoame alleged by Heylin aathe groundi of this oppoiU 
tion. StiffM 5S6— 662. 


BOOK XI.— NoMBEBB 223-337. 
The funeral of .king. jMDea—>R«mBrka on Dr. Pratton, and his l»ief con- 
Bttnon'irilh the duke of Buckiagham— King Cbarles^B marriage with 
JlenriotlB Maria of Franee. Proviaion far her popish chaplains — 
Coronation of king Charles: biahop WilUams not prMant on that 
ocoaaion. The pracedance of Tarioot officers of ataW. The consent 
or goad-liking of the people wked at the ooronation. Protetlation 
of Mrend nobleman to «pill .their blood in defence of the crown ; 
foiXDtten by many of them in the eu^equsnt civil war— Contraat 
be^Mn bithop Aodreww and archbiahop Laud in ragr>rd to oar«ino> 
niaa— CommiaHon for anqMnding archbiahop Abbot from the raercise 
of his official dntiea. The le^slatire authority of foreign council* not 
binding on Englishmen. Dra. WiUiama, Carew. and Land refuse 
to receive epiacopal consecntion from aicbbisbop Abbot, who was 
aftetwwda reseived into (avonr at court-account of the Uflociatioa 
of feoSeea for the porcbaae of impropriatioaa. The abuse* of the 
system, and it* auppreaiion — " Declaration about Sports " ordered by 
authority to be read in every parish- ehurcb. The two Judges of 
Asaiw for the- western circuit make a tevere order for the Buppression 
ofmkeaand nvel* in the county of Somerset, enjoining the constables 
to deliver a copy to the minister of every pariah, who waa to read 
it'in the church overy year. Thisabuseof the Lord'a-day generally 
reputed % principal oauae af God'* anger poured out on the nation 
dnring'the nrU'war — Disputes concerning the position of the commu- 
Mioa<table. Fuller to be appointed moderakir in tbia diapotatiun— 
EzoaUcnt oharaeter Of bishop Juzon. Deeriog'a character of areh- 
hvAtop Lwd— Critique on Panne's tuly writings. Hia moderation 
towardalhe close Of Hfe — Archbishop Williams's conduct and impriaon- 
nient. MotiMi for his degradation. Circucnilances attending the 
degradalkm of Dr. Marmadnks Middkton, bishop of St. Davjd'a. 


Cmtaet of Mn OifaddaMnt— Tbi h^MdnetiM 'oT ttw IMmrgj tho 
«ndcM«muaof VlM«P(MlIitot lii fcotlaBil. Mflttptiraied -AiKrihDtion 
vVeratM. Vk'nfBNlrf'KbMtfnyta Lerfie«iW (tftfaetfUefvanHaof 
ita ScMA Iww i w uthii . ^AaxAibtahop iikiid Hid Dr. -Conn genendly 
tat iMftrapflrtf blmed -hy 'lh« Scau tm thn kceenDt. 'Hm whale 
maMctei 4>Bd -IIm «p)iiot«1 «nd -co>ap«ntioii of the 6eot<ih bisbopi. 
TlM'MMwMi' Oed'B'blHsii^, the Scotch rAdKon might 
ban bMn -at 4nt nqiprMied. No KwnnncB-^dfice for Ihe ancceiB 
«€ tMthw— A eeuTOMium 'Of the clergy <^>31«d ^o >6*0 ^ Faller 
■ppaiolvd OBB «f the «Iei^fl. fli« meekmn under ' the mptOMhes of 
■Hejihi. 14iB sHtiiigi of iht convocation prnlosged by the liiDg'B 
BMMHMion, dinmte bew^laeUo. Dra. Broworigg, Hacket, and othcn 
'pntBcted againit the farther eoatiDDanee of the coavocalion. The 
tanntber «f iis membera. An old coDVocation converted into a new 
•food. The remarks of lord George Digbjr and au Edward Deering. 
S^oda'and conToeationi DearijeTnonfinouB. A committee appointed 
to daliberate about a canon for'nni/ormity in rites and ceremoniea. 
The taking of the tt cetera oath much pregaed, even before the proper 
tigi^ bf aome btahopa. lUr. MBToaid'B speech against the canona. 
Act of 61 Edward III. — Tha power of the Higb-Com mission 
coort and of 4be biehopB* CDnita destreyed— ^re. Pocklington and 
Bray the Srat who fait the diajlleaanreof the l^mg Parliament, at the 
instigation of bishop Williams — Impeachment and imprisonment of 
Dr. Wren — A Proteatatton ordered to be generally taken throaghout 
the kingdom— Lm-d Brooke's book against bishops, in respect tX their 
low parentage and nnanitable studies — The Protestation subscrtbed by 
twelve of 'the 'bishops, who are impeached of high-treason, and com- 
mitted to the Tower— The earl of Bath— Origin of the words 
"Malignant" and "itoondhead" — Bishop Wren detained in the 
Tcnrrr after 'the releaae of hia episcopal brethren — Conduct of arch- 
Inshop IViUiann — The Bngliah biahopa have their vote in parliament 
M " a'thbrd eatate i " and not aa temporal barons — Some objectiona to 
their "Ihird-estateship "—The calling together of the "assembly of 
divines" not to be ascribed to the vacation of the convocation — 
nucifal node of condemning the "solemn league and covenant" 
— Whiter "First Century ''— Poller's vindication of hia own integrity 
in hia aCconnt of the episcopal clergy — The principal Independents did 
not leave England on account of debt, but 'from tnilyconscientions 
motive*— Chrittopher 'Lord's iatemperale conduct at the treaty at 
Usl>ric^»— Comrnendation of archbishop Laud's "Diary." Frynne'a 
baaeneia In -Ua extracts ftom it. and icnnendoea concerning them. 
Refdiation of Land's inclination to popery. Two anecdotes on the 
•object. 'His endeavours to promote concord among Christians. The 
Jeanits and pmitana hindered this proposed concord. The sSbrts of 
tbear^bithop of Spahtoand Pranciscus de Sanctft ClarA. Arch- 
bishop Land's defects and esciltencles enumerated by Fnller— The 
attachment of the EogUtfa nation to the Liturgy not eradicated 
by ordinancea of parliament. Even Stephen Maraball wiahed hie 
daughter to be married according to the form prescribed in the 
"Common Prayer-Book," and inatantly paid down five ponnda, the 
fine impoaed for using aoy other form than that of the " Directwy." 
A aimilar fine paid by Mr. Knightly of Pawsley — Delrgates from the 



Univenilf of Oxford plead their priTilegu in vain before | 
u well u B uIto Id odo of the articles concerauiK the nnTendrj of 
that dtf— ProceediDgi of tlie pu-liamentiry vuitori at Cambri^Re. 
Oath of ditcoverp obtruded od aeveral peraona in that University. 
This fact affirmed hj Dr. Peter Gunning, upon whom snch an oaUt 
_ wu urged ; bat denied hj Mr. Simeon A«he, one of the earl of 
Mancheater's chaplaina — Fhiuder of the treaanry of Magdalen.College, 
Oxford. Biahop Wajnefleet and Dr. Hnmphrey — Plonder of valnable 
timber belonging to Clare-Hall, Cambridge. Restitntion of the alolen 
property — Archbishop Williama's inclinations towards the parliament 
and his subsequent active exertions in aid of that party. His chaste- 
nesB. Hia act* of beaerolence especially to young students in both 
the Univerdties. Eiplanation of the expenses incurred in the repair 
of Westminster abbey. His views respecting popery, and hia &TOnr 
" to Bome select persona " of that opinion. The degree of esteem in 
which he held the English Liturgy. Translations of it into foreign 
languages. His antipathy to king Charles. Pages 553 — 660. 


Heylin's Introduction — Extract from the Church-History concerning Dr. 
Cown— Dr. Coein's " Answer." Account of prebendary Smart, and 
of the proceedings of the High-Commission court against him. His 
contumacy. His bill of complaint preferred to the Houaa of Com- 
mons, containing chains against Dr. Coain, who answers them 
terietim before the House of Lords, in *nch a satisfactory manner, 
tlut he was released from all farther attendance on them in reference 
to this matter. A summary of his answers to the various charges of 
Smart, who, by the artful misrepresentations of his sufferings as a 
suspended and silenced preacher, obtained large contributions and 
a handsome maintenance from those who dislilied episcopacy. Though 
Smsrt demanded many thousand pounds, the parliament gave him 
none, nor ordered i>r. Cosin or any of those whom he had accused 
to make him retribution. Dr. Cosin's declaration respecting his 
intimacy with the French presbyterians at Charenton t the interchange 
of civilities between them, the English episcopal clergy and laity 
frequenting their church, and, in return, they came to Uie episcopal 
church. Dr. Cosin has been "to pray and sing psalma with them, 
and to hear both the weekly and the Sunday sermons at Charenton." 
Dailies character of Dr. Cosin. Fuller's Apologetical Letter to him, 
and his promised account of the highly venerated bishop of Durham 
—Fuller's epistie to the reader— To bis loving friend. Dr. Peter 
Heylin- Notices by the Editor conceruing Dr. Cornelius Burgess, 
and Fuller's Letter to bim. Pages 661—685. 

Dbbcbiption of tub PLaras. Pages 686—668. 







There is a late geDeration of people, professed ene- 
mies to all human learning ; ■ the nnost moderate 
amongst them accounting it, as used in Divinity, no 
better than the barren fig-tree : — '* Cut it down, why 
cumbereth it the ground?" Luke xiii. 7; whilst the 
more furious resemble it to the wild gourd in the pot- 
tage of the children of the prophets, deadly and perni- 
cious, 2 Kings iv. 40. Thus as " Wisdom builded her 
an house" with "seven pillars," Proverbs ix. 1, gene- 
rally expounded "the liberal sciences," Folly seeketh 
(but I hope in vain) to pluck down and destroy it. 

The staple place whereon their ignorance or malice, 
or both, groundeth their error, is on the words of the 
apostle : " Beware lest any man should spoil you 
through philosophy and vain deceit," Col. ii. 8 ; or, 
which is the same in effect, vain and deceitful philo- 

Which words, seriously considered, neither express 
nor imply any prohibition of true philosophy, but rather 
tacitly commend it. Thus, tvhen our Saviour saith, 
"Beware of false prophets," Matt, vii. 15, by way of 
opposition, he inviteth them to believe and respect 
such as are true ones. 

, Goo^^lc 


Indeed, if we consult the word io the notatioa 
thereof, consisting of f lUi, " to love," and a-afia, " wis- 
dom," nothing can be cavilled thereat ; the child of 
80 good parents cannot be bad : and the compound 
resulting thence, namely, philosophy, or " the love of 
wisdom," is the same so commended by Solomon : 
" Whoso loveth wisdom, rejoiceth his father," Prov. 
xxix. 3. 

True philosophy, thus considered in itself, is, as 
Clemens Alexandrinus termeth it, (EtenuB veritatis 
sparagmon, " a spark or splinter of Divine truth ; " res 
Dei ratio, saith Tertullian; God himself being, in a 
sort, the great-grandfather of every Philosophy- Act. 

But, we confess, there is a great abuse of philosophy, 
making it vain and deceitful, (according to the apostle's 
just complaint,) when it presumeth by the principles 
of reason to cross and control tlie articles of faith: 
then, indeed, it becometh xtt^, " vain or empty," as 
wherein nulla impletio, et multa inflaiio, "nothing to fill 
man's mind, though too much to puff it up ; " which is 
true both of philosophy in general, and of all the piirts 

Thus Logic, in itself, is of absolute necessity, without 
which St Paul could never have disputed "two years " 
(no, nor two hours) " in the school of Tyrannus," Acts 
xix. 9. So highly did the apostle prize it, that he 
desired to be freed loci rmv armrte*, " from men who have 
no topics," — from absurd men who will fix in no place 
to be convinced with reason. But Logic, thus useful, 
may be abused and made deceitful, either in doubtful 
disputations, where the questions can never be deter- 
mined, or in " perverse disputings of men," 1 Timothy 
vi. 5, where the disputants are so humorous and 
peevish, that they are unwilling to understand each 
other; making wrangling, not satisfaction, the end of 
their dispute. 

Ethics, in like manner, are of special use in Divinity ; 
though not to be believed where they cross Chris- 

h.ji,, ,■ , Cookie 


tianity; namely, where they exclude humility from 
being a virtue, (on the erroneous account, that it is 
destructive to magnanimity,) which is the Christian's 
lively ; (" Be ye clothed with humility, 1 Peter v. 5 ;) 
and the third part of all which God, in this world, 
enjoineth us to perform, Micah vi. 8. 

Natural Philosophy must not be forgotten, singularly 
useful in Divinity, save when it presumes to control 
the articles of our Creed. It is one of the four things 
for which the earth is moved : " A servant when he 
reigneth," Proverbs xxx. 22 ; and intolerable is the 
pride of Natural Philosophy, which should "hand- 
maid " it to Divinity, when once offering to rule 
over it. 

Your Honour's worthy grandfather, William Lord 
Maynard, well knew the great conveniency, yea, neces- 
sity, of Logic for divines, when he founded and plenti- 
fully endowed a Professor's place in the University of 
Cambridge for the reading thereof; — of Cambridge, 
which I hope ere long you will grace with your pre- 
sence, who in due time may become a student and 
good proficient therein ; teaming being no more preju- 
dicial to a person of honour, than moderate ballast to 
the safe sailing of a ship. Till which time, and ever 
after, the continuance and increase of all happiness to 
you and your relations, is the daily prayer of 

Your Honour's humble servant, 

,y Google 


Although the foundation of this University was 
far ancienter [than the Conquest], yet because what 
before this time is reported of it is both httle and 
doubtful, and alrcjidy inserted into the body of our 
Ecclesiastical History ; it is early enough to begin the 
certain History thereof. Far be it from me to make 
odious comparisons between Jachin and Boaz, the two 
pillars in Solomon's Temple, 1 Kings vii. 21 ; by pre- 
ferring either' of them for beauty and strength, when 
both of them are equally admirable. Nor shall I 
make diflFerence betwixt the sisters, (coheirs of learning 
and religion,) which should be the eldest In the days 
of king Henry VI.* such was the quality of desert 
betwixt Humphrey Stafford duke of Buckingham, and 
Henry Beauchamp duke of Warwick, that, to prevent 
exceptions about priority, it was ordered by the Parlia- 
ment, that they should take precedency by turns, one 
one year, and the other the next year; and go by 
course were to chequer or exchange their going or 
setting all the years of their life. Sure I am, there 
needeth no such pains to be taken, or provision to be 
made, about the pre-eminence of our English Univer- 
sities, to regulate their places; they having better 
learned humility from the precept of the apostle : " In 
honour preferring one another," Rom.xii. 10. Where- 
fore I presume my aunt Oxford will not be justly 
offended, if in this book I give my own mother the 
upper hand, and first begin with her History. Thus, 
desiring God to pour his blessing on both, that neither 
may want milk for their children, or children for their 
milk, we proceed to the business. 

• Ex bundelh PetiHonvm Parliamcnti anno 23, Henrici VI. num. 12. 







1. 7^e low Condition of Cambrics at the Conquest. 1 William 
the Conqueror. -4.i>. 1066. 
At this time the fountaia of learning in Cambridge vas but 
little, and that very troubleil. For of late the Danes (who at first, 
like an intermitting ague, made but inroads into the kingdom, but 
afWrwards turned to a quotidian of constant habitation) had harassed 
all this country, aud hereabouts kept their station. Mars then 
frighted away the Muses, when the Mount of Parnassus was turned 
into a fort, and Helicon derived into a trench. And at this present, 
king William the Conqueror, going to subdue the monks of Ely 
that resisted him, made Cambridgeshire the seat of war. 

2. CamMdffe CaaUe batlt by King William. A.D. 1070. 
For, to the town of Cambridge he retired ; and there for a 
season reposed himself, half dead with sorrow, that his design against 
the aforesaid monks took no effect. At what time he found in the 
town three hundred and eighty-seven dwelling houses; eighteen 
whereof he caused then to be plucked down,* to moke room for the 
erecting of a Castle, which he there re-edified, that it might be a 
check-bit to curb this country, which otherwise was so hard-mouthed 
to be ruled. This Castle, here built by him, was strong for situa- 
tion, stately for structure, large for extent, and pleasant for prospect ; 
having in it, amongst other rooms, a most magnificent Hall ; the 
atones and timber whereof were afterwards begged by the Master 
and Fellows of King's Hall,f of king Henry iV. towards the 
building of their chapel. At this day the Castle may seem to have 

* CahDiic'b Brilaania ii^Bnil>Tii1|!ei>Llre. I C.iiDfl, Hiilaria Cant, jlcad. lib. it. 


6 HISTORY OF THB a. o. 1093. 

run out of the gate-house, vhicb odI; ia standing and employed Tor 
s prison : so that what was first intended to lestrain rebels without 
it, is now only used to confine felons within it. There is atill 
extant also an artificial high hill deeplj intrenched about, steep in 
the ascent, but level at the top, which endureth still in defiance of 
the teeth of time ; as the most greedj glutton must leave those 
bones (not for manners, but necessity) which are too hard for him 
to devour. King William had scarce finished this Castle, when it 
was first handselled with the submission of the abbot of EIj, who 
came hither to bewail his errors, and beseech tlie king's mercy,* 
having formeily paid seven hundred marks to preserve Uie life and 
liberty of himself and his convent. Besides, when that money 
came to be paid, and one groat thereof was found wanting la 
weight, a new sum was extorted from him for breach of covenants ; -f- 
to teach them who are to deal with potent creditors, to weigh right, 
lest otherwise they approve themselves penny wise, and pound 

JI, 4. Henry Beauolerk bred in Cambridffs; probably a Bens/actor 
to the Uuiternty. A.J). 1080. 

Now, though these martial impressions did much discompose the 
studies of scholars in Cambridge, under William the Conqueror ; 
who, being a military man, by his very constitution was not over- 
fond of learning ; yet even in these days the place was not totally 
abandoned of scholara. Yea, Cambridge was in some reputation 
and eminence for literature. For Henry, youngest son to king 
William, was here brought up in the study of arts and sciences ; J 
and afterwards be travelled beyond the seas ; being at Paris, 
some say, (though improbable,) when news was brought of the 
death of his brother .king William Rufus : eo that both home-bred 
and foreign learning met in him, to deserve the surname of Beau- 
CLEBE. His father is reported to have designed him for a bishop ; 
as Maud, wife to this Henry, is said by her parents to have been 
intended for a nun ; and these two, marrying together, were the 
most learned couple in that age. 

Some say,§ that this Henry, afterwards king of England, in 
gratitude to Cambridge for bis education, endowed Readers of 
several Unguages therein, alleging Leland's verses, as alluding 
thereunto : — 

qM ftKU Oranta fween d'cota J<wm, 

TtTta prxniltl tmdita Lmgtii: 

• C*IDH, BUtoria Omt. Acad. Hb.H. page 117. ( SfrU) hi the Ufe oT Ung 

WUUun Ae Conqoeror. t ThoMab RttDBDRN, I:,bland, Fabiak, Bali, uid 

PiTKffDt, page 303. ( ^''i^*, D* ■^nHjuOale CtttO^. Atad.^af»i7. 

, Goo^^lc 


"CnJnUga, deiot«dlollw Hnan alns, 
Bj Isuiied Hem;'! pfet; doth alilaa 
With loMoed men, whlcli luigiuige* redne." 

Bat we will Dot wiert the voids beyond the intent of the poet, who 
herein eeems to relate to the Hebrew and Greek Piofegaors founded 
in bis days at Cambiid^ hy king Heniy VIII. whom we may call 
Beftudeil junior, though short as in time, ao in learning, of the 
fotmer. Tbna though for the present we will not build the bounty 
of this king Henry to Cambridge on a false botlom, yet certainly 
he was a duti&l son to his mother, from whom he had his breeding, 
and not forgetting her laTOur onto him. 

5. MucAievotu Mimtffomerf. 1 William II. A.D. 1088. 
Not long after, Roger of Montgomery most mischieTously with 
fire and sword destroyed the town and county of Cambridge, spoil- 
tag the poor subjects, so to be revenged of their sovereign, king 
William Ruiiia ; insomuch as, for a time, the University was wholly 

6. Picoft Foundation in St. Giles's Parish. A.D. 1092. 
Hugolina, a worthy woman, and wife to Picot baron of Stime, 
[Boom,] and sheriff of Cambridgeshire, recovered at Cambridge 
of a desperate uckness ; whereof, in gratitude, according to Uie 
devout mode of those days, she built a church there, dedicating it 
to God and St. Giles, and placed six canons therein. Yea, she 
prevailed so ikr with her husband, that he endowed this her church 
with half the tithes of his demesnes in his manors of, 1. Qui, 
2. Stow, 3. Water- Beach, 4. Middleton, 5. Histon, 6. Impington, 
7. Girton, 8. Oakington, 9. Ramplon, 10. Cottenbain, 11. 
Lolworth, 12. Trumpington, 13. Haslingfield, 14. Harleton, 
15. Evcisden, 16. Toft, 17- Caldecote, 18. Kingston, 19. Wim- 
pole, 20. Gransden, 21. Hatley, 22. Pampisford, 23. Alewind. 
Bat, soon after, these tithes were but poorly paid ; namely, when 
Robert Picot, his son, forfeited his barony, which king Henry I. 
• bestowed npon Pagan [Pain] Peverel. 

7- The injuTumt Original of Impropriaiioni. 
See we here a grand difference betwixt the endowments of monas- 
teries before and after the Conquest. The Saxons generally endowed 
them with solid and substantial revenues out of their own estates, 
giving good (arms and manors unto them : (or if any tithes, only 
those within the circuit of that parish wherein that convent was 
erected; the secnlai priests, and afterwards the monks therein, 
being presumed to lake some spiritual pains in that place, to the 


8 HISTORY OF THE a.d. 1110. 

deeerring thereof:) this properljr was (lanlc-almonage, beatowiDg on 
God in his church, as Ihey accounted it, what was their own, to 
eEtate upon Him. But the Normans embraced a cheaper way of 
dotations, chiefly bestowing a]) or part of the tithes of their lands 
on convents of their foundation, payable out of parishes lying a 
good distance from the same ; and this was according to the Frendi 
fashion. Now, if it be true that tithes be due jwe Divino, this 
was no gift, but s payment, which they were bound to tender to the 
church ; yea, which is more, such grants of tithen were no better 
than felony, robbing the ministers of their respective parishes of 
what was due unto them : insomuch that they took the oil from the 
wick, (the pastor labouring In his church,) and gave it to the thief 
or waster in the lamp, to which the idle monks may fitly be com- 

8. Cambridge first made a Corporation. 2 Henry I. A.D. 1101. 
To repair the damage lately done by Montgomery to the town 
of Cambridge, king Henry I. bestowed many privileges thereon, 
which the University is so far from repining, she rejoiceth thereat. 
For, well may the jewel delight to be put in a handsome cabinet. 
He &eed the town from the power of the sheriff, making it a corpo- 
ration, upon the payment of one hundred and one marks yearly into 
the exchequer; which sum the sherifi* paid before for his profits out 
of the town, when it was under his jurisdiction. Besides, whereas 
the ferry over the river Grant was a vagrant before, even any where, 
where passengers could get waftage over, by authority and custom 
it now began to be fixed near Cambridge; which brought much 
trading and concourse of people thereunto. 

9. The Original of Midaammer Fair. ^.A 1103. 
About this time Barnwell, that is, Cbildreu's-well, a village 
within the precincts of Cambridge, got both the name thereof and 
a fair therein, on this occasion : — Many little children on midsum- 
mer (or St. John Baptist's) eve met there in mirth to play and sport 
together.* Their company caused the confluence of more and bigger 
boys to the place. Then bigger than they, even their parents 
themselves, came thither, to be delighted with the activity of their 
children. Meat and drink must be had for their refection, which 
brought some victualling-booths to be set up. Pedlars with toys 
and trifles cannot then be supposed long absent, whose packs in 
short time swelled into tradesmen's sbdls of all commodities. Now 
it is become a great ia.n, and, as I may term it, one of the towns- 
men's " Commencements," wherein they take their " d^rees** of 
* Lihtt BarnmUnuU. 



vealtb, fisught vitb all store of wares, and notliiDg, except buyers, 
mnling therein. 

10. Thojfirtt Coming o/Jeas to Cambridge. A.J). 1106. 
Jews at this time came first to Cambridge, and possessed a great 
put of the town, called the Jewry at this day. Round-church in 
the Jewry is conjectured, by the rotundity of the structure, to have 
been built for their ayu&gognt. Much like whercunlo, for fabric 
and &shion, I hare seen another at Northampton, where Jews about 
the Banae time had their seminary. Some will say, Cambridge, an 
inland town of small trading, was ill-chosen by these Jews for their 
seat; where the poor scholars, if borrowing from these usurers, were 
likely to bring but small profit unto them. But let it suffice, that 
the Jews chose this pisce, whom no Christians need advise, for 
their own advantage. Here their carriage was very civil ; not com- 
plained of, as elsewhere, for cruel crucifying of Christian children, 
sod other enormities. 

11 — 13. Cambridge reelored to Learning by tAa Abbot of Crottland. 
A Grain of Seed gooa grown a Tree. The Time of this Author^ t 
Writing, A.D. 1109, 1110. 

Now the reader is requested seriously to peruse the following 
psssage as faithfully transcribed out of an escellent author,* and of 
high concernment in this our history :— " Joflrcd, abbot of Crow- 
land, sent OTer to his manor of Cottenham, nigh Cambria, Gislehert, 
his fellow-monk, and professor of Divinity, with three other monks ; 
who, following him into England, being thoroughly furnished with 
philosophical theorems, and other primitive sciences, repaired daily 
to Cambridge ; and, having hired a certain public bam, made open 
profession of their sciences, and in short space of time drew togcllter 
a great company of scholars. 

" But in the second year after their coming, the number of their 
scholars grew so great, as well from out of the whole country, as the 
town, that the biggest house and bom that was, or any church what- 
soever, sufficed not to contain them. Whereupon, sorting them- 
selves apart in several places, and taking the University of Orleans 
for their pattern, early in the morning, monk Odo, a singular gram- 
marian, and satirical poet, read Grammar unto boys, and those of 
the younger sort assigned unto him, according to the doctrine of 
Priscian, and Reraigius upon him. At one of the clock, Terricus, 
a most witty and subtle sophister, taught the elder sort of young 
men Aristotle's Logic, after the introductions of Porphyry, and the 
■ comments of Averrhocs. At three of the clock, monk William 

• p. Blxienbjs ill hlB AddilameDt lo tbe Hiatoi7 of lognlphm. 

, Goo^^lc 

10 HISTORY OF THE t.B. 1118. 

read » lecture in Tulljr'g Rhetoric, and Quintilian's Florei. Bat 
the great Maater Gislebert, upon every Sunday and holy-day, 
preached God's word unto the people. And thug out of this litUe 
fountain, which grew to be a great river, we see how the city of 
God now is become enriched, and all England made fhiitfiil by 
means of very many Masters and Doctors proceeding out of Cam- 
bridge, in manner of the holy paradise,^ &c. 

This author writ some fifty years after the coming of these Crow- 
land Professors to Cambridge ; so that, who seriously considereth 
how learning there, from a contemptible occasion, by small means, 
in so short a time, improved itself to so great a height, will con- 
clude much of Providence therein ; and we may observe, according 
to Scripture expression, " God had prepared the people, for the 
thing was done suddenly," 2 Chron. zzix. 36. 

14, 15. An apparent Injury offered to Cambri^e. Sie it via- 
dieatedjrom tuch as traduce her. 

But some adversaries to the antiquity of Cambridge represent 
and improve this action much to her disadvantage, as if newly now, 
and not before, she began to be an University ; objecting, that " if 
scholars were at Cambridge before the coming of those four Profess- 
ors thither, they showed small civility in giving those strangers no 
better entertainment ; to whom they should have sud, as once 
Laban to Abraham's servant, — ** Come in, ye blessed of the Lord, 
wherefore stand you without ?"" Gen. xxiv. 31, welcoming them to 
their Halls, Hostels, Chambers, Studies, with the best fitre their 
present condition afforded ; espeeislly, seeing scholars (of all men) 
are soonest acquainted, the sameness of profession commonly making 
them familiar at the first sight. It seems, therefore, that, at their 
coming thither, either Cambridge had no scholars in her, or her 
scholars had no manners in them ; yea, had not read so much as 
Tully's 'Offices,' to teach ihera civility to strangers professing 
learning, but suffered them to live, and read in a bam, by them-. 

In answer hereunto, may the reader be pleased to take into his 
impartial consideration the following particulars : — 

1. Not much more than twenty years since, that mischievous 
man, Robert of Montgomery, had despoiled Cambridge. And no 
wonder, if the blackbirds were slow in flying back to their nests, 
which had been so lately destroyed. 

2. Yet a racemation at least of scholars either remained in Cam- 
briilge all that plundering time, or returned soon after it. For we 
find king Heniy I. in the second [year] of his reign, by order, com- 
manding some civilians there to perform iheir Acts, and pay the 


beadles their fees, vbich fonnerly they refused; aad this was some 
years before the comiog of the Cropland Professors hither. * 

3. Probabljr some emuUtioD, not to eay envy, (a canker we find 
fretting the fairest flowers,) might make some distance betnixt the 
old stock of standing scholars in Cambridge, and this nev addition 
of Piofeasors. Onr aunt Oxford may easily remember what little 
love, yea, how great grudging, there was betwixt her ancient stu- 
dents, and tfaat new plantation of scholars which St. Grimbaldj-f- 
undei king Alfred, first placed there. 

4, The marvellous increase of learning in Cambridge, in so 
short a time atler the coming of the Crowland Professors thither, is 
justly imputed to this cause, — for that Cambridge had formerly 
been a place of learning. Thus when green wood is long in kin- 
dling, brands (which before were half-burnt, and then quenched) do 
quickly take fire, and presently blaze into a bright flame. 

In a word, such men who have made remarkable additions to 
what was begun long before, oftcn-times, as proudly as falsely, con- 
ceit themselves the first founders thereof. Thus Nebuchadnezzar : 
" Is not this great Babylon that I have built P " Daniel iv. 30. 
Whereas he, and all the world, knew that Semiramis built it a 
thousand years before his cradle was made, though he no doubt 
might strengthen, enlarge, and beautify the same. And, as re- 
storers are apt to mistake themselves forthefounders, so, by infection 
of the same error, the spectators of such repiurers are prone to mis- 
interpret them for beginners ; as here these Crowland Professors are 
erroneously apprehended the founders of Cambridge. Thus the 
river Anas, in Bpain, after it hath run above sixty miles under 
ground, may be by ignorant people conceived to have his birth, his 
fountain, there, where in truth he hath but his resurrection at his 
springing out of earth the second time. And thus sluggards in the 
morning count the sun but then to arise, when it newly breaks forth 
of a cloud, and was risen some hours before. 

16. Pain Pewrel founds Bamw^ Priory. A.D. 1112. 
Pain Peverel, standard-bearer to Robert duke of Normandy, in 
the Holy Land, removed Picofs foundation from St. Uiles in Cam- 
Imdge, (where they were pent for room,) to a larger place, of 
thirteen acres, at Barnwell, about a mile off, where one Godesonn 
formeHy led a hermitical life. This Peverel increased the number 
of those canons &om six to thirty, (because, forsooth, at that 
time he was just thirty years old,) and endowed them with large 
levenoes. Afterwards, in process of time, Barnwell became a prime 
priory, through the bounty of many benefactors, and able at the 

• Cjius, in HUUirid Canlat. t fidt tuprA, " Church Htelwj," toI, L p. 183. 

, Goo^^lc 

12 HISTOEY OF THE A.D. 1144. 

dissolution of abbeys to expend, of old rents low-rated, three 
liundred fifty^ne pounds, fifteen shillings, four-pence; insomuch 
that the prior thereof, in the forty-ninth year of king Henry III. 
by writ, bearing date at Woodstock, the twenty-fourth of December, 
was, with many more, voluntari^ rummonitut, " freely summoned," 
Baitfa the record, to be present as a baron in Parliament. But let 
Iiim make much of this favour, which never before or after was 
bestowed upon him or his successors. These black canons of 
Barnwell were genemlly kind neighbours to the scholaie, and their 
prior did sometimes good offices unto them. 

17- Alphred of B&Berley, Student in Cambridge. A.D. 1129. 
Now, amongst the eminent scholars who at this time studied in 
Cambridge, Alfred of Beverley was of especial note.* He was 
bom in Yorkshire, lived many years in Cambridge to gain learning; 
where he attained to be an excellent philosopher, divine, and his- 
torian. Returning into his native country at Beverley, he wrote 
the history of the British nation, from the beginning of the world 
unto his own age ; which work was by him truly and elegantly 
composed. He is commonly sumanied " the treasurer ; " a title 
given him, as 1 conceive, not for bearing that office in his convent, 
but from his diligent searching, discreet selecting, methodical com- 
piling, and careful preserving, or treasuring up, precious passages 
of former ages for ihe use of posterity. This Alfred, when living 
in Cambridge, maintained himself (as the rest of the students 
there) on his own cost ; every scholar in that age being his own 
founder and benefactor. For, as yet, no public halls or hostels 
were built for to receive them, but each one lived, as St. Paul at 
Kome, "in his own hired house,** Acts xxviii. 30, as they could 
contract with the townsmen ; who, unconscionably improving them- 
selves on the scholars* necessities, extorted unreasonable rents from 
them ; as hereafter, Ood willing, shall appear. 

18. Unieonder me thU Wonder. 
And here I must admire one thing, and shall be thankful to such 
who will cure my wonder, by showing me the cause of that I 
wonder at : — " What might be the reason, that monks and friars in 
this age had such stately houses, rich endowments, plentiful main- 
tenance ? whilst students in the University had poor chambers, hard 
fare, short means, and that on their own or parents' charges : and 
yet there was more honesty, industry, painfulness, and piety within 
the study of one scholar, than [within] the cells of a hundred 
monks ?" Some, perchance, will impute this to the fancy of men, 

" B*LE, Dt SeripCvriiai Brilna. CtKt. B. psge 167. 

, Goo^^lc 


— ^lapping, dandling, and feeding monkeys and nnumosets, wbile 
ciestures of mote use are less regarded. Others will say, " It was 
because scholaiB studied the liberal — monks the lucrative — sciences ; 
university-men veie more busied in reading books, than niumbling 
of masses, and praying for the dead, — tlie main matter which brought 
grist to the monks' mill." Whatever was the secret cause, this 
was the apparent effect thereof : — Scholars, as they were lean, so 
tley were lively, attracted less envy, procured more love, endured 
more labour, which made them to last and to live after tlie destruc- 
tion of the other. 

19. Thefira Earl of Cambridge. 4 Stephen. A.D. 1139. 
William [de] Meschiaes, brother to Banulph earl of Chester, 

was by king Stephen made the first earl of Cambridge, And it is 
DO small credit to Cambridge, that, after this William, none were 
ever honoured with that title, but sueh who nere princes of the blood 
rojral ; — either actual kings of Scotland, or kings^ sons oi nephews 
of England, or foreign and free princes of their next alliance ; as 
bereaAer, God willing, will appear at their several creations : So 
careful were our English kings in choosing such persons for the 
place, who, receiving honour from so famous an University, might 
also, by their high birth and honourable demeanour, return lustre 

20. Datid King of 8coti, Earl of Cambridge. A.D. 1144. 

For after the death of this Meschines, one may confidently pro- 
nounce, that David king of the Scots (commonly called St. David) 
was earl of Cambridge : and although his charter cannot be produced 
with the formaliticB used at his creation, (modem ceremonies at the 
investing of counts not being used in that age,) yet, that he was 
eflectually earl of Cambridge, by the ensuing evidence doth sufH- 
cientlj appeu. It is a grant made by Maud the empress, daughter 
of king Henry I. unto Aubrey de Vere, afterward earl of Oxford ; 
part whereof (so much as concerns the present point) we have here 
transcribed, translated, and commented on, conceiving it to contain 
some criticisms in history and heraldry worthy observation.* 

Cortcedo quod sit Comes de Cantebmggescire, et habeat ijide ter- 
tium denarium sicut Comet debet habere. Ita dtco si Rex Seotiw 
twn habet ilium Comitatum. Et si Rex hahuerit, perquiram illud 
ei ad posse meum per Escambium. Et si now potero, tunc do ei, et 
amcedo, quid sit Comes de quolibet quatuor Comitatuum tubscrip- 
torum, viz. Oxenfordsdre, Berkscire, Wiltscire, et Doraetscire, per 

■ of Oxford died M Utg« b; Angmtine 


14 HISTORY OF THE a.I>. 1308. 

eoneilium et cotuideralionem Comitit Gloeettrim, fratrii met, et 
ComitU Gaufridi, et Comitit Gilberti. 

" I grant ih&t he be earl of CantbruggeBhire, and tliat he have 
from thence the third penny, as the earl ought to have. So I say, 
if the king of Scotland hath not that earldom : and if the king hath 
it, I shall to my power procure it him by exchange. And if I 
cannot, then I give and grant unto him, that he be earl of which he 
vill of the four earldoms Bubscribed ; namely, Osfordahirc, Berk- 
shire, Wiltshire, and Dorsetshire; by the counsel and advice of the 
earl of Gloucester, my brother, and of earl Geoffery, and of earl 

The date of this grant is uncertain ; but from the hand of her 
brother, the earl of Gloucester, subscribed thereunto, we collect 
that it must be before the year 1146, wherein the sud eail ended 
hi a life. 

ai. Obgenatiom eoUeeted from this Grant. 
Out of this grant observe, First : That tliough Stephen, de/aeto, 
was king of England, yet the right was in this Maud the empress. 
Betwixt these two for many years it was " catch who catch may," 
both in gaining of places and giving of honoura, as succces 
befriended them. Secondly: That earls in that age were carls 
indeed, not merely titular, but substantial, as receiving the third 
penny (I humbly conceive it of the crovn-reTcnues therein) of the 
county whence they hod their honour. Thirdly : Kings of Scot- 
land accounted it no abatement to their crown-royal, to wear wiih it 
an English coronet, holding (m comToendam, as I may say) with 
their own crown one or more of English earldoms : as here king 
David held Cambridge in his own, and Huntingdon in right of his 
wife. Fourthly : As the counties of Cambridge and Huntingdon 
soon after the Conquest were united under one comei or " earl ;^ • 
so they two (only of all shires in England) remain under one 
vicecomet or "sheriff" at this day. Fifthly: Queen Maud 
earnestly endeavoured (in compliance, no doubt, with the desires 
of her favourite Aubrey de Vere) to confer the county of Cam- 
bridge upon him, as a place of principal honour, above the four 
other counties proffered unto him. Sixthly : The honour of the 
title of Cambridge arose from tie famous University therein ; 
otherwise the aforesdd Aubrey, if consulting tiis profit, would 
cleariy have preferred either Oxfordshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, or 
Dorsetshire, as greater in extent, and therefore reluming, by the 
third penny therein, larger revenues. Lastly : Seeing a good title 
of Cambridge could not be made to him, (aa prepossessed by the 

* Sh Cahden'* Brilaimla in HaDtiDgdoiuliln. 

, Goo^^lc 


Scotch king,) Aubrey was contented ■with and tlmnkful for Oxford, 
>8 the other iamous University in England; which title his noble 
snd most ancient family enjoyeth at this day. 

22, 23. NigeUwfi Foundation m Cambridge. Soger of Hereford, 
Student in Cambridge. A.D. 1145—1170. 

NigelluB or Neale, second bishop of Ely, Having first obtained a 
bcnlty from the pope, founded an hospital for canons regular in 
Cambridge, in the place where now St, John's college is erected.* 
He is said to have endowed the same with a hundred and forty 
pounds by the year, yearly rent : which, if so, in that age was a 
vast proportion. 

Roger of Hereford, so named because bom there, Btudied at this 
time in Cambridge, [and] became an admirable astronomer, philo- 
Bopher, and chymiflt, diving much into the mysteries of metals. 
He wrote many books of astronomy and astrology, which for a long 
time were kept in Cambridge library, but not extant (I fear) at tlils 
day. Yet the Oxford antiquary -f will by no means allow this 
Roger a student in Cambridge, as who flourished before the coming 
of the Crowland Professors thicher : but whether more credit may 
be hung 6n this single Tmae, than on the twisted testimony of 
Leland, Bale, and Pits, (all agreeing both in his education at Cam- 
bridge, and flouiishing in this age,) be it reported to any ingenuous 

24, 25. A m^dlett Fire. Oxford deserted, and partly removed to 
Cambridge. 9 John. A.D. 1174—1208. 

There happened a merciless fire in Cambridge ; only so pitiful 
as to go out when no more fuel was left to feed the fury thereof. 
Moat of the churches in the town (then built of wood, and there- 
fore the more combustible) were bumed in part, and Trinity- 
church wholly consumed. ^ Hence it was, that, for time to come, 
the steeple thereof was firmly built of freestone, to prevent, by 
Ood^B goodness, the return of the like casualty. 

A sad accident happened this year at Oxford. § A clergyman 
and student in that University casually killed a woman, and fled 
upon it. The mayor of the city, with other ofEcere, search after 
him, light on three of his chamber-fellows, both innocent and igno- 
rant of the &Gt committed : these they injuriously thrust into 
{wison, and, some days after, king John (a back-friend to the 
detgy, as continually vexed with their constant opposition) com- 


16 HISTORY OF THE i.d, 1229. 

manded them to be execute!, " in contempt," saitli my nutbor, " of 
ecclesiastical liberty." Offended hcreat, three thousand students at 
once left Oxford, as well masters as scholars ; ita quod nee unut ex 
omni Univemitate remanait, " so that not one remained of all the 
UniTersity." Of these some removed to Cambridge, some to 
Reading ; bo that in this total eclipse of learning therein, Oxford 
was left empty for a seaBon. 

26, 27. John of St. Omer'a, a Poet, bred In Cambridge. Jocdine 
Brakeland, a IliOorian therein. A.D. 1209—1211. 

John of St. Omer'B studied about this time at Cambridge. By 
his surname I should have conjectured him a foreigner of Artois, 
had not my author assured me, that he was bom in Norfolk.* 
Vea, when a monk of Peterborough, bred also in Cambridge, had, 
with his satirical Latin rhymes, abused the county of Norfolk, our 
John gave Iiim as good as he brought ; rhyme for rhyme, <md jest 
for jest : yet his pen was so much the better employed than his adver- 
saiy's, as the writer of a just vindication is to be preferred before a 
scurrilous libeller. 

With more credit to himself, and profit to others, was Jocelinc 
Brakeland employed ; who about this time in Cambridge improved 
himself in divine and human learning. -f- Afternards he became a 
monk at Bury in Suffolk, where he was bom ; and of his own 
accord, unimportuncd by any other, as faithfully as learnedly wrote 
the History of his convent, which he transmitted to posterity. 

28, 29. The Uniterttty in a tad Condition; Khich still continued. 
A.D. 1214—1217. 

Most miserable at this time was the condition of Cambridge. 
For the barons, to despite king John, with their forces harassed 
and destroyed the town and county thereof, taking Cambridge 
Castle by assault ; and no wonder, when only twenty men were 
found therein, not enough to make good the twentieth part thereof, 
— such then was its capacity and extent. To cry quits with the 
barons, William cari of Salisbury, and Falk de Brent, (king John's 
favourite,) replundcred Cambridgeshire ; | leaving nothing worth any 
thing behind them, that was not too hot or too heavy for them to 
carry away. 

And two years after, when Waller Buuk, with his Brabanters, 
destroyed the town and isle of Ely, and almost burned the minster 
therein, — not quenched with the water of her fens, but with the 
wise composition of prior Stephen : I say, when Ely was almost 

* BaL^eub, Ctnl. ill. pime 3Q1. f /<fna, page 2t&. t Mattbew 

Paris, anno 1316, pegr !74. 



tm^td, Cambrifige no doabt was veil ieargud, as sorrowfully sen- 
ttUe of its near neighbour's colomitj. The Bcholara then had 
atcftdjr heads and strong brains, if able to study in these distempers, 
when loud drums and trumpets silenced the sweet but low harp of 
Apollo. But we know how Archimedes was busy ia making his 
mathematical figures, even when Syracuse was taken by soldiers ; 
mad possibly some grave student8*inade tfaeir souls unconcerned in 
all tbeee raartial disturbances. 

30—32. Eeb »mt fivm CatiAridge to Oxford. A Gaol made 
of a Jeuft HiniM. Prinleget confirmed to Catabridgo. 
5 Henry IH. A.J). 1221—1227. 

The king, being at Oiford, sent to the bailiff of Cambridge, (as 
living near Ely, the staple of fish,) to send unto him such a propor- 
tion of eels, for the provisions of his court, and it should be 
discounted unto him out of the exchequer. 

The king, by hia lettera to the sheriff of Cambridgeshire, gave 
order, that he should put the bailiRs of Cambridge into the posses- 
sion of the house of Benjamin the Jew, (probably forfeited to the 
crown on his misdemeanour,) to make thereof a common gaol for 
tbeir corporation. 

The king confirmed to the townsmen of Cambridge the privileges 
conferred by his iather upon them ; namely, that the merchants of 
the guild in Cambridge should be free in all fairs in the king's 
dominions on this side and beyond the b^&s, do theolonio, et pat- 
»affio, et Uitagio, et pontoffio, et lUUlagio. Ill would it be for 
the townsmen, should none of them enjoy the benefit of this royal 
charter till they perfectly understood the terms therein. In this 
grant provision is made, that nothing be done in prejudice of 
London ; so careful were our kings always of that city ; but 
whether that city reciprocally of them, let others inquire. 

33. Parit Studmtt invited over into England. A . D. 1229. 

Sad at this present was the condition of the University of Paris ; 
such murders were done, and affronts offered, to the students 
th^eof. Our king Henry being half a Frenchman, (in the right of 
his queen,) and possessing many — pretending to more — dominions 
in France, taking advantage hereof, July 16th, " invited the 
Parisian students to come over into England, and to dwell in what 
cities, boroughs, and villages they pleased to choose : " * an act 
n* less politic than charitable, to fortify himself with foreign 
I ileciW ttrUa rigit Htmrici III. mtmtrntd tttid m 



M HI8T0BT OF THE *.». l«i. 

•fffection ; knowing, that such Frencbmen, who in their youths lad 
English education, would in their age retain English inclinationi. 
We easily believe the greatest part of these stTangers repaired to 
Oxford ; though Cambridge so doubt did Aexe in Uiem het 
considerable proportion. 

S4, 35. Cotmterfeit Sckolare do muck Mikkuf. The Sheriff 
commanded to tuppreie tAete Maliffnante. A.D. 1231. 

A crew of pretenders to scholarship (as long ss there are true 
diamonds, there will be counterfeit) did much mischief at this time 
in the UniTersity. These lived under no discipline, having no tutor, 
saving him who teacheth all mischief; and when they went to act 
any villainy, then they would be ichotarg, to sin with the more 
secrecy and less suspicion. When cited to answer for their wicked- 
ness, in the Chancellor''s court, then they would be no-tchalart, and 
exempt themselves from his jurisdiction. N6 wonder if Cambridge 
was pestered with such cheats, seeing the church of" Thyatiia itself 
had thoae in her " which called themselves prophets," and were not, 
Rev. ii. 20. Civil students suffered much ^ and more for these 
tncoirigible rake-hells, especially from such mouths who are exceUent 
at an uncharitable synecdoche, — to coll all after a part, and to con- 
demn the whole University for a handful of hang-byes, such as never 
were matriculated members therein. 

In vain did the Chancellor endeavour the suppressing of these 
" malignants," as tlie king calleth them in his letter to the sheriff; 
the hands of the University being too weak to pluck up weeds so 
deeply rooted. In vain also did the Chancellor call in the assist- 
ance of the bailiff and burgesses of the town, who, as the king 
taxeth them in one of his letters, aut impolmtea /wrunt, aut nsyli- 
ffentee, to effect the matter. The business was at last, by command 
from the king, devolved to the sheriff, as appears by what 
followeth :— 

Sev Vioecom. Cantabripiensi lalatem, — Quoniam tU aadimmat 
pluree nominantur Clerid apud Cantabr. qui mb nuSius magUtri 
teholarium tunt dUciplind et tuitione, ted potiua mentiuntttr te eete 
tchoiaras dm non tint, ut tuti^ et fortiit (v{i& ad hoc opportuni- 
tatej queant malignari, tibi pradpimvt, quid asmmptit tecum 
probit et legaiibua Aomintbttt de comitatu tuo, accedaa ad' viUam 
nottram Cantabr. etpar totam vtUam iUam damari facial ex parte 
noetrd good nttUtte derioua moretur in villd, qui non tit sub diaci- 
plin&y vet tuitione aUcujua magietri schdartum. Et si aligui talei 
fiterint tn viUA Hid, ed exeant infra quindecim dies postquam hoo 
clamatum fterit. Et si ultra terminum ilium itM^enti faerint 
in eddem villd, hujutmodi clerid capiaiUur, et in prieonam noa- 


tram mittantur. TetU mt^ito apud Owon. 3 Maii, armo r^ni 
nottri dedmo quinto.* 

Thss the eheiiff iroa empowered with a posse comiiataa to rcdre^e 
ibis grievance : bat wbetlier or no with a vells eomitalus, I know 
not. Sure £ am, these cletks-no-derkB diflturbecl the University 
Tor many years after. 

30, 37- Tie Uneontcionablmeae of t&s Toantmea regulated by the 
King's Letters. 

The townsmen of Cambridge began now most unconscionably to 
raise and rack the rent of their bouses wherein the scholars did 
aojonm. Every low cottage was high valued. Sad the condition, 
when learning is the tenant, and ignorance must be the landlord. 
It came at last to this pass, that the scholars, wearied with exac- 
tions, were on the point oF departing, to find a place where tbey 
might be better accommodated on more reasonable conditions. 

Here the king seasonably interposed bis power, appointing, tb^t 
two Masters of Arts and two honest townsmen should bo deputed 
as Chaocellois, conscientiously to moderate the rigour of covetous- 
nea. And seeing scholars would hire as cheap, and townsmen 
would let as dear as they could, the aforesaid four persons, indif- 
ferently chosen out of both corporations, were to order the 
price betwixt both, according to the tenor of the king''B letter^ 
tDsning :— 

Rex MaJ&ri et BaUivis Cantabr. ealatem. — Satti eotutat Tobls 
quod apud niliam noitram Cantabr. atudendt camd e divertit parti- 
bus tarn eiimarinis quim trartfmarinie tckdariutn eof^uit rmtlti- 
tHdo, quod foldi gratam habemut et acceptamus, cum exemplum 
toti regno notiro cammodum wm modicum, et honor nobis accrescal, 
et Ma ipecialiter inter quo» fiddUer coawrtantur, stadentei no» 
medioeriier gaudere debetit et kBtari. , Auditimue autem qttdd in 
Aoepitiis veibit locaadit tarn graeei et otterosi egtit seholaribtu inter 
€ee eommorantibue, gudd ntti metuurabiUis et mode^iiU vos habue- 
ritit erga iptot in ido parte, ezactione verird facienle, oportebit 
^jHM vitlam veetram eanre, et itudio auo reliclo a lerrd nottrd reee- 
dere, quod nttUatenus vdiemua. Et ide6 vobit mandamw, ^rmiter 
i»^tMgenie» quatenue tuper prcedictit hoipitiii locandis, tog meneu- 
ramUrteoundum eontttetudinem Universitatit per daot magiatroe et 
duM probof et legalei kominee de vitld noetrd ad hoa ateignandot, 
kotpitia preedida taieari, et tecundum eontm taasationem ea locari 
permittatit; taliter etu gerenies in Mc parte, ne si leout egeritis 
pmpler quod ad nos debeat clamor pertenire, ad hoe manum 

* £' Setulo claim 4* miM dfdmo jtiinio ngit Hmrici Urlii in dam in Turn 


30 MI8T0RT OF THE *.l>. lfi«L 

t^ffwure ddieanuu. TeOe meipto apvd Oxoa. t«rtio du MaH, 
anno regni nottri decimo quinto. +. 

Bx rotulo data, de atmo xv. regit Henriei tertii in don. in 
Turre Ijtmdon,* 

Examnat.per Guil. Ryhy. 

See we here : Cambridge appeareth not as an infant of yesterday, 
but a giave matron of great age ; vitneoB tboae words, '* according 
to the custom of the University," which show her gravity and gray 
hairs at tKe time of the date thereof. 

38. 7K« Origined of Taxeri. 
This was the first original of the tawatorei or " taxers "" in Gam- 
bridge, so called at first from taxing, pricing, or rating the rents of 
houses. Their name remains, but ofBce is altered, at this day. 
For after the bounty of founders had raised halls and colleges fw 
Bcholars' free abode, their liberality gave the taxera a writ of ease, 
no more to meddle with tfae needless pricing of townsmen's houses. 
However, two taxers are still annually chosen ; whose place is of 
profit and credit, as employed in matters of weight, and to see. the 
true gauge of all measures, especially such as concern the victuals of 
scholars. For, where the belly is abused in its food, the bnins will 
soon be distempered in their study. 

S0 — 42. Tks ill EffecU of TeamamaUi; /orbiSden within five 
Miles of CanAridffe. Mothen of Mitrale. A tad Chance. 
A.D. 1245. 
Tournam'ents and tilting of the nolnlity and gentry were com- 
monly kept at Cambridge, to the great annoyance of the scholars. 
Many sad casualties were caused by these meetings, though ordered 
with the best caution. Anns and legs were often broken, as well 
as spears. Much lewd people waited on these assemblies ; light 
houtewives, as well as light korsamm, leptured thereunto. Yea, 
such the clashing of swords, the rattling of arms, the sounding of 
trumpets, the neighing of hoTses, the shouting of men, all day-time, 
with the roaring of riotous levelleis all the night, that the scholars' 
studies were disturbed, safety endangered, lodging straitened, 
charges enlarged, all provisions being unconscionably enhanced. 
In a word, so many war-horses were brought hither, that Pegasus 
himself was likely to be shut out. For, where Man keeps his term, 
there the Muses may even make their taotUion. 

The king, being complained to thereof, did plainly show, that he 
preferred the quiet of the University before the profit of the town of 

• Tlu Mme Imeit, In (flbct, mn oftm CDnflnnad bj tbe Uog, In die Bftlcth jMt of 
hU rdgn. 



drobridge, gaining much money by these meetings ; and therefore 
bj his letters he enjoined, that no tilting should be kept vithin €ve 
niles of Cambridge. And yet ao stout and sturdy were martial 
men in that age, that they hardly obeyed him. Yea, I find one 
Ralph de Kamois,* a bold cheyalier, who, notwithstanding the pre- 
misses, kept a riotous tilting in the very town of Cambridge ; but 
soon alter he was deeply fined for his high contempt ; on the 
payment whereof, and hia humble submiGsion before the earis of 
Cornwall, Leicester, and Norfolk, he was forgiven. 

Let us look on these tournaments, (unrelated to Cambridge,) aa 
they were in tliemselves ; and we eball find them the mothers con- 
stantly of misrule, commonly of mischief. Their very use (in their 
first coDstitution) was no better than an abuse, to cover malice 
Bnder the cloak of manhood and merriment. Many brought per- 
sonal grudges, some femily-feuds, into the field with them ; fewer 
tetomed than vent forth, as either casually cut off, or intentionally 

One instance of the former out of many ; though full twenty-four 
miles from Cambridge :•— Gilbert Marshal, earl of Pembroke, a 
potent peer of the land, proclumed a disport of tournament, of 
mnniog on horseback with lances, (in defiance of the king's author- 
ity, who had inhibited the same,) at Ware in Hertfordshire.'f- under 
the name, forsooth, of Fortune ; as if Providence had nothing to 
do in such wild recreations. But so it fortuned, that this Gilbert, 
cast, Iffuised, and killed by his own horse, soon ended the mirth of 
the meeting. Call it not therefore '* cowardice," but " conscience 
and charity," tn the church, which, taking these tournaments (no 
better than solemn and ceremonious murder) in consideration, 
foriiade Christian burial to such as should be slain therein ; whilst 
the ciTil power proceeded severely against the slayer ; and bo 
betwixt both, with much ado, banished this barbarous custom. As 
for such tame tilting, (mere martial masques,) since used at court, 
being rather expensive than uncharitable, they are of a different 

43. Ftntl Wort in Lent. A.B. 1248. 

" Strifes, figtits, spoilings, breaking open of houses," (it is cot 
me, but Matthew Paris,^ whom thou readest,) " woundlngs, and 
murder betwixt the burgesses " (probably first named, because 
most guilty) "and the scholars of Cambridge; and that in the 
Teiy Lent, that, with the holy time, holy persons also might be 
vMsted. The noise thereof ascended to the ears of the king with a 
great complaint." 


44 The firti FomMng of P^en^Some. A.D. 1257. 
Hugh Bahham, sub-prior, (afleTWards bishop of E\f,) began the 
foundation of Petor-House without Trumpington-gate near the 
church of St. Peter, (since fiillen down,) from the vicinity whereof 
it seemeth to be denorainated. As yet no revenue was settled 
thereon : only the students that lived therein (grinded foimerly 
by the townsmen with unconscionable rents for the place of their 
abode) thankfully accounted themselves well-endowed with good 
chambers and studies freely bestowed on them. But more hereof 
liereafter; namely, anno 1284, when this college wi^ enriched with 

45 — 48. BravsU and Bickeringe betttiat totUAem and noriAmn 

Soholan. The nortAem Men worsted. The Matter refrrred 

to the Jvdget itinerant ; remitted to the former Commimonert. 

A.D. 1261. 

In vain did the care of the king (in favour of scholars) so lately 

remove tilting five miles from Cambridge, whilst now the scholars 

in open hostility tilted one against another,— the southern against 

the northern men therein. What \ can the Muses themselves fall 

out, and fight in the field five against fourP I find not the first 

cause of the falling-out betwixt northern and southern men. Surely 

the mere distance of their nativity did not cause their difi\^^ence, 

because the one was bom nearer to the sun than the other t But, 

however the brawl began, the northern men were worsted in the 

end thereof. Strange, that Boreas, the most boisterous wind in all 

the compass, should be beaten by Auster. And yet the northern 

men, being fewer in number, and ferthest from their friends, were 

overpowered by the numerosity and nearness of those of the south. 

Indeed, the northern men appear rather to be pitied than con- 
demned, in the whole managing of the matter, being only on the 
defetiBive to secure themselves; so that whilst the others fiercely 
and furiously assaulted them, a great riot was committed, and (too 
probable) some blood shed. Hereupon the king issued out his 
commission of Oyer and Terminer, November 24th, to three emi- 
nent persons ; namely, Giles Argenton, then living eight miles off, 
at Horseheath, (since by inheritance, the seat of the ancient and 
' honourable family of the Alingtons,) Henry de Boreham, and Lau- 
rence de Brook, to inquire into the matter, and proceed therein) at 
they should see cause, against the offenders. 

But, soon after, the king was informed how the three aforesaid 
judges appointed behaved themselves very partially in the matter : 
whereupon the king took it out of their bands, and, by a new com- 

* Ralula Palml, <h atnui 46 Henrici tertil, mmtran4 33, Ht dbrM. 

, Goo^^lc 


mudon; February 11th, referred the hesiing imd detennining 
, tb»eof to Nicholas de Tur and Nicoks de Handio, the judgea 
itinerant of that Circuit. Yet, in favour of the scholars who had 
offended, he limited the proceedlags of these judges with an— 
Ua tamen quid ad Buepetuumem vel mutilationem cleriayram noa 
precedatU, ted eot alio modo per consilium Univerntatii Cantabr. 

It seems, the case was of some difficulty, and many persona of 
quality concerned therein, the deciding whereof was so often in 
BO short a time bandied backwards- and forwards at court. For, 
few days afler, H. le Despencer, Jutticiarius A ngliw, by command 
from the king, inhibited the foresaid judges itinerant to inter- 
meddle therein, and wholly remitted the business to the examina- 
tjon and determination of Giles Argenton, Henry de Boicham, and 
Laurence de Brook, before whom some southern scholars, active in 
thia liot, were indicted, found guilty, and condemned, when the 
kiDg's gntcious pardon was sent in their behalf, in form ai foUoweth :^ 

Bex onmUna ad quoi prcesentet liters pervenm^nt talutem.— 
Seiatu not de ffratid nottrd tpedali pardonasse magittro Jo/tanni 
de D^edale, moffietro Hugoni de Thomham, Bar&ohmeo de 
Wattoa, WiUielmo Jratri ejae, WiUielmo de Merton gardoni 
eorum, WiUielmo de Wetkringt^, Mieh. de Mereforde, Johanni 
da Dene, W^tero et Sieardo froOribm ejtu, Johanni de SAotet- 
ittno, Ed. de Merttm, WaUero de Wode/ord, WiUidmo de Wa- 
btime, Ificiolao de Braekdea, Willi^mo Saleman, WiUielmo 
ds Pikn^ham, et Johanni de Lon, de comitatibiu Norff. et Stiff., 
Sogero Parlebone, Bartiolomeo Matelaet, Henrico Lediey, Johanni 
de StokenAam, Stephana Maymund, Pruetto le Cryur, Johanni de 
London, Thomw Ahumeckilde, Roberto de Frasimden, et Gatfrido 
de Caxtoa, de comitatu CantabT-igienei, eectam paeii noHrw quw ad 
not pertinet, pro intuitu nuper /aoto in quoadam tcholarei borealet 
Univergitmit Cantabr. et pro tramgretaionibut ibidem /actit contra 
paeem nostram unde indictati fuerunt coram dilectit et Jideltbut 
noitrit Egidio de Argentein, Henrico de Borham, et Baurentio del 
Sroke, quot iUuo misimut ad inquisitionem /adendam de irana- 
ffreteionibut prwdietit. Et Jirmam paeem nottram eis inde concedi- 
aau, ita tamen quid ftent redo ti gait veriu* eot inde hi voluerit. 
In eujtu, 3fc. Tate rege tgmd Turrem London, wtiii. die Martii, 
anno regni nottri qaadragetimo quinto. + 

Ex rotalo paientium de anno wlv. regit Henrici tertii, tnembrana 
15. in Turre London.f 

EteaminatcB per GtUielmum Bylet/. 



It aeemeth eome of these Asti-Boreftls were men oF'gented 
extraction, especially the two first, (styled in the pardon "mas- 
ters,") importing, I belieTe, more than the bare Univeraity-tiUe r 
as also BarLholomen de Walton, and William hie brother, because 
waited on by William de Merton, their fforvion, that is, "their 
servant." For it cometh from the French fforfon, or the Italian 
ffarzom, and Is used even by the barbarous Grecians of the middle 
age, yxplain'mv irixfi Aaritoif tJ aaiZlov.* It was graciously done of 
the king to pardon the man as well as his masters, seeing probabljr 
Iie acted only by their pleasure and command. 

40, 50. Northampton Uniwrtity b^ua, and dtMKlMd, 
A.D. 1262—1265. 

Daring these discords, some scholars of peaceable diapodUon 
feirly departed Cambridge, and retired to Northampton ; where, b^ 
the leave and liking of the king, they began an University, tiere 
they met with many Oxford-men, who, on the like occasion, had 
deserted Oxford, and retreated hither to study. I commend their 
judgment in the choice of so convenient a place, where the air a 
clear, yet not over sharp; the earth fruitful, yet not very dirty ; 
water plentiful, yet far from any fennish annoyance; and wood 
(most wanting now-of-days) conveniently sufficient in that age. 
But the main is, Northampton is near the centre of England ; so 
that all travellers coming thither from the remotest parts of the 
land, may be said to be met by the town in the midst of their 
jonmey, so unpartial is the situation thereof in the navel of the 

But this University never lived to commence Bachelor of Art j 
Senior Sophister was all the standing it attained unto. For, fout 
years after, the king, apprehending that Northampton University 
would be prgudicial to Oxford, near to which it lay, within thirty 
miles ; and therefore, as a true honourer of antiquity, (loath that a 
novice start-up should impair so ancient a founder,) recalled the 
scholars of Cambridge by these his ensuing letters :— 

Sex Majori ^ civibus tuia Northampton, eahitem. — Oceationt 
ettjutdam moffnm contmtionii in villd CantabrigienH triennio jam 
dapio tuborteB nonnttiii eleriewam tunc ittidem gtadeatiwn anani- 
Dtttm- ab ijad tiillA reeestmmt, m uique ad viUam noriram prw- 
diotam Northam. transf&rentet et ibidem (ttudiis inharendo)- 
ntxeam oomtntere Umvertitatem cttpieniet : Not iUo tempon av- 
dentei mliam iUam etc hoc posse metiorari, et wMs umitatan non 
modicam indi protentre, votit dictorum dericorum ad eorwn requi- 
fitionem annud>9mui in hoc parte. Ifwie atOem cum ex r4atu 

• ScholiaKm Ctirmi. 



amttomm Jldt diffnorum teraciter inteUeximtu gtidd ex Aajuimodt 
UmivenitaU (n permanm-et ibidem) muaidpium noitmm Oxon. 
gtfod ab antiquo ereatum «tt, et a progenitoribtu nottrU re^fnu 
Amffli<v confirmatum, ae ad eommodilatsm $tttdmtirun eommuniter 
approbt^tun, non mediooriter Uederetitr, guod nuU& ratione reile- 
•Mu, maanmi eum uniwrtit epiax^u tarrw nottrm ad honorem Dei 
M utiUtatem eeeUtia AnffiieantB et profectum riudetUium vidgatur 
expedire, qadd UnivwrnUu amowatur a vilid prwdidA, eteut per 
Uterat twu patentee OMepimue. Vobit de eomilio moffnatum tioi- 
trorum firmiter inhibemvi ne in viU& noetrd de eaten aliquam 
{Tnitenitatem eeee, nee aliguoe ttudente* ibidem manere permit- 
tatie, aiiter qudm ante ereatioiiem dicta Univertitatii fieri eon- 
wtteeU. Teete rege apud Weetmm. prima die Febr. anno repni 
yitadraffeeimo none, + 

Ex rottdo etaae. de anno xliw. regit ffenrici tertii, m&mbr, 10 t'n 
dono in Turre Zoadon. 

Examinata per Guliehmm Eyht/. 

Tlieie IB still in Noitbampton a place called the College ; but 
whether in reUtion to these students, I know not. Sure it is, 
that on the king's lettere patents Northampton was un-uniTersi- 
tied, the scholan therein retomiDg to the place from whence they 

61, 52. Mr. Brian Twyne jwtly condemned, far injecting 
oaueeieta Suqacione. 

Here I can hold no longer, bat must fall out (and be the reader 
tbe judge betwixt us) with Mr. Brian Twyne, the writer of 
Oxford Antiquities. I honour him as an industrioas though no 
methodical antiquary, his book being nther a heap than a pile. I 
commend his affection to his mother, tad it been without detraction 
to his aunt ; and his example eball quicken my duty in my filial 
tdatiott where I owe tbe same. Lastly: Because he is (and I 
know not how eooa I may be) dead, I shall deal the more mildly 
with him. For, he that falls heavy on a ghost or shadow, will, in 
fine, gire the greatest blow and bruise unto himself. Yet soine- 
thing must be said against him in vindication of the tmtb. 

Fkst. On all occasions, he is buzzing jealousies into the heads of 
^ readers, to shake the credit of such authors, who write any thing 
ia the honour of Cambridge. Thus, when Matthew Parker, arch- 
hnlwp of Canterbury, reports how many deserting Oxford removed 
to Cambric^, he squibs-in this parenthesis, (Si iUit etandam lit 
Biitoriii gnat McUtkteue Parker, Cant. Aroki. edidit,*J dashing as 
much as iieth in his power the unstained reputation of those his 
* Jfvbgia AcaitMix Onn. Hb. iii. p«ge 3r9. 


26 HISTORY OF TUB j.d. 13et. 

worthy ende&TotiTs. And again, spealcing of tlie sane archbi^op'a 
setting-forth of Matthew Paris, he squirts-ia this passage. Si vera 
tit Matthwi Cant, editio,' suggesting some suspicion of Msehood 
and forgery io the same. Such iFS against great persons are more 
than irs ; and such suspicions, if they be not tcandaia moffnatui 
against so great a peer, cannot be less than breach of canonical 
obedience against the memory of so grave and godly a prelate : 
especially seeing neither Twyne himself, (with all the help of 
Oxford-library,) nor all the world, could ever since find any Ault 
in that edition, as faithfully agreeing with the most authentic 

d3. His needlea Cavil conjuted. 

But these his slanting and suppositive [remarks] are nothing to 
hia direct and downright traducing of the records of Cambridge. 
Take him in his own Latin words, which I have translated to thin 
purpose, that such ingenuous Englishmen, never bred in either 
University, (and therefore the more nnpartial judges,) but under- 
standing the strength of common sense and reason, may indifferently 
umpire the matter, and 6nd the verdict, as they shall hear things 
alleged and proved. 

2f<m iffnoro tamm in Memorabilibui Umverntatii Ox<m. a 
Roberto Haro coUaetit, utide kanc cAartam deeumpH, in exordia 
diplomatig, Cantabrigiw mentionem fieri, qwui et ilia contentio 
triennio turn elapto Cantaifriiria) lum Oxoniw acctdittet, et nova 
Univerritat ea Northan^Ooneneit a Cantabriffiennbut non Oxonien- 
aibm /uiua incAoata. Sam tamm Uetionem ti nihil aliad, oert^ 
adulterata iptius vocit Camtabkicia ioc« Oxonix icrifitura,f 
«t charaetere a eaterit dimmUlimo et toto exarandi genere diverto, 
oorruptimmam prodit : Ubi enim ooearrit, anno Dmn. 1246, <^>ud 
bonot et vetngta fidei autorei, tanteu faiue CantabrigicB ditcordiaa, 
quqi gtudentei Northataptoniam areereat f — Bbian Twvne, Anti- 
quitatig Aoademio) Oxonieneis Apolcffia, libro iii. pagina 280, 
Domero 76. 

*' Yet I am not ignorant, that in the memorables of the Univec- 
^ sity of Oxford, collected by Robert Hare, whence I have taken this 
charter, in the beginning of the patent there is menUoo made of 
Cambridge, aa if this contetatioD had happened three yean since, at 
Cambridge, and not at Oxford, and that new Univemty at North- 
ampton begun of Cambridge- not of Oxford-men. Yet, if nothing 
else, tndy the adulterated writing of the word Caubbidgk instead 
of Oxford, and in a character most unlike from the rest, and 
different in the whole kind tor the fashion thereof, betrayeth it to 

t Mtndtat in tra^mtbi Batrrti 



be most corrupted. For vhere do ve find, that, in the yexr of our 
Lord 1246, amongst good authors and of ancient &ith, there were 
so great discords in Cambridge as to drive the etudents to North- 
ampton ?^ 

Here is too much for me to manage at once : ve will parcel it, 
for the more effectual ezamination thereof, thia being the first time 
that I hare to do with thie adventurous author. We know that if 
tt mochant^s bill be once protested gainst in the Exchange, he vill 
scftree ever after recover his credit ; and if at first we can discorer 
the fiilsehood of this our adveisaiy, it will for ever give a mortal 
vound to his reputation, and ease us of much trouble hereafter. 

54 — 56. Quiet Eyei to find a Fault where none it. Aniwer thia 
Diiemma. ' The Tower Mecordt dear the CatdL 

First. He mentioneth Oxford monuments transcribed bj Robert 
Haie. This Hare was an Esquire of good worship and wealth, a 
great lover and preseiver (properties never parted) of antiquities. 
He carefiilly collected the precious monuments of both Univer- 
sities, caused them fiurlj to be transcribed, and fieeljr bestowed a 
duplicate, or double cop^, on each of them ; a gift worthy the giver 
and the receiver, as of no less cost and pains to the one, than credit 
and profit to the othor. Now, it seems Brian Twyne, with his 
jHcrcing sight, is the Columbus, who, hj '* the different chancter," 
bath discovered a new (not wvrld, hut) tcord, namely, Cambridge, 
in the king's letter to Northampton, put instead of Oxford. Thia 
be calls (as well he may) metu^tm, " a fault," in Hate's transcript, 
iriiich indeed was a felsehood ; and, if wilfully done, a forgery ; 
and the doer thereof, if detected, deserving to be pilloried for his 

But when and how, I pray, came this "Cambridge'" to be surrep- 
titionsly inserted (instead of "Oxfiird") into that transcript of Haic ? 
Was it done by himself, or some other, originally f I mean, 
before thotfe manuscripts were bestowed on the University. To 
allow this were to offer an injury to the honesty or vigilancy of that 
worthy antiquary. Or, was the fclse inscription made cunningly by _^ 
some CWibridge-man, since those manuscripts came into the pos- 
Kssion of Oxford P If so, shame on the careless keepers of so 
fnaous a treasure I I presume out muniments at Cambridge are 
mwe safely preserved. 

I pass not what is or is not written in Hare's transcript. He 
that may with as much ease go to the fountain, and yet will drink 
of the dirty river, deserveth do pity, if choked (or rather, if choking 
himself) with the mud thereof. I appeal to the Records of the 
Towet of London, whence Hate's writings were copied out ; which 

, Coo^^lc 


Bre iki aiitbor of autbors for Englisli histoiy, becftose, 1. .They m&y 
be §aid to ImTe lived in the time and place wheiein all things are 
acted. 2. They are impartial ; not, oner-like, bowing to any 
interest; but standing like a firm pillar, to support the truth. 
3. TJiey are aafely preeerred : and long nay they be, in defiance 
of barbaroua anarchy, which otherwise would make a bonfire, or new 
light, of those precious monuments. 

I say, I repaired to the Records in the Tower ; where I seardied. 
for, and found out, the aforesaid king's letter, by us lately exempli- 
fied, that the troubles of Cambridge, three yeais since, were the 
cause of the founding of the University at Northampton. This 
letter I got tisnscribed, compared, attested by Mr. Willism 
Ryley, the elder, keeper of thoae Records, and Norroy King of 
Arms ; who, like a prince indeed, freely gave me his pains, which Z 
commend to the reader's thankful notice i because, otherwise, I 
must have charged the cost on his account, raising the nte of my 
book, to make myself a saver thereby. 

57, 53. A needUa Quettion dedin^d. Why Oxford more pr^pt- 
dieed tktm Cambridge by Northampton Univertity. 

But our adversary proceeds, and demandeth where we read " is 
any good author, that in the year 1246 such discords happened at 
Cambridge as ehonld drive the scholars to Northampton P "" We 
answer : First. We Cambridge-men are not ambitious of such dis- 
cords ; let us but retain the scholais, and let any pkice that pleaseth 
take those differences to themselves. SecontUy. We never said, 
nor thought, that such broils were in Cambridge, anno 1246 ; but 
this we affirm, that three years since, namely, in the forly-sixth of 
Henry III.* (which falls out to be the year of our Lord 1202,) 
cruel bickerings were betwixt the northern and southern men in our 
University, (and, perchance, the like might be by secret sympathy 
in Oxford,) which, as we have proved before, caused the dqiartute 
of many to Northampton. 

Some will say, " Seeing only mention is made in the king's 
, letters to null Northampton University, because probable to prove 
prejudicial to Oxford; it seems thereby that Cambridge at this 
time was not considerable, at leastwise, the king not so careful for 
the preservation thereof." It is answered, The erection of a Uni- 
versity at Northampton, by reason of the position of the place, 
must needs be a greater hurt to Oxford than hinderance to Cam- 
bridge : for Cambridge lieth conveniently for the north and east 
parts ; Oxford, commodiously for the south and west parts, of 
England. Now, Northampton, lying within twenty-nine eouples 

* A ktlT-jtiT DTei or mdn bnaki do ujtttnt. 

, Coo^^lc 


of the Bune d^ree of longitude with Oxford, would almost share 
equally with Oxford in the western division of die land, whilst 
Cambrid^ quarters (as on the other side of the kingdom) would be 
cle«r, and little prejudiced thereby. But enough hereof. We 
proceed in oox history. 




Cum mihi Camdeni Britanniam perlegenti locus * 
occurreret, ubi meminit Jacobi Usserii, (tunc Cancel- 
larii Sancti Patricii Dublinensis,) supra aetatem docti, 
variis de causis me primdm invasit, tandem absorpsit 
admiratio, — qu6d tua indoles tantdm festinaret, qud 
juvenis id assecutus es quod vel viris paucissimis 
datur ; — qu^d, ciim communis querela sit, " optima 
ingenia minimi diurnare," tu, Dei favore, adhue super- 
stes es, quinquagiota annis, a quo hoc Camdeniano 
elog:io decoratus fuisti; — qu6d (Caleb alter npstri 
seculi) tibi hucusque judicium firmum, ingeniura vivi- 
dum, memoria tenax, animus integer ; — utinam idem 
licuisset de corpusculo tuo dicere, quod nimiis studiis 
maceratum senio aliquantulum cedere incipit. 

At adhuc superest summus admirationis mese gra- 
dus, tua in tanti eruditione suspiciendi humilitsts, cdm 
fere fit, ut illi omnes, quibus aliquid inest sublime et 
prsecellens protinils inflentur, et alios facilb contem- 
nant ; dum tu tenuitatem meam favore tuo beastj, in • 
quit nihil quod alliceret, plurima quoe te depellerent. 

Fateor san^ me beneficils tuis ita obrui, ut ne respi- 
randi copia coDcedatur, qu& gratias meas possim expri- 
mere. Qnoties eoim mihi, vel legenti, vel scribenti, 
▼el concionanti nodus inciderit, tu certissimus vindex, 

* dm anmot tartd doclriud etjudicio longi ttiperal. Page 752. 


30 HISTORY OF THE «.»■ !«»• 

quern ssepius access! turbidue, tortus, perplexus, nun- 
quam reliqui nisi solutus et expeditus. 

At omnium beneficiorum tuorum caput est, qu&d 
pretiosa Kiifn}xia, (quibus vel aestimandis me imparem 
confiteor,) non rogatus, sponte communic&sti ; ita, ut 
omnia rariora Historia nostra accepta ferat tuse munifi- 

In hac nostr^ dedicatione non eousque impudentiae 
processi, ut vel somniareni me aliquid proferre posse 
tu& dignatione dignum ; sed me arabire fateor, ut lux 
inoccidua nominis tui tibro meo prsefulgeat, quo 
CantabrigiEE primordia (non quk Academia, sed qnk 
ornata Collegiis, instructa reditibus) continentur. 

Mihi sanh sspius doluit, quod tu, venerande prsesul, 
CantabrigiEe non fuisti educatus, et tantum decus matri 
meae ereptum me malfe habuit. Lenivit ver6 dolorem, 
cUm mecum opportunb recolerem, qutid ipsa Academia 
Dublinensis sit Cantabrigiades, (quasi colonta deducta 
e collegio Sanctae Trinitatis,) quo nomine nostra alma 
mater te, licH non filium, nepotem tamen, sibi summo 
jure vendicat 

Vale, reverendissime in Christo Pater, qui, TicH 
mites emeritus, indies tamen de ecclesia optimfe ultrA 
mereri non destnis. Sanitati tuae qiiasso consulas, cilm 
nihil sit certi^s qu&m qu6d tanto auctiiis commodum 
orbi Christiano est accessurum, quant6 tu seriils in 
coelum es rediturus. 

1 — 3. The King's Intentions to fortify Cambridge. Ditch made : 

WalU meant. Cambridge pluiidered on the King's Departure. 

A.D. 1266. 

Hkaty were the times now, and tumuItuotiB, betwixt the Icing 

and his barons; routnally taking cities and castles one from 

another. The king, therefore, came to Cambridge, (the pass out of 

the west into Norfolk and Suffolk,) resolving to fortify the same. 

Indeed, we find some ancient writings which may probably insinuate 

Cambridge to be walled, time out of mind: as where we read in a 

charter of privileges granted to the town, Extra muros burgi de 

Cantabrig. Except some will be so morose to-expound it only the 



nHs of privitfl houses therein. Hovever, at tlie present, Buch 
nils (if any) are utterly decay<ed. 

The north-west pan of (^mbiidge beyond the ii»er (formeriy 
(arthn extended than now-of-days) the king found sufficiently 
Bccnred by an impregnable castle. The west side of the town was 
competently fenced with the river, anciently (before all endeavours 
of draining the fens) wider and deeper than now it is. Only the 
Bonth and east of the town lay open, which the king intended to 
fortify. In order whereunto, he biiilt two gates, — Trumpington- 
gate, by St. Peter^s church, now ruined, on the south ; Bamwell- 
gale, by St. Andrew's church, now decayed, on the east. And 
hecanse gates without walb ate but compliments in matter of 
strength, he intended to wall the town about, if time had permitted 
him.* Mean while he drew a deep ditch (called Ktng's-ditch at this 
day) roDud about ibe south and east parts of Cambridge. 

Presently news is brought to him, that Gilbert earl of Clare had 
seiied on the chief city of the realm. No policy for the king to 
keep Cambridge, and lose London the while. Thitlier marched he 
in all haste with his army, and may be said to carry the walls 
of Cambridge away with him, the design thereof sioking at his 
depaitare. Immediately aHer the king was gone away, one Hast- 
ings, a bold rebel, finding, be-like, the new ditch ill-manned, 
forced his passage over it, burned part, spoiled all the rest, of the 
town of Cambridge. Nor have I augfat else to obseire of this 
King's-ditch, save that, in our fathers' days, filled up with filth and 
mire, what was made for the fortifying, became a great annoying, of 
the University ; until some fifty years since, partly at tlia cost of 
Dr. James Mountagne, Master of Sidney's College, afterwards 
bishop of Winchester, a rivulet was let into the same ; so not only 
clearing it, but turning the annoyance into a great conveniency of 
water to some Colleges, and to the town in general. 

4 — 6. JVflcton, Jtnt Carmelite Doctor m Divimty. Why Carmel- 

itet at first wotUd not Commence. Nectonfrtt breaks the Ice, 

and othertfoUoie in kit Track. A.D. 1269. 

Humphrey Necton about this time left Cambridge, — the first 

Cannelite who took on him the d^pree of doctoiship, as Leiand 

himself attesteth: — 

hiak^btu HunpttvAiin Secton ntptr artra t firemia, 
Cui data Orartltna iaorea prrna tefiela. 
•• AbOTP the aUea let '■ Hmaphrej NectOd pnlae i 
For on bim Bnl Cunbridge conferr'd the bftfi : " 

that is, made him Doctor in Divinity. 

' tOir BarmtOtiuii, FoLtDOKUI V[Rail.lUI,MLKt^Iii>. t Jtliirr "celtirmutt 


3S BI8T0RY OF THS '■■•■ ISro. 

True it is, these Csnnelites, at tbeir first coming hither, scru- 
■ pled the acceptance of utj academiol degtee, u having « eeculu 
smack therein, part of the pomp and vanity of the world, sod 
therefore inconsistent with the holiness and humility of men of their 
mortified profession. Besides, this Order particularly pretends to 
wear on their shonldets a scapulary, being a narrow piece of cloth 
hanging down before and behind ; the first of which &shion the 
Virgin Mary personally presented to one of their Society, with this 
compliment : " Receive this, my beloved, which I give unto thy 
Order, in sign of my fellowship." * And hence it is that Carmelitea 
call themselves " Brethren of the Order of the blessed Virgin Mary 
of Mount Carmel." Except therefore a Carmelite could actually 
eomnumee an angel, he is a loser by his Degree, which in efifect is 
but a degradation unto him. Besides, to wear a hood or habit of a 
Doctorate over the holy scapulary aforesaid, what were it else but 
preposterously to place earth above heaven P These considerations 
(weighty no doubt !) made the Carmelites for some time demur to 
the taking of any degree in Divinity. 

However, Humphrey Necton first took heart, and, ten years ago, 
namely, 1:^9, commenced Doctor under William de Ludham, then 
Chancellor of Cambridge. Here he flourished many years, (and 
now went to Norwich, where he died, anno 1<]0^, having been 
forty-four years Doctor,) especially aAer king Edward erected and 
endowed a convent for Carmelites in Mill-stieet in this Univenity, 
since turned into Queen's Collt^ and Catherine Hall. 

7, 8. OxforS't Antiquary jtu^i/ taxed. Petrua Blietentis to ba 
beUeved before Brian Twyne. 
The antiquary of Oxford discovereth envy or ignorance, or both, 
when, speaking of Leland^B veraea on Necton'a commencing, [he] 
saith, Quod ego certk de lud leotd non iiUelligo, quasi primua mtta 
tectw Carmeliticw graduta iUum tuscepieset, sed quaei gimpliciter et 
abtoluti primus, "As if he had not been the first Commencer of his 
Order, but absolutely the first that ever took the degree of Doctor- 
ship in Cambridge : " — contrary to the express testimony of learned 
authors herein.-f- 

JoHif Bale, 7)0 Scrtptoribtu Britann. page Slt^ originally a 
Carmelite in Norwich, (and therefore knowing jn the men and 
matters of his own Order,) inforraeth us, that " Humphrey Necton, 
a Suffolk-man by birth, and Carmelite by Order, ex omni sad 
factione primut (tandem) Juit, qui Theologieu* Doctor tit effectuey 
JoRK Pits, De Anglic. ScriptoribuSf page 388, an Oxford-roan 

*See WeaviB'b " FnMnl MomoiMiiti." t Bainii Twtne, Apologia j4fa- 



hj edacatioD, (and therefore hia testimony not to be reAieed by (he 
OifoTd antiquary,) aGfjiiainteth us, that the said '* Necton, (Mnta- 
briffUB OrdinU tut onmittm primat ereatua eit lancUe Tkeologiw 
Doctor i"" "was the first of his Order made Doctor in Divinity." 

This Necton was afterwards public Professor in Cambridge, and 
Mt forth a book which he termed his Jjectanu ScAola^ieas. 

Now, although patience be a principal virtue amongst all those 
which Cambridge professeth and practiseth, yet can she not but 
complain of [the] Oxford antiquary's injurious dealing herein, in 
making her solemnity of graduation then first to begin. The best is, 
Petms BUesensis, who wrote in the reign of king Henry II. 
almost one hundred years before Necton*s birth, sufficiently cleareth 
this point, and confuteth this- cavil, when affirming, that, in his 
Ume, Cambridge did make glad the church of God and all England 
per ptarimoi Moffittroi Doetoretque inde ezeunte».* 

9. Totamammtt again forbidden. A.D. 1270. 

Notwithstanding the frequency of disasters formerly mentioned, 
Cambridge quickly outgrew her miseries, much indebted therein to 
the care and courtesy of the king. Amongst many of his royal 
boons, ihis not the least, that, in favour of the scholars, he now 
renewed his former letters, to prohibit any tiltings or tournaments 
to be kept within five miles of Cambridge, according to the tenor 
fcdlowiog :— 

Bex omnilmt ad qttoi prasmtea lilerte pertmerinl, talutem. — 
Quia dileait notnt in Chrieto magistrie et ixEteris tckdaribut Uni- 
venitatia Caniabr. per eomitei, baronet, militet et alio*, tomea- 
neiOa ibidem exereeatet, awtUurae quarentet, et ad arma eunles, 
Jrequti^btu eolent perieuia et inoommoda midtiplieiter ecenire, qum 
ri telararenfur in disddium ibidem thtdentiwn per proceesum tem~ 
perie eedere pomnt manifettk, guod tuttinere nolunau licut neo 
debemue : i^(w indemnitati magittrorvm et tcholarium vohntee in 
kac parte, qtu^emu fieri potent, providere, ooncesnmia eis degratiA 
noitrd ipeciali quod tomeamenta aliqua, aTentures, justcB, tea 
iufuamodi Aaitiludia lum fiant de ewtero in tilld predict^ tea per 
quinque miUiaria eircumquaqw. Et prokibemus tub gratem forit' 
facturam nt)riram, ne quit de regno nostra apud villam prcedictam 
aea alibi infra prwdieta quinque miUiaria eircumquaque tomeare, 
jmtaa faeere eeu aventurae, tel alia hastiUtdia quoirere prwmmat, 
contra eoncettionem noetram pr<wdictam. In ct^ut rei tettimonium 
iat literae noetrat fieri fecimue patentee. Tette meipto apud- 
Weitmon. wwiv. die JutH, anno regni nottri quinqaagetimo quarto.-f' 

* Im Appetidloi ad Ingal/iktin Onnrlandtiutm. 
<e fMorfo rrfit HrnHri III. numeraSH 

, Goo^^lc 

34 HISTORY OF THE A.p. 1376. 

10. Prince Edward orderelk an Apreemenl between the S^olara 
and Toumsmen. 
The same year prince Edward came to Cambridge ; one no less 
fortunate in peace than victorioua in war. Here lie undeistood, 
that frequent differencee did arise betwiit the scholais and towns- 
men : for the future preventing whereof, he caused an instrument to 
be drawn up, and three Heals annexed unto it ; namely, liis own, and 
the public Seats of the University and town of Cambridge. Herein 
it was agreed betwiit tbem, that once every year, (namely, after 
Michaelmas, when the Masters resumed their lectures,) five discreet 
scholars should be chosen out of the counties of England, three 
Scottishmen, two Welshmen, three Irishmen, thirteen in all ; who, 
joined with ten burgesses, (seven out of the town, and three out of 
the suburbs,) should see that the peace was faithfully kept betwixt 
til the students and inhabitants. By " suburbs " here we under- 
stand so much of the town as was left out of the line of the KingV 
ditch, which, to make it the shorter and stronger, took not in the 
straggling streets beyond the gates. 

II. No Unitertity as yet in Scotland and Ireland. 
For as yet, and for some succeeding ages, no University in 
Ireland. And although some forty years after, (namely, anno 
lii20,) Alexander Bicknor, archbishop of Dublin, obtained of the 
pope privileges for an University, and erected lectures at Dublin ; 
yet presently the troublesome times frustrated so good a design, till 
towuds the end of the reign of queea Elizabeth. As for Gotland, 
it was University-lesa till Laurence Lundoris and Richard Corvel, 
Doctors of civil Law, first professed learning at St, Andrew's, some 
hundred years after : tUl which time the Scottish youth repaired to 
Combiidge and Oxford for their education, as their bishops did to 
York for consecration, till they got an archbishop of their own, in 
the reign of king Edward IV. 

12. Cambridge receive! all Countries. 
See we now Cambridge an University indeed, 1. By the univer- 
sality studiorum ; not confined (as in grammar-schools) to one 
bculty, but extended to the generality of arts. 2. By the univer- 
sality ttudentium ; not restruned to one country or kingdom, but 
admitting foreigners as well as natives. So that Brian Twyae 
might well have omitted his needless and truthless marginal note : 
Cantabriyiente stadium Henrid tertii temporibus valdi Jkit obscu- 



13. A Congumtion betwuct the Uniwrtity of Cambridge and tie 
Arcideaamo/My. 4 Edward I. A.D. 1276. 
Now began some differences betwceD the scholars in the Univer- 
sity and the archdeacon of Ely, who sumaoned them unto his 
courts, and by virtue of his office would have proceeded against 
them for non-appearance. The scholais denied any subjection due 
nnto him ; and, after a hot contest, both sides referred themselves 
to Hugh Balsham, bishop of Ely, who decided the controversy as 
foUoweth : — 

ITntvertie Chitti Jidelibtu prwientee literat intpedurie, Hugo 
Dei yratid Etieneit ^titcoptu e/ilutem in Domino. — Ad Univerti- 
iatie vestra noHtiam tenore prweentiwa totumug pertenire, quid not 
affedaatee tranquiUitatem et pacrnn Universitatu no^rm Cantabr. 
reyentium et aeholarium etudentium in eddem, volenteeque ut (am 
arckidiaeonue nottar ISieniie circa tiln eubditot qudm cancellarive 
Uniteriitatit ejutdem eirea scholares euoe ita juritdtctionem suam 
teparatim exerceant, ut uterque euo jure contentus non usurpet 
alienum : ad petitionem et tnatantiam prafati arcMdiaconi, nogtri 
eaneeUarii, et mayulrorum Univereitatie prwdictorum, (ab utrSque 
parte nobis traditit articulie,) ad wtemam ret yetta memoriam 
tuper hit ordinamue infra scripta. 

Inprimie volutnua et ordinamue quod mayieter ylomeria Cant. 
^i pro tempore fuerit, audial et decidat univeraag ylomereUorum 
ex parts red eanetenttum, vdentei in hoc parte prt^atum mayitirum 
eodem prtvileyio yaudere quod habent aeteri magtetri de tcAohrtbus 
mt* ds caueis eoram decidendie. Ita quid five sint echolaree tire 
laid qui ylomsrelloi telint convenire, td aliguid ab eii petere, per 
vtam judieialit indayinie, hoc faciat coram mayietro ylomeriw, ad 
quem deeoTtimut hujutmodi cauetv amdittonem epectare pleno Jure. 
iV^tft kuJuKnodi cauew eoynitio tit de pentionibue domorum par 
mayistroe et bwymeee tOiratarum, vel de facinorie enarmie eviden- 
tid, ubi requiritur incarcerattonit pcena tel ab Univereitate pri~ 
ratio. In his enim catibue et non aliit reepondeant ylrnnerelli 
eoram cancellario cuilibet querelanti, qui juriedictionem tuam exer- 
eet in hit aicut eit alide obeervatum. Si verd mayiiter ylonteria 
eoynotcat inter leholaran aetorem et ylomereUum ream, et contiyerit 
appeliart ab itUerloeatorid vel a difftnitivd tententid, volumue et 
ordinamui quod ad caneellarium appelletur, qui in ipud eausA 
t^ipdtationis proeedat eeeundum ordinem obeervatum, cum ab alio 
mayi^ro reyente et de dictd eaued eui scholarit cognogoenle ab alter- 
n^a partium ad caneellarium appeUatur. De cautia reri ylome- 
reUorum inter te, et laieorum et ylomereUorum, canceUariue in 
nuOo intermittat, ntii cauea tit de pemione domorum taxatarum, 
rel de enormitate delioli ut tuperids e»t exprei^um, 


36 HISTOBT OF TBB a.d. 1S76. 

M guia in itatutU XTnivenitatU vidimut gonttntri quod duo 
bedeUi UniveriitaHt intergint virgam deferentM omntbua veneris, 
principiU, conventibm, defututorum exequiit, et omnihu* aliii con- 
vooationibtu, nuUo alio inprwjudicio eorum rirgant delatttro, pne- 
ctpimm quod bedellua ghtturim in prwdictU contocalionibut et 
locit coram oancellario el magittria tirgam turn defsrai. In aiiif 
avtem locU quandocunque et vbieunque voluerit et maximi pro 
expeditume nti officii virgam liberi deferat licenter et quieti. 

Et quia in statutit Univergitatit ejusdem inter alia conttiietur^ 
quod familia K&otarium, mriptores et alii officia ad utum achola- 
rinm tant^tn dtputata ejtercentet, eadeia immunitate et libertate 
gaudeant qud et tcAolarei, ut coram arckidiacono non retpondeant 
ncuti nee echolarei qui tunt a^^m domini. Hoc ita tenore prteeen- 
tium declaramut, quod in hoc caau nomine familicB lolummodi colu- 
mua contineri mancipia tcAdarium in domibue cum eis commorantia 
dum pertonaliter detervturU ackolaribue antedictit. Item nomine 
eariptorum et aliorum officia ad utum tcholarium iantilm depuiata 
exereentium, volumu* inteliigi do Kriplcribui, illumiitatoribus, et 
ttationariie qui tantim deterviunt icholaribue, quod rah cancellario 
re^on^nt, uxofeg tamen eorum super crimine aduherii eel ali- 
eujue eognitio et eorrectio ad archidiaconum ^lectat in cam conei- 
miU in peraonia aliit tibi tubditorum diffiamata, et reliqua eorum 
familia ad offidum tcholarium specialiter non deputata, archidxa- 
eonotint sitbjecti in omnibus et singulis sicut cwteri alii laid muni' 
dpi* Cant, et totins nostrw dioecesis Eliensis. 

Quod autem apud BemeaM prcesetUibus arcAidiaeono prcedictOf 
eaneellatio, et aUis quorum intererat, inter eos iierialiter tantim 
ordinadmuaf prwsentibus interi fedmus; videlic^, quod rectorei 
ecelesiarum, dcarii, eapellani parediales et alii eeeletiarwn Cant, 
ministri archidiacono per omnia subsint, sicut et alii de arehidiaco- 
natu suo adfidendo, dedarante* quod appellatione ministrorum 
eealente volumua in hoe casu eontineri tarn ipsum rectorem, vicarium 
et dericos eod^siw deserdentes, quam presbgteros celebrantes missaa 
heatOB Virginis et pro fideUbus, dum tamen ab aliquo parochianO' 
rum laicorum Cant, /uerint procurati, ibique moram fadantprin- 
cipaliterpro missis hujusmodi eelebrandie, licet forsan a (?) latere 
studere velint et scholas exercere. Si vero prindpcUiter causa atudi' 
orum ad municipium Cant, venerint, licet forian prwdictas missat 
cdd^rent per parodianos procurati, volumus et ordinamue quod 
eanc^arii jurisdictioni sufmnt omnind. Ita quod si dubitetur qud 
intentione moram fadunt principaliter in munidpio prwdicto, 
super hoe ttetur ipaorum presbyterorum juramento corporaliter 
prwitando coram archidiacono et cancellario memoratis, et dc de 
hujusmodi pre^tgieri persona iUe jurisdietionem habeat omnind ad 


fiMm Av mentu et virtitt« jurammH perttnebil in /ormi fUfwn'^ 
amuAatA. Si veri rectoret, mearii, et ministri hujutmodi eccUtia- 
raw Cant, forti eum tcholare contrahant, sea in acta tckokutieo 
d^nquant, in hit tantuttmiodd eanbus, et aon aliit, corwn cancel- 
tario ipiot prweipimtu eompelli re»p&ndere. 

Ad k<BO intar alia laudabUe itatutum ^ talubre a dictit canceUa- 
rio et moffistrit editum diliffenter itupeximiu, neqaii aliquem pro 
ickotare tueatur qui eertum magistrum infra quindedm diet pott- 
quam Universitatem idem tcholaria ingretaus tit non habuerit, aut 
nomen tuum infra tempus privlibatum in matricid& »ui magiitri 
redigi non curarierit, nisi magistri abi&ntia re/ jtuta rentm occa- 
patio idem impediat. Immd n quia talis sttb nomine scholaria lati- 
tara inv^iatur, tel dejiciatur tiel retineatur juxta regiam liberta- 
tem. Et licit quitibet magiater, anteqwlm actualiter ad regimen 
admittatur, ttatutum hujusmodi fide prwstiti firmare teneatur, 
inteOeximus tamen quod plures magietri perjurii reatum swpivt 
ineurrerUes contra ejusdem atatuti tenorem aliquos ut tckolaret 
d^endendo fidem suam nequtter 'Btolantnt : propter qnod volentet 
tnalitiie hominum obriare, prwcipimus subpomA exeommuniaUionii 
nequii gumqnam ut xcholarem contra memorati ttatati tenoretn 
tueri, TelfaTorem sibi ut scholari in aliquo prtebere prtesumat. 

Et quia ecdesiw nostrw dicecesis nobis el arcAidiaamo nostro tunt 
tubjeetcB, scholares veri Universitatis yasdetn si^sunt eancellario 
memorato, pr(Bcipimui et mandamus quod sacerdotes sckolaree in 
Mtriueque prsoseiUid tel ipiorum vices gerentium super sud ordina- 
tioM examinentur, et approbentw vet rtproberUur, prout digni vet 
indigni reperti /uerint. 

Et ne JUS nostrum negligere videamur qui alios in tui justitii 
eonfoeemus, inhibemus subpaenA excommunicationia, quam veniens in 
contrarium ipso facto incurrat, ne memorati caneellarius et Uni-- 
tersitas divisim vel conjunctim, cl&m vel palAm cdiquid ordinet vel 
etatuat, edita vel Valuta hujusmodi observet vel eervari faciat, in 
prayudicium nostrw jurisdictitmis teu archidiaconi nostri Eliensit, 
nobis specialiter inconsultis et non prwbentibus assensum hujusmodi 
statntis tel etiam ^atu^idis : decemimus enim irritum et inane quic- 
quid contra hanc nostram prohibitionem a quoquam ipaorum fuerit 

Ad hcEC quia jaritdictio dicti arckidiaconi a jurisdictions privfati 
cancdlarii tarn ratione contractuum quam personarum ac etiam 
eausarum liquido est distinda, ac conttet utrumque esse nobis immedi- 
ate subfetium, nolumus ipsum arcAidiaconum vel suamfamiliam can- 
esOaria preedicto in aliquo subesse, nee ipsum canceSarium vel suam 
familiam in aliquo subetse archidiacono memorato. Sed uterque vir- 
tvte prepriw potestatis suam propriamfamiliam eorrigat, ipstm ad 

38 HISTORY OF THE a.b. 1376. 

juris reffidairedueendo. Itaqudd n neeettarium J»«rit tuperiorii 
auxilium in hi» de quibut eedena judicat, ad nos rel ad e^ciaUm 
noetrum reourtm habeatur: salt& nobi» et stuxestoribut nottrit 
potestate addendi, detrahendt, corriffendi, mtttandi vel mintiendi 
in poHerum ticut nobis et iptis visum fuerit earpedire. Data et acta 
anno Domini MCGLXXVI. apud Dunham in octavis beati 

14. (Nervations: University equivoetU. The Officers ther^f. 

Now seeing this is the most ancient composition ia this kiod 
wc meet with, it will not be amiss to dwell a while thereon with 
our observations ; the rather, because it mentioneth Cambridge, 
not as an University modemljr modelled, but of an ancient 

First. We find in the preface of this instrument the word 
*' University," vithin the compass of three lines, used in two 
senses : 1. For " the generality of mankind,"' to whose notice this 
deed may attain : 2. For " scholars from all countries,^' studying 
the latitude of learning, in one grand society ; in which acceptation 
(as formerly we have observed out of -a great antiquary -f-) it began 
first to be used in the reign of king Henry 111. Now, bishop 
Balsham termeth Cambridge mutram, " our,^ University : First. 
Because probably therein he bad his education : Secondly. Because ' 
it was sited is (as surrounded with) his jurisdiction: Thirdly. 
Because lately, in the founding of Peter-House, it had largely tasted 
of his benefaction. 

Secondly. Behold here the complete body of an University with 
the chancellor (at this present, Robert de Fulbume) the head, the 
regents and scholars the heart, the officers the hands and feet 
thereof. Of the latter this composition expresseth by name, 
1. Beadles ; and those two in number, with the verges oi vands, 
since, in many years, grown up to be staves, and these two doubled 
into four at this day. Some conceive beddlus so called quatipedel- 
Jas, a pedo, signifying that ceremonious staff which they manage in 
their hands; whilst others with more probability derive it from 
" beads," (" prayers," in old English,) it being a principal part of his 
office to give public notice of all conventions for academical devo- 
tion. 2. Seriptores, "writers," well known to all. 3. lUuminatores, 
such as gave light and lustre to manuscripts, (whence our English 
" to limn,*") by colouring and gilding the initial and capital lettera 
therein, — essential' ornaments in that age, men then being more 

* Bituit iDUoldbodiof tlia (KhdcHOiu of BI7, now In tha poiiwiloa of mjimaj 
ttittti, tliBl jndldooi Bnllqaar;, Hr. Mare, lata Fellow of Calm CoUcg*, (rfao, for me, 
kindlr truiiKiilKd ftnd bltlihiDj compand ft. ) Candrn, in O^^foriiAirr, 



pleased with babies in boolca than children are. i-Slatifinarii, publicly 
avouchiog the sale of etaple-books in standing shops, (whence they 
hare theii names,) as oppoelte to such circumforanean pedlars, (an- 
ceston to our modem Mercuries aod hawkers,) who secretly vend 
prohibited pamphlets. All other officers are included in this deed 
under the generical name of mandpia, whence our word " manci- 
ple" (confined since by custom to signify " the provider of victuals " 
for several colleges) takes its denomination. 

15. Query: What meant by "Moffister GUaneritef" 
But what should be the sense of fflomereUi and moffitUr fflomt- 
ria, (so otlen occurring in this instroment,) we must confess 
ounelves Seekers therein, as not satisfied with what learned Caius 
conjectureth tlierein'. For he malieth him senior regent, to collect 
and count the suffrages in all congregations ; * as if so called a 
gUmerando, tnm "going round about "the tegent-house to that 
purpose; or from "gathering their votes," commonly written, and 
(to lake up less room, and to be the better taken up) glomemted, that 
is, rolled and routaded up in a piece of paper. Bat elsewhere the same 
anthor tells u3,-f- that onr University-orator, at this day, succeedB to 
tlie ancient office of tnagitter glcmerite i whose place it is to eaU/t- 
tain princes and peers coming thither, and to pen public letters on 
all occasions of importance. Whatever he was, it appean by this 
composition, that he kept courUi, and had cognizance of causes of 
scholars under his jurisdiction. But seeing so great an antiquary as 
Sir Henry Spelman concludes all herein with a query,| (his doubts 
having more learning than other men's determinations,) let it suffice 
us to know, that the original of this word seems barbarous, his office 
narrow and topical, (confined to Cambridge,) and his certain use at 
this day antiquated and forgotten. 

16. The BUhop aoemed of Pretwnption herein. 

Now whereas this bishop, towards the close of this composition, 
thundcreth forth his excommunication against the chancellor and 
whole University, if presuming to infringe the same in prejudice of 
his jurisdiction ; some will conceive his presumption (or protane- 
nesa, rather) herein incnrred, ipio facto, tliat heavy censure 
which he denounceth on others ; considering the former .privileges 
indulged some hundreds of yeara since, by several popes to this 

HoNoains 1. anno Domini 324, F^. 20. — Auihorilate <mnipo- 
tentis Dei, dietrictius tnhibemta aubpamd excomntunicationia, quam 

• Hut. Omtei. Sb. U. p*ge 134. t /dm, page 13». t Sn Ui ■• Olovnj " 


■ n,g,t,7.cbyGOOglC 

40 yiSTORT OF THB <.D. 1380. 

vemeni in contrarium ipio /aeto incurrat, n« qtm archuffucfpur, 
e^itcopue, arckidiaconue, aut eontm offidaUa seu vititatoret goae- 
ralet, aut tpeciales, a lede apoitolicd deputati, audeat in aligttem 
academicum nupeiuumis vel exeommunicationis lett inUrdicti $an- 
tentiaa inferre, (Jo.* 

SessiubI. anno Domini 6S9, May 8. — Prcesentiitm authoritaU 
decrevimua, ut ntiUi archi^ticopo vel tfnt^opo aiiive eedetiatticcB per- 
sonc^ vet eeculari liceat, Uniwrtitatem wstram, aut aliquem vettr^m 
su^endere, sen exoommunicare^ vel quolibet sub interdicto ponore, 
absque aummi ponttjieii ataemu ««/ ejtu tpeciali mandato, <^c.-f- 

How durst the bishop of Ely, notwithatandiiig the premigges, 
interpase his power in UDiversitj-mattere ? Is it not ridiculous for 
the man to pretend bounty id bestowing a remnant on him, to 
vhom his master formerly had given the whole piece ? What 
bounty was it in this bishop to exempt Cambridge partly from arclii- 
diaconal, which popes so long before had privileged from episcopal, 
jurisdiction P 

17) IB. Some oter-harth in their Cenmrei. Moderation ie bett. 

These considerations have prevailed so far on the judgment of 
some (especially Oxford) men, that they condemn the credit of 
those ancient papal privileges indulged to Cambridge as &lse and 
forged. They conceive their censure herein advantaged by a disco- 
very one hath made of a flaw in the Bull of Honorius, bearing date 
two years before Honorius was pope, whose papacy, according to 
common computation, began not until the year 626.J 

For mine own part, I see no necessity to cast away those papal 
Bulls as false and spurious, but rather conceive, that the originals 
of them were long since abolished at the destruction of Cambridge 
by the Danes, when all things were almost brought to a general 
desolation. And, although some copies and transcripts of them 
were reserved ; yet, because such carried not authenticalness with 
them, the bishops of Ely, in after-ages, used (not to say, usurped) 
jurisdiction over Cambridge, whilst the University therein was aa 
yet weak and poor, as scarcely recovered out of the late ruins 
thereof. Nor am I moved at the pretended detection of a &lie 
date in the Bull of Honorius, finding him at the same time sitting 
in the papal chair, by the testimony of authors of undeniable 

• See it exunptUled M lomii In Caid*, Di Atttiq. Omtai. Hb. i. p*ge 116, 
t RipRaved largetf In Che ume uithor, pigg 60. t BkiaN Twthe, Apobff. 

Antiq. Acad. Oton. page 63. { Calaiig. Augvitm. Dt IfoMtniiui Pimtif. 

RotwH. Nattrbw Wmth. M. 2)9. Putiha, bl. 89. 



19. The ancient Hott^ in Cambridge. A.D. 1280. 

It is now high time that we give-ia a liet of such Hostels in 
Cambridgei wherein students lived, under the rule of a Principal, 
on their own proper charges, before any Colleges vere endowed In 
the University. 

1. St. Augustine's-Hostel, now Kin gV College Pensionary, at 
the east end of the chapel, next to the Provost's lodging.* 

2. Bemard's-Hostel, situate where now the Master's, garden of 
Bene't-College, but belonging to Queen's, as purchased by Andrew 
Ducket, (the last Principal,) and bestowed. -f- 

3. BoltonVploce, now part of Pembroke- Hal l.| 

4. BordenVHostel, near the back-gate of tlie Rose Tavern, 
opening ag^nst Caius-Gollege ; anciently it belonged to 6t. Jolm'a- 
Hostel, and afterwards to Clare-Hall.§ 

5. St. Botolph's-Hostel, betwixt the church and Pembroke-Hall, 
(where Wenham, a cook, dwelt in my time, and) where some colle- 
giate character is still retained in the building.[| 

6. Clemen t's-Hoetel, on the south of St. Clement's church.^ 

7. CouBin's-PIace, included in Pembroke-Hal !.•• 

8. St. CrosaVHostel, in the street called School-lane, andently 
a tenement of St. John's-HoGpital.-f-f- 

9. EdmondVHostel ; nomen patel, looua latet.X* 

10. St. Edwaid's-Hoatel, agunst Little St. Mary's, where lately 
a victualling-house, called the ChDpping-Knife.§§ 

11. Ely-Convent, near BordenVHostel, for Ely monks to 
study in.|1[| 

12. GerardVHostel, beLwiit Trinity-Hall and College, where a 
bridge lately (if not still) bearing the name thereof. 

13. OodVHoQse, taken down by king Henry VI. but not in 
that sacrilegious sense wherein the Psalmist complains : " They 
have taken the bouses of God into their possession," Psalm Izxxiii. 
12. For when he took this into KingVCollege, in lieu thereof he 
founded another.^^ 

14. GodVHouse, now parcel of Cbrist's-College.*** 

15. St. GregoryVHostel, where now Trinity-College Dove- 


16. HarlestoneVHoBtel, in HailestoneVlane, on the east of St. 
Clement's diurch. William Grey, bishop of Ely, 1466, allowed 

* Caid*, BImI. CmHt. ^cad. Ub. 1. p*(« 47. t tdem. Hid. 1 Se* J. Scot's 

"TmUcs." % SetUot Canlai. Joaimu Parkeri, Caio. Oenvil. || CaII'b. 

1 Iiitm, pag« 50. " Scot's " T.blw." It SakM Canl. II C«ids, 

pagcSl. a Scrltioi Canl. II II /<<«<•. ^HT Scot's " Tables." 

•" C*lcs, tit Seeletoi Cml. 


42 HISTORY OF THE i.o. 1380. 

them leave to officiate Divine Service in their ontor^ near the 
high hridge.* • 

17- St. HughVHoBtel. This mj worthy friend Mr. More, 
Lite Fellow of Caius-College, first descried out of an ancient manu- 
script, (once belonging to Ely,) attesting that Mr. , of St. 

MughVHoatel, was admitted to plead in the bishops'* courts. Thus 
hath he recovered the deaomination, let others discover the sitna- 
tion, thereof. 

18. Jesus''-HDste1, or de Pcenitenttd Jem, and 

19. St. John''s-Hospital ; for it is pity to part them, which stood 
close together, (as John usually lay in Jesus's bosom, Johnxiii. 
23,) consisting of Seculars, and now both compounded into Pcler- 

20. St. JohnVHostel of Regulars, now translated into St. JohnV 

21. St. CatherineVHospital, now the south part of Trinity- 
College, t. 

22. KnaptonVPlace, absorbe4 at this day in Pembroke-Hall.J 

23. St. MargaretVHoslel, being the east side of Trinity-Coll^e.§ 

24. St. MaryVHostel, on the north-west of that church, where 
only a brick-wall keeps possession of the memory thereof. It 
belongeth to Bene't ; Matthew Parker being first admitted here, 
before transplanted into that College.|] 

25. St. NichoWa-HoEtel, over-against Chriat-College, where 
now a private house, with the public name of the Brasen-Oeoi^. 
The scholars hereof^ as eminent for hard studying, so infamous for 
their brawlinga by night.^ 

26. Ovings''-Inn, the buildings under which the kennel betwiit 
Caius and Trinity-College emptieth itself."* 

27. St. Paul's-Inn, now the Rose Tavem.-f^ 

28. PhiswickVHostel, bequeathed by William Phiswick, esquire- 
beadle to Gonville-Hall, — since taken into Trinity-Col lege. J { 

29. PylhagorasVHouse, beyond the bridge ; either bo called, 
because his philosophy was studied there, or because formerly the 
form or building thereof resembled a Y, his beloved letter. Other- 
wise, many men will be made as soon to believe Pythagoras'a trans- 
migration of souls, as the transportation of his body hither, — that 
he ever lived in Britannia. It now belongeth to Merton-College in 

30. Rud'a-Hoatel, over against Emmanuel-College, where now 

* SwfclM Cani. t Idem. 

II CtlDt, Ml priit, page S. 
ft Call's. II SeeltiM Cantai. 

, Goo^^lc 


31. St. ThomuVHostel, wbeie nov the orchard of the Master 
of Pembroke-Hall, and where the neighbouring Leas retain their 
name : formerly the Cair^ms Martius of the scholars here exercising 
tbemselvee, sometimes too violently ; lately disused, either becauBe 
yoQDg scholara now have less valour, or more civility.* 

32. Trinity-Hostel, on the south side of that church, the habita- 
tion lately of Di. Angier, now of Dr. Eade. Some chapel-«ouforroity 
is Btill extant in an eaet window thereof: and the ancient arms of the 
earl of Oxford in an outward room, invite me to believe that family 
the founder thereof. 

33. Tiled-Hostel, on the west of Caius and east of Trinity> 

34. University-Hostel, which in the year 1350 was, for some 
considerations, passed, by the Vice-Chancellor and Regent-house, 
to Pembroke-Hall. This anciently was the house of Sir Roger 
Haidon, knight ; and long before, one Fabian, the Chaplain, dwelt 

Of these Hostels we see some denominated from the saint to 
whom they were dedicated, as St. Margaret's, St. Nicholases, Sec. 
Some from the vicinage of the church to which they were adjoined, 
aa St. Mary's, St. Botolph's, &c. Some from the materials with 
which they were covered, as Tiled-Hostel. Some from those 
who formerly bought, built, or possessed them, as Borden's, Rud's, 
Phiswick's, &c. Some were reserved only for civil and canon 
lawyers, as St. Paul's, Ovings', Trinity, St. Nicholas's, Borden's, 
St. Edward's, and Rud's ; and all the rest employed for artists and 
divines. Some of them were but members and appendants to other 
Hostels, (and afterwards to Colleges,) aa Borden's to St. John's- 
Hostel, then to Clare-Hall ; St. Bernard's to Queen's. The rest 
were absolute corporations, entire within themselves, without any 

20. Intu lets than HotteU. 
Know also that Inns (whereof only two, Ovings' and St. Paul's) 
differed only gradually from Hostels, as being less. For John 
Ovings, clerk, bought the ground whereon this Inn, from him 
named, was seated, of the first prioress of St. Radigund's, for 
two shillings; which, at twelve years' purchase, was but two 
pence a-year. It seems, being a waste, it was little worth ; or 
rise the piioresB charitably afforded him the better pennyworth, 
in consideratioa Uiat he would improve the place to a public good. 


44 HIBTORT OF TRK ' ii.B. laSO. 

21, 22. Too hundred ffalU laid to be in Oxford. Magnitude 
auppliet Multitude. 

But Lere the Oxford aDtiquary insulteth on the pancitj of 
ancieDt Hostels, ia Cambridge, (wLich all our industry cannot 
advance to forty,) much boasting of the numerousness of the Halls 
in Oxford, which he mountelh to above two hundred, assigning 
their several names and situations, besides entries, chambers, and 
other lesE places for students to live in. 

