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About Google Book Search Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web at |http : //books . google . com/ 13/^f5 7^.5 ■ROM THE FUND BEQUEATHED BY3 ARCHIBALD GARY COOLIDGE A'BI887 PROFESSOR OF HISTORY 1908-1928 DIRECTOR OF THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY I9IO-I928 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE . iX0. \ / HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE PRESENT DAY. BY JOHN MACKINTOSH, LL.D. A UTHOR OF " THE HISTORY OF CIVILISA TION IN SCOTLAND " " TH£ STORY OF SCOTLAND " " THE REVOLUTION OF 1688 AND VISCOUNT DUNDEE " " THE VALLEY OF THE DEVERON," Av., ^c. ABERDEEN TAYLOR AND HENDERSON LITHOGRAPHERS AND PRINTERS TO THE QUEEN MDCCCXCV. ^^"i^ll .z ^...:^i-v>l<X (U^^^A^ THE «IGHT OF TRANSLATION RESERVED. / CONTENTS. Chapter I. INTRODUCTORY SKETCH. Wateished^Source of the Dee — Glen Dee — Course of the River — P*«e. Aspect of the Valley— Tributaries of the Dee — Soil— Climate —Plan of the Work 1-9 Chapter II. TRACES OF PREHISTORIC INHABITATION. Early Race — Stone Age People — Chambered Cairns — Earth- houses — Cremation — Urn Interment — Hill Forts— Crannogs — Stone Weapons — Condition of the People . . . 10 — 19 Chapter III. ESTUARY— CULTS. Harbour of Aberdeen — Diversion of the Dee — Improvements — Old Bridge of Dee — Lands of Pitfodels — Deeside Railway — Cults - . . 20— sa Chapter IV. BANCHORY— ARDO—HEATHCOT. Lands of Banchory granted to the Abbey of Arbroath — Subsequent Proprietors — Banchory House — Chuich — Ardo Estate — Ardo House — Heathcot House — Shannabum — Auchlunies. 34 — 44 Chapter V. MURTLE— EDGEHILL-CULTER HOUSE- PAPER WORKS. Lynwood — Bieldside — Murtle House — Lands of Murtle-Edgehill, Dr Webster— Camphill—Culter House— Lands of Culter— Peterculter Church— Village of Culter— Paper Works— Snuflf Manufactory— William M'Combie 45 — 65 Chapter VI. MARYCULTER— DURRIS. The Knights Templars at Maryculter- Blairs— St. Mar/s College — Marybank — Kingcausie House — Lands of Kingcausie — Maryculter House — General Gordon — Royal Forest — Crown vi CONTENTS. Lands — Durris, Families connected with it — Durris House — ?■««• Kirktown, Church of Durris 56 — 67 Chaffer VII. IRVINES OF DRUM— HISTORIC INCIDENTS. Scenery — Loch of Drum — Old Church of Drumoak — ^William Irvine, and Robert Bruce — Feud between the Irvines and Keiths— Battle of Harlaw— Sir Alexander, Battle of Pinkie — The Irvines involved in the Covenanting Struggle — ^Drum Castle taken — Change in the Succession — Alexander Forbes Irvine, Francis H. F. Irvine— Drum Castle. . . . 68—77 Chapter VIII. PARK— BURNETTS OF LEYS— CRATHES CASTLE. Lands of Park, House — Andrew Penny— ^James Penny — Tradition of the Burnett Family — Grant of Lands to Alexander Burnett — Gilbert — Robert, Lord Crimond — Sir Thomas, a Cove- nanter, and a Patron of Learning — The Baronet's Daughter — Sir Robert, Sir Thomas— Crathes Castle— Court Book of Lejrs — Loch of Leys — Normandikes . . . - . 78 — 86 Chapter IX. BANCHORY-TERNAN- SCENERY— BURGH- REMINISCENCES. Scenery— St. Teman, Old Church— Kirktown— New Village— Wood-floating — Burgh of Banchory — Dr. George Campbell — Dr. Francis Adams, Dr. Andrew Leith Adams — James Cuthbert Hadden Chapter X. VALLEY OF THE FEUGH— STRACHAN— BIRSE. Bridge of Feugh— Old Castle of Tilquhillie— Walter Ogston, Thomas, Janet — Douglas of Tilquhillie — Invery House — Village of Strachan — Oiim o* Mounth Road — Birse, Church, Graveyard, Free Church — Forest of Birse — Lands of Finzean, House, Farquharsons of Finzean — Ballc^e — Balfour— Eminent Natives of Birse 94—104 Chapter XI. BLACKHALL— KINCARDINE O'NEIL— LUMPHANAN. Blackball House — Inchmarlo— Glassel— Campfield — Opening of the Aberdeen Water Works — Village of Torphins — Craig- myle House, Lands — Leamey House, Innes of Raemoir — CONTENTS. vii Findiack House — Potarch Bridge — Borrowstone House, P*8c- Old Hamlet of Borrowstone — Scenery — ^Village of Kincar- dine O'Neil, Barony of Kincardine O'Neil, Old Church, New Churdi — Kincardine Lod^e — Carlogie House — Dess- wood House — Distinguished Natives — Village of Lumphanan — Glenmillan House — Lands of Auchlossan — Auchenhove — Halton, Pitmurchie — Peel Bog — The Houff— Conffict between King Duncan and Macbeth — Malcobn III. and Macbeth, Battle of Lumphanan 106—119 Chapter XII. ABOYNE— GLENTANNER—CULBLEAN. Charlestown of Aboyne — Castle of Aboyne — Old Church — TiUphoundie, Balnacraig, Families connected with it — Glentanner — Smuggling — Sir William Cunliffe Brooks — Mansion House of Glentanner, Chapel — Dinnet Church — John G. Michie — Dee Castle — Ballaterich — Byron— James Neil — ^Dinnet House — Loch Kinnord — Glendavan House — Battle of Culblean — Families associated with Aboyne . . 120^-137 Chapter XIII. TULLICH— BALLATER. Scenery— Cambus o' May — Old Church and Graveyard of Tullich — Francis Farquharson of Monaltrie — Old Village of Tullich Pass of Ballater — Burgh of Ballater — Monaltrie House — Craigendarroch Lodge— Bridge of Ballater— Alex. Troup . 138—146 Chapter XIV. GLENMUICK. Churchyard— Families connected with Glenmuick— Old Castle of Braickley — Ruins of Knock Castle — Traditions associated with it — Birkhall House — Glenmuick House, St. Nathahm's Church — Falls of Muick — Alltnaguibhsaich Lodge — Loch Muick— Glasallt Shiel— Glasallt Falls— Scenery— Loch Dubh — Summit of Lochnagar — Byron .... 147 — 16Z Chapter XV. GLENGAIRN— STRATHGIRNOCK— ABERGELDIE. Scenery — Old Church of Glengaim, Graveyard — Roman Catholic Qiapel — Burial Ground of Dalfieul — Macdonald of Rineaton — Quoad Sacra Church — Old Castle of Gaim — Abergaim — Mining operations — Comdavon Lodge — Polhollick — Strath- gurnock — Craig-na-Ban — Colliecriech Wood — Geallaig — Micras— Castle of Abergeldie — Families connected with v«i CONTENTS. AbergekUe — Clachantum — Lochnagar Distillery — Easter ?«««. Balmoral— Crathie Churchyard — Old Church oi Crathie, New Church— John Bruce— Alexander Downie — William Blair— Peter Coutts— John Ross 164— leS Chapter XVI. BALMORAL. Statues and Monuments within the Castle Grounds — Prince Albert's Cairn — Families connected with Balmoral — Battle of Falkirk— Earl of Fife— Sir Robert Gordon— The Queen and Prmce Albert— Old Castle of Balmoral— The Royal Domain, Forest, Falls of Garbhallt — Laying the Foundation Stone of the New Castle, Progress of its Erection, Finished — A Fete at Balmoral — Castle of Balmoral — The Queen's Excursions in the Highlands — Her Majesty's Annual Sojourn at Balmoral 169—182 Chapter XVII. SCENERY— INVERCAULD. Site of the Old House of Monaltrie — Carn-na-Cuimhne — Aberarder — Bridge of Invercauld — Invercauld House — The Farquhar- sons a Branch of the Clan Chattan, Original Possessions of this Clan — Farquharson of Invercauld, Donald Farqnhar, Findla Mox — Robert Farquharson— John forced to join Mar's Rising — ^James — ^James Ross Farquharson — Colonel James — Lieutenant Alexander H. Farquharson . . 183 — 190 Chapter XVIII. CASTLETOWN OF BRAEMAR. Craig Clunie— Clunie Cottage— Charter Chest — The Lion's Face — Altdowrie Cottage — Braemar Castle — Old Churchyard, St. Andrew's Chapel — Surroundings of Castletown — Description of the Town— Glen Clunie-Glen Callater . 191—197 Chapter XIX. GLEN QUOICH— INVEREY— GLEN EY— GLEN LUI— MAR FOREST. Aspect of the Valley — Carr Bum — Water of Quoich — linn of Quoich— " Earl of Mar's Punch Bowl "— Corriemulzie Falls — New Mar Lodge — Old Mar Lodge — Village of Inverey — John Farquharson of Inverey — Water of Ey — Glen Ey — Allt Conme Falls— The Colonel's Cave— John Farquharson joined Viscount Dundee — Alltanodhar Shieling — Glen Lui — Falls of Lui— Mar Forest— Deer— linn of Dee— White Bridge— Glen Geldie — Geldie Lodge— Bynack Lodge — Chest of Dee— Glen Geusachan . . . . • .198—210 CONTENTS. ix Chapter XX. EARLDOM OF MAR— EARLS OF MAR. Extent and Chief Seat of the Earldom — Monnaer of Mar — Early Page. Earls of Mar, Ruadri, Morgand, Gratne^, Duncan, William — Thomas, the last Earl of the Celtic Ime — His sister suc- ceeded to the Earldom ; her daughter, Isabel, became Countess of Mar and Garioch ; her unhappy life, tragic, and violent incidents — Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar, exclud- ing the Erskines* Claim — Earldom annexed to the Crown — Erskine's Claims rejected — Members of the Royal Family made Earls of Mar — The period in which there was no Earl of Mar 211—218 Chapter XXI. EARLS OF MAR— RISING OF 1716. The Earldom of Mar and Lordship of Garioch restored to John, Lord Erskine — A long struggle to reclaim the alienated possessions of the Earldom — Efforts of John, second Earl of Mar--John, third Earl— John, fourth Earl of Mar— Charles, fifth Earl of Mar— John, sixth Earl, after the accession of George I., concerted a Rebellion — Meetings of his supporters at Braemar and Aboyne — ^The Standard Raised, and Mar's Army Marched — Arrival of James VIII, — Retreat and Disbandment of the Army — Royal Troops sent into Braemar 219—227 Chapter XXII. DISARMING THE PEOPLE— RISING OF 1745. The People of Braemar subjected to suffering — ^Disarming Acts — Causes of the Rising — Arrival of Prince Charles in the Western Isles — Muster in Glenfinnan — Raising the Standard — Proclamations— Jacobite feeling in Braemar — ^Advance of Charles southward — Capture of Edinburgh — Defeat of General Cope — Prince Charles' difficulties — Braemar and the Valley of the Dee implicated in the Rising — Conclusion . 228 — ^234 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Chapter I. INTRODUCTORY SKETCH. At the outset it seems necessary to indicate some of the general features of the subject, and the method of treating it The watershed of Scotland runs southward from Cape Wrath to the head of Loch Quoich. Thence it turns eastward between Lochs Lochy and Oich ; then sweep- ing round the top of Strathspey and over the hills above the head of Loch Laggan ; thence following a curving southerly course past the west end of the Moor of Rannoch and the Brae Lyon mountains to Crianlarich ; whence across Ben Lomond, and south-eastward over the Campsie Fells into the broad Lowland Valley. The sources of the Spey and the Dee lie on the highest point of the watershed. The widest region of the wildest scenery in Britain is contained in the one hundred square miles of rugged mountain and corry lying between Glen Feshie and Glen Quoich, which comprises the summits of Ben Muich Dhui, Cairngorm, and other mountains, and the great corries of Braeriach and Ben-na-Bhuird. The springs and head streams of the Dee rise from three high mountains on the confines of Aberdeenshire and Inverness-shire, namely, Braeriach, Ben Muich Dhui, B 2 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. and Caim Toul, in the immediate vicinity of each other, and forming the highest mountain-land in Scotland. Two perennial springs of clear water issue from a declivity near the summit of Braeriach, at a height of over 4000 feet above sea level. They unite and form a stream which flows a short distance; and then it descends the rocky face of a great corry — forming a series of beautiful cascades of 1000 feet in height The stream enters a narrow aud rugged ravine, called Glen Garchary, tumbles down through it, and receives other rills in its course. Another stream issues from underneath huge masses of stones and debris of rock, between Ben Muich Dhui and Braeriach, in the hollow of Larig, where several pools are formed. This stream is called the Larig Burn, and runs through an elevated and narrow glen for about a mile and a half, and then joins the Garchary Burn. The united stream is called the Dee, and it flows south- ward along the base of Cairn Toul ; and further on it receives from that mountain the Geusachan Bum. Glen Dee, through which the infant river winds its way, is very narrow, rugged, and deep, bounded on both sides by lofty mountains. These mountains present many features of grandeur and sublimity. The scenery of the region is on a grand scale, consisting of mountain rising above mountain, huge precipices, deep corries, crags and serrated rocks, and large bleached boulders, which vividly recall the echoes of the mighty power of nature. Hogg touched on the region thus : — " Beyond the grizzly clifis which guard The infant rills of Highland Dee, Where hunter's horn was never heard, Nor bugle of the forest bee ; INTRODUCTORY SKETCH. 3 'Mid wastes that dem and dreary lie, One mountain rears its mighty form, Disturbs the moon in passing by, And smiles above the thunderstorm." The Geldie Water, a pretty large stream, rises between the mountains of An Sgarsoch and Cam an Fhidleir, on the confines of the counties of Aberdeen, Inverness, and Perth. It flows through a glen of the same name a distance of twelve miles, and joins the Dee at Dubrach. From this point the Dee flows in an easterly direction, though it winds in many parts of its course. The river runs through or alongside the Parishes of Braemar and Crathie ; Glengaim, Glenmuick, and Tullich, now united into one parish ; Aboyne, Birse, Kincardine O'Neil, Strachan, Banchory-Ternan, Durris, Drumoak, Maryculter, Peterculter, Banchory-Devenick and Nigg. After a winding and beautiful course of over 87 miles the river falls into the sea at Aberdeen. Considered as a whole, the Valley of the Dee is com- paratively narrow ; but the river receives the drainage of a wide and extensive tract of country. On its south side there is a continuous chain of mountains (part of the Grampian range), which reach their greatest elevation at the summit of the far-famed Lochnagar; thence the height of the mountains gradually declines onward to the Girdleness. On the north side, in the upper stretch of the Valley, the mountains are also high; but the con- tinuous mountain-land terminates in the plain of the Moor of Dinnet The Dee emerges from the Highlands by the narrow Pass of Cambus o' May. From this point to the sea at Aberdeen, the northern side of the Valley is 4 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. partly bounded, and often intersected, by hills of no great elevation ; and below Banchory-Teman the ground presents finely-undulated heights, sloping towards the bed of the river. Many glens, passes, and ravines open into the Valley of the Dee, with their fine rippling streams, which con- tribute much to form the exquisite variety and contrast so characteristic of its scenery. The beautifully-diversified series of mountains and hills, glens and streams, crags, rocks, and falls, pine and larch forests, and birch woods, present resplendent scenes when viewed in a fine summer day in all their natural glory. From the confluence of the Dee and the Geldie, the tributary streams of the river generally flow in a direction inclined eastward, which renders some of them of con- siderable length. The principal tributaries of the Dee on the south side of the Valley are the following: — The Water of Ey rises from Ben Uams, and flows through Glen Ey in a northerly direction, with a curve to the east in one part, and after a course of eight miles it falls into the Dee four miles below the confluence of the Dee and the Geldie. The Water of Clunie rises on the Caimwell, and runs through Glen Clunie. It receives the Burn of Baddoch, and four miles further down the Water of Callater, and after a northerly course of about ten miles it joins the Dee below Castletown of Braemar. The Water of Muick issues from a small loch near the mountain of Cairn Taggart. It runs south-east through a narrow and deep ravine, with high precipices on both sides, and dashes against the boulders which strew its bed. It then expands into a loch of considerable extent and striking grandeur. On issuing from the loch it flows m^m INTRODUCTORY SKETCH. 6 north-east a course of about ten miles, and joins the Dee a little above Ballater. Glenmuick is remarkable for the variety and beauty of its scenery. The Water of Tanner rises from the Hare Cairn, and runs in a north-easterly direction through Glentanner a distance of fourteen miles, and enters the Dee about a mile above Aboyne. The Water of Feugh rises on the southern slopes of the parish of Birse, at a height 1 800 feet above sea level, and flows rapidly in an east-north-eastward direction through the Parishes of Birse, Strachan, and a part of Banchory- Ternan. It has a beautiful course of nearly twenty miles, and falls into the Dee below Banchory. The Burn of Sheeoch rises on the high hill of Kerloch, and flows very rapidly a distance of twelve miles, and joins the Dee at the church of Durris. Below this there are several small streams which enter the river on the south side, but they present nothing very peculiar. Turning to the north side of the Valley, the chief tributaries of the Dee are: — The Water of Lui, the Water of Quoich, several small streams^ and the comparatively large Water of Gairn ; but the bums below the mouth of the Gairn are not of much volume, owing to the lower elevation of the stretch of country drained by the river on the north side of the Valley. The Water of Lui rises among the mountains on the east side of Glen Dee, and it is mainly formed of two streams, the Lui Beg and the Deny, which issue from the south and north-east of Ben Muich Dhui. Four miles from their sources the streams unite, and form the Water pf Lui, which then flows in a south-easterly direction through the glen of the same name, a distance of over six miles, and falls into the Dee a little below the Linn. About three miles eastward, the 6 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Water of Quoich rises from two main sources, one on the western extremity and near the summit ofBen-na-Bhuird, and the other from a small loch at the eastern end of the mountain. The two streams unite, and the Quoich flows rapidly over a rocky and stony bed — ^it is remarkable for its narrow gorge and rock cavities. On emerging from its glen, it spreads over a considerable portion of the level haugh in the Valley, and mars its continuity and beauty. The Water of Gairn has its sources from rills which come down from the mountains of Ben Avon and Craigandal. It flows through its glen, in an east-south-eastward direction, a distance of twenty miles, and falls into the Dee a mile and a half above Ballater. Glen Gairn in its upper stretch is rather bleak, bounded by high hills on either side, covered with heath and some patches of grass ; but in its lower portion there are fine grassy pastures and cultivated fields. Its scenery, though not specially striking, is in some parts attractive, and presents pleasing contrasts. The streams below this are comparatively small — The Bum of Dinnet; the Burn of Tarland, which runs eastward and joins the Dee below Aboyne Castle ; the Burn of Dess, remarkable for its romantic cascade ; the Bum of Beltie flows through the Parish of Kincardine O'Neil, and enters the Dee on the west side 6f the Parish of Banchory ; and the Burn of Culter. The streams noticed in the preceding paragraphs comprise the chief tributaries of the Dee, though there are many other burns and streamlets which fall into the river. It was mentioned that the highest sources of the Dee are over 4000 feet above the sea level, and the gradual fall of the river in its course seaward may be indicated. At the junction of the Dee and the Geusachan Bum, the INTRODUCTORY SKETCH. 7 height above sea level is 1640 feet ; at the confluence of the Dee and the Geldie, 1304 ; at the Linn of Dee, 1214; at Castletown of Braemar, 1180; the old Bridge of Invercauld, 1054 ; Balmoral Castle, 926 ; Abergeldie Castle, 840; the Bridge of Ballater, 780 ; the Manse of Aboyne, 417 ; the Bridge of Potarch, 270 ; the Bridge of Banchory, 172 ; and at the mouth of the Burn of Culter, 60. The fall from the Linn of Dee to the sea averages eighteen feet per mile ; of course the fall is greater in the upper stretch than in the lower. In its higher stretch the river flows rapid and clear upon a bed of rocks and amid boulders ; in the lower stretch it glides along upon a bed of stones and pebbles, which tends to purify the water. Above Ballater the water of the Dee is comparatively pure, and almost free of animal or sewage contamination. Although the Valley of the Dee is not naturally very fertile, yet the skill and industry of its inhabitants have gfreatly improved it There are considerable stretches of haughs and plains in the Valley, still there are no very extensive tracts of good deep soil, or very rich fields. Generally boulders and pebbles of granite, gneiss, hornblende, and porphyry, form the prevailing soil. The pastures in the mountain districts are comparatively good, but small in extent ; the green-topped hills are limited, and consist of the Coyle hills, the serpentine range of Glenmuick, and a portion of Morven. Most of the hills and mountains, however, which bound the Valley are interspersed with stripes and patches of green grass even to their summits. Heath, pine, and birch are the prevail- ing plants. The Valley is well wooded. The chief native trees are the birch and the pine, but here and there many other varieties of trees have been planted. Oak 8 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. is not very common, but it covers a part of the hill of Craigendarroch, in the vicinity of BaUater. Large woods of larch, intermixed with spruce and some other trees, are frequently seen in various parts of the VaUey. There are still several pretty extensive forests such as Glentanner, Ballochbuie, and Mar. In the present century great industry' and much art has been expended in many parts of the Valley to im- prove and beautify it There are stretches in the Valley, which, both in nature and in art, are unrivalled anjrwhere. The usual crops raised in the Valley are oats, barley, turnips, and potatoes, ryegrass and clover. There were good crops along the Valley in the year 1 893. I observed excellent fields of com. The industry of the people has made fruit-growing a success in various places, not merely in gardens, but also in the fields. About Banchory- Teman may be seen fine fields of strawberries ; and in the Parish of Strachan this fruit is cultivated in the fields; and also in Kincardine O'Neil I have seen fields of straw- berries growing beautifully. Many of the gardens attached to the mansions in the Valley, under experienced gardeners, are admirably kept and cultivated ; and they produce abundance of fruit and vegetables. Flowers of many kinds and varieties are also reared and culti- vated with remarkable success. Many years ago I ob- tained information on this subject from my brother, James Mackintosh, who served his apprenticeship as a gardener at Banchory House. He was afterward engaged at Desswood House, and assisted in laying out the garden and the grounds. He had charge of the garden at Glassel for six years. Subsequently he went to Corsindae, in Midmar, and had charge of the INTRODUCTORY SKETCH. 9 garden for thirty years. He died at Corsindae House in 1889. The Valley of the Dee has been recognised as one of the healthiest regions in Britain. It is a nerve-giving and inspiriting Valley; and amongst its inhabitants there have been many instances of great longevity. Having thus briefly indicated some of the general features of the Valley, and system of streams and glens connected with it ; in the subsequent chapters, after dealing briefly with the traces of prehistoric inhabitation, I will commence at the estuary of the river, proceed up the Valley, and touch on its scenery, and also that of the glens opening into it ; the mansions and castles and the families associated with them ; historic and traditional incidents; the villages and towns which have been erected in the Valley ; antiquities, and other objects of special interest Chapter IL TRACES OF PREHISTORIC INHABITATION. Ik this chapter the tiaoes of pfdustoric stnic±iires» rdics, and remaiiis will be briefly treated The earliest pfefaistork race in Britain, o(wboni we hatre any evidence, was a long-headed peofde of oom- paiatively short statnrcL Their ]rii)rsical characteristics resemblnl the Berber race and North African tribes ; they appear to have spread over, the Spanish Peninsula, the coasts and islands of die Mediterranean, Sonthem Italy, and a great part of France. This race arrived in the south of Britain about the bq;inning of the polished stone period, and gradually spread over the whole Island They were sometimes called Iberians, Basques, and other names; and they appear to have inhabited the country alone for a very long period They were a stone age people, using stone tools and weapons. They usually fixed their settlements on elevated ground and moderate he^hts; and their dwellings consisted of circular huts — sometimes with stone foundations, on which a slight structure formed of wood was erected. Some of these hut foundations still remain, but many of them have been removed by the progress of agricultural improvement This people constructed the long barrows of England, and the chambered and homed cairns of Caithness, Argyle, and Orkney. They also constructed the curious and interesting structures called ''earth- houses " ; and some specimens of these were known to TRACES OF PREHISTORIC INHABITATION. 11 have existed in Birse and Kincardine O'Neil. In many parts of Aberdeenshire, and especially on the higher stretch of the basin of the Don, in the Parishes of Kildrummy and Auchindoir, within a space of a mile in diameter, there are upwards of forty of these "earth- houses." The chief characteristics of these underground structures are : — I, They are all under the natural level of the ground ; 2, a narrow and low entrance apt to escape notice, and a narrow passage ; 3, a curved chamber gradually winding inwards, and usually terminating with a rounded end ; 4, the internal characteristics of the chamber, which is usually single, but in some specimens small chambers run off the main one to the right and left ; 5, converging side walls which support a lintelled roof; 6, they are built without mortar or cement of any kind. The walls are massive, and usually built of large stones. They vary greatly in size, some being over seventy feet in length, seven feet in width, and six feet in height ; while others are of much smaller dimensions. After research and comparison, I arrived at the conclusion that these underground structures were originated by the stone age people, and that they constructed a considerable number of those specimens which are still known to exist, though not necessarily the whole of them. It appeared to me that the under- ground structures were in harmony with the genius, the condition, and the circumstances of the stone age people, who constructed the chambered au^ homed cairns of Caithness, which, in several of their characteristics, strikingly resemble the " earth-houses." It may also be observed that the "earth-houses" were never con- tinuously occupied as common dwellings, but only at the 12 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. seasons of extreme cold and finest, \dien the people of the stone age resorted to them in cnder to protect them- selves in some measure firom the inclemency of the weather. Traces of over-grown huts in close association with the ** earth-houses," show that the people lived above ground, excepting in the extreme emergencies just indicated This people practised cremation, and usually interred the remains of the dead under chambered stone cairns. Though there are many cairns in the area under consideration, few of them have been systematically explored ; while the common traditions r^;arding them are of little or no value whatever. In cairns broken into for building purposes, or removed for improvements, human remains have usually been found in them along the Valley. Traces of early occupation on the elevated ground of Pitfodels and Cults on the north side of the Valley, and on the high grounds on the opposite side of the river, have frequently been discovered. In the vicinity of Cults House, there were several cairns, one of which has been entirely removed for building purposes, and in it two stone arrow heads were found. In 1850, two stone cists were found near Cults House, which contained human bones. On the south side of the Dee, in 1817, a stone cist was discovered, in repairing a road on the farm of Clashfarquhar. The cist was formed of eight stones— one at each end, two at each side, and two form- ing the cover ; and it contained the bones of a human skeleton, much decayed, and two urns. In 1847, near the same place, in a gravel hillock, two urns were found, in one of which was a gold ring. When forming part of TRACES OF PREHISTORIC INHABITATION. 13 the turnpike road on the estate of Ardo, a stone cist was discovered, which contained an urn and a human skull. In the Parish of Maryculter there were a considerable number of cairns in which human remains have been found. On the property of Auchlee there were two stone circles entire in 18^9; and it has been ascertained that many of the areas of stone circles in Scotland were places of prehistoric interments. A short distance below the church of Durris, on the south bank of the Dee, in 1829, the Rev. Robert Copland, when removing a large round cairn of stones, discovered that the stones merely covered an artificial mound of earth ; and, on opening it, some bones, partly burnt, and a number of sharp flint stones of different sizes were found. Afterwards, a more thorough excavation was made, and at a depth of three feet under the surface of an adjoining field, a stone cist, over seven feet in length, was discovered. It contained the bones of a human skeleton mixed with charcoal. In other parts of Durris there are a number of cairns overgrown with heath and whins ; and also stone circles, most of which are imperfect. On the north side of the Valley, in the Parish of Drumoak, there were once a considerable number of cairns, but the progress of agriculture and other improve- ments has removed the most of them. One on the top of the Hawkhillock was removed to make way for the summer house within the grounds of Park House ; and in the operations, three stone cists were discovered, containing an urn, human bones, and ashes. In Banchory-Ternan there are several places which present the characteristics usually associated with the 14 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. prdiistoric sites of human habitation. It seems probable that the high ground above the old church was a pre* historic site ; and no doubt there was a settlement on this ridge above the river, before the introduction of Christianity. There are still a number of cairns at the foot and on the sides of the hills, and many others once existed in the central parts of the parish. Some of them which were opened, contained stone cists and human bones. When the turnpike road to Aberdeen was making, the workmen found a stone cist at a point near the manse, which contained an urn and some ashes. A mile and a half farther westward, in the wood of Inchmarlo, between the road and the Dee, there are the remains of a stone circle ; forty years ago one of the stones was standing, eight feet above the ground, and thirteen feet in circumference It is said that the circle was entire about the end of the last century. In 1828, at Newton of Tilliecaim, in the Parish of Aboyne, several urns containing calcined human bones were dug up in trenching a piece of ground. About fifty yards from where the urns were discovered, the soil presented a blackish appearance, indicating that it had been under the action of a strong fire, as small bits of charcoal were embedded in it ; and it is supposed that the bodies had been burnt here, and the calcined remains subsequently placed in the urns. About a mile to the east of Newton, on the summit of a ridge, there are several small cairns, and one large cairn, called Caimmore. In 181 8, the large one was partly opened for building purposes, when a quantity of bones were found in it, and a small gold chain of four links attached to a pin. The bottom of TRACES OF PREHISTORIC INHABITATION. 16 the cairn was neatly paved, but only a tenth part of it was then explored. On the estate of Glenmillan, in Lumphanan, there were once a number of sepulchral cairns, in one of which two bronze rings were discovered. There are still a number of cairns on Perkhill, and in their vicinity stone weapons have been found. Cairns and tumuli are to be found on every hill and moor in the district And the prehistoric modes of disposing of the dead prevailed, namely, urn interment and cairn inter- ment. Traces of hill forts, more or less distinct, are still numerous. Prehistoric hill forts may be divided into three classes: — i. Those formed of earth; 2, those formed partly or wholly of stones ; 3, those formed of stones, and partly vitrified. Elsewhere I have explained how "the movement of the tribes from the southern parts of the Island, inwards and outwards, issued in the first creation of historic conditions in Britain ; and the consequent necessity of efforts for self-preservation and defence." It seems evident that many of these defensive works were constructed several centuries before the Christian era* The first class of hill forts, which were probably the earliest, consist of a number of low mounds of earth drawn round the brows or summits of natural heights. They are mostly circular or oval in form, but this was often modified by the nature of the sites selected ; and the number of the enclosing mounds of earth vary for similar reasons ; sometimes there are two, three, four, or more, which enclose a central space. They differ from most of the other early constructions, inasmuch as they are adaptations of naturally elevated sites for 16 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. purposes of defence. They are numerous, and extend over the whole area of Scotland. Traces of them may- be seen on the hills and heights of Aboyne and Kinnord. On the summit of the Hill of Mortlich there is a lai^e one. At Cairnton, on the east side of the wooded Hill of Trustach, near a steep bank of the Dee, there is a slightly hollow space, overgrown with birch, about 150 yards square, and at its north and only open side, it has two ramparts of earth, each 300 yards long, from 10 to 15 feet high, and 16 feet broad. They converge from the bank on each side, and form two sides of a square, the rest of which is formed by the conformation of the ground. There is an entrance at the angle 20 yards wide. The position is elevated, and commands a pass between the heights of Inchmarlo and the Dee, through which the present road runs. It overlooks almost every approach, with the river immediately behind it, and the Canny Burn in the haugh below.* Traces and remains of the second class of hill forts are numerous. There were several of them on the slopes of Morven, and traces of two or three have been discovered on the north-west of Culbean. At Knockice, along the south side and base of Mulloch Hill, there was a semi-circle of forts connected with each other. The westmost one was 140 yards by 88, the next one longer, and the eastmost one 280 yards by 176 ; and a short distance from the north-west corner of the smallest one, on a steep rising ground, there were two smaller forts, of from 12 to 18 yards diameter, which X Mackintosh's " History of Cirilisation in Scotland/' New Edition, VoL I. pp. 43-45i 65-70, 88-89. TRACES OF PREHISTORIC INHABITATION. 17 overlooked the whole. These and many others of a similar character, at a later stage of development, became connected with the crannogs constructed in Loch Kinnord. So far as has been ascertained, there were two ancient crannogs on Loch Kinnord, formed by great labour and surprising skill and intelligence. Crannogs were often used in connection with hill forts on the summits or slopes of the neighbouring hills, as at Kinnord, to which the lake dwellers could have gone when the lochs were frozen and the crannogs open to invasion. From time to time four primitive canoes have been discovered in Loch Kinnord — all hollowed out of single oak logs. On the i6th of June, 1859, a canoe, measuring 22^ feet in length by 3^ feet wide at the stem, and tapering to a point at the prow, was brought to land. Two were recovered on the loth of August, 1875, ^^^ of which was 29 feet long and the other 30 feet Regarding prehistoric tools and weapops recently in the grounds of Lynwood, Murtle, a stone axe head was found, which is 8^ inches in length, and nearly 3 inches in breadth. Along the Valley, on both sides, numbers of flint arroW-heads and other stone tools and weapons have been found, and some bronze weapons and tools have occasionally been discovered. Few stone relics have been found in Loch Kinnord. But stone tools and implements have occasionally been found in various parts of Aboyne and the neighbouring district A bronze vessel and a bronze spear-head were found in the loch ; and an iron crowbar and an iron axe-head were also discovered in it' X J. 6. Mkhie'i Hittory of Loch Ktnnoid, 1877. C 18 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. It is, however, known that a considerable number of prehistoric relics and objects have been found in and around Loch Kinnord, of which no accurate description has been preserved. If any inference might be drawn from the relics and tools found in the loch, it might seem that the site and the crannogs had not been occupied in the stone age. The evidence and the known circum- stances, however, would not warrant such a conclusion ; for the simple fact that the largest island in the loch and the fort on it was frequently occupied in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, would account for the dis- appearance of many of the relics and objects associated with its early occupation. Further, considering the length of time which has elapsed since the district was inhabited by man, probably three or four thousand years, and then the wasting powers of frosts, storms, thaws, rains, and floods in such a valley as the Dee, it will not appear surprising that the far greater part of the handiwork gf our prehistoric ancestors should have been swept out of view. Yet, from the traces and ruins of structures and fragments of their works which still remain, we can perceive that there was an active and industrious population in the Valley at a far-gone period. We can discern and trace the evidence of mind and of thought even in such ruins and fragments of their handiwork ; and we may fairly picture in imagination our early ancestors of the prehistoric age as living and moving in a state of comparative safety and comfort They possessed herds of domesticated animals — cattle, sheep, horse, and swine — and they cultivated grain to some extent They manufactured some kind of woollen cloth, pspHMjIg^S^s^as^^ TRACES OF PREHISTORIC INHABITATION. 19 and made pottery. Their food consisted chiefly of the flesh of domestic animals and of the milk derived from them, and to a less extent of fish, the products of grain, and wild animals. Their dress consisted partly of animals' skins prepared for the purpose, and partly of the cloth above-mentioned. Thus far, the material and social condition of the prehistoric people appears to have been well advanced. Chapter III. ESTUARY— CULTS. At present the estuary of the Dee presents a very different appearance from what it had at a quite recent period. As the river approached the sea it flowed through a wide basin, extending from the foot of the Castle Hill on the north side to the lands of Torry on the south. The harbour of Aberdeen then consisted of a channel near the north side of the basin, separated from the estuary of the Dee by the Inches — a number of low sandy patches, usually covered with water at high tide. The quayhead was erected where the old weigh-house once stood, and access to it from the town was obtained by the Shore Brae. The entrance to the harbour was extremely bad, owing to a bar at the mouth of the river, and at low tide the water was only a few feet deep. In 1608 an attempt was made to improve it by the erection of a bulwark on the south side of the entrance ; and in 161 8 a large stone lying near the middle of the estuary was removed. In 1658, the quay was extended eastward, and a considerable stretch of ground was reclaimed below the Castle Hill. Another quay was erected in 1755, farther down and opposite the village of Tony. Subse- quently, from time to time, other improvements were effected. But only about twenty years ago the Dee wound round the south side of the Inches ; and the Fish Market now stands on the old bed of the river. At that time, the whole of the space known as the Reclaimed ESTUARY— CULTS. 21 Ground was covered with water at high tide. The diversion of the Dee into a new channel was a very great improvement ; and was finally consummated by the erection of the beautiful granite bridge which spans the river in line with Market Street. Standing on the centre of the bridge and looking toward the Suspension Bridge, the river in its new bed presents a beautiful sheet of water ; and the slight curve in the channel lends to the scene a peculiar grace of form. The transformation of the locality is complete. The large extent of space formerly covered by the tidal waters is now taken up with offices, stores, warehouses, fishcuring establishments, and works of various kinds, presenting a busy scene of industry and business; while along both sides of the river there are very pleasant walks. There is a tradition that Wallace had a castle on or near the headland of the Girdleness ; but no trace of it remains. The lighthouse on the Girdleness was erected in 1 83 1 -3, and is a prominent object in the landscape. Subsequently an artillery battery was erected. More recently in this locality a new breakwater was constructed by the Harbour Board for improving the harbour, and rendering the entrance safer for vessels at the mouth of the Dee. William the Lion granted the Church of Nigg to the Abbey of Arbroath, of which he was the founder. Alexander II. granted the whole of the lands of the Parish of Nigg to the Abbey of Arbroath, which included the lands and village of Torry. The Church of Nigg was in the diocese of St. Andrews. There is a tradition that the Abbots of Arbroath had a residence upon a haugh on the 50uth side of the Dee, but all trace of it has disappeared. 22 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. In 13 12, Sir Alexander Fraser had a lease of the lands of Torry from Bernard, the Abbot of Arbroath. In the latter part of the fourteenth century, Paul Crabb had a lease of the lands of Kincorth from the Abbot ; and in 1380, he gave an annuity out of these lands toward the support of the road leading from Stonehaven to Aberdeen^ through the " Moor of Drumnawhacket," to the ferry on the Dee. In 149s, James IV. erected the village of Torry into a burgh of barony, and authorised the inhabitants to deal in all kinds of commodities, to hold weekly and yearly markets, and to erect a cross. It seems probable that there was then a chapel at Torry ; but it appears that the privileges of the burgh fell into abeyance. In modem times the inhabitants of Torry were chiefly engaged in fishing. In 1837, the town had three fishing boats, with six men to each ; since then the number of fishing boats belonging to Torry has greatly increased as well as its population. For a generation or two it has been an active and busy centre of line fishing and herring fishing. Under the recent Extension Act, Torry was incorporated with the city of Aberdeen. Since the diversion of the Dee into its new channel and the erection of the Victoria Bridge, new streets have been formed upon the ground on the south side of the river. A considerable number of dwelling-houses, shops, and offices have been built; in short, the locality is rapidly developing and becoming a busy quarter of the city. Upon the elevated ground called Craiginches, a new prison was recently erected. Half a mile above the Victoria Bridge is the Wellington Suspension Bridge, erected in 1829. A short ESTUARY— CULTS. 23 distance up the Valley the Railway Bridge spans the Dee. The arches of this bridge are of iron, and rest upon strong stone piers. Beyond the bridge, on the north side of the river, lies the large and beautiful Duthie Park, which was gifted by the late Miss Duthie of Ruthrieston to the citizens of Aberdeen. The work of forming the approaches to the park and the enclosing walls was executed by the late Mr. James H. Bisset, builder. The park was opened by Princess Beatrice in 1883. It is in a very fine situation, having the rippling river in front and the rising ground on the opposite side* The park is admirably laid out, and presents many attractions. In the immediate vicinity of the park is the well-kept cemetery of Allenvale. In it there are a great number of granite headstones and monuments, many of which present fine specimens of monumental art. The Ruthrie- ston locality is now within the city boundary. The Loch of Loirston lies on the south side of the Dee, on an elevated hollow in the west quarter of the Parish of Nigg. It is an oblong sheet of water, and covers twenty-seven acres. About two miles from the mouth of the river stands the Old Bridge of Dee. It was one of the many good works promoted by the estimable Bishop Elphinstone, who founded and began it in 1500. At that period the erection of such a bridge was a great undertaking, and it is not surprising that the structure was not completed in Elphinstone's life-time; but one of his successors. Bishop Dunbar, continued the work, and it was finished in 1527. After a protracted negotiation between the Bishop and the Town Council of Aberdeen, in which the Council 24 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. manifested much caution, the charge of the bridge was formally conveyed to the town in 1529, on the condition that " the Council would uphold it and keep it in repair." As originally constructed, the bridge consisted of seven groined arches, which had a total span of 432 feet, but its width was only 16^ feet Various dates and brief in- scriptions on the bridge itself give some particulars touching the building and repairing of it It was thoroughly repaired between 1720-3. It was again repaired and widened in 184 1-2, to render it fit for the increased traffic. A chapel dedicated to St. Mary was built at the north end of the bridge, but no vestige of it now remains. This bridge was of great importance for several centuries. It was the leading entry to Aberdeen from the south, and on the line of the chief post road between Aberdeen and Edinburgh. It was also sometimes selected as one of the points for the defence of the city against enemies advancing from the south. In this relation the bridge is associated with interesting historic events. In 1589, the Catholic lords, headed by the Earls of Huntly, Errol, and Crawford, mustered their followers, and rebelled against the King. They assembled at Aberdeen in April. The King in person with an army marched northward, advancing to within ten miles of Aberdeen. The insurgent Earls had posted their men at the Bridge of Dee. As the Royal army approached, however, they seemed to have lost heart at the last moment, and dispersed. The rebellion for a time was quelled ; but Huntly and the Catholic nobles again rose in revolt, and in 1594 they met the Royal army under ESTUARY— CULTS. 25 Argyle, and completely routed him at Glenlivet. The King, however, with another army, advanced to Aberdeen, and onward to Strathbogie, and Huntly retired to Caithness. During the Covenanting struggle the bridge was a rallying point Montrose on his first campaign in the north entrapped the Marquis of Huntly, and conveyed him and his eldest son as captives to Edinburgh; but Viscount Aboyne, Huntly's second son, a brave youth, having received a commission from the King, immediately proceeded to muster the clan to defend the Royal authority against the Covenanters. He assembled an army of about three thousand foot and five hundred horse, and re-took Aberdeen. On the 14th of June, 1639, he resolved to march southward ; advancing along the coast, he descried Montrose's army posted on the heights above Stonehaven. A skirmish ensued, in which Aboyne's men were defeated, and retired. Aboyne re- turned to Aberdeen ; and Montrose continued to advance northward. On the 17th, Aboyne ordered his men to re- muster, only a small number assembled ; but it was resolved to defend the passage of the bridge. A barri- cade was hastily thrown up at the south port of the bridge. On the 1 8th of June, Aboyne marched to the bridge with one hundred musketeers and a number of horse. Montrose's army was encamped on the heights above Banchory House ; and his force numbered two thousand men and some pieces of cannon. He commenced the attack on the defenders of the bridge by a cannonade. In spite of the cannon and musket shot, the defenders held the bridge for two days. Several attacks were made at close quarters, which were repulsed. Montrose's 26 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. battering-rams were tried, but they had no effect on the barriers, and the gloom of night closed the first day's fighting. At break of day the struggle was re-commenced and continued. At last Montrose sent a body of men and horse up the south side of the river, moving as if they intended to ford it. This had the desired effect. Aboyne, with a company of the defenders left the bridge, and advanced up the north side of the river; then Montrose's men opened fire on them, and at the same time redoubled the attack on the bridge.^ At four in the afternoon the bridge was taken. Montrose then marched in triumph into the city, imposed a heavy contribution upon the citizens, and subjected many of them to dis- graceful indignities. Several rude ballads on the conflict at the bridge, and the subsequent action of the Covenan- ters, are extant ; and the following lines are from one said to have been written when the bridge was taken : — " The Covenanters that ye see Come marching alongest the Green : Wer't not for feare of God, they say, They would plunder Aberdeine.'