I envy not my aunt^s fniitfulness, (though every hundred had 
been a thousand,) but conceive such Halls must needs be mean and 
small structures, if we consult the content and extent of Oxford, 
not exceeding Cambridge in greatness of ground, and the latter 
every whit as tuT^y^f, or " well-compacted together," Either then 
such Halls (like flowers that grow double) must one crowd into 
another; or else they must be inconsiderably small, like those three 
hundred sixty-Sve children which Margaret countess of Henne- 
berg brought forth at a birth in Holland,— one skull whereof I have 
seen,* no bigger than a bead or a bean ; or else it is utterly impos- 
sible such a compass of ground should contain them. Besides, " if 
all the body be the eye, where then is the hearing P " These two 
hundred Halls for scholars will take up so much ground, none will 
be left for the townsmen. This makes me conceive, that aula 
(whence our " Hall ") did import but one fair room, or else was a 
townsman's house, (like Moody-Hall in Cambridge,) where scholars 
dieted together. This I dare aver, that what the Halls in Cam- 
bridge wanted of Oxford in number, they had in greatness ; so that 
what was lost in discrete — was found in continued— quantity. For 
we read how in the Hostels of St. Mary, Bernard, Thomas, Angus- 
line, there were twelve, twenty, and sometimes thirty r^nts, 
besides non-regents above them, and young students beneath them. 
As for the Hostels designed for lawyers, almost every of them had 
fourscore or an hundred students. So that what Homer saith of a 
physician, that he is -KokXiov irrafioj S-t^Xtnv, "eminently worth 
many others : " one of Cambridge-Hostels might be equivalent, in 
number of students, to many of those Oxtbrd-Halls ; and the difler- 
cnce not so great in scholars, as the disproportion betwixt thirty of 
the one and two hundred of the other doth seem to import. 

1, tbnnigli aatlientio plijiMui 



23> 24. 7^ Bat^ and Vie of HosUda. A Catalo^fw of learned 
Cambridge IToHeUen. 

In these Hostels Scholars vere more convenient!}' ftccommodated 
than in townsmen^B houses, wberein anciently they lived ; both 
because here they were united under one head ; and because they 
■ were either rent-firee, or paid it by agreement to a chief of their own 
Society. Bat as stars lose their light when the sun ariseth ; so all 
these Hostels decayed by dej^rees, when endowed Colleges began to 
appear in Cambridge ; and I behold Trinity-Hostel (wherein Stu- 
dents continued till the year 1540) as the longest liver, surviv- 
ing all thereat. 

But, whilst they were in use, many worthy scholars were bred 
therein ; and pity it is the catalogue of their names is lost. For 
when I find an English bishop, or learned writer, brought up in 
Cambridge, but not reducible, with probability, to any College now 
in bein^, presently I conclude he had his education in one of the 
aforesaid Hostels. I will instance only in those which flourished ia 
tlie reign of king Henry VIH. 

Henry Holbeach, bishop of Lincoln, 1547 ; John Capon, bishop 
of Saruni, 15a9 ; John Hilsey, bishop of Rochester, 1536 ; Wil- 
liam Ptcpps, bishop of Norwich, 15^6 ; Thomas Thyrleby, bishop 
of Norwich, 1550; James Stanley, bishop of Ely, 1506 ; Rowland 
Iiee, bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, 1524 ; Richard Sampson, 
bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, 1543; John Clerk, bishop of 
Bath and Wells, 1523 ; Edward Vaughan, bishop of St. David's, 
1500; Edmund Birkhead, bishop of St. Asaph, 1513; Henry 
Stasdish, bishop of St. Asaph, 1519 ; Robert Parfew,* bishop of 
St. Asaph, 1536; John Bird, bishop of Bangor, 1539; Robert 
Holgate, archbishop of York, 1544 ; Cuthbert Tunatall, bishop of 
Durham, 1530. 

All these undoubtedly were and are allowed by bishop Qodnfn 
to be Cambridge-men, yet no modem College-register can reach 
them, as to lay just claim to their breeding. Whence we infer 
them to be no Collegiates, but Hostelers, not in that sense which 
the spiteful papists charged Dr. Cranmer to be one, -f- (" an attendant 
on a stable," ) but " such as lived in a learned Inn or Hostel not 
endowed with revenues." 

25. Ancient religioui H&u$e» in Cambridge. 
Pass we now from these Hostels to those religious houses which 
anciently flourished in Cambridge : where first we meet with the 

1 tlie biihop Bt OiXt tioM. — £pit. 


46 HISTOBy OF THS *.». 1382. 

Dominicus, or Preaching Frian, (though neither finding Uieir 
founder, nor valuation at their suppression,) whose bouse ia dov 
tamed into Emmanuel-College. 

Franciscans follow, called also Minors, or Gray Friars ; their 
hoase being now coaverted into Sidney College. It was founded 
hj king Edward I. where they had a lair church, which I may call 
" the St, Mary's," before *' St. Mary's ;" the Commencement, 
Acts, and Exercises being kept therein. The area of this church is 
easily visible in Sidney College garden, where the depressioD and 
subsidency of theii bowling-green east and west present the dimen- 
sions thereof, and I have oft found dead men's bones thereabouts. 
When this church fell, or was taken down, I know not ; and should 
be thankful to such as should to me expound those passages in Mr. 
Ascbam's epistle to Thomas Thyrleby, bishop of Westminster; 
the date of the year not being expiessed. It is to entreat him to 
stand the University's friend, in compassing for them tbis house of 
Franciscans, wherein hitherto their great endeavours had small 
success ; adding moreover, Francitoanomm eedea rton modo daciu 
€Uq»e omammtum acadamue, led opportuniUUei magna* ad comi- 
tia, el omnia aeademm neffotia eonjicienda habmt. What accom- 
modations this house could then afford the University at Commence- 
ment I undeistand not. Sure I am, king Henry VIII. bestowed it 
on Trinity College, of whom the executors of the lady Frances 
Sidney did afterwards purchase it. 

Augustine Friais, on the south side of Pease-Market, lately the 
dwelling of Mr. Pierce, and now of Mr. Thomas Buck, esquirfr- 
beadle. Their founder and value unknown. 

Carmelites, built by Edward I. to which Sir Guy de Mortimer 
and Thomas de Hertford were great benefoctors. Their house 
crossed athwart the street now leading to King's College, as occupy- 
ing the ground whereon Catherine Hall and Queen's do sluid at 
this day. 

White Canons, almost over-againsl Peter House, where now a 
brick-wall, (the back-side is called White Canons at this day,) and 
an inn with the sign of the Moon. 

As for the nunnery of St. Radigund's and priory of Bamwel), 
we have formerly spoken of them : only I add, that at the Dissolu- 
tion king Henry bestowed the site of the latter on Sir Anthony 
Brown (afterward viscount Mountague) and dame Elizabeth his 
wife, and their heirs, at the rent of one pound four shillings penny 



26. f^eqttent Contetti betttixt Friars and University-Men. 
These Friais living in these convents irere capable of degrees, 
and kept their Acte, as other UniTenily-men. Yet were they 
gremials and not-gremials, who sometimes would so aland on the 
tiptoes or their privileges, that they endeavoured lo be higher than 
other students : so that oftentimes they and the scholars could not 
>et their horses in one stable, or rather their books on one sheir. 
However, genenlly the Chancellors ordered them into tolerable obe- 
dience, as will appear hereafter. 

27. A List of learned Friars, Writers. A.D. 1282. 

Last of all, it will be enough for the present, to give in a list of 
such learned writers as were bred in Cambridge, in these several 
Orders, as we hare collected them out of Bale, Pits, and other 

AoGOSTiNi&NB. — O'llielmus Wels, 1421 ; Joannes Buriensis, 
1460; GalfrideGUndfield, 1340; Joannes Godwjck, ISGO; John 

Ingham, ; John Sloley, 1477; John Tonney, 1490; 

Ralph Marcham, 1380 ; Richard Chester, 1354 ; Roger Clacton. 

OoH IN ic AH s.— William Encurt, 1340; William Kingsham, 
12^; John Boltesham, 1388; John Bromiard, 1390; John 
Stock, 1374 ; Simon Bamstone, 1337 ; Tho. Langford, 1320. 

FuAKc I SCANS.— Will. Polvil, 1384 ; John Wichingliam, 1362 ; 
Reginald Langham, 1410; Vin. Coventriensis, 1231; Stephen 
BftTOD, 1520. 

Cakuelites.— Alan, de Lin, 1420; Dionys. Holcan, 1424; 
Walter Diss, 1404; Walter Heaton, 1350; Will. Beccle, 1438; 

Will. Bintree, 1403; Will. Blaevey, 1490; Will.Califord, ; 

Will. Cokisford, 1380; Will, de Sanctfi Fide, 1372; Will. 
Greene, 1470; Will. Harsick, 1413 ; Will. Lincoln, 1360 ; Will. 
SuBlet, 1466 ; WiU. Parcher, 1470 ; Hugh of St. Neot's, 1340 ; 
Job. Bampto, 1341. ; Jo. Batet, 1556 ; Jo. Beston, 1428 ; Jo. 
aipston, 1378 ; Jo. Elin, 1379 ; Jo. Falsham, 1348 ; Jo. Hornby, 
1374 ; Jo. Pascal, 1361 ; Jo. Repingal, 1350 ; Jo. Swadam, 1394 ; 
Jo. Thorpe, 1440 ; Jo. Tilney, 1430 ; Jo. Wamsleet, 1418 ; Mart. 
Sculthorp, 1430; Nic. Cantilupe, 1441; Nic. Kenton, 1468; 
Nic. SwafTaiD, 1449 ; Pet. de Sanctfi Fide, 1452 ; Ralph Spal- 
dirg, 1390; Rob. Ivorie, 1392; Tho. HiUcy, 1290; Tho. Mol- 
don, 1404. 

These were bred in tlie aforesaid houses in Cambridge, belonging 
to their Orders, until graduated in Divinity, and were afterwards 
dispersed into their respective convents, all over England. 


48 BISTORT OP TRB j.d. 1383. 

28. T^efint Endowing of Peter-Botm. Zoan may grow grteain 

The reader dolh remember how, aboTc twenty years since, 
(namely, anno 1257.) Hugh Balsham, sub-prior of Ely, founded a 
College without TrumpingtoD-gate, consisting of two Hostels he 
had purchased and united. The same Hugh, now bishop of Ely, 
removed the Secular Brethren from St. John's Hospital, in the 
Jewry,* (where they and the Regulars agreed not very well,) to 
this his new foundation. At which lime he endowed the same with 
maintenance for one Master, fourteen Fellows,_two Bible-Clerks, 
and eight poor Scholars ; whose number might be increased or 
diminished, according to the improvement or abatement of their 
revenues. He appointed his successors, the bishops of Ely, to be 
honorary patrons, yea, nursing fstbers, to this his infant College ; 
who have well discharged their trust therein. 

We know what the historian saith : Omnia fenai prinfiipia mnt 
parva, ** Almost all beginnings are small ; " as here indeed they 
were. Alas \ Balsham, for a long time, was little able to endow a 
College, as scarce sufficient to subsist of himself; whilst his election 
to Ely (made without the king's consent) was not yet confirmed.-f- 
But no sooner bad he any certainty for himself but his College had 
a share thereof; for he gave them all the rights and tithes belonging 
to St. Peter's church, adjoining, and by his will bequeathed them 
three hundred marks, wherewith was bought and built a fair Hall and 
court, since much beautified and enlarged. 

Masters. — 1. Roger de la Goter, of St. Botolph's, Master, 
A.D. 1S40. 2. Ralph de Holbeche resigned his place, and 
resumed a Fellowship, 1349. 3. William de Whittlesey, arch- 
deacon of Huntingdon, chosen cuetot, 1349. 4. Richard de Wis- 
bich, chosen Master, 1351. 5. Thomas de Wormehall, canon of 
Sanim, chancellor of Ely, 1381, He died the same year. 6. John 
de Newton, chosen, 1381. 7- Thomas de Castro Bemardi, 1400. 
8. John Holbrook. He died, 1431. 9. Thomas Lane, 1457- 
10. Thomas Deinman, 1500. 11. John Warkworth, 1474. 12. 

Henry Hornby, 13. Jo. Edmunds, 1552. 14. Ralph Ains- 

worth, 1553. 15. Andrew Peme, 1553. 16. Robert Soame, 
1589. 17. Jo. Richardson, 1608. 18. Tho. Turner, 1615. 
19. Leonard Maw, 1617- 20. Matthew Wren, 1625, 21. John 
Cosins, dean of Peterborough, 1634. 22, Lazarus Seaman, D.D. 

• Betwixt Boimd Cbmch md (i»li«t 1* now) St. Jolui'i CoDegs. t OoDwtN in 

his ■■ Cktkjogne of Blihopa." 1 Le Nave glrea s Hit of twent^^ii Muten, 

between a.d. 1390 wd 1641. Some of the nunet inlba two UMb, u nnul, luj k Uitle 
Is oRhograph/.— Edit. 



BKHErAcTOKS.— ^imon Montacute, Sttnon Ijanghun, and John 
Fordbam, buhops of Ely. John Holbrook, Thomas Lane, Thomas 
Deymui, John Warkworth, Will, Burgoin, Henry Hombye, John 
Edmnnds, Andrew Perae, all Masters of Uie College. Balpb 
Walpool, bishop of Norvrich, 1290, g&ve two messuages in Cam- 
bridge. Mr. Thomas Packington. William Noyon, rector of Had- 
denham. William Martin. Robert Shorton. Edmund Hanaon. 
Robert Gilbert. Mr. Skelton. Mrs. Elizabeth Wolfe. John 
Whitgift, archbishop of Canterbury. Edward Lord North. Ro- 
bert Smith. Henry Wilsbaw. The Lady Mary Ramsey. 
Robert Warden. Thomas Warren. Mra. Margaret Dean. Wil- 
liam Heme. Mr. Robert Slade. Mr. John Bliih, late Fellow. 
Mrs. Fiunces Matthew, who gave ^200, Dr. John Richardson, 
who gave i^lOO, and Dr. Haukings, who gave ^100, towards the 
building of a new court, front, and gate towards the street, now 

BisHors. — William de Whittlesey, third Master of this Col- 
lie, archbishop of Canterbury.* John de Botlelsham, bishop of 
Rochester, Master of this College. John Whitgift, archbishop of 
Canterbury, Fellow. Walter Curie, bishop of Winchester, Fel- 
low. Matthew Wren, Master of this College, bishop of Ely. 

Leabned Wbiteks. — Roger Marshal, well skilled in mathe- 
msUcs ; whereof, saith Pits, in his Appendix, he wrote many books, 
and collected more, which he gave to the library. George Joye, 
who flourished anno 1547, translated part of the Bible.-(- Edward 
Simmons, who wrote many good treatises, 1547. 

Livings in the College Gift. — 1. Cherry-Hinton vicarage, 
io Ely diocess, valued in the king's books at £9. 140. Gd. 
2. Ellington, in the diocess of Lincoln, a vicarage, valued at 
£6. 9t. 3. Thriplow vicsjage, in Ely diocess, valued ^9. 4«. 2(1. 

4. St. MaryVthe-Less, in Cambridge, valued . 5. Statheme 

rectory, in Lincoln diocess, valued £16. 3«.{ 

The reader will pardon the shortness of this our catalogue of 
Masters, (not touching the top of the foundation by fifty years,) 
which looks like the blunt tower of a steeple, whose spire or shaft 
hath been burnt down with lightnmg, or broken with thunder ; as, 
indeed, some such casualty hath caused this imperfection. For, in 

* So Ht. R. Ptikei pcDces Urn ant of tlw Rc«orda of Slj ; thongb othemiw, 1 con- 
iM,UAap Oodwln nwkei him of Oilbid. t Bale, Oat. nana, pme 791. 

t At Oe cloM of tUi S«c(ian, (page 67,) and of eadi mbieqneiit ddo in the " Hlstarf ," 
*B1 b« toMTtrd, In tha hrm of oopioru DOtea, mddltionat psrflcnlan respecilDg tba 
Iwwd tonndaaoai deaoflted Id them, and the emlneaC mea who hare flonrlalied ainiM 
ttBtr'i dajr*, uid who han abed * loaCn mx the CoUegei Id nhlch they neierallf 
nt^nt Ihdi edacalko, and (he Unlierritj In which ihef obti^ed Ulrraiy ii 

— EstT. 

, Goo^^lc 

60 BISTORT OP THE a.o. 1389. 

the year 1420, a sad fire conaumed t)ie maniments of thia College ; 
which caused Caius to hegia hU list of Masters but at ThoniBs de 
Castro Bemardi ; and the ax Seniors before him are recovered, hj 
the care of Mr. R. Parker,* out of Ely Records. Yet this catalogue 
still remainetli incomplete, (O that it were as easy to rectify as to 
reprove foults !) guilty, I am afraid, not only of transposition in the 
order, but omission in the number, thereof. For I have read, that 
John Bottelsham was admitted Master 14 — ; f yet he appears not 
in Caius, or any other printed author. 

29. A ffenenU Sale about our Catalogue of Benefactors, 

Amongst the Bene&ctors, many, who only gave plate, small 
sums, and books, are, for brevity^s sake, omitted ; and not any 
slighting of their bounty for the smollness thereof. For if onr 
Saviour beheld the widow as the best benelkctor to the corban, who 
endowed it only with " two naites;" and if "a cup of cold water" 
(warm comfort to a thirsty soul) shall receive its reward ; surely, 
such as give the cup, also, deserve their due commendation, and 
shall have a requital thereof. I have ordered some black lines at 
the end of that catalogue, as a reserve to register the bounty of pos* 
terity, which shall not complain that they are paper-bound in my 
book, where room on purpose is \e(i to enter their names who 
shall be charitably disposed. I hope also, that those void intervals 
and spaces in the list of learned writers (which as so many open 
mouths invoke the industry of the reader) will have their emptiness 
filled by several men^s observations, whose pens may at their leisure 
supply what the press hath left unperfect. 

SO, 31. Cautela son nocet. Bepetition of SUhopt, why neceaary. 

Know also I eould have more particularly specified the value and 
place of Founders' and Benefactors' bounty, — what land they gave, 
how much worth, where lying ; but Uiought better U> forbear, as 
ignoi&nt, in these dangerous days, what ill use might be made of 
my well-intended endeavours. 

Condemn not our tautology, if the same bishop often recur in 
several Colleges ; perchance, Scholar of one, Fellow of anoUier, 
Master of a third : because rather than I would wrong any House 
with the omission, I would right them all with the repetition of tha 
same person. Such bishops as passed throu^ many sees anccesa- 
ively are, for shortness, entitled only from the last and highest 

* Id hli SctUlat Cantalrigirmii, us. j Hamucript In i o. 



32. A eommmtdailf Otutm o/AU CoUegt. 
To letnin to Peter Home : I cannot but commeDd one peculiar 
pnctice of this College, which in their parlour pteaerreth the pic- 
tures of all their principal Benefiictore.* For, although the bounty 
of the judicious is grounded on more solid motives, than to be 
Battered Uiereinto bj the fency that their effigies shall be kept ; yet 
nch an ingenuous memorial may be an encouragement to a patron's 
fibeiality. Besides, under such pictures a distich commonly is 
vritten, and I will instance in one of the latest date : — 

At this day the College maintaineth one Master, nineteen Fel- 
lows, twenty-nine Bible-Clerks, eight poor Scholars, beside other 
Officers and Students amoonting lately (namely, am>o 1634) to a 
bandied and nx. 

33—35. The tldett ^gUtk-endoteed (Meffe. Exertion to tia 
Contrary antwerad. The Tnitk unpartiallif rtated. 

We Cambridge-men behold this College as the first foundation 
endowed in England, which our cor-rivalB at Oxford will not allow. 
For I find it inscribed in Rochester church, on the monument of 
Walter de Merton, that the College by him founded and named is 
the example of a]] in that kind. Mr. Camden, in his description of 
Oxford, affirmeth, that Balliol and Merton Colleges therein are 
•• the two first endowed for Students in Christendom.''+ And 
smne all^e that Merton College must needs be the mother, and 
Peter-House but the daughter, because Simon de Montacute, bishop 
of EHy, did prescribe the statutes of Merton to be observed by the 
Stndenta of Peter House. 

All this scarce moreth — nothing remoreth — us from our fomet 
opinion ; being almoat as confident of the seniority of Peter House 
before all other Colleges, as Romanists are of the priority of St. 
Peter befme the rest of the apostles. And, first, as for the inscrip- 
tion in Rochester, both it and Merton's monument are modem, as set 
np by Sir Henry Savile, anno 1598. That passage of the great 
antiquary is only extant in the English translation, not Latin Bri- 
tannia ; and so may justly seem to have more of Philemon 
Holland, than William Camden therein. It is confessed that 

'""Hate fioiingi," *t.jt WOmd, la bit MemoraiUia, " tn on the panela of Ui» 
imiaaaMtag ^ Htm Catobbixlioa'itnira." "Thtj ut now remmed to the Hbmy. The 
■olMw imdai tlie poitnlti of Ednud I • and Bcliliuu wera aeU uti appropiiiM 
B*B^" DtH'i HUory. — Edit. t .BrffanfUB, pige 381. 


62 HISTORY OF THE a.o. 1319. 

Simon Montacute, the seventeenth bishop of EI7, mcve than sixty 
years after Bstsham's death, enjoined our Petreans the observation 
of Merton-Collepe statutes, finding them more convenient than 
such which their Founder had left tbem. But this makes nothing 
to the matter of most antiquity, the point in controversy. In 
requital of this courtesy, if Cambridge hath ought the imitation 
whereof may be acceptable to Oxford, she is right glad for the 
welcome occasion ; as, lately, Oxford, in choice of her Procton, 
hath conformed herself to Cambridge-custom, by way of a circular 
combination of Colleges, as a course most quiet, and freest from 

The crisis of the controversy depends, if I mistake not, on the 
clearing of the difTerent dates of the foundation of Peter House, 
and comparing it with others. 

Peter House first founded, a.d. 1257, the forty-first of 
Henry III. by sub-prior Hugh Balsham. 

Petek HoititE first endowed, a.d. 1282, the eleventh of Ed- 
ward I. by Hugh Balsham, bishop of Ely. 

Balliol first founded and endowed, a.d. 1262, the forty-sixth 
of Henry HI. by John Balliol. 

Mrkton College first founded and endowed, a.d. 1274, 
the second of Edward I. by Walter Merton, bishop of Rochester. 

The nnpartial result is this, Peter House was founded before 
any, but endowed (by the same founder) after two Colleges in Ox- 
ford. Yet because, in such doubtful casts, it is good reason Cam- 
bridge should measure to her own most advantage ; we may safely 
say that Peter House is the first College endowed, though not 
the first-endowed College, in England, and, by consequence, in 

36. Three Placet /or the Petreans' Detotiont. [Stuxeseton of Chan- 
cellort. Brawl betteixt Univenity-men and Friars. Butt 
of Pope John XXI. to the Universttt/. 12 Edward II. 
A.D. 1283—1319.] 

The Students of Peter House performed their Divine service, 
since their first foundation, in three several places ; namely, 

1. In St. Peter's church, adjoining, which fell down to Uie ground 
abont the year 1350. 

2. In the church of Beata Maria de Gratid, commonly called 
Little St. Mary's ; whence the College also is so called and written 
for some hundreds of years, hardly recovering its own name. 

3. In a beautiful new chapel, consecrated March 17th, anno 

it tliii Sfctiea, pi 

, Goo^^lc 


1632. A thousand pounds were spent in the building thereof, and 
the contributors'' names a£Gxed in a catalogue therein. 

Hitherto we have had but a desultory and uncertain succession 
of Chancellore, but henceforward we may presume on more assur- 
ance herein. 

Andrew de Qisleham, Chancellor ; a benefactor to the University. 
A.D. 1283. 

Thomas Sherminghnm, Chancellor. He defended the rights of 
the University against the prior of Barnwell. 1286. 

Stephanos de Hepworth, Chancellor. 1287- 

Ralph de Lecestei, Chancellor. No good blood betwixt him and 
the tTniveisity about the distinction of seats. 1289. 

Gallridus de Pakenham, Chancellor. He first paved the town ; 
towards the doing whereof, king Edward granted him to take the 
toll of Cambridge for six years. 1290. 

The church of St. Mary's was this year (a.d, 1291) much 
de&ced with fire. At what time the Jews (whom I will not accuse 
u the causers thereof) were forced to forsake the town, where they 
had a great synagogne. 

Heni; de Boyton, Chancellor. He stoutly defended the right 
of the tlaiveiaity for thirty acres of ground and four messu^es in 
Cambridge,, which Roger de Beddingfield gave for ever to the 
Master and Scholars, to defend their state and privileges.* 1293. 

Tbe king came this year (a. d. 1294) to Cambridge, and lodged 
two days in the castle. 

It was ordered that the Chancellor should not imprison or banish 
any regent without the consent of the Regent-house, nor should he 
omit the same, if they so appointed it. 

A contest betwiit the Chancellor and the other doctors is com- 
pounded before the official of the bishop of Ely. 

John de Bradenham, Chancellor, a.d. 1293. 

Thomas de Sheringham, Chancellor, 1296. 

Stephen de Hepworth, Chancellor, 1299. 

Stephen de Haselfield, Chancellor, 1300. 

The king granted, by his charter, that Scholars might sum- 
mon townsmen to appear before the Chancellor, in any personal 

A brawl began betwixt tbe University-men on the one side, 
the Dominicans and Franciscans on the other. This increased 
from words to violence ; and Stephen the Chancellor, as a valiant 
champion, thundered his excommunications both general and special 
(whereby his episcopal power plainly appeareth) against the Friars ; 
yea, two of the most active of them, Nicholas de Dale and Adam 


94 BIBTOBT OF THB «.d. UI9. 

de Hoddon, seem to be expelled the Unirenit;. Hereupon tbe 
friars Appeal lo the pope of Rome, and both parties appointed (hai 
Proctore to solicit their suit : — 

For tbe Univkksitt. — Stephen de S^rave, TbonuB KjnuD^ 

FoK THE Domini CAMS. — John de Westerfield, Peter de Rada. 

Fob the Fbanciscans. — Richard Lisle, John of Ipswich. 

But, takiDg vit in their way, considering the costliness of that 
conrt, and the long journey thither, they remitted the matter, at 
Bonrdeaux, to Thomas, cardinal of St. Sabine, who accorded them 
on the following conditions : — * 

1. That the Chancellor of Cambridge should retisct his excom- 
mooications in the same place wherein they were denounced. 

2. That DO act of the Regent-house ^ould extend to derog«l« 
firom the rights of the Friars. 

3. That though by the statutes of the UniTersity only tbe 
Chancellor, or some by him assigned, were to preach on the Gist 
Advent, Septuageaima, and Ash-Wednesday ; yet, nevertheleas 
the FriatB might freely preach the same days and hours in their own 

4. That Frist Nicholas de Dale and Adam de Hoddon, if 
pleased to re-assume their places in the Univetaity, should quietly 
be admitted, and should have their remedy agunst such who had 
offered violence unto them, as ill such cases is usual agaJnst the 
disturbers of the peace. 

5. That whereas all Bachelors Inceptois in Divinity are bound 
by the statutes to preach ad Clerum in St Mary's ; the aforesaid 
Friars might preach such sermons in their own convents, first 
acquainting the Chancellor with the day they chose for the same. 

Some conceive this was a drawn battle betwixt them ; whilst 
others apprehend, that the Friars, finding the most favour, came oflf 
conquerors, as keeping the field, and making f^od their ground in 
this contention. 

Stephen de S^rave, Chancellor ; in whose absence, Richard de 
Asbton was his substitute, a.d. 1306. 

Stephen de Haselfield, Chancellor, 130?. 

Richard de Ashton, Chancellor, 1315. 

John XXI. "f- pope of Rome, at the request of king Edward II. 
granted the ensuing Bull to the University ; which the reader is 
requested seriously to peruse ; the sense whereof is the subject of 
some difference betwixt us and Oxford. 

Joannei episoopae, s&rvut tervorum Dei, dUeetia jUUa Uwierri' 

t Bdlumfne uy, "JtkaHnti XXI. AAm XXK. 



iatit CtuUabrigicB EUentia duecetu, saiutem, et apoetolieam hmedio- 
tiotum.—Intar tinffttla, quoe ffratd not ^flectations Uetificant, ffrandi 
cor nogtrum reficitur ffaudio, et Uvtitia extdtat exoptatd, cum eotqui 
cceUeti mnt proeidetitid prwditi, ad popalorum regimen et regnorwn, 
ad communem aubjectorum siwrum pro/ectum intentoi atpicimnt, ip- 
totqne ad pubiiccB utilitatit bonum solicits intuemur : tani cbarim- 
mmin Chrutojititu nogter, Edteardatrex Atiffliw[illuttrtt]f>ruden- 
tar attend^u, quod mtdtitudo aapiaUum taltu est r^ttonm, gu6dqde 
mon minis prudeniiam coneilio, gttdm fartium ttrenuitate virorwn, 
reffeniiuta et regncrum moderamina dispomtrUur, apud Cantabri- 
giam, Eliensis dicecesis locum, in regno euo muUis cammoditatibas prm- 
dittim, et itmgnem desideral vigere stadium generale, et quod a doetor- 
Vnu et docendis in poeterum/requentetttr, kumililer postulatit a nobis 
tU ttudium ah oiim ibi ordinatum, etpritilegia a Romanis potdifici- 
bus prwdecessffribus nostrit i}el regibus [Anglia] qui /wrint pro tem- 
pore eidem eoncetsa, apostilieo ouremus munimine roborare. Nos 
igitwr tacB intentionis propositum, dignie in Domino laudibua com- 
mendatttee, efusqua tupplicatumibus indinati, {^ostolicd auioritate 
statuimas, at in prwdicto loco Gantabrigiw sit do catero stadium 
generale [iUudque ibidem vigeatperpetuisfaturit temporibus ia qu&- 
libetjitcultate] : votentes autoritateprwdictA et etiam decementei, quod 
eoUegium magistrorum et sdolarium ejusdem studit, Universitas sit 
eensenda, et omnibus Juribus gaadeat, quibus gaudere potest et ddiet 
Unitersitas gwscunque legitimi ordinata. GceterAm omnia priti- 
legia et indulta prwdicto studio, rationabiliter a pontifieibus et 
regibm preedictis concetsa, autoritate prwdicta confirmamus. NuUi 
igitur omnind liceat hano pagiiiam nostri statuti, tolatUatis, constitu- 
tionis, et con/trmationit infringere, W oiMW temerario contraire : si 
quis autem hoe attamptare pr<E»umpserit, indignationem Omnipo- 
tmtis Dei, «f beatorum Petri et Pauli apostolorum, noverit se 
inewaurum. Dot. Avinionw 5 Id&* Juliif ponttficatui nottri anno 

This year, (1319,) accordiog to the compntatioa of HelvicuB, 
Gills out to be the year of our Lord 1317. and the eleyenth of the 
leign of king Edward II. though, to gratify the Oxford antiquary, 
we have here followed his accounl in our margiDal chronology. 

3^. A necessarg Caution. Studium and Universitas the same in 

Eject. A.D. 1319. 

Now, let none conceive Cambridge (long since the mother of 

many children) now but new-bom, herself an University from the 

date of this papal instrument. A mistake of many, alleging, for 

■ A finr of the plnc^al mlatiam nUch Occur bttwmn thlf eofj and Dja't ban- 
•dipt of thl« Bun, I hsvt bere enctoKd wltUn eratcheU.— Edit. 

, Goo^^lc 


tbe defence of their error, that othenrioe it were ridiculoua for oar 
Iting to request, and the pope to confer, on C&mbiidge, what she 
had already ; adding moreover, that the phtsse d« ccstero, " for the 
time to come," implielh, that de prteterito, " for the time past," 
Cambridge was no University. But let such know, that in this 
Bull Cambridge is confessed a place for stadenta time ont of mind, 
or (to use the pope's Latin) ab olim ; where olim (a word' of inde- 
finite extent) is not made the measure of the antiquity of Cambridge, 
but (which is more) is only the terminta a quo whence her duratioD 
in her learned capacity is dated. This Bull also relateth to an- 
cient privileges of popes and princes, bestowed upon ]kt ; which 
herein areroborated and con&rmed.* 

Xnow also that Studitim and Universitat are synonymes, though 
the latter the more fashionable word in this age.-f- Nor is it any 
news fur popes officiously to court kings for their own ends, with 
cheap courtesies, by granting what in effect was given before, and 
varnishing over their predecessors^ old acts with new specions ex- 
pressions. We have plainly proved, out of plentiful records in the 
Tower, Cambridge called an University in the king's charters more 
than seventy years before, and so no doubt before the Conquest ; 
though that her title, in the troublesome times of war, had been 
disturbed and interrupted. As therefore the seniority of scholars, 
who have long discontinued, is justly reckoned, not from their 
return to the College, but from tlieir first admission therein ; so 
the University ship of Cambridge b to be accounted from her ori- 
ginal constitution, not this her late confirmation. 
38, A facile Mistake. 

Nor are we much moved with what is alleged in this point 
out of Robert Remington ; and take the words as Twyne the 

* Df er, vhen qnatlng tLig pangnph idtli approbalioD, hji, " Then I* no room lo 
donbt Ihs enlhentlcllj of tlila Bull ) and I bIibII go Ibrlber, and iDtrodnce (he follairiiig 
Bomlahliig teBtimoDj of Dr. Fuller." — Edit. t After ddQg tblj aealence, 

DjOT thai temaia on It ; — " Now, ■dmitdng that the woid Stodb'un nu^ be lonie- 
timeg tlie same u Stadium gentrate, and afnoDyDunu wttb * Unher^tj- ; ' h, for 
InuancF, Vadium Pariiifntt, for 'the UDiveraitf ol Puii,' In an InMramoit at 
tbl> Jolui'e, qnoted bf T^Tne, *nd Sttufium BoiHmia, quoted b; Dntriaie, fat ' the 
Uaiveirit; of Bonoola ; ' etUl tUi Is not neoeaaarilr III meaning, and tt ma; b« 
Interpreted, < mj pbce toi aCndj la general : ' and the order preeeiTed in the present 
Bull aeemi lo reqnlre that diadncdon here. It had been a Shtdiunt ht learned men | 
the pope confimu tUa Sludnm, and ftirtber anthoriiea It In future to be a Gtntrali Slu- 
dium. Tbli interpretation, it admitted, will, wfthoot the argnmenta jut advanced, 
invBlidate tbe aathentldty of the fonner Bulla. It would ahow, that, wbaterer piiii- 
legea other popei or kingi granted to tUi learned body, to which pope John allodea In 
tUa Boll, atiU it wanted that pecnltar grant of ponliflcal anthoric; ithidi woold bind It 
mote immediately lo hla Intereal, b; that magical taUamau of a word—' Ualrerai^ ; ■ 
and, ■abaeqaent;)', that the (btmer Bolls, [those of Honortna and Sargloa,] in whieli that 
word ocean, are fabricatlona, and no genolne fnatmnunts." — Edit. 

, Coo^^lc 


Oifcnd antiqnaiy doth inimage them the moet for his own odmn- 
tage:— • 

Bs^fnante Edtcardo prima (tecuacla diceret) de Studio Grant- 
bridffe facta at Uniwnitat, nout ett Oxonium, /w curiam Boma- 
■OTC .- " In the reign of Edwaid tlie first (he should have eaid 
Edward the second) Cambridge tse made an University, even as 
Oxford, by the court of Rome," 

See we here Remington mistakes, even by his conf^ion who 
citeth him in his own behalf. Now, he who feults in one thing 
may even &il in another. He that mistook Edward the first for 
Edwaid the second may, by as easy an error, mistake facta for 
refeeta, the " institution "" for the ** restitution " of Cambridge. 

Roger de Northburge, ChanceHor. He obtained licence Irom 
the king, that the Unireraity miglit purchase advowsons of spi* 
ritual livings, to the value of forty pounds pen- OMnum.-f Indeed, 
king Edwaid was courteous to Cambridge, wherein be maintained 
thirty-two scholars on his own cost; intending to build King^s 
Hall, which his son and successor did perform. a.i>. 1321. 

39. Michael Houte fmmded by ffvrveus Stanton. A.D. 1324. 
Herveus (falsely in some copies Henricus) de Stanton, clerk, 
canon of York and Wells, rector of East Dereham and North 
Creik in Norfolk, Chancellor of the Exchequer to king Edward II. 
flourished now in great wealth and esteem. Let none envy him 
his pluralities, who so well employed the profits thereof, and this 
year founded a College, following the example of Hugh de Bals- 
bam, but dedicating it to St. Michael, the chief of angels ; as the 
other had eonsecrttted his to St. Peter, the prime of apostles. 

BtIasteus. — 1. Roger Burton, B.D. 2. Mr. Robs, aliae 
Roob. S. Mr. Thomas Kenningham. 4. Mr John Rymphnm. 
5. Mr. Richard Langley. 6. Mr. William Gotham. 7. Mr. 
William Colvill. 8. Mr. Henry Cranby. 9. Mr John Ottering- 
ham. 10. Mr. VVilUm Ayscough. 11. Edward Story. 12. John 
Yotton. ly. John Foothead. 14. Tho. Slackhouse. 15. Nichol 
Willan, 16. Francis Mallet, chaplain to queen Mary. 

BsNKFACTORS. — 1. Alexander Walsham, knight, heirtoHervey 
the Founder. 2. Walter de Waney. 3. John Ilvey, knight, a 
grand bene&etor. 4. William Gotham. 5. John Turke. 6. Henry 

BiKuops. — 1. William Ayscough, bishop of Salisbury. 2. Ed- 
ward Story, bishop of Chichester. 3. John Fisher, bishop of 


58 HISTORY OF TBK a.d. 13K. 

Leakned 'Wbiter. — John Fisher. 

Livings ik the College Gift. — 1. Barrington vican^ in 
Ely diocess, valued £7. lie. Ad. 2. Gronabuigh [OnindiBburgli 
rectoryj, in the diocess of Norwich, valued ^17. 11». 3d, 
3. Orwell rectory, in Ely diocess, valued ^19. 7s. 7d. lob. 

At this day Michael House is included in Trinity College; so 
called, not only hecause dedicated to God, One in Three Persons, 
but also because made by king Henry VlII, one of three Col- 
leges ; whereof (God willing) largely hereafter. 

40, 41. Uniwrnty Sail baiU by Siohard Badew. A.D. 132ff. 
Ssbaih (ajier it vxu burnt J by Elizabeth Cotmtett of Clare, 
and naoted Clare Hall. 

Richard Badew, Chancellor, a.v. 1326. 

He bought two tenements in Miln-street, of Neile Thornton, a 
physician ; and on that ground built a small College, by the name 
of University Hall, placing a Principal therein, under whom Bcho- 
lars lived on their ovm expenses.* This Richard Badew [or Bad- 
dow] was of a knightly family, bom at Great Baddow, nigh Chelms- 
ford in Essex, and employed all his estate to the advancement of 

Sixteen years did students continue in University Hall on their 
own charges ; but a casual fire reduced their House to ashes. 
Here, by [the] way, whosoever shall consider in both Universities 
the ill contrivance of many chimneys, hollonness of hearths, shal- 
lowness of tunnels, carelessness of coals and candles, catcbingness of 
papers, narrowness of studies, late reading and long watching of 
scholars, cannot but conclude, that an especial Providence pre- 
serveth those places. How small a matter hath sometimes made s 
partition betwixt the fire and the fuel • Thus an hair's breadth, 
fixed by a Divine finger, shall prove as effectual a separation from 
danger as a ni.ile''s distance. And although both Universities have 
had sad accidents in this kind, yet neither in number nor nature 
(since the Reformation) so destructive as in other places : so that, 
blessed be God I they have been rather scare-fires than huit-firea 
unto them. 

But, to return to Mr. Badew, who, sadly beholding the ruins of 
his Hall, perceived that the re-building thereof was a work too 
weighty for himself, (though a man of worship,) so that some 
person of honour must undertake it. And here happily a worthy 
lady presents herself, Elizabeth, third sbter and co-heir of Gilbert 
eail of Clare, wife of John de Bulge, lord fit Connaught, and 

"TaUo" nf " M Ihe chugn otthe Uoiveraltjr." 

, Goo^^lc 


mother to William de Buige, last earl of Ulster, vho built it again 
of her own proper coet, endowed and called it Clare Hali.* 

MASTKas.— 1. Walter Thaited. 2. Ralph Kerdington. 3. John 
Dimwich. 4. John Chatteress. 5. Will. Radwinter. 6. Will. 
Wimble.t 7- Will. WUfleet. 8. WUl. Millington. 9. Thomas 
Stoyl. 10. Richard Stubs. II. Oalmel SUvester. 12. Will. 
Woodhooa. 13. Edm. Natnress. 14. John Crayfoid. 15. Rowl. 
Swinbom. 16. Jofao Madew. 17. Thomas Barlj. 18. Edmund 
Leeds. 19. Thomas Binge. 20. WUliam Smith. 21. Robert 
Scot. 22. Thomas Paslc. 23. Dr. Ralph Cudworth. 24. Theo- 
philus Dillingham. 

Bemefactoks. — John Tbazto, Edith Green, William Ducket, 
Will. Worleigh, Will. Marahall. Ralph Srivemar, Thomas Cave; 
Dr. Stoyt, Dr. Natnress, Dr. Leeds, Dr. Scot, Masteis of this 
Hall. Thomas Cecil, eail of Exeter, and his hdj Dorothy, who 
gave ^108 par annum, in very good rent.. William Butler.} 
John Freeman, Esq. who gave ^2000. George Ruggle, Fellow of 
the College: he gave in money and plate above i^400. Sir 
Robert Heath, Mr. Thomas Binge, Humphrey Hide, Rob. John- 
son, Esq. Mr. Erasmus Fanar, Mr. Will. Biiden, Mr. Thomas 

BiSBoPS. — Nicholas Heath, archbishop of York. Augustine 
Lynsel, bishop of Hereford. 

Learned WttiTKas. — John BoIb, dean of Canterbury, writer 
of the learned Postila. Richard Thompson. Augustine Lyosel. 
He set forth (when bishop of Peterborongh) Theophylact in Greek 
(never before in print) on all St. Paurs epistles. 

Livings in the Gift of the College. — 1. Litlington 
vicarage, in Ely diocess, valued £5. 19s. 9d. 2. Everton vicarage, 
in Lincoln diocess, valued £5. 13s. 8d. 3. Grandsden vicarage, 
Lincoln diocess, valued £3. 7'- 2rf. 

So that lately, (namely, anno 1634,) therein were maintained 
one Master, eighteen Fellows, thirty-six Scholars, beside OfBceis 
and Servants of the foundation, and other Students ; the whole 
numbn b«ng an hundred and six. 

It were presumption in me to disturb this method of Masters, 
agreed on byDc. Caius, Mr. Parker, and others. Otherwise, 1 would 
prepoee Millington (first Provost afterwards of King''s in the reign 

■ iBtlwdMd of endowment, tUi Kbanl ladr Mate* h<s mottrM to b« " ■ derire ftr 
tbi "»— -t— of orery bnaiib of luahl i— mlng, ibU there n^f^t no longer reniain «B 
ncnjc tar Ignonnc* } ud to cr«Ua > llraiei concord ud doevr union (unong muklnd, 
b7 tka driUxbig e(F«eti of lodnlgence in Ubenl ftDdf."— Edit. t Betwlit tbew 

tiro, Calu plMwdi WinUtn OoD, not owned hj otlicn. t See moie of him at Ut 

dcna,in»* 1617 [intblenL aect. U. pu. 4.] 


60 BISTORY OF THE *-0. 1339. 

of king Henry VI,) before Wilfleet, Master under king Richard III. 
I iTOuId also set Swinbom, both before and after Madev. 

For it appeareth in Mr, Fox, that, after Madew's expulsion for 
being married, Swinbom succeeded Lim,* 

42—44. Richard III. a (teeming) Benefactor to ■ Clare ffali. 
7%is Sail long chapel-lets. Solere ths same-mtU Clare Hall. 

I have read how Richard III. pretended himself descended from 
the foundress of this Hall, (which I account of more truth than his 
claim and title to the English crown,) and on that consideration, 
tyrannidi tuw fucatum literarwn patrodnium mendaci frimU 
oUendmi, eaith my author,+ he challenged the patronage of this 
Hall (when AVilliam WilSeet was Master) to himself. But if no 
better patron to this House than protector to his own nephews, his 
courtesy might well have been spared. And because I find him 
^omitted in Scot's last "Tables" (drawn up, no doubt, by the con- 
sent of this College) amongst the benciactors, I suspect this his fact 
tks a Sourish, (at which art he was excellent,) rather than any real 
&vour to this foundation. 

Long was it ere this Hall got a chapel to itself, (namely, till the 
year 1535,) all which time possibly they did their public devotions 
in that aisle of St. Edt^ard's church, wherein anciently their Mastere 
and Fellows were interred. 

This Clare Hall was also called Solere Hall in the days of Chan- 
cer, as our antiquary hath observed : — % 

Some will say, "And whence termed Solere Hall ? Was it not from 
Solarium, which in the Latin of that age signified 'a fair and light 
chamber ? ' Or is it not mistaken in pronouncing and printing for 
Scoller Hall, as otherwhiles it is written ? " But the matter is not 
much ; and whoso seeks a reason of all proper names of places, may 

45. The Hall lately re-odi/ed. 

This aged Hall, grown very ruinous, was lately taken down and 

re-edified by the bounty of several benefactors. || Mr. Barnabas Oley, 

■ Id cardliul Pole'a vMtMlan of Cambridge In ths reign of qnran May. t See- 

klot Cantatr^itmii, made Ij R. Parker. t Caiub, Hiiinria Cantai. Acad. 

page 67, % ChaucebIs (b« Bere'i UJe. || Dyer aaj-s, "Tlia CoUrge, 

nMond bf &a fbimd»*>, WM igaln d«In>yed by Bre, at least. In part— the Maater'a 
Mge, the tteaaor;, and, among other papen, llie aidilvei. However, the CoUege ma 
Dtw-bidli, and the But noae laid, Haf 10th, 1638."— Edit. 



Ute Fellow of tliis House, and Proctor of the University, may troly 
be tenned " master of the bbric,** bo iDduatriouB and judicious was 
he in overseeing the Bame. Nor was he like the foolish builder 
that could not— but the unhappy that might not — finish bis work, 
hting outed the College, on the account of the Covenant. Had 
thii structure been perfected according to the first design, no fault 
could have been found therewith, except that the brightness and 
beauty thereof should make the blear eyes of our envious age to 
smart, much grudging at the decency, more at the magnificence, of 
the Muses. Yet I cannot believe, what I read, that three or fodi 
himdred pounds' worth of timber, brought hither for the repair of 
this Hall, was lately taken away.* Yea, had I seen it, I would 
not have believed mine own eyes, but rather suspected my sight, 
that some requisite to right sensation was wanting in me, and the 
&alt cither in the .organ, medium, object, or undue distance 

Thomas de Foxton, Chancellor, Doctor of the Laws, a.i>. 1329. 

John de Langley, Chancellor, Doctor of Divinity ; John de 
Shtpeden, and Thomas de Bucknam, Proctors. 1331. 

46. J^iftff Edteardfoundeth Kind's Sail. 7 Edward III. 
A.D. 1332. 

King Edward III. understanding it was- his father's intention to 
erect a College in Cambridge, in order wbereunto he had for some 
years maiiitaiiied.thirty-two Scholars in the University, (occasioning 
the mistake of John Rouse, reporting he built a College therein,) 
kid the foundation of King's Hall,J out of some remorse that he had 
consented to the death of so affectionate a father ; as one so trans- 
ported with the news of the birth of his son, that he gave to one 
John Langer, a knight, three hundred pounds pro primo rumore, 
qufftn idem Joiannes ttUit Edeardo lecundo, de nativitate filti sut, 
with a pension paid unto him many years afler.§ 

Mastekb. — 1. Mr. Thomas Powis. 2. Mr. Thomas Hetorset, 
[Hethcrset.] 3. Mr. Radulph Selbie. 4. Mr. Richard Dearham. 
6. Mr. John Stone. 6. Mr. Richard Holmes. 7. Mr. Robert 
Fitshugh. 8. Mr. Richard Cawdeiy. 9. Mr. Robert Ayscough. 

■ <><m-rZa CsRfoMjr'flUir, p*ge 14. t See udaKdveniona on theie two 

MatencH !n " Tlia Appeil of htjani Inuocencc," book il. put 3. t Id 

Cunbridgc, CnOtgtt and HaiU txe coorideied (jhodjiddiu eipregdoQBi * U>U not 
bdag diwiuiilu to ■ College, eithet Is lu coiulitutioD or <(■ endonmeiu, and, 
tmiwineiill;, Drilher of tfaem qnnUBed to cIbIid BDf npeiioril; over the atber. 
Tbni CUra Ball to called ColUgiun, tht Dmniu, tint jftila de Clare.— In OiCiird, the 
tn Balk an all Infeiior to the CoUegei ; becanae, thoogb aobject, aa learned aodetlea, 
to the aame Inlaoal regolalloa* aa the CuUegea, yet, nut being Incorponted, the prop^tj 
H> each of than la held Id tnut b; the Utdranitj.— EnjT. i pal. 

H III. Sol. a. 


88- BISTOBT OP THB *■!»■ ISM. 

10. Mr. lUchand Listrope. [Scroope.] 11. Mr. Henry Boost*. 
12. Mi. Richard le Scroope. 13. Mr. GalMde Blyth. 

Benbvactobs. — ^KiDg Richard II. gave £5S yearly, oat of the 
manor of Chesterton, &c. in lieu of much they formerly received 
out of the Exchequer with much trouble, and, .over and above, 
jPTO yearly out of the peneionB of several abbeys. King Henry 
IV. gave them leave to pluck down the stately Hall in Cambridge 
Castle, therewith to build their chapel. King Henry VI. gave 
them one hundred and twenty volumes, and freed them from all 
Iccounting in the Exchequer. King Edward IV. gave them eight 
marks, to be paid by the aherifi' of Cambridgeshire yearly, thneby 
to buy two robes. 

Bishops.— Robert Fitzhugh, bbhop of London, 1431. 

Leabnkd Weiiees. — 

CoLLKflE LiviNss. — Felmersham vicarage, Lincoln dioccss, 

valued at ^13. 13». 4d. Henclesham, Norwich diocess, . 

Grindon vicarage, [Olendon rectory,] Peterborough diocess, valued 

at £8. St Mary's, Cantab. Ely diocess, . Chesterton vicange, 

Ely diocesa, valued at .£10. 12». 3d. 

I had put pope Eugenius IV, in the catalogue of benefactors to 
this Hall, till I had discovered his bounty resolved into a point of 
reveuge. For, at the instance of king Henry VI. he possessed on 
this Hall of the Rectory of Chesterton, nigh Cambridge, formerly 
engrossed (as many other English benefices in that age) by an 
alien, William bishop of Milan, &om whom the pope extorted it,* 
because he sided against him with Amadeus duke of Savoy (aHit 
pope Felix V.) in the Council of Basil. 

47— 4d. Three Emineneei of thU HaU. Tempora mntantor. 7%« 
Sappinem ofthU Hali. 

This Hall then surpassed any College in the University, in a 
threefold respect. 1. For building ; being of such receipt that it 
could entertain the king's court, without disturbance to the stu- 
dents. 2. For lands ; though not effectually endowed by king 
Edward, till about the end of his reign, for the muntenaoce of one 
Ctistos and thirty-three Scholars under him. 3. For learning; 
many grave Seniors residing therein ; so that this house waa ac- 
counted oraculum Acadmiiw.f 

The greater therefore our grief, that for want of intelligence (all 
the Records of this Hall being lost) our column for learned writers 
standeth so empty herein. This Hall at this day is united wiUi 
others in Trinity College, on the north gate whereof standeth the 
stately statue of king Edward III. in armour. 

■ R. Parkih In Scfltlol Cantab. If), \ Utm,liid. 



We moat not foiget bow the Master and Fellova of tlus House 
were complained of, that they did Epicure it in daily exceedinga ; 
as, indeed, where should men iare well, if not in a King's Hall ? 
Hereupon they of their own accord petitioned king Henry IV. that 
they might be stinted, not to exceed weekly eighteen — or at the 
highest twenty — pence in their commons ; the last two-pence being 
allowed them only in case of dearoess of victuals and festival 

This House had one peculiar happiness, being of royal descent 
of both sides : I mean, founded by king Edward III. the founder 
o{ the two Houses of York and Lancaster, both deriving them- 
selves from his body. Hence it was, that, during the civil wars, it 
found &vonr from the kings of both lines : whereas allerwuds such 
Colleges which were, as I may say, but of the half-blood, built 
either by some prince of Lancaster or York, felt in process of time 
the anger of the one, because of the love of the other. Queen's 
Cktlle^ may be partly, and King's College too plunly, a pregnant 
instance thereof. 

60. PrivUegei granted by King Edward III. to the University. 

Nor was king Edward bountiful to this Hsll alone, but a great 
bene&ctor to the whole University, on which he conferred privileges, 
whereof these the principal :— 

1. The mayor of the town should make assay of the bread, 
(whether the weight according to statute,) as oft as the Vice- 
ChanceUor should require him. 

2. That the Chancellor should receive the oaths of the mayor, 
bailiSs, and aldermen. 

3. That licence should be given to the University to appropriate 
any church thereunto of forty pounds' yearly revenue. 

4. That the Chancellor should not be disquieted for the impri- 
soning of such offenders whom he conceived deserving the same. 

5. That such who [were] imprisoned by the Vice-Chancellor, 
should not be set free by the king's writ. 

6. That Masters of Arts should not be cited out of the Univer- 
sity into the Court of dmstianlty. 

7- That the Chancellor should take cognizance of all causes 
wherein Scholars were concerned, these of mtum and felonies only 

Many immunities of lesser consequence did this king bestow oa 
Cambridge, here too tedious to be repeated, largely exemplified and 
earefblly preserved in the University-muniments. 

*CAI[ri, ffiffon'oOint. ^cnrf. lib, I. T 


61 HISTORY OF THE t.o. 1343. 

Robert de Mildenhall, Doctor of Dirinity, Chancellor, a.d. 

Henry de Herwarden, Doctoi; of Law, Chancellor, 1335. 
Richard de Hading, Doctor of Law, Chancellor, 1337- 
Robert de Lung, Chancellor, 1339. 

5], 52. A German Marquest made Earl of CamMdge, A.D. 
1340; attdaB^anEarl,A.D. 1342. ■ 

William, marqueea of Juliera, is created by king Edward HI. 
the fourth earl of Cambridge, accounting thi£ less honour no degra- 
dation, but advancement unto him ; nor the motion retrograde from 
a German marqueag, to an English earl, whilst graced with the title 
of 80 famous an University. And this still jastifies our former 
observation, that (the first earl alone excepted) none were dignified 
with the title of Cambridge, but either foreign tree princes, or some 
nearly allied to the royal blood of England. 

This year John earl of Hainault, brother to queen Philippa, wife 
to king Edward III. was created the fifth earl of Cambridge. And 
here may the reader take notice, that I meet with a difference in 
authors ; some making this John first earl of Cambridge : on whose 
forfeiture thereof, (for Lis siding with the French king,) king Edward 
conferred the same on William the foresaid marquess of Juliers. 
Others make the said marquess earl of Cambridge, before John earl 
of Hainault was graced with the title. All agree that both were 
earls thereof; and the tmnsposition of them is no whit material to 
our History of the University. 

63, 54. Mary ie Saint Paul foundt Pembroke Hall, and Denny 
Abbey. A.D. 1343. 
Mary de Saint Paul, daughter to Guido Castillion earl of Saint 
Paul in France, third wife to Audomare de Valenlia earl of Pem- 
broke, — maid, wife, and widow all in a day, (her husband being 
unhappily slain at a tilting at her nuptials,) sequestered herself on 
that sad accident from all woridly delights, bequeathed her soul to 
God, and her estate to pious uses, amongst which this a principal, 
— that she founded in Cambridge the College of Mary de Valen- 
tia,* commonly called Pembroke Hall, She survived the death 
of her husband forty-two years, and died full of days and good 

* In tlie Mlebiflted speecd of Sir STmondH D'Eweg, In the Home of Commoiu, ha 
mtket tha foUowtng mentiao of tUs College ;— " The moM todeut ud Bnt-endoiicd 
CoDega in EogUnd w«» Vilence Collega In CunlMdge, icUcli, kfter the fcnnditloD 
tbei«or, u app«« hy one of oar PiirlJ»inenl«7 SoUi rNuwning npoo iword in dw 
Tower of Londoo, recelted ihe nc« name or appellHion of Penbraka Hall. It la in 
Jtal. ParUam. de aant 38 ffcnrici 11. num. 31."— Edit. 


18 euvjiid in. UNIVRmiTY OF CAMBRIDQB. CiH 

deeds : a Hall aflerwanla mucli augmented by tbe beneiaction of 

Mastbbs. — ^1. Thomas de Bingham. 2. Robert de Thor)i 
3. Richard de Morris. 4. John Tinmew. 5. John Sudbury. 
6. JoHd LangtoD. 7. Hugh Dainlet. 8. Laurence Booth. 
Thomas Rotherham. 10. George FiUhugh. 11. Roger Leybume. 
1^. Richard Fox. 13. Robert Shorton. 14. Robert Svinbume. 
15. George Folburie. 16. Nicholas Ridley. 17. John Yoi 
18. Edmund Grindal. 19. Matthev Hutton. 20. John Whit- 
gift. 21. John Young. 22. William Pulke. 23. Lancelot An- 
drews. 24. Samuel Harsenet. 'J5. Nicholas Felton. 26. Jerom 
Beale. 27. Benjamin Laney. 28. Richard Vines. 29. Sidrach 

BKNErACTORs. — 1, Hetiry VI. 2. Edward Story. 3, 4. 
Gerhard and Nicholas Shipwith. 5. Dr. Atkinson. 6. William 
Huny, knight. 7. Charles Booth. 8. Roger Strange, knight. 
9. Dr. Watts. 10. William Marshall. 11, 12. William and 
Alice Smart. 13. Jane Cox, widow. 14. John Langton. 15. 
Laurence Booth. 16. Thomas Scot, o^tds Rotherham. 17. Rich- 
ard Fox. 18. Dr. Shorton. 19. Edmund Qriodal. 20. John 
Wliitgift. 21. William Fulfce. 22. Lancelot Andrews. 

BiSHOPs.^l. William Boltlesham, bishop of Rochester. 2. 
William Linwoode, bishop of St. David's. 3. John Langton, 
bishop of St. David's. 4. Laurence Booth, archbishop of York.* 
5. Thomas Rotherham, archbishop of York. 6. Edward Story, 
bishop of Chichester. 7- Thomas Langton, bishop of Winchester, 
8. Richard Foie, bishop of Winchester. 8. William Smith, bishop 
of Lincoln. 10. Roger Leybume, bishop of Carlisle. 11. Nicholas 
Ridley, bishop of London. 12. John Chris tophereon, bishop of 
Chichester. 13. Edmund Orindal, archbishop of Canterbury. 14. 
John Young, bishop of Rochester. 15. Matthew Hutton, arch- 
bishop of York. 16. John Whitgift, archbishop of Canterbury. 
17- Thomas Dove, bishop of Prterborough. 18. John Bridgcp, 
biahop of Oxford. 19. Lancelot Andrews, bishop of Winchester. 
20. Samuel Harsenet, archbishop of York. 21. Theophilus Field, 
bishop of St. David's. 22. Nicholas FelLon, bishop of Ely, 2.3. 
Matthew Wren, biahop of Ely. 24, 25. Roger Dod, IUnd..iph 
Barlow, bishops in Ireland. 

Learned Wbitees. — 1. William Linwoode, ftmous for his 
writing the Provincial Constitutions of Canterbury. 2. John 
Somerset, Doctor of Physic to king Henry VI. S. John Thixstill, 
whose AoTOf Epi) carried it in the Schools.-}- 4, 5, 6. John Rogers, 

, Cookie 


ihe first — Nidiolu I^dley, tbe most leaided — Jobn Bndibnl, the 
hardiest — inartTr under qaeen Mary. 7. William Fulke, who so 
leanicdly confuted the RboDiah TeMiuBent : not to repeat these 
many worthy bishops, besides many other writers since, unknown 
unto me. 8. Edmund Spenser, prime of English poets. 
- CoLLBOE LtviMGB.^Tilney Ticarage, in Norwich diooess, 
nlned at ^30. Soham vicange, in Norwich dioceas, vaJued 
£32. 16*. OTerton Waterrille rectory, in Lincoln diocesa, valued 
— — . Saxthorp vicarage, in Norwich diocess, valued £i. 13s. 4d. 
Rswreth rectory, in London dJoceso, valued ^0. 13«. 4d. Ware*- 
ley vicarage, in Lincoln diocess, ■■- — ■ 

Wherein there is, at this present, a Master, nineteen Fellows, 
one TanquatRi thirty-three Scholars of the House, beside OC&ceia 
and Servants of the foundation, with other Students ; the whole 
nomber being one hundred^ 

The aforesaid Mary de Valentin founded also Denney Abbey, 
nigh Cambridge, richly endowed,. and filled it with nuns, whom ebe 
removed irom Waterbeach. She enjoined also her Fellows of 
■ Pembroke Hall, to visit those nans, and give them ghastly couusd 
on just occasion ; who may be presumed, (having not only a (air 
invitation, but full injunction,) that they were not wanting both in 
their courteous and conscientious addresses unto them. 

54—56. Tuxt remarkable Pieeei of Plate. An invidiout Elo^y 

oft&u ffall. Robert de Thorp L&rd ChanceS&r. 
Amongst the ancient plate of this Hall, two pieces are most 
remarkable : one silver and gilt, of the foundreBs''s, (produced on 
festivals,) who, being of French extraction, was much devoted to 
their tutelar saint ; witness this inscription, as I remember it :— 

nkke giMd diecr." 

The other, very like the former, weighing sixty-seven ounces, the 
gift of Thomas Langton, bishop of Winton. with this insculp- 
tion : — Thomat Langton^ Winton. Epiaeopta, Atiite PembroaUatuB 
oltm SoeitUy dedit hartc ta$tiam eoopertam eidem Avtai 1497. Qui 
alimaret, anathema »iL 

King Henry VI. was so great a &vonrer of this House, dtat it 
was termed his adopted daughter, (King''s College only being 
accounted his natural son,) and great were his bene&ctions bestowed 
thereon. But, above all, we take notice of that passage in his 
charter, granting (repeated in another of king Edward's confirm- 
ing) lands to this House -.—Notabile et inttgne, et qudm pretiowm 
Collegium, quod inter omnia loea l/nivereitatie (prout eertitudina- 
liter in/ormamarj mirabititer apUttdet et temper reipleiidaU. Now, 


thhongh it is fkqaent for inferiors to flatter theit snperiors, it is 
seldotn seen that snbjects an pnised hj their soveieigns without 
doe cause ; as this doth appear tiae to Buch who seriously peruse 
onr foregoing catalogue. And though the commendation in the 
king's charter be confined to Cambridge ; yet may it be extended 
to any College in ChristeDdom of the same prt^rtion for students 
therein. I say, (as Uie apostle in another kind,) that there may be 
an equality, 2 Cor. viii. 14-, let Pembroke Hall be compared with 
any fbonc^ion in Enrope not exceeding it in bignesa, time, and 
nvmber of members, and it will acquit itself not conquered in all 
learned and libeml capacities. 

Amongst the Masters of this Hall, Robert de Thorp, the second 
in BnmbeT, was, in the thirtieth year «f king Edward III. Lord 
Chief Justice of the Common Pleas; * which place he held thirteen 
years, till 3371, when he was made Lord ClutQcelloi of England. 
His executors, anno 1375, gave forty marks a-piece to every Col- 
lie in Cambridge) (then eight in number,) out of his own estate ; 
who in his life-time began the public schools, as wo shall show 

S7, 58. A Gnek audgrai^id BeMar. Bemfiustora in Umt^ their 

Amidst the benefactors, Thomas Watts, Doctor of Divinity, and 
ArchdeacoD <^ Middlesex, gave certain farms in Ashwell and Saw. 
ston for the maintenance of seven scholars, by the name of Greek 
Sdiolais. Lonoelot Andrews was one of his foundation ; who at 
this day is neither indebted to this House in general, to which he 
gave (besides plate, three hundred folio books, &c.) one thousand 
poiBids £v two Fdlowdiips : Mor to the memory of Dr. Watts in 
paiticalar, v^oce poor kindred he afterwards sooght after, found oat, 
aad relieved (sh^l I say P) or rewarded. 

Nor must Reyneie de Aabeney, and Robert de Stanton, (both 
first FeUom of this College,) be forgotten (unMigst the b^e&ctors, 
being enipioyed as proeniatorB at Rome, to Pope Innocent VI. to 
obtain the s^ipraiHiatiini of aoiao vectoriea, the patioBBge whereof 
the foundens had conferred on the College. In which service (well 
forraded, but sot fioiafaed by them) they there ended their lives ; 
•od in gratitude to their roeroonea, a statute was made in the College, 
that their obsequies sliould yearly be kept in the month of J uly. 

And now we take oar farewell of this Hall, when we have remera' 
bend ham queen EUubeUi, passii^ by the same in hex progress to 
Cambridge, 1566, saluted it with this expression, detnue antiqua 
St niitfieaa ! " O SBcient and religious house I " 

* Sni^An, CJiMMrteB, pogs 4ir. 

' ^ r,,„,.„G00glc 




NuMERANTUR anni plus minus triginta ex quo tu 
Cantabrigis, invidendum decus Collegii Corporis 
Christi, Uteris operam navasti. 

Effluxit jam decennium a quo Europam, Asiam, 
Africam peragrasti. Nullo pignore cum tuis oculis 
meus calamus certabit, cilm tibi perlustranti, quiim mihi 
describenti, plures regiones objectae fuerint. 

Te olim Alumnum, nunc Judicem, sbituit Cantabri- 
gia, an orbis Christiaiius, Oxonio sorore ezcepta, 
aliquid ei aut sequum aut semulum exbibeat. 

Omnia eveniant ex votia tibi soboliquc tuse, de qu& 
hoc addam unicum: Si domus tua antiqua tot vi sura 
sit dominos cognomines, posteros, quot videt majoref;, 
mundus jam senescens planfe bis puer prorsiis deli- 

1. The t«>o Camlmdge Guild* miUd. A.D. 1344. 
Here at this time were two emioent guilds or fraternities of 
town-folk in Cambridge, consisting of brothers and sisters, onder a 
chief aonuallj chosen, called an "alderman." ]. The guild of 
Gorptu ChrMt keeping their prayers in St. Benedict diurch. 
2. The guild of the blessed Virgin, observing their offices id St. 
Mary's cburcb. Betwixt these there was a sealona emulation, 
whi(^ of them should amortize and settle best maintenance for such 
chaplains to pny for the souls of those of their brotherhood. Now 
though generally in those days the stars outshined the sun; I 
mean, more honour (and, consequently, more wealth) was given to 
Saints than to Christ himself; yet here the guild of Corptu Ohriati 
so outstripped that of the Virgin Mary in endowments, that the 
latter (l^^ng °^ "^J farther thoughts of contesting) desired an 
union ; which being embraced, they both were incorporated together. 



2—4. Corpus Clristi, or Bene't Collie built. Henry Duke of 
LanauUr Uu honorary Founder. Stow't Mittake, with the 
Cfround thareqf. 

Thus bemg luppily mamed, thej were not long issaeless, but s 
sokaU College was erected b; their united interest, which, bearing the 
Dame of both puents, was called *'the College of Corpus Chritti 
and the blessed Mary." However, it hath another working-day 
name, common]}' called (from the adjoined church) BeneH Col- 
lege ; yet so, that on festival solemnities (when written in Latin, in 
public instruments) it is teemed by the foundation-name thereof. 

Some years after, the guild made their addresses to Henry duke 
of Lancaster, (a kind of guardian to the king, in his minority,) and 
politicly chose him alderman of their society. They knew, a friend 
in the court is as good as money in the purse ; and, because the 
procurer is a giver at the second-hand, they conceived his counte- 
nance very advantageous to obtain their mortmain ; as, indeed, this 
lord did them duke's service therein, and the manor of Barton was 
partly the fnat of his bounty, encouni^ng also many by his eiani- 
ple to the same work : but chiefly, 1. Sir John Cambridge, knight, 
and Thomas his son, esquire, who gave to the college thirty-five or 
thirty-aix tenements, besides his capital messuage called the Stone- 
hoQse, and a hundred acres of ground, wanting one rood, in Cam- 
bridge and Nundam. 2. Henry Tangmere, townsman of Cam- 
bridge, (and in his tun alderman of the guild,) gave, by his will, 
eighteen or nineteen houses in Cambridge and Nuneham, and in 
lands at both ends of the town eighty-five acres. 3. Thomas de 
Eltiflley, chosen first Masted of the College, (not tliat the place 
might maintain him, but he the place,) being richly beneficed, and 
wdl seen in secular 'afllairs, gave much to this House ; and intended 
more, had not Robert de Eltisley, clerk, his younger brother, 
necutor and feo&ee for the College, defeated the same. Thus was 
the foundation soon enlarged into a Master and eight Fellow?, 
three Bible-Clerks, and six Scholarg ; their chief maintenance 
arising from candle-rents in Cambridge, being so well-stored wiili 
houses therein, that every Scholar bad two, every Fellow five, and 
the Master mo^ than ten, for his proportion ; though at this day 
they can hardly produce half the number, the rest being either sold, 
exchanged, or lost by continuance of time and carelessness of their 

Be it here remembered that John Stov, in the abridgment of his 
" Annals," set out, 1566, by one mistake doth a double injury to 
this Coll^, by referring it to a &lse founder, and assigning a 
wrong (much later) age thereof, when affirming that John oF Gaunt 
boilt the same about the year 1357. But his error is grounded 


70 BISTOKY OF THB a.o. lU*. 

hereiD, — becaoM JoliD-«-Gatmt married BUnch, the daaghter and 
heir of the aforesaid duke of Lancut«r, and was an especial 
friend and favourer to this foundation. For when a flair waa found 
in their mortmain, for want of some legal ponctualitj ; and when it 
was ceitifiBd bj inquisition into the Chanceiy, by John Rcpingale, 
the king's escbeator, that the lands of this guild were forfdted to 
the crown ; John of Gaunt procured their coDfirmaticHi to the 

5 — 7' The mperttitiotu Proeemon on Curpue-Christi Day endeth 
in a Feoit at Bene't College. The Canopy ominotul^ /ired. 

A grand eoteronit)' waa obseired by this guild every CorptU' 
Chritti day, (being always the Thursday after Trinity Sunday,) 
according to this equipage :^1. The aldermao of the guild for that 
jear (as Master <^ the Ceremonies) went first in processioD. 
2. Then the elders thereof (who had been aldemen, or were near 
the office) carrying silver shields enamelled in their hands,* bestowed 
on the brotherhood, some by Henry duke of Lancaatet, some by 
Henry Tangmere afore-mentioned. 3. There the Master of this 
College, in a silk cope under a canopy, carrying the Host in the pix, 
or rich box of silver gilt, having two for the purpose: (1.) One 
called " the gripe's eye," given by Henry Tangmere. (2.) Another, 
weighing seventy-eight ounces, bestowed by Sir John Cambridge. 4. 
Then the Vice-Chancellor, with the University-men in their seni- 
orities, 5. Lastly, the mayor of the town and buigessea thereof. 
Thus from Bene't church they advanced to tho great bridge, through 
all the parts of the town, and so returned with a good appetite to 
the place whero they began. 

Then in Corput-ChrUti College was a dinner provided them, 
where, good stomachs meeting with good cheer and welcome, no 
wonder if mirth followed of course. Then out comes the cup of 
John Ooldcoroe, (once alderman of the guild,) made of an horn, 
irith the cover and appurtenances of silver and gilt, which he gave 
this Company, and all must drink therein. And althouf^ some 
years after happened the dissolution of this guild, (the exact date 
whereof I cannot learn,) yet the Master of Uiis College continued 
this custom of procession till it was abolished in%e reign of king 
Henry VIII. 

It is remarkable, that, in tlie procession, that canopy under 
which tlie Host was carried fell on fire, leaving men to guess, as 
they stood affected, whether it was done caaoally by the caielessaess 
of the torch-bearerSg^-or maliciously, by some covertly casting fire 
thereon out of some wiudow,^-or miraculously, to show, that God 

, Goo^^lc 


would sboitlx oonsUEae sudi, superstition. And, indeed, in the 
tventj-fleventh of king Henry VIII. wlien Thomas Legh, Doctor 
oT Iav, visited the UDiTeraity, the same was finally abrogated. 
Then those silTei trinkets were sold, and those shields had their 
[Hopertj altered, to fence and defend the College fiom wind and 
veather, being converted into money, and laid out in reparalioas. 

8, 9. 7^ Totetwnen quarrel /or their Dinner: are catt by tAe 
Kinff* Gtnrnniagumen. 

However, the townsmen still importunately claimed their dinner 
as due unto them, insomuch that Richard Roulfe,* then mayor of 
the town, required it of the College in a commanding manner. 
The Uaster and Fellows whereof resolved to teach the townsmen 
a distinction, to pot diiference betwixt a debt and a courtesy, this 
dinner fidling under the latter notion. They minded them also of 
the m«xim in lo^c,'how niblatd oaatd, toUitur pectus, " the proces- 
sion ftAe eaueej being taken away, the dinner (as l&e effeot) ceased 
therewith.*" But, the belly having no ears, nothing would satisfy 
the other party, save a siiit, themselves prejudging the cause on 
their own side. Insomuch that what they brewed in their hopes, 
they broached in their brags, boasting that as the houses belonging 
to this College came originally from townsmen, so now they should 
letum to the townsmen again, as forfeited for default of this 
dinner. Yea, so confident they were of success, that they, very 
eqaally-unequ&lly, (because invading other men's right,) divided 
afix^and such houses amongst themselves. But the worst and 
coldest^ur "f is what is to be made of a bear's skin, which is to be 

For the College procured that certain Commissioners were sent 
down by the king, (amongst whom [were] John Hind, knight, ser- 
geant-at-law, and John Hutton, esq.) to examine the matter, and 
sonunon the Master and Fellows to appear before them : who, 
af^tearing accordingly, produced most authentical evidences and 
charters of mortmain, whereby their lands in Cambridge were suffi- 
ciently conveyed and confirmed unto them. And tlius the towns- 
men, both hungry and angry at the loss both of their dinner and 
houses, were fain to desist. 

■ No nieh kppMrMli Id tlie Cambitdge ratsiogtie of nuijon, mlitHhcn pnbnlil; foi 
Xkbai4 Woolh, laxjat, uih 1539, end now ictiTU ta ih* ■bHom ot ilcluMn of ifae 
■«JM. t KfidvUf ■ pUf iq»n Iti Latin lOHDiiig, " % robbti," hUIs ippk- 

nmlf fMv Iti eoauBoa EggUih algaitcation of <■ the (kill ud loft balr of b««iti wiUi 
irtkk gumenu *re lined Ibi wumtk." — Edit. 



10. Buchm o/Nor/olk buildi tMr Buttrenei. 
To return to the beneractora of this College : The buttresses 
tliereoF i*ere, in the reign of king Heniy VII. made at the cost of 
Elizabeth duchess of Norfolk ; and God grant (say I) good but- 
tresses to the Colleges in both UniTersities, to support them firmly 
against all opposition 1 The said duchess foanded also one Fellow- 
ship, and one Bible-Clerkship. 

II. The Benejaetion ofMattkm Parker. 
But amongst modem benefactors, none to be mentioned with 
Matthew Parker, Master of the College, if we consider what 

1. ffe laeed—in stating their accounts, and r^;ulating the 
method of theii rents, carelessly kept (that is, lost in e^ct) before 
his time. 

2. ffe ffuM — beside many inTaluable manuscripts, two Fellow- 
ships, and five Scholarships. 

3. ffe recovered — a basin and ewer of silver from the ezepntors 
of Laurence Maptyde; a rent-charge, of fifty shillings yeaHy, 
(detained for a long time,) out of the manor of Oerton. He dis- 
burdened the College of a pension, for the impropriation of Grant- 
Chester, and cast it (where it naa due) on the &rmer. 

Now, I conceive this is the best bene&cLion,— to recover the 
diverted donations of former benefactors ; partly, because it keepeth 
tAe dead from hting ttronged, restoring their gif^ according to their 
true intentions ; partly, because it keepeth the Ihing from doitiff 
wrong, and continuing their unjust detentions. 

12. A great Favourer of Norfoli'men. 

I confess some have complained of this Matthew Parker, that, in 
favour to his native county, he made all this College to Norfblkizc, 
appropriating most Fellowships thereunto. But the worst I wish 
this College is, that they may have the like Benefactor, who on the 
same terms may be partial to the same county. 

Masters.— 1. Thomas Eltisley. 2. Richard Treaton. S. Joho 
Kynne. 4. John Neckton. 5. Richard Billingford. 0. Joha 
Tiuhall. 7- John Botryght. 8. Walter Smith. 8. Simon Green. 
10. Thomas Cosin. 11. John Ediman. 12. Peter Nobis. 13. 
William Sowde. 14. Matthew Parker. 15. Laurence Maptyde. 
Iti. John Porey. 17. Thomas Aldriche. 18. Robert Norgate. 
19. John Copcot. 20. John Jegon. 21. Thomas Jegon. 22. 
Samuel Walsal. 23.~ Henry Butts. 24. Richard Love. 

Bekeitactobs.* — 1. Margaret Brotherton, duchess of Norfolk. 
' Nunelj, bciilde ilie iluiciiuaed. 



2. John Meos, esquire-beadle. 3. Sit Nichohs Bwod, Lord 
Keeper, bred in this Collie. 4. Roger Manners, esquire. 5. 
Roger MsnneiB, eari of Rutland. 6. Mr. William Benedict. 7- 
Mr. Leonard Cawson. 

BisHors.— 1. Matthew Parker, archbishop of Canterbmy. 2. 
Richard Fletcher, bishop of London. 3. John Jegon, bishop of 
Norwich. 4. Anthony Watson, Fellow, bishop of Chichester.* 

Learned Wbitbes. — Henry Hornby. 

CoLLEGK-LiTiKGS.— Landbeach rectory, in Ely diocess, valued 
at ^10. la. 3d. Wilbraham Parra rectory, in Ely diocess, valued 
at ^19. 1&. 8d. St. Bene't Cantab, in Ely diocess, valued at 
£4, 9i. 9d. Grantchester vicarage, in Ely diocess, valued at £7. 
14f. 3tt. St. Mary Abchnrch rectory, in London, £2. 2». Bd. 

So that lately, anno 1634, there were maintained in this Colle^, 
one Master, twelve Fellows, thirty-seven Scholars ; beside Officers, 
and Servants of the foundation, with other Students ; the whole 
number being one hundred twenty and eiz. 

13 — 15. Ih.SotedeandDr. Copoot. The CoOegtAnuvihif altered. 
Wh«re I had my Itutructions of this CoUeffe. 

Of the foresaid Masters, the thirteenth in order, namely, William 
Suwde, is, witb Mr. Fooke, (Fellow also of this College,) acknow- 
ledged by Mr. Fox a great favonrer and fatherer of the truth in the 
dark days of king Henry VIII.^ Dr. Copcot, the nineteenth 
Master, (bom at Calais,) was a great critic in the Lalin and Greek 
tongues, very familiar with Drusius, who wrote a letter to him, sub- 
scribed, Manibtu Jehannii Copcot, " to the ghost of John Copcot," 
—90 much was the Doctor macerated with his constant studying. 

We must not forget, how, in the beginning of the Reformation, 
GOime took exceptions at the ancient anus of this College as super- 
stitions ; and therefore, at the desire of Matthew Parker, the 
heralds did alter them, and assigned new ones, namely, azure, a 
pelican, on her nest, over her young ones argent, pecking out her 
own blood, giMee, proper gtdee, three lijies argent : % and thus 
a poet commented on them : — 

So that still they innocently relate to the ancient guilds of Corpus 
Ckritti and the virgin Mary, united in this foundation. 

So much of ttiis College : the ancient history, out of the archives 
whereof, my good friend, Mr. Crofts, (Fellow of the same, lately 

"Acta Uj MODDUWDU," 


74 BISTORT OF THB 4.V. 1342. 

gone to God,) commutiic&ted unto me, with the covrteoos consent 
of Dr. Richard Love, the worthy Master of this C«tl«^. YeA, I 
muBt thaiikfnlljr confess myself ooce a Member at laige of this 
House, wbeD they were pleased, above twenty years iioce, freely 
(without ny thoughts thereof) to choose nte Miniatei of St. Beae- 
dict'e choich, the pariah adjoiaiug, aud in their patronage. 

16 — 18. A Bank and a Lank <^ Charity. Williatn Bateman 
foundeth Trinity Haii. The MaOer'a Catalogue might be 
ammded. A.D. 1347. 

Two yean after was Trinity Hall begun. I confess, building of 
Colleges goeth not by planets, but by Providence ; yet it is observ- 
able, that now we had four founded within the compose of seven yean : 
— ^Pembroke Hall and Bene't College, already past ; Trinity Hall 
and Gonville Hall, immediately following. Thus as the 2eal of 
Achaia provoked many, 2 Coi. lx. 2 ; so here, when one once 
brake the ice, many followed the same beaten track of chuity. 
Whereas, on the other side, when men's hands begin to be out of 
giving, it is a long time before they recover the right stroke again ; 
after this feast followed a famine ; for it was almost a hundred years 
betwixt the founding of Gonville Hall and the next, which was 
King's College ; though charity, in the interval, may be presumed 
not to stand still, but to move, not in the generation of new— but 
augmentation of old — foundations. 

Now, Trinity Hall was built by William Bateman, bom in the 
city of Norwich, and became to be epiic(^ua ia fotrid, afterwards 
" bishop in the place of his nativity." He was one of a very stout 
spirit, and very well skilled in civil and canon law, (and we may 
presume the common law, too, because a Norfolk-man,) therebiic 
employed by the king to the pope ; in which embassy he died in 
Avignon. The place whereon he built this his Hall belonged 
formerly to the monks of Ely ; John de Crawden, their Prior, 
purchasing, and other benefactors enlarging the same ; so that it was 
a House for Students before bishop Bateman (and by the exchange 
for the advowsons of certain rectories) procured it into his own 

He appointed by his foundation only one Master, two Fellows, 
and three Scholars, — all of them to be students of the canon and civil 
law ; allowing one divine to be amongst them : whose numbw and 
maintenance have since been much increased by other benefactors. 

Masteks. — ^1. Adam de Wichmere. 2. Robert Biaunch. 3. 
Simon Dallinge. 4. Simon Thornton. 5. William Dollinge. 
6. Edward Shuldham. 7- John Wright. 8. Walter Huke. 9. 
Robert Laike. 10. Stephen Gardiner. 11. WiUiam Mouse. 



12. Henry Haney. 13. John Proton. 14. John Covell. 15. 
ClemeoB Corbet. Id. TborooB Eden. 17. Dr. Bonde. 

Benefactoks. — ^1. Mr. Simon Dsllinge. 2. Walter Huke. 
S. Robert Ooodnap. 4. John Mapt7de. 5. Qabriel Dnn. d. 
Richard Niz, bishop of Nonhdi. 7- Stephen Gardiner. 8. Mat- 
thew PaAa. 8. Dr. Moose. 10. Dr. Htrrey. 11. Mr. Busbie. 
12. Mr. Hue, esq. 13. Dr. Oovell. 14. fiir George Newman, 

BiBHors. — 1. Maimadake Lomley, bishop of Tjincoln. 2. Ste- 
phen Oudiner, bishop of Winchester. 3. Richard Sampson, 
bishop of Coventry and Lichfield. 4. William Barlow, bishop of 

Lkarnbd Wsitbss. — ^1. Stephen Gardiner, Lord Chancellor 
of Eugland. 2. Walter HaddoD, Master of Reqaests to queen 
ElizabetJi. 3. John Cowell, famous for his '< Interpreter,^ and 
other learned works. 

CoLLBOE LivtNfls.^Fenttantoa vicarage in Liacoln diocess, 
mined at ■£ 11. 11«. 4d. 2q. Great Stukeley vicarage, in Lincoln 
dioceaa, vsliied at £Q. XAt. 2d. Hemingford viconge, in Lincoln 
diocesfl, valued at £9. l6i. ItU. Wethetsfield vicarage, in Lon- 
don diocess, valued at ^2. Swaninglon rectory, in Norwich dio- 
cess, vslaed at ^6. t\a. 5d, lob. Qaysley [Gaieley] vicange, in 
Norwich diocess, valued at £7- 3t. 4d. St. Edffud's Cantab, in 
Ely diocess. Woodalling vicarage, in Norwich diocess, valued at 
£8. &. 3d. 

So there are at this present, (namely, atmo 1634,) one Master, 
twdva FellowB, fourteen Scholars; besides Officers, and Servants of 
the found^on, with other Students ; the whole number being three, 

I am loath to discompose the catalogue of Masters, wuianted 
both by Dr. Cains and Mr. Paricer ; otherwise, mi^t I insert my 
own observations. After Robert Braunch, I would nominate Henry 
Wells, Master of Arts, and next to him Marmaduke Lomlrf. I 
would also, after Stephen Gardiuer, place Walter Haddon, for one 
year in the reign of king Edward VI. and after him, Dr. Mouse, 
in the same king's reipi; then Gardiner again, in the first of 
qocen Mary ; and Mouae again, after Gardiner s death : submitting 
all to the censure of those in that foundation, as beet read in their 
«wiL records. 

19, 20. A pious Deeiffn. A bitter R«tort. 

Henry Harvey, the twelfth Master of this Hall, was he who, out 

of a pious intent, (as we are bound to believe, because profilsble to 

odkcrs,) with great expease did make a causeway on the south and 

, Cookie 

76' HKTOEY OF THB j>.b. 1W7. 

otber sides of Cambridge, for the more conrenienee of passengers ia 
those dirty ways. So that lua bounty has made summer unto Uiem 
in the depth of winter, allowing a large annual revenue for the 
maintenance thereof. 

Here I cannot forbear one passage, which I may call " a serious 
jest," which happened on this occasion. A noble person (but great 
anti-academic) met Dr. Harvey one morning, overseeing bis woric- 
men ; and, bitterly reflecting on his causelessly-suspected inclina- 
tions to popery, " Doctor,^ said he, "you think that this causeway 
is the high way to heaven." To whom the other as tartly replied, 
** Not BO, sir ; for then I should not have met you in this place." 

21, 22. A Di^iauatioaybr Inonatg of Commont. The exceeding 
CAMpneet ofaJi Ckmmtoditiet. 
We most not forget, that, when Thomas Arundel, archbishop of 
Canterbury, made his metropolitical visitation at Cambridge, about 
sixty years after the Srst founding of the HouBe ; on the instance 
and entreaty of the Master and Fellows thereof, he granted a 
dispensation onto them for enlarging their commons ; a copy 
whereof, carefully transcribed out of the original, we have here 

' Tiomae, permiesione ZHvirtd, Sfc. dUectie m Chruto JlUis, Ctu- 
todi et Soeiu CoUegii Bandw TriniUUii, I7niv«rntati$ Oanta- 
brigicB, talutem, ^ratiam, et bm^ictionan. — Sttff^iwtio pro parte 
ve^rA in vmtati&ne notird metropoliticd, in Mienei dkeeeei, et 
CoUegio veitro exercita, et odAue dta-ante, nobis propoiita oontin^ 
bat ; qu&d portio nngulorum viromm ad communae vertnu in 
dido Coltegio limitata, etn ad uberiorem providentiam efusdem 
Collect pro numero Sociorum suppetant /acultatet, in tantum ett 
rettrieta et dimintita, qudd ooneiderata prwientie temporis carittia, 
inde non poteritit .commodi euetentari. No* verd, prwmietit in- 
epectie et coneideralie, ut ad Dei laudem in studio eo mdius proficere 
fialeatis, qui vos aliundi victum qucerere non (y>ortet, ut singulis 
Beptimanit setrdedtn denarioi da bonis eommunibus CoU^i vestri 
antedieti stnguhntm Sociorum nomine in eommtmibut exponere 
poteritis, amsuetudinibtu in eontrarium, sen observanti6, etiam 
Juramenio, aut oon^rmoHonibua supenorwm non obstantibus qui- 
busounque, de nostrd gratid spedali mtierioorditer di^enaamus ; 
nobis nihilominus de restringendo easdem eommunas, seu etiam aug- 
mmtando, pro locis et tempor^us opportunts, polestatem specitUma 
resenxmtes. Dat. Sfc. 

Of which faculty (to spare a fonnal translation thereof) litis the 
effect : The Fellows of the House were tied up, by orders of their 

■ Rfgitl. Cut. Cmt. in T. jirvHicI, CnuBCclbed by Mr. Blewet. ' 


foundnr, to bo shoTt a euiu, to prDTiae commons therevith, that it 
would oot furnish them with Agur^s wish, " food convenient for 
tlieiD," considering the present scarcity of commodities. Wbere- 
npon the ardibishop, by this instrument, (wisely reserring like 
power to his snccessors.) dispensed with thera ; tlutt, notwithstand- 
ing their statutes to the contrary, they migjit expend sixteen-pence 
a-week in commons, two-peace for the week-days, a groat for the 

Trae it ia, that in the reign of king Edward I. all victuals were 
exceeding cheap, universally all over the land ; when an Act of 
Commoo Cooodt was made, coilHrmed by the king and his nobi- 
lity, that, in London itself, (where provisions may be presumed 
dearest,) a fitt cock was to be sold for three half-pence, two pullets 
at the same rate, a fat capon for two-pence half-penny, a goose 
four-pence, a mallard and partridge three half-pence a-piece, two 
woodcocks for the same pnce, &c. a &t lamb,* (counted in tho 
nature of poultry, seccmd-courae meat,) irom Christmas to Shrove- 
tide, uz-pence, and, all the year after, four-pence ; mutton, veal, 
pork, and beef being all cheap proportionably, 

23, 24. Caiuea ofDaameti. Nor/uU, nor^fixainff. 

But since men multiplied, and more money daily was imported 
by tlie easterllngs, prices of all victuals grew very high ; and this 
very year, wherein this dispensalion was granted, being 1405, the 
seventh of king Henry IV. by reason, of much waste made by the 
civil wars, at Uiat time all victuals were much enhanced. Where- 
fore, to use the prophet's phrase, " The epbah being now made 
amaH and the shekel great," the Scholais in this Hall had just cause 
to petition for an augmentation of money to buy their commons. 
But since the finding out of the Weat-lndies, in the reign of king 
Henry VH. and the daily importing of silver, prices of all com- 
modities are mounted to an incredible proportion to what they were 

Indeed, (pardon a digression,) this present year, a.d. 1655, is 
as plenUful as any memory alive can parallel i so that we want 
Dothing but grateful hearts to God for the same. For it is strange^ 
dut, when the valleys htugh and sing with com, the owners should 
eigji and ay for the same. Yea, such is men^s peevishness, as if it 
endeaTOured to puzzle Omnipotency to please it, betwixt the pining 
of the poor in penury, and the repining of the rich in plenty. 
And, as the infidel prince would not believe that Ood could send 
plenty in Samaria, though he " should open the windows of heaven,^ 
2 Kings vii. 2, 19 ; bo some covetons cormorant-commongcrs despair 
• JoBH Srnw'i " BWoiT," !»(■ 807. 


78 RISTORV 07 THE a.B. U8I. 

that be ebouM Msd » deuth of giwa amongst ui, akovld be stop the 
windows Uiereof, drought never inalcing a dearth in England. But 
how quickly thej may be confuted, and out present plenty justly 
twned into want, to Ood alone is known. 

25. Ooamnient Diet netful for Studeatt. 

But, to Ktum to the scbolara of Trinity-Hall. True it is, that 

a body surfeited with food is unfit for study : scholars, like bswks, 

flying best when sharp, and not full gorged ; and the monk's vcise 

bath much truth in it : — 

And yet perchance, 

Laudmit plena mimaiAui jtimibi tmtln. 
" He praised bsting wboi he was fiill himself.'' However, there 
nay be a fault as wdl in Ute defect, as on the ezceas ; and there is 
a distention as well of wind and emptiness, as of flesh and fiilneas, 
equally impeditive to a studious mind, and therefore good reason 
tliat the fs^ of these schofan should be enlarged. 

20—28. GoBvilU-ffali founded. ArMiakop Uf«rd a Commoner 
therein. TAit Hall tratuplanted. A.D. 1348. 

Edmund Gonville, (younger brother to Sir Nidiolss Gonville, of 
Rushwortb, knight,) parson of Terrington and Rnshworth, in Nor- 
folk, where he bad founded a. College of canons, valued at the Dis- 
solution, at — — , bniit also a Hall, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, 
on the place where now are the orchard and tennis-court of Bene''t 
Collc^ five years after having its aituation altered. 

Whilst this Hall continued here, one eminent commoner lived 
tLerein, namely, J<din USbid, Doctor of Law, son to the earl of 
Suffolk, and, by royal appointment, with the papal conaent, made 
archbishop of Canterbury ; but, dying before bis eoneecration, pro- 
bable (if surviving) to prove a good benefactor to this Hall. But 
he departed this life somewbat before Edmund Gonville, (the Hall 
losing so good fiithn- and so hopeful a friend, in a short space,) 
thon^ the latter left a large sum of money to William Bateman, 
bishop of Ely, to see this foundation finished according to bis 

Bishop Bateman desired to bring this new Hall nearer his own 
of Trinity Hall ; pertly, because he mig^t oversee both his child 
and nurse-child at the same inspection ; partly, to invite converse 
betwist these two countryfolk-foundations, (both of Norfolk parent- 
age,) by their vi«mty of situation. This was done accordingly. 
In&nts are easily portabk from place to place ; and this Hall, not 


ST nwAM» 111. nNlVKRSmr OP CAMBKIDQE. 79 

jH Follf rooted, ma quickly nmoTcd. An ezcbrage is made with 
Bcne't College, (or Uteir mntDal convenience, s&d Oonville Hall 
tnsiplaiited to the place irhere it standeth at this day ; and i*here 
it fiueth the worse for the town's over-Fond embracing thereof, m 
ranoonding it on ai\ sides, that it wanteth those walks other Col- 
lies do enjoj. 

2d, 30. Two neblg Studmtg. Fithmeki Haitd ^vm to ihU HaU. 

This House was afterwards honoured with Students of the highest 
extraclion, amongst whom, of chiefest remark, Humphrey and 
Edward, sons to John de la Pole, duke of Suffitik ; whose elder 
brother having undone himself and his family, these betook them- 
selves to th^r books, prefening to claim learning as llieir own 
right, tatber than to be called "lords" by the courtesy of 
others. However, though both in Orders, they attained no consi- 
deiable church-preferment, (Edward only getting the archdeaconry 
of Richmond,) not for want of worth, but, probably, because 
overlooked by the jealous eye of king Henry VH, So impos- 
sible it was any pluit should grow great under such a malignant 

We most not forget how William Fishwisk, esquire-beadle of 
the University, bestowed his dwellbg-bouse on this Hall, turned 
afterwards into an Hostel, and beautified with fair buildings ; not 
entire in itself, but retaining to Gonville Hall, This Fishwick's 
Hostel, though worse than a Cambridge- vras belter than any Oxford- 
Hall ; as partly endowed by the bounty of William Revel, rector 
of Tichwell in Norfolk, who in his own benefice bailt several cham- 
bers and lodgings, whither the Fishwickians might retire, either for 
plttsure in sununer, or safety in sickness. Above fourscore com- 
moners have lived at once in this Hostel, repairing for prayers to 
Gonville chapel, and, if dying, interred therein. Since it is assumed 
bto Trinity Collie. 

31 — 33. Papal Indvigencet. Matters, Bettefiictors, ^e. of Gott- 
eiOeSaU. Tke Earl of Cambri^e. ^.i). 1351— 1361. 

As for Gonville Hall, it flourished by the bounty of several 
bene&ctoTS; yea, it found some popes much befriending it: as 
BiituB IV. who (notwithstanding the decree of Benedict XI. 
enjoming all Benedictine monks to study in University Hall) 
dispensed with those of Norwich to reside in Oonville Hall. Also 
Alexander VI. gave them leave yearly to send two to preach in any 
part of England without control. 

Mastses. — John Colton ; William Roughem ; Richard Pulham ; 


80 HlSTORfOPTRB a. d. 1373. 

William Somenliam ; John Rickingpele ; TIioiiiss Atwood ; Tho- 
mas Bolken ; Edmund Sherifl^ ; Henry Costeraey ; John Barly ; 
Edmund Stnbbs; William Buckenham; John Bkippe; John 
Sturmin ; Thomaa Bacon ; John Cains. 

Bemefactobs. — lady Maiy P&kenhara ; ladjr Anne Scroope ; 
lady Eliiabeth Cleere [Clare] ; Dr. Balie ; Stephen Smith ; Rich, 
ard Wilison ; Thomaa Atkins ; Peter Hewit ; William Gale ; 
Thomas Willowa ; William Sigo ; Dr. Knigbt ; John Whitacre. 

BiEHoFE. — ^1. John Cohon, archbishop of Armagh. 2. John 
Rickingpale, bishop of Chichester. 3. William Linwood, bishop 
of St. David's. 4. Nicholas Shaxton, bishop of Sanim. 5. 
William Repps, bishop of Norwich. 6. John Skippe, bishop of 

Lbabnbd Wbitebs.— William Linwood; John Cains. 

Livings ih the Gift of the College. — Vida inftv in 
Caitu College. 

How this Hall came afterwards to be improved into a College 
shall, God willing, in due time and place be related. 

Richard de Herling, Chancellor, a.d. 1351. 

William Tynkel, Chancellor, 1352. 

Thomaa de Sutton, Chancellor, 1359. 

Richard de Wetheraet, aliis Cambridge, Chancellor, 1^60. He 
■was by way of eminency called Richard of Cambridge ; and had 
many contests with the monks. He was well skilled in School. 
Divinity ; a tacemation of which studies was now in Cambridge, but 
not comparable to the vintage thereof in Oxford. 

EMmund de Langley, fifth son to king Edward III. was by his 
father created earl of Cambridge. And now that title, which 
formerly had travelled beyond the seas, (residing for a time with 
German princes,) came home, and quietly reposed itself in the Bri- 
tish blood-royal, wherein it continued until the death of the lost 
duke of Hamilton. 

Michael de Haynton, Chancellor, a.d. 1361. 

34. A Contett about chooting of ChatuxUor, A.D. 1362—1369. 
Michsel de Causton, Chancellor. An anti-chancellor was chosen 
against him by an active faction in the University; one John de 
Donewick, wanting nothing for that place, save a legal election. 
However, his party presented him to John Bamet, bishop of Ely, 
who confirmed him Chancellor. Whereupon Mr. John USbrd and 
Mr. William Rawby, in the name of the University, appealed to 
the official of the court of Canterbury. The official sent John 
Tinmouth, William Teofle, and Thomas Ely, Masters of Arts, to 
tlic bishop of Ely, inhibiting to intermeddle any more about Done- 


'wide, bennse chosen ftgainst statute. Thus vae this Donewick 
cast out of the House for tiie present, for coming in by the window; 
who, some years after, entered in by the door of on andoubted elec- 
tion, and excellently dischai^ged his office therein. 

William de Gotham, Chancellor, a.d. 1366. 

Thomas de Stnkely, Chancellor, 1369. 

35—^7- Diaeordt bttvrixt Dominieatu and Oarmeliies. The 
Dominican chargeth. The Carmelite reoeiveth the Charge, 
and amquereth. A. B. 13^9— 1373. 
This year a tough controTersy happened betwixt the Dominicans, 

plaintiffs, and the CariKlites, defendants, reducible to three piinct- 

pal heads: — 

1. Which of the two Orders had the best name ? The Domi- 
nicans UTgiitg it more honour to be called from a man than a 
moimlain ; an holy saint than a high heap of eartJi. The others 
j^oined, that the mountain of Carmel was more than a mountain, 
aa sanctified by Elijah, (chief of their Older,) bo conversant thereon. 

2. Which was most ancient P Wherein the Dooiinicans pleaded 
acTcn yeais' seniority. And, thouf^h this may seem but a small 
matter, yet a race is as &iily won by a horBe'a head, as by a lurlong 
distance before. 

3. Who had most and strongest papal privileges P Which, 
b«ng a mattar of &ct, depended on the producing and proving their 
scTeial instruments. 

Meantime the quarrels of Friars bred the quiet of Students ; the 
gremials in the University (formerly troubled with Friars contest- 
ing with them) liad now leave and leisure peaceably to follow their 

Johnde Donewick, Chancellor, a.d. 1371- 

John Stokes, a Dominican, bom at Sudbury, in Suffolk, but 
stndyiog in Cambridge, aa champion of his Order, fell foul on the 
Carmelites, chiefiy for ctJluig themselves " the brothers of the 
blessed Virgin,^ and then, by consequence, all know whose uncles 
they pretend themselves. He put them to prove their pedigree by 
Scripture, how the kindred, came in. In brief, Bale saith, " he left 
red notes in the white coats of the Caimetites," he 80 belaboured 
them with bis lashing language. 

But John Hombcy, a Carmelite, (bom at Boston, in Lin- 
colnshire,) undertook him, called by Bale Comulm, by otbeis 
" Homet-bee," so stinging his style. He proved the brothership 
•f his Order to the Virgin Mary by visions, allowed true by the 
infiUIible popes, so that no good Christian durst deny it ; and pre- 
niled wi^ the Chancellor of Cambridge, in a public writing, to 

, C^.oo^lc 


Bigaify the snperiority of Uieir Order in this ddUghty difference, 
wherein not a hair of any important truth was concerned. 
Adam Lakingheth, Chancellor, a.d. 1373. 

38. CMttcer a Cambridffe Student. 

About this time Geofirey Chaucer studied in Cambridge, as the 

writer of his Life (prefixed to the last and beet edition of hie 

Works) hath well obaenred. For, being commanded to pre an 

account of himself, — • 

" What li TODT n«ino t 'RAeve It here I pniy ; 

or wbeu lod nhsrs, of wliat DondMoD 

Ttkt rebean of; let aee, eoma off and mf. 

Fains itauld I knoitfoat dlgpotldoDi" 

be returned, under the assumed name of PhilogeMt, " Of Cam- 
bridge clerk." Here "clerk" is not taken in the restrictive sense, 
for one in Orders, (Chaucer being a military man,) but for a 
Scholar, skilled in learning; in which contia-distinction all men 
were divided, (as time into day and night,) into derkf and iKf 
dorks. I confess, this Chaucer, liring at New-Elm in Oxfordshire, 
"compowned his Astrolabye for ihe orizont of Oxenford,'''f- and 
probably studied also in that University ; being one of that merit, 
who may with honour be acknowledged a member of both Univer* 

John de Donewick, Chancellor, a.d. 1374. 

William de Gotham, Chancellor, 1376. 

Richard le Seroope, Chancellor, 1378, 

Guido de Zouch, Chancellor, 1379. 

John de Cavendish, Chancellor, 1380. 

39—41. A rebeUiout Riot of the Townsmen of Cambridge. tJni* 
versih/ MonumenM Tnartyred. A.D. 1381. 5 Richard II. 
Edmund Lister, mayor of Cambridge, with the bailiffs and bur- 
gesses thereof, met in the town-house. Here they chose James 
Granchester and Thomas his brother into their coiporation, which 
formerly were foreigners, and not free of the town. This done, 
they elected the foresaid James to be their ringleader ; yet so that 
they bound him with an oath to do whatsoever they should com- 
mand him. Now, because it is as necessary, and almost as accept- 
able a work, to transmit the memory of Jlfo^eiactors to the detesta- 
tion— -aa of ^en^octors to the praise— of posterity, take a list of 
the most active townsmen in this wicked design. 1. John Blanck- 
pain; 2. JohnCotten; 3. John Marshall; 4. John Brigham ; 
5. John Tripplow ; 6. Thomas Tryvet ; 7. Peter Lolwortb ; 8. 
• Inhli "CoortorLore," tol. 3B3. 1 In bla " Aatn4«bjr," fill. 261. 



3<Aa CardraikcT; 9. Robert Bellhan ; 10. Jobn Barley; 11. 
Adam Secant ; 12. Henrj Rand ; 13. John Herre ; 14. Aleian- 
der TaTerner; 15. Biitelin of Cambridge.* Fifteen iDen, all disho- 
nest and &1se, whom I may call " the field officers,^ under their 
Genenl Omnchester, if the honourable terms of " an army" may 
be applied to ao base a company. 

Then lliis nbble-roat rolled to Bene't College, against -wliich 
foondatioD they had a particuhu quanel, because endowed with 
many candle-rents in Cambridge, so that a sixth part of the town ia 
said at that time to belong hereunto. Here they brake open the 
College-gates on the Saturday aight, (a. good preparation for the 
Lord's-day following,) and, as if the readiest way to pay their rent 
Tere to destroy theii landlords, they violently fell on the Master 
aad Fellowa therein. From them they took all their charters, evi- 
dences, prinl^es, and plate to the value of fourscore pounds. 
Hence tJiey advanced to the house of the Chancdlor, threatening 
bim and the UoiverBity with fire aad eword, (as indeed ^ey did 
bun tlie faonse of William Wigmore, Egquiit-Beadle, prodaiming 
^t vliosoevei conld catch ^ould kill him,) except they would 
Histantly renounce all th^ privileges, and bind themselves in a 
bond of three thousaad pounds to subject themselves herealter to 
the power of the townsmen, and &ee the townsmen from any 
actions, real or persontd, which might arise from this occasion. 
This done, they went into the mailcet-place, vihete with clubs they 
bnke the seals of the University-Charters, and then burnt them ia 
the place. One Margaret Steir, a mad. old woman, threw the 
ashes into the air, with these words: "Thus, thus let the learning 
of all scholars be confounded ! ^ -f* 

Now, if any ask ua what is become of the originals of the Bulls 
ef HonoriuB, Sergius, Eugenius, &c. of the ancient charters of 
Arthur, and other Briton and Saxon kings ; we have but one sad 
and trae answer to return to all their quealionn : " They are 
burnt i" and that in the worst of fires, not caused by casualty, but 
by malicious design. From Cambridge they went to Barnwell, 
doing many aaerilegious ontrsges to the priory therein. Nor did 
their fiiry fidl on men alone, even trees were made to taste of their 
emelty. In th«r return they cut down a curious grove called 
OreenVCroft, by the river's side, (the ground now belonging to 
Jesus Collie,) as if they bare such a hatred to all wood, they 
would not leave any to make gallows thereof for thieves and mur- 
dems. All these insolences were acted just at that juncture of 
time when Jack $traw and Wat Tyler played rex in and about Lon- 
don. Mote mischief had they done to the Scholars, had not Henry 
.fCAiOK, Hfprfuf, psg<99. 

, Cookie 

84 tllSTORT OF TBE ».o. 13S4: 

SpeoceTifhefrftriike bishop of Norwich, casnallycome to Cambridge 
vith some forces, and sessonably suppressed tlieir madness. 
Guido de Zouch, Chancellor, a.d. 1382. 

42, 43. The Tovmmm eaUed to a legal Account. Tieir pitijvl 

The time was now come that the townsmen might calmly be 
counted with, to answer that in cold which they had done in hot, 
yea, scalding, blood. Two writs are sent down from London ; the 
one to the mayor and baiHSs of Cambridge then being, the other to 
them who were mayor and buMa the year before, when the riot 
was committed. The fiist appeared personally, and pleaded them- 
selves nof ^t^, not knowing of any such outragcH. Bdmund Lister 
pleaded also not ffuiltff, and that he was enforced to do all that was. 
done ; which the king''s counsel quickly confiited, by producing the 
two bonds which they forced the Chancellor to sabscribe. 

Three things the townsmen desired : First. A copy of the Inll. 
Secondly. Counsel. Thirdly. Respite to answer. To the copy of 
the bill it was answered, Uiat since they had heard the same, it 
should suffice ; for by law they ought to have no copy.* To 
Counsel it was answered, they ^onld have it wherein it was to be 
had ; but thb was mere matter of fact. As for reEf>ite, after many 
subterfuges and dilatory pleas, at lost they submitted themselves to 
the king's mercy, who seized the privileges of the town, as forfeited 
into his own huids, and confetred them on the Univetuty. 

44, 45. Primleget conferred on the Univereity. Focalia prised h 
the Chancellor. , 

First. That beteafler the oversight of all victuals should belong 
to the Chancellor ; so that no townsman ever since putteth a crum^ 
of bread or drop of beer into his mouth, but what first is weighed 
and measured by an officer of the University. Secondly. That the- 
Chancellor and the University should have power to set prices on 
candles, (very necessary, I assure you, to hard students,) and to 
license all victualling-houses, and oversee all wares and weights at 
Sturbridge &ir. Thirdly. That no action be brought by any 
townsman against Scholar or Scholar's servant, save only in the 
Court of the Chancellor. Fourthly. That the University have 
power to punish and amerce oil forestallen, registers. See. paying a 
rent of ten pounds a-year for that privilege into the Exchequer ; 
this their power extending to the town and suburbs thereof: from 
which clause of " suburbs '' the Lord Coke collects and concludes 
Cambridge then to be a city in reputation.f 
•LoRDCoiKlntlMf6iinbputorhli«IiutinUM,"c. 11. t Hdttiln^nt. 

, Cookie 


Wi; mint not foiget that at the same time /oeaSa, tbat is, alt 
kind of fuel, wood, coals, tnrf, &c. was then subjected to t1i9 
Chancellor, as to set the price thereof. Seeing the townamen bad 
10 little wit and honesty as to make fuel of king's charters, here- 
after they should meddle no more with materials for fire. Thus ill 
manners occasion good laws, as the handsome children of ugly 

John NektoS) Chancellor, a.d. 1384. 

46 — 50. An Order that no Scholar ittohe admitUd under eighteen 
Years of Age. The Francttcam oppoM (Am Odw. TAs 
Itnte uncertain. [^Beneficed Men liceiued bt/ the Pope at Nonr 

The UniveTBity now be^an to grow sensible of a great gnevanccT 
cnnsed by the Minors or Franciscao Friais. For they surprised 
many, when children, into their Order, before they could well dis- 
tinguish betwixt a cap and a cowly whose time in the University 
■an on &om their adnuseion therein, and so they became Masters of 
Arts before they were masters of themselves. These Uniiersity- 
boya, (for me» they were not,) wmting wit to manage theii df^^reea,. 
insolmtly domineered over sudi who were their juniors, yet their 
cldos. To prevent future inconveniences in this kind, the Chan- 
eellor and Univ^sity made an order, tliat hereafter none should 
be admitted gremials under eighteen years of age. 

The Minora or Franciscans were much nettled heieat, who- 
traded much io such tender youth ; (Minovs and children agree 
well together;) and William Folvil, a Ftancigcan, wrote an invec- 
tive against the Act of the University, as injurious to the privil^^s- 
of this Order ; it being against monastical liberty to be stinted tO' 
any age for the entrance therein.* 

I find not what was the issue of tliis contest, but believe that the 
University never retracted their order ; though it stands not in 
fiwce this day, wherein many of younger age are daily admitted. 
And seeing man's life is now shortened, it is but reason, that what 
we want of our ancestocs in long running, we should supply in soon 
atartiag. Let the watermen of London (whose violent work 
leqnires robustious bodies) make an order in their Hall, that none 
under the age of eighteen should be bound apprentice in their 
Company : ability is more to be respected tlian age in the sons of 
the Muses, in whom often eruditio supplet wtaiem. Nor is there 
to my knowledge any prohibition in this kind observed, save that 
(hey fright scholars of a low stature with a joculary tradition, that 


SS HrSTORV OF THE i.D. 1389. 

** none ore to commence who ace not higfaeE t£an the headless 

A gieat schism happened this year in the regent-boase, abont the 
choice of a new Chancellor. I find not who cstried the pkce, and 
therefore probably the eld one etill CDfttinoed. 

Thomas de Hetherset, Chancellor; Richard Majcent, Proctor, 
A.S. 1386. 

Pope Urban VI. gave .licence to beneficed men to be non- 
residents for five years, and follow their studies in the Univeruty, 
if allowed by the Chancellor for the same. 

William ColvilleT Chancellor ; John Wace and Richard Baston, 
Proctors, a. d. 1388. 

51. A Parliametd kept at CamMdffv. 
A parliatnent was called at Cambridge ; a place at this time Tery 
convenient for that puqiose. For he that will hindei the hide front 
rising up on either side muet fix his foot on the middle thereof. 
Cambridge was well nigh the centre of those eastern counties, 
htely mutinous with pc^ular commotions. The king for hia pri- 
vacy was pleased to pefer Barnwell Priory for the place of hi» 
repose, though otherwise King's HalT, founded I^ his grutdfather, 
was prepared for his entertainment ; where all things were so con- 
veniently contrived, that the courtiers had all lodging and offices 
hy themselves, without meeting with the Scholars, save only in the 
passage towards the kitchen. WilFiam Courteney arcbbishop of Can- 
terbury, and Edmund Langley earl of Cambridge, lodged in the con- 
Tents of the Carmelites, being of the largest receipt of any Religious 
House in Cambridge. A sad accident happened as the king rode 
in state to the house : one Sir Thomas Trivet attended his majesty; 
which knight, being mounted on an uuuly horse, was cast off*, 
brake his entrails, and died the next day. 

S2 — 54. Ganterhary mwprwUedfor Cambrufye in tie StattO^booi. 

The excellent Statutes of Cambridffe Parliameta {^aimt 

leaaiering Scholars. 

By the way, methinks Cambridge mi^t bring on aetion of trm* 

pais sgaioBt all our printed statute-books, for depriving her of the 

honour of this parliament, and rendering the place Canterbmy 

instead of Cambridge, in the preface to the Acts thereof. Th^ 

inconvenience cometh from contracting long words in writing, when 

there be two names whose bees, (as I may say,) I mean, their 

beginningH, are the same ; and whose lower parts, though much 

difiering, — being cut. off with a dash,^-causeth a confusion betwixt 

them. And although, by the Tower Rolls and other excellent 

I) bichaU :i. university OF CAMBKIDOB. ^7 

aotbtOB,* tluB pailiament appeaietii kept at Cambridge, not Cantei- 
bmy ; yet (as if pregcriptioD tutned usorpation into lawful posses- 
sIod) the lawyers will not amend this misUke. The beet is, it 
matten not where good statates be made, so they be made ; the 
place beiDg not essential unto them. 

Many and good were the laws enacted in this parliament, besides 
the confinnation of those made in the reign of king Edward III. 
Bunely, that the manly and martial exercise of archery should be 
generally used. Secondly. A. statute was made against the multi- 
tude of servants ; great lords keeping then little armies in their &mi- 
lies, which soon after occasioned the wars betwixt the Houses of 
York and Lancaster^ And whereas it was the general complaint, 
that men were grown so nun and expensive in theii clothes, that . 
senants were not to be known from their masters, the clergy from 
the laity, something was ordered for the regulating of ^poiel, the 
mgta of labourers, uid removing the staple. 

We must not forget, that in this parliament a statute was made- 
also agunst wanderers ; and particularly against Scholars of both 
the Univeisities, that they should not go about without licence from 
the dumcellor. Indeed, I have ever beheld begging Scholars as 
die most improper objects of charity ; who must be vicious, or else 
oonDot be necessitous to a mendicant condition. But, since, I have 
revoked my o]»mou ; the calamities of this age felling bo heavily on 
Scholars, that I am converted into a charitable conceit of such who. 
beg (he charity of others. 

Richard de Deeriiam, Chuiceltor, a. d. 1989. 

55 — 58. A Orange Miracle. Not like those in the Soriptttre. A 
ttranffe Plague t» Cambridge. The like after teai at Oxford. 
A stnnge miracle is reported here to have happened : Whilst 
the Augustine Friars in a solemn procession were carrying the Host 
about Uie town, on a sudden it grew so heavy, that it made two of 
the strongest Fiiais puff, and sweat, and blow to support the same.-f- 
It added to the wonder, that, let any layman put his hands under 
it, and they felt no weight atoll. Thus this was a Roman — hut 
HO Catholic— miracle, as but partial, and conBned only to the 
cognizance of the clergy ; enough almost to make it suspected, that 
they first feigned it who only felt it. 

Surely, it is not like unto Scripture-miracles, which had all per- 
sons present witnesses to the truth thereof. Say not, " Paid only 
hcud the voice speaking to him from heaven, which the rest of his 
fellow-travellers did not hear ;"" because that express was made par- 


8& HISTOBY OF THB a. d. 1396. 

tjcularlj tat Iub penonal eo&venion. OUterwUe, it wJU be b«rd to 
iastance in Scriptuie wlieieiD a miracle was not evideat t» all wko 
were present thereat. 