* After the Covenanting movement had developed, Montrose changed sides, and joined the King and the Royalist party. In 1644, he gathered an army and raised the Royal standard against the Covenanters. The citizens of Aberdeen were then under the Covenanting leaders; and when tidings of Montrose's march north- ward reached the city, they resolved to guard the bridge, and mustered three thousand men to contest the passage of the river. But Montrose outwitted them, and forded the Dee at Crathes. On the 19th of September, 1644, he inflicted a severe defeat on the citizens of Aberdeen. ESTUARY— CULTS. 27 On the east front of the wall of the bridge a stone IS inserted showing how far the water of the great flood of August, 1829, came up. This flood was extremely disastrous to many of the bridges on the Dee, and also to many of those on its tributary streams. Standing on the Bridge of Dee and looking up the Valley the view is limited by the rising ground on the north side and the winding of the river ; still the scenery presents a pleasing aspect After crossing to the south end of the bridge, a good road running in a westerly direction along the south side of the Valley passes through a stretch of lovely scenery all the way up to Banchory- Teman. There is very little traffic on this road, a circumstance which to many lends a special charm to the serene beauty of nature around. The highway on the north side of the Valley commences at the termin- ation of Great Western Road. Near the suburb of Mannofield are the lower reservoirs connected with the supply of water for the city ; and there are other two reservoirs — Slopfield and Hillhead, con- nected with pumping stations erected in the Den of Cults. After passing the second milestone, a number of beautifully-situated mansions and villas attract the eye. They occupy the space from the north bank of the river to the top of the rising ground on the north side of the road. This ground from an early period was called the lands of Pitfodels, which extended from the Bridge of Dee on the east to Cults on the west, running along the north bank of the Dee, thence stretching northward over the high ridge on the north side of the turnpike road. At the beginning of the fourteenth century Pitfodels was held by a branch of the Moray family. In 1390, 28 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. William Reid, a burgess of Aberdeen, acquired Pitfodels from William Moray ; and the Reids held it till the early part of the sixteenth century. The family of Menzies had obtained some portions of Pitfodels about the middle of the fifteenth century ; and Thomas Menzies married Marion, the only daughter of Alexander Reid of Pitfodels, and by her the Menzies family acquired the whole of the lands of Pitfodels. The Menzies for a long period were closely associated with the municipal government, of Aberdeen. It is said that they were a branch of the Menzies of Weem, in Perthshire, and in the fourteenth century they appeared as burgesses of Aberdeen. In 1426, Gilbert Menzies became Provost of Aberdeen ; and in 1436 he was elected to represent the city in Parliament He died about 1459. Another member of the family who suc- ceeded to Pitfodels in 1508, Gilbert Menzies, held the Provostship of Aberdeen for 24 years — ^between 1505 and 1536. In 1535 he acquired the lands ofBlairs. He died in 1542, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Thomas. He was elected Provost of Aberdeen in 1525, and held office for many years; he died in 1576. Thomas was succeeded by his eldest son, Gilbert, born in 1522. He was elected Provost of Aberdeen in 1576, and held office to 1588. He died in 1589, and was succeeded by his son George. He married Margaret, a daughter of Irvine of Drum, by whom he had issue. George Menzies died in 1622, and was succeeded by his son, Gilbert, who attained some distinction. In harmony with the tradition of the family, he was a firm Roman Catholic, a loyal and warm supporter of Charles I., and strongly opposed to the Covenanters. As a consequence of this attitude he was ESTUARY— CULTS. 2» much oppressed. He was knighted by Charles I. In the unfortunate rising by Montrose in 1650 Menzies' eldest son acted as standard-bearer ; and at the skirmish of Invercharron he declined to retire, and was slain on the field. In 1745, Gilbert Menzies of Pitfodels joined the Rising, and equipped a detachment of twenty-five men to support the cause of Prince Charles. John Menzies, in 1805, ex- posed the lands of Pitfodels for sale. No purchaser however, appeared; and he then feued several portions of the lands ; and the remainder was purchased by a joint stock company, who have feued oflF and sold it in separate lots. John Menzies died at Edinburgh, in 1843^ at the advanced age of eighty-seven years ; and he was the last of the male line of the family. Mr. Menzies was a cultured gentleman. He be- queathed the greater part of his wealth to the Roman Catholic Church. The site of Menzies Castle was on a spot near the east side of Norwood Hall, but not a vestige of it remains. As indicated above, the greater part of the lands of Pitfodels is now studded with beautiful mansions and villas, each of which stands amid well laid out and carefully kept grounds. They mostly belong to manu- facturers and gentlemen engaged in business in Aberdeen, and retired gentlemen. A few of them may be mentioned. Norwood Hall is the residence of Mr. James Ogston, a partner of the well-known firm of soap manufacturers ; Garthdee, the residence of the late Mr. Alexander Edmond, advocate, Aberdeen; Inchgarth, the residence of the late Captain George S. Tayler; 30 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Woodlands, the residence of Mr. Robert Collie, advocate ; Cliff House, the residence of Mr. James Catto, merchant ; and Viewbank, the residence of Mr. James Collie, advocate, Aberdeen. The Deeside Railway has contributed much to the development of the resources of the Valley, and to the increase of the population of its villages and towns. This line was opened for traffic to Banchory-Teman in September, 1853 ; and between Aberdeen and Banchory there are seven intermediate stations.' Afterwards, the line was extended to Charlestown of Aboyne, and opened for traffic in December, 1859. It was farther extended to Ballater, and opened in 1866. The entire length of the line from Aberdeen to Ballater is forty- three-and-a-half miles. The railway has drawn to itself the traffic on both sides of the Valley, and the turnpike roads are comparatively little used. The suburban village of Cults has rapidly extended in recent years. It stands on a fine situation with a southern exposure. The villas and cottages are neat and clean, and present the features of convenience and comfort A considerable number of excellent dwelling- houses have been erected on both sides of the line in the vicinity of the station. The village has beautiful and attractive surroundings, and is a charming locality. The communication between the north and south sides of the parish was carried on by the use of a boat until 1837. In that year a foot-bridge was erected across the river by Dr. Morison, the minister of the parish. The bridge cost ;^I400, and Dr. Morison also z In connection with the suburban trains between Aberdeen and Culter, several new side stations were opened in 1894. ESTUARY— CULTS. 31 left a sum of money " to maintain and uphold it in time coming." He was popular among his congregation, and died in 1845, He was succeeded by Rev. William Paul, who received the degree of D.D. from the University of Aberdeen. Dr. Paul is the author of several works — on the Book of Genesis ; " The Scriptural Account of Creation " ; the " Books of Moses " ; and a small interesting volume entitled "The Past and Present of Aberdeenshire." Dr. Paul died in 1884, and was succeeded by Rev. William F. Lawrence, M.A., the present minister of the parish. Owing to the rapid increase of the population of Cults, it was resolved to erect a mission hall, which stands on the north side of the road a short distance to the west of the village. Afterwards, it was formed into a mission church ; and, in 1888, Rev. Charles S. Christie was appointed to the charge. Shortly after the Disruption it was deemed necessary to erect a Free Church at Cults. On a site about three hundred yards north of the highway, near the village, a church was erected, and opened in 1844. For a number of years probationers discharged the func- tions connected with the church. But in 1861 the Rev. William Anderson was appointed. He performed his duties to the congfregation with much acceptance, and was greatly esteemed in the locality. Failing health constrained him to relinquish his work, and he died in 1879. He was succeeded by the Rev. Charles A. Salmond, who continued to minister to the congregation until 1881, He was succeeded by the Rev. Robert W. Barbour. Mr. Barbour was an exceedingly kind-hearted and scholarly man. He worked very hard, and took a keen 32 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. interest in everything relating to the welfare of the congregation. Unhappily, owing to failing health, he resigned the charge, much to the regret of his congrega- tion, the inhabitants of Cults, and many others in the neighbourhood, who appreciated the character and worth of Mr. Barbour. He died recently at Bonskeid, in Perthshire. The Rev. Hugh Morrison was appointed to the charge of the Free Church congregation of Cults in 1887. In 1650, the lands of Cults belonged to Mr. Alexander Thomson, advocate, Aberdeen. He was succeeded in 1674 by his son, John, who was served heir to " the lands of Cults, the mill, mill lands, and multures, with the fishings on the water of Dee belonging thereto in the Parish of Banchory-Devenick, and the sheriffdom of Aberdeen, held in chief from the king and his successors for service of ward and relief." In 1679, Thomson sold the estate to Robert Irvine, a son of John Irvine of Murtle. In the Poll Book of 1696, the lands of Cults were entered at £286^ on which Irvine for himself and his wife was taxed £9 12s., and also a tax of ;^2 2s. for his six children. For many years Irvine acted as a Commissioner of Supply. He died in 1728, at the advanced age of eighty-nine years. In 1750, Alexander Livingstone, Provost of Aberdeen, purchased the estate of Cults from the Irvines. Shortly after he entered into partnership with John Dingwall, William M*Kenzie, and Andrew Walker, and under the name of the Porthill Company, erected a linen manu- factory. This undertaking did not prosper; the company suspended payment in 1763, and the ex-provost was deeply involved. He sold off all his assets, including the ESTUARY— CULTS. 33 lands of Cults, Countesswells, and Loanhead, and thus satisfied the creditors. Livingstone then went to Rotter- dam, and engaged in business there as a merchant and a banker, and shortly amassed a considerable fortune. He died in 1783. George Chambers, a merchant in Edinburgh, in 1763, purchased the lands of Cults for ;£"io,Soo, He did not hold the estate long, for in 1774 William Durward was returned as the owner of it. Toward the close of the last century the lands of Cults and Bieldside were held by John Burnett of Countesswells. In 1804, he sold them in separate lots ; and George Symmers, merchant, Aberdeen, purchased two of the lots, which are now known as the estate of West Cults. Mr. Symmers executed a deed of entail, and after his death, in 1839, the lands went to Mr. George Shirra Gibb. Mr. Gibb was a quiet, homely, and exceedingly genial gentleman. He enlarged the mansion house, and erected a number of new houses on the estate. Mr. Gibb disentailed the estate in 1876. He died in 1880, leaving the estate to be managed by his trustees, who have been feuing it off. Chapter IV. BANCHORY—ARDO— HEATHCOT. The lands of Banchory lie on the south side of the Valley, in the Parish of Banchory-Devenick, Kincardine- shire. In 1 163, Malcolm IV. granted the Church of Banchory-Devenick, with its lands and pertinents, to the See of Oldmachar — ^the Church was a prebend of the Cathedral. Alexander II. gave the superiority of the lands of Banchory-Devenick to the Abbot of the Monastery of Arbroath in 1244, subject to an annual tax of one hundred shillings and other services. In 1256, Abbot Walter granted a charter of the lands of Banchory to Alan Durward, the Justiciary of Scotland. During the minority of Alexander III., Alan Durward was one of the most powerful nobles in the south of Scotland. Having married a natural daughter of Alexander II., he even aspired to the throne of Scotland. The Abbot of Arbroath gave the lands of Banchory- Devenick to Alan Durward, to be held by him and his heirs, in return for his homage and service; and "for confirming his claim more peacefully, freely, and honourably, he and his heirs paying to our successors three marks of silver, and giving to the King such service as pertains in all things to the said lands." After the death of Alexander III., and during the War of Independence, a large portion of the land of the kingdom changed owners ; and the Valley of the Dee had its share of these changes. It appears that Alan BANCHORY. 85 Durward and his successors did not mans^e to retain the lands of Banchory very long, and they reverted to the Abbacy of Arbroath. In 1333, it was agreed among the religious men and the Abbot of Arbroath, on the one hand, and William Meldrum, son of John Meldrum, on the other hand :— " That the Abbot and Convent of the Monastery unani- mously consent to give over, to be held in feu, their whole lands of Banchory-Devenick, with pertinents, to William Meldrum ; and to be held by him and his heirs from the Abbot and Convent and their successors in feu for ever, with all the liberties thereto belonging. That the said William, for the whole period of his life, shall pay to the Monastery yearly for this land six marks sterling ; but his heirs shall pay yearly to the Monastery for this land forty shillings sterling. Besides, the said William and his heirs shall be bound to pay to the King £S yearly for this land, and shall make payment in the Court of Aberdeen for the same, and render all services which are incumbent, or in the future may be incumbfent, on this land. That the said William, nor his heirs, shall in nowise sell, assign, or give over to be held in feu, or alienate this land in any way without the special licence of the men of the Monastery; that, if they do so, then, they shall lose all claim to this land." In 1346, William Meldrum received another charter confirming the above, which repeated the prohibition to sell the land. This William Meldrum was the ancestor of the Meldrums of Fyvie. The Meldrums continued to hold the lands of Banchory till past the middle of the i6th century. In 1555, Sir George Meldrum of Fyvie 36 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. granted a charter, by which George Garden of Dorlaithers acquired the lands of Banchory. George Garden was one of the embassy sent by James VI. to Denmark in 1589, in connection with the marriage of the King and Princess Anne. He was succeeded in 1590 by his son, Arthur. He married a daughter of Gordon of Gight, by whom he had issue. Arthur was succeeded by his son, Alexander, but he became embarrassed in circumstances. In 1623, he sold the lands of Banchory to William Forbes of Monymusk. In 1626, William Forbes was knighted by Charles I. He granted a wadset of the lands of Ban- chory for a sum of 13,840 marks, advanced by his brother, John Forbes of Leslie, and William and Alexander, his own sons. The agreement provided that, in the event of the Forbeses of Leslie paying a further sum of 6000 marks within seven yesirs, then they should obtain the lands of Banchory as if they had purchased them. A lawsuit ensued, touching the lawful rights of parties ; and, finally, it was settled in favour of John Forbes of Leslie, and he thus secured the lands of Banchory; and Parliament ratified his title. He had acquired the lands of Leslie in 1620 by paying the debts then lying upon them ; and he managed to obtain several other estates on easy terms. He was a great Covenanter, and engaged in the conflicts of his time. John Forbes was succeeded by his son, William. He married a sister of Lord Duffus, by whom he had issue. William Forbes died in 1670, aged fifty-five years ; and ^'was succeeded by his son, John. In 1682, he sold the lands of Banchory to Robert Cruickshank, merchant, Aberdeen. Mr. Cruickshank was Provost of Aberdeen BANCHORY. 37 from 1693 to 1696. He also represented the city in Parlia- ment from 1693 to 1702. In 1724, Mr. Cruickshank sold the estate of Banchory to James Gordon, merchant, Aberdeen. In ^1743, ^^r. Gordon sold the lands of Banchory to Alexander Thomson, advocate, Aberdeen. In 1768, Mr. Thomson mortified a sum of £s for behoof of the poor of the Parish of Banchory-Devenick, payable annually after his death, from the lands of Kirkton of Banchory. He entailed the whole of his estates, and gave ample reasons for this to guide his trustees : — " It may be proper to let my friends know some of the reasons for executing the deed of entail of my lands of Banchory I have many times considered the circumstances of my ancient friends and relations now dead, that those who made any figure in the world, and acquired a competency of means, their eldest sons and successors squandered away their estates, and spent the same in a foolish, profuse, idle way."' He then proceeds to give illustrative instances. He died in 1773, at the age of eighty-two years. He was succeeded by his nephew, Andrew Thomson. Andrew married Mary, a daughter of Dr. Skene, of Aberdeen, and had issue — two sons and one daughter. He died in 1781, aged thirty-four years. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Andrew, who was bom in 1 77 1, and educated at the University of Aberdeen. He married Helen, a daughter of Dr. Robert Hamilton, Professor of Natural Philosophy in Marischal College. He died in 1806, aged thirty-two years, and was succeeded z Henderson's History of Banchory-Devenick ; Register of the Monastery of Arbroath. 38 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. by his son, Alexander, a boy of eight years. Alexander was educated at the Grammar School of Aberdeen, and Marischal College, and graduated in 1816. He then proceeded to Edinburgh, and studied for the Scottish Bar, and in 1820 he passed as advocate, but never entered into practice. He directed his attention to the improvement of his estates, and to county business. He erected the present mansion house of Banchory on the site of the old one. The house stands on a fine elevated position, and is a pretty large and commodious structure, with the front and entrance towards the south. The gardens are large, and enclosed with very high walls. There are two approaches to the house — one on the east and the other on the west — and the pleasure grounds are extensive. In the Disruption struggle, Mr. Thomson took an active part, and spent time and means in promoting the cause of the Free Church. Dr. Chalmers visited Mr. Thomson at Banchory House in September, 1843 5 and on the loth Dr. Chalmers preached on the lawn to a great assemblage. In the General Assembly of the Free Church of 1844, Mr. Thomson proposed a scheme for providing manses to the ministers; and the institution of a Theological Hall in Aberdeen was warmly supported by him. He occasionally directed his attention to antiquarian and geological subjects, and also inquiries touching the social condition of the people. Whatever matter he took up, he pursued it earnestly and honestly. In 1859, when the late Prince Consort presided at the meeting of the British Association held at Aberdeen, Mr. Thomson had the honour of entertaining the Prince at Banchory House. In commemoration of this event. BANCHORY. 39 he erected a granite obelisk on the Cotcraig Rock at Tollo Hill. Though his health b^an to fail, he still continued to pursue the subjects which interested him, and published a number of pamphlets on antiquarian and scientific subjects. He died on the 20th May, 1868, at the age of seventy years. Under his trust settlement he bequeathed to the Free Church College of Aberdeen, ;£'i 6,000, and also the very valuable Library and Museum which he had collected at Banchory House. He was . the founder of the Thomson Science Lectureship in the Collie. In 1872, Mr. Thomson's trustees sold the lands of Banchory for £76,000^ to the late Mr. John Stewart, comb manufacturer, Aberdeen. Mr. Stewart was a man of exceptional ability and energy. In 1830, Mr. John Stewart and Mr. Joseph Rowell commenced business as comb manufacturers in Meal- market Lane, Aberdeen, as equal partners, under the name of Stewart, Rowell, & Co. Both men possessed excellent and rare business abilities ; and their arduous and united efforts led to signal success. In 1835, the manufactory was removed to larger premises in Hutcheon Street, where the works and business were admirably managed and developed. Mr. Rowell was gifted with a methodical and organising faculty, and ingenious mechanical skill ; and the firm succeeded by the novel introduction of steam power and machinery, in producing an unprecedented quality of goods at prices which soon commanded the markets of the world ; while Mr. Stewart's commercial genius and tact, able and indomit- able enterprise successfully introduced the products of the firm ; and, in short, the two men were the counter- 40 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. part of each other, in the founding and developing of this world-famous firm of comb manufacturers. Although Mr. Rowell retired in 185 1, and the firm then became Stewart, Rowell, Stewart, & Co., the establishment and the business continued to be conducted by Mr. Stewart on the same well founded lines ; and the works have been extended from time to time, and now occupy a large space of ground. Mr. John Stewart also entered into railway and shipping enterprises. For a number of years he was a director and also chairman of the Great North of Scotland Railway. Personally, he was a kind and warm-hearted gentleman. He died on the 25th of January, 1887. He was succeeded by his eldest son, David, the present head of the firm. Mr. Stewart is an active and able business man, and much respected in the com- munity. In 1889 he was unanimously elected Lord Provost of the city of Aberdeen ; and he was re-elected for a second term of office. The Parish Church stands within the graveyard, on the south bank of the Dee, and was erected in 1822. It is a plain structure. The burial ground has been recently extended. There is a large number of tomb- stones and headstones in the churchyard, but none of them of an early date. A Free Church was erected in 1844, about a mile to the south of the Parish Church. The remains of the late Mr. and Mrs. Thomson of Banchory were interred in it. The scenery on the south side of the Valley, when viewed from the opposite side, presents a pleasing prospect. There is a charming variety and contrast of ARDO. 41 level haugh, gentle slope, moderate heights, woods, and cultivated fields. Ardo House, amid plantations and pleasure grounds, is a striking object in the landscape, while Heathcot also attracts the eye. Nature and Art having co-operated to enhance the external beauty. On the north side of the Valley the ground is undulated and intersected with slight heights, which are cultivated or covered with woods. There is also a greater number of villas and cottages on the north side of the river than on the south side. The estate of Ardo was held by the Meldrums of Fyvie in the fifteenth century, and in 1582, George Meldrum of Fyvie granted a charter of the lands of Ardo to David Mar. Mr. Mar was one of the Bsdlies of Aberdeen, and he also represented the city in Parliament. He sold Ardo in 1586, and subsequently the estate passed through a number of different owners. In 17 14, John Gordon acquired Ardo through his great-grandfather, James Gordon. He sold the lands in 1747 to John Fordyce, merchant, Huntly, for the sum of ;fi'2i400 Scots. Mr. Fordyce married a daughter of Irvine of Cults, by whom he had a daughter. He greatly improved the estate and the condition of the tenants. He died in 1794, and was succeeded by his only daughter, Agnes. She lived in a quiet style, and was exceedingly kind to the tenants on the estate. Miss Fordyce died in 1834, at the age of seventy-six years, and was interred in the parish church of Banchory-Devenick. She bequeathed ;fi'ioo to the poor people of the parish; and left the estate of Ardo to Andrew Watson, advocate, Aberdeen, who was her law agent, but in no way related to her. He then 42 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. assumed the name of Fordyce ; but he died in 1837, aged only twenty-six years. His representatives in 1839 sold Ardo to the late Mr. Alexander Ogston, soap manufacturer in Aberdeen. In 1853, Mr. Ogston sold the portion of the estate called Cotbank, to the Rev. Dr. James Gillan, who never resided on the lands. Mr. Ogston died on nth October, 1869. His son, Mr. Alexander M. Ogston, purchased the estate from the trustees of his father in 1870, and in 1873, he bought the lands of Cotbank from the Rev. James Gillan, a son of the Dr. Gillan above mentioned. In 1880, Mr. Ogston also purchased the estate of Heathcot, which lies adjacent to Ardo. In 1877-78, Mr. Ogston erected the new mansion house of Ardo. It stands on a fine elevated situation, and is an imposing structure, built in the Scottish baronial style of architecture. The grounds are admir- ably laid out, and the mansion is sheltered by thriving plantations, which lend a shade of serenity to the surroundings. Heathcot once formed a part of the estate of Auchlunies, but in 1793 it was sold by Mr. Ogilvie, collector of customs at Aberdeen, to Thomas Gordon of Premnay. He was succeeded in 1820 by his sister. Lady Mary Bannerman, widow of Sir Alexander B. Bannerman, who was a Professor of Medicine in King's College, Aberdeen, in the later part of the last century. In 1822, Mr. John Garioch acquired the estate of Heathcot. He erected a new mansion house, planted wood, and otherwise improved the lands. He was suc- ceeded by his sister, Mai^aret, and after her death, her trustees sold the estate to James Fraser, merchant. HEATHCOT. 43 Aberdeen. After his death, the estate was purchased by the late Mr. Adam Mitchell, builder. Mr. Mitchell was a native of the Parish of Kenneth- mont, and served his apprenticeship with the firm of Macdonald & Leslie, Aberdeen Granite Works. He carried on business as a builder for upwards of twenty- years, and executed many important contracts. One of his large undertakings was the construction of the Denburn railway and the Joint Station at Aberdeen. He erected bridges over the Don at Strathdon and Kinaldie, built the mansion houses of Glenmuick, Corse, Lochinver, and others, and the Palace Buildings, Aberdeen. It was during Mr. Mitchell's proprietorship of Heathcot that the mansion was converted into a hydro- pathic establishment. Mr. Mitchell died on the 28th of January, 1877. Heathcot House stands on a fine level plain, about a quarter of a mile from the south bank of the Dee. It is a pretty large structure, built in the cottage style, and it is well sheltered by woods. Rev. Dr. Alex. Stewart has conducted the popular hydropathic establishment with remarkable success for a period of seventeen years. A short distance west of Heathcot is the mansion of Shannabum, on the bank of a stream. Shannaburn once formed a part of the lands of Auchlunies. In the early part of the present century Shannabum belonged to George Hogg, merchant in Aberdeen. He died in 1826, at the age of seventy-eight years. Shannaburn was the property and residence of the late John Reid, advocate, Aberdeen. About three-quarters of a mile to the south is the house of Auchlunies. In 18 10, the estate of Auchlunies was purchased by Alexander Gordon. He U HISTORY OF THE VALLEV OF THE DEE. held it till 1834, and tben sold it to Mr. Peter Duguid, merchant, Aberdeen. Mr. Duguid died in 1838, and was succeeded by his son, Peter, the present owner of the estate. Mr. Duguid resided for many 3^ears at the house of Auchlunies, but he now resides at the fine old mansion on his estate of Bourtie, while his brother, William, occupies the house of Auchlunies. Mr. Peter Du^^uid is a cultured and exceedingly genial gentleman. Chapter V. MURTLE— EDGEHILL— CULTER HOUSE— PAPER WORKS. Turning to the north side of the Valley, immediately beyond Cults House there are a considerable number of very fine villas and cottages, on both sides of the road nearly all the way to the village of Culter. On the north side of the road is Lynwood, the residence of the late Mr. George D. Rutherford, advocate. It is a very fine villcu In the immediate vicinity, on the same side of the road, is the residence of General Brown. The General has lived a quiet life in this beautiful spot for a number of years. He has seen many parts of the world, his range of infor- mation is wide and varied, and his conversation is exceed- ingly interesting and instructive. A short distance onward is Fernielee, the residence of Mr. McLaren, merchant. On the south side of the road is Newton Dee, the residence of Colonel Johnston. Bieldside lies between Cults and Murtle, and is in the Parish of Peterculter. It was purchased by Mr, Corbet in 1805, and the mansion house was erected in 181 1. He died in 1844, and was succeeded by his son, the Rev. Dr. Adam Corbet. He was minister of Drumoak from 1826 until his death in 1876. He bequeathed the estate in life-rent to his half-brother, Dr. James Corbet, who died recently. Dalhibity House stands on the east side of the Den of Murtle, and is the residence of Mr. John Whyte, advocate. Binghill lies on the west of the Den of Murtle ; and in a 46 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEK wood on this estate there are a stone circle and a large cairn. The aqueduct of the Aberdeen Waterworks is carried across the Den of Murtle. Murtle House stands on a fine site — an elevated bank on the north side of the Dee, and close to the east side of the Den. The house was erected by the late Mr. John Thurbum about sixty years ago. It is a pretty lai^e structure, built in the Grecian style of architecture. It is well sheltered by woods, and the whole surroundings are exceedingly picturesque. The garden is situated in the sheltered Den, and it produces excellent fruit In 1 163, Malcolm IV. granted the barony oi Murtle to the Bishop of Aberdeen, Mrith its pertinents and common pasturage. This was confirmed by William the Lion. A curious incident afterward occurred in connec- tion with this grant In 1383, the land of Murtle was occupied by John Crab, and an attempt was then made to reclaim it from him. A lawsuit ensued under rather suspicious forms. The Bishop held a Court for the examination of charters, from which Crab appealed to the Sheriff on the ground that it was incompetent for the Bishop to act in the character of judge and party in the case. The civil and the common law, and the laws and constitutions of the Kingdom were appealed to, but in the end the Church prevailed. In 1388, Bishop Adam granted the barony for life to William Chalmers, on the condition that he should pay a yearly rent of ten marks ; and in 1402 this agreement was renewed to his son, Thomas Chalmers. Shortly after. Bishop Henry, in recognition of a sum of money paid by Chalmers to the fabric of the Cathedral, and at the request of the flarl of Mar and Lord Gordon, extended Chalmers* lease for the MURTLE. 47 life-time of his two successors. His son, Alexander Chalmers, succeeded, and he was twice Provost of Aberdeen — ^in 1443 and 1446. He died in 1463, and was interred in St. Nicholas Churchyard. In 1488, another Alexander Chalmers received a lease of the barony for life from the Bishop of Aberdeen, at an annual rent of ten marks. In 1550, the Bishop granted a feu charter to Andrew Buk of all the lands of Millton of Murtle, for an annual feu-duty of ;f 3 lis. Scots, eight bolls of barley and meal in equal parts, four sheep, and twenty-four capons. His son, Thomas Buk, sold the lands to William Strachan. Afterward the lands passed through the hands of several persons. In 1659, Dr. William Guild's widow bequeathed the lands of Millton of Murtle to the Magistrates of Aberdeen, along with other lands, for the purpose of maintaining bursars at Marischal College and the Grammar School. Shortly after, the remainder of the lands of Murtle came into the possession of a branch of the Irvine family. In 1695, Alexander Irvine sold the Mains of Murtle, Oldfold, Stonegavel, Binghill, and Newton of Murtle to the Master of Mortifications of Aberdeen at the price of £9463 Scots. In 1758-59, the Town Council divided the lands for feuing at the following rate of feu-duties — Binghill, £7 15s sterling and twelve bolls of meal; Oldfold, ;fii IDS sterling and sixteen bolls of meal; Mains, ;f 18 and sixteen bolls of meal ; and Newton, £16 and eleven bolls of meal. These properties, subject to the above feu-duties, have often changed hands. At the b^inning of the present century, the lands of Murtle attached to the mansion house were held by John 48 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEK Gordon. He left lat^e sums of money for charitable and religfious objects, one of which was a sum of fifty pounds per annum for founding lectures on practical religion in the University of Aberdeen, In 1 82 1, Mr. Gordon's executors sold Murtle to Mr. John Thurbum. He was a native of Keith, Banffshire. As mentioned before, he erected a new mansion house and otherwise greatly improved the estate. Mr. Thurbum died on the 31st of January, 1861, at the advanced age of eighty years. Mrs. Thurbum survived him, and she founded the Thurbum Cooking Depdt in Aberdeen for the benefit of working people. She died at Murtle on the 24th of December, 1872. Mr. Thurbum's daughter, Anna, married Mr. William O. Maclaine, and had issue — ^two sons and one daughter. Mrs. Maclaine died on the loth of October, 1882, and her son, Mr. Thurbum Maclaine, succeeded to the estate. He was bom in 1853, and married Miss Rachel Hay, a daughter of the Rev. Patrick L. Miller. In 1892, Mr. William Dunn, advocate, Aberdeen, purchased Murtle, and has been making improvements on the estate. Beaconhill stands on a fine elevated site on the south side of the tumpike road, and is the residence of Mr. William Yeats, advocate. It was erected about fourteen years ago, and is a pretty large mansion, surrounded with a fine variety of growing trees and beautiful pleasure grounds. Avondow House lies on the south side of the road, and is the residence of Mr. Alexander Skene, merchant. Farther on there are a number of fine villas. About three hundred yards from the north side of CULTER. 49 the road, an elegant and massive mansion attracts the eye. It is Edgehill, the residence of the late Dr. John Webster. It is built of clear, light-coloured granite, and stands on a fine elevated site with a southern exposure. Dr. Webster took an active interest in the municipal affairs of Aberdeen ; he was a Town Councillor and Provost of the city. He also took a keen interest in the University of Aberdeen, and for thirty years he acted as assessor to the Lord Rector. Dr. Webster was a keen politician, and an active member of the Liberal Association, of which he was for several years president. On the death of Mr. Farley Leith, M.P., Dr. Webster came forward, in 1880, as the Liberal candidate for the city of Aberdeen. His opponent was the late Mr. James Shaw, who contested for the third time the honour of representing his native city in Parliament. Great efforts were made on Mr. Shaw's behalf, and he wsis hopeful of winning the seat ; he was, however, defeated by a large majority. Dr. Webster represented the city for five years, and proved in every respect an excellent member. He was specially attentive to all matters affecting the interest and honour of the city of Aberdeen, and to the requests of his constituents. Although he did not often speak in the House of Commons, when he did address the House, he was always listened to with the utmost respect He was a man of rare tact, and admirably qualified to win con- fidence and influence He retired on the dissolution of Parliament in 1885. After the adoption of Home Rule for Ireland, Dr. Webster, notwithstanding his admiration for Mr. Gladstone, and the warm personal friendship which had long existed between them, separated from 50 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. the Liberal party, and became a Unionist, and there is not the least doubt that he acted on the most con- scientious considerations. Personally, Dr. Webster was an unpretending gentle- man, and at all times easily accessible. Yet he had a characteristic polish and tact rarely met with even among the most cultured class of men. His genial company and conversation were widely known ; and many distinguished men who came to visit Aberdeen enjoyed and highly appreciated his hospitality at Edgehill. In the course of a long life he had collected a valuable library and a number of rare MSS. and letters ; he also manifested a taste for art, and the walls of his mansion were graced with many fine, valuable, and rare paintings. He was generous to charitable and benevolent institutions, and to all movements calculated to improve the condition of mankind. He died on the 31st of May, 1 89 1, and was interred in the churchyard of St. Nicholas, Aberdeen. Camphill House stands on an elevated bank, a few hundred yards from the north brink of the Dee. It is a fine site, and the house is embosomed amid trees. Culter House is upon the rising ground to the north of the turnpike road. There is a tradition that it was built in the reign of Queen Mary. It is, however, an antiquated-looking structure, and was probably erected about the middle of the seventeenth century. In the early part of the thirteenth century the lands of Culter were held by the Durwards. In 1247, Robert Wauchope obtained Culter from Alexander II. ; but the lands of this family were forfeited at an early stage of the War of Independence ; and about the end of the CULTER. 61 thirteenth century, Culter came into the hands of the Comyns, who continued in possession of it till 1729. James Comyn of Culter was one of the jury on the trial of the Master of Forbes for conspiracy against the life of James V. in 1537. During the Covenanting struggle, Sir Alexander Comyn and his family were subjected to severe persecution. In 1640, he was seized by General Munro, and conveyed to Edinburgh and imprisoned. He was detained in prison six months, and at last liberated on the payment of a heavy fine. In 1644, the Parliament empowered Lord Fraser to uplift the rents pertaining to Sir Alexander Comyn, who was described in the commission as a malignant, and as having aided the Irish rebels in this rebellion ! In 1672, Sir Alexander Comyn, the fourteenth laird of Culter, was created a baronet of Nova Scotia. The last Scotch Parliament passed an Act empowering him and his heirs to hold markets upon the Moor of Beans- hill, on the second Thursday of March and October yearly, for the sale of all kinds of goods. He was succeeded by his son, Alexander, who became an advocate. But he appears to have been an extremely eccentric character ; and engaged in wild and bootless projects, which resulted in his becoming helplessly involved in debt ; and he died in the Charter House, Lx)ndon, Large sums of money had been lent on the security of the lands of Culter by Patrick Duff of Premnay, a scion of the Duffs of Craigston. As the conditions of the loan had not been implemented by the borrower, in 1729 Mr. Duff obtained the lands of Culter by a decree of sale of the Court of Session. Patrick Duff died in 1763, leaving no issue. He was succeeded by his brother Robert, Admiral Duff. 92 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. He had rendered important service to his country. Admiral Duff was commander-in-chief of the Mediter- ranean Squadron for some years, and he successfully defended Gibraltar in the great seige of 1779-83. He married Helen, a daughter of the first Earl of Fife, and had issue, three sons and one daughter. He acquired the estate of Fetteresso in 1782. He died in 1787, and was interred in a fine tomb at Culter. He was succeeded by his son, Robert W. Duff of Fetteresso. Robert married Mary, a daughter of George Morison of Haddo, a grand- daughter of General James Abercromby of Glassaugh^ and had issue. He was a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Forfarshire Militia. He died in 1834, and his son, Robert W. Duff succeeded to the estates of Culter and Fetteresso. Mr. Duff died in 1861, and was succeeded by his nephew, Robert W. Duff. He is proprietor of Culter, Glassaugh, and Fetteresso. He was elected member of Parliament for Banffshire in 1861, and con- tinued to represent the county till the spring of 1893. He then retired on being appointed Governor of New South Wales. Having received the honour of knighthood. Sir Robert sailed for his new home to assume the functions of Governor of the colony. The Parish Church of Peterculter stands on the north bank of the Dee, and was erected in 1779, and contains 550 sittings. The original church was dedicated to St. Peter. The Free Church stands at the southern base of Beanshill. The village of Culter has arisen in connection with the paper works on the Burn of Culter. It contains a few shops, and a public hall on the north side of the road. Most of the houses are occupied by the people CULTER. 53 engaged at the works. The Bum of Culter is crossed by a bridge at a rather romantic and picturesque spot. Above the bridge there are projecting crags on either side of the narrow den, but the crags are highest on the east, and there a wooden statue has been placed — dressed in the character of Rob Roy ! A little further up, the Den has been turned into a reservoir, and the water used for motive power. The paper works are on a haugh below the bridge. In 1750, Bartholomew Smith obtained a long lease of a site for a paper work from Patrick Duff of Culter, on the banks of the Culter Bum. For a long time the works were on a small scale. Mr. Smith was succeeded by his son, Richard, and Lewis Smith continued the manufactory ; but only about six men were employed at the works towards the end of the last century. In 1820, the works were acquired by Alexander Irvine, and car- ried on under the name of Irvine & Company till 1837, when the mills were purchased by Messrs. Arbuthnot & M*Combie In 1840, the machinery was driven by two large water wheels ; and sixty hands were employed at the works. The papers then produced in the establish- ment were browns, cartridges, and all kinds of wrapping papers. In 1856, the Messrs. Pirie, of Stoneywood, pur- chased the mills; but, in 1865, they sold them to the Culter Mills Paper Company. The production was then about fifteen tons per week. Recently the works have been greatly extended, new machinery and improved appliances requisite for the various processes of the manufactures have been introduced ; and the weekly produce of paper is upward of sixty tons — or about jthirty-two hundred tons per annum. The motive power 44 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. held it till 1834, and then sold it to Mr. Peter Duguid, merchant, Aberdeen. Mr. Duguid died in 1838, and was succeeded by his son, Peter, the present owner of the estate. Mr. Duguid resided for many years at the house of Auchlunies, but he now resides at the fine old mansion on his estate of Bourtie, while his brother, William, occupies the house of Auchlunies. Mr. Peter Duguid is a cultured and exceedingly genial gentleman. Chapter V. MURTLE— EDGEHILL— CULTER HOUSE— PAPER WORKS. Turning to the north side of the Valley, immediately beyond Cults House there are a considerable number of very fine vfllsis and cottages, on both sides of the road nearly all the way to the village of Culter. On the north side of the road is Lynwood, the residence of the late Mr. George D. Rutherford, advocate. It is a very fine villa. In the immediate vicinity, on the same side of the road, is the residence of General Brown. The General has lived a quiet life in this beautiful spot for a number of years. He has seen many parts of the world, his range of infor- mation is wide and varied, and his conversation is exceed- ingly interesting and instructive. A short distance onward is Femielee, the residence of Mr. McLaren, merchant. On the south side of the road is Newton Dee, the residence of Colonel Johnston. Bieldside lies between Cults and Murtle, and is in the Parish of Peterculter. It was purchased by Mr. Corbet in 1805, and the mansion house was erected in 181 1. He died in 1844, and was succeeded by his son, the Rev. Dr. Adam Corbet. He was minister of Drumoak from 1826 until his death in 1876. He bequeathed the estate in life-rent to his half-brother. Dr. James Corbet, who died recently. Dalhibity House stands on the east side of the Den of Murtle, and is the residence of Mr. John Whyte, advocate. Binghill lies on the west of the Den of Murtle ; and in a 44 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. held it till 1834, and then sold it to Mr. Peter Duguid, merchant, Aberdeen. Mr. Duguid died in 1838, and was succeeded by his son, Peter, the present owner of the estate. Mr. Duguid resided for many years at the house of Auchlunies, but he now resides at the fine old mansion on his estate of Bourtie, while his brother, William, occupies the house of Auchlunies. Mr. Peter Duguid is a cultured and exceedingly genial gentleman. Chapter V. MURTLE—EDGEHILL— CULTER HOUSE— PAPER WORKS. Turning to the north side of the Valley, immediately beyond Cults House there are a considerable number of very fine villas and cottages, on both sides of the road nearly all the way to the village of Culter. On the north side of the road is Lynwood, the residence of the late Mr. George D. Rutherford, advocate. It is a very fine villa. In the immediate vicinity, on the same side of the road, is the residence of General Brown. The General has lived a quiet life in this beautiful spot for a number of years. He has seen many parts of the world, his range of infor- mation is wide and varied, and his conversation is exceed- ingly interesting and instructive. A short distance onward is Femielee, the residence of Mr. McLaren, merchant. On the south side of the road is Newton Dee, the residence of Colonel Johnston. Bieldside lies between Cults and Murtle, and is in the Parish of Peterculter. It was purchased by Mr. Corbet in 1805, and the mansion house was erected in 181 1. He died in 1844, and was succeeded by his son, the Rev. Dr. Adam Corbet He was minister of Drumoak from 1826 until his death in 1876. He bequeathed the estate in life-rent to his half-brother, Dr. James Corbet, who died recently. Dalhibity House stands on the east side of the Den of Murtle, and is the residence of Mr. John Whyte, advocate Binghill lies on the west of the Den of Murtle ; and in a 68 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Cardinal Beaton, Prince Charles Edward, and of several Scottish Bishops form a part of the invaluable treasures of the College. A little further up the Valley, on the south side of the road, stands Marybank, the residence of William Mackintosh. During the trenching and laying out of the grounds a stone cist and urn were found. The mansion house of Kingcausie is situated on the rising ground, about a quarter of a mile from the south bank of the river. The house and lawn front the Dee. The background is sheltered with trees ; and the pleasure grounds are beautiful. A little to, the west of the mansion is a romantic little waterfall called the Corbie Linn, on a small stream. The locality is noted for its flora. In IS3S, Henry Irvine, a son of Alexander Irvine of Drum, acquired the lands of Kingcausie from the Knights Templars ; and John Irvine was the proprietor of the estate in 1592. He was succeeded by his son, Alexander Irvine, and this branch of the Irvine family continued to hold the estate. James Irvine of Kingcausie joined the Earl of Mar in the Rising of 171 5 ; and he accompanied Earl Marischal when the Pretender was proclaimed King at the Cross of Aberdeen. The succession in the male line having failed, the estate passed to Anne Irvine; and in 1783 she married Claude Boswell, advocate, subsequently Lord Balmuto, by whom she had a son and two daughters. Their son, John Irvine-Boswell succeeded to the estata He married Margaret, a daughter of Mr. Christie of Durie. Mr. Irvine-Boswell died in i860, at the age of seventy-five years ; and a massive granite monument was erected to his memory by his widow, which stands upon MARYCULTER. 