This repotted miracle was followed with a ead mwtatity in tlie 
town and Univenity, proceeding from Uie infection of the air, anii 
that caused from the unclean keeping of Uie streets. Indeed, I 
read how the Master of Michael Hostel was convented before the 
Chancellor, and commanded either quickly to cleanse their chan- 
nels, or quite to stop them up, ae being in the public passage of the 
Students to the Schools and St. Mar/s, whidi seat forth snch an 
edcnsive savour, (the purest brains are soonest subject to isfection,^ 
that many fell sick with the noisomenese thereof. And, indeed^ 
tlie shame and guilt is great, when, for the want of sweeping the 
streets, the inhabitants thereof are awept away with infections. 
Now, such the malignity of this disease, that presently it infected 
the brain, so that instantly men ran raving mad, and, which was 
strange, starved themselves to death, refusing to eat or drink, save 
what was forced down their throats with violence. What number 
of Scholars and townsmen died hereof, is uncertain ; but, sure, they 
were not a few, the distemper continuing for many weeks together. 

I donbt not but Oxford did greatly condole with Cambridge 
herein, the rather, because, surely, Cambridge did sadly gympathiie 
with her sister Oxford, when, in the reign of king Henry VII. she 
was made desert and desolate by an ejndemical infection. This 
arose, saith their antiquary, ex gtagnit et aquaram obidbut, from the 
stopping of water-courses, (and Oxford, I assure you, is well stored 
witii them on her east and south side,) so that the town was wholly 
forsaken, till, by the care of Richard Fox their Chancellor, it slovljr 
recovered the inhabitants.* 

5Q — 61. John Bromiard, a fierce Anti-Wicklttitt. Both best by 
Tunis. Statute against J^itire Friars. A.D. 1390 — 1396. 

Now, or abont this time, John Bromiard, a DomiDican,-f' first 
bred in Oxford, cmne to Cambridge ; and there became Professor 
of Divinity : sent thither (perchance) on design to ferret out the 
Wicklivists, to whom he was a professed enemy ; though Ralph 
Spalding, a Carmelite, was the sole eminent Cantabrigian at this 
time suspected to fevour their opinionB.| 

Note by the way, that Oxford was most fruitful of defenden and 
sufferers for the truth, from the coming of Wicldiff till the rising of 
Luther ; during which time Cambridge was but barren of tamous 
confessors. But Cambridge, in the reign of king Henry VIII. 

• B^lA>iTwYNB,p«ge331. Wm*vt,T>t Surifi. ^ii|^. pige Ml. 

X litm, page 800. 



tfTordcd more nartyn and witnesses of the truth, whilst Oxford 
ms more generally gnilty of superstition.* Thus he who hath two 
fiur orchards seldom wasteth fruit ; the one hitting whilst the other 
fiuleth. And thus the God of truth was alternately furnished with 
diampions, first of the one then the other University ; till both at 
last (after the perfect Reformation) became the iruitfiil nurseries of 
Protestant worthies, to the envy and admiration of all Christendom. 

William Colnlle, Chancellor; Thomas Hadley and Peter Skel- 
toa. Proctors, a.d. 1391. 

It was usual for apostate Preaching or Dominican Friars, being 
fagitiTefl from foreign parts, here surreptitiously to steal their 
d^rees: in future prevention whereof, the king ordered, they 
should not commence in either University, He by his writ also 
enjoined the sheriff of Cambridgeshire, in default of the bailiffi and 
townsmen, to assist the Chancellor in repressing malefactors.-f' 

John Nekton, Chancellor, a.d. 1392. 

William Colville, Chancellor; Thomas Hougham, Proctor, 

Eado or Guido de Zouch, Chancellor ; WilliatB Wimble, Proc- 
tor, 1396. 

02, 63. Tke fir^ Penon of Honour CianceUor of Cambridge. 
Cambridffa'i ChaaceUor no longer confirmed by Ely's Bi»h<^. 

John Fordham, bishop of Ely, well considering the state, degree, 
and noble birth of Eudo de Zouch, (being, as I collect it, 
younger son to the Gist lord Zouch of Harringwortb in Northamp- 
tonshire, a younger branch of most ancient barons at Ashby-de-la- 
Zoucfa in Leicesteishire,) would not exact obedience of hiin, as of 
the former Chancellors. Indeed, Fordham was herein more court- 
like and civil to this Eudo than Thomas Arundel, his processor 
bishop of Ely, who (being nobly bom himself, might be pre- 
sumed more courteous to one of the like extraction, yet) seventeen 
years since, namely, a.d. 1379, took obedience of this Eudo, then 
Chancellor, in all formality. But some will say, " Eudo had since 
actpiired (though not better blood) more gravity and degrees, and 
therefore more respect was due unto him." 

But what now was indulged to Chancellor Zouch as a personal 
fiivonr vras, six years after, a.d. 1402, granted generally to all his 
succcMois, by t^e bounty of pope Boniface IX. who, by hia Bull, 
ordered it, that the Chancellor of Cambridge needed not anyfrirther 
coofirmation from the bishop of Ely, but that his election by the 
University put him into power to perform his ofiSce. 

. "Aeti tod HouDnwDts." 





PBiHAtt mundi statem, Poets dixerunt auream ; noa 
ob auri abuDdantiam, cujus ne mica tanc in usu, (cum 
" opes, malorum irritameDta," nondum effoderentur,) sed 
ob aummam illius sseculi simplicitatem. 

Quo quidem aensu, vita academica miM rer^ aurea est 
censenda : ctijus me meminisse jurat, cum nos olim, in 
CoUegio Sydneyano, (ego sub aaapiciis Doctoria Wardi, 
tu sub tuteld Magiatri Dugardi, rw lutxaphm,') IJteiis 

At praeter banc communem cum aliia felicitatem, mibi 
|)eculiaris boDor obtigit, quem idem cubiculum tibi aoci- 
avit, notiasimum enim illud, " Noscitur e socio : " unde 
spero fiitDrum, ut obacuritas mea inter c'ollegas, beueficia 
contuberoii tui, (tanquam notabUi indice,) apud poatero^ 

1,2. Ths large PritUege of Cambri^e for printing, much improved 
therein. 2 Henry IV. A.D. 1400. 

Richard BillingfieH, Chancellor. 

Over into England about this time first came the tnysterj of 
printing ; but when first brought to Cambridge, it is uncertain. Only 
I hope I may without offence report what I have read in the oracle 
of our English law : * " This University of Cambridge hath power 
to print within the same omnsi et omnitnodot libroa ; whicli the 
University of Oxford hath not," 

True it is, it was a great while before Cambridge could find out 
the right knack of printing, and therefore they preferred to employ 
Londoners therein. Thus I find a book of Robert Alynton% 
called Sophietica Principia, printed at London by Wynand de 
Word, ad tuum Cantabrigimtem, anno 1510. But some seven 
years after, one Sibert, University-printer, improved that mystery 
to good perfection, fairly setting forth the book of Eiasmus, De 



eotuoribendu EpiitolU,* the anthoi tben living in Cambridge, who 
Bisy be pregamed curioos in the impressioii of hu works. In th^ 
next age Thtwoas Thomaains, Fellow of King's, and Cambridge* 
printer, (known hj tbe Dictionary of his name,) heightened printing 
to higher degree ; since, exactly completed by his sncceBSois in that 
office ; witness the Cambridge Bible, of which none ezacter or truer 
edition in England. 

3—5. The Unwerrity vitited by tie Are^inthop of Cofiierburtf. 
Tie AreAbithop't Mandate to t&e Chant^or. Anotier to 
mery CoUege. A Mittake tn tie printed Date. A.D. 1401. 

This year the University was visited by Thomas Arundel, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, the first and last of his place personally 
appearing in that employment. We are therefore concerned to be 
the more punctual in relating all passages ; and begin with bis 
letter of citation, sent to the Chancellor, being Richard -de Billing- 
ford, Master of Corpus Ghrieti College, though none particularly 

Tiomai permimone, S^e. diUcto fiUo canceUario TTniterntatie 
Cantabriffiw, Elieneu diaxefeos, noHrwque provinciw Cantiiarien- 
m, ealatem, ^c—Quia not in pro^eau vititationis no»trw metro- 
poiiticm in didd diwceai exercendw, voi et dictam Unitersitatem, 
annaenle Domino, proponimut tititare ; vot tenore prwtentium 
peremptorii dtamat, et per toe omnee et einguha Doctorei, et Ma- 
ffiitroi Regeide», et aiiae pertonai quatcunque prwdidxv Univeni^ 
latitf qui noetro} tieitationi iujiwnodi intereeie tenentur de c&naue~ 
tadirie vet dejure, citari volumm ; et mandamtit,.yuod compareatis, 
rel eompareant coram nobis in dome conffregationis Unitersitatia 
pr<Bdicta, decimo septimo die mensis Sq^tembrii proximi Jatari, 
cum continuatione et prorogatione dierum tune tequentitim, visita- 
tionem nottram Aujusmodi juxta juris exigetUiam tuMturi, facturi- 
que ulteriiii et recepturi quod eanonicis convenit tnstitutis. Et 
quid feeeritis in prwmims, nos dictis die et loco defnti certificetis 
per lilerae veitrat patentei, huno tenorem, una cum nominibus et 
cwptominibae omnium et nngulorumper vos in hacparte eitatorum, 
in tcheduld eisdem Uteris testris annectendd, detoriptis, hahentes, 
ngilio vestro eonsiffnatas. Datum in manerio nostra de Lambeth, 
decimo octato die mentis Auffutti, anno Domini 1401, et nottrco 
tranikuionis anno quinto. 

Concordat cum oriffinali, 

RoBEBT Blewet, Notarius PvhUeus.^ 

t FrmafoTi, Tkem. Jrundtil, 


03 mSTOtlT OF THE a. d. 1401. 

The eame cUy gevenil letteis were sent, one to every paiticnlar 
College; as appeareth by the following copy, directed te Trinity 
Hall, (singled out, it seemeth, by itsdf ; whose Master, a Canonist^ 
was presumed most knowing in ancb legal proceedings,) wbicli onlyi 
remainetb in the register. 

TAtmuM, 6fc. in Ckritto ^lio, ffordiano site euttodi CoU^p 
Satu^tB TriniUUit Cantabrigiee, Eliemit diweeieSi, noOrfv Ca^tu- 
arietmi pronndts, galatam, S^c. — Quia no* in proffrema tiaita- 
tioait nottrw m^rcpoliHcm prcBdictee diaeeieSs, toe et CoUeginm 
testrum in p«raoni» et r^mi, annuMta Domino, vititare intendtmiu ; 
teaore prcetmUum peremptorii vog oitamue, et per vos onmei et 
sinffuUv Coneootot et Soiolaree prwdicti CoUeffii dtare eo/umtw, et 
mandamus, quod compareati* ; et comparecmt coram nobis, aat 
committariis nottrit, in capeUA, tite domo capitulari proBdtcU 
CoUegii, decimo teptimo die memit Septembrit proximi futuri, cum 
continuatione et ■ prorog<Uiom dieram tunc sequentium, vieitationem- 
hano juxta jurtt exigentiam tubitari, alteriusque Jhcturi et recep- 
turi quod eanonicia c&nvenit inetitutia. Et quid feceritie in pra>- 
mittit, not out commiatarios hujutmodi dictie die et looo d^tS 
certijlcetia per veetraa literae patentee, hune tenorem, und enm 
nominibue et eognominibus omnium et eingulorum Sociorum et 
Sckolarium per im in haa parts citatorum, in echeduld eitdem 
Uteris anneetendd, desoriptit, habentet. Datum in manerio noitro 
de Lan^eth, deeimo octavo die mentis Auffutti, anno Domini 1401^ 
et nostra translationts anno quitOo. 

Concordat cum originali, 

KoBEKT Blewet, Notarius PuHioue. 

It plainly appears, this visitation was kept a.d. 1401, by tlie 
expressed date thereof. If this may not be believed (figures being 
subject to mistake) of itself, it is confirmed with the coincidence of 
Arunders fifth year therein. This maketh me to believe my owd 
eyes, and a notary*s band, with the consent of chronology, before 
the foreign edition of " British Antiquities,'" * setting this visitation 
later by four years, namely, 1405. 

6 — 10. The Occasion of tkit Visitation. The Ardibishop comet in 

Pomp to Cambridge. All the Scholars appear before him. 

Tks Chancellor first examiJted. Several Chette in Cambridge, 

with their Donors. 

A word of the occasion of this visitation. William Courteney, 

Amndel's predecessor, some years since, had visited the University 

of Oxford tarn in capitequam in membris.f Now, that Cambridge 

t ^m. Bril. (ted'in FiUt ntma AnmdrlJ 



should neither be elated that it was above the archbiahop'B pover, 
nor dejected that it was bcDeath his care, but preserved in the same 
modente temper with her sister Oxford, Anuidel sow resolved to 
visit the same ; the ratlber, because suspecting some Wicklivists, his 
professed adversaries, to lurk therein. 

At the time appointed, September 16lh, the archbishop comes to 
Cambridge, in so stately an equipage that he almost daunted the 
beholders : UU the Students in Cambridge recovered themselves 
with a cheerM conaidenttion, — ^that none of them were excluded, 
except by thtai own nnworthiness, from a possibility of the like 
preferment ; who, though short of him in temporal extraction, might 
bj their deserts, in due time, equal his spiritual preferment. 

Next day, the Chancellor, dl the Heads of Houses, with all 
Doctors and Masters in the University, appeared before his Grace 
in the Convocation-house, and there solemnly performed unto him 
ihtii canonical obedience. Then the archbi^op addressed himself 
to his work, proceeding to a strict inquiry of all persons and 
passages subjected to his inspection. 

He began, September I7th, with the Chancellor, whom he exfr- 
nined singly, secretly, and cum nlaUio, on the fallowiug articles :^ 

1. ImprimU. Whether the statutes and laudable customs of 
(be University be observed by all therein ? 

2. Itma. Whether there be any Scholars in the said University 
which refuse to obey the mandates and admonitions of the Chaiw 

3. Jttni. Whether there be any disturbers of peace and unity 
in the said University ? 

4. /font. Whether the common chests, with the money therein, 
and keys thereunto belonging, be carefully kept t* 

Several well-disposed persons bestowed anms of money, and chests to 
trtaanre them in, which generally took their namea from tho donor 
thereefj et (if mors contributors concurred therein) from the principal 
person amongst them ; which may thus (all extant at tUs visitation) be 
reckoned up : — 

BuutfapoKD'a * , , Richard de Billingford £100, . . . 

BuDi'* filide 10 marks 

fiix>iiDBL's John de Blondel, rector of Clifton, uncertain 

St. Botolfb's. , , .Thomas of St. Botolph'a uncertain 

DAnutroTON'a . ...Darlington uncertain 

Elt'sI' JflhndeElf, bishop of Norwich : . 100 marks 

Eucna's Thomas Beaufort, duke of Exeter, uncertain , 



Few's Fen nncertun . , — — 

Gotham's William deGoltiaiD, Chancellor. .Dncertwn,. 1379 

St.'Jobm's St. John... uncertaiii . . ^^ 

Lino's Ricbsrd Ling,* Chancellor of the 

UniTcniiy uncertain. . 1353 

Nkblb'b Walter Neele, citiaen of Ijondon ; 

John Wbithom, rector of Hol- 

ated £100 1344 

Tbb QuBaN'i Ektnor, wife of Edward I. 100 marlu 1393 

RoNBaBT'a Gilbert Ronbery uncertain.. -— - 

St. TaiNirr's William Baytman, hiihop of EI7 £100 1348 

This money was a bank for the University, out of which any Master of 
Arts (especially if an University-preacher] might, on security given, borrow 
three pounds grati*, for one or more years. It seenu, at die time of this 
visitation, the stock in them was well husbanded, which since, through 
negligence, is wholly lost i though annual coffereri are chosen for key- 
keepers of those cabinets whose jewels are got away. But we return to the 
Chancellor's examination. 

6. Item. Wbetber Masters, BschelorB, and Doctors fonnally 
perform their Ex^vises, and take their degrees according to tbeii 
deserts i* 

6. Item, Whether there be any suspected of Lollardism or any 
other heretical piavity ? 

We wbQ understand his language without an interpreter, meaning 
" such who maintain the opinions of WickliSe." These concealed them- 
■elves in Cambridge 1 the lamba not duing to bleat when the wtdf was so 
near. Yet some were detected now, and others afterwards. For I imputd 
it to the influence of this visitation, that Peter Herford, Master of Arts, 
(probably kinsman to Nicholas Herford, who, some twenty years since, 
was condemned for the same opinions in Oxford,) was, ten years 'after. 
February 32nd, enjoined an abjuration of Wickliffe's opinions, in a full 
Congregation in the new cbapel.f 

7- Itmi. WlietLer the Doctors dispute publicly in the Schools, 
how often, and when ? 

Understand this of DoetOTs-candidates, or else of Professors, tied by 
their places to dispute. Otherwise) Doeloni Ubtri nmto, was not a atatuta 
as yet in force. 

8. Item. Whether the number of Fellows be complete in Halls 
and Colleges, according to the will of the Founders P 

This concerned not inch Colleges which in this age had statutes of dimi- 
' nution, to abate their Fellows in proportion to the decrease of their revenues, 
according to the discretion of their Masters. 

!e Is celled HstUng in Febn'b ptlated ■■ Tsblgs." 



^ 9. Item. WbetLer any ScholsTs be deramcd for any notorious 
crime, or do not profit in their studies, or Linder others from piofit- 
ing therein ? 

10. Item. How the University is governed in victuak or any 

To these interrogatories the Chancellor made his particular 
answer; and, after him, the other Doctors were examined eucccss- 
ivdy and secretly ; their depositions being solemnly recorded in a 
itfiister in the presence of the. archbishop. 

11-^15. Several CoUeget visited by the Archbish^''t Gommiasionen. 
Wiif Trinittf Hall Jirat Tinted. The Plea of the Guardian 
thereof; eummoning none to appear otU of tAe Province of 
Cauierbmy. An Obeervation. 

Now, although the archbishop personally visited the collective 
body of the Univeisity in the Congregation or Begenl-house, it was 
beneath his dignity to descend to each particular foundation. For 
' which purpose he sufficiently deputed certain commissioners, who 
scTeially surveyed every College, and began, saith the record, with 
the College of the Holy Trinity, called Trinity Hall at this day. 

But why was this Hall first visited ? It was not for the seniority 
thereof, being the youngest save one (Gonville Hall) in Cambridge. 
Was it oat of respect to the name, the Holy Trinity, to whom it 
was dedicated P Or because the commissioners (presumed to be 
canonists) preferred their own &cuUy, as studied in the College ? 
Or was it by casualty, the first they came to, as nearest their lodg- 
11^ ? But the nut is not worth the cracking. 

The Guardian of this College (so called in the record) appeared 
before the commissioneis ; whom, by proportion of time, we collect 
to be Robert Braunch, Licentiate in the Laws. He pleaded for 
himself, that, in obedience to the archbishop^s mandates, he had 
sommoned all the Fellows and Scholars of his College to appear 
accordingly, being within the province of Canterbury. 

Adding moreover, ewteroi autem Socioa et 8eh<ilare» dicti Col- 
leffii, ab eodem Coliegio tune et nunc abierUee, et in dtvenit remotia 
partibue, etiam etttra diotam provinciam agente», non citam, nee 
pr^xmanivi, proai neepotai quotit modo. 

Herein we may observe : First. That the Fellows of this House 
kept their places, though travelling in foreign parts, probably to 
perfect themselves in canon and civil law. Secondly. That his 
answer was well resented, finding nothing in the records returned in 
dislike thereof. 


06 RISTORV OF tHE i.ti. 140r. 

16—19. Clart ffall vitited, and Corpiu Christi CoUesfe, and tia 
White Canotu, 

Hence the commiasioDers stepped into the next College, of Clare 
Hall, and visited it in capelld ejuedem Colleffii, saiih the record. 
Wherefore vhen Doctor Caiua tclleth us that tacellum additam in 
hujut auloB am^ftfimentum, anno 1535,* he is not thus to be under- 
stood, as if Clare Hall was without a chapel until that year; but 
that their chapel (probably decajed with age, or some casualty) was 
in this year rebuilt, and added thereunto. 

Then they visited the College of the Annunciation of the 
Bleesed Mary, (now commonly called Corpus Ghrigti CoUt^) in 
the chapel thereof, namely, in the place which now is the diancel oT 
BeneH Church. 

Hence they advanced to the AVhite Canons, ovei>«gminst Peter 
House, where the name remuneth at this day ; whom they visited 
in tlieir church, (now buried in its churchyard, and the churchyard 
in oblivion,) observing all solemn formalities. 

Let a wiser man satisfy the reader, why no other convents in 
Cambridge were visited by the archbishop. Had not the White 
FriaiB (the Carmelites) as much need of scouring as the White 
Canons ? Were not spots to be found as well in cowls of other 
colours. Black and Grey, Benedictines and Franciscans? It is 
hard to conceive these Friars too high to he reached by the legaUve 
power of the archbishop, though these last Orders had the largest 
privileges conferred upon them by the pope. 

20 — 22. A Hay of Noa-t«rm witA the Vititen. Badeffund Nun» 
tinted, TKHr Vititation ended. 

It was now but crossing the street to Peter House ; but, it being 
late, and the commissioners veil wearied, they returned and reposed 
themselves in their lod^ngs. The day following, September 18th, 
was all vacation with them, we finding nothing by them performed; 
probably either because the Lord*B-day, or because taken up in 

Next day, September 19th, the Commissioners visited the priory 
of St. Radegund, in the chapter-house thereof: where the prioress, 
(as the record calleth her,) and the nuns, present their several obe~ 
dience; whose examinations and the depositions were entered into 
a register for that purpose. We charitably presume them chaster 
at this time than they appeared afterwards, when turned out for their 
incontinency, and their bouse turned into Jenus College. 

In the afternoon they made quick dispatch, (supper being pro. 
vided for the archbishop at Ely,) visiting Michael House, St. 
< UUI. Canl. lib. t. pp. e7, M. 



Jobn''s Hospital of R^fulan, (since translated into St. John's Col- 
lege,) Peter's College, and Pembroke Hall, in their sereial cho- 
peli ; and then his Grace took his journey towards Ely, where he 
na wf^ welcomed by John Fordhatn, the bishop theieof. 

23 — ^25. Query, about Omunont vf the OommimMun. ffott^ 
wiy not virited. Brfortaatum remitted to tk« Arel^nah(^i 

Some will wondn, no mention in this visitation of Gonvillc Hall, 
(the puisne House in Cambridge,) as if so late and little, that tite 
Gommissionen did oversee it. More will admire at the omission of 
King's Hall, (the largest and richest foundation in Cambridge,) 
enoo^ to make some suspect that royal foundation subjected only 
to the immediate visiting of the king their patron. 

As for Hostels, tte wonder is not so great, why tbosc commis- 
noners stooped not down to visit them : First. Because dependent 
Hoeteb were, no doubt, visited in and under those Colleges to 
whidi they did relate. Absolute Hostels, which stood by them- 
selves, being all of them unendowed, by consequence, had no consi- 
derable statutes, the breach whereof was the proper subject of this 
TisitaUon. Bendes, the graduates therein may be presumed, for 
tfceir personal demeanours, visited in the collective body of the 

Bat when this visitation was ended, it was but begun in effect, 
seeing snch ftultg which, on examination, were discovered therein, 
were remitted to the archbishop's reformation at his own leisure ; as 
one of his successors * in the see (but of a Afferent religion) hath 
informed us. Yet no great matter of moment appears in his regis- 
ter, (save tlie augmentation of the commons of Trinity Hall, 
whereof before,) which I have carefully perased, by the courteous 
leave of Master Sherman of Croydon, the register of them ; to 
whom hindnesB I am mudi indebted. For, may my candle go out 
in a at^tch, when I will not confess whence I have lighted it. 

26, 27- ^uery : What now became of CanAridffe'i ancient Exemp- 
tion* f A probable Conjecture. 
Some will say, " Where were now die privileges of the pope, 
exempting Cambridge] from archi-episcopal jurisdiction F " I con- 
ceive they are even put up in the same chest with Oxford privil^s, 
petending to as great immiuiities : I mean, that the validity of 
them boUi, though not cancelled, was suspended for the present. 
If it be true, that the legate de Latere hath in some cases equal 
power with the pope, whom be represents ; and if it be bnie> which 
* Uatthiw Pjisiib, in AfU. &tU. pH« 374. 

, Coo^^lc 

08 HISTORY OF THE A. n. 1107. - 

some bold canonists aver, that none may say to the pope, Cur ita 
/acts f it wae not safe for any in that age to diBpate the pover of 
Thomas Arandel. 

But posaibly the UnirersitieB willingly waved theii papal priTt- 
leges: and if so, irtforia non Jit voUntibug. I find something 
sounding this my, how the Scholan were aggrieTed, that, the 
supreme power being fixed in their Chancellor, there lay no i^peal 
from him, (when injurious,) save to the pope alone. Wherefore 
the Students, that they might have a nearer and cheapra redress, 
desired to be eased of their burdensome immunities, and submitted 
themselves to archi-episcopal visitation.* 

Kchard de Deerham, Cb^cellor. 

28—30. Oxford Argentine ckeUlengeth aii Gambri^e. An Aacoant 
6fM» Aohieemimti, (a/ier ProteJ now in Verse. A.D. 1407. 

This year a strange accident (if true) happened ; and take it as 
an Oxford anUquaryf* is pleased to relate it unto us : one Joha 
Argentine, a Scholar of Oxford, came and chidlenged the whole 
University of Cambridge to dispute with him ; as is reported ia 
William of Worcester, the trumpeter, it seems, to this donbty % 
champion. I can say little to the matter, only this : As for 
William Worcester's avouching his acts, he appeared neither in 
Balers nor Pitt's Catalogues of illustrious Authors : only the 
latter hardly recoveretb him in his appendix, (confessing himself 
ignorant of the age he lived in,) not mcnlioning the title of the 
book cited by the antiquary, by whom the achievements of this 
Argentine (though no doubt in themselves very whole and entire} 
are but lamely delivered, according to the tenor ensuing : — 

First. Master Twyne saith of him : Amiu erat lolui, " He alone 
challenged " to dispute with all Cambridge ; which might be true ; 
and still as true of him as of Phaeton, 

Uagnu lamtm txUil emtit. 

But he proceeds to tells m, that his performances herein may easily 
be understood out of William Worcester,§ in whom thus it is 
writteti; — AetUB MagigtH Jokannis Argentin publiee haMha in 
UniTertitate Cantabrigiw, contra omnes' Regentes hujm Unttern- 
tati*, jnoaS OppodtumeB, in anno Gkritti 1407, " The Act of 
John Argentin, publicly kept in the University of Cambridge, 
against all the Regents of this Univereity, as to oppositions, ann» 

* Wn*. Bril. iti fFil. Courtney. t B«UN Twimb, ^bI. ^cad. Ortm. 

p*ge S36. t QaeT7 : Doea Puller Intend tlila irord to corner *^ rneulug of 

d»^ffkl, ot at iemgUy t "Hie latlw irord ocnin nith lu luiul aniHigiBphr, In ■ pie- 
(!«dingpaee,83.--E[>iT. t Bhcah TwiKE, pige uf frnUf^Axtf S3. 



Let finward spiiiU, who delight in contesting, cavil at the^doubU 
fulness of (be pronoon, hujdb UmwrtUati$, wkicli might relate to 
the Univenity of Oxford, irhere Master Twyne met with the 
maniucript of this William Worcester ; and then the sense will be, 
that John A^entine, being a Carabridge-man, (of which name s 
voishipfol tamily tben flourished at Horseheatb, within ten miles of 
Cambridge,*) did in Cambridge keep an Act in Opposition to all 
Oxford-men, who commonly at the Commencement repair tliithcr. I 
saj, let snch as delight in cavilling turn the tables by this sleight ; -f- 
vhibt I can willinglj allow Argentine an Oxonian, and his daring 
Act Vept at Cambridge. Only I add, that the words of Worcester 
barely import iLe boldness of his challenge, do bravery of his 
conquest; not acquajnting ns with any great applause ensuing 

Having done with the proae. Master Tvyne proceeds to the 
poetry, of this performance ; whose words are these i—Tum tputtt 
taatianei sab^n^t, cum hoe exordia, — 

N«u tit tiaia r^fou ntttrot lacUura per wmu. 
Et hoc qttoque epUogo, — 

avmUtlnc amfrrrepadmtacntwiangtiaBm, 
Vt/tnt m imi*u tadtm iene cannina nmiM. 

Mwc GuH^lmut Woreeitrentit. 
StiB we lie in the twilight, it being agun questionable to whom 
the pronoun iptita doth relate. If to Argentine, he was both the 
Achilles and Homer of bis own ptaiae ; and then the less credit is 
to be giYca to his own reUtion. But if ipiiat (which is more pro- 
per and probable) refers to William Worcester, I wonder that 
Master 'X'wyne (privil^d, no doubt, to peruse the whole poem) 
gives us only the beginning and end thereof; or, if you will, the 
prologue and epilogue of this tragi-comedy.' It leaveth it suspi- 
ctoos that the intermediate verses had no great matters of moment 
of this champion's performance, because passed over in silence. 
Bat 1 will not blast his victorious bays. Let Argentine be chal- 
lengex, combatant, and conqueror ; sure I am, when he came .to 
Cambridge, he left many behind htm at Oxford of more learning, 
who did smile at— and [of more] modesty, who did blu^ for — his 
bold andertaking. Only I wonder that this scholar-errant, after his 
return from ii* ffreat adwaturm, was not wedded to some &iT lady: 
I mean, that he got no great preferment ; I never after finding this 

* CAMDtn't BHIOHiUa i» OamiridgtiUre. t Thangb Pnller that bamarauiilT' 

rtamlmi tb* pncaSng eatjtctoK, (ibM John Argentiiw nu * member at the Uolrer- 
^ of Casdnidge,) jtt it Hmnra the (embUiicB of great prabsbililf, fran the drcam- 
■tMwt, >hu ■ p«M«B of the nine nune I* recorded b; ynllei, is • lubwqDant page, 
(110,) u the dith PioTMt of King'i CoUeg*.— Edit. 


100 HISTORY OF THK *.d. Hir. 

man, bo mucli meriting, admnced in cliuivh or commonvealUi. 
But, enough of this great champion ; his bare memory being able 
to afTright mj single self, who, when alive, durat diallenge a whole 

Eudo de Zouch, third time Chancellor, a. d. 1412. 

31. The Ciaiu}ellor »mt to Borne. 1 Henry V. A.D.lilS. 

Kichard de Billingsford, ChancelloT. He obtained many privi- 
ties for the University. He was sent from the king, with the 
bishop of EUy, and Chancelloi of Oxford, to Rome,* to tell the two 
popes, striving for the place, that, except one would yield, England 
would acknowledge obedience to neither. In Biltingsford's absence. 
Friar Thomas Ashwell is called " President of the University." A 
statute this year was made for wearing hoods, either of budge or 
lambs'' skin. 

Stephen de Scroope, Doctor of Law, Chancellor, a.d. 1414. 

John de Rikendale, Rikengale, Bikenpale, (bo many ways bis 
name is written,) Chancellor, A. d. 1415. He was afterward bishop 
of Chichester. 

32—34. The Oriptnal of Vtce-ChaneeUon. Thomat Markani't 
OiDeeUent Book, lost and found, loit and found, loat. A.D. 1417. 

Heniy Stockton, Vice-Cbancellor ; Thomas Ferkhill and Thomas 
Markant, Proctors.' 

The Chancellors of Cambridge being lately either persons oF 
noble birth or great employment, whose occasions often caosed 
dieir absence, it was fashionable henceforward to substitute Vice- 
chancellors in their room. 

Thomas Markant, the junior Proctor, was Fellow of Petet 
House, and a great lover of antiquity : he gave a book to the Uni- 
versity, of his own collection, concerning the privileges thereof. 
This, though by the will of the donor carefully kept in a locked 
chest, was lost by negligence, or purloined by dishonesty, till, &ll!ng 
into the hands of Master Robert Hare, that great antiquary, it was 
restored to the University. 

Since, it hath been lost again, when Master Matthew Wren, 
since .bishop of Ely, casually going into Sussei, found it in a 
friend's house, and (being a great preserver of ancient monuments) 
carefully procured the solemn restitution thereof. " But who can 
stay that which will away P " I am informed it ia lost again ; whieh 
third relapse I siupt^ mortal — that the book will never be recovered 
to the University. 

). Matthew Who. 



35 — 37. Differmee bOmxt the Uniteraitif and LonSonen. The 
Ori^Hol 0/ Bttirbridg»-Jmr. Saie of the PHvUeges hereof 
tMtonabfy prewtted. 

A difierence happening betwixt the Univeistty and the city of 
London, about the oTCTsight of victuals, measures, and weights, in 
StaTbridgc-&ir, the care of all three, pendente lite, was referred to 
Sir Wiiriam Asenhull, knight, High Sheriff of Cambridgeshire.* 
I find not the israe of the contest. 

This Sturbridge-feir is so called from Stur, a littEe rivulet (on 
both sides whereof it is kept) on the east of Cambridge ; whereof 
this original is reported :^A clothier of Kendal, a town charactered 
to be lanificii fflorid, et induetrid praceliena,^ caanall^r wetting 
bis cloth in that water in his passage to London, exposed it there to 
sale, on cheap tensB, as the worse for the wetting ; and yet, it 
seems, saved by the bargain. Nest year he returned' again, vitJi 
^ some other of his townsmen, profffering drier and dearer cloth to be 
sold ; BO that within few years hither came a conflueace of buyers, 
seffin, a^d looken-on, which are the three principles of a £iir. la 
memorial whereof, Kendal-men challenge some privilege in that 
place, annually choosing one of the town to be chief, before whom 
an antic sword was earned with some mirthful solemnities ; disused 
of late-, since these sad times, which put men's minds ipto more 
serious employment. 

It is at this day the most plcntifut of wares in all Englaod ;- 
(most fairs in other places being but markets in comparison therer 
of;) being an amphibion, as well going on ground, as swimming 
by water, by the benefit of a navigable river. Nothing else have E 
to observe hereof, save that, in the last year of queen Mary, the 
University, necessitated for money, were about to contract with the 
townsmen, for a small sum, to sell unto them all the privileges in 
that fair ; had not Dr. Robert Brassey, Provost of King's, b; 
the stout denying of his consent, preserved the same to the. 

38 — 4 4). A beneficial Grant to Univer»ittf-men, refuted hy their 
oten FoUy ; but, on second Thoughts, aeeepted. 
A synod being kept at London, Robert Gilbert, Warden of 
Merton College, Doctor of Divinity, in the behalf of Oxford ; and 
Thomas Kington, Doctor of Law, Advocate of the Arches, in the 
behalf of Cambridge ; tj mode two eloquent oratioDs, that the worth 
of scholars in the University might be rewarded, and preferment 

* HOBIBT Rabi, ■> anhhit. t CAVDsr 

t D. Hatchec'bh.s. of lb* Fronuta of King'i College. 
Ilia. Oieitlg. 

, Cookie 

203 BISTORT OF THE <■>■ 1439. 

proportioned to their deserts. Heieupon it wm ordered, tliat the 
patrons of vacant benefices should bestow them hereafter on such as 
were gradnated in the University, ffradtu et profanonw rations 
juxta beaeficiomm cmttu et wUorei hafntd. So that tKe best and 
most livings should be collated on those of the best and highest 

Dr. Kington, letnniing to Cambiidge, instead ot thanks, which 
he might justljr have expected for his successful industry) found 
that the favour he procured vras not accepted of. The Regent- 
Masters in the CoDgr^tion, out of their youthful rashness, rejected 
the kindness merely out of spleen and spite, because the Doctore 
would be served with the first and best livings, and the refuse only 
fall to their share.* 

John Rikendale, Rikengsle, Rikenpale, Chancellor, a. d. 1419. 

The Regent-Masters, being grown older and wiser, were per- 
suaded to accept the proffer, sending their thanks by the Chancellor 
to another synod now kept at London. And now, when the 
bestowing of benefices on University-men was clearly concluded* 
the unlearned Fiiars (whose interest herein was much concerned) 
mainly stickled against it, until, by the king's interposing, they were 
made to desist.-f* The same year it was ordered in parliament, that 
none should practise physic or surgery, except ^proved on by one 
of the CTiiveraities.J 

Thomas de Cobham, Chancellor, a.d. 1422. 

Robert Fitzhugh, Master of King''a Hall, Chancellor, aflerward 
bishop of London, I42S. 

Marmaduke Lumley, Chancellor, afterwards bishop of Lincoln, 

William WimHe, Chancellor, 1429. 

John Holebrook, Chancellor, 1430. 

41 — 43. Differmeet betwixt the Bithop of Elg and the Vhtterntyr 
remitted by the Pope to the Prior of BarmteU. The Pop« 
ffiveth hit SeiUateefor Camln-idffe'a Exemption. 9 Henry VI, 
A.D. 1431. 
Difference arising betwist die University, and Philip Morgan, 
bishop of Ely, pope Martin V. at the instance of the University, 
appointed the Prior of Barnwell, and John Deeping, Canon of 
Lincoln, his delegates, to inquire of the privileges of the Uni- 

The Prior undertook the whole business, examined seven irit- 
nesses, all aged, (some past threescore and ten,) and perused all 

t Idtm, ul priut, I BOBMiT Hiai, ■• 


16 ■■»» T). UNIVfinSlTY OF CAMBEIDOE. 103 

papal Bulls, pririleges and charters ; wherein he found ihat die 
C^nncellon of Cambridge have all ecclesiastical jurisdiction (name- 
ly, excommunicaUon and suspension) over scholais and their ser- 
Tsnta, probates oF Wills, granting of administration, and taking 
their accounts ;* the aged witnesses deposing it on theii own sight 
and knowledge. 

This being retaroed by the Prior, pope Martin pronounced his 
sentence, whereia he declaieth, that the UniTersity, time out of 
mind, was in the possession, use, and exercise of ecclesiastical and 
^iritnal jurisdiction, without any disquieting of aEchbishops, 
bishops, or their officers : and for the time to come he confirmed 
their immunities,-}- which his successor, Eugenius IV. le-confinned 
«nto them. This strengthens our former conjecture, that the 
Uniyersity willingly receded from their own priTJleges in Arundel's 

WiUiam Lassells, Chancellor, a. d. 141)1. 

Richard Candrey, Chancellor, 1432. 

44. A comtant Tenure of princely EarU. 

John de Langton, Chancellor, a.d. 1436. 

Richard duke of York was at this time eail of Cambridge ; the 
last that ware that honour for many years, in whose death it waa 
extinct. And now let the reader at one view behold the great per* 
sons dignified with the earldom of Cambridge : — Scotch Kings. 
— 1. David. 2. Henry. 3. Malcolm. Gkkmam Princes. — 4. 
John eail of Hainanlt. 5. William marquess of Juliers. Eng- 
lish Dukes. — 6. Sdmund of Laogley, fifth son lo Edward III> 
7- Edward his son. 8. Richard duke of York, his brother, &ther 
to king Edward IV. No city, town, or place in England was ever 
honoured with so many and great persoDS as Cambridge was ; whose 
earldom, sleeping for almost two hundred years, was at last confened 
by king James on the royally-extracted marquess Hamilton ;. 
whereof in due place. 

45, 46. The ITnitergitt/'s Money embezzled. Never restored to the 
mnu Degree. Vehetnent Suspicion of Corruption. 

Abont this time the many chests of money (formeriy well- 
liUed, and worthily employed for the good of the tlniversily and 
eminent scholars therein) were squandered away, and embezzled to 
private men's profit. I cannot particularise in their names, not 
charge any single person : but it appeared too plainly, tliat, of four- 
teen or fifteen chests, not four were left, and the sums in them 
inconsiderable ; so that Cambridge never recovered he* bank, nor 

* BoBEBT Babe, is Jrckivii, vol. ii. fbl. 103. t Idem, vol, U. fol. 115. 

104 ' BISTORT OF THS *.p. 143«. 

ncruited her cheats to the fonner pioportioD. Yet xfterwardB iha 
met vith two good benefacton, the one Thomas Bouichier, arch- 
bishop of Canterbut}', who bestowed on her an hundred pounds ; 
the other the Lady Elizabeth Cleere, duchess of Norfolk, which put 
the Univereiiy in stock again, bestowing no less than a thousand 
marks at several times on the public treasury ; though within few 
years little was left thereof, 

I know it is pleaded, that the ezpenaiTe suits of the Univenity 
against the townsmen in the reigns of king Henry VII. and king 
Henry VIII. much exhausted their coffers. But when all is 
audited, a strong suspicion still remains on some, in public employ- 
meat, of unjust dealing. Sure it is, in the reign of king Edward 
VI. the treasury was so empty, it wanted wherewith to defray 
necessary aqd ordinary expenses. 



Solon interrogatus a Croeso regum opulentissimo, 
quern Ule mortajium agnosceret beatisaimum, Tellmn 
quendam Atheniensem civem privatum nominavit.* Huic 
res oec auguata, nee angusta ; cum inter invidiam et ino- 
piam pari ferd distantid collocaretur. 

Si Solon nunc in vivis, te felicissimia hujus sseculi 
annumeraret ;' cui mens eomposita, corpus (licet tenue) 
integrum, domus elegans, supellei nitida, patrimoniunx 
satis amplum, soboles numerosa ac ingenua. 

Nee nimiis titulia tumescis, nee te obscuritas premit, 
cui talis obtigit conditio qud melior haud lacil^ ^Qgi 

Quod si tibi suppetat bora succisiva, quEe non dt 
fhiudi serioribus tuis negotiis, perlegas, quseso, banc 
Histories mese portiuneulam, cujus pars majuacula in 
Collegio Regali describendo consumitur; in quo (ut 
accepi) tu olim litteris incubuisti. 

" Fldtarobpb in FHd SoIoaU. 



1—^. Cambridge Feiu endeavoured to be drained, AU in vain. 
Arffumenti ■pro and Qon Fen-draininff. A.D. 1436. 

Aboat this time, (foi I cannot attain the certain year,) some 
considerable persons of oar nation undertook the draining of the 
fens near to Cambridge. Thej wanted not Dutchmen out of the 
Low Countries to assist them, where each peasant Is bom a pioneer; 
and vast sums were expended in making of ditches and banks, im- 
prt^able (as conceived) against a]l assaults of inundation. 

But in the next (being a wet and windy) winter, down comes tha 
bailiff of Bedford, (so the country-people commonly call the over- 
flowing of the river Ouse,) attended, like a person of his quality, 
with many serTants, (ihe accession of tributary brooks,) and breaks 
down all their paper-banks, as not water-shot-f^, reducing all to the 
fonner condition. 

This accident put the wits of that and succeeding ages, npoa the 
dispute of the feasibility of the design : and tet as sum up the 
foments a^in^ astAfw this undertakbg. 


I. — SouE objected, that God I. — ^The argument holdeth in 

saith to the water, " Hitherto application to the ocean, which 

ehalt thou come, and no fur* is a wild horse, only to be 

ther," Job zzxviii. 11. It is broken, backed, and bridled by 

therefore a trespass on the Di- Him who is the Maker thereof 

vine prerogative for man to pre- But it is a false and a lazy prin- 

Eume to give other bounds to ciple, if applied to fresh waters ; 

the water, than what Ood hath from which human industry may 

appcMiited. Even the Heathen [rescue] and hath rescued many 

man was so Christian as to say, considerable parcels of ground. 
B^tu Divinitis oemttitutis ma- 
nut non ea injictenda.* 

II. — Many have attempted, H- — Many men's undertaking 
but not effected, it. None ever thereof insinuates the possibility 
wrestled with it, but it gave of the project. Otherwise, it is 
them a foil, if not a fiJl, to the unlikely so many discreet per- 
brtuaag, if not breaking, of their sons would befool themselves in 
iMcka. Many have burnt their seeking what is not to be found, 
fingers in these waters ; and. Id- The failing is not in the unfeasi- 
stead of draining the fens, emp- bility of the design, but in the 
tied their own estates. It hath accidental defoults of the under- 
been almost as unsuccessful, as Ukers, vrantiog either heads, 
the letUng of the Red into the (discretion,) or hearts, (resolu- 


106 HISTOBT OF THE a.d. UM. 


Midland Ses, to the kmgs of tion,) or hands, (assistants,) or 

Eg3fpt who endeavoured it. purees, — performance of pay, — 

to people employed therein. 
' III. — Morton, bishop of Ely, HI. — It is confessed a burden 

(one of the weslthicBt who ever too heavy for the bock of any 

sate in that See,) almost wasted single person, how great soever, 

his estate, by cutting a water- And therefore it calls for a cor- 

passage, (known by the name of poration of wise and wealthy pei- 

the New Leam,) and well nigh sons to oodertake the same, 
beggared himself, in hope to en- 
rich his town of Wisbeach with 
trading thereby. 

IV. — An dderman of Cam- IV. — Interest betrayed hia 
bridge (chosen a burgess in par- Judgment to an evident error. 
Itament) affirmed the Fens to be And his btains seemed rather to 
like a crust of bread swimming swim, instead of this floating 
in a dish of water. So that earth. For, such as have sound- 
under eight or ten feet earth, ed, as I may say, the depth of 
it is nothing but mere water, that ground, find it to be terra 
Impossible therefore the dtuniog firma, and no doubt as solid to 
thereof, if surrounded by that the centre as any other earth ia 
liquid element both above and England, 

V. — ^The river Grant or Cam, ■ V. — It is granted, the water 

(call it as you please,) running by Cambridge kindles and keep* 

by Cambridge, will have its in the fire therein. No hope 

stream dried up by the draining of sufficient fuel on reasonable 

of the Pens. Now, as Cam- rates, except care be taken for 

bridge is concerned in its river ; preserving the river navigable, 

so that whole county, yea, this which may be done, and the 

whole kingdom, is concerned in Fens drdned nevertheless. To 

Cambridge. No reason, there- take away the thief is no wasting 

fore, that private men's particular or weakening to the wick of 

profit should be preferred before the candle. Assurance may be 

an universal good, or good of an given, that no damage shall 

University. redound to the stream of Grant, 
' by stopping other superfluous 

yi.— The Pens, preserved in VI.— A laige first — makes r^ 

their present property, afford compence for the shorter second 

great plenty and variety of fish — course at any man's table, 

and fowl, which here have their And who will not prefer a tame 



BeminarieB and noneries ; which sheep befote a vild duck, a good 
will be destroyed on the drain- ht ox before a well-gromi eel P 
iog thereof; bo that none will 
be iiad, bat at excesBive prices. 

VII. — The Fens afford plenty VII. — The commodities are 
of sedge, tur^ and reed ; the inconsiderable to balance the 
want whereof will be found, if' profit of good grass and graio, 
their nature be altered. which those grounds, if diained, 

would produce. He cannot 
complain of wrong who hath a 
suit of buckram taken from him, 
and one of Telvet given in lien 
thereof. Besides, provision may 
be made, that a sufficiency of 
Boch ware-trash* may still be 
VIII.— Many thousands of VIII.— It is confessed, that 
poor people are maintained by many whose hands are becramp- 
fishing and fowling in the Fens, ed with laziness, live (and only 
who will all be at a loss of live- live, as never gaining any es- 
lihood, if their bams be burnt, tates) by that employment, 
that is, if the Fens be drained. But such, if the Fens were 
drained, would quit their idle- 
ness, and betake themselves to 
more lucrative manufactures. 
IX. — Grant the Fens drained IX. — If a patient, perfectly 
with great difficulty, they will cured, will be careless of lus 
quickly revert to their old 'con- health, none will pity his relapse. 
ditioD, like to the Pontine Moderate cost, with constant 
Maiahes in Italy.'!' This disease care, will easily preserve what is 
of the dropsy (if agua super drained ; the Low Countries 
eutmt, as well as irOercuHB, may affording many proofs thereof, 
be so called) will return to the 
Fens ^ain. 

X. — Grant them drained, and X. — Oppression is not esscn- 
so continuiog ; as now the great tial either to draining or enclos- 
fishes therein prey on the less, ing, though too often a concomi- 
ao then wealthy tant of both. Order may be 

■ nii e wni WM U d word doe* not eomej lh« Idea, tLu (h* trmh — " Mdge, tmf, tod 
n*d "— ta an attlela tot nlc. Bnt It here •eeow dtaeriptlis of the rauQ plecn of 
■eod, Hdge, tnif, Ac. wJiich ue coUectod in n*t qnuultlM it the head of eveiy trrar 
or mtb, when Ibeiim \a low. — Edit. t Camdeh'g Brilaxnia In Cuntiridft- 

, Coo^^lc 



Tour the poorer sort of people, taken by commissioners of qua- 
Iiyurioua portage would follow lity, empowered for that purpoBe, 
upon the enclosures, and rich that such a proportion of com- 
men, to make room for them- moos may be allotted to the 
selves, would justle the poor peo- poor, that all private persons 
pie out of their commons. may be pleased, and an advance 

accrue thereby to the common;- 


However, the generality of people in that age was possessed with 
a film opinion, the project was utterly impossible to be brought tA 

4 — 10. Since ejected to Admiration. Labor improbus omnia 
vincit. Cambridffe tehy jealom herein ; never pleased. Deqi 
PAiloiop&t/. A real Bejutation. Cambridge Air bettered. 

But the best argument to prove that a thing m&y be done, is 
actually to do it. The "undertakers" in our present age haTc 
happily lost their first name in a far better of " performers ;" and of 
late the Fens nigh Cambridge have been adjudicated drained, and 
so are probable to continue. 

Very great was the ingenuity, industry, (the eyes and hands of" 
all grand designs,) and expense in this acUon. - For the river Ouse, 
formerly lazily loitering in its idle intercourses with other rivers, is 
now sent the nearest way (through a passage cut by admirable art), 
to do its errand to the German Ocean. 

I confess, Cambridge ever looked on the draining of the Fens 
with a jealous eye, as a project like to prove prejudicial unto them. 
And within my memory, an eminent preacher made a smart 
sermon before the Judges of the Assizes on this text : " Let 
judgment run down as waters, and righteousness as a mighty 
stream," Amos v. 24 ; wherein he had many tart reflections on the 
draining of the Fens, inciting the Judges to be tender of the Uni- 
versity so much, concerned therein. But, it seems, Cambridge was 
then more frighted than since it hath been hurt, now the project is 
effected. . 

The chiefest complaint I hear of is this,— that the country there- 
about is now subject to a new drowning, even to a deluge and inun- 
dation of plenty ; all commodities being grown so cheap therein. 
So hard it is to please froward spirits, either full or fasting. 

Here even a serious body cannot but smile at their conceit, who 
so confidently have reported and believed) that the late droughty 


these last three yean, proceeded from the diaining of the Fens. 
As if the sun, ariung in those eaalem counties, were offended tliat 
he was disappointed of his morning's draught, (which he formerly 
bad out of the Fens,) and now.vanteth vapours, the materials of 
tain, whereof those moist groonds afforded him plenty before. 

A jejune and nairow conceit : as if the cockle-shell of Fen-waten 
were considerable to quench the thirst of the sun, who hath the 
Oerman Ocean to carouse in at pleasure. Besides, their fond &ncy 
is confuted by the wetness of this last summer, affording rain enough, 
and too much. 

As Cambridgeshire hath gotten mote earth, so halh it gained 
better air, by the draining of the Fens. And Cambridge itself may 
soon be sensible of this perfective alteration. Indeed, Athens, the 
st^le of ancient learning, was seated in a morass, or fenny place, 
(and BO Pisa, an academy in Italy,) and the grossness of the air is 
concdved, by some, to quicken their wits and strengthen their me- 
uoiies. However, a pure air, in all impartial judgments, is to be 
prefetred foi students to reside in. 

11 — 14. Kit^ Henry fowidetk a imeiU CoUege, and William 
Bingham another. Both united and enlarged into KingU 
College. The admirabU Chapel, ^.i). 1442,3. 

Henry VI. a pious and mild prince, (one of a better soul than 
^lirit,) erected a small College for a Rector and twelve Scholnra in 
and about the places where Augustine's Hostel, God's House, and 
the church of St. Nicholas, formerly stood ;* being one motive that 
be dedicated this his foundation to the honour of St. Nicholas, on 
whose day, February 12th, also he was bom. 

William Bingham, rector of St. John Zachary's, in London, 
sensible of the great want of grammarians in England in that age, 
founded a little Hostel, (contiguous to king Henry's College,) to 
be governed by a Proctor; and twenty-five Scholars, all to be 
(not boys, leamisg the rules— but) men studying the criticisms— 
^ giammar : f and he is no grammarian, who knoweth not gram' 
wKtticti (in that age especially) to be an ewential member of an 

But, the year after, Bingham's small Hostel was swallowed up in 
the king's foundation, (not as Ahab's palace ate up Naboth's vine* 
yaid, but) by (he fall and free consent of the aforesaid Bingham, 
■oirendering it up, July 10th, into the hands of the king, for the 
imprDving and p^ecting thereof. Whereupon the king, uniting 
and enlarging Uiem both with the addition of the church of St. 
John Zachsry, then belonging to Trinity Hall, (in lien whereof, he 
• CAin, Birt. Oml. lih. t. pp. S, 7. t i<t™, Hidrm, 

110 HI8T0HY OF THB i.n. lUS. 

yrho would do hurt to nonet good to all, gave to tliat Hall the 
patronage of St. Edward's in Cambiidgc,) founded one fair Col- 
lege, for one ProroBt, seventy Fellows and Sdiolan, three Clu{>- 
lains, six Clerlu, sixteen Choristers, and a Master over tiiem, six- 
teen OiEcers of the foundation, besides twelve Serriton to the senior 
Fellows, and six poor Scholars ; amounting in all to a hundred and 

The chapel in this CoU^ is one of the latest bhiica in Chnst- 
endom, wherein the stone-work, wood-work, and glass-work contend 
which most deserve admiration. Yet the first generally caiiieth 
away Uie credit, (as being a stone-Kenge indeed,) so geometiiolly 
contrived, that voluminous stones mutually support themselves in 
the arched roof, as if art had made them to forget nature, and 
weaned them from thar fondness to descend to their centre. And 
yet, thou^ thesre be so much of Minerva, there is nothing of 
Arachne in this building : I mean, not a spider appearing, or cob- 
web to be seen on the (Iri^-wood or cedar) beuis thereof. No 
wonder, then, if this chapel, so rare a structure, was the work of 
three succeeding kings; — Henry VI. who founded — VII. who 
fathered — VIII. who finished — it. The whole College was intended 
[to be] conformable to the chapel ; but the nntimely death (or 
rather deposiDg) of king Henry VI. hindered the same. Thus 
foundatiwis partake of their found^'s interest, and floutish or &dc 
together. Yea, that mean Quadrant (now almost all the CollcigQ 
extant at this day) was at first designed only for the Choristers. 

15. A Catalogue ofKxng'a CoUege Wor^m. 

But the honour of Athens lieth not in her walls, but in the 
worth of her ciUaens. Building may give liutie, but learning life, 
to a College ; wherein we congratulate the happiness of this founda.- 
tion. Indeed, no College can conUnne in a constant level of learn- 
ing, but will have its alternate depressions and elevations : but in 
this we may observe a good tenor of able men in all Faculties, as 
indeed a good artist is left-banded to no profeasion. See here their 
catalogue, wherein such persons reducible to two <n more columns, 
to avoid repetition, are entered in that capacity wherein I ccmceive 
them to be most eminent. 

PxovosTB. — 1. William Millington, elected, aiMV> 1443, from 
Clare Hall, whither, after three years, he was remanded, for bis &c- 
tious endeavonnng to prefer his countrymen of Yorkshire. 2. John 
Chedworth, who continued six years. 3- Bichatd Woodlark, D.D. 
founder of Catherine HaU. 4. Walter FieU, D.D. elected 14^. 
continued twenty years. 5. John Dogget, D.C.L. Chancellor oC 
Sorum, elected 14df), and remained so two years. 6. John Aigrai- 


tine, D.P. and D. He gave the College a ^r bason and ^er of 
siWeTj vith other plate, jet in the use and custody of the Provost. 
Elected 15U1, and lemained six yean. 7- Ricbaid Hutton, D.C.L. 
elected ld07i continued two yean. 8. Robert Hacomblen, Jy.D. 
elected 1508, and remained nineteen years. He inote comments 
on AiistoUe's Ethics. 8. Edward Fox, afterward bishop of HerC' 
ford, elected 1528, and continued ten years. 10. George Day, 
afterwaid bishop of Chichester, elected 153S, and continued ten 
years. 11. Sir John Cbeke, (of St. John^s, in Cambridge,) chosen 
by mandate, 1548, sate five yean. 12. Richard Atkinson, D.D. 
dected 1553, bo remained three yean. 13. Robert Btassey, 
chosen 1556, and so remained two yean. 14. Philip Barker, 
diosen 1558, sate twelve yean. 15. Roger Goad, a grave and 
leveraid divine, of whom much hexealler; elected 1570, and 
remained Provost forty yean. He gave the rectory of Milton in 
Cambridgealdre to the College. 16. Fog Newton, D.D. chosen 
1610, sale two yean. 17- William Smith, chosw 1612, two 
years. 18. Samuel Cdlins, chosen 1615 ; of whom hereafter. 

Bknepactoks. — 1. William Towne, Fdlow, gave four pounds 
for ever, for a salary to « minister. 2. John Plentith, Fellow, gave 
one handled and sixty marks. 3. William Wiche, Fellow, gave 
many of his books to, &c. 4. William Skelton, D.P. Fellow, 
gave all his books to the library. 5. Nicholas West, when Scholar 
of this House, so desperately turbulent, that, discontented with t)ie 
loss of the Proctorship, he «ideavoured to fire the Provost^s lodg- 
ings ; and, having stolen some silver spoons, departed the College. 
Afterward he became a new man, D.D. and Inahop of Ely ; who, 
to expiate his former &ultB, gave many rich gifts and plate to the 
College, and built part of the Provost's lodgings. 6. William 
Scales, Fellow, D.D. gave a salary, known by his name at this day. 
7. Dr. Cowel gave plate and diven books to the College. 8. Wil- 
liam Smith, Provost, gave a hundred pounds' worth of books, and a 
fitir salt of forty pounds^ price, with other legacies. 8. Adam Rob< 
Inns, Richflrd Day, and William Henshaw, late Fellows, contri- 
buted their several beoe&cttons. 10. Thomas Weaver, late 
Fellow, wainscoted both sides of the choir in a decent manner. 

BtSQOFs. — 1. Nicholas Cloose, bishop of Carlisle, and of Licli- 
fidd, 1451. 2. John Chedworth, bishop of Lincoln, 1452. 3. 
Tbomw Rotherham, bishop of Rochester fint, then York, 1467. 

4. OUva- King, bishop of Exeter, then Bath and Wells, 1492. 

5. Geoffrey Blith, 1503, bishop of Coventry and Lichfield. 6. 
Nicholas West, 1515, bishop of Ely. 7- Nicholas Hawkins, 
1533, nominated bishop of Ely, but died before his consecntion< 
In time of iamioe, he sold all his plate and goods to leliere the 



poor of Ely, where he was seired' himself in wooden dishes and 
earthen pots. 8. Thomas Goodrich, 1534, bishop of EI7. 9. 
Edward Fox, 1535, bishop of Hereford. 10. Robert AIdrich> 
1537, bishop of Carlisle. Erasmua styleth him, when youngs 
Slandte eloquentuB juvanem. 11. Qeorge Day, 1543, bishop of 
Chichester. 12. John Poinet, 1550, bishop of Kocbester, tbea 
Winchester. 13. Richard Cox, 1559, bishop of Ely, Scholar of 
this House. 14. Edmund Gwest, 1559, bishop of Rochester, thea 
Sarum. 15. William Alley, 1560, bishop of Exeter. 16. Wil- 
liam Wiclcham, 1595, bishop of Lincoln, then Winchester. 17> 
Thomas Ram, bishop of Ferns in Ireland. 18. Richard Monn- 
tague, 1028, bishop of Chichester, then Norwich. 10. Joho 
Long, bishop of Armagh, some thirty years since; not finding the 
dale of bis conaecntion. 20. William * Murray, Conduct of this 
College, bishop of Landaff, anno 1627. 

Statsshbn. — 1. W. Hatliffe, D.D. Secretary to king Edward 
IV. 2. James Denton, D.C.L. Chancellor to the Lady Mary, 
Dowager of Fiance, Dean of Lichfield, and Lord President o£ 
Wales. 3. William Conisby became a Student of the common 
law, and a learned Judge. 4. Edward Hall, afterward a Judge, 
and a useful historian. 5. Walter Haddon, Master of the Requests 
to qaeen Elizabeth. 6. Ralph Colfield, Clerk of the Council in 
Wales to king Edward VI. He discovered the cheating of dicers. 
7. Thomas Wilson, principal Secretary to queen Elizabeth. 8. 
Giles Fletcher, Ambassador for queen Elizabeth into Russia, Com- 
missioner into Scotland, Germany, and the Low Countries. 9. Tho- 
mas lUdley, Doctor of Law, Master of the Chancery, knight, and 
Vicar-general. 10. John Oabome, Remembnncer to the Treasurer. 
He ncTer took fee of any cleigyman. 11. Joseph Jesop, Secretary 
to Secretary Walsingham.- 12. Sit Albert Morton, principal Secre- 
tary to king James. All the former were of the foundation. 13. 
Sir Fiancis Walsingham, principal Secretary of State, was Fellow- 
Commoner of Uiis House, to which he gave the king of Spain's 

Learned Wkiters. — 1, 2. Whereas Thomas Staoe and 
William Sutton, (master, and his scholar, both excellent astrolo-^ 
gers,) are by Pitzseus -f* assigned to flourish in this College some 
years before the same was founded, his prolepsis is thus to be 
understood,— that they studied in those old Hostels out of which 
King''s College was afterwards erected. 3. Richard Crooke, Orator 
and Greek Professor. 4. Osmund Lake, a profound scholar. 5. 
John Cowell, Doctor of Civil Law, eminent to all posterity for his 
^* Interpreter "" and " Institutions." 6. Thomas Thomas, known 
• Is L« Stn hli same li Jotm.— Edit. t f^' «»•* i**0. 

i.,,i,,., , Cookie 


bj the " IKctionarf " of hii setting forth. 7. Sir William Temple, 
PioTOrt of Trtnil^ Coll^ in Dublio, vrote a "Comment ob 
Ramns.'" 8. Anthoo; WotLon, fint ProfeseoT of Dinnity in 
Greshun College. 8. Samuel Hieron, a powerful preacher in bia 
printed works. 10. William Sclater, D.D. a moat jaditnous 
dirine. 11. Elnathan Par, an JDdustrious writer. 12. Edvatd 
Kellet, D.D. a profound scholar. 13. Dr. Thomas Goad, of 
whom largely hereafter. 14. Richard Motmtague, a great anti- 
qnarj, bishop of Norwich. 15. Dr. William Gouge, kte of Black- 

Mastyss and CoNressoKs. — 1. John Frith,* first a Student 
is this College, (but not of the foundation,) burnt for the testimony 
of the truth, anno 1533. SJ. Ziaureace Saunders eufi'ered for the. 
same, anno 1555. S. Robert Glorer, burnt at Coventry for religion. 
4. John HnHier, martyred on Jesos-Green in Cambridge. 5. Ro- 
bert Columbel : he went away Fellow, not daring to stay, because 
Mr. Stokis (the beadle) had espied a Latin TeBtament in his hand. 
G. Thomas Whitehead, Scholar, and afterward pantler of the College. 
Wlien Lnther^s books were sought to be burnt, he kept them close 
for better times. 

Bemepicks in thb Collkge Gift. — 1. Fordingbridge vicai- 
age in the diocees of Winchester, Talued at if 30. 2i. 2d. in the 
king^s bodk. 2. Stoor rectory, in the diocess of Bristol, valued at 
fl6. 4tf. Qd. 3. Kingston rectory, in the diocess of Ely, valued 
at ^11. 14f. 3id. 4. Ringwoot} vicarage, in tlie diocess of 
Winchester, valued at ^£75. 5i. 5d. 5. Toft Monachorum rec- 
tory, in tlie diocess of Norwich,, valued at ^8. 6. Leislngham. 
vicarage, in the diocese of Norwich, valued at ^£'6. 7- Harsted 
rectory, in the diocess of Norwich, valued at £6. 10s. 8. West 
Rudham vicarage, in the diocess of Norwich, valued at .£7- 6«. 81:?. 

9. Prestcott vicarage, in the diocess of Chester, valued at ^24. 9«. 

10. Wotton Wawen vicarsge, in the diocess of Coventry and Lich- 
field, valued at ^£11. 9i. 7d. 11. Dowton [Dunton] Wallat rec- 
tory, in the dioetw of London, valued at jP16. 

Behold here tlie fruitfulness of one vineyard, a smgle College I 
kiid yet wc have only gathered the top grapes, such as were ripest 
in puts, and highest in preferment. How many more grew on the 
widei-bougliB, which were serviceBble in church and state ! Not to 
apeak of many eminent persons still surviving, amongst whom Mi. 
William Oughtred, beneficed atAIburyin Surrey, prince of the 
matbenaticians in our age ; whose modesty will be better pleased 
with my praying for them than praising of them. 

* CaIus « Bai.'ii*, Otmhrria 8, pagi 6M. 


114 HISTOBY OF THE t.v. lU*. 

16—18. Wiyso/ea ime b«m Benefacton to tAii ffoute. The 
inifrtmeatal Advancen of 90 worthy a Work. Dr. Sommenet 
Hxid to be tmffratefiUfy toed by CcmAridge. 

Wonder not, reader, that beDefactors are so fev, and beiie&cUoii 
so Btna]], to this royal foundation ; caused, partly, from the com- 
pleteness thereof at its first erection ; partly, from men''e modesty, 
that'theii meanness might not mingle itself with princely magnifi-. 
cence. Solomon eiuth, " What can the man do tHat cometh s(Wr 
the king P '" Eccles. ii. 12. It is petty presumption to mate addi- 
tion, lo kings'* works, and to bold bene&ction in coparcenaiy vitb 

We read in John Rouse, how king Henry T. had % design to 
build « College in the Castle of Oxford ; the intended model whereof, 
with the endowments to the same, he affirmetli himself to have seen ; 
but, prevented by death, his son Henry performed his father''s wilt, 
(as to his general end of advancing learning and religion,) though 
exchanging the place from Oxford to Cambridge. We read also in 
the Oxford antiquary,* how Henry Beaufort, that pompous prelate 
and bishop of Winchester, gave two thousand pounds to Henry VI. 
for the advancing of this College ; and bow John Sommerseti 
Doctor of Physic to king Henry VI. Sophister first in Oxford,, 
but afterwards graduated in Cambridge, and twice Proctor thereof, 
(though not expressed in our Cambridge-catalogue, so unperfect is 
it,) was very active with his persuasions to kmg Henry, and con- 
curred mnch, instrumentally, to the foundation of this College. 

He proceedeth to tell us, bow the same Sommerset, when aged, 
fell into want and disgrace ; and, coming to Cambridge for snccoiu 
and support, found not entertainment proportionable to his deserts. 
Whereupon he publicly complained thereof, in eighty satirical 
■versesjf thus beginning : — 

For mine own part, I hate ingratitude, be it in mine own mother; 
but dare not here condemn her, because ignotant of the cause of 
Sommereef s poverty. Probably it might relate to the difference of 
the crown and Lancaster interest ; bo that, in those dangerous days, 
Cambridge's charity could- not consist with her safety, not daring to 
nlieve him for fear of damnifying herself. 

Unl In Gdil. ^oocnTB.' 



19. Kitiff Edward IV. a Mahfiuior to thit CoUeffO. 

How ticklish tkoK days were, aod with how evil an eye thi^ 
feondstiob, from the line of Lsncaatet, was looked upon by the 
House of York, u too plain in the practice of king Edward IV, 
one whose love to leaning and nli^on were much alike ; who at 
once took away from King's College a thoosand pounds [of] land 
a-jekr, amongst which the fee-farm of the manors of Chesterton and 
Cambridge. Whereupon no fewer than forty of the Fellows anc| 
Scholars, besides Conducts, Clerks, Choristers, and other College-; 
facers, were iq one day forced to depart the House, for want of 
maintenance.* Indeed I have read, that king Eidward afterwards 
restored five hundred marks of yearly reveBue, on condition they 
dioald acknowledge him for their founder, and write all their deeds 
in bia name ; which, perchance for the present, lliey were contented 
to perform. However, hu restitution was nothing adequate to the 
. injwy- oflbred this foundation, insomuch that Leiand complains,- 
'Graiitam tuam kaae jacturam sniper aetuuram, " that his Cam- 
bridge will for ever be sensible of this loss." 

SO, 21. An otd DM weU paid. Tke Arm o/King"* CoUege. 

. One telle as, that,-f- as King's College was first j^mished from 
Eaton, so Eaton wu first phmted from Winchester School, whence 
Henry VI. fetched five Fellows, and thirty-five eminent Scholars, 
to tbrbish his first foundation. But let our aunt know, that thia' 
debt hath been honestly satisfied, with pleotlfiil consideration for 
the forbearance thereof. For in the year of our Lord 1524, when 
Robert Shorton, Master of Pembroke Hall, was employed by cardi- 
nal Wolsey to inrite Cambridge-men (some full blown in learning, 
others; but in the bud, and dawning of their pregnancy) to plant his 
fimndation at Christ-church, Kirg's College aSbrded them many emi- 
nent scholars, then removed thither : amongst whom were Richard 
Cox, afterwards schoolmaster to king Edward VI. J<riiQ Frith, tcCter- 
vkrd martyred iot the truth t John Frier, a femous physician of that 
^e ; Henry Snmptner,J who, at Christ-church for his religion being 
llardly used, died soon after ; with many more eminent persons, ' 
who hereafter, God willing, shall be observed.^ Thus Christ- - 
dmrch in Oxford was first a Cambridge colony. Be this remem- 
bered, paitiy, that Cambridge may continue her original title to 
such vnrthy men, and partly, to evidence her. return to her sister of 

• Caids, Httl. Acta. Cant, page Si 
F*a* 317. t Hatchci Mf 

, Google 

lie BISTORT OF THE *.o. lUS. 

what fonactlj ehe had bonowed. OUierwue, it tmtten not on 
wliicb of the two branches leaned men do grow, seeing all apiing 
from one and the same root of the English nation. 

I hare done with this foundation, when I have told the reader, 
that king Henrj YI. under his Great Seal, hj Act of Parliament, 
confirmed a coat of arms to this College, bearing in diief a flower of 
France, and a lion of England, that it may appear to be the work 
of a king. For my instructions herein I must direct my thankful- 
ness partly to the memory of Mr. Thomas Hatcher, who some 
seventy years sinca collected an exact catalogae of the Bcholara, 
Fellows, and Provosts of this House ; partly to Mr. Thomas Page, 
of this House, and Vice-Otator of Cambridge, who, as he went over 
beyond the seaa the credit of his College and this University ; so, 
Ood lending him life, after his accomplishment in his travels, is 
likely to return one of the honours of our country. 

22, 23. A ftratiffs Speech (pretended) of King Henry VI. ; ton- . 
eidering then Cambridge equal mt& Osefird in Nvmiber of 

My pen was now leaving King*s College, when it is pluded back 
again by the feathers thereof casually lighting on the following pas- 
sage : That when William Wainefleet, bishop of Wincheater, 
(afterwards founder of Magdalen College,* ) peiniaded king Henry 
VI. to erect some monument fbr learning in Oxford, the king 
letumed, 7md /xrft^ Oaniabrigusy «f dwa (ti jun pomtj in 
AngHd Aeademiai habeam. " Yea, Rther,** said he, "at Cam- 
bridge, that (if it be possible) I may have two Universities hi 
England :" as if Cambridge were not repnted one before the found- 
ing of King's College ttierein. 

An improbable passage, which filled me with wonder : for, 
although none beheld king Henry as a profonnd peiMm to utter 
oncles, bH acknowledge him of ability to express himsdf in propor- 
tion to truth ; who could not be ignwant, that Cambridge had 
been an Uuiveisity many hundreds of years before these words 
were pretended to be spoken, and vicing endowed Colleges (un- 
endowed Halls coming not under this considetstion) with Oxfcml 
itself, as by the ensuing parallel will appear :— 

In Cahbbidgr. Ik Oxposd. 

1. Peter House. 1. University College-, 

2. Michael House. 2. Merton College. 

3. Clare Hall. 8. BatUol College. 

* In Oxfind. Sea " Chmb mstoij," irol. 1. page 61B.— Ekt. 


In Cahbsidce. Ik Oxpoko. 

4. King's Hill. 4. Exeter College 

5. Pembroke HbU. 6. Oriel College. 

6. Bene't College. 6. Queen's Co]l^;e. 

7. Trinity H«]l. 7- New College. 

8. GcaTJlle Hsll. 8. Lincoln College. 

All these Homes were extant in Cambridge before the reign of 
King Henrjr VI. eqntlling those ia Oxfoid lor Dumber : All Souls 
therein not being fnlly finished ; (and King''B C<^ege being aa 
embryo, whilst All Souls was but an in&nt ;) which plainly proveth 
Cambridge a most flourisbhig University before the reign of king 
Henry VI. 

24—26. Tka ^>e«eA ammehed by m Biitoriaa. A mmorabU 
Tradition^ and a tucetmtry Oondiuion. 

Tim made me consider with myself what authentical autbon had 
attested the king's words aforesaid, finding it fint printed by Brian 
Tw^e, (h^ord Antiqaary, and ailerwaids by Dr. Heylyn, s mem- 
ber of that University ; but neither relating to any author by quota- 
tkm, in th«r editions which I have seen, which, in a matter of such 
ntoment, might justly have been expected, puting these my 
Uioughts, the Avowing passages came very seasonably to tecoDcile 
what to me seemed a contndiction ^— 

Mr. Habfaaid, my much-eateeiBed friend, late Fellow of King's 
Coll^e^ and Proctor of Cambridge, told me that Mr. Barlow, Fel- 
low of the sBiike House, informed him, how he had heard from Mr. 
Matthew Bast, the worthy schoolmaster of Eaton, familiarly cob- 
venii^ ^th sir Henry SaviU, Warden thereof, that the said air 
Henry Savill, in the presence of sir Isaac Wake, at an Oxford Act, 
being |4easant at the entertainment of Cambridge-men, in mere 
merriment, (to try whether he could make cousraa * of his aunt's 
children thoeis,) devised the story, far from aay lore of &Isehood, 
ot miachievona intent to deceive post^ty, but only for present 
delight. WUcb, usee, it seems, (bow soon are great men's jests 
made meaner men's earnests !) hath passed for cunent, some coo- 
firming, more crediting, none oppoaing it ; and from eoiNe, in 
taii, conet now to fly, m priat ; and, if not timely checked, will 

■ I hne wdleni. IU« word to nUIn It* udant aptQlDg, becmaie It wiD more retdUj 
mtfxe^ V> Ibe icadFC FuQet'ii pun, u camnftA la tha double meviliig. Ai cattyttr b 
" a dsc«j(Er," M aatai hira in inlmded bgth tOt " penoai decdred," and An cmt- 


Ilg HISTOBr OF THE . j.d. IMc 

in the next age acquire to itseir a peaceable poueuion of a general 

I confess Utis is heaisajr at the third mouth, losing much of the 
lustre thereof, because removed three desists from the origioa]. 
However, I conceive, mj. private resolutions just and equal, who 
will condemn it for (alsehood in that very minute when the afore- 
siud speech of king Henry VI. shall be avouched out of a warrant- 
able author; till which Ume, I shall account that no serioua 
speech of a king, but the knight's jocuLuy expression : I say again, 
this my aadivi from my friend shall prevail with me till confuted 
with the in^texi of a credible histonan to the contrary.* 

27—28. 2Tie Original of the SekooU in CanAridge. The old 
8ohool» a mean Stmeture. The teveral Founderi of ^ modem 

Pass we now froni King's Collie, but stay still on Kiog's-jDollege 
ground, (for such were some part of the Schools,) advanced at seve- 
ral times by sundry benefactors. Fint, the Schools were kept in 
private houses, hired, from ten years U> ten yean, by the Univeraity 
for that purpose ; during which term they might be diverted to ntf 
other use. Such we conceive the School of Tyiannus, whexein St. 
Paul kept his disputation ; and the house of John Goldcom (since 
enclosed in Ciuus College) served the University a long time in 
that nature. 

Aflerwatds, the public Schools were built at the cost of the 
University, in or near the place where now they stand. But, 
alas ! it was a little and low structure, more eminent tot the 
learning within, than the building without ; yet every whit aa 
good, as anciently the Artists' Schools of Padua, kept at St. Blass, 
or as the Schools in Venice, (near the steeple of St. Mark,) where 
Baptista Egnatius, some hundred years since, professed the libend 

Last of all, the present Quadrant of the Schools was erected of 
brick and rough stone, in fashion as it stftadeth at this day. 

First. The wett »ide,'f (oppo«te to the entrance,) built by the 
University charges, on ground bought of Beoe't College ; contun- 
ing, EENEATB, the Philosophy- commonly called the Baohelois'- 
Schools. Above, the Physic- and Law-Schools. 

Secondly. The north side, (on the right band,) finished ann» 
Dormni 1400, by air William Thorpe, a Lincolnshire kni^t; con* 
taining, beneath, the Divinity-Schools. Above, the RegcnU 
and Kon-R^ent-Houses, having something of chapel character and 

tn puagtspb 91 


emuecntion in them, u wherein some Uaivetsity devotions ore 
perfixmed. ■ 

ThinU;. Ths $outA tide, (on the left hand,) built by Laurence 
Booth, bishop of Darium, Chutcellor of the UniverBity ;* but oq 
the cost of graduates and oUiers t containing, bexeath, the Logic- 
or Sophister-Schools, where (in term-time) daily Disputations, 
and the Bachelors' Couimencement is kept. Above, the Greek 

Fonrdtly. Tke eait tide, (where one entereth at a beautiful 
pordi,) built amno 1475, by Rothcrham, archbishop of Ywk ; con- 
taining, BENEATH, ou tho ri^t hand, a Vestiaiy, where the Doc-' 
tors robe themselres, and have a convenient inspection into the 
Divimty'^ehools : on the left hand, the Consistory, where the 
Vice-Chsncellor Iceepeth his courts. Above, a feir library. 

This library formerly was funiished with plenty of choice books, 
partly at the costs of the aforesaid archbishop Rotheriiam, partly at 
the dtarges of Cuthbert Tonstall, bishop of Duihsm, bred in out 
(JiuTeisity, and quietly allowed unto us by bishop Godwin ; though 
some rinee "f* (on what nnjust pretence I know not) have drawn him 
RBto Bdlliol College in Cbcford. But Uiese books, by the covetous- 
nesa of some great ones, and carelessness of the libiary-Josen, ((ut 
libnryibi^wv I cannot call them,) are for the most part imbetzled, 
to the greet lost of the University, and learning in general. • 

30. Cambridffe IMraty mtpmetUed itith many precioui Bookt. 

At this day the library (or librarieif shall I sayp) of three suc- 
cessive archbishops, painful Parker, pious Qrindall, politie Ban- 
croft, (on the miscairiage of Chelsea College, to which first ihey 
were bequeathed,) are bestowed upon Cambridge ; and are beauti- 
fully shelved, (at the costs, as I am informed, of sir John W'ooUes- 
ton, alderman of London,) bo that our library will now move the 
beam, though it caonot weigh it down, to even the scale with 
Oxford. As for the Schools themselves, though our aunt bossteth 
that Jt is not worthy to carry the books after Oxford library for the 
statefulness of the edifice ; yet sure the difference is more in the 
case than in the jewels therein contained. 

Joannes Langton, Chancellor. He, with the consent of the 
whole University, appoints prayers and mass for Henry VI. a. d, 

Nicholas de Kenton, Chancellor ; a learned writer, 1445. 

Joannes de Langton, Chancellor. He obtiuna letters patents o. 
the king, whereby he forgives the University all offences, 1446. 

• fiat in/ri, OBfw U66. 

, Goo^^lc 

iSO aiSTOBV OF THS a.». U4S, 

4 Robertiu de AMOogjie, Doctor of Law, Chaocellor. He g^n 
to the UniTereit^ a goblet of eight oudccb. Gulielmiu Bio^iuD, 
Proctor, 1447. 

31—33. Queeti'i C<jliege founds by QtMwn Margaret. The In- 
tcripthm on lAs firtt Stone. <iu»m Elizaiieti ^%iaM lekat 
Qaem Margaret b^an, 

Margaret, daughter to Renier, tituled "kiDg of Sicily and Jeni- 
talen," «ife to king Henry VI. fimaded a Coll«ige in Qunbiidge, 
neu, if not in, a place formerly called Qoase-green, <Jedicating the 
Bame to her iwm»4ake, St. Idaigaiet, and St. Bernard, comuuwly 
called Queen'fl College. Indeed, as the trophy of Miltiadea- in 
Athens would not suffer Themiatoclefl to sleep, so this queen, 
beholding her huaband^s bounty in building KisgV College, im 
{DitleaB in berself with holy emulation, until she had produced some- 
thing of the like nature. A strife wherein wires, without bresidi of 
duty, nuy contend with their husbands, — which should exceed in 
pious petf<ainances. 

Sir John Weolock, knight, laid the first stone of this College in 
the east end and south aide of the chapel, in the name of queen 
Matgsret, April 15tb, 1448 ; who caused this inscription to be 
engnven theieoa : Erit DomntB noitrw rtgince Margartta Jiemi- 
nut in refttgium, et lapis itte in tiyaum : *' The Lord shall be fat 
a refuge to the lady Margaret, and this stone for a sign." Indeed, 
poor queen, soon after she needed a sanctaary to fdidter hendl^ 
when beaten in battle, and the aforesaid (since Lord} Wenlock 
slain at Tewkesbury : when, no doubt, her soul retreated to 
Divine protection, the only succour left unto her ; bnt this sad 
accident obstructed the hopeful proceeding in her intended foun- 

The child thus " come to the birth, there was ao strength to 
biing forth," had not the skill of the midwife supphed the want of 
strength in the mother. I mean, Andrew Ducket, for forty yean 
first Master of this House, formerly a (riar, rector of St. Botolph's 
in Cunbridge, Priucipal of Bernard's Hostel, who gathered much 
money from well-disposed people, to finish this Colle^, and 
accounted by some, (^ough not by his purse,) by his pnyeis, the 
founder thereof: a good and discreet man, who, with no sordid but 
prudential compliance, so poised himself in those dangerous times 
betwixt the succeasive kings of Lancaster and YoA, ihai he pro- 
cured the favour of both, and so prevailed with queen Elizabeth, 
wife to king Edward IV. that iJie perfected what her professed 
enemy had begun : a good-natured lady, whose estate (whilst a 
widow) being se^u&tered for the ddinquenctf of hei husband, 

I.,,;,,., , Cookie 


ithiti^, Hmo^ DOl «R»n2>, tben in' behkni,) made het moie mod- 
fill to the misenes of oUien. 

Mabteks. — Andrew Ducket. Thomas Wilkinson. John 
Fiaber. Robert Beakinshawe. John Jennings. Thomas Foniam. 
William Frankland, Simon Heynes. William. May. William 
Oljrmie. TKomas Peacock. William May. John Stokys. Wil- 
liam Chsddeitcm, Hamfiwy Tyndatl. John Darenant. John 
Maaael. Edmnl Maitin. Herbert Psbner. Thomas Horton. 

BiMsrACTOBe. — Lady Margaret Roos, lady Jane Inglethorpe, 
tad kdy Jane Burronf^. George duke of Clarence. Cicely 
dw^en of York. Ridiazd duke of Qloucester ; lady Anae, his 
life. Edvard eail of Salisbury. Maud countess of Oxford. Mar- 
nadnke Lomley, biah^ of Lincolo. Andrew Ducket. Hugh 
Tntter, D.D. John DrewelL William Weld. Sir Thomas 
Snitb. Henry Willihsw. Dr. Stokys. John Chetham. Henry 
Hafltings, eail of HunUngdos. John Joslin. Oeoige Motrntain. 
Joitn Dareoant. 

BfSHOPS. — 1. John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, and Cardinal. 
J£. William Qlynne, bishop of Bangor. 3. William Cbaddetton, 
bishop of Jiinct^. 4. William Cotton, bishop of Elzeter. 6. 
John J^on, bishop of Norwich. 6. Richard Milbonme, bishop of 
Carlisle. 7- George Mountain, bishop of London. 8. Robert 
Toonesoa, bishop of Salisbury, d. John Davenant, bishop of 
Salisbury. 10. William Roberts, bishop of Bangor. 11. John 
Towers, bishop of Peterborough, 

Leaenkd WaiTKKB. — 1. Jobs Fisbo, bishop of Rochester. 
2. Deaiderius Enumus. 3. Henry Bullock, &iend to Ensmus, 
calling him Sovitltm- 4. Dr. Foreman ; (having is as good as 
making of books ; ) he ctmcealed and jHresetred Lather's Wt^u, 
•ought for to be burnt.* 5. Sb Thomas Smith. 6. Thomas 
Skightman. 7. John Davenant. 8. Stephen Nettles, in hia defence 
of tithes. 8. John Weever, author of the '* Funeral Monuments." 
lU. Dr. John Preston. 

Livings in the College Gift. — St. Botolph Cantab. Ticai^ 
age, in the dioeess of Ely, valued at £2. 14^. 44. Eversden Parva 
reetory, in the diocese of Ely, valaed at £5. 2«. 4^d. Hoggington 
[Oakington] vicarsge, in Uie dioeess of Ely, valued at £4. 13t. 
St. Andrew rectory, [in Sandon, Essex,] in the dioeess of Canter- 
bury, [London,] valued at .£13. 6a. 8d. 

So that at tbis present therein are mainttuned one President, nine- 
teen FeQows, thieo-and-twenty Scholars, eight Bible-Clerks, three 
Lecturers of Het»ev, Arithmetic, and Geometry, besides Officers and 

* Ml. Fox's "Ac(>u 



SemntB of the (bnndation, witb other Studeata ; amonnUiig unto 
one himilred and ninety. 

34—38. Some TVuM ia mud Tali. Give ic£(M M thitu own. 
Too Coatt/br one Body. A Bettefactor-gewrai to Learning. 
An ingetUam and utefiU Deiign. ^.i>. 1448. 
1 Amongst the Uter Masters of this College, Dr. Humphrey Tyn- 
dall, dean of Ely, must not be forgotten ; of whom there passeth aa 
improbable tradiUon,— that in the reign of queen Elizabeth he was 
proffered by a Protestant party in Bohemia to be made king 
thereof; which herefiued, ailing, that he bad rather be queen 
Elimbeth's sul^ect, than a foreign prince. I know full veil that 
crown is elective. I know also that for some hundreds of years it 
Iws been fixed to the Oerman empire. However, because no smoke 
without some fire, or beat at least ; there is something in it, man 
than appears to every eye. True it is, that he was son to Sir 
Thomas Tyndall, of Hockwold, in Norfolk ; and- how Bohemian 
blood came into. his veins, I know not. Sure I am, he gave the 
arms of Bohemia ; namely. Mart, a lion with a fbiked tail ; iMna, 
icrowned, sol, with a plame of OBtrich-foathere for a crest 

The catalogue of bene&ctora to this College presents only the 
principal, not all in that kind, who, in the days of Dr. Cains, 
(writing eight years since,) amounted to more than a hundred forty 
and seven ; much increased at this day. Indeed, no House, for the 
quantity, is endowed with better land of manors and forms, and less 
of impropriations belonging thereunto. As for king BJchatd III. 
his benefaction made more noise than brought profit therewith; 
who conferred on this College all the largeand honourable patri- 
mony of John Vere, the thirteenth earl of Oxford, then main- 
taining St. Michael's mount, in Cornwall, against him ; whidi soon 
after was justly resumed by king Henry VII. and restored to the 
right owner thereof: the Collie no whit grieving thereat, as sensi- 
ble no endowment can be comfortable which consists not with equity 
and honour. 

. No College in England bath such exchange of coats of arms as 
this hath, ^ving sometimes the arms of Jerusalem, (with many 
others quartered therewith,) assigned by queen Margaret their first 
foundress. It giveth dso another distinct coat ; namely, a crosi<n-, 
and pastoral staff taltire, piercing through a boar's head in the 
midst of the shield.* This I humbly conceive bestowed upon them 
by Richard III. (when undertaking the patronage of this founda- 
tion,) in allusion to the boar, which was his crest; and wherein 
those church-implements, disposed in laUire, or in fonn of St. 

* S«e It in Speed's Map of Cambrldgeiiblre. 

, Goo^^lc 


Andiew'i Croas, might in their device lelste io Andrew Doeket, so 
much meriUng of this foundation. However, at this day the College 
mves the wearing of this coat, laying it up in her wardrobe, and 
makes nse of the fonoei only. 

Sit Thomas Smith, in this catalogue, may he beheld not as fl 
Bene&ctor to this House alone, but all CoU^es of literature in 
England. If Obodiah be so pnised to all poeteritj' for feeding a 
hundred of God^s prophets, " fifty in one care, and fifty in another, 
with Inead and water," 1 Kings xviii. 4 ; what reward shall this 
worthy Knight receive, who for ever feeds all " the sons of the pro- 
phets," both in Cambridge and Oxford, (members of any Society,) 
with tent-corn, which he procured by statute in Parliament ; which, 
in due time, (God willing,) shall iiilly be related. 

The aforesaid Knight rectus again (who cannot too often be 
mentioned) in the list of learned writers ; eminent for two excellent 
w«ks : the one, " Of the Commonwealth of England ;" the other, 
** Of a more Compendious Way of Printing," as which would de&Ik 
a £fth part of the cost in paper and ink, beradesas much of the pains 
in composing, printing, and reading of books only, by dischuging 
many superfluons letters in spelling and Bccommodating the sonnda 
of long and diort vowels (to save terminating eb, and other neediest 
additions of. consonants) with distinct chaiacters. However, this 
design hath not hitherto met with general entertainment, chiefly on 
» suspicion that this modem way will render ancient books in a short 
time QBreadable to any, save antiquaries ; which whether a just or 
causeless jealousy, let others determine. 

38. Eramui a Student in Qaeetii CoOtge. 16 Edward IV. 
A.D. 1450—1475. 

Qttee&'s CcJlege accounteth it no anal] credit thereunto, that 
Elrasmus (who no doubt might have picked and chosen what House 
he pleased) preferred this for the place of his study, for some years 
in Cambridge ; either invited thither with the &me of the learning 
and love of his friend, bishop Fisher, then Master (liereof ; or 
allured with the situation of this College, so near the river, (as 
Rotterdam, his native place, to the sea,) with pleasant walks 
thereabouts. And thus I take my farewell of this foundation, 
wberm I bod my education for the first eight years in that Univer- 
nty, dealing Go<d''s blessing to be plentifully poured on all the 
members thereof. 

Nicbf^ Caosa, Chancellor, a.d. 145U. 

William Percy, son to the earl of Northumberhtnd, Chancellor, 
1451. Mr. Baker, Proctor, 1452; Mr. Fleming, and Mr. Hamp- 
den, Proctors, 1453. 


3S4 .' BI8TOKTOFTHE . a.d. 147K 

' HeUceforwud We AM pment iLe reader with tn esut cftUloguc 
of all the Pioctots in Cainbridge. Indeed, we could haTe begun 
our liat oF Ihem a hundred yeaa befoie, but then nnut ha,n left 
many blanks for some ^eais, so nnperfect onr intelligence, and so 
imcertuo the recwds ; (meeUng thereiD many times a nngle Proc- 
tor without hie mate ;) and therefore I conemved time enou^ 
hmceforwud to date the completed and eontioued series of those 
pnUic officers. 

Henry Boleyne and John Gunthorpe, Proctors, a.d. 1454. 
- Henry Boleyneand John Bolton, Proctors, a.i>. 1455. 

Laurence Booth, Chancellor; John Hurth and J<^n Bolton, 
Proctors, 1456. In this year, a.d. 1457, liautence Booth faftep- 
wards archbishop of York) caused a collection to be made through 
the whole Univertity. 1. From such who hired Chairs of canon 
■dxl d.Til law. 2. From those who broke their words in taking 
theb degrees. H. From every teligioos peraon a proprietaiy of 
goods, ten marks.* 4. From every religions man of the Order of 
£egging FfiaiB, eight marks. S. From every rich parson, a tlurd part 
t>F hk parsonage. 6. From bishops and prelatcn, what they pleaeed 
themselves to ffn. With these moneys, which may be presumed 
to amount unto a round sum, he built the south side of the Schools, 
wherein the Sophisteis keep their ordinary diaputatioDs. 

William Wilfleet, Chancelicv ; Robnt Steukin and John Yot- 
ling, Proot(»8, a.d. 145S. 

Bobert Woodla^ ChanoeUot; Richard Moigsn and' Oliver 
King, Proctors, 1459. 

WUliam Skybye and William Skelton, Proctore, 1460. 

lUc^ard Scroop, Ohancellor ; J<^ Batnaby and William OtAy~ 
ham, Proctors, 1461. 

. Robert Woodlaric, Chancellor ; Thoreaa Langton and John Oray, 
Proctors, 14<62. 

John Booth, Chancellor ; J<^n Lindsey and William Rac^w, 
Pioetws, 1463. 

William WilBeet, Chancellor ; John Bretton and Giles Dent, 
Proctors, 1464. 

Willtam Wyche and William Langthon, Proctors, 1465. 

John Herrieon, [Cbuicellor,] Doctor of Physicjf this year set 
fiirih a short Bodt de Futuirtonbiu Dnivertkatit, deducing the 
«ame iram king Cantaber, the same whi<h I conceive is called " the 
Black-Book " at this day. a. d. 1465. 

William Langthon and Christopher Lo&ns, Procton, 1466. 

John Day and William Wood, Pt«ctoti^ 1467. 

■ Cah's, Dc Andqaibilt Caml. Acud. page 61. t IH^ fft U. 

i.,,i,,., , Cookie 

)• 0V4U IT. UNiTERSirr OP CAHBRIDOE. 125; 

Eidmd Story, CSuncelloi ; Thomas Wright and IHioRiiis Lax- 
ton, Proctors, 1468. 

. TboBas Bothediiuii,ChBne<^or; Thonus Coajn anil Ambrou 
Rippiogtan, Pzoctore, 1469 ; TboauM Tajlourand Thomas Mands- 
Itj, Practom, 1470 ; John Wells ud Edward Hanson, Procton, 
1471; John A^nt and John Ocley, Proctors, 1472; Ralph 
Soager and Richard Tokeifaam, PtocIotb, 1473 ( John Trotter and 
Richard SmiUi, Pioctora, 1474 ; Thonum Bond and John Radford,. 
Proctow, 1476. 

40. The Foitadmff of Cca&erine Bali. 
Richard Woodlailc tsb bom *t Wakerleyro NorthDmberlandT at 
■n anther hath affinned.* (Bat findingno Bnch{Jace in that county, 
ipd a Wakerief, nigii Stanford, in Northampton BhiTo,f bUme me 
not, if willing to restore mj native shire to its rig^t, and thd 
hoDODt of his nstirity.) This Richard, being the last FonndatitHi- 
Fdlow, and third Provost of King''s College, pur^ssed four teoe- 
nMts. in MiU-stieet, (over against the late ConnditCB then newly 
Qneen's College,) and founded an Hall thereon for one Master,* 
and three Fellows, dedicating it to St. Kathcrine, the virgin and 
aartyr, unee augmented by the bounty of others, 

41. Properly a prmg Hall. 

This may be termed onfa h^i, (if not a froptfr^ " a pretty 

Hall," even by the conlesnon of the poet so critical in the word :— '' 

And the beholding of this House mindeth me of what sir Thomas 
Hore§ writeth of a she-favourite of king Bdward IV. ea to this par- 
ticular conformity betwixt them, (otiierwise, far be it frnn me to 
resemble this Virgin Hall to a wanton woman,) namely, that^ 
" Uieie was nothing in her body one could have changed, except 
one would have wished her somewhat higher." liowness of endow- 
ment, and IHUeneas trf receipt, is all [that] can be cavilled at is this 
fbundation, otherwise proportionably most complete in chapel, cloie- 
tcTB, library, ball, Stc Indeed, this House was long town-bound, 
(which hindered the growth thereof,) till Dr. Gostlin, that good' 
physician, cured it of that disease, by giving the Bull inn thereunto;: 
so that, since, it hath flourished witji. buildings and students, lately 
more nnmerons than in greater Colleges. 

* J. Scot's "TdUN." t Sm Speed'h Mapela tin ntilagneiorbothcoaiitlei. 

] Habtuui, Ub. U epignun 10. 4 la Ui Uil ol Edvrud V; ( 


126: BISTORT OP THE a. d. I4M. 

Habtbbs.— 1. Robm Boch. 2. Joha Tarton. 3. John War- 
doU. 4. Richatd Barleston. 5. Thomas Oieen. 6. Raiaold 
Bainbrig. 7> Edwin Sandys. 8. Edmund Cosin. 9. John May. 

10. Edmund Hound. 11. John Oveial. 12. John Hills. 13. 
Richard Sibs. 14. Ralph Biownrigg. 15. William Spntstow, 

16. John Lightfoot. 

BENBFACTOE8.-4-1. Isabel Canteibnty, sister to the founder. 
2. William Taylor. 3. C^erine Mils. 4. Robert Simptoo. 5. 
Hugh Pembeiton. 6. John Chester. 7. Thomas Green. 8. The 
lady Elizabeth Baniardiston. 9. John Leach. lU. Richard Nealson. 

11. Robert Shorten. 12. Dr. Thimblebie. 13. Dr. Middleton. 
14. Hugh Garret. 15. Rosamond Paster. 16. John Colmley. 

17. John Dulce. 18. John Claypoole. 18. John Goatlin, knight, 
20. Thomas Buck, esqniie-besdle. 21. Mr. Christopher Shitland. 
£2. Mis. Stafibid. 23. Mr. Thomas Hobbs. 24. Mr. Petec 
Pheasant. 25. Lady Cocket. 26. Mrs. Jurdain. 27- Lady Abd 
Banardiston. 28. Dr. William Gouge. 29. Mr. Conlson. 30, 
Mr. Skime, esq. 31. Mr. Alured. 32. Mr. Ciadock. 33. Tho 
vorthy Company of Mercers of the city of London. 

>' Bisnors. — Edwin Sandys, Master, archbishop of York. John 
May, Master, bishop of (Wlisle. John Overal, Master, bishop o^ 
Norwich. Ralph Brownrigg, Master, bishop of Exeter. 

Learned Weitskb. — £Mwin Suidys, archbishop of York. 
Richud Sibs, a most picas and profound divine. Thomas Good- 
vin, Fellow, an eminent preacher. John Lightfoot, an excellent 

CoLLEOB-LivitiGS. — Cotou rectOTy, in the diocessof Ely, va- 
lued at ^0. 12f. Hd. 

So that lately in this were muntained one Master, six Felloira, 
with all the Students, above an hundred. 

■ lUcbard Freyer and Robert Woodroof, Prfutors, a.d. 1476; 
Thomas Swayne and Gerard Borell, Proctors, 1477 ; Gulielmua 
Stockdale and John Laycroft, Proctors, 1478. 
. Joannes Boynton, Chancellor ; Robert Wellby and Robert Lu- 
ther, Proctors, 1479 ; Gulielmus Thompson and R<^er Bower, 
Proctm, 1480; Philip Morgan and Thomas Hole, Proctors, 
1481 ; John Gnen and James Grave, Proctors, 1482. 

Thomas Rothertuun„ Chancellor ; John Smith and Robert Ha- 
dimblen. Proctors, 1483 ; John Butler and Gilbert Geuge, Proc- 
tors, 1464. 

Thomas Northwood, Chancellor; John Bntler and Gilbert 
Urros«i, Proctors, 1485 ; Gilbert Fitz-John and Henry Babing. 
ton, Proctors, 1486; Thomas Waters^ and Gulielmus Birly, 
Proctors, 1487. 



Richardns Badew, Chancellor ; Richard Walle and John BaaKt*' 
Proctora, 1488 ; Thomas Medcalfe and Roger Lajburne, ProcUm, 

Thomas Coeine, Chancellor; Onalteras Bedman and Edmond 
Davy, Proctors, 1480 ; Richwd Bnrton and John Wolfe, Proc- 
tors, 1491 ; John Sideling and John Walle, Procton, 1492; John 
Lound and Richard Huddlestone, Proctors, 1493. 

Joannes Kithe, Chancellor; Kchard Brampton and John 
Robinson, Proctors, 1494; John Fiaher and Thomas ' Cooke, 
Proctors, 1495. 

Robertns Fitz-Hngh, Chancellor; Jacob Denton and Thomas 
Gf^cy, Proctois, 1496. 

42—44. T%e Foundation of Je$tu CcUeffe. The Incontinence of 
Saint BadeffunS"! Nunt. John Majorat TetHmony hereof. 

This year a new College was made in Cambridge of an old nun- 
nery, founded some three hundred years ago ; namely, amu> 1133, 
by Malcolm of the Scots'' royal race, eail of Cambridge and Hunt-- 
ingdon, and dedicated to St. Rad^und. This Radc^nnd, daughter. 
to Bertram, prince of Thnringia, was wife to LotharitU king of 
Fiance, (son to Clodovens [Clovis] the great, the first Chiistian 
king of that country,) who, sequestering herself from her hnsband*s 
company, about the year S60, lired and died in a small monastery . 
in Poiton, thereby gaining the reputation of a saint. 

But, it seems, the Sisters living in Cambridge-nunnery, conse- 

cnted to her honour, fell sa iar short in chastity as she overdid 

therein. Indeed, one of tliem left a good memory, or (at least) 

hath ft good epitaph inscribed on her monnment in the chapel : — 

Mtrititt oTitala,jttl lilc tona Bttbi Bonta. 

But the rest were not so sweet and fragrant in their reputes, squan- 
dering away the wealth and ornaments of their House ; which was 
no wonder for those to do, who were prodigals of their own peisons. 
Not able, tlierefore, to go away Jrvm their shame, they went away 
witi theii shame ; snd, quitting their convent, concealed themselves 
privately in their own country. Tradition saith, that, of the two 
lemaming, one was mth child, the other but a child, so that iheir, 
land seemed lapsed for want of owners, or rather for the owneia'' 
want of honesty.* 

But let us hear what John Major, the blunt Scotch historian, 
saith hereof^t living in Cambridge some years after, whilst those 

, Cookie 

128 HISTORY OF TRB a.d. 14M- 

matters vere }^t (nA in moat tnen^a memories •.—Quoddenn mtdte- 
nan ecuubiam in CoUt^wn Jtiu eowmtenmt ootmUo truditutimi 
pariter et opHmi «W Siabit Doctorit Thtoloffi. I^olebant mulitrea 
mm indadi, ttd teiolaitioortim amtorttum admmrant. t/ndi 
ffrwem viroi tcandalizanaU, qaodrca m» ejeetU, et alHt oaenobiis 
in^onHi, mrum loeo ttudrntm tnopei poiiti tun/, quatmw literit et 
rirtatibtu inettmbttvtU, et /oUum darent in tea^tore too. ffatut 
t»ulieram tffeeH4)nem apprebo. 8i enim pro re^ffione pnuHbtUa 
nvtriaiU, earum loeo bonapOMnda iu»t. 

15, 46. Hu Oumteter ofBithop Aloock. Jmu -CeHege tie BUhop 
o/Ely'i Bouse. 

Tbeir vicionmess thus genenlly compluned of, their House, with 
tU the land thereof, waa vith king Henry VII. and pope JuUus II. 
bestowed on John Alcock, biahop of Ely, to convert it into a Co)- 
1^, dedicated to Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and St. Radegnnd. A 
whole Tolume may be written of this bishop, bom at Beverley in 
Yorkshire, Uiong^ his parents lie bnried at Kit^ton-on-HulI, 
where he built a chantry for them, and a Ire&school for the benefit 
of others. John Bale (though very sparing of praising petcons of 
that age) chuBCter«th him, " given from his childhood to learning 
and religion ; ao growing from virtue to Tirtue, that no one in 
England wds more reputed for bis holiness." He is reported to 
' hare fiued very sparingly all his life long, and to bare conquered 
the baits of his wanton flesh by his bating, studying, watdung, and 
snch like Christian discipline. 

This good bishop established in the Honae one Master, six Fel-- 
lowa, and six Scholara, commending them to the perpetual tutelage 
of the bishops of Ely. Hence it is that when those bishops lodge 
in this College, (as they did anno 1556, 1557,) their registn' 
reporteth them lying in " their own House : " and though Peter 
House, as founded by Balsham bishop of Ely, mi^t claim the same 
title ; yet it seems those bishops have a more particular affection to 
Jesus College. King Jamea, in his coming from Newmariiet 
hither, commended it for the situation thereof, as most colle^ate, 
retired from tbe town, and in a meditating postnie alone by itself. 

Mastbrb.— 1. William Chubba. 2. John Ecdestoo. 3. Tho- 
mas Alcock. 4. William Capon. 5. John Royston. 6. Edward 
PierpoiUt. 7. John Fuller. 8. Thomas Redman. 9. Tbomag 
Gascoigne. 10. John Lakin. 11. Thomas Ithell. 12. John Bell. 
13. JohnDupart. 14. Roger Andrews. 15. William Beale. 16. 
Richard Stemc. 17- John Worthington. 

BKNEi'ACTORS.-^The lady Willoughby. The lady Bray. Junes 
Stanley, biahop of Ely. Thomas Thirtby, bishop of Ely, who gave 



the adrowsons of six vicaiages to this College. Jolm Be>uchwnpe, 
kiiiglit. Sir Robert Read, knight. John Andrews. Dr. Roj^Bton. 
Dr. Fuller. John BatemanBon. Thomas Roberts. Rc^er Thomey. 
Richard Pigot. Godfrey Fuliam. William Manhall. Jane Woods. 
Thomas Sutton, esq. 

BiRHors. — Thomas Cnnmer, archbishop of Canterbury. John 
Bale, bishop of Ossory in Ireland. Richard Bancroft, archbishop 
of Canterbury. John Oven, bishop of St. Asaph. 

Leabned Weitess. — William Cbubbs : he vrote ^ Logic, 
■ad a Comment on Scotos. OeoSirey Dounes, Tutor to John B^e. 
Thoimia CiHsmer, JMartyr. John Bale, Confessor. John Dod, 
Fellow of this House. Sir William Boswell, Lieger in Holland. 
Christopher lord Hatton. 

College Litikgs. — ^All Saints, Cantab, vicarage, in the dio< 
ceai of Ely, valued at ^5. Bt. 3d. St. Sepulchre,* Cantab. vica> 
1^, in the diocess of Ely, valued at £6. lU, Comberton vicarage, 
in the diocess of Ely, valued at £G. 1&. lO^tJ. Harlton rectory, in 
the diocess of Ely, valued at £li. 19», S^d. Graveley rectory, ia 
the diocess of Ely, valued at £1S. 2t. 6d. Gilden Morden vicarage, 
in the diocess of Ely, valued at £3. 5g. Gd. St. Clement's Cantab, 
vican^, in the diocess of Ely, valued at . 

So that lately (namely, anno IGSA) the foundation consisted of 
one Master, sixteen Fellows, twenty-four Scholars, besides Officers 
and other Students ; in all one hundred and ten. 

Golielmus Milner and Gulielmus Tape, Proctors, a. d. 1487- 

Richard Wyat and John White, Proctors, 1498. 

Richard Hutton and Brian Kidday, Proctors, 1499. 

Henceforward, having gained more certainty from our registers, 
we will enlarge burseNes to a greater proportion both of the names 
of Unirersity-OfGceis, and numbers of the annual Comraencers, 
adding also the Mayors of the town, not as a foil to the diamond, 
bat becaose it may conduce something to the certainty of chro- 

Richard Pox, bishop of Winchester, Chancellor ; Henry Babtng- 
too. Vice-chancellor ; John Sickling and Thomas Patiaon, Proc- 
tors ; Doctors of Divinity, 6 ; Doctor of Canon Law, 1 ; Doctor 
of Civil Law, 1 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 10 ; Bachelors of Laws, 
13 ; Bachelors of Arts, 29 ; Mssters of Arts, 23 ; Masters of 
Oiammar, 4 ; Henry Kcle, Mayor of the town. a.d. 1500. 

John Fisher, Chancellor ; John Fisher, Vice-Chancellor; Rich- 
ard Balderton and Richard Wyat, Proctors ; Doctors of Divinity, 
7 : Doctors of Civil Law, 2 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 14 ; Masters 

■ TaBa b«re tvprnw tn bg mtaMken, h Ike TiCBng* of St. Sepuklm li not la tb* 
flft of uf of Dm Collego.— Edit. 



130 HISTORY OF TBB *.v. iS4i; 

of Arts, 27 ; Masters of Onmrnar, 3 ; BbcIiAIotb of Laws, 18 ; 
Bachelors of Arte, 23 ; John Bell, Mayor of the tovn. 1501.* 

George Fitzhagb, Chancellor; Humphrey Fits* William, Vice- 
Chancellor ; Tbotnas Edmsn, and John Hutchinsoo, Proctora * 
Doctors of Divinity, 2; Doctor of Canon Lav, 4; Doctor of 
Civil Law, 2 ; Doctor of Medicine, 1 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 8 ; 
Masters of Arts, 22; Masters of Grammar, 1 ; Bachelors of Lam, 
29 ; Bachelors of Medicine, 1 ; Bachelors of Arts, 34 ; Robert 
Morehouse, Mayor of the town. 1502. 

Thomas Roathold, Chancellor ; tialfride Knight, Vice-Chan- 
cellor ; John Jennings and Gulielmus Woodioof^ Proctors ; 
Doctors of Divinity, 3 ; Doctor of Civil Law, 1 ; Doctor of 
Music, 1 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 18 ; Masters of Arts, 19 ; 
Bachelors of Laws, 18 ; Bachelors of Arts, 26 ; Robert Morehonse, 
Mayor of the town. 1503. 

John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, Chancellor; John Smith, 
Vice-Chancellor ; Robert Cutler and John Watson, Proctora ; 
Doctors of Divinity, 6 ; Doctors of Canon Law, 2 ; Bachelors of 
Divinity, 11; Masters of Arts, 17; Bachelors of Laws, 25; 
Bachelors of Arts, 24; John Bell, Mayor of the town. 1504. 

47. Firit Ckancelhr/or Lifr. 
The University perceived it was troublesome every year to 
choose a new Chancellor. Wherefore, having now pitched on a 
person of much merit for the place, (so that they could not change 
but to loss,) this year they concluded his continuance therein for 
term of life ; which act of the University was, awno 1514, more 
solemnly confirmed. Hereafter it will be superfluous to charge 
every year with the repeated name of the Chancellor, as always the 
same, till another, on his death, be elected. 

48—51. Eraimut ttadieth i» Quern's CoSsge ; wa» firtt Greek- 
th«n Divinity-Profeseor. No merMoart/ Writen in Cam^ 
bridge. Gambridffe loithin /eie Years mud improved in 

About this time Erasmus came first to Cambridge, (coming and 
going for seven years together,) having his abode in Queen's College,-^- 
where a study on the top of the south-west tower in the old court still 
retainetb his name. Here his labour in mounting so many stairs, 

* At (^a dat* the accnntc Le Nne a 
Hkl PrcHIon : " wMch often mlea in Iti n 
polat on which 1 do not mulder tsfielf qiuMed ti 
Edit. f f'i^ &* date oT bl> Ant eplilla, Otrv rfU. 


W flUiT ri(. UNIVmSITT OF CAMniDOB. 131 

(done, peichsnee, on purpose to exadse hie bodj, toid prevent cor- 
pulency,) was lecompensed with a pleasant prospect tonnd abont 
him. He often oompluned of the College-de, eatma hufus loci 
miii mUlo modo plaett, — as raw, small, and windy ; * vhereby it 
appean, 1. Ale in that age was the constant berera^ of all Col- 
]({gefl before the innovation of beer (the child of hops) was brought 
into England. 2. Queen^s CoII*^ cavitia was not vis Cer«ru, 
but Cara$ ntiata. In my time, (when I was a member of that 
House,) scholars continued Erasmuses complaint; whilst the brew- 
en (having, it seems, pteecnplion on their side for long time) little 
am^ided it. The best was, Erasmus had bis lagena or flagon of 
wine recruited weekly from his &iends at London ; which he drank 
sometimes singly by itself, and sometimes encouraged his bint ale 
with the mixture thereof. 

He iras public Greek Professor, and tint read the Orammar of 
Chrysolons to a thin auditory,f whose number increased when he 
begmn the Gnmmar of Theodorus. Then took he (by grace fireely 
granted him) the degree of Bachelor in Divinity ; % *^ ^ '^"^ 
mcndable modesty, though over-deserving a Doctorship, to desire 
no more as yet, because tbe main of bis studies were most resident 
mi Humanity. Here he wrote a small tnct da eonaoribendU epit- 
tolist set forth by Sibert, printer to the University.g Some years 
after he took upon him the Divinity-Professor's place, (understand 
it the Iiady MaigaretX) invited thereunto, not with the sdary, so 
moall in itself,]! ^^^ ^'^ desire and hope to do good in Uie 

If any find him complaining, Sla (o Aeadaniam !) nalliu, ^o. 
" Here's an Universily indeed, wherein none can be found who wilt 
at any rate be hired to write but indifferently 1 " ^ know, this might 
tend much to his trouble, but sounds nothing to the disgrace of 
Cambridge. Indeed, in Dutch Academies, many poor people 
made a mean livelihood by wiiting for others, though but lib^vl 
mediaDics in their employment. No such mercenary hands in 
Cambridge, where every one wrote for himself; and, if at any time 
for otbcTB, he did it grtaU, as a courtesy for good-will, no service 
(at reward. 

How much Cambridge was lately improved in learning, the same 
■ntfaov doUi thus acquaint us. *' Almost thirty years sgo,^ suth 
lie, " nothing else was handled or read in the Schools of Cam- 
bridge, besides Alexander, Aa Littld LogieaU, (as they call them,) 
and those old dictates of Aristotle, and questions of Scotua. la 

• ^ntloU 16, Bbrl (in. t Lib. tUI. epbt. 1. I Cmv», Hul. Caul. 

.rfeiirf. Ub. IL ri«« m. Mitn,U^ H Ub. tUL epIM. 3. . HUb.TUt. 



process of time, then was an accession of good learning, the knov- 
ledge of Mathematics came in ; a new aod, indeed, a renewed Aris- 
totle came in : so manj authors came in, whose very names were 
anciently unknown. To wit, it hath flourished so much, that it 
may contend with the prime Schools of this age ; and hath such 
men therein, to whom if such be compared that were in the ige 
before, they will seem rather shadows of divines than diTines.*" * 

52 — 54. Eh-asmuit Jv^ment of Cambridge and Oxford. A 
tecond, a third, Verdict of the tame. Sit Character of Gamr 
bridge Toumtmsn. 

Take also the comparative character of Cambridge, weighed it 
this time with Oxford,, whilst the judicioua hand of Eiasmus thus 
holdeth the beam of the balance : " John, bishop of Rochester, — 
one [who is] a man, a true bishop, a true divine, — told me some 
three years since, that in Cambridge, (whereof be is perpetoal 
Chancellor,) instead of sophistical querks, now sober and sound 
disputaiiona are agitated amongst divines ; whence men depart not 
only leameder but better. Oxford University, by the help of some 
monks, did at first make some resistance ; but such were curbed 
with the power of cardinal Wolsey, and the king's authority, who 
enried so great good to that moat tamous and ancient School."'!' 

A second of the same kind will not be amiss to present. " Eng- 
land,*' saith he, " bath two moat noble Universities, Cambridge and 
Oxford ; in both of these the Greek tongue is taught, but in Cam< 
bridge quietly, because John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, Gita 
governor of the School, not only for his learning's sake, but for his 
divine life. But when a certain young man at Oxford not meanly 
learned did happily enough profess the Greek tongue theie, a bar- 
barous feUow in a popular sermon began to rul agunst the Greek 
tongue with great and heinous revilingB.'" \ And in another |^ace : 
"By the wisdom of Thomas, cardinal of York, the School of 
Oxford shall be adorned, not only with all kind of tongues and 
learning, but also with such manners which become the best studies. 
For the University of Cunbridge long ago doth flourish with 
all ornaments, John, bishop of Rochester, being the Chancellor 
thereof." § 

But too tart and severe is Era5mus''e censure of Cambridge 
townsmen : Vulgus Cantabrigiente inhotpitalet Britantua atiU- 
cedit, qui cum mmmd nutiisilate tammam maiitiam eonjunwire. 
" Cambridge townsmen go beyond the inhospitable Britons, who 
have malice joined with their clown ishness." || And although some 

• Ub. ii. spidoU 10. j Lib. KvU. epiM. U. t Lib. rt. ^W. 9. 

i Ub. a. tplal. 37. II Ub. vlil. cplM. 8, 9. 



vill ny tlie toTnamen an no changeliDgs at Uiifl dsj^ ; yet, seeing 
Cambridge is sometimes called ctvitas, and often artn; some 
of her inhabitants expiesB much civility and urbanity in their 

Richard Burton, Vice-Chancellor; William Lambert and Ed- 
mond Page, Proctors; Doctors of Divinity, 2; Bachelors of 
DiTinity, 7 ; Masters of Arts, 18 ; Bachelors of Laws, 6 ; Bachc- 
lois of Arts, 23 ; Henry Kele, Mayor, a. d. 1S05. 



Septem Principum Aulas transmarinas (ni mate' me- 
miiii) te pertustr^e accepi. Id quibus splendidse veates, 
dubix dapes, ingeos famulitium, cpntiDUUs Btrepitus, 
multa denique confusio, quae in regum hospitiis, honoris' 
ei^6, MAGsmcBNTiA eat oominanda. 

En tibi plures Musarum Aulas (sic opposite Collegia 
dicuDtnr) in hdc Historic nostr4 descriptas ! Esto tu 
Epquissimua arbiter, (cilm utraque tibi notiaaima,) Auli- 
conim an Academiconim vita sit beatior. Non dubito te 
mufflcolamm placidam quietem, veatitum simplicem, 
vultom tenuem, fercula vacua, mentea plenaa, phaleratis 
Palatinorum miseriis, ac eorum tolerabili vanitali prsela- 

Prseaertim Joannenae Collegium dulcedine su& te 
allecturum spero ; cilm tibi olim natale aolum, ubi Uteris 
fiiisli iuDutritua, et cui donaria non contemnenda dedisti, 
plnra et pretiosiora (ni fallor) daturas ; si omnia jmtie 
tus expectation! respondissent. 

1. Kinff Smry eonut to Cambridge. 
Henry VII. came to Cambridge, where he bestowed an hundred ■ 
marks on the University, and forty pounds (a fiiir sum in that 
age from so thrifty a king) on the fabric of St. Mary's, where 
the scholars meet weekly at public sennons, and yearly at the 



2. The BaUding of Bt. Mary*!. 
The mention of St. Maiy's mindetb me of church-work indeed, 
so long it was firom the founding to the finishing thereof; as, 
begtut May 16th, 1478, when the first stone thereof was laid in 
the seventeenth of Edward IV. — The church ended (but without 
a tower or beUry) 1519, in the eleventh of Henry VIII.— The 
tower finished 1608, in the sixth of king James.— So that, from 
the beginning to the ending thereof were no fbwer than an hun- 
dred end thirty years. There was expended in the structure of 
the chorch alone seven hundred ninety-five pounds, two shillings, 
and a penny, all bestowed by charitable people for that purpose. 
Amongst whom, Thomas Barow, Doctor of Citil Law, arcbdeacoa 
of Colchester, fonnerly Fellow of King's Hall, and Chancellor of 
his house to king Richard III. gave, fbi his part, two hundred 
and forty pounds.* 

3—5. The Foundation of dritft CoOegt. 7^ fair mdowmmU 
thereof. A Lady of Pity. 
One may probably conjecture, that a main motive which drew 
king Henry this year to Cambridge was, with his presence to 
grace his mother's foundation of Christ's College, now newly laid, 
without Bamwell-gate, over against St. Andrew's church, in a place 
where God's House fonnerly stood, foQnded by king Henry VI. 
This king had an intention (had not deprivaUon, a civil death, 
prevented him) to advance the Scholars of this foundation to the 
full number of sixty, though (a great fid)) never more than four 
lived there, for lack of maintenance. Now the lady Margaret, 
countess of Richmond and Derby, (accounting herself, as of the 
Ijancaster line, heir to all king Henry's godly intentions,) only 
altered the name from God's House to Christ's College, and made 
up the number, namely, one Master, twelve Fellows, fDrty-seven 
Scholars ; in all sixty. 

Great and good were the lands which this lady, by her last 
will, bestowed on this College, in several counties. In Cambridge- 
shire, the manors of Malton, Meldreth, and Beach, with divers 
lands and rents, elsewhere in that county. In Leicestershire, the 
manor of Ditesworlh, oiiAs Diseworth, with lands and tenements in 
Ditesworth, Kegworth, Hathen, and Wolton. In Norfolk, the 
abbey of Creyke, which was in the king's hands, as dissolved 
' and extinct, settled by the pope's authority and the king's licence. 
In Essex, the manor of Roydon. In Wales, Manibire, [Manor- 
bier,] an improprialion.f This lady, being of Welsh affinity, a 

* Caiub, Hiiloria jitad. CanUii, lib. 1. page 90. ) All theM I hare Mn- 

■oibed onl of bn Iwt wUL 



TeudieT [Tador] b; muiwge, and hanDg long lived in Wales, 
(where her son king Hem; VII. was born in Pembroke,) thought 
fittinif, in commemontion thereof, to leave Bome Welsh laud to 
this her foundation. 

Once the ladj Margaret came to Cbrisrs College, to behold 
it when partly built; and, looking out of a vindow, saw the 
dean call a Gtolty Scholar to cwrection ; to whom she said, Iiertti, 
lanti ! "Gently, gently," as accounting it better to mitigate his 
punishment than to procure his paidoD : mercy and justice making 
the best medley to offenders.* 

6. John Major a Student in Chrit^t CoUege. 
John Major, a Scottiahmau, and a Scottish historian of good 
account, was (only for the term of three mo&lhs) a Student in 
this College, as himself acknowledgeth. He reporteth, that the 
Scholars of Cambridge in his time " usually went armed with bows 
and swords ; "^'whicb our learned antiquary is very loath to believe, 
except it was John Major's chance to come to Cambridge in that 
very juncture of time, when the Scholars, in feud with the towns- 
men, stood on their posture of defence.} Thus Pallas herself may 
sometimes be put to it, to secure her wit by her weapons. But 
had M^or lived as many years as he did but months in this 
UniTCTsity, he would have given a better account of their peace- 
able demeanour. 

7- John Ldand Fellow tAeretn. 
John Leland, that learned antiquary, was a Fellow of this foun- 
dation, as he gratefally professeth. I acconnt it therefore in myself 
an excusable envy, if repining that the rare manuscripts of his 
collections were, since his death, bestowed on Oxford library, and 
not here where he had his education. But I remember a maxim in 
our Common Law, wherein the lands (such are books to scholars) of 
a son, deceasing without heirs, fall nither to his uncle or aunt, than 
father or motlter.§ 

8, Sefirmation o/ Auffmmtation. 
Many years after the founding of this College, complaint was 
made to king Edward VI. of superstition therein ; the Master and 
twelve Felloirs of this Christ- College superstitiously alluding to 
Christ and hie twelve apostles. Probably the peevish informers 
would have added, that the Diieipuli, 6i Scholars in this House, 

* lU) I baud In ■ Clannn, finm Dr. Camnga. t Lii. Dt Of lit Scatermn, 

Of. 6. I C«ID«, Hitltria Aeod. Canlai. page 74. t /■ fila rrgit 

fUirtf. tA. 70. 


136 HISTOBY OF THB a.d. ItW. 

wen in imitation of Ghrist^s seventy disciplefl, save tbe number eoc- 
tesponda not, as being bat forty-seven by Uie onginsl foundation. 
Hereupon king Edvard altered this number of twelve, not by Bub- 
tiaction, (the most easy and profitable way of reformation,) bi^ 
addition, founding a tbirteentb fellowship and three echolanhipa 
out of the impropriation of Bourn, which he bestowed on the 
College: and so real chanty discomposed suspected supeisUtion. 
This good king also gave the College, in lieu of the manor of Roy- 
don, which he took from it, the entire revenues of Bromwell Abbey, 
Bnch was his bountiful disposition. Nor can it be proved that Id 
kis own person he ever did to any an injurious action, though too 
many omier him (if those may be termed " under him " who did 
what they pleased themselves) were too free of their favours in tliat 

9. The Worthiet ofthU College. 

It may without flattery be said of this House, " Many daughters 
have done virtuously, but thou excellest them all ; " (Proverbs 
zxxi. 29 ;) if we consider the many divines who, in so short a time, 
have here had their education. Let papists tell you of Richard 
Reignalds, Doctor of Divinity, a monk of Zion ; of William Eii- 
mew, a Carthusian ; both bred here, and martyred, say they, for 
the catholic cause, anno 1535 ; of Richard Hall, who ran beyond the 
seas, became canon of Cambiay, and wrote the manuscript>-life of 
bishop Fisher : * we chiefly take notice of the divines bred here since 
the Reformation. 

Mabtebs. — 1. John Sickling, Fellow of Qod's House, first 
Master. 2. Richaid Wiat, Doctor of Divinity. 3. Thonus 
Thompson, Doctor of Divinity, a good benefactor. 4. John 
Wfttsonne, Doctor of Divinity. 5. Henry Lockwood, Doctor of 
Divinity. 6. Richard Wilks, Doctor of Divinity, chosen, 1549. 
7- Cuthbert Scot, Doctor of Divinity, chosen 1553. 8. William 
Taylor, Doctor of Divinity, chosen 1557- 9. Edward Hawford, 
Doctor of Divinity, -chosen 1559. He was a good bene&ctor. 10. 
Edmund Harwell, Doctor of Divinity, chosen 1581. 11. Valen- 
tine Carey, Doctor of Divinity, chosen 1610. 12. Thomas Bain- 
bii^. Doctor of Divinity, chosen 1620. 13. Samuel Bolton. 14. 
Ralph Cudworth. 

Bishops. — 1. Hugh Latimer, bishop of Worcester, 1636, and 
martyr. 2. Nicholas Healh,t archbishop of York, 1553. 3. Cuth- 
bert Scot, bishop of Chester, 1556. 4. William Hughes, bishop 

■ PiTZJBDH, in crnl. alt. 1 So uith Di. WfllM, id hl< dedicMloii of Ui Com- 

m«i» on SsDxael, to UiIk CoUeg«. Indeed, I ind on* Helh, (but not hb Christiio nun*.) 
FeUox or Ikie College, 1 620. 



of St. Amph, 1573. 5. Aothony Watson, bisbop of Cbicbetter, 
159e. 6. Valestin« Cmj, Bishop of Ezeter, 1620. D. John- 
SOD, archbishop of Dublin. Brate Babington, bishop of Derrjr, 
io Ireluid. Geor^ Downhsm, bishop of Deny, in Ireland. Wil- 
Uun Chappel, bishop of Cork, in Ireland. 

Bekkfactobs. — 1. John Fisher, bishop of Rochester. 2. Sir 
Walter Mildmay, knight. 3. Richard Risley. 4. Dr. Patison. 

5. Philip Rawlins. 6. Mr. Jennings. 7. Nicholas Culverwell. 
8. Thomas Langhton. 9. Mr. Wentworth. 10. Robert Isham. 
11. Richard Bunting. 12. Richard Car. 

Leabmkd Wbitebb, Fellows.^I. Edward Dearing. 2. John 
More, preacher in Norwich. He made the excellent map of the 
Land of Palestine. 8. Hugh Brongbton, a learned man, espe- 
cially in the eastern languages, bnt very opinionative. 4. Andrew 
Willet, one of admirable industry. 5. Richard Clarke, one of the 
translators of the Bible, and an eminent preacher at Canterbury. 

6. William Perkins. 7- Thomas Morton, a melancholy man, but 
excellent commentator on tbe Corinthians. 8. Francis Dillingham, 
a great Grecian, and one of the translators of the Bible. 9- 
Tbonus Taylor, a poinfiil Preacher and profitable writer. 10. Paul 
Baynes ; he succeeded Mr. Perkins at St. Andrew^s [church]. 
11. Daniel Rogers, one of vast parts, lately deceased. 12. Wil- 
liam Ames, Professor of Divioity in Holland. 13. Joseph Mede, 
most learned in mystical Divinity. 

Learned Wbitebs, no Fullows,— 1. Anthony Oilby. He 
lired, saith Bale, in Queen Mary's reign, an exile in Geneva. 
2. Artfaur Hilderaham, Baretieorum malleua. 3. John Downham, 
lately deceased, author of the worthy work of " The Holy War- 
fiue." 4. Robert Hill, Doctor of Divinity. He wrote on the 
Lord's Prayer. 6, Edward Tofuell wrote on Ruth, 6. Thomas 

Disze. 7. EttoD. 8. Richard Bernard, of Batcomb. 8. 

Nathanael Sfaute, another Chrysostom for preaching. 10. William 
Wbatdy. 11. Henry Scudder. 

Livings. — K^^worth rectory, in the diocess of Lincoln, valued 
at £25. \5$. Sd. Toft rectory, in the dioceas of Ely, £6. I60. 9d. 
Canldecot rectory, in the diocess of Ely, valued at .£'3. 12>. Bourn 
vicarage, in the diocess of Ely, valued at £9. 15s. 9d. CHptkm 
daarum partium rectory, in the diocess of Peterborough, valued at 
^11. 12*. Sd. Helpston vicarage, in the diocess of Peterborough, 
valued at £8. Oi. 4d. Nawmby [Navenby] rectory, in the diocess of 
Lincoln, valued at ^17. &»• lOd. Crozton vicarage, in the diocess of 
Norwich, valued at £6. 13». 4d. Maverbyre [Maenor Byrr, or Mar 
norbeer] vicarage, in the diocess of St. David's, valued at ^^8. Ring- 
stead vicarage, in the diocess of Norwich, valued at . Qotely 



mintage, in the dioeets of Norwicli, Wned at £3. 2t. 8d, Hapton 
Ticarage, in the dioce§8 of Norwich, ralued at . 

With maof mwe worthies still alive : amon^t whom Mr. Nicho- 
las Estwich, pRisoQ of Warkton, ia NorthamptoiuhiTe, a solid 
divine, and a great advancer of my Chorch Historj, by me most 
not be fojgotten. I have done wiUi Christ College, when we have 
ebeerved it placed in St Andiew*s parish, the atAe motive, b^ 
Major's own confession,* making him to enter himself therein a 
student, St Andrew being reputed the tutelar stunt of that nation. 
Had Emmanuel been extant in that age, he would have been 
much divided to dispose of himself, finding two so fait founda- 
tions in the same parish. 

10. Caution general. 

Be the following caution well observed, which here I place aa 
in the midst of this our History, that it may indifferently be 
extended to all the Colleges as equally concenied therein : Let 
none expect from me an exact enumeration of all the worthies in 
every Collc^, seeing each one affordeth — some writers Irom me 
concealed ; let not therefore my want of knowledge be accounted 
their want of worth — ^many most able scholars, who never publicly 
appeared in print ; nor can their less learning be inferred from theix 
more modesty — many pious men, though not so eminently learned, 
very painful and profitable in God''s vineyard. Vea, the general 
weight of God's work in the church lieth on men of middle and 
moderate parts. That servant who improved his two talents into 
four, did more than the other who increased his five into ten. 
(Matthew xxv. 12.) Tradesmen wilt tell yon, it is harder to 
double a little than treble a great deal ; seeing great banks eauly 
improve themselves, by those advantages which smaller sums want. 
And surely many honest (though not so ejainent) ministers, who 
employ all their might in God's service, equal, (if not exceed,) 
both in his acceptance and the church's profit, the performances of 
such who &T excel them in abilities. 

' John EcclestoD, Vice-Cbancellor ; Edmund Natares and Thomas 
Swayn, Proctors ; Doctors of Divinity, 12 ; Doctors of Canon Law, 
2 ; Doctors of Civil Law, 2 : Doctors of Physic, 2 ; Doctw of 
Music, 1 ; Masters of Arte, 25 ; Masters of Grammar, 3 i Bache- 
lors of Laws, 18 ; Bachelors of Arts, 26 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 
8; John Biskingthorp, Mayor, a.d. 1506. 

William Robson, Vice-Chancellor ; John Philips and Bichard 
Picard, Proctors ; Doctor of Divinity, 1 ; Doctor of Canon Law, 
1 ; Bacbelbrof Divinity, 1 ; Masters of Arte, 17; Bachelors of 

• Lib. 1. bl. 6. Ei qa6d ipaim in SI. Andrrx parixkid liMm i^gindi. 

, Coo^^lc 

Vmw Till. imiVIRSITT OF CAaiBSIDOB. 139 

Lns, 5 ; Bachelor of Miuic, 1 ; Badielon of Arts, ^ ; John 
Bnkiogthorp, Mayor. IStfT. 

William Buckenham, Yice-Chaneellor ; James Nicolson and 
Miles Bycaidick, PnctOTS ; DoctoiB of Diviaity, 3 ; BscheloTs of 
DiriDity, 5; Masteta of Arts, 18 ; Bachelors of Lawa, 12 ; Bache- 
lots of Arts, 46 ; Hngh Chapman, Mayor. 1508. 

William Baclcenham, Vice-Chaocellor; William Chapman and 
William Brighouse, Proctors ; Doctors of Divinity, 5 ; Bache- 
Ion of Divinity, 8 ; Masters of Aits, 14 ; Bachelors of Laws, 
11 ; Bachelon of Arts, 31 ; Hugh Raukin, Mayor. 15U9. 
1 Henry VIII. 

11, 12. 3^ Death of the Lad^ Margaret. The Carejiilneti of 
her Eaectttori. 
Last year began the foundation of St. John's College, whose 
foundress, the lady Margaret, countess of Richmond and Derby, 
died before the fiidshing thereof. This lady was bom at Bletsoe in 
Bedfordshire, where some of her own needlevork is still to be seen, 
which was constantly called for by king James, when passing 
thereby in his progress. Her father was John Beaufort, duke of 
Somerset, and mother Maigaret Beauchamp, a great inheritrix.* So 
that Jair-firt and fair-field [Beau-fort and Beau-champ] met in 
this lady, who was fair-body and fair-vnd, being the exactest pat- 
tern of the beat devotion those days afforded, taxed for no personal 
fanlts but the errors of the age she lived in. John Fisher, bishop 
of Rochester, preached her funeral sermon, wherein he resembled 
bet to Martha in four respects : First, nobility of person : Secondly, 
discipline of her body : Thirdly, in ordering her soul to God : 
Fonrtbly, in hospitality and charity. He concluded, she had thirty 
kings and queens (let he himsdf count them) within the four 
degrees of marriage to her, besides dukes, maiqnesses, earls, and 
other princes-f She tieth buried in the chapel at Westminster, 
sear her son, in a ftur tomb of touchstone, whereon lieth her image 
of gilded brasB. She died June 29th, J and was buried (aa appeaieth 
by a note annexed to her testament) the July following. - 

Her death, though for a time retarding, did not finally obstruct, 
the ending of St. John's College, which was efiectually prosecuted 
by such as she appointed her esecators, namely, 1. Richard Fto, 
Ushop of Winchester. 2. John Fiaher, bishop of Rochester. 3. 
Charles Somerset, lord Herbert, afterwards earl of Worcester. 
4. Sir Thomas Lovel, treasurer of the king's house- 5. Sir Henry 
(afterwards lord) Mamey, chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. 

ticHAMD Hall, in hii maDiucrlpt " Life o( 
1 Stow'b " CliniBlcle," pH* <*"• 

, Goo^^lc 

140 HISTORY OF THB *.">• "«. 

6. Sir John St. John, her chamberlain and near kinaman. 7- Henr; 
Hornby, (muter of Peter House,) her chancellor. 8. Sir Hugh 
Aditon, comptroller of her household. This Sir Hugh (vhom I 
conceive rather Sir Pried than Sir KniffAt*') was a good bene&ctor 
to the College, and lieth buried -on the north aide in the ontvaid 
chapel thereof, in a tomb with a double portraiture (one presenUng 
him aa alive, the other as a skeleton) be-rebuued, ttxotiixtg to the 
ingenuity of that age, vith an ori growing out of a tua. 
13, 14. T&s Site of St. John"! CoUsge. Crowded mth Studettts. 
The ground whereon this College is sited was long ago con- 
signed to pious uses, though three times the property thereof was 
altered. 1. When Nigellus or Neal, second buhop of Ely, founded 
here an hospital for (^ons Regular, anno 1134. On which king 
Edward I. bestowed the goods of forestalleis or regraters legally 
forfeited.f 2. When. Hugh de Balsham, tenth bishop of Ely, 
translated it to a priory,^ and dedicated it lo St. John the evan- 
gelist. 3. When the lady Maigaret's esecutors, converting it to a 
College, continued it to the honour of St. John. These, accord- 
ing to her last will, first paid all the debU of the old House, 
duly proved, (justice must precede charity,) then, with the issues 
and profits of her land in Somersetshire, Devonshire, and North- 
amptonshire, erected this new foundation. 

So filled, or rather crowded, was this College with Scholars, it 
was hard for one to get a study ^yeral to himself; and, in the 
days of our fathera, the Students, when writing private lettei% 
were used to cover them with their other hand, to prevent over- 
inspection. Since, God halh made them Behoboth or "room," 
by the addition of another court, (not inferior to the former in 
beauty and bigness,) which made king James once merrily say, that 
there was " no more difference betwixt Trinity (consisting chiefly ia 
one great quadrangle) and St. John's College, than betwixt a shilling 
and two sixpences.^ 

\5. A Sape offered on the Mttaet. 
The ia&ncy of this College met with a malady, which much hin- 
dered the growth, almost ended the life, thereof. A geneiadon of 
prowling, progging, projecting promoters, (such vermin, like Phsr 
raoh's frogs, will sometimes creep even into king's bedchambeis, 
Exodns viii. 3,) questioning the title of the land of the CoUege, 
took fW>m it at once four hundred pounds of yearly revenue. If the 

* " Such print! u htM Iha kddltlon of Sin befoie ibeli ChAtlan Dvna wen nun not 
gndiuted In the ViiyvrMj, bring in oid«n, bal not In dcgnsa." Sm more aa Ab 
ntdectinrDLi.tK'S"ChaTchHI*tai;,"Tol. 1.^.3139— 971.— Edit. \Cxliit, 

aMaria Oinlai. ^cad. ymgB n. . : Scot'« '.'ToUta." 



reporter (being i great rhetori<nBTi) doth not & little hyperbolize 
thereiD, who thuB complatnetli to the duke of Somerset, loid pro- 
tector,^(70rft quidem kominet, regit mtmrfn', qui divitiat regit in 
acervis peeanianim pormnt, (citm beMvctentia populi, taltu reipub- 
UecBf vera rdigio, et optima doetrina, gptimi regit certittimcB 
iitituB extant,) beaeficium Jktndatricit magnatn partem nobis 
abttulemnt : qwidringenttff mim mime annuof ex aottrit pradiolit 
omputattB sunt.— AscB AM, Commmdatitiarum Spittolarum lib. i. 
p. 377. This wrong was done in the beginning of the reign of king 
Henry VIII. and never after redressed. Strange that the lady 
Haigarets executors (men too virtuous to offiir stolen goods for a 
sacrifice, and too wise to be cozened with cracked titles) should 
mdow this College with so much land, to which they had no true 
light ; which makes some suspect violence and injustice in ' the 
king's officers. Nothing so high, or so holy, but some hungry 
harpies will prey upon it. 

Masters. — 1. Alan Picrcy, son to Henry earl of Northumber- 
land. 2. Robert Shorton. 3. Nicholas Medcalf. 4. George Day. 
5. John Tailcr. 6. Waiiam Bill. 7- Thomas Leaver. 8. Tho- 
mas Watson. 9. George Bullock. 10. James Pilkington. 11. 
Leonard Pilkington. 12. Richard Longworth. 13. Nicholas Shep- 
paid. 14. John Still. 15. Richard Houland. 16. William WhiU 
ater. 17. Richard CUyton. 18. Owen Gwin. 18. William Bcal. 

20. Dr. John Arrowsmith. 21. Dr. Anthony Tuckney. 
Benefactobs.— 1. John Morton, archbishop of Canterbury. 

2. Lady Anne Rooksby. 3. Dr. Fell. 4. Dr. Keyton. 5. Hugh 
Ashton. 6. Dr. Lupton. 7. Dr. Thimbleby. 8. Dr. Dounham. 
9. John Constable. 10. Robert Simpson. 11. Robert Ducket, 
12. Thomas Lane. 13. John Grigson. 14. James Berisford. Id. 
Robert Holytreehelm. 16. John Repingham. 17- Dr. Linacre. 
18. John Bayiye. 19. Dr. Thompson. 20. Walter Saukings. 

21. Catherine duchess of Suffolk. 22. John Thurlston. 23. Ste- 
phen Caidinall. 24. Sir Ambrose Caves. 25. Thomas Coney. 26. 
Dr. Goodman. 2?. William Cecil lord Burghley. 28. Lady Mil- 
dred Cecil. 29. Sir Henry Billingsley. 30. Dt. Gwin. 31. The 
lady Jermin. 32. Henry Heblethwaite. 33. William Spalding, and, 
34. William Spalding's brother. 35. Robert Booth. 36. Henry 
Alby. 37- John Walton. 38. John Waller. 39. Mary countess of 
Shrewsbury. 40. George Palm. 41. William lord Maynard. 42. 
Robert Lewes. 43. John Knewstubs. 44. Mrs. Cutler. 45. John 
Hooper. 46. John Williams, lord keeper, who built a most beau- 
tiful library. 47. Sir Ralph Hare. ^ Robert Johnson. 

Bishops. — 1. John Taylor, bishop of Lincob. 2. Ralph 
Baines, bishop of Coventry and Lichfield. 3. George Day, bishop 


1^ HISTORY OF TBB 4.i>. iig9; 

ef Cbichesler. 4. Thomas Watson, bishop of Liocolo. 5. Juncft 
Pilkiogton, bishop of Durham. 6. Robert Home, bishop of Wio- 
cheater. 7- Richard Curteise, bishop of Chichester. 8. Thomas 
Dames, bishop of St. Asaph. 9. Richaid Houland, bishop of 
Peleiborough. 10. John Still, bishop of Bath and Wells. 11. John 
Coldwell, bishop of Sarum. 12. William Morgan, bishop of St. 
Asaph. 13. Hugh Billet, bishop of Chester. 14. Richard Vaughan, 
bishop of London. IS.RichardNeile, archbishop of York. 16. Tho- 
mas Morton, bishop of Durham. 17- John Williams, archbishop of 
York. 18. Richard Senhouse, bishop of Carlisle. 19. David Dal- 
bio, bishop of Bangor. 

Leabnkd WatTERB.— 1. Roger Hntchinson. 2. John SesUm. 
3. Ralph Baines, Professor of Hebrew in Paris. 4. Qeorge Bullock, 
the audior of Bollock's " Concordance." 5. Roger Ascham. 8. 
William Cecil, lord treasurer. 7. William Motgtm, who first trans- 
lated the Bible into Welsh. 8. John Knewstubs. 9. William 
Whitaker. 10. Thomas Morton. 

Livings in the College Gift. — 1. Freshwater rectory, in 
the diocess of Winchester, valued at .£'19. 8>. 4d. 2. Ospringe 
vicarage, in the diocess of Canterbury, valued at .£10. 3. Higham 
vicarage, in the diocess of Canteibury, valued at ^8. 10<. 4. 
Thorington [eum Prating] rectory, in the diocess of London, 
valued at ^16. 5. Sunninghill vicarage, in the diocess of Salisbury, 

valued at . 6. Aldworth vicarage, in the diocess of Salisbury. 

£S. 15«. 84<J. 

So that lately, (namely, anno 1634,) there were in this College, 
one Master, fifty-four Fellows, four-score and eight Scholars, beside 
Officers and Servants of the foundation, with other Students ; in 
all, one hundred and eighty-two. 

16, 17. An infant BtheUion, seasonably crushed. 

Great was the opposition against the election of Dr. Whitaker, 
the sixteenth Master of this House, fetched from Trinity College. 
He was appointed by the queen's mandamtis, and Dr. Capcoat, 
Vice-Chancellor, (and Fellow of Trinity College,} went along with 
bim faoffnd comiiante oatend, solemnly to induct him to his place, 
when he met with an unexpected obstruction. Nor datwr pm&- 
tratio corporum. The gates were shut, and partly man-ned, partly 
boy-ed, agunst him. 

The Vice-Chancellor retreated to Trinity College ; and, consult- 
ing with lawyers what was to be done in the case, according to tbcir 
advice, created Dr. Whitaker Master of St. John's in his own 
chamber^ by virtue of the queen's mandate. This done, he re- 
adranceth to St. John's, and irith (as I may say) a potte aoademiait 

i.,,i,,., , Cookie 


dcaaanda tdmiarioit. The Jotmians, having intelligence by Iheit 
eminaries, that the property of the person was altered, and Dr. 
Whitaker lOTeated in their Maaterahip, and knowing the qaeeo 
would maintain her power from her crown to ber foot, took wit in 
their anger, snd.peaceably received him. However, great the heart- 
bnminga in thia House for many years after; and I will run the 
haiaid of the reader's displeasure in traosmitting the following story 
to posterity. 

IS— 23. A SaJceheU to be ehoten hefwe a J}wnee. Thefiret [and ] 
second Beaeom. An ing«nuovt Matter mell met wtih an ■ 
mffeawnu Fdlow. Well tpoken, te^ taien. 
A senior Fellow of St. John's, (of the opposite fection to the ' 
Master,) in the presence of Dr. Whitaker, falling on thia subject, 
(proper enough to hb text,)— what requisites should qualify a 
Scholar for a Fellowship, concluded that religion and learning 
vere of the quorum for that purpose. Hence he proceeded to put 
the case,— if one ofthese qualities alone did appear, whether a reli- 
gious dunce were to be chosen before a learned lakehell ; and 
tesolred it in fovonr of the latter. 

This he endeavoured to prove with two argoments ; whereof this 
the fiiat : " Because religion may— but learning cannot— be coun- 
terfeited. God only can discover the gmcious heart, but men may 
deeciy an able head. He that chooscth a learned rakehell is sure 
«f something ; but whoso electeth a religious dunce may have 
nothing worthy his choice, seeing the same may prove both dunce 
and hypocrite." 

His second reason was : " Because there was more probability of 
a nkebell's improvement unto temperance, than of a dunce's con- 
Tcnion into a learned man, seeing such an one, radicated and habit- 
natcd, is unchangeable without miracle." 

Common-place ended. Dr. Whitaker desired the company of this 
Fellow, and in his closet thus accosted him : " Sir, I hope I may 
flay without offence, as once Isaac to Abraham, Here ie wood and a 
imife, bvt where U the lamb for the bwmt offering f You have 
discovered much keenness of language, and fervency of affection ; 
but who is the person you aim at who bath offered abuse to this 
Society ?" 

The other answered : " If I may presume to follow your meta- 
phor, know, Sir, (though I am a tme admirer of your most eminent 
worth,) you are the sacrifice I reflected at in my discourse. For, 
(whilst you follow your studies, and remit matterB to be managed 
by others,) a company is chosen into the College of more zeal than 
biowledge, whose judgments we certainly know to be bad, though 


141 HISTORY OP TOE '•>>.U1A 

others charitably bdieve the goodness of Uicir affei^ons. jlnd 
hence (of late) a general decay of leariUBg in the Ctdlqgfi-" 'i 

The Doctor turned his anger into thankfulsenroad MfmoeA 
the same, both In loving hU person, and practLsiiig his advice, fco- 
mising his own presence hereafter in ill electionsi and that noM< 
should be admitted without bis ovn eztunination ; which (juidiiy 
recovered the credit of this House, replenished with hopeful piaota 
before his death. 

24. Confim, and beforgtvm. 

And thus \ take my farewell of St. John's Collie, having first 
confessed a mistake formerly committed in my " Holy Stste,^ * is 
making Dr. Walter Haddon, (Master of the Reqsesta to queen 
Blizabeth,) a member of ibis CoUege, being onginally of King's 
College, afterward of Trinity Hall. The error arose, becauao 
Boger Ascham,-}- of this House, commonly calleth him nottraa 
Baddottum ; where I mistook their familiarity for roambeiship in 
the same Society. 

Thomas Thompson, Vice-Chancellor ; John Samson and John 
Scot, Proctors; John Bury, Mayor; Doctors of Physic, 2j 
Bachelors of Divinity, 5; Masters of Arts, 29; Master of 
Grammar, 1 ; Bachelors of Laws, 16 ; Bachelors of Arts, 42. 
A. u. 1509-10. 

Seeing the Vice -Chancellors are chosen in November, so t^ >■; 
their office they partake of two years of the Lord, (though otho-wisai 
but one annual employment,) I though fit henceforward to divide 
them in our chronology into two years. 

Thomas Thompson, Vice-Chancellor ; George Thompson and . 
Ofariato^w I^oket, Proctors ; John Erlich, Mayor ; Doctors of 
Divinity, 5 ; ' Incorp. 1 ; Doctors of Canon Law, 7 i 

Doctots of Civil Law, 2; Bachelors of Divinity, 11 ; Masters 
of Arts, 26 ; Bachelors of Laws, 22 ; Bachelors of Arts, 44. 

John Fa wne, Vice-Chancellor ; Richard Standbank and William. 
Chaundler, Proctors ; John Bell, Mayor ; Doctors of Divinity, 3 ;. 
Doctor of Civil Law, 1; Bachelors of Divinity, 6; Masters 
of Arts, 21 ; Bachelors of Laws, 16 ; Bachelors of Arts, 32. ■ 

John Fawne, Vice-Chancellor; Roger Collingwood wid Richsfd 
Master, Proctors ; William Barber, Mayor; Doctors of Divinity,) 
2; Doctor of Civil Law, 1; Bachelors of Divinity, 5; Mastm 
of Arts, 21 ; Bachelors of Laws, 7 ; Badidora of Arts, 52. 
1512-13. ■ 

• jDiheUhsfJDit. Uedc«llit. tInUiEptatlK. ■ 

WniiirTiii. uirtvKRsiTT of cahbbidoe. 145 

Tskii BcdcflUHi, Vice-Chuicellor; Richaid NorrU and Thomas 
M«lra, Pmeton; Hngfa Chapman, Mayor ; Doctors of Divinity, 
S ; Dbctor of Cml Law, 1 ; Bochelora of Divinity, 10 ; Masters 
sf Arts, 2S i Bachelors of Laws, 10 ; Bachelors of Arts, 24 ; 
BKbelor of Grammar, 1. 151^14. 

John Bccleston, Vice-Chancellor ; John Colting and Thomas 
Ooojrick, Procton; Hugh Chapman, Mayor; Doctor of Divinity, 
1 ; Doctors of Canon Law, 3 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 5 ; Masters 
•f Arte, 14; Bachelors of Laws, 13; Bachelor of Music, 1; 
Bachelors of Arts, 30; Bachelors of Grammar, 2. 1514-15. 

Robert Dussin, Vice-Chancellor ; Rowland Bodron and Rei- 
uld Bainbrigg, Proctors ; Hugh Baukin, Mayor ; Doctors of 
Divinity, 10 ; Doctors of Canon Law, 2 ; Doctors of Civil Ijiw, 
2; Bachelors of Divinity, 18; Masters of Arts, 42; Masters pf 
Gnrnmar, 3 ; Bachelors of liSws, — ; Bachelors of Muiic, — ; 
Bwhelors of Arts, — . 1515-16. 

Edmund Nateres, Vice-Chancellor ; John Copingct and Gilbert 
Latham, Proctors; John Bury, Mayor; Doctors of Divinity, 5 ; 
Doctors of Civil Law, 2 ; Doctor of Physic, 1 ; Bachelors of 
IKvinity, 13 ; Masters of Arts, 29 ; Bachelors of Laws, 14 ; Bache- 
km of Arts, 43. 1516-17- 

Edmund Nateres, Vice- Chancel lor ; William Cocks, and Roger 
Aahc, Proctors ; William Barber, Mayor ; Doctors of Divinity, 3 ; 
Doctors nf Canon Law, 2 ; Doctor of Civil Law, 1 ; Bachelors of 
IKvinity, 4 ; Masters of Arts, 13 ; Bachelors of Laws, 11 ; Bache- 
ton of Arts, 41. 1517-18. 

25, 26, Ptier de Valmee expommunicaUd. Many Yean {0er A* 
eonfeaath kit Fault. 

About this time one Peter de Valence, a Norman, was a Student, 
in Cambridge, when the papist indulgences were solemnly set upon the 
•cbool-gates, over which he wrote these words : Seatva vir cujia e$t 
nomen Domini tpea sjut, el non re^eant vanitatet, et intaniai 
/oka* (ittat). Inquiry was made about the party, but no disco- 
very could be made. Whereupon bishop Fisher, Chancellor of the 
University, solemnly proceeded to his eicommunication, which he is 
asid to perform with tears and great gravity. 

This Peter afterward applied himself to Dr. Goodrich, bishop of 
Ely, and became his servant ; but, as the papists report, could 
never be aoiet in his mind, until, many years after, he had publicly 
Cfmfnaed ^it fqlly ther«n, and upoD Uie same place of the school- 
gates fixed a paper with these words : D^eta juvmtutia msa, et 
t ne memineritj Domine : " Remembei not, Lord, my 

, Cookie 

lis »«TWRV Of:-!!* ■ *.»: IHI. 

bilGl, iKf^ tfae i^nnricM of Rijr j^ittK"" * Bat^ ntkyt^Mftde^Okti 
bdttU; '^h Btorj m teUtad liy lUqhtfd Hall, & letlovta t)t>pi**4^ 
te 'Life of Ua^ffp-piBhtir: a book vhidi, vfatn btdy ifi mnA^ 
Mript, r Am more priied for t^ rsWf^, than einoe it is nm printed 
1 triiBt for the verity, ifcereof. 

Jobn WateOD, Vitie^Cbsncellor ( Williun Smith utd JtAa 
Cfaeswrigfat, Proctors ; WiUism Borbei, Mkjot ; I>aotora t4 Difi- 
nity, 10 ; Docton of Canon liBir, 3 ; Bachelors of JWvinity, 11 1 
HasterB of Arts, 26 ; Bwlidon of Laws, 28 ; Bacfaelots of Afkj 
38. &.D. 1318-ia 

27. Honks' twmed it^ Buekmgham CoUege. 

Monks' College this year had its name altered and condition 
improved. Formerly it was a pkce trhere many monks lived, on 
the charge of their respective convents, being very fit for solitary 
persona by the situation thereof. For it stood on the tAiu-CaatiDe 
sld6, an andioret in itself, severed by the river from the rest of 
tfae University. 'Here the monks, some seven yean since, had ones 
and again lodged and feasted Edward Stafford, the last duke rf 
Buckingham of that family. Great jnen best may — good men 
always will — be grateful guests to audi as entertain them. BoA 
^lifications met in this duke ; and then no wonder if he largely 
^qtftted his welcome. He changed the name of the House tet» 
Btickingbam College, began to build, and purposed to endow the 
satne, no doubt, in B<Hne proportion to his ovn high and rich 

Edmund Nateres, Vice-Chancellor ; John Denny and William 
Meddftw, Proctors ; Richard Clark, Mayor ; Doctors of Divhrtt}^, 
8 ; Doctor of Canon Law, 1 ; Doctor of Civil Lav, 1 ; Bacbe- 
lots of Divinity, 20; Masters of Arts, 23; Bachelws of Laws, 18; 
Bachelors of Arts, 31. a. d. 151&-20. 

28. A Pair of learned Writert. 
Two eminent men are sss^ed, by a good author, at this time 
to flourish in Cambridge : The one William Oonel, a friend 
to Erasmus, and here public Professor, saith Pits : "f but, would he 
had told us of what facnlty \ But probably *' public Professor," in 
the lax acceptation of that title, importeth no more than an ordinary 
Doctor. We need not question his sufliciency, when we find sir 
Thomas More (an Oxford-man, and able judge of merit) select him 
' for tutor to his children. The other, Stephen Baron, Provincial of 
the Franciscans, and Confessor, saith one, \ to king H«uy VIII. 

Sm " ilw Ub et blriiap PUiar," IMel; printed, page 23. t /■• Jpptn«a 

Angttm SrrifMmn. 1 IJttK, pig* 696, in mna 1G90. 


l|tfpM«T "(1. UNIVBItftTV OF :C4i«?«IDOK. 1^7 

J^qg^l^iJ, biAop of Lbcoln, porfbrming that f\afi6 ; oxa^pt.kiqg 
Umrf, M li« had hms; ftulU, lia4 many Ctmftssora at oncei.. ,1^ 
tfuB Bsran mi^t bare thb ofSoe sMoa ^eaia siiuie. X^et me lum 
vithout oSeQce remember that the Beoior vicar (as I take it) of iJie 
iMig^s d»vp^ it called *' tbe Coofteaor of the king's HouEeUoU/' 
y^kV p«rcIiaBce hath caued afttne mistakes bereiii. 

Thonas StaciJiouBe, Vice-Chaowlloi ; Bichard Frank and John 
Cnjfoid, Proctow ; Ricbard taark. Mayor ; Docton of Divinityv 
9 ; Docton of Caooa Law, 3 ; Doctor of Civil Lav, 1 ; Bachelors 
of Divinity, 5 ; Masters of Arte, 21 ; Bachelors of Laws, 7 ; Bache- 
lors of Arts, 26. A. D. 1520-21. 

29. 7^ tmftSM^y Death of ti« Duke 0/ Buditiffham. 

Edward Stafibrd, dnke of Buckingham, a gentleman rather vain 
than wicked, guiltj more of indiscretion than disloyalty, by the 
pcictice of Cardinal Wolscy lost his life, and was beheaded, May 
17tb. Charles V. emperor, being infoTTned of hia death, said that 
a batcher's dog (sncb Wolsey's extraction) had killed the foireit 
B««k in England." Let Oxford, then, commend tbe memory of 
this cardinal, for founding a (au: College therein ; Cambridge hath 
mote caoae to complain of him, who hindered her of a hopeful 
&ftndati<ra- Fw, tiiis duke, eurprised with death, bailt but litUe, 
wd endowed nothing considerable in tbb Buckingham Collie. 
No wonder to such who consider, that, prevented with an unex- 
|wct»d «nd, be finished not his own House, but only " brought the 
SBHi{)taotis and stately foundation thereof above ground at Thorax 
bitfy ia Oloiieestendjire.^ ^ Aflerwards, in commiBeiation of this 
oip^aa College, several convents built chambors therein. But, 
more of it hereafter in Magdalen College. 

John Edmunds, Vice-chancellor ; Nicholas Rowley and John 
Stafford, Proctors ; Robert Smith, Mayor ; Doctors of Divinity, 6 ; 
DtfltOT of Canon Law, 1 ; Doctor of Civil Law, 1 ; Badtelors 
»f Aivinity, 18; Maatets of Arts, 22; Bachelors of Laws. 6; 
BMbdofs of Arts, 40. a. d. 1521-22. 

30. Crook'i Ciaraater. 

,;. RM!h«td !Crofik was the first who now brought Oreek into request 
n l^i^fliv^nity. He was bom in London, bred in- King> Col- 
)ua> ^rl^re,! untio 1506, he was admitted Scho)ar.| Then, travel- 

L 2 

,y Google 

in%fmnpy. ^ftethi ipn of l^hw Fi^^ 

Qaonc^or of CaOibrid the Ore«lElaiigi|agBf) 

All StudentB equally c< s, whether lb«y KeatJ* 

01 heard ttiem not,* (at 11 guesU pay alike jbr 

tie vine, though they drink it not,t) because they were, or Ebould 
be, pment thereat. Crook dedic 
ID prsiBe of the Greek tongue, to 
tM^use Cambndge (undentiuid 
therein) is of his jurisdiction :— 4 
the Oxford antiquary.J to prove tl 
power, ae being in, not of, Ely di 
surrounded with it. Crook was a1 
a place of more honour than prof 

40«. p^ atmum.^ . -^ 

Thomas Green, Vice-chancellor ; Robert Dent and John Brig^ 
anden. Proctors ; George Hoyster, Mayor.|| He was excommuni- 
cated for his obstinacy towards the deputy of the V ice-Chan ceUor. 
Doctors of Difinity, b\ Doctors of Canon Law, 2; Masters of 
Arts, 22; Bachelore of Arts, 46. a.d. 1522-23. , ^J 

. .1 
SI. A CatahffUB 0/ C<aabri^e Ora4on. 

It will not be amiss here to present the reader with a ligt of the 

Obatdbs. — 1. Richard Crook, chosen A.i). 1522. 2, George^ 
Day, Fellow of Ktng''s College, 1528. 3. John Redman vf 
King's Hall, 1537. 4. Thomas Smith, Fellow of Queen's Col- 
lege, 1538. 5. Roger Aseham', Fellow of St. John's Ctilieg^f 
1547. 6. Thomas Gardiner, Fellow of King's College, 1554;' 
7- John Stokes, of the same, 1557. 8, George Ackworth; 15^ 
9. Anthony Girlington, Fellow of Pembroke Hall, 1561. 1^' 
Andrew Oxenbridge, Fellow of Trinity College, 1562. 11. Wil- 
liam Masters, Fellow of King's College, 1564. 12. Thomas Biflg, 
Fellow of Peter House, 1564. )3. William Lewin, Fellow o! 
Christ's College, 1570. 14. John Beacon, Fellow of St Jolm^ 
College, 1571. 15. Richard Bridgewater, Fellow of King's CoV- 
lege, 1573. 16. Anthony Wingfield, Fellow of Trinity College, 
1580 ; and re-odmitted 1586. 17- Henry Mountlow, Fellow of 
King's College, 1589. 18. Robert Nannton, Fellow of Trinity 
College, 1595. 19. Francis Nethersole, Fellow of Trinity Col- 

* EpWala TnOHX MoRI ad Acadmiam Omu. t Eubhi OaUofmia ht 

IKon-isru. t Bbmh Twtni. iCAim, BiiUriu CmUbiAeAi.U^'^ 

page 139. H »*. Calkg, Gfparit-Ckriitt, -it 


IT BiMBiVill. UNIVES^iW OF cXifBillDOK. flg 

le^^TOii; 'aj. George 'He'rijeVFelliW pf'tniiity 'C6\\ege', 
TCTH. a. Robert Creighton.'F'ellow of Trinity College, 1627^ 
22.- Henry MoWe, FelTow of King's College. 23. RalpU WllHer-' 

^ of the Orator's oMcB' 
lie same. Thiis we fintt 
c indilfereutly learned,) 
pcDce a-piece for every 
Bity.* Hencefolth we 
ssigned nnto lunt next 

Aldridie and Anthony 
T ; Bachelors of Divi- 
>f Lavs, 9 ; Bachelor^ 
of Alts, 40. 1523-24. 

SS. Bihift Bontpte ia Conteignce. 

Thomas Bilney, Fellow of Trinity Hall, xeolonsly advanced true 
religion.-f To the study of Canon and Ciril Law, wherein he was 
grsdiuted, he added It third, (worth both the former,) his study in 
Ood's Law and the Holy Scripturea. Once, travelling in the 
coantry, he chanced to come to a poor cure, belonging to Trinity 
Hftllt vhere the people, unprovided of b preacher, pressed him to 
give them some instruction. Bilaey had ability, but no authonty, 
^t,fc3^ tliem, as then prohibited by the church. Yet their wan^ 
np wronjht on his charity, that for the present he gave them a coTla- 
tiioB^ This good man, afterwards a Martyr, (the most tender to em 
■re ue most hardy to suffer,) was much troubled in conscience for 
his contempt of diurcb-order.J How many now-a-days without 
uy regret turn pr^^ without any commission from the cburcb ! 
It is suspicious, on the like occasion, some would scarce fallow 
Bilney to the stake, who run so hr before him into the pulpit. 

Edinond Nateree, Vice-Chancellor ; Edmund Stretey and Tho- 
mas Briggs, Proctors ; Ricbaid Woolf, Mayor ; Doctors of 
Divinity, 7 ; Doctor of Canon Law, 1 ; Doctors of Civil Law, 2 ; 
Masters of Arts, 25 ; Bachelors of Laws, lit ; Bachelors of Civil 
Law, 3 ; Bachelors of Arts, 40. a.d. 152^25. 

33. 7^ oppotite Partiet, for and Offaimt Sapentition. 
Now was there high and stiff banding in the schools and pulpits 
betwixt the 

>i'l " Act* ud Momuiwlit*." I Idem, 


156 HISTORY Or'triB' ' 

' 2. Henry Bullock, (liii friend 1. Dr. Foreman, of Queen's 

fiEtsmns c«lla bun BoviUum,^ of College, who theicin concealed 

Queen^s College. and kept LuUiflr*s books whep 

sought for to be burnt. , 

2. Mr. Hugh LaUmer, of 2. Mr. Stafford, Divinity- 
Cluut's College, the Cioss- Reader. Let me conjcolure 
keeper of the Univeiuty ; which him (for the founder^s name- 
he solemnly brought forth on sake) of Buckingham College- 

' procession-days. He exhorted 
the scholars not to believe one 
word of vhat Mr. Stafford did 
read or preach. 

3. Edmund Naterea, Vice- 3. Doctor Thissel, (as Mr. 
Chancdlor, Master of Gonville Fox writes him,) of Pembroke 
Hall; and, geneially, all the Hall. The same, no douU, 
Heads ot Houses. with John Thixtil, chosen Fel- 
low there . 1519, whom Cains 
calls Aomiami tingalana erudl- 
tionit no*trd memond, insoQUcb 
that his Aurif tftt was snOien- 
tical in the Schools. 

Edmund Xateres, Vice-Chancellor ; Oulielmus Duplake and 
Tliomas Harwood, Proctors ; Thomas Saye, Mayor ; Doctoie of 
Divinity, 2; Doctor of Medicine, I ; Bachelors of Divinity, 2; 
Masters of Arts, 23 ; Bachelors of Laws, 3 ; Bachelors of Civil 
Law, 3; Bachelors of Arts, 42. a.d. 1525-26. 

34—36. Latimer converted b^ Bilne^. [Cranmer ejecleclJi'omAu 

Fdlotet/iip for being married?^ Crook, out-bought, departeth 

to Oxford. 

Bilney, observing in Latimer misguided zeal, repaired to his 

chamber, and desired him to hear his Confession. The hearing 

wLeroof (improved by Ood^s Spirit) so wrought on I^atimer, that, 

of dmost a persecutor, he became a icalous promoter of the tratb. 

Then, going to Mr. Slafford, he solemnly asked him fo^vencss for 

his former fierce and causeless fury against him.* 

TlioniBs Cmnmer was outcd of his Fellowship in Jesus College 
for being marrled.-f- His wife was kinswoman to the haslmB-ftt tlic 
Do((>hin, which, causing his frequent r^ir thither, gave Iteocof^ion 

■ Foa'i"Ai.'U^d MomuseDti,'' P>g< I'Sl. t Mcn,pig« 1S60. 

i.,,i,,., , Cookie 


to tlist inpndent lie of igrnonnt papists, that he ms an ostler. 
Indeed, with Hi JeamM lectures^ he rubbed the galled hacks, and 
cnnried the lujr hides, of manj an idle and ignorant friar, being 
uoir made Difinity-Keader in Bnckingham C^lege. ' Bntj sten 
after, his wife dying witbia the year, being a widower, bft wa* 
le-elected into Jesus College. I know the statnies of some He«M 
niD thos, Ifolumtu Bociot nottnt eue maritot, vel maritatot. It 
seems this last barbarous word was not, or was not taken notice of, 
in Jesoa^ollege statutes. Cnnmer herein is a pncedeat by hin^ 
self, if that may be a precedent which bath none to follow it. 

John Edmonds, Vice^bancellor ; Nin. Shafto and JacobM 
Hnlton, Proctors ; Henry Oilson, Mayiff i Doctors of Divinity^ 6 { 
Doctors of Canon Law, 2 ; Doctor of Civil Law, 1 ; Doctor of 
Medicine, 1 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 6 ; Moaters of Arts, 21 ; 
Bodielon of Laws, 14; Bachelors of Aits, 82. a.u. 1^26-27- 

Ridiard Cnx^ University-OratOT and Oieek-Pro feasor, (invited 
with more large and libeisl conditions,) leaving Cunbridge, removed 
to Oxford. Yet this honourable proviso is entered in our OraUaa' 
hook, " that, in case Crook should ever be pleased to return, he, for 
ibe good service by him performed, should have the precedency of 
all (^mbridge Orators." Great the anUpathy betwixt Crook and 
Leland the antiquary, whose differences began with generous emula- 
6os betwixt two eminent competitors of learned honour, but festered 
into envy, not to Bay malicious detraction. 

37. TkePrivileseofthe UniteniUf. 

Dr. Cliffe, Chancellor of Nicholas West, bishop of Ely, humbly 
sbbmitted himself, and craved pardon for his rashness,* because he 
had excommunicated a Bachelor of Atta, contiary to the express 
privileges of the Univernty. The familiarity betwixt Bilney and 
Latimer daily increased ; their meeting-place, nigh Cambridge, 
being called " the Heretics' Walk.'' My inquiry can discover no 
footateps thereof, on which side of the town it lay. 

John Edmonds, Vice-Chancellor ; Thomas Smith and John 
Brewer, Proctota ; Edward Sl^g, Mayor ; Doctor of Divinity, 1 ; 
Doctor of Canon Law, 1 ; Doctors of Civil Law, 4 ; Doctor of 
Medicine, 1 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 6 ; Masters of Arts, 20 ; 
Bachelors of Laws, 5 ; Bachelors of Arts, 26; Bachelors of Grani> 
tiir,2. A. 0.1527-28. 

38. Latimer"! Sermon of Cardi. 

-Now, many and fierce the conflicts of Friars against Mr. Latimer, 

especially after he had preached at St. Edwud's, (the Sunday 

• HI. CtlU^i CtrjHTii-Ckritti. 


iOt mrnKmr-JivOBM^ ■■■.'■: I .vMKMm 

n'f-''tiVlhainHkmi.f" 'UwakiAEihsBiabut'hiif mtnioa^^uscriif 
^ ItiiMtiisD the teat, thmbj taking oCcMCin lo .confeiln )mtim 
conrM to the playing at cndt, laa^g ihe . Hsrat triBm|>k,fl and 
toiwrlShg aU to vnn God iD ainatitjMad bruth, not in Ihe fgUstei- 
f»g riunr «f meoV ceremoaiio, ti»ditiona^ pudoni^ pi)gRmag(B,'mW, 
dtvotimt, he. Nov, show ma not tke ssfhrmi, but Aowaac^tLb 
Hmk dOQfuted therebjr. Tlib bint preuhing wasin'tliandrflE 
daya admirably eSbctual, which vonld jnetlj be ridioilaiB in on 
•ge. I rentmber in my time a cooBtry-niiHster fmn^ed atlSt. 
Mary's : his text, Ron. xik 3, " At Ood halh dxavs ts etaiy 
I9aa a moasure of faith." In a fi»d imitation of LctimBr'a 'canb 
senooB, he prosecuted the metaphor of de(^i>ff, that men ahodd 
play adott-board, that is, avoid all dianrnbling, not poektt Mmft^ 
but improve their gift* ud graces, ftjllom aw't, wear the nirpiio^ 
md eoafono in ceiemoniss, &o. All prodaeed nodiing bat kughtst 
ia t^e audieaee. Thus the nno actiooB ore, by levetal penoni and 
Umf, made ant the same aciicms, yea, differenced fron conOnendf 
able iwmtiott to ridiculaui absurdtty. Ard thus he williABle ^ 
bad aiuici who baUi the inBtmiarat and fiddlestick, but aeneofithri 
lOmn, of Ur. Idtimer. 

William Buckmaster, Vice-ChanoeUor ; Rowland Swiebwa anfl 
John filith. Proctors ; Thomaa Bnkin, Mayor ; Dooton ' of 
Divinity, 2 ; Doctors of Canon Law, 3 ; Baohelw of Divinity,'! ; 
Maotera of Arta, 13 ; Bachdors of Lawa, 11 ; Bachelors of Arts. 
40. A. fi. 1538-29. 

39. A »tupe<a«d (if not afaUe) Seport. , .[ 

I cumot believe, (except on better evidence than the bwK teati- 
fg«ny of one an engaged perBon,f ) what I find t^rted, that abovt 
this time certain Combridgo-men went to Oxford, being Qrtfntatit 
koite*, " hearty haters of the Greek tongue.'" TLey called the«n 
^vee by the names of doughty Trqans, Priam and H«ctsr, ego- 
demning all other for arrogant and perfidious Greeks. 

40 — 42. [Cranver rttirM to WaMam on Aecoumt of thePla^tu. 

0/^ioh Mr. Stajbrd dim.} Mr. Sta^^d pa^H^ Mary^ 

Ttuxma.Cranmer, now Doctor ia Divinity, was grown- into » 
grpat.^enhieini for his learning, that he was made by the If mirersity 
^^,of, |J[|a axaminfipa of their sufficiency wlio ctNatBeieed thstein, 

t Daun TviKi, A»liq. Jtad. 6*f»- 


Ki*MK»viii. uHivKmnoomaamiDOE. 1S3 

4itf4i%rirf*oM phgntb tl&VnD]l*fffniii|} id ((le'^^iliMintj, left 
ai(^U^iddiobt<.n^t>rUflDAU^tari|'Mii-taifein(lva<>tiMi Ids 
f*ini^pufibrl» Wiltfanu; ^'Ancbiiwelwe sumulCr kin'^ip to out 
Mmsul 'hGbvdK-HktMisrj'^'wIlBrri'^cr'JWM'Uua tim« jfoiltaiiiiititt 
fpH^MhagahcmaitoS.ha:otmatn»»itm^-- ■ ■ ■>--.<i'-. 

--•Mm WatBDn, VHA-Chancdkni; John Iii»7 mi Tbodvu 
WchoB^ PiRltusj WiUinn S^erion, M^i; Doetoti - «f 
ShiMtTv 5.; DocUmb o£ CnU Lav, 2i Dootor of MedfCMBi 1 1 
Umtmn mf Aite, 8 ; Badiekn of Lava, 15 ; Baefadon of Avts, 

'<I«rt(yn^aicki>esatlJU CMthmodin Cimbridge; uuingat mtoy 
^ dkd Ibefw^ Mr. Stafibi^, XMvinUy-ReKUr, eaded his lUe, and 
tli«t)oa-lhis«ccaaion : The plagus btug sore in tke town, anoDgfSt 
dUm^ s cartaiB priett, called sit Hmoy CoKJiner, )^ eore side (^ 
jfceaaid {4agiie. Mr. Bteffi)rd, hearing Ihereof, and Meiug llrt 
konifale danger tbat lis soul was in, was bo moved is &mKi0iK^to 
isakp die daDgerons caae of the priest, that he, n^lecttng his *«b 
bodily death, t» tecovet Ute oUier from eternal dammti»», tttaw 
ttntsiiim, cihorted and so bbound him, that lie wtfatd not lettV^ 
Ina btbn fae had e<»Terted him, and saw bis eMjnring ^od^ 
Umed. before bis face ; vhich being done, Mr. BtaSbrd -vent bome; 
and immediately sickened, and shortly after most ChriskiMly 
dflaeased.-f- Tbns a Kfe is well lost whereby a soul is saved. ' 

' I daw not affirm that this- Mr. Stafford was Margacet TVofesBD^ 
in Ounfaridge, thoogb something might move me to this cenje^ 
tKe; for at this time there was no olber public lecture bunded' in 
the University. Nor can a negative argument to the contrary be 
justly deduced from the omission of his name in the catalogue of 
ber Professors, which all must acknowledge to be veiy imperfect. 
YN'SMie probably he was a tolunteer in bis lecture, having no 
Mtnry for the reading thereof, save God's glory, his own credit^ and 
tb« profit of others. And so we take oni leave of him; some 
HMstlis after whose death, at the coming-in of cold wcatber, the air 
WSK cleared, and Cambridge> fiee from infection, was restored to ber 
former bealthfiilnces. 

43. Benwt, a Martyr cf Cambridge. 
TbcmaB Bennet was this year martyred in Exeter. At the stake 
be was urged by two gentlemen of that county, standing by, to say, 
PfMor BtmeUutt Mariam, a owmet KUtelot Dd, 4^. PrdbaMy khe 
pMmouiciiig ao nuch might hate prevailed for bis pardcm': but fae 
nfused to aaw'lM'lifeon the price of supentition. I insert him 

* Se*->«l.ii.pp,9S-401.-BpiT. t t'ox't " AeU ud H 


here-itf onr'Histnrf of Um Vavrnwifi (B»t^ htt!BMet--wnB/myivtqn 
tnkrtyn, hs cammencad Master of Arts bbenii^ butf) «dii«% ]^«c9pM 
be. \VM btim m ^e town of Camlmjclg^.* ..... <. ,: 

J«hs Wstsw, Vice-<^iaitGellor ; Th<mu8 BI;U. and Bobwt 
Mwtemiai), Proctors ; John Cb^maQ, Mayor ; Docbns, - of 
CiTbitj, 4{ Docton of Civil Lav, 2; Doctors of Medidpc>,2{ 
Bachetora of Divinity, 10 ; Msctera of Axis, 1? ; Buhelon of 
Urns, 11; Baobelon of Arts, 28. a.d. 1530-31. 

Simon Heynei, Vice-Chancelloi ; WilUam Ctke aad , Jolia 
Taylor, Proctns ; William Oill, Mayor ; Doctoia of Diviniiy,, 3 ; 
Doctor of Canon Law, 1 ; Doctor c^ Civil Law, 1 ; Baekeloia ^ 
Divinity, 15; Masterii of Arts, 28; Baehelora of Lavs, 12; 
B«ilielonofArtt,43. 1531-32. 

41 4 0. A dooffkttf Pair of ChaUengeri, well worsts for ti^ir 
Paint, They rt^m mth Skanu. The Meport qualified' 
A oatueUu Jeer. More Modesii/ argues not lea Learning. 

This year two Oxford-men, the one George Thio^Dozton, the 
other John Aocwell,'f' came to Cambridge, having mnch Jeaait^ in 
ihelr heads, (but needing to have bronght more in tbeir poitman- 
teaus,) diallenging all the UniveiBity of Cambridge to diipnte with 
them OD these questions : 1. An Ju» Civile nt prcBOtattiva Medi- 
einA. 2. An mulier morti condemnata et bia iug>mia, n^tu ' 
ia^aeis, terlid tuipendi debeat. These two thns ordered thettr 
Bohres, — that Throgmorton should be the /orhm hope, and answar 
first : Ascwell was kept for tie reierve, to come after him. 

Five Cambridge-men undertook the disputation ; namely, Joha 
Redman, Nicholas Ridley, John Rokeeby, Elizeus Pricci and 
Griffith Tregarn, (counted in those days the magazine of aU the 
hw,) TEpuring to the Scfaoohi, the doors whereof were broken. <^Mn 
by crowds of people. These dispntanta so pressed ThIOgnDIiln^ 
that, finding him to fail, they followed their advantage, to inptmb 
the foil into a flat fell, and would never suffer him (men's ipiriAs, 
once cast, are easily kept, down) to recover himself. Whntfore, 
Ascwell his partner, who was to answer on the second questioD, 
declined it by dissembling himself sick ; { who, had he not indeed 
been sick of a conceited soul, had never come thithet on that 

Home go this bnee of disputants, wiser dian they came to Catn- 
bodge, having learned by dear-bou^t experience, that, if H^tndea 
wen 40 wary aa net to fi^t against two, they two were none of^ the 
wisest to fight against so many HerculeKS as a Univeraitiy mi^t 

;s 1037. t CiUfM' 

I Oum, Ae ^MijuiiaU AcBdrmite Cmtai. pp. 19, 9t. 


H-mnr viii. UNlVBRSlW OP 'CAWBRrDQE. US 

«flRM.' '1f<r#einA*,'fln IMt dnd<n^'«f ebitne doth A«t' 't«flect''<otl 
Oifonf, tibe mu «o fu'fhym gitlng them ft comfnisslanj tbat slM^ld 
oot knoir of their coming to Cnnbtidge. Thus, boM ^ildien"will 
be Tenturiag inlo ilangetB without their {mrents' le&re, thougb, wtien 
it be known, it cost them a good whipping for tiieir pains. Indeed, 
tome have' reported,* that aflerwuds they were etpelled the Urli<- 
venit; tat this their daring andertaUng. If bo, kt me sty, ott 
annt Oxford was too severe in her ceneuns ; and I pKy the twl> 
poor men, whose vnrjr ftult was sufficient punishment. 

But an Oxfbrd author -f seeks to qualify the matter in his tell- 
tioD. First, fae tells us, that Thngmorton was yetj young:, and 
cMiot«d none of the most learned men ; both which wc can eafdly 
beliere. For hie eipulsion after his return, he utterly ditavoweth 
it ; and concerning hie carriage in Cambridge, he pretends to intel- 
ligence, that Throgmorton came off rather as conqueror than con- 
quered. But Catua, present at the disputation, ia to be credited 
before those obacure persons (Bank and Bernard) whose testimony 
be pfoduceth therein. 

At ft>r Ascwelt, the aforesaid author J will not have him tteme io 
Cambtidge with any intent to dispute, but only as chamber-fellav 
to accompany Throgmorton ; add^g withal, " What need had he 
to dits«nble aickncss in that place where formeriy the pestilence to 
reigned (aaitb Walsingham, in Richard 11.) that souid men and- 
denly died in a frenzy, without either sense or BaciamentF^* But 
what is dl this to the purpose P What, if there were a peetilential 
distemper in Cambridge an hundred years before, must the same be 
■uppowd still to continue ? But we know the gentleman's intent is 
to gire a gird at Camtvidge, for the badness of the air thereof. We 
tell not him of the pestiferous vapour in Oxford, in the reign of 
qneen Elizabeth, wherewith Judge, High Sberifi^ Justices, and most 
gt the Qtand Jury died all suddenly at the assizea.g Such casusltiee 
b^^WB sometimes in the moat refined airs ; and, thanks be to God ! 
they are but sometimes. 

He proceeds to tell os, that no Cambridge-man ever challenged 
the University of Oxford to public disputation ; as I believe thfiy 
oerer did. Bnt I know some who neither csn be persuaded nor 
pfov^dced to 6ght a duel on any terms ; yet the same, in the 6eld, 
will set their foot as far in the face of their enemy as any alive. 
W%en Ood's glory is concerned, in the canse of the truth, Gom- 
bridge^ though declining such childish and vtini^oriDiiB diallengM, 
bath beta, is, and, I hope, will be, as forwaid aa any Univeisit; in 
the irodd IB the vindicating thereof. ' ' 

■'Ualkdf.lMMCjinTS, <i(;>riii(. t 9tui^ t^ttm, .dnliq.^fd. Omen. 

p*ga3K I Mm, pac* SSS. t OAHPm's" EUMb«th," teMAsUfr. 

laif' ■' ■ ■ ■ riffff 6ry ■ of' ttfB' - ■" ' ■ i. d' 'ri&iV' 

Wytes, Ptoctdtt ;^ I&bert Cypnfmil Majfor'; T5bctora'bf t)ivi'nity,^ 
2; Doctore of CWil Law, 2 ; "Doctor of Meaicine,!; BacheW 
of,^!™!!^,!!; Masters of Arts, 26; Bachelors of "Lawg, 11 ; 
mcHeWof Muaic, 1 ; Bachelors efAirta, 43. a.d. 1532-33.' ^ 
' Jiha' Cmiford, Vlce-Chancellor ; Hemy Mallet and 'JohrT 
Madev, Proctors; Edward Thompson, Major. This Thompson 
was so obstinate that he was excommunicated by the Vice-Chancel-'' 
lor foi his stubbornness.* Doclora of Divinity, 7; Doctor of 
C^fil Law, 1 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 10 ; Masters' of Arts, 19 ;-' 
BadielotsorLaws, 17; Bachelors of Arts, 33. 1533-34. ^ 

50. [7%e Univeraity't RenundaHon of the Pope^i 8upremaey.\ "'■ 

This y«ai the University of Cambiidge presented his najeMy^ 
with the fdllowbg initmment, wherein they utterly renounced th^ 
pope*B sapiemacy :— 

InvMtissimo^ ao potwUmno prineipi ae domino tuMro, HshkIcA^ 
OciATo, AnglitB et Franoice regi, domino Hihenim. -^ 

Quid /elix et /auttum tit et huio florentiniiao regno tMt 4; 
univerto orbi Chrtetiano, (invictiisime princ^ ac domine ctm^^, 
timme,) in icripta prodimtu,' ao pcUam dicimtu aententiam |m»^ 
tram in giuvttione iUd /amotd de Momani pontiJi4sii poteitate;^. 
cujai qucettionit teritatem post matwram et tedulam examiaa-^ 
tionem, ^ variat ed de re, non imo tempore, coUoquutionei, dilt-. 
genti tandem teripturarum coUatione et prcpeneione Cut aobit, 
videnturj eruimut, ao enitam ae syngrapho quodam eajtrestam,^ 
quod lententia nostrw et facti eertimmue testit Juerit, majeitati 
UuB, und cum noitrie literii miuimue. Atgue heme aani protin- 
ciamt tereniagime rex, abs tu& tuhlimitate nobis impoeitam, libeniir 
tuec^mui i partim ob earn (quam majeetatt tuce debemia) fidem 
H obedientiam, quibui vUa tempore aut loco deeaae n^aa putetmtu 
maximum ; partim ipnu» teritatit amore ae studio, qaam dieert 
et prcedioare, quotiet e Chritti glorid, et reipubliea Christianee 
talute atque c&mmodo esse tiideatw, quum omnium intenit qui 
Ckristo nomina dederunt, atque in illiut terba jurdrunt, turn noatri 
muito magis reforre et interette videtur, qui quotidie in iUiut Serip- 
iurii wrsamur, quotidie iUiuB terba et toeet legimut, qui Mf ipsa 
Via, Veritas, et Vita, quique teritatem custodit in iteeulum tOBcuii. 
Bujuijavorem et gratiam semper ttta celsitudini adesse preeamur, 
eptamtuque ut not ^ Aeademiam nosiram, qua tua $mq>er volun- 

:. Ctikgii Carforu-ChruH. 


s<^aioiir VIII. ONivE^i:fY.QF.^MiiBJDaB. 1^7. 

Jo^i/estatffi tuam diutiatfr/tig^el /'-' <'.'■' 

. ffniterm taTictw imtris ewmte JiUia ad qaot praumtet lif^tp 
pervetOurcB lunt, ccetua omnia regmtium ^ tum-regeiUivim Acid^ 
mite CantabrigieTMiit, laiutem in omnium Salpatore JemCkriuto. 
Cum. de Bemani pontifida potestate, qttam ex tacrU Scnpturit eibf 
tmdicat in -«m^hu9 Ckririianorum provinciit, ^ in hoe regno 
Angliat iofigojam teng>ons tractn exercuit, kUoe nun« diebiu 
gvfBftio ea^oria til, do notWa de ed re $ententia rvgaretur, via. An 
potUifex MomatuM iabeat a Deo in ScTiptur& eacrd eibi conoe»ta» 
majormn authoritatma et poteatatem in koo regno Angliw, guam 
quifit. gliut ei^ermie tpisoopue : noB <E^[wtm eue putatinme, viad 
dictce quwttienit veritatem eruendam omni studio inoumber^tut, ac 
«Mfraff» eAdere tmtmtiam et eeantram tandoitt m-H pt^^errwrn*. 
Xitvfi- ad ioe potimmim Aoademiaa oUm a princ^bue inttitutfU-. 
fititte pertaan, ut et /Mpu/iM Chriatiamu in lege D^ entdi<ftW;i,-et: 
fidti erroret (ti qui exorirentur) eurd et Klicitudine doctorum 
tkecltgtmitm pettitia eotmeUi on pn^igari poutnt. ■ Quamobrem'^ 
prwdictA ^otntione ddiberaturt more neitro eotnettitiUea,- ae mct- 
turd oonaultatione conailia eonferentei, quo modo et ordine ad 
imoiiigationem teritatia eertiia procederetur, atque omnium tan- 
dUn' tuffragiia lelectia, gaibtudam ex doetiaaimit laerw tieohgiie' 
Pr^ettoribua, Saocalaureia, et alUt Jtfagtatria ea cura demandata, ' 
ut icrutatia diligentiatime taera Scnplurm locia, illiique coUdtis,' 
rififrrent ae rmuneiarent quid ipai diottv quceHioni reepondenduH^ 
patartint. Quoniam auditia, perpenaia, ac poat pvbticam iuper dictd ' 
^cettione ditputationem maturd detiberatione diicutiia hi» quw in^ 
qlilisUions prcBdictd, aUerutram partem stalaere, aul conv^ere poe-^ 
i^^f"iUa nobia probabiliora, validiora, veriora, etiam ac eertiorai' 
e&i^'Segenuinum ac aincerum Scriptures aentum referre visa ntnf,' 
qlM^h^aaat Romano ponlijici talem poteatatem a Deo in Seripeuri- 
JSl&m etae. lUia igitur persuaai, et in unam opinionem contetit- 
^^m; ad qwBationem prtBdictam ita re^)ondendum deeretimua, £s' 
^%U acriftia nomine totiua Uniteraitatia retpondemus, ac pro con-' 
3it»hne reriatimd aaaeritnua ; quod Somanua pontifex non habet k 
pa* etmeeiaam tibi majorem authoritatem aut jurisdietionem in hoc 
t^ko Anglian, quam quicia aliua epiacopua exiernua. Atque ,in' 
jSt^ ^ tfatimonium hujuamodi nostrw responaionia el a^fmatio-' 
■^^'^aiiteria tigiUum nostrum e.mmune curavimiu dppofii.'' Ddly 

n^,^tt ttteria ilgxUum nostrum e.mmune curavimw apponi.,,' I/ctf,' 
^mSSrGto) ex domo nostrd regentium iemnSo die lAiensii Miiti^ 
oMWmeper Christum redempto, MDXXXlk " '' " "'^''- --''" 
'"TWaVki tlie pope's power fully abrogated oiil ^Bf '15ftg:TahllV 
Henceforwanl " tUe man of sin,^ in this land, fell asleep, never 

, Cookie 

UB ' HnrORT'OPIBS' ^. A.a^USS. 

BMU[ta(we'^ifiB) tO'B>nke,itbDOg;1i'0>ea ^ opMedJiu KyokitoDi^ 
duKt.'Uasm qoeon Marf'siikys, and^Boondutt ttiem-agun. ' 

...$L .TM.Courseqfih Scholari jStudiet altered /artiebettfir,. ,, 
Indeed, SAndere hiintelf coafeBscthi t^t ibnat thv tiow UmM 
yete joany in CSunbridge cotdiaUy oppoti»g. Uie popish pnotted- 
isgB) but tie tfllleth ui, they maa UMit ex dnetimmig, "ofthtraoM 
Isuned Uierein ." But faftd tbe meanut of tluwe lu deuietli besa 
but of bis opinion, bow had tbey ststtod up " most pions and 
learned " both in an instaat I Indeed, tkt old learning began to be 
left in tbe Univenity, and a better succeeded in the room thereof. 
Hitherto Cambridge had givea sack but with one breastt teachpng 
Aita only, without lisnguages. Her echolara^ Latin was but bad, 
though ss good as in any olber pUce; Greek, little ; Hebrew, noiw 
Bt all : their studies moving in a circle (I mean, not as it oughl, if 
• qydopEedia of sciences, but) of some trite school-qvestions over 
and over again. But now the Students began to mi^e sallies into 
the kamed langu^^cs, which the industry of tbe next age did com- 
pletely conquer. Herein Robert Wak^eld, a great lesloier of 
the Hebrew tongue,* must not be forgot; who, foi his better 
accomplishment, travelled most parts of Christendom, and becamt 
Hfbrew-ProfesBor, after Reucblin, or Capnio, in the Univemty of 
Tubing. But we ^hall bear more of him, some yeafs hence, aft^ 
his return. 

52, 53. Tke Lord CromwtU choien Chancellor., in the place of 
Siahop Fitker. The great Good he did the Unittrsity. 

John Fislier, bishop of Rochester, was behesded on Tower-hill, 
Juqe 22od, conlinuiog Chancellor of the University to hia last 
hour, as chosen into that place during his life, not duripg his putn 
ward happiness. Being long a prisoner, be could not product tlw 
University, as unable to enlarge himself. Yet Cambridge boaoored 
him for what he had done, and continued him in bis office. H»d 
this been imitated in after.4geB, Cambridge had not beeo charged 
with the suspicion of ingratitude, for deserting some of her patrona 
aiB soon S8 greatness deserted them ; as dmoaing, not theit penoD^ 
but proapcrity, for her Chancellor. The lord Cromwell was elected 
Chancellor in the room of Fisher. 

I find not any particular favour conferred, or benefaction be- 
stowed, by biin on the University. But this great good he did,— ^ 
iMt lis greatness Itept others liom doing Cambridge any'barm. 
Many hangry courtiers had hopes to catch fish, (and fish it wodld 
be, n^hat^v^r came to their nets,) on this turning of the ^de,— 'the 
■r ,.'■,!., 1 ■ * Bii,!, ^tcrlflif Bfil. ctttlvna Ktava, fgv n*. "'"' '■' ■■'■ ■' ■ 

, Coo^^lc 


sltinktiim'JO^riieligiMJ ]]ov>Mt3P<4mB'it.fte'COTfltatuBM3, iuduMe 
ticklish 1wte%' tO' ^/lamA tbe. Oolkgt-hmdi into; saptBtltlaa? 
SocriJege, stood ready to knock at their gates ; and, alas .' it was 
paat flteir portals power to fbibid it entnnoe, had not the- lord 
OeNUwdl T^otoualy ttsaistcd lb« UnivcnUy on ei\ ocoanoas. 

John Cnufoid, Vlc«-Ch«iic«1lDi i Riehard Ainiworth and GulleU 
IB« Suiden, Procton ; Williaai Haeill, Mayor ; Doctors of Din- 
ni^ 2; Baohdon of Divinity, 8 ; Maaten «F Atts, 17 ; Bachetora 
of AiU. 30. A. D. 1534-S5. 

54. Crai/ord't Character. 
Hillieito none were choKn Tice-Chuicellora of the Unireisity, 
nrc aneh who before their election were actual Doeton. Craiford 
was the first who innorated herein, being Vice-Chancellor befbre a 
Doctor, vt gradna quadam ex officio faoeret, saith my author; * not 
bringing a DoctoiBbip as a qualification to be Vice-Ghancellor, but 
takiDg it as a gratification conferred on him for being bo. Oxford 
antiquary accoonts him one of the ornaments of Cambridge, who at 
fiist waa bred m Oxfotd.f We deny not, but that Crttiford, very 
yonng, might have Iiis education there, but took all his Degrees in 
Cambridge, though ta enough from being any great ornament 
tfaeieof. For, fiirt, he was expelled out of Queen's Collcge,J — for 
BO good, we toay be enre ; yet afterward, by iavonr of friends, got 
to be Proctor, anno 1522, and, at last, Vice-Chancellor of the 
University. But be was, saith one,§ gladiator melior qti&m Fro- 
eane^Uarita, " a better fencer than Vice-Chanccllor," who, in a 
fiiiy, cut off the hand from one Pindar, and cast out a fellow out of 
the legent-house, catching him up on his shoulders by main Force ; 
kod I could wish the occasion thereof had been expressed. Surely, 
be was a man of mettle, being Vice-Chancellor two years together, 
whdcfa I may call the critical years of Cambridge, on the alteration 
of the pope^a power therein, (and perchance too much decried by 
some on the same account,) being chosen of purpose, with his 
rough spirit, -to bustle through much opposition. 

55, 66. Tk« fint ff«Mral Vititation of Cambridge, jure Regio. 
TAs lajtuutimu to tit Uni94r$iti/ of Dr. LegK, CAanMllor, 
Oromwffa SarroffoU. 

This year Thomas Legh, Doctor of Law, deputy to the lord 
Cromwell, vicar-general to king Henry VIII. visited the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge. We must believe him one of desert, being sole 

• Caicb lb ^HUguU. CaMai. ^eaJemiir, Ub. I. p^e IK. 1 Jutrt. jlm 

Oho. mm* 1K6, jate 37. t Caid*, M fwW, fg* Ul. | /4fM, itUm. 

, Cookie 

180 HISTORY OF THE a. t>. UM> 

ai^ nnglfl hy \atastAt scl«ted fgr Bodi an empl^ment ; aod imj 
be usured that Cromwell ncTer eent a slag on his envnds. I figd 
one Dr. Lee petitioned against in the articles and dciDmds of 
Robert Aske, and his rebellious crew of northern commonH, and 
charged with extortion in visitalion of religious bonses ; and am 
confident he was the same pereon, though some diSferenee betwixt - 
Le^ and Lee, in the spelling thereof. For, besides that the 
vulgar are never critics in writing, do wonder if they did mis-spell 
him whom tbcy did mis-call, loading him with opprobrious lan- 
guage. Yet no better evideoce of one's honesty than to be railed 
at by a rabble of rebels. But see this Dr. Legh''s injunctions to 
the University :— 

In Dbi mohinh, Auen. Anno Domini miUenmo quinfftn- 
taimo tricmmo quitUo, meruis veri Octobrit di« 22, Not Tkvma* 
ti^A, J,effum Doctor, prwolari ao honorandt viri Moffietri Thomm 
Cromwell, iUa$trimmi in Chriito prineipit ae domini Hemrim 
Oclavi, Dm gratid Angliw et Franoia reffii, fidei d^mnris, 
domini Hiberniw, ae in terrii tt^emi ecdmm Anglicanm mfr 
Christo capitis, primarii tecretarii, et ad eatuaa MeleiiaMiaM 
vicem-gerentia, nearii gmeralit a officiaiit principedit, nee non 
intra r^num AnglicB, tam in locit exemptii, qadm non exen^iHt^ 
vititatorit generaltt, ad negoHum vititaUonit et inqaitidonii Aoa- 
demice, tive Unitereitatit Ganlabrigiee, ao CoUegiomm, Aularmmt 
ae etBterarum Domtmmt aive ffo^Mtiortim Seiolarivm inkaiitam' 
tium, Aabentee in ecetara potestatem nobis attributam, infunetionM 
qucB nobis neceuaria ae opportuTitB vidfrentvr, quateunguo indi- 
C9ndi, hoe injunetionet, the maadata mtoratimmit regiit imjuna- 
tionibtu adjicienda et annectmda fore deorevimue, qua omnia et 
tingula, non mimit quam ilia, ntb iitdaa pania a quolibet cujtutit 
CoUegii, Atda, mte ffo^tii hujus Aeademim Preapoiito, nss 
Magietro, aiitaque Sehaiaribua, eive Stvdentibni kujtu ITniwerwiUx- 
tii), quibutoun^ue <^mrvari tolumtu ; et autiorikUe regi& mbi* in 
b&c parte eommiata OritOi prceeipimtu atque pumdwttui. 

Primim, qit6d quilibet Stndiotut site ScAolarie intra Aanc Aea- 
demiam CatUabrigice obiertabit omnia et tingula etatuta, eonetita- 
tionet, et ordinationei, et laudabilee eonauetudinei hujnt Unittrti- 
tatia, ac CoUegii, JuUe, Hoapitii, tea Domi* ubi haiital, jnxta 
primtBtam/undationem e^utdem, quatenut Aw admemoratie injmno- 
tioaibat non repugnmt, aut ttudio bonarum et taorarum lit er tMmm, 
teu kujvt regni nottri juribui et ttatvti* non obtunt. 
' Item, quod miUui Magiatar, tive Sociut alieujua CkdUgii, Aukp, 
rite Hotpitii, in luperioribai regiit injunotionibvs ^Mcijkati, 
alicui tendal ouf diatrakat in potterum, tuam Secislatem, quotii 
guatito avt exeogitata oohre ; nee aliquan peetmia mrn mam pr* 



niminieni ml tw^Heat ofin^. Sdulamt pautit to fiOanm 

' ' liamt wjtmms af HricU prcBeipimut, nt t» ^(UfdrHflt pmitAt 
j mee nati t et ceaent fattionea intar iujut, vet hujutpatricB, civitatia, 
m»t GoUegii eonoive$, tiva soeice, et qtueemtgue aU«t ; »«e in eho- 
tiami»u Sopiarnm, Be&oiariwn, Prapoattorum, tea aUquo alio eomr- 
m/m* acta, wf tmU^m laffragiu AfnuJu, eaietmqae ob coMmtHMm 
jMfmam poUiu auentiatU, quim a qui litM^aram ttudio, vita «< 
merm» imttffriiate, aliitque corporis at animi doHbua, mertii tit 
proffirmtdua : oAm quim iitrpitrimum tti (his prcetertim d<Ktit, 
at baniM tpiaiotMua imbatia, qui mriutit exmpiar et apaeutam eaas 
debentj tatibtu iniquia et vuifforibua affectibua duct. Quin potUU 
at iao Aeademia omtMv ad bonoa foorea et literanim acientiam, 
•ffitf* tf^rdn fanaat et gignit ; aio et omnea, quotquot egtu auaU 
i fa will'. M Mutttot eeaeivea et muttic^tea eaae aentiant, aitiffuli m»^ 
jirfw pro mriU au&, «t ontn omni charitate yraltrnd, tpiaUtatibua, 
a« dmi» etiiemit tt inttmia mut«6 ausnliantea, et ad meliora pro- 

Ami, quod Fioe-Cimeaiiariut et Procurators kujua Univerri- 
ta(M, «( qmUbet Prcopoaitaa, Mofftater, aire Cuatoa oujuacunque 
C a il ff ai, MM Hotpitii et AvIob kttfua 4-<x*demieB poeaemoaea immo- 
baUttet boiM mtobUiot t» eommam kabentea exkibeat, et oitra^atnm 
Ptat^Saatioaie Seatw Maria proxtmA Juturvm, ckartaa, dona* 

^ tt Builaa Pcni^ciaa, ae alia quammque diplomata, et 
nimenta, kt^ua Uniteraitatia, ac Coliegiorutn, Attltu 
rwtint MeapMomm ha^otmodi reapeetivi, ac ettam rentale mobi^ 
Ummf^mma, et fidek inventorimn bonorvm mobiUum eorHndem, in 
mmhU di0#i Monorandi viri Magittri Thoma Cromwuil, viailafoHt- 
ftmtraUtt ejuant Uffiti»i ad hoe dfpatati, iptiui beneplaeitum in eA 
p ort a. Mipeetaturi. 

Awlmwi, Toimnva et preodpimm, qudd hceo Univeraitaa aaam 
pubUcam Lee ti vnt m , mm Oravam, aive Bebraioam, ex liberd op- 
tmm MTMn, qmi de gramio efuadem tTniwraitatia aunt, utr<mt earum 
wtahuHat, et conduetre arbiirati fuerita, auia impenna oentinui 
lu e t m t t t tet tuppedOet v quique in iilim Lecturce, quam tn atiarwrn 
ZMAv«rtM», vbioanque ta/ra Aane Univeraitalam preEteotoribua 
e j ^tod a af quaim diUgeatiaaimi auam operam adhibeant, ut eoa ad 
f rw lattimut igtumadi ddigemt, qui Uteramm teitntid, el mefom 
integritate florere tioaountur, et qui ptiri, aineeri et pii legere 
wfcMtf, mkU a^aettt earTtali, ant quoetmque alio re^ectt* »ni^ 
pemitiummoltt et pcafyoeita. 

Ittatj. polmwu et BUHukimua, qufd /auita at Pri^ositi, tt'Magie- 
bi, Onilod4t, &thdaretf 90 StatderUea in kao Umreraitatt, pro 



tmimabus fumdaiorit Uni<MrtitaHt ac CaUeffianm, «t aiiarum i* 
eSdem Domomm quarumcunque, et pro /elieitttmo gtatu invietmimi 
doBtini noitn reffit, et domtHa Anna epu hffUima eo^uffit, knjut 
reffni regtncet tummigut eorum kottorii ineremmto maximo, tab 
qwrvm au^neiu vera religio Ckriitimta Jam r^toretdt, vmt Mmx 
in ecdenA Beatee Marks, infra memmt pratimo leqneniem pubUei 
eeiehrandte intenint. /tan, qudd quUibet Prap«Httu, Moffitter, 
tine Cualot eujunia CoUegii, AtiitB, vet Ho^titii memorati iuAeat 
exemplar harum et pnstiictarum injwnatiomtm, ac eaafidditer eon- 
aoripiaa in tu& domo eoram OBUttbut Saiolaribus ejtadem temel tin- 
ffulit meneibua legi faciat, et ecu a quibuani voi^ibue tranteribi 
ainat atque permittat. 

Item, quid si aliquit Scholaria et Studem hujtu Univertitalii, 
vet etiam ip$e Vice-Canoellariut, wu alia^tu Coltepit, Atil<F, td 
HoepUii Prcepoeitui, Moffieter, ctra Cuetoe injuncHonea reffiat, 
tiffiUa »ao magno eigiUatai, «e/ hae injitnetione tibi anitexa*, «« 
earvm aliqitam fiiolaverit ; quilibet eoram id quamprim^ dicta 
regiw majeetati, aut ejus viHtatori ffenerali, seu «fiu eurrogata 
denundari procuret : et ti deliclum reepioit UrntersHaHi Mod^a- 
torem aliqaem, Vioe-Cancellarias et Proouratoree demmcianti td 
ejus nuncio pectmiae neceuaria*, et alia ad ioo regmnia mimi- 
trabit. Quod «t aliquie aUitt PrcepotUw, Moffitter, mm Cmtet 
alicujui CoUcffii, Aula, live Hoipitii, in aliquo pnmmetortm deli- 
querit, ipte timUiter aecusanti et datunoianti viaticum et expetuiu 
tubminiatrabit. Metervantee intuper hanorcOimwto viro Mapiitra 
TAmna Cromwell, et vititatori generali, cooMmilem patetkttem, 
acfjiciendi et diminuendi, quam regia majeetat in tuperiorUjut 
injunetionibus ei reeervavit. 

In oujtti ret testimonium, quia siffiUum de prty>rio atUAentiotm 
ad manue ncn Aabemw, ided nffillum officialit domini arcAidiaeom 
Elientit prasentibut apponi mandavimu* ; et not offieialie okU- 
diotw ad epedale mandatum dicti domini commtetarii eigiUum not- 
tram prcBaerdibui appoHiimu*. Dot. xxii. die menni Oeb>brie, anne 
Domini 1535, et regni dicti iHuOriieimi domini nottri regie atiM 
vicenmo septimo. 

56. King Henry't Injunctiom to tAe Unitereity of Cambridge. 

Theee IdjudcUodb reUte as additionals to fonner Injuoctiotu of 
the kings, too tedious here to exeinplif;^. But take the subrtuca 

1. He beginneth vith bemoaning the barbarism and ignorsnoe 
which so lately spread in the University, protesting his desire to 
promote piety, and extitpate heresy, superstition, idohitry, Stc 



2. He ediortetli ill Ae members in the Univenity to \ht 
embraciDg of Christie doctrine in spirit and truth, recommending 
Sir. Cromvell* their Ch&ncellor, to be their visitor therein. 

3. He requires their renouncing all obedience to the pope of 
Rome ; and that his royal authority be received as supreme, under 

4. He inciteth them to the study of tongues, because temttm 
alicujtts rei non potest ills anequi, qui rudis est idiomatU qw« 

5. He enjoineth them to found, on the joint cost of all the 
Colleges, two Lectures, the one of Latin, the other of Greek, to be 
duly read, (aod, by consequence, heard,) on great penalties. 

6. That no authors hereafter be publicly read who have written 
on " the Master of the Sentences ; " but that all Lectures be made 
on some part of the Scripture. 

7. That it should be permitted to all freely to read Ood's word, 
in Uieir private studies, and repair to any public place where the 
nme is preached. 

8. That heieaftei none in the University take any degree in the 

8. He did make void and abolish all ceremonies and observances 
winch any ways did hinder the study of Scholars, or boruan valetit- 
dinem ttndic amcam. 

10. He ordered, that the youth to be edncated in the Arta 
dxmld read Aristotle, Rodulphus Agric(4a, Philip Melanclbon, 
TrapesHntiuB, &c. 

11. He forbad the reading of the frivolous Questions and ob- 
•enre glosses of Scotus, Burleus, Anthony Trombet, Bricot, Bml> 
fcrins, &c. 

12. He pronouneeth all gtatntes of the University or prirattt 
GoUegee vo^ if repugnant to the premises. 

13. That all Masters of Ccdleges be bound, by theii solemn 
oath, to the effectual obserTatitHi of these his injunctions.. 

14. Reservii^ always to the aforesaid Thomas Giomwel), their 
Chancellor, and his vicar-general, or to his lawful surrt^te in that 
kind, fall power to examine, add, and alter any thing according to 
his discretion, confident of his care herein for the good of the Uni- 

Otwerve by the way, that at Uiis instaiit the University of Cam- 
bridge was yerj full of Students, as may appear by that passage in 
the king''s Injunctions : lor he reckoneth up the several Colleges, 
«M Mn/fmmf , et ditermnlur, et freqnentant Scholares et Studioti, 
ex oami duxceri H qndlibet parte httjns re^ni noetri An^iat, tam 
etc WMia ^ptam eit Sibernid. So that it seemeth here was then. - 
M 2 r- I 

, Cookie 

164 HISTORY OF THE a.i>. 159S. 

an universal confluence of SchoIiOT from all parts of the king's 

57, The SubmUsion of the Master and FeUou>» of GonviUe ffaU to 
the Kind's InjmujtionB. 
Three days afler Dr. Legh had set forth his Injunctions, the 
Colleges made their reepective submissions thereunto, solemnly sub< 
scribing the same. We assure ourselves they used the same fonq 
for the essentials ; one copy whereof we have here inserted, that th^ 
rest may be measured thereby :— 

Inmaissimo go ptentistimo in Ckristo prtncipi et domino nottro, 

Henrico Octato, Dei pratid Angliw et Francia: regi, fdei 

defensori, domino Hibemiwy ac in territ mpremo ecclmte 

Anplicamv sub Chritto capiti. 

Vettri humile» gabditi et devotiseimi oratore» WiUidmta Bttd- 

enham, Magitter give Cuatot GoUegii dtcti GonviUe Hall, Canta- 

brigiw, et ejusdem loci fiocii, reeerentiam et obedtentiam, tatif 

excellenti et prwpotenti principi dfbitat et condignaa cum omni 

tubjeetione et htmore. 

Noterit Tnajettas Testra regia quod nos Magider et Socii pre- 
dicti, non vi aut metu coacli, dolove attt aliqud olid sinitlrd 
machinatione, ad hcEc inducti sive seducti, ted ex nottrU certif 
gcientiie, animia ddiberatit, meriigtie et ^ntaneit eoluntatibus ; 
purk, »ponti et absolute, in verbo lacerdotii, profitemur, tpondemtu, 
ac ad aaacta Dei Evangelia, per not corporaliler facta, juramtu 
vettrce iUuetrisiimcc regice majestati, tingulari ac tummo domino 
nottro et patrono, Henrico Octavo, Dei gratid, AnglicB et Franctee 
regi, fidei defeneori, et domino Hibemiw, ac in turrit ecclesiaa 
AnglicantB lupremo immediate tub Chritlo capiti ; quod potthac 
nulli externa imperatori, regi, principi, aut prelato, nee Romano 
pontifici, quern "papam""^ vocant, jidditatem, aut obedientiam verbo 
Tel tcripto, simpliciter vet tub Juramento, promittetnu* aut dabimut 
vet dari curabimut, ted omni tempore, catu, el eonditione, partst 
vettrw regiw majeitatit, ac tuccettorum vettrorum tequemur et 
obsereabimta, et pro tirili de/endemus, contra omnem hominem 
quern vettrw majettati, aut tuccettoribut veslris, adversarium cog- 
notcemua et tutpicabimnr, SoUque vettrw regiw majettati, veluf 
lapremo nottro principi, et eccletice Anglieanaj capiti, ac auccettori- 
but vestrit, fidelitatem et obedientiam tincer^ et ex animo pra^ 
ilahimut. Papatum Bomanum non ette aded in tacrit literit ordi~ 
natum profitemur, ted humanitit tradilum, conttanter affirmamut, 
et palam dedaramua, ac dedarabimut, et ut alii tic publicent, dili- 
genter curabimut. Nee tractatum cum quoqunque mortalium pri^ 


fotim aiU publici inibimus, ««< cmseniiemus, quodpontifex Boma- 
nas, aiiquam atUhoriiatem et Juritdictitmem, ampliui Ktn kabeat 
aut essreeat, ' ant ad ullam pottkac regtituatur ; epiecopumque 
Sonanum ^nteopum modemuTn, aut ejtte in iUo epigcopata, lucceo' 
«rem quemcunqtta, non p<^>am, non »ummum pontificem, ntm imi- 
venaiem tpiseopum, nee ganotiigimum dominum ; sed solum Boma- 
»a» episcopum, vd pontificem, (at priscis mos erat,J scienter 
public^ futermrnu : jnraque et etatuta huju» re^ni pro extirpatione 
ef lublatioae papatAs, et auctoritatis ae jari»dictimtis dicti Somani 
fpisa^, quaadocunque edita tive tancita, edendaque sire ean- 
aenda, pro viribm, $cientia, et ingeniolit nottris ipti jirmitef 
abtereabimui, et ab aliis nc observari (quantum in nobis faerit) 
atrabimvs atque e^ciemiis ; nee posthae dictum Romanum episco- 
pum of^^ellabimus, aut appelianti oonsentiemus ; nee in ejus eurid 
pro jure aut justitid a^emus, aut agenti respondebimus, nee ibidem 
aceasatoria tet rei personam sustinebimus ; et si quid dictus giisco- 
ffu pernuncium tel per literas nobis signijicaverit, qucdecunque H 
fuerit, iUud gadm citissim^ commodi poterimus, aut vestr<e regim 
majettati, aut vestris a secretis eonsiliartis signifieabimus, aut signi~ 
fieari foieiemui : nosque literas, aut nuncium, ad eundem B&manum 
qntecpam, vti (jus curiam, nee mittemus nee miUi faciemus, nisi 
Mrird maje»t(Ue conscid, et consentiente, aut vestro suecetsore, quod 
dicta iitarce td nuneius ad eum deferatur. Bullas, bretia aut 
reieripta qaceeunque pro nobis vel aliis ab ^seopo Romano, tel 
«r>u curid non impetrainmm, tel ut talia a quovis impetrentur noa 
eontulemtu ; et si talia pro nobis insciia aut ignorantibus gene- 
ratiter eel tpecudit&r impetrabuntur, tel aliis quomodo libet conc6~ 
dentur, ei» renuneiabimus, et non consentiemus, nee utemur eisdem 
vUo modo, at eas testrce majestati aut successoribus restria tradi 
carabimus. Exemptioni tero qua Eomano episcopo, tel summo 
quern toeant pontijim, aut ipsi quoeunque nomine appelletur, ejuste 
Bamanai ecclesice, mediate tel immediate tubjecti sumus et Juimus^ 
gtttusque amcessionibm, privtlegiis, largttionibus, et induMi» qui- 
bttsetmque expressk in his scriptis renunciamus, et soli testrw majeS" 
tati^ tettritque successoribus, not tubditos et tubjectos profitemur, aa 
tut subjiciemm, et nos solummodo subditos fore spondemus. Nee 
eidem Romano pontifici, td ejus nunciis, oratoribus, eoUectoribus, 
aut legatif, ullam procurationem, pentionem, portionem, censum, 
aut quameungue aliam pecuniarum summam (quoeunque nomine 
Of^tdletur) per not aut interpositam personam tel personas sohe- 
mus, aut lolvi faciemus : statutumque de successions vestrd regia in 
Parliamento zestro editum, ac omnia ac singula in eodeirt contenta, 
juxta formam et effectum ejutdem Jidditer observabimus. Pra- 
terea in mm pacti profitonur et spondcmus, ac in terbo tacerdotali. 



M nib fidelitate i>ettreB majettali debita et nottrd coram Deo eontei- 
Miid, promittimtu, quod contra banc noitram pn^ictam pro/vui- 
tmem a tpotmonem, nuild ditpeiuatione, ntJid exeqOione, ntiUi 
appdlati(me, aut proweatiom, ttuilow Juru rd facU r^mtdio tu» 
taebimur. Et it guam proteetattonaa, in prc^udictum hufvt not- 
tr^ prq/emonu, et tpontionis /ecimus, earn in prwgent et in cmne 
temptu futurum retocamut, et eidem r^nuntiamut par pratenUe 
literat, quitm* propriit Tnanilms nomina noetra tubtcripeimtu, et eat 
nottri communie ti^illi apprekeMioM, et notarii pubtid m^ 
tcripti eigno et tubtcriptitme committi, oaraffimiu. Dot. et oat. m 
Domo nostra capitulari, 25 die mmtit Octobrii, an»o ab ineama- 
tione Chriai 1535, et regni vettri fiorentittimi ZT prteteattlmt tmu 
ibid. Jokanne Aerei, Artivm Magiiter, et Roberto Warmingtoit, 
Baccataureo in Legtbus, testibw adprwmitaa accitit et lepatit. 

WiLLiMirs Bdckenhak, Andbew Dew, 

RoaBKDs Overt, Laukemtius* Johaknes Cajcs, 

JouANXEs Stybuin, Maptit, Williuus Babkeb. 

Et ego Johannee Rhetmu, notarius pablunu dioti iUtutrimm 
domini r^it regettor princtpalisy quia profmioni, apontimi, 
juramento, prattationi, ac o<sterie prcemims omaibiu, dam tie, vt 
prwmittitw, tub anno, meme, die et loco prwdictit, agerentwr, it 
Jiereta unA eum pramominatit teetibtu, pertonaliter inter/kit 
eatpte tic Jieri et iMerponi vidi, et auditi, ac ntox u^ geeta ttmt, w 
notam eavepi; ideo hoc prwtmt publicum initrumentum indi <»»• 
feci, et in hanc publioam et autiontieam /ormam redegi, tiffnoque 
meo tabetlionati, ac nomine et co^nomine, meit tolitit et oontuetit 
gigaavi ; meque ftie tubtoripti,- in fidem et tetiimonium omnium et 
tingulorwn pramtitiorum, rogcUue legitimi et requisitw. 

Their protestation, takeo tn verba taeerdotii, relates to tbe major 
pari, not to all, the Fellows of Gooville, imderwiiting their nomea. 
For I shall not be easily pereoaded, that John Cajus, penvitimtu 
tubtcrif^or in this instrument, being a physician by his pivfession, 
iras ever in Holy Orders. 

58. Uni-eenity Beeordi delivered to tie Lord Crotmt^. 
In obedience to Dr. Legh's Injunctions, the nhole UnlTcrsity, 
before Cundlemas-day next ensuing, surrendered to the king all 
their charters, donations, statutes, popes* bulls, and papistical 
muniments, with an exact rental of their lands, and inventory of 
thcii goods. The V ice-Chancellor and Senior Proctor went up to 

!l7aHi»vi|[. UNIVEOSfTY OF CAMBKIDQE. 167 

IiODdon, and delivered them to ncieUty Cromwell, Chancelloi of 
the UniTersity. And now they aie deposited in a safe hand, 
leeing the same person, as Master of the Rolls, was intrusted with 
the keeping of the records of the kingdom. 

59, 60. No more Doctors of Canon Law ,- tckich m annexed lo 

Hereafler expect no more Doctors of Canon Law in Cambridge. 
Ponnerly, almost every year some were graduated in that Faculty ; 
sod these preceded those of Civil Law, aa the pope makes himself 
to be above the emperor. But now, Oratian fared no better in 
Cunbridge than hia brother Peter Lombard. For, as the king had 
pronounced his sentence of condemnation agiunst the public reading 
of " the Master of the Sentences i" so the Decretals were banished 
after them. King Henry, stung with the dilatory pleas of the 
Canonists at Rome, in point of his marriage, did in revenge destroy 
their whole bive throughout his own Universities. 

However, afterwards Scholars applied themselves to the reformed 
Canon Law, namely, so much Uiereof u afterwards was received, aa 
coofamiable to tiie king's prerogative and the municipal law of the 
land. These many studied to enable themselves for Chancellors, 
(^cialfl. Sec, in seven! diocesses ; yet so that Canon Law did 
never aficx stand by itself, (as subsisting a distinct Faculty wherein 
any commenced,) but was annexed to Civil Law, and the degree 
doiominated from the ktter. And although Civilians kept Canon 
Iaw h) eoauaendani, with their own profession, yet both twisted 
ti^tbar are scarce strong enough (especially in oar sad days) to 
draw unto them a liberal livelihood. 


edvardo palmer de waltham aemigero. 

Vis Atticissihe, 

Fratees meos.Verbi ministros, saapiils audivi soU- 
citos, ne mentes suae sensim torpescereat, e6 qudd 
ruBticanis viculia damnati, sibi solum eit consortium 
cum craflsis Mmervis, quibus inter crudum et coctum 
nihil interest. 

At mea loQg6 dispar conditio, cui, Deo gratiaa, 
emunctioris nasi parochiani contigerunt ; e quibus tu. 



limato tuo judicio, me inter pnedicaDdom hebescontem, 
inatar coticulse, aliquoties exacuisti. 

Fateor sanS, prsesentiam tnam mihi sD^estnm asceii- 
suro, noD semel metnm incussisse^ ne forsan, te audi- 
ente, aliquid minils pensiculatam excideret. Sed ani- ' 
mum erexlt opportuna recordatio comitatis tuas, qu& 
lapsibus currentis tarn tinguse quam calami facile Teniam 
es daturue. 

Digneris, quseso, lectione tud banc historiolam, vel 
eo nomine, quod Collegium Trinitatis (unum e tribus 
conflatum, et Trin-uni Deo dicatum) exhibeat. Colle- 
gium amplissimum, non tarn rege fundatore, qu£lm 
doctissimis suis alunmis superbiens ; inter quos, ob 
summam Grsecarum literanun peritiam, te Palmam , 
ferre meritisaim^ agnoscit. 

1 — 3. A Combiaation agaitut Dr. Metoalfii. Great Dm«rU teat 
forgotten. Guilt hamt«d with Jtutiee. A.D. 1534. 27 
Henry VIII. 

This yew the young fry of Fellows of St. Jobn> in Oambridge' 
combined, yea, conspired, against their old Master, Dr. Metcalfe, s 
maD much meriting of his House ; it being hard to say whether St. 
John^s oweth more to the lady Margaret or Dr. Metcalfe ; she by 
her bounty fowaded it, he by his providence kept it from being 
eon/ouaded.* Many a pound he gave, more he got of his friends, 
for this College. Indeed, he was none of the greatest Rabbins, 
but he made many good Scholars under him. Thus the dull and 
blunt whetstone may be said virtually to be " all edge," because 
setting a sharpnesa on other instruments. Metcalfe, with Themis- 
tocles, could not Sddle, but he knew how to make a little College 
a great one, by his two-and-twenty years' prudent government 

I End not a particular of the (aulte which the Fellows laid to 
Metcalfe's charge. It may be, the greatest matter was, because he 
was old, they young ; he froward, they factious. Indeed, he was 
over-frozen, in his northern rigour, and could not be thawed to 
ungive any thing of the rigidness of his discipline. Besides, I sus- 
pect liim too stubborn in his Romish mumsimus, which gave his 
ftdvergaries advantage against him ; who would not be quiet till 
tliey had cast him out of his Mastership. Did not all the bricks 

* See mue of him la nu " HIbIdtj of CunbiMgr," anita luUS, p«g« Ul, 

, Cookie 


of ikts Colkgc thai da; doable tlieii dye of redness, to bltuh at the 
iojialiCudes of those that lived therein ? 

Wonder not if Metcalfe suryived but few months ^er hia 
itmonJ. Old tiee«, if transplanted, are so far from bearing of 
&uil, Uut they bear not themselves long, but nithei away. How- 
erer, let not his enemies boast, it being observed, that none thrived 
ever after who had a hand in Metcalfe's ejection, but lived meanly, 
ind died miserably.* This makes me confident, that neither 
Hister Cheek nor Master Ascham, then Fellows of the College, 
bad uy hand sgiunst him ; both of them being well known after- 
waids to come to good grace in the commonwealth. 

Francis Mallet, Vice-Cbancellor ; Henry Joliffe and Robert 
Stokes, Proctors ; Simon Trew, Mayor ; Doctors of Divinity, 7 ; 
Ihdclors of Divinity, 16; Masters of Arts, 26; Bachelors of 
LaT^13; Bachelors of Arts, 18. a.d. ISaS-Se. 

4, 5. Cambrufye Becorda re-ddivered unto them. Query. Whe^er 
the Popei Balls teere in ^ecie rettored. 

Now had the records of Cambridge slept well-nigh a whole year 
in the custody of the lord Cromwell ; not that there was the least 
intention finally to detain them, but to suspend them for a time, to 
wean the UmTersity &om their former foadness to the pope, that 
fbi the future they might feed with a better appetite on the king^s 
GiTouts. It was now therefore thought fit to restore them again 
without the lose of a shoe-latchet to the University. Whereupon 
Robert Stokes, the junior Proctor, and John Meare, the Esquiie- 
Beadle, went up to Lond<m, where the afoiestud records were deli- 
vereS unto them. After their return to Cambridge, Thomas Argal 
and Anthony Hussey were deputed by the Regent-house, to receive 
such records as concerned the University. 

Yet I question whether any of the pope's Bulls were restored to 
the University or no ; I mean, tliose Bulls of a later date, conferred 
on Cambridge since the massacre-general of their records, in the 
mad mayoralty of E^lward Lyater.'f' If any such were returned, 
they might be monumentt, (looked on for rarities,)' but no longer 
muaimeata, of the University, aa too infirm to fence and fortify tb6 
same, the pope's power being totally abrogated. However, thougb 
not in specie, they were virtually restored ; the University eichang- 
ing, not losing, her right herein, — only bottoming her privileges, 
not on papal, but regal, power : etti indytiseimut rex ea au/erri 
Juuerit, ns pontijieum deincqis obtenderetur authoiitat, eorum 
tamen benejicium academw talvum tnteffrumqite ette tolutt.\ 

•CaiUB, BM. Cani.A,ad.mi.i.^ago76. | See oat "HlMory oF Cim< 

Icidge," aiini> 13B], pmge 63. ] Caks, Hin. Caal. Mud. lib. i, page IDS. 

170 HISTORV OF THE a.d. IM7, 

George Day, Vice-Chtncellor ; Richard StandUli and Tbomas 
Cobbe, Pioctors ; Radolph Bericetdikej Mayor ; Doctors of Diti- 
nit7, 3 ; DocLor of Medicine, 1 ; Bacbelon of Divinity, 5 ; 
Masters of Arte, 18 ; Bachelors of Laws, 5 ; Bacbelon of Medi- 
cine, 2 ; Bachelors of Arts, 18. a.d. 153ft-57. 

William Buckmaster, Vice-Chancellor ; (3altridus Gylpin and 
Henry SandeiBon, Proctors ; Robert Smith, Mayor ; Doctors of 
Dimity, 2 ; Doctors of Civil Law, 2 ; Bachelois of Divinity, 
7 ; Masters of Arts, 27 ; Bachelors of Xaws, 7 ; Bachelors of 
Arts, 35. 1537-38. 

William Buckmaster, Vice-Chancellor; Oliver Ainsworth and 
Alban Longdale, Proctors ; Chnstopher Franck, Mayor ; Doctors 
of Divinity, 3 ; Doctor of Civil Law, 1 ; Doctor of Medicine, 
1 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 4 ; Masters of Arts, 20 ; Bacbelon of 
Laws, 3 ; Bacbelon of Medicine, 3 ; Bachelors of Arts, 42 ; 
Bachelor of Grammar, 1. 1538-39. 

6—8. Gardiner made CAaacdlor. Contention about pfonotmdnff of 
Greek. The- Champiom for the nea Mod*. An ttMtii/teial 

Stephen Qardiner was chosen Chancellor of tbe University. He 
was at the same time Master of 'i'rinity Hall, which he was pleased 
to hold for many years, together with the bishopric of Winchester. 

Francis Mallet and John Edmunds, Vice-chancellors ; Thomas 
Pulley and Edmund Humphrey, Proctors; John Chapman, 
Mayor ; Doctor of Divinity, 1 ; Doctor of Civil Law, 1 ; Doctot 
of Medidne, 1 ; Bacbelon of Divinity, 5 ; Masten of Arts, 32 1 
Bacbelon of Lavs, 6 ; Bacbelon of Aits, 30. 1538^-10. 

Richard Standisb, Vice-Chancellor ; Henry Bissel and Thomu 
West, Procton ; William Gil, Mayor ; Doctw of Civil Law, 1 ; 
Doctors of Medicine, 2 ;' Bachelors, of Divinity, 4 ; Masters of 
Arts, 18; Bachelors of Laws, 8; Bachelors of Medicine, 2; 
Bacbelon of Arts, 4». 154(M1. 

A contest began now betwixt the introducei^ of the new and the 
defenden of the old pronunoiation of Greek. The former endea- 
voured to give each letter (vowel and diphthong) its full sound ; 
whilst Dr. Cdus, and othen of the old stamp, cried out against this 
project and the promoten thereof, taxing it for novelty, and them 
for want of wit and experience. He affirmed Greek itself to be 
barbarous, thus clownbhly uttered ; and that neither France, Ger- 
many, nor Italy owned any such pronunciation. 

John Cheke, Thomas Smith, (both afterwards knighted, and 
privy GounRellors,) maintained, that this was no innovation, but the 
ancient utterance of tbe Greeks, which gave every letter its due and 


native aoimd. Otherwiae, by the fiite speaking of Ha opposers, 
T0«ela veie coafotuided viUi ^[^thongB, no difference being made 
betwixt A/fM$ find \tiiMs. Noi matteretli it if foreigners diuentr 
seeing hereby ve Englishmen slisll understand one another. 

Here bishop Gardiner, Chancellor of the University, interposed 
' his power ; affiiming Cheke'e pronunciation (pretending to be 
ancient) to be antiquated. He imposed a penalty on all such who 
used this new pronunciation ; which, notwithstanding, unce bath 
prevwled, and whereby we Englishmen speak Greek, and are able 
to understand one another, whidi nobody else can. 

John Edmunds, Vice-Chancellor ; Simon Bri^ and Edwin 
Sandys, Proctors ; Robert Chapman, Mayor ; Doctors of Laws, 
2 ; Doctors of Medicine, 2 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 9 i Masters 
of Arts, 17; BacheUm of Laws, 5i Bachelors of Arts, 3S. 
A.D. 1541-42. 

9. 7%e Zord Audi^ buUda Maudlin CoUege, The Arms ihertof. 
Thonas lord Audley of Walden, Chancellor of England, by 
license obtained hsm king Henry VIII. changed- Buckingham into 
Magdalen (vulgarily Maudlin) College, because (as some mW have- 
it * ) hia simame is therein contained, betwixt the initial and final 
kttec thereof, M adulbt n. This may well be indulged to bis 
£uicy, whilst more solid considerations moved him to the work 
itself. As he altered the name, be bettered the condition, of this 
Hooae, bestowing some lands thereon, and bis own coat for the 
aims thereof, requiring some skill (and more patience) to bhtzon 
them ; namely, " quarterly, per pale indented or and azure^'f on a 
b^d ; of the sectmd, a tret itUer two marteless, or ; in the second 
and third quarter, an eagle displayed of the first." 

10 — 12. An ill Ne^hbowr to a ttudiout College. A Monarch 

This College alone, cut off from the continent of Cambridge, is 
on the north-west of the river, having the rose-garden on the one, 
and (what is no rose) a smoking brewhouse on the other, side 
thereof, belonging this one hundred and filly years to Jesus 
College. It were no harm to wish this House either removed, or 
otherwise employed on terms mutually beneficial to both Societies. 

The Scholars of this College (though farthest from the Schools) 
were, ip my time, observed first there, and to as good purpose as, 
any. Every year this House produced some eminent scholars, as 
living cheaper, privaler, and freer from town-temptations, by their 
xemotc situation. 

} Thst blaxoB^d bj HUb. 

, Goo^^lc 

X73 BISTORT OP THE a.d. 1H«. 

Wbereas the Masters of otber Houses are eitlier in the kingV 
gift or College-choice, this is in the disposal of the right honounble 
the earl of Bnfiblk, hereditary patron of this foundation. And 
whereas much of anstocracy is used in other Colleges, more of 
monarchy appears in the Master hereof, as absolute in his goTero- 
ment, having not only a n^aUve voice, but, in eSeet, all the 
affirmative, in making elections. 

Mabtebs. — 1. Robert Evans. 2. Richard Carr. 3. Rogor 
Kelke. 4. Richard Howland. 5. Degory Nicola. 6. Thomas 
Nevile. 7. Richard Clayton. 8. John Palmer. 8. Bamaby 
Goche. 10. Henry Smith. 11. Edward Rainbow. 12. John 

Bishops. — 1. Richard Howland, bishop of Peterborough. 2. 
George Lloyd, bishop of Chester. 3. John Bridgman, bishop of 

Benefactors. — 1. Henry VHI. 2. Sir Christopher Wray. 
3. John Spenliffe. 4. Edmond Grindall, archbishop of Canteibuiy. 
5. Thomas Parkinson. 6. William Roberts. ?• John Hughes. 
8. Thomas SutloD. d. Frances countess of Warwick.* 10. John 
Smith, Fellow. 

Lbabned Weitebs. 