69 the hill of Auchlunies. He left no issue, and one of his sisters died unmarried ; while his other sister married Mr. Syme, drawing-master at Dollar Academy, by whom she had a son and a daughter. The son succeeded to Balmuto, in Fife, and the daughter became heiress of Kingcausie. She married Mr. Archer Fortescue of Swanbister, in Orkney, the present proprietor. The mansion house of Maryculter is placed on a bank overhanging the south side of the Dee, and embosomed amid wood. The natural beauty of the site and the scene around it is serene and pleasing to the eye. The avenue leading to it runs west along the south side of the river for a mile, and on either side it is lined by fine old trees. A portion of the house was probably built in the seventeenth century, and it was thoroughly repaired and considerably enlarged in the first quarter of the present century by General Gordon. In 1618, the house of Maryculter and the adjoining lands were purchased by George Menzies of Pitfodels. In 181 1, the estate was bought by General Gordon from John Menzies. This General, the Hon. William Gordon, was a son of the Earl of Aberdeen ; and in 1746, when a boy, he succeeded to the lands of Fyvie. He entered the army, and attained distinction. He was Colonel of the 2 1 St Fusiliers, a Groom of the Bedchamber to George III., and a Member of Parliament for a number of years. He erected the fourth tower of the Castle of Fyvie in 1777, called the Gordon Tower; formed the beautiful lake which stretches along the east side of the avenue, and laid out the fine policies; planted extensive tracts of ground in the parish, encouraged agriculture, and took a keen interest in the welfare of his tenantry. General 60 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Gordon died at Maiyculter in 1816, and was succeeded by his son, William Gordon ; and he carried on the improvements which his father had commenced. It appears that Mr. Gordon occasionally resided at Mary- culter ; but in 1839, he sold the greater part of the estate. He died in 1847, and was succeeded by Captain Charles Gordon, who died in 1851. He was succeeded by his son. Captain William Cosmo Gordon. In 1848, he married Mary Grace, a daughter of Sir Robert Abercromby, Bart, of Birkenbog and Forglen, but had no issue. He was a popular landlord, and took a warm interest in his tenantry. He died in 1879, and was suc- ceeded by his brother. Captain Alexander H. Gordon, of the Indian Navy. Captain Gordon was a considerate and generous landlord, and a warm-hearted gentleman. He died suddenly at Aberdeen, in March, 1884. Dying without issue, he was succeeded by his cousin. Sir Maurice Duff Gordon ; but the estate of Fyvie was recently purchased by Mr. Leith. A mile to the west of Maryculter House is the house of Altries. Considerable portions of the Parish of Maryculter are covered with wood. The trees which appear to be most congenial to the soil are the birch, fir, larch, spruce, and beech. The district is comparatively rich in plants of botanic interest ; some rare species are found among the woods.' Proceeding up the Valley, it is said that Durris was a Royal forest at an early period, but there is little or no X. A new Steel Bridge across the Dee at Maryculter is erecting, and was expected to be finished in x8(h ; but a severe thunder storm occurred on the night of the and and morning of the 3rd of August, which greatly injured the preparations for the erection of the Bridge. Great damage was also done to the Crops in the Valley. DURRIS. 61 evidence of this. In the thirteenth century, during the reign of Alexander III., a portion of the lands of Durris appears to have been in the hands of the Crown ; and at that period a considerable extent of land throughout the kingdom was in the Crown. This meant that the Sheriff of the county, the steward or bailie of a district, accounted to the national Exchequer for the rents in money and kind payable to the Crown for such lands. But some confusion appears to have often arisen in the minds of popular writers touching the terms " Royal forest," "in forest," " free forest" : such words frequently occur in early charters, and require some explanation. The ex- pression " Royal forest " did not necessarily mean that the territory to which it was applied was under wood or uninhabited by man ; at the utmost it only imported that when the King thought fit he could traverse such terri- tory and hunt in it ; and there is no evidence that these territories in early times were uninhabited or unused as pastures for sheep and cattle. But the Royal parks — the enclosed grounds — were strictly limited as real Royal and Crown property ; and altogether different from what was vaguely called a forest. Further, the term " in forest'* was connected with a form of feudal tenure in Scotland, and did not mean in general, that the territory granted in the charter was quite wooded or in any way wooded at all, or uninhabited or uncultivated. Then a grant of " free forest " by charter was a form of tenure a degree higher than a grant of " free barony," and it had no special con- nection whatever with trees or a forest, but it conveyed to its holder such a stretch of power and jurisdiction over the inhabitants of the lands within the limits of the grant as approached to the feudal rights and privileges of an 62 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. earldom. Thus, the term " Royal forest " in early times had a vague meaning, while the expression " Royal park" was quite definite ; the phrase " in forest " was used in connection with a form of feudal tenure ; and a grant of " free forest" was a higher form of feudal tenure than a grant of " free barony." It appears that the territory of Durris was in the hands of Robert I. in 1308. William Fraser, a son of Sir Alexander Fraser, held the lands of Durris in the reign of David II. His father, Sir Alexander, married Lady Mary, a sister of Robert the Bruce, and through her the family obtained many grants of lands. William married Mary, a daughter of the national patriot. Sir Andrew Moray of Bothwell. William Fraser was actively en- gaged in the national struggle against the English during the minority of David II. ; while his father. Sir Alexander, was slain at the battle of Dupplin in 1332. It seems that he received the honour of knighthood from David II., who, after his return from France, frequently visited Aberdeen and the surrounding country. Sir William was in the army under the King which invaded England in 1346, and he fell in the disastrous battle of Durham. He left two sons, mere boys, and the lands of Durris were placed in ward under the Crown during the minority of the eldest son. Alexander Fraser, the eldest son, obtained full possession of the lands in 1363. In 1369, David II. granted to him the whole lands of the thanage of Durris — transformed into the tenure of free barony, to be held, under the Crown, by him and his heirs on the condition of three annual attendances at the Head Court of the Sheriffdom of Kincardineshire and the service of one archer in the Royal army. DURRIS. 63 He was present at the Coronation of Robert II. at Scone, on the 26th of March, 1371 ; and he was also present at the more memorable meeting of Parliament at Scone, on the 4th of April, 1372, when the succession to the Kingdom of Scotland was limited to the male line. On this great occasion, after the document settling the succession had been approved and passed by Parliament, all present, each individually touched the "Holy Gospels and sworn their bodily oath that they would inviolably observe these declarations and statutes for themselves and their heirs, and cause them to be observed to the utmost of their power.*' One would have thought this was sufficient, but Robert II. thought other- wise ; and what was instantly enacted to complete the validity of the proceedings is of great historic interest and significance. The record goes on to state : — " And im- mediately thereafter the whole multitude of the clergy and the people in the Church of Scone, before the great altar, being specially convened for the purpose, the aforesaid declaration, ordinance, and statute being ex- plained to them in a loud and public voice, each raising his hand, after the manner of faith-giving, in token of the universal consent of the whole clergy and people, publicly expressed and declared their consent and assent. In witness of all which, our Lord the King ordered his Great Seal to be affixed to the present writing." There is no doubt that the latter part of the proceedings — ^the manner of obtaining " the consent and assent of the people " — was even at that date an extremely ancient custom in Scotland.'' Sir Alexander Fraser, in 1375, married Johanna, X. National MSS. Part II., Nos. 43 A, 43 B. 64 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. younger daughter of William, sixth Earl of Ross ; and Sir Walter Leslie married the elder daughter of the Earl. In due time, Sir Walter Leslie became Earl of Ross in right of his wife ; and Sir Alexander obtained with his wife a number of estates in Buchan, which were formed into the lordship of Philorth. In 1388, he fought at the battle of Otterbum. This Sir Alexander Eraser of Durris and Philorth died about 1410, and was succeeded by his son, William. The Erasers continued in the possession of Durris and their kinsmen in the lordship of Philorth. As the chief of the Erasers became a Covenanter in 1639, the lands and House of Durris were plundered by the Royalists. In 1645, Montrose, on his march through the district, set Durris House on fire, and destroyed the corn, horses, cattle, sheep, and other goods. Shortly after, Durris passed into the hatids of the Philorth branch of the family — Lord Eraser. But in 1669, Sir Alexander Eraser, a descendant of the old branch, purchased the estate of Durris from Lord Eraser. Sir Alexander had several sons and daughters ; and one of his sons. Sir Peter Eraser, was the last laird of Durris of that name. His daughter and heiress, named Carey, was a maid of honour to Catherine, Queen of Charles II. She married General Mordaunt, Earl of Peterborough and Monmouth, by whom she had an only daughter, Henriett Mordaunt. This lady married the second Duke of Gordon ; and thus the lands of Durris ultimately passed into the hands of this ancient and honourable family. When the lands of Durris became the property of the Duke of Gordon great improvements were made. A DURRIS. 65 large tract of territory was planted, and a better method of husbandry was introduced into the district. On a rounded height near the south side of the Dee, and the Bridge of Park, there stands an octagonal tower, nearly eighty feet in height, which was erected in 1825 by the Duke of Gordon to commemorate his coming into the possession of Durris as heir of entail to the Earl of Peterborough. Towards the end of the last century, the lands of Durris were held under a long lease by John Innes, Sheriff-Substitute of Kincardineshire. He died in 1852, £^ed eighty years. His son, Cosmo Innes, was bom at Durris House. He became an advocate; held the appointment of Clerk in the Court of Session ; and sub- sequently he was appointed Sheriff of Elginshire, and Professor of History in the University of Edinburgh. He is the author of a number of works, chiefly relating to the early and middle periods of Scottish history. One of his latest and best volumes was entitled " Legal Antiquities." Mr. Innes also edited and wrote prefaces to a very large number of volumes for the Bannatyne Club, Maitland Club, and the original Spalding Club. Further, he prepared and edited the greater part of the very valuable work entitled " The National Manuscripts of Scotland " ; and his labour and research in connection with the editing of the first volume of the " Record Edition of the Acts of the Scottish Parliament " is a great monument of record scholarship, and industry. Mr. Innes died in 1874- Under an Act of Parliament the entail of Durris was transferred to property in the vicinity of Gordon Castle. In 1834, the lands of Durris were sold to Anthony F 06 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Mactier. He died on the 5th of Ai^^st, 1854, at the advanced age of eighty-one yeara He was succeeded by his son, Alexander, who married, but had no children. In 1871, he sold the estate to Dr. James Young of Kelly, paraffin oil manufacturer, for a sum of ;^300,ooo. Dr. Young grained his wealth by his own efforts. He was descended from parents in humble circumstances, and he worked as a joiner at an early stage of his life in Glasgow. He soon became intensely interested in the study of chemistry, and attended the chemical classes in the Andersonian College. Subsequently he went to London, and continued his studies in London University, under Professor Graham. Afterward he became manager of chemical works at Liverpool ; thence he proceeded to Manchester, and was engaged in the branch of the St. Rollox Works in that city. On leaving Manchester he commenced a series of experiments in connection with the manufacture of mineral oil. After much hard and continuous work, his efforts culminated in the discovery of paraffin. From this and other enterprises, he amassed great wealth. Dr. Young died on the 13th of May, 1883. In 1890, Henry R. Baird purchased the lands of Durris. The mansion house of Durris stands on the east bank of a sequestered and picturesque narrow dale. It consists of two portions, an old and a new. The old mansion was probably built in the later part of the seventeenth century, and presents some of the characteristics of the Scottish baronial style. A portion of the modem structure was erected in 1824, and additions were made to it in 1835-38. The two portions of the structure are connected by a colonnade. It is built of granite. The grounds extend to over two hundred acres, and are well DURRIS. 67 laid out ; the ornamental trees and shrubs are varied and attractive. The hamlet of Kirkton of Durris is beside the bridge which spans the Sheeoch Bum, and it consists of a few neat cottages, with some trees in its vicinity. A short distance down on the east side of the stream, and the south bank of the Dee, stands the Parish Church and Manse of Durris, in a pleasant situation. The church is a plain structure, and was erected in 1822, by the fifth Duke of Gordon. It affords accommodation for five hundred and fifty sitters. From a date on the ruins of the old church, it appears to have been built in 1537. The Free Church is about a mile to the south-west. A mile and a half to the west of the Parish Church, the Dee is spanned by a bridge, which was erected in 1862 by the late proprietor of Durris, Mr. Mactier. A quarter of a mile below the church, overhanging a rather steep bank of the river, is a small height, called the Castle Hill. It has a ditch at the base, and a small rill of water runs close past it, which might easily have been diverted to fill the ditch. There is a tradition that it had been a fort. Chapter VII. IRVINES OF DRUM— HISTORIC INCIDENTS. Proceeding up the Valley, the scenery appears more striking and varied. On the south side, the summits of the mountain range gradually increase in elevation, while trees and plantations give hue and shade to the scene ; on the north side, the undulating surface of the ground, the knolls and heights covered with wood, present land- scapes of touching beauty. The Loch of Drum lies about a mile west of Park Station. It is an oblong sheet of water, covering eighty- four acres, with a depth of from three to four feet Its margin is fringed with alders, and on three sides it is bounded by woods. It once covered three hundred acres, but its area was reduced by drainage in the early part of this century. On the north-east side is the "King's Well." There is a tradition that the early Kings of Scotland often resorted to the Forest of Drum to enjoy the chase. The old church of Drumoak stood within the grave- yard upon a rising space on the north bank of the Dee. It is now a roofless ruin. It was a long and narrow structure, with outside stairs upon the north and east, and had two doors and five windows. A flat slab near the east end is ornamented with an incised cross. The present church stands on a flat site, about a quarter of a mile from Park Station, and was erected in 1836. It is an elegant structure, in the Gothic style, designed by the late Mr. A. Simpson, Aberdeen. IRVINES OF DRUM. 69 There is no lack of legend and romance associated with the Irvine family. It is supposed by some that Drum was in the possession of the Crown prior to tne fourteenth century, and formed part of a Royal forest There is, however, no evidence of this, though there is evidence of a park — an enclosed space of ground which belonged to the Crown. The Irvine family trace their descent back to a very remote period. At the opening of the fourteenth century the family was settled in Dumfries-shire. William Irvine of Bonshaw had a son, William, who enrolled himself under the banner of Robert Bruce as one of the small party who formed the forlorn hope of the Scottish nation. Irvine was so faithful to Bruce, and acted so well in the desperate struggle which ensued, and culminated in the memorable Battle of Bannockbum, that Robert I., in 1323, granted to him by charter the forest lands of Drum; but reserved the Park — that is, the enclosed ground — the real hunting seat Shortly after, Irvine received another charter from the King, conferring on him a more complete jurisdiction over the inhabitants of the land. The feudal enemies of the Irvines in the south of Scotland were the Maxwells and the Bells ; while in the north they had to do battle with the Keiths and the Forbeses. Tradition has transmitted a tale of one of the conflicts between the Irvines and the Keiths, which took place on a moor on the north side of the Dee, in the Parish of Drumoak. In this encounter the Irvines were victorious, and drove their enemies across the river at a deep, rocky part of the channel, which is called " Keith's Pot " ; and a rock which occasionally appears a few 70 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. inches above the water, on which one of the fugitives had taken refuge, and was killed, yet retains the name of " Keith's Stone." The feud between the two families rose to such a height that Parliament had to interfere, and induced Alexander Irvine, the fourth laird of Drum, to marry Elizabeth, a daughter of Sir Robert Keith, Marischal of Scotland. It is said that Irvine formed this marriage alliance more from a spirit of loyalty than any desire to wed the daughter of his feudal enemy. In 141 1, when the family quarrel between the Lord of the Isles and the Duke of Albany — then Regent of Scotland — came to a crisis, Alexander Irvine of Drum joined the Earl of Mar, and fought at the Battle of Harlaw. Irvine of Drum and a considerable number of the chief men of the counties of Aberdeen, Kincardine, and Forfar were slain at Harlaw. Thus the Battle of Harlaw was a very important local event ; but it had no real political, or national, or racial significance whatever, for it was entirely a family quarrel between the Duke of Albany and the Lord of the Isles, touching the right of succession to the Earldom of Ross. Further, the Duke of Albany was completely on the wrong side in the quarrel which led to the Battle of Harlaw ; for Donald of the Isles retained possession of the Earldom of Ross, and his son, Alexander, succeeded him ; and James I. granted a charter to him confirming his right to the Earldom of Ross. In 1425, on the 27th of May, in the palace of Stirling, when the Duke of Albany (the Regent's son) was tried and sentenced to death, Alexander, Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles, was one of the jurymen on the trial. Robert Irvine, a brother of Alexander, who fell at Harlaw, succeeded to the family estates, and assumed IRVINES OF DRUM. 71 the name of Alexander. In 1423, he was one of the commissioners who went to England to negotiate with the English Government for the liberation of James I. When the King returned home in 1424, he conferred on Irvine the honour of knighthood. He attended the Parliament held at Perth on the 12th of March, 1425 ; and on the ninth day of the Parliament, the King arrested and imprisoned twenty-nine nobles and knights, and Sir Alexander Irvine of Drum was one of them. The King's object was to secure the Duke of Albany, and he imprisoned the others to prevent them from assisting him or attempting his rescue ; and they were released in a few days. The Irvine family have always been remarkable for loyalty to the Crown. Sir Alex- ander's second son acted so bravely at the Battle of Brechin in 1452, under the Earl of Huntly, that his lordship afterwards granted to him the lands of Belty, in Kincardine O'Neil, as a reward for his service. Sir Alexander was succeeded by his son, Alexander Irvine. In 1470, he held the office of Sheriff-Depute of Aberdeenshire. He married a daughter of Abemethy of Saltoun, and had issue. The family continued to be loyal and powerful; and, in 1527, James V. conferred upon the eldest son of the then Alexander, a gift of non-entry to the lands of Forglen, which purported to be gfiven " on account of Drum, his said son, and their friends, their good and thankful service done to the King in searching for, taking, and bringing the rebels to justice." The young man thus referred to entered into the midst of the struggle in the early part of the minority of Queen Mary. He marched southward with a company of the citizens of Aberdeen, joined the 72 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Regent near Musselbuigh; and on the lOth of September, 1547, he fell facing the enemy on the disastrous field of Pinkie. He left six sons and three dai^hters ; and his eldest son, Alexander, succeeded to the estates on the death of his grandfather. He married Elizabeth Keith, a daughter of Earl Marischal, by whom he had a lai^e family. Their eldest son. Sir Alexander, succeeded to the lands in 1583. He became a warm patron of learn- ing, and benefactor to the poor. In 1629, he devised a sum of ;f 10,000 Scots for the maintenance of four bursars in philosophy, and two in divinity at Marischal College ; and four at the Grammar School of Aberdeen ; and vesting the right of presentation to all of them in the family of Drum. Further, he mortified thirty-two bolls of meal to persons livii^ on his property in Drum- oak, viz. : — Twelve bolls to poor scholars, eight to the parochial schoolmaster for teaching them, and twelve to decayed tenants — all of which are divided annually at the sight of the kirk-sesston. He married Marian Douglas, a daughter of the Earl of Buchan, by whom he had issue. This lady, in 1633, mortified a sum of three thousand marks to endow an hospital in Aberdeen for widows and aged daughters of decayed burgesses, of which the Town Council had the patronage. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir Alexander. He married Magdalen, a daughter of Sir John Scrym- geour of Dudhope, Constable of Dundee. Sir Alexander was Sheriff-Principal of Aberdeenshire in 1634, and in several subsequent years. At this period the family of Drum possessed extensive and valuable estates in the counties of Aberdeen, Banff, and Forfar ; and the house IRVINES OF DRUM. 73 had then attained the zenith of its wealth and influence. The family suffered severely for their adherence to the Royal cause in the Covenanting struggle. On the 2nd of June, 1640, General Munro and Earl Marischal advanced to besiege the Castle of Drum. The laird was then from home, but his Lady, accompanied by a few determined men, held the Castle, which was well supplied with provisions and ammunition. When the attacking army came within range, it was saluted by a volley, which killed two men, and induced the Cove- nanting general to try the effect of a parley. He sum- moned the Lady to surrender the Castle ; she requested time to form a decision, and twenty-four hours was granted that she might obtain her husband's opinion. Before the expiry of this time, the Lady resolved to surrender, on the condition that her soldiers should be permitted to march out with their b^^gage ; and herself, her children, and female servants should be permitted to remain and occupy apartments in the place. Those conditions were accepted. Monro left a garrison of forty men in the Castle to live at free quarters, commanded the Lady to send her husband to him on his return home ; and on the 5th he left Drum, and proceeded triumphantly to Aberdeen. The succeeding laird was subjected to greater per- secution. In his father's life-time, Alexander married Lady Mary Gordon, a daughter of the second Marquis of Huntly. Throughout all the changes of the time, Alexander Irvine adhered to the Royal cause ; and, in 1644, he joined the standard of Montrose. The same year, he and his brother, Robert, were excommunicated, and a reward of eighteen thousand marks was offered 74 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. for the head of the Laird of Drum. This rendered their position extremely perilous, and they resolved to leave Scotland. The two brothers embarked on a small vessel at Fraserburgh, intending to sail for England ; but they were driven by adverse winds on the coast of Caithness. They landed at Wick, where a committee of Covenanters was sitting ; and, being recognised, they were im- mediately seized and conveyed to Edinburgh, and imprisoned Robert sank under the rigorous confine- ment, and died in prison. His brother, Alexander, was lying in Edinburgh Castle under the sentence of death. But the Battle of Kilsjrth saved him and a number of others from the gallows ; as Montrose, by a rapid march, threatened Edinburgh, the prisoners in the Castle were liberated. In 1646, Irvine of Drum with a troop of horse, and Farquharson of Inverey with two hundred foot, beat up the quarters of the Covenanters in the Valley of the Dee to within a few miles of Aberdeen. They captured seventy prisoners, with all their horses, baggage, and provisions. After the Restoration, Charles II. offered Alexander Irvine a peerage. But placed as the family then were, from confiscation of their property, heavy fines, and other disasters which had befallen them, he wisely declined the proffered honour. He died in 1687, and was interred in Drum's Aisle, St. Nicholas Church, Aberdeen. By his wife, Lady Mary Gordon, he had three sons and four daughters ; and his eldest son, Alexander, succeeded to the lands. He had no issue, and died in 1695. Alexander Irvine of Murtle then succeeded to the IRVINES OF DRUM. 76 lands of Drum. He married, and had issue, and died in 1 7 19. He was succeeded by his son, Alexander, who having died unmarried in 1735, the lands then passed into the possession of his uncle, John Irvine. He died in 1737, leaving no issue ; and the male line of the Murtle branch became extinct The succession then reverted to the descendants of John Irvine of Artamford, fifth son of Alexander Irvine of Drum, who inherited the estates in 1553, and whose great-grandson, Alexander Irvine of Crimond, by the failure of heirs-male in the senior branches, became Laird of Drum. He also, in 1744, became heir-of-line, on the death of Irvine of Saphock without male issue. His eldest son died without issue, but his second son, Alexander, succeeded to the estates of Drum and Crimond. He married Mary, a daughter of James Ogilvie of Auchiries, by whom he had issue — three sons and three daughters. He died in 1761, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Alexander. In December, 1775, he married Jane, only daughter of Hugh Forbes of Chivas. Their eldest son, Alexander Forbes Irvine was bom in 1777. He became an advocate at the Scottish Bar ; and on the death of his father, succeeded to the lands of Drum. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Alexander Forbes Irvine. He was for thirty years Convener of the County of Aberdeen ; and Sheriff-Principal of Argyllshire for many years. He died on 4th April, 1892, and was succeeded by his son, Francis H. F. Irvine, the twenty-first laird of Drum. He was a popular landlord, and very kind to the tenants on his estate. Mr. Irvine was a member of the County Council for the Drumoak district, a Justice of the Peace and a Commissioner 76 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. of Supply for the County. He was chairman of Drum- oak School Board. He took an active part in the movement for the erection of the bridge over the Dee at Maryculter ; and, indeed, he was ever willing to promote any movement calculated to benefit the community. After a few days illness he expired on the evening of the 25 th July, 1894, in the fortieth year of his age. He was survived by his wife, and two sons, both of whom are minors. The Castle of Drum stands upon the east side of an eminence, surrounded by woods, and presents a striking and picturesque appearance. The Tower of Drum is the greatest structure, and the most interesting object of antiquity in the Parish of Drumoak. It is oblong in form, and rounded at the angles, a massive specimen of the early defensive tower. It is fifty feet six inches in length, and thirty-eight feet six inches in width, and scjventy feet six inches in height to the top of the battlement. The walls are twelve feet in thickness above the ground and still thicker in the vault below. The interior consists of three vaulted chambers, each forming an entire storey, with a small recess in the wall of each of the two uppermost. The original entrance seems to be the one near the south-east corner of the tower, twelve feet from the ground, and on entering it there are two inner doors in front. From one of these a narrow stair of nineteen steps leads down to the under- ground vault or first storey, which is an apartment of twenty-eight feet six inches by fifteen feet six inches, and eleven feet high ; and in one comer of it there is a draw-well nine feet deep. The other inner door opens into the second chamber or storey, which is thirty-two IRVINES OF DRUM. 77 feet by twenty feet nine inches, and twenty-three feet in height. From this apartment a narrow stair within the wall winds up to the third chamber, which is twenty-four feet nine inches high, and of nearly the same area as the one below it. In the east end of the vaulted roof, a small door leads out to the battlement. The windows are small, few, and far from the ground. This great defensive tower, presents the main characteristics of the earlier specimens of the class to which it belongs^ and was probably built about the middle of the thir- teenth century. The mansion adjoining the tower is a large and spacious structure, and was erected in 1619. Important alterations have from time to time been made upon it, but its original style has been preserved. In the immediate vicinity of the house, at the south-west corner, there is a neat small chapel, which internally is very beautiful. The family tomb is within the chapel. CHAPTER VIIL PARK— BURNETTS OF LEYS— CRATHES CASTLE. The lands of Park were granted by charter from David 11. to Walter Moigne in 1359 ; and he was succeeded by his son, John. In 1389, John Moigne concluded an agree- ment with Alexander Irvine, "lord of Drum," reserving for his own life-lime a chalder of meal, which Irvine was wont to pay for upholding the Park, the half of the profits arising from the barony courts, and the sale of wood ; he agreed that Alexander of Drum and his heirs should succeed to the Park at his demise. Park continued in the possession of the Irvine family until 1737, when the estate was sold to Mr. Patrick Duff of Culter. In 1807, the estate was purchased for £gooo by Thomas Burnett, advocate, Aberdeen; and in 1821 he sold it to Mr. William Moir. He erected, in 1822, an elegant mansion house, in the Grecian style of architecture ; and laid out the grounds and the garden in an admirable form. In 1839, Park was purchased by Mr. Kinloch for a sum of ;^28,SOO. In 1888, Mr. Andrew Penny, silver mine owner, purchased the estate of Park from Mr. Kinloch's trustees. Mr. Penny was a native of the Parish of Birse, and naturally much attached to the Valley of the Dee. By his own energy and industry, he had amassed a consider- able fortune; and he had intended to make Park his residence in the evening of his days. He was rapidly improving and still further beautifying the seat ; but on BURNETTS OF LEYS. 79 his way home from South America he died on the i8th of May, 1889, without issue. He was succeeded by his brother, Mr. James Penny, who is also making improve- ments on the estate. The chief objects of interest in the vicinity of this beautiful seat are the Loch of Park, the King's Well, the Priest's Well, and the Prophet's Well ; a sculptured stone found on Keith's Moor in 1822, and the fine policies. The Railway Company erected a bridge over the Dee in the neighbourhood of Park. The family of Burnett of Leys, according to tradition, is of great antiquity. Without attaching much weight to the legend that they came over to England with William the Conqueror; yet it appears that there were several persons of note in the south of Scotland bearing the name of Bumard as early as the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, whose names occur as witnesses to charters of the period. In 1324, Robert L granted by charter to Alexander Burnett the lands of Kiliienach Clcrach, in the Parish of Drumoak, and other lands in Banchory-Ternan, within the Forest of Drum, but outside the Park of this forest. This grant was confirmed in 1358 by David II., by a charter under the Great Seal. Alexander was suc- ceeded by his son, Robert. John Burnett succeeded his father ; and in his time — ^the beginning of the fifteenth century — ^the lands were erected into a barony, under the title of Leys. His son, Robert Burnett, succeeded to the lands. In 1557, John, the Commendator of Arbroath and the Convent, signed a charter of resignation of the lands of Pittenkerrie, Brathens, Invery, and the Kirk lands of Banchory in favour of Alexander Burnett and his heirs-male ; and in 1595, all these lands were incorpor- ated into the barony of Leys, by a charter of James VI. 80 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. The fourth son of this laird, Gilbert Burnett, was educated at the University of Aberdeen. Subsequently he became a Professor of Philosophy at Basle, and afterwards at Montauban. He was held in great esteem among the Protestants of France ; and he is the author of a book on Ethics. Alexander Burnett, the eleventh laird in succession, married Katherine, a daughter of Gordon of Lismore, and they had six sons and seven daughters Their third son, James of Craigmyle, was the ancestor of the Burnetts of Monboddo, in Kincardineshire. Their fourth son, Robert, became Lord Crimond — a lord of Session. Their eldest son predeceased his father, and the second son, Thomas, succeeded to Leys. He ^as knighted by James VI. In 1626, he was created a baronet of Nova Scotia by Charles I. ; and in 1642, the King granted to him the lands and barony of Strachan. He was a warm Covenanter, and one of the strongest opponents of the policy of Charles I. in the north of Scotland. In company with the Lairds of Dun, Morphey, and Carnegie he proceeded through various districts as a Commissioner; aud they accompanied the Marquis of Montrose to Aberdeen, where they subscribed the Covenant Sir Thomas, however, lived on friendly terms with the heads of the opposite party ; and at last, finding that both sides were unreasonably resolved on extre- mities, he retired from public life. Sir Thomas was a cultured man and a patron of learning. He mortified to King's College, Aberdeen, four crofts for three bursars in philosophy ; the annual revenue of which had increased in 1842 to ;f 318 6s. 7d. He also, conjointly with Dr. Alexander Reid, erected and endowed BURNETTS OF LEYS. 81 two schools in the village of Banchory, a grammar school for boys and a sewing school for girls. He further erected and endowed with 6300 marks an hospital for six poor men or women, which was afterwards commuted into an annual allowance in money to the poor on the barony of Leys. Some of his papers and letters preserved in MS. indicate a cultured mind and a warm sympathy with the religion, liberty, and learning of his country. As indicated above, the first Baronet of Leys was a Covenanter, and one of his daughters married Andrew Cant of Glendye, in Strachan ; it was from this family of Glendye that the famous Andrew Cant, minister of Aberdeen, was descended. There is a spirited ballad which makes the baronet's daughter marry the Rev. A. Cant instead of his relative in Glendye. According to the ballad, the lady was first wooed by Montrose, but after his defection from the Covenant she consented to marry the reverend gentleman. A few verses of the ballad may be quoted : — The sun shines bright upon bonnie Dee, And bright on its birken bowers. And steals thro' the shade of the chestnut tree, On the Baron's old grey towers. And many a flower in the summer tide Springs up by the silvery water : But the fairest flower on all Deeside Was the Baron's youngest daughter. Her step was light, her eye was bright, Her cheek like summer rose. And she was wooed by a gallant knight, The young and brave Montrose. " Make ready, make ready my good grey steed," The trusty Baron said ; *• For we must ride with spur and speed. The Covenant to aid." HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Montrose rode forth with the Baron's band — He wore a scarf of blue ; And he has vowed by his lady's hand To bear him well and true. And Margaret's eyes of azure light With watching and tears were dim : She asked for news of her o¥m true knight, And heard strange news of him. And eveiy finger in scorn was raised To point at the traitor Montrose ; For where the Covenant banner blazed He fought among its foes. The moonbeams lay on the castle wall, And slept upon hill and lea. When Margaret stole from her frither's hall To weep 'neath the chestnut tree. A steed is standing in the wood, A knight is by its side ; A scarf of blue, with stains of blood, Upon his arm is tied. He listened with a beating heart. Then sprang that step to greet. And ere tne U^y could depart He kneeled down at her feet. '* Marg^et I thy fether's stem decree Forbids our hopes of bliss ; But there are lands beyond the sea. And £urer homes than this. My steed shall bear thee far away Safe to some friendly bower, And place thee ere the break of day Beyond thy father's power." She listened with a teaniil eye, Her colour came and went : She glanced upon the silent sky. And strength from heaven was sent. And passed the tear-drop from her eye, The colour from her mce. And s^e spoke with spirit strong and high — The pride of her ancient race — *< Oh ! they may lay me 'neath the sod, Bound in my white grave clothes, Ere I deny mv father's God, Or wed with false Montrose." The lady fled to her lonely bower— The Icnight rode on his way. BURNETTS OF LEYS. 83 And Margaret stood at eventide Beneath the chestnut tree, A dark stem man was by her side; A Covenanter he. " I never thought to wed," she said, " Oh trusty Andrew Cint ; But my sire's conunand shall give my hand For love of the Covenant."* Sir Thomas Burnett, the third Baronet, and grand- son of the above, represented Kincardineshire in the last Scottish Parliament, and keenly opposed the Union. Sir Robert, the fifth baronet, died unmarried, and the title passed to his cousin. Sir Thomas Burnett He married Catherine, a sister of Sir Alexander Ramsay of Balmain, and had issue. He died in 1783, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir Robert, seventh baronet. Sir Robert, in the early stage of his career, entered the army, and served throughout the first American War. He died in 1835, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir Thomas, who died in 1849. His brother. Sir Alexander, then suc- ceeded as ninth baronet He died unmarried in 1856, and his next brother, Sir James H. Burnett, became tenth baronet Sir James was Lord-Lieutenant of Kincardine- shire, and he died in 1876. He was succeeded by his son. Sir Robert Burnett He was an able and enterpris- ing business man. Sir Robert died on the 15 th of January, 1894, in the sixty-first year of his age ; and was interred in the family vault at Banchory-Teman Church- yard He was succeeded by his brother. Colonel Thomas Burnett, who is the twelfth baronet of Leys. The Castle of Crathes, the family seat of the Burnetts, stands on a fine green bank at the edge of a rocky ridge, and it is completely surrounded by fine old trees and I. Legends of Leys, R. M. Ramsay, 1856. 84 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. woods. It is on the north side of the turnpike road, and may be seen from the railway at two points — a short distance east and west on either side of Crathes Station. The castle was built in 1528, and presents the charac- teristics of the Scottish baronial style of architecture; consisting of a high square tower with ornamental turrets and massive walls. Additions have been made to it from time to time. The old hall is still preserved, and on its walls are a number of family portraits, some of which are by Jamesone. The Court Book of the Barony of Leys for the period between 162 1 and 1709 is still extant ; and it contains some valuable and curious information of much local interest The greater number of the suits which came before the court referred to pecuniary matters, a number of petty offences, and some public and private arrange- ments. The Loch of Leys lay in the middle of a long hallow stretching from the Loch of Drum westward ; and in early times it covered a large space of ground. There was a small island near its southern shore, on which traces of a crannog were found. About the middle of the present century, the loch was drained, and during the progress of the work a canoe hollowed out of a single log of wood was discovered, which crumbled when ex- posed to the air ; and a few bronze vessels were found. On the north side of the Dee and in the south-west comer of the Parish of Peterculter, on a rising ground, there are traces of an old camp, locally called the " Normandikes." Only a small part of it remains ; but originally it was of an oblong form, and enclosed an area of forty-eight Scotch acres. Colonel Shand examined this BURNETTS OF LEYS. 85 structure in 1801, and thought it was a Roman camp, and several other men who afterward examined it were of the same opinion ; but there is not the least evidence that the Romans ever were in the Valley of the Dee; indeed, there is no evidence that they ever advanced twenty miles to the north of the Tay. The Romans did not conquer Fife and Perthshire, or Forfarshire and Kincardineshire. In short, the Romans had quite enough of work to maintain their line of defence between the Forth and Clyde. It is incredible that the Roman legions encamped in the Valley of the Dee, more than a hundred miles from their line of defence, with a hostile country behind them. This hill-fort or earthwork was probably of prehistoric origin, and may have been formed centuries before the Roman invasion of Britain. Chapter IX. BANCHORY-TERNAN— SCENERY— BURGH- REMINISCENCES. The scenery of the Valley in the Banchory district is very beautiful, the landscape in every direction is pleasingly diversified. The haughs and moderate heights which skirt the river on the north side are inter- sected by woods, belts, and plots of trees, and cultivated fields ; while the most attractive spots are studded with elegant villas and mansions, surrounded with pleasure grounds and excellent gardens. Farther north from the river, for several miles, the ground presents a succession of ridges and heights, not rising above five or six hundred feet, excepting the Hill of Fare ; these heights in some places form a high upper bank along the course of the river, gently sloping towards it, or broken and diversified. On the south side of the river, and opposite Banchory, the first ridge slopes gradually down to the banks of the Dee for nearly a mile, and at its west end there is an extensive haugh. The highest point of this ridge is about one thousand feet, and it has a steep northern aspect facing the valley of the Feugh. This stretch is wooded and cultivated in nearly equal proportions. On the highest part of the ridge, called the Hill of Scolty^ there stands a tower erected to the memory of General Burnett of Banchory, " a public-spirited gentleman and kind landlord, whose memory will be long and gratefully cherished in this neighbourhood." Farther off southward BANCHORY-TERNAN. 87 is the Kerloch Hill and Clochnaben. A lover of scenery will find in this locality much to interest him, in single views of special and delightful spots, and in wider prospects, many of which present strikingly picturesque features, and others charm by their rich and harmonious beauty. The green and shady banks along which the Dee glides are enchanting. A little below the buigh of Banchory, the Dee is spanned by a somewhat singular bridge. It was erected by public subscription in 1798, and consisted of a central wooden span of one hundred and seventy-five feet, two stone arches, each about eighty-five feet, and one at the south end of nineteen feet. After the great flood of 1829, it had fallen into an unsafe condition, and an iron truss arch was then substituted for the wooden one. A short distance below the confluence of the Dee and the Feugh, two small islands divide the stream of the river. The largest one is a low flat of about nine acres, some- times nearly submerged by high floods; the smaller islet is more elevated above the stream ; it consists mostly of sand, and is covered with trees, which give it a pleasing aspect. St. Teman was the patron saint of Banchory, who, according to legend and^ tradition, flourished about 440 A.D., and was a native of the Mearns ; and a number of churches were dedicated to him. From an early period the lands in the neighbourhood of Banchory belonged to the monastery of Arbroath, and also the church and tithes of the parish. The old church stood in the burying ground on the brink of the Dee. It was rebuilt in 1775. But it had become inadequate to accommodate the parishioners ; and, in 1824, it was 88 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. removed a few hundred yards to a higher site on the north side of the turnpike road. It is a plain structure^ built in the Gothic style, with its tower too low. The old vills^e of Banchory — the Kirktown — latterly called Townhead, stood above the old church and churchyard, in the immediate vicinity of the manse. It is mentioned as a village in 1324. A stone cross once stood in the centre of it, a fragment of which recently remained in position. The main road from Aberdeen passed though the village, and in the last century it had a good inn. The Barony Court of Leys was usually held at it. In 1 84 1, the village consisted of the old manse, two endowed schools, eight labourers' cottages, and a farmhouse and steading. The new village, at first called Arbeadie, was begun by three men in the years of 1805, 1807, and 1809, who successively took in feu from one of the local proprietors, in all about twenty Scotch acres of ground, at the rate of 2s. 6d., 3s., and £1 per acre, for which they continued to pay in whole ;^ii 4s. 6d Thirty years later this ground was sub-feuing at the rate of ;6^i2 to ;f 120 per acre ; and subsequently at a higher rate. In 1841, there were fifty houses in the town, occupied by seventy-two families, forming a population of about three hundred and fifty. It was then a burgh of barony, and I knew one of its Provosts. At that time the burgh had a post- office, a prison, an Episcopal chapel, two schools, a branch of the Bank of Scotland, and three inns ; and there were also in the burgh — one doctor, a constable, a dancing master, a watchmaker, a baker, two plasterers, four carpenters, four shoemakers, four tailors, three weavers, two gardeners, one road contractor, four BANCHORYTERNAN. 89 sawyers, three floaters, thirteen labourers, and twenty- servants. The mail coach passed through the burgh daily ; and for one half of the year a stage coach ran daily between it and Aberdeen ; several carriers also went weekly between it and Aberdeen. Large quantities of wood were then transmitted from Banchory in rafts when the state of the river was favour- able, and from the upper stretches of the Valley, to Aberdeen. For a long period the wood cut in the Valley, was floated in rafts down the river to Aberdeen. I have often seen the rafts floating past Banchory ; and also numbers of rafts lying at the river-side, south-west of Market Street, before the diversion of the Dee into its new channel. The occupation of the wood-floater on the Dee was a diflicult and dangerous one, and attention and skill had to be exercised to keep the raft about the centre of the river. Since the extension of the Deeside Railway to Ballater, the floating of wood down the river gradually fell off", and about twenty years ago ceased. The burgh of Banchory continued to increase and prosper. The opening of the railway in 1853 ^^ tended greatly to extend and enhance the importance of the burgh, and since, its progress has been rapid. Many fine villas and houses have been erected in it and its immediate vicinity. Its attractions are many and great, and it has long been a favourite resort of visitors in the summer months. It stands on a fine elevated and dry site, with a southern exposure, while the Hill of Fare shelters it from the cold north winds. In 1885, the community of Banchory adopted the Lindsay Act ; and its municipal affairs then came under 90 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. the administration of a Board of Police Commissioners. Under the direction of this Board, an ample supply of clear spring water was brought from the Hill of Kerloch, on the south side of the Valley, and an efficient system of sewerage and sanitary arrangements has also been introduced into the bui^h. A beautiful public park, at the west end of the town, was presented to the citizens by the late Sir Robert Burnett, and opened in 1887. This park affords ample facilities for outdoor amuse- ments and games, and at all times a quiet and pleasing retreat to the citizens and sojourners. The burgh of Banchory has a population of fourteen hundred and iifty inhabitants, whose local and municipal affairs are under the control of their own Provost, Magistrates, and Commissioners. It is a centre of con- siderable trade and traffic. It has eight annual markets, three branch banks, a post-office and savings bank, and three hotels, a commodious town hall at the west end of the town, excellent schools, and four churches and chapels, which all form features of this attractive town. The citizens are very industrious, quiet, and exceedingly obliging. The eminent Dr. George Campbell was minister of the Parish of Banchory-Teman from 1747 to 1757. It was in Banchory that he formed the plan of translating the four Gospels, which he afterwards published. It was here also that Campbell thought out and began to compose his celebrated treatise, " The Philosophy of Rhetoric." In the autumn of 1855, I commenced to work in Banchory for the late Mr. Fraser, shoemaker ; he employed six or seven hands, and occupied a house and BANCHORYTERNAN. 