CoLLEGE-LiviMGs. — StantoD rectory, of Ely diooess, valued 
^6. 12i. Bd. 

^ So as at this present there is a Master, eleven Fellows, and two- 
and-twenty Scholars, besides Officers and Servants of the foundatian, 
with other Students ; being, in all, one hundred and forty. 

13, 14. A good Projvr. Wai it wtwfy Tefvtedf 

Though, at the present, the revenues of this House be not great, 
some forty years since it was in a fiur probability of a large addi- 
tion of land, had the suit (related at large by the lord Coke, in his 
Report of Maudlin-College case) gone on their side. At one time, 
well nigh ten thousand pounds were tendered in composition, (the 
interest of many being concerned therein,) so suspicious were the 
defendants of their success. 

But Dr. Ooche, Master of the College, being a man of a high 
spirit, well skilled in the laws, and confident of the goodness of his 
cause, would listen to no composition, but have all or none. He 
had not learned the maxim, Dimidium plus toto, in this sense, 
'* Half with quiet may be more than all with hazard and trouble." 

* Sh« tm danghCor to iIt Chrlitophet Wimy ; woi (bealdei ona Fallinnli^ ud 
Scluilanlilp Bhe fanndsd) intended three himdred ponnda In tmiUlDg to (he College, lud 
not one Himmetton, an old Mrroiit, (*» I ua Infuniied,) decdrad hn. 

, Goo^^lc 


It -wu remored from conunon^Kw to clianceiy, where Uie CoU^ 
vas not ou\j cast, bat the Doctor, vith Mr. Smith, a senior 
Fellow, lay long in ptison, for refusing to obe^ the l<ad Egerton's 

15, 16. C&arUable Mr. Palmer, Learning rum late. 

Amongst the worthies of this House, Mr. Palmer, B. D. late 
minister of St. Bridget's, (commonly Bride's,) must not be for- 
gotten ; a pious man and painful preacher ; who (besides many 
and great bene&ctions to ministers* widows) hath built and well 
endowed a neat alms-house at Westminster. Verily I have foond 
more charity in this one sequestered minister, than in many who 
enjoy other men's sequestrations. 

Thomas Smith, Vicc-ChancelJoi ; Henry Camberforth and Wil- 
liam Wakelyne, Proctors; Thomas Brakin, Mayor; Doctors of 
Di*inity, 4 ; Doctor of Laws, 1 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 16 ; 
Masters of Arts, 26; Bachelors of Laws, i ; Bachelors of Arts, 
28. A.D. 1542-43. 

Matthew Parker, Vice-Chancellor; Edward Cosin and Simon 
Bagot, Proctors; William HasiU, Mayor; Doctor of Divinity, 
1 ; Doctor of Medicine, 1 ; Bachelors of Divinity, IS ; Masters 
of Arts, 23; Bachelors of Laws, 2; Bachelors of Arts, 16. 

John Madew, Vice-Chancellor ; William Barker and Andrew 
Pern, Proctors ; James Fletcher, Mayor ; Doctors of Divinity, 6 ; 
Doctor of Laws, 1 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 9 ; Masters of Arts, 
18 ; Bachelor of Laws, 1 ; Bachelors of Arts, 35. 1545-46. 

There was now a genera) decay of Students, no Collie having 
note Scholars therein than hardly those of the foundation ; no 
volunteers at alt, and only persons pressed, in a manner, by their 
places to reside. Indeed, on the fall of abbeys fell the hearts of all 
Scholars, fearing the rain of learning. And these their jealousies 
they humbly represented in a bemoaning letter to king Henry 
VIII. He comforted them with his gracious return ; and, to 
confute their suspicion of the decay of Colleges, acquainted them 
with his resolution to erect a most magnificent one with all speedy 

17. Trinity College founded by King Henry VIII. 

Wberenpon he seized Michael House into his hands, (whose 
yearly rents, at old and easy rates, then amonnted unto one 
haodrcd fi>rty-fonr pounds, three shillings, and a penny,) and 
King's Hall, the best landed foundation in the University; Also 

, Goo^^lc 

174 BISTOBVOVTBT ii.ii.lMa; 

be to<A Fittewiek's Hostel,* (a Hoiito mendoved,) and aUovsd 
tfae GomiUianB (still gnUDbling thereat, ae not si^nent eompeiiBar> 
tion) three pouodfl a-jeu in liea thereof, till he should give them 
better satisfkction. Of these three he compouoded one fait College, 
dedicating it to the Holy and Undivided Trinity, and endoiring it 
vith plrotiRil levenues. 

18. A dutiful Daughter. 

Queen Maiy, calling her chief clergy together, consulted vith 
them about public prayers to be nude for the soul of king Henry 
her fether; conceiving hiB case not so desperate but capable of 
benefit thereby. They possessed her of the imposubility thereof, 
and that his Holiness would never consent such honour should be 
done to one dying >o notorioos a schismatic. But they advised 
her, in expression of her piirate affection to her &ther*s memoiy, to 
add to Trinity College, ai the best monument he had left ; 
Thereon, chiefly at the instance of bishop Chiistopheison, she 
bestowed £376. 10<. Sd. of yearly revenue. 

19. Magnisecant Newly. 

Dr. ThtHoas Nevyle, the eighth Master of this College, — aoswer- 
ng his ani^;iam most heavenly, and practising his own allusive 
motto, Ne vile telis, being, by the rules of the philosopher, himself 
to be accounted fMyoAoTamnif, " as of great perfcffmancee,'" — for the 
general good expended three thousand pounds of his own, in alt^v 
ing and enlaiging the old, and adding a new court thereunto ; being 
at this day the sutcliest and most uniform College in Gbristendom, 
oat of which may be carved three Dutch Universities. 

Masters, — 1. John Redman. 2. William Bill. 3. John 
Chnstopherson. 4. William Bill, restored by queen Elizabeth, 
fi. Robert Beaumont. 6. John Whitgift. 7. John Still. 8. 
Thomas Nevyle. 9. John Richardson. 10. Leonard Maw. 11. 
Samuel Brooks. 12. Thomas Cumber. 13. Thomas HiU. 14. 
John Arrowsmith. 

Bishops. — 1. John Chnstopherson, iHshop of Chichester. 2. 
John Whitgift, archbish<^ of Canterbury. 3. John Still, bishop of 
Bath and Wells. 4. Oervase Babington, bishop of Worcester. 
5. William Redman, bishop of Norwich. 6. Anthony Rud, 
bishop of St. Dand''s. 7- Oodfrey Gosbonrougb, Ushop of 
Oloucester. 8. Robert Bennett, bishop of Heieford, 8. Maitin 
Fotherby, bishop of Salisbury. 10. Godfrey Goodman, biriiop of 
Gloucester. 11. Leonard Maw, bnhop of Bath and Wells. 



12. J(Jut Borlfi, bidiop of Rof^eiter. 13. Adam Loftiu, aicb- 
hiAvf of Dublin. 14. Dr. HamptoD, srcbbufaop of Dablin, in 

BsKKFACToas. — 1. Tbomas Allen, clerk. 2. Sir Edward 
Sbolu^ vbo gave .£900 to £he library. 3. The lady Bromley. 
I Otorgt Palin, girdler. 5. The lady Anne Weald. 6. Roger 
Wesson, hsberdasber. 7. Mrs. Elizabetb Elwis. 8. Dr. William 
Bill; 9. Dr. Robert Beaomont; and, 10. Dr. Jobn Wbitgiflt 
Muten of thifi House. 11. Dr. Cosins. 12. Dr. Barrow. 13. 
Dr. Sbeviogtoa. 14. William Cooper, esq. 15. Peter Sbaw. 
16. Sir William Sidley, knigbt and baronet. 17. Sir Tbomat 
Itkt, knigbt. 18. Sir Jobn Suckling, kaigbt. 18. Dr. Robert 
Bankvorth, Fellow. 20. Sir Ralpb Hare, knigbt. 21. Mr. Sil- 
ma Elwis, still in the College. 

LiviMcs IN THB CoLLKGB GiFT. — St. Muy's the Great, in 
(Abridge. St. Michael's, in Cambridge. Chestertim viearage, 
in the diocess of Ely, valued at i^lO. 12», 3d. Orwell rectory, 
io the diocesB of Ely, valued at £10. 7>. 74<'. Kendal vicarage, 
in the diocess of Carlisle, v^ued at ■ ^. Barington vicarage, in 
the diocess of Ely, valned at £7- 14<. 4d. Btythe vicarage, in 
the diocess of York, valued at £14. Qs. Ad, Orynd<m [Qrendon] 
ticaiage, in the diocess of Peterborough, valuml at £8. FeU 
Bai^iam vicarage, in the diocess of Lincoln, valued at .£13. 
13>. 4d. Ware vicarage, in the diocess of London, valned at 
£20. 8>. llil Tbunridge [Thundrich] vicarage, in the diocess of 
London, valued at £6. Swingtesd [Swinesbead] vicarage, in the 
dioceu of Lincoln, valued at £14. 0«. M. Cbedoll [Cbeadle;^ 
rectory, in the diocess of Coventry and Lichfield, valued at d£>12. 9s< 
See the livings in Michael House and King's Hall, pages 57, 61. 

So (bat frt this day there are thetdn maintained one Master, 
arty Fellows, sixty-seven Scholars, fljur Conducts, three public 
ProTessors, thirteen Poor Scholars, twenty alms-men, (besidesr 
lately, a Master of the Choristers, eix Clerks, and ten Choristers,) 
with the Officers, Servants of the foundation, and other Stud^its ; 
m all, four bandied and forty. 

20, 21. Eminent Men in all Pro/6m»n», tcith many mere 
It is not mnch above a hundred years since the first founding of 
this House ; and see how marvellously God hath blessed it with emi- 
Mnt men in all profoesions, besides the bishops afore-mentitmed ! 

fiTATCSHEN. — 1. Sir Fraucis Bacon, Lord Chancellor of Eng- 
land. 2. Sir Edward Coke, Lord Chief Justice. 3. Sit Edward 
Stanhope, Vicar- General. 4. Richard Cosin, LL.D. Dean of the 


176 HISTORY OF TBE 4.1>. 1M0. 

Arches. 5. Sir Robert Nanntob, and, 6. Sir John Cooke, both 
Piincipal Secretaries of State. 7. Mr. John Packer, Secretary to 
the duke of Buckingham. 8. Sir FianciB NetLerscJe, Secretary to 
the queen of Bohemia. 

DiviKES.— 1. Thomas Cartmight. 2. Walter Ti«Ters. 3. 
WUIiam Whitaker. 4. Matthew SutcliSb, Founder of Chases 
College, Dean of Exeter. 5. John Lajfield, 6. Thomas Harrison, 
and, 7. William Dakings, all three translatois of the Bible. 

Critics. — 1. Edward LiTely, one of the best linguists in the 
world. 2. Philemon Holland, an industrious translator. 3. Wil- 
liam Alabaster, most skilful in cabalistical learning. 4. Edward 
Simpson, who hath written a large history, the mythological part 
whereof is moat excellent. 6. Robert Creighton. 

Poets. — 1. Walter Hawkesworth, an excellent comedian. 2. 
Giles Fletcher, [author] of " Christ's Victory." 3. George Ha<- 
bert, whose piety and poetry cannot be sufficiently commended. 
4. Thomas Randolph. 

Dr. Comber, the twelfth Master of this Honse, must not be fbi> 
gotten ; of whom the most learned Morinos* makes this honottr- 
able mention : — Alius prwterea codex (Samaritanm) eelebmtWy 
et dioitttr eue archupixopi Armaohani, et ab «o e PalaettnA in 
Hibemia/m exportatui, qui Leydetmbua Aeademusie notmuUo teBi~ 
pore ^it eomtnodaim. /stum codtcem vir darimmm Tkoma* 
CoTiibarw Anglta, quem honoris et offidi reddmdt cau»& nominOy 
earn texta Jwdatw verbttm e terbo, imd literam cum liUrA maofimd 
diligontiA et indtfetio labore comparavit, di^crmtiatqut mnim 
Juxta capitum et vertaum ordtnem diyettat, ad me mint humcmi»~ 
gimi et officiosimmi. 

Beside many worthies atill alive: John Hacket, Doctor of 
Divinity, whose forwardness in farthering these my studies I can 
only deserve with my prayers : Dr. Henry Feme, whose pen hath 
published his own worth : Muter Herbert Thomdyke, so judicioiM 
and industrious in setUng forth tke many-ianffuoffed BMe : Mr. 
James Duport, so much the more prized by others, for his modest 
undervaluing bis own worth : with many more, whose number God 
daily increase ! 

22, 23. King's Professors founded. Catalogues ofthemtery 


King Henry VIII. with Trinity Coll^, founded also public 

Professors. For formerly the University had but two, one of 

Divinity, founded by the lady Margaret countess of Richmond, 

* In Aaimad, in CtTUuram EMtrcilatioititn Eeckttailicarum nt PenUUfncAum Sctmm- 



(aHowing htm eduy, of twenty marks,) aDd another for Ph78i£, at 
the ami of TtuMUas Innacre, that excellent critic, tutor to prince 
Arthur, and afterwarde Doctor of Pbysic. But noir king Heniy 
added to these a Regiua ProfcBSor in Divinity, Law, Hebrew, and 
Greek, allowing them forty pounds per antmm, and increasing the 
sUpend.of Physic Professor, now acknowledged as only of the 
kiiig''a foundation. But see the catalogue. 

Ladt MAaoABKT's pBorEssoBs — John Fisher, President of 
Qneen''8 Coil^;e, bishop of Rochester. Erasmus Roterodamus. 
Thomas Cosin, D.D. Master of CorpuB>Christi College. John 
Fawn, D.D. President of the University. Thomas Ashley, D.D. 
Fellow of King's College. William Sket, D.D. Fellow of King's 
CoU^e. Robert Beaumont, D.D. Msster of Trinity College. 
Matthew Hutton, D.D. Master of Pembroke Hall. John Whit- 
gifk, D.D. Master of Trinity Ooll^. William Chaderton, D.D., 
President of Queen's Collie. Thomas Cartwright, Master of 
Arts, Fellow of Trinity College. John Hanson, Master of Arts, 
Follow of Trinity College. John Still, D.D. Master of Trinity 
Ciill^e. Peter Baro, a Frenchman, D.D. of Trinity College. 
Thomas Playford,* D.D. Fellow of St. John's College. John 
DaTenant, D.D. President of Queen's Collt^. Samuel Ward, 
D.D. Master of Sidney-Sussex College. Richard Holdsworth, 
D.D. Master of Emmanuel Coll^. Richard Lore, D.D. Master 
(rf* Corpus*CbrisU College. 

Kino's PaorsssOBS in Divinity Dr. Wiggin. Martin 

Bocer, D.D. Dr. Sedgwick. Leonard Pilkingtoo, D.D. Master 
•f St. John's College. Matthew Hntton, D.D. Fellow of Trinity 
C<41<^. John Whitgifl, D.D. Fellow of St. Peter's College. 
William Chaderton, D.D. Fellow of Christ's College. William 
Whitacre, D.D. Master of St. John's Coll^. John Overhall, 
D.D. Master of St. Catherine's Hall. John Richardson, D.D. 
Fdknr of Emmanuel, Master of Trinity. Samuel Collins, D.D. 
PiOToet of King's Collie. John Arrowgmith, D.D. Master of St. 
John's, and after of Trinity. 

Kino's Law-Pbofrssors. — Walter Haddoui-f- LL. D. Fellow 
of King's, Master of Trinity Hall. Thomas Bing, LL.D, Fellow 
of St. Peter's College, Master of Clare Hall. Thomas Legg, 
LL.D. Fellow of Jesus and Trinity Colleges, Master of Gonville 
and Cuus College. John Cowell, LL.D. Fellow of King's Col- 
lege, Master of Trinity Hall. Thomas Morysonne, LL.D. Fellow 

* He b called Tbooua Bajfoti b; Le NeT«, bnt Pleyftr end Fkffei I7 FaOn', ntlicn 
he nteaqoeiillr notice* him ■■ Ihe incceetaT of Bm, A. D. lS9fi-S, and aiu 
dMih, A.D. I6IH.S. But U> nune ma genenllr writMo Plilftre.— EDIt. 
Tboau Smich, [Jutta] Rageri Atciomi FaMliitr. EpM. lib. U. a " 

178 HI8TORY OF THE - *.». IMT- 

of King's College. Gcoi^ Porter, LL.D. Fellow of Quccii''fl Col- 
lege. Thomas Ooad, LL.D. Fellow of King's College. 

King's Physic-Pbofessobs. — John Blyth, Doctor of Phy- 
sic, Fellow of King's College. John Hatcher, Doctor of Physic, 
Fellow of King's College. Thomas Larkin, Doctor of Physic, of 
St. Peter's College. William Ward, Doctor of Physic, Fellow of 
King's College. William Burton, Doctor of Physic, Fellow of 
King's College. John Gostlin, Doctor of Physic, Master of Gon- 
ville and Caius College. John Collins, Doctor of Phywc, Fellow 
of St. John's College. Ralph Wintertoo, Doctor of Physic, 
Fellow of King's College. Fnncis Olisson, Doctor of Physic, 
Fellow of Oonville and Cuus College. 

. King's Hebbew-Profebsokb. — Mr. Robert Wakefield, Fel- 
low. Anthony Rodolphus Cevallerins. Mr. Bignon, a French- 
man, of CorpuB-Christi College. Edward Lively, Fellow of Tri- 
nity College. Robert Spalding, D.D. Fellow of St. John's Col- 
lege. Jeffery King, D.D. Fellow of King's College. Andrew 
Bing, D.D. Fellow of St. Peter's College. Robert Metcalfe, 
D. D, Fellow of St. John's College. Ralph Cudworth, Fellow of 
Emmanuel College. 

King's Obeek-Pbofessobb. — Erasmus Rotcrodamus. Rich* 
ard Crooke, Fellow of King's College. Sir Thomas Smith, knight. 
Fellow of Queen's College. Sir John Cheke, knight, tutor to king 
Edward VI. of St. John's College. Nicholas Carr, Fellow of Pem-. 
broke Hall, after of Trinity College. Bartholomew Doddington, 
Fellow of Trinity College. Francis Wilkinson, Fellow of Trinity 
College. Andrew Downes, Fellow of St, John's College. Robert 
Creighton, Fellow of Trinity College. James Duport, Fellow of 
Trinity College. Ralph Widdrington, Fellow of Christ's Coll^ie. 

These catalogues, though the best (not to say only) extant, are 
Tery imperfect. One instance I will give :— -William Zoone^ here 
omitted, was Regius Professor of Iaw, in the reign of queen 
Mary.* But I dare not alter what bo long hath been received. 

John Madew,f Vice-Chancellor ; Thomas Burman and Thomas. 
Carlyle, Proctore ; John Fann, Mayor ; Doctor of Divinity, 1 ; 
Doctor of Medicine, 1 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 7 ; Masters of 
Arts, IS; Bachelors of Arts, 29. a.d. 154&-47. 1 Edward VL 

* P[Tz£iiB, De Script. Anglic, page 76fi. t luBlmd oT JoLn Hftdevr, Ls 

Nefe's Uri hra!ih«s Mattlnw Parker ■■ bring thla tcbt (■ aecnod Unet Vlee.ClMDcri- 
lor; ud FoOn'a kcconnl dam oat Kgna tdili Le NaTe>atai the rm,IAS3.1, inbea 
OUT hiHoiUn renunes the regnlnr aeriea, bj giiisg Ihe naniei of Thomu Oudiser and 
Ilciiry Barel;, as PidcUiik fur that jeai uu] tUe preceding ; which waa not cunvct. — 



24— ae. 7%s Lord Protector made CkemceUor. The Ituolenciea 
of tko Toiaumm. Aickatn't Letters proewe Frimtdi to the 

QretX was the alteration which followed in Cambridge, npon king 
Edward's coming to the crown. Stephen Gardiner, Chancellor of 
the UniTeraity, was put oat of his ofBce, and into the Tower. 
Edward Sejmiour, Lord Protector, and dulte of Somerset, was 
diosen in bis room. 

The townsmen of Cambridge began now to hope their tiino 
come, to cast off the yolce (as they counted it) of the Univenity ; 
as if, OS the altemtion of religion, the ancient privileges of 
Scholars shonld be abolished, under the notion of superstition. 
Uogisteiully, therefore, they began their prankB ; I say, ungrate< 
fblly. For, although particular Scholars might owe money to 
particular townsmen, jret the whole town owes its well-being to the 
Umrersity. Amongst their many insolcncies, two were most 
remarkable : First, one Maxwell,* by profession once a jail-keeper; 
then a bear-ward, promoted at last piu'veyor to provide carriages 
for the king's fish, (which commonly came from Cambridge,) seized 
on an ambling nag of the Master of Peter House, (which the old 
and infirm Doctor kept for his health,) merely that hia man might 
diereon ride ^fter the king's carriages. This horse, I may say, had 
a long-reach; the injury, seeming small and personal, concerned 
the whole University, both in present and posterity. Secondly, 
when the Proctors, at Sturbridge-fiiir, had, according to their 
office and ancient custom, fetched out many dissolute persons, out 
of vicious places, at unseasonable hours, the mayor refused to give 
them the keys of the toll-booth, or town-prison, to secure such 
ofienders therein. Yea, when they had carried such malefactors to 
the Castle, within an hour or two comes the mayor's son, sets open 
the jail, and lets loose those lewd persons, to the great injury of the 
University, and encouragement of all viciousness. 

It was now high time for Dr. Madew, the Vice-Chancellor, and 
Master Roger Ascham, the University- Orator, to bestir themselves. 
The latter be-lettered all the lords of the privy-council, and, 
amongst the rest. Sir Thomas Wriothesly, tlie Lord Chancellor of 
Ei^Iand, ( "whom," saith he, " the University parlly commandeth, 
as once a member, partly requesteth, as now a patron, thereof," ) 
with some gentlemen of the king's bed-chamber ; and, by them, 
procured the confirmation of the University-privileges in the follow- 
ing parliament. However, these oppidane animosities, in some 
degree, continued all this king's reign. 

D Ihe Blahoii of Wfnchnrcr wilh his (o ibe kni 

, Cix")^^lc 

280 HISTORY OF THE *n. lUO. 

Matthew Parker, Vice-Cbancellor ; Edmond Oiindall ukl Ed. 
ward GascojDe, ProctotB ; John Rust, Major; Doctors of Dm< 
nity, 2; Doctor of Civil .Law, 1; Bochelore of Divinity, 14; 
Mastere of Arts, 26 ; Bachelor of Laws, 1 ; Bachelors of Aits, 
30. A.D. 1547-48. 

27—28. A Prefer of the Protector's to uniu Clare and Trintti/ 
Sail ; blofted by Bit&op Gardiner. 

The lord protector by letters (which I have seen) solicited 
Stephen Gardiner, who still kept his Mastership of Trinity Hall, to 
resign his place and the whole Hall into the king's disposal ; that 
.60 of that and its neighbour Clare Hall (whose Master, Dr. 
Madew, may be presumed compliable vrith the Protector's plea- 
sure) one eminent and entire College might be advanced, on the 
king's cost, in troitation of Trinity College, the late royal result of 
three smaller foundations ; wherein the civil and canon law (the 
skill whereof his Grace found necessary for the present well-being of 
the kingdom) should be countenanced and encouraged. 

Most politic Gardiner, not without cause, suspecting some 
design or casualty might surprise the interval betwixt the dissolu- 
tion of the old and erection of this new foundation, civilly declined 
his consent to the motion. He informed his Gnce, that the way 
to advance the study of the laws was, by promoting the presest 
Professors of that Faculty, (now so generally discouraged,) and not 
by founding a new College for the iiiture students thereof^ seeiag 
Trinity Hall could alone breed more civilians than all England did 
prefer according to their deserts. 

Thus was the design blasted, and never more mentioned. But 
Gardiner, for crossing the Protector herein, (and other misdemean- 
ours,) soon after was outed of fab Mastership of Trinity Hall, and 
first Dr. Haddon, then Dr. Mouse, substituted in his room. 

William Bill, Vice-Chancellor ; George Bullock and Philip 
Baker, Proctors ; Richard Biakin, Mayor ; Doctor of Divinity, 1; 
Bachelor of Divinity, 1; Masters of Arts, 8; Bachelors of Arts, 
32. A. D. 1548-49. 

3U. An extraordinary Act before the King's Commissioners, 
Commissioners were sent ^m the king to visit the University ; 
namely, Thomas Goodrich, bishop of Ely ; Nicholas Ridley, 
bishop of Rochester ; sir William Paget ; sir Thomas Smith ; sir 
John Cheke ; William Mey, Doctor of Law ; and Thomas Wcndey, 
Doctor of Physic. Before these an extmordinary Act was kept, 
June 20th, wherein the Qoestions were, "1. Whethpt transub- 
Btantiation can be proved by plain and manifest word* of Scrip* 

i.,,i,,., , Cookie 


lure ? " 2. " WLetliet it may be collected and confinned by the 
consent of the Pathets, (or these thousand years past ? " An- 
swrbeb; Dr. Madew, Protestant, held the negfttive. Oppo- 
MBHTs: Dr. Glit!) Masters Langedale, Sedgewick, and YoDge> 
Papists. MoDEBATOKS : his majesty's commiBsioners above men- 

. June 24th, Answereb : Dr. Glin, Papist, held the affirmative. 
Oppoments : Masters Qrindal, Peme, Gwest, and Pilkington, 

June 25th, Answeber : Mr. Peme, Protestant, held the nega- 
tive. Opponents : Masters Parker, (not Dr. Matthew Parker, 
but another of his name,) Pollard, Vavasour, and Yonge, Papists. 

Bishop Ridley, according to the custom of the University, con- 
duded all with a solemn determination. But the transactions of 
this disputation are so amply reported by Master Fox, that the 
sharpest appetite of his reader need not tear famisliing, if he can 
keep himself froni surfeiting thereon. 

Wdter Haddon, Vice-Ciiancellor ; Andrew Pearson and John 
Ebden, Proctors ; Alexander Raye, Mayor ; Bachelors of Divi- 
nity, 9; Masters of Arts, 17; Bachelors of Arts, 26. a.d. 

31. NorthuvAerland made Chancellor, 
Edward duke of Somerset, and Chancellor of Cambridge, was 
much declined in his power at Court, though surviving some months 
after. Now the University had learned to live by the living, (in 
&Toar,) and not by the dead; and therefore, chose John Dudley, 
duke of Northumberland, Chancellor, in place of Somerset. - 

32—55. Bucer and Fagiua called to Cambridge, made Pro/eaors 
there. The Death of Fagius. Tremellius, ffebrea Profeaor 
tn Cambridye. 
Martin Bucer, and Pautus Fagius, (in Dutch, BucMein, or 
Beecher,) living formerly at Strasburgh, at the instance of arch- 
bishop Cranmer, were sent for by king Edward, to become Profess- 
ors in Cambridge. My author, a German, living then hard by, 
makes them to depart thence, MagUtrat&s Aryentinensia voluntate 
et consensu, whom the Jesuit Parsons will have both banished by 
that State. If eo, the disgrace is none at all, to be exiled for no 
other guilt than preaching the Gospel, opposing the Augustan Con- 
fession, which that imperial city embraced. Besides, the greater 
the providence, if, when commanded from one place, instantly 
called to another. 

Over they come into England, and last year were fixed at Cam- 

, Cookie 

182 HlSTOIty OF THE a.o. lUl. 

bridge, wbere Bacer was made Professor, of Divinity, FagiiUt of 
Hebrew. The former had the ordinarjr Btipend of bis place tripled 
unto him,* as well it might, considering— his worth, being of bo 
much merit — his need, having wife and children — and his condi< 
tioo, coming hither a foreigner, fetched fiom a far counti;. So it 
was ordered, that Fagius should in Hebrew read the cTangeUcal 
prophet Isaiah, and Bucet, in Greek, the prophetical evangeUst St. 

But, alas '. the change of aii and diet so wronght on theif tem- 
per, that both fell sick together. Bucer hardly recovered ; bat 
Fagius, that flourishing Beech, (nature not agreeing with his trans- 
planting,) withered away in the flower of his age, (as scaice forty- 
five,) and was buried in the church of St. Michael. 

After his death Emmanuel Tremellius was sent for to Cam- 
bridge, to succeed him in the Professor's place. There he lived 
some time, on this token, that Dr. Parker preferred him before 
many other fiiends to be godfath^ to his son, which Tremellius 
accounted a great &Tour.*f' But it seemetb, that, soon afW, either 
affrighted witb the valetudiuous condition of king Edward, or 
allured with the bountiful proffers of the prince Palatine, he returned 
to Heidelberg. 

Jolin Madew, Vice-Chancellor ; Ralph Standish and William 
Coney, Proctors ; Christopher Franck, Mayor. He would not 
take his oath to the Vice-Chancelloc till forced by the Lord Pro- 
tectot''3 letters.^ Doctor of Divinity, 1 ; Doctors of Civil Law, 2 ; 
Doctor of Medicine, 1 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 4 ; Masters of Arts, 
;i7; Bachelors of Arts, 37. a. d. 1550-61. 

36. Henry and Charles Brandon die of the Steeatinff-Bieinea. 

Henry Brandon, duke of SuflTolk, son of Charles Brandrai, by 
Catherine lady Willoubie, died at Cambridge, (where he was a 
Student,) of tbe sweating -sickness. 

Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, younger brother to tbe same 
Henry, died, within twelve hours, of the same disease. They were 
much bemoaned of the University, printing a book of verses on 
their funerals ; amongst which these following of Dr. Parkliurst's, 
afterward bishop of Norwich, I shall endeavour to translate. 

Fratres Amiclai, Pollux cum Caslore, 
PoiuPre tic cum morle depacUcier, 
Ul cum alter corum ettet morluut, tameu 
Alter superessel, rl, reversis sorlibut, 



Ficittim uierque utriutque tnorte vtverel, ■ 
Cur Parca nunc cruddior eti quaM olimjuil ? 
Fralret duo*, nuper ea, quales kaclenut. 
Nee vidil unquam, nee videbit Anglta. 
Lumina duo, duoque propugnacula 
ForlUsima virlulis reique publica, 
■ Mort erudelu (ah) uno peremit Junere 
Virlut nequaquam illam, nee egregia indoles 
Movil, nee Bdvardi regit., nee opiima 
Mains, nee lotiut gemifnt BritanniiB. 
O dura, dura Mortf steva numina ! 


Castor and Pollux, brothers pair,v 
Breatliing first Amide's air, 
Djd ffitti Death so bargain make. 
By cscbange their tnma to take : 
If that Death anrprised one lirothcr, 
Still alire should be the other. 
So the bargain vas contrired. 
Both died, both b; turns mrvived. 
Whj ia Fate more cmel gronn 
Thdn she formerly was known ? 
We of brothera had a brace. 
Like to which did never grace 
This our Elnglish eaifh before. 
Nor the like shall grace it more. 
Both bright Btars ; and both did stand 
Hopeful bulwarks of the land. 
Both, alas ! together slain, 
Death at once did murder twain. 
Nothing could their Tirtnes more, 
Nor king Edvrard's hearty lore. 
Nor their best of mother's moans, 
Nor all Britain's heavy groans. 
Nothing could stem Death abate : 
O cruel, over-cmel Fate I 

Many in Cambridge died of this sweating-sicknees, patients 
mending or ending in twenty-four hours. Some sought for the 
natuni cause thereof out of the heavens, imputing it to the con- 
junction of the superior planets in Scorpio. Others looked for it 
&om the earth, as arising finin an ezhalation in moist weather out 
of gypseous or plasterly ground. The cure thereof (conceived 
impossible before, and easy as all things else after, it was found 
out) was, in the night-time to keep him in [bed], in the day-time 


181 HISTORY OF THE *'D. 1663. 

(if then seiied on) to send the Bick inan (though in his ctothes) to 
bed, there to lie ttill, bnt not sleep, for fonr4nd-t«entj hours.* 
Nothing else hare I to observe of this sickness, save that I find 
foreigners cti\ it " the English sreating," as first aiisiDg hence ; 
whilst diseases more sinful (though, it ma; be, not so mortal) tak« 
their names from our neighbouring countries. 

Andrew Peme, Vice-Chancellor; Edward Hauford, Thranaa 
Yade, and Nicholas Robinson, Proctors ; William Oill, Mayor ; 
Doctor of Divinity, 1 ; Doctor of Ciril Law, 1 ; Doctors of Medi- 
cine, 2; Bachelors of Divinity, 3 ; Masters of Arts, 22 ; Bachelors 
ofLaws, 3; Bachelors of Arts, 42. a.d. 1551-62. 

37. Several Datei ofBtteerU Death, 
Martin Bucer ended bis life, and was buried in St. Mary's ; 
several authors assigning sundry dates of bis death. 

Martin Cnisiua (in AnntU. Suev. part 3, lib. ii. cap. 25) makes 
him to die a.d. 1551, on the second of February. Pantaloon (De 
Virit illuttribiu Gormaaiw) makes him expire about the end of 
April of the same year. Mr. Fox, in his " Reformed Almanack," 
appoints the twenty-third of December for Bucer's confessorship.'f* 
A printed Table of the Chancellors of Cambridge, set forth by Dr. 
Pcme, signeth March the tenth, 1550, for the day of his death. 
Kor will the distinction of old and new style (had it been then in 
use) help to reconcile the difference. It seems by all reports, that 
Bucer was sufficiently dead in or about this time. 

38. A loud Lie of a lettd Jetuxt. 
Persona, the Jesuit,^ tells us, that some believed that he died a 
Jew, merely, I conceive, because he lived a great Hebrician ; 
citing Suiius, Genebrand, and Lindan (ask my fbllow if I be a liar) 
fur this report. Sure I am, none of them were near him ml his 
death, as Mr. Bradford' and others were ; who, wben they admo- 
nished hfin, in his sickness, that he should arm himself against the 
assaults of the devil, answered, that he had nothing to do with the 
devil, because he was wholly in Christ. And when Mr. Bradford 
came to him, and told him that he must die, be answered, lUe, iBa 
regit, et moderator omnia, and so quietly yielded up his soul. 
What good man would not rather die like a Jew with Martin 
Bucer, than like a Christian with Robert Persons P He was n 
plain man in person and apparel ; and therefore, at his own req^^^est, 
privately created Doctor, without any solemnity ; a skilful linguist, 

* S» CaHDEn'b Britaiuua in Shropililie. t Whfeb voij profcttly Intimito Ui 

deMb OB ihr uune. 1 la lili " Exkinen of Jdho Foi> SilBtt' Kiloidu tat 

Peccmbet," fKge 330. 



whun a grtrnt critic * (of a palate not to be pleased with a comnioii 
gnet) stfletii Mr maxmum Bwierum, a commendation vhicli be 
jaati; deserved. 

Edwin Sandys, Vice-Cbancellor ; Thomas Oaidine^and Henrj 
Bordj', Procton ; Thomas Woolf, MaTor ; Docton of Divinity, 
4 ; Bachelon of Divinity, 16 ; Masten of Arts, 18 ; Bachelors of 
Alls, 48. A.D.1552-^. IMary. 

38. Qasm Mary »eer«Uy pawetk into Suffolk. 
The lady Mary, after her brothei's death, having heard queen 
Jane was proclaimed, July 11th, came five miles off to sir Robert 
Hnddleston''B, where she heard mass. Next day, July 12th, $ii 
Robert wuted on hei into Suffolk, though she, for the more 
secresy, rode on horseback behind his servant ; which servant (as I 
am most a«dibly informed) lived long after, the queen never bestow- 
ing any preferment upon him ; whether because forgetting him, 
(whose memory waa employed on greater matters,) or because she 
conceived the msn was rewarded in rewarding his master. Indeed, 
she bestowed great boons on sir Robert ; and amongst the rest the 
stones of Cambridge Castle, to build his house at Salston.-f- Hereby 
that stately structure, anciently the ornament of Cambridge, is at 
tliis day reduced next to nothing. 

40 — 43. Dr. Sandys preaeAeth before the Duke of Northumber- 
land, The Duk^8 retro^ade Motion. Bead, and wonder at 
iutnaa Uncertainty. TA« hard Utaye of Dr. Sandys. 

John Dudley, duke of Northumbnland, came, July 15tb, to 
Cambridge with his army, and a commission to apprehend the lady 
Maty. At night he sent for Dr. Sandys, the Vice-Chancellor, . 
and some other Heads of Houses, to sup with him. He enjoined 
the Vice-Chancellor to preach before him the next day. The Doc- 
tor faUe at night betakes himself to his prayers and study, desiring 
Ood to direct him to a fit text for that time. His Bible opens at 
the fint of Joshua, and (though he heard no voice, with St. Angus- 
tine, ToUe et lege) a strong fancy inclined him to fix on the first 
words he beh^d, namely : " And they answered Joshua, saying. 
All that thou commsndest ns, we will do ; and whiUiersoever thou 
sendcat us, we will go." (Joshua i. 16.) A fit text indeed for 
him, aa in the event it proved, to whom it occasioned much sancti- 
fied affliction. However, so virisely and warily he handled the 
wotda, that his enemies got not so full advantage against him as 
they expected. 

* VoMKK, in Titti d* Slalu Aainuc ttparalm. t CaII'I, HUI, Qmt, jttai. 

, Coo^^lc 

186 mSTORY OF THE A.p. 1563. 

Next day, July 17th, the duke adTsnced to Bury «Uh bk anny, 
vhose feet maiched forward, wbilat their miotlfl moved backwud. 
He, hearing that the country came in to the lady Mary, and pro- 
claimed he^ queen, returned to Cambridge, July 18tb, with more 
sad thoughts within him than valiant soldiers about him. Then 
went he with (if he sent cot for) the mayor of the town, and in the 
market-place proclaimed queen Mary ; the beholden wh^eof more 
believed the grief confessed in bis eyes when they let down tears, 
than the joy professed by his hands when he cast up his cap. The 
same night he was arrested of high treofion by Roger Slej^e, Ser- 
jeant at Arms, even in King's College, which is fenced with privi- 
leges more than any other foundalion in the University. Hero 
Oxford-men witl tell us, how their University would not surrender 
up Robert Stillington, bishop of Bath and Wells,* when in the 
reign of king Edvard IV. convict of high treason, but stood on 
their academical immunities. But Cambridge is sensible of no 
privileges inconsistent with allegiance ; accounting, in the first 
pbce, " God's service perfect freedom," and, next to it, loyalty to 
her sovereign tlie greatest liberty. As for the duke, though soon 
after he was set at liberty, on the general proclamation of pardon, 
yet the next day, July 19th, he was re-arrested of high treason, 
by the earl of Arundel, at whose feet the duke fell down, to crave 
his mercy ; a low posture iu so high a peison ! But what more 
poor and prostrate than pride itself, when reduced to extremity I 

Behold we this duke as the mirror of human unhappiness. As 
Neville earl of Warwick was tie mojb-KiNG, so this Dudley earl 
of Warwick (his title before lately-created duke) was the maie- 
QUEEN. He was Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, and 
also Seneseallua (" High-Steward," as I take it) of the town of 
Cambridge, two offices which never before or uDce met in the same 
penon. Thus, as Cambridge vraa his verttpal place, wherein he 
vas in height of honour ; it was also his veriieai, where he met 
with a sudden turn and sad catastrophe. And it is renurkible, 
that, though this duke (who by all means endeavoured to engrand 
his posterity) had six sons, all men, all married, none of them left 
any issue behind them. Thus, far better it is to found our hopes 
of (even earthly) happiness on goodness than on greatness. 

Dr. Sandys, hearing the bell ring, went, according to his custom 
and office, attended with the beadles, into the Regent-House, and 
sat down in the Chair, according to his place. In cometh one 
Master Mitch, with a rabble of some twenty Papists, some endesr 
vouring to pluck him from the Chair, others, the Ghait from him, 
all using railing words and violent actions. The Doctor, being a 

■ Brian Twyne, AHlii/. AcaJ. Oxm. page 263. 

, Goo^^lc 



maji of metal, groped for fais da^er, and probablj had dispatclied 
some of them, had oot I>t. Bill and Dr. Blythe, by their prayers 
sod entreatieB, persuaded him to patience. How atterwards this 
Doctor was spoiled of fais goods, sent up prisoner to London, how 
wHfa great difficulty he was enlarged, and [with] great danger escaped 
beyond the seas, is largely related by Master Fox. 

44. Masters placed and displaced. 

. Some two years since, .Cambridge had her sweating-sickness, but 
now began her hot fit, or fiery trial indeed< For, on the execution 
of the duke of Northumberland, Stephen Gardiner, bishop of 
Winchester, was restored Chancellor of Cambridge ; then followed 
an alteration of Masters in most Houses. However, let us give 
unto Dr. Feme his deserved praise, that he quenched the fire of 
persecution (or rather suffered it not to be kindled) in Cambridge, 
saving many from the slake by bis moderation ; and let us give in a' 
list of the great alteration, in the Masters of Houses, which tfae first 
year of this queen did produce. 

masteks pot out. colleges. 

1. Ralph Ainsworth, be- Peler House. 

cause he was mar- 

2. Dr. John Madew, who Clare Hal!. 

had been three times 
V ice-Chanccll or . 

3. Nicholas Ridley, stUl Pembroke Hall. 

holding his Master^ 
ship, with the bi- 
shopric of London. 

4. Matthew Parker, dean Benc't College. 

of Lincoln. 

5. William Mouse, Doc- Trinity Hull. 

of Law, and a bene- 

6. Sir John Cheke, knight, 
tutor to king Ed- 
ward VL 

King''s College. 


Andrew Peme, dean 
of Ely. 

Dr. Rowland Swin- 
bum, rector of 
Little-Sbelford in 

John Young, Fel- 
low of St. John's, 
a zealous Papist, 
and opposite to 

Laurence Maptyde, 
Fellow of Trinity 

Stephen Gardiner, 
then bishop of 
Winchester, and 
Lord Chancellor 
of England. 

Richard Adkinson, 
Doctor of Divi- 




7. William May, Doctor Queen^B College. 

of Law, CbaocelloT 
to Nicholas West, 
bishop of Ely. 

8. Edwin Sandys, Vice- Catherine Hall. 

Cbancelloi ia this 
8. Edward Pierpoint, Jesns College, 
Doctor of Divinity. 

10. Richard Wilkes, Mas- 

ter of the Hospital 
of St. John's, and 
Maty Magdalene, in 

11. Thomas Leaver, Ba- 

chelor of Divinity, 
a Confessor, in the 
reign of queen Mary, 
at Arrough, in Swit- 

Christ's College. 

St. John's Coll. 


WilliamGIyn, Doc- 
tor of Divbity, 
afterward iHshop 
of Bangor. 

Edmund Conns, 
bom in Bedford- 

John Fuller, pre- 
bend of Ely, Vi- 
car Qenenl to 
Thomas Thurlby, 
bishop thereof. 

Cuthbert 8cot,after- 
wards bishop of 

Thomas Watson, 
afterward bishop 
of Lincoln. 

I find but two continuing in their places; namely, Thomu 
Bacon, Master of Oonville Hall, and Robert Evans, Master <^ 
Magdalen College, then so poor a place, that it was- scarce wordi 
acceptance thereof. 

John Young, Vtce-Cbancellor ; Thomas Qardlner and Henry 
- Barely, Proctors; Thomas Woolf, Mayor; Doctors of Divinity, 
4 ; Ikchelors of Divinity, 16 ; Meters of Arts, 19 ; Bachelors 
of Arts, 48. A. D. 1553-54. 

William Glynne and Cuthbert Scot, Vice-Chanccllon ; Thomu 
Baylie and Or^ry Garth, Proctors; John Richardson, Mayor; 
Doctor of Divinity, 1 ; Doctor of Laws, 1 ; Doctors of Medicine, 
2 ; Bachelors of Divinity. 3 ; Masters of Arts, 33 ; Badieloia of 
Laws, 4; Bachelors of Arts, 43. 1554-55. 

Cuthbert Scot, Vice-Chaneellor ; George Boyse and John Gwyn, 
Proctors ; Richard Brassy, Mayor ; Doctor of Canon "Law, 1 ;• 

• Thkt wu the lut Dartia thM Bret commenDBd Is Cunhildge of Cknoo Law bIoob; 
mUdb, M • dliUact fmciilj, nu banlthed 1^ Uog Hcntj VIII. ud (It tteaa) br ■ 
■bort tbna mi rtntoted bj queen H*i;. 



BoefaeloTS of Divinity, 6 ; Marten of Arts, 27 ; Bachelors of Arts, 
37. 1555-56. 

Andiew P«ni, Vice-Chancdior ; Nicholas Robinson and Hugo 
Glyo, Proctors ; Thomas Smith, Mayor ; Doctors of DiTinity, 4 ; 
Doctors of Laws, 2 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 4 ; Masters of Arts, 
27 ; BacWors of Laws, 5 ; BwJielor of Medicine, 1 ; Bw^elore 
ofArta,27. 1556-57- 

Robert Brassey, Vice-Chancellor; William Oolden and William 
Day, Procton ; William Haaell, Mayor ; Doctors of Medicine, 
2; Bachelor of Divinity, 1 ; Masters of Arts, 22; Bachelor of 
Uws, 1 ; Bachelors of ArU, 41. 1567-58. 

45 — 51. Dr. Cains faundetk Caiut College; giveth it good Land, 
and good Building, good Statutes, a nea Name, and kiero- 
glyp&ical Amu, No tiolmt Papist. 

John Cains, Doctor of Physic, improved the ancient Hall of 
Gonville into a new College, of his own name. He was bom In 
Norwich, but son of Robert Cains, a Yorksbireman ; spent much 
of his time in the Italian Universities, there making many, tians- 
Uting more, learned books ; and a^r his return was physician to 
qneen Mary. He bestowed a fivefold iavoar on this his foun- 
' datioD. 

Pint. Land to a great proportion. So nntruc is his cavil, Nes- 
cio qmd pauxUlum,* as if it were some small, inconsiderable 
matter ; whereas, indeed, he conferred thereon the demesnes of 
Crokesley, in Rickmansworth, in Hertfordshire ; Bincombe manor, 
in Dorsetshire; (with the advowaon of the parsonage;) Runcton 
and Bumhams-Thorp, in Norfolk ; the manor (^ Swaosly, at 
CaitoD, in Cambridgeeliire. 

Secondly. Building ; adding a new court, of his own charge, 
and therem three gates of remaric : Th^gtOe of humility, low and 
little, opening into the street over against St. Mlchaers church : 
A» gate of virtue, one of the best pieces of arehitecture in Eog- 
Und, in the midst of the College: thirdly, the gate of Aonow, 
leading to the Schools. Thus the gates may read a good lecture of 
morality to such who go in and out thereat. He ordered also that 
no new windows be made in their College, new lights causing the 
decay of old stmctures. 

Thirdly. He bestowed on them cordial statutes, (as I may eall 
them,) for the preserving of the College in good health ; being so 
prudent uid frogal, it must needs thrive, (In its own defence,) if 
but observing the same. Thence it is, this Society hath always 
been on the purchasing hand, (having a fur proportion annually 
■ Rat Plahmiaa, page 316 b> moryAw. 


190 HISTORY OP THE a.d. 1SC8. 

deposited in stock,) snd indeed oweth its plenty, under Ood, unto 
its own providence, rsther tH&n the bounty of any eminent benefac- 
tor,— tlie Masteis only excepted, who, for bo many succesMons, 
have been bountiful unto it, that (he Coll^ (m » maimer) mty 
now prescribe for their bene&ction. 

Fourthly. He gave it a new name, to be called Oonville and 
Caiua College. But as in the conjunction of two Roman consuls, 
Bibulus and Caius Julius Ciesar, the former was eclipsed by the 
lustre of the latter, so this his namesake Caius hath in some sort 
obscured his partner, carrying away the name of the Coll^ in 
common diBCOurse. 

Lastly. He procured a coat of arms, for the College to bear it 
impaled with that of OonTille. Indeed, they are better hierogly- 
phics than heraldry, fitter to be retorted than blazoned; and, 
betwixt both, we dare adventure on ihem. Namely, in the /dd, 
or, bescattered with purple ears ofataarinth ; two serpents erected, 
oettre, with their tails nowed or knotted together,' upon a pedestal 
of marble, vert,* having a branch of temper vivum proper betwiit 
their heads, and a boot, table, with golden buttons, betwixt their 
bodies ; wherein, not to descend to particulars. Wisdom is designed, 
in a stable posture, by the embracing of Learning, to attain to 
uncormpted immortality ; -|- or, to take the words of the patent, 
•em prudentid, a Uteris, virtutis petrd firmatu immortalitas. He 
Ueth buried in the chapel, under a plain tomb and plainer epitaph, 
u without words having one word fewer, " fdi Caidb.^ 

Some since have sought to blast his memory, by reporting him a 
pspist ; no great crime to such who consider die time when he was 
bom, and foreign places wherein he was bred. However, this I 
dare say in his just defence, — be never mentionetb protestants hut 
with due respect, and sometinies, occasionally, doth condemn tlie 
supentitious credulity of popish miracles.^ Besides, afler he had 
resigned his Mastership to Dr. Legge, he lived Fellow-Commoner 
in ^e College ; and, having built himself a little seat in the chapel, 
was constantly present at piotestant prayers. If any say, all this 
amounts but to a lukewarm religion, wc leave the heat of his faith 
to God's sole judgment, and the light of his good wnks to men's 

Masters. — 1. John Caius. 2. Thomas Le^e. 3, William 
Branthw&ite. 4. John Oostlin. 5. Thraias Bachcrofl. 6. William 

Bishops.— Francis White, bishop of Ely. 

Benefactors.— Matlhew Parker, archbishop of Canterbury. 

■ • No nitnral colonr. t SefMus CanlaltrigU, MB. t Hislaria Canlni, 

lib. 1. page S, Quanqwm iOiai ari ntnlai nttmiTalirmtm, Sc 


Robert Ttaps, aad Joan his wife, Joyce Fnnklin, their daughter. 
Dr. Wendie. Dr. Blslibie. Dr. Harvey. Sir William Paaton. 
knight. William Cutting. Dr. Legge. Dr. Bmnthwaite. Dr. 
Goetlin, late Master of this House. Dr. Perae, and Dr. Wells, 
late Fellows. 

Learneb Wkiteer. — John White. Francis White. — ^ 
Fletcher, iamous for bis book Ih Urinit. Williatn Watts, D.D. 
Ho set forlli Matthew Paris. Jeremy Taylor, D.D. 

CoLLECE-LiviNG. — Bincombe tectory, in the diocess of Bristol, 
Talued at £9. 1«. 5d. 

So that lately (namely, anno 1634) there were one Master; 
tvenly-five Fellows, one Ch^lain, suty-nine Scholars, besides 
Officers and Servants of the foundatioii, w^th otlier Students ; the 
whole number being two huiidred and nine. 

52. A numerwu Nursery of eminent Pkyticiatu. 

Dr. Caius may seem to have bequeathed a medicio^ genius nilto 
this foundtttioo, as may appear by this calsl<^e : — 

1. Stephen Perse. 2. William Rant, senior. 3. William 
Hatvey. 4. Thomas Grimston. 5. John Goatlin. 6. Robert 
Wells. 7- Oliver Green. 8. Nicholas Brown. 9. Joseph Micklo- 
waite. 10. Francis Prujcan. 11. William Rant, junior. 12. 
Eklmund Smith. 13. Richard Curtis. 14. Francis Glisson. 15. 
Richard London. 16. Henry Glisson. 17. Robert Eade. 18. 
Joseph Dey. 19. Thomas Buckenham. 2(). Williiun Ringall. 
21. Charles Scarborough. 22. Thomas Prujcan. 23. Robert 
WaUer. 24. Abncr Coo. 25. WUIiam French. 26. Christopher 
Ludkin. 27. William Bagge. 

All bred in this House, Doctors of Physic, and eitant in my 
memory : such a little Montpelier is this College alone for eminent 
physiciaDS ! And now we take our leave thereof, acknowledging 
myself much beholden to Master More, late F.ellow, an industrious 
and judicious antiquary, for many rarities imparted unto me. 

53, 54. Cardinal Pole Chancellor both of Cambridge and Oxford. 
Hit Visitation of Cambridge. 
Upon the death of Stephen Gardiner, Reginald Pole, cardinal, 
archbishop of Cwterbury, was chosen Chancelloi of Cambridge. 
I admire, therefore, at Master Brian Twyne^s peremptorinesf, 
when affirming, Reginaldtus Polu$ mm Cantabrigietitis {quod Lon- 
dinentis falsi qfirmat) sed Oxoniffotis J^it Cancdlariut, if he was 
to be believed before our recorda. Indeed, Pole was Clioncellor of 
both Universities at tlie same time ; and as now Cambridge chose 

• Df Aaliq. Oxvn. pege 3BJ. 




on Oxfbtd-man for their Chancellor, Oxford sftervard made election 
of one of Cambridge, namely, Richard Bancroft, archbishop of 

The cardinal kept a vintation in Cambridge by his power lega- 
tine, wherein the bones of Bucer and Pagina were burned to ashes, 
and many EnpeiBtitions established ; so largely related by Mr. Fox, 
our industry can add nothing thereunto. The best is, the eH^cts of 
ihia fieitatioD lasted not long, [being] resdnded in the next year 
by the coming-in of queen Elizabeth. 

Edmund Cousin and John Pory, Vice-Chancellors ; Iti^ard 
Smith and John Bell, Proctors ; John Line and Milo Prance, 
Mayor ; Doctors of Dirinity, 2 ; Doctor of Laws, 1 ; Doctors of 
Medicine, 2 ; Badielor of DiTinity, 1 ; Masters of Arts, 22 ; 
Bachelors of Arte, 28. a. d. 1558-59. 1 EUxabeth. 

55. Oambri^e vitited by Qaem ElixabetKa Comnmumer*. 
On the death of cardinal Pole, sir William Cecil, afterward lord 
Bnrgleigh, was made Chancellor of Cambridge, being so great a 
friend thereunto, nothing can be said enough in his commendation. 
Then followed a visitation of Cambridge, jure regio, wherein with 
the foresaid Chancellor were adjoined Anthony Cook, knight; 
Matthew Parker, William Bill, Richard Horn, James Pilkington, 
Doctors of Divinity ; William May, Walter Haddon, Doctors of 
Laws ; and Thomas Wendie, Doctor of Physic, and physician to 
her Majesty. What alteration this produced, the ensuing catalogue 
will inform. 


l.Dr. Rowland Swin- 


Clare Hall. 

2. Dr. John Young. Pemt»oke Hall. 

3. Dr. William Mouse. Trinity Hall. 

4. Dr. Robert Brassey. Kiug''s College. 

5. Thomas Peacock, Ba- Queen's College. 

chelor of Divinity. 

6. Dr. Edmund Cosins. Catherine Hall. 

7. Dr. Jdm Fuller. Jeaua College. 


Dr. John Madew, 
thrice Vice-Chan- 

Dr. Edmund Orin- 

Dr. Henry Harvey. 

Dr. Philip Baker. 

Dr. William May, 

Dr. John May. 

Dr. Thomas Red- 

8. Dr. William Taylor. Christ College. Dr. Edmnnd Haw- 


9. Dr. George Bollock. St. John's College. Dr. James Pilkin- 




10. Dr. Richard Cai/ged Magdalen College. Dr. Rty^ Kelke. 


11. Di. John Christopher- Trinity College. Dr. William Bill, 

80D, bishop of Chi- featored. 


Dr. Cains, Master of his ovn College, (and very good reason,) 
■till coBtinoed therein, so did Dr. Andrew Peme in Peter House. 
Hence the Scholars in merriment made (and for some yeais kept) 
the Latin word* Xui>^tio">^ i° that sense to Vairo oi Piiscian,) 
Pm^m, "to tun or diange often," avouched by no other author. than 
this Doctor's unconstancy. However, let ua not beaver cruel to 
hia memory, for not suffering foi his own — who was so "kind and' 
careiul to keep others from suffering for their — conscience. 

Andrew Peme, Viee-Chancellor ; Bartholomew Dodington and 
George Fuller, Proctors; Thomas Ventris, Mayor; Doctors of 
Laws, 3 ; Doctor of Medicine, 1 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 6 ; Mas- 
ters of Arts, 25 ; Bachelors of Arts, &>. a.d. 1559-60. 

Henry Harvey, Vice-ChanceUor ; Anthony Giblington and 
John Cowell, Proctors ; Roger Slegg, Mayor ; Doctor of Laws, 
1 ; Bachelors of Divinity, d ; Masters of Arts, 31 ; Bachelor of 
Laws, 1 ; Bachelors of Music, 2 ; Bachelors of Arts, 53 ; 

-Philip B^er, Vice-Chancellor; William Masters and George 
Kythe, Proctors; Thomas Kimbold, Mayor; Doctor of Divinity, 
1 ; Doctors of Laws, 2 ; Doctor of Medicine, 1-; Bachelors of 
Divinity, 8 ; Masters of Arts, 20 ; Bachelors of Lavs, 3 ; Bache- 
loD of Arts, 51. 1561-02. 

Fnutcis Newton, Vice-Chancellor; Andrew Ozenbridge and 
John Ignlden, Proctors ; Henry Scrle, Mayor ; Doctors of Divi- 
nity, 3 ; Doctor of Laws, 1 ; Doctor of Medicine, 1 ; BacheloiB 
of Divinity, 4; Masters of Arts, 44; Bachelors of Laws, 7; 
Bachelors of Arts, 80. 1562-63. 

Edward Hawford, Vice-Chancellor ; Richard Curtesse and Henry 
Worley, Proctors; Robert Cano, Mayor-; Doctors -of Divinity, 
12 ; Doctor of Medicine, 2 ; Badielois of Divinity, 4 ; Masters 
of Arts, 39 ; Bachelors of Laws, 2 ; Bachelors of Arts, 71. 

Robert Beaumont, Vice-Chaccellor ; Thomas Biog and Bartho- 
lomew Clark, Proctors ; William Munsey, Mayor ; Doctor of ■ 
Divinity, 1 ; Badielors of Divinity, 7 ; Masters of -Ajta, 27 ; 
Bachelors of Arts, 85. 1564^-65. 



. Now begw • gmt difibicnce is Trini^ CoUsge, betwixt Dr. 
Besnmont, Muter thereof, aod some in that 8odety, which bath ita 
Inflacnce at this da; on the Church of EngUsd ; whereof hereafter. 



It is the tife of a gifl:, to be done in the life of tbe 
giver ; far better than funeral legacies, which, Eke Bcb- 
jamin, are bom by the loss of a parent. For, it is not 
so kindly charity, for men to give what they can keep 
no longer : beudea> auch donations are most sub^t to 

Silver in the Uutng 

la gold in the giving ; 

Gold in the dying 

Is but ailver a-flying ; 
OoM and nlrer in the dead 
Tsm too often into lead. *■ 

But you hare madie your own hands executors \ and 
eyes, overseera ; so boontiiul to a flourislHng foundatiiHi 
in Cambridge, titat you are above the standard of a 
beneilictor.* Longer may you lire, for the glory of 
God, and good of hia servants 1 

1—3. ^ewm Mkabak comti to Oati^x-idge. Ber Oration to rt« 

Univertity. Noblemen made Matters o/Artt. 
' QaeenEIizabeth, partly toeaseherselfwithBometecreation, partly 
to honour and encourage learning and religion, came to Cambridge^ 
Aug. 5th, where she remained five whole dajm, in the lodgings of tht 
Provost of King's College. She was entertained with comediea, 
tragedies, orations, (whereof one most eloquent,) made by Wijliaoi 
Masters, (the Public Orator,) disputations, and other acadcmiea] 
exercises. She severally visited every House ; and at her depaii- 
lire, August 10th, she took her leave of C^Iaidgs, with this 
* following oration :^ 

■ mecMding pigc, (30').— Rdit. 

, Goo^^lc 


EM/epdniKi itt« «mw ptidtr (mAcUti Jiddimmi «t Aoadttmut 
i l U mitm i m J in tantd doctomm turbd ilMoraiam Awna urmoum «t 
oratioiMm ms narran <^Mtd vo» impsdiat ; tamen noiUium toMnm 
int m- amm , et irga Atadaniam beitevolmtia wm aUgwa frofirrv 
iavitat. , Dnobut ad haae rem ttimuli» moveor. J*7iimu ed i»na- 
rum lit«rarum propapatio. Alter eit veitra onmtwm eapsotatuK 
Qaod ad propaffatianem epeotat, unum iltud apud I>emoitkmem 
MffMMi.- ^Superientm terba apud imfirioreB Hbromm Uoum 
iabmt, et prittc^ttm diOa leyum fotlAoritatem apvd niidUm nti- 
nrntJ" Boe iffitur voe omnea in memorid tenere vdim, quod lemita 
tnMa pnmtatttior eit $iw ad bona fortuno) aeqmreada, rite ad 
pri»eipmn graiiam cottdHandam, qaim ^ffraviter (ut ecepuria) ttu- 
£n wMlrM exkiieatiB eperam : fuod mt Jiuiatu «m omnw on dbee- 
eraque. Be teemado eHmuh, ve^^ nimirim expeetatioiu, hoc twusr 
t^wtf, flw vikU libenter prwtermumtram ease, quod teetra de me 
emima hetuvoUe ^lencipima cogHoHowe. Jam ad Aeademtam 
venio : tempore antemeridiano vttH effo wdifieia teetra mtrnptuoea <• 
mats majorikue danaamit pritmp^nu literarHtn ettuei etetrvcta, et 
ttOer widendwa dolor artue meoe e9eap<vrit, afque ea meniie euepiria 
qmce Alesttmth-wn quondam tenuitae feruntur-; qui ^mm legietet 
maUkt « prkicip^Mt mowtmonta, converaiu ad familiarem, eeu 
potiua ad oenaiiiariam, mttkim doluit ae nihil taie feeitae. -Hceo 
tamam vu^arie ^ententia me aliqaantim reereaml, qua etri non 
OH/erre, Awmm mmtMrv, jMtot dolorem ; qwe quidem aententia kceo 
ott : '* Bomam non uno asdifieatem fitiaae die."" Tamen non eat ita 
aenUia mea a/taa, nee tarn dii fin ex quo regnare easpi, quin ante 
redditimem debiti natures (ri non nimia eitd Atrcpoa Uneam vita) 
HAS ampuianaitj aliquod opta faei»m, et quamdii vita hoe reffU 
•rtuf nuaquam a prtpoaite di^leotam. Et ri eotttin^ (quam eitd 
/■temn ait, neaoio) me mori oport^e, jmttaqadm hoe ^uum qued 
pottieoor oomplfre peerim, tUiquad tamen effreqium opue peat mortem 
relinqmim, quo et memoria mea in peeterwn oelebria jiat^ et alioi 
0xeiiem exmnplo mw, et toa mmea alaeriorea Jixoiam ad atudia tee- 
tra. Sed jam videtia quantum interrit inter doetrinam leetam, et 
Jiaaplinam animo noa retentmm. Quorum attoriua eunt eompiurea 
eatia a^ficientea teatea, alterim autem voa omnea nimia quidem 
Atamtideratli teates hoc tempore ^gJtei, qua meo barbaro eratiomt 
^omre am dii doetat veitraa aurea detituterim. Dm. 

At diftt time fhe Degree «f Master of Arts una concared A) take 
a degree, and itself oommonced m honour irhen tlie foHoirmg peen 
nil noble persoDB weie, in IJie Regent-BoBse, created MastNs of 
Arts : — Thomas Hoiraid,* duke of Norfolk ; Edward Vere, earl ' 
of Oxford ; Ambrose DiuIIe}r, eerl of Warwick ; Edward Manners, 


lOe H18T0KY OF TBB a. 0.1067. 

tmA of Ratland ; Thomas RatclTf, eul of Sussex ; Robert Dndley, 
earl of Leiceiter; Edward Clinton, higtt admirkl of Engluid 
Williun Hoirard, lord dumberlain ; Henry Catew, lord Hnnsden 
tir William Cecil, secretary ; sir Francis Knolls, TieeHihambedain 
Thomaa Hcneage, esq. John Ashley, esq. Richard Bartae, esq. 
Willism Cooke, esq. Edmond Cooke, esq. 

Thus, Acts being ended. Degrees conferred, Univetsity-Officers 
well rewarded, and all persons pleased, her majesty went on in her 
progress, and the Scholars returned to their studies. 

4, 5. The fira Caute of Mr. CartwrighCe DucontetUment, The 
Mime diiavowed by kU FoUoicert, 
And yet we find otte great Scholar much discontented, if mj 
author * may be believed ; namely, Mr. Thonuts Cartwright, He 
and Thomas Preston .(then Fellow of King^s College, Bflerwarda 
Master of Trinity Hdl) were appointed two of the four dis- 
putants in the Philosophy-Act, before the queen. Caitwright bad 
dealt most with the Muses, Preston with the Graces, adorning his 
learning with comely carriage, graceful gesture, and pleasing pro- 
nunciatioa. Caitwright disputed like a ffreat, Preston like a gea- 
• tfiel, scholar, being a handsome man ; and iht queen, upon parity 
of deserts, always preferred propemess of penen in conferring h^ 
bvoure. Hereupon, with her looks, words, and deeds, she favoured 
Preston, calling him her scholar, as appears by his epitaph, la Tri- 
nity-Hall ch^l, which thus beginnetJi : — 

CamderU \ae huwis Thvmd PrtttMt, teiolanm 
Qium lUMIfrhutpt ElitaitlJta mtm. 

Insomuch, that, for his good disputing, and excellent acting in the 
tngedy of " Dido," she bestowed on him a pension of twenty 
pounds B-year ; whilst Mr. Cartwright, seith myauthor,f received 
neither reward nor cornmendaUon, whereof he not onljt compluned 
to his inward friends in Trinity College, but also, after her m^est j^s 
neglect of iiim, began to wade into divers opinions against her ecde^ 
uastieal government. 

But Mr. Cartwright*s followers ^who lay the fenndation of his 
disafi&ctioa to the discipline established in his conscience, not 
carnal disoontentment) credit not the relation ; -adding moreover, 
that the queen did highly commend,} though not reward, him. 
But, whatever was the cause, soon aftei, he went beyond the seas, 
and after bia travels returned a bitter enemy to the hierarchy. 

Jolm Stokes, Vice-Chancellor ; Thomas Bing and Thomaa Prea- 

■SiR QiOBai Fadl, In "The Lift orAnhUabop WliUeift," pige 7. t 8«b 

Hi. Batch u'a'u b. at the FeUon of KlDg'i CoU^e, 1503. 1 3m hb " Xib," 

lately Mt ftirth bf Ui. Cl*Aa. 



ton. Proctors t Christopher Fletcher, Major ; Doctors of Divinity, 
2; Doctor of Medidne t; Bachelor of Divinitj, 1; Masters of 
Arts, 46; Bachelors of Laws, 2*; Bochelon of Arts, 86. a.d. 

Robert Beaumoml and Roger Kelke, Vice-Cliancellmv ; Nicho- 
las Shepheud and Edward Deering, Ph>clorB; Alexander Raj, 
Mayor ; Doctors of I^vinitj, 4 ; Doctor of Laws, 1 1 Dttcton of 
Medicine, 4; Masters of Arts-, 45 ; Bachelor of Laws, 1 ; Bachfr- 
lon of Arts, 86. 1566-66. 

Richard Lnngworth, Vice-Chancellor ; Christopher Lindley and 
John Dawbenj, Proctore ; Thomas Kimbold, Major ; Doctors of 
Divtnitj,9; Doctors of Lavs, 2; Doctor of Medicine, 1 ; Bache- 
li»s of Divinitj, 4; Masters of Arts, 59; Bachelors of Laws, 2; 
Bwihelor of Medicine, 1 ; Bachelors of Arte, 118. 1560-67. 

^7. 7%a Factiotu in Trinity CoOeffe. Whitgifi and Cartwrigia 
cloak in tie ScAooli. 

John Whitgift, Master of Pembroke Hall, is made Master of 
Trinity College, which he found distempered with manj opinions, 
which Mr. Cartwright, latelj returned &om beyond seas, had raised 
Aerein ; and on a Stindaj, Jul j 4lh, in Dr. Wbitgift's absence, • 
Mr. Cartwright and two of his adherents made three sermons on 
one daj in the chapel, so vehemently inveighing against the cere- 
monies of the church, that at evening pisyer all the Scholars, save 
^ree, (namely, Dr. Leggc, Mi. West, Whitaker's tutor, and the 
Chaplain,) cast off their suiplices, as an abominable reUc of super- 

Whitgift was Master of the Cbllege, and the queen's [Professot 
rf Divinitj], Cartwright but Fellow thereof, and the lady Marga- 
retV Professor of Divinitj. Great clashing was now in the Schools, 
when one Professor impugned — 'the other asserted — the church^ 
disdpliae in England. Cartwright's followers would fain have it 
believed, that the emulation was inflamed betwixt them, because 
Whitgift's lectures and sermons were not so frequented, whilst all 
flocked after Cartwright ; insomuch that when he preached at St. 
Marj's, the deA thereof was &in to take down the windows of the 
charch. Yea, Mi. Cartwright did not only oppose the matter, but 
also the manner and method, of Mr. Whilgifi*s lectures, as maj 
appear by what afterwards was printed by bothv the one objecting 
what is thus answered by the other. 

TuoMAs Caktwkight. — "They which have heard Mr. Doctor 

read in the Schools con tell that he, being tho'e amongst learned 

men, never used to reduce the contrary arguments of the adversa- 

* Sia OEOiir.E P«iii., in " WUlgirt'ri Ulr,' f»ge S, 

, Goo^^lc 

jgs aiSTORv OF i«b «.s. un- 

ties to the ^sces of tbe fUlacioiis ; and yet lli&t vu ihe fiUeit 
place for hUa to have showed hk knovleclge in, becMue then they 
should hire been best nnderetood.'" * 

JoHH Whitgift. — " ToochiDg my reading in the 8cboo)l, 
(vhich you here oppiobtionsly object nAto me,) tliOBgh I know 
ibat the Usireisity had a. far better opinioB of me than I deserrei^ 
and that there were a great many which nen in all reepeds better 
able to do that office than myed^ yet I bust I did nty duty, ud 
eatisfied then. What logic I uttered in my lectures, and how I 
Mad, I refa to their judgments ; who surely, if they sadeied mc m> 
Jod; to continue in that place, augmented the stipend fiH' my take, 
and were bo desironi to have tne still to remain in that liinctioa, 
{readmg so uoleatnedly as you would make the world bcUeve I 
did,) nay be thought either to be without judgment themselves, or 
else to have been very careless for that exercise." f 

The result of the difference betwixt them is this, that, (leavisg 
the controversy itself to the judgment of others,) if Cartwright bad 
(he better of U in Us learning, Whitgift had the advantage in hts 
tempa; and, whic^ is the main, he had mM« power to back, if 
fewer people to follow, him. 

Ji^n Young, Vice-Chancellor ; John Wells, Edmund Bokeiy, 
ud William Levin, Proctors ; Ragm Slegg, Major ; Doctors <^ 
DivinUj, 5 ; Doctors of CSvil Law, 6 \ Doctors of Medicine, 2 ; 
Bachdoa of Divinity, 22; Mastets of Aits, 62; Pnctitioner in 
Sugery, 1; Bachelors of Laws, 2; Bachdors of Arts, 86. 
A.D. 1568-69. 

Nicholas Carre, Fellow of Pembroke Hall, a great restorer of 
leanaing in this Univetuty, wherein he was ProfesBor of Greek, 
(fiiet SB snbstit^ to sir John Cheke, in his absence, then,) in bis 
own capacity dischaipng the ^oe fifteen years, (afterwards resign- 
ing the Bune, and cMumencing Doctor of Physic,) this year ended 
Us Itfe, to the great grief of all godly and learned mem. He wis 
bwied in SU Giks^ church, beyond the bridgo, uadet a hsttdsone 
1 with this ^it^h :— - 
Hicjaceo Carrui, ioctot doetutitma tKtfr 
Tempore qiiotfavil Granta diterta meo. 
Tarn mihi Cecropke, Lutia quam gloria Hmgua 

Cimtenit, et medica maximnt ariie honm. 
Norn ego mejacto, ted qua* Acmdevua Ittudet 

Atlribuit mvo, mortuut eccejruor. 
Et/ruar, Itclor ; prvcul absit turba pr^ana 
£lerno violans buHa lacrala Deo. 



Joba May, Vice-CliancdW i Thomas AldziEh and Reuben 
Sherwood, Pioctors ; Miles Prance, Mayor ; Doctors of Divinity, 3 ; 
Doctois of Laws, 2 ; Doctor of Mediciiie, 1 ; Bedtdtnv of Divi- 
aitf , 14 ; MsBten of Arts, 55 ; Pmctitioner a MedieiBe, 1 ; 
BulMdoai of Lwie, 4 ; Bachelon of Aste, 114. a.b. 1569-70. 

e, & WiUffiJfB eommmeiH^ Doctor. Whitgifi ammwm Cari^ 
mrigU, Kk» ffitea in a latt of kit Opituau. 

Amongst tiie Doctors of Divinity, John Whitgift, Master of 
Trinily College, took bis degree, angwenn^ the Act, and publicly 
maintaining, in t!he Cbnunencemenl-House, for Mb position, Papa 
ett tHe anti-chririta.* 

John "Wliitgift, Vicc-ChanceTIor ; WiUiam Bingham and Hugo 
BcTlot, Proctois ; William Foxton, Mayor ; Doctor of Laws, 1 ; 
Doctor of Medidne, 1 ; Masters of Arts, 71 ; Practitioner in 
Medicine, 1 ; Bachelors of Arts, 113. a.d. 1S70-71. 

Whitgift, now armed with authority as Vice-chancellor, sum- 
moneth Cartlmght to give an account of his opinions, which he 
neither denied nor dissembled, but under his ovn hand expressed in 
these words following : — 

1. Archi^necoporum et archidiaconorum notnina, simul earn 
muneribut et o^iis suit, sunt aboimda. 

2. Legittmomm in ecdeeiA minittrorwn nomitut, qualia runt 
gntcoporum et diaeonorntn, teparata a luis mun^btu in terbo Del 
degcriptii ttmpliciter mnt improbanda, et ad institutionam apogtoli- 
eam rwocanda, ut episeoptu in ttrbo et preeibut, diaeonui in 
patq>eribu* eurandit vertetw. 

3. JEpiteoporum Caneellariis, out archidiaeonorvm qfftdalibtu 
8re. regimen ecdeticB non eet eommittendum, ted ad idoneum mini*' 
trum et preibifterwn epudem ecdetiw deferendum. 

4. JVo» cportet tmnittrum eue tagum et Ubenim, ted gviigue 
debet eerto ettidam gregi adjtci. 

5. Nemo debet mtnttteritim tanqtiam candidatue petere. 

6. £^ieeoporum tant^m authoritate et potestate minietri non gunt 
ereandi ; mnlti minue in muecBO ant keo quepiam danculario .- led 
ah ecdesiA deetlo fieri debet. 

Mitee reformandit, quitque pro 8U& vocatione etudere debet, 
(eoeationem autem irUeUigo,) at moffigtratue aulAeritate, miniiter 
9erbo, omnei preeSntt permoKtant. 

And beesuM he perasted reaalote in the defence thereof, the 
Vice-Cluncdlor made nse of his authority, and, March 18tb, flatly 
deprived him of his lecture, and baniBhcd [him from] the University, 

*.SlR Oesboe Paul, in bla " Life," pa(r 5, 


330 mSTOEY OF TBB *. ». W75. 

RCcoidtng to- the tenor of the ensuing insUument registered in Cam- 
bnige : — 

" Wkereu it i» reported, that Master Curtwrights offering dispu- 
tations sod conference, touching the Mieitions uttered by him snd 
subscribed with his hind, and that he could not obtain his reqoest 
therein : This is lo testify, that, in the presence of ns, whose names 
are here underwritten, and in our hearing, the said Mr. Cartwrigfat 
was offered .conference of dtveis; and namely, of Mr. Doctor 
Whitgift, who offered, that if the said Mr. Cartwright would set 
down his assertions in writing, and his reasons unto them, he would 
answer the same in writing also; the which Master C^wright 
refused to do. Further, the said Doctor Whitgift, at such time as 
Mr. Cartwright was deprived of his lecture, did in our presence 
ask the said Mr. Cartwright, whether he had both publicly and 
privately divers times offered the same confereBce unto him by 
writing, or not ; to vhich Mr. Cartwight answered, that he had 
been so offered, and that he refused the same. Moreover, the sud 
Mr. Cartwright did never offer any disputation, but upon these 
conditions ; namely, that he might know who should be his adver- 
saries, and who should be his judges; meaning such judges as he 
himself could best like of. Neither was this kind of disputation 
denied unto him, but only lie was required to obtain licence of the 
queen's majeslj, or the council, because his assertions be repugnant 
to the stale of the commonwealth, which may not be called into 
question by public disputation without licence of the prince or his 
highnesses council. 

"John Whitgift, Vice-Chanccllbr, 
Andkbw Pbarne, Jobn Msr, Eswabd Hawfokd, 

William Chaudektom, Henry Harvt, Thomas F , 

Thomas B ." 

Thus was Mr. Cartwright totally routed in Cambridge, and, 
being forced to forsake the spring, betook himself to the stream ; of 
whom largely in our " History of the Church.'" * 

10—12. Dr. Baker, Prowttt itf King't CoUeffe, fiiet for Jieltpion. 
Boger Goade ehoten in hit Plaee. [^Nun^ of Student* w 
the CTnivertit^y 

Philip Baker, Doctor ofDivinity, Provost of King''sColle^ being 
a zealous papist, had hitherto so concealed his religion, that be was not 
«nly the first ecclesiastical person en whom queen Elizabeth bestowed 



pfefennent, bnt also, being Vice^hancellor of Cambridge, com- 
mendabl; duchaiged the place without any tliscovery of his opinions. 
But now, being quettioned for his religion, not irilling to abide the 
trial, he fled beyond the seas. Even such who dislike his jud^ 
ment will commend his integrity, that, having much of the College 
money and plate in his custody, (and more at his command, uming 
to secare, not enrich, himself,) he faithfully resigned all ; yea, 
carefully Bent back the College horses which carried him to the eea- 

Roger Goade was chosen in his jJace, fetched &om Guildibid, in 
Sorrey, where he was a schoolmaster ; a pleasant sight to behold 
prefnment seeking to find out desert. Forty years was he Provost 
of tbat House ; in which time he met with much opposition, such 
as g0T»noiB must eipect, arimg &om the antipathy betwixt 
youth and seyerity. And no wonder, if young Scholars swelled 
against him, who bound them bard to the observation of the sta< 
tntes. However, he always came off with credit, chiefly befriended 
with his own innocence. 

Roger Kelke, Vice-Chancellor ; Arthur Purifby and John 
Beacon, Proctors ; William Bri^t, Mayor ; Doctor of Divinity, 
1 ; Doctor of Laws, 1 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 8 ; Maateis of 
Arts, 61 ; Bachelors of Arts, 185. a. d. 1571-72. 

Thomas Bing, Vice-Chancellor ; Walter Alleyn and John Tracy, 
Proctors ; Oliver Flint, Mayor ; Doctors of Laws, 2 ; Doctor of 
Medicine, 1 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 8; Masters of Arts, 63; 
Bachelora of Laws, 7 ; Bachelors of Arts, 120. 1572-73. 

John Whitgift, Vice-Chancellor ; Richard Bridgwater and Lan- 
celot Browne, Proctors ; Christopher Flecher, Mayor ; Doctors of 
Laws, 2 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 9 ; Masters of Arts, 57 ; Bache- 
lor of Laws, 1 ; Bachelor of Medicine, 1 ; Bachelors of Arts, 14^. 

Andrew Peme, Vice-Chancellor; John Ciagge and Luke Qilpin, 
Frocton; Thomas Kymbold, Mayor; Doctors of Divinity, 6'i 
Doctors of Laws, 2 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 13 ; Masters of Arts, 
104; Bachelors of Arts, 130. 1574-75. 

Dr. Cains set forth his excellent History of Cambridge, and took 
an exact account of all the Students therein, amounting unto one 
thousand seven hundred eighty-three ; and if any be so curious ^a 
to know how these numbers were divided betwixt the several 
CoDf^s, the ensuing catalogue will inform them : — 

1. Peter House, 96. &. Clare Hall, 129. 3. Pembroke Hall, 
ST. 4. BeneH College, 93. 5. Trimly Hall, 68. 6. Gonville 
and Cuds College, 62. 7- King's College, 140. 8. (;^een''s Col- 
lege, 122. 9. Catherine Hall, 32. 10. Jesus College, 118. 



11. Christ's College, 157. 12. St. JofaD's College, 27L U 
MagdElen College, 40. 14. Trinit; Oidlege, 359. 

3ohn StiH, Vioe-Chtmcellor ; Thomas BandBll and Bsvid V«le, 
Procton; Rog»81egg, MsTor; Doctors of Dinnity, 3; Doctora 
of Laws, 3; Dootore of Medicine, 4; Bacfariora of Dtviutf, 16; 
Masters of AitM, 70; Bacbelors of I^wb, 2; Bacbdor of Hedi- 
oine, 1; Bachelors of Arts, 174. a.d. 1S75-73. 

13 — 15. JBent-Com firH reiened to C<Meget, by tht Proewrmejit 
of Sir T. SmitA. Ortdt Profit th&rtbg. 

This year an Act paesed in Parliament, most he&eficiid to hotli 
Universities, vhereby it was provided, that a third part of the rent 
upon leases made by Colleges should be reserved in com,* paying 
after the nte (^ biz Bhillinge eight-pence the quarter (ten-pence a 
bushel) for good wheat, and five Ghillings a quarter, <« under, 
(seven-fence half-penny a bushel,) for good malt, generally dearer 
than barley, the pains of making it being cast into the price. Tliis 
eoia the tenanta were yearly to deliver to the Colleges, either in 
kind or in money, after the rate of the beet wheat and malt, in the 
markets of Cambridge and Oxford, at the days prefixed for the pay- 
ment thereof. 

Sir Thomas Smith, principal secretary of state, was the dtit^ 
procurer of the passing of this Act, and is said by some to have 
BUiprised the house therein ; nhere many could not conceive bow 
this would be ^ ell profitable to the College, but still the sune oo 
the point, whether they had it in money or wares. Bat the politic 
knight took the advantage of the present cheap yeu, knowing here- 
after grain would grow dearer, mankind daily mttltiplyii^, and 
license being lately legally ^ven for trans pottation. This is Uu^ 
air Thomas bom at Walden, in Essex, deserving as well to bt 
c^ed Smith Walden as Saffkon Waldsk, as no less emi- 
nent for this worthy statesman b(»ii theccin, as for that Aovereiga 
antidote growing thereabout. 

At this day much emolument redoundeth to the ancient CoU^et- 
iu each University, (foundation since the statute enjoying no 
benefit thereby,) by the passing of this Act ; so that, though tbeit ' 
rents stand stiU, their revenues do increase. Tme it is, when they 
have least com, they hare most bread, I mean, best maintenance,— 
the dividends then mounting the highest. I wish them good sto- 
machs to theb meat, digealim to their stomachs, strength and health' 
on their digestion. 

Roger Goadc, Vice-Chancellor ; Arthsr Purifoy wid Thomas- 

• Be* PvLiON's " CoSeclioni of dtc St&tutes," 18 EliaAt±, nip. 6. 

, Cookie 

sa tuxABRTB. nNivBRSiTr of cambridqe. £03 

PateDSon, Procton; Miles Pnvute, Mayor; Doctors oF Medi- 
rioe, 5; Bachelors of Divinity, 18; Masters of Arts, 83; 
Practitioners in Su^eiy, 2; Bachelors of Arts, 160. a.d. 

Kic^aad HowlaDd, Viea-Cfaaacellor ; Osmund Lakes and Nicbolaa 
Steer, Proctors ; John CStaae, Mayor ; Doctors of Divinity, 3 ; 
Doctors of Lavs, 3 ; Badidors of Divinity, 12 ; Masters of Arts, 
35; Bu^lorsof Lavs, 6; Bachelors of AjIs, 115 ; Praetitioneis 
in Medidne, 3. 1578-7d. 

Thomas Bing, Yice-Chaiicellor ; Wiliiam Fanaod and Richard 
WiUowby, Proctors; Edward Wallis, Mayor; Doctors of Divi- 
nity, 2 ; Doctors of Lavs, 6 ; Doctor of Medicine, 1 ; Bachelors 
of Divinity, 15; Masters of Arts, 106; Bachelois of Laws, 6; 
Bachelors of Arts, 153 ; Practitioner in Medicine, 1. 1578-79- 

John Hatcher, Vice-Chancellor; William Lakin and John 
Bndley, Proctors ; Marmaduke ^Kand, Mayor ; Doctor of Divi- 
nity, 1 ; Doctors of Laws, 3 ; Doctcvs of Medicine, 2 ; Badielon 
of Divinity, 17; Masters of Arts, 86; Badielor of Laws, 1; 
Bachelors of Arts, 205 ; Practitioner in Medicine, 1. 1570-80. 

Andrew Peine, Vice-Chancellor ; Thomas Nevill and John 
Duport, ProctOTB ; William Foxton, Mayor; Docton of Divinity, 
4; Doctors of Laws, 7; Docton of Medicine, 3; Bachelors of 
Divinity, 8; Masters of Arts, 61 ; Bachelors of Laws, 4; Bache- 
]0TS of Arts, 194 ; PracUtioners in Medicine, 2. 1580-31. 

16. A Contett betwixt Dr. Baro and Mr. Chaddertm. 

A contest h^peaed between Mr. Otadderton (afterward Master 
of Emmanuel Coll^) and Dr. Baro, Margaret- Professor, about 
•ome betexodox opinions, vented by tiie aune Baro both in his 
leadings and print, namely, in his Ckimment on Jonah, and book 

Whereupon, the Doctor procured Mr. dudderton to be called 
into the Consistory, in the presence of the Vtco-Cbanoellor, Dr. 
Hawferd, Dr. Harvey, and Dr. Legge, where he utterly denied he 
bad ever preached against the Doctor ; bat ha propounded these 
questions as erroneous and fiilse : 1. Primm Dm anuw noa «rf m 
ma^irA Jidsi jtutiJioantU. 2. Fidmjwt^eam tton praeipitttr in 

Many papers in Latin passed betwixt them, and at last they were 
conceived to come nearer togedier in liiese their egressions ; the 
originals being kept in the Univetsity-litoaty :■» 


304 HISTOBT OF THB a.d. 16W. 


, in Atuu; Modam. 

NttUiu amor ett Deo gratui 1. In oporatione jiuHficationie 

tine fide. ChriitiMia, tmSa ett eooperatio 
fidei a amarii. 

Quoddam detidermm jattitus, 2. Omntt amor gui' placet Deo 

et remimonit peccat^rum obti- esi y»a Spirittu Sanoti tvper^ 

ttendeE in fide juttificaate inest, natorale, et firuetut fidei JueU/S~ 

non natwale, led ffratuifytnt) cantit, nonpari, 
Spirit&i Sanali donum. 

Omni) mtor anie jUen ett pnralum. 
SoiaJUit afgrehfndit JmlillcaUamcm. 


Fidel jtutificatu deodlogo pr(e- 1. Deoaloffo, secundum nda^ 

eipitur quatenue deealc^o mmi- tionem vocie, pro decern prwceptii 

tur pro decern iilit tententiis, vwralibiu, fidee jiutifieana non 

quag Deue »uo ore in monte prwcipitur: 
Sinai pronunciavit, quibue uni' 
verea pieku eomprehenditar. 

Fidee juettficane^ deealopo alio 2i Decalogo pro umtersd Ugt 

modo mw^to nempi pro nudia Mmi* fumpto, fidee jwtificane 

legie mandatie, ac quatenue a prwcipitur. 
Paulo Ckrieto opponitur, non 

Petrds Bakoi Laurence Craddebtok; 

Now, however they might seem in tenns to approach, their judgi 
Bients were so far asonder that it set their adections at the same 
distaDce, so that no compliance betwixt them, and the Doctor at 
last Duted of his place ; whereof hereafter. 

William Fulke, Y ice^^hancellor ; John Jegon and Robert 
Livelease, Proctors ; Oliver Flint, Mayor ; Doctors of Divinity, 
3 i Bachelors of Diviaity, 20 ; Masters of Arts, 102 ; Bachelors 
of Laws, 3 ; Bachelon of Arte, 213. a. d. 1581-82. 

John Bell, Vico-Chancellor ;. A&thony Wiogfield, Leonard 
Chamber, and Gabriel Karvie, Proctors; John Qoldsborowj 
Mayw ; Doctors of Divinity, 9 ; Doctors of Laws, 3 ; Bachelon 
of Divinity, 14; Masters of Arts, 129; Bachelon of Laws, ;^; 
Bachelors of Arts, 213. 1582-83. 

Richard Howland, Vice-Chancellor ; Henry Hickman and 
Henry Hawkins, Proctors; Henry Clerk, Mayor; Doctors of 
Divinity, 2 ; Doctors of Medicine, 2 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 9 ; 



Mastets of Arte, 113 ; Bachelor of Laws, 1 ; Bachelors of Arts, 
236. 1583-84. 

Robert Norgat, Vice-Chancellor ; William Hawes and Thomas 
Bradoclce, Proctors ; Thomas Dormer, Mayor ; Doctors of Divi- 
nity, 2 ; Doctors of Laws, 2 ; BacfaeloiB of Divinity, 13 ; Masters 
of Arts, 113 ; Bachelor of MediciDC, 1 ; Bachelors of Arts, 192. 

17—19. Hiamanu^ Collie founds by Sir Waiter Mtldmay, 
wio cautelestfyjell into the Quern's Biepleamre. Hie Atmeer 
to Queen EUsabeti. 

Walter Mildmay, knight, fifth son of Thomas Mildm&y, of 
Chelmsford, ia Essex, formerly a serious Student in, and benefactor 
to, Cbrist's College, Chancellor of the Duchy, and of the Eiche- 
qoer, founded a House fay the name of Emmanuel College, in a 
place where the Domimcans, Black-Friais, or Preaching Friars, had 
fbnnerly their convent, founded anno one thousand two hundred 
eighty, by tho Jady Alice countess of Oiford,* daughter and sole 
heit of Gilbert lord Samford, hereditary lord Cbamberl^n of Eng- 
Iind.^ After the suppression of monasteries, it vaa the dwellings 
house of one Mr. Sherwood, from whom, as I take it, Sir Walter 
purchased the sameJ 

Sir Robert Naonton, in his fVeigmenta B^aliOy did leave as 
well as take,— omitting some statesmen (of the first magnitude) no. 
less valued by, than useful to, queen Elisabeth, as appears by his 
not mentioning of this worthy knight. True it is, toward the end 
of his days, he felt into this queen's dis&rour, not by his own 
demerit, but the envy of his adversaries. For he, being employed, 
by Tirtue of his place, to advance the queen's treasure, did it 
industrioDsly, &ithfiilly, and conscionably, without wronging tho 
subject, being very tender of their privileges ; insomuch that ho 
once con^lained in parliament, that " many subsidies were grouted, 
and no grievances redressed : ** which words, being represented with 
his diaadvaatage to the queen, made her to diaafiect him, setting 
in a Court clond, but in the sunshine of his country and a clear 

Coming to Conrt after he had founded his College, the queen 
told him> "Sir Walter, I hear you have«rected a puritan founda- 
tion." " No, madam," siuth he ; " &r be it fimm me to counte- 
naoce any thing contrary to your established laws ; but I have set 
an aeon, which, when it becomes an oak, Ood alone knows what 
will be the Gruit thereof." Sure I am, at this day it hath ovet- 

* Sctlrfot Oamtatr^tntu, ut. t TUi li inbieqimitlf CMTMed l» tb» 

" *tftil atiajuni IiuKKnwe," put I, Intiod. 9. — Edit, 

, Coo^^lc 

SOS BiffToaT or tbb a. v. ism. 

sliiulowed all the 0Blrershy,— 4nore thxa a motely of the preflcnt 
MastcTB of Colleges being bred theteiD. But let na behold tlieir 

MxaTCRS. — ^1. Laimnce Otadderton. 2. John Preston. 3. 
Wniiam Sandcioft. 4. Ricfaard Oldesvorth [HoldsnorthJ. 5. 
Anthony Tuokney. 6. 'William Dillingham. 

BiRHOPB. — 1. Joseph Hall, bishop of Norwich. 2. William 
Bedell) bishop of Kilmore, in Ireland. 

Benefactors. — Queen Elizabeth. Henry eai) of Hunting- 
don, ^r Francis' Hastings. Sir Robert Jerroyn. Sir Frands 
Walsingham. Sir Henry Killegrew. Sir Wolstan Dixy. Sir 
J«lm Hart. Sir Samuel Leonard. Sir Thomas Skinner. Alex- 
ander Noel. Dt, Leeds. Dr. Harvey. Dr. Bnnthwiut. Robert 
Tailor. Customer Smith. Nicholas Fnller. Roger Sleg^, 
Fmoeis Chamberkine. Master Ellis. John Spenliffb. WiUiam 
Neale. Sdmund EngKd). Alderman Ratdiffe. John Morley, 
Richard Calvsrwell. Robert Johnson. John Bemes. Mar7 
Dixy. Martha Jermyn. Alice Oven. Joyce Franckland. Eli- 
zabeth Walters. Dr. Richardson. Sir Henry Mildmay, of Oraecs. 
Ricfaard Knightly. Thomas Hobbs. Walter Richards. 

Leabmeb WkiTBSs, Fellows.— WilliaiQ Jones. Willnm 
Bedell. John Down. Hugh Cholmley. Josej^ Hall. Ralph 
Cudworth. Samuel Crtx^e. John Cotton. Thomas Hooker. 
John Yates. John Stougbton. 

Learned Wbiters, ko Fellows.— James Wodswoith, who 
toned papls^ John Oifford, " Of Ministers' Maintenance." £>ie- 
kiel Culvcrwell, " Of Faith," Robert Firman, ** Of Admtssioo to 
the Sacrament." Samuel Foster, " Of Mathematics." Jeremiah 
Bunowes ; besidee many still surriving. Sir Roger Twysden, an 
•xcellent anUquary. H. Laurence, "Of Angela," and otlier ttesr' 
tisea. Stephen Mushall. Thomas Shephard. Samud Hodaon, 
"Of the visible Church." Nathanael Ward. Thomas Arthur. 
Hiomas Doughty. John Wallis is now Geometry-Professor in 

Collbge-Litings. — Auler [Aller] rectory, in the diocess of 
Bath and Wells, valued at ^39. 14>. lOd. Cadbury rectory, in the 
diocess of Bath wd Wells, valued at ^28. Us. 2^d. Pydleton 
[Piddletown] viearege, in the diocess of Bristol, valued at ^31. 
2v. Wd, Staogronnd vicange, in the diocees of Lincoln, valued at 
£6. 6r. Wd. Winosford vicarage, in the diocess of Bath and 
Wdls, valued at df 14. 13*. 8d. Loughborough rectory, in the 
<diocess of Lincoln, valued at ^4U. 1&. 3d. 

So that lately (namely, anno 1634) were maintained one Master, 
fourteen Fellows, fifty Sdiolara, ten poor Scholan, besides Officen 

V cuuHTB. UNivBRtmr ot cahbbidoe. SOT 

snd Senants ef the foumdatioiii with othei Stsdenla ; the whole 
number being three hundred and ten. 

20 — S3. Dr. ffoldtteorth refksetk a Bt^oprie. A good Medita- 
tion of a d^Hff Saint. 7Vo ffrand Bmefaotort. The Living 

Amongst the bishops of this House, Richard Holdsworth, foitrth 
Master, mast not be forgotten, who might, but would not, be 
bishop of Bristol : not out of covetousness, (from which none more 
free,) because so small the revenues thereof; or laziness to decline 
pains, none being more laborious in hie calling ; or scruple of con- 
science, none more zealous in a certain episcopacy ; but for some 
seoet reasons, which these troublesome times suggested nnto him. 
He was a most excellent preacher, both by his pious life and patient 
death ; and one passage which I heard from him, some days before 
his expiring^ I shall here insert :— 

" I admire,'* said he, " at David's gncious heart, who so oden in 
Scripture (but especially in the 119th Psalm) extoUetb the worth 
and value of the word of God ; and yet quantiUum Scnpturw, how 
little of the word of God they had in that age,— the Pentatench, 
the Book of Job, and some of the Hagiography ! How much have 
we now thereof since the accession of the Prophets, but especially 
of the New Testament I And yet, alas ! the more we have of the 
word of God, the less it is generally regarded." 

Amongst the benefactors of this House, I have omitted two, not 
becanse too small, but too great, to be inserted with others, deserv- 
log a form by themselves; namely, the lady Grace Mildmay, 
whom the Sdiolars of this College account the fourth Grace, and 
more wordi than the other three, as poetical fictions. The other, 
Piaacis Ash, esquire, a rich merchant of London, to whom God 
hath given a fall hand, and free heart, to be bountiful on all good 

Amongst the teamed writers of this College, I have omitted 
many still alive ; as Mr. Anthony Bulges, the profitable expounder 
of the much-mistaken nature of the two covenants ; Dr. Benjamin 
WHcbcot, now Provost of King's, whose perfect list cannot be given 
in, because daily increasbg.' 

Humphrey Tindall, Vice-Chancellor ; Joseph Smith and John 
Cowell, Proctors ; John Edmonds, Mayor ; Doctor of Divinity, 
1; Doctors of IJaws, 3; Doctors of Medicine, 2; Bachelors of 
Divinity, 16 ; Masters of Arts, 165 ; Bachelors of Iaws, 3 ; 
BachelotBofArtB, 198. a. s. 1585-86. 



2i. The last Vice-CAanceUor then, but Fellow o/the Eouie. 

John Capcott, Vice-Chftncellot ; Anthony Wingfield and Henry 
Farr, Proctors ; John Edmonds, Muyor ; Doctor of Ijaws, 1 ; 
Doctors of Medicine, !! ; Bachelors of Divinity, 16 ; Masters of 
Arts, 185 ; Bachelors of Arts, 180. a. d. 1586—^. 

Dr. Capcott, when chosen ViGe-Chancellor, was only Fellow of 
Trinity College ; within which he gave apper-hand to Dr. Stilly 
then Master, but toolc it of him when out of the walls of the 
College. But before the year ended, he was chosen Master of 
Bene't CoU^, and an Act made amongst the Doctors, that, "for 
the time to come, none but Heads of Houses should be chosen 

Thomas Legge, Vice-Chancellor ; John Palmer and John Smith, 
Proctors, Roger Smith, Mayor ; Doctors of Divinity, 2 ; Doctor 
of Laws, 1 ; Doctor of Medicine, 1 ; Bachelors of Divinity, 8 ; 
Masters of Arts, 121 ; Bachelors of X4awa, 2 ; Bachelors of Arts, 
129. A. D. 1587-88. 

Thomas Nevill, Vice-Chancellor ; Kobert Canesfeild and Miles 
Sandys, Proctors; Nicholas Gaunt, Mayor; Doctora of Divinity, 
7 ; Doctors of Laws, 3 ; Doctor of Medicine, 1 ; Badielors of 
Divinity, 19 ; Masters of Arts, 107 ; Bachelors of Lam, 3 ; 
Bachelors of Arts, 182. 1588-89. 

-25. An unfaithful RegiOer. 

Hitherto we have given in the list of the yearly Commencers. but 
now must break off; let Thomas Smith, University-Raster, bear the 
blame, who, about this year entering into his office, was son^ligent, 
that, as one saith, Gum Jitit Academice a memorid, omnia tradidit 
obUeimi, I can hardly inhold ^m inveighing on his memory, 
carelessness being dishonesty in j>ublic persons so intrusted. 

Thomas Preston, Vice-Chancellor ; Heniy Mountlaw and Rich- 
ard Betts, Proctors ; William Wolfe, Mayor. a.d. 1589-90. 

Robert Soame, Vice-Chancellor ; J'Ohn Sledd and Cuthbert 
Bambrigge, Proctors ; John Clerke, Mayor. 1590-91. 

Robert Soame, Vice-Chancellor ; Gilbert Jacob and Otho Hill ; 
Proctors ; Thomas Goldsborow, Mayor. 1591-92. 

John Still and Thomas Le^e, Vice-Chancellor ; Thomas Grim- 
ston and Samuel Harsnett, Proctors ; Thomas Medcalfe, Mayor. 

John Duport, Vice-Chancellor ; Henry Mountlow, and Thomas 
Jegon, Proctors ; Christopher Hodson, Mayor. 1593-04. 

John Duport, Vice-Chancellor ; Gregory Milner and John Meri- 
ton. Proctors ; Oliver Greene,. Mayor. 1594-95, 



Roger Ooade, Viee-Cliancellor : Lionel Dackett and Th(Hnks 
pooke, Proctors ; John Noicott, Mayor. 1594r-95, 

26, 27. SarnA mmmoned be/ore the Contutory. Hit mUmn 
* Williaitt Barrett, Tellow of GonTiUe and Caius Collie, preached 
<td Chrum, April 2dth, for his de^;ree of Bachelor in Divinity, id 
St. Mary's, wherein he vented such doctrines, for vhich he vas aum- 
moned. May 5th, six days after, before the consistory of the Doe- 
tois, and tboe enjoined the following recantation : — 

"Pbkaching in Latin not long since, in the UniTersity-chmich, 
(right wtnshipfii],) many things slipped from me, both fidsely and 
rashly spoken, whereby, I understand, the minds of many have 
beeo griered : to the end therefore that I may satisfy the church 
and ihe truth, which I have publicly hurt, I do make this public 
confession, both repeating and revoking my errors. 

"First. I stud, that no man in this transitory world b so strongly 
nnderpropped, at least by the certainty of &itb,— that is, unless 
(u I afterwards expounded il) by reTelation,— that he ought to be 
sssmed of his own salvaUon. But now I protest before Ood, and 
acknowledge in my own conscience, that they which are justified by 
Gutb have peace towards Ood, that is, have reconciliation with God, 
and do stand in that grace by faith : therefore that they ought to 
be certun and assured of their own salvation, even by the certainty 
«ffiuth itself. . 

" Secondly. I affirmed, that the futh of Peter could not fiiil, 
bat Utat other men's may : for, as I then said, our Lord prayed nol 
for the &ith of every particular man. But now, being of a better 
•nd more sou^id ju^iment, (according to that which Qirist teacheth 
in plain words, John zvii. 20 : ' I pray not for these alone,' that 
is, the apostles, *bat for them i^so which shall believe in me 
through their word,') I acknowledge, that Christ did pny for the 
bith of every particular believer ; and that, by the vblue of that 
prayer of Chr^ every true believer is so stayed up, that his &ith 
cannot ful. 

"Thirdly. Touching perseveiance unto Uie end, I said, that that 
certainty concerning (be time to come is proud, forasmuch as it is, 
in his own nature, contingent, of what kind the perseverance of 
every man is : neither did I affirm it to be proud only, but to he 
iDoat wicked... But now I Ireety protest, that the traeand justi- 
fjing fiuth (whereby the faithful are most' nearly united unto 
Christ) is so firm, as also for the time so certain, that it can never 
be rooted out of the minds of the luthful, by any tentationa of the 
flesh, the wprld, or the devil himself; ao that he who hath his 

, Cookie 

210 HISTORY OF THK *.t>. 1B96. 

fiuth once, shall ever httve it. Fot, by the benefit of that jOBtifying 
&ith, Christ dwelleth in us^ and we ia Christ ; thArefoie it caoaot 
be but increased, (Christ growing in us daily,) as also persevere 
unto the end, because God doth givt constancy. 

" Fourthly. I affirmed, that there was no distinction ia fkitb, 
but in the persons belienng. Ia which, I confess, I did eir. 
Now I freely acknowledge, that tempoVary &ith (which, as Beniard 
witnessetli, is therefore feigned, because it is tempomry) is distin- 
guished and differelb from that saving &ith whereby sinners, appre- 
hending Christ, are justified before God for ever ; not in measure 
and degrees, but in the very thing itself. Moreover, I add, that 
James doth make menUon of a dmi faith ; and Paul, of a feltli 
that worketh by love. 

" Fifthly. I added, that forgiveness of sins is an article of futh, 
but not particular, neither belonging to this man nor to that man : 
that is, (as I expounded it,) that no true, faithful luan either can or 
ought certainly to believe that his sins are forgiven. But now I am of 
another mind, and do freely confess, that every true, bithful man 
is bound, by this article of faith, (to wit, 'I believe the forgiveness 
of sins,') certainly to believe that his own particular sins are freely 
forgiven him : neither doth it follow hereupon, that that petition of 
the Lord's Prayer (to wit, 'Forgive us our trespasses*) is need- 
less ; for, in that petition, we ask not only the gift, but dso the 
increase, of iaith. 

'< Sixthly, These words escaped me in my sermon, namely: 
' As for those that are not saved, I do most strongly believe, and 
do &eely protest, that I am so persuaded, ^unst Calvin, Peter 
Martyr, and the rest, that sin is tlie true, proper, and first cause of 
reprobation.' But now, being better instructed, I say, that the 
reprobation of the wicked is from everlasting, and that the saying of 
Augustine to Simplician is most true, namely : ' If sin were the 
cause of reprobation, then no man should be elected, because God 
doth foreknow all men to be defiled with it ; and (that I may speak 
freely) I am of the same mind, and do believe, concerning Uie doc- 
trine of election and reprobation, as the church of England believetfa 
and teachetb in the Book of the Articles of Futh, in the Article of 

" Last of sU. I uttered these words rashly against Calvin, 'a 
man that hath very well deserved of the church of God ; to wit, 
that ' he durst presume to lift up himself above >he high and 
almighty God.' By which words I conless, that I hare done great 
injury to that most learned and right godly man ; and I do most 
humbly beseech you all to pardon this my rashness. As also, that 
I have uttered many bitter words against Peter Martyr, Theodon 


Bcza, Jerome Zancbias, Francis Junius, and the rest of tlie same 
rriigioD, being the lights and ornaments of our church ; calling 
Aem by the odious names of ' CalviniBts,' and other slanderous 
terata, branding them with a most grievous tnark of reproach, whom 
because our church doth worthily reverence, it was not meet that I 
should take away their good name from them, or any way impair 
their credit, or dehort others of our countrymen from reading their 
most learned works. I am therefore very sorry, and grieved for this 
most grievous offence which I have publicly given to this most 
famous University, which is the temple of true religion, and eacred 
receptacle of piety. And I do promise you, that, by God's help, I 
will never hereafter offend in like sort ; and I do earnestly beseech 
yon, right worshipfol, and all others to whom I have given this 
offence, eidier in the former arUcles, or in any part of my said 
aerraon, that you would of yout courtesy pardon me, upon tlds my 

This recantation was by the Doclois peremptorily enjoined him ; 
that on Saturday following, May 10th, immediately after the 
Ctemm, he should go up into the pulpit of St. Mary's, (where he 
liad published these errors,) and there, openly in the face of the 
Univasity, read, and make this recantation: which by him was 
done accordingly ; but not with that remorse and humility as was 
expected ; for, after the reading thereof, he concluded thus, Hcsa 
tUxi, as if idl had been oral rather than cordial. Yea, soon after 
be departed the University, got beyond sea, turned a papist, 
returned into England, where he led a layman's life until the day 
of bis death. 

John Jegon, Vice-Chancellor ; Eiekiel Hilliaid and WUliam 
BoltOD, Proctors; Robert Wallis, Mayor, a.s. 1595-96. 

28—30. T%e Sideneu and Death of Dr. WMtaier. Sit tad and 

toitmn Fimtral. Overall tueceedt Mm in the Pro/ettor'* 


Dr. Whitaker, returning from Lambeth conference, November 

28tb, brought home with him the bane of his health, contracted 

there by hard and late studying, and watching, in a very cold winter. 

In bis jonmey homewards, he was rather not well than sick ; and 

when come to St. John's College, the outside of his disease (so 

inach as appeared in the symptoms thereof) had little of danger, 

whilst tbe inside thereof (as the sad succesa declared) had nothing 

of hope therein. On the Sunday following, November 30th, 

be took lus bed, and then was there no want of physicians, if 

not too much plenty of them about him. They meet, consult, 

conclude he roust be let bloodi but none did what all advised 

912 HISTORY OF THB *.i). I69«. 

should be done. Tbis wu def^red till Wednesda^r next. Decern* 
ber Srd ; (let the blame thereof, to make it the lighter, be divided 
amongst all his Friends there ;) and then, when all things else were 
fitted for blood-letting, the patient hinuelf was unfit, being in so 
Tiolent a sweat, that opening of a vein would, as all tliought, let out 
blood aad life together. That nif^t he cheeriiiDj received in 
himself tlie sentence of death, professing that be desired not life, 
but to glorify God, and serve the church therewith, though hia 
wife was near the time of her travail, whose poithiMta child he 
bequeathed to God, the chief &ther thereof. Next day, being 
Thursday, December 4th, he quietly resigned his soul to God, in 
the forty-seventh year of bis life ; one so exactly qualified, that the 
Professor's Chair may seem made for him, and he for it, they 
mutually BO fitted each other. 

December 10th, six days after, his funerals were solemnly perr 
formed after this manner : all the University repaired to St. John'*? 
College, which they found hung (Chapel, Hal), and outward 
Court) with mourning, scutcbeon's, and verses. Then, taking up 
the corpse, they all advance, in their academical equipage, to St. 
Mary's, where the mayor and aldennen (whose vicinity to tbe 
University commonly cauaeth their distance fVom it) met them \a 
their mourning furmalities. Then Dr. Goade, the V ice-Chancellor, 
pathetically preached to the auditory. His tears were so mannerlj, 
(or religious rather,) that, observing their time, they obstructed not 
his sermon till come to a competent length, when the spring-tide of 
his weeping stopped his preaching. Thus his sermon (like kit lifi; 
who was the subject of it, cut off when not much passed the prime 
thereof) was rather broken off than ended. So aad was the whole 
congregation, that one might as soon therein have found a fitce with- 
out eyes, as eyes without tears. Back they all return to the Col- 
lege, where, after a Latin oration made by one of the Fellows, his 
corpse was solemnly interred in the chapel. Then a banquet of 
sweetmeats, soured with so sad an occasion, (at the sole charge of 
the College,) was rather seen than tasted by the guests, formerly 
surfeited with sonow. Hence they re-edvance to St. Mary\ where 
Robert Nannton, University-Orator, (tSlei knighted, and secre- 
tary of state,) with another Latin speech concluded the ftmeral 

Soon after, two candidates appeared for the Professor's place, 
John Overall, of Trinity, Doctor — Anthony Wotton, of King's 
College, BachcloT— of Divinity. Both read solemn lectures of pro. 
bation on subjects assigned them ; namely, Overall, on Hebrews vi. 
4, Sec. " For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, 
and have tasted the heavenly gift, — if they shall (all swaj, to leaer 


tiiem again unto repentance.'" Wotton, on Jomea n. 24 : "Ye 
see tben how that bj vorks a man is justified, and not by faitli 

Pity it is but the place should have been capable of both,— both 
approTing themBelveB bo deserving of it. Wherefore Wotton was 
Hot rejected, thongh Overall was preferred to the Chair. Yep, 
rather than Wotton's worth should pass unrewarded, a Professor's 
place of Divinity (though not in Cambridge) shall either be fouud 
out, or founded for him. For, within few months after, he was 
made the first Reader of Divinity in Gresham's College, in 

31, 32. /v. Baro quits hU Pro/emr't Place. JDiferetU Judg- 
menU about hit Departure. 

The end of Dr. Peter Baro's (the Mai^ret Professor's) triennial 
lectures began to draw near. Now, although custom had made 
such courtesy almost a due to continue the same Professor where 
no urgent reasons to the contrary were alleged ; yet the University 
iotended not to re-elect him for the place, meaning fairly to cut him 
off at the just joint, (which would be the less pain and shame 
unto bim,) when his three years should be expired. He himself 
was sensible thereof; and, besideBj'he saw the Articles of Lambeth, 
(whereof largely before, f) lately sent to the University, and fore- 
saw that subscription thereunto would be expected from — yea, 
imposed on— him, to which he could not condescend : and there- 
fore resolved to quit his place. So that this his departure was not 
bis free act, out of voluntary election, but that whereunto his will 
was necessarily determined : witness his own return to a friend, 
requiring of him the cause of his withdrawing : Ftiffio, saith he, 
nefugarer^ " I fly, for fear to be driven away," J 

Some conceive this hard measure, which was used to one of Dr. 
Boro's qualifications. For, First, he teas a foreigner, a French- 
man ; Turpiui ejicitur, quam non admittttur, ko^et. Secondly. 
A great scholar; for, he who denieth learning in Baro, (ao wit- 
nessed in his works,) plainly affirmeth no scholarship in himself. 
Thirdly. An tnofennve man for life and conversation ; seeing 
nothing of viciousness could be charged upon him, which, otherwise, 

• S»oirt " Sumy of Looaon," page 66. 1 See oor " Choreli RbVaj," 

MM laSS, tdL fU. pp. 147—160. 1 On tl» mtjecc of Bftnett uid 

Bvn, dw rnAet iriO obtilo comet Infonnatian b Strypx'n " IMt o! Arcbbi^c^ Wbit- 
flfl : " in Di« Appendi to iriileh b« nill ilio Rod the InfonutloD whlcb Foller (la U% 
" Church Hlrtory," ml. ill. p. H9) promlied to dtB m large, thU jta, Id » note lo hit 
" BMuiT Of CimbiUge," but nblcb, like maaf of hli olbet good potpoM*, Menu to 
ban br«D fcTgotteB.^EiiiT. 

, Coo^^lc 


in hie contest vitli Mr. Choderton,* hod been urged agnnst him. 
Lastly. An aged man, coming hither msnjr jean Bince, (vrhen the 
Pn>fessor''s place as much needed him as he it,) and vho had pain- 
folly spent his strength in the employment. Others alleged, that 
in such cases of conscience there lies no plea for courtesy ; and that 
paro, as he was a ^ran^er, had brought in ttrange doctrines, to 
the infecting of the University, the fountain of learning and religion ; 
and therefore archbishop Whitgift designed the remonng of him 
from bis place. Thomas PIsyfere, Fellov of St. John's, io Cam- 
bridge, and Doctor of Divinity, was elected to succeed him in his 
PiofesBOi's place ; of whom largely hereafter. 

33—35. The fira Ftyundation of Sidney-Svmx QMege. TKe 
Spite of Index Ezpurgatorius. 2^ ColUffa-Mortmain kow 

On the twentieth day of May was the first stone laid of Sidney 
College, (the whole fabric wheroof was finished three years after,) 
on the coat of the lady Frances Sidney, daughter to sir William, 
sister to sir Henry, (lord deputy of Ireland,) aunt to sur. Philip 
Sidney, relict of Thomas RatclifTe, the third earl of Sussex. This 
lady died seven years since, on the ninth of March, 1588, as 
appears by the epitaph on her monument,'in Westminster Abbey, 
in which church she founded a salary of twenty pounds a-year, 
for a Divinity-Lecturo. By her will, dated December 6th, 1588, 
she left to her executors, Henry Gray, earl of Kent, and to her 
nephew sir John (afterwards lord) Harrington, five thousand 
pounds, besides her goods unbequeatKed, for the erection of a 
College, and purchasing of competent lands, for one Master, ten 
Fellows, and twenty Scholars. But, in case the legacy would not 
thereunto extend, then the same to go to the enlarging of Clare 
Hall, for the maintenance of so many Fellows and Scholars' therein, 
to enjoy all liberties, customs, and privileges, with other Fellows 
and Scholars of that foundation. She appointed John Whitgift, 
archbishop of Canterbury, and Gabriel Goodman, dean of West- 
minster, overseers of her will ; ordering also, that Alexander 
Nowell, dean of St. Paul's, should preach her funeral sermon, 
which (no doubt) was done accordingly. 

Be it romembered, by the way, that the lately-mentioned earl of 
Kent is he on whom Mr. Camdeu bestows this deserved commenda- 
tion : Verce fwbilitatU omamentii vir hngi honoratimmut.'\ But 
the Index Ea^mrgatorim, set forth at Madrid, by Lewis Sanchez, 

I, page 303. t Cahdek'b Britaif 



the king's printer, 1612, (and trul; reprinted at Geneva, 1619,) 
dashefl theae word vith a d^ ihongh the character given this peer, 
most honourable for his parentage, and no less for his piety,* vill 
jvailj nxaaiu to his memorj when this peevisb, partial Index shall 
be purged to nothing. 

These two noble executors, in pursuance of the viU of this testa- 
trix, according to her desire and direction therein, in her name pre- 
sented qneen Bliubeth a jewel, being like a star, of rubies and 
diamonds, with a ruby in the midst thereof, worth an hundred and 
forty pounds, baring on the back side a hand delivering up a heart 
unto a crown.'f- At the delivery hereof, they humbly riequestcd of 
her highness a naortmain to found a College, which she graciously 
granted onto them. Their next care was to purchase of Trinity 
College a parcel of ground, with some ancient buildings thereon, 
(formerly called the Franciscans or Gray Friars,) prociuing the 
same to be passed unto them in feo-&rm by Act of Parliament, and 
thereon they laid the foundation of this new College. 