91 shop which belonged to the late Dr. Adams. Owing to this connection, Fraser's men were invited on the evening of Hc^manay to the doctor's house, on the opposite side of the street, to dance in the New Year. Thus it happened that I danced in the year of 1856 under the roof of the genial and kindly Dr. Adams. Dr. Francis Adams was bom at Lumphanan in 1796. When a boy, he manifested a keen taste for classical studies. He attended classes at King's College, Aberdeen ; and having resolved to follow the medical profession he took the London degree of the College of Surgeons. Shortly after, he settled at Banchory and commenced to practice. Although he soon obtained a good practice, he was exceedingly assiduous, and continued to pursue his classical studies. The result of this appeared in his translation of Paulus iEgineta, the Greek physician, in three volumes, with notes and annotations. Afterwards he rendered an excellent translation of the works of Hippocrates, the father of medicine, in two volumes. Further, he translated the extant works of Aretaeus. He also gave material assistance in the drawing up of Dunbar's Greek Lexicon. These works established his reputation as one of the foremost Greek scholars of his time ; but Dr. Adams was more than a Greek scholar ; he was a gentleman of wide and varied culture. He received the degree of LL.D. from the University of Glasgow. On the occasion of the Bums' centenary cele- bration he wrote an admirable and appreciative essay on the poet and his works, which was published. In con- junction with his son. Dr. Andrew Leith Adams, he published a pamphlet entitled " Omithology considered 92 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. as a branch of Liberal Education, containing Notes on Birds which have been discovered in Banchory-Teman, with Remarks on those found in India." This, or a part of it, was read at the meeting of the British Association held at Aberdeen in 1859. A number of years before his death, some of the leading men of Banchory were anxious to show their ap- preciation of the work which the doctor had often done gratuitously, and they proposed to get up a subscription for him ; but whenever he heard of it, he absolutely declined to permit anything of the kind, and said that the satisfaction which he felt in having done his best to alleviate human suffering, was ample remuneration to him. He died on the 26th of February, 1861, in the sixty-fifth year of his age. The people of Banchory and the locality erected the fine granite monument to his memory which stands at the south-west corner of the grounds around the house. The inscription on it was written by Sir William Geddes. His son, Dr. Andrew Leith Adams, was a distin- guished graduate of Aberdeen University. He entered the army as a surgeon in the 21st foot regiment. While serving in the army, he worked assiduously, and produced several interesting works: — (i) A volume entitled " Wanderings of a Naturalist in India " ; (2) " Field Rambles in Canada " ; (3) " Pygmy Elephants in Malta," an account of an extinct class of diminutive elephants. On retiring from the army, he was appointed Professor of Natural History in the new College of Science at Dublin. Afterwards he was appointed Professor of Natural History, Mineralogy, and Geology in Queen's College, Cork. In 1881, the University of Aberdeen con- BANCHORY-TERNAN. 93 ferred on him the degree of LL.D. ; he was also elected a member of the Royal Society. He was an accom- plished and successful professor. Besides the works mentioned above, he contributed many valuable papers to reviews on scientific subjects. Personally, he was an unassuming and kind-hearted gentleman. He died in 1882. James C. Hadden was bom in Banchory-Teman in 1 86 1. He was for sometime a message boy in Aberdeen ; but he soon directed his attention to music and literature, in which he has already attained distinction. In 1889, he was appointed Organist for St. John's Parish Church, Edinburgh ; and there he has worked earnestly and enthusiastically. He occasionally gives musical lectures and organ recitals ; and he instituted musical Sunday evenings for the people in St. John's church. For a number of years he has been a contributor to various magazines ; and he is a member of the staff engaged by Mr. Leslie Stephen on the "Dictionary of National Biography." He has written a "Life of Handel," and a "Life of Mendelssohn," both of which appeared in 1888. His style is very clear and flowing. CHAPTER X. VALLEY OF THE FEUGH— STRACHAN-^BIRSE. Crossing the bridge of Banchory and proceeding a short distance, a road on the left leads to the Bridge of Feugh. It is a plain, narrow structure, built of granite, with three arches ; but it spans the stream at a picturesque and romantic spot The Feugh flows rapidly, and when it enters the opening of the ridge of hills which skirt the south side of the Valley of the Dee, above the bridge, it runs between precipitous and wooded banks, dashing from pool to pool over naked rocks. As it nears the bridge the stream forms a linn and falls over the rocks, a height of eighteen feet, into a deep basin below, and sweeps on through similar rocks and sand, and enters the Dee opposite Banchory Lodge. Along this stretch of the Feugh the scenery on both sides is very picturesque and beautiful, and there are few that will not see something to admire and interest them here. On the east side of the Feugh lie the lands of Tilquhillie, and the old Castle standing on the slope of the elevated ridge. The Castle consisted of several massive buildings, communicating with each other, and appear to have been erected at different times; the earliest portion was probably erected about the banning of the sixteenth century, and another part was built in 1575. It contained many apartments, and had a dark vault ; but when it ceased to be the family residence of the TILQUHILLIE. 06 Douglases it fell into ruins, and it is now occupied by the tenant of the lands around it. In the fifteenth century the lands of Tilquhillie were held by Walter Ogston of Ogston and Fettercaim, under the Abbot of Arbroath as the superior. It appears that David Douglas, a son of a younger brother of the first Earl of Morton, married Janet, a daughter of Thomas Ogston of Kirklands of Fettercaim, in 1479 ; and that through this marriage the lands of Tilquhillie passed into the possession of David Douglas's descendants. Janet Ogston survived her husband and also their son, and her grandson, Arthur Douglas, succeeded to Tilquhillie in 1533. He married Janet, a daughter of the laird of Balmanno, and had issue, two sons, John and Archibald. John held the post of Constable of Edinburgh Castle during Morton's regency. Arthur Douglas was suc- ceeded by his son John ; and in 1 576 he married Giles, a daughter of Robert Erskine of Dun, by whom he had two sons and two daughters. He was succeeded by his eldest son, John Douglas, who married Mary, a daughter of Sir Peter Young of Seaton, and they had seven sons and three daughters. Their three eldest sons entered the army, and the fourth son, James, acquired the estate of Inchmarlo. John, the eldest son, fell in battle in 1632 ; and his brother. Sir Archibald Douglas, succeeded to Tilquhillie. He died without issue, and his brother. Sir Robert Douglas, succeeded to the estate in 1647. He was a warm supporter of the Royal cause, and sacrificed his estate to promote it ; and Tilquhillie for a time was lost to the family ; but in 1684 John Douglas of Inchmarlo recovered Tilquhillie from his uncle's (Sir Robert Douglas) creditors. John Douglas was twice 96 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. married, and had issue. He died in 1723, and was suc- ceeded by his second son, John Douglas of Tilquhiliie and Inchmarlo. He died in 1749, and was succeeded by his only son, John. He married Mary, a daughter of the Hon. John Arbuthnott of Fordun, and had issue, two sons and three daughters. In 1767, their eldest daughter, Margaret, married William Young of Sheddocksley, Provost of Aberdeen. John Douglas succeeded to the family estates on the death of his grandfather in 1791. He devoted much of his means to local and public objects, and died in 181 2. His trustees sold Tilquhiliie and Inchmarlo, and Henry Lumsden purchased Tilquhiliie. But John Douglas left an only son, John — a man of great energy and marked ability. He entered into manufacturing business in the Tyrol, concentrated his attention on it, and won a considerable fortune He married Jane, a daughter of James Kennedy, a manu- facturer in Manchester, by whom he had two sons and a daughter. Mr. Douglas repurchased the estate of Tilquhiliie, and also the adjoining estate of Invery, before 1865. He died in 1870, and his son, John S. Douglas, succeeded him. In 1874 he lost his life by a fall from a precipice in the Tyrol ; deeply regretted by all who knew him. His eldest son, John Douglas, succeeded to Tilquhiliie and Invery on coming of age in 1886 ; and he is the fourteenth in lineal descent from David Douglas and Janet Ogston of Tilquhiliie. It appears that the Douglas family were much respected in the locality, and by the tenants on their lands; and a few lines from one connected with the family may be quoted — STRACHAN. 97 On every road we find the abode Of a friend, be he young or old — And Douglas still has the leal good will That belongs to the good and the bold. Tilquhillie stands on the old, old lands, And the name of Douglas is there ; And the weak and the poor may ever be sure To have tender and Christian care.* On the west bank of the Feugh stands the mansion house of Invery, on a beautiful site, surrounded with woods, and the rippling water of Feugh in front. Proceeding up the fine Valley of the Feugh, there is a considerable space of well-cultivated land, in which patches of strawberries are grown in the fields, and good crops of grain. The Feugh is spanned by a stone bridge, and a little above it is the village of Strachan. It stands on a fine site, and consists of a few houses, the Public Schools, the Established Church, and the Free Church. The old church stood within the graveyard, and a new church was erected in 1866. In 1865 a drinking fountain was erected in front of the church, to the memory of William B. Ramsay of Banchory Lodge. A short distance above the village the Water of Dye joins the Feugh. The old road across the Cairn o* Mounth passed through Glen Dye. About a hundred years ago, this road was sometimes infested by robbers, and at an earlier period it was more dangerous. There is a ravine about four hundred yards from the top of the Cairn Hill on the north side, and close by the side of the road, which still retains the name of the "Thieves' Bush." Travellers crossing the " Mounth " when possessed of money always I The Feugh and the Dee. By William Bxown, F.R.C.S.E. Mr. Brown was married to Ann Douglas, of the Tilquhillie family. She died in 1886 at the advanced age of eighty*three years, and Mr. Brown died in 1887. H 98 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. carried defensive weapons. Two centuries s^o, a Highlander passing to the south on horseback was obliged to stop at a smithy, near the ford of Dye, to have his horse shod ere he ascended the hill. A man of suspicious appearance was sitting in the smithy, who proved to be the chief of a gang, though unknown to the Celt While the smith was shoeing the horse, the Highlander took a pistol from his pocket and commenced cleaning it ; and the smith remarked that the weapon was old and useless. The Celt replied that the night was dark and the road dangerous, that he had a trifle of money which he would not like to lose, and should he be attacked, if his pistol " widna fell, it might maybe fleg." The smith sought in vain for an opportunity of warning him of the character of the stranger who was sitting in the smithy. The horse having been shod, the Celt proceeded on his journey ; but he had not advanced far when he heard the noise of a horse behind him at full speed. On turning round he at once recognised the man whom he saw at the smithy. This fellow sternly demanded his money, backing the demand with a cudgel raised over the Celt's head, which he no doubt thought an over-match for the old rusty pistol. But the sly Celt had a better weapon, and drawing out another pistol from under his plaid, shot the robbfer dead, and proceeded safely over the Cairn. About three miles above the village of Strachan is Whitestpnes, where there is an inn, usually called Feughside Inn. In the period before the railways this inn and locality was for many centuries a halting-place of cattle dealers and drovers, as it was on the road running southward to Forfar and Perth, and northward, BIRSE. 99 through West Aberdeenshire, to the Highlands. Many- hearty and glorious nights were spent here by the cattle dealers and drovers in the good days of old. The greater part of the cultivated land in the Parish of Strachan lies on either side of the Valley of the Feugh. From the form of the Valley in Strachan, it has been supposed that at a remote period a large part of it had been a loch. Advancing up the Valley the Parish of Birse is entered. The surface of the country appears hilly and mountainous, and the scenery in many parts of Birse is wild, striking, and picturesque. When viewed from the highest ground on its western side, it is seen to consist of two Valleys, running eastward toward the Dee, and separated from each other by ranges of hills. The Valley of the Feugh, on the south side, is the larger; the Valley of Glen Cat is much smaller, and the Bum of Cattie, which drains and intersects it, is shorter. A third district of the parish lies along the south side of the Dee. The Parish Church and manse of Birse stand in the north-west side of the parish, on the bank of the Burn of Birse, and about a half-a-mile south of the Dee. The church was built in 1779, and is a plain structure, con- taining about six hundred sittings. When the old church was demolished, a cist slab was found in the foundations, on which were incised a double-handled sword, an axe, and a cross. The slab is five feet nine inches in leng^, and is preserved in the south wall of the churchyard. The burial place of the Farquharsons of Finzean is on the site of the old church, enclosed by a wall and iron railing. In 1 1 57 it is recorded that the Church of Birse belonged to the Bishopric of Aberdeen, and it was the 100 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. seat of the Chancellor of the Diocese. On the south side of the Feugh, at Eastclune, on an eminence, there are some ruins of a square tower, which, according to tradition, was a hunting seat of the Bishop of Aberdeen ; but it is more probable that the tower had been the seat of some small landlord. In its vicinity, there was once a chapel and a small burying ground. A Free Church was erected in 1843, which stands on the south side of the road leading to Aboyne, in the Birsemore district There is another Free Church towards the other end of the parish, and a Roman Catholic Chapel near Potarch. On the south-west comer of the parish lies the Forest of Birse, which is not now under wood, and what is called the forest is the upper part of the glen through which the Feugh runs. Near the upper end of the glen are the ruins of a square tower, which is said to have been built in the sixteenth century by Sir Thomas Gordon of Cluny ; some, however, say that it was a hunting seat of the Bishop of Aberdeen. The length of the tower over the walls was thirty feet, its width twenty-two feet, and its height about thirty-three feet. The tower was built of granite, and seems to have been a pretty complete structure. At Woodend, the Water of Feugh rushes down from the elevated ground, between hills studded with granite rocks rising abruptly from the narrow valley, in which there are patches of cultivated land amid natural birches and other trees. This is a romantic and beautiful spot. The lands of Finzean cover a considerable space on the south and east quarters of Birse, and mainly lie in the Valley of the Feugh, with the Grampian range on BIRSE. 101 the south, and the lower chain of hills on the north, which separate the Feugh from Glen Cat Finzean House stands on an elevated slope, with a southern exposure, nearly a mile north from the Feugh. The mansion was built at different times. The principal part of it was erected in 1686, the north wing was added in 1747, and in 1850 the whole house was thoroughly repaired. The pleasure grounds are beautiful, embel- lished with various kinds of trees and shrubs, among which are oaks, beeches, and elms of large dimensions. A grand hedge of holly wood runs along both sides of the approach to the front door, and also along the south side of the garden. This hedge is over twelve feet high, and six feet wide, and has a striking appearance. The Farquharsons of Finzean were descended from the Invercauld family. Robert Farquharson, a son of Donald Farquharson of Castletown, received a grant of Tilliegarmont, in Birse, by charter from the Bishop of Aberdeen in 1 580. In the beginning of the seventeenth century Robert Farquharson purchased the lands and barony of Finzean from Gordon of Cluny. Robert mar- ried Margaret Mcintosh, and had issue, four sons and one daughter. He died in 1632, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Alexander Farquharson. He married Mary, a daughter of Alexander Keith of Altrie, Brucklay, by whom he had two sons and one daughter. Through his wife he obtained the lands of Migvie, in Cromar. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Francis. Donald, his second son, purchased the lands of Balfour. Francis was succeeded by his son, Robert, who was succeeded by his son, Francis. He made several additions to the estate of Finzean, and was succeeded by his son, 102 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Archibald. He was succeeded by his son, Archibald, who died in 1841, without issue, and was succeeded by John Farquharson. In 1849, Dr. F. Farquharson succeeded to the estates of Finzean ; and he died in 1876, leaving three sons; and the eldest. Dr. Robert Farquharson, then succeeded to the estates, the present proprietor, and the member of Parliament for West Aberdeenshire. The lands of Ballogie lie on the north side of the Burn of Cattie. In the middle of the seventeenth century the lands of Ballogie were held by Charles Rose, and he married a grand-daughter of the chief of the Farquharsons. He was succeeded by his son, Alexander ; and, in 1720, he was succeeded by his son, Hugh. After- wards, the estate passed through several hands ; but, in 1814, Lewis Farquharson became heir to Ballogie. He died in 1830, and was succeeded by his only son, Lewis* He died at Aberdeen in 1844 ; and the estate then fell to his sisters. They sold it in 1852 to Mr. James D. Nicol. Mr. Nicol greatly improved the estate. He erected a new mansion house in 1856, which stands on a fine elevated site, and has a striking appearance. The pleasure grounds are extensive and attractive. Mr. Nicol was elected member of Parliament for Kincardineshire in 1864, and he continued to represent the county until his death in 1872. He was succeeded by his son. It was stated before that Donald Farquharson pur- chased the lands of Balfour, and his descendants held the estate till the latter part of the last century, when Francis Farquharson sold it to the Earl of Aboyne. In 1840, it was sold to Francis J. Cochran, advocate in BIRSE. 103 Aberdeen. The lands of Balfour lie to the south-west of the Kirkton of Birse. Mr. Cochran built an elegant mansion in 1845, laid out a beautiful garden and pleasure grounds, and planted wood around the mansion. He greatly improved the estate, and the whole of it is now cultivated or under wood. Mr. Cochran died in 1870, and was interred in the churchyard of Birse, where a monument was erected to his memory ; and there is also an inscribed tablet to his memory within the church. He was succeeded by his son, Alexander Cochran. This gentleman was for upwards of twenty years the head of the firms of Cochran & Smith, Cochran & Macpherson, advocates in Aberdeen. Mr. Cochran was an able lawyer, and an excellent business man ; and personally an exceedingly genial and kind-hearted gentleman. He died on the 8th June, 1893. The Rev. John Skinner, the well-known author of " Tullochgorum," many other fine poems, and other works, was bom at Balfour in 1721. Among other eminent men bom in Birse, may be mentioned Dr. Alexander Garden, a son of the Rev. Alexander Garden, minister of Birse from 1726 to 1777, who was a dis- tinguished physician at Charleston, South Carolina, an able naturalist, and a correspondent of Linnaeus ; Dr. Gilbert Ramsay, who was rector of Christ's Church, Barbadoes, and who bequeathed ;£"500 to the poor of his native parish, ;£'soo to endow a free school in it, and a sum of money to erect a bridge over the Feugh at its eastem end. Robert Dinnie was a native of the Parish of Birse. He was a mason to trade ; and was the father of the world-wide famous athlete, Donald Dinnie. He is the author of several small, interesting. 104 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. and useful works. " An Account of the Parish of Birse," published in 1865; "Songs and Poems," which ap- peared in 1876; "The Deeside Guide," 1879; "Anecdotes of the Rev. Joseph Smith of Birse," 1882; and "A History of the Parish of Kincardine O'Neil," 1885. The most distinguished native of Strachan was Dr. Thomas Reid, the philosopher of "Common Sense," and a successful professor in the Universities of Aber- deen and of Glasgow. The Rev. Alexander Garden, mentioned before, was a violinist, poet, and composer. David Mortimer was bom in Birse, on the 1 3th of June, 1 8 1 5. He was a famous violin player in his day. He died in 1892. His son, Peter Mortimer, born on the 26th July, 1849, is also an excellent violinist ; and he was a pupil of the celebrated William Blair. The inhabitants of the Valley of the Feugh and of Birse are a vigorous people. They are quiet, and very industrious, kind to one another, and remarkably intelligent Chapter XI. BLACKHALL— KINCARDINE O'NEIL— LUMPHANAN. The estate of Blackball lies on the south side of the Dee, and the mansion house stands on a fine broad haugh, near the south bank of the river, two miles above Banchory. The old mansion was built in the castellated style. It was once a seat of the Bannerman family. Sir Alexander Bannerman died, leaving an only daughter, who married Mr. Robert Russell, and the lands of Black- ball passed into his hands. They had a daughter, who married Archibald Farquharson of Finzean, and he became owner of the lands of Blackball. But, in 1828, the estate was sold by his trustees, and it was acquired by Colonel John Campbell. He was succeeded by his son. About ten years ago Blackball was purchased by Mr. James T. Hay, and he has made great improvements on the estate. The old mansion house was demolished. A new mansion was built of granite — a large and massive structure, which presents a striking appearance. The interior of the mansion is exquisite. The internal arrangement is admirable, and the ornamental painting on the walls is executed with fine symmetry and har- mony, elegant and beautiful. The mansion is well sheltered by wooded ridges on both sides of the Valley. In 1889 the avenue was entirely reconstructed. The porter lodge, at its entrance, is on the south-west side of the Bridge of Banchory, and the avenue runs along the south bank of the Dee two miles. 106 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Inchmarlo House stands on a beautiful green bank on the north side of the river, nearly opposite Blackball. It was indicated in a preceding chapter that Inchmarlo once belonged to a branch of the Douglas family. Mr. Walter Davidson, a son of the Rev. Dr. Patrick Davidson, minister of Rayne, became a successful banker in London; and in 1813 he purchased Inchmarlo from the trustees of John Douglas. He held the estate for a number of years, and afterwards sold it to Mr. Duncan Davidson of Tilly- chetly, advocate, Aberdeen. He was descended from a family of Davidsons who had been resident in Tarland for several centuries, and he was a son of John Davidson of Tillychetly, in the Parish of Alford. Mr. Duncan Davidson died at Aberdeen on the 8th of December, 1849, and was succeeded by his son, Patrick Davidson, advocate. He was Professor of Law in the University of Aberdeen for a period of forty-eight years. He died in 1 88 1, and was succeeded by his son, the present proprietor. About two miles to the north-west lies the estate and house of Glassel. The house is small, but the gardens and grounds are extensive; there are fifteen miles of walks in the grounds, and the estate is well wooded. Campfield House stands on a fine elevated site on the lower slope of the Hill of Fare, facing the south. At Invercanny there is a small hamlet Further westward, at Cairnton, is the intake for the water from the Dee, which is conveyed through a rock tunnel to the large reservoir at Invercanny — which contains the storage water in connection with the water supply of Aberdeen. On the i6th of October, 1866, the Queen performed the ceremony of opening the waterworks. After the usual KINCARDINE O'NEIL. 107 address to Her Majesty, which was read by Sir Alexander Anderson, Lord Provost, and presented, Her Majesty read her reply. "Then," the Queen says, "came the turning of the cock, and it was pretty to see the water rushing up." The Queen returned home by way of Inchmarlo House, and thence by Ballater to Balmoral. The sun was shining bright when Her Majesty turned on the water. I was standing on the opposite side of the reservoir. The volume of water rose clear, and the sun- beams rendered it beautiful. This was one of the great days of Sir Alexander Anderson's life ; he drove from Aberdeen in a carriage drawn by four horses to meet Her Majesty. Advancing up the Valley the scenery becomes more striking, and the hills increase in elevation. A village has recently sprung up at Torphins, in the vicinity of the railway station, and is rapidly developing. It has an Established Church and public schools, a post-office, and branch bank, several shops and an excellent hotel. The Free Church is about a mile east from the station. Craigmyle House stands on an eminence, amid patches of wood, a mile to the east of Torphins. It was stated in a preceding chapter that a member of the Burnett family of Leys acquired Craigmyle in the middle of the seventeenth century, and it was subsequently sold by the Burnetts to Alexander Farquharson of Monaltrie. He erected the present mansion house, and afterwards sold the estate to Mr. John Gordon. He left the estate to a relative, Mr. Peter Laing, who then assumed the name of Gordon. His son, John L. Gordon, succeeded to the estate. The estate of Craigmyle extends to twenty- seven hundred and sixty acres, of which about thirteen hundred are cultivated and two hundred under wood. 108 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. The mansion house of Leamey stands on an elevated site in the bend of the Hill of Fare, and is well sheltered by the wooded heights around it. The house was accidentally burnt in 1838, but it was rebuilt. It is a comparatively large and massive structure. Learney once belonged to the Forbeses, and at a later period to the Brebner family. Alexander Brebner of Learney had two daughters, and Jane, the elder one, married William Innes of Raemoir,* and had issue, two sons and one daughter, Alexander Innes of Cowie, in Kincardineshire ; and Thomas Innes, who was born on the 31st of October, 18 14. Thomas studied law and became an advocate. In 1839 he married Helen Christian, daughter of Thomas Burnett, Esq., of Aberdeen, and has issue. He is proprietor of Leamey, and he has for many years taken an active and intelligent part in the business of the county of Aberdeen. Findrack House lies on the bank of the Burn of Beltie, on the west side of Leamey Hill. It is a comparatively small structure, but el^ant and commodious. The hill on the west and north of the house is wooded, and around it on the grounds there are belts and plots of trees. In 1670 Francis Fraser purchased Findrack from Sir Robert Forbes of Learney, and this branch of the Fraser family have continuously possessed the estate to the present time. The Valley in this stretch is well wooded, and at Potarch the scenery is picturesque. The Bridge of Potarch, which spans the Dee, was erected in 181 2, and cost ;^3SOO, one half of which was paid by the Govem- ment and the other half by subscription. It consists of X The Inneses of Raemoir are a branch of the Balvenie family, Banffshire, and lineally descended from Innes of Edingight, in the Parish of Grange. KINCARDINE O'NEIL. 1(» three stone arches, the centre one of sixty-five feet, and the other two of sixty feet each. When all the piers were built, and two of the arches thrown, the whole was destroyed by rough trees which were floated down the river. The contractor, William Minty, received ;£" 1200 of damages off* the owners of the wood. The great flood of 1829 greatly injured two of the piers, which were after- wards thoroughly repaired and bolted with iron bars by the original contractor. This bridge is in the line of the old road leading from Perth by Brechin over the Cairn o' Mounth, and the ford at Inchbaire is a little below the bridge. The bridge is founded on rock. Seventy yards above the bridge the channel of the river is narrowed by rocks to a linn, which at its narrowest point is about seventeen feet. It is said that John Young, one of a gang of tinkers, while fleeing from justice, leapt over the river above the bridge and escaped for a time — a feat not impossible for a young, athletic man, though the risk must have been considerable. On the southern side of the river at the bridge there is a good inn with a fine large lawn in front. Feeing markets are held here twice a year. Borrowstone House stands on the north side of the Valley, near the north Deeside road. It is a spacious mansion, surrounded with trees, shrubs, and hedges, a garden, and a small steading. Not many years ago there was a hamlet at Borrowstone, consisting of a number of small cottages. The chief inn of Kincardine O'Neil stood there for a long period. The Justice of the Peace Courts and Presbytery meetings were held at the inn from 1748 till 1822. The Justices of Peace before proceeding to business were required to sign their names to the Oath of 110 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Abjuration, in order to show that they were loyal subjects to His Majesty King George. From this point looking up the Valley a stretch of beautiful scenery meets the eye. The river stretches away westward through a fine level plain, highly culti- vated, while the wooded heights on either side of the Valley give varied hues of colour and contrast to the delightful scenes. The village of Kincardine O'Neil stands on the north side of this comparatively broad plain ; below it the river glides; on its east and west there are wooded heights, and on the north the ground rises gently. The village con- tains upwards of forty dwelling houses, and a population of over two hundred inhabitants. It is a site of great antiquity, and was inhabited in the prehistoric ages. Even its recorded history stretches back to an early period. It was originally within the Earldom of Mar ; but in the thirteenth century the barony of Kincardine O'Neil included a part of Lumphanan, and it . was held by Allan Durward. He erected a hospital at Kincardine O'Neil in 1233, and granted to it the patronage of Lumphanan with its chapel of Forthery and other portions of land. Afterward the hospital was attached to the Bishopric of Aberdeen, and raised to a prebend of the Cathedral. The last of the Durwards connected with the barony of Kincardine O'Neil was a female, Anna Durward. In 1389 the barony of Kincardine O'Neil and Coull was confirmed by Robert II. to his son Robert, Earl of Fife and Menteith. Afterward it was acquired by a branch of the Forbes family ; and John Forbes sold it to John Grant ; and toward the end of the last century it KINCARDINE 0»NEIL. Ill was purchased by Francis Gordon. He died in 1861, and was succeeded by his grand-daughter ; and on her death by his great-grandson, Mr. Henry K. Scott Recently, Mrs. Pickering purchased the estate of Kincar- dine O'Neil, and is erecting a new mansion house. The roofless walls of the old church stand on. the south side of the village, and are covered with ivy in the churchyard. The area within the walls of the old church is used as a burial ground for the heritors of the parish. The present Parish Church stands on the north side of the road, and was erected in 1862 ; it is a chaste and com- modious structure. The manse is on a slight eminence in the vicinity of the church, and was erected in 1846. At the west end of the village is an Episcopal Church, - with a manse and a graveyard. Prior to the opening of the Deeside Railway, the village of Kincardine O'Neil was a bustling place, as all the traffic between Aberdeen and Braemar passed through it. For a long period it was a halting-place of the cattle dealers and drovers, when driving their herds of cattle and sheep to the southern markets. About half- a-mile to the north-west of the village, on a moor, two annual markets, in May and August, are held. Below the village there is a ferry-boat for conveying persons across the river. There are several excellent mansions in the neighbour- hood of the village. Mr. John Grant purchased the estate of Kincardine O'Neil in 1780, and erected the mansion house on it, now called Kincardine Lodge. This house stands on the slope of a ridge in a fine elevated position, with a southern exposure, and about a half-a- mile eastward from the village. The height on the east 112 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. and north of the house is covered with wood, and around it there are various kinds of trees and ornamental shrubs. It is a pretty large and commodious house, and com- mands an extensive view of the surrounding district Mr. Grant planted a large quantity of wood, and executed many other improvements on the estate. He was origin- ally a tailor, but a relative left to him a large sum of money, with which he purchased the estate. While he was proprietor, Kincardine Lodge was usually in the locality called " Needle Ha'," in allusion to his former occupation. There is a flat stone at the east door of the old church with this inscription — " Sacred to the memory of John Grant, Esq. of Kincardine O'Neil. Ob. 9 May, 1799. iEtatos 63." A mile above the village, on the south side of the Dee, Carlogie House stands on a fine haugh, amid trees and ornamental shrubs. It is built in the cottage style of architecture, with the river in front, about a hundred and fifty yards off, and the beautifully-wooded and sloping heights behind it. In summer, when woods and the face of nature are clad with verdure, Carlogie and its surroundings vividly recall the thought of a veritable paradise. It is truly a charming and delightful spot On the opposite side of the river, Desswood House stands on the slope of an eminence, embosomed by woods, the residence of Mr. Alexander Davidson, advocate. The site is elevated, with a southern exposure, and is exceedingly fine and picturesque. Forty years ago, new gardens were formed, and the pleasure grounds planned and laid out with fine taste and rare skill. In the grounds various kinds of ornamental trees were planted at intervals, and on the south and east of the KINCARDINE O'NEIL. 113 mansion there are belts of fine growing trees ; while on the north side of the house, the summit of the hill which rises above it is covered with fir trees. The house itself is an elegant and symmetrical structure, and everything about it is kept in admirable order. The estate was pur- chased by Mr. Duncan Davidson in the early part of this century, and he was succeeded by his son, the present proprietor. About the middle of the present century there were nine licensed houses in the parish ; now there are only two inns — one at Torphins, and another in the village of Kincardine O'Neil. The inhabitants of Kincardine O'Neil are sober, industrious, excellent cultivators of the land, and very intelligent In 1842, there were three circulat- ing libraries in the parish. The parish has produced some distinguished men. Alexander Ross, the author of ** Helenore," and other poems in the Scottish dialect, was the son of a farmer in this parish. He followed the honourable and useful profession of a parochial schoolmaster, and died at Lochlee in 1784, at the advanced age of eighty-five years. Mr. John H. Anderson, better known under the title of the " Wizard of the North," was a native of the parish, and bom in 18 14. He began life as a herd-boy. Afterwards, he became a famous and successful per- former of sleight-of-hand and conjuring tricks. He travelled through many quarters of the globe, and every- where drew large and distinguished audiences. Mr. Anderson died at Darlington in 1874. Peter Milne, a native of Kincardine O'Neil, was born on the 30th of September, 1824. He was one of the foremost violin players in the north of Scotland. In 185 1, he succeeded I 114 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. James Young, as musical leader of the Theatre Royal, Aberdeen. He was specially famous as a player of reels and strathspeys. He also attained distinction as a teacher, and composed a number of pieces. James Gerrie, a native of Lumphanan, was born on the 3rd of March, 1852. He is a notable harmoniumist and vocal composer. Lumphanan has niany interesting historic associa- tions ; and in it and the locality of Kincardine O'Neil there are some traces of prehistoric occupation. The village of Lumphanan has sprung up in connec- tion with the railway in the immediate vicinity of the station. The Parish Church is a short distance south- west of the station, on the south side of the railway ; and the Free Church and Manse stand on the north side of the railway. There is a hotel and a branch of the North of Scotland Bank in the village. Glenmillan House is nearly a mile to the north-east of the village. It was the residence of the late Mr. Robert Smith, advocate. The estate of Glenmillan, under the name of Cloak, was in 1330 granted, along with other lands, by Randolph, Earl of Moray, to Sir James Garioch. From his son, Andrew Garioch of Caskieben, Robert Chalmers obtained these lands, to be held of the Earl of Moray. From this Robert Chalmers were descended the Chalmerses of Balnacraig and Auldbar. In 1363, Andrew Rose, a son of the second baron of Kilravock, obtained the lands of Auchlossan. This branch of the Roses appear to have gradually extended their possessions in the district In 1 544, a feud arose between the Forbeses and Strachans of Lenturk, owing LUMPHANAN. 115 to the supposed guilt of Strachan in betraying the con- spiracy of the Master of Forbes against the life of James V. Nicholas Rose of Auchlossan was one of the jury who found the Master of Forbes guilty. He joined the laird of Lenturk, and in one of the conflicts with the Forbeses, Rose was slain. In 1643, the possessions of the Roses consisted of the barony of Auchlossan, the lands of Bogloch, Deray Croft, and Croft of Alderan. On the nth of September, 1709, Captain Francis Rose fell at the Battle of Malplaquet, in France ; and, in 1715, his estate was sold by his creditors. The Duguids of Auchinhove, in 1534, pleaded, in an action raised by the Earl of Mar against his vassals, that "they and their predecessors had been infeft in their lands holding of the King, for a period of two hundred years." In 1656, Francis Duguid purchased from George Forbes of Corse the part of the barony of O'Neil which lay in Lumphanan, comprising Easter and Wester Kincraigie, Knowhead-Hillock, and Bogloch ; and, in 1675, they had also lands in other parishes. The head of the family, in 1745, joined Prince Charles. He was an officer in the rebel army, and very active in raising large sums of money in the district ; and Duguid's mansion house was burned by a company of the Duke of Cumberland's troops. After the suppression of the rising, the greater part of the estate was sold. In 1699, Robert Duguid married Teressa Leslie of Balquhain ; and their son, Patrick Leslie Duguid, succeeded to the estate of Balquhain as heir of entail, after a protracted lawsuit. The Duguids of Auchinhove trace a direct male line from 1400. In the last century the Farquharsons of Finzean pur- 116 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. chased Auchlossan, which had belonged to the Roses, and the greater part of Auchinhove. The Forbeses of Craigievar obtained possession of Kintocher in 17 12. This branch of the Forbeses was descended from Patrick, the third son of James, the second Lord Forbes. The lands of Halton, Pitmurchie, and Craigamore, in Lumphanan, were granted by James III. to Thomas Charteris in 1487 ; and his grandson, Thomas Charteris of Kinfauns, was served heir to the barony of Lumphanan, lying within the barony of O'Neil, in 1546. In 1655, Patrick Irvine succeeded his grandfather, John Irvine, in the lands of Halton, Pitmurchie, and Craigton, lying within the barony of Lumphanaa John Irvine of Pitmurchie was appointed Chancellor of an Assize held on the 2Sth April, 1597, for the trial of witches. Turning to traces of ancient structures, the Peel Bog lies in a marshy hollow near the church. It is a circular earthen mound, forty-six yards in diameter, eleven feet above the level of the bog, and surrounded by a moat. The Bum of Lumphanan supplied the water for the moat It is conjectured that a wooden fort was erected on the mound at an early period. This structure seems to have been superseded by a stone building, erected in the fifteenth century. The ruins of the stone structure existed on the top of the mound in the latter part of the last century ; at that time the walls and southern gable^ though decayed and defaced, were quite visible, and it was then called Haaton House. About a century ago^ the tenant of the farm of Bogloch razed the crumbling structure to the foundation, and used the stones for building purposes in the neighbourhood. The Houff is about a mile from the Peel Bog, and it LUMPHANAN. 117 seems to have been a place of defence in early times ; some traces of the structure are still visible. At a later period, according to tradition, it became the burial ground of the Duguids. The ruins of the Castle of Auchinhove lie about a mile to the south-west of the Peel Bog ; it was the stronghold of the Duguid family. The ruins of the old Tower of Maud stand at the west end of Moss Maud. It was a small structure, only twenty feet over the walls both ways. The remaining walls are only a few feet in height, but very thick and strong. It was probably erected in the fifteenth century. Two hundred years ago the Loch of Auchlossan probably covered an area of six hundred acres ; but subsequently its outlet at Drumduan was deepened, which reduced its extent to under three hundred acres. The loch was a great resort of snipes and other water fowls. Nearly forty years ago, Mr. James W. Barclay, ex-M.P., completely drained the loch by diverting the streams which fed it, and excavating a tunnel which carried the surface water into the Burn of Dess. Thus, by the enterprise of one man, the area of the loch was turned into dry land, and is now a cultivated farm. The most interesting and important historic event in Lumphanan is associated with Macbeth, which I will now present Upon the death of Malcolm II., the lineal descendants in the male line of Kenneth M'Alpin, the founder of the Scot- tish dynasty, became extinct, and he was succeeded by his grandson, Duncan, a son of one of Malcolm's daughters. But other aspirants to the throne disputed Duncan's right, and he soon became involved in a desperate struggle with the local chiefs beyond the Spey. 118 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Duncan appears to have been a very able prince ; but when the other local chiefs beyond the Spey joined Macbeth, they proved too strong for him, and after a severe struggle, Duncan was slain by Macbeth near Elgin. Macbeth then marched southward, crossed the Dee, proceeded by Brechin, and mounted the throne at Scone in 1040. For five years he reigned undisturbed. He was descended from one of the Kings of Dalriada, and Gruoch, his wife, was a daughter of Bode, son of Kenneth, and thus related to the Royal line. In 1045, Crinan, father of Duncan, and lay Abbot of Dunkeld, mustered all his followers and the opponents of Macbeth, with the intention of driving him from the throne. A severe battle ensued, in which Crinan was slain, and Macbeth gained a complete victory. He was an able and vigorous ruler, and the kingdom seems to have enjoyed unusual tranquillity and prosperity under his sway. The late King, Duncan, left two sons — mere children at the time of his death — their mother being related to Siward, the Earl of Northumberland. In 1054, Siward mustered a large and well equipped af my, and a naval force to co-operate with it, and invaded Scotland to drive Macbeth from the throne. This army marched northward in quest of Macbeth, crossed the Forth at Stirling, and proceeded towards the Tay. Macbeth posted his army around the Hill Fort of Dunsinnane. A great battle ensued, which raged with the utmost fury, and many were slain on both sides. But the result was not decisive, as Siward retired southward, and returned home to Northumberland, and died in 1055. The expedition, however, had enabled Malcolm, son of Duncan, to obtain possession of the country between the Forth and the Tweed ; but Macbeth was still King of LUMPHANAN. 119 the country beyond the Forth, and young Malcolm had to depend on his own resources to recover the kingdom from the grasp of his opponent. Malcolm III. was a prince of great energy ; after feeling his way, and gaining the support of the people, in 1057 he resolved to try issues with Macbeth. Malcolm marched northward, and crossed the Mounth, and approached the Dee. Macbeth posted his followers on a height — ^probably Perkhill — and there stood on the defensive. On discovering his enemy's position, Malcolm determined to cross the Dee and risk a battle. Macbeth's army was probably as large as that of Malcolm. Nevertheless, Malcolm advanced and attacked Macbeth, and on the 15th of August, 1057, a fierce battle was fought, in which Macbeth and many of his followers were slain. Yet the war was not terminated, as it appears that the remnant of Macbeth's followers had retreated north towards the Don ; and then rallied round Lulach, who continued the struggle for the throne of Scotland. The war was carried on in the region between the Dee and the Deveron ; and it thus appears that the people of this district were supporters of Macbeth and his successor, Lulach. On the 17th of March, 1058, Lulach was defeated and slain at Essy, in Strathbogie. Shortly after, Malcolm III. mounted the throne of Scotland at Scone. Macbeth's Cairn stood on Perkhill, but the stones have been removed, and the site planted and enclosed. At the foot of the Hill of Corse there was, in 1842, an earthen rampart or hill fort, three hundred and thirty yards long ; and opposite to it, a quarter of a mile distant, at the foot of the . Hill of Milmahd, there was another fort of a similar description. Chapter XII. ABOYNE— GLENTANNER— CULBLEAN. The stretch of the^Valley from the Bum of Dess to Loch Kinnord presents many varied features. On both sides of the river the scenery is finely diversified. The surface of the country on the north side is rather hilly, but not mountainous. The highest points are the Hill of Mortlich, 1248 feet, and Culblean, 1567 feet; while, on the south side, the highest summits of the mountain range rise to 3000 feet. On both sides the Valley is well wooded. Aboyne, with its castle and burgh of barony, is a centre of great historic interest and importance, and several notable families have been connected with it; while from a prehistoric standpoint the district is ex- ceedingly interesting. The village of Charlestown of Aboyne stands on a fine esplanade on the north bank of the Dee, encircled by woods Fand groups of different kinds of trees, which afford shelter and enhance its beauty. It chiefly con* sists of spacious villas and terraces, situated to the west and north-west of the railway station, and the business part of the burgh. There |,is a fine large Green, which lends a charming feature to the amenity of the village. It affords ample space for all kinds of outdoor amuse- ments and games ; while it is also used as the market- stance. The Public Hall is on the south side of the Green, ABOYNK 121 and it contains a library, a reading-room, and a billiard- room. The Parish Church was erected in 1842, and stands at the top of the Green. It is a chaste and well- built structure, and affords room for six hundred and thirty sitters. The manse is a short distance west from the church, and situated in a beautiful and retired spot amid the woods. The Free Church stands on the east side of the village ; it is built in the Gothic style, with a chaste spire, and forms a pleasing feature in the beautiful landscape. Walking from the village westward, towards the Suspension Bridge, and looking up and down the Valley and across the river, the scenery is exquisitely fine, charming, and serene. Three-quarters of a mile north from the village is the Castle of Aboyne, the residence of the Marquis of Huntly. The site seems to have been occupied by a defensive structure at a very early period, and surrounded by a moat The present castle stands on a small eminence in a fine vale, at a height of four hundred feet above sea level. It is a large and massive structure, erected at different times. The west wing was built in 1671, by Charles Gordon, first Earl of Aboyne ; the east wing was erected in 1801, by the fifth Earl ; and another addition was made to the castle in 1869. The castle is surrounded by extensive woods, which cover about three thousand acres of land. The out-lying woods mostly consist of pines and larch, but in the immediate vicinity of the castle there are a variety of beautiful trees — oak, elm, beech, ash, spruce, and birch — some of which are of great age and size. The pleasure grounds and gardens are ex- tensive, and embrace an artificial loch, which covers thirty-two acres — forming a beautiful sheet of water. 