36. A littie Babe (Oani God and good Nvra«» >) tceU batetled. 

We usually observe ini&nts bom in the seventh month, though 
poor and pitiful creatures, are vital ; and, with great care and good 
attendance, in time prove proper persons. Ovid, or his elder 
brother, (the words being dubiously placed,) may be an instance 
hereof : — 

Qui Iriiiu anit juater mauiiut orftu <rdt.I 

To such a partui teptimextria may Sidney College well be resem- 
bled, so low, lean, and little at the birth thereof. Alas ! what is 
five thousand pounds to buy the site, build and endow a College 
therewith ? As for her unbequeatbed goods, they answered not 
expectation ; and I have heard, that some inferior persons, 
employed in the sale of her jewels, were (out.of their own want of 
skiQ, or of honesty in others) much deceived therein : yet such was 
. the worthy care of her honourable executors, that this BenjamiD- 
College — the least, and last in time, and born after (as he <U) the 
death of its mother^thrived ia a short time to a competent 
stieogth and stature. 

Mastebs.— 1. James Montague, iirst Master of this House, 
and a worthy bene&ctor thereof, giving much, procuring more, 
thereunto. 2. Francis Aldridge, Fellow of Trinity College, 
doeen 1608. 3. Samuel Ward, Fellow of Emmanuel College, 

• Prima clatie. Ultra G. t Copied oM of tike votdi nt hei kDI, ) Dt 

THtiitai, Ub. U. eleg. 10. 



chosen 1609 ; of whom largely hereafter. 4. Ricluid Minabnll; 
first Master,* bred in and chosen by the College, and mnt^ merits 
ing thereof by his ptoridence. 

Bishops. — James Montague, bishop of Bath and Wells, tuiiu 
1608, sftenraids bishop of Winchester. John Biamhall, bidiop of 
Londonderry, in Ireland. 

; Benefactors. — Henry earl of Kent, who let the legacy of 
one hundred poands (bequeathed him by the foundrass) go on to 
the building of the Collf^, though generally onitted in the cata- 
logue of their benefactota. Sir John Hart, knight. Leonaid 
Smith, dtizen of London. Petet Blundel, of Tiverton, clothier. 
John Freestone, esq. Edward lord Montague, of Bou^ton. 
John lord Harrington, the yoanger; lady Lucy, his sister, countns 
of Bedford ; lady Anne Harrington, their mother. Oeorge \vti 
Gorioge. John Young, D.D. dean of Winchester. Sir WilUaa 
Wilmore, first pensioner in the College. Robert Johnson, ardi- 
deacon of Leicester. John Harrington, esq. Godfrey Fuljambej 
esq. Edward Wtay, esq. Robert Hsdson, esq. Francis Combe, 
esq. Paul Micletwoit, D.D. and Fellow of the CoIl<^. ' Richsrd 

Lbarmkd Wbitbbs. — ^1. Daniel Dike, (hat ^tfaful servant, in 
discovering the deceitfulness of man^s heart. 2. Jeremiah Dilie, 
his brother. 8. Samud Ward, minister of Ipswich. 4. Thomu 
Gatacie, much known by his book of "Lots," and other works. 
5. Jeremiah Witoker. 0. Thomas Adams, a noted preadier in 

Livings. — Sunt mihi non potii e»t dusert'dicitenHti.-f 

37 — 40. Sir ^ancit dark deservedly accounted a By-Fomtder. 
To whom Sir John Brereton ttot much inferior. A Chapd 
added after tome Yean. A Child''» Prayer for kit Mother. 

As for the bounty of sir Francis Clarit, it exceeded the bounds 
of beuc&ctioD, and justly entitled him to be a by-founder. The 
giver doubled the gift, if we consider. First. His estate was not ■ 
great for one of his condition. Secondly. He had a daug;fater; 
and generally it ia observed, that parents ore most bonen, and 
the childless most fruitful, in great expressions of charity. Thirdly. 
He was altogether unknown to the College, and the Coll^ to 
him ; surprising it on a sudden with his bounty, so mndi the moifl 
welcome, because not expected. Yet such his liberality, that he 
not only built a fair and firm range of twenty chambere, (from tk< 

* Tbt ttirac fOrmtr were put la by the AnisdreM'a riccDlon. t I *■ ^"^ 

iufurmed, one, once & ■en-aat of bbhop Hcnil>ga», hatli glveii diem ooe la B< 



additi<» whcxeof, i second court resulted] to the'Co11i^,)^t also 
iDgmented the Scholursiiipfl of the foundation, and founded four 
Fellowships and eight ScholarfihipB more. Herein his &vour jmtij 
reflected on Ida conntrjnnea of Bedfordshire, preferring them before 
othera to places of his own foundation. 

Nor comes the bonaty of sir John fireretoa much behind him. 
He was (as I may term him) one of the aborigines of Uie Coll^|;e, 
one of the first Scholars of the House ; and afterwards became his 
majesty's seijeant for the kingdom of Ireland. At his death he 
vaa not nnmindfol of this bis mother, to whom he bequeathed a 
large l^iacy, above two thousand pounds. Now, whereas some 
iMW&ctors in repute are nuiJ^&Gtois in effect, (giving to Colleges 
tmpa aSeopa,') namely, such as burden and clog their donations to 
maintain more than they are able, (whereby their gifts become 
sockeis, impairing the root of the foundation,) sir John^s gift was so 
left at large for ihe disposal thereof, that it became a gifl indeed, 
and really advanced the good of the College. 

This College continued without a chapel some years after the 
first founding thereof, unUI at last some good men's charity sup- 
plied this defect. Some have felsely reported, that the now-chapel 
of the College was formerly a etable ; whereas indeed it was the 
Franciacans* ancient dormitory, as appeareth by the concavities still 
extant in the walls, places for their several reposure. But others 
have complained, that it was never ceremoniously consecrated, 
which they conceive essential thereunto, whibt there want not their 
eqnala in learning and religion who dare defend, that the continued 
series of divine duties, (praying, preaching, administering the saci%- 
ment,) publicly practised for more than thirty years, (without the 
least check or control of those in authority,) in a place set apart to 
that purpose, doth sufficiently coneecrate the same. 

It is as yet but early days with this College, which hath not seen 
sixty years ; yet hath it been fruitful in worthy men proportionably 
to the age Ibereof^ and I hope it will duly increase. Now, though 
it be only the place of the parents, and proper to him (as the 
greater) to bless his child, Heb. vii. 6, yet it is the duty of the 
child to ptay for his parents i in which relation my best desires ore 
due to this Foundation, my mother for my last eight years in this 
University. May her lamp never lack light for the oil, or oil for 
the light Uiereof ! " Zoar, is it not a little one P"" Yet who shall 
despise the day of small things P May the foot of Bacrilege, if once 
offining to enter the gates thereof, stumble, and rise no more I 
The Lord bless the labours of all the Students therein, that tliey 
may tend and end at his glory, th^ir own salvation, the profit and 
lioooar of ihe church and common wealth.! 


21g HISTORY OP THR *.d. 1«B. 

John Jegon, Vice-Cbtmcellor : Willtun Moon and lUcbsid 
Sutton, Procton ; Robert Wallia, Mayor, a.d. 1596-97- 

John Jegan, Vice-ChanceUor ; Nathanael Cole and William 
Rich, ProctoiB ; JaineB Robaon, Mayor. 1597-98. 

41 — 43. Club-Lavi acted in Clare-HaU. Complained of b^ the 
iTovmmen to the Cofmcil-Tabie. Bow declined. 

The young Scholars, conceiving themselves somewhat wronged 
by the townsmen, (the particulars whereof I know not,) betook 
them lot revenge to their wits, as the weapon wherein lay iheii best 
advantage. These, having gotten a discovery of some town- 
privacies from Miles Goldsborougb, one of their own corporation, 
composed a merry (but abusive) comedy, (which they called 
" Club-Law,") in English, as calculated for the capacities of such, 
whom they intended spectators thereof. Clare H^ was the place 
wherein it was acted ; and the mayor, with his brethren, and theii 
wives, were invited to behold it, or rather themselves abused 
therein. A convenient place was assigned to the towoafblk, 
(riveted in with Scholars on all sides,) where they might see and be 
seen. Here they did behold themselves in their otni best clothes, 
(which the Scholars had borrowed,) so livelily personated, their 
habits, gestures, language, lieger-jests, and expressions, that it wai 
hard to decide which was the true townsman, whether he that sat 
by, or he who acted on the stage. Sit still they could not for 
chafing, go out they could not for crowding, but, impaticDtly 
patient, were fain to attend till dismissed at the end of the 

The mayor and his brethren soon after complain of this 
libellous play to the lords of the Privy Council, and truly aggravate 
the Scholars'' offence, as if the mayor's mace could not be played 
with but that the sceptre itself is touched therein. Now, tboagh 
such the gravity of the lords, as they must maintun magistracy, and 
not behold it abused ; yet such their goodness, they would not with 
too much severity punish wit, though waggishly employed ; and 
therefore only sent some slight and private check to the prindpal 
actors therein. 

There- goeth a tradition, many earnestly engaging for the truth 
thereof, that the townsmen, not contented herewith, importunately 
pressed, that some more severe and public punishment might be 
inflicted upon them. Hereupon, the lords promised in short time 
to come to Cambridge ; and, because the life in toch things is 
lacking when only read, they themselves would $e6 the same 
comedy, with all the properties thereof, acted over again, (the 

, Cookie 


tovnnDen, as fbrmerljr, being eDJoined to be present thereat,) that 
so thejr might the better proportion the punishment to the fault, if 
any appeared. But lather than the townsmen would be witnesses 
■gain to their own abusing, (wherein manj things were too fer from 
— and some things too near to— truth,) they &irly fell off from 
any forther prosecution of the matter. 

4^ 45. Sobert Sari of Emz made CkanceOor. Sir Robert Cecil 
choiea CAancellor. 

Upon the death of William Cecil, lord Burghley, Robert Deve- 
renz, ead of Essex, was chosen Chancellor of the University. 
Coming to Cambridge, he was entertdned in Queen^s College, 
where the room he lodged in is called " Esses chamber " to this 
day, and where the pleasant comedy of " Lelia " was excellently 
acted before him. 

Robert Soame, Vice-Chancellor ; William Boise and Randal 
Wocfdcock, Proctors; John Yaxley, Mayor, a.d. 1598-99. 

John J^^n, Vice-Chancellor; John Goslin and George Moun- 
tain, Proctors ; Jeremy Chase, Mayor. 1599-1600. 

John Dnport, Vice-Chancellot ; Robert Naunton and Thomas 
Morisou, Proctors ; John JenktUBon, Mayor. 1600-1. 

Sir Robert Cecil, principal secretary of state, was chosen Chan- 
cellor of the University, and did greatly be&ieud it on all 
occasions. He was afterward eatl of Salisbury, and lord treasurer 
of England 

Wtlliain Smith, Vice-Chancellor ; Richard Trim and John 
Forthenho, CoUegii Trinitatit, Proctors ; Edward Potto, Mayor. 
A.D. 1601-2. 

John Cowelt, Vice-Chancellor ; Nathanael Wibum and Edward 
Barwell, CoUegii Chritti, Proctois ; Henry Jackson, Mayor. 

46, 47- Xinff Jameft matehiett EtUertainme^ at Siiiekinbrooi ; 
wka-6 the Doctors of Cai^»idge wait on Sis Majetty. 
1 James. 

King James reraoTed by many small journeys and great feastings 
from Scotland to London. Always the last place he lodged in 
seemed so complete for entertiunment, that nothing could be added 
thereunto ; and yet commonly the next stage exceeded it in some 
stately accession ; until at last, April 27th, his majesty came to 
Hinchinbrook, nigh Huntingdon, the house of Master Oliver Crom- 
well, where such his reception, that, in a manner, it made all former 
enlcttainmenta forgotten, and aU future to despair to do the like. 

, Coo^^lc 

290 HIBTORT OF THE a.d. 1607, 

All the pipes about the house ezpreued themselvee in no other 
language than the sereral Borta of the choicest winea. The entei^ 
taiDer being so rich a subject, and the entertained so reuowned a 
eoTereigu, ^tered the nature of what here was expended, (otherwise 
justly censurable for prodigality,) to be deservedlj commended for 
true magnificence. 

But it was the banquet which made the feast so complete. 
Hither came the Heads of the University of Cambridge, in their 
scarlet gowns and comer caps, where Mr. Robert Naunton, the 
Orator, made a learned Latin omtion, wherewith his majesty was 
highly affected. The very variety of Latin was welcome to his ears, 
formerly almost surfeited with bo many long English speeches, made 
to him as he passed every corporation. The Heads in general 
requested a confinnation of their privileges, (otherwise uncourtlike 
at this present to petition for particulars,) which his highness most 
willingly granted. Here one might have seen the king (passing; 
over all other Doctors for his eeniors) apply himself much in his 
discourse to Dr. Montague, Master of Sidney College. This was 
much observed by the courtiers, (who can see the beams of royal 
fiiTour shining in at a small cranny,) interpreting it a token of his 
great and speedy preferment, as indeed it came to pass. 

48. 7%e De(Uh of Mr. Perhint. 

Within the compass of this last year (but in the reign of queen 
Elizabeth) died that worthy and painful servant of Jesus Qirist, 
Mr. William Perkins, whose Life I have formerly written,* and, 
therefore, forbear any repetition. He was buried in his own parish 
church of St. Andrew's, in Cambridge. Only I will add, it sadded 
ine lately to see that church wherein this Saint was interred ready 
to &11 to the ground. Jacob said of Bethel, the house of Ood, 
*' How dreadful is this place!" (Gen. wtviii. 17.) I am. sorry it 
may, in a &r diffirent sense, be said of this St. Andrew's filling 
such as approach to it with fear of the ruins thereof. I say no 
more, but as David was glad to go up U> the house of the Lord, all 
good men may be sorrowful to behold Qod''8 ruinous house oomtnjr 
cUnen to them. 

John Cowell, Vice-Chancellor; John Andrews, Mayor. a.d. 

Richard Claton, Vice-Chancel lor ; John Edmonds and Robert 
Wallis, Mayors. 1604r-5. 

• In my " Hdy State." 



49 — 51. ^eauantt' Preimtatiofu given to tAs llniverntie». The 
Statute, how frequently fru^ratei by ReeiawUt. Burgestet 
grtmtedtie UniteriUiei. 

It wu enacted in pftrliament, that the CbancelloT and Scbolars of 
the Unirerdt; of Ciunbridge shall have the presentation, nomina- 
tion, collation, and donation of and to every ancli benefice, prebend, 
or ecclesiastical living, school, hospital, and donative as shall 
hi^ipen to be void during such time as the patron thereof shall be 
and remain a recusant convict in the counties of Essex, Hertford, 
Bedford, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Suffolk, Norfolk, Rutland, 
Leicester, Lincoln, Derby, Nottingham, Shropshire, Cheshire, 
Lancaster, York, bishopric of Duresme, NorUiumberland, Cumber- 
land, Westmoreland, Radnor, Denbigh, Flint, Carnarvon, Meri- 
oneth, Olamoigan, Anglesey. 

The other moiety of counties was bestowed on Oxford. In this 
division, the greater half of the land fell to the share of Cambridge; 
whether «e reckon the number of shires, being more, or measure 
the extent of ground, being greater, or consider, (the main matter 
herein,) that recusantr-patrons were mo^t numerous in the northern 
parts of the kingdom. 

However, I have beaid it oft complained of, that this statute 
took not effect according to the true intent thereof; either because 
many bishops were very backward in giving institutions on the 
presentations of the University, wherein we are willing to believe 
the &nlt not in them, but their officers ; or because it b so hard a 
thing to prove or convict the legal conviction of a papist ; or 
reeosaot-'patronB, before their conviction, had such sleights, by 
pre-convepncea to make over their advowsona to othen. Hence it 
was, that many clerks, presented by the University, were wearied 
oot with vexations suits, (overpoised with the weight, of popish 
patrons' purses,) and forced at last either totally to relinquish their 
title, or to make a hard (not to say sometimes an unworthy) 

About this time also it was that the two Universities were 
honoured by the king, to have theii respective burgesses to repre- 
sent them in parl^mcnt. 

Samuel Harsnct, Vice-Chancellor ; Miles Raven and Edward 
Sent, Proctors ; John Edmonds, Mayor, a.d. 1605-6. 

312. 7^ Deal^ and higX ^taph of Dr. Flatfere. 

Roger Goade, Vice-Chancellor ; William Barton and Samuel 
Tindal, Proctors; William Arthur, Mayor. a.d. 1606-7. 

Thomas Playfere, D.D. Fellow of St. John's College, and 

I,,,, . : Cookie 

222 HISTORY OF THE *.». W7. 

MsTguet Pro&eBor, died this ^ear, and was buried in the chased 
of SU BattolF's [Botolph's] church, vheie this is part of his 
epitaph : — 

Minuter ille Triadot, enlhei logii 
Oraculum, patroaut artivm, parent 
Scienliarum, concionum rex., lacra 
Cathedra impeTator,fulmen el lonilru icholte, 
SuadtE marilua, ae gemellut ingent. 
Ardor eorum, et exteree gentit stupor, S^c. 

Should this epitaph come under the hands of those Grecian 
officers deputed to proportion men's monuments to their merits, it 
is suspicious, they would make bold to pare part thereof; though 
indeed the Doctor was one of excellent parts, and a great coio- 
mander of the Latin tongue. Dr. Jotm Davenant succeeded in tine 
Professor^s place. 

Robert Sosme and Thomas Jegon, Vice-Chancellors ; Oeoige 
Dearing and Thomas Cecil, Proctors ; Jeremy Chase, Mayor. 
A. D. 1607-8.* 

John Duport, Vice-Chancellor ; Richard Bridges and Anthony 
DisborougK, Proctors t Thomas Fiench, Mayor. 160&-8. 

Fogg Newton, Vice-Chancellor ; Abrafaain Bidle and Leonard 
Maw, Proctors ; Thomas French, Mayor. 1609-10. 

53—55. Master Ameee troubled about hi» Sermon in St. Afary't^ 
offaintt ail playing at Cardi and Dice. He leatetA tig 

B&mabas Qouge, Vice-Chancellor; John Aungier and William 
Adison, Proctors ; Thomas French, Mayor, a.d. 1610-11. 

About tjiia time William Amese [Ames], Fellow of ChrtstV 
College in Cambridge, on St. Thomas''8 day, had, to use his own 
expression ,-t' " the place of a watchman for an hour in the tower of 
the UniTersity ;" and took occasion to inveigh agunst the liberty 
taken at that iime, especially in such Colleges who had lordt i^mit- 
rule, 8 pagan relic, which, he said, as Polydoie Vi^ obsorvetb, 
" remaineth only in England."! 

Hence he proceeded to condemn all playing at cards and dice, 

* At till* polat commoiim ualhs dlxrepuic; betwaon FnUer luid Le Nne ; (lie 
Utur gjring u tliB recotda of diii Ten <mlj Robert SouM, VlM-ChuceUor, nith 
Deuiog ana CecllI as Proclon } ud Thoniu Jegon, ViceiCbuoellor of tha foOowlaB 
jen, wilh Bitdgei ud Dlaborongh u Proclon. Thii eaot, on the part ot FnneT, 
cODtiuiuiato the eod of lUa Section, anno 1617 ; whete the rekder will find Ua own 
higaDiunu acfaundedgmant of the mlatake. — EorT. t In ■ letter I b»n of Ui 

(0 hla bleDd. t Lib. t. cap. 3. 



affiiming that tLe latter, in all ages, vas accounted the device of the 
devil ; that as God invented the ooe-and-twentj letters vhereof ho 
made the Bible, the devil, aaith an author,* found out the one-and- 
twenty pricks of the dice ; that canon lav forbade the use thereof, 
seeing inventio diaboli nuUd contuetadine potest validari.f 

Hia sermon gave mudi offence to man; of his auditors, the 
rather because in him there was a concurrence of much non- 
conformity, insomuch that, to prevent an expulsion from Dr. Gary, 
the Master, he &irly forsook the College, which proved unlo him 
neither loss nor disgrace, being not long after, by the States of 
Friczland, chosen Profeasor in their University. 

Valentine Cary, Vice- Chan eel lor ; Thomas .Miriall and John 
Williams, Proctors ; Thomas Smart, Mayor, a.d. 1611-12. 

Clemens Corbet, Vice-Chancellor; Richard Thompson, Stephen 
Paget, and Henry Bird, Proctors ; Edward Cropley, Mayor. 

Samnel Hataenett, Vice-chancellor ; Arthur Johnson and Rich- 
ard Anguish, Proctors ; John Wickated, Mayor. 1613-14. 

Owen Gwin, Vice-Chancellot ; Thomas Kilchin and John Dod, 
Proctors ; Thomas French, Mayor. 1614--15. ' 

56. 3fr. StfmpaotC$ Sermon and Beeantation. 

John Hill, Vice-Chancellor; Andrew Pern and Thomas Smith, 
Proctors; Robert Lukin, Mayor, a.d. 1616-17. 

Edward Sympson, (a very good scholar,) Fellow of Trinity 
College, preached a sermon before king James, at Royston, taking 
for his teit, "That which is bom of the flesh is flesh." (John 
iii. 6.) Hence he endeavoured to prove, that the commission of 
any great sin doth extinguish grace and Ood^s Spirit for the time in 
the man. He added also, that St. Paul, in the seventh chapter to 
the Romans, spake not of himself as an apostle and regenerate, but 
tub ttatu Ugit. Hereat his majesty took (and publicly expressed) 
great distaste, because Arminius had lately been blamed for extract- 
ing the like exposition out of the works of Faustiu Socinns. 
Whereupon he sent to the two Professors in Cambridge, for their 
Judgment herein, who proved and subscribed the place ad Somanoa 
$eptimo to be understood of a regenerate man, according to St. 
Augustine's latter opinion in his " Retractions \" and the Preacher 
was enjoined a public recantation before the king, which accordingly 
was peifonmed. Nor doth such a palinody sound any thing to his 
disgrace, having St. Augustine himself for his precedent, modestly 
retracting what formerly he had erroneously written therein. 

t LjiNaBctiucHil'B in %ieeuh. 

, Goo^^lc 


Jobs RicharttsoD, Vice-ChanceHor : John Browne and Qtmgo 
Rftmsey, Pioctots ; Henry King, Mayor, a. d. 1617-18.* 

57> 2^/nt and lait Knight Ma^ of Cambridge. 

William Branthwait and Jobn Goslin, Vice-ChancellorB ; John 
Smithson and Alexander Read, Proctots ; nr Edward Hinde, 
knight, Mayor, a.d. 1618-19. 

The neighbouring gentry of Cambridge, being rery pleasant at a 
merry-meeling, resolved in a frolic to be made Ireemen, and so 
successively to take their turns in being Mayor thereof. The 
townsmen pmmised themselves great matters hereby, (betwixt 
whom and the University some petty animosities at present,) when 
persons of such state and quality should head their corporation, sir 
Edward Hinde, of Modingley, knight, led the dance, and kept his 
mayoralty in Cambridge, expecting others in order to follow him ; 
who, considering the expensiyeness of the place, (with some others 
no less politic than thrifty consideiations,) receded from the resolu- 
tion, and let the good knight alone, to possess that honour by him- 
Klf. Townsmen (as fonnerly) succeeded him therein. 



Tandem aliqaando, Deo duce, post Tarioa anfractus, ct 
vias invias, ad Historiae finem peirentom est. Nee 
difBteor me non fessum mod6, sed et lasaum, duxi mihi 
ita deficiant vires, ut hudc, ct)m pes sit figendns, Tix 
possim me continere, ne pronus corruam. Opus mihi 
igitur jam coDcludenti, patrono, non fokti minims qtii 
possit, qu4m hiti qui relit, me nutantem sustentare^ Tel 
fortd labascentem erigere. Hie tu nuhi occurria exopta- 
tissimus, qui tam mentis quim corporis dotibus ea spec- 
tabilifl. Spero igitur finem, opus meum; certus scio, 
nomen tuum, finem opens coronaturum. 



1 — 3. Henry Hoteard Ohatw^lor of Cambrid^. Bometimet it 
hitt. Sit learned Book. 15 James. 

Here ve hsTe omitted (to confess and amend a fault is pardon- 
able) how, after tbe decease of Robert Cecil, earl of Salisbury, (one 
no less willing than able on all occasions to befriend the IJniTer- 
ait;,) djing anno 1612, Henry Howard, earl of Northampton, was 
choeen Chancellor of Cambridge. He was son to Henry eari of 
Surrey, (beheaded 154^ for a mere state-nicety,) and succeeded, as 
to bis name, to his excellent parts and industry, being bred in 
King's College, where he attained to a great degree of emi&ency for 

He told his intimate Secretary,* who related it to me, that his 
nativity, at bis &ther''s desire, was cidculated by a skilful Italian 
asbologer ; who told him, that this bis in&nt-son should taste of 
much trouble in the midst of his life, even to the want of a meal's 
meat, but his old age should make amends for all, with a plentiful 
estate ; which came to pass accordingly. For, his father dying in 
ius in&acy, no plentiful provision was made for him ; and when bia 
ddest brother, Thomas duke of Norfolk, was executed, his condi- 
tion was much impaired: insomncli that once being in London, 
(not OTerstocked with ntoney,) when bis noble nephews, the earl of 
Arundel and the lord Thomas Howard, were oat of the city, and 
knth to pin himself on any table uninvited, be was tain to dine 
vith the chair of duke Humphrey, but other (not to say better) 
company, nunely, reading of books in a stationer's shop in Paul's 
chorchyard. But king James, coming to tbe crown, and beholding 
the Howards as his mother^s martyrs, revived ihem with his &voara ; 
and thia lord attained, under him, to great wealth, honour, and 

However, this lord gave little credit to, and placed less con- 
fidence in, such predictions ; as appeared by a learned work he hath 
mrtten of that subJGct.f He died anno 1614 : and his nephew, 
Thomas Howard, earl of Suffolk, succeeded him in the Chanc^or'a 
place of the University. 

John Richardson, Vice-Chancellor ; John Smithson and Alex- 
ander Read, Proctors ; John Dursct, Mayor, a.d. 1617-18> 

4. 7%e Death of Dr. Butier. . 
On the 29tli of January died Ur. William Bntler, the ^scula- 
pins of our age ; as, by the inscriftiMi on his maible.tcmib, in the 
chancel of St. Mary's, will appear : — 


22(1 HISTORY OF TH« *■». MM- 

Nit, proh, marmor agit, BuIUthih d»M itgWi Utiim 

Si iflendore luo nomen habere putat. 
Ille lihi tnonumenlum, tu digntrit ah illo; 

Butlerx vhU munere marmor iner*. 
Sic homittet rirw/, tie mird mortuut arte, 

Phabo chare tenex, vivere taaajitcir. 

But the profle is higher than the Terse ; and might have Gerred 
for Joeeph of Arimathea to have inscribed on the monument of om 
Savionr ; whereof this ia a part : — 

Abi, viator, el ad tuot revertttt die, le viditie 

Locum in quo talus Jacel. 

He gave to Clare Hall, whereof he was Fellow, a chalice, with a 
cover of beaten gold, weighing and worth three hundred poands, 
besides other plate and books, to the value of five hundred pounds. 

William Branthwait and John Ooslin, Yiee-ChsncclloTs ; Henry 
Ooch and Thomas Horseman, Proctors ; Richard Fozton, Mayor. 
A.D. 1618-19.* 

5 — 8. The Mta-qtteia of Eamilton made Earl of Gambri^A. Mr. 
Pretton proaecattd by the Commisstuy ; and ioto eteaping. 
The Lord Mainard fomdeth a Logic-Profet»or. The Sd»- 
lar$^ Ifumber. 

The title of the earldom of Cambridge, which, as we have 
formed^ observed, was oa\j conferred on fbreign princes, or those 
of the English btood-royal, had now lien dormant since the deatli 
of Richard Plant^net, duhe of Yoric, and eighth earl of Cam- 
bridge.-}- It was now the king^a pleasure, in imitation of his snces- 
ton, (reserving that honour for some prime peTsoa,) to confa 
the same on his near kinsman, James marquess Hamilton; who, 
dying some six years after, left his title to James his son, the last 
earl during the extent of our History. 

Robert Scot, Yice-ChanceUot ; William Roberts and Rebert 
Mason, Proctors; Ridiard Foxton, Mayor, a.d, 1619-20. 

* To the lilt' of Erraia, at the clow of tlie Index to tlie finl edldoa (AiUa) of lU> 
moi, Fnllei' hu kppoDJed tin tai^Olaai Dote. — Edi.t. 

" ConrWoiu reader, I >m stuible of a mkaks In the eatiJogDe of Vlee-Chuodkn 
ud Procton of CunbHdge, (beddei a oeedleH lepetitioD of two, twice,} betwixt A* 
fern 1617 and 1630, indnilielj. It anue ftom hhus difFerence betwixt tbs witcM 
cDplea I nrcd, mi socb (I beitere, (be traer) ai are rtorn pinted. I lee irtat, not 
whltbsT, to 07 ; «rbo can dltcover, do confna, bu (for the pvitcnt) eusot rartlfr A* 
ciTor, craTing the diulialde aasislaiiee of 1117 molliOT'a mhu berefi. Hie b«M ii, ill 
the mistake Heft within the eompua of. Uuee yean, (all offieen being right befine ul 
alter,) aod the fbrlunea of Oreece, (he tratb, I mean, of onr Charth-BlatoTr ia aiot «^ 
oemed therein." See preceding page, 324. f This la one U the polnti dbpnted 

by HeyUn ; bat In wUch PuUor, in Ue '< Appeal," praiea Unadf l« hare been cenect- 



Mr. JobD Prntton, Fellow of QueenX siupected for incliDaUon 
to Donconfonnitj, intended to preach in the afternoon, (St. Mark's 
Mimon being ended,) in Botolph's chnrch. Bat Dr. Newcomb, 
commissary to the Chancellor of EI7, oflfended vith the pressing of 
the people, enjoined that serrice should be said without sermon. 
In oppontioa wheieunto, a sermon was made without service ; 
where large complunts to Ijsncelot Andrews, bishop of EI7, and, in 
fine, to the king himself. Hereupon Mr. Preston ras enjoined to 
make what his foes call a recantaiiott- his fiiends a deelaroHon- 
aennon, therein so warilj expressing hig allowance of the liturgy, 
and set forms of prayer, that he neither displeased his own party, 
nor gave hii enemies any great advantage. 

Samuel Ward, Vice-Chancellor; Q^riel More and Philip Pow- 
H Proctofs; Richard Foxton, Mayor, a.d. 1620-21. 

William lord Mainard, first of Wicklow in Ireland, then of 
Estaines in England, brought up, when a young scholar, in St. 
John^s College, (where Dr. PlayTere thoa T^sed it on hts name, 

later vmttt HAiug, et inter aramala NAtDDB,) 

founded a place for a Logic-Professor, aasigniog him a salary of 
fiHty pounds f«r annum ; and one Mr. Thornton, Fellow of the 
same College, made first Professor of that faculty. 

Leonard Maw, Vice-Chanoellor ; Thomas Scamp, Thomas Par- 
Idnson, and Charies Mordant, Proctors ; Edward Potto, Mayor. 
A.D. 1621-22. 

An exact survey was taken of the number of Students in the 
University, whose total sum amounted unto two thousand nine 
bnndred ninety and eight.* 

HiercMne Beale, Viee-Chancellor ; Thomas Adam and Nathanad 
Flick, Proctors ; Thomas Atkinson, Mayor. a.d. 1622-23. 

8 — ^11. A touffh Caweaufor Trinity-Lecture. Dr. Preston carriei 
it tiaar. King jamei't lagt Cominff to Cambridge. 

Thomas Paeke, Vice-Chancellor ; John Smith and Amias Rid> 
ding. Proctors ; Thomas Purchas, Mayor. a.d. 1623-24. 

The town-lectuie at Trinity church being void, two appeared 
compedtOTB for the same ; namely. Dr. John Preston, now Master 
of Emmanuel, preacher, at LincolnVInn, and chaplain to prince 
Charles, generally desired by the townsmen, contributors to the 
lecture. Paul Micklethwait, Fellow of Sidney College, an eminent 
premdker, favoured by the diocesan bishop of Ely, and all the Heads 
<^ Honsee, to have Uie place. 

• " TablM or Joha Scm." 
Q 2 


<K8 HISTORY OF THE ».l>. 1«8. 

The coDteet grew bigh aod liard, inBomuch lu the Coait wu 
engaged therein. Many admired that Dr. Preaton would eticUe «> 
much for so small a matter as an annual stipend of eighty pounds, 
issuing out of more than thrice eighty purses. But his party 
pleaded his zeal, not to get gold by — but to do good in — the ^ace, 
where, (such the confiuence of scholars to the chuich,) that he 
nriight generare patret, " beget begetters,^ which made him to wa?e 
the bishopric of Gloucester, (now void, and offered unto him,) in' 
comparison of this lecture. 

At Dr. Preston*B importunity, the duke of Buckin^am, inters 
posing his power, secured it unto him. Thus was he at the same 
Ume preacher to two places, (though neither had cure of souls 
legally anneted,) LincolnVInn, and Trinity church in Cambridge. 
As Elisha cured the waters of Jericho, by going forth to the spring-i 
head, and casting in salt there ; so was' it the design of this Doct«r, 
for the better propagation of his principles, to infiise them into 
these two fountains, the one of Law, the other of Divinity. And 
some conceive that those doctrines by him then delivered have since 
had their use and application. 

John Mansell, Vice-Chancellor ; William Boswell and Thomas 
Bowles, Proctors; Thomas Purchas, Mayor, a.d. 1634^-25. 

King James came to Cambridge, lodged in Trinity College, was 
entertained with a Philosophy-Act, and other academical perform- 
ances. Here, in an extraordinary Commencement, many (but 
ordinary) persons were graduated Doctors of Divinity, and other 

12 — 15. The Death of Mr. Andrew Doumet. Mr. Creiffhton 
ekoeen hit Succettor. The Ihike of Buckingham tiected Cham- 
cellor. Ths Earl of Holland made Ohanedhr. 1 Charles I. 
A.D. 1625. 

Andrew Downes, Fellow of St. John's, one composed of Greek 
and industry, dieth ; whose pains are so inlaid with sir Henry 
Saville's edition of Chrysostom, that both will be preserved together. 
Five were candidates for the Greek-Profeseoi's place, void by his 
death i namely, Edward Palmer, esq. Fellow of Trinity College ; 
Abraham Wheelocke, Fellow of Clare Hall ; Robert Creighton, of 
Trinity ; Ralph Winterton, of King's ; and James White, Master 
of Arts, of Sidney College. How much was there now of Athens 
in Cambridge, when (besides many modestly conce&ling themselves) 
five able competitors appeared for the place ! 

All these read solemn lectures in -the Schools on a subject 
appointed them by the electors ; namely, the fint verses of the 



three-«tid> twentieth book of Homer's lUada, chiefly issieting 
OD, — ■ , 

Xaipi fioi £ ndrpoxXt ml tlv oiSoo i6itoi<ri, &c. 

Bat the place vss conferred on Mr. Robert Creighton, who, 
doling Mr. Downes^a aged infirmities, had (u Hercules relieved 
weary Atlas) supplied the same, possessed by the former full forty 

John Ooalin and Henry Smith, Vice-Chancellors ; JcJin Norton 
and Robert Ward, Proctors ; Robert Luhin, Mayor, a.d. 

Thomas Howard, earl of Suffolk, ChanceUor of the University, 
departed this life ; a hearty old gentleman, who was a good friend 
to C^mlHidge, and would have proved a better, if occasion had been 
ofllered. It argued the University's a6^ction to his memory, that 
a grand party, therein, unsought, unsent, unsued to, gave their 
Hifirages for his second son, Thomas carl of Berkshire, though the 
duke of Buckingham, by very few voices, carried the place of the 
Chancellor. This duke gave the Beadles their old silver staves, 
and bestowed better and bigger on the University, with the king's 
and his own arms insculped thereon. 

Henry Smith, Vice-Chance llor ; Samuel Hixton and Thomas 
Wake, Proctora; Martin Peirse, Mayor, a.d. 1626-27. 

Thomas Bambrigg, Vice-Chancellor ; Thomas Love and Edward 
Lloyd, Proctors ; John Shirwood, Mayor. 1627-28. 

Henry earl of Holland, recommended by his Majesty to the 
University, is chosen Chancellor thereof^ in the place of the duke of 
Backingham, deceased. 

16, 17. The Lord Brooke founded an HiOory-Profemr. Dr. 
DorUlata ithy accused. 

Sir Fulk Oreville, lord Brooke, bred long since in Trinity Col- 
lege, founded a place fur an History-Professor in the University of 
Cambridge, allowing him an annual stipend of an <>f 100. Isaac 
Dorialaus, Doctor of the Civil Law, an Hollander, was first placed 
therein. Say not. This implied want of worthy men in Cambridge 
for that faculty ; it being but fit, that founders should please their 
own fancy in the choice of the first Professor. This Doctor was a 
Dutchman, very much Anglicized in language and behavionr. 
However, because a foreigner, preferred to that place, his lectures 
vete listened to with the more critical attention of Cambridge 

Incomparable Tacitus be chose for his subject ; and had not yet 
passed over those first words, Urbem Somanam printd regeg 4o£»- 


S30 BISTORT OF THE «.■>■ l*S3. 

ere, when some exception was taken at his ccmmMt thereon. How 
haid is it for liquora not to reaent of the Tesaela thej are ponred 
through I for veasels not to taste of that earth they are made of! 
Being bred in a popular air, hie words were interpreted hy high 
monarchical ears, as over-praising & state, in disgrace of a kiDgdom. 
Hereupon he was accnBcd to the king, tioabled &t court, and, after 
liis submission, hardly restored to his place. This is that Dr. 
Dorislans, Cambridge-Profeseor of History in bis life, who himself 
was made an history at his death, slain in Holland, when Erst 
employed Ambassador from the Commonwealth unto the Statea of 
the United Provinces. 

18—22. Coantty Penury, Cambridge Plenty. 7%e CamBe-mit 
ttiti tie Tomumen. The Plague in Cambridge. Good 
CounaeL King Charles and QuMn Mary oome to Cambridge. 

A great scarcity followed after the plenty in (and men's 
unthankfulness for it) the former year, insomuch that wheat was 
sold in Cambridge market for ten shillings the bushel ; whereby a 
great improvement was made to the Fellowships of the old founda- 
tions ; which the more plainly appears by perusing the words of 
Master Bradford, written some eighty years before, when Fellow of 
Pembroke-Hall ; " My Fellowship here is worth seven pounds 
a-year ; for I have allowed me eighteen pence a week, and as good 
as thirty-three shillings four-pence a-year in money, besides my 
chamber, launder, barber,"* &c. If, since, Fellows be sensible of 
the grand increase of their places, let them thank God for sir 
Thomas &nith, and thank his memory for procuring rent-corn unto 

Matthew Wren, Yice-Chancellor ; Richard Love and Midiael 
Honywood, Proctors; John Badcock, Mayor, a.d, 1628-29. 

A toiigli suit betwixt the University and town-chandlers ; chiefljr 
on the account, whether candles came within the compass of/wWto, 
and so to have their price reasonably rated by the Vice- Chancellor. 
The townsmen betook themselves to their lawyers, the Scholars to 
the lords, plying the Privy-Coundl with learned letters ; by whose 
&vour they got the better; and some refractory townsmen, by 
being discommoned, were humbled into obedience. 

Henry Buts, Vice-Chancellor ; Thomas Goad and William 
Roberts, Proctors ; Samuel Spalding, Mayor, a.d. 1629~1630. 

The plague brake forth in Cambridge. The University in some 
sort was dissolved, and Scholars dispersed into the country. Three 
hundred forty-seven of the town-folk died of the infection. As 

• In hli laHa to Mr. TraTCH, Fox's " Acta aod MoBame«l>," p. lfl$4. 


God^a htnd was juat^upon — man's was metciful unto — the town of 
Cambridge ; and the signal bounty of Iiondon (amounting to some 
thoosanda of pounds) deserves never to be fo^tten. But this 
comipticm of the air proved the generation of many Doctors, gradu- 
ated in a clandestine way, without keeping any Acts, to the great 
diigiBt of those who had fiurly gotten their degrees with public 
pains and expense. Yea, Di. Collins, being afterwards to admit 
u able man Doctor, did (according to the pleasantness of his &ncy) 
distinguish inttr eatAedram pettilentio), et eatMram OMomtitB, 
leaving it to his auditois easily to apprehend his meaning therein. 

After the letum of the Scholars, one of the first that preached in 
St. Mary's minded the University of gratitude to God, who had 
dealt with them, sud he, as the diildrcn, sons of kings, are used ; 
whose aemnts, for the more stale, aie beaten when their young 
nastezs are in fault. The plague light on the townsmen ; though 
Scholars ought to eiamine themselves, whether they were not the 
dtief offenders, 

Henry Buts, Vice-Chancellor ; Peter Ashton and Roger Hock- 
Btoter, Proctors; William Holland, Mayor, a.d. 1630-Sl. 

Heory Bute and Thomas Cumber, Vico-ChancelloTS ; Thomas 
Tyrwhit and Lionel Qatfoid, Proctors ; Thomas Purchas, Mayor. 
A.D. 1631-32. 

King Charles and queen Mary came to Cambridge, were enters 
tiuned at Trinity CdUege with comedies, and expressed candid 
acceptance thereof. 

23 — 26. Matter Adams founds an Arabia Profeuorihip. A 

amort Paetaffs in a Sermon. Mr. Bernard gives Distaste 

vdth his Preaching. Oonvented in the High Commission, 

refuseth to recant, and dieth. 

Thomas Adams, (then citizen, since lord Inayor,) of London, 

deservedly commended for his Christian constancy in all conditions, 

founded an Arabian Professorship, on condition it were frequented 

with competency of auditors. And, notwithstanding the general 

jealousy that this new Arabia (happy, as all noveltiee at the first) 

would soon become desert; yet, it seems, it thrived so well, that 

the salary was settled on Abiaham Wheelock, Fellow of Clare 

HaQ. His iadnstrions mind had vast stowage for words, and is 

lately dead ; whose longer life had, in all probability, been very 

advantageous to the new edition of the Bible in mang languages; 

an excellent work, and may it be as happily performed, as it is 

worthily undertaken. 

A grave divine, preaching before the University, at St. }&aiy\- 
liad this passage in his sermon, that, as at the Olympian games uk 



wu counted the conqueror vbo could drive his clariot-Wlieds new- 
eat the muV, jet bo aa not to hinder his running;, oi to Blidi 


so he who in his seroionB could pieach near popeiy, and jet do 
popery, "there vas your man." And, indeed, it nov b^[aii to 
be the general complaint of most moderate men, that many in the 
UoiTersity, both in the Schools and pulpits, appmdied Uie api- 
nions of die chuich of Rome nearer thu) ever before. 

Mr. Bernard, a discontinuer, and lecturer of St. Sq>ulchre''8, in 
London, preached at St. Marfa is the afternoon. Ma; 6th ; bis 
text, 1 Sam. It. 21 : " The gloi; is departed fixun lanel,*' &C. In 
handling whereof, he let &U some pasngea which gave distaste to a 
prevalent party in the University ; as for saying, " 1. God's ordi- 
nances, when blended and adulterated with innovaUoDS of men, 
cease to be God's ordinances, and he owneth them no longer. 2. 
That it is impossible any should be saved, living and dying (with- 
out repentance) in the doctrine of Rome, as the Tridentine Coun- 
cil hath decreed it. 3. That treason is not limited to the blood 
royal ; but that he is a traitor against a natitm that deptivetli it 
of God's oidinances. 4. That some shamefully symbolise in Pela- 
gian errors and superstitious ceremonies with the church of Rcnnc. 
Let us piay such to their conversion, or to their destruction," &c 

Dr. Cumber, Vice-Chancellor, gave speedy notice hereof to Dr. 
Laud, bishop of London, though he (so quick bis University iotd- 
ligence) had information thereof before. Hereupon he was brought 
into the High Commission, and a recantation tendered unto Uo), 
which he refused to subscribe, thougii professing his sincere sorrow 
and penitency, in hts petitions and letters to the bishop, for any 
oveisighu and unbeieeming expressions in his sermon. Haeupon> 
he was sent back to the new prison, wbtn he died. If he .was 
miserably abused therein by the keepers, (as some have reported,) 
to the shortening of lus life, *< He that maketh inquiritjoc for 
blood," either hath [been], or will be, a revenger thneof. 

Benjamin Lany, Vice-Chancellor ; John Lothian and Daniel 
Ch^undeler, Proctors ; George Saunders, Mayor, a.d. 1632-33. 

Richard Love, Vice-Chancellor ; Henry Molle and Luke Skip- 
pon, Proctors ; Robert Twelves, Mayor. 1633-34. 

27. Orffatu ereettd in Ckaptft. 
Now began the University to be much beautified in buildings, 
' every College either casting its skin with the snake, or renewing its 
bill with the eagle ; having their courts, or at leastwise their Innts 



and gate-hooBes, repaiied and adorned. But the greatest alteration 
WS8 in tbeit cbapels, moat of them being gnced with the accession 
of organa. And, seeing Music is one of the liberal arts, how could 
it be <inarrel1ed at in an Universitj, if they " sang with undentond- 
ing"both of the matter and manner theieofF Yet some took 
great distaste tbenat, as ottendancy* to superstition. 

At this time I discontinued my living in the TTnireTsity ; and 
therefore craTe leave here to bi«8k off my History, finding it diffi- ' 
cult to attun to certain intelligence. However, because I meet 
with much printed matter about the visitation of Cambridge in these 
troublesome times, (though after some years' interval,) I shall, for 
a cooclnnon, adventure to give posterity an unpartial relation 
Ibcteof : — 

28~~32. CoOeffe-plea^ Beta to the King. The Act aggraveOed^ and 
' exoufed. Three I>oetort ivyaritoned in the Totcer, and tie 
Vioe-Chaiudhr in Ely-Home. 

Richard Houldaworth being Vice-chancellor, a. d. 1641-42. 

August Slst. The Uaaten and Fellows of all Colleges send 
their plate, (or money in lieu thereof,) to the Icing to York ; many 
wishing that every ounce thereof were a ponnd for his sake, con- 
ceiving it unfitting that they should have superfluities to spare, 
vbilst their sovereign wanted necessaries to spend. 

This was beheld by the parliament as an act unjust in itself, and 
dangoens in the consequence thereof; for the present Masters and 
Pellows were only fiduciaries, not proprietaries, of the plate, — to 
keep and use it, not to dispose thereof. Was not this obliterating 
Uie rec<»ds of gentlemen's bounty, who had conferred those costly 
utensils on the Colleges ? Besides, this was interpreted a foment- 
ing of the dvil war, thereby encouraging and enabling the king 
against his subjects. 

In vain did the Heads plead for themselves, that they, affrighted 
mX the plundering of the house of the countess of Rivers, at Long- 
Melford, (the firstfroits of rapine in our age,) did suspect the like 
wioleoee. Plunderere have long arms, and can quickly reach oat of 
-Suffolk into Canibridgeshu«. For prevention whereof, they thought 
good to secure some of their plate in a safe hand ; and could not 
-find a filter than his majesty^ heir to his ancestors, the foundera 

* It li difflcnlt to dliioa nbethcFi Foller emplojed this ttori in the teaie of " utteiid- 
matt," or whetbei be triibad it (o eonve; ■ meuiliig ainiigKhat ■lUed to ow men dmuI 
plD«M of '< baring > tendency to" taj ibing.— Edit. 


334 BIBTOBT OF THE «■«• 164S. 

pAiamoant of all Houses. Besides, thoogfa the douds look black 
with a louring complexion, yet did it not lain wai dQvnri^t betwixt 
king and parliament, it being some days before the ejecting of hia 
Btandard at Nottingbam. 

Dr. Beale, Dr. Martin, and Dr. Sterne, Mastets of St. John's, 
Queen's, and Jesus Colleges, are carried to London, and imprisoned 
in the Tower, for their activity in the plate businev* And Cam- 
bridge is made the seat of " the Committee for the Eastern Associa- 
tion," which escaped the best of all parts in this civil war, the tmoie 
thereof only ofl^ding those counties, whilst the ^re was felt in 
' other places. 

Richard Houldsworth, Vice-Cbancelloi. Before his year expired, 
he was seized on, oaA imprisoned, first in Ely-House, then in the 
Tower, for executing his majesty's command in printing at Cam* 
bridge such his Declarations as were formerly printed at York. 

33, 34. 7^ Seadt deity the Parliament Maaey. The Death of 
Dr. Ward. 

March SOlb. The Vice-Chancellor and Heads of Houses, solemnly 
assembled in the consistory, were demanded to contribute to the par- 
liament, so to redeem their forwardness in supplying the king. Wbich, 
performed by them, would, notwithstanding their former crooked car-' 
riage in the cause, bolster them upright in the parliament's esteem. 
But they persisted in the negative, " that suck contributing was 
against true religion and a good conscience ; " for vhidi some of 
them were afterwaids imprisoned in St. John's College. 

Amongst these was Dr. Samuel Ward, Master of Sidney Col- 
lege, and Divinity Professor, Lady Margaret's, (or "the king's" 
shall I say F) in the University. For, though the former by bis 
foundation, he may seem the latter by his resolution. Yet was he 
a Moses, not only foi slowness of speech, but, otherwise, meekness 
of nature. Indeed, when in my private thoogbU I have beheld 
him and Dr. Collins, (disputable whether more different or more 
eminent in their endowments,) I could not but remember the run- 
ning of Peter and John to the place where Christ was buried. In 
which race John came first, as the youngest and swiftest; but 
Peter first entered into the grave.' Dr. Collins had mudi the speed 
of him in quickness of parts ; but let me say, (nor doth the relation 
of a pupil misguide me,) the other pierced the deeper into undeiL 
ground and profound points of divinity. Now, as high winds bring 
some men the sooner into sleep, so I conceive the storms and tem- 
pests of these distracted times invited this good old man the sooner 
to his long rest, where we fairly leave him, and quietly draw the 
curtains about him. 



35, 30. J%6 Oath c/Ditemmy tmidwed, and refuted. Mr. Atk 
diaaeoweth any such Oath. ^ 

Now ftppronclied the general doom of " nmlignaDt membeiB "" (bo 
tenned) in tbe Uoiversitj ; the earl of MaiK^ester, mih hia tiro 
cluplains, Mr. Asli and Mr. Good, coming thitlier to effect a 
reformation. In preparation whereunto, I read hov an oath ofdie- 
coYery • was tendered to nutny, and nniversally refiiBed, " as agiunst 
all law tad conscience, as being therebj' made to accnse their near- 
est and deareat friends, benefactore. Tutors, and Masters, and 
betray the members wd acts of their seveial Societies, contrary to 
their peaceable statutes, namely, iVon revelabit aliquod seeretum 
Cott^i, nee malum aut damnum inferee ouilibet Sociorum. Where- 
opon this oath was generally denied. 

To be satisfied in tbe truth hereof, I wrote to Mr. Ash, (whose 
fitce I bad never seen,) requesting him to inform me,— >«uch pro- 
ceedings seeming very sttange to my apprehension. But bear bis 
answer: — 

" TaoLf, Sir, I am so great a stranger to that Oath ofDtacowry 
which you mention, that I cannot call to mind the moving of any 
nich matter, by the lord of Manchester, or any who attended bim. 
And as for myself, having been a sufferer upon the dislike of tbe 
oath ex offiw>, I have, all along my'Ufe, been very tender in appear* 
ing as an instmment is any such matter. Sir, I may be under 
tDtstakea through forgetful n ess, but I Jiope there is a principle 
within me which will not suffer me to suggest an untruth wUlingly. 
" Your loving friend, 

" London, Jviy \Oth, 1654. Simon Ash.** 

Here we see what he writes, and what others print. If there 
was any such oath, it seems it had tbe happiness of a short part ; 
and, sensible of its own ill-acting therein, it sneaked down so 
qtiickly into the tiring-house, that it hopes not to be remembered 
ever to have come upon the stage. But if Mr. Ash was active 
herein, I see stripes are not so soon foi^otten by those that bear 
tbem, as by those that lay them on. For my own part, I am satis- 
Bed no such oath was tendered by him, charitably believing, that he 
^ronld not cross his own doctrine, when, preaching to the parlia- 
ment, anno 1640, on Psalm iz. 9 : " The Lord is a refuge foe the 
offKasei,^ be compluned of tbe sttictness of University-oaths.'f' 

in " tbo Appeal of bjnied Lmoceuc 


236 HISTOSY OF TOE . *.v. 161): 

37) 38. 7%e Covenant generaU^ t&ndered, and refatedt 
Not long after, wuniog was given, that all Students should come 
in vriihin twelve days, and take the Covenant* This seemed a stnnge 
BummonB ; and the two chaplains (to whom the esri of Manchester, 
most mild in himself, chieflj remitted the managing of these matteis) 
were challenged for injustice herein. For, though divines, thej 
were presumed to have so much of civil law, yea, of the law of 
nature, aa to kaov, Nemo tenetur ad impoaibilia, "No man is 
tied to impossibilities ;" whereas many' Scholars, being absent more 
scores of miles than they had days allowed them, (besides the 
danger of armies interposed,) could not, if receiving warning, repair 
at the time appointed. But because many of them were suspected 
to be in the king's army, twelve days were conceived for them as 
much as twelve months ;*{* no time being too short for those who 
were willing, and none long enough for such who were unwillbg, to 
take the Covenant. 

This Covenant, being offered, was generally refused ; whereupon 
the recusants were ordered, without any delay, to pack oat of the 
UnJTersity three days after their ejection. 

39 — 42. Chines taken at BUhop Brownrigg'B Sermon. Ejectmeni 
of MoHere, Fdlotoi, and Soholan from QaemCe CoU^e. 
What became of to many tjected Fellovx. The Chaplaini 
Plea for themeehea. 
Dr. Brownrigg, bishop of Exeter, and Master of Catherine Hall, 
was now V ice-Chancellor of Cambridge, succeeding Dr. Holdswortb, 
as I take it ; for, know, reader, I begin now to be incurious in chrono- 
logy ; not so much because weary with a long observing thereof, as 
because, such the noise of the present disturbance, I cannot hear what 
the clock of time doth strike. This sure I am, that the Vice- 
chancellor, though eminent for his piety, gravity, and learning, 
could' so little prevail for others, (endeavouring all the good oflSces 
he could,) that the next year he was banished the University, for 
preaching the inanguiation-sermon of the king, wherein many 
passages were distasted by the parliament-party. And now they 
vigorously proceeded, having learned the maxim in Hippocrates, that 
licei in extremis ad Upothymiam vaauare, " tn desperate cures, one 
may let blood, even till the patient swoons : " on confidence, that 
though the soul dissembleth a departure, yet it will stay still in the 
body, especially when finding it amended in the temper thereof. 
And, it seems, the blood appeared so corrupt to these physicians, 

* Qumla CanlBbrigitmit, pagv — t Mt. Aah loliirmcd me, thil, kftenrrtrJ. 



tb»t 80 great & qnanUt; -was taken away, Bome CoU^es lay, as it 
mre, languiBhing foi Uie loss thereof. 

In Queen's CoU^ there iras made a thorough reformation, neitlier 
Master, Fellow, nor Scholar being left of the Foundation ; bo that, 
according to the laws of the admiralty, it might seem a true wreck, 
and forfeited, in this land-tempest, for lack of a live thing therein, 
to preserve the propriety thereof. However, some conceived this a 
great severity, contrary to the eternal moral of the Jewish law, 
provided against the depopulation of birds' nests, that the old and 
young ones should be destroyed together. But, to prevent a 
Tacuity, (the detestation of nature,) a new plantation was soon 
substituted in tlieir room, who, short of the former in learning and 
abilities, went beyond them in good affections to the parliament. 

However, on the Account of humanity, some pity may seem due 
to such Fellows, outed house and home, merely for refusing the 
Covenant, being otherwise well-deserving, in the judgments of those 
who (gected them. And it is strange to conceive bow many of 
them got any subsistence or livelihood to maintain themselves. 
This mindetb me of the occasion of the Greek proverb : — * 
*H rUniKn ii Sitmrxfi ypaftftaTa, " He is either dead, or teacheth 
Bchool." For when Nicias, the general of Athens, (havbg many 
scholars in his army,) had fought unfortunately against the Sici- 
lians, and when such few as returned home were interrogated, what 
became of their companions, this was all they could return, " They 
were either dead, or tsi^t school i" a poor and woful employ- 
ment, it seems, in those days, as weighed in the other scale 
against death,— rso indifierent was the odds betwixt them. The 
same we conceive die hard hap of such Fellows that survived the 
grief of thSi ejection. Many betook themselves to the painfiil. 
profession of schoolmaster ; no calling which is honest bemg dis- 
graceful, especially to such who, for theit conscience' sake, have 
deserted a better coodition. 

I know what the chaplains of the earl have pleaded, in'exense of 
their rigorous proceedings against the Scholars at this time ; 
namely, "That authority was much exasperated by Academics 
deserting their places, and refusing, upon summoDS given, to come 
in with petitions for &vour in relation to such particulars wherein 
they were dissatisiSed ; that, as if the times were their text, what- 
ever the tubject of their sermons, they were invective against the 
present authority; that Querela Cantabrigientu is but Querela, 
Tclating all things to the worst, and plaints are no prools ; that, for 
their own parte, they only answered the spur, and scarcely that, 
being quickened on both sides, both from above and beneath, and 



duly oomphined of, tlist Uieir oTeT^TemiBSness would obstnict 
refbimatJoD, botK in church and UniTenity." How &t this will 
pierail oa the belief of posterity, u unto me unknown. 

43. Oreai AlteraHoo in ffgadg offfottaea. 
Some perchance may be go curious hpreafler to know what 
removals and substitutions were made at this time, amongst the 
Heads of Houses. Now, although a man may hold a candle to 
lighten posterity so near as to bum his own fingers therewith, I will 
nm the hazard, rather than be wanting to any reasonable desire. 



1. Dr.JohnCosinsidean Petet House. 

of Peterborough, 
and prebendary of 

2. Dr. Thomw Past, Clare Hall. 

archdeacon of Lon- 

3. Dr. Benjamin Laney, Pembroke Hall. 

dean of Rochester. 

4. Dr. Thomas Badg- Cains College. 


5. Dr. Samuel Collins, King's College. 

the King's Profess- 

6. Dr. Edward Martin, Queen's College. 

cliaplain to arch- 
bishop Laud. 

7. Ralph Brownri^e, Catherine Hall. 

bishop of Exeter. 

8. Dr. Itichaid Sterne, Jesus Coll^. 
chaplain to arch- 
bishop Laud. 


Lazarus Seaman, mi- 
nister in London* 
bred in Emmanuel 
Collie, since D. D. 
Ralph Cudworth, Fel- 
low of Emmanad 
College, since D.D. 

lUchard Vines, bred 
in Magdalen Col- 
lie, afterward out- 
ed for refusing the 

William Dell, sdmiU 
ted first into Em- 
manuel College. 

Benjamin' Whichcot, 
Fellow of Emma- 
nuel C<^^^ sinoe 

Herbert Palmer, for- 
merly Fellow of 
the same College. 

William Spuistow, 
Fellow, and outed 
for rethsing the 

Timothy [Thomas] 
Young, bred in 
Scotland, onted fw 
refusing the En- 




0. Dr. Willum Beale, St JoWs Coll. 
chaptun to the king. 

10. Dr. Thomas Camber, 
deaa of Carlisle. 

Trinity College. 

11. Dr. Richard Hold». Emmanael Coll. 

vorth, archdeacon 
of HnntiDgdon. 

12. Dr. Samuel Ward Sidney College. 

(in effect but a 
prisooer) died a 
natursl death. 

John Arroirsmith, 
Fellow of Cathe- 
rine Hall, since 
Thomas Hill, Fellow 
of Emmanuel Col- 
lege, since D.D. 
Anthony Tnckney, 
formerly Fellow, 
ance D.D. 
Richard Minshull, 
chosen by the Soci- 
ety into the Toid 

Four Uasteis, by the espenal faToun of their fiienda, and their 
> own waiy compliwce, continued in their places ; namely, Dr. 
Thomas Bainbrigg; [Master of Christ^s College;} and Dr. Thomas 
Edea, of Trinity Hall ; but died soon after ; Dr. Richard Love, 
Master of Bene*t College, afterwarda Ma^aret Professor ; and Dr. . 
Edward Rainbow, of Magdalen College, who not long aftei lost his 
Mastership, for the refusal of the Engagement. 

44^ 45. 7^ Aui Effe<^ of War. Townmm tax SoAolari. 

Pass we now from the 'Anc^ufdc* tit-'iivyvsj " ^^ li^ingt" con- 
sisting of Students, to the a-Jm^^of, " the dead University," as 
ctHnposed of lands, libraries, and buildings ; where we meet with 
many moans in this kind : How soldiers were now quartered in 
their Coll^fes ; chapels abused ; Common-prayer books, yet legally 
in force, torn in St. Mary's ; their bridges broken down ; mate- 
rials for building Collies taken away ; Jesus-College grove (no 
idolatrous one) cut down to the grtund ; ancient coins of St. John's 
College taken away, valued at twenty-two pounds, according to 
weight, though an hundred times worth more than they were worth, 
wherein every fHece was a volume, and all together a libiary of 
Roman antiquities. 

But chiefly it vexed them, that their lands, hitherto exempted 
Jnm payments, and, like Ait &ther's house who should conquer 
0<diath, free in Israel, (1 Sam. xvii. 25,) were now subjected to 
taxes, wherein the raters were heavier than the rates, being taxed by 
the townsmen. And how " odious is a handmiud that is heir to 
her mistress ;'" (Prov. xxx. 23 ;) but much more when mistress of 


240 HISTORY OF THE 4.11. 1S43. - 

ber miBliess, as here the town, in Bome nrt, wis oTer the Univet- 
Bitf, where such vho set the lowest price on leuning pat the 
highest nliution on the ProfesBors theieof. 

46, 47. Moderate MenU Judgtamt. St. Andrme'a Okwreh 

However, there are Univetuty'inen, (not altogether so passionate _ 
for, but every whit as affectionate to, their mother,) who, as thej 
condole Cambridge for &ring so ill, congratulate her also for faring 
no worse, in such tnmultuoas times. When all the body is 
distempered, with what hope can either eye promise ease unto 
itself? Was their glass broken P It was well Uieir windows were 
left. Was the floor of some of thdi ch^ls digged up ? Well 
that the valla of them were not digged down. Were one or two of 
their bridges broken P It was well that any was spared from 
whence Cam-bridge might still retain her denomination. 

Now. that my sun may not set in a cloud, amidst many bemoan- 
ings of Cambridge, I must rejoice, that the ruins of one ancient 
church, Sl Andrew's by name, are repaired by the joint bene&c- " 
tion of many, and particularly of Richard Rok, esq. late Mayor of 
Cambridge, and sheriff of Ckmbridgeshire. Let him who hath the 
building of Ood's house (whilst living) for his monument, have the 
praise of posterity for his never-dying epitaph. 

48, 49. The Autior'tjtut Apology. A witty komonynumt 
Aneteer. A Prayer. 

Here some may expect, according to my promise, an " History 
of tlie University of Oxford : " but, finding my infonnations thence 
(assisted with my own industry) to &11 short of filling a just 
treatise, I thought fit to insert their Colleges in the liody of my 
History, according to the dates of their respective foundations, sub- 
mitting the censure of my fiut dealing therein to the ingenuous in 
that fimious University. 

To draw to conclusion : lately a College in Cambridge, much 
beautified with additional buildings, sent a messenger to a Doctor, 
no less ingenious than bountiful, who had been a great, and pro- 
mised to be a greater, bene&ctor nnio them, requesting him to 
remember ihem, "or else their College must even ^and itiU,^ 
meaning they must desist from going farther in th«r intended 
fkbric. To whom the Doctor answered, " May your Coll^, and all 
th& Colleges in both Universities, ttand still ! " In the chari- 
table meaning whereof all good men will concur, and join with us in 
our following devotions : — 




O QoD ! who, in the creating of the lover world, didst first 
make ligfi^* (confusedly diffiuad, as yet, throng^ the imperfect 
nniTene,) and afterwaida didst collect the same into two great 
lightaj-f to Olnminate ail creatnres Uierein : O Lord '. who art a 
€k>d of knowledge, and dost lighten ever; man that cometh into 
the world : | O Lord ! who in ont saUon haet moved the hearts of 
fonndets and benefactors to erect and endow two famous lumina- 
ries of learning and religion, bless them with the assistance of thy 
Holy Spirit Let neither of them contest (as once thy disciples 
<ni earth,) which should be the greatefit,§ but both contend which 
hall approve themselves the best in thy preseoce. 

O, diongh for their sins thou pennittest them to Ve eclipsed, for 
thj mercy do not suffer them to be extinguished. 

And as thou didst appoint Aose two great lights in the firma- 
ment to last till thy servants shall have no need of the sun nor o. 
tlte moon to shine therein, for thy glory dotfa lighten them : || so 
^nnt these old lights may continue till all acquired and infused 
knowledge be swallowed up with the vision and fruition of thy 
bleseed-making majesty. Amen. 



Hakt persons who are accustomed to consider Cambridge as having 
been pre-eminetitly a matbeniatical University ab initio, will be snr- 
ptised to find exceecUn^y slight allasioni to this subject in FuLLmt's 
** Kstoiy.' William Oughtred, of King's College, is the only one 
-whom he has particularly distinguished, among the " many eminent 
penons still surviriiig, prince of die mathemotidans of our age ; " 
while a man oC &r greater genius ond more extensive acquirements, 
who was nndonbtedly Iht moti evtinenl malhematician of Ihote early 
day$, and one to whom mathematical science in some of its highest 
clepartments is more deejJy indebted than many conceited modems are 
willing to allow, is dismissed with this veiy brief and indistinct notice, 
under " Ab leanied writers' of Emmaonel College,— "John WalHs is 
uow Geometiy-PfoftsBor in Oxford." Samuel Foster, of the same 
Coll^ie, is dso icoorded as having been a learned writer " of Mathe- 
DMtMs." The reader has now he((xce him the wvlbbt of ma FulWs 
enumeration of &£ matiiematical t^ent of the Univernty ; and he will 

■ (hn. L S. t Verw Ifi. 1 John i. ». 4 Lake sul. 34. || Rei. ul. S3. 




thence correctly conclude, that tliii was a department of leanuag in 
which Cambtidga naa then accounted to hare no pecniiar excellence : 
otherniae onr author, in his pardonable seal, would have claimed for 
his Alma Maler ropi%ine mathematical honoars. Yet if asj one will 
cast but a cursor; glance orer the names appended to the extremely 
varied productions in the Muia Cantabrigientet, on some of the greai 
public occanons soon after the Reatoration, (each as the royal mar- 
riage, the death of Henrietta Maria, the queen-mother,) will be amawd 
at the mass of mathematical talent which had been in a coarse of germi- 
nation during the Interregnum. Speculation and theorizing in reli^on, 
philosophy, and politics had then attained their utmost eleration ; and 
it is a remarkable fact, that, with the exception of those who had been 
preserved in the better and higher principles ia which they had been 
carefully educated, all the &mous persons that composed the original 
nucleos from which the Royal Society bad its commencement, and all 
those who in this University exclusively were distinguished by the 
honourable appellative of " latitude-men," had been generally trmned 
up as strict predestinarians in religion, repablicani in politics, and very 
litde better than admirers of Paracelsus, or of the mystical Bohotu- 
cians, in philosophy. But that great levolutioii in En^and which is 
coDunonly viewed only in its poiUical aspect and bearing, vras as 
mighty and wonderful in its religiout and philotophical issues. The 
discussions connected with every subject of human knowledge which 
very naturally arose at such an exciting period, called into healthful 
exercise the profound and heavenly-gif^ powers of many, with whom 
the noblest Acuities would, in all human probability, under ordinary 
orcomstances, have lain dormant and neglected. These great men 
entered heartily into the various departments of the inductive system 
of Bacon's philosophy, and introduced its principles into the modifica- 
tion which was then formed of their religious and political opinions 
and practice. 'Whatsoever, therefore, did not recommend itself at 
once to their tmderstanding through the tests of experiment, ceased to 
feim any part of their political, philosophical, or religious creed. The 
Uessed results are to be traced in the salutary checks and ptovinona 
which have progressively been admitted into the admirable con- 
stitution under which it is our privilege to lire, and in those amaaing 
improvements and discoveries, in every branch of homau knowledge, 
which we hare been peimitted to behold. Some temporary injoiy was 
certunly inflicted on their reUgions principles by this arrangement ; 
bat it was in its nature such as was to be expected by every sound 
philosopher who has studied that propensi^ which inheres in the 
human mind toward strong moral re-action, on the acoesnon of those 
new and overpowering views and feelings which it oondudea to be 
true and correct. Afler the many years in which an antinoDiian &ith 
had been rampant among all classes of those professors of Chiistianit^ 
who had adopted the dc^mas of rigid predestination, it is not sur- 
prising that the manly practical vniters who succeeded them, in 



endcaTooring to counteract what iras deemed to be a pernicious error 
in the doctrine and practice of their predecessors, should exclude from 
their cloTer and powerful treatises nearly all mention of faith, except 
IB its lowest acceptation of mere hittorical belief. But that infinitelj' 
Wise and Benignant Being, who kindly watches over the rising 
intoests of bis militant church, provided a remedy in due season ; 
and, by wonderful means of his own derising, brought about that 
healthy state of religion which marks the present ^e, exhibiting 
generally a happy conustency between Christian fiuth and practice, 
between official doctrine and personal example. 

Such was the early cradling <xt incunahvla of the Mathematics at 
Cambridge ; and, within three years after the Restoration of monar- 
chy, the want of some adequate proriuon for the public encouragement 
of this interesting and delightfully-multifarions study having been 
Mt and regretted, the truly honourable Henry LroAs, Member of 
Parliament for the UniTersity, founded and endowed that noble 
PToTeasorship of Mathematics, which will transmit his undying name 
to the latest agje*, and the chair of which has been filled by men of 
trantcendent talents, from Barrow and Newton its earliest occupants, 
to Airy and Babbage their gifted and more recent successors. 

But BToiy one who is obserrant of the progress which any pardcular 
Inaach of ennobling study has made in our great nurseries of learning, 
tren attet it has met with as ready and cordial a reception as in the 
present instanoe, must know that still the advances of a farotirite 
science may be coirectiy demgnated as being " ^ow and gradual,'' 
before it can obtain the general regard due to its increasing claims, or 
secure for itself permanent attention. About half a century elapsed, 
from the founding of the Hathematical Professorship, before those 
aUe men with whom rested the choice of the best course of learning 
to be pursued, were induced to adopt the Mathematics for a leading 
academical study, and one of the most useful instrumenia which they 
could employ in fbiming thoughtful habitudes and shining characters. 
Hui great and gradual change, and the effects which it soon produced, 
aie w«U described in the words of one of its original promoters, Dr. 
Edmund Iaw, afterwards lord bishop of Carlisle, in the preface to his 
tianalation of archbishop Kino's *' Essay on the Origin of Eril : " — 

" But, enough of these trifling particulars, which have detained me 
fium a more important point intended for this place, namely, suirey- 
ing the too general turn of our Unirendty education. Haring, there- 
fixe, about the time aboTo-mentioned, (1733,) remarked some abuses 
in the training up of oni youth, by beginning it with inculcating the 
doS, crabbed systm of Aristotie's Logic, and at a time when they were 
least capable of applying that to any Yatoable purpose ; by persisting 
to retail such an idle system, eren after it was grown obsolete, and not 
i^er l^ing some soUd foundation in natural philosophy, with its 
■sodem improrements, or ' natural law,' as the whole doctrine of morals 
is now termed ; which would be of constant use to these young dit- 
» 2 , 



ciples, ia what way of life soevet they might afterwards be eBg^^ed^ 
and likewise help to settle in them right nodou of religwn ; wfaidt 
would, abore all things, tond to m^e them more sober-minded, and, 
coQseqttently, more submissire to their auperion hne, as well as moi« 
happy in thenuelTes for ever hereafter. Befleoting on these absurdi- 
ties which still prcTmled in our public forms of ednoation, some of my 
ftiends were induced to seek a remedy, by fteeing their pui^ls ftom all 
that pedantic jargon, and introducing some better means to eng^ 
their attention, and aocustom them to a close, r^jular way of dunking^ 
and thereby prosecuting their future sttidies with gieatei aoctuwiy and 
precision : to this end they called in the assistanoe of the Mathematics, 
little then imngiTiing, that in a short time these uuue nairiirtaatB, tLen 
c<miparatiTely meagre instruments, should, like Pharaoh's lean Idiie, eat 
up tdl that was good and well &T0UFed is the Buncos thenuelvefl ; that 
they should usurp the place of those very sciences to which they wer« 
originally designed to be subserrient, and for which station Ihey Wwe 
sufficiently qualified. But such became the common iu&tuation, that 
these helps for conducting sn inquiry through the whole Cyolopcdia, 
instead of continuing to perform such useful offices, were, by the mere 
force of &aluon, set up for a capital branch of it, and the best part of 
our sdiolars' time spent in qieculating on these same instruments; which 
would, in any other case, ^^ear perhaps to be somewhat preposteroiu. 
Howerer, these farourite specnlatioas did not at first sp ^ engross all 
the thoughts of our young students, as not b> admit some points of a 
moral and metaphysical kind to accompany them; which last held 
their ground for abore twenty years ; and, together with Mr. Locke's 
Essay, Dr. Clarke went lumd in hand through oar publio schools and 
lectures, though they were built on principles directly opposite to each 
other ; the latter of them founding all oui mor^ knowledge on certain 
innate 'insdncts,' or absolute 'fitnossee,' howerer inconsistent these 
two terms may appear, the form^ being wholly calculated to remove 
them : till, at length, certain flaws being disooTered in the Doctor's 
celebrated argument, a priori, (on the truth of which many minute 
philosopherB had wholly pinned their faith,) his doctrine fell into dis-j 
repute, and was generally given up ; but its downiall, at the same 
dme, sunk the credit of that whole science, as to the certainty of its 
principles, which thereby received so great a shock as is ha^y yet 
recovered. This tltrew us back into a more eagor attachment than 
ever to its rival, the Mathematics, wbtcb grew &om beoceforth into a 
most important and most laborious study, being confined chiefly to the 
deepest and most diiBcolt parts of them, and taking up the student's 
whole time and pains, so as to become incompatible with any other 
much more necessaiy studies, as will appear below. And here one 
cannot avoid stopping to lament the notorious weakness of the bunuin 
mind ; which, instead of exerting its own native powers of examining 
and judging in points of faith, is ever ^t to shelter itself under some 
sorry system of opinions, accidentally thrown in its way ; and through 



mere indolence, or perit^a dread of Aat odititn theologicum which too 
often attends on each attempt toward any improTement, or what u 
caOed ' innoration,' (though it be no more in reality than removing 
those innoTadona made by time, the greatest of all innoratora, according 
ta Lord Bacon,) ata down contented with its andent etate of igno- 
rance and blind credulity, willing to connive at all those gross and 
glaring abenrdities that have long beiet it, and been sufEered to con- 
tinue in so many learned and religious societies. Bat It is hoped, that 
most of these are already seen through, and will shortly be discarded 
by the landable endeaTOura of the University of Cambridge in particu- 
lar ; which is labonring to refonn such abases, and restore its credit to 
that first dt^free in arts, and the exercise preparatory t« it, which vrat 
once the peculiar glory of Ihia place ; and wherenpon not only the 
academical character of each candidate, but likewise his success in life, 
does sdll very much depend ; well aware that this long-desired piece 
of reformation can never be secured effectually, but by a careful and 
impartial distribution of those honours which usually attend the said 
promotion, — a prospect whereof is found to be the great object of 
ambition to many of these young men from the very time of theii 
admisaton into CoU^e ; to this they often sacrifice their whole stock 
of strength and spirits, and so entirely devote most of their first four 
years to what is called taking a go6d degree, as to be hardly good for 
any thing else, least of all for a proper discharge of that important 
duty to which the greatest part of them were originally destined, and 
which ought to be the chief business of their future lives ; but to 
which, alas ! they have Idtherto been utter strangers. A sad truth I 
of which we are made very sensible in the mortitying ofEce of examin- 
ing such persons for holy orders.* 

All who are conversant with the eccledastical history of those times 
wiD understand the meaning of the good bishop, when he deplores 
" the notorioos weakness of the human mind, which, instead of exert- 
ing its own native powers of examining and judging in points of fwth, 
is ever apt to shelter itself nuder some sorry system of opinions acci- 
dentaHy thrown in its way," &c. ; and the vast prevalence of Ariaa 
darkne«s among his peraoiial friends, fivm Carlisle to Richmond and 
Catterick, leaving scarcely one of the intervening places unviuted, will 
explain the source of the bishop's disaatisfaction. The quotation is 
Tahiable on another accoont ; It serves to show, by implicaliou at least, 
that the much-traduced Mathematics are not, necessarily and per te, 
inimical to religion; on the contrary, an inference fairly deducible 
Aom bishop Law'a lament, is, that a devotion to those studies fortifies 
the yonthful mind against yielding too easily to the attacks of heretical 
pisvity. Other remarks, nnaroidaUy brief, connected with the chief 
purpose for which I have quoted these words, are reserved for another 
part of this note. 

While writing these lines I am reminded of an expression employed 
by the late archbishop Mnrkhara. Tlie respectable vicar of a lai^ge and 



populous parish in Yorluliire, with whom it was my happiness in very 
early life to lire on terms of intimacy, had written to his Qrace in 
behalf.of a clever Cambridge-roan, who had taken a high degree, and 
whom he was desirous of engaging as hia curate, after he had received 
deacon's orders. The reply of the archbishop, dignified yet playfo), 
was read to me the morning after its anind ; and as two hopeful 
Oxford-graduates had likewise been mentioned in my aged friend's 
communication, he was told, without any appearance of acrimony, 
though his Grace was himself an eminent Oxonian, that Cambridge- 
men were usually well-qualified to excel as dever excisemen, bnit that 
few of them ever became good dirines. There may be some shrewd- 
ness in this piece of pleasantry ; but it is unaccompanied with those 
incontroTertible essentials of tiiith which never mislead, as the reader 
will perceive when he has perused the candid and 8en«ble observations , 
of that highly gifted and very amiable man, archbishop Whately, which 
form a part of the " Preface " to his celebrated " Elements of liOgic," 
and which I here subjoin, in proof that Oxford scholars aie not 
insensible of some defects in their system : — 

" It was doubtless from a strong and deliberate conricdou of the 
advantages, direct and indirect, accruing from an acquaintance with 
logic, that the University of Oxford, when re -modelling their system, 
not only retained that branch of study, regardless of the clamours of 
many of the balf-leamed, but even assigned a prominent place to it, 
by making it an indispensable part of the examination for the first 
degree. This last circumstance, however, I am conrinced, has, in a 
great degree, produced an effect opposite to what was designed. It 
has contributed to lower, instead of exalting, the estimation of the 
study ; and to withhold from it the earnest attention of many who 
might have applied to it with profit, I am not so weak as to imagine 
that any system can ensure great proficiency in any pursuit whatever, 
either la all students, or in a very large proportion of them : ' we 
sow many seeds to obtain a few flowers : ' but it might have been 
expected, (and doubtless was expected,) that^a majority at least of 
successful candidates would derive some benefit worth mentioning 
from their logical pursuits ; and that a considerable proportion of (he 
distinguished candidates would prove respectable, if not eminent, 
logicians. Such expectations I do not censure as unreasonable, or 
such as I might not have formed myself, had I been called upon to 
judge at that period when our experience was all to come. Subse- 
quently, however, experience has shown that those expectations have 
been very iimdequately realized. The truth is, that a very small pro- 
portion, even of distinguished students, ever become proficients in 
logic ; and that by far the greater part pass through the Univeisity 
without knowing anything at all of the subject. I do not mean that 
they have not learned by rote a string of technical terms ; but that 
they understand absolutely nothing whatever of the principles of the 



" Theologf, not being a science, admits of in6aita degrees of profi- 
ciency, from that nhich is irithin the reach of a child, ap to the 
highest that is attunable by the most exalted genius ; every one of 
which degrees is inestioiably raluable as far as it goes. If any one 
understands tolerably the Church Catechbm, or even the half of it, 
he ImowB something of divinity; and that something is incalculably 
preferable to nothing. But it is not so with a science : one who does 
not understand the principles of Euclid's demonatiations, whateTsr 
number of questions &nd answers be may have learned by rote, knows 
absolutely nothing of geometry : unless he attain this point, all his 
labour is utterly lost ; worse than tost, perhaps, if he is led to beliere 
that he has learned something of a science, when, in truth, he has not. 
And the same is the case with logic, or any other science. It does 
not admit of such various degrees, as a Vnowledge of religion. Of 
course I am fiur from supposing that all who understand anything at all 
of logic stand on the same level ; but 1 mean, what is surely undeniable, 
that one who does not embrace the fundamental principles of that, or 
any other snence, whatever he mayhave taken on authority, and learned 
by rote, knows, properly speaking, nothing of that science. And 
such, I have no hesitation in saying, is the case with a considerable 
proportion even of those candidates who obtain testimonials, including 
many who gain distinction. There are some persons (probably not so 
many as one in ten, of such as have in other respects tolerable abili- 
ties) who are physically incapable of the degree of steady abstraction 
requisite for really embracing the principles of logic or of any other 
acience, whatever pains may be taken by themselTea or their teachers. 
But there is a much greater number to whom this is a great difficulty, 
though not an imposdblity ; and who, having, of course, a strong 
disinclination to such a study, look naturally to the very lowest admis- 
sible standard. And the example of such examinations in logic as 
must be expected in the case of men of these descriptions, tends, in 
combination with popular prejudice, to degrade the study altogether 
in the minds of the generality." 

The conclusions deducible from these important remarks of the very 
learned arehbishop are strikingly in accordance with those of bishop 
Law ; thongh the latter speaks in a tone of bitter vituperation con- 
cerning " the dull, crabbed system of Aristotle's Logic," and the former, 
in a manner the most skilful and judicious, points out the great utility 
of that system, when properly ^plied. From each of these &iaous 
masters in Israel we may learn, that both Mathematics and Logic are 
only intlrumenlt ; that many youthful students regard them as an ettd, 
rather than as meant s that others, who are adepts in them, seem to 
possess no capaci^ for applying them to suitable and Intimate 
purposes, but handle them in a manner quite as harmless as that in 
which an in&nt plays with a gilded toy ; that " these astislanU, these 
comparatively meagre iiulrumentt, ' eat up all that is good and well- 
faroured ' in the sciences themselves ; " '' that they usurp the place of 



thoM vetj adeatstt to whidi thej were origmaU^ designed to be 
sabMsrient, and for which itation thej aie BO&deatly qnaiificd;' 
" Utat IheM help* for amdueltng an inquiry throngli the TthaitB 
Cfolopwlia, iBBtoad of continuing to perform inch nacAil officea, exe, 
by the mere force of fiuhion, let up &r a capital branch of it, and Uie 
beat part of the schokr'i time qient in Bpeculadug oa theae aame 
iiutrumenlt ;' that "a rery small proportion even of diatingaiBhsd 
atudenta erer become profidentB ; " that " th^ hare learned by roto a 
string of technical term*, but understand absolutely nothing whatorcr 
of the Boience " which has long been the chief object of their Btteotion ; 
that " some persons are physically incapable of the degree of steady 
abstraction rec[uisite far really embracing the princqiles of any sci- 
ence ; ' and that " there is a much greater number, to whom this is a 
great difficult, thon^ not an impoaaibility, and who, having a strong 
disinclination to such a study, look naturally to the very loiwast 
admissible standard.' 

The precedii^ admissions are creditable to the bononraUe and *a^li- 
Tated minds of these distinguished prelates; but the tvanltsiAiiidwy 
severally deplore are easily aooonutcd for on the commim prinriplea <^ 
human nature. Were an accnrate and extensiTe knowle^ of polile 
learning, of what is usually included in the term Bella LtUrei, or 
were as no^saintance with any other science, made the gertcml test of 
B<dtoIarship in our UmTerntiea, the change would cot afaato the «*il, 
not lemeu the causes of comphinL In this view, much might be said 
in defence of those good and wise men who, at various periods of oar 
literary history, hare institoted die sereial teats wbidi some may sesk 
to alter ; but my circumscribed limits prevent me from adrerliag to 
this topic, and to others of still greater moment Nonis, homrer, 
notwithstanding the occasionally large admixtiire of I^atonism in his 
lucubrations, has, with great truth fX nature, described soma of tlw 
reasons why ^ men cannot attain to true learning, and why the poetic 
axiom is not &und to be in all cases correct : — 

" However strong and tuuvenal is the denre of knowledge, men are 
generally more in love with the fame and reputation of it, than with 
the thing itself. But, thon^ the generality of man be so pssrionat^ 
and keenly set upon the feme of being leuned and knowing, yet, ao 
liUle hath nature designed to gratify this ambitions humour, there are 
but very lew that bare nther a genius and inclination for learning itad^ 
or a capacity of altainii^ to it^— Not an nicLiNATiotf, because there ia 
a great variety in the speculative as weQ as moral inclinations of men, 
one being natuially di^>osed to this sort of study and anothsr to HoMt ; 
whereas true knowledge is of one detorminato Idnd or nature in gesoal, 
and conse^enlly must require a certain peculiar &ame and diipoai'- 
tiou of mind— Not a capacity, because the generality of mankind are 
.known to have but indifferent intdlectuuls, suited to the exigencies of 



eoDUBcm life ; whcmaa tRt« knowledge nmut be nppoMd to be a thu^ 
of micoiim(ntdiffic8l^, and the rtnd; of it a work fit tnily for mblimer 
wit^ the more dented and awakened part of mankmd. Few m^ 
BoeoMd well in the March of what thef wen naturally qnalified for ; 
and, hating attained to a eompetency of tme knowledge, endi aa is 
pat fecti TB of the ondentan^ng, they find thenudTea nnder no tempta- 
tiim to place it in any thing ebe, or to Ining into credit any other urt 
of kno^edge. But what ahall we do with the others ? Are they to 
be pomaded, that they are not of a make for the stndy and attainment 
of learning 7 Yon wiil find it toog^ work to oonvince them of tiiat. 
They ]ia*e bat one way left, and that is, to cry np something or other 
f(H learning which they are capable of. Ko matter whether it deserve 
that name ; it is enough if they can reach it. For, those who cannot 
compaes true riches, and yet irill hare the name and credit of it, aro 
pot «poa the necessity of coining and oonntarfeiting. Tnie learning 
oi^lit to be placed in the knowledge <^ necessary troth, in the com- 
prehansion of those arts and sciences whose foundations are not arbi- 
trary, bttt stable and immutable, and in understanding the etMOal and 
uudtsngeable laws and measures of reason and consequence. He 
therefore is the truly learned and knowing man, who has furnidied his 
mind with bright uid dear ideas, lodged them orderly and regularly 
in his head, and settled the rdations and coasequsnces of one to 
another ; he that is able to think dearly and distinctly, (for so much a 
man knows as he distinctly undeiatands, and no more,) to judge truly 
and solidly, and to reason dependently and conseqnentialfy. But 
the world does not esteem him a learned man, wlwse leamiiig has 
dearsd his mdentanding^ who is arrired to deatness and distinctness 
<tf eoaception, and is a thwon^ master of notkm and disoomse. No; 
it wiO cost great puns, great labonr (^ mind, and anxiety of thinking, 
to anire to this p^eh. Not will all the pains in the world do, unlcas 
a man be oatnrally made for it, unleu he be of a notional oomplexion, 
and has bad his head cast in a metaphyncal mould : whereupon, this 
attainment is like to be the lot of a Tery fow. This, therefore, must 
not be learning; but something ebe must, that lies more within 
oomBMi reach, though of no real moment to the perfection of the 
nndentaading : inch are contingent truths; and yet learning is gene- 
rally placed in the knowledge of thrae. It is reckoned a notable 
point of learning, to nnderstand Tariety of languages. This done 
grrea a man a title to learning without one grain of sense. Words are 
pnrdy in order to thought and sense ; and, thereibre, are of no further 
Talue than as tiwy score as hdps either to learn or to oommunieate the 
other. To a£feot them therefinv fi>r themsehres, is to turn the means 
into the end. Another thing there is which passes for wonderfiJ 
learning, and that is our sophistiod way of disputation. I think Hon- 
rieor Qassendi, in his Paradoxical Bxercitationt, has given ns a true 
image and representation of it, when be tells of the ax e^ which the 
conntryman ordered to be prorided for the entertainment of his sw, 



when he returned home from the UniTeiu^. Hie ftther would have 
him boil six egga : two for him, two for hia mother, and two for him- 
self. But the son, having an itch to show a proof of his scholaMic 
improrement, hoiled but three. When his &ther asked him why he 
had not proTided ux : ' Why,' says he^ * are there not here six ? ' 
Horn to f says the lather, / can tee but three. ' No 1 ' replies the 
young sophister, ' is not here one ? ' (telling them out,) ' and is not 
there two ! and is not there three ? And do not omb, two, and 
TBRBB make six 7 ' Well, says the lather, the» I will take two, and 
your mother thall have one, and gou thaU have tie other three I — 
And I now think all was right and as it should be. The son, for his 
port, gare a true spwnmen of his Unirersi^-leaming ; and tJie &ther 
serred him very well, and in his land ; that is, showed him trick for 
trick. As &c as I could ever observe for thirteen years together, this 
great mystery of disputation is nothing else bat a moe toasing of 
words backward and ibrward, sometimes without sny meaning, which 
is canting ; and sometimes with more meanings than one, which is 
punning. There are many other things ^beside a knowledge of lus> 
tory, chronology, &c^ which the unaccountable humour of the world 
has turned up for learniog, for which ignorantx will never be the 
better, and which wisdom does not need. A mill-read man signifies 
the very same as a learned man, in most men's dictionaries ; and by 
WBLL-RRAD they do not mean one that has read well, that has cleared 
and impraved his understanding by his reading, bnt only one that has 
read a great deal, though pwhaps he has puszled and confounded his 
notions by doing so. Thus again it goes for learning, to be ac<ittaitited 
with men's opinions, especially oE the ancients; what this or that 
author says, though perhaps he says nothing but what is either absurd 
or obTionsly true. It is thought learning, to know the very titles of 
bo4^ and their several editions, with the time and place when and 
where they were printed. From this placing of learning in the know- 
ledge of books, proceeds that ridiculous vanity of multiplying qnot»- 
tions, though they are used so unseasonably and impertinently that 
there can be no other end in them than only to show that the author 
has read such s book : and yet it is no such convincing evidence of 
that neither,— it being neither new nor difficult for a man that is 
resolved upon it, to quote such authors as he never read nor saw. 

" Attention, «r application of mind to the intelligible world, the 
worid of truth, is a virtual ment^ prayer, an act of intellectual dero- 
tion to ' the Father of Lights,' and such as, if more expressly ottered 
and unfolded, bespeaks Him in the words of the ro^ suppUcant : 
Give me Witdom, that tilleth by thy throne ! This is to take h<dd of 
essential truth nakedly as it is in itself ; it is to fix the eye of the mJnd 
upon the Intellectaal Sun, upon Him who is Substantia) Truth, and 
the Light of the world. So a man that casts a short, careless glance 
upon the galaxy, sees only a confused whiteness arising from the 
numerous mixture of little splendours. But when the same peraoa 



fixes hu eje with steadineBs and delay of application, be begins to dis- 
tent somefbing more distinctly ; a new star eyer and anon arises osder 
bis inspection, not discovered before ; and still the longer and harder 
be looks, the more he discerns; till at length he has discorered as 
mvA as be can well attend b> at once, and has s^iated hts feculty 
with Ae tffightaess and moltitade of light. Tbis was the metj^od of 
the fint inventors of arts and BcieDces, who made their way into the 
coa^ of leaming bj mere dint of thinking; and this is the very 
method that has been used by Ae greatest improvers of tbem ever 
mice : sach as Bacoit, Botle, Descaktbs, Gaulbus, HBRSENinrB, 
IhoBT, Hai-ebhahchb, Poirbt, and (whom I name with particular 
bMtoitr and reverence) onr excellent friend Dr. Morb. And I dare 
prophesj, that, if ever any exttaotdinaiy advancement be for the future 
made in the worid, it will be done by thinking. — ^Whereas purity of 
heart and life is another method, it is a sad as well as a true obeerration, 
that this is neglected amongathe generality of those few'that addict 
themselves to the cultivation and improvement of their minds. Hen 
Jamtd for leaming are oftentimes as infamout for living ; and many that 
study hard to funush their keadt, are yet very negligent in porifying 
their hearts, not considering that there is a mtral as well as a natural 
communication between one and the other, and that they are con- 
cerned to be pure in heart and life, not only upon the common account, 
— jn vtAti to a happy state hereafter, but also in pnisuance of their 
own particular way and end here. — lastly. Whereas another method 
of vrisdom is {vayer; I do not find, that die generality of students do 
at all apply themselves to this method. Pray indeed (it is to be hoped) 
they do for other things, which they think lie more out of their reach ; 
but, as for leaming and knowledge, they think they can compass tbis 
well enough by their own proper industry and the help of good books, 
without being beholden to the assistance of Heaven.' * 

By his contemporaries Norris was charged with Quakerism, for 
•ome mystic notions which he propounded in bis admirable Zietter to 
lady Hasharo, the hostess of Locke, and the accomplished daughter 
of the immortal Cndwmth. But he is not to be repr^ended for tbose 
extracts whidi I have given in the last paragraph, on the subject of 
prajer ; the prindple of this was conceded, and the practice of it 
adopted, even by some of the well-edncattd Deists of that and the 
preceding age ; though they did not always strive to unite with it the 
other necessary adjunct, — purity of heart and life. Let, however, no 
joathfiil student be deterr^ from the best exertion of his mental 
powers, through a few of the sweeping and austere conclusions of tbis 
author. Many of the minor pursuits of the learned which he tries to 
depreciate and minUy, are exceedingly useful and very important ; 
and. it is a happy circumstance for all who are concerned in the worid 
of letters, that there is such a diversified division of intellectual labour, 
iff, Kiih BertnocF lo ihs Slndj of 



-^ach well-qualified man addicting himBelf to that pecoliai bnndi 
(even thougb it maj be deemed a lecondite one) for which he either 
feels an inward appetency, or which appean to be aM^ed to him as 
the allotment of an All-wise Providence. Bendea, thia diatribe ia the 
best moderator of its own aereiity, mixed as it ia with much that i> 
true ^ for, only he who had himself made a complete drcnit throng 
the wide field of hmnaa knowledge could write thiu learnedly, in Iiis 
old age, against many aciencea fi>r which, it ia veiy erident, he had 
no natnial appeteouy, but all of which aie in thfic SOTeral ordera 
benefidal to mankind. 

Neither let any yonng aspirant after literary &me be disheaiteaed, 
under the apprehensian that he is one of those " who are phyveally 
incapable of the degree of steady abstntction requisite tar reallj 
embtadng any science ; " fijr, this is a fear that haa been felt in eariy 
life by some of the ablest (yet most diffident) men that erer lived. 
Extremely rare indeed are the great men of nnireraal genim ; bat it is 
satisfactOiy to know from andibishop Whately, who is a moot com- 
petent oathority, that "of snch as have in other lisspeoti toloable 
abilitiea, probaUy not so many ai ane in len are pbyaieally incapable' 
of ezcelling in any laudable parsnit to which they may apply their 
pow^a. Mmj yxmng men are depressed in spirit, and mentally ruined, 
through the narrow perrarBity of some of those under whom it is their 
misfbrtune to be placed for the aoquisition of knowledge. Theae 
shallow preceptors have one inTariable standard for the admeasurement 
of all intellectual deyelopementa,bodi as to time, height, and quality; and 
the youth who does not c<Hne up, at the fixed time and manner, to the 
proposed height, is frowned upon and denounced as a blockhead. Still 
more unfortunate is the case, when any young person quietly sits down, 
without a redeeming stm^le, under the belief of his own utter incom- 
petency, as one " unto eyery good work reprobate," fbraaken of God, 
and disowned by man. But let him know that it is a peculiar gift 
of HeaTCn, not possessed by eveiy tutor, to distinguish and appredate 
the extremely varied talents of pupils. The hardy primrose, snow- 
drop, crocus, daisy, and cowslip are among the precocious flowers whidi 
adorn the early peep of Spring. But he is assuredly an ignorant and 
perrerse man who, while admiring these, can hastily slight the shy 
violet, the long-hesitating rose, pink, or carnation, with the It^er-blowing 
lily, in the plainness of their embryo endosuies ; and the best reproof 
to be conveyed to snch an one is, to exhibit to his astonished and 
overpowered senses these Still mere fragrant and beautiful fiowen, 
in all their maturi^ of blooming Summer^pride. A form^ moral to 
this obvious (though incomplete) umQe is not here required. 

This brief digression from the history of the early culture of the 
Mathematics in this Univerrity, involves other collateral topics of great 
interest ; for the discussion of which this well-filled volume affords no 
spaoe.— Edit. 

KnD c 







n,g,t,7™b> Google 





I HATE formerly in this History presumed to trouble 
your Honour, and now adventure the second time. 
Indeed, this treatise contmneth the description of your 
large demesnes, and larger royalty and command. 
Should I therefore present it to any other, save your- 
self, it would he held as a stray indeed, (wandering 
out of the right way it should go in,) and so, with- 
out any thanks to me, would fall to yobr LordsMp, as 
due unto you by the custom of your manor. 

Tour Honour's most obliged servant and chaplajn, 





I. 7^ Autkor'a Desiffn. 
Pkovidencb, hy the hand of my worthy friends, having planted 
me for the present at Waltham-abbey, I conceive, that, in our 
general vork of abbeys, I owe some particular description to that 
place of my abode. Hoping my endeavours herein may prove 
exemplary to others (who dwell in the sight of remarkable monas- 
teries) to do the like, and rescue the observables of their habita- 
tions from the teeth of time and oblivion. 

2 — 7- WaUham, why m named. The Situation thtn^. Exeuted 
Jrom bad Air. Firtt fouadad by Tofy. FaUa back to the 
Orown. Bestowed on Earl ffarold. 

Waltham is so called from the Saxon ham, which is a " town," 
(whence the diminutive, hamlet,) and weald, or teeaU, that is, 
" woody," (whence the wtald of Kent,) it being anciently over- 
grown with trees and timber. Thus Kiruiih-jearim, or *' the city 
of the woods," in Palestine ; Dmdrot, an island in Peloponnesus ; 
Syltiacum, an ancient city in Belgia ; got their names from the 
like woody situation. Some will have it called Waltham, quasi 
W»aUii»^m : I wish they could make their words good, in 
respect of the persons living therein ; though, in regard of the soil 
Itself, indeed it is rich and plentiful. 

The town is seated on the east side of the river Ley, {.I^ea,] 
which not only parteth Hertfordshire from Essex, but also seven 
times parteth from itself; whose septemfluous stream, in coming to 
the town, is crossed again with so many bridges. On the one side, 
the town itself hath large and Iruitfiil meadows, (whose intrinsic 



nlae is much raised by the vicinity of London,) the graas whereof, 
when fiist gotten an head, is so sweet and luscious to ctltte, that 
they diet them, at the first entering therein, to half an hour a-day, 
lest otherwise they over-eat themselves ; which some kine yearly do, 
and quickly die for it, notwithstanding all theix keepers' care to the 
contrary. On the other side, a spacious forest spreads itsdf, where, 
fouTtero years noce, one might hare seen whole herds of red and 
fellow deer. But these late licentious years have been such a Nint- 
lod, such " an hunter,^ that all at this pieaent are destroyed ; 
though 1 could widh this were the worst effect which our woful wars 
have produced. 

The Mr of the town is condemned, by many, for over^moist and 
aguish, caused by the depressed situation thereof. la confutation 
of which censure, we produce the many aged persons in our town, 
—•above threescore-and-ten, since my coming hither, above three- 
score-and-ten years of age ; so that, it seems, we are sufficiently 
healthful, if sufficiently thankful for the same. Sure I am^ what b 
wanting in good air in the town is supplied in the pansh, wherein 
as many pleasant hills and prospects ate, as any place in England 
doth aCTord. 

Tovy, a man of great wealth and authority, as being the ling's 
staller, (that is, standard-bearer,) first founded this town, for the 
great delight which he took in the game, the place having plenty of 
deer. He planted only threeecore^nd-«ix in-dwellers therein. 

Athelstan, his son, proved a prodigal, and quickly spent all his 
father''s goods and great estate ; so that, by some tnnsactione, the 
place retamed to the crown. 

Edward the Confessor bestowed Waltham, with the lands there- 
abouts, on Harold, his brother-in-law, who presently built and 
endowed therein a monastery, whereof nothing at this day is extant, 
save the west end, or body of the church. 

8, 9. 7%0 Model of the modem Church. Mortality triumphant. 
A strueture of Gothic bonding, rather large than neat, firm than 
^r ; very dark, {the deaign of those days to raise devotion,) save 
that it was helped again with artificial lights ; and is observed by 
artists to stand the most exactly east and west of any in England. 
The great pillars thereof are wreathed with indentings ; which racii- 
ities, if formerly filled up with brass, (as some confidently report,) 
added much to the beauty of the building. But it matters not so 
much their taking away the brass firom the pillars, hod they but left 
the lead on the rool^ which is but meanly tiled at this day. In a 
word, the best commendation of the church is, that on Lord's days, 
generally, it is filled with a great and attentive congregation. 

, Goo^^lc 


To the south side of the church is joined a chapel, fonneily our 
lady's, DOW a school-house, and under it an arched charnel-house, 
the fairest that ever I saw. Here a pious fancy could make a feast 
to itself on those dry bones, with the meditation of mortality ; 
where it is hard, yea, impossible, to discern the sculls of a rich from 
a poor— wise Irom & simple — noble from a mean — person. Thus 
all counters are alike, vhen put up together in the box or bag , 
though, in castbg of account, of bt different valuation. 

10, 11. A Dtan and Canomfiaaded at WaHAam. Seventeen 
Manort confirmed to them by the Ctmfettor. 

King Harold dedicated the monastery to the honour of a Holy 
Cross, found br westward, and brought hither, as they write, by 
miracle ; w&ence the town hath the addition of Waltham-Holy- 
Cross t but the church we find, in afler-ages, also dedicated to St. 
Laurence. His foundation was for a dean, and eleven secular black 
canons. . Let none challenge the words of impropriety, seeing a 
dean, in Latin, deoanut, hath his name from S*x«, '* ten," over 
which number he is properly to be preposed. For, nothing more 
commoD thao to wean words from their in&nt and original sense, 
and by custom to extend them to a larger signification, as dean 
aftenrards plunly denoted " a superior over others," whether fewer 
than ten, as the six prebendaries of Rochester ; or more, as the 
thiee-and-thirty of Salisbury. The dean and eleven canons were 
plentifully provided for, each canon having a man^, and the deaa 
sii, for his maintenance. 

For, in the charter of confirmation, made by king Edward the 
Confessor, besides Notth-land in Waltham, (now called, as I take 
it, North-field,) wherewith the monastei; was fiist endowed, these 
following lorddiips, with all their appurtenances, are reckoned up : 
1, Pa^efield. 2. Walde. 3. Upminster. 4. Walthfare. 5. 
Suppedene. 6. Alwertowne. 7. Wodeford. 8. Lambehide. 
9. Neaingan. 10. Bri<^iidon. 11. Melnhoo. 12. Alichsea. 
13. Wormeley. 14. Nichelswells. 15. Hitchche. 16. Luken- 
don. 17. West-Wealtham. All these the king granted unto 
them eum taeha 4" to<^ tol 4" team, &c., free from all gelts 
[guilds] and payments, in a most fiill and ample manner ; witness 
himself, Edith his queen, Stigand arehiepuoopua Ihrobomentit; 
count Harold, and many other bishops and lords subscribing the 
same charter. 



12, 13. Marold crotened, killed, attd buried at WalAam. 
Deforming Seformert. 

Afterward Harold usurpeth the crown, but enjoyed it not a full 
year, killed in battle-Bght by king William the Conqueror : 
vhere either of their girords, if victorious, might have done the 
deed, though, otherwise, both their titles twisted together could not 
make half a good claim to the crown. Oitha, mother of Harold, 
and two religious men of this abbey, Osegod and Ailric, with their 
prayers and teare, hardly prevailed with the Conqueror (at first 
denying him burial, whose ambition had caused the death of so 
many) to have Harold's corpse (with his two brethren. Girth and 
Leofwin, losing their lives in the same battle) to be entombed in 
Waltbam church, of his foundation. He was buried where now 
the eail of Carlisle's leaden fountiun in his gaiden, then probably 
Uie end of the choir, or rather some eastern chapel beyond it : his 
tomb of plain, but rich gray ma^Ie, with what seemeth a crow- 
floree (but much descanted on witli art) upon the same, supported 
with ptllarets, one pedestal whereof I have in my house. As for 
his reported epitapb, I purposely omit it, not so much because bar- 
barons, (scarce any better in that age,) but because not attested, to 
my apprehension, with sufficient authority. 

A picture of king Harold in glass vras lately to be eeen in the 
north window of the church, till ten years since some barbarous 
hand beat it down, nnd^r the notion of superstition. Sutely, had 
such ignorant persons been employed, in the days of Hezekiah, to 
purge the temple from the former idolatry ; under "^e pretence 
thereof they would have rended off the lily-work from the pillats ; 
■nd the lions, oxen, and cherubims from the bases of brass. How* 
ever, there is still a place called HaiOldVpatk in oui parish, by 
him so denominated. Let not, therefore, the village of Harold, on 
the north side of Ouse, neai Bedford, (properly Harewood, or 
Harelswood, on vulgar, groundless ttadition,) contest with Walt- 
ham fbr this king's interment. 


1,2. WaUham Cawmt in a tad Condition. The Induary of 
Robert Fuller, last Abbot of WaltAam. 

One will easily believe, that, at the death of king Harold, Walt- 
ham>Abbey, founded by him, was in a swoon, and the canons 
theiein much disheartened. However, they had one help, which 


was this :— That Edward the Confessor was the conGnner of their 
foundation, whose memory was not only iresh and lair in all men^s 
minds, (bearing a veneration to his supposed sanctity,) but also 
king William the Conqueror had the best of his bad titles by' 
bequest of the crown from thie Confeaeor. So that, in some sense, 
Waltham-Abbey might humbly crave kindred of king William, 
both deriving their best being from one and the same person. 

Know, reader, that whatever hereafler I allege touching the lands 
and liberties of Waltbam, if not otherwise attested by some author 
in the mar^n, is by me futhfully transcribed out of Waltham 
ledger-book, now in the possession of the Right H«nouiable James 
earl of Carlisle. This book was collected by Robert Fuller, the 
last abbot of Waltham ; who, though he could not keep his abbey 
from dissolution, did preserve the antiquities thereof from oblivion. 
The book ^as appears by many inscriptions in the initial text-letters) 
was made by liimsclE^ having as happj a hand in fair and fast 
writing, as some of his sumame since have been defective therein. 

3 — 5. Queen Maud gives WalUiam Monkt a Mill: Queen 
Adelieia the Titiet. King SlepAen'i Bounty. 

Not long after the Conquest, Waltham-Abbey found good bene- 
factors, and considerable additions to their maintenance. For, 
Maud, the first queen to king Henry I. bestowed on diem the mill 
at Waltham, which she bad by ^change for Trinity Church, in 
London ; which I take to be part of the Trinity Priory, now called 
the Duke^E Pktce. 

A.delisia, second wife to king Henry I. being possessed of Walt- 
ham as part of her revenue, gave all the tithes thereof, as well of 
her demesnes as all tenants therein, to the canons of Waltham. 
Meantime, how poorly was the priest of the place provided for I 
Vea, a glutton monastery in former ages makes an hungry ministi; 
is our days. A-b abbey, and « parBonage iiDimprepriate, in the 
same place, are as inconsistent together, as good woods and an iron 
mill. Had not Waltham church lately met with a noble founder, 
the minister thereof must hove kept more &sting-days than ever 
were put in the Roman Calendar. 

King Stephen, ihough he came a wrong way to the crown, yet 
did all right to the monastery of Waltham, (as who geoerally 
Bought the good-will of the devgy to strengthen himself,) and con- 
£nned all their lands, profits, and privileges unto them. 



a — 10. Kitiff Henry dUeohei the Dean and Canoni at WaUham. 
Auffoitinians substituted in their Room, Rome-Land^ in 
Wakham. FiU^Aucher settled at Copt-HaU. Hu^h Neville 
a bottjttijitl Benefactor. 

King Henry II. utterly dissoWed the fonndation of dean and 
eleven canons at Wallkam. The debauche<lne88 of their lives is 
rendered in his charter as the occasion thereof: Cam in ed canonici 
dericique minus religiosi et agualiter viwissent, ita qudd injamia 
eonversationis iUontm muUos scandaHsasset. Whether these vere 
really or only reputed vicious, Ood' knows ; seeing all those must 
be gnilty whom* power is pleased to pronounce so. Sure it tb, King 
Henry outed this dean and canons, and placed an abbot and regu- 
lar Auguatinians in theii room, increasing their number to twenty- 
four. And because (to use the king*s own words) it was fit, " that 
Chri8t''a spouse should have a new dowry," he not only conRrmed to 
this monastery the primitive patrimony mentioned in the Conless- 
or's charter, cum pedis terrm, " with many pieces of land," and 
tenements, which their benefactors since bestowed upon them, but 
also conferred the rich manors of Sewardstone and Eppings on this 

The whole charter of king Henry is too long to transcribe, but 
some passages therein must not be omitted. Firet. The king had 
the consent of pope Alexander for the suppression of these canons ; 
the rather moved thereunto, quia prwdicUs eanonicis sufficienter 
pnmsum/iiit, " because the aforesaid expelled canons had sufficient 
provision made for them." For, grant them never so scandalous, 
this was to add scandal to scuidal, — to thrust them out of house 
and home; vrithout any means or maintenance. Secondly. This 
charter presents us with the ancient liberties of Waltham church, 
that, semper fitit regalis capdla ex primitivd sui fundatioHe, nuUi 
arehiepiscffto vel ^iscopo, sed tantim ecctesiw RomatuB et regies 
dispositioni subjeota. And though, since Reformation, the church 
hath been subjected to the archbishop's jurisdiction, (as succeeding 
to the royal power,) and sometimes with grumbling and reiuctancy 
to the episcopal power, yet it never as yet owned an archdeacon, or 
appeared at his visitatiM. 

The mentioning of the consent of pope Alexander to the sup- 
pression of Waltham dean and canons, and substituting Augusti- 
nians in their room, mindeth me of a spacious place in this town, at 
the entrance of the abbey, built about with houses, called Bome- 
iand, as (Peter-pence were termed Rome-scot) at this day. It is 
generally believed, that the rents thereof peculiarly belonged to the 
church of Rome. Thus the pope would not be so bad a carver as 
to cut all away to others, and reserve no comer to himself. 

, Coo^^lc 


K!ng Richard I. (though generally not too loving to the clergy) 
amply confiimed his fetlier^a founilation, and gave lands to Richard 
Fitz-Aucher in this parish, to hold them in fee, and hereditarily of 
the church of Waltbam-Holy-Cross. This Filz-Aucher fixed him- 
Belf at Copt-Hall, a stately house in the parish ; whelher so called 
contractedly, quati Cohbing-Hall, from Cobbing, a rivulet running 
not &r off; or from two ancient and essential tuneta of that house, 
which are coped, and covered with lead ; or from (in my mind most 
probable) an high and sharp hill, (thus C<^)dajid, so called, in 
Cumberland,) whereon the house is founded. 

In or about this king's reign, Hugh Neville, with' the consent of 
Joan bis wife, and John his son, bestowed the manor of Thomdon 
on' the monastery of Waltham, of whom largely before. 

11, 12. [King Henry III. bettow» a Market and a Fair.'\ 
Waltham Market. 

King Henry III. to spare court-keeping, came often and lay 
long at abbeys i so that Waltham (the nearest mitred abbey to 
London) had much of his company. Being a religious prince, 
great were his desires ; but, withal necesaitons, small his deeds in 
endowing churches. However, what he wanted in giving himself, 
he supplied in confirming the gifts of others. And, finding it the 
cheaper way of benefaction to give liberties than lands, he bestowed 
on Waltham a weekly market, and a fair, (so called a feriando, 
" from people's playing there,*' ) to last seven days ; which now is 
divided into two, but of shorter continuance, the one on the third 
day of May, the invention— the other on the fourteenth of Septem- 
ber, the exaltation— or the cross. 

We now have a market on Tuesday, but cannot boast of much 
trading therein. Indeed, there is plenty of flesh, but little com, 
brought thither ; and bread is the staff, as of a man, so of a market. 
Nor let us impute the thinness of chapmen in summer to husband- 
men's having no leisure, as busied in tillage, bay, or haivest ; or, in 
winter, to theii having no pleasure to repair thither in so deep and 
dirty ways ; seeing the plain truth is, no underwood can thrive near 
the droppings of so great an oak, the vicinity of London. The 
golden market in Leadenhall makes leaden markets in all the towns 

13 — 16. BroUa betteixt the Abbot and the Townmtm about Com- 

mom. The Sturdiness of the Townsmen. The most ffuiUy 

/r^ accuse. The Abbot comes offConqu^or. 

In the first year that Simon was made abbot, (which by exactcst 

proportion we collect to be about the thirtieth year of King 


Henry III.) the men of Walth&m came into the manh,* which 
the abbot and his convent formetly eojojed as seveial to themselres, 
killed foar mares, worth foily shUiings sterling at least, and drove 
sway all the rest. The sbbot was politicly pleased, for the present, 
not to take notice thereof. The next year some men of Walthani 
went to the abbot, the Thursday before Easter, in the name of the 
whole village, and demanded of him to remove his mares and colts 
out of the mush. This the abbot refused to do, adding withal, 
that if his bailiffs had placed his cattle otherwhere than they ou^t, 
they might do well to hare it amended, yet so as to defer the matter 
till' Tuesday after Easter. 

On that Tuesday, Richard, brother to the king, duke of Corn- 
wall, came to Waltham, at what time both the men and women of 
the town repaired to the gate of the abbey, to receive the abbot's 
final answer. He told them, that he could not speak with them for 
the present, as providing himself tor a long journey into Lincoln- 
shire, there to visit the Justices Itinerant ; but, by his prior and 
other canons, he desired them to be patient till his return, when he 
would mend what was to be mended. Not satisfied therewith, and 
neither respecting the spiritual holiness of the abbot, nor temporal 
greatness of the duke, they ruled at and reviled him. Then into 
the pastun they go ; and, in driving out the abbot's marcs and 
colts, drowned three worth twenty shillings, spoiled ten more to the 
value of ten marks, and beat their keepers, who resisted them, even 
to the shedding of blood. 

Rut, after Uie abbot returned from Lincolnshire, the townsmen, 
fearing they should be trounced for their riot, desired a loveday, 
submitted themselves unto him, and proffered to pay him damage. 
But, next day, when the performance of these promises was 
expected, away went the Waltham-men, with their wives and 
children, to the king to London, enraging him, as much as in them 
Jay, against the abbot, accusing him, that he would disinherit then 
of their right, bring up new customs, take sway their pastures, and, 
to use their own words, " eat them up to the bones ■" and that he 
had wounded and abused some of them, who stood defending their 
own rights. Which false report was believed of many, to the great 
disgrace of the convent of Waltham. 

The abbot would not put up [with] so great a wrong ; but, having 
episcopal power in himself, proceeded to the excommunication of 
the rebellious Wallhamltcs. But the townsmen went another way 
to work ; namely, to defend their right by the common laws of the 
realm. Whereupon Stephen Fitz-Bcnnet, Simon of tlie Wood, 


304 HISTORY OF WALTBAM-ABBE7. a.o. 1948. 

William Tbeyden, and Ralph of the Bridge, in the name of all the 
leet, implead the abbot for appropriatiDg theii commons to himself. 
But, Id Gdc, (after many cross pleadings here too long to relate,) 
the abbot so acqnitled himself, that he made both his ovn riffit 
and the townsmen's riot to appear ; who, at last, at the Ki&g''s 
Bench, were glad to confess (hat they had done evil, and weie 
amerced twenty marks to the abbot, which be not only remitted 
unto them, but also, on their submiasion, assoiled them from the 
ezcomm unication. 

17—20. Tie Suit betttutt the Abbot of WaitJum and the Lord 
of OAesliunt. A like not Ike same. The Suit determined, 
Accestioni to lengthen the Oaute. 

The brawls betwixt the abbot and townsmen of Waltham were 
no sooner ended, but far fiercer begsn betwixt the sud abbot and 
the lord of Chesthunt, on the like occasion. This Chesthunt is a 
large parish in Hertfordshire, confining on the west of Waltham, 
BO called, saith Norden,* quaei castanetam, " of chestnuUtrees," 
though now, I believe, one hardly appears in the whole lordship. 
In this suit,— 

Plaintiff.— Peter duke of Savoy, the king's dear ancle, (first 
founder, 1 take it, of the Savoy, in London,) on whom the king 
conferred many lordships, and Chesthunt amongst the rest. 

Judges. — Ralph Fitz-Nicholas ; John of Lexington; I^nlin 
Peyner Seneschal ; Henry of Bath ; Jeremy of Caiton ; Henry 
de Bretton. 

Defendant. — Simon, the abbot, and the convent of Waltham. 

SoLiciTOB. — Adam de Alverton. 

The Case. — The plaintiff endeavoured to prove, that the stream 
of Ley, (c^led the KingVStreom,) dividing Hertfordshire firom 
Essex, ran through the town of Waltham, all the land west thereof 
belonging to the manor of Chesthunt. This was denied by the 
defendant; maintaining, that Small-Ley-Stream, running well-nigh 
half a mile west of Waltham, parted the counties ; all the inter- 
jacent meadows pertained to Waltham. 

Perusing the names of these the king's justices at Westminster, 
who would not suspect but that this Henry of Bath was bishop of 
that see ? considering how many clergymen in that age wen 
employed in places of judicature. But the suspicion is causeless, 
finding nose of that name in the episcopal catalogue. Others in 
like manner may apprehend, that Bretton, here mentioned, was that 
learned lawyer (afterwards bishop of Hereford) who wrote the book 
J)e Juribits Anglicanle, and who flourished in the latter end of the 

* Ju hifl *hort " SiiTTOy of Hcftfoidfehjic." 


leign of this Viag Henry Hi.* Bnt his same being John, not 
Henrj, discoveieth him a different person. 

Not long after, this Buit was finally determined, and Peter doke 
of Savoy remised and quit-claimed from him and his heirs, to the 
said abbot and his succeseors, the right and clum he had to ask in 
the same meadovs and marshes of the said abbot. This is called id 
the instrument jSniUis ooneordia, though it proved neither " final " 
nor a "concord." For, soon after, this palliate cure broke out 
again ; and the matter was. in T&nance and undetennined betwixt 
Robert the last abbot, and the lord of Chesthunt, when the abbey 
was diasolTed. 

Many accessions (besides those common prolongers of all suits, 
nsmely, the heat of men^s anger, and the bellows of instruments 
guning by law) did concur to lengthen this cause : — 1. The consi- 
derablenesB and concernment of the thing contforerted, being a 
large and rich portion of ground. 2. The difficulty of tlie caiu^ 
about the channels of that rirer, which, Prot«us-like, in several ages 
hath appeared in sundry forms, disguised by derivations en di&bent 
occanons. 3. The greatness of the clients; Chesthunt tordship being 
always in the hand of some potent penon, and the corpotation ^ 
Wttltham-Convent able to wage law with him. Hence hath this 
suit been as long-lived as any in England, not excepting that in 
Oloucestershin -f betwixt the posterity of viscount Lisle, and the 
lord Berkeley : seeing very lately, if not at this day, there were 
some suits about our bounds ; Waltham meadows being very rich in 
grass and hay, but too fruitful in contentions. 

For mine own part, that wound which I cannot heal I will not 
widen : and, seeing I may say wilb the poet,— 

I will not tuni, of an unpartial historian, an engaged person, who, 
as a neighbour, wish well to Chesthunt ; as a parishioner, better to 
Waltliam ; as a Christian, best to both. And therefore so much for 
matter of fact, in our records and ledger-books, leaving all matters 
of right for others to decide. 

21, 22. CItettiunt Nuniwry founded. Copt-Hall ptu»ed to 

Kin^ Bmry VIII. 

Meantime, whilst the abbot and monks of Waltham were vexed 

with the men of Chesthunt, they found more favour (if public fame 

belies tlicm not) from some loving women in that parish ; I mean, 

* See QoDwiN, iA hb Biihop* ol Hanbtd. t Camucm, Id Oloimilenliire. 

, Cookie 


the lioly sistera in Cliesthunt nunnery, whoBe house (whencTer 
founded) I find, aome ten years since, th,D8 confirmed by roy&l 
authority :-~Henriout, rex An^lie, domintu Hgb«mie, dux Nar- 
manis, Aquitania, et comet Andtgavie, S^e. sheitrekunt monialei 
totam terram dom. teneant eum pertmentiit tuiaque eanontcu de 
Mtiele, 3^0, guM amowrifaeimtu datum apud Weit. xi. Aug. anno 
regni norti-i ewi». But this subject be^ns to swell beyond the 
bounds intended unto it : teat, therefore, vhat we intended but ft 
tract should swell to a tome, we will here descend to matters of later 

Only be it premised, that, some years before the Dissolution, 
Robert,- the last abbot of Waltham, passed over the fitir seat of 
Copt-hall uDto king Henry VIII. Thus, as the castor, when pur- 
sued by the hunter, to make his escape, ia reported to bite off his 
own stones, (as the mam treasure sought after,) and so saves his 
life by losing a limb ; so this abbot politicly parted with that 
stately mansion, in hope thereby to preserve the rest of his reve- 
nues. However, all would not do,— 40 impossible it is to save 
what is designed to ruin ; and, few years after, the abbey, witi) the 
laige lands thereof, were seized on by the king, and, for some 
mouths, he alone stood possessed thereof. 


1—3. A Leageof WaUhofn-Abbey giten to Sir Anthoni/ Denng. 
John Denny, the great' Soldier in France. Edmond Denng, 
Baron of the Exchequer. 

At the Dissolution, king Henry bestowed tlie site of this abbey, 
.with many large and rich lands belonging thereunto, on sir 
Anthony Denny, for the term of tliirty-one years. Let us a little 
inquire into his extraction and descent. 

I find the name very ancient at Chesterton, in Huntingdonshire,* 
where the heir-general was long since married to the worshipful and 
ancient family of the Bevils. It seems, a bisnch of the male lino 
ntlerwards fixed in Hertfordshire; whereof Johh Denny, esq. 
valiaiitly served Henry V. in France, where he was slain, and 
buried, with Thomas his second son, in St. Dionysus chapel ; their 
interment in so noble a place speaking their worthy performances. 
Id the reign of queen Mary, a friar showed their tombs to sir 

ir Robert CotloD, iu UimliDgdonibin. 

, Goo^^lc 


Mattbetr Csrew, togelher vith their coaU and differeDCes. Henry, 
eldest Bon of this John Denny, begat William Denny of Chest- 
hunt in Hertfordshire, vhich William was High Sheriff of the 
county in the year 1480, leaving Edmond Denny to inherit his 

Edmond Denny was one of the barons of the Exchequer, in 
credit and favonr with king Edward IV. and Henry VII. He 
married Mary, the daughter and heir of Aobert Troutbeck, esq. 
on whom he begat Thomas Denny, &om whom the Dennies in 
Norfblic are descended. 

4 — 6. Anthony Denny"! high Commendatiom. Hia Epitaph mad« 
by the Lord Howard. Hit Istue by Dame Joan hia Wi/e. 

Anthony Denny, second ^soo to baron Denny, was knighted by 
king Heni7 VIII. made gentleman of his bed-chamber, privy- 
counsellor, and one of his executors. I cannot say he was bred any 
great scholar, but find him a Macenas, and grand hvourer of 
learned men. For, when the school of Sedbury [Sedbeig] in the 
north, belonging to St. Jolin's in Cambridge, was run to ruio, the 
lanils thereof being sold and embezzled, sir Anthony procured the 
repaiation of the school, and restitution of their means, firmly set- 
tling them, to prevent future alienation.* Hear what character 
Mr. Ascham gives of him : Rdigio, doclrina, reepuUica, omnet 
eurat tua» tic occupant, ut extra has tret res nullum tempue eon- 
MBkU.-f "Religion, learning, commonwealth, so employ all thy 
cares, that besides these three things you spend no other time." 
Let then the enemies (if any) of bis memory abate of this character 
to what proportion they please, (pretending it but the orator^s rhe- 
torical hyperbole,) the very remainder thereof, which their malice 
must leave, will be sufficient to speak sir Anthony a worthy and 
meriting gentleman. 

I find an excellent epitaph made on him by one the Icamedcst of 
noblemen, and noblest of learned men in his age, namely, Henry ' 
Howard, carl of Surrey, and eldest son to the duke of Norfolk, 
worthy the reader's perusal : — 


Death and the king did, as it were, contend. 
Which of them two bare Denny greatest love ; 

The king, to show his love 'gaa fat extend, 
Did him advance his betters lar above : 

Near place, much wealth, great honour eke him gave, 

' To make it known what power princes have. 

Kcnd. Ephl. tot. 210. j Idna. fnl. SOS. 

, Goo^^lc 


But when Death came with his triamphaot gift, 
fVom woridlj carte he quit hia wearied ghost: 

Free from the oorps, and straight to hearen it lift.' 
Now deem that can, who did for Denny most : — 

The king gare wealth, but feding and unsure ; 

Death brought him bliss th&t ever shall endure* 

Know, reader, tliat this lord made this epitaph by a poetical proi- 
lepsis ; otherwise, at the reading thereof, who would not conceive, 
that the author surrived the subject of his poem > Whereas indeed 
this Lord died (beheaded 1546) in the reign of king Henry VIII. 
whom sir Anthony outlived, being one of the executors of hia will. 
Nor was it the worst piece of service he performed to his master, 
when (all other courlicrs declining the employment) Ee truly 
acquainted him with his dying condttion, to dispose of his soul for 
another world. 

Sir Anthony died about the second of Edward VI. dame Joan 
his wife surviving him. Daughter she was to sir Philip Champer- 
noon, of Modbury in Devonshire; a lady of great beauty and 
parts, a favourer of the Reformed religion when the times were 
most dangerous. She sent eight shillings by her man, in a violet 
coat, to Aone ABchough,"f* when imprisoned in the Counter; [Comp- 
ter;] a small sum, yet a great gift; so hazardous it was to help 
any in her condition. This lady Joan bought the reversion in fee 
of Waltham from king Edward VI. paying three thousand and- 
" hundred pounds for the same, purchasing therewith large pri- 
vileges in Waltham-Forest, as by the letters patents doth appear. 
She bare two sons to sir Anthony, — Henry Denny, esq, of whom^ 
hereafter ; the second, sir Edward, who, by Qod^s blessing, queen 
Elizabeth's bounty, and his own valour, achieved a fiur estate in the 
county of Kerry in Ireland ; which at this day is (if any thing in- 
that woful, war-wasted country can be) enjoyed by his great grand'- 
child, Arthur Denny, esq. of Tralleigh [Tralee]. 


Having the perusal of the churchwardens' accounts, wherein 
their ancient expenses and receipts are exactly taken, fairly written, 
and carefully kept, I shall select thence some memorable items, tO' 
acquaint us with the general devotion of those days. 

• Weaver's " Funenl MonnineDtii," page 863. t Fox's " Acti wid Monu- 

mmu," fa. 1339. 

,y Google 


Know, then, there vere six ordinary obita which the churchward- 
ens did annually discharge ; namely. For Thomas Smith, and Joan 
Itis wife, on the sixteenth of January ; For TJiomas Friend, Joan 
and Joan his wives, on the sixteenth of February : For Robert 
Peest, and Joan his wife, on the tenth of April : For Thomas 
Towers, and Catherine his wife, the six-and-twentieth of April ; 
For John Breges, and Agnes his wife, the. one<and-tliirtieth of 
May : For Thomas Turner, and Christian his wife, the twentieth 
day of December. The charge of an obit was two shillings and 
two pence ; and, if any be curious to have the particulars thereof, 
it was thus expended : — To the parish-priest, four pence ; to our 
lady's-priest, three pence ; to the charnel-priest, three pence ; to the 
two clerks, four pence; to the children, :(theBe I conceire choristers,.) 
three pence ; to the sexton, two pence ; to the bellman, two pence ; 
for two tapers, two pence ; for oblation, two pence. O the reason- 
able rates at Waltham ! two shillings two pence for an obit, the 
price whereof in St. Paul's in London was forty shillings ! For 
(foiBooth) the higher the church, the holier the service, the dearer 
the price, though he had given too much that had given but thanks 
for such vanities. 

To defray the expenses of these obits, the parties prayed for, or 
their executors, left lands, houses, or stock, to the churchwardens. 
Thomas Smith bequeathed a tenement in the comraaiket, and 
others gave lands in Upshire, called Pateinoster-Hms ; otbeis, 
ground elsewhere, besides a stock of eighteen cows, which the war- 
dens let ont yearly to farm for eighteen shillings, making up their 
yearly accounts at the feast of Michael the archangel, out of which 
we have excerpted the following remarkable particulars. 

Anno 1542, tie Thirty-Fourth of Henry VIII. 

" Imprimit. For watching the sepulchre, a groat."— This con- 
stantly returns in every yearly account ; though what meant thereby, 
I know DOL I could snspect some ceremony on Easter-eve, in 
imitation of tbe soMien' watching Christ's grave ; but am loath to 
diaige that age with more' supersUtion than it was clearly guilty of. 

" Item, Paid to the ringers at the coming of the king's Grace, am 
pence." — Yet Waltham bells told no tales every time king Henry 
came hither, having a small house in Rome-land, to which he is said 
oft privately to retire, for his pleasure. 

"Item, Pud unto two men of lav> fur their counsel about the 
churcVleases, six shillings eight pence.'' 

" Item, Pwd the attorney for his fee, twenty pence." 

" /tem. Paid for ringing at the prince's coming, a penny." 



Anno 1543, tAe Thirty-Fifth of Henry VIII. 
" Imprimit. Received of the executors of sir Robert Fuller, 
giveo \>y tKe said sir Robert to the church, ten pounds." — How u 
this man degraded from '* the Right Honourable the Lord Abbot 
of Waltham, (the last in that place,) to become a poor sir Robert, 
the title of the meanest priest in that age. Yet such his charity in 
his poverty, that, besides this legacy, he bequeathed to tbe church a 
chalice, silver and gilt, which they afterwards sold for seven 

Anno 1544, the Thirty-Sixth of Henry VIII. 

"ImprimtB. Received of Adam Tanner the overplus of the 
money which was gathered for the purchase of the bells, two pound 
four shillings and eleven pence." — It seems, the king^s officers sold, 
and the parish then purchased, tlie five bells, being great and 
tunable, (who, as they gave bountifully, so I presume they bought 
reasonably,) and the surplusage of the money was delivered. 

"Item, Received of Richard Tanner, for eight stoics, three 
shillings."— A stole was a vestment which the priest used. Surely 
these were much worn, and very rags of popery, as sold for four 
pence half-penny a-piece. It seems, the churchwardens were not so 
charitable to give away — ^nor so superstitious to bum — but so 
thrifty as to make profit by sale of — these decayed vestments. 

" Item, Paid for mending the hand-bell, two pence." — This was 
not fixed, as the rest, in any place of church or steeple, but (being 
a diminutive of the saints^-bell) was carried in the sexton^s hands at 
the circumgestation of tbe sacrament, the visitation of the sick, and 
such like occasions. 

" Item, Paid to Philip Wright, carpenter, for making a frame in 
the bellfrey, eighteen shillings four pence."— The bells, being 
bought by the parishioners, were taken down out of the decayed 
steeple ; and we shall afterwards see what became thereof. Mean> 
time, a timber-frame was made, which the aged of the last genera- 
tion easily remembered, in the south-east end of the churchyard, 
where now two yew-trees stand, and a shift ipade for some years to 
hang the bells thereon. 

Anno 1546, the Thirty-Eighth of Henry VIII. 

" Item, For clasps to hold up the banneis in the body of the 

church, eight pence."— By these, I understand, not pennons with 

arjne hanging over the graves of interred gentlemen, but, rather, 

some superstitious streameri, usually carried about in procession. 

* TTic Cluiichicudeu' Aeeonnt, anna 

, Goo^^lc 


'* Item, Paid to John Boston for mending the organs, twenlie 


*' Old things aie passed avay, behoM, all things now arc become 
new [^ Superstition hy degrees being banished out of the church, 
we hear no more of prayers and masses for the dead. Every obit 
now had its own obit, and fuDj expired ; the lands formerly given 
thereunto ^ing employed to more charitable uses. But let ns 
telect some particulars of the churchwardens' accounts in this king's 

Anno 1549, /Aa Third of Edward VI. 

" Imprimia. Sold the silver plate which was on the desk in the 
ekamelt [?] weighing five ounces, for twenty-Eve shillings,'" — 
Guess the pdlantry of our church by this, (presuming all the rest 
in proportionable equipage,) when the desk, whereon the priest 
read, was inlaid with plate of silver. 

" Itmtf Sold a rod of iron, which the curlain mn upon before 
the rood, nine pence." — The rood was an image of Christ on the 
cross, made generally of wood, and erected in a loR for that pur- 
pose, just over the passage out of the church into the chancel. 
And wot you what spiritual mystery was couched in this position 
thereof? The church (forsooth) typified the church militant, the 
chancel represents the church triumphant ; and all who will pass 
out of the former into the latter, must go under the rood-loft ; that 
is, carry the cross, and be acquainted with affliction. I add this 
the rather, because Harpsfield,* that great scholar, who might be 
presumed knowing in his own ait of snperatition, confesseth himself 
jgnomnt of the reason of the rood-situation. 

" Item, Sold so much wax as amounted to twenty-six shillings.^ 
—So thrifty the wardens, that they bought not candles and tapers 
ready made, but bought the wax at the best hand, and paid poor 
people for the making of them. Now they sold their magazine of 
wax as useless. CTndar the RerormatJon, more light and fewer 

" Item; Paid for half of the book called Paraphrase, five shil- 
lings." — By the seventh injunction of king Edward, each parish 
was to procure " the Paraphrase of Erasmus," namely, the first part 
thereof on the Gospels, and the same to be set up in some conve- 
nient place in the church. 

* Fux's •< Art* uid MmnuunU*," (n the examliutiDD of Tliomms Hawk*, page IJIM. 



" Item, Spent in the visitatioa st Clielnuford, amongst the 
wardens and other honeat men, fourteen shillings four pence."— A 
round sum, I assure yon, in those di^. This was the Erst visita- 
tion (kept by Nicholas Ridley, newly bishop of London} whereat 
Waltham-waidens ever appeared out of their own town, whose 
abbot formerly had episcopal jurisdiction. 

Anno 1551, lAe Fifth of Edward VI. 

" Imprimis. Received for a knell of a servant to the lady Mary 
her Grace, ten pence." — Copt Hall in this parish 1)eing then in the 
Crown, the lady (afterwards queen) Mary came thither sometimes, 
to take the air probably ; during whose residence there, this her 
servant died. 

" Item, Lost forty-six shillings by reason of the fall of money by 
proclamation.'" — King Henry much de'based the English coin, to 
his own gain and Uie land's loss, (if sovereigns may be said to get 
by the damage of their subjects,) yet all would not do to p^ his 
debts. His eon Edward endeavouied to reduce the coin to its tmf 
standard, decrying bad money by his proclamation, to the intrinsic 
value thereof. But, prevented by death, he e&cted not this diffi- 
cult design ; -(adultery in men, and adultemteness in money, both 
hardly reclaimed;) which was afterwards completed by the care <^ 
queen Elizabeth. 

*' Item, Received for two hundred aeventy-oue ounces of plate, 
sold at aeveral times, for the best advantage, sixty-seven pound 
tbortecn shillingB and nine pence." — Now was the brotherhood va. 
the church dissolved, consisting as formerly of three priests, three 
choristers, and two sextons ; and the rich plate belonging to th^a 
was sold for the good of the parish. It may seem strange the 
king's commissionerH, d^uted for that purpose, seized not on it, 
from whose hands Waltham found some fkvour, (befriended by the 
lord Rich, their countryman,) the rather because of ibeir inten- 
tions to build their decayed steeple. 


" New lady new laws." Now stisnge the metamorphosis in 
Waltham. Condemn not this our cosmography, or deflcription of 
a country-town, as too low and narrow a subject ; seeing, in soma 
sort, the History of Waltham- church is the Church-History of 
England,— all parishes in that sgc being infected alike with soper- 



stitioD. Noi intend I hereby to renew the memory of idolatry, but 
to revive our gradtade to Ood for the abolieliing thereof, whose 
numerous trinkets here ensue. 

Anno 1564, Maria primo. 

" Imprimu, For a cross with a foot, copper and gfiU,- twentie-five 
shi] lings.'" 

" Item, For a cross-staS', copper and gilt, nine shlllingB and fi/Ut 

" Item, For a pai, copper and gilt, five shillings.*" — " Greet one 
another,'" sailh St. Paul, *' with an holy kiss," 1 Cor. xvi. 20 ; on 
which words of the apostle the pax had its original. This cere- 
mony, perfonned in (Jie primitive times and eastern countries, was 
afierwaids (to prevent wantonness, and to make the more expedi- 
tion) commuted into a new custom, namely, a piece of wood or 
metal (with Christ's picture thereOn) was made, dnd solemnly ten- 
dered to all people to kiss. This was called the^»Kr, or '* peace," 
to show the unity arid. amity ot all there assembled, who, though 
not immediately, by the proxy of the pax, kissed one another. 

" Item, For a pair of censers, copper and gilt, nine Shillings and 
eight pence.'"— These were pots, in the which frankincense was 
burned, perfiimlng the church during 'divine service. 

" Item, For a stock of brass for the holy-water, seven shillings.'" 
—Which, by the canon,. must be of marble, or' metal, and in no 
case of brick,* lest the sacred liquor be sucked up by the spungi- 
ness thereof. 

" Item, For a chrismatory of pewter, three shillings four pence." 
— This was a vessel in which the consecrated oil, used in baptism, 
confirmation, and extreme unction, was deposited. 

" Item, For a yard of silver sarcenet for a cloth for the sacra- 
ment, seven shillings eight pence .".~^Here some sijkmaii or mercer 
must satisfy us what this was. The price seems too low for sarce- 
net inwoven with silver, and too high for, plain sarcenet Of a silver 

"Item, For a piz of pewter, two shillings.'' — This was a'box 
wherein the host, or consecrated wafer, was. put and preserved. 

" Item, For'Mary and'John, that stand in the rood-loft, twentio- 
six shillings eight pence.*' — '"Christ on the cross saw his moth^, 
and the disciple whom he loved . standing byj" John xix. 26, &c. 
In apish imitation whereof the rood, when perfectly made with all 
Jhe appurtenances thereof, was attended with these two images. 

"Item, For washing eleven aubes and as many head-clothes, six 

*. Duraktcb, Dt Biliiui Eccla. nnia. 6, pige 173. 

, Goo^^lc 

274 HISTORY OF WALTHAM-ABBBY. ».i'. 1*63. 

pence.'^'l-Aii aube, or albe, was s priest's ganneDt of white linen 
down to their feet, girded about his middle. The thin mattei 
denoted nmplicity; coiour, purittf ; length, (deep diTinity ! •) 
penetrance; and the cincture thereof signified thepenon wealing 
it prompt and prepared for God's Mrmee. Their head-clothea were 
like OUT seijeants' cotfs, but close, and not turned up. 

" Itemy For watching the sepulchre, eight pence."— Thus the 
price of that serrice (but a groat in king Henry's days) was doubted. 
Howerer, though popery vas restored to its kind, yet was it not 
re-estated in its former degree, in the short reigu of queen Mary. 
For we find no mention of the former six obits anniversarily per- 
formed ; the lands for whose maintenance were alienated in the 
reign of king Edward, and the vicar of the parinh not so charitable 
as to celebrate these chits gratis, without any reward for the same. 

" Item, For a processioner, and a manual, twenty pence." 

" Item, For a corpora»^;Ioth, twelve pence." — ^This was a linen 
cloth laid over or under the consecrated host. 

" Item, To the apparitor, for the bishop's book of articles at the 
visitation, six pence.'" — ^This bishop was blocdy Bonner, that cor- 
pulent tyrant, full (as one said) of gats and empty of bowels ; who 
visited his diocess before it was sick, and made it sick with his 
visitation. His articles were in number thirty-seven, and John 
Bale wrote a book against them.f The bishop's chief care herein 
was the setting up of complete roods, commonly called (but when 
without his car-reach) " Bonner's Block- Almighty." If any refused 
to provide such blocks for him, let them expect he would procure 
ta^tA for them. 

Anno 1556, Maritv tertio, 

" Imprimis. For coles to undermine a piece of'the steeple which 
stood after the first &11, two shillings." — This steeple formeriy 
stood in the middle (now east end) of the church ; and, being 
ruined past possibility of repair, fell down of itself, only a remain- 
ing part was blown up by undermioers. How quickly can a few 
destroy what required the sge and industry of many in long time to 
raise and advattce ! 

It soundeth not a little to the praise of this -parish, that, neither 
burdensome nor beholding to the vicinage for a collection, they 
rebuilt the stee^Je at the west end of the church on their own pro- 
per cost, enabled thereunto, partly by their stock in the church-box, 
arising from the sale (as is aforesaid) of the goods of the brother- 
hood, and partly by the voluntary contribution of the parishioneis. 

* Ou&iMtus, De Ritibiu Eccla. nnm. S, i>iga3l6, tFox'i "AcMuid 

Monuments," pag« 1474. 


Belii^mtb. history OF WALTH AM -ABBEY. 275 

This tower-sleqile U eighly-eix feet high ^m the foundation to the 
battlements, each foot vhereof (besides the materials pie-providetl) 
costing thiity-thiee shillings four pence the buijding.* Tliree years 
passed &OID the founding to the finishing thereof, (every year's woik 
discernible by the discolouration of the stones,) and the parish iras 
forced, for the perfecting of the building, to sell their bells, hanging 
befoie in a wooden trame in the churchyard ; so that Waltham, 
whidi formerly bad steeple-less bells, sov had far some years a 
bell4e8B steeple. 


In eleven full yeus, namely, from the last of king Henry VIII. 
anno 1547, till the first of queen Elixabeth, \S58, this churcb 
found four changes in religion ; papist, and protestant ; papist, and 
{wotestant again. The last torn vill appear by the wardens' follow- 
ing accoonts. 

1. Anno 1558, Elizabeth primo. 

" Imprimii. For the taking down of the rood-loft, three shillings 
two pence."— If then, there living and able, I hope I should have 
lent an helping hand to bo good a work, as now I bestow my 
prayers, that the like may never in England be set up*again. 

" Item, Received for a suite of vestments, being of blew velvet, 
t&d anotbct suite of damask, and on altar-cloth, four pound." 

" Jtmn, For three corporaEses, wherettf two white silk, and one 
blew velvet, two pound tl^rteen shillings four pence." 

" Item, For two suits of vestments, and an altar-cloth, three 
pound.''— Now was the superstitious wardrobe dispersed, and that 
(no doubt) sold for shillkigs which cost pounds. They were beheld 
as the garments spotted with sin, and therefore the less pity to part 
with them. But see what foUoweth. 

2. AnTio 1562, Elizabethw quinto. 

" Item, For a cloth of buckeram for the communion-table, and 
the making, four shillings." — Having sold so much, could they not 
afford a better carpet P Is there no mean betwixt painting a face, 
aad not washkig it f He. must have a fixed aim and strong hand, 

* Tlie tUrty-lliree hti od the top (dlfienlly and duigei of climbing m»Ae it tlie 
t n ttc) Mit fartj- ihUtiigi » loot, H *ppeu«th b; the chmcliinTdeii*' ueoimis, oniw 


276 HISTORY OF WA1.THAM-ABBEV. a. d. 1663. 

vho hits decency, and missetb gaudioess and sluttery. But there 
is a generation of people who over-do, in the spirit of opposition : 
such conceive that a irettle is. good enough for God's table; and 
such a taUe, covering enough for itself. 

" Hem, For lattices for the church-windows, fifteen shillings."— 
Fain would I, for the credit- of our church, by laUic6$ understand 
" casements," if the word would bear it. Yet surely it was not for 
covetousnees wholly to spare glazii)g,.but thrift to.preserve the glass, 
that these lattices did fence them on the outside. 

" It«m, Paid for a bay nagge, given to Mi. Henry Denny for 
the abby wall, three pound seventeen fihillings." — This nag wss 
nther a thankful acknowledgment of Mr. Denny's propriety, than 
a. just Toliiabion' of what .4he parish teceired fromhim, for it fol- 
loweth, — 

" It€m, To labourers which did undermine the said wall, forty- 
five shillings nine pence." — What then may the materials of that 
wall be presucaed worth lin themselves P I conceive this was a 
bH^ding which' ranged east'beyond the old steeple, the demolishing 
whereof brought much profit to the parish, whose wardens for some 
years drave a great trade in the sale of lead, stone, and timber, all 
devoured in the roofing, flooring, and finishing of their steeple. 

^. AnnolS^, EUzahOlus'aexto. 

" Imprimit. ' For an 6ld house in the old marV et-place, thirteen 
pound six i^iilliogs eight pence."— This tenement, low-rented, 
yielded annually nine shillings. Now the parish sold it, and ano- 
ther house in West-street, outright; letting leases also of their 
other church-lands for twenty-one years. 6uch baigains made a - 
feast for the present age, and a famine for posterity. 

"Item, For the old timber in the little vesliary of St. George's 
chappel, fifteen shillings."— ^In vain have I inquired for the situa- 
tion hereof, long since demolished ; andno wonder it St. George's 
chapel cannot be found, when St. George himself is affirmed by 
jBomeu one never existent in ravm natard* 

" Item, Received of Mr. Denny, for one cope of cloth of-^ld, 
three pound six shUlings eight pence." 

" Item, For two altai^oaths of velvet and silk, two pound." — 
It seemeth-the parish did not part with all their gallantry at once, 
but made sevend stakes thereof, and parcelled them ont as their 
necessities did require. 

*' Ifem, Received of Mr. Tamworth twenty loads of Umber ready 
hewed, which he g;ave to the parish."— This gentleman, by his 

• PaiiaFpuB Mblanctrqn in ^ptlegia, ^rliaUo 31, Cmfitnmit AKfMaita. 



bounty to the public, seems better knoini to God tban to me, 
having neither heard nor read^of any of bis name living in or near 
to Waltham. 

" Item, For taking dovn the Btaira in the abby, seven shillingB 
eight pence."— This was part of the nag-purchase, vheieby we col- 
lect, that^a large structure was by this baigaiu' conveyed to the 

" Item, For taking down the lead from the diamd-honse, and 
covering the steeple, eighteen shillings.'"— The steeple was con- 
ceived above the chamel-bouse as in height so in honour. Where- 
fore now the lead ttdieit from it wa» translated to the covering of 
the steeple.* Call this removing of this metal from one part of ths 
church to another, only the borrowing of St. Peter to lend' to S*. 

" Item, For the archdescon^s man coming for a record of all the 
inhabitants of the parish, four pence.'" — I know not on what canon 
this was founded. It may be, her majesty in those dangerous times 
desired (not out of pride, but necessary policy) to know ibenumbef 
of her subjects, and might enjoin the archdeacons, in theiE lespecl- 
ive visitations, lo make this inquiry. 

4, 5. Eiffh Time to htoei off. Jamei Ecai of Oariitle pretent 
Otcner of Waltham. 

But iky begins to dawn^ and the light of our age to appear, 
matteiB coming within the memory of many alive. We will there* 
fote break off; Waltham, since, affording no peculiar observables; 
only will add, that sir Edward (grandchild ' to «r Anthony) Denny 
was created,, by king- James, baron of Wa]tham,-t* and since made, 
by king Charles, earl of Norwich: a noUe person, who settled on 
the curate of Waltham (to whom before a bare stipend of eight 
pounds did belong) one hundred pounds per annum, with some 
other considerable accommodations, tying good land for the true 
performance thereof. 

The abbey is now the inheritance of this earl''8 grandchild, (by 
Honora hie daughter,) James Hay, earl of Carlisle, who married 
Margaret, daughter to Francis, earl of Bedford, by whom as. yet he 
hath no issue ; for the continuance of whose happiness my prayers 
sjiall never be wanting. 

6 — 8. Nicholas the mogt eminent Abbot of Wtdtkam. John de 

Waltham. Soger Waltham a learned Writer. 

The reader may justly expect from me a catalogue of all the 

abbots of this monastery. But to do Hjiiltely, 1 dare not ; lamely^ 

• WUvh ia uow bul (Un). t CAHnE^'■ Brilamia, in Emsk. 


I would not ; perfectly, I cannot ; and therefore must crave to be 
excused. Only ]et me obaerve, that Nicholas abbot of Waltham 
vas most triumphant in power of any in bis place. He flourielied 
in the reign of king Richard II. and was one of the fourteen 
commiKsionere, chosen by Parliament, to examine the miscaniagea 
in that king^s reign since the death of his grond&ther.* 

Amongat the natives of Waltham, for statesmen John de Walt- 
ham beats away the bell. He was Keeper of the Privy Seal in 
the reign of king Richard II. being the third in number chosen 
amongst the fourteen commissioners aforesaid, empowered to exa- 
mine all misdemeanours of state.-}' And now was not Waltham 
highly honoured with more than a single share, when, amongst 
those fourteen, two were faer gremials, the fore-named Nicholas 
living in Walthun, and this John having his name thence, because 
birth therein P 

But amongst scholars in our town, Roger Waltham must not be 
forgotten, canon of St. Paul's in London, and a great favourite to 
Fuik Basset, bishop thereof. He wrote many learned books, 
whereof two especially (one called Compendium Morale, the other. 
Imagines Oratorum) commend his parts and pains to posterity .| 

8, 10. Hugh Neville buried in Walt&am ; and tUeo Robert 

Pass we from those who were bom, to eminent persons buried, 
therein. Here we first meet with Hugh Neville, a minion of king 
Richard I. He was interred in Waltham church, saith my authoT,§ 
tn nobili tarcop&offo marmoreo et imadpto, " in a noble coffin of 
marble engraved." If a coffin be called laroophagut, (from con- 
suming the corpse,) surely sacrilege may be named lareopht^o- 
phagut, which at this day hath devoured Uiat coffin, and all belong- 
ing thereunto. 

We spoil all, if we forget Robert Passellew, who was dominut 
fac totum in the middle — and /cK nihil towards the end — of the 
leign of Henry III. Some parasites extolled him by allusion to 
his name, past-le-eau, (that is, " passing the pure water,") the wita 
of those days thus descantmg upon him : — 

Ell aqua Unit, cl est aqua dulcii, et eti aqua clara, 
Tu pracellU aquam, nam letii Itnior cm tu. 
Unlet dulcior et tu, clara clarior ei lu ; 
Mente quidem Unit, re dulcit, languine clarua. [| 

■ Hem. de Khidhton, De Kctntiiui Angl. Ub. t. page 368?. f Ibid, ulpriat, 

page S68S. I Bale, IV Ifcrlpl. Brit. ceot. It. page 303. } Matthew 

r*Bis, fi. oniw 1323, pi^B 315. |] Collecllon of Mr. Cundpa'i meh. in »ir ThomH 



But Buch who flattered him the Tastest whilst in &TaaT, mocked him 
the most in miseiy ; and at tait he died in his own house in 
Waltham, and was buried in the abbey-church therein.* 

11, 12. A He^ o/DifficuUiei etut together. Queriet on Queriei. 

And now, because we hare so often cited Matthew Paris, I 
never met with more difficulties in six lines, than what I find in 
him ; which, because nearly relating to this present subject, I 
thought fit to exemplify : — Eodanqw anno, viddioet in a-attino 
Sanott MichaSlu dedicata ett ecdetia conveMiualit canonicorwn de 
Waltham, ah -epiteopo Noncicenti WiUidmo, tolemniter taldi, 
amutentibus alia plurimU epiaeopit, prcdatig, et magnatibut wns- 
ratnUbiu, gtatim pott dedicationem eeelssiai 8aneti Pauii Londi- 
nentif, ut peregrinantet hine indi indUtanter remearerU — Mat- 
thew Pabis, tn anno 1242, p. 595. " And in the same year, 
namely, the morrow after St. Michael's day, the couTentual church 
of the canons at Waltham was dedicated by William bishop of 
Norwich very solemnly, many other bishops, prelates, and rene- 
rable peers assisting him, presently after the dedication of St. 
Paul's in London ; that pilgrims and travellers up and down might 
indistantly return.'^ It is clear, our church of Waltham-Abbey is 
intended herein, England affording no other conventual church.'f' 

This being granted, 1. How comes Waltham chunh, built by 
Harold two hundred years before, now to be first dedicated ; that 
age accounting it as faulty and fetal to defer the consecration of 
churches, as the christening of children P 2. What made tbe 
bishop of Norwich to meddle therewith P an office more proper fox 
the bishop of London to perform, Waltham being (though not 
under) in his jurisdiction. 3. What ia meant by the barbarous 
wwd indittanter f and what benefit accrued to travdleis thereby ? 
I will not BO much as conjecture, as unwilling to dnw my bow 
where I despiur to hit the mark, but leave all to the judgment of 
others. But I grow tedious, and will therefore conclude. 

13^15. King CharUis lait Coming to Waliham. GmiditionaUy 
granteth the Sepairing of the CAurci : but it mitcarrietA. 
Anno 1641, king Charles came the last time to Waltham, and 
went, as he was wont where any thing remarkable, to see the 
church, the earl of Carlisle attending him. His majesty told him, . 
that he divided his cathedral churdtes, as he did his royal ships, 
into three ranks, accounting St. Paul's in London, York, Lincoln, 
Winchester, &c. of the firet Fonn ; Chichester, Lichfield, &:c. of the 

* U^TTBEw Faris, ana 1352. t $>< SricD'B " Caubgiie nf Rellgtooi Boowi." 



second ; the Welch cathedisla of the third, with which Waltham 
church may be welt compared, especially if the roof thereof was 
taken lower and leaded. 

The earl moved his majesty, that, seeing this ancient church 
(founded by Idog Hardd hia predecessor) was follen into such 
decay that the repair was. too heavy for the parish, be would be 
pleased to grant a moderate toll of cattle coming over the bridge, 
(with their great drifts* doing much damage to the highways,) 
and therewith both the town might be paved, and. the diurch 
repaired. The king graciously giaoted it, provided it were done 
with, the privity and consent of a great prelate, (not so safe to be 
named as easy to be guessed,) with whom he consulted in all 

But when the foresaid prelate was informed, that the earl .had 
applied to his. majesty before addresses to himself, he dashed the 
design ; so that poor Waltham church must still be contented vrith 
their weak vails, and worse roof, till providence procure her some 
better benefactors. As for the arms of Waltham-Abbeyj being 
loath to set them alone, I have jpined them in the following 
draught, with the arms of the other mitred abbeys, as &r as my 
industry could recover them.f, 


* Modnn nuge pnCen " itninB," thMigh boOi msd* *re deiiced Ihnn (he red) "-to 
driie." — Edit. 

t Tb> nil^olned Ii one of the two '■ SmI* of Airni" wUcli FoUn bH glrto to 
Waltham; tba other vpp—n ai No. H, In vol. II. page 339 of hla " Church' 
Blitory." — Edit. 







" S«« how bs teeketb ■ qnwiel igllint DM." — I Kisp *. 1. 
Rnpmwtm Mw tSitim til, juia tailprur. — Tuihtius bi EiohkIm, 






mv most bountiful and most exemplary patron. 


Mt Church-History was so far from prostitutmg 
herself to mercenary embraces, she did not at all 
espouse any particular interest, hut kept herself a 

However, a dragon is risen up, with much fierceness 
and fury, threatening this my virgin's destruction. 

Your name is George, and for you it is as easy as 
honourable to protect her from yiolence. 

If any material falsehood or forgery be found in my 
book, let " Liar " be branded in my face. But, '. 
suffer not my " Injured Innocence " to be oyerbome 
in such things, which I have truly, clearly, and warily 

Thus shall you encourage me (leaving off such con- 
troversial deviations from my calling) to preach and 
to perform in my ministerial ibaclion somewhat worthy 
of the honour to be 

Your Lordslup*s most obliged 
servant and chaplain, 

Cranford Moat-house, 
March the 21st. 








T^at it is impomble for tis Pen of any SUtortana, ttrttinff in 
(at oursj a divided Age, to pleaie alt Partiet, and how eatg 
it ie to cavil at any Autior. 

Sdch as lived after the flood, and before the confumon of 
tongues, were Iiappy in tliis particular,— that they did bear to 
undentand, and speak to be understood, iritb all persons in their 
generation. Not sucb their felicity who lived after the confusion 
of languages at the Tower of Babel, when the eloquence of the best 
was but barbarism to all, save a few folk of his own femily. 

Happy those English historians wKo wrote some sixty yean since, 
before our civil distempers were bom or conceived ; at leastwise, 
before there were house-burnings (though some heart-burnings) 
amongst us ; I mean, before mens latent animosities broke oat into 
open hostility : seeing then there was a general right imderstanding 
betwixt all of the nation. 

But, alas ! such as wrote in or since our civil wars are seldom 
apprehended truly and candidly, save of such of thcit own persua- 

,,,, . ,Coo';lc 


Bion ; vhilst olhers do not (or what is worse, wiB not) underst&ntl 
them aright : and no woDder if speeches be not rendered according 
to the true intent of the speaker, when prejudice is the interpreter 

This I foresaw when I entered upon my Church-History ; but 
comforted myself with tlie counsel of Erasmus : Si mm pottU 
placere omnibui, plaoeto ^timit ; " If thou canst not please all, 
please the best." In wder whereunto, I took up to myself this 
resolution, to steer my course betwixt the two rocks of adulation 
and irritation ; though it seems I have run upon both, if the Ani- 
madvcrtor may be believed ; wlicreof hereafter. 

As it is impossible in distracted times to please all, «o is it easy 
for any at any time to cavil at the best performance. A pigmy is 
giant enough for this purpose. Now cavils may -be. reduced to 
these two heads : — Cavils without cause; cavils without measure. 

Caitseless Cavils are such as the caviller bwnself doth create, 
without any ground for the same. Such find a knot in a bulrush, 
because they themselves before had tied it therein ; and may he 
compared to beggars, who breed vermin in. their own bodies, and 
then blow them on the clothes of others. 

Cavils without hkasuke are, when.the anger imd bitterness 
of the caviller ezceedeth due proportion, and the demerit of the 
&ult ; as when he luaketh mematy- to be^^ut^t^nMn^-mistakes ; eaautd 
to be voluntary errors, the printer'^ to be the atitAor's halts ; and 
then brags every foil to be a faJI, and triumpheth at the rout of a 
small party as at (he defeat of the whole army. This distinction is 
here premised, whereof hereafter we shall make use as We see just 


Wiif tis. AtUkor ilenred and i(ped never to eome itndsr.tAs Pen of 

the Animadwrtor in a eontroternal Dijvrence. 

It was ever my desire and care, if it were possible, not to lall 

Jinder the-pen of the Aniroadvertor ; baring several reasons thereof 

to myself which now I publicly profess : — 

1. I knew Jtim a-man of able parts and learning. God sanctify 
both to his glory and the church's good! 

2. Of an eager spirit, with him of whom it was Biud,^Qaicquid 
volutt, taldi voluit. 

3. Of a tart and smart style, endeavouring to down with all 
which stood betwixt him and bis opinion. 



4. Not ove^4^U(<ll in bis laDguage to the &lhen of llie chnich, 
(vhat then may children expect fiom him P) iF contnry in judgment 
to him. 

Lastly and chiefly. One, the edge of vhose keenness is not 
taken off by the death of his adversary ; witness his writing against 
the archbishops of York and Armagh. 

The bble tella us that the tanner was the worst of all masters to 
his cattle, as who would not only load them soundly whilst living, 
but tan their hides when dead; and none could blame one if unwill- 
ing to exaspetate each a pen, which, if surviving, would prosecute 
his adversary into his grave. The premises made me, though not 
aervilely fearful, (which, I pnuee God, I am not of any writer,) yet 
genemlly cautious not to give him any personal provocation, knowing 
that though both our pens were long, the world was wide enough 
for them without crossing each other. 

As I desired, so I partly hoped, that my Chaich-History would 
escape the Animadvertor. First. Because a gentleman came to me, 
(sent from him, as I supposed,) informing me, " That bad not Dr. 
Heylin been visited with blindness, he bad been upon my bones 
before." Then I desired him to return this answer : " That, as I 
was sorry for the sad cause, the doctor's blindness ; I was glad of 
the joyful effect, my own qniet." Not hearing any more for 
many months after, I conceived myself secure liom any wind in 
that comer. 

It increased my confidence, because I conceived Dr. Heylin 
neither out of charity or-poltcy would write against one who had 
been his fellow-servant to — and sufferer for — the same lord and 
master, king Charles ; for whose cause I lost none of the worst 
livings, and one of the best prebends, in England. Only thus 
happy I was in my very uiihappiness,— ff> leate what kos taken 
awatf from the rest of my brethren. 

In a word, seeing no birds or beasts of prey (except sharp-set 
indeed) will feed on his own kind, I concluded Dr. Heylin would 
not write against me, who conceived myself to be one of his own 

But, it seems, I reckoned without my host, and now am called to 
a rear-account. I cannot say with Job, " The thing that I feared" — 
but. The thing that I feared not — " is &llen upon me." 

However, I conceived myself bound in duty to David's command, 
" Not only to seek peace, but to pursue it ; " Psalm xxxiv. 14 ; 
though in some sort it fled away from me, being now informed 
that the doctor was writing against me ; wherefore, finding him 
in Fleet-street, and following him at his heels to his chamber, (at a 
stationer's house over against 8t Dunstan's church,) I sent up my 

, Cookie 


same to him by a Bervanl of the liouae, desinng to epeak a 
fev words with him. The messenger went to him, and returned 
me this answer : " That the doctor was very busy, and could not 
be spoken with.^ Thus, my treaty for peace taking no effect, I 
arm«l myself with patience, uid quietly expected the comlng-fotth 
of his book against me. 


7%at, t^ier terioua Debate, the AtOhar fomd hinutif neeeuUated 
to make tkia " Appeal"" in kU owajiut Vindication. 

Hating perused the books of the Animadvertor against me, it 
bare a strong debate within me, whether I should pass it over in 
silence, or return an answer unto him; and arguments on both sides 
presented themseltes unto me. 

Silence seemed best, because I lacked leisure solemnly to confute 
his " AnimadTeisions," haTtng at this time so much and various 
employment : the cow was well stocked with milk, thus piaised by 

BU vaiil sd niii£;IVvm, Mikw alU utanfiriui. 

" She ncUea two, yet doth not ttSt 
Tvilce a-da; to roms to th' pkO." 

But I justly feared, who twice a Lord's-day do come to the pulpit, 
(God knows my heart, I speak it not to ostentation,) that I could 
not suckle my parish and the press, without starring or short-feeding 
of one : whereas the Animadvertor, in his retired life, gives no other 
milk than following his own private studies. 

Secondly. I suggested to myself, that the second blow makes 
the fray ; and should I rejoin, probably it would engage me in an 
endless contest, with which my declining age could ill comport. I 
remembered the man who moved in chancery for a ffeU-orier, which 
should beget no more ; but knew not when any such «u»ucA-answer 
should pass betwixt us, to put a period to the controveray. 

Ijastly. Our Saviout^s counsel came into my mind : " Renst 
not evil ; but whosoever shall smite thee on the right side, turn to 
him the other also," Matt. v. 39. And although some divines 
make this precept but temporary, as a the cliurcb, 
whilst in the infancy thereof, under persecution ; yet others moke it 
always obligatory, and of perpetual continuance. 

(hi the other side, the distinction came seasonably to my remem- 
brance, of a man''s righting and revenging himself; the latter 



belongs to Qod alone, " VeDgeahce is stiDe, I vill repay it ; ** 
Rom. xii. 19 ; Uie former men may — and in some cases must — do, 
in their own fair defence, vitbout breach of our Saviour's precept 
lately alleged. 

I called also to mind, how, in our common law, mutes at the bar, 
who would not plead to the indictment, are adjudged guilty ; and 
therefore justly suspeclcd I should, from my silence, be concluded 
CAST in the court of religion and learning, for such faults and errors 
as the Animadvertor hath>chai;ged on me. 

But most of all it moved me, that ministers »f Qod''B word and 
Mcraments ought to vindicate their credits, that so they may be the 
more effectual Actors for God's glory in their vocation. When our 
Saviour wentabout to. heal .ihe. man's withered hand on the Sabbath- 
day, *' Is it lawful," said he, '* to save life, or to kill F " Mark iii. 4. 
Where I observed, that our Saviour accounted not healing to be 
hurtinff ; yea, not earing to be killing, in that person who had 
ability and opportunity to do it. And by the same proporlion, not 
plaetering w.iiUing of .one's .wounded credit ; and so, consequently, 
I should heijelo de te, and by my siBfuL^ellence be the wilful mur- 
derer of my own reputation. 

These Isst reasons did preponderate with me ; and I resolved on 
two things : To return a pliun, full, and speedy answer : and to 
refnuQ from all tailing, which is a sick vit, if not the sickness of 
wit ; and though, perchance, I may have something tart to quicken 
the appetite of the reader, yet nothing bitter against the credit of 
the Animadvertor. This my *' Answer"" I ' have "here intituled, 
" The Appeal unto the Religious, Learned, and Ingenuous." 

But before I close with the Animadvertor, cominug, *" hand to 
hand ; " let us first, eminue, try it " at distance," and entertain the 
reader (to his profit and pleasure, I hope) with my Genxual De- 
fences, before I proceed to answer each particular. 



Taken from his TiUe-Page, and word " endeavourvd.'* 
Men may be ranked into three forms, of intenuess, endea- 

votTEEBs, and perfobmers. 

I mtendejls are-the first and' lowest form ; yet so &r favoured by 

some papists, that they maintain, " That a good intention, though 

embracing ill means, makes a good action." 


follke's introduction. 289 

Perfosmbrs ue the third and highent rank; to which my 
thoughU dare not aspire, but leave this upper room empty, to be 
filled by men of better parts and ability. 

The middle fonn consists of evdeavourers, amongst whom I 
took my station in the title-page of my book : — 



And as I did not hope that any courteous reader would call me up 
higher, bo I did not fear that any cavillei thereat could cast me 
lower, but that I might still peaceably possess my place of an 


For, what though I fall short of that which I desire, and strive to 
perform f I did neither belie myself, nor deceive the reader, who 
neither was the first, nor shall be the last, of whom it may be truly 
said, Maffnit exddit autit : the iate of many, my betters, who have 
undertaken to compass high and hard matters. 

But it may be objected against me, that, being conscious of my 
own weakness with the weight of the burden, I should have left the 
work for some stronger back to bear, and quitted it to those 
who would not only have endeavoured, but performed, the same. 

I answer : First. I did hope, that what was acceptable to God 
would not be contemptible to good men ; having read, " If there be 
first a willing mind, it is accepted according to that a man hath, and 
not according to that he hath not,'" 2 Cor. viii. 12. Secondly. 
Seeing this my willingness was attended with a competency of 
books, records, friends, intelligence, strength, health, and leisure, 
(be all spoken, not to my praise, but God's glory,) I did lope 
something worth the reader's acceptance might be produced. 
Lastly. Though ^ling in what I undertook, I hoped to perform 
what might be usefiil and advantageous to abler pens undertaking 
the same Usk, and— to use my own (as who should forbid P) expres- 
sion — my beabiB might be scaffolds, my comer- filling-stones for his 
more beautiful building. 

The premises encouraged me to undertake my Church-History ; 
wherein, if I have not done what the reader expected, let him con- 
sider with himself, whether he did not expect what I never promised : 
who, being unwilling to be cast by the verdict of the ingenuous, 
for laying my own action too high, have not farced the first p.ige of 
my book, (like a niouptebank's bill,) pretending no higher but to 





That many, etpedaUy Memoiy-MUtaiei, and Pen-Slipg, mutt be 
expected in a great Volume. 
It is the advantage of a small book, that the author's eye may in 
a manner be incumbent at once over it all, fVom the banning 
to the end thereof; a cause why they may be more exactly corrected. 
A gaiden hard by one^s house is easier weeded and trimmed, than a 
field lying at some distance. Books which swell to a great volume, 
ciuinot be spun with so even a thread, but wilt run coarser here and 
there ; yea, and have knots in them sometimes, whereof the author is 
not so sensible as the reader ; as the iaulls in children are not so soon 
found in them by their own fitthets, as by strangers. Thus the 
poet :^ 

Ffntm Bptrt in lengtfai nt tittpen mhuuhb. 

As for memory-mistakes, (which are not the sleeping, but wink- 
ing, of an author,) they are so far from overthrowing the credit of 
any book, as a speck, not paring-deep, in the rind of an apple is from 
.proving of the same rotten to the core. Yea, there want not learned 
writers (whom I need not name) of the opinion, that even the 
instrumental penmen of the scripture might commit AfiaprfifiMra 
yLr^p.inxa ; though, open that window to piofaneness, and it will be 
in vain to shut any doors : " Let Ood be Ime, and eveiy man a liar.^ 
However, I mention their judgments to this purpose, to show that 
memory-mistakes have not been counted such heinous matters, 
but venial in their own nature, as not only finding but deserving 

I confess when such mistakes become common and customary in 
an author, they mar the credit of his book, and intolerably abuse 
the reader. Nothing is lighter in itself than a single crumb of 
sand, yet many of them put together are the heaviest of bodily 
burdens : " heavier than the sand of the sea/' Job vl. 3. What 
is slight in itself, if numerous, will become ponderous ; but I hope 
that memory-mistakes and pen-slips in my book will not be found 
BO frequent ; and desire the benefit of this plea to be allowed me 
but four times, in my answer to the Animadvertor : a number low 
enough, I hope, for the ingenuous reader to grant, though perchance 
too high foi mc to request. 





TTUtt, in mtire Stori«t of impregnable Truth, it it /tmie /or one 
to cavil mti wme Cdoar at ditmembered Pattaget therein. 

It is bb act as easy as unjust, for one to assault a naked sen- 
tence, as it stands by itself, disarmed of the assistance of the 
coherence bef(a« and after it. All sentences (except 
entire and independent) have a double strength in them, one 
inherent, the other relative, and the latter sometimes greater than 
the fonner; vhen vbat in a sentence is doubtful, is explained; 
difficult, expounded ; defective, supplied ; yea, seemingly felse, 
rendered really true by the connexion. 

We read in the Life of St Edward,* that Harold, cup-bearer 
to the king, chanced to stumble with the one foot, that he almost 
kissed the ground ; but with the other leg he recovered himself: 
whereat his fethei Qodwin, earl of Kent, (then dining with the 
king,) said, "Now one brother doth help anoUier;" to whom the 
king replied, " And so might my brother have helped me,-f- if it had 
so pleased you." 

Many limes vhen one sentence in my book hath had a casual 
slip, the next to it, out of fiatemal kindness, would have held it up^ 
(in the apprehension of the reader,) from felling into any great 
error, had the Animadvertor so pleased ; who uncharitably cutteth 
it off from such support, so that one brother cannot help another ; 
whilst he representeth mangled and maimed passages, to the disad- 
vantage of the sense and writer thereof. Thus one may prove 
atheism out of scripture itself: "There is no God." But what 
went before f " The fool hath said in his heart." 

I have dealt' more fairly in this my Appeal with the Animad- 
vertor ; and have not here and there picked out parcels, and cut 
off shreds where they make most for my advantage ; but have 
presented the whole cloth of his book, (as he will find so, if pleas- 
ing to measure it over again,) length and breadth, and list, and 
' feg and all ; that so the reader may see of what wool it is made, 
and [with] what thread it is spun, and thereby be the better enabled 
to pass his verdict upon it. 

t'a ■' RemBliu," page 24 1. 1 Moulng Ilia bioltun Alfred, 





TAat Favour, of course, is indulged to the JirH (as least perfeelj 
Edition 0/ Books. 

The first edition of a book, in a difficult subject, hatli ever 
been beheld as less complete ; and a liberty of correcting and 
amending bath been alloired to all autboiB of tliis kind. 

I will instance in his book, — whose books would I was worthy 
to bear! — Mr. Camden's "Britannia.^ His first edition was a 
babe in a little — the second, a child in a bigger— «ctavo ; the third, 
d tfouth ia a quarto, but map-less ; the last, a man in a fair folio : 
first and lost differing more than a galley and galleass, not only in 
the greatness but perfection,— every newer edition amending the 
faults of the former. 

Nest, we will insist in another author above all exception, eren 
the Animadvertor himself, who in his " Epistle to the Reader," 
before the second and much-altered edition of his '* Microcosm," 
thus expresseth himself, not unhappily either for his own or my 
purpose :— 

" I am not the first of whom it was said, Secunda cogitationes 
sunt meUores ; neither is it a thing rare for children of this nature, 
to be as often perfected as bom. Books have an immortality above 
their authors. They, when they are full of age and guiltinesB, 
can be retaken into the womb which bred them, and, with a new 
life, receive a greater portion of youth and glory. Every impres- 
sion is to them another being; and ihat always may, and often 
doth, bring with it a sweeter edition of strength and loveliness. 
Thus with them age, and each several death, ia but an usher to a 
new birth ; each several birth, the mother of a more vigorous 

Had the like liberty of a second edition been allowed roe, which 
thj Animadrerlot assumed, his pains had been prevented, and 
most of the ftults he hath found in my book (being either detected 
by myself, or discovered by my friends, communicating the same 
unto me) had been rectified. 

Thus in the Latin tongue the same word seeundus signifieth both 
" second " and " successful ; " because second undertakings (wherein 
the failings of the former are observed and amended) generally prove 
most prosperous. 

But it will be objected : " Such second editions with new inser* 
tions, additions, and altemtions, arc no better than pick-pockets to 

, Cookie 


the reader ; who, laring purchased and perused the first edition, is, 
hy this new one, both in his purse and pains equally abused, and 
his book rendered little better tlian waste paper.^ 

I answer : First. I am no more obnoxious to this objection tlian 
other authors who set forth new editions. Secondly. I hope, my 
alterations shall not be so many or great as to disguise the second 
from the first edition. Lastly. I will take order (God willing) for 
the priuting of a piece of paper (less than a leaf) in my second 
impression, being the index of alteration, bo that the owners of the 
first may, if so pleased, in less than an hour, with their pens, con- 
form their boobs to the new edition, which, though a little less 
beautiful to the eye, will be no less beneficial to the users thereof. 

Here let me humbly tender to the teadei's consideration, that my 
*' Holy War," though (for some design of the stationer) sticking 
still, in the title-page, at the third edition, (as some unmarried maids 
will never be more than eigliteen,) yet bath it ofteacr passed the 
press, as halh my "Holy State," "Meditations," Sic. and yet 
never did I alter line or word in any new impression. 

I speak not this by way of attribution to myself, as if my books 
came forth at first with more perfection than other men's ; but with 
insinuation to the reader, that it is but equal that I — who have been 
no common beggar in this kind, yea, never before made use of a 
second edition— may now have the benefit thereof allowed me, espe- 
cially in a subject of such length, latitude, difficulty, variety, and 
multiplicity of matter. 



TAat it u tio Shame for any Man to eonjm, (teken conttneed 
thereof,) and amend, an Error in hit Jnigment. 
The knowledge of our Saviour, as God, may be compared to the 
sun, all-perfect and complete at once without any accession or 
addition, thereunto ; whilst his knowledge, as man, like the wasing 
moon, was capable of increase, and was (though not subject to the 
least error) receptive of clearer information ; and " Jesus increased 
in wisdom," Luke ii. 28 ; yea, it is expressly said, " Yet learned 
he obedience by the things which he suffered." 

Not such the knowledge of the best and wisest man ; which, 
besides a capability of more instruction, is always attended with an 
obnoxiousncss to many mistakes, seeing " here we know in part," 


1 Cor. xiii. 9 ; and easy it is for aay man to come on the blind 
side of another, as being better versed and skilled in such particular 

When, therefore, I find myself convinced in my judgment of an 
error in my Church- History, by perusing the notes of the Animad- 
vertor, I will fairly and freely confess and amend it. 

And I conceive it is no shame at all for a child to write a few 
lines of Retractation, afl«r so good a father* hath set him so fidr a 
copy thereof. 

In such a case, let not the Animadvertor give me any blotet, 
where I conceive that nty own btuih is a sutBcient penance for tho 
same ; and let him not immodeiately insult on such occasions, see- 
ing my judgment-&ults will be found neither in number nor nature 
such as he hath suggested. Covetous Euclio, in the comedy,-f' 
complained that his servant intromuit t&reentot ooqtKM, " had let in 
six hundred cooks," when they wanted five hundred ninety-eight of 
that number, being but two (Anthrax and Congrio) truly told; 
and though the Animadvertor frequently complaineth, that I "run 
into many errors, run into many errors ;^| yet, on examination, 
many of those errors will prove truths, and such as remain errwrs 
will not prove many. 

Besides, the Animadvertor is concerned to be civil to me in this 
kind, seeing, in this particular, — 

t daitiOHir;w vieiiiim 

If I were minded to retaliate, and to show that Aumanum Mt 
errare, I could instance in many mistakes in the last edition of his 
" Geogn^hy." Some of the best birth and brains in our nation, 
and travellers in foreign parts, as &r as India itself, proffered me, 
on their accord, to detect in several countries unexcusable errors, 
confuted by their ocular discovery. 

I heartily thanked them for that which I refused to accept ; and 
did return : First. That the book had achieved a general repute, 
and not undeservedly. Secondly. That it was very useful, and I 
myself bad reaped benefit thereby. Thirdly. That it would seem 
in me like to revenge in this juncture of time, when the doctor was 
disadvantaged by some infirmity. Lastly. That otliers might be 
detriraented thereby. Yea, if we but look into his *' Short View 
of the Life and Reign of King Charles," some feults occur therein, 

* St. Aagmiiae. t Aalabiria Plauti. 1 Page* 3I8| 333, ud uflen 



which, God williDg, I will calmly discoTcr in onr Answer to these 
AnimadveisioDs ; not with intent to cloud his credit, but clear iny 



Thatprelal Mutaiet, in De/ance of ail Gate, mil escape in the 
bett-corrected Book. 

The niost accunte book that ever came forth into light had 
some mlBtakes of the press therein. Indeed, I have heard of 
Robert Stephen, that he offered a great sum of money (equivalent, 
perchance, to five pounds of our Euglish coin) to such who would 
discover any erratum in his folio Greek Testament, dedicated to 
king Francis I. 

But sure I am, that some of our English Bibles, which may be 
presumed set forth with the best care, printed at London, have 
their erratat; and, therefore, prelal feults being a catching disease, 
no wonder if my book, as well (or rather, as ill) as othen, be sub- 
ject to the same. 

Here it will be objected, " That there ia a known and sure 
receipt for the cure of this disease, namely, the lifting of such faults 
as have escaped, either in the beginning or end of the book ; that 
so the reader may, if he please, amend, if otherwise, avoid them. 
Such an index erratorum, or ' catalogue of mistakes,' is, in some 
sort, a stool of repentance, wherein offenders find their lost inno- 
cence ; and such faults, thus confessed, are never choked either on 
the author's or printer's occonnt." 

It is answered, That although such a list of faults genenJIy fol- 
loweth as the impedimentum or " baggage " in the rear of a book, 
yet seldom or never is it adequate to all the erratcu which are com- 
mitted therein. 

For, First. All committed are not discovered, neither by the 
corrector, nor the author himself ; who, perusing his own book, in 
overlooking the faults therein, oeerlooka them indeed ; and, follow- 
ing the conduct of his own fancy, (wherein he intended all to be 
right,) readeth the words in his book rather <w they ihould be — than 
OS they are — printed. 

Secondly. All faults which are discovered are not confessed. 
Such 08 the printer esteemeth small, he leavcth to be amended by 
the direction of the sense, and discrctioa of the reader; according 

, Cookie 


to the common speech, that " the reader ought to be better than his 

Id my book, the index of erraku amoonts not to above forty ; a 
very small number in proportion of so voluminous a work ; which, 
viUi credit, might crave the allowance, of twice as many more there- 
unto. The Animadvertor, in these his notes, maketh great advan- 
tage of some of these unconfessed &ults ; and I sometimes plead 
the mistake of the press for my answer, though seldom, save when 
' some similitude of form in the mistaken letter renderetb it probable 
for a prelal error. 



Tbal an Author, charging his Margin with hU Author, m ther^y 
himself ditcharged. 

HisTOBiANs who write of things done at distance, many miles 
from their dwellings, and more years before their births, must either 
feign them in their own brains, or fetch them from other credible 
authors. I say credible, such as carry worth and weight with them, 
substantial persons, subsidy-men (as I may say) in Truth's book ; 
otherwise, for some pamphlets, and all pasquils, I behold them as so 
many '* knights of the post,''' even of no reputsUon. 

Now, for the more credit of what is written, and better assurance 
of the reader, it is very expedient that the author allcf^ be fiilly 
and iairly quoted in the margin, with the tome, book, chapter, leaf, 
page, and column sometimes, (seldom descending so low as the 
line,) where the thing quoted is expressed ; and, this done, the 
author is free from feult which citeth it, — though he may be faulty 
who is cited, if delivering a falsehood. 

Indeed, if one become bound as surety for another, he engageth 
himself to make good the debt in default of the principal. But if 
he only be bail for his appearance, and acconlingly produceth his 
person in public court, he ought to be discharged without &rther 

Semblably, if one not only cites, but commends, the words of an 
author, then he undertakes for him, adopts bis words to be his owd, 
becomes his pledge ; and, consequently, is bound to justify and 
maintain the truth of what he hath quoted. But if he barely 
all^th hie words, without any closing with them in his judgment, 
he is only bound for that authors appearance : — understood me, to 



justify that md) wofda are eiactl^ extant in manner and form in tbe 
plaee alleged, easy to be found by any vho will follow the mai^nal 

This I reserre for my eiqhtu and latt Akswbb, vhen taxed by 
the Aoimadvwtor for each tLinga for which I have presented my 
antbia' in the mai^n. In roch cases, I conceire, I should be dis- 
charged ; and if any fees at all be to be paid, I hope Uie courteous 
reader, on my request, will remit them, and dismiss me, without 
more moleetstion. 


Tl^t mans "/ ^^ Animadrertor't Not6» are only additional, not 
oppotits, to tehat I haw written ; and th(U all Thingt omitted 
in an Hietory, are not Defecta. 

Whoso beholdeth the several places in my book, noted on by 
the Animadvertor, hath cause, at the first blush, to conclude iny 
Chuich-History ?ery erroneous and full of faults ; out of which, so 
big a bundle of mistakes have been collected. But, upon serious 
perusal of these notes, it will appear that a third part of them, at the 
least, are merely additional, not opposite, to what I have written ; so 
that they render my book not for truth the less, but kit for bulk the 

Herein he seemeth like unto those builders who, either wanting 
materials to erect an entire house, or fearing so frail and feeble a fa- 
bric will not stand by itself, run it along Uie side-walls of soother 
boose, whereby they not only save timber, but gain strength to their 
new edifice. 

The Animodvertor had a miad to communicate some new notions 
he had to the world, but he fotmd them not many and weighty 
enough to fill a just book for sale ; whereupon, he resolves to range 
his noUons agunst my Chuich-Hislory, that so, partly carping 
thereat, and partly adding thereto, he might, betwixt both, make 
up a book competent for sale. 

Heoca it is Uiat, sometimes not liking my language, (as not pro- 
per and expressive enough,) he substituted his own, with little or no 
variation of matter ; and sometimes adds new passages : some 
whereof I could formerly have inserted, but because I perceived my 
book (as the reader is sensible by the price thereof) grown already 
to too great a volume. 

When additional notes frequently occur, I conceive myself not 
obliged in the least degree to return an answer thereunto, ss being 

, Coo^^lc 


mther besides than against what I have written. However, if I hare 
left out any thing, it would have been suspected I had omitted that 
which most had made against me ; to prevent which jealousy, such 
additional notes are also here verbatim represented. 

To such sa object, that the Animadvertor^s additions aie supple- 
toiy of the defects in my Church-History, I answ», that a defect 
properly is absentia dehiH adeite, " tbe absence of what oug^t to be 
there ; " so that a thing is maimed or lame without it. 

But addidons to an history are reducible to these two heads, 
namely, either 1. Such as they murt without imperfection be 
added : 2. Such as they taay without impeitinency be added. 

Few, if any, of the former, some of the latter, kind are found in 
the Animadrertor^s additory notes. And let me tell him, that if he 
writes books against all who have written books, and [who} have not 
written all which may be said of their subject, he may even write 
against all who have ever written books i and then he will have work 

Let us go no &rther than to his own " Geography ; " being sure 
he is too judicious to be so conceited of his own pains, as to think 
be hath inserted all that may be said of so large a subject. 

The story is well known of j^lsop's master, who, buying two 
servants together in the market-place, demanded of one of them, 
what be could do. He answered, that he would do all things, do all 
things ! Then the other, (vSIsop himself^) being asked what he 
could do, answered, he could do nothing. His master seeming 
angry to keep so unprofitable a servant, ** How cao I," relnmed 
^sop, " do any thing, when my fellow-servant will do all, and 
leave me nothing to do i*" * 

If Dr. Heylin hath done ait tMttffi in his " Oeognphy," be hath 
given a writ of ease for ever to posterity, who may despair to merit 
more of that matter. All who hereafter shall write a new book of 
Gei^taphy, must also find out a new world with Columbus, as 
anticipated by the doctor, having formerly completed all on that 

I presume not to say, that I have in my Church-History done all 
things; having written many and most material passages, leaving 
the rest to others. But this I say, that all things left out in a his- 
tory are not wanting ; neither are all things wanting, defects, if not 
essential thereunto. As for some of the Animadvertor's added notes, 
they are no more needful oi useful than a sixth finger to a man's 
hand, as (God willing) in due time shall appear. 

• In VUa ^tpi. 




l^at tie AtOkor desiffned tmto Aimid/no Partif-piM»ing in writing 
hia CkurcA-Mittmy. 

pAKTiALTTir IS Constantly clmi;ged on me hj the Animadvertor, 
and once, with a vitnees, as followeth : — 

*' We see by this, as by like passages, which way our author^s 
bowl is biamed ; how constantly he declares himself in favouT of 
those who have ' either separated from the church, or appeared 
agabal it." — Heylin's Examm, part i. page 257. 

I return, (to prosecute his metaphor,) that I have used aa upright 
bowls as ever any that enter the alley of History, since our civil 

I do freely declare myself, that I, in writing my book, am for the 
church of England, as it stood established by law ; the deed being 
the contracted Articles, and the Thirty-nine Articles the expanded 
Creed of her doctrine, as the Canons of her discipline. And still I 
prize her &Tour highest, though for the present it be least worth, — 
as little able to protect, and less to prefer, any that are fiuthfUl to 
her interest. 

As for pleasing of parUes, I never designed or endeavoured It. 
There wei« a kind of philosophers called Electici, which were of 
none, yet of all, sects ; and who would not engage, in gross, in the 
opinions of any philosophers, but did pick and choose, here and there, 
what they found consonant to truth, either amongst the Stoics, Pe- 
ripatetics, Academics, or (misinterpreted) Epicures, receiving that, 
and rejecting the rest. Buch my project, to commend in all parties 
what I find ptuseworthy, and condemn the rest ; on which account, 
some fieer, some ftown, none smile upon me. 

First. For the Papists, though I malice not their persons, and 
have a pity (as God, I hope, hath a mercy) for many amongst them; 
yet I do, as occasion is oilered, dislike their errors, whereby I 
have incurred and (according to their principles) deserved Uieit 

The old Nonconformists — being the same with the modem 
Presbyterians, but depressed and under, as the modem Presbyterians 
are the old Nonconformists, but vertical and in authority — do 
(though the Animadvertor twitteth me constantly to advocate for 
lliem) take great and general exception at me; and it is not long 
since, in a meeting of the most eminent amongst them, I was told 
that I put too mudi gall into my ink against them. 

The Independent, being the Benjamin of parties, (and his mess 
I assure you is none of the least, Gen. xliii. 44,) tozelli mo for too 

, Cookie 


much fierinesB, u the Animadvertor (in his expteesioD lately cited) 
chaigeth me for too much &*oiir unto them. 

Thomas lord Coventry, when coming &om the diancery to sit down 
at dinner, was wont to say, " Surely, to-day I have dealt equally, 
fnir I have displeased both sides." I hope that I have his happineu, 
(for I am sure I have his anhappine»i,)-^i, having disobliged all 
parties, I have written the very truth. Thus I can only privately 
comfort myself in my own innocence, and hope that, when my head 
is laid low, what seems too sweet, too bitter, too salt, too Iresh to 
the present divided age, will be adjudged well-tasted and seasoned 
to the palate of unpartial posterity. 


Wh^ Good the Animadeertor might, bat woaid not, do ; and tthat 

Good, by God''* Goodnett, he herein hath done unto the Author. 

When the Animadvertor had perused my book, marking some 
(but making more) feults therein, it was in his power to have done 
me a pleasure, the greatest he could give, or I receive ; namely, 
not to paradigmatize me ; but, by letter in on amicable way, to 
impart my mistakes unto me, that I might amend them in my next 
edition. 8ay not, *' He owed me no such thing ; " who would have 
beheld it not aa a debt paid unto, but alms bestowed upon, me. 

I was not wholly without hope hereof, having found such fevoor 
from some worthy friends. Had the Animadvertor done the like, 
how had he obliged me ! As the Society of Peter^house do pre- 
serve the pictures of their benefactors in their parlour, so would I 
have erected unto him a monument of gratitude in my heart, beside 
my pubhc acknowledgment of the courtesy. 

But it seems he intended not my information, but debmation. 
However, he hath done to me a great good turn, for which (because 
not intended) I will thank God, namely, he by his causeless 
carping hath allayed in me the delight in writing of Histories ; 
seeing nothing can be so impartially and inoSensively written, but 
some will carp thereat. 

Mothers, minding to weaa their children, use to put soot, worm- 
wood, or mustard on the nipples of their breasts. God foresaw I 
might suck to a surfeit in writing Histories, which hath been a thief 
in the lamp of my life, wasting much oil thereof. My head and 
hand had robbed my heart in such delightful studies. Wherefore, 
he raised the bitter pen of the Animadvertor to wean me from such 
digressions from my vocation. 



I nov espenmentally &nd the truth of Solomon's woids : " Of 
making many books there la no end^" Ecclea. xii. 12. Not, but 
that all perfect books (I mean perfect in sheets, otherwise none save 
scriptuie perfect) have ^ig in the close thereof; or that any author 
is so inationol, bat he propounds an end to himself before he 
begins it ; but that in " making of many books there is no end ; "" 
that is, the writers of them seldom or never do attdn that end 
which they proponnd to themselves, especially if squinting at sinis- 
ter ends ; as who is not flesh imd blood f Such as project wealth 
to themselves are commonly, by unwise mana^ng, or casual mis- 
carriage, impaired thereby in their estates. Others who designed 
to themselves (with the buildeis of Babel) to get them a name, 
commonly meet with shame and disgnce. Or else, when their 
books are ended, yet they are not ended ; because, though never 
so cautiously written, some antagonists will take up the bucklers 
•gainst them, so that they must begin again after they have ended, 
(or sink in their credits,) to write in their own vindication : which 
is my case, enough to take off my edge, formerly too keen, in 
making multiplicity of books. 

I confess, I have yet one History ready for the press, which I 
hope will be for God's glory and honour of our nation. This new- 
built ship is now on the stocks, ready to be launched ; and being a 
vessel of " great burden,*' God send me some good adventurers to 
bear part of the expense. This done, I will never meddle nwre 
with making any books of this nature. It is a provident way, 
before writing leave us, to leave off writing ; and the rather, because 
scribbling is the frequentative thereof. 

If, therefore, my petitioning and optative Ahen shall meet with 
God's commissioning and imperative Amen, I will hereafler totally 
attend the concemmenls of my calling, and what directly and imme- 
diately shall tend to the advance of devotion in myself and in others, 
as preparatory to my dissplution ont of this state of mortality. 


That tie Avibor U unjustly charged b^ the Animadterior f<yr being 
Offreeahle to the Times ; and hote far forth such AgreeableneM 
is consistent unth Christian Prudence. 
The Animadvertor is pleased to cba^ me to be a great tem- 
porizer, and agreeable to the times.* In order to my defence herein, 
let me premise this distinction : — That there is a sinful and sinless 
agreeableness with the times, be they never so bad. 
* Page 36S| t«wudi the bottom thereof. 



It is a rinfttl ^reeabUneu, Then people, for tlieiT private profit 
or safety, or both, are tesoWed in belief and life, faith and &ct, 
doctrine and manners, to be the same with the limes ; — how con- 
trary soever they be unto the will and woid of God. Be it Bible, 
or Talmud, or Alccoan, or Mass-book, or Common*prayeT book, 
or Directory; any, many, all, or no manner of God's public 
seirice ;— ^o them, all is alike, and equally embraced. 

But there is also a liiUeu, yea, lawful and necessftry, a^MoMeiMW 
to tie times ; insomuch that no meaner Father than St. Ambrose, 
or worse critic than Erasmus, read the text Romans xii. 11, 
At>\fvoyT({ Tf xeupm, " Serving the time.'" A reading countenanced 
by the context ; " Rejoicing in hope, patient in tribolation, con- 
tinuing in prayer ; '" all being directions of our demeanour in dan- 
gerous times. And even those who dislike the reading as felse, 
defend the doctrine as true ; that though we must sot be slaves 
and vassals, we may be servants to the times, eo (ts forth as not to 
diraerve God thereby. 

This sinless and lawful agreeableness with the times is partly 
pasuve, partly active. 

1. Pairive chiefly consietelh in bearing and forbearing. 

Bearino, in paying all pecuniary burdens imposed ; it being 
bat equal (in my opinion) there to return tribute where we receive 
protection. I doubt not but in this point even the Animadvertor 
himself is agreeable to the times, going along with the rest of his 
neighboun in their paying of all public taxes. 

FoKBEABiNe expresaeth itself, First, in silence. The Spanish 
proverb, true at all— is necessary in dangerous.— times : ** Where, 
the mouth is shut, no fly doth enter.^ Yea, the Spirit of God giveth 
his servants this counsel : " Therefore the prudent shall keep silence 
in that time, for it is an evil time," Amos v. 13, Thus, holding 
of one's peace, that is, using no provoking language against the 
present power, procureth holding of one's peace, that is, retaining 
and possessing of one's safety and quiet. 

Secondly. Forbearing consisteth in refraining (though not with- 
out secret sorrow) from some laudable act which he heartily deaireth, 
but dares not do, as visibly destructive to his person and estate, 
being prohibited by the predominant powers. In such a case a 
man may — to use the apostle's phrase, hi rqv iv«rwo-av xtiynttt, 
"for the present necessity," 1 Cor. vii, 26 — omit many things 
pleasing to, but not commanded by, that God who preferreth mercy 
before sacriflce. 

For instance : If any earthly prince or power should enjoin a 
Christian (as Darius did Daniel) not to pray to God " for the space 
of thirty daystogcther," Dan. vi. 7; his command is not to be 



obeTed, u eontrory to Qod's positive precept : *' Pny continiully,'^ 
1 Thess. V, 17. But if he should only enjoin him to Torbear such 
a fonn of prayer, allowing him liberty to use my other; I conceive 
that such &n omission lavfnl, dictated unto him by the prindples of 
prudence, for his self-preservation. 

2. The aetiw port of lawful agreeableness with the times, is in 
doing what they enjoin, as being indifferent ; and sometimes so 
good, that our own conscience doth or should enjoin the same. In 
such a case, vhere there is a concurrence of both together, it is 
neither dishonesty nor indiscretion for one io himself to conceal his 
own inclinaUons, and publicly to put his actions (as fasting, thanks- 
giving, preaching, &c.) on the account of conformity to the times ; 
it being (as flattery to court, so no less) folly to contemn and reject 
the ftvour of the times, when it may be had without the least viola- 
tion, yea, possibly, with an improvement, of our own conscience. 

I have endeavoured to steer my carriage by the compass aforesaid ; 
and my main motive thereunto was, that I might enjoy the benefit 
of my ministry, the bare using whereof is the greatest advancement 
I am capable of in this life. I know, all stars are not of the same 
bigness and brightness : some shine, some only twinkle ; and allow- 
ing myself of the latter size and sort, I would not willingly put out 
my own (though dim) light in total darkness, nor would bury my 
half-talent, hoping by putting it forth to gain another half-talent 
thereby, to the glory of God, and the good of others. 

But it will be objected against me, that it is suspicious (at the least) 
that I have bribed the times with some base compliance with them, 
because they have reflected so favourably upon me. Otherwise, 
how Cometh it to pass, that my fleece, like Gideon^ is dry, when 
the rest of my brethren of the same party are wet with their own 
tears ? I being permitted preaching, and peaceable enjoying of a 

I answCT, First, I impute this peaceableness I enjoy to God's 
undeserved goodness on my unworthiness. "He hath not dealt 
thus with all my brethren,*' above me in all respects. God maketh 
people sometimes, potiut reperire quim inwnirs ffratiam, " to 
find the Isvouis they sought not for." If I am one of them whom 
God hath made " to be pitied of those who carried me away 
captive," Psalm cvi. 46, I hope, I shall be thankful unto him ; and 
others, I hope, will not be envious at me for so great a mercy. 

Next to the fountain of God's goodness, I ascribe my liberty of 
preaching to the favour of some great friends God hath raised up 
for me. It was not a childish answer, though the answer of a child 
to his fiither, taxing him for being proud of his new coat, " I am 
glad," said lie, " but not proud of it." Give me leave to be glad, 



and joyfiil in m^lf, for my good friends ; and to desiiei and 
endeavour their conUnuance and increase. " A friend in the conit ** 
Lath always been accounted " as good as a penny in the council, as 
a pound In the purse." Nor will any lational man condemn me 
for making my addresses to and improvement of them, seeing the 
Animadvertoi himself (as I am infonned) hath his friead in the 
council ; and it is not long since he had occasion to nuke use of 
his favoar. 

I must not foiget " the Articles of Exeter," whereof I had the 
benefit, living and waiting there on the king's daughter at the rendi- 
tion thereof: Articles, which, both as penned and performed, were 
the best in England ; — thanks to their wisdom who so warily made, 
and honesty, who so well observed them ! Nor was it (though 
last- named) least causal of my quiet, that (happy criticism to myself 
as I may call it!) I never was formslly sequestered, but went, 
before driven away, from my living ; which took off the edge of the 
Ordinance against me, that the weight thereof fell but slantingly 
npon me. Thus when God will &sten a &vour on any person, 
(though never so unworthy,) he ordereth the concurrences of all 
things contribulive thereunto. 

All I will add is this, — that hitherto (and I hope, who hath 
[kept J will keep me, I speak it in the presence of God) I have not, 
by my pen or practice to my knowledge, done any thing unwor- 
thily to the betraying of the interest of the church of England ; and 
if it can be proved, let my mothei-church not only " spit in my 
&ce," (the expression, it seems, of parents amongst tiie Jews, when 
they were offended with their children for some misdemeanour. 
Num. zii. 14,) but also " spew me out of her mouth." Some will 
say, " Such a vaunt savouieth of a pharisaical pride." I utterly 
deny it. For even the publican, after he came from his confession 
he had made in the temple, " God be merciful to me a sinner," 
Luke sviii. 13, had he met one in the outward court, accusing and 
taxing him with such particular sins whereof he was guiltless, would 
no doubt have replied in his own Just defence. And seeing I am 
on my purgation, in what the Schools term juttitia caiua, (though 
not pertotuBy') I cannot say less (as I wUl no more) in my justifi- 

Thus have I represented the reader with the true complexion of 
my cause ; and though I have not painted the face thereof with 
ftlse colours, I hope I have washed from it the foul aspersion of 
temporizing or sinful agreeableness with the times, which the 
Animadvertor causelessly casts upon it. 

So much 'for my outward carriage in reference to the times : 
meantime what the thoughts of my heart have been thereof, I am 



not lionnd to malte a discovery, to my own danger. Sure 1 am, 
Buch vho are " peaceable and Mtfafiil in Israel," 2 Sam. xx. 19, may 
neverthdeSB be "monmers in Zion," Isaiah Ixi. 3, and grieve at 
what they cannot mend, but must endure. This also I know, that 
that spoke in tlie wheel which creaketh most doth not beat the 
greatest burden in the cart. The greatest complainers are not 
always the greatest sufferers ; whilst as mach, yea, more, sincere 
sorrow may be man^d in secret eilence, than with querulous and 
clamorous obetreperousness ; and such, who will neither print nor 
preach satires on the times, may make elegies on them in t4ieii ow« 










IttH pettumui aUquid aihtrii4 vrrilalim : led pro viritali. — 2 Cat. xiU. 6. 
£1 vtriliii fBtdtm etvia tH, ird rrjuinRliSiu.— Nim'TII'" Fieux in OclaaJ*. 

, Goo^^lc 


FoLLKB.— The challenge is no part of tlife combit; nor the 
inoaatebanfc*B bill, of the cure. It ia answer enough to & tilie-ptge, 
to retom, " It ia but « title-page." Whereas the doctor intitnleth 
his notes on my book <* Aaiouulveiaions," know, animadveriera in 
Latin signi6eth, " to mark and obserre ; " but nther by the way 
of riproo/ than c^iprobatioa. And, in a Bccoadary sense, it in- 
porteth " to correct, chastise, and severely to punish " a (reputed) 
malefactor; as the doctor, in a judicatory of hie own erecUng, 
(without any comraisaton for the same,) bath herein passed many 
moat heavy censures on me, before be heard what I could say in my 
own just defence. 

Whereas the Animadrertor proceedeth as followeth :— 






He hath done me more right thui he was aware of, or waa wiliiog 
to do ; for those indeed were the three principal motives of my 
weak endeavours in my Church-History. However, because be 
intended those words to relate not to my History, bat his own 
Animadversions thereon, let the reader judge to which of onr two 
works they bear the best and most proper reference. - 

The «<»ds of St. Paul, iVon poutaluu cUiquid athends eerttatan, 
tsd pro writate, *' We can do nothing against the truth, but for 
the truth," 2 Cor. xiii. 8, well fitted the mouth of the apostle, 
divinely inspired in his writings only to be a champion for the tratfa. 
In one sense I allow them also applicable to Uie AnimadveifoT, 
according to the received rule, lUud pomtmtu, quod Jure poa-m m ; 
" We can do that which we can lawfully do." But otherwise, 
I hnmbiy conceive that St. Paul could not, and the Aniinadvwtw 
should not, do any thing against the truth. 

All that I will add is this, — that although the doctor be pleased 
to call his notes " Necessary Animadvernons," (who can blarn* tb« 
loving fallier for giving his own dear babe a good name ?) yet, upon 


Berioiu eiamin&tion, it vlll appcttr that Bonie of these Animadvcr- 
sJODB ought to have been omitted, for the promoting of piety ; and 
aany of thein might have been omitled, without any prejodice to 
the troth: as in doe time and place, Ood willing, eball be 


affirmed of hitUxiy hj the famous orator, tbut it is letlit lemparum, 
" the intneafi and record of time," by which the actions of it arc trans- 
mitted from one age to another. And therefore it concerns all those 
who apply themselrea to the writing of IlistorieB to take special care, 
that all things be laid down exactly, &ithfally, and without deriatioa 
from the truth in the least particular. For if the witnesses be aub- 
omed, the record &IsiGed, or the evidence wrested, neither poster!^ 
can Judge rightly of the actions of this present time, nor this time give 
a certiun judgment of the ages post. 

Fuller. — Althougb Mr. Sanderson is equally concerned wilb 
myself in this Qenentl Preface, yet, because I am beheld as the 
principal male&ctor, I hare liere presented it entire. I look on 
it thus fiir as but the Nourish or illumining of a text and initial 
letter, signifying nothing in itself; and thi^fore let him proceed 
' to something more material. 

Db. Hetltn — It is therefore a good direction whidi Jos^bus tho 
historian gives us, and which he followed as it seems in his " Jewish 
Antiquities," not only to be careful that the style be pleasing, but that 
the whole work be framed by the level and line of truth. Nam qui 
HUloriam el remm propter anliquilatem obtcurarum azpoaitionem, 
Sge. " They," Baitb he, " who make profession to write Histories, and 
to recite such things as are obsonred by antiquity, ought not only 
studiomdy to conform their style, but also to beautify the same witli 
omsmCBts of eloquence, to the iutent the reader may converse in 
their writings with tho orore delectation. But, aboro oU things, tbey 
most have an especial care to exactly to get doivtt the truth, that they 
wbo know not how those things came to pass may be the more duly 
and fitly informed." — Anliquit. lib. xiv. cap. 1. 

FnLi-EB. — I acknoM ledge that this is the character of a complete 
liiatoriaB, to which all in tlieir writings ought to aspire with their 
best endeavours ; though I believe none ever attained to the height 

But fiist I would &in know, (seeing these are '" necessary Ani- 
msdvenioOB,") what need there was of that long Latin line, (staved 
off at last with an ^ eeUra,) seeing Josephus did write in Greek. 
And if the doctor would have presented us with the original, it 
should have been in Qrcck ; if but with a translation, it might only 
latve been in English. 



- I bfhold Josephus as & worthy ItisUnian, wbo«e nemorj I 
deservedly honour; yet herein be mig^t ny with the poet, Monitu 
nan minor ipt« nuit, *' He in bii practice fell &r short of his pre- 
cepts ; " witness his inserting of tiku false passage, opposite to Uie 
very Utter of the Old Testament, epeakbg of Jehoiakim king of 
Judah : — 

" And he did what was evil in 
the sight of the Lord, according 
to all that his fiither had done." 
2 Kings 

" This man being merdful and 
just by his nature," 8ic. Jose- 
PHnSi^flA'^. Jud. lib. xvi. cap.9. 

But because it is not my work to accuse Josephus, (whom I 
cannot praise and prize enough,) but to defend myself against tbe 
Animadvertor, let us proceed. 

Dh. Hetun. — There is another rule which he bonnd himself to, 
that is to say, " Neither to omit any thing through ignorance, nor to 
bury any thing in forgetfulness." And all these cautions, well 
observed, make a perfect History. 

FuM.EK. — Here is tbe Elixir indeed of historical perfection. 
Let a glorified saint write such an history of the church-triumphant, 
that so there may be a just proportion betwixt the author and his 
subject, both being perfect. 

I liave met with this distich made by reverend Bernard Gilpin,* 
upon such sectaries as require exactness in our church of England : 


Thus Englished by bishop Carleton :— 

This 18 true both of our diurch and all church-histories ; whereof 
none without &ults, and they the best which have the fewest. 

Dr. Hetlin. — But, on the contrary, there are some who do spend 
themselves on the style and dress, as if their business rather were to 
delight the ear than inform the juiJgment : others, so biassed by self- 
ends and private interest, that they seem rather advocates to plead for 
some growing party, than true reporters of aflaiis as ihey be before 
(hem. Some, who, endeavouring tu be copious, dap all together in a 
hnddle which is offered to them, without relation to the oraaments 
and attire of language ; and others, with like carelessness as onto 
themselves, Imt greater inconvenience as unto the reader, examine 
not the truth and certainly of what they write, so they write some- 
ivhat which tbe^think may inform the reader. Betwixt these, tmtli 
.r In bis '■ Ufr," juge 103. 


a:;swer to hbylin-s oenural preface. 309 

CT oftestiines irrecoTerablj lost, tlie reader led aside from the ways of 
Teri.^ into the crooked lane* of error ; and many times conducted to 
raoh dan^roDs precipices as' may prove deetractiTe to himself, and 
ot ill consequence to all those which are gttided by him. The errors 
of the imderatanding, in matters which may posubly be rednced to 
practice, are &r more mischierous than those which do conast in the 
niceties of qveculation, and advance no farther; which moved the 
entor, not only to honour History with the attribute of lettu lemporam, 
but to style it also by the name of magitfra vita. 

PuLLEB. — I remember when tlie reverend Vice-Master of 
Trinity College in Cambridge was told that one of the ecUolars 
bad abused him in an omtion. '.'Did he," said he, "namemc? 
Did he name Thomas Harrison ? " And when it was returned that lie 
named him not ; " Then," said he, '* I do not believe that he meant 
me." Although it is very suspicious that 1 ain the mai^ aimed at 
in this discourse ; yet being not conscious of such iaults to myself, 
and because I am not named by him, 1 will not understand myself 
intended, till he toucfaeth me with mote personal particularities. 

Db. Hetlin. — ^These tbmgs, considered as tbey ought, have mode 
me wonder many times at the unadvisedness of some late writers in 
this kind, whose Histories are composed with so much partiality on 
the one side, and so much inadvertency on the other, that they stund 
more in need of a commentator to expound the truth, and lay it clear 
and open to the view of the reader, than either the dark words of 
Aristotle, or any other obscure piece of the ancient writers. I speak 
of Histories here, not Libels : Of which last sort, I reckon Weldon's 
pamphlet, called "The Court of King James;' and Wilson's most 
in&mous Pasquil of the reign of that King ; in which it is not easy to 
judge, whether the matter he more false, or the style more reproachful 
in all parts thereof. Certain I am we may affirm of them as Cremu- 
tins CorduB doth of the " Epistles of Antonius," and the " Orations of 
Brutus : " Falta quidem in Augutlum probra, ted mulla cuiR acerbilale 
hahenl ; that is to say, that "they contunfd not only fabe and dis- 
graceful passages ngiumt the honour of Augustus, but were appareled 
also in the habit of scurrilous language." — Taciti An«al, lib. iv. 
With such as these I shall not meddle at tiie present, leaving their 
crimes onto the ponisbmeDt not of an Indtx — but an Ignit—expurga- 
lorivt, as most proper for them. 

FuLLEB. — Ism not concerned at all in this paragraph ; only 
let me add thia in the honour of the deceased Robert earl of War- 
wick, who told me at Beddington, that when Wilson^a book in 
manuscript was brought unto him, he expunged out of it more than 
an hundred ofihisive passages. "My lord," said I, "you have 
dune well ; and you had done better, if you hod put out one hun- 
dred more," 



Dit. Hetlim. — Bat as kr tbooe whom Mtber the want of tnie 
iatelligence, or infldTertency in not weighing leriouslj what they w«re 
to do, or the'too mnch indalgmce to their own afiectioiw, have nude 
mora capable of bebg bettered by ooirection, I hare thought it mora 
agreeable to the nJes of jnstice to rectify their mistakes, and reform 
their emia, than abaolutcly to condemn uid decry their writings. 

FiTLLEK.— Refonning of eirois is a specious and glorious design, 
especially when proportionable means are used in order thereunto. 
But of late the word " reformation " is grovn so threadbare, it hath 
no nap left it, thereunder to cover foul acts to attain a fair end. 
I much suspect the Animadvertor will prove such a defaTmiDg>- 
reforiner, as our age hath produced too many of them. 

Dr. IIetlin. — At this time I have two before mc, whom I conceivo 
to stand in need of such observations, by which the truA may he pre- 
served, and the clear fece of things presented to the reader's eye ; the one 
of (hem an author of ecclesiastical, the other of some dvil. Histories. - 

FuLi.EB.— I commend the valour of the Animsdvertor, to 
combat with two at once ; odds, on which Hercules himself durst 
not adventure. I alsn am to deal with two, tlic Animadvertor and 
Dr. Cosins, but not as a challenger, bat in the notion of a poor 
defendant ; and if one be assaulted by two hundred, he may and 
must guard himself against them as well as he can. 

Dr. Hetlin. — In both I find the truth much injured, and in one 
the ehoicb. The errors of the one tend not to the subversion of any 
public interest ; but, being errors, may misguide the reader in the wny 
of his knowledge and discourse ; and therefore I have rectified him 
with some " Advertisementa," (not taking notice of such passages 
as have been made the subject of some " Observations ' from another 
hand,) that so he mny be read with the greatest profit. 

FuLi.EU.^This i; meant of Mr. Sanderson. I am not so 
devilishly-minded as to desire all men might be equally faulty with 
myself, that so, being involved with others in a joint-guiltiness of 
the some degree, I might on that account pretend to a mock inno- 
cence. If Mr. Sanderson's pen be less peccant than mine, I con- 
gralulale his condiUon, and provide to answer to my own charget 
vrfaich fullowctb. 

Dr. HETLiN.~'The other (besides errors of this kind too many) 
hath intermingled his discourse with some poaiUons of a dangerous 
nature ; which, being reduced into practice, as they eanly may, not 
only overthrow the whole power of the church, as it stands constituted 
and Gslabltshed by the laws of the land, but lay a probable f(HUHlat«o& 
for the like disturbances in the civil state. 



FdLLita. — Si tatit ail aootudtae, gait ianocem f aaltli Ttrtullian. 
To this double iDdictment I plead *' not guilty," and put myself 
on tbe trial of God and good men, requesUng the reader's patteuce 
till th« proob on botli sides be produced. 

Dr. HBTLlK.>^And tlierefoie I hare fitted him with some ** Ani- 
luadrenions " in tlie way of an Antidote, that so he may be read, . 
if possible, without any danger. 

FuLLz ft. —Common custom hath oveisvayed the word "Anti- 
dote ** to signify a defensative against, or expulsative of, poison. 
Hovever, the bare notation of the word advanceth no further than 
to Import *' somediing ffiven agaimt ; " in which sense none of our 
nation hath been so free of his Antidotes as the Animadvertor ; 
having f^ven them agunst Mr. Calvin, archbishop Williams, arch- 
bishop -Usher, Dr. Hackwell, Dr. Prideanx, Dr. Bernard, Mr. 
Lestrange, Mr. Sanderson, and my unworthy self ; — no shame to 
follow in the rear afler such a van and main-battle. 

Sore I am, his pretended Antidote on my book hath more of 
poison than cordial therein, envenoming many plain and Uue pas- 
sages, Bound and solid sentences, with his false glosses, forced 
inferences, and pestilent applications. 

Dr. Hstlin. — I know well bow invidious a task I have undertaken, 
and that it wHl be charged upon me, at the first apprehensions of 
it, that I have rather chosen to find fault with the vnitings of others, 
than to write any things of this kind, which may be subject to the like 
partialities and miatakings. Carpere vel tia/i nosira, vet ede Ina, 
might come in seasonably here, if I had not somewhat to allege for 
my jus^cation. But when the reasons which induced me to tlie fint 
adventure (mentioned in the Introduction following) be serionsly 
ctmsidered, as they ought to be, I hope I shall be capable of excuse 
at the least, if not of pardon. 

Fdllkb. — The Animadvertor hath here raised up, I assure you, 
a strong spirit against himself; and whether the spells, hen used by 
him, be able to conjure it doim again, others must decide it ; mean 
time, fight Animadvertor, fight objection of his own making, seeiog 
I have neither skill nor will to interpose to part them. 

Dr. Hbtlih.— And, for my venturing on the other, I shall say 
nothing miffe at the present, but that, as well my love to truth, as to 
do right onto the author, (whom I wonld willingly look on as a 
man well-prindple^ and of no il] affections to chnrob or state,) hath 
inrited me to it. 

FuLLBR.^Here my credit is more deeply wounded by the 
glance of a bdlet, than if it were directly shot against me. For 

, Cookie 


wbereas he saiA, that he '* would willingly look on ** Mr. Sander- 
son " as a inan well-principled, and of na ill affections to church or 
state," he concludes me, b; [Jain intimation, disaffixtcd to both. 
But I hope that those who are clear-sighted look on me nnder » 
better notion. 

Db. Hby»n. — ^Truth ib the nustress which I serre. 

Fuller. — " Rough though I am, I have a mistresB too," and 
her the self-same with the Animadvertora. Be it referred to her, to 
judge betwixt us, which of us hath [done,] doth, or shall do her the 
better service ; and let him be received, the other rejected. 

Dk. Heylin. — And I presume that none will be offended with 
roe because I tell them of their errors in. a modest way, and bear 
witness for them to that truth of which thej do profess themselves 
such especial lovers. In that great disputation betwixt the esquires 
of the body of king Darins, whether the king, wine, women, or the 
truth, were of greatest power, the whole assembly cried out in behalf 
of tiuth. Magna ett verilat, et pravalel ; that is to say, "Great is 
truth, and mighty above all things." — E^sdras iv. 41. 

Fuller.— 1 acknowledge this a canonical truth, though writtea 
in the Apocrypha. It will soon be seen, who will shout most at the 
tnumphs of truth, I or the Auimadvertor, cor-rival with me to tlie 
same mistress. 

Dr. Hexlui.— 8o that, in Btandiag for the truth, without cossider- 
ntion unto " the lecompence of reward," I hope, though I meet some 
adversaries, I shall find more fnends. 

Fuller. — Here, he soareth so high a flight I cannot follow 
him i yea, I suspect, that in reaching so high a note he hath 
stnuoed (if not broken) his voice. What, no reflection on a reward ? 
He might have had an intuition at it, as the encouragement, thougk 
not the caute, of his pains ; he might look at, in, tlirough, and 
beyond the reward, without the least mixture of any mercenariness. 
Sure I wn, that one of as much meekness, as some are of morose- 
neas, even upright Moses himself, in his service of tlie essential and 
increated truth, (of higher consequence than the historical truth 
controverted betwixt us,) had notwithstanding " a respect to the 
recompence of reward," Heb. ji. 26. 

Dr. Heylin. — If not, (for I am at a reasonable pass for that,) it 
shall be no small comfort to me, that the weak caudle of my studies 
hath given light to others, whereby they may discern some historical 
trutlis even in the darkest mists of error, wJiich, either partiality or 
iac<^itancy hath cast before the eyes of unwary readers. 

, Goo^^lc 


Fdlleb. — The reader in dae time will judge, whether his candle 
hath by ihe light thereof discovered more tnitlia, or by the tmote 
thereof dukened more, or given more juat offence bj the unsavourf 

Dr. Hetlin. — Which aaid, I shall now add no more, but that, 
having two patienta under cure of different tempers, it is not to be 
thought that I should administer unto both the same land of physic ; 
an ordinary purge being sufficient for the one, whereas the foul body 
of the other doth require a Huxiog ; as some wounds may be healed 
with balm, when others, more corrupt and putrified, do esact a 

Fuller.— Which Eud, Ishall now add no more, bnt that, having 
ttro adversaries. Dr. Heylin and Dr. Cosins to encounter, it is not to 
be thought that I should proceed against both alike ; Dr. Cosins hath 
merited much of the Protestant cause in France, and thereby com- 
mands my pen to pay the homage of due reverence to the crown of 
his old age, especially '^ when found in the way of tnith.^ But I 
am not under any such obligation of parlicuhir respect to Dr. 
Heylin on the same account. 

I could wish he had used a more eleanly metaphor, and forborne 
the phrase of *' fluxing.^ Such a cure appears not in Hippocrates-, 
as being a modem remedy for a modem malady. However, would 
I were but half so holy as he was of whom it was said, " An evil 
disease, say they," (and they did but say it,) "clcaveth fast unto 
him," Psalm sli. 8. 

I will use no harsher metaphor in relation of my answers to my 
two antagonists than only, That men may meddle with a mallow 
with naked bands, but need to put on their hedging-gloves when to 
deal with a thorn or nettle. 

Only here I shall presume to request the reader to take especial 
notice of those remarluible words of the Animadverlor : " Tell them 
of theii errors in a modest way ; "" and keep them against a rainy 
day ; I mean, such a seasonable time as we may make use tliereof. 

Dr. HEYLi!«.~-Bot so it happt'ueth many times, that some men are 
more impatient of the cure, than sensible of their d:aeases ; and that, 
instead of giving thanks to the physician, for the great pains be took 
about them, they pay him with nothing bnt dispteaaureB. Which 
being the wont that can be&!t me, I am armed against it. 

FuLLEK. — But HO it liappeneth many times, that, as in this 
case, there may be plus pericidi a ntedico qudm a morbo, " Mor ^ 
danger of the physician than of the disease.^ A good belief and 
conceit of the physician is more than half a cure; and I csnfess I 
have none of the Animadvertor ; whom I behold but as an adventur- 



oni emfHriC) baring leen and mailced his ptaetice on other patients, 
lather disgracing their peiBom than amending theii enois. Give me 
a phjsician of my own election, not 0/ kit itttnuiott ; etpecially 
vhen he usually wrappeth up his beat receipts in poisoned papers. 

Db. Betlik. — If b; tbe honrd of m; peace I Aell procure diis 
benefit to the present and succeeding timea, — that men may prove 
more careful of what they write, and not obtrude upon tbe reader 
(either through igngniice, inadrertencj, or somewhat worse) such and 
so many felsities, mistakes, and errurs, at bare been lately put upon 
him in some modem histories,— at is that I aimed at; and, baring 
gained that point, I bare gained my purpose. 

FuL I.BR.-— But what if, on the contrary, (which is more proba- 
ble,) it Cometh to pass, that some, having commendable inclinations . 
and proportionable qualifications to write Histories, perceiving their 
books, Damnalot atUeqadm naloi, " banned before bora," by the 
prejudice which this Animadvertor bears their parents ; who is ready, 
as soon as their books ahall peep out of the press, to assault them 
with causeless cavils : — What, I say, if each persons, on the tender 
resentment of the premises, shall quit all their intentions to write? 
The Animadvcrtor can little comfort himself, and others will leas 
commend him, for this his over-activity, so destructive to the public 
good. But there are some, who, when they can no longer benitch 
with theii beauty, endeavour to do it with their malice, thereby to 
render themselves in any sort considerable ; to be feared, when they 
are no more loved. All I will add is this : He who, already having 
one of his feet in the gmve, will spurn bis brother with the other, 
will find few to pity him, if lalling all along for his pains. 

Dr. Hbtlin. — Hon partU tludiit agimur, ted tumptitniti arma 
ContiiiU iuimica tutt, Ignawiajallax. 

Fktbb Hbtlih. 

Fuller. — ^Thia distich, whereof the Animadvertor (by the imme- 
diate subscription of his name thereunto) may to some seem the 
author, is frequently cited by Mr. Selden, and may thus be 
Englished :— 

However, I humbly conceive that, what fcnlts soever I am guilty 
of, the sin of sloth cannot justly, especially in my Church-History, 
be laid to my charge. 

1. All passages of church-concernment from the reign of Henry 
III. until king Henry VI. I got exactly written and attested out 
»f the Records in the Tower. 



a. Tbe moet mBtetitl trusacUons in all convocations since Uie 
Heformation till tbe time of qneen Elizabeth, (save that Bometimes 
tbe JoDtnals be very defective, ivhieh was no ftnlt of mine,) I 
banacribed out of the RegiBten of Canterbury. 

3. I have hj touch labour procured many letters and other 
xmities, which formerly never did see the light, out of the library 
ef Sir Thoiyaa Cotton and othen. 

4. The learned Mr. Selden (on Iiis own desire) honoured my first 
four Centuries with reading, and returned them unto* me some 
veelcB after, without any considerable alterations. 

5. The best antiquaries of England {amongst whom the arcli- 
bishop of Armagh, it being not then my happiness to be known to 
tbe learned and religious Sir R. Twisden,) I consulted with. These 

• now 1 forbear to name, lest I remove and derive the Animad- 
Tertor'fl anger on them from myself, who am (though not the most 
able) the best-prepared to endure his displeasure. 

Give me leave to add, that a greater volume of general Church- 
History might be made with less time, pains, and coat ; for in the 
making thereof, I had straw provided me to bum my brick ; I mean, 
could find what I needed, in printed books. Whereas in this Bri- 
Ush Church-History, I must (as well as I could) provide my own 
strsw; and my pains have been scattered all over the land, by 
riding, writing, going, sending, chiding, begging, praying, and 
BOmetimes paying too, to procure manuscript materials. 

These particulars seriously considered, I hope it will appear, tbat 
the Anitaadvertor unjustly chargeth sloth on my account, and 
tyrannically crieth out with Pharaoh, " Ye are idle, idle are you," 
Exodus V. 17- Yea, I hope, I may alter the property of the Ani- 
inadvertor''s distich, and turn his sword into my shield after this 




1. Db. Hbtuk.— Intending some tihtat Aninwdvernons on the 
** Chnrch- History of Ibitain,' for vindication of the tnitfa, tbe chorch, 
and the injured clergy, I have thought good to prepate the way unto 



tbem by a plcun but neeessM; " Introduction," touching the qoaUtjr 
and nature of the book Trhich I hare in htmiL 

FtTLLER.— Intending, God willing, to letum a tfuQ, cleari and 
abort answer to the Introduction, I conceived it requisite to premise 
these few lines following. 

The Animadvertor, like a cunning market-man, hath pat his best 
com in the top of his sack, to invite chapmen to buy it, His Pre- 
face bath a decoction of his whole book ; which was advisedly done 
by him, hoping that those might read his Prefiice whom he suspected 
would never peruse his Book. 

leader, as I un loalh any thing in his book should not be once 
answered, go be not olfended, if, to avoid repetition, I am loalh it 
should be twice answered. Each particular in the Preface wiU 
recur in the body of the Book ; wliere, by God's assistance, no em- ■ 
phatical word nor syllable shall pass without its respective reply. 

Nor hath ihc reader any cause to suspect, that, by such shifting, I 
intend any evasion, by pleading in the Prefiice that I vill answer 
objections in the body of my Book, and alleging in the body of my 
-Book that I have answered them in the Preface. For I have ta.doi 
with the Animadvertor, so cunning and so exacting a merchant, that 
it is impossible for one indebted, unto him to escape, without full 
payment, by changing the place ofhis habitation. 

However, the Animadvertor hath dealt severely (to say no worse) 
with me ; who, to render me the more culpable, and my book of the 
less credit, hath represented all my faults in a duplicating glass. 
And whereas the Best of Beings non bU judieat in id ipstim, 
" doth not punish the same faults twice," he hath twice taxed every 
supposed mistake in my History, once in his Pre&ce, and again in. 
the body of his Book, 

Dr. Heylin. — Concerning wHcb the reader is to understand, that, \n 
the year 1642, Mr. Fuller published bis book called " The Holy State ;" 
in the prefiice whereof he lets us know, that he should " count it Iree- ' 
dom to serve two apprenticeships (Qod spinning out the thick 
thread of his life so long) in writing the Ecclesiastical History Irom 
Christ's time to our days." And so much time it seems he boJ spent 
upon it, (excepting some starts for recreation in the " Holy Land,"), 
before be had finished and exposed it to public view ; the book not 
coming out nntil the year 1655 ; whether agreeable to his promise and 
such a tedious expectation, we are now to see. 

FuLLEB. — My words are by the Animadvertor given-in defec- 
tively, and (as to me) disadvantageously ; this passage (which 
ought to have been inserted) immediately preceding my promise : — 
'* If I may be so happy as to see these gloomy days disclnuded 
with the beams of God's mercv," 



' I appesl to die conscience of the Animadvertor hinuelf, whether 
in his soul he conceiveth these days discktuded or no. Gloomy 
they were when I wrote those words, before any war rained in the 
land ; and since such bloody showers have esded, they continue 
lowering, gloomy, and dark unto this day. 

My promise therefore being thus but conditional, and the condi- 
tion on which it was grounded not as yet performed, I have no need, 
Uberare Jidem^ " to free my, faith,** which was never bound, thongh 
I had ever since utterly quitted all thoughts of writing any Chuich- 
lii story. 

For the first fire years, during our actual civil wars, I had little 
Ust or leisure to write ; fearing to be made an History, and shifting 
daily for my safety. All that time I could not liv« to^udy., who 
did only Hudy to live. 

So soon as God*s goodness gave me a fixed habitalion, I com- 
posed my " Land of Canaan, or Pisgab-Sight." This, though I 
confess it be no part of diusch-building, yet it is ihe clearing of tfae 
floor or foundation thereof, by presenting the performances of Christ 
and his apostles in Palestine. I perceive the Animadvertor " bath 
a month*s mind" to give me a jeer, for my sallying into the Holy- 
Land ; which I can bear the better, seeing (by God's goodness) 
that my book bath met with geaeral reception, likely to live when 
I am <Iead ; so that (riends of quality solicit me to teach it the 
Latin language. 

Db. Hetun— For, First, the reader might expect, by the former 
passage, that he designed the general hbtoiy of the church, from the 
first preaching of Christ, and the calling of the twelve apostles, to the 
times we live in : Whereas he hath restrained himself to the church 
<if Britain, which he conceive to be so far &om being founded in the 
time of Christ, that he is loath to give it the antiquity of being the 
work of any of the apostles, of any of the seventy disciples, or finally 
of any apostolical spirit of those eldest times. 

FoLLEK.— "Charity begins, but doth not end, at home.*" The 
same method was embraced in my Church- History. It began with 
our own domestic aflairs, to confute that accusation, commonly 
charged on Englishmen, that they are very knowing in foreign 
parts, but ignorant in their own country. I intended (God willing) 
to have proceeded to foreign churches ; but I am discouraged by 
the causeless cavilling at what I have written already. 

My Church-History beginneth (for point of time) indetertni. 
nately, before the birth of Christ, (lapping in, or folding over, part 
of Pagaaism,) and presenteth the doleful condition of the Britons, 
whilst yet unconverted, and grievous idoUters. 



Det«Haittately, toy History t>egin8 Aiino Ihmini 37 ; ^liich is but 
fbuT years after Christ's passioD, and that » very early, I aasuie 
yon : Cbrbtianity in this island bring a timely nser, to be up so 
soon, and dressing itself, whilst as yet (and many years after) moai 
countries were fast asleep in pagan impiety. 

I deny not but that apostolical men were the first founders of 
religion in our land. But as for such apostles, (St. Peter, St. Paul, 
&c.,) who, without probability of truth, and agrinst proportion of 
time, are by some authors obtruded on us, those I do reject, (I 
hope, without the least fault,) rendering my reasons for the same. 

Dr. Hbtlik.— And, Becondly, though he entitle It hy the name of 
"The Churcb-Hifltory of Britain,' yet he pursues not hia design agree- 
able to that title neither : there being little sud of the aflhira of the 
«^uich of Scotland, which certainly makes np a considerable part of 
the isle of Britain ; and less, if an; thing at iJl, of the ohnrtdi of Iifr' 
land, which anciently passed in the account of a Bridah island. 

FuLLEK. — I will render the reader a true account, why I enti- 
tled my book " The C^ardi-History of Britain." 

First. " The Church-History of England," I might not call it ; 
Uie fire first centuries therein belonging wholly to the Britons befwe 
the name and noticm of England was ever heard of in any author. 

Secondly. " The Church-History of Great Britain," I did not 
call it ; for fear of bringing in Scotland within the latitude hereof, 
—4 compass too large for mj weak endeavours. 

Thirdly. " The Church-History of Britain,'' I did and might 
call it, in a double respect, tam parte majors, quam mdiore, " both 
from the bigger and better,* the fairer and fruitfuller put of Bri- 
tain, the ecclesiastical afiairs whereof were therein contained. 

Yea, the Animadvertor knows full well, that tlte south of ibis 
island, by way of eminence, is so called. To give one instance of 
many from the title-paga of a passage of state :— 

Nobilistima ditceptatio tuper digniuUe et maffnitadins Regnorum 
Britanniei et OaUioi, habita ab utriiuqae Oratoribta «t Iiegatu, in 
Coneilio Oonttantimui : — Lovamii, tmno 15X7, typi* eitataa. 

" The most noble Dispute about the Dignity and Greatness of 
the Kingdoms of Britain and Fiance, betwizt the Ambaisadora 
and Legates of both sides, in the Council of Constance ; " and 
" anno 1617, printed at Lovaine." 

Here the contest only was betwixt the crowns of England (hen 
termed Britain) and France, Scotlimd not at all interesting itself 

It will not be long before the Animadrertor (as, God willing, in 
due time shall be observed) sticklcth with might and main, Uitt 



' LuciBB mi^t propyl; style hiinB«]f, utd be stjlei]. King of Bri* 
tain, who had not an half of the Bonthem half of this island : and 
therefore, hj hia ovn principles, it is no solecism in me to name 
the Cis-Tweedan moiel; thereof Bbitain. 

Had I given my native conntry a nairov and restrictive name, I 
had deserved due reproof; but now, measming the denomination 
thereof with all honourable advantage, I humbly conceive myself 
not to fell under just reprehension for the same. 

Db. Bbtun. — Nor is it, Thirdly, a "Church-History" rightly and 
properiy so caUed, but an aggregation of such and so many hetero- 
geneous bodie^ that ecdesiastiod atbin mnke the least part of it. 
Abstracted from the dress and trimming, and all those ontward em- 
belUshments which appear upon it, it hath a very fit resemblance to 
thq^lady of pleasure of which Martial tells \a, Part minima etl tpta 
puella tut, that " the woman was the least part of herself." The 
name of a " Chnrch-Bhapsody ' had been fitter for it ; though, to Bay 
truth, (had it been answerable thereunto in point of learning,) it 
might have passed by the old title of ** Fuller's Mitcdlaniet.' For 
nich and so many are the impertinenciea as to matters of historical 
nature, more as to matters of the church, that without them this great 
volume had been brought to a narrower compass, if it had taken up 
any room at all. So that we may affirm of the present History, as one 
did of the wiitings of Cluysippus aa old philosopher, namely : Si quit 
lollat t Chn/tippi librit qua aUena tunl, facUi illi vacua reUngue- 
renlur pergamena," that is to say, that " if they ware well purged of 
all snch pass^^ aa were not pertinent to the business which be had in 
hand, there would be nothing left in them to fill up his parchmatts." 