122 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. There are several wcKxled islets on it In the policies near the castle, a sculptured stone, six feet six inches high, with a cross on it, stands on a knoll ; it originally stood on the bank of Loch Kinnord, and about eighty- years ago it was removed to its present site for more careful preservation. Two miles eastward of the castle are the ruins of the mansion house of Tillphoudie, which in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was the residence of a branch of the Gordons of Aboytie. The old church of Aboyne stood near the end of the loch, and in the old churchyard there are some interest- ing monuments. There is a fragment of a sculpture stone with an Ogham inscription on it ; only other four specimens of this class of inscriptions are known on the mainland of Scotland ; the fragment here is, therefore, of great interest. Here, within an inclosure, lie the remains of the Inneses of Balnacraig and Ballogie. Balnacraig lies on the east extremity of the Parish of Aboyne, and on the south side of the Dee. Balnacraig House stands high on the south shoulder of a hill, and on the north a rocky and wooded eminence rises abruptly above the house. The site is beautiful and picturesque, and the view from it along the Dee westward, and of the mountains to the south, is very fine. The greater part of the estate is covered with wood. A family of the name of Chalmers held the estate of Balnacraig at an early period. Subsequently it was ac- quired by the Davidsons, from whom it was purchased by the Inneses about 1725. The Innes family made additions to the mansion house, and being Roman Catholics, they formed a chapel in the east wing. It does ABOYNE. 12S not appear that the head of the family joined the Rising of 174s ; but shortly after the battle of Culloden, a com- pany of soldiers arrived with the intention of burning the house. This, however, seems to have been prevented by the hospitality shown to the soldiers. One soldier thrust his head into an earthen jar which contained honey, and when satisfied with its contents, he found, amid the jeering of his comrades, that his head could only be ex- tricated by breaking the mouth of the jar. The soldiers merely set fire to the poultry-house, and then retired. The honey jar, with its broken mouth, was long preserved by the representatives of the family. The Inneses of Balnacraig and Ballogie became extinct in the early part of this century, and were succeeded by their relative, Lewis Farquharson, who assumed the name of Innes on becoming heir to their property. He died in 1834, and his heir sold Balnacraig to James D. Nicol in 1852, who was succeeded by his son, William E. Nicol. The Suspension Bridge which spans the Dee above Aboyne was erected by the Earl of Aboytie in 1828 and 183 1, and it was reconstructed by the Road Trustees in 1 87 1. Near the bridge, on the south side of the river, stands Auldinnie Tower, on a wooded eminence. A burn of the same name runs past it and enters the Dee a little above the bridge. About [a mile above the bridge the water of Tanner joins the Dee. The ruins of the old church and graveyard of Glentanner lie on the south bank of the Dee, on the farm of Cobleheuch. Glentanner is comparatively narrow, but the hills on either side are not of great elevation. The glen was long famed for its pine trees, and there are still long stretches of woods on both sides of the glen. Portions of the lower part of the 124 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. glen are suitable for cultivation, but only a small part is under tillage. About fifty years ago the glen was turned into a deer forest. The water of Tanner is spanned by the Bridge of Ess, at a romantic spot half-a-mile above the confluence of the Tanner with the Dee. A square loop-holed tower guards the bridge, and here the bed of the stream is rocky and its banks finely fringed with trees. The old Fir Mounth road crosses Glentanner, and thence to the ford or ferry of the Dee near the railway station of Dinnet Edward I., in 1296, when returning south on his triumphal progress through Scotland, called at Rothes, Kildrummy Castle, and Kinnord, crossed the Dee at Boat of Dinnet, and marched through Glentanner, and onward to Brechin. During the last century and the first quarter of the present one, Glentanner was a great centre of smuggling. The making of whisky was then considered by the in- habitants as a natural right and an honest industry, although, especially since the Union, the Government of the country had decreed otherwise. This view of smug- gling was not confined to the natives of Glentanner or the Valley of the Dee, for it prevailed throughout Scotland. Indeed, for a considerable time after the Union, the struggle with the excisemen and the revenue officers was universal over the kingdom, and it led to many lively scenes and tragic deeds. It is said that thirteen smuggling brewing-houses were often working at the same time in Glentanner, which is quite likely, for I have frequently observed in the north of Scotland the sites and remains of a dozen smuggling brewing- houses within a much more limited area than Glentanner. Many years ago, Sir William Cunliffe Brooks, Bart, ABOYNE. 125 took a lease of Glentanner from his son-in-law, the Marquis of Huntly, and subsequently Sir William purchased the Glen. He effected many improvements, and greatly enhanced the beauty of the region. The deer in the glen sometimes made inroads on the crops of the farmers in the locality, and to prevent this Sir William has erected many miles of strong iron-wire fenc- ing. He has also directed special attention to the introducing of an ample supply of the purest water, erecting healthier houses for the tenants and workmen on his estate, and making good roads, and thus greatly im- proving the sanitary conditions. The mansion house of Glentanner, Sir William's residence, stands on a fine site on the left side of the glen, and was erected by him. It is a chaste and artistic structure, both externally and internally. The gardens and the grounds are extensive and admirably laid out, and above the mansion house there are several artificial lakelets which enhance the beauties of the landscape. The farm-steading and offices are all admirably planned and kept in excellent order. On the right bank of the stream is the Episcopal Chapel of St Lesmo, which was consecrated by the late Bishop Suther, of Aberdeen,- in 1 87 1. There is a graveyard connected with the chapel, and in its immediate vicinity is St. Lesmo's Well, inscribed — " Drink, weary pilgrim ; drink and pray.'* The sanctuary of the forest surrounds the chapel, and within it no animal may be slain or hurt, and the deer seem to recognise this great privilege. The scene is exceedingly beautiful. Sir William is a most hospitable gentleman. Every year many strangers, and frequently large companies of 125 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. ladies and gentlemen, aie all heartfly welcomed to view his remarkable residence, and its striking and well- ordered surroundings. Up the glen there are no dwelling-houses b^ond the mansion house, and the carriage road terminates seven miles above it, at a trim and picturesque shiel. Proceeding up the Valley, at Dinnet, an iron bridge spans the Dee, which was erected by the Marquis of Huntly, and superseded the ferry boat mentioned before. A church has been erected at Dinnet, which stands on the south side of the railway, and the manse of Rev. J. G. Michie, minister of Dinnet, is situated in a beautiful spot at the north-west end of the bridge. Mr. Michie is a native of the Parish of Crathie. He has keen literary and archaelc^cal tastes, and has a rare store of traditional lore and other information touching the state of the inhabitants of the Valley of the Dee and its glens in bygone ages. He is the author of an exceed- ingly interesting and valuable volume of tales and traditions of the people of the upper stretch of the Valley of the Dee. This volume embodied in a popular form much valuable information, which would soon have been lost for ever. He is also the author of a very instructive work entitled " History of Loch Kinnord," published in 1877, and I have been much indebted to him for various information. Mr. Michie doubtless would have given the public other works from his store of accurate knowledge, if the misfortune of weak health had not overtaken him. I believe few men are so well qualified to write the history of the Valley of the Dee as Mr. Michie. About two miles westward from Dinnet Bridge, on ABOYNE. 127 the south side of the river, is the site of Dee Castle, on a small eminence. Its original name was Kandychyle. It seems to have been chiefly used as a hunting seat by the Huntly family, when they visited their Deeside estates. It was burned in 1641, and afterwards became a ruin. A fragment of its wall forms part of the modem house erected on the site. A little further up the Valley, on the same side of the river, is the farmhouse of Ballaterich, where Lord Byron lived for some time when a boy. It appears that the surrounding scenery and the mountains had a wonderful fascination over his youthful and glowing imagination. Morven occurs in several of his poems, and Mary Robertson, the farmer's second daughter, had certainly won the warm boyish affection of the young poet, and many years after, her image was not effaced from his memory. A few lines from the poet may be quoted : — When I roved a young Highlander o'er the dark heath, And climbed thy steep summit, O Morven of snow ; To gaze on the torrent that thundered beneath, Or the mist on the tempest that gathered below ; Untutored by science, a stranger to fear. And rude as the rocks where my infancy grew, No feeling, save one, to my bosom was dear, Need I say, my sweet Mary, 'twas centred in you ? James Neil was bom in the Parish of Aboyne in 1800. He was an excellent violin-player, and instrumental composer. He was very popular in the locality. He died in 1868, and left three sons, all of whom showed musical talents. James Neil, born in 1832, was a fine violin-player. He died in 1890, and left a number of excellent violins. Alexander, born in 1837, was a good violin-player. He entered the army, and attained the 128 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. rank of Surgeon Major in the medical service. He died in 1879. George Neil, bom in 1839, is a violin-player, and a good teacher of music. On the north side of the Valley, a short distance westward from the railway station, stands Dinnet House, which was recently erected by Charles Wilson, M.P., who purchased the lands in the neighbourhood. It is a pretty large structure, and a prominent feature in the landscape. Loch Kinnord and Loch Davan are about half-a-mile to the north-west of Dinnet railway station ; they are only one hundred yards apart from each other. Loch Kinnord covers an area of 225 acres, Loch Davan is much smaller. On Loch Kinnord there are several islets, finely wooded, and the margins of both lochs are beauti- fully skirted with birchwood, alder, and juniper bushes. The Hill of Culblean slopes down to their western shores, and the bum of Vat issues from the hill and enters Loch Kinnord. The Vat, a short distance west of Loch Kinnord, is a kind of cave in the bed of the bum of the same name, formed by the rocks over which the stream falls, and present a very pretty scene. On a small eminence near the margin of Loch Davan, is Glendavan House, the residence of Dr. Alexander Ogston, Professor of Surgery in the University of Aberdeen. During the minority of David H., Edward Baliol aspired to the throne, and supported by a few English nobles, who claimed lands in Scotland, he invaded the kingdom in 1332. The following year Edward HI. threw off the mask, and openly assisted Baliol. In the space of five years, Edward HI. led in person four ABOYNE. 129 successive invasions into Scotland, and reduced the nation tothegreatest extremities. David Strathbogie, ninth Earl of Athole, wavered in his allegiance, and repeatedly changed sides. At last, in the service of Edward III., he be- sieged the Castle of Kildrummy. The garrison, though few in number, was brave and determined, and made a heroic defence for the national cause. When Sir Andrew Moray, the Regent, received tidings of Athole's attack on Kildrummy, he immediately marched northward to raise the siege. Athole prepared to face the Regent, and leaving Kildrummy, he marched his army to a position on the wooded slope of Culblean. The Regent was ac» companied by William Douglas, Sir Alexander Gordon of Strathbogie, the Earl of Dunbar, Ramsay of Preston, and other leading men; the army numbered eight hundred fighting men. Athole's following was probably much larger, as his territorial power was then very ex- tensive. The battle was fought on the 30th of November, 1335. William Douglas led the vanguard with a strong company of stalwart men, and advanced with consummate tact, watching his opportunity, and at the proper moment ordered his men to couch their spears and charge the centre of the enemy's line, and a furious hand- to-hand combat ensued. Sir Andrew Moray then rapidly advanced with the main body, and assailed the enemy in flank with unbearable fury. Athole fell on the field ; his followers were completely defeated, and fled in confusion. This battle was a very important national event It formed a turning point, as the national party at the time were reduced to dire extremity, while Athole was the most powerful noble in Scotland, owing to his extensive territorial possessions and his connection Mrith the Comyns K 130 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. through marriage ; thus his continued opposition would have proved ruinous to the national cause. From this time the King's party steadily gained ground, and in 1339 Baliol finally fled from Scotland, and assumed his natural position as a pensioned dependant on England. In early times the whole Valley of the Dee was within the Earldom of Mar, but in the later part of the twelfth century and the early part of the thirteenth the greater portion of the stretch of the Valley below Cambus o' May was cut off from the Earldom. A considerable portion of this land was assigned to the Church and the monasteries ; small parts of it were retained for a time in the hands of the Crown, and a large part of it was given to the Durward family. In the early part of the thirteenth century, the Bisset family had obtained possession of Aboyne, and in 1242 Walter Bisset was lord of the barony. It appears that a feud existed between Bisset and Patrick, Earl of Athole, who was burnt to death at his residence in Haddington. Walter Bisset was suspected of having instigated this deed, although he cleared himself in a trial at Edinburgh; yet he retired to England, and was protected by Henry III. Another Walter Bisset received a charter of the lands of Aboyne from Robert I., which was confirmed to his son, Thomas Bisset, by a charter of David II. The male line of the Aboyne Bissets terminated in an heiress, and she married John Eraser, a nephew'of Robert I., soon after the battle of Culblean. Thus the lordship of Aboyne passed into the hands of the Eraser family. But the eldest daughter of John Eraser, Margaret, married Sir William Keith, the Marischal of Scotland, and he received with her Aboyne and other lands, ABOYNE. 131 including the thanedom of Durris, the baronies of Strachan, Culperso, Johnstone, and many other estates. They had three sons and four daughters, and the youngest daughter, Elizabeth Keith, married Sir Adam Gordon of Huntly. The eldest son, John Keith, married a daughter of Robert II. ; but John died shortly after, leaving an only son, who also died before his grandfather, leaving an only daughter. Lady Jane Keith. This lady married Alexander Gordon, first Earl of Huntly, and with her he received the lands of Aboyne, Glentanner, Cluny, TuUich, and Glenmuick. Towards the close of the fifteenth century, Adam Gordon, second son of the second Earl of Huntly, married Elizabeth Sutherland, and the Earl then assigned to them the barony of Aboyne. They resided at Ferrar, where their son, Alexander, was bom, who became the first Earl of Sutherland of the name of Gordon. The Countess succeeded to the Earldom of Sutherland in 1515 ; still the family continued to reside mostly at Aboyne; as they were much attached to their Deeside residence. The Countess died at Aboyne in 1535, and was interred there; and her husband died at Ferrar in 1537, and was interred beside the Countess. Their eldest son, Alexander, suc- ceeded to the Earldom, as first Earl of Sutherland of the name of Gordon. George, the fourth Earl of Huntly, was too much engaged in the public affairs of the nation to look after the improvement of this portion of his wide territories. In his personality the power and influence of the house of Huntly reached its culmination. In fact, he was for some time King of Scotland, north of the Tay ; but the rising power and ambition of James Stuart, Earl of Mar, 132 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Earl of Moray, and R^ent of Scotland, for a brief period greatly injured the Huntly family. Moray had resolved to crush the Earl of Huntly, and, for a time, he was successful. On the 28th of October, 1562, the Eari of Huntly fell at the battle of Corrichie. His titles and estates were forfeited to the Crown ; but in truth, the Crown had not sufficient strength to carry the forfeiture into effect, even with Moray and Lethington as its instigators. In 1565 the titles and estates were restored by Queen Mary to his son, the fifth Earl of Huntly. He took an active part in the stirring events and scenes of the period. He died in 1576, and was succeeded by his son, George, the sixth Earl, and first Marquis of Huntly. As he was a minor, the management of the estates and the leadership of the clan fell to his uncle. Sir Adam Grordon — ^the hero of many a a ballad, under the title of " Edom o' Gordon." When the young Earl attained his majority, he manifested some rashness and extravagance, but the sobering influence of experience and years produced a marked improvement on his character. In 1599 he was created first Marquis of Huntly. He then retired from politics, and devoted his attention to the improvement of his estates. He covered many a rough mo6r with plantations, repaired and built mansions, not for warlike purposes, but to add to the comforts and conveniences of civilised life. Dee Castle then became the chief residence of the Marquis and his family when they sojourned at their Deeside lands. The Aboyne peerage commenced in 1627 when Charles I. created Lord John Gordon, second son of the first Marquis, Viscount of Melgum and Lord Aboyne. ABOYNE. 18S Unhappily, the young Lord was burned to death in the house of Frendraught, on 8th October, 1630, which termi- nated this peerage. In 1632, Geoi^e, Lord Gordon, eldest son of the first Marquis, was created Viscount of Aboyne during the life of his father, and if he should survive his father and succeed to the Marquisate, the title of Viscount should then descend to his second son, James, and his heirs male. On the death of his father in 1636, he suc- ceeded to the lands as second Marquis of Huntly, while the Aboyne peerage descended to his second son, James, who then became second Viscount of Aboyne. He soon after engaged in the Covenanting struggle on the side of the King. His father and elder brother were then prisoners in Edinburgh, and he mustered the clan in order to repel an invasion of their territories by the Earl of Montrose, and the battle, which occured at the Bridge of Dee, has already been noticed. In the summer of 1640 the Covenanters, under Argyle, visited the Valley of the Dee, but they did little damage to the lands of the Gordons on that occasion. The Marquis of Huntly had the Royal commission of Lieutenancy of the North, and mustered his clan and vassals and fixed his headquarters at Aboyne. At this time Viscount Aboyne was in England with the King, and Lord Gordon was with the Covenanters. On the approach of an army of six thousand men under Argyle, Huntly disbanded his men and retired to Strathbogie, and afterwards to a sequestered isle in Strathnaver, in the north-west of Sutherlandshire, where he lay concealed for a considerable time. Meantime eight hundred Argyleshire men came to Cromar, Aboyne, Strachan, and the districts around, 134 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. where they had a daily allowance off the country of twenty-four bolls of meal, one hundred and twenty sheep, and a number of cattle, and sixty dollars of money. They drew the rents, and lived upon the Marquis of Huntly's lands of Cromar, Glentanner, Glenmuick, and other districts, from May to the ist of July. As the Marquis of Huntly at the commencement of the Covenanting struggle had been entrapped by Montrose, he never could?trust him ; but his sons, Lord Gordon and Viscount Aboyne, joined Montrose, and fought under him against the Covenanters. They were both engaged at the battle of Auldearn ; and at the battle of Alford on the 2nd July, 1645, Lord Gordon was slain. He was twenty-eight years of age, a comely, brave, and magnanimous gentleman, and his death was greatly and deeply lamented When the Marquis heard of the death of his eldest son he returned from Strath- naver to his own country. The Marquis himself was always a supporter of the Throne ; even after the King was a prisoner with the Scottish army, Huntly made an attempt to assist him, which failed. He then disbanded his followers, and fled to Lochaber for safety. The Com- mittee of Estates offered a reward of ;f 1000 sterling to any person who should apprehend him. He succeeded in eluding the pursuit of his enemies for several months, living in caves and the recesses of forests in the wildest parts of the Highlands. Aided by a few faithful attend- ants, he was lying concealed at the farmhouse of Dalnabo, three miles below Inchroy, when his hiding place was discovered by the agents of the Grovemment. Toward the end of December, 1647, Colonel Menzies, with a com- pany of troops at midnight surrounded Dalnabo ; the ABOYNE. 135 Marquis had only ten men around him, some of Whom were servants, yet they made a heroic stand to protect their master against fearful odds. Six of them were killed on the spot and the rest mortally wounded. Menzies immediately conveyed the Marquis to Blairfindie; in Glenlivet, and afterward he was carried to Edinburgh and imprisoned. He was confined in prison from the end of December, 1647, till March, 1649. A sad fate waited him, more heartrending, because at the time, his brother-in-law, Argyle, was at the head of the Scottish Government. The Marquis of Huntly was executed on the 22nd of March, 1649, at the cross of Edinburgh, There is no evidence that Argyle made any effort to save the Marquis' life ; although there is evidence of another character, namely, that Argyle made profit to himself off the Marquis' estates. The Marquis' surviving sons mans^ed to escape; the eldest, James, Viscount Aboyne, and Lord Lewis Gordon fled to Paris ; Charles, the third son, narrowly escaped with his life ; and Henry, the youngest, went abroad arid entered the service of the King of Poland. Viscount Aboyne died in the spring of 1649, and leaving no issue, the Viscounty of Aboyne became extinct. Lewis died in 1653, leaving an infant son, Geoi^e. This boy, after the Restoration, ^had the estates and titles restored to him, and some twenty years later he was created first Duke of Gordon. Charles Gordon, uncle of the preceding, was created Earl of Aboyne and Lord Gordon of Strathavon and Glenlivet in 1660. A portion of the family property was then conveyed to him, consisting of all the lands and lordship of Aboyne. Thus, Charles was the first Earl of Aboyne. For many years he had full charge of the 136 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DlEE. Huntly estates, when his nephew, the Marquis, was a minor, and he did much to restore the fortunes of the family. The Earl married Mai^aret Irvine, a sister of the laird of Drum, and by her he had an only daughter. Margaret was a lady of great attractions, and poetically commemorated as " bonny Peggie Irvine." She died in 1664. Afterward the Earl married Elizabeth Lyon, a daughter of the Earl of Kinghom, by whom he had three sons and one daughter. The Earl was a man of great energy, and occasionally indulged in writing verses. Several of his pieces occur in manuscript collections of this period, and he produced a satire on the Duke of Lauderdale. He died in 1681. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Charles, second Earl of Aboyne He died in 1702, and was succeeded by his son, John, third Earl of Aboyne. He married Grace, a daughter of Sir Geoi^e Lockhart of Camwath, a well-known Jacobite, and a keen opponent of the Union. The Earl joined in Mar's Rising in 171 5, which involved him in many difficulties. He died in 1732. He was sue* ceeded by his son, Charles, a boy of six years, fourth Earl of Aboyne. The Earl had acquired strong Jacobite feelings, and probably he would have joined the Rising of 1745, if his friends had not wisely conveyed him to Paris under colour of completing his education. On attaining his majority, he found the property heavily burdened, and in order to clear off the debt, in 1749 he sold the Glenmuick portion to John Farquharson of Invercauld. He then became afraid that, owing to the limits of his estates, he would be unable to live in Scotland, and sent his baggage to Paris, intending shortly to follow and live abroad. His ABOYNE, 137 love for the land of his birth, however, prevailed, and he ordered his baggage to be brought back. He then earnestly directed his attention to the im- provement of his lands. He planted woods, erected about forty miles of stone fences five feet in height, and induced his tenants to adopt improved means of agricul- ture ; and he soon cleared the lands of debt In 1759 he married Margaret Stewart, a daughter of the Earl of Galloway, and by her he had a son and two daughters. She died at Aboyne Gastle, on the 12th of August, 1762. In 1774, the Earl married Mary Douglas, a daughter of James, ninth Earl of Morton, and by her he had a son. After a very active and upright life, he died at Edinburgh, on the 28th of December, 1794, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. He was succeeded by his eldest son, George, fifth Earl of Aboyne. In 1791, he married Catherine, a daughter of Sir Charles Hope of Brewem, and by her he had issue, six sons and three daughters. In 181 5 he was created a British peer under the title of Baron Meldrum of Morven, and in virtue of this he sat in the House of Lords. On the death of George, fifth Duke of Gordon, and eighth Marquis of Huntly, in 1836, the Earl of Aboyne succeeded to the title of Marquis of Huntly. The Marquis died on the 17th of June, 1853, at the great age of ninety-two years. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Charles Gordon, tenth Marquis of Huntly. In 1844, he married Mary Antoinette, a daughter of the Rev. P. W. Pegus, by whom he had issue seven sons and seven daughters. He died on the 1 8th of September, 1863, in the seventy-first year of his age, and was succeeded by his eldest son, the present Marquis of Huntly. Chapter XIIL TULLICH— BALLATER. The real Highland stretch of the Valley commences at the moor of Dinnet, thence upward the mountains con- tinuously rise in elevation ; while the Dee itself emerges from the Highlands by the narrow Pass of Cambus o* May. The general aspects of the Valley are mountainous and woody, ridges and hills rising in elevation as they recede from the river. On the south side the highest mountains are Mount Keen and Lochnagar, which are a considerable distance off; and the intervening space between them and the river presents a fine succession of hills and ridges, which are partly covered with natural woods and bushes, and planted trees. On the north side the highest mountains are Culblean and Morven, and a succession of lower hills and ridges. From Cambus o' May northward along the eastern slopes of Culblean and Morven, far up the crags and hill sides, and uncultivated ground, natural birch, alder, juniper bushes, and scots fir are found. The margins of the river from Cambus o' May to the water of Gaim are fringed with natural birch, ash, alder, and aspen trees. The woods of Tullich, Monaltrie House, and Craigendarroch consist of a variety of different kinds of trees. The railway station of Cambus o* May stands on a beautiful spot at the base of Culblean amid a grove of natural birches and close to the edge of the Dee. The TULLICH. 139 beauty of Cambus o' May has been celebrated in poetry : — *' Ye may wander at will, from the sea to Glen Lui, The grey Silver City to heath clad Braemar ; Seek shelter and silence, on stem Ben Muich Dhtd, Or woo the wild grandeur of dark Lochnagar : Yet ne'er in your roaming, from mom-break till gloaming. Shall scene more endearing ere lighten the way, Than where the Dee gliding, through beauty abiding, Salutes with soft murmur sweet Gammas O'May. The breezes blow round me from steep Gragendarra' ; The owrecome o' sangs I hae gladsomely sung ; I hear the loud pibroch, nae music can marrow Save the soul-warming thrill o' my auld mither tongue : I hae rowed o'er the ferry, for hazel and berry. Sailed aften sinsyne across ocean and bay ; But thocht ne're would sever from Dee, childhood's river, And hours I hae spent at sweet Gammas O'May." ' Westward from the station are the ruins of the old church and graveyard of TuUich. The church was dedicated to St. Nathalan, and the churches of Glenmuick and Glengaim were vicarages belonging to Tullich. The ruins of the old church present some features of antiquity, and it was probably erected about the middle of the fifteenth century. Within the walls of the church is the burial ground of the Farquharsons of Whitehouse and Shiels. To the eastward of the old church, on a birch- clad eminence, there is an obelisk of Aberdeen granite, erected by his widow, to the memory of William Farquharson of Monaltrie, who died on the 28th of November, 1828. She died in 1857, ^^^ was interred in Tullich Churchyard. Francis Farquharson of Monaltrie, locally known as Baron Ban, joined the Rising of 1745. He led the X Under Lochnagar, p. x6o. 140 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Farquharsons at the battle of CuUoden, where he was taken prisoner, conveyed to London, tried, and condemn- ed to death ; but he received a reprieve, and afterwards a pardon. His estates, however, were confiscated ; although after the passing of the Act for restoring the forfeited estates in 1784, Mr. Farquharson received his lands on the payment of £1613. He was a very liberal- minded and enterprising landlord, and did much for the improvement of the district by erecting bridges and forming roads. Mr. Farquharson also utilised the mineral springs at Pannanich, which are on the opposite side of the river, and where he erected dwelling-houses, and public and private bathrooms. He died in 1790. The wells of Pannanich became famous for curing certain maladies, and many persons resorted to them. They lie on the south side of the Dee nearly two miles below Ballater, and in 1842 the following notice of them was given in the "Statistical account": — "By chemical analysis these wells, four in number, and all near to one another, have been found not exactly alike in their properties, but all containing carbonates of iron and lime, with small proportions of other ingredients. They are all chalybeate, stimulant, and tonic, of a cold temperature but very agreeable to the taste ; and although injurious to consumptive patients, they are allowed to be bene- ficial to those afflicted with gravelly and scrofulous complaints. For the accommodation of water drinkers, there are comfortable, well-aired lodgings at those wells, and also hot, cold, and shower baths ; and in the summer season a great many people resort to them from all parts of the country." The establishment in connection with the wells is still carried on, and in the summer season a TULLICH. 141 vehicle runs between it and Ballater. There is a very nice hamlet at Pannanich. The old village of Tullich stood in the immediate vicinity of the ruins of the old church ; and in the middle of the last century it was the capital of the district, where the post-office and inn were located, and in which the weaver, shoemaker, and tailor had their workshops ; but the success of Pannanich suggested the idea of commenc- ing to build at Ballater ; hence the origin of this thriving burgh, which soon outstript its older neighbour. A few yards to the west of the ruins of the old church,, the Bum of Tullich is crossed by a bridge, and from this standpoint a grand view of the surrounding mountains and scenery is presented to the eye Indeed, the entrance to the Highlands of Braemar by the Pass of Ballater presents many features of surpassing variety and sublim- ity. The greatest artist could produce but an imperfect representation of the landscapes, which in turn attract the eye of the beholder. Who could paint the distant mountains, rising in rugged grandeur over the peak of the range of green hills, with its scarred front dazzling dim in the sunshine that throws its fissures into deep shade ? "A magnificent mass, truly, is Lochnagar, as many a one has felt, and said before now. It may not be the king of Scottish mountains, but at this moment, at least, I am almost inclined to accord it that pre-eminence. There are higher mountains in Scotland, but mere height hardly merits supremacy."* But Lochnagar does not alone form the scene. From its broad mass and pictur- esque outline there is a continuous lower range of moun- tains, and, intervening between us and its base, a beautiful X Dr. MacGillivny's Deeside, p. 33. 142 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. green range of hills. Stretching out before us is the plain of Ballater, presenting cultivated fields and thickets of birch. " On this side of it is a long rugged range of granite hills, the furthest of which seems to have been rent by an earthquake, leaving the deep gap, called the Pass of Ballater." The river sweeps along the base of the steep banks, covered with weeping birches and firs, and winds round the promontory and into the plaia Near the Bridge of Tullich the road divides into two, one road going direct through the Pass of Ballater, and the other passing through the burgh of Ballater. Until recently the road through the Pass of Ballater was the only entrance to the Braemar Highlands. The Pass is a a deep and narrow gorge, with Craigendarroch on its south side, and Creagant-Seabhaig on the north, and these two craggy heights rise very steeply on either side of the gorge. It forms an exceedingly curious and picturesque feature of the scenery. The burgh of Ballater is situated in a fine plain on the north side of the Valley, at an elevation of seven hundred and fifty feet above sea level, and amid beautiful scenery. The Dee sweeps round in a curving form, and encompasses the west and south sides of the plain on which the town stands ; while the rocky, precipitous, and well-wooded hill of Craigendarroch shelters it on the north. As the town is of comparatively recent origin, none of the houses are old, the greater part of it having been built in the present century. The town is laid out on a regular plan : the streets and lanes cross the main street at right angles, in so far as the original plan has been carried out ; but quite recently new terraces and streets have been formed, and houses built on them. A BALLATER. 143 considerable number of excellent villas and cottages have also been erected in the inimediate vicinity of the burgh. The Parish Church stands in the square, and was built in 1875. It is a pretty, large, and chaste structure, with a spire and a clock in it. The Free Church is at the north-west side of the town, and is a pretty, handsome building. The Albert Memorial Hall is opposite the Railway Station, and it contains the Post and Telegraph Offices, a Library, which contains a considerable number of well-selected and important works ; a reading room, and a billiard room. This building was erected by Mr. Alexander Gordon, London, a native of the parish, and cost a sum of about ;£'3O0O. The Barracks lie at the northern extremity of the town, and were erected to accommodate the Queen's guard of honour when Her Majesty is at Balmoral. The Invercauld Arms — a large hotel — is at the south-east end of the town, on the north bank of the river. There is also a Temperance Hotel near the Square. In 1842 the population of the village of Ballater was 271. It had then a circulating library and a savings bank. In 1875 the population had increased to 400; and the population of the town now exceeds 1000, and is still rapidly increasing. Since 1863 the town has been lighted with gas ; and it is now supplied with pure spring water from a reservoir on the slope of Glengaim. A few years ago the inhabitants adopted the Police Act, and the burgh of Ballater has its own Provost, Magistrates, and municipal organisation. The sanitary arrangements are excellent ; the burgh has a clean appearance, bracing air, and the aspect of health and comfort At Ballater, on the 26th of September, 1876, Her 144 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Majesty the Queen presented new Colours to the Roys! Scots Regiment of Foot On the occasion the Queen said : — **I have been associated with your R^ment from my earliest infancy, as my dear father was your Colonel, I now present these^ Colours to you, convinced that 3^u will always uphold the glory and reputation of my First Regiment of Foot — the Royal Scots." Monaltrie House stands on a fine lawn at the base of the south-east extremity of Craigendarroch, about half-a- mile from Ballater. It is well sheltered by old oak trees, and the grounds are intersected with charming walks. The lands and the house now belong to Mr. Farquharson of Invercauld. Craigendarroch Lodge is on the western slope of this hill, a short distance from Ballater. It belongs to Mr. J. M. KeiUer, Dundee, who purchased the estate of Morven. Along the south-western slope and the base of Craigendarroch, a number of fine villas and cottages have recently been erected. Opposite to Ballater a bridge spans the Dee, but the bridges at this point have been very unfortunate. An excellent stone bridge of five arches was swept away by a high flood in August, 1 799. Another massive stone bridge of five arches was shortly after erected, which cost nearly jf 5000. It stood till the great flood of August, 1829, and had it not been that a great quantity of trees and brush- wood and other dedris brought down by the flood blocked up the arches the bridge would have stood ; but the arches became so jammed with wood and other things, including cattle, sheep, pigs, and poultry, that the water was dammed up to such a height that nothing could withstand it A loud crack was heard, instantly the BALLATER. 146 strong masonry was seen to sway, and with a crash like thunder the material burst into pieces, and was hurled into the river. In 1834 a strong wooden bridge of five arches was erected on the site of the former stone one, which cost upwards of ;£'2O0O ; but it has been superseded by a new granite bridge erected on the same site. This locality is remarkable for the notable musicians associated with it. Francis Gordon was born in this neighbourhood on the 7th of November, 1773. He was an excellent violin-player, and a man of reputation. James M. Cattanach was bom in Glengairn in 1779. He was a noted violinist, a composer, and a dancing master. He died in 1839. James Ross was born in the later part of the last century, and resided in Tullich. He was a violin-player of note in his day : and he had three sons, all of whom were violinists. James, born in Tullich on the 4th of December, 18 18, was a celebrated violin-player. He often played with the famous Archibald Menzies. Ross especially excelled in playing reels and strathspeys; his style was very stirring. He died at Edinburgh in 1882. His brother, John, was bom iii Tullich on the 12th of January, 181 5. He was a good violinist, and often played on public occasions. William, another brother, was a violin-player of note, George Stewart was bom near Ballater on the 4th of December, 1793. He was an excellent violin-player. In 1850 he! went to Australia, where he died in 1866. Rev. James M*Naughton was born at Ballater on the 17th of September, 1835. He was a fine violin-player; and he died at Aberdeen on the 25 th of October, 1879. John Knpwles was bom at Ballater on the 5th of L 146 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. October, 1865. He is a popular player and teacher of music Alexander Littlejohn was bom in Glenmuick, on the 20th of December, 1854. He is a good violin-player, and is the eldest of six brothers, all of whom are musicians : — William plays the violin and cornet, John plays the violin, Charles the flute, James the violincello, and Andrew the violin. They have occasionally played at the Queen's balls at Balmoral, and at other gentlemen's balls in the surrounding district ; and their services are often in request Alexander Troup was bom at Dalbadgie, in the vicinity of Ballater, on the isth of September, 1835. He is an excellent musician — a violinist and musicographer. He has often acted as a judge at pipe and violin competitions; has a wide and accurate knowledge of the works of Scottish violin composers ; and possesses a valuable collection of works on Scottish music and musicians. He is esteemed as one of the highest living authorities upon all points relating to Scottish music. He has played on various occasions at Balmoral. He is also a good vocal musician. In his twenty-first year, he led the psalmody in the church of Crathie before Her Majesty the Queen. He is a man of rare gifts and energy. His elder brother, James, who went to Australia, is also a fine violin player." z Musical Scotland Past and Present. By David Baptie, 1894. Chapter XIV. GLENMUICK. The Water of Muick is one of the largest tributaries of the Dee from the south side of the Valley, while Glenmuick itself contains very fine, diversified, and sublime scenery. In its lower part the Glen is pretty wide. The water of Muick is spanned by a stone bridge, a little above its junction with the Dee. Near the bridge the manse of the united parish stands on a beautiful spot The Churchyard of Glenmuick is at the north-west end of the bridge, and the old church stood in the graveyard, and was dedicated to St. Mary, but not a vestige of it now remains. The burial ground of the Gordons of Abergeldie is in the churchyard, enclosed with an iron railing, and within it is a square monument with inscrip- tions, to the memory of several members of the family. At a very early period the lands of Glenmuick were under the Mormaers of Mar, and afterwards the old Celtic Earls of Mar ; but gradually the central authority on the banks of the Tay, at Scone, encroached upon the Earl's Kingdom. From 1 125 to 1286 the Scottish Kings greatly extended their power by grants of lands to bishoprics, monasteries, and churches ; and also by grants of lands to new Crown vassals under feudal tenure. Thus it was that the Bisset family became the landlords of Glenmuick in the thirteenth century. They were super- seded by the Eraser family, and, after a generation. 148 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Glenmuick passed, by marriage, to Sir William Keith, Great Marischal of Scotland. The Keiths held it for about seventy years, but the g^rasping Duke of Albany, when R^ent of Scotland, attempted to deprive them of these lands, in favour of his own kin, the E^l of Buchan. In the middle of the fifteenth century, the lands of Glenmuick passed, by marriage, into the hands of the Eari of Huntly. As stated in a preceding chapter, Glenmuick was pur- chased by John Farquharson of Invercauld from the Earl of Aboyne. In 1863 the south-east side of Glenmuick was purchased from Farquharson of Invercauld by the late Sir James T. Mackenzie, Bart, but the left or west side of Glenmuick is now attached to the Balmoral estates, the lands of Birkhall having been purchased for the Prince of Wales from Gordon of Abergeldie. The old Castle of Braickley stood on the east side of the glen, but scarcely a fragment of it now remains. It was occupied by a Gordon in the seventeenth century, and some traditions are associated with it A story is told of an encounter between the Baron of Braickley and Farquharson of Inverey, in which the former was slain. There is also a ballad which gives an account of a con- flict between the Farquharsons and the Gordons, when a Baron of Braickley is said to have been killed. The modem house of Braickley is in the vicinity of the site of the old castle. The ruins of the old Castle of Knock stand on an eminence amid trees, on the west side of the glen, a short distance above the bridge of Muick. The ruins show that it had been a keep of considerable strength. From its elevated position it commands a wide view of the GLENMUICK. U9 surrounding country; but a much earlier tower once existed near the same site, Alexander, the third Earl of Huntly, appointed one of his own sons to the command of Knock Castle. George, the fourth Earl of Huntly, granted the lands and Castle of Knock to a brother of the laird of Abergeldie, a kinsman of his own. A feud arose between the Gordons and the Forbeses, and after the battle of Corrichie, in 1 562, it became more embittered. Conflicts took place between the Gordons of Abergeldie and the Forbeses of Strathgimock, whose lands intervened between Knock and Abergeldie. In iS7i> a fight between the Gordons and the Forbeses, led by the laird of Strathgimock, occurred at the Crabstane, Aberdeen, in which Alister Gordon took Forbes a prisoner. He was conveyed to Auchindoun, and imprisoned in Sir Adam Gordon's Castle on Glenfiddich. After a time Forbes was liberated ; but the feud continued. Henry Gordon of Knock was killed in a raid by a company of the Forbeses and the Clan Chattan. He was succeeded by his brother, Alexander Gordon, who, about the beginning of the seventeenth century, erected the Castle of Knock, the ruins of which still remain. It ap- pears, however, that he did not live long in peace. According to tradition, his seven sons were casting peats one day, and quite unaware of any hostile movement, when a party of the Forbeses led by Strathgjirnock, sud- denly attacked and slew them. Their father, on receiving tidings of this, was completely unnerved, and when leaning on the banister of the stair, he fell over it and was killed. Forbes was summarily condemned, and executed in his own house. His lands were then added to Abergeldie, and while Knock Castle continued to be ISO HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. inhabited it was a seat of the Abei^eldie family, or oc- cupied by some members of that family. About a mile further up the glen, and on the west ^ide, Btrkhall House stands on a fine site amid trees and near the bank of the stream. It is a plain three-storey house, but its charming and serene surroundings render it a desirable residence. It was erected in 1715, but it was subsequently enlarged. On the opposite side of the glen the late Sir James T. Mackenzie, Bart, erected Glenmuick House in 1873. It lies on a beautiful situation amid extensive plantations, and from Ballater it presents an exceedingly attractive appear- ance. It is built of granite,and forms three sides of a square, and the north wing is surmounted by a very thick tower, seventy-five feet in height ; but this massive structure, on a near view, looks extremely heavy. Sir James erected an Episcopal church in 1875, called St. Nathalan's, which stands within the grounds a little below the mansion house ; and beside the church he built a vault in which the remains of several members of the family are interred. Sir James T. Mackenzie was a son of a silk mercer in Aberdeen, and he made money abroad. He died very rich, leaving an elaborate will, which in coming genera- tions may give work to lawyers and Courts. He was succeeded by his son. Sir Allan Mackenzie. The glen is almost continuously wooded to the Royal lodge of AUtnaguibhsaich. About five miles up, the glen becomes narrow, and the scenery varied and beautiful. At the falls of Muick the hills that bound the glen approach each other on either side, and form a craggy pass, where the stream falls over a slanting rock in two currents, forming a cascade of forty feet in height, and at GLENMUICK. 