FoLLKK. — The AnimadvertoT bath a free libwty to name his 
own books ; and I crave the same leave myself to denominate my 

Before he had &llen so fiercely on my extravagancies in the 
Chuieh-History, he had done well to have defended his own, in his 
" Oeography ; " sixteen parts of twenty therein being merely his- 
torica), and aliene from his subject in the strictness thereof. Sure X 
am, Ptolemyi Strabo, Pliny, &c. in tlieir several descriptions of the 
world, have nothing to countenance the excniBionB about the pedi- 
grees of princes, not reductive to Geogn^hy witlumt the great favour 
of the reader so to understand it. 

But, becsnse recrimination is no part of pui:gatioa, I provide 
myself to answer to all which shall be objected for impertinenciet. 

Q. Db. Hbtlin. — The first of this kind which I am to note, is a 
mere extrinsecal and outside unto those impertinendes which ara 

■ DtOOEHER LjIEITIDB fit Flld ClUjIlippi. 



couched witliiii : conusting of Title-p^^ Dedicatoij-EpUtlea, and 
Berontl intermediate inBcriptions unto ereiy section ; a nevr waf , never 
travelled before hy any, till he found it out ; and such wherein he is not 
like to find maay followers, thoogh the way be opened. I know it is 
no unusual thing for works of different aiguments, published at several 
times, and dedicated to several persons, to be drawn together into one 
volume ; and, being so drawn together, to relain sUU those particular^ 
titles and dedications which at first they had. But I dare confidently 
say, that our historian is the first, who, writing a book of the same ar- 
gument, not published by piece-meal, as it came from his hand, but in 
a fuU and entire volume, hath filled his sheets with so many title-leaves 
and dedications, as we have before us. 

FuLLEU. — I answer, First : Although it be unlawful eveo for 
the owner himself, ctimtt re guA, '* to abuse what is his own," 
because the public hath an interest dierein ; yet, is it not lawful for 
uie to do what I will with my own P Matt. v. 10. ' 

Secondly. The Animadvertor pretendeth in bis notes to rectify 
"mislakes, falsities, and defects;" this cometh not under any of 
these notions. And whereas he writeth, as lie saith, " for the vindi- 
cation of the truth, church, and iojured clergy ; " by my dedicating 
of my book to many patrons, the troth is not prejudiced, nor the 
church wronged, nor any of the clergy injured. 

Thirdly. Of late some useful and costly books, when past their 
parents' power to bring them forth, have b^ delivered to the pub- 
lic, by the midwifery of such dedications. 

Fourthly. Many (if not most) of my patrons invited themselves 
purposely to encourage my endeavours ; and why should any man s 
" eye be evil," because theirs were " good unto me ? " 

Lastly. It is all one in effect, whether one piinteth his dedica- 
tions to macy patrons, or whether one presentctb a printed " His- 
tory of St. George,*' to each English Knight of the Garter, with 
a written letter prefixed to every one of them : * save that the 
former way is better, as which rendereth the author's gratitude the 
more public and conspicuous. 

Dn. Hbvun. — For in this one book, taking in " The History of Cam- 
bridge," which is bat an appendix to it, there are n« fewer than twelve 
particular titles, beside the general ; as many particular dedications ; 
and no fewer than fifty-eight or sixty of those by-inscriptions, which aro 
addressed to his particular friends and benefactors; which make it 
bigger by forty sheets at the least, than it had been otherwise. Nay, 
BO ambitious he is of increasing the number of his patrons, that, having 
but four leaves to come to the end of his History, he finds out a par- 
ticular benefactress to inscribe it to : which brings into my mind the 

hiic« leva imdei (be hud *l 



mdtj of Vitellios in bestowing, and of RosciuB Regnlus for accepting, 
the consular dignity, for that part of the day on which Cecinna, by 
order and decree of the senate, was, degraded from it : of which the 
historian gires this note, that it was, magno cum irritu accipinlu Iri- 
imtntitque, a matter of no mean disport amongst the people for a 
long time afler. 

FuLLsa. — Ordinary dedications exceed not a dozen lines, and 
therefore I believe the Aniinadvertor is much mistaken in his 

If I did dedicate four leaves to a distinct patroness, no snch fault 
therein ; seeing, I am confident, those four leaves contain in them 
so remarkable an accident, as the Animadvertor never read the like 
in four thousand leaves of any historian. 

Dr. Heylin. — But of this atgnment onr author heard so much at 
the tale Act at Oxford, that I shall »ay no more of it at this present 

FcLLEK. — I heard nothing thereof at Oxford, being then sixty 
miles distanced thence. Sure I am, I did not (here moQ ■audire 
deservedly, and if undeservedly, mo/a ^nuj beni parta delectat. 

Secondly. I have heard since, that one in the Act was bold 
to play on my own name and Church-Hisloiy. But, for the seven- 
teen years I lived in Cambridge, I never heard any Prevaricator 
mention his senior by name : we count such particularizing beneath 
■n University. 

Thirdly. I hope it will not be accounted pride, but prudence, 
ID me, to believe myself above such trifles, who have written a book 
to eternity. 

Fourthly. I regret rot to be [the] anvil for any ingenious 
hammer to make pleaaant music on ; but it seems my traducer was 
not BO happy. 

Lastly. I remember a speech of sir Walter Raleigh : " If any," 
Baith he, " speaketh against me to my face, my tongue shall give 
him an answer ; but my back-side is good enough to return to him, 
who abuseth me beliiud my back." 

3. Dr. HsyLiM. — In the next rank of impertinencies, which are 
more intrinsecal, part of the substance of the work, I account his 
ber^dry, blazons of anna, descents of noble families with their 
acbievements intermingled as they coroe in his way ; not pertinent, 
I am sore, to a Church- Historian, unless such persons had been 
founders of episcopal sees or religious houses, or that the arms so 
blaxoned did belong to either. 

PtiLLtiR. — I answer in general : Those paseagcs of heraldry 
are put in for variety and diversion, to refresh the wearied reader. 

, Goo^^lc 


Thej are never used without asking of leave befoie, or craTiog 
pardon after the inserting thereof ; and such eravinff is having a 
request in that kind with the ingenuous. Grant it ill-manneis in 
the author not to ask, it is iU-natoie in the reader not to grant, so 
Bmall a suit. 

Mr. Camden, in his description of Oxfordshire, hath a prolix 
(though not tedious) poem, of the marriage of Thame and Isis, 
wfcich he ushereth in with, Si placet, td legated rtegligat, "Bead or 
reject ; " either set by it, or set it by ; as the reader is disposed. 

The same, though not expressed, is implied in all such digres- 
sions, which may be said to be left unprinted, in effect, to such as 
like them not : their ploughs may make balks of such denations, 
and proceed to more serious matter. 

Dr. Hbtlin Our author tells us, that knowledge in the laws of 

this land " is neither to be expected nor leqoired in one of his profes- 
sion ; " (toL ii. p. 45 ;) and yet, I trow, considering the great influence 
which the laws have upon church-matters, the knowledge of the law 
cannot* be so unnecessary in the way of a clergyman, as the study of 
heraldry. But, granting beraldiy to be an ornament in all them that 
have it, yet is it no ingredient requisite to the composition of an eccle- 
siastical history. The copies of Battle-Abbey roll, fitter for Stow and 
Hollinshead, (where before we had them,} can, in an History of the 
Chorch, pretend to no place at all ; though posubly the names of some 
may be remembered, as their foundations or endowments of churches 
give occarion for it The arms of the knights errant, billeted in the 
isle of Ely, by the Norman Gonqneior, is of like extraraganey. Such 
also is the catalogue of those noble adventurers, (with their arms, 
issue, and achievements,) who did accompany long Richard I. to the 
war of Palestine ; which might have better served as an appendix to 
his " History of the Holy War,' than found a place in the main body 
of an History of the Church of England : which three alone, besides 
many intercalations of that Idnd in most parts of the book, make up 
eight sheets more, inserted only for the ostentation of his skill in 
heraldry, in which notwithstanding he hath fallen on as palpable 
errors as be hath committed in his History. 

FttLLER. — Mr. Kox in his " Acts and Monuments " hath done 
the like, presenting the names of such who came over at the Norman 
Conquest. I have only made their catalogue more complete. And 
seeing it was preserved in Battle-Abbey, the very addition of 
"Abbey" doth dye it with some ecclesiastical tincture. 

The arms of the knights of Ely might on a three-fold title have 
escaped the Animadvertor^s censure : First. They were never before 
printed. Secondly. The wall whereon they were depicted, is now 
demolished. Lastly. Each knight being blended (or at I may say. 



empaled) with a monk, & moietjr of that mixture may be con- 
Btnied reducible to Church- History. 

As for the anns of some signal persons achieved in the Holy 
War ; if the simame of " War" be secular, the Christian name 
thereof, *' Holy," is ecclesiastical ; and so rendered all actions 
therein within the latitude of Church-History, to an ingenuous 

Dr. Heyltv. — For besides those which are obserred in the course 
of this work, I find two others of that land in his " History of Cam- 
bridge,' to be noted here. For, he telleth us, (page 205,) that " Alice 
cnuBtess of Oxford was daughter and sole heir of Gilbert lord Sam- 
ford, nhicb Gilbert was hereditary Lord Chamberlain of England.' — 
Bat, hy his leare, Gilbert lord Samford was nerer the hereditary 
Chamberiain of the realm of England, but only Chamberlmn in Fee to 
the queens of England ; betwixt which offices how vast a difference 
there is, let our author judge. 

FuLLEK. — I plead in my own defence, (according to my last 
General Answer,) that I have charged my margin with my author, 
Mr. Parker,* Fellow of Caius College in Cambridge, one known for 
a most noble antiquary, but especially in heraldry ; and I thought 
that he had lighten on some rare evidence, out of the ordinary road : 
but, seeing be was mistaken, I will amend it (God willing) in my 
next edition. 

D». D^TLiK. — And, Secondly, the honour of Lord Chamberlain of 
England came not unto the earls of Oxford by that marriage, or by 
any other, but was iurested in that fiimily, befbie they bad attained 
the title and degree of earls : conferred by king Henry I. on Aubrey 
de Vere, a right puissant person, and afterwards on Aubrey de Vcre 
bis son, together with the earldom of Oxford, by king Henry Il.t con- 
tinaing hereditazy in that house, till the death of Bobert dnke of Ire- 
land, Uie ninth earl thereof, and then bestowed for a time at the king's 
discretion, and at last settled by king Charles in die house of Lindsey. 

Pdllbe.— This is nothing confutatory of me, who never atBrm- 
ed that the High-Chamberlainship accrued to the house of Oxford 
by any suc^ match. 

Db. Heylin. — But because, being a Cambridge -man, he maybe 
better skilled in the earls of that county, let us see what he saith of 
them ; and we shall find, that " lUchaid Plantagenet, duke of York, 
was the eighth earl of Cambridge.' (Hist, of Camb. p. 226.) Whereas, 
First, Bichord duke of York was not ctvl of Cambridge. 

Fuller — He was, he was, he was; as presently (God willing) 
will appear, beyond all doubt and contradiction. 

* In bia ScelrUm Canlab. hb. 1 CanDEk, in Oifurd, fxl. 3H9. 



Dr. Hetun — And, Secondly, if he had been «adi, he muBt hare 
been the serenth earl, and not the eighth. For thus those earle are 
niarshalled in our =* Catalogues of Honour," and booka of heraldry j 
namely, 1. William de Heschines. 2. John de Hainanlt. 3. William 
marquess of Juliers. 4. Edmond of I^ngley, duke of York. 5. 
Edward duke of York. 6. Richard de Coniaburgh, yonnger brother 
of Edward. 7. James marquess Hamilton, ttc. 

Fuller.— Indeed, they are thus reckoned up in a late little 
(and utieful) book, entitled, "The Help of History," made (as I 
ana credibly informed) by tlie Animadvertor himself; and therefore 
by him well styled " oub Catalogues of Honour." But more 
exact heralds, whom it concerns to be skilful in their own profession, 
do otherwise account them. 

Db. Hetlin. — No Richard duke of York to be found amongst 
them ; his father, Richard of Oonisbu^h, having lost that title by 
attainder which never was restored to Richard his son, (though most 
improrideotly advanced to the dukedom of York,) nor unio any other 
of that line and family. 

Fur.Litn. — I admire the A nimadvertor's peremptoriness in thin 
point, when the no less learned (but more modest) Mr. Camden, 
speaking of these earls in the description of Cambridgeshire, saith, 
that, after the death of Bichanl of Conisburgh, " The title of the 
earl of Cambridge, either wholly vanished with liim, or else lay hid 
amongst the titles of Richard Iris son, who was restored duke of 
York, 08 kinsman wid heir to his uncle Edward duke of York." 

What he warily said " lay hid," is foiind out by such as since 
wrote on that subject ; Mr, Brooke, York herald, and Mr. Augus- 
tine Vincent, (in efiect, Mr. Camden revised,) who writing cor- 
rections on Brooke, concurreth with him in this particular : — " For 
Richard of Conisburgh, Edward's brother, was after created earl 
of that place, [Cambridge.] and after him another Richard, who 
was Richard of Conisburgl/s son."* See, reader, what an adver- 
TeiBary I have gotten, who careth not to write against the most 
evident and avowed tniths, so be it he may write ^mething 
■gainst me. 

4. Dr. Heylin.— Proceed we, in the next place, to verses, and 
old ends of poetry, scattered and dispersed in all parts of the History, 
from one end to the other ; for which he hath no precedent in any 
historian, Greek or Latin, or any of the national Histories of these 
Utter times. The Histories of Herodotus, Xenophon, Thncydides, 
and Plutarch, amongst the Greeks; of Cawu*, Livy, Sallust, Tacitus, 
and Suetonius, amongst the latins; afford him neither warrant nor 

• Pig«i 01,96. 



example for it. The like may be affirmed of Eneebius, Socrates, 
Sosomen, Theodoret, Ruffio, and Er^ius, Church-Historians all; 
though they had all the best choice, and the mo8t excellent poets of 
the worid to hoiriend them in it : and he that shall consult the His- 
tories of Bucceeiling times, through all the ages of the church to this 
present day, will find them all as barren of any eucouiagements in 
this kind as the-oncients were. 

FnLi.F.a. — Never had Herodotus given his nioe hooks ihe 
names of the nine Muses, if such was liis abstemiousness From 
poetry. Not one of them, which is Acru^^oAof in this kind ; and 
there are found in Clio, the first, no fewer Uian thirty verses of the 
oracles of Pythia. As those his books are fruitful, so hia book of 
the Life of Homer hath a superfetation of them ; so that if prose 
be the warp, verses are the woof thereof. Whereas the Animad- 
vcrtor instances in Plutarch ; open at the Life of Theseus, and we 
aie presented with poetry therein. 

But, grant no precedent in this nature in these authors ; a more 
free genius actelh in modem than in ancient historians, nianumissed 
from the servilities they were tied (or tied themselves) unto. The 
AnimadvOTtor, like another Empson, endeavoureth to revive the 
penal statutes of history agunst me, (so to subject me to fine for 
the breach thereof,) which time in effect hath cancelled. 

Qui geribit Aietortci, tcribtt miteri, if enslaved to all punctilios 
thereof. Let the Animadvertor keep those steel bodices for his own 
wearing, and not force them on me. What ! not a plait or a ruffle, 
more ot less, but all must be done in number, weight, and measure ! 
according to historical criticism ! This is not putting the book, 
but the aullior himself, into the press. 

Tacitus himself (here instanced in) would be tacittu indeed, if 
all politic sentences and prudential results were deleted in him, 
being trespasses on the precisencss of history, confined to matter of 
fact. But well fare that historian who will go out of his own way, 
to direct his reader. 

We know Pliny, Solinus, &c., in their topographical description 
of countries, arc barren of verses. Let the Animadvertor, on the 
same account, therefore, charge Mr. Camden for suichorging his 
Britannia with poetry, having but three verselcss shires, (namely, 
Doiset, Bucks, and Westmoreland,) in all England, and more 
than fourscore verses apiece in the three several counties of Berks, 
Oxford, and Somerset. 

Dr. HETLiN.—Nay, whereas bishop Godwin, in his "Annals," 
gives us an epitaph uf two verses only made on queeo Jane Seymour, 
and oftcrwanlH a copy of eighteen verses on the martyrdom of arch- 
bishop Crunmer ; he usheis in the hut with this short apology ; Contra 



morem HUtoria liceat, queen, interera ^c. *' Let me," srfth he, " I 
beseech 70U, insert these following verses, though otherwise ag^nst the 
mle and laws of History." — Annal. Regina Maria. 

FuLLEE. — What, if that worthy prelate was pleaKd to pwa a 
compliment on his reader I it followeth not that they do wsot 
civility, who have less courtship in this point than he hath. Let us 
look on his " Catalogue of Bishops," which hath moVe vicinity with 
my subject ; and there we shall find (the bulk of the book consi- 
dered) more verses in proportion, than in my Church-History, on 
the token that where I cite but fonr, he qiiotelh fourteen, out of 
Martial, to prove Claudia Ruffins a Briton and a Christian. 

Dr. Hetun. — But what, alas! were eighteen or twenty Tenes, 
compared with those many hundred, (six or seven hundred at the 
least,) which we find in our author, whether to show the anireisality 
of his reading in all kind of writers, or his faculty in tianslatingi 
(which when he meets with hard copies, he knows how to spare,) I 
■hall not determine at the present. 

FtiLLEH. — If pieces of verees be counted whole ones, which in 
this point is no charitable synecdoche, and if translations be reck- 
oned distinct veraes, though it is hard that a man and his shadow 
should be accounted two different persons :— 

And if the verses in the " History of Cambridge " be adjected, 
though he who banisheth poetry out of m Univenitj' will find 
iambics enough to pay hitn for his pains : — 

And if the verses in the " History of Waltham-Abbey " be 
cast in, (though who shall hinder, but I will describe my own parish 
in prose or poetry as I think fit P) all, put together, will not amount 
to the number. 

Besides, many of my verses may be said to be prose in effect, as 
containing the religion of that age, and therefore alleged as evi- 
dence thereof, before the Norman Conquest; and no anUiority can 
in prose be produced which doth so fully and clearly represent the 

Other verses are generally epitaphs on some eminent chorchment 
which could not well be omitted. 

Dr. Hbyuk. — Certain I am, that, by the interlarding of his prose 
with so many verses, he makes the book look rather like a Church- 
llomance, (out late romancers being much given to such kind of mix- 
tures,) than a well-built Ecclesiastical History. And if it be a matter 
so inconvenient to put a new piece of cloth on an old garment; the 
putting of BO many old patches on a new piece of cloth must be 
more nnfasliionable. Besides that, many of these old ends are so light 
and ludicrous^ so little pertinent to the business which he has in baudt 



tliat they serve only to mtke sport fox cliildraii, f «( pturit placeiu, 
el declamatio^faUiJ and for nothing else. 

FvLLBX.^ — Had tLe Animsdvertoi come with b good stomach, 
each hiding had been no bad cookery. Certain I am that a com- 
ment admitteUi less latitude in this kind than a Church-History. 
Certain I am also, that a *' Comment on the Creed '" is allowed less 
liberty than other comments. Nov the Animadvertor hath bescat- 
teted kit every where with verses and translations. It consisteth 
not with my charity to miscall it "a Creed-Romance," accounting 
it a sin so to decry or disparage his useful endeavours. The best 
way to discover the deformity of my febric, is for the Animadvertor 
to erect a more beautiful building hard by it ; that so bis rare and 
regular, may shame my rude, piece of architecture. 

What, if such mixtures make the garment (which also I utterly 
deny) to be less in the fitsbion, the fondling of fuicy F I made it 
not for sig^t but service, that it might be strong and warm to the 
wearers thereof. 

I stand on my justification, that no such light orladicrous verses 
are to be found in my book, which render it [liable] to just excep- 
tion. But no wander if the bell clinketh even as the prejudiced 
lieorei thinketh thereof. 

5. Db. HBTLiK.^This leads me to the next impertinency, — his 
raking into the dMunel of old popish legends, written in the darker 
limes of superstition, but written vritb an honest zeal, and a good 
intention, as well to raise the reader to the admiration of the person 
of whom they write, as to the emulation of his virtues. But, being 
mixed ivith some monkish dotages, the most learned and tngeniona 
men in the church of Rome have now laid them by ; and it had been 
very well if our author bad done so too, but that there must be some- 
thing of entertEunment for the gentle reader, and to inflame the reckon- 
ing which he pays not for. 

Fuller. — I have not raked into the kennel of old popish 
legends, who took the cleareut water, in this kind, out of those 
rivers which run, at this day, in highest reputation with the Roman- 
ists. I never cited any legend but either out of Harpafield, who 
wrote in the last generation, and was as ingenuous as any of his 
persuasion; or else out of Hierom Porter's Fl<»-e» Sanctorum, 
who wrote some forty years, [ago,] and in high esteem wiih the 
papists at this day, as appears by the dear price thereof. 

I confess, I have instanced (taking ten perchance out of ten 
thousand) in the grossest of tlicm, (that is the fairest monster 
which is moat deformed,) partly to show what a spirit of delusion 
acted in that age, partly to mise our gratitude to God, seeing such 
lying vanities are now ridiculous even to children. 



I believe not the Animadrertor, when saying, that " tlie most 
le&rned and ingenious of Rome have laid them aside," seeing Cor- 
nelius k Lapide weaveth them in all along his " Comments," and 
king Jamea did justly complain, that Bellanniue himself did mar 
bis " pretty books of devotion with such legendary mixtures." 

Db. Hbylin.— But, above all things, recommend me to his meny 
tales, and scraps of trencher-jests, frequently interlaced In all parts of 
the History; which, if abstracted from the rest, and put into a book 
by themselves, might very well be served up for a second course to the 
" Banquet of Jests," a supplement to the old book, entituled, " Wita, 
Fits, and Fancies ; " or an additional century to the old " Hundred 
Meny T^es,' so long since extant. But standing as they do, they 
neither do become the gravity of a Church-historian^ nor are consistent 
with the nature of a sober argument. 

Fuller. — The Animadvertor should have rendered me liable to 
juat reproof, by instancing in one of those tales so inconsistent with 
the gravity of a Cburch-Hislorian ; which no doubt he had done, 
but because he knew himself unable to produce it. 

He who is often seen to snap hastily at, and feed hungrUy on, a 
hard crust, will not be believed, if br^ging that he can eat phea- 
sants and partridges at bis pleasure. And seeing the Animadvertor 
doth commonly carp and cayil at the silly shadows of seeming mis- 
takes in my book, it is utterly improbable he can, yet will not, 
charge me with a fault which cannot be defended. 

But let him at leisure produce the most light and ludicrous story 
in all my book, and here I stand ready to parallel it with as light, (I 
say not in the Animadvertor, but) in as grave authors as ever put 
pen to paper. 

Dr. >Ieylln.— But, as it seems, our author came vith the same 
thoughts to the writing of this present History, as poeta anciently 
addressed themselves to the writing of comedies, of which thus my 
Terence : — 

Pafla cam primjia antMun ad icriieiidinn affniJif, 
td tiii ntgotii credidii jolum darif 
Popuh Mlplactrmt quat fecitirl fabaUu 

That is to say, 

" Thmi poeu when Iheit mind Ibey flnii ■ppty 
In kHMer rene lo Cnsie a corned;, 
TUok tbvre to noUiliig more fat tb«m to da, 
Xhtn pleue tlie people, whom tliejr apeak uDlo." 

FuLLEB, — I admire that the Animadvertor, who so lately bad 
taxed me for writing and translating of verses, will now do the same 
himself. There is a double people-pleasing : one sordid and ser- 
vile, made of falsehood and flattery, which I defy and detest : the 



otier Iswful, when men deliver and dress trath in the most plausible 
expression. I have a precedent aboTe exception to warrant it, even 
Solomon himself: "The preacher sought out acceptable words," 
Ecclcfi. xii. 10. This I did and will aim at, in all roy writings ; 
and I doubt not but that the Animadvertor's statiMier doth hope 
and desire, that he hath thus pleased people in his book, for the 
advancing of the price and qnickening the sale thereof. 

6. Dr. Hetlim.— In the last place, proceed we b> tte manifold ex- 
cnrsionB about the antiquity of Cambridge, built on as weak authority 
aa the monldflh legends, and so impertinent to the matter which he hath 
in hand, that the most reverend Matthew Parker, (though a Cambridge- 
man,) in his Anliquilalei Britannica, makes no business of it. 

The more impertinent, in regard that at the fag-end of his book 
there follows a distinct History of that University, to which all former 
passages might have been reduced. 

But, aa it seems, he was resolved to insert nothing in that History 
but what he had some probable ground for ; leaving the legendary part 
thereof to the Church-Romance, as most proper for it Ai^ certwnly, 
he is wondrous wise in his genetation. 

^or, fearing lest he might be asked for those Bolls and Cbartolariea 
which frequently he relates unto in the former books, he tells us in 
" ^^ History of Cambridge," page 83, That they were burnt by some of 
the seditious townsmen in the open market-place, auno 1380, or there- 
abouts : so that, for want of other ancient evidence, we must take his 
word ; which whether those of Cambridge will depend upon, they can 
best resolve. 

For my part, I forbear all intermeddling in a controversy so dearly 
stated, and which hath lain so long asleep, till now awakened by our 
author to beget new quarrels. Such passages in that History as come 
under any "Animadversion," have been reduced unto the other, as 
occasion served ; which the reader may be pleased to take notice of as 
they come before bim. 

FuLLHR. — Because omitted by archbishop Parker, I have the 
more cause and reason to insert it : otherwise, had he handled the 
subject before, the Animadvertor would have cried out, " Cram&e,^' 
that there was nothing novel therein. 

Call it (I pray) " tKe fringe'" of my book, be it but for the 
subject's sake whereof it treats, my dear mother, the University of 

I live in the same generation with the Animadvertor, and 1 hope 
shall acquit myself as honest, which truly is aa wise, as himself. 
'* Church -Romance ! " Parcitu uta. 

As I tell the reader of ihc burning of those original charters, so 
in the sauio place I charge uiy margin with my author, (Dr. Caius,) 
and thereby discharge myself. 



Doth the AnimadTertoT now *' forbear aJl mtermeiidliag '' tberein 
" in this controversy ? " Why did he Hot forbear before, when 
setting forth his last Geography some fire years since P And is it 
not as lawful for me to defend, aa for him to oppose, my mother? 
When, where, and by whom, was this " controversy so clearly 
stated ? " Was it by the Aaimadvertor himself? Such a party is 
unfit for a judge. Or was it stated by the Parliament mentioned 
by him prima Jacobi, when, as lie telleth us, the Clerk was com- 
manded to place Oxford first. But, it plainly appears, it was not 
then so clearly decided but that the question was ever started 
again, in the late Long Parliament, with arguments on bnth sides. 
Witness the printed speech of sir Simonds D'Ewes on that occasion. 

7. Dr. Hetlim.— AU these extravagaacies and impertinendes 
(which make up a fifth part of the whole volume) being thus dis- 
charged, it is to be preenmed that nothing should remain hut a mere 
Church-History, as the title promiseth. But let us not be too pre- 
sumptuous on no better grounds. 

FoLLEB.— The Animadvertor*s words mind me of a memorable 
passage, which hereafter he hath, in his Animadversions on my sixth 
book, or " History of Abbeys." — " The intruder payeth to the 
sequestered minister but a nineteenth part instead of a fifth." But 
if the fifth part, in relation to my book, be here stated to the same 
proportion for the nineteenth, yet will not the Animadvertor'a mea- 
sure be reconciled to the standard of truth. 

Dr. Hbtlin. — For on a meliut inquirendum into the whole course 
of the book which we hare before us, we shall find too little of the 
church, and too much of the state ; I mean, too little of the ecclesias- 
tical, and too much of the civil. History. It might be reasonably 
expected, that in a History of the Church of England, we should 
have heard somewhat of the foundation and enlargement of cathedral 
churches, if not of the more eminent monasteries and religious houses ; 
and that we should have heard somewhat more of the succession of 
bishops in their several and respective sees, their personal endowments, 
learned writings, and other acts of piety, magnificence, and public 
interest, especially when the times afforded any whose names in some 
of those respects deserved to be rctuned in everlasting remembrance. 

FuLLEu. — I doubt not but the reader who hath perused my 
Church- History, will bear me witness, that therein there is a com- 
petent representation of all these particulars, bo Far forth as the 
proportion of the book will bear. 

Dr. HETtiK. — It might have been expected also, that we should 
have found more frequent mention of the calling of national and pro- 



VincHtl BTDods, with the remit of their proceedings, and the great 
influence which they had on the dril state, sparin^j spoken of at the 
best, and totally discontinned, in a manner, from the death of king 
HauylV. until the ConTocadoa of the year 1553; of which no 
notice had been taken,. but that he bad a mind to question the autho- 
rity of " the Book of Articles " which came out that year, though 
published as the issue and product of it, by the express warrant and 
command of king Edward YI. 

FiTLLKB. — ^AU councils before the Conquest, with their canons, 
are completely (and the most remarkable after it) represented in my 
History, With what face can the Animadvertor say, that I have 
discontinued the Acts of the CouTOcation till the year 1552 F the 
acts of oDe critical ConTocation in the 27Lh of Henry VIII. 1535, 
taking up no less than eight sheets in my book, and anotber in the 
same king's reign employing mote than a sheet ! 

Dr. HBnjN.^No mention of that memorable Conrocation in the 
fourth and fifth years of Philip and Mary, in which the clergy, taking 
notice of an Act of Parliament then newly passed, by which the sub- 
jects of the temporality, ha*ing lands to the yearly value of five pounds 
and upwards, were chained with finding horse and armour, according 
to the proportion of their yearly rerenues and possessions, did by their 
sole authority, as a Convocation, impose upon themselves, and the rest 
i>f the dergy of this land, the finding of a like number of horses, armour, 
and other necessaries for the vrar, according to their yearly income, pro- 
portion for proportion, and rate for rate, as by that statute had been 
laid on the temporal subjects. 

Fui.LEK.— I am confident that this is the self-same Convocation 
which is thus entered in my Church-History, book viii. vol. 2, 
page 425. ~ Anno 1557, quinto Mariw. — " The clergy gave the 
queen a subsidy of eight shillings in the pound, (confirmed by Act 
of Parliament,) to be paid in four years. In requital whereof, by 
Pole's procurement, the queen privileged them &om showing their 
horses with the laity ; yet. so that they should muster them up for 
the defence of the land, under captains of their own choosing.'' 

I cannot therefore be justly charged with no mention of the Acts 
of this Convocation. 

Dr. Heylin.— And this they did by their own sole authority, as 
b^ore was said, ordering the same to be levied on all such as were 
refractory, by sequestration, deprivation, suspension, excommunication, 
—.ecclesiastical censures aU ; without relating to any subsequent con- 
firmation by Act of Parliament, which they conceived they had no 
need of. 

Fuller. — I took the less notice of> and gave the less heed to, 
the transactions of the clergy therein, because then they were in 



their haff and height, furious with fire and &ggot ; so that all done 
bjr them d« facto cannot be justified for legal ; vho aometimes bor- 
rowed a poiDt of lav (even with intent never to repay it) in their 
proceedings. It tnaj be proved out of Mr. Fox, that Bome at that 
time (by a cruel prolepsia) antedated the burning of some Mar- 
tyrs, before the vrit de hwretico comtmrendo came unto them. 
Wherefore all their actions in that time are not precedential to 
warrant posterity, and the ait of that torrid zone will not fit the 
bodies in our temperate climate. 

Dtt. HsYLm. — ^Nor find vre any thing of the ConTocationa of qneeif 
Elizabeth's time, except that of the year I ofiS, (and that not feiriy 
dealt with neither, as is elsewhere showed,) thongh there passed 
many canons in the Convocation of the year 1571, and of the year 
1585, and the year 1397, all printed, and still pablicly extant; besides 
the memorable Convocation of the year 1555, in which the clergy 
gave the queen a benevolence of two shillings in tbe pound, to be 
levied by ecclesiastical censures, without relating to any subsequent 
confirmation by Act of Parliament, as had accuatomably been used in 
the grant of subsidies. 

FuLLEE. — Bemardm non vidit omnia; I could not come to 
the knowledge of every particular. But, I confess, I cannot con- 
jecture the cause of the Auimadvertor's retrograde motion, who, 
after so many years in the reign of queen Elizabeth, goeth back 
again to tlie year 1555 ; which was four years before she came to 
the crown. 

Dr. HBTLiK.^It might have been expected also that we should 
have found -in a " Chnrch-History of Britain," the several degrees 
and steps by which the heterodoxies and superstitions of the churdi 
of Rome did creep in amongst us ; and the degrees by which tbey 
were ejected and cast out again, and the whole Reformation settled 
upon the doctrine of the apostles, attended by tbe rites and ceremo- 
nies of tbe primitive times. , 

Fuller,— I hope the peruser of my book will be sensible of no 
defect, but that the same in a good degree is performed by me on 
several o 

Dr. Hetlin. — As ^so that some honourable mendon should be 
found of those gallant defences which were made by Dr. Bancroft, Dr. 
Bilson, Dr. Bridges, Dr. Coslns, and divers others, against the violent 
batteries and assaults of tbe Puritan faction in qneen Elisabeth's time ; 
and of the learned writings of bishop Buckeridge, bishop Morton, Dr. 
Sutclifl'c, Dr. Bnigesa, Sic, in justificatiou of the rites and ceremmies 
of tbe church of England, ngaiost the rcmnuuts of that scattered (and 
Iben brokun) faction in the time of king James ; of whidl we have 



"' ^y quidem, " not a word" delirered. Nor wrald it stand with 
bis design, (nhicli will discorer itself in part in this Introduction, and 
ahall more fiilly be discovered in the '* AaimadTersioiUi'') that it should 
be otherwise. 

Fuller. — I answer: First. No drag-net can be so comprehen- 
siYc as to catch all fish and fry in the river ; I mean, no historian 
can descend to every particular. 

Secondly. What, if I left that piece in the dish, for manners'" 
sake P I must not engross all history to myself, but leave some to 
sQch as shall succeed me in the same subject. 
• Thirdly. The reader in perusing my book will bear me witness, 
that most of these have their true encomiums on the same account ; 
and especially Dr. Bancroft, Dr. Bllson, Dr. Cobids. 

Fourthly. If my omission of his book hath offended bisbop Mor- 
ton, my tukitiff will be having the pardon of so vivacious a piety ; 
who, being past the age of a man, now leads the life of an angel. 

Lastly. I have a book of " the Lives of all English Worthies,'' 
(God send it good success !) which had been in print, if not 
obstructed by the intervening of this contest; and, coming forth, 
will be suppletory of all such defects. 

Dr. Hetlin. — All which together make it clear and evident, that 
there is too little of the Church or Eccleuastical History in our author's 
book ; and that there is too much of the state or civil history will bo 
easily seen, by that unnecessary intermixture of state ooncemments, 
not pertinent to the business which be hath in hand. 

Fuller. —I answer, First, in general : Such the sympathy 
betwixt the two embracing twins, church and state, that sometimes 
it is both pdnful and pity to part them; more particularly, such 
passages have at the least a cast oi eye of church-colour in tlieni ; 
or else they are inserted for necessity, ne detur vacuum, for mere 
lack of church- matter. All the ecclcBiastical history in Mr. Fox, 
during the reign of Edward IV. will not fill his hollow pen ; the 
cause why he makes it up with history of the state ; and I some- 
times do the like. Lastly. It is done for variety, (and then, com- 
monly, I crave the reader's leave,) which I hope is no offence. 
Must I turn schoolboy again, and the Animadvertor be my school- 
master, to give mc a theme, that I must write on no other subject 
but wbat he appoints me ? 

Dr. Hetlin Of this sort, to look back no farther, is the long Will 

and Testament of king Henry VIII. with his gloss or comment on the 
same, taking up three whole sheets at least ; in which there is not any 
thing which concerns relif^on, or which relates unto the church or 
ehurch afiaira ; although, to hare the belter colour to bring it in, he 


tella ua that he hath transcribed it, not only 6a the nri^ thereof, bnt 
" because it contuned many passages which might reflect modi li^t 
npon onx Chnrdi-Hiitory ." (Book y. toI. 2, p. lift) 

FuLLEB. — I answer, First : AU ancient Wills have something 
of sacredDess in them, be^nning, " la the name of God, Amen." 
Secondly. They are proved in the Court-Chiistian, which eri- 
denceth something of ecclesiasticalnees in them. Thirdly. Kings 
have ever been beheld as mixed persons, wherein church and state 
are blended together. Fourthly. The Will of king Henry VIII. 
in that actire junctnre of times, is more than the Will of an ordi- 
nary king. Fifthly. It is most remarkable even in Church History, 
if only on this account, — to show that he who had violated the 
testaments of so many founders and benefactore, had hardly any 
one parttculat of his own Will performed. Sixthly. It never was, 
and perchance (had I not done it) never had been, printed. 
Seventhly. False and imperfect copies thereof pass about in manu- 
script. Iiflstly. I have received so much thanks from the Animad- 
vertor*s betters for printing of it, that I will freely pardon and pass 
by his causeless cavil against me for the same. 

Db. Hbtiin. — Of this sort also is bis descriptioii of the pomp and 
order of the coronation of king Charles, which though he dotfa acknow- 
ledge not to be within the pale and park of eccleiiastical history, yet he 
resolves to bring it in, because it comes within the purlieus of it, as his 
own words are. But for this he hath a better reason than we are aware 
of, that is to say ; *' But if hereafter IMvine Providence shall assign 
Eo^and another king, thaagh the transactions herein be not wholly 
precedential, something of state may be d)osen out gratefhl for imita- 
tion." (Chuidi-History, book xi. vol. 3, p. 344.) 

As if the pomp and order of a coronation were not more pnnctuaDy 
preserved in the Heralds' Office, who have the ordering of all things 
done without the church, (and are eye-witnesses of ^1 which is done 
within,) than in our author's second-hand and imperfect collections. 

FtTLLEE. — I answer, First: A coronation is church-work, per- 
formed therein by an archbishop, attended with prayers and a 

Secondly. I never expected that a chaplain to king Charles 
should find fault with any thing tending to the honour of his 
lord. How can any good disciple grudge at what is expended 
«>( fvT<9($iixir|U.ov, "on the burial of the memory^ of his master, 
being the last in this Itind P 

Thirdly. My " collections," I mean printed by me, but observed 
by my most worthy friend, are (abating only the uncertain place of 
the lord mayor) most critically exact. 

Lastly. Though the Heralds" Office doth carefully piewrve all 



8udi ceremonies, yet cannot all persons living at great distsneet 
and desiiing information heiein, have on all occasions bo facile and 
convenient access to their ofBce as to mj printed book. 

Db. Hbylim. — ^Tke like may be said also of the quick and active 
ragna of king Edmrd VI. and queen Mary ; in which the vrhole body 
of the Befbnned religion was digested, settled, and destroyed ; snffi' 
cient of itself to make a competent volume, but contracted by our 
author (like Homer's Iliads in (lie nut-shell) into less than twenty-five 
sheets : and yet in that small abstract we find many impertinences, as 
to the work he hath in band ; that is to say, the great proficiency of 
kind Edward in his gramraai'-leaniing, exemplified in three pieces 
of Latin of his making, when he was but eight or lune years old. 

FoLLEK.-^uat reason of such contraction, because of Mr. Fox's 
dilatation on the same. Where he found my bult, he (If bo 
pleased) might have found my defence ; namely, If papists preserve 
the nuls and hairs of their supposed saints, give mc leave to record 
the first essays of this pious prince, especially they being unprinted 
rarities, with which no divine or scholar, save the Animadvertor 
alone, would or could have found any &ult. 

Dr. Hetlin. — The long narrative of sir Edward Monntague, Chief 
Justice of the Common Fleas, to vindicate himself from being a 
voluntary agent in the business of the lady Jane Grey (needlessly 

FoLLEK. — King Edward VI.'s passing the crown (over the 
beads of his two sisters) to his cousin the lady Jane, is a piece of 
Church^History ; because the continuing of the protestant religion 
is all the plausible plea for the same, and the feir varnish of so foul 
a groundwork. This passage of consequence is defectively delivered 
by our Historians, some circumstances thereof being hitherto locked 
from the worid : some have endeavoured to force the lock by their 
bold conjectures. I am the first that have brought the true key 
and opened it, fiom Judge Mountague> own hand, truly passive, 
(though charged to be most active therein,) driven with the tempest 
of duke Dudley^B anger, against the tide of his own inclinations. I 
priie a dram of acceptance from the ingenuous reader, above a 
pound of the Animadvertor'a cavilling: which is offended with my 
inserting of so authentic and informative a manuscript. 

Dr. Hkvuk. — (Needless.) The fiill and punctual relation of 
Wyat^B rebellion, and the issue of it, though acted upon some &]se 
grounds of dvil interest, without relating to roligion or to church 
aSairs. Infinitum eatel ire per lingula, " It were an infinite labour 
to look into all particularB of this nature,' which are found in our 



autlior, and make up a great part of the book ; but we may guess by 
this brief Tiew, (as ex pede Hermlem,) that fau diTeruons iqnn civil 
matters and afiain of state, which neither hare relation to noi any 
influence at all upon those of the church, do make up a considerable 
part of the rest of the book : 'which civil matters and state-concern- 
ments being discharged also, (as in all reason they ought to be,) we 
next proceed to the Church-History itself; in which, if we should 
make the like deJalcation, and expunge every passage which is either 
pontively felse or ignorantly mistaken by him, there would be very 
little left to inform the reader, as by the following " Animadvetsiona' 
will appear sofiGciently. 

PtiLLEB. — This rebellion was grounded on enoneous principles 
of religion, and therefore Goodman (Ill-man !) did, in his book of 
that subject, entitle it " God's cause ;^ and, though foully mistaken 
therein, it is enough to reduce this design to church-concernment. 
Had I omitted it, the Animadvertor would have charged me with 
Puritanical (pardon the prolepsis) compliance; so hard it is to 
please iiim, cither full or fasting. 

8. Dr. Hevlin. — But well it were, if only aberrations from histori- 
cal truth were to be met with in our author: in whom we find such a 
continual vein of Puritanism, snch dangerous grounds for inconformity 
and sedition to be raised upon, as easily may pervert the unwary 
reader, whom the facetiousness of the style (like a hook baited with a 
punted fly) may he apt to work on. Murdering of kings avowed for a 
necessBiy prudence, as oft' as they shall fall into the power- of their 
subjects. (Ch. Hist. Lib. iv. vol. i. p. 41?.) 

FnnEE The page cited by him happily happeneth to be the 

initial one of a section, and halh no more therein than as followeth : 

" Soon after his death, king Edward was much lamented Jiy 
those of whom in his lifetime he was never beloved. Whether lliia 
proceeded from the mere mutability of men's minds, weary to loiter 
long in the lazy posture of the same affection ; or whether it pro- 
ceeded from the pride of Mortimer, whose insolence grew ioto}er> 
able; or whether it was because bis punishment was generally 
apprehended to be too heavy for his fault ; so that deposition with- 
out death, or, at the worst, death without such unhuman cruelty, 
had been sufficient. 

*' One of our English poet-historians acquainteth us with a pae- 
rage, which, to my knowledge, appeareth not in other authois." 
(Church-History, book iv. vol. i. p. 417-) 

This all in that page. 

Reader, I request thee do me, thyselt, and truth, right : Whether 
can my avowance of king-murdering be collected from any thing 
here written by me P 



But because some will sa;, "The quoUtion possibly may be mis- 
taken : " if any tbiag sounding to that sense, there or elsewhere, be 
found in my book, may " the ravens of the valleys," (vhom I 
behold as loyal subjects,) in indication of the eagle their sovereign, 
"pick out my eyes,'" for delivering such rebellious doctrine. 

Db. Hbylin,— (1.) The ooionation of kings, and consequently their 
auccesnon to the crown of England, made to depend upon the auf- 
fiage and consent of the people. (Book xi. vol. 3, p. 342.) 

(2.) The sword extorted &om the supreme magistrate, and put into 
the hands of the eommoD people, whensoever the reforming humour 
ahall grow strong amongst them. (Book ix. vol. 2, p. 439>) 

(3.) The church deprived of ber authority in determining contro- 
Tersies of the feith, and a dispute rmsed against that clause of the 
Article in whieb that authority is declared, whether forged or not; 
(Book ix. voL 2, p. 470.) 

F[rLLEB.~(l.) Stt/ltu wq^4abilU ! Here is a continued cham- 
paign, lai;ge level, and tan flat, of fourteen untruths at least, without 
any elevation of truth interposed. No such matter in that place, 
M hereafter shall appear. 

(2.) False as tbe former, as in due time and place (cited now) 
afterwards by him eagerly improved) will appear. 

(3.) I am d^aved unjustly^ who never deprited the church of 
her authority. I raised no such dispute, but would have quelled 
it, if in my power. All which I refer to my answer to these 
respective quotations. 

Dr. Hetlin. — Her power in making canoUs eVery wbete prosti- 
tnted to the lust of the Parliament, contnuy both to law and constant 

FcLLER. — "Everywhere" is nowhere. And seeing iio parti- 
cular place is instanced, to a genetal cha^ a genetal denial shall 
suffice. Let me odd, that, whereas the Animadvertut hereafter 
taxeth me for calling tA« two houtei " the Parliament ; " * we there- 
fore may presume, that he (not running on the same rock) by Par- 
liammU meaneth " the king, lords, and commons : " which granted, 
- how much of loyalty and discretion there is in these his words, 
" prostituted to the lust," let others judge. 

t>B. &ETLIN. — ^The [heterodoxies of WickcUffe canonized for gos- 
pel, and Calvin's opinions (whatsoever they were) declared for 

Fuller. — The Animadvertor's words are more than Apocrypha^ 
even a very untruth. 

■ Vidt ii^a, put 3, " Appenl of InjnteJ ImnKence 

, Goo^^lc 


Dr. HBTT.IN. — (1.) The Babbatarian rigoon published for diTine 
and ancient truths, thougli there be do aotiqmtj' nor dirtnitf is them. 

(2.) The hierarchy of biahops so coldly pleaded for, as shows he had 
s mind to betray the cause, &c. 

FuixEB. — (1.) Most false, as in due time and place shall abun- 
dantly appear. 

(2.) Weaily, it may be, for lack of ability ; not " coldly," for 
want of affection. But, rather than the cause I so cordially wish 
well to should miscarry by my well-intended weakness, hencefor- 
ward I will stand by, and resign my place at the bar to better 
.pleaders in its behalf. 

Db. Heylin.— 'Whilst all things pass on smoothly for the Presby- 
terians, whom he chiefly acts for : and this is that which we must look 
foT, par tny el par toal, as the Frenchmen say. Nor deals he other- 
wise with the persons which are brought before him, than he doth 
with the causes which they bring. Xo professed Puritan, no conning 
Nonconformist, or open Separatist, comes upon the stage, whom he 
follows not with plaudits and some Mi commends. 

FuLLEE. — He means Mr. Cartwright, Travels, Stone, Udal, 
Greenham, Hildersham, Dod ; all (though dissenting from the 
church in ceremonies) eminent in their generations. I commend 
them not for their nonconformity, but other qualities of piety, pun- 
fulness, leaning, patience, he. Doth not Mr. Camden give 
Bsbington (who sudered as a traitor to queen Elizabeth) the com- 
mendation of wealth, wit, learning, and handsomeness P * Yes, 
doth not the Holy Spirit praise Absalom for his blameless beauty P 
and Achithophel for his otaculous wisdom P The worst of moral 
men may be commended for their naturals, and the worst of spi- 
ritual men for their morals. 

Dr. Hetlin.— Whereas the Fathers of the church, and the con- 
formable children of it, arc sent off commonly in silence, and some- 
times with censure. 

FuLLEE.^The reader, by perusing my book, will find I hare 
embalmed their memories with my best spices. 

Dr. UEri.iN. — The late archbishop of Canterbury, so eminently 
deserriog of the church of England, must be raked out of his grare, 
arraigned for many misdemeanouia, of which none could accuse him 
when he was alive ; all his infirmities and weaknesses mustered up 
bother, to make him hatefiil to the present and succeeding ages; 
when Mr. Love's treasonable practices and aedttioua speeches must 
needs (forsooth) be buried in the same earth with him. 

FuLLEB. — 1 have in this my "Appeal" collected twenty-two 



commendationB of the archbishop out of my Church-History, and 
had made them up forty, save that the press prevented me. The 
best is, " wlist idlost in the huodied, is found in the shire ; "" I 
mean, may be (lliough not in this my defence) found in my booh 
at )a,Tge. 

Dr. Hbylin. — (1.) The UniTersity of Oxford frequently quairelled 
and exasperated, upon slight occasions. 

(2.) T^e late king's party, branded by the odious title of " malig • 
nants,' not bettered by some froth of pretended wit in the e^mology. 

Fuller. — (1.) When and where? Being now left at large, 
vilhout any direction to the place,*! am more troubled what my 
oS^nce is, than what my defc^nce shall be. I am sure the Animad- 
vertoT, as a dutiful eon to his mother, will in due time and place 
discover it, and, unwilling to antedate my own molestation, my 
answer is deferred (or rather refeired) thereunto. 

(2.) Ab for my using the term "malignant," in due time I shall 
nake a salis&ctory answer. 

Dr. Hktlin. — ^The r^nlai clergy shamefally reproached by the 
name of " covetous coaformists." (Book ix. voL 2, p. 497-) 

FoLLEK. — Who would not think, but that (as the charge stand- 
eth Bgunst me) I had branded all conformists with the note of 
*< covetous ?'" which had been an abominable scandal indeed. 
Whereas my words only relate to some particular persons : whom, 
if the Animadvertor will say they were conformists, (as indeed they 
were,) I dare swear, (if called thereunto,) that they were " covet- 
ous," as who, by unreasonable leases, (as the statute calleth them,) 
wasted the lands of the church, till they were seasonably retrenched 
by that wholesome law made [in] the 13th of Queen Elizabeth. 

" Regular clei^gy " they might be, (as the Animadvertor termeth 
them,) in other things; but, in this particular, "regular" only to the 
rules of avarice ; making sach leases against reason and common 
e<]uity, though, in the rigour of the then law, justi&able. I wonder 
that the Animadvertor will advocate for their actions, so detrimental 
to the church. 

Nor doth this dash the least di^^race on conformity itself, they 
not doing it qua conformists. It was not their conformity made 
them covetous, (though perchance their covctousness might make 
them eonfbnnable,) but their own corruption. 

Bnt if the epithet of " covetous " be so oilensive, I will, in my 
aext edition, to mend the matter, change it into " sacrilegious con- 
fbrmity," and justify my expression, according to the principle of 
tiie Animadvertor's own judgment, because they enriched theiDselvec 
with impairing the goods of the church. 

z 2 ,Coo^^lc 


Db. Hsruif.— And those poor mea wbo were ejected 1)}r the laU 
Long Parliaraent, deqiitefitUy called " Baal'a priests, nnsaTonrj salt, 
not fit to be thrown apon the dunghill;" Uiongh he be doabtfbl 
of the proofs which were brought against them. (Book xL toL3, 
p. 469.) 

Fuller. — I have, at- large, defended myself agamst this fool 
tnd false accusation, when the place cited doUi occac. 

Dr. HiYUH.—Bo many of all sorts wronged and injured bj hint, 
that should they all study their personal and particular rerengei, be 
were not able to abide it; and therefore we nuy justly say, in the 
poe^s lai^uage :— 

Which may be Englished in these words :- 

FuLLEB. — If I stand indebted to so many for wronging of them, 
the fairest way is for them jointly to seize on what I have ; that SO 
my small estate may be shared amongst thera all, so far as it will 
go, and every one Lave his proportion thereof. Whereas now, the 
Aniniadvertor taking all (and more than all) his pennyworths oat 
of me, he hath injuriously dealt with the rest of the creditors 
thereby. However, I hope to appear responsible, (seeing no debt 
is soon satisfied,) and the Animadvertor himself in due time will 
be found in my debt, if all accounts be equally audited betwixt ns. 

This I dare boldly say, (though I confess his haita excuse not 
mine, if guiUy,) that he hath wronged more and persons of higher 
quality, in his late books. Bishop James Montague, a known 
eminent scholar, vilified by an odious and indiscreet comparing htm 
with another of his simame. 

Judge Button and Crook scandalously abused by him for con- 
senting privately to the ship-money, who as well privately (in the 
king's presence) as publicly opposed it, though they subscribed 
their hands, in conformity to the greater number : as the Animad- 
vertor, more knowing in law than myself, will acknowledge the 
common and constant custom in such cases. I could instance in 
many more ; it being no discretion to play out all I have at oDC«, 
but to keep a reserve in my hand, in case (which God forefend '.) I 
should be provoked to another answer. 

9. Dr. Heylin. — But nothing does more evidently discover hi> 
unfaithful dealing, than his report of the proceedings in the Isle of 
Wight, between his majesty aud the Long-Ptu'Iiameut divines; of 
which he tells us, that his majesty, in the last paper which he sen^ 


llieiii, " Bcknowledged tbeii great puns to inform his jadgtnent, 
Mcoidii^ to their perBoaaions, and also took especial notice of their 
ciTilitiet of the application, both in the beginning and body of their 
^F^jT (Book xi. ToL 3, p. 490;) and having cleared himaelf from 
some miBonderstanding about the writ of partition which they apeak 
o^ pn^ an end to the biuine«a. The man who reads this passage 
cannot choose bnt think, that his majestjr, being vanquished by the 
arguments of the PresbTterians, had given over the cause ; and, tiiere- 
ton, as convicted in Ids conscience, rendereth them thanks for the 
instniction which he had received, and the dviliUes they used towards 
lum in the way thereof. But he that looks upon his majesty's last 
paper, will find that he had learnedly and divinely refelled all their 
arguments ; and having so done, puts them in mind of three questions 
which are proposed in his former paper, acknowledged by themselves 
to be of great importance in the present controversy; without an 
answer whereunto, his majesty declared that he would put an end to 
that conference : " It not being probable,' as he told them, " that they 
should work much upon his judgment whilst they are fearful to declare 
their own, new possible to relieve his conscience but by a free declaring 
of theirs." But they, not able, or not daring, (for fear of displeasing 
their great masters,) to return on answer to those questions, his 
majesty remained sole master of the field, a most absolute conqueror. 
For though the first bjow commonly does begin the quarrel, it is the 
last blow always that gets the victory. But regium est, cum benefe- 
eerit mati audtre ; " It hath been commonly the fortune of the great- 
est princes, when they deserve best, to be worst reported." 

FoLLEB. — Here I will truly acquaint the reader with the slate 
of this matter. The posting press, which, with the time and tide, 
will stay for no man, mistaking my copy complete, and not attend- 
ing my coming to London that morning from Waltham, clapt it up 
imperfect. I must therefore deservedly take all the blame and 
shame thereof on myself, and here in this sheet do public penance 
for the same, promising amendment to the full, Ood willing, in the 
next edition. 

10. Dr. Heylin. — Xor deals he better with the church, than he 
does with the king ; concealing such things as might moke for her 
justification, and advocating for such things as disturb her order. 
In the last book we find Mm speaking of some heats which 
were rtused in the church, about placing the communion-table altar* 
wise, and great feult found for the want of moderation in those men 
who had the managing of that business. But he conceab his majesty's 
detennination in the case of St. Or^ry's, Novembers, 1633; by 
irbidi all bishops and other ordinaries were encouraged to proceed 
theretn ; and consequently those of inferior rank to defend their 

Fuller. — I have not full twenty lines on the whole subject, 



1>eing loath to enlarge on bo odiona & difference, eopited in good 
measure : and, as I dunt not totally omit, so I pasted it met 'witli 
all possible bTeTity. 

Dr. Heri-Dt. — ^The cbapel of Emmanuel College in Cambridge is 
built north and soutb, contruj to tbe usage of the primitiTe times 
and the cborcb of England; vitb which king James being made 
acquainted, he answered, as onr author tells us, " That it was no 
matter bow the diapel stood, so the heart stood aright.* Which tale 
l<eing told by him, and beliered by others, {el poptttum, ijai tibi credit, 
hahel, Ovinius in EpislolS H^paipyl.') as be is like enough to find 
many believers, farewell to all external reverence in the serrice of 
God. What need we trouble ourselvet or others with standing, 
kneeling, bowing in the acts of worship? it is no matter in what pos- 
ture the body be, to the heart be right. 

FuLLBK. — Tbe speech of king James was no tale, but a tfuth ; 
when be did not exclude bodily reverence, but prefer soul -sincerity 
in divine service. Pamllel unto those scrip ture-i ne tanees : "For 
thou desirest no sacrifice,^ Psalm li. 26 ; that is, thou wouldest 
them not, comparatively to cordial contrition. 1 Peter iv. 3, 
speaking of " good women, whose adorning let it not be that out- 
ward of plaiting the hair;" namely, not chieDy therein, to tbe 
neglecting of inward bolincsE. Nor is the speech inductive of cor- 
poral irreverence, if believed; seeing a man's body may and ought 
easily, quickly, and cheaply be contiived into standing, bowing, 
kneeling; when it requires time and expense to take down and 
re-build a chapel, which would cost tbe college five hundred pounds 
at the least. 

II. Dr. HBTLtH. — What need we put ourselves or others to the 
charge of surplices and hoods, of gowns and cassocks, iu the officiating 
of God's service ? " It is no matter in what habit the body be, so the 
keatl be right.' There is another chapel in Cambridge which vras 
never consecrated, (whether a stable or a dormitory, is all one to me,) 
at which when some found themselves grieved, our author tells them 
that others of as great learning and religion (himself especially for one) 
" dare defend, that tbe continued series of divine duHes, pubUdy prac- 
tised, for more than thirty years, (without the least check or control 
of those in authority,) in a place set apart to that porpose, doth 
sufficiently consecrate the same." (History of Cambridge, page 217-) 
Stables and barns, by this argument, shall, in some tract of time, 
become as sacred as our churcbea. 

FuLLBB. — Had I lived in Sidney College when that dormitory 
was first used for a cbapel, I would liave advised, and (in my 
sphere) advanced its consecration; accounting the omission to &II 
under just reproof. But, seeing it hatli been so long omitted, I 



DowconceiTe it hkth no need of consecntion ; seeing, fhongh never 
solemnly and foimally dedicated to divine service by the ordintry, 
(or one deputed by him,) yet hath it had a tacit and interpreta- 
tive consecration, and thereby hath contracted a relative sacred- 
ness. By the Bame proportion it is, that utensIlB, long used in 
■ &mily, to roost civil and generous employment, by degrees 
acquire to themselves the reputation (in the apostle's language) 
of " vessels of honour (" as being opposed to such vessels employed 
in sordid (though necessary) service, and of the same metal and 

I doubt not but if this place, used for a chapel, (now about a 
jubilee of years,) sliould be turned to a stable, the Animadvertor 
would behold it (and justly too) as a piece of profanation ; and this 
intimates a sacredness therein. 

It is mainly material, that bishop Andrews, of Ely,— a reverend 
prelate, and as knowing as any of his order in this point of anti- 
quity, — knew this to be in his diocess, yet never manifested th£ 
least regret at the chapelizing of this place. 

As for consecration of churches and chapels, I say. First : It is 
no sacramental action. 

Secondly. It is not of evangelical institution, as Bellarmine him- 
self doth freely confess no express for it in the New Testament .— 
In italu mangdii non habemut tarn eirpresMa teitimonia leripiura, 
(De Cuitu Sanctorum, lib. iii. cap. 5.) 

. Thirdly. It is charitably to be presumed, that when Dr. Mon- 
tague and the Fellows first entered the dormitory, sequestering 
that place fiw a chapel, they, by prayers and a sennon, did solemnly 
consign it to the service of God ; seeing no man of common prin- 
ciples of piety will offer to eat meat before he hath said grace. 

Fourthly. Such prayers did in some sort dedicate the place, 
wanting no formality, save because not done by a bishop ; and if 
this be all the feult can be found therein, let the Animadvertor 
prove, Cprobatio ineumbit affirmanti,) that, in the primitive times, 
consecrating of churches was only an episcopal act. 

Fifthly. What was wanting in the consecration, at the first, hath 
since sufGciently been supplied and corroborated by usance thereof 
to God's service only. 

If factious people should, in peaceable times, agunst lawful 
authority, conventicle in a bam or stable, their meetings, sinful in 
themselves, could not derive any sacredness to the place whilst the 
world lai>teth. 

But if persecution — which God of his goodness avert ! (though 
we by our wickedness deserve it) — should invade our land ; I 
conceive, stables are, by prayers, and presence of God's lufferiog 

, Cookie 


■erranU, and chiefly by Ood's preaence viUi tb«in, at tbe minnte of 
Ifaeii entrance tbitlier, elented into holy places. 

Ds. HxTLnt.— And if the brethren think it not utough fbi th«r 
eaae to be pent np in n natiow a room, it is bnt r^airing to the next 
grove or coppice ; and that, in a like tract of time, shall become ai holj 
w Solomon's temple, or any consecrated place, whatsoeTer it be. 

Fuller. — Not the aolemnest consecrotion can advance out 
churches into the same degree of saciedness with Solomon^E temfde ; 
which was (jea, might be) but one dignified (when dedicated) 
with God's glorious presence, vho " chose that place to himself for 
an house of sacrifice," 2 Chron. vii. 12. It vaa the type of oni 
blessed Saviour, "perfect in all points,'^ as made by inspired archi- 
tects ; and the utensils in the holy of holiest, the self-same which 
Moses made according to the pattern in the mount. 

But, I hold, English churches may amount to the holiness of the 
Jewish synagogues. 

Dr. Hutlin. — Churches may well be spared, paUed down, and 
tiieir materials sold for the use of the saints. 

Fuller.— <i)od forbid ! The clean contrary foUoweth from my 
position ; wherein I do offer an argument for the saciedness of 
places, the re^ster of whose conseciation is lost, as time out of 
mind ; so that now they can no otherwise prove it, (no record being 
eitant thereof,) save by pious prescription : enough, in my judg- 
ment, to give sacrilege a lap over the fingers, if offering to lay hold 
(in such places and buildings, and turn them to her private prc^t. 

Were it in my power, I would have built a church, where I only 
made my Church- History. But the worst is, the Animadvertor 
would then have quarrelled the contriving and adorning of my 
church, as much as now he doth the matter and making of my book ; 
and therefore I leave it to others, of more ability, first to do, and 
then to defend, their good actions from his moionty. 

Dr. Hbtlin.— a tub, by this our author^ logic, will he as usefiil as 
the pulpit unto edification. 

Fuller. — This is a tale (for I am sure it is no truth) of a 
tub indeed ! I ever beheld a pulpit as in some sort Jure dtvino, 
ever since I read, Neh. viii. 4, that *' Ezra stood upon a pulpit of 
wood." However, if called thereunto, I piay God I may make 
but as good a practical sermon, as John Badby effectually preached 
in a tub, of constancy and Christian patience, when put into such 
a vessel, and burnt therein for the testimony of the truth, in the 
reign of king Henry IV.* 



' Db. ^nruN^And that we may percave, ihat nothing ia tnor* 
pracioiu with him thaa on iir^olar, onoonBecn&ted, and nnfnniished 
chapel, &C. 

FvLLBB. — Next to an heart, euch as David had, made (the best 
copy of the best original) " after God's own heart," I most highly 
priie a regular and conaecrated chapel, furnished with matron-like, 
not meietriciouB, ornaments. 

Dr. Hbtlin/— Melrin's infamons libel against the fhmitiire of the 
altars in the chapels royal, (for which lie was cenanred in the Staiw 
Chamber,) most be brongbt in by head and shoulders, out of time 
and place, for fear lest such an excellent piece of Puritanical aeal 
ahouid be lost to posterity. These things I might have noted in their 
proper places, bnt that they were leserred for this as a taste to the 

Fdllek. — I account not those his veraes worth the translat- 
ing, (though easy,) and spealc of hia censure as veil as of his 
offence. I mifitimed nothing, having entered this passage neat the 
year therein he was settled a Professor beyond the seas. 

12. Dr. Hbtlik. — f jam ^nit eral; "and here I thought I 
sbonld have ended ' this anatomy of our author's book, but that there 
is another passage in the prelaoe thereof, which rcc|uire8 a little further 

For in that prefece he inibmis us, by the way of caution, that " the 
three first books were, fi>r the main, written in the reign of the late 
lung, as appeareth by the passages then proper for the government. 
The other nine books were made nnce Monarchy was turned into a 

Fdlleb. — The Animadvertor hath feirly and fully (no constant 
practice !) cited my words; I request the reader to take especial 
notice of those three — " for the main." 

I preHume, the reader conceiveth such a caveat not improper or 
impertinent, but safe and seasonable, for my defence and his direc- 
tion, especially seeing the like happened not to any English histo- 
rian this thousand years, that his pen (during the writing of his book) 
should pass tbrough climates of different governments.* 

Dr. Heylik. — By which it seems, that our author never meant to 
frame his History by the line of tmth, but to attemper it to the palato 
pf the present government, whatsoever it then was or should prove to 
foe ; which, I am sure, agrees not with the laws of History. 

And though I can moat easily grant, that the fourth hook and the 
rest that follow were written after the great alteration and change of 

• The goTcnmnil of Bngtuid, UHmgb often tniulated Erom out &mllf (;ea, DtttonJ 
lo uKKfaer, ^ bitli » long nintbmed monuchlcol. 



Btato, in makiiig a new OommoiiirMldi ont of the nuna of an aadent 
Sf onarchj ; jet I concnr not with onr author in the time of the fbnacr. 
For it appears hj some pasa^es, that the thiee firat books either were 
not all written in the time of the king, or else he most give ^■'"M'lf 
some dislo^ hopes, that the king shoald never be restored to Iu« ^oce 
and power, hy which he might be called to a reckoning fer them. 

FttLLBK. — *' It seems." Multa vidmtur qtuB non mat. The 
inference ia ftlse and forced. Titus Liviui lived in imperial, yet 
wrote of repai, contalatoty, tribtmitial, [times] at Rome, 
without the least imputation of falsehood. I conceive monarch- 
' ical, aristocratical, and demociatical truth, to be one and the same. 
It followeth not, that t«o-&ced Janus (as beholding two worlds, 
one bs/ore the other afUr the flood) had also two hearts. I did 
not attemper m; History to the palate of the government ; so 
as to Bvreeten it vith any falsehood ; but I made it palatable thus 
far forth, as not to give a wilful disgust to those in present power, 
and procure danger to myself, by using any over-salt, tart, or bitter 
expression, better foifaome than inserted, without any prejudice to 
the truth. 

Dr. Hbylin. — For in the second book he reckons the cross in bap- 
tism for a popish trinket ; by which it appean not, I am snre, to hare 
been written in the time of kingly government, that being no expres- 
sion suitable unto such a time. 

Fuller. — Should I simply and absolutely call the cross in bap. 
tism " a popish trinket," my forehead (signed therewith) would give 
my tongue the lie, and return the popery in the teeth thereof I 
behold it as an ancient and significant ceremony, bnt in no degree 
essential to, or completory of, the sacrament ; witness the wisdom 
of the church of England, which in private baptism pennitteth the 
omitting thereof. But when ceremonies shall devour their distance, 
and intrude themselves " necessary and essential," it is high time to 
term them " superstitious trinkets.'" The rest I refer to what I have 
written, when this passage recurreth in the place cited by the Ani- 

Dr. Hbylin. — Secondly. Speaking of the precedency which was 
fixed in Canterbury, by removing the arcbi-episcopal See from London 
thither, he telleth us that " the matter is not much which See went 
. first when living; seeing our age hath laid them both olike level in 
their graves." (Book ii. vol. 1, p. 98.) But certaioly the government 
was not changed ioto a State or Commonwealth till the death of the 
king ; and till the death of the king, neither of those episcopal Sees, 
nor any of the rest, were laid so " level in their graves ' but that 
they were in hope of a resurrection; the king declaring himself 
very constantly in the treaty at the Isle of Wight, as well t^ainst 


Qie tbolidung of tlie epiMopal goremment, as the alienation of their 

Thirdly. In ihe latter end of th« some book, he maku a great dis- 
pute agtunat the high and sacred pririJege of the Idnge <^ England, in 
curing the disease conmonlj called the "kin^s eril," whether to be 
impated to magic, or imagination^ or indeed a miracle ; next brings ns 
in an old-wives' tale about queen Elizabeth, as if she had disclaimed 
that power which she dailj exeidsed ; and, finallr, manageth a quarrel 
agunst the Form of Prayer used at the curing of that eril, which he 
airdgns for superstition and impertinendes, — no inferior crimes. Are 
all these passages proper to that goremment also 7 

Finally. In the third hock, he derogates from the power of the 
church in making canons, giving the binding and concluding power in 
matters which concern the dril rights of the subjects, not to the king, 
hut to the lay-people of the land assemUed in Parliament; which 
game he after foUoweth in the eighth and last. And though it might 
be safe enough for him. In the eighth and last, to dentate in this 
manner from the king's supremacy in eodemastical affairs ; yet cn- 
tainly it was neither safe for him so to do, nor proper for him so to 
write, in the time of the kingly goTeinment, unless he had some such 
wretched hopes as before we spake of. 

PcLLER. — I desire the reader to remember my late words, as 
the Animadvertor recited them, — " for the main." 

I confess, though these books were written in the leign of king 
Charles, yet, after his death, I interpolated some lines, and, amongst 
others, that of levelling all bishoprics. 

I raised no dispute against the king's curing the evil, it being 
raised before I was bom ; and which I endeavoured to allay, refer- 
ring it to miracle, as to the pemser of my History in that place will 
appear. I tell no old-wivd tale of queen ElJiabeth, it being a 
mattmdtne truth, from most authentic authors. 

I derogate not, in the least degree, from the power of the church ; 
but the Animadvertor doth arrogate unto it more than is doe by 
the laws of God and man ; maintainiDg that churchmen may go 
beyond ecclesiastical censures, eveu to tlie limbs and livea of such 
as are recusants lo their constitutions. 

" Wretched '" and, what formerly he said, ** disloyal hopes," I 
defy, and return them in the teeth of him that wrote the words. 

He had "wretched and disloyal hopes" who wrote, that king 
James went to Newmarket, as Tiberius to his Caprete ; be waved 
his loyalty and discretion together, who so saucily and un-subjectr 
like counted how oCWn king Charles waved bis crown. 

Here give me leave to tell the Animadvertor, that Buci whom he 
slighteth for ^'low royalists" were, whilst they bad a king in 
England, as high in their loyalty to him, piayen and BufTerings 



for him, aa those bigh ro^listo who m^ntain that all gooda of tie 
subjects are at the king's absolate dispose ; and yet, since those king! 
^re departed this life, can write of them in so base and disparaging 
language, that way one of the low royalists would hare bis right 
hand cut off, rather than write the like. Reader, pardon vaj too 
just passion, when disloyalty is liud to my charge. It is with me, 
" EiUier now speak, or dsc for ever hereafter hold your peace." 

13. Dr. Hetlin. — ^I must needs say, ^t, on the reading of these 
passages, and the rest that follow, I found myself possessed with mnch 

And I long expected when some cbampion would appear in the lists 
against this Goliath, who so reproachfully had "defied the whole' 
armies of Israel." 

And I must needs confess withal, that I did dctct enter more 
unwillingly on any undertaking than I did on this. 

But, being solicited thereunto by letters, messages, and several per- 
sonal addresses, by men of all orders and dignities in the church, and 
of all d^ees in the Uniremties, I was at last overcome by that 
importunity which I found would not be resisted. 

Fdllkb. — " Indignation " is grief and anger boiled up to the 
height. What just cause I have given for so great passion, the 
reader will judge.* 

If I be a Ootiath, in this point may I have his success — to be 
conquered, killed, and my head cut off even with my ovra swoid ! 
If I be none, may the Animadvertor be graciously pardoned ! 

And it may be, he shall never come off any undertaking more 

I could mate him, with telling bim, that men of all sorts and 
sizes, their equals in number and quality, have likewise importuned 
me, not tamely to sit down, but to vindicate my own credit and 

Dr. Hbylin.— I know, that, as the times now stand, I am to 
expect nothing for my pains and travail, but the displeasure of some, 
and the censure of others. 

FtTLLEB. — I will take no advantage by the times ; and if, with- 
out their help, I cannot buoy up my credit, let it sink for ever. 
And I humbly desire all, who have, or may reap, benefit by my 
books, not to be difiplcased with the Animadvertor, in my behalf. 
It is punishment enough that he hath written, and too much for his 
stationer that he hath printed, so impertinent a book. 

When Henry lord Hungdon, on the highway, had, in passion, 
given a blow to sir Henry Colt, the lord had it relurned him, the 

• The breiki la my umrer nlaU nrptetlnXy to thom in the DocUn'i AnIiMdTatkw. 



[mndpal vith interest ; and when tbe lord's Bermnts &nd Followers 
begta to drew their swords, " Away, away I" said he, " cannot I 
and my neighbour exchange a box on the ear, but you must interest 
yonrselres in the matter P" 

Ijet none of my friends and favourers engage their anger in this 
difference betwixt me and the Animadvertor. Let ns alone ; and, 
although we enter adversaries in the beginning, we shall, I hope, go 
oat iiiends at the end, of the contest, after there hath been a pass or 
two betwixt ourselves. Thus, heats betwixt lawyers, bom at the 
bar in Westminster-h&ll, are commonly buried at the board in the 
Inns of Court. 

Db. Hkyldt. — (1.) But, coming to the work ^th a single heart, 
abstracted from all self-ends and private interests, I shall satisfy 
myself with having done this poor service to the church, my once- 
blessed mother, for whose sake only I hare put myself upon this 

(2.) The party whom I am to dea! with is so much a stranger to 
me^ that he is neither beneficio nee injuria notut ; and therefore no 
particnlar respects have moved me to the making of these " Animad- 

(3.) Wliich I have writ, without relation to his person, "for vindi- 
cation of the truth, the church, and the injured dergy," as before i^ 
said. So that I may affirm with an honest conscience ;'^- 

(4.) Non lecta eat operi, ted data, cauta meo, " that this employ- 
ment was not chosen by me, but imposed upon me ;" the unresistible 
entreaties of so many friends having something iu them of commands. 
(5.) But, howsoever, Jacla ttt alea, as Ccesar once said when he 
passed over the Rubicon : 

(d) " I must now take my fortune, whatsoever it proves." 80 Ood 
speed me well ! 

Fuller. — fl.) How much of this " self-denying ordinance " is 
performed by him, let the reader judge in due time. 

(2.) I am glad to hear this passage from the Animadvertor, that 
I neeer did Aim any injury; the rather, because some of my 
friends have charged me for provoking his pen against me. And 
though I pleaded, that neither in thought, word, nor deed, I ever 
did him any wrong, I hardly prev^led with them for belief: and 
now the Animadvertor bath cleared me, that I neeer did any injury 
unto him. Would I could say the same of him, that he never did 
me any injury I However, as a Christian, I here fully and freely 
fbi^ve him ; and hereafler will endeavour, as a scholar, so to defend 
myself against his injury*, that (God willing) it shall not shake my 

(3.) " Without relation to my person," let the reader be judge 
hereof. Indeed Thomas halh been well used by him, but Fullkk 



Hath soundly felt hia displeasure. However, if " truth, the church, 
and clergy," have been abused by me, he hath gi»en me too feir 
quarter, vho deserved death downright for bo heinous an offence. 

(4.) Amongst all which persona inciting him to write against 
me, one letter sent to him from r^na pecunia waa most prevalent 
witli him. Witness this his book ofifered to, and refused by, some 
stationers, because, on his high terms, they could not make a saving 
bargain to themselves. 

(5.) Jacta ett aim. The English is, " You have cast the dye." 
And seeing the Aniraadvertor hath begun the metaphor, 1 hope I 
may make it an allegory, without rendering either of us scandalous. 
I appeal to the reader, whom I make groom-porter, (termed by Mr. 
Camden, ideatorvm arbiter,) and let him judge who plays with false, 
who cogs, who slurs a dye ; and, in a doubtful case, when we can- 
not agree upon the cast betwixt ourselves, let him decide it. 

(6.) By " fortune," I presume the Animadvertor intendeth no- 
thing derogatory to Divine Providence ; in which sense St. Augus- 
tine letracteth his former frequent using of the word. Only he 
meaneth " uncertainty of success," in which notion I say an hearty 
Amen to his prayer, when I have enlarged his " God speed me " 
into " God speed us well." May he who muiageth this contro- 
rersy vith most sincerity, come off with best success ! Amen. 


Page 10, line 17, (10,) for Mdkima ... read Tetkihus, 

20, — 21, (^iS,) ... queen of ^ queen of England. 

27, — 6, (32,) ... Woodetpoir, Woodensdike. 

■' 42, — 1, (42,) ... incoatitlerateneew the inconsideiate- 

nesae of children. 

121,-:- 2, (140,) ... 6rf, better. 

145, — 2, (161,) ... ttatwndo sUtuendi. 

154, — 23, (177,) ... Ooniitar Cantuar. 

159, — 17, (182,) ... Dr. Hammond ... Dr. Boke. 

160, — 1, (182,) ... his this. 

163, — 28, (187,) ■■■ Jeniite Pranciscans. 

189, — 15, (212,) ... am/meon confession. 

- 221,iiiuwi»«i(257,) ... whether with other. 

228,— 2, (268,) ... dm dean. 

239, — 29,(287,) ... eommotu canons. 

271, —tilt., (327,) ... euiit oculis.* 

* Thl« Ust of Hej-Un'i SmUa, and Fnllfir'* laaiAm upon ibem, an nflkred to the 
nadar, m mutiMlie of Fnllar'i plea of thn pMcant qnalitliia of Ua oppoaeiit'i pndiic- 
lioQi, and aa fonnlns a paM af Ut own apobgj-. Tlw nr««i)c«* to the (afea 

, Cookie 


Fuller. — This is & catalogue of prel&l mistakeg, committed and 
confeesed in the doctor's book of Animadversions, and here by me 
inserted, not to disparage the paina or care of the printer, but on 
these considetationB : — 

First. To prevent all exceptions, that I iiaye defectively pre- 
sented-in his book. 

Secondly. To show, that sometimes (aa here) there may be an 
erratum erratonan, to be re-reformed. It thus beginneth : " Page 
10, line 17, for Meliinus read Tclkinus." That is, read that 
which is wrong, instead of that which was right before. For a 
MeUtiata Avalonius appeareth in Bale, Pits, and others, but a 
TMinut was never in nature. But take notice also of this con- 
feased mistake, " Page 163, Rne 28, for Jesuits read Franciscans." 
There is here no temptation to the press to err, there being, betwixt 
the two words, no literal similitude, or orthographical symbolizing ; 
scarce a letter in the one which is in the other. 

I make no other use hereof, save only to crave the like favour, 
in my own defence, when in the earls of March, Roger is misprinted 
Edward ; and in (he eails of Bath, Henry is misprinted William, in 
my " Chufch-History." 

I confess there be some press-faults in this my book ; as for 
prdial, (wherever occurring,) read prdal ; part i. page 50, line 32; 
(1,) for anno Domini 580, read 560 ; part i. page 52, line 18, (1,) 
for demot, read ddnol; and part ii. page 83, betwixt lines 33 and 
34, (173,) insert, I pray, " Papists, nonconformists, and covetous 
conformists, the acts therein appearing like." 

For (he rest, I hope they ore nothing so many or great as to 
discompose the sense, and therefore I confide in the reader's discre- 
tion, as also in the Animadvertor's ingenuity, expecting he will deal 
as candidly with me as I have done with him, when such (though 
nnconfeased) errata do occur. 

And because my hand is now in, I request such as have my 
" Church History" to delete these words, book ii. vol. 1, p. 197: 
<' A title till his time unknown in England." For, I profess, I 
know not by what casualty these words crept into my book, contrary 
to my intent. 

nnuln M lh«r Rood In the Jint adlHoii of tbg Emammt Hiilorictm / bnl u HefUa 
dlMrlbalxl hU dUtilba baa thre* hnndnd and tlklrty.MTea " AulmadTcnlou," wliJck 
ba dbdsetlf nambersd, geBenII;r ** Mponite puagrBphi, thwe nnmben *n ntmlned In 
tUi Ttprint ^ kit teort, and an added (wilUn ptmnUittf) t» mM ej Ikm Errala. 
Tht ume cue hu b««n abwmd Is the trm refarmee* here addaced bj Falter, and li) 
Olha puugM of hli " Appakl." — EDIT. 





1. Dr. HEYiitK.— la order to the fint conrerwon of theBritiBh 
nations, oar audior talces beginning at " the sad condition ihej were 
in, before the GhtisUan &ith was preached unto diem." And in a " sad 
condition " they were indeed, as being In the state of Oentilism, and, 
consequently, without the true knowledge of the Qod that made them. 

FuLLEB. — The " author lakes banning " where Dr. Heylin 
himaelf, had he writ the *' Cbnich-History of Britain," I believe, 
would, and I am sure should, have begun. And seeing he concur- 
reth with the author in the eame ezpressioQ, that the Britons were 
ID a sad condiUon, he might have spared himself and his reader the 
trouble of the following impertinencjr. 

Db. Hetlin. — But yet they were not in a worse condition than tha 
other Oentiles, &c. 

FuLLEB.— Nor did I ever say they were. Had I said so, the 
doctor's carping had had a handle to hold on, whereas now his teeth 
and nails must bite and scratch a bstening for themselres. 

Dr. Heylut. — But yet, not in a wane condition than the other 
Gentiles, who were not only darkened in their understandings, but so 
depraved also in their affections, as to " woric all manner of unclean- 
ness even with greediness." Not so effeminate in their conversation 
as the Asiatics, nor bo luxurious as the Greeks, nor branded with those 
filthy and nnnatnral lusts which St. Paul chargeth. on the Bomana, 
and were in ordinary practice with most eastern nations. 

FuLLEH. — What of all this f It is said of king Joiam : " He 
wrought evil in the sight of the Lord, but not like his father and 
like his mother,^ 2 Kings iii. 2. It is said of king Hoshea, " He 
did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, but not as the 
kings of Israel that were before him," 2 Kings xvii. 2. It doth 
not follow, that these kings were good, because less bad than others. 
So that my words stand an unshaken truth, that the Britons, before 
their conversion, were (though not so debauched as other Hea- 
thens) *< idolaters, in a sad condition." 

Dr. — And though they were idolaters, yea, and foul idol- 
aters, as onr author hath it; yet, neither, &c. — 

Fuller. — If they were idolaters, they must be foul ones, 
except (as one hath fancied a tale of &/air Ethiopian) any could 
make a teutu of /air idolaters. 



Db. Hetlin.— Yet ueitW were tWt gods of bo bnitUli and impure 
a nature as the Priapus, Cloacina, tmd Stercutia, amongst the Romans ; 
or as their Venus, Flora, Lapa, — common harlots alL Of irbich, and 
nicb Uke other gods, the old FatherB tell oa, that the; were not nomina 
colewiormm, ted crimina coUntium.' Nor were tbey so immodest and 
obscene in their rites and ceremonies as were the Greeks and Romans, 
in the sacrifices to their Cjbele or Beiecynthla, whom they call " the 
mother of the gods ; " descrihed by Amobius, Lactantius, and others 
of the anciait writers, in such lively colonrs as ne chaste e;e can 
look upon them witboat detestation. 

FuLLEK.— Well may the doctor run apace, drawing an empty 
cart afWr him. What is all this to confute my position, that " the 
micouverted BritoDS, foul idolaters, were in a sad condition ? " 
It seems, he had a mind to tell the world of the foulest idols amongst 
the RomaoB ; and if so, let them thank him for his intelligence vho 
knew it not before. 

Db. Hbyum. — And for the number of their gods, tfiey &11 extremely 
short of that infinite multitude which St Augustine finds amongst the 
Bomans ; our author naming only three, (which he calls " gods para- 
mount,") that is to say, Belinus, Andate, and Diana. 

FcLlER. — If tbey had only three goda, tbey had two too nuny. 
However, it will appear, that these were only (as the author phrsseth 
them) " paramount/' 

That tbey fell not (to use the doctor's words) " extremely short" 
(a virtuous extreme) of the Romans in their idolatry, may thus be 
proved :— 

They that hod idols almost exceeding the Egyptians in namber, 
fell not much short of the Romans : 

But the ancient Britons almost exceeded the Egyptians in number 
of idols : 

Therefore they fell not much short of the Romans. 

The major is plain in Scripture, often complaining of the idols 
of Egypt ; as slso in human wiiters, Juvenal jeering the Egyptians 
for being over-stocked with sucb kind of cattle, whose gods (leeks 
and onions) did commonly grow in their gardens. 

The minor are the very words of grave Oildas, the most ancient 
British writer, flourishing anno Domini 560 : Portenta pani numero 
^ffl/ptiaea vittcentia. Where, in few words, we have the nume- 
rosity and monstrosity of the British idols. Namerotitif, *' almost 
exceeding the Egyptians ;" momtrottty, colled portmU, mis-shapen 
antics of prodigious deformity. 

* '•TboMwcceDot thaaameiof ncbpenspi at olyecu w ven mrilij of tAonOtm, 
bnt they wero tmLw Ihe penonifleatloiu of the terf crimw in which the wonijippen 
aemadma de«ghl«d la iddalge." This It one o( thois wga nmirti, tbt wbola lbn« 
•f icblch U uot perceWed M ths Snt gUnee. — Edit. 



Da. Hbymn.— When therefore Oildas tells ns of the encieDt Bri- 
tons, that in ihe uamber of their gods they had almost exceeded 
Egypt, (portenta pteni numero JEgypliaea vincentia, in that authoi'a 
language,) he most be ondetstood with reference to the times in 
which he lived, if hen all the Roman nhble had been thrust npon them ; 
and not as s)>eakiiig of the times of their first conreruon. 

FuLLEK. — Batit yro imperio, "MirsT is for a king;" and 
seeing the doctor and I are both kings alike, I return, *' He miat 
not be so understood ; * as to any judicious and indifferent reader 
vill appear. 

For the clearing hereof, I nil! present and translate the words 
of Gildas, with what precedelh and followeth them, conducing efTec- 
toally to the true understanding of this clause controverted. I use 
the first and best printed edition, set forth by Polydore Virgi), 1525, 
and dedicated to Culhbert Tunstal, then the learned bishop of Lon- 
don. Only, because I suspect that some readers will be out of 
breath in goiug along with the long-winded style of Oildas, (the 
excusable fault of the age he lived in,) I crave leave to divide liis 
long and entire sentence, for the better understanding thereof, into 
several parcela, without the least addition thereto, or alteration 

GuDAS, JUlo primo. Gildas, fiist leaf. 

Iffitiir omittetu pritcoi iUot, Omilting, therefore, those old 

eommune»qite cum omnibu* gett- errors, and common (to the Bri- 

tibita, errorett quibw ante ad- tons) with other nations, to 

tentum Chrifti in came omne which all mankjnd was tied and 

iumanum genua obltgabatur ad- fettered before the coming of 

ttrictum. Chnst in the flesh. 

Neo enumeram patriae por- Nor reckoning up those very 

terUaiptadiabolicapwni numero devilish porlenls of our own 

j^gyptiaca vincentia, quorum country, almost exceeding those 

nonnttUa UneameutU adkuc de- of Egypt in number; some 

Jwfnibui intra ee/ extra deserta whereof we, with frowning eyes, 

mcenia lolito more rigentia, tor- do still behold, drawn with de- 

vi$ vaUilna intuemur. formed shapes within or without 
our desert walls. 

Ne^te nomiruUim in^mttam Nor calling upon by name the 

monte> ipsos, aut colU», td fiu- mcuntains themselves, or hills, 

vios, (olim exitiabilea, nunc or rivers, (in limes past deadly, 

veri humanis utibut utiles,) qui- now profitable to msn*B use,) on 

but ditinue honor a avco tunc which divine honour was then 

p<y>ulo cumuiabatur. heaped up by the blind people. 

Et tacent vetuttoi iimnanium And passing over in silence 


tyrannoram anntu, qui in aliit the aninent years of those vast 
ionffi pogitit regioniinu vulgati tyrants, which are commonly 
aunt; ita vt Porphyriut, rabidut spoken of in other bt-dUtant 
orimUatia adtereut eedetiam countries ; so tliat Porphyrins, 
eanit, demetaia mm ae xanitaiia (that raging dog of the east 
<fy£} h4)6 atiam adnect&ret, Bri- against the cliuich,) in the 
fewni'a, iaquiem, fertilii pro- style of his madness bnd vanity, 
tineia ttfrannorum. addeth this also : " Britain," 

suth he, "aihiitfnl province of 
lUa tani&m proferre eonaior I vill only endeavour publicly 
in vudium, qats Umporibui to proffer such evils, as she (Bri- 
Somanorum intperatornm et tain) in the times of the Ro- 
paaa ett, et oHit intulit eieibut man empeiors both suffered in 
et lotiff^ poritis, mala. herself, and impressed on other 

people placed for off- 
See here this prolix sentence of Gildas, built (aa t may say) five 
stories high : the four first are of privation or preterition, — of wlint 
he will not meddle with ; the fifth and last, of position, — whereon 
he vould insist. He would not reckon the British errors common 
with others, nor patrim portmta, "the portentive idols of their 
country," which plainly dccidclh the thing in controversy, — that 
those their idols were indigenw, non advenm, '* natives, not 
foreignere," of British od^nation, not Roman euperinduction. 
His method plainly proveth, that these subjects which he declineth 
to treat of, were all of them precedaneous to the Romans coming 
into Britain, whence he be^nneth his History. I mention not 
the marginal note of Polydore Virgil, (placed over against tlie 
words of Qildas,) Veterum Britannorum tana religio, " The vain 
religion of the old Britons." The rest of hie testimony we leave 
lying in the deck, and it will not be long before we shall oiake use 

Db. Hetlin.— But whether their idols were more or fewer, oor 
author is resolved on Diana for one: though whether this were a 
British deity, may be more than questioned, whose temple was built in 
or near the place where St. Paul's now stands, as our learned anti- 
quaries do acknowledge. 

FvLLEB.— The Animadvertor doth confess, that the Britons did 
wonhip Diana. But whether she was one of the latter brood of 
idols, brought in by the Romans at their conquest, or liatchcd long 
before amongst the Britons as their own country-goddess, is the 
question. I am confident in the latter. 
2 A 2 



Tbe Brilish storiea tell ua, that Brutus, (eome hundred of yean 
before the Romans arrived here,) being upon his sea-voyage to seek 
his fortune, repaired to the temple of Diana, in an island called 
Largetia ; and, there addressing himself to her temple, vas, in a 
dream, not only instructed in the manner of her sacrifices and 
ritual services, but also directed to an island in the vest, now Bri- 
tain, wliere his posterity should fix themaelTcs in liappineRS. And 
that this passeth for current amongst the Welsh, I report myself to 
their learned gentry, the proper judges thereof. 

Let me add this passage from the pen of as great an antiquary, 
as any Wales now dolh enjoy :^ 

" As for the name of Diana, I do conceive that she was called 
Dain in our language ; and I have many histories of our nation, that 
seem to make no question of it. To this day in Wales, fat mar- 
ketable cattle are called guartheg deinol ; that is to say, * Diana's 
cattle,* or, ' cattle fit to be sacrificed,' &c. And I am more than con- 
fident, there is no man living can put any other interpretation upon 
this word deinol ; it must be an adjective of f^ain, and dain hath 
no other signification in our language, than the name of Diana." 

2. Db. Heylin.— (This temple of Diana in London,} aaith he, 
" rendereth their conceit not alu^ther unlikely, who will have Lon- 
don BO called from Llan-Dian, which signifieth, in British, * the tem- 
ple of Diana.' '. — A conceit, whosesoever it was, not altogether so likely 
neither as the author makes it. 

Fuller.— No cautiousness of proof against capliousness. I 
called it but a " conceit ; "" I said not that it was true ; yea, my 
words left an insinuation of unlikeliness to an indiflferent reader. 
But, seeing the Animadvertor is so hard-hearted to an innocent 
conceit, I shall hereafter love it the better. 

Dr. Heylin. — A conceit, (London from Llan-Dian,J whosesoever 
it was, not altogether go likely neither as the author makes it. For 
though the Britons, being well stored with woods and venison, possibly 
might have a hunting goddess amongst the rest ; yet, certainly, she was 
not called by the name of Diana, tilt tbe Roman conquest and planta- 
tions, before which time this raty had the name of Ix)ndoii, (or Lon- 
dinium,) as we read in Tacitus. The name and sacri6ces of Diana 
were not originally British, but of Boman race, as the great temple is 
or near the place where St. Paul's now stands was of their foundation. 
The BritonF, worshipping Apollo by tbe name of Belinus, as both 
Camden * and our author say they did, must be supposed to have 
anotlier name for Diana also, and were more likely to have called her 
by the name of Artemis, her old Qrecian name, or by some other 

• Cahdin, In Middl«»i. 



of as neur a rcBemblance to it, as Beliniu was to that of Bel in the 
eftitem countries. Assuredly, if that great city had receired its name 
fix)m Diana's temple, the Welsh, being so tenacious of their ancient lan- 
guage, would have had some remembrance of it ; n ho to this day call 
it lAmdayn, and not Ltan-Dian, according to the new cAuceit which 
our author speaks of. Bnt of this enough. 

FoLLEE. — Yea, indeed, too much ! So may you say, '* A sur- 
feit is enough." " Whosesoever this conceit was :" — I had thought 
the Animadvertor could not have been ignorant thereof, being 
no meaner a man than Mr. Selden. 

This learned antiquary, after he had alleged some verses out of 
Robert of Gloucester, deriving the name of London, quasi Lud'i 
totcn, from Lud, he proceedeth as followeth, in Lis noles on the 
eighth song in Polyolbion, page 126: — "Judicious reformers of 
&bulous report, I know, have more serious derivations of the name ; 
and, seeing conjecture is free, I could imagine it might be called at 
first Lhan-Dien, that is, ' the temple of Diana,'' as Lhan-Detei, 
tAan-Stej^n, Lhan-Padem Vaur, Lhan- Vair, that is, St. Dewy's, 
St, Stephen's, St. Patem the great, St. Mary's, (and Verulam is, by 
H. Lhuid, derived from Ver-Lhan, that is, ' the church upon the 
liver Ver,') with divers more sucli places in Wales : and so after- 
wards by strangers turned into Londinium, and the like ; for that 
Diana and her brother Apollo (under the name of Belin) were two 
great deities amongst the Britons." 

If the Animadvertor hath a mind to enter the list with Mr. 
Selden, and have a venue with him to try whose skill is most and 
weapon best, he may, if he pleaseth. 

3. Dn. Hbylin. — Now to fecilitate this great work of their conver- 
uon, Camden and Godwin, two great antiquaries, hare alleged one 
reason, which is not allowed of by onr author ; and our author hath 
alleged another reason, which none can allovr of but himself. The 
reason alleged by the two great antiquaries, is, that " the Druids did 
instruct the Britons in the knowledge of one only Ood," which, ques- 
tionless, was a great step toward tbcir conversion. Druidtt unum ette 
Deum temper inculcSrunl, saith our author's margin. But this he 
reckoneth a mistake, and thus charitably wisheth thereupon; namely, 
" May tlieir mistake herein be as freely foi^ven them, as I hope and 
desire that the charitable reader will, with his pardon, meet those 
unvoluntary errors which in this work by me shall be committed." 
(" Church-History," vol, i. p. 6.) ^Vhether all the errors of our 
author be involuntary, or not, (for I grant that some of them may be 
such,) will be seen hereafter. 

Fuller.— In good time, Sir. But till this " hereafter" cometh, 
"judge not, lest you be judged;" and think charitably, that a 
Christian will not willingly, wittingly, and wilfully lun into errore. 



Dr. Hm.iN.~But whether thoM two leanied pens were mirtalttft 
01 not, flhall be now examined. I conceire deaAj, that they ware not 
mistaken in it, it being, Eint, improbable, if not impowble, that two 
men of BOoh parta and leaising, and of auch eminent integrity in all 
their writtngi, should rrait a propoution, or position rather, which they 
have no ground for. 

Fdller.— They were learned pens indeed, as ever our nation 
bied, in their kind of atudieB ; and great antiquaries. But only 
" the Ancient of Days" is omniicienl and infallible. (Dan. vii. 9.) 
Aod I am confident, snch was their Ingenuity, that they would 
rather be thankful to, than angry, with any who, with due respect 
to their persons, should discover their mistakes; amongst which, 
this was one, — " that the Druids instructed the Britons in the 
knowledge of one God." 

The contrary doth plainly appear by the testimony of GQdas, 
Utely alleged ; whose words are so Vailed about (as I may say) on 
both sides, by what went before and after that, as they cannot be 
.evaded, they cannot be perverted to other reference, than relating 
unto the religion of the ancient Britons, long before the entrance of 
the Romans into this island ; who, besides a numerous rabblement 
of portentous idols, gave divine honour to mountains, hills, and 
rivers. Nothing can be more diametrically opponte to the wonhip 
of one God, than such gross and generally-diSused polytheism. 

Add to the authority of Gildas that of Origen, thus writing in his 
fourth homily on Ezekiel : — Confitentur et miterabila Judeei keee 
de Christ prcetmtiA prwdieari ; t«d gtulii ignorant personam, am 
videant impleta qws dicta sunt. Quaado enim terra Britanntai 
ante adrentum Chritti in unius Dei contetttit rdigionem f Quando 
terra Maurorum, <S-c. 

Alljudicioos readers easily understand this interrogation, " Wlien 
did the land of Britain, before the coming of Christ, consent in the 
religion of one GodP" I say, all do understanil, that this his 
question, asked and lefl unanswered, amounteth unto a very strong 
negation ; and that, before the coming of Christ, Britain was divided 
into the worshipping of many gods. 

Dr. Hbtlin. — And, Secondly, our author tells of the Druids, that 
they were philosophers, divines, and lawyers, to the rest of the 
Tritons; and if philosophers, they might, by their long study in the 
book of nature, and their industrious inqoiiyinto natoral cansep, att&in 
unto the knowledge of that One and only Supematnral Cause, (as 
others of the heathen philosophers in their several countries,) from 
which the works of nature had their first original. And of some other 
the old philosophers it is said expressly by Hinntius,* that they had 

■ Dg,l,r..cbyGOOglC 


■poken M dirinelf of the things of Qod ut qiuvu arhUretHr aut Huho 
Ckrutiattot pkilotopko* ette, attt philotapkot Juit$e j^tn tunc Chrit- 
lianot. Bo little was the difierenoe in that particular, between tboae 
old philosophers and the primitiTe Christians I For though they did 
admit a multitude of inferior gods, topical in respect of countries, and 
tutelar in respect of particular persons; yet, in the middle of that 
daricness, they discemod one supreme Qod over all the rest ; Tlar^p 
eatfrnrr* dtorrt, as the Orecinnn ■ Homtnam tator atque Deorum, as 
the Latins — call him.* And though they were mistaken in the name 
of that Sapreme Power, whom generally they entituled by the name of 
Jupiter, yet they did well enough agree in giving him the supreme 
power orer all the world. Et qui Juvem principem oolunt fallunlitr 
in nomine, ted de eA potetlale comeniiunt, as my avihor hath it-f 
Nor did those old philosophers keep the great truth unto themselvei^ 
like a candle in a dark lanthom, or *' hid under a bushel ;" but placed 
it like a great light on the top of a mountain, that all the people might 
discern it ; who thereupon, lifting their hands unto the heaTens, did 
frequently make their addresses but to one Ood only, saying in com- 
mon speech unto one another, that God was great, and Ood was true, 
and, " If Qod permit." Of which, my author (the same Christian 
advocate) seems to make a question ; Fulgi iste naluralit termo eil, 
an Chriitiani eonfitenlit oratiofX that is tosay, "Whether those 
expressions saTonred not rather of the Christian, than the vntgnr 
heathen ? " And hereupon I may conclude in the behalf of the Druids, 
(or rather of those learned pens who af&rm it of them,) that, being 
philosophers in study, and divines by office, and rery eminent in their 
times in both edacities, they might as well iustnict the people in the 
knowledge of one only Qod, as any other of the heathen sages, either 
Greeks or Romans. The reason alleged by these great antiquariea 
being thus made good, we next proceed to the examination of that 
which is produced by oar author. 

FoLLEB. — In this long banngue, I know not what the Animad- 
veitor aims st : this I know, he hits not me, nor allegeth any thing 
in opposition to what I have vritten. If he desireth only to prove, 
that the refined heathens worshipped one god above all the rest, 
he shall not only have my free consent, but the adjcction of this 
my symbol thereunto. 

I conceive, that the Pagans adored the essence of God under the 
name of Jupiter: and his attributes under other titles, — wisdom, ot 
Apollo; omnipresence, swiftness, of Mercury; power, of Mars; 
b^ty, of Venus; providence over the seo, Neplsne; winds, 
.^^Itu; cattle. Pan, &c. Yet can I not see, bow Uiis can eicose 
them from being foul iddaters, seeing the mora] commnndment 
doth not say, " Tliou shalt not have other gods in equal degree of 
worship with me i" but, '* Thou sholt not have other gods before 
* Viicii-ti ^«ttf. Ub. 1. t HiNUTlui ViLis in Oclmla. 1 Idtm, Hid. 

, Goo^^lc 


me," Eiod. xx. 3 ; uid the AnimadTertoT knovetk irell, thftt the 
origiDal importetb, coram me, that is, " Thon shah have none oth«r 
in my sight or presence.^ 

Now, for quietness* sake, let the result of this long dkcouise (so 
far as I can underetand) be granted him, and it amounts to no more 
than to put the Britons in the same form with the Grecians; 
instructed by their Druids in the worship of one God, as well and as 
fat as the Grecians were in the same lesson by their philosophers. 
Now, what the Grecians held and did in tLis point will appear by 
the practice of the Athenians, whose city was the mistress of Greecs, 
staple of learning, and palace of philosophers ; arkd how well tbe 
AUienians votshipped one God, we have from the infallible witness 
of St. Paul, ^' whose spirit was stirred within him, whilst he saw the 
city wholly given to idolatry," Acts xvii. Ifl. Whence it will follow, 
that the Britons, form-fellows with the Grecians, were wholly gifea 
to idolatry : which is as much as, and more than, I said before. . 

And now the reader may judge what progress the Animadvertor 
hath made in confuting what I have written ; yea, less than the 
beast Pigritia in Brazil, which, as he telleth us elsewhere, * goeth 
not so &r in fourteen days as one may throw a stone. Yea, our 
adversBry hath not gone at all, (save backward,) and if he doth 
not mend his pace, it will be late before he cometK to his lodging. 

Here let tne mind the Animadvertor, that lay Cbmch-History 
thoB begioneth : " That we may the more freely and fully pay the 
tribute of our thanks to Gods goodness for the gospel whidk we 
now enjoy, let us recount the sad condition of the Britons, our pre- 
decessors, before the Christian bith was preached unto them." If 
therefore the Animadvertor by his tedious discourse, endeavonrin^ 
to un-idolalrize the Britons as much as he could ; I say, if hereby 
he hath hindered or lessened any man's paying of his thanks to 
Ood, he hath done a thankless office both to God and man therein. 
Our author proocedeth,— 

4. Or. Hbviin. — Our author, who telleth us, that "it fiunli- 
tated the entrance of the gospel hither, that lately the Roman con- 
quest had in part civilised the south of this island, by transporting 
colonies, and erecting of dties there.' (Ch. Hist. vol. i. p. 7-) Than 
which, there could not any thing be said more difierent from the truth 
of story, or from the time of that conversion which vre have in band ; 
pwfonned (as all our later writers — and amongst them our author 
himself— have affirmed from Oildaa, who lived in the fourth century 
of the Ghristiau church) tempore ttimmo Tiberii Catarii, " toward 
the latter end of the reign of Til>eiius Cesar ;" that is to say, about 

" UIODcuin," p, 800. 

, Goo^^lc 


tbirtj-KTen jean after ChrUt's nsttvitj ; at what time the Roman* 
Itad neither erected any one latj, nor planted auj one colony, in the 
Bouth |>art8 of the island. For thoagh Julius Ceesar, in pursnance 
of his Gallic conqnest, had attempted this island, crossed the Thames, 
and pierced as far as Verulamium, in the country of the Cattieuchloni ; 
(now Hertfordshire;) yet, either finding how difficult a worlc it was 
like to prove, or having business of more moment, he gave over the 
enterprise, resting contented with the honour of the firet discoreiy; 
el otlenditte poliut quAm IradidUsc, as we read in Tacitus. Nothing 
done after this in order to the conquest of Britain, until the time of 
Claudius. Augustus would by no means be persoaded to the under- 
taking; and much less Tiberius, in whose last years the gospel was first 
preached in Brittun, as before was stud, Comiliutit id divut Augtuiut 
vocabat, TiberiuM pracipui.' And though Caligula was once resolved 
on the expedition, yet, being never constant to his restdutions, he soon 
gave it over; leaving the honour of this conquest to his uncle 
ClandiuB, who next succeeded in the empire ; and being invited into 
Britain bjr a discontented party amongst the natives, reduced some 
part thereof into the form of a Roman province. Of this, see Tacitus 
at lai^, in "the Life of AgrScola.' By which it will appear most 
dearly, that there was neither city of the Roman erection, nor colony 
of their plantation, till the time of Claudius ; and consequently no such 
facilitating of the work, by either of those means which our author 
dreams of> But, from the Jintc, proceed we to the authors, of this first 
conversion ; of which thus our author — 

FtiLLKB. — In the First place, know, reader, tbat Mr. Burtoi], in 
his late learned notes on Antoninus, jusljfieth, that Julius Cesar 
did colonize (whatever the Animadvertor saith to the contrary) 
some part of this land ; othervise, his whole conquest would have 
unravelled after his departure, and bis bucccssoib had had their 
work to begin a&esh. 

Secondly. I say not, " the /Iral entrance,"' but, " the entrance 
of the Gosper' was facilitated by the Roman conquest. The 
entmnce of the Gospel into this island was so far From being done 
in an instant, or, gimul et temel, that it vaa not, rei uniia secuU, 
*' the product of one age i'" but was successively done, vsakofi^pms 
xai voXurpairEec, " at sundry times, and in divers mannera.*" So 
that this extensive entrance of the Christian religion, gradually 
insinuating itself, took up a century of years, from the latter end of 
Tiberius, and bo forwards. 

Christianity entered not into this island like lightning, but like 
light. None can behold this essay thereof in the time of Tiberius, 
otherwise than a morning-star; some forty years after, the day 
dawned ; and lastly, under king Lucius, (that Uu^-maure, or " the 
great light,") the sun of religion may be said to arise ; before which 

^ Ticm'i in Vild jtgrievU. 



time, tbe Bouth of this island wu anffidently colonized bj tiie 
Romans, whereby commerce uid dvilitj udiered Christianity into 
Britun. Yet, to clear my words, not From untruth in themselres, 
but mistakes in others, and to avoid all appearance of felsehood, it 
shall be altered (God willing) in the next edition : " It facilitated 
the entrance and propagation of the gospel here,"' &c. 

5, Dr. Hbtlin. — " Faraons the Jesuit mtunlj stickleth for the 
apostle Peter to have first preached the gospel here." (Ch. UisL 
Tol. i. p. 8.) And our author doth as mainly stickle against it. The 
reason whidi induced Parsons so to stickle in it, was, as onr author 
thinks and telleth us, page 9, " to infer on obligation of this island to 
the See of Rome." And to exempt this island from the obligation, 
onr author hath endearoured to disprore the tradition. 

FnLLEK. — That the Jesuit furiously driveth on that design, 
appesreth to any that peruse his works ; and your author conceiveth 
his own endeavours lawful and useful in stopping his full career, and 
disobliging the Church of England from a debt as unjustly pre- 
tended, as vehemently prosecuted. 

" Yoor uthOT to hi* pnJH doth pudon cnTS | 
It oM deaplwd, U> fratoa enoOBb (lull haic." 

It is therefore but bard measure^ fbr you to requite his good 
■ inten^ons (if failing in success) with contempt and reproach. 

Dr. Hbtuk. — Wb^eas, indeed, St Fetet's preaching in tbis island, 
(if he were the first that preached here,) in the time of Tiberius, must 
be before his preaching in the city of Borne, to which be came not till 
the reign of the emperor Claudius. And thereupon it followeth, by 
the Jesuit's logic, that the Britons, by sparing their apostle to preach at 
Some, did lay an obligation upon tluit city, but received none firam it. 

Fuller. — Yea, but if Simeon Metaphrastes • be to be believed, 
(on whose testimony Parsons principally relietb,) being the self-same 
author whom the Animadvertor within few lines hereafter doth so 
highly commend and extol, St. Peter preached here, not befwe, 
but long after, his being at Rome ; and but a little before bis 
death ; namely, in the twelfth year of Nero Cebsst. 

Db. Heitlin. — Or, granting that St. Feter had first preac^ied at 
Rome, yet would this draw upon ns no such engagement to the pope 
and the chnich of Rome, as our author fears ; and other Qmnan 
nations, by Boni&ce, Willibald, Willibad, Willibiod, and Swibot, 
(English Saxons all,) might or did draw the like dependence of those 
churches npoa this of England. 

* S. MetathraSTM, Cbmrntnl. ii Pitro el Paidh ad diem 39 Junii. 



Fuller. — ^The proportion, I confeas, is good tad Tell^nmiidfld: 
but I answer, Great the difference betwixt the natures of England 
and Rome. England never pteteoded superiority over otbei 
churches ; which Rome doth, prosecuting even shadowy pretences 
with all violence. What the talentrhiding servant said of his mas- 
ter, may be justly said of modern Rome : " She reapeth where she 
hath not stnwed ; " demanding q^am, where she never bestowed 
beneficium, and requiring duty where she never conferred cour- 
tesy. Rome, therefore, being no fair creditor, but so cruel an 
extortioner, I coAccive my pains well employed to quit England 
from a debt of obligation, unjustly exacted of her by Parsons the 
Jesuit, on the pretence of St. Peter^s preaching here. 

Dr. Hetltn.— So that, this fear being overblown, we will consider 
somewhat further of St Peter's first preaching in this island, not as 
delivered by tradition firom the church of Borne, which is suspected 
to have pl»ded their own interests in it ; but as affirmed poritirely 
by the Greek Menolc^es, and in the works of Simeon Metaphrastes, 
an approved Greek author. Of the Menologies (though vouched by 
Camden to this purpose) our author takes no notice at all, but lets 
the wtight of his displeasure &U on Metaphrastei. 

FuLLEK. — The best way to over-blow this fear is, to confute 
the five aignments, alleged by Parsons, for St. Peter's preaching 
here ; whicb, I hope, is done eKctnally by me in my " Ohurch- 
History," where I follow the Jesuit verbatim, in answering to his 
reasons. And this is the reason that I took no notice of the Greek 
Menologies, becanse not mentioned by Parsons : whence I collect 
that nther he had never seen them, (which is very improbable,) or 
else he conceived that no great belief was to be given unto them, 
or advantage thereby to be gotten for his cause. 

6. Db. Heylim — Of whom he tellelh us, « Metaphrastes is an 
anthor of no credit, as Bamnius himself doth confess." (Ch. Hist. 
voL i. p- 9.) But, First, Baronius himself makes no such confesnon ; 
that which our author tells na from him being only this, t» aliit muUit 
ibi ah ipm potilit, errare aim cerium eit : that is to say, " that he 
bath ened in many things by him delivered." Assuredly if to '* err 
in many thing) " delivered in so great a work as that of Smeon Me- 
taphrastes, may forthwith be conceived sufficient to make an author 
of DO credit, God bless not only our Historian, bat Baronius himself, 
from being held authors of no credit ; in both whom there are many 
errors not possible to be reconeiled to the truth of story. 

Fuller. — Three is a perfect number, let therefore the Animad- 
vertor be put in also ; partly, to make up a complete company ; 
partly, that he may have the benefit of his own jeer-piayere to 



Buoniae being desd, to pny for bim, is popery ; and lo " take 
God^E name in vain,^ (to jeer ns both,) is pro&neDess. The AnJ- 
madrcrtor who now inserts, "God bless," when it might have been 
omitted, will omit it when it should be inserted ; as, God willing, 
I shall take notice of in due time and place hereafter. 

Dr. Hetlih. — Bat, Secondly, as Baroniua did not, so be could not, 
say, that Metaphrastes vras an author of no credit : the man being not 
onlj pions, but learned also, fer the times wherein he lived ; honoured 
as a sunt in the Greek Menologies, on the,27th of Norember ; and 
graced with a Foneial Oration hy Uichael Psellns, a renowned scholar ; 
highly extolled by Balsamon for his pains and industry in this present 
■wqA, and no less magnified by the Fathers in the Council of Florence, 
anno 1436. All which had never set snch an estimate upon him in 
their several times, had he been "an author of no credit,' as our 
author makes him. 

FuLLEK.— I shall hereafter have an higher esteem for Metft- 
phiastes. However, to return to the words of Baronius, which (in 
the last note) gave the occasion of this contest : — /» aiiit mtdtU 
iBi ab ipio potitit, errare earn eatium ea : " It is certain that he 
hath erred in many things there delivered by him:" the An i- 
madvertor in his tiaoslation omitteth *' there," the most emphatical 
word in the whole sentence ; seeing, granting Metaphrastes a good 
author in other things, he is erroneous i» tiit particuiar. 

7- Db. Hetlut. — I bad now ended with St. Peter, but that I find 
him appear in a vision lo king Eldward the Confessor, and telling him, 
that he had preached the gospel in Britain, occamoning thereby the 
foundation of the abbey of St. Peter in Westminster, To which 
our author makes this answer : " To this vision pretended of Peter, 
we oppose the certain words of St. Paul : ' Neithergive heed to &blee,' 
1 Tim. iv. 1." 

What a pity is it that this apparition was not made, and the same 
tale told over again, to Thomas Fuller of Hammetsmith, that so it 
might have found seme credit vnth our author, though with nobody 

Fuller.— Nay, rather, what a pity was it that tliia apparition 
of St. Peter was not made unto bis name-sake Peter, (here the 
Animadvertor,) and then all had been authentic indeed. 

Dr. Hbylin. — ^For of this Thomas Fuller our author . telleth us, 
(and telleth it in confirmation of some miracles done by king Henry 
TI. af^er his decease,) that, being a very honest man, be had happened 
into the company of some who had stolen some cattle, for which he 
vras condemned and executed ; and, b^ng on the top of the ladder, 
king Harry TI. appeared unto bim, and eo ordered the matter that 


he was sot Btrangled with the rope, bat preseired alire ; and, finallf, 
that, in gratitude of so great a benefit, he repaired to that king's tomb 
in Chertsey-abbej, and there presented hi« humble thanlu unto him 
for that great deliverance. There being as good authors for that appa- 
rition of St Peter, as for this of St. Henry, vel neulrum Jiammit ure, 
vel lire duot ; " either let both be burned for felse, or believed for 

FuLLEK. — Let the echo both in Latin and English answer for 
me, Ure duoi, " Bum both," for a brace of notorious falsehoods ; 
and see wfao will shed a tear to quench the fire. As for the appa- 
rition to Thomas Fuller of Hannnersmith, seeing afterwards the 
Animadvertor twitteth me therewiUi, we will, till then, defer oar 
answer tbeteunto. 

8. Dr. HETLiN.^Less oppoution meets the preaching of St. Joseph 
of Arimathea, though it meeteth some. For, notwithstanding that 
this tradition be as general, as uniTersally received, as almost any 
other in the Christian chuich ; yet our author, being resolved to 
let fly at sU, declares it for a piece of " novel superstition, disguised 
with pretended antiquity : " better provided, as it seems, to dispute this 
point than the ambassadors of Castile, when they contended for prece- 
dency with those of England in the Council of Basil ; who had not 
any thing to object against this tradition of Joseph's preaching to the 
Britons, although the English hod provoked them, by confuting their 
absurd pretences for St James's preaching to the Spaniards. 

F<ULi.EB. — I never denied the historical ground-work, but the 
febulous Tornish, of Arinnathean Joseph here preaching. My words 
run thus :— " Yet because the Norman charters of Glastonbury 
refer to a succession of many ancient chartere, bestowed on that 
chnrch by several Saxon kings, as the Saxon charters relate to Bri- 
tish grants in intuition to Joseph's being there ; we dare not wholly 
deny the substance of the story, though the leaven of Monke