161 Its bottom a deep, eddying pool is formed, with a rocky- wall on the southern side, and on its shelves and recesses several trees and a variety of plants. The Fall is very beautiful, and the scene charming and picturesque. Proceeding upward, the glen widens out, and about a mile above the Falls, is the small farm of Inschnabobart, the only cultivated land now in this stretch of the glen. A mile further up stands the sequestered Lodge of AUtnaguibhsaich, which belongs to Her Majesty the Queen. It was built in the life-time of the late Prince Consort The lodge consists of two large rooms and six or seven bedrooms. It is well sheltered by plantations, and is an exceedingly picturesque and charming spot It is on the Abergeldie estate, and the Gordons had a cottage here previous to the erection of the present lodge. Loch Muick is a mile above the lodge. The loch is 1310 feet above sea level. It is over two miles in length and half-a-mile in breadth, and in some parts it is sixty fathoms in depth. It is a fine sheet of water, covering an area of 960 acres. It has one islet The loch occupies the upper part of a narrow plain, and it is bounded on the northern side, by a steep scarred bank formed by a spur ofLochnagar,andon the southern side by a high ridge, with a deep gap in the middle and precipices near the lower end On both sides of the loch there are trees and bushes, chiefly in crevices and by the rills which rush down the ribs of the hills. The trees consist mostly of birch, aspen, alder, rowan, and some willows. For its sequestered aspect, grandeur, and sub- limity, combined with its picturesqueness, the scenery of Loch Muick is unsurpassed anywhere in Scotland. Her Majesty the Queen refers to it, and is a great admirer of Highland scenery. us HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE, DEE. The dasallt Shid is near the upper cod of dK loch, an the bank of the Glassdlt Boni at its c aliai ice into the loch. It was erected for the Queen in 1S68, and is the most remote and sequestered of Her Majesty's Highland residences* It is a diaste stmctore of two ^boscys, sor- tomidtd by fir t rees , mostly planted sinoe it was bnilt The Glasallt Bum rises near the sommit of Locfanagar. Half-a^mile above its entrance into the kxh, thebnm has a grand and beautiful Fall over granite rocks ; the Falls are one hundred and fifty feet in height From the Glasallt Shiel to Loch DuUi, a distance of nearly two milds, the water of Muick flows amid grand scenery* On both sides of the stream the mountains rise steep and high, and present magnificent aspects Loch Dubh is 2091 feet above sea level, three-quarters of a mile in length, and covers an area of sixty acres. Two high mountains encompass the loch on the south and south- west, which present great granite rocks and precipices overhanging the sheet of water ; at the highest point their perpendicular height is eight hundred feet ; the rocks on the north-east side of the loch are not so steep, and do not come so near the edge of the water. There are plenty of trouts in Loch Dubh. On the Lochnagar group of mountains there are other lochlets and great corries. A very extensive view of the surrounding country is obtained from the summit of Lochnagar. A number of persons have recorded the extent of their view from this elevated point. I will quote Dr. Macgillivray, who says his view extended : — " As far as the Lothians, Stirlingshire, the southern Grampians, many of the Perthshire moun- tains, those of the upper extremity of Aberdeenshire, beyond them some of the great prominences of the GLENMUICK. 153 counties of Argyll and Inverness ; ridges and hills even beyond the Moray Firth, as well as the lower eastern tracts, extending to Aberdeen." ' It seems appropriate to close this chapter with Byron's poem on Lochnagar — Away, ye gay landscapes, ye gardens of roses ! In you let the minions of luxury rove ; Restore me the rocks where the snow-flake reposes, Though still they are sacred to freedom and love. Yet, Caledonia, beloved are thy mountains, Round their white summits tnough elements war ; Though cataracts foam 'stead of smooth flowing fountains, I sigh for the valley of dark Lochnagar. Ah ! there my young footsteps in in&ncy wander'd, My cap was the linnet, my cloak was the plaid ; On chieftains lone perish'd my memory pondered. As daily I strode through the pine-cover'd glade ; I sought not my home till the day's dying glory Gave place to the rays of the bright Polfu: star ; For fancy was cheer'd by traditional story, Disclosed by the natives of dark Lochnagar. *' Shades of the dead ! have I not heard your voices Rise on the night-roUing breath of the gale ? " Surely the soul of the hero rejoices, And rides on the wind o'er his own Highland vale. Round Lochnagar while the stormy mist gathers. Winter presides in his cold icy car ; Qouds there encircle the forms of mv fathers ; They dwell in the tempests of dark Lochnagar. ** Ill-starred, though brave, did no visions foreboding. Tell you that fate had forsaken your cause ? " Ah ! were you destined to die at CuUoden, Victory crown'd not your fall with applause ; Still were you happy in death's earthly slumber. You rest with your clan in the caves of Braemar ; The pibroch resounds to the piper's loud number. Your deeds on the echoes of dark Lochnagar. Years have rolled on, Lochnagar, since I left you, Years must elapse ere I tread you again ; Nature of verdure and flowers has bereft you, Yet still are you dearer than Albion's plain. England ! thy beauties are tame and domestic To one who has roved o'er the mountains a&r ; O ! for the crags that are wild and majestic — The steep frowning glories of dark Lochnagar! I Deeside, pp. 43-46. Chapter XV. GLENGAIRN— STRATHGIRNOCK— ABERGELDIE. Almost throughout the stretch of the Valley from Ballater to Braemar, the scenery is charming and ex- quisitely beautiful when viewed in a fine summer day in all its variant glories. Hills of moderate elevation and of varied forms, some conical and round-topped, others of different forms, and very steep, rocky and craggy; and these hills are generally covered for a considerable way up their ribs, and sometimes to their summits, with woods of Scotch fir, birch, and here and there several other varieties of trees interspersed. • The Valley bounded by these hills, though comparatively narrow, is highly cul- tivated or closely wooded, and through it the clear and beautiful river winds onward in its stony bed. Farm- steadings and cott£^es appear at intervals on the haughs along the river side, and on the most beautiful and pleasant sites magnificent mansions attract the eye. Proceeding upward from Ballater, the road passes along the south-western base of Craigendarroch amid plantations and fine villas on both sides of the road, and on the opposite side of the river the green-topped Colyes of Muick appear. A mile and a half above Ballater, the water of Gairn is spanned by a stone bridge, and about a quarter of a mile below it, this large stream enters the Dee. A little below the bridge, on the east side of the water of Gairn, the ruins of the old Church of Glengaim stand GLENGAIRN. 155 on a haugh within the churchyard. The church was dedicated to St Kentigem, better known as St Mungo. Part of the front and gable walls of the church are still standing, and several ash trees are growing within its area. There are a considerable number of gravestones with in- scriptions in it, but none of a very early date The remains of some of the Mackenzies of Dalmore are interred in it, and Dalmore was once the name of Mar Lodge. There is a tradition that the first of this family was a natural son of Kenneth, the ninth Earl of Kintail, who received a grant of Dalmore on account of the services of his father to James IV. Several gravestones present long ages. A headstone has the following inscription to the memory of a Roman Catholic priest, a native of Glengaim : — ^" Pray for the soul of Lachlan M*Intosh, priest, who, having faithfully discharged the duties of his pastoral office in this mission of Glengaim, for about sixty-four years, died worn out with age and infirmities, on the loth of March, 1846, in the ninety-third year of his age. May he rest in peace." Two miles above the bridge, on the north side of the Gaim, there is a Roman Catholic chapel and mission house; and a little further up the glen is the burial ground of Dalfad. It is within an enclosure, in which are the ruins of an old Roman Catholic chapel. There are four or five tombstones in it, which mark the graves of a family of the name of McGregor, who were proprietors of the lands of Dalfad in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The M*Gr^or clan were excessively and savagely persecuted and hunted down by the authority of the Government from the later part of the sixteenth century till past the middle of the seventeenth. The 156 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. M'Gr^ors of Dalfad and other natives of the glen, mustered on a haugh on the south side of the Water of Gaim to the number of twenty-four men, and marched to the Moor of CuUoden, where they fought for Prince Charles ; and eighteen of them fell on that fatal field. About four miles further up the glen is the burial ground of the Macdonalds of Rineaton, which occupies a nsing ground about half-a-mile west of the old mansion house of Rineaton. It contains half an acre of ground, and is enclosed by a stone wall, and surrounded by larch trees. In its centre there is a square vault ^with tomb- stones inscribed. A perpetual right to this burial ground was acquired by the Macdonalds for the payment of a nominal feu-duty of i^. per annum. The Macdonalds of Rineaton trace their descent from the Lord of the Isles. The first Macdonald of Rineaton was taken a prisoner at the battle of Harlaw, and shortly after that event, the Earl of Mar granted to him the lands of Rineaton. They held this property till the present cen- tury, when it was sold by William Macdonald to Farquharson of Invercauld. The mansion house of Rineaton consists of two storeys, and is now usually occu- pied by a gamekeeper. The quoad sacra church is about five miles up the glen, and stands on the left bank of the Gaim. There is not much planted wood in Glengaim. At the Bridge of Gairn there are small clumps of Scotch firs and larch, and at Gaimshiel, five miles up the glen, there are belts of larch ; but the margins of the stream and the lower slopes of the hills are covered with clusters of natural birch, alders, and here and there groups of Scotch firs, rowan, and aspen trees. ^ GLENGAIRN, 157 The site of the old Castle of Gaim lies on a small eminence, half-a-mile north-east from the bridge, but only small fragments of its walls remain. The farm-steading of Abergaim stands on the east side of the glen, a little above the bridge. In this locality it has been believed that there were lead mines. Toward the end of last century it was stated in the old Statistical Account that many pieces of lead had been found near the Castle of Glengaim, and that "it is believed there is a lead mine there." Owing, however, to the expense of working it, no efforts had then been made to discover the vein of the metal. Afterwards, various attempts were made to open the lead mines of Glengaim, and much labour was expended by workmen unskilled in mining operations, and it seems that little result was obtained. Still an opinion prevailed that there were veins of metal in the locality. Twenty years ago, the Marquis of Huntly directed investigation and trials to be made in order to discover if there were mineral veins in the district. The Marquis engaged Mr. Belt, an expert in mining operations, and a man of great experience. Mr. Belt made a survey of the locality, and on receiving his report, the Marquis resolved to mine the ground. Skilled workmen and miners were engaged, and operations were commenced at the edge of a hollow between the castle-hill and the more elevated ridge, just behind the farm-steading of Abergairn. The operations were systematically continued for a considerable time, and at first gave much promise of ultimate success. In the course of the operations several veins were discovered, but they were not of sufficient richness and continuity^ and after considerable expenditure, the enterprise had to be abandoned. 158 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. There is a considerable extent of cultivated land in Glengaim, chiefly in its lower stretch ; and also in some parts of the glen grassy meadows and stripes of fine green pastures. The upper stretch of the glen to Loch Builg is occupied as a sheep farm. Five miles up the glen, on the side of the stream, is Gaimshiel, a shooting-box. Five-and-a-half miles further up is Comdavon Lodge, also a shooting-box, for the deer forest of Ben Avon, belonging to Farquharson of Invercauld. The lodge is 1450 feet above sea level About two-and-a-half miles further up is Loch Builg Cottage, which is also connected with the shooting. Farquharson of Invercauld is the chief proprietor of the north side of the Valley of the Dee, from below Ballater to the west of Castletown of Braemar, where the Duke of Fife's territory commences. Invercauld also possesses a considerable stretch of gjround on the south side of the Dee. Returning to the Valley, half-a-mile beyond the Bridge of Gaim, the Dee is spanned by an el^ant sus- pension bridge for foot passengers, which superseded the Polhollick ferry-boat The bridge is one hundred and ninety-five feet in length and four feet wide. It was a gift from Mr. Alexander Gordon, who was mentioned in a preceding chapter as a benefactor of Ballater. A short distance above it, the burn of Gimock joins the Dee on the south side. Strathgirnock lies between the wooded hills of Creag Phiobaidh and Creag Ghiubhais, and the glen is not of great extent The tradition connected with it was already noticed. At the bridge which crosses the Gimock burn there is a small hamlet and a post-office. STRATHGIRNOCK. 150 The old mansion house of Strathgimock stood at the foot of Creag Phiobaidh, but not a vestige of it remains. Before the days, of compulsory and free education, the late Prince Consort was instrumental in erecting a school for boys and girls at Strathgimock ; also a school near the vills^e of Crathie, and another near Birkhall. There are a few farms in the glen, but the inhabitants are not numerous. Farther westward is the beautifully wooded hill slop- ing down to the river, called Craig-na-ban "the Women's Craig." It is said that the witches were burnt on its summit The tradition of the burning of the witches is, however, vague and of the weird character. On the north side of the river, the Coillecriech wood, which chiefly consists of birch trees, extends along both sides of the road for about two miles. The white silvery stems of the trees are very beautiful. It is exceedingly pleasant to traverse a birch wood in the morning, inhale the sweet fragrance of the trees, and to listen to the charming songs of the birds as they fly from twig to twig, rejoicing in the sunshine, and observe the various hues of the wild flowers which grow amidst the grass on which we tread. " What tree is more graceful than the slender birch, which, springing from a rift in the rugged and lichen-patched crag that overhangs the mountain torrent, rears its white stem aloft, and spreads all around its branches, dividing into countless twigs, which become more and more delicate, until at last they almost resemble slender cords, hanging in separate groups, as if drawn down by the weight of the numberless tiny and glancing leaves that flutter in the breeze. ... If it is associated with other trees of native growth, it will IdO HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. appear more beautiful by contrast. There it stands in its simple beauty, pre-eminent among the dark-leaved alders, and the light green bushy hazel. . . . Glad- ness, and patient endurance, and quiet sorrow find sympathy in the birch or emanate from it The pine is a gloomy and stubborn tree ; but the birch responds in its graces to the gentler emotions." ' The birch attains only a moderate size, seldom exceeding forty feet in height and three feet in girth. It grows at an elevation of about two thousand feet, beyond which it is succeeded by the dwarf birch. The birch tree exhibits many variations of form ; its stem is generally erect, but sometimes the stems are compound, six or more rising from the same root, crooked and distorted. They sometimes degenerate into thick spreading bushes. There are many varieties of birch in Braemar ; one of the most characteristic is called " the weeping birch." The birch forms a large portion of the wood of Braemar. In some places it forms considerable forests, as at Coillecriech, in the vicinity of Abei^eldie, and at Balmoral, and one extending from the mouth of Glen Clunie westward between the Dee and Morrone. On the north side of the Valley, the highest mountain between Ballater and Balmoral is Geallaig — " the white mountain " — which attains an elevation of two thousand four hundred and thirty-nine feet At its base, on the north side of the road near the forty-seventh milestone, there are some traces of the site of the old Roman Catholic Chapel of Micras. An ancient standing stone, X Dr. Macgillivray's Deeside, p. 176. ABERGELDIE. 161 supposed to have formed part of a circle, now indicates the site of the chapel. A few small detached cottages stand on the lower slope of Geallaig, called the vills^e of Easter Micras. It is said that this village half-a-century 2^0, presented a genuine specimen of a Highland clachan. About a mile further westward is Wester Micras — a similar collection of cottages. Very few of the old style of huts, however, are now to be seen ; although it is not long since they disappeared, as the following sentence shows — " More characteristic specimens of Highland huts than those you see occupying very picturesque stations on the hillside at Micras, one seldom meets with. . . . Their inhabitants are Gaelic-speaking Celts."* It is about forty years since the above was written, but a marked change has taken place — for instance, very few people in Braemar now speak Gaelic, and the rising generation are not learning it at all. The Castle of Abergeldie stands on the south bank of the Dee, and very near the edge of the river. It stands east and west, with its front to the south, and the Geldie Burn on the west, which joins the Dee a little above the castle. There is a considerable space of level ground on the south side of the castle, well wooded ; while on the south-east there are extensive woods, growing to the summits of lofty ridges. The Birks of Abergeldie have been long celebrated in song, and universally admired. The castle itself is a compara- tively plain structure, with a round tower ; but its picturesque site renders it a charming residence. The Castle and estate of Abergeldie are leased by Her X Dr Macgillivray's Deeside. M 162 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Majesty the Queen, from Mr. H. M. Gordon, the pro- prietor. The Queen's mother, the Duchess of Kent, occupied the castle for a number of years as a summer residence. The Prince of Wales has sometimes resided at Abergeldie. In former times, communication between Abergeldie and the north side of the Valley was maintained by a cradle worked on a rope suspended by posts at each side of the river. Accidents occasionally occurred, and a newly-married couple, while crossing the Dee in the cradle, were drowned. An elegant suspension bridge for foot passengers was erected by the Queen in 1885. The estate of Abergeldie, in early times, formed a part of the Earldom of Mar ; and about the middle of the fourteenth century, Thomas Gartney, Earl of Mar, granted the lands of Abergeldie to Duncan, son of Roger ; and Duncan, as the Earl's vassal, had to attend three Head Courts annually at Migvie, in Cromar. In the latter part of the fifteenth century, when the Earldom of Mar was in the hands of the Crown, an attempt was made to reclaim Abergeldie. The case came before the Privy Council, and the Council decided that the lands of Abergeldie were distinct from the Earldom of Mar. It appears that Sir Alexander Gordon of Midmar, second son of the first Earl of Huntly, had acquired Abergeldie in the latter part of the fifteenth century. Sir Alexander married Beatrice, a daughter of the Earl of Errol, by whom he had two sons and four daughters. His eldest daughter married Lord Lovat ; the second married Mortimer of Craigievar ; the third married Oglivy of Clova; and the fourth married Gordon ABERGELDIE. 163 of Dorlaithers. William, his second son, became laird of Netherdale — a fine estate in the Valley of the Deveron. Sir Alexander died in 1504, and was succeeded by his eldest son, George Gordon. He married Grizel Stuart, a daughter of the Earl of Buchan, and had issue — one son and three daughters. George died in 1530, and was succeeded by his son, James. He was a man of great energy, fought at the Battle of Pinkie in 1547, and was slain on the field. His son, Alexander, succeeded to the estate. He married a daughter of Irvine of Drum, by whom he had six sons and six daughters. He acted as baillie over the Earl of Huntl/s estates in the Valley, and wielded much power in the locality, and extended the territory of the family. His fourth son, George Gordon, laird of Knock, fought under Huntly at the Battle of Glenlivet in 1 594, and fell on the field. Alexander died at Abergeldie in 1596, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Alexander. He died in 1601, without issue, and was succeeded by his brother, William. He married Miss Seton, and had issue — five sons and two daughters. His eldest daughter married Donald Farquharson of Monaltrie ; and the second daughter married Gray of Shivas. William died at Abergeldie in 1630, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Alexander. He engaged in the civil war against the Covenanters ; and in 1644 the Castle of Abergeldie narrowly escaped destruction. He married a daughter of Rose of Kilravock ; and having died about 1655, he was succeeded by his son, John, who died, without issue in 1701, and the succession then reverted to his sister, Rachel. She married Captain Charles Gordon, a son of 164 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Gordon of Minmore, and had issue. Their son, Peter Gordon, succeeded to Abergeldie. He was thrice married, and was succeeded by his son, Charles. He married a daughter of Hunter of Bumside, and had issue. Charles died in 1796, and was interred in the church3rard of Glenmuick, where there is a tablet to his memory, and "Alison Hunter, his spouse." He was succeeded by his son, Peter, who was a captain in the 8ist Highland R^ment Captain Gordon married, first, Mary, a daughter of Foulis of Blackford, by whom he had a daughter, who died in 1802 ; and, secondly, Elizabeth, a daughter of Leith of Freefield. He died in 18 19, without issue, and was succeeded by his brother, David, who died in 1831, and was succeeded by his son, Michael F. Gordoa He made improvements on the Castle of Abergeldie. Mr. Gordon died in i860, and was succeeded by his brother, Admiral Robert Gordon. Admiral Gordon having died unmarried, his nephew, Hugh Mackay Gordon, Esq., succeeded to the estate, the present representative of the family. Nearly a mile further up the Valley from Abergeldie Castle is the site of the hamlet of Clachantum, but there are few houses in it now. There is a suspension bridge, which was erected in 1834, and superseded the ferry boat at Clachanturn. It is only used for foot passengers^ since the Balmoral Bridge was erected over the river about half-a-mile further up. A little to the south, on the rising ground, stands the Free Church of Crathie, on the Abergeldie property. It is a pretty, chaste structure, with a spire. In this locality also is the far- famed Lochns^ar Distillery, the property of Mr. J. Begg. A little further up the Valley, on the south bank CRATHIE. leS of the river, and in the immediate vicinity of the suspension bridge, is the beautiful little village of Easter Balmoral. It has been mainly erected since the Queen came to Balmoral. A little to the westward on the rising ground, there are three or four houses standing at some distance from each other, on very fine sites, amid plantations, which are usually occupied by some of Her Majesty's officials. Nearly opposite, on the north side of the river, is the parish manse of Crathie, on a fine site by the river side. In its vicinity is the churchyard, and the ruins of the old church of Crathie. The churchyard is kept in excellent order. There are a considerable number of tombstones and headstones in it, with inscriptions, many of which bear Gaelic names. The burial aisle of the Farquhar- sons of Monaltrie is within the churchyard. Here also stands a tombstone erected by Her Majesty the Queen, to the memory of John Brown, her faithful personal attendant, which has a long inscription. John Brown's ancestors had been resident in the parish for a long period, and he erected a stone to the memory of his parents and other relatives. The Queen has erected gravestones in memory of several royal servants who have died at Balmoral. A short distance northward, the church of Crathie stood on an eminence amid trees, and was erected in 1806. It was a pretty large and plain structure, and con- tained accommodation for about fourteen hundred sitters. Until recently Her Majesty the Queen worshipped in this church every Sunday during her stay at Balmoral. The late Dr. Norman Macleod often preached at Crathie, and he was highly respected, admired, and trusted by 166 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. the Queen. Her Majesty, in her diary, frequently refers to Dr. Macleod, and the service in the church. But it has been resolved to build a new church at Crathie, on the site of the old one. In 1893, the old church was removed. A new church has been designed by Messrs. Matthews & Mackenzie, architects, Aberdeen, estimated to cost from ;tsooo to £6000, and which pre- sents elegant and striking architectural characteristics ; and, when finished, it will be a prominent feature in the landscape of the locality. On the nth of September, 1893, the foundation stone of the new church was laid by Her Majesty the Queen. Naturally, on this occasion, there was a large assemblage of people. Portions of Scripture were read, and prayer offered up; then the Rev. Mr. Campbell, the minister of the parish, stepped forward, and read the address to the Queen, which Her Majesty was graciously pleased to accept ; and, in reply, the Queen said — " It gives me great pleasure to be present on this occasion, and to lay the foundation stone of the new church of Crathie, which is to be erected on the spot where the old church stood, in which we have worshipped together for so many years. I need scarcely assure you of my warm attachment to the Church of Scotland, which so largely represents the religfious feelings of the people of this country. I thank you sincerely for the kind expressions you have used towards me in the loyal address which has been presented to me on the part of my co-heritors and parishioners of Crathie, and of others who have shown their interest in this good work." The ceremony of laying the foundation stone was then proceeded with ; a silver trowel was handed to the CRATHIE. 167 Queen, and Her Majesty deftly applied it to the mortar. When the stone was placed, and the level showed that it was all right, with a small ivory-handled mallet, the Queen gave three taps on the stone, and said — " I declare this stone well and truly laid." Dr. Donald Macleod said the prayer of consecration, and the proceedings concluded with the singing of the second Paraphrase. It was a fine day, and the whole programme was admirably carried out The Parish of Crathie has the honour of being the birthplace of a considerable number of notable musicians. John Bruce was bom in Braemar in the early part of the eighteenth century, and was a celebrated violinist He was a warm Jacobite, and joined the Rising of 1745. Afterwards, he resided for many years in Dumfries, where Robert Bums knew him well. Bums says that Bruce always claimed the lively air, " O, whistle and Til come to ye, my lad," as one of his own composition. He died at Dumfries on the 31st December, 1785. Alexander Downie was born in Crathie about 1760. He was a notable violinist and dancing-master ; and especially celebrated as a player of jigs. He had a son who was also a fine player. James Forbes was bom in Crathie in 1777. He was an excellent violinist He was accidentally drowned near Ballater in May, 1837. William Blair was born in Crathie on the 26th of October, 1793. ^^ ^^^ ^ famous violinist and composer. He belonged to the school of Neil Gow ; and as a player of dance music he was surpassed by few in Scotland. In the later part of his life he was usually called the ** Queen's Fiddler," from his having played at festive assemblages and balls at Balmoral for upwards of thirty years. He was originally a house carpenter ; and died 168 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE at Belnacroft on the 12th of November, 1884, at the advanced age of ninety years. Shortly after his death, his musical compositions were published by desire of Her Majesty the Queen ; and a tombstone was erected to his memory in the churchyard of Crathie. He left two sons, both of whom are excellent violinists. Peter Coutts was born in Crathie in 18 14. He was a celebrated piper, and was for many years piper to the Farquharsons of Invercauld. He had a thorough know- ledge of music, and composed a number of tunes for the bagpipe. Peter Robertson was bom in Crathie on the nth of February, 1834, and is a notable piper. He was for twenty-six years in the service of the Prince of Wales. At present he is in the service of Sir Allan Mackenzie of Glenmuick. John Ross was born in Crathie in 1853. He was a famous piper, having studied under William Ross, the Queen's piper. Aftewards, he was successively piper to the late Colonel Farquharson of Invercauld, the late Sir James T. Mackenzie of Glenmuick, and the late Duchess of Sutherland. He was greatly esteemed by all good judges of pipe-playing. He died in 1887. William Ross, a native of Ross-shire, was born in 1815. He served his country for twenty-five years in the famous 42nd Regiment (Black Watch). In 1854, he was appointed piper to Her Majesty the Queen. He published, in 1876, a large collection of pipe music, embracing forty-one piobaireachds, and four hundred and thirty-seven marches, strathspeys, and reels, to which was prefixed an " Essay on the Bagpipe and its Music," by the late Dr. Norman Macleod. The work was dedicated to the Queen ; and a second edition appeared in 1885. Mr. Ross died in 189 1. Chapter XVI. BALMORAL. In passing along the north side of the Valley, the Castle of Balmoral is seen from a considerable distance, both from the east and the west. About a mile westward from the church of Crathie, the river takes a beautiful curving sweep northward, and on its southern bank stands the Castle of Balmoral. Communication between the castle and the north side of the Valley is maintained by a cast-iron bridge. Within the castle grounds, which are very extensive, there is a considerable number of statues and monu- ments. A bronze statue, placed on a rustic base, was erected by the Royal Family to the memory of the late Prince Consort ; and also an obelisk placed on a small eminence, which was erected to his memory by the Royal tenantry and the servants. A fine bronze statue of the Queen was also erected by the Royal tenantry and the servants of the Household. There are other monuments relating to members of the Royal Family. The Hill of Craig Gowan rises directly to the south of the castle, and is fourteen hundred and thirty feet above sea level. After the lamented death of the late Prince Consort, a cairn and monument was erected to his memory on the summit of this hill. On the 2ist of August, 1862, the Queen visited the spot, and wrote: — ** Here, at the top, is the foundation of the cairn — forty feet wide — to be erected to my precious Albert, which 170 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. will be seen all down the Valley. I and my six orphans all placed stones on it ; and our initials, as well as those of the three absent ones, are to be carved on stones all round it. It is to be thirty-six feet high, and the following inscription to be placed on it : — To the Beloved Memory of Albbbt, the Great and Good, Prince Consort, Raised by his Broken-hearted Widow, Victoria R. August 21, 1862. The form of the cairn is pyramidal, and built of granite without any mortar. The inscription is well cut on the tablet. A good path was made, which winds up to the summit of the hill." ' In early times the lands of Balmoral were attached to the Earldom of Mar. Afterwards, they were acquired by the Farquharsons, the descendants of the family of Inverey. The fourth son of Donald of Inverey died in the reign of James VL, and was succeeded by his eldest son, William. He married a daughter of Gordon of Abergeldie, and had issue. Their son, Charles, became the first laird of Balmoral of the name of Farquharson. After the Revolution of 1688, Charles Farquharson of Balmoral j joined Viscount Dundee, and fought at the Battle of Killiecrankie for the cause of James VII., in which he was wounded. His wound was so severe that he was unfit for active service. On Charles Farquharson's death, Balmoral reverted to his brother ; and he married a daughter of Leith of z More Leaves from the Journal of a Life in the Highlands, pp. z-4. BALMORAL. 171 Overhall, and had issue. Their son, James Farquharson, succeeded to Balmoral, and also to Auchlossan on the death of his brother. He married Jane, a daughter of William Leith, of Aberdeen. James Farquharson of Balmoral joined Mar's Rising in 171 S; and after the suppression of the Rising, he suffered severely until the general indemnity was proclaimed James Farquharson of Balmoral joined the Rising of I745,and led the clan. Shortlybefore the Battle of Falkirk, the following conversation is said to have taken place : — " Balmoral," said Lochiel, " why did you not bring Invercauld with you ? " " Invercauld, you see, thinks differently from us," said Balmoral ; " but there is the less to regret, as I see his daughter, the Lady Mackintosh, here ; and some of the men following her, I could swear, live not ten oxgangs from Invercauld." The Battle of Falkirk was fought on the 17th of January, 1746. Balmoral drew up his men in the form of of a wedge, thus — He marched at their head, two men followed in the second rank, three in the third, and so on to the rear. " Now, my lads," said he, " march in silence. Fire not a shot till you can decern the colour of the horses' eyes, then give one volley altogether ; throw down your ganSy and rush upon them, cut the horses' bridles, and we will then deal with the men." As they advanced, a bullet hit Balmoral in the shoulder. " Four men," cried his henchmen, " to carry our wounded chief to the rear ! " " Never ! " cried Balmoral ; " four men to carry your chief at the head of his children into the thickest of the fight" After the Battle of Falkirk, Balmoral retired with his 172 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Wife to the estate of Auchlossan, where he remained in hiding till his death. The estate of Balmoral, of course, was forfeited after the suppression of the Rising. About the middle of the last century, Balmoral was acquired by the Earl of Fife. In the second quarter of the present century, the Earl of Fife's trustees leased the old castle and estate of Balmoral to the Right Hon. Sir Robert Gordon, a brother of the Earl of Aberdeen. Sir Robert was engaged in the diplomatic department of the Government, and held the appointment of Ambassador at the Court of Vienna. When not actively engaged in the service of his country, he sought a quiet residence in the upper stretch of the Valley of the Dee. He repaired and made large additions to the old castle; and also extended and greatly improved the garden and the pleasure grounds, and thus rendered the site more beautiful and attractive. Sir Robert Gordon returned from Vienna in 1846, and intended to reside at Balmoral; but he did not live to enjoy it long, having died in the autumn of 1847. Her Majesty the Queen, at an early period of her reign, commenced to visit various quarters of the High- lands, and from the first she enjoyed and highly appreciated the grand and romantic scenery of the mountains, valleys, and glens. Associated, as these regions are, with many important historic events, closely connected not only with the Throne of Scotland, but also with the Throne of Britain, in some of the most momentous crises which it has ever passed through ; these early visits inspired Her Majesty with a desire to have a residence in this part of her dominions — a desire which was fully- shared by the Prince Consort BALMORAL. 173 After the death of Sir Robert Gordon, Balmoral was recommended to the Royal couple by the Earl of Aberdeen as a very suitable locality. Sir James Clark, the Queen's physician, having declared that the climate of the Valley of the Dee was one of the healthiest in Scotland, it was then decided to adopt the Earl's advice. Early in September, 1848, the Royal Family landed at Aberdeen, and received a hearty and warm welcome from the citizens. They proceeded up the Valley of the Dee, and on the 8 th of September took possession of their new home. The Queen recorded her first impressions of Balmoral thus — "On the 8th of September, we arrived at Balmoral at a quarter to three. It is a pretty little castle in the old Scottish style. There is a picturesque tower, and a garden in front, with a high wooded hill ; at the back there is a wood down to the Dee ; and hills rise all around. " There is a nice little hall, with billiard-room ; next to it IS the dining-room. Upstairs, immediately to the right, and above the dining-room, is our sitting-room (formerly the drawing-room), a fine large room — next to which is our bedroom, opening into a little dressing- room, which is Albert's. Opposite, down a few steps, are the children's and Miss Hildyard's three rooms. The ladies live below, and the gentlemen above. " At half-past four we walked out, and went up to the top of the wooded hill opposite our window, where there is a cairn, and up which there is a pretty winding path The view from here, looking down upon the house, is charming. To the left you look towards the beautiful hills surrounding Lochnagar ; and to the right, towards Ballater, to the Valley, along which the Dee winds, 174 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. with beautifully-wooded hills. It was so calm, and so solitary, it did one good as one gazed around ; and the pure mountain air was most refreshing. All seemed to breathe freedom and peace, and to make one forget the world and its sad turmoils. " The scenery is wild, and yet not desolate ; every- thing looks more prosperous and cultivated than at Laggan. Then the soil is delightfully dry. We walked beside the Dee, a beautifully rapid stream, which is close behind the house. The view of the hills toward Inver- cauld is exceedingly fine." ' A few years later. Prince Albert purchased the Castle and the estate of Balmoral from the Earl of Fife's trustees. In 1852, a cairn was erected on the top of Craig Gowan to commemorate the taking possession of Balmoral by the Royal Family. The estate of Balmoral extends from the banks of the Dee southward to the summit of Lochnagar, where it is joined by the Aber- geldie and the Birkhall estates. Afterwards, Her Majesty increased its extent on the west by purchasing the Forest of Ballochbuie from Farquharson of Inver- cauld. Thus the Royal domain stretches from the Water of Muick westward along the south banks of the Dee for upwards of twelve miles. Balmoral Forest, including Ballochbuie, is pretty extensive. Both forests lie between the south banks of the Dee and the Lochnagar range of mountains ; and both contain considerable stretches of woods and planta- tions. On the lower grounds of Balmoral, the woods consist of a great variety of different kinds of trees, laid out in fine belts and clumps for shelter and ornament ; z Leaves from the Journal of our Life in the Highlands, pp. zoz-zos. BALMORAL. 175 and on the higher ridges and hills, such as Craig Gowan and Canup Hill, the trees chiefly consist of pine and larch, native birch and aspen. The Gelder Bum issues from the Loch of Lochnagar, flows through Glen Gelder and round the base of Craig Gowan, and joins the Dee near Invergelder — ^the home farm of Balmoral. The Queen has a nice little shiel near the middle of the glen. The woods of Garmaddie stretch from Invergelder westward along the south side of the Valley, and consist of fir, birch, larch, and some other trees. After these woods come the Forest of Balloch- buie, which extends from Connachat Cottage along the Dee to the Bridge of Invercauld, a distance of three miles, and from one to three miles in breadth southward. There is some birch in the lower parts of the forest, and here and there among the hills ; but the pine trees pre- dominate. Some of the pines are of great age and size, while others are young and much smaller. The fine stream called the Garbhallt rises on Lochnagar, flows through the Forest of Ballochbuie, and enters the Dee about a mile below the Bridge of Inver- cauld. Nearly a mile up the stream are the celebrated and picturesque Falls of Garbhallt The scenery in many parts of these forests is grand and striking. The Queen has a small lodge in Ballochbuie forest Deer and other kinds of game are abundant in the forests. After a few years' residence, the old castle was found to be too small, and quite inadequate for the accom- modation of Her Majesty and the Royal Family. It was therefore resolved that a new castle should be erected. The foundation-stone of the new structure was laid by the Queen on the 28th of September, 1853. Her Majesty 176 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. was accompanied by the Prince Consort, the Royal children, and other members of the Royal Family. The chief points of the ceremony on the memorable occasion were as follows : — " The stone being prepared and sus- pended over that upon which it is to rest, in which will be a cavity for the bottle containing the parchment and the coins ; the workmen will be placed in a semi-circle at a little distance from the stone, and the women and home servants in an inner semi-circle. .... Her Majesty, the Prince, and the Royal Family will stand on the south side of the stone, the suite being on each side of the Royal party. The Rev. Mr. Anderson will then pray for a blessing on the work. Her Majesty will affix her signature to the parchment, recording the day on which the foundation-stone was laid. Her Majesty's signature will be followed by that of the Prince and the Royal children, the Duchess of Kent, and any others that Her Majesty may command, and the parchment will be placed in the bottle. One of each of the current coins of the present reign will also be placed in the bottle, and the bottle, having been sealed up, will be placed in the cavity. The trowel will then be delivered to Her Majesty by Mr. Smith of Aberdeen, the architect, and the mortar having been spread, the stone will be lowered. The level and square will then be applied, and their correctness having been ascertained, the mallet will be delivered to Her Majesty by Mr. Stuart, clerk of the works, when Her Majesty will strike the stone and declare it to be laid. The Cornucopia will be placed upon the stone, and oil and wine poured out by Her Majesty. The pipers will play, and Her Majesty, with the Royal Family will retire. As soon after this as it can be got ready, the workmen BALMORAL. 177 will proceed to their dinner. After dinner the following toasts will be given by Mr. Smith : — * The Queen/ * The Prince and Royal Family,' 'Prosperity to the House and Happiness to the Inmates of Balmoral.' The workmen will then retire from the dining-room, and amuse them- selves upon the green with Highland games till seven o'clock ; and concluding with a dance in the ball-room, which was performed with the greatest spirit." * When the Queen arrived at Balmoral on the evening of the 7th of September, 1855, the erection of the new castle was well advanced. On that occasion Her Majesty says : — "Strange, very strange, it seemed to me to drive past, indeed through the old house ; the connecting part between it and the offices being broken through. The new hous^ looks beautiful. The tower and the rooms in the connecting part are, however, only half finished, and the offices are still unbuilt . . . there is a long wooden passage which connects the new house with the offices. An old shoe was thrown in after us into the house, for good luck, when we entered the hall." The following day Her Majesty recorded : — " The view from the windows of our rooms, and from the library and the drawing-room, of the Valley of the Dee, with the mountains in the background, which we could never see from the old house, is quite beautiful. We walked about, and along the river, and looked at all that had been done ; and afterwards we went over to the poor, dear old house, and to our rooms, which it was quite melancholy to see so deserted; and settled about things being brought over." When the Queen returned to Balmoral on the 30th of z Leaves firom Our Life, etc., pp. 144-46. N 178 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. August, 1856, the castle was completely finished : — "We found the tower finished, as well as the offices, and the poor old house gone. The effect of the whole is very fine." The following day Her Majesty " walked along the river and outside the house. The new offices and the yard are excellent ; and the little garden on the west side ... as well as the flower beds under the walls of the side which faces the Dee." On the 13th of October, the Queen wrote : — " Every year my heart becomes more fixed in this dear Paradise, and so much more so now, that all has become my- dearest Albert's own creation, own work, own building, own laying out, as at Osborne ; and his great taste and the impress of his dear hand have been stamped everywhere." ' On the occasion of the meeting of the British Associa- tion at Aberdeen, in September, 1859, the Prince Consort was president. He delivered an excellent and luminous address, which was universally admired and highly appreciated. On the 22nd of September, a fete came off at Balmoral, which was attended by a number of the distinguished members of the Association. Her Majesty records that — " The Highlanders in their brilliant and picturesque dresses, the wild notes of the pipes, the band, and the beautiful background of mountains, rendered the scene wild and striking in the extreme. The Farquharson's men were headed by Colonel Farquharson, the Duffs by Lord Fife, and the Forbeses by Sir Charles Forbes — had all marched on the grounds before we came out, and were drawn up just opposite us, and the spectators (the people of the country) behind them. We stood on the terrace, the company near us, and the servants also on either side X Leaves from our Life, etc.| p. 158. BALMORAL. 179 of US, and along the slopes on the grounds. The games began about three o'clock — throwing the hammer, tossing the caber, and putting the stone. We gave prizes to the three best in each of the games. We walked along the terrace to the large marquee, talking to the people, to where the men were putting the stone ; after this returned to the upper terrace to see the race — a pretty wild sight ; but the men looked very cold, with nothing but their shirts and plaids on ; they ran beautifully. They wrapped plaids round themselves, and then came to receive the prizes from us. Last of all came the dancing — reels and Ghillie Galium. On the latter the judges could not make up their minds ; and at last they left out the best dancer of all. They said he danced too well. The dancing over, we left amid the loud cheers of the people. . . . We watched from the window, the Highlanders march- ing away, and four weighty omnibuses filled with the scientific men. We saw and talked to Professor Owen, Sir David Brewster, Sir John Bowring, Mr. J. Roscoe, and Sir John Ross. When almost all were gone, we took a short walk to warm ourselves, much pleased at every- thing having gone off well. " The Duke of Richmond, Sir R. Murchison, General Sabine, Mr. Thomson of Banchory House, and Professor Phillipps, secretary of the Association, all of whom slept here, and were additions to the dinner party. . . . All the gentleman spoke in very high terms of my beloved Albert's admirable speech, the good it had done, and the general satisfaction it had caused." The Castle of Balmoral stands on a level space of ground amid trees, and a background of wooded ridges z Leaves from our Life, etc., pp. Z77>79. 180 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. and hills, rising in elevation as they recede southward to Lochnagar ; while on the other side the clear and rapid river flows on its rocky bed. Opposite the castle, on the north side of the Valley, is Craig Mhor and other picturesque hills. All around the scenery is attractive and characteristically Highland. The castle is built of finely-dressed Crathie granite of a light grey colour. The main features of the structure were designed by the late Prince Albert, and the plans were supplied by the late Mr. William Smith, who was for many years city architect of Aberdeen. The castle is in the Scottish baronial style of architecture, but shows many modifications and improvements on it, which were introduced to provide ampler accommodation and more convenient arrangement in the interior of the building. It is composed of two main parts, connected by wings. A striking feature of the castle is the massive tower at its eastern extremity, which is thirty-five feet square and about one hundred feet in height, surmounted by a flag tower, and three ornamental turrets at the comers. The main entrance is on the south front. The north and west fronts are embellished by elegant mould- ings, and the south and east fronts are characterised by a symmetrical simplicity of treatment. The masonry and workmanship of the whole structure are excellent. The internal arrangement of the numerous apartments of the castle is admirable. The largest single apartment, the ball-room, is sixty-eight feet long and twenty-five feet wide. There is a fine clock in the square tower, which regulates the time over the whole district. The light colour of the granite imparts to the castle an exceedingly- charming aspect. BALMORAL. 181 During her long and happy reign, Queen Victoria has visited almost every quarter of the Highlands of Scotland. Her Majesty often started from Balmoral on excursions to Perthshire — Dunkeld, Blairs Castle, and Loch Tay, through the Passes of Killiecrankie and Glencoe ; Sutherlandshire, Glenlivet, and Glen Fiddich in Banff- shire, and to many other places. On the 7th of October, 1859, the Queen and Prince Albert made the ascent of Ben MuichDhui. In descend- ing. Her Majesty rode part of the way, and walked wherever it was very steep. " I had a little whisky and water, as the people declared that pure water would be too chilling. We then rode on without getting off again, Albert talking so gaily with Grant. Upon Brown ob- serving to me in simply Highland phrase, * It's very pleasant to walk with a person who is always content' . . . Brown said — * Everyone on the estate says there never was so kind a master ; I am sure our only wish is to give satisfaction.' I said they certainly did. We were always in the habit of conversing with the High- landers, with whom one comes so much in contact in the Highlands. The Prince highly appreciated the good breeding, simplicity, and intelligence which makes it so pleasant, and even instructive, to talk to them." * Touching Glencoe, Her Majesty wrote — ^" Glencoe, at the opening, is beautifully green, with trees and cottages dotted about along the verdant Valley. There is a farm belonging to a Mrs. Macdonald, a descendant of one of the unfortunate massacred Macdonalds. The Cona flows along the bottom of the Valley, with green haughs, where a few cattle are to be seen, and sheep which graze up some of the wildest parts of this glorious X Leaves from Oar Life, etc., p. 187. 182 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. glen. A sharp turn in the rough, very winding, and, in some parts, precipitous roads brings you to the finest^ wildest, and grandest part of the pass. Stern, rugged, precipitous mountains, with beautiful peaks, and rocks piled one above the other, two and three thousand feet high, tower and rise up to the heavens on either side, without any signs of habitation, except where, half-way up the Pass, there are some trees, and near them, heaps of stones on the side of the road, remains of what once were houses, which tell the bloody, fearful tale of woe. The place itself is one which adds to the horror of the thought that such a thing could have been conceived and committed on innocent sleeping people. How and whither could they fly? Let me hope that William HI. knew nothing of it." ' I have quoted this to show the Queen's humanity and sound judgment. During the Queen's annual sojourn at Balmoral,, covering a period of nearly fifty years, she has become endeared to all classes of the people. Her Majesty has always shown great kindness and much sympathy to the tenants on the lands of Balmoral, and the whole neighbourhood. The Queen has many touching and noble features of character, which have rendered her the most popular and beloved Sovereign in Scotland since the days of James IV., who fell on the field of Flodden in 15 13. To conclude — " Amid our mountain scenes sublime, Afar from courtly care, Oh, may the loftiest of the land, Life's noblest blessings share I Safe in her princely Highland home, May she live blithe and free, And Britain's honoured Queen long bless. The beauteous banks o' Dee ! " z Leaves from Our Life, etc., p. 360. Chapter XVII. SCENERY— INVERCAULD. Proceeding up the north side of the Valley, amidst woods and mountains, the Feardar Burn joins the Dee, and above it rises, to the height of fifteen hundred and ninety-eight feet, the picturesque, rocky, and wooded hill of Craig Nortie. A little farther on, immediately above the Invercauld Arms Inn, is Craig-na*Spaine, another striking, rocky, and wooded hill, which in bygone times was a famous smuggling centre. Then comes a beauti- fully wooded tract, and on the north side of the turnpike road is Meall Alvie, rising to an elevation of eighteen hundred and forty-one feet, a fine rocky and wooded hill, which stretches along the Valley for a considerable distance ; while the river below is surging and foaming as the water dashes against the rocky ledges, stones, and boulders which strew its course. Looking to the south, the Forest of Ballochbuie is seen on the opposite side of the river, and extending our vision further southward, an amphitheatre of hills, covered half-way up their ribs with pine and birch, still higher hills rear their peaks in the distance, some of which are sprinkled with trees and bushes ; and, beyond them, Lochnagar, which seems to descend in continuity with the nearer ridges. In a fine clear day, the scene is magnificent, beautiful, and glorious to behold. Near the fifty-first mile-stone, and a short distance to the north of the road on the rising ground, is the site 184 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. of the old house of Monaltrie, a seat of a branch of the Farquharsons, which was burned to the ground the year after the Battle of Culloden, and it was subsequently re- built near Ballater. A little farther westward, on the south side of the road, is Carn-na-Cuimhne — the cairn of remem- brance ; it is surmounted by a flagstaff, and enclosed by a stone dyke. " Cam-na-Cuimhne " was the war cry of the Farquharsons, and the tradition associated with the cairn is : — That when the clan resolved on any warlike enterprise, they mustered in the vicinity of the cairn, and when all were assembled, each clansman laid a stone on a clear space, forming a small heap. On their returning home, each survivor took a stone from this heap, and carried it away, then the stones left told their own tale, viz., the number of the slain, and these were carefully placed on the Cairn of Remembrance. It is simply a rough cairn of comparatively small stones. The glen through which the Feardar Bum flows, is called Aberarder, and it contains several small farms and crofts. It appears that the glen was once more populous ; its elevation, however, is not favourable to cultivation. There are various traditions associated with this locality which chiefly relate to a feud and encounters between the Stewarts and Farquharsons. In early times there were a considerable number of Stewarts in Braemar. Fifty-five miles from Aberdeen, the old Bridge of Invercauld spans the Dee. It was erected in 1752 under the direction of General Wade, and in connection with his system of military roads in the Highlands. This bridge was directly connected with the road starting from Blairgowrie onward by Cards^rff, Grantown, and INVERCAULD. 185 thence to Inverness. The bridge looks grey with age, and bushes are picturesquely growing out of its sides. It is now the property of Her Majesty the Queen. The new Bridge of Invercauld, which carries the north road to the south side of the Valley, is about one hundred and fifty yards above the old one. It is a massive structure built of granite, and was erected at the expense of the late Prince Albert, on the closing up of the old bridge and the Ballochbuie road on the south side of the Dee. Nearly opposite the old bridge is the entrance gate to Invercauld House, on the north side of the road. Invercauld House stands on a fine elevated terrace, amid beautiful and charming scenery, about four hundred yards from the north bank of the Dee. The house is eleven hundred and fifty feet above sea level, but it is admirably sheltered by trees and woods, with a magnifi- cent lawn stretching down to the edge of the river, which here winds beautifully in the form of the letter S. The view from the house up and down the Valley is exceed- ingly fine, while on the opposite side of the river towards the south, a grand scene of rocky and wooded hills, rugged and steep craigs, is presented to the eye. Behind the house a picturesque range of wooded hills form a befitting and harmonious background to a site of sur- passing natural beauty. The mansion itself is built in the Scottish baronial style of architecture, but it exhibits various modifications. The main feature of the struc- ture is the tower, seventy feet in height, surmounted with battlements and staircase, other turrets, and a flag tower. In 1875, a series of additions and alterations were completed, in the execution of which two or three 186 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Storeys were added in some parts ; but the old historic dining-hall is preserved. A broad staircase ascends to an upper hall, which is thirty feet long and fifteen feet wide ; and at the end of it is the drawing-room, from the windows of which a grand view of the upper stretch of the Valley is obtained. The Farquharsons were a branch of the Clan Chattan, and came to Braemar at an early period. There is a mass of traditions connected with the history of the Clan Chattan, which in recent years has been well scrutinised and thoroughly sifted. The derivation of the old Clan Chattan, however, is still uncertain ; but it seems to have consisted of one or two strong clans, and at a later period of five or six septs, who came under the protection of the chief clan. In modem times the Clan Chattan, who fallowed Mackintosh as chieftain and leader of the clan, consisted of sixteen septs. The original possessions of the old Clan Chattan were mainly in Lochaber, Badenoch, and Rothiemurchus ; while branches of the chief clan and septs under the protection of the chief settled in other parts of the Highlands. In the fourteenth century the Clan Chattan extended from Badenoch to the Parish of Birse ; and branches of the tribe settled in Glentilt, Glenshee, and Glenisla. It may be observed that the Earldom of Mar was practically in the hands of the Crown or a member of the Royal Family from 1435 until 1561 — a period of one hundred and twenty-six years ; and there is no doubt that this was favourable to the settlement of the Farquharsons in Braemar, and also to members of many other families in the Valley of the Dee. In 1464, Alexander Mackintosh was chief of the INVERCAULD. 187 Clan Chattan ; and one of his younger sons, named Farquhar, from Rothiemurchus, settled in the Braes of Mar. He left a son, Donald Farquhar, who entered the service of Duncan Stewart, the laird of Invercauld, and subsequently he married the laird's daughter. On the death of Stewart, his son-in-law succeeded to a portion of the lands of Invercauld. Donald Farquhar was succeeded by his son, Findla, commonly called Findla Mor. He was a man of great energy and force of character, and the circumstances of the time were favourable to him. As already observed, the Earldom of Mar was then in the hands of the Crown. Thus the King had ample power, and many opportunities of rewarding faithful service to his Government, by grants of land within the Earldom ; and Findla Mor had the good fortune to be appointed Bailie of Strathdee. For his vigorous and effective administration of justice, he was rewarded (in accordance with a common practice) by several grants of land. He was twice married, and had a large family. In 1 547, he fought at the Battle of Pinkie, and fell on that disastrous field. Findla Mor was the ancestor of the Farquharsons of Invercauld, Castletown, Inverey, Fin- zean, Balmoral, Monaltrie, and Whitehouse. Findla Mor's son, Robert Farquharson, succeeded to Invercauld, and he died in the latter part of the six- teenth century. He was succeeded by his son, John Farquharson, who was succeeded by his son, Robert Farquharson. Robert married a daughter of Erskine of z It seems to be uncertain which of Findla Mor's sons succeeded to Invercauld. But, I understand, that Captain James F. Macpherson has been making a careful research, touching this point, and no doubt will throw more light upon it. 188 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Pittodrie, and had issue. He acquired the barony of Wardes, in the Parish of Kennethmont, but afterwards sold it. His daughter, Marjory, married George Leith of Overhall. Robert died in the reign of Charles II., and was succeeded by his son, Alexander Farquharson. He married a daughter of Mackintosh, chief of the Clan Chattan, and had issue. But their eldest son, William, having died unmarried, he was succeeded by his brother, John Farquharson. He was in possession of Invercauld when the Earl of Mar raised the Standard of Rebellion in 1715. John Farquharson of Invercauld disapproved of Mar's movement, and was extremely unwilling to join it. But he had no alternative, as the Earl was his feudal superior. Thus Invercauld was compelled to take an active part in the Rising. He was taken a prisoner at the surrender of Preston in November, 1715, imprisoned, and confined till 17 17. His liberation was facilitated by the efforts on his behalf of the Rev. Mr. Ferguson, minister of Logierait, who had once been minister of Crathie. Mr. Ferguson was the father of Dr. Adam Ferguson, the philosopher and historian. John Farquharson was still alive at the time of the Rising of 1745. He entirely disapproved of this new attempt to restore the Stuart dynasty ; while his eldest son, James, an officer in the service of the Govemment, also refrained from joining in the Rising. It is well known, however, as one of the many romantic features associated with this Rising, that Invercauld's eldest daughter, Anne, the wife of Mackintosh of Mackintosh, exerted herself to the utmost in the cause of Prince Charles. With much courage and tact, she defeated an INVERCAULD. 18^ attempt of the Earl of Loudon to capture the Prince at Moy House, shortly after the Battle of Culloden. John Farquharson died in 1750, at the .advanced age of eighty years. He was succeeded by his son, James, who was a man of great energy and sagacity. He directed his attention to the improvement of his estates^ which, shortly before his accession, had been greatly extended by the purchase of the lands of Castletown, and a portion of Mar Forest, a part of the forfeited estates of the Earl of Mar ; and the reversion of Monal- trie on the forfeiture of Francis Farquharson, his kinsman. James married the widow of Lord Sinclair, who was a daughter of Lord George Murray, Lieutenant- General of Prince Charles' army. All his children predeceased him, except one daughter, who married Captain James Ross, second son of Sir John L. Ross of Balnagowan. James Farquharson died in 1806, and Captain Ross then assumed the name of Farquharson. His son, James R. Farquharson, succeeded to the estates of Invercauld. He was an excellent landlord. He died in 1862 ; and, on the north side of the Dee, near the mouth of the Sluggan Burn, on a small wooded eminence, there stands a granite obelisk, fifty feet high, erected to his memory by the tenantry. He was succeeded by his son. Colonel James R. Farquharson. He was succeeded by his son. Lieutenant Alexander H. Farquharson, the present proprietor of Invercauld. On the occasion of the home-coming of Mr. and Mrs. Farquharson after their marriage, great preparations were made to give them a hearty and enthusiastic welcome. This fete occurred on the 2nd of August, 1893. In Castletown of Braemar, bunting was displayed 190 HISTORY OF THE. VALLEY OF THE DEE. on almost every house, and flags floated beautifully from both the Fife and Invercauld Arms, Mar Castle, and Altdowrie, while the front of Invercauld House was decorated with a triple row of banners. Along the road from Ballater to Invercauld, there were many signs of welcome — flags, floral devices, and strings of bannerettes hung across the road. At Ballater, Provost Barnett, representing the commissioners, the feuars, and house- holders of the burgh, presented an address to Mr. and Mrs. Farquharson of Invercauld, heartily welcoming them to their home on Deeside. When they reached the grounds of Invercauld, they received a most en- thusiastic ovation from the tenants on the estate, who had assembled to meet them. Chapter XVIII. CASTLETOWN OF BRAEMAR. The new Bridge of Invercauld carries the north road to the south side of the Dee, and along this stretch of the Valley to the Castletown of Braemar, a distance of three and a half miles, all the way the scenery is exquisitely grand and picturesque ; on the south side, overhung by craggy hills and precipitous rocks, finely wooded along their bases, up their steep faces, and even to their summits. Near the bridge on the north side of the road, is a huge stone called " The Muckle Stane o* Clunie," which seems to have fallen from Craig Clunie — a rocky hill on the opposite side of the road. According to tradition, it was once a famous haunt of the fairies. Clunie Cottage is on the north side of the road, near the site of the old house of Clunie — now demolished. A little farther on is the " Charter Chest," a recess in the rocky and steep face of Craig Clunie ; it is about three hundred yards up, and very difficult of access. There is a tradition that the lairds of Clunie, in times of danger, used to hide their Charter Chest in it. It is also said that after the Battle of Culloden, Farquharson of Clunie hid himself in this cave for some time. About three-quarters of a mile farther on, is the picturesque mass of rock called " The Lion's Face," a spot which has long been much frequented by visitors. These precipitous rocky and craggy hills present exceedingly striking scenes, as trees and bushes 192 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. are seen growing beautifully on naked masses of rpck. One feels amazed as to how the roots of the trees can fix themselves in the mere slits of steep rocks, and so withstand the severe blasts and the fierce gales of winter. Westward from Invercauld House, on the north side of the Valley, is Altdowrie Cottage, amid trees, the residence of the factor of Invercauld. It is a pretty structure, and stands on a fine site. On the south side of the river, on a small grassy eminence, stands the Castle of Braemar, amid a beautiful haugh, lying between Creag Choinnich and the Dee. The old castle was built in the latter part of the fifteenth cen- tury, when John Stuart, the third son of James III., was Earl of Mar. In 1689, the year after the Revolution, the castle was burnt by General Mackay's dragoons, when in pursuit of Viscount Dundee, who escaped to Lochaber. It was afterwards repaired. But after the Rising of 171 5, the Earldom of Mar was forfeited to the Crown, and John Farquharson of Invercauld purchased the castle and its lands. And in 1748, he leased the castle and fourteen acres of ground to the Government for a period of ninety-nine years ; and the Government then erected the present castle, which for a number of years was used as a barracks for the soldiers stationed in the district. Since, great changes have occurred in Braemar ; for nearly a century, athletic games and Highland dancing have been annually held under the shadow of the old castle. A short distance beyond the castle, on the north side of the road, is the parish churchyard, in which once stood St. Andrew's Chapel, but not a vestige of it now remains. Near the centre of the churchyard is the burial CASTLETOWN OF BRAEMAR. 193 aisle of the Farquharsons of Invercauld — a neat, square building. In 1893, the churchyard was enlarged, and the enclosing wall rebuilt and heightened. Castletown, the capital of Braemar, is situated at an elevation of eleven hundred and ten feet above sea level. It stands on a fine plain formed by the widening out of Glen Clunie. The Water of Clunie, a beautiful stream with a rocky channel and steep banks, flows through the town, and a stone bridge of one arch, erected in 1863, connects the two portions of it Castletown is entirely surrounded by high, picturesque, and well wooded hills. The high and massive hill of Morrone stretches down on the south-western side of Castletown ; while Creag Choinnich rises on its eastern side ; and on its north side is the plain, the rippling Dee, and, beyond, the wooded hills. Thus the scenery around Castletown presents a panorama of scenes and landscapes of rare variety and characteristic beauty. The portion of the town on the east side of the Water of Clunie is called Castletown, of which Farquhar- son of Invercauld is superior; and the portion on the west side of the stream is called Auchendryne, of which the Duke of Fife is superior. But it is becoming com- mon to apply the name Castletown of Braemar to the whole town. Castletown of Braemar is a place of gfreat antiquity. According to tradition, Kenneth II. had a hunting seat here, but no trace of it remains. It is said that Malcolm III., Canmore, erected a castle on the east bank of the Clunie, near the bridge, and some ruins of an old structure still remain. Whatever historic truth there may be in this tradition, it is a well-ascertained O ^ IM HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. fact that Malcolm Canmore was in the Valley of the Dee in the summer of 1057, when he defeated and slew Macbeth at Lumphanan. If he built a castle at Brae- mar, it must have been after the above date. In the last century, most of the houses in Castletown of Braemar were small, and covered with thatch ; but in the present century it has made rapid progress. In 1842, the population of Castletown of Braemar was two hundred and fifty ; since that date the population of the town has increased to over six hundred ; and in the summer season, there are sometimes nearly two thousand people living in it and its immediate vicinity. Castletown of Braemar is now a pretty town, with well-built houses, all of which are slated, and a consider- able number of excellent and beautiful villas. It is well supplied with pure spring water from a reservoir on the Moor of Morrone ; and the town presents an aspect of health and comfort. In the west side of the town, through which the main street runs, there are several very fine terraces branching off it. Pretty well up the slope of Morrone, there are seven or eight excellent cottages, recently erected, on attractive sites. The town has two public halls — one built of timber in the west division of the town ; and the other in the east division or Invercauld side of the water. The latter stands on a fine site near the bank of the stream, built of granite, and is a pretty large and massive structure. On the same side of the Clunie, a little further south- ward, there is a very pretty house, called Canmore. It is built in the cotts^e style, with a fine lawn and an ornamental space of ground around it A little nearer CASTLETOWN OF BRAEMAR. 185 the base of Creag Choinnich, there are nine or ten excel- lent villas and cottages, placed on charming and beautiful sites, amid trees and plantations. On the same side, but nearer the stream and the bridge, there is a terrace of exceedingly neat little cottages. Near this terrace is the Meteorological Observatory. It has a set of good instruments, gifted to it by the late Prince Consort, who was always ready to promote scientific observation, and advance the happi- ness of mankind The Observatory is under the charge of Mr. James Aitken, the agent of the Union Bank of Scotland, whose office and residence is on the opposite side of the street. Observations, including the force of ozone, are taken every day, and the results published annually. The Roman Catholic Chapel stands on a fine elevated site at the western extremity of the town. It is a pretty large and elegant structure ; and the residence of the officiating priest is beside the chapel. The Free Church and the Manse are in the west side of the town, and stand on a slightly elevated space, within an enclosure. The congregation obtained a lease of this space of ground from the late Earl of Fife. The church is a chaste and elegant structure. It is built of limestone, faced with light-coloured granite. It stands east and west, and at the east end there is a fine, tapering spire, and a clock in it. The interior of the church is beauti- ful. The windows have stained glass, and the internal arrangement is excellent and pleasing, and affords ample accommodation for the congregation — an active one — doing good work in the locality. The first Free Church minister of Braemar was the Rev. S. M'Crie, who became 196 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. pastor of the congregation in 1843. He was succeeded by the Rev. Hugh Cobban in 1853. Mr. Cobban ministered to the congregation for seventeen years, and died in 1870. He was succeeded by the Rev. Thomas Siddie, who was inducted in 1871 — the present pastor of the congregation. The Established Church is on the east bank of the Clunie. It is a chaste building, with a spire and a clock* The Episcopal Church is also on the east side of the stream. Braemar has good schools ; and there is a Public Library in the town, which contains a considerable number of well-selected and useful books. There are two large hotels — one on either side of the Water of Clunie — the only licensed premises in the locality. Not many years ago, most of the natives of* Braemar spoke Gaelic. But it is not now spoken, although the older inhabitants can speak it; the children and the rising generation are not learning Gaelic, and it is rapidly becoming extinct in the district. The people of Castle- town of Braemar are quiet, sober, very intelligent, and ready to communicate any reasonable information. Glen Clunie is bounded by hills of moderate eleva- tion, stretches southward about nine miles, and meets the upper end of Glenshee Some of the hills are rounded, others of various forms, and on either side of the glen are green patches and stripes of grass on the hills from their bases to their summits, interspersed among the heather. Above Castletown, for some distance, the hills are partly wooded. In the lower part of the glen, there is a considerable space of cultivated ground, which yields good crops of grain, turnips, and CASTLETOWN OF BRAEMAR. 197 grass. The stream which drains it is pretty large, and glides rapidly on its rocky bed. In some places beds of slaty rock project on either side of the steam. About a hundred yards above the farm-steading of Auchallater, the rocks, projecting on both sides, run across the bed of the stream, dividing it into two, and the water rushes through two rents in the rock for fifteen yards, and at the end of the rents form a deep pool. About two miles above Castletown the wood ceases, excepting straggling plants and bushes along the margins of the stream. A considerable part of the glen is under sheep. Two miles above Castletown, Glen Callater opens upon Glen Clunie. Glen Callater extends nearly nine miles in a south-easterly direction ; it is narrow, and in its lower stretch, bounded by hills of moderate elevation, but in its upper part, the hills are higher. A stream of considerable size rushes through the glen on a very rocky and stony channel, and joins the Clunie near the farm steading of Auchallater. Loch Callater is three miles up the glen ; it is about a mile long, and is fed by rills rushing down from the outlying ridges of Lochnagar, and two rapid streamlets which issue from the mountains at the head of the glen. There is no wood on the margins of the loch, or in the glen, excepting a few scattered small trees and some bushes. The glen is uninhabited ; the only house in it is the gamekeeper's lodge. The scenery of the glen is wild and rugged, and it terminates in a hollow amid high mountains. Chapter XIX. GLEN QUOICH— INVEREY— GLEN EY— GLEN LUI— MAR FOREST. From Castletown of Braemar to Glen Ey the scenery is very picturesque. At the bottom of the Valley there is a fine stretch of level haughs, which are cultivated or under grass ; and on either side of the river the hills are well wooded. On the south side of the Valley there is a beautiful stretch of woods consisting of birch, pine, larch, and other trees interspersed here and there. Many rills descending from Morrone form small cascades as they rush down the slaty rocks by the roadside. One of these, a streamlet called the Carr Burn, in its course between the north side of the road and the Dee, has a series of very pretty Falls, the highest of which is about twenty feet. On the opposite side of the Valley is Glen Quoich, The Water of Quoich, a stream of considerable size, on emerging from the glen, spreads over a portion of the fine haugh and greatly mars its beauty. Glen Quoich is well wooded, and at its mouth there is a sawmill. A short distance up the glen is the Linn of Quoich. Steep cliffs and rocks overhang the stream on either side, while its channel at the commencement of the fissure in the rock is narrowed to about three feet, through which the water rushes with great force, surging and foaming into a deep pool below. The narrow ravine is finely fringed with birch and pine trees, and various wild flowers, which GLEN QUOICH. 199 greatly enhance the picturesqueness of the scene. The action of the ice and water has formed a number of circular cavities in the rock, which have some resemblance to a cup ; and one of the largest of these is called the " Earl of Mar's punch bowl." The tradition associated with this has a reference to the memorable meeting im- mediately before the Rising of 171 5. The Earl and his followers having mustered at Quoich, he ordered that several ankers of whisky, some ankers of boiling water, and a quantity of honey, should 5be poured into the natural cup at the Linn, and then as each man passed, he dipped his horn into the flowing bowl, and drained it to the success of the coming James VIII. Since that time the bowl has lost its bottom. The feudal superiority of Glen Quoich and other lands in Braemar was purchased by Duff" of Braco, the ancestor of the Duke of Fife, after the suppression of Mar's Rising. Afterwards he purchased the glen itself. In former times several families lived in Glen Quoich ; it is now uninhabited, and forms part of the Forest of Man On the south side of the Valley the Corriemulzie Bum rises on Carn na Drochaide, two miles southward from the Dee. Three miles from Castletown this stream flows through a narrow ravine, which the road crosses by a bridge, but there is little to be seen from the bridge to indicate the existence of the Falls, excepting the sound of the falling water. The ravine rapidly deepens, the stream dividing into two, falls down the face of a steep rock, at the bottom of which it again unites and forms a seething pool ; emerging from the pool, it rushes over several other rocks, and winds its way through the ravine and onward to the Dee. The height of the Fall is about «» HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OT THE DEE. thirty feet. Both sides of the ravine are covered with trees and plants and a variety of wild flowers. The whole scene is very pretty and picturesque. A narrow footpath leads down the side of the stream, from which a good view of the Falls is obtained. A little further west, on the south side of the road, is New Mar Lodge, the summer residence of the Duke of Fife. It is situated at an elevation of 1250 feet on the side of Creag an Fhithich, " The Raven's Crag," a beauti- fully-wooded rocky hill. It is built in the cottage style, a pretty large structure, almost hidden amid the wood. Half-a-mile further on, the Dee is spanned by the Victoria Bridge, a wooden structure belonging to the Duke of Fife, which was substituted for the stone bridge destroyed by the great flood of 1829. The road across it leads along an avenue to Old Mar Lodge, which was once the principal residence of the Fife family in Braemar. Old Mar Lodge is situated at the base of Creag a* Bhuflg, a steep and thickly-wooded hill, and in front, between it and the Dee, is a fine broad lawn. It is a very plain structure, but the surrounding scenery is picturesque and attractive. The original name of the place was Dalmore, and the territory in the neighbourhood on the north side of the Valley belonged to the Mackenzies. According to tradition, the first laird of Dalmore was a natural son of Kenneth Mackenzie of Kintail, who received a grant of it from James IV., on account of services rendered to the King by his father. After the suppression of Mar's Rising, Mackenzie of Dalmore fell into embarrassed circum- stances, and the result was that his lands were sold to the first Earl of Fife. INVEREY. aOl The village of Inverey is about five miles from CastlQ*- town of Braemar. It is divided into two portions by tjie Water of Ey ; the hamlet on the east side of the Ey is called Muckle Inverey, and the one on the west side Little Iiwerey. In Muckle Inverey there are twelve houses, most of them recently erected and slated, but three or four of the old thatched ones still remain. There is about the same number of houses in Little Inverey, five of which are thatched, some of the others in ruins, and four or five are slated. In the vicinity of the straggling hamlets on either side of the Water of Ey, there is a considerable space of cultivated ground. The Ey joins the Dee a short distance below Inverey. Formerly, Inverey and Glen Ey belonged to a branch of the Farquharson family. At Muckle Inverey on the north side of the road is the public school. Near it lies the ruins of the old Castle of Inverey, which seems to have been a structure of some strength. There are traditions associated with the castle. After the Battle of Killiecrankie it was burned by a party of Royal troops, when John Farquharson, its owner and occupier, narrowly escaped with his life and fled to the cave in Glen Ey. Behind the ruins of the castle is a disused burial-ground. On the rising ground, on the south side of the road, is Inverey Cottage, occupied by the Duke of Fife's forester. Alongside of it runs the road through Glen Ey. The Water of Ey is a fine large stream, and the road crosses it by a bridge between the two Invereys. Thq margins of the stream are beautifully fringed with trees, the branches of which in some places meet and form a pretty arch above the rippling water. In the lower part of Glen Ey there is a pretty stripe of cultivated ground 202 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. which yields good crops of grain. For a short distance up the glen the hills on either side are wooded, and farther up all the hills are interspersed with stripes and patches of green grass. About a mile up the glen there is a rounded hill, and on each side of it a stream comes rushing down a narrow ravine amid rocks. The stream on the west side is the Allt Connie Bum, a tributary of the Ey ; and on the east side of the ravine through which this stream descends, the rocks are quite perpendicular for several hundred yards, and so smooth that they resemble a well-built wall. This stream has a series of very beautiful Falls, making together a Fall of over sixty feet. Immediately below the Falls, the Allt Connie joins the Ey. Proceeding up the west side of Glen Ey, about half-a- mile above the junction of the Allt Connie with the Ey, there is a deep and rugged rent in the rocks, through which the stream rushes. On the east side of the road a narrow path among the heather leads down to the rocky gorge Then descending a steep and rocky bank overgrown with trees and herbage, we stand on a ledge of slaty rock ; beneath us is a black, eddying pool, formed by the stream which a few yards farther up comes rushing, tumbling, and foaming through the rocky gorge From the pool the stream flows over broken ledges and fragments of rock ; and here its channel is from ten to eighteen feet in breadth. The rocks on either side are high, with perpendicular cliffs, covered with ferns and various flowering plants, and trees and shrubs growing in the rifts of the rocks. The ledge of rock mentioned above is only a few feet above the level of the stream. It is nearly one hundred feet GLEN EY. 20S in length, from four to twelve feet in breadth, and at its base there is a recess, formed by the overhanging and projecting rock, which is twelve feet in length, from two to four feet in breadth, and about three feet in height. This IS the "Colonel's Cave," in which it is said that John Farquharson of Inverey hid himself for some time after the Battle of KiUiecrankie. This John Farquharson was locally called the Black Colonel, and there are many traditions relating to him. It is said that he joined Viscount Dundee before the Re- volution, and fought under him at the Battle of Bothwell Bridge. In 1689, when Viscount Dundee raised the Standard of James VII., he commissioned the Black Colonel to muster the men of Braemar. The Black Colonel sent the fiery cross through the glens, and a company of men assembled, joined Dundee, and fought at the Battle of KiUiecrankie. After the battle the Black Colonel still declined to render his submission to the Government ; in consequence his Castle of Inverey was burned (as stated before), when he fled for his life to the cave in Glen Ey. The Black Colonel died about the end of the seven- teenth century, and was succeeded by his son, Peter Farquharson. It is said that he was of a quiet disposition^ not at all like his father ; but he joined Mar's Rising, and was present at the Battle of Sheriffmuir. After the sup- pression of the Rising, he escaped to France, where he remained for some time, and his lands were not forfeited, owing to an error in the charge against him. James Farquharson, the last laird of Inverey, sold the lands ta the Earl of Fife in the latter part of the last century. In the summer of 1893, on the east side of the glen, I 904 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. observed a number of cattle grazing opposite the Colonel's Cave. At one time a portion of the glen farther up than the Colonel's Cave, was under village, and eight families once lived in it. The glen is seven miles in length, and near the middle of it there is a stretch of fine green pasture. It now forms a part of the deer forest of Mar. Toward the head of the glen is Alltanodhar Shieling, a small shooting lodge in connection with the forest. Between Inverey and the Linn of Dee there is a limited space of level ground on the south side of the river ; and, in the summer of 1893, I observed good crops of com, potatoes, and turnips in this locality. On the north side of the Dee is the Forest of Mar. The Water of Lui enters the Dee about half a mile below the Linn. A short distance above its junction with the Dee, the stream is spanned by a bridge, which carries the north road across it A little above this bridge, the Lui has two very pretty Falls. The stream rushes through a narrow gorge on a rocky bed, with high rocks on either side, and presents a beautiful scene. Glen Lui is pretty wide and open, bounded by rounded hills of modem elevation, which are interspersed with patches and stripes of green pasture. There is a consider- able space of level ground in the glen, which on both sides of the stream is covered with fine natural grass ; and parts of it seem to have once been under cultiva- tion. Some traces of the ruins of houses may still be seen, and at one time the glen was inhabited ; at present the only inhabitants in it are the gamekeeper and his family. At a distance of about five miles from its mouth, Glen Lui branches off into two glens — Glen Lui Beg and MAR FOREST. 205 Glen Derry. The latter runs in a northward direction for nearly five miles, and for about two miles it is well wooded. The aspect of the surroundings is solemn and sombre — ^the dark green foliage shows little variation of hues ; while the reigning silence is only broken by the rippling sound of the stream rushing rapidly over its stony bed, the occasional croak of the raven, and the notes of the cuckoo. Pine trees are the prevailing wood in the forest, with sprinklings of birches here and there. The pine trees of Braemar attain a height of from fifty to sixty feet, and a girth of ten feet, and sometimes more, but many, of course, never reach this growth. The straightest and finest trees, most valued for timber, have conical tops ; but the most beautiful send out great irregular branches. There is a considerable variety of form among pine trees, and the least beautiful are the densely crowded trees, which have sprung up into slender spars almost denuded of branches up to their tops. Up the hillsides the trees gradually diminish in size, and are intermixed with birch. In many places there are stumps and decayed trees, which seems to indicate that in former times the forest had been more extended. Along the upper stretch of the forest many dead and naked trunks are scattered among the living trees ; and on the out- skirts of the forest the trees are stunted, bent, and twisted, and quite stripped of their bark ; while many old trees are lying on the ground, decayed, and reduced to dusty soil, covered with vegetation. After the continuous wood ceases, in the upper part of Glen Derry, there is a long and pretty wide level space, covered with natural grass. The glen is well adapted for pasture, and affords excellent grazing for thd 506 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. deer. A few scattered trees grow on the plain and the hillsides, and some traces of the ruins of houses are still discernable. Further up, the Deny Water turns west- ward, and leads to its main source — Loch Etchachan, which lies on Ben Muich Dhui at an elevation of thirty- one hundred feet. Loch Etchachan is a sheet of water about a mile in circumference. The scenery around it is somewhat bleak and bare ; but there are plenty of trout in the loch. A fine view of Loch Avon may be obtained at a point a short distance north from Loch Etchachan. The track running northward in line with Glen Derry leads over an elevated ridge to Loch Avon, in Banffshire, and by which the Spey may be reached. Glen Lui Beg and its stream extend a distance of nearly five miles from its junction with the Derry to Lochan Uaine — a tarn on the south side of Ben Muich Dhui. The lower part of the glen is wooded, but the trees gradually become fewer, scattered, and disappear. These glens are included in the deer forest of Mar. This deer forest is very extensive, and covers a wide extent of territory on both sides of the Dee. The greater part of it, however, is not wooded, but consists of hills, moors, glens, ravines, and corries. There are two species of deer in the Forest of Braemar — the red deer and the roe deer. The red deer live among the hills and the woods, usually in large herds. They are more esteemed for the quality of their flesh than the roe deer ; also as animals which afford much excitement in hunting. In size and form the stag is a fine and beautiful animal, remarkably swift, muscu- lar, and strong. The most peculiar feature of the LINN OF DEE. 207 physical organism of the stag is the antlers which adorn its head. Usually, during the hunting season, the red deer are exceedingly difficult to approach within shoot- ing distance. The roe deer is a beautiful animal, but much smaller than the red deer, having shorter legs and horns. They do not live in large herds, but in twos or threes, and may occasionally be seen singly, bounding through the woods. They live among the woods and thickets, and rarely venture upon the hills, except in passing from one wood to another. They are very swift, and it is a fine sight to see two or three of them at full speed. The golden eagle was once common among the moun- tains of Braemar, but it is now rarely seen^ and seems to have ceased breeding in this region. Various species of hawks and owls may occasionally be seen in the district. On the moors, red grouse is common, and up to a considerable height on the hills ; while the grey ptarmigan, with its changing plumage, may sometimes be seen on the summits of the highest mountains. On the south side of the Dee there are a few cottages on the road side not far from the Linn. The bridge which spans the Dee at the Linn was erected by the late Earl of Fife, and opened by Her Majesty the Queen, on the 8th of September, 1857. The Queen and Prince Consort, and other members of the Royal Family, started from Balmoral at mid-day, and proceeded to the Linn, where a triumphal arch was erected in honour of the occasion. The road was lined with Duff men — the pipers playing ; and the Earl of Fife and Lady Fife received the Queen and Royal Party. On the bridge they all drank, in whisky, " prosperity to the bridge." It is built of granite. ^ HISTORY OF tHfi VALLEY OF THE DEE. and has only one arch, formed upon solid rock at either side. It is a very elegant structure, and shows excellent workmanship. From the bridge a good view of the Linn can be obtained, as it stands nearly over the middle of the gorge. The Linn may be briefly described. Above the bridge a ledge of rock runs across the bed of the river^ and rising a little, causes a continuous ripple of the water. The river rushes with great force into a deep crevice, making three beautiful cascades, the highest of which is about five feet ; as the crevice between the rocks become narrower, the water seethes and tumbles with tremendous force onward to the end of the fissure in the rock ; after escaping, the water forms a very dark pool, and then glides away. The Linn is over three hundred yards in length, and at the narrowest point, which is a little below the bridge, the opening between the rocks is about three feet broad. The rocks above on either side, and especially below the bridge on the south side, are of considerable height, and overhanging. A very striking feature of the Linn, is the number of cup- like cavities formed in the solid rock on both sides of the fissure, into which the water dashes, eddying and swir- ling beautifully. These cavities in the rock are as smooth as the finest polished stone. On the south side of the bridge, in the immediate vicinity of the Linn, there is a pretty large hunting lodge, amid thriving young trees, which belongs to the Duke of Fife. The late Earl of Fife occasionally stayed a few days at this delightful spot in the summer time. Above the Linn there is not much wood, but here and there straggling small trees and clusters of bushA& LINN OF DEE. 209 About a mile and a half above the Linn, on the south side of the Dee, there is " the big and little lord's haugh," on which there were once buildings — now in ruins. Farther westward, at Dubrach, where the Geldie joins the Dee, a party of soldiers was stationed after Mar's Rising. A few yards above the junction of the Geldie and the Dee, the latter is spanned by a wooden structure, called White Bridge. Glen Geldie in a limited part of its lower stretch, is grassy, and contains good pasture ; but the greater part of the glen appears rather bleak, mostly consisting of moorland and mosses, while the hills on either side of it are bare, and of no great elevation. About four miles from White Bridge, on the banks of the Geldie, is Geldie Lodge — a hunting seat connected with the Glen Geldie part of the deer forest of Mar. About a mile above the mouth of Glen Geldie, Glen Bynack opens upon it, and the latter is a good pastoral glen. Bynack shooting lodge is on the bank of the burn, about two miles from the junction of the Geldie and the Dee. Half-a-mile westward from the confluence of the Dee and the Geldie, there is a striking rapid, called "The Chest of Dee." It is a narrow and rocky part of the river, about one hundred yards long, through which the water rushes with great force into a pool, from which the river flows quietly on. A little farther up, on the south bank of the Dee, there are some traces of a build- ing, said to have been the uppermost hunting lodge of the Earl of Mar. Above this, a path leads up Glen Dee, passing the Pools of Dee, and onward to Coylum Bridge on the Spey. As stated in the introductory chapter, Glen Dee is P 210 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. narrow, rugged, and wild, with lofty mountains on both sides. It has one opening on the east side — ^the entrance into Glen Lui Beg, which was treated before ; and nearly opposite, on the west side, is the mouth of Glen Greusachan. This glen is narrow at its mouth, where it branches off from Glen Dee ; but it winds round the Devil's Point to the south-west of Cairn TouL As it bends northward towards the summit of the mountain, it gradually widens out, and at a distance of three miles it loses its features as a glen, where its stream approaches an elevation of thirty-five hundred feet Thus we have reached the high mountain-land, and so far completed the proposed task. Yet, any history of the Valley of the Dee would be quite inadequate without some account, however brief, of the Earldom and Earls of Mar, and the Risings of 1715 and 1745. Mar is not only one of the most ancient of Scottish Earldoms, but also in many respects the most remarkable and interesting one in the Island. So a few chapters on these will be an appropriate conclusion to the preceding account of the Valley of the Dee. Chapter XX. EARLDOM OF MAR—EARLS OF MAR. The ancient district of Mar was very extensive. It commenced in the neighbourhood of Aberdeen and ex- tended all the way to Badenoch, comprising almost the whole of the Valleys of the Dee and Don, and the territory lying between them. It seems probable that the whole of this district was under the Mormaer of Mar. In Celtic times the Mormaer was the head and leader of the tribe of the land. The old Earls of Mar were descended from the Mormaers of Mar, and can be traced from the tenth century onward. From an early period the Castle of Kildrummy was the principal seat of the Earldom of Mar. It is one of the oldest castles in Scotland, and was a place of great strength ; but it is now ruinous. The castle, with its forti- fications, covered three Scotch acres of ground. It may be observed that the Gaelic name Mormaer was superseded by the title Earl. In 1014, Donald Mormaer of Mar proceeded to Ireland to assist the Irish in repelling the Danes ; and he was slain at the Battle of Clontarf. In the reign of Alexander I., Ruadri was the Mormaer of Mar ; and he became first Earl of Mar. He was succeeded by Morgund, second Earl of Mar, who appears as a witness to a number of charters granted between 1147 and 1178. Moi^nd was succeeded by Gilchrist, third Earl of Mar, who witnessed charters granted between 11 70 and 1204. He was succeeded by 212 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Gratney, fourth Earl of Mar ; and about the year 1225 he was succeeded by Duncan, fifth Earl of Mar. Duncan was succeeded by his son, William, sixth Earl of Mar,, in 1244. This Earl, during the minority of Alexander III., came into conflict with Alan Durward, who was Justiciary of Scotland. Durward had married a natural daughter of Alexander IL, and he desired the Earldom of Mar, and even aspired to the Throne of Scotland. Although Alan Durward failed in his main aim, yet he actually obtained possession of large portions of the Earldom of Mar in the Valley of the Dee, and in other quarters of Aberdeenshire. A kind of compromise was thus effected between the Earl of Mar and Alan Durward. William was succeeded by his son, Donald, seventh Earl of Mar. In 1290, during the Interregnum, Donald^ Earl of Mar, and Duncan, Earl of Fife, appeared before the Bishop of St. Andrews and John Comyn, guardians of Scotland, and protested against any unwarranted action on their part touching the appointment of a King,, or placing themselves and their rights under the protection of Edward I. ; and also protesting against the choice of Baliol in favour of Bruce to the Throne of Scotland.. This protest, unfortunately, was disregarded, as the Bishop of St. Andrews even invited the interference of Edward I. in the question of the disputed succession to the Throne of Scotland. This Donald, Earl of Mar, had a son, Gratney, and a daughter, Isabel. Gratney married Christiana Bruce, a sister of King Robert Bruce ; while King Robert married Isabel, Gratney's sister. Gratney obtained with his wife the Earldom of Garioch, to be held in free regality. Thus EARLS OF MAR. 213 the Earls of Mar and Robert I. were closely allied. Gratney succeeded his father as eighth Earl of Mar. At his death, he left a son, Donald, who succeeded as ninth Earl of Mar; and also two daughters, of whom the eldest, Ellen, married Sir John Menteith — their daughter, Christian Menteith, married Sir Edward Keith — their daughter, Janet Keith, married Sir Thomas Erskine; and from this relationship sprung the claim and the right of the Erskine family to the Earldom of Mar, a century later. Earl Donald was confined a prisoner in England during the War of Independence. After the death of Robert L, the Earl of Mar joined the cause of the young Prince David II., his own cousin. On the death of Randolph, Earl of Moray, Mar was appointed Regent of Scotland. Shortly after, he fell at the disastrous Battle of Dupplin in 1332. He was succeeded by his son, Thomas, the tenth and last Earl of Mar of the Celtic line. His sister, Margaret, tnarried William, the first Earl of Douglas. David II. granted to Earl Thomas a charter of confirmation of the Earldom of Garioch to him and his heirs. He married Margaret Stuart, Countess of Angus in her own right; but he died in 1377, leaving no issue. His sister, the Countess of Douglas, then succeeded to the Earldoms of Mar and Garioch. She had a son and a daughter to her husband, the Earl of Douglas, who died in 1384. He was succeeded by his son, James, Earl of Douglas and of Mar. He fell at the Battle of Otterbum in 1388; and having left no legitimate issue, his sister, Isabel, succeeded to the Earldoms of Mar and Garioch, her mother's heritage. She also succeeded to the unen- tailed lands of the house of Douglas. This Isabel, 214 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Countess of Mar and Garioch in her own right, and also owner of other lands of wide extent, naturally became an object of intrigues, and a network of plots was woven around her. She married Sir Malcolm Drummond, a brother of Annabella — Queen of Robert III. ; but there was no issue of the marriage. Her husband, Sir Malcolm, was attacked by a party instigated by Alexander Stewart (the hero of Harlaw) and murdered. Tytler, the historian, says — " There seems to have been little doubt that the successful wooer and the assassin of Drummond was one and the same person." After the murder of her husband, Isabel was residing at the Castle of Kildrummy, a widow, childless, and unprotected. In the summer of 1404, Alexander Stewart, a leader of broken men, and the terror of the country, swooped down upon the Castle and his victim. He captured the Countess' castle, seized her person, and then extorted from her, under covenant of future marriage, a charter dated 12th of August, 1404, by which she gifted to Alexander Stewart the Earldoms of Mar and Garioch, and all the other lands and superiorities belonging to her by hereditary right. The immediate effect of this charter was to cut off the Erskines, and others who had hopes of succeeding to the Earldom of Mar. This outrage on the Countess' person and property^ and extortion of the charter, were too flagrant to stand unredressed ; but Stewart's relation to the Royal family appears to have saved him from actual punishment Accordingly a compromise was arranged, by which the rights of other parties were secured. The matter assumed a dramatic form. EARLS OF MAR. 215 On the 9th of September, 1404, the Countess, accom- panied by the Bishop of Ross, Sir Andrew Leslie, and other gentlemen of the district, and a multitude of the people, assembled upon a meadow outside the great gate of Kildrummy Castle ; and then Alexander Stewart came out of the castle, advancing to where the Countess stood, and in the presence of the assemblage delivered over to her the castle with its charters, the silver vessels and other jewels, and everything therein, placing the keys in her hands, to dispose of the castle as no longer under any constraint. This having been done, the Countess, holding the keys in her hands, then made choice of Alexander Stewart as her husband before all the people, and gave him in free marriage the castle and the Earldoms of Mar and Garioch, and all the lands that she ;possessed. Im- mediately after this ceremony the charter of the 12th of August was renounced by Stewart in favour of the Countess, to be reconveyed by her to him, which was done by a similar charter of the 9th December ; and this was confirmed by a charter of Robert III. on the 21st of January, 1405, under the Great Seal. Thus Alexander Stewart, natural son of the Earl of Buchan (the " Wolf of Badenoch") became Earl of Mar. The Countess Isabel, the unhappy victim of many intrigues, and such violence as indicated above, died about three years after her marriage, and left no issue by Alexander Stewart; but he continued to hold the Earldom, and endeavoured to secure the succession to his natural son, Thomas Stewart. On the return of James I., Alexander Stewart resigned the Earldom of Mar into the King's hands, and received it back by charter on the 26th of May, 1426, to himself 216 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. for life — and to his natural son, Thomas, in fee, with destination to the heir male of Thomas, and with a final reminder to the Crown. Thus the Erskines, the real heirs to the Earldom were ignored ; but Thomas Stewart died childless in his father's lifetime, and on the death of Earl Alexander himself, in 1435, James I. annexed the Earldom of Mar to the Crown, still ignoring the claim of the Erskines. After the death of James I., however, Sir Robert Erskine took steps in 1438 in the usual form, to secure his right of succession to the Earldom of Mar as the lawful heir — a descendant from Ellen, the eldest daughter of Donald, Earl of Mar, and R^ent of Scotland, who fell at the Battle of Dupplin in 1332, as before mentioned. In 1438, Sir Robert obtained two special retours of service, on which he was inducted into the chief messuage of the Earldom — the Castle of Kildrummy. He assumed the title of Earl of Mar and Lord Erskine, under which he granted various charters to vassals of the Earldom, among others, a charter dated loth May, 1440, granting the lands of Davachdore to Sir Alexander Irvine of Drum. Erskine was at once recognised as Earl of Mar in Aberdeen, as appears from an entry in the records of the city, dated 28th December, 1439. But the Crown soon began a struggle with the Elarl, which terminated in depriving him and the Erskine family of the Earldom of Mar for a long period. During the minority of James II., various arrangements were entered into between Lord Erskine and the Government, the drift of which was to delay the settlement of his claim to the Earldom until the King attained his majority. In 1452, James II. granted the Earldom of Gariochto Mary, EARLS OF MAR. 217 his Queen, by charter for life. Robert Erskine, Earl of Mar and Garioch, died about the beginning of 1453, but his son, Thomas, Lord Erskine insisted on his claim to the Earldom of Mar. A court was held at Aberdeen on the isth of May, 1457, at which the King was present as prosecutor in his own cause, with the Lord Chancellor as his advocate ; and there and then Thomas, Lord Erskine's demand for a retour of service to his father in the Earldom of Mar, in virtue of the retours of 1438, and the infeftment thereupon was rejected; and the retours of 1438 were set aside on the ground that, on the death of Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar, in 1435, the Earldom then reverted to James I., and was the property of his successor, James II., in consequence of the illegitimacy of Earl Alexander and his son, Thomas Stewart. In 1459, James II. granted the Earldom of Mar to his own youngest son, John, then an infant. He became a manly and promising prince; but being obnoxious to the favourites of James III., he was arrested and im- prisoned in the Castle of Craigmillar, and it is said, bled to death. Earl John having died unmarried, the Earldom lapsed to the Crown. In 1482, James III. granted the Earldom of Mar to his brother, Alexander, Duke of Albany. In 1485 he was killed by the splinter of a lance while looking on at a tournament in Paris. James III. then granted the Earldom of Mar to his third son, John, a mere boy, and he died at the age of seventeen. The Earldom again reverted to the Crown, and continued in its possession for upwards of sixty years ; during this period there were no Earls of Mar. But large portions of the lands of the Earldom were from time to time granted to favourite vassals of the 218 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. Crown. John Elphinstone of Elphinstone received grants by charter from James IV., in 1 507, 1 509, and 1 5 10, of the lands of Invemochty, and other lands in Strathdon and Cromar, the lands of Kildrummy, and also the custody of the castle — ^the chief seat of the Earldom. In 15 10, Alexander Elphinstone, who had succeeded his father, was created a Lord of Parliament under the title of Lord Elphinstone. James IV. and his successor James V. retained the remainder of the territory of the Earldom of Mar in their own hands. Thus the matter continued until the return of Queen Mary from France, in 1561. Chapter XXI. EARLS OF MAR—RISING OF 1716. In the year 1562, Queen Mary granted what remained of the lands of the Earldom of Mar in the hands of the Crown to her half-brother, James Stewart, Prior of St. Andrews, afterwards the Regent Moray. Shortly after, the Queen, however, became aware of the claim of the Erskine family to this Earldom ; accordingly, she resolved to restore it to the legitimate heirs. In 1565, Queen Mary granted by charter the Earldom of Mar and the Lordship of the Garioch to John, Lord Erskine, upon the ground that he was the legitimate heir to this Earl- dom and Lordship as possessed from ancient times by the Countess Isabel. Among the lands specified as in the Earldom of Mar are Strathdee, Braemar, Cromar, and Strathdon, being portions of the Earldom then in the hands of the Crown. But seeing that the Barony and Castle of Kildrummy, the chief seat of the Earldom, had been alienated by the Crown (as indicated in the pre- ceding chapter), the Manor of Migvie was declared to be a proper place for the infeftment in the entire Earl- dom of Mar ; while the Castle of Dunnideer was to serve the same purpose for the Lordship of Garioch. The Earl at once received possession of the lands still in the hands of the Crown, but it was long ere the other lands were recovered, and considerable portions of them were never recovered. John, Earl of Mar, was appointed guardian of the 220 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. infant King James VI. ; and, on the death of the Regent Lennox in 1571, Mar was elected Regent of Scotland He died on the 29th of October, 1 572, and was succeeded by his son, John, second Earl of Mar. This Earl was a man of much energy and ability. He made great and prolonged efforts to recover the territorial possessions of the Earldom. In 1587, an Act of Parliament was passed in favour of John, Karl of Mar, protecting his right of regress on legal warrant against prescription, on the statement of the rights recognised in the charter of restoration of 1565. This Act was opposed in Parliament ; the Earl of Huntly, Lord Elphinstone, and others interested, protested against it John Wishart, laird of Pittarrow (in the Parish of Fordoun, Kincardineshire), protested that " he was heritable feuar and immediate tenant to our sovereign lord of the lands of Strathdee and Braemar." It appears that Wishart's claim originated in a disposi- tion granted by James Stewart, the Regent Moray, while he was Earl of Mar. Although the Earl of Mar had obtained an Act of Parliament to enable him to recover the chief seat, and other alienated lands of the Earldom, yet this was an extremely difficult process, and many years elapsed ere he made much progress. I" 1 593i he commenced proceedings before the Court of Session against William Forbes of Corse, the represen- tative of his great-grandfather, Patrick Forbes, a younger son of the second Lord Forbes, to whom the lands of Corse Muretown, and other lands, which had been granted in feu farm to be held of the King, by James III., in 1482. This case was ultimately decided in Mar's favour in 1 62 1. The Earl then renewed his efforts to obtain the EARLS OF MAR. 221 lands and Castle of Kildrummy. The trial of the case was very long and difficult ; and the final decision was delivered in 1626, by which the lands and Castle of Kildrummy were declared to belong to John, Earl of Mar, by heritable right from Sir Robert Erskine — legitimate heir of Isabel, Countess of Mar and Garioch. After this decision, Alexander, Lord Elphinstone, and the Master of Elphinstone, agreed to an arrangement whereby John, Earl of Mar, undertook to pay to them forty-eight thousand merks, on receipt of which the Elphinstones should ratify the decree of reduction, and renounce all right to the lands and castle in question. There were, however, many other estates and rights of superiority, though less important than Kildrummy, which had been alienated from the Earldom of Mar and Lordship of the Garioch by preceding Kings of Scotland, and also by Crown vassals ; and the Earl pushed on pro- ceedings for the recovery of these possessions and rights. But he died in the end of December, 1634. He held the office of Treasurer in the Government of Scotland from 161 5 to 1630. He was succeeded by his son, John, third Earl of Mar, and the processes which were pending, were determined in favour of the Earl on the 26th of March 163s, three months after the death of his father. These processes involved a prosecution against upwards of one hundred and fifty proprietors in possession of lands or superiorities within the Earldom of Mar and Lordship of Garioch ; and among whom may be mentioned the Earls of Crawford, Kinghom, and Earl Marischal, Lord Forbes, Lord Deskford, and Lord Wemyss, Irvine of Drum, Burnett of Leys, Leslie of Balquhain, many Gordons, Forbeses, Leiths, and others. 222 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. All these were to be reduced, so far as the lands specified were parts and dependencies of the Earldom of Mar, and decision given in favour of the Earl of Mar. No wonder that there was a great stirring up of rights and claims, much searching in the massive iron chests, with their com- plicated locks and secret drawers, which were the repositories of the charters in the old Scottish castles and towers. Some of those involved in the process had possessed their lands for centuries, and many for several generations. A considerable number succeeded in proving their right to the property in question, or to the superiority and property both; but in the majority of cases the superiority was found to belong to the Earl of Mar. In a few cases the Earl withdrew his claim. Earl John died in 1654, and was succeeded by his son, John, fourth Earl of Mar. In the Covenanting struggle and the Civil War of the seventeenth century, the Earls of Mar adhered to the Royal cause ; and in consequence of this, the family suffered serious loss, as the debts contracted in the cause of Charles I. and Charles II. necessitated the sale of many of their estates. Earl John died in 1668, and was succeeded by his son, Charles, fifth Earl of Mar. He died in 1689, and was succeeded by his son, John, sixth Earl of Mar. This Earl was a scheming politician. He was appointed Secretary of State for Scotland in 1706. Although he had often avowed Jacobite views, yet he assisted the Government to carry the Treaty of Union through the Scottish Parliament Lockhart of Cam- wath, one of the ablest Jacobites of the time, said — " Mar gained the favour of all the Tories, and was by many of them esteemed an honest man, and well inclined EARLS OF MAR. 223 to the Royal family. Certain it is he vowed and pro- tested so much many a time ; but no sooner was the Marquis of Tweeddale and his party*^ dispossessed than he returned, as the dog to his vomit, and promoted all the Court of England's measures with the greatest zeal imagfinable His great talent lay in the cun- ning management of his designs and projects in which it was hard to find him out." Mar embraced the earliest opportunity of offering his service to George I. ; but on the 24th of September, 1714, he was dismissed from his office of Secretary of State for Scotland, and succeeded by the Duke of Montrose. Yet Mar remained for some time about the Court ; no special favour,": however, was granted to him by the new King, and at last Mar resolved to be revenged. He left London in the beginning of August, 1715, landed in Fifeshire, and proceeded to Braemar, issuing intimations as he advanced northward to the Highland chiefs and his friends to join him at a great hunting party in the Forest of Mar. He reached Invercauld on the 19th of August, and immediately commenced preparations for the gathering, which met on the 26th of August at Braemar. The party assembled round the Earl of Mar included the Marquis of Tullibardine, eldest son of the Duke of Athole ; the Marquis of Huntly, eldest son of the Duke of Gordon ; the Earls of Seaford, Southesk, Errol, Marischal, Linlithgow, Camwath, Traquair, and Nithsdale; the Lords Duffus, RoUo, Drummond, Stormont, Strath- allan, Ogilvie, and Nairn ; the Viscounts Kinmure, Kilsyth, and Kingston ; Gordon of Glenbucket, the lairds of Auldbar and Auchterhouse ; and other twenty men of note and influence in the Highlands. The number of 224 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. men then assembled at Braemar was about eight hundred. On the 3rd of September a meeting was held at Aboyne Castle, to deliberate on the projected Rising. At this meeting there were present — the Marquis of Tulli- bardine, Earl Marischal, the Earl of Southesk, and Lord Huntly ; Glengarry from the clans, Glenderule from the Earl of Breadalbane, and gentlemen of Argyleshire ; Lieutenant-General Hamilton, Major Gordon, and a few others. The final resolution having been taken, the die was cast On the 6th of September, 171 5, the Standard was raised on the spot where the Invercauld Arms Hotel now stands in Castletown of Braemar. From this originated the spirited Jacobite song, adapted to the reel tune called the " Braes o' Mar." The ballad itself may be quoted : — The standard on the Braes of Mar Is up and streaming rarely ; The g^athering pipe on Lochnagar Is sounding lang an' sairly. The Highland men, Frae hill and glen, In martial hue, Wi' bonnets blue, Wi* belted plaids. An' burnished blades. Are coming late and early. Wha wadna join our noble chief. The Drummond and Glengary, Macgregor, Murray, RoUo, Keith, Panmure, and gallant Harry ? Macdonald's men, Clanronald's men, Mackenzie's men, Macgillivray's men, Strathallan's men. The Lowlan' men Of Callender and Airly. RISING OF 1716. 225 Fy ! Donald up an* let*s awa*, We canna longer parley, When Jamie's back is at the wa*, The lad we lo'e sae dearly. We'll go, we'll go. An' seek the foe, An' fling the plaid. An' swing the blade. An' forward dash. An' hack and slash. An' fl^ the German carlie ! A large number of the Braemar men, and men from other parts of the Valley, joined the Rising. Mar assumed the place of commander-in-chief ; and his fol- lowers, and those of the chiefs, immediately commenced to move southward by Spittal of Glenshee. The army marched through Moulin and Logierait to Dunkeld, receiving large reinforcements as it proceeded ; and at Dunkeld the army numbered five thousand men. While the mustering and marching of the men proceeded, the accession of James VI I L, was proclaimed at Aberdeen, the northern towns, and other places. On the i6th of September, a detachment took possession of Perth ; and to this centre the whole army marched, and Mar made it his headquarters. By the month of November, the force under Mar exceeded fifteen thousand men. It would be out of character in this work to enter into the details of the Rising. But it may be stated that Mar himself was a very poor commander, and manifested no military genius whatever. He remained inactive at Perth, with the greater part of his army ; and the only battle which he attempted was the indecisive action of Sherriffmuir. James VIII., the Pretender, landed at Peterhead on the 22nd of December, and reached Perth on the 6th of Q 296 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. January, 1716. But his presence inspired no new hopes ; as this representative of the ancient Stuart line had not the mein of a personage likely to lead his followers to victory and glory. He took up his state in the Palace of Scone, the historic spot associated with the coronation of the Scottish Kings. Preparations were made to have him crowned on the 23rd of January ; but ere that day came, the Stuart King was seriously thinking of retiring from the advance of his enemies. Aigyle was lying at Stirling Castle with the Ro)^ army. On the 23rd of January he commenced his march upon Perth, but his progress was very slow, owing to the depth of snow upon the ground On the 30th of January, at midnight, the insurgents commenced to retreat; they crossed the Tay on the ice, and marched to Dundee, thence to Montrose. On the 3rd of February, the Pretender, along with the Earl of Mar, went aboard a small French vessel and sailed for France. This incident caused many of the men in the army to disperse to their homes. General Gordon was left in command, and marched the fast diminishing army northward, when on reaching Aberdeen, on the 7th, the remainder of the army dispersed ; but a considerable number of those who joined the Rising, never returned to their homes, being either slain or taken prisoners. Many of the prisoners were executed, and others exported to the plantations in the West Indies. The estates of up- wards of forty families were forfeited in Scotland. After the suppression of the Rising, the Government sent a body of troops into Braemar, which they wasted and burned. For a time troops were stationed at Dubrach, Mar Castle, and Abergeldie. RISING OF 1715. 227 The Earl of Mar's estates were, of course, forfeited, but some years afterwards they were repurchased for the benefit of the family; and the lands belonging to the Earldom in the Valley of the Dee were acquired by the parties indicated in the preceding chapters, and, after the year 1739, the Erskine family, and the subsequent Earls of Mar possessed no lands in the Valley of the Dee. The forfeited Earl left an only son, Thomas, usually styled Lord Erskine; and a daughter, styled Lady Frances Erskine. Lord Erskine died in 1766, leaving no issue. Lady Frances then became heir of the Earls of Mar ; and she married her cousin-german, James Erskine, a son of Lord Grange — ^the forfeited Earl's younger brother. Lady Frances and her husband left a son, John Francis Erskine, and to him the title of Earl of Mar was restored in 1824. Chapter XXII. DISARMING OF THE PEOPLE— RISING OF 1746— CONCLUSION. After the suppression of Mar's Rising, for some time the inhabitants of Braemar were subjected to much suffering, until the general Indemnity was proclaimed in 17 1 7. Soon after, the Government passed measures to secure the peace of the country. An Act was passed for disarming the Highlanders, embracing the counties on the north of the Forth and the Highland districts of the west. The Act imposed severe penalties, rising on the repetition of the offence to transportation, against those convicted of appearing in arms. This Act, however, failed to attain its object, as it provided no means for a regular disarma- ment of the inhabitants. General Wade reported to the Government that the Act was quite inoperative; as it gave compensation to those who voluntarily gave up their arms, he said that the public money was freely given away for old useless arms, while the effective weapons were kept out of sight In 1725, another disarming Act was passed. It ordered that each clan should be summoned to appear at a specified place and deliver up their arms. The carrying out of this Act was entrusted to General Wade. The clans all over the Highlands gave up very large numbers of arms, and the General naturally imagined that he had performed his task effectively. He even assured the King that the Highlander had now become a simple RISING OF 1746. 2S» peasant with his staff in his hand. The General further explictly assured the King that if the system of roads and fortresses planned by him were carried out, any future Rising of the Highlanders against His Highness would be quite impossible ; but subsequent events proved that the General's sanguine anticipations were utterly futile. Indeed, it is a painful truth that neither the Govern- ment of the time nor its General had the intelligence or sagacity to see the real root of the danger of another Rising in Scotland. The core of the matter lay in this — that so long as the nobles of Scotland and the Highland chiefs possessed their feudal jurisdiction over their vassals and tenants there could be no security against another Rising; and the Government utterly failed to see this until after the second Rising. A feudal Earl was the military head of the Earldom, and his vassals and tenants were, according to the law of Scotland at that time, bound to obey and follow his commands without question. The law was different in Royal burghs, as every citizen was a subject of the Crown ; whereas in an Earldom, a Lordship, or a Barony, every man was a subject of the Earl, die Lord, or the Baronet A Lord of a regality in any quarter of Scotland had quite as much despotic power over his vassals as any Highland chief. So long as these conditions continued a Jacobite rebellion might arise at any time. When Prince Charles arrived at the Western Isles in July, 174s, l^is prospects of success were not very bright ; as the Highland chiefs whom Charles first met and con- sulted were opposed to his enterprise; but the young Prince was full of hope and faith in his destiny, and by his persistent efforts overcame the scruples of the chiefs. 230 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. It was resolved to muster the clans at Glenfinnan on the 19th of Augfust. Glenfinnan is a comparatively narrow vale, bounded on both sides by lofty and craggy mountains, and nearly twenty miles north from Fort- William. On the appointed day Charles arrived in the glen at eleven in the forenoon, and found only a few in- habitants of a hamlet to say — " God save him." At last, about four o'clock, the shrill sound of the pibroch was heard over the summit of an opposite hill, and imme- diately the Prince was cheered by the sight of a strong body of Highlanders marching down the slope. It was the Camerons under Lochiel, numbering eight hundred men, marching in two columns of three men abreast On a small eminence in the centre of the glen, the Standard was raised by the aged Marquis of TuUibardine It was a large banner of fine red silk, and its appearance was hailed by the stirring strains of the bagpipes, waving of bonnets, and loud shouts which re-echoed from the surrounding hills. Then Tullibardine read aloud a manifesto in the name of James VIII., which presented a summary of the public grievances of Britain, expressing an earnest intention to do the utmost to redress them, and, for this great aim, calling on all his loyal subjects to join his Standard, and promising, in the event of his restoration, to respect all existing institutions and rights. The King had appointed his son, Charles, to be Prince Regent, and in this position the Prince's manifesto an- nounced that he was come to execute the will of his father by raising the Royal Standard, and asserting his unim- peachable right to the throne of his ancestors, and offering pardon for all treasons to those who should now join him, and assist him to recover his just rights and their own RISING OF 1745. 231 liberties. An hour or two after these documents were read, Macdonald of Keppoch arrived with three hundred men, and in the evening some more men joined the Prince. The force mustered in Glenfinnan numbered one thousand and two hundred fighting men. Charles stayed two days in Glenfinnan. Tidings of the arrival of Prince Charles in Scotland reached Braemar in the end of July. The people of this district were warm Jacobites. Indeed, it has been said that, excepting Lord Braco and Invercauld, "the whole of the district was Jacobite — rich and poor, young and old, men and women ; and be opinions what they may, all must allow that the heroes of the '45 were a noble, disin- terested, brave, and gallant band." On leaving Glenfinnan, the Prince and his army moved to the head of Loch Eli — the country of Lochiel, the chief of the Camerons. He was daily receiving in- telligence of the march of the Royal army northward, under the command of General Sir John Cope, whose aim was to cmsh the Rising in the bud ; but he was too late. When he was marching through the Highlands to Inver- ness, the Prince resolved to invade the Lowlands, which were left entirely defenceless. The Prince and his army marched through Badenoch to Blair Castle, where he re- viewed his troops. Thence he proceeded down the plain of Athole, and reached Dunkeld on the 3rd of September, increasing his force as he advanced. On the following day he entered Perth and took possession of it. Charles stayed eight days in Perth, and there his army received considerable reinforcements. He became exceedingly popular, and an object of intense interest On the i ith of September he commenced his march upon Edinburgh, 232 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. crossed the Forth at the Ford of Frew, and reached Falkirk on the 14th ; continuing his advance southward, he took possession of Edinburgh on the morning of the 17th, without any loss of human life on either side. After entering the capital, as he rode toward the Palace of Holyrood, he was loudly cheered by the crowd of people ' on the street About one o'clock the reign of James VI 1 1, was pro- claimed at the Cross of Edinburgh. A great multitude of people witnessed this scene, and hearty cheers were raised. The same day General Cope, who had returned from the futile march to Inverness, was landing his troops at Dunbar. Cope's aim now was to recapture Edinbui^h from the insurgents, but again he was too late, as the Prince at the head of his army marched from Edinburgh to meet him, and on the morning ofthe 21st of September attacked the Royal army at Preston, and completely defeated it. After the utter rout of his army. Cope fled to Berwick, everywhere bringing the first tidings of his own defeat After the battle, the Prince and his army re-entered Edinburgh in triumph. For some time he held Court at Holyrood. Yet his real difficulties were only beginning. The possession of Edinburgh was of little avail, as he was unable to take the Castle, while comparatively few of the Lowland people joined his Standard. Returning to the more pertinent part of my subject, it appears that James Farquharson of Balmoral was a lieutenant-colonel in Prince Charles' army. He was witii the army in the march through England to Derby. He was engaged at the Battle of Falkirk, where he was wounded ; and he was one of those excluded from tiie indemnity of 1747. RISING OF 1746. 233 Francis Farquharson of Monaltrie was a colonel in the Prince's army. He was very active in raising men in Cromar and Aboyne. He was engaged at the Battle of Falkirk, and at the Battle of Culloden he led the Farquharson clan. He was taken a prisoner, and confined for some weeks at Inverness ; and thence he was con- veyed to London in June, 1746. In September he was brought to trial and convicted, and on the iSth of November sentenced to death ; but on the evening before the day fixed for his execution he was reprieved, and shortly after pardoned. In 1775 he petitioned the Commissioners on the forfeited estates, requesting liberty to rent a portion of his former estate, on which to spend his old age. After some time this was granted. As stated in a preceding chapter, his estate was restored to him in 1784, on payment of a sum of money. He was locally known as "Baron Ban," and he died atBallater on the 22nd of June, 1790, at the advanced age of eighty-one years. John Burnett of Campfield was a captain of artillery in Prince Charles' army. He was taken prisoner at Carlisle. David Lumsden, farmer of Auchlossan in Lumphanan joined the Rising, and was a captain in the army. He was dead before May, 1746. Gilbert Menzies of Pitfodels joined the Rising, while five of his sons also joined — James arid William Menzies were in the insurgent army during the whole of the Rebellion ; John and David accompanied the army in the march to Derby, and fought at the Battle of Culloden ; and Gilbert also fought at Culloden. A considerable number of farmers, labourers, and tradesmen in the Valley of the Dee and its glens joined 234 HISTORY OF THE VALLEY OF THE DEE. the Rising. After the Battle of CuUoden, they were all subjected to great suffering ; but this has been often toId» and I have no desire to dwell upon it During the century and a half which has elapsed since the suppression of the last Rising in this Island, g^eat changes have taken place over the whole country. In the Highlands the people have long ago become as loysl subjects as in any quarter of the Queen's dominions. If there is any r^ion in Britain more loyal than another to the Royal family, that region is Braemar and the Valley of the Dee. Since the middle of the last century, as shown in the preceding chapters, great progress has been made in the Valley of the Dee. Important improvements have been effected in the cultivation of the soil, and in the breeding of cattle and live stock of every kind. Many new villages have arisen, and others which were mere hamlets in the last century have been developed into considerable towns — centres of business and traffic. Large numbers of excellent villas and cottages have been erected through- out the Valley ; while roads and bridges and other means of communication have been greatly improved and ex- tended. Finally, education and culture have been rendered easily accessible to all the people. INDEX. Pase. Aberarder .... 184 Aberdeen 3, as, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 16. 39. 42. 43. 48, 49. 2. 73. r hour of . . 20 33. 36, 39 89. 103. 149. 173 University of 47, 48, 72, 80 Aberdeen, Earl of . . 59, 173 Aberdeenshire 11, 31, 55, 71, 72, 75. 99, 151 Abergaim . . , . 157 Abergeldie Castle, 161 ; Lands of 162-64 Aboyne, 12021 ; Gistle of, 121-22; Viscount of, 25, 132-35 ; Earl of . - 135-37 Adams, Dr. Francis, 91-92; Dr. Andrew L. . . 92-93 Albany, Robert, Duke of, 70, 148 Alexander . . 217 Alexander I. . .211 Alexander II. . 21, 34, 50 Alexander III. . 34, 61 Allt Connie Bum . . 202 Alltnaguibhsaich Lodge . 151 Altries House ... 60 Anderson, Rev. William, 31 ; Sir Alexander, 107 ; John H., An Sgarsoch Aibeadie Arbroath Monastery "i 21, 22, 34, 35 79. 87, 95 Ardo .... 13, 41-2 Argyle, Earl of, 25 ; Marquis, 133-5 Duke . . . 226 Athole, Earl of, 129 ; Duke of 223 Auchallater .... 197 Auchendiyne . . .193 Anchenhove . . 1 15-17 Auchlossan . 114, 117, 171, 172 Auchlunies .... 42-44 Avondow House ... 48 B Page. Baddoch Bum ... 4 Baird, Henry R. ... 66 Balfour . . .101-3 Ballater, Pass of, 141-42 ; Burgh of, 142-44 ; Bridge of 144-45 Ballaterach .... 127 Ballochbuie Forest . 8, I74-7S Ballogie .... 102 Balmoral, Grounds of, 169-70; Lands of, 170-72 ; Old Castle, 172-73; Forest of, 174-75; New Castle, 175, 177, 179-80 Balnacraig . . . 122-23 Banchory, 3, Lands of . 34*39 ; House of, 38 ; Church of 40 Banchory-Teman, 86 ; Bridge of 87 ; Church of 87-88; Old Village, 88 ; New Village, &; Burgh of, . 88-90 Bannerman, Sir Alexander 42, 105 Barbour, Robert W. . 31 Barclay, James W. 117 Beans Hill . 6,108 Beltie Bum Ben Avon 6 Ben Muich Dhui . 1.6 Ben-na-Bhuird . 1,6 Ben Uams 4 Bieldside 45 Binghill . 45-46 Birkhall House, 150 Birse, 3. 99. 104 Bisset, James H., 23; Walter, Thomas 130 Bkckhall House *. 167-68 Blair, William Blairs, . 28, 57 Borrowstone House . 109 Braemar, 3 ; Castle of 192 Churchyard 192 Braeriach 1-3 236 INDEX. Page. Braickley . . . 148 Brebner, Alexander . 108 Brooks, Sir William C. 12426 Brown, General, 45 : John, 165, 181 Bruce, John . . 167 Buchan, Earl of . 77, 148, 215 BuilgLoch ... 158 Buk, Andrew ... 47 Burnett of Leys, 79-83 ; Burnett of Craigmyle, 80, 107 ; General Burnett . 86 Bynack Bum . . 209 Byron 127, 153 Cairn o' Mounth . . 97 Cairn Toul ... 2 Cairngorm ... i Caimton . .16, 106 Caimwell ... 4 CaUater Bum, 4 ; Loch . 197 Cambus o' May . 3, 138-39 Cameron of Lochiel 171, 230-31 Campbell, George . . 90 Campfield House . 106 Camphill ... 50 Canny Bum ... 16 Canoes .... 17 Cant, Andrew . . . 81-83 CanupHill ... 175 Carlogie House . 112 Carnegie .... 80 Cam an Fhidleir . . 3 Cam na Cuimhne , 184 Castletown of Braemar . 193-97 Cattanach, James, M. . 145 Cattie Bum ... 99 Chalmers, William, Alexander 47; Robert . . 114 Chambers, George . . 33 Charles £. Stuart, Prince 229-32 Charlestown . . . iao-21 Charter Chest ... 191 Chest of Dee . 209 Clachantum . . . 164 Clochnaben ... 87 Clunie Water, 4 ; Bridge of 193 C— Continued, Cochran, Francis, 102 ; Coilliecriech Colonel's Cave Comyn, Sir Alexander Cope, Sir John . Corriemulzie Falls Cotbank . Coutts, Peter . Coyle HUls Crab, Paul, 22 ; John Craig Clunie Craig-na-ban Craig Gowan Craig na Spaine Craig Nortie Page. Alexander 103 159 . 202-203 51 . 231-232 199 42 168 . 7, 154 40 191 169, 174, 175 183 183 Craigendarroch, 8, 142 ; Lodge di 144 Craigmyle House . . 107 Crann(^s .... 17 Crathes Castle . . 83-84 Crathie, Manse of. Churchyard, Church . . 165-67 Creag an Fhithich . . 200 Creag Choinnich . . 192 Creag Ghiubhais . . 158 Craig Phiobaidh . . 158-59 Culblean Hill, 120; Battle of, 128-130 CuUoden . 140, 156, 189, 233-34 Cults, .... 3033 Culter House, 50; Village of 52; Paper Works 53-54 Dalfad .... 155 Dalhibity House . 45 Dalmore .... 155-200 Dalnabo .... 134 Davan, Loch of . . 128 David n. . . 62, 79, 128, 130 Davidson, Walter, Duncan, John, Patrick, 106 j Alexander, 112 Dee, Sources of, 1-3 ; Course, 2-3 Dee Castle . . . 126-127 Deer Forests 124, 174-75. 206 Deeside Railway, 30, 84, 89, 107, III, 114. INDEX. 237 D — Continued. Deny Burn Dess Bum Desswood House Dinnet, Bridge of, Church 126 ; House Dinnie, Robert . Douglas of Tilquhillie William Downie, Alexander Page. 5, 206 6 112 Manse, 128 103 94-97 129 167 Drum, Loch of, 68 ; Castle of 76 Drummond, Sir Malcolm 211 Drumoak Church . . 68 Dubrach . . . . 3, 209 DuffofCulter . . . 51-2 Duguid of Auchenhove 115 17 » Peter, 44; Peter M*Combie, 55 Dunbar, Earl of, . . 129 Duncan, King . . .117-18 Dunsinnane . . . 118 Durris, Lands of, 60-66 ; House of, 66 ; Kirkton, Church, Castle Hill ... 67 Durward, Alan . . 34, 5°* "o Dye, Water of . . . .97 E Easter Balmoral Easter Skene . Edgehill . Edward I. Edward IIL . Elphinstone, Bishop, 23 ; Alexander, 218 ; Elphinstone . Enrol, Earl of . Erskine, Sir Thomas, 213 Robert, 216-17 ; Thomas 217 Ess, Bridge of . . . 124 Ey Water, 4 5 Bridge of . 201 Fare Hill .... 86-89 Farquharson of Finzean . 101-102 of Monaltrie, William, 139 ; Francis, 139-40* 233 ; of Balmoral, Charles, 170; James, i7i-72> 232; of 164-65 48-49 128-29 John, I^rd 24» 223 Sir F — Continued, Page Invercauld, Findla Mor, 187 ; Robert, 187-88 ; John, 188-89; James, 189; James, R., 189; Alexander H., 189- 190 ; of Inverey 201, 202 Feardar Bum . . 184 Ferrar .... 131 Feugh, Water of, 5, 94 ; Bridge, 94 Valley of, . . 97, loi Fife, Earl of, 172, 195, 200, 203, 207 208 ; Duke of 158, 193, 200 Findrack House 108 Finzean House . . . loi Fir Mounth . . . 124 Forbes, John, William . 36 John, 1 10 ; Master of Forbes, 115 ; Forbes of Strathgir- nock, 149 ; William, Patrick 22a Fraser of Durris, Sir Alexander, Sir William, 62 ; Sir Alexander, 62-4 ; Lord Fraser, Sir Alexander, Sir Peter, 64 ; Lady Carey, 64 : Fraser of Findrack, 108 ; James, 42-3 ; John, ... 130 Gaim, Water of, 6 ; Bridge of, 154. Garchary .... a Garden, George, 36 ; Arthur, Alexander, 36; Dr. Alex- ander, 103 ; Rev. Alexander, 103-4 Garioch, Earldom of, 212, 213, 215 216 ; Lordship of 219, 221 Garmaddie Woods, Geddes, Sir William Gelder Bum Gerrie, James Geusachan Bum Gibb, George, S. Girdleness, 3 ; Lighthouse Glen Callater 197 ; Glen Cat, 99'; Glen Qnnie, 4» 196; Glen Dee 2, 209; Glen Derry, 205 Glen Dye, 81, 97 ; Glen Ey, 175 92 175 "4 2 3S 21; INDEX. G — ConHnued, Page. 4, 201-4; Glen Gaim, 6, 154-58 ; Glen Gdder, 175 ; Glen Geldie, 3f ^K)9 ; Glen Geusacfamn, 210 ; Glen Lni, 204; Glen Lui Beg, 204, 206 Glen Muick, 4f 5. 147-153 ; Glen Quoich, i9o-99 ; Glen Tanner, 5» 8, 123-126 ; Glenfinnan . 230, 231 Glenlivet . .25. 163 Glenmillan House 114 Glenmuick House 15^ Glentanner House • 125 Gordon, Duke of, 64, 65, 135» '37 223 ; James, 37 : John, 41 ; Thomas, 42 ; John, 47. 48 ; Hon. William, 59, 60; Capt. Charles, 60; Captain William C, Alexander H., 60 ; John, John L., 107 ; Francis, iii ; Sir Alexander, 129 ; Adam, 131; Sir Adam, 132; Charles, Henry, 13S; Alexander, 143. 158; Henry, Alexander, 149. of Abergeldie, 162-164 ; of Guny 100,101, Sir Robt. 172 Grant, John, 1 10-12 Hadden, James C. . . 93 Hamilton, Dr. Robert 37 Harlaw, Battle of . 70 Hay, James, T., 105 ; Beatrice, 162 HawkhUlock ... 13 Heathcot, 42 ; House of 43 HUl Forts . . . 15-17 H<^, James, 2 ; George 43 Houff .... 116 Huntly, Earl of, 131-32. 162 ; Marquis of, 25, 132-35, 137 223 I Inchboire ... 109 Inchmarlo House • • 106 Innes, John, Cosmo, 65 ; >A^iam, Alexander, Thomas, 108 ; Innes of Balnacraig, 122-23 I — Continued. Page. Inschnabobart 151 Invercanny ... 106 Invercauld, Bridge of, 184-85; House of . 185-86 Inverey .... 201 Invery House ... 97 Invergelder ... 175 Irvine of Drum, William, 69 ; Alex. Robert, Sir Alexander, 70-74; Alexander, F., Francis H. F. 74-76; of Cults, 32; of Murtle, 47 ; of Kingcausie, 58 ; of Fitmurchie . . 116 acobites ames I. II- fames III. [ames IV. ^ ames V. James VI. 222-24, 231 70, 71, 21516 . 216-217 . 116, 217 . 22, 217 71, 115. 218 24, 80, 220 J «UUC9 ▼ A. . . . ^«^> VV, ^^W James VIII., Pretender 225-26, 230 KeiUer, J. M. . . 144 Keith, Sir William . . 130 Earl Marischal 58, 72-3, 223 Sir Edward . . 213 Kerloch . . . 5.87,90 Kildrummy Castle 129, 218, 219, 221 Kincardine 0*Neil, 109, Village of, no; Barony of, no; Church of, in ; Lodge c^ III, 112 Kincraigie Kingcausie House Kinnord Loch Knock Castle . Knowles, John . : '11 17-8, 128 . 148-50 145 Larig Bum Leamey House . Leith of Freefield Leslie, Patrick . . 2 108 164 "5 INDEX. 239 L — Continued, Page. Tjtysy Barony of, 79; Baronets of, 80-4; Court Book of, 84; Loch of . . 84 Linn of Dee . . . 207-208 Lion's Face . . . 191 Littlejohn, Alexander, William, Charles, James, Andrew 146 Livingstone, Alexander 33-2 Lochniagar . 3, 138, I4i» 152-53 Loirston Loch . . . • 23 Lord of the Isles, Donald, Alexander 70 Lai Water • • * 5* 204 Lulach .... 119 Lumphanan, . .114-119 Lumsden, Henry, 96 ; David 233 M Macbeth .... 117-119 M'Combie, William . . 54-5 M'Gr^or of Dalfed . . 155-56 M'Intosh, Lachlan . . 155 Macdonald of Rineaton, 156 ; of Glengarry, 224 ; of Keppoch 231 Mackay, General . , 192 Mackenzie of Dalmore . 155-200 Mackintosh, Clan . 54-5, 186-87 Mackintosh, James, 8 ; William 58 Macleod, Norman . . 165 Malcolm IIL . .118-19 Malcolm IV. . . . 34-46 Mar, Earldom of, no, 170, 211 Early Earb of, 162, 211-218 Erskines, Earb of, 219-227 ; Lodf;e . . 200 David ... 41 Maud, Old Castle . . 117 MeallAlvie ... 183 Meldrum, William, John, 35 ; Sir George . . . 35-6 Menteith, Sir John . . 213 Menzies, Gilbert, 28 ; John, 29 Captain David, 57 ; James, WfUiam . . 233 Michie, John G. . . 126 Micras .... 164 M — Continued Page, Milne, Peter . , . 113 Mitchell, Adam ... 43 Moigne Walter, John . . 78 Monaltrie, House . 144-183-84 Montrose, Marquis of, 25-6, 64, 73-4, 81, 134 Moray, William, 27-8 ; Sir Andrew, R^ent, . , 62, 129 Randolph, Earl of, 114 James Stuart, Earl of, R^ent 131-32 Morison, Dr., 30 ; Hugh . 32 Morrone . . 160, 193, 198 Mortimer, David . . 104 Mortlich Hill . . .16, 120 Morton, Regent ... 95 Morven ... 7, 127, 138 Mount Keen . . . 134 Muick, Water of . .4, 5, 147 MullachHill ... 16 Munro, General . . 51, 73 Murtle House, 46 ; Lands of 46-8 N Alexander, Nairn, Lord Neil, James, Netherdale, Newton of Tilliecaim, Newton Dee, Nigg, Normandikes, . 223 George 127-28 . 163 14 45 3>2i 84 Ogilvie, .... 42 Ogston, James, 29 ; Alexander, 42 ; Walter, Thomas, Janet, 95-6 ; Dr. Alexander, 128 Overhall, ... 188 Pannanich Wells, . • 140-41 Park House, Lands, Bridge of, 78-9 Pass of Ballater, . . 141-42 Paul, William. ... 31 Peel Bog, .... 116 210 DTDEX- Pcfkhai, ... - 119 FetciCBlter, 3,45;C^I»cii<>^ 5* ndkxth, .... 64 ntfodck, . .37,29 rmw i f c h i f, ... 116 Pitaifow MO Phtodne. .... i» PoOiDUkk, ... 158 Fopaiatioo, 31, », 9P> "O^ M3 FoUtfds Bridge, 108 QooicliWatcr, 5,6; FaDsof 198 R Ramsay, R. M., 83; William, B. 97 of Proton, . • 129 Reid, Willia^^ Alexander, 27-8 Thomas, 104 RsneatOD, .... 156 Robert L, . . 62, 69, 79. 130 Robert IL, . • 63,110 Robertson, Mary, 127 ; Peter 168 Rose, Andrew 1 14; Nicholas, Francis "5 Ross, James, John, William WUliam Rowell, Joseph Russell, Robert Rutherford, George, D. Ruthrieston 39 105 45 23 S St. Andrews, 21 ; Chapel . 192 St Lesmo's Chapel . . 125 St. Mary's Chapels 24, 56, 147 St. Mary's College . . 57 St. Mungo's Church . . 154-55 St. Nathalan's Churches, 139, 150 Schools, 80-81-88, 90, 103, 107, 159 ScoltyHill ... 86 Shannaburn Bum . . 43 Sheeoch Bum . . * 5) 67 Skene, Dr. 37 ; Alexander 48 Skene, Loch of . . . 53 Smith, Bartholomew, Richard, Lewis, 53; Robert . . 114 . 3.97-9 Smuggling . 124, 183 Stewart, Jolin, 39, 40; 1^^1,40; Dr. Akxaader, 43 ; Dimcan 187 Stxathginiock . 158-59 Sabarfaan Stations . . .30 Tanner, Water of . . . .5 The Qoecn, 106, £43, 151, 152, 162, 165^, 169-70. 172-73. 175. 177, 181*82, 207 The Prince Consort, 152, 169, 170, 172, 178, 180, 181, 185, 195 TheivesBosh . .97 Thomson, Alexander, 32 ; Alexan- der, 37 ; Andrew, 37 ; Alex- ander . . 38-9 Thnrboru, .... 46, 48 TillphoQ<&, . . 122 Tilquhillie 94.7 Torphichen, Lord .56 Torphins .... 107 Torry .... 20-22 Townhead .... 8S Troup, Alexander 146 Tullich 139, 141-42 Vat Bum . W Watershed . Water Works . Watson, Andrew Wauchope, Robert Webster, John . White Bridge . Whitchouse Whitestones Whyte, John Wilson, Charles . Wishart, John . Woodend . 128 27, 46, 106-7 41 . . 50 . 48,50 209 139 98 : ^'d 220 100 Yeats, William ... 48 Young, James, 66 ; Sir Peter, 95 ; William . . 96 3 2044 079 404 208 The boiTower must return this item on or before the last date stamped below. If another user places a recall for this item, the borrower will be notified of the need for an earlier return. Non-receipt of overdue notices does not exempt the borrower from overdue fines. Harvard College Widener Library Cambridge, MA 02138 617-495-2413